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:haf. »agi 

i. The Dini-l Main8g-f Khind xv 

2. The .Sikand-gumanik Vig&i xxv 

3. The Sad Dar xxxvi 

Abbreviations used in this volume xlvii 


DInA-1 Ma1n6g-1 Khirad 


1. Introducing the sage and the spirit of wisdom . 3 

2. How to preserve both body and soul, including the fate 

of the soul after death, whether righteous or wicked . 9 

3. What liberality and truth, gratitude and wisdom, mindful- 

ness and contentment are good for . . . 26 

4. The nine chief good works, divided into seven classes . 26 

5. The ten happiest lands . . . . . - 27 

6. The ten unhappiest lands 28 

7. The four grades of heaven and hell, with the neutral region 

between them, and the fate of the souls in each . .29 

8. How Auharma3</ created the universe, and Aharman cor- 

rupted it for 9000 years. The evil influence of the 
seven planets, the good influence of the twelve signs of 
the zodiac, and how far the good and evil can counter- 
act each other 32 

9. The impossibility of going from region to region, the 

substance of the sky, and the mingling of the water in 
the earth 35 

10. The impossibility of peace and affection between Aharman 

and Auharmaz</ 36 

11. Wisdom without goodness and skill without wisdom are 

useless 37 

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12. Worldly treasure is not allotted so truly as spiritual, on 

account of Aharman's chieftains, the seven planets; 
but, after death, every one is judged according to his 
own deeds 37 

13. Though animals' knowledge is instinctive, men obtain 

theirs only by toil, because Aharman has concealed 
the results of good and evil, and formed many false 
religions; but the only true one is that taught by 
Zaratfct 39 

14. The best protection, friend, supporter of fame, helper of 

enjoyment, wealth, and pleasure . . . .41 

1 5. The poverty and opulence which are good, and the charac- 

teristics of good and bad government . . .42 

16. The best food, grain, and fruit. The effects of wine on 

different tempers, and when drunk in moderation and 
in excess. Also why silk clothing is better for the 
body, and cotton for the soul 45 

17. The pleasure that is worse than unhappiness . . -49 

1 8. Why people disregard the changeableness of worldly 

things, death, the account of the soul, and hell . . 49 

19. Living in fear and falsehood is worse than death . . 50 

20. The best and worst conversation for kings . . .50 

21. The fate of men who are worldly, scoffing, idle, malicious, 

lazy, false-hearted, and arrogant . . . .51 

22. How far worldly wealth can be acquired through exertion . 54 

23. The impossibility of contending with destiny . . -54 

24. Providence can over-rule destiny; but rarely does so, 

because of Aharman's evil doings . . . .55 

25. The poorest of the rich, and the richest of the poor . 55 

26. A blind mind is worse than a blind eye, and an ill-informed 

is worse than an ill-tempered man . . . -56 

27. The several advantages resulting from the actions of 

Gay&marrf, H6shang, Tdkhmorup, YimshSrf, Az-t Dahalc, 
Frasiyak, Frgrf&n, Manuufcihar, Kai-KavSrf, Salim, Kai- 
tJs, Styavakhsh, Kai-Khusr6t, Kat-L6harasp, and Kai- 
Viftasp 57 

28. The most forgiving, strongest, swiftest, happiest, and most 

miserable 66 

29. What must be most regarded and protected . . .66 

30. The worst life and most unforeseeing man . . .67 

31. The business of the three classes — priests, warriors, and 

husbandmen 67 

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32. The business of the fourth class, the artizans . .68 

33. The worst ruler, chieftain, friend, kinsman, wife, child, 

and country 69 

34. Aharman can hardly disturb a wise and contented man . 70 

35. The seven kinds of men who are rich, and the seven who 

are poor 70 

36. The thirty sins 71 

37. The thirty-three good works 73 

38. Why worldly happiness is not allotted to the worthy who 

are accepted in heaven 75 

39. Whose power is most seemly, wisdom most complete, dis- 

position most faithful, speech most proper, goodness 
least, friendship worst, mental pleasure least, heart 
most seemly, endurance most approvable, and who is 
not faithful. What should be kept by every one and 
no one, and also in conversation. Who cannot give 
evidence, to whom obedience is due, who must be 
minded and praised, what must not be unrespected, 
who is like Auharnmrf, and who like Aharman . -76 

40. What is coldest, warmest, brightest, darkest, fullest, 

emptiest, most fruitless, without superfluity, incapable 
of deprival, cannot be bought, satisfies every one, and 
satisfies no one. What Auharmae*/ desires from men, 
and what Aharman does ; and what is the end in the 
worldly and spiritual existences . . . . 79 

41. The mightiest man, most dreadful road, most perplexing 

account, pleasantest tie, most regretable work, and 
most unprofitable gift 81 

42. The three kinds of man 82 

43. The spiritual armour and weapons requisite for attaining 

to heaven and escaping from hell . . . -83 

44. The arrangement of the sky and earth, flow of the water, 

and resting-place of the clouds; where the winter 
demon is most predominant, and the most undisturbed 
country 84 

45. How Aharman deceives, whence is his pleasure, where he 

has a foundation, whom he haunts, and whence is his 
food 87 

46. Aharman considers no injury complete, unless he seizes 

the soul 88 

47- What is better than all wealth, predominant over every- 
thing, and from which no one can escape . . .89 

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48. The dwelling of the understanding, intellect, seed, and 

wisdom in the body 89 

49. The duties and motions of the stars, Tiftar, Vanand, 

Hapt6k-ring, the twelve signs of the zodiac, and the 
rest, the sun and the moon . . . . .90 

50. The opulent person who is fortunate, and the reverse . 93 

51. Why a bad man sometimes succeeds, and a good one fails 93 

52. How the ceremonies and religion should be considered, 

and what is requisite for the renunciation of sinj . . 94 

53. How the homage and glorifying of the sacred beings are 

to be performed . 95 

54. Why an ignorant man will not learn . . . .96 

55. Why an ill-natured man is no friend of the good, nor an 

untalented man of the talented . . . . . 97 

56. The uses of mountains and rivers . . . . . 98 

57. The many advantages and uses of wisdom . . -98 

58. Though an ignorant king is esteemed by man, a wise poor 

man is more esteemed by the angels . . .105 

59. The vices of the four classes — priests, warriors, husband- 

men, and artizans 105 

60. The man most conversant with good and evil . .106 

61. The chiefs of men, women, horses, flying creatures, oxen, 

wild animals, and grains 107 

62. Regarding Kangdez, the enclosure formed by Yim, the 

body of S&hm, the abode of Srdsh, the three-legged 
ass, the Hdm tree, Gopaitoshah, the Kar fish, the 
griffon bird, and ffir&au&s 108 

63. The best good work, which requires no trouble . 113 

SlKANIXitMkNlK VwkR 115 

1. Introducing the subject and the author . . . . 117 

2. Why Aharman advanced towards the light, though of a 

different nature 122 

3. Why Auharmazrf did not use his omnipotence to repel 

Aharman 124 

4. How the stars came to be distributors both of the good 

produced by Auharmaa^ and of the evil produced by 
Aharman 127 

5. Proof of the existence of a creator derived from the 

evident design in the creation 139 

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6. Further proofs of a similar description . . . .146 

7. Proof of the existence of an injurer from the provision 

made against him 15c 

8. Proofs of the same from the existence of evil . ■ . 152 

9. Proof of the existence of the opponent before the creation, 

and of his appearance afterwards . . . .162 

10. Those who believe in the unity of creation, also believe in 

a corrupting influence which is really another being . 166 

11. The inconsistency of those who trace both good and evil 

to a sacred being whose attributes are incompatible 
with the latter ; with references to various scriptures . 173 
is. Other inconsistencies in the assertions of various sects 

regarding the sacred being 202 

13. Criticism of the Jewish account of the creation of the 

universe and the fall of man, as given in the Old 
Testament 208 

14. Other statements of the Old Testament and Jewish tradi- 

tion, regarding the sacred being, that are inconsistent 
with his attributes ....... 221 

15. Criticism of many statements of the Christian scriptures, 

showing their inconsistency, and that some of them also 
admit the existence of a separate originator of evil . 229 

16. Criticism of some of the doctrines of the Manichaeans . 243 

Sad Dar .253 

Introduction . . . . . . . . 255 

1. Necessity of unwavering faith m the religion . . . 257 

2. Sin not to be committed 258 

3. Advantage of perseverance in industry . . . .259 

4. No one should despair of the mercy of Hdrmazd . . 260 

5. Advantage of Navazu*/ and Geti-kharta . . .262 
6- The six indispensable good works .... 264 

7. Why we should recite certain formulas after sneezing . 265 

8. Why high-priests must be obeyed .... 266 

9. The sin of unnatural intercourse to be punished, by any 

one, by death on the spot 267 

10. Reasons for wearing the sacred thread-girdle and tying 

it with four knots 268 

11. Why a household fire should be properly maintained 270 
ie. Why the clothing of a corpse should be scanty and old, 

. though many people must follow the bier . . .272 

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13. Why ceremonies in honour of the souls of the departed 

should be properly celebrated 273 

14. How nail-parings should be treated, and why . .275 

15. How we should salute anything agreeable, and why . 276 

1 6. A pregnant woman and new-born infant require the pro- 

tection of a fire or burning lamp, with other precautions 277 

17. Why a toothpick must be cut free from bark . .278 

18. People should marry early, to benefit by children's good 

works; and a childless man must have an adopted son 278 

19. Advantage of attending to agriculture . . . .281 

20. Advantage of feeding the worthy 282 

2 1. How grace must be said before and after eating, and why 282 

22. Advantage of performing Gada«g6i . . . .285 

23. Tethered animals must be restrained .... 286 

24. Why and ho wH6m-ju ice must be given to a new-born child 286 

25. Why promises must not be broken . . . .287 

26. Everyman of fifteen years must select a patron spirit and 

a priestly guide whom he must obey . . .288 

27. When it is doubtful whether an action be right or wrong 

a high-priest must be consulted . . . .290 

28. Why the Avesta must be properly learnt and remembered 290 

29. Why liberality must extend only to the worthy . . 291 

30. Water must not be poured away, or drunk, in the dark . 292 

31. Dogs must be fed and well-treated .... 292 

32. Why a hen or cock must not be killed for crowing . 293 

33. Why search must be made where a corpse is supposed 

to be buried 294 

$%^ Animals must not be often killed, and some never ; also 

certain parts should be consecrated . . . -295 

35. Prayers to be used when washing the face . . .296 

36. Necessity of the Bareshnum for both men and women . 296 

37. Why the ten days of the guardian spirits must be celebrated 298 

38. We must not drink from the same cup as those of a dif- 

ferent religion, until it is purified .... 300 

39. The sacred fire and its attendant must be properly main- 

tained (see Chap. 92) 301 

40. Parents and priests must be obeyed and not vexed . 301 

41. The care and prayers necessary for menstruous women . 302 

42. Why slander and seduction, sins producing accusers, 

are specially injurious 305 

43. Noxious creatures must be killed, especially five kinds . 306 

44. Walking barefoot is a sin, and why .... 307 

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6 9 . 





How repentance must be accomplished for every sin . 308 

The proper age for tying on the sacred thread-girdle . 309 
Ceremonies must be celebrated after the death of a child 

of seven, to liberate its soul from those of its parents . 310 
A cooking- pot must not be more than two-thirds full, for 

fear of boiling over 311 

A fire must be cold before the ashes are removed . 
How the morning ablutions must be performed 
Why it is necessary to send a child to school 
Why a sacred cake must be consecrated every year on 

the day KhurdS</ of the month Fravardtn . 
Any one travelling twelve leagues must have a sacred 

cake consecrated before he goes and every Bahir&m 

day during his absence 

If a man's serving wife has a son, he may adopt it ; but 

if only a daughter, he must adopt a relation's son 
When a sacred cake cannot be consecrated at a NavazCU/, 

bread must be eaten with the Hdrmazd v&g 
Precautions and prayers necessary when evacuating water 
A hedgehog must not be injured, and why . 
Advantages of a ceremony for the living soul 
The only NyiyLr for women is obedience to their husbands 
Steadfasjness in the religion leads to heaven, and helping 

others to be steadfast is the best good work 

Evils of falsehood 

Advantages of truth in word and action 
Regarding the sin of adultery .... 
Penalties for theft with and without violence . 
Duties of thanksgiving and doing good 
All women must have the Dvdzdah-h6mast celebrated 
Why women must abstain from adultery 
Precautions to be taken by menstruous women 
Allowing the sun to shine on a fire, even through holes, is 


Precautions to be observed in carrying the dead . 
Punishment for eating dead matter as medicine 
Bringing dead matter to water or fire is a deadly sin 
Any cow, goat, or fowl that eats dead matter is impure, 

and its produce cannot be used, for a year 

Morning ablutions 

Cultivators must be careful that irrigation water is not 

defiled with dead matter 











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76. Period of purification after childbirth . 

77. Purification and precautions after still-birth . 

78. Why meat must not be eaten for three days after a death 

in the house 

79. Advantages of liberality 

80. Different values of Ashem-vohu on different occasions 

81. H6rmazd admonishes Zaraturt not to postpone to-day': 

duties and good works till to-morrow 

82. The sacred thread-girdle must be re-tied when dressing, 

before moving from the spot .... 

83. Proper fasting is from sin, not from food . 

84. Prayers before sleeping and when restless . 

85. Advice must always be asked of the wise and relations 

86. Beavers must not be killed . . 

87. Ceremonies to be celebrated after a death . 

88. Polluted wood must not be used or burnt . 

89. Any one eating dead matter, or polluting another with it, 

must be purified 

Nothing is to be given to a sinner 

How to purify articles of various materials when polluted 

by dead matter 

The sacred fire must be properly maintained, and an 

attendant provided (see Chap. 39) 
Slander a sin, and how to atone for it 
Benefits must be reciprocated .... 
The merit of performing the Nyayues, and the sin of neg 

lecting them 

96. Mourning for the dead is improper . 

97. Priests' instructions must be treated with respect . 
Priests must* teach the Avesta to laymen correctly 
Pahlavi must be taught to priests only 
Any one molesting a harmless person in this world will 

be delayed on his way to the other world 

















Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East 


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i. The DInA-1 MAiNdol Khirad. 

The Pahlavi phrase Dina-i Maindg-i Khirarf, ' Opinions 
of the Spirit of Wisdom,' is a name applied to sixty-two 
enquiries, or series of enquiries, on subjects connected with 
the religion of the Mazda-worshippers, made by an anony- 
mous wise man and answered by the Spirit of Wisdom. 
But, as this name is only found prefixed to a manuscript, 
written in A. D. 1569, in which the first part of the work is 
missing 1 , it is doubtful whether it be the original name of 
the book, or not, although it is very suitable to the general 
character of the work. 

Regarding the reading of this name, here adopted, it must 
be observed that the correct pronunciation of the Pahlavi 
word matn6g, 'spirit,' is uncertain; the traditional reading 
is m ad 6nad, which is a possible pronunciation of its letters, 
but is otherwise inexplicable ; Haug proposed to read 
matnivad or mJnavad, but, in that case, the word ought 
to end with d= t, or with nd ; some of the present Dasturs 
read min6£, but this would be written mtn6ek in Pahlavi ; 
the Pazand writers have mainyd, but this is evidently an 
imitation of Av. mainyavd, and does not correspond with 
the Pahlavi letters. As the word is manu or mind in the 
Sasanian inscriptions, and mtnu in Persian, to which words 
a final k would be added in Pahlavi, it seems probable that 
the final letter of the Pahlavi word is not d or 6, but g, 
a corruption of k, and that we ought to read mindg or 
matn6g. At the same time it should be noticed that a 
very old copy of the Pahlavi Farhang, in the library of 
Dastur Jamaspji Minochiharji in Bombay, has the word 
written with an extra medial stroke, so that it might be 

1 See p. 3, note 1. 

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read mtnavand, as required by Haug's hypothesis, although 
this copy of the Farhang gives m a d o n e n d as the traditional 

The subjects discussed by the Spirit of Wisdom are of a 
very miscellaneous character, and their discussion is evi- 
dently intended to furnish an outline of the tenets, legends, 
and morality of the religion with which they deal ; but it 
forms by no means a complete, or systematic, treatise on 
these subjects, and it is remarkably silent with regard to all 
details of religious rites and ceremonies, which are only 
occasionally mentioned. This silence may, perhaps, be due 
to the fact that the author was a layman, as seems clear 
from the account he gives of his doubts and enquiries in 
Chap. I, 14-56. Any incompleteness of the treatise may 
also be explained by the apparent loss of the latter end of 
the work, as the sixty-second reply (Chap. LXIII) termi- 
nates the extant text of the treatise abruptly, and without 
any trace of peroration. 

By the Spirit of Wisdom the author means the innate 
wisdom of Auharmas*/ (Chap. LVII, 4), the asna khratu 
of Yas. XXII, 29, XXV, 18, through which the spiritual and 
worldly creations were produced (Chaps. I, 49, 51, LVII, 5). 
It was originally created by Auharma&Z (Chap. VIII, 3, 8), 
and is superior to the archangels (Chap. 1, 53) ; it can appear 
in a personal form, and undertake to be an instructor (Chap. 
I> 57> 6°> 61); and it can likewise be used as a defence 
(Chap. XLIII, 6). 

With regard to the author of this treatise, and the age in 
which he lived, we have no further information than can be 
gathered from the contents of the book itself. The author 
was evidently a devoted Mazda-worshipper, and probably a 
layman, as has been already remarked, but he has given us 
no further hints about himself. Whether he wrote before 
or after the Arab conquest of Persia is doubtful. There are 
only two passages that might be strained into allusions to 
Muhammadanism : one in Chap. I, 18, which alludes to 
some heterodox religion injuring the property of the 
orthodox faith, but the author has just been talking of 
many sects, and the grievance here mentioned is much too 

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■* common to be considered as applicable only to the Arabs ; 
the other passage is Chap. XVI, 37-48, which describes the 
advantages of ' the moderate drinking of wine,' and might 
be supposed to be written in indirect opposition to the 
Muhammadan prohibition of such indulgence. In either 
case the allusion is certainly far too obscure to form a fair 
basis for argument. On the other hand, Chap. XIII, 13, 14, 
speaks of the sovereignty of Viftisp existing in connection 
with the most powerful sect or form of devotion, which 
statement might be strained to imply that the government 
was still orthodox ; and the definitions of good and bad 
government in Chap. XV, 12-39 could hardly have been 
written after the Arab conquest. The allusion to the con- 
tinued conflict of the Arumans and Turanians with the 
Iranians, in Chap. XXI, 23-26, may possibly refer to some 
troublesome wars carried on by the Greeks and Turks 
against the Persians in the time of the author, and the late 
Dr. A. D. Mordtmann has suggested A.D. 580-590 as a 
probable period for such remarks, but, here again, the 
allusion is too obscure to be relied on. 

Very few of the author's quotations can be identified, but 
this is no argument for a greater age than eight or ten 
centuries, as we know, from passages quoted in the Sh&yast 
La-sh&yast, D&rfistan-l Dfntk, and other works, that some 
of the lost Nasks must have been still extant as recently as 
that. The Avesta is quoted only twice by name, in Chaps. 

I, 27. XVI, 15 ; the former "passage has not been identified, 
but the latter may perhaps be from the Pazag Nask. 
Several quotations, however, are made from the dlnd or 
'revelation,' a term which, when it refers to writings, is 
often applied by Pahlavi writers to the Avesta only. Of 
these passages Chap. XLIV, 18-23 is from the Vendiddo?, 
Chap. XXI, 24-26 may be from the Kidrnst Nask, and six 
other quotations have not been identified. In other cases 
the quotations are merely prefaced by the phrase 'it is 
declared.' And of these the passage in Chap. LVII, 24-28 
appears to be derived from the Vendtdkd, and that in Chap. 

II, 155, 156 from the so-called H&/dkht Nask, while eight 
other passages are unidentified. In this last class the quota- 

[24] * b 

Digitized by 



tions seem to be rather paraphrases than accurate transla- 
tions of the original texts. 

Of the original Pahlavi text of the Dina-i Main6g-1 Khirarf 
only two manuscripts are yet known to exist ; one of these 
(K43) is contained in No. 43 of the Iranian manuscripts in 
the University Library at Kopenhagen, and the other 
(TD2) belongs to Mr. Tehmuras Dinshawji Anklesaria of 

The manuscript K43 is a small quarto volume of 178 
folios, of which the Dina occupies fols. 2-37, written fifteen 
lines to the page. The first and second folios also contain 
the conclusion of the larger Bundahij, of which the first 139 
folios are missing from this codex, as described in SBE, 
vol. v, introd. pp. xxxix-xli. And the latter part of the 
codex contains about one-fifth of the Dinkard, in several 
detached fragments, and four-fifths of the Bahman Yart. 
This manuscript was brought from Persia by the late 
Professor Westergaard in 1843 1 , and the Pahlavi text of 
the Dina, which it contains, was published in facsimile by 
Andreas in 188 a 2 . 

In this codex the text of the Dina-i Maln6g-i Khirarf 
begins in the middle of Chap. I, 38 ; but, as the copyist 
has prefixed an introductory heading to this imperfect text, 
it is evident that he, or some predecessor of his, must have 
copied the work, in this imperfect state, from some manu- 
script whose first folio had been lost. Besides this deficiency, 
ten folios of the text have -been lost from this particular 
codex; nine of these were occupied by Chaps. XIV, 1- 
XXVII, 49, and the tenth contained Chaps. XXXIX, 31- 
XL, 17. At the end of the work, Chap. LXIII is followed 
by a colophon to the following effect : — ' Completed in 
peace and pleasure and joy on the day Shatvafr-6 of the 
month A^an of the year 938 of Ya.sda.kard, king of kings, 
[36th May 1569]. I, Mitrd-apan Andshak-ruban Rustam 
Shatr6-iyar, wrote it for my own possession. From the copy 

1 See Zend-Avesta, or the Religious Books of the Zoroastrians, edited by 
N. L. Westergaard (Kopenhagen, 1852-54), vol. i, introd. p. 8, note 3. 

a The Book of the Mainyo-i-Khard, also an old fragment of the Bundehesh, 
edited by F. C. Andreas (Kiel, 1882). 

Digitized by 



of Dastur Gadman-piru^ - Aspendiyar Gadman-ptru^, and 
that from the copy of Dastur Shatrd-aiyyar Ve#an Khusrdi- 
shah, and that, as regards these several sayings, was written 
from the copy of the heavenly-destined Mah-vindarf Nare- 
mahan with the righteous soul, and comes unto us from the 
realm of the Hindus. May even our writing be in accordance 
with the will of the sacred beings.' In addition to the date, the 
chief matter of interest in this colophon is its acknowledg- 
ment of the fact that the work had come from India, where 
the original Pahlavi text appears to have since become 
extinct. We have, therefore, in this text, merely so much 
of the work as had reached India, on which the Pazand- 
Sanskrit version of Nerydsang, described below, was un- 
doubtedly based ; and the possibility of hereafter finding 
the latter part of the work in Persia should not be over- 
looked. It is, however, upon the text contained in K43, so 
far as it is preserved, that the translation of the Dina-i 
Maindg-1 Khirarf in this volume is founded. 

Of the other Pahlavi manuscript, TD2, nothing further 
is known to the translator than a copy of the passages cor- 
responding to those contained in the ten folios lost from 
K43, upon which copy the translation of those passages has 
been based. 

Besides these manuscripts of the original Pahlavi text, 
there exist other copies, in which the text has been merely 
reproduced from the Pazand version described below ; and, 
of these copies, K23 (No. 22 in the University Library at 
Kopenhagen) may be cited as a typical example. This 
manuscript is a large octavo volume of $6 folios of glazed 
Indian paper, probably about a century old, but without a 
date. The first 48 folios contain a corrupt Pahlavi text of 
the Dina-i Main6g-i Khirarf, alternating with the usual 
Sanskrit version described below, written nineteen lines to 
the page, and extending as far as Chap. XXVII, 41. The 
corruptions in the text consist of misuse of Huzvarij equiva- 
lents, and errors in orthography which no old writer of 
Pahlavi would be likely to commit, such as writing k o /a v i s t 
for harvist, nafjmantdartk for khv6.rini</arih, bara- 
guman for az>iguman, ham£forhamai, a^ajfor aubax, 


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la and ma for a/, denman instead of hand for Paz. e, 
the constant use of the adjective suffix -ik for the abstract 
suffix -th, and the frequent omission of the final k in such 
words as d&nak, arista k. It can be seen at once, by any 
one really acquainted with Pahlavi, that a text of this de- 
scription is merely a modern transliteration of the Pazand 
version by some one whose knowledge of Pahlavi was rather 
limited and artificial. 

Most of the Indian manuscripts of this work contain only 
the P&zand version written in short sentences, alternating 
with a word-for-word Sanskrit translation of each sentence ; 
the Sanskrit being written upside down, for the sake of 
forming a continuous line with the reversely-written Avesta 
characters of the Pazand. This Pazand-Sanskrit version of 
the Mainyd-i Khard (as it is called in Pazand) was compiled 
by Nerydsang, son of Dhaval, a Parsi priest who is supposed 
to have lived some time in the fifteenth century, and 
evidently possessed a very good knowledge of Pahlavi, 
though not avoid some few mistakes, especially 
in reading foreign names. His authorship is attested by a 
Sanskrit introduction, prefixed to most manuscripts of this 
version, to the following effect : — ' Through the name and 
almighty power and assistance of the lord Ahura-mazda, 
the greatly wise, may the achievement be auspicious, and 
be the progress and success of the good Mazda-worshipping 
religion, and energy in body and long life for all the good 
and right-minded. This Pahlavi heavenly wisdom, called 
the Mainy6-i Khard, is translated by me, Nery6sang son of 
Dhaval, from the Pahlavi language into the Sanskrit 
language, and written from the difficult Parsi letters 1 with 
the Avesta letters, for the joyful understanding of the good 
listeners to instruction, the true-minded. Salutation to the 
good, the pure-thinking, the true-speaking, the just-acting.' 

Of this Pazand-Sanskrit version the oldest manuscript 
that has been examined is L19, No. 19 of the Avesta and 
Pahlavi manuscripts in the India Office Library in London, 
one of the manuscripts brought from India by Dr. Samuel 

1 That is, from the ambiguous Pahlavi characters, used in all Persian 
writings before the Arab conquest. 

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Guise who was head surgeon of the general hospital at 
Surat from 1788 to 1795, and obtained several manuscripts 
from the widow of Dastur Darabji, the instructor of An- 
quetil Duperron. It is a small octavo volume, containing 
148 folios of old Indian paper, of which the first 132 are 
occupied by the Pazand-Sanskrit Mainy6-i Khard, written 
fifteen lines to the page. At the beginning of the text the 
folio containing N6ry6sang's Sanskrit introduction (de- 
scribed above) has been lost, but the text itself is complete. 
At the end of the work is a Pazand-Sanskrit postscript 
which may be reasonably attributed to Nerydsang him- 
self, and can be translated as follows : — ' Completed for the 
peace and pleasure, happiness and dominion of all the good 
who are virtuous. To him for whom it is written may it 
be well-resulting and well-omened, and, after a hundred and 
fifty years, may he be a transmitter of it to his own religious 
children's children, through the will of the sacred beings. 
Of whomsoever the best ability is not wisdom, that best 
ability of his is even then owing to it. Wisdom which is 
without learning is poor, and learning which is without 
wisdom is helpless.' After this postscript a Pahlavi colophon 
has been copied from some older manuscript to the following 
effect : — ' Completed in peace, pleasure, and joy, and ended ; 
written by me, a servant of the religion, the priest Shatr6- 
aiyyar, contemporary (?) of Nerydsang.' And this is fol- 
lowed by a colophon in very corrupt Sanskrit, which states 
that this manuscript was completed, in the district of Naga- 
mawdfola 1 , at a date corresponding to Friday, the 19th 
October 1520, by the teacher Mihrvan, son of MahyAr and 
grandson of Padama, for the priest Bahram, son of Palhan. 
This manuscript of the Pazand text is, therefore, nearly 49 
years older than that of the original Pahlavi text (K43) 
upon which the present translation is based. It corresponds 
very closely with that Pahlavi text, and where it differs the 
variation is nearly always due to some mistake, or attempt 
at improvement, on the part of Nerydsang. It must, how- 
ever, be acknowledged that very few translators adhere so 

1 Probably an old name of Nausarf. 

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closely to their original texts as this learned Parsi priest 
has done to his. 

Other manuscripts of the Pazand-Sanskrit version are 
PAio and PB6. The former is No. 10 of the Anquetil 
Collection in the National Library at Paris, and was brought 
from Surat by Anquetil Duperron in 176 1. It is an octavo 
volume, in which the Mainyd-i Khard occupies the first an 
folios, and commences with Nerydsang's Sanskrit introduc- 
tion, translated above, but does not contain the postscript. 
The date of its colophon appears to correspond to the 7th 
December 1649, new style. The latter manuscript, PB6, is 
No. 6 of the Burnouf Collection in the same library, and is 
probably about a century old. 

The Pazand version also occurs alternating with a Gu^a- 
rati translation in K33, No. 23 of the Iranian manuscripts 
in the University Library at Kopenhagen. It is an octavo 
volume of 168 folios of glazed Indian paper, of which the 
first 1 6a contain the Pazand-Gu^arati text, written fifteen 
lines to the page, and the remaining six folios contain an 
index stating the contents of each chapter. A colophon, at 
the end of the text, has a date corresponding to the 35th 
August 1663, new style; and another, at the end of the 
index, states that the manuscript was written by the priest 
Yazad-yar, son of Vikaji, of San^an, and finished at a date 
corresponding to the 1 7th October of the same year. 

In another class of Pazand manuscripts of the Mainy6-i 
Khard the Pazand text is written in the Perso- Arabic cha- 
racter, and accompanied by a Persian translation, forming 
what may be conveniently termed a Parsi- Persian version. 
One example of this version is contained in MH7, No. 7 of 
the Haug Collection in the State Library at Munich, of 
which it occupies the first 70 folios, written fifteen lines to 
the page. Most of the Persian translation is written in 
sentences alternating with those of the Parsi text, in which 
case the translation is merely a paraphrase of the Parsi ; but 
some of the translation is interlined, and this is much more 
literal, each Parsi word having its Persian equivalent written 
below it. This manuscript contains several other texts, and 
from two colophons, one near the middle, and the other near 

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the end of the volume, it appears that it was written by 
Darashah, son of Mihrbanji, and the first half of the 
volume was completed at a date corresponding to Wednes- 
day the 9th August 1809. 

Another example of the Parsi-Persian version is found in 
No. 2769 of the Persian manuscripts in the India Office 
Library in London, in which manuscript it occupies 75 
folios, written eleven lines to the page, and is not dated, 
though probably written early this century. In this copy 
the Pars! text is tolerably complete, but long passages of 
the Persian translation are omitted ; when given, the Persian 
is usually identical with that in MH7, though some in- 
stances of independent translation occur. 

In addition to the Pahlavi, Pazand, Sanskrit, Gu^arati, 
Parst, and Persian texts of the prose Dlna-1 Maln6g-i 
Khirarf, the popularity of the work is further evinced by the 
existence of two versions in Persian verse. One of these 
was described by Professor Sachau in the Journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, new series, vol. iv, pp. 239-283, from 
a manuscript in the library of that Society in London, 
written probably near the end of last century. The author 
of this metrical Persian paraphrase appears to have been a 
native of Ravar in Sindh, named Marzuban, who composed 
it from a Pars! version of the original text, bequeathed to 
him by his teacher while he was studying the old traditions 
at Yazd ; and the date of his composition seems to have 
been A. D. 1612. His verses contain only fifty-four ques- 
tions and answers, but these contain the substance of the 
greater part of the Mtndkhirad, as the work is called in 
Persian, with some few additions from other sources. 

A copy of the other metrical Persian Mindkhirad occupied 
fols. 527-550 in the second volume of B29, a two-volume 
quarto Riviyat, No. 29 in the Bombay University Library. 
It is doubtful whether the original number of folios were 
twenty-four or twenty-six, but only twenty-two now remain. 
These contain 497 couplets of introductory matter, 1060 
representing the text of the work, and 190 of epilogue; 
and from 160 to 330 further couplets of the text are 
missing. According to statements in the introduction and 

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epilogue the verses appear to have been composed, from 
Nery6sang's Pazand-Sanskrit text, by the priest Ho.rmazyar 
and his son Darab, the latter being the actual writer, and 
the former being a son of Faramruz 1 , son of Qavamu-d- 
dtn, son of Kai-Qubad, son of HamHrapadam x of San^-an, 
of the family of the priest N£ry6sang Dhaval. The work 
was commenced on the 7th November 1676, new style, 
and completed in thirty-five days; and the copy in B29 
was finished on the 21st November 1679, new style. The 
order of the subjects discussed in this metrical version 
differs, in some respects, from that followed in the prose 
texts, and the 1060 couplets of extant text represent only 
forty chapters of the work, though several of the others 
were, no doubt, represented in the missing couplets. 
Another copy of this later metrical version appears to 
exist in pp. 231-248 of No. 12 of Anquetil's Collection in 
the National Library at Paris. 

Of the Pazand text of the Mainy6-i Khard, Chaps. LVII, 
XXVII, LXII, I, 51-61, VII, 9-12 have been published, 
with German translations, by Professor Spiegel, in his 
'Grammatik der parsi Sprache,' pp. 128-155, 161-173, 185, 
186, 188, 189. He has also published German translations 
of Chaps. II, 110-193, VIII, XXXVII, XLII in his <Tra- 
ditionelle Literatur der Parsen,' pp. 138-144, 147-150. 
And the complete Pazand-Sanskrit texts, with an English 
translation, Pazand glossary and grammar, were published 
by the present translator in 187 1. Since that date the 
original Pahlavi text of the Dina-i Matn6g-t Khira*/ has 
been discovered, from which the present translation has 
been made. 

In connection with this account of the various versions of 
the 'Opinions of the Spirit of Wisdom,' it should be noticed 
that an abridgement of the work also exists in Persian prose, 
and is called the 'Other Mlndkhirad.' A copy of this 
abridgement is contained in fols. 71-78 of MH7 (described 
above), and consists of a very free Persian translation of the 
Pazand texts of Chaps. I, 14-II, 64, III-VII, XIV, XV, 

1 A variation of this pedigree is quoted in p. xlii. 

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XXI, XXV, followed by a variety of short statements 
about thankfulness towards the sacred beings, the supreme 
heaven, male and female angels and demons, wealth and 
poverty, &c, and concluding with the names of the first 
sovereigns of the world, the descent of mankind from 
Gay6mard, and of the 292 1 species of animals from the 
primeval ox. Another copy of this abridgement appears 
to be contained in fols. 80-84 of No. 15 of Anquetil's Collec- 
tion in the National Library at Paris. 

2. The .Sikand-gumAnIk VigAr. 

The term Sikand-gumanik Vi^r, ' doubt-dispelling expla- 
nation,' is the Pahlavi name applied to a controversial 
work by its author. The chief object of the work is to 
prove the correctness of the fundamental doctrine of the 
Mazda-worshipping religion, that good and evil do not 
proceed 'from the same source, and to show that other 
religions, while professing to believe in the unity of crea- 
tion, can only account for the origin of evil, either by 
degrading the character of the sacred being, or by attri- 
buting evil to a corrupting influence which is really a 
second being. In other words, the author's object is to 
show that all people, who believe in an all-good and 
omnipotent creator, must logically admit the existence of 
an independent origin of evil, whatever they may say 
to the contrary. In the course of his arguments, he 
naturally finds it easier to attack the inconsistencies of 
other beliefs than to defend his own, and much of his 
attention is, therefore, given to pointing out apparent 
inconsistencies and seemingly delusive statements in the 
scriptures of the Muhammadans, Jews, Christians, and 

The author's name was Marrfan-farukh, son of Auhar- 
mazd-dkd (Chap. I, 35), and his account of his enquiries 
(§§ 36> 37) bears much resemblance to what is said of the 
wise man's proceedings in Mkh. I, 34-36. He determines to 

1 Bd. X, 3, XIV, 13 mention 282 (or 272 in some copies). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


write a treatise for removing religious doubt, and calls it 
the Sikand-gumanik Vi^ar (Chap. 1, 38). He is also -careful 
in stating that he has selected many of his facts and argu- 
ments from older writings, such as those of Atur-pa^iya- 
vand 1 , which he had found in the Dinkarrf 2 compiled by 
Atur-fr6bag, son of Farukh-za</. In this statement he 
must be referring to the first two books of the Dinkarrf, 
which have not yet been discovered, as the other seven 
books, which are extant, do not contain the matters to which 
he alludes. He also mentions the R6shan manuscript com- 
piled by Rdshan 3 , son of Atur-fr6bag, a writer who is often 
quoted in the Pahlavi commentaries on the Avesta 4 . And 
he begins his religious discussion by replying to some 
difficulties that had been suggested to him, in a friendly 
manner, for solution by Mitr6-aiyyar, son of Mahmid, 
of Ispahan 5 . 

His allusions to Muhammadanism are of a very guarded 
character, though sufficiently clear to leave no doubt as to 
the religion he means. Like all Pahlavi writers, he never 
mentions that religion by name, but when, in the position 
of a Zoroastrian in Persia, he states that he did not admire 
the religion that was then in supremacy 8 , there can be 
little doubt that he refers to Muhammadanism. And any 
such doubt would be dispelled, not only by such vague 
references to passages in the Qur'an as occur in Chap. XI, 
4, 5, 269-371, but also by the distinct quotation of a striking 
legend, from the same source, regarding the fallen angel in 
§§ 53-60, 348 of the same chapter, and by the use of the 
term Mutazalik (Ar. mu'htazil) with reference to a certain 
sect in § 380. 

With regard, therefore, to the age of the Sikand-gumanfk 
Vi,gar, we may be quite certain that it was written long after 
the Arab conquest of Persia; and from the names men- 
tioned by the author, as stated above, it is evident that he 
lived after the time of Rdshan, son of Atur-frdbag, son of 

1 See Chaps. I, 38, IV, 106, IX, 2, X, 53. 

* See Chaps. IV, 107, IX, 1, 4, X, 57. 

* See Chap. X, 53, 54. * See Sis. I, 411. 

* See Chap. II, 1, 2. 'See Chap. X, 45. 

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Farukh-zarf. Now, according to a Pahlavi tale ', the accursed 
Abalij 2 , the Zandik, had a religious disputation with Atur- 
frdbag, son of Farukh-zarf, in the presence of the Khalifah 
Al-Mamun who reigned A.D. 813-833; it is, therefore, 
hardly possible that Rdshan, son of Atur-frdbag, could 
have written his commentary before the middle of the 
ninth century. We also know, from the last chapter of 
the third book of the Dinkarc/, that Atur-frdbag was 
not the last editor of that work, but was succeeded by 
his son Zaratujt, and, later still, by Aturpa</, son of 
HemW, who appears to have given the book its final 
revision. Of Aturpa^s work the author of the Sikand- 
gumanik Vig&r does not speak, and it is, therefore, 
reasonable to suppose that it had not been completed 
in his time. But, according to Bd. XXXIII, 10, 11, this 
Aturparfwas a contemporary of Zirf-sparam who was living 
in A.D. 881 3 , and his revision of the Dinkarrf was, therefore, 
probably in progress by the end of the ninth century. 
From these facts we may conclude that the .Sikand-gumanik 
V\g&r was written after the middle, but before the end, of 
the ninth century ; unless we were to suppose that, although 
its author consulted only the first two books of the Dlnkarrf 
(as mentioned above), the remaining seven books may have 
existed as a separate work unknown to him. Considering, 
however, that Atu^-parf, son of H£mW, was so important a 
personage as ' the leader of those of the good religion ' of his 
time, this supposition would not be very probable. 

There is probably nothing new to defenders of Christianity 
in Man/an-farukh's attacks upon the apparent inconsistencies 
of their scriptures, with regard to the origin of evil and the 
existence of unity in trinity, subjects that are more usually 
admitted without investigation than seriously discussed. 
This is not, however, the mode in which such subjects are 
likely to be treated by outsiders, and missionaries will no 
doubt find among Man&n-farukh's arguments many that 
they must become accustomed to hear from educated 

1 A copy of which is contained in the very old codex No. 20 in the University 
Library at Kopenhagen, fols. 148-152. 
* The reading of this name is uncertain, bat this is the Pizand form. 
» See Ep. Ill, 2,17, 21. 

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men of other faiths. And, if they engage in controversy, as 
they ought to do, they must expect to hear them stated in 
less considerate language than this author uses. 

An interesting question, for any one who possesses special 
information on the subject, would be to ascertain from what 
version of the Old and New Testaments Mara&n-farukh 
drew his quotations. There seems every probability that 
his translation of the passages, though it may not be alto- 
gether literal, is yet sufficiently so to admit of the par- 
ticular version being identified, if its peculiarities of wording 
were carefully considered. The peculiar Pahlavi spelling of 
the name Isaac in Chap. XIV, 4a, as deduced from its cor- 
ruption in Pazand, points to a Syriac version of one of the 
legendary works consulted by the author. 

In his discussion of the tenets of the Mankhaeans Man/an- 
farukh is dealing with a subject that is far less known than 
the other faiths he attacks, and the information he gives 
may be valuable. Unfortunately the latter part of this dis- 
cussion is missing, although the loss of text is probably not 
very extensive. 

The original Pahlavi text of the Sikand-gumanik Vjgar 
has not yet been discovered, although there are several 
existing copies of a Pahlavi version of the earlier part of 
the work, which are evidently reproductions from the 
Pazand text. These pseudo-Pahlavi manuscripts usually 
end with the fifth chapter, and are certainly superior to the 
similiar reproductions of the Dina-i Maindg-i Khirarf, repre- 
sented by K32 (see p. xix). Yet they generally use the 
adjective suffix -ik for the abstract suffix -ih, because both 
these suffixes become -i in Pazand ; they often havekabed, 
'much,' for afaj, 'and by him,' when the Pazand has vas 
by mistake for vas; they also substitute the Pazand mis- 
reading aina for the true Pahlavi adinaj ; besides adopting 
other occasional miswritings for which the Pazand version 
alone is responsible. Such manuscripts could be of no 
critical value, unless they had descended from some family 
of Pazand manuscripts which had left no surviving represen- 
tatives in Pazand, and this does not appear to be the case. 

A specimen of these Pahlavi reproductions is contained 

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in the last 36 folios of L15, No. 15 of the 
Pahlavi manuscripts in the India Office Library in London. 
It commences with the words ' all the angels ' in Chap. I, 4, 
and ends with Chap. V, 71 ; the handwriting being the same 
as that in La6, a manuscript that contains a date corre- 
sponding to A. D. 1 737. 

In fols. 9-16 of BM. No. 22,378 of the Additional Oriental 
manuscripts in the British Museum Library, there is a 
modern fragment of this reproduced Pahlavi text, interlined 
with a transliteration in the Persian character, and alternat- 
ing with a Persian paraphrase. This fragment contains 
only Chap. I, 1-31. 

The reproduced Pahlavi text also occurs, in parallel 
columns with the usual Pazand and Sanskrit versions and a 
Persian paraphrase, in R, an imperfect polyglot manuscript 
given to the late Mr. J. Romer by a Dastur in Surat. Of 
this foolscap-folio manuscript Mr. Romer sent pp. 16-31 
(with the first fifteen pages of a Pahlavi-Persian Bundahij) 
to the late Professor M. J. Muller, through Mr. Poley ; he 
also sent pp. 32-63, 82-93 *° tne ^ ate Professor H. H. Wilson 
on 3rd December 1836, who afterwards transferred them 
to Professor Max Muller; and he gave pp. 64-81, 99-143 
to the late Mr. Norris. The first of these fragments, 
together with that of the Bundahu now constitute No. 10 
of the Muller Collection in the State Library at Munich ; 
the next two fragments were presented to the India Office 
Library, and the two last mentioned were acquired by 
it, in 1876. It is most probable that the first fifteen 
pages of this polyglot manuscript were not given to Mr. 
^Romer, but the first fifteen pages of the Bundahir were 
substituted for them. The portion extant (pp. 16-143) 
contains all four versions of Chaps. I, 28-V, 57, with the 
Sanskrit and Persian versions of Chap. I, 25-27, and the 
Pahlavi and Pazand versions of Chap. V, 58-62 ; and the 
latter two versions are everywhere interlined with a trans- 
literation in Persian characters. This manuscript is modern 
and of no particular critical value ; but, as the combination 
of the four versions is rare, if not unique, it would be very 
desirable to discover the rest of the manuscript. 

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In another manuscript, No. 18 of the Anquetil Collection 
in the National Library at Paris, the reproduced Pahlavi 
text has the usual Pazand version written above it. This 
manuscript, which is in the form of a roll, begins at the 
same point as L15 (see p. xxix) and ends with Chap. V, 95, 
which is said to be the usual extent of other manuscripts 
of this class in India. A copy of this manuscript is No. 23 
of the Miiller Collection in the State Library at Munich. 

An extension of the same reproduced Pahlavi text, with 
the Pazand version written above it, and alternating with 
the Sanskrit version, is contained in K28, No. 28 of the 
Iranian manuscripts in the University Library at Kopen- 
hagen. It is an imperfect octavo manuscript, of which only 
66 folios remain, written eleven lines to the page, and, in its 
present state, it is undated, but seems to be fully 150 years 
old. The portions of the text that it still contains are only 
Chaps. I, i-II, 8 ; III, 1-25 ; HI, 36-IV, 106 ; VIII, 103- 
IX, 16 ; IX, 30-X, 13 ; X, 71-XI, 28 ; XI, 55-61 ; so that 
more than half the text that ought to be included within its 
extreme limits is missing ; but its original extent, within the 
same limits, was more than double the usual length of the 
reproduced Pahlavi text, as stated above. In this par- 
ticular, of unusual length, only one other manuscript of 
that text seems to be known in India that resembles it, in 
addition to the imperfect copy next described. K28 con- 
tains N£ry6sang's usual Sanskrit introduction (see p. xxxiii), 
and differs from the oldest Pazand manuscript AK in 
only two or three instances, and these variations can be 
explained as corrections made on the authority of the 
Sanskrit version. 

An imperfect and modern copy of the Pahlavi-Pazand- 
Sanskrit texts is also contained in twenty-two folios prefixed 
to AK (described below). This copy commences with N£r- 
y&sang's Sanskrit introduction, and includes only Chaps. I, 
i-IV, 100 and X, 71-XI, 47. Its writer has intended to 
give the three versions in successive sentences, but, after 
Chap. I, 23, the Pazand and Sanskrit sentences are less and 
less frequently written, till they cease altogether after 1, 43, 
with the exception of one or two isolated sections. In 

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several cases he has also substituted the correct abstract 
suffix -fh for the usual incorrect -Ik, but this correction is 
generally confined to abstract nouns in common use. 

As none of these Pahlavi manuscripts can be considered 
otherwise than as reproductions from the Pazand, it is to 
the Pazand-Sanskrit version of N£rydsang that we must still 
look for the nearest approach to the original text of the 
work. It is in this version, too, that we find the greatest 
extent of text still extant, although the Sikand-gumanik 
Vi^ar seems to possess the peculiarity of wearying out all 
its copyists at some point or other, so that not only is there 
no complete copy of the work known, but also nearly every 
copyist has stopped his work at a different place. 

The oldest known manuscript of the Pazand-Sanskrit 
version belongs to Dastur H6shangji Jamaspji of Poona, 
and is called AK, because it is supposed to have been 
written by Asadin, son of Kaka. In its present state this 
manuscript consists of seventy-seven small quarto folios of 
very old, discoloured, Indian paper, written sixteen lines to 
the page, and containing the Pazand version in short sen- 
tences, alternating with a word-for-word Sanskrit transla- 
tion of each sentence ; the Sanskrit being written upside 
down, for the sake of forming a continuous line with the 
reversely-written Avesta characters of the Pazand. From 
other manuscripts it is known that this P&zand-Sanskrit 
version was compiled by N£ry6sang, son of Dhaval, but in 
this manuscript his usual Sanskrit introduction is lost with 
the first three folios of the text, and the existing seventy- 
seven folios contain only Chaps. I, 16-XI, 145. As this 
extends only one folio beyond the middle of the whole of 
the text that is extant, it is supposed that this old manuscript 
was divided into two nearly equal moieties on the occasion 
of some division of property, of which the earlier moiety has 
been preserved, and the later one either lost, or destroyed, 
or buried in some inaccessible library. 

In consequence of the imperfect state of this manuscript 
it bears no date, but an old Sanskrit colophon has been 
copied by the writer of JE (one of the more modern manu- 
scripts that are evidently derived from AK through one or 

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more intermediate copies), and this may be fairly assumed 
to be the colophon of AK. This colophon may be trans- 
lated as follows: — 'In the Samvat year 1625, in the current 
Saka year 1490, on the present day (?), the fourth day 
Shahrivar of the eleventh month Bahman, in the district 
of Naga-ma^ala 1 , in the royal reign of king Sul/ctn Mutb- 
affar-shah, the book named .Sikand-gum&nik \%ar is 
written, for the use of Amalshah ATangashah 2 , by the 
priest Asadin 3 , son of the priest Kaka. May it become 
auspicious ! may it be beneficial ! ' 

The date indicated by this colophon seems to correspond 
to the 23rd September 1568*, but it may, of course, be 
doubted whether it originally belonged to AK, because the 
text to which it is appended in JE is incomplete. If it 
were attached to AK, the text in that manuscript must 
either have been originally incomplete, or some of the later 
folios must have been lost, while the last one, containing the 
colophon, was still preserved. If it did not belong to AK, 
it must have belonged to some later manuscript, because 
there is no doubt that JE has descended from AK, and 
could not, therefore, contain the colophon of an older 
manuscript than AK, unless it had been written in AK 
itself, or obtained in an irregular manner from some un- 
recorded source. For these reasons there seems little 
doubt that AK was written either in 1568, or earlier ; and 
the general appearance of its folios favours this assumption. 
So far as it extends this is the best manuscript of the 
Sikand-gumanik Vi^ar that is known to exist, and the 
present translation has, therefore, been based upon its texts, 

1 Probably an old name of Nausart. 

• This .ffangashah was probably a grandson of the ^angashah at whose in- 
stigation the Parsis in India carried on a correspondence with those in Persia in 
A.D. 1478-81, which is still preserved in the Persian Rivayats. And his father 
may have been the Ma«ekshah Aangashah who was the head of the Parsi lay- 
men in Nausart in 1531, when he was 70 years old, as appears from the Hadesa 
Namu (Bombay, 1831). 

9 In a Gu^arati memorandum, recently appended to JE, it is stated that the 
colophon of a Yasna Sadah, written in a.d. 157a or 1576, gives the pedigree of 
this copyist as follows : — Asadin, son of Kaka, son of Dharpal, son of Lakhmi- 
dar, son of Mobad Kamdtn, son of Zarat&rt, son of M6bad Hormazdyar, son of 

* Or it may be 1 569, as the iaka date has been altered from 1491 into 1490. 

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which are, no doubt, very nearly in the same state as when 
edited by Nerydsang; the Sanskrit version, especially, is 
far more correct than in the later copies. Many of the 
Pazand sections in Chaps. V-VIII are written in Pahlavi 
only, or in Pahlavi with the Pazand written above it ; but, in 
all cases, this Pahlavi is as corrupt as that of the reproduced 
Pahlavi manuscripts. 

The most complete manuscripts of the Pazand-Sanskrit 
version are J J and JE, of which J J is the oldest and best, 
but it has not yet been thoroughly examined. It is a small 
quarto volume of 182 folios of Indian paper, written fifteen 
to seventeen lines to the page, and belongs to Dastur 
Khurshedji Jamshedji of Nausarl. From certain blunders 
and peculiarities, which its writer has copied, it is certain 
that this manuscript has descended from AK, and, also, that 
it has derived a few variations from some other source. Its 
Sanskrit text is not written inverted, as it is in AK, and it 
commences with NSrydsang's usual Sanskrit introduction, 
as translated in p. xx, but with the clause containing the 
names altered to the following effect : — ' This book, named 
•Sikand-gumanik V^ar, is translated by me, N£ry6sang son 
of Dhaval, from the Pahlavi language into the Sanskrit 
language, and written from the difficult Parsi letters with 
the Avesta letters, for the joyful understanding of the good 
listeners to instruction, the true-minded.' The texts in JJ 
are of the same extent as the translation in this volume, 
and are followed by a colophon in Persian, Sanskrit, and 
imperfect Pahlavi, which states that the manuscript was 
written by Dastur JamshSd, son of Jamasp, son of Asa, son 
of Fre</un, inhabitants of Nausart, and completed on the 
day Srdsh of the month Vohuman, A.Y. 1137 (correspond- 
ing to the 38th August 1768). 

The other manuscript, JE, which is as complete as the 
translation in this volume, is a foolscap-folio volume of 132 
folios, written eighteen lines to the page, and belongs to 
Dastur H6shangji Jamaspji of Poona. It corresponds very 
closely with J J, but its Sanskrit (which is not written in- 
verted) is rather more corrupt ; and it contains the same 
indications of descent from AK as that manuscript does, 
[24] c 

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with the same variations derived from some other source. 
It commences with N£ryosang's usual Sanskrit introduction, 
and at the end of the text it has the old Sanskrit colophon 
translated above, and supposed to belong to AK. And 
this is followed by a Persian colophon, written on the day 
Hdrmazd of the month Bahman, A. Y. 1211 (corresponding 
to the 36th July 1842), and stating that this manuscript 
was copied from that of Asadtn, son of Kaka, in Bombay, by 
Jamshed, son of Edalji, son of Bahmanji, son of the writer 
of JJ. From this it might be too hastily assumed that the 
old manuscript AK was still complete as recently as 1842 ; 
but, if such were the case, it would be difficult to under- 
stand why Dastur H6shangji could learn nothing about its 
missing moiety some twenty-five years afterwards, when he 
made searching enquiries on the subject ; and it would be 
still more difficult to explain the variations in JE, already 
mentioned as derived from some other source than AK. It 
is more probable that the writer of JE found the old colo- 
phon of AK copied at the end of a more recent manuscript, 
which led him to believe that the latter was written by 
Asadin, son of Kaka. 

That the first folio of AK had already been lost, con- 
siderably more than a century ago, appears from PB3, 
No. 3 of the Burnouf Collection in the National Library at 
Paris, which was evidently copied from a copy of AK, and 
is certainly more than a century old, judging from the 
general appearance of the paper on which it is written. 
This manuscript, which was given to Burnouf by Mr. 
Ma«ekji Khurshedji of Bombay, is a small octavo volume 
of 125 folios of Indian paper, written twelve to sixteen lines 
to the page, and contains the Pazand-Sanskrit text of 
Chaps. I, 5~53> an< * II, 5 - X, 66 : the Sanskrit being written 
upside down, as in AK. The loss of Nerydsang's Sanskrit 
introduction and Chap. I, 1-4 of the text indicates that 
the first folio of AK was already missing when the original 
of PB3 was copied, and several lacunae in the earlier folios, 
which have been filled up in red ink from some other 
source, indicate the torn condition of the earlier folios of 
AK. The loss of Chaps. I, 54-II, 4 is due to two folios 

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being absent between folios n and 12 of PB3 ; and after 
Chap. X, 66 all further folios have been lost. In some 
sections in Chaps. VI and VIII, where the Pazand text is 
written above its Pahlavi equivalent in AK, much confusion 
has been occasioned in PB3 by reading the Pazand and 
Pahlavi versions as two successive lines of text ; and it is 
evident that this confusion originated in some manuscript 
intermediate between AK and PB3, though it has been in- 
creased by further blundering on the part of the writer of 
PB3 itself. 

The Pazand version of Nerydsang also occurs in short 
sentences alternating with a Gu^arati translation in MH19, 
No. 19 of the Haug Collection in the State Library at 
Munich. This manuscript, which was given to Haug by 
Dastur Kal-Khusr6 at Surat in 1864, is a small quarto of 
124 folios of old Indian paper, of which the first no folios 
contain the Pazand-Gugarati version of Chaps. I, i-XI, 201, 
written thirteen to nineteen lines to the page. Towards the 
latter end of the manuscript blank spaces are left for the 
Gqgarati version of many of the sections ; and several of 
the passages that are written only in Pahlavi in AK are 
similarly written in MH19. From this and other peculi- 
arities it is evident that MH19 has descended from 
AK, but probably through some intermediate manuscript 
that must have been written when AK was more com- 
plete than it is now. Judging from the appearance 
of the paper of MH19 it can hardly be less than 150 
years old, but it contains no date or colophon of any 

Another manuscript, which contains a large portion of 
the Pazand version of Nerydsang, without his Sanskrit 
translation, is L23, No. 23 in the India Office Library in 
London. It is an octavo volume of eighty folios of Indian 
paper,written ten to twelve lines to the page, in the same hand- 
writing as L15 and L26 (see p. xxix), which last manuscript 
contains a date corresponding to A. D. 1737. L23 contains 
the Pazand text of Chaps. I, 34-VIII, 23, and many of the 
passages written in Pahlavi in AK are similarly written in 
L23, which indicates the descent of the latter manuscript 

C 2 

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from the former ; an indication which is confirmed by the 
repetition of other peculiarities. 

From this account of all the manuscripts of the .Sikand- 
gumanik V^ar, that have been examined by the translator, 
it appears probable that no manuscript independent of 
AK has yet been discovered. The few variations which 
indicate another source can easily be explained as emenda- 
tions by some later copyist, who had noticed, or imagined, 
some deficiencies in the text of that manuscript. 

The 5ikand-gumantk Vj^&r has not been hitherto trans- 
lated into any European language, but an edition of its 
Pazand and Pahlavi texts was prepared by Dastur H6- 
shangji about fifteen years ago, and arrangements have 
been made for the publication of these texts, with the 
Sanskrit version, at an early date. 

3. The Sad Dar. 

As its name implies the Sad Dar is a treatise on 'a 
hundred subjects ' connected with the Zoroastrian religion. 
The word dar, literally 'door, or gate,' being also applied 
to the ' chapters ' of a book, and to the ' matters, or sub- 
jects,' of which it treats. This work is not a Pahlavi text, 
being written in Persian with an admixture of about four 
per cent, of Arabic words; it is, however, more quoted 
than any other work by the Parsi compilers of the Persian 
Rivayats, or religious 'traditions,' in the seventeenth century. 
In one of its recensions it is also found written in Avesta 
characters, and the Avesta-Persian sentences alternate with 
an- old Gqg-arati translation, in imitation of the Pazand- 
Sanskrit versions of Pahlavi texts compiled by N£ry6sang. 
In consideration of the existence of this pseudo-Pazand 
recension, together with the general acceptance of the work 
as an important authority, and its being a convenient sum- 
mary of many of the religious customs handed down by 
Pahlavi writers, this work may be offered as a suitable 
appendix to the true Pahlavi texts, connecting them with 

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the Persian writings that are too modern to be accepted as 
authorities in religious matters. 

The Sad Dar NaTHr, or prose Sad Dar, which is here 
translated, appears to be first mentioned in the introduction 
to the Sad Dar-i Ba'hr-i 7avfl \ or long-metre Sad Dar, in 
which the versifier states that the prose Sad Dar was com- 
piled by three celebrated high-priests, named M£dyomah, 
Vardast, and Siyavakhsh, near the time of the Arab con- 
quest of Persia. This, however, really means little more 
than that the prose Sad Dar was considered a very old 
work at the time when the long-metre Sad Dar was com- 
posed from it. It appears, from Dastur Jamaspji's preface 
to his Gqgarati translation of the long-metre Sad Dar, that 
this metrical version was composed in A.D. 1531 by Mulla 
Rustam Isfendiyar of Khurasan and Mulla Behzad Rustam 2 . 
It may, therefore, be concluded that the prose Sad Dar had 
the reputation of being a very old work in the early part of 
the sixteenth century. 

Another version of the work, called the Sad Dar "NatAm, 
or metrical Sad Dar, had already been composed in Kirman 
by Iran-shah 3 , son of Malik-sh&h, as early as the 14th 
October, A. D. 1495. In his introduction he does not 
mention the source whence he drew his information, though 
he speaks of ' renovating the old mysteries,' but whether 
this phrase refers to the old prose Sad Dar, which he 
must undoubtedly have used, or to the original Pahlavi 
sources of that work, is uncertain. A Latin translation of 
this metrical Sad Dar was published by Hyde, in his 
History of the Religion of the Ancient Persians 4 . 

The contents of the Sad Dar are of a very miscellaneous 
character, and are not very systematically arranged. They 
treat of a great variety of duties and customs, but all from 
a strictly religious point of view, though the work is evidently 

1 See Sad-dare Behere Tavil, translated into Gu^ariiti by Dastur Jamaspji 
Minochiharji Jamasp-Asa-na; 2nd edition; Bombay, 1881. 

9 Possibly a son of the preceding MullS.. In the preface to his second edition 
Dastfir Jamaspji calls him Rustam Behzad. 

* So stated in his introduction, but in his postscript (as printed by Hyde) he 
calls himself Mard-shah. 

4 Historia religionis veterum Persarum (Oxon. 1700), p. 433. 

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intended rather for the guidance of the laity than for the 
information of the priesthood. The almost total absence 
of any reference to government or national life, other than 
complete submission to priestly control, seems to indicate 
a period of subjection to men of another faith, too dan- 
gerous, or too odious, to be mentioned, unless it were to 
forbid all voluntary social intercourse with them, as in 
Chap. XXXVIII. The allusions to the existing scarcity of 
priests in Chap. LVIII, 12, and to a rigorous levying of 
poll-tax in Chap. LX, 7, might also give some clue to the 
period when the work was compiled, if we were better 
acquainted with the minute details of Parsi history. Where 
temporal penalties for crimes are prescribed (as in Chaps. 
IX, LXIV) they were, no doubt, such as were recognised 
by the government of the time; and, in such matters, 
change of government has altered the law. Some other 
customs have also probably changed to some extent, but 
by far the greater part of the rules and duties prescribed in 
this work are still in force, though they may not be always 
very strictly attended to. 

Of the numerous quotations from the sacred books, 
which the Sad Dar contains, only a few can be identified, 
and nearly all of these are in the form of translations 
which are merely paraphrases of the original texts. Avesta 
passages are quoted from the Vendidarfand Yasna in Chap. 
XIV, 3, and from an unknown section of the Ha^6kht 
Nask in XL, 4. The commentary of the Vendidaa? is six 
times quoted by name, but only four of the passages 1 have 
been identified ; and an unknown passage is quoted from 
the commentary of the Harfdkht in Chap. XXII, 3, 4, and 
three others 2 from the commentary of the Avesta. Four 
statements are said to be ' declared in the good religion,' 
but have not been identified ; and out of thirty quotations 
from ' revelation ' only five have been identified, of which 
those in Chaps. LXXII, 2, 3, LXXXII, a belong to the 
Vendtdarf, and those in IV, 3-1 1, XVI, 3, XVIII, 3 belong 
to the Spend Nask, which is no longer extant. The large 

• Chaps. XII, 3-5, LXVII, 3-6, LXXI, a, 3, LXXXVI, 2. 

• Chaps. XXVIII, 4, XCIV, 3, 4, XCVII, 3. 

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proportion of quotations that cannot be now identified, or 
are no longer extant, is a strong argument in favour of the 
work being several centuries older than the oldest manu- 
scripts in which it is now found. 

The translation of the prose Sad Dar, published in this 
volume, is based upon the text of La, the oldest manuscript 
of the work with which the translator is acquainted. This 
is No. 3043 of the Persian manuscripts in the India Office 
Library in London, which was presented to the East India 
Company's Library, on the 31st August 1837, by Mr. J. 
Romer, who had brought it from India, most probably 
from Surat. This manuscript is an octavo volume, con- 
taining 144 folios of light-brown Indian paper which may 
be as much as three centuries old. The volume was last 
bound and repaired some time subsequent to 1818, as 
several English foolscap fly-leaves bear that date as a 
water-mark. Its Persian text has the peculiarity of being 
written in Avesta characters, in short sentences alternating 
with an old Gu^arati translation in Devanagari characters 
which, for the sake of running in a continuous line with the 
reversely-written Avesta-Persian, is written upside down; 
each page containing generally thirteen lines. This Avesta- 
Persian is not Pazand, either in verbal forms or syntactical 
arrangement, but its orthography is as irregular and uncer- 
tain as in most Pazand texts written in Avesta characters. 
The text commences with a Sanskrit introduction, copied 
verbatim from that used by NSrydsang as a preface to all 
his Pazand-Sanskrit texts (see p. xx), with the clause con- 
taining the names altered as follows : — ' This book, named 
Sad Dar, is brought together by me, the priest Rama, son 
of Kanhaksha, and translated from the Parsi language into 
the Gu^ar language, and written from the difficult Parsi 
letters with the Avesta letters by his son, the priest Padama.' 
And this preface is followed by the Pazand invocation that 
commences the Persian introduction, as translated on p. 255 ; 
which introduction contains a passage (§ 6) probably inter- 
polated in the prose Sad Dar after the composition of the 
metrical version. 

The last chapter of the text in La is followed by two 

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Persian couplets in Avesta characters, with their translation 
in Gii^arati ; and, after a few more verses in Sanskrit, the 
colophon concludes with Sanskrit to the following effect : — 
' In the Sawvat year 1631, the ninth day in the light half of 
the month ^yaish/^a, on Wednesday, the Uttara [Ashad%a ?] 
lunar mansion; in the Parsi Sawwat year 944, the 37th 
day Asman, the sixth month Shahrivar [18th May 1575] 1 , 
the Uzayeirina period (the afternoon), the book Sad Dar 
is completely written by an inhabitant of Bhr«gu-ka£Ma 2 . 
Brought together by the priest Rama, son of Kanhaksha, 
and written in the handwriting of the priest Padama, his 
son, the book Sad Dar is completed. Written, by another, 
for the purpose of reading and for the purpose of reciting 
by Hiraka of the good religion, son of . . . 3 of the good 
religion, and also by Adaraka of the good religion, son of 
G&ya of the good religion ; may it become auspicious and 
beneficial 1' Followed by 'may it be healthful! may it 
be excellent ! so may it be ! and more so may it be ! ' in 

It is possible that this colophon may have been copied 
from an older manuscript, but there are certainly some 
reasons for supposing that La is the original manuscript 
completed in 1575. In the first place, the appearance of 
the paper, on which it is written, favours such a supposition, 
and enquiries, made in Bombay, have not succeeded in 
discovering the existence of any other copy of this recen- 
sion. Again, there are a few defects and inconsistencies^ 
the Gqgarati translation which are best explained by sup- 
posing that the translation was made at the time this 
manuscript was written. Thus, the greater part of Chap. 
LXXIII, after having been written on one side of a folio, is 
repeated by mistake on the other side of the same folio with 
several variations, most of which are alterations in the 
Gu^rati translation, as if the writer were making the trans- 

1 As the manuscript was written in India, the calendar used would be the 
Rasm! one. 

' The old name of BhroyJ. 

8 This name, with one or two epithets, has to be extracted from the corrupt 
Sanskrit compound £nativyavyagihilu£. 

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lation at the time when he wrote it. Also, in Chap. LXXVII, 
a blank having been left for some illegible word in the 
Avesta-Persian text, a similar blank has been left in 
the Gu^arati translation, although it is hardly possible 
that any mere copyist would have found the same word 
illegible in both versions. 

With regard to the source whence the Avesta-Persian 
text of La was derived, there can be little doubt that it 
was originally transliterated from a manuscript written in 
the Perso-Arabic character, as there are several blunders 
in La which can be best explained as owing to the mutual 
resemblance of certain letters in that character. Thus, the 
fact that the modern Persian letters b, n, t, y differ only in 
the number and position of certain dots, which are some- 
times omitted or misplaced, accounts for such blunders as 
ba and ya for ta, khana for 'Myah. While, owing to 
similar resemblances, the transliterator has written kusti 
for gett, muluk for balkih, guza for gdsh, and having 
been doubtful, in one place, whether to read ttz or zdr, he 
has written both words, one above the other. 

Somewhat more recent than this Avesta-Persian manu- 
script is Lp, No. 2506 of the Persian manuscripts in the 
India Office Library in London, which was presented to 
the Library by Mr. J. Romer at the same time as La. 
This manuscript is a small octavo volume, in which the 
prose Sad Dar occupies the first forty-six folios of Indian 
paper, written generally fifteen lines to the page in the 
Perso-Arabic character. In its present state it contains 
no date, the last folio of the colophon being lost, but the 
paper is not much newer than that of La. The colophon 
is written in the Avesta character, and is to the following 
effect : — ' This book is the book Sad Dar, a Nask of the 
religion of Zarathurtra, the good religion of the Mazda- 
worshippers. These hundred questions of the proper and 
improper are extracted from this good religion of the 
Mazda-worshippers, and Iran-shah, son of Yazad-yar, . . .;' 
the rest being lost. 

Another important copy of the Persian text of the prose 
Sad Dar is contained in B29, a two-volume, quarto Rivayat, 

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No. 39 in the Bombay University Library. In this Rivayat, 
or miscellany of traditional lore, the prose Sad Dar occupies 
fourteen folios (17-30) in the first volume, each page con- 
taining twenty-one closely-written lines. The Persian 
colophon at the end of the last chapter is to the following 
effect : — ' This book of the prose Sad Dar is completed on 
the day Artad of the auspicious month Dai of the year 
1048 of Yazda^ard, the king of kings of happy Iran, of the 
race of Sasan. And the writer of the lines am I, the servant 
of the good religion of the Mazda-worshippers, the priestly- 
born priest Darab, son of the priest Hormazyar, son of 
Qavamu-d-din, son of Kai-Qubad, son of Hormazyar 1 of 
the surname San^ana, of the family of the priest Ngrydsang 
Dhaval.' The date mentioned in this colophon corresponds 
to the 38th September 1679, new style. 

A third copy of the Persian text is contained in J 15, a 
small quarto volume, No. 15 in the library of Dastur 
Jamaspji Minochiharji in Bombay. In this volume the 
prose Sad Dar occupies the last thirty-six folios, and is 
written thirteen lines to the page, but is not dated. This 
manuscript has been consulted in only a few passages, and 
usually where the other copies differ considerably. 

Regarding the variations in the text of these manuscripts 
it will be noticed, on reference to the foot-notes to the trans- 
lation, that there is usually considerable agreement among 
the three Persian manuscripts (Lp, B39, Ji5 z ) when they 
differ from the Avesta-Persian text of La. In a few cases 
the text of La is undoubtedly defective, and then Lp or 
B39 may perhaps supply the original reading which has 
come down to them through some collateral line of descent. 
But, in the great majority of instances, their variations 
(especially those of B29) seem to be intended either to 
make the text more intelligible, or to correct some state- 
ment that the copyist thought doubtful. That none of 
these three manuscripts is derived from La is proved by the 
fact that they all contain a passage (Chap. XIX, 4-6) which 

1 A variation of this pedigree has already been quoted in p. xxiv. 
* Allowing for the fact that this last has been only occasionally used. 

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the writer of La has omitted by mistake. There is, how- 
ever, more agreement with La to be found in Lp than in 
the other two manuscripts. 

The arrangement of the chapters in La is confused by the 
accidental combination of a portion of Chap. XLVIII with 
a portion of Chap. L, while Chap. XLIX, omitted in its 
proper place, has been subsequently added at the end of 
the work. In Lp Chap. XLIX follows Chap. LIII, and, 
Chaps. L and LV being omitted, the full number of a 
hundred chapters is obtained by repeating Chaps. XLIX 
and C at the end of the work. As this confusion in Lp 
occurs in the same portion of the work as that in La, 
though it differs somewhat in its details, and as it has been 
shown above that Lp cannot have been derived from La, it 
is reasonable to suppose that La and Lp were both derived 
from some older manuscript, in which some portion of the 
middle of the work had been omitted or lost, and that the 
writers of La and Lp adopted different modes of supplying 
the deficiency from other manuscripts. This confusion does 
not occur in Ba9 and J 15, which two manuscripts agree in 
arranging the chapters as they are placed in this volume ; 
they must, therefore, be derived from the original prose 
Sad Dar through some collateral line of descent, indepen- 
dent of the manuscript in which the confusion originated. 

In the metrical Sad Dar nine of the later chapters are 
scattered about among the earlier ones, thus the 82nd 
chapter occurs next after the 16th, the 83rd after the 23rd, 
the 84th after the 24th, the 85th after the 27th, the 86th 
after the 57th, the 87th after the 58th, the 88th after the 
70th, the 89th after the 72nd, and the 90th after the 73rd. 
And, besides this variation, a chapter about the advantage 
of daily ceremonies in honour of the guardian spirits follows 
the 65th chapter, a very long chapter about the season 
festivals is substituted for the 93rd chapter, and the 100th 
chapter is omitted. 

So far as five of the scattered chapters (85-89) are con- 
cerned, the reason for their change of position was probably 
to bring them into closer connection with other chapters 
treating of similar subjects ; but this explanation will not 

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apply to the remaining four chapters (82-84, 90). It might 
be argued that the more methodical arrangement of the five 
chapters (85-89) favours the supposition that the metrical 
Sad Dar may be older than the prose one, but, independent 
of the fact that this argument does not apply to the four 
other chapters, it is quite as reasonable to suppose that the 
later editor would endeavour to improve the arrangement 
of his text, and to remedy whatever he thought defective. 
The pre-existence of the prose Sad Dar may be fairly 
assumed on the positive evidence afforded by the statement 
of the long-metre Sad Dar, mentioned in p. xxxvii, in default 
of any clear statement by the author of the metrical Sad 
Dar as to the originality of his work. 

Since the above was written, the translator has had an 
opportunity of examining a Persian text of the prose Sad 
Dar, written in Persia by Rustam Gurtasp Ardashir, and 
completed on the 19th July 1706. In this manuscript, the 
introductory chapter is practically the same as in La, with 
a few variations. Thus, the invocation in § 1 is as follows : — 
' In the name of the sacred being, administering justice. 
The beginning of the book Sad Dar ; may it be a good 
gift ! ' And § 6 runs as follows: — 'On this occasion I, 
Bahman, a servant of the religion, am confirmed by the 
book of the mobad of mdbads f ran-shah, son of Yazad-yar, 
son of Tirtar-yar, son of Adar-bad, so that every one who 
reads it and orders duty to be done brings a reward to the 
souls of those persons! The arrangement of the chapters is 
the same as in the metrical Sad Dar 1 , and the text differs 
from La in many more small details than in B29 ; it often 
inserts additional sentences, and is generally more diffuse, 
without giving more information to the reader. The Avesta 
of the passage quoted in Chapter XL, 4 is omitted, and 
only the first three words of that quoted in Chapter XIV, 
3 are given. Notwithstanding their numerous variations, 
the resemblance of Bahman's text to that of La is too great 

1 As far as the long chapter about the season festivals (see p. xliii), but this 
is subdivided into six chapters (one for each festival) which conclude the work. 
The same arrangement also occurs in the Gu^arati translation of the long- 
metre Sad Dar. 

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to permit the assumption that they are two different prose 
versions of fr&n-shah's metrical Sad Dar. It seems more 
probable that Bahman merely collated the prose Sad Dar 
with the metrical version, and made many alterations in the 
former to bring it into closer correspondence with the latter. 
This manuscript, therefore, throws no fresh light upon the 
origin of the prose version in La, but, as it confirms the fact 
that the f r&n-shah whose name occurs in the introductory 
chapter was a son of Yazad-yar, it raises a doubt whether 
this was the same person as the fran-shah, son of Malik- 
shah (or Mard-shah), who composed the metrical version. 

In conclusion, it is desirable to notice that another Persian 
work exists, similar in form and character to the Sad Dar, 
but entirely distinct in its details, which is usually called the 
Sad Dar Bundahlr. A complete copy of it is contained in 
Anquetil's Old Rivayat in the National Library in Paris, 
and it is frequently quoted in the Bombay Rivayat (Baa) 
mentioned in p. xli. In this latter manuscript its name 
is written ,j2j» iu^i* twenty-five times, ySj* ±±> j* x* 
eighteen times, and ,ji» ±±>js a-» thrice. And the only 
plausible reading applicable to all these three forms is Sad 
Darband-i Hush (or Hush), ' the hundred door-bolts of the 
understanding,' a very possible name for a book. The Sad 
Dar Bundahu is, therefore, most probably a misnomer. 

E. W. WEST. 
April, 1885. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Ace. for accusative case; a.d. for Anno Domini; Af. for 
Afrlngan ; AK for Asadln Kaka's MS. of Sg. ; Aog. for Aogema- 
da6£a, ed. Geiger ; app. for appendix ; Ar. for Arabic ; AV. for the 
Book of Arda-VMf, ed. Hdshangji and Haug; Av. for Avesta; 
a.y. for Anno Yazdagardi; B29 for Persian Rivayat MS. No. 29 
of the Bombay University Library ; Bd. and Byt. for Bundahij and 
Bahman Yar t, as translated in vol. v of this series ; BM. for No. 
22,378 additional Oriental MS. in the British Museum; Chap, for 
chapter; Dan. for Daniel; Dd. for DadTistan-f Dinik, as translated 
in vol. xviii of this series ; Deut. for Deuteronomy ; ed. for edition 
or edited by; Ep. for Epistles of Manuf^ihar, as translated in 
vol. xviii of this series; Ex. for Exodus ; Eze. for Ezekiel ; fol. for 
folio : Gen. for Genesis ; Gesch. Pers. Sas. for Geschichte der 
Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden; Got. gel. Anz. for 
Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen ; Haug's Essays for Essays on the 
Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of the Parsis, by M. Haug, 
2nd ed.; Heb. for Hebrew; Hn. for Had&kht Nask, as published 
with AV. ; Huz. for Huzvark ; introd. for introduction; Is. for 
Isaiah; J15 for Dastur Jamaspji Minochiharji's MS. No. 15 of 
Sd.; JE for JamshSdji Edalji's MS. of Sg.; JJ for JamshSdji 
Jamaspji's MS. of Sg. ; Jos. for Joshua ; J. R. A. S. for Journal of 
the Royal Asiatic Society; K22, K23, K28, K43 for Iranian MSS. 
Nos. 22, 23, 28, 43 in the University Library at Kopenhagen ; 
L15, L19, L23, L26 for Avesta and Pahlavi MSS. Nos. 15, 19, 23, 
26 in the India Office Library in London ; La, Lp for Persian 
MSS. Nos. 3043 and 2506 in the same library; Mat. for Matthew; 
MH7, MH10, MH19 for MSS. Nos. 7, 10, 19 of the Haug Col- 
lection in the State Library in Munich; Mkh. for Maindg-f Khirarf, 
as translated in this volume ; MS. for manuscript; n. for foot-note; 
Na. for Nahum ; NSr. for N6ry6sang ; Num. for Numbers ; Ost. 
Kul. for Osttranische Kultur im Altertum, von W. Geiger ; p. for 
page; PA 10 for MS. No. 10 of the Anquetil Collection in the 
National Library in Paris; Pahl. for Pahlavi; Paz. for Pazand; 
PB3, PB6 for MSS. Nos. 3, 6 of the Burnouf Collection in the 
National Library at Paris ; Pers. for Persian ; Ps. for Psalms ; R. 
for Mr. Romer's polyglot MS. of Sg. (see p. 1 16) ; Rev. for Revela- 

Digitized by 



tion ; Rom. for Romans ; Sam. for Samuel ; Sans, for Sanskrit ; 
Sd. for Sad Dar, as translated in this volume ; Sg. for .Sikand- 
guminlk Vi^ar, as translated in this volume; Sir. for Sfrdzah; Sis. 
for Shayast-la-shayast, as translated in vol. v of this series ; Syr. for 
Syriac; TD2 for Mobad Tehmuras Dinshawji's MS. of Pahl. Mkh. ; 
Vend, for Vendfdirf; voL for volume; Yas. for Yasna; Yt for 
Yast ; Zarat. for Zaraturt ; Zor. Stud, for Zoroastrische Studien, von 

Digitized by 


A A A _ _ . A _ A A 







Digitized by 



i. The division into chapters corresponds with the beginnings 
of the questions, and the sections are divided according to the 
alternating Pizand-Sanskrit text of Neryfisang. 

2. Italics are used for any English words that are not expressed, 
or fully understood, in the original text, but are added to complete 
the sense of the translation. 

3. Italics occurring in Oriental words, or names, represent 
certain peculiar Oriental letters (see the ' Transliteration of Oriental 
Alphabets ' at the end of this volume). The italic d, I, n, r, v may 
be pronounced as in English ; but g should be sounded like j, hv 
like wh, k like ch in ' church,' s like sh, and 2 like French j. 

4. In Pahlavi words the only vowels expressed in the original 
text are those circumflexed, initial a, and the letter 6 ; italic d is 
written like t, r and / like n or the Avesta o, v and z like g, and 
zd like $ in the Pahlavi character. 

5. In the translation, words in parentheses are merely explanatory 
of those which precede them. 

6. For the meanings of the abbreviations used in the notes, see 
the end of the Introduction. 

7. The manuscripts mentioned are : — 

K43 (written a. d. 1569) Pahlavi, No. 43 in the University 
Library at Kopenhagen; upon the text of which, so far as it 
extends, this translation is based. 

L19 (written a. d. 1520) PSz.-Sans., No. 19 in the India Office 
Library at London. 

MH7 (written a.d. 1809) Pirsl-Pers., No. 7 of the Haug Collec- 
tion in the State Library at Munich. 

MH10, a Persian Riviyat, No. 10 of the same Collection. 

PA10 (written a.d. 1649) Ptz.-Sans., No. 10 of the Anquetil 
Collection in the National Library at Paris. 

PB6, Pdz.-Sans., No. 6 of the Burnouf Collection in the same 

TD2, Pahlavi, belonging to Mobad Tehmuras Dinshawji Ankle- 
saria at Bombay; upon a copy of which this translation chiefly 
relies in the passages (XIV, i-XXVII, 49 and XXXIX, 31-XL, 
17) missing from K43. 

Digitized by 


d1nA-I MAfNdG-1 KHIRAZ). 

Through the name and power and assistance of 
the creator Atiharmajscl, the archangels who are 
good rulers and good performers, and all the angels 
of the spiritual and the angels of the worldly exist- 
ences, by a happy dispensation ( and well- 
omened we write the Opinions of the Spirit of 
Wisdom through the will of the sacred beings 1 . 

Chapter 1 2 . 

[i. In the name and for the propitiation of the all- 
benefiting creator Atiharmazd, (2) of all the angels 
of the spiritual and worldly creations, (3) and of 
the learning of learnings, the Ma^da-worshipping 

1 This heading is prefixed to the original Pahlavi text in K43, 
a facsimile of which was published by Andreas in 1882; as, 
however, the text which follows it, in that codex, begins in the 
middle of Chap. I, 28, this heading must have been composed by 
some copyist, after the first folio of the text had been lost from 
some previous copy. It is, therefore, doubtful whether the name 
he gives to the work, ' Opinions (or decisions) of the Spirit of 
Wisdom,' be the original title, or not; but it is, at any rate, 
preferable to the modern appellation, ' the Spirit of Wisdom.' In 
PSzand this title is Mainy6-i Khard; but regarding the Pahlavi word 
main6g, see the Introduction. 

a The beginning of this chapter, enclosed in brackets, as far as 
§ 28 (being lost from the Pahlavi text of K43, and no copy of it 
from TD2 being available) is here taken from the Pazand version 
contained in L19. The division into sections, adopted throughout, 
is that of the alternating Piz.-Sans. text of N6ry6sang. 

B 2 

Digitized by 


DtNA-t MAfN6G-i KHIRAi). 

religion, (4) forth from which this, which is such 
a source of wisdom, is a selector 1 . 5. Through the 
glory and will of the creator Auharmasw? — who is 
promoting the prosperity of the two existences 2 — 
(6) and of all the greatly powerful angels, (7) and 
through the completely calm repose of the sacred 
beings, the princely 3 , purpose-fulfilling sages, (8) pre- 
sentations of various novelties for the appropriation 
of wisdom, (9) through largely acquiring reasoning 
thought*, are most wholesome for the body and soul 
in the two existences. 

10. As in the pure marvel of marvels, the unques- 
tionable and well-betokened good religion of the 
Mazda-worshippers, by the words of the creator, 
Auhamias*/, and Zaratust the Spitaman 8 , it is in 

1 That is, this work is a selection of wisdom from the religion. 
The Paz. vzs is a misreading of Pahl. ag&s, ' from it/ which is 
identical in form with Pahl. afaj, the correct equivalent of PSz. 

2 This world and the next. 

3 The angels are here compared to the v&spuharakSn, the 
highest class of Sasanian nobles, called barbStan, 'sons of the 
house,' in Huzvark (see Noldeke's Gesch. Pers. Sas. pp. 71, 501). 
As these nobles ranked next to the royal house, so do the 
archangels and angels rank next to Auharmazrf. The title 
vaspuhar is evidently connected with the ancient Pers. equiva- 
lent of Av. vfs6 puthra, 'son of the village or town,' which, as 
Darmesteter points out (£tudes Iraniennes, II, p. 140), is used in 
Vend. VII, 114 as the tide of a person who has to pay the same 
medical fees as the za»tu-paiti, 'tribe-ruler,' mentioned in the 
earlier § 108, and who must, therefore, have been a man of equal 

4 Reading vlrmat, both here and in § 13, instead of the P&z. 
nirmarf, which is a misreading of the same letters. 

6 Av. Zarathuftra Spitama, the great apostle of the Mas<&- 
worshippers, whose conversations with Ahura Mazda (Pahl. 
Afiharmazrf) constitute a considerable portion of the Avesta, or 
scripture of the Maa^a-worshippers. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER I, 4-26. 

many places decided, (11) that he, who is the all-good 
creator, created these creatures through wisdom, 
(12) and his maintenance of the invisible revolu- 
tions 1 is through wisdom; (13) and the imperish- 
able and undisturbed state, in that which is im- 
mortality for ever and everlasting, he reserves for 
himself by means of the most deliberative 2 means 
of wisdom. 14. For the same reason it is declared, 
(15) that there was a sage who said, (16) that 'if 
this be known, that the religion of the sacred beings 
{jdizdkvi) is truth, and its law is virtue, and it is 
desirous of welfare and compassionate as regards 
the creatures, (17) wherefore are there mostly many 
sects, many beliefs, and many original evolutions 3 
of mankind? 18. And, especially, that which is 
a sect, law, and belief, causing harm to the property 
(khei) of the sacred beings 4 , and is not good ? 
19, 20 6 . And this, too, one has to consider, that, in 
order to become a chooser in this matter, trouble 
is to be undergone; (21) and it is necessary to 
become acquainted with this matter, (22) because, 
in the end, the body is mingled with the dust, and 
reliance is on the soul. 23. And every one is to 
undergo trouble for the soul, (24) and is to become 
acquainted with duty and good works ; (25) because 
that good work which a man does unwittingly is 
little of a good work, (26) and that sin which a man 

1 Of the spheres, or firmaments, which are supposed to carry 
along the heavenly bodies. 

2 Reading vfrmat-h6mandtum. 

8 Reading bun gajt (see Sg. IV, 73 n). 

4 It may be questioned whether this allusion to a heterodox 
religion injuring the property of the orthodox faith is sufficient 
to identify the former with Muhammadanism. 

8 These two sections are improperly separated by N6ry6sang. 

Digitized by 


dIna-! ma1n6g-1 khirad. 

commits unwittingly amounts to a sin in its origin 1 . 
27. And it is declared by the Avesta 2 (28) thus:] 
3 "Nothing was taken by him by whom the soul 
was not taken (29) hitherto, and he takes nothing 
who does not take the soul (30) henceforward 
likewise 4 ; (31) because the spiritual and worldly 
existences are such-like as 6 two strongholds, (32) one 
it is declared certain that they shall capture, and 
one it is not possible to capture." ' 

33. After being replete with those good actions 
of* which it is declared certain that it is not pos- 
sible to capture, (34) and when he 7 surveyed the 
incitement for this, (35) he started forth (fravaftS), 
in search of wisdom, into the various countries and 
various districts of this world; (36) and of the 
many 8 religions and beliefs of those people who 
are superior in their wisdom he thought and en- 
quired, and he investigated and came upon their 
origin 9 . 37. And when he saw that they are so 
mutually afflicting (hanbdshin) and inimical among 

1 The original text was, no doubt, vinas pavan bun va/yehe- 
vftnW, which would be gunih pa bun 6 bah6</ in Pazand ; but 
L19 has omitted the p in pa, and N6r. has mistaken the preposi- 
tion va/ for the pronoun valman, which blunders have misled the 
writers of later MSS. into a variety of inconsistent readings. 

2 The sacred literature of the Parsis in its original language. 

* The extant Pahlavi text of K43 commences at this point. 

4 By this division of §§ 28-30 N6r. found himself compelled to 
add another Sanskrit clause in explanation, which would have been 
unnecessary if he had separated them as here pointed. 

6 K43 omits ' as.' 

* L19 has 'after those good actions of a store.' 

7 The sage mentioned in § 15. 

8 Li 9 has 'every.' 

* L19 omits 'origin,' having merely va^6st, 'investigated,' 
instead of bun #ust6, 'investigated the origin.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER I, 27-49. 

one another, (38) he then knew that these reli- 
gions and beliefs and diverse customs, which are so 
mutually afflicting among one another in this world, 
are not worthy to be from the appointment of the 
sacred beings; (39) because the religion of the 
sacred beings is truth, and its law is virtue. 40. And 
through this he became without doubt that, as to 
whatever 1 is not in this pure religion, there is then 
doubtfulness for them in everything, (41) and in 
every cause they see distraction. 

42. After that he became more diligent in the 
enquiry and practice of religion ; (43) and he enquired 
of the high-priests who have become wiser in 2 this 
religion and more acquainted with the religion, (44) 
thus : ' For the maintenance of the body and pre- 
servation of the soul what thing 3 is good and more 
perfect ?' 

45. And they [spoke 4 ], through the statement 
[from revelation, (46) thus: 'Of the 6 benefit which 
happens to men] wisdom is good; (47) because it 
is possible to manage the worldly existence through 
wisdom 6 , (48) and it is possible to provide also the 
spiritual existence for oneself through the power of 
wisdom. 49. And this, too, is declared, that Auhar- 
mazd has produced these creatures and creation, 
which are in the worldly existence, through innate 

1 L19 has 'every one who,' having read ko/a" mun instead 
of ko/a 1 maman. The meaning, however, is that all details of 
foreign faiths that are not found in the Maztfa-worshipping religion 
are doubtful. 

2 K.43 has 'of,' by omitting pavan, 'in.' 
s Li 9 has ' what one thing.' 

4 K43 omits the words in brackets, by mistake. 

6 Sans, has ' this.' 

* L19 has ' through the power of wisdom.' 

Digitized by 


8 DiNA-f MAfN6G-f KHIRAi). 

wisdom 1 ; (50) and the management of the worldly 
and spiritual existences is also through wisdom.' 

51. And when, in that manner, he saw the great 
advantage and preciousness of wisdom, he became 
more thankful unto Auharmazd?, the lord, and the 
archangels of 2 the spirit of wisdom ; (52) and he 
took 8 the spirit of wisdom as a protection. 53. For 
the spirit of wisdom one is to perform more homage 
and service than /or the remaining archangels. 54. 
And this, too, he knew, that it is possible to do for 
oneself every duty and good work and proper action 
through the power of wisdom; (55) and it is neces- 
sary to be diligent for the satisfaction of the spirit 
of wisdom. 56. And, thenceforward, he became 
more diligent in performing* the ceremonial of the 
spirit of wisdom. 

57. After that the spirit of wisdom, on account 
of the thoughts and wishes of that sage, displayed 
his person unto him. 58. And he spoke to him 
(59) thus : ' O friend and glorifier ! good from per- 
fect righteousness ! (60) seek advancement from me, 
the spirit of wisdom, (61) that I may become thy 
guide to the satisfaction of the sacred beings and 

1 The Ssnd khirarfo (Av. Ssn8 khratuj) is 'the durable or 
innate wisdom' supposed to be implanted in one's nature, as 
distinguished from the Av. gaosh6-srut6 khratuj, 'the ear-heard 
or acquired wisdom,' obtained by experience. 

2 That is, 'produced by* this spirit, as mentioned in § 49 re- 
garding the world, and here extended to the archangels. L19 
omits the particle f, so as to convert this spirit into the wisdom 
of Auharmas*/ and the archangels. It is very probable, however, 
that we ought to read ' and the spirit of wisdom.' 

* L19 has 'made;' these two verbs being written alike in 

* L19 has ' to perform,' by omitting ' in.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER I, 50-II, 14. 

the good 1 , and to the maintenance of the body in 
the worldly existence and the preservation of the 
soul in the spiritual one! 

Chapter II. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
1 How is it possible to seek the maintenance and 
prosperity of the body [without injury of the soul, 
and the preservation of the soul without injury of 
the body 2 ]?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' Him 
who is less than thee consider as an equal, and an 
equal as a superior, (5) and a greater than him as 
a chieftain 3 , and a chieftain as a ruler. 6. And 
among rulers one is to be acquiescent, obedient, 
and true-speaking; (7) and among accusers 4 be sub- 
missive, mild, and kindly regardful. 

8. ' Commit no slander ; (9) so that infamy and 
wickedness may not happen unto thee. 10. For 
it is said (11) that slander is more grievous than 
witchcraft; (12) and in hell the rush of every fiend 5 
is to the front, but the rush of the fiend of slander, 
on account of the grievous sinfulness, is to the rear. 

13. 'Form no covetous desire; (14) so that the 

1 Meaning, specially, the priests. 

* The passage in brackets is omitted by K43, and is here sup- 
plied from Li 9. 

8 In L19 the text is corrupt, but has nearly the same meaning. 
4 L19 has ' associates,' which seems equally appropriate ; the 
two words are much alike in Pahlavi writing. 

• The word dru^, ' fiend,' is usually supposed to mean a female 
demon, and is often understood so in the Avesta, perhaps because 
it is a feminine noun. It is usually an impersonation of some 
evil passion (see Chap. XLI, 1 1). 

Digitized by 


IO dJnA-1 MAtN6G-t KHIRAfl. 

demon of greediness may not deceive thee, (15) and 
the treasure of the world may not be tasteless to 
thee, and that of the spirit unperceived. 

16. ' Indulge in no wrathfulness ; (17) for a man, 
when he indulges in wrath, becomes then forgetful 
of his duty and good works, of prayer and the ser- 
vice of the sacred beings, (18) and sin and crime 
of every kind occur unto his mind, and 1 until the 
subsiding of the wrath (19) he 2 is said to be just 
like Aharman 3 . 

20. 'Suffer no anxiety; (21) for he who is a 
sufferer of anxiety becomes regardless of enjoyment 
of the world and the spirit, (22) and contraction 
happens to his body and soul. 

23. 'Commit no lustfulness; (24) so that harm 
and regret may not reach thee from thine own 

25. ' Bear no improper envy ; (26) so that thy life 
may not become tasteless. 

2 7. * Commit no sin on account of [disgrace] * ; 
(28) because happiness and adornment 6 , celebrity 
(khani^lh) and dominion, skill and suitability are 
not through the will and action of men, but through 
the appointment, destiny, and will of the sacred 

29. ' Practise no sloth ; (30) so that the duty and 
good work, which it is necessary for thee to do, may 
not remain undone. 

31. 'Choose a wife who is of character; (32) 

1 L19 omits 'and.' 

2 L19 has 'wrath;' making § 19 a separate sentence. 

* The evil spirit, Av. angra mainyu. 
4 K43 omits ' disgrace,' by mistake. 

* Li 9 omits 'adornment.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, 15-38. II 

because that one is good who in the end is more 

33. 'Commit no unseasonable chatter 1 ; (34) so that 
grievous distress may not happen unto Horvada</and 
Ameroda^, the archangels 2 , through thee. 

35. 'Commit no running about uncovered 8 ; (36) 
so that harm may not come upon thy bipeds and 
quadrupeds, and ruin upon thy children. 

37. 'Walk not with one boot 4 ; (38) so that 
grievous distress may not happen to thy soul. 

1 A free translation of the name of the sin which is usually 
called drSySn-^fiyi jnth, 'eagerness for chattering;' here, however, 
K43 omits the latter y, so that the name may be read dray&n- 
gslistiih, ' chatteringly devouring,' and a similar phrase is used in 
AV. XXIII, 6. The sin consists in talking while eating, praying, 
or at any other time when a murmured prayer (va^) has been 
taken inwardly and is not yet spoken out ; the protective spell of 
the prayer being broken by such talking. If the prayer be not 
taken inwardly when it ought to be, the same sin is incurred (see 
Sls.V, 2, Dd. LXXIX, 8). 

2 Instead of amahraspend, 'the archangel,' L19 has Mar- 
spe»d, the angel of the 'righteous liturgy;' but this is probably 
a misreading, due to the fact that, when the chattering interrupts 
prayer, the angel of the liturgy would be as much distressed as 
the archangels Horvadarf and Amerodarf, who protect water and 
vegetation (see Sis. XV, 25-29), would be when it interrupts eating 
and drinking. These archangels are personifications of Av. 
haurvata*/, 'completeness or health,' and amereta*/, 'immor- 

8 That is, moving about without being girded with the Kustt 
or sacred thread-girdle, which must not be separated from the 
skin by more than one thin garment, the sacred shirt (see Sis. 
IV, 7, 8). 

4 We should probably read ' without a boot,' as a^-muko and 
amuko are much alike in Pahlavi; otherwise we must suppose 
that walking with only a single covering for the feet, and without 
outer boots, is meant. At any rate, walking or standing on un- 
consecrated ground with bare feet is a serious sin for a Parsi, 
on account of the risk of pollution (see Sis. IV, 12, X, 12). 

Digitized by 


12 d!nA-J MAtN6G-! KHIRAC. 

39. ' Perform no discharge of urine (p£jar-var) 
standing on foot 1 ; (40) so that thou mayst not 
become a captive by a habit of the demons, (41) 
and the demons may not drag thee to hell on 
account of that sin. 

42. 'Thou shouldst be (yehevunes) diligent and 
moderate, (43) and eat of thine own regular industry, 
(44) and provide the share of the sacred beings 
and the good ; (45) and, thus, the practice of this, 
in thy occupation, is the greatest good work. 

46. ' Do not extort from the wealth of others ; 
(47) so that thine own regular industry may not 
become unheeded. 48. For it is said (49) that: 
" He who eats anything, not from his own regular 
industry, but from another, is such-like as one who 
holds a human head in his hand, and eats human 

50. 'Thou shouldst be an abstainer from the 
wives of others; (51) because all these three would 
become disregarded by thee, alike wealth, alike 2 
body, and alike 2 soul. 

52. 'With enemies fight with equity. 53. With 
a friend proceed with the approval of friends. 54. 
With a malicious 3 ma' ^arry on no conflict, (55) and 
do not molest him in ...y way whatever. 56. With 
a greedy man thou r ouldst not be a partner, (57) 
and do not trust him .vith the leadership. 58. With 

1 Whereby an unnecessary space of ground is polluted ; hence 
the sin. 

s K43 has h6manam, 'I am,' the Huzvaru of am, used by 
mistake for ham, 'alike,' which is written exactly like am in 

' K43 has klkvar, instead of kSnvar, but this is doubtless a 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, 39-75. 13 

a slanderous man do not go to the door of kings. 59. 
With an ill-famed man form no connection. 60. With 
an ignorant man thou shouldst not become a confede- 
rate and associate. 61. With a foolish man make no 
dispute. 62. With a drunken man do not walk on the 
road. 63. From an ill-natured man take no loan. 

64. 'In thanksgiving unto the sacred beings, and 
worship, praise, ceremonies, invocation, and per- 
forming the learning of knowledge thou shouldst 
be energetic and life-expending. 65. For it is 
said (66) that : "In aid of the contingencies 
(fahunS) 1 among men wisdom is good; (67) in 
seeking renown and preserving the soul liberality 
is good ; (68) in the advancement of business and 
justice complete mindfulness is good; (69) and in 
the statements of those who confess (khusttvan) 2 , 
with a bearing on the custom of the law 3 , truth is 
good. 70. In the progress of business energy is good, 
(71) for* every one to become confident therein 
steadfastness is good, (72) and for the coming of 
benefit thereto thankfulness is good. 73. In keep- 
ing oneself untroubled (anal rang) 5 the discreet 
speaking which is in the path of 6 truth is good ; (74) 
and in keeping away the disturbance of the de- 
stroyer 7 from oneself employment is good. 75. 

1 Li 9 has zahun, 'issue, proceedings.' 

8 L19 has read austik£n,'the steadfast,' by mistake. 

3 Reading dsWo-khuk-barifnoihd. L19 has * conveying in- 
tercession (g'&da«g6=d£</o-g&k) ;' this small difference in reading 
may be a clerical error in K43. The Sans, version omits the 
phrase altogether. 

4 Li 9 omits pa van, 'for.' e N6r. has 'unblemished.' 
e Li 9 omits ' path of;' and it may possibly be superfluous. 

7 Or it may be ' the destroyer and adversary,' as in L19 ; the last 
word being defective in K43. 

Digitized by 


14 d!nA-i MAtN6G-t KHIRAD. 

Before rulers and kings discreet speaking is good, 
and in 1 an assembly good recital ; (76) among 
friends repose and rational friends 2 are good; (77) 
and with an associate to one's own deeds the giving 
of advantage (suko) is good. 78. Among those 
greater than one (a^aj masan) mildness and humi- 
lity are good, (79) and among those less than one 
flattery 8 and civility are good. 80. Among doers 
of deeds speaking of thanks and performance of 
generosity are good; (81) and among those of the 
same race the formation of friendship (humanoih) 4 
is good. 82. For bodily health moderate eating 
and keeping the body in action are good ; (83) and 
among the skilled in thanksgiving performance is 
good. 84. Among chieftains unanimity and seek- 
ing advantage are good ; (85) among those in unison 
and servants good behaviour and an exhibition of 
awe are good ; (86) and for having little trouble in 
oneself contentment is good. 87. In chieftainship to 
understand thoroughly the good in their goodness 
and the vile in their vileness is good ; and to make 
the vile unseen, through retribution 6 , is good. 88. 
In every place and time to restrain oneself from sin 
and to be diligent in meritorious work are good; 
(89) and every day to consider and keep in remem- 
brance Auhannasaf, as regards creativeness, and 
Aharman, as regards destructiveness, is good. 90. 
And for dishonour not to come unto one a know- 
ledge of oneself is good." 91. All these are proper 

1 L19 omits pavan, 'in.' 2 L19 has 'friendship.' 

* Or ' adaptation.' 

* Li 9 has hum at i, 'good intention.' 

8 Li 9 has ' to cause the reward of the good and the punishment 
of the vile.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, 76-96. 

and true and of the same description, (92) but occu- 
pation and guarding the tongue (parf-huzvanih) 1 
above everything. 

93. ' Abstain far from the service of idols 2 and 
demon-worship. 94. Because it is declared (95) that : 
" If Kai-Khusrol 3 should not have extirpated the 
idol-temples (au^d^s-^ar) which were on the lake of 
Ae^ast 4 , then in these three millenniums of Hush£dar, 
Hush&fer-mah, and S6shins 6 — of whom one of them 
comes separately at the end of each millennium, 
who arranges again all 8 the affairs of the world, 
and utterly destroys the breakers of promises and 
servers of idols who are in the realm — the adversary 7 
would have become so much more violent, that it 
would not have been possible to produce the resur- 
rection and future existence." 

96. ' In forming a store 8 of good works thou 

1 Li 9 has 'preserving pure language.' 

* More correctly 'temple-worship,' as auzdSs means 'an erec- 

3 Av. Kavi Husravangh, the third of the Kay&n kings, who 
reigned sixty years, and was the grandson of his predecessor, K£i- 
Us, and son of StySvakhsh (see Bd. XXXI, 25, XXXIV, 7). 

* The present Lake Urumiyah according to Bd. XXII, 2. This 
feat of Kai-Khusr&i is also mentioned in Bd. XVII, 7, and his 
exploits in the same neighbourhood are stated in Aban Yt. 49, 50, 
G6\? Yt. 18, 2i, 22, Ashi Yt. 38, 41, 42; but it is possible that 
the Avesta name, iTae^asta, may have been transferred to Lake 
Urumiyah in later times. 

8 The three future apostles who are supposed to be sons of 
Zaratujt, whose births have been deferred till later times (see 
Bd. XXXII, 8). Their Avesta names are Ukhshyarf-ereta, 
Ukhshysuf-nemangh, and SaoshySs. 

* Li 9 omits 'all.' 7 The evil spirit. 

8 L19 has 'in always doing;' having read hamv&r, 'always,' 
instead of ambar, ' a store.' 

Digitized by 


1 6 DfNA-t MAiN6G-l KHIRAi). 

shouldst be diligent, (97) so that it may come to 
thy 1 assistance among the spirits. 

98. 'Thou shouldst not become presumptuous 
through any happiness of the world ; (99) for the 
happiness of the world is such-like as a cloud that 
comes on a rainy day, which one does not ward off 
by any hill. 

100. ' Thou shouldst not be too much arranging 
the world; (101) for the world-arranging man be- 
comes spirit-destroying. 

102. ' Thou shouldst not become presumptuous 
through much treasure and wealth; (103) for in the 
end it is necessary for thee to leave all. 

104. 'Thou shouldst not become presumptuous 
through predominance; (105) for in the end it is 
necessary for thee to become non-predominant 

106. ' Thou shouldst not become presumptuous 
through respect and reverence; (107) for respectful- 
ness does not assist in the spiritual existence. 

108. 'Thou shouldst not become presumptuous 
through great connections and race ; (109) for in the 
end thy 2 trust is on thine own deeds. 

no. 'Thou shouldst not become presumptuous 
through life; (in) for death comes upon thee* at 
last, (112) the dog and the bird lacerate the corpse *, 
(113) and the perishable part (segi nak 6) 6 falls to 
the ground. 114. During three days 6 and nights 

1 K43 omits 'thy.' 2 L19 omits 'thy.' 

8 Li 9 omits 'thee.' 

* Referring to the mode of disposing of the dead adopted by 
the Parsis (see Sis. II, 6n, Dd. XV, 5, XVII, 17, XVIII, 2-4). 

6 L19 has ast, 'bone.' 

6 Including the day of death. The fate of the soul after death, 
as detailed in §§ 1 14-194, is also described in Vend. XIX, po- 
ll 2, Hn. II, III, Aog. 8-19, AV. IV-XI, XVII. 

Digitized by 




CHAPTER II, 97-II5. 17 

the soul sits at the crown of the head of the body \ 
115. And the fourth day, in the light of dawn — with 
the co-operation of Srdsh the righteous, Va6 the 
good, and Vahram the strong 2 , the opposition of 
Ast6-vtda^ 3 , Va£ the bad 4 , Fraztrt6 the demon, and 
Nizirt6 the demon 5 , and the evil-designing action 
of Aeshm 6 , the evil-doer, the impetuous assailant — 

1 Reciting a passage from the Gathas or sacred hymns (see 
Hn. II, 4, 5, HI, 3, 4, AV. IV, 9-1 1, XVII, 6, 7). 

! These three angels are personifications of Av. sraosha, ' listen- 
ing, obedience,' vaya or vayu, 'the upper air (uncontaminated 
by the evil spirit),' and verethraghna, 'victorious, triumphant;' 
the last is more literally ' demon-smiting,' that is, ' smiting Verethra 
(the demon),' Sans, vr/'trahan. 

8 Av. Ast6-vidh6tu, 'the bone-dislocator,' or demon of death 
who binds the parting soul (see Vend. V, 25, 31) ; in later writings, 
such as the Book of Dadar bin Dad-dukht, he is said to throw a 
noose over the neck of the soul to drag it to hell, but if its good 
works have exceeded its sins, it throws off the noose and goes 
to heaven; and this noose is also mentioned in Bd. Ill, 22, Dd. 
XXIII, 3. In Bd. XXVIII, 35 this demon is said to be the same 
as the bad Vae\ but all other authorities consider them as distinct 
beings. _ It may be noted that a different demon of death is usually 
mentioned when the soul is wicked (see § 161). 

4 Av. vaya or vayu, 'the lower air (vitiated by the evil spirit).' 
\ Just as the wind (yad) may be either an angel or a demon, accord- 
ing as its strength makes it a refreshing breeze or a violent hurri- 
cane, so may the air be a good or evil being, according as it retains 
% its original purity or has been vitiated by the evil spirit. That the 
angel Vie 1 is the upper air appears from its epithet upar6-kairya, 
'working aloft,' in the Rim Yt; and that it is only the lower air 
that is vitiated by the evil spirit is in accordance with the division 
of the sky into three thirds, of which the uppermost is inaccessible 
to the evil spirit (see Dd. XXXVII, 24-31). But this distinction 
between a good and bad VaS is not made in Vend. V, 25, 31, where 
we are told that Vay6 conveys the soul when bound by Ast6- 

6 These two demons have not been recognised elsewhere. 
6 The demon of wrath, Av. A6shm6 da6va, appears to be the 
Asmodeus of the Book of Tobit. ° 
[24] C - 

Digitized by 


1 8 DtNA-1 MAtNdG-t KHIRAZ). 

[it goes] 1 up to the awful, lofty Alndvar 2 bridge, to 
which every one, righteous and wicked, is coming 3 . 
1 1 6. And many opponents have watched there, (117) 
with the desire of evil of Aeshm, the impetuous 
assailant, and of Ast6-vidaa? who devours, creatures 
of every kind and knows no satiety, (118) and the 
mediation of Mitrt* and Sr6sh and Rashnu, (119) 
and the weighing of Rashnu, the just, (120) with the 
balance 6 of the spirits, which renders no favour 
(hu-girai) on any side 6 , neither for the righteous 
nor yet the wicked, neither for the lords nor yet 
the monarchs. 121. As much as a hair's breadth 
it will not turn, and has no partiality; (122) and he 
who is a lord and monarch 7 it considers equally, in 
its decision, with him who is the least of mankind. 

123. 'And when a soul of the righteous passes 
upon that bridge, the width of the bridge becomes 
as it were a league (parasang) 8 , (124) and the 

1 K43 omits this verb. 

* Or, perhaps, Amgvar, a partial translation of Av. Kinvad (gv 
being a mispronunciation of v or w, as in gv&</ for vid, ' wind;' 
and Pers. var translating Av. va.d). The Pazand writers have 
-£"a»d6r. It is the bridge of ever-varying breadth which leads to 
heaven (see Vend. XIX, 100, 101, AV. Ill, 1, IV, 7, V, 1, 2, 
XVII, 1, Bd. XII, 7, Dd. XX, XXI), but it is not mentioned 
in Hn. 

8 Literally, ' is a comer.' 

* The angel of the sun's light; being a personification of friend- 
ship and good faith he is specially concerned in calling the soul to 
account (see Dd. XIV, 3). 

8 In which the actions of men are weighed by Rashnu, the angel 
of justice, to ascertain whether the good or the evil preponderate. 

• L19 has 'who makes no unjust balance of the spirits on either 

7 K43 adds ra</, 'master,' but this is evidently an abortive begin- 
ning of the next word, levatman, which has been left unerased. 

• Nine spears (about 126 English feet) in AV. V, r, Dd. XXI, 5. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, 1 16-I35. I 9 

righteous soul passes over with the co-operation 
of Srdsh the righteous. 125. And his own deeds of 
a virtuous kind * come to meet him in the form of 
a maiden, (126) who is handsomer and better than 
every maiden in the world. 

127. 'And the righteous soul speaks (128) thus: 
"Who mayst thou be 2 , that a maiden who is 
handsomer and better than thee was never seen 
by me in the worldly existence?" 

129. 'In reply that maiden form responds (130) 
thus : " I am no maiden, but I am thy virtuous deeds, 
thou youth who art well-thinking, well-speaking, well- 
doing, and of good religion! 131. For when thou 
sawest in the world him who performed demon- 
worship, then thou hast sat down, and thy perform- 
ance was the worship of the sacred beings. 132. 
And when it was seen by thee that tliere was any 
one who caused oppression and plunder, and dis- 
tressed or scorned a good person, and acquired 
wealth by crime, then thou keptest back from the 
creatures their own risk of oppression and plunder ; 
(133) the good person was also thought of by thee, 
and lodging and entertainment provided ; and alms 
were given by thee to him (134) who came forth 
from near and him, too, who was from afar ; and 
wealth which was due to honesty was acquired by 
thee. 135. And when thou sawest him who practised 

The parasang is probably used here as an equivalent for Av. 
hathra, 'a mile.' 

1 Li 9 has ' his own virtuous deeds.' The conscience of the soul 
meets it in the form of a damsel, beautiful in proportion to the 
goodness of its deeds. In AV. IV, 18-36, Dd. XXIV, 5, XXV, 5 
the conscience meets the soul before it attempts the bridge. 

a More literally, ' what may be thou?' as the verb is in the third 
person here, though not so in the similar phrase in § 169. 

C 2 

Digitized by 


20 DtNA-i MAiN6G-t KHIRAD. 

false justice and taking of bribes, and false evidence 
was given by him, then thou hast sat down, and 
the recitation of truth and virtue J was uttered by 
thee. 136. I am this of thine, the good thoughts, 
the good words, and the good deeds which were 
thought and spoken and done by thee. 137. For 
when I have become commendable, I am then made 
altogether more commendable by thee; (138) when 
I have become precious, I am then made altogether 
still more precious by thee; (139) and when I have 
become glorious, I am then made altogether 2 still 
more glorious by thee." 

140. ' And when he walks onwards from there, a 
sweet-scented breeze comes then to meet him, which 
is more fragrant than all perfume. 141. The soul 
of the righteous enquires of Sr6sh (142) thus : " What 
breeze is this, that never in the world so fragrant 
a breeze came into contact with me ?" 

143. 'Then Sr6sh, the righteous, replies to that 
righteous soul (144) thus: "This breeze is from 
heaven, which is so fragrant." 

145. 'Afterwards, on his march, the first step is 
set 3 on the place of good thoughts, the second on 
that of good words, the third on that of good deeds*, 
(146) and the fourth step reaches up unto the 
endless light 8 which is all-radiant. 147. And angels 

1 Meaning probably the recitation of the Avesta texts. 

* K43 omits barS, 'quite, altogether,' in this third clause. 

* L19 has ' afterwards, he rests the first step;' but awar &r£- 
med, 'he rests,' is a misreading of madam kharim did, 'on the 
inarch is set.' 

4 These are the three lowermost grades of heaven, humat, 
hukht, and huvarjt (see Chap. VII, 12). 

* The highest grade of heaven, where Auharmasrf and the angels 
are supposed to dwell (see Chap. VII, 1 1). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, I36-156. 21 

and archangels of every description come to meet 
him, (148) and ask tidings from him (149) thus : 
" How hast thou come, from that which is a perish- 
able, fearful, and very miserable existence, to this 
which is an imperishable existence that is undis- 
turbed, thou youth who art well-thinking, well-speak- 
ing, well-doing, and of good religion ?" 

150. 'Then Atiharmazd, the lord, speaks (151) 
thus: "Ask ye from him no tidings; for he has 
parted from that which was a precious body, and 
has come by that which is a fearful road. 152. And 
bring ye unto him the most agreeable of eatables, 
that which is the midspring butter 1 , (153) so that 
he may rest his soul from that bridge of the three 
nights, unto which he came from Ast6-vidaaf and the 
remaining demons 2 ; (154) and seat him upon an 
all-embellished throne." 

155. 'As it is declared (156) that: " Unto s the 
righteous man 4 and woman, after passing away 5 , 
they bring food 6 of the most agreeable of eatables — 

1 TheMaidhy6-zarm r6ghan, which is explained inDd.XXXI, 
14 as the spiritual representative of butter made during the Mai- 
dhyd-zaremaya, 'mid-verdure,' festival, which was considered the 
best of the year. This festival is held on the forty-fifth day of 
the Parsi year, which was about 4th May when the year was fixed 
to begin at the vernal equinox as described in Bd. XXV, 3-7, 20. 
The heavenly food which goes by this name is not to be con- 
founded with the Hush which is expected to be prepared at the 
resurrection, from the fat of the ox Hadhay&f and the white H6m, 
for the purpose of making mankind immortal (see Bd. XXX, 25) ; 
although some such confusion appears to exist in AV. X, 5. K43 
has rub£n, ' soul,' instead of r6ghan, ' butter.' 

2 See §§ 114-123. 8 K43 omits 'unto.' 
4 Literally, ' male.' 

e Li 9 adds 'from the body and consciousness.' 
9 Reading kazag, instead of kazad, both here and in the next 
clause of the sentence. L19 has 'the angels of the spiritual exist- 

Digitized by 


22 dSnA-I main6g-! khirab. 

the food of the angels of the spiritual existences — that 
which is the midspring butter 1 ; and they seat them 
down on an all-embellished throne. 157. Forever 
and everlasting they remain in all glory with the 
angels of the spiritual existences everlastingly." 

1 58. ' And when he who is wicked dies, his soul 
then rushes about for three days and nights in the 
vicinity of the head of that wicked one, and sobs 2 
(159) thus: "Whither do I go, and now what do 
I make 3 as a refuge?" 160. And the sin and 
crime of every kind, that were committed by him 
in the worldly existence, he sees with his eyes in those 
three days and nights. 161. The fourth day Viza- 
resh 4 , the demon, comes and binds the soul of the 
wicked with the very evil noose 6 ; (162) and with 
the opposition of Sr6sh, the righteous, he leads it 
up to the Amdvar bridge 6 . 163. Then Rashnu 7 , 
the just, detects that soul of the wicked through its 

164. ' Afterwards, Vfzaresh, the demon, takes that 

ences bring the most agreeable of eatables,' by omitting the first 
kazag, and misreading the second one. 

1 K43 has rub&n again, as in § ig2, for rdghan. Although 
this sentence resembles Hn. II, 38, 39, it is evidently quoted from 
some other source, as its difference is more striking than its re- 

8 This verb is Huz. bekhune , </=Pdz. giryeV, but N6r. has read 
b&nginS</, 'laments,' and has written vagine<f. 

3 Or it may be ' take,' as these two verbs are written alike in 
HuzvSrix. This exclamation is a quotation from the Githas or 
sacred hymns, being the first line of Yas. XLV, 1. 

4 The Av. Vtzaresha of Vend. XIX, 94, who carries off the 
souls of the wicked; he is also mentioned in Bd. XXVIII, 18, 
Dd. XXXII, 4, 7, XXXVII, 44. 

6 Reading saryitar ffl/an. L19 has va<f bawd, 'an evil tie.' 
• See § 115. ' See §§ 119, 120. 

Digitized by 



soul of the wicked, and mercilessly and maliciously 
beats and maltreats it. 165. And that soul of the 
wicked weeps with a loud voice, is fundamentally 
horrified 1 , implores with many supplicating 2 en- 
treaties, and makes many struggles for life discon- 
nectedly 3 . 166. Whom 4 — when his struggling and 
supplication are of no avail whatever, and no one 
comes to his assistance from the divinities (bagan) 6 , 
nor yet from the demons — moreover, Vlzaresh, the 
demon, drags miserably 6 to the inevitable 7 hell. 

167. 'And then a maiden who is not like unto 
maidens comes to meet him. 168. And that soul 
of the wicked speaks to that evil maiden (169) thus : 
"Who mayst thou be, that never in the worldly 
existence was an evil maiden seen by me, who was 
viler and more hideous than thee ?" 

1 70. ' And she 8 speaks in reply to him (171) thus : 
" I am not a maiden, but I am thy deeds 9 , thou 
monster who art evil-thinking, evil-speaking, evil- 
doing, and of evil religion! 172. For even when 
thou sawest 10 him who performed the worship of the 
sacred beings, still then thou hast sat down, and 
demon-worship was performed by thee, (173) and 
the demons and fiends were served. 1 74. And also 
when thou sawest him who provided lodging and 

1 Instead of burs-vangihi bekhun6</, bun ram£rf, L19 has 
burz£va«dihS vSginerf u v trim erf, 'loudly shrieks and weeps.' 
% Reading lapako-karihi. 

8 Instead of aparfvandthS, L19 has apatuiha, 'fruitlessly.' 
4 L19 has 'and.' 6 L19 has vehS, ' the good.' 

* Instead of £k-hdmandth&, L19 has anaom«dih&, 'hope- 

7 Reading nagirz, but this is uncertain ; L19 has az«r, 'lower.' 

• Li9 has 'that evil maiden.' • L19 has 'evil deeds.' 
10 L19 adds ' in the world.' 

Digitized by 



entertainment, and gave alms, for a good person 
who came forth from near and him, too, who was 
from afar 1 , (175) then thou actedst scornfully and 
disrespectfully to the good person, and gave no alms, 
and even shut up the door. 176. And when thou 
sawest him who practised true justice, took no bribe, 
gave true evidence, and uttered virtuous recitation, 
(177) even then thou hast sat down, and false justice 
was practised by thee, evidence was given by thee 
with falsehood, and vicious recitation was uttered 
by thee. 1 78. I am this of thine, the evil thoughts, 
the evil words, and the evil deeds which were thought 
and spoken and done by thee. 179. For when I 
have become uncommendable, I am then made 
altogether still more uncommendable by thee ; (180) 
when I have become unrespected, I am then made 
altogether still more unrespected by thee; (181) and 
when I have sat in an eye-offending 2 position, I am 
then made altogether still more really eye-offending 
(£ashm-kah-litar-i£) by thee." 

182. 'Afterwards he enters 3 , the first step on the 
place of evil thoughts, the second on that of evil 
words, the third step on that of evil deeds 4 , (183) 
and the fourth step rushes into the presence of the 

1 In L19 the words 'near' and 'afar' change places. 

3 Literally, ' eye-consuming,' the reading adopted by N6r., but, 
though it gives a satisfactory meaning, it is not quite certain that it 
represents the Pahlavi text correctly. 

s For d6n vazluneV, 'he goes in,' L19 has a«dar zr6ve</, in- 
dicating that the first letter, va, of vazlun6</ had been omitted in 
the Pahl. MS. used by N6r., which misled him into reading the 
remaining letters as a new Paz. verb zr6ve</, as already remarked 
by Nfildeke in G6t. gel. Anz. 1882, p. 975. 

4 These are the three uppermost grades of hell, duj-humat, 
duj-hukht, and du.r-huvar.r t (see Chap. VII, 20). 

Digitized by 


CFIAPTER II, 175-197. 25 

wicked evil spirit and the other demons \ 184. And 
the demons make ridicule and mockery of him (185) 
thus : " What was thy trouble and complaint, as 
regards Atiharmazd, the lord, and the archangels, 
and the fragrant and joyful heaven, when thou 
approachedst for a sight of Aharman and the 
demons and gloomy hell, (186) although we cause 
thee misery therein and do not pity, and thou shalt 
see misery of long duration 1" 

187. 'And the evil spirit shouts to the demons 
(188) thus : " Ask ye no tidings from him (189) who 
is parted from 2 that which was a precious body, and 
has come on by that which is a very bad road. 190. 
But bring ye unto him the foulest and vilest of 
eatables, the food which is nurtured in hell." 

191. 'They bring the poison and venom of s the 
snake and scorpion and other noxious creatures that 
are in hell, (192) and give him to eat. 193. And 
until the resurrection and future existence he must 
be in hell, in much misery and punishment of various 
kinds*. 194. Especially that it is possible to eat 
food there only as though by similitude 6 .' 

195. The spirit of innate wisdom spoke to the 
sage (196) thus: 'This which was asked by thee, 
as to the maintenance of the body and concerning 
the preservation of the soul, is also spoken about 
by me, and thou art admonished. 197. Be virtuously 

1 In the lowermost grade of hell (see Chap. VII, 21). 
s Li 9 has ' for he has parted from,' as in § 151. 

3 L19 has 'and.' 

4 L19 has 'he is in much misery and punishment of kinds 
worthy of hell.' 

6 So that starvation is one of the punishments of hell. L19 
has 'and especially that the food there can be only like putrid 

Digitized by 


26 DfNA-t ma&n6g-I khirad. 

assiduous about it, and keep it in practice ; (198) for 
this is thy chief way for the maintenance of the body 
and preservation of the soul.' 

Chapter III. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' Is liberality good, or truth 1 , (3) or gratitude 2 , or 
wisdom, (4) or complete mindfulness 3 , or content- 
ment ?' 

5. The spirit of wisdom answered (6) thus : ' As 
to the soul it is liberality, as to all the world it is 
truth, (7) unto the sacred beings it is gratitude, as 
to a man's self 4 it is wisdom, (8) as to all business 
it is complete mindfulness, and as to the comfort 
of the body and the vanquishing of Aharman and 
the demons contentment is good.' 

Chapter IV. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
'Which is a good work that is great and good ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' The 
greatest good work is liberality, and the second is 
truth and next-of-kin marriage 6 . 5. The third is 

1 K43 has 'or thy truth.' * L19 has 'or is gratitude good' 

3 Li 9 has 'or is complete mindfulness good.' 

4 Literally, ' the body oT a man.' 

6 This was the meaning of the term khvStuk-das when this 
work was written, but some centuries ago such marriages were dis- 
continued, and the term was then confined to marriages between 
first cousins, as at present (see Sacred Books of the East, vol. xviii, 
app. III). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, I98-V, 5. 27 

keeping the season festivals \ and the fourth is cele- 
brating all the religious rites 2 . 6. The fifth is the 
ceremonial of the sacred beings, and the providing 
of lodging for traders 3 . 7. The sixth is the wishing 
of happiness for every one. 8. And the seventh 
is a kind regard for the good*.' 

Chapter V. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
'Which land is the happier 8 ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : 'That 
land is the happier, in which a righteous man, who 
is true-speaking, makes his abode. 5. The second, 

1 Of which there are six, each held for five days. These Gasan- 
bars or Gahambars end, respectively, on the 45th, 105th, 180th, 
210th, 290th, and 365th days of the Parsi year ; and when that year 
was fixed to begin at the vernal equinox, they celebrated the periods 
of midspring, midsummer, the beginning of autumn, the beginning 
of winter, midwinter, and the beginning of spring (see Sis. XVIII, 
3). In modern times they have been supposed to commemorate 
the several creations of the sky, water, earth, vegetation, animals, 
and man ; but this idea must have been borrowed from a foreign 

* The periodical ceremonies which are obligatory for all Parsis 
(see Dd. XLIV, 2 n). 

3 Literally, ' for the producers of business.' 

4 That is, for the priests. The Parsi-Persian version divides 
these good works into nine items, by counting ' next-of-kin mar- 
riage' as the third, and ' providing of lodging' as the seventh. For 
a fuller detail of good works, see Chap. XXXVII. 

' This chapter is an imitation of Vend. Ill, 1-20, where it is 
stated that the five most pleasing spots on the earth are, first, where 
a righteous man performs ceremonies ; second, where he has built 
his house and keeps his fire, cattle, family, and retainers ; third, 
where the land is best cultivated ; fourth, where most oxen and 
sheep are produced; and fifth, that which is most manured by 
oxen and sheep. 

Digitized by 


2 8 DiNA-t MAiN6G-i KHIRAD. 

in which they make the abode of fires. 6. The 
third, when oxen and sheep repose upon it. 7. The 
fourth is uncultivated and uninhabited land when 
they bring it back to cultivation and habitableness. 
8. The fifth, from which they extirpate the burrows 
of noxious creatures. 9. The sixth, on which exist 
the ceremonies and coming of the sacred beings, 
and the sitting of the good 1 . 10. The seventh, 
when they make populous that which was desolate. 
11. The eighth, when from the possession of the 
bad it comes into the possession of the good. 12. 
The ninth, when of the produce and yield (b£dfo) 
which arise from it they provide the share of the 
sacred beings, the good, and the worthy. 13. And 
the tenth, in which they provide holy-water and 

Chapter VI. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
'Which land is the unhappier 2 ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' That 
land is the more afflicted, in which hell is formed s . 
5. The second, when they slay in it a righteous 
man who is innocent. 6. The third, for whose sake 4 

1 That is, the ceremonial precinct where the priests sit to con- 
duct the ceremonies. 

2 This chapter is an imitation of Vend. Ill, 21-37, where lt IS 
stated that the five most unpleasing spots on the earth are, first, the 
ridge of Arezura, on which the demons congregate from the pit of 
the fiend ; second, where most dead dogs and men lie buried ; 
third, where most depositories for the dead are constructed ; fourth, 
where there are most burrows of the creatures of the evil spirit; and 
fifth, where the family of a righteous man is driven into captivity. 

8 Bd. Ill, 27 states that 'hell is in the middle of the earth.' 

4 Reading mun . . . runo-f parfa*. Instead of dru^an run5, 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER V, 6-VII, 9. 29 

the demons and fiends work. 7. The fourth, in 
which they construct an idol-temple. 8. The fifth, 
when a wicked man, who is an evil-doer, makes an 
abode in it. 9. The sixth, when the interment of 
a corpse is performed below 1 . 10. The seventh, in 
which a noxious creature has a burrow. 11. The 
eighth, when from the possession of the good it 
comes into the possession of the bad. 12. The 
ninth, when they make desolate that which was 
populous. 13. And the tenth, in which they make 
lamentation and weeping 2 .' 

Chapter VII. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
' How is heaven, and how many ? 3. How are the 
ever-stationary (hamlstan), and how many? 4. 
And how is hell, and how many ? 5. What is the 
decision about the righteous in heaven, and from 
what is their happiness ? 6. What are the misery 
and affliction of the wicked in hell ? 7. And what 
and how is the decision about those who are among 
the ever-stationary?' 

8. The spirit of wisdom answered (9) thus : 
'Heaven is, first, from the star station unto the 

N6r. has read dru^ hanruno, and assumed the last word to be 
equivalent to Av. ha»dvarena, 'concourse;' so as to obtain the 
meaning, ' in which the demons and the fiend form a congress.' 
But Av. hawdvarena is Pahl. ham-dub£rijnih (see Pahl.Vend. 

VII, 137). 

1 Or ' when much interment of corpses is performed,' as it is 
doubtful whether we ought to read az>fr, ' much,' or a sir, 'below.' 

2 That is, for the dead. Such outward manifestations of mourn- 
ing being considered sinful by the Parsis, as they ought to be by 
all unselfish people who believe in a future existence of happiness. 

Digitized by 


30 dInA-1 ma!n6g-1 khirad. 

moon station ; (10) second, from the moon station 
unto the sun ; (n) and, third, from the sun station 
unto the supreme heaven (gar dayman 6), whereon 
the creator Auharma^ is seated. 12. Of heaven 
the first part is that of good thoughts (humat6), 
the second is that of good words (hukhtd), and the 
third is that of good deeds (hu varst6). 

1 3. ' The righteous in heaven are undecaying and 
immortal, unalarmed, undistressed, and undisturbed. 
14. And, everywhere 1 , they are full of glory, fragrant, 
and joyful, full of delight and full of happiness. 1 5. 
And, at all times, a fragrant breeze and a scent 
which is like sweet basil come to meet them, which 
are more pleasant than every pleasure, and more 
fragrant than every fragrance. 16. For them, also, 
there is no satiety owing to the existence in heaven. 
17. And their sitting and walking, perception and 
enjoyment are with the angels and archangels and 
the righteous for ever and everlasting. 

18. ' Regarding the ever-stationary it is declared, 
that they are from the earth unto the star station ; 
(19) and its affliction for them is then 2 nothing 
whatever except cold and heat. 

20. ' Of hell the first part is that of evil thoughts 
(duj-humat6), the second is that of evil words 
(duj-hukht6), and the third is that of evil deeds 

1 N6r. has 'at all times,' which may be correct, as gas means 
both ' time ' and ' place.' It should be noticed, however, that the 
word used in § 15 is daman, which means 'time' only. 

2 NSr. has 'their affliction is otherwise,' by mistaking Huz. 
adinaf-jan, 'then its . . . for them,' for a supposed P£z. ainifS, 
'otherwise their,' which seems to have no real existence, as 
wherever he reads aini, 'otherwise,' the Pahl. text has adinaj, 
' then its.' 

Digitized by 



(dft.y-htivar.ytd) 1 . 21. With the fourth step the 
wicked person arrives at that which is the darkest 
hell ; (22) and they lead him forwards to the vicinity 
of Aharman, the wicked. 23. And Aharman and 
the demons, thereupon, make ridicule and mockery 
of him (24) thus 2 : " What was thy trouble and com- 
plaint, as regards Auharmas*/ and the archangels, 
and the fragrant and joyful heaven, when thou 
approachedst for a sight of us and gloomy hell, (25) 
although we cause thee misery therein and do not 
pity, and thou shalt see misery of long duration ?" 
26. And, afterwards, they execute punishment and 
torment of various kinds upon him. 

27. ' There is a place 3 where, as to cold, it is such 
as that of the coldest frozen* snow. 28. There is 
a place where, as to heat, it is such as that of the 
hottest and most blazing fire. 29. There is a place 
where noxious creatures are gnawing them, just as 
a dog does the bones. 30. There is a place where, 
as to stench, it is such that they stagger about 
(bara lar.z6nd) 5 and fall down. 31. And the dark- 

1 These names, as here written, mean literally ' evil good thoughts, 
evil good words, and evil good deeds,' as if they implied that these 
places are for those whose best thoughts, words, and deeds are 
evil ; but it is not quite certain that the Pahlavi names are spelt 

a As already stated in Chap. II, 183-186. 

3 Li 9 has 'he is experienced' in §§ 27-30, owing to N&r. having 
read danak, 'knowing, experienced,' instead of dtvik, 'a place.' 

4 Literally, 'stone-possessing, stony' if we read sang-d&r, as 
seems most plausible; but we might read s&khar and consider 
Pers. khas£r or khasar, 'ice,' as a corruption of it, by transposi- 
tion. L19 has 'ice (yah) and snow.' 

5 L19 has be rezend, 'they vomit up,' which is evidently a 

Digitized by 


32 DiNA-f MAiN6G-i KHIRAD. 

ness is always such-like as though it is possible for 
them to seize upon it with the hand V 

Chapter VIII. 

i. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' How and in what manner has A uharmasaf created 
these creatures and creation ? 3. And how and in 
what manner were the archangels and the spirit of 
wisdom formed and created by him ? 4. And how 
are the demons and fiends [and also the remaining 
corrupted ones] 2 of Aharman, the wicked, miscreated ? 
[5. How do every good and evil happen which occur 
to mankind and also the remaining creatures ?] 
6. And is it possible to alter anything which is 
destined, or not?' 

7. The spirit of wisdom answered (8) thus : ' The 
creator, Auharmas^, produced these creatures and 
creation, the archangels and the spirit of wisdom 
from that which is his own splendour, and with the 
blessing of unlimited time (zdrvan). 9. For this 
reason, because unlimited time is undecaying and 
immortal, painless and hungerless, thirstless and 
undisturbed ; and for ever and everlasting no one is 
able to seize upon it, or to make it non-predominant 
as regards his own affairs. 

10. ' And Aharman, the wicked, miscreated the 
demons and fiends, and also the remaining corrupted 

1 'Even darkness which may be felt' (Ex. x. ai). 

4 K43 omits the phrase in brackets, as well as § 5; but these 
passages are supplied from L19, merely substituting yahirfakan, 
'corrupted ones,' as in § 10, for the vashudagS, ' miscreations,' 
of L19. 

Digitized by 



ones 1 , by his own unnatural intercourse. 1 1. A treaty 
of nine thousand winters 2 in unlimited time (daman) 
was also made by him with Auharma?^; (12) and, 
until it has become fully completed, no one is able 
to alter it and to act otherwise. 13. And when the 
nine thousand years have become completed, Ahar- 
man is quite impotent ; (14) and Srdsh 3 , the righteous, 
will smite Aeshm 3 , (15) and Mitrd* and unlimited 
time and the spirit of justice 6 , who deceives no one 
in anything, and destiny and divine providence 6 will 
smite the creatures and creation of Aharman of every 
kind, and, in the end, even Azo 7 , the demon. 16. And 
every creature and creation of Auharma^ becomes 
again as undisturbed as those which were produced 
and created by him in the beginning. 

1 Reading yahi</akan, but it may be y&tukan, 'wizards,' 
though the word requires an additional long vowel to represent 
either term correctly. L19 has vashudaga, ' miscreations.' 

2 According to the Bundahk, time consists of twelve thousand 
years (see Bd. XXXIV, 1). In the beginning Auharmaz</ created 
the spiritual prototypes (Bd. I, 8) who remained undisturbed for 
the first three thousand years, when Aharman appeared and agreed 
to a conflict for the remaining nine thousand years (Bd. I, 18), 
during the first three of which Auharmaz<f s will was undisputed, 
while during the next three Aharman is active in interference, and 
during the last three his influence will diminish till, in the end, it 
will disappear (Bd. I, 20). The nine thousand years of the 
conflict were supposed to extend from about b.c 5400 to a.d. 
3600 (see Byt. Ill, 1 1 n, 44 n). 

3 See Chap. II, 115. 4 See Chap. II, 118. 
5 Probably the angel Rashnu (see Chap. II, 118, 119). 

' Assuming that the vig6-bakht6 of K43 is equivalent to the 
bagh6-bakht, 'divine appointment,' of L19. 
^ 7 Av. &zi of Yas. XVII, 46, LXVII, 22, Vend. XVIII, 45, 50, 
Artid Yt. r, azu of Yas. LII, 7, and the demon of 'greediness' 
in Chap. II, 13, 14, XVIII, 5, &c, Bd. XXVIII, 27, and modern 
Persian, who seems to be a being distinct from Av. azi, ' serpent.' 

[24] D 

Digitized by 


34 DiNA-1 MAtN6G-t KHIRAD. 

1 7. ' Every good and the reverse * which happen 
to mankind, and also the other creatures, happen 
through the seven planets and the twelve constella- 
tions 2 . 1 8. And those twelve constellations are such 
as in revelation are 3 the twelve chieftains who are on 
the side of Auhafmas*/, (19) and those seven planets 
are called the seven chieftains who are on the side 
of Aharman. 20. Those seven planets pervert every 
creature and creation, and deliver them up to death 
and every evil. 21. And, as it were, those twelve 
constellations and seven planets 4 are organizing and 
managing the world. 

22. ' Auharmaswf is wishing good, and never 
approves nor contemplates evil. 23. Aharman is 
wishing evil, and does not meditate nor approve 
anything good whatever. 24. Auharmas'^, when he 
wishes it, is able to alter as regards the creatures of 
Aharman ; and Aharman, too, it is, who, when [he 
wishes] 5 it, can do so as regards the creatures of 
Adha.rma.zd, (25) but he is only able to alter so that 
in the final effect there may be no injury of Auhar- 
mazd, (26) because the final victory is Auharma2</'s 
own. 27. For it is declared, that "the Yim 6 and 

1 L19 has 'evil.' % The zodiacal signs. 

8 L19 has 'are called in revelation.' The authority, here quoted, 
was not the Bundahu, because that book speaks of seven chieftains 
of the constellations opposed to the seven planets (see Bd. V, 1). 

* Li 9 omits 'and seven planets,' but has a blank space at this 
place in both texts, Pazand and Sanskrit. 

8 K43 omits the words in brackets, which may, perhaps, be 
superfluous in the Pahlavi text. 

* Av. Yima or Yima khshaSta of Vend. II, the JamshSd of 
the Shahnamah, some of whose deeds are mentioned in Chap. 
XXVII, 24-33, Yas. IX, 13-20. He was the third of the Pe\rda</ 
dynasty, and is said to have been perverted by Aharman in his old 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER VIII, 17-IX, 2. 35 

Fr&jfan 1 and Kai-Os 2 of Auhannasaf are created 
immortal, (28) and Aharman so altered them as is 
known. 29. And Aharman so contemplated that 
Bevarasp 3 and Fraslyak 4 and Alexander 8 should be 
immortal, (30) but Auharma^, for great advantage, 
so altered them as that which is declared." ' 

Chapter IX. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' Is it possible to go from region to region 6 , or not ? 

age, when he lost the royal glory (see Dd. XXXIX, 16, 17), and 
was overthrown by the foreign dynasty of Az-i Dahak. 

1 Av. ThraStaona, who conquered Az-t Dahak (see Chap. 
XXVII, 38-40, Yas. IX, 24-27). He was misled by Aharman 
into dividing his empire between his three sons, two of whom 
revolted and slew the third (see Chaps. XXI, 25, XXVII, 42). 

2 Av. Kava Usan or Kavi Usadhan, the Kai-Kavus of the 
Shahnamah, misread Kah6s in Pazand. He was the second 
monarch of the Kayan dynasty, and made an unsuccessful attempt 
to reach heaven, mentioned in Bd. XXXIV, 7, to which he may be 
supposed to have been instigated by Aharman, but he was also 
unfortunate in many other enterprises. 

3 A title of Az-i Dahak in the Shahnamah, literally, ' with a 
myriad horses.' This king, or dynasty, is said to have conquered 
Yim and reigned for a thousand years, but was overthrown by 
Fr&ffln. In the Avesta (Yas. IX, 25, Aban Yt. 34, Af. Zarat. 3) 
Az-i Dahik, ' the destructive serpent,' is described as hazangra- 
yaokhjti, 'with a thousand perceptions,' a term analogous to 
baSvare-spasana, 'with a myriad glances,' which is usually 
applied to Mithra, the angel of the sun. From this latter, if used 
for the former, bSvarasp might easily be corrupted. 

4 Av. Frangrasyan, the Afrasiyab of the Shahnamah, a Tura- 
nian king who conquered the Iranians for twelve years during the 
reign of Manfo/Khar (see Bd. XXXIV, 6). 

5 Alexander the Great, misread Arasawgar by Ne"r. 

* The earth is supposed to be divided into seven regions, of 
which the central one is as large as the other six united ; two of 

D 2 

Digitized by 


36 DiNA-i MAlNdG-f KHIRAZ). 

3. From what substance is the sky made ? 4. And 
how and in what manner is the mingling of the 
water in the earth ?' 

5. The spirit of wisdom answered (6) thus : 
'Without the permission of the sacred beings, or 
the permission of the demons, it is then l not possible 
for one to go from region to region 2 . 

7. ' The sky is made from the substance of the 
blood-stone 3 , such as they also call diamond (al- 

8. ' And the mingling of the water in the earth is 
just like the blood in the body of man.' 

Chapter X. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' Can there be any peace and affection whatever of 
Aharman, the wicked, and his demons and miscre- 
ations, with AuhaT-maswf and the archangels, one 
with the other, or not ? ' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' There 
cannot be, on any account whatever; (5) because 
Aharman meditates evil falsehood and its deeds, 
wrath and malice and discord, (6) and Attha.rmazd 
meditates righteousness and its deeds, good works 

the six lie to the north, two to the south, one to the east, and one 
to the west ; and they are said to be separated by seas or moun- 
tains, difficult to cross (see Bd. XI). For their names, see Chaps. 
XVI, 10, XXVII, 40. 

1 Instead of adina*, 'then for one,' N6r. has manufactured a 
word aina, 'otherwise' (see also Chap. VII, 19 n). 

2 This information is derived from Pahl. Vend. I, 4 a. 

3 Or ' ruby,' referring to the rosy tints of dawn and sunset. The 
same statement is made in Bd. XII, 6. Ne"r. has ' steel,' and the 
word can be translated ' blood-metal.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IX, 3-XII, 5- 37 

and goodness and truth. 7. And everything can 
change, except good and bad nature. 8. A good 
nature cannot change to evil by any means what-" 
ever, and a bad nature to goodness in any manner. 
9. Auhannaswf, on account of a good nature, approves 
no evil and falsehood ; (10) and Aharman, on account 
of a bad nature, accepts no goodness and truth ; 
(11) and, on this account, there cannot be for them 
any peace and affection whatever, one with the 

Chapter XI. 

t. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
' Is wisdom good, or skill, or goodness 1 ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : 
' Wisdom with which there is no goodness, is not to 
be considered as wisdom ; (5) and skill with which 
there is no wisdom, is not to be considered as skill.' 

Chapter XII. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' Wherefore is it when the treasure of the spiritual 
existence is allotted so truly, and that of the worldly 
existence so falsely ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' The 
treasure of the worldly existence was 2 allotted as truly, 
in the original creation, as that of the spiritual exist- 
ence. 5. And the creator, Abharmazd, provided the 

1 Li 9 omits the last two words, but they are evidently referred 
to in the reply. 

2 Literally, ' is.' 

Digitized by 


38 DiNA-i MAiN6G-t KHIRAD. 

happiness of every kind, that is in these creatures 
and creation, for the use (bun) of the sun 1 and moon 
and those twelve constellations which are called the 
twelve chieftains 2 by revelation; (6) and they, too, 
accepted it in order to allot it truly and deservedly. 

7. 'And, afterwards, Aharman produced those 
seven planets, such as are called the seven chief- 
tains of Aharman, for dissipating 3 and carrying off 
that happiness from the creatures of Auharma^, in 
opposition to the sun and moon and those twelve 
constellations. 8. And as to every happiness which 
those constellations bestow on the creatures of Au- 
harma^, (9) those planets take away as much of it 
as it is possible for them (the constellations) to give *, 
(10) and give it up to the power of the demons 6 and 
fiends and the bad. 

11. 'And the treasure of the spiritual existence is 
so true on this account, because Auharmas*/, the 
lord, with all the angels and archangels, is 6 undis- 
turbed, (12) and they make the struggle with Ahar- 
man and the demons, and also the account of the 
souls of men, with justice. 13. And the place of] 
him whose good work is more is in heaven, (14) the; 
place of him whose good work and sin are equal is 
among the ever-stationary 7 , (15) and when the crime 
is more, his path is then to hell.' 

1 Literally, ' Mitrd,' the angel of the sun. 

s See Chap. VIII, 17-21. 

* By omitting one letter K43 has ' miscreating.' 

4 By omitting this verb L19 has ' possible for them (the planets).' 

5 So understood by NeT., but all the best MSS. omit the relative 
particle, as if 'the powerful demons' were meant. 

6 Literally, < are.' * See Chap. VII, 18. 

Digitized by 



Chapter XIII. 

I. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
' Wherefore is it when oxen and sheep, birds, flying 
creatures, and fish are, each one, properly learned 
in that which is their own knowledge, (3) and men, 
so long as they bring no instruction unto them, and 
they do not perform much toil and trouble (an^ino) 1 
about it, are not able to obtain and know the learning 
of the human race ?' 

4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus : ' Men 
have been so wise, in the original creation, that, as to 
the good works and crime which were performed by 
them, the recompense of the good works and the 
punishment of the crime were then seen by them 
with their own eyes, (6) and no crime whatever pro- 
ceeded from men. 7. But, afterwards, Aharman, 
the wicked, concealed the recompense of good works 
and the punishment of sin. 8. And on this account, 
moreover, it is said in revelation (9) that : "[These] 2 
four [things are worse and more grievous] than every 
evil which the accursed evil one, the wicked, com- 
mitted upon the creatures of Auharma^, (10) [that 
is, when the reward of good works and] punishment 
[of sin], the thoughts of men, and the consequence 
of actions were quite concealed [by him] 3 ." 

1 NSr. has read khvazinak, and taken it as equivalent to Pers. 
khazinah, 'treasury,' in the sense of 'expenditure;' but this is 
very doubtful. 

2 The words in brackets, in §§ 9, 10, are taken from the Pizand 
version, as the passage containing them has been omitted by 
mistake in K43. 

3 The Pandndmah of Buzurg-Mihir states ' this, too, is declared, 
that the evil spirit committed even this very grievous thing upon 

Digitized by 


46 DfNA-f MAtN6G-i KHIRAD. 

II. 'And, for the same reason, he made many 
devotions and improper creeds current in the world. 
1 2. And, on account of men's not knowing of duty 
and good works, every one believes that most, and 
considers it as good, which his teaching in devotion 
has included. 13. And that devotion, in particular, 
is more powerful 1 , with which sovereignty exists. 
14. But that one is the lordship and sovereignty of 
Vlrtasp 2 , the king of kings, (15) by whom, on account 
of knowing it unquestionably and certainly (a£va- 
rlha), the perfect and true religion, which is in the 
word of the creator Atiharmasd, was received from 
the unique Zaratfot, the Spltaman 3 , (16) who has 
manifested clearly, explicitly, and unquestionably 
the treasure of the worldly and spiritual existences, of 
every kind, from the good religion of the M&sda.- 
worshippers. 17. There is then 4 no other creed, 
through which it is possible for one to obtain and 
know the treasure of the worldly and spiritual exist- 
ences so explicitly and clearly, (18) but, on account 
of much controversy 6 , they are so cut up (agi.stak&) 

the creatures of Auharmasrf, when the reward of good works and 
punishment of sin were quite concealed by him, in the thoughts of 
men, as the consequence of actions.' 

1 N£r.has 'purer/by connectingp&iiy&vandtarwith p&dty&v, 
'ablution;' but this is hardly possible, whereas the former word 
can be readily traced to A v. paiti + yi + va»t, with the meaning 
'resistant, stubborn, strong;' compare Pers. p&yib, 'power.' 

2 Av. Vutispa, Pers. Gu^tdsp, the fifth king of the Kay&n 
dynasty, who adopted the religion of Zar&turt in the thirtieth year 
of his reign, and is said to have reigned 120 years (see Bd. 
XXXIV, 7). 

8 See Chap. I, io n. 

* Instead of ' then for one,' NeY. has ' otherwise,' as in Chap. 
IX, 6. 

* Reading viguftakfh. N6r. has 'by much contemplation/ 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XIII, 1 1 -XIV, 1 4. 4 1 

and entangled, that the statements of their beginning 
are much unlike to the middle, and the middle to 
the end.' 

Chapter XIV. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of 1 [wisdom (2) thus : 
' Which protection is the more defensive ? 3. Which 
friend 2 (4) and which supporter of fame are good? 
5. Which helper of enjoyment is good ? 6. Which 
wealth is the pleasanter? 7. And which is the 
supremest pleasure of all pleasures 8 ?' 

8. The spirit of wisdom answered (9) thus : ' The 
sacred being is the more defensive protection. 10. 
A virtuous brother is a good friend. 11. A child, 
who is virtuous and an upholder of religion, is 
a good supporter of fame. 12. A virtuous wife, 
who is well-disposed, is a good helper of enjoy- 
ment. 13. That wealth is better and pleasanter 
which is collected by honesty, and one consumes 
and maintains with duties and good works. 14. 
And the pleasures which are superior to all plea- 
sures are health of body, freedom from fear, good 
repute, and righteousness 4 .' 

having read vSnaftakih. Both words are very uncommon, and it 
is doubtful which of them is the more appropriate to the context. 

1 From this point to Chap. XXVII, 49 the Pahlavi text of K43 
is missing, owing to the loss of nine folios in that MS., but a copy 
of the missing passage, made by Dastur Hoshangji Jamaspji from 
TD2, has been consulted for the purpose of controlling the Paz. 
version of L19. 

2 Li 9 inserts 'is good?' 

' TD2 has ' which is the friend who is the supremest of friends ;' 
but this does not correspond well with the reply in § 14. 
4 TD2 adds ' and are good.' 

Digitized by 


42 DiNA-t MAiN6G-i KHIRAB. 

Chapter XV. 

I. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' Is poverty good, or opulence * ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : 
' Poverty which is through honesty is better than 
opulence which is from the treasure of others. 5. 
For it is stated (6) thus : " As to him who is the 
poorest and most secluded (arme.sttum) 2 person, 
whenever he keeps his thoughts, words, and deeds 
honest, and in duty to the sacred beings, for him 
even there is lawfully a share of all the duties and 
good works which mankind shall do in the world 3 . 
7. As to him, too, who is opulent, who is a man of 
much wealth, when the wealth is not produced by 
honesty, though he takes trouble (an^lnako) in 4 
duties and good works and righteous gifts, his good 
work is then not his own, (8) because the good work 
is his from whom the wealth is abstracted 5 ." 

1 L19 adds 'or sovereignty,' to account for §§ 12-39. 

2 Av. armada, applied to water, means 'most stationary, 
stagnant;' Pahl. arme^t (Av. airima) is applied to the place of 
' seclusion' for impure men and women, and in Sis. VI, 1 it seems 
to refer to ' helpless ' idiots or lunatics ; N£r. explains it in Sanskrit 
as 'lame, crippled, immobility,' but 'secluded, immured, helpless' 
are terms better adapted to the context, whether the word be 
applied to persons, as it is here and in Chaps. XXXVII, 36, 
XXXIX, 40, or to learning and character, as in Chap. LI, 7. 

3 Persons who are wholly unable to perform good works are 
supposed to be entitled to a share of any supererogatory good 
works performed by others (see Sis. VI, 1, 2), but the allotment 
of such imputed good works seems to be at the discretion of the 
angels who keep them in store (see Sis. VIII, 4). 

* N6r. has 'makes expenditure on,' by reading khvazinak, as 
in Chap. XIII, 3. 

5 § 8 does not occur in L19, but is found in TD2, PA 10, and 

Digitized by 



9. ' And as to that much wealth which is collected 
by proper exertion, and one consumes and maintains 
with duties and good works and pleasure, even that 
is no better thereby, (ro) because it is necessary to 
consider that as perfect. 11. But as to him who 
is a man of much wealth, whose wealth is collected 
by proper exertion, and he consumes and maintains 
it with duties and good works and pleasure, he is 
great and good and more perfect 1 . 

1 2. ' And regarding even that which is sovereignty 
they state (13) thus: "What is 2 good government in 
a village is better than what is 2 bad government in a 
realm. 14. Because the creator Atiha.rma.zd pro- 
duced good government for effecting the protection 
of the creatures, (15) and Aharman, the wicked, has 
produced bad government as the adversary of good 

16. ' Good government is that which maintains 
and directs a province flourishing, the poor un- 
troubled, and the law and custom true, (17) and 
sets aside improper laws and customs. 18. It well 
maintains water and fire by law 3 , (19) and keeps 
in progress the ceremonial of the sacred beings, 
duties, and good works. 20. It causes friendliness 

1 That is, the proper use of wealth does not make the wealth 
itself any better, but only the rightful possessor of it. This is, 
however, probably only an emendation of NSr., as the copy of 
TD2 gives merely the following, for §§ 9-1 1 : ' But as to him 
who is a man of much wealth, by whose proper exertion it is 
collected, and he consumes and maintains it with duties, good 
works, and pleasure, he is no better thereby, because it is necessary 
to consider him as perfect.' 

3 Li 9 omits ' what is' in both places. 

8 TD2 omits ' maintains,' as it is sufficiently expressed by the 
same Pahl. verb ' keeps' in § 19 ; and L19 omits ' by law.' 

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44 DiNA-i ma{n6g-{ khirad. 

and pleading 1 for the poor, (21) and delivers up 
itself, and even that which is its own life, for the 
sake of the good religion of the Mazda-worshippers. 
22. And if there be any one who desists from the 
way of the sacred beings, then it orders some one to 
effect his restoration thereto; (23) it also makes 
him a prisoner, and brings him back to the way of 
the sacred beings ; (24) it allots, out of the wealth 
that is his, the share of the sacred beings and the 
worthy, of good works and the poor; (25) and deli- 
vers up the body for the sake of the soul 2 . 26. A 
good king, who 3 is of that kind, is called equal to 
the angels and archangels. 

27. ' Bad government is that (28) which destroys 
the true and proper law and custom, (29) and brings* 
oppression, plunder, and injudiciousness into prac- 
tice. 30. It dissipates the treasure of the spiritual 
existence, (31) and considers duty and good works a 
vexation, through greediness 6 . 32. It keeps back 
a person performing good works from doing good 
works, (33) and he thereby becomes a doer of harm. 
(34) Its disbursement 6 , too, of every kind is for its 
own self, (35) the administration of the treasure 

1 Reading dS</6-g6bfh, 'pronouncing the law,' or 'speaking 
of gifts,' instead of Paz. gidzng6\, a misreading of N£r. for Pahl. 
y£dat6-g6bih, 'speaking of the sacred being.' 

2 The usual way of treating nonconformists in all ages and all 
sects, when party spirit is strong. TD2 has ' delivers him up for 
the sake of body and soul.' 

8 TD2 has ' good government which.' 

* TD2 has ' keeps j' but the two verbs are much alike in 

6 Because nearly all such works entail expenditure. 

6 NSr. has 'accumulation,' but this is the meaning of and6aifn, 
rather than of the andazi sn in the text. 

7 So in TD2. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XV, 2I-XVI, 12. 45 

of the worldly existence, (36) the celebrity 1 and ex- 
altation of the vile, (37) the destruction and neglect 
of the good, (38) and the annihilation of the poor. 
39. A bad king, who 2 is of that kind, is called equal 
to Aharman and the demons.' 

Chapter XVI. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' Of the food which men eat, and the clothing which 
men put on, which are the more valuable and good ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' Of 
the food which men eat, the milk of goats is pro- 
duced good. 5. Because, as to men and quadrupeds, 
who are born from a mother, until the time when 
food is eaten by them, their growth and nourish- 
ment are then from milk, (6) and on milk they can 
well live. 7. And if men, when they withdraw from 
the milk of the mother, make thorough experience 
of the milk of goats, (8) then bread is not necessary 
for use among them. 9. Since it is declared, (10) 
that "the food of mankind, who are in Arzah and 
Savah, Fradaafafsh and Vldadafsh, V6rubar.rt and 
Vdru^arct 3 , is the milk of goats and cows; (11) 
other food they do not eat." 12. And he who is 
a milk-consuming man is healthier and stronger, 
and even the procreation of children becomes more 

1 Reading khani</ih as in TD2 and Chap. II, 28. 

2 TD2 has ' bad government which.' 

3 The six outermost regions of the earth, of which Arzah lies to 
the west, Savah to the east, Frada</afsh and Vidatfafsh to the south, 
and V6rubarrt and V6r%arrt to the north of the central region 
(seeBd.V,8,XI, 3). 

Digitized by 


46 DiNA-f ma!n6g-1 khirad. 

13. 'Of grains wheat is called great and good, 
(14) because it is the chief of grains 1 , (15) and 
even by the Avesta its name is then specified in 
the chieftainship of grains 2 . 

1 6. ' And of fruit the date and grape are called 
great and good. 17. When bread has not come, 
it is necessary to consecrate the sacred cake by 
means of fruit 3 ; (18) when the fruit to consecrate 
is the date or grape, it is allowable to eat every 
fruit; (19) and when those have not come, it is 
necessary to eat that fruit which is consecrated 4 . 

20. ' Regarding wine it is evident, that it is pos- 
sible for good and bad temper to come to manifesta- 
tion through wine 6 . 21. The goodness of a man is 
manifested in anger, the wisdom of a man in irregular 
desire 6 . 22. For he whom anger hurries on (aus- 

1 It is called ' the chief of large-seeded grains ' in Bd. XXIV, 19. 

2 Possibly in the Pazag Nask, part of which was ' about the 
thirty-three first chieftainships of the existences around, that is, 
how many of which are spiritual and how many worldly exist- 
ences, and which is the second, and which the third of the 
spiritual and worldly existences;' as stated in the eighth book of 
the Dinkarrf. 

3 That is, when a cake cannot be made, fruit can be substituted 
for it in the ceremony of consecrating the sacred cakes. The sacred 
cake, or dr6n, is a small, round, flexible pancake of unleavened 
wheaten bread, about the size of the palm of the hand, which, after 
consecration, is tasted by all those present at the ceremony (see 
Sis. Ill, 32 n). 

4 Fruit and wine are usually consecrated and eaten, in the 
Afrlngin ceremony, after the completion of the Dr6n ceremony, 
but sometimes the Afrtngtn is celebrated alone. Both ceremonies 
are performed in honour of some angel, or the guardian spirit 
of some deceased person (see Haug's Essays, pp. 407-409). 

6 TD2 has 'through the nature of wine;' but is, 'wine,' is 
written mas. 

6 TD2 has ' the good of a man is in anger, and the wisdom of 
a man in lust exciting viciousness.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XVI, I3-42. 47 

t&f &d) is able to recover himself from it 1 through 
goodness, (23) he whom lust hurries on is able to 
recover himself from it through wisdom, (24) and 
he whom wine hurries on is able to recover himself 
from it through temper. 

25. 'It is not requisite for investigation, (26) be- 
cause he who is a good-tempered man, when he 
drinks wine, is such-like as a gold or silver cup 
which, however much more they burn it, becomes 
purer and brighter. 27. It also keeps his thoughts, 
words, and deeds more virtuous ; (28) and he be- 
comes gentler and pleasanter unto wife and child, 
companions and friends 2 , (29) and is more diligent 
in every duty and good work. 

30. ' And he who is a bad-tempered man, when 
he drinks wine, thinks and considers himself more 
than ordinary. 31. He carries on a quarrel with 
companions, displays insolence, makes ridicule and 
mockery, (32) and acts arrogantly to a good person. 
22- He distresses his own wife and child 3 , slave and 
servant ; (34) and dissipates the joy of the good, 
(35) carries off peace, and brings in discord. 

36. ' But every one must be cautious as to 4 the 
moderate drinking of wine. 37. Because, from 
the moderate drinking of wine, thus much benefit 
happens to him : (38) since it digests the food, (39) 
kindles the vital fire 6 , (40) increases the under- 
standing and intellect, semen and blood, (41) re- 
moves vexation, (42) and inflames the complexion. 

1 Reading agas, instead of afaj (Paz. va*); these two words 
being written alike in Pahlavi. 

8 TD2 has ' he becomes more friendly, gentler, and pleasanter 
unto wife and child and companions.' It also omits § 29. 

8 TD2 inserts ' hireling.' 

4 Or ' must become intelligent through.' 

* The animal heat, called the Vohu-fryan fire in Bd. XVII, 1. 

Digitized by 


48 DiNA-i main6g-! khirad. 

43. It causes recollection of things forgotten, (44) 
and goodness takes a place in the mind. (45) It 
likewise increases the sight of the eye, the hearing 
of the ear, and the speaking of the tongue ; (46) 
and work, which it is necessary to do and expe- 
dite, becomes more progressive. 47. He also sleeps 
pleasantly in the sleeping place 1 , and rises light. 
48. And, on account of these contingencies, good 
repute for the body, righteousness for the soul, and 
also the approbation of the good 2 come upon him. 

49. 'And in him who drinks wine more than 
moderately, thus much defect becomes manifest, 
(50) since it diminishes his wisdom, understanding 
and intellect, semen and blood; (51) it injures the 
liver 3 and accumulates disease, (52) it alters the 
complexion, (53) and diminishes the strength and 
vigour. 54. The homage and glorification of the 
sacred beings become forgotten. 55. The sight of 
the eye, the hearing of the ear, and the speaking 
of the tongue become less. 56. He distresses Hor- 
vadaaf and Ame^oda^ 4 (57) and entertains a desire 
of lethargy 5 . 58. That, also, which it is necessary 
for him to say and do, remains undone; (59) and 
he sleeps in uneasiness, and rises uncomfortably. 
60. A nd, on account of these contingencies, himself 6 , 

1 NSr. has 'at sleeping time,' and the word gas means either 
'time' or 'place,' but usually the latter. TD2 has bajn gas, 
probably for balif n gas, ' bed place.' 

2 N6r. inserts the words ' greatly increase ' in the Sanskrit version, 
but they do not occur in TD2. 

3 These four words occur only in TD2. 

4 The two archangels who are supposed to be injured by 
improper eating and drinking (see Chap. II, 34 n). 

s BusMsp (Av. Bushyasta), the fiend of slothful sleep. 
6 Or it can be translated ' his own body.' 

Digitized by 



wife, and child, friend and kindred are distressed 
and unhappy, (61) and the superintendent of troubles 1 
and the enemy are glad. 62. The sacred beings, 
also, are not pleased with him; (63) and infamy comes 
to his body, and even wickedness to his soul. 

64. ' Of the dress which people possess and put 
on 2 , silk is good for the body, and cotton for the 
soul. 65. For this reason, because silk arises from 
a noxious creature 8 , (66) and the nourishment of 
cotton is from water, and its growth from earth 4 ; 
and as a treasure of the soul it is called great and 
good and more valuable.' 

Chapter XVII. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
'Which is that pleasure which is worse than un- 
happiness ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : 'Who- 
ever has acquired wealth by crime, and he becomes 
glad of it thereby 6 , then that pleasure is worse for 
him than unhappiness.' 

Chapter XVIII. 
1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
'Wherefore do people consider these very little, 

1 Meaning probably the evil spirit. 

2 The Sanskrit version omits the former verb, and TD2 the latter. 

* Caterpillars are creatures of Aharman, because they eat and 
injure vegetation which is under the special protection of the arch- 
angel Amerodarf. 

* Water and earth, being both personified as angels, would impart 
somewhat of their sacred character to the cotton arising from them. 

* ' Glad of the crime on account of the wealth ' is probably meant. 

[24] E 

Digitized by 


50 dIna-i ma1n6g-! khirad. 

these four things which it is necessary for them to 
consider more, as warnings (dakhshak), (3) the 
changeableness of the things of the worldly existence, 
the death of the body, the account of the soul 1 , and 
the fear of hell ?' 

4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus : ' On 
account of the delusiveness (nlyisanth) of the 
demon of greediness 2 , and of discontent/ 

Chapter XIX. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' Is living in fear and falsehood worse, or death ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' To 
live in fear and falsehood is worse than death. 5. 
Because every one's life is necessary for the enjoy- 
ment and pleasure of the worldly existence, (6) and 
when the enjoyment and pleasure of the worldly 
existence are not his, and fear and even falsehood s 
are with him, it is called worse than death.' 

Chapter XX. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
1 For kings which is the one thing more advanta- 
geous, and which the more injurious ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' For 
kings conversation with the wise and good is the 

1 That is, the account to be rendered by the soul after death. 

a See Chap. VIII, 15 n. 

s These being considered as fiends ; the latter, mit6kht, being 
the first demon produced by the evil spirit (see. Bd. I, 24, XXVIII, 
14, 16). 

Digitized by 



one thing more advantageous, (5) and speaking and 
conversation with slanderers and double-dealers are 
the more injurious for them.' 

Chapter XXI. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' What is the end of the world-arranging and spirit- 
destroying man ? 3. What is the end of him who 
is a scoffing man ? 4-6. What is the end of the 
idle, the malicious, and the lazy man ? 7. What is 
the end of a false-hearted one, (8) and the end of an 
arrogant one 1 ?' 

9. The spirit of wisdom answered (10) thus : ' He 
who is a world-arranging and spirit-destroying man 
is as injured, in the punishment of the three nights 2 , 
as a raging fire when water comes upon it. 

ii 3 .' Of him who is a scoffing man there is no 
glory in body and soul; (12) and every time when 
he opens his mouth his wickedness then increases. 
13. All the fiends, too, become so lodged in his 
body, that they leave no goodness whatever for his 
body ; (14) and he makes mockery of the good, and 
glorification of the vile. 15. Also in the worldly 
existence his body is infamous, and in the spiritual 
existence his soul is wicked. 16. And, for effecting 
his punishment in hell, they deliver him over to 

1 L19 has 'What is the end of him who is an idle man?' in 
§ 4, and repeats the same formula in each of the §§ 5-8. 

* Referring to the three days and nights of final punishment, 
reserved for those specially wicked, at the time of the resurrection 
(see Bd. XXX, 12-16). 

8 In TD2 the remaining sections are arranged in the following 
order:— §§ 18, 27-33, 19-26, 34-44, "-I7- 

E 2 

Digitized by 



the scoffing fiend; (17) and that fiend inflicts a 
ridicule and a mockery upon him with every single 

18. 'As to him who is an idle man, yet devoid 
of wickedness, mostly when 1 death comes on in 
the worldly existence, he thereupon (a^af) begets 
pleasantly for the sake of another. 

19. 'The bridge 2 which is for the soul of him 
who is a malicious man is more difficult than for 
the other wicked who are in hell. 20. For this 
reason, because malice proceeds by lineage; (21) 
and it is possible to manage every sin better than 
malice, (22) because malice will abide in a lineage. 
23. There are instances when it adheres 3 until the 
renovation of the universe ; (24) for it is clearly 
declared by the pure revelation, (25) that the origin 
of the estrangement (anlranih) of the Arumans, 
and even the Turanians, from the Iranians, was 
owing to that malice which was generated by them 
through the slaughter of AirL£ 4 ; (26) and it always 
adheres until the renovation. 

1 Li 9 inserts 'misery and.' 

4 The ^Tindvar bridge (see Chap. II, 115, 162), which is supposed 
to resemble a beam wfth many unequal sides, the side turned 
uppermost being narrower in proportion as the soul, intending to 
pass along it, is more wicked; so that the difficulty of the transit 
increases with the sin of the soul (see Dd. XXI, 3-5). 

8 Or ' continues.' 

4 Paz. jEraz, one of the three sons of FrSrf&n, the Pe\fd£</ 
sovereign, who divided his empire among them, giving the Aru- 
man provinces to Salm, the Turanian to Tfig-, and the Irinian to 
AM£. The last was slain by his two brothers, and his death was 
subsequently avenged by his descendant Man&r^ihar (see Chap. 
XXVII, 41-43, Bd. XXXI, 9-12). Though these sons are not 
mentioned in the Avesta now extant, their history appears to have 
been related in the Aufrast Nask (see Sis. X, 28 n). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXI, 17-44. 53 

27. 'He who is a lazy man is said to be the most 
unworthy of men. 28. Because it is declared by 
revelation, (29) that the creator A uharmasa' produced 
no corn for him who is a lazy man ; (30) for him who 
is a lazy man there is then no giving of anything in 
gifts and charity 1 ; (31) and lodging and entertain- 
ment are not to be provided for him. 32. For this 
reason, because that food which a lazy man eats, he 
eats through impropriety and injustice ; (33) and, on 
account of his laziness and unjust eating, his body 
then becomes infamous and the soul wicked. 

34. 'He who is a false-hearted man is as dubious 
in good things as in bad ; (35) he is dubious as to 
the treasure^of the spiritual and worldly existences, 
and also as to the ceremonial, invocation, and service 
of the sacred beings. 36. And, on account of these 
circumstances, the angels and archangels shall accept 
little of the ceremonial and invocations which he 
performs, (37) and give unto him little of the gain, 
too, which he seeks. 38. And in the mouth of the 
good man he is always infamous, (39) and his soul 
becomes wicked. 

40. ' The friends of him who is an arrogant man 
are few, and his enemies many. 41. And even of 
the gifts which he gives to any one, and the cere- 
monial, too, which he performs for the sacred beings, 
they shall accept little, on account of his arrogance, 
(42) and give little of the gain, too, which he seeks. 
43. And in hell they deliver him to the fiend of 
arrogance, in order to inflict punishment upon his 
soul ; (44) and the fiend of arrogance inflicts punish- 
ment of various kinds upon it, and is not pacified.' 

1 L19 has 'he then gives nothing as his living, which is through 
gifts and charity.' 

Digitized by 


54 DfNA-i MAlNdot KHIRAD. 

Chapter XXII. 

i. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' Is it possible to provide, for one's own hand, the 
treasure and wealth of the worldly existence through 
exertion, or not ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' It is 
not possible to provide for one's. self, through exer- 
tion, that benefit which is not ordained ; (5) but a 
morsel (kazd) of that which is ordained comes on 
by means of exertion. 6. Yet the exertion, when 
it is fruitless in the worldly existence, through the 
sacred beings not being with it 1 , still comes, after- 
wards, to one's assistance in the spiritual existence, 
and outweighs in the balance V 

Chapter XXIII. 

i. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
'Is it possible to contend with destiny through 
wisdom and knowledge, or not?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ' Even 
with the might and powerfulness of wisdom and 
knowledge, even then it is not possible to contend 
with destiny. 5. Because, when predestination as to 
virtue, or as to the reverse 3 , comes forth, the wise 
becomes wanting (niyasan) in duty, and the astute 
in evil becomes intelligent ; (6) the faint-hearted be- 
comes braver, and the braver becomes faint-hearted ; 

1 TDa has ' time not being with it.' 

9 The balance in which men's actions are weighed by the angel 
Rashnu (see Chap. II, 119-122). 
8 L19 has 'vileness.' 

Digitized by 



(7) the diligent becomes lazy, and the lazy acts dili- 
gently 1 . (8) Just as is predestined as to the matter, 
the cause enters into it, (9) and thrusts out every- 
thing else.' 

Chapter XXIV. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' On account of the begging of favours, and the 
practice and worthiness of good works, do the 
sacred beings also grant anything to men other- 
wise 2 , or not?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: 'They 
grant; (5) for there are such as they call thus: 
" Destiny and divine providence." 6. Destiny is 
that which is ordained from the beginning, (7) and 
divine providence is that which they also grant 
otherwise. 8. But the sacred beings provide and 
manifest in the spiritual existence little of that grant, 
on this account, because Aharman, the wicked 3 , 
through the power of the seven planets extorts 
wealth, and also every other benefit of the worldly 
existence, from the good and worthy, and grants 
them more fully to the bad and unworthy.' 

Chapter XXV. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' Of the rich who is the poorer, and of the poor who 
is the richer ?' 

1 L19 has 'becomes diligent.' 

s That is, otherwise than by destiny, as mentioned in the previous 
chapter, and in consequence of prayer and merit. 
* TDa inserts ' through that cause.' 

Digitized by 


56 dInA-1 ma1n6g-1 khirad. 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' Of 
the rich he is the poorer who is not content with 
that which is his, (5) and suffers anxiety for the 
increase of anything. 

6. 'And of the poor he is the richer who is con- 
tent with that which has come, (7) and cares not for 
the increase of anything.' 

Chapter XXVI. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' Is a blind eye worse, or a blind mind (dil)? 3. Is 
the ill-informed worse, or the bad-tempered?' 

4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus : ' He 
who is blind-eyed, when he has understanding in 
anything, and accomplishes learning, is to be con- 
sidered as sound-eyed. 6. And he who is sound- 
eyed, when he has no knowledge and understanding 1 , 
and even that which they teach him he does not 
accept, then that is worse than even a blind eye. 

7. 'The ill-tempered is less evil 2 than the ill- 
informed ; (8) because the ill-tempered, except by a 
decree, is not able to seize anything away from any 
one ; (9) and as to the ill-informed man, his desire 
of every kind is then 8 for oppression and plunder. 
10. Concerning him who is ill-informed it is declared 
that, apart from predestination, he is born free from 
fresh understanding*.' 

1 Li 9 has ' when he has no knowledge of anything.' 

*. Li 9 has 'is better.' 

8 That is, when he has a decree in his favour. 

4 § 10 is found only in TD2. It probably means that an ill- 
informed man is not likely to acquire any knowledge beyond that 
which is unavoidable. 

Digitized by 



Chapter XXVII. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
' Wherefore have the people who were from Gay6- 
mard 1 , and those, too, who were lords and monarchs, 
from H6shang 2 , the Pe\rda^, even unto Vlftasp 8 , the 
king of kings, been such doers of their own wills ? 
3. Much benefit was also obtained by them from the 
sacred beings, (4) and they have been mostly those 
who were ungrateful unto the sacred beings, (5) and 
there are some even who have been very ungrateful, 
promise-breaking, and sinful. 6. For what benefit 
then have they been severally created, (7) and what 
result and advantage proceeded from them ?' 

8. The spirit of wisdom answered (9) thus : ' That 
which thou askest concerning them, as to benefit, or 
as to the reverse *, thou shouldst become aware of 
and fully understand. 10. Because the affairs of the 
world of every kind proceed through destiny and 
time and the supreme decree of the self-existent 
eternity (zdrvan), the king and long-continuing 
lord. 1 1. Since, at various periods, it happens unto 
every one, for whom it is allotted, just as that which 
is necessary, to happen. 12. As even from the 
mutual connection of those ancients, who are passed 

1 Av. Gaya-maretan, the primeval man from whom the whole 
human race is supposed to have sprung, and who lived for thirty 
years after the advent of the evil spirit (see Bd. Ill, 22, XXXIV, 2). 

2 Av. Haoshyangha, the first monarch of the Iranian world, 
and founder of the Pe\?da</(Av. paradhata, 'early law') dynasty. 
He was the great-grandson of Mashya, the first earthly man that 
sprang from Gay6mar</, and is said to have reigned for forty years 
(see Bd. XV, 21-28, XXXI, i, XXXIV, 4). 

8 See Chap. XIII, 14 n. 4 L19 has ' evil.' 

Digitized by 


58 DtoA-i MAiN6oi khirab. 

away, it is manifest (13) that, ultimately, that benefit 
arose which was necessary to come from them to 
the creatures of Auharmas^. 

14. 'Because the advantage from Gaydmarafwas 
this, (15) first, the slaying of Arzur \ and making 
delivery of his own body, with great judiciousness, 
to Aharman 2 . 16. And the second advantage was 
this, (17) that mankind and all the guardian spirits 
of the producers of the renovation of the universe, 
males 8 and females *, were produced from his body. 
18. And, thirdly, this 5 , that even the metals were 
produced and formed 6 from his body 7 . 

19. 'And the advantage from Hdshang, the Pds- 
d&d, was this, (20) that, of three parts, he slew two 
parts of the demons of Mazendar 8 , who were 
destroyers of the world. . 

21. 'The advantage from Takhmorup', the well- 

1 Written Afrzur in TDz. It has been suggested by Windisch- 
mann (Zor. Stud p. 5) that this was the name of a demon, after- 
wards applied to the Areaur ridge at the gate of hell (see Bd. 
XII, 8), but this requires confirmation. Regarding this ridge 
the following explanation occurs in the Pahlavi Rivayat which 
precedes Dd. in many MSS. : — 'They say that hell is the ridge 
(pus to) of Arekzur; and hell is not the ridge of Arekzur, but that 
place where the gate of hell exists is a ridge (grlvako) such as the 
ridge named Arekzur, and owing to that they assert that it is the 
ridge (pus to) of Arekzur.' The explainer appears to mean that 
the ridge at the gate of hell was named after the other Mount 
Arezur, in Arum (see Bd XII, 16). 

* Compare Bd. Ill, 21-23. 

8 L19 has 'righteous males.' 

4 Fifteen of each, as stated in Bd. XXX, 17. 

8 L19 has 'this advantage.' * L19 omits the former verb. 

7 See Zs. X, a, Dd. LXIV, 7. 

8 See Dd. LXV, 5, referring probably to the demon-worshippers 
of M&zendar&n, south of the Caspian. 

• Av. Takhmd-urupa, the Tahmdras of the Sh&hn&mah; he 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXVII, 1 3-28. 59 

grown, was this, (22) that the accursed evil one, the 
wicked, was kept by him thirty years as a charger \ 
23. And the writing of penmanship of seven kinds, 
which that wicked one kept in concealment, he 
brought out to publicity. 

24. ' The advantage from the well-flocked Yim- 
sherf 2 , son ofVlvangha, was this, (25) that an im- 
mortality of six hundred years, six months, and 
sixteen days 3 is provided by him for the creatures 
and creation, of every kind, of the creator Auhar- 
mazd; (26) and they are made unsuffering, unde- 
caying, and undisturbed*. (27) Secondly, this 6 , 
that the enclosure formed by Yim 6 was made by 
him ; (28) and when that rain of Malkds T occurs — 
since it is declared in revelation that mankind and 

is said to have been a great-grandson of Hdshang, whom he suc- 
ceeded on the throne, and to have reigned thirty years (see Bd. 
XXXI, 2, XXXIV, 4). Written Takhm6rW5 in TD2. 
1 See Ram Yt 12, Zamyarf Yt. 29. 

* Av. Yima khshaSta, 'Yim the spendid;' he was a brother 
of his predecessor, Takhmorup, and the BundahLr states that he 
reigned six hundred and sixteen years and six months in glory, 
and one hundred years in concealment (see Chap. VIII, 27, Bd. 
XXXI, 3, XXXIV, 4). 

* TD2 has only ' three hundred years,' by the accidental omission 
of a cipher ; it also omits the months and days. 

4 See Vend. II, 16, Ram Yt 16, Zamyarf Yt. 33. 

5 L19 has 'this advantage.' 

* See Chap. LXII, 15-19. The formation of this enclosure is 
ordered by Auharmasrf in Vend. II, 61-92, for the preservation 
of mankind, animals, and plants from the effects of a glacial 
epoch which he foretells, and which is here represented as the 
rain of Malkds. 

. 7 This term for ' deluging rain ' may be traced either to Chald. 
B^PTP 'autumnal rain,' or to Av. mahrkufd, the title of a demon 
regarding whom nothing is yet known (see Dd. XXXVII, 94 n 
and SBE, vol. xviii, p. 479). 

Digitized by 


60 d!nA-1 MAtN6G-f KHIRAD. 

the other creatures and creations of Auharmas*/, the 
lord, are mostly those which shall perish 1 — (29) one 
shall afterwards open the gate of that enclosure 
formed by Yim, (30) and the people and cattle, and 
other creatures and creations of the creator Auha^- 
msLzd, shall come out from that enclosure, (31) and 
arrange the world again. 32. Thirdly, (33) when 2 
he brought back the proportion of the worldly 
existences, which that evil-producing wicked one 3 had 
swallowed, from his belly*. Fourthly, when a goat 
(go spend) was not given by him to the demons in 
the character of an old man 6 . 

34. 'And the advantage from Az-t Dahak, the 

1 Li 9 has merely ' shall mostly perish,' in place of these last six 

2 Li 9 has 'thirdly, this advantage, that' 
8 L19 adds ' who is Aharman.' 

4 According to a legend preserved in the Persian Riviyats (see 
MH10, fol. 52) Aharman, while kept as a charger by Takhmorup, 
induced the wife of the latter to ascertain from her husband 
whether he ever felt fear while riding the fiend, and, acting upon 
the information thus obtained, he threw the king from his back 
while descending from the Alburz mountains, and swallowed him. 
Information of this event was conveyed to Yim by the angel Srdsh, 
who advised him to seek the fiend and propitiate him. Yim, 
accordingly, went into the wilderness singing, to attract Aharman, 
and, when the fiend appeared, Yim ingratiated himself into his 
favour and, taking advantage of an unguarded moment, he dragged 
Takhmorup out of the fiend's entrails, and placed the corpse in 
a depository for the dead. In consequence of this feat his hand 
was attacked with leprosy, from which he suffered greatly until it 
was accidentally washed in bull's urine, which healed it. This 
legend is related for the purpose of recommending the use of bull's 
urine for purification of the body. 

6 Or, perhaps, ' as a substitute for an old man.' This fourth, 
advantage is found only in TD2, where the text is as follows: — 
'^Tahdrfim, amata* gdspend pavan g6harik-t pir va/ fSdSn 1& 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXVII, 29-44. 6 1 

Bevarasp 1 , and the accursed Fraslyak of Tur l was 
this, (35) that, if the dominion should not have come 
to B£varasp and Frasiyak, the accursed evil spirit 
would then have given that dominion unto Aeshm 2 ; 
(36) and when it would have come unto Aeshm, it 
would not have been possible to take it away from 
him till the resurrection and future existence, (37) for 
this reason, because he has no bodily existence 8 . 

38. 'And the advantage from Fr£rfun 4 was this, 
(39) such as the vanquishing and binding of hz-i 
Dahak, the B£varasp 5 , who was so grievously sinful. 
40. And, again too, many demons of Mazendar 6 
were smitten by him, and expelled from the region 
of Khvaniras 7 . ' 

41. 'And the advantage from Manfoiihar 8 was 
this, (42, 43) that, in revenge for Alrtfc, who was his 
grandfather, Salm and Tu^- were kept back by him 
from disturbing the world 9 . 44. From the land of 

1 See Chap. VIII, 29. 

2 The demon of wrath (see Chap. II, 115). 

3 And would, therefore, have continued to live and reign till the 

4 See Chap. VIII, 27. He is said to have reigned for five 
hundred years (see Bd. XXXIV, 6), but this period includes the 
lives of ten generations of his descendants who did not reign (see 
Bd. XXXI, 14). 

5 He is said to have been confined in Mount Dimavand (see 
Bd. XXIX, 9). 

' See § 20. 

1 The central region of the earth, containing all the countries 
best known to the Iranians, and supposed to be as large as the 
six outer regions united (see Bd. XI, 2-6). 

8 The successor of Fr&flm, who reigned one hundred and twenty 
years (see Bd. XXXIV, 6). He was a descendant, in the tenth 
generation, from Afri£, one of the sons of Fr&flln, who had been 
slain by his brothers Salm and Tu^- (see Bd. XXXI, 9-14). 

* Li 9 has 'that he slew Salm and TAf, who were his great- 

Digitized by 


62 DiNA-i MAtNdG-i KHIRAJ). 

Padashkhvirgar l unto the beginning of Du^ak5*, 
such as Fr&styak* had taken, by treaty (paafmfinS) 4 
he seized back from Fraslyak, and brought it into 
the possession of the countries of Irin. And as to 
the enlargement of the sea of K&ns&l 6 , such as Fra- 
slyak supplied, he also expelled the water from it. 
45. 'And the advantage from Kal-Kavaa? 6 was 

uncles, in revenge for AfrW, and kept them back from disturbing 
the world.' 

1 The mountainous region in Taparisttn and Gtt&n, south of 
the Caspian (see Bd. XII, 17). 

2 Li 9 has 'hell.' This Du^ako may possibly be meant for the 
DusakS of Vend. I, 34, of which Va6kereta was the chief settle- 
ment, and this latter is identified with K&>ul (Kabul) by the Pahlavi 
translators. The name can also be read Gan^ako, which might be 
identified with Canzaca, but this would not correspond so well with 
the legend, alluded to in the text, which relates how Manfcf£ihar, 
having shut himself up in the impregnable fortress of Amul 
in Taparistan, could not be conquered by Fr&siyak, who was 
compelled to come to terms, whereby all the country within an 
arrow-shot east of Mount DimaVand should remain subject to 
Manufiihar. The arrow was shot and kept on its flight from 
dawn till noon, when it fell on the bank of the Oxus, which river 
was thenceforward considered the frontier of the Iranians. This 
frontier would fully include all the territory between Taparistan 
and Kdbul mentioned in the text. In Bd. XXXI, 21 the success 
of Manikfcihar is attributed to some dispute between Fr&siyak and 
his brother, AghrSra*/. 

3 See Chap. VIII, 29 n. 

4 L19 has 'such as was made the portion (pa<frn£no) of 

6 Called Kydnsfh in Bd. XIII, 16, XX, 34, where it is stated 
that it was formerly fresh, but latterly salt, and that Fra^iyak 
diverted many rivers and streams into it. It is the brackish lake 
and swamp now called Hdmun, ' the desert,' or Zarah, ' the sea,' 
in Sist&n. In the Avesta it is called Kasu, and the future apostles 
of the Mazda-worshipping faith are expected to be born on its 

4 Av. Kavi KavSta, the Kai-QuMd of the SMhn£mah. He 

Digitized by 


chapter xxvii, 45-54. 63 

this, (46) that he became a thanksgiver unto the 
sacred beings. 47. Dominion, also, was well exer- 
cised by him, (48) and the family and race of the 
Kayans proceeded again from him. 

49. 'And the advantage from Sahm] 1 was [this], 
(50) that the serpent Sr6var 2 and the wolf Kapua? 3 , 
which they also call P^hlno 4 , the watery demon 
Gandarep 6 , the bird Kamak 6 , and the deluding 
demon were slain by him. 51. And he also per- 
formed many other great and valuable actions, (52) 
and kept back much disturbance from the world, 
(53) as to which, when one of those disturbances, in 
particular, should have remained behind, it would 
not have been possible to produce the resurrection 
and future existence. 

54. ' And the advantage from Kai-Os 7 was this, 

was the founder of the Kayln dynasty, and reigned fifteen years 
(see Bd. XXXI, 24, 25, XXXIV, 7). 

1 The brackets indicate the end of the passage taken from TD2 
and the Pdzand version, in consequence of the nine folios con- 
taining Chaps. XIV, 1 -XXVII, 49 being lost from K43. From 
this point the translation follows the text of K43. Sahm (Av. 
Sama) was the family name of the hero Keres&sp (see Fravarrfin 
Yt. 61, 136), who was a son of Thrita the Siman (see Yas. IX, 30, 
31). For the legends relating to him, see SBE, vol. xviii, pp. 369- 
382. His name is written Sim in Pizand. 

' Av. asi srvara (see Yas. IX, 34-39, Zamy&f Yt. 40). 

5 Or 'the blue wolf;' not yet identified in the Avesta. 

* Darmesteter (SBE, vol. xxiii, p. 295, note 4) identifies this 
name with Pathana of Zamyarf Yt. 41, which seems to mean 
* highwayman ;' but this identification appears to depend merely on 
similarity of sound. 

8 Av.Ga«darewaof AMnYt. 38,RamYt. 28, Zamy&/ Yt. 41. 

6 A gigantic bird mentioned in the Persian Rivayats as over- 
shadowing the earth and keeping off the rain, while it ate up men 
and animals like grains of corn, until Keresisp killed it with arrows 
shot continuously for seven days and nights. 

' See Chap. VIII, 27 n. He was a grandson of Kai-Kav£</, 

Digitized by 


64 DfoiA-t ma1n6g-1 khirad. 

(55) as Siyavakhsh 1 was produced from his body. 
56. Many other actions also proceeded from him. 

57. 'And the advantage from Siyavakhsh was this, 
(58) such as the begetting of Kai-Khusrdl 2 , and the 
formation of Kangdes 3 . 

59. 'And the advantage from Kal-Khusr61 was 
this, (60) such as the slaying of Frasiyak*, (61) the 
extirpation of the idol-temples which were on the 
lake of ATe^ast 5 , (62) and the management of Kang- 
desr. 63. And he is able to do good through his 
assistance of the raising of the dead* by the restorer 
of the dead, the triumphant Sdshans 7 , which is in 
the future existence. 

64. 'And the advantage from Kal-Ldharasp 8 was 

whom he succeeded, and is said to have reigned a hundred and 
fifty years (see Bd. XXXI, 25, XXXIV, 7), but perhaps this period 
may have included the reign of his father, whom tradition has 
nearly forgotten. 

1 Av. Sy&varshin, the Siyivush of the Shahn&mah. Though 
both his father and son were kings, he did not reign himself. 
Li 9 has Kal-Syavash. 

* See Chap. II, 95. 

8 Av. Kangha. A fortified settlement said to have been ' in the 
direction of the east, at many leagues from the bed of the wide- 
formed ocean towards that side,' and on the frontier of AirSn-ve^ 
(see Chap. LXII, 13, Bd. XXIX, 10). 

* See Chap. VIII, 29. This name must have been applied rather 
to a dynasty than to a single individual, as he reigned in Ir£n in 
the time of Mdnuf^ihar, nearly two hundred years earlier. 

8 See Chap. II, 95. 

* He is expected to assist in the renovation of the universe at 
the resurrection, together with Keresasp and other heroes (see 
Chap. LVII, 7, Dd. XXXVI, 3). 

7 See Chap. II, 93. 

* Av. Kavi and Aurvarfaspa. He was a descendant of Kai- 
Kavarf in the fifth generation, being a second cousin once removed 
of his predecessor, Kat-Khusrdf, and reigned a hundred and twenty 
years (see Bd. XXXI, 25, 28, XXXIV, 7). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XXVII, 55-76. 65 

this, (65) that dominion was well exercised by him, 
(66) and he became a thanksgiver unto the sacred 
beings. 67. He demolished the Jerusalem of the 
Jews 1 , and made the Jews dispersed and scattered; 
and the accepter of the religion, Kal-Vistasp 2 , was 
produced from his body. 

68. 'And the advantage from Vistasp was this, (69) 
such as the acceptance and solemnization of the good 
religion of the Ma^a-worshippers, (70) through the 
divine voice (bakan a£va.s) of the Ahunavar 3 , the 
word of the creator Auharmasaf ; (71) the annihilation 
and destruction of the bodies of the demons and 
fiends ; (72) and the pleasure and comfort of water 
and fire and all the angels and spirits of the worldly 
existences*. 73. And he was full of the hope of the 
good and worthy, (74) through a virtuous desire 
for his own determination, (75) the compensation 
(n6.y da^no) 6 and gratification of Atiharmsuzd, with 
the archangels, (76) and the affliction and destruc- 
tion of Aharman and the 6 miscreations.' 

1 AurijalSm-i Yahurfino. The first fourteen words of § 67 
do not occur in the Paz.-Sans. version, but a corresponding state- 
ment is found in a Persian metrical version, described by Sachau in 
his Contributions to the Knowledge of Parsee Literature (J.R.A.S., 
New Series, vol. iv, pp. 229-283), also in the works of several Arab 
writers of the tenth century (see N6ldeke, G5t. gel. Anz. 1882, p. 964). 

2 See Chap. XIII, 14 n. 

* The most sacred formula of the Mazda.- worshippers, consisting 
of twenty-one words, forming three metrical lines of sixteen syllables 
each, beginning with yathl ahu vairy6, 'as a patron spirit is de- 
sirable.' It is supposed to have been uttered by Auharmazrf, for 
the discomfiture of Aharman, on the first appearance of that evil 
spirit in the universe (see Bd. I, 21). 

4 L19 has 'all the angels of the spiritual and worldly existences! 

5 L19 has u shnai* n, 'and the propitiation.' 

• Li 9 has 'his.' 

['4] F . 

Digitized by 


66 DiNA-1 ma!n6g-{ khirajj. 

Chapter XXVIII. 

i. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
'Who is the more forgiving (vakhshayanlktar) ? 
3. What is the more in strength ? 4. What is the 
swifter 1 ? 5. What is the happier? 6. What is 
the more miserable 2 ?' 

7. The spirit of wisdom answered (8) thus : ' Au- 
harmsLzd, the lord, is the more forgiving. 9. He 
saw 3 the nine thousand years' mischief* among his 
own creatures, owing to Aharman, yet afterwards, 
through justice and forgiveness, he does not then 
smite him for it 5 . 

10. ' And the celestial sphere is the more in 
strength. 11. The intellect 6 of mankind is the 
swifter. 12. The souls of the righteous are the 
happier. 13. And those of the wicked are the more 
penitent 7 .' 

Chapter XXIX. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' What is it necessary to keep with more regard and 
more protection ?' 

1 Or ' sharper.' 

2 L19 adds ' what is the more hopeless ?' 

3 Li 9 has 'who sees.' 

4 The period appointed for the conflict between the good and 
evil spirits (see Chap. VIII, n). 

6 Reading Sdinajaj, which N6r. has misread ain&j, 'otherwise 
him.' L19 has 'yet then, except with justice and patience, he does 
not smite him otherwise.' It is also possible to read ' he does not 
smite him without listening (agusha*).' 

8 Li 9 has 'the thought.' 

7 L19 has 'the more miserable and more hopeless/ 

Digitized by 



3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' It 
is necessary to keep a young serving-boy (raslk) 1 , 
a wife, a beast of burden, and a fire with more pro- 
tection and more regard.' 

Chapter XXX. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
'Which of any living existence (zlv£ndag-i) is the 
worse ? 3. And in wisdom who is the more unfore- 
seeing 2 ?' 

4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus : ' A 
life of him is the worse, who lives in fear and false- 
hood 3 . 6. And in wisdom he is the more un- 
foreseeing, who does not provide for 4 the spiritual 
existence, and attends to the worldly one! 

Chapter XXXI. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' What is the business of the priests, warriors, and 
husbandmen 6 , each separately?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: 'The 
business of the priests is to maintain the religion 
properly; (5) and to perform the ceremonial and 
invocation of the sacred beings well and with atten- 

1 L19 has ' a young boy (r«dak).' 

a Literally, ' more unforeknowing (apafdintktar).' L19 has 
' more unapprovable (apasawdaf nttar).' 

8 See Chap. XIX, 6. 

4 Li 9 has ' does not believe in.' 

• The three classes which are often mentioned in the Avesta as 
constituting the Mazrfa-worshipping community. For their vices, 
see Chap. LIX. 

F 2 

Digitized by 


68 pfNA-f maIn6g-1 khirab. 

tion, (6) and 1 the decrees, decisions 2 , custom, and 
control 3 , as revealed by the pure, good . religion of 
the Mas^a-worshippers. 7. To make people aware 
of the goodness of good works 4 ; (8) and to show 
the way to heaven, and the danger and avoidance 
of hell. 

9. ' The business of the warriors is to defeat the 
enemy ; (10) and to keep their own country and land 
(bum) 6 unalarmed and tranquil. 

11. 'And the business of the husbandmen is to 
perform tillage and cultivation; (12) and, to the 
extent of their ability, to keep the world invigor- 
ated and populous.' 

Chapter XXXII. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
'What is the business of the well-endeavouring 8 , the 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' The 
business of the artizans is this, (5) that as to that 
work which they do not understand, they do not 
bring a hand to it; (6) and that which they well 7 

1 L19 inserts ' to keep true.' 

4 K43 has 6&d da<fist&n, 'decisions of the law;' but the repe- 
tition of the syllable did is probably a clerical blunder. 
' L19 omits va band, ' and control.' 
4 Li 9 has 'aware of good works and sin.' 
8 L19 has vtma»d, 'frontier.' 

• The hutukhshan(Av.huiti) are the fourth class of the com- 
munity, and are very rarely mentioned in the Avesta, possibly 
because they were originally enslaved outcasts or aborigines, as in 
other ancient communities. The passage where they are specially 
mentioned (Yas. XIX, 46) is probably taken from the Bagh Nask 
(see Sis. X, 26 n ; XIII, 1 n, 9 n). 

* Li 9 omits 'well.' 

Digitized by 



understand (hu-danend), they perform well and 
with attention ; (7) and they demand wages law- 
fully. (8). For as to kirn who persists in doing 
that work which 1 he does not understand, it is he 
by whom that work is spoiled and becomes useless ; 
and when, moreover, he is a man whose work 
makes himself satisfied, it then becomes even an 
origin of sin for him.' 


Chapter XXXIII. \^ UFORg ^ 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
1 As to a ruler 2 , (3) a chieftain, (4) a friend, (5) a 
kinsman, (6) a wife, (7) a child, (8) and a country, 
which is the worse ?' 

9. The spirit of wisdom answered (10) thus: 
'That ruler is the worse, that is not able to keep 
the country unalarmed, and the people untroubled. 

11. That chieftain is the worse, who is defective 
in ability, unthankful unto agents (ka^^aran), and 
no helper and interceder for a servant (a^ak) 3 . 

12. That friend is the worse, who is not fit to be 
relied upon. 13. That kinsman is the worse, who 
is no helper in illness (khastanak)*. 14. That 
wife is the worse, with whom it is not possible to 
live with pleasure. 15. That child is the worse, 
who is no bringer of renown. 16. And that country 
is the worse, in which it is not possible to live in 
happiness, fearlessness, and permanence.' 

1 Li 9 omits 'work,' and K43 omits ' which.' 

* L19 makes §§ 2-7 each a separate question, by adding ' which 
is the worse' to each, as in § 8. 

* L19 has asigard&n, 'disciples.' 

* Or, ' in accident (hastdnak).' 

Digitized by 


70 DinA-1 MAlNOG-i KHIRAD. 

Chapter XXXIV. 

i. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' Has the creator Auharma^ produced the creation 
of anything whatever for the worldly existence 1 , unto 
which Aharman is not able to bring disturbance ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' To 
him who is a wise and contented man it is but little 
possible to bring disturbance.' 

Chapter XXXV. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' How many are those people whom it is necessary 
to consider as rich, and how many are those who are 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' These 
are the people it is necessary to consider as rich : — 
(5) one is he who is perfect in wisdom ; (6) the second, 
whose body is healthy, and he lives fearlessly ; (7) 
the third, who is content with that which has come ; 

(8) the fourth, he whose destiny is a helper in virtue ; 

(9) the fifth, who is well-famed in the eyes of the 
sacred beings, and by the tongues of the good; (10) 
the sixth, whose trust is on this one, pure, good 
religion of the Mazda-worshippers ; (11) and the 
seventh, whose wealth is from honesty. 

12. 'And these are the people to be considered 
as poor; — (13) one is he with whom there is no" 
wisdom ; (14) the second, whose body is not healthy; 
(15) the third, who lives in his fear, terror 2 , and 
falsehood; (16) the fourth, who is not ruling in his 

* L19 omits these four words. 2 L19 omits 'terror.' 

Digitized by 



own body 1(17) the fifth, whose destiny is no helper ; 
(18) the sixth, who is infamous in the eyes of the 
sacred beings, and on the tongues of the good; (19) 
and the seventh, who is old, and no child and kindred 

Chapter XXXVI. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
'Which sin is the more heinous?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' Of 
the sin which people commit, unnatural intercourse 
is the more heinous. 5. The second is he who has 
suffered or performed intercourse with men. 6. The 
third, who slays a righteous man. 7. The fourth, 
who breaks off a next-of-kin marriage 1 . 8. The 
fifth, who destroys the arrangement of an adopted 
son (sat6r) 2 . 9. The sixth, who smites the fire of 
Varahram 3 . 10. The seventh, who kills a water- 
beaver 4 . 11. The eighth, who worships an idol. 

1 See Chap. IV, 4 n. 

2 If a man has not appointed an adopted son during his lifetime, 
and leaves property producing an income of eighty-four rupts or 
more, but no privileged wife, or child, or domesticated brother, fit 
for the duty of guardianship, then an adopted son must be appointed 
by his nearest relations after his death (see Dd. LVI-LX). 

* The sacred fire, named after the angel Varahram or Vihram 
(see Chap. II, 115). 

* The baprako-t az>ik is the Av. bawrif upapd, with whose 
skins Ardvf sura, the angel of water, is said to be clothed (Abftn Yt. 
129). It is said to have been 'created in opposition to the demon 
which is in the water' (see Bd. XIX, 29). Whether it is the same 
as the Av. udra up 5. pa, 'water-otter,' is not quite certain; but 
killing the latter was considered (for some reason not clearly ascer- 
tained) a very heinous sin, for which the proper atonement is fully 
detailed in Vend. XIV. 

Digitized by 


72 DlNA-1 MAfN6oi KHIRAD. 

12. The ninth, who believes and wishes to wor- 
ship in every religion. 13. The tenth, who con- 
sumes anything which is received into his custody, 
and becomes an embezzler. 14. The eleventh is 
he who, through sinfulness, provides support for 
wickedness 1 . 15. The twelfth, who does no work, 
but eats unthankfully and unlawfully. 16. The 
thirteenth, who commits heresy (zandlkih) 2 . 17. 
The fourteenth, who commits witchcraft. 18. The 
fifteenth, who commits apostasy (aharm6kih) 3 . 19. 
The sixteenth, who commits* demon-worship. 20. 
The seventeenth, who commits theft, or abetting 
(afagldfth) of thieves. 21. The eighteenth, who 
commits promise-breaking 6 . 22. The nineteenth, 
who commits maliciousness. 23. The twentieth, 
who commits oppression to make the things of 
others his own. 24. The twenty-first, who dis- 

1 L19 has 'falsehood.' 

s The term zandtk, according to Mas'audf (chap, xxiv), was first 
applied to the Manicheans, and afterwards to all others who fol- 
lowed the commentary (zand) in preference to the Avesta; finally, 
however, the Arabs applied the term to the Persians, probably with 
its acquired meaning of ' heretic' or ' infidel' A different explana- 
tion of the term is given in Pahl. Yas. LX, 11, where it is stated that 
' Zand is the apostle of the wizards, and through Zand it is possible 
to perform witchcraft' The Sanskrit version here adds, ' that is, 
he thinks well of Aharman and the demons ;' and in PA10 it con- 
tinues thus : ' the atheist's religion, the wicked way that there is no 
creator, there is no heaven, there is no hell, there is no resurrection, 
and so on ; such is the meaning.' 

8 From Av.ashemaogha,' disturbing righteousness.' N£r. adds 
in Sanskrit, ' that is, having thoroughly known the meaning of the 
Avesta, he becomes deceived.' 

4 As the verb in § 23 can apply, in Pahlavi, to any number of 
preceding sections, it is omitted by K43 in §§ 19-22. The verb is 
also omitted by K43 in § 25 for a similar reason. 

5 Or ' breach of contract.' 

Digitized by 



tresses a righteous man. 25. The twenty-second, 
who commits slander. 26. The twenty-third, who 
commits arrogance. 27. The twehty-fourth, who 
goes to a professional courtezan 1 . 28. The twenty- 
fifth, who commits ingratitude. 29. The twenty- 
sixth, who speaks false and untrue 2 . # 30. The 
twenty-seventh, who causes ^discontent as to the 
affairs of those who are departed 3 . 31. The twenty- 
eighth, whose pleasure is from viciousness and 
harassing the good. 32. The twenty-ninth, who 
considers sin as to be urged on, and a good work 
as a day's delay*. 33. And the thirtieth, who 
becomes grieved by that happiness which is pro- 
vided by him for any one.' 

Chapter XXXVII. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
'Through how many ways and motives of good 
works do people arrive most at heaven ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' The 
first good work is liberality s . 5. The second, truth. 
6. The third, thankfulness. 7. The fourth, content- 
ment 8. The fifth, wanting to produce welfare for 
the good, and becoming a friend to every one. 9. 
The sixth, being without doubt as to this, that the 

1 Such appears to be the meaning of zano-i karan. L19 has 
zan-i kasan, 'the wives of others.' 

* Or 'irreverent,' according as we read arast6 or anastS. 

3 Li 9 has 'secluded and departed,' similar to Chap. XXXVII, 23. 

4 It is doubtful whether sipan^, 'a halting-place,' or slp6^-, 
' setting aside,' should be read ; but the meaning is practically the 

* Compare Chap. IV, which divides good works into seven 

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74 d!nA-1 MAtN6G-l KHIRAI>. 

sky and earth and every benefit of the worldly and 
spiritual existences are owing to the creator Auhar- 
vazzd. 10. The seventh, being so as to the unques- 
tionableness of this \ that all misery and affliction 
are owing to Aharman the wicked, who is accursed. 
1 1. The eighth, freedom from doubt as to the resur- 
rection and future existence. 12. The ninth, who 
for love of the soul effects 2 a next-of-kin mar- 
riage. 13. The tenth, who arranges adoption 8 . 14. 
The eleventh, who practises regular industry. 15. 
The twelfth, who is without doubt in this pure, good 
religion of the Mazda-worshippers. 16. The thir- 
teenth, who is kindly regardful as to the ability and 
means of every one. 1 7. The fourteenth, who per- 
ceives 4 the kind regard of the good, and becomes 
himself, also, kindly regardful as to the goodness 
which one wants among the good. 1 8. The fifteenth, 
who seeks the affection of the good. 19. The six- 
teenth, who keeps malice and uncharitableness far 
from his mind. 20. The seventeenth, who bears no 
improper envy. 21. The eighteenth, who forms no 
desire of lust. 22. The nineteenth, who produces 
no discord with any one. 23. The twentieth, who 
brings no distress into the affairs of a departed and 
unassisted one (^\\gid) h . 24. The twenty-first, who 

1 By the transposition of two words L19 has 'freedom from 
doubt as to this.' 

2 Whether for himself, or for another, is uncertain (see Chap. 
IV, 4 n). 

8 NSr. explains in Sanskrit, thus : ' that is, whoever becomes a 
spirit childless, maintains any man, with his wealth, for his fame 
and his lineage, then thus the soul, too, is for an increase of good 

4 L19 transposes the two verbs, 'perceives' and 'wants.' 

6 N§r. reads Avazid, which he identifies with Pers. 'Aazid, 'con- 

Digitized by 



lets 1 no wrath into his body. 25. The twenty- 
second, who commits no sin on account of disgrace 2 . 
26. The twenty-third, who forms no desire of lethargy 
on account of laziness. 2 7. The twenty-fourth, who 
is without doubt as to the sacred beings. 28. The 
twenty-fifth, who is without doubt as to the existence 
of heaven and hell, and the account which is to be 
rendered by the soul, the glory which is in heaven, 
and the misery which is in hell. 29. The twenty- 
sixth, who abstains 3 from slander and envious looks. 
30. The twenty-seventh, who causes the happiness 
of himself, and gives happy advancement also to 
others. 31. The twenty-eighth, who becomes the 
help 4 of the good, and accuser of the bad. 32. The 
twenty-ninth, who restrains himself from deceit and 
evil(du^ih) 6 . 33. The thirtieth, who does not speak 
false and untrue 6 . 34. The thirty-first, who restrains 
himself firmly from promise-breaking. 35. The 
thirty-second, who, for the sake of seeking his own 
benefit and happiness, causes the abstinence of others 
from evil. 36. And the thirty-third, who provides 
lodging accommodation for the sick and secluded 7 
and traders.' 

Chapter XXXVIII. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
'Wherefore is it when they do not allot the happiness 

cealed, secluded ;' and which might also be taken in the sense of 
one who has ' crawled,' meaning a young child ; but the identifica- 
tion is doubtful. 

1 L19 has ' keeps.' * That is, 'for fear of disgrace.' 

* L19 has 'restrains himself.' 4 L19 has 'helper.' 
6 L19 has A»arf-ddshf, 'self-conceit' 

• See Chap. XXXVI, 29 n. 7 See Chap. XV, 6 n. 

Digitized by 


•j6 DfNA-t MAtNdG-i KHIRAfl. 

of the worldly existence according to worthiness, and 
they make the soul a seizer upon the spiritual exist- 
ences by worthiness of action ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: 'On 
account of the compassion of Auharma.swf, the lord, 
as regards the creatures, he allots all happiness alike 
among the good and alike among the bad. 5. But 
when it does not always come upon them, it is on 
account of the oppression of Aharman and the 
demons, and the extortion of those seven planets \ 

6. ' And they make one 2 a seizer upon the spiritual 
existences, by worthiness of action, on this account, 
because the wickedness of any 8 one arises through 
the performance of his own actions.' 

Chapter XXXIX. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' Which power is the more seemly ? 3. In wisdom 
who is the more complete ? 4. And in disposition 
who is the more faithful ? 5. Whose speech is the 
more proper ? 6. In whose mind is the goodness 
little * ? 7. And as a friend who is the worse ? 
8. In whose mind is the pleasure little ? 9. In 
heart who is the more seemly ? 10. In endurance 
who is the more approvable ? 11. Who is not to 
be considered as faithful ? 12. What is that which 
is worth keeping with every one? 13. And what 

1 Which are supposed to be agents of Aharman for causing mis- 
fortune to the creatures (see Chaps. VIII, 19, 20; XII, 7-10). 

* Li 9 has ' the soul.' * L19 has ' every.' 

* Li 9 has 'much the more,' to correspond with a different reply 
in § 26. 

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is that which is not to be kept with any one ? 14. 
What is to be preserved in conversation ? 15. Who 
is he that is not to be accepted as a witness ? 16. 
And unto whom is it necessary to be obedient ? 
17. What is it more necessary to mind and to keep 
praising ? 18. What is that which is not to be made 
unrespected in any way ? 19. What is he who, in 
his own degree, is said to be such as Auharma&jf and 
the archangels ? 20. And what is he who, in his 
own degree, is 1 such as Aharman and the demons ?' 
21. The spirit of wisdom answered (22) thus: 'In 
power he is the more seemly who, when he indulges 
his wrath, is able to allay the wrath, and not commit 
sin and gratify himself. 23. And in wisdom he is 
the more complete who is able to preserve his own 
soul. 24. In disposition he is the more faithful, in 
whom there is nothing whatever of deceit and pre- 
tence. 25. The speech of him is the more proper 
who speaks more true. 26. Goodness is little in the 
mind of a man of wrath 2 . 27. As a friend, a 
malicious man who is a fighter is worse. 28. And 
pleasure is little in the mind of him who is an 
envious man. 29. In heart he is the more seemly 
who abandons the worldly existence and seizes the 
spiritual one; (30) and by his own will accepts 
righteousness as a yoke (va/ £avarman) s . 31. 
And in endurance he is the more approvable who *, 

1 Li 9 has ' is said to be! 

3 Li 9 has ' goodness is more in an humble-minded man,' so as 
to correspond with the difference in its question in § 6. 

8 Literally, 'for the neck.' N6r. has misread va/-i£ valman 
(Paz. 6-ka. di), and has 'by his own will for it, also accepts 

4 From this point to Chap. XL, 17, the Pahlavi text of K43 is 
missing, owing to the loss of one folio in that MS. The copy of 

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78 DiNA-f MAiN6G-t KHIRAD. 

[contentedly and with a will, accepts, as a yoke 1 ,] 
the misery and affliction which [come upon] him 
[from Aharman and the demons and the vile ; (32) 
and it, in no way, harasses his own soul. 33. He 
is not to be considered as faithful who has no fear 
of the sacred beings, nor shame as to mankind. 34. 
Those which are worth keeping with every one are 
peace and affection. 35. And those which are not 
to be kept with any one whatever are malice and 
discord. 36. All 2 these three are to be preserved 
in conversation : good thoughts, good words, and 
good deeds in one's own thinking, speaking, and 
doing. 37. These three are not to be accepted as 
a witness : a woman 3 , a young serving-boy 4 , and 
a man-slave. 38. These are such as must be 
personally obedient and do service : (39) the wife 
unto the husband, (40) and the child unto the father 
and mother, the chieftain 5 and high-priest, the 
teacher 6 , the adopted son 7 , and secluded 8 kindred. 
41. And unto rulers, chieftains, and teachers one is 
also to be obedient. 42. The sacred beings it is 
more necessary to mind and to keep praising. 
43. And one's own soul is not to be made 9 unre- 
spected in any mode, (44) and is always to be kept 

TD2 is, therefore, followed, and its translation is enclosed in 

1 See § 30 n. * L19 omits ' all.' 

8 Or ' a wife,' as both meanings are expressed by the same word, 

and, in fact, every woman is expected to become a wife. 
4 Li 9 has ' a young boy,' as in Chap. XXIX, 4. 

6 The word sardlr (P&z. sal&r) also means 'guardian.' 
* Li 9 inserts ' and fire.' 

7 See Chap. XXXVI, 8 n. As the adopted son takes the place 
of the deceased father, he must be obeyed accordingly by the 
whole family. 

8 See Chap. XV, 6n. * L19 has 'considered.' 

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CHAPTER XXXIX, 32 -XL, 1 5. 79 

in remembrance. 45. The judge who exercises true 
justice, and takes no bribe, is 1 , in his own degree, 
such as Auha/Tnas^ and the archangels. 46. And 
he who exercises false justice is said to be, in his own 
degree, such as Aharman and the demons.' 

Chapter XL. 

I. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
' What is the colder and what is the warmer ? 3. 
What is the brighter and what is the darker? 

4. What is the fuller and what is the emptier 2 ? 

5. What end is the more fruitless 3 ? 6. What is that 
thing of which no superfluity arises for any one ? 
7. What is that which no one is able to deprive one 
of? 8. What is that thing which it is not possible 
to buy at a price ? 9. What is that thing with 
which every one is always 4 satisfied? 10. What 
is that with which no one 6 whatever is satisfied ? 
1 1. What is that one wish that A&h&rmazd, the lord, 
contemplates* as regards men? 12. What is that 
one wish that Aharman, the wicked, contemplates 
as regards men ? 13. What is the end of the 
worldly existence and what is the end of 7 the 
spiritual one?' 

14. The spirit of wisdom answered (15) thus: 
' The heart of the righteous is the warmer, and that 

1 Li 9 has ' is said to be.' 

s Reading t6hiktar, both here and in § 17; L19 has tawgttar, 
as if for tang tar, ' narrower,' in both places. 

* TD2 has 'fearless/ but this does not correspond with § 18. 

* Li 9 omits 'always.' * L19 has 'nothing.' 

* The verb in § 12 is sufficient in Pahlavi for this section also. 
7 Li 9 omits these five words. 

Digitized by 


80 DiNA-i MAfN6G-i KHIRAJD. 

of the wicked the colder. 16. Righteousness is the 
brighter, and wickedness the darker. 1 7. The hope 
and protection which pertain to the sacred beings] 1 
are the fuller, and those which pertain to the de- 
mons are the emptier 2 . 18. The end of the world- 
arranging and spirit-destroying man is the more fruit- 
less. 19. It is knowledge of which no one knows 
a superfluity. 20. It is learning and skill which no 
one is able to deprive one of. 21. It is understanding 
and intellect which it is not possible to buy at a 
price. 22. It is wisdom with which every one and 
one's own self are untroubled and satisfied. 23. It 
is stupidity and ignorance with which every one and 
even one's own self are troubled and not satisfied. 

24. ' That one wish which Auhafmaawf, the lord, 
contemplates as regards men is this, (25) that "ye shall 
fully understand me ; for every one who fully under- 
stands me, comes after me and strives for my satis- 
faction." 26. And that one wish which Aharman 
contemplates as regards men is this, (27) that "ye 
shall not understand me ; " for he knows that whoever 
fully understands that wicked one, does not go after 
his evil deeds s , (28) and nothing whatever of power 
and help for him arises 4 from that man. 

29. ' And as to that which is asked by thee con- 
cerning the spiritual and worldly existences, the 
worldly existence is, in the end, death and disappear- 
ance, (30) and of the spiritual existence, in the end, 

1 From this point the translation again follows the Pahlavi text 
of K43. 

2 See § 4 n. 

* Li 9 has 'for whoever fully understands me as wicked, his 
deeds do not go after me.' 

* L 1 9 has ' nothing whatever of advantage and help comes to me.' 

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CHAPTER XL, 16-XLI, 4. 8 1 

that of a soul of the righteous is undecaying, im- 
mortal, and undisturbed, full of glory and full of 
enjoyment, for ever and everlasting, with the angels 
and archangels and the guardian spirits 1 of the 
righteous. 31. And the bridge 2 and destruction 3 
and punishment of the wicked in hell are for ever 
and everlasting 4 . 32. And the wicked soul, apart 
from the punishment, contemplates the existence, 
and even the appearance 6 , with the demons and 
fiends just as, in the worldly existence, a healthy 
man does that with him who is very grievously sick.' 

Chapter XLI. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
' Which man is the mightier ? 3. Which road is 
the more, dreadful ? 4. Which account is the more 

1 The guardian spirits are the spiritual representatives of each 
individual being and thing of the good creation, which are supposed 
to have been all created by Auharmazrf in the beginning (see Chap. 
XLIX, 23, Bd. I, 8). 

2 That is the investigation into the character of the soul at the 
Amdvar bridge (see Chap. II, 115, 162). L19 omits this mention 
of the bridge. 

3 Reading druj, as in L19, but this is doubtful. 

* This phrase can be used either with reference to time or to 
eternity. Time which lasts for ever must end at the resurrection, 
as in this case (see Chap. II, 193), because time then ceases to 
exist. But eternity which lasts for ever can never end. If this 
phrase had the same meaning here as in § 30, it would contradict 
all the other statements regarding the fate of the wicked, which are 
to be found in Pahlavi literature, including those of the author 

' L19 has 'the wicked soul contemplates being apart from the 
punishment, and also apart from appearance.' 

[24] G 

Digitized by 



perplexing ? 5. Which tie 1 is the pleasanter ? 6. 
Which work is the more regretable ? 7. And which 
gift is the more unprofitable?' 

8. The spirit of wisdom answered (9) thus : ' That 
man is the mightier who is able to struggle with his 
own fiends 2 ; (10) and, in particular, he who keeps 
these five fiends far from his person, (11) which are 
such as greediness, wrath, lust, disgrace, and dis- 
content. 12. The road in passing over the .Afindvar 
bridge 3 is the more dreadful. 1 3. The account for 
a soul of the wicked is the more perplexing. 14, 
The tie of children is the pleasanter and more 
desirable. 15. That work is the more regretable 
which they do for the ungrateful. 16. And that 
gift is the more unprofitable which they give to the 
unworthy V 

Chapter XLII. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom {2) thus : 
' How many kinds of man are there ? ' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' There 
are three kinds of man, (5) one is man, one is demi- 
man, and one is demi-demon. 

6. ' A man is he who is without doubt as to the 
creativeness of Atiharmsusd, the destructiveness of 
Aharman, and the existence of the resurrection and 
future existence ; and also as regards every other 
happiness and misery, in the worldly and spiritual 

1 K43 has b6f, ' scent,' which is distinguished from band, ' tie,' 
only by diacritical marks in Pahlavi. 

2 His own passions and failings personified as fiends. 
8 See Chap. II, 115, 162. 

4 L19 has ' to the ungrateful and unworthy.' 

Digitized by 



existences, (7) that its origin is from both of those 
beings, from Auharmaswf and Aharman. 8. And his 
belief is in this one pure, good religion of the Ma^a- 
worshippers ; (9) and he does not believe in, and 
does not hearken unto, any heterodoxy. 

10. ' A demi-man is he who performs the affairs 
of the worldly and spiritual existences according to 
his own opinion, self-conceitedly and obstinately ; 
(11) be they duties and good works by the will of 
Auhannasttf, or be they by the will of Aharman, they 
proceed from him. 

12. 'A demi-demon is he in whom there is only 
as it were the name of man x and the human race, 
but in his doing of every action he is then like unto 
a two-legged demon. 1 3. He understands no worldly 
and no spiritual existence, (14) he understands no 
good work and no sin, (15) he understands no heaven 
and no hell, (16) and even the account which is to 
be rendered by the soul he does not think of.' 

Chapter XLI 1 1. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' How is it possible to make Atiharmzjsd, the arch- 
angels, and the fragrant, well-pleasing heaven more 
fully for oneself? 3. And how is it possible to make 
Aharman, the wicked, and the demons confounded, 
and to escape from hell, the depreciated 2 and dark?' 

4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus : ' To 
make Atiharmazd, the lord, and the archangels, and 

1 Li 9 has 'humanity.' 

a Reading dfif-vahik. NSr. has misread the word duj-ga»d, 
'evil-smelling,' both here and in §§ 5, 14. 

G 2 

Digitized by 


84 dJnA-1 MAiN6G-i khirad. 

the fragrant, well-pleasing heaven for oneself, and l 
Aharman, the wicked, and the demons confounded, 
and to escape from hell, the dark and depreciated, 
are possible thus : (6) that is, when they make the 
spirit of wisdom a protection for the back (pustik- 
panakih), (7) and wear the spirit of contentment 
on the body, like arms and armour and valour, (8) 
and make the spirit of truth 2 a shield, (9) the spirit 
of thankfulness a club, (10) the spirit of complete 
mindfulness a bow, (11) and the spirit of liberality 
an arrow ; (1 2) and they make the spirit of moderation 
like a spear, (13) the spirit of perseverance a gauntlet, 
and they put forth the spirit of destiny as a pro- 
tection 3 . 14. In this manner it is possible to come 
to heaven and the sight of the sacred beings, and to 
escape from Aharman, the wicked, and hell, the 

Chapter XLIV. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' How are the sky and earth arranged ? 3. How are 
the flow and arrangement of the water in the world ? 
4. Whereon do the clouds rest ? 5. Where is the 
demon of winter more predominant ? 6. And which 
country is the more undisturbed ?' 

7. The spirit of wisdom answered (8) thus : ' The 
sky and earth and water, and whatever else is within 

1 L19 repeats ' to make,' but this is no more necessary in Pahlavi 
than in English. 

4 L19 inserts 'like' in §§ 8-1 1, and omits the verb 'make' in 
§§ 8, 12. 

8 §§ 6-13 bear some resemblance to Isaiah lix. 17 and Ephesians 
vi. 14-17, so far as mode of expression is concerned. 

Digitized by 



them 1 are egg-like (khalyak-di.y), just as it were* 
like the egg of a bird. 9. The sky is arranged above 
the earth 3 , like an egg, by the handiwork of the 
creator Auhannasaf; (10) and the semblance of the 
earth, in the midst of the sky *, is just like as it were 
the yolk amid the egg; [(n) and the water within 
the earth and sky is such as the water within the 


12. 'And the flow of the water of every kind 
which is in the world is from the region of Arzah * 
(13) there where the sun comes up 7 ; and its down- 
ward surge (nlgun baluno) 8 is towards the region 
of Savah (14) where 9 the sun goes down; and the 

1 Li 9 has 'within the sky.' 

4 L19 has 'are so arranged as.' The reading of dU, 'like,' is 
rather uncertain. 

8 L19 adds ' and below the earth.' 

4 Li 9 has ' and the earth within the sky.' 

8 § n is taken from PB6, but is not found in any other Pazand 
or Parsi MS. consulted, nor in the Pahlavi text of K43 ; it is, there- 
fore, probably an interpolation. 

• See Chap. XVI, 10 n. 

' This clause and the corresponding one in § 14 seem to be at 
variance with the statements of Bd. V, 8, XI, 3, that Arzah is in the 
west, and Savah in the east ; N8ry6sang has, therefore, transferred 
the conjunction 'and' to the beginning of the section in both 
cases, so as to make the eastern waters flow towards Savah, and 
the western waters into the sea. If, however, we understand 'there' 
to mean ' in those places,' and not to refer to the region whose 
name it follows, we may conclude that the statement here is to the 
effect that in the east the water flows from Arzah (the western 
region), and in the west towards Savah (the eastern region), which 
might be true if we place the east in China or Bengal, and the 
west in Armenia or Mesopotamia, but it is more probably meant 
merely to imply that the whole of the water flows through the 
central region of Khvaniras. 

8 L19 has anb£rijno, ' accumulation,' both here and in § 14. 

' Li 9 has 'there where;' and we must understand 'in those 
places where,' as in § 13. 

Digitized by 


86 DlNA-t MAfNdoi KHIRAD. 

surging on (abalunS) of the water is into the sea 
Puttk 1 , (15) and from the sea Puttk it goes back to 
the sea Varkash 2 . 

16. 'The abode and seat of the clouds are on 
Alburn 3 . 

1 7. ' The demon of winter is more predominant 
in Alran-ve^6 *. 18. And it is declared by revela- 
tion 6 , (19) that in Airan-ve^o there are "ten months 
winter and two months summer," (20) and "even 
those" two months -of warm weather "are cold as 
to water, cold as to earth, and cold as to plants." 21. 
And their adversity 6 is the winter, (22) and the 
snakes therein are many, (23) while their other 
adversity is little. 

24. ' It is declared that Auharmas*/ created 
Airan-v£f6 better than other places and districts 7 . 

1 Av. Puitika, which Bd. XIII, 8-1 1 appears to identify with 
the Persian Gulf, but in early times, if not altogether mythic, it 
was probably some inlet of the Caspian or Aral. 

2 Av. Vouru-kasha; in Pahlavi it is usually called 'the wide- 
formed,' and in Bd. XIII, 1, 8-10 it is identified with the ocean ; 
but in early times it was probably a term for the Caspian and Aral, 
when not applied to the mythic sea of the sky. 

3 Av. hara berezaiti, 'a lofty mountain-range,' which is said, 
in Chap. LVII, 1 3 and in the Bundahw, to surround the world and 
to be the origin of all mountains (see Bd.V, 3-5, XII, 1-4). In 
early times it appears to have been the name of mountains to the 
east of the first Iranian settlements, before it was transferred to 
the mountain range south of the Caspian (see Geiger's Ost. Kul. 
pp. 42-45)- 

4 Av. Airyanem va.&gd, the first settlement of the Iranians, 
which Geiger (Qst. Kul. pp. 30-33) places on the upper waters of the 
Zarafran river, and which Bd. XXIX, 12 describes, in accordance 
with late tradition, as 'in the direction of Atur-patakan (Adar- 

8 Vend. I, 9, 10. 

6 Produced by the evil spirit (see Vend. I, 7, 8). 

T This is inferred from Vend. I, 2-4. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XLIV, 15-XLV, 4. 8? 

25. And its goodness is this, that the life of the 
people is three hundred years \ (26) and of the oxen 
and sheep one hundred and fifty years. 27. Their 
pain and sickness, also, are little ; (28) they fabricate 
(dru^&nd) 2 no lies, (29) they make no lamentation 
and weeping, (30) and the domination of the demon 
of greediness (as) in their bodies is little. 31. When 
they eat one loaf among ten men, they are satisfied. 
32. And in every forty years one child is born 
from one woman and one man 3 . 33. Their law, 
also, is goodness, and their religion the primitive 
faith 4 ; (34) and when they die they are righteous 5 . 
35. Their spiritual chief (rat u), likewise, is G6palt5 6 , 
and their lord and king is Srosh V 

Chapter XLV. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
' By what does Aharman most deceive and lead 
people to hell ? 3. And from what is his pleasure 
most ? 4. Where is the place he has a foundation ? 

1 Compare Chap. LXII, 18. 

2 L19 has dre«zine«d, 'they cause to repeat.' 

3 Compare Chap. LXII, 17. 

4 Av. paoiry6-</ka§sha, a term applied to the true Masda- 
worshipping religion of all ages, both before and after the time of 

6 That is, they go at once to heaven, as the righteous soul does 
(see Chap. II, 123-157). 

6 L19 has G&patshah, ' the king of G6pat' (as in Chap. LXII, 
8, 31), which land is described in Dd. XC, 4 as 'coterminous with 
Airan-ve£6.' AghrSrarf and his son are called kings of G6pat in 
Bd. XXIX, 5, XXXI, 22 ; and G6k-pato is said to be 'in the non- 
Aryan countries,' in the Suikar Nask (see Dd. XC, 8 n). 

7 Apparently the angel Sr6sh (see Chap. II, 115). 

Digitized by 


88 DiNA-i MAiNdG-f KHIRAfl. 

5. Where, also, is his coming, together with the 
demons, most ? 6. And from what is his food ?' 

7. The spirit of wisdom answered (8) thus : ' Ahar- 
man deceives people most by prosperity and adver- 
sity 1 , the fiend of apostasy, scepticism, and covetous- 
ness. 9. His pleasure, also, is most from the discord 
of men. 10. And his food is from the impenitence 2 
and reticence of men. 11. He has a foundation in 
the malicious 3 . 12. And his coming and going are 
most with the wrathful.' 

Chapter XLVI. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
'Which is the one 4 oppression, as regards men, 
that Aharman considers as the more injurious and 
great ? ' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : 'Ahar- 
man, when he wrings life and wife and child and 
worldly happiness of every kind away from men, 
does not consider, as to this, that any injury whatever 
is inflicted by him upon that person ; (5) but when 
he wrings away the soul of a single individual, and 
makes it utterly depraved, he then considers, as to 
this, that " an injury which is complete would thereby 
be inflicted by me," because this is done by him 
through his own depravity of wish and action 6 .' 

1 Or ' superfluity and scarcity.' 

2 Assuming that apat6taldh stands for apatitakih, 'non- 
renunciation of sin! Li 9 has ' immoderate eating.' 

8 Li 9 has 'in the slanderous and malicious.' 

4 L19 omits 'one.' 

6 The last fourteen words occur only in the Pahlavi text of K43. 

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Chapter XLV 1 1. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
' What is that thing which is the most perfect of all 
wealth ? 3. What is that which is predominant over 
everything whatever ? 4. And what is that from 
which no one is able to escape ? ' 

5. The spirit of wisdom answered (6) thus : ' It 
is wisdom which is better than the wealth of every 
kind which is in the world. 7. It is destiny which 
is predominant over every one and everything. 8. 
And it is Vae" the bad ' from whom no one is able 
to escape.' 

Chapter XLVIII. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' How is the dwelling of the understanding and 
intellect and seed of men in the body ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' The 
place of the understanding and intellect and seed of 
men is in the brain of the head. 5. And when the 
brain of the head is sound, the understanding and 
intellect and seed are on the increase ; (6) but when 
a person attains unto old age, the brain of the head 
remains only at a diminution. 7. And he who is 
an aged man, on account of the diminution of under- 
standing and intellect, sees less and knows less of 
that which it is necessary to do with wisdom. 8. 
Wisdom, in the beginning, mingles with the marrow 
of the fingers of men's hands ; (9) and, afterwards, 

1 The demon which conveys the soul to its account (see Chap. 
II, 115). 

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90 D!NA-i MAiN6G-t KHIRAD. 

its seat and abode and place 1 are in the heart. 10. 
And its dwelling 2 in the whole body becomes such 
as the shape of the foot in various shoes (mug- 
£ako). 3 ' 

Chapter XLIX. 

i. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
'As to these stars which are apparent in the sky, 
and their number is so great, what is then their duty 
and influence ? 3. And how is the motion of the 
sun and moon and stars ?' 

4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus : ' Of 
the stars which are in the sky the first star is Tfotar 4 , 
which is said to be great and good, more valuable 
and more glorious 6 . 6. And prosperity of every 
kind and the fertility of the world are in the path 
of Tfotar. 

7, 8. ' And the star of water germs is for the in- 
crease of the star of plant germs 6 . 9, 10. And the star 
of plant germs is for the increase of cattle germs 7 . 

1 Li 9 has 'its seat and abiding place.' 

2 Li 9 has ' and the dwelling of the soul.' 
s Li 9 has 'in the shoe.' 

4 Av. Tiftrya, the eastern leader of the stars and special op- 
ponent of the planet Tlr (Mercury), which can be identified only 
with Sirius. It is personified as an angel who contends with the 
demon of drought and produces rain (see Bd. II, 7, V, i,VII, 1-13). 

6 The usual Avesta epithets of Ttrtar are ' the radiant and 

6 Li 9 has 'for the increase of water. And the star of earth 
germs is for the increase of earth.' 

7 Li 9 has 'for the increase of plants. And the star of cattle 
germs is for the increase of catde.' The stars of water, earth, and plant 
germs are mentioned in the formula of dedication to Tiftar (Sir. 13), 
and the moon is said to possess the germs of cattle (Sir. 12)^ 

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ii. And water, fire 1 , plant, and cattle germs are 
created for the increase of man germs 2 . 

12. 'And the star Vanand 3 is intrusted with the 
passes and gates of Alburn * ; (13) so that the demons 
and witches and fiends may turn from those gates 
and passes, (14) that it may not be possible for them 
to cut off and break up the road and passage of the 
sun and moon and stars 5 . 

15. 'And the star Hapt6k-ring 6 , with 99,999 
guardian spirits of the righteous 7 , is intrusted with 
the gate and passage of hell 8 , (16) for the keeping 

Reference is also made to all of them in Rashnu Yt. 29-31, 33, 
and to those of water germs in Vend. XXI, 33, Tirtar Yt. 39, 45, 46. 

1 Li 9 has 'earth.' 

2 Li 9 has 'for the increase of men.' As both the Pahlavi and 
Pazand versions of §§ 7-1 1 are complete and consistent in them- 
selves, it is uncertain which of them gives the original text. The 
Pazand corresponds more closely to certain passages in the Avesta, 
but a wish to produce such a correspondence may have led NSr- 
ydsang to alter the text. That the Pahlavi writer was thinking of 
some other passage, as yet unidentified, is evident from the omission 
of the star SatavSs (which follows Ttrtar in Sir. 13) and from the 
details he gives concerning the others. 

* The southern leader of the stars and special opponent of the 
planet Auharmaz</ (Jupiter), which is perhaps best identified with 
Fomalhaut (see Bd. II, 7, V, 1). The Avesta mentions it in con- 
nection with Tutar (Str. 13). 

4 See Chap. XLIV, i6n. 

6 Which are supposed to rise and set through openings or passes 
in the mountain range of Alburz, which encircles the world (see 
Bd.V, 5 ). 

6 Av. Hapt6iri«ga, the northern leader of the stars and special 
opponent of the planet Vahram (Mars), which corresponds to Ursa 
Major (see Bd. II, 7, V, 1). The Avesta mentions it, in connec- 
tion with the other stars named in the text, in Sir. 13. 

7 See Fravarrfin Yt. 60. The number here mentioned is that 
generally used in the Avesta to express an indefinitely large 

8 Which is supposed to be in the north, so that the circumpolar 

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92 dInA-1 ma!n6g-I khirab. 

back of those 99,999 demons and fiends, witches 
and wizards, who are in opposition to the celestial 
sphere and constellations of the zodiac. 17. Its 
motion, also, is round about hell ; (18) and its special 
business is this, as it were it holds the twelve signs 
of the zodiac by the hand, in their proper going and 
coming. 19. And those twelve constellations also 
proceed in like manner by the power and help, of 
Hapt6k-ring 1 ; (20) and every single constellation, 
when it comes in at Alburn, provides support for 
Haptdk-ring z , (21) and begs protection from Hapt6k- 

22. ' The remaining unnumbered and innumerable 
constellations 3 which are apparent are said to be the 
guardian spirits of the worldly existences. 23. Be- 
cause, as to the creatures and creations of every 
kind, that the creator Auharmaar^ created for the 
worldly existence, which are procreative and also 
which are developable (arddisnik) 4 , for every 
single body there is apparent its own single guardian 
spirit of a like nature. 

24. ' And the motion of the sun and moon is the 
special illumination of the world, (25) and the 
maturing of procreations and growths of all kinds. 
26. And the correct keeping of the day, month, and 
year, summer and winter, spring and autumn, and 
other calculations and accounts of all kinds which 
men ought to obtain, perceive, and understand, (27) 

constellation of Ursa Major seems to revolve around it, and to 
remain on the watch. 

1 Written Hapt&6rig in §§ 19-21 in K43. 

2 Li 9 has ' holds to Hapt6k-ring by the hand.' 

3 Li 9 has 'stars.' 

4 Li 9 has azauni, ' unprocreative.' 

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CHAPTER XLIX, I 7 -LI, 7. 93 

are more fully defined by means of the setting 
(nislz/ako) 1 of the sun and moon.' 

Chapter L. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' Which is that opulent person who is to be con- 
sidered as fortunate, and which is that one who is 
to be considered as evil-conditioned ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' That 
one who has produced opulence by proper exertion 
is to be considered as fortunate ; and that one who 
has produced it by dishonesty, as evil-conditioned.' 

Chapter LI. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
'Wherefore is it when there are instances when a 
lazy, ignorant, and bad man attains to eminence and 
great welfare, (3) and there are instances when a 
worthy, wise, and good man attains to grievous 
misery, perplexity, and indigence ?' 

4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus : ' As 
to him who is a lazy, ignorant, and bad man, when 
his destiny becomes a helper, that laziness of his 
then becomes like unto diligence, that ignorance 
unto 2 knowledge, and that vileness unto 2 goodness. 
6. And as to him who is a wise, worthy, and good 
man, when his destiny is an opponent, that wisdom 
of his then turns to stupidity and foolishness (ala- 
kih), and that worthiness to ignorance ; (7) and his 

1 NSr. reads vah^za and translates ' new year's day.' 

2 Li 9 has 'like unto' in all three clauses. 

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94 dInA-J MAtN6G-t KHIRAD. 

knowledge, skill, and worthiness become manifestly 
secluded \' 

Chapter LI I. 

i. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' How is it necessary to perform the ceremonial of 
the sacred beings and the thanksgiving for the 
welfare which is owing to the sacred beings ? 3. 
And how is the renunciation of sin to be performed 
for the preservation of the soul ?' 

4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus : ' That 
ceremonial of the sacred beings is good which they 
perform in this pure, good religion of the Masda- 
worshippers. 6. Its origin, also, is goodness and 
truth, and freedom from doubt in the sacred beings. 
7. And for the little and the much that has come 
there has arisen thanksgiving unto the sacred beings ; 
and one is to meditate upon the gratifications (shnu- 
makan) and prosperity which are owing to the sacred 
beings and to keep grateful 2 . 8. And even when 
perplexity and misery come on from Aharman and 
the demons, he is not to become doubtful as to the 
treasure of the sacred beings, (9) and not to diminish 
the thanksgiving unto the sacred beings. 10. And 
every disaster which springs up he is to give back 3 
to the violence of Aharman and the demons. 11. 
He is not to seek his own welfare and advantage 
through the injury of any one else; (12) and he 

1 See Chap. XV, 6 n. N§r. has in Sans. ' are manifest in im- 

8 The Pazand version omits the latter half of this section, and 
also uses the present tense instead of the infinitive in several of the 
following sections. 

3 Perhaps ' trace back' may be meant, but this is uncertain. 

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becomes compassionate as regards the creatures of 
Auharmazdl 13. In duty and good works he is 
diligent and striving 1 ; (14) and especially in the care 
of water and fire 2 he is to persevere much. 15. 
And he is to be without doubt as to this, that, except 
happiness, the sacred beings do not then 3 give any- 
thing whatever, as a modification * of it, unto men ; 
and Aharman and the demons, except misery, do 
not then 3 give them any happiness. 

16. ' For the existence of renunciation of sin the 
special thing is this, that one commits no sin volun- 
tarily; (17) and if, through folly, or weakness and 
ignorance, a sin occurs, he is then in renunciation 
of sin before the high-priests and the good. 18. 
And after that, when 5 he does not commit it, then 
that sin which is committed by him becomes thus 
a sweeping (£svarak6)' from his body; (19) just as 
the wind which is hasty and mighty, when it comes 
swift and strong, sweeps so over the plain that it 
carries away every single blade of grass (giyyikl^a- 
ko- 1 ) and anything which is broken in that place.' 

Chapter LI 1 1. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
' How are the homage and glorifying of the sacred 
beings to be performed ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : 

1 Li 9 has 'he acts diligently and strivingly.' 
a Li 9 adds 'and plants.' 

s Reading Sdtnaf ; N6r. has misread aini,' otherwise.' 
4 Reading gvi</arih ; N8r. has misread vatari, ' an evil.' 
" B L19 has ' too,' and K43 omits the word. 
• Misread zv&z, 'away,' by N6ry6sang. 

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' Every day three times, standing opposite the sun 
and Mitr6 ', as they proceed together 2 , (5) and 3 the 
moon and fire of Vahram *, or the fire of fires 6 , in 
like manner, morning, noon, and evening, homage 
and glorifying are performed, (6) and one has become 
grateful 6 . 7. And if a sin, or a deficiency (ixbd- 
mand-1) 7 , has occurred, especially 8 as regards the 
angels of the spiritual and. worldly existences, men 
and beasts of burden*, oxen and sheep, dogs and 
the dog species, and other creatures, and creations 
of Auharmazaf the lord, (8) one is to become sorrow- 
ful, penitent, and in renunciation of sin before the 
sun and Mitrt, the moon and the fire of Auhar- 
masr^ 10 ; (9) and, for the sake of atonement for the 
sin, good works are to be practised as much as is 
well possible.' 

Chapter LIV. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
' Wherefore is it when an ignorant man — when they 
bring advancement to him — considers the learning 

1 The angel of the sun's light (see Chap. II, 118 n). 
1 Li 9 adds 'homage and glorifying are to be performed;' but 
this is unnecessary. 
8 Li 9 inserts 'opposite.' 

4 The sacred fire (see Chap. XXXVI, 9 n). 

5 A fire in which the remnants of all other fires are deposited 
from time to time. 

' We ought probably to read ' one is to perform homage and 
glorifying, and to be grateful.' 

7 Li 9 omits 'or a deficiency.' 

" Reading fraSst6; N6r. reads pargast and translates 'some- 

* L19 omits the ' beasts of burden! 

10 These are four out of the five existences to which the daily 
Nyayires or supplications are addressed. 

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CHAPTER LIII, 5~LV, 6. 97 

and advancement of the wise and good mostly 
so 1 , through greediness, that to teach it to him is 
difficult ? ' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' For 
this reason, because the ignorant man considers, in 
thought, his own ignorance as good as the sage 
does, in thought, his own knowledge.' 

Chapter LV. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
'Wherefore is he who is an ill-natured man no 
friend of the good, nor an untalented man of a 
talented one?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus: ' For 
this reason, because he who is an ill-talented 2 man 
is at [all] 3 times in fear of the talented, (5) lest 
" they should trouble 4 us by their skill and talent, 
and, owing to that circumstance, shame may come 
upon us before the good and our opponents." 

6. ' And the ill-natured are no friends of the good 
for this reason, because there is a time for their 
annihilation and destruction by • the hands of the 

1 L19 has 'such vexation,' by reading bSsh instead of vSj. 

2 L19 has 'untalented.' 

8 K43 omits ' all,' and its text may be translated thus : — ' because 
the position of him who is an ill-talented man is in danger from 
the talented.' 

4 Reading a£ ran^6nd. N#r. has the doubtful reading air6zi- 
newd, 'they enlighten,' and also several other variations, so as to 
produce the following meaning: — 'lest "these enlighten others by 
the skill and talent which are not mine," and shame come upon 
him before the good and his helpmates.' 
[24] H 

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98 d!nA-1 MA$N6G-i KHIRAD. 

Chapter LVI. 

i. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
' Wherefore are these mountains and rivers x made, 
which are in the world?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' Of 
these mountains, which are in the world, there are 
some which are moderators of the wind, and there 
are some which are 2 warders off; (5) there are some 
which are the place and vent, the resting-place and 
support of the rainy cloud ; (6) and there are some 
which are smiters of Aharman and the demons, 
and maintainers and vivifiers of the creatures and 
creation of Auharma^, the lord. 

7. ' And these rivers, which are in the world, the 
creator Auharma,^ has formed, from the borders 
of Alburn 3 , for providing the protection zxidfor the 
vivification of his own creatures and creation.' 

Chapter LVI I. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
' Wherefore is it when the knowledge and sagacity 
of the spiritual and worldly existences, both united, 
are connected with thee ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' For 
this reason, because, from the first, I, who am the 
innate wisdom, apart from the spiritual and worldly 
existences, have been with Auharmasrf. 5. And 

1 Or it may be ' seas,' as the Sanskrit version translates the word, 
both here and in § 7, but this hardly agrees with the context. 

2 Li 9. omits these five words. 
8 See Chap. XLIV, i6n. 

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the creator Atiharmazd created (afrtdo) the angels 
of the spiritual and worldly creations, and all the 
other creatures and creations through the power and 
mightiness, the wisdom and sagacity of innate wis- 
dom ; and I produce 1 and he maintains and stimulates 
them. 6. And at the end of the renovation of the 
universe it is possible to cause the annihilation and 
destruction of Aharman and his miscreations more 
fully by the power of wisdom ; (7) and Sdshans 2 , 
with Kat-Khusr61 2 , and those who cause the resur- 
rection and future existence are able to act more 
fully, by means of the power and help of wisdom. 

8. ' The knowledge and sagacity of the worldly 
existence, the learning and teaching in 3 every pro- 
fession, and all advancement of temporal beings* 
are through wisdom. 9. The souls of the righteous, 
in escaping from hell B and coming 6 to heaven and 
the supreme heaven (gar6</man), arrive much better 
by means of the power and protection of wisdom. 
10. And it is possible to seek the good living, 
pleasure, good repute, and every happiness of people 
in the worldly existence, through the power of wisdom. 

11. 'And the maintenance of the seeds of men 

1 So in K43, but N6r. has taken this verb in the third person, 
in place of the nearly synonymous afrirfo, so as to state that the 
creator ' created, maintains, and stimulates the angels ' and all 
other existences through the power of innate wisdom. The object 
of the Pahlavi text, however, seems to be to emphasize the fact 
that the creation was specially due to the innate wisdom of the 
creator, while its maintenance is dependent on all his powers and 

2 See Chaps. II, 95, XXVII, 63. 8 L19 has 'of.' 
* L19 has ' times.' * 

6 That is, in escaping from the risk of being sent to hell. 
6 Li 9 omits 'and coming.' 

H 2 

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IOO DfNA-1 Ma1n6g-! KHIRAD. 

and beasts of burden, oxen and. sheep, and also every 
other creature and creation of Auharmasa?, the lord, 
the seating x of them in the womb, and making 
manifest what is their food in the womb, so that 
they shall not die from hunger and thirst, and the 
allotment and maturing of the limbs are effected 2 
more fully by means of the durability (ddrangarih) 
and great potency which are in the force 3 of 

1 2. ' The arrangement of the earth and the min- 
gling of the water in the earth, the growth and 
increase of plants, colour of various kinds, and the 
scent, taste, and pleasantness of various things are 
allotted and produced more fully through wisdom. 
13. And the arrangement of Alburn* around the 
world, the manifestation of the earth of the seven 
regions 6 and the sky above the mountain of Alburn, 
the motion of the sun and moon and twelve con- 
stellations 6 , the six times of the season festivals 
(gasanbar) 7 , the five times devoted to the guardian 
spirits (fravarafikan) 8 , the heaven which is in the 
place of good thoughts, the place of good words, 
the place of good deeds, and the perfect supreme 

1 N£r. has read shayastan/possibility,' instead of nishastano, 
' seating.' 

2 Reading vddunf-hSnd. L19 has 'are possible to effect.' 

3 L19 has ' by means of the great potency and force.' 

4 See Chap. XLIV, 16 n. 5 See Chap. IX, 2 n. 

6 The signs of the zodiac, whose apparent movement, due to 
the motion of the earth, is here alluded to. 

7 See Chap. IV, 5 m 

8 The five supplementary days, named after the five G&thas or 
sacred hymns, which follow the twelfth month in order to complete 
the Parsi year of 365 days. Together with the five preceding days 
they ate specially devoted to the homage of the guardian spirits or 

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heaven (gar6dman) of all gloriousness *, the path 
of the spirits and worldly existences, and the .ATindvar 
bridge 2 are produced and allotted through the power 
of wisdom. 

14. 'The watery-looking 3 cloud's seizing water 
from the sea, advancing in the atmosphere, and 
gradually breaking away*, drop by drop, to the 
earth, and Atiharmazd's 6 creatures' thoroughly un- 
derstanding the nature of heaven and hell, the com- 
passion of Auharmasd', the archangels, and other, 
angels as regards their own creatures, and the 
devastation and destructiveness of Aharman and 
the demons as regards the creatures of Auharma.^ 
it is possible to comprehend through the more com- 
plete power 6 of wisdom. 15. And the good religion 
of the Mazda-worshippers, the sayings and teaching 
of the spirits 7 , and the demons' demolishing the 
worldly body and making it imperceptible by the 
sight of men are apprehended 8 more fully by means 
of the most perfect means of wisdom. 16. And 
even the struggle and warfare of Iran with foreigners 
(an-airan), and the smiting of Aharman and the 
demons it is possible to effect through the power of 

1 The four grades of heaven (see Chap. VII, 9-12). 

2 See Chap. II, 115 n. By omitting 'and' N£r. identifies this 
bridge with the path mentioned before it, but it forms only one 
portion of the path to the other world. 

* Assuming that md-v^nako stands for mayi-vSnako. 

* Pahl. vlkhtano is more probably connected with Pers. klkh- 
tan, 'to break,' than with Pers. pikhtan, 'to sift.' 

6 The Sanskrit version adds ' and Aharman's.' 

* Li 9 has ' more fully through the power.' 

7 Li 9 has ' worldly existences' 

8 Reading girf-hasto. Li 9 has 'are effected.' 

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102 DlNA-t MAtN6G-i KHIRAD. 

17. 'To occasion the sun's inspection of the 
hidden water also, below the earth, it is expedient 
to convey it for tillage and cultivation, and the ad- 
vantage, comfort, and enjoyment of men and beasts 
of burden, oxen and sheep, through the power of 
wisdom. 18. The thorough understanding of the 
pain and sickness of men and beasts of burden, 
oxen, sheep, and other animals, and the bringing of 
medicine and remedies, health of body and comfort 
unto them are much more possible to effect 1 by 
means of the power of wisdom. 

19. 'And as to every man whose participation in 
wisdom is much, his share of heaven is then much 
more. 20. Even as to Vistasp 2 , Zaraturt 3 , Gayd- 
mzrd*, and those others whose share of heaven was 
much the more 5 , it was on account of the much 
coming of wisdom unto them. 21. And as to Yim, 
Fredun, Ka!-Os 6 , and those other rulers who ob- 
tained splendour (var^o) and mightiness (tagakih) 7 
from the sacred beings — just as the participation of 
Vi-rtasp and other rulers in the religion occurred 8 — 
and their not attaining to the religion, and also as 
to the times when they have become ungrateful unto 
their own lord 9 , it was on account of the little coming 
of wisdom unto them. 

„ 22. ' And Aharman, also, and the demons deceive 
that man more, and lead him to hell, who is poorer 

1 Li 9 omits 'to effect.' * See Chap. XIII, 1411. 

8 See Chap. I, ion. * See Chap. XXVII, an. 

B L19 has 'who more fully obtained a share of heaven.' 

8 See Chap. VIII, 27, where all three are mentioned. 

7 L19 has 'opulence.' 8 This clause occurs only in K43. 

* They all three suffered misfortunes in their old age, attributed 
by the priesthood to neglect of religion, which is here traced to 
diminution of intellect. 

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of wisdom and unsteadier in disposition. 23. And 
it is manifest, that, unto him who is virtuous in 
disposition, habit, and demeanour 1 , praise is then 
due, owing to his maintenance of wisdom. 24. For 
it is declared, that Aharman shouted to Zaraturt 
thus 2 : "If thou desist from this good religion of 
the Mazda-worshippers, then I will give thee a 
thousand years' dominion of the worldly existence, 
(25) as was given to the VWakan 3 monarch Da- 
hak 4 ." 26. On account of complete wisdom, the 
virtuous disposition and demeanour of Zaraturt not 
having hearkened and not being deluded, he did 
not become deceived and longing through that 
temptation of the accursed evil one, the wicked 6 . 
27. And he spoke to Aharman (28) thus: "I will 
shatter and cause to run (dukanam) 6 , and will 
make downcast (nigulsar) for thee 7 , the bodies of 
your demons and fiends, wizards and witches, through 
the H6m 8 and sacred twigs 9 , and the good, true 

1 Li 9 has 'virtuous in disposition and virtuous of demeanour.' 

1 This is stated, in other words, in Vend. XIX, 23-32. 

8 As Va</ak is said (Dd. LXXII, 5) to have been the mother of 
Dahak, this term may be a matronymic implying ' son of Va</ak.' 

4 See Chap. VIII, 29 n. 

6 This section is a good deal altered in the Pdzand version, but 
the general meaning is the same. 

6 Li 9 has va van om, 'and I will smite.' 

7 L19 has ' and will make withered (niz&r).' 

8 A plant growing in Persia, small twigs of which are pounded 
in water, and the resulting juice is tasted by the priest during the 
ceremonial. It is a symbol of the mythic H6m, the producer of 
immortality (see Chap. LXII, 28). Originally, no doubt, the H6m 
(Av. haoma) and the Sans, soma were the same plant (see Dd. 
XLVIII, i6n). 

• The bares6m (Av. baresma) is a bundle of slender twigs or 
wires, prepared in a particular manner, to be held in the left hand 

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104 DfNA-t MAiN6G-i KHIRA0. 

religion which the creator Auharmasa? has taught 
to me." 29. Aharman, when those words were 
heard by him, became confounded and stupefied, 
and rushed to hell, and remained confounded a long 

30. ' This, too, is declared, that Ahharmazd, when 
Aharman, by agreement 1 , had further operated 2 
with his (AuhanmsdPs) creatures and creation of 
every kind, afterwards formed an assembly with the 
angels and archangels of every kind 3 , and the 
welfare (az/aafth) due to his own wisdom was men- 
tioned and recounted by him. 

31. ' This, too, is declared, that for the nine 
thousand years of renovation 4 , until the resurrec- 
tion and future existence, wisdom maintains and 
stimulates the creatures and creation of every kind. 

32. ' And this, too, is declared, that, as to him 
who is an ignorant and bad-tempered man, when 
he attains even to much eminence, opulence, and 
authority, even then he is not fit to elevate into that 
welfare and authority.' 

of the priest while reciting certain parts of the liturgy (see Dd. 
XLIII, 5 n). 

1 The covenant between the good and evil spirits, by which their 
conflict was limited to nine thousand years (see Bd. 1, 18, 19). 

2 That is, transformed and vitiated them. The Av. fr&kere»ta</ 
(Vend. I, 7), describing the modifying work of the evil spirit upon 
the creation, is here expressed by fra^6 v&dtind. 

8 Such an assembly is mentioned in Vend. II, 42, but its pro- 
ceedings are not stated. 

4 So in all versions, but, as the renovation is generally considered 
as confined to the end of the nine thousand years, we ought per- 
haps to transpose the words and read 'for the nine thousand years, 
until the renovation, resurrection, and future existence.' 

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Chapter LVIII. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' Wherefore is it when one turns the ignorance and 
foolishness of an ignorant king back to knowledge 
and cleverness, on account of the sovereignty which 
is his ; (3) and, as to a poor man, who is wise \ one 
turns the knowledge and sagacity, which are his, 
back to foolishness and uselessness, on account of 
the poverty ? ' 

4. The spirit of wisdom answered (5) thus : ' On 
account of the deceit and violence of the fiend 2 of 
greediness (6) men utter more words as to the 
manliness of every one whose wealth and power are 
more, and recount his deeds and actions more fully ; 
(7) but, in the eyes of the angels and archangels, a 
poor man who is innocent and wise is better and 
more precious than a king or opulent man s who is 

Chapter LIX. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' What are the vices of priests ? 3. What are the 
vices of warriors ? 4. What are the vices of hus- 
bandmen ? 5. And what are the vices of artizans 4 ? ' 

6. The spirit of wisdom answered (7) thus:' The 
vices of priests are heresy, covetousness, negligence, 

1 Li 9 adds 'and innocent.' 

2 Li 9 has 'demon.' 

8 L19 has ' than an opulent king.' 

* Literally ' the well-endeavouring,' the lowest of the four classes 
of the community here mentioned (see also Chaps. XXXI, XXXII). 

Digitized by 


106 DforA-f MAiN6G-t khirad. 

trafficking (suakklh) \ attention to trifles, and un- 
belief in the religion. 

8. ' The vices of warriors are oppression, violence, 
promise-breaking, unmercifulness (an-az/6khshaga- 
vandlh), ostentation (dakhshth) 2 , haughtiness, and 

9. ' The vices of husbandmen are ignorance, en- 
viousness, ill-will, and maliciousness. 

10. '^4«^the vices of artizans are unbelief, want 
of thanksgiving, improper muttering of prayers, 
moroseness, and abusiveness.' 

Chapter LX. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 
' Of mankind which are more conversant with good 
and evil ? ' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' Of 
mankind he whose sojourn 3 and business are with 
the bad 4 , and they provide him a name for good 
repute and goodness, is the man more conversant 
with good. 5. And he whose sojourn and business 
are with the good 6 , and they provide him a name 
for disrepute, is the man more conversant with 

6. ' Because it is said, (7, 8) that whoever joins 
with the good brings good with him, and whoever 

1 Or, perhaps, ' usuriousness.' The Sanskrit version has ' lazi- 
ness,' as if N6r. had read dsurfakih. 

2 NSr. has read^ahi, and translated 'incontinence.' 

3 Reading nif asto. L19 has ' whose business is most (v&j-ast), 
both here and in § 5. 

* L19 has ' the good.' 6 L19 has 'the bad.' 

Digitized by 



joins with the bad Stings 1 evil — (9) just like the 
wind which, when it impinges on stench, is 2 stench, 

(10) and when it impinges on perfume, is perfume, — 

(11) it is, therefore, notorious 3 , (12) that he whose 
business is with the good receives good, (13) and 
he whose business is with the bad receives** evil; 
(14) but, even then, both are to be considered as an 
experiment (auzmayijno) '.' 

Chapter LXI. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' Which is the chief of men ? Which is the chief of 
women ? 3. Which is the chief of horses ? Which 
is the chief of flying creatures ? 4. [Which is the 
chief of oxen?] 6 Which is the chief of wild animals ? 
Which is the chief of grains ?' 

5. The spirit of wisdom answered (6) thus : ' The 
man who is wise, who is steadfast in the religion, 
who is well-praising, who is true-speaking is chief 
over his associates. 

1 L19 has 'will bring with him' in both clauses, but the repeti- 
tion is unnecessary in Pahlavi. 

a L19 has ' will bring with //,' both here and in § 10. 

* L19 has 'proper to know.' 

4 K43 does not repeat this verb. 

5 Li 9 has 'by the result (awedmcrn).' The meaning is that, 
though a man's character is generally in accordance with the com- 
pany he keeps, this must not be assumed without proof; and when 
the contrary is the case, as stated in §§ 4, 5, his own disposition 
must be of a very decided nature. Nerydsang seems to have mis- 
understood the author's argument, and, supposing §§ 6-13 to con- 
tain a mere illustration of §§ 4, 5, he considered it necessary to 
transpose ' the bad' and ' the good' in §§ 4, 5, so as to make the 
illustration applicable. 

• K43 omits the question in brackets. 

Digitized by 


108 d!nA-! MA^NdG-f KHIRAD. 

7. ' The woman who is young 1 , who is properly 
disposed, who is faithful, who is respected, who is 
good-natured, who enlivens the house, whose modesty 
and awe are virtuous, a friend of her own father and 
elders 2 , husband and guardian, handsome and replete 
with animation 3 is chief over the women who are 
her own associates. 

8. ' The ox which is glorious, which is tall-eared, 
which has a herd of cows is chief over oxen. 

9. ' The Alharaz/ 4 is the chief of birds. 10. The 
horse which is swift 5 is the chief of horses. 11. The 
hare 6 is the chief, of wild animals ; and wheat 7 is the 
chief of grains.' 

Chapter LXII. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
' In what place stands Kangdes ? 3. Where is the 
enclosure formed by Yim constructed 8 ? 4. In what 

1 Li 9 has 'talking, eloquent.' 

2 N£r. translates niyak by 'father's brother,' an elder who is 
considered as a special protector in India. 

3 Reading namag-akun, which epithet is omitted in L19. 

4 A name of the Kawipt, who is said to be the chief of birds 
in this world (Pahl.Visp. 1, 1, Bd. XXIV, 11), the Vis Karripta who 
brought the religion to the enclosure formed by Yim (see Vend. II, 
138, 139), and which is said, in the Pahlavi version, to be ' a Aahar- 
vak (or .Xaharnak) who goes back into the existence of the spirits.' 
To determine the meaning of this name (which NSr. translates by 
Sans, ^akravaka, 'Brahmany duck') we have to consider not only 
the two forms Mharao and £aharvak, but also the term £ark, 
'falcon,' used in Bd. XXIV, 11. The k&mrds of Bd. XIX, 15, 
XXIV, 29 (the £tnamr6f of Chap. LXII, 40) is also said to be 
the chief of birds, but probably mythic birds are meant. 

5 Li 9 has 'white,' as in Bd. XXIV, 6. 

• See Bd. XXIV, 9. * See Bd. XXIV, 19. 

8 Li 9 omits 'constructed.' 

Digitized by 


(i t'Nl\ FliMTY 
CHAPTER LXI, 7-LXII, 1 8. \x CJ(Q0 ,. 

place lies 1 the . body of Sahm ? 5. Where is the 
abode of Sr6sh ? 6. In what place stands the three- 
legged ass ? 7. Where is the H6m grown, the pre- 
parer of the dead, with which they restore the dead 
and produce the future existence ? 8. In which 
place is 2 G6pa!t6shah ? 9. With what work is the 
Kar fish intrusted ? 10. Where has the griffon bird 
a nest (a^iyan) s ? 11. In what place sits Ktn&mrds, 
and what is his work ? ' 

12. The spirit of wisdom answered (13) thus: 
' Kangdez* is intrusted with the eastern quarter, near 
to SatavayeV, (14) on the frontier of Airan-ve^-6 6 . 

1 5. ' The enclosure formed by Yim 7 is constructed 
in Alran-ve^6, below the earth 8 . 16. And every 
species and seed of all the creatures and creations 
of Auhannas^, the lord, whatever is better and 
more select of man and beast of burden, of cattle • 
and flying creatures is brought thither 9 . 17. And 
every forty years one child is born from one woman 
and one man 10 who are of that place ; (18) their life, 

1 L19 has 'remains.' 2 L19 has 'remains.' 

8 L19 has ' a resting-place.' * See Chap. XXVII, 58, 62. 

8 Av. Satava6sa, the western leader of the stars and special 
opponent of the planet Anahta (Venus), which may, perhaps, be 
identified with Antares (see Bd. II, 7, V, 1), though Geiger (Ost. 
Kul. p. 313) thinks Vega more probable. It also protects the 
southern seas, and its name is applied to the gulf of 'UmSn in that 
direction (see Bd. XIII, 9-13, Zs. VI, 16, 18). But its connection 
with the east, as implied in our text, requires explanation, and 
throws some doubt upon the reading. 

6 See Chap. XLIV, 17-23. T See Chap. XXVII, 27-31. 

8 So stated in Bd. XXXII, 5, and probably meaning that its 
position could no longer be discovered on earth. Bd. XXIX, 14 
states that it is in the middle of Pars, below Mount Yimakan. 

' See Vend. II, 106-113. 

10 Perhaps we should understand ' from each woman and each 

Digitized by 


IIO d1na-{ MAfN6G-l KHIRAD. 

too, is three hundred years 1 , (19) and their pain and 
disturbance are little 2 . 

20. ' The body of Sahm 8 is in the plain of P£- 
.yandas 4 , near to Mount Dimavand 6 . 21. And on 
that plain, except corn and the eatable things they 
sow and reap and live upon, there is not so much 
as a single other tree 6 , or shrub, or plant; (22) and 
its golden colour is mostly wormwood 7 . 23. And 
the angels and archangels have appointed 99,999 
guardian spirits of the righteous as a protection for 
the body of Sahm 8 , (24) so that the demons and 
fiends may not injure it. 

25. 'The abode of Sr6sh * is mostly in Arzah 10 , and 
afterwards also in Savah and the whole world. 

man,' that is, a couple of children from each couple, which would 
agree with Vend. II, 134. 

1 Pahl. Vend. II, 136 has 150 years. 

2 The characteristics mentioned in §§ 17-19 are ascribed to the 
whole of Airan-ve£6 in Chap. XLIV, 25, 27, 32. 

8 See Chap. XXVII, 49. 

4 L19 has Puft GujtdspS, 'the ridge of Viftasp,' which 
appears, from Bd. XII, 18, 34, XVII, 8, to have been somewhere 
in the central desert of Persia. In Bd. XXIX, 7-9, 1 1 we are told 
that Sam lies asleep in the plain of Pe\fyansat (evidently the P&f&n- 
das of our text) in Kavulistan, till he is waked hereafter to slay 
Dahak, who escapes from Mount Dimavand. This legend may 
have led to the perplexing juxtaposition of P&andas and Dimavand 
in our text, and the perplexity occasioned by this may have led 
N§r. to substitute PfLrt-f Virtaspin for the former name, as being 
nearer Dimavand. 

* The highest peak of the modern Albure, in which Dahak is 
said to be confined (see Bd. XII, 31). 

6 Reading hano dru-aS ; L19 has han murd, ' another myrtle- 

7 With yellow blossoms. 8 As stated in Fravarrffn Yt 61. 

• See Chap. II, 115. 

10 The western region, as Savah is the eastern one (see Chap. 
XVI, 10). 

Digitized by 



26. 'The three-legged ass 1 sits 2 amid the sea 
Varkash 3 ; (27) and as to water of every kind that 
rains on dead matter, the menstrual discharge, and 
other bodily refuse 4 , when it arrives at the three- 
legged ass, he makes every kind clean and purified, 
with watchfulness. 

28. 'The H6m 6 , which is the preparer of the 
dead, is grown in the sea Varkash, in that which is 
the deepest place ; (29) and 99,999 guardian spirits 
of the righteous are appointed as its protection 6 . 
30. The Kar fish 7 , too, ever circles around it, and 
always keeps the frog and other noxious creatures 
away from it. 

31. 'G6pait6shah 8 is in Airan-ve^o, within the 
region of Khvaniras 9 . 32. From foot to mid-body 
he is an ox, and from mid-body to the top he is a 
man. 33. And at all times he sits on the sea-shore, 
(34) and always performs the ceremonial of the 
sacred beings, and pours holy-water into the sea. 
35. On account of which 10 , through the pouring of 
that holy-water, innumerable noxious creatures in 

1 A prodigious monster of benevolent character, described in 
Bd. XIX, i— 12; possibly some local divinity. 

2 Li 9 has 'stands,' as is also stated in Yas. XLI, 28. 

* See Chap. XLIV, 15. 4 Li9 adds 'and pollution.' 
11 The white H6m or Gdkarn, the tree of immortality (see Bd. 

XVIII, 1, XXVII, 4). It is 'the preparer of the dead,' because 
the elixir of immortality is expected to be prepared from it at the 
resurrection (see Bd. XXX, 25). 

• Those who watch over the sea Vouru-kasha (see Fravawfin 
Yt. 59). 

7 Ten- such fish, of enormous size and intense watchfulness, are 
said to be employed to protect the G6karn from a lizard or frog 
sent by Aharman to injure it (see Bd. XVIII, 2-6). 

8 See Chap. XLIV, 35 n. • See Chap. XXVII, 40. 
10 Li 9 omits these four words. 

Digitized by 


H2 dinA-J ma{n6g-1 khirad. 

the sea will die. 36. Because, if he does not speci- 
ally perform that celebration of the ceremonial, and 
does not pour that holy-water into the sea — where 
those innumerable noxious creatures shall utterly 
perish 1 — then, whenever the rain shall rain, the 
noxious creatures have to rain just like rain. 

37. 'The nest of the griffon bird 2 is on the tree 
opposed to harm, the many-seeded 3 . 38. Whenever 
he rises aloft a thousand twigs will shoot out from 
that tree, (39) and when he alights he breaks off 
the thousand twigs and bites the seed from them. 
40. And the bird ATlnamrd^ 4 alights likewise in that 
vicinity ; (41) and his work is this, that he collects 
those seeds which are bitten from the tree of many 
seeds, which is opposed to harm, and he scatters 
(parganderf) them, there where Ttrtar 5 seizes the 
water ; (42) so that, while Tfatar shall seize the 
water, together with those seeds of all kinds, he shall 
rain them on the world with the rain 6 .' 

1 Li 9 has 'and those innumerable noxious creatures do not 
utterly perish.' 

a The SSn6-muruv (Av. sa§n6 meregho) or Simurgh, a mythic 
flying creature said to suckle its young and to be of three natures 
like the bat (see Bd.XIV, n, 24, XIX, 18). 

8 Li 9 has 'of all seeds.' This tree, from which all wild plants 
are supposed to spring, is said to grow in the sea near the G6karn 
tree, and also in Alran-ve£d (see Bd. IX, 5, 6, XVIII, 9, XXVII, 2, 
XXIX, 5). 

* The chief of mythic birds next to the S§n6-muruv ; he is said 
to defend Iran from invasion by occasionally picking up foreign 
districts like grains of corn (see Bd. XIX, 15, XXIV, 29). 

8 The angel who personifies the star Tfcrtar (Sirius, see Chap. 
XLIX, 5, 6), after a conflict with the demons of drought and 
thunder (see Bd. VII, 1-13), pours down rain from the cloud, in 
which he had brought the Water from the sea. 

6 Originally, the archangel kmzrofad (see Chap. II, 34) is said 

Digitized by 



Chapter LXII I. 

1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus : 
'Which is that good work which is greater and 
better 1 than [all 2 ] good works, and no trouble 
(anfinako) whatever is necessary for its perform- 
ance 3 ?' 

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus : ' To 
be grateful in the world, (5) and to wish happiness 
for every one. 6. This is greater and better than 
every good work, and no commotion (ange^lnako) 
whatever is necessary for its performance*.' 

Peace and prosperity 8 . 

to have mingled the plants with the rain (see Bd. IX, 2) ; but after- 
wards this was done by the mythic bird (see Bd. XXVII, 3). This 
legend was evidently intended to account for the rapid appearance 
of wild plants after rain in dry climates, where all traces of vegeta- 
tion often disappear during the summer droughts. 
1 Li 9 inserts 'more valuable and more advantageous.' 

4 K43 omits * all.' 

8 Li 9 has ' no trouble and expense are necessary in it.' 
* This reply is much altered by N£r. and stands as follows, in 
L19 : — 'To wish happiness for every one ; (5) to be grateful unto 
the sacred beings and the good; (6) in every position and time to 
consider and keep in remembrance Auharmazrf, as regards creative- 
ness, and Aharman, as regards destructiveness ; (7) and to be with- 
out doubt as to the existence of the sacred beings, the religion and 
soul, heaven and the account in the three days, and the reality of 
the resurrection and future existence. 8. This, most especially, is 
the good work which is greater and better, more valuable and 
more advantageous than all good works, and no trouble and ex- 
pense are necessary in it.' 

The text of all versions ends abruptly at this point, without any 

5 Only in K43. 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


.sikand-gOmanIk vigar, 



I 2 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


i. For the division into chapters the translator is responsible, 
but the sections are divided according to the alternating Pazand- 
Sanskrit text of N6ry6sang. 

2-6. (The same as on page 2.) 

7. The manuscripts mentioned are : — 

AK (probably written a.d. 1568) P&z.-Sans., belonging to Dastur 
H6shangji J&mispji of Poona ; it is now defective, and contains 
only Chaps. 1, 16-XI, 145, but this translation is based upon its text 
so far as it extends. 

BM a modern fragment, Pahl.-Pers., in the British Museum 
(additional Oriental MS. No. 22,378), containing Chap. 1, 1-31. 

JE (written a.d. 1842, by Jamshedji Edalji) P£z.-Sans., belonging 
to Dastur Hdshangji and as complete as this translation, the latter 
half of which is based upon its text. 

J J (written a.d. 1768, by Jamshedji JSm&sp Asi) Pdz.-Sans., 
belonging to Dastur Khurshedji Jamshedji of NSwsari, and as 
complete as this translation. 

K28 (about 150 years old) Pahl.-P&z.-Sans., No. 28 in the 
University Library at Kopenhagen ; it is now defective, but con- 
tains Chaps. I, i-II, 8 ; III, 1-25 ; III, 36-IV, 106 ; VIII, 103- 
IX, 16; IX, 30-X, 13; X, 71-XI, 28; XI, 55-61. 

L15 (written about a.d. 1737) Pahlavi, No. 15 in the India 
Office Library at London. It contains Chaps. I, 4-V, 71. 

L23 (written by the same hand) Pazand, No. 23 in the same 
library; containing Chaps. I, 34-VIII, 23. 

MH19 (about 150 years old) P&z.-Gug'., No. 19 of the Haug 
Collection in the State Library at Munich. It contains Chaps. 1, 1- 
XI, 201. 

PB3 (more than a century old) P£z.-Sans., No. 3 of the Bur- 
nouf Collection in the National Library at Paris. It contains 
Chaps. I, 5-X, 66. 

R (modern) Pahl.-P&z.-Sans.-Pers., formerly belonging to Mr. 
Romer, and now partly in the India Office Library at London, 
and partly in No. 10 of the Muller Collection in the State Library 
at Munich. It contains Chaps. I, 25-V, 57. 

Digitized by 



Chapter I. 

i. In the name of Auharma.zdf, the lord, the 
greatest and wise, [the all-ruling, all-knowing, and 
almighty, (2) who is a spirit even among spirits, (3) 
and from his self-existence, single in unity, was the 
creation of the faithful. 4. He also created, by his 
own unrivalled power, the seven supreme arch- 
angels *,] all the angels of the spiritual and worldly 
existences, (5) and the seven worldly characteristics 2 
which are man, animals, fire, metal, earth, water, 
and plants. 

6. And man was created by him, as a control of 
the creatures, for the advancement of his will. 7. 
From him likewise came 3 at various times, through 

1 The passage in brackets is omitted in several Pahl. MSS., 
many of which commence at this point, but it is found in K28, 
BM, and others, and also in the P£z. MSS. and Sans, version. 
The first epithet, 'all-ruling,' which it contains is likewise omitted 
in a few Paz. MSS., while others add a further laudatory passage at 
that point, which is evidently a modern interpolation. The seven 
archangels include Auharmaarf himself (see Bd. I, 26 n). 

' So in the Pahl. MSS. and Sans, version, and also in MH19 and 
PB3, which latter follows the oldest P&z. MS. (AK) very dosely ; 
but §§ 1-16 have been lost from AK itself. Several other Paz. 
MSS. substitute ' creations.' 

* So understood by N£ry6sang, but the original Pahlavi could 
have been translated by ' he likewise sent,' because the Huzvaru 
yatumf, ' came,' and stdrund, ' sent,' are written alike. 

Digitized by 


u8 sikand-gOmAnIk vigAr. 

his own compassion, mercifulness to his own creatures, 
religion, and a natural desire of the knowledge of 
purity and contamination. 8. So, also, as to the 
intellect, understanding, wisdom, knowledge, con- 
sciousness, and guardian spirit — which are the appli- 
ances of the soul that are seeking information of 
these spiritual appliances, the five which are the sight, 
hearing, smell, taste, and touch, (9) through the five 
worldly appliances, which are the eye,, the ear, the 
nose, the mouth, and the rubbing surfaces of the 
whole body — (10) he likewise created man with the 
accompaniment of these appliances, for the manage- 
ment of the creatures. 

11. He also created the religion of omniscience 
like an immense tree, (12) of which there are one 
stem, two branches, three boughs, four twigs, and 
five shoots 1 . 13. And its one stem is agreement. 
14. The two branches are performance and absti- 
nence. 15. The three boughs are Humat, Hukht, 
and Huvarst, which are good thoughts, good words, 
and good deeds. 1 6. The four twigs are the four 
classes of the religion, by whom the religion and 
world are prepared, (17) which are priesthood, 
warriorship, husbandry, and artisanship. 18. The 
five shoots are the five rulers whose scriptural names 
are the house-ruler, the village-ruler, the tribe-ruler, 
the province-ruler, and the supreme Zaraturt. 19. 
And the one chief of chiefs, who is the king of kings, 
is the ruler of the world. 

20. Likewise, the work manifested by him in the 
world — which is man — is in the likeness of these four 

1 The last two terms were, no doubt, Pahl. s&k and barg-gih, 
of which the PSz. deVaa and brfaaa are merely misreadings. 

Digitized by 



classes of the world. 21. As unto 1 the head is 
priesthood, (22) unto the hand is warriorship, (23) 
unto the belly is husbandry, (24) and unto the foot 
is artisanship. 

25. So, also, of the four capabilities (h una ran) 
that are in man — which are temper, ability, wisdom, 
and diligence — (26) unto temper (khlm) is priest- 
hood, as the greatest duty of priests is the temper 
that they do not commit sin on account of shame and 
fear ; (27) unto ability (hunar) is warriorship, that is, 
the most princely adornment of warriors is the ability 
which is expended, the manliness which is owing to 
self-possession (khva^ih); (28) unto husbandmen is 
the wisdom (khiraaQ which is strenuous performance 
of the tillage of the world, and continuance unto the 
renovation of the universe; (29) and\xa\.o artisans is 
the diligence (tukhshaklh) which is the greatest 
advancement of their class. 

30. This arrangement 2 of every kind is upon one 
stem, truth and agreement, opposing the fiend and 
his appliances which are co-existent. 31. These 3 , 
which are recounted by me, are of many kinds and 
many species, as many are religious and many 
believing at a period that all are mutually afflicting*, 

1 Or ' over.' This comparison of these four parts of the body to 
the four classes of men is mentioned several times in the Dinkarrf, 
especially in the latter part of the fourth book. 

* That is, the ordinances of religion (see §§ u-13). 

3 The various heterodox religions, here assumed to be appliances 
of the fiend for misleading mankind, which the author discusses in 
the course of his arguments hereafter. 

* Assuming that Paz. awbasa stands for Pahl. hanbSshin, as 
in Mkh. I, 37. It might be hu-bSshin, * well-afflicting,' but this 
would not be so easily reconciled with the meaning ' inconsistent ' 
which the word often assumes, as in Chaps. XIII, 145, 147, XV, 77, 
XVI, 42. 

Digitized by 


120 sikand-gOmAn!k vigar. 

co-existent destroyers and injurers, one as regards 
the other. 32. And with the mutual afflictiveness, 
destructiveness, and combativeness which are theirs, 
one towards the other, they 1 afterwards also contend 
against the one truth co-operatively and with united 

a. The possession of truth is the one power of 
the faithful, through the singleness of truth. 34. The 
many kinds of falsehood, which must become confused 
and mutually afflicting to many, are, in the aggregate, 
from one source of deceitfulness. 

35. As to that, this composition is provided by me, 
wlw am Maraian-farukh 2 son of Auha^mas^-da^, as I 
saw in the age much religiousness and much good 
consideration of sects (k £sh a n) of many species ; (36) 
and I have been fervent-mindedly, at all times in my 
whole youthful career, an enquirer and investigator of 
the truth of them. 37. For the same reason I have 
wandered forth also to many realms and 3 the sea- 
shore. 38. And of these compendious statements 
which, owing thereto*, are an enquiry of those desiring 
the truth, and 5 a collection and selection (y'xgidz n 6) of 

1 The heterodox religions. 

* As this name has not been found elsewhere, nothing further is 
known about the author of this work than can be gathered from the 
few statements he has made in the work itself. He lived probably 
in the eighth or ninth century of the Christian era, as he mentions 
the Dtnkaraf edited by Atur-fr6bag in Chaps. IV, 107, V, 92, IX, 1, 
4> X, 57, XII, 1, and also the R&shan commentary prepared by 
Atur-fr6bag's son (see Chaps. X, 53, 54, XI, 213); but he does not 
allude to the later edition of the Dinkaraf, prepared by Alur-p&Z, 
son of H&mid, who was living in the latter part of the ninth century 
(seeBd. XXXIII, nn). 

3 Sans. ' on.' This statement is very similar to that in Mkh. I, 35. 

4 Reading a^af, instead of the similarly-written afaj, ' and of it.' 

5 Reading afaf, instead of &ga.s here. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER I, 32-48. 121 

it, for these memoranda, from the writings and memor- 
anda of the ancient sages and high-priests of the just 
— and especially those of the glorified Atur-parflya- 
vand 1 — the name .Sikand-gumanlkVi^ir 2 is appointed 
by me. 39. As it is very suitable for explaining 
away the doubts of new learners about the thorough 
understanding of the truth, the blessedness and truth 
of the good religion, and the inward dignity of those 
free from strife. 

40. And it is composed and arranged by me not 
for the wise and talented, \>wt for preceptors (far- 
h a ng! kan) 8 and those newly qualified. 41. So that, 
while many become freer from doubt about the 
miraculousness and blessedness of the statements of 
the good religion and primitive faith, (42) I am still 
begging of distinguished sages, (43) that whoever 
wants to look, should not look* to the religion of the 
particular speaker and composer, but to the greatness 
of the truth, blessedness, and definite statements of 
the ancient sages. 44. Because I, who am the com- 
poser, do not hold the station of teaching, but that 
of learning. 

45. And it seemed to me, through liberal thought, 
a statement, from that knowledge of the religion, 
destined and important even for new learners. 46. 
Because he who distributes to the worthy, out of the 
little knowledge which is his, is more acceptable than 
lie who knows much and the worthy are without 
benefit and without help from him. 

47. Since those ancient sages decided, (48) that 
liberality is of three kinds, of thought, of word, and 

1 See Chap. IV, 106. % ' Doubt-dispelling explanation.' 

* Sans, has ' students.' 4 Sans, has 'you should not look.' 

Digitized by 



of deed. 49. Liberality of thought being that whose 
wishing of happiness for any others whatever, of a 
like disposition, is as much as for its own. 50. 
Liberality in word being that which teaches to the 
worthy something out of every virtuous knowledge 
and information which have come to it ; (51) just as 
that which a certain sage said (52) thus: ' I desire 
that I may understand all information which is 
advantageous, and I will teach it to friends and 
acquire the result which is obtainable.' 53. And the 
liberality which is in deed being that which, out of 
any benefit whatever that has come to it, is a benefit 
to the worthy. 

54. Again, it is a reminding of the good as to the 
preservation of the soul ; (55) and for the same 
reason I have arranged that while the wise are kindly 
observant of me, through their own compassion, they 
may remember about the immortality of the soul. 
56. Since it is said, that the eye of him who observes 
all good creatures with kind eyes is the eye of the 
sun ; (57) because the sun is, indeed, an observer and 
beautifier with kind eyes for all creatures. 

Chapter II. 

I. The first subject (2) is about several questions 
that the ever-successful Mitrd-aiyyar 1 , son of Mah- 

1 This person, who is not mentioned elsewhere, was probably a 
layman and evidently a Maa/a-worshipper, although his father's 
name seems to be Muhammadan, either Ma'hmud or Mu'hammad. 
The Parsis under a Muhammadan government often adopted Mu- 
hammadan names, as they also took Hindu names in India ; but, in 
this case, it is perhaps more probable that the father had become 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER I, 49- II, II. 123 

mid, from Spahan 1 , asked with good intent and not 
in search of defects, and the answer thereto. 

3. As to that which is asked thus : ' Why did 
Aharman hurry on to the light 2 , and how was it 
possible to be so when he is not of a like nature with 
it, though we always see that whatever is not of a 
like nature abstains from a different nature as much 
as water does from fire ?' 4. The answer is this, that 
the cause itself of the hurrying on of Aharman, 
which was to the light, was his different nature. 5. 
And on account of the desire of a destroyer, which 
was perpetually in his nature, he is a. destroyer of 
different natures. 

6. Being injured and injuring, however they occur, 
do not take place except from difference of nature 
and those of a different nature. 7. Because in those of 
a like nature there exist similarity of will and unani- 
mity, one towards the other, not injuring and being 
injured. 8. And those of a different nature, on 
account of their opposing nature, are destroyers and 
injurers, one of the other, however they come to- 
gether. 9. Those of a like nature, on account of 
unanimity and similarity of nature, are lively 8 , efficient, 
and mutually helping, when they come together. 

10. The disintegration and separation of like 
natures is the disunion of different natures. 11. Just 

a convert to Muhammadanism, and changed his name accordingly, 
after his son had grown up. 

1 The Pahlavi form of Ispahan. 

* In Bd. I, 9, 10 we are told that when the evil spirit arose from 
the abyss, he rushed in to destroy the light which he then saw for 
the first time, but was frightened away by its bravery and glory. 

8 So understand by NSr., but ztvihend may mean 'they are 
graceful,' or it may be a misreading of z&nihend, 'they are 

Digitized by 


124 sikand-g<jmanIk vigar. 

as heat and cold which, on account of their opposing 
nature, are destroyers and injurers, resisting and 
disintegrating one another, through their perpetual 
nature. 12. Because every disintegration is owing 
to the laws (rastagin) of cold and dryness, heat and 
moisture, (13) and their destruction, injuring, and 
opposition of one another. 14. For the disintegra- 
tion of bodies is owing to the perpetual struggling 
of heat and cold, dryness and moisture; (15) and 
owing to their struggling, one with the other, bodies 
are disintegrated and disabled. 

16. Of water and fire, through their own nature, 
no injury whatever is manifest ; (17) but the cold of 
their fraternization 1 is mingled with the moisture of 
the water, and is an opponent of the heat of the fire ; 
(18) and the dryness of their fraternization is mingled 
with the heat of the fire, and is counteractingly an 
injurer of the moisture of the water. 

Chapter III. 

1. And as to that which is asked (2) thus: 'Why 
does not the creator Auharma^ keep Aharman back 
from evil doing and evil seeking, when he is the 
mighty maker? 3. As I assert that no mighty 
maker is afterwards imperfect nor yet unresisting.' 

4. The answer is this, (5) that the evil deeds of 
Aharman are owing to the evil nature and evil will 
which are always his, as a fiend. 6. The omnipo- 
tence of the creator Auharmasaf is that which is over 
all that is possible to be, and is limited thereby. 

1 When water comes in contact with fire. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER II, I2-III, 21. 1 25 

7. That which is not possible to be is not stirred 
up by a capable or an incapable being. 8. Whoever 
says it is so is not within the limits of understanding 
the words. 9. Because, though he said that it is not 
possible to be, he says again that the sacred being is 
capable of it, and that has brought it out of the limits 
of what is not possible to be. 10. For then it is 
not the not-possible, but the possible to be. 

11. As his capability is limited, so also is his will, 
thereby. 12. For he is sagacious, (13) and the will 
of a sagacious being is all for that which is possible 
to be, (14) and his will does not pass on to that 
which is not possible 1 , (15) because he wills all that 
which is possible and fit to be. 

16. If I^say that the creator Auharmas^ is able 
.to keep Aharman back from the evil which is his 
perpetual nature, (17) it is possible to change that 
nature which is demoniacal into a divine one, and 
that which is divine into a demoniacal one; (18) 
and it is possible to make the dark light, and the 
light dark. 

19. Of the changing of a nature by its own self 
those not understanding nature speak, (20) who are 
uninformed of the nature of the result 2 in actions 
and propensities 8 ; (21) and they account the wolf 
and noxious creatures as a benefit 

1 Sans, adds 'to be,' and is followed by most of the modern 

8 PSz. vazlhajn, probably a misreading of Pahl. uzdahifn. 

8 PSz. gadaxni, both here and in Chaps. IV, 56, VIII, 122, 123, 
126, XII, 64, evidently means 'disposition, peculiarity.' It is pro- 
bably a misreading of Pahl. guzinun, occasioned by some writer 
connecting the two letters *n and so converting them into a 

Digitized by 


126 jikand-gCmAnIk vigAr. 

22. Since the harm and evil which arise from 
mankind and cattle are not naturally their own, but 
are owing to the havoc, deceit, solicitation, and de- 
luding 1 of the fiend, (23) they are from the like 
vileness- of other fiends who are such as the malice, 
wrath, and lust* which are mingled with mankind. 
24. Just as the swallowing of bitter medicine, which 
is mingled with poison, is not the accomplishment of 
happiness, but for the removal of the pain and sick- 
ness which are owing to an extraneous nature (bar a 
g6har). 25. As of a statement which is true or 
false — (26) though it may be that, connected with a 
false statement, a righteous man is preserved from 
much harm, and is ruined by that which is true — 
(27) mostly that benefit is not from the false state- 
ment, but from the removal of the destruction and. 
evil which are mingled with the vile, (28) and that 
harm is not from the true statement, but from the 
evil which is mingled with the vile. 

29. Also, as regards that which happens when 
opponents have appeared in order to remove each 
one its own competitor, (30) every one is unre- 
stricted 3 in keeping away that which is its own 
opponent, (31) such as light and darkness, perfume 
and stench, good works and crime, erudition and 
ignorance. 32. That which is not unrestricted is the 

1 N§r. reads vy&wSni, which he understands to mean 'bewilder- 
ing,' but it is doubtful if we can derive this meaning from vySwSn, 
' a waterless wilderness,' which word occurs in Chap. XIV, 30. The 
original Pahlavi word can be also read either ntyazdnih, ' cause of 
longing, temptation,* or nihtzinfh, 'intimidation.' 

* Evil passions which are personified as fiends (see Mkh. XLI, 
10, 11). 

' Reading a tang, instead of the similarly- written Stufc which 
would be the equivalent of the Paz. atu (Sans, f akta) used by N6r. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER III, 22-IV, 4. 1 27 

light to keep away stench, nor the perfume darkness ; 
(33) but they have each separately appeared in order 
to keep away their own opponent. 

34. As to that, too, which they say 1 , that in the 
dark night a righteous man is preserved from the 
lion, wolves, dogs, and robbers, (35) while in the 
light day he becomes a captive 2 in their hands, (36) 
it is not proper to consider that as a benefit owing 
to darkness, nor yet as an evil owing to light. 37. 
Because light is created for the removal of darkness, 
not for the keeping away of the lion, wolf, and 
noxious creatures. And there are many other things 
which are of this nature. 38. On account of tedious- 
ness this is collected merely as a summary; the 
virtue and understanding of you triumphant ones 
(39) are so much, that you may obtain more from 

Chapter IV. 

1. And as to that which is asked (2) thus : ' When 
I always see that all things ever arise from the celes- 
tial sphere and stars, (3) and who created this sphere, 
then it is like that which those of the V!r6^ 8 religion 
say, that he created good and evil. 4. If Aharman 

1 For the purpose of arguing that evils are sometimes advan- 
tageous, and may, therefore, form part of the design of a beneficent 

8 Or gr6h may mean 'a hostage.' 

* Compare Sans, viruddha, 'perverse, contradictory,' or Pers. 
bulud, 'antiquity.' It is possible that Muhammadanism is alluded 
to, as that religion is hardly ever mentioned by name in Pahlavi 
writings, probably from motives of policy. 

Digitized by 


1 23 jika^jd-gOmAnJk vioAr. 

created anything, how did he become able to create 
the effect of these marvellous things, (5) and why is 
it when they are stars by which assistance of virtue 
is always bestowed ? 6. If Auhannasa/and Aharman 
created in conference, then that way it is manifest 
that Auharmasd? is an accomplice and confederate, 
with Aharman, in the harm and evil which ever arise 
from the celestial sphere/ 7. The answer is this, (8) 
that the celestial sphere is the place of the divinities 
(baghan), who are the distributers of happiness, 
from which they always justly bestow their distribu- 
tion of every happiness. 9. And the forms of the 
seven planets (star) are witches who rush below 
them, despoilers who are antagonistic distributers, 
(10) whose scriptural name is Gadug 1 . 

11. Through the creator Auharma^ was the 
arrangement of these creatures and creation, metho- 
dically and sagaciously, and for the . sake of the 
continuance of the renovation of the universe. 12. 
As the evil spirit was entangled in the sky, that 
fiend, with evil astuteness and with lying falsehood, 
encompassed 2 and mingled with the light, together 
with the fiends of crimes of many kinds, who are 
those of a gloomy race, thinking thus : ' I will make 
these creatures and creation of Auharmas^ extinct, 
or I must make them for my own.' 

13. Those luminaries, the highest of those of the 

1 Av. gadha, a term for ' a brigand' which is used in conjunction 
with witches and other evil beings in the Sr6sh Yt. Had6kht, 5, 6. 

a Supposing that the P&z. frawast (fravast in § 16) stands for 
Pahl. parvast, as in Chaps. VIII, 96, 97, XIV, 73, XVI, 56, 60, 
66-69, 7 X > 1 2 > Dut as N€r. uses Sans, prasarpita, pravish/a, 
pravartita, samudgata, and samutpatita to translate the word, 
he must have assumed that it stood for frazast (Pahl. fravast, 
' sprang forth '). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 5-I9. 129 

good being, became aware, by means of omniscience, 
of the blemishing operation and the lies and false- 
hoods of the fiend, (14) and of this too, that is, of 
what extent was this power of his, by which this 
blemishing operation and work of ruin creep on 1 , 
(15) so that, henceforth, there exists no power what- 
ever for its restoration, which is free from the com- 
plete daubing of restraint, pain, and entanglement 
that is inside the sky. 

16. It is they 2 who are sagaciously mingled by 
htm (the good being) with the substance of the lumi- 
naries, because that fiend encompassed and was 
entangled with his luminaries, therefore all his 
powers and resources are for the purpose of not 
allowing the fiends of crimes of many kinds their 
own performance of what is desirable for them each 
separately; (17) such as the fiendish venom of the 
noxious creatures which the four elements (zahakan), 
pertaining to Auharmas^, [keep enveloped 3 . 18. For 
if this fiendish venom of the noxious creatures] does 
not remain entangled [with the four elements of the 
bodily formations pertaining to Auharma^] — which 
are water, fire, earth, and air — it is just as though 
they came to the sky and spiritual existence. 19. 

1 Sans. ' will retreat,' as if N6r. understood the pronoun 'his' to 
refer to the good spirit, instead of the evil one ; the application of 
the pronouns in §§ 14, 15 being by no means clear in the original 

* The spiritual representatives of the luminaries, who are angels. 

* The words in brackets are omitted in AK, PB3, L23, so that 
§§ 17, 18, in those MSS., stand as follows: — 'Since the fiendish 
venom of the noxious creatures, that the four elements pertaining to 
Auharmazrf — which are water, fire, earth, and air — have not en- 
tangled, is just as though they (the creatures) came to the sky and 
spiritual existence! 

04] K 

Digitized by 


130 sikand-gCmanIk vigAr. 

And if they attained to spirituality and a disem- 
bodied existence, it would not be possible for those 
creatures of Auharmas^ to avoid and escape from 
that demoniacal venom of theirs. 20. It would be in 
the grasp (gr6h6) x and mingled with the breath 
(vaaf) of mankind and the other creatures, and their 
restoration, support, increase, and growth would not 
be possible. 

21. So they 2 also keep those planets enveloped 
in light, because the fiendish venom of the noxious 
creatures is in the substance of those luminaries. 

22. On account of that, too, the existence of some- 
what of advantage is manifest from the serpent 
species, which are dissolving venom from the mul- 
titudes of other wild animals and noxious creatures 3 . 

23. So also from the planets; on account of the 
commingling of the inferior splendour of those lumi- 
naries, benefit is manifested by them. 

24. A similitude of these planets and the benefit 
which they always bestow (25) is such as the brigands 
(gadugan)* and highwaymen who interrupt the path 
of traders in a caravan. 26. They abstract important 
things from many, (27) and do not grant and give 
them to the diligent and worthy, but to sinners, idlers, 
courtezans, paramours, and the unworthy. 

28. Observe this, too, that this performance of 
good works which astrologers compute and state 
from those planets is for this reason, (29) when they 
have not preferred . the method of the divinities 

1 Or gr6he" may mean 'an assemblage.' 
8 The angels of the luminaries. 

8 Which they eat, and thereby diminish the number of such 
objectionable creatures. 
4 See § 10 n. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 20-37. *3* 

(baghan) who are distributing welfare, and that, 
also, of the five constellations pertaining to Auhar- 
mazd — which are the great one 1 that is supreme and 
measurable 2 , Haptoiring 3 , created by Mazda 4 , and 
the stars Vanand 6 , Satav£s 6 , and lister" 1 — as regards 
the brigands (gadugan) 8 and distributers of evil. 
30. And those are the five planets that rush below 
them in the shape of stars, and they keep them 
enveloped in light, which are Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, 
Venus, and Mercury. 3 1 . Since the supreme constella- 
tion, the great one of the north-opposing 9 (32) Hap- 
tdiring, is opposing Saturn, (33) Haptdiring, created 
by Mazda, is opposing Jupiter, (34) Vanand, the 
smiter of noxious creatures, is opposing Mars, (35) 
the star Satav£s is opposing Venus, (36) and the 
star TLrtar is opposing the planetary Mercury 10 , (37) 
the welfare, which they say is from those brigands 
(gadugan), is from those five constellations per- 

1 Called ' the great one of the middle of the sky ' in Bd. II, 8, V, 1, 
which has not yet been identified, but may be Regulus or Orion. 

2 Sans. ' very visible.' 

8 See Mkh. XLIX, 15-21, where it is called Hapt6k-ring. 
4 This epithet is often applied to Hapt6iring, Vanand, and 
" See Mkh. XLIX, 12-14. e See Mkh. LXII, 13. 

7 See Mkh. XLIX, 5, 6. 

8 The planetary witches (see § 10). 

* Or it may be ' planetary-opposing/ or ' north-accepting.' The 
dislocation, and probable corruption, of these sections is due to N6r., 
who evidently considered the epithet mazdadhata, 'created by 
Mazda,' as the name of one of the constellations, and ' great ' and 
' supreme ' as mere epithets of Hapt6iring. But he found it difficult 
to adapt the text to this opinion of his. 

10 These oppositions agree with those mentioned in Bd. V, 1, 
except that Hapt61ring is there opposed to Mars, and Vanand to 

K 2 

Digitized by 


132 SIKAND-GtiMANflC VIgAr. 

taining to Atiha.rma.zd, (38) as they obtain the 
triumph of much power and little injury. 

39. And for the sake of not leaving these five 
planets to their own wills, they are bound by the 
creator, Auharmaar^, each one by two threads (£"ik) 
to the sun (Mihir) and moon. 40. And their for- 
ward motion and backward motion are owing to the 
same cause. 41. There are some whose length of 
thread is longer, such as Saturn and Jupiter, (42) and 
there are some of which it is shorter, such as Mercury 
and Venus. 43. Every time when they go to the 
end of the threads, they draw them back from behind, 
(44) and they do not allow them to proceed by their 
own wills, (45) so that they may not injure the 

46. And those two fiends that are greatly powerful, 
who are opponents of the planetary sun and moon, 
move below the splendour of those two luminaries 1 . 
47. Another — even that which is called the brigand 
(gadug) of the stars, as regards the welfare that 
exists 2 — is likewise confined below the splendour of 
the sun. 48. And when it 3 gets far from control, it 
commits damage and harm on the constellation into 
which it springs, and on the quarter which is the 
particular concern of that constellation, (49) until it 

1 Referring to the supposed cause of eclipses, which are said to 
be occasioned by two dark bodies revolving below the sun and 
moon, so as to pass between them and the earth whenever an 
eclipse occurs (see Dd. LXIX). 

•* Referring to the supposed injurious influence of comets which, 
as they usually appear one at a time to the unassisted eye, are here 
assumed to be a single evil being, the Mujpar of Bd. V, 1, 2. 

3 We should perhaps say 'she,' as a dr&g, 'fiend,' is usually 
considered to be a female being, and the Mujpar or Mftf-pairika is 
a witch. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 38-62. 133 

becomes again, a second time, bound and fettered 
to the sun. 

50. The statement which they offer about it 1 (51) 
is this, the conflict of the superior beings within the 
star station. 52. Out of the inferior of those are the 
conflicts of Tirtar and the demon Spensagar 2 , (53) of 
the fire Vazirt 3 and the demon Afaush 4 , (54) and 
of other good spirits with gloomy ones, for the for- 
mation of rain and allotment of welfare to the 

55. Below them are mankind and cattle, noxious 
creatures and deadly ones 6 , and other creatures 
that are good and bad. 56. Because propensities 
(gada^ni) are mingled with mankind, (57) which 
are greed, lust, malice, wrath, and lethargy, (58) 
wisdom, temper, skill, knowledge, understanding, 
and intellect, (59) as the good influences and bad 
influences are called, which are the causes of good 
works and sin. 

60. All this welfare of the creatures 6 is specially 
owing to the creator of the creatures, (61) who is him- 
self the healer and perfect ruler, the maintainer of 
protection, nourisher, and caretaker, preserving his 
own creatures. 62. And, for his own creatures, he 

1 Meaning, probably, the reason given by the astrologers for the 
good works mentioned in § 28. 

8 The demon of thunder (see Bd. VII, 12). 

s The lightning (see Bd. XVII, 1). 

4 The demon of drought (see Bd. VII, 8, 10, 12, XXVIII, 39). 
These two conflicts represent the struggle between rain and 
drought, which culminates in the thunderstorm; Tutar (Sirius) 
being the bringer of rain. 

B So in AK, PB3, MH19, but other MSS. have mSr, ' serpent,' 
instead of mar, though NSr. uses Sans. nr«Va/«sa. 

• Which is manifest in the world around us. 

Digitized by 


134 sikand-gOmAn!k vigar. 

has thoroughly created and taught the means of 
preservation from evil, and the appliances for 
abstaining from crime. 

63. A semblance, too, of him is such as a wise 
orchard-owner and gardener who wishes to diminish 
the wild animals and birds which are mischievous 
and destructive for his orchard by spoiling the fruit 
of the trees. 64. And that wise gardener, effacing 
(padasae) his own little trouble, for the sake of 
keeping those mischievous wild animals away from 
his own orchard, arranges the appliances which are 
necessary for the capture of those wild animals, 
(65) such as springes, traps, and snares for birds. 
66. So that when a wild animal sees the snare, 
and wishes to proceed with suspicion of it, through 
unconsciousness of the springe and trap he is cap- 
tured therein. 

67. This is certain, that, when a wild animal falls 
into a trap, it is not a victory of the trap, but that of 
the arranger of the trap, (68) and through him the 
wild animal is captured in the trap. 69. The pro- 
prietor and orchard-owner, who is the arranger of 
the trap, is aware through sagacity that the wild 
animal is powerful, and to what extent and how long 
a time. 70. The power and strength of that wild 
animal, which are in its body, are exhausted and 
poured out by struggling, as much as it is able, in 
demolishing the trap and in endeavouring to destroy 
and spoil the springe. 71. And when, on account of 
imperfect strength, its power of struggling totters 
and is exhausted, that wise gardener then, by his 
own will and his own result of determination, wisely 
throws that wild animal out of the trap, with its 
existing nature and exhausted strength. 72. And 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 63-80. I35 

he consigns his own trap and springe, rearranged 
and undamaged, back to the storehouse. 

73. Even like him is the creator Auharmasa?, 
who is the preserver of creations and arranger of 
creatures 1 , the disabler of the evil original evolu- 
tion 2 and protector of his own orchard from the 
injurer. 74. The mischievous wild animal, which is 
the spoiler of the orchard, is that accursed Aharman 
who is the hurrier and disturber of the creatures. 
75. The good trap is the sky, in which the good 
creations are lodging, (76) and in which the evil 
spirit and his rudimentary 8 miscreations are captured. 
77. And pertaining to the springe and trap of the 
wild animal, who is mischievous owing to his own 
wilfulness, is the exhauster (78) time that, for the 
struggling of Aharman and his powers and resources, 
is for the long period 4 (79) which, through the 
struggling of the wild animal in the springe and 
trap, is an exhaustion of its strength. 80. The sole 6 

1 N§r. has 'of the trap' in Sanskrit. The Paz. dSm, meaning 
both * creature ' and ' trap.' 

' Reading bun gajtak instead of bun yajtak, as the word has 
evidently no reference to any form of worship. It cannot be trans- 
lated ' original perversion ' (a possible meaning of the word) because 
there are two of them (see § 103 and Chap. VIII, 101), one com- 
peting with the other (see Chap. VIII, 1), which, as one of them is 
here said to be evil, implies that the other is good and cannot, 
therefore, be a perversion ; nor would this term be applicable in 
Chap. VI, 6 or XV, 56. 

s Or it may be ' primitive,' as k&dmon is the Huzvarw form of 
the Paz. khamast (superlative of Pers. 'Aam, 'immature') here 

* So in all the older MSS., but in Sans, it ' is the long-time lord,' 
a common Avesta epithet of ' time,' and this alteration has teen 
introduced into JE, R, and a few other modern MSS. 

* Assuming that Paz. awa* stands for eyfiz. The word is 
omitted by Sans., K28, L15. 

Digitized by 



creator of the creatures arranges a preservation 
again, which is the preparation of an eternal happy 
progress free from his adversary, which that wise 
orchard-owner does with his own trap and springe *. 

8 1 . Then 2 the scanty power and want of ability of 
that fiend for it, in his struggling for the luminaries, 
are manifest even from this. 82. When as with 
lying falsehood he thought thus s : ' I will make this 
sky and earth and the creatures of Auharmasaf 
extinct, or I will turn them from their own nature 
and bring them to my own,' (83) even then, with all 
the power, desire of destruction, and perpetual strug- 
gling of the fiend, no slaughter whatever by the 
demons is free from effectual limits ; it is this earth 
and sky, and these creatures, (84) that are propa- 
gating from few to many, as is manifest, (85) and 
innumerable persons are convinced of it. 86. For, 
if in this struggling any victory should have specially 
occurred, it would have been impossible to attain 
from few to many. 

87. Moreover, if the births of the worldly existence 
are mosdy manifest through the occurrence of death 
therein, even then it is seen that that death is not a 
complete dissolution of existence, but a necessity of 
going from place to place, from duty to duty *. 88. 
For, as the existence of all these creations is derived 
from the four elements, it is manifest to the sight 
that those worldly bodies of theirs are to be mingled 
again with the four elements. 89. The spiritual parts, 
which are the rudimentary appliances of the life 

1 As stated in § 72. 

• Reading adtna*, ' then for it,' which is the original Pahlavi 
indicated by the Paz. aina of Nlr. (see Mkh. IX, 6 n). 
3 See § 12. * Compare Chap. XII, 79. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, 81-99. 137 

stimulating the body, are mingled with the soul — 
(90) on account of unity of nature they are not dis- 
persed — (91) and the soul is accountable (amar- 
h6mand) for its own deeds. 92. Its treasurers 1 , 
also, unto whom its good works and offences are in- 
trusted, advance there for a contest. 93. When the 
treasurer of the good works is of greater strength, 
she preserves it, by her victory, from the hands of 
the accuser 2 , and settles it for the great throne and 
the mutual delightfulness of the luminaries; (94) 
and it is assisted eternally in virtuous progress. 95. 
And when the treasurer of its offences is of greater 
strength, it is dragged, through her victory, away 
from the hands of the helper 8 , (96) and is delivered 
up to the place of thirst and hunger and the agoniz- 
ing abode of disease 4 . 97. And, even there, those 
feeble good works, which were practised by it in the 
worldly existence, are not useless to it ; (98) for, owing 
to this same reason, that hunger and thirst and 
' punishment are inflicted on it proportionately to the 
sin, and not lawlessly, (99) because there is a watcher 6 

1 NSr. divides the word gan^6bar, ' treasurer,' into the three 
words gan^ u bar, 'treasure and produce.' These treasurers are 
the female spirits who meet the soul after death, with its stores of 
good works and sins (see Dd. XXIV, 5, XXV, 5), and symbolize its 
good and bad conscience, represented by a beautiful maiden and 
a frightful hag, respectively. 

8 The accuser is any person or thing of the good creation that 
has been injured by any sin, and who must be satisfied by atone- 
ment before the sin can be remitted. The question, therefore, to 
be settled, when the account of the soul is rendered, is whether its 
good works are sufficient to atone for its sins. In this case the 
treasurer of offences represents the accusers. 

s The treasurer of good works. 

4 That is, to the torments of hell. 

8 Either the treasurer of its good works, or the* good works 

Digitized by 



of the infliction of its punishment. 100. And, ulti- 
mately, the compassionate creator, who is the for- 
giver of the creatures, does not leave any good 
creature captive in the hands of the enemy 1 . 101. 
But, one day*, he saves even those who are sinful, and 
those of the righteous through atonement for sin, by 
the hands of the purifiers, and makes them proceed 
on the happy course which is eternal. 

102. The conclusion is this, that the creator is the 
healer and perfect ruler, the maintainer and nourisher, 
protecting and preserving the creatures 3 ; not a pro- 
ducer of the disease, a causer of the pain, and an 
inflicter of the punishment of his own creatures. 103. 
And it is more explicitly written below, with the 
arrangement of the two original evolutions *, among 
the assertors of the non-existence of a sacred being 5 , 
and the contemplators of unity 8 . 

104. As ordered and requested by you it is pro- 
vided (padarast) ; do you direct and observe *Vwith 
kind regards. 105. Because, as written above 7 by' 
us, I do not hold the station of teaching, but really 
that of learning. 1 06. Even this teaching of doctrines 
is that which was obtained by me, through the religion 
of wisdom 8 , from the writing (niplk) of Atur-paaftya- 
vand 9 , and is here indicated. 107. And his teachings 

1 Compare Chap. XII, 59. 

a Assuming that Paz. ^um8 is a misreading of Huz. ydm-i. 

3 Compare § 61. 

* See § 73 n, Chaps. V, 46-IX, 45. 

8 Chap. V. • Chap. X. 7 Chap. I, 44. 

8 It is doubtful whether this dlni-i-khard was the name of 
a book now unknown, as the phrase admits of reasonable trans- 

• This writer is also mentioned in Chaps. I, 38, IX, 2, X, 52, 
but his name has not yet been found elsewhere. As he does not 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IV, IOO-V, 3. 1 39 

are in the Dtnkard 1 manuscript (nipik), which the 
supremely learned Atur-fr6bag 2 , son of Farukh-zaaf, 
who was the leader of those of the good religion, 
explained out of his knowledge of the religion, and 
which consists of a thousand subjects 3 . 

108. Of that, too, which is asked by you about 
unlimitedness and limitation, I have written below *, 
through the will of the sacred beings. 

Chapter V. 

1. Another subject, among the assertors of the 
non-existence of a sacred being, is about the exist- 
ence of the sacred being and his competitor. 

2. Of the knowledge approvable by wisdom and 
the statements of the limits of evidence, about the 
existence of the sacred being and his competitor, (3) 

appear to be mentioned in that portion of the Dinkar^ known to 
be extant, his writings were probably embodied in the first two 
books of that work, which have not yet been discovered. 

1 The most extensive Pahlavi work in existence, of which only 
Books III-IX are extant ; they contain about 170,000 words and 
are a summary of the religious opinions, customs, legends, and 
literature of the Maz<fe-worshippers, compiled probably in or before 
the eighth century of the Christian era from earlier records. 

2 An early editor of the Dinkan/, ' acts of the religion.' His 
selections from various religious writings form the fourth and 
fifth books of that work. He appears to have been succeeded in 
the editorship by his son Zaratftot. And when their manuscript 
became worn out, it was finally re-edited by Aturpa</, son of Hemta, 
who lived in the latter part of the ninth century. All these three 
editors were ' leaders of the good religion,' and are mentioned in 
the last paragraphs of the third book of the Dinkard. 

3 Paz. daraa means rather 'subject' than 'chapter' (P&z. dar). 

4 See Chap. XVI, 53-107. 

Digitized by 



this is a summary: — One knows it should be enjoined, 
that the supreme first knowledge, most suitable for 
the well-discerning, is comprehending the sacred 
being. 4. He, of whom this knowledge is not the 
leader of knowledge, is unaided by other knowledge. 
5. Comprehending the sacred being is possible 
through un decayed 1 understanding, fervent intellect, 
and decisive wisdom. 

6. Since comprehending the sacred being is not, 
thus far, more than that one knows that a sacred 
being exists, (7) because whoever is acquainted with 
the existence of a certain thing, and is unaware of its 
nature, is thinking thus, that that thing is good or 
bad, erudite or ignorant, antidote or poison, cold and 
frozen or hot and scorching, dry and withering or 
damp, (8) and, when unaware of its nature, his only 
knowledge of it is then useless — (9) for it is possible 
to cause the commendation and condemnation of any 
person or thing, not through its existence but through 
its nature — (10) therefore one knows this should be 
also enjoined, that a knowledge of 2 anything is 
acquired in three modes : — (1 1) by knowing what is 
inevitable, or by knowing what is analogous, or by 
what is possible and fit to exist. 

12. Inevitable knowledge is such as once one is 
one, and twice two are four. 13. For within the 
bounds of the really inevitable it is not possible to 
say, (14) that there was or will be a time, or a place, 
where twice two are said to be five or three. 

1 5. Knowledge by analogy is that which announces, 
from anything manifest, something which is not 

1 Assuming that P&z. agunast (Sans, an&vila) stands for Pahl. 
ag6nd!</; but it may stand for Pahl. agungW, ' unsilenced.' 
* Sans, inserts ' the nature of.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER V, 4-32. 14I 

manifest, (16) and brings, out of anything visible, 
something invisible, in the likeness of a hand put 
up \ for the household service of the perception of 
wisdom, (17) through complete similarity, resem- 
blance, or partial resemblance. 

18. Complete similarity is such as that of a man 
of Pars to a man of another district. 19.' Resem- 
blance is such as that of cheese to the white of an 
egg. 20. And partial resemblance is such as that of 
cheese to chalk, (21) since this is about the limit of 
partial resemblance, because cheese is like unto chalk 
only in whiteness, (22) but to the white of an egg in 
whiteness and also as food. 

23. And there is also that which is called more 
resembling than resemblance, and more partially 
resembling than partial resemblance. 24. That 
which is more than complete similarity is not spoken 
about, (25) because completion does not become 
more complete. 

26. By this mode it is set forth a second time at 
more length. 27. To demonstrate an invisible from 
a visible thing is such as from a thing made and 
maintained, which is not domestically serving the 
maker and maintainer, (28) and from a thing written, 
whose writer is not declared, (29) are manifest a 
maker of that which is made, a maintainer of that 
which is maintained, and a writer of that which is 
written, who are inevitable, (30) because that which 
is not manifest and is invisible is demonstrated by 
the thing which is manifest and visible. 

31. Information of that which is within the possi- 
ble and fit to exist is credible, (32) such as what one 

1 As a finger-post. 

Digitized by 


142 SIKAND-GtiMANilC VIgAr. 

states thus : ' I saw a man by whom a lion, or a lion 
by whom a man, was slain outright' 33. And this, 
being that which is within the limits of the possible 
and fit to exist, may be a lie. 34. But when a man 
announces that intelligence, who is renowned for 
truth and tested in judgment, it is within the limits 
of truth and reality. 35. If a man announces it, who 
is disgraced by falsehood and tested in misjudgment, 
it is within the limits of falsehood and unreality. 

36. Another mode, outside of these and within 
the limits of the inevitable, is by knowing what has 
not occurred and is not possible ; (37) such as what 
one states thus : ' It is possible to bring the world, 
in secrecy, into the inside of an egg,' (38) or ' it is 
possible for an elephant to pass into an eye of a 
needle,' (39) in such a manner as though one of them 
really becomes no greater and no less, (40) or its 
substance is something which is not a rudiment. 

41. A struggle which should not be limited, (42) 
an existing thing which is not temporary and local- 
ised, (43) or is localised and not limited, (44) the 
working of a vain miracle, (45) and other things of 
this description of speaking and imagining are faulty 
and false and not possible. 

46. Then 1 the knowledge of the existence of him 
who is the exalted sacred being, apart from tangibi- 
lity of nature and other evidence, is through the 
inevitable and analogy, (47) as much visible before 
the sight of wisdom as from the prosperity 2 , forma- 
tion, and organization which are, according to dif- 

1 Reading adfnaj, ' then of him,' for Paz. aina, as in Chap. IV, 
81. Having explained the modes of arguing, in §§ 12-45, tne 
author now returns to the argument itself. 

2 So in Sans., but bahar-h6mandih also means 'divisibility.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER V, 33-61. 143 

ferent statements of many kinds, the formation of 
the things of the world and mankind whose particles, 
and the appliances which are owing thereto, are such 
as the elements of the body and life, from which 1 
they are prepared and formed, (48) which are fire, 
water, air, and earth, (49) that are, each separately, 
a stimulus so qualified and ennobled for their own 
operations, (50) that the operation of fire, through 
its own quality (£ihar!h) and nobility (vaspuhara- 
kanlh), is such that the operations of water, air, and 
earth are not to stimulate unrestricted (a tang) 2 by 
it. 51. Thus, also, the operation of water, through 
its own quality, is such that the operations of air, 
fire, and earth are not unrestricted by it. 52. So, 
also, of air, the operations of fire, water, and earth 
are not unrestricted by it. 53. So, also, of earth, the 
operations of these others are to stimulate not unre- 
stricted by it. 54. But each separately is for its own 
operation, just as they are ennobled and qualified 
(55) hy him who is, sagaciously and methodically, a 
qualifier, a constructor, and an ennobler. 56. And 
the organization is constructed, prepared, qualified, 
and ennobled as is suitable for those operations. 

57. So, also, as to mankind and the other creatures, 
who are the germinating of these elements, (58) whose 
organization of bone, fat, sinew, veins, and skin, each 
separately (59) without sympathy, one for the other, 
is visible altogether. 60, Thus, too, are the nobility 
and qualification of the internal organs, (61) such as 
the liver, heart 3 , lungs, kidneys, gall-bladder, and 

1 Reading mfin a«a.r for Paz. ke va.s\ 

2 See Chap. Ill, 30 n. 

* Assuming that Paz. dawur is a misreading of Pahl. dil. 

Digitized by 



other appliances, for every one of which a function 
of its own is manifest. 62. They are qualified and 
ennobled for their defence by those functions which 
are their own. 

63. So, also, is the qualification of the eye, ear, 
nose, tongue, mouth, teeth, hand, foot, and other 
external appliances, whose own functions are each 
separate. 64. And it is visibly manifest therein ; 
inasmuch as, when one of these organs is disabled, 
any one of the rest is not suitable for the work of 
that other one, for which it is not qualified. 65. And 
when only the construction of one of the organs of 
the body is examined into — that is, how it is — it is 
wonderfully sagaciously constructed 1 . 

66. Such as the eye, which is of many natures of 
different names and different purposes, (67) as the 
eyelash, the eyelid, the white, the eyeball (khayak), 
the iris (siyak), and the pupil (te^ak), (68) in such 
way that the white is fat 2 , (69) the iris is water which 
has so stood in the prison 3 of fat that the turning of 
the eye, from side to side, occurs through it, (70) and 
the pupil, itself the sight, is like a view into the water. 
71. The iris stands in the prison of white, like the 
standing of water in a prison of fat ; (72) and the 
pupil is within the iris, like the view of a thing 
within clear water, (73) or the form of a column in 

1 So in Sans., but the Pahl. text may be translated ' how won- 
derful it t's, it is sagaciously constructed.' 

2 Assuming that Paz. p«gh, as well as pih in § 69 and peh in 
§ 71, stands for Pahl. pik (Pers. pi), ' fat' It might also be con- 
nected with Pers. pikah, ' a veil,' as N§r. seems to have understood 
it here ; but ' fat ' suits the whole context better. 

3 Reading lag, instead of rag, 'a vein,' which latter is adopted 
by N£r. both here and in § 7 1. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER V, 62-92. 145 

a shining mirror. 74. And the arrangement of the 
white in the orbit is for the reason that the dust 
whirling from the atmosphere, when it arrives at the 
eye, shall not be concealed in it, (75) but shall turn 
to the lid (gumb) of the eye, (76) and shall not in- 
jure the sight of the eye. 77. Just as the construc- 
tion of the tube (rag) of the ear is undilated (afahal), 
for the reason (78) that whirls of dust and winged 
noxious creatures shall not rightly enter therein. 
79. And the moisture of oneself, the secretion of 
the ear, and the venom of noxious creatures are 
manifestly as useful^. 

80. When the appliances of life and soul are 
observed — (81) such as the smell, hearing, sight, 
taste, and touch which are causing the intelligence 
of living beings, (82) as also the wisdom of every 
pontiff (rad?), which is pronounced decisive, (83) the 
knowledge which is acquiring, (84) the intellect which 
is a seeker and transmitter, (85) the understanding 
which is a treasurer and defender, (86) the con- 
sciousness which is itself the sight of the soul, (87) 
the guardian spirit (fravash) which is itself the 
nature that is a maintainer of the body, (88) the 
spiritual life (ahu) which is pure, (89) and the other 
spiritual existences that are maintaining the body, 
which are each separately qualified, in that manner 2 , 
for their operation and duty — (90) they are perfect 
in their own operation, as to duty such as they are 
ennobled and qualified for. 91. As to that for 
which they are not qualified, they are not suitable. 

92. The two arguments which are each separate 

1 As means of defence. 

4 By the assistance of the senses mentioned in § 81. 

[24] L 

Digitized by 



in the Dlnkara? manuscript, as the supremely learned 
one 1 has explained them out of his knowledge of the 
religion, are here set forth at length. 93. He whose 
wish is to fully understand the wonderfulness of the 
Mazda-worshipping religion and the statements of 
the primitive faith, (94) examines into it in a 
manuscript of that character, (95) and shall under- 
stand more fully the wonderfulness and truth of the 
religion 2 . 

Chapter VI. 

1. As to another delusion 8 of those asserting the 
non-existence of a sacred being — (2) whom they call 
atheistical (daharl) 4 — (3) that they are ordained 
free from religious trouble (a lag) and the toil of 
practising good works, (4) and the unlimited twaddle 
(drayisn) 6 they abundantly chatter, (5) you 6 should 
observe this : — 6. That they account this world, with 
the much change and adjustment of description of 
its members and appliances, their antagonism to one 
another, and their confusion with one another, as an 
original evolution 7 of boundless time. 7. And this, 
too, that there is no reward of good works, no 
punishment of sin, no heaven and hell, and no 
stimulator of good works and crime. 8. Besides 

1 Atur-fr6bag (see Chap. IV, 107). 

3 Nearly all the Pahlavi manuscripts of this work terminate here. 
8 Paz. vy&want (see Chap. Ill, 22 n). 

4 Sans, digambara refers this term to Buddhist ascetics, the 
nearest approach to atheists with which N§r. was acquainted. 

• A contemptuous term for the speech of evil beings. 

• Or it may be ' one,' as the Sanskrit uses the third person. 
' See Chap. IV, 73 n. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER V, 93-VI, l8. I47 

this, that things are only worldly, and there is no 

9. As I have ■written, and shown above 1 — (10) that 
to be made without a maker, and decided without a 
decider, is as impossible as to prepare what is written 
without a writer, or a house without a mortar-mixer 
(ra^) 2 and building (d£sak) — (11) things made, of 
all kinds, cannot arise without making. 

12. And this worldly existence is owing to the 
mingling of competing powers. 1 3. So its numerous 
possessions are so constructed, selected, and made 
of diverse races (^iharan), diverse colours, diverse 
scents, diverse characteristics, and diverse species as 
I have stated above 8 about the body, (14) that it is 
constructed and made out of many things, such as 
bone, fat, sinew, veins, skin, blood, breath, hair 4 , 
fundament 6 , hand, foot, head, belly, and other mem- 
bers, internal and external, (15) in two series' of 
things of many kinds, of which to be never made by 
means of the diverse nature of diverse powers, (16) 
or to arise without a maker, the impossibility is 

1 7. And in like manner of the other creatures, plants 
and trees, water and fire, earth and air, their stimu- 
lus, too, which is not themselves, is to their own 
duty; and they are not stimulators, (18) but there is 
a stimulator, a building (d£.yak), and a making for 

1 Chap. V, 27-30. * Sans, has ' carpenter.' 

• Chap. V, 57-63. 

4 Assuming that Pdz. vas is a misreading of Pahl. varas. NfeY. 
has Sans, rasa, 'liquid secretion.' 

8 Supposing that P&z. daryam (Sans. nish/M) stands for Pahl. 
dar-1 dum. 

• Literally ' columns.' 

L 2 

Digitized by 



them. 19. And the usage (vazar) which is changing 
and urging them, from stimulus to stimulus, from 
statement to statement, and from time to time, is 
not according to the will and requirement of those 
made, but according to those that are stimulating 
and making. 

20. Even so, indicative of the rotation of the years, 
months, days, and hours, is the revolution of the 
celestial sphere and stars which are settled (pasakh- 
tak), and of the sun and moon which are adjusted 
(nl vardfak), a well-horsed * progress and conspicuous 
revolution. 21. This, too, is an indication that the 
movements of every appearance (^iharlh) are owing 
to an exhibitor, by whom the movement of that 
appearance is exhibited. 

22. Owing to other differences and different 
management in the worldly existence (23) it is 
possible to know, from the worldly existence at 
various times and various periods, that this worldly 
existence is not without a manager. 24. Or' that its 
manager is not a sacred being 2 , who is learned, 
acting reasonably^ of unlimited power, and illumin- 
ing 8 the sky, is also that which is visible when the 
development, decay, and death of the world are such, 
that the nature alike of mankind and animals, and 
alike of races and trees, is to come from youth to old 
age, and from old age to death. 25. No one what- 
ever is seen that has come from old age back to 
youth, or from death back to life, and it is not 

1 Alluding to the supposed horses of the sun. Sans, has 
' brilliant.' 

* That is, the world cannot be controlled by a sacred being 
alone, on account of the evil it contains. 

' Sans, has ' making,' another meaning of varz. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER VI, I9-4O. 149 

possible to say so. 26. Nor yet is it proper to 
think, say, or believe this, (27) that there is no 
recompense of good works and punishment of 
crime, (28) nor even an appearance of an attain- 
able creator of all the creatures, and of the daubing 
of a destroyer. 

29. Moreover, as to this latter, that is precious to 
those who are more friends of penury than of the 
comfort of ill-famed vileness — (30) because they 
produce their happiness thereby 1 , and are grateful, 
(31) and when they see distress they become 
suppliants (32) even from this destiny and dispensa- 
tion which cannot become spiritual except by the 
spirits — (33) even so, in the appearance of every 
one of the hungry, (34) and in every one hurrying 
and straitened 2 , who is imploring favours, is a 
manifestation of the maintenance of a hope for a 
supreme inspection over mankind, and, indeed, over 
wild animals, birds, and quadrupeds. 

35. As to this, too, which they call sophistical s , 
(36) that there is no assurance of even one of these 
things, (37) because all are jaundiced 4 — (38) for 
whoever says that honey is bitter and honey is 
sweet, is right in both, (39) since it is bitter to those 
abounding in bile, and sweet to others; (40) also 
bread is pleasant and bread is unpleasant are both 

1 By performing the good work of charity, which is necessary 
for the future happiness of their own souls. 

1 Assuming that Paz. ^z>a$taw u vada«g is a misreading of 
Pahl. aufta^o va tang. 

s Paz. suwastai (Sans, suvastaytka) is evidently traceable to 
<r<Mpurruc6s through Pers. sufis/afyah. 

* Paz. tahal (Sans, ka/uka) is transposed in Pers. tal'/4, 
' bitter,' in which sense the word is used in §§ 38, 39, and Chap. 
Ill, 24. 

Digitized by 



150 sikand-gOmAnik vigAr. . 

true, (41) since it is pleasant to the hungry, and 
unpleasant to the surfeited; (42) and many other 
statements of this description — (43) that which should 
be said in reply to their twaddle is summarily (44) 
such as the wise have told them (45) thus : — ' Even 
this statement of you sophists, about the jaundiced 
nature of everything, is alike jaundiced, and there is 
no truth in it.' 

46. Many other things are said among them ; (47) 
and this that is indicated by us is the predominant 
information for you victors, (48) so that you may 
obtain more from revelation. 

Chapter VII. 

1. Another subject is about the existence of a 
competitor of a different nature, as shown above \ 
(2) that, from the constructing, qualifying, and 
ennobling of things so sagaciously, and even from 
the circumstances of an unimproving (aiirik) hand 
put upon the concentrated light, it is manifest that 
its maker, constructor, concentrator, and qualifier is 
sagacious. 3. Also his constructing sagaciously is 
manifest, from each separately, through the qualify- 
ing and ennobling of his own works severally. 4. 
And his working sagaciously is an indicator that his 
work is purposed and caused, (5) because every one 
of the works of the sagacious ought to be purposed 
and caused. 6. The purpose and cause of a work 
arise first, the work itself afterwards. 

7. From the many kinds of his work it is manifest 
that his work is willed and requisite. 8. For there 

1 Chaps. IV, 11, 12, V, 54-56. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

CHAPTER VI, 4I-VII, 24. 151 

are two modes of doing a work, (9) either the willed 
is of the many kinds which are his will, (10) or the 
quality is of one kind which is as it is qualified 1 ; 
(11) so from the many kinds of work of the creator 
it is manifest that his work is willed and requisite. 
1 2. And his will is owing to a necessity of different 
limit 2 , (13) because his will was a requisite for the 
power of the original evolution. 

14. The purpose and cause of a work are before 
the necessity, (15) because while the purpose of the 
necessity of a work does not occur, the necessity 
does not exist. 16. The purpose of a work arises 
from the cause, towards which the necessity of that 
work instigates. 1 7. The necessity and willing of a 
thing which is caused exist; (18) and a cause of the 
necessity of a thing owing to its own self is not well 
suited, (19) because the cause arises from progression, 
(20) concerning which an indicator is the purposed 
work that is sagacious. 21. The purpose is owing 
to a cause, the cause is owing to promptitude (au s\.$lv), 
the promptitude is owing to an exception (bar a), the 
exception is owing to an injurer, and the injury is 
owing to an opponent, without further words. 

22. I have also shown 3 , on this subject, through 
inevitable knowledge and through analogy, the 
making and qualification of the world and its cir- 
cumstances and appliances. 23. From the making 
and qualification of the world is manifested a maker 
and qualifier; (24) and 4 [through the purposely-made 

1 By necessity, and not exhibiting any freedom of will on the 
part of its maker. 

' That is, not limited by anything in his work of creation. 

* In Chap. V, 46-91. 

4 The passage in brackets is omitted by AK, PB3, MH19, L23, 

Digitized by 


152 sikand-gOmAnIk vigAr. 

work of the sagacious creator, (25) owing to] the 
purposely-made work 1 , is manifested the existence 
of an injurer from without. 

Chapter VIII. 

1. Again, about the existence of a competing and 
different original evolution 2 , there are these (2) that 
are manifest from the good and evil which are in the 
world, (3) and the particulars of its good maker which 
are self-limited. 4. Such as darkness and light, (5) 
erudition and ignorance, (6) perfume and stench, (7) 
life and death, (8) sickness and health, (9) order 
(daa?) and disorder, (10) distress and freedom from 
care (</ih), (11) and other co-existing 8 factors 
whose certain existence is visible in every district 
and land, and every age. 12. So that no district or 
land whatever is discovered, nor yet any age has 
existed or shall exist, (13) wherein these good and 
bad terms and particulars have not existed or do not 
exist. 14. And it is not possible to say, as to any 
place or age, that good and evil are changeable in 
themselves by their own nature. 

1 5. So, moreover, of the other co-existences whose 
difference is not through different duty, through dif- 
ferent species, or through different quality — (16) as 
the difference of those of a like nature among one 
another, such as male and female, (17) of the varieties 

evidently by mistake, as it is necessary to complete the meaning of 
the sentence. 

1 Made for 'the purpose of frustrating the designs of the fiend, 
which he foresaw (see Chap. VIII, 51, 71). 

2 See Chap. IV, 73 n. 

s And, therefore, competing, as their natures are different. 

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CHAPTER VII, 25-VIII, 29. 153 

of scents and flavours, and of the sun and moon and 
stars, whose difference is not through different nature, 
but through different duty, through different qualifi- 
cation, and through different construction, which are 
such as are attainable for various duties — (18) the 
good and evil, light and dark, and other different 
natures are then their distinction not through 
different duty, but through different nature, (19) the 
incompatible quality and the injuriousness which are 
manifest in them, one towards the other. 20. There- 
fore, when good is there \ the non-existence of evil is 
unquestionable; (21) when light has come, darkness 
is removed. 22. Even so of the other co-existences 2 
whose incompatibility and injuriousness together are 
owing to the cause of difference of nature, (2 3) because, 
in the worldly existence, there is a manifestation of the 
competing nature and injuriousness of the things, 
one towards the other. 

24. The worldly existence is the fruit of the 
spiritual, and the spiritual is its root, (25) because 
fruit is obtained through a root. 26. In like manner 
the giver of the evidence arisen among the intel- 
ligent is clear. 27. Of the worldly existence being 
the fruit, and the spiritual being the root, the 
evidence is this, (28) when the progress (maafano) 
of every visible and tangible thing from impercep- 
tibility to perceptibility is explicitly manifest. 29. 
Because the arising of mankind and other creatures, 

1 Sans, has 'so that where (yatra) good is,' which has induced 
JE to insert Paz. «dar for Sans, yatra, so as to make the author 
say ' when good is here (in this world), the non-existence of evil 
there (in the other world) is unquestionable.' A noteworthy 
instance of punctilious blundering, on the part of a revising 
copyist, making an author say more than he means. 

2 Mentioned in §§ 5-1 1 ; those in § 4 having been just referred to. 

Digitized by 


154 sikand-gOmAnIk vigar. 

who are visible and tangible, from a spiritual existence 
which is invisible and intangible is known, (30) as 
much as the mirrored length and breadth of the body 
being an emanation of itself. 31. And the percep- 
tibility of the body of man and other creatures was 
imperceptible and invisible in the semen which is 
derived from their fathers ; (32) the semen itself, too, 
came into perceptibility, visibility, and tangibility in 
the skin 1 of the fathers. 

33. It is now possible to know inevitably 2 that 
this worldly existence, which is visible and tangible, is 
produced and has arisen from a spiritual existence 
which is invisible and intangible. 34. In like manner 
the lapsing (yehevuntano) from visibility and tan- 
gibility into invisibility and intangibility 3 , which are 
themselves a spiritual state, is unquestionable. 

35. When these are seen by us, in the worldly 
existence, the competing nature, formation, and in- 
juriousness of one towards the other, even as to the 
property of the spiritual existence, (36) which is the 
root of the worldly one; (37) and, in like manner, 
there is no doubt of the existence of its fruit of 
worldly possessions ; (38) this is that which is mani- 
fest as regards a competing nature. 39. Then * its 
purpose and cause were indicated by me above 6 , 
which are the sagaciously working of the creator, 
(40) who created the creature which is an indicator 
of the existence of an opponent. 

1 That N6r. thus read pdst is shown by his Sanskrit translation 
of the word, but the original word was probably pd st, ' the back.' 

s See Chap.V, 12-14 for the technical meaning of this word. 

s As in the case of death and decay. 

4 Reading adinajam, 'then its by me,' which is the Pahlavi 
form indicated by the Pdz. ain£um of NSr. (see Mkh. IX, 6 n). 

• Chap. VII, 4, 5, 19-21. 

Digitized by 


INI\ V. i.H'l V 
CHAPTER VIII, 3O-56. \i^ L!f 53' 

41. For it is known that work due to workers is of 
two kinds, designed or qualified. 42. That which is 
designed is of three kinds. 43. Two are due to the 
wise and sagacious ; (44) either through seeking 
for their own working of advantage and benefit, (45) 
or through removing and keeping away the harm 
and evil which are from without. 46. And one is 
due to the ignorant and unwise, (47) done defectively 
and without a purpose. 48. From the wise and 
sagacious, work ought 1 not to arise without a 
purpose and without a cause. 

49. As the sagacious creator, who is all-knowing, 
perfectly capable, and fully complete in his own self, 
has sought that which is not a necessity for any 
advantage and aggrandizement of his from without 2 , 
(50) it is, therefore, necessary to understand that the 
purpose and causes of his works are of that one 
kind s , (51) to remove and keep away the harm which 
is due to his opponent and the injurerwho may arise 
from without, which is itself the purpose and cause 
of the creation of the creatures. 52. Also this, that 
that sagacious creator is good-willed, (53) and his 
will is all goodness. 54. The creatures were also 
created by him predominantly of his own will. 55. 
And the completely-stirring desire of him who is 
good-willed and sagacious is to subdue 4 evil and 
make it extinct, (56) for while evil is not subdued the 

1 Reading saaSrf, as in JE, because, although AK, PB3, MH19 
have P&z. sah<?<7, 'seems,' N£r. uses Sans, jaknoti. . 

* And, therefore, cannot have been actuated by the design men- 
tioned in § 44. 

$ Mentioned in § 45. 

* Reading khvaftano, instead of Paz. anaftan, which is almost 
identical in writing ; and making a similar correction in § 56. 

Digitized by 


156 sikand-gOmAnIk vigar. 

will of him who is good-willed is not fulfilled. 57. 
And this, that the goodness of that sagacious creator 
is manifest from creativeness, cherishing, and protec- 
tion, and from commanding and teaching the means 
of putting away the path of evil and causing forbear- 
ance from crime ; (58) also from the qualities and 
powers of the body in pain and sickness from 

59. And, as a cause of the body, (60) to remove 
and keep away the opponent who comes to the body, 
and to be the maintenance, the cause of maturity, and 
the cause of growth of animals and sprouting plants 1 , 
through the power of maintaining and cherishing 
their qualities, there is a co-operator who is scrip- 
turally called the Fravash 2 . 61. And through those 
four powers that are accumulative, which are the 
powers of attracting, seizing, digesting, and extract- 
ing — (62) and which, owing to the creator's sagacity 
of every kind, are co-operators with proportionate 
power for keeping away the pain and sickness of 
various kinds which are owing to the opponent, who 
is working defectively and desirous of evil — (63) and 
through others that are of like strength and auxiliary, 
the good will of the creator is manifest. 

1 Paz. rddamSna, which N£r translates by the Sanskrit for 'trees 
and grains;' and the occurrence of the latter word has induced 
some reviser of AK to alter the following words z6r-i dara, 
'power of maintaining,' into z6rid&6&, ' grains,' which alteration 
has been adopted by MH19 and PB3, but the latter has also z&r-i 
d£r£ inserted in the margin, while JE has both readings in the text 
which thus means ' through the power of maintaining and cherish- 
ing the quality of grains.' 

8 The guardian spirit or spiritual representative of each object 
created by Auharmas</, which acts for that object in the spiritual 
world (see Mkh. XLIX, 23). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER VIII, 57-73- 157 

64. Of this, too, that this one is no creator of the 
pain and death which are dissipaters of the body, 
who is good-willed and a maintainer and cherisher of 
the body, (65) the evidence is even from this, when 
the sagacious creator is not a sufferer from sorrow 
(apakhshadar) and performing penitence, (66) and 
is no dissipater and disabler of his own achieve- 
ments 1 , (67) because he is sagacious and all- 

68. As to this other and the sorrow and penitence 
of the kind which is owing to his own work, it is 
fitting to speak about him as of deficient knowledge, 
incomplete wisdom, and inconclusive understanding. 
69. As work does not arise from the wise and 
sagacious without a purpose and without a cause 2 , 
(70) in like manner work from the unwise and 
ignorant and those of inconclusive understanding is 
all defective, without a purpose, and without a cause 3 . 
71. And that sagacious one is a contriver, working 
sagaciously and methodically, for keeping away that 
defective work and inconclusive understanding from 
his own creatures. 

72. He who is working defectively produced dis- 
torted* and entangled scriptures among the crea- 
tures; (73) because this is known, that it is not 
possible so to keep away and cramp s him who is a 
moving and living nature in a boundless void, and 

1 Sans, has ' creatures.' * See § 48. 

8 See §§ 46, 47- 

* Assuming that Paz. farai nmawd (Sans, gumphita) stands for 
Pahl. par£fn-hdmand. 

8 Paz. aw<ffsfiidan(Sans. saftko£ayitum); butit may be noted 
that the Pahlavi equivalent of this word might be easily read apa- 
sa^agin}</ano, 'to disorganize.' 

Digitized by 


158 sikand-g<jman!k vigar. 

to become without risk of injury \ 74. But, though 
he does not become entangled, fenced in, and captive, 
(75) he is spreading anguish into the entanglement 
and captivity, and it is a means of grievous punish- 
ment. 76. Only while a complete wiping away of 
the anguish due to him, and complete information as 
to his own ignorant activity do not arise, he has 
meditated 2 with lying falsehood on that which is 
connected therewith. 77. And the complete capa- 
bility of the almighty creator is the wiping away of 
the anguish. 

78. Owing to the complete wiping away of anguish, 
through the almightiness of the sagacious creator, he 
casts him back impotent into the boundless void. 79. 
And the good creatures thereby become fearless, 
immortal, and undistressed (80) through the com- 
pletely methodical sagacity and discernment of 
means of that omniscient creator of good beings. 

81. From observation of possessions the difference 
of things is manifest. 82. And the difference is of 
two kinds, as mentioned above 3 . 83. One is differ- 
ence of operation, and the other is difference of 
nature. 84. Difference of operation is owing to 
mutual assistance and united strength 4 , (85) and 
difference of nature is owing to want of an adapter 

1 From him, the evil spirit, who is said to have left his native 
abyss and come on towards the light, through the void which inter- 
vened (see Bd. I, 3-5, 9). 

2 So in Paz. — Sans.; but 'he meditates' is more probable, and 
would be written in the same manner in Pahlavi. 

' Perhaps referring to the ' two series of things' mentioned in 
Chap. VI, 13-15, but the connection is not very clear. 

4 Because co-operation in complicated work tends towards divi- 
sion of labour. 

Digitized by 



and to opposition. 86. And not in a single place is 
a permanence of possessions manifest. 

87. If one of anything shall exist and one does not 
exist, its name shall exist, (88) for the sake of recog- 
nising things, one from the other, and preserving the 
name. 89. The bad, by separation from the good 
existence, is originally evolved in such a manner that 
the one is really no cause of the other. 90. Because 
each one is existent (ait-h6mand) through its own 
self, (9 1 ) owing to the perpetual injury and antagonism 
which are manifestly theirs, one towards the other. 

92. If any one shall say that, as the competing 
formations of the competitors are numerous — (93) 
such as good and evil, dark and light, perfume and 
stench, life and death, sickness and health, pleasure 
and vexation — (94) there ought to be many other 
such original evolutions, many in number and of 
many species ; (95) then they may give this reply 1 , 
(96) that, even when there are many names and many 
species of competitors, still then all are within the 
compass 2 of two names. 97. And these two names 
are their including-source, which are good and evil. 
98. Their different names and different species are 
tokens of these two sources. 

99. There is nothing whatever that is not in the 
compass of these two names. 100. There has not 
been and will not be anything which is not good or 
evil, or a mixture of both. 101. On which account 

1 Sans, has ' others give a reply ;' but the P&z. any £, ' others,' is 
certainly a misreading of Pahl. adin aS, ' then this,' or adinaj, 
' then to him,' in which latter case the phrase would be ' then they 
may give a reply to him.' The proper P&zand for 'other' is 
awar< or han. 

1 See Chap. IV, 1211. 

Digitized by 


160 sikand-gCmAnik vigAr. 

it is explicitly manifest that the original evolutions 
are two, and not more ; (102) and also this, that it is 
not possible for good to arise from evil, and evil 
from good. 

103. From this, too, it is possible to understand 1 , 
(104) that it is not possible for complete evil to arise 
from that thing which is filled with goodness. 105. 
If it be possible, then it is not full ; (106) because 
any one thing, when said to be full, is no place for 
anything else ; (107) and when there is no place for 
anything else, other things are not improved by it. 

108. If the sacred being be perfect in goodness 
and wisdom, the folly and evil of any one are known 
not to arise from him. 109. If it be possible for 
them to arise from him, then he is not perfect, no. 
If he be not perfect, it is not proper to glorify him 
for the sacredness of complete goodness, in. If 
good and evil have crept on from the sacred being, 
he is imperfect in goodness. 112. If he be imperfect 
in goodness, he is imperfect in good information. 
113. If he be imperfect in good information, so also 
he is imperfect in wisdom, understanding, knowledge, 
intellect, and other appliances of sagacity. 114. If 
he be imperfect in wisdom, understanding, intellect, 
acknowledge,^ is imperfect in health. 115. If 
he be imperfect in health, he is apt to become sick. 
116. If he be apt to become sick, he is imperfect 
in life. 

117. If any one shall speak thus : ' I always see 
that from one nature, such as that of mankind, alike 
good and alike evil have always crept on, through 
actions owing to them,' (118) that is for this reason, 

1 MH19 has 'to maintain.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER VIH, IO2-I33. l6l 

because mankind are not perfect even in one thing. 
119. And, on account of imperfection in goodness, 
evil has crept on from them;. (120) and also on 
account of imperfection, even in health, they become 
sick. 121. For the same reason they die, (122) 
because the cause of death is the struggling of two 
competing propensities within one nature. 123. 
There where two competing propensities exist within 
one nature, the occurrence of sickness and death is 

124. If any one shall say that there are good and 
evil actions which, until they are done, do not exist, 
(125) then they may give this reply 1 , (126) that the 
occurrence of an action apart from doing is as im- 
possible as any propensity apart from a nature ; and, 
as to the nature, (127) its 2 continuance and arrange- 
ment are then known thereby not to occur through 
its own self. 128. For when a man indulges in 
wrath, Vohuman 3 is far from there ; (129) and when 
Vohuman holds the position, wrath is not there. 
130. When a man tells a lie, truth is far from there*; 
(131) and when he speaks true, falsehood has no 
position there, and that man is called truthful. 132. 
So also when sickness has come, health is not there ;' 
(133) and when health has come, sickness has gone. 

1 See § 95 n. 

* Reading adlnajaj, 'then its thereby' (with a double pro- 
nominal suffix), which is the original Pahlavi indicated by Paz. 
aina; (see Mkh. IX, 6 n). 

* The archangel ' good thought,' who is said to hold the posi- 
tion and vanquish ' evil thought,' while the angel Srdsh does the 
same as regards ' wrath' (see Dinkard, quoted in Dd. XCIV, 1 n ; 
also Bd. XXX, 29). 

4 Sans, adds ' and that man is called false,' which JE also inserts 
in Pazand in the margin, but all other manuscripts omit. 
[24] M 

Digitized by 



134. Just as a substance which is not moving can 
exist, (135) but movement, except in a substance, 
cannot exist. 

1 36. About this chapter, too, collected as a sum- 
mary, (137) do you reverently 1 and discreetly observe 
and instruct thereon. 

Chapter IX. 

1. Other information about the existence of the 
competitor, similarly testified by the Dlnkan/ 2 manu- 
script (niplk), is here well noted for you. 2. For 
both this which is written above and that which is 
written here are all grown from the seed which the 
glorified Atur-paaftyavand sowed, (3) and from the 
original thanksgiving (spas) of the supremely learned 
Atur-fr6bag, son of Farukh-zaa?, himself. 

4. The fourth 8 subject, which is from the Dinkaraf, 
is about the existence of an opponent of the crea- 
tures and of an opponent earlier than the creatures, 
and is from the exposition of the good religion 4 . 

" 1 Assuming that Paz. diramaihl. (Sans, sukshmatayd) is a 
misreading of Pahl. gar&mtkihiL It would more easily be a 
misreading of sharmakihi, 'modestly/ but this term seems 
rather less likely to be applied by the author to his readers. 

2 See Chap. IV, 106, 107 for the names in these §§ 1, 2. 

8 Assuming that Paz. ard ium (Sans. balish/Ao me) is a mis- 
reading of Pahl. arbaum. The first subject (see Chap. II, 1) 
consisted of the three questions of Mitr6-atyy£r discussed in Chaps. 
II-IV. The second subject, about the existence of God, is con- 
tained in Chaps. V, VI. And the third subject, about the existence 
of an evil spirit competing with the creator, is debated in Chaps. 

4 The third book of the Dinkanf, which treats of a multitude of 
subjects ' from the exposition of the good religion,' does not appear 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER VIII, 1 34- IX, l8. 163 

5. That is, a knowledge of the existence of an 
opponent of the creatures is obtainable from the 
innermost recesses of the body of man even to the 
outermost objects of which l sight is susceptible, (6) 
and beyond those, within the certain limits of analogy. 
7. The innermost recesses of man are the innermost 
of life, (8) and are seen through complete observa- 
tion, within the same limits. 

9. This is, as ignorance is to erudition, (10) deceit 
to good disposition, (11) and falsehood to truth, (12) 
other defects of the capabilities which are the source 
of erudition, good disposition, and truth are the 
opponent, (13) and the cause of the wickedness of 
the soul. 14. Again, these irregularities of the rules 
of arrangement of the body, within the compass of 
the body, are the opponent, and the cause of the 
disintegration of the body. 15. Again, as to these 
among the emanations, cold is the opponent of heat, 
dryness is of moisture, and the other doers of mis- 
chief are opponents of the operations of existence. 

16. Within time darkness is the opponent of light, 
stench of perfume, ugliness of handsomeness, un- 
savouriness of savouriness, poison of its antidote, 
noxious creatures and the wolf of the well-yielding 
cattle, and the vile felon (mar) of the good man. 
1 7. Beyond time the brigand planets (gadugan) 2 are 
the opponents of the work of the divine bestowers. 

18. Beyond the knowledge obtainable of all these 

to contain the materials for this chapter. The author is, therefore, 
probably alluding to one of the two earlier books which have not 
yet been discovered. 

1 Assuming that P&z. a»da ne (for be) thum-i va* (Sans, 
yavat bf^am asya) stands for PahL vad bar&turn-i a^aj. 

2 See Chap. IV, 10. 

M 2 

Digitized by 


1 64 sikanp-gOmanJk vigAr. 

champions susceptible to sight, are those who are 
within the limits of analogy 1 and the certain 
information of multitudes, the demons who are the 
opponents of the sacred beings. 

19. The existence of an opponent before the 
creation of the creatures, and his coming to the 
creatures (20) after the creation of the creatures, 
and also to the creator, are presented comprehensibly- 
through reasons which are suitable 2 and presentable, 
and through the provision of a remedy, a creation 
which is for a purpose. 21. This one statement 
(va^ak) possesses five arguments (saman). 22. 
One is the being presented comprehensibly. 23. 
One is the being presented through reasons. 24. 
One is the reasons which are presentable and suit- 
able that the creation existed. 25. One is the 
remedy appointed for the creation. 26. And one 
is the creation of the creatures of the creator for a 

27. The existence of these five arguments is mani- 
fest through the creations and achievements them- 
selves. 28. The presenting comprehensibly is wisely 
arranging the testimony of the effect 3 of the creatures, 
(29) through the reasons presented, which are a de- 
claration owing to the same sagacity. 30. The 
reason obtainable, that the creation existed, (31) 
with the arrangement of the creation so methodi- 
cally, ought to arise from the suitable state of the 

1 Referring, to the two kinds of evidence, direct and indirect, 
mentioned in §§ 5, 6. 

* So in § 24 and in Sans., though Paz. has 'obtainable* here. 

5 Assuming that the Paz. awar dugae" of AK stands for Pahl. 
bar gdkas (or gdkasih). MH19 has duvaS, and PB3, JE have 
dusa6, while Sans, means ' about the magnitude.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IX, I9-45. l6 5 

creation ; (32) and the suitable design of the creation 
itself possesses the testimony, through its appearance. 
33. The remedy appointed is a comprehensible and 
presentable demonstrator, (34) because it becomes 
a desire of knowledge and an appearance of the 
desire. 35. The being created for a purpose is 
manifest through the desire of activity of the creation, 
both severally and naturally. 

36. The evidences of the existence of an opponent 
before the creation of the creatures are many. 37. 
And one of them is the suitable state of the creation 
of the creatures, (38) because the limit of suitability 
is not well fitted for anything except necessity. (39) 
That which is inferred from suitability is necessity, 
from necessity haste, and from haste the existence 
of an opponent who is before the suitable work which 
is the creation. 

40. The evidence of the coming of the destroyer 
to the creatures, after the creation of the creatures, 
is the formation of the means of the creator, for en- 
countering an opponent, before the arrival of the 
opponent, (41) which are omnisciently a provision 
before creation by the creator. 42. And there is a 
demonstrator of these same means of the creatures 
that is prepared, which is the struggling opposed to 
the opponent through the arrangement of their 
nature. 43. One duty of the nature of the creatures 
is the subduing of so much vexation. 44. Their 
preparation, too, is like a contest that is forming an 
enemy opposing the opponent, (45) and their natural 
desire for duty is removing all haste. 

Digitized by 



Chapter X. 

i. Another subject is about the deliberating of 
the deliberators on unity, from which even the pre- 
paration of the duality is manifested. 

2. It should be known, that whoever wishes to 
understand a creator, except when he gives trouble 
to his own life, (3) should meditate reverently 1 . 4. 
First, he fully understands his own body and soul, 
(5) that is, who produced them, out of what, and for 
what purpose ? 6. Also, who is his accuser and 
adversary ; (7) and who is his friend and helper ? 8. 
Likewise, who instigates him to commit crime, (9) of 
what nature is he, (10) and how is it possible to 
escape him ? 

1 1. Then he is not able to understand him 2 as the 
creator through his nature and his coming to himself. 
12. For when he bore the name of creator, then, 
with it, he brought these three creations 3 : — (13) 
creation, religion, and soul. 14. Because the name 
of creator is known from the occurrence of creation. 
15. This implies that the creator of the creation 
created the creations for duty, (16) but does not 
release them from duty. 1 7. And the duty of the 
creatures is to understand and perform the will of 
the creator, (18) and to abstain from what is disliked 
by him. 19. To act by the will of the creator, and to 
abstain from what is disliked by him, is to preserve 
the soul. 20. The will of the creator is not under- 

1 See Chap. VIII, 137 n. * His accuser and instigator. 

s All MSS. have ' he bore these three names ; ' but Ner. has evi- 
dently misread s em, ' name,' instead of d&m, ' creature,' both words 
being written alike in Pahlavi. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER X, I-32. 167 

stood, except from the religion of the creator. 21. 
And the religion is appointed: by the creator free 
from doubt. 

22. Now it is expedient to know that the sacred 
being appointed the religion for the understanding 
of his will, (23) and from the understanding of his 
will for the preservation of the soul are manifested 
the compassion and mercifulness of the sacred being. 
24. From the preservativeness of the religion for 
the soul are manifested the grandeur and valuable- 
ness of the religion; (25) from the necessity of pre- 
serving the soul are manifested the defilement and 
delusion 1 of the soul; (26) and from, the defilement 
and delusion of the soul is manifested a defiler and 
deluder of the thoughts, words, and deeds of man- 
kind. 27. On the whole a corrupter of souls is 

28. And now it is expedient for us to well recog- 
nise 2 and know, as to that defiler who is a corrupter 
of souls, of what nature he is. 29. Because, if the 
creation and achievement of the sacred being are 
said to be of a like nature, then how did the sacred 
being appoint the religion for the preservation of 
the soul ? 30. That is not expedient for him — if a 
defiler and deluder of souls — to produce 3 as his own 
creation and will 4 . 31. For if he be himself the 
creator, and be himself the defiler and corrupter of 
souls, and nothing occurs except by his will, (32) 

1 Paz. vyawSnt (see Chap. Ill, 22 n). 

2 Assuming that Paz. huzvardan (Sans, sawfodhayitum) is 
a misreading of Pahl. hu-zinh&rrfano. 

3 Sans. ' to announce.' 

* Because it (the religion) is opposed to his supposed work as 
a deluder. 

Digitized by 


1 68 sikand-gumAnIk vigAr. 

then, when it is necessary for us to write of preser- 
vation from the sacred being 1 , whom shall we make 
as a refuge 2 ? 

33. Now it is necessary for every intelligent 
person to understand and to know thus much, (34) 
that is, from whom it is necessary for us to flee and 
to abstain, (35) and with whom is the hope, and with 
whom the maintenance, of our protection. 36. The 
method for this acquisition is nothing else but to 
understand the sacred being in his nature, (37) be- 
cause, as I wrote above 3 , it is not only to know his 
existence, but it is necessary to understand his nature 
and his will. 

38. And I have observed, in the world, the sec- 
tarian belief of all maintainers of sects who hold [the 
two fundamental doctrines']*. 39. One is that which 
asserts that all the good and evil, which are in the 
world, are owing to the sacred being. 40. And one 
is that which asserts that all the good of the world, 
besides the hope of preserving the soul, is owing to 
the sacred being; (41) and the cause of all evil of 
the body, besides the risk of the soul, is owing to 
Aharman ; (42) and all things have started from 
appointment by these two origins into various for- 
mations and various subdivisions. 

43. Now I have been an enquirer everywhere, for 
understanding the sacred being, as written above 5 , 

1 As it would be, if he were the corrupter of souls. 

2 The exclamation of the wicked soul after death, derived from 
Yas. XLV, 1 (see Mkh. II, 159). 

3 See Chap. V, 6-9. 

4 The words in brackets are omitted in AK, PB3, MH19, but 
occur in Sans, and the later MSS. 

8 Chap. I. 36, 37. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER X, 33-56. 169 

fervent-minded in the investigation of his religion 
and will ; (44) as likewise I have wandered, for the 
sake of investigation, to the region without and the 
land of the Hindus, and to many different races. 45. 
Because, as to religion, I did not admire that which 
was in supremacy 1 , (46) but / sought that which was 
more steadfast and more acceptable in wisdom and 
testimony. 47. I went also into association with 
many different races, (48) until a time (49) when, 
owing to the compassion of the sacred beings, and 
the strength, glory, and power of the good religion, 
I escaped from much gloomy depth and ill-solvable 

50. By the united power of knowledge of the re- 
ligion (51) and the well-reflecting writing of the wise, 
(52) the marvellous allegorical 2 writings of the 
learned Atur-paaftyavand 3 , (53) and by that writing 
which the glorified Rdshan 4 , son of Atur-fr6bag, 
prepared — (54) for which he appointed the name of 
the Rdshan manuscript (nipik) — (55) and likewise 
that/or which the supremely learned and righteous 
Atur-fr6bag s , son of Farukh-zaaf, (56) who was the 

1 Probably a guarded allusion to Muhammadanism which it was 
then unsafe to disparage openly, as is evident from the rarity of its 
name in Pahlavi writings. 

8 Or ' the miracle-resembling.' 

9 See Chap. IV, 106. 

4 A commentator whose opinions are often quoted in Pahlavi 
writings (see Sis. I, 4 n). His father was probably the early editor 
of the Dinkarrf mentioned in §§ 55-57, though it is hazardous to 
rely upon a single name for identifying an individual. In that case 
he must have been a younger brother of the Zaraturt-i Atur-frd- 
bag&n who succeeded his father as ' leader of the good religion,' 
and revised the Dinkarrf, as mentioned in the last paragraphs of its 
third book. 

6 See Chap. IV, 107. 

Digitized by 



leader of those of the good religion, (57) appointed 
the name of the Dinkar^ manuscript — owing to its 
explaining the religion 1 — (58) I am saved from the 
many doubts, delusions, deceits, and follies of sects, 
(59) and, especially, from those of the deceivers, the 
very great and very mighty, very evil-teaching 
and empty-skulled 2 Manicheans 3 , (60) whose devo- 
tion is witchcraft, whose religion is deceitfulness, 
and whose teaching is folly and intricate secret 

61. I have been deliberately confirmed by the 
power of wisdom and the strength of knowledge 
of the religion, (62) not through obstinate faith*, 
but by the pure revelation opposed to the demon 5 , 
which is the decision of Auhannas^ (63) that was 
taught by the creator Auha^ma^ to the righteous 
Zaraturt 6 . 

64. Zaratfot came alone, on a true mission, to the 
lofty portal of Kat Gustasp 7 , (65) and the religion 
was taught by him, with a powerful tongue, to Kal 
Gujtasp and the learned, through the speech of 
wisdom, through manual gestures, through definite 
words, through explanation of many doubts, and 
through presentation of the visible testimony of the 

1 The probable meaning of dinkarrf is ' acts of the religion.' 
See also Chap. IV, 107 n. 

2 Reading rat-mastarg. For rat NSr. has read ra<f, 'pontiff,' 
which is written in the same manner ; his translation being Sans, 
guru, while his Paz. ra<f has become ra£ in AK, PB3, MH19, but 
has again become ra<? in JE. 

8 See Chap. XVI. 

* Assuming that Paz. sakht-virddajniha stands for Pahl. 

6 That is, the Vendldarf. « See Mkh. 1, 10. 

7 See Mkh. XIII, 14, XXVII, 68-76. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER X, 57-71. 171 

archangels, together with many miracles. 66. And 
a greatness in power which is not the destiny of 
worldly existences was theirs who saw him of the 
vehement guardian spirit. 67. And Kal Spend- 
dadf 1 and Zargar 2 and other royal sons (ziWak), 
instigating the many ^conflicts and shedding the 
blood of those of the realm, accepted the religion as 
a yoke s , (68) while they even wandered to Arum * 
and the Hindus, outside the realm, in propagating 
the religion. 

69. Owing to progress onwards it came in succes- 
sion to the descendants of the divinities 5 , the rulers 
who were those of the Kayan race who were exalted 
ones. 70. And still onwards even until the achieve- 
ment with melted metal pouring upon the chest of 
the glorified Atur-pa^ 6 , son of Maraspend, in the 
reign of that divinity (bagh) Shahpur, the king of 
kings who was the son of Auharmazaf 7 , in a con- 
troversy with apostates of different species of many 
kinds. 71. He was preserved from those most 

1 Misread Spud&kht by NSr. He was a son of Kat Guftisp, 
and called Spe»t6-dita in the Avesta, and Isfendiyar in Persian. 

2 Av. Zairivairi, Pers. Zartr, a brother of Kat Gort&sp (see Bd. 
XXXI, 29). 

3 Literally ' for the neck,' assuming that Pdz. 6-£a 6i is an erro- 
neous reading of Pahl. va/£avarman, as in Mkh. XXXIX, 30. 

4 Asia Minor was so called from having been a portion of the 
Roman empire in Sasanian times. 

* P&z. baySna (Sans, mahat) is evidently a misreading of Pahl. 
baganan, a term referring to the Sasanian kings who adopted the 
title of bagf, ' divinity,' in their inscriptions (see also- § 70), and 
claimed to be descended from the old dynasty of KaySn kings. 

• The supreme high-priest and prime minister of king ShSh- 
pur II (a.d. 309-379), who underwent the ordeal of melted metal 
for the sake of proving the truth of the religion. 

7 King Auharmas</II (a.d. 300-309). 

Digitized by 


172 sikand-gCmanJk vigar. 

mighty apostates, who are called even by the name 
of their desires 1 . 

72. And the Arumans 2 , who have been, at 
various periods, termed untruthful 3 , have asked 
many ill-solvable questions of this religion ; (73) but 
there has been no doubtfulness of any question that 
is explained by this religion, (74) and the learned of 
the country of Iran have always been sustainers of 
victory among them. 75. Not like other sects 
whose religion is secretly progressive and deceiving, 
delusively for the deceived, and undutifully among 
the customs and assemblages of the less-informed, 
unintelligent, and demon-natured whose information 
was nothing whatever of knowledge and under- 
standing of wisdom. 76. Then, so far as the 
assemblages that are very secretly deceived and 
deluded by them, nobody is presented for detection 
(askarikth); (jj) but afterwards, owing to the 
capture of the many of little knowledge and unin- 
telligent opinions who are deluded by them, it is 
discovered they are provided with much mutually 
afflicting speech, falsehood, and disconnection, which 
are their religion. 

78. So that I here * notice some of their much 
inconsistency and disconnection, for informing the 
judgment of new learners, (79) for the reason that 
when the writings of the learned ancients have 
specially minutely and reverently 6 discoursed of 

1 That is, they are called ashm6g (Av. ashemaogha, 'per- 
plexing righteousness'). 

1 The Greeks of the eastern empire of the Romans. 

8 Piz. andst may be either 'irreverent,' or else stand for Pahl. 
ar&st, 'untruthful.' Sans, has 'atheistical.' 

4 In the next chapter. 

5 Or, perhaps, ' modestly ' (see Chap. VIII, 137 n). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER X, 72-XI, 8. 173 

what is most astute in evil, to impel one to good 
knowledge, (80) you should observe with kind regards 
what is ordered. 

Chapter XI. 

1. Henceforth I write * of the inconsistency of 
their twaddle, and of just observations (2) you 
should estimate with wise regard. 

3. First, as to the full consideration of that one 
original evolution (4) which they state thus : ' The 
sacred being is one, doing good works, wise, power- 
ful, compassionate, and merciful, (5) so that good 
works and crime, truth and falsehood, life and death, 
good and evil are 2 owing to him V 

6. Now do ye ask of them (7) thus : ' Is the sacred 
being always compassionate and showing mercy, 
doing good works and judicious, and does he know 
all that is, was, and will be ; and is he advancing the 
desire of ones wishes in everything, even in this where 
judiciousness is interference, or when such is not so ? 
8. Because, \ihebe compassionate, doing good works, 
and showing mercy, why then are Aharman and the 
demons and all these evil faiths * of hell admitted 6 

1 PSz. 'I have written.' 

2 Sans, and JE insert ' all.' 

* Most of this statement can be found in the Qur'&n in isolated 
texts, such as ' God there is no god but he ... He knows the 
unseen and the visible; the mighty, the wise . . . verily God is 
forgiving, compassionate ... It is God who created you . . . and 
then will make you die.' (Qur'&n LXIV, 13, 18, 14, XXX, 39 ; 
SBE. vol. ix.) 

4 Assuming that Paz. vir6;aa (Sans. Smniya) is a misreading 
of Pahl. vir&yak. 

5 Tracing Paz. awaga</(Sans. avakirat) to Av. aiwi + gata. 

Digitized by 


174 sikand-gCman{k vigAr. 

by him to his own creatures, through his own com- 
passion, doing of good works, and showing of mercy ? 
9. If not known by him, where are that knowledge 
and omniscience of his ? 10. If he did not wish to 
keep misery and evil away from the creatures, and 
to produce only happiness for every one, where are 
that judiciousness and interference of his ? 1 1. If it 
were not possible that it should not be produced 
by him, for what is that omnipotence of his (12) 
which we 1 every one, as it were, observe and 
well consider?' 

1 3. Whenever they say that every good and evil 
has arisen from the sacred being — except when they 
separate from him these four attributes (hunar), 
requisite for divinity, which are omniscience, omni- 
potence, goodness, and mercifulness — (14) there is 
then no possibility of it. 15. When, indeed, they 
separate from him only one of these four attributes, 
even then he is not complete in divinity. 16. For if 
a sacred being be he who is omniscient, omnipotent, 
good, and merciful, then he who is not omniscient, 
or not omnipotent, or not good, or not merciful is 
not a sacred being. 

17. Again, observe this, that when he is a ruler, 
advancing desires in every person and thing, why 
are that country and empire of his own not so kept, 
without help, from every enemy and adversity apart 
from his own work, so that there would not be any- 
thing whatever of distress, oppression, injustice, and 
complaint for any one in his empire ? 18. Since the 

1 So in Sanskrit ; but, as the two P&z. verbs end in -u«, the ori- 
ginal Pahlavi termination may have been -y6n (3d pers. optative), 
and we might read ' which every one may, as it were, observe.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XI, 9-28. 175 

rule and empire of a man, who is ruler and emperor, 
are then commendable when it is possible for him so 
to protect and keep his own country and empire, 
through his own wisdom, that they may not assist his 
enemy to detract from his work, and to produce sin 
and harm. 19. Or, when his enemy covets some of 
his work, he is enabled to keep him away from his 
own thoughtful friends, and to make every one free 
from distress. 

20. Again, observe this, that when he is triumphant, 
victorious, and prevailing, (21) over whom are that 
triumph, victory, and prevailing of his ? 22. Since 
triumph and victory are over enemies, a competitor 
exists. 23. It is not expedient 1 to become himself 
a competitor and enemy to his own ; (24) while when 
there is no enemy and competitor of his, over whom 
does he become triumphant and victorious ? 25. 
That sort of triumph and victory is not spoken 
about, (26) because even cattle and sheep, when 
they have no opponent and injurer, are victorious 
and triumphant over themselves. 

27. Again, observe this, is a wise being contented 
with his own divinity and grandeur, or not ? 28. If 
the wise being be contented, then he -has become 
contented to produce an enemy and criminal, and to 
admit all that is devastating into a country, through 
his own knowledge and will, for the benefit of the 

1 K28 inserts shdya</, ' and possible,' and JE inserts Paz. tva, 
which has the same meaning ; but these insertions have probably 
originated in a blunder of the writer of AK, who first wrote Sans, 
jaknoti, the usual equivalent of P&z. shay ad, but afterwards inter- 
lined Sans, sawyu^yate to correspond with sz.ztd, ' it is expe- 
dient,' the word he had written in the Paz. text. 

Digitized by 


176 sikand-g6mAn{k vigAr. 

country and creatures. 29. But why 1 is it expedient 
to seek a disposition of crime and evil, to become 
himself an enemy and curser as regards them, and 
to provide a hellish existence, becoming the misery of 
mankind ? 

30. Again, observe this, as to whatever he says, 
does he speak truly and credibly, or not ? 31. If he 
speaks that truly and credibly which he states thus : 
' I am a friend of good works and an enemy of crime,' 
(32) and always produces more crime and criminals 
than good works and doers of good works, (33) where 
is that truthful speaking of his ? 

34. Again, observe this, is his desire goodness, or 
vileness ? 35. If his desire be vileness, whence is that 
divinity of his ? 36. If his desire be goodness, then 
why are the vile and vileness more than the good 
and goodness ? 

37. Again, observe this, is he merciful, or not ? 38. 
If he be not merciful, whence is that divinity of his ? 
39. If he be merciful, then why does he speak thus : 
' The hearts, ears, and eyes of mankind are bent 
about by me, so that it is not possible for them to 
think, speak, or do anything but that which is wanted 
by me 2 ; (40) be it what has made them great and 
noble, through being without want;. (41) or be it 
what has admitted them to eternal hell, slain and 
exterminated by death of many kinds. 42. So that 
while those whom I force back become good and 
more active in good works, (43) yet still those who 

1 Assuming that Paz. k\, 'what?' stands for £im. Sans, has 
'how?' (Paz. kun.) 

* ' Yet the Lord hath not given you an heart to perceive, and 
eyes to see, and ears to hear, unto this day' (Deut. xxix. 4). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XI, 29-52. I77 

are forced back do only a little 1 , (44) and are much 
more criminal and more sinful than those who are 

45. Again, observe this, that if, whatever he does, 
he does wisely and for a purpose, (46) then, when 
no opponent and adversary of his existed, why did 
the first achievement which was prepared by him 
become servants to demoniacal disobedience, who are 
perverted thereby, among mankind, to wickedness 
and a hellish existence* ? 47. If it were not known 
by him that they would become perverted, it was 
expedient (sa.zid) for him to order the making of a 
trial of them, (48) because now many thousands and 
myriads who are prepared by him, so that they may 
serve him and exhilarate (mastend) his rule, have 
become in every mode disobedient and unhappily 
advised. 49. For with that scanty knowledge that 
mankind possess, which is not so prepared and organ- 
ized as is the wish of mankind, (50) if even anything 
arises, that they construct and prepare, which does 
not so come on and become 3 as is their wish, they 
do not stop again, a second time, for the preparation 
of that thing, but they refrain from it 

51. As to him, that omnipotent and omniscient 
ruler, of the abundant and innumerable things he has 
hitherto made and prepared not even one comes on 
and becomes such as is his wish, yet still he never 
refrains from the preparation and production of many 
new things. 52. Just as when he was the creator of 

1 Assuming that Paz. khvaz&r stands for khu^arak; but, 
as Sans, has 'injury,' the PSzand may be a misreading of Szar. 

a Referring probably to the fall of man, detailed in §§ 61-77. 

* So in Sans, and JE, as in § 51 ; but AK and MH19 have ' go' 

[24] N 

Digitized by 



that one of his first angels whom, on account of 
affection, he prepared out of fire, and for several 
thousand years, (53) as they say, they always per- 
formed his worship ; (54) at last that one was undone 
by one command that was given by him (the creator) 
thus : ' Offer homage to this first of mankind, who is 
prepared by me out of clay.' 55. And deliverance, 
as to what is not expedient to offer, was expressly 
mentioned by him. 56. Then that one acted 
scornfully and contemptibly as to his clay and 
curse and wrath ; (57) and, being perverted to devilry 
and fiendishness, he was forced out of heaven, (58) 
and was given a life of millenniums and an eternal 
dominion, (59) so that he said,'I will go and make 
my servants and worshippers astray and deluded 1 .' 
60. And he was made an injurer and adversary at 
his own will. 

61. At last also that man, to whom he, the supreme 
angel, was ordered to offer homage with many wor- 
shippers, for the sake of affection and respect, (62) 
is appointed to the garden of paradise (vahist), (63) 

1 ' And we did create man from crackling clay of black mud 
wrought in form. And the ^inns had we created before of smokeless 
fire. And when thy lord said to the angels, "Verily I am creating 
a mortal from crackling clay of black mud wrought into shape; 
and when I have fashioned it, and breathed into it of my spirit, 
then fall ye down before it adoring." And the angels adored all of 
them together, save Iblis, who refused to be among those who 

adored He said, " Then get thee forth." . . . Said he, " O my 

lord ! respite me until the day when they shall be raised." He said, 
" Then, verily, thou art of the respited." ... He said, " O my 
lord! for that thou hast seduced me I will surely make it seem 
seemly for them on earth, and I will surely seduce them all together, 
save such of thy servants amongst them as are sincere." ' (Qur'in 
XV, 26-40 ; SBE, vol. vi.) 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XI, 53-77. 179 

so that he may cultivate it and eat all the fruit, (64) 
except of that one tree of which it is ordered thus : 
' Ye shall not eat of it 1 .' 65. And with them (man- 
kind) the deceiver, who is the deluder prepared by 
him (the creator), (66) is let into the garden. 67. 
There are some who say he is a serpent 2 , and there 
are some who say he is Aharman 3 . 68. And an in- 
clination for eating and greediness is given by that 
same one himself to mankind. 69. Then, being 
deceived by that deluder saying ; ' Eat of that tree' — 
(70) there are some who say he spoke to Adam — (71) 
they ate through that inclination for eating 4 . 

72. After eating they became so imbued with 
knowledge that good and evil were understood and 
known by them 6 . 73. Deprived of that so-great 
respect and affection, through that one injunction 
which was forgotten by them — (74) and that forget- 
fulness being likewise owing to that cause — (75) they 
are forced out of the garden of paradise 6 — he with 
his wife — by grievous wrath and disrespect, (j6) and 
are delivered into the hand of that enemy who is a 
deceiver and deluder ; (77) so that he has propagated 

1 ' And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden 
of Eden, to dress it and to keep it. And the Lord God commanded 
the man, saying, " Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely 
eat : but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt 
not eat of it"' (Gen. ii. 15-17). 

4 ' Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field 
which the Lord God had made ' (Gen. iii. 1). 

s ' That old serpent, called the Devil and Satan ' (Rev. xii. 9, 
xx. 2). 

* Compare Gen. iii. 1-6. 

* ' And the eyes of them both were opened ' (Gen. iii. 7)? 

* ' Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of 
Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. So he drovfc 
out the man ' (Gen. iii. 23, 24). 

N 2 

Digitized by 


180 sikand-g<jman1k vigar. 

his own will among them, and has fashioned it upon 

78. Now which was unjust, the unreasonable com- 
mand, the after-wisdom, or the scanty knowledge 
that was more faulty and more mischievous than 
these ? 79. Also this, that is, why was that garden 
not made by him fortified and strong, so that that 
deluder could not have gone into it ? 

80. Even now he {the deceiver) has made and makes 
multitudes of his (the creator's) servants and wor- 
shippers deluded ; (81) and, for the same reason, 
multitudes 4/" apostles and prophets (vakhshvaran) 
are appointed by him (the creator) for the worldly 
existence at various times, (82) so that, as he says: 
' They may save my servants from the hand of that 
deluder, (83) and bring them into the true path and 
way 1 .' 84. And even those worshippers of his, in 
every way through their own will, have slain and 
subdued (khvaft), by a wretched . death, his own 
apostles 2 , whose diligence had brought mankind into 
the proper path and doctrine. 

85. That original deluder and misleader is allowed 
an eternal life. 86. And, even till now, his will is 
more triumphant and absolute than that of the sacred 
being, through deluding and misleading, (87) because 
those deluded and astray are much more numerous 
than those in the true path and undeluded. 

88. Again, observe this, does he do whatever he 

1 ' For the Lord will not forsake his people for his great name's 
sake ; because it hath pleased the Lord to make you his people . . . 
but I (Samuel) will teach you the good and the right way' (1 Sam. 
xii. 22, 23). 

* ' I will send them prophets and apostles, and some of them 
they shall slay and persecute ' (Luke xi. 49). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XI, 78-IO2. l8f 

does for a purpose, or not ? 89. If he does it with- 
out a purpose, he is working foolishly ; (90) and it is 
not proper to praise him who is working foolishly as 
a sagacious divinity. 91. If he does it for a purpose, 
(92) then, when no opponent and adversary of his 
existed, why is the production of all these creatures 
which are even like demons, disobedient men with 
the opposing will of that contentious deluder, and 
innumerable unprofitable creatures ? 

93. Again, observe this, that, if he knows all that 
is, was, and will be, it was not expedient for him to 
produce, through his own knowledge and will, any- 
thing of that of which he may be sorry, and which 
remains opposing his will and command, (94) and 
becomes an adversary of his apostles and the doers 
of his will. 

95. If they say that this adversary was produced 
good and virtuous from the beginning, and after- 
wards became an evil and a misleading of the 
creatures, (96) that implies, you should say, that, 
when he is all-powerful, the purpose and will of 
the adversary, in changing into an evil and a mis- 
leading of the creatures, are more successful and 
more powerful than those of the sacred being ; 
(97) because the evil in any period is stronger than 
the good. 

98. Again, observe this, that when a criminal arises 
wholly through his will 1 , (99) and the minds of 
criminals are defiled by him himself, (100) and the 
seed of crime is sown by him himself, (101) when 2 it 
has grown who has maintained its origin ? 102. 

1 The will of the adversary is probably meant (see § 95). 

2 So in Sans, and JE, but AK has ' so that.' 

Digitized by 


1 82 jikand-gOmAnJk vigAr. 

And by what power of adjudication is one executed 
and one rewarded * ? 

103. Again, observe this, was this world made and 
created by him (the creator) for a purpose, for his 
own pleasure and for the sake of the comfort and 
happiness of mankind, or without a purpose, for his 
own discomfort and the hurry, trouble, pain, and 
death of mankind? 104. For if made by him 
without a purpose, he was acting foolishly; (105) a 
thing without a purpose being not acceptable by the 
wise. 106. If made by him for a purpose, and 
created by him for his own pleasure and the comfort 
and happiness of mankind, (107) why was it not 
made by him prosperous and full of happiness ? 

108. If his pleasure and happiness arise from the 
preparation of mankind and the creatures, what is 
the advantage from their slaughter and devastation ? 
109. If thoughts of crime are not given by him him- 
self to mankind, who is he who gives thoughts of 
crime different from his command and will? no. 
If they are given by him himself, and he now con- 
siders them a fault, what is that justice and arbitra- 
tion of his owing to? in. For when mankind, 
with little knowledge and little wisdom, even then, 
so far as they are able, do not let the lion and wolf 
and other noxious creatures in among their own 
young ones and pregnant females, (112) so long as 
they can destroy them, (113) why has the merciful 
sacred being now let 2 Aharman and the demons in 
upon his own creatures, (114) so that they have 

1 That is, why is the sinner punished while the adversary, who 
occasions the sin, remains unmolested and triumphant ? 
* AK has 'let' written above 'admitted.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XI, IO3-I25. 183 

made them vile 1 , defiled, wicked, and hellish ? 115. 
If done for the sake of experiment, just as that 
which they assert, that evil was created by him for 
the sake of an experiment as regards the creatures, 
(116) why was it not understood by him before 
those men and creatures existed? 117. Because &? 
whose custom 2 is experiment is not to be called 

118. The conclusion is this, that the sacred being, 
if there existed no opponent and adversary of his, 
was able to create all those creatures and creations 
of his free from misfortune ; why did he not so create 
them ? 119. Or was it not possible for him to wish 
it? 120. If it were not possible for him to wish 
it, he is not completely capable. 121. If it were 
possible for him not to wish it, he is not merciful. 
122. If it were known by him that he might say: 
' Something or some one will arise, from these 
creatures and creations which I create, that will not 
be according to my will,' (123) and ultimately he 
made them, (124) then to attach now all this wrath 
and cursing and casting away for punishment in 
hell, discontentedly to his own performance, is un- 

125. Again, observe this, that if all the crime- 
meditating and crime-committing sin which mankind 
think and speak and do, as well as pain, sickness, 
poverty, and the punishment and^ misery of hell, 
cannot arise, except by the will and command of the 

1 Paz. khdr, which N8r. seems to have identified with Pers. kar, 
as his Sans, gives ' deaf.' It may, however, mean ' blind' (Pers. 
kur), as in Chap. XII, 64, 70. 

2 The Sanskrit takes Paz. dastur in its more usual sense of 

Digitized by 


184 jikand-gOmAnJk vigAr. 

sacred being — (126) the will and power of the sacred 
being being eternal 1 , (127) because his self-existence 
is also eternal — (128) the hopelessness of eternally 
saving any one whatever from misery and punish- 
ment is now certain. 129. For it is repeatedly 
declared that there is no learned teacher whatever 
who keeps one away from these mischievous evil 
desires, (130) if the worshipper be even of the same 
kind as those worshippers and high-priests who have 
issued to mankind this admonition : ' Commit no 
crime and sin.' 131. Because they wish to set aside 
the will and command of the sacred being 2 . 132. 
Observe this, too, that, as both are his will, alike 
crime and alike good works, it is not manifest 
whether he approves the good works of doers of 
good works more, or the crimes of criminals. 

133. Likewise observe this, those physicians who, 
on account of the hope of the soul, prepare the 
medicine of the sick, (134) and remove and dismiss 
their pain and disease, (135) so that merit is 
possessed by them (the physicians) owing to that 
practice; (136) yet they 3 are prepared for the 
punishment of hell. 137. And those who, on 
account of affection for the soul, give something to 
poor, begging, suffering people, (138) and thereby 
scatter* and dismiss their want and poverty, (139) 
so that merit is possessed by them (the charitable) 

1 Sans, has ' the will of the sacred being being powerful and 

2 Without whose will and command the sin and evil cannot arise, 
as assumed in § 125. 

8 The sick are probably meant, but the original text is am- 
4 Assuming that Paz. hugarewd stands for Pahl. aukalend. . 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XI, I26-I49. 185 

owing to that practice ; (140) yet it becomes grievous 
sin for them 1 , through anxiety. 141. If they say 
that those physicians and the remedies which they 
offer, and also those who give something to the poor 
and suffering, all exist by the will of the sacred 
being, (142) it is easier, more reasonable, and more 
adapted to divinity, when the sacred being is without 
an adversary and without an opponent, for him not 
to create that disease and poverty (143) than that, as 
to those that he himself is to make sick and poor, he 
should have commanded mankind thus : ' Ye shall 
make them healthy and free from want.' 144. If 
they say that his desire is this, that he may occasion 
the happiness of those physicians and givers by the 
recompense for it, (145) and make them proceed 2 to 
the eternal happiness of heaven (vahist) ; (146) you 
should observe, as to that, since he acts injudiciously 
and incapably when, on account of the existence of a 
complete desire for happiness and prosperity 8 among 
others, he is an attainer of misery for multitudes of 
the innocent who are distressed, poor, necessitous, 
and sick, (147) this may also be said, that if it be not 
possible for him to occasion happiness and prosperity* 
as regards one, except by the distress, pain, and 
vexation of some other, (148) that shows that his 
absolute power and freedom from opposition are not 
adapted for effectual operation. 149. If they say 

1 Probably the poor, but the original text is ambiguous. 

a Assuming that Paz. ^aminea? stands for Pahl. g&mfn£<£ 
The old MS. AK ends with this section, and the remaining half of 
the extant text has been found only in modern copies, having been 
formerly separated from AK and lost 

* So in JE, but J J has ' nobility/ and MH19 has ' pleasure.' 

4 JJ has ' nobility.' 

Digitized by 


1 86 sikand-gOmAn{k vigar. 

that he makes those sick and poor proceed to the 
eternal happiness of heaven in the spiritual existence, 
as a recompense for it, (150) that implies, if it be not 
possible, or not completely possible, for him to give 
the recompense in the spiritual existence, except 
through the misery of the worldly one, (151) also 
this, that — his production of distress in the worldly 
existence arising unquestionably and unreasonably, 
through its previous occurrence, (152) and the recom- 
pense of the spiritual existence arising doubtfully and 
incredibly after the production of the distress — (153) 
just as the previous distress is unreasonable, the 
after recompense occurs alike unreasonably and 
foolishly. 154. This also may be said, that no after 
nobility is obtained for previous distress without a 

155. Again, observe this, that the existence of one 
of these three doctrines is inevitable : — (156) Every 
single thing that is, or was, or will be in this world 
is all by his will, or it is not, (157) or there are some 
that are by his will and there are some that are not. 
158. Because nothing whatever is found which is not 
good, or evil, or a mixture l of both. 

159. If they say that all things are by his will, the 
good and evil are both his desire. 160. If good and 
evil are both his desire, he is not of perfect will ; 
(161) it is not perfect even as to a single thing. 162. 
And he who is of imperfect will must be himself im- 
perfect, (163) as is shown above 2 . . 

164. If nothing be by his will, (165) on account of 
nothing being by the will there is no will. 166. He 
in whom there is no will is working constitutionally 3 , 

1 Assuming that Paz. ham<khtaa stands for Pahl. amikhtak. 
8 Compare Chap. VIII, 108-116. * That is, 'instinctively.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XI, 150-188. 187 

(167) and he who is working constitutionally is con- 
stituted and made. 

168. If there be some things which are by his will, 
and there be some which are not by his will, (169) 
and nothing is found in the world which is not good 
and not evil, (ijo)/rom that it is known that, if the 
sacred being be of good, will, he is not desirous of that 
evil of it, (171) and that which is evil is not by his 
will. 172. If his will be evil he is inevitably not 
desirous of that good of it, (173) and that which is 
good is not by his will. 174. If that which is good 
be by the will of the sacred being, it is known that 
that which is evil arose from another will. 175. If 
that which is evil be by his will, that which is good 
arose inevitably from another will. 176. And the 
inevitability of a rival of the will of the sacred being 
is manifest. 

177. If one says the evil springs from mankind, 
(178) that implies the inevitability — since mankind 
is not perpetually a self-existence — that evil either 
arose before mankind, or after, (179) or it arose with 
mankind. 180. If they say it arose before mankind, 

(181) that implies — since, apart from the sacred 
being, there was no other creator and producer — 

(182) that either the sacred being produced that 
evil, or it produced its own existence itself, or it 
was itself eternal. 183. If they say it arose after 
mankind, (184) as to that, when human nature is 
likewise a production of the sacred being, (185) and 
the sacred being did not produce evil in the nature 
of mankind, (186) how has it sprung into action from 
them ? 187. If the evil was set in action by them, 
apart from the will of the sacred being, (188) and a 
knowledge, as to their setting about it, existed in 

Digitized by 


1 88 sikand-g6man!k vigAr. 

the sacred being, (189) that implies that the sacred 
being is imperfect in his own will, (190) and man- 
kind are victorious and triumphant in setting aside 
the will and command of the sacred being, and doing 
the evil competing with the will of the sacred being. 

191. Also the power of the sacred being in his own 
will and his own servants is manifestly unprevailing. 

192. If they say that he makes them proceed after- 
wards to the awful punishment of hell, (193) as to 
that 1 , if the sacred being be a powerful doer, and 
not to allow the committal of crime, but to convey it 
away from their minds, be more advantageous and 
more adapted to the compassion of a sacred being 
than if he allowed the committal, (194)^/ he has 
become helplessly contented with it, (195) and, after- 
wards, contentedly punishes his own creatures, (196) 
then, as to the one matter I am well considering, 
either incapability, or scanty knowledge, or scanty 
goodness is thereby manifested. 

197. If they say that the sacred being produced 
and created evil for the reason that so mankind may 
fully understand the value of goodness, (198) as to 
that you should observe that, if evil be requisite and 
advantageous for understanding goodness, that evil 
exists by his good will. 199. And if evil exists by 
his good will, and is requisite and advantageous for 
him of whom they say that evil is not his wish, it is 

200. As to that also which they say, that death, 
pain, and poverty are produced by him for the reason 
that so mankind may much better understand the 
value of life, health, and opulence, (201) and become 
more grateful unto the sacred being, (202) as to that 

1 So in MH19 and Sans., but JE omits ' that' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XI, 189-215. 

you should observe that it is as it were acting un- 
reasonably, in the mode of him who gives poison to 
mankind for the sake of increasing the value and 
price of an antidote, (203) so that he may sell the 
antidote dearer and more costly. 204. To what is 
this intermeddling action owing, that, for the sake of 
an understanding of the value of the goodness of 
other things, he allows pain, death, and misery in 
some one else ? 

205. Again, as to that which a multitude of them 
say, that the sacred being is a ruler over every crea- 
ture and creation, (206) because his creations are 
all his own. 207. And he acts about them as is 
desirable for him, because it is desirable for him, 
and ke is not a causer of distress. 208. Since dis- 
tress is that which they inflict upon anything 
that is not their own, (209) then he who, all things 
being his own, acts about them as is desirable for 
him, is not a causer of distress 1 . 210. As to that 
you should know that, if, on account of sovereignty, 
he who occasions distress is not to be called a causer 
of distress, (211) that is as though even he who is a 
sovereign and tells a lie is speaking truthfully, (212) 
and he who, on account of sovereignty, commits 
crime, sin, theft, and plunder is not to be called a 
sinner. 213. Such as that which the glorified 
R6shan 2 , son of Atur-fr6bag, related as a parable 
(ingunl-altak), (214) that they saw a man who was 
defiling an ass, (215) when they enquired of him 

1 Compare Rom. ix. 20, 2 1 : ' Shall the thing formed say to him 
that formed it, "Why hast thou made me thus?" Hath not the 
potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel 
unto honour and another unto dishonour?' 

* See Chap. X, 53. 

Digitized by 



thus : ' Why dost thou commit this execrable action ?' 
216. And he spoke thus, in excuse : ' The ass is my 

217. Again, you should ask this of them, (218) 
that is : 'Is the sacred being a friend, or an enemy, 
to these creatures and creations which are made by 
him ?' 219. If he be a friend of the creatures, that 
implies that it is not proper for him to desire and to 
produce the evil and misery of the creatures; (220) 
yet, as regards the devastation and misery of his own 
achievements, he has never even become tired of 
them. 221. If he be an enemy of the creatures, that 
implies that it is not proper for him to create and 
produce, through his own competent knowledge, that 
thing which is his enemy and disablement 1 , and 
struggles against his will. 

222. This, too, you should ask, (223) that is : * Is 
the sacred being always a well-understanding, good 
sovereign, occasioning prosperity 2 , (224) or an evil- 
understanding, bad sovereign, occasioning distress ? 
225. Or is there a time when he is a well-under- 
standing, good sovereign, occasioning prosperity, 
(226) and is there a time when he is an evil-under- 
standing, bad sovereign, occasioning distress ?' 

227. If he be always a well-understanding, good 
sovereign, occasioning prosperity, (228) that implies 
that there are not, in his country and sovereignty, 
any oppression, distress, and complaint; (229) and 
his affection for the creatures and the affection of 
the creatures for him are pure. 230. Owing to the 

1 Assuming that Paz. aparfvah stands for Pahl. apatugih; 
the two words being nearly alike in Pahlavi letters. 

1 Reading azdrfih-kar instead of P4z. azSdfgar, 'producing 
freedom, or nobility,' which two words are alike in Pahlavi writing. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XI, 216-245. I9I 

same reason he is merciful as regards his own crea- 
tures, (231) and his creatures are recounting his 
praise, utterers of thanksgivings and pure friends 
towards him. 232. His title of divinity, moreover, is 
worthily his own. 

233. If he be an evil-understanding, bad sovereign, 
occasioning distress, (234) that implies that he is him- 
self a pure 1 enemy to the creatures, and his creatures 
are also of a. like nature towards him. 235. Owing 
to the same reason he is an injurer, destroyer, and 
deluder of the creatures, (236) and his creatures are 
complainers of him, strugglers concerning him, and 
pure enemies. 237. His title of divinity, moreover, 
is the equivalent of an unworthy name ; (238) and, 
even on account of his eternity, the creatures are 
hopeless of becoming free from the risk of distress 
and misery for an unlimited time. 

239. If there be a time when he is a good sove- 
reign, well-understanding, and occasioning prosperity, 
and there be a time when he is turned away from 
this; (240) that implies that his affection for the 
creatures is mingled. 241. From a mingled affection 
arises mingled action, (242) and from mingled action 
a mingled individuality is also manifested. 243. 
And his creatures also are mingled friends to him. 
244. Of one's associates there is none who, if a friend, 
is not one's enemy, no praiser who is not complain- 
ing of one, no glorifier even who is not scorning one ; 
a character of this description is manifest among all 

245. Again, observe this, that since all things which 
are in the world are not outside of these two terms, 

1 The word asSzak, 'pure,' is here used idiomatically for 
'mere,' precisely as 'pure' is often used in English. 

Digitized by 


192 SIKAND-GtiMANtK VI(?Ar. 

good and evil, (246) that implies, if good and evil are 
both said to arise from the sacred being and through 
the will of the sacred being, (247) that the trouble- 
some Aharman is unreasonably defamed \ that, being 
innocent and without an original evolution, he never 
was, nor will be, evil and headstrong 1 . 248. That 
which is mentioned in scripture (nipik) 2 , that Ahar- 
man became headstrong, and was put out of heaven 
by them, is unreasonable, (249) because even that 
headstrongness and disobedience were likewise 
through the will of the sacred being. 

250. If even it be said that the good arises from 
the sacred being and through the will of the sacred 
being, and the evil from mankind, still Aharman is 
without an original evolution and innocent, and curses 
and scorn for him are unreasonable. 251. If all this 
misery and evil be sent down, not from a different 
nature, but from the individuality and individual 
nature of the sacred being himself, (252) that implies 
that the sacred being is an enemy and adversary to 
his own tendencies (run). 

253. Observe this, too, that to speak of the exist- 
ence of criminality apart from a nature of crime is 
very deluding ; (254) and as it is deluding to imagine 
a nature of crime that is good, is it more deluding to 
imagine Aharman — who is the origin and original 
evolution of every crime — apart from the creation 
and achievement of the sacred being ? 

255. The conclusion is this, that if at first there 
be anything which is not within the will of the sacred 
being, provided everything be through the will of 
the sacred being, no one whatever is a sinner; (256) 

1 Literally ' with averted head.' 

1 Probably referring to the Qur'&n XV, 26-40 (see § 59 n). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XI, 246-267. I93 

and the apostle 1 and religion were appointed without 
a purpose. 257. If it be expedient to ruin any one 
for sinfulness, it is more expedient to ruin him who 
is the original doer, maintainer, and creator of every 
evil and crime. 258. And if it be said that evil and 
crime arise from Aharman or mankind, that implies, 
as they are likewise created and produced by the 
sacred being, that he is the source of them ; in like 
manner, he who is the cause of the origin of evil 
(259) is worse than evil. 

260. This, too, you should observe, that sects 
(k&shan) of every kind assert this maxim, handed 
down by their own high-priests, when it is mentioned 
and prescribed by them to their own congregation 
(ram), that is : ' Perform good works and abstain 
from crime.' 261. On account of delusion they do 
not consider this, that is, from where and what origin 
ought the crime to arise, about which it is thus com- 
manded : ' Ye shall not commit it, and I will cast 
him who commits it into eternal hell.' 262. So that, 
if that same be owing to the sacred being, it would 
be easier for him not to produce it, than, after its 
production, to have brought it to notice and com- 
manded us to abstain from it. 263. So far, indeed, 
I do not understand any advantage and motive in 
the production and creation of evil. 

264. Again, in their scriptures, he speaks inconsis- 
tently about good works and crime (265) thus : ' Good 
works and crime are both owing to me. 266. Neither 
demons, nor wizards, are unrestricted in causing the 
ruin of any one. 267. No one has accepted the religion 
and done good works, and no one has walked in in- 
fidelity and committed crime, except through my will.' 

1 Zaratfot. 
[24] o 

Digitized by 


194 sikand-gOmanJk vigar. 

268. In the same scripture he adduces many things 
which one has to connect, and inflicts curses on the 
creatures, (269) thus : ' Why do mankind desire and 
commit that crime which I design for them ?' 270. 
It occurs concerning the will and work of his own 
hand, and yet he frightens them with punishment in 
body and soul. 27*. In another place he speaks 
thus : ' I myself am the deluder of mankind, for if it 
should be my will they would then be shown the 
true path by me, but it is my will that they go to 
hell 1 ,' 272. And in another place he speaks thus: 
' Man himself is the causer of crime.' 

273. In these three modes the sacred being gives 
evidence of different kinds about his own creatures. 
274. One is this, that he himself is Aharman 2 ; (275) 
one is this, that he is himself the deluder of the crea- 
tures 3 ; (276) and, in the other, he makes his own 
creatures confederates involved with Aharman in 
deluding 4 ; so that he implies : ' There are instances 
when I occasion it, and there are instances when 
Aharman does! 

277. Through that which he states, that mankind 
themselves occasion crime, they are made by him 
confederates with Aharman ; he himself being at a 
distance from the crime. 278. For if mankind com- 
mit crime owing to their own nature and their own 
delusion, that implies that the sacred being, with 

1 Texts to this effect are numerous in the Qur'&n, such as 
' whom he pleases does God lead astray, and whom he pleases he 
places on the right way . . . God leads the wrong-doers astray; 
for God does what he will ... in hell they shall broil ' (Qur'&n VI, 
39, XIV, 32, 34; SBE, vol. vi). 

2 As deduced from the passage quoted in § 269. 
8 As stated in the passage quoted in § 271. 

* As implied in the passage quoted in § 272. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XI, 268-293. I95 

Aharman, is far from the criminality, (279) because 
it is as it were not owing to the sacred being, nor 
yet owing to Aharman. 

280. Again, you should ask of those whom they 
call Mutazalik 1 (281) thus: 'Is it the will of the 
sacred being for all mankind to abstain from crime 
through their own free will 2 , to escape from hell, and 
to make them proceed to heaven, or not?' 282. If 
one says that it is not, (283) that implies that an 3 
opinion is formed by him as to the little goodness of 
the sacred being and the evil of his will ; (284) and, 
for the same reason, it is not fitting to glorify him 
as the divine existence. 285^ If one says that it is 
his will, (286) that implies that an opinion is formed 
by him as to the good will of the sacred being ; (287) 
and, for this same reason, it is fitting to glorify him 
as the divine existence. 

288- Ask this, too, that is : ' If it be his will, is he 
capable of performing it, or not ?' 289. If one says 
that he is not, (290) that implies that an opinion is 
formed by him as to the incapability of the sacred 
being as regards that will of his ; (291) and, for the 
same reason, it is not fitting to glorify him as the 
divine existence which is almighty. 292. If one says 
that he is capable of performing his will, (293) that 
implies that an opinion is formed by him as to his 

1 Which is doubtless the original Pahlavi form of Paz. muth- 
zari. It is an adjective, meaning 'seceding, schismatic,' derived 
from Ar. mu'htazil, and applied specially to Muhammadan 

2 Assuming that Pdz. Swdi-kimt stands for Pahl. izid- 
kimih, which would be identical with the former word in Pahlavi 

8 JE has 'no' in P£z. but not in Sans., which negative is evi- 
dently a modern blunder. 

O 2 

Digitized by 



capability for that will of his; (294) and, for the 
same reason, it is fitting to glorify him as the divine 
existence which is almighty. 

295. Again, ask this, that is : ' When he is capable 
of performing his will, does he perform it, or not ? ' 
296. If one says that he performs it, (297) that 
implies that the abstaining from sin, escaping from 
hell, and bringing to heaven * would be manifested 
unto all mankind ; (298) but this is that which is not 
manifest by his existence, and is falsifying even his 
own revelation (dind). 299. If one says that he is 
capable of performing his will, but does not perform 
it, (300) that implies that an opinion is formed by 
him as to the unmercifulness of the sacred being, his 
enmity to mankind, and the inconstancy of his will. 
301. For if he performs it, it is no harm to him 
himself and is an advantage to mankind ; his own 
will is also continuous thereby. 302. But if he does 
not perform it, it is no advantage to him himself and 
is harm to mankind ; his own will is also discon- 
tinuous thereby. 

303. Again, ask this, that is : ' Does he not perform 
it through will, or without will ? ' 304. If one says 
that he does not perform it through will, (305) that 
implies that an opinion is formed by him that the 
sacred being is good-willed, but has no will to do 
good ; (306) and this is even to consider him faulty 
through inconsistency. 307. If one says that he is 
without will, and therefore does not perform it, (308) 
that implies that an opinion is formed by him as to 
the weakness of the sacred being in his own self, or 
the existence of an injurer of his will. 

309. The conclusion is this, that, with a manager 

1 JJ has ' saving from hell and escaping to heaven.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XI, 294-319. I97 

of this worldly existence who may be without an oppo- 
nent, without competition, and perfect in sagacity, 
goodness, and capability, there should not be all 
these unworthy actions, trouble and misery, pain 
and vexation, especially of mankind and the other 
creatures. 310. Because, when a manager, without 
an opponent, is perfect in sagacity, he knows means 
for evil not to occur and also remedies for carrying 
off evil. 311. When he is perfect in goodness and 
merciful, he has no wish for the occurrence of evil 
at first, but a wish for its extinction. 312. When he 
is perfect in capability, he is capable of not really 
becoming equally the origin of evil. 

313. Now, as in the worldly existence, whose 
manager is the sacred being, the existence of evil is 
unquestionably visible, then thus much is not separ- 
able from this, either where the manager is provided 
with an opponent, or is without an opponent : — 314. 
If he does not know means for evil not to occur, and 
remedies for carrying off evil, the imperfect sagacity 
of the sacred being is thereby 1 manifested. 315. Or 
the evil exists with his good will, and the imperfect 
goodness of his will is manifested. 316. Or Jie is 
not capable of not allowing the occurrence of evil, 
and of carrying it off, and the imperfect capability of 
the sacred being is manifested. 317. And when he 
is imperfect even in one — in sagacity, or goodness, 
or capability — it is not fitting to glorify and worship 
him as the divine existence who is almighty, all-good, 
and all-wise. 

318. This, too, you should know, that since any 
existing thing, which is acting, is provided with a will, 
but its nature has not become unrestricted, (319) that 

1 Reading ng&s instead of the similarly-written afaj, 'and by it.' 

Digitized by 



shows that, if the original existence of the creator be 
divinity, and his nature be light and beauty, fragrance 
and purity, goodness and sagacity, then such things 
as darkness and ugliness, stench and pollution, vile- 
ness and ignorance — the demoniacal nature itself — 
ought to be far from him. 320. Ifhis original existence 
be anything demoniacal, and his nature be darkness 
or stench, ugliness or pollution, vileness or ignorance, 
then the nature of divinity remains strange to him. 

321. If there be any one by whom indecision 
about all this is insinuated into his own self, that 
implies that, owing to his indecision about it, there is 
no discrimination in him as to goodness, amid his 
own evil. 322. Now, moreover, the hope of the 
hopeful is absorbed, (323) for even he who goes to 
heaven through doing good works is, even there, in 
evil and misery, (324) because there is no distinct 
discrimination of good from evil, even there, (325) if 
there be the goodness which is devoid of evil, and 
there be also the evil which is devoid of goodness, 
represented as really of the same origin. 326. This 
is known, that the difference of good and evil is 
owing to difference of nature. 327. When the two 
origins of their difference and distinction from the 
other of different nature are manifest, that hope of 
the hopeful is just, (328) and sagacity is their pass- 
port (parvanak). 

329. This, too, you should know, that every state- 
ment which is not unconfused by its own limits is 
unenquiring (apa^-khvih) 1 . 330. Likewise this, 
that the limit of divinity is specially sagacity. 331. 
And also this, that 2 the limit of sagacity is only 3 

1 Sans, has ' undesirable.' 

2 JJ and Sans, omit these four words. ! Literally ' one.' 

Digitized by 


■CHAPTER XI, 32O-35O. I99 

advantageous action. 332. Advantageous action is 
not doing injury; (333) and the modes of doing 
injury are three. 334. One is that which, being no 
advantage to oneself, is the injury of another also. 
335. [One is that which, being no advantage to an- 
other *], is the injury of oneself also. 336. And one is 
that which is the injury of oneself and the injury of 
another also. 337. And from the creation of Aharman 
and the demons there is no advantage to a wisely-acting 
sacred being himself, and there is injury of others also ; 
(338) the non-advancement of even his own will, owing 
to his own work, is always manifested thereby. 

339. This, too, you should know, that if the will of 
the sacred being be goodness, (340) his will is also 
eternal. 341. And he should be capable of a suit- 
able will, (342) so that, from the beginning even to 
the end, all the goodness and virtue of the will of the 
sacred being would have proceeded in the world. 
343. Now it is manifest that vileness and vice always 
proceed much more. 344. Therefore the cause is 
one of these, either they always proceed through the 
will of the sacred being, or without his will. 345. If 
they always proceed through some will of the sacred 
being, it is evident- that his will is also for vileness as 
well as for goodness, (346) or he is inefficient and 
changeable in will. 347. Since a will does not 
change, unless owing to a cause, or unless owing to 
a changer, (348) that implies one of these two, either 
it is through some cause, or there exists some other 
being with him as a changer of his will. 349. If 
they always proceed not through the will of the 
sacred being, (350) from that it is evident that the 

1 The words in brackets are omitted, both in Paz. and Sans., by 
JE and JJ, the only two MSS. available. 

Digitized by 


2oo sikand-gOmAnIk vigar. 

sacred being is suffering in his own will, and his will 
is not perfect, (351) or there exists some diminisher 
of it who is a possessor of will. 

352. As to this, too, which they assert, that the 
sacred being commanded Adam thus : ' Thou shalt 
not eat of this one tree which is in paradise (vahist) 1 ,' 
(353) y° u should ask of them (354) thus : ' Was the 
command which the sacred being gave to Adam, thus : 
" You shall not eat of this tree," good or evil ? ' 355. 
If the command were good it is evident that the tree 
was evil, (356) and it is not befitting the sacred being 
to create anything that is evil. 357. If the tree were 
good the command was evil, and it is not befitting the 
sacred being to give an evil command. 358. If the 
tree were good, and the command as to not eating were 
given by him, it is not 2 adapted to the goodness and 
mercifulness of the sacred being to allot a benefit away 
from his own innocent servants. 

359. As to this, too, which they assert, that the 
sacred being brings every one whom he wills unto 
faith and the true way, and, as the recompense, he 
makes him proceed to the happy progress which is 
eternal ; (360) and him whom he does not will he 
leaves in irreligion and ignorance of the sacred 
being, and, for that reason, he casts him into hell 
and eternal misery 8 ; (361) you should ask of them 
(362) thus : ' Is he good whose desire and will are 
for the religion and faith of the sacred being and the 
true way, or he whose desire and will are for going 
astray, irreligion, and ignorance of the sacred being ?' 
363. If one says that he is good whose desire and will 

1 See § 64. 

* Reading Paz. ne instead of Paz. be, 'quite,' as the Sanskrit 
has a negative participle. 
» See § 271. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XI, 351-371. 20I 

are for the religion of the sacred being and the true 
way, (364) now as to that man about whom this 
is the will of the sacred being, that he shall leave 
him in irreligion, going astray, and ignorance of the 
sacred being, and to whom an apostle, or some other 
person who is a friend, recites the revelation (din 6) 
of the sacred being and the true way, (365) does that 
show that the sacred being is thereby better and 
more beneficial to him, or are that apostle and that 
person so ? 366. If one says that the will of the 
sacred being about him 1 is good, it is thereby 
asserted by him, that not understanding the sacred 
being, not accepting the religion, and going astray 
are good ; but this is not acceptable [and not to be 
taught *], on account of error. 367. If one says that 
his coming to the true religion and understanding 
the sacred being are thereby better and more 
beneficial, (368) it is thereby obviously asserted by 
one that the apostle and person are thereby better 
to him than the sacred being. 369. Because a person 
through whom the true way and an understanding of 
the sacred being are wanted among mankind, and his 
will is bent upon it, is much better than he who is a 
sacred being (370) by whose will backsliding (az>az- 
raslh), misunderstanding, and irreligion exist among 
them ; and the sacred being is much worse than that 

371. Observe this, too, that if the criminal thought 
and criminal action of man are by the will of the 
sacred being, that already implies that the sacred 
being produced criminal thought, and sowed crime 

1 The man mentioned in § 364. 

s The words in brackets have no equivalent in the Pizand text, 
but are indicated by asvadyan^a in Sans. 

Digitized by 



in his mind, (372) and Aharman merely invites and 
instigates him to the committal of crime ; that shows 
that the criminal thought traced to the sacred being 
and also his desire for it are more violent and worse 
than the invitation of Aharman. 373. When, too, 
his listening to what proceeds from Aharman, as to 
the committal of crime, is likewise due to the 
criminal thought which the sacred being produced, 
and so also is his desire for it, it is already obvious 
that the sacred being is much worse and more sinful 
than Aharman. 

374. As regards these statements, which are 
enumerated by us, (375) one of these two opinions 
must arise, (376) either that all are true or that all 
are false, (377) or there are some which are true and 
there are some which are false. 378. If all be true, 
every statement that is not adapted to these state- 
ments is false, or something of the two, truth and 
falsehood. 379. If all be false, every statement that 
is not adapted to these statements is true, or some- 
thing 0/ the two together 1 . 380. If there be some 
that are true and there be some that are false, (381) 
then of those which are true — derived from the 
nature and nucleus (naf) of truth — (382) and of those 
which are false — derived from the nature and nucleus 
and original evolution of falsehood — (383) the origins 
are two, one from which arises truth, and one from 
which arises falsehood. 

Chapter XI L 
1. Again, about the inconsistency of their asser- 
tions there are several statements from the Dinkar^ 2 

1 Sans, has ' something mingled twofold.' 

8 See Chap. IV, 107. As the inconsistent statements which 

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CHAPTER XI, 3 72 -XII, 21. 203 

manuscript, (2) as to that which they say, that the 
sacred being is around everything, but nothing is 
within him ; (3) and within everything, but nothing 
is around him. 4. That he is above everything, 
but nothing is below him ; (5) and below everything, 
but nothing is above him. 6. That he sits upon a 
throne, but is possessing no resting-place ; (7) and is 
inside heaven, but is possessing no whereabouts. 8. 
That he does not exist in any place, and yet he does 
exist there. 9. That he exists everywhere, and yet 
his place does not exist. 10. Also that everything 
of his becomes^?/ for his own by his own will, (11) 
his original evolution being both malice and good ; 
(12) and he is eternally unforgiving and compas- 
sionate, (13) preparing distress and not distressing. 
14. Likewise that he has commanded him who is 
incapable of performing or neglecting the divine 
command, (15) and he has created him who is 
innocent for hell, not the distresses 16. That he is 
aware of the hellish existence of mankind, owing 
to wickedness, and his will is for it; (17) and he is 
good- willed, or it has become not his will. 18. That 
he has produced a remedy, and is not himself dis- 
tressing; (19) or no remedy, but want of remedy, is 
produced by him, and yet he is not possessing an 
opponent. 20. That he is wanting experience, and 
yet omniscient; (21) neglecting commands, and yet 

follow in the text are not to be found in the portion of the Dinkarrf 
known to be extant, they were probably contained in the first two 
books of that work, which have not yet been discovered. Chap. 
132 of the third book (130 in Dastur Peshotan's translation, 
pp. 176-178) is the nearest approach to our texj in style, but not 
in matter. It is ' about him who is in all and over all, over and 
not lower than anything nor through anything, that is, even owing 
to management he is over all, and all is manageable by him.' 

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they are themselves his will ; (22) and he who 
neglects, and provides a restricted evolution \ is yet 
a good sovereign. 23. Also that his commands are 
all continuous, (24) and yet the setting aside of his 
commands is obtainable. 25. And that there is some 
of his will which is not continuous, (26) and neglect 
of his will is not an injurer of the will. 27. Likewise 
that he has commanded that which is not his will, 
(28) and the command which is not inconsistent with 
his will and also the command which is inconsistent 
with his will are both proper. 29. Also that his 
good will is not a discontinuous will, (30) and as to 
his evil will, which makes evil things, that is judicious. 
31. And many other inconsistencies which are in the 
assertions of various sects. 

32. If it be not possible for an orderly (paafrninlk) 
religion to exist, without rescue from these incon- 
sistent assertions of many kinds, (33) they then 2 say 
this of it, that to the supposers of two original evolu- 
tions z the work of the sacred being is weak and un- 
resisting; (34) and they say it is not as it were 
adapted to the grandeur of the sacred being. 

35. Upon this subject, too, there are some matters, 
which I shall clearly state, that should be dictated 
and known. 36. That is, does he 4 make divine 
things weaker and more unresisting, (37) where it is 
he who says that the sacred beings own achievements, 

1 Reading bandak-gajtih instead of Paz. bawdayajti; com- 
pare Chap. IV, 73 n. 

' Reading adinaj, ' then of it,' for Paz. aina, as in Chap. IV, 81. 

8 That is, those who hold the orthodox Mazda-worshipper's 
opinion, that the producer of evil is independent of the producer 
of good, so long as the former continues to exist. 

4 The believer in a single original evolution without any inde- 
pendent producer of evil. Connect §§ 36, 37 with §§ 52, 53. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XII, 22-51. 205 

which were created by him, have all lapsed into being 
intolerant of command and deaf to admonition, (38) 
till even the most tender-bodied creatures struggle 
against his will ? 39. And so they have slain or 
impaled those many prophets (vakhsh varan) and 
apostles (petkhambaran) of his, who are appointed 
by him ; (40) and there are some who have acted 
scornfully, contemptibly, and irreverently. 41. This, 
too, is where he has not only not protected his own 
dominion from the vile creatures which were created 
by him himself, but he has himself afflicted his own 
dominion also ; (42) and he himself destroys his own 
productions without a reason, (43) and himself renders 
his own creations useless. 44. Through his own culpa- 
bility he himself destroys his own innocent servants. 
45. He himself makes his own peculiar friends 
weak, needy, sinful, and deluded. 46. And his 
wrath, inflicted upon a single innocent servant, which 
is like Aharman's 1 , makes his own innumerable 
creatures unobservant and deluded. 47. For a sin 
that is limited, which is owing to his own actions, he 
puts the innocent to unlimited punishment 2 . 48. 
The door of forgiveness is .finally shut up, (49) and 
he is not satiated with the pain, distress, and misery 
of his own creatures, (50) but maintains them per- 
petually in action and excitement. 51. And yet he 
is not able to insist upon the commands which he 

1 Aharman being supposed to be the producer of the demon 
of wrath, who is one of his most powerful auxiliaries. 

a Sans, has 'he puts another unlimited punishment upon the 
innocent ;' NSr. having read hano, ' another,' instead of avo, ' to,' 
which two words are written alike in Pahlavi. As the author's 
interpretation of his opponent's argument assumes that everything, 
including sin, is produced by the sacred being, he naturally con- 
cludes that the sinners themselves are innocent. 

Digitized by 


206 sikand-gumAnIk vigAr. 

gives in the beginning, middle, or end. 52. Or is it 
he 1 who says that that one is- the sacred being who is 
perpetually a ruler,, all-knowing and almighty; (53) 
whose dominion and knowledge and power are 
perpetual and for unlimited time ? 54. Owing to 
him, too, is the happiness of any goodness; (55) his 
actions also are for a purpose, his commands are 
advantageous, (56) he is compassionate and forgiving 
as regards his own servants, (57) and is an abundant 
bestower of recompense, too, on that servant who is 
a carrier off of victory. 58. As to him who is a 
sinner, who, on account of his own sinfulness, 
becomes captive in the hands of the enemy 2 , he is 
forgiving upon atonement for the sinfulness and 
cleansing from iniquity and pollution. 59. In the 
end he is no leaver of any good creature captive in 
the hands of enemies s , (60) and is their protector, 
maintainer, and cherisher, in body and life, amid 
their contest and struggle with enemies. 61. He is 
a complete defender of his own empire from oppo- 
nents of a different nature, (62) and his champions 
and troops become victorious in the struggle and 
contest. 63. And in the end he is a bringer of 
victory to his own creatures, as regards every 

64. When it is observed as to light, knowledge, 
sight, life, health, and other divine creations, that 
they are fully resistant and prevailing over darkness, 

1 The believer in two original evolutions, good and evil; the 
producer of the latter being independent of the producer of the 
former for a limited period of existence. This producer of evil is 
not clearly described here, but is mentioned in §§ 58-61, 72 as an 
enemy and opponent §§52, 53 are to be read in connection with 

§§ 36-38. 

2 The spiritual enemy, Aharman. * Compare Chap. IV, 100. 

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CHAPTER XII, 52-78. 207 

ignorance, blindness, death, sickness, and other 
demoniacal peculiarities — (65) because this is known, 
that light is the putting aside of all darkness, (66) 
knowledge is victorious over ignorance, (67) and life 
is powerful 1 and increasing over death, (68) for, 
owing to the powerfulness and increase of life, the 
incalculable progress of the creatures arises from two 
persons, (69) and multitudes are confident about it ; 
(70) so also sight and health are manifestly as much 
victorious and powerful over blindness and sickness 
— (71) such being observed, it is also expedient to 
observe this, that is, what does the opposing fiend 
want, and about what do the troops of the sacred 
being struggle ? 

72. That opponent wants this that he speaks of 
thus : ' I will make this earth and sky and the 
creatures which are luminaries 2 extinct, (73) or I 
will bring them into my possession, and will pervert 
them from their own nature *, (74) so that the sacred 
being shall not be able to occasion the resurrection 
and the renovation of the universe, and to restore his 
own creatures.' 

75. The troops of the sacred being struggle about 
this, that the opponent shall not attain to his will 
through his desire. 76. Observe this, too, that the 
troops of Atiha.rma.zd have been valiant in struggling 
and successful in will ever since the original creation. 

77. From this it is manifest, when it happens that 
this earth and sky are formed, (78) that it would be 
possible for him to make all creatures and creations 
extinct; but he is incapable of making even one of 
the most tender-bodied creatures of the sacred being 

1 Assuming that Paz. avazmawd stands for Pahl. ao^-homand. 
8 Sans, has 'of the luminaries.' 3 Compare Bd. 1, 14. 

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extinct. 79. Because, if even, by reason of death, 
the body be separated from life, it is not extinction 
and change of nature from its own self, but decay 1 
of peculiarities and a necessity of going from place to 
place, from duty to duty 2 . 80. Then each one of the 
qualities of one's body and life is to subsist again, in 
its own nature, for other duties, as is revealed. 81. 
And the existence of these creatures and creation, 
fully continuously and perpetually active, is advan- 
tageously manifest during a suitable period. 

82. Thus far is considered complete upon this 

Chapter XIII. 

1. Again, about the inconsistency and faulty state- 
ments of the first scripture s , (2) which they call holy 
{ikz&d) — (3) and as to it they are, in every way, 
unanimous that the sacred being wrote it with his 
own hand, and gave it to Moses (Musha£) — (4) so 
that, as it is full of delusion, I will here publish, for 
your information, a story * out of all its stupidity and 
of much that is in it. 

5. It states, in the beginning of the scripture, (6) 
that there first arose earth, without form and void 5 , 

1 Assuming that Piz. nySraxni is a misreading of Pahl. ni- 

2 Compare Chap. IV, 87. » The Old Testament. 

* Piz. nihawg-* (Pahl. nisang-i, Av. ni + sangha) appears to 
mean ' a tale, tract, or essay,' and is connected with farhang, 
' learning.' Sans, has ' somewhat, a little.' 

5 Assuming that P£z. £v khun u tan (which N£r. seems to 
have understood as Sv-i khun-vatan, 'water containing blood') 
is a misreading of Pahl. af£m va tah&n. N6r. may have been 
thinking of Mkh. IX, 8. 

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CHAPTER XII, 79-XIII, 17. 209 

darkness, and black water; (7) and the breathing 1 
of the sacred being ever yearns 2 over the face of 
that black water s . 8. Afterwards the sacred being 
spoke thus : ' Let there be light,' (9) and there was 
light*. 10. And stooping he considered that light 
below him, (11) and the light was transmitted by 
him to the day, and the darkness to the night 6 . 1 2. 
In six days this world and sky and earth were also 
created by him, («i 3) for during the seventh day he 
was reposing (khaspan) and comfortable*. 14. 
Through that same mystery (ra«s) even now the Jews 
are enjoying repose on the Sabbath day T . 

15. This, too, is stated, that Adam and his wife 
Eve (Hava6) were created by him, (16) and put into 
a garden of paradise (valmt); (17) so that Adam 

1 Reading viyit, 'air, breath,' instead of Paz. vakhsh, 'growth, 
expanse ;' these two words being written alike in Pahlavi. Sans, 
has 'eyes.' 

* Reading niy azeV instead of Paz. ny£ve<£ Sans, has 'looks.' 

* ' In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. 
And the earth was without form, and void ; and darkness was upon 
the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face 
of the waters ' (Gen. i. 1, 2). 

* 'And God said, " Let there be light :" and there was light ' 
(Gen. i. 3). 

6 'And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided 
the light from the darkness. And God called the light Day, and 
the darkness he called Night ' (Gen. i. 4, 5). 

6 'And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. Thus 
the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. 
... And he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he 
had made' (Gen. i. 31 ; ii. 1, 2). 

7 ' But the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God : in 
it thou shalt not do any work. . . . For in six days the Lord made 
heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the 
seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and 
hallowed it' (Ex. xx. 10, n). 

[24] P 

Digitized by 



should perform cultivation in that garden, and should 
keep watch 1 . 18. The Lord 2 , who is the sacred 
being himself, commanded Adam (19) thus : ' Eat of 
every tree which is in this garden, except of that tree 
of knowledge ; (20) because when you eat thereof 
you die 3 .' 21. Afterwards a serpent was also put 
by him into the garden; (22) and that serpent 
deceived Eve and spoke thus : ' Let us eat of the 
gathering from this tree, and let us give it to 
Adam*.' 23. And she acted accordingly, (24) and 
Adam likewise ate 5 . 25. And his knowledge be- 
came such that good was distinguished by him from 
evil, and they did not die*. 26. He also saw and 
knew that he was naked, (27) and became concealed 
under the trees ; (28) he likewise covered over his own 
body with leaves of trees, on account of the shame 
of nakedness 7 . 29. Afterwards the Lord went to the 

1 ' So God created man in his own image, in the image of God 
created he him ; male and female created he them. . . . And the 
Lord God took the man and put him into the garden of Eden, to 
dress it and to keep it' (Gen. i. 27; ii. 15). 

3 P&z. £dfn6 is evidently a misreading of the Pahlavi form of 
Heb. adon&i, ' Lord.' 

8 'And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, " Of every 
tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat : but of the tree of the 
knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it : for in the day 
that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die'" (Gen. ii. 16, 17). 

4 ' Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field 
which the Lord God had made. And he said unto the woman, . . . 
"ye shall not surely die"' (Gen. iii. 1, 4). 

6 ' She took of the fruit thereof, and did eat; and gave also unto 
her husband with her, and he did eat ' (Gen. iii. 6). 

• '"For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then 
your eyes shall be opened ; and ye shall be as gods, knowing good 
and evil'" (Gen. iii. 5). 

7 'And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that 
they were naked: and they sewed fig leaves together, and made 

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CHAPTER XIII, 18-38. 211 

garden, and called Adam by name thus : ' Where art 
thou 1 ? ' 30. Adam replied thus : ' Here I am, under 
the trees, for this reason, because I am naked 2 .' 31. 
The Lord indulged in wrath, (32) and spoke thus : 
' Who could have informed thee that thou art naked ? 
33. Mayest thou not ever yet 8 have eaten of that tree 
of knowledge, of which I said that you shall not 
eat* ?' 34. Adam spoke thus : ' I have been deceived 
by this woman, who was given to me by thee, and I 
ate 6 .' 35. And the Lord enquired of Eve thus: 
' Why was it so done by thee ? ' 36. Eve spoke 
thus: 'I have been deceived by this serpent 8 .' 37. 
And Adam and Eve and the serpent are, all three, 
forced out of the garden of paradise by him with a 
curse 7 . 38. And he spoke to Adam thus : ' Thy 
eating shall be through the scraping off of sweat 8 

themselves aprons . . . and Adam and his wife hid themselves from 
the presence of the Lord God, amongst the trees of the garden ' 
(Gen. iii. 7, 8). 

1 'And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the 
garden in the cool of the day. . . . And the Lord God called unto 
Adam, and said unto him, " Where art thou ?"' (Gen. iii. 8, 9). 

* 'And he said, "I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was 
afraid, because I was naked ; and I hid myself" ' (Gen. iii. 10). 

3 Assuming that P&z. agarat stands for Pahl. akvari£at; see 

4 'And he said, " Who told thee that thou wast naked ? Hast 
thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shduldest 
not eat?"' (Gen. iii. n). 

* 'And the man said, " The woman whom thou gavest to be with 
me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat'" (Gen. iii. 12). 

6 'And the Lord God said unto the woman, " What is this that 
thou hast done ? " And the woman said, " The serpent beguiled 
me, and I did eat"' (Gen. iii. 13). 

7 ' Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of 
Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. So he drove 
out the man' (Gen. iii. 23, 24). 

* Sans, has ' through the spreading of sleep.' 

P 2 

Digitized by 


212 jikand-gumAnIk vigar. 

and the panting of the nostrils, (39) until the end of 
thy life; (40) and thy land shall grow all bodily 
refuse and dung 1 .' 41. He also spoke to Eve 
thus : ' Thy pregnancy shall be in pain and uneasy, 
and thy bringing forth in grievous hastening V 42. 
And he spoke to the serpent thus : ' Thou shalt be 
accursed from amid the quadrupeds and wild animals 
of the plain and mountain ; (43) for thee also there shall 
be no feet, (44) and thy movement shall be on thy belly, 
and thy food dust. 45. And betwixt thy offspring, 
with those of the woman, there shall be such hatred 
and conversion to enmity that they will wound the 
head of that offspring V 

46. This, too, they say, that this worldly existence, 
with whatever is in everything, was made and pro- 
duced by him for mankind ; (47) and man was made 
by him predominant over all creatures and creations, 
wet and dry*. 

48. Now I will tell yon a story (nisang-i) about 

1 'And unto Adam he said, "... cursed is the ground for thy 
sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of'xX. all the days of thy life: thorns 
also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee ; ... in the sweat of 
thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground " ' 
(Gen. iii. 17-19). 

3 ' Unto the woman he said, " I will greatly multiply thy sorrow, 
and thy conception : in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children " ' 
(Gen. iii. 16). 

8 'And the Lord God said unto the serpent, " Because thou hast 
done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of 
the field ; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all 
the days of thy life : and I will put enmity between thee and the 
woman, and between thy seed and her seed ; it shall bruise thy 
head, and thou shalt bruise his heel " ' (Gen. iii. 14, 15). 

4 'And God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our 
likeness ; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and 
over the fowl of the air, and over the catde, and over all the earth, and 
over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth '"(Gen. i. 26). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XIII, 39-64. 213 

the contents of their twaddle and the faultiness of 
their statements, (49) that is, where and with what 
limits did that earth without form and void 1 , the 
darkness, the sacred being and his breathing 2 , and 
the black water arise ? 50. Or of what description 
was the sacred being himself? 51. It is manifest 
that he was not light, (52) because, when the light 
was seen by him, (53) stooping he considered it*, 
for the reason that he had not seen it before. 54. 
If they say that he was dark, that manifestly implies 
that the origin of darkness is uttering* a word and 
there is light. 55. If they say that he was not dark, 
but light, (56) why, when the light was seen by him, 
did he admire and consider it, though he was light 
himself? 57. And if they say that he was neither 
light nor dark, (58) it is necessary for such to specify 
that third state which is not light and not dark. 

59. Then as to him whose position and abode were 
in darkness and black water, and light was never seen 
by him, how was it possible for him to look at that 
light ? 60. And what was his divinity owing to ? 
61. Because even now it is not possible for any one 
who remains in darkness to look at the light. 62. 
Observe also this, that if his origin and abode were 
darkness, how was it possible for him to remain 
opposite the light ? 63. Because this is known, that 
it is not possible for darkness to remain opposite the 
light, since the latter puts it aside harmless. 

64. Again, I ask this, that is, was that earth, which 

1 See § 6 n. * See § 7 n. 

8 See § 10. The scripture merely says that ' God saw the light, 
that it was good;' but this difference does not really affect the 
author's argument as to the previous non-existence of light. 

* Assuming that Paz. frai is a misreading of Pahl. pari*. 

Digitized by 


214 tfIKAND-G<)MANiK VIgAr. • 

was without form and void, limited or unlimited? 

65. If it were limited, what was there outside of it ? 

66. If it were unlimited, whither did that unlimited- 
ness of it go, (67) when, as we see, this earth and 
worldly existence are not those of the first existence ? 

68. As to that which the Lord spoke, (69) that is : 
' Let there be light,' and it was so, (70) it is thereupon 
appropriate to understand that the Lord existed before 
the time that the light arose ; (71) and when he was 
wishing to make the light, and he gave the command 
for it to arise, he then considered mentally in what 
way the light is of good appearance or evil appear- 
ance. 72. And if the light, through its own nature, 
reached into the knowledge and consideration of the 
Lord, it is evident that the light was existing alike 
within the knowledge and mind of the Lord, (73) and 
alike outside of him. 74. For it is not possible to 
know and obtain anything, unless it be a manifestation 
of an existence. 75. If the light was existing is it 1 , 
on that account, a creation of the Lord ? 76. And 
if they say that the light was not, through its own 
nature, within his knowledge, that light was de- 
manded by him, who did not know of what nature 
it was, very unwisely. 77. Or how is it possible to 
consider in the mind that which one has never even 
thought of or known ? 

78. And observe this, too, that that command for 
the arising of light was given either to something or 
to nothing, (79) because this is certain, that it is 
necessary to give a command to a performer of com- 
mands. 80. If it were given by him to something 
existing, which was light, that implies that the light 

1 Or, perhaps, 'it is.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XIII, 65-89. 215 

itself existed. 81. And if the command were given 
by him to something not existing, then how did the 
something not existing hear the command of the 
Lord ? 82. Or how did it know that the will of 
the Lord was thus, that 'I should become light?' 
83. Because the command of the Lord is not heard 
by what does not exist, in the same manner as 
though it were not given by him. 84. Since it is 
not possible for the non-existent even to think in 
any way, (85) it was that which is appointed non- 
existent, so that it does not exist, but yet exists 1 , 
that was really before the sight of the sage 2 ; by 
which it was known in what manner the Lord is 
demanding that it shall arise 3 , and in the manner 
which was demanded by him it arose. 

86. If they say that the light arose from the word 
of the Lord, which was spoken by him thus : ' Thou 
shalt arise,' and it was so — (87) that being when the 
Lord and his belongings (kh<Wlh) were dark, and 
light had really never been seen by him — in what 
way is it possible far that light to arise from his 
word ? 88. Because this is known, that speaking 
is the progeny of thinking. 89. If they say that 
his word became light, that is very marvellous, be- 
cause then light is the fruit of darkness, and the 
source of darkness is thereby the essence of light ; 

1 That is something produced as a nonentity which, being pro- 
duced as nothing, is considered to be something different from 
nothing at all, which is not produced. Something analogous to 
the prototypes of the creatures, which ' remained three thousand 
years in a spiritual state, so that they were unthinking and unmov- 
ing, with intangible bodies ' (Bd. I, 8). 

' Who wrote the account of the creation in the book of Genesis. 

* Literally ' that I shall arise.' 

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or else it is this, that the light was concealed in the 

90. As I have said 1 , it is evident that it is of no 
use to give a command, except to a performer of 
commands, (91) so that it should be that the light 
existed, and then the command was expedient and 

92. Again, / ask this, as to these creatures and 
creations, sky and earth of his, since they were pre- 
pared and produced by him in six days, (93) and 
the seventh he reposed (khasplrf) therefrom 2 , (94) 
then, when this world was not produced by him from 
anything, but merely arose by his command, 'thou 
shalt arise,' and it was so, (95) to what was that 
delay of his of six days owing ? 96. For when his 
trouble is merely as much as to say 'thou shalt 
arise,' the existence of that delay of six days is 
very ill-seeming. 97. It is also not suitable for 
trouble to arise for him therefrom. 98. If it be 
possible to make the non-existent exist, and he be 
capable of it, it is possible to produce it even a 
long time back. 99. And if he be incapable of pro- 
ducing except in the period of a day, it is not fitting 
to speak of his producing it from nothing. 

100. And, again, / ask this, that is, when the 
number of the days should be known from the sun, 
whence then is the number of the day, besides the 
names of the days, known before the creation of 
the sun? 101. For they say that the sun was 
produced by him on the fourth day, which is itself 
Wednesday 3 . 

1 In § 79. s See §§12,13. 

' Paz. £ihar fumbadj Sans. £atuAfanaij£arfya. 'And God 
made two great lights ; the greater light to rule the day, and the 

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CHAPTER XIII, 90- 1 1 2. 21 7 

102. / also ask this, to what was it owing that it 
was necessary for him to make himself comfortable 
and reposing on the seventh day ? 103. When the 
delay and trouble in his creation and production of 
the world was merely so much as that he spoke 
thus: 'Thou shah arise,' (104) how are those days 
accounted for by hrm, so that it was necessary to 
make him reposing whose trouble is recounted ? 
105. For if 'thou shalt arise' were spoken by him 
at once, that is his trouble, and he ought to become 
comfortable immediately. 

106. Again / ask this, that is, for what purpose 
and cause is Adam produced by him, together with 
Eve 1 , (107) so that while they practise his will 2 , the 
purpose of it is not so presented by him that they 
shall not turn away from the performance of his 
desire ? 108. For when it is known by him, before 
the fact, that they will not be listening to his com- 
mand, and yet they are finally produced by him, that 
shows that for him aow to become exhausted, and 
to indulge in wrath about them, is unreasonable, 
(109) because it is evident that the Lord himself 
was not fully proceeding with that which is desirable 
for his own will, and is manifestly an opponent and 
adversary to his own will. J .10. If tthey are not 
understood by him before the fact, and it is not even 
known by him that they will not listen to his com- 
mand, then he is ignorant and badly informed. 1 1 1 . 
If they say that his will itself was fornon-performance, 
why then is the command for performance given by 
him ? 112. Also what is the sin in not performing 

lesser light to rule the night . . . And the evening and the morning 
were the fourth day ' (Gen. i. 16, 19). 
1 See § 15. * The command mentioned in §§ 19, 20. 

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218 sikand-gOmanIk vigAr. 

it, and how goes (113) a horse whom they yoke with 
another in confinement (lag) and hurry on with a 
whip (tasanak) 1 . 114. From this statement signs 
and tokens of deceivers are manifested, (115) whose 
will and command are inconsistent and unadapted, 
one to the other. 

116. And if his will and desire were this, that 
they shall not turn away from his will, (117) still 
their power and desire for turning away from his 
will are much stronger and more resistant than 
those which he gave for not turning. 118. If the 
will for their turning away from his will, and also 
the knowledge of it, were his, and the command 
for not turning away ware given by him, how was 
it still possible for the distressed Adam to act so that 
they should not turn away? 119. Also, the origin 
and maintenance of his will ought not to exist, 
(120) because by turning away from his command 
one merely falsifies (dru^eaQ it as a command, while 
by not turning away it becomes a falsification of 
both his will and knowledge. 

121. Again, / ask this, that is, on what account 
and for what advantage was that garden, prepared 
by him, produced 2 ? 122. And as to the tree of 
knowledge itself, about which he commanded thus : 
'Ye shall not eat of it' and also as to the injunc- 
tion for not eating of it, which was issued by him, 
why was it necessary for him to make them ? 

123. // is also evident, from, his injunction and 

1 Illustrating the inconsistency of determining or permitting that 
anything (such as the abstaining from fruit, or the trotting of a 
horse) shall not be done, and yet urging its performance by whip 
or command. 

2 See §§16,17. 

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command, that scanty knowledge and ignorance are 
more loved by him, (124) and his desire for them 
is more than for knowledge and wisdom. 125. And 
that even his advantage from ignorance was more, 
(126) because while the tree of knowledge was not 
tasted by them they were ignorant, and not dis- 
obedient and without benefit unto him, (127) but 
just as their knowledge arose they became dis- 
obedient unto him. 1 28. There was also no anxiety 
for him from their ignorance, but just as their know- 
ledge arose (129) he became exhausted and wrathful 
about them, (130) and, forced out of paradise by 
him, with grievous discomfort and disgrace, they are 
cast 1 to the earth. (131) The sum total is this, that 
the cause of this birth of man's knowledge, in the 
worldly existence, was owing to the serpent and deceit. 

132. They also say this, that things of every kind 
were created for mankind — on account of which it 
is evident that even that tree was created by him 
for mankind — (133) and man was made by him pre- 
dominant over every creature and creation 2 . 134. 
If that be so, why were they now to incline their 
desires away from that tree which was their own ? 

135. From this following statement this, too, is 
evident, that knowledge was not really originating 
with him, (136) because if he came forth to the 
garden 3 and raised his voice, and called Adam by 
name thus : ' Where art thou,' it is just as though 
he were unaware of the place where he existed; 
(137) and if he had been unanswered by him, he 
would have been unaware of the place where Adam 
existed. 138. If it were not owing to his (agas) 

1 Or 'admitted.' * See §§ 46, 47. » See § 29. 

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outcry, too, before seeing him, he would have been 
unaware that he had eaten of that tree, or not ; and 
of this also, that is, by whom and how it was done, 
who ate and who deceived. 1 39. If he were aware, 
why had he to make that enquiry of him, ' mayest 
thou not ever yet have eaten of that tree, of which 
I commanded that you shall not eat 1 ?' 140. And 
at first, when he came forth, he was not exhausted, 
but afterwards, when he knew that they had eaten, 
he became exhausted about them and was wrathful. 

141. His scanty knowledge is also evident from 
this, when he created the serpent, which was itself 
his adversary, and put it into the garden with them 2 ; 
(142) or else why was not the garden made so forti- 
fied by him, that the serpent, and also other enemies, 
should thereby not go into it ? 

143. Even his falsity is also evident from this, 
when he spoke thus : ' When you eat of this tree 
you die 3 ;' and they have eaten and are not dead, 
but have become really intelligent, (144) and good 
is well recognised from evil by them. 

145. / also ask this, that is, how is his knowledge 
inconsistent and competing with his will and com- 
mand ? 146. For if *'/ were willed by him to eat 
of that tree, and the command for not eating were 
given by him, the knowledge about it was that the 
fruit would be eaten. 147. Now it is evident that 
the will, knowledge, and command are all three in- 
consistent, one towards the other. 

148. This, too, is evident, that, though Adam com- 
mitted sin, the curse which was inflicted by Him (the 
Lord) * reaches unlawfully over people of every kind 

'See §33. 2 See §21. s See § 20. * See §§ 37-41. 

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CHAPTER XIII, 1 39 -XIV, 1 3. 221 

at various periods, (149) and I consider it, in every 
way, a senseless, ignorant, and foolish statement 

150. On this subject, on account of tediousness, 
thus much is considered complete. 

Chapter XIV. 

1. My desire is also that I write a story (nisang- 1) 
out of the accompanying inconsistency and full delu- 
sion of the same scripture, (2) that is full of every 
iniquity and demonism ; and I will disclose a sum- 
mary of one part out of a thousand of what is 
declared thereby, (3) so as to notice the commands 

4. First, this is what he says about his own nature, 
(5) that is, ' I am the Lord, seeking vengeance (6) 
and retaliating vengeance 1 , (7) and I retaliate ven- 
geance sevenfold upon the children 2 , (8) and one does 
not forget my original vengeance.' (9). Another place 
states that, 'having acquired 3 wrath and grievous 
thoughts, (10) his lips are also full of indignation 4 , 
(11) his tongue is like a blazing fire, (12) and his 
breath (vaya) is like a river of rapid water (arvand 
nak) 5 . 13. His voice, too, as though for causing 

1 ' To me belongeth vengeance, and recompence ' (Deut. xxxii. 35). 
Or, as it is quoted in Rom. xii. 19, 'Vengeance is mine; I will 
repay, saith the Lord.' 

* ' Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken 
on him sevenfold ' (Gen. iv. 15). 

3 Perhaps ayaftak is a misreading of a shuftak, ' distracted by? 

4 Literally 'venom.' 

5 ' Behold, the name of the Lord cometh from far, burning with 
his anger, and the burden thereof is heavy ; his lips are full of 

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222 sikand-gCmAnJk vigAr, 

weeping, is more resembling the shouting of a 
demon 1 , (14) and his seat is in the gloom 2 , the 
dew, and the cloud 3 . 15. His charger, also, is the 
drying (khuskak) wind*, (16) and from the motion 
of his feet is the arising of a whirlwind of dust 5 . 
17. When he walks the arising of fire is behind 
him 6 . 

18. And, elsewhere, he speaks about his own 
wrathfulness, (19) thus: 'I have been forty years 
in wrath about the Israelites 7 ,' (20) and he said 
that the Israelites are defiled in heart 8 . 

21. Elsewhere he speaks thus: 'Who is blind 9 , 

indignation, and his tongue as a devouring fire : and his breath, as 
an overflowing stream, shall reach to the midst of the neck ' (Is. 
xxx. 27, 28). 

1 'And the Lord shall cause his glorious voice to be heard, and 
shall show the lighting down of his arm, with the indignation of 
his anger, and with the flame of a devouring fire, with scattering, 
and tempest, and hailstones ' (Is. xxx. 30). 

8 Assuming that Pdz. guam (Pers. gum, 'invisible') is a mis- 
reading of Pahl. torn, 'gloom,' as the Sanskrit is dhumalatvam, 
' smokiness.' 

* ' He made darkness his secret place ; his pavilion round about 
him were dark waters and thick clouds of the skies ' (Ps. xviii. 1 1). 
' Clouds and darkness are round about him ' (Ps. xcvii. 2), 

4 ' Who maketh the clouds his chariot ; who walketh upon the 
wings of the wind ' (Ps. civ. 3). 

8 ' The Lord hath his way in the whirlwind and in the storm, 
and the clouds are the dust of his feet ' (Na. i. 3). 

6 ' For, behold, the Lord will come with fire, and with his chariots 
like a whirlwind, to render his anger with fury, and his rebuke 
with flames of fire ' (Is. lxvi. 15). 

7 P&z. AsarSsarS is evidently a misreading of Pahl. Asriytlan. 

8 ' Forty years long was I grieved with this generation, and said, 
" It is a people that do err in their heart, and they have not known 
my ways ;" unto whom I sware in my wrath, that they should not 
enter into my rest ' (Ps. xcv. 10, 1 1). 

• Sans, has 'whoever is needy,' both here and in § 23. 

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CHAPTER XIV, 14-31. 223 

unless it be my servant ? 22. Who is deaf 1 , but 
the messenger (f iris talc) I am appointing? 23. 
Who is blind like the king 2 ?' And it is declared 
that their king is the Lord himself 3 . 

24. Elsewhere it also says this, that the wor- 
shippers (parastakan) of his fire are defiled 4 . 25. 
Also this, that his deeds bring blinding smoke, 
(26) and his fighting is the shedding of blood 8 . 27. 
And this, that is, ' I pour forth mankind one upon the 
other, (28) and I sit upon the sky, over their limbs.' 
29. Likewise this, that, in one night, a hundred and 
sixty thousand were slain by him, through a wretched 
death, out of the champions and troops of the Ma- 
zendarans 6 . 30. And, on another occasion, he slew 
six hundred thousand men, besides women and young 
children, out of the Israelites in the wilderness ; (31) 
only two men escaped 7 . 

1 Sans, has ' whoever is prosperous.' 

2 ' Who is blind, but my servant ? or deaf, as my messenger that 
I sent ? who is blind as he that is perfect, and blind as the Lord's 
servant?' (Is. xlii. 19). 

3 'The Lord is our king' (Is. xxxiii. 22). 

4 'About five and twenty men, with their backs toward the 
temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they 
worshipped the sun toward the east. Then he said unto me, 
" Hast thou seen this, O son of man ? Is it a light thing to the 
house of Judah that they commit the abominations which they 
commit here?'" (Eze. viii. 16, 17). 

6 'And when Joshua and all Israel saw that the ambush had 
taken the city, and that the smoke of the city ascended, then they 
turned again, and slew the men of Ai' (Jos. viii. 21). 

• ' Then the angel of the Lord went forth, and smote in the 
camp of the Assyrians a hundred and fourscore and five thousand : 
and when they arose early in the morning, behold, they were all 
dead corpses ' (Is. xxxvii. 36). 

7 ' And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Suc- 
coth, about six hundred thousand on foot, that were men, beside 

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32. Again, it shows that his final result is all 
regret, (33) just as this which it states, that he 
became among the despondent (zardakan), and 
he spoke thus : ' I am repentant as to the making 
of men on the earth 1 .' 

34. This, too, it states, that he sits upon a throne 
which four angels hold upon their wings, from each 
one of whom a fiery river always proceeds, owing to 
the load of his weight 2 . 35. Now, when he is a 
spirit, not formed with a body, why then are those 
four distressed by him, who have to sustain with toil 
the grievous load of that easy thing ? 

36. Again, it states this, that every day he pre- 
pares, with his own hand, ninety thousand wor- 
shippers, and they always worship him until the 
night time, and then he dismisses them, through 
a fiery river, to hell 3 . 37. When trouble and 
injustice of this description are seen, how is it 

children' (Ex. xii. 37). 'Doubtless ye shall not come into the 
land concerning which I sware to make you dwell therein, save 
Caleb the son of Jephunneh, and Joshua the son of Nun. . . . 
But as for you, your carcases, they shall fall in this wilderness ' 
(Num. xiv. 30, 32). 

1 'And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the 
earth ' (Gen. vi. 6). 

2 ' Also out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living 
creatures. . . . Their wings were joined one to another. ... As for 
the likeness of the living creatures, their appearance was like 
burning coals of fire, and like the appearance of lamps : it went 
up and down among the living creatures. . . . And under the firma- 
ment were their wings straight, the one toward the other. ... And 
above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of 
a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone : and upon the 
likeness of the throne was the likeness as the appearance of a man 
above upon it' (Eze. i. 5, 9, 13, 23, 26). 'A fiery stream issued 
and came forth from before him' (Dan. vii. 10). 

8 This statement may possibly be quoted from the Talmud. 

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CHAPTER XIV, 32-47. 225 

expedient for worldly beings to exist in duty, good 
works, and good deeds ? 38. When he casts dis- 
tressed worshippers who are reverent, listening to 
commands, and pure in action, together with others 
who are sinners, into eternal hell, (39) it is like even 
that which another congregation 1 asserts, that the 
sacred being, at the day of the resurrection, gives 
the sun and moon, together with others who are 
sinners, to hell for the reason that there are people 
who have offered homage to them. 

40. Another place also states this, that when the 
eyes of the aged (masatval) 2 Abraham, who was 
the friend of the Lord, were afflicted, the Lord him- 
self came enquiring for him ; (41) and he sat on his 
cushion and asked for peace 3 . 42. And Abraham 
called Isaac*, who was his dearest son 5 , in secret, 
and spoke (43) thus: 'Go to paradise (vahist), and 
bring wine that is light and pure.' 44. And he went 
and brought it. 45. And Abraham made many en- 
treaties to the Lord (46) thus : ' Taste one time 6 
wine in my abode.' 47. And the Lord spoke thus : 

1 Probably the Christians, and referring to such texts as ' The 
sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before 
that great and notable day of the Lord come ' (Acts ii. 20). 

2 N6r. reads this word, as a title, Mehadar, of Abraham. It is, 
however, the Huzvirw of da (/-mas (for d&</-l mas, 'great age'), 
and" appears to be a hybrid form, the first syllable being Iranian 
and the latter portion Semitic. 

8 Upon his host ; the usual Oriental salutation. 

* N6r. has read Astnak, which indicates a Pahlavi form that 
might be read Ais6k, and points to Syr. 'Is'hoq as the original 
of this form of Isaac. 

" Sans, has ' his whole-blood brother's son.' 

* Assuming that Paz. shS stands for Pahl. gas-x, both here 
and in § 49. N6r. seems to have understood it as Ar. jay, 
' somewhat.' 

[24] Q 

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226 sikand-gOmAn{k vigar. 

' I will not taste it, because it is not from paradise, 
and is not pure.' 48. Then Abraham gave assur- 
ance thus: 'The wine is pure from paradise, and 
Isaac, who is my son, brought it.' 49. Thereupon 
the Lord, on account of his freedom from doubt in 
Isaac, and the assurance given by Abraham, tasted 
the wine one time. 50. Afterwards, when he wished 
to go, he was not allowed until one of them had 
sworn to the other by a serious oath 1 . 

51. Observe this twaddle full of delusion; not 
even a single detail is adapted to a sacred being. 
52. In what way was his coming in bodily form to 
the abode of Abraham and eating bread, of which 
not even a single detail is adapted to him ? 53. 
This, too, is evident from it, that the suffering of 
Abraham was not 2 from the Lord, but from another 
producer. 54. And even the faultiness 3 which was 
owing to his want of understanding of knowledge 
was such, that the purity of the wine and whence it 
came were not known by him. 55. His falsity is 
also seen in this, when he spoke of not drinking the 
wine, and at last drank it. 56. Afterwards he is 
confessing that it is genuine and pure. 57. Now, 
how is he worthy of worship, as a divinity that is 
all-knowing and almighty, whose nature is this ? 

58. And another place states that there was one 
of the sick who, with his own wife and child, was 

1 This tale is perhaps to be sought in the Talmud. 

2 Reading la instead of raf.. By reading the latter Ner. has 
'the suffering, which was for Abraham, was from the Lord,' which 
is inconsistent with the context. 

8 Assuming that Paz. bavant (Sans, vaikalyam) stands for 
Pahl. zffanth, which seems more probable than supposing it to 
be a miswriting of Paz. d*wanagt, 'folly.' 

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CHAPTER XIV, 48-72. 227 

particularly one that was suffering, poor, and without 
a stipend. 59. At all times he was very diligent 
and active in prayer and fasting and the worship 
of the sacred being. £0. And one day, in prayer, 
he secretly begged a favour thus : ' Give me any 
enjoyment that is in daily food (rdsth), (61) that 
it may be easier for me to live.' 

62. And an angel came down unto him and 
spoke thus: 'The sacred being has not allotted 
thee, through the constellations 1 , more daily food 
than this, (63) and it is not possible to allot anew ; 
(64) but, as a recompense for worship and prayer, 
a throne whose four feet are of jewels is appointed 
for thee in heaven (vahist) by me, (65) and, if it 
be necessary, I will give unto thee one foot of that 

66. That exalter of the apostles enquired of his 
own wife, (67) and the unfortunate one spoke thus : 
' It is better for us to be content with the scanty 
daily food and bad living in the worldly existence, 
(68) than if our throne, among our companions in 
heaven, had three feet ; (69) but if it may occur to 
thee then appoint us a day's food by another mode.' 

70. At the second coming of that angel he spoke 
thus : ' But if I dissipate the celestial sphere, and 
produce the sky and earth anew, and construct and 
produce the motion of the stars anew, still thence- 
forth it is not clear whether thy destiny will fall out 
good or bad 2 .' 

71. From this statement it is, therefore, manifest 
that he is not himself the appointer of daily food 
and supreme, (72) distribution is not by his will, 

1 Of the zodiac (see Mkh. XII, 5, 6, 8). 

* This tale is probably from the same source as the last. 

Q 2 

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228 ^ikand-gOmAn{k vigAr. 

he is not able to alter destiny, (73) and the revo- 
lution of the celestial sphere, the sun and moon 
and stars, is not within the compass of his know- 
ledge, will, and command. 74. And also this, that 
the throne, as to which it was announced (nivl- 
kini*/) thus : ' I will give it in heaven/ is not of 
his formation and creation. 

75. And in another place he speaks about his 
own twaddle (76) thus : ' I have slain, in one day 1 , 
an assemblage (ram) of sinners, as well as innumer- 
able innocents.' 77. And when the angels talked 
much of the unreasonable performance, he then 
spoke of it thus : ' I am the Lord, the ruler of 
wills, (78) superintending, unrivalled, and doing my 
otvn will, and no one assists or is to utter a murmur 
(dren^isno) about me 2 .' 

79. Especially abundant is the twaddle that is 
completely delusive, which has seemed to me tedious 
to write. 80, Whoever would investigate the back- 
ward opinions of these statements, should be, for 
that .purpose of his, a high-priest speaking candidly 
(&2&d), (81) until he becomes aware of the nature 
of the same scripture, and of the truth of that which 
is stated by me. 

82. Now if he be a sacred being, of whom these 
are signs and tokens, that implies thai truth is far 
from him, (83) forgiveness strange to him, (84) and 
knowledge is not bestowed upon him. 85. Because 
this itself is the fiend who is leader of the hell which 

1 Assuming that Paz. zuiuae 1 is a corruption of ^um 6 (see Chap. 
IV, 101 n) and stands for Huz. y6m-i. But it may mean 'the 
whole of.' 

2 This seems to be quoted from the same source as the two pre- 
ceding tales. 

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CHAPTER XIV, 73 -XV, 8. 2 29 

is the den (gr£stak) of the gloomy race, (86) whom 
the devilish defiled ones and evil people glorify by 
the name of the Lord, and offer him homage. 
87. About this subject is here complete. 

Chapter XV. 

1. Another thing I publish is a feeble story (ni- 
sang) about the inconsistency, unbounded state- 
ments, and incoherent disputations of Christian 
(Tarsak) believers. 

2. Since, inasmuch as all three 1 are from the one 
origin of Judaism — (3) that implying that, when any- 
thing is said within the one, it is for them mutually 
helping their own delusion of every kind — (4) you 
should know whence the original sect of Christianity 
came forth. 5. That in the town of Jerusalem 2 there 
was a woman of the same Jews who was known for 
incapacity 3 , (6) and pregnancy became manifest in 
her *. 7. When asked by them thus : ' Whence is 
this pregnancy of thine ? ' (8) she said in reply thus : 
' The angel Gabriel 6 came unto me, and he spoke 
thus : " Thou art pregnant by the pure wind (holy 
spirit) 6 ."' 

1 The three defects mentioned in § 1. 

• Ner. reads Hurfifarm for Pahl. Aurujalem. 

8 Sans, has ' misconduct,' but this is more than Pahl. dts azakih 
seems to imply. 

4 ' Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise : When as his 
mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, 
she was found with child of the Holy Ghost ' (Mat. i. 18). 

• Pahl. GSpril is misread Sparagar by N§r. These two names 
would be written alike in Pahlavi. 

• 'The angel Gabriel was sent from God ... to a virgin 
espoused to a man whose name was Joseph . . . and the angel 

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230 sikand-gOmAnIk vicar. 

9. As to that, you should observe thus : ' Who, 
apart from that woman, saw the angel Gabriel ? 
And on what account is it expedient to consider 
that woman truthful ?' 10. If they say that, on ac- 
count of the spiritual state of that angel, no one is 
able to see him, (11) that implies — if the cause of 
not seeing that angel be his spiritual nature — that 
the sight of that woman also, for the same reason, 
is not unrestricted. 12. If they say that the sacred 
being made him visible to that woman, and on ac- 
count of the worthiness of that woman, (13) no other 
person being made worthy, (14) observe this, where 
is the evidence that the woman spoke truthfully ? 
15. Or, if that woman were conspicuous to any 
one for truth, it is fitting for him to demonstrate 
that also to other persons, so that, through that 
evidence, she might be more fully considered as 
very truthful by them. 16. But now the showing 
of him (the angel), to that woman only, is not con- 
sidered by any one as true. 17. Now you should 
also observe that the origin of their religion has all 
come forth from this testimony of a woman, which 
was given by her about her own condition. 

18. Observe, again, that if they say the Messiah 
arose from the pure wind of the sacred being, that 
implies — if the only wind that is pure and from the 
sacred being be that one — that the other wind, 
which is distinct from that, is not from the sacred 
being and not pure, (19) and another producer is 
manifested inevitably. 20. If the wind be all from 

answered and said unto her, " The Holy Ghost shall come upon 
thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee ; there- 
fore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called 
the Son of God"' (Luke i. 26, 27, 35). 

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CHAPTER XV, 9-33. 23I 

the sacred being and sacred, it ought to be all pure. 
21. If only that one wind be pure, the other wind is 
polluted and not sacred. 22. As there is no pro- 
ducer whatever except the sacred being, that pollu- 
tion and impurity of the other wind are likewise from 
the sacred being. 23. And if the other wind be 
that of the sacred being and sacred, it ought to be 
all pure. 24. Now, that one being considered as 
purity, why was the other polluted ? 

25. Again, observe this, that, if the Messiah were 
the son of the sacred being for the reason that the 
sacred being is the father of all, through productive- 
ness, creativeness, and cherishing, (26) that Messiah, 
through sonship to the sacred being, is not other- 
wise than the meaner creatures which the sacred 
being produced and created. 27. If he were born 
through the means of male and female, (28) that 
implies — if birth through male and female be suit- 
able unto the sacred being—- that it is also so unto 
the archangels and spirits ; in like manner, on ac- 
count of the existence of birth 1 , the occurrence of 
death also is suitable. 29. Thus, about the arising 
of that same sacred being there is no doubt, (30) 
because there where birth of that kind exists, eating, 
drinking, and even death are certain. 

31. And there are some even who say that the 
Messiah is the sacred being himself. 32. Now this 
is very strange, when the mighty sacred being, the 
maintainer and cherisher of the two existences, 
became of human nature, and went into the womb 
of a woman who was a Jew. 33. To leave the 
lordly throne, the sky and earth, the celestial sphere 

* The Viz. of JE interpolates the words ' from a mother.' 

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232 sikand-g6mAn{k vigAr. 

and other similar objects of his management and pro- 
tection, he fell (aupast), for concealment, into a 
polluted and straitened 1 place, (34) and, finally, 
delivered his own body to scourging, execution on 
the tree (dar-karafth), and the hands of enemies, 
(35) while, apart from death, much brutality and 
lawlessness were arranged by them. 

36. If they speak of his having been inside the 
womb of a woman for the reason that the sacred 
being exists in every place, (37) that implies that 
being inside the womb of a woman, through exist- 
ence in every place, is not more antagonistic than 
being in any very polluted and very fetid place ; 
(38) and, along with that, that the faultiness of 
speaking of all places as having been the property 
of the sacred being is manifold, (39) because, if they 
were so, in like manner the speaking of anything 
whatever that is devoid of the existence of the 
sacred being is strange 2 . 

40. Again, as to that which they say, that death 
and execution on the tree were accepted by him, 
as a yoke 3 , for the sake of demonstrating the resur- 
rection to mankind, (41) that implies — if it were not 
possible for him to demonstate the resurrection to 
mankind, except through that disgrace* and death 
and brutal treatment of himself — that that omni- 
potence of his is -not effectual. 42. Or, when no 
opponent and adversary whatever of his arose, why 

1 Assuming that Paz. u vadawg stands for Pahl. va tang. 

* Assuming that Paz. v&har (Sans, anrj'ta) stands for Pahl. 

3 See Chap. X, 67 n. 

* Assuming that F&z. rasflnai stands for Pahl. rusvSih. Sans, 
has ' binding with cords.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XV, 34-49. 233 

are they not made without doubt of that sort of 
clear knowledge which is imparted by seeing the 
resurrection, so that there would not have been a 
necessity for this mode of demonstrating it brutally, 
disgracefully 1 , distressingly, and through the will of 
his enemies. 43. If that death were accepted by 
him, as a yoke of a new description, through his 
own will, (44) that implies that now his outcry of 
woe and curses for the executioners 2 , and his con- 
sidering those Jews as it were wrathfully are unrea- 
sonable. 45. He ought, indeed, not to cause curses 
and imprecations of -woe upon them, but it is fitting 
for them to be worthy of recompense through that 

46. Again, as to this which they state, that the 
father and son and pure wind are three names 
which are not separate one from the other 3 , (47) 
nor is one foremost, (48) and this, too, that, though 
a son, he is not less than the father, but in every 
knowledge equal to the father 4 , why now is one to 
call him by a different name ? 49. If it be proper 
for three to be one, that implies that it is certainly 
possible for three to be nine and for nine to be 

1 Sans. ' by binding with cords.' 

* ' Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! . . . behold, 
I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes : and some of 
them ye shall kill and crucify ; and some of them shall ye scourge 
in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city : that upon 
you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth. ... All 
these things shallxome upon this generation' (Mat. xxiii. 29, 34-36). 

8 ' For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, 
the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one' (1 John 
v. 1). 

4 ' And in this Trinity none is afore, or after other : none is 
greater, or less than another ' (Athanasian Creed). 

Digitized by 


234 sikand-g6man!k vigar. 

three ; (50) and it is possible to speak of other 
numbers, in this sequence, unlimitedly. 

51. Observe this,. too, that if a son be not less 
than a father, that father also is not greater than 
the son. 52. That is possible if the father is said 
to be from the son, or the son not from the father. 
53. And this is certain, that it. is possible for every 
one originating from any one to be less than him 
from 1 whom he is, who is the essential origin 2 of 
himself; (54) if he be so in point of time, and like- 
wise if so in point of relationship. 55. If the son 
be not less than the father, that implies that the 
maker is not before the thing made, nor yet is 
greater; (56) both must be original evolutions, (57) 
and the creation is not less than the creator, nor the 
creator greater than the creation, (58) however he 
may be said to be unlimited. 

59. Observe this, too, that if the son be equal to 
the father in all knowledge, that father also is as 
ignorant as the son who was unaware of his own 
death and execution on the tree 3 , (60) until he was 
slain by their capturing him and causing his wretched 
death, brutal treatment, and disgrace*. 61. He did 
not know about it because they enquired of him 
thus: 'When is the day of resurrection?' And he 
answered thus : ' Of this no one is aware but the 
father 6 .' 62. Just as when the son is formed (tastlk) 

1 Assuming that Paz. vax is a misreading of Pahl. &g%$. 

5 Literally ' the maternal source.' 

8 This is at variance with Mat. xxvi. 2 : — ' Ye know that after 
two days is the feast (j/'the passover, and the Son of man is betrayed 
to be crucified.' But the author explains in § 61 that he is thinking 
of another instance of want of knowledge. 

4 Sans, has ' binding.' 

8 ' Tell us, when shall these things be ? ... Of that day and 

Digitized by 



as it were ignorant, the father must be as it were just 
the same. 

63. Observe this, too, that all the creatures and 
creation, and even his own adversary, being created 
and produced by him out of nothing, the execu- 
tioners of his son are themselves deluded by him. 
64. And if the sacred being himself created the 
executioners of his son, and even his own adver- 
sary, without a purpose and without a cause, (65) 
and the son was slain by them altogether with his 
knowledge, (66) that implies that it is now possible 
to be without doubt that the slayer of his son was 
he himself, (67) if he knew that when he produces 1 
a son they will then slay him, and in the end he 
produced him foolishly and unwisely. 68. If he did 
not know it, he is deficient in knowledge. 

69. Again, observe this, that, if the sacred being 
created these creatures and creation out of nothing, 
and created and produced even his adversary simi- 
larly out of nothing, that implies that their nature 
ought to be one. 70. Now, why is not the adver- 
sary preserved in the same manner as the other 
creatures ? 

71. Another point is about the inconsistency of 
the statements derived from the scriptures of their 
high-priest 2 , (72) and that which he says that no 
one falls, nor anything from a tree, and no outcry 
arises in a district 8 , nor two birds fight together 

that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, 
neither the Son, but the Father' (Mark xiii. 4, 32). 

1 Literally ' I produce.' 

8 In § 91 Paul is called 'their high-priest,' but the term may be 
here applied to any other writer of the Christian scriptures. 

' So in Sans., but the P&z. of JE has merely ' no district arises.' 

Digitized by 


236 sikand-gOmAnIk vigAr. 

without the command of the father 1 , (73) which is a 
demonstration 2 of these statements, that the original 
evolution is single and all things are by his will. 

74. Now for what purpose was the Messiah ap- 
pointed, who is his son ; and which way is the 
demonstration, through that, of his (the father's) 
being unwilling; (75) when all is by his will, and 
nothing whatever is said about his being unwilling ? 
76. Even this is evident from the same explanation, 
that the Jews slew the Messiah, who is his son, 
through the will of the father. 

77. Again, he speaks inconsistently about the 
free will (4^4^-kamlh) of the faithful, (78) that 
mankind are produced by him with free will. 79. 
Thus the iniquity of the sin which mankind commit 
is freely willed, (80) and the freedom of will was 
produced by him himself for mankind. 81. That 
implies that it is fitting to consider him likewise 
a sinner who is the original cause of sin. 82. If 
mankind commit sin and crime by their own free 
will through the will of the sacred being, (83) 
through what free will and sin are the sin and 
crime of the lion, serpent, wolf, and scorpion — the 
stinging and slaying noxious creatures — which are 
the natural actions that ever proceed from them ? 

84. So also, who has maintained the origin of the 
deadly poison which is in the B£sh herb 3 and other 
species of plants, the cause of which is not owing 
to free will ? 85. If they say that those poisons 

1 Compare Mat. x. 29, 30 : — ' Are not two sparrows sold for 
a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the -ground without 
your Father. But the very hairs of your head are all numbered.' 

* Literally ' demonstrator.' 

* A poisonous plant, Napellus Moysis (see Bd. XIV, 22, 
XXVII, 1). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XV, 73-97. 237 

are advantageous and suitable in many medicines 
which are removers of the disease of the sick, (86) 
it should be asked of them thus : ' Who pro- 
duced the disease itself and the harm that arises 
from it, and what is the necessity of it, (87) that, 
afterwards, medicine and deadly poison were created 
by him for it, and were necessary ?' 88. Or, as to 
that disease, ' it would be more expedient if he had 
produced an antidotal (a nosh) medicine for carrying 
it away than a medicine of poison.' 89. Also this, 
that is, ' from what origin is the term itself " doing 
harm," and against whom is the advantageousness 
necessary?' 90. On this subject it is possible to 
speak abundantly for a summary compiled. 

91. Another instance is from the words of Paul 
(Pavar6x), who was their high-priest — (92) that 
one who was afflictive with 1 them at their own 
beginning 2 — even this, they say, (93) is thus: 'Not 
the good works which I desire, but the iniquity 
(94) which I do not desire, I do 3 . 95. And it is 
not I that do so, but that which is collected within 
me does it, (96) because I always see that it is 
striving with me day and night 4 .' 

97. Again, they say, from the words of the 

1 Reading hanbSshin, but it may be 'well-afflicting to' if we 
read hu-bSshin. 

a 'As for Saul, he made havoc of the church, entering into 
every house, and haling men and women, committed them to 
prison. . . . Saul who also is called Paul ' (Acts viii. 3 ; xiii. 9). 

' ' For the good that I would, I do not : but the evil which I 
would not, that I do' (Rom. vii. 19). 

* ' It is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me. . . . 
I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my 
mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in 
my members' (Rom. vii. 20, 23). 

Digitized by 


2^8 sikand-g<jman!k vigar. 

Messiah, that the original evolution from the sacred 
being is light and goodness ; (98) evil and darkness 
are separate from him 1 . 99. Also this, that is, 'just 
as a shepherd who provides protection for his hun- 
dred sheep, (100) and the wolves carry off 'one from 
him, (101) goes after that one which the wolves 
carried off until he leads it back to the flock, (102) 
and leaves the ninety-nine of them in the wilderness 
(da^t) 2 , (103) even so I am come to take care of the 
defiled, not for the just, (104) because it is needless 
to bring him who is just into the right way 3 / 105. 
That implies, if the original evolution be one, and 
his will be wholly that no one whatever of it shall 
be astray and defiled, (106) that even the wolf's slay- 
ing the sheep is likewise his will, (107) and the wolf 
itself was also created by him, 

108. The word of the Messiah is specially incon- 
sistently a demonstrator as regards the two original 
evolutions. 109. As they say this is one of those 
same statements of the Messiah, that there is another 
original evolution, ' an enemy of my father, and I am 
of that sacred being doing good works 4 .' no. From 
this statement it is evident that his own father sepa- 
rates from that enemy, and acts differently. 

1 ' God is light, and in him is no darkness at all ' (1 John i. 5). 

8 ' What man of you, having an hundred sheep, if he lose one 
of them, doth not leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness, and 
go after that which is lost, until he find it?' (Luke xv. 4). 

8 ' For the Son of man is come to save that which was lost ' 
(Mat. xviii. 1 1). ' They that are whole need not a physician ; but 
they that are sick. I came not to call the righteous, but sinners 
to repentance' (Luke v. 31, 32). 

* ' He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man : the field 
is the world : the good seed are the children of the kingdom ; but 
the tares are the children of the wicked one : the enemy that sowed 
them is the devil' (Mat. xiii. 37-39). • 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XV, 98-122. 239 

in. This, too, he says, that is, 'I am produced 
by the sacred being for truth and through truth 1 ; 
(112) and Aharman, the iniquitous, came for my 
death (varfarrfano), (113) and I am desired by 
him to deceive in many ways 2 .' 114. Now, if the 
original evolution be one, and there be nothing com- 
peting with it, why was Aharman so powerful that 
he desired to delude the son of the sacred being ? 
115. If the sacred being himself created that iniqui- 
tous one, then the producing of that delusion by 
the latter was with the knowledge and will of the 
former himself, (116) and the deluder of the son 
was in like manner himself. 

117. This, too, it says, that, when the Jews stood 
disputing against him, he spoke to the Jews thus : 
' You are from that which is a lower region, and I am 
from an upper region; (118) you are of this country, 
I am not of it 8 .' 119. And he also said this, that 
is, ' I know that you are of the seed of Abraham, 
and he* who had slain mankind from aforetime 
(120) has wished to slay even me. 121. I do that 
which is seen of my father, and you do that which 
is seen by you as to your own father 6 .' 122. This, 

1 ' And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us . . •. full 
of grace and truth' (John i. 14). 

* See the account of the temptation of Jesus in Mat. iv. 3-10. 

* 'And he said unto them, Ye are from beneath; I am from 
above: ye are of this world; I am not of this world' (John 
viii. 23). 

* The iniquitous one of § 125, whom he calls their father, the 

5 ' I know that ye are Abraham's seed : but ye seek to kill me, 
because my word hath no place in you. I speak that which 
I have seen with my Father : and ye do that which ye have seen 
with your father' (John viii. 37, 38). 

Digitized by 


240 sikand-g6mAn!k vigAr. 

too, he said, ' If the sacred being be that father of 
yours, he would be a friend of me for your sake, 
(123) because I have sprung from the sacred being; 
I have not come of my own will ; ( 1 24) I am ap- 
pointed by that sacred being doing good works 1 . 
Why do you not hear those words of mine ? 125. 
Only because you are from the iniquitous one it is 
not possible for you. to hear them, (126) and you 
wish to do the will of your own father. 127. By 
him truth is not spoken; whatever he speaks he 
tells a lie of it, therefore you are false yourselves 
together with your father. 128. As for me, who 
speak the truth, you do not believe it of me 2 . 
129. And he who is from the sacred being hears 
the words of the sacred being, but you, because 
you are not from the sacred being, do not hear 
my words 3 .' 130. By all these sayings it is demon- 
strated by him that there are two original evolu- 
tions, 'one by which I am produced, and one by 
which the Jews arel (131) and that latter is not 
his doer of good works, but is called by him the 
iniquitous one. 

132. And this, too, was said by him, that 'not 

1 ' If God were your Father, ye would love me : for I proceeded 
forth and came from God ; neither came I of myself, but he sent 
me ' (John viii. 42). 

- 'Why do ye not understand my speech? even because ye 
cannot hear my word. Ye are of your father .the devil, and the 
lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the 
beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in 
him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own : for he is 
a bar, and the father of it. And because I tell you the truth, ye 
believe me not ' (John viii. 43-45). 

* ' He that is of God heareth God's words : ye therefore hear 
them not, because ye are not of God ' (John viii. 47). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XV, I23-I43. 241 

unrestricted (atang) is the tree of merit (kirfak) 
to produce the fruit of offensiveness- (basak), nor 
yet that of offensiveness as to the fruit of merit 1 .' 
133. This, too, he said, that 'he either makes the 
whole tree with fruit of merit, or the whole tree 
with fruit of offensiveness 2 , (134) for every tree be- 
comes manifest by its fruit, if it be of merit and if 
it be 0/" offensiveness 3 .' 135. And the whole tree 
was mentioned by him, not half the tree. 1 36. Now, 
how is it suitable for half a tree to be light and half 
dark, (137) half merit and half offensiveness, (138) 
half truth and half falsehood ? 1 39. When these 
remain both competing together, (140) they cannot 
become one tree. 

141. And, again, a Jewish sect was called by him 
'the hill-serpent of the Jews*,' (142) and he spoke 
thus : ' How is it possible for you to do good works 
when you are Jewish evil-doers 6 ?' 143. And it was 
not his own father he called an evil-doer 8 . 

1 ' A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt 
tree bring forth good fruit' (Mat. vii. 18). 

4 'Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a 
corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit' (Mat. vii. 17). 

8 ' For every tree is known by his own fruit : for of thorns men 
do not gather figs, nor of a bramble bush gather they grapes' 
(Luke vi. 44). 

* ' But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come 
to his baptism, he said unto them, O generation of vipers, who 
hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come ? . . . Ye serpents, 
ye generation of vipers ! how can ye escape the damnation of hell ?' 
(Mat. iii. 7; xxiii. 33). 

8 ' O generation of vipers ! how can ye, being evil, speak good 
things ? ' (Mat. xii. 34). 

• As he would have implied if he considered him the father of 
those Jews. The author is still arguing that the New Testament 
really confirms the existence of two creators. 

[24] R 

Digitized by 


2*42 SIKAND-gOmAniK VIgAr. 

144. This, too, he says, that ' every tree which 
the father has not sown should be dug up, and 
should be cast into the fire 1 .' 145. Wherefore it is 
fitting to understand from these words that there 
is a tree, which the father has not sown, that it is 
necessary to dig up and cast away. 

146. Again, he says this, that ' I am come to my 
own, and I am not received by my own 2 .' 147. 
Wherefore it is fitting to understand that what is 
his own and what is not his own are two things. 

148. This, too, he says, that is, ' Our father, that 
art in the sky, let thy empire arise! And may it 
be thy will that shall take place on earth as in the 
sky ! 149. Also give us daily bread ! And do not 
bring us to a cause of doubt 3 !' 150. From these 
words it is evident that his will is not so unalloyed 
(a&d^ak) on earth as in the sky. 151. Also this, 
that the cause of the doubt of mankind is not owing 
to the sacred being. 

152. And this, too, was said by him at first, that 
' I am not come for the purpose that I may destroy 
the law of Moses (Mushae"), (153) but I am come 
for the purpose that I may make it altogether 
more complete 4 .' 154. And yet all his sayings and 

1 ' Every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit, is hewn down, 
and cast into the fire. . . . Every plant which my heavenly Father 
hath not planted, shall be rooted up ' (Mat. iii. 10 ; xv. 13). 

s 'He came unto his own, and his own received him not' 
(John i. 1 1). 

8 ' Our Father which art in heaven. . . . Thy kingdom come. 
Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day 
our daily bread. . . . And lead us not into temptation ' (Mat. vi. 

9-"> J 3)- 

* ' Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets : 
I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil ' (Mat. v. 1 7). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XV, I44-XVI, 12. 243 

commands were those that are dissipaters and afflic- 
tive for the rules and laws of Moses. 

155. Upon this subject, however, as far as here 
is complete. 

Chapter XVI. 

1. Again, about the delusion of Manl, one out 
of the thousands and myriads is written ; (2) for 
I am not unrestrained (anatang) as to writing 
more fully of the delusion, twaddle, and deceit of 
Mini and the Manlchaeans, (3) and much trouble 
and long-continued daily work is necessary for me 

4. Now you Mazda-worshippers of Zaraturt should 
know that the original statement of Manl was about 
the unlimitedness of the original evolutions, (5) the 
intermediate one about their mingling, . (6) and the 
final one about the distinction of light from dark, 
(7) that which is much more like unto want of 
distinction \ 

8. Again, he states this, that the worldly exist- 
ence is a bodily formation of rudiments of Ahar- 
man; (9) the bodily formation being a production 
of Aharman. 10. And a repetition of that state- 
ment is this, that the sky is from the skin, (11) the 
earth from the flesh, (12) the mountains from the 

1 Except the belief in the two original existences (whose main 
characteristics are, respectively, light and darkness) the account of 
Mani's doctrines, given in the Fihrist of Muhammad bin Is'hiq 
(see Fltigel's Manl seine Lehre und seine Schriften), appears to 
contain none of the details mentioned in this chapter. 

R 2 

Digitized by 


244 SIKAND-GtiMANilC VIgAr. 

bones, (13) and the trees from the hair of the demon 
Kunl 1 . 14. The rain is the seed of the Mazen- 
darans 2 who are bound on the celestial sphere. 15. 
Mankind are two-legged demons, and animals four- 
legged. 1 6. And Kunl is the commander of the 
army of Aharman, (17) who, to be liberated by 3 
his nails from the divinity Atiharmazd in the first 
conflict, swallowed the light ; (18) and, in the second 
conflict, the demon Kunl was captured by them, 
together with many demons. 19. And it is in bind- 
ing the demon Kuni on the celestial sphere he is 
killed, (20) and these magnificent creatures are pre- 
served from him and formed. 

21. And the sun and moon are arranged in 
supremacy in the outer sky; (22) so that, as re- 
gards that light which the demons swallowed, they 
filter and excite* it, little by little, through the 
exciting and filtering of the sun and moon. 23. 
Then. Aharman knew, through foresight, that they 
would rapidly filter and release this light through 
the exciting of the sun and moon. 24. And, for 
the purpose of not rapidly releasing the light from 
the darkness, he prepared this lesser world which, 
like mankind, cattle, and the other living creatures, 
is a wholly-copied similitude of the greater world 

1 So read by N6r. in Pdz. and Kunt in Sans. But there is little 
doubt that he is the demon Ku«da or Ku»di of Vend. XI, 28, 36, 
XIX, 138, whose Pahlavi name is Kund in Pahl. Vend. XIX, 138, 
and Kundak in Bd. XXVIII, 42, in which latter he is said to be 
'the steed of wizards.' Kundak is written like Kunlk in Pahl., 
and this latter becomes Kunt in Paz. 

a Who are called demons (see Mkh. XXVII, 20, 40). 

* Sans, has ' having scratched it with.' 

4 Assuming that Paz. ahariminend stands for Pahl. a-ara- 
minend, ' they do not leave at rest.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XVI, 13-41. 245 

with the other bodily creations 1 . 25. He confined 
life and light in the body, and made them prisoners ; 
(26) so that, while that light which is excited by the 
sun and moon is again exhausted through the co- 
habitation and birth of living creatures, (27) their 
release would become more tardy. 

28. And the rain was the seed of the Mazen- 
darans (29) for the reason that when the Mazen- 
darans are bound on the celestial sphere 2 , (30) whose 
light is swallowed by them, (31) and, in order to 
pass it from them through a new regulation, dis- 
crimination, and retention of the light of Time 3 , 
the twelve glorious ones* show the daughters of 
Time to the household-attending male Mazenda- 
rans, (32) so that while the lust of those Mazen- 
darans, from seeing them, is well suited to them, 
(33) and seed is discharged from them, (34) the 
light which is within the seed is poured on to the 
earth. 35. Trees, shrubs, and grain have grown 
therefrom, (36) and the light which is within the 
Mazendarans is discharged in the seed. 37. That 
which is within the earth is discharged from the 
earth as the cause of the trees. 

38. Again, about the difference of nature of life 
and body, this is stated, that the life is confined and 
imprisoned within the body. 39. And as the pro- 
ducer and maintainer of the bodily formations of all 
material existences is Aharman, (40) for the same 
reason it is not expedient to occasion birth and to 
propagate lineage — (41) because it is co-operating 

1 The spiritual world and its inhabitants. 

2 As stated in § 14. s Personified as Zurvan. 

4 The signs of the zodiac, the celestial leaders appointed by 
Auharmazrf (see Mkh. VIII, 18). 

Digitized by 



with Aharman in the maintenance of mankind and 
cattle, and in causing the exhaustion of the life and 
light within their bodies — nor yet to cultivate trees 
and grain. 

42. Again, inconsistently, they also say this, (43) 
that the destroyer of the creatures is always Ahar- 
man ; (44) and, for the same reason, it is not ex- 
pedient to kill any creature whatever, (45) because 
it (killing) is the work of Aharman. 

46. Again, they say this, that, as the world is 
maintained by Aharman, and in the end the sacred 
being is triumphant (47) through the departure of 
lives from bodies, (48) this worldly existence is dis- 
sipated in the end, (49) and is not arranged anew ; 
(50) nor does there occur a restoration of the dead 
and a future existence. 

51. Again, they say this, that those two original 
evolutions are perpetually remaining, and existed as 
contiguously as sun and shadow, (52) and no demar- 
cation 1 and open space existed between them. 

53. Now I speak first about the impossibility of 
the occurrence of any existing thing that is unlimited, 
(54) except only those which I call unlimited, that 
is, empty space and time. 55. Those, indeed, which 
are for existence within them — that is beings and 
things in locality and time — are seen to be limited. 

56. This, too, / say, that, if unity and duality be 
spoken of about them, it is owing to this, because 
unity, except through the perpetual encompassing 
of something, does not then exist therein. 57. For 
the one is this, namely, not two ; (58) and the two 

1 Reading w\s anlh ; Ner. has Paz. nijaml (for imimt), Sans, 
asanatvam, ' resting-place.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XVI, 42-75. 247 

are these, namely, the original one and the one that 
is the difference of this one from the other (59) which 
is not called two. 60. When the one is not under- 
stood, except through the whole compassing of unity, 
(61) and duality cannot occur, except through the 
separation of unit from unit, (62) the one is that one 
in the unity, and is steadfast in unity. 63. One and 
two are in the pedigree (tdkhmak) of quantity 
and numerousness ; (64) and quantity, numerous- 
ness, aggregation, and separation, which, as I have 
said, cannot occur without limitation, (65) are clear 
even to medium understandings. 

66. Again, / say this, the unlimited is that which 
is not compassed by the understanding. 67. When 
it is not possible to compass by any understanding, 
it is inevitable that it was not possible to compass in 
the understanding of the sacred being. 68. It is 
itself the peculiarity of the sacred being, and even 
that of the gloomy original evolution is not wholly 
compassed within the understanding. 69. To speak 
of him whose own peculiarity is not compassed within 
his own understanding as all-good and all-seeing is 
strange 1 , (70) because it describes a whole aggregate, 
(71) and an aggregate is called a whole on account 
of encompassment on all sides. 72. But what is 
encompassed on all sides is inevitably limitedness. 
73. Is it fitting to account that as a sacred being 
when aware, from all its own encompassment, that 
it is limited ? 74. And if unlimited it is unaware 
of it, 75. The first knowledge of a sage is owing to 
his well-arranging 2 comprehension of his own pecu- 

1 See Chap. XV, 39 n. 

* Assuming that Paz. va.r Az>azira.mi stands for Pahl. zgns 

Digitized by 


248 *ikand-g6mAnik vigAr. 

liarity, nature, and quantity; (76) and to speak of 
him who was unaware of all his own peculiarity, 
nature, and quantity, and yet wise about another 
nature and quantity, is strange 1 . 

77. This, too, / say, that as the unlimited, on 
account of non-encompassment, is not compassed 
by the understanding, (78) that implies this, that 
all its peculiarity may be wise, or there may be some 
that is ignorant ; all may be light, or there may be 
some that is dark ; all may be alive, or there may be 
some that is dead ; and one is unaware of it. 

79. Again, / say this, that the light and the life 
which I obtain here are an allotment that exists 
owing to the selfsame Time 8 , or they are not. 80. 
If they be an allotment that exists owing to a pecu- 
liarity of Time, that implies that men should well 
recognise this, that anything owing to whose allot- 
ment it is possible to ordain them must be provided 
with allotments. 81. As to what is provided with 
allotments, except when united it is then not pos- 
sible even for it, (82) and as to what is united, except 
through the uniter by whom that united thing is united 
it does not then determine it. 83. And when the 
allotment made is seen to be limited, the origin from 
which the allotment is in like manner made is doubt- 
less a limited existence. 84. As regards that, since 
they say that all allotment of a result is a giver of 
evidence as to its origin, (85) that implies, when 
I obtain an allotment made and limited, that an 
origin even of that, except when made and united 

hu-aziri.?n ; the latter word can scarcely have been hu-aztri jnth, 
' good arrangement' 

1 See Chap. XV, 39 n. 

8 See § 31. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XVI, 76-99. 249 

from allotments and limited, is then not possible 
to exist. 

86. This, too, / say, that the unlimited is not 
bestowed, (87) because an allotment is bestowed 
from an aggregate, (88) and aggregation is an 
evidence as to limitation, (89) as I have shown 
above 1 . 90. So that as to the existence and nature 
of the origin, except by the likeness and similitude of 
the result, I do not then attain to them. 91. What- 
ever is obtained in the result (92) is certain to exist 
in like manner in the origin. 93. That implies like- 
wise from this explanation, when the formation and 
limitation are obtainable in the result, that the origin 
also, from which the result arises, is without doubt 
as to limitation. 

94. Again, / say this, that the unlimited is that 
which has an undisturbed position and an un- 
bounded 2 individuality, (95) and there is no other 
position or resting-place for it disturbed apart from 
it. 96. That implies, when two original evolutions 
are said to be unlimited and of unbounded (as am an) 
individuality, that the skies and earths, the rudi- 
mentary bodily formations, growths, and lives, the 
luminaries, divinities, and archangels, and the many 
congregations (hambari^nan) whose different 
names are owing to the difference of each one of 
those two from the other, cannot be limited. 97. 
What produced all those within them, and where 
is it, (98) when the two original evolutions have 
been eternally in an undisturbed position ? 99. 

1 See § 64. 

2 Assuming that Paz. avaman stands forPahl. avlmand, as it 
is translated by Sans, amaryada ; otherwise it might be aguman, 
' undoubted.' 

Digitized by 



Unless that individuality of theirs, which is un- 
limited, be made limited, how is it possible for a 
place to exist for all these things that are and were 
and will he. made? 100. If a nature that is always 
unlimited can become limited, that certainly implies 
that it could even become nothing; (101) and that 
which they say about the unchangeableness of a 
nature is strange 1 . 

102. This, too, you should understand, that the 
unlimited becomes that which has disturbed it, which 
was not appointed by it at first ; (103) nothing 
different from it can exist separate from it. 104. 
Apart from the boundary of unlimitedness it is not 
understood, (105) or, stupidly, one does not know 
that thing, that is, of what it is he always speaks 
and contends and bandies words about, and thereby 
deludes those with a trifle of the trifles of know- 
ledge into some way and whither. 106. If he un- 
critically 2 says even this of it, that its individuality 
is unlimited, and its knowledge also, being unlimited, 
knows through unlimited knowledge that it is un- 
limited, (107) that is a strange thing which is two- 
fold strange 3 . 108. One is this, that of knowledge, 
except about things acquired by knowledge and 
compassed within knowledge, (109) nothing what- 
ever is understood until complete, except that which 
is wholly compassed within knowledge and acquired, 
(no) which knowledge of anything arises through 
entire understanding of the thing, in. And entire 

1 See Chap. XV, 39 n. 

2 The first part of this word is a blank in }E, as if copied from 
an original that was illegible here. JJ has a^waraidihS. 

3 See Chap. XV, 39 n. 

Digitized by 



understanding of anything arises through entire com- 
pass of the thing within knowledge 1 . 

1 The most complete MSS., yet discovered, break off at this 
point, without concluding the subject. It is quite uncertain how 
much of the work is lost, but, supposing that all existing MSS. are 
descended from AK, supposing that that MS. was originally com- 
plete,' and supposing that it was divided into two equal portions 
(the latter of which is now lost) in consequence of some division of 
family property, we might then conclude, if all these assumptions 
were correct, that very little of the work is missing, because the 
portion of AK still extant extends no further than Chap. XI, 145, 
which is very little beyond the middle of the extant text. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 





Digitized by VjOOQlC 


i. The division into dars, 'chapters or subjects,' is indicated in 
the original manuscripts ; but for that of the sections the translator 
is responsible, as the subdivisions of the alternating Persian- 
Gu^arati text are often at variance with its meaning. 

2-6. (The same as on page 2.) 

7. All Arabic words are quoted in parentheses on their first 
occurrence in the text. And the spelling of names approximates 
more closely to modern Persian than to the older Pahlavi. 

8. The manuscripts mentioned are : — 

B29 (written a. d. 1679) in a Persian Rivayat, No. 29 in the 
University Library at Bombay. 

J15 (undated) Persian, No. 15 in the library of Dastur Jamaspji 
Minochiharji at Bombay. It has been only occasionally con- 
sulted for this translation. 

La (dated a.d. 1575) Persian, in Avesta writing, alternating with 
Gu^arati, No. 3043 of the Persian manuscripts in the India Office 
Library at London; upon the text of which this translation is 

Lp (undated) Persian, No. 2506 of the Persian manuscripts in 
the same library. 

Digitized by 




i. In the name of Hdrmazd, the lord, the greatest 
and wise 1 , the all-ruling, all knowing, and almighty. 

2. This is a book (kitib), about the proper and 
improper, which is extracted from the good and 
pure 2 religion of the Mazda-worshippers. 3. What 
is expedient (\kg ib) is this, for every one to know 
and keep this in practice. 4. And it is not desirable 
that he become independent ('^alt) of this for a 
single hour (si'hat). 5. Because, when one becomes 
independent, the sin for each one may become 
abundant ; and when it is brought into practice the 
reward becomes abundant. 

6. On this occasion (vaqt) I, a servant of the 
religion — like the m6bad jEran-shah s , son (bin) of 

1 It is possible to translate the original (which is the same as in 
Sg. I, 1) as follows: — 'The name of Hormazd is "the lord, the 
greatest wise one" ' as though these epithets were the meaning of 
Hdrmazd, which is not far from the truth ; but this would not be a 
probable form for an invocation. Lp and B29 have a different 

1 Lp, B29, J15 omit 'and pure.' 

8 This is the name of the writer who composed the Sad Dar 
Na//fcm, or metrical Sad Dar, in a. d. 1495. He calls himself, 
however, a son of Malik-shih in the introduction to his verses 
(see Hyde's Historia Religionis Veterum Persarum, Oxon, 1700, 
p. 433) ; and in his postscript he mentions Mard-shah as his own 
name, which Dastur JSmispji understands to mean Shah-mard, in 
the introduction to his Gu^ariti translation of the Sad Dar-i Ba'hr-i 
Javil, or long-metre Sad Dar (2nd ed., Bombay, 1881). The date 

Digitized by 


256 SAD DAR. 

Yazad-yar, son of Tirtar-yar, son of Adar-baaf, son 
of Maraspend 1 — have sent a reward to their souls, 
unto every one who reads and is bound by duty 2 . 
7. Thus much (in qadar), which has come written, 
is a good work they know, whosoever are superior ; 
but it is not possible for every one inferior to know 
of this. 8. If it were more (ziyadat) it is proper, 
but if (imma) less than this it is not proper to 
know 3 ; while, in gratitude for the benefits (yukr-i 
ni'hmat) of the sacred being, they become increasing 
in action, and the sacred being, the most high 
(ta'halai) 4 , makes benefits occur on the spot on 
that account. 

of composition of this long-metre Sad Dar is a. d. 1531, according 
to Dastur Jamaspji, and its authors state that they compiled it from 
the Sad Dar NaTHr, or prose Sad Dar, which was composed by 
three celebrated Dasturs near the time of the Arab conquest The 
names in our text are found here only in La, which is either the 
original, or an early copy, of a version of the prose Sad Dar com- 
piled by Rama, son of Kanhaksha, in which the Persian is written 
in Avesta letters, and alternates with an old Gu^urati translation 
composed by his son Padama. This version was prepared a.d. 
1575, and the occurrence of the name of .ffran-sh&h, who lived only 
eighty years earlier, indicates that this part of the introduction was 
probably written by the editor Rama, and not copied from the 
original prose Sad Dar. In Lp 'the m6bad -fiiin-sh&h, son of 
Yazad-yar,' is mentioned at the end of the work. 

1 The last two names are introduced merely to show that .£ran- 
shah traced his ancestry back either to the celebrated Atur-parf 
Maraspend, prime minister of Shapur II (a. d. 309-379), or to 
another priest of the same name who lived about a. d. 900 (see 
Bd. XXXIII, 11); but very many intermediate names have been 
omitted in this genealogy. 

2 J15 omits the whole of § 6, and Lp, B29 have merely • and a 
reward is sent to their souls, &c.,' to be read in connection with § 5. 

8 Lp, B29, J15 have 'so that no hesitation arises' instead of 
' to know.' 

* Lp, B29, J15 omit this epithet. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER I, 3. 257 

9. And, secondly, the kindness (lu/f) and gene- 
rosity (karm) of the sacred being, the most high 1 , 
are manifest from this, that he created us with each 
member (alat) complete (tamam), and did not keep 
anything from the maternal nature. 10. And what- 
ever was necessary for use he gave us. 11. At the 
head, likewise, he appointed a master, which is 2 the 
wisdom for the purpose that they may keep these 
members in action. 

1 2. May the peace of the sacred being, the most 
high, be on the souls of those acquainted with the 
religion of the pure Zaraturt, the Spitaman, and of 
those who are pure and virtuous. 1 3. For the souls 
of those persons it is desirable that every duty they 
perform they shall perform through the authority 
(dasturi) of the wisdom of the high-priests 3 . 

Chapter I. 

1 . The first subject is this, that it is necessary that 
they become steadfast in the religion, and do not 
introduce any hesitation (^akk) and doubt into the 
heart. 2. And that they make a statement ('haqlqat) 
with confidence (i'htiqid), that the good religion, the 
true and perfect, which the Lord sent into the world 
('^alq), is that which Zaratort has brought; which 
is this I hold*. 

3. Every time 8 that mankind are like this, and do 

1 Lp, B29, J15 omit this epithet. * J15 has 'who possessed.' 

s For §§ 12, 13 Lp, B29, J15 have merely the following :—' And 
peace is possible for that person who does every duty that he per- 
forms, through the authority of the high-priests.' 

* Lp, B29 omit these five words. 

5 Lp, B29 have ' for every time.' 

[24] S 

Digitized by 


258 SAD DAR. 

not introduce any hesitation and doubt into the 
heart, of every duty and good work that others have 
done, from the days of Zaratu^t until these days, and 
of whatever one does after this until the resurrection, 
there is a share x for that person. 4. When the soul, 
on the fourth night 2 , arrives at the head of the 
Kvauzd bridge, the angel Mihir and the angel Rashn 8 
make up its account ('hi sab) and reckoning. 5. And, 
if the good works it has done be deficient in quantity, 
of every duty and good work that those of the good 
religion have done in the earth of seven regions they 
appoint it a like portion (najib), till the good works 
become more in weight 4 ; and the soul arrives 
righteous in the radiant locality of heaven. 

6. For it is declared in revelation, that of the 
duty 6 and good work which they perform in doubt — 
that is (ya'hnf), they entertain a suspicion like this, 
that ' I do not know that this faith, which I possess, 
is better in comparison with other faiths ' — no merit 
whatever comes to their souls. 7. Therefore, the 
first (avval) thing is to become steadfast in the 
religion ; and this is the chief of all good works. 

Chapter II. 

1. The second subject is this, that it is necessary 
to make an effort (^ahd), so that they may not 

1 Lp, B29 have 'an equal share." 

s The older books say at dawn on the fourth day (see Mkh. 
II, U5). 
. * See Mkh. II, 118, 119. 

* Lp adds, in the margin, ' by one filament of the hair of the eye- 
lashes ; ' but this phrase seems to have been taken from Chap. II, 3. 

6 Lp, B29 have ' of every duty.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER I, 4-III, 4. 259 

commit any sin. 2. If even a trifling sin occurs it 
is not desirable to assume that this small quantity 
does not possess harm hereafter. 

3. For it is said in revelation, that if such be the 
quantity of sin that the sin is one filament of the 
hair 1 of the eyelashes more in weight than the good 
works are, that person arrives in hell. 4. And if 
such a quantity of good works be in excess, he 
arrives righteous in the radiant locality of heaven. 

5. Therefore, even if a sin be trifling it is not 
desirable to commit it; and it is requisite to refrain, 
so that they may not commit it, and may become 
without doubt as to the religion. 

Chapter III. 

i. The third subject is this, that it is necessary 
for man that he be continuously employed (ma;- 
ghh\) on his own work, and then the work becomes 
his own. 

2. For it is declared rn revelation, that every one 
who hereafter becomes employed 2 on his own work, 
if in the midst of' that work any trouble and dis- 
comfort happen to him, obtains in that other world 
twelve recompenses 3 for every single instance. 3. 
If he becomes employed on iniquity (fasad), and in 
the midst of that work any trouble and harm happen 
to him, he so* obtains in that other world only tor- 
ment ('huqubat) and punishment. 

4. Similarly (maTHalaw), if any one be himself 
going, employed on his own work, and a robber falls 

1 Compare Mkh. II, 121. * B29 has 'hereafter may be.' 

a La omits ' recompenses.' 4 Lp, B29 omit * so/ 

S 2 

Digitized by 


260 SAD DAR. 

upon him on the road, and carries off his property 
(qumi^), or he be slain 1 , they give him back in that 
other world four things for each one 2 of whatever 
they have carried off. 5. If he be slain he becomes 
righteous, any sin that he has committed goes clean 
away from him, and they convey him to heaven. 
6. But (ammi) if he becomes faulty (b&/il) in any 
duty, and a robber falls upon him on the road 3 , and 
carries off his wealth (mal), or he be slain, when he 
descends to that ether world 4 all the property that 
other carried off from him becomes just as though it 
were his who has carried it off from that person 5 ; 
and, besides, there occur, as a substitute ('hivaj) 
for that property, the punishment and torment they 
give him. 7. And if he be slain it is just as though 
he who has carried it off from that person were 'one 
who had innocently slain that person who arrives in 
hell as retribution (mukafat) for sin. 

Chapter IV. 

1. The fourth subject is this, that it is not desirable 
for any one that he should become hopeless of the 
pity (ra'hmat) and forgiveness of H6rmazd, and fix 
his heart outwardly 6 on this, that our sin is excessive 
and it is not possible to arrive in heaven. 2. Be- 
cause it happens that a small quantity of duty and 
good work is performed, and it may be that for that 

1 Lp, B29, J15 have ' or they shall slay him anywhere.' 

2 Lp, B29 omit the rest of this sentence. 

* Lp, B29 omit ' on the road.' * That is, to hell. 

5 That is, the person robbed loses all claim to his property, on 
account of his neglect of duty. 

• Lp, B29 omit 'outwardly.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER III, 5-IV, 13. 26l 

quantity Hdrmazd, the good and propitious, may 
have pity on him and may make him arrive in 

3. For it is declared in revelation 1 , that one time 
when Zaratujt was in conversation with the sacred 
being, the most high, he saw a man whose whole 2 
body was in hell, and one foot — the right one 3 — was 
outside of hell. 4. Zaratust enquired of the sacred 
being, the most high 4 , thus : ' What person has this 
man been ?' 5. Hormazd, the good and propitious, 
gave a reply (^avab) thus : ' He has been a king, 
and possessed the sovereignty of thirty-three towns, 
and was conducting that sovereignty many years. 
6. And he never did any virtuous action, but was 
committing much oppression, lawlessness, and vio- 
lence (thulm). 7. By chance (qajara) he was 
one day going on the chase, and arrived out at a 
place (mauja'h) and saw a goat that was tied. 8. 
A morsel of hay was placed very far off, and that 
goat was hungry. 9. Owing to this the goat was 
trying to eat the hay, but did not reach the hay. 
10. This the king saw, and kicked his foot at that 
hay and cast it in front of the goat. 11. Now, in 
recompense for that, that one foot of his is outside of 
hell, and the remaining (baqi) limbs 5 are in hell.' 

12. Therefore, although a sin has happened to 
any one, it is not necessary for him 6 to become 
hopeless. 13. And whoever has the power (/aqat) 

1 The Spend Nask (see Sis. XII, 29). The story is also told in 

8 Lp, B29 omit ' whole.' 

8 Lp, B29 have ' and his right foot.' 

4 Lp, B29 omit this epithet. 

6 Lp has 'the rest/ and B29 has 'the whole body.' 

* Lp, B29 have '/or the same.' 

Digitized by 


262 SAD DAR. 

is to endeavour to perform good works, so that there 
may be an atonement for the sin thereby ; because 
the sacred being, the good and propitious, is kind to 
every one. 

Chapter V. 

i. The fifth subject is this, that it is necessary for 
all those of the good religion that they make a 
thorough effort, so that they celebrate the ritual and 
become Navazu^ 1 . 

2. For in our religion there is no good work more 
ample than this. 3. And it is declared in revelation, 
that, although much duty and good work be per- 
formed, it is not possible to attain to the supreme 
heaven (gar6^man) 2 , except on that one occasion 
when the Navazfo/ ceremony is performed, or they 
have celebrated a G6tl-kharW s . 4. And on any 
occasion ('hal), if they are not able to perform it 
with their own hands, it is requisite to order it; and 
then it is inevitably necessary that the celebration of 4 
the G£ti-khari</ should be in the same manner as 
they would have performed it with their own hands. 

1 Apparently * newly born ' (see Sis. XIII, 2 n), a term applied to 
one who has been duly initiated. After preparatory performances 
of the Bareshnum purification and the ordinary ceremonial, the 
ceremonies are carried on four days longer by two priests. The 
first day's ceremony is that of the N6n&bar, the second is the 
Srdsh yart, the third is the Sir6zah, and the fourth is the Vispararf 
(see Yigiikzrd-t Dinik, ed. Peshotan, p. 147). 

* Ordinary good works, when in excess of the sins, are a pass- 
port only to the ordinary heaven (vahut). 

* Literally 'purchased in the worldly existence' (see §11). A 
ceremony somewhat resembling the Navazudl (see Bd. XXX, 28 n), 
but celebrated either late in life, or after death. 

4 Lp, B29 have ' that they celebrate.' 

Digitized by 


' CHAPTER V, I — II. 263 

5. Man and woman are both 1 equal in this good 
work ; therefore 2 , it is not proper to neglect this 
duty, for it is the chief of all the good works of the 
religion. 6. Because it is declared in revelation, 
that on the day that they are performing the 
Navazfo/ ceremony, or are celebrating a G£ti-kharto? 
on his account, three times the soul of that person 
arrives at heaven, and they show it a place therein, 
and offer it a profuse greeting (niTiiar) 3 . 

7. The explanation (tafsir) of the Gahs 4 is this, 
that a Gah — that is, that his own place — becomes 
visible to him 6 in heaven that day. 

8. And if one does not perform a Navaz&jf cere- 
mony, or does not order the celebration of a G£tl- 
kharl^, it is the same as when a poor (g ha.rih) man 
maikts/or 6 a town, and does not obtain a spot where 
he may alight in that place. 9. Although it is his 
own town he is in this trouble. 10. Therefore, it 
is not possible to bring to hand a place in heaven 
through any good work, except by the performance 
of the Navaz<W ceremony, or by ordering the cele- 
bration of a G£tl-khart<£ 

11. And a G£tl-khari^ is this, that heaven is pur- 
chased in the world, and one's own place brought to 
hand in heaven. 

1 Lp, B29 omit ' both.' 

2 Lp omits ' therefore,' and B29 has ' certainly.' 

* Lp, B29, J15 add 'and, afterwards they bring the G&i,' and 
Lp continues thus : ' the meaning is adduced in Pazand.' 

4 This explains ' the heavenly Gahs' of Bd. XXX, 28. The Sad 
Darband-i Hush (as quoted in B29, fol. 458 b) says that it is stated in 
revelation ' that the day when one celebrates the Gfitt-kharW of any 
one, the soul of that person seizes upon the heavenly Gahs three times 
in that one day, and is conveyed to heaven and the supreme heaven.' 

8 Lp, B29 have ' is brought into sight.' 

• Lp, B29 have ' arrives at.' 

Digitized by 


264 SAD DAR. 

Chapter VI. 

1. The sixth subject is this, that of the many good 
works there are those which, when they accomplish 
them, obtain great ('haMim) rewards; and 'if one does 
not perform them severe punishment seizes upon one 
at the head of the Kxavzui bridge 1 . 2. One is the 
celebration of the season festivals 2 ; the second is 
keeping the days of the guardian spirits 3 ; the third 
is attending to the souls of fathers, mothers, and 
other relations*; the fourth is reciting the Khursh&/ 
Nyayis 6 three times every day; the fifth is reciting 
the Mah Nyayw 6 three times every month, once 
when it becomes new, once when it becomes full, 
and once when it becomes slender 7 ; and the sixth 
is celebrating the Rapithwin 8 ceremony once every 
year. 3. If not able to celebrate them oneself, it is 
requisite to order them, so that they may celebrate 
them every single time 9 . 

4. These six good works are things indispensable 
unto every one. 5. When any one of them is not 
performed — be it that which, if omitted at its own 
time 10 , it is not possible to accomplish, or if it be 
that one time one omits an occasion, and another 
time 11 they accomplish twice as much — one should 
consider 12 that as an advantage, which occurs in retri- 

I See Sis. XII, 31. 'See Mkh. IV, 5 n. 
» See Mkh. LVII V 13 n. *' See Chap. XIII. 

6 The salutation of the sun (see Chap. XCV). 

• The salutation of the moon. 

7 In Gugarati ' on the last day.' 8 The mid-day period. 

* Lp, B29 have 'celebrate them on his account.' 

10 B29 inserts 'or if it be that which, one time omitted.' 

II B29 has merely 'if another time.' 

18 Lp, B29 have 'one does not consider;' the copyists having 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER VI, I-VII, 5. 265 

bution for it, or as atonement for the transgression. 
6. Because they call the transgression of each of 
these six a bridge-sin; that is, every one through 
whom a transgression of these may have arisen 
they keep back, at the head of the -Afinvaaf bridge, 
till punishment for it happens to him, and no good 
work is possible 1 in this place, which is torment and 
punishment for him 3 . 

7. Therefore it is necessary to make an effort, that 
they may be performed each one at its own time, so 
that they may obtain a recompense, and not a severe 

Chapter VII. 
1. The seventh subject is this, that, when a sneeze 
('ha/sat) comes forth from any one, it is requisite to 
recite one Yatha-ahu-vairy6 s and one Ashem-vohu 4 . 
2. Because there is a fiend in our bodies, and she is 
an adversary who is connected with mankind, and 
strives so that she may make misfortune ('hi Hat) 
and sickness predominant (mustauli) over man- 
kind. 3 And in our bodies there is a fire which 
they call a disposition — in Arabic they say ^abt'hat 
— and they call it the sneezing instinct (^arizi). 
4. It is connected with that fiend, and they wage 
warfare, and it keeps her away from the body of 
man. 5. Then, as the fire becomes successful over 

failed to notice that retribution and atonement are advantageous in 
this case, because they save the soul from punishment. 

1 Lp, B29 have 'no good work resides.' 

1 Lp, B29 have 'which will liberate him from torment and 

3 See Mkh. XXVII, 70 n, Sis. XII, 32. 

* A formula in praise of righteousness, which begins with these 
two Avesta words, and is in constant use (see Bd. XX, 2). 

Digitized by 


266 SAD DAR. 

that fiend, and puts her to flight (hazlmat), a sneeze 
comes because that fiend comes out. 

6. Afterwards, because it is necessary, they 
recite these inward prayers 1 and perform the bene- 
diction (afrin) of the fire, so that it may remain for 
a long period while thou art keeping 2 this fiend 
defeated. 7. When another person hears the sneeze, 
it is likewise requisite for him to utter the said 
prayers, and to accomplish the benediction of that 
spirit 3 . 

Chapter VIII. 

1. The eighth subject is this, that it is necessary 
to maintain the religion by rule (dastur), and to 
practise obedience to the commands of the high- 
priests ; and every duty that people perform they 
should perform by their authority. 

2. For it is declared in the good religion, that, if 
they accomplish as many good works as the leaves 
of the trees, or the saxui-grains of the desert, or the 
drops (qa/rah) of rain, which they do not perform 
by command of the high-priests, or to their satisfac- 
tion, no merit whatever attains to their souls, and for 
the good works they have done they obtain sin as a 
recompense. 3. While such a one is living it is not 
proper to call him righteous, and when he dies he 
does not attain to heaven, and not a single archangel 
comes 4 near him. 4. He does not make his escape 
from the hands of the demons and Aharman, and he 

1 The formulas are muttered as a spell. 

2 B29 has ' it is making.' 

* In some parts of Europe it is still the custom to invoke a 
blessing, by means of some formula, on hearing a sneeze. 
4 Lp, B29 have ' goes.' 

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CHAPTER VII, 6-IX, 5. 267 

does not obtain a release from hell. 5. Because 
duties and good works 1 attain to the soul on those 
occasions when they perform them with the authority 
of the high-priests and those acquainted with the 
religion, and when they give them one-tenth of those 
good works 2 . 

Chapter IX. 

1. The ninth subject is this, that it is necessary to 
practise abstinence from committing or permitting 
unnatural intercourse 8 . 2. For this is the chief of 
all sins in the religion : there is no worse sin than 
this in the good religion, and it is proper to call 
those who commit it worthy of death in reality. 

3. If any one comes forth to them, and shall see 
them in the act, and is working with an axe 4 , it is 
requisite/^ him to cut ^"the heads or to rip up the 
bellies of both, and it is no sin for him. 4. But it is 
not proper to kill any person without the authority 
of high-priests and kings, except on account of com- 
mitting or permitting unnatural intercourse. 

5. For it says in revelation that unnatural inter- 
course is on a par with Aharman, with Afrasiyab 6 , 
with Dahik 5 , with Tur-i Bradfar-vakhsh 8 who slew 

1 That is, the merit of performing them. 

J The principles of blind submission of the laity to the priest- 
hood, and complete abnegation of private judgment, which pervade 
the whole of the Sad Dar, are especially conspicuous in this chapter. 
They are the ideas prevalent in the darkest ages of the religion, 
which have now nearly disappeared with the spread of true know- 
ledge as in other faiths. 

* GAullmbaragi u mua^art. 

* B29, J15 have ' takes a look,' and J15 adds ' he shall kill ihtm.' 

* See Mkh. VIII, 29 m 

* One of five brothers of the Karap tribe (see Byt. II, 3, Dd. 
LXXII, 8). 

Digitized by 


268 SAD DAR. 

Zaratust, with Malkds 1 who will arise, with the ser- 
pent Sruvar which existed in the days of Sam 
Narlman 2 , and as many sins as are theirs. 6. And 
Aharman, the evil one, becomes more joyful, owing 
to this practice, than owing to the other sins which 
have made high-priests necessary 3 ; for the soul 
itself of that person becomes extinct. 

7. And when they commit the sin with women, it 
is just the same as that with men. 

Chapter X. 

1. The tenth subject is this, that it is incumbent 
on all those of the good religion, women and men, 
every one who attains to fifteen years, to wear the 
sacred thread-girdle*. 2. Because the sacred thread- 
girdle is to be a girding of the loins and to preserve 
obedience (/a'hat) to the Lord, may he be honoured 
and glorified ('hazza va g alia) ! 

3. The first person who set the wearing of this 
sacred thread-girdle in view was Jamshe^ 6 . 4. And 
it may be the whole (^umlah) of the demons and 
fiends who are made extinct by the glory of wearing 
the sacred thread-girdle. 

5. Every one who has tied the sacred thread- 
girdle round the waist is out of the department of 
Aharman, and is established in the department of 

1 See Mkh. XXVII, 28 n. 

2 Sama and Naremanau are two titles of the hero Keresaspa 
who slew the serpent Srvara (see SBE, vol. xviii, pp. 369-371). 
In the Shahnamah he is called Sam, son of Nartman. 

8 J15 has ' which the high priests have made manifest.' 
4 See Dd. XXXIX, in. A modification of the age is recom- 
rnended in Chap. XLVI. 

8 Av. Yima khshaSta (see Mkh. XXVII, 24 n). 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER IX, 6-X, 9. 269 

H6rmazd. 6. And also, while he keeps the sacred 
thread-girdle on the waist, there is a share for him 
of all those duties and good works which they per- 
form in the earth of seven regions. 7. It is like that 
which occurs when they are performing ham a z6r 
and hamaashd 1 , and have put on this sacred thread- 
girdle on that account, or when, similarly, some one 
in Kanntr, or 2?ran-v<?f, or Kangdez, or the enclosure 
formed by Jam 2 , performs a good work, and we are 
not able to perform it with hama z6r, then they and 
we, who wear the sacred thread-girdle on the waist, 
are mutually connected and equally meritorious, one 
with the other. 8. As no good work attains to him 
who does not wear a sacred thread-girdle — excepting 
that which he performs himself — it is therefore 
necessary that any one of mankind should 'not put it 3 
away from the waist on any occasion, so that the 
associated good works of those of the good religion 
may attain to him. 

9. And those four knots 4 , with which they tie it on, 
are on this account, that it may give four attestations. 

1 These words form part of a benedictory formula which con- ' 
eludes certain ceremonies (see Haug's Essays, pp. 407, 409), and 
the recital of them implies that the ceremony, which is a good 
work, has been fully and satisfactorily completed. If this good work 
be in excess of what is wanted to balance its performer's sins, it 
can be imputed to any other member of the good religion who may 
be in want of it, provided he wears the girdle. The MSS. have 
hams for hama\ 

* These four localities are considered to be isolated from the seven 
regions to some extent (see Bd. XXIX, 4), probably implying that 
they were supposed to contain Mazda-worshippers independent of 
Iranian rule, or that their position had become unknown. (See also 
Mkh. XXVII, 27-31, 58, 62, XLIV, 17-35, LXII, 13-19.) 

* Lp, B29 have ' that mankind should not put the girdle.' 

* That is, two double knots, one before and the other behind 
(see SBE, vol. xviii, pp. 386, 387). 

Digitized by 



10. The first knot is that which preserves 1 constancy 
(qarar), and gives attestation as to the existence, 
unity, purity, and matchlessness of the sacred being, 
the good and propitious. 11. The second knot is 
that which gives attestation that it is the good 
religion of the Mazda-worshippers which is the word 
of the sacred being. 12. The third knot is that 
which gives attestation as to the apostleship and 
mission (rasuli) in the just ( c haqq) Zaraturt, the 
Spitaman. 13. The fourth knot is that which 
adduces more pleasantly, gives assurance (iqrar), 
and openly accepts that I should think of good, 
speak of good, and do good. 14. And from the 
whole I become established ; and the pure, good 2 
religion is this, that I persist in those views. 

1 5. And, again, when the archangels came meeting 
Zaraturt they likewise wore the sacred thread-girdle 
on the waist ; and the distinctive characteristic (f arq) 
amid the laws of the sacred being is the wearing of 
the sacred thread-girdle. 16. It is incumbent both 
on woman and on man, and it is altogether (albattah) 
, improper when they do not wear it. 

Chapter XI. 

1. The eleventh subject is this, that it is necessary 
to maintain the fire-place 8 properly, and to keep 
watch 4 , so that the fire shall not die out, and that 
nothing polluted and impure shall attain to the fire ; 
and it is necessary to make a menstruous woman 
avoid being within three steps of it. 

1 Altered into ' brings ' by a later hand in La, and so written in 
Lp, £29. 
. * Lp, B29 omit ' good.' 8 Or, perhaps, ' the house-fire.' 

* B29 omits these four words. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER X, IC—XI, 7. 2"Jl 

2. Because every time that they maintain a fire 
properly, which is within a dwelling, every fire which 
is in the earth of seven regions .becomes pleased with 
those persons, and, when they ask a favour, or beg a 
necessity ('ha^at), it becomes quickly operative. 
3. And every time that one does not maintain it 
properly, every fire which is in the earth of seven 
regions receives injury from that person, and the 
necessity he begs does not become operative. 4. If 
any one does not maintain the fire-place properly, if 
he gives a hundred dinars 1 to the fire Guyasp 2 there 
is no acceptance of it, and that sin does not depart 
from him. 

5. For it is declared in revelation 3 , that the creator 
Hdrmazd has given sovereignty in heaven to Ardi- 
bahi-rt 4 , the archangel, and has spoken thus : ' As to 
every one with whom thou art not pleased, do not 
let him escape into heaven.' 6. And this is also 
declared in revelation, that, every time that they do 
not maintain the fire properly, pregnancy becomes 
scarcer for the women, fewer male children are born, 
and honour ('hurmat) in the vicinity of the king 
becomes less for the men, and there is no approbation 
(qabul) of their words. 

7. For every single fire which dies out in a 
dwelling a loss of three dirhams and two dangs 6 falls 

1 The dinar is a gold coin which, if it contained a dirham 
weight of gold, and if the dirham were 63 grains (see Dd. LII, 1 n), 
was equal to about half-a-sovereign. 

* One of the three most sacred fires (see Bd. XVII, 7). 

* Lp, B29 have 'in the good religion.' 

4 Av. asha vahifta, 'perfect rectitude,' who is supposed to protect 
fire (see Bd. I, 26, Sis. XV, 12). 

8 That is, three dirhams and a half in silver, or nearly one rupee 
and a quarter. 

Digitized by 



272 SAD DAR. 

on the property of that person, or it becomes the loss 
of this dwelling, or it does not reach him from the 
place whence wealth comes to him. 

Chapter XII. 

1. The twelfth subject is this, that, when any one 
dies, an order is necessary 1 that how much soever 
scantier 2 clothing they are able to make a begin- 
ning of, the better they act. 2. Beside (ilia) 8 
something become old and washed, anything new 
is not proper for the purpose that they may let it 
go upon a dead body. 

3. For in the commentary of the Vendldi^* it 
asserts that, if they shall pass on to a dead body 
as much as a woman's spindle makes for a single 
thread, with the exception of that which is unavoid- 
able, for every single thread a black snake hangs, in 
that other world, on to the liver of that person who 
has made a beginning of the clothing. 4. Likewise, 
that dead person becomes his antagonist ( € ^ajm), 
and hangs similarly* upon his skirt, and speaks thus : 
'This clothing, which thou hast put on my body, 
devours me, having become worms and noxious 
creatures. 5. My name was put upon a sacred 
cake 4 , the fourth day, with a Yart, so that there 

1 B29 has 'it is necessary to utter two orders.' 
4 Lp, B29 have 'older.' Compare Sis. XII, 4. 

* Lp, B29 have 'that is.' 

* Pahl. Vend. V, 170-177, where, however, the penalty here 
mentioned is not now extant 

6 Lp, B29 omit ' similarly.' 

* Referring to the cake consecrated to the righteous guardian 
spirit on the fourth day after death (see Chap. LXXXVII, 2, Sis. 
Ill, 32 n, XVII, 5 n). * 

Digitized by 



might be alike a benefit therefrom for my soul, and 
it might be alike unnecessary for thee to bear this 
torment ('haDHab).' 6. Owing to that, many sor- 
rows come to that person, and he has no advantage 
from it. 7. Therefore, it is necessary to act with 
caution (i'htiyatf), so that, how much soever the 
clothing be scantier 1 , they may make a beginning 
of it. 

8. And as many as shall be able to walk after 
the bier (tabut) and corpse shall walk. 9. Because 
every step that they go after a corpse is a good 
work of three hundred sttrs 2 ; and every stir is four 
dirhams, in such manner that three hundred stirs 
are a thousand and two hundred dirhams 3 . 10. For 
every single step there is thus much good work. 

Chapter XIII. 

1. The thirteenth subject is this, that it is neces- 
sary to maintain the souls of fathers, mothers, and 
relations properly. 2. And, when any day of theirs* 
occurs, it is necessary to make an endeavour, so that 
they may accomplish the ceremonial (yazisn), the 
sacred feast (myazd), the consecration of the sacred 
cakes (dr6n), and the benedictions (afringan). 

3. For it is declared in revelation, that, every time 
that any day of theirs occurs, they will bring with 

1 Lp, B29, J15 have 'older.' 

* An amount which would counterbalance a Tan&var or Tand- 
puhar sin (see Sis. I, 2). 

' B29 omits these fourteen words. 

* That is, on the monthly and annual anniversaries of their 
deaths, when ceremonies are requisite (see Sis. XVII, 5 n). Com- 
pare Chap. XXXVIL 

[24] T 

Digitized by 


274 SAD DAR « 

themselves 9999 guardian spirits of the righteous, 
like that case when any one goes home himself, and 
brings people (q a um) in hospitality. 4. And, when 
they utter 1 the consecration of the sacred cakes and 
sacred feast and the benedictions, those people 
become joyful and utter blessings on that house 
and master of the house, and on the house-mistress 
and any persons who are in that house. 

5. But if they do not celebrate the sacred feast, 
the consecration of the sacred cakes, the ceremonial, 
and the benedictions, the spirits 'will remain for them 
in that place from dawn as long as the period of 
a day, and are maintaining a hope that ' perhaps 
they will have us in remembrance.' 6. Then, if 
they do not bring them* into remembrance, the 
souls turn upwards from that place, go very quickly 
on high, and will say, ' O creator H6rmazd ! they do 
not know that we are such as we are 3 , and that it is 
necessary for them* to come into this world, and in 
this world they will not give any one acquittal. 
7. For them there is need of the good works 
in consecrating the sacred cakes and celebrating the 
sacred feast and benedictions; there is no need 
of them for such as we. 8. Yet (va llkin), if they 
would have maintained a place for 6 the duty of those 
days, we should have turned away from them mis- 
fortunes of various kinds ; but, as they have not 
maintained 6 observance of us in the day's duty, we 
are not able to come in friendship to this house.' 

1 B29 has 'celebrate.' 

3 Literally ' us.' Lp, B29 omit this and the next two words. 

3 Lp, B29 have 'that just like us are they.' 

* Lp, B29 omit ' for them.' 

5 B29 has 'maintained observance of us in.' 

* B29 inserts 'proper.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XIII, 4^-XIV, 5. 275 

9. Thus much they say, and turn away in anger, and 
go away from that place. 

Chapter XIV. 

1. The fourteenth subject is this, that, when the 
nails are pared according to custom (ba-Vfcilal) 1 , it 
is necessary that they put the parings into a paper. 

2. And it is further necessary to take the Sr6sh-baz 2 
inwardly, and to utter three Yatha-ahu-vairy6s 8 , 

3. And for the speaking of this — to say with each 
Yatha-ahu-vairyd* — the A vesta is this: — Paiti t£, 
meregha Ash6-zu.rta ! imau srvau va£dhay£mi, imau 
srvau awa£dhayemi ; im«use te srv«u, meregha Ash6- 
zusta! hyare anrtayas>§a, karetayas>§a, thanvare^a, 
ishavasia erezify6-parena, asna^a fradakhshanya 
paiti da£v6-Mazainyan 8 ; asha vohu manangha ya 
sruye" pan?magaon6 6 . 4. Afterwards, one completes 
the Biz in the manner that it was taken inwardly. 

5. At those two Yatha-ahu-vairy6s, with which 
one completes the Ba#, at each one, he makes lines 
('^a//ha) in a little dust in the midst of the nail- 

1 B29 has 'when the nails and a toothpick ('^ildl) are pared;' 
and the Gu^-arati translator takes 'Aildl in the same sense. 

* A particular form of prayer. 
« See Mkh. XXVII, 70 n. 

4 B29 omits these eleven words. 

8 Vend. XVII, 26-28 :— ' Unto thee, O bird Ashd-zurta ! do I 
announce these nails, do I introduce these nails ' (or, according to 
the Pahlavi, ' do I make known these nails, these nails do I make 
thee known to ') ; ' may these nails be such for thee, O bird Ash6- 
zuftal as spears and knives, bows, falcon-feathered arrows, and 
sling-stones against the demon Mazainyas.' 

• Yas. XXXIII, 7b : — ' Through the righteous good thought, by 
which I am heard before the mighty one.' 

T 2 

Digitized by 


276 SAD t>AR. 

parings. 6. And, if he does not know this B&2 1 , on 
uttering the Sr6sh-baz and those three Yatha-ahu- 
vairy6s he is to furrow three lines, with the nail-cutter 2 , 
around the vaiA-parings, and then he is to complete 
the Bis with those Yatha-ahu-vairy6s, and to put the 
dust, with the end of the nail-cutter, into the midst 
of the naiVparings, and carry them to a desert spot. 
7. It is necessary that he should carry a hole down 
through four finger-breadths of earth, and, having 
placed the nail-parings in that spot, he puts the soil 

8. For Hdrmazd, the good and propitious, has 
created a bird which they call Ash6-zust 8 , and they 
call *V the bird of Bahman 4 . 9. They also call it the 
owl, and it eats nails. 

10. It is altogether necessary that they do not 
leave them unbroken, for they would come into use 
as weapons (sila'h) of wizards 6 . 11. And they have 
also said that, if they fall in the midst of food, there 
is danger of pulmonary consumption. 

Chapter XV. 

1. The fifteenth subject is this, when one sees 
anything that is welcome to the eyes, it is requi- 
site to say ' in the name of the sacred being.' 
a. Because, if they do not say 'in the name of 
the sacred being,' and an injury happens to that 

1 The formula quoted in § 3. 

* B29 omits these four words. * See Bd. XIX, r9, 20. 

* The archangel Vohuman (see Bd. I, 23, 26 n). His bird is 
the cock according to Sis. X, 9. 

6 See Sis. XII, 6. 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XIV, 6-XVI, 4. 277 

thing, or a disaster occurs, one becomes a sinner; 
so far is notorious (ma 'hi Am). 

Chapter XVI. 

1. The sixteenth subject is this, that, when a 
woman becomes pregnant ire a house, it is neces- 
sary to make air endeavour so that there may be 
a continual fire in that house, and to maintain a 
good watch over it. 2. And, when the child becomes 
separate from the mother, it is necessary to burn a 
lamp for three nights and days — if they burn a fire 
it would be better — so that the demons and fiends 
may not be able to do any damage, and harm ; because, 
when a child is born, it is exceedingly delicate for 
those three days. 

3. For it is declared in revelation 1 , that, when 
Zaraturt, the Spitaman, became separate from his 
mother, every night, for three nights^ a demon, came 
on, with a hundred and fifty other demons, so that 
they might effect the slaughter (hallk) of Zaratust, 
and, when they had beheld the light of the. fire, they 
had fled away, and had not been able to do any 
damage and harm. 

4. During forty days it is not proper that they 
should leave the child alone ; and it is also not proper 
that the mother of the infant should put her foot 
over a threshold in the dwelling, or cast her eyes 
upon a .hill, for it 2 is bad for her menstruation. 

1 Lp, B29 have ' in the good religion:' This is quoted probably 
from the Spend Nasfc (see Sis. X, 4, XII, 11). 
* B29 has ' which they have said.' 

Digitized by 


278 SAD DAR. 

Chapter XVII. 

1. The seventeenth subject is this, that when they 
cut a toothpick f^ilal), or a splinter which they 
wish to apply to the root of the teeth, it is necessary 
that they retain no bark. 2. For if a small quantity 
of bark be on it when they apply it to the teeth, and 
they cast it away, if a pregnant woman puts her foot 
upon it, the danger of that may be that the child 
comes to harm 1 . 

Chapter XVIII. 

1. The eighteenth subject is this, that it is neces- 
sary for mankind to make an endeavour, so that 
they may espouse a wife in their youth and beget a 
child. 2. And for women, in like manner, it is 
necessary that there should be a longing (ra^bat) 
for espousing a husband. 

3. Because it is declared in revelation 2 , that every 
duty and good work a child performs becomes the 
father's and mother's, just like those which they have 
performed with their own hands. 4. The meaning 
(ma'hn!)ofpur('a son') is that which signifies pftl 
(' a bridge ') 3 , for by this bridge they arrive at that 
other world. 5. If there be no child for any one 
they call him one with a severed bridge, that is, the 

1 Owing to her fear of having stepped on dead matter (see Sis. 
X, 20, XII, 13). 

* In the Spend, Niha<fum, and Damdarf Nasks (see Sis. X, 22, 
XII, 15). 

3 This fanciful explanation must be derived from a Pahlavi 
source, as it is only in that language that the two words are written 
precisely alike. 

Digitized by 



way for him to that other world is severed, and he is 
not able to attain to that world. 6. At the head of 
the ICmxad bridge he shall remain ; although he has 
performed much duty and good works he is not able 
to make a passage over the ICmvdxl bridge, and they 
do not make up his account and reckoning. 7. And 
every archangel that comes forward to that place 
first asks these words, that is, ' Hast thou brought 
thy own substitute visibly into the world, or not?' 
8. When he has not brought it, they will pass over 
him, and his soul will remain, in that place 1 , full of 
anguish and grief {|^am). 

9. A similitude (mimal) of it is like that which 
happens when any one may be in a wilderness, and 
there may be fear of wild animals and creatures, and 
near to him may be his own town, but a river of 
water is in front 2 , and it is not possible to make a 
passage over that river, as a bridge is fallen in, and 
he is not able to arrive at that town, but he is always 
upon the bank (sart) speaking thus 8 : 'Would that 
the bridge would become perfect ! ' 

10. The duty as to children* is in this aggregate 8 . 
11. Therefore, the creator Hdrmazd has granted 
unto men that, if there be any one to whom sickness 
from heaven may occur, and there be no provision of 
a child for him, he has commanded him that he should 
make some one a son of his own, as 6 a friend of his 
soul, and should receive a child, because every duty 
can be delegated. 1 2. That person is in place of a 


Lp, B29 add 'on the bridge.' 

La omits these eight words. 
8 Lp, B29 have 'always in regret ('hasrat) thus.' 
4 Lp has ' as to the command.' 
8 Lp has 'manner,' and J15 has 'endeavour.' 
• Lp, B29 have 'some one through his own affection,' 

Digitized by 


280' SAD DAR. 

child, and every duty and good work that he performs 
shall be just like that which is performed by one's 
own hand. 

1 3. And, finally, if any one departs from the world 
(dunya) 1 and possesses no adopted child, it is incum- 
bent on the priests and high-priests and his relations 
to appoint his adopted son, and it is necessary to 
bring some one in sight on that account, so that his 
soul may spring away from the torment of hell. 14. 
Because, every time that his relations do not pay 
attention to this, when they proceed to that other 
world, the soul of that person hangs about them and 
speaks thus : ' I left with you something that I had 
collected and borne trouble for in many years, and 
you seized upon it, and put it into your own expen- 
diture ('h arg ), and did not seek for 2 mercy (safqat) 
on my soul. 15. In the same manner as I have 
remained, delayed (mauquf) in this place, I will 
not let you pass ; so that you will make no passage 
over the K\r\vad bridge till the sacred being takes 
my rights away from you.' 16. Then the angel 
Rashn and the angel Mihir 3 make up their reckoning, 
and, as to whatever those persons have seized upon 
from the other's property 4 , for every single dinar the 
account makes four, and they take away the equiva- 
lent. 17. And, as in that world there are no gold 
and silver, they take away from their souls the good 
works that they have done, and they give them to 
the soul of this other. 18. Still, while others do not 
appoint the adopted son, they are not able to pass 
over the Kxrmzd bridge, nor to arrive at their own 

1 La omits these nine words. * B29 ha9 ' bring.' 

f See Mkh. II, 1 1 8, 1 1 9. * Lp, J 1 5 insert ' and have expended.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XVni, 13-XIX, 5. 28l 

19. There is no duty whatever more incumbent 
on relations than this duty, and every time that they 
appoint an adopted son for any one it is just as 
though they have made the deceased alive ; and 
there are no limit ("hadd) and end (nihayat) of 
their good works. 

Chapter XIX. 

1. The nineteenth subject is this, that the per- 
formance of agriculture is like that when some one 
is performing the ceremonial of the sacred beings, 
and it is necessary to maintain much respect for 
agriculturists ; it is also necessary to keep trouble 
and strife far from them. 

2. For it is declared in revelation, that, as to every 
one who replants a shrub, while that shrub or tree 
exists at the place, every good work that every one, 
who eats of that shrub, does in that state of repletion 
becomes the agriculturist's, just like those which are 
done by his own hand. 3. If any one orders it, 
just as that good work occurs 1 much new repose 
(ra'hat) and comfort reach his soul 2 . 4. As to corn 
and grain fhubub) and whatever they sow, it is 
just like this 3 , because, as regards every one who 
eats wheat, barley, and other grains, and performs 
duty and good works, they become those of the 
sower of 4 those grains, just as those which are per- 
formed by his own hand. 5. Because, for the life of 
mankind a crop was necessary, the creation of a 

1 Lp, B29 have ' is performed' * Lp, B29 add ' therefrom.' 
8 B29 adds * way.' 

4 La omits the rest of this chapter, as well as the words ' they 
become,' by mistake. 

Digitized by 


282 SAD DAR. 

creator 1 after the sacred being, the most high 2 , owing 
to the work of the agriculturist 6. For every one 
who eats anything dies, therefore, as regards that 
person by whose work the life of mankind is estab- 
lished, it is necessary to consider him valuable and 

Chapter XX. 

i. The twentieth subject is this, that it is incum- 
bent on those of the good religion that they con- 
tinually give something to the worthy to eat, on 
account (fihat) of that which it says in revelation 3 
thus : ' When thou givest things to some one that 
he may eat, every duty and good work that he 
performs in that state of repletion become those of 
that person, who has given that bread or food to 
him, just like those which he has performed with his 
own hand.' 2. And if he commits a sin, he who 
may have given food to him is innocent. 3. But it 
is necessary that he be of the good religion and 
worthy ; they should give something to one of a 
different religion only in case of extreme necessity 
(jarurat), lest it become as a sin. 

Chapter XXI. 
1. The twenty-first subject is this, that, when they 
eat bread, it is necessary that one should recite 

1 B29, J15 omit these five words. 

' J15 has 'after its creation by the sacred being, the creator.' 
The alteration of this sentence, in B29 and J 15, seems due to their 
writers' reluctance to attribute the power of creating, even figura- 
tively, to the mere producer of a crop. 
' s In the Niharfum Nask (see Sis. X, 23, XII, 16). 

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CHAPTER XIX, 6-XXI, 6. 283 

the Itha-a^-yazamaid^ 1 and three Ashem-vohus 2 , 
especially (ba-'^ajjataw) in the benediction-cere- 
monies (afringan). 

2. For it is declared in the good religion of the 
Mazda-worshippers, that, when they wish to cele- 
brate the sacred feast (myazd) and benediction- 
ceremonies, it is necessary that all persons who are 
seated at the feast should take up the inward prayer. 
3. For each man an angel is stationed, on the right- 
hand side, and two angels for the priests. 4. But 
when they eat chatteringly, or relate the news 
("hadiTH) 3 , the angels ' depart from them, and a 
demon seizes on the place of each angel 4 . 

5. And in former times the custom ('hid at) of the 
people would have been in this manner, that, if any 
one should have come to the door in the middle of 
the feast, that person whose Afringan-precinct it 
might have been, or whoever should have gone to the 
expense of that Afringan, would have had words 
with that intruding person 5 , and would have also 
spoken thus: 'As thou hast brought my feast to 
harm, give me back whatever has been the cost 6 .' 

6. And in one place in revelation it is declared 

1 Yas. V, 1, 2, of which these are the first three words. This, 
with the three Ashem-vohus, constitutes the inward prayer, or 
grace, before eating (see Dd. LXXIX, 1 n). 

2 See Chap. VII, 1 n. 

3 By which they commit the sin of breaking the protective spell 
of the inward prayer. 

4 Lp, B29 have ' a demon is (B29 stands) in place of the angel.' 
8 B29 has 'would have spoken to that person who had uttered 

words, would have taken something away from him.' Lp merely 
adds ' would have taken something ' to the words in the text. 

* B29 has only, 'As it is my feast, give it back.' The inter- 
ruption having destroyed the merit of the ceremony. 

Digitized by 


284 SAD DAR. 

that from eating chatteringly itself is the sin, for 1 
every one who is chattering during the eating of 
bread is just like him who is smiting and harassing 
the angels of the spiritual existences. 

7. Therefore, if there be any one who is not able 
to consecrate a sacred cake 2 , it is necessary to eat 
bread with the inward prayer of Hdrmazd, that is, 
the archangels. 8. And, if he does not altogether 
know it, he recites the Itha-a^-yazamaid^ 8 and three 
Ashem-vohus, and eats up the bread. 9. Afterwards 
he makes his mouth clean, and, four Ashem-vohus 
and two Yatha-ahu-vairy6s being spoken out*, he is 
then to utter words. 

10. For, every time that this custom (qa'hidat) 
is carried on in a place, through the first Ashem-vohft 
so much good work has arisen that it has propitiated 
the sacred being, the good and propitious ; through 
the second Ashem-vohu so much good work has 
arisen that it has reverenced and 6 propitiated Srdsh, 
the righteous 6 ; through the third Ashem-vohft so 
much good work has arisen that it has reverenced 
and 5 propitiated Khurd&d and Amered&d 7 , the arch- 
angels ; and through the fourth Ashem-vohu so much 
good work has arisen that whatever the creator 
Hdrmazd has created becomes reverenced and 
propitiated. 1 1. And with each mouthful (luqmah) 
that is eaten, while the inward prayer subsists, they 

1 B29 has 'from eating chatteringly is: so much sin that' 

1 See Mkh. XVI, 17 n. « See § 1 n. 

4 These formulas begin the grace after eating, and, being uttered 
aloud, break the spell of the inward prayer now no longer neces- 
sary ; after them the eaters are at liberty to speak. 

8 B29 omits these two words. 

• See Mkh. II, 115 n. 

7 See Horvadarfand Amer6daJ(Mkh. II, 34). 

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CHAPTER XXI, 7-XXII, 3. 285 

proclaim a blessing for Khurdaa? and Ameredarf, the 
archangels. 12. But, if it be eaten without the in- 
ward prayer, as demons are in that place 1 , they say, 
' Thou mightest have eaten the poison of a serpent.' 
13. Therefore, take notice as to which is the better 
of these two. 

Chapter XXII. 

1. The twenty-second subject is this, that the 
performance of G&dawgdi 2 ('intercession') is like 
that when some one is occasioning the ceremonial 
of the sacred beings. 2. Therefore, it should be 
expedient that it be continuous, and that* they 
perform G&dzng&i as regards the priests and high- 
priests and the worthy. 

3. For, in the commentary of the Haddkht Nask, 
it says that every one who performs Gadawgdl, and 
extracts anything from a -person on their account, 
and conveys it to them, is as much without dis- 
honesty f^iyanat), towards them 4 , as he who may 

1 See § 4. 

* The original Pahlavi of this word can be read either d&do- 
g&bih, 'a speaking of the law,' or ySdatd-gdbth, 'a speaking of 
the sacred being ;' in either case it implies 'pleading for the proper 
observance of religious duties,' especially the duty of supporting 
the priesthood and the poor, and it is for such purposes that the 
' intercession ' with those possessing property must be understood 
as being exercised. As the traditional mode of reading Pahl. 
ye"dat6 i$g&tz.n,OT g&dan, it is evident that the P&zand inventors 
of the word in the text must have understood the Pahlavi in the 
latter of the two meanings mentioned above. 

' Lp, B29 have merely 'that continuously.' 

4 Lp, B29 omit these two words. But the meaning of La seems 
to be that he who bestows charity out of the contributions of others, 
without mentioning the contributors, does not act dishonestly towards 
the recipients. 

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286 SAD DAR. 

have given to them out of his own property. 4. 
And in the spiritual existence they take 1 account of 
that profit for him, and just as they make out the 
account of the good work of that person who may 
have given it, even so much is his good work. 

Chapter XXIII. 

1. The twenty-third subject is this, that it is 
requisite to restrain a tethered animal from mis- 
behaviour, and to keep watch over one's own 
creatures, especially at the time when they have 
eaten meat. 

2. Therefore, if they have eaten meat and they 
commit an assault, every offence that the animal 
('haivan) commits may be that person's whose meat 
may be eaten. 3. For example, if a horse lashes 
out a kick (lakad) at any one, the offence may be 
that person's whose food may be eaten and caused 
the offence. 

4. Therefore it is necessary to make an endeavour 
that they shall commit no offence whatever, especially 
at a time when they have eaten meat 

Chapter XXIV. 

1. The twenty-fourth subject is this, that when an 
infant is born from its mother it is necessary that 
they give it the consecrated H6m-juice 2 , on this 
account, that understanding ('haql), wisdom, and 

1 Lp, B29 have 'the spirits take.' 
1 See Mkh. LVII, 28 n, Sis. X, 16. 

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CHAPTER XXII, 4-XXV, 4. 287 

knowledge may more abundantly get to it, and the 
want (ablat) of them may come more scantily 
upon it 1 . 

2. If, at that time, they do not perform the con- 
secration, they should take forth a little H6m for it 2 , 
and recite 8 a Yatha-ahu-vairy6 4 , and put a trifle of 
water into it, and make H6m-juice of that, and give 
it to the infant, and afterwards 6 milk. 

Chapter XXV. 

1. The twenty-fifth subject is this, that any agree*- 
ment and promise (qaul) they make with any one it 
is necessary so far to perform and bring to pass. 
2. Although many things may go 8 to harm by 
means (sabab) of it, it is not desirable to perform 
that agreement with duplicity. 

3. Because, in our religion, they call this a Mihir- 
dru/ ('breach of promise'), and in revelation it 
decrees, as to any one who commits a Mihir-dru^ - , 
that the way to heaven becomes closed for him, 
and that person himself goes discomforted out of 
this world, so that a warning ('halamat) becomes 
quite manifest unto him. 

4. And a Mihir-dru^is attached 7 in such a manner 
that, ^"fortune (/ali'h) may have befallen any one 8 

1 B29 omits these eleven words. 

* B29 adds 'in the H6m-mortar.' 

8 B29 adds ' and utter.' * See Mkh. XXVII, 70 n. 

6 Lp, B29 insert ' they are to give.' 

* Lp, B29 have ' come.' 

7 Lp, B29 have 'understood,' and another copy in B29 has 
' considered.' 

8 Who has broken his promise. 

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288 SAD DAR. 

happily, or an insufficient quantity of his life ('humr) 
may have remained, the Mihir-druf extends to his 
children without opposition ('^ilaf). 5. And every 
household that becomes extinct, or race whose issue 
fails, or any of the great misfortunes that happen to 
mankind — from which misfortune one obtains release 
with difficulty — may all be owing to the fact that they 
have committed a Mihir-druf. 

6. If committed by oneself, it is declared, in one 
place in revelation, that the glorified Zaraturt, the 
Spitaman, enquired of Hdrmazd, the good and pro- 
pitious, thus : ' Of any of the sins that mankind 
commit which is the worst?' 7. H6rmazd, the 
good and propitious, decreed thus : ' No sin whatever 
is worse than this, that two persons make a covenant 
with one another in such a manner that no one 
whatever is between them, except me who am 
H6rmazd; and, afterwards one of those two per- 
sons deviates from it, and says, "I have no know- 
ledge ('^abar) of it" and no one whatever is a 
witness, for that other person, except me.' 8. No 
sin whatever is worse than that, and that person 
himself will 'not go out of this world until retribution 
overtakes him, and in that other world his punishment 
is more severe than all ; so that person becomes un- 
fortunate in both worlds. 9. And it is the same 
^"this covenant be with a righteous person or a 
wicked one. 

Chapter XXVI. 

1. The twenty-sixth subject is this, that the wise 
and the ancients say that when a man becomes 
fifteen years of age it is necessary that he takes 

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CHAPTER XXV, 5~XXVI, 7. 289 

one of the angels 1 as his own protection 2 , that he 
takes one of the wise as his own sage, and that 
he takes one of the high-priests and officiating 
priests as his own high-priest 2. So that, if, any 
time, a bereavement (astanah) approaches, he may 
beg a favour from the archangels 3 , in order that it 
may furnish* an escape from that bereavement. 
3. And 6 , any time any affair comes forward, and 
he has 6 to have opinion (ral) and advice {ma.y va- 
ra t), he holds a consultation with that sage, while 
the sage tells him his opinion (tadblr). 4. And, if 
any question as to proper and improper comes for- 
ward, he speaks with that high-priest, so that he 
may tell him in reply. 

5. When the instructions of these three persons 
are brought to pass, carrying out the commands of 
the sacred being is accomplished. 6. Especially the 
instructions of the high-priests, because their satis* 
faction is connected with the satisfaction of the 
sacred being; and the high-priests possess so much 
dignity (martabat) in the presence of the sacred 
being, the good and propitious, that they are quite 
able to forgive any trivial one of the sins of man- 
kind 7 , and Hdrmazd, the good and propitious, 
quickly 8 forgives that sin for the high-priest. 7. 

1 La, Lp have ' ancients,' but this seems inconsistent with § 2. 
4 La has 'ancestor,' having read ba-niyah instead of pandh. 

3 Lp, B29, J15 add 'and they may provide health xA body and 

4 Lp, B29, J15 have 'that they may furnish him.' 

5 Lp, B29 insert ' if.' 

' Lp, B29 have 'it is necessary.' 

7 B29 has 'to forgive one-third of the sins which mankind 

8 Lp has ' likewise.' 

[24] U 

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Therefore, carrying out the commands of the high- 
priests becomes 1 incumbent on everyone; and the 
fulfilment of this maxim is better than that of a. whole 
assemblage of maxims. 

Chapter XXVII. 

i. The twenty-seventh subject is this, that is, if 
any affair comes forward, that they should thoroughly 
understand 2 whether it be a good work, or a sin. 
2. In that manner it becomes better that they make 
an evasion on the spot 3 , until a time when they 
make it known with accuracy 4 that that affair is a sin 
or a reward. 3. If they perform any affair without 
knowing this, although it be a good work, it becomes 
a sin for them. 

4. For it is declared in revelation, that, except that 
which they enquire of the high-priests, no affair what- 
ever is proper to perform. 5. Whatever wisdom 
there be for any one from his own head is only 
one ; then, as two wisdoms are more than one 5 , 
it therefore makes it expedient to enquire of the 

Chapter XXVIII. 
1. The twenty-eighth subject is this, that, when 
they teach the Avesta, it is in like manner neces- 

1 Lp, B29 have ' is.' 

8 Lp has ' that they should be told,' and B29 has ' that one should 

* See Sis. X, 25, 27. 

4 Lp adds ' and truly,' and B29 has ' make known that it is false 
or true.' 

• Lp, B29 omit these eight words. 

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sary that they teach it properly and truly, and recite 
it with deliberation and composure (s a k i n 1). 2 . And 
it is necessary for those who are taught to recite it 
connectedly, and to keep it ever in remembrance. 

3. For it is declared in revelation, that the sacred 
being has decreed thus : 'As to every one who puts 
the Avesta away from his memory, I will put his 
soul as far from heaven as the width of the earth 1 .' 
4. And in the commentary of the Avesta it is related 
that, in former times, as to any one who had been 
taught the Avesta and had put it away from his 
memory, until the time he had again made it easy, 
they would have given him bread like that which they 
give to the dogs. 5. And in another place I have 
read that they would have given bread to him on the 
point of a spear. 

Chapter XXIX. 

1. The twenty-ninth subject is this, that, when 
they provide any munificence (sa'Mvat) or liber- 
ality, it is necessary that they provide it for the 
worthy; and one is to consider thus : ' Is this person, 
to whom I am giving this thing, worthy or not ?' 

2. Therefore it is necessary to make an effort, so 
that they may not give to the unworthy. 3. For in 
revelation, as regards 2 that person who provides any 
munificence for the unworthy, they call it a vain work 
and a gift without advantage ; and day by day it is 3 

1 Compare Chap. XCVIII, 3. 

* Lp, B29 have ' for in the good religion it is declared.' 
' Lp, £29 have 'it increases.' 
U 2 

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292 SAD DAR. 

the punishment and torment of that person. 4. And, 
whatever they give to the unworthy, they have made 
that thing extinct 

Chapter XXX. 

1. The thirtieth subject is this, that it is not 
proper to pour away water at night, especially from 
the northern side (^inib) which would be the worst 1 . 
2. Therefore, if it become a necessity in the end 
(ba-'^atam) 2 , it is requisite to recite one Yatha- 
ahu-vairyd 3 , and, when they make a light ready 
Chajir)*, to pour away the water gently. 

3. In like manner it is not proper to swallow water 
at night, because it is a sin. 4. But, if a necessity 
arises, it is necessary to make a light ready, and one 
first eats some morsels of food (/a 'ham) so that the 
sin may be less. 

Chapter XXXI. 

1. The thirty-first subject is this, that, every time 
they eat bread, it is necessary to withhold three 
morsels from their own bodies, and to give them to 
a dog. 2. And it is not desirable to beat a dog. 
3. For, of the poor no one whatever is poorer than 

1 Lp has 'side it would be,' to which B29 adds 'bold.' The 
reason of the impropriety is that the demons are supposed to come 
from the north, and anything thrown out northwards might be of 
use to them (see Sis. X, 7, XII, 18, 19). 

* B29 has 'necessity to pour.' * See Mkh. XXVII, 70 n. 

4 Lp, B29 omit these seven words. Both the recitation and light 
are supposed to frighten away any demons. 

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a dog, and it is necessary to give a tethered animal 
bread, because the good work is great. 

4. And in revelation it is declared in this manner, 
that, if a dog is asleep upon the road, it is not 
proper that they put a foot violently on the ground, 
so that he becomes awake. 5. And, in former times, 
an allowance (ratib) of bread would have been made 
every day for the sake of the dogs, three times in 
summer and twice in winter, on this account, that one 
wishes them to come to the assistance of his soul at 
the K'mvad bridge. 

6. In the worldly existence they are the guard of 
men and cattle. 7. If there had not been a dog 
they would not have been able to keep a single 
sheep. 8. Every time that he barks, just as his 
bark goes forth, the demons and fiends run away 
from the place. 

Chapter XXXII. 

1. The thirty-second subject is this, that, when a 
hen utters a crow in a house, or the cock crows 
unseasonably, it is desirable that they do not kill 
it 1 , and do not consider it a bad habit (fa'hl). 2. 
Because it is uttering that crow for the reason that 
a fiend has found a way into that house, and the hen 
or the cock, alone, does not possess the power 
(/aqat) that would keep the fiend away from that 
house, and the hen is going to give the cock 
assistance, and utters the crow. 3. Therefore, if 
any time the chance (ittifaq) happens in that man- 
ner, it is requisite to bring another cock, so that they 

1 See Sis. X, 30. 

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294 SAD DAR - 

may drive away that fiend through the assistance of 
one another. 4. And if a cock crows unseasonably 
it is likewise not desirable to kill it, because the reason 
may be this which I have stated. 

5. For it is declared in the good religion, that 
there is a fiend whom they call S6g\ and, in every 
house where an infant exists, that fiend strives that 
she may cause some misfortune to come upon 
that house. 6. So it is necessary that they should 
keep a cock on the watch for her, so that it may 
smite that fiend and force her to the road away from 
that house. 

Chapter XXXIII. 

1. The thirty-third subject is this, that, when there 
is a place and any risk or fear exists that a corpse 2 
is concealed beneath the ground, one is to make it 
apparent and visible s , because it is a great good work. 

2. For it is declared in the good religion, that, 
when they conceal a corpse beneath the ground, 
Spendarmaa?*, the archangel, shudders ; it is just as 
severe as a serpent or scorpion would be to any 
one in private sleep 6 , and i is also just like that 
to the ground. 3. When thou makest a corpse 

1 Av. ithye^6, Pers. si*. In Pahl. Vend. XIX, 4, 6 she is said 
to be ' a secret-moving deceiver ;' in Bd. XXVIII, 26 she is said to 
' cause annihilation.' 

* Or ' dead matter.' 

* B29 has 'it is necessary to make /'/apparent.' 

4 Av. spewta armaiti, ' bountiful devotion,' the female archangel 
who is supposed to have special charge of the earth (see Sis. XV, 

' B29 has ' in a sleeping garment.' 

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beneath the ground as it were apparent, thou makest 
the ground liberated from that affliction. 

Chapter XXXIV. 

1. The thirty-fourth subject is this, that it is 
greatly necessary to refrain from much slaughter of 
animals and the cattle species 1 . 2. Because it says 
in revelation 2 that, for every one who slaughters 
many animals and cattle 3 , every fibre of the hair 
of a goat becomes, in that other world, like a sharp 
sword, and adheres in the soul of that person. 

3. And there are several things the slaughter of 
which is very bad, and the sin very abundant, as the 
lamb, the kid, the ploughing ox, the war horse, the 
swallow bird that catches the locust, and the cock ; 
and of the whole of these the sin is most as regards 
the cock. 4. If it becomes a necessity 4 , it is proper 
to kill a cock that does not crow 5 , and it is neces- 
sary to consecrate their heads. 5. Any head of an 
animal, not consecrated, it is not desirable to eat, so 
that it becomes so far 6 a righteous gift. 6. If one 
be not able to consecrate the head, it is requisite 
to consecrate one kidney as a substitute (badal) 
for it. 

1 Lp, B29, J15 omit 'species.' 

* In the Stu</gar Nask (see Sis. X, 8, 9). 
' Lp has ' slaughters much.' 

* Lp, B29 have ' if it becomes inevitable.' 
8 Lp has ' that has not crowed.' 

* Lp, B29 have ' when it is not along with.' 

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296 SAD DAR. 

Chapter XXXV. 

1. The thirty-fifth subject is this, that, when they 
wish to wash the face 1 , they should recite one Ashem- 
vohu 2 , and set the mouth firmly closed, so that the 
water, not staying away from it 3 , shall not go into 
the mouth. 2. And, as one washes over the face, 
they should recite the K^m-na-mazda*, so that the 
fiend Nasrurt® may become smitten. 

Chapter XXXVI. 

1. The thirty-sixth subject is this, that it is strictly 
incumbent on mankind, on man 6 and woman, to per- 
form the Bareshnum ceremony'', because mankind 
feed on menstruous matter in the womb of the 
mother. 2. For that reason it is necessary to 
perform the Bareshnum once, so that one may 
become pure from that pollution. 3. For if one 
becomes fifteen years of age, and does not perform 
the Bareshnum, whatever he puts a hand on, the 
glory and purity of that thing will diminish ; and it 

1 Compare Chaps. L, LXXIV. * See Chap. VII, 1 n. 

' B29 omits these five words. 

* A stanza of the Urtavaiti Gatha (Yas. XLV, 7) beginning with 
those three words (see SBE, vol. xviii, p. 443). 

8 Or nisruft, 'contamination' (see Sis. X, 32); probably the 
same as the demon Nas or Nasu (see Bd. XXVIII, 29). Also 
mentioned in Chap. XXXVI, 7. 

• B29 omits ' on man.' 

7 A tedious ceremony of purification that lasts nine nights (see 
SBE, vol. xviii, pp. 431-453). Its name is Av. (ace.) bareshnum, 
' top' of the head, the first part of the body to be washed. 

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is not proper that they put a hand on a sacred cake 
or any thing washed with ceremony. 

4. In revelation it says, if any one who has not 
performed the Bareshnum shall die, the demons 
make him 1 as though he were a corpse kept one 
month in the hot season. 5. And, when the soul 
arrives at the head of the ICrnvdid bridge, the arch- 
angels and angels complain of the stench of that 
soul, and are not able to make up its account and 
reckoning. 6. It remains at the Alnvaaf bridge and 
is not able to pass ; it experiences much repentance 
and has no advantage from it. 

7. If it be necessary for any one to perform the 
Bareshnum of the head, and he be able to do it, but 
does not do it, if he performs the ceremonial ablution 
of the head a thousand times, it does not become 
pure from that pollution 2 , and that is the pollution of 
Nasrust 3 , which is amid the veins and sinews, and 
the flesh and bones ; it does not become pure through 
any other thing except through the liquid consecrated 
by the religious formula 4 . 

8. And as to that person, also, who performs the 
Bareshnum for mankind 6 , it is necessary that he be 
a man, a friend of the soul, a truthful speaker, and 
an abstainer, because through chastity and modesty 
(mas turi) he becomes employed. 9. If complaint of 
any perfidy in him is publicly diffused 6 , in that dis- 
grace (mala mat) it is necessary that the high-priests 

1 B29 has ' it makes his soul.' a Lp omits ' pollution.' 

s See Chap. XXXV, 2. B29 has 'that is bodily refuse (hi'har) 
and pollution.' 

* That is, bull's urine, the liquid that is first used, in a conse- 
crated state, for sprinkling the body in the Bareshnum purification. 
Compare Chap. LXXVII, 9, 10. 

e That is, the purifying priest. • B29 has 'publicly comes on! 

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298 SAD DAR. 

should dislocate his joints one by one, and it is requi- 
site that they give him as food to the dogs. 10. So 
that by this action they may make a man observe 
more chastely and continently, that this result ('hajil) 
of sin may not occur. 

Chapter XXXVII. 

1. The thirty-seventh subject is this, that, when 
the days 0/"the guardian spirits 1 come on, it is neces- 
sary that all persons, among their own food and 
devotion, should order and provide the sacred cakes 
and ceremonial, the sacred feast and benedictions 
(afrlngan). 2. For these ten days it is incumbent 
on every one ; and those are better which they pre- 
pare in their own houses, because the souls 2 go 
every one to its own house. 3. And they should 
have an ear for them 3 , so that they may prepare the 
sacred cakes and feast and benedictions. 

4. Those ten days any one of all the souls — that 
are in this way* in every house where they provide 
the feast more abundantly — proclaims, as to that 
master of the house 5 , that family, and the whole 
who are in that house, and the year's affairs of every 
kind, that they are very good, and their entry (da'^1) 
and coming in are very good. 5. And every single 

1 SeeMkh. LVII, 13 n. 

8 Which are supposed to revisit the earth during those days. 

s Or ' for these words' as the Gu^arati translator assumes. 

* Lp, B29 have 'those ten days all the souls are in this worldly 

8 Lp omits these five words, and B29 adds ' the mistress of the 

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good work, on account of which we have spoken of 
the souls of the departed, becomes just like those we 
have done for our own souls. 6. And, when they 
pass away from this worldly existence, those souls 
come again, meeting them, and cause gladness, 
maintain l their courage, and also render them 
honour in the presence of the creator Hdrmazd, 
and speak thus: ' These righteous souls did not 
put us away from remembrance while they were 
in the world, and we have been satisfied with them ; 
now we are unanimous that thou shouldest provide 
them equal shares of those good works of ours, 
and make their souls attain to the position of the 
righteous.' 7. They utter these words, and give 
those souls confidence, while they make out their 
account. 8. Afterwards, with them, they make the 
passage of the K'mvzd bridge, till they arrive at their 
own position, and then they return. 

9. Therefore it is necessary to make an effort, so 
that they may maintain the guardian spirits properly, 
and the souls of their fathers and mothers and 
relations may exist with honour from them. 10. 
For if they retire with dissatisfaction they utter a 
curse, and, as the soul departs from this world, they 
administer reproaches to it, and speak thus: 'Thou 
thinkest that they wish continually to make a way 2 
for thee to that place, but it is not necessary for thee 
to come into this world 3 . 11. Now, hadst thou 
performed duty and good works on our behalf, and 
hadst thou recollected us, we would also have come 
to thy assistance, and would have released thee from 

1 Lp, B29 have 'restore.' a Lp, B29 have 'an escape.' 

* That is, into heaven. Compare Chap. XIII, 6, 8. 

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3<X> SAD DAR. 

this fearful position.' 12. And that soul experiences 
much repentance, and has no advantage whatever 
from it. 

Chapter XXXVIII. 

1. The thirty-eighth subject is this, that, so far as 
effort and endeavour prevail \ it is requisite to abstain 
from the same cup as those of a different religion, 
and it is not desirable to drink the water of any 
goblet of theirs. 2. And if the goblet be of copper 
or of tin 2 , it is requisite 3 to wash it with* water, 
so that it may be proper to drink the water 5 . 3. 
If the goblet be of earthenware or wooden, it is 
altogether improper 8 . 

4. Because, when 7 any one drinks with a stranger, 
it makes his heart inclined (mall) towards him, for 
it would be a sin ; and, on account of the sin com- 
mitted, he becomes bold, and his soul has an inclina- 
tion for wickedness. 

1 Lp has ' are necessary,' and B29 has merely ' with the endeavour 

2 B29 has 'of metal.' 

3 Lp inserts 'to expose it to fire, to polish it with ashes, and 
afterwards;' J15 inserts 'to polish *7 with fire, and, afterwards,' 

4 B29, J15 insert ' ceremonial ablution and.' 

5 Lp, J15 add 'if the cup or goblet be of copper or of brass, 
one makes the water that is drunk likewise pure in this manner; if 
it be earthen or wooden, one puts it far away from the house, or 
they present it to one of a different religion ; just like that one per- 
forms the ceremonial ablution of what is altogether polluted.' (J 15 
has * what is polluted like a metal one.') 

• J15 adds 'to drink.' 

* Lp, B29, J15 have ' every time that.' 

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Chapter XXXIX. 

1. The thirty-ninth subject is this, that it is 
necessary to properly maintain the sacred fire 1 which 
they have established in a town or village. 2. And 
at night it is necessary to make it blaze up once, 
and by day twice. 

3. For it is declared in revelation, that, if there 
had been no sacred fire, no one would have been 
able to go from town to town ; because it is owing 
to the glory of the sacred fire that no one on the 
roads is able to commit an excess upon any one else. 

4. It is necessary that they should present the 
whole of the firewood ; and, as to the person who 
makes it blaze, they should give him bread and a 
salary (nafaqah). 5. For, every time that that fire 
is satisfied, and they maintain it properly, every fire 
that may exist in the earth of seven regions becomes 
satisfied with that person. 

Chapter XL. 

1. The fortieth subject is this, that it is not 
desirable to distress one's priest, or father, or mother ; 
and, if people perceive much trouble, disquietude, 
and harm arising from them, it is certainly not 
desirable that they should give them back a reply 
with any aggravation. 2. Because their satisfaction 
is connected with the satisfaction of the sacred being, 
and every time that people distress them they have 

1 Literally ' the fire of Bahiram.' Compare Chap. XCII. 

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02 SAD DAR. 

distressed H6rmazd, the good and propitious. 3. It 
is not possible for any duty or good work to extend 
to the spiritual existences while one does not make 
those guardians satisfied, and it is not possible 
(mumkin) that any one should repay these three 
persons all their dues. 

4. In the commentary of the Haddkht Nask it 
says: — Maazaray6i.j,Zarathuytra! ma Pourushaspem, 
ma Dughdh6vam, ma a^thrapaitb 1 , 'it is not desirable 
that thou, O Zaratust ! shouldest distress thy father, 
or mother, or priest.' 

5. Therefore, three times every day it is indispen- 
sable for one to fold his arms 2 in the presence of 
these three persons, and to say : — ' What is your 
will (murad) ? So that I may think and speak and 
do it. 6. If what was not proper has come from me 
of itself, it is necessary that you make a righteous 
gift on our behalf.' 

Chapter XLI. 

1. The forty-first subject is this, that it is greatly 
requisite to avoid a menstruous woman, while they 
give her bread and food moderately. 2. As soon as 

1 This Avesta passage is not known to be extant elsewhere, and 
its orthography has been corrected in accordance with the transla- 
tion attached to it by the author of Sd. In La, Lp, J15 the first 
two names are in the genitive, and the third is accusative ; B29 
differs by putting the third name also in the genitive ; the last word 
being accusative in all. Pourushaspa and Dughdhdva (?) were the 
names of the father and mother of Zarathurtra, and the latter name 
has not previously been found in the Avesta texts, but is known 
only from Pahlavi and Persian writings. 

2 That is, to stand in an attitude of obedient reverence. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

CHAPTER XL, 3~XLI, 9. 303 

she is not able to eat 1 they should not give her more, 
and in the same manner as regards water, on this 
account, that whatever remnant comes from that 
menstruous woman does not come to any use 2 . 

3. When they wish to provide 3 bread they put the 
hand into the sleeve, or they place something on the 
top of the sleeve, and it is necessary that her bare 
hand should not come for th again in any place. 4. 
Because every drop of water that trickles on to a 
limb of a menstruous woman becomes a sin of three 
hundred stirs*. 5. And it is requisite for a men- 
struous woman to avoid everything that is washed 
with ceremony by fifteen steps. 6. It is also 
necessary for her to be at least three steps distant 
from a righteous man, and on whatever her eye casts 
a look it diminishes the glory 6 of that thing. 

7. And on every woman the twelve ceremonials*, 
atoning for the offence of menstruation, are incum- 
bent. 8. One on account of the offence that has 
occurred as regards the spiritual existence" 1 . 9. The 
second on account of the offence that has occurred 

1 That is, as soon as her hunger is satisfied. 

* Lp, B29 have ' it is not possible to make of any use.' 

* Lp, B29 have 'bring.' 

* The amount of a Tanivar or Tanipuhar sin (see Sis. I, 2). 
e Lp, B29 add 'and purity.' 

* These resemble the celebration of the H6mist, but are shorter 
and less onerous. The H6mast consists of a Yasna each day for 
144 days in honour of twelve angels, each angel being reverenced 
for twelve successive days. The angels are nearly the same as 
stated in the text, but the celebration of the H6m&st is twelve times 
as long. The cost of this latter is said to be 350 rupis (see Byt. 
II, 59 n). Occasionally a still more onerous celebration is said to 
be incumbent on such women as can afford it (see Chap. LXVI). 

' Lp has ' the spirits,' and B29 has ' mankind.' 

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304 Sad dar. 

as regards the stars 1 . 10. The third on account of 
that which 2 has occurred as regards the sun. 11. 
The fourth on account of that which has occurred as 
regards the moon. 12. The fifth on account of that 
which has occurred as regards the spirit of fire. 13. 
The sixth on account of that which has occurred as 
regards the spirit of water. 14. The seventh on 
account of that which has occurred as regards the 
spirit of earth. 1 5. The eighth on account of that 
which has occurred as regards the spirit of the wind. 
,16. The ninth on account of that which has occurred 
as regards Khurda^ 3 . 1 7. The tenth on account of 
the offence that has occurred as regards Ameredad? 3 . 
18. The eleventh on account of the offence that has 
occurred as regards meal-time f^urdak gah)*. 19. 
The twelfth on account of the offence that has 
occurred as regards bodily refuse and dead matter. 
20. Therefore it is incumbent on every one in this 
manner*; if any one be more opulent eighteen 
ceremonials are indispensable, and if she has silver 
in excess (ba-^ayat) there should be twenty-one, 
and in one place I have read that twenty-four are 
indispensable; but, for lesser people, this that I 
have noted is necessary. 

21. That which they provide in their lifetime is 
better*; and, just as would occur when any one 

1 B29 has 'the rain.' 

4 Lp, B29 use the same form of words in §§ 10-16 as in §§ 8, 9. 

• See Mkh. II, 34. 

4 Doubtful, and not understood by the Gu^arati translator. 
8 Lp, B29 have ' thus much.' 

* The author evidently implies, by this paragraph, that the cele- 
bration of these ceremonials was only occasional, perhaps once in 
a lifetime, but the earlier the better, so as to admit of a larger 
growth of merit before death. 

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plants a tree anew, and is eating the fruit of it every 
year, even so much is that good work increasing 
every year, 22. If she shall live ten years, or if a 
hundred years, even so long it is becoming every 
year much more 1 . 23. If they provide it after her 
lifetime, that which would be the increase departs ; 
and in her lifetime, also, that occurs which every 
one, who has done a duty On his own account, has 
seen, that the thing itself which others accomplish 
after his lifetime is very different ; so that she should 
provide it with her own hands, not after her decease 
(vafat). _____________ 

Chapter XLI I. 

1. The forty-second subject is this, that it is 
necessary to practise strict abstinence front that sin 
which affects accusers 2 . 2. That would be when any 
one slanders (buhtanad) 3 , or any one commits a 
rape on the wife of some one*, or causes a woman 
to occupy a separate bed from her own husband. 

3. These are sins for which there is no retribution, 
except when thou beggest forgiveness of that person 
whom thy sin has assailed. 4. Afterwards, they keep 
back the soul, at the K'mvzd bridge, till the time 
when its antagonist arrives and exacts justice from 
it ; then it obtains release. 

5. Every time that any one applies a falsehood or 
a slander to some person, so that people are after- 

1 Lp, B29 have 'it is proceeding every year to a head.' 

* Any sin that injures another party who, thereupon, becomes an 

accuser and must be satisfied, by atonement, before the sin can be 

expiated (see Sis. VIII, 1 n). 

3 Lp, B29 have ' applies falsehood and slander to any one.' 

4 See Chap. LXIII, n. Lp omits these twelve words. 

[24] X 

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wards telling that falsehood again, and it vexes the 
heart of that person, they are bringing punishment 
ever anew on the soul of that former one. 6. The 
sin does not depart through the performance ^/"duties 
and good works, so long as he does not make his 
antagonist satisfied. 

7. This is a grave sin, and it is requisite to be 
careful that they do not commit it. 

Chapter XLIII. 

j . The forty-third subject is this, that it is neces- 
sary to make an endeavour to kill noxious creatures 
and reptiles ('hasarat) of the earth; because, in 
revelation 1 , it is put forth as a great good work. 
• 2. Especially these five things : — One is the frog 
in the water, the second is the snake and scorpion, 
the third is the ant (mariu) 2 that flies, the fourth 
is the common ant (m6riah), and the fifth is the 
mouse. 3. Therefore 3 , every time that they bring 
a frog up, out of the water, and make it dry, and, 
after (ba'hd) that, kill it, it is a good work of a 
thousand and two hundred dirhams in weight*. 
4. And every time that they kill a snake, and recite 
the A vesta that is appointed iox that occasion*, it is 

1 See Vend. XIV, 9-17, XVIII, 144-146. 

* If rnar^if were Pahlavi, it would mean 'the deadly thing.' 
Possibly ' the locust' (mala'^) is meant, but the description in § 6 
is rather perplexing. 

8 Lp omits ' therefore,' and B29 has ' and.' 

4 See Chap. XII, 9 n. The frog is considered noxious because 
it is supposed to injure the water, being generally found in stagnant 
pools which are unwholesome. 

5 An A vesta passage of about thirty words, to be used on such 
occasions, is to be found in the Riv&yats, but is still unedited. 

Digitized by 



just as though they have slain an apostate (kshmtgh). 
5. For every one who kills a flying ant (mar£i.y) it 
is as much good work asfor any one who is reciting 
inward prayer for ten days. 6. Among the creatures 
of Aharman nothing whatever is more harmful than 
this; for, if it dies in the air (ha v a) it becomes a 
gnat, if it dies in the dust it becomes a worm, if it 
dies in the water it becomes a leech 1 , if it dies among 
the excavators of flesh it becomes a venomous snake 
(mar-i af'hai), and if it dies in dung it becomes 
creeping things. 7. For every one who kills a corn- 
dragging ant it is as much good work as for any one 
who recites the Hdrmazd Yart. 8. And for every 
one who kills many noxious creatures it is as much 
good work as for a priest who performs the cere- 
monial of the sacred beings; both good works are 
equal. 9. For every one who kills a mouse it is as 
much good work as *yfour lions are killed 2 . 10. 
Therefore, it is incumbent on every one to make an 
effort to kill a noxious creature. 

Chapter XLIW 

1. The forty-fourth subject is this, that it is not 
desirable./^ those of the good religion, so far as they 
are able to manage it, to put a bare foot upon the 
ground 3 , because it is a sin, and injury 4 occurs to 
Spendarma^ 6 , the archangel. 2. And they call that 
the sin of running about uncovered. 

1 B29 has 'hedgehog.' 

s Ants and mice (or rats) are considered noxious on account of 
the damage they do to certain crops and farmers' stores. 
8 See Sis. X, 12. * Lp has only 'because injury.' 

• See Chap. XXXIII, 2 n. 

X 2 

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308 SAD DAR. 

Chapter XL.V. 

I. The forty-fifth subject is this, that it is con- 
tinually necessary that people should keep in remem- 
brance the accomplishment of repentance (taubat). 
2. Every time that a sin leaps from control it is 
necessary to act so that they go before the priests, 
high-priests, and spiritual chiefs, and accomplish 

3. And 1 in accordance with the. sin should be die 
good work, just as though the good work were due 
to that occasion when they accomplish it. 4. While 
mankind are living> it becomes every year a further 
benefit 5. Sin is also, in like manner, going on 
to a head every year ; and when they accomplish 
repentance, so that it may not increase further, it 
is just like a tree that becomes withered, and they 
extirpate its further growth. 

6. And that repentance is better which they accom- 
plish before high-priests and spiritual chiefs, and 
when they accomplish the retribution that the high- 
priest orders every sin that exists departs from them. 
7. The repentance that high-priests accomplish they 
likewise call repentance 2 . 8. If there be no high- 
priest it is necessary to go before some persons who 
are commissioned by highrpriests ; and if those, also, 
do not exist, it is necessary to go to a man who is a 
friend of the soul, and to accomplish the repentance. 

1 Lp, B29 have ' for.' 

* Here and throughout the rest of the chapter B29 has patit, 
'renunciation of sin,' instead of taubat. The outward form of 
repentance consists of the recitation of the patit, in which all 
imaginable sins are mentioned and renounced. 

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9. At the time when one shall depart from the 
world it is incumbent on sons and daughters and 
relations, that they give repentance into the mouth 
of the afflicted one, and that they give the Ashem- 
vohu 1 into his mouth, io. F of the high-priests have 
said that, when they have accomplished repentance 
because they have committed many sins, they do 
not arrive in hell, but they administer punishment 
to them at the head of the KXnvzJ bridge, and after- 
wards conduct them to their own place* 

11. Repentance is that when they accomplish 
repentance of the sin which they have committed, 
and do not commit that sin a second time; if they 
do commit it, XhaX first sin then comes back 2 . 

Chapter XLVI. 

1. The forty-sixth subject is this, that, when 
people become fourteen years of age, it is necessary 
to tie on the sacred thread-girdle 3 , because the high- 
priests have said that it is likewise necessary to take 
into account those nine months that they have been 
in the womb of the mother. 

2. For in our religion there is no duty better than 
wearing the sacred thread-gird\e, and it is incumbent 

1 See Chap. VII, 1 n. 

2 That is, repentance is not a mere penance, but requires a 
change of will, a veritable renunciation of that sin for the future ; 
otherwise it is useless. 

* See Chap. X, which mentions fifteen years in accordance with 
Vend. XVIII, 1 1 5, 1 20. But Sis. X, 1 3 recommends fourteen years 
and three months as more prudent, no doubt for the reason stated 
here in the text. 

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310 SAD DAR. 

on man and woman. 3. And, in former days, if any 
one should have become completely fifteen years of 
age, and should not have worn the sacred thread- 
girdle, they would have done for him by stoning, as 
bread and water are forbidden ('ha ram) for him. 

Chapter XLVII. 

1. The forty-seventh subject is this, that, when a 
child of seven years shall die, an order is necessary 
that it is requisite to perform a ceremony (ya st) for 
Srdsh 1 on account of it, and to consecrate the sacred 
cake of the fourth night 2 . 

2. For it says in revelation that the souls of 
children go with the souls of their fathers and 
mothers ; if the father is ft for heaven the child goes 
to heaven with him, if he be fit for hell it arrives in 
hell ; if the mother be fit for heaven it reaches 
heaven with her, if she befit for hell it reaches hell 
with her 3 . 

3. Therefore, every time that they accomplish the 
ceremony for Sr6sh, the soul of that child becomes 
separated from the souls of its father and mother, 
and goes to heaven, and is imploring intercession 
(.rifa'hat) for its father and mother in the presence 
of the sacred beings in that other world. 

1 See Mkh. II, 115 n. 

* That is, most of the ceremonies requisite after the death of an 
adult, as detailed in Chap. LXXXVII, are also to be performed in 
this case, for the reason here given. 

* Lp omits these twenty-three words. 

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Chapter XLVI 1 1 1 . 
1. The forty-eighth subject is this, that, when they 
boil a cooking-pot, it is necessary to make the water 
two parts of one-third each, that one-third of the pot 
may be empty ; so that, if at any time the pot shall 
boil, the water shall not go to the top 2 . 2. For if 
they do not act so, and the 3 water, owing to not 
stopping, goes into the fire 4 , it is a sin of a thousand 
and two hundred dirhams in weight 6 ; therefore it is 
necessary to keep watch that this sin does not arise. 

Chapter XLIX«. 
I. The forty-ninth subject is this, that, when one 

1 There is some confusion in the MSS. as to the arrangement of a 
few of the following chapters. The order here adopted is that of 
B29, J15, which is here in accordance with the metrical MSS., 
although Chaps. 48-56 are numbered 52-60 in the latter, owing to 
variations in the earlier part of the work. In La Chaps. 48-50 
have been originally omitted, but part of 48, prefixed to a portion 
of 50, has been afterwards inserted in the margin, and Chap. 49 has 
been similarly added after the last chapter in the book. In Lp the 
chapters are arranged as follows : — 48, 51-53, 49, 54, 56, while 50, 
55 are omitted. 

8 Lp, B29, J15 add 'and the water not go into the fire.' La ( 
Lp add ' at least one-third should be water [in such a manner that 
it becomes wet from ear to ear. It is necessary to keep the mouth 
continually closed, so that the water shall not go into the mouth],' 
but the passage in brackets is clearly a portion of Chap. L, 2, 3 ; it was 
originally written also in J15, but has been struck out of that MS. 

3 La has ' if a drop of.' 

4 La has 'mouth;' the passage in that MS. being evidently the 
end of Chap. L, 3. 

8 La has 'of three hundred stirs,' as in Chap. L, 3, and omits 
the rest of the text The two amounts are identical, and are 
equivalent to a Tanavar or Tanapuhar sin (see Sis. I, 2). 

* Inserted in La after the last chapter in the book, and numbered C 
In Lp it is numbered LII. 

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gathers up a fire, it is requisite to leave it for a time, 
so that the ash-bed (bum) of the fire may become 
cold ; afterwards, one is to take it up and carry it to 
the precinct of fire. 2. It is not proper that they 
carry the ash-bed (zamtn) of a hot fire to the pre- 
cinct of fire ; so far is notorious. 

Chapter IA 

1. The fiftieth subject is this, that, every day at 
dawn, when they rise up from sleep, it is not proper 
to wash the hands first with water. 

2. The ceremonial ablution is to wash the hands, 
face, nose, eyes, and feet thoroughly, either with 
fruit (mlvah) 2 or some grass upon which no water 
has come; afterwards, to make them dry, and to 
wash them three times with water in such a manner 
that it becomes wet from the face as far as the ear 3 . 
3. It is necessary to keep the mouth closed, so that 
the water shall not go into the mouth ; for if a drop, 
owing to not stopping, goes into the mouth, it is a 
sin of three hundred stirs 4 . 4. Afterwards, one is to 
wash the hands three times with water, as far as the 
upper arms ; first the right hand, and afterwards the 
left hand; and, in like manner, he is to wash the 
right foot and left foot 

1 Omitted in La, Lp, though the former contains a portion of this 
chapter annexed to part of Chap. XL VIII, and most of its contents 
are repeated, in other words, in Chap. LXXIV. 

2 Perhaps mivah may be taken as an adjective from mlv, ' hair;' 
in which case we should have ' with something either hairy or grassy.' 
According to the long-metre Sad Dar, the liquid to be used for this 
first wetting is either goat's or bull's urine. 

8 La has 'from ear to ear' (see Chap. XLVIII, 1 n). 
* A Tan&var or Tanapuhar sin (see Sis. I, 9). 

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CHAPTER XLIX, 2-LI, 6. 313 

5. Then they recite the K^m-na-mazda 1 , for, every 
time that they wish to recite anything as an inward 
prayer, it is necessary that the hands be washed with 
ceremonial ablution 2 , and, if they are not, the Avesta 
is not accepted, and the fiend of corruption (nasus) 
does not rush away, and it becomes a Tanavar sin. 

Chapter LI. 

1. The fifty-first subject is this, that it is incumbent 
on every one to send a child to school, and to teach 
it something. 2. Because every duty and good work 
that a child performs is just as though the father and 
mother had performed it with their own hands. 3. 
Therefore it is necessary to make an effort, so that 
they may teach them something good, and make 
them aware of good works and sin; for they are 
doing that on. account of their own souls, so that 
those children may be courageous in doing good 

4 3 . If they are not taught, they then perform less 
duty and good works, and less reaches the souls of 
the father and mother. 5. And it also happens that 
if they do not deliver children to school, and do not 
teach them anything, and they become bold in com- 
mitting sin, that sin 4 becomes fixed on the necks of 
the father and mother. 

6. Therefore they have decided rightly who 5 teach 

1 See Chap. XXXV, 2 n, which chapter, as well as Chap. LXXIV, 
treats of nearly the same subject. 

2 As described in §§ 2-4. 8 Lp, B29 insert ' because/ 
* B29 has ' that commission of sin.' 

8 B29 has 'rightly for the children, at the time when they.' 

Digitized by 


314 SAD DAR. 

them something, especially what is proper and im- 
proper according to revelation; because the chief 
principle is this, whether, through the duty of this 
world, a good or bad result is coming hereafter. 

Chapter LI I. 
1. The fifty-second subject is this, that it is in- 
cumbent on every one that, every year when the 
month Fravardln comes on, he is to provide a sacred 
cake on the day Khurda*/ 1 , and whatever they are 
able to bring to hand, a little of everything, they are 
to place by that sacred cake, and to consecrate it 
with the dedicatory formula Ayaranamia 2 , so that 

1 That is, on the sixth day of the first month of the Parsi year, a 
day which is called Khurda</-sal and kept sacred, because it is said 
to be the anniversary of many remarkable events, of which the 
following are mentioned in a Pahlavi tract that is also translated in 
the Persian Rivayats (B29, fol. 401) : — On that day worldly life was 
created, Giy6mar</ came into the world and slew Arezur, Mashya 
and Mashy6i grew up from the ground, H6sh£ng appeared, Takh- 
m6rup made Aharman his steed, Yim made the world free from 
death and decay, brought on a truce (? pa</m£nak) with hell, and 
established depositories for the dead and new year's day, Fr&/un 
divided the world between his three sons, Minu^Miar slew two of 
them, and rescued the world from Fr&sy&k, Sim the Nariminian 
slew the demon Gandar6pak (?), Kai-Khusr61 slew Frisyik and 
went to heaven, leaving the sovereignty to L6r£sp, Zaraturt came to 
converse with Auharmazrf and received the religion from him, Kat- 
Vut&sp accepted the religion, eighteen things come in eighteen 
years to KMsr6 son of A<iharmaz</, Vihrdm the Vaig^vand comes 
from the Hindus, PSshy&tanu, son of VLrtisp, comes from Kangdez, 
HusheVar comes to converse with Auharmaz<f, Sim slays Az-i 
Dahik and rules till Kaf-Kh&srdl reappears to reign for fifty-seven 
years, with S6shins as supreme high-priest, after which Kal-VLrtisp 
resumes the sovereignty, and Zaratuft the priestship, and the resur- 
rection takes place on the same day of the year. 

* Corrected from airyanam^a in all MSS. See Af. 1, 1 as far as 
saredhanam^a, then githiby6, &c. (Af. II, 1). 

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the affairs of that year may be better through that 
day's provision and the entry and coming in of 

2. For it is declared in revelation 1 , that, every 
year, when the day Khurdaa? of the month Fravardln 
comes on, they allot a daily provision for mankind, 
and whatever one wishes to pass to the lot of man- 
kind in that year they write down that day. 3. 
Therefore, when they shall consecrate this sacred 
cake, the archangel Khurdaa? 2 is making intercession 
for that person. 

Chapter LI 1 1. 

1. The fifty-third subject is this, that, when, in 
former 3 times, any one wished to go on a journey 
(safar) that might have been at least 4 twelve leagues 
(parasang), they would have consecrated a sacred 
cake, so that no affliction might happen in that 
journey, and affairs might be according to their 
wish, and employments (sughl) 6 cheerful. 2. And 
it is still incumbent on every one that, when they 
wish to go on a journey, they are to consecrate this 
sacred cake. 

3. And, while the person is on the journey, he 
should order the consecration of this sacred cake, in 
his house, every Bahiram day 6 , so that that? person 
may arrive in safety (salamat) at his house. 4. 

1 B29 has 'in the good religion.' 

* See Horvadarf(Mkh. II, 34). 

8 La, Lp omit 'former.' * B29 has 'less than.' 

* Lp, B29 insert ' might become.' 

6 The twentieth day of the Parsi month. 

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3T6 sad DaR. 

The dedicatory formula is this — Amah€ hutastahe 1 
■ — and is known to the priest himself. 

Chapter LIV. 

i. The fifty-fourth subject is this, that if any one 
has a serving wife 2 , and if the acquisition of a male 
child results 3 from her, it is suitable for adoption by 
that person 4 , and the bridge 8 is not severed for that 
person. 2. But if it be a female child it is necessary 
that the man should not be negligent (gh&iW) in 
appointing an adopted son for his own sake. 3. He 
should himself appoint a son of some relation, who is 
a friend of the soul, so that the bridge may not be 
severed for his soul. 

Chapter LV 6 . 

1. The fifty-fifth subject is this, ' that when a 
NavaztW 7 ceremony is performed, and it happens 
that it is not possible to consecrate a sacred cake, 
it is necessary that one should eat bread with the 
H6rmazd inward prayer ; and, afterwards, he should 

1 The dedication to the angel Bahidtm, which begins with these 
words (see Sir. I, 20). 

2 A childless widow who has married again, and half of whose 
children, by her second husband, belong to her first one, to whom 
she also belongs in the other world (see Bd. XXXII, 6 n). 

8 B29 has ' if a male child be born.' 

4 The child being considered to belong to its mother's first 
husband, can be only an adopted son of her second husband. 
6 The Kinvzd bridge, which is the passage to heaven. 
• Lp omits this chapter. T See Chap. V, l n. 

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CHAPTER UV, I-LVI, 5. 317 

complete the prayer just as when they complete it as 
regards the sacred cake, so that the sin may be less. 

Chapter LVI. 

1. The fifty-sixth subject is this, that, when any 
one wishes to make an evacuation of water, it is 
necessary that he should not make the evacuation of 
water while standing on his feet. 2. Because, in the 
commentary of the Vendtda^ 1 , it is said, concerning 
that, that it is a serious sin. 

3. When they squat for evacuating water it is 
necessary that it extend only 2 from the heel as far as 
the end of the toes ; for, if it be more, every drop is 
a Tanavar sin. 4. And, when they wish to squat 
for the evacuation of water, they are to utter one 
Yatha-ahu-vairyd s ; and, when the action is over, 
they are to recite the Ashem-vohu * three times, the 
Humatanam 5 twice, the Hukhshalhr6temai 6 three 
times, the Yatha-ahu-vairy6 four times, and the 
Ahunem-vairlm 7 to the end. 5. Because, every time 
that they act like this, they are pleasant in the eyes 
and hearts of mankind, and their words are more 
approved in the vicinity of kings. 

1 Pahl. Vend. XVIII, 98. 

2 Lp, B29 have ' that they do not make the evacuation of water 
more than.' 

3 See Mkh. XXVII, 70 n. 

4 See Chap. VII, 1 n. The recitation of this and the four follow- 
ing formulas is commanded in Vend. XVIII, 97. 

« Yas. XXXV, 4-6. • Yas. XXXV, 13-15. 

1 Yas. XIV, end. 

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3l8 SAD DAR. 

Chapter LVII. 

i. The fifty-seventh subject is this, that it is not 
proper to kill a hedgehog ; and, everywhere that 
they see it, it is necessary to take it up and carry it 
into the wilderness (sa'hra), so that it may go into 
a hole, which is ever considered a great good work. 
2. Because, when a hedgehog is in their nest 1 , some 
ants will die ; it will also catch and eat thousands of 
snakes and 2 other harmful creatures, and it eats all 
noxious creatures. 3. Therefore, owing to the whole 
of this, these words are expedient. 

Chapter LVII I. 

I. The fifty-eighth subject is this, that it is ever 
necessary that those of the good religion should make 
an effort that they may celebrate a ceremony for 
their living souls. 2. For the soul, for which they 
have celebrated a ceremony ,s , just as much good work 
as it then becomes each year, it is twice as much 
good work the second year. 3. So that, in this 
manner, the merit of the ceremony for the living soul 
is increasing just so much every year, while the 
man is living. 4. And, after that, this also occurs, 
that, if at the time when that person becomes an 
immortal soul there be no one at hand — Srdsh* being 
the angel when the ceremony for the living soul is 
celebrated — Sr6sh, the righteous, receives the soul by 

1 Lp, B29 have ' goes into an ant's nest.' 

2 B29 omits these four words. 

* B29 has 'for every time that they have celebrated a ceremony 
for the living soul.' 

* SeeMkh. II, 115 n. 

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himself, and is keeping watch over it during the 
three days 1 , and does not forsake it, so that no 
danger or harm happens to it. 5. And the fourth 
night he is a helper, with the angel Rashn 2 , at the 
Kxvivzd bridge, while they make up its account and 
reckoning, and it goes to its own place. 

6. And this ceremony for the living soul is appointed 
for the reason that, just in the manner that, when an 
infant becomes separated from the mother, a midwife 
(qabilat) is necessary for it, so that they may keep 
watch over it, adjust in the manner that she takes 
up the infant 3 from the ground— and, at the time 
when it is born, it is ever necessary that there be a 
woman present ('hajirat), or they may perform work 
for the infant at a time fit for the demon — in this 
same manner, when the soul is becoming separated 
from the body it is like an infant (/ifl), and does not 
know any way to its place. 7. When they celebrate 
a ceremony for the living soul, and have propitiated 
the righteous Sr6sh, the righteous Srdsh becomes like 
the midwife, so that he receives that soul by himself, 
and keeps watch that it is out of the hands of Ahar- 
man and the demons. 8. When they do not celebrate 
a ceremony for the soul when living, but, after that 4 , 
the priests perform it before Sr6sh, it is like that 
which occurs when a woman brings forth a child 8 , and 
after that they set her before the midwife. 9. And it 
happens that while some one is coming in, who takes 
up that child and wraps it up, it has perished. 

1 While it is supposed to stay near the body. 

* B29 adds 'and the angel Mihir.' See Mkh. II, 118, 119. 

* Lp, B29 have merely ' and she takes it up.' 

* Lp adds ' it is necessary that.' 

' Lp adds 'they make no enquiry (/a lab) about it before her.' 

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320 SAD DAR. 

10. Therefore, as she does the needful which they 
should do earlier by the hand of some one, in this 
same manner it makes it incumbent on every one to 
celebrate a ceremony for his own living soul, so that 
it may be free (iman) from these misfortunes, n. 
And 1 that, if his decease occurs in any place where 
there may be no one who will celebrate a ceremony 
for his soul, since a ceremony for the living soul is 
celebrated, there are no arrears for him, and he is 
free. 12. And, in many things, it is that ceremony 
for the living soul which is expedient, especially in 
these times when the priests have remained few in 
number ; and, when it is celebrated by one's own 
hands, it is a great duty. 

Chapter LIX. 

1. The fifty-ninth subject is this, that, in the good 
and pure religion of the Mazda-worshippers, they 
have not commanded the women to perform the 
Nyayises 2 . 2. And 3 their Nyayises are these, that 
three times every day, at dawn, mid-day* prayer, 
and evening prayer, they stand back in the presence 
of their own husbands, and fold their arms and speak 
thus : ' What are thy thoughts, so that I may think 
them ; what is necessary for thee, so that I may 
speak it ; and what is necessary for thee, so that I 
may do it ?' 

3. For, any command, and whatever the husband 

1 B29 adds 'this also happens.' 

1 Periodical salutations of the sun and moon (see Chap. VI, 2), 
fire and water. 
* Lp, B29 have 'for.' * Literally 'former, early.' 

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orders, it is requisite to go about that day. 4. And, 
certainly, without the leave (rija) of the husband 
she is to do no work, so that the Lord may be pleased 
with that wife. 5. For the satisfaction of the sacred 
being is in a reverence (ya^t) for 1 the satisfaction of 
the husband ; so that every time that they perform 
work by command of the husband they call them 
righteous in the religion ; and if not, what do they 
call them ? 

Chapter LX. 

1. The sixtieth subject is this, that we are keeping 
the good and pure religion of the Mazda-worshippers 
with us 2 , so that escape from hell may be possible 
for our souls 3 . 2. And we are completely united in 
hope, and through investigation (ta'hqlq) we fully 
understand that, when we are steadfast in the good 
religion, we arrive in heaven. 3. And we know that 
arrival in heaven occurs through virtuous actions, 
and through them we are saved ; so that we think of 
good 4 , speak of good, and do good. 

4. And no doing of good is better than that which 
offers itself -when a difficult duty comes before one of 
the good religion as his soul wishes to depart. 5. 
Since it comes to thee, do thou give help to that 
which has escaped his hand, so that he may come 
out of that hindrance ; and do thou not forsake him 

1 Lp has merely 'is in,' and B29 has 'is connected with.' 

s Lp has ' through hope.' 

* B29, J15 have 'that in the good andpme religion of the Mazda- 
worshippers it is declared that we are maintaining a hope that the 
.soul may obtain escape from hell.' 

4 La puts the thinking of good last of the three.. 
04] Y 

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322 , SAD DAR. 

so that he relinquishes the religion. 6. For after 
that, while he is in the religion, and while his 
children, after him, are in the religion 1 , every duty 
and good work that he does — and his children — is 
just like those which are done by thine own hand. 

7. And it is just like that with regard to poll-tax, 
it is also indispensable to give it in semblance of 
help, so that they may give that person his release 
('^alaj), and he may stay in his own place, and the 
advantage of a good work (THavab) may come to 
that other person. 

Chapter LXI. 

1. The sixty-first subject is this, that it is requisite 
to abstain strictly from speaking falsehood ; so that, 
every time that mankind indulge in the speaking of 
falsehood with fondness 2 , it is not proper to do so; 
and 3 falsehood is the chief 4 of all sins. 

2. Zaratust enquired of H6rmazd thus : ' Who is a 
liar like V 3. H 6rmazd, the good and propitious, said : 
' A liar is a co-operator with Aharman.' 

4. In revelation it says that there is no hereafter 
(a'^irat) for the speakers of falsehood, and in the 
midst of mankind they are contemptible ('haqir). 
5. If such a man be powerful (mu'hta.nm), and 
there be no avoiding ('haDHar) him in the vicinity 

' B29 omits these ten words. 

8 Lp omits these fourteen words. 

' B29 omits these twenty words. 

* This seems to have been the meaning intended, judging from 
§§ 2-6 ; otherwise it might be translated ' end ' or * result,' especially 
as the writer has characterised other sins as ' the chief (see Chaps. 
IX, 2, XXV, 8), 

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CHAPTER LX, 6-LXII, 5. 323 

of mankind, they do not have any respect for him, 
and he is clearly (farja/w) an evil liar. 6. Although 
he possesses much wealth, it will all depart from his 
hands, and, finally ('haqibat), begging of mankind 
occurs to him, and his progeny also becomes scanty 1 . 

Chapter LXII. 

i. The sixty-second subject is this, that it is 
necessary to take early to the speaking of truth 
and doing of justice, and to maintain oneself 
therein, for nothing whatever is better among man- 
kind than truth. 

2. Owing to truth H6rmazd created this world 
and that other world, and truth has remained on the 
spot, and on account of truth it becomes pure. 
3. And the accursed Aharman, being devoid of 
anything good, does not issue from that which is 
owing to truth. 4. It is requisite to occasion 
the resurrection owing to truth ; and, as to every 
place where truth is not taken up, the glory in that 
place has found a way out, and as to every household 
where much of this resides, it is on account of truth, 
and Aharman does not find a way into that place. 

5. It is said in revelation that one truthful man is 
better than a whole world (Tialam) speaking false- 
hood; and Gavah of Ispahan 2 — when he kept his 
stand upon the truth, and was speaking words with 
truth until the time when Dahak 3 , who possessed the 

1 Lp omits these six words. 

s B29 adds 'he was a blacksmith.' His revolt against Dahak is 
detailed in the Sh&hnamah. 
s See Mkh. VIII, 29 n. 

Y 2 

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324 SAD DAR. 

whole realm, and the whole of the demons and 
mankind have been afraid of him, through the truth 
of the words spoken — was bold with them in every 
speech, and became victorious (mu/^affar) over 
them, by reason of the true words that he was 

6. The accursed Aharman, when he perceived 
the spirit of truth, had fallen senseless three thou- 
sand years 1 . 7. From fear of truth he never 
managed to hold up his head, and from fear of 
truth he did not manage to come into this world 2 . 
8. And everything that thou settest thy gaze (na/^ar) 
upon therein, that has remained on the spot when 
thou seekest again an examination of it, has remained 
through truth. 9. And the interpretation of the 
Ashem-vohu 3 is in truth, and, for that reason, they 
recite the Ashem-vohu frequently. 

Chapter LXIII. 

1. The sixty-third subject is this, that it is neces- 
sary to practise strict abstinence from adultery on this 
account, that through every one who beguiles the wife 
of another, and commits iniquity with her, that woman 
becomes, in a moment, unlawful as regards her hus- 
band. 2. And, after that, every time her husband 
comes round about her, it is just as though she had 
gone near to a strange man. 3. The righteous 
bestowal* of herself on her own husband, in this 

1 See Bd. I, 22. The spirit of truth was his opposite, the spe»t6 
mainyuj or 'bountiful spirit' of H6rmazd. 

2 See Bd. Ill, 1-5. « See Chap. VII, 1 n. 
4 Lp inserts ' he shall wish.' 

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situation, is always worse than his going 1 with women 
of a different religion, on this account, that, if that 
wife becomes pregnant, it is just as though one of the 
good religion had fallen away into a different religion, 
and * thereby that man becomes worthy of death. 

4. And it also happens, when that wife becomes 
pregnant, that she may effect the slaughter of the 
infant, from fear of a bad reputation. 5. Then, for 
that person whose child it is, it is just as though 
he had effected the slaughter of the child with his 
own hand ; therefore, he is worthy of death. 6. If 
the infant be born, and it remains 8 in the religion, 
every sin that that child of his commits is, for that 
person, just as though it were committed by his own 

7. And if a woman of those of the good religion 
commits adultery, she becomes in a condition unlawful 
as regards her husband ; and if an infant be born it 
is illegitimate. 8. And the sin owing to this- will 
depart at the time when that person goes near to 
her husband and shall say : ' What is there in me 
befitting thy wife ? 9. A calamity (ak) has occurred, 
and a crime (*^a^a) has come into my body; thou 
knowest if thou wilt exercise forgiveness ('hafu), 
and if not, when it is not for me, do thou kill me; 
my blood is lawful ('halal) unto thee.' 10. If he 
shall kill her, her sin will depart owing to this ; 

1 B29 has 'it never becomes a righteous bestowal of herself on 
her husband, and if, in this situation, he is also.' 

* B29 omits 'and.' 

8 Lp, B29 have 'it does not remain,' but the text seems to be 
assuming that the illicit origin of the child is unsuspected, in which 
case it would undoubtedly remain in the religion, as it would pro- 
bably do in any case. 

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326 SAD DAR. 

otherwise, this sin will not depart from her in any 
manner (naval) 1 . 

ii. And one calls this sin a sin affecting anta- 
gonists 2 , and, so long as the antagonist does not 
become satisfied, the sin flows on 3 , and they keep 
his soul back at the head of the ICiavad bridge, 
till the time that its antagonist shall arrive and him- 
self accomplishes his antagonism, and they give him 
back a reply*. 

Chapter LXIV. 

i. The sixty-fourth subject is this, that it is 
necessary to practise great abstinence from com- 
mitting theft 8 and seizing anything from mankind 
by force. 

2. For it is declared in revelation that, as to every 
one who steals one dirham 6 away from another, 
when they really know it, it is necessary to take two 
dirhams away from him; one dirham being that 
which was carried off, and one dirham as the fine of 
him who committed the theft. 3. It is also requisite 
to cut off one ear, and it is necessary to strike ten 
blows with a stick, and to detain him one period in 

1 B29 omits these eleven words. 

a Or accusers (see Chap. XLII, 1, 2). 

8 B29 has 'it flows on,' if we read bi-rSzad; but the Gu.gar&ti 
translator seems to take gun&h-bar6za</ (Av. berezawt) as a 
technical epithet for the soul, as though he would say ' they keep 
back the soul of him whose sin is rampant.' 

4 That is, the investigating angels announce their decision as to 
the proper fate of the soul they have detained. 

8 B29, J15 have 'violence.' 

8 A silver coin of 63 grains in weight, or about 5f annas (see 
Dd. LII, 1 n) ; say, seven-pence. 

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4. And if he shall steal another 1 dirham, in the 
same manner one is to take away two dirhams a , to 
cut 3^" the other ear, to strike twenty blows with a 
stick, and to detain him two periods 8 in prison. 5. 
And if he shall steal three dirhams and two dings 4 , 
it is requisite to cut off his right hand. 6. If he 
shall steal five hundred dirhams 5 , it is requisite to 
hang him. 

7. On the spot the punishment is this, and among 
the spirits it brings punishment on the soul itself. 
8. And, if the other person does not know it, they 
take away twice as much good work, among the 
spirits, from that thief, and give it to the soul of this 
person. 9. If the thief possesses no good works, 
they give the compensation from the constantly- 
beneficial treasury 6 , and exhibit the punishment on 
the soul of that thief. 

10. As to that person who has seized anything 

1 Lp has ' two.' s Lp has ' to take four.' 

8 The Gug-ar&ti translator takes 'one period' as 'one gharfl (24 
minutes),' but 'two periods' as '2$ gharff (one hour).' The word 
s&'hat, 'period,' means also ' an hour,' but so short a term of im- 
prisonment seems improbable. 
4 That is, 3 J dirhams, nearly 1 \ rupf, or, say, two shillings. 

• That is, 175 rupls, or, say, £14 \*s. 

* Where all supererogatory good works are supposed to be kept 
in store by the angels, for the purpose of granting them to souls 
who deserve them, but have been unable to acquire a sufficiency. 
It is said to be situated in the 'endless light' of heaven, and is the 
misvand g&tus ^z>adhat6, 'ever-benefiting place, the self-sus- 
tained,' of Vend. XIX, 122. Perhaps gan^, 'treasury,' may have 
been originally gun^, 'space,' which would better suit the idea of 
a 'self-sustained place' (see Dd. XXVI, 3, XXXI, 24, XXXVII, 
22, 24, XXXVIII, 3). The term 'treasurer,' applied to the female 
personifications of conscience who meet the soul with the stores of 
its good works and sins (see Sg. IV, 92-96), seems to have no 
connection with this treasury of other people's good works. 

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328 SAD DAR. 

from another by force, among the spirits they seize 
back four things 1 as compensation for every single 
one. 11. And if, on the spot where people capture 
him, he makes it convenient to return four things in 
compensation for one, when they have fully under- 
stood, as they capture that person who is committing 
highway-robbery, that he makes it convenient 2 , they 
may kill him at once. 

Chapter LXV. 

1. The sixty-fifth subject is this, that everyone is 
to practise thanksgiving continually, and it is requisite 
that he maintains it through good and bad ; and he 
is to keep in view* the benefits of H6rmazd. 2. Be- 
cause the creator* H6rmazd demands two things 
from mankind, the one is that one should not commit 
sin, and the other is that one should practise thanks- 
giving. 3. And how much soever more grateful 
mankind become, through virtue and worthiness as 
regards him, they 5 grant more abundant daily pro- 
vision for the grateful than that which is for other 
persons. 4. And as to every one who is not grateful 
to him, the bread that he eats becomes unlawful, 
and it is not proper for any one to do good in 
connection with him. 

1 Twice as much as in cases of theft without violence (see § 2). 

* So that they may not interfere with such benefit for his soul as 
he may obtain by atonement. These old priestly laws having 
much more consideration for the soul than for the body. 

* La has * to portray.' 

4 Lp omits these fourteen words. 8 The angels. 

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5. And it is declared in revelation that when an 
unthankful person dies, wherever they deposit his 
corpse, the archangel Spendarmaaf 1 is trembling like 
a sheep that sees a wolf. 6. And as to a bird that 
eats that corpse, on whatever tree it rests and settles, 
it makes that tree wither away, and the person who 
sits down in the shadow of the tree becomes ill. 

7. There are different things that it is necessary 
for those of the good religion to make predominant 
over themselves. 8. One is to exercise liberality in 
connection with the worthy; the second is to do 
justice ; the third is to be friendly unto every one ; 
and the fourth is to be sincere and true 2 , and to keep 
falsehood far from themselves. 9. And these four 
habits ('^ajlat) are the principles (ajl) of the religion 
of Zaraturt, and it is necessary, when thou listenest 
to them thyself, that thou dost not listen to any one 
else*. 10. Because the creator H6rmazd says, ' O 
Zaraturt! if thou wilt that thou become pure and 
saved, and that thou arrive at the place of the pure, 
do thou accomplish these two duties: — n. One is 
this, that thou prefer the friendship of the spiritual 
existence to that of the worldly one, and consider the 
things of the world as contemptible and those of 
the spirit precious ; on this account the glory of the 
world is sought 4 with scorn, and do not thou let the 
spirit escape. 12. The second is this, that thou 
speak truly with every one and act justly with me, 

1 See Chap. XXXIII, 2 n. Lp, B29 omit ' archangel.' 

* Lp omits these nine words. 

* Lp has ' that what thou listenest to thyself, thou listenest to as 
regards any one else.' B29 has ' that what thou dost not approve 

for thyself, thou dost not do to any one else ' (see § 12). 
4 Bi 9 has 'on this account the world is sought again.' 


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33° SAD DAR. 

that is, whatever thou dost not approve for thyself 
do not approve 1 for any one else; when thou hast 
acted in this manner thou art righteous.' 

Chapter LXVI. 

i. The sixty-sixth subject is this, that it is incum- 
bent on all women 2 to order the days (ay yam) of 
the Dvazdah-h6mast 3 , because the whole of any sin 
that may have arisen during menstruation, and at 
other times, becomes cleared away thereby. 

2. And in the commentary of the Vendldaafit says 
that every one becomes sanctified in the days of the 
Dvazdah-h6mast, and all sins become cleared away 
from her, like that which occurs at harvest time, 
when a great wind comes on and carries it off ; just 
like this the sin departs from her, and the person 
becomes clean and pure. 

3. And, for women*, there is no duty more indis- 
pensable than this ; for it is declared in revelation 
that, when they celebrate a Dvazdah-h6mast, it is a 
good work of a hundred thousand Tanavars 5 , and if 

1 B29 has ' perform.' 

2 B29 has ' on the wives of every one,' and J15 has 'on every 

8 In the Gu.g'arati version (p. 310) of the long-metre Sad Dar 
Dastitr Jamaspji states, in a foot-note, that the Dvazdah-hdmast 
consists of a Yazwn ceremony every day for 144 days, in honour 
of twelve angels, so that each angel is reverenced for twelve suc- 
cessive days. He stated formerly (see Byt. II, 59 n) that this cele- 
bration was a Hdm&st, and that a Dvazdah-hdmdst was a similar 
celebration for 264 days in honour of twenty-two angels for twelve 
days each. It appears, however, from Chap. XLI, 7, 20, that the 
number of ceremonies may vary with the wealth of the individual. 

4 Lp omits these thirteen words. ' See Sis. XVI, 6. 

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it be the days of the Dvazdah-hdmast it is a good 
work of a thousand thousand Tanavars, and when 
they celebrate it by day it is a good work just 
like this. 

Chapter LXVI I. 

1. The sixty-seventh subject is this, that it is 
necessary for women to practise great abstinence 
from committing adultery. 2. For it is declared in 
revelation, as to every woman who has lain with a 
strange man, thus : ' What is it necessary to call her, 
and why is the explanation 1 that she is of one nature 
with all wizards and sinners ?' 

3. And in the commentary of the Vendldaaf 2 it 
says ' " every woman who consorts with two strange 
men is the first down upon me, who am Hdrmazd. 
4. For if she takes a look into a river of water it 
will make it diminish, if she takes a look 8 at a tree 
or shrub the fruit of the trees becomes scanty, and if 
she speaks a word with a righteous man it will make 
the glory 4 of the man diminish." 5. Zaraturt enquired 
of H6rmazd, " What occurs on 5 her account ?" 6. 
The creator Hdrmazd spoke thus : " It is necessary 
to kill her sooner than a biting serpent and similar 
creatures and wild beasts, because she is more 
harmful to my creatures." ' 

7. Therefore, since she is like this, it is necessary 
for women to keep themselves with great effort, so 
that they may not become unlawful unto their own 

1 B29 has ' and it is by reason of that fault.' 
8 What follows is a free paraphrase of Vend. XVIII, 123-132. 
* Lp omits these four words. 4 Lp, B29 add ' and purity.' 

8 Lp, B29 have ' what is necessary.' • 

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332 SAD DAR. 

husbands. 8. For, every time that one of them gives 
herself four times to another person, she is, after 
that, unlawful as long as 1 she may be in the house 
of her husband 2 , and new sin is increasing in connec- 
tion with her soul 3 . 

Chapter LXVIII. 

i. The sixty-eighth subject is this, that for a men- 
struous woman who casts an eye upon a fire it is a 
sin of twelve dirhams in weight 4 ; and if she goes 
within three steps of the fire it is a sin of a thousand 
and two hundred dirhams 6 in weight for her; and 
when she puts her hand to the fire it is a sin of fifteen 
Tanavars for her. 

2. In like manner, if she takes a look at running 
water it is a sin of twelve dirhams in weight for her 6 ; 
if she goes within fifteen steps of running water it is 
a sin of fifteen dirhams in weight for her ; and when 
she sits down in running water it is a sin of fifteen 
Tanavars for her. 3. And when she walks in the 
rain, through every drop that drops upon her limbs 
there arises a sin of one Tanavar for her. 

4. If she comes to a Khursh^ Nyayis 7 , to observe 
it, it is not proper for her to speak a word with a 

1 B29 has ' unlawful when.' 

* This seems to be the author's interpretation of the following 
commentary (Pahl. Vend. XVIII, 124a) : — ' And it is no matter to 
her ; for, when cohabitation is three times conceded by her, she is 
worthy of death. G6gojasp said that this is an adulteress who is 
kept within bounds.' 

* B29 has 'increasing as to water and fire.' 

4 About 756 grains, possibly four Farmin sins (see Sis. XI, a). 
B A Tanavar or Tanapuhar sin (see Sis. I, 2). 

* B29 omits this clause. 7 Or salutation of the sun. 

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righteous man 1 . 5. It is not proper for her to put 
a bare foot on the ground. 6. It is not proper for 
her to eat any food with a bare hand ; it is not proper 
for her to eat bread when satisfied 2 . 7. It is not 
proper for two menstruous women to eat together ; 
it is not proper for them to sleep so 3 . 

8. And so long as three days have not elapsed it is 
not proper to wash the hands*, and three days after 
that, if she has perceived herself clean, it is requisite to 
remain another day, and so until the lapse of nine 
days, when, if she has perceived herself clean, it is not 
necessary to remain to the end of 5 another interval 
<ytime. 9. If menstruation occurs for twenty-nine 
days, it is necessary 6 to consider that she is men- 
struous a second time, and during three other days 
it is not proper to wash again, and it is neces- 
sary to exercise care, just like that which 7 I first 
wrote about. 

10. If she be doubtful whether menstruation is 
come to her, it is requisite for her to strip off. her 
dress, and then to take notice if she has become 
menstruous, or if the dress that is stripped off be 
clean. 11. If she has an infant to feed with her milk, 

1 § 4 in B29 is as follows: — 'It is not proper for her to take a 
look at the sun, or at a righteous man.' 

a La, B29 have s£r, but Lp has *tr, 'milk,' which is also the 
reading taken by the Gu^arati translator who must have under- 
stood the clause as follows : — ' It is not proper for her so to eat 
bread and milk.' 

* B29 adds ' and it is not desirable for their limbs to touch 
each other.' 

4 B29 has ?head.' 

* B29 has ' it is requisite to remain for.' 

* La omits these ten words, as well as ' a second time ' further on. 
7 B29 has merely ' the care which.' 

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334 SAD DAR - 

one puts away the dress from the infant, and gives it 
to the mother till it has fed on the milk, and then it 
is proper to give it to other persons. 12. It is pure, 
but when the mother washes her head she also 
washes 1 the head of the infant. 

13. And it is necessary for a menstruous woman 
that she should not pass by the end of 2 anything 
ceremonially washed, for, if it be a thousand cubits 
(gaz) in length, she makes the whole of it polluted, 
and it becomes unclean. 14. With any one who 
holds a sacred-twig stand 8 she should not speak a 
word ; and if a priest holds the sacred twigs in his 
hand, and a menstruous woman speaks some (ba'h %€) 
words * from afar, or he walks within three steps of a 
menstruous woman, she makes it 6 unclean. 

Chapter LXIX. 

1. The sixty-ninth subject is this, that it is not 
proper that sunshine should fall on a fire, for, every 
time that sunshine falls upon a fire 8 , it is a 7 sin. 2. 
If thou expose a fire to the sun it is a sin of three 

1 Lp, B29 have ' it is also requisite to wash.' 

* B29 has ' pass a look over.' 

3 This consists of two metal tripods with crescent-shaped tops, to 
support the small faggot of sacred twigs or wires that are bound 
together by a girdle of narrow strips of a date-palm leaflet; the 
girdle being tied on the faggot in the same manner as that on the 
waist of a Parsi (see Sis. Ill, 32 n). The sacred twigs must always 
be present at ceremonies, sometimes held in the hand of the 
officiating priest, and sometimes lying on their stand. 

* B29 has 'and ii she speaks words with him.' 

5 B29 has 'it becomes.' * B29 omits these eight words. 

' B29 has 'much.' 

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stirs 1 ; and, if thou set down anything on the top of 
the fire, it is necessary that it should not have any 
hole — so that the light (nur) and strength of the fire 
might become less — so far as thou knowest. 

Chapter LXX. 

1. The seventieth subject is this, that, as to any 
persons, when they carry a corpse to the appointed 
place, it is necessary that two suits of clothes be put 
on, on account of this work. 2. It is requisite for 
those clothes to be on 2 , and it is necessary 3 to make 
a dog gaze at the corpse twice, once at the time when 
life becomes separated from it, and once at the time 
when they wish to take it up. 

3. Then it is necessary that both those persons be 
connected, and each of them is to tie a cord on one of 
his own hands, so that the hand may go away * from 
that ofxSxt other one. 4. And, when they are moving, 
it is necessary for him to be prepared and not to speak 
a word with any one. 5. And if it be a pregnant 
woman they are to take her up by four persons, 
because there are two corpses 6 . 

6. When, avoiding dead matter, one comes again 
upon it, he has, in the end, to wash 6 with ceremonial 
ablution 7 , and that is requisite for the reason that he 

1 The same as the twelve dirhams in Chap. LXVIII, 1, 2. 

* Lp, B29 have ' to dress in those clothes.' 

* B29 omits ' it is necessary.' 

4 That is, the cord must hang quite slack, though B29 states 
that ' the hand may not go apart' 
8 See Sis. X, 10. 

* B29 has ' he has to wash his head and body.' 
7 Lp, B29 add 'and water.' 

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336 SAD DAR. 

may not thereby be rapidly a cause of wickedness or 
death for any one 1 . 

7. And if one does not show a dog to the corpse, 
and they take it up, how many soever there be, the 
whole of them become polluted 2 . 8. In the com- 
mentary of the Vendldaaf it is asserted, that every 
one who takes up a corpse that a dog has not seen is 
polluted and worthy of death 3 , and never becomes 
clean; his soul also would be wicked. 

Chapter LXXI. 

1. The seventy-first subject is this, that, forasmuch 
as it is not desirable for any one to eat dead matter 
for the sake of medicine and remedy, let them beware 
(zinhir) when they eat it*. 

2. For it asserts, in the commentary of the Ven- 
didaa? 6 , that it is requisite to demolish the habitation, 
house, and abode of any one who has * eaten dead 
matter, and to fetch his heart out of his body, and it 
is necessary to scoop out his eyes. 3. And along 
with these torments, which they accomplish on him, 
his soul is in hell till the resurrection. 

Chapter LXXI I. 
1. The seventy-second subject is this, that when 
any one carries dead matter to water, or to fire, he is 

1 Lp, B29 omit ' for any one.' 

* B29 has merely 'and if, to make a dog gaze at the corpse, they 
take it up, it is on how many soever there be.' 

* Compare Sis. II, 65. 

4 B29 has ' beware that they do not eat it.' 

8 Perhaps alluding to Pahl. Vend. VII, 59-64. 

6 B29 has ' to demolish his house and abode if any one has.' 

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worthy of death 1 . 2. And 2 it asserts in revelation, 
that any year when the locust comes profusely 8 , it 
comes for the reason that dead matter is brought to 
water and fire. 3. And, in like manner, the winter 
is colder, and the summer is hotter. 

Chapter LXXIII. 

1. The seventy-third subject is this, that, when 
a cow or a goat has eaten dead matter 4 , in any place, 
nothing whatever of its flesh, or milk, or hair, should 
come into use for one year. 2. After that one year 
it is clean : and, if it be pregnant, its young one is 
likewise not clean for one year. 

3. And if a domestic fowl has eaten dead matter, 
its flesh and eggs are, in like manner, not clean for 
one year. 

Chapter LXX IV. 

1. The seventy-fourth subject is this, that at dawn, 
when they rise up from sleep, it is first necessary to 
throw something 6 on the hands, that is the hand- 

1 See Pahl. Vend. VII, 65-71. * Lp, B29 have 'for.' 

* La has sal, and B29 san for 'year; ' Lp has ' that when the 
b§x and locust come profusely.' The b&s may be either a poison- 
ous plant (Napellus JHqysis), or ' distress.' 

4 See Pahl. Vend. VII, 189-192, Sis. II, 109. 

5 According to the long-metre Sad Dar this 'something' (as 
in Chap. L) is Nlrang, the ritualistic liquid or consecrated bull's 
urine (see Chap. XXXVI, 7 n). This chapter is, to some extent, 
a repetition of Chap. L. 

04] Z 

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338 SAD DAR. 

cleansing 1 . 2. Afterwards, they are to wash the 
hands quite clean with water, in such manner that 
they are to wash the hands three times from the 
forearm (sa'hid) to the end of the hand; and the 
face is washed from behind the ears to below the 
chin and up to the crown of the head ; and one 
washes the feet three times thoroughly, as far as the 
leg (saq); then one recites the K«n-na-mazda 2 . 

3. If it be a place where there is no water, and the 
risk be that the time for the Nyayif 3 should pass by, 
it is requisite to cleanse 4 the hands three times with 
dust, and to perform the Nyayw. 4. Afterwards, 
when one arrives at water, he is to wash the 
hands and face a second time, and to accomplish 
the Nyayw 8 . 

5. Before the time when one throws something on 
the hands it is not proper to wash the hands and 
face, and it is a Tanavar sin ; it is also not possible 
to work at anything whatever with the hands and 
face not washed. 

Chapter LXXV. 

1. The seventy-fifth subject is this, that, when 
they wish to provide a supply of water for any 
cultivated land, it is first necessary that they make 

1 Lp adds ' or some grass upon which no water has come, or 
fruit, is also to go into the nose and eyes, and make them clean ' 
(see Chap. L, 2). 

* See Chap. XXXV, 2 n. 

* The salutation of the sun (see Chap. VI, 2). 

* B29 inserts ' the face and.' * B29 omits § 4. 

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an inspection through every course and channel 1 of 
the water, to ascertain whether there be dead matter 
therein, or not ; and, after that, through the water in 
like manner. 2. If they be in the middle of it, when 
the water is within their cultivated land, and dead 
matter comes in sight, if it be possible to ward it off 
one wards it off, and if it be possible to divert the 
water one diverts it. 3. And if the water. arrives 
with dead matter unawares, it is no sin for them. 
4. But if no inspection of the stream and cultivated 
land be made, and the water arrives with dead 
matter, those people are polluted, and it is necessary 
to perform the Bareshnum ceremony % as regards their 

Chapter LXXVI. 
1. The seventy-sixth subject is this, when a 
woman brings forth, it is necessary that she should 
not wash her head for twenty-one days, nor put her 
hand again on anything, nor walk on a terrace-roof, 
nor put her foot on a threshold in her habitation. 
2. And after the twenty-one days, if she sees herself 
in such a state that she is able to wash her head, 
she washes her head. 3. And, after that, until the 
coming on of the fortieth day, it is requisite to 
abstain from the vicinity of a fire and anything 
that is wooden 3 or earthen ; it is also requisite to 
abstain from everything of her cooking and pot- 
boiling 4 . 4. Afterwards, when it is forty days, she is 

1 B29 has ' when any one wishes to enter into participation of a 
cultivated field, it is first necessary to observe in every course.' 
4 See Chap. XXXVI, 1 n. 
8 La 'Ans, B29 £6Mn; Lp has 'Ahiis, 'food.' 
4 £29 omits these thirteen words. 

Z 2 

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340 SAD DAR. 

to wash her head, and it is proper for her to do 
every kind of work. 

5. Till the lapse of a second 1 forty days it is not 
proper for her husband to make an approach to her, 
for it is a great sin, and it is possible that she may 
become pregnant a second time, as within a period of 
forty days women become very quickly pregnant 2 . 

6. And if after the first forty days she sees herself 
impure, unless she knows with accuracy that it has 
come from the infant, it is necessary to consider if 
she be menstruous. 

Chapter LXXVII. 

1. The seventy-seventh subject is this, that, when 
a woman's infant is still-born, it is necessary to give 
her first something washed with ceremony and 
brought with fire-ashes 3 , so that it may make the 
heart within her pure. 2. After that, for three days, 
it is altogether improper to give her water, or any- 
thing in which there is water or salt. 3. And these 
three days are from period to period 4 , in such a 

1 Only B29 and the Gu^aiiti have 'a second.' 

* B29 omits these twelve words. 

* So in B29, which agrees with Vend. VII, 163, but La, Lp are 
defective. The ' something ' means consecrated bull's urine, as in 
Chap. LXXIV, 1 ; this, mingled with ashes, is prescribed as the 
first thing to be tasted by the woman. 

4 That is, from the given hour to the same hour on the third 
day, although, from what follows, it appears that, if the given hour 
were in the middle of any period of the day, the third day would 
expire at the beginning of the third similar period. Whether the 
three days are to be inclusive, or exclusive, of the day when the 
term begins, that is, whether the term is to be nearly 48 or 72 
hours, is not very clear. 

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manner that, if the duty of mid-day 1 prayer has 
occurred, they extend till the mid-day prayer itself, 
and she is to pass over one other hour and it is then 
proper to swallow water. 4. After that, till the lapse 
of forty days, she is to sit apart again, and, after- 
wards, to undergo the Bareshnum ceremony 2 . 

5. On the infant's becoming a four-months' child, 
whenever it is still-born it is a dead body*, for the 
reason that so long as it does not reach the fourth 
month life does not come to it 6. And if after three 
months this affair occurs, one is to exercise great 
caution (i'htiya/) and to insist strictly on this matter. 

7. For our religion has reiterated on this matter 
that, if one be polluted and do not keep himself pure, 
so long as he is living he never becomes clean from 
that pollution. 8. That, if he wash his head ten 
thousand times in ceremonial ablution, he certainly 
does not any way become pure from it 4 . 9. Because 
this pollution is not from without ; it is from within 
every bone and vein and tendon ; and water makes 
clean only anything that is on the skin. 10. Im- 
purity which is in the bones, except through the 
liquid consecrated by the religious formula 8 , does not 
otherwise become clean. 

Chapter LXXVI 1 1. 
1. The seventy-eighth subject is this, that in every 
habitation where any one departs, passing away from 

1 Literally ' former, early.' i See Chap. XXXVI, 1 n. 

8 And, therefore, to be treated with all the precautions necessary 
in dealing with a corpse to avoid the pollution alluded to in §§ 7- 
10. Hence the necessity of careful enquiry in doubtful cases, as 
recommended in § 6. 

4 B29 omits § 8. » See Chap. XXXVI, 7 n. 

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342 SAD DAR. 

the world, it is necessary to endeavour that they 
may not eat and not consecrate fresh meat /or three 
days therein 1 . 2. Because the danger is that some 
one else may depart, passing away; so the rela- 
tions of that former person should not eat meat for 
three days. 

Chapter LXXIX. 

1. The seventy-ninth subject is this, that it is 
necessary to make an effort that they may exercise 
munificence and liberality towards the good and the 
worthy. 2. For the exercise of liberality is grand, 
in such manner as it is better and pleasanter, in like 
manner, for the ground on which a liberal man 
walks, better for the wind that blows upon a liberal 
man, better for the horse on which a liberal man sits, 
better, in like manner, for the cow and goat that 2 a 
liberal man eats, and 3 pleasanter for the sun and 
moon and stars that shine upon a liberal man. 

3. To such an extent is a liberal and munificent 
man precious ('hazlz), that Hdrmazd speaks 4 thus: 
' I have wished that I might give a recompense to 
a munificent man, if it be suitable for him, but I 
have not found any recompense and happiness that 
are suitable for him, except a blessing.' 4. And 
virtuous men and the united archangels are per- 
petually uttering blessings on account of the liberal 
man who maintains no refusal of his own things 
to a stranger. 

1 See Sis. XVII, 1, 2. 

* B29 has 'whose milk/ and Lp further adds 'and butter.' 

J B29 inserts ' better and.' * Lp, B29 have ' asserts.' 

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5. For it is declared in revelation, that the creator 
H6rmazd spoke to Zaratust, the Spitaman, thus : 
' I have created the supreme heaven of heavens for 
the sake of any of the liberal who provide for the 
worthy and give them something ; and gloomy hell 
is for all those persons who give anything to the 

6. In like manner it is declared in revelation, that 
there are thirty-three ways to heaven, besides that of 
the souls of the liberal. 7. If the soul be of any one 
else, it is not able to arrive in heaven 1 by that way. 
8. Besides this happy 2 way, a soul of the liberal is 
able to arrive in heaven by means of the thirty-three 
ways. 9. For no one is it easier to arrive in heaven 
than for the liberal. 

Chapter LXXX. 

1. The eightieth subject is this, that there is a 
time when thou recitest one Ashem-vohu 3 , and the 
merit of it may be as much as that often. 2. There 
is a time when thou recitest one Ashem-vohu, and 
the merit of it may be as much as that of a hundred. 

3. A time may be when thou recitest one 4 , and the 
merit of it may be as much as that of a thousand. 

4. A time may be when the merit of one Ashem- 
vohu 5 may be as much as that of ten thousand. 5. 

1 B29 omits ' in heaven.' a B29 has 'besides by the one.' 

8 See Chap. VII, 1 n. The contents of this chapter are derived 
from Hn. I, 11-35 (Yt. XXI, 6-15). 

* B29 adds ' Ashem-vohu.' 

6 La omits ' the merit of; ' and B29 has ' when thou recitest one 
Ashem-vohu, and the merit of it,' both here and in § 5. 

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344 SAD DAR - 

A time may be when the merit of one Ashem-vohu 
is as much as the value (qimat) 1 of this world and 
that other world 2 . 

6. As for that Ashem-vohu whose nature 8 is as 
much as ten, that is when they recite it as they eat 
bread. 7. That which is, from nature, as much as 
a hundred is when they recite it after eating *. 8. 
That which is so much by nature that, having turned 
side over side, they recite it correctly may be a merit 
of a thousand 6 . 9. That which is of the nature of 
ten thousand is that which thou recitest when thou 
risest up from sleep*. 10. And that whose nature 
is as much as this world and that other world 7 is 
when they recite it at the time of the dissolution of 
life ; for, if he be not able to recite it himself, friends 
and relations give it into his mouth. 1 1 8 . If he be 
fit for hell he becomes fit for the ever-stationary, if 
he be fit for the ever-stationary he becomes fit for 
heaven, and if he be fit for heaven he becomes fit 
for the supreme heaven 9 . 

Chapter LXXXI. 

1. The eighty-first subject is this, that every duty 
and good work, which it is requisite to perform, they 
should accomplish while within that day, and not 
postpone for the morrow. 

1 So Lp, B29, Hn., but La has qismat, 'share, destiny.' 

2 B29 omits these four words. 

8 B29 has 'value,' both here and in §§ 7, 9, 10. 
* La has ' sleeping.' 

6 B29 omits § 8. « La omits § 9. 

7 B29 has merely ' is the price of this world.' 

8 Lp, B29 insert ' for.' » See Pahl. Hn. I, 35 a. 

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2. For it is declared in revelation, that the creator 
Hdrmazd spoke to Zaratust thus : ' O Zaraturt ! I 
have created no one better than thee in the world, 
and after thee I shall likewise not create one; thou 
art my chosen one, and I have made this world 
apparent on account of thee. 3. And all 1 these 
people ('^alatq) whom I have created, and the whole 
of these monarchs who have existed and do exist, 
have always maintained the hope that I should 
create thee in their days, so that they should accept 
(qabulkunand) the religion, and their souls should 
attain to the supreme heaven. 

4. ' Nevertheless I have created thee at the present 
time, in the middle period ; for it is three thousand 
years from the days of Gaydmard till now, and from 
now till the resurrection are the three thousand years 
that remain ; therefore, I have created thee in the 
middle. 5. For whatever is in the middle is more 
precious and better and more valuable, in the same 
manner as the heart is in the middle of the whole 
body and is unquestionably (la-^arm) very precious 2 , 
in the same manner as the land of iTran 8 is more 
valuable than other lands, for the reason that it is 
in the middle. 6. And the country of ZTran, which 
is in the fourth climate (iqlim)*, is better than other 
places, for the reason that it is in the middle. 7. 
Therefore, I have created thee in the middle, in the 
manner of what is precious, and I have given thee 
the apostleship, and have sent thee to a monarch, a 
friend of knowledge and a friend of religion. 

8. ' Afterwards, I have sent thee, with thus much 

1 B29 omits 'all.' * B29 omits these twenty-five words. 

8 The Gug-arati pronunciation of Mn. 
4 The middle one of the seven. 


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346 SAD DAR. 

preciousness, to the people ; and the knowledge of 
the good works that mankind perform 1 in life, and 
have not been able to bring to hand without trouble 
(mi'hnat), I have made clear and plain unto thee; 
and I have made thee aware of the whole of know- 
ledge. 9. I have taught it 2 to thee in the Avesta, 
in a language that no one in the world considers 
plain and easy ; and I have told thee its interpreta- 
tion (zand) in a language that is more current 
among mankind, and thou likewise hast more elo- 
quence (faj'h) therein. 

10. ' While thou hast all this greatness that I have 
given to thee, O Zaratust ! I enact a precept for 
thee, that " every good work which thou art able to 
do to-day do not postpone for to-morrow, and accom- 
plish with thine own hand the counsel of thine own 
soul." 11. Do not be proud (^arrah) on the 
score that it is still the time of youth, and it is quite 
possible to do it hereafter, while thou thinkest thus : 
"I will do it after this." 12. For there have been 
many people whose remaining life was one day, and 
they have been taken away in the presence of fifty 
years' work 3 .' 

1 3. Therefore, make an effort, so that thou mayest 
not postpone to-day's duty for to-morrow. 14. Be- 
cause Aharman, the evil wicked one, has intrusted 
two fiends with this matter, the name of one is 
Tardy (d6r) and the name of the other is Afterwards 
(pas). 15. Both these fiends are united, and they 

1 B29 has ' the knowledge that mankind practise.' 

* Lp, B29 have ' taught the whole of knowledge.' 

* It is quite uncertain whether Hdrmazd's exhortation ends here, 
or elsewhere. 

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make an effort and exertion 1 with man, so that his 
duty falls back behindhand 2 . 16. For, as to every 
duty and good work which comes forward, that fiend 
whose name is Tardy speaks thus : ' Thou wilt live 
long, and it is possible to perform this duty at all 
times;' and that fiend whose name is Afterwards 
says : ' Pass on now ; it is possible to perform it 
afterwards.' 1 7. And these two fiends united keep 
the soul away from its own duty, till the end arrives ; 
all duties have fallen back behindhand, and it has to 
experience regret ('hasarat) and penitence. 18. It 
has no benefit through duty and good works, and 
departs from this world. 

Chapter LXXXII. 

1. The eighty-second subject is this, that, when 
thou risest up from the bed-clothes, it is necessary 
to tie the sacred thread-girdle again at that same 
place, and it is not desirable to put forth a step 
without the girdle. 

2. For it is declared in revelation, that every 
single step which one puts forth without the sacred 
thread-girdle is a Farman sin 4 , and through four 
steps it becomes a Tanavar sin which would be a 
weight of a thousand and two hundred dirhams 5 . 
3. Therefore, it is necessary to keep watch over one- 
self, as regards this sin, and to tie on the sacred 

1 Lp has ' conflict.' * B29 omits ' behindhand.' 

8 See Chaps. X, XLVI. * See Sis. I, 2, IV, 10, XI, 2. 

8 The dirham being probably about 63 grains (see Dd. LH, 1 n). 

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348 SAD DAR. 

Chapter LXXXIII. 

i. The eighty-third subject is this, that it is requi- 
site to abstain from the keeping of fasts. 2. For, 
in our religion, it is not proper that they should not 
eat every day or anything, because it would be a sin 
not to do so. 

3. With us the keeping of fast is this, that we 
keep fast from committing sin with our eyes and 
tongue and ears and hands and feet. 4. Some 
people are striving about it, so that they may not 
eat anything all day, and they practise abstinence 
from eating anything. 5. For us it is also neces- 
sary to make an effort, so that we may not think, or 
speak, or commit any sin ; and it is necessary that 
no bad action should proceed from our hands, or 
tongue, or ears, or feet, which would be a sin owing 
to them. 

6. Since I have spoken in this manner, and have 
brought forward the fasting of the seven members 
of the body, that which, in other religions, is fasting 
owing to not eating is, in our religion, fasting owing 
to not committing sin. 

Chapter LXXXIV. 
1. The eighty-fourth subject is this, when they 
wish to sleep, it is requisite to utter one Yatha-ahu- 
vairy6 undone Ashem-vohu 1 , and to accomplish 
repentance one is to speak thus : ' I atri sorrowing 
for, and repentant and in renunciation of all that 
sin which I have spoken and was imagined by 

1 See Chap. VII, 1 n. 

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me, and has assailed me ; of these actions I am in 
renunciation 1 .' 

2. Afterwards one is to lie down ; and every time 
that one acts in the manner that I have mentioned, 
and wears the sacred thread-girdle on the waist — 
while he is equally sharing the whole of the good 
works which they are performing in all the world 
during that night, and he is of similar merit 8 — every 
single breath that he inhales and exhales is a good 
work of a weight of three dirhams. 3. And when 
he turns from side to side he should, in like manner, 
recite one Ashem-vohu 3 . 

Chapter LXXXV. 

1. The eighty-fifth subject is this, that, in every 
matter that comes forward, it is necessary to enquire 
of the wise and relations, so as to have their advice, 
and not to transact any business according to one's 
own idea and opinion. 

2. For it is declared in revelation, that the sacred 
being, the good and propitious, spoke to Zaratust 
thus: 'As to every business that thou wishest to 
transact, do thou receive wisdom and knowledge 
at one place with the wise who reply, and cast away 
what is unconsidered, so that Aharman may not 
reach it midway, and injury ('/4alal) may not occur 
to that business.' 

1 This is the general form of a Patit or renunciation of sin. 
* B29 omits these six words. 

8 See Chap. LXXX, 8. This chapter nearly corresponds to 
Sis. X, 24. 

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350 SAD DAR. 

3. In like manner the archangel Spendarma*/ 1 , at 
the time when her gaze passed on to Min6£ihar 2 , 
issued to him this admonition and precept (vajiyat), 
and said : ' O Mind&har! although there be delibera- 
tion in an affair, this may be no reason for it as 
regards the spirits 8 ; although a horse may be good, 
there may be no resource except a whip for it ; and 
although one may be a wise man, there should be no 
retreat on his part from having advice, so that his 
business may become complete.' 

Chapter LXXXVI. 
1. The eighty-sixth subject is this, that it is not 
proper to kill a beaver 4 ; but, if they see it in any 
place, it is necessary to take it up and carry it to 
running water. 2. For, in the commentary of the 
Vendtdaaf it is ranked 6 as a great sin for the killer*; 
and, as to every one who kills a beaver, the source 
of his seed becomes exhausted. 

Chapter LXXXVII. 
1. The eighty-seventh subject is this, that, when 

1 See Chap. XXXIII, 2 n. 

8 Pahl. Man<M#har (see Mkh. XXVII, 41 n). It appears from 
Sis. X, 28, where a portion of this tale is quoted, that it comes 
originally from the Kldx&st Nask. 

8 B29 has ' although a knife be sharp, there may be no resource 
except a whetstone for it,' which follows the next clause in Sis. X, 
28. In the original text this change of meaning is produced by a 
difference in only four words, and the author of the Sad Dar has 
probably misunderstood the Pahlavi original when translating it. 

4 Literally 'a water dog.' 6 B29 has 'decreed.' 

6 As shown by the excessive atonements prescribed in Vend. XIV, 
in default of which he is said to go to hell till the resurrection. 

Digitized by 



any one departs from the world 1 , it is necessary to 
make an effort, in those three days, so that they may 
continuously perform the ceremonial of Sr6sh 2 and 
make the fire blaze, and may recite the Avesta ; be- 
cause the soul is three days in this world*. 

2. The fourth night it is requisite to consecrate 
three sacred cakes ; one with a dedication to Rashn 4 
and Ast&d 6 , one with a dedication to the spirit Ram 6 , 
and one with a dedication to the righteous guardian 
spirit ; and one is to consecrate a dress and something 
as a righteous gift for that soul 7 . 

3. It is necessary that the dress be new and of 
uniform quality (g'ins), and such as turban, shirt, 
vest, girdle, trowsers, shoes (pas and il) 8 , and mouth- 
veil. 4. Since they give those among the spirits a 
counterpart of those garments, therefore, whatever 
is more beautiful, and more surpassing in grandeur 
for the soul in that place, is necessary where that 
place is, because our fathers and mothers and the 
whole of our relations are in that place. 5. And 
since the souls recognise and ask after one another 
in that world, they are, therefore, more joyful on 
account of every one whose dress 9 and grandeur 
are more surpassing. 6. In a similar manner, when 
the dress is old and ragged, they are ashamed, and 
exhibit heaviness of heart 

1 La omits ' from the world.' 

2 See Mkh. II, 1 1 5 n, Sis. XVII, 3. » See Mkh. II, 1 1 4, 1 58. 

* See Mkh. II, 118, 119, Sis. XVII, 4. 

5 Av. ar j ta</, ' uprightness ; ' the angel whose name is given to 
the twenty-sixth day of the Parsi month. 

• The angel of the upper air, often called Vae" the good. 

7 B29 has ' on that cake.' 

8 £29 has muzah, 'boots,' and places them last. 

9 B29 inserts 'is more beautiful.' 

Digitized by 


35 2 SAD DAR. 

7. They call that dress a righteous gift because 
. they consecrate it; and it is necessary to give it 
to the priests and high-priests, as it is a righteous 
gift on account of their position. 8. And it is 
suitable for them to keep it for the reason that 
the souls are nearer to them; people should also 
make an effort that the dress may be stitched like 
the dress of a priest. 

9. The sacred beings make up the account and 
reckoning for the soul when the priest recites fra- 
sasti ahurahe" mazdau 1 and removes the Frasast 2 
from this side to that side. 10. The soul passes 
over the K'vtwad bridge when, on the fourth night, 
it arrives from the world at the K'vsxvzd bridge, 
u. First it goes to the abode of fire (atas-gah) 3 ; 
afterwards, one step reaches to the star station, the 
second step reaches to the moon station, the third 
step to the sun station, and with the fourth step it 
reaches the K'mvad bridge 4 , and they convey it to 
its own place. 

1 'Glory be to Ahura-nwuda.' Lp adds 'ahunahd vairyShe" 
as far as ashaya n6 paiti-^amy&rf,' that is ' to the Ahuna-vairya 
formula,' &c. as far as ' may he come to us in righteousness ' (Yas. 
VIII, 1-3). 

* A Frasast is a sacred cake marked on the upper side with nine 
superficial cuts (in three rows of three each) made with a finger- 
nail while repeating the words humat hukht huvarrt, 'well- 
thought, well-spoken, well-done,' thrice, one word to each of the 
nine cuts. It is placed before the consecrating priest, but to his 
right, while the ordinary sacred cakes are to bis left (see Haug's 
Essays, pp. 396, 407, 408). 

8 That is, when it leaves the vicinity of the body, after hovering 
about it for three nights (see Sis. XII, 5). 

4 In other accounts the soul has to pass over this bridge before 
it steps forwards to the stars and moon and sun (see Mkh. II, 123, 
145, VII, 9-12, Dd. XXXIV, 3) AV. V, 2, VII-IX, 1). 

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Chapter LXXXVIII. 

1. The eighty-eighth subject is this, that, as to any 
piece of wood on which they carry a corpse, or on 
which they wash it, and that which may be defiled 
with blood and impurity, that on which menstruous 
defilement, or a bare limb, is deposited by a men- 
struous woman, and that on which they impale a 
human being, it is necessary to avoid the whole of 
these pieces of wood, and not to work with 1 them 
again, because one's dress becomes impure; and it 
is not proper to burn them. 2. It is necessary to 
put them in a place where any one, who pulls them 
up and stirs them, will not 2 bring them into the use 
of mankind. 

Chapter LXXXIX. 

1. The eighty-ninth subject is this, that 3 H6r- 
mazd keeps watch when any one, through imposition 
("hilat) and unawares, eats dead matter, or gives it 
to one of the good religion, or throws dead matter 
upon one of the good religion. 2. While his will 
and command are, that it is necessary that such a 
person should undergo the Bareshn&m ceremony*, and 
accomplish repentance 6 before the spiritual chiefs 
and high-priests. 3. So that, after that, one may 
indicate to him the sin in these actions, and he may 
'perform the retribution which the high-priest men- 
tions, in order that, owing to this, his sin may depart. 

1 La has ' to eat on,' Lp ' to buy with,' B29 ' to touch on.' 

2 B29 has 'any one will not take them up and not stir them 
about, so that he does not.' 

3 B29, J15 insert 'the religion of.' * See Chap. XXXVI, 1 n. 
6 See Chap. XLV, 7 n. 

[24] A a 

Digitized by 


354 SAD DAR - 

Chapter XC. 

i. The ninetieth subject is this, that it is not 
proper that they should give anything to a sinful 
person or one worthy of death, because 1 it is like 
that they have placed in the jaws of a destructive 
serpent (asdaha). 2. And, if this be food which 
he devours and they give, they pass into the com- 
mitting of sin ; and that person who may have given 
food to him is a participater with him. 3. In eating 
food, if there be no danger and fear of them 2 , it is not 
desirable to give anything to them, for it would be a 
great sin. 

Chapter XCI. 

1. The ninety-first subject is this, that is, in what 
mode is it necessary to wash everything that becomes 
polluted by dead matter ? 

2. Gold one is to wash over once with ceremonial 
ablution 3 to make it dry once with dust, and to wash 
it over once with water. 3. Silver (nuqrah) one is 
to do twice ; copper, tin, lead, and brass articles three 
times ; steel four times ; stone articles six times ; 
turquoise, ruby (yaqut), amber, carbuncle, cornelian 
('haqiq), and, like these, whatever is from a mine 
(ma'hdan) are all to be washed six times in the 
manner which I have stated. 4. Afterwards they 
are clean in that manner, when every single time one 
washes them over with ceremonial ablution, makes 

1 B29 omits these six words. 

* That is, if the sinners begging assistance be not dangerous. 

* That is, with consecrated bull's urine (see Sis. II, n 2-1 17). 

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them dry with dust, and washes it off 1 ; and just like 
this on the occasion of the other times — up to three 
times, or four, or six — as far as whatever is ordered. 
5. For pearls two modes 2 are ordered, but the 
conclusion is this, that they should wash them six 
times, just like stone articles. 6. The whole of 
wooden and earthen ware it is requisite to throw 
away. 7. All clothing of the body it is requisite to 
wash six times in the manner that I have stated, 
and, after that, to put them in a place where the sun 
and moon must shine on them for six months 3 ; 
after that they are fit for a menstruous woman. 

Chapter XCII. 

1. The ninety-second subject is this, that it is 
necessary to properly maintain the sacred fire* and 
some one who will -work with assiduity (kahdan) to 
provide 6 maintenance and sympathy for it. 2. And 
the supply of its firewood is entirely in such a manner 
that they burn this year the firewood of last year 6 . 
3. At midnight they make it blaze up, and put 
incense upon it in such a manner that the wind 
carries off its scent. 

4. The demons and fiends rush away, because 
there is the glory of the sacred fire that we are able 
to make a living existence in the midst of this 

1 Lp, B29 add 'with water.' 

2 Pahl. Vend. VII, 188 gives three opinions. 
s See Pahl. Vend. VII, 36. 

* Literally 'the fire of BahiraW Compare Chap. XXXIX. 

s Lp, B29, J15 have ' so that some one may keep watch over it, 
and is to provide proper.' 

6 So that it may be quite dry, as to put anything damp into a 
fire would be considered sinful (see AV. X, 6-14). 

A a 2 

Digitized by 


356 SAD DAR. 

people. 5. For, if no fiend 1 and the glory of the 
archangels and the day of the sacred fire had not 
existed, it would not have been possible to produce 
the living existence any day. 6. And, therefore, it 
makes it expedient that they supply a fire-attendant 
to maintain the firewood and fire, so that a seeking 
for its safety ('hafiyat) may come into operation, 
and they may know a support and protection for it 
that would be acceptable. 

Chapter XCIII. 

1. The ninety-third subject is this, that it is 
necessary for all those of the good religion to practise 
abstinence from uttering slander (£^albat) behind 
one's back 2 . 

2. In the commentary of the Vendida^ it states, 
that 3 slander is the greatest of all sins. 3. Every 
one who perpetrates slander about any one is like 
him who has eaten dead matter — and the eating of 
dead matter is a sin 4 that has likewise been men- 
tioned, before this, in this book 6 — but the statement 
is like this, while they do not indicate any punish- 
ment for it in this world 6 , it does not go without it 
in that other world. 4. Therefore it is necessary for 
those of the good religion to make an effort, so that 
they may guard themselves from this slander. 

5. In order that they may show thy soul, when 1 
resigning life, the satisfaction (i^za) for the sin, it 

1 That is, the absence of fiends. B29 has 'if the splendour.' 
3 Literally 'face.' * B29 inserts 'the perpetration of.' 

* B29, J15 have 'a great sin.' B See Chap. LXXI. 

' Thereby differing from the sin of eating dead matter. 
7 Lp, B29 have ' show at the time of.' 

Digitized by 



states, in the commentary of the Vendida^, as to any 
one by whom slander is perpetrated, if the injured 
person goes before him and begs a righteous gift 
from him, and he provides a righteous gift for that 
person, the sin departs from him. 

Chapter XCIV. 

1. The ninety-fourth subject is this, when a person 
confers a benefit or kindness upon any one, it is 
necessary that the latter should understand the value 
of it, and lay the obligation (minnat) upon himself; 
and, if he be able, he should provide a benefit to that 
amount (miqdar) for that person. 

2. It is declared in revelation, that, when a person 
confers a benefit upon any one, Hdrmazd 1 gives him 
ten times as much, as an equivalent. 3. And, if the 
other be not understanding 2 the justice of this, it is 
related in the commentary of the Avesta in this 
manner, that it is a great sin for him. 4. And 
Aharman 3 speaks like this, namely : ' That sinner is 
akin to me ; in the end he will come into my hands ; 
I will not give him into the hands of any demon, 
but I will inflict punishment with my own hands.' 
5. And the chief priest 4 says it is necessary for all 
Zaratuytians that they keep themselves far from 
this sin. 

Chapter XCV. 

1. The ninety-fifth subject is this, that it is 
necessary that it be expedient for all those of the 

1 Lp, B29 add ' the good and propitious.' 

s Lp, B29 have 'praising.' 8 Lp, B29 add ' the accursed.' 

4 Probably meaning the commentator. 

Digitized by 


358 SAD DAR. 

good religion to perform the salutation of the sun 1 
three times every day. 

2. If one performs it once, it is a good work of one 
Tanavar 2 ; if he performs it twice, it is twice as 
much ; and if he performs it three times, it is thrice 
as much. 3. And if he does not perform one 
repetition, it is a sin of thirty stirs 3 ; if he does not 
perform two repetitions, it is twice as much sin ; and 
if he does not perform three repetitions, it is thrice 
as much sin. 

4. And it is the same as this with regard to the 
salutations of the moon and fire*. 5. Therefore it 
is expedient, in the religion, for every one of the 
good religion to bring the salutations into practice. 

Chapter XCVI. 

1. The ninety-sixth subject is this, when any one 
departs to that other world it is not proper for 
others that they should utter an outcry, maintain 
grief, and make lamentation and weeping. 2. 
Because every tear that issues from the eyes be- 
comes one drop of that river 6 before the K'mvzd 

1 The KhursheVNyayu (see Chaps. VI, 2, LXVIII, 4). 

2 That is, sufficient to counterbalance a Tanavar or Tanapuhar 
sin (see Sis. I, 2). 

s Equivalent to an Areduf sin, or blow with a weapon (see Sis. 
I, 1, 2). 

4 The Mah and Atash NyayLr. B29 also interpolates 'the 
Mihir' Nyayif. 

• ' This river is the many tears that men shed from their eyes, as 
they make lamentation and weeping for the departed. They shed 
those tears unlawfully, and they swell to this river. Those who are 
not able to cross over are those for whom, after their departure, 

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bridge, and then the soul of that dead person re- 
mains at that place; it is difficult for it to make 
a passage there, and it is not able to pass over 
the Kinvdid bridge. 3. It is therefore necessary 
that they recite the Avesta and celebrate the cere- 
monial, so that the passage of that place may become 
easy for it. 

Chapter XCV 1 1. 

1. The ninety-seventh subject is this, that it is 
expedient for 1 those of the good religion, that they 
converse, according to their own ability, in the 
presence of officiating priests, high-priests, spiritual 
chiefs, and priests, and hearken cordially to whatever 
they say. 2. And they should understand their 
statements, and, during them, they should not utter 
any reply or question (sual). 

3. For in the commentary of the Avesta it says, 
as to every one who brings altercation ('hu^at) into 
any statement of the elders of the religion, ' one breaks 
out his tongue, or he goes out from this world abor- 
tively (muba//ala).' 

Chapter XCVIII. 

1. The ninety-eighth subject is this, that it is 
necessary for all those of the good religion, that 
they learn the Avesta characters in the presence of 

much lamentation and weeping were made ; and those who cross 
more easily are those for whom less was made ' (AV. XVI, 7-10). 
1 Lp, B29 insert ' all.' 

Digitized by 



priests and teachers, so as to read, and that no error 
may continue in the Nyayises and Yarts. 

2. And it is still more expedient for priests and 
teachers, that they teach the Avesta characters to all 
those of the good religion 1 ; and if a priest, while 
teaching, shows incompetence (taqjir), it is a great 
sin for him. 3. For H6rmazd, the good and pro- 
pitious, spoke to Zaratust thus : 'As to every priest 
and teacher who commits a blunder in teaching 2 
those of the good religion, I make him just as far 
from heaven as the width of the earth V 

Chapter XCIX. 

1. The ninety-ninth subject is this, that it is not 
proper for officiating priests, high-priests, spiritual 
chiefs, and priests, that they teach Pahlavi to every 

2. For Zaratust enquired of Hdrmazd thus : ' To 
whom is it proper to teach Pahlavi ?' 3. And Hdr- 
mazd, the good and propitious, gave a reply thus : 
' To every one who is of thy family (nasi), an offici- 
ating priest, a high-priest, a spiritual chief, and every 
one who is an intelligent priest. 4. 4 Besides these 
that I have mentioned, if one teaches it to others 6 
it is a great sin for him; and if he has performed 
many duties and good works, the end for him may 
still be hell.' 

1 B29 omits these seven words. 
* Lp, B29 insert 'the Avesta to.' 
» Compare Chap. XXVIII, 3. 
4 B29 inserts ' it is not proper for any other person.' 
8 Lp has ' if there be any one of the others, it is not proper that 
one teaches him.' 

Digitized by 


CHAPTER XCVIII, 2-C, 4- 36 1 

Chapter C. 

1. The hundredth subject is this, when a person 
molests or smites any one who is innocent, it is a sin 
of one Tanavar every day for that person, as long as 
he lives 1 . 2. And, when he departs from this world, 
the angel Mihir and the angel Rashn make up his 
account and reckoning. 3. He is 2 full of affliction, 
and experiences much regret and penitence, and has 
no advantage from it 3 . 4. It is therefore necessary 
to keep oneself far from this sin 4 . 

1 See Sis. X, 17. 

2 Lp, B29, J15 have ' afterwards, he remains in that place.' 
* B29, J15 add 'in that place.' 

4 B29, J15 add 'and to do good to every one.' In La this 
chapter was originally numbered XCIX, and Chap. XLIX was 
subsequently inserted after it, and numbered C. In Lp it was num- 
bered XCVIII, and occurs again as Chap. C, while Chap. XCIX 
is a repetition of XLIX (which is numbered LII in Lp). The 
discrepancy in the numbering of the chapters, of one in the 
case of La, and two in Lp, extends backwards as far as the 
confusion mentioned in p. 311, note 1, and was evidently due to 
that confusion. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Digitized by 



i. The references in this index are to the pages of the introduction, 
and to the chapters and sections of the translations ; the chapters being 
denoted by the larger ciphers. • 

a. Though different forms of the same name may occur in the trans- 
lation only one form is usually given in the index, to which the refer- 
ences to all forms are attached ; except when the forms differ so much 
as to require to be widely separated in the index. 

3. Abbreviations used are: — A v. for Avesta; com. for commentary 
or commentator; Dr. for Doctor; Guy. for Gug-arati; HaV. for 
HaVdkht ; Int. for Introduction ; m. for mountain ; Mkh. for Dina-t 
Main6g-! Khirarf; MSS. for manuscripts; n. for foot-note; P3r. for 
PSrst ; Per. for Persian ; PI. for Pahlavi ; Prof, for Professor ; Pz. for 
Pazand; rev. for revelation; scrip, for scripture; Sd. for Sad Dar; 
Sg. for Sikand-gfimSnfk \\gir ; Sk. for Sanskrit ; Test, for Testament ; 
Vd. for VendidaV. 

Digitized by 



Abali/, man, Int. 27. 

Abraham, Sg. 14, 40, 42, 45, 48, 49, 

52, 53; 15, 119. 
Adam, Sg. 11, 70, 352, 354 ; 13, 15, 

17, 18, 22,24,39,30,34,37,38, 
106, 118, 136, 137, 148. 

Adaraka, man, Int. 40. 

Adar-baW, priest, Int. 44 ; Sd. 0, 6. 

Adoption, Mkh. 86, 8; 37, 13 ; Sd. 

18, 11-19. 

Aeshm, demon, Mkh. 2, 115, 117; 

8, 14; 27, 35. 3«- 
Afrasiyab, king, Mkh. 8, 29 n ; Sd. 

9, 5. See FrSsiyik. 
Afringan, rite, Mkh. 18, 19 n ; Sd. 

13. 2.4, 5,7! 21,2,5; 37,i,3. 
Aghr6ra</, man, Mkh. 27, 44 n ; 44, 

35 n. 
Ahunavar, Mkh. 27, 70. 
Ahunem-vairim, Sd. 58, 4. 
Afiin-vg£6, land, Mkh. 44, 17, 18, 

24, 35 n; 62, 14, 15, 31, 37 n; 

Sd. 10, 7. 
AirU, prince, Mkh. 21, 25 ; 27, 42. 
Albura m., Mkh. 27, 33 n; 44, 16; 

49, 12, un, 20; 56, 7; 57, 13; 

62, 20 n. 
Alexander the Great, Mkh. 8, 29. 
Al-M3m<in, Int. 27. 
Amalshah, man, Int. 32. 
Ameroda*/, angel, Mkh. 2, 34; 16, 

56, 65 n ; 62, 42 n ; Sd. 21, 10, 

n; 41, 17. 
Amul, town, Mkh. 27, 44 n. 
AnahW, planet, Mkh. 82, 13 n. 
Andreas, Dr., Int. 18 ; Mkh. n. 
Anoshak-rflban, man, Int. 18. 
Anquetil Duperron, Int. 21, 22, 24, 

3°, 45. 
Antares, star, Mkh. 62, 13 n. 
Aral sea, Mkh. 44, 14 n, 15 n. 
Ardashir, man, Int. 44. 
Ardibahbt, angel, Sd. 11, 5. 
Ardvisfira, angel, Mkh. 36, 10 n. 
Aredur sin, Sd. 95, 3 n. 
Areztira, demon, Mkh. 27, 15 ; Sd. 

52, 1 n ; m., Mkh. 6, 2 n. 
Armenia, Mkh. 44, 1 3 n. 

Arum, land, Mkh. 27, 1 5 n ; Sg. 10, 

ArGmans, Mkh. 21, 25 ; Sg. 10, 72. 
Arzah, region, Mkh. 16, 10; 44, 12, 

13 n; 62, 25. 
As3, priest, Int. 33. 
Asadfn, priest, Int. 31, 33, 34. 
Ashem-vohu, Sd. 7, 1 ; 21, 1, 8-10; 

35, 1; 45, 9; 56, 4; 62, 9 ; 

80, 1-10 ; 84, 1, 3. 
Ash6-zujt, bird, Sd. 14, 3, 8. 
Asman, day, Int. 40. 
Asmodeus, demon, Mkh. 2, 115 n. 
Aspendiyar, priest, Int. 19. 
AjtaV, angel, Sd. 87, 2 ; day, Int. 42. 
Ast6-vidaV, demon, Mkh. 2, 115, 

. "7, 153- 
Ata/ Nyayij, Sd. 95, 4 n. 
Atheists confuted, Sg. 6, 1-34. 
Atur-fr6bag, dastQr, Int. 26, 27; Sg. 

1, 35 n; 4, 107; 5, 92 n; 9, 3 ; 
, 10, 53,55; 11,213. 
AtGr-paV-i Hemi^an, Int. 27 ; Sg. 1, 

35 n; 4, 107 n. 

i MSraspendSn, Sg. 10, 70. 

Atur-paViyavand, dastQr, Int. 26; Sg. 
„ 1,38; 4, 106; 9, 2; 10, 52. 
AtQr-patak&n, land, Mkh. 44, 17 n. 
Auharmaz*/, king, Sg. 10, 70 ; Sd. 

52, 1 n ; planet, Mkh. 49, 1 2 n. 
AOharmastf'-da</, man, Int. 35; Sg. 

1, 35- 

Aurvarf-aspa, king, Mkh. 27, 64 n. 
KiAn, month, Int. 18. 
Aiaush, demon, Sg. 4, 53. 
Avesta, Mkh. 1, 27 ; 16, 15 ; Sd. 14, 
3 ! 28, 1, 3, 4 ; 43, 4 ; 50, 5 ; 

81, 9 ! 87, 1 ; 96, 3 i 97, 3 ; 
98, 1, 2. 

Az-i Dahak, king, Mkh. 8, 27 n, 
29 n; 27, 34, 39; Sd. 52, 1 n. 
See Dahak. 

Azo, demon, Mkh. 8, 15. 

Bagh nask, Mkh. 32, 2 n. 
Bahman, angel, Sd. 14, 8; month, 

Int. 32, 34 ; priest, Int. 44. See 


Digitized by 




Bahtnanji, priest, Int. 34. 
Bahman Yajt, book, Int. 18. 
Bahram, day, Sd. 63, 3 ; priest, Int. 

Bareshnfim, rite, Sd. 86, 1-4, 7, 8 ; 

75, 4 ; 77, 4 ; 80, 2. 
Baresdm, see Sacred twigs. 
Bengal, Mkh. 44, 13 n. 
Bgvarasp, title, Mkh. 8, 29 ; 27, 34, 

35. 39- 
Bhr»'gu-ka^>t/6a, town, Int. 40. 
Buddhist, Sg. 6, 2 n. 
Bundahu, book, Int. 18, 29. 
Burial of corpses, Mkh. 6, 2 n, 9. 
Burnouf Collection, Int. 22, 34. 
Bushasp, fiend, Mkh. 18, 57 n. 

Canzaca, Mkh. 27, 44 n. 

Caspian sea, Mkh. 27, 20 n, 44 n ; 

44, i4n-i6 n. 
Ceremonial, Mkh. 1, 56; 4, 6 ; 21, 

35, 3*1 41; 31. 5; 52, 2, 5; 

62, 34, 36 ; Sd. 13, 2, 5 ; 19, 

1 ; 37, 1 ; 41, 7-20 ; 87, 1. 
Ceremonies, Mkh. 2, 64 ; 5, 9, 13 ; 

Sd. 47, 1, 3. 
Ch in Oriental words is printed K. 
China, Mkh. 44, 13 n. 
Christianity, Sg. 15, 4. 
Christians, Int. 25 ; Sg. 15, 1. 
Comets, Sg. 4, 47 n. 
Constantly-beneficial treasury, Sd. 


Dadar bin Dad-dukht, man, Mkh. 

2, iisn. 
Dahak, king, Mkh. 57, 25 ; 62, 2on ; 

Sd. 9, 5 ; 62, 5. See As. 
Dai, month, Int. 42. 
Damdai nask, Sd. 18, 3 n. 
Darab, priest, Int. 24, 42. 
Darabji, dastur, Int. 21. 
Darashah, man, Int. 23. 
Darmesteter, Prof. J., Mkh. 1, 7 n ; 

27, 50 n. 
Demi-demon, Mkh. 42, 5, 12-16. 
Demi-man, Mkh. 42, 5, 10-n. 
Demon-worship, Mkh. 2, 93, 131, 

172 ; 36, 19. 
Demon-worshippers, Mkh. 27, 20 n. 
Depository for the dead, Mkh. 6, 

2n; 27, 33 n. 
DSr, fiend, Sd. 81, 14, 16. 
Design in the creation, Sg. 5, 46-91. 
Dharpal, priest, Int. 32 n. 
Dhaval, priest, Int. 20, 24, 31, 33, 42. 

Dimavand m., Mkh. 27, 39 n, 44 n; 

62, 20. 
DTna-i Ma!n6g-t KhirzJ, age, Int. 

16, 17; described, Int. 15-17; 

MSS., Int. 18-24. 
Dmkan/, book, Int. 18, 26, 27 ; 

Mkh. 16, 15 n; Sg. 1, 21 n, 

35 n; 4, 107; 6, 92; 9, 1, 4; 

10, 53 n, 57; 12, 1. 
Dog's gaze, Sd. 70, 2, 7, 8. 
D%ak6, land, Mkh. 27, 44. 
Dughdh6va, woman, Sd. 40, 4. 
Dvazdah-hSmist, Sd. 66, 1-3. 

Eating chatteringly, Sd. 21, 4, 6. 

Eclipses, Sg. 4, 46 n. 

Edalji, priest, Int. 34. 

£ran, land, Sd. 81, 5, 6. See Iran. 

.Erin-shah, priest, Int. 37, 41, 44, 

45 ; Sd. 0, 6. 
.Eran-wy, land, see Atran-ve^S. 
Eve, woman, Sg. 13, 15, 22, 35-37, 

41, 106. 
Ever-stationary, Mkh. 7, 3, 7, 18, 

19; 12, 14. 

Farlmruz, priest, Int. 24. 
Farman sin, Sd. 82, 2. 
Farukh-zi^, priest, Int. 26, 27 ; Sg. 

4, 107 ; 9, 3 ; 10, 55. 
Fomalhaut, star, Mkh. 49, 12 n. 
Four-legged demons, Sg. 16, 15. 
Fradai/afsh, region, Mkh. 16, 10. 
Frasast, cake, Sd. 87, 9. 
Frastyak, king, Mkh. 8, 29 ; 27, 34, 

35, 44, 60 ; Sd. 52, 1 n. See 

Fravardin, month, Sd. 52, 1, 2. 
FrazwtS, demon, Mkh. 2, 115. 
FreVun, king, Mkh. 8, 27 ; 27, 38 ; 

57, 2 1 ; Sd. 62, 1 n ; priest, 

Int. 33. 
Free will, Sg. 15, 77-90. 
Future existence, Mkh. 2, 95, 193 ; 

27, 36, 53, 63 ! 37, n; 57,7, 

31; 62,7; 63, 6n; Sg. 16, 5°. 

Gabriel, angel, Sg. 16, 8, 9. 
Gadman-pir%, man, Int. 19. 
Gadug (brigand), Sg. 4, 10, 25, 29, 

37,47; 9, 17. 
Gah (place in heaven), Sd. 5, 7. 
Gandarep, demon, Mkh. 27, 50; 

Sd. 52, 1 n. 
Gangako, Mkh. 27, 44 n. 
Garden of paradise, Sg. 11, 62, 66, 

Digitized by 




75, 79, 353; 13, 16, 17, 19, » i» 

29, 37, iai, 130, 136, 141, 14a; 

14, 43, 47, 48- 
Gathas, Mkh. 2, 114 n, 159 n. 
Gavah, man, Scl. 62, 5. 
Gay&man/, man, Int. 25 ; Mkh. 27, 2, 

14 ; 57, 20 ; Sd. 62, in; 81, 4. 
Geiger, Dr., Mkh. 62, 13 n. 
GSti-kharW, rite, Sd. 5, 3, 4, 6, 7 n, 

8, 10, 11. 
Gilan, land, Mkh. 27, 44 n. 
G8g6jasp, com., Sd. 67, 8 n. 
Gokarn, tree, Mkh. 62, 28 n, 30 n, 

37 n. 
Gopaitfishah, chief, Mkh. 44, 35; 

Grades in heaven, Mkh. 2, 145, 146 ; 

7,9-"; 57, 13. 

— in hell, Mkh. 2, 182, 183; 7,20,21. 
Greeks, Sg. 10, 72 n. 

Griffon bird, Mkh. 62, 10, 37. 
Guardian spirits, Mkh. 16, 19 n ; 

27, 17 ; 40, 30; 49, 15, 22, 23 ; 

57,13; 62,23,29; Sg. 5, 87; 

8, 60 n; Sd. 6, 2; 37, 1, 9; 

87, 2. 
Guise, Dr. Samuel, Int. 21. 
Gujasp fire, Sd. 11, 4. 
Gujtasp, king, Mkh. 13, 14 n. See 

Kat-VirtSsp and Vutasp. 

— man, Int. 44. 

Cadangoi, Mkh. 2, 69 n ; 15, 20 n ; 

Sd. 22, 1-3. 
Caya, man, Int. 40. 

Hadesa namu, book, Int. 32 n. 
Hadhay6j, ox, Mkh. 2, 152 n. 
Ha/ffikht nask, Int. 17, 38; Sd. 22, 

3, 4 5 40, 4. 
Hama ash6, Sd. 10, 7. 
llama z6r, Sd. 10, 7. 
Hamiirapadam, priest, Int. 24. 
Hamun lake, Mkh. 27, 44 n. 
Hajrt6k-ring, stars, Mkh. 49, 15, 

19-21; Sg. 4, 29, 32, 33. 
Haug, Prof., Int. 15, 16, 35. 
HSmty priest, Int. 27 ; Sg. 1, 35 n ; 

4, 107 n. 

HindQs, Int. 19 ; Sg. 10, 44, 68 ; 

^ Sd. 52, 1 n. 
Hirlka, man, Int. 40. 
Holy Ghost, Sg. 15, 8, 18. 
Holy water, Mkh. 5, 13 ; 62, 34-36. 
H6m, Mkh. 2, 152 n; 57, 28; 62, 
7, 28 ; Sd. 24, a. 

Hdmast, Sd. 41, 7 n. 
Horn-juice, Sd. 24, 1, 2. 
Hormazd, day, Int. 34. 

— baa, Sd. 55, 1. 

— yajt, Sd. 43, 7. 

Hormazyar, priest, Int. 24, 32 n, 42. 
HorvadaV, angel, Mkh. 2, 34 ; 16, 56. 

See KhurdjW. 
Hdshang, king, Mkh. 27, 2, 19 ; Sd. 

52, 1 n. 
Hdshangji Jamaspji, dastfir, Int. 31, 

33, 34, 36 ; Mkh. 14, 1 n. 
Hukhshathrdtemai, Sd. 56, 4. 
Humatanam, Sd. 56, 4. 
Hush, elixir, Mkh. 2, 152 n. 
HfisheVar, apostle, Mkh. 2, 95 ; Sd. 

52, 1 n. 
HusheWar-mah, apostle, Mkh. 2, 95. 

Idols, Mkh. 2, 93, 95 ; 36, 11. 
Idol-temples, Mkh. 2, 95; 6, 7 ; 27, 

Inward prayer, Mkh. 2, 33 n ; Sd. 

7, 6, 7; 21, 2, 7, 11, 12; 50, 5. 
Iran, land, Mkh. 27, 44 ; 57, 16 ; 

Sg. 10, 74. See .Erin. 
Iranians, Mkh. 21, 25. 
Iran-shah, see £rSn-shah. 
Isaac, Int. 28 ; Sg. 14, 42, 48, 49. 
Isfendiyar, prince, Sg. 10, 67 n. 
Ispahan, town, Int. 26 ; Sg. 2, 2 n ; 

Sd. 62, 5. 
Israelites, Sg. 14, 19, 20, 30. 
Itha-a</-yazamaid£, Sd. 21, 1, 8. 

J in some words is printed G. 
Jam, see Yim. 
Jam^sp, dastflr, Int. 33. 
Jimispji Minochiharji, dastflr, Int. 

37, 42 ; Sd. 0, 6 n. 
Jamshe*/, king, Sd. 10, 3. See 


— dastflr, Int. 33, 34. 
Jerusalem, Mkh. 27, 67 ; Sg. 15, 5- 
Jews, Int. 25 ; Mkh. 27, 67 ; Sg. 

13, 14; 15, 5, 32, 44, 76, 117, 

130, 141, 142. 
Judaism, Sg. 15, 2. 
Jupiter, planet, Mkh. 49, 12 n ; Sg. 

4, 30, 33, 4i. 

Kabul, town, Mkh. 27, 44 n. 
Kai-Gttftasp, king, Sg. 10, 64, 65. 

— KaviU, king, Mkh, 27, 45. 

— KhfisrS, dastflr, Int. 35. 

Digitized by 




Ka!~Khusr6i, king, Mkh. 2, 95 ; 27, 
58, 59 ; 67, 7 ; Sd. 52, 1 n. 

— L8harasp, Mkh. 27, 64 ; Sd. 52, 

1 n. 

— Qubad, priest, Int. 24, 42. 

— Spend-daV, prince, Sg. 10, 67. 

— Us, king, Mkh. 2, 95 n ; 8, 27 ; 

27,54; 67,2i. 

— Vbtasp, king, Mkh. 27, 67 ; Sd. 

52, 1 n. See Vbtasp. 
Kaka, priest, Int. 31, 32, 34. 
Kamak, bird, Mkh. 27, 50. 
Kamdin, priest, Int. 32 n. 
Kangdez, land, Mkh. 27, 58, 62 ; 

62, 2,13; Sd. 10, 7 ; 62, 1 n. 
Kanhaksha, man, Int. 39, 40. 
Kansai sea, Mkh. 27, 44. 
KapGV, wolf, Mkh. 27, 50. 
Kar fish, Mkh. 62, 9, 30. 
Karjipt, bird, Mkh. 61, 9 n. 
Ka/mir, land, Sd. 10, 7. 
Kavulistan, Mkh. 62, 20 n. 
Kayans, Mkh. 27, 48 ; Sg. 10, 69. 
Kfm-na-mazda, Sd. 35, 2 ; 50, 5 ; 

Keresasp, hero, Mkh. 27, 49 n, 50 n, 

63 n. 
Khurasan, land, Int. 37. 
KhurdaV, angel, Sd. 21, 10, 11; 41, 

16; 52, 3; day, Sd. 52, 1, 2. 

See Horvada//. 
Khurda</-sal, Sd. 52, 1 n. 
Khflrshg^ Nyayb, Sd. 6, 2 ; 68, 4 ; 

95, 1 n. 
KhQrshedji Jamshedji,dastflr, Int. 33. 
Kh0sr6 (Parvez), Sd. 52, 1 n. 
KhQsrdi-shah, priest, Int. 19. 
Khvantras, region, Mkh. 27, 40 ; 44, 

13 n; 62, 31. 
Kirman, town, Int. 37. 
Kuni, demon, Sg. 16, 13, 16, 18, 19. 

Afangashah, man, Int. 32. 

A&test lake, Mkh. 2, 95 ; 27, 61. 

KUriut nask, Int. 17 ; Mkh. 21, 25 n. 

A3hara*> , bird, Mkh. 61, 9. 

A'inami ds, bird, Mkh. 61, 9 n ; 62, 
11, 40. 

ICmvaJ bridge, Mkh. 2, 115, 162; 
21, 19 n; 40, 31 ; 41, 12 ; 57, 
13; Sd. 1, 4; 6, 1, 6; 18, 6, 
15, 18; 31, 5; 36, 5, 6; 37, 
8 ; 42, 4 ; 45, 10 ; 54, 1 ; 58, 
5; 63, 11 ; 87, 10, 11; 96, 2. 

Lakhmidar, priest, Int. 32 n. 

Ldrisp, see Kat-Ldharisp. 
Lord, the, Sg. 18, 18, 29, 31, 35, 68, 
70, li, 75. 81-83, 85-87, 109 ; 

14,5.23i4°.45,47,49, 53,77,86- 
Lord's prayer, Sg. 15, 148, 149. 

Mah Nyayb, Sd. 6, a ; 95, 4 n. 
Mahmid, man, Int. 26 ; Sg. 2, 2. 
MahrkQjo. demon, Mkh. 27, 28 n. 
Mah-vindii/, man, Int. 19. 
MahySr, man, Int. 21. 
Maidhyd-zarm butter, Mkh. 2, 

152 n, 156. 
Mam6g, reading of, Int. 15, 16. 
Mainyo-i Khard, Int. 20-22 ; Mkh. 

Malik-shah, priest, Int. 37, 45 ; Sd. 

0, 6 n. 
Malk6s, Mkh. 27, 28 ; Sd. 9, 5. 
Manekshah, Int. 32 n. 
Man!, man, Sg. 16, 1, 2, 4. 
Mankhaeans, Int. 25, 28 ; Mkh. 

86, 16 n ; Sg. 10, 59 ; 16, 2. 
Manuscripts described, Av.-Per.- 

Gug., Int. 39-41 ; PI., Int. 18, 

19, 20, 28; Pl.-Pz., Int. $■> ; 

Pl.-Pz.-Sk., Int. 30; Pl.-Pz.- 

Sk.-Per., Int. 29; Pl.-Per., Int. 

29; Par.-Per., Int. 22, 23; Pz., 

Int. 35; Pz.-Gu,?., Int. 22, 35; 

Pz.-Sk., Int. 20-22, 31-35; 

Per. prose, Int. 41-45 ; Per. 

verse, Int. 23, 24. 
M£nfij4ihar, king, Mkh. 8, 29 n ; 

27, 41, 44 n; Sd. 52, in; 
85, 3. 

Maraspend, angel, Mkh. 2, 34 n ; 

priest, Sg. 10, 70 ; Sd. 0, 6. 
Man/an-farukh, man, Int. 25, 27, 28 ; 

Sg. 1, 35- 
Mard-shah, priest, Int. 37 n, 45 ; 

Sd. 0, 6 n. 
Mars, planet, Mkh. 49, 15 n ; Sg. 4, 

3°, 34- 
Marzuban, man, Int. 23. 
Mas'audi, Mkh. 36, 16 n. 
Mashya, man, Mkh. 27, 2 n ; Sd. 

52, 1 n. 
Mashy6J, woman, Sd. 52, 1 n. 
Mazendar, land, Mkh. 27, 20, 40. 
Mazendarans, Sg. 14, 29 ; 16, 14,' 

28, 29, 31, 32, 36. 
Medyomah, dastQr, Int. 37. 
Menstruous woman, Sd. 11, 1 ; 16, 

4; 41, 1-23; 66, 1 ; 68, 1-14; 

Digitized by 




Mercury, planet, Mkh. 49, 5 n ; Sg. 

4» 3°> 36. 42. 
Mesopotamia, Mkh. 44, 13 n. 
Messiah, Sg. 15, 18, 25, 36, 31, 74, 

76, 97, 108, 109. 
Mihir, angel, Sd. 1, 4 ; 18, 16 ; 100, 

3. See Mitrd. 
Mihir-dnuj, Sd. 25, 3-5. 
Mihrbanji, man, Int. 23. 
Mihrvan, man, Int. 21. 
Min6khirad, Int. 23; — abridged, 

Int. 24, 25. 
Mftokht, demon, Mkh. 19, 6 n. 
MitrS, angel, Mkh. 2, 118 ; 8, .15 ; 

12, 5 n ; 63, 4, 8 ; sun, Sg. 4, 

39. See Mihir. 
MitrS-aiyyar, man, Int. 26 ; Sg. 2, 2 ; 

9, 4 n. 
Mitr8-apln, man, Int. 18. 
Modes of acquiring knowledge, Sg. 

5, 10-45. 
Mordtmann, Dr. A.D., Int. 17. 
Moses, Sg. 13, 3 ; 15, 152, 154. 
Mourning for the dead, Mkh. 6, 13 ; 

Sd. 96, 1-3. 
Muhammadanism, Int. 16, 26 ; Mkh. 

], 18 n. 
Muhammadans, Int. 25. 
Mulia Behzad Rustam, Int. 37. 

— Rustam Isfendiyar, Int. 37. 
Mttller, Prof. M. J., Int. 29, 30. 

— Prof. Max, Int. 29. 
MuVpar, fiend, Sg. 4, 47 n, 48 n. 
MfltazaMk sect, Int. 26 ; Sg. 11,280. 

NSga-mamfola, district, Int. 21, 32. 
Naremahan, man, Int. 19. 
Narfman, title, Sd. 9, 5 ; 52, 1 n. 
Nasrurt, fiend, Sd. 35, 2 ; 36, 7. 
NausSri, town, Int. 32 n, 33. 
N§ry8sang, priest, Int. 19-22, 24, 

3i> 33) 35> 42 ; his Sk. int., Int. 

20, 22, 30, 33, 34, 39. 
Next-of-kin marriage, Mkh. 4, 4 ; 

36, 7 ; 37, 12. 
Niha^um nask, Sd. 18, 3 n ; 20, 1 n. 
Niztrtd, demon, Mkh. 2, 115. 
N6nabar, rite, Sd. 5, 1 n. 
Norris, Mr., Int. 29. 
Noxious creatures, Mkh. 5, 8 ; 6, 

10; 62, 35, 36; Sg. 3, 21; 4, 

17, 18, 21, 22, 55; 5, 79 ; Sd. 

43, i-io. 
Nyayijes, Mkh. 53, 8 n; Sd. 59, 1, 

2 5 74, 3, 4 ; 98, 1. 



Old Testament, Sg. 13, 1 n. 

Orion, Sg. 4, 29 n. 

Oxus river, Mkh. 27, 44 n. 

Padama, man, Int. 21, 39, 40. 
Pa*/ashkhvargar m., Mkh. 27, 44. 
Pahlavi, Sd. 99, i, 2. 
Pahlavi Farhang, Int. 15. 
Palhan, priest, Int. 21. 
Pandnamak-i Buzurg Mihir, book, 

Mkh. 13, 10 n. 
Parable of the gardener and his 

snares, Sg. 4, 63-80. 
Pars, district, Mkh. 62, 15 n; Sg. 

5, 18. 
Pas, fiend, Sd. 81, 14, 16. 
Paul, apostle, Sg. 15, 91. 
Pazag nask, Int. 17 ; Mkh. 16, 15 n. 
Pehtno, wolf, Mkh. 27, 50. 
Persian Gulf, Mkh. 44, 14 n. 
Pejandas plain, Mkh. 62, 20. 
Pe\f-da*/, title, Mkh. 27, 2, 19. 
Pgshy6tanti, priest, Sd. 62, 1 n. 
Poley, Mr., Int. 29. 
Pourushaspa, man, Sd. 40, 4. 
Pregnant woman, Sd. 16, 1 ; 17, 2 ; 

70, 5 ; 76, 5. 
Primitive faith, Mkh. 44, 33 ; Sg. 

• 6, 93- 
Piut-i Vutaspan, Mkh. 62, 20 n. 
Pfitik sea, Mkh. 44, 14, 15. 

Qavamu-d-dfn, priest, Int. 34, 42. 

Quotations from Av., Mkh. 1, 28-32. 

Gathas, Mkh. 2, 1 59 ; Sd. 14, 3. 

good religion, Sd. 8, 2 ; 32, 5. 

Ha</., Sd. 40, 4. 

New Test., Sg. 11, 209 n ; 14, 

39 n; 15, 6n, 8n, 44 n, 46 n, 
59 n, 61 n, 72 n, 92 n, 94 n, 
96 n, 98 n, 102 n, 104 n, 109 n, 
in n, 113 n, 118 n, 121 n, 124 n, 
128 n, 129 n, 132 n-134 n, 141 n, 
142 n, 144 n, 146 n, 149 n, 153 n. 

Old Test., Mkh. 7, 31 n ; Sg. 

11, 39 n, 64 n, 67 n, 71 n, 72 n, 
75 n, 83 n, 84 n ; 13, 7 n, 9 n, 
11 n, 13 n, 14 n, 17 n, 20 n, 
22 n, 24 n, 25 n, 28 n, 30 n, 
33 n, 34 n, 36 n, 37 n, 40 n, 
4in,45n, 47 n, 10m; 14,5 n, 
7 n, 12 n-17 n, 20 n, 33 n, 24 n, 
26 n, 29 n, 30 n, 33 n, 34 n. 

PI. HU, Sd. 22, 3. 

PI. scrip., Sd. 28, 4 ; 94, 3 ; 



Digitized by 




Quotations from PI. Vd., Sd. 12, 3 ; 
56, 2 ; 66, a ; 67, 3-6 ; 70, 8 ; 

71, 2 ; 86, 2 ; 98, 2, 5. 

Qur'Sn, Sg. 11, 5 n, 59 n, 

248 n, 271 n. 

rev., Mkh. 1, 46-50 ; 13, 9, 

io ; 21, 25, 26, 29; Sd. 1, 6; 
2, 3, 4 ; 3, 2, 3 ; 4, 3-1 1 ; 6, 
3,6; 9,5; 11,5,6; 13,3; 16, 
3 ; 18, 3 ; 20, 1 ; 21, 6 ; 25, 6, 
7 ; 27, 4 ; 28, 3 ; 29, 3 ; 31, 4 ; 

89, 3; 47, 2; 52, 2; 61, 4; 
62, 5 ; 64, 2 ; 65, 5 ; 66, 3 ; 

72, 2 ; 79, 5, 6 ; 81, 2-12 ; 82, 
2 ; 85, 2 ; 94, 2. 

Vd., Mkh. 44, 19-24 ; 57, 24- 

29; Sd. 14, 3. 
other sources, Mkh. 2, 49, 66- 

90, 95 ; 57, 30-32. 

Ram, angel, Sd. 87, 2. 
R&ma, priest, Int. 39, 40. 
Rimystr, priest, Int. 32 n. 
Rapithwin, rite, Sd. 6, 2. 
Rashnti, angel, Mkh. 2, 118, 119, 

163; 8, 15 n; 22, 6n; Sd. 1, 

4; 18, 16; 58, 5; 87, 2; 100, 2. 
Ravar, town, Int. 23. 
Regulus, star, Sg. 4, 29 n. 
Renovation of the universe, Mkh. 

21, 23, 26; 27, 17; 57, 6, 31; 

Sg. 1, 28; 4, 11. 
Renunciation of sin, Mkh. 52, 3, 16, 

17 ; 53, 8; Sd. 45, 1, 2, 5-11 ; 

84, 1. 
Resurrection, Mkh. 2, 95, 193 ; 21, 

ion; 27, 36, 53! 37, 11; 57, 

7, 31; 62, 28 n; 63, 6n; Sg. 

14. 39 5 15, 40-42; Sd. 1, 3; 

62, 4; 81,4. 
Rivayat, PL, Mkh. 27, 15 n. 
— Per., Mkh. 27, 33 n, son; Sd. 

52, 1 n. 
River of tears, Sd. 96, 2. 
Romer, Mr. J., Int. 29, 39, 41. 
Rdshan, com., Int. 26, 27 ; Sg. 1, 

35 n; 10, 54; priest, Int. 26; 

Sg. 10, 53 5 11, 213. 
ROstam, man, Int. 18, 44. 

Sabbath, Sg. 18, 14. 
Sachau, Prof., Int. 23 ; Mkh. 27,67 n. 
Sacred cake, Mkh. 16, 17 ; Sd. 12, 
5 ; 13, 2, 4, 5, 7 ; 21, 7 ; 37, 1, 

3; 52, 1, 3; 55, 1. 

Sacred feast, Sd. 13, 2, 4, 5, 7 ; 21, 
2, 5 1 87, 1, 3. 

— fire, Mkh. 86, 9 n ; 53, 5 n ; Sd. 

39, 1-5 ; 92, 1-6. 

— shirt, Mkh. 2, 35 n. 

— thread-girdle, Mkh. 2, 35 n ; Sd. 

10,i-8, 15; 46,i-3; 82,1-3; 

— twigs, Mkh. 57, 28; Sd. 68, 14. 
Sad Dar, long-metre, Int. 37 ; Sd. 

0, 6 n. 
metrical, Int. 37, 43-45 ; Sd. 

0, 6 n. 
prose, Sd. 0, 6 n ; age, Int. 

37-39, 44, 45! described, Int. 

36-39; MSS., Int. 39-45. 
Sad Darband-i Hush, book, Int. 45 ; 

Sd. 5, 7 n. 
S&hm, hero, Mkh. 27, 49; 62, 4, 

20, 23; Sd. 9, 5; 52, 1 n. 
Salm, prince, Mkh. 27, 43. 
San^an, town, Int. 22, 24, 42. 
Sasanian nobles, Mkh. 1, 7 n. 
Sataves, star, Mkh. 49, 1 1 n ; 62, 

13 ; Sg. 4, 29, 35. 
Saturn, planet, Sg. 4, 30, 32, 41. 
Savah, region, Mkh. 16, 10 ; 44, 13 ; 

62, 25. 
Season-festivals, Mkh. 4, 5 ; 57, 1 3 ; 

Sd. 6, 2. 
Se£, fiend, Sd. 32, 5. 
Sen6 mfirfiv, see Griffon bird. 
Shahnamah, Mkh. 8, 27 n, 29 n ; 27, 

21 n, 45 n; Sd. 9, 5 n. 
Shahpfir, king, Sg. 10, 70. 
Shahrivar, day, Int. 32 ; month, 

Int. 40. 
Shatr6-atyy^r, man, Int. 18, 19, 21. 
Shatvau-6, day, Int. 18. 
Simurgh, see Griffon bird. 
Sindh, land, Int. 23. 
Sirius, star, Mkh. 49, sn; Sg. 4, 

53 n. 
Sir6zah, rite, Sd. 5, 1 n. 
Sistan, land, Mkh. 27, 44 n. 
Siy&vakhsh, prince, Mkh. 2, 95 n ; 

27, 55, 57 5 dastflr, Int. 37. 
Son of God, Sg. 15, 25-28. 
Sophistry answered, Sg. 6, 35-45. 
Soshlns, apostle, Mkh. 2, 95 ; 27, 

6 3; 57, 7; Sd. 52, in. 
Spahan, town, Sg. 2, 2. 
Spend nask, Sd. 4, 3 n ; 16, 3 n ; 18, 

Spendlrmarf, angel, Sd. 33, 2 ; 44, 

1 ; 65, 5 ; 85, 3. 

Digitized by 




Spenssagar, demon, Sg. 4, 52. 

Spiegel, Prof., Int. 24. 

Spirit of wisdom, described, Int. 16. 

Spitaman, see ZaratOrt. 

Sr&sh, angel, Mkh. 2, 115, 118, 124, 

141, 143, 162; 8,14; 27, 33 n; 

44.35J 62,5,25; Sg.8,i28n; 

Sd. 21, 10; 47, 1, 3; 58,4,7, 

8 ; 87, t ; day, Int. 33. 

— baz, Sd. 14, 2, 4-6. 

— yart, Sd. 6, 1 n. 

Sr6var, snake, Mkh. 27, 50 ; Sd. 

Stars of various germs, Mkh. 49, 

7-i 1. 
SiWkar nask, Mkh. 44, 35 n. 
SuUan Mu/Aaffar-shah, Int. 32. 
Supreme heaven, Mkh. 7, 11; 57, 

9,13; Sd. 79, 5; 80, 11. 
Syriac, Int. 28 ; Sg. 14, 42 n. 

Sikand-gfimanik \%ar, Sg. 1, 38 ; 
age, Int. 26, 27 ; described, Int. 
25-28 ; MSS., Int. 28-36. 

Takhmorup, Mkh. 27, 21, 33 n; 

Sd. 62, 1 n. 
Talmud, Sg. 14, 36 n, 50 n. 
Tanavar good work, Sd. 12, 9 ; 

96, 2. 

— sin, Sd. 41, 4 ; 48, 2 ; 60, 5 ; 

56, 3 ; 66, 3 ; 68, 1-3 ; 74, 5 ; 

82, 2; 100, 1. 

Taparistan, Mkh. 27, 44 n. 
Tehmuras Dinshawji, priest, Int. 18. 
Three-legged ass, Mkh. 62,6, 26, 27. 
Three-nights' punishment, Mkh. 21, 

Thrita, hero, Mkh. 27, 49 n. 
Time, personified, Mkh. 27, 10; 

Sg. 16, 31, 79, 80 ; unlimited, 

Mkh. 8, 8, 9, 15 ; Sg. 6, 6. 
Ttr, planet, Mkh. 49, 5 n. 
Tlrtar, Mkh. 49, 5, 6, ion-1211; 

62, 41, 42 ; Sg. 4, 29, 36, 52. 
Tirtar-yar, priest, Int. 44 ;' Sd. 0, 6. 
Tobit, Mkh. 2, nsn. 
Treasurers for the soul, Sg. 4, 92- 

Tree of knowledge, Sg. 13, 19, 22, 

33, 122, 126, 132, 138, 139, 

143, 146. 
Tree opposed to harm, Mkh. 62, 

37. 41. 
Trinity, Sg. 15, 46-62. 
Tflj-, prince, Mkh. 27, 43. 


Tflr, land, Mkh. 27, 34. 
Tflranians, Mkh. 21, 25. 
Tflr-1 BnWar-vakhsh, man, Sd. 9, 5. 
Two-legged demons, Sg. 16, 15. 

Ukhshyarf-ereta, apostle, Mkh. 2, 
95 n- 

— nemangh, apostle, Mkh. 2, 95 n. 
'Uman gulf, Mkh. 62, 13 n. 
Unnatural intercourse, Mkh. 8, 10; 

36, 4, 5 ; Sd. 9, 1, 4, 5. 
Ursa Major, Mkh. 49, 15. 
Urumiyah lake, Mkh. 2, 95 n. 

Varfakln, title, Mkh. 57, 25. 
Vae" the bad, demon, Mkh. 2, 115 ; 

— the good, angel, Mkh. 2, 115; 

Sd. 87, 2 n. 
Vafekereta, town, Mkh. 27, 44 n. 
Xag, see Inward prayer. 
Vahram, angel, Mkh. 2, 115; 36, 

9 ; 63, 5 ; planet, Mkh. 49, 
. i5n. A 

— 1 Vargavand, king, Sd. 52, 1 n. 
Vanand, star, Mkh. 49, 12; Sg. 4, 

29. 34- 
Vardast, dastflr, Int. 37. 
Varkash sea, Mkh. 44, 15 ; 62, 26, 

Vazut fire, Sg. 4, 53. 
Vega, star, Mkh. 62, 13 n. 
Vejan, priest, Int. 19. 
Venus, planet, Mkh. 62, 1 3 n ; Sg. 

4, 30, 35, 42- 
Vidarfafsh, region, Mkh. 16, 10. 
Vikaji, priest, Int. 22. 
Vir6rf religion, Sg. 4, 1. 
Vispand, Sd. 5, 1 n. 
Virtasp, king, Mkh. 13, 14 ; 27, 2, 

68; 57, 20, 21; Sd. 52, in. 

See Kai-VMasp. 
Vivangha, man, Mkh. 27, 24. 
Vtzaresh, demon, Mkh. 2, 161, 164, 

Vohu-fryan fire, Mkh. 16, 39 n. 
Vohfiman, angel, Sg. 8, 128, 129; 

Sd. 14, 8n; month, Int. 33. 

See Bahman. 
V6rubarjt, region, Mkh. 16, 10. 
V6ru.gar.rt, region, Mkh. 16, 10. 

Wednesday, Sg. 13, 101. 
Westergaard, Prof., Int. 18. 
Wilson, Prof. H. H., Int. 29. 
Windischmann, Mkh. 27, 15 n. 


Digitized by 




Wisdom, acquired, Mkh. 1, 49 n. 
— innate, Mkh. 1, 49 n ; 2, 195 ; 

Yart, Sd. 12, 5 ; 98, 1. 

YathS-ahu-vairyfi formula, Sd. 7, 1 ; 
14. h 3, 5, « ; 21, 9 ; 24, 2 ; 
80, 2 ; 56, 4 ; 84, t. 

Yazad-yar, priest, Int. 22, 41, 44, 
45; Sd.O, 6. 

Yazd, town, Int. 23. 

Yim, king, Mkh. 8, 27 ; 27, 33 n ; 
67, 2 1 ; Sd. 52, 1 n ; his enclo- 
sure, Mkh. 27, 27, 29; 61, 9n; 
62, 3, 15; Sd. 10, 7. 

Yimakan m., Mkh. 62, 15 n. 

Yimsh&Z, king, Mkh. 27, 24. See 

ZaV-sparam, Int. 27. 

Zand, Sd. 81, 9. 

Zandik, Int. 37; Mkh. 36, t6n. 

Zarafjan river, Mkh. 44, 17 n. 

Zarah lake, Mkh. 27, 44 n. 

Zaratust, apostle, Mkh. 2, 95 n ; 57, 
20, 24, 26; Sg. 10, 63, 64 ; 11, 
256n; Sd. 1, 2, 3; 4,3,4; 8, 
5; 10, 15; 52, in; 61, 2; 
65, 9, 10; 67, 5; 81, 2, 10; 
86, 2 ; 98. 3 ; 99, 2 ; the Spit- 
aman, Mkh. 1, 10; 13, 15; Sd. 
0, 12; 10, 12; 16, 3; 25, 6; 
79, 5; supreme, Sg. 1, 18. 

— priest, Int. 32 n. 

— t Atur-fr6bagan, Int. 27 ; Sg. 10, 

53 n- 
Zargar, prince, Sg. 10, 67. 

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