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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



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banian 
HENRY FROWDE 




Oxford University Frxss Warerouss 
Amen Corner, E.C. 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BT 



F. MAX MULLER 



VOL. XXVI 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1885 

[Ali rights res€rved'\ 



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THE 



vSATAPATHA-BRAHMANA 



ACCORDING TO THE TEXT OF THE 



mAdhyandina school 



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JULIUS EGGELING 



PART II 



BOOKS III AND IV 




AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1885 



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^<:.^^7 



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CONTENTS. 



rAG( 



Introduction xi 

THIRD KkNDA. 

A. Day (or Days) of Preparation. 

DiksM'or Consecration i 

PrSyawlyesM, or Opening Sacrifice .... 47 
Hinuiyavati-ihuti, or Offering with Gold ; and Homage 

to Soma-cow 52 

Purchase of Soma-plants 63 

Procession and Entrance of King Soma . -75 

Subrahma«yS-lilany 81 

Atithya, or Guest-meal to King Soma .... 85 
Tanflnaptra, or Covenant of TaniinapSt . . .93 
AvSntara-dikshi, or Intermediary Consecration . 97 

UpasadaA, or Homages (sieges) 104 

Preparation of Soma-altar with High-altar . . .111 
Agni-pranayana, or Leading Forward of the Fire to the 

Higb-altar 12 1 

Construction of Sheds, and Preparation of Pressing- 
place and Dhishnya-hearths 126 

Havirdh&na, or Cart-shed 126 

Uparava, or Sound-holes 135 

Sadas, or Tent 140 

Dhishnya-hearths 148 

Vaisar^na-offerings, and Leading Forward of Agni and 

Soma (to Agnidhra) 155 

Animal Sacrifice 162 

Setting up of Sacrificial Stake .162 

Slaying of Victim 178 

Oblations : — 

Fore-offerings with Aprl-verses . . .184 
Offering of Omentum (vap&) . .190 

Pam-puroti^, or Cake-offering . '199 

Cutting and offering of Flesh-portions . . 201 



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Vlll CONTENTS. 



Offering of gravy (vasS) . . • 205 

Offering to Vanaspati ...'.. 208 
After-offerings . . . .210 

Purificatory Bath, &c 215 

Ek&daiinl, or Set of Eleven Victims .217 

Vasattvart-water 222 

B. Day of Soma-feast. 

PrStar-anuv&ka, or Moming-prayer ; and Preparatoiy 

Ceremonies 226 

Prita^-savana, or Morning-pressing : — • 

Preliminary Pressing 338 

Nigr^bhyS-water 242 

NigHtbha-formula 245 



FOURTH KAJVDA. 

UpS»wu-graha 248 

Great Pressing : — 

Antary&ma-graha 257 

Aindrav&yava-graha 265 

Maitrivanwa-graha 265 

Andna-graha 272 

j\ikra- and Manthi-grahas . . . .378 

Agrayana-graha 288 

Ukthya-graha 292 

Vai^nara- and Dhniva-grahas . . .298 

Vipnuf-homa, or Oblation of Drops . . . 305 

B^ishpavamSna-stotra 307 

Ajvina-graha 312 

Offering of Savantya-puro<iirSA . . . •314 

i?Au-grahas, or Libations to the Seasons . 318 

AindrSgna-graha 322 

Vaifvadeva-graha 323 

A^ya»iastra 325 

Midhyandina-savana, or Midday-pressing . . • 331 
5'ukra and Manthin; Agrayana and Ukthya- 

grahas 332 

Manitvatiya-grahas 334 

MShendra-graha 338 

Dakshiff&-homas 340 



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CONTENTS, IX 



rACE 



Tnliya-savana, or Evening-pressing .... 350 

Axvina-graha . . . . . • 35^ 

Agraya«a-graha 355 

Sivitra-graha 357 

Vaixvadeva-graha 359 

Offering of >iaru (rice-pap) to Soma . 363 

Patntvata-graha 365 

AgnimSruta-fastra 369 

Hariyqg^na-graha 37© 

Concluding Ceremonies 374 

Samish/aya^s .... . ■ 374 

Avabhrttha, or Purificatory Bath . . . 378 

Udayaniya-isM 386 

Udavasiniy^-ish/i, or Completing Oblation . . 389 

Offering of Barren Cow 391 

C. Additional Forms of Soma-sacrifice. 

ShodSuin 397 

DvldarSha 402 

Atigrihyas 402 

Avaklras 409 

Triritra sahasradakshina 414 

DvidarSha vy<i<fjia-Mandas 418 

A»Mu-graha 423 

GavSm ayanam 426 

Mahdvrattya-graha 429 

Brahma-siman 434 

. Diksh&, or Consecration, for Sacrificial Sessions . 440 

SattrotthSna, or Rising from a Session . . 447 

JTaturhotrt-formulas 452 

Brahmodya 452 

Indkx to Parts I and II (Vols. XII and XXVI) . 457 

Additions and Corrections 474 

Plan of Sacrificial Ground 475 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . -477 



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INTRODUCTION. 



The contents of the third and fourth books of the 5ata- 
patha-br&hma«a form an important chapter of its dogmatic 
explanation of the sacrificial ceremonial. This portion of 
the work treats of the ordinary forms of the most sacred of 
Vedic sacrificial rites, the Soma-sacrifice. The exposition 
of the Soma-ritual also includes an account of the animal 
offering which, though it may be performed as an inde- 
pendent sacrifice, more usually constitutes an integral part 
of the Saumya-adhvara. 

Since F.Windischmann, in his treatise ' Ueber den Soma- 
cultus der Arier' (1846), pointed out the remarkable simi- 
larity of. conceptions prevalent among the ancient Indians 
and Iranians in regard to the Soma, both from a sacrificial 
and a mythological point of view, this subject has re- 
peatedly engaged the attention of scholars. In A. Kuhn's 
masterly essay, ' Die Herabkunft des Feuers und des Got- 
tertranks' (1859), the Soma-myth was thoroughly investi* 
gated, and its roots were traced far back into the Indo- 
European antiquity. Within the last few years the entire 
Rig-vedic conceptions regarding Soma have, for the first 
time, been subjected to a searching examination in M. A. 
Bergaigne's ' La Religion V6dique.' This book forms an 
important contribution to the interpretation of the Vedic 
hymns; and though the combinations and theories put 
forth by the author may not always commend themselves 
to scholars generally, there can be no doubt that his en- 
quiries exhibit a rare analytic faculty, and have yielded a 
mass of new and valuable suggestions. 

Among the numerous features which the Vedic Aryans 
had in common with thein. Iranian kinsmen, and from which 
it is supposed that an intimate connection must have sub- 



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XU 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

sisted between these two easternmost branches of the Indo- 
European stock for some time after they had become 
separated from their western brethren, the Soma cult and 
myth are not the least striking. Both the Vedic soma 
and the Zend haoma — derived from the root su (Zend hu), 
' to press, produce ' — denote in the first place a spirituous 
liquor extracted from a certain plant, described as growing 
on the mountains ; the words being then naturally applied 
to the plant itself. But the Rig-veda, not less than the 
Avesta, distinguishes between an earthly and a celestial 
Soma ; and it is precisely the relation between these two, 
or the descent of the heavenly Soma to the world of men, 
which forms the central element of the Soma-myth. To 
the childlike intellect of the primitive Aryan which knew 
not how to account for the manifold strange and awe-in- 
spiring phenomena of nature otherwise than by peopling 
the universe with a thousand divine agents, the potent juice 
of the Soma-plant which endowed the feeble mortal with 
godlike powers, and for a time freed him from earthly cares 
and troubles, seemed a veritable god, not less worthy of 
adoration than the wielder of the thunderbolt, the roaring 
wind, or the vivifying orb of day. The same magic powers 
are, upon the whole, ascribed to Soma by the Indian and 
Persian bards : to both of them he is the wise friend and 
mighty protector of his votary, the inspirer of heroic deeds 
of arms as well as of the flights of fancy and song, the 
bestower of health, long life, and even immortality. The 
divine personality of Soma, it is true, is, even for Vedic 
imagery, of an extremely vague and shadowy character ; 
but it is difficult to see what plastic conception there could 
be of a deity whose chief activity apparently consists in 
mingling his fiery male nature with the teeming waters of 
the sky, and the swelling sap of plants. The principal cause, 
however, of the vagueness of Soma's personality, and the 
source of considerable difficulties in explaining many of the 
Vedic conceptions of this deity, is his twofold nature as a 
fiery liquor, or liquid fire, — that is to say, his fluid and 
his fiery or luminous nature. 



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INTRODUCTION. XIU 



The Soma, with whom the worshipper is chiefly concerned, 
is the Soma-plant, and the juice extracted from it for the 
holy service. This is the earthly Soma, or, so to speak, 
the Avatir of the divine Soma. The latter, on the other 
hand, is a luminous deity, a source of light and life. In the 
Brihma^as, Soma, in this respect, has become completely 
identified with the Moon, whose varying phases, and tem- 
porary obscuration at the time of new-moon, favoured the 
mystic notions of his serving as food ' to the Gods and 
Fathers (Manes); and of his periodical descents to the 
earth, with the view of sexual union with the waters and 
plants, and his own regeneration *. Though this identifi- 
cation appears already clearly in several passages of the 
Jiik, Vedic scholars seem mostly inclined to refer this con- 
ception to a secondary stage of development'. According 
to Professor Roth, indeed, this identification would have no 
other mythological foundation than the coincidence of 
notions which finds its expression in the term indu* (com- 
monly used for Soma, and in the later language for the 
moon), viz. as ' a drop ' and ' a spark (drop of light).' This 
is not unlikely, but it does not of course help us to settle 
the point as to how that term came ultimately to be applied 
exclusively to the moon among heavenly luminaries. To 
the Vedic poet it is rather the sun that appears, if not iden- 
tical, at any rate closely connected, with the divine Soma. 
The fact was first pointed out by Grassmann ', who pro- 
posed to identify Pavamclna, the ' pure-streamed, sparkling ' 
Soma, with the, apparently solar, deity Puemuno of the 

* Or, aa the vessel containing the divine Soma, the drink conferring immortality. 

* See, for instance, ^at. Br. I, 6, 4, 5 seq. Possibly also the shape of the 
'homed moon' may have facilitated the attribntion to that luminary of a bnll- 
like natore such as is ascribed to Soma ; though a similar attribution, it is 
true, is made in the case of other heavenly objects whose ontward appearance 
offers no such points of comparison. 

' M. A. Bartb, The Vedic Religions, p. 37, on the other hand, is of opinion 
that this identification goes back to Indo-European times. 

* St. Petersburg Diet. s. v. According to A. Kuhn, the two myths of the 
descent of Fire and of the divine Liquor spring from one and the same con- 
ception, whence the spark of fire is conceived as a drop. ' Herabkunit,' p. 161. 

» Kuhn's Zeitsch. f. VergL Spr. XVI, p. 183 seq. 



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XIV SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

Iguvian tablets. M. Bergaigne has also carefully collected 
the passages of the Rik in which Soma appears either com- 
pared or identified with the sun. Although a mere com- 
parison of Indu-Soma with the sun can scarcely be 
considered sufficient evidence on this point, since such a 
comparison might naturally enough suggest itself even to 
one who had the identity of Soma and the moon in his 
mind, there still remain not a few passages where no such 
ambiguity seems possible. Somewhat peculiar are the re- 
lations between Soma and S(^rya's daughter (probably the 
Dawn), alluded to several times ' in the Hik. In one passage 
(IX, I, 6) she is said to pass Sftrya through the perpetual 
filter {sasvat v4ra); whilst in another (IX, 113, 8) 'SArya's 
daughter brought the bull (Soma?), reared by Pa^unya (the 
cloud); the Gandharvas seized him and put him, as sap, 
into the Soma (plant?).' A combination of this female 
bearer of Soma with the eagle (or falcon) who carried off 
Soma (IV, 27, &c.) seems to have supplied the form of the 
myth, current in the Br^ma»as, according to which G&yatri 
fetched Soma from heaven. The hymn X, 85 *, on the other 
hand, celebrates the marriage ceremony of Soma and SdryS, 
at which the two A.rvins act as bride'smen, and Agni as the 
leader of the bridal procession to the bridegroom's home. 

There are, however, other passages in the Rig-veda, in 
which Soma, so far from being identified with the sun, seems 
to be r^arded as some sovereign power which originates 
or controls that luminary, as well as the other lights of 
heaven. Thus in Rig-veda IX, 61, 16 Soma is represented 
as producing (^anayan) the bright light belonging to all 
men; in IX, 97, 41 as producing the light in the sun 
(a^nayat sftrye ^otir indu^) ; in IX, a8, 5 ; 37, 4 as 
causing the sun to shine (rofeyan) ; in IX, 86, aa ; 107, 7 
as making him rise (i-rohayan) in the sky ; in IX, 63, 6 



* M. Bergaigne, 11, p. 249, idenafies with Sfirya's daughter the girl (? Ap41&) 
who, going to the water, fonnd Soma, and took him home, saying, ' Til press 
thee for Indral' On this hymn see Prof. Anfrecht, Ind. Stud. IV, i seq. 

* On this hymn see A. Weber, Ind. Stnd. V, 178 seq. ; J. Ehni, Zeitsch. der 
D. M. G. XXXm, p. 166 seq. 



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INTRODUCTION. XV 



as harnessing Svar's Eta.fa ; in IX, 36, 3 ; 49, 5 as causing the 
lights to shine (gyotJwshi vi-ro/&ajran; pratnavad ro^ayan 
nuhti) ; in IX, 42, i as producing the lights of the sky (and) 
the sun in the (heavenly) waters ; in IX, 41, 5 as filling the 
two wide worlds (rodast), even as the dawn, as the sun, with 
his rays. Nay, the poet of IX, 86, 29, * Thou art the 
(heavenly) ocean (samudra) . . . thine are the lights {gyo- 
timshi), O Pavam&na, thine the sun,' seems to conceive 
Soma as the bright ether, the azure ' sea of light ' generally ; 
and a similar conception is perhaps implied when, in IX, 
107, 20, the bard sings, 'Thine I am, O Soma, both by 
night and by day, for friendship's sake, O tawny one, in the 
bosom (of the sky ^) : like birds have we flown far beyond 
the sun scorching with heat.' 

On the other hand, it must not be forgotten that similar 
functions to those here referred to are ascribed to other 
deities besides Soma, without there being any cogent reason 
for assuming an intentional rapprochement, still less iden- 
tification of these deities with Soma ; and, in point of fact, 
the allusions in the hymns are too vague to enable us to 
determine the exact relations between Soma and the 
heavenly light Indeed, it may be questioned whether 
there was any very clear apprehension of these relations ; 
or whether, prior to the ultimate identification of Soma 
with the moon, we have not to deal with a body of floating 
ideas rather than with a settled mythological conception of 
the divine Soma. During his brief term of existence on 
earth — from his mountain birth to his flnal consummation 
as 'the supreme offering' (uttama^f havis) — the outward 
form of Soma passes through a succession of changes from 
which the poet would draw many a feature wherewith to 
endow the divine object of his fancy. He might thus repre- 
sent Soma now as a shining tree springing from the moun- 
tains of the sky ; now as a luminous drop or spark moving 
through the heavens, and shedding light all around ; or as 
innumerable drops of light scattered over the wide aerial 

' Odhani, lit. in, or on, the udder (whence Soma is miUied, i.e. the sky). 



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xvi iSatapatha-brAhmajva. 

expanse ; now as a glittering stream, or again, as a vast sea 
of liquid light. 

The references of the Avesta to the divine Haoma are 
even less definite and explicit than those of the Vedic 
hymns. His connection with the heavenly light, though 
not perhaps so close as that of Mithra and other deities, is 
unmistakable enough ' ; but we look in vain for any clear 
indication as to what the exact relations are. It is certain, 
however, that nowhere in the Avesta is there any passage 
which could warrant us to assume an identification of 
Haoma with either the Sun or the Moon. In Yama IX, 
8i-8a, we are told that Haoma was the first to be invested 
by Ahura-Mazda with the zone, spangled with stars, and 
made in heaven, in accordance with the good Mazda-ya.mic 
law ; and that girt therewith he dwells upon the heights of 
the mountain to uphold the sacred ordinances. It is difficult 
to see what else the star-spangled zone (the heavenly 
counterpart of the ordinary Kusti of the orthodox Pirsl) 
could here refer to, except the milky way, or perhaps the 
starry sky generally ; — unless, indeed, as is scarcely likely, 
some special constellation be implied ; — but neither this nor 
any other passage enables us in any way to define the divine 
personality of Haoma. 

Soma's descent to the earth, as pictured in the Vedic 
hymns, is attended with violent disturbances in the regions 
of the sky, in which Indra generally plays the principal part. 
It is admitted on all hands that we have to look upon these 
supernal struggles as mythic impressions of ordinary atmo- 
spheric phenomena, especially those of the Indian monsoon 
and rainy season, and the violent thunderstorms by which 
they are usually accompanied. According to the needs and 
anxieties by which he was swayed at the moment, these 
atmospheric occurrences presented themselves to the poet's 
mind chiefly in two different lights. Either, the approaching 
masses of clouds brought with them the long-desired rain, 
and the prospect of abundant food for man and beast : in 
that case the gods were doing battle for the possession of 

' Cf. Spinel, Eianische Alterthamsknnde, II, p. 114. 



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INTRODUCTION. XVU 



the celestial waters, or the heavenly cows, too long confined 
by malicious demons in their mountain strongholds ; or, 
after a time of tempest and gloom, one longed to see again 
the bright sky and the golden sunlight, to cheer life and 
ripen the crops: in which case it was a struggle for the 
recovery of the heavenly light. 

The relation in which Soma stands to Indra is mainly 
that of the fiery beverage, the welcome draughts of which 
give the warrior god the requisite strength and nerve for 
battling with the demons of drought and darkness. Indra's 
favourite weapon is the thousand-spiked, iron or golden 
thunderbolt, the lightning. But inasmuch as it is Soma 
that enables Indra effectually to wield his weapon, the poet 
might, by a bold, yet perfectly natural, metaphor, identify 
the potent drink with the terrible bolt. This identification 
is indeed met with in several passages of the Rik ', notably 
in IX, 47, 3, ' When his song of praise is brought forth, then 
Soma, the powerful (indriya) liquor, becomes the thousand- 
fold-winnii^ thunderbolt ; ' in IX, 7a, 7, ' Indra's thunder- 
bolt, the bountiful (vibhflvasu) bull, the exhilarating Soma 
clarifies itself in a manner pleasing to the heart ;' and in IX, 
77, I, 'This sweet (Soma) has roared in the tub, Indra's 
thunderbolt, more beautiful than the beautiful one ^.' Not 
less natural is the simile implied in epithets, properly 
applying to Indra, — such as ' vritrahan ' (slayer of Vrztra), 
and ' godi' (cow-giver), — when applied to Soma, who helps 
him to make good those titles of his; just as one can 
understand their being occasionally applied to Agni, the 
sacrificial fire, as the medium through which the libations 
reach Indra. A similar kind of poetic figure is involved in 
passages representing Soma as exercising an influence, not 
on Indra himself, but on the weapons wielded by him ' ; 

' Cf. A. Bergaigne, Religion VMique, II, 353. In the Brilimaiias it is not 
Soma, bat the pressing-stone, that is identified with the Vagn. 

* Prof. Lndwig proposes to read 'Ta^r&t' instead of ' vi^o,' thus 'more 
beantifiil than Indra's beautiful thunderbolt.' Bat even if we retain the received 
reading, ' vaposha^ ' might refer to the (real) thunderbolt ; though, of course, 
it may also be taken as referring either to the sun, or to Agni, or to some 
other deity or heavenly object. 

' CC A. Bergaigne, II, 351. 

[36] b 



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XVlll SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

such as VIII, 76, 9, ' O Indra, drink the pressed Soma, . . . 
sharpening the thunderbolt with its strength ;' or IX, 96, 
12, where Soma is called upon to join Indra, and produce 
weapons for him (^naySyudhclni) ; or VIII, 15, 7, where 
the Soma-cup (dhishanA) is said to whet Indra's power, his 
daring and intelligence, as well as the desirable thunder- 
bolt. 

But, while most scholars will probably be content to 
apply this kind of interpretation to cases of an apparent 
identification of Soma and the V^fra such as those referred 
to, M. Bergaigne is evidently in favour of their identity 
pure and simple. Now, it cannot be denied that the 
authors of some of those passages may really have in- 
tended to represent Soma as virtually or actually the same 
as the thunderbolt; but even if that were so, we should 
hardly be justified in assuming this identity to have been 
anything like a settled and universally accepted conception 
in the times of the hymns. There surely is some danger 
in treating a miscellaneous collection like the Rig-veda, as 
if it were a uniform and homogeneous production, and in 
generalizing from one or two isolated passages. In this 
respect I cannot help thinking that M. Bergaigne has often 
gone farther than many scholars will be prepared to follow 
him. Thus another of his favourite theories seems to be 
the ultimate identity of Soma and Agni. But close as the 
relations of these two deities undoubtedly are, and even 
admitting that they may occasionally have been the object 
of those syncretist tendencies which we see so often at work 
in the mythological speculations of the ^tshis, nevertheless 
I cannot but think that to the generality of Vedic poets 
Agni and Soma were perfectly distinct deities, as distinct 
from each other as the two visible objects which represent 
them on earth. Indeed, M. Bergaigne himself has to admit 
(I, 167) that, 'as the fire and beverage were in reality dis- 
tinct on earth, this distinction was inevitably extended 
sometimes to their divine forms.' But if such is the 
case, and if they are actually invoked together in one 
and the same hymn, should one not think that even 
in those divine forms of theirs they must at least have 



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INTRODUCTION. XIX 



been r^arded as two different manifestations of the same 
divinity ? 

Soma makes his descent to the earth in showers of rain, 
amid thunder and lightning. Here a new problem presents 
itself: in this strife of elements, what is the exact pheno- 
menon in which we are to recognise the divine Soma as 
temporarily embodied? It used to be taken for granted 
that the rain of the thunderstorm must be so r^arded, being 
as it were the atmospheric counterpart of the earthly Soma 
drops, expressed from the juicy stalk and flowing into the 
vat. M. Bergaigne, however, has put forward the theory 
that it is not the rain, but the lightning, that really repre- 
sents Soma ; and has tried to show, with no little ingenuity, 
that several passages of the Rik can only, or at any rate 
most naturally, be explained by the light of his theory. 
Now, according to an old m3^h, frequently alluded to in the 
hymns, Soma was brought down to the earth by an eagle 
or falcon (jyena). Thus we read in 1, 93, 6, ' MitarLrvan has 
brought down the one (Agni) from the sky, and the S'yena 
has churned the other (Soma) from the (celestial) rock.' 
A. Kuhn saw in this bird only another form of Indra who, 
in two passages (I, 32, 14 ; X, 99, 8), is indeed directly 
likened to a 5yena. On the other hand, this, identification 
is rendered doubtful by two other passages (I, 80, a ; IV, 
18, 13), in which the 5yena is represented as bringing the 
Soma to Indra himself. Here, then, is a veritable crux. 
M. Bergaigne does not hesitate to cut the knot by identify- 
ing the Soma-bearing bird with the lightning; and the 
lightning again being to him no other than Soma, the myth 
thus resolves itself into the rather commonplace fact that 
Soma takes himself down to the earth. He only needed to 
go a step further by identifying Soma, not only with Agni 
and the lightning, but also with Indra himself, and the 
phantasmagory would have been complete. Indeed, one 
dTM. Bergaigne's disciples, M. Koulikovski, has already 
come very near supplying this deficiency, when he remarks 
(Revue de Linguistique, XVIII, p. 3), that in the hymn IV, 
26 ' we have to do with a twofold personage, composed Qf 
the attributes of Indra and Soma.' 

b 2 



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XX SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

Now, if this myth were a purely Indian one, one might 
be content to relegate it to the cat^ory of Vedic ' paradoxes ' 
to the vindication of which M. Bergaigne declares himself 
ready to devote his life. But as there can be no reasonable 
doubt. that the myth goes back to Indo-European times, 
and that its object is simply to account for the mysterious 
effect of spirituous liquor or the ' fire-water,' so to speak, 
I for one find it impossible to accept M. Bergaigne's ex- 
planation of this myth, at least so far as the identification 
of Soma and the lightning is concerned^. On the other 
hand, his theory undoubtedly receives a considerable 
amount of support from the fact that the Soma is fre- 
quently compared with the ^'yena. But we saw that the 
same term is applied to Indra, as it also is to the Maruts 
(X, 9a, 6), to tiie Ajvins (IV, 74, 9 ; VIII, 73, 4), and to 
Sflrya (V, 45, 9) ; and there is in my opinion no evidence 
to show that this comparison has any connection with the 
m)rth which makes the fiery liquor to be brought down by 
a Syena. Moreover, wherever that comparison occurs, it 
undoubtedly applies to the Pavam&na, or the drops or 
streams of Soma flowing through the filter into the vat ; 
and I can see no reason why we should not consider the 
showers of rain as the exact counterpart of the clarifying 
Soma. But, of course, the real divine Soma is not the 
rain-drop itself, any more than he is the drop of juice ex- 
pressed from the Soma-plant ; but he is the spark of celestial 
fire enclosed in the drop. It would seem, then, that, as 
the masses of cloud overspread the sky. Soma, the heavenly 
light, is conceived as entering into union with the celestial 
cows or waters, released by the thunderbolt from their 
mountain keep, and coming down with them to the earth. 



' For the same reason I find it impossible to accept M. Bergaigne's inter- 
pretation of the hymn IV, 17, put forward at the end of his work (vol. iii, 
p. 321 seq.). According to that interpretation. Soma, in the iirst verse, declares 
that he himself flew forth from his prison as an eagle ; and then, in the second 
verse — as it were reproving those who might imagine the eagle to be a different 
being from himself — he adds, ' It was not he (the eagle) that bore me away 
with ease, bat I triompbed by my own cleverness and bravery I ' I am afraid 
this critical specimen of the feathered tribe will not find many admirers among 



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INTRODUCTION. XXI 



But while I find it impossible, as r^ards the myth of 
the Soma-bearing bird, to identify with M. Bergaigne the 
winged bearer (probably the lightning) with its burden, the 
Soma ; the descent of the fiery god is pictured in various 
other ways, and it might still be possible that one or other 
poet had conceived of the bull-like Soma, as the lightning, 
uniting with the heavenly cows in their earthward course, so 
that before reaching the earth the rain-drops would be im- 
pregnated with Soma's essence, and would, in fact, be of the 
same nature as the Soma-juice. I am not prepared, there- 
fore, entirely to reject the identification of Soma with the 
lightning ; only I do not think that any one of the crucial 
passages adduced by M. Bergaigne in favour of that iden- 
tity necessarily requires the interpretation he proposes. 
Thus, in IX, 41, 3, 'The sound of the mighty Pavam&na 
(the clarifying Soma) is heard like that of the rain : the 
lightnings pass in the sky,' it surely seems rather far- 
fetched to take the lightning, instead of the rain, to be the 
object with which Soma is compared, merely because in 
the same hymn Soma is also compared with the sun and the 
heavenly river Rasd. The same may be said of IX, 108, 1 1, 
' That joy-pouring (mada-^tyut) thousand-streamed bull they 
have milked out from the sky,' and several other passages. 
The verse IX, 87, 8, divo na vidyut stanayanty abhraiA, 
somasya te pavata indra dhir&, 'Thy stream of Soma, O 
Indra, clarifies itself, as (does) the thundering lightning of 
the sky by means of the clouds,' is more favourable to 



prosaic Sauskritists. I should prefer, with Prof. Roth, to read ' nir adtyat' 
instead of ' nir adtyam,' onless It were possible to read ' syenagayi^ ' instead 
of ' jyend^avisi.' M. Koalikovski, in the paper referred to, throws the hymns 
IV, 26 and 37 together, and takes them as a sort of mytho-critical controversy 
between the god Soma and some other person (perhaps the anthor himself), 
advocating two different versions of the Soma-myth, viz. Soma contending that 
it was himself who brought the divine plant, while his interlocator ('who has 
the last word in the hymn ') maintains that it was brought by a falcon. Thus, 
according to this scholar, the falcon was already (!) distinguished from Soma ; 
and these two hymns ' are, as it were, an echo of a religions, or rather mytho- 
logical dispute, wliich had divided the theologians of the Vedic epoch.' 
Perhaps Prof. Oldenberg's theory of Akhyftta-hymns, or detached pieces of 
poetry connected by prose narratives, might have a chance with these hymns. 



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XXU 5'ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

M. Bergaigne's view, as may also be the doubtful passage, 
V, 84, 3, yat te abhrasya vidyuto divo varshanti vr?sh/ayaA, 
' When the rains of the cloud rain thee (O earth) lightnings 
from the sky (?).' As regards VII, 69, 6, addressed to the 
Arvins, ' Come, ye two men, to our libations this day, like 
two thirsty bulls to the lightning,' M. Bei^aigne (I, 168) 
thinks that the identification of Soma with the lightning 
can alone explain this passage ; since it would be impossible 
to imagine that the two bulls could anticipate the falling of 
rain from the appearance of the lightning. Though a poetic 
figure like this hardly bears such critical handling, perhaps 
M. Bergaigne will allow me to ask whether, if the passage 
had read, ' Come ye hither to our libations, like two bulls 
to the thunder V he would have thought it so very bold a 
figure for a Vedic poet to use ? • 

The most important of all passages, however, undoubt- 
edly is IX, 84, 3 : 4 yo gobhiA sri^yata. oshadhfshu . . . . S 
vidyutd pavate dhdrayd suta^, indram somo m&dayan 
daivyam^nam. M. Bergaigne translates (I, 172) the first 
p&da by ' Lui qui est r^pandu avec les vaches (i. e. the rain- 
d/ops) dans les plantes,' which, of course, fits either view 
equally well; the only question being, whether Soma is 
already united with the rain-drops when they are poured 
forth by the clouds, or whether, in the shape of lightnii^, 
he is still separate from them. The third pilda, M. 
Bergaigne remarks (I, 170), may be boldly (hardiment) 
translated by ' II se clarifie, exprim6 en un torrent qui est 
r^clair.' This rendering, if correct, would doubtless settle 
the point ; but to my mind it is not only a very doubtful, 
but a highly improbable explanation. What I believe to 
be the true interpretation of the passage had been given 
by Prof. Ludwig two years before the publication of M. 
Bergaigne's volume, viz. ' Expressed in a stream, he clarifies 
himself by the lightning — Soma who exhilarates (or inebri- 
ates) Indra and the divine race.' It will be seen that this 
alters the case completely. The lightning would be 

■ Cp. IX, 100, 3: 'Send forth mind-jroked tboagfat, as the thunder sends 
forth rain.' 



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INTRODUCTION. XXUl 



compared with the filter of white sheep's wool, through 
which the Soma-juice percolates into the vat. The same 
simile, in my opinion, is implied wherever the formula pa- 
vate {&) vrtsh/im, ' he clarifies himself into rain,' is used (IX, 
49. I ; 3 ; ^5. 3 ; *4 ; 9<5, H ; loS, lo). And, in truth, the 
simile seems to me a very striking one ; but we must not, 
of course, think of single flashes of lightning such as we 
are accustomed to in our northern climes (and as are 
doubtless implied in the Vedic conception of the V^^ra 
or thunderbolt), but of that continuous and widespread 
electric illumination (vi-dyut) which forms a characteristic 
feature of the monsoon, when the showers of rain seem to 
flow through an immense space of light'. 



' For a desaiption of this phenomenon in the distrcts where we must 
imagine the Vedic poets to have composed their hynms, see Elphinstone, 
Account of the Kingdom of Cabool, p. 1 26 seq. 

I cannot forbear here to quote a few extracts from a graphic descriplion 
of the setting in of the monsoon in India proper, given in the Rev. H. 
Caonter's Oriental Annual (1834) : — ' There was a slight haze npon the distant 
waten which seemed gradually to thicken, although not to a density sufiicient 
to refract the rays of the sun, which still flooded the broad sea with one 
mivarying mass of glowing light .... Towards the afternoon, the aspect of the 
sky began to change ; the horizon gathered blackness, and the ton, which had 
risen so brightly, had evidently culminated in darkness, and to have his 
splendour veiled from human sight by a long, gloomy period of storm and 
turbulence. Masses of heavy clouds appeared to rise from the sea, black and 
portentous, accompanied by sudden gnsts of wind, that suddenly died away, 
being succeeded by an intense, death-like stillness, as if the air were in a state 
of utter stagnation, and its vital properties arrested. It seemed no longer to 
circulate, until again agitated by the brief but mighty gusts which swept 
fiercely along, like the giant heralds of the sky. Meanwhile the lower circle 
of the heavens looked a deep brassy red, from the partial reflection of the 
sunbeams upon the thick clouds, which had now everywhere overspread it ... . 
From the house which we occupied we could behold the setting in of the 
monsoon in all its grand and terrific sublimity. The wind, with a force which 
nothmg could resist, bent the tufted heads of the tall, slim cocoa-nut trees 
almost to the earth, flinging the light sand into the air in eddying vortices, until 
the rain had either so increased its gravity, or beaten it into a mass, as to 
prevent the wind from raising it. The pale lightning streamed from the clouds 
in broad sheets of flame, which appeared to encircle the heavens as if every 
element had been converted into fire, and the world was on the eve of a 
general conflagration, whilst the peal, which instantly followed, was like the 
explosion of a gunpowder-magazine, or the discharge of artillery in the gorge 
of a mountain, where the repercussion of surrounding hills multiplies with 
terrific energy its deep and astoanding echoes. The heavens seemed to be 



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XXIV SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA, 

The striking coincidences between the Vedic Agnish/bma 
and the Homa ceremony of the PArsts, pointed out by- 
Martin Haug (Ait. Br. I, p. 59 seq.), leave no doubt as to 
the complete development of the Soma-ritual in its essential 
features before the separation of the Indo-Iranians. The 
exact identity of the plant from which their sacred liquor 
was prepared is still somewhat doubtful. An official inquiry 
which has been set on foot in consequence of two papers 
published by Prof. Roth (Journal of Germ. Or. Soc. 1881 
and 1883), and translated by Mr. C. J. Lyall, secretary to the 
Chief Commissioner of Assam, and which, it is understood, is 
now carried on, on the part of the Government of India, by 
Dr. Aitchison, botanist to the Afghan Boundary Commis- 
sion, will probably ere long settle the matter once for all. 
The appearance of the first official blue-book on the sub- 
ject has already led to a renewed discussion of the matter, 
in the columns of a weekly joumaP, in which Profs. Max 
Miiller and R. v. Roth, as well as several distinguished 
botanists, especially Drs. J. G. Baker and W. T. Thiselton 
Dyer, have taken part. Of especial interest in this discus- 
sion is a letter ''jby Mr. A. Houttum-Schindler, dated Teheran, 
December 20, 1884, in which an account is given of the plant 
from which the present P«lrsis of Kerm&n and Yezd obtain 
their Hfim juice, and which they assert to be the very same 



one vast reservoir of flame, which was propelled from its volaminous bed by 
some invisible but omnipotent agency, and threatened to fling its fiery ruin 
upon everything around. In some parts, however, of the pitchy vapour by 
which the skies were by this time completely overspread, the lightning was 
seen only occasionally to glimmer in faint streaks of light, as if straggling, 
but unable, to escape from its prison, igniting, but too weak to bust, the 
impervious bosoms of those cai>acious magazines in which it was at once 
engendered and pent up. So heavy and continuous was the rain, that scarcely 
anything, save those vivid bursts of light which nothing could arrest or resist, 
was perceptible through it ... . Day after day the same scene was repeated 
with somewhat less violence, though at intervals the might of the hurricane 
was truly appalling .... The breaking up of the monsoon is frequently even 
more violent, if possible, than its setting in, and this happened to be the case 
during the first season after my arrival in India. It was truly stupendous, and 
I shall never cease to remember it to the latest moment of my existence.' ' 

■ The Academy, Oct. ij, 1884— Feb. 14, 1885. 

* Ibid., Jan. 31, 1885. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXV 



as the Haoma of the Avesta. The H{im shrub, according 
to this description, grows to the height of four feet, and 
consists of circular fleshy stalks (the thickest being about a 
finger thick) of whitish colour, with light brown streaks. 
The juice was milky, of a greenish white colour, and had a 
sweetish taste. Mr. Schindler was, however, told that, 
after being kept for a few days, it turned sour and, like the 
stalks, became yellowish bro\^'n. The stalks break easily 
at the joints, and then form small cylindrical pieces. They 
had lost their leaves, which are said to be small and formed 
like those of the jessamine. This description, according to 
the above naturalists, would seem to agree tolerably well 
with the SarcosUtnma (akin to the common milk-weed), 
or some other group of Asclepiads, such as the Periploca 
aphylla which, as Mr. Baker states, has been traced by 
Dr. Haussknecht to 3000 feet in the mountains of Persia, 
and, according to Dr. Aitchison, is common also in Afghan- 
istan. A quotation from a medical Sanskrit work, to 
which attention was drawn by Prof. Max Miiller many 
years ago, states that, * the creeper, called Soma, is dark, 
sour, without leaves, milky, fleshy on the surface ; it destroys 
(or causes) phlegm, produces vomiting, and is eaten by goats.' 
The foul, sour smell of the Soma-juice is also alluded to in 
our Br&hmana (see the present volume, p. 266). Accord- 
ing to Prof. Spiegel \ the PArsts of Bombay obtain their 
Homa from Kerm^, whither they send their priests from 
time to time to get it. The plant at present used by the 
Hindu priests of the Dekhan, on the other hand, according to 
Haug, is not the Soma of the Vedas, but appears to belong to 
the same order. ' It grows (he informs us, Ait. Br. II, 489) on 
hills in the neighbourhood of Poona to the height of about 
four to five feet, and forms a kind of bush, consisting of a 
certain number of shoots, all coming from the same root ; 
their stem is solid like wood ; the bark grayish ; they are 
without leaves j the sap appears whitish, has a very stringent 
taste, is bitter, but not sour : it is a very nasty drink, and 
has some intoxicating eflect. I tasted it several times, but 



Eranische Alterthiimsknnde, III, p. 571. 



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xxvi satapatha-brAhmaa'A. 

it was impossible for me to drink more than some teaspoon- 
fuls.* In fact, several varieties of Sarcostemma or Ascle- 
piads\ somewhat different from those of Persia and 
Afghanistan, which are not to be found so far south, seem 
to have been, and indeed seem still to be, made use of for the 
Soma-sacrifice. And notwithstanding the objections raised 
by Dr. G. Watt, in his useful 'Notes,' appended to the 
translation of Professor Roth's papers, every probability 
seems to me to be in favour of the identity of the original 
Soma-plant with the shrub, the stalks of which are used 
by the Pirsts in preparing their HClm juice, or with some 
other plant of the same genus. It certainly would seem to 
have been a plant with soft, succulent stems. Dr. Watt 
remarks, ' We know of no instance of a succulent plant re- 
taining, for weeks or months, its sap within isolated twigs, 
and, indeed, we can recall but few plants which could with- 
stand, even for a day or two, the dry climate of India, so 
as to retain the sap within their isolated and cut twigs.' 
But, though at the time of the Vedic hymns fresh and juicy 
plants were probably used for the preparation of the sacred 
drink, in later times, when the plants had to be conveyed 
some considerable distance into India, the withered and 
shrunk plants were apparently found, with the admixture 
of water and other ingredients, to serve the same purpose. 
For we know from the description given in the Sfltras, that 
water was poured on the plants previously to their being 
beaten with the pressing-stones. This moistening or 
steeping is called ipy&yanam, or ' the making (the 
plants) swell.' After being then well beaten and bruised, 
they were thrown into the vat, or rather trough, partly 
filled with water, and were pressed out with the hand. 
Dr. Watt thinks Professor Roth ought rather to have 
published briefly the leading passages in the hymns descrip- 
tive of the plant, from which naturalists might have drawn 
their own conclusions. One might as well ask a Hebrew 

' Especially Sarcostemma intermedium, S, brevisiigma, and S. viminalt 
(or Asdepia* acida). See R. Roth, Zeitsch. der D. Moi^. Ges. vol. xxxv, 
p. 68 1 seq. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXVII 



scholar to give accurate descriptions of the • lily of the 
valley ' to enable the botanist to identify and classify the 
lovely flower which delighted the heart of ki.^g Solomon. 
It is exactly the want of an accurate knowledge of the 
nature of the Soma-plant which prevents the Vedic scholar 
from being able to understand some of the few material allu- 
sions to it. Thus the term amsn, commonly applied to 
the Soma-plant, used to be taken to mean simply ' plant ' 
or 'sprig, shoot;' but Professor Roth seems now inclined, 
perhaps rightly, to take it as referring to the intemode, or 
cylindrical piece between two joints of the stem. The 
substitutes approved of by the ^atapatha-br&hma»a, in case 
no genuine Soma-plants can be obtained, will be found 
enumerated at pp. 421-422 of the present volume. A de- 
scription of these plants, so far as they have been identified, 
is given in Professor Roth's paper. 

I cannot conclude these remarks without expressing my 
hearty thanks to those scholars who have done me the honour 
of reviewing the first volume of this work. To Professor 
Whitney I feel especially indebted for his most careful 
examination of my translation, and the searching, yet appre- 
ciative, criticism he has been good enough to apply to it. 
I shall feel content, if the present volume finds at least one 
reader as conscientious and painstaking. While I agree 
with most of Prof. Whitney's suggestions *, there are one or 
two points raised by him, and these perhaps of the more 
important, on which I have been unable to take his view ; 
and as some of these points involve renderings adhered to 
in the present volume, I take the opportunity here briefly 
to advert to them. 

The most important of these points probably is my 
rendering of the term kapclla by 'potsherd,' instead of ' cup, 
dish/ as proposed by Prof. Whitney. Instead of speaking 
of a sacrificial cake on eleven or twelve potsherds, we are 
to call it a cake on so many cups or dishes. The term 



* American Joanial of Philology, vol. iii, pp. 391-410 ; Proceedings of the 
American Oriental Sodety, October 188 a, p. xiv seq. 



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XXVlll SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

'potsherd' no doubt is somewhat awkward, and, had it 
been possible, I should have preferred to use the simple 
obsolete word ' shard ' or ' sherd ' for it ; but I decidedly 
object to either ' cup ' or ' dish.' I gather from his sugges- 
tion, that we take entirely different views of the purpose 
and nature of the kap^la. I have to reject the proposed 
renderings for the very reason for which they commend 
themselves to Prof. Whitney, namely, because they imply 
so many vessels complete in themselves. He asks, whether 
I suppose ' that the Brahmans made their offerings on frag- 
ments of broken pottery ? ' Well, I certainly believe that 
the kap&las are meant to represent the fragments of a 
broken dish. The sacrificial cake is to be baked on a dish, 
but for symbolic reasons this dish is supposed to be broken 
up into a number of pieces or kap&las. The symbolic signifi- 
cance of this seems to be a twofold one. On the one hand, 
the dish is to resemble the human skull. Hence we read ^at. 
Br. I, a, 1, 2, ' The cake is the head of YagHa. (the sacrifice, 
and symbolically the sacrificer himself); for those potsherds 
(kapdldni) are what the skull-bones (drsh^a^ kapilini) are, 
and the ground rice is nothing else than the brain.' On the 
other hand, the kaphas are usually arranged (see Part I, 
p. 34, note) in such a manner as to produce a fancied resem- 
blance to the (upper ') shell of the tortoise, which is a symbol 
of the sky, as the tortoise itself represents the universe. 
Thus with cakes on a single kapila, the latter is indeed 
a complete dish. In the same way the term kapdla, in the 
singular, is occasionally applied to the skull, as well as to 
the upper and the lower case of the tortoise, e. g. ^at. Br. 
VII, 5, I, a : ' That lower kapdla of it (the tortoise) is this 
world, for that (kapdla) is firmly established, and firmly 
established is this world ; and that upper (kapila) is yonder 
sky, for it has its ends turned down, and so has that sky its 
ends turned down ; and that which is between is that atmo- 
sphere : verily that same (tortoise) represents these worlds.' 
More usually, however, the term is applied to the single 

' Or perhaps the lower shell which represents the earth, being as it were a 
symbol of firmness and safety. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXIX 



bones of the skull (and the plates of the tortoise-case). 
Hence the Medint says (14nta 71), kap&lo 'stri jiro-'sthni 
sy&d, gha/ide^ jakale, vr^fe,— kaptlla may be used in the 
sense of ' head-bone,' in that of ' fragment of a pot,' &c., 
and in the sense of ' collection.' 

Professor Whitney takes exception to my occasionally 
translating &tman by 'body,' — an inaccuracy, he remarks, 
that might easily be avoided. I do not quite understand on 
what grounds he objects to this rendering. The original 
meaning of &tman doubtless is (breath) 'self, soul;' but 
surely there can be no question that it also commonly 
means ' body, trunk,' in contradistinction to the limbs, 
wings, &c. Thus we read Sat. Br. IV, i, 2, 25, 'The 
sacrifice is fashioned like a bird : the XJp&tnsu and 
Antary&ma are its wings, and the Up&mjusavana is its 
body^' 

My rendering of 'videgho ha mAthavaA' (I, 4, 1, 10) by 
' M&thava the (king of) Videgha,' instead of ' Vldegha (the) 
Mithava,' is rightly objected to. Indeed, I had already 
taken occasion, in the introduction to the same volume (I, 
p. xli, note 4), to make that correction. 

Prof. Whitney's remarks on ' yUpeaa, yopayitvA ' are 
adverted to at p. 36, note i of the present volume ; as are 
also those on ' ed ' at p. 465, note 2. In r^ard to the latter 
point he father does me wrong by supposing that I appa- 
rently regarded the particle (or particles) ' ed' (for which the 
K&nvA text seems to read ' 4 hi ') as a verb-form from the 
root 'i,' to go. The fact is that I followed Prof. Weber 
(Ind. Stud. IX, p. 249) in taking it to be a popular expres- 
sion, with a verb of motion understood, somewhat in the 
sense of the German 'hin;' e. g. 'Shall we go there?' — 
' Hin denn I ' i. e. ' Let us go then.' 

My translation of II, 4, 2, 1 9 is not quite approved of by 

* Professor Max Muller has been kind enoagh to send me a nnmber of 
passages from Upanishads and Aranyakas, in which Stman has the sense of 
'body, tinnk,' and is usually explained in the commentaries by xartra 
(itminai = rartrdTayav&i, BrtbadSr. Up. I, I, 2, J). The adverb adhy^tmam, 
he remarks, always means 'with reference to the body;' cf. Taitt. Up. I, 7 ; 
.^at. Br. IV, I, 3, i, the present volome, p. 265, note (. 



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XXX 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJ»rA. 

Prof. Whitney. There offering is made severally to the 
sacriiicer's grandfather and greatgrandfather with the 
formula * N. N., this for thee ! ' to which some authorities 
add ' and for those who come after thee.' This addition is 
rejected by the author on the ground that 'svayam vai 
teshiw/ saha yeshiw saha,' which I translated by ' since he 
himself is one of those to whom [it would be offered] in 
common.' Prof. Whitney takes exception to this, remark- 
ing that in that case, the phrase ' and those who (come) after 
thee ' might be added, without any reason to the contrary. 
But he forgets one important point, namely, that it would 
be a fatal thing for the sacrificer in this way to associate 
himself with the departed ancestors, and even make offering 
to himself along with them : it would simply mean that ' he 
would straightway go to yonder world,' that he would not 
live his fulness of days. The clause under discussion is 
elliptic, its literal translation being ' Himself surely (is) of 
those withal of whom (he is) withal.' This may either be 
taken in the sense in which I took it (see also St. Petersb. 
Diet. s.v. saha) ; or in a general way, ' He surely is one of 
those with whom he associates himself;' i.e. he would 
himself be a dead man. 

In the legend of Manu and the Flood (I, 8, i, i seq.) 
I find it impossible to accept Prof. Delbriick's conjecture, 
which Prof. Whitney thinks the best and only acceptable 
one, viz. that (in par. 4) the sentence ' jarvad ha^^asha Asa, 
sa hi ^yesh/^am vardhate ' is an interpolated gloss. My 
reason for not accepting it is the fact that the passage occurs 
likewise in the K4«va recension, and is thus authenticated 
for so comparatively early a period that the difficulty of 
accounting for the interpolation might be even greater 
than that of the interpretation of the passage itself. Pro- 
fessor Ludwig, in his kindly notice in 'Gottinger Gel. 
Anz.' 1883, proposes to take sa.sva.t in the sense of vivrtti : 
' It quite so (i. e. in accordance with the prediction) became 
a large fish.' Prof. Max MiiUer has again translated this 
legend in his ' India, what can it teach us?' p. 134 seq., where 
he renders this passage by ' He became soon a large fish 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXI 



{g'kasha), for such a fish grows largest' I am still inclined 
to take ^^ as ha as the name of some kind of fish, real or 
mythic. 

Professor Whitney once more discusses the vexed question 
as to the real meaning of ' G&t&vedsLS,' and thinks the trans- 
lation ' Wesen-kenner,' ' being-knower,' or ' he who knoweth 
[all] beings' to be unacceptable. He remarks that 'The 
word may, indeed, fairly be r^arded as an obscure one : that 
is to say, it is very strange that an appellation so frequently 
applied to Agni should not have its meanings distinctly 
pointed out, either by its appltcableness, or by parallel 
expressions used in the descriptions of the same god or in 
ascriptions made to him ; but no such explanation has been 
found obtainable from the Vedic writings.' It is no doubt 
a fact that at the time of Y4ska — who (7, 19) proposes five 
different derivations of the term, the first of which is the 
one given above, viz. ^t^ni veda, ' he knows (the things) 
that are bom' — the real meaning of the compound was 
unknown; and even at the time of the hymns the epithet 
seems to have been understood in different ways. That the 
meaning ' knower of beings ' was, at any rate, one of those 
commonly assigned to ' (?^tavedas ' by the Vedic poets, seems 
to me, however, sufficiently manifest from a number of 
parallel expressions used in reference to Agni, such as Rig- 
veda VI, 15, 13, vLnr4 veda. gznimSi £^ta.vedkA^, ' (7&tavedas 
knows all races (or existences);' I, 70, i, 4 daivy&ni vrat4 
^itv&n 4 manushyasya ^nasya ^nma, ' he who minds the 
divine ordinances, and the race of the human kind ;' ib. 3, 
devin^m ^nma martclM.; ka, vidv^n, ' knowing the race of 
gods and the men;' I, 189, i, vlrv&ni vayundni vidv4n, 
'knowii^ all works;' ib, 7, tvam t&n agna ubhaydn v 
vidv4n veshi, &c On the other hand, in 5at. Br. IX, 5, 1, 
68, the term is explained by ^ta»» ^ta.m vindate ; he 
takes possession of being after beii^, or of whatsoever is 
bom. How easily terms such as Critavedas and Wesen- 



* See Grassmann, WSrierbucb s. v. ; M. Bergaigne, III, 334, takes this 
passage to snpply the etymology of the word. 



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XXXll SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

kenner (kaower of beings) may assume different meanings, 
may be seen from Mr. Peile's remark (Notes on the Nalo- 
pikhyinam, p. 23), ' (7itavedas, the Vedic epithet of Agni, 
is described as the " knower of the essence " (?^ta), Grass- 
mann, Diet. s. v.' 

For the first chapter of the third book, treating of the 
ceremony of consecration, I have had the advantage of 
availing myself of the German translation, published by 
Dr. B. Lindner in his pamphlet, ' Die Dikshd,' Leipzig, 1878. 



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DATAPATH A-B RAH MAA^A. 

THIRD KANDA. 



THE AGNISH7"0MA. 




THE DtKSHA, or CONSECRATION. 

First Adhyaya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. They choose a place of worship. Let them 
choose (the place) which lies highest, and above 
which no other part of the gjround rises * ; for it was 
from thence that the gods ascended to heaven, and 
he who is consecrated indeed ascends to the gods. 
He thus sacrifices on a place of worship frequented 
by the gods ; but were any other part of the ground 
to rise above it, he would indeed be lowered while 
sacrificing: let them therefore choose (the place) 
which lies highest. 

2. While being high, that place should be even ; 
and being even, it should be firm ; and being firm, 
it should incline towards the east, since the east is 
the quarter of the gods; or else it should incline 

• Abhi-*t, ' to lie or rise above,' with SSy. Dr. Lindner takes 
bh&meA as abl., and translates 'whereon nothing but earth lies.' 
The Kdnra rec.has bhAmeA (e^^-) likewise in the preceding clause : 
' tad yad eva varshish/iam bhi^mes tad eva devaya^nam sydd ya- 
trinyad bhflmer nSbhiraylteto vai devi, &c.' The gods evidently 
ascended to heaven from the highest spot of the earth, and so is 
the sacrificer to choose the highest available place. See K&ty. VIF, 
I, II schoU.; L4/y. S. I, i, 17, ' na ^sya sthalataram (higher place) 
adfire syit' 

[26] B 

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satapatha-brAhmaaa. 



towards the north, since the north is the quarter of 
men. It should rise somewhat towards the south, 
that being the quarter of the Fathers. Were it to 
incline towards the south, the sacrifice would quickly 
go to yonder world; but in this way the sacrificer 
lives long: let it therefore rise somewhat towards 
the south. 

3. Let not the measure of the sacrificial ground 
be exceeded on the east side, since such an excess 
would be in favour of his spiteful enemy. It may 
be so in the south, and also in the north ; but that 
place of worship alone is thoroughly efficient where 
the measure of the sacrificial ground is exceeded in 
the west ; for to him (who possesses such a one) the 
higher* worship of the gods readily inclines. So 
much as to the place of worship. 

4. Now Yd^»avalkya spake, — 'We went to 
choose a place of worship forVArsh«ya*. Sit ya- 
ya^«a then said, "Verily, this whole earth is divine : 
on whatever part thereof one may sacrifice (for any 

' Or 'subsequent;' a play on the word 'uttara,' which has the 
meanings ' upper (superior), later, and left (north).' Dr. Lindner 
takes it in the sense of ' from the north.' Possibly uttara also 
refers to the Soma-altars (uttara vedi and uttara-vedi) to be 
prepared later on (see III, 5, i, i seq.) on the eastern part of the 
sacrificial ground. 

* The KS«va text reads, — Accordingly Y^gTiavalkya spake, 'VSr- 
8h«a intended to sacrifice (ayakshyata). Thus we went (ayama !) to 
look for a place of worship.' He who is known as SStyaya^i said, 
' Verily, this whole earth is divine : a place of worship there is 
wheresoever one sacrifices on it, after enclosing it with a ysi^s.' 
And thus indeed he thought, but the ofSciating priests doubdess 
constitute the (real) place (medium) of worship: where wise 
(priests) perform the sacrifice in due form, there alone no failure 
takes place. That (other definition) is not the characteristic of the 
place of worship. (Without final it i.) 



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Ill kAjVDA, I ADHYAyA, 1 BRAHMAJVA, 7. 3 

one), after enclosing (and consecrating) it with a 
sacrificial formula, there is a place of worship." 

5. ' It is, however, the officiating priests that con- 
stitute the place (or medium) of worship : whereso- 
ever wise and learned Brihmans, versed in sacred 
lore, perform the sacrifice, there no failure takes 
place : that (place of worship) we consider the 
nearest (to the gods)*.' 

6. On this (ground) they erect either a hall or 
a shed, with the top-beams running from west to 
east*; for the east is the quarter of the gods, and 
from the east westwards the gods approach men : 
that is why one offers to them while standing with 
his face towards the east. 

7. For this reason one must not sleep with his 



* That is to say, one who employs such skilled BrShmans for 
his officiating priests {rihng) may use sacrificial ground of any 
description. K&ty. VII, 1,18. 

* Pra^tna-vawja (prSg-va«ja, K.). The 'vsMSis' are the 
horizontal beams supported by the four corner-posts. In the first 
place two cross-beams are fastened on the corner-posts, to serve as 
the lintels of the eastern and western doors. Across them tie-beams 
are then laid, running from west to east, on which mats are spread 
by way of a roof or ceiling. The term 'prSiina-vawira' refers to 
these upper beams (upari-vawfa), and especially to the central beam 
(prtsh/ia-vaff»a or madhyavala) the ends of which rest on the 
middle of the lintels of the eastern and western doors ; cf S4ya»a 
on Taitt S. I, 2, i (vol. i, pp. 279, 286); Kity. VII, 1,20 schoU. 
Inside the Prd^na-va»tra there is the Ahavantya fire immediately 
facing the east door ; the Gdrhapatya fire facing the west door ; be- 
tween the two the altar ; and south of the latter the Dakshi»dgni. 
The shed (vimita) is to be erected on the back (west) part of the 
sacrificial ground, after the roots have been dug up. It is described 
as a square structure of ten (or twelve) cubits, somewhat higher in 
front than at the back ; with doors on each side (except, optionally, 
on the north). The fill, or hall, is to measure twenty cubits by 
ten. K4ty. VII, 1, 19-24 coram. 

B 2 



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SATAPATIIA-BRAHMAJVA. 



head towards the west, lest he should sleep stretching 
(his legs) towards the gods. The southern quarter 
belongs to the Fathers ; and the western one to the 
snakes ; and that faultless one is the one where the 
gods ascended (to heaven) ; and the northern quarter 
belongs to men. Hence in human (practice) a hall 
or shed is constructed with the top-beams running 
from south to north, because the north is the quarter 
of men. It is only for a consecrated, not for an 
unconsecrated person that it is (constructed) with 
the top-beams running from west to east. 

8. They enclose it on every side, lest it should 
rain upon (the sacrificer, while being consecrated): 
this, at least, is (the reason for doing so in) the 
rainy season '. He who is consecrated, truly draws 
nigh to the gods, and becomes one of the deities. 
Now the gods are secreted from men, and secret 
also is what is enclosed on every side : this is why 
they enclose it on every side. 

9. Not every one may enter it, but only a Brih- 
man, or a R^anya, or a Vai^ya, for these are able 
to sacrifice. 

10. Let him not commune with every one ; for he 
who is consecrated draws nigh to the gods, and 
becomes one of the deities. Now the gods do not 
commune with every one, but only with a Brdhman, 
or a RS^nya, or a Vaijya ; for these are able to 
sacrifice. Should there be occasion for him to con- 
verse with a .SCldra, let him say to one of those, 
'Tell this one so and so! tell this one so and so!' 

' (?) Iti nv eva varshSA. The same particles occur III, 2, i, 11. 
The KS»va text has, — 'lest it should freeze in winter, lest it should 
pour in the rainy season, and lest there should be burning heat in 
summer.* 



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Ill kAjVZ)A, 1 ADHYAVA, 2 BRAhMAWA, 1 . 5 

This is the rule of conduct for the consecrated in 
such a case. 

11. In the first place, having taken the two 
churning-sticks in his hand, he approves of the hall. 
Taking hold of the chief post of the front (east) side. 
he pronounces this sacrificial formula (Vi^. S. IV, i), 
'We have come to this place of worship on 
earth, wherein all the gods delighted.' Thereby 
that (place of worship) of his becomes acceptable to 
all the gods, as well as to the learned Brihmans 
versed in sacred lore ; and that (place of worship) of 
his, which those BrShmans versed in sacred lore see 
with their eyes, becomes acceptable to them. 

12. And when he says, 'Wherein all the gods 
delighted,' thereby it becomes acceptable for him to 
all the gods. 'Crossing over by means of the 
rik and s4man, and by the ya^us;' by means of 
the rik and sAman, and the ya^s, indeed, they reach 
the end of the sacrifice : ' May I reach the end of 
the sacrifice!' he thereby says. 'May we rejoice 
in increase of substance and in sap I' Increase 
of substance doubtless means abundance, and abun- 
dance means prosperity : he thereby invokes a bless- 
ing, ' May we rejoice in sap,' he says, because people 
say of one who enjoys prosperity and attains to the 
highest distinction, that 'he rejoices in sap;' there- 
fore he says, ' May we rejoice in sap !' 

Second Brahmajva. 

I. Let him perform the rite of consecration (dl- 
kshi) * in the afternoon. Previously to the shaving 

* The rite described in the following paragraphs is called apsu- 
dikshi, or ' consecration in water.' 



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DATAPATH A-BR Ah MA//A. 



of his hair and beard he may eat of what he likes, 
or whatever comes to hand ; for hereafter his food 
consists of fast-milk (vrata) only. But, if he does 
not care to eat, he need not eat anything. 

2. Thereupon they enclose a place ^ north of the 
hall, and place a vessel of water in it. Beside this 
the barber takes up his position. He (the sacrificer) 
then shaves his hair and beard, and cuts his nails. 
For impure, indeed, is that part of man where water 
does not reach him. Now at the hair and beard, 
and at the nails the water does not reach him : 
hence when he shaves his hair and beard, and cuts 
his nails, he does so in order that he may be conse- 
crated after becoming pure. 

3. Now some shave themselves all over, in order 
that they may be consecrated after becoming pure all 
over ; but let him not do this. For even by shaving 
the hair of his head and his beard, and by cutting 
his nails, he becomes pure : let him therefore shave 
only the hair of his head and his beard, and cut 
his nails. 

4. In the first place he cuts his nails, first of the 
right hand — for in human (practice) those of the left 
hand (are cut) first, but with the gods in this manner. 
First (he cuts those) of the thumbs — for in human 
(practice) those of the little fingers (are cut) first, 
but with the gods in this manner. 

5. He first passes (the comb) through his right 
whisker — for in human (practice they comb) first 
the left whisker, but with the gods in this manner. 

6. His right whisker he moistens first, with the 
text, 'May these divine waters be propitious 

* It is to be square and covered in on all sides with mats, and 
with a door on the east side. Kdty. VII, i, 25 schoU. 



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Ill kAnDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 9. 7 

unto me!' The reason why he says, ' May these di- 
vine waters be propitious unto me/ is this : the waters 
are a thunderbolt, for the waters are indeed a thunder- 
bolt ; hence wherever these waters flow they produce 
a hollow, and whatever they come near that they 
destroy (lit. burn up). Hereby, then, he appeases 
that same thunderbolt; and thus appeased, that 
thunderbolt does not injure him. This is why 
he says, 'May these divine waters be propitious 
unto me!' 

7. Thereupon he lays a stalk of sacrificial grass 
on (the hair of the whisker), with the text, ' O plant, 
protect me!' For the razor is a thunderbolt, and 
thus that thunderbolt, the razor, does not injure 
him. Thereto he applies the razor, with the text, 
' O knife, injure him not !' for the razor is a thun- 
derbolt, and thus that thunderbolt, the razor, does 
not injure him. 

8. Having cut off (part of the stalk and hair), he 
throws it into the vessel of water. Silently he 
moistens the left whisker ; silently he lays the stalk 
of grass on it ; and having silently applied the razor 
thereto and cut through (it and the hair), he throws 
them into the vessel of water. 

9. He then hands the razor to the barber, and the 
latter shaves off the hair and beard. When he has 
shaved the hair and beard S — 

* The text has, ' when he shaves (vapati) the hair and beard 
[when he shaves himself (vapate), K.] he bathes.' According to 
this it would seem that he does not bathe unless he shaves (?). See, 
however, KAty. VII, 3, 32, where the shaving is said to be optional, 
but not so, according to the commentary, the bathing. There 
seems also to be some doubt as to where the bathing is to take 
place. While, according to Karka, the sacrificer is to bathe in the 
vessel of water in the tent ; according to other authorities he is to 



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8 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

10. He bathes. For impure, indeed, is man : he 
is foul ^ within, in that he speaks untruth ; — and water 
is pure : he thinks, ' May I be consecrated, after be- 
coming pure ;' — and water is cleansing : he thinks, 
'May I become consecrated after being cleansed!' 
This is the reason why he bathes. 

11. He bathes, with the text (Vif. S. IV, 2 ; Rig- 
veda X, 17, 10), 'May the waters, the mothers, 
cleanse us!' whereby he says, ' May they cleanse*!' 
'May the purifiers of ghee purify us with 
(heavenly) ghee!^ For he, indeed, is thoroughly 
purified whom they have purified with ghee': accord- 
ingly he says, ' May the purifiers of ghee purify us 
with ghee!' — 'For they, the divine, take away 
all taint ;' now 'all' means 'every,' and 'taint' means 
what is impure; for they do take away from him 
every impurity : therefore he says, ' For they, the 
divine, take away all taint.' 

12. He steps out (from the water) towards the 
north-east*, with the text, 'Cleansed and pure 

do so in some tank, or other kind of bathing-place of standing 
water. Cf. Taitt. S. VI, 1,1, ttrthe snSti, tirtham eva samln&n&m 
bhavati. 

* I now take pftti (with Dr. Lindner) in the sense of 'foul, filthy, 
fetid,' and would correct the passage (I, i, i, i) accordingly. Pro- 
fessor Ludwig (Gettinger Gel. Anz. 1883, p. 49) proposes to take 
pfiti in the sense of 'pure,' both here and in I, i, i, i. 

* The Kd«va recension has the better reading, 'For they, indeed, 
now cleanse him when he bathes.' According to Taitt. S. VI, 1,1,3, 
he also sips (ajniti) some water with the view of internal puri- 
fication. 

' Lit ' for that indeed is well purified, whom they purified (i. e. 
when they purify anybody) with ghee.' The imperfect is rather 
strange. See also III, i, 3, 22. The Kfi«vas read, 'For that, in- 
deed, is well purified what is purified (yad pfiyate) with ghee.' 

* Pr4n ivodan=nttarapflrvdrdham, KSty. VII, 2, 15, i.e. ' towards 
the north with a slight tiun to the east.' Dr. Lindner takes ' udah ' 



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Ill kAxDA, I ADHyAya, 2 BRAnMAiVA, 1 8. 9 

I go forth from them;' for cleansed and pure he 
indeed goes forth from them. 

13. He then puts on a (linen) garment, for 
completeness' sake : it is indeed his own skin he 
thereby puts on himself. Now that same skin 
which belongs to the cow was originally on man. 

14. The gods spake, 'Verily, the cow supports 
everything here (on earth) ; come, let us put on the 
cow that skin which is now on man : therewith she 
will be able to endure rain and cold and heat' 

15. Accordingly, having flayed man, they put that 
skin on the cow, and therewith she now endures 
rain and cold and heat. 

16. For man was indeed flayed ; and hence where- 
ever a stalk of gp-ass or some other object cuts him, 
the blood trickles out. They then put that skin, 
the garment, on him ; and for this reason none but 
man wears a garment, it having been put on him as 
his skin. Hence also one should take care to be 
properly clad, so that he may be completely endued 
with his own skin. Hence also people like to see 
even an ugly person properly clad, since he is endued 
with his own skin. 

1 7. Let him, then, not be naked in the presence 
of a cow. For the cow knows that she wears his 
skin, and runs away for fear lest he should take the 
skin from her. Hence also cows draw fondly near 
to one who is properly clad. 

18. Now the woof of this cloth belongs to Agni, 
and the warp to VAyu', the thrum to the Fathers, 



as meant to explain the preposition ' ud.' This, howerer, does not 
account for the ' iva.' 

' AgneA parySso bhavati, vSyor anu^ido (?). The Black Yajfus 



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lo satapatha-brAhmajva. 

the fore-edge^ to the snakes, the threads to the 
All-gods, and the meshes to the asterisms. For 
thus indeed all the deities are concerned therein; 
and hence it is the garment of the consecrated. 

19. Let it (if possible) be a new one^, for the sake 
of unimpaired vigour. Let him (the Adhvaryu) tell 
(the Pratiprasthitrz) to beat it, in order that whatso- 
ever part of it an unclean woman has spun or woven 
may become clean. And if it be a new one, let him 
sprinkle it with water, so that it become clean. Or 
let him be consecrated in one which is laid aside to 
be worn (daily) after bathing, without being soaked 
(in some sharp cleansing substance) \ 

20. He puts it round him, with the text, 'T hou art 
the covering* of consecration and penance;' 
heretofore, indeed, this was the covering of him as 
one unconsecrated, but now it is that of consecration 
and penance : hence he says, 'thou art the covering 
of consecration and penance.' ' I put thee on, the 
kindly and auspicious;' whereby he means to 
say, ' I put thee on, the kindly and pleasing one ;' — 

(T. S. VI, I, i) reads, agnes tdshddhinam (^Mkopadhdnam tfishS^, 
tatra tantOn^m pQranaffl tfish^dhanam ; Siy.), viyor vatapdnam 
(viyund soshsinzm vdtapinam, S.). The waq> (pri^inatdna) and 
woof (otu), on the other hand, are by the Black Ya^us ascribed to 
the Adityas and Vifve Dtv&A respectively. 

' Praghdta, apparently the closely- woven part at both ends of the 
cloth from whence the loose threads of the nivi, or unwoven fringe 
(thrum), come out. The Black Ya^s ascribes it to the plants. 

' Literally, 'unbeaten (ahata), unwashed.' 

' That is to say, if it be not a new garment, it should be one 
that has not been washed by a washerman (with mautra, &c.), but 
worn daily after bathing. 

* Or, outward form, tanu. Its meaning sometimes comes very 
near to that of ' skin,' assigned to it by the lexicographers. Cf. Ill, 
2, 2, 20 ; 4, 3, 9. 



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Ill KANDA, I ADHyAyA, 2 BRAhMAJVA, 21. II 

'fostering a fair appearance;' for evil indeed 
is that appearance which he has heretofore fos- 
tered while unconsecrated ; but now (he fosters) 
a fair appearance: therefore he says, 'fostering a 
fair appearance.' 

21. He (the Adhvaryu) then makes him enter the 
hall. Let him not eat (the flesh) of either the cow 
or the ox ; for the cow and the ox doubtless support 
everything here on earth. The gods spake, ' Verily, 
the cow and the ox support everything here : come, 
let us bestow on the cow and the ox whatever vigour 
belongs to other species'!' Accordingly they be- 
stowed on the cow and the ox whatever vigour 
belonged to other species (of animals) ; and there- 
fore the cow and the ox eat most. Hence, were one 
to eat (the flesh) of an ox or a cow, there would be, 
as it were, an eating of everything, or, as it were, 
a going on to the end (or, to destruction). Such 
a one indeed would be likely to be born (again) as a 
strange being, (as one of whom there is) evil report, 
such as ' he has expelled an embryo from a woman,' 
'he has committed a sin* ;' let him therefore not eat 
(the flesh) of the cow and the ox. Nevertheless 
Yi^»avalkya said, ' I, for one, eat it, provided that it 
is tender.' 



• VayasSm, cf. Ill, 3, 3, 3. The Ki«va rec. has ' yad anyeshiw 
vayasSw yiiyam yad anyeshSm pajdnim.' 

* A different translation of this passage is proposed by Professor 
Delbrflck (Synt. Forsch. Ill, p. 25); but the Ka«va text (si taw 
hervaro 'dbhutam abhi^nitor giyiy& vi garbham niravadhtd yad 
veti tad u hovSJa) shows that we have here, as frequently, to supply 
itvATzA to the infinitive in tos. The K&nvi yad vi ('or some 
such thing ') would also seem to indicate that we ought to trans- 
late: — (as of one of whom) there is evil report: ' he has committed 
some such (iti) sin as the producing of abortion.' 



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12 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA. 



Third BrAhmajva. 

1. Having brought water forward', he takes out 
(the material for) a cake on eleven potsherds for 
Agni and Vish«u; for Agni is all the deities, 
since it is in Agni that offering is made to all 
the deities. Moreover Agni is the lower half, and 
Vish«u is the upper half of the sacrifice : ' I will 
become consecrated after encompassing all the 
deities, after encompassing the entire sacrifice,' thus 
he thinks, and hence there is a cake on eleven 
potsherds for Agni and Vish»u, 

2. Some then offer a rice-pap to the Adityas. 
This is referred to (in the passage, Rig-veda X, 
72, 8), ' There are eight sons of Aditi who were bom 
from her body; with seven she went to the gods, 
but MkrtAnda.' she cast off,' 

3. Now Aditi had eight sons. But those that are 
called ' the gods, sons of Aditi,' were only seven, for 
the eighth, MirtA«flfa, she brought forth unformed ^ : 
it was a mere lump of bodily matter*, as broad as it 
was high. Some, however, say that he was of the 
size of a man. 

4. The gods, sons of Aditi, then spake, ' That 

' Viz. the so-called 'prawtti^,' see part i, p. 9 note. The offering, 
described in the following paragraphs, is called the Dtkshant- 
yesh/i,' Consecration offering.' As to the formulas used at the 
offering, see Ait. Br. 1, 4 seq. 

* The bird, Vish«u, the sun. 

* Or, the eighth she brought forth undeveloped, as a m&rt&nthi 
(? either a bird, or, more probably, in accordance with Taitt S. VI, 
5, 6, i,=vyr2'ddham indam, 'an abortive egg'). See Rig-veda 
Sanhiti, translated by M. M., p. 239. 

* Sandegha; the St. Petersburg Diet, takes it in the sense of 
' doubt, uncertainty,' in this passage. 



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Ill KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAWA, J. 1 3 

which was born after us' must not be lost : come, let 
us fashion it' They accordingly fashioned it as this 
man is fashioned. The flesh which was cut off him, 
and thrown down in a lump, became the elephant : 
hence they say that one must not accept an elephant 
(as a gift)', since the elephant has sprung from man. 
Now he whom they thus fashioned was Vivasvat, 
the Aditya (or the sun) ; and of him (came) these 
creatures. 

5. He spake,' Among my offspring he shall be suc- 
cessful who shall offer that rice-pap to the Adityas.' 
Accordingly he alone succeeds who offers that rice- 
pap to the Adityas. Only that (cake) to Agni and 
Vish«u is, however, generally approved. 

6. There are seventeen kindling- verses for it*. In 
a low voice he offers to the two deities. There are 
five fore-offerings and three after-offerings. For the 
sake of completeness they perform the patnlsawyi- 
^s*; but he offers no samish/ayji^fus, lest, having 
put on that garment of the consecrated, he should 
reach the end of the sacrifice before its completion ; 
for the samish/ayajfus is the end of the sacrifice. 

7. He (the sacrificer) then gets himself anointed 
■ (with fresh butter), while standing east of the hall. 

For, having been flayed, man is sore ; and by getting 
himself anointed, he becomes healed of his soreness : 
for man's skin is on the cow, and that fresh butter 

' Or, perhaps, after the manner of us (anu). 

* Muir, O. S. T. IV, 15, reads ' parigriliwlySt' instead of ' pratigr/- 
hfftydt,' and translates, 'let no one catch an elephant, for an 
elephant partakes of the nature of man.' 

* For the ordinary eleven Sdmidhents (raised to the number of 
fifteen by repetitions of the first and last verses), see part i, p. 102, 
and for the two additional ones (dhayyS), ib. p. 1 1 2 note. 

* See part i, p. 356; for the Samish/ays^s, ib. p. 263. 



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14 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

also comes from the cow. He (the Adhvar3m) thus 
supplies him with his own skin, and for this reason 
he gets himself anointed. 

8. It is fresh butter, — for melted butter (ghee) 
belongs to the gods, and creamy butter^ to men. 
Here, on the other hand, it is neither ghee nor 
creamy butter ; it should rather be both ghee and 
creamy butter, for the sake of unimpaired vigour : 
by means of that which is of unimpaired vigour he 
accordingly makes him of unimpaired vigour. 

9. He anoints him from the head down to the feet 
in accordance with the tendency of the hair, with 
the text {Wig. S. IV, 3), ' Thou art the sap of the 
great ones.' The 'great ones,' doubtless, is one of 
the names of those cows, and their sap indeed it is : 
therefore he says, 'thou art the sap of the great 
ones.' 'Thou art life-giving: give me light!' 
There is nothing obscure in this. 

10. Thereupon he anoints the eyes. 'Sore, in- 
deed, is the eye of man ; mine is sound,' so spake 
Y^»avalkya. Dim-eyed, indeed, he was (heretofore) ; 
and the secretion of his eyes was matter. He now 
makes his eyes sound by anointing them. 

11. Now, when the gods slew the Asura-Rakshas, 
5'ush»a*, the Ddnava, falling backward entered into 
the eyes of men : he is that pupil of the eye, and 

* PhSff/a, explained as the first particles of butter that appear in 
churning (?). The Ki«va recension, on the other hand, reads 
'&gyim nishpiff/km ' (I) instead. Cf. Taitt. S. VI, 1,1, 4, Ghn'tam 
devdnim, mastu pitrmSm, nishpakvam (i.e. surabbi ghr;lam, 
' well-seasoned butter,' SSy.) manushyS»dm ; tad vai etat sarvade- 
vatyam yan navanttam; also Ait. Br. I, 3, Sgyam vai dev&nim, 
surabbi ghr<'tam manushySnSm, iyutam pitrinSM, navanttam gar- 
bh&n&m ; with Haug's note, Transl. p. 8. 

» The Ka«va text (MSS. 0. W.) reads 5i jna. 



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Ill KAjfDA, I adhyAya, 3 brAhmaata, 13. 15 

looks like a young lad^ Against him he (the sacri- 
ficer), now that he enters on the sacrifice, raises a 
rampart of stone all round himself, for the ointment 
is (produced from) stone. 

12. It is such as comes from mount Trikakud; 
for when Indra slew Vritra. he transformed that 
eye of his (Vr?tra's) into the mount Trikakud*. The 
reason, then, why (ointment) from mount Trikakud 
(is used), is that he thereby puts eye into eye. 
Should he be unable to obtain any Traikakuda oint- 
ment, any other than Traikakuda may be used ; for 
one and the same, indeed, is the significance of the 
ointment 

13. He anoints (the eyes) with a reed-stalk, for 
the reed is a thunderbolt. It is one with a tuft, in 
order to chase away the evil spirits'. For rootless, 

* Sa esha kantnakaA kumdraka iva paribhisate. A play on the 
word kantnaka, which has the double meaning of ' youth' and 
' pupil of the eye.' The St. Petersburg Diet, assigns also to kumS- 
raka the meaning of 'ball of the eye' in this (the only) passage. 
The K&ffva recension reads, Sa esha kumiraka iva kaninakiy&m 
(? both ' maiden' and ' pupil of the eye '). 

' ' Indra slew Vritn, his eye-ball fell away, it became collyrium.' 
Taitt. S. VI, I, I, 5. 

' Professor Delbrttck, S. F. Ill, 27, takes it thus, ' He brushes the 
eye with the end of a reed, for the reed is a thunderbolt capable of 
repelling mischief.' But, if ' virakshastSyai ' belonged to what pre- 
cedes, it would probably have to be construed with ' ^areshikayd 
'nakti,' the clause with 'vai,' giving the reason, being inserted 
parenthetically ; while, in an idiomatic rendering, it would have to 
be placed at the end: He anoints the eyes with a reed-stalk in 
order to chase away the evil spirits, the reed being a thunderbolt. 
This abstract dative of purpose is very common ; it being generally 
construed with what precedes, as, for instance, I, i, 4, i; 3, 3, 8; 
5. 3» 8; IS; III, i, a, 13; 19; 3, 6; 8; and, with a parenthetic 
clause with 'vai' intervening, III, 2, i, 13; IV, 5, 7, 7. Not less 
common is the analogous construction with a clause with ' ned ' 



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1 6 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAA^A. 

indeed, and unfettered on both sides, the Rakshas 
roams along the air ; even as man here roams along 
the airS rootless and unfettered on both sides: the 
reason, then, why it is (a reed-stalk) with a tuft, is 
to chase away the evil spirits. 

14. The right eye he anoints first; for in human 
practice the left (eye is anointed) first, but with the 
gods (it is done) thus. 

15. He anoints it with the text, 'Thou art the 
eye-ball of Vr/tra,' — for Vr/tra's eye-ball it indeed 
is; — 'Eye-giving thou art : give me the eye!' 
in this there is nothing obscure. 

16. The right eye he anoints once with the sacri- 
ficial formula, once silently; and the left one he 
anoints once with the formula, twice silently : thus 
he makes the left (or upper) one superior*. 

1 7. And the reason why he anoints five times, is 
that the sacrifice is of equal measure with the year, 
and five seasons there are in the year : he thus 
obtains possession of the latter in five (divisions), 
and therefore he anoints five times. 

18. He then purifies him with a cleanser (pavitra, 
strainer) of sacred grass ; for impure, indeed, is 
man : — he is foul within in that he speaks un- 
truth ; — and sacred grass is pure : ' Having become 
pure, I shall be consecrated,' thus he thinks; — and the 
stalks of sacred grass are a means of cleansing, — 



(' lest such an event should happen') instead of the dative of the 
abstract, cf. I, 2, i, 8 ; 9 ; IV, 5, 9, 3. 

* I now take this passage differently from my interpretation of 
I, I, 2, 4 ('and, in order that this man may move about the air, 
rootless and unfettered in both directions'). See also IV, i, i, 20. 

* ' Tad uttaram evaitad uttarSvat karoti;' 'uttarSfm ^vaitad iStta- 
ram karoti,' K&nva, recension. Cf. p. 2, note i. 



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m kAwda, I adhyAya, 3 brAhma;va, 22. 17 

' Having become cleansed, I shall be consecrated,' thus 
he thinks ; and therefore he purifies him with a 
cleanser of sacred grass. 

19. It may consist of one (stalk of g^ass) ; for 
that blower (or purifier, the Wind) is one only, and 
in accordance with his nature is this (cleanser) : 
hence it may consist of one (stalk). 

20. Or there may be three (stalks) ; for one, in- 
deed, is that blower, but on entering into man he 
becomes threefold, to wit, the out-breathing, the 
in-breathing, and the through-breathing ^ and in 
accordance with his measure is this (cleanser) : hence 
there may be three (stalks). 

21. Or there may be seven (stalks*); for there are 
seven vital airs of the head : hence there may be 
seven (stalks). There may even be thrice seven, — 
one and twenty: such indeed is perfection. 

22. He purifies him with seven (stalks) each time, 
with the text (VS^. S. IV, 4), 'May the Lord of 
thought purify me !' The lord of thought doubt- 
less is Pra^pati ^ : he thereby means to say, ' May 
Pra^Apati purify me!' 'May the lord of speech 
purify me !' The lord of speech doubtless is Vra^- 
pati*: he thereby means to say, 'May Pra^pati 
purify me!' 'May the divine Savitr? purify 
me/ — for well purified indeed is he whom the divine 

' See part i, p. 19, note 2. 

* The Taitt S. VI, i, i allows the option between (one), 2, 3, 5, 6, 
7, 9, and 21 stalks; while the Ait. Br. 1, 3 mentions only the 
highest number. 

* The Ki«va text adds, sa hi iittinSm ish/e, ' for he rules over 
the thoughts.' 

* The Kawvas read, ayaw vSva vikpatir yo 'yam pavate, tad 
enam esha puniti, 'the lord of speech doubtless is that blower 
(purifier, the wind) : hence it is he that purifies him,' 

[26] C 



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1 8 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

Savitri has purified^; therefore he says, 'May the 
divine SavitW purify me!' — 'with a flawless 
cleanser;' for that blower (the wind) is indeed a 
flawless cleanser : ' with that one,' he means to say ; 
'with the rays of the sun;' for they, the rays of 
the sun, are indeed purifiers ; therefore he says, 
'with the rays of the sun.' 

23. ' O Lord of the pavitra' (means of puri- 
fication), — for he (who is consecrated) is indeed 
the lord of the pavitra, — 'of thee, purified by 
the pavitra, — for he is indeed purified by the 
pavitra; — 'with whatsoever desire I purify 
myself, may I be able to effect it!' whereby he 
says, ' May I reach the end of the sacrifice !' 

24. He then makes him pronounce the beginning 
of the benedictions (Vif. S. IV, 5), 'We approach 
you, O gods, for desirable goods, at the open- 
ing of the sacrifice ; we call on you, O gods, for 
holy* blessings.' Thereby the officiating priests 
invoke on him those blessings which are their own. 

25. He (the sacrificer) then bends his fingers 
inwards, viz. the two (little fingers), with the text 
(V4f. S. IV, 6), 'Hail, from the mind (I take 
hold of) the sacrifice !' — the two (nameless or ring 
fingers) with, ' Hail, from the wide ether!' — the 
two (middle fingers)with, ' Hail, from the sky and 
earth !' — with,' Hail, from the wind, I take hold 
(of the sacrifice) ! ' he clenches both fists \ Not visibly 

' See p. 8, note 3. 

* I take yagiiiyisaJi as ace. pi. fern., as does Mahidh. Perhaps 
it ought to be translated ' for prayers proper at the sacrifice,' whereby 
he makes sure that each priest uses his own proper prayers during 
the sacrifice. 

' For the symbolic meaning of the closing of the hands, see 
III, 2, 1, 6 ; Ait. Br. I, 3, 20. 



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Ill kXnda, I adhyAya, 3 brAhmaata, 28. 19 

indeed is the sacrifice to be taken hold of, as is either 
this staff or the gjarment, — but invisible indeed are 
the gods, invisible is the sacrifice. 

26. Now when he says, ' Hail, from the mind 
(I take hold of) the sacrifice,' he takes hold of it 
from the mind ; — in saying, ' From the wide ether,' 
he takes hold of it from the ether ; — in saying, ' From 
heaven and earth,' he takes hold of it from those 
two, heaven and earth, on which this entire universe 
rests ; — and in saying, ' From the wind I take hold of 
(the sacrifice)' — the wind being the sacrifice — he 
takes hold of the sacrifice directly, 

27. And when he calls, 'Hail! HailM' — the 
'SvS.h4' being the sacrifice — he thereby appropriates 
the sacrifice. Here now he restrains his speech ; the 
sacrifice being speech : he thereby appropriates ^ the 
sacrifice. 

28. He (the Adhvaryu) then makes him enter 
the hall. He walks along the back of the Ahava- 
n!ya and the front of the Girhapatya', — this is his 
passage until the Soma pressing. The reason why 
this is his passage until the Soma pressing is this. 
The fire is the womb of the sacrifice, and the conse- 
crated is an embryo ; and the embryo moves about 

* That is, 'svShi' in each formula. The Sawhitd has twice 
' sv4hd' in the last formula (svih^ vdtad Srabhe svSha), to which 
this might refer, but neither recension of the Brdhma^a mentions 
the final ' svihL' 

* Literally, ' he takes within him' (as the speech confined within 
him through silence). 

* That is, he enters the hall by the front (east) door, then walks 
along the north side of the Ahavaniya and altar, and passes between 
the Girhapatya and altar to his seat south of the Ahavantya. The 
Pratiprasthitrt then silently anoints and purifies the Dtkshita's wife 
and leads her into the hall, either by the front or back door. 

C 2 



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20 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

within the womb. And since he (the sacrificer) 
moves about there (between the fires), and now 
turns round and now back, therefore these embryos 
move about, and now turn round and now back. 
Hence this is his passage till the Soma pressing. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

1. All formulas of the consecration are audgra- 
bha»a (elevatory), since he who is consecrated ele- 
vates himself (ud-grabh) from this world to the world 
of the gods. He elevates himself by means of these 
same formulas, and therefore they say that all formu- 
las of the consecration are ' audg^bha«a.' Now they 
also (specially) desig^nate these intermediate ones as 
' audgrabha«a,* because these are libations', and 
a libation is a sacrifice. For the muttering of a 
sacrificial formula is an occult (form of sacrifice), but 
a libation is a direct (form of) sacrifice : hence it is 
by this same sacrifice that he elevates himself from 
this world to the world of the gods. 

2. And again, the three libations which he makes 
with the dipping-spoon (sruva) are said to be ' ddhl- 
tayzL^s*.' The fourth libation is made for the sake 
of completeness ; while the fifth, which is made with 
the offering-spoon (srui, viz. the guhti), is the real 
audgrabha^a-libation : for he makes it with an 

* While all the fonnulas of the DikshI are supposed to be of an 
'elevatory (audgrabha»a)' character, the designation 'audgrabha- 
«Sni {yagtimshi, or elevatory formulas)' is specially applied to the 
five libations described in the succeeding paragraphs. The Kdnva 
text reads, — atha yad etdny avintarSm audgrabhaff^nt^ SkhySyanta 
Shutayo hy etS Shutir hy eva yzgn&h paroksham iva hi tad yad 
ya^r ^apaty etena hi tad ya^7ienodgr/'bh«tte.» 

* I. e. ya^s for some ' meditated' object 



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Ill kAjvda, I adhyAya, 4 brAhma^va, 8. 21 

anushAibh verse, and the anush/ubh is speech, and 
the sacrifice also is speech. 

3. By means of the sacrifice the gods obtained 
that supreme authority which they now wield. They 
spake, ' How may this (world) of ours be unattain- 
able by men!' They then sipped the sap of the 
sacrifice, as bees would suck out honey ; and having 
drained the sacrifice and effaced its traces by means 
of the sacrificial stake, they disappeared : and because 
they effaced (scattered, yopaya) therewith, therefore 
it is called yd pa (stake). 

4. Now this was heard by the /?/shis. They col- 
lected the sacrifice, just as this sacrifice is collected 
(prepared)' ; for even so does he now collect the sacri- 
fice, when he offers those (audgrabha«a) libations. 

5. He offers five libations, because the sacrifice is 
commensurate to the year, and there are five seasons 
in the year: thus he gains it (the year) in five 
(divisions), and therefore he makes five libations. 

6. Now then of the oblation (V^. S. IV, 7) : ' To 
the Purpose, to the Impulse, to Agni, hail!' 
At the outset he indeed purposes to sacrifice. What 
part of the sacrifice (is contained) in this (first liba- 
tion), that he now collects and makes his own. 

7. 'To Wisdom, to Thought, to Agni, hail!' 
with wisdom and thought he indeed conceives that 
he may sacrifice. What part of the sacrifice (is con- 
tained) in this (second libation), that he now collects 
and makes his own. 

8. 'To Initiation, to Penance, to Agni, hail!' 
This is merely uttered, but no libation is made. 

* Sam-bhr« ; on the technical meaning of this verb (to equip, 
prepare) and the noun sambh&ra, see part i, p. 276, note i. 



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22 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

9. 'To Sarasvatf, to P(ishan, to Agni, hail!' 
Now Sarasvat! is speech, and the sacrifice also is 
speech. And Ptishan represents cattle, because 
PAshan means prosperity (push^i), and cattle also 
means prosperity, since the sacrifice means cattle. 
What part of the sacrifice (is contained) in this (third 
libation), that he now collects and makes his own. 

10. As to this they say, ' These (three) libations 
are offered indefinitely ; they are unestablished, 
without a god : therein is neither Indra, nor Soma, 
nor Agni.' 

11. 'To the Purpose, to the Impulse, to Agni, 
hail !' — not any one (god we obtain) from thisM But 
Ag^i surely is definite, Agni is established : when 
he offers in Agni (the fire), surely those (libations) 
are thereby made definite, are thereby established : 
for this reason he offers at all libations with, 'To 
Agni, hail !' Moreover, these libations are called 
' 4dhltaya^6wshi.' 

12. 'To the Purpose, to the Impulse, to Agni, 
hail ! ' he says ; for by his own mind he purposes to 
sacrifice, and from his own mind he impels it (the 
sacrifice) when he performs it : these two deities — 
the Purpose and the Impulse — are meditated upon 
(idhlta) in his mind. 

13. 'To Wisdom, to Thought, to Agni, hail!' he 
says ; for with wisdom and thought he indeed con- 
ceives that he may sacrifice : these two deities — 

' This last sentence has probably to be taken ironically. In the 
KS«va text it seems to form part of the objection raised : Sa yat 
sarveshv agnaye sviheti ^hoty anaddheva v& etS Shutayo huyante 
'pratish/Aiti iva na hi kasyai ^ana devat4yai hdyante 11 dkutyai pra- 
yvgz. iti tan ndgnir nendro na somo, medh&yai manasa iti nato 
'nyatara^ itanaivam eva sarveshv, agnir uvS addha . . . 



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Ill KAJVDA, I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMA^VA, I 7. 23 

Wisdom and Thought — are meditated upon in his 
mind. 

14. 'To Sarasvatl, to PClshan, to Agni, hail!' he 
says ; for Sarasvatl is speech, and the sacrifice also is 
speech : this deity — Speech — is meditated upon in his 
mind. Pflshan, on the other hand, means cattle, for 
Pdshan means prosperity (push/i), and cattle means 
prosperity, since the sacrifice means cattle : hence 
cattle are meditated upon in his mind. And because 
these deities are meditated upon (d-dhlta) in his 
mind, therefore (these libations) are called 4dhf- 
taya^flwshi. 

15. He then offers the fourth libation, with the 
text, 'Ye divine, vast, all-soothing Waters! 
Heaven and Earth, wide Ether! let us render 
homage unto BWhaspati with offering, hail!' 
This (libation) truly is nearer to the sacrifice, since he 
praises the waters, and water is sacrifice. ' Heaven 
and Earth ! wide Ether ! ' he says, because he 
thereby praises the worlds. ' Let us render homage 
unto Br/haspati, with offering, hail!' he says; for 
Br/haspati is the Brahman, and the sacrifice also is 
the Brahman : for this reason also this (libation) is 
nearer to the sacrifice. 

16. But the fifth libation which he makes with 
the offering-spoon (sru/^), doubtless is the veritable 
sacrifice ; for he offers it with an anush/ubh (verse), 
and the anush/ubh is speech and so is the sacrifice. 

17. In the first place he pours the butter, which 
remains in the dhruv&, into the £v.htL. He then 
ladles with the sruva three times butter from the 
melting-pot into the ^uhCl : with what he takes the 
third time he fills the sruva ^. 

' The third time he holds the sruva over the guhd and pours 

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24 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

1 8. He offers, with the text (V4^. S. IV, 8 ; Rig- 
vedaV, 50, i), 'May every mortal espouse the 
friendship of the divine guide! every one 
prayeth for wealth : let him choose glory, that 
he may prosper, hail !' 

19. Now this (verse and libation) consists of five 
parts in respect of deities^: 'vi,rvo devasya' refers 
to the Wisve Devd^ ; ' netur ' to Savit^" ; ' marto 
vurlta ' to Mitra ; ' dyumna»« vrmita. * to Br^haspati, 
since Br^liaspati means dyumna (glory) ; and ' pu- 
shyase ' (for prospering) refers to Pdshan. 

20. This (libation), then, consists of five parts, in 
respect of deities ; — fivefold is the sacrifice, fivefold 
the animal victim, and five seasons there are in the 
year: the latter he accordingly gains by this (liba- 
tion) consisting of five parts in respect of deities. 

21. He offers this libation with an anush/ubh 
verse, because the anushAibh is speech, and the 
sacrifice is speech ; so that he thereby obtains the 
real sacrifice. 

22. As to this they say, ' Let him offer only this 
one : for whatever object the others are offered, that 
object he gains even by this one.' And, indeed*, if 



ghee from the pot into the sruva, so as to fill it ; after which he 
pours it from the sruva into the guht. Kdty. VII, 3, 1 8 comm. 

' The Taitt. S. (VI, i, 2, 5) divides the couplet into its four 
padas, which it assigns to Savitr;', the Fathers, the VLive DeviA, 
and Pfishan respectively. The various reading ' vijve' of the Black 
Ya^s, instead of ' vifvaA,' is very remarkable. 

* The author here states, in his own words, the reasons (by 'vai') 
which have led the teachers referred to to maintain that by offering 
this one oblation one gains all the objects in view. The Ka«va 
text includes the entire passage regarding the fivefold division of 
the formula and oblation (pars. 19-21) in the argument of those 
teachers. For a detailed description of the p0r«5huti, or full-offering, 



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Ill KANDA, 2 ADHYAyA, I BRAhMAJVA, I. 2$ 

he offers only this one, he would offer a full-offering ; 
and the full means everj^hing : hence he gains 
everything by this (oblation). And by filling the 
dipping-spoon (sruva), he fills the offering-spoon 
(guhii), and the latter he offers full. This, however, 
is a mere statement (of others' views)' ; but all (five) 
libations are offered. 

23. He offers this one with an anush/ubh verse. 
Being an anush/ubh verse, it consists of thirty-one 
syllables. Now there are ten fingers, ten toes, ten 
vital airs, and the thirty-first is the body wherein 
those vital airs are contained ; for this much consti- 
tutes man, and the sacrifice is a man, the sacrifice is 
of the same proportion as a man*. Thus, whatever 
the extent of the sacrifice, whatever its measure, to 
that extent he takes possession of it by means of 
this (libation), when he offers it with an anush/ubh 
verse of thirty-one syllables. 

Second Adhyaya. First 6r^i^«ivva. 

I. South of the Ahavanlya he spread^ ~tW M *i k ^^<-'' 
antelope skins on the ground, with the neck parts 
towards the east: thereon he consecrates him. If 
there are two (skins), they are an image of these two 
worlds (heaven and earth), and thus he consecrates 
him on these two worlds. 

see part i, p. 302, note 3. A similar view, that the full-offering 
renders other oblations unnecessary, is there given (II, a, i, 5). 

* Saisht mtmSmsaiva, 'This, however, is mere speculation,' 
KSffva recensioa 

* See I, 2, 5, 14, with note. The sacrifice represents the sacri- 
ficer himself, and thus he makes sure of his offering up his entire 
Self, and obtsuning a new divine Self, and a place among the 
immortals. 



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26 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiffA. 

2. They are joined (fitted) together along their 
edge', for these two worlds are also, as it were, 
joined together at their edge. At the hind part they 
are fastened together through holes : thus, after 
uniting (mithunlkmya) these two worlds, he conse- 
crates him thereon. 

3. But if there be only one (skin), then it is an 
image of these (three) worlds ; then he consecrates 
him on these (three) worlds. Those (hairs) which 
are white are an image of the sky ; those which are 
black are (an image) of this (earth) ; — or, if he likes, 
conversely : those which are black are an image of 
the sky, and those which are white are (an image) 
of this (earth). Those which are of a brownish 
yellow colour*, are an image of the atmosphere. 
Thus he consecrates him on these (three) worlds. 

4. And let him, in that case, turn in the hind end 
(of the skin)' : thus, after uniting these worlds with 
each other, he consecrates him thereon. 

5. He then squats down behind the two skins, 
with his face towards the east and with bent (right) 
knee ; and while touching them thus* at a place 

' The two skins are fitted together at the inner sides, and stretched 
along the ground by means of wooden pins driven into the ground 
and passed through holes all round the edge of the skins ; the hairy 
sides of the latter remaining outside (above and below). At their 
hind parts they are tacked together by ' means of a thong passed 
through the holes and tied together in a loop.' 

* YSny eva babhHkiva hartm. The Ka«va text reads, Yiny eva 
madhye babhrO«i vS hari«i vS, ' those in the centre (or between the 
black and white) which are either brown or yellow (grey). 

' According to KSty. VII, 3, 21 it would seem that the two hind 
feet, or one of them, should be doubled up (at the joint) and sewed 
under. According to the Sfttras of the Black Yji^s, on the other 
hand, the right fore-foot is turned under. 

* According to the Sfttras of the Black Ya^s, he is to touch at 



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Ill KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAVA, 9. 27 

where the white and black (hair) join, he mutters 
(Vif. S. IV, 9), 'Ye are the images of the Jitk 
and Siman;' — an image doubtless is what is con- 
formable* : ' Ye are conformable to the rt'^s and 
simans' he thereby means to say. 

6. ' I touch you.' Now, he who is consecrated 
becomes an embryo, and enters into the metres : 
hence he has his hands closed, since embryos have 
their hands closed. 

7. And when he says, ' I touch you,' he means 
to say, ' I enter into you.' ' Do ye guard me up 
to the goal of this sacrifice!' whereby he says, 
' Do ye protect me until the completion of this 
sacrifice !' 

8. He then kneels down with his right knee (on 
the skin), with the text, 'Thou art a refuge: 
afford me refuge!' for the skin (^arma) of the 
black deer it is indeed among men, but among the 
gods it is a refuge (^rma) : therefore he says, 
' Thou art a refuge : afford me refuge.' ' Homage 
be to thee: injure me not!' Now he who raises 
himself upon the sacrifice' doubtless raises himself 
to one that is his better ; for the black deer skin is 
a (means of) sacrifice. Hereby, now, he propitiates 
that sacrifice, and thus that sacrifice does not injure 
him : for this reason he says, ' Homage be to thee : 
injure me not !' 

9. He must indeed sit down first on the hind part 
(of the skin). Were he, on the other hand, to sit 
down at once in the middle (of the skin), and were 

the same time the white hair with his thumb and the black with his 
fore-finger. SSy. on Taitt S. I, 2, 2 (vol. i, p. 297). 

* SKyimsam vi esha upidhirohati yo manushya^ san ya^am 
up&dhirohati. Kinva recension. 



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28 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

any one there to curse him, saying, ' He shall either 
become demented or fall down headlong ! ' then that 
would indeed come to pass. Let him therefore first 
sit down on the hind part (of the skin). 

10. He then girds himself with the zone. For 
once upon a time when the Angiras were consecrated, 
they were seized with weakness, for they had pre- 
pared no other food but fast- milk. They then 
perceived this (source of) strength (viz. the zone), 
and this (source of) streng^ they put in (or round) 
the middle of their body as a (means of attaining) 
completion : and thereby they attained comple- 
tion. And so does he now put that (source of) 
strength in the middle of his body and thereby 
attain completion. 

11. It is made of hemp. Hempen it is in order 
to be soft. Now when Pra^pati, having become an 
embryo, sprung forth from that sacrifice, that which 
was nearest to him, the amnion, became hempen 
threads : hence they smell putrid. And that which 
was the outer membrane (and placenta) became the 
garment of the consecrated. Now the amnion lies 
under the outer membrane, and hence that (zone) is 
worn under the garment. And in like manner as 
Pra^pati, having become an embryo, sprung forth 
from that sacrifice, so does he become an embryo 
and spring forth from that sacrifice. 

12. It (the cord) is a triple one, because food is 
threefold, food being cattle. (Moreover) the father 
and mother (are two), and that which is born is a 
third : hence it is a triple (cord). 

13. It is intertwined with a shoot of reed (mu»/a) 
grass, for the sake of chasing away the evil spirits, 
the reed being a thunderbolt. It is plaited after 



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in KklfDA, 2 ADHyAyA, I BRAHMAiVA, 1 8. 29 

the manner of a braid of hair. For were it to be 
twisted^ sunwise (from left to right) as any other 
cords, it would be human ; and were it twisted con- 
trary to the course of the sun, it would be sacred to 
the Fathers : hence it is plaited after the manner of 
a braid of hair. 

14. He girds himself with it, with the text (V^^, S. 
IV, 10), 'Thou art the strength of the Angi- 
ras,' — for the Angiras perceived this (source of) 
strengfth; — 'soft as wool, bestow thou strength 
on me!' there is nothing obscure in this. 

15. He then tucks up the end of his (nether) gar- 
ment, with the text, 'Thou art Soma's tuck.' 
For heretofore it was the tuck of him, the unconse- 
crated ; but now that he is consecrated, it is that of 
Soma* : therefore he says, ' Thou art Soma's tuck.' 

16. He then wraps up (his head)'. For he who 
is consecrated becomes an embryo ; and embryos are 
enveloped both by the amnion and the outer mem- 
brane : therefore he covers (his head). 

17. He covers himself, with the text, 'Thou art 
Vish«u's refuge, the refuge of the sacrificer.' 
He who is consecrated indeed becomes both Vish«u 
and a sacrificer ; for when he is consecrated, he is 
Vish«u ; and when he sacrifices, he is the sacrificer : 
therefore he says, ' Thou art Vish«u's refuge, the 
refuge of the sacrificer.' 

18. Thereupon he ties a black deer's horn to the 

' Twisted and plaited is here expressed by the same term 
' sr»sh/a.' 

• Literally, but now (it being that) of (him) the consecrated, (it 
is that) of Soma. 

* With his upper garment, or, according to others, with a turban. 
Katy.VII, 3, 28 schoU. 



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30 ^ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

end (of his grarment'). Now the gods and the 
Asuras, both of them sprung from Pra^Apati, en- 
tered upon their father Pra^pati's inheritance : the 
gods came in for the Mind and the Asuras for 
Speech. Thereby the gods came in for the sacri- 
fice and Asuras for speech ; the gods for yonder 
(heaven) and the Asuras for this (earth). 

19. The gods said to Ya^na. (m., the sacrifice), 
' That Wiik (f., speech) is a woman : beckon her, and 
she will certainly call thee to her.' Or it may be, he 
himself thought, ' That VA>^ is a woman : I will 
beckon her and she will certainly call me to her.' 
He accordingly beckoned her. She, however, at 
first disdained him from the distance: and hence 
a woman, when beckoned by a man, at first disdains 
him from the distance. He said, ' She has disdained 
me from the distance.* 

20. They said, ' Do but beckon her, reverend sir, 
and she will certainly call thee to her.' He beckoned 
her ; but she only replied to him, as it were, by 
shaking her head : and hence a woman, when 
beckoned by a man, only replies to him, as it were, 
by shaking her head. He said, ' She has only 
replied to me by shaking her head.' 

21. They said, 'Do but beckon her, reverend 
sir, and she will certainly call thee to her.' He 
beckoned her, and she called him to her ; and hence 
a woman at last calls the man to her. He said, 
' She has indeed called me.' 

' The MSdhyandinas tied the horn to the unwoven end (thrum, 
dafi) of the nether garment which was tucked through (par. 15) 
and then allowed to hang down in front. The KS«vas, on the 
other hand, tied it to the hem of the upper garment (uttarasiAe ! 
Khiva, text); cf.KSty.VII, 3, 29 schoU. 



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Ill KAiVDA, 2 ADHYAyA, I BRAhMAJVA, 23. 31 



22. The gods reflected, 'That V4i being a woman, 
we must take care lest she should allure him'. — Say 
to her, " Come hither to me where I stand ! " and 
report to us her having come.' She then went up 
to where he was standing. Hence a woman goes 
to a man who stays in a well-trimmed (house). He 
reported to them her having come, saying, ' She has 
indeed come.' 

23. The gods then cut her off from the Asuras ; 
and having gained possession of her and enveloped 
her completely in fire, they offered her up as a holo- 
caust, it being an offering of the gods*. And in 
that they offered her with an anush/ubh verse, 
thereby they made her their own ; and the Asuras, 
being deprived of speech, were undone, crying, ' He 
'lava/i ! he 'lava/* '! 

* Yoshi vi iyaw vig yad enaw na yuvitS. The St. Petersburg 
Diet (s. V. yu) takes it differently, ' That Vik is indeed a woman, 
since she does not wish to draw him towards herself (i. e. since she 
does not want him to come near her).' Siyajta,, on the other hand, 
explains it elliptically, 'Since she has not joined him (no confidence 
can be placed in her).' The K&n\a. text reads: Ta u ha devi 
bibhaya^n iakrur yoshS vS iyam iti yad vd enam na yuviteti. 
Perhaps in our passage also we should read ' yuvtta ' (as proposed 
by Delbrtlck, Syntact. Forschungen III, p. 79), and translate, 'Verily 
that VSi is a woman : (it is to be feared) that she will [or, it is to be 
hoped that she will not] allure him [viz. so that Ya^a also would 
fall to the share of the Asuras];' 'Dass sie ihn nur nicht an sich 
fesselt ! ' For similar elliptic constructions with yad and the op- 
tative, se« paragraphs a6 and 27 ; and II, 2, 4, 3 [' Dass er mich 
nur nicht auffrisst I'] ; IV, 3, 5, 3 (' Dass uns nur die Rakshas nichts 
zu Leide thunl') ; IV, 6, 9, i. One would expect an ' iti' here. 

* And therefore requiring no priests' portion &c. to be taken 
from it 

* According to SSya«a, ' He 'lavo ' stands for ' He 'rayo (i. e. ho, 
the spiteful (enemies))!' which the Asuras were unable to pronounce 
correctly. The Kiftva. text, however, reads, te hSttavSio 'surS 
hallo haila ity et^ ha vihm vadantaA paribabh(ivuA ; (? i.e. He 



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32 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

24. Such was the unintelligible speech which they 
then uttered, — and he (who speaks thus) is a Mlei^^a 
(barbarian). Hence let no Brihman speak barba- 
rous language, since such is the speech of the 
Asuras. Thus alone he deprives his spiteful ene- 
mies of speech; and whosoever knows this, his 
enemies, being deprived of speech, are undone. 

25. That Yzgnz. (sacrifice) lusted after VA>^ 
(speech*), thinking, 'May I pair with her!' He 
united with her. 

26. Indra then thought within himself, ' Surely 
a great monster will spring from this union of Ya^»a 
and Vfi^ : [I must take care] lest it should get the 
better of me.' Indra himself then became an em- 
bryo and entered into that union. 

27. Now when he was born after a year's time, 
he thought within himself, 'Verily of great vigour is 
this womb which has contained me : [I must take 
care] that no great monster shall be bom from it 
after me, lest it should get the better of me!' 

28. Having seized and pressed it tightly, he tore 
it off and put it on the head of Ya^»a (sacrifice*); — 
for the black (antelope) is the sacrifice : the black 
deer skin is the same as that sacrifice, and the black 
deer's horn is the same as that womb. And because 
it was by pressing it tightly together that Indra tore 
out (the womb), therefore it (the horn) is bound 
tightly (to the end of the garment); and as Indra, 

as, ' ho, speech.') A third version of this passage seems to be 
referred to in the Mah&bhishya (Kielh.), p. 2. 

' Compare the corresponding legend about Ya^la and DakshiffS 
(priests' fee), Taitt S. VI, i, 3, 6. 

' ' Yagwasya rfrshan ; ' one would expect ' kr>sh»a(s&ra)s7a rfr- 
shan.' The Taitt. S. reads ' tim mr/geshu ny adadh&t.' 



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Ill KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 1 BRAHMAJVA, 3I. 33 

having become an embryo, sprang from that union, 
so is he (the sacrificer), after becoming an embryo, 
born from that union (of the skin and the horn). 

29. He ties it (to the end of the garment) with 
the open part upwards, for it is in this way that the 
womb bears the embryo. He then touches with it 
his forehead close over the right eyebrow, with the 
text, 'Thou art Indra's womb,' — for it is indeed 
Indra's womb, since in entering it he enters thereby^ 
and in being bom he is bom therefrom: therefore 
he says, ' Thou art Indra's womb.* 

30. Thereupon he draws (with the horn) the 
('easterly') line, with the text, 'Make the crops 
full-eared!' Thereby he produces the sacrifice; 
for when there is a good year, then there is abun- 
dant (material) for sacrifice ; but when there is a bad 
year, then there is not even enough for himself: 
hence he thereby produces the sacrifice. 

31. And let not the consecrated henceforth scratch 
himself either with a chip of wood or with his nail. 
For he who is consecrated becomes an embryo ; and 
were any one to scratch an embryo either with a chip 
of wood or his nail, thereby expelling it, it would 
die*. Thereafter the consecrated would be liable to 
be affected with the itch ; and — offspring (retas) 
coming after the consecrated — that offspring would 
then also be liable to be born with the itch. Now his 



' In the K4«va text ' ataA (therewith)' refers to the head of the 
sacrificer, — sa yai ^Airasta upaspnVaty ato vd enSm etad agre pra- 
vifan pravijaty ato vi agre ^SyamSno ^yate tasmi* i^irasta 
upasprwati. 

* ApSsyan mrityet=apaga^>tAan mntim prSpnuyit, SSy. — ?apS- 
syet, ' he would force it out and it would die.' The KS«va text has 
merely ' ayam mr/tyet (!).' 

[a6] D 



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34 ^ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJrA. 

own womb* does not injure its offspring, and that 
black deer's horn being indeed his own womb, that 
(horn) does not injure him ; and therefore the conse- 
crated should scratch himself with the black deer's 
horn and with nothing but the black deer's horn. 

32. He (the Adhvaryu) then hands to him a staff, 
for driving away the evil spirits, — the staff being 
a thunderbolt. 

33. It is of Udumbara wood (Ficus Glomerata), for 
him to obtain food and strength, — the Udumbara 
means food and strength : therefore it is" of Udum- 
bara wood. 

34. It reaches up to his mouth, — for so far extends 
his strength : as gp*eat as his strength is, so great it 
(the staff) is when it reaches up to his mouth. 

35. He makes it stand upright, with the text, 
'Stand up, O tree, erect; guard me from in- 
jury on to the goal of this sacrifice!' whereby 
he means to say, ' Standing erect, protect me till the 
completion of this sacrifice !' 

36. It is only now that some bend the fingers 
inward * and restrain their speech, because, they 
argue, only from now will he not have to mutter 
anything. But let him not do so ; for in like manner 
as if one were to try to overtake some one who runs 
away, but could not overtake him, so does he not 
overtake the sacrifice. Let him therefore turn in 
his fingers and restrain his speech on that (former) 
occasion. 

37. And when the consecrated (after restraining his 
speech) utters either a rik, or a siman, or a yj^s ', 

' That is, the womb from which he (the sacrificer) is born. 

• 11, 1, 3, 25- 

' Viz. in muttering the formulas mentioned above. III, 2,1,5 seq. 



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Ill kXnDA, 2 ADHYAyA, I BRAHMAJVA, 4O. 35 

he thereby takes a firmer and firmer hold of the 
sacrifice : let him therefore turn in his fingers and 
restrain his speech on that (former) occasion. 

38. And when he restrains his speech — speech 
being sacrifice — he thereby appropriates the sacri- 
fice to himself. But when, from speech restrained, 
he utters any sound (foreig^n to the sacrifice), then 
that sacrifice, being set free, flies away. In that 
case, then, let him mutter either a rik or a yz^us 
addressed to Vish«u, for Vish«u is the sacrifice : 
thereby he again gets hold of the sacrifice ; and 
this is the atonement for that (transgression). 

39. Thereupon some one * calls out, ' Consecrated 
is this Brahman, consecrated is this Brihman :' him, 
being thus announced, he thereby announces to 
the gods : ' Of gp-eat vigour is this one who has 
obtained the sacrifice ; he has become one of yours : 
protect him !' this is what he means to say. Thrice 
he says it, for threefold is the sacrifice. 

40. And as to his saying, ' Brihman,' uncertain, as 
it were, is his origfin heretofore*; for the Rakshas, 
they say, pursue women here on earth, and .so the 
Rakshas implant their seed therein. But he, for- 
sooth, is truly born, who is born of the Brahman 
(neut), of the sacrifice : wherefore let him address 
even a Ri^nya, or a Vaijya, as Brdhman, since he 
who is born of the sacrifice is born of the Brahman 
(and hence a Brihmawa). Wherefore they say, ' Let 
no one slay a sacrificer of Soma ; for by (slaying) a 
Soma-sacrificer he becomes guilty of a heinous sin*!' 

* Or, puts it in himself, encloses it within himself. 

* That is, some one other than the Adhvaryu, viz. the Pratipra- 
sthStrt or some other person, Kity. VII, 4,11 scholl. 

' That is, inasmuch as he may be of Rakshas origin. 

* Viz. of the crime of Brihmanicide (brahmahatyd). 

D 2 



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36 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 



Second BrAhmajva. 

1. He maintains silence ; and silently he remains 
seated till sunset. The reason why he maintains 
silence is this: 

2. By means of the sacrifice the gods gained that 
supreme authority which they now wield. They 
spake, ' How can this (world) of ours be made un- 
attainable to men ?' They sipped the sap of the 
sacrifice, even as bees would suck out honey j and 
having drained the sacrifice and scattered it by 
means of the sacrificial post, they disappeared : and 
because they scattered (yopaya, viz. the sacrifice) 
therewith, therefore it is called y6pa (post) '. 

3. Now this was heard by the -ffeshis. They 
collected the sacrifice. As that sacrifice was col- 
lected (prepared)*, so does he who is consecrated 
collect the sacrifice (by keeping his speech within 
him), — for the sacrifice is speech. 

* Professor Whitney (American Journal of Philology, III, p. 402) 
proposes to take yopaya here in the sense of ' to set up an obstacle, 
to block or bar the way.' He remarks, ' How the setting up of a post 
should operate to " efface traces " cannot easily be made to appear.' 
1 am not aware that any one has supposed that it was by the ' setting 
up' of the post that the traces of the sacrifice were obliterated. From 
what follows — ' They collected the sacrifice ' — it seems to me pretty 
clear that our author at any rate connects 'yopaya' with the root yu, 
to mix, stir about, and hence to efface the traces by mixing with the 
ground, or by scattering about. This causative was evidently no 
longer a living form, but resorted to for etymological purposes. 

• Or, perhaps. They collected the sacrifice in the same way as 
this (present) sacrifice has been collected. See, however, the cor- 
responding passage III, 2, 2, 29; 4, 3, 16. The Kinva text is 
clearer: Tarn yathi yatharshayo yzgnsim samabharams tathSyam 
yagiiah sambhr/to yatho vai tad r/shayo yagitAm samabharann 
evam u v& esha etad yagnam sambharati yo dikshate. 



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Ill KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 7. 37 

4. When the sun has set, he breaks silence. Now 
Pra^pati is the year, since the sacrifice is Prs^pati ; 
and the year is day and night, since these two revolv- 
ing produce it. He has been consecrated during 
the day, and he has gained the night : as great as 
the sacrifice is, as great as is its extent, to that extent 
has he gained it before he breaks silence. 

5. Some, however, make him break his silence on 
seeing the (first) star^ arguing that then the sun has 
actually set. But let him not do so, for what would 
become of them if it were cloudy ? Let him therefore 
break silence as soon as he thinks the sun has set. 

6. Now, some make him break silence by the 
formula, 'Earth! ether! sky!' arguing that thereby 
they strengthen the sacrifice, they heal the sacrifice. 
But let him not do so; for he who breaks silence 
with that (formula) does not strengthen the sacrifice, 
does not heal the sacrifice. 

7. Let him rather break silence with this one 
(Vi^. S. IV, 1 1), ' Prepare ye the fast-food ! pre- 
pare ye the fast-food! [prepare ye the fast- 
food!] Agni is the Brahman, Agni is the sacri- 
fice ; the tree is meet for the sacrifice.' For 
this indeed is his sacrifice, this is his havis-offering at 
this (rite of consecration), even as the Agnihotra was 
heretofore*. In thus preparing the (Soma) sacrifice 
by means of the sacrifice, he establishes the sacrifice 



* 'After pointing out (some) stars [nakshatrSai dawayitvi],* 
K&rm recension. Cf. Taitt. S.VI, r, 4, 4, 'when the stars have 
risen, he breaks silence with " Prepare the fast-food 1" ' 

' That is to say, the eating of the fast-food, consisting chiefly of 
milk, takes, as it were, the place of the Agnihotra, or evening and 
morning sacrifice, which he is not allowed to perform during the time 
of his consecration. 



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38 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

in the sacrifice, and carries on the sacrifice by means 
of the sacrifice ; for (the pzirtaking of) that fast-food 
is indeed carried on by him till the pressing of the 
Soma. Thrice he pronounces (the first words'), for 
threefold is the sacrifice. 

8. Moreover, he breaks silence, after turning 
round towards the fire. He, on the other hand, who 
breaks silence with any other (formula) but this', 
does not strengthen the sacrifice, does not heal 
the sacrifice. In pronouncing the first (part of the 
formula)' he utters the truth of speech*. 

9. ' Agni is the Brahman ' (neut,), he says, for 
Agni is indeed the Brahman (sacerdotium) ; — ' Agni 
is the sacrifice,' for Agpii is indeed the sacrifice ; — 
'the tree is meet for the sacrifice,' for trees' are 
indeed meet for the sacrifice, since men could not 
sacrifice, if there were no trees : therefore he says, 
'the tree is meet for the sacrifice.' 

10. Thereupon they cook the fast^food for him. 
For he who is consecrated draws nigh to the gods and 
becomes one of the deities. But the sacrificial food 
of the gods must be cooked, and not uncooked: 
hence they cook it, and he partakes of that fast-milk 

' Viz. the injunction ' Prepare ye the fast-food I' which is indeed 
read thrice in the Ki»va text, where the arrangement of these 
paragraphs is much clearer. 

• Thus S&y. ' ato 'nyena, bhflr bhuva^ suvar ityanena ' (MS. I. O. 
657). Dr. Lindner makes ataA refer to Agni. The KS»va text 
begins the passage, corresponding to paragraphs 7 and 8 : ' So 'gnim 
tkshamSm) visrt^te vratam krinuta (thrice) etad vfi etasya havir 
esha yagno yad vratam.' 

' That is, the words ' Agni is the Brahman.' 

* Viz. because 'the Brahman (neut.) is the truth (or essence, 
satyam),' SSy. 

' Viz. trees from which sacrificial implements, fire-wood, the 
sacrificial stake^ &c., are obtained. 



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HI KANDA, 2 ADHVAYA, 2 BRAHMAVA, 1 4. 39 

(vrata) and does not offer it in the fire. The reason 
why he eats the fast-food and does not offer it in the 
fire is this : 

11. By means of the sacrifice the gods gained that 
supreme authority which they now wield. They 
spake, ' How can this (world) of ours be made un- 
attainable to men?' They sipped the sap of the 
sacrifice, even as bees would suck out honey ; and 
having drained the sacrifice and scattered it by 
means of the sacrificial post, they disappeared. 
And because they scattered (yopaya) therewith, 
therefore it is called yfipa (post). 

12. Now this was heard by the Jiishis. They 
collected the sacrifice. As that sacrifice was col- 
lected, so does he who is consecrated now become 
the sacrifice, for it is he that carries it on, that pro- 
duces it. And whatever (sap) of the sacrifice was 
sucked out and drained, that he now restores again by 
sipping the fast-milk and not offering it in the fire ; 
for, assuredly, were he to offer it in the fire, he would 
not replenish (the sacrifice). But let him, nevertheless, 
think (that he does so) sacrificing and not the reverse. 

13. For, verily, these vital airs are bom of the 
mind, endowed with mind', of intelligent power'' : 
Agni is speech; Mitra and Varu«a are the out- 
breathing and the in-breathing ; Aditya (the sun) is 
the eye ; and the All-gods are the ear, — it is unto 
these deities that offering is thereby made by him. 

14. Now, some add both rice and barley to the 
first (day's) fast-milk, arguing, — " By means of these 
two substances (rasa) we restore what part of the 
sacrifice was sucked out and drained; and, should 

' ManoyUif (?), ' mind-yoked,' i.e. having thoughts for their team. 
* Cf. paragraph 18. 



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40 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA, 

the vrata-cow yield no milk, he may prepare his fast- 
food of whichever of these (cereals) he pleases ; and 
thus both the rice and the barley are ' taken hold of 
by him." But let him not do this ; for he who adds 
both rice and barley (to the milk) neither replenishes 
the sacrifice nor heals it. Let him therefore add only 
the one or the other (cereal). Both the rice and 
barley doubtless form his (havis) material for offering 
(at the New and Full-moon Sacrifice), and when they 
do so become his material for offering, then they are 
also ' taken hold of '' by him. Should the vrata-cow 
yield no milk, let him prepare the fast-food of which- 
ever of them he pleases. 

15. Some, again, add to the first (day's) fast-food 
(vrata) all manner of vegetables and fragrant (season- 
ing), arguing, — ' If disease were to befall him, he 
might cure it by whatever thereof he pleases, as if 
he cured it by the fast-milk ^* But let him not 

* Anv&rabdha has here the usual sacrificial meaning of ' taken 
hold of (from behind),' with perhaps something of that of taken (as 
medicine =einnehmen).' Thus at the invocation of the !</&,, the 
sacrificer has to touch (anv-Srabh) the idi from behind, thereby 
keeping up his connection, and identifying himself, with the sacrifice. 
Cf. part i, p. 228, note i; and III, 2, 4, 15. Hence the author, 
making use of the term suggested by those he criticises, argues that 
as both kinds of material have already been used and therefore 
touched (anvSrabdha) by him at the New and Full-moon Sacrifice 
(Saya«a), they have therefore been taken possession of by him. It is 
possible, though scarcely likely, that the verb may have reference 
hereto the anvdrambha«ty4 ish/i, — or preliminary ceremony of 
the first performance of the New and Full-moon Sacrifice, — with 
which the present use of these cereals would, in that case, be identified, 
as that of the vrata-milk was with the Agnihotra (cf. paragraph 7 
above). The Ka«va text has the verb &-rabh instead, yathS 
havish^rabdhena bhisha^ed ity evam etat. 

' That is to say, though the restoration might be due to the 
medicinal properties of some of those ingredients, it could be 
ascribed to the milk. 



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Ill kKnDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAATA, I 7. 4 1 

do this, lest he should do what is inauspicious to 
the sacrifice; for those people do at the sacrifice 
what is a human act, and inauspicious to the sacri- 
fice assuredly is that which is human. If any disease 
were to befall him who is consecrated, let him cure it 
wherewith he pleases ; for completion is proper ^ 

16. He (the Adhvaryu) hands the fast-food to 
him, after letting the ordinary (meal-)time pass, — viz. 
the evening-milk in the latter part of the night, and 
the morning-milk in the afternoon, — for the sake of 
distinction : he thereby distinguishes the divine from 
the human. 

1 7. And when he is about to hand the fast-food 
to him he makes him touch water*, with the text, 
'For protection we direct our thoughts to 
divine devotion, the source of supreme mercy*, 
the bestower of glory and the bearer of sacri- 
fices*: may it prosper our ways, according to 
our desire!' Heretofore, indeed, it was for a 
human meal that he cleansed himself, but now it is 
for the sake of divine devotion : therefore he says, 
' For the sake of assistance we turn our thoughts to 
divine devotion, the source of supreme mercy, the 
bestower of glory, the bearer of sacrifices : may it 

* SSya«a takes this to mean, that, as above all the consumma- 
tion of the sacrifice is desirable, one should in case of disease cure 
it by any of those drugs without their being taken (anvSrabdha) 
sacrificially, or as part of the sacrificial performance. 

" According to the Kdnva text, the sacrificer first washes himself 
(nenikte) and then sips water (Sidmati); and having drunk the 
fast-milk, he touches water (apa upasprwati). 

* Or, perhaps, ' we meditate on the divine intelligence, the most 
merciful.' 

* Yaj-wavShasam ('bringing, or bearing, worship ') ; thus also 
Taitt. S. I, a, 2. The K&nvz text reads vifvadhdyasam, 'all- 
nourishing, all-sustaining.' 



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42 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAftTA. 

prosper our ways, according to our desire !' When- 
ever, being about to take the fast-food, he touches 
water, let him touch it with this same (formula). 

1 8. Thereupon he drinks the fast-food, with the 
text, 'May the gods favour us, they who are 
born of the. mind, and endowed with mind\ 
and of intelligent power! may they protect 
us! Hail to them!' Thus that (fast-food) comes 
to be for him (by means of the SvdhS.) as an oblation 
consecrated by the Vasha/. 

19. Having drank the fast-food, he touches his 
navels with the text (V^. S. IV, 12), 'Ye waters 
that have been drank, may ye become palat- 
able and auspicious within tis! may they 
prove agreeable to us, freeing us from dis- 
ease and weakness and sin, — they the divine, 
the immortal, the holy !' Now, he who is conse- 
crated draws nigh to the gods and becomes one of 

'the deities ; but the sacrificial food of the gods is 
not increased (with other material): hence, if in 
handing the fast-food (to the consecrated) he increases 
it (with other milk), he commits a fault and breaks the 
fast. This (formula), however, is the atonement for 
that (transgression), and thus that fault is not com- 
mitted by him, and he does not break the fast (or 
vow): therefore he says, ' Ye waters ....!' When- 
ever, after drinking the fast-food, he touches his 
navel, let him touch it with this (formula) ; for who 

' See p. 39, note 2. The Ki«va text here again identifies the 
divinities referred to in the text with the vital airs. 

* Having eaten and touched water, he strokes his belly (udaram 
abhimrwate), KS«v. The K&nva, text renders the meaning quite 
clear: Uta vaittvram vratam bhavati tat kshudrataram asad iti 
vopotsi^aty, alpam v& bhavati tad bhflyask&myopotsi^^iatL 



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Ill KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAUMAATA, 21. 43 

knows whether (or not) he who hands the fast-food 
(to the consecrated) increases it (with other milk)M 

20. When he intends to pass urine, he takes up 
a clod of earth or some other object by means of the 
deer's horn, with the text (Vi^. S. IV, 13), 'This 
(O Earth) is thy covering meet for worship.' 
For this earth truly is divine, and serves as a place 
for the worship of the gods : it must not be defiled 
by him who is consecrated. Having lifted up this its 
sacrificially pure covering*, he now relieves himself 
on its impure body.^with the formula, ' I discharge 
not offspring, but waters,' — for so indeed he 
does'; 'delivering from trouble, and conse- 
crated by S villi,' — for they do indeed deliver from 
trouble what is pressed together inside : therefore 
he says, 'delivering from trouble,' — 'consecrated 
by Svihi, enter ye the earth !' whereby he means 
to say, ' Having become offerings, do ye enter the 
earth, appeased 1' 

21. Thereupon he throws the clod of earth down 
again, with the text, ' Unite with the earth!' for 
truly this earth is divine, and serves as a place for 
the worship of the gods : it must not be defiled by 
him who is consecrated. Having lifted up this its 

' No other fresh milk is to be added to that obtained by one milk- 
ing of the-vratadughi (fast-milk) cow (Kdty.VII, 4, 29); but the 
preceding formula is to be muttered in order to obviate any evil 
consequences arising from a possible secret breach of this rule, on 
the part of him who hands the milk to the sacrificer. Dr. Lindner 
takes upotsi^ in the sense of ' to spill,' but I find no authority for 
this rendering, which neither the prep, up a, nor ab hi (in the equiva- 
lent abhyutsi^) would seem to admit of. 

' See p. 10, note 4. 

' ' Ubhayaxn v& ata ety dpar kti retar ka. ; sa etad apa eva mu^iati 
na pr^m.' 



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44 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

sacrificially pure covering, he has relieved himself on 
its impure body, and now restores to it this its pure 
covering : therefore he says, ' Unite with the earth !' 

22. He then g^ves himself up to Agni (the fire) 
for protection and lies down to sleep. For he who 
is consecrated draws nigh to the gods and. becomes 
one of the deities ; but the gods do not sleep, while to 
him sleeplessness is not vouchsafed ; and Agni being 
Lord of vows to the gods, it is to him that he now 
commits himself and lies down to sleep, with the 
text (V^. S. IV, 14), ' O Agni, be thou a good 
waker: may we thoroughly refresh ourselves!' 
whereby he says, ' O Agni, wake thou : we are going 
to sleep!' — 'Guard us unremittingly!' whereby 
he means to say, ' protect us heedfully !' — ' Make us 
awake again!' whereby he means to say, 'Order 
so that, having rested here, we may awake safely.' 

23. And when he has slept and does not wish to 
fall asleep ag^ain, (the Adhvaryu) makes him mutter 
the text (Va^. S. IV, 15), ' Thought and life have 
come back to me, breath and soul have come 
back to me, eye and ear have come back to 
me;' for all these depart from him when he sleeps; 
the breath alone does not; and after he has slept 
he again unites with them : therefore he says, 
' Thought and life have come back to me . . .' — 'May 
Agni Vai^v&nara, the unassailable preserver 
of lives, preserve us from mishap and shame!' 
whereby he means to say, ' May Agni save us from 
whatever mistake (may be committed) on this occa- 
sion, either by sleep or otherwise:' this is why he 
says, ' May Agni Vai^rSnara, the unassailable pre- 
server of lives, preserve us from mishap and shame !' 

24. For, when he who is consecrated utters any- 



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Ill kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaj^a, 26. 45 

thing that is foreig^n to the vow, or when he becomes 
angry, he commits a fault and breaks his vow, since 
suppression of anger. behoves him who is consecrated. 
Now, Agni is the Lord of vows among the gods, — 
it is to him therefore that he resorts (V5^. S. IV, 16; 
Rig-veda VIII, 11, 7): 'Thou, O Agni, art the 
divine guardian of vows among men, to whom 
praise is due at the sacrifices.' This, then, is 
his atonement for that (transgression); and thus 
that fault is not committed by him, and he does 
not break his vow : therefore he says, ' Thou, O 
Agni, art the divine guardian of vows among men, 
to whom praise is due at the sacrifices,' 

25, And whatever (gift) people offer to him\ 
thereon he (the Adhvaryu) makes him pronounce the 
text, 'Bestow this much, O Soma, bring morel' 
for Soma indeed it is that appropriates for the con- 
secrated whatever people offer to him : when he says, 
' Bestow this much, O Soma,' he means to say, ' Be- 
stow this much on us, O Soma;' and by 'Bring 
more,' he means to say, 'Fetch more for us!' — 'The 
divine Savitrz, the bestower of wealth, hath 
bestowed wealth on us;' whereby that (gift) 
comes to be impelled by Savit^i with a view to 
(further) gifts. 

26. Before sunset he (the Adhvaryu) says, ' Con- 
secrated, restrain thy speech !' and after sunset he re- 
leases speech. Before sunrise he says, ' Consecrated, 
restrain thy speech!' and after sunrise he releases 

' ' And if they were to bring him either a garment or a cow, let 
him address it with the text — .' K5«va text. According to some 
anthorities the Dtkshita is to go about for twelve days begging his 
means of subsistence, and whatever he obtains he is to touch and 
consecrate by the above text. Kdty. VII, 5, 3, comm. 



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46 ^atapatha-brAhmajva. 

his speech, — for the sake of continuity : with the night 
he continues the day, and with the day the night. 

27. Let not the sun set on him while abiding 
elsewhere (than the hall); nor let the sun rise on 
him while asleep. For were the sun to set on him 
while abiding elsewhere, he (the sun) would cut him 
off from the night; and were the sun to rise on 
him while asleep, he would cut him off from the 
day : there is no atonement for this, hence it must 
by all means be avoided. Prior to the purificatory 
bath he should not enter water, nor should it rain 
upon him ; for it is improper that he should enter 
water, or that it should rain upon him, before the 
purificatory bath. Moreover, he speaks his speech 
falteringly, and not effusively after the manner of 
ordinary speech^. The reason why he speaks his 
speech falteringly and not after the manner of ordi- 
nary speech is this : 

28. By means of the sacrifice the gods gained 
that supreme authority which they now wield. They 
spake, ' How can this (world) of ours be made unat- 
tainable to men ?' They sipped the sap of the 
sacrifice, even as bees would suck out honey ; and 
having drained the sacrifice and scattered it by 
means of the sacrificial post, they disappeared. 
And because they scattered (yopaya) therewith, 
therefore it is called yiipa (post). 

29. Now this was heard by the ^/shis. They 
collected the sacrifice ; and as that sacrifice was col- 
lected, so does he who is consecrated now collect the 
sacrifice (by keeping back his speech), — for the sacri-- 
fice is speech. And whatever part of the sacrifice 

* Literally, ' Falteringly (L e. hesitatingly, cautiously) he speaks 
speech, not human eflfusive (speech).' 



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Ill KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, X. 47 

was then sucked out and drained, that he now 
restores again by speaking his speech falteringly and 
not effusively after the manner of ordinary speech. 
For were he to speak effusively after the manner of 
ordinary speech, he would not restore (the sap of the 
sacrifice): therefore he speaks his speech falteringly 
and not effusively after the manner of ordinary speech, 
30. He verily anoints himself, — it is for speech 
that he anoints himself S since he anoints himself for 
the sacrifice, and the sacrifice is speech, D h I k s h i ta 
(the anointed) doubtless is the same as dl kshita (the 
consecrated). 

THE PRAYAiVlYESHn, or OPENING-SACRIFICE, 
Third BrAhmawa, 

I. He prepares the Pr&ya«lya rice-pap for Aditi. 
Now while the gods were spreading (performing) 
the sacrifice on this (earth) they excluded her (the 
earth) from the sacrifice. She thought, ' How is it 
that, in spreading the sacrifice on me, they should 
exclude me from the sacrifice?' and confounded 
their sacrifice : they knew not that sacrifice. 

^ Dhikshate, apparently the desiderative of dih (Weber, in 
St. Pctcrsb. Diet s. v.) Cf. Ill, i, 3, 7 seq. The construction 
(especially the first hi) is rather peculiar. This paragraph apparently 
is to supply further proof why he should be cautious in his speech, 
and the words ' sa vai dhikshate' have to be taken parenthetically : 
' He speaks his speech cautiously . . . . ; for (anointing himself as he 
does) he anoints himself for speech, &c.' The Kinva text offers 
less difSculty : Atha yad dhikshito n&ma vikt vi esha etad dhtk- 
sfaate, ya^lya hi dhikshate, ya^^ hi v&k, tasmSd dhikshito n^ma, 
c&ikshito ba vai ntmaitad yad dtkshita ity i\mh. S^yana's com- 
ment (MS.) is not very satisfactory: Vi^am ya,f»asddhanatvena 
pnuaffisati ; sa vai dhikshita iti prasahgad dhikshitafabdam nirvakti 
dhikshito ha v& iti yasm&d cUkshita iti nama tddrui dikshd vdk 
sidhyeti v&k ^ruti^. 



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48 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAi^A. 

2. They said, ' How comes it that our sacrifice 
was confounded, when we spread it on this (earth) ? 
how is it that we know it not ? ' 

3. They said, ' In spreading the sacrifice on her, 
we have excluded her from the sacrifice : it is she 
that has confounded our sacrifice, — let us have 
recourse to her!' 

4. They said, * When we were spreading the sacri- 
fice on thee, how was it that it became confounded, 
that we know it not ?' 

5. She said, ' While spreading the sacrifice on me, 
ye have excluded me from the sacrifice : that was 
why I have confounded your sacrifice. Set ye 
aside a share for me; then ye shall see the 
sacrifice, then ye shall know it!' 

6. 'So be it!' said the gods: 'Thine, forsooth, 
shall be the opening (priya«iya'), and thine the 
concluding (udayanlya) oblation!' This is why 
both the Prdya«lya and the Udayaniya (pap) belong. 

' At IV, 6, 1, 2, the name prayawlya is derived from pra-i, to 
go forth, because by means of this offering they, as it were, go forth 
to buy the Soma. Similarly, udayaniya is explained as the ofifer- 
ing he performs after coming out (ud-i) from the bath. In Ait. 
Br. I, 7, on the other hand, the name pr&yaniya is explained as 
that by means of which sacrificers go forward (pra-i) to the heavenly 
world. In the Soma sacrifice, the PrSya«ty4 and UdayanJyi 
may be said to correspond to the Fore-offerings and After-offerings 
(prayS^ and anuyS^) of the New and Full-moon Sacrifice ; 
though, of course, the Fore- and Afler-offerings form part of the 
prSya«ty& and udayantyS, as ish/is. But they are peculiar in this 
respect, that offering is made at both to the very same deities, and 
that the invitatory prayers (anuvikyd) of the prSya«lyesh/i form the 
offering-prayers (yS^yS) of the udayaniyesh^, and vice versS. For 
these formulas, see Afval. 5rautas. IV, 3 ; Haug, Ait. Br. Transl. 
p. 16. The offering formula of the oblation to Aditi at the Pr4ya«fyi 
(and invitatory formula at the Udayanlyi), strange to say, is not 
a Rik-verse, but one from the Atharvan (VII, 6, 2). 



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Ill kAjvDA, 2 ADHYAyA, 3 BRAHMAA'A, 1 2. 49 

to Aditi ; for Aditi truly is this (earth). Thereupon 
they saw and spread the sacrifice. 

7. Hence, when he prepares the Pr4ya«lya rice-pap 
for Aditi, he does so for the purpose of his seeing 
the sacrifice : 'After seeing the sacrifice I shall buy 
(the Soma) and spread that (sacrifice);' thus think- 
ing he prepares the Priya«lya pap for Aditi. The 
sacrificial food had been prepared, but offering had 
not yet been made to the deity (Aditi), — 

8. When Pathyi Svasti^ appeared to them. 
They offered to her, for Pathyi Svasti (the wishing 
of *a happy journey') is speech, and the sacrifice 
also is speech. Thereby they perceived the sacri- 
fice and spread it. 

9. Thereupon Agni appeared to them: they 
offered to him; whereby they perceived that part 
of the sacrifice which was of Agni's nature. Now 
of Agni's nature is what is dry in the sacrifice : that 
they thereby perceived and spread. 

10. Then Soma appeared to them : they offered 
to him; whereby they perceived that part of the 
sacrifice which was of Soma's nature. Now of 
Soma's nature is what is moist in the sacrifice : that 
they thereby perceived and spread. 

11. Then S a vitrz appeared to them : they offered 
to him. Now Savitrz represents cattle, and the sacri- 
fice also means cattle : hence they thereby perceived 
and spread the sacrifice. Thereupon they offered 
to the deity (Aditi), for whom the sacrificial food 
had been prepared. 

12. It is to these same five deities, then, that he 
offers. For that sacrifice, when thrown into dis- 

• I.e. 'welfare on the road, or a happy journey,' a genius of 
well-being and prosperity. 

[a6] E 



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50 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

order, was in five parts ; and by means of those five 
deities they recognised it. 

1 3. The seasons became confounded, the five : by 
means of those same five deities they recognised 
them. 

14. The regions became confounded, the five : by 
means of those same five deities they recognised 
them, 

15. Through Pathyd Svasti they recognised 
the northern (upper) region : wherefore speech 
sounds higher here^ among the Kuru-Pa»^las ; 
for she (Pathyd Svasti) is in reality speech, and 
through her they recognised the northern region, 
and to her belongs the northern region. 

16. Through Agni they recognised the eastern 
region : wherefore they take out Agni from behind 
towards the east', and render homage to him ; for 
through him they recognised the eastern region, and 
to him belongs the eastern region. 

17. Through Soma they recognised the southern 
region : hence, after the Soma has been bought, 
they drive it round on the south side; and hence 
they say that Soma is sacred to the Fathers ; for 
through him they recognised the southern region, 
and to him belongs the southern region. 

1 8. Through Savitri they recognised the western 
region, for Savitrz is yonder burning (sun) : where- 
fore he goes towards the west, for through him they 
recognised the western region, and to him belongs 
the western region. 

• Atra, ? ' there.' In the St. Petersb. Diet, uttar&hi is here taken 
in the sense of ' in the north,' instead of ' higher.' See also part i, 
pref. p. xlii, note i; Weber, Ind. Stud. I, ^. 191. 

• That is, from the GSrhapatya to the Ahavantya fire-place. 



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Ill KAND\, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 22. $1 

19. Through Aditi they recognised the upper 
region, for Aditi is this (earth) : wherefore the plants 
and trees grow upwards on her; for through her 
they recognised the upper region, and to her belongs 
the upper region. 

20. The hospitable reception' (of King Soma) 
verily is the head of the sacrifice, and the opening 
and closing oblations are its arms. But the arms are 
on both sides of the head, and hence those two obla- 
tions, the Priya»!ya and Udayanlya, are made on 
both sides of (before and after) the reception. 

21. Now, they say that whatever is done at the 
Pr4ya«lya should be done at the Udayaniya*, and 
the barhis (g^ass-covering of the altar), which is used 
at the Priya»lya, is also used at the Udayanlya : he 
lays it aside, after removing it (from the altar). The 
pot (in which the rice-pap was cooked) he puts aside 
with the parched remains of dough, and (so he does) 
the pot-ladle after wiping it And the priests who 
officiate during the Priya«lya, officiate also at the 
Udayanlya. And because of this identical perform- 
ance at the sacrifice the two arms are alike and of 
the same shape. 

22. But let him not do it in this way. Let him 
rather' (at the proper time) throw both the barhis 
and the pot-ladle after (the prastara, into the fire*), 
and let him put the pot aside after rinsing it. The 
priests who officiate during the PrS.ya«lya, officiate 
also at the Udayanlya ; but should they (in the 

» See III, 4, 1. 

' See p. 48, note i. For the Udayantya, see IV, 5, 1. 
' Or, perhaps, 'let him, if he chooses (kSmam) . . .;' see Kity. 
VII, 5, 16-19; cf. also note on III, 2, 4, 14. 
* Seel, 8, 3,19; 9, 2, 29. 

E 2 



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52 a'ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

mean time) have departed this life, others may offi- 
ciate instead. It is because he offers to the same 
deities, and the same oblations, that the two arms 
are alike and of the same ^ape. 

23. To five deities he offers at the Pr4ya»lya, and 
to five at the Udayaniya : hence there are five 
fingers here and five there. This (Priya«lya offer- 
ing) ends with the ^'amyu. They perform no Patnl- 
sa««yi^s^ For the arms are on the fore-part of 
the body, and the fore-part of the sacrifice he perfects 
by this (opening ceremony). This is why it ends 
with the 6amyu, and why no Patntsa»ey^i^s are 
performed. 

HIRAiVYAVATl-AHUTI, or OFFERING WITH GOLD; 
AND HOMAGE TO THE SOMA-COW. 

Fourth BrAhmaata. 

1. Now Soma was in the sky, and the gods were 
here on earth. The gods desired, — 'Would that 
Soma came to us : we might sacrifice with him, 
when come.' They created those two illusions, 
Supar«l and Kadrii. In the chapter on the hearths 
(dhish«ya*) it is set forth how that affair of Suparwl 
and Kadrft came to pass. 

2. Giyatrl flew up to Soma for them. While she 
was carrying him off, the Gandharva VLyvdvasu stole 
him from her. The gods were aware of this, — 
' Soma has indeed been removed from yonder (sky), 
but he comes not to us, for the Gandharvas have 
stolen him.' 

' For the 5'amyuv4ka, see I, 9, i, 24 ; for the Patntsamy^as, I, 
9, 2, I seq. 
' See III, 6, 2, 2 seq. 



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Ill KkNDA, 2 ADHyAyA, 4 BrAhMAJVA, 7. 53 

3. They said, ' The Gandharvas are fond of 
women : let us send VSJk (speech) to them, and she 
will return to us together with Soma.' They sent 
Vi^ to them, and she returned to them together 
with Soma. 

4. The Gandharvas came after her and said, 
'Soma (shall be) yours, and Vdi ours^'' 'So be 
it!' said the gods; 'but if she would rather come 
hither, do not ye carry her off by force : let us woo 
her !' They accordingly wooed her. 

5. The Gandharvas recited the Vedas to her, 
saying, ' See how we know it, see how we know it"!' 

6. The gods then created the lute and sat playing 
and singing, saying, ' Thus we will sing to thee, thus 
we will amuse thee!' She turned to the gods; but, 
in truth, she turned to them vainly, since she turned 
away from those, engaged in praising and praying, to 
dance and song. Wherefore even to this day women 
are given to vain things : for it was on this wise that 
V^ turned thereto, and other women do as she did. 
And hence it is to him who dances and sings that 
they most readily take a fancy*. 

7. Both Soma and V4^ were thus with the gods. 
Now, when he buys Soma he does so in order that 
he may sacrifice with him, when obtained, for his 
(own) obtainment (of heavenly bliss*); for he who 

' ' Yours (shall be) Soma, and ours V&i, wherewith you bought 
(Soma) from us.' K&nva. text. 

' The G. proclaimed the sacrifice and Veda to her, saying, 'Thus 
we know the sacrifice, thus we know (the Veda) ; mighty are we.' 
K&nva, text. 

' ' And hence it is to him who is given to vain things, who 
dances and sings, that women are most attached.' Kd«va text 

* Literally, ' that he may sacrifice with the arrived (guest) for his 
own arrival (? in the world of the gods).' 



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54 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

sacrifices with Soma that has not been bought, sacri- 
fices with Soma that has not been (properly) obtained*. 

8. In the first place he pours the butter, which 
remains in the dhruv4 spoon, in four parts into the 
£iih(i ; and having tied a piece of gold with a blade 
of the altar-grass'', and laid it down (in the^hii), he 
offers (the butter), thinking, ' I will offer with pure 
milk ;' for milk and gold are of the same origin, since 
both have sprung from Agni's seed*. 

9. He lays down the piece of gold, with the text 
(V^. S. IV, 17), 'This (butter) is thy body. O 
shining (Agni)! this (gold) is thy light,' — for 
that gold is indeed light: — 'unite therewith 
and obtain splendour!' When he says, 'Unite 
therewith,' he means to say, ' Mingle therewith ;' and 
when he says, ' Obtain splendour,' — splendour mean- 
ing Soma, — he means to say, ' Obtain Soma.' 

10. And as the gods then sent her (V4^) to Soma, 
so does he now send her to Soma ; and the cow 
for which the Soma is bought being in reality V^, 
it is her he gratifies by this offering, thinking, 
' With her, when gratified, I shall buy the Soma.' 

11. He offers, with the text, 'Thou art the 
singer of praises*,' — for this (word '£i!iA'), the 
' singer of praises,' is one of her (V^'s) names ; — 
'upholden by the Mind,' — this speech of ours 

' Lit. ' with Soma that has not come' (to him as a guest), so that 
the guest-offering (Stithya, III, 4, i) could not take place. 

* Because of this piece of gold, the offering here described is 
called Hira«yavati-dhuti, or 'offering with gold.' 

' See II, 1,1, 5; 3,1,15. 

* The author seems to take gtk here as nom. of ^ur=gur (gr/, 
gir), cf. ^r«i. Some of the native dictionaries give gH as one of 
the names of Sarasvatt. The St. Petersb. Diet, takes it here in the 
sense of ' drslngend, treibend (pressing forward).' 



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Ill kXnDA, 2 ADHYAyA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 1 5. 55 

is indeed upheld by the mind, because the Mind 
goes before* Speech (and prompts her), ' Speak 
thus! say not this!' for, were it not for the Mind, 
Speech would indeed talk incoherently : for this 
reason he says, ' Upholden by the Mind.' 

12. 'Well-pleasing to Vish«u,' whereby he 
means to say, 'Well-pleasing to Soma whom we 
approach*.' [He proceeds, V4^. S. IV, 18], 'In- 
spired by thee of true inspiration,' whereby he 
means to say, ' Be thou of true inspiration ! go thou 
to Soma for us!' — 'May I obtain a support for 
my body, SvihA!' for he who reaches the end of 
the sacrifice, indeed obtains a support for his body : 
hence he thereby means to say, ' May I reach the 
end of the sacrifice 1 ' 

13. Thereupon he takes out the piece of gold 
(from the spoon), whereby he bestows gold on men; 
but were he to offer (the butter) together with the 
gold, he would doubtless cast the gold away from 
men, and no gold would then be gained among men. 

14. He takes it out, with the text, 'Thou art 
pure, thou art shining, thou art immortal, 
thou art sacred to all the gods.' When, having 
offered the whole milk, he now says, ' Thou art 
pure . . . ,' it is indeed pure, and shining, and im- 
mortal, and sacred to all the gods. Having loosened 
the grass-blade, he throws it on the barhis, and ties 
a string round the gold '. 

15. Having then taken butter a second time in 

* Mano htdam purastid viia^ jiarati, K^va text. 

* To whom we send you, K. 

* The concluding ceremonies of the Priyawiya (see HI, 2, 3, 
23) are now performed ; the oflFering of the Barhis being optional, 
as the barhis may be used again for the Udayantya (ib. 22). Kity. 
VII, 6, 11 comm. 



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56 iSATapatha-brAhmajva. 

four parts, he says, 'Sacrificer, hold on behind^!' 
They open the (south and east) ^ doors of the hall 
(and walk out). On the right side (of the front door) 
approaches the Soma-cow ^ : (by having) her thus 
put forward*, he has sent her forth (to Soma); for 
the Soma-cow is in reality VAi: it is her he has 
gratified by this offering, thinking, * With her, when 
gratified, I will buy Soma.' 

1 6. Having gone up to her, he (the Adhvaryu) 
salutes her, with the text (Vdf. S. IV, 19), 'Thou 
art thought, thou art the mind,' — for speech, 
doubtless, speaks in accordance with thought, with 
the mind*; — 'Thou art intelligence, thou art 
the Dakshi«iV — for it is by means of their re- 
spective intelligence^ that people seek to make 
their living, either by reciting (the Veda), or by 
readiness of speech', or by songs : therefore he says, 
' Thou art intelligence;' and ' Dakshi«i' (gift to the 
priests) he calls her, because she is indeed the Dak- 

* According to the Kiwvas, the Adhvaryu's formula is, — ^Ihi, 
Yaffaia&asi, ' Go, Sacrificer I' In KSty.VII, 6, 12 only the above 
fonnula is mentioned. 

* The eastern door is for the Adhvaryu (and Sacrificer) and the 
southern for the Pratiprasthdtr*. 

' Soma-krayaxi, ' the cow for which the Soma is bought.' 

* Prahitam seems to be taken here in the double sense of ' put 
forward or in front' (from pra-dhi) and despatched (from pra-hi). 

* 'In accordance with the thought of the mind,' manaso vai 
^ittam anu vig vadati, K. 

' The omission of *asi' in the BrShma»a is curious; the KSnva 
text has correctly ' dakshiwSsi.' 

^ DhiyS-dhiyS, or rather 'by means of this their respective 
genius (in regard to speech).' Dht seems to mean ' thought ex- 
pressed by speech,' hence often ' prayer, hymn ;' cf III, 5, 3, 1 1. 

* PrakSmodya, rather either 'fondness for talk' or 'eflfusive 
speech.' It seems to refer to story-tellers (? amusing speech). 



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Ill kAjvda, 2 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 20. 57 

shi«d; — 'Thou art supreme, thou art worthy 
of worship,' — for she is indeed supreme and worthy 
of worship; — 'Thou art Aditi, the double- 
headed,' — inasmuch as, through her (Vii, speech), 
he speaks the right thing wrongly, and puts last 
what comes first, and first what comes last, therefore 
she is double-headed : that is why he says, ' Thou 
art Aditi, the double-headed ^' 

17. 'Be thou for us successful (in going) for- 
ward and successful (in coming) back!' when 
he says, ' Be thou for us successful (in going) forward,' 
he means to say, ' Go to (fetch) Soma for us ! ' and 
when he says, ' Be thou successful (in coming) back,' 
he means to say, ' Come back to us with Soma !' 
This is why he says, ' Be thou for us successful (in 
going) forward and successful (in coming) back !' 

18. 'MayMitra bind thee by the foot!' For 
that rope, doubtless, is of Varu«a ; and were she (the 
cow) tied with a rope, she would be (under the power) 
of Varu»a. And, on the other hand, were she not-tied 
at all, she would be uncontrolled. Now that which 
is of Mitra is not of Varu«a ; and as (a cow), if tied 
with a rope, is under control, so it is in the case of this 
one when he says, ' May Mitra bind thee by the foot !' 

19. 'May Pdshan guard thy paths!' Now 
P<!kshan is this Earth, and for whomsoever she is the 
guardian of his paths*, he stumbles not at any time: 
therefore he says, 'May Piishan guard thy paths I' 

20. 'For Indra as the supreme guide;' — 
whereby he says, ' May she be well-guarded !' [He 

' In Taitt S. VI, 1, 7, 5, this epithet is explained by the fact that 
both the priya»}ya and the udayaniya belong to Aditi. 

* ' And her he thereby makes the guardian on his path,' im&m 
ev^mS etad adhvani goptira;n karoti, K. 



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58 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

proceeds, V^. S. IV, 20], ' May thy mother 
grant thee permission, thy father, thine own 
brother, thy fellow in the herd!' whereby he 
says, ' Go thou for us to fetch Soma, with the per- 
mission of all thy kin.' — ' O goddess, go to the 
god,' — for it is indeed as a goddess, as WtJt, that 
she goes to a god, to Soma : therefore he says, 
' O goddess, go to the god;' — ' To Soma for the 
sake of Indra!' Indra truly is the deity of the 
sacrifice : therefore he says, * To Soma for the sake 
of Indra.' 'May Rudra guide thee back!' this 
he says for her safety, for cattle cannot pass beyond 
Rudra \ 'Hail to thee! come back, with Soma 
for thy companion!' whereby he says, 'Hail to 
thee, come back to us together with Soma!' 

21. Even as, at that time, the gods sent her to 
Soma, and she returned to them together with Soma, 
so does he now send her to Soma, and she returns 
to him together with Soma. 

22. And as the gods then wooed her with the Gan- 
dharvas, and she turned to the gods, so does the 
sacrificer now woo her, and she turns to the sacri- 
ficer. They lead her (the Soma-cow) northwards 
round (to the place where the Soma is to be sold) ; 
for the north is the quarter of men, and hence it is 
that of the sacrificer : for this reason they lead her 
northwards round. 

Third Adhyaya. First BRAHMAi^rA. 
I. He follows her, stepping into seven foot-prints 
of hers''; he thereby takes possession of her: that 

* Rudra rules over these (cows); the cattle do not pass beyond 
(nStiyanti) him ; and thus she does not pass beyond him : therefore 
he says, 'May Rudra turn thee back!' KSwva text. 

* Viz. into seven foot-prints of her right fore-foot. According to 



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Ill KkNDA, 3 ADHyAyA, I BRAHMAKA, 3. 59 

is why he steps into seven of her foot-prints. For 
when the metres were produced from VSl^ (speech), 
the one consisting of seven feet, the ^akvarl, was 
the last (highest) of them. It is that (metre) he 
now draws down towards himself from above : this 
is why he steps into seven of her foot-prints. 

2. It is as V^ 1 that he steps into them; (with the 
text, V^. S. IV, 21), 'Thou art a Vasvl, thou 
art Aditi, thou art an Adityi, thou art a 
Rudrd, thou art A'andri; for she is indeed a 
Vasvl and Aditi, an Adityi, a RudrA, A'andr4. 
'May BWhaspati make thee rest in happi- 
ness!' — BWhaspati being the Brahman, he thereby 
means to say, ' May Br?haspati lead thee hither by 
means of the good (work)*!' 'Rudra, together 
with the Vasus, is well-pleased with thee:' 
this he says to secure her (the cow's) safety, for 
cattle cannot pass beyond Rudra. 

3. They now sit down * round the seventh foot- 
print ; and having laid down the piece of gold in the 
foot-print, he offers. For offering is made on nothing 
but fire, and the gold has sprung from Agni's seed : 
and thus that offering of his is indeed made over 



Taitt. S. VI, I, 8, 1 he steps into six foot-prints and offers on the 
seventh. According to Kdty. VII, 6, 17 they pass (or overstep, 
atikram) six foot-prints and sit down round the seventh. 

' Literally, ' by a form (rftpena) of Vik (speech),' viz. the text 
which is pronounced. 

* This can scarcely be the correct reading. The Kawva text has 
the more acceptable reading, ' Bnliaspati being the Brahman, and 
felicity the sacrifice, he thereby says, " May the Brahman make thee 
rest (or delight, ramayatu) in the good (work), the sacrifice I" ' 

• According to the comm. on Katy. VII, 6, 17 the Brahman and 
the Sacrificer are to sit on the south, the Adhvaryu on the west, and 
the Nesh/rj on the north side of the foot-print. 



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60 S'ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

the fire. And the clarified butter being a thunder- 
bolt, he now delivers her (the cow) by means of that 
thunderbolt, the butter; and by delivering her he 
makes her his own. 

4. He (the Adhvaryu) offers (with the text, V4^. 
S. IV, 22), 'On Aditi's head I pour thee;' for 
Aditi being this earth, it is on the head of the latter 
that he offers; — 'on the worshipping-ground 
of the earth' — for on the worshipping-ground of 
the earth he indeed offers; — 'Thou art lafA's foot- 
print, filled with butter, Hail !' for IdSi being the 
cow ^, he indeed offers on the cow's foot-print ; and 
' filled with butter. Hail !' he says, because it indeed 
becomes filled with butter when offered upon. 

5. Thereupon he takes the wooden sword and 
draws lines round (the foot-print): the wooden sword 
being a thunderbolt, it is with the thunderbolt that 
he draws round it Thrice he draws round it, so 
that he encompasses it on all sides with a threefold 
thunderbolt, for no one to trespass upon it. 

6. He draws the lines (with the texts), 'Rejoice 
in us!' whereby he means to say, 'Rejoice in the 
sacrificer!' Having then, by tracing, cut out the 
foot-print all round*, he throws it into the pan, with, 
'In us is thy kinship,' whereby he means to say, 
' In the sacrificer is thy kinship.' 

7. He then pours some water on (the place whence 
the earth has been removed). Wherever in digging 
they hurt her (the earth) and knock off anything 

' See the legend, part i, p. 216 seq.; especially I, 8, i, 7; 20; 
and p. 216, note 3. 

* According to the comm. on KSty. VII, 6, 20, it would rather 
seem that he scratches with the sphya all over the foot-print and 
then takes out the loose dust (pSmsftn) and throws it into the pan. 



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in kXnDA, 3 ADHYAyA, I BRAHMAyA, 12. 6 1 

from her, — water being (a means of) soothing, — that 
he now soothes by means of water, that he heals by 
means of water : that is why he pours water thereon. 

8. He then hands (the dust of) the foot-print to 
the sacrificer, with, 'In thee is wealth,' — wealth 
meaning cattle, he thereby means to say, 'in thee 
is cattle.' The sacrificer receives it with, 'With 
me* is wealth,' — ^wealth meaning cattle, he thereby 
means to say, ' with me is cattle.' 

9. The Adhvaryu then touches himself (near 
the heart), with, 'May we not be deprived of 
prosperity!' Thus the Adhvaryu does not exclude 
himself from (the possession of) cattle. 

10. Thereupon they hand (the dust of) the foot- 
print over to the (sacrificer's) wife. The house being 
the wife's resting-place, he thereby establishes her 
in that safe resting-place, the house : for this reason 
he hands over the (earth of the) foot-print to the wife. 

11. The Nesh/W makes her say, ' Thine, thine* 
is wealth;' whereupon he causes her to be looked 
at by the Soma-cow. Now, Soma is a male, and 
the wife is a female, and that Soma-cow becomes 
here (exchanged for) Soma: a productive union is 
thus effected; — this is why he causes her to be 
looked at by the Soma-cow. 

12. He causes her to be looked at (while she 
pronounces the text, Vi^. S. IV, 23), ' I have 
seen eye to eye with the divine intelli- 
gence, with the far-seeing Dakshi»d: take 



' The Ki«va text (Samhiti and Br.) has asme instead o( me. . 

* See St. Petersb. Diet s. v. tolas. The Kinva. text explains it 
similarly : 'tvayi tvayi paravaA.' The Taitt. S. VI, i, 8, 5 has 'Tote 
rSyaA' — " Thine (?) is wealth" thus for the wife, for she, the wife, is 
one half of himself.' 



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62 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

not my life from me, neither will I take 
thine; may I obtain a hero' in thy sight!' 
She thereby asks a blessing : a hero meaning a son, 
she thereby means to say, ' May I obtain a son in 
thy sight!' 

13. One that is brown, with red-brown eyes, is 
(fit to be) a Soma-cow. For when Indra and Vish«u 
divided a thousand (cows) into three parts, there 
was one left*, and her they caused to propagate 
herself in three kinds ; and hence, even now, if any 
one were to divide a thousand by three, one would 
remain over. 

14. The brown one, with red-brown eyes, is the 
Soma-cow ; and that ruddy one is the Vr^tra-killer's 
(Indra's) own, whom the king here chooses for him- 
self^ after winning the battle; and the ruddy one 
with reddish-white eyes * is the Fathers' own whom 
they slay here for the Fathers. 

15. Let, then, the brown one, with red-brown 
eyes, be the Soma-cow. And if he be unable to 
obtain a brown one with red-brown eyes, let it 
be a dark-red" one. And if he be unable to obtain 
a dark-red one, let it be a ruddy one, one of the 

' The Kinva, text reads ' may I obtain heroes.' 

* This arithmetical feat of Indra and Vish«u is apparently already 
referred to in Rig-veda VI, 69, 8, though nothing is said there as to 
the difficulty regarding the odd cow. The threefold division seems 
to refer to Vish«u's three steps, by which (as the sun) he measures 
the sky ; or to the division of the universe into the three worlds (?). 
See also Ait. Br. VI, 15. 

* Or, drives forth (from the enemy's stables). The red cows 
are compared with the red clouds, which appear after the thunder- 
storm (i. e. after king Indra's battle with Vritra). 

* S4ya«a takes ' jyetiksht ' as ' black-eyed (kr»sh«alo<Sani).' 

* ' Aru«&;' the Kd«va text adds, ' for that one nearest to it (the 
brown one, or Soma-cow proper) in appearance.' 



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Ill kXnda, 3 adhyAya, 2 brAhmana, 2. 63 

VWtra-killer's own. But let him nowise turn his 
fancy upon a ruddy one with reddish-white eyes. 

16. Let it be one that is not impreg^nated. For 
that Soma-cow is in reality Vi^, and this V^ 
(speech) is of unimpaired vigour ; and of unimpaired 
vigour is one not (yet) impregnated : let it therefore 
be one not impregnated. Let it be one that is 
neither tailless, nor hornless, nor one-eyed, nor ear- 
less*, nor specially marked, nor seven-hoofed ^— igr ^ 
such a one is uniform, and uniform is tl: 




THE BUYING OF SOMA.\ 

Second BrAhma;va. 

1. Having thrown the (earth of the) foot-print 
(into the pan), he (the Adhvaryu) washes his hands. 
Now as to why he washes his hands; — clarified 
butter being a thunderbolt, and the Soma being 
seed, he washes his hands lest' he should injure 
the seed. Soma, with the thunderbolt, the ghee. 

2. Thereupon he ties the piece of gold to this 
(finger*). Now, twofold indeed is this (universe), — 
there is no third, — the truth and the untruth : the 
gods are the truth and men are the untruth. And 
gold having sprung from Agni's seed, he ties the 
gold to this (finger), in order that he may touch the 
twigs (of the Soma) with the truth, that he may 
handle the Soma by means of the truth. 

' 'Akarxl;' the Kd«va text has ' anupdrsh/akarnS (one whose 
ears are not perforated ?),' and instead of 'alakshitd (not specially 
marked),' it reads ' asrotA (arlo«S), not lame.' 

* That is, with one hoof undivided (seven-toed). 

* The construction in the original is as usual in the oratio 
directa. 

* Viz. to the nameless (or ring) finger. KSty. VII, 6, 27. 



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64 5ATAPatha-brahma;va. 

3. He then orders (the sacrificer's men), 'Bring 
thou the Soma-cloth ! bring thou the Soma-wrapper ! 
bring thou the head-band !' Let some shining (cloth) 
be the Soma-cloth ; for this is to be his (king Soma's') 
garment, and shining indeed is his garment: and 
whosoever serves him with a shining (garment), he 
truly shines. But he who says, '(Bring) anj^hing 
whatsoever,' he will indeed be anything whatsoever : 
let the Soma-cloth, therefore, be some splendid 
(cloth), and the Soma-wrapper one of any kind. 

4. If he can get a head-band, let there be a head- 
band ; but if he cannot get a head-band, let him cut 
off from the Soma-wrapper a piece two or three 
fingers long, to serve as the head-band. Either the 
Adhvaryu or the Sacrificer takes the Soma-cloth, 
and some one or other the Soma-wrapper. 

5. Now, in the first place, they pick the king 
(Soma). A pitcher of water is placed close to him, 
and a BrAhman sits beside him \ Thither they (the 
priests and sacrificer) now proceed eastward. 

6. While they go there, he (the Adhvaryu) makes 



* I do not think 'asya' could refer to the sacrificer, in opposition 
to ' etasya' (Soma) ; nor can the latter be construed with the following 
relative clause ' sa yo . . .' The K&nv& text reads, Tad yad eva 
jobhanatamam tat somopanahanam syid, vdso hy asyaitad bhavati ; 
sa yo haita^ ^Aobhanatamaw kurute, rabhate haiva saA, &c. 

' The Pratiprasth&tr», in the first place, takes the Soma-plants 
(from the seller) and puts them on an ox-hide, dyed red and spread 
on the ground at the place (in the east of the hall) where the 
'sounding-holes' will be dug (see III, 5, 4, i seq.). The seller of the 
Soma, who is to be either of the Kutsa tribe or a .Stidra, then picks 
the Soma, breaking the plants at the joints. A jar filled with water 
is placed in front of the Soma, and a Brihman (or the assistant of 
the Brahman, viz. the BrahmanSi^amsin) sits down by the (right or 
south) side of the Soma. Kity. VII, 6, 1-6. 



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Ill kXnda, 3 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaa?a, 8. 65 

(the sacrificer) say the text (Vig; S. IV, 24), 'Say 
thou, for me, unto Soma, " This is thy gdyatrl- 
part (bhig^)M'' Say thou, for me, unto Soma, 
"Thisis thy trish/ubh-part!" Say thou, for me, 
unto Soma, "This is thy ^ayati-part!" Say 
thou, for me, unto Soma, " Obtain thou the su- 
preme sovereignty of the names of metres ! " ' 
Now, when he (king Soma) is bought, he is bought 
for one (destination*) — for the sovereignty of the 
metres, for the supreme sovereignty of the metres ; 
and when they press him, they slay him : hereby now 
he says to him, ' It is for the sovereignty of the 
metres, for the supreme sovereignty of the metres 
that I buy thee, not for slaying thee.' Having gone 
there, he sits down (behind the Soma) with his face 
towards the east 

7. He touches (the Soma-plants), with, 'Ours 
thou art,' — thereby he (Soma), now that he has 
come (as a guest), becomes as it were one of his 
(the sacrificer's) own (people): for this reason he says, 
'Ours thou art;' — 'Thy pure (juice) is meet for 
the draught,' for he will indeed take therefrom the 
'pure draught'.' 'Let the pickers pick thee!' 
this he says for the sake of completeness. 

8. Now some, on noticing any straw or (piece of) 
wood (among the Soma-plants), throw it away. But 
let him not do this ; for — the Soma being the nobility 
and the other plants the common people, and the 

' The three parts refer to the three Savanas, at which the 
respective metres are used. See IV, 3, 3, 7 seq. 

* Bh&gam appears to have been lost here, since a play on that 
word seems to be intended, which might perhaps be reproduced by 
' lot' It is given both at the KSnva text and at III, 4, i, 7. 

* For the S'ukra-graha, see IV, a, i, i seq. 

[26] F 



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66 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

people being the nobleman's food — it would be just 
as if one were to take hold of and pull out some 
(food) he has put in his mouth, and throw it away. 
Hence let him merely touch it, with, ' Let the pickers 
pick thee ! ' Those pickers of his do indeed pick it. 

9. He then spreads the cloth (over the ox-hide), 
either twofold or fourfold, with the fringe towards 
the east or north. Thereon he metes out the king 
(Soma) ; and because he metes out the king, there- 
fore there is a measure, — both the measure among 
men and whatever other measure there is. 

10. He metes out, with a verse to Savitr?; for 
Savitf* is the impeller of the gods, and so that 
(Soma) becomes for him impelled by Savitr? to the 
purchase. 

11. He metes out with an atii^ndas-verse ; for 
that one, viz. the atiMandas \ embraces all metres ; 
and so that (Soma) is meted out for him by means 
of all the metres : therefore he metes out with an 
ati^^andas-verse. 

12. He metes out, with the text (Vif. S. IV, 25), 
'Unto that divine SavitW within the two 
bowls*, the sage, I sing praises, to him of true 

' A ti^^andasC over-metre') is the generic name for the metres 
which number more than forty-eight syllables : hence it is said to in- 
clude all the other metres which consist of fewer syllables. See VIII, 
6, a, 13, where the term is explained by ' atti-^and4^ (metre-eater).' 

* Or, that divine invigorator of the two ' o»i.' According to the 
St. Petersb. Diet., ' o«i ' would seem to refer to two parts of the 
Soma-press. Professor Ludwig takes it to mean ' press-arm ' and 
the ' arm ' generally, which suits very well some of the passages in 
which the word occurs. Here, in the loc or gen. case, it can 
scarcely mean 'arms' (though Savitn*s two arms are often referred 
to as dispelling the darkness and keeping asunder the spaces, cf. 
Rig-veda II, 38, 2 ; IV, 53, 3 ; 4 ; VI, 1t,i; 5; VII, 45, 2), but 
apparently refers to ' heaven and earth ' being thus equivalent to 



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Ill kAnda, 3 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 15. 67 

impulse, the bestower of treasures, the wise 
and thoughtful friend; — he at whose impulse 
the resplendent light shone high, the golden- 
handed sage hath measured the ether with 
his form.' 

13. Therewith* he metes out (the Soma) with 
all (five fingers), therewith with four, therewith with 
three, therewith with two, therewith with one; 
therewith with one, therewith with two, therewith 
with three, therewith with four, therewith with all 
(fingers); having laid (the two hands) together* he 
throws (Soma) thereon with the joined open hands. 

14. He metes out while bending up and bending 
down (the fingers). The reason why he metes out 
in bending (the fingers) up and down is that he 
thereby makes those fingers of separate existence, 
and therefore they are bom separate (from each 
other); and as to his meting out with all (fingers) 
together, these (fingers) are to be bom, as it were, 
united. This is why he metes out in bending (the 
fingers) up and down. 

15. And, again, as to his meting out in bending 
them up and down, — he thereby renders them of 
varied power, and hence these (fingers) are of varied 

the two inmd (originally the two receptacles or bowls into which 
the pressed Soma flows) in Rig-veda III, 55, 20. 

* Viz. with the same formula, repeating it each time. The meting 
out of the Soma is done with the fingers of the right hand, first with 
all five, and then successively turning in one (beginning with the 
thumb), till the little finger remains with which he takes Soma twice, 
whereupon he again successively releases the fingers. 

* There is some doubt as to whether this refers to the preceding 
'with all (viz. ten fingers);' or whether he is to take for the tenth 
time some Soma with the five fingers of the right hand, and then 
once more (without muttering the text) with the joined hands. See 
Kilty. VII, 7, 18, 19. The text seems to be purposely vague. 

F 2 



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68 jatapatha-brAhma^a. 

power. That is why he metes out in bending them 
up and down. 

1 6. And, again, as to his meting out in bending 
them up and down, — he thereby harnesses a viri^* 
(to ply) thitherwards and hitherwards : going thither- 
wards, namely, it conveys the sacrifice to the gods, 
and coming hitherwards it assists men. This is why 
he metes out in bending (the fingers) up and down. 

17. And as to his meting out ten times, — the 
viri^ is of ten syllables, and the Soma is of virif 
nature : for this reason he metes out ten times. 

18. Having gathered up the ends of the Soma- 
cloth, he (the Adhvaryu) ties them together by 
means of the head-band, with, ' For descendants 
(I tie) thee;' — for it is indeed for (the purpose of 
obtaining) descendants that he buys it (Soma) : what 
(part of man) here is, as it were, compressed between 
the head and the shoulders, that he thereby makes 
it to be for him (the sacrificer)*. 

19. He then makes a finger-hole in the middle (of 
the knot), with the text, 'Let the descendants 
breathe after thee !' For, in compressing (the 
cloth), he, as it were, strangles him (Soma and the 
sacrificer) and renders him breathless ; hereby now 
he emits his breath from inside, and after him breath- 
ing the descendants also breathe : for this reason 
he says, ' Let the descendants breathe after thee.' 
Thereupon he hands him (Soma) to the Soma-seller. 
Now, then, of the bargain. 

' The virS^ (the ' shining' or 'ruling' metre) consists of (generally 
three or four) pddas of ten syllables each : hence it is here con- 
nected with the ten metings out of Soma. 

' The Soma representing offspring, he gives the bundle a shape 
resembling the human body. 



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Ill kAjvda, 3 adhyAya, 3 bkXhuxna, 4. 69 

Third BrAhma^va. 

1. He bargains for the king (Soma); and because 
he bargains for the king, therefore any and every- 
thing is vendible here. He says, ' Soma-seller, is 
thy king Soma for sale ?' — ' He is for sale,' says the 
Soma-seller. — 'I will buy him of thee !* — ' Buy him !' 
says the Soma-seller. — ' I will buy him of thee for 
one-sixteenth (of the cow).' — ' King Soma, surely, is 
worth more than that!' says the Soma-seller. — ' Yea, 
King Soma is worth more than that; but great, surely, 
is the gpreatness of the cow,' says the Adhvaryu. 

2. ' From the cow (comes) fresh milk, from her 
boiled milk, from her cream, from her sour curds, 
from her sour cream, from her curdled milk, from 
her butter, from her ghee, from her clotted curds, 
from her whey : 

3. I will buy him of thee for one hoofM' — ' King 
Soma, surely, is worth more than thatl' says the 
Soma-seller. — ' Yea, King Soma is worth more than 
that, but great, surely, is the greatness of the cow,' 
replies the Adhvaryu ; and, having (each time) 
enumerated the same ten virtues, he says, ' I will 
buy him of thee for one foot,' — 'for half (the cow),' — 
' for the cow !' — ' King Soma has been bought !' says 
the Soma-seller, * name the kinds !' 

4. He (the Adhvaryu) says, ' Gold is thine, a cloth 
is thine, a goat is thine, a milch cow is thine, a pair 
of kine is thine, three other (cows) are thine !' And 
because they first bargain and afterwards come to 
terms, therefore about any and everything that is 
for sale here, people first bargain and afterwards 

' That is, for one-eighth of a cow, each foot consisting of two 
hoofs (or toes, xapha). 



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70 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

come to terms. And the reason why only the 
Adhvaryu enumerates the virtues of the cow, and 
not the Soma-seller those of the Soma, is that Soma 
is already glorified, since Soma is a god. And the 
Adhvaryu thereby glorifies the cow, thinking, ' See- 
ing her virtues he shall buy her !' This is why only 
the Adhvaryu enumerates the virtues of the cow, 
and not the Soma-seller those of the Soma. 

5. And as to his bargaining five times : — ^the sacri- 
fice being of ecjual measure with the year, and there 
being five seasons in the year, he thus obtains it 
(the sacrifice. Soma) in five (divisions), and therefore 
he bargains five times. 

6. He then makes (the sacrificer) say on the gold^ 
(Vif. S. IV, 26), 'Thee, the pure, I buy with 
the pure,' for he indeed buys the pure with the 
pure, when (he buys) Soma with gold; — 'the bril- 
liant with the brilliant,' for he indeed buys the 
brilliant with the brilliant, when (he buys) Soma 
with gold; — 'the immortal with the immortal,' 
for he indeed buys the immortal with the immortal, 
when (he buys) Soma with gold. 

7. He then tempts* the Soma-seller (with the 
gold): ' In compensation* for thy cow,' whereby 
he means to say, ' With the sacrificer (be) thy cow !' 

' That is, according to Katy.VII, 8, 5, in making him touch the 
gold. The Ki»va text has, ' Thereupon he buys him (Soma) with 
gold.' 

* Or, according to the commentaries, ' he frightens the Soma- 
seller (by threatening to take back the money).' 

' ? Sagme (? compact), explained by the commentators as 
meaning the sacrificer. Perhaps it may mean, ' one of the parties to 
an agreement,' and hence here the sacrificer as the bargainee. 
The KSffva text reads, He then takes it back again (punar Sdatte) 
with ' Sagme te go^,' and throws it down with ' Ours thy gold.' 



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Ill KktTDA, 3 ADHYAvA, 3 BRAHUANA, 9. 7 1 

He then draws it (the gold) back towards the sacri- 
ficer, and throws it down, with, ' Ours be thy gold !' 
whereby he (the sacrificer) takes unto himself the 
vital energy, and the Soma-seller gets only the body. 
Thereupon the Soma-seller takes it^. 

8. He then makes him (the sacrificer) say on the 
she-goat, which stands facing the west, 'Thou art 
the bodily form of fervour,' — that she-goat was 
indeed produced as the bodily form of fervour, of 
Pr^fApati ; hence he says, ' Thou art the bodily 
form of fervour,' — ' Pra^dpati's kind,' because she 
brings forth three times in the year, therefore she is 
Pra^pati's kind. 'Thou art bought with the 
most excellent animal,' because she brings forth 
three times in the year, she is the most excellent of 
animals. 'May I increase with a thousandfold 
increase!' Thereby he implores a blessing: a 
thousand meaning abundance, he thereby means to 
say, ' May I obtain abundance !' 

9. With that (text) he gives the she-goat, with 
that he takes the king*; for a^ (goat) doubtless 

* According to some authorities, the gold is again taken away 
forcibly from the Soma-seller by the Adhvaryu, after the sacrificer 
has uncovered his head (paragraph la), and the seller is driven 
away by blows with a speckled cane. KSty. VII, 8, 27. According 
to Apastamba (ib.), he buys o£f the Soma-cow with another cow, and 
then dismisses her to the cow-pen ; and if the Soma-seller objects, 
be is to be beaten with a speckled cane. The Mdnava-sfitra 
merely says, that they are to give the Soma-seller something for 
compensation. The whole transaction was evidently a feigned 
purchase, symbolising the acquisition of the Soma by the gods 
from the Gandharvas. The real bargain was probably concluded 
before the sacrificial performance. See also Haug, Ait. Br. Transl. 
p. 59, note 3. 

* While making over the she-goat to the Soma-seller with his 
left hand, he receives the Soma with the right. 



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72 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAJVA. 

means the same as S^ (driving thither*), since it is 
through her (the she-goat) that he finally drives him 
(Soma) thither. It is thus in a mystic sense that 
they call her 'agi..' 

10. He takes the king, with the text (V^. S. IV, 
27), 'Come to us, a friend, bestowing good 
friends!' whereby he means to say, 'Come to us, 
as a kind and propitious one !' Having pushed 
back the garment on the sacrificers right thigh, he 
lays him (Soma) down thereon, with the text, 'Seat 
thee on Indra's right thigh,' — for he, the sacri- 
ficer, is at present Indra*: therefore he says, 'Seat 
thee on Indra's right thigh ;' — ' willing on the will- 
ing,' whereby he means to say, 'beloved on the 
beloved one;' — 'tender on the tender!' whereby 
he means to say, ' propitious on the propitious one.' 

11. Thereupon he (the sacrificer) assigns (to the 
Gandharvas) the objects constituting the purchase 
price for the Soma, with the text, ' O Svdna, 
Bhri/a, Anghiri, Bambhiri, Hasta, Suhasta, 
Krts&nul these are your wages for Soma: 
keep them! may they not fail you!' Now 
those (Gandharvas) are instead of the hearth- 
mounds — these being the names of the hearth- 
mounds — it is these very (names) that he thereby 
has assigned to them'. 

* S&yana takes i-ag in the sense of ' to go to, to come' {igi, 
the comer) ; because the sacrificer through her comes to Soma. 

' See part i, introduction, p. xix, note 4. 

' * For those same Gandharvas, the overseers of the Guardians of 
Soma, they are (meant) in lieu of those (? hearth-mounds), for 
those are their names: it is to them that he thereby assigns those 
(objects constituting the purchase-price), and thus he becomes 
debtless towards them.' K&nva text. See also part i, p. 183, 
note a. 



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Ill KAJVBA, 3 ADHYAyA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 1 5. 73 

12. He now uncovers (his head'); for he who is 
consecrated becomes an embryo, and embryos are 
enveloped both in the amnion and the outer mem- 
brane : him (the sacrificer or sacrifice) he has now 
brought forth, and therefore he uncovers himself. 
Now it is he (Soma*) that becomes an embryo, and 
therefore he is enveloped, since embryos zire, as it 
were, enveloped both in the amnion and the outer 
membrane, 

13. He then makes (the sacrificer) say the text 
(VAf. S. IV, 28), 'Keep me, O Agni, from evil 
ways! let me share in the right ways.' Now 
he (Soma) approaches him while he is seated, and 
when he has come, he rises : thereby he does wrong 
and breaks the vow. This, then, is his expiation 
of that (transgression), and thus no wrong is thereby 
done, and he breaks not the vow ; therefore he says, 
* Keep me, O Agni, from evil ways ! let me share in 
the right ways ! ' 

14. Having then taken the king, he rises, with 
the text, 'With new life, with good life, am I 
risen after the immortals;' for he who rises 
after the bought Soma, rises indeed after the im- 
mortal : therefore he says, ' With new life, with good 
life, am I risen after the immortals.' 

15. Thereupon he takes the king and goes towards 
the car, with the text (V4f. S, IV, 29), ' We have 



• See III, 3, 1, 16. His wife does the same. 

* According to a former passage (III, i, 2, 28), the sacrificer is 
supposed to remain in the embryonic state till the pressing of the 
Soma. The Kdnva recension reads, ' Sa etam ya^am a,g^nat sa 
esha garbho bhavaty & sutyiySA;' where ' a^^nat' seems to mean 
' be has begotten.' I am not quite certain whether Soma himself is 
really implied. See III, 3, 4, 6. 



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74 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

entered upon the path that leadeth to well- 
being, free from danger ; whereon he eschew- 
eth all haters, and meeteth with goodV 

1 6. Now, once on a time, the gods, while per- 
forming sacrifice, were afraid of an attack from the 
Asura-Rakshas. They perceived that prayer for 
a safe journey; and having warded off the evil 
spirits by means of that prayer, they attained well- 
being in the safe and foeless shelter of that 
prayer. And so does he now ward off the evil 
spirits by means of that prayer, and attain well- 
being in the safe and foeless shelter of that prayer. 
For this reason he says, ' We have entered upon the 
path that leadeth to well-being, free from danger; 
whereon he escheweth all haters and meeteth with 
good.' 

17. They carry him thus*, and (afterwards) drive 
him about on the cart ; whereby they exalt him : 
for this reason they carry the seed on their head (to 
the field), and bring in (the corn) on the cart 

1 8. Now the reason why he buys (the Soma) near 
water ^ is that — water meaning sap — he thereby buys 
Soma sapful ; and as to there being gold, he thereby 
buys him lustrous ; and as to there being a cloth, he 
thereby buys him with his skin; and as to there 
being a she-goat, he thereby buys him fervid ; and 
as to there being a milch cow, he thereby buys him 
with the milk to be mixed with him ; and as to there 
being a pair (of kine), he thereby buys him with a 
mate. — He should buy him with ten (objects), and 

' Compare the slighdy different verse, Rig-veda VI, 51, 16. 
' The sacrificer carries the bundle of Soma on his hand resting 
on his head. 
' Viz. the vessel of water mentioned III, i, 2, 2. 



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Ill KANDA, 3 ADHYAVA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 2. 75 

not with Other than ten, for the viri^ consists of ten 
syllables, and Soma is of vir^ nature : therefore he 
should buy him with ten (objects) and not with other 
than ten. 



PROCESSION AND ENTRANCE OF KING SOMA. 

Fourth BrAhmaya. 

1. In the enclosed space (of the cart)* he (the 
Adhvaryu) lays down the black deer-skin, with the 
text(V^. S. IV, 30), 'Thouart Aditi'sskin;' its 
sigfnificance is the same (as before)*. Thereon he 
places him (Soma), with, 'Seat thee on Aditi's 
seat!' for Aditi being this (earth), and she being 
indeed a safe resting-place, he thereby places him 
on that safe resting-place : therefore he says, ' Seat 
thee on Aditi's seat !' 

2. He then makes (the sacrificer) say, after touching 
(the Soma), 'The bull hath propped the sky, 
the welkin'.' For, when the gods were spreading 
the sacrifice, they were afraid of an attack on the 
part of the Asura-Rakshas. Now by what he 
says, ' The bull hath propped the sky, the welkin,' 



' The cart stands south of the place where the purchase of Soma 
took place, with the shafts towards the east, fitted with all the appli- 
ances, and yoked with a pair of oxen. The antelope skin is spread 
with the hairy side upwards, and the neck part towards the east. 

* See 1, 1, 4, 1 seq. The Klxva text has : ' the significance of 
this yagus is the same.' 

' In Rig-veda VIII, 42, i, this verse relates to Vanwa. In 
adapting it to the present sacrificial requirements, 'vrtshabho 
(rtshabho, K.) antariksham ' has been substituted for the original 
* asuro vifvaved^ ;' Soma being meant by ' the bull.' 



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76 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

thereby they rendered it (the sacrifice or Soma) 
superior to the deadly shaft ^. 

3. 'He hath measured the breadth of the 
earth ;' — thus he g^ins through him (Soma) these 
worlds, for there is no slayer, no deadly shaft for 
him by whom these worlds have been grained : there- 
fore he says, ' He hath measured the breadth of the 
earth.' 

4. 'As all-ruler hath he taken his seat over 
all things existing (bhuvana);' — thus he gains 
through him this All, for there is no slayer, no deadly 
shaft for him by whom this All has been gained : 
therefore he says, 'As all-ruler hath he taken his 
seat over all things existing.' 

5. 'Verily, all these are Varu«a's ordin- 
ances;' — thereby he makes here everything what- 
soever obedient to him, and every one that is re- 
fractory: therefore he says, 'Verily, all these are 
Varu«a's ordinances.' 

6. Thereupon he wraps (the Soma) up in the 
Soma-wrapper, lest the evil spirits should touch him. 
For this one doubtless is an embryo, and hidden 
(tiras), as it were, are embryos, and hidden also is 
that (which is) wrapped up ; — hidden, as it were, aire 
the gods to men, and hidden is that which is wrapped 
up : therefore he wraps him up. 

7. He wraps him up, with the text (Vi^. S. IV, 31 ; 
Rig-veda V, 85, 2), 'Over the woods he hath 
stretched the welkin,' for over the woods, over 
the tops of the trees, that welkin (or air) is indeed 
stretched; — 'strength (hath he laid) into the 
coursers, milk into the kine,' — strength means 

' Or, superior to (beyond the reach of) the slayer (or the blow), 
'gy&y&msam vadh&t.' 



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Ill kXsda, 3 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 9. 77 

manliness and the coursers are the men : he thereby 
bestows manliness upon men; and 'milk into the 
kine ' he says, because this milk is indeed contained 
in the kine; — 'Into the hearts Varu«a (hath 
laid) wisdom, into the homesteads^ fire;' for 
into the hearts that wisdom, the swiftness of 
thought, has indeed entered ; and ' into the home- 
steads fire' he says, because that fire is in the home- 
steads, with the people; — 'Into the heaven hath he 
placed the Sun, and Soma upon the rock;' for 
that sun is indeed placed in the heaven ; and ' Soma 
on the rock ' he says, because Soma is in the moun- 
tains. This is why he says, 'In the heaven hath he 
placed the Sun, and Soma upon the rock.' 

8. If there are two deer-skins ', he then puts up 
the other by way of a flag'; — and if there is only one, 
he cuts off the neck of the deer-skin and puts it up 
by way of a flag; — ^with the text (V4f. S. IV, 32), 
' Mount thou the eye of Sftrya, the eye-ball of 
Agni, where thou fliest along with the dap- 
pled (horses), shining through the wise (Sftrya).' 
He thereby places Sftrya (the sun) in front, thinking, 
'May S6rya, in front, ward off the evil spirits!' 
They now drive (Soma) about on a safe (cart), un- 
molested by evil spirits. 

9. At the fore-part of the shafts two boards have 
been put up : between them the Subrihma«yi * 

* ' Into the waters (apsu),' Rig-veda. 
' See III, a, I, I seq. 

' He is to fasten it to a staff fixed to the pole of the cart near the 
yoke. K4ty. VII, 9, 9. 

* The Subrlhma»y& is one of the assistants of the Vdg&tri 
(chanter of Sima-hymns). He stands on the ground between the 
two shafts in front of the yoke ; the two planks, according to 
Siyana, reaching up to his chin. 



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78 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

stands and drives. He (Soma), indeed, is too high 
for (the driver) mounting beside him, for who is 
worthy of mounting beside him ? Therefore he 
drives while standing between (the boards). 

10. He drives with a pallfa branch. Now when 
G&yatrl flew towards Soma*, a footless archer 
aiming at her while she was carrying him off, 
severed one of the feathers (or leaves, par«a), either 
of Gdyatrt or of king Soma ; and on falling down 
it became a par»a (pald^a) tree ; whence its name 
parwa. 'May rfiat which was there of the Soma 
nature, be here also now ! ' so he thinks, and for this 
reason he drives with a pallrei branch. 

11. He urges on the two oxen. If they be 
both black, or if either of them be black, then let 
him know that it will rain, that Par^nya will 
have abundance of rain that year: such indeed is 
science. 

12. He (the Adhvaryu) first yokes them, with the 
text (V^. S. IV, 33), 'Ye oxen, come hither, 
patient of the yoke!' for they are indeed oxen, 
and they are patient of the yoke ; — ' Let your- 
selves be yoked, tearless!' for they are now 
being yoked ; and tearless means unscathed ; — ' not 
man-slaying,' this means 'not doing wrong;' — 
'speeding the Brahman,' for they are indeed 
speeders of the Brahman (worship, or the priests); — 
'Go ye happily to the sacrificer's dwellingl' 
this he says in order that the evil spirits may not 
injure them on the way. 

13. Having then gone round to the back (of the 

* See I, 7, I, i; part i, p. 183. According to Ait. Br. Ill, 26, 
KrjsSnu the Soma-keeper's arrow cut oflf one of the talons of 
GSyatrt's left foot, which was turned into a porcupine. 



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Ill KkyDA, 3 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 14. 79 

cart) and taken hold of the drag *, he says (to the 
Hotr/)*, ' Recite to the bought Soma ! ' or/ — to Soma, 
now driven about!' whichever way he pleases. 

14. He then makes (the sacrificer') say the text 
(V^. S. IV, 34), 'Thou art gracious unto me, go 
forth, O Lord of the world — ,' for he (Soma) is 
indeed gracious to hinr, wherefore he heeds no other 
but him. Even his (Soma's own) kings* come (to 

* Apilamba, a piece of wood fastened to the back part of the 
cart to prevent its running backwards when going up-hill ; or, 
according to others, a rope used for retarding the progress of the 
cart in going down-hill. Kity. VII, 9, 15 comm. The cart stands 
with the oxen towards the east ; it is then wheeled round towards 
the right to the west and driven to the hall, in front of which it is 
turned towards the north ; the Soma being then taken down. See 
Ait. Br. 1, 14. 

* The duties of the Hotr», while the Soma-cart is driven to the 
hall, are set forth Asv. S'rautas. IV, 4 : He stands three feet behind 
the cart between the two wheel tracks, and throws thrice dust 
towards the south with the fore-part of his foot without moving the 
heel, with the formula, ' Thou art wise, thou art intelligent, thou 
upholding all things: drive away the danger arising from men I' 
Thereupon, after uttering the sound ' Him,' he recites eight verses, 
or, the first and last being recited thrice each, in all twelve verses. 
Cf. Ait Br. I, 13. He first remains standing in the same place and 
recites thrice the first verse. Then in following the cart he recites 
the five following verses. The cart having now stopped, he walks 
round it on its right (south) side, and while looking on the Soma 
follows it while it is placed on the throne. He then touches it and 
completes his recitation by the last two verses. The first of these 
two verses is the same which the sacrificer is to mutter (with the 
Adhvaryu) while Soma is carried into the hall, and which is given in 
paragraph 30. 

* While the Soma is driven to the hall, the sacrificer has to hold 
on to it from behind. 

* 'Asya T&gixizA sabh&g&h;' — Soma seems to be compared here 
with an emperor or overlord of kings (adhir^ r^^Sm, V, 4, a, 2), 
who is holding a royal court (rS^sabhS), or a Darbar, to which the 
under-kings are flocking. S&ya«a seems to interpret the passage 
di£ferently : apy asya rSf&naA iti sabhSgi ity anena n^Tim anatikra- 



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8o satapatha-brAhmaj^a. 

him) to attend the assembly, and he is the first to 
salute the kings, for he is gracious. This is why he 
says, 'Thou art gracious.' ' Go forth, O Lord of the 
world,' he says, because he (Soma) is the lord of 
beings. 'To all dwellings,' 'all dwellings ' doubt- 
less means the limbs; with reference to his limbs 
he says this, 'May no prowling enemies meet 
thee! may no waylayers meet thee! May no 
malicious wolves meet thee !' this he says lest 
the evil spirits should meet him on his way. 

15. 'Having become a falcon, fly away!' he 
thereby makes him fly forward after becoming a 
falcon; for the evil spirits fly not after what is 
fearful: now he, the falcon, forsooth is the most 
fearful, the strongest of birds, and as such a one 
he makes him (Soma) fly forwards when he says, 
' Having become a falcon, fly away I' 

16. Now they (can) only hit his body ^ ' Go to 
the sacrificer's dwelling, — that is the place pre- 
pared for us.* In this there is nothing obscure. 

ina;<t]ram uktam bhavati ; api sambhSvaniyim madhuparkam Sha 
' Tigne MKryajvajurapitr»'vyamitulina« ^eti' (Ajv. Gr/Tiyas. I, 24) 
sambhivantyinam madhye rligiiAm prathamato nirduena(!) sre- 
sh/Ayivagam&d itarapi^opalakshakatvenipy asya r^na iti nirde.ra 
iti mantavyam, iSgna. 4gat4n svayam prahva eva san pfirvas tebhyaA 
pr&g evibhivadati vSgvyavahSrawi karoti. The K5«va text reads : 
For he is his gracious lord, therefore he heeds not even a king ; and 
yet (?) he is the first to salute the kings : thus he is indeed gracious to 
him : ' esha vi etasya bhadro bhavati, tasmid esha na T&g&mim >bn&- 
driyate 'tho pArvo rS^no'bhivadati tathisyaisha eva bhadro bhavati(I).' 
• Or, they can only shoot after his body, 'fartram evinvavahantL' 
The Kl»va text has 'athSsyedam jartram evinasi 'nv&vahanti,' i.e. 
'Now they only brmg his body with the cart.' The MS. of SSya«a 
also has 'anv&vahanti,' but it explains it by 'jyentbh^vdd upSde- 
yasya siriffuasya b&dhibhSvdd dhantS xariram evinugatya hanti 
nltm&nam.' 



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in KAND\, 3 ADHYAyA, 4 BRAHMA VA, 1 8. 8 1 

1 7. Thereupon he recites the SubrahmawyS. litany. 
Even as one would say to those for whom he in- 
tends to prepare a meal, ' On such and such a day 
I will prepare a meal for you;' so does he thereby 
announce the sacrifice to the gods. 'Subrah- 
ma»y6m! Subrahma»y6m! Subrahma«y6m!' 
thus he calls, for the Brahman indeed moves the 
gods onward. Thrice he says it, because the sacrifice 
is threefold. 

18. ' Come, O Indra!' Indra is the deity of the 
sacrifice: therefore he says, 'Come, O Indra!' 
'Come, O lord of the bay steeds! Ram of 
MedhfitithiM Wife of Vr«sha«ajvaM Be- 
striding buffalo! Lover of Ahalyi'!' Thereby 
he wishes him joy in those affairs of his. 

* This myth, according to which Indra was supposed to have 
assumed the form of a ram and to have carried ofif Medhatithi, the 
K&nva. (or, according to others, to have robbed him of his Soma), 
appears to be alluded to in Rig-veda VIII, a, 40. On the possible 
connection of the myth with the Greek one of Ganymede, see 
Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, p. 40. Siya«a does not explain the Subrah- 
ma»y& formula, but remarks, that he has already done so in the 
Sima-brdhma»a (viz. in the Sha<fvimxa). 

* According to Rig-veda I, 51, 13, Indra became the wife 
(meni) of Vr«sha«arva (Mena) ; the reason for this transformation 
being, according to the Sharfviwua Br., that he was in love with MenS 
or Menakt, the daughter of that king (or sage). Ind. Stud. I, p. 38. 
The later explanation of the simple statement of the Rik seems of 
doubtful authenticity, unless the choice of the word meni for 
' wife ' was intended by the bard as an allusion to the name of the 
king's daughter. It is more likely that the myth alluded to in the 
Rik had been forgotten at the time of the Brdhmanas, and a new 
version of it was invented, based on the 'meni' of the original. 
Haug, Transl. Ait. Br. p. 383, takes Men& here as a name. 

' This is another of Indra's love-myths about which very little is 
known. Ahaiyi (Maitreyi) is said to have been the wife of the 
Hishi Gautama (or of Kauhka, according to Shadv. Br.) and to 
have been loved by Indra. 

[36] G 



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82 5ATApatha-brAhma;va. 

19. 'O Kaui'ika*, Brdhman, thou who callest 
thee Gautama ^' Just so has this (formula) been 
devised in these days by Aru«i, to wit, ' thou who 
callest thee Gautama :' he may say it, if he choose, 
and if he does not choose, he need not attend to 
it*. 'In so and so many days, to the Soma- 
feast,' (stating) in how many days from hence the 
pressing is to be. 

20. 'Ye gods and priests, come hither*!' 
This he says to the gods and Brihmans, because it 
is of these two, the gods and Brdhmans, that he 
has need. 

21. Thereupon the Pratiprasthitr? steps up to 
the front of the hall with the victim for Agni and 
Soma. Now Agni and Soma have seized him, who 
consecrates himself, between their jaws, for that con- 
secration-offering above* belongs to Agni and 
Vish«u, and Vish«u, forsooth, is no other than 

" According to S4ya«a on Rig-veda I, 10, 11 (where Indra is 
called Kaujika, 'favourable to the Kujikas') Kujika desired to 
have a son equal to Indra, whence the latter was bom as 
Kujika's son Githin (Gadhin). Differently Siy. on Taitt. Ar. I, 
12, 4. 

^ The Sha</v. Br. (Ind. Stud. I, p. 38) explains this as follows:— The 
Gods and Asuras were at war with each other. Gotama was per- 
forming austerities between them. Indra went up to him and said, 
'Go out as our spy.' ' I cannot,' he replied. 'Then I will go in 
your form.' 'As thou thinkest fit I' And because he (Indra) went 
about in the form of Gotama, passing himself off as Gotama, there- 
fore he says, ' thou who callest thee Gotama.' 

' The KSffva text also states that this last portion of the formula 
was devised by Aru»i, but nothing is said as to its use being 
optional. 

* For variations of this concluding part of the Subrahma»y& in 
different schools, see LS/y. St. 1, 3, 3 seq.; also notes to III, 9, 3, 10 ; 
IV, 9, 6, 25 ; Haug, Transl. Ait. Br. p. 383. 

" See III, 1, 3, 1 seq. 



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HI KklfDA, 3 ADHyAyA, 4 BRAhMAJVA, 25. 83 

Soma, and the offering is he himself who is 
consecrated : thus they have seized him between 
their jaws ; and by this victim he now redeems 
himself ^ 

22. Now, some take a firebrand from the Aha- 
vanlya, saying, ' Here is Agni, and here is Soma : 
with these two thus being together we will redeem 
ourselves.' But let him not do this ; for whereso- 
ever these two are, there they are indeed together. 

23. It (the victim) is two-coloured, because it 
belongs to two deities : ' For the sake of concord 
between the two deities let it be a black-spotted 
(buck)!' they say; 'for that is most like those two 
(gods).' If he be unable to obtain a black-spotted 
buck, it may be a red-spotted one. 

24. Thereon he makes (the sacrificer) say (Vd^. 
S. IV, 35; Rig-veda X, 37, i), 'Homage be to 
the eye of Mitra and Varu«a! perform ye dili- 
gently this holy' service to the god! sing ye 
unto the far-seeing, god-born light, to SClrya, 
the son of the sky !' Thereby he renders homage to 
it (the victim) and makes it a token of the covenant. 

25. The Adhvaryu then removes the Soma- 
wrapper. With(Vi^. S. IV, 36)'Thou artVaru«a's 
stay,' he props (the cart) with the prop. With 'Ye 
two are the rest of Varu«a's stay,' he pulls out 
the two wedges. The reason why he says, ' Ye two 
are the rest of Varu«a's stay*,' is that he, the bought 
Soma, now indeed is of Varu«a'. 

' ' By this victim he redeems himself, the victim, and with that 
redeemed self, now his own, he sacrifices.' Ka»va rec. 

' Skambha visar^nt (' support or pin of the prop ') is taken by 
SSya«a in the sense of ' offshoot of the prop ' or ' that which is let 
go (srish/a) by the prop.' 

' I.e. belongs to Varu»a or is of Varu«a's nature (varunyo 

G 2 



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84 ^atapatha-brAhmajva. 

26. Thereupon four men take up the king's throne ; 
two men, it is true, take it up for the human king, but 
four take up this for him who rules over every- 
thing here. 

27. It is of udumbara wood — udumbara meaning 
sap and food — for (the sacrificer's) obtainment of 
sap and food : therefore it is of udumbara wood. 

28. It reaches up to his navel, for it is there that 
the food settles, and Soma is food : therefore it 
reaches up to his navel. Moreover, there is the seat 
of the seed, and Soma is seed : therefore it reaches 
up to his navel. 

29. He (the Adhvaryu) touches it with, 'Thou 
art the rightful seat (r/tasadani) of Varu«a!' 
He then spreads on it the black deerskin with, 
'Thou art the rightful seat (r/tasadanam) of 
Varuwa !' and places him (Soma) thereon with, 
'Seat thee on the rightful seat of Varu»a!' 
The reason why he says, ' Seat thee on the rightful 
seat of Varu«a,' is that he (Soma) is now of Varuwa's 
nature. 

30. Thereupon he makes him (king Soma) enter 
the hall ; and in making him enter, he causes (the 
sacrificer) to. say (V^. S. IV, 37 ; Rig-veda I, 91, 
19), 'Whatsoever powers of thine they wor- 
ship with offering, may they all encompass 
the sacrifice'! Go forth to our dwellings, O 
Soma, prospering our homes, ever helpful, 
bestowing abundance of men, not slaying our 

bhavati). SSyawa (if the MS. is correct) takes it in the sense of 
'is Varu«a himself,' etasmin krttivasare somo varuno bhavati. 

* Or, ' may the sacrifice encompass them all,' if, with Grassmann 
and Ludwig, we read 'ya^'na^' instead of 'ya^am.' This verse is 
likewise recited (?at the same time) by the Hotr», see p. 79, note 2. 



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HI KANDA, 4 ADHyAyA, I BRAHMAiVA, 3. 85 

men!' dwellings meaning houses, he thereby means 
to say, ' Go forth to our houses, kind, propitious, 
not doing evil.' 

31. Some now pour out a vessel of water beside 
him, saying that this would be as one would bring 
water for a king that has come to him. But let him 
not do this, for they (who do this) do at the sacrifice 
what is human, and inauspicious for the sacrifice 
forsooth is that which is human : let him therefore 
not pour out water, lest he should do at the sacrifice 
what is inauspicious. 



THE ATir-ffYA, or GUEST-OFFERING 
(HOSPITABLE RECEPTION GIVEN TO KING SOMA). 

Fourth AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. Verily, the guest-offering is the head of the 
sacrifice, and the Prdyawiya and Udayanlya are its 
arms. But the arms are on both sides of the head : 
therefore those two oblations, the PrAya«tya and 
Udayanlya, are on both sides of the guest-offering. 

2. Now as to why it is called 'guest-offering.' 
He, the purchased Soma, truly comes as his 
(the sacrificer's) guest, — to him (is offered) that 
(hospitable reception): even as for a king or a Brdh- 
man one would cook a large ox or a large he-goat — 
for that is human (fare offered to a guest), and the 
oblation is that of the gods — so he prepares for him 
that gfuest-offering. 

3. Here now they say, 'Let him first walk past 
(Soma) and take out (the material for offering)!' 
For (they argue) where people do not show respect 



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86 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

to a worthy person (arhant) who has come to them, 
he becomes angry, — and in this way he (Soma) is 
indeed honoured. 

4. Then only one (of the oxen) is to be unyoked, 
and the other to be left unyoked*; and thereupon he 
is to take out (the material for offering) : for (they 
argue) in that one of them is unyoked, thereby he 
(Soma) has arrived ; and in that the other is left 
unyoked, thereby he is honoured. 

5. Let him, however, not do this ; but let him 
take out (the material for offering) only after un- 
yoking (both oxen) and after making (Soma) enter 
(the hall); for the ways of men are in accordance 
with those of the gods. And accordingly, in human 
practice, so long as (a guest) has not unyoked, 
people do not bring water to him and show him no 
honour, for so long he has not yet arrived; but 
when he has unyoked, then they bring him water 
and show him honour, for then he has indeed 
arrived : let him therefore take out (the material 
for offering) only after unyoking and after making 
(Soma) enter (the hall). 

6. Let him take it out with all speed, for thus he 
(Soma) is honoured. The housewife holds on to it 
from behind'' ; for the sacrificer holds on to him 
(Soma), while he is driven around, and here his wife 
does so. Thus they enclose him on the two sides 
by a (married) couple : and, indeed, wherever a 

' This is the practice recognised by the Taittirtyas (T. S. VI, 2, 
1,1), on the ground that, if one were to unyoke both oxen, he 
would interrupt the sacrifice ; and if he were to leave them both 
unyoked, it would be as if a hospitable reception were given to one 
who has not actually arrived. 

' That is, by touching the Adhvaryu while he takes out the sacri- 
ficial food. See p. 79, note 3. 



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Ill KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, lO. 87 

worthy person comes, there all the inmates of the 
house bestir themselves, for thus he is honoured. 

7. Let him take out (the material) with a different 
formula from that wherewith (one takes out) any 
other oblations \ since, when he (Soma) is bought, 
he is bought for one special destination, — for the 
sovereignty of the metres, for the supreme sove- 
reignty of the metres. The metres act as attendants 
about him ; even as the non-royal king-makers, the 
heralds and headmen, (attend upon) the king, so do 
the metres act as attendants about him (Soma). 

8. In no wise, then, is it befitting that he should 
take out any (material for offering) solely ' for the 
metres*;' for whenever people cook food for some 
worthy person', then the attendants about him, the 
non-royal king-makers, the heralds and headmer, 
have their share (of the food) assigned to them after 
(or along with their master): hence, when he takes 
out that (oblation to Soma), let him assign the 
metres a share in it along with (the deity). 

9. He takes it out, with the text (Vl^. S. V, i), 
'Thou art Agni's body, — thee (I take) for 
Vish«ul' the Giyatrl is Agni : to Gdyatri he thus 
assigns her share. 

10. 'Thou art Soma's body, — thee for 
Vish«u !' Soma is the nobility, and the Trish/ubh 

' For the ordinary formula with which material for offering is 
taken out at an ish/i, 'At the impulse of the divine Savitn, I take 
thee with the arms of the Afvins, with the hands of Piishan, thee 
well-pleasing to — !' see I, i, a, 17. 

* According to Taitt. S. VI, 2, i, the five portions are taken out 
for the metres Gayatri, Trish/ubh, <?agatt, AnushAibh, and Giyatrt, 
with" the texts, 'Thou art Agni's hospitable feast, for Vish«u (I take) 
thee,' &c. 

* ' Arhant' seems rather to mean ' ruler ' here. 



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88 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAA^A. 

is the nobility : to Trish/ubh he thus assigns her 
share. 

11. 'Thou art the guest's hospitable enter- 
tainment', — thee for Vish«u!' This is his (Soma's) 
special share : as there is a special share for a chief, 
so is this his special share apart from the metres. 

12. 'Thee for the Soma-bearing falcon ! thee 
for Vish»u!' thereby he assigns to Giyatr! her 
share. Because Gdyatrl, in the form of a falcon, 
carried off Soma from the sky, therefore she is the 
Soma-bearing falcon : in virtue of that heroic deed 
he now assigns to her a second share. 

13. 'Thee for Agni, the bestower of pros- 
perity! thee for Vish«u!' Prosperity means 
cattle, and the Gagnti (the moving, living one) 
means cattle : to 6^agatl he thereby assigns her share. 

14. Now as to his taking five times; — the sa- 
crifice is of equal measure with the year, and five 
seasons there are in the year : the latter he g^ins in 
five (divisions); — for this reason he takes five times. 
And as to his taking it with ' For Vish«u (I take) 
thee ! for Vish«u thee !' it is because he who takes 
out (material) for the sacrifice, takes it for Vish«u. 

15. It is a sacrificial cake on nine potsherds ; — for 
the g^est-offering is the head of the sacrifice, and 
the Giyatrt consists of nine syllables": eight (syl- 
lables) are those he recites and the sacred syllable *• 
is the ninth ; and the Gdyatri is the fore-part of the 



' Atither dtithyam, 'the guest's guest-meal.' 

* According to Taitt S. VI, 2, i, 4, it is because the head has 
nine seams, ' navadhS «ro vishyfitam.' 

' The final syllable of the prayers recited in ofiFering is pro- 
tracted and nasalized, a final 'a' becoming 6m, — this drawing out 
of the syllable is called ' pra«ava.' 



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Ill KAJVDA, 4 ADHYAVA, I BRAhMAJVA, 1 8. 89 

sacrifice ', and so is that (cake) the fore-part of the 
sacrifice : therefore it is a cake on nine potsherds. 

16. The enclosing-sticks are of kirshmarya 
wood (Gmelina Arborea''), for the gods, once upon a 
time, perceived that one, the kdrshmarya, to be the 
Rakshas-killer among trees. Now, the guest-offer- 
ing being the head of the sacrifice, the enclosing- 
sticks are of kirshmarya wood, in order that the evil 
spirits may not injure the head of the sacrifice. 

17. The prastara-bunch ^ is of ajvavila-grass 
(Saccharum Spontaneum). For, once upon a time, 
the sacrifice escaped from the gods. It became a 
horse (arva) and sped away from them. The gods, 
rushing after it, took hold of its tail (vdla) and tore 
it out ; and having torn it out, they threw it down 
in a lump, and what had been the hairs of the 
horse's tail then grew up as those plants (of asvdi- 
vila-grass). Now the guest-offering is the head of 
the sacrifice, and the tail is the hind-part (of animals) : 
hence by the prastara being of a^vavila-grass he 
encompasses the sacrifice on both sides. 

18. There are two vidhmis* of sugar-cane, lest 

" Because the GSyatrt metre is connected with the pritaAsavana 
or morning pressing. See IV, 2, 5, 20 seq.; Ait. Br. Ill, 27 seq. 

* See I, 3, 3, 19-20, where the approved kinds of wood for the 
paridhis at an ish/i are enumerated. 

' For the prastara, or bunch of reed-grass, representing the 
sacrificer, see I, 3, 3, 5 seq.; 8, 3, 11 seq. The axvavila (horse- 
tail) grass (generally called klra) is said to resemble horse-hair, and 
is used for twine, mats, thatch, &c. Sir H. M. Elliot, ' Races of the 
N. W. Prov.,' 11, pp. 371, 372, describes it as growing from three to 
.fifteen feet high, and flowering in great profusion after the rains ; 
the base of the flowers being surrounded with a bright silvery fleece, 
which whitens the neighbouring fields so much as frequently to 
resemble a fall of snow. 

* For the vidhn'ti or stalks laid across the barhis (sacrificial 



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90 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAA'A. 

the barhis and the prastara should become mixed 
up together. Having then purified the ghee ^, he 
takes all the butter-portions in four ladlings *, for at 
this (sacrifice) there are no after-offerings. 

19. When he has placed the sacrificial dishes (on 
the altar)*, he churns the fire. For the guest-offer- 
ing is the head of the sacrifice ; and in churning 
(the fire) they produce that (sacrifice) ; and one who 
is born is born with the head first : hence he thereby 
makes the sacrifice to be produced with the head 
first. Further, Agni means all the gods, since 
offering is made in the fire to all gods ; and the 
guest-offering is the head of the sacrifice : hence, 
through all the deities, he secures success to the 
sacrifice from the very head (beginning). This is 
why he churns the fire *. 

20. He takes the bottom piece of wood*, with 
the text (V^. S. V, 2), ' Thou art the birth-place 
of Agni;' for it is thereon that Agni is produced: 
hence he says, ' Thou art the birth-place of Agni.' 

21. Thereon he lays two sprouts of a ku^ stalk 
(with the tops towards the east), with, ' Ye are 

grass covering the altar), to keep the prastara separate from the 
latter when laid upon it, see I, 3, 4, 10. As no special mention is 
made of the barhis, the same material has to be used for it as at the 
model ish/1 (New and Full-moon sacrifice), viz. Kuja grass (Poa 
Cynosuroides). 

' See I, 3, 1, 22-23. ' See I, 3, 2, 8-9. 

' See I, 3, 4, 14. 

* On the production of the fire by 'churning,' see part i, p. 294, 
note 3. 

' The adhimanthana ^akala is a chip of wood used for the 
lower churning-stick (adhardra/ii), wherein the upper churning-stick 
is drilled, to rest upon. It is laid down on the altar-grass (barhis) 
from south to north. According to Siyana it is a chip obtained in 
rough-hewing the sacrificial stake. 



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Ill KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 23. 9 1 

males ^;' thereby these two are as two (sons) born 
together here from a woman. 

22. Thereon he lays the lower churning-stick 
(with the top to the north), with, 'Thou art Ur- 
vajl!' He then touches the (ghee in the) ghee- 
pan with the "upper churning-stick, with, 'Thou art 
Ayu,' he puts it down (on the lower ara«i) with, 
'Thou art PurOravas.' For Urva^l was a 
nymph, and Purftravas was her husband; and the 
(child) which sprung from that union was Ayu * : in 
like manner does he now produce the sacrifice from 
that union. Thereupon he says (to the Hotr?), 'Re- 
cite to Agni, as he is churned'!' 

23. Hechurns,withthe texts, 'With the Gdyatrl 
metre I churn thee! — With the Trish/ubh 
metre I churn thee! — With the Gagati metre 
I churn thee!' For it is with the metres that he 
churns him (Agni, the fire) ; the metres he recites to 
him when he is churned, whereby he attaches the 
metres to the sacrifice, even as the rays (are attached) 
to yonder sun. — ' Recite to the born one !' he says. 



' In this sense 'vr«sha«au' is taken by Mahtdhara (sektSrau, 
from vrjshan), Sdyawa, and apparently also by our author. Per- 
haps it means 'testicles' (vr/sha«a) in the text. See III, 6, 3, 10 ; 
and part i, p. 389, note 3. 

* The myth of Purfiravas and Urvajl is given at length XI, 5, i, 
1-17. ComparealsoMaxMaller,Chip8,vol. ii,p. io2seq.; A.Kuhn, 
Herabkunft des Feuers, p. 78 seq. 

' The verses which the Hotr» has to recite are (a) one to Savitr/' 
(the Vivifier, viz. Rig-veda I, 24, 3); (b) to Heaven and Earth (IV, 
56, i); (c) atriplet to Agni (VI, 16, 13-15). If fire has not appeared 
by this time, he recites the so-called Rakshas-killing verses (X, 1 18), 
repeating them until fire has been produced. See Ait. Br. 1, 1 7 ; 
ksv. St. II, 16. 



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92 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

when he (Agni) is produced ' ; and ' To him who is 
thrown^!' when he throws him (on the old Aha- 
vanfya fire). 

24. He throws (the fire on the hearth), with the 
text(V4^. S. Vt3), 'For our sake be ye two (fires) 
friendly to one another, of one mind, un- 
blemished! Injure not the sacrifice, nor the 
lord of the sacrifice! be gracious unto us this 
day, ye knowers of beings!' He thus bespeaks 
peacefulness between them, that they may not injure 
each other. 

25. He then takes out some clarified butter with 
the dipping-spoon, and pours it on the fire, with the 
text (Vi^. S. V, 4), 'Agni resorteth to Agni, he 
the son of the seers that shieldeth us from 
curses : graciously offer thou for us now with 
good offering, never withholding the oblation 
from the gods. Hail !' For the purpose of offering 
they have produced him, and by this offering he has 
now gratified him : that is why he thus makes 
offering unto him. 

26. It (the guest-offering) ends with the IdSi; no 
after-offerings are performed. For the guest-offer- 
ing is the head of the sacrifice, and the head is the 
fore-part: he thus fits him up as the head of the sacri- 
fice. But were he to perform the after-offerings, 
it would be as if, by reversing, he were to put the 
feet in the place of the head. Hence it ends with 
the ld&, and no after-offerings are performed. 

' The Hotn recites the two verses, Rig-veda 1, 74, 3 ; VI, i6, 40. 

* The verb is ' pra-hn,' which is also the common term for the 
hurling of the thunderbolt. The six verses, recited by the Hotrt, 
are Rig-veda VI, 16, 41-42; I, 12, 6; VIII, 43, 14; VIII, 73, 8; 
I, 164, 50. 



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Ill kXnDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAJVA, 3. 93 

THE TlNtTNAPTRA, or COVENANT OF 
TANUNAPAT'. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

1. When the gods had performed the guest- 
offering, discord befell them. They separated into 
four different parties, unwilling to yield to each 
other's excellence, — Agni with the Vasus, Soma with 
the Rudras, Varuwa with the Adityas, and Indra 
with the Maruts. Br^Tiaspati with the All-gods, 
say some ', but, indeed, those who separated into 
four parties were ' all the gods.' When they were 
separated, the Asura-Rakshas came after them and 
entered between them. 

2. They became aware of it, — ' Forsooth, we are 
in an evil plight, the Asura-Rakshas have come in 
between us : we shall fall a prey to our enemies. 
Let us come to an agreement and yield to the excel- 
lence of one of us !' They yielded to the excellence 
of Indra; wherefore it is said, 'Indra is all the 
deities, the gods have Indra for their chief.' 

3. For this reason let not kinsmen fall out, for 
any (enemy) of theirs, be he ever so far away, steps 
in between them ; they do what pleases their 
enemies and fall a prey to their enemies : therefore 
let them not fall out. For he who, knowing this, 
quarrels not, does what displeases his enemies and 

* The TinAnaptra is a solemn covenant made by the sacrificer 
and his priests, in the name of Tanfinapit, and while touching 
sacrificial butter ; thereby pledging themselves not to injure each 
other. 

' Thus Ait. Br. I, 24, where moreover the Rudras are assigned 
to Indra, (the Vasus to Agni, and the Adityas to Varuwa.) 



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94 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

falls not a prey to his enemies : let him therefore not 
quarrel. 

4. They said, ' Well then, let us contrive so that 
this (concord) of ours shall be for ever im- 
perishable!' 

5. The gods laid down together ' their favourite 
forms and desirable powers *, one after another, and 
said, 'Thereby he shall be away from us, he shall be 
scattered to the winds, whosoever shall transgress 
this (covenant) of ours!' — Whose (is it) as wit- 
ness^?' — 'Tanftnapdt, the mighty!' — Now the 
mighty Tandnapit indeed is yonder blowing (wind), 
he is the witness of living beings, entering thus as 
the in-breathing and out-breathing. 

6. Wherefore they say, 'The gods know the mind 
of man.' In his mind he proposes; it passes on to 
the breath, and the breath to the wind, and the wind 
tells the gods what the mind of man is. 

7. Hence it was in regard to this what was said 
by the Jiishi, 'In his mind he proposeth, and it 
goeth on to the wind *; and the wind telleth the 
gods what thy mind is, O man.' 

8. The gods laid down together their favourite 
forms and desirable powers, and said, ' Thereby he 
shall be away from us, he shall be scattered to the 
winds, whosoever shall transgress this (covenant) of 
ours !' And even now the gods do not transgress 
that (covenant), for how would they fare, were they 



' Literally, ' cut off together, part by part.' 

* Or, attributes, resources, ' dhSmSni.' 

* Kasya upadrash/ur ; the KS«va text has, Tasya naA ka upa- 
drash/a, ' who (shall be) the witness of this (covenant) of ours ?' 

* Cp. Atharva-veda XII, 4, 31, 'In his mind he proposes and it 
goes forth to the gods.' 



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Ill kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brahmajva, ii. 95 

to transgress it ? — they would speak untruth, and 
verily there is one law which the gods do keep, 
namely, the truth. It is through this that their 
conquest, their glory is unassailable : and so, for- 
sooth, is his conquest, his glory unassailable who- 
soever, knowing this, speaks the truth. Now, the 
T4n(inaptra is really that same (covenant of 
the gods). .\ , 

9. The gods laid down together their favourite 
forms and desirable powers. Now it is by taking 
portions of butter that they (the priests) lay down 
together the desirable forms and favourite powers. 
Let him, then, not covenant with any one and every 
one, lest his favourite forms and desirable powers 
should be mixed up (with those of others). But let 
him not deceive one with whom he makes a cove- 
nant ; for thus it is said, ' Let there be no deceiving 
of him with whom one has made the covenant of 
Tan(inap4t.' 

10. In the first place he takes (butter) there- 
from », with the text (V^. S. V, 5), 'For him 
that rushes onward, for him that rushes 
about, I take thee.' He that blows yonder (the 
wind) does indeed rush onward and rush about; 
and it is for him that he takes (the butter) : there- 
fore he says, ' for him that rushes onward, for him 
that rushes about, I take thee.' 

11. 'For Tanflnapit, the mighty.' The 
mighty Tanftnapdt truly is yonder blowing (wind), 
and it is for him that he takes (the butter) : there- 
fore he says, ' For Tanfinapit, the mighty.' 

* Viz. the butter in the dhruvS spoon, pouring it into the ' vrata- 
pradina,' or vessel in which the fast-milk is handed to the 
sacrificer. 



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96 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

12. ' For the powerful, the most Strong!' He 
is indeed powerful and most strong ; and for him he 
takes it : therefore he says, ' For the powerful, the 
most strong.' 

1 3. They then touch it at the same time. Now 
the gods were fully agreed on this point, ' Verily, so 
and thus shall he of us fare who shall transgress this 
(covenant) of ours !' And so are these (priests and 
sacrificer) now agreed on this, — 'Verily, so and thus 
shall he of us fare who shall transgress this (cove- 
nant) of ours!' 

14. They touch it simultaneously, with the text, 
' Thou art the strength of the gods, unassailed 
and unassailable ; for the gods were indeed un- 
assailed and unassailable while being together, and 
speaking with one accord and holding together. 
'The strength of the gods* doubtless means the 
favourite forms and desirable powers of the gods, 
'uncursed, curse-averting, uncursable,' for the 
gods have overcome every curse; — 'May I 
straightway go to the truth!' whereby he means 
to say, 'May I speak the truth, may I not transgress 
this (covenant);' — ' Establish me in welfare I' for 
in welfare the gods indeed established themselves 
by speaking the truth, by performing the truth : 
therefore he says, ' Establish me in welfare I' 

15. Now those favourite forms and desirable 
powers which the gods put together, they then 
deposited in Indra^; — Indra verily is he that burns 
yonder (the sun); but he indeed did not burn in the 
beginning, but as now everything else is dark, so 
was he then ; and it is by that very energy (derived 

' According to Ait. Br. I, 24 the gods deposited their forms in 
the house of king Varuwa. 



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Ill kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 2. 97 

from those divine objects) that he bums. Hence, 
if many persons perform the consecration*, let it (the 
Tdndnaptra butter), after pouring the fast-milk to it, 
be handed only to the master of the house, since he, 
among them, is the representative of Indra. And if 
he perform the consecration by means of an (offering) 
with a dakshi»&, let them hand it (the butter) to the 
sacrificer, after pouring the fast-milk to it, for thus 
it is said, — 'The Sacrificer is Indra.' 

16. Now what favourite forms and desirable 
powers the gods then laid together, all that was 
wrought together and became the Siman : where- 
fore they say, ' The S&man is the truth, the Siman 
is bom of the gods.' 

THE AVAnTARADIKSHA, or INTERMEDIARY 
CONSECRATION. 

Third BRAuMAyA. 

1. When the gods had performed the guest- 
offering, discord arose between them. They allayed 
it by means of the Tdndnaptra (oaths). They 
desired an atonement for having spoken evil to one 
another ; for they had appointed no other consecra- 
tion-ceremony till the expiatory bath. They per- 
ceived this intermediate consecration*. 

2. By means of fire they enveloped (the body) with 
a skin. Now, fire being fervour, and the consecration 
being fervour, they thereby underwent an interme- 
diate consecration ; and because they underwent that 

' That is, in a Sattra or sacrificial session, where all the officiating 
priests are consecrated and ' sacrificers ;' the Ya^mSna proper being 
styled Gnliapati (master of the house). See IV, 6, 8, i seq. 

* The Av&ntaradikshS extends to the end of the sixth Bribmana. 
[26] H 



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98 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

intermediate consecration, therefore this in terme- 
diary consecration (avdntaradikshi, is performed). 
They turned in their fingers more tightly and drew ' 
their zone tighter, whereby they (again) put round 
them what had been put round them before *; — and so 
does he thereby make atonement for what heretofore 
he has done injurious to the vow, for what he has 
spoken injurious to the vow. 

3. By means of the fire they (the priests) envelop 
him with, a skin. Now, fire being fervour, and the 
consecration being fervour, he thereby undergoes an 
intermediate consecration. He turns in his fingers 
more tightly and draws the zone tighter, whereby he 
(again) puts round himself what was put round him 
before. Moreover, it was offspring the gods thereby 
obtained. 

4. By means of Agni (fire) they enveloped (the 
body) with a skin. Now, Agni being the causer of 
sexual union, the progenitor, they thereby obtained 
offspring. They turned in their fingers more tightly 
and drew their zone tighter, whereby they produced 
offspring for themselves. And in like manner does 
he (the sacrificer) thereby obtain offspring. 

5. By means of Agni he envelops himself with a 
skin. Now, Agni being the causer of sexual union, 
the progenitor, he thereby ' obtains offspring. He 
turns in his fingers more tightly and draws his zone 
tighter, whereby he produces offspring for himself. 

6. Now, while the gods were consecrated, whichever 
of them fetched fire-wood or uttered his appointed 
texts, him the Asura-Rakshas endeavoured to 

' Our text has no verb ; the KSmra recension reads 'auhanta.' 
' Viz. the diksht, as symbolised by the zone (or the skin). 
' Viz. through Agni, or the AvtntaradlkshS. 



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Ill KANDA, 4 ADHYAVA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 9. 99 

Strike — the one by (assuming) the form of this one, 
and the other by that of another. They came to- 
gether, upbraiding one another, saying, ' See, what 
thou hast done to me! see, how thou hast struck 
me!' But Agni alone did not speak thus to any 
one, nor did any one speak thus to Agni, 

7. They said, 'Have they spoken thus to thee 
also, Agni?' He said, 'Verily, I have not spoken 
to any one, nor has any one spoken to me.' 

8. They became aware, — ' He verily is the greatest 
repeller of the Rakshas among us ; let us be like him : 
thereby we shall escape from the Rakshas, thereby 
we shall attain to the heavenly world.' They accord- 
ingly became like Agni, and thereby escaped from 
the Rakshas and attained to the heavenly world. And 
in like manner does this one now become like Agni, 
and thereby escape from the Rakshas and attain to 
the heavenly world. It is in putting a kindling-stick 
on (the Ahavantya fire') that he enters upon the 
Avintaradlkshd. 

9. He puts on the kindling-stick, with the text 
(VSf . S. V, 6), ' O Agni, protector of vows ; on 
thee, O protector of vows — ' for Agni is lord of 
vows to the gods ; wherefore he says, ' O Agni, 
protector of vows, on thee, O protector of vows — ' 
'whatbodilyform* there is of thine, (may that be) 
here on me; and what bodily form there is of 
mine, (may that be) on thee! May my vows be 
bound up with thine, O lord of vows!' whereby 
he envelops himself with the skin by means of Agnu 
'May the lord of consecration approve my 

• The sacrificer's wife performs silently on and near the Girha- 
patya fire the same ceremonies as her husband. 

* Tanu, see p. 10, note 4. 

H 2 



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lOO DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

consecration, and the lord of penance my pen- 
ance !' Thereby he enters upon the intermediary 
consecration. More closely he turns in his fingers, 
and closer he draws the zone ; whereby he (again) 
puts round himself what was put round him before. 

10. They then attend on him with the boiling 
lustral water (madantl) ; — fire is heat, and the lustral 
water is heat : that is why they attend on him with 
the lustral water. 

11. Having touched the lustral water, they (the 
priests and sacrificer) therewith strengthen^ the 
king (Soma). The reason why, after toudiing the 
lustral water, they strengthen the king is this ; — ghee 
is a thunderbolt, and Soma is seed: hence they 
strengthen the king after touching the lustral water, 
lest they should injure the seed, Soma, by the thun- 
derbolt, the ghee. 

1 2. Here now they say, ' Him, Soma, for whom that 
strengthening (meal), the guest-offering, is prepared, 
they ought first to strengthen, and then (ought to 
be performed) the Av&ntaradlkshS., and thereupon 
the T4n6naptra.' But let him not do this. For such 
indeed was the course of the sacrificial performance : 
discord arose between them (the gods) thereat ; they 
attained to their former tranquillity ; then the A^4n- 
taradlkshfi and finally the strengthening. 

13. Then as to why they strengthen (Soma). 
Soma is a god, since Soma (the moon) is in the sky. 
' Soma, forsooth, was Vrjtra ; his body is the same as 
the mountains and rocks : thereon grows that plant 
called \Js&nk,' — so said 5'vetaketu Auddilaki ; 

• On the ' ipySyana' (&-pyai, 'to swell, make swell,' to strengthen, 
become strong, increase, fill), see part i, p. 178, note 2. According 
to Apastamba and other authorities, they tie a piece of gold to their 
nameless (gold) finger, and touch the Soma with their moist bands. 



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OP 

in kUnda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmaj^ta, 






' they fetch it hither and press it ; and by means 
the consecration and the Upasads, by the Tdnfinaptra 
and the strengthening they make it into Soma.' And 
in like manner does he now make it into Soma by 
means of the consecration and the Upasads, by the 
Tdniinaptra and the strengfthening. 

14. ' It is bees' honey,' they say ; for bees' honey 
means the sacrifice, and the bees that make the 
honey are no other than the officiating priests ; and 
in like manner as the working-bees make the honey 
increase, so do they (the priests) thereby strengthen 
the sacrifice. 

15. By means of the sacrifice the gods gained 
that supreme authority which they now wield. 
They spake, ' How can this (world) of ours be 
made unattainable to men ?' Having sipped the 
sap of the sacrifice, as bees would suck out honey, 
and having drained the sacrifice and scattered it 
by means of the sacrificial post, they disappeared ; 
and because they scattered (yopaya) therewith, 
therefore it is called yOpa (post). 

16. Now this was heard by the /?/shis. They 
collected the sacrifice ; and as that sacrifice was col- 
lected, so does he collect the sacrifice who is con- 
secrated. The sacrifice is speech : hence he thereby 
again supplies what part of the sacrifice here has 
been sucked out and drained. 

1 7. They strengthen (the Soma), being six ' ; — 
there are six seasons : having become the seasons, 
they strengthen it ^ ^ 

18. They strengthen him with (V4f. S. V* 7), 

' Viz. the five priests— Brahman, Udgdtri, Hotr»; Adhvaryu, and 
Agnfdhra — and the sacrificer. 
' That is, as the seasons make the Soma-plant grow. 



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I02 ifATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

' Let stalk after stalk of thine wax strong, O 
divine Soma!' whereby they strengthen (increase) 
stalk after stalk of his ; — ' for Indra, the winner of 
the ekadhanas^;' Indra indeed is the deity of the 
sacrifice : therefore he says, ' For Indra, the winner 
(or bestower) of the ekadhanas.' For verily every one 
of those stalks swells to fill a hundred or ten* eka- 
dhana cups for the several gods. 'May Indra wax 
strong for thee, and wax thou strong for I ndra ! ' 
for Indra is the deity of the sacrifice : he thus strength- 
ens him who is the deity of the sacrifice. By saying, 
' Wax thou strong for Indra,' he instils that invigor- 
ating draught into him. ' Strengthen us friends 
with gain and understanding!' 'With gain' he 
says with reference to what he gains; and 'with 
understanding' he says with reference to what he 
recites. 'Mayest thou thrive, O divine Soma, 
and may I attain to the Soma-feast!' They, 
the priests and sacrificer, have one prayer in 
common, 'May we reach the end of the sacrifice!' 
hence he thereby means to say,' May I reach the end 
of the sacrifice ! ' 

19. Thereupon they make amends on the pras- 
tara. For the sacrifice requires a northward attend- 

* Ekadhana-vid; the meaning of 'ekadhana' (apparently 'one 
prize ' or ' one part of the booty or goods') in this compound is not 
clear. The author of the Brdhmana seems to take it in its technical 
sense, viz. the ekadhana pitchers in which the ekadhani water, used 
for mixing with the Soma juice, is kept, see III, 9, 3; 16; 27; 34. 
According to Haug, Transl Ait Br. p. 114 notes, they are so called 
because the Adhvaryu throws one stalk of Soma (eka-dhana) 
into each pitcher to consecrate it. 

* This anticlimax is rather curious. The Ki«va text reads : dasa. 
dara v& ha smaisha ekaiko 'mmt devSn pratindrSyaikadhanSn ipyi- 
yayanti (I) s&tam sAtam vi tasmdd dhaikadhanavida iti. 



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in KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMA^^TA, 21. IO3 

ance ; but now they strengthen (Soma) after going, as 
it were, towards the right (south) * ; and, the sacrifice 
being the fire, they thereby turn their back on the 
sacrifice and thus do wrong and are cut off from 
the gods. Now the prastara also is (part of) the 
sacrifice, and by (touching) it they again get hold of 
the sacrifice. And this is his expiation of that 
(transgression) ; and so no wrong is committed by 
them and they are not cut off from the gods : for 
this reason they make amends on the prastara. 

20. Here now they say, ' On the anointed ? — let 
them rather make amends on the unanointed ** ! ' 
They should indeed make amends on the un- 
anointed (prastara), since anointed it is thrown into 
the fire. 

21. They make amends' with, ' Desirable trea- 
sures (may come) forth for strength and well- 
being — the right for the right-saying' — whereby 

' Soma's throne stands south of the Ahavaniya fire, and in going 
to perfonn the Spyayanam upon him, the priests and sacrificer have 
to move round the fire, along the east side of it towards the south 
(the region of the Fathers). 

' This seems to be SSya»a's interpretation of the passage ' akte 
nihnuvtrin anaktai.' The two words, with their final syllable pro- 
tracted, being intended to strongly contradict the preceding 'akte.' 
It is hardly possible to take the latter absolutely, ' it being anointed 
(when thrown into the fire), let them make amends on it while un- 
anointed' On the throwing of the prastara into the fire, see I, 8, 
3, 17. The prastara referred to is that of the guest-offering (Sti- 
thyesh^), which was broken off after the Idi ceremony (see III, 4, 
1, 26)''and has to be completed after the present ceremony. Neither 
the prastara nor the barhis is burnt on this occasion. 

' In performing this propitiatory rite, the priests and sacrificer 
lay their hands on the prastara, either both of them with the palms 
upwards, or only the right one, and the left in the opposite way. 
KSty. VIII, 2, 9. The latter mode is the one practised by the 
Taittiriyas. SSy. on Taitt. S. I, 2, n. 



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I04 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

he means to say, ' the truth for the truth-speaking ;' — 
'Homage be to Heaven and to the Earth!' 
whereby they make amends to these two, heaven 
and earth, on whom this All is founded. 

22. Having then picked up the prastara, he says, 
' Agnldh, does the water boil ? ' — * It boils,' replies 
the Agnldh ^ * Come hither with it 1 ' He holds (the 
prastara) quite close over the fire. The reason why 
he does not throw it into the fire is that he (the 
sacrificer) is to perform therewith'' during the days 
that follow ; and in that he holds it quite close over 
the fire, thereby it is for him as if it were really thrown 
into the fire. He hands it to the Agnldh, and the 
Agnldh puts it aside (in a safe place). 

THE UPASADS, or HOMAGES. 
Fourth BrAhmajva. 

I. Verily the Upasads (homages or sieges) are the 
neck of the sacrifice, and the Pravargya is its head. 
Hence when it is performed with the Pravargya', 

* According to the KSffva text, this conversation takes the place 
of the colloquy (samudita) held by the Adhvaryu and the Agnidhra, 
after the prastara has been thrown into the fire at the normal ish^; 
see I, 8, 3, 20. 

' Or, ' in the shape of it (tena),' the prastara representing the 
sacrificer himself. This sentence seems also to imply, that the 
sacrificer thereby continues to live during the days that follow. 

' The Pravargya, an offering of heated milk, which precedes 
each performance of the Upasads,— except at the first performance 
of the Soma-sacrifice, when it is prohibited by many authorities, — 
seems originally to have been an independent ceremony, and as 
such it is treated by most ritualistic books apart from the exposi- 
tion of the Soma-cult. The ^atapatha-brthma«a deals with it in 
XIV, 1-3 (V^. S. XXXIX). Its mystic significance appears to 
have been that of supplying the sacrificer with a new celestial 
body. There seems to have been a tendency towards exalting its 



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Ill kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajta, 4. 105 

they perform the Upasads^ after performing the Pra- 
vargya, and thereby they put the neck in its place. 

2. The anuvdkyds (invitatory prayers) in the fore- 
noon are the yifyis (offering prayers) in the after- 
noon ; and the y^^As are the anuvdkyds^ He thus 
interlinks them, whence those joints and those bones 
of the neck are interlinked. 

3. Now the gods and the Asuras, both of them 
sprung from Pra^pati, were contending against each 
other *. The Asuras then built themselves castles in 
these worlds, — an iron one in this world, a silver one 
in the air, and a golden one in the sky. 

4. The gods then prevailed. They besieged them 
by these sieges (upasad); and because they be- 
sieged (upa-sad) them, therefore the name Upasads. 

importance— if not, indeed, towards making it take the place of the 
Soma-cult. The hot milk (gharma) is even styled 'Samr%'' or 
supreme king — as against the title 'r^^n* or king, assigned to 
Soma ; and a throne is provided for it, just as for the latter. The 
rules for its performance, according to the Apastamba S'rauta-siitra, 
have been published, with a translation, by Professor Garbe 
(Zeitsch. der D. M. G. XXXIV, p. 319 seq.). See also Haug's 
Transl. oftheAit Br. pp. 41-43; Weber, Ind. Stud. IX.pp. 218-220. 

* The UpasadaA, consisting of three offerings of ghee to Agni, 
Soma, and Vishmi, followed by a Homa, have to be performed twice 
daily, for at least three days (the normal number at the Agnish/oma). 
The first day's performance is called (from the corresponding 
Homa) the 'aya^^ayi' (lying in iron, made of iron), the second 
day's 'ra^aAf ayd' (silvern),and the third day's 'hari*ayi'(golden). 
If there are six, or twelve Upasad days, each of the three varieties 
of performance has assigned to it an equal number of successive 
days ; and if there are more than twelve the three varieties are to be 
performed alternately. 

' For the anuvikyds and y^ySs, as well as the kindling-verses 
(sdmidhents) to be recited at the Upasads, see Ait. Br. I, 26 ; 
ksv. IV, 8. 

' For other versions of this myth, see Ait. Br. I, 23; Taitt. S. 
VI, 2, 3. 



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I06 DATAPATH A-BRAHMA;VA. 

They clove the castles and conquered these worlds. 
Hence they say, 'A castle is conquered by siege;' 
for it is indeed by beleaguering that one of these 
human castles is taken. 

5. By means of these sieges, then, the gods clove 
the castles and conquered these worlds. And so 
does this one (the sacrificer) now, — no one, it is true, 
builds for himself castles against him in this world ; 
he cleaves these same worlds, he conquers these 
worlds : therefore he offers with the Upasads. 

6. They have clarified butter for their offering 
material. For ghee is a thunderbolt, and by that 
thunderbolt, the ghee, the gods clove the strong- 
holds and conquered these worlds. And so does 
he cleave these worlds by that thunderbolt, the 
ghee, and conquer these worlds ; therefore they 
(the Upasads) have ghee for their offering material. 

7. He takes eight times (ghee) in the /uh<i, and 
four times in the upabhm ; or conversely, they say, 
he is to take of it only four times in the ^hH and 
eight times in the upabhnt^. 

8. He takes eight times in the £yhi\, and four 
times in the upabhm. He thereby makes the 
thunderbolt heavy in front, and with that thunder- 
bolt heavy in front he cleaves these worlds, and 
conquers these worlds. 

9. Agni and Soma verily are yoke-fellows among 
the gods : for these two he takes (ghee) in common*. 
For Vish«u (he takes) singly. He makes only the 
one libation (dghira) which (he makes) with the 
dipping-spoon (sruva)'. For when he has made 

* This would be the regular mode of ladling. See 1, 3, 2, 8 seq. 

* See p. 108, note i. 

' For the two Sghdra, or libations of ghee, made with the 



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Ill KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 13. TO7 

the northern (higher) libation he retires ' : ' May 
I conquer for conquest' so he thinks, and there- 
fore he makes only the one libation, that with the 
dipping-spoon. 

10. When he has called (on the Agnidhra) for 
the ^rausha/, he does not elect the Hotri\ ' Seat 
thee, O Hotr?!' he says. The Hotrt sits down 
on the Hotrz's seat. Having sat down he urges 
the Adhvaryu ; and he, thus urged, takes the two 
offering-spoons \ 

11. While passing over (to the south side of the 
fire and altar) he says* (to the Hotrt), ' Recite the 
invitatory prayer to Agni !' and having called for 
the iSrausha/, he says, ' Pronounce the offering prayer 
to Agni !' and pours out the oblation when the Va- 
sha/ is uttered. 

1 2. Thereupon he says, ' Recite the invitatory 
prayer to Soma!' and having called for the iSrau- 
sha/, he says, ' Pronounce the offering prayer to 
Soma!' and pours out the oblation when the Va- 
sha/ is uttered. 

13. Thereupon, while pouring the ghee which is 
in the upabhm*, together (with what is left in the 
^hO), he says, ' Recite the invitatory prayer to 
Vish«u!' and, having called for the 5"rausha/, he 
says, ' Pronounce the offering prayer to Vish«u !' 

sruva north of the fire and^uhfi south of the fire respectively, see 
I, 4, 4, 1 seq. At the Upasad-ish/i neither fore-offerings (prayi^a) 
nor after-offerings (anuyi^) are performed. 

' Viz. to the oflfering place on the south side of the fire. The 
covert meaning is that, were he to make the second libation, he 
would have to recede from the higher (uttara, northern) position 
already gained. 

* See 1, 5, 1, 1 seq. * See I, 5, 2, i seq. * See I, 7, 2, i seq. 

' Of the ghee in the guhH (obtained from eight ladlings with the 



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I08 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAJV A. 

and pours out the oblation when the Vasha/ is 
uttered. 

14. The reason why in offering he remains stand- 
ing in one and the same place, and does not move 
about as he is wont to do here in performing, isthat 
he thinks ' I will conquer for conquest' !' And the 
reason why he offers to those deities is that he 
thereby constructs the thunderbolt : Agni (he makes) 
the point (anlka), Soma the barb (^lya), and Vish«u 
the connecting piece (kulmala)^. 

1 5. For the thunderbolt is the year : the day is 
Agni, the night Soma, and what is between the two, 
that is Vishnu. Thus he makes the revolving year. 

16. The thunderbolt is the year : by that year, 
as a thunderbolt, the gods clove the strongholds 
and conquered these worlds. And so does he now 
by that year, as a thunderbolt, cleave these worlds, 
and conquer these worlds. This is why he offers to 
those gods. 

1 7. Let him undertake three Upasads ; for, there 
being three seasons in the year, it is thereby made 
of the form of the year : he thus makes up the year. 
He perfornis twice each. 

sruva) he first offers one half each to Agni and Soma. There- 
upon he pours the ghee from the upabhrt't (obtained from four 
ladlings with the sruva) into the gnhti and offers it to Vishnu. 

' ' It is for conquest that he does not move about as he (does 
when he) performs here in any other sacrifice.' KS«va recension. 

' ?The socket; compare AiL Br. I, 25, 'The gods constructed 
that arrow, the Upasads : Agni was its point (?antka, shaft, Haug), 
Soma its barb (ralya, steel, H.), Vishnu its shaft (t^g^nam, point, H.), 
and Varuna its feathers (paraa) .... For the arrow consists of 
three parts, anlka, jalya, and tega.nz .... For the arrow consists 
of two parts, jalya and t^ana.' Here jalya would seem to be the 
barbed head- piece (with the point, anika), and t^^na the shaft or 
reed of the arrow. 



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Ill KkNDA, 4 ADHYAyA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 2$, IO9 

18. These amount to six; for, there being six 
seasons in the year, it is thereby made of the form 
of the year : he thus makes up the year. 

19. And should he undertake twelve Upasads, — 
there being twelve months in the year, it is thereby 
made of the form of the year : he thus makes up the 
year. He performs twice each. 

20. These amount to twenty-four; — there being 
twenty-four half-moons in the year, it is thereby 
made of the form of the year : he thus makes up 
the year. 

21. As to his performing in the evening and in 
the morning, — it is because only thus completeness is 
obtained. When he performs in the forenoon, then 
he gains the victory ; — and when he performs in the 
afternoon, he does so that it may be a good (com- 
plete) victory ; — and when he offers the Homa, (it is 
as if) people fight here for a stronghold, and having 
conquered it, they enter it as their own. 

22. When he performs (the upasads), he fights ; 
and when (the perforn»nce) is completed, he con- 
quers; and when he offers the HomaS he enters 
that (stronghold) now his own. 

23. He offers it (with the verse) with which he 



* On the completion of each performance of the Upasad offerings, 
after the anointing of the prastara (see I, 8, 3, 11-14) and pre- 
viously to taking up the enclosing-sticks (ib. 22), a homa (or ^- 
hoti) offering (part i,p. 163, note 2), called Upasad-homa, has to be 
performed with the dipping-spoon; the sacrificer holding on to 
Adhvaryu from behind, while the ghee is poured into the fire. Its 
performance over, the Upasads are brought to an end by a repetition 
of the ceremony with the prastara (which is not burnt) described 
above. III, 4, 3, 22, and the minor concluding ceremonies (1, 8, 3, 
23 seq.; 9, 2, 19 seq.); whereupon the Subrahmanyst litany (III, 
3, 4, 17) is recited. 



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no DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiVA. 

will have to perform twice in one day' (V4f. S. 
V, 8), 'What most excellent iron-clad body is 
thine, O Agni, established in the deep, it hath 
chased away the cruel word, it hath chased 
away the fearful word; Hail!' for such-like it 
was, it was indeed iron. 

24. Again he offers (with the verse) with which 
he will have to perform twice in one day, 'What 
most excellent silver-clad body is thine, O 
Agni, established in the deep, it hath chased 
away the cruel word, it hath chased away the 
fearful word; Hail!' for such-like it was, it was 
indeed silver. 

25. And again he offers (with the verse) with 
which he will have to perform twice in one day,' What 
most excellent gold-clad body is thine, O Agni, 
established in the deep, it hath chased away 
the cruel word, it hath chased away the fear- 
ful word; Hail!' for such-like it was, it was indeed 
golden. If he undertakes twelve Upasads, let him 
perform each of them for four days. 

26. Now then of the fast-homages. Some Upa- 
sads get wider and wider, others narrower and nar- 
rower : those at which he milks out one (teat)* on 
the first day, then two, and then three, are those 
that get wider and wider ; and those at which he 

' While the Hotr/, as we saw (parag. 2, above), uses the same 
two verses twice in one day, viz. one for the anuvSky& in the 
morning and for the y&gyi in the afternoon ; and the other for the 
y&gySi in the morning and for the anuvSkyS in the evening, — the 
Adhvaryu is to use the three formulas here mentioned on the 
three Upasad days respectively, both at the morning and afternoon 
performances. 

* Viz. of the vratadughd, or cow supplying his fast-milk. The 
milk so obtained is to be his only food during the Upasad days. 



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lUKANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 1 BRAHMAiVA, I. Ill 

milks out three on the first day, then two, and then 
one, are those that get narrower and narrower. 
Those getting narrower and narrower are (as good 
as) those getting wider and wider ; and those getting 
wider and wider are (as good as) those getting nar- 
rower and narrower, 

27. Verily, the world is conquered by austere 
devotion. Now, his devotion becomes ever and 
ever wider, he conquers an ever and ever more 
glorious world and becomes better even in this world, 
whosoever, knowing this, undertakes the Upasads 
that get narrower and narrower' : let him, therefore, 
undertake the Upasads that get narrower and nar- 
rower. And should he undertake twelve Upasads, 
let him have three (teats) milked out for four days, 
two for four days, and one for four days. 

PREPARATION OF THE SOMA ALTAR WITH 
THE HIGH ALTAR*. 

Fifth AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 
I. From that post which is the largest on the 
east side (of the hall)' he now strides three steps 
forwards (to the east), and there drives in a peg, — 
this is the intermediate (peg)*. 

' The simile is apparently taken from the arrow, which pierces 
the deeper the more pointed it is ; of. parag. 14, above ; Ait. Br. I, 
25. Also Taitt. S. VI, a, 3, 5, where a goad (&ra?) is compared. 

' The preparation of the special altars — viz. the large Soma altar 
(mahi-vedi, or saumikl-vedi) and the ' high altar ' (uttara-vedi) on 
the former — takes place on the last but one Upasad day, after the 
morning performance of the Upasads. 

' This post stands in the middle of the east door of the hall 
or Pri^ina-vawja, just in front of the Ahavaniya-fire. See p. 3, 
note 2. 

* Anta^plta, lit ' falling within or between,' because it stands 



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112 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

2. From that middle peg he strides fifteen steps 
to the right, and there drives in a peg, — this is the 
right hip. 

3. From that middle peg he strides fifteen steps 
northwards, and there drives in a peg, — this is the 
left hip. 

4. From that middle peg he strides thirty-six 
steps eastwards, and there drives in a peg, — this is 
the fore-part '. 

5. From that middle peg (in front) he strides 
twelve steps to the right, and there drives in a peg, — 
this is the right shoulder. 

6. From that middle peg he strides twelve steps 
to the north, and there drives in a peg, — this is the 
left shoulder. This is the measure of the altar. 

7. Now the reason why it is thirty steps broad 
behind is this: the VirS^ metre consists of thirty 
syllables, and by means of the Vir^ the gods ob- 
tained a firm footing in this world ; and even so does 
he now, by means of the Vir^g^, obtain a firm foot- 
ing in this world. 

8. But there may also be thirty-three (steps) ; for 
of thirty-three syllables also consists the Vir^ ; and 
by means of the Vir^ he obtains a firm footing in 
this world. 

9. Then as to why the ' easterly line* ' is thirty-six 
steps long ; — the Bnhatl consists of thirty-six sylla- 
bles, and by means of the BWhatl the gods obtained 

between the (new) altar and the Pr^na-vamm fires and altar. See 
III, 5, a, 2. 

' That is, the middle of the front side of the altar, or, as it were, 
its head, where the ' high altar ' is to be raised. 

' The ' prlii ' is the line drawn from the middle of the west side 
to that of the front side of the altar, forming as it were the spine 
{pn's\UAy&) of the altar. 



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Ill KAA'DA, 5 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 1 5. II3 

the heavenly world : and so does he now, by means 
of the BWhatl, obtain the heavenly world and that 
offering-fire (Ahavjinlya) of his is in the sky. 

10. And as to (the altar) being twenty-four steps 
broad in front ; — the Giyatri consists of twenty-four 
syllables, and the Giyatri is the fore-part of the 
sacrifice : this is why it is twenty-four steps broad in 
front. This is the measure of the altar. 

1 1. And why it is broader behind, — 'Wider behind, 
broad-hipped,' thus they praise a woman. And by 
its being wider behind, he makes that womb at the 
hind-part (of the altar) wider, and from that wider 
womb these creatures are bom. 

12. That high altar (Uttaravedi^) is the nose 
of the sacrifice ; because they throw it up so as to 
be higher than the altar, therefore it is called ' high 
altar.' 

1 3. Now, in the beginning there were two kinds 
of beings here, the Adityas and the Angiras. The 
Angiras then were the first to prepare a sacrifice, 
and having prepared the sacrifice they said to Agni, 
' Announce thou to the Adityas this our to-morrow's 
Soma-feast, saying, " Minister ye at this sacrifice of 
ours!"' 

14. The Adityas spake (to one another), ' Contrive 
ye how the Angiras shall minister unto us, and not 
we unto the Angiras !' 

15. They said, 'Verily by nothing but sacrifice is 
there a way out of this* : let us undertake another 

• On the uttara-vedi (lit ' higher, upper altar '), now about to be 
raised on the fore-part of the great altar (mahd-vedi or saumik! 
vedi) described in the preceding paragraphs, see also part i, p. 39 a 
note. 

* The K&nva, MS. reads, nSpakramanam astv iti, which, if correct, 

[26] I 



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114 5'ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

Soma-feast !' They brought together the (materials 
for) sacrifice, and having made ready the sacrifice, 
they said, * Agni, thou hast announced to us a Soma- 
feast for to-morrow ; but we announce to thee and 
the Angiras a Soma-feast even for to-day : it is for 
us that thou art (to officiate as) Hotri^V 

1 6. They sent back some other (messenger) to the 
Angfiras; but the Angiras going after Agni, were 
exceeding angry with him, saying, 'Going as our 
messenger, why didst thou not mind us* ?' 

1 7. He spake, ' The blameless chose me : as the 
chosen of the blameless, I could not go away.' And 
let not therefore the chosen (priest) of a blameless 
man turn away from him. The Angiras then offi- 
ciated for the Adityas in the sacrifice with Soma 
bought (krl) on the same day (sadyas) ; whence this 
Sadya^krl'. 

18. They brought VSi (speech) to them for their 
sacrificial fee. They accepted her not, saying, ' We 
shall be losers if we accept her.' And so the perform- 
ance of that sacrifice was not discharged (completed), 
as it was one requiring a sacrificial fee. 

19. Thereupon they brought Stirya (the sun) to 
them, and they accepted him. Wherefore the An- 
giras say, * Verily, we are fit for the sacrificial office, 
we are worthy to receive DakshiwSs ; yea, even he 
that burns yonder has been received by us*!' 

would mean, ' Let there be no going away!' i.e. ' Let us not go (to 
the Angiras) 1 ' or perhaps, ' Do not thou (Agni) go away!' 
' Teshim nas tva/n hotistti, perhaps ' thou wilt sacrifice for us.' 

* ' Sent by us, why didst thou not return ?' KS«va rec. 

' An ekdha (one day's) performance of the Soma-sacrifice at 
which the consecrations, buying and pressing of Soma, are com- 
pressed into one day. 

* Api vi asmdbhir esha pratignliltaji, ' 1st doch jener von uns 
empfangen worden.' 



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m kAj^da, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 23. 115 

Hence a white horse is the sacrificial fee for the 
Sadya^krl. 

20. On the front of this (horse) there is a golden 
ornament, whereby it is made an image of him that 
burns yonder. 

21. Now V4^ was angfry with them : 'In what 
respect, forsooth, is that one better than I, — where- 
fore is it, that they should have accepted him and 
not me^ ?' So saying she went away from them. 
Having become a lioness she went on seizing upon 
(everything '*) between those two contending parties, 
the gods and the Asuras. The gods called her to 
them, and so did the Asuras. Agni was the mes- 
senger of the gods, and one Saharakshas for the 
Asura-Rakshas. 

22. Being willing to go over to the gods, she said, 
'What would be mine, if I were to come over to 
you ?' — ' The offering shall reach thee even before 
(it reaches) Agni.' She then said to the gods, 
'Whatsoever blessing ye will invoke through me, 
all that shall be accomplished unto you!' So she 
went over to the gods. 

23. And, accordingly, when he pours ghee on the 
high altar ^, while the fire is held (over it) — since the 
gods said to her on that occasion, ' The offering shall 
reach thee even before Agni' — then that offering 
does reach her even before (it reaches) Agni; for 
this (high altar) is in reality Vdi. And when he raises 

* The Ki»va text reads, Na mad esha kena ^ana srey&n iti na 
bandhund na kena /hina katham etam pragnTiniyur na mim iti ; 
' That one is not my superior by anything, not by kinship, not by 
anything, why should they accept him and not me?' 

' Adadini ia^&ra=^ghatsayi samipastham sarvam svikurvat!, 

say. 

' See III, 5, 2, 9-1 1. 

I 2 



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Il6 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

the high altar, it is for the completeness of the sacri- 
fice, for the sacrifice is VSi (speech) and that (high 
altar) is VSi. 

24. He measures it with the yoke and pin ; — 
namely with the yoke (that place) whither they take 
(the earth); and with a yoke-pin that, from whence 
they take (the earth '), for the team is harnessed with 
the yoke and the pin : it is because she (V&k), as a 
lioness, at that time roamed about unappeased that 
he thus yokes her here at the sacrifice. 

25. One must not therefore accept a Dakshiwd 
(sacrificial fee) that has been refused (by another 
priest*), for, having turned into a lioness, it 
destroys him; — nor must he (the sacrificer) take 
it home again, for, having turned into a lioness, it 
destroys him ; — nor must he g^ve it to any one else, 
as he would thereby make over the sacrifice to some 
one other than himself Hence if he have any 
wretched kinsman, let him give it to him; for in that 
he gives it away, it will not turn into a lioness and 
destroy him ; and in that he gives it to a kinsman, 
he does not make over (the sacrifice) to one other 
than himself: and this is the settling of a refused 
Dakshind. 

26. He now takes the yoke-pin and the wooden 
sword; and from where the northern peg of the 
front side is, he strides three steps backwards and 
there marks off the pit (iitvila). The measure for 
the pit is the same (as for the high altar)'; there 

* That is to say, the pit (Htvila) whence the earth for the high 
altar is taken is measived with the yoke-pin, and the high altar 
with the yoke. SSya«a seems to take it diflFerently: Yatra yasmin 
deje yugena haranti yato yasmSt tatra .ramyayipi haranti. 

* Or perhaps, one must not take back a DakshinS, refused by apriest. 

* The eardi taken from the pit being used for amstructing the 



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Ill kAjvda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 30. 117 

is no (other) measure in regard to it : wherever he 
himself may think fit in his mind (to fix it), in front 
of the heap of rubbish (utkara), there let him mark 
off the pit. 

27. From the (north) edge of the altar he lays 
down the pin from south to north, and draws the 
(western) outline, with the text (VA^, S. V, 9), ' Thou 
art for me the resort of the afflicted !' Thereby 
he means this (earth), for it is thereon that he walks 
afflicted. 

28. Thereupon he lays down the pin in front from 
south to north, and draws the outline with, 'Thou 
art my wealth-resort' Thereby he means this 
(earth), for it is thereon that he walks having acquired 
(wealth). 

29. He then lays down the pin along the (north) 
edge of the altar from west to east, and draws the 
outline with, ' Preserve me from being in want' !' 
Thereby he means this (earth) : ' Wherever there is 
want, from that preserve me!' 

30. He then lays down the pin on the north side 
from west to east, and draws the outline with, ' Pre- 
serve me from being afflictedM' Thereby he 

high altar, both are of the same size or cubic content. The pit is 
to measure thirty-two ahgulas (about two feet) on each side. As 
to the exact distance of the pit from the north-east peg, this is to 
be left to the discretion of the Adhvaryu, provided it be in front of 
the utkara, or heap of rubbish formed in making the large altar (on 
which the high altar is raised), and a passage be left between the 
utkara and the pit The latter is contiguous to the north edge 
of the large altar. As described in the succeeding paragraphs, the 
west side is marked off first (by drawing the wooden sword along 
the inner side of the yoke-pin), then successively the front, the 
south, and the north sides. 

» For 'nSthittt' and 'vyathitSt,' the KS«va text, as theTaitt. S. 
VI, 2, 7, 2, has the readings 'nSthitam' and 'vyathitam.' 



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1 1 8 5'atapatha-brAhmajva. 

means this (earth) : ' wherever there is affliction, 
from that preserve me !' 

31. He then flings (the wooden sword)*; at the 
place where he flings*, the Agnldh sits. He flings 
while mentioning the names of the Agnis*. For 
those (three) Agnis whom the gods at first chose for 
the office of Hotrt passed away: they crept into 
these very earths, — namely, into this one and the 
two beyond it. It is really with this one* that he 
now flings. 

32. He flings with the texts, ' May the Agni 
called Nabhas* know (thee)! Go thou, O Agni, 
Angiras, with the name of Ayu (life)!' What 
life they passed away from' that he bestows, that 
he re-animates. Having with, 'Thou who art in 
this earth,' taken (the loose soil dug up by the 
wooden sword), he puts it down (on the altar''), 
with, 'Whatever inviolate, holy name of thine, 

' Compare the Stambaya^r-haranam (which has also to be per- 
formed on the present occasion, in preparing the large altar), I, 
2, 4, 8 seq. 

* That is, at the place where the uttaravedi is to be raised, 
whence the Adhvaryu throws the sphya to where the pit is to be 
dug. While he throws (or thrusts in) the wooden sword, the 
sacrificer has to take hold of him from behind. 

' See I, 2, 3, I. 

* I. e. with the Agni who entered into this earth. 

• Apparently 'vapour, welkin.' The KS«va rec. reads, ' Mayest 
thou know Agni's name Nabhas ' (Vider Agner, &c.). The Taitt. 
S., on the other hand, reads 'vider Agnir nabho ndma,' which 
S^ya/ta explains by 'the Agni of the vedi (I) is Nabhas by name.' 

• Yat prddhanvaOTS tad ^yur dadhSti. Perhaps we ought to read 
with the K&nvA text, Yat pr&dhanvat tad asminn iyur dadhSti 
tad enzm samtrayati, 'the life which passed away(?), that he bestows 
on him, therewith he re-animates him.' 

^ He throws it on the fore-part of the altar, close to the peg 
marking the middle of the front side, where the 'high altar ' is to be 
raised on it. 



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in kXnda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmaya, 34. 119 

therewith I lay thee down!' whereby he means 
to say, 'whatever holy name, unviolated by the 
Rakshas, is thine, thereby I lay thee down^' — ^With 
'Thee, moreover, for the delight of the gods,' 
he takes (earth) a fourth time* ; whereby he means 
to say, ' I take thee well-pleasing to the gods.' He 
takes that (high altar) from a quadrangular pit, for 
there are four quarters : thus he takes it from all 
the four quarters. 

33. Thereupon he shifts (the earth) asunder, with 
the text (V^. S. V, 10), ' Thou art a lioness, over- 
coming the enemies; be thou meet for the 
gods !' Inasmuch as, on that occasion, she became 
a lioness and roamed about unappeased, therefore 
he says to her, 'Thou art a lioness;' and by 'over- 
coming the enemies' he means to say, ' Through thee 
may we worst our enemies.' ' Be thou meet for the 
gods' he says, because the high altar is a woman : 
her he thus renders meet for the gods. 

34. He makes it on each side either of the size 
of the yoke, or ten feet of the sacrificer's' ; for the 

* He repeats the same ceremony a second and a third time with 
the same texts, except that, instead of 'Thou who art in this earth,' 
he says, ' Thou who art in the second (third) earth.' 

* He takes with the spade as much as is required to make the 
high altar of the proper size. 

* This statement seems to have greatly puzzled the later ritualists, 
as K4ty. V, 3, 32-35 and the comments thereon show. In rule 
32 it is laid down, in accordance with paragraph 26 above, that the 
Adhvaryu is to make the high altar of the size of the yoke-pin and 
the pit, i.e. about two feet square. The next rule then leaves an 
option between four other measurements, viz. he may make it either 
one third of the area of the large altar, or of unlimited size, or of 
the size of the yoke (86 ahgulas=c. 5 — 5 J feet) or of ten of the 
sacrificer's feet. This latter measurement is explained rather in- 
geniously by Harisv&min, as meaning that the high altar is to form 



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I20 ^atapatha-brAhma^a. 

VirS^ consists often syllables, and the ViriLf is speech, 
and the sacrifice is speech. In the middle^ he makes, 
as it were, a navel, thinking, ' Seated in one and the 
same place, I shall sprinkle (ghee) all round*,' 

35. He sprinkles it with water : inasmuch as, on 
that occasion, she became a lioness and roamed about 
unappeased — water being (a means of) appease- 
ment — ^he appeases her with water. And, the high 
altar being a woman, he thereby fits her for the 
gods : this is why he sprinkles it with water. 

36. He sprinkles it with, ' Thou art a lioness, 
overcoming the enemies: get thee pure for 
the gods!' He then bestrews it with gravel. 
Now gravel certainly is an ornament, because gravel 
is rather shining. And that gravel being the ashes 
of Agni Valyvinara, he is now about to place Agni 
thereon, and so Agni does not injure it: this is 
why he bestrews it with gravel. He bestrews it 
with, 'Thou art a lioness, overcoming the 
enemies: array thee for the gods!' He then 
covers it', and thus covered it remains during that 
night 

an oblong of three feet by one foot, when, in counting the number 
of sides of the three squares thus obtained, we obtain ten sides of 
one foot each. However, the repetition of 'data' in our text — 
which can only mean ' ten feet on each side ' — does not favour this 
explanation. The last two alternatives, according to rules 34-35, 
only apply to the Soma-sacrifice, because otherwise the altar (as in 
the case of the ' northern altar ' at the iTiturm^ya, cf. part i, p. 392) 
would not be large enough to contain a ' high altar ' of that size. 

• The Kinva text wants it to be made at the back (f aghanena). 

' When he makes the Ubation of ghee on the high altar (III, 5, 
2, 9- 11), he poiu-s it on the four comers of the 'navel' and thereby, 
as it were, on the whole ' high altar.' 

' Viz. with branches of udumbara or plaksha (see III, 8, 3, 10), 
or with darbha grass. 



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HI kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaya, 



2. 121 



THE AGNI-PRAiVAYANA, ok LEADING FORWARD 
OF THE F1RE> TO THE HIGH ALTAR. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

1. They put fire-wood on (the Ahavanlya fire), 
and prepare the underlayer (of gravel *)• He (the 
Adhvaryu) puts the butter on (the Girhapatya to 
melt), and cleans both the dipping-spoon and the 
ofFering-spoon. Having then clarified the ghee, 
he ladles five times thereof (into the ofFering-spoon). 
When the fire-wood is ablaze — 

2, They lift the (burning) fire-wood, and place it 
on the underlayer'. Thereupon he says (to the 
Hotrf), * Recite for Agni as he is taken forward*!' 
(and to the Pratiprasth^tW), 'Come up after me 
with the single sword(-line)!' The Pratiprasthitr* 
goes up after him with the single sword(-line) as far 

' The transferring of the AhavanSya fire to the high altar takes 
place in the forenoon of the last Upasad day (that is, on the day 
preceding the pressing day, and called upavasatha, or preparation 
day). It is preceded by the double or combined performance 
of the Upasad offerings (one of which took place in the afternoon 
on the two preceding days). 

' Some gravel is put in a pan for the burning wood to lie upon, 
when it is to be transferred from the Ahavantya to the new altar. 
The Taittirtyas mix with the gravel one-fourth part of the 
dust of the foot-print of the Soma-cow (III, 3, i, 6), the other 
three parts being used respectively for anointing the axle of the 
Soma-cart (III, 5, 3, 13), for the underlayer of the Agnldhra fire 
(III, 6, 3, 4), and for scattering about behind the G&rhapatya (III, 6, 

3. 4-7)- 

' Lit they lift the underlayer underneath (the burning wood). 

* For the eight verses (or twelve, the first and last being recited 
thrice each) which the Hotrj has to repeat while the fire is carried 
eastward and laid down on the high altar, see Ait. Br. I, 38; Asv. 
Si. II, 17. For the Brahman's duties, see Kdty. XI, i, 9. 



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122 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

as that middle peg on the hind-part of the altar* : 
whatever part of the Girhapatj^^ is cut off from 
the altar by that intermediate (peg), that he thereby 
carries on to (connects with) it. 

3. Now some walk up behind (and draw a line) 
as far as the high altar ; but let him not do that : 
let him walk up only as far as that middle peg. 
They proceed and come up to the high altar*. 

4. The Adhvaryu takes the sprinkling-water. He 
first sprinkles (the high altar) in front, while stand- 
ing (south of it) facing the north, with the text (V^f. 
S. V, 11), 'May Indra's noise* shield thee in 
front with the Vasus!' whereby he means to say, 
' May Indra's noise protect thee in front with the 
Vasus.' 

5. He then sprinkles it behind with, ' May the 
Wise' shield thee from behind with the Ru- 
dras!' whereby he means to say, 'May the Wise 
One protect thee from behind with the Rudras!' 

6. He then sprinkles on the right (south) side 
with, ' May the Thought-swift shield thee with 
the Fathers on the right!' whereby he means 

' See III, 6, 1, 1. 

* The Ahavaniya or offering fire being now transferred to the 
new altar, the old Ahavaniya hearth is henceforward used as Garha- 
patya ; and a line is drawn from it up to the anta^pdta, marking the 
middle of the west side of the great altar. 

'In 'leading forwards' the fire they proceed along the north 
side of the large altar. 

* Indraghoshd, perhaps 'Indra's name;' Mahtdhara and Sdya^a 
take it as ' he who is noised abroad as Indra ' (i. e. called Indra), which, 
however, would require the accent ' fiidraghosha.' Perhaps 'the 
noise of Indra' means Agni, the roaring fire : for Agni and the Vasus, 
see III, 4, 3, I. ' 

" Pra^etas, here Varu«a according to Mahtdhara and SSyawa. 
Cf. Ill, 4, 2, I. 



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Ill KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, lO. 123 

to say, ' May he swift as thought^ protect thee on 
the right with the Fathers!' 

7. He then sprinkles on the left side with, ' May 
Vi^vakarman (the AU-shaper) shield thee with 
the Adityas on the left!' whereby he means to 
say, ' May Vi.rvakarman protect thee on the left with 
the Adityas!' 

8. The sprinkling-water which is left he pours 
outside the altar close to where is the southern of 
those two front comers (of the high altar) with, 
'This burning water I dismiss from the 
sacrifice/ Because she (V&k — the altar) on that 
occasion became a lioness and roamed about unap- 
peased*, he thus dismisses from the sacrifice that 
sorrow of hers, — if he do not wish to exorcise. But 
should he wish to exorcise, let him indicate it by 
saying, 'This burning water I dismiss from the 
sacrifice against so and so I' He then smites him with 
that sorrow, and sorrowing he goes to yonder world. 

9. Now as to why he pours ghee on the high 
altar, while the fire is held (over it). Because the 
gods said to her on that occasion, 'The offering 
shall reach thee before Agni,' therefore the offer- 
ing now does reach her before (it reaches) Agni. 
And because she said to the gods, 'Whatsoever 
blessing ye will invoke through me, all that shall 
be accomplished unto you!' therefore the priests 
now invoke through her that blessing upon the 
sacrificer, and it is fully accomplished unto him. 

10. When he pours ghee on the high altar, he 

* ' Manq^avas ' is taken by Mahtdhara and SSyawa as referring to 
Yam a. 

* '5o^anti (sorrowing),' Kdnva rec. 



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1 24 fl'ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

does it twofold even while doing it in one^. Now 
that which is the southern of the two front corners 
of that navel, so to say, which is in the middle of 
these (sides of the high altar)— 

11. On that* he pours ghee, with the text (V^. 
S. V, 12), 'Thou art a lioness. Hail!' Then on 
the northern of the two back comers with, 'Thou 
art a lioness, winning the Adityas*, Hail!' 
Then on the southern of the two back comers with, 
'Thou art a lioness, winning the Brahman, 
winning the Kshatra, Hail!' Manifold, verily, 
is the prayer for blessing in the sacrificial texts : by 
this one he prays* for the Brahman (priesthood) and 
the Kshatra (nobility), those two vital forces. 

12. Then on the northern of the front comers 
with, 'Thou art a lioness, winning abundant 
offspring, winning growth of wealth, Hail!' 
In that he says, 'winning abundant offspring,' he 
prays for offspring ; and in that he says, ' winning 
growth of wealth' — growth of wealth meaning 
abundance — he prays for abundance. 

13. He then pours ghee into the middle with, 
'Thou art a lioness, bring thou hither the 
gods for the sacrificer! Hail!' whereby he 
causes the gods to be brought to the sacrificer. 
He then raises the offering-spoon with, 'To the 

' Viz. by pouring the ghee cross-wise on the corners of the 
' navel ' of the altar. 

* The south-east is sacred to Agni, the north-west to VSyu. 

* Because the Adityas brought her as a Dakshi«S, Ki«va rec.; cf. 
HI, 5, 1. 18. 

* But for the lack of a demonstrative pronoun with &s\h one 
would like to take the passage thus: 'Plenteous, forsooth, is this 
prayer for blessing among sacrificial texts: he thereby prays for 
the priesthood and the nobility.' Cf. I, 2, i, 7. 



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Ill kAnDA, 5 ADHyAyA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 1 8. 1 25 

beings thee ! Hail !' — beings meaning offspring — 
he thereby means to say, 'To offspring thee !' 

14. He then lays the enclosing-sticks^ round (the 
navel); with the text (Vif. S. V, 13), 'Thou art 
firm, steady thou the earth!' the middle one; 
with, 'Thou art firmly settled, steady thou the 
air!' the right one; with, 'Thou art immovably 
settled, steady thou the sky!' the left one. 
With, 'Thou art Agni's provision' he throws 
the 'equipments' upon (the high altar). Where- 
fore are the equipments ? — for Agni's completeness. 

15. The pine-wood, namely, is his body*: hence 
in that there are enclosing-sticks of pine-wood, 
thereby he supplies him with a body, makes him 
whole. 

16. And the bdellium, forsooth, is his flesh : hence 
in that there is bdellium, thereby he supplies him with 
flesh, makes him whole. 

1 7. And the fragrant reed-grass (sugandhi-te^na), 
forsooth, is his fragrance : hence in that there is 
fragrant reed-gfrass, thereby he supplies him with 
fragrance, makes him whole. 

18. And as to why there is a wether's hair-tuft, — 
Agni, forsooth, dwelt once for one night between the 
two horns of a wether : ' Whatever of Agni's nature 
is inherent therein, let that be here too,' so he 
thinks, and therefore there is a wether's hair-tuft. 
Let him, therefore, cut off that (tuft) which is nearest 
to the head, and bring it ; and if he be unable to 
procure that, let him bring any kind (of wether's 
hair). And why there are enclosing-sticks ? — for the 

' They are of pltud&ru (Pinus Deodora) wood, a span (of thumb 
aad fore-finger) long. 
' The Kinva text makes it his bones. 



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126 5'ATAPATHA-BRAhMAJVA. 

protection (of Agni) : for it is somewhat long before 
the next enclosing-sticks will come nigh to him^. 

CONSTRUCTION OF SHEDS, AND PREPARATION 
OF PRESSING-PLACE AND HEARTHS (DHISHiTYAS). 

Third BrAhmajva. 

1. The sacrifice is a man; it is a man for the 
reason that a man spreads (prepares) it. In being 
spread it is made just as large ^ as a man: this is 
why the sacrifice is a man. 

2. The Soma-cart (shed) is no other than his 
head, and has Vishwu for its deity*. And because 
Soma is therein — Soma being havis (material for 
offering) for the gods — therefore it is called Havir- 
dhina (receptacle of havis). 

3. The Ahavanlya is ho other than his mouth : 
hence, when he offers on the Ahavanlya, it is as if 
he poured (food) into the mouth. 

4. The sacrificial stake is no other than his crest- 
lock ; and the Agnldhrlya and Mdr^llya* are his 
arms. 

* Ordinarily the laying round of the paridhis takes place immedi- 
ately before the fire is kindled for the oflfering; but as the next offering 
is not to come off for some time, the fire would be without a protec- 
tion, if he were to leave it without the enclosing-sticks. SSya«a takes 
'dflre' in the sense of 'in a long time,' as above; but it might be 
taken of space ' far off,' when the passage would refer to the offering 
about to be performed on the old Ahavantya (111,5, 3» 10 seq.); 
and it may be noticed in reference to this point, that, according to 
KSty. VIII, 3, 30, that fire does not become the Girhapatya till 
immediately after that offering. 

• YSvat-tSvat would rather seem to mean here 'of corresponding 
(or relatively the same) proportions ' as a man, viz. as the respective 
sacrifices ' Sa vai tSyamino y&vin eva purushas tdvin vidMyate, 
purushasyaiva vidhim anu.' Kiffva rec. 

° Soma himself is Vish»u. * See III, 6, i, 33 ; 3, 21. 



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Ill kAjvda, 5 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 9. 127 

5. The Sadas^ (tent for the priests) is no other 
than his belly: wherefore they feed in the Sadas, 
for whatever food is eaten here on earth all that 
settles down here in the belly. And because all 
the gods sat (sad) in it therefore it is called Sadas : 
and so do these Brahmans of every family now sit 
therein. 

6. And the two fires which are behind* it are 
his feet. In being spread it is made just as large 
as a man : this is why the sacrifice is a man. 

7. The cart-shed has doors on both -sides ; and 
so has the Sadas doors on both sides: hence 
this man is perforated from one end to the other. 
He steps to the Soma-carts when they have been 
washed down. 

8. They turn them round, the southern one on 
the south side, and the northern one on the north 
side'. The larger of the two should be the southern 
(or right) one*. 

9. Over them, having been turned round (and 
placed on the altar), they put a mat of reed-grass ; or, 
if he cannot procure a reed-mat, a frame of split cane 

* See III, 6, a, 21.^ 

* That is, the (old) Ahavantyz and Gdrhapatya fires of the Pr^ina- 
vamra. 

* The sonthem (and larger) cart is under the charge of the 
Adhvaryu and the northern one under that of his assistant, the Pra- 
tiprasth&trt. Each now drives his cart westward along the south 
and north sides respectively ; and when they are opposite the hall 
(sili), they make the carts turn round from left to right ; where- 
upon they drive back to the altar, and place them thereon with the 
shafts towards the east, near the anta^pita (' intermediate ' peg, see 
III, 5, 1, i), south and north of the 'spine' (cf p. ii2,note 2), each 
at the distance of one cubit from the latter. 

* In order to make the shed incline towards the north, cf. Ill, 
I, I, 2. 



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128 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

made in like manner as a reed-mat. They fasten 
a front-band (to the posts of the front door*). They 
enclose (the carts) within two upright hurdles ; and 
lay a (second) reed-mat, or a frame of split cane 
made in like manner as a reed-mat, behind (the first 
mat 2). 

ID. Now', having again entered (the hall), and 

' It is not clear to me whether the arrangements mentioned in 
this paragraph refer to the carts in the first place, and have then to 
be repeated after the shed has been erected, or whether, as I think, 
some of them refer to the shed only. Even at die time of the Kity. 
S&tras there seems to have been some confusion in this respect, and 
the roles VIII, 4, 7-12 (10-15, in edition) were entirely misunder- 
stood by the commentator. It is, however, certain that the carts 
were covered with mats, previously to being shifted from the back to 
the fi:ont part of the altar. As regards the shed, it seems to have 
been constracted in the following way. In front of the carts, as 
well as behind them, beams are driven into the ground, six on each 
side, according to SSya«a on T. S. I, 2, 13 ; the two middle ones, 
one cubit north and south of the ' spine ' respectively, forming a 
gateway on each side (K4ty.VIII, 4, 24 schoU.). On these two 
rows of beams other beams are laid, ranning firom south to north, 
and forming, as it were, the lintels of the gates ; and thereon the 
tie-beams rest (west to east). This frame of timber is to form a 
square of nine (or ten) cubits. Over the tie-beams three mats of 
reed-grass(fedis) — measuring nine (or ten)cubits by three(3j) — are 
spread, from south to north ; first the middle one and then the two 
others, behind and in front of it. Upright hurdles (or reed-mats) 
are then stretched between the respective comer-posts, so as to form 
the south and north sides of the shed ; and are ' sewn ' to the 
comer-posts. Between the tops of the two fi'ont door-posts a band 
or garland of plaited reed-tufts (or, according to Haug, a bunch of 
Darbha grass, consisting of dry and green stalks) is hung up, to 
represent either a fillet or wreath worn on the forehead (?), or as a 
door-garland. 

* This remark would seem to imply that there are only two mats 
(cf. parags. 23, 24), but perhaps it is merely intended to show that two 
mats are spread behind and in front of the first mat (i. e. from south 
to north, and not west to east); not that there are only two mats. 

' If the preceding paragraph refers (at least partly) to the shed, 



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lllKkNDA, 5 ADHyAyA, 3 BRAHMA^VA, 12. 1 29 

taken ghee in four ladlings, he makes offering to 
Savitr? for his impulsion, for Savitri is the impeller 
(prasavitr?) of the gods : ' We will perform the sacri- 
fice, for one impelled by Savitr?,' thus (the priest 
thinks and) therefore he makes offering to Savitri. 

11. He offers with the text (V4f. S. V, 14; Rig- 
veda V, 81, i), 'They harness the mind and they 
harness the thoughts' — with the mirtd and with 
speech they truly perform the sacrifice. When he 
says, ' They harness the mind,' he harnesses the 
mind; and when he says, 'and they harness the 
thoughts (dhl),' he harnesses speech ; for it is thereby ' 
that people seek to make their living in accordance 
with their respective intelligence (dhl), either by 
reciting (the Veda), or by readiness of speech, or by 
songs, — with these two thus harnessed they perform 
the sacrifice. 

12. 'The priests of the priest, of the great 
inspirer of devotion,' — the learned Brihmans 
versed in sacred writ, truly, are the priests : it is 
regarding them that he says this. And ' of the great 
inspirer of devotion*,' — the great inspirer of devotion, 
truly, is the sacrifice : it is regarding the sacrifice 
that he says this. 'The knower of rites alone 
hath assigned the priestly offices,' for, in per- 

then the atha here means ' Now, in the first place,' thereby intro- 
ducing details preliminary to what has just been stated. 

' See III, 2, 4, 16. I now refer 'etayd' to 'vSiam,' as does 
Siya«a, — yad4 buddhir ^yate tadS khalv etayS vSii ^fu^fyflshanti. 
He explains 'prak&modya' by ' mlai^^jiikam laukikam bhisha»am,' 
barbarous, worldly speech. 

* Vipaj>Sit, probably ' thinker of hymns.' It remains doubtful 
what meaning our author assigned to the word. Mahtdhara 
explains it by sarva^na, ' all-knowing.' Sayawa, on Taitt. S. I, 2, 
13, refers 'viprasya br/Tiato yipasiit&A' to the sacrificer. 
[a6] K 



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130 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

forming the sacrifice, they indeed assign the priestly 
offices. 'Great is the praise of the divine Savit«; 
Hail!' Thus he offers to Savit/i for his impulsion. 

1 3. Having then taken ghee a second time in four 
ladlings, he walks out (of the hall by the front door). 
The (sacrificer s) wife is led out by the south door. 
He then lays down a piece of gold in the right wheel- 
track of the southern Soma-cart, and offers thereon, 
with (Vi/. S. V, 15; Rig-veda I, 22, 17), 'Vish«u 
strode through this(universe),thrice he put down 
hisfoot : itisenvelopedinhisdust; Hail!' The 
residue (of ghee) he pours into the wife's hand. She 
anoints the burning (part) of the axle^ with (V5^. 
S. V, 17), 'Audible to the gods, announce ye 
unto the gods!' He hands to his assistant both 
the offering-spoon and the melting-pot. They lead 
the wife round by the back of the two fires*. 

14. Having taken ghee in four ladlings, the assist- 
ant lays down a piece of gold in the right wheel- 
track of the northern Soma-cart, and offers thereon, 
with (Va^. S. V, 16; Rig-veda VII, 99, 3), 'Be 
ye too abundant in food and milch kine and 
pastures, through benevolence to man! 
Thou proppedst asunder these two worlds, 
O Vish«u; with beams of light didst thou 
hold fast' the earth on all sides; Hail!' The 
residue (of ghee) he pours into the wife's hand. 
She anoints the burning (part) of the axle with, 

' That is, the iron pins driven into the axle, round which the 
naves of the wheels revolve. See also p. 121, note 2. 

' They make her enter the hall by the south door and walk 
round by the back of the (old) Gdrhapatya fire-place to the wheel- 
tracks on the north side where the Pratiprastb&trt is about to o£fer. 

" The rays of the sun are apparently likened to ropes wherewith 
he keeps the earth straight and firm. 



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Ill kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 3 brAhmava, 17. 131 

'Audible to the gods, announce ye unto the 
gods!' Then as to why he thus offers. 

15. Now, once on a time, the gods, while per- 
forming sacrifice, were afraid of an attack on the 
part of the Asura-Rakshas ; and, the ghee being 
a thunderbolt, they kept off the evil spirits from 
the south by that thunderbolt, the ghee ; and 
thus they came not after them on their way. 
And in like manner does he now keep off the evil 
spirits from the south by that thunderbolt, the ghee ; 
and thus they do not come after him on his way. 
And the reason why he offers with two verses relating 
to Vish«u, is that the Soma-cart belongs to Vish«u. 

16. And in that the wife anoints the burning (part) 
of the axle, thereby a productive union is effected ; 
for when woman and man become heated, the seed 
flows, and thereupon birth takes place. She anoints 
in a direction away (from the cart), for away the 
seed is cast. He then says (to the Hotrr), ' Recite 
to the Soma-carts as they are wheeled forward* I' 

17. He makes (the sacrificer) say, 'Go ye both 
forward, furthering the cult!' The cult, namely, 
is the sacrifice : * go ye both forward, furthering the 
sacrifice' he thereby means to say. ' Convey ye the 
sacrifice upward ; lead it not astray* !' whereby 
he means to say, 'convey this sacrifice upward to 
the world of the gods ; ' and by saying ' lead it not 
astray,' he prays for this (sacrificer) that he may not 

' While reciting his hymn of eight verses (brought up, as usual, 
to twelve by repetitions of the first and last verses) the Hotrj 
has to follow the carts so as to have the north wheel-track of the 
south cart between his feet. Cf. p. 79, note 1. For the verses 
recited by him, see Ait Br. I, 29 ; Asv. St. IV, 9. 

» Or, 'falter not! ' 

K 2 



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132 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

Stumble. Let them wheel (the carts) forward, as it 
were lifting them, so that they may not creak ; for 
of the Asuras is that voice which is in the axle' : 
' Lest the Asuras' voice should speak here ! ' so he 
thinks. But if they should creak, — 

1 8. Let him make (the sacrificer) say this, ' Speak 
ye unto your own cow-pen, ye divine resorts; 
speak not my life away, speak not my offspring 
away!' This, then, is the expiation thereof. 

19. As to this they say, 'Let him stride three 
steps from the high altar westward and make the 
Soma-carts stop there : this is the measure for the 
Soma-carts.' But there is no (fixed) measure in 
this ; wherever he himself may think fit in his mind, 
only not too near*, nor too far (from the high altar), 
there let him stop them. 

20. He salutes them with, 'May ye rejoice 
here on the height of the earth!' for this (altar) 
is verily the height' (top) of the earth, since his offer- 
ing-fire is in the heaven. He makes them rest on 
their naves* for that is the appearance of repose. 

' The Takt. S. VI, 2, 9 refers it to Varuwa, on account of the axle 
being bound firmly with strings (thongs), resembling Vanwa's noose. 

' Rather, ' not so very near,' ' nicht allzu nahe, nicht gar zu nahe.' 

' Both here, and on Taitt. S. I, 2, 13, Sdya»a takes ' varshman' 
in the sense of ' body (jartra).' 

* Or rather, ' nave-boards (nabhya).' The cart wheels are de- 
scribed as consisting, after the fashion prevalent in Malava (KSty. 
VIII, 4, 6 scholl.), of three parallel boards : the two outer ones 
form segments, and the middle and largest one has the nave fixed 
to it, the axle-pin running through its centre. It is on this middle 
board that he is to make the carts stand. Perhaps 'kshema' 
should be taken in the sense of ' security, firm position,' instead of 
' repose, rest,' in which case the upright position of the middle 
board would seem to be compared with a man in upright position; 
'nibhi(n&bhya)' meaning both 'navel' and 'nave.' 



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Ill KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 23, I 33 

21. The Adhvaryu, having gone round along the 
north side (of the carts), props the southern cart, 
with (Va^, S. V, 18 ; Rig-veda I, 154, i), ' Now will 
I declare the heroic deeds of Vish«u, who 
measured out the earthly regions; who 
propped the upper seat, striding thrice, the 
wide-stepping! For Vish«u (I prop) thee!' He 
fixes the prop in a different place from where (it is 
fixed) in ordinary practiced 

22. The assistant then props the northern cart, 
with (V^. S. V, 19), 'Either from the heaven, 
O Vish«u, or from the earth, or from the 
great, wide airy region, O Vish«u, fill both 
thine hands with wealth and bestow on us 
from the right and the left! For Vish»u thee!' 
He fixes the prop in a different place from where 
(it is fixed) in ordinary practice. The reason why- 
he performs with prayers to Vish»u is that the 
Soma-cart belongs to Vishwu. 

23. He then makes (the sacrificer) say, after touch- 
ing the middle reed-mat'' (V^. S. V, 20 ; Rig-veda I, 
154, 2), 'Let Vish«u then be praised for his 
power, terrible like a wild beast prowling 
about the mountains, on whose three wide 
strides all beings abide!' Now that (mat-covering) 
indeed is his (Vish«u, the shed's) upper skull-bone^ 

* Siya«a, on Taitt. S. I, 2, 13, remarks: — 'The southern and 
northern parts of the yoke represent the ears of the cart. Through 
a hole (is effected) the firm tying (of the yoke parts) to the shafts. 
At the juncture (sandhi) at the (place of) fastening of the southern 
(part of the yoke) the prop is fixed.' In ordinary practice the prop 
is put up to support the extreme end of the shafts or pole. 

• See p. X 28, note i. 

' Apparently the parietal bone is meant ; or perhaps the frontal 
bone. The Kd«va text reads : ' He then touches that reed-mat, or 



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1 34 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

for thereon, as it were, the other skull-bones rest : 
this is why he says ' they abide on.' 

24. Thereupon he makes him say, after touching 
the front-band (V^. S. V, 2), 'Thou art Vish«u's 
fillet;' for it indeed is his fillet. He then makes 
him say, after touching the two upright hurdles, 
'Ye are the corners of Vish«u's mouth ;' for 
they indeed are the corners of his mouth. Then 
that mat which is behind there, that indeed is that 
skull-bone of his here behind (viz, the occiput). 

25, With 'Thou art Vishnu's sewer\' he sews 
(the hurdles to the four door posts) with cord by 
means ofa wooden pin. With, 'Thou art Vishnu's 
fixed (point)*,' he then makes a knot, 'lest it should 
fall asunder.' That same (knot) he undoes when 
the work is completed; and thus disease^ befalls 
not either the Adhvaryu or the Sacrificer. The 
completed (cart-shed) he touches with, 'Thou art 
Vish»u's own,' for the Soma-cart (and shed) be- 
longs to Vish«u. 

cane-frame, above, with "Let Vish«u . . ." for that is for him (Vishmi, 
the shed) what that skull-bone is up here. And when he says "they 
abide upon," it is because that rest on the other skull-bones [? adhi 
hy etad anyeshu kapSleshu kshiyanti 1]. Then what two reed-mats 
there are on the two carts, they indeed are for him what the two 
skull-bones are here on both sides. And that reed-mat, or cane- 
frame, which he puts on there behind (or behind that one), that is 
for him what the skull-bone behind is.' 

' Syii, explained by SSya»a as 'thread, cord,' by Mahidhara as 
' needle.' 

' ? DhruvaA, the ' firm one,' (? 'pole-star.') The St Petersburg 
Dictionary gives the tentative meaning ' knot.' The Taitt S. reads 
' dhruvam.' 

' Gr4ha, lit. ' seizing.' For Varu«a, whose attribute the knot is 
(I, 3, 1, 16), seizing upon men by means of disease ; see II, 5, 2, 2. 



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Ill KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 4. 1 35 




Fourth BrAhmajva. 

1. It is for a twofold reason that the sounding- 
holes are dug. The cart-shed, truly, is the head 
of the sacrificer ; and what four holes there are here 
in the head — namely, these two and these two' — 
those he thereby makes : for this reason he digs the 
sounding-holes. 

2. Now the gods and the Asuras, both of them 
sprung from Praf ipati, were contending. The Asuras 
then by way of witchcraft buried charms* within 
these worlds, thinking, ' Peradventure we may thus 
overcome the gods.' 

3. The gods then prevailed. By means of these 
(sounding-holes) they dug up those magic charms. 
Now, when a charm is dug up, it becomes inopera- 
tive and useless. And in like manner, if any mali- 
cious enemy buries here charms by way of witchcraft 
for this (sacrificer), does he thereby dig them up: 
this is why he digs sounding-holes. He digs just 
beneath the fore-part of the shafts of the southern 
cart. 

4. He takes up the spade', with the text (Vdf. S. 

* Viz. the ears and nostrils. 

* Kn'tyim valagin ni>iakhnuA, 'they dug in, as a charm, secret 
(magic) objects.' Valaga is explained as charms, consisting of 
bones, nails, hair, foot-dust, and similar objects, tied up in a piece of 
worn matting or cloth, or the Uke, and dug into the ground arm- 
deep, for causing injury to enemies. See Taitt. S. VI, 2, 1 1, where 
Professor Weber refers to Wuttke, Der Deutsche Volksaberglaube, 

§ 492 seq- 

* The instrument used seems to be a kind of scoop or trowel, 



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136 .SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

V, 22), ' At the impulse of the divine Ssivitrt, 
I take thee with the arms of the A^vins, with 
the hands of Pdshan : thou art a woman.' The 
significance of this formula is the same (as before). 
That spade (abhri, fem.) is indeed a female : there- 
fore he says ' thou art a woman.' 

5. He draws their outlines, saving^ the measure 
of a span, with, 'Here do I cut off the necks of 
the Rakshas !' For the spade is the thunderbolt : 
it is with the thunderbolt that he thus cuts off the 
necks of the Rakshas. 

6. Let him first mark off the right (southern) one 
of the two that are in front ; then the left one of the 
two behind; then the right one of those behind; 
then the left one of those in front. 

7. But they say conversely, that he should mark 
off first the left one of the two behind ; then the right 
one of those in front ; then the right one of those 
behind; and then the left one of those in front. 
Or he may also mark them off in one and the 
same direction* : but let him, in any case, mark 
off last of all the one which is on the left of those 
in front. 

8. He digs them, in the very same order in which 
they have been marked off, with, ' Thou art great, 



sharpened on one side. For a fuller description, see VI, 3, i, 
3oseq. 

' VinS, i. e. leaving that space between each two adjoining upa- 
ravas. They are themselves to be round, a span in diameter. 
Hence by connecting the four centres by lines, a square of two 
spans (of thumb and forefinger), or one cubit, is obtained. See 
Baudh. .Sulvas. loi. 

• That is, successively the south-eastern, the south-western, the 
north-western, and last, the north-eastern hole. 



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Ill KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 1 3. I37 

of great sound !' — he praises and extols them, when 
he says, ' Thou art g^eat, of great sound ;' — ' Utter 
thou the great voice unto Indra!' — Indra, for- 
sooth, is the deity of the sacrifice ; and the cart-shed 
belonging to Vishwu, he thereby makes it to be 
connected with Indra : therefore he says, ' Utter 
thou the great voice unto Indra!' 

9. 'The Rakshas-killing, charm-killing 
(voice),' for it is indeed for the killing of the charms 
of the Rakshas that these (holes) are dug ; — ' O f 
Vish»u;' for that voice in the cart-shed is indeed 
Vish«u's. 

10. He throws out (the earth from) them in the 
order in which he has dug them, with (VS^. S. V, 23), 
' Here do I cast out the charm which the alien, 
which the inmate of my house has buried for 
me!' Either an alien or an inmate of his house 
buries charms by way of witchcraft : these he thereby 
casts out. 

11. 'Here do I cast out the charm which 
my equal, which my unequal has buried for 
me!' Either one equal, or one unequal, to him 
buries charms by way of witchcraft : these he 
thereby casts out. 

12. 'Here do I cast out the charm which 
the kinsman, which the stranger has buried 
for me!' Either a kinsman or a stranger buries 
charms by way of witchcraft : these he thereby 
casts out. 

13. ' Here do I cast out the charm which the 
countryman, which the foreigner has buried 
for me !' Either a countryman or a foreigner buries 
charms by way of witchcraft : these he thereby casts 
out With 'I cast out witchcraft!' he finally 



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138 5'atapatha-brAhmajva. 

throws out (the earth remaining in the several 
holes ^), whereby he casts out witchcraft. 

14. Let him dig them arm-deep; for that being 
the end (extreme limit to which he can reach) he 
thereby in the end brings witchcraft to naught. 
He connects them crossways by (underground) chan- 
nels*; or, if he cannot crossways, he may do so 
in one and the same direction. This is why these 
(openings of the) vital airs are connected by channels 
farther (inside). 

1 5. In the same order in which he has dug them 
he makes (the sacrificer) touch them, with the texts 
(V^. S. V, 24), 'Self-ruling thou art, a slayer 
of enemies! Ever-ruling thou art, a slayer 
of haters! Man-ruling thou art, a slayer of 
Rakshas! All-ruling thou art, a slayer of foe- 
men I' This is the blessing of that work : he thereby 
invokes a blessing. 

16. The Adhvaryu and Sacrificer then touch one 
another (with their right hands through the holes), 
the Adhvaryu is at the right one of those in front, 
and the Sacrificer at the left one of those behind. 
The Adhvaryu asks, ' Sacrificer, what is here ?' — 
' Happiness !' he says. — '(Be) that ours in common !' 
says the Adhvaryu in a low voice. 

1 7. Thereupon the Adhvaryu is at the right one 
of those behind, and the Sacrificer at the left one of 
those in front The Sacrificer asks, 'Adhvaryu, 
what is here?' — 'Happiness!' he says. — '(Be) that 
mine I' says the Sacrificer. Now in that they thus 

• That is, these words are to be pronounced at the end of each 
of the preceding four formulas, and the remaining loose soil is 
therewith to be removed from the respective hole. 

* Lit he inter-perforates, inter-channels. 



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Ill KANDA, 5 A.DHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 21. 1 39 

touch one another, thereby they make the vital airs 
yoke-fellows: hence these vital airs meet together 
farther (inside). And in that, when asked, he replies, 
' Happiness (bhadram),' thereby he utters the wish 
of ' prosperity (kaly4«am)' of ordinary speech : that is 
why, being asked, he replies, ' Happiness.' There- 
upon he sprinkles (the holes with water) : one and 
the same forsooth is the significance of sprinkling ; 
he thereby renders them pure. 

18. He sprinkles, with the text (VA^. S. V, 25), 
'You, the Rakshas-killers, the charm-killers;' 
for they are indeed Rakshas-killers as well as charm- 
killers; 'Vish»u's own, I sprinkle;' for they 
indeed belong to Vishwu. 

19. What remains of the sprinkling-water he then 
pours out into the pits ; — ^what moisture there is here 
in the vital airs*, that he thereby puts into them: 
hence that moisture in the vital airs. 

20. He pours it out with, 'You, the Rakshas- 
killers, the charm-killers, Vishnu's own, I pour 
out.' Thereupon he spreads barhis-grass, both such 
as is turned with its tops to the east and such as is 
turned to the north * ; what hair there is here at (the 
openings of) the vital airs, that he thereby bestows : 
hence that hair at (the openings of) the vital airs. 

21. He spreads it with, 'You, the Rakshas- 
killers, the charm-killers, Vish»u's own, I 
spread.' He, as it were, covers the bodies on 
the top, for that (grass) is indeed his (Vishwu's) 
hair*. 

' The KS»va text has ^idra (' holes, openings ') instead of 
pr4«a. 

' Cp. I, 3, 3, 7 seq. 

' Or, the hair of the sacrificial man ; see III, 5, 3, i seq. 



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140 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

22. Thereon he lays two pressing-boards' with, 
'You, the Rakshas-killers, the charm-killers, 
Vish«u's own, I lay down;' they are indeed his 
(Vish«u's) jaws. He surrounds them (with earth) 
with, 'You, the Rakshas-killers, the charm- 
killers, Vish«u's own, I surround;' he thereby 
steadies them, makes them immovable. 

23. Now the pressing-skin is cut straight all 
round and (dyed) red all over, for it is his (Vish«u's) 
tongue : the reason, then, why it is quite red, is 
because this tongue is, as it were, red. He lays it 
down with, 'Thou art Vish»u's own;' for it 
indeed belongs to Vish«u*. 

24. He then brings down the (five) press-stones. 
The press-stones, doubtless, are his (Vish»u's) teeth : 
hence, when they press (the Soma) with the stones 
it is as if he chewed with his teeth. He puts them 
down with, 'Ye are Vish«u's own;' for they 
indeed belong to Vishwu. Thus, then, the head 
of the sacrifice is complete. 

Sixth Adhyaya. First Brahmajva. 

I. The Sadas* is no other than his (Vishwu, the 
sacrifice's) belly ; therefore they feed (drink) in the 

' The pressing-boards are a cubit long, and somewhat broader 
behind than in front They are placed one south of the other, and 
so as to lie close together behind (sambaddhinte, KSnva rec), or 
the space of two inches between them. The space between them 
is filled up with earth. 

' East of the ' sound-holes ' he raises a square mound (khara), 
covered with gravel, for placing vessels on, Kity. VIII, 5, 28. 

* The Sadas is a shed or tent, facing the east with its long side, 
which is to measure eighteen (or twenty-one, or twenty-four, or, 
according to the 5ulva-s(itra, twenty-seven) cubits, the breadth by 



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Ill KANDA, 6 ADHyAyA, I BRAHMAJVA, 5. I4 I 

Sadas ; for whatever food is eaten here on earth, all 
that settles down in the belly. And because all the 
gods sat (sad) in it, therefore it is called sadas : and 
so do these Brclhmans of every family now sit therein. 
By way of deity it belongs to Indra. 

2. In the middle of it he puts up a (post) of 
udumbara wood (Ficus Glomerata) ; for the udum- 
bara means strength and food; now the Sadas 
being his (Vish«u's belly), he thereby puts food 
therein ; this is why he puts up an udumbara (post) 
in the middle of it, 

3. From the peg' which stands in the middle on 
the hind-part of the altar, he strides six steps east- 
wards (along the ' spine') ; the seventh he strides 
away from it to the right, for the sake of complete- 
ness, and there marks off a pit. 

4. He takes the spade with (Vti^. S. V, 26), 'At 
the impulse of the divine Savitrz, I take thee 
with the arms of the Ajvins, with the hands 
of PClshan: thou art a woman;' the significance 
of this formula is the same (as before). That spade, 
indeed, is a female (feminine) : therefore he says 
' thou art a woman.' 

5. He then marks off the pit with, 'Herewith 

six cubits (or ten, or one half that of the long side). The udumbara 
post, according to some, is to stand exactly in the centre of the 
shed; or, according to others, at an equal distance from the (long) 
east and west sides; the 'spine' (cf. p. 112, note 2) in that case 
dividing the building into two equal parts, a northern and a southern 
one. In the middle the shed is to be of the sacrificer's height, and 
from thence the ceiling is to slant towards the ends where it is to 
reach up to the sacrificer's navel. According to the Black Ya^s, 
the erection of the Sadas precedes the digging of the Uparavas, 
described in the preceding Brihma«a. Taitt. S. VI, 2, 10, 11. 
' The anta^pSta, see III, 5, i, i. 



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142 DATAPATH A-BRAhMA^VA. 

I cut off the necks of the Rakshas!' for the 
spade is the thunderbolt: it is with the thunder- 
bolt that he cuts off the necks of the evil spirits. 

6. Thereupon he digs : eastwards he throws up 
the heap of earth. Having made the udumbara 
(post) of the same size as the sacrificer^, he cuts 
it smooth all round, and lays it down, with the top 
to the east, in front (of the pit). Thereon he lays 
barhis-grass of the same length. 

7. Now the sprinkling-water (used on this occa- 
sion) contains barley-corns. For the essence (sap) 
of plants is water; wherefore plants when eaten 
alone do not satiate ; and the essence of water, on 
the other hand, are the plants; wherefore water 
when drunk alone does not satiate ; but only when 
the two are united they satiate ; for then they are 
sapful: 'with the sapful I will sprinkle,' so he 
thinks. 

8. Now, the gods and the Asurus, both of them 
sprung from Prjifipati, were contending. Then all 
the plants went away from the gods, but the barley 
plants alone went not from them. 

9. The gods then prevailed : by means of these 
(barley-grains) they attracted to themselves all the 
plants of their enemies ; and because they attracted 
(yu) therewith, therefore they are called yava 
(barley). 

10. They said, ' Come, let us put into the barley 
whatever sap there is of all plants ! ' And, accord- 
ingly, whatever sap there was of all plants, that they 
put into the barley : therefore the latter thrives 
lustily where other plants wither, for in such wise 

' It is the part which is to stand above ground that is to be of 
the sacrificer's size. 



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Ill kAjvda, 6 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 15. 143 

did they put the sap into them. And in like manner 
does this one now by means of those (barley-grains) 
attract to himself all the plants of his enemies : this 
is why the sprinkling-water contains barley-corns. 

11. He throws the barley-corns into it, with, 
'Thou art barley (yava): keep thou (yavaya) 
from us the haters, keepfromus the enemies!' 
In this there is nothing obscure. He then besprinkles 
(the post) ; — the significance of the sprinkling is one 
and the same : he thereby renders it sacrificially pure. 

12. He sprinkles (the top, middle, and bottom 
parts), with, 'For the sky — theel for the air — 
thee ! for the earth — thee ! ' He thereby endows 
these worlds with strength and sap, bestows strength 
and sap on these worlds. 

13. And the sprinkling-water which remains he 
pours into the hole, with, 'Be the worlds pure 
wherein the Fathers reside!' for a pit that is 
dug is sacred to the Fathers: this he thereby 
renders sacrificizilly pure. 

14. He now strews barhis-grass therein, both 
eastward-pointed and northward-pointed with, 'Thou 
art the seat of the Fathers ;' for that part of it 
(the post) which is dug into the ground is sacred to 
the Fathers: as though it were (naturally) established > 
among plants, and not dug in, so does it become 
established among those plants. 

15. He raises it, with the text (Vl^. S. V, 27), 
' Prop thou the sky! fill the air! stand firm on 
the earth I ' Thereby he endows these worlds with 
strength and sap, bestows strength and sap on these 
worlds. 

' SvaniA, 'naturally grown,' Taitt. S. VI, 2, 10, 4. 

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144 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMA/VA. 

i6. He then sinks it (in the hole, with),' May Dyu- 
t&na, the son of the Maruts, plant thee! — ' 
Dyutina the son of the Maruts, doubtless, is he that 
blows yonder (the wind) : by means of him he thus 
plants it; — 'Mitra andVaru«a with firm support!' 
Mitra and Varu«a are the in-breathing and out- 
breathing: he thus plants it with- the in-breathing 
and out-breathing. 

17. He then heaps up (earth) round it, with, 'I 
enclose thee, winner of the priesthood, winner 
of the nobility, winner of growth of wealth !' 
Manifold, verily, is the prayer for blessing in the 
sacrificial texts : by this one he prays for the priest- 
hood and nobility, those two vital forces ^ 'Winner of 
growth of wealth,' — growth of wealth means abun-^ 
dance : he thereby prays for abundance. 

18. He then presses it firmly all round, with, 
'Uphold thou the priesthood! uphold the 
nobility, uphold our life, uphold our progeny !' 
this is the blessing of this rite : that blessing he 
thereby invokes. He presses it so as to be level 
with the ground : with an (ordinary) hole (round 
trees for watering) it is higher than the ground, but 
in this way it is with the gods ; — and thus it is not 
planted in an (ordinary) hole. 

19. He then pours water thereon; — wherever, in 
diggfing, they wound or injure this (earth), — water 
being a means of soothing, — there he soothes it by 
that means of soothing, water, there he heals it by 
water : therefore he pours water thereon. 



' See III, 5, 2, 1 1 with note. The K4»va text has, bahvt vi dftr 
ya^^shu te asm^ ete &rish& vi siste yad brahma ia. kshatram ^ 



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Ill KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAAfA, 2 2. I45 

20. He then makes (the sacrificer) say, while 
touching it thus (Vif. S. V, 28), 'Thou art firm : 
may this sacrificer be firm in this homestead 
through progeny' — or, 'through cattle!' thus 
whatever wish he entertains that wish is accom- 
pHshed unto him. 

21. Thereupon, having taken clarified butter with 
the dipping-spoon, he pours it upon the (forked) 
top\ with 'O Heaven and Earth, be ye full of 
ghee ! ' whereby he endows the heaven and the 
earth with strength and sap, bestows strength and 
sap on them : upon them thus full of sap and affording 
subsistence, these creatures subsist. 

22. He then lays on a mat^ with, 'Thou art 
Indra's mat,' — for the Sadas belongs to Indra, — ' a 
shelter to every one,' for Brihmans of all families 
sit therein. He adds two mats, one on each side 
thereof, and three north of them and three further 
(to the north) : these make nine. For the sacrifice 



' The post is to be furcate at the top, and between the branch- 
stumps (forming as it were its ears) he is to put a piece of gold and 
pour the ghee thereon ; when the ghee reaches the ground, he is 
to pronounce the final ' Sv&hi I ' in accordance with the practice at 
the homas; the gold representing, as it were, the sacrificial fire. 
Saya«a on Taitt. S. 1, 3, i ; Katy. VIII, 5, 37 seq. 

* That is, after putting up the posts of the front and back doors, 
and laying the beams on, both longways and crossways, in the same 
way as was done in erecting the PrS^inavawfa and HavirdhSna, he 
is to spread over the beams the nine mats that are to form the 
ceiling, — viz. first the middle, and then the two others, of the 
three southern ones, thereupon three alongside these, across the 
central part of the shed, and finally the three across the north side. 
According to some authorities the central mats are laid down first, 
and then those on the south and north sides. See Sdyana on 
Taitt. S. I, 3, 1 (p. 450). 

[a6] L 



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146 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

13 threefold and nine also is threefold : for this rea§on 
there are nine. 

23. That Sadas has its tie-beams running (from 
south) to north, and the cart-shed (from west) to east 
For this, the cart-shed, belongs exclusively to the 
gods : hence neither food nor drink is taken therein, 
because it belongs exclusively to the gods ; and were 
any one either to eat or to drink therein, his head 
would verily burst asunder. But those two, the 
Agnldhra and the Sadas, are common (to the gods 
and men) : hence food and drink is taken in these 
two, because they are common (to the gods and men). 
Now the north is the quarter of men : therefore the 
Sadas has its tie-beams running (from south) to 
north. 

24. They enclose it\ with the text (Vif. S. V, 29 ; 
Rig-veda 1, 10, 12), 'May these songs encompass 
thee on every side, O thou that delightest in 
songs! May these favours be favourably 
received by thee, invigorating the vigorous!' 
He that delights in songs, forsooth, is Indra, and 
songs mean the people: he thus surrounds the 
nobility with the people, and therefore the nobility is 
here surrounded on both sides by the people. 

25. Thereupon he sews (the hurdles to the posts) 
with a needle and cord '^.-with the text(V^. S. V, 30), 
'Thou art Indra's sewer.' With, 'Thou art 
I ndra's fixed (point),' he then makes a knot, ' lest it 
should fall asunder.' He undoes it again, when the 
work is completed ; and thus disease befalls not either 
the Adhvaryu or the Sacrificer. When completed, he 

■ Viz. with hurdles, or upright grass-mats, fastened to the door- 
posts by means of cord. 
» See III, 5, 3, 25. 



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Ill KAiVDA, 6 adhyAva, I brAhmajva, 28. 147 

touches it (the Sadas) with, 'Thou art Indra's 
own !' for the Sadas belongs to Indra. 

26. In the north — with regard to the back part of 
the Soma-carts ^ — he then raises the Agnidhra (shed). 
One half of it should be inside the altar, and one half 
outside ; or more than one half may be inside the 
altar and less outside ; or the whole of it may be in- 
side the altar. When completed, he touches it with, 
'Thou art the All-gods' own I' To the All-gods 
it belongs, because on the day before (the Soma 
feast) the All-gods abide in it by the Vasatlvarl water. 

27. Now, once on a time, the gods, while per- 
forming sacrifice, were afraid of an attack on the part 
of the Asura-Rakshas. The Asura-Rakshas attacked 
them from the south and forced them out of the 
Sadas, and overturned those hearths (dhish«ya) of 
theirs which are within the Sadas. 

28. For, indeed, all of those (hearths) at one time 
burnt as brightly as this Ahavanlya and the Gir- 
hapatya and the Agnldhrlya ; but ever since that time 
when they (the Asuras) overturned them they do not 
bum. They forced them (the gods) back to the 
Agnidhra (fire) and even won from them one half of 
the Agnidhra. From there the All-gods gained 
immortality *, — whence it (the Agnidhra fire) is sacred 
to the All-gods. 

' North of the clog (apdiamba) of the carts, KSwva rec. 

* They gained it, as would seem, by nieans of the other half of 
the Agnidhra fire. Cf. Ait. Br. II, 36. Siyana interprets 'tSn 
apy ardham Sgntdhrasya ^gyus ' by, ' [They forced those (gods) 
back to the Sadas ;] and they (the gods), having reached the side 
(ardham =samipam) of the Agnidhra (fire), conquered the Asuras 
and won immortality.' The K&nva, rec. reads : — ' Te hSpy 4gnt- 
dhrasySrdham ^gyus te 'rdhdn (! read 'rdhSd) etad virve dev4 
amnlatvam apS^yan.' 

L 2 



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148 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

29. The gods kindled them again, as one would 
(light the fire where he is going to) stay. There- 
fore they are kindled at every Soma feast. Where- 
fore the duties of the Agnldh should be discharged 
by one who is accomplished. Now he who is known 
and learned in sacred lore ^ is truly accomplished : 
hence they take to the Agnldh his Dakshiwi first *, 
since it is from thence (from the Agnidh's fire) that 
the gods gained immortality. And if weakness were 
to come upon one of those that are consecrated, let 
(the Adhvaryu) say, ' Lead him to the Agnldhra ! ' — 
thinking ' that is unscathed, there he will not meet 
with affliction '.' And because the All-gods gained 
immortality from there, therefore it is sacred to the 
All-gods. 

Second BrAhmawa. 
I. The Dhish«ya-hearths *, forsooth, are no other 

' Or, as Sdya«a takes it, ' he who is known (as well-conducted) 
and a repeater (reader) of the Veda.' 

* See IV, 3, 4, 19 seq. 

" Or, ' that (fire) will not suffer evil ' {irtim na labheta, Siya«a). 

* There are altogether eight dhish»yas, two of which, viz. the 
Agnldhra and the MSr^iliya, are raised north and south of the 
back part of the cart-shed (havirdhSna) respectively ; while the other 
six are raised inside the Sadas along the east side of it, viz. five of 
them north of the ' spine,' belonging (from south to north) to the 
Hotr>, Biihrnattiihamsi, Potr;', Nesh/ri', and AkAkvika. re- 
spectively ; and one south of the spine, exactly south-east of the 
Udumbara post, for the Mai trS varuna (or PrajSstn) priest. These 
six priests, together with the Agnldhra, are called the 'seven Hotr»s.' 
The Agnldhra and Mir^Sllya have square sheds with four posts 
erected over them, open on the east side and on the side facing the 
cart-shed. The Agnldhra hearth is thrown up first, and the Mir- 
^llya last of all ; and the Maitrivaruna's immediately after that of 
the Hotrj. For the formulas by which they are consecrated, see 
V&g. S. V, 31, 32. 



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Ill KAJVDA, 6 ADHyAyA, 2 BRAHMAATA, 5. 1 49 

than its (the sacrifice's) congeners^. They have the 
same marks, and those which have the same marks 
are congeners ; and these, then, are those (corres- 
ponding limbs) of its trunk. 

2. Now Soma was in heaven, and the gods were 
here on earth. The gods desired, 'Would that 
Soma might come to us; we might sacrifice with 
him, when come.' They produced those two illu- 
sions, Supar«l and Kadrft*; Supar«t, forsooth, was 
V^ (speech)*, and KadrA was this (earth). They 
caused discord between them. 

3. They then disputed and said, 'Which of us 
shall spy furthest, shall win the other*.' — ' So be it!' 
Kadrfi then said, 'Espy thou!' 

4. Suparwl said, ' On yonder shore of this ocean 
there stands a white horse at a post, that I see ; 
doest thou also see it ?' — ' I verily do !' Then said 
KadrO, ' Its tail was just now hanging down ; there, 
now the wind tosses it, that I see.' 

5. Now when Supar»f said, ' On yonder shore of 
this ocean,' the ocean, forsooth, is the altar, she 
thereby meant the altar ; ' there stands a white horse 
at a post,' the white horse, forsooth, is Agni, and 
the post means the sacrificial stake. And when 
Kadrft said, ' Its tail was just now hanging down ; 



* That is, the parts of the body corresponding to one another, 
as arms, loins, &c. 

* See III, 2, 4, I seq.; Oldenberg, Zeitsch. d. Deutsch. Morg. 
Ges. XXXVII, p. 67 seq. ; Weber, Ind. Stud. VIII, p. 31. 

' In Taitt. S. VI, i, 6; KS/4. XXIII, 10, supar«t, 'the well- 
winged,' is identified with the sky. 

* Lit. ' she shall win both of us,' i. e. each saying that the other 
would win herself. 



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1 50 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMA/VA. 

there, now the wind tosses it, that I see;' this is 
nothing else than the rope, 

6. Supar«l then said, ' Come, let us now fly 
thither to know which of us is the winner.' Kadrd 
said, ' Fly thou thither ; thou wilt tell us, which of 
us is the winner/ 

7. Supar«l then flew thither; and it was even 
as Kadrft had said. When she had returned, 
she (KadrA) said to her, ' Hast thou won, or I ?' 
— 'Thou!' she replied. Such is the story, called 
' Suparwl-Kidrava^.' 

8. Then said Kadrd, ' Verily I have won thine 
own self; yonder is Soma in the heaven: fetch 
him hither for the gods, and thereby redeem thy- 
self from the gods'^!' — 'So be it!' She brought 
forth the metres; and that G&yatrl fetched Soma 
from heaven. 

9. He was enclosed between two golden cups*; 
sharp-edged they closed together at every twinkling 
of the eye ; and these two, forsooth, were Consecra- 
tion and Penance. Those Gandharva Soma-wardens 
watched over him; they are these hearths, these 
fire-priests. 

10. She tore off one of the two cups, and g^ve it 
to the gods, — this was Consecration : therewith the 
gods consecrated themselves. 

* 'And because these two there disputed, therefore the story 
called " Saupar»akidrava" is here told,' Kinva text. It is diflScult 
to see how this statement came to be inserted here, unless it be be- 
cause of a division in the text, — this paragraph being the nineteen 
hundreth in the MSdhyandina recension. This explanation would 
not, however, apply to the Ki»va text. 

* ' Therewith redeem thee from death,' K&ttva rec. 

' Kujt ?=koft, ' pod ' (or case). SSyawa explains it by 'Syudha' 
(? weapon, or vessel, sheath). 



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Ill KANDA, 6 ADHYAyA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 1 5. I51 

11. She then tore off the second cup, and gavfe it 
to the gods, — this was Penance : therewith the gods 
underwent penance, to wit the Upasads, for the 
Upasads are penance. 

12. She took possession (i-^kh^da)* of Soma by 
means of (a stick of) khadira wood (Acacia Catechu), 
whence (the name) Khadira; and because she thereby 
took possession of him, therefore the sacrificial stake 
and the woodeti sword (sphya) are of khadira wood. 
She then carried him off while he was under the 
charge of the AMkvdka, wherefore this AMkvika. 
priest was excluded (from drinking Soma). 

1 3. Indra aiid Agni preserved him for the produc- 
tion of creatures, whence the A/^/«ivika fwiest belongs 
to Indra and Agni. 

14. Therefore the consecrated keep charge of the 
king (Soma), 'lest (the Gandharvas) should carry 
him off.' Let him therefore guard him diligently, 
for verily in whosesoever charge they carry him off, 
he is excluded (from the Soma). 

15. Wherefore the students guard their teacher, 
his house, and cattle, lest he should be taken from 
them. Let him therefore guard him (Soma) dili- 
gently in that place, for verily in whosesoever 
charge they carry him off, he is excluded therefrom. 
By means of him Suparwl redeemed herself from the 
gods; wherefore they say, 'He who has sacrificed 
shares in the world of bliss.' 



' SSyawa takes it in the sense of ' she swallowed (khSd),' but I 
should feel inclined to refer it to the same verb ' khid ' (? khad) as 
' 4khidat ' coming immediately after it. Could Pfiwini's Sfltra VI, i, 
52 refer to this passage f [Kis. V., Benares edition Mhdda ; MS. 
Indian Office ^akhdda.] The Kft«va text has the same reading: 
dihikh&da-dkhidat. 



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I 5 2 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

1 6. Verily, even in being born, man, by his own 
self, is born as a debt (owing) to death. And in that 
he sacrifices, thereby he redeems himself from death, 
even as Supar«l then redeemed herself from the 
gods. 

1 7. The gods worshipped with him. Those Gan- 
dharva Soma-wardens came after him ; and having 
come up they said, ' Do ye let us share in the sacri- 
fice, exclude us not from the sacrifice ; let there be 
for us also a share in the sacrifice !' 

18. They said, ' What will there be for us, then ?' — 
' Even as in yonder world we have been his keepers, 
so also will we be his keepers here on earth ! ' 

1 9. The gods spake, ' So be it ! ' By saying, ' (Here 
are) your Soma-wages ..." he assigns to them the 
price of the Soma^ They then said unto them, 
' At the third pressing an offering of ghee shall fall 
to your share, but not one of Soma, for the Soma- 
draught has been taken from you, wherefore ye are 
not worthy of a Soma-offering!' And accordingly, 
when he pours ghee on the hearths by means of 
fagots '', at the evening libation, that same offering 
of ghee falls to their share, but not one of Soma. 

20. ' And what they will offer in the fire that 
will satiate you ;' hence that which they offer in 
the fire satiates them. ' And when they will move 
about, holding the Soma over each', that will 
satiate you ; ' hence when they move about, holding 
the Soma over each (hearth), that satiates them. 



' See III, 3,3,11. 
■ ■' For these oblations poured upon burning bundles of chips and 
grass held over the several hearth-fires, see IV, 4, 2, 7. 

' Yad vi uparjupari somam bibhrataA sawtoishyanti, K&ffva rec. 
(? holding the Soma close above the dhish«yas). This passage 



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in KANDA, 6 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaata, 23. 153 

Wherefore let not the Adhvaryu pass between' the 
hearths, for the Adhvaryu carries the Soma, and 
they sit waiting for him (Soma) with open mouths, 
and he would enter into their open mouths ; and 
either Agni would burn him, or else that god who 
rules over beasts (Rudra) would seek after him ; 
hence whenever the Adhvaryu should have busi- 
ness in the hall, let him pass north of the Agnldhra 
shed. 

21. Now it is for the protection of Soma that 
those (hearths) are thrown up, to wit the Ahava- 
nfya in front (on the high altar), the Mdr/dllya in the 
south, and the Agnidhrtya in the north ; and those 
that are in the Sadas (protect him) from behind. 

22. They are in part raised", in part they are 
assigned*. And, in truth, they themselves insisted 
thereon, saying, ' They shall in part raise us, and 
in part they shall assign us; thus we shall know 
again that heavenly world from which we have 
come, thus we shall not go astray.' 

23. And whichever of them are raised they are 

apparently refers to the A'amasa-Adhvaryus or cup-bearers, who at 
the time of the Savanas hold up their cups filled with Soma, which, 
after libations have been made of it on the fire, is drunk by the 
priests. 

' Samayd ; the KSwva text has ' pratyah (in going to the back) ' 
instead. 

' That is, bestrewed with gravel. 

" When the dhish»yas have been completed, the Adhvaryu, 
standing east of the front door of the Sadas, has to point at the 
Ahavaniya, the Bahishpavam^na-place, the pit whence the earth for 
the hearths and high altar was taken, the slaughtering place, the 
Udumbara post, the Brahman's seat, the (old Ahavaniya at the) 
hall-door, the old Gdrhapatya, and the Utkara (heap of rubbish) 
one by one with the texts, V&g. S. V, 32, 2, &c. KSty. VIII, 6, 
23. 24- 



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1 54 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

thereby visibly in this world; but whichever of 
them are assigned they are thereby visibly in 
yonder world. 

24. They have two names; for, in truth, they 
themselves insisted thereon, saying, ' We have not 
prospered with these names, since Soma has been 
taken away from us; well, then, let us take each 
a second name ! ' They took each a second name, 
and therewith prospered, inasmuch as they from 
whom the Soma-draught had been taken had a 
share in the sacrifice assigned to them ; hence they 
have two names. Wherefore let a Brihman, if 
he prosper not, take a second name, for Verily he 
prospers, whosoever, knowing this, takes a second 
name. 

25. Now what he offers in the fire, that he offers 
unto the gods, thereby the gods exist; and what 
(Soma) is consumed in the Sadas, that he offers 
unto men, thereby men exist; and in that the 
Ndrlyawsa' (cups of Soma) stand with the Soma- 
carts, thereby he offers unto the Fathers, thereby 
the Fathers exist. 

26. But those creatures which are not admitted 
to the sacrifice are forlorn ; wherefore he now admits 
to the sacrifice those creatures here on earth that 
are not forlorn; behind* the men are the beasts; 
and behind the gods are the birds, the plants, and 

* Narliawsa, 'pertaining to Nari^wsa (tnan's praise, i.e. Agni, or 
Sotna, or the Fathers),' is the natne given to certain remains of 
Soma-Iibations (or potations) sacred to the Fathers, which, in the 
nine Soma-cups, are temporarily deposited under the axle of the 
southern Soma-cart, till they are drunk by the priests at the end of 
the libation. 

' Or, alongside of, corresponding to, included in, them (anu). 



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ni kAjvda, 6 ADHYAYA, 3 brAhmajva, 3. 155 

the trees ; and thus whatsoever exists here on earth 
all that is admitted to the sacrifice. And verily 
both the gods and men, and the Fathers drink 
together*, and this is their symposium ; of old they 
drank together visibly, but now they do so unseen. 

THE VAISARGINA OFFERINGS AND LEADING 
FORWARD OF AGNI AND SOMA. 

Third BrAhmat^a. 

1. Verily he who consecrates himself, consecrates 
himself for the sake of this All ; for he consecrates 
himself for the sacrifice, and this All indeed results 
from* the sacrifice; having prepared the sacrifice 
for which he consecrates himself, he now sets 
free (or produces) this All. 

2. The reason why he performs the Vaisar^na 
offerings is this. They are called Vaisar^na, because 
he sets free (vi-sar^) this All ; wherefore let him 
who takes part in the rite* touch (the sacrificer) 
from behind ; but if he have to go elsewhere (on 
business) he need not heed this. When he sacri- 
fices, he sets free this All. 

3. And again why he performs the Vaisar^na 
offerings. Vish«u, forsooth, is the sacrifice ; by his 
strides he obtained (vi-kram) for the gods that all- 
pervading power (vikrAnti) which now belongs to 
them ; by his first step he gained this same (earth) ; 
by the second, the region of air ; and by the last, 

' ' Sma' does not seem here to have its usual force, which it has 
in the next sentence, combined with ' purS.' 

' Or, corresponds to (anu). 

• That is, a blood-relation of the sacrificer, dwelling together 
with him. Cf. also p. 40, note i. 



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156 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

the heaven. And that same pervading power 
Vish«u, the sacrifice, obtains by his strides for this 
(sacrificer) when he sacrifices : this is why he per- 
forms the Vaisar^na offerings. 

4. In the afternoon, having covered the altar 
(with sacrificial grass), and handed (to the sacrificer 
and his wife) one half of the fast-milk, they enter 
(the hall), put fire-wood onS and prepare the under- 
layer (of gravel). He (the Adhvaryu) puts the 
butter on (the old Gdrhapatya), and cleans the 
spoons. The sacrificer takes the king (Soma) on 
his lap. He (the Adhvaryu) scatters about the 
(dust of the) foot-print of the Soma-cow behind 
the (new) Garhapatya for the sake of a firm stand- 
ing, for it is with the foot that one stands firmly. 

5. Now some divide it (the dust) into four 
parts* : one fourth part (they put) into the under- 
layer whereon they take up the Ahavaniya (for 
transferring it to the high altar); with one fourth 
part they anoint the axle ; one fourth part (they 
put) into this underlayer (for taking out the Agnl- 
dhriya fire); and one fourth part he scatters about 
behind the G4rhapatya. 

6. But let him not do this ; let him rather scatter 
it about entirely behind the Gdrhapatya. Having 
then purified the ghee, he takes thereof four ladlings 
(with the sruva), both in the ^yhd and in the upa- 
bhm ; and clotted ghee ' in five ladlings, with (V4f . 

* Viz. on the Ahavaniya of the Pri>Hnava»»fa (hall) now serving 
as the Girhapatya, and generally called jdlSdvirya, i. e. the one 
near the (front or eastern) hall-door. 

' See p. 121, note 2. 

' Pnshad-^a (lit mottled butter) is clarified butter mixed with 
sour milk. 



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Ill KANDX, 6 ADHYAvA, 3 BRAHMA^VA, 9. 1 57 

S. V, 35), 'Thou art a light endowed with all 
forms, the flame of the All-gods;' for the 
clotted ghee belongs to the All-gods. When the 
wood is well kindled, they hold the spoons for him. 

7. He then offers \ with, 'Thou, O Soma, wilt 
widely withhold thy protection from the life- 
injuring* hatreds put forth by others, Hail!' 
Thereby he takes a firm stand on this resting-place, 
the earth, and gains this world. 

8. He then offers the second oblation to (S6ma) 
the Nimble, with, 'May the Nimble graciously 
accept the butter, Hail!' For he (Soma) spake 
upon that time, ' Verily I am afraid of the Rakshas : do 
ye make me to be too small for their deadly shaft, so 
that the evil spirits (the Rakshas) shall not injure me 
on the way; and take me across in the form of a 
drop, for the drop is nimble.' And accordingly, 
having made him too small for the deadly shaft, 
they lead him safely across in the fofm of a drop, 
from fear of the Rakshas, for the drop is nimble : 
this is why he offers the second oblation to (Soma) 
the Nimble. 

9. They lift the (burning) fire-wood, and place it 
on the support. He then says (to the Hotri), 
' Recite for Agni, taken forward ! ' or (say some), 
' — for Soma, led forward.' But let him say, ' Recite 
for Agni, taken forward ' !* 

' He offers some ghee from a substitute spoon (pra^ara»i), as 
the proper offering-spoons now filled with ghee and clotted ghee 
have to be carried with the fire to the Agnidhra. 

' Mahtdhara explains ' tanfikrtt ' by ' tanfim krmtanti ^ndanti.' 
It ought rather to mean ' body-making,' — ? from the enemies that 
assume (various) forms.' 

' The KinvA text, on the contrary, enjoins that he is to say, 
'Recite for Soma . . .1' In the Hotri's ritual this is called the 



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158 SATAPATHA-BR AHMAiVA, 

TO. They take the pressing-stones, the Soma- 
trough (dro«a-kalaya), Vayu's cups\ the (twenty 
pieces of) fire-wood, the enclosing-sticks of k&rsh- 
marya wood (Gmelina Arborea), one prastara of 
aivav&la grass*, and the two Vidhr«tis of sugar- 
cane ; that barhis (which was used before*) is tied 
up therewith. Further, the two spits for (roasting) 
the omenta *, the two ropes (for binding the stake 
and victims), the two churning-sticks (for producing 
fire), the adhimanthana chip, and the two vrzshaKa*, 
— having taken up all these they go forward (to the 
Agrnldhra) : thus the sacrifice goes upwards*. 

n. While they proceed thither ,^ he makes (the 
sacrificer) say the text (Vfi^. S. V, 36 ; Rig-veda I, 
189, i), 'O Agni, lead us on a good path unto 
wealth, thou, O God, that knowest all works ! 
keep thou from us the sin that leadeth astray, 
and we will offer unto thee most ample adora- 
tion !' He thereby places Agni in front, and Agni 
marches in front repelling the evil spirits ; and they 
take him thither on a (way) free from danger and 

Agnishoma-pra«ayana. For the seventeen verses (brought up to 
twenty-one by repetitions) of the Hotr;, see Ait. Br. I, 30 (Haug, 
Translation, p. 68); Arv. IV, 10. The Soma is carried either 
by the Brahman himself or by the sacrificer. KSty. XI, i, 13, 14. 

* The ' VSyavya ' are wooden cups shaped like a mortat. It seems 
here to include all the Soma-cups, see IV, 1,3, 7-10; Katy.VIII, 7, 5. 

» See 111,4,1,17-18. 

' Viz. at the guest-offering, see p. 103, note 3. It was tied up 
with the three objects mentioned immediately before. 

* The vaplrrapa«i are sticks of karshmarya wood. 

* For these objects, see p. 90, note 5. 

* ' Thus that sacrifice goes upwards to yonder heavenly world, 
and, the sacrifice being the sacrificer, the sacrificer thus goes thither,' 
Ki»va text. See III, 6, i, 28, where the gods are said to have 
attained immortality from the Agnfdhriya. 



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in kXnDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMA/VA, I 5. 1 59 

injury. They proceed, and reach the Agnldhra ; 
and he (the Adhvaryu) puts (the fire) down on the 
Agnldhra hearth. 

1 2. Thereon, when laid down, he offers with the 
text (V^£. S. V, 37), ' May this Agni make wide 
room for us; may he march in front smiting 
the haters! May he gain riches in the win- 
ning of riches: may he, fiercely rushing, con- 
quer the enemies. Hail!' By means of him (Agni) 
he thus takes a firm stand in that resting-place, 
the aerial region, and gains that world. 

13. In the same place they deposit the pressing- 
stones, the Soma-trough, and Vfiyu's cups'. Having 
then taken up the other (objects), they proceed and 
deposit them north of the Ahavanlya. 

14. The Adhvaryu takes the sprinkling-water, and 
sprinkles first the fire-wood, and then the altar. They 
then hand to him the altar-grass. He puts it down 
with the knot towards the east, and sprinkles it. 
Having poured (the remaining sprinkling- water) 
upon (the root ends of the altar-grass), and imtied 
the knot, — the Prastara-bunch of ajvavila grass is 
tied together (with the altar-grass), — he takes that ; 
and having taken the Prastara, he spreads the altar- 
grass in a single layer. Having spread the altar- 
grass, he lays the enclosing-sticks of kdrshmarya- 
wood round (the fire). Having laid the enclosing- 
sticks around, he puts two kindling-sticks (on the 
fire) ; and having put on the two kindling-sticks, 

15. He offers with the text (VS^.S.V, 38),' Stride 
thou widely, O Vish»u, make wide room for 
our abode! drink the ghee, thou born of ghee, 

* Also the two fringed filtering-ctoths (dardpavitre), according to 
the Kdnva rec. 



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l60 a'ATAPATHA-BRAHMAA'A. 

and speed the lord of the sacrifice ever on- 
wards, Hail!' Thereby he takes a firm stand in 
that resting-place, the sky : he thus gains that world 
by offering with that (verse). 

1 6. And as to his offering with a verse addressed 
to Vish«u, it was thus that they made him (Soma) 
to be too small for the deadly shaft and led him 
safely across in the form of a drop, for the drop is 
nimble. And having attained to safety, he now 
makes him the one he really is, namely, the sacri- 
fice, for Vish«u is the sacrifice : therefore he offers 
with a verse addressed to Vish«u. 

17. After depositing the spoons' and touching 
water, he makes the king (Soma) enter (the Havir- 
dh4na shed). The reason why he makes the king 
enter, after depositing the spoons and touching 
water, is this. The ghee is the thunderbolt, and 
Soma is seed : hence it is after depositing the 
spoons and touching water that he makes the king 
enter, lest he should injure the seed Soma with 
the thunderbolt, the ghee. 

18. He spreads the black deer-skin on the en- 
closed part of the southern Soma-cart, and sets him 
down thereon with (Vdf. S. V, 39), ' O divine Savi- 
t^«, this is thy Soma: shield him; may they 
not injure thee!' whereby he makes him over to 
the God Savitri for protection. 

19. Having quitted his hold of him, he (the sacri- 
ficer) renders homage to him with, ' Now, O divine 
Soma, hast thou, a god, joined the gods, and 

* ' He then deposits the Prastara on the mound (p. 140, note 2), 
deposits there the gvh& and the upabhr/t and the prish&dSgja.; and 
having touched the sacrificial materials and touched water, he takes 
the king and enters (the cart-shed),' &c. K&nva. rec. 



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Ill kXndA, 6 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAhMAJVA, 21. l6l 

here I the men with increase of wealth.' Now 
Ag^i and Soma have seized him who consecrates 
himself between their jaws^ for that consecration- 
offering belongs to Agni and Vish«u, and Vish«u 
forsooth is no other than Soma ; and he himself that 
consecrates himself is the food of the gods : thus 
they have seized him between their jaws, and he 
now expressly redeems himself from Soma, when he 
says, ' Now, O divine Soma, hast thou, a god, joined 
the gods, and here (have I joined) the men with 
increase of wealth;' — increase of wealth means 
abundance : ' with abundance ' he thereby means 
to say. 

20. He then walks out (of the cart-shed), with, 
'Haill I am freed from Varu»a's noose!' For 
he, truly, is in Varu»a's noose who is in another's 
mouth : he now frees himself from Varu«a's noose, 
when he says, ' Hail 1 I am freed from Varu«a's 
noose.' 

21. He then puts a kindling-stick on the Aha- 
vanlya in this way*, 'O Agni, protector of vows, 
on thee, O protector of vows — ' for Ag^ni is lord 
of vows to the gods, wherefore he says, ' O Agni, 
protector of vows, on thee, O protector of vows ' — 
'what bodily form of thine hath been on me, 
(may) that (be) on thee; what bodily form of 
mine has been on thee, (may) that (be) here on 
me ! Our vows, O lord of vows, (have been per- 
formed) rightly: the lord of consecration hath 

' See III, 3, 4, 21. 

• Thus (it i), viz. with the following modifications of the corres- 
ponding formula, used at the 'intermediary consecration,' III, 4, 3, 9. 
Perhaps 'iti' may mean ' thus,' i.e. while still keeping his fingers 
turned in ; or, it may mean ' as such ' (as a free man). 
[36] M 



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1 62 satapatha-brAhmasta. 

approved my consecration; the lord of pen- 
ance hath approved my penance.' Thereby he 
frees himself visibly from Ag^i, and sacrifices with 
a self (body) now his own : hence they now partake 
of his food, for he is a man (again) ; hence they now 
use his (real) name, for he is a man. And as to their 
not eating (of his food) heretofore, it is as one would 
not eat of sacrificial food, before offering has been 
made thereof: therefore let no one partake of 
the food of one consecrated. He now loosens his 
fingers. 

THE ANIMAL SACRIFICE* TO AGNI AND SOMA. 

Fourth Brahmaata. 

A. Thk Setting Up of the Sacrificial Stake. 

1. Being about to cut the sacrificial stake, he 
offers * with a verse addressed to Vish«u. For the 
stake belongs to Vish»u ; therefore he offers with 
a verse addressed to Vish«u. 

2. And again, why he offers with a verse ad- 
dressed to Vish»u — Vish«u being the sacrifice, he 
thus approaches the stake by means of the sacri- 
fice : therefore he offers with a verse addressed to 
Vishwu. 

3. If he offers with the offering-spoon, he offers 
after taking ghee by four ladlings ; and if he offers 
with the dipping-spoon, he offers after ' cutting out ' 
(some ghee from the pot) with the dipping-spoon ; — 
with the text (Vd^. S. V, 41), ' Stride thou widely, 

' On the Animal Sacrifice, cp. Dr. J. Schwab's dissertation, ' Das 
altindische Thieropfer,' 1883. 
* This oblation is called ydp&huti, or ' stake-offering.' 



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Ill kAjVDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAhMAJVA, 7. 1 63 

O Vish«u, make wide room for our abode! 
drink the ghee, thou born of ghee, and speed 
the lord of the sacrifice ever onwards ! 
Hail!' 

4. He takes the ghee which is left (in the melting- 
pot). Whatever chopping-knife the carpenter uses, 
that the carpenter now takes. They then proceed (to 
the wood). Whatever (tree) they select for the stake, 

5. That he touches while muttering (V4/. S. V, 
42), — or he salutes it while standing behind it with 
his face towards the east, — ' I have passed over 
the others, I have not gone nigh the others — ' 
he does indeed pass over others and does not go 
near to others : wherefore he says, ' I have passed 
over the others, I have not gone nigh the others.' 

6. 'Thee have I found on the nearer side 
of the farther, and on the farther side of the 
nearer;* he does indeed fell it on the nearer side 
of the farther, of those that are farther away from 
it ; and ' on the farther side of the nearer,' he says, 
because he does fell it on the farther side of the 
nearer, of those that are on this side of it. This 
is why he says, ' Thee have I found on the nearer 
side of the farther, and on the farther side of the 
nearer.' 

7. ' Thee do we favour, O divine lord of the 
forest^ for the worship of the gods.' As 
for the good work, he would favour (select) one from 
amidst many (men) and he (the chosen) would be 
well-disposed to that work, even so does he now, 
for the good work, favour that (tree) from amidst 
many, and it becomes well-disposed to the felling. 

* ' Vanaspati ' is a common synonym of vnluba, tree. 
M 2 



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1 64 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

8. 'Thee may the gods favour for the wor- 
ship of the gods!' for that is truly successful 
which the gods favour for the good work : therefore 
he says, ' Thee may the gods favour for the worship 
of the gods ! ' 

9. He then touches it with the dipping-spoon, 
with, ' For Vish»u, thee!' for the stake belongs 
to Vish«u, since Vish«u is the sacrifice, and he fells 
this (tree) for the sacrifice : therefore he says, ' For 
Vish«u, thee!' 

10. He then places a blade of darbha-g^rass be- 
tween ^ with, 'O plant, shield it!' for the axe is 
a thunderbolt ; but thus that thunderbolt, the axe, 
does not hurt it (the tree). He then strikes with 
the axe, with, ' O axe, hurt it not!' for the axe is 
a thunderbolt, but thus that thunderbolt, the axe, 
does not hurt it. 

11. The first chip* which he cuts off, he takes 
(and lays aside). Let him cut (the tree) so as to 
cause no obstruction to the axle \ For, indeed, it is 
on a cart that they convey it, and in this way he does 
not obstruct the cart 

* Viz. he places or holds it against where he is about to strike 
the tree, so as first to cut the grass. 

* For the destination of this chip of the bark, see III, 7, i, 8. 

' That is to say, he is not to cut the tree too high from the 
ground, so that the axle of the cart might readily pass over the 
remaining stump without touching it The Kd»va text reads, 'tarn 
anakshastambhe vrisked uta hy enam anas& vakshyanto bhavanty 
uto svargaw hisya lokam yate (sic) 'kshastambhaA sydt tasmid 
anakshastambhe vrisict.' Nothing is said anywhere about the yApa 
being conveyed on a cart to the sacrificial ground, if, indeed, that 
statement refer to the yflpa at all. Sdyawa's comment is very corrupt 
here, but he seems to interpret the passage to the eflfect that some 
people might convey the stake on the cart (pakshe anasS ydpa^n 
nayeyu^) and that in that case the cart would be obstructed. 



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Ill kXnda, 6 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 16. 165 

1 2. Let him cut it so as to fall towards the east, 
for the east is the quarter of the gods ; or towards 
the north, for the north is the quarter of men ; or 
towards the west. But let him take care to keep it 
from (falling towards) the southern quarter, for that 
is the quarter of the Fathers : therefore he must take 
care to keep it from the southern quarter. 

13. The falling (tree) he addresses with the text 
(V^. S. V, 43), 'Graze not the sky! hurt not 
the air! unite with the earth!' for verily that 
(tree) which they cut for the stake is a thunderbolt, 
and these worlds tremble for fear of that falling 
thunderbolt ; but he thereby propitiates it for these 
worlds, and thus propitiated it injures not these 
worlds. 

14. Now when he says, ' Graze not the sky,' he 
means to say, 'Injure not the sky!' In the words 
'hurt not the air' there is nothing obscure. By 
' Unite with the earth,' he means to say, ' Be thou in 
harmony with the earth!' 'For this sharp-edged 
axe hath led thee forward unto great bliss,' for 
this sharp axe indeed leads it forward. 

1 5. Upon the stump he then offers ghee, ' lest the 
evil spirits should rise therefrom after (the tree):' 
ghee being a thunderbolt, he thus repels the evil 
spirits by means of the thunderbolt, and thus the 
evil spirits do not rise therefrom after it. And 
ghee being seed, he thus endows the trees with that 
seed; and from that seed (in) the stump trees are 
afterwards produced ^. 

16. He sacrifices with, ' Grow thou out of this, 
O lord of the forest, with a hundred shoots! 

' Or, ' hence trees grow up again from the stump (? after felling, 
" I vrajfenfit") out of seed.' 



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1 66 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

May we grow out with a thousand shoots!' 
There is nothing obscure in this. 

1 7. Thereupon he cuts it (the stake of the proper 
length) : of whatever length he cuts it the first time, 
so long let it remain. 

18. He may cut it five cubits long; for fivefold is 
the sacrifice and fivefold is the animal (victim), and 
five seasons there are in the year : therefore he may 
cut it five cubits long. 

19. He may cut it six cubits long ; for six seasons 
there are in the year ; and the year is a thunderbolt, 
as the sacrificial stake is a thunderbolt : therefore he 
may cut it six cubits long. 

20. He may cut it eight cubits long, for eight 
syllables has the Giyatrl, and the Giyatrl is the 
fore-part of the sacrifice, as the sacrificial stake is 
the fore-part of the sacrifice : therefore he may cut 
it eight cubits long. 

21. He may cut it nine cubits long, for threefold 
is the sacrifice, and ' nine' is threefold : therefore he 
may cut it nine cubits long. 

22. He may cut it eleven cubits long, for eleven 
syllables has the Trish/ubh, and the TrishAibh is 
a thunderbolt, as the sacrificial stake is a thunder- 
bolt : therefore he may cut it eleven cubits long. 

23. He may cut it twelve cubits long, for twelve 
months there are in the year, and the year is a 
thunderbolt, as the sacrificial stake is a thunderbolt : 
therefore he may cut it twelve cubits long. 

24. He may cut it thirteen cubits long, for thirteen 
months there are in a year, and the year is a thun- 
derbolt, as the sacrificial stake is a thunderbolt: 
therefore he may cut it thirteen cubits long. 

25. He may cut it fifteen cubits long, for the 



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Ill kXnDA, 7 ADHyAyA, I BRAHMAiVA, 2. 167 

fifteen- versed chant is a thunderbolt', as the sacri- 
ficial stake is a thunderbolt : therefore he may cut 
it fifteen cubits long. 

26. The sacrificial stake of the VS^peya sacrifice 
is seventeen cubits long. Indeed, it may be un- 
measured ', for with that same unmeasured thunder- 
bolt did the gods conquer the unmeasured ; and in 
like manner does he now conquer the unmeasured 
with that unmeasured thunderbolt : dierefore it may 
even be unmeasured. 

27. It is (made to be) eight-cornered, for eight 
syllables has the G&yatrl, and the Giyatrl is the 
fore-part of the sacrifice, as this (stake) is the fore- 
part of the sacrifice : therefore it is eight-cornered. 

Seventh AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. He takes the spade, with (V^f. S. VI, i), ' I take 
thee, at the impulse of the divine Savitrt, 
with the arms of the A^vins, with the hands 
of POshan : thou art a woman.' The significance 
of that formula is the same (as before) ; and that 
spade (abhri, fem.) is indeed female : therefore he 
says ' thou art a woman.' 

2. He thus draws the outline of the hole (for the 
stake '), with, 'Herewith I cut off the necks of 

' On the connection of the Panjfadaja-stoma with Indra, the 
wielder of the thunderbolt, see part i, introduction, p. xviii. 

* The Kanva text leaves an option first between stakes six, eight, 
eleven, fifteen (and for the Vl^peya seventeen) cubits long ; and 
finally lays down the rule that no regard is to be had to any fixed 
measure. 

' According to the KSwva text, one half of it is to be within, and 
one half outside of the altar. See Kity. VI, 3, 8. 



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1 68 jatapatha-brAhmaya. 

the Rakshas !' The spade is the thunderbolt : with 
the thunderbolt he thus cuts off the necks of the 
Rakshas. 

3. He then digs, and throws up a heap of earth 
towards the east. He digs the hole, making it equal 
(in depth) with the (unhewn) bottom part (of the 
stake). In front of it he lays down the stake 
with the top towards the east. Thereon he puts 
sacrificial grass of the same size, and thereupon he 
puts the chip of the stake. In front on the (north) 
side (of the stake) he puts down the head-piece*. 
The sprinkling-water has barley-corns mixed with 
it : the significance of this is the same (as before*). 

4. He throws the barley-corns in with, 'Thou 
art barley (yava), keep thou (yavaya) from us 
the haters, keep from us the enemies!' There 
is nothing obscure in this. He then sprinkles : the 
significance of the sprinkling is one and the same : 
he thereby renders it sacrificially pure. 

5. He sprinkles (the top, middle, and bottom parts) 
with, 'For the sky — thee! for the air — thee! 
for the earth — thee!' the stake being a thunder- 
bolt (he does so) for the protection of these worlds' : 
' I sprinkle thee for the protection of these worlds,' 
is what he thereby means to say. 

6. The sprinkling -water that remains he then 
pours into the hole with, ' Be the worlds pure 

' Of the part of the tree cut off from the sacrificial stake, a top- 
piece or head-ring (^shdla) is made some eight or nine inches 
high, eight-cornered (like the sacrificial stake); narrower in the 
middle like a mortar, and hollowed out so as to allow its being 
fixed on the stake. 

' See III-, 6, I, 7 seq. 

' For the construction, see p. 15, note 3. 



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Ill kXnDA, 7 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAJVA, IO. 1 69 

wherein the Fathers reside!' for a pit that is 
dug is sacred to the Fathers : this he thereby renders 
sacrificially pure. 

7. Thereupon he strews barhis-grass therein, both 
eastward-pointed and northward-pointed, with, 'Thou 
art the seat of the Fathers!' for that part of it 
(the stake) which is dug into the ground is sacred to 
the Fathers : as though it were (naturally) established 
among plants, and not dug in, so does it become 
established among those plants. 

8. He then throws in the (first) chip^ of the stake. 
Now that chip of the outer (bark) doubtless is the 
vigour of trees ; hence, when a chip of their outer 
(bark) is cut off they dry up, for it is their vigour. 
Hence, when he throws in the chip of the stake, 
he does so thinking, ' I will plant it (the stake) full 
of vigour.' The reason why it is this (chip) and no 
other, is that this one has been produced with a for- 
mula, is sacrificially pure : therefore he throws in the 
chip of the stake. 

9. He throws it in with (Vif. S. VI, 2), 'Thou 
art a leader, easy of access to the Unnetr?s*;' 
for that (chip) is cut from it in front, wherefore he 
says, ' Thou art a leader, easy of access to the Un- 
netm.' 'Be thou mindful of this: itwill stand 
upon thee!' for it (the stake) will indeed stand on 
it, wherefore he says, ' Be thou mindful of this : it 
will stand upon thee.' 

10. Having then taken out ghee with the dipping- 
spoon, he offers it into the hole, ' lest the evil spirits 
should rise from below :' ghee is a thunderbolt, he 

' See III, 6, 4, II. 

" The Unnetris are the priests that have to draw the Soma. 



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1 70 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

thus repels the evil spirits by means of the thunder- 
bolt, and thus the evil spirits do not rise from below. 
Having then gone round to the front, he sits down 
facing the north and anoints the stake. He says (to 
the Hotrt), ' Recite to the stake as it is anointed^ !' 

11. He anoints it with, 'The divine Savitr* 
anoint thee with sweet drink (milk) !' for Savitrt 
is the impeller (prasavitr?) of the gods, and that stake 
is in reality the sacrificer himself; and sweet drink 
is everything here; he thus puts it in connection 
with all that, and Savitr?, the impeller, impels it for 
him : therefore he says, ' The divine Savitr? anoint 
thee with sweet drink ! ' 

12. Having then anointed the top-ring on both 
sides, he puts it on (the stake) with, 'To the full- 
berried plants — thee !' for that (top-ring) is as its 
berry. And as to its being, as it were, contracted in 
the middle, the berry* here on trees is fastened (to 
the stalk) sideways; what connecting part there is 
between (the fruit and stalk) pressed in, as it were, 
that he thereby makes it This is why it is, as it 
were, contracted in the middle. 

13. He anoints from top to bottom the (comer) 
facing the fire ; for the (corner) facing the fire is the 
sacrificer, and the ghee is sap : with sap he thus 
anoints the sacrificer ; therefore he anoints from top 
to bottom the (corner) facing the fire. He then 

* 'Recite to the stake being anointed!' or, 'we anoint the stake: 
Recite 1' Kinva. rec. The latter is the formula mentioned Ait. Br. 
II, 2 (but 'aiigmo yilpam,' for Kdwva 'yftpam aM^gino'); where 
the seven verses recited by the Hotr» (brought up to eleven as 
usual) are given. See also ksv. Ill, i, 8. 

* Pippala refers especially to the berry or fruit of the Ficus 
Religiosa. 



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Ill KAJVDA, 7 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, I J. IT I 

grasps the girding-part all round, and says (to the 
Hotrt), ' Recite to the (stake) being set up !' 

14. He raises it with, 'With thy crest thou 
hast touched the sky; with thy middle thou 
hast filled the air; with thy foot thou hast 
steadied the earth;' — the sacrificial stake being 
a thunderbolt, (he raises it) for the conquering of 
these worlds ; with that thunderbolt he gains these 
worlds, and deprives his enemies of their share in 
these worlds. 

15. He then plants it (in the hole) with (Vif. S. 
VI, 3), 'To what resorts of thine we long to 
go where are the swift-footed, many-horned 
kine; there, forsooth, was imprinted wide- 
striding Vish»u's highest mighty foot-step.' 
With this trish/ubh verse he plants it ; the trish^bh 
is a thunderbolt, as the sacrificial stake is a thunder- 
bolt ; therefore he plants it with a trish/ubh verse. 

16. That (corner which was) facing the fire he 
places opposite the fire ; for the (corner) facing the 
fire is the sacrificer, and the sacrifice is fire. Hence 
were he to turn the fire-comer aside from the 
fire, the sacrificer would assuredly turn aside from 
the sacrifice ; therefore he places the (corner which 
Wcis) facing the fire opposite the fire. He then 
heaps up (earth) round it and presses it firmly all 
round, and pours water thereon '. 

17. Thereupon he makes (the sacrificer) say 
while touching it (V^^. S. VI, 4; Rig-veda I, 22, 
19), 'See ye the deeds ofVish«u, whereby he 
beheld the sacred ordinances, Indra's allied 

* The same fonnulas are used on this occasion as at III, 6, i, 
17-18. 



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1 72 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

friend!' For he who has set up the sacrificial 
stake has hurled the thunderbolt : ' See ye Vish»u's 
conquest!' he means to say when he says, 'See ye 
the deeds of Vish«u, whereby he beheld the sacred 
ordinances, Indra's allied friend.' Indra, forsooth, 
is the deity of the sacrifice, and the sacrificial stake 
belongs to Vish«u; he thereby connects it with 
Indra ; therefore he says, ' Indra's allied friend.' 

18. He then looks up at the top-ring with (V^. 
S. VI, 5; Rig-veda I, 22, 20), 'The wise ever 
behold that highest step of Vish«u, fixed like 
an eye in the heaven.' For he who has set up 
the sacrificial stake has hurled the thunderbolt : ' See 
ye that conquest of Vish«u!' he means to say when 
he says, ' The wise ever behold that highest step of 
Vishnu, fixed like an eye in the heaven.' 

19. He then girds (the stake with a rope of ku^i- 
grass). Now it is to cover its nakedness that he 
girds it ; wherefore he girds it in this place (viz. on 
a level with the sacrificer s navel), for it is thus 
that this (nether) garment is (slung round) ^ He 
thereby puts food into him, for it is there that the 
food settles ; therefore he girds it at that place. 

20. He girds it with a triple (rope), for threefold 
is food, and food means cattle; and (there is) the 
father and the mother, and what is bom is the 
third ; therefore he girds it with a triple (rope). 

21. He girds it with (V^. S. VI, 6), 'Thou art 
enfolded; may the heavenly hosts enfold 

' According to the K&nva. text it is to be slung round ntvf- 
daghne, 'on a level with the nether garment' (ndbhidaghne, Taitt. 
S. VI, 3, 4, 5). According to KSty. VI, 3, i, the girding is pre- 
ceded by a call on the Hotrt to recite to the post being anointed ; 
but neither recension mentions this. 



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Ill KAiVDA, 7 ADHyAyA, I BRAhMAYA, 25. 1 73 

thee! may riches enfold this sacrificer among 
menl' He invokes a blessing on the sacrificer, 
when he says, 'May riches enfold this sacrificer 
among men.' 

22. Thereupon he inserts a chip of the stake 
(under the rope) with, 'Thou art the son of the 
sky.' For it is doubtless the offspring of that (sacri- 
ficial stake) ; hence if there be the full number of 
eleven stakes \ let him insert in each its own (chip) 
without confounding them; and his offspring is 
bom orderly and not foolish. But whosoever inserts 
them in confusion, not its own in each, verily his 
offspring is born disorderly and foolish ; therefore let 
him insert its own in each without confounding them. 

23. Moreover, that chip of the stake is made an 
ascent to the heavenly world; there is this girdle- 
rope ; after the rope the chip of the stake ; after 
the chip of the stake the top-ring; and from the 
top-ring one reaches the heavenly world. 

24. And as to why it is called svaru ('very 
sore'), — that (chip) is cut off from that (stake), and 
thus is its own (sva) sore (arus); therefore it is 
called ' svaru.' 

25. With that part of it which is dug in, he gains 
the world of the Fathers ; and with what is above 
the dug-in part, up to the girdle-rope, he gains the 
world of men ; and with what is above the rope, 
up to the top-ring, he gains the world of the gods ; 
and what (space of) two or three fingers' breadths 

' When, instead of a single he-goat to Agni, eleven victims are 
slaughtered, they are either bound to one stake each, or all to one 
and the same. See III, 9, i, 4 seq. The chip alluded to is one of 
those obtained in rough-hewing the stake and making it eight- 
cornered. 



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1 74 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJirA. 

there is above the top-ring, — the gods called the 
' Blessed ^,' — their world he therewith gains ; verily, 
whosoever thus knows this, he becomes one of the 
same world with the blessed gods. 

26. That (sacrificial stake) he sets up on the 
fore-part (of the altar) ; for the stake is a thunder- 
bolt, as the club is a thunderbolt. But in hurling 
the club one takes hold of its fore-part; and that 
(stake) is the fore-part of the sacrifice ; therefore he 
sets it up on the fore-part (of the altar). 

27. Verily, by means of the sacrifice the gods 
gained that supreme authority which they now wield. 
They spake, ' How may this (world) of ours be made 
unattainable to men ?' They sipped the sap of the 
sacrifice, as bees would suck out honey, and having 
drained the sacrifice and scattered it by means 
of the sacrificial stake, they disappeared. And 
because they scattered (yopaya) therewith, there- 
fore it is called yflpa (sacrificial stake). At the 
head stands intelligence, at the head swiftness of 
thought; therefore he sets it up on the fore-part 
(of the altar). 

28. It is eight-cornered ; for the gclyatri metre 
consists of eight syllables, and the gdyatrt is the 
fore-part of the sacrifice, as this (stake) is the fore- 
part of the sacrifice ; therefore it is eig^t-comered, 

29. Now the gods once threw it after (the pra- 
stara into the Bre) even as now some throw it after, 
thinking, ' So the gods did it' Thereupon the Rak- 
shas sipped the sacrifice (Soma) after (the gods). 

30. The gods said unto the Adhvaryu, 'Offer 
thou only a chip of the stake ; thej-eby this (sacri- 

• On the ' sSdhyas ' see Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, p. 6, note 2. 



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Ill kXnDA, 7 ADHYAyA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 2. I 75 

ficer) will be bid good-speed' ; and thus the Rakshas 
will not hereafter sip the sacrifice, thinking, " that 
(stake) surely is a raised thunderbolt." ' 

31. The Adhvaryu, then, offered up only a chip 
of the stake, and thereby that (sacrificer) was bid 
good-speed; and thus the Rakshas did not there- 
after sip the sacrifice, thinking, ' that surely is a 
raised thunderbolt' 

32. And in like manner does he now only offer 
up that chip of the sacrificial stake * ; thereby this 
(sacrificer) is bid good-speed ; and thus the Rakshas 
do not thereafter sip the sacrifice, thinking, 'that 
surely is a raised thunderbolt!' He offers it' with 
the text (V4f. S. VI, 21), ' May thy smoke rise up 
to the sky, thy light to the heavens! fill the 
earth with ashes. Hail!' 



Second BrAhmawa. 

1. Verily, as large as the altar is, so large is the 
earth. The sacrificial stakes are thunderbolts ; and 
by means of these thunderbolts he obtains posses- 
sion of this earth, and excludes his enemies from 
sharing therein. Hence there are eleven stakes, and 
the twelfth lies aside rough-hewn ; he puts it down 
south (of the altar). The reason why the twelfth 
lies aside is this. 

2. Now the gods, while performing this sacrifice. 



• See I, 8, 3, II seq. * See Ait. Br. II, 3. 

' The offering of the chips does not take place till the end of 
the after-offerings (see note to III, 8, 5, 6). It is somewhat strange 
that it should be anticipated in this place, both in this and the 
Kitna. recensions. 



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1 76 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAi^TA. 

were afraid of an attack from the Asura-Rak- 
shas. Those raised (sacrificial stakes), then, were 
as a discharged arrow, — therewith one either smites 
or smites not; as a hurled club, — therewith one 
either smites or smites not. But that twelfth (stake) 
lying aside, — even as an arrow drawn but not dis- 
charged, as (a weapon) • raised but not hurled, so 
was that a thunderbolt raised for repelling the evil 
spirits on the south; therefore the twelfth (stake) 
lies aside. 

3. He lays it down with (Vi^. S. VI, 6), 'This 
is thy place on earth; thine is the beast of 
the forest,' There are the animal (victim) and 
the sacrificial stake ; to this one he thereby assigns 
of animals that of the forest, and thus it, too, is 
possessed of an animal (victim). That setting up 
of the eleven sacrificial stakes is said to be of two 
kinds, — some, namely, set (them all) up (on the pre- 
vious day) for the morrow's Soma feast, and others 
set up (one) stake for the preparation * of the mor- 
row's Soma feast. 

4. Let him, however, not dd this ; but let him 
only set up the one opposite the fire. For after 
setting it up the Adhvaryu does not quit his hold 
of it till the girding; but those (others) remain 

' No satisfactory explanation of ' prakubrati ' occurs to me. It 
seems to be derived from ' kubra,' to which the dictionaries assign 
the meanings ' hole for sacrificial fire' and 'thread ' (besides those of 
' forest,' ' earring,' and ' cart'). U«Sd. II, 28, derives this from a root 
'kub,' to cover, shelter. ?For the safe foundation (or the pro- 
traction) of to-morrow's Soma feast. The Kinvz text, on the other 
hand, reads : ' Some, now, raise all (the stakes) on the upavasatha 
(day before the Soma feast) for the sake of quickening (Fprakudra- 
tdyai) the work, thinking, 'we will quickly bring the sacrifice to 
a close.' 



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Ill KANDA, 7 ADHyAvA, 2 BRAhMAJVA, 8. I 77 

ungirt during that night. Thus there would be an 
offence, since it is for the victim that the stake is set 
up, and the victim is (only) slaughtered on the next 
morning: let him therefore set up (the others) on 
the next morning. 

5. Let him first set up that (stake) which stands 
(immediately) north of the one opposite the fire, 
then the one on the south, then a northern one, — 
last of all the one on the southern flank : thus it 
(the row of stakes) inclines to the north. 

6. But they also say conversely', 'Let him first 
set up that which is south of the one opposite the 
fire, then the northern one, then a southern one, — 
last of all the one on the northern flank : and thus in- 
deed his work attains completion towards the north.' 

7. Let the largest be the one forming the southern 
flank ; then shorter and shorter ; and the one form- 
ing the northern flank the shortest : thus (the row 
of stakes) inclines to the north. 

8. Thereupon they set up the wife-stake for the 
wives. It is for the sake of completeness, forsooth, 
that the wife-stake is set up : there they seize (and 
bind) the victim for Tvash/n, for Tvashirt fashions 
the cast seed, and hence he fashions the seed now 
cast. It (the victim to Tvash/rz) is an animal with 
testicles, for such a one is a begetter. Let him not 
slay that one, but let him set it free after fire has 
been carried round it. Were he to slay it, there 
would assuredly be an end to offspring, but in this 
way he sets free the offispring. Therefore let him not 

' The Kd«va text first mentions the practice set forth in the pre- 
ceding paragraph, as the teaching of ' some,' but then rejects it in 
favour of the second alternative. 

[26] N 

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1 78 JfATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

slay it, but let him set it free after fire has been 
carried round it. 



Third BRAHMAiVA. 
B. The KaLma or the Victim. 

1. There are both an animal and a sacrificial 
stake, for never do they immolate an animal without 
a stake. And as to why this is so : — well, animals did 
not at first submit thereto that they should become 
food, as they are now become food ; for just as man 
here walks two-footed and erect, so did they walk 
two-footed and erect. 

2. Then the gods perceived that thunderbolt, to 
wit, the sacrificial stake ; they raised it, and from 
fear thereof they (the animals) shrunk together and 
thus became four-footed, and thus became food, as 
they are now become food, for they submitted 
thereto: wherefore they immolate the animal only 
at a stake and never without a stake. 

3. Having driven up the victim, and churned the 
fire, he binds it (to the stake). And as to why this is 
so : — well, animals did not at first submit thereto that 
they should become sacrificial food, as they are now 
become sacrificial food and are offered up in the fire. 
The gods secured them : even thus secured they did 
not resign themselves. 

4. They spake, ' Verily, these (animals) know not 
the manner of this, that it is in fire that sacrificial 
food is offered, nor (do they know) that secure resort 
(the fire) : let us offer fire into the fire after securing 
the animals and churning the fire, and they will 
know that this truly is the manner of sacrificial food. 



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Ill KANDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAATA, 9. 1 79 

this its resort ; that it is truly in fire that sacrificial 
food is offered : and accordingly they will resign 
themselves, and will be favourably disposed to the 
slaughtering.' 

5. Having, then, first secured the animals, and 
churned the fire, they offered fire into the fire ; and 
then they (the animals) knew that this truly is the 
manner of sacrificial food, this fts resort ; that it is 
truly in fire that sacrificial food is offered. And 
accordingly they resigned themselves, and became 
favourably disposed to the slaughtering. 

6. And in like manner does he now offer fire into 
the fire, after securing the animal and churning the 
fire. It (the animal) knows that this truly is the 
manner of sacrificial food, this its resort ; that it is 
truly in fire that sacrificial food is offered; and 
accordingly it resigns itself and becomes favourably 
disposed to the slaughtering. Therefore having 
driven up the victim and churned the fire, he binds 
it (to the stake). 

7. As to this they say, ' Let him not drive up (the 
victim), nor churn the fire; but having taken the 
rope and straightway gone thither and put (the rope) 
round it, let him bind it.' Let him, however, not do 
this ; for it would be as if he intended to commit 
secretly some lawless action. Let him therefore go 
round there. 

8. Then, taking a straw, he drives it up, thinking, 
' having a companion, I will secure it ;' for he who 
has a companion is strong. 

9. He takes the straw with (Vti^. S. VI, 7), ' Thou 
art a cheerer!' for a companion does cheer one: 
therefore he says, 'Thou art a cheerer.' 'The 
celestial hosts have approached the gods;' 

N 2 



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1 80 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

the celestial hosts, forsooth, are those beasts : ' they 
have submitted to the gods' he means to say, when 
he says, ' The celestial hosts have approached the 
gods.' 

10. 'The considerate^ best of leaders;' for 
the gods are wise : therefore he says, * The con- 
siderate, best of leaders.' 

11. 'O divine Tvash/r/, settle the wealth!' 
for Tvashirt is lord of beasts (cattle),, and wealth 
means cattle, it is with regard to those which did 
not submit that the gods then said to Tvash/rz, 
' Quiet them,' when he says, ' O divine Tvash/r/, 
settle the wealth !' 

12. 'May the offerings be relished by thee!' 
Since they themselves submitted thereto that they 
should become sacrificial food, therefore he says, 
' May the offerings be relished by thee I' 

13. 'Rejoice, ye prosperous!' for cattle are 
prosperous : therefore he says, ' Rejoice ye prosper- 
ous.' 'O Lord of prayer, preserve our goods!' 
The Lord of prayer, forsooth, is the Brahman ; and 
goods mean cattle : those, which did not submit, the 
gods on that occasion enclosed with the Brahman 
on the farther side, and they did not pass over it. 
And in like manner does he now enclose them with 
the Brahman on the farther side, and they do not 
pass over it : therefore he says, ' O Lord of prayer, 
preserve our goods!' Having made a noose he 
throws it over (the victim)^. Now then as to the 
binding itself. 



' Uji^ rather means ' willing, loving, devoted.' 
' According to the Taitt. authorities (Siya«a on Taitt. S. I, 3, 8), 
the rope is wound round the right fore-leg and then passed upwards 



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HI KANDA, 7 ADHyAyA, 4 BRAHMAJVA 




Fourth BrAhma/ta) 

1. Having made a noose, he throws itoveP^me 
victim) with (Vi^. S. VI, 8), 'With the noose of 
sacred order I bind thee, O oblation to the 
gods !' for that rope, forsooth, is Varu»a's : therefore 
he thus binds it with the noose of sacred order, and 
thus that rope of Varu«a does not injure it. 

2. 'Be bold, O manM' for at first man dared 
not* to approach it (the victim) ; but now that he 
thus binds it with the noose of sacred order, as an 
oblation to the gods, man dares to approach it : 
therefore he says, ' Be bold, O man !' 

3. He then binds it (to the stake) with (Vif. S. 
VI, 9), 'At the impulse of the divine Savitr^, 
I bind thee with the arms of the A^vins, with 
the hands of POshan, thee agreeable to Agni 
and Soma!' Even as on that occasion*, when 
taking out an oblation for a deity, he assigns it, so 
does he now assign it to the two deities. He then 
sprinkles it, — one and the same, forsooth, is the 

to the head. From KSty. VI, 3, 27, on the other hand, it would 
seem that the rope is passed either between the horns (and under 
the neck ?), or round the horns. 

' Thus the author appears to take the formula ' dharshi md'nu- 
sha^.' It would rather seem to mean, ' Be bold ; [I am (or he, the 
slaughterer, is)] a man.' Mahtdhara interprets, 'May he (the S&mi- 
Vi) be bold enough I* Either the Ki«va reading ' dharsh^n m&nu- 
shaA' or that of the Taittiriyas 'dharshd minushtn' would seem 
preferable. 

• The Kiwva text has ' dhr;sh«oti ' for ' adhr»sh«ot,' which ren- 
ders it more simple : 'At first the man (the slaughterer) dares not 
approach it, but when he thus binds it, &c.' 

' Viz. at the Haviry^g^ia; see I, i, 2, 17. 



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1 8 2 JfATAPATH A-BRAhMAJVA. 

significance of sprinkling : he thereby makes it 
sacrificially pure. 

4. He sprinkles with, ' For the waters — thee, 
for the plants!' whereby it (the victim) exists, 
thereby he thus makes it sacrificially pure. For 
when it rains, then plants are produced here on 
earth ; and by eating plants and drinking water 
that sap originates, and from sap seed, and from 
seed beasts : hence whereby it exists, wherefrom it 
springs, thereby he thus makes it sacrificially pure. 

5. 'May thy mother grant thee permission, 
and thy father — ;' for it is from its mother and 
father that it is born : hence wherefrom it is born, 
thereby he thus makes it sacrificially pure ; ' — thine 
own brother, thy fellow in the herd;' whereby 
he means to say, 'whatever kin there is of thine, 
with their approval I slay thee.' ' I sprinkle thee, 
agreeable to Agni and Soma;' he thus makes it 
pure for those two deities for whom he slays it. 

6. With (V^. S. VI, 10), ' Thou art a drinker 
of water,' he then holds (the lustral water) under 
(its mouth), whereby he renders it internally pure. 
He then sprinkles it underneath (the body), with, 
'May the divine waters make it palatable, a 
true palatable offering to the gods!' he thus 
makes it sacrificially pure all over. 

7. Thereupon he says (to the Hotri), ' Recite to 
the fire being kindled!' when he has made the 
second libation of ghee \ and returned (to his former 
place) without letting the two spoons touch one 
another*, he anoints the victim with the (ghee in the) 



' For the course of performance, see I, 3, 5, i seq.; I, 4, 4, i seq. 
' See I, 4, 5, 5. 



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Ill kXnda, 7 adhyAva, 4 brAhmatva, 10. 183 

guhd. For the second libation is the head of the sacri- 
fice, and the sacrifice here indeed is that victim : 
hence he thereby puts the head on the sacrifice and 
therefore anoints the victim with the ^h<i. 

8. With 'May thy breath unite with the 
wind!' he anoints it on the forehead; with 'Thy 
limbs with those worthy of sacrifice' on the 
shoulders; with 'The lord of sacrifice with (the 
object of) his prayer !' the loins ; whereby he means 
to say, ' For whatsoever object the animal is slain, 
do thou obtain that ! ' 

9. For, indeed, the breath of the victim when 
slain here passes into the wind : ' Obtain thou that 
thy breath may pass into the wind!' is what he 
thereby means to say. 'Thy limbs with those 
worthy of offering' he says, because it is with its 
limbs that they sacrifice: 'Obtain thou that they 
may sacrifice with thy limbs' is what he thereby 
means to say. 'The lord of sacrifice with his 
prayer,' hereby they invoke a blessing on the sacri- 
ficer: 'Obtain thou that through thee they may 
invoke a blessing on the sacrificer ' is what he thereby 
means to say. He then deposits the two spoons 
and calls for the 5'rausha/ with a view to the Pravara 
(election of the Hotriy. The significance of this 
is the same (as before). 

10. Thereupon he calls a second time for the 
.Srausha/, for on this occasion there are two Hotm : 
it is with regard to the Maitr4varu»a '^ that he now 
calls for the 5'rausha/. But it is the sacrificer whom 



' See I, 5, I, I seq. (also note to part i, p. 115). 
* The Maitravanwia or Praribtr* is the Hotri's chief assistant. 
He receives, as the badge of his oflSce, the staff which the sacrificer 



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1 84 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

he chooses, saying, 'Verily, Agni is the leader 
of the divine hosts,' for Agni is the head of the 
deities ; wherefore he says, ' Verily, Agni is the 
leader of the divine hosts;' — 'this sacrificer of 
the human;' for that community wherein he sacri- 
fices is behind (inferior to) him ; wherefore he says, 
' This sacrificer (is the head) of the human,' 'May 
the household of these two shine brightly, not 
(like a cart yoked) with one bullock, for a hun- 
dred winters, — two yoke-fellows!' whereby he 
means to say, ' May their household matters be 
free from calamities for a hundred years ^.' 

II. ' Uniting blessings, not uniting bodies;' 
whereby he means to say, ' Unite ye your blessings 
only, but not also your bodies ; ' for were they also 
to unite their bodies, Agni (the fire) would burn 
the sacrificer. Now when this one sacrifices in the 
fire, he gives gifts to Ag^i ; and whatever blessing 
the priests here invoke upon the sacrificer, all that 
Agni accomplishes. Thus they unite only their 
blessings, but not also their bodies : wherefore he 
says, ' Uniting blessings, not uniting bodies.' 

Eighth Adhyaya. First BRAHMAivA, 

C. The Oblations. 

I. Thereupon the Hotri, having sat down on the 
Hotri's seat whereon he sits down after being chosen ", 

held while he was consecrated, and has, at the instance of the Adh- 
varyu, to call on the Hotn' for the offering-prayers, — his summons 
(praisha) beginning with Hot4 yakshat, 'let the Hotri' worship 
(or, pronounce the offering-prayer) , . ,,' — and occasionally himself 
to pronounce the invitatory prayer. 

' See I, 9, 3, 19, 

* Viz. at the north-west corner (or left hip) of the alUr. For the 
formulas used by him, see I, 5, i, 24-2, i. 



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Ill kXnDA, 8 ADHYAYA, I BRAiIMAATA, 4. 1 85 

urges, and thus urged the Adhvaryu takes the two 
spoons. 

2. They then proceed with the Aprl (verses). 
The reason why they proceed with the Aprls is 
this. With his whole mind, with his whole self, 
forsooth, he who consecrates himself prepares and 
endeavours to prepare the sacrifice. His self is, as 
it were, emptied out ; with those Apr!s they fill it 
again ; and because they fill ' it therewith, therefore 
they are called Apr!. For this reason they proceed 
with the Aprls. 

3. Now there are here eleven fore-offerings ; for 
here in man there are ten vital airs, and the eleventh 
is the self wherein those vital airs are contained ; 
this is the whole man ; thus they fill his whole self, 
and therefore there are eleven fore-offerings. 

4. [The Adhvaryu] having called (on the Agnldhra) 
for the 5'rausha/, he says (to the Maitrdvaruwa), 
' Prompt (the Hotrt to recite to) the kindling- 
sticks'*!' Thus he proceeds with ten fore-offerings, 

' The text has only ' ipy&yayanti,' but the verb with which the 
author connects the verb 'ipri' is either S-pnwati, he fills; or 
(more correctly) ' l-prl»iti,' he gratifies, propitiates, corresponding 
to the Zand ifrtnaiti. Perhaps some words have been lost here. 
The K&ffva text has : sa yad etabhir ipribhiii punar dpyiyata eli- 
bhir enam 5pri«Sti tasmSd ipriyo n&ma. On the Aprl verses, which 
form the offering-prayers (y^yis) at the fore-offerings of the animal 
sacrifice, and vary according to different families, see Ait. Br. II, 4 ; 
Max Mflller, Hist, of A. S. L., p. 463 seq.; Haug, Essays, p. 241. 

» See I, 5, 3, 8. The Adhvaryu calls out to the Agntdh, ' O 
jr&vaya (make listen)!' The Agnidh calls out.'Astu jrausha/ (yea, 
may one hear)!* The Adhvaryu calls on the Maitrivaruwa, 'Pre- 
shya samidhaA (prompt as to the kindling-sticks)!' [or,'Preshya 
Tanflnapdtam or Narltawsam' &c. in the succeeding fore-offerings.] 
The Maitr&varuna calls out, 'HotS yakshat samidham [TanQna- 
pitam, &c.], (let the Hotrj" pronounce the offering-prayer to the 
kindling-sticks, &c. I) ' Each offering-prayer (Apr!) is introduced 



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1 86 jatapatha-brAhmaj^ta, 

saying, ' Prompt ..." at each, and pouring the ghee 
together at every fourth fore-offering ^ Having 
performed ten fore-offerings, he says, ' Bring the 
slayer!' 'Slayer,' namely, the (butcher's) knife is 
called. 

5. He then takes the (svaru) chip of the sacrificial 
stake, and having anointed both (the slaughtering- 
knife and the chip) at the top (with ghee) from the 
^h(i-spoon, he touches the forehead of the victim 
with them, saying (V^. S. VI, 11), 'Anointed 
with ghee, protect ye the animals!' for the chip 
of the stake is a thunderbolt, and the slaughtering- 
knife is a thunderbolt, and ghee is a thunderbolt; 
having thus fitted together the entire thunderbolt * 
he appoints it the keeper of this (victim), lest the 
evil spirits should injure it He again conceals 
the chip of the stake (under the girding-rope of the 
stake). In handing the slaughtering-knife to the 
butcher, he says, ' Be this thine approved edge ! ' 
and deposits the two spoons. 

6. Thereupon he says (to the Hotri), ' Recite to 
Agni circumambient'!' Having taken a firebrand, 

with the formula ♦ Ye ya^mahe, &c.' See part i, p. 1 48 note. The 
divine objects of these oblations of ghee are : i. the Samidhs or 
kindling-sticks; 2. either Tanfinapit or NarSjawsa; 3. the 
lda.s; 4. the Barhis (sacri6cial grass on the altar); 5. the gates 
(of heaven and worshipping-ground); 6. Dawn and Night; 7. the 
two divine Hotr«s; 8. the three goddesses (Sarasvatt, ld&, and 
Bhiratt); 9. Tvash/rj'; 10. Vanaspati (the tree, or lord of the 
forest); ri. the SvShakrjtis (calls of ' All-hail,' which at this, the 
last offering -prayer, are repeated before the names of the principal 
deities of the sacrifice). For this last fore-offering, see III, 8, 2, 
23 seq. 
' See I, 5, 3, 16. 

» For the three parts of the thunderbolt, see p. 108, note 2, 
' The Hotn recites the triplet, Rig-veda IV, 15, 1-3. 



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Ill KANDA, 8 ADHyAyA, I BRAHMAiVA, 9. 1 87 

the Agntdh carries the fire round (the victim). Why 
he carries the fire round, is that he encircles it (the 
victim) by means of the fire with an unbroken fence, 
lest the evil spirits should seize upon it ; for Agni is 
the repeller of the Rakshas ; therefore he carries the 
fire round. He carries it round the place where they 
cook it (the victim '). 

7. As to this they say, ' Let him take back that 
firebrand (to the Ahavantya) ; and having there (at 
the ^ilmitra) churned out a new fire, let them cook 
it (the victim) thereon. For this (firebrand), surely, 
is Ahavanlya (fit to offer upon) ; it is not for the 
purpose that they should cook uncooked (food) 
thereon, but for this that they should sacrifice 
cooked (food) thereon.' 

8. Let him, however, not do this. For in that 
he carries fire round it, it (the victim) becomes as 
food swallowed by that (firebrand), and it would be 
as if he were to seize and tear out food that has 
been swallowed and offer it to some one else ; let 
them, therefore, crumble some coals off that same 
firebrand, and thereon cook that (victim). 

9. Thereupon the Agnldh, taking a (new) firebrand, 
walks in front: whereby he places Agni in front, think- 
ing, 'Agni shall repel the evil spirits in front!' and 



■ Siyzna. seems to take ' abhipariharati ' in the sense of ' he 
takes it round to the place where they cook.' According to Kity. 
VI> St 3i 3> the Agntdh circumambulates thrice from left to right, 
either the place comprising the victim, the ghee, the slaughtering- 
place, the sacrificial post, the /iitvala, and Ahavaniya ; or only the 
ghee, the victim, and slaughtering-place. He then throws the fire- 
brand back on the Ahavaniya, and performs the circumambulation 
as many times in the opposite direction. On the Paryagnikara»a, 
see also part i, p. 45 note. 



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1 88 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

they lead the victim after him (to the slaughtering- 
place) on a (way) free from danger and injury. The 
Pratiprasth&tr/ holds on to it from behind by means 
of the two spits', and the Adhvaryu (holds on to) the 
PratiprasthAtrz, and the Sacrificer to the Adhvaryu. 

10. As to this they say, ' That (victim) must not 
be held on to by the sacrificer, for they lead it unto 
death ; therefore let him not hold on to it.' But let 
him nevertheless hold on to it ; for that (victim) 
which they lead to the sacrifice they lead not to 
death ; therefore let him hold on to it. Moreover 
he would cut himself off from the sacrifice, were he 
not to hold on to it ; therefore let him hold on to it. 
It is held on to in a mysterious way ; by means of 
the spits the Pratiprasthdtr? (holds on to it) ; to the 
Pratiprasth&tr? the Adhvaryu, to the Adhvaryu the 
Sacrificer ; thus then it is held on to in a mysterious 
way. 

11. Thereupon the Adhvaryu takes two stalks of 
grass from the covered altar, and having called for the 
3'rausha/, he says (to the Maitrdvaru»a), ' O Hotri, 
prompt again (the Hotri to recite for) the offerings 
to the gods* !' This is what belongs to the All-gods 
at the animal offering. 

12. He then makes (the Sacrificer) say the text 
(Vi^. S. VI, ii), 'O thou prosperous! upon 

' For the two omentum -spits, see note on III, 8, 2, i6. 

' The Maitrdvaruwa's additional cue or order (upapraisha) is 
' Agni has been victorious; he has won wealth!' On the Hotn's 
recitation — the so-called Adhrigu litany — commencing 'Ye divine 
quieters (slaughterers), commence, as well as ye that are human!' 
and consisting of formulas usually pronounced by the Adhvaryu 
(and hence perhaps going back to a time when the Hotrt had to 
perform all but the menial parts of the sacrificial service), see 
Ait. Br. II, 6-7 ; Roth, Ydska XXXVII seq. 



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Ill kAjVDA, 8 ADHYAyA, I BRAHMAiVA, 1 5. 1 89 

the Sacrificer,' — the prosperous one, forsooth, is 
Speech, it is because she speaks much, that Speech 
is prosperous, — 'bestow thou what is agreeable 
unto him! Approach thou,' — thereby he means 
to say, ' Approach thou an existence free from afflic- 
tion,' — 'from the wide air, along with the 
divine wind;' for the Rakshas moves about the 
air rootless and unfettered on both sides, even as 
man here moves about the air rootless and unfet- 
tered on both sides : he means to say, ' Meeting 
together with the wind, protect thou this one from 
the wide air,' when he says 'from the wide air, 
along with the divine wind.' 

13. 'Offer thou with the self of this obla- 
tion!' whereby he means to say to Speech, ' Offer 
thou with the soul of this unblemished oblation ; ' — 
'Unite thou with its body!' whereby he means 
to say to Speech, ' Unite thou with the body of this 
unblemished oblation ! ' 

14. In front* of the place where they cut it up, 
he throws down a stalk of* grass, with, 'O great 
one, lead the lord of sacrifice unto greater 
sacrifice!' he thus strews barhis (an underlayer of 
sacrificial grass) for it, that no sacrificial food may 
be spilt ; whatever may now be spilt of it when it is 
cut up, that settles thereon and thus is not lost. 

1 5. They then step back (to the altar) and sit down 
turning towards the Ahavantya, ' lest they should be 
eye-witnesses to its being quieted (strangled).' They 
do not slay it on the frontal bone *, for that is human 

' According to Kity. VI, 5, 1 5, the stalk is put down behind the 
5Smitra (i. e. the fire at the slaughtering-place) with the top towards 
the east. 

' Lit. ' by means of the frontal bone.* SSya«a explains it by ' in 



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I90 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAi^TA. 

manner; nor behind the ear, for that is after the 
manner of the Fathers. They either choke it by 
merely keeping its mouth closed, or they make a 
noose. Therefore he says not, 'Slay! kill!' for 
that is human manner, but, ' Quiet it ! It has passed 
away!' for that is after the manner of the gods. 
For when he says, ' It has passed away,' then this 
one (the Sacrificer) passes away to the gods : there- 
fore he says, ' It has passed away.' 

1 6. When they hold it down, then, before the 
strangling, he offers with 'Hail, to the gods!' 
And when (the butcher) says, ' Quieted is the 
victim,' he offers with, 'To the gods. Hail!' 
Thus some of the gods are preceded by ' Hail,' 
and others followed by 'Hail;' he thereby grati- 
fies them, and thus g^tified both kinds of gods 
convey him to the heavenly world. These are the 
so-called 'paripaxavya* ' oblations ; he may offer them 
if he choose; or, if he choose, he need not mind 
them. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

1. When he (the slaughterer) announces, 'The 
victim has been quieted!' the Adhvaryu says, 
' Nesh/ar, lead up the lady!' The Nesh/r? leads 
up the (sacrificer's) wife bearing a vessel of water 
for washing the feet. 

2. He makes her say (Vif. S. VI, 12), ' Homage 
be to thee, O wide-stretched!' — the wide- 
stretched one, forsooth, is the sacrifice ; for they 
stretch the sacrifice (over the sacrificial ground) : 

seizing it by the horn ;' Professor Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, p. 222, 'by 
striking it with a horn.' The K&nva. text reads, tasya na k(i/ena 
praghnanti minusham ha kuryid yad asya kfi/ena prahanyu^. 
' That is, surrounding, relating to, the victim. 



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Ill kXnDA, 8 ADHyAyA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 6. I9I 

hence the wide-stretched one is the sacrifice. But 
that wife, forsooth, is the hind-part of the sacrifice, 
and he wants her, thus coming forward, to propitiate 
the sacrifice. Thereby, then, she makes amends to 
that sacrifice, and thus that sacrifice does not injure 
her : therefore she says, ' Homage be to thee, O wide- 
stretched!' 

3. 'Advance, unresisted!' whereby she means 
to say, 'Advance on (a way) free from injury!' 
' Unto the rivers of ghee, along the paths of 
sacred truth!' whereby she means to say, 'Unto 
good.' [Vdf. S. VI, 13], ' Ye divine, pure waters, 
carry ye (the sacrifice) to the gods, well-pre- 
pared! May we be well-prepared preparers!' 
Thereby she purifies the water. 

4. Thereupon the wife cleanses with the water 
the (openings of the) vital airs of the victim. The 
reason why she thus cleanses with water the (open- 
ings of the) vital airs is this : the food of the gods 
is living, is immortal (ambrosia) for the immortals ; 
but in quieting and cutting up that victim they kill 
it Now the vital airs are water; hence she now 
puts into it those vital airs, and thus that food of 
the gods becomes truly living, becomes immortal 
for the immortals. 

5. Then as to why it is the wife that cleanses. The 
wife is a woman, and from woman progeny is born 
here on earth ; thus he causes that (creature) to be 
bom from that woman;, and therefore the wife 
cleanses (the victim). 

6. With(V^. S.VI, 14) 'Thy speech I cleanse' 
she wipes the mouth ; with 'Thy breath I cleanse,' 
the nostrils; with 'Thine eye I cleanse,' the eyes; 
with 'Thine organ of hearing I cleanse,' the 



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192 «atapatha-brahma;\?a. 

ears; with 'Thy navel I cleanse,' that mysterious 
(openingof a) vital air; or with ' Thy sexual organ 
I cleanse;' with ' Thy hind-part I cleanse,' that 
(opening of a) vital air behind. Thus she puts the 
vital airs into it, revives it Thereupon, holding the 
legs together, (she wipes them) with 'Thy feet 
I cleanse ;' for it is on its feet that it stands firmly ; 
she thus makes it stand (on its feet) for the sake of 
a firm position. 

7. With one half or the whole of the water that 
is left, he (the Adhvaryu) and the Sacrificer^ then 
sprinkle it, beginning from the head ; thereby they 
put those vital airs into it, and revive it (beginning) 
from that part. 

8. Thus, wherever they wound it'', wherever 
they hurt it — water being a means of soothing — 
there they soothe it by that means of soothing, 
water, there they heal it with water. 

9. They sprinkle with (V^. S. VI, 15), 'May 
thy mind grow full ! may thy speech grow full ! 
may thy breath grow full ! may thine eye grow 
full! may thine ear grow full!' Thus they put 
the vital airs into it and revive it: 'Whatever is 
sore, whatever hurt in thee, may that fill up 
and become firm.' 

10. Thus, wherever they wound it, wherever they 
hurt it — water being a means of soothing — they 
soothe it by that means of soothing, water, there 

' Or, perhaps, she and the sacrificer, as SSya«a takes it {yag&- 
minaA patni ka). Kity. VI, 6, 4 leaves it doubtful ; but the com- 
mentator interprets the rule as referring to the Adhvaryu and Sacri- 
ficer, in accordance with the reading of the KS«va text — ' atha ySA 
parifish/d dpo bhavanti tibhir adhvaryor ^a yaga,mSinzs Hnu- 
shin^ata^' 

' Asthapayanli=sa»^»iapayanti, Sayawa. 



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Ill KANDA, 8 ADHVAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 1 5. I93 

they heal it with water: ' May that become pure 
in thee!' thereby they render it sacrificially pure. 
With 'Auspicious be the days!' they pour out 
(the remaining water) behind the victim. 

1 1. Thus, wherever they wound it, wherever they 
hurt it, — lest thereafter the days and nights should 
be inauspicious', — they pour out (the water) behind 
the victim with, ' Auspicious be the days.' 

12. Thereupon they turn the victim over so as 
to lie on its back. He (the Adhvaryu) puts the 
(other) stalk of grass thereon, with, 'O plant, pro- 
tect!' for the knife is a thunderbolt, and thus that 
thunderbolt, the knife, does not injure it (the victim). 
He then applies the edge of the knife to it (and 
cuts through it) with, 'Injure it not, O blade!' 
for the knife is a thunderbolt, and thus that thunder- 
bolt, the knife, does not injure it. 

13. He applies that approved edge of his, for 
that has been made sacrificially pure by a text*. 
That which is the top part of the stalk he puts in 
his left hand, and that which is the bottom part 
he takes with his right hand. 

14. And where he skins (the victim), and whence 
the blood spirts out, there he smears it (the bottom 
part with blood) on both ends with (VS_^. S. VI, i6), 
' Thou art the Rakshas' share !' for that blood is 
indeed the Rakshas' share. 

15. Having thrown it away (on the utkara), he 
treads on it with, 'Herewith I tread down the 
Rakshas! herewith I drive away the Rak- 
shas! herewith I consign the Rakshas to the 

' lied idam anv ahorStrS«i soiAn iii, Kawva recension. 
» See III, 8, 1, 5. 
[»6] O 



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194 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

nethermost darkness!' Thus it is by means of 
the sacrifice that he drives away the evil spirits, 
the Rakshas. And as to its being rootless and 
severed on both sides, — rootless, forsooth, and 
severed on both sides, the Rakshas moves about 
in the air, even as man here moves about in 
the air rootless and severed on both sides : there- 
fore it (the grass-end) is rootless and severed on 
both sides. 

1 6. Thereupon they pull out the omentum, 
and envelop the two spits ^ therein with, 'May 
ye envelop heaven and earth with ghee!' 
whereby he endows those two, heaven and earth, 
with strength and sap, and puts strength and sap 
into them ; and upon those two, thus filled with 
sap and affording the means of subsistence, these 
creatures subsist 

17. The two omentum-spits are made of kirsh- 
marya wood. For when the gods in the beginning 
seized (slew) a victim, then, as it was drawn upwards, 
its sacrificial essence* flowed downwards, and from 
it sprang a tree ; and because it flowed down from 
the (victim) as it was drawn (karsh) upwards, there- 
fore (it became) a k&rshmarya tree*. With that 



' The two vapSjrapa«is (omentum-roasters) consist of sticks of 
kdrshmarya wood (Gmelina Arborea), one of them being quite 
straight, while the other is bifurcate at the top, thus resembling 
a prop. 

* Or, its flesh-juice, medha. The Kinva, text reads throughout 
medhas. 

' The Kdwva text has the preferable reading, — Sa yat kr/shya- 
minit samabhavat tasmdt kirshmaryo nima, 'and because it 
sprang from that drawn-up (victim), therefore it is called kdr- 
shmarya.' 



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Ill KANDA, 8 ADHYAyA, 2 BRAHMAi^TA, 20. 1 95 

same sacrificial essence he now perfects it, and 
makes it whole ; therefore the two omentum-spits 
are of k^rshmarya wood. 

18. He cuts it (the omentum) off on all sides 
(from the belly) and heats it at the cooking-fire : 
thus it becomes cooked for him already at this 
(fire)^. The Agntdh again takes a firebrand (from 
the 6"&mitra, and walks in front). They go behind 
the pit (^tvila) and proceed to the Ahavanlya. 
The Adhvaryu throws that (top part of the) grass- 
stalk into the Ahavanlya with, 'O Viyu, graci- 
ously accept the drops!' for this is the kindler 
(samidh) of the drops *. 

19. Thereupon he heats the omentum while stand- 
ing on the north side ; for he is about to pass by 
the fire and to roast (the omentum) after walking 
round to the south side. Hereby then he pro- 
pitiates it, and thus that fire does not injure him 
while passing by; this is why he heats the omen- 
tum while standing on the north side. 

20. They take it along between the sacrificial 
stake and the fire. The reason why they do not 
take it across the middle (of the altar)*, where they 
take other sacrificial dishes, is lest they should bring 
the sacrifice in the middle into contact with the 
uncooked (omentum). And why they do not take 
it there outside (the altar) along the front of the 
sacrificial stake, is that they would thereby put it 
outside the sacrifice ; therefore they take it along 

* [He does so, thinking], ' Lest I should cook it on the Aha- 
vanlya uncooked.' Kd«va rec. 

' • For it is for the drops that he thus lights it.' Kawva rec. 

' That is, across the altar immediately behind the fire or high 
altar. • 

O 2 



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196 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

between the sacrificial stake and the fire. Having gone 
round to the south side, the Pratiprajsthitrz roasts it, 

21. Thereupon the Adhvaryu, having taken ghee 
with the dipping-spoon, pours it upon the omentum, 
with, ' May Agni graciously accept the ghee, 
Hail !' Thus those drops thereof reach the fire after 
becoming cooked offerings, made with Svdh& (hail) ! 

22. He then says (to the Maitrivaru«a '), ' Recite 
to the drops !' He recites to the drops verses 
addressed to Agni ^. The reason why he recites to 
the drops verses addressed to Agni, is that rain 
originates from gifts made from this earth, for from 
here it is that Agni obtains the rain ; by means of 
these drops (falling from the omentum) he obtains 
those (rain) drops, and those drops rain down ; there- 
fore he recites to the drops verses addressed to 
Agni. When it is roasted, — 

23. The Pratiprasthitr? says, ' It is roasted : pro- 
ceed' !' The Adhvaryu, having taken the two spoons 
and stept across (to the north side of the fire) and 
called for the 6'rausha/, says (to the Maitravaruwa), 
' Prompt for the Sv4h&s * ! ' and offers (the ghee) 
when the Vasha/ has been pronounced*. 

* Thus according to the commentator on Katy. VI, 6, 18. See 
also note on IV, 2, 5, 22, and Haug, Transl. Ait. Br. p. loi note. 

* The (invitatory) formulas are Rig-veda I, 75, 1, and III, 21, 
1-6 ; Ait. Br. II, 12 ; Axv. St. Ill, 4, i. 

' The Prat^prasthatr/ withdraws the omentum from the fire, and 
takes it (between fire and stake) to the north of the pit, where the 
Adhvaryu in the first place performs the so-called prS»adSna (vol. i, 
p. 438 note), after which he deposits it on the altar. Kdty. VI, 6, 20. 

* That is, for the offering-prayer or ya^S of the last fore-offering, 
being the last verse of whatever iprJ hymn may be used ; followed 
by a number of Sv^has, each wijh the name of some deity or deities 
(cf. I, 5, 3, 22-23). 

" Cf Haug, Transl. Ait. Br. p. 100, note 4. 



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in kInDA, 8 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 26. I97 

24. Having oflfered, he bastes first the omentum, 
then the clotted ghee. Now the A'araka-Adhvaryus, 
forsooth, baste first the clotted ghee, arguing that the 
clotted ghee is the breath ; and a Aaraka-Adhvaryu, 
forsooth, cursed Y^f^avalkya for so doing, saying, 
' That Adhvaryu has shut out the breath ; the breath 
shall depart from him !' 

25. But he, looking at his arms, said, ' These 
hoary arms — what in the world has become of the 
Brdhman's word' !' Let him not heed that (objection 
of the Alarakas) ; for this is the last fore-offering, — 
and this being a havis-offering, at the last fore- 
offering he first pours ghee into the dhruvd, being 
about to offer the first two butter-portions with it*. 
Now, on the present occasion, he will first offer the 
omentum ; therefore let him first baste the omentum, 
then the clotted ghee. And though he does not 
baste the victim with ghee, 'lest he should baste 
the uncooked,' that whole victim of his yet becomes 
(as it were) basted with ghee in that he bastes the 
omentum ; let him therefore first baste the omentum, 
then the clotted ghee. 

26. Thereupon he makes an ' underlayer' of ghee 
(in the^uh(i-spoon),and lays a piece of gold thereon. 
Then, cutting off the omentum (from the spits and 
putting it into the spoon), he says (to the Hotri), 
' Recite (the invitatory prayer) to Agni and Soma 

' That is, so much time has gone by since I first adopted that 
practice, and here I am grown old and still in full vigour, S5y. 
' But he, lying old and worn out, said, " These two arms have be- 
come gray — what in the world has become of the BrShman's wordl'" 
K&ttva. text. 

' On the two butter-portions to Agni and Soma, succeeding the 
fore-oflferings, see part i, p. 174 note. 



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198 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

for the omentum and fat of the buck!' He then 
lays (another) piece of gold on (the omentum) and 
bastes it twice with ghee above. 

2 7. The reason why there is a piece of gold on 
both sides is this. When they offer the victim in 
the fire they slay it ; and gold means immortal life : 
hence it (the victim) rests in immortal life. And so 
it rises from hence, and so it lives ; for this reason 
there is a piece of gold' on both sides. Having 
called for the ^rausha^, he says (to the Maitrdva- 
ru«a), ' Prompt (the Hotri to recite the offering- 
prayer* on) the omentum and fat of the buck for 
Agni and Soma !' He does not say, ', . . (the omen- 
tum and fat) brought forward ;' when the Soma has 
been pressed he says, 'brought forward'.' He offers 
when the Vasha/ has been pronounced. 

28. Having offered the omentum, he lays the two 
spits together and throws them after (the omentum 
into the fire), with, ' Consecrated by Svihi, go 
ye to Urdhvanabhas*, son of the Maruts!' He 
does so, thinking, ' Lest these two wherewith we have 
cooked the omentum should come to nought.' 

29. The reason why they perform with the omen- 
tum is this. For whatever deity the victim is seized, 
that same deity he pleases by means of that fat (part) ; 
and that same deity, thus pleased with that fat, waits 

* The KSnva text has 'hira«yajalk4(masc.)' here and elsewhere. 

* The anuvdkyi and ySigyi for the omentum are Rig-veda I, 93, 
I and 5 respectively. 

' At the animal ofTerings on the Soma-days he adds to his praisha 
(order) the word ' prasthitam,' lit. standing before (the altar). Kity. 
VI, 6, 27. See also S. Br. IV, 4, 3, 9. 

* tTrdhvanabhas, 'he who drives the clouds upwards ' (or, keeps 
the clouds above), or, perhaps, 'he who is above (in) the welkin,' 
is apparently a name of VSyu, the wind. Cf. Ill, 6, i, 16, 



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Ill KANDA, 8 ADHYAyA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 2. 1 99 

patiently for the other sacrificial dishes being cooked ; 
this is why they perform with the omentum. 

30. They then cleanse themselves over the pit '. 
For in quieting and cutting up (the victim) they 
wound it ; and water being a means of soothing, 
they now soothe it by means of water, heal it by 
means of water ; therefore they cleanse tl; 
over the pit. 

Third BRAHMAiVA. 

1. For the same deity for which there^ 
he subsequently prepares a sacrificial cake*. Ihe 
reason why he subsequently prepares a cake is this. 
Rice and barley, truly, are the sacrificial essence 
of all animals (victims) * ; with that same essence he 
now completes that (victim) and makes it whole. 
This is why he subsequently prepares a sacrificial 
cake. 

2. And why he proceeds with that cake after 
performing (offering) with the omentum is this. It 
is from the middle (of the victim) that this omentum 
is pulled out, and from the middle he now completes 
that (victim) by means of that sacrificial essence and 
makes it whole ; therefore he proceeds with that cake 
after performing with the omentum. The relation of 

' They do so with the mantra, Y&g. S. VI, 1 7 (Atharva-veda VII, 
89, 3; cf. Rig-veda I, 23, 22 ; X, 9, 8). 

' The technical name of this cake to Indra and Agni is paju- 
purodlja (animal-cake). The anuvSkyd and y^yS. for the chief 
oblation, are Rig-veda I, 93, 2 and 6 respectively ; for the Svish/a- 
kr»t. III, I, 23, and III, 54, 22 ; ksv. Ill, 8, i ; 5, 9. For a similar 
performance, described in detail, see note on III, 2, 5, 22. 

' On the sacrificial essence passing successively from man into 
the horse, the ox, the goat, and finally into the rice and barley, see 
I. 2. 3. 6-7- 



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200 SATAPATUA-BRAHMANA. 

this (cake to the animal offering), indeed, is one and 
the same everywhere ; that cake is prepared after 
(and supplementary to) a victim. 

3. Thereupon he cuts up the victim : ' Move 
thrice', and make the heart the uppermost of the 
thrice-moved!' thus (he says to the slaughterer), 
for threefold is the sacrifice. 

4. He then instructs the slaughterer : ' If one 
ask thee, " Is the sacrificial food cooked, O 6amitar ?" 
say thou only "Cooked!" not "Cooked, reverend 
sir ! " nor " Cooked, forsooth ! " ' 

' The order of proceeding is not quite clear from the context, 
and seems to have puzzled the later ritualists. From Katy. VI, 
7-8 it would seem that the author of the Sfitras means the per- 
formance of the cake-offering to go on simultaneously with the 
cutting up of the victim (and the cooking of the portions and 
roasting of the beast). The comm. on KSty. VI, 7, 29, how- 
ever, protests against this arrangement as contrary to the order 
laid down in the Brahmawa; and insists especially on the 
'atha (now)' at the beginning of this paragraph. This particle 
is, however, often used in a vague sense; as very frequently 
when, after sketching the chief course of performance, the author 
turns back to fill in the details. There seems also a difference 
of opinion as to the exact meaning of the above direction given by 
the Adhvaryu to the 6'amitar after (as would seem) the portions 
have been cooked. The commentator on KSty. VI, 8, i ap- 
parently takes ' triA praiydvaya ' in the sense of ' shake thrice ' or 
' turn thrice.' Saya«a, on the other hand, explains it as meaning 
that the .Samitri' is to divide the portions into three parts, according 
to whether they are destined for the chief oflFerings, or the Svish/a- 
kr/t, or the by-offerings (?). As the direction cannot refer to the 
taking out of the portions from the cooking-vessel (ukhd) it would 
seem that the .Samitar is either to move (shake) the vessel itself, or 
to stir the contents, perhaps hereby separating the respective por- 
tions. The Ki«va text reads, Tri^ pra^ydvaydd ity uttame pra^ydva 
uttamdrdhe hr/dayaw kurutSd iti. The heart, when done, is to be 
removed from the spit and laid on the portions; whereupon the 
Adhvaryu pours ghee on the portions (paragraph 8). 



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Ill KANDA, 8 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAA^A, lO. 20I 

5. Having then taken clotted ghee with the^hd, 
the Adhvaryu, stepping up (from the altar) to (the 
.Simitra), asks, ' Is the sacrificial food cooked, O 
Simitar ?' ' Cooked,' he says. ' That is of the 
gods,' says the Adhvaryu in a low voice. 

6. The reason why he asks is this. Cooked, 
forsooth, not uncooked (must be) the gods' food ; 
and the Samitri indeed knows whether it is cooked 
or uncooked. 

7. And again, why he asks, ' I will perform 
with cooked (food),' so he thinks ; and if that sacri- 
ficial food be uncooked, it is yet cooked food for the 
gods, and is cooked as regards the Sacrificer; and 
the Adhvaryu is guiltless ; on the slaughterer that 
guilt lies. Thrice he asks, for threefold is the sacri- 
fice. And as to his saying, 'That is of the gods,' 
that which is cooked, indeed, belongs to the gods ; 
therefore he says, ' That is of the gods.' 

8. The heart he bastes (with clotted ghee) first 
of all ; for the heart is the self (soul), the mind ; 
and the clotted ghee is the breath ; he thus puts 
the breath into its (the victim's) self, into its mind ; 
and thus it verily becomes the living food of the 
gods, and immortal for the immortals. 

9. He bastes it with (Vdf. S. VI, i8), 'May thy 
mind unite with the mind; thy breath with 
the breath !' He utters no Svdhi (' hail'), for this 
is not an oblation. They remove the victim (from 
the cooking-fire) ^ 

10. They take it along the back of the pit, and 

' The Adhvaryu removes the dish northwards from the fire, 
takes the portions out of it, puts them into some kind of basket, 
and performs 'prd»adina' (p. 196, note 3) on them. 



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202 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAA'A. 

between the sacrificial stake and the (Ahavaniya) 
fire. The reason why, though it is cooked, they 
do not take it across the middle (of the altar), as 
they take other sacrificial dishes, is 'lest they 
should bring the sacrifice in the middle in connec- 
tion with that which is cut up by limbs and mangled.' 
And why they do not take it outside (the altar) in 
front of the stake, is that they would thereby put 
it outside the sacrifice : therefore they take (the 
flesh) along between the stake and the fire. When 
they have put it down south (of the fire), the Prati- 
prasthdtr/ cuts off' (the portions). There are Plaksha 
branches ' (Ficus Infectoria) by way of an upper barhis 
(covering of altar) ; thereon he cuts. The reason 
why there are Plaksha branches by way of an upper 
barhis is this. 

11. For when the gods, at first, seized an animal 
(to sacrifice), Tvash//'? first spat upon its head, 
thinking, 'Surely, thus they will not touch it!* for 
animals belong to Tvash/r/. That (spittle became) 
the brain in the head and the marrow in the neck- 
bone ^ : hence that (substance) is like spittle, for 
Tvash/r/ spat it. Let him therefore not eat that, 
since it was spitten by Tvash/r?. 

12. Its sacrificial essence flowed down and there 
a tree sprang up. The gods beheld it ; wherefore 
it (was called) 'prakhya' (visible), for 'plaksha,' 

' Or, the Plaksha branches with which the altar was covered on 
the preceding night. See p. 120, note 3. The Kinva text (as 
Taitt. S. VI, 3, 10, 2) speaks of one Plaksha branch put on the 
barhis. 

' Anftka, of which anftkya is the adjective, means 'the fore- 
part of the spinal column.' The Kawva text reads, — yan mastishko 
yad anftke vnaggL 



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in KANDA, 8 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 14. 203 

doubtless, is the same as 'prakhya.' With that 
same sacrificial essence he now completes it (the 
victim), and makes it whole : hence there are 
Plaksha branches as an upper covering. 

13, He then makes an 'underlayer' of ghee both 
in the ^hO and the upabhWt, and in the vasihoma- 
havanl^, and the samavattadhdnt * ; and puts a piece 
of gold* both in the_fxih6 and the upabhrzt. 

14. Thereupon he addresses (the Hotrt) for the 
recitation on the ha vis to the manoti deity*. The 
reason why he addresses him for the recitation on 
the havis to the manoti deity is this. All the deities 
draw nigh to the victim while it is immolated, thinking, 
' My name he will choose, my name he will choose ! ' 
for the animal victim is sacrificial food for all deities. 
The minds (manas), then, of all those deities are 
fixed upon (ota) that victim ; those (minds of theirs) 
he thereby satisfies, and thus the minds of the gods 
have not drawn nigh in vain. For this reason he 
addresses him for the recitation on the havis to the 
manoti deity. 



* That is, the ladle used (as a substitute for the gvhii) for offering 
the fat-liquor or gravy. See paragraph 20. 

* That is, the vessel used for holding the cuttings (samavatta) of 
the idi; also called it/Spitrt, see part i, p. 219, note 3. 

* See p. 198, note i. 

* Thereupon he says, 'Recite to the manotS (deity) the invitatory 
prayer for (of) the havis which is being cut in portions (havisho 
'vadlyamSnasya).' Ki«va text; cf. Ait. Br. II, 10. — While the sa- 
crificial portions are being cut into the respective spoons, the 
Hotrj' recites the Hymn to Agni, Rig-veda VI, i, 1-13, beginning, 
'Thou, O wondrous Agni, the first thinker (manotr;") of this 
hymn, wert verily the priest. . . .' From the occurrence of this word 
manoti, the latter has come to be the technical name both of the 
hymn itself and of the deity (Agni) to whom it is recited. 



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204 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

15. He first makes a portion of the hearth The 
reason why he first makes a portion of the heart 
which is in the middle, is that the heart is the 
breath, since it is from there that this breath moves 
upward ^ ; and the animal is breath, for only so long 
does the animal (live) as it breathes with the breath ; 
but when the breath departs from it, it lies there 
useless, even (as) a block of wood. 

16. The heart, then, is the animal; thus he first 
makes a portion of its very self (or soul). And, 
accordingly, if any portion were omitted, he need 
not heed this, since it is of his entire animal victim 
that the first portion is made which is made of the 
heart. He therefore first makes a portion of the 
heart, that being in the middle. Thereupon accord- 
ing to the proper order. 

1 7. Then of the tongue, for that stands out from 
its fore-part. Then of the breast, for that also (stands 
out) therefrom'. Then of the simultaneously moving 
(left) fore-foot *. Then of the flanks. Then of the 
liver. Then of the kidneys. 

18. The hind-part he divides into three parts; 
the broad piece (he reserves) for the by-offerings*; 
the middle one he cuts into the ^h(i after dividing 
it in two ; the narrow piece (he reserves) for the 

' Literally, he makes a cutting of the heart (hr/dayasya-avadyati), 
that is to say, he puts the entire heart into the gv\A as an offering- 
portion. 

* Etasmid dhy ayam firdhva^ pri«a u^^rati, Ki«va rec. 

' Or, that (comes) after that (tongue): tad dhi tato 'nvak, 
KS«va rec. 

* According to Kdty. VI, 7, 6, it is the foremost (or upper) joint 
(pflrvana//aka) of the left fore-foot which is taken. The Kiwva text 
has simply • atha dosh«a>4.' 

* See III, 8, 4, 9 seq. 



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Ill KANDA, 8 AUHYAyA, 3 BRAhMAJVA, 22. 205 

tryariga^ Then of the simultaneously moving (right) 
haunch I This much, then, he cuts into the^hO. 

19. Then into the upabhm, he makes a portion 
of the upper part of the fore-foot belonging to the 
tryanga (viz. the right one) ; of the (narrow piece 
of the) hind-part, after dividing it in two ; and of 
the haunch belonging to the tryanga (viz. the left). 
Thereupon he puts two pieces of gold on (the flesh 
oblations in the spoons) and pours ghee thereon. 

20. He then takes the oblation of gravy' with (V^. 
S. VI, 18), 'Thou art trembling,' for quivering, 
as it were, is the broth : hence he says, ' Thou art 
trembling;' — 'May Agni prepare* thee!' for the 
fire does indeed cook it : hence he says, ' May Agni 
prepare thee!' — 'The waters have washed thee 
together,' for the water indeed gathers together 
that (fat) juice from the limbs : hence he says, 
' The waters have washed thee together.' 

21. 'For the sweeping of the wind — thee!" 
for verily yonder blower sweeps along the air, and 
for the air he takes it : hence he says, ' For the 
sweeping of the wind (I take) thee.' 

22. 'For the speed of Pftshan,' — POshan's 
speed, forsooth, is yonder (wind)*, and for that he 
takes it: hence he says, 'For the speed of Ptishan.' 

' Literally, the three-limbs, the technical name of the portion for 
Agni Svish/akr/t. 

* For 'athaika^arSyai sroneA' the Ki«va text reads '4thidhyfl- 
dhaszA sidnch,' of the hip above the udder. 

* Vasi, i.e. the melted fat (and juice) mixed with the water in 
which the portions have been cooked, and forming a rich gravy, 
offered with the Vas4homahavant. 

* Literally, 'mix 'sii, this root being here, as usual, confounded 
with srt, to cook. 

* £sha viva pftshd yo 'yam pavata etasmd u hi gnhnSti, Kinva 
recension. 



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2o6 satapatha-brAhmaa^a. 

23. ' From the hot vapour may totter — ;' the 
hot vapour, namely, is yonder (wind), and for that he 
takes it : hence he says, ' From the hot vapour may 
totter — .' Thereupon he bastes it twice with ghee 
above. 

24. He then mixes it either with the crooked 
knife or with the chopping-knife', with ' — Con- 
founded hatred T whereby he chases away from 
here those evil spirits, the Rakshas. 

25. The broth which is left he pours into the 
Samavattadhfint, and therein he throws the heart, 
tongue, breast, the broad piece (of the back part), 
the kidneys, and the rectum. He then bastes it 
twice with ghee above. 

26. The reason why there is a piece of gold on 
'each side is this. When they offer up the victim 

in the fire, they slay it, and gold means immortal 
life: thereby then it rests in immortal life; and 
so it rises from hence, and so it lives. This is why 
there is a piece of gold on each side. 

27. And because he cuts crossways, — of the left 
fore-foot and the right haunch ; and of the right fore- 
foot and the left haunch, — therefore this animal draws 
forward its feet crossways. But were he to cut 
straight on, this animal would draw fonivard its feet 
(of the same side) simultaneously : therefore he cuts 
crossways. Then as to why he does not make 
cuttings of the head, nor the shoulders, nor the 
neck, nor the hind-thighs. 

' .Sasena vi pSrjvena vi, KS«va text. 

" This forms part of the preceding formula (as subject to the verb 
' may totter '), though the author seems to separate it therefrom, as 
does Mahtdhara. The meaning of the formula seems to be, 'May 
the enemies perish, confounded by (?) the hot vapour I' 



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in KANDA, 8 adhyAya, 3 brAhmaa'a, 30. 207 

28. Now the Asuras, in the beginning, seized a 
victim. The gods, from fear, did not go near it'. 
The Earth'* then said unto them, 'Heed ye not this : 
I will myself be an eye-witness thereof, in whatsoever 
manner they will perform this (offering).' 

29. She said, ' Only one oblation have they offered, 
the other they have left over.' Now that which they 
left over are these same portions. Thereupon the 
gods made over three limbs to (Agni) Svish/akr/t, 
whence the Tryanga oblations. The Asuras then 
made portions of the head, the shoulders, the neck, and 
the hind-thighs : therefore let him not make portions 
of these. And since Tvash/W spat upon the neck, 
therefore let him not make a portion of the neck. 
Thereupon he says (to the Hotri), ' Recite (the in- 
vitatory prayer) to Agni and Soma for the havis of the 
buck!' Having called for the ^Srausha/, he says (to 
the Maitrivaruwa), ' Prompt (the Hotri to recite 
the offering-prayer * for) the havis of the buck to 
Agni and Soma!' He does not say '(the havis) 
made ready:' when the Soma has been pressed 
he says ' made ready,' 

30. In the interval between the two half- verses of 
the offering-prayer he offers the oblation of gravy. 
It is from out of this that that essence (juice) has 
risen upwards here, — that sap of this earth whereby 
creatures exist on this side of the sky*; for the 

' The St. Petersburg Diet, takes ' Na-upaveyuA ' in the sense of 
'they did not fall in therewith; they did not feel inclined for it;' 
as above, III, 7, 3, 3. S4ya«a explains it by ' nopagataA ' (MSS. 
nSpSgatd^). 

" That is, Aditi, according to the Kd«va recension. 

' The yagy^ and anuvdkyi are I, 93, 3 and 7 respectively. 

* Ito vi ayam flrdhva vikkhnXo raso yam idam imi/4 pra^^ 
upa^tvanty arvag divo 'sminn antarikshe, KS«va recension. 



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2o8 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

oblation of gravy is sap, and essence is sap : thus he 
renders the sap strong by means of sap, whence this 
sap when eaten does not perish. 

31. And as to why he offers the oblation of gravy 
in the interval between the two half-verses of the 
offering-prayer, — one half- verse, forsooth, is this 
earth, and the other half-verse is yonder sky. Now 
between the sky and the earth is the air, and it is to 
the air that he offers : therefore he offers the oblation 
of gravy between the two half-verses of the offering- 
prayer. 

32. He offers with (Va,f. S. VI, 19), ' Drink the 
ghee, ye drinkers of ghee! Drink the gravy, 
ye drinkersof gravy ! thouartthehavisofthe 
air. Hail!' With this prayer to the All-gods he 
offers, for the air belongs to the All-gods : because 
creatures move about here in the air breathing in 
and breathing out therewith, therefore it belongs to 
the All-gods. As the Vasha/ (of the offering-prayer 
for the meat portions) is pronounced, he offers the 
portions that are in the ^uhft. 

33. Thereupon, while taking clotted ghee with the 
^hfl, he says (to the Hotrt), ' Recite (the invitatory 
prayer) to the Lord of the forest !' Having called 
for the 6rausha/, he says (to the Maitrdvaruwa), 
' Prompt (the Hotrz to recite the offering-prayer) to 
the lord of the forest!' and offers, as the Vasha/ 
is pronounced'. The reason why he offers to the 
lord of the forest (the tree) is, — he thereby makes 
that thunderbolt, the sacrificial stake, a sharer (in the 
sacrifice); and, the lord of the forest being Soma*, 

' For the formulas used with this oblation, as well as the Svish/a- 
kr«t, see Haug, Transl. Ait. Br. pp. 95-96 notes. 
' Or, Soma being a tree (plant). 



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Ill KANDA, 8 ADHYAYA, 3 BRXhMANA, 36. 209 

he thereby makes the victim to be Soma. And as 
to his offering (to the tree) between the two oblations, 
he thus fills both completely : therefore he offers 
between the two oblations. 

34. Thereupon, while pouring together the meat 
portions that are for the upahhrh, he says (to the 
Hotri), ' Recite (the invitatory prayer) to Agni 
Svish/akr?t (the maker of good offering) !' Having 
called for the ^rausha/, he says (to the Maitri- 
varu«a), ' Prompt for Agni Svish/akm!' and offers 
as the Vasha^ is pronounced. 

35. With what is left of the offering of gravy, he 
then sprinkles the quarters, with, ' The regions, — 
the fore-regions, — the by-regions, — the inter- 
mediate regions, — the upper regions, — to the 
regions, Hail !' For the offering of gravy is sap : 
thus he imbues all the regions with sap, and hence 
sap is obtained here on earth in every region. 

36. Thereupon he touches (what remains of) the 
victim* : now is the time for the touching. And 
whether he has touched it before, fearing 'those 
(evil spirits) that hover near will tear it about,' or 
whether he be not afraid* of its being torn about, 
let him in any case now touch (the victim). 

' This touching takes place either before or after the invocation 
of Idi (see I, 8, 1,1 seq.), whereupon the priests and sacrificer eat 
their respective portions; the straight gut being the Agntdh's, the part 
above the udder (adhyAdhnl) the Hotn's, the kloman (apparently 
the right lung) the Brahman's, the pericardium (? purit^t) the Adh- 
varyu's, and the spleen the sacrificer's share, while the Idi is eaten 
by all of them. 

' Or perhaps,— rAnd as to his touching it before this, (he did so) 

fearing lest those (evil spirits) that hover near would tear it about ; 

and even if he be not (any longer?) afraid of its being torn about, 

let him now touch it in any case. The KS«va text has simply, — 

[26] P 



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2 1 iTATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

37. [V^. S. VI, 20], 'To Indra belongeth 
the out-breathing: may it attend^ to every 
limb! To Indra belongeth the in-breathing: 
it is attended to in every limb.' Where it has 
been cut up limb by limb, there he heals it by 
means of the out-breathing and in-breathing. — 'O 
divine Tvash/r^', let thine ample (forms) 
closely unite together, that it be uniform 
what is of different shape:' whereby he makes 
it completely enclosed (in its limbs and flesh). 
'May thy friends, thy father and mother^ to 
please thee, joyfully welcome thee going to 
the gods !' Thus, having made it whole wherever 
he has offered (a piece of) it, he afterwards unites it 
firmly, and that body (self) of it is complete in yonder 
world. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 
I. Now there are three elevens at the animal 
offering, — eleven fore-offerings, eleven after-offerings, 
and eleven by-offerings: ten fingers, ten toes, ten 
vital airs, and the out-breathing, in-breathing and 
through-breathing — this much constitutes man, who 
is the highest of animals, after whom' are all animals. 

This is the time for touching ; but if he think, ' Those standing 
about here will meddle with it,' he may also touch it before : but 
this is certainly the time for touching. 

* The St. Petersburg Dictionary suggests that ' nidfdhyat ' and 
' nidhita' are probably corruptions of forms from ' dhS;' the Taitt. 
S. (I, 3, 10) having 'ni dedhyat — vi bobhuvat' instead. Maht- 
dhara also takes 'nidtdhyat' from 'dht' in the sense of 'dhS,' — ' In- 
dra's out-breathing is infused into every limb ; Indra's in-breathing 
has been infused into every limb.' The K4«va text has ' -nidhttaA, 
-nididhe.' 

' Rather, ' the mothers (or mother) and fathers.' The Taitt. S. 
separates niitS pitara^, * the mother and the fathers.' 

' That is, inferior to whom, or, after the manner of whom. 



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Ill kXnda, 8 adhyAya, 4 brAhmat^ta, 7. 211 

2. Now they say, ' What, then, is done at the sacri- 
fice whereby the vital air is kindly to all the limbs ?* 

3. When he divides the hind-part into three 
portions, — the hind-part being (an opening of the) 
vital air, and that (animal) extending from thence 
forward, that vital air pervades it all through. 

4. And in that he cuts the hind-part into three 
portions, — one third for the by-offerings, one third 
into the ^h6, and one third into the upabhm, — 
thereby the vital air is kindly to all the limbs. 

5. He alone, however, may slay an animal who 
can supply it with the sacrificial essence ^ And if it 
be lean, let him stuff into the hind-part whatever 
may be left of the fat of the belly : the hind-part 
being (an opening of) the vital air, and that (animal) 
extending from thence forward, that vital air per- 
vades it all through. The animal, forsooth, is breath ; 
for only so long (does) the animal (live), as it breathes 
with the breath ; but when the breath departs from 
it, it lies there useless, even (as) a block of wood. 

6. The hind-part is (part of) the animal, and fat 
means sacrificial essence*: thus he supplies it with 
the sacrificial essence. But if it be tender (juicy), 
then it has itself obtained the sacrificial essence. 

7. Thereupon he takes clotted ghee ; for twofold, 
indeed is this (clotted ghee), — to wit, both ghee 

' Sayana takes 'medham' as apposition to 'enam,' and explains 
it by 'medhSrha, pravn'ddha,' and 'upanayet' by 'pripnuydt' (it 
is, doubtless, ' zufflhren '). Tlie K&nvz text, however, reads, — Tad 
ShaA sa vai pa^um labheteti ya enam medlia upanayed iti. 

* Gudo vai pajuA, medo vai medhas ; this is one of many excep- 
tions to the rule laid down by Professor Delbrflck regarding the 
order of subject and predicate, Synt. Forsch., Ill, p. 26. Copulative 
sentences with a tertium comparationis likewise do not generally 
conform to that rule. 

P 2 



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2 1 2 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA7VA. 

and sour milk^, — and a productive union means a 
couple : thus a productive union is thereby effected. 

8. Therewith they perform at the after-offerings. 
The after-offerings mean cattle, and clotted ghee 
means milk : hence he thereby puts milk into the 
cattle, and thus milk is here contained (or beneficial, 
hita) in the cattle; for clotted ghee means breath, 
because clotted ghee is food, and breath is food. 

9. Therewith he (the Adhvaryu) performs in front 
(on the Ahavanlya) at the after-offerings, — ^whereby 
he puts into (the victim) that vital air which is here 
in front; — and therewith he (the Pratiprasthitr?) 
performs behind (the altar) at the by-offerings*, — 
whereby he puts into it that vital air which is here 
behind : thus two vital airs are here contained (or bene- 
ficial) on both sides, the one above and the one below. 

10. Here now, one (Hotrt) pronounces the Vasha^ 
for two, — for the Adhvaryu (who performs the after- 

' See p. 156, note 3. 

• When the priests and sacrificer have eaten their portions of the 
l(&, the Agntdh fetches hot coals from the ^imitra (or, at the 
animal offering connected with the Soma-sacrifice), optionally from 
the Agntdhra, and puts them on the Hotr»'s hearth (p. 148, note 4), — 
or at the ordinary animal offering {nirfuiAsi pa^), on the north hip 
(north-west corner) of the altar after removing the sacrificial grass. 
On these coals the PratiprasthStrj performs the by-offerings (upa- 
ya^), while the Adhvaryu performs the after-offerings (anuy^u) on 
the Ahavaniya. For the by-offerings the Pratiprasthatr; cuts the 
respective part and the hind-quarter (III, 8, 3, 18) into eleven parts, 
and at each Vasha/ throws one piece thereof with his hand into the 
fire. The recipients of the first eight and the last after-offerings, 
on the other hand, are the same as those of the nine after-offerings 
at the Seasonal sacrifices (part i, p. 404). The Hotr/'s formulas for 
the additional two offerings, inserted before the last, are : 9. The 
divine lord of the forest [10. The divine barhis of water-plants] 
may graciously accept (the offering) for abundant obtainment of 
abundant gift! Vausha/1' (cf. part i, p. 23s; ksv.Sr. Ill, 6, 13.) 



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in KANDA, 8 ADHYAyA, 4 BRAhMAJVA, 1 7. 21 3 

offerings) and for him (the Pratiprasthdtr*) who per- 
forms the by-offerings. And because he offers them 
by (in addition to) the offering (Adhvaryu), therefore 
they are called by-offerings. And in performing the 
by-offerings, he produces (offspring)*, since he per- 
forms the by-offerings behind (the altar), and from 
behind offspring is produced from woman. 

1 1. He offers the by-offerings with (VS^. S. VI, 21), 
'Go thou to the sea, Hail!' The sea is water, 
and seed is water : he thereby casts seed. 

12. 'Go thou to the air. Hail!' It is into 
(along) the air that offspring is born : into the air he 
produces (offspring). 

13. 'Go thou to the divine Savit^i, Hail!' 
Savitr? is the impeller of the gods : impelled by 
Saxitri he thus produces creatures. 

14. 'Go thou to Mitra and Varu«a, Hail!' 
Mitra and Varuwa are the out-breathing and in- 
breathing: he thus bestows out-breathing and in- 
breathing on the creatures. 

15. 'Go thou to the day and the night, Hail!' 
It is through (along) day and night that offspring is 
born : through day and night he causes creatures to 
be bom. 

16. 'Go thou to the metres. Hail!' There 
are seven metres ; and there are seven domestic and 
seven wild animals : both kinds he thus causes to be 
produced. 

17. 'Go thou to heaven and earth. Hail!' 
For, Pra^pati, having created the living beings, 

* Praivainam tag ^nayati, ' he causes it (the victim) to be bora 
(again),' K4«va rec. The above passage has apparently to be 
understood in a general sense, ' he causes birth to take place among 
living creatures.' 



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2 1 4 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAYA. 

enclosed them between heaven and earth, and so 
these beings are enclosed between heaven and earth. 
And in like manner does this (offerer), having created 
living beings, enclose them between heaven and earth. 
1 8. He then makes additional by-offerings (ati- 
upay^). Were he not to make additional by-offer- 
ings, there would only be as many living beings as 
were created in the beginning; they would not be 
propagated ; but by making additional by-offerings 
he indeed propagates them ; whence creatures are 
again born here repeatedly^ 

Fifth Brahma^^ta, 

1. He makes the additional by-offerings : — with 
'Go thou to the sacrifice*, Hail!' The sacrifice 
is water, and seed is water : he thus casts seed. 

2. 'Go thou to Soma, Hail!' Soma is seed: 
he thus casts seed. 

3. 'Go thou to the heavenly ether, Hail!' 
The heavenly ether is water, and seed is water : he 
thus casts seed. 

4. 'Go thou to Agni Vaijv4nara, Hail!' 
Ag^i Vaijv4nara ('belonging to all men') is this 
earth, and she is a safe resting-place : upon that 
safe resting-place he thus produces (creatures). 

5. He then touches his mouth, with, 'Give me 
mind and heart!' thus indeed the by-offerer does 
not throw himself after (the oblations into the fire). 

6. Thereupon* they perform the Patnlsawy^^s 

' Or, ' by making additional by-offerings he reproduces them : 
whence creatures are bom here returning again and again' (metem- 
psychosis). 

* The Kdffva text (as the Taitt. S.) reverses the order of this and 
the following formula. Nor does it begin a new Brihmana here. 

' Having completed the last after-offering, the Adhvaryu, in the 



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in kA^da, 8 adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, 9. 215 

with the tail (of the victim), for the tail is the hind- 
part, and from the hind-part of woman offspring 
is produced-: hence offspring is produced by the 
Patnlsa/wy^i^s being performed with the tail. 

7. For the wives of the gods he cuts portions 
from the inside, since it is from the inside of woman 
that offspring is produced ; for Agni the householder 
from above, since it is from above that the male 
approaches the female. 

8. Thereupon they betake themselves, with the 
heart-spit, to the purificatory bath*. Now, the anguish 
of the victim, in being slaughtered, concentrates 
itself into the heart, and from the heart into the 
heart-spit; and whatever part of cooked (food) is 
pierced that becomes palatable* : therefore let him 
roast it on the spit after piercing it. Uppermost on 
the thrice-moved (portions of the) victim he places 
that heart after pulling it off (the spit). 

9. He (the slaughterer) then hands the heart-spit 
(to the Adhvaryu). Let him not throw it on the 

first place, throws the first chip of the sacrificial stake into the fire, 
in accordance with III, 7, i, 32. For the four Patnlsawy^as, the 
deities of which are Soma, Tvash/ri', the wives of the gods, and 
Agni the householder, see part i, p. 256. The first two offerings 
may consist only of ghee, or, as the last two, of a piece of the tail. 
' The technical term for this purificatory ceremony is ffllSva- 
bhrttha, or 'spit-bath.' On the present occasion it is not per- 
formed (see paragraph 1 1), but it is inserted here because it forms 
the conclusion of the ordinary animal offering, not connected with 
the Soma-sacrifice (nirtidhsi-psLm), as well as of the offering of a 
sterile cow (termed anflbandhyi) to Mitra and Varu«a, which con- 
cludes the Soma-sacrifice. See part i, p. 379, note i, and IV, 5,1. 
{i, 1 seq. (\->.^ ■ •') 

* ? Alam|aisha, 'sufficient for eating,' SSyana; 'sufiicient in 
itself,' St. Petersburg Diet. The Kdnva text has the probably 
preferable reading, — atha alam^sham sritam eva paritrmdanti, — 
'they then pierce (with the spit) what is already sufficiently cooked.' 



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2 1 6 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

ground, nor into the water ; for were he to throw it 
on the ground, that anguish would enter into the 
plants and trees ; and were he to throw it into the 
water, that anguish would enter into the water : 
hence neither on the ground, nor into the water. 

TO. But on going down to the water, let him bury 
it at the place where the dry and the moist meet. 
But if he feel disinclined to going down (to the 
water), he pours out a vessel of water in front of the 
sacrificial stake and buries (the spit) at the place 
where the dry and the moist meet, with (V^. S. 
VI, 22), ' Injure thou not the waters nor the 
plants!' thus it injures neither the waters nor the 
plants-; 'From every fetter' — therefrom de- 
liver us, O king Varu«a! That they say, we 
swear by the "Inviolable (cows)," by "Varu»aV' 

' This is a doubtful rendering in accordance with the suggestion 
in the St. Petersburg Diet, that ' dhimno-dhdmnaA ' in this passage 
is an old corruption of ' dSmno-damna^.' The Taitt. S. has the same 
reading. Sdya«a and Mahidhara take it in the sense of 'from every 
place (infested by enemies, or, rendered fearful by thy noose) deliver 
us I ' Could ' dhdmno-dhimna^ ' be taken as gen. to ' ra^n ? ' 

* ? Or, 'That they say (i.e. mention the word) "Cows," — that we 
swear by "Varuwa," — therefrom deliver us, O Varuwal' If the 
mentioning of words for cow (as well as the taking in vain of 
Varu«a's name) is meant to be censured in this passage, ^at Br. 
II, 2, 4, 14 (part i, p. 326 note) may be compared. It seems, how- 
ever, doubtful whether the author of the Br&hma»a took the 
term aghnyiA as referring to 'cows' here. The St. Petersburg 
Diet., s.v. jap, translates, 'when we swear by the name of 
Varxiwa.' Instead of 'Yad ihur aghnyi iti varu«eti japimahe,' 
the Taitt. S. (I, 3, 11, 1) reads 'Yad ipo aghniy^ varuweti japi- 
mahe,' which S5ya«a explains by 'O ye waters, O ye AghnySA 
(? inviolable ones, cows, waters), O Vanwal thus we solicit thee 
(to avert evil from us);' adding a passage to the effect that he who 
approaches his better (addressing him) by name, wishes him ' pu- 
wySrti;' while in the present mantra, he contends there is no mere 
' taking the name of Varuwa in vain.' 



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Ill kAjvda, 9 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 2. 217 

therefrom deliver us, O Varu«a!' Thereby he 
delivers him* from every noose of Varu«a, from all 
(guilt) against Varu«a. 

II. He then addresses (the water)* with, 'May 
the waters and plants be friendly unto us, 
unfriendly to him who hateth us, and whom 
we hate !' For when they proceed with that (spit), 
the waters, forsooth, as well as the plants, keep as it 
were receding from him ; but hereby he now makes 
a covenant with them, and so they ag^in approach to 
him, and that expiation is performed (to them). He 
does not perform (the spit-bath) at the animal offer- 
ing to Agni and Soma, nor at that to Ag^i, but only 
at that of the AndbandhyS-cow', for therewith the 
whole sacrifice attains to completion. And in that 
they perform (the ceremony) with the heart-spit at 
the cow (offering), thereby indeed it comes to be 
performed also for the animal offering to Agni 
and Soma, as well as for that to Agni. 

Ninth AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. Now Prafdpati (the lord of creatures), having 
createdliving beings, felt himself as it were exhausted*. 
The creatures turned away from him ; the creatures* 
did not abide with him for his joy and food. 

2. He thought within him, ' I have exhausted 

' I. e. the sacrificer (or tke victim representing the sacrificer). 

• According to the KSwva text and KSty. VI, 10, 5 they (the 
priests and sacrificer) touch the water while muttering the formula — 
' From every fetter .... and whom we hate.' 

' See IV, s, I, 5 seq. 

* Riri^dnaA, lit 'emptied,' as Spyiy means 'to fill.' 

' ' Pra^ ' has likewise here the meaning of ' people, subjects,' 
constituting the power or glory (jri) of the king. 



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2i8 .satapatha-brAhmana. 

myself, and the object for which ^ I have created has 
not been accomplished : my creatures have turned 
away from me, the creatures have not abode with 
me for my joy and food.' 

3. Pra^pati thought within him, ' How can I again 
strengthen myself: the creatures might then return 
to me ; the creatures might abide with me for my 
joy and food !' 

4. He went on praising and toiling, desirous of 
creatures (or progeny). He beheld that set of 
eleven (victims). By offering therewith Prjiflpati 
again strengthened himself; the creatures returned 
to him, his creatures abode for his joy and food. By 
offering he truly became better. 

5. Therefore, then, let him offer with the set of 
eleven (victims), for thus he truly strengthens him- 
self by offspring and cattle ; the creatures turn unto 
him, the creatures abide with him for his joy and 
food; — he truly becomes better by offering : therefore, 
then, let him offer with the set of eleven (victims). 

6. In the first place he seizes^ a victim for Agni. 
For Agni is the head, the progenitor of the gods, he 
is the lord of creatures : and thereby the sacrificer 
truly becomes Agni's own. 

7. Then one for Sarasvatl. For Sarasvatl is 
speech : by speech Pra^pati then agjain strengthened 
himself; speech turned unto him, speech he made 
subject to himself. And so does this one now 
become strong by speech, and speech turns unto 
him, and he makes speech subject to himself. 

8. Then one for Soma. For Soma is food : by 

* For ' asmi u kimdya ' we ought to read ' yasmd u kdtndya,' 
with S&ya»a and the Kiffva text. 

* Alabh, to touch, seize, is a euphemistic term for immolating. 



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Ill KANDA, 9 ADHyAyA, I BRAhMAVA, 12. 219 

food Pra^pati then again strengthened himself; 
food turned unto him, and he made food subject to 
himself. And so does this one now become strong 
by food ; food turns unto him, and he makes food 
subject to himself. 

9. And as to why it comes after that for Sara- 
svatt, — Sarasvatl is speech, and Soma is food : he 
who is incomplete by (having only) speech, now 
becomes indeed an eater of food. 

10. Then one for Pftshan. For Pdshan means 
cattle; by means of cattle Pra/4pati then again 
strengthened himself; cattle turned unto him, he 
made cattle subject to himself. And so does this 
one now become strong by means of cattle ; the 
cattle turn unto him, and he makes the cattle sub- 
ject to himself. 

11. Then one for Br/haspati. For B^zTiaspati 
means the priesthood (brahman) ; by means of the 
priesthood Pr^^pati then again strengthened him- 
self; the priesthood turned unto him, he made the 
priesthood subject to himself. And so does this 
one now become strong by means of the Brahman ; 
the priesthood turns unto him, he makes the priest- 
hood subject to himself. 

12. And as to why it comes after that for Tt- 
shan, — Pdshan means cattle, and Br/haspati the 
priesthood; hence the Brihma^a (priest) has the 
most power over beasts, because they are placed 
in front (are protected) by him\ because they are 
placed at the head (or in his mouth); therefore 



* Furdhitl^ (pura-ihild^, K&nva. rec.) has both the general mean- 
ing of ' put before him (as food)' and diat of ' being placed next in 
order before him.' 



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220 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJV A. 

having given all that, he walks clad in sheep- 
skin ^ 

13. Then one for the Vii've devi^ For the 
All-gods mean everything (or the All) ; with every- 
thing Pra^ipati then again strengthened himself; 
everything turned unto him, and he made everything 
subject to him. And so does this one now become 
strong by everything ; everything turns to him, and 
he makes everything subject to himself 

14. And as to why it comes after that for Br/has- 
pati, — B^Tiaspati means the priesthood, and the All- 
gods this All ; he then makes the priesthood the 
head of this All ; wherefore the Brihman is the head 
of this All. 

15. Then one for Indra. For Indra means power 
(indriya) and vigour ; by power and vigour Pra^ipati 
then again strengthened himself; power and vigour 
turned unto him, and he made power and vigour 
subject to himself. And so does this one now become 
strong by means of power and vigour ; power and 
vigour turn to him, and he makes power and vigour 
subject to himself 

16. And as to why it comes after that for the All- 
gods, — Indra is the nobility, and the All-gods are the 
clans (people) ; he thus places the food before him. 

17. Then one for the Maruts. For the Maruts 
mean the clans, and a clan means abundance ; with 
abundance Pra^pati then again strengthened him- 
self; abundance turned unto him, and he made 
abundance subject to himself And so does this 
one now become strong by abundance ; abundance 

' • Since the lordship over cattle belongs to the Brahman, there- 
fore (the sacrificer) having given all his property to the Brahmans,' 

&c. say. 



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Ill KAJVDA, 9 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 23. 221 

turns unto him, and he makes abundance subject 
to himself. 

18. And as to why it comes after that for Indra, — 
Indra is the nobility, and the All-gods are the clans, 
and the Maruts are the clans; he thus guards the 
nobility by the clan, and hence the nobility here is 
on both sides guarded by the clan. 

19. Then one for Indra and Agni. For Agni 
means penetrating brilliance, and Indra means power 
and vigour ; with these two energies Pra^pati then 
again strengthened himself; both energies turned 
unto him, and he made both energies subject to 
himself. And so does this one now become strong 
by both these energies ; both energies turn unto him, 
and he makes both energies subject to himself. 

20. Then one for Savitr?. For Savitrt is the 
impeller (prasavitr/) of the gods ; and so all those 
wishes become accomplished for him, impelled as 
they are by SavitW. 

21. Then finally he seizes one for Varu«a; 
thereby he delivers him (the sacrificer) from every 
noose of Varu«a, from every (guilt) against Varuwa^ 

22. Hence if there be eleven sacrificial stakes, 
let him bind Agni's (victim) to the one opposite 
the fire ; and let them lead up the others one by 
one in the proper order. 

23. But if there be eleven victims*, let them 
only immolate at the stake that for Agni, and after 
that the others in the proper order. 

* Vanwyid evaitat sarvasmSt kilbishid enaso 'ntato varuwapSfSt 
Tprig&A pramun/iati, K&nva, rec. 

' That is, if there be eleven victims and only one stake, in that 
case Agni's victim is tied to the stake, and each succeeding victim 
is tied to the neck of the preceding one. KSty. VIII, 8, 28. 



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222 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

24. When they lead them northwards, they lead 
the one for Agni first, and then the others in the 
proper order. 

25. When they throw them down, they throw 
down first the one for Agni, as the southernmost; 
then the others after leading them round north- 
wards in the proper order. 

26. When they perform (offerings) with the 
omenta, they perform first with the omentum of 
Agni's (victim); then with those of the others in 
the proper order. 

27. When they perform with those (chief obla- 
tions), they perform first with that to Agjni; then 
with the others in the proper order. 

THE VASATlVARt WATER. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

1. Now, when the head of the sacrifice (victim) 
was struck off, its sap, running, entered the waters. 
It is by that very sap that those waters flow; that 
very sap is believed to be flowing there ^ 

2. And when he goes for the Vasatlvar! water, 
he fetches that same sap and puts it into the sacri- 
fice, and makes the sacrifice sapful ; this is why he 
goes for the Vasattvarl water. 

3. He distributes it over all the Savanas (Soma- 
pressings)*; thereby he imbues all the pressings 

' Yatra vai ya^asya firo 'AAAidyata tasya raso dnitvSpaA privixat 
sa esha rasa eti yd eti Spa^ syandante tenaivaini etad rasena syan- 
damSnt manyante yaA sa ya^asya rasas tam evaitad rasa/n syan- 
datninam manyante, Kinva rec. 

* ' He divides it into three parts for all the pressings,' Kinva. text 
See note on IV, 2, 3, 4. 



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m kXnda, 9 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 8. 223 

with that sap, makes all the pressings sapful : this 
is why he distributes it over all the pressings. 

4. Let him take it from flowing (water); for 
that sap of the sacrifice was moving ' : let him 
therefore take it from flowing (water). 

5. Moreover, it is taken for the purpose of pro- 
tection. Now, everything else here on earth, what- 
ever it be, takes rest, even yonder blowing (wind) ; 
but these (waters) alone take no rest : therefore let 
him take it from flowing (water). 

6. Let him take it by day, thinking, ' Seeing, I will 
take the sap of the sacrifice*:' therefore let him take 
it by day. For it is for him that burns yonder (the 
sun) that he takes it, since he takes it for all the 
gods, and all the gods are his rays of light : therefore 
let him take it by day. For it is by day alone that 
he (shines) : therefore, then, let him take it by day. 

7. And again, all the gods, forsooth, now come to 
the sacrificer's house ; and if one takes the Vasatlvarl 
water before the setting of the sun, it is as when 
one's better comes to visit one, he would honour 
him by trimming his house. They draw nigh to that 
sacrificial food, and abide (upa-vas) in that Vasatlvarl ' 
water, — that is the Upavasatha (preparation-day). 

8. And if the sun were to set on any one's (Vasatl- 
varls) not having been taken, then expiation is made. 
If he have performed a (Soma-)sacrifice before this, 
let him (the Adhvaryu) take it from his tank*, since 



' Aid hi ; see p. 222, note i. 

* Or perhaps, ' I will take it while I see the sap of the sacrifice.' 

* 'VasatJvarl' seems to mean 'affording dwelling;' or perhaps, 
' that (water) which abides, remains (over night).' Cf. par. 16. 

* 'NinShya' (ninl!hya^ kumbhd^, KS«va rec. each time); a 
vessel or cistern, dug into the ground for keeping water cool. 



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224 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

that (water) of his has been taken before (sunset) 
by day. But should he not have offered before, if 
there be one who has offered (Soma) settled close 
by or somewhere thereabout^, let him take it from 
his tank, since that (water) of his has been taken 
before, by day. 

9. But if he cannot obtain either kind (of water), 
let him seize a firebrand and betake himself (to the 
flowing water), and let him take thereof while hold- 
ing that (firebrand) close above it ; or let him take 
it while holding a piece of gold close above it : thus 
it is made like yonder burning (sun). 

10. He takes therefrom with the text (Vif. S. 
VI, 23), 'Rich in havis are these waters,' — for 
the sap of the sacrifice entered into them, wherefore 
he says, ' Rich in havis (sacrificial food) are these 
waters;' — 'One rich in havis wooeth for (them),' 
for the sacrificer, rich in havis, woos for (wishes 
to obtain) them ; wherefore he says, ' One rich in 
havis wooeth for (them).' 

11. ' Rich in havis (may be) the divine cult;' 
cult, namely, means the sacrifice ; thus he makes the 
sacrifice for which he takes it rich in sacrificial food, 
therefore he says, ' Rich in havis is the divine cult' 

12. 'May S6rya be rich in havis!' For he 
takes it for yonder burning (sun), since he takes it 
for all the gods, and all the gods are his (the sun's) 
rays of light ; therefore he says, ' May Sdrya (the 
sun) be rich in havis!' 

13. Having fetched it, he deposits it behind the 
Gdrhapatya ", with (V^. S. VI, 24), 'I seat you in 

* Updvasito vi paryavasito (pritivejo, Kd«va text instead) vS. 

* That is, behind the old Ahavaniya of the PrS^navawua, where 
the altar would be prepared at the ordinary havirya,fna. 



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in KANDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 1 6. 225 

the seat of Agni, the safe-housed;' whereby he 
means to say, ' I seat you (waters) in the seat of 
Agni, whose house is unimpaired.' And when the 
animal offering to Agni and Soma comes to a close, 
then he carries (the Vasatlvarl water) round. He 
says (thrice). 'Disperse!* The sacrificer is seated 
in front of the Soma-carts (holding Soma on his 
lap'). He (the Adhvaryu) takes it (the water stand- 
ing behind the Girhapatya). 

14. He walks out (of the hall) by the south (door), 
and puts it down on the south hip (of the high altar), 
with, 'Ye (waters) are Indra and Agni's share!' for 
he takes it for all the gods, and Indra and Agni are 
all the gods. He takes it up again and puts it down 
in front of the lady (who, seated behind the G&rha- 
patya, touches the water-jar). Walking round behind 
the lady he (again) takes it. 

1 5. He walks out (of the hall by the east door), 
along the north side (of the altar), and puts down 
(the water) on the north hip (of the high altar), 
with, 'Ye are Mitra and Varu«a's share!' Let 
him not put it down in this way^, that is redundant, 
and no fitting conclusion is thus attained. Let him 
rather (here also) say, 'Ye are Indra and Agni's 
share!* only thus there is nothing redundant, and 
so a fitting conclusion is obtained. 

16. That (Vasatlvarl water) is carried round for 
the sake of protection ; Agni is in front (of the sacri- 
ficial ground), and now that (water) moves about 
all round, repelling the evil spirits. He puts it 

* According to KSty. VIII, 9, 16. 

* ' Some put it down wilh this (formula), but let him not put it 
down so, for thus completeness is left behind (or, has a surplus, 
sampad riiyate).' K&»va text. 

[26] Q 



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226 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAJVA. 

down in the Agnidhra (fire-house) with, 'Ye are all 
the gods' share!' whereby he makes all the gods 
enter it It is a desirable object (vara) to the dwellers 
(vasat), hence the name Vasatlvarl^ and verily he 
who knows this, becomes a desirable object to the 
dwellers. 

17. Now there are here seven formulas; with 
four he takes (the water), with one he puts it down 
behind the G&rhapatya, with one he carries it round, 
with one (he puts it down) in the Agnidhra, — this 
makes seven. For when the metres were produced 
from Whk (speech), the one consisting of seven feet, 
the .Sakvarl, was the last (highest) of them ; — that 
completeness (he brings about): hence there are 
seven formulas. 

THE SOMA FEAST. 

Third BrAhmaa^a. 

A. Pratar-anuvAka (morning-prayer) and Preparatory 
Ceremonies. 

I. They (the priests) are wakened (towards morn- 
ing). Having touched water*, they proceed together 
to the Agnidhra (fire-house) and take the portions 
of ghee (for the Savanlya animal offerings). Having 
taken the portions of ghee, they betake themselves 
(to the high altar). When they have deposited the 
ghee,— 

' Cf. Taitt. S. VI, 4, 2, 'd&vkh . . . abruvan, vasatu nu na idam 
iti, tad vasattvarmam vasativaritvam.' 

' After performing their ablutions they have to perform the pre- 
liminary work and ceremonies, such as preparing the GSrhapatya, 
fetching and arranging the vessels, cleaning of spoons, &c. up to 
the depositing of the ghee, near the high altar. 



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Ill kXkda, 9 adhyAya, 3 brAhmaa'a, 5. 227 

2. He (the Adhvaryu) takes down the king 
(Soma)'. Now this (earth) is a safe resting-place, 
and the birth-place of living beings ; it is to this 
safe resting-place that he now takes him down ; he 
spreads him thereon, produces him therefrom. 

3. He takes him down between the shafts; for 
the cart is (a means of) the sacrifice, and thus 
alone he does not put him outside the sacrifice. He 
puts him on the pressing stones lying there with 
their heads (mukha, mouths)* towards each other; 
for Soma is the nobility, and the stones are the 
clans (people); he thereby raises the nobility over 
the clan. And as to why they are lying with their 
heads together, — he thereby makes the clan of one 
head (or mouth) with, and uncontentious towards, 
the nobles ; therefore they are lying with their heads 
towards each other. 

4. He takes (Soma) down, with (Vif. S. VI, 25), 
'Thee for the heart, thee for the mind!' This he 
says for the (accomplishment of the) sacrificer's wish, 
since it is with the heart and mind that the sacrificer 
entertains the wish for which he sacrifices ; therefore 
he says, ' Thee for the heart, thee for the mind I' 

5. 'Thee for the sky, thee for the sun!' This, 
on the other hand, he says with a view to the world 
of the gods. When he says, 'Thee for the sky, thee 

' According to Kdty. VIII, 9, 24-25, on the previous evening, — 
immediately after the carrying round and depositing of the Vasati- 
varl water, — the Soma is placed on a seat (Ssandi) in the Agntdhra 
fire house, where the sacrificer has to watch over it during that night. 
This is not mentioned in the Brihmawa, and from what follows it 
would rather seem that the Soma is taken down from the cart (see 
III, 6, 3, 17 seq.). Otherwise we might translate, ' He brings him 
down (from the Agntdhra).' 

* That is, with their broad sides turned towards each other. 

Q 2 

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228 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

for the sun,' he means to say, ' Thee for the gods !' 
'Upwards convey thou to the sky, to the gods, 
this cult, these invocations!' Cult, doubtless, 
means sacrifice: he thereby means to say, ' Upwards 
carry thou this sacrifice to the sky, to the gods!' 

6. [V4f. S. VI, 26], 'O Soma, king, descend 
unto all thy people!' whereby he brings him 
down for the lordship, for the sovereignty of these 
people (creatures). 

7. Having quitted his hold (of Soma) he sits 
down by him, with, 'May all thy people descend 
to thee.' Now, in saying, 'Descend unto all thy 
people,' he does what is unseemly, for Soma being 
the nobility, he thereby, as it were, confounds good 
and bad^, — and, indeed, in consequence thereof, 
people now confound good and bad. But in this 
(formula) he does what is right and according to 
order, — in saying, ' May all thy people descend to 
thee,' he makes all his subjects go down (on their 
knees) before him ; and hence when a noble ap- 
proaches, all these subjects, the people, go down 
before him, crouch down by him on the ground^. 
Sitting near (Soma), the Hotri is about to recite 
the morning-prayer. 

8. Then, while putting a kindling-stick (on the 
fire), he (the Adhvaryu) says, ' Recite to the gods 

* ' He commits a pSpavasyasa»», i. e. according to Haug, Ait. Br. 
p. 413, ' a breach of the oath of allegiance ' (where S5ya«a explains 
it by 'exceedingly bad'); or 'an (act of) perversity,' Weber, Ind. 
Stud. IX, p. 300. SiysLfti, to our passage, explains it by ' mixing 
the bad with the good (or better).' The literal translation is 'a 
bad-bettering.' What is chiefly implied in the term is evidently 
the showing of disrespect by an inferior to a superior person. 

* Tasmit kshatriyam upary ^stnam adhastM visa, imiA pra^d 
upisate. KSnva text. 



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Ill kAjvda, 9 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 10. 229 

the early-coming!' Now the early-coming gods are 
the metres, as the after-offerings are the metres ; and 
the after-offerings are performed with, * Prompt (the 
Hotri to recite) to the gods ! Recite (the offering- 
prayer) to the gods !' 

9. And so some say, ' Recite to the gods* !' But 
let him not say so ; for the early-coming gods are 
the metres, as the after-offerings are the metres, and 
the after-offerings are performed with, ' Prompt — 
to the gods! Recite (the offering-prayer) to the 
gods!' therefore let him say, 'Recite to the gods, 
the early-coming!' 

10. And when he puts on a kindling-stick, it is 
the metres he thereby kindles. And when the 
Hotri recites the morning-prayer ^ he thereby 

* Here now, some say only, 'Recite to the early-coming 1' not 
' to the . . . gods!' but let him not say this. KS«va text. 

' The PrStar-anuvSka, or morning-prayer (matin chant), has 
to be recited by the Hotrj in the latter part of the night before any 
sound (of birds, &c.) is to be heard. It may begin immediately 
after midnight, and conclude as soon as daylight appears. When 
called upon by the Adhvaryu to recite the morning-prayer, the 
Hotr» first makes an oblation of ghee on the Agntdhra fire, with 
the mantra, ' Protect me from the spell of the mouth, from every 
imprecation, Haill' and then two oblations on the Ahavaniya with 
appropriate mantras. Thereupon he betakes himself to the Havir- 
dhdna (cart-shed), in entering which, by the east door, he touches 
successively the front-wreath (rarS/l, cf. Ill, 5, 3, 9) and the door- 
posts, with formulas. He then squats down between the yoke- 
pieces of the two Soma-carts, and begins his recitation with Rig-veda 
X, 30, 12, 'Ye, O wealthy waters, verily possess good things; ye 
confer desirable energy and immortality ; ye command riches with 
abundant offspring: may Sarasvati (the river S., and Speech) 
bestow on the bard that vital vigourl' The 'early-coming' deities 
to whom the recitation is successively addressed, are Agni, Ushas 
(the dawn), and the two Afvins (the precursors of the sun); the 
prayer thus consisting of three sections, termed kratu (Agni- 



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23© JATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

again strengthens the metres, makes them to be 
of unimpaired vigour; for the metres had their 
vigour impaired by the gods, since it was through the 
metres that the gods reached the heavenly worlds ; 
they neither sing praises (chants) nor recite (iastras) 
here. Hereby he now again strengthens the metres 
and makes them to be of unimpaired vigour ; and by 
means of them, thus unimpaired in vigour, they 

kratu, &c.). The hymns and detached verses making up these 
sectiwis are arranged according to the seven metres (thus forming 
seven sub-sections of each), viz. giyatrt, anush/ubh, trish/ubh, 
br/liati, ushmh, ^agatt, and pahkti. The prayer may consist of as 
many verses as can be recited between midnight and daybreak ; 
but there should be at least one hymn in each of the seven metres 
to each of the three deities; nor should the recitation consist of 
less than a hundred verses. From the beginning of the recitation 
up to the end of the last hymn but one, Rig-veda 1, 1 1 2, there is to 
be a gradual modulation of the voice so as to pass upwards through 
the seven tones (yama) of the deep scale (mandrasvara). More- 
over, that hymn is to be repeated (if necessary) till daylight appears. 
As soon as this is the case, he passes on without any break from 
the last (25th) verse to the last hymn (v. 75, 1-9), which he intones 
in the lowest tone of the middle scale, after shifting his place further 
east towards the g^te. The recitation of the first eight verses 
of this hymn again gradually ascends through the whole of the 
middle scale ; when — after once more shifting his place so as to 
be seated between the two door-posts — he intones the last verse — 
'The Dawn hath appeared with her shining kine, Agni hath been 
kindled at his appointed time: your car hath been yoked, ye 
mighty, mead-loving (?) Af vins, showerers of wealth, hear my call !' 
in reciting which he makes his voice pass through the several tones 
of the high scale. The SubrahmanyS, likewise, has to chant the 
Subrahma«yS litany (see III, 3, 4, 17 seq.) — as he had to do on 
the previous evening — inserting in it the names of the sacrificer's 
father and son. The Agntdh, in the meantime, prepares the five 
havis-oblations (savanlySA purorflriA) to be offered at the morning- 
pressing (cf. IV, 2, 4, 18), and the Unnetr*' puts the numerous 
Soma-vessels in their respective places on the khara, and about 
the Soma-carts. 



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Ill KANDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAA'A, I4. 23 1 

perform the sacrifice ; this is why the Hotri recites 
the morning-prayer. 

11. Here now they say, 'What is the (Adh- 
varyu's) response to the morning-prayer'?' The 
Adhvaryu should wait through (the prayer) waking, 
and when he blinks, this is his response. But let 
him not do this; if he fall asleep (again) he may 
as well sleep. When the Hotr« brings his morning- 
prayer to a close*, — there is an offering-spoon 
called Pra^rawl, — having therein taken ghee in four 
ladlings, he (the Adhvaryu) offers it. 

1 2. For when the head of Ya^»a (the sacrifice) 
was struck off, his sap, running, entered the waters ; 
that (sap) he fetched yesterday with the Vasattvart 
water ; and he now goes for what sap of the sacri- 
fice remains therein. 

13. And when he offers that offering, he pours 
out (the ghee) towards that same sap of the sacri- 
fice (in the water) and draws it to him. And, 
indeed, he pleases those deities to whom he offers 
that offering, and thus satisfied and pleased, they 
fit that sap of the sacrifice together' for him. 

14. He offers with, ' May Agni, with his flame, 
hear my prayer;' whereby he means to say, ' May 
he hear this prayer of mine, may he vouchsafe it to 
me;' — 'May the waters and the Soma-bowls 
hear, the divine!' whereby he means to say, 
' May the waters hear this (prayer) of mine, may 
they vouchsafe it to me.' — ' Hear me, ye stones, 

' Cf. IV, 3, 2, 1 seq. 

* That is, when he recites the last verse, 'Ushas hath ap- 
peared,' &c. 

• Literally, ' Bend together (saw-nam),' which refers to the ' bend- 
ing together ' of the cups at the Aponaptriya ceremony. 



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DATAPATH A-BRAH M AJVA. 



as knowing the sacrifice!' whereby he means 
to say, ' May the (pressing) stones hear this (prayer) 
of mine, may they vouchsafe it to me;' and 'as 
knowing the sacrifice,' he says, because the stones 
are indeed knowing^ 'May the divine Savitr? 
hear my prayer, Hail-!' whereby he means to 
say, ' May the divine Savitrt hear this (prayer) of 
mine, may he vouchsafe it to me ;' for Savitr? is 
the impeller of the gods ; impelled by him he goes 
for that sap of the sacrifice. 

15. Having then a second time taken ghee by 
four ladlings, he says, while going forth towards 
the north, 'Summon the waters!' whereby he 
means to say, ' Desire the waters, O Hotar !' The 
reason why the Hotri then recites * is this : by that 



' The text has rather to be constraed, ' Ye stones, hear (my 
prayer) as (of one) knowing the sacrifice.' 

' While the Adhvaryu and assistants go to the water to fill the 
Ekadhana pitchers, the Hotr« recites the so-called Aponaptriya 
hymn (Rig-veda X, 30) to the waters, omitting verse twelve, which 
was already recited as the opening verse of the morning-prayer. 
The first verse is recited thrice, and the tenth verse is recited after 
the eleventh, while the priests are returning with the water. As 
soon as they are in sight, the Hotri recites verse 13, followed 
by Rig-veda V, 43, i ; and (when the EkadhanS and Vasatlvari waters 
meet together, paragraph 29) Rig-veda II, 35, 3; and, in case 
some of the water is actually poured over into the Hotr«'s cup, 
I, 83, 2. When the water is brought to the Havirdhdna, the Hotri 
addresses the Adhvaryu as stated in paragraph 31; whereupon he 
pronounces a ' nigada ' (for which see Ait. Br. II, 20 ; At v. St. 
V, 1, 14-17), followed by Rig-veda I, 23, 16; while the Ekadhana 
pitchers are carried past him. The water in the Maitrivaruna cup 
and one third of both the Vasattvari and Ekadhani water having 
been poured into the Adhavantya trough (standing on the northern 
cart), the pitchers with the remaining water are then deposited in 
their respective places behind the axle of the northern cart, where- 
upon the Hotri recites the two remaining verses (14 and 15) of the 



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Ill KkNDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 21. 233 

(oblation) he (the Adhvaryu) pours out (the ghee) 
towards that sap of the sacrifice (in the wAter), and 
draws it to- him ; and he (the Hotri) then stands 
by those (Ekadhana pitchers) lest the evil spirits 
should injure them on the way. 

16. He (the Adhvaryu) then gives directions, 
' Come hither, cup-bearer of the Maitrivaruwa ! 
Nesh/ar, lead up the wives! Ye bearers of the 
Ekadhana (cups), come hither! Agntdh, step over 
against the pit with the Vasatlvarl water and the 
Hotri' s cup!' this is a composite direction. 

1 7. They walk northwards out (of the sacrificial 
ground) — by the back of the pit and the front side 
of the Ag^ldhra ; whereupon they proceed in the 
direction in which the water is. They go thither 
together with the wives. The reason why they go 
thither with the wives is this. 

18. When the head of the sacrifice was struck 
off, its sap, running, entered the waters; those 
Gandharva Soma-wardens watched it. 

19. The gods then said, 'Those Gandharvas, 
surely, are a great danger to us here, how can we 
carry off the sap of the sacrifice to a place free 
from danger and injury ?' 

20. They said, 'Well, the Gandharvas are fond 
of women ; let us go together with the wives ! The 
Gandharvas, surely, will hanker after the wives, 
and we shall carry off that sap of the sacrifice to a 
place free from danger and injury.' 

21. They went with the wives; the Gandharvas 
did indeed hanker after the wives, and they (the 



Aponaptrtya hymn, and sits down in front of the Soma, behind 
the northern door-post of the Havirdhdna (cart-shed). 



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234 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA, 

gods) carried off that sap of the sacrifice to a place 
free front danger and injury. 

22. And so does that (Adhvaryu) now go (to the 
water) with the wives ; the Gandharvas hanker after 
the wives, and he carries off that sap of the sacrifice 
to a place free from danger and injury. 

23. He offers (the ghee) upon the water ; for that 
sap of the sacrifice, indeed, draws near to that obla- 
tion, when offered ; it rises (to the surface) to meet it; 
and having thus brought it to light, he seizes it. 

24. And again why he offers this oblation : he 
thereby pours out (ghee) towards that sap of the 
sacrifice, and draws it to him, and craves it of the 
waters. And, indeed, he pleases those deities to whom 
he offers that oblation, and thus satisfied and pleased 
they fit that sap of the sacrifice together for him. 

25. He offers with (V^. S.VI,27), 'Ye divine 
waters, — the son of waters;' the waters are 
indeed divine, hence he says, ' Ye divine waters, — 
the son of waters;' 'That wave of yours, suit- 
able for offering;' whereby he means to say, 
' That wave of yours which is suitable for the sacri- 
fice;' 'Mighty, most grateful;' by 'mighty' he 
means to say ' powerful,' and by ' most grateful' he 
means to say 'most sweet;' 'Give ye that unto 
those gods among the gods,' in saying this he 
has craved it of them ; ' The drinkers of the pure 
(Soma) ;' the pure, doubtless, is the truth ; in saying, 
' the drinkers (pa) of the pure,' he means to say, 
' the defenders (pa) of the truth ;' 'Whose portion 
ye are. Hail !' for this indeed is their portion. 

26. Thereupon he makes that oblation (ghee) 
float away by means of the Maitr4varu«a's cup, 
with (V^. S. VI, 28), ' Thou art furrowing !' Even 



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Ill KAJVDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAA^A, 29. 235 

as a coal is consumed by Fire, so is that obla- 
tion consumed by that deity. Now that water, 
which is in the Maitrivaru«a's cup, he will have to 
pour on the king (Soma) ; and ghee being a thun- 
derbolt, and Soma seed, he makes (the ghee) float 
away lest he should injure that seed, Soma, by that 
thunderbolt, the ghee. 

27. He then takes (water) with, ' I draw thee up 
for the imperishableness of the ocean ;' for the 
ocean is water; he thus confers imperishableness 
upon the waters ; wherefore, in spite of so much 
food (and drink) being consumed, the waters are 
not diminished. Thereupon they draw (water in) 
the Ekadhana pitchers, and thereupon the vessels 
for washing the feet'. 

28. The reason why he takes (water) with the 
MaitrSvaruwa's cup is this. When the sacrifice 
escaped from the gods, the gods endeavoured to 
call it up by means of (sacrificial) calls (praisha)'' ; 
by means of the puroru^ ('shining before') formulas'* 
they pleased it (pra-ro^ya), and by the nivids they 
made (their wishes) known (ni-vid) to it. Therefore 
he takes (water) with the Maitr&varuwa's cup. 

29. They come back. The Agnldh takes up his 
position opposite to the pit with the Vasatlvarl 
water and the Hotri's cup. Close over the pit he 



' These are filled by the sacrificer's wife, or, if there be more 
than one sacrificer (or, if the sacrificer have more than one wife), 
by all the wives, each having two vessels. For the use of this 
water, see note on IV, 4, 2, 18. 

* The praishas or sacrificial directions to the Hotrt, for the 
recitations of offering-formulas, are given by the Maitrivaru»a ; 
see p. 183, note 2. 

' See note on IV, i, 3, 15; the nivids, part i, p. 114, note 2. 



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236 5'ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

(the Adhvaryu) makes the Vasatlvarl water and 
the Maitrivaruwa's cup touch one another, with, 
'Water hath united with water, plants with 
plants!' the sap of the sacrifice which was fetched 
yesterday and that fetched to-day, both kinds he 
thereby mixes together. 

30. Now some indeed pour (some of) the Vasati- 
varl water into the Maitrivaru«a's cup, and from the 
Maitrivaru«a's cup (back) to the Vasatlvarl water, 
arguing, ' Thereby we mix together both the sap of 
the sacrifice which was fetched yesterday and that 
fetched to-day.' But let him not do this ; for when 
he pours (the water) together into the Adhavanlya 
trough ^, then both kinds of sap are mixed together. 
Thereupon he pours the Vasatlvarl water into the 
Hotrts cup for the Nigrdbhyds*. And as to why 
he makes them touch one another close over the pit, 
it was from thence, forsooth, that the gods rose to 
heaven ; he thus makes the sacrificer look along the 
road to heaven. 

31. They return (to the Havirdhdna). The Hotri 
asks him, ' Adhvaryu, hast thou gained the waters ?' 
whereby he means to say, ' Hast thou obtained the 
waters ?' He replies to him, 'Yea, they have yielded 
themselves !' whereby he means to say, ' I have ob- 
tained them and they have yielded to me.' 

32. And if it be an Agnish/oma, and there be left 
a residue (of ghee poured together) in the pra>fcira«t 

' See p. 232, note 2 to paragraph 15. 

* NigrdbhydA is the technical name the Vasattvart water in 
the Hotr;'s cup henceforth bears. It is handed to the sacrificer to 
carry to the Havirdhina; and is afterwards used for moistening 
the Soma plants (or, for being poured thereon) at the time of the 
pressing. See III, 9, 4, 14 seq. 



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Ill KAJVDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 34. 237 

spoon sufficient for an oblation, let him offer that. 
But if it be not sufficient for an oblation, he takes 
another portion of ghee in four ladlings and offers 
it, with (Vif. S. VI, 29 ; Rig-veda I, 27, 7), 'What- 
ever mortal thou favourest in battles, whom- 
soever thou speedest in the race, he winneth 
unfailing strength. Hail!' He offers with (a 
prayer) to Agni, because the Agnish/oma (' Agni's 
praise') means Agni ; thus he establishes the Agnish- 
/oma in Agni, [He offers] with (a verse) containing 
the word ' mortal,' because the Agnish/oma is of the 
same measure as man. Let him then offer in this 
manner, if it be an Agnish/oma. 

33. And if it be an Ukthya, let him touch the 
middle enclosing-stick, — there are three enclosing- 
sticks and three recitations (uktha) ^ ; and by means 
of them the sacrifice is there established. And if it 
be either an AtirAtra or a Shod?a5^in *, let him neither 
make an oblation nor touch the middle enclosing- 
stick ; having merely muttered (the above verse), 
let him silently betake himself (to the Havirdhina) 
and enter it*. In this way he duly distinguishes 
the forms of sacrifice from one another. 

34. The Ekadhana pitchers are always of uneven 
number, — either three, or five, or seven, or nine, or 
eleven, or thirteen, or fifteen *. Now two and two 

■ See note on IV, 4, 2, 18 ; Haug, Ait. Br., Transl. p. 251. 
' And if it be a Sho</axin, or an Atiritra, or a Va^apeya. 
Kinva rec. See note on IV, 5, 3, i. 

* According to KSty. IX, 3, 20-2 1 he may, while muttering that 
verse, touch the front wreath at the Shorfa^n, and the side-mat at 
the AtirStra. 

• The original has,— either three, or five, or five, or seven, or 
seven, or nine, &c. The Ki»va text, on the other hand, has 
merely, — either three, or five, or seven, or nine, or nineteen. 



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238 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

(an even number) means a productive pair ; and the 
one that remains over, remains over for the sacri- 
ficer's prosperity. And, moreover, that which remains 
over for the sacrificer's prosperity is the common pro- 
perty (sa-dhana) of these (others); and because it 
is the common property of these, therefore they are 
called Ekadhana (having one as their common 
property). 



Fourth BrAhmajva. 

B. The PRATAffSAVANA, OR Morning-Pressing. 
I. UpAj^su-Graha. 

1. Thereupon they sit down round the two press- 
boards'. He (the Adhvaryu) then ties a piece of gold 
to that (nameless finger). For twofold, verily, is this ; 
there is no third, namely, the truth and the untruth ; 
the gods, forsooth, are the truth, and men are the 
untruth. And the gold has sprung from Agni's 
seed: 'With the truth I will touch the stalks, 
with the truth I will take hold of Soma,' thus he 
thinks, and therefore he ties a piece of gold to that 
(ring-finger). 

2. He then takes a press-stone*. Now those 

' The Adhvaryu and sacrificer sit north of them, looking towards 
the south ; and the assistants of the former — viz. the Pratiprasthitr/, 
Nesh/r«', and Unnetr* — on the south side, looking northwards. 
The press-boards were laid down on the ' sound-holes,' under the 
fore-part of the southern Soma-cart, and the pressing-skin was 
spread over them ; see III, 5, 4, 22-23. The Udg&tr/s, or chanters, 
are seated behind the carts. 

' Viz. the uptwfusavana, or 'low-voiced pressing (stone),' (see 
paragraph 6,) with which the Soma for the JJp&msa libation (or 
cup, graha) is pressed. 



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Ill KANDA, 9 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAhMAYA, 5. 239 

press-Stones are of rock, and Soma is a god — for 
Soma was in the sky, Soma was Vmra; those 
mountains, those rocks are his body — he thus per- 
fects him by means of his body, makes him whole ; 
therefore they are of rock. Moreover, in pressing 
him they slay him, they slay him by means of that 
(stone, Soma's own body); thus he rises from 
thence, thus he lives ; therefore the press-stones 
are of rock. 

3. He takes it with (Vif. S. VI, 30), 'At the 
impulse of the divine Savitrz I take thee with 
the arms of the As-vins, with the hands of 
PAshan; thou art a giver!' For Savit^? is the 
impeller of the gods ; thus he takes it, impelled by 
Szvkri. ' With the arms of the Ajvins,' he says, — 
the Ajvins are the Adhvaryus (of the gods) : with 
their arms he thus takes it, not with his own. 'With 
the hands of Pftshan,' he says, — Pflshan is the dis- 
tributor of portions: with his hands he thus takes 
it, not with his own. Moreover, that (stone) is a 
thunderbolt, and no man can hold it : by means of 
those deities he takes it. 

4. ' I take thee : thou art a giver,' he says ; for 
when they press him by means of that (stone), then 
there is an oblation ; and when he offers an oblation, 
then he gives sacrificial gifts, — thus, then, that (stone) 
gives twofold, oblations and sacrificial gifts ; where- 
fore he says, ' Thou art a giver.' 

5. ' Perform thou this deep cult!' Cult means 
sacrifice ; he thereby means to say, ' Perform thou 
this great sacrifice!' — 'well-gotten for Indra;' 
by 'well-gotten' he means to say, 'well-produced;' 
and Indra is the deity of the sacrifice, wherefore he 
says, 'for Indra;' — 'by the most excellent bolt,' 



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240 ^ATAPATUA-BRAHMAiVA. 

for he, Soma, is indeed the most excellent bolt*, 
therefore he says, 'by the most excellent bolt;' — 
'the (cult) rich in food and sweetness and 
drink,' whereby he means to say, 'the (cult) rich 
in sap.' 

6. Thereupon he restrains speech. For once on 
a time, the gods, while performing sacrifice, were 
afraid of an attack from the Asura - Rakshas. 
They said, ' Let us sacrifice in a low voice, let us 
restrain speech!' They sacrificed (with formulas 
muttered) in a low voice and restrained speech. 

7. He then fetches the N igrabh y S.s (waters), and 
makes him (the sacrificer) mutter over them", 'Ye 
are the Nigrdbhyds, heard by the gods; satisfy 
me, satisfy my mind, satisfy my speech, satisfy 
my breath, satisfy mine eye, satisfy mine ear, 
satisfy my soul, satisfy mine offspring, satisfy 
my flocks, satisfy my followers, let not my fol- 
lowers thirst!' For water is sap, and over it he 
invokes this blessing, 'Satisfy ye my whole self, 
satisfy my offspring, satisfy my followers, let not my 
followers thirst!' Now that UpSwjusavana (stone), 
forsooth, is in reality Aditya Vivasvant (the sun), it 
is the pervading vital air (vyina) of this (sacrifice). 

8. Thereon he metes out (the Soma). For in 
pressing him they slay him, they slay him by means 
of that (stone) ; thus' he rises from hence, thus he 



* It is doubtful what ' pavi ' may mean here. It seems to mean 
originally a metallic mounting, especially of a shaft. The com- 
mentators explain it by ' thimderbolt.' 

* The sacrificer holds the Hotr»"s cup with the NigrdbhySA to 
his breast. 

' Viz. by being placed upon the stone, which is identical with 
the sun (?); but cf. Ill, 8, 2, 27. 



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m kAjvba, 9 adiiyAya, 4 braumaa'a, ii. 241 

lives. And because he metes him out, therefore 
there is a measure, — both the measure among men', 
and what other measure there is. 

9. He metes out with (Vdf. S. VI, 32), 'Thee 
for Indra, with the Vasus, with the Rudras!' 
For Indra is the deity of the sacrifice : therefore he 
says, 'Thee for Indra;' and by saying 'with the 
Vasus, with the Rudras,' he assigns a share, along 
with (or after) Indra, to the Vasus and the Rudras. 
— ' Thee for Indra, with the Adityas!' whereby 
he assigns a share to the Adityas along with Indra. 
— 'Thee for Indra, the slayer of foes!' a foe is 
an enemy: 'Thee for Indra, the slayer of enemies,' 
he means to say. This is his (Indra's) special share : 
as there is a special share for a chief, so is this his 
special share apart from the (other) gods. 

10. 'Thee for the Soma-bearing falcon!' 
this he metes out for Giyatrl. — 'Thee for Agni, 
the bestower of growth of wealth!' Now 
Agni is G&yatrl : he metes this out for Giyatrl. 
And since Giyatrl, as a falcon, fetched Soma from 
heaven, therefore she is (called) the Soma-bearing 
falcon : for that prowess of hers he metes out (for 
her) a second portion. 

1 1. Now as to why he metes out five times*, — the 
sacrifice is of the same measure as the year, and 
there are five seasons in the year : he takes posses- 
sion of it in five (divisions) ; hence he metes out five 
times. 



' Tasmid v iyaw manushyesbu matrd yat kaushMo yat kumbhJ 
yeyaw ki ^ manushyeshu matri. K&nva. text. 

» According to Taitt. S. VI, 4, 4 he metes out five times with 
the above texts, and five times silently. 

[36] R 



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242 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

12. He touches it with (Vif. S. VI, 33), 'What 
light of thine there is in the heavens, O Soma, 
what on earth, and what in the wide air, there- 
with make wide room for this sacrificer, for 
his prosperity: speak thou for the giver!' 
Now when he (Soma) first became sacrificial food 
for the gods, he thought within himself, ' I must not 
become sacrificial food for the gods with my whole 
self!' Accordingly he deposited those three bodies 
of his in these worlds. 

13. The gods then were victorious. -They ob- 
tained those bodies by means of this same (formula), 
and he became entirely the sacrificial food of the 
gods. And in like manner does this (priest) now 
thereby obtain those bodies of his, and he (Soma) 
becomes entirely the food of the gods : this is why 
he thus touches it. 

14. He then pours NigribhyS. water on it. Now 
the waters, forsooth, slew Vmra and by virtue of 
that prowess of theirs they now flow. Wherefore 
nothing whatsoever can check them when they flow ; 
for they followed their own free will, thinking, ' To 
whom, forsooth, should we submit (or stop), we by 
whom Vr/tra was slain!' Now all this (universe), 
whatsoever there is, had submitted^ to Indra, even 
he that blows yonder. 

15. Indra spake, 'Verily, all this (universe), what- 
soever there is, has submitted unto me : submit ye 
also to me!' — They said, 'What shall be our (re- 
ward) then ?' — ' The first draught of king Soma 
shall be yours !' — ' So be it !' thus they submitted to 

» The Ka«va MS. has twice 'tatsthSna,' as Ait. Br. VI, 5, and 
twice 'tasthdnaj' cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, p. 295. 



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in kAjvda, 9 adhyAya, 4 brahmajva, 18. 243 

him ; and they having submitted, he drew (ni-grabh) 
them to his breast ; and because he thus drew them 
to his breast, therefore they are called Nigribhyds. 
And in like manner does this sacrificer now draw 
them to his breast : and this is their first draught of 
king Soma, in that he pours Nigrdbhyfi. water thereon. 

16. He pours it with (V^. S. VI, 34), ' Ye are 
grateful, the subduers of Vr?tra;' — the waters 
indeed are propitious: therefore he says, 'Ye are 
grateful;' and 'the subduers of Vritra.' he says 
because they did slay Vmra; — 'the beneficent 
wives of the immortal (Soma) ;' for the waters are 
immortal; — 'Ye goddesses, lead this sacrifice 
to the gods!' there is nothing obscure in this; — 
' Invited, drink ye of Soma!' Thus invited they 
drink the first draught of king Soma. 

17. Being about to beat (the Soma with the 
pressing-stone), let him think in his mind of him he 
hates: 'Herewith I strike N. N., not thee!' Now 
whosoever kills a human BrAhman here, he, forsooth, 
is deemed guilty^, — how much more so he who 
strikes him (Soma), for Soma is a god. But they 
do kill him when they press him ; — they kill him 
with that (stone) : thus he rises from thence, thus he 
lives ; and thus no guilt is incurred. But if he hate 
no one, he may even think of a straw, and thus no 
guilt is incurred. 

18. He beats with (Vif. S. VI, 35), 'Fear not, 
tremble not!' whereby he means to say, 'Be not 
afraid, do not tremble, it is N.N. I strike, not thee !' 
— 'Take thou strength!' whereby he means to 
say, 'Take sap I' — 'Both ye bowls, that are 

' • Parlbkshate ' ought rather to mean ' they despise him.' 
R 2 



r 



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244 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

firm, remain firm, take strength!' — 'Surely, 
it is those two (pressing-)boards that are thereby 
meant,' so say some; — what, then, if one were to 
break those two boards^ ? But, forsooth, it is these 
two, heaven and earth, that tremble for fear of that 
raised thunderbolt (the stone) : hereby now he pro- 
pitiates it for those two, heaven and earth ; and thus 
propitiated it does not injure them. By 'Take 
strength!' he means to say, 'Take sap!' — 'The 
evil is slain, not Soma!' he thereby slays every 
evil of his. 

19. Thrice he presses*, thrice he gathers together, 

* That is to say, in that case the formula would prove to have 
been a failure. According to the Taitt. Kalpas., quoted to Taitt. S. 
1, 4, 1 (p. 590), he presses the skin down upon the two press-boards 
while muttering this formula. The Kdnva text argues somewhat 
differently, — ime evaitat phalake ihur iti haika Shus tad u kim 
Sdriyeta yad athaite bhidyeyitam eveme haiva dySvipr/thivySv 
etasmad v^grid udyatSt sawre^ete, — ' Some say those two boards 
are thereby meant ; but who would care if they should get broken ; 
for it is rather those two, heaven and earth,' &c. ? 

* The pressing of the Updwfu-graha — also called the 'small' 
pressing, distinguished from the ' great pressing ' (mahibhishava) 
for the subsequent cups or libations (graha) — consists of three turns 
of eight, eleven, and twelve single beatings respectively. Before 
each turn NigrSbhyd water is poured upon the Soma plants by 
the sacrificer from the Hotrt's cup. After each turn of pressing 
the Adhvaryu throws the completely-pressed stalks into the cup, 
and when they have become thoroughly soaked, he presses them 
out and takes them out again ; this being the ' gathering together ' 
referred to above. At the same time he mutters the Nigribha 
formula (paragraph 2 1) ; after which the pressed-out juice, absorbed 
by the water, is poured into the UpS»wu vessel in the following 
manner. Before the pressing the PratiprasthStri' had taken six 
Soma-stalks, and put two each between the fingers of his left hand. 
After each turn of pressing he takes the UpdwfU vessel with his 
right hand and holds one pair of the Soma-stalks over it (or, accord- 
ing to others, all six at the same time), through which (as through 



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Ill KAJVKA, 9 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 21. 245 

four times he performs the Nigrdbha, — this makes 
ten, for of ten syllables consists the virif, and Soma 
is of vir^ nature : therefore he completes (the 
ceremony) in ten times. 

20. Then as to why he performs the NigrAbha. 
Now when he (Soma) first became sacrificial food 
for the gods, he set his heart on those (four) regions, 
thinking, ' Could I but consort with those regions as 
my mate, my loved resort!' By performing the 
Nigribha, the gods then made him consort with the 
regions as his mate, his loved resort ; and in like 
manner does this (sacrificer) now, by performing the 
Nigribha, make him (Soma) consort with those 
regions as his mate, his loved resort. 

21. He performs with (Vd^. S. VI, 36), 'From 
east, from west, from north, from south — from 
every side may the regions resort to thee!' 
whereby he makes him consort with the regions as 
his mate, his loved resort. 'O mother, satisfy (him)! 
may the noble meet togetherM' A mother 

a strainer) the Adhvaryu then pours the Soma-juice from the press- 
ing-skin into the vessel. After the third turn the pressing-stone 
itself is put into the Hotr/'s cup, either with or without the mutter- 
ing of the Nigrabha formula. According to the commentary on 
Katy. IX, 4, 27, the Soma-juice is transferred from the skin to the 
Vpimsu cup, by the straining-cloth being made to imbibe the 
juice and then being pressed out so as to trickle down through 
the plants between the PratiprasthStr/'s fingers. The description 
given by Haug, Ait. Br., Transl. p. 489, is somewhat different. 

' The interpretation of this formula is very doubtful. The author 
evidently takes 'ariA' as nom. plur. of 'ari' ( = irya) ; but it does not 
appear how he takes ' nishpara,' while Mahidhara explains it by 
'pflraya (give him. Soma, his fill).' The St. Petersburg Diet, sug- 
gests that ' nishpara ' may mean ' come out I' and that ' artA ' seems 
to be a nom. sing. here. I take the last part of the formula to 
mean, 'May he (Soma) win (or, perhaps, join) the longing (waters) 1' 



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246 satapatha-brAhmajva, 

(ambcl) is a woman, and the regions (di^, fern.) are 
women: therefore he says,' O mother, satisfy (him)! — 
May the noble meet together!' The noble doubtless 
means people (creatures, offspring) : he thus means 
to say, ' May the people live in harmony with each 
other !' Even the people that are far away (from 
each other) live in harmony with each other : there- 
fore he says, ' May the noble meet together.' 

22. Now as to why he is called Soma. When he 
first became sacrificial food for the gods, he thought 
within him, ' I must not become sacrificial food for 
the gods with my whole self!' That form of his 
which was most pleasing he accordingly put aside. 
Thereupon the gods were victorious ; they said, 
' Draw that unto thee, for therewith shalt thou 
become our food!' He drew it to him even from 
afar, saying, verily, that is mine own (sv4 me) : 
hence he was called Soma. 

23. Then as to why he is called Ya^»a (sacrifice). 
Now, when they press him, they slay him ; and when 
they spread him', they cause him to be born. He 
is born in being spread along, he is bom moving 
(yan ^yate) : hence yan-^a, for 'ya«^,' they say, 
is the same as ' yagna.' 

24. Also this speech did he then utter (V^. S. 

some of the NigrSbhyd water being poured on the Soma at each 
turn of pressing; and small stalks of Soma being, besides, thrown 
into the Hotn's cup containing that water. As to the first part of 
the formula, it may perhaps mean, ♦ Well, pour out (or, pour forth, 
intrans.).' Professor Ludwig, Rig-veda IV, p. xvi, thinks that ' nish- 
para ' is a correction of the Taitt reading ' nishvara,' which Siyawa 
interprets, ' O mother (Soma), come out (from the stalks, in the 
form of juice),' and according to the Sfttra quoted by him, the 
sacrificer is at the same time to think of the wife he loves. 
' That is, when they perform the Soma-sacrifice. 



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Ill KANDA, 9 ADHYAyA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 25. 24/ 

VI, 37; Rig-veda I, 84, 19), 'Verily thou, a god, 
shalt extol the mortal, O most mighty! than 
thee there is no other giver of joy ^ O lord! 
unto thee do I speak this word, O Indra!' 
For it was indeed as a mortal that he uttered this, 
' Thou alone wilt produce (me) from here, no other 
but thee ! ' 

25. And from the Nigrdbhy4 water they draw the 
several grahas (cups or libations of Soma). For it 
was the waters that slew V^?tra, and in virtue of 
this prowess they flow ; and it is from flowing water 
that he takes the Vasativarl water, and from the Vasa- 
ttvari the Nigribhyi water ; and from the NigrdbhyS 
water the several grahas are drawn. In virtue of 
that prowess, then, the grahas are drawn from the 
Hotrts cup. Now the Hotrt means the Rik (fern.), 
a woman ; and from woman creatures are born here 
on earth : hence he makes him (Soma) to be born 
from that woman, the Rik, the Hotri; wherefore 
(he takes the grahas) from the Hotn's cup. 

' This is the traditional meaning (sukhayitr; ) assigned to mar</a- 
yhrt (the merciful, comforter) ; but it is not quite clear how the 
author of the BrShma/>a interprets it. 



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248 ^atapatha-brAhmaa'a. 

FOURTH KkNDh. 

First Adhyaya. First Brahmawa. 

1. The Up&w^u (graha), forsooth, is the out- 
breathing of the Sacrifice^, the UpA/«^u-savana 
(press-stone) the through-breathing, and the Antar- 
yima (graha) the in-breathing. 

2. Now as to why it is called Updwju. There is 
a graha called Kmsxx ", that is Pra^pati : his out- 
breathing is this (graha) ; and because it is his out- 
breathing, therefore it is called Updw^u. 

3. This (graha) he draws without a strainer*: 
whereby he puts the out-breathing into him as one 
tending away from hirn, and thus this forward-tending 
out-breathing of his streams forth from him. He 
purifies it with sprigs of Soma, thinking ' it shall be 
pure.' He purifies it with six (sprigs), for there are 
six seasons : it is by means of the seasons that he 
thus purifies it. 

4. As to this they say, 'When he purifies the 
Updw^u by means of sprigs, and all (other) Soma- 

* That is, the sacrificial man, or the sacrifice personified in 
Soma and the sacrificer. 

' Lit. 'the Soma-plant,' hence the (Soma)-sacrifice itself, or 
Pra^pati. See IV, 6, i, i seq. 

' Bahishpavitrat, lit. from (a vessel, or Soma) having the strainer 
outside (away from) it. While no proper strainer is used for the 
UpS/nfu-graha, the Soma-juice being poured through Soma-plants 
(see p. 244, note 2); at the great pressing it is passed through a 
fringed straining-cloth (darapavitra) spread over the Drowakalaja 
(the largest of the three Soma-troughs, the others being the 
Adhavanlya and PQtabhnt). See IV, i, 2, 3. 



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IV KAiVDA, 1 ADHyAyA, I BRAHMAJVA, 8. 249 

draughts are purified by means of a strainer, 
whereby, then, do its sprigs become pure ? ' 

5, He throws them down again (on the unpressed 
plants) with (Vaf, S. VII, 2), 'What inviolable, 
quickening name is thine, to that Soma of 
thine, O Soma, be Hail ! ' Thus his sprigs become 
purified by means of the Svihi (' Hail ! '), But this 
graha means everything, for it is the type of all the 
pressings '. 

6. Now, once on a time, the gods, while performing 
sacrifice, were afraid of an attack from the Asura- 
Rakshas. They said, ' Let us completely establish 
the sacrifice : if the Asura-Rakshas should then 
attack us, our sacrifice will at least be completely 
established.' 

7. Even at the morning Soma-feast they then 
completely established the entire sacrifice ^, — at this 
same {apkmsu) graha by means of the Ya^us ; at the 
first chant (stotra) by means of the Sdman ; and at 
the first recitation (i-astra) by means of the jRtk : 
with that sacrifice thus completely established they 
subsequently worshipped. And in like manner does 
this sacrifice now become completely established, — 
by means of the Ya^s at this same graha ; by means 
of the SSman at the first chant ; and by means of the 
Rik at the first recitation ; and with this sacrifice thus 
completely established he subsequently worships. 

8, He presses (the Soma) eight times ; for of eight 

' Viz. inasmuch as the Upa»/ju-graha is obtained by three turns 
of pressing, and each of the three Savanas (pressings, Soma-feasts) 
consists of three rounds of pressing of three turns each. See p. 256, 
note I. 

' Cf. Taitt. S. VI, 4, 5, where this theory (divested of its legendary 
form) is ascribed to Aru«a Aupave«. 



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250 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

syllables consists the GAyatrl, and the morning Soma- 
feast belongs to the Gdyatrl ; thus this (first turn of 
pressing) is made to be the morning Soma-feast. 

9. He draws (the juice of the first turn of pressing 
into the cup) with (V^. S. VII, i), ' Grow thou 
pure for V^i^aspati !' for VAiaspati (lord of speech) 
is the out-breathing, and this (Updwju) graha is the 
out-breathing : hence he says, ' Grow thou pure for 
Vdiaspati!' — 'purified by the hands with the 
sprigs of the bull ;' for he purifies it with sprigs of 
Soma : hence he says, 'with the sprigs of the bull ;' 
and ' purified by the hands (g^bhasti-pdlta^),' he says ; 
for — 'gabhasti' being the same as ' pini' (hand) — he 
indeed purifies it with his hands. 

10. He then presses eleven times; for of eleven 
syllables consists the Trish/ubh, and the midday 
Soma-feast belongs to the Trish/ubh : thus this 
(second turn of pressing) is made to be the midday 
Soma-feast. 

1 1. He draws (the juice into the cup) with, ' Grow 
thou pure, a god, for the gods — ;' for he (Soma) 
is indeed a god, and for the gods he becomes pure ; 
— ' whose portion thou art ;' for he indeed is their 
portion. 

12. He then presses twelve times; for of twelve 
syllables consists the G^agatl, and the evening Soma- 
feast belongs to the (Jagati : thus this (third turn of 
pressing) is made to be the evening Soma-feast. 

* SSya«a, on Taitt. S. 1, 4, 2, interprets it, ' Having been purified 
by the ray of the sun (while growing in the forest), do thou now 
become pure for the gods through the sprigs of the bull !' Cf., 
however, Taitt, S. VI, 4, 5, ' gabhastini hy enam pavayati,' where 
' gabhasti ' would seem to be taken in the sense of ' hand ' (? the 
forked one). See p. 244, note 2. 



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IV KAiVDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 1 7. 251 

13. He draws (the juice) with, 'Make thou our 
draughts sweet!' whereby he imbues him (Soma) 
with sap, and renders him palatable for the gods : 
hence, when slain, he does not become putrid '. 
And when he offers (that graha) he thereby com- 
pletely establishes him. 

14. ' For one desirous of spiritual lustre (brahma- 
var>fcisa) he should press eight times at each (turn),' 
so they say; — for of eight syllables consists the 
Giyatrl, and the Giyatrl is the Brahman : he indeed 
becomes endowed with spiritual lustre. 

15. Thus the pressing amounts to twenty-four 
times (of beating). Now there are twenty-four half- 
moons in the year; and Pra^pati (the lord of 
creatures) is the year, and the sacrifice is Pra^pati : 
thus as great as the sacrifice is, as great as is its 
measure, so great he thereby establishes it. 

16. ' For one desirous of cattle he should press 
five times at each (turn),' so they say ; — the cattle 
(animal victims) consist of five parts : he indeed gains 
cattle ; and there are five seasons in the year ; and 
Pra^pati is the year, and the sacrifice is Pra^pati : 
thus as g^eat as the sacrifice is, as great as is its 
measure, so great he thereby establishes it. This, 
however, is mere speculation ; it is the other (manner) 
which is practised. 

1 7. Having drawn the graha, he wipes (the vessel) 
all round, lest any (Soma-juice) should trickle down. 
He does not deposit it; for this is his out-breath- 
ing, whence this out-breathing passes unceasingly. 
Should he, however, desire to exorcise, he may 

^ The KS«va text adds, ' while whosoever else is slain becomes 
putrid.' 



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252 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

deposit it ' with, ' I put thee down, the out-breathing 
of N. N.!' Thus, forsooth, inasmuch as he (the 
Adhvaryu) does not quit his hold of it, it is not 
again in that (enemy) ; and thus both the Adhvaryu 
and the Sacrificer live long. 

18. Or he may merely cover (the vessel by his 
hand) with, ' I shut thee off, the out-breathing of 
N. N. ! ' Thus, forsooth, inasmuch as he does not 
deposit it, it is not again in that enemy ; and thus 
he does not disorder the vital airs. 

19. While he is still inside (the Havirdhdna) he 
utters * Hail ! ' For the gods were afraid lest the 
Asura-Rakshas should destroy what part of this 
graha was previous to the offering. They offered it 
(symbolically) by means of the Svdhi, while they 
were still inside (the cart-shed), and what was thus 
offered they afterwards offered up in the fire. And in 
like manner does he now offer it up by means of the 
Svaha, while he is still inside, and what has thus 
been offered he afterwards offers up in the fire. 

20. He then walks out (of the Havirdhina) with, 
' I walk along the wide air^' For along the air 

' That is, he may set it down on the khara.for a moment without 
quitting his liold of it. While the subsequent cups of Soma are 
deposited in their respective places after they have been drawn, the 
Up&msu and Anlaryama are offered immediately. 

' With the Taittiriyas the order of proceeding is somewhat dif- 
ferent: The Adhvaryu pours the Soma through the Soma-plants into 
the Vpimsu cup after each turn of pressing, with, ' Become pure 
for Va^aspati, O courser I' — 'The bull purified by the hand with 
the plants of the bull!' — 'Thou, a god, art a purifier of the gods 
whose share thou art : thee, to them ! ' respectively. He then takes 
the cup from the Pratiprasthitr/ with, ' Thou art self-made ! ' eyes 
it with, ' Make our drinks sweet ; ' and wipes it clean upwards with, 
'Thee for all powers, divine and earthly!' He then rises with, 
' May the mind obtain thee ! ' steps to the Ahavaniya with, ' I move 



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IV KANDX, I ADIIYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 22. 253 

the Rakshas roams rootless and unfettered on both 
sides, even as man here roams along the air, rootless 
and unfettered on both sides ^ ; and, that formula 
being the Brahman (prayer), a slayer of the Rakshas, 
he, by means of that Brahman, renders the air free 
from danger and injury. 

2 1 . Thereupon he (the Sacrificer) asks a boon. For 
the gods, forsooth, greatly desire to obtain the 
offering of that graha, and they grant to him that 
boon, in order that he may forthwith offer that graha 
to them : this is why he asks a boon. 

22. He (the Adhvaryu) offers with (Vif. S. VII, 3), 
' Self-made thou art,' for, this graha being his 
(Ya^wa's) out-breathing, it is indeed made by itself, 
born of itself*: hence he says,' Self-made thou art ;' — 
'for all powers, divine and earthly,' — for it is born 
of itself for all creatures ' ; — ' May the mind obtain 
thee ! ' — the mind being Pra^pati, he thereby means 
to say, ' may Pra^pati obtain thee ! ' ' Hail I thee, O 
well-born, for SAryal' thus he utters the second* 

along the wide air,' and offers, while the sacrificer holds on to him 
from behind, with, 'Hail! thee, O well-born, to SOryai' 
» See III, I, 3, 13. 

* ' For this libation is the out-breathing, and the out-breathing is 
he that blows yonder (the wind); and he indeed is made by 
himself, begotten (^ta) of himself, since there is no other maker 
nor begetter of him.' Kd»va text. 

* Perhaps we ought to translate the passage, 'from all the 
powers, divine and earthly,' for it is born by itself from all the 
creatures. But cf. Taitt. S. VI, 4,5:' Thereby he puts out-breathing 
both into gods and men.' 

* While, in its force of 'subsequent,' avara here refers back to the 
first Svdhi, pronounced by the Adhvaryu (par. 19); it also has here 
the meaning of ' lower,' and, developed out of this, that of ' preced- 
ing' (in which meaning it occurs in the iJ/kprdtif&khya). Hence it is 
quite impossible adequately to render this play on the words avara, 
'subsequent, lower, preceding,' and para, 'higher, subsequent.' 



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254 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

(or inferior) 'Hail!' with regard to a subsequent^ 
(or higher ; the highest) deity. 

23. Now it is in him that bums yonder (the sun) 
that he has just offered that (libation) ; and the latter 
is the All : hence he makes that (sun) the highest of 
the All. But were he to utter the second (or higher) 
' Hail ! ' with regard to a preceding (or lower) deity ^, 
then it would be even higher than yonder sun : 
therefore he utters the second * Hail !' with regard to 
a subsequent deity. 

24. And, having offered, he wipes the (vessel of 
the) graha upwards ; whereby he puts that out- 
breathing into him as one tending away from him. 
Thereupon he rubs (the wiped-off Soma) upon the 
middle enclosing stick from west to east with the 
palm of his hand turned upwards' — whereby he puts 
that out-breathing into him as one tending away from 
him — ^with, 'Thee to the gods sipping motes of 
light!' 

25. For in that orb which burns yonder he has 
just offered this (libation), and those rays thereof 
are the gods sipping motes of light : it is these he 
thereby gratifies; and thus gratified those gods 
convey him to the heavenly world. 

26. For this same graha there is neither an 
invitatory prayer nor an offering prayer * : he offers it 

' That is, coming after Svihi in the formula. 

* The Kinva text reads : etasmin vi etan mamfale 'haushid yz 
eshatapati; sarvam u v& esha grahaA; sarvasmid evaitad asm&d 
enam uttaram karoti ya esho 'sm&t sarvasmid uttaro yad dhivardm 
devat^ kurySt para^t sv4hikSram anyad dhaitasmSd uttaraxn 
kuryit. 

* That is to say, he is to pass his hand, palm upwards, under 
the middle enclosing stick. 

* Such {Jiik verses) as are ordinarily recited by the Hotr«*. When 



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IV KANDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 27. 255 

with a (Ya^us) formula, and thereby it becomes for 
him supplied with both an invitatory and an offering 
prayer. And if he desire to exorcise, let him offer 
some spray (of Soma) which may adhere either to 
his arm, or to his breast, or to his garment, with, 
' O divine plant, let that be true wherefore I pray 
thee : let N. N. be struck down by destruction falling 
from above, crash!' Even as one of (enemies) that 
are being slain might escape, so does this (sprig) fly 
away from those that are being pressed : thus nothing 
(hostile) — either running thither or running away' — 
remains to him for whom he performs this. He de- 
posits that (cup) with, 'Thee for the out-breath- 
ing!' for this (graha) indeed is his out-breathing. 

27. Now some deposit it on the south part (of the 
khara*), for, they say, it is in that direction that 

the UpS«wu cup is drawn, the Hotr; says, 'Restrain the out- 
breathing (pri«a)I Hail! thee, O well-calling one, to Sflryal' 
whereupon he breathes into (or towards) the cup with, 'O out- 
breathing, restrain my out-breathing!' After that he remains silent 
till the Antary^ma is drawn, when he addresses that graha with, 
' Restrain the in-breathing (apSna)! Hail ! thee, O well-calling one, 
to SOryal' whereupon he draws in his breath over the cup, and 
says, ' O in-breathing, restrain my in-breathing ! ' He then touches 
the pressing-stone with, 'Thee to the through-breathing 1' and 
therewith frees his speech from restraint. Ait. Br. H, 2 1 . On the 
terms out-breathing (pr^a)and in-breathing (apina, or up-breathing, 
udina) see part i, p. 19, note 2; J. S. Speijer, Jitakarma, p. 64; 
S4ya«a on Taitt. S. 1, 4, 3 (vol. i, p. 603) ; Taitt. S. VI, 4, 6, Dif- 
ferent Haug, Ait, Br. Transl. p. 118. 

' 'Na dhSvan nipadhivat parinshyate;' perhaps we ought to 
read 'nUpadhivan;' unless indeed 'tasya' refers to Soma, as 
SS.ya«a seems to take it The Kinva. text has : tathi ha teshibx 
nipadhdvans ^ana muiyate yebhyas tathd karoti. 

' According to the Sfitras of the Black Ya^s (cf. SSya»a on 
Taitt. S. I, 4, 2, p. 598), the Vp&msa cup is ' deposited' on the 
south-east and the Antary4ma cup on the north-east corner of the 



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256 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA, 

yonder (sun) moves. Let him, however, not do 
this, but let him deposit it on the north (uttara) part 
(of the khara), because there is not any higher (uttara) 
graha than this. He deposits it with, ' Thee for the 
out-breathing!' for this (graha) is indeed his out- 
breathing. 

28. He then takes the Upiw^-savana (pressing- 
stone). He neither touches it with the fringe nor 
with the straining-cloth, for that would be like rinsing 
it in water. If there be any spray adhering to it, 
let him remove it with his hand, and then lay down 
(the stone) beside (the XJptmsu cup), with the face 
towards the north, with, 'Thee for the through- 
breathing!' for this (stone) is indeed his (Y^»a's) 
through-breathing. 

Second Brahmajva. 

II. The Great Pressing '. 

I. The Upd/wju (graha), forsooth, is his out- 
breathing, the Upi/«i'u-savana (stone) his through- 

khara or mound ; the UpSwju-savana stone being placed between 
them. Before depositing the vessel, the Adhvaryu pours some of 
the residue of Soma-juice from the UpSwm cup into the Agraya«a- 
sthilt, and having put a large twig of Soma into it for the evening 
pressing (? the Addbhya graha, cf Siy. on Taitt. S. I, 603), he 
' deposits ' it on the mound. 

' The ' Great Pressing ' (mahdbhishava) from which the Antar- 
ydma and following libations are obtained is performed by the 
four priests, viz. the Adhvaryu and his three assistants, Pratipra- 
sthltr/, Nesh/r/, and Unnetr;' each having an equal portion of 
Soma-plants and one of the four remaining pressing-stones assigned 
to him. The ceremonies mentioned in III, 9, 4, i seq. are repeated 
on the present occasion, each of the priests tying a piece of gold to 
his ring-finger. The pressing is performed in three rounds of 
three turns each, the number of single strokes of the several turns 



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IV KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 2. 257 

breathing, and the Antarydma (graha) his in- 
breathing. 

2. Now as to why it is called Antaryima. That 
which is the out-breathing is also the in-breathing 
and the through-breathing. Now, in drawing the 
Uptmsu (graha), he puts into him that out-breathing 
which tends away from him ; and in drawing the 

being, however, not limited, as was the case at the pressing of the 
Upd»wu. Only before the first turn of each round NigrSbhyd 
water is poured on the plants. After each turn the scattered plants 
are gathered together on a heap. At the end of each round (of 
three turns) the Soma is touched (or 'strengthened'); whereupon 
the completely pressed-out stalks are thrown into the Hotri's cup 
and the Nigribha formula is pronounced (III, 9, 4, 2 1). The stalks 
which are still juicy are then 'gathered together' (see III, 9, 4, 19) 
into the so-called sambharani and poured into the Adhavaniya trough, 
and having been stirred about therein by the Unnetr», are taken 
out, pressed out, and thrown on the skin, when the same process 
is repeated. On the completion of the third round the Dro«a- 
kalara is brought forward (from behind the axle of the southern 
cart) by the Udgitr/s (for the mantras used by them see T&ndyz 
Br. I, 2, 6-7) and placed on the four stones covered with the 
pressed-out Soma husks, the straining-cloth being then stretched 
over it, with the fringe towards the north. The Hotr;'s cup (held 
by the sacrificer and containing the remaining Nigribhyi water) 
having then been filled up by the Unnetr/' with the Soma-juice in 
the Adhavantya trough, the sacrificer pours it in one continuous 
stream from the Hotn's cup upon the straining-cloth, spread over 
the Dro»akala(a by the chanters (Udgitr/s), muttering a mantra 
{Tindya. Br. I, 2, 9) all the time. From this stream the first eiglit 
(at the midday pressing the first five) libations are taken, by the 
respective cups being held under, the remaining libations or cups 
being drawn either from the strained (or 'pure,' jukra) Soma-juice 
in the Dronakala^a, or from the Agraya«asthalJ or the PQtabhr/t. 
Sdyana on Ait. Br. II, 22, i seems to exclude the Antarydma graha 
from the 'great pressing:' antaryimagrahahom&d Ordhvam mahS- 
bhishavam kri'tvi. Also in II, 21, i he mentions the Dadhi graha, 
Amsa graha, and Addbhya graha (see p. 255, n. 2) as intervening 
between the Aponaptriya ceremony and the drawing of the UpSwju 
graha. 

[26] S 



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258 jyATAPATHA-BRAHMAA'A. 

AntarySma, he puts into him that in-breathing which 
tends towards him. But this same in-breathing is 
confined within his self; and because it is confined 
(yam) within (antar) his self, or because these 
creatures are sustained (yam) by it, therefore it is 
called Antaryima. 

3. He draws it from inside the strainer ^, whereby 
he puts that in-breathing into him as one tending 
towards him, and that in-breathing of his is placed 
(or beneficial) within his self. And thereby also 
that Upiwju (libation) of his comes to be drawn 
from inside the strainer (i. e. from the pure Soma), 
for one and the same are the Uptmsu and Antar- 
yUma, since they are the out-breathing and in- 
breathing. And thereby, moreover, that (vital air) 
of his comes to be unceasing also at the other 
grahas. 

4. Now as to why he purifies the Soma by means 
of a strainer (pavitra). When Soma had oppressed 
his own family-priest BreTiaspati, he restored to him 
(his property); and on his restoring it, he (Brz'has- 
pati) became reconciled to him. Still there was 
guilt remaining, if only for having contemplated 
oppressing the priesthood, 

5. The gods purified him by some means of purifica- 
tion (or a strainer, pavitra), and, being cleansed and 
pure, he became the (sacrificial) food of the gods. And 

' Antaipavitrdt, lit. from (the vessel or stream of Soma) which has 
the strainer inside it; the straining-cloth being spread over the Dro»a- 
kalara, into which the pressed-out Soma-juice is poured. The 
Petersburg Dictionary assigns to it the meaning ' the Soma within the 
filtering vessel ' (see I V, i , i , 3). Perhaps it means ' from that which 
has a strainer between,' i. e. from the poured-out stream from which 
the libation is taken, and which is separated from the Dro»akalara 
by the straining-cloth. 



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IV KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, J. 259 

in like manner does he now purify him by means 
of that strainer, and, being cleansed and pure, 
he becomes the food of the gods. 

6. Then as to why the grahas are drawn with the 
Upayima^. Now Aditi is this (earth), and hers was 
that priya«lya oblation, that Aditya rice-pap ^ But 
that was, as it were, previous to the Soma feast : 
she desired to have a share along with the gods in 
the Soma feast, and said, ' Let there be for me also 
a share of the pressed Soma!' 

7. The gods said, ' This sacrifice has already been 
distributed among the deities : by means of thee the 
grahas shall be taken and offered to the deities!' — 

* The term Upayima, lit. 'foundation, substratum,' referring 
properly to ' that which is held under ' while taking the libation, 
that is, the cup of the respective graha (and hence also identified 
with the earth, as the substratum of everything, cf. Sty. on Taitt. S. 
I, 4, 3), has come to be applied likewise to the formula ' upayima- 
gr/bito 'si,' i.e. ' thou art taken with (or on) a support,' which is 
repeated at those libations before the formulas muttered while they 
are drawn into the respective vessels or cups (see par. 15). Haug, 
Transl. Ait. Br. p. 1 18 note, makes the following distinction between 
the graha (cup) and pStra (vessel) of the Aniaryima (and Upiwm) 
libation: 'The patra is a vessel resembling a large wooden jar 
with but a very slight cavity on the top, in which the Soma-juice is 
filled. The graha is a small cup, like a saucer, made of earth, 
and put over the cavity of the Soma vessel, in order to cover the 
" precious " juice. The bottom of it is first put in water, and 
a gold leaf placed beneath it. There are as many grahas as there 
are p&tras ; they belong together just as cup and saucer, and are 
regarded as inseparable. The word graha is, however, taken 
often in the sense of the whole, meaning both graha and pitra.' 
I doubt, however, whether this distinction is in accordance with 
the old authorities. The graha vessels or cups are described as 
resembling the shape of a mortar. For other peculiarities, see IV, 
I, 5. 1 9- With some libations there is both a pdtra (cup) and 
a sth^U (bowl). 

* See III, 2, 3, 1 seq. 

S 2 



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26o satapatha-brAhmajva. 

' So be it !' This, then,, is her share of the pressed 
Soma. 

8. And, again, why the grahas are drawn with the 
Upayima. The Upayima indeed is this (earth), 
since it is this (earth) that bears (upa-yam^) food 
here for cattle and men and trees ; and the gods are 
above this, for the gods are in heaven. 

9. The reason, then, why the grahas are drawn 
with the Upaydma, is that they are drawn by means 
of this (earth); and why he deposits them in the 
womb", is that this earth is the womb of everything, 
that it is from her that these creatures have sprung. 

10. That same Soma the priests carry about as 
seed. And seed which is cast outside the womb is 
lost; but that which he deposits in the womb is 
indeed deposited in this earth. 

11. Now these two grahas are his out-breathing 
and in-breathing ; one of them he offers after sunrise 
and the other before sunrise, in order to keep the 
out-breathing and in-breathing distinct from each 
other. He thus keeps the out-breathing and in- 
breathing distinct from each other : hence these two, 
even while being one and the same, are yet called 
differently 'out-breathing' and 'in-breathing.' 

12. Now those two grahas are for him day and 
night ; one of them he offers after sunrise and the 



' Lit. forms the support or basis for it. The sentence could 
also be translated, ' this earth doubtless is an upayama (support), 
since she bears food.' Apparently he means to say that, as the 
gods are above, the food to be offered to them requires some sup- 
port, something to ' hold it up' by for the gods to reach it. 

' This refers to the formula ' This is thy womb,' with which 
most libations, after being drawn, are deposited in their proper place 
on the khara until they are used for offering. See IV, i, 3, 19. 



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IV kXndA, I ADHYAyA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 1 5. 26I 

Other before sunrise, in order to keep day and night 
distinct from each other : he thus keeps day and 
night distinct from each other ^ 

13. The Upiweju, being the day, he offers in the 
night ; and thus he puts the day into the night : 
whence even in the deepest darkness one distin- 
guishes something*. 

14. The Antarydma, being the night, he offers 
after sunrise, and thus he puts the night into the 
day : whence that sun, on rising, does not burn up 
these creatures ; whence these creatures are pre- 
served. 

15. He draws (the Antaryima graha) therefrom* 
with (V^, S. VII, 4), 'Thou art taken with a 
support!' — The significance of the Upayima 
has been told*. — 'Restrain thou, O mighty 
(Indra), guard Soma!' the mighty, forsooth, is 
Indra; and Indra is the leader of the sacrifice: 
wherefore he says 'O mighty!' and by 'guard 
Soma' he means to say 'protect Soma!' 'Pre- 
serve the riches! gain thee food in the sacri- 
fice!' — riches mean cattle: 'Protect the cattle' he 
thereby means to say. ' Gain thee food in the sacri- 
fice !' — food means creatures : he thus makes these 
eager to sacrifice, and these creatures go on sacrificing 
and praising and toiling. 



' ' Were he to ofifer both after sunrise, there would only be day, 
and no night; and were he to offer both before sunrise, there 
would only be night, and no day.' KSxtva text. 

' Tasmdd v id&m rdtrau tamasi sati nir^Tiiyata iva kimild iva. 
Kinva text 

• Viz. from the stream of Soma poured from the Hotr/'s cup on 
the straining-cloth. See p. 256, note i. 

* See paragraph 6, with note. 



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262 jatapatha-brAhma;va, 

i6. 'Into thee I lay day and nightS* into thee 
I lay the wide air: allied with the gods, the 
lower and the higher,' — thereby he makes this 
(graha) one belonging to all the gods : because by 
means of it these creatures move about in the air 
breathing out and breathing in, therefore it belongs 
to all the gods.—' Delight thyself in the Antar- 
ydma, O mighty one!' the mighty one is Indra, 
and Indra is the leader of the sacrifice, wherefore he 
says ' O mighty one!' and in that he draws it with 
' into — into,' thereby he means to say ' I lay thee 
into his (Indra's) self 

17. Having drawn it, he wipes (the vessel) all 
round, lest (any Soma-juice) should trickle down. 
He does not deposit it ; for this is the in-breathing : 
hence this in-breathing passes unceasingly. But 
should he desire to exorcise, let him deposit it with 
' I put thee down, the in-breathing of N. N, ! ' 

18. If he deposits the Upiw^u, let him also 
deposit this (Antaryima cup)*; and if he does not 
deposit the Uptmsu, let him also not deposit this. 
And if he covers the Up&msu (with his hand), let 
him also cover this ; and if he does not cover the 
VpAmsu, let him also not cover this : as the per- 
formance regarding the Upi««^u, so regarding this 
(graha); for one and the same are these two, the 
IJptmsu and Antaryima, since they are the out- 
breathing and in-breathing. 

19. Now the Aarakas, forsooth, offer these two 

' MahMhara offers the alternative interpretation, 'through thee 
I place day and night between {Soma and the enemies),' which is 
also Siyana's interpretation on Taitt. S. I, 4, 3; as apparently that 
of the Taitt. S. itself, VI, 4, 6. 

* SeelV, 1,1, 17-18. 



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IV kAjVDA, I ADHYAyA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 23. 263 

(libations) with two different formulas ', saying, 
' These two are his out-breathing and in-breathing : 
we make the out-breathing and in-breathing of varied 
vigour.' But let him not do this, for they disorder 
the sacrificer's out-breathing and in-breathing. Now, 
one might also * offer this one silently : — 

20. But, as he offers the Upd»«ju with a formula, 
even thereby this (libation) also comes to be offered 
with a formula. How then could one offer it silently, 
for these two, the IJp&msu and Antaryima, are one 
and the same, since they are the out-breathing and 
in-breathing ? 

21. With the very same formula with which he 
offers the Uptmsu, he offers this (libation), — 'Self- 
made thou art: for all powers divine and 
earthly: may the mind obtain thee! Hail! — 
thee, O well-born, for S6rya!' The significance 
of this formula has been told, 

22. And, having offered', he wipes the cup clean 
downwards. For even now, after offering the U pA.msu, 
he wiped (the cup) upwards ; but here he wipes it 
downwards; whereby he puts the in-breathing into 
him as one tending towards him. 

23. He then rubs (the wiped-off Soma) upon the 
middle enclosing stick from east to west with the 
palm of his hand turned downwards. For even now, 
after offering the Vp&msu, he rubbed it upon the 

' This does not appear to refer to the Taittirtyas, since by them 
the same order of proceeding is prescribed for the AntarySma as 
for the Upiwju (p. 252, note 2); cf Sdyawa on Taitt S. I, p. 603. 
See, however, MaitrSy. Sawh. I, 3, 4-5. 

* ' Aptd (vai)' seems to have much the same meaning (' perhaps') 
as the later ' api nSma.' Cf. I, 9, i, 19. 

' He offers the entire Soma in the AntarySma cup, without 
leaving any, or pouring any juice into the AgrayanasthSii. 



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264 *ATAPAT£IA-BRAnMAiVA. 

middle enclosing stick from west to east with the 
palm of his hand turned upwards ; but here he does 
so from east to west with the palm of his hand 
turned downwards — whereby he puts the in-breathing 
into him as one tending towards him — with, 'Thee 
for the gods sipping motes of light!' The 
significance is the same as before. 

24. Having returned (to the cart-shed), he deposits 
that (cup) with, 'Thee for the in-breathing!' for 
this is indeed his in-breathing. He deposits them * 
so as to touch one another ; whereby he makes out- 
breathing and in-breathing touch one another, joins 
the out-breathings and in-breathings together. 

25. Now these (cups and stone) repose without 
being moved until the evening Soma feast, whence 
men sleep here on earth ; and at the evening Soma 
feast they are used again, whence these men, having 
slept, awake and are bustling and restless ; — this, 
forsooth, is after the manner of the sacrifice, for the 
sacrifice is fashioned like a bird : the Vp&msu and 
AntaryAma (grahas) are its wings, and the UpAwju- 
savana (stone) its body. 

26. They repose without being moved until the 
evening Soma feast. The sacrifice is spread along ; 
but what is spread along moves, whence those birds 
fly spreading their wings, not drawing them in. At 
the evening Soma feast they are again used ; whence 

' According to ihe Ka«va text he is to place the Antarydma cup 
on the south-east corner (dakshiwardhe) of the khara (see p. 255, n.a); 
while, according to Kity. IX, 2, i, both the Vfimsu and Antar- 
yima are to be placed on the north-east corner, the former south 
of the latter. This arrangement, however, would scarcely agree 
with IV, I, I, 27-28. The Upawju-savana stone, doubtless, is to 
lie between the two cups, with its face towards the Up^xu. 



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IV KAiVflA, I ADHYAYA, 3 BrAhMAJVaJ 



these birds fly drawing in their wings to fold 
this indeed is after the manner of the sacrifice. 

27. The Vp^msu, forsooth, is this (earth), for the 
Updwju is the out-breathing, and breathing out one 
breathes upon this (earth). And the Antaryima 
is yonder (sky), for the IJp&msu is the in-breathing 
(upbreathing), and in breathing up one breathes 
towards yonder world. And the Upd««,m-savana 
(stone) is the air, for the Upi»/^u-savana is the 
through-breathing, and he who breathes through (in 
and out), breathes through this air. 

Third Brahmajva. 

1. The Aindra-viyava (graha), forsooth, is his 
speech; and as such belonging to his self. Now 
Indra, when he had hurled the thunderbolt at Vr?tra, 
thinking himself to be the weaker, and fearing lest 
he had not laid him low, hid himself. The gods also 
hid themselves away in the same place. 

2. The gods then said, ' Verily, we know not if 
Vr/tra be slain or alive : come, let one of us find 
out, if Vmra be slain or alive !' 

3. Theysaid unto Viyu — V4yu, forsooth, is he that 
blows yonder — ' Find thou out, O V4yu, if Vr?'tra be 
slain or alive ; for thou art the swiftest among us : if 
he lives, thou indeed wilt quickly return hither.' 

4. He spake, ' What shall be my reward then?' — 
' The first Vasha/ of king Soma!* — 'So be it!' so 
V^yu went, and lo^Vrttra. slain. He spake, 'Vritra. 
is slain : do ye with the slain what ye list !' 

' That is,to Yj^na's body(madhyadeha, Siy.) as distinguished from 
his limbs. The Petersb. Diet, takes adhyltmam in the sense of ' in re- 
gard to the self (or person).' SeelV, 1,4, i,withnote; IV, 2, 2, i seq. 

* At I, 6, 2, 3 ; II, 2, 3, 9, I erroneously supplied a verb of 




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266 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

5. The gods rushed thither, — as (those) eager to 
take possession of their property, so (it fared with) 
him (Vr/tra — Soma) ' : what (part of him) one of 
them seized, that became an ekadevatya (graha, 
belonging to one deity), and what two of them, 
that became a dvidevatya *, and what many (seized), 
that became a bahudevatya ; — and because they 
caught him up each separately (vi-grah) by means 
of vessels, therefore (the libations) are called graha, 

6. He stank in their nostrils, — sour and putrid he 
blew towards them : he was neither fit for offering, 
nor was he fit for drinking. 

7. The gods said to Vdyu, 'Vdyu, blow thou 
through him, make him palatable for us !' He said, 
' What shall be my reward then ?' — ' After thee they 
shall name those cups,' — ' So be it !' he said, ' but 
blow ye along with me !' 

8. The gods dispelled some of that smell, and laid 
it into the cattle, — this is that foul smell in (dead) 
cattle : hence one must not close (his nose) at that 
foul smell, since it is the smell of king Soma, 

9. Nor must one spit thereat ' ; even though he 
should think himself ever so much affected, let him 

motion with the particle ed, following the original interpretation in 
the Petersb. Diet, and Weber's Ind. Stud. IX, 249, I now adopt 
the later explanation put forth in the 'Nachtrage.' Professor 
Whitney, Amer. Joum. of Phil., Ill, p. 399, apparently draws from 
the same source, 

' ' As (those) wishing to take possession of their property, so 
did they seize upon him each for himself (evaw taw vyagriliwata);' 
KS«va text. The construction of our text is quite irregular. 

' The dvidevatya grahas (hbations belonging to two gods) at 
the morning Soma feast aretheAindra-vSyava(Indraand V4yu), 
the Maitri-varu«a (Mitra and Varu«a), and the Afvina. 

' That is, because of it, or away from it. Perhaps, however, it 
belongs to the next clause, ' therefore, even . . . .* 



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IV KkNDA, I ADHyAyA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, I4. 267 

go round it windward * ; for Soma means eminence, 
and disease meanness : even as at the approach of 
his superior the meaner man would get down (from 
his seat), so does disease go down before him (Soma). 

10. Then Viyu blew a second time through him 
and thereby made him palatable ; whereupon he was 
fit for offering and fit for drinking. Hence those 
(vessels), though belonging to various deities, are 
called ' v^yavya (Vfiyu's vessels) ^' His (Viyu's) 
is that first Vasha/ of king Soma, and, moreover, 
those vessels are named after him. 

11. Indra then thought within himself: — 'V4yu, 
forsooth, has the largest share of this our sacrifice, 
since his is the first Vasha/ of king Soma, and, 
moreover, those vessels are named after him : nay, 
but I, too, will desire a share therein!' 

12. He said, ' Viyu, let me share in this cup !* — 
'What will then be?' — 'Speech shall speak intel- 
ligibly*!' — 'If speech will speak intelligibly, then 
will I let thee share !' Thus that cup henceforward 
belonged to Indra and V4yu, but theretofore it 
belonged to Viyu alone. 

13. Indra said, ' One half of this cup is mine !' — 
'Only one fourth is thine!' said Viyu. — 'One half 
is mine!' said Indra, — 'Only one fourth is thine!' 
said Vciyu. 

14. They went to Pra^ipati for his decision. 
Prajjipati divided the cup (of Soma) into two parts 
and said, 'This (half) is VSyu's!' Then he divided 
the (other) half into two parts and said, ' This is 

' That is, in order to inhale as much of the strong smell of the 
Soma as possible (?). 
' See p. 158, note i. 
• Or, articulately, distinctly (niruktam). 



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268 *atapatha-brAhma;va. 

Viyu's ! — This is thine !* then he assigned to Indra 
a fourth part for his share — one fourth is the same 
as a quarter : henceforward that cup belonged, one 
fourth of it, to Indra. 

15. Now with this libation there are two puro- 
ru^' — formulas, — the first belonging to Vdyu alone, 
and the second to Indra and VSyu ; and two invitatory 
prayers (anuvikyi), — the first to Vayu alone, and 
the second to Indra and Viyu ; and two praisha 
(directions), — the first belonging to Viyu alone, and 
the second to Indra and V4yu ; and two offering 
prayers (yifyi), — the first to VSyu alone, and the 
second to Indra and Viyu : thus he assigns to him 
(Indra) each time a fourth part for his share. 

16. He said, ' If they have assigned to me a fourth 
part each time for my share, then speech shall speak 
intelligibly only one fourth part !' Hence only that 
fourth part of speech is intelligable which men speak ; 
but that fourth part of speech which beasts speak is 
unintelligible ; and that fourth part of speech which 
birds speak is unintelligible; and that fourth part 
of speech which the small vermin here speaks is 
unintelligible. 

17. Wherefore it has been thus spoken by the 
i?«hi (Rig-veda 1, 164, 45): — ' Four are the measured 
grades of speech ; the Brihmans that are wise know 
them : three, deposited in secret, move not ; the 
fourth grade of speech men speak.' 

18. He now draws (the graha) from that (stream 
of Soma)^ with (V4^. S. VII, 7; Rig-veda VII, 
92, i), 'Come nigh to us, O Vdyu, sipping of 

' Puroru^ (lit. 'fore-shining') is the designation of the fonnuias 
preceding the Upaydma, • Thou art taken with a support, &c.' 
* See p. 256, note i. 



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IV kAjVDA, I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAhMAJVA, I. 269 

the pure (Soma)! Thine are a thousand steeds, 
O bestower of all boons ! Unto thee hath been 
offered the gladdening juice whereof thou, O 
God, takest the first draught! — Thee for 
V4yu!' 

19. And, having withdrawn (the cup), he again 
fills h\ with (Vi/. S. VII, 8; Rig-veda I, 2, 4), 
'O Indra and VSyu, here is Soma-juice: 
come ye hither for the refreshing draught, 
the drops long for you ! — Thou art taken with 
a support*! — Thee for Viyu, for Indra and 
Viyu!' — with 'This is thy womb': thee for the 
closely united!' he deposits (the cup). As to 
why he says, ' Thee for the closely united,' — he who 
is V&yu, is Indra ; and he who is Indra, is Vfiyu : 
therefore he says, ' This is thy womb : thee for the 
closely united ! ' 

Fourth BRAHMAiVA. 

I. Mitra and Varuwa, forsooth, are his intelligence 
and will ; and as such belonging to his self: when- 
ever he desires anything in his mind, as ' Would 
that this were mine ! I might do this !' that is intel- 
ligence ; and whenever that is accomplished, that is 
will*. Now intelligence indeed is Mitra, and will is 

' When the cup is half-filled he withdraws it for a moment from 
the stream of Soma flowing from the Hotr/'s cup into the Dro«a- 
kala^ trough ; after which he again holds it under to have it filled 
completely. For the shape of this cup, see IV, i, 5, 19. 

* See IV, I, 2, 6, with note. ' See IV, i, 2, 9, with note. 

* The Ki«va text adds, tad asyaitSv StmanaA, ' and these two 
are of his self,' which seems to be intended to explain the pre- 
ceding adhj-Stmam, 'belonging to his self.' See IV, i, 3, i, with 
note. 



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270 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

Varu^a; and Mitra is the priesthood, and Varu«a 
the nobility ; and the priesthood is the conceiver, 
and the noble is the doer. 

2. Now in the beginning these two, the priesthood 
and the nobility, were separate : then Mitra, the priest- 
hood, could stand without Varu«a, the nobility. 

3. Not Varu«a, the nobility, without Mitra, the 
priesthood: whatever deed Varu«a did unsped by 
Mitra, the priesthood, therein, forsooth, he suc- 
ceeded not. 

4. Varu«a, the nobility, then called upon Mitra, 
the priesthood, saying, ' Turn thou unto me that we 
may unite : I will place thee foremost, sped by thee, 
I will do deeds!' — 'So be it!' So the two united; 
and therefrom resulted that graha to Mitra and 
Varu«a. 

5. Such, then, is the office of Purohita (placed 
foremost, domestic priest). Wherefore let not a 
Brfihman desire to become the Purohita of any one 
Kshatriya (he may meet with), as thereby righteous- 
ness and unrighteousness unite ; nor should a Ksha- 
triya make any Brdhman (he may meet with) his 
Purohita, as thereby righteousness and unrighteous- 
ness unite. — Whatever deed, sped by Mitra, the 
priesthood, Varuwa thenceforward did, in that he 
succeeded. 

6. Hence it is quite proper that a Brihman should 
be without a king, but were he to obtain a king, it 
would be conducive to the success (of both). It is, 
however, quite improper that a king should be with- 
out a Brdhman, for whatever deed he does, unsped 
by Mitra, the priesthood, therein he succeeds not. 
Wherefore a Kshatriya who intends to do a deed 
ought by all means to resort to a Brdhman, for 



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ly kXnda, I adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 10. 271 

he verily succeeds only in the deed sped by the 
Brahman. 

7. Now he draws (the Maitr&-varu»a graha) 
from that (stream of Soma)\ with (Vi^. S. VII, 9 ; 
Rig-veda II, 41, 4), 'This Soma, O Mitra and 
Varu«a, hath been pressed for you; ye holy, 
now hear my cry! — Thou art taken with a 
support*! — Thee for Mitra and Varu«a!' 

8, He mixes it with milk. The reason why he 
mixes it with milk is this. Soma, forsooth, was 
Writra.. Now when the gods slew him, they said 
to Mitra, ' Thou also slayest !* But he liked it not 
and said, ' Surely, I am every one's friend (mitra) : 
being no friend, I shall become an enemy (or, other 
than Mitra, Amitra),' — ' Then we shall exclude thee 
from the sacrifice!' — Then said he, 'I, too, slay!' 
Thereupon the cattle went from him, saying, ' Being 
a friend, he has become an enemy !' Thus he was 
deprived of the cattle. By mixing (the Soma) with 
milk, the gods then supplied him with cattle ; and in 
like manner does this (priest) now supply him (the 
sacrificer or Mitra) with cattle by mixing (the Soma) 
with milk, 

9, As to this they say, ' Surely he liked it not to 
slay!' Thus, what milk there is in this (mixture) 
that belongs to Mitra, but the Soma belongs to 
Varu»a : therefore one mixes it with milk, 

10. He mixes it with (Vif, S, VII, 10 ; Rig-veda 
IV, 42, 10), 'May we delight in the wealth we 
have gained, the gods in the offering, the 
kine in pasture! that unfailing milch cow, 

' See p. 256, note i. For the shape of this cup, see IV, 

1.5. 19- 
' See IV, I, 2, 6, and note. 



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272 ^fATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

O Mitra and Varu«a, grant ye unto us day 
by day!' — with 'This is thy womb: thee for 
truth and lifeM' he deposits it. Now as to why 
he says, ' Thee for truth and life,' — -the truth is 
Mitra ^, since Mitra is the Brahman, and the truth 
is the Brahman (sacerdotium or sacred writ) ; — > 
and life is Varu«a, since Varuwa is the year, and life 
is the year : therefore he says, ' This is thy womb : 
thee for truth and life ! ' 



Fifth BrAhmawa. 

I. The A^vina graha*, forsooth, is his organ of 
hearing ; hence in drinking it he turns (the cup) all 
round *, since with that ear of his he hears all 
round. — Now when the Bhr/gus, or the Angiras, 
attained the heavenly world, A'yavana the BhArgava, 
or A'yavana the Angirasa, was left behind here (on 
earth) decrepit and ghostlike *. 

' This is a false analysis of r»l3yu, ' righteous, holy.' 

* The text has ' Brahman,' which must be wrong. The Ka«va 
recension has, correctly, mitro vS r/tam, brahma hi mitro, brahma 
hy r/tam. 

' The Awina graha is not actually taken at this time, but later 
on, after the oblation of drops and the chanting of the Bahishpa- 
vamina stotra; see IV, 2, 5, 12. The reasons for inserting it here 
are given in parag. 15-16. 

* Lit 'he drinks it while turning it all round,' in accordance 
with the regular Sanskrit idiom. The Ajvina cup has three mouths, 
from which the Soma is drunk by turns. See Haug, Transl. Ait. 
Br. p. 132. 

' On this legend, and its probable connection with that of Medea's 
cauldron, and the Germanic 'quecprunno' (Jungbrunnen, well of 
renovation), see A. Kuhn, ' Herabkunft des Feuers und des Gotter- 
tranks,' p. 11. For other translations, see Weber, Ind. Streifen, i. 
p. 13 seq.; Muir, O. S. T. v. p. 250 seq. ; Delbrtick ii. p. 121. For 



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IV kXnDA, I ADHYAyA, 5 BRAHMAiVA, 7. 273 

2. But 6arydta, the Mdnava, just then wandered 
about here with his tribe, and settled near by that 
same place. His boys\ while playing, setting 
that decrepit, ghostlike man at nought, pelted him 
with clods. 

3. He was wroth with the ^'SryStas, and sowed 
discord among them : father fought with son, and 
brother with brother. 

4. .Sarydta then bethought him *, — ' This has come 
to pass for something or other I have done!' He 
caused the cowherds and shepherds to be called 
together, and said — 

5. He said, ' Which of you has seen anything 
here this day?' — They said, 'Yonder lies a man, 
decrepit and ghostlike : him the boys have pelted 
with clods, setting him at nought.' Then ^iarydta 
knew that this was ^yavana. 

6. He yoked his chariot, and putting his daughter 
Sukanyd thereon, he set forth, and came to the 
place where the Jitshi was. 

7. He said, 'Reverence be to thee, O Rhhi; 



another version, apparently more modern, of the same legend, found 
in the Gaiminlya (TalavakSra) Brdhma»a, see Professor Whitney, 
Proceedings Amer. Or. Soc. 1883, p. ix. 

' That is, youths of his clan. 

* Sary&ta. then bethought him, ' From something I have done, 
thence (has come) so great a calamity.' It then occurred to him, 
' Surely, ^yavana, the BhSrgava, or Ahgirasa, was left behind here, 
decrepit : him I (must) have somehow offended sorely, thence so 
great a calamity,' He called his tribe together. Having called the 
tribe together, he said, ' Who, be he cowherd or shepherd, has 
noticed anything here?' They said, 'Yonder in the wood lies 
a decrepit, ghostlike man ; him the boys have this day pelted with 
clods : that is the only thing we have descried (? tad evadarishma),' 
&c. Kinva, text. 

[26] T 



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274 satapatha-brAhmaa'A, 

because I knew thee not, therefore have I offended 
thee ; here is Sukanyi \ with her I make atonement 
to thee : let my tribe live at peace together!' And 
from that same time his tribe lived at peace together. 
But vSary&ta, the Minava, departed * forthwith, lest 
he should offend him a second time, 

8. Now the Axvins then wandered about here on 
earth performing cures. They came to Sukanyd, 
and desired to win her love ; but she consented not 
thereto. 

9. They said, ' Sukanyi, what a decrepit, ghostlike 
man is that whom thou liest with ; come and follow 
us !' She said, ' To whom my father has given me, 
him will I not abandon, as long as he lives ! ' But 
the Jitshi was aware of this. 

10. He said, ' Sukanyi, what have those two said 
to thee ?' She told him all ; and, when she had told 
him, he said, * If they speak to thee thus again, say 
thou to them, " But surely, ye are neither quite 
complete nor quite perfect, and yet ye deride my 
husband !" and if they say to thee, "In what respect 
are we incomplete, in what respect imperfect ?" say 
thou to them, " Nay, make ye my husband young 
again, and I will tell you!"' They came again to 
her, and said to her the same thing. 

1 1. She said, 'But surely ye are neither quite com- 
plete nor quite perfect, and yet ye deride myhusband!' 
They said, ' In what respect are we incomplete, in 
what respect imperfect ?' She said, ' Nay, make ye 
my husband young again, and I will tell you I' 



' That is, ' the fair maiden.' 

' That is, ' he broke up his camp and departed with his tribe* (so 
'payuyuge grimnA, Ka»va recension). 



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IV KANDA, 1 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAiVA, 1 5. 275 

12, They said, ' Take him down to yonder pool^, 
and he shall come forth with whatever age he shall 
desire!' She took him down to that pool, and he 
came forth with the age he desired. 

1 3. They said, ' Sukanyd. in what respect are we 
incomplete,' in what respect imperfect?' The Htshi 
himself answered them, — ' In Kurukshetra yonder 
the gods perform a sacrifice and exclude you two 
from it : in that respect ye are incomplete, in that 
respect imperfect !' And the Axvins departed forth- 
with, and came to the gods, as they were performing 
a sacrifice, after the chanting of the Bahishpavamina. 

14, They said, 'Invite us thereto!' The gods 
said, ' We will not invite you : ye have wandered 
and mixed much among men, performing cures.' 

1 5. They said, ' But surely ye worship with a 

' Or, according to the Petersburg Dictionary, ' Throw him into 
yonder pool.' In the Kinva, text no mention is made of a 
pool (hrada), but merely of water to which the Xishi is taken by 
his wife. I subjoin Professor Whitney's translation of the corre- 
sponding passage of the (7aiminiya Br. version : ' They (the Ajvins) 
said to him: "Sage, make us sharers in the Soma, Sir." "Very 
well," said he ; " do you now make me young again." They drew 
him away to the faifava of the Sarasvatl. He said: "Girl, we 
shall all come out looking alike ; do you then know me by this 
sign." They all came out looking just alike, with that form which 
is the most beautiful of forms. She, recognising him .... " This 
is my husband." They said to him : " Sage, we have performed 
for you that desire which has been your desire ; you have become 
young again ; now instruct us in such wise that we may be sharers 
in the Soma," , . . , 

• Then ^yavana the Bhargavan, having become young again, 
went to ^aryata the Manavan, and conducted his sacrifice on the 
eastern site. Then he gave him a thousand ; with them he sacri- 
ficed. Thus ^yavana the Bhargavan, having praised with this 
saman (the iyavana), became young again, won a girl for wife, 
sacrificed with a thousand,' &c. 

T 2 



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276 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

headless sacrifice!' — 'How with a headless (sacri- 
fice) ?' — ' Nay, invite us, and we will tell you !' — ' So 
be it!' so they invited them. They drew this 
Ajvina cup for them ; and those two became the 
Adhvaryu priests of the sacrifice, and restored the 
head of the sacrifice. Then, in the chapter of the 
diviktrtyas ^, it is explained how they did restore 
the head of the sacrifice. Hence this libation is 
drawn after the chanting of the Bahishpavamina, 
for it was after the chanting of the Bahishpavamina 
that they arrived. 

16. They said, 'Well, but we two, being the 
Adhvaryus, are the heads (leaders) of the sacrifice : 
transfer ye that graha of ours to this earlier time, to 
those belonging to two deities ' ! ' Accordingly they 
transferred that graha for them to a former time, to 
those belonging to two deities : hence that graha is 
drawn in the tenth place, and is consecrated by 
Vasha/ in the third place. And as to (the signifi- 
cance of) the A^vins, — the Arvins are manifestly* 
those two, heaven and earth*, for it is those two 

* Certain verses which are ' to be chanted by day.' According 
to Benfey (Ind. Stud. Ill, p. 228) also called mahadivakirtya, and 
consisting of eleven verses (not in Sima-veda), the first of which is 
called ' firas (head),' the second ' grivSA (neck),' &c. The term is 
also applied to Sdma-veda II, 803-5 (Rig-veda X, 170, 1-3) in the 
Uhyagina II, 12. The reference in the text seems to be to .^at. Br. 
XIV, I, i,8seq. See, however, Weber, Ind. Streifen, I, p. 15, 
note 4. The Kawva MSS. read ' divaktrteshu.' 

* One might expect the dual ' dvidevatyau,' as, besides the 
Ajvina graha, there are only two dvidevatya (belonging to two 
gods) grahas, viz. the Aindra-vSyava and MaitrS-varuwa. See 
p. 266, note 3. 

' Or, in their visible form (pratyaksham). 

* See Muir, O. S. T. v, p. 234. The identification of the Afvins 
with heaven and earth mayliave been suggested by Rig-vedaVI, 70, 5, 



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IV kAjvda, I adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, 19. 277 

that have obtained possession of everything here ; — 
' the lotus-crowned ' they (the Ajvins) are called : 
Agni, forsooth, is the lotus of this earth, and the 
sun that of yonder sky. 

1 7. Thus he takes (the A^vina gpiaha) from that 
(stream of Soma) *, with (Vdf, S. VII, 11; Rig-veda 
I, 22, 3), 'Mix ye the sacrifice, O A^vins, with 
that goad of yours, rich in honey and joyful- 
ness! — Thou art taken with a support*! thee 
for the A^vins!' with 'This is thy womb: thee 
for the honey-loving® (A^vins)!' he deposits it. 
Now as to why he takes (the graha) with a verse 
containing (the word) ' honey (madhu),' and deposits 
it with ' thee for the honey-loving I ' 

18. Dadhya«>^, the Atharva«a, imparted to them 
(the Ajvins) the br4hma«a called Madhu*: that 
(Madhu) is their favourite resort, and with that 
(favourite resort) of theirs he now approaches them ; 
— hence he takes (their graha) with a verse contain- 
ing (the word) ' honey,' and deposits it with ' thee 
for the honey-loving !' 

19. Now those vessels (other than those of the 
three dvidevatya grahas) are smooth *. The vessel 
of the graha for Indra and VSyu has a (wooden) 

where heaven and earth are called upon to mix the sweet drink, 
just as is the case with the Ajvins in the verse with which their 
libation is taken. 
' See p. 256, note i. 

* See IV, I, 2, 6, and note. 

• The real meaning of this epithet (mddhvi) is uncertain. 

* ? ' The mystery called Madhu (sweet drink, Soma).' See pait i, 
Introd. p. xxxiv ; Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 290. 

• It might also mean, that those (three dvidevatya) vessels are 
smooth, straight, save the peculiarities noticed above. The K&»va 
text, however, reads, ta^^lakshndny anyini pitrd»i bhavantl 



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278 satapatha-brAhmaa'a. 

' belt ' round it : this is its second (peculiarity of) 
shape, and therefore it belongs to two deities. The 
vessel of the graha for Mitra and Varu«a is goat- 
like ^ : this is its second shape, and therefore it 
belongs to two deities. The vessel of the graha 
for the Aivins is lip-shaped : this is its second 
shape, and therefore it belongs to two deities. And 
the reason why (this belongs to) the A^vins is that 
the A^vins are the heads (mukhya, viz. of the sacri- 
fice), and this head (mukha *) is supplied with lips : 
hence the vessel of the Ajvina graha is lip-shaped. 



Second Adhyaya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. The .Sukra and M an th i n (grahas), forsooth, are 
his eyes. Now the 5'ukra, indeed, is he that burns 
yonder (the sun) ; and because it burns there ', there- 
fore it is (called) .Sukra (' bright '). And the Manthin, 
indeed, is the moon. 

2. He mixes it with (barley) meal : thus he makes 
it to be g^uel (mantha), whence it is (called) Man- 
thin. Now those two (sun and moon), forsooth, are 
the eyes of these creatures ; for were those two not 
to rise, these (creatures) could not distinguish even 
their own hands. 

3. One of them is the eater, and the other the 

' Or rather, according to the commentary on KSty. IX, 2, 6, it 
resembles the breast of the goat (a^ki). 

* Lit. ' mouth.' 

' This is how Saya>»a takes the passage: jukragrahas tapati 
fo^ti dtpyata iti tasya jukrandmadheyam. It is doubtless the 
correct interpretation, though the pronouns 'esha' and 'etad' 
might lead one to refer them to the sun. 



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IV KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAWA, 7. 279 

food ^ ; to wit, the vSukra is the eater, and the Man- 
thin the food. 

4. To one of them corresponds the eater, and to 
the other the food ; to wit, the eater corresponds 
to the .Sukra, and the food to the Manthin. Now 
these two (cups) are drawn for one (person) and 
offered to another. There are two Asura-Rakshas, 
Sa-ndz. and Marka : for them they are drawn ; and 
to deities they are offered. The reason for this is 
as follows. 

5. Now when the gods drove away the Asura- 
Rakshas, they could not drive away these two ; but 
whatever (sacrificial) work the gods performed, that 
these two disturbed, and then quickly fled. 

6. The gods then said, ' Contrive ye how we 
shall drive away these two ! ' They said, ' Let us 
draw two cups (of Soma-juice) for them : they will 
come down to us, and we shall seize them and drive 
them away.' They accordingly drew two cups (of 
Soma) for them, and they both came down, and, 
having seized them, they (the gods) drove them 
away*. This is why (the two cups) are drawn for 
Sa.nda. and Marka, but are offered to deities. 

7. Also YS^«avalkya said, ' Should we not rather 
draw them for the deities, since that is, as it were, 
the sign of conquest' ?' In this, however, he merely 
speculated, but he did not practise it. 

' The one that is to be eaten (SdyaA). • 

' Muir, O. S. T. ii, p. 386, translates apa-han by ' to smite,' which 
would seem to suit this passage much better than the ordinary 
meaning 'to beat off, repulse, eject;' but see paragraph 20. The 
corresponding version of the legend in Taitt. S. VI, 4, 10 has 
' apa-nud (to drive away).' 

' Thus this passage is interpreted by Siyawa, who refers to 
Pi». Ill, 3, i6i (samprajne lin) and VIII, 2, 97 (viMryamdwSnSm 



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280 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiVA. 

8. Now some make this the purorui formula of 
the 6'ukra, ' He, the longing, light-enveloped, urged 
the daughters of the dappled (cloud) along the 
measurer of the welkin,' — saying, ' We thus make 
it like him that burns yonder, in that he says " the 
light-enveloped." ' 

9. But let him make this one the puroru>S formula 
of the 5ukra (Vi^. S. VII, 12 ; Rig-veda V, 44, i), 
' In the olden way, in the former way, in every 
way, in this way (drawest thou) supremacy 
from him, the barhis-seated, and the bliss- 
attaining,' — for the eater corresponds to this (6'ukra 
cup), and the eater is supreme : hence he says, 
'Supremacy from him, the barhis-seated, bliss- 
attaining,' — 'and onward strength drawest 
thou from him, the roaring ^ the swift, that 
winneth those* through which thou waxest 
strong. — Thou art taken with a support: thee 
(or Sa.nda.V — With 'This is thy womb : protect 
manhood!' he deposits (the cup); for to this one 
corresponds the eater, and the man (hero) is the 
eater : hence he says, ' This is thy womb : protect 
manhood !' He deposits it on the south part (of the 
mount), for it is in that direction that yonder (sun) 
moves. 

10. Thereupon he draws the Man thin with (Vif. 



pluta>4). Possibly, however, ' no svid ' may have to be separated 
from what follows: 'by no means! for deities we should draw 
them,' &c. The Kinva text reads, ' no svit khalu devatSbhya eva 
gr/h»!y£meti viditam hidam iti, tad u tan mtmdmsdm eva j^akre 
nety u ta^ ^akdra.' 
* The Rig-veda reads ' girS (through song)' instead of ' dhunim.' 
' Viz. waters, juice, sap. Professor Ludwig supplies ' plants.' 
This verse is extremely obscure. 



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IV KANDA, 2 ADHyAyA, 1 BRAHMAA'A, 12. 28l 

S. VII, i6; Rig-veda X, 123, i), 'He, the long- 
ingS light-enveloped*, urged the daughters 
of the dappled* on the measurer of the 
welkin*: him the bards kiss like a child with 
songs at the union of the waters and the sun. 
— Thou art taken with a support: thee to 
Marka!' 

11. He mixes it with (barley) meal: the reason 
why he mixes it with meal is this. Varuwa once 
struck king Soma right in the eye, and it swelled 
(ajvayat) : therefrom a horse (a^va) sprung ; and 
because it sprung from a swelling, therefore it is 
called a^va. A tear of his fell down: therefrom 
the barley sprung ; whence they say that the barley 
belongs to Varuwa. Thus whatever part of his eye 
was injured on that occasion in (that part he now 
restores him and makes him whole by means of this 
(barley) : therefore he mixes (the libation) with meal. 

12. He mixes it with (Vdf.S.VII, 17; Rig-veda X, 
61, 3), 'At whichever offerings ye two, rush- 
ing swiftly as thought, accept with favour 
the songs — he, the manly, who by the reeds 
of this (one) hath seasoned' in the hand the 



' Vena, according to Roth and Grassmann, refers to the Gan- 
dharva, as the representative of the rainbow. This view is, however, 
rejected by Ludwig. The entire hymn is extremely and purposely 
obscure. 

* (ryotir-^uriyu, lit. ' having light for his chorion, or placenta.' 

' PmnigarbhiA, lit. 'those who have the dappled (cloud) for 
their womb (or, are contained therein);' apparently the rain-drops. 

* Ludwig identifies the measurer of the welkin with the moon 
(Soma). Grassmann takes it in the sense of ' in measuring through 
the air.' 

' The verse is manifestly corrupt. Professor Ludwig omits the 
accent in ' ajriwita,' thus taking it out of the relative clause ; but 



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282 satapatha-brAiimajva. 

(object of his) desire;' — with 'This is thy 
womb: protect the creatures!' he deposits it 
(on the north part of the mound) ; for to this (graha) 
corresponds the food, and these creatures, the people, 
are food : hence he says, ' This is thy womb : pro- 
tect the creatures ! ' 

1 3. There are two sprinkled and two unsprinkled 
chips of the sacrificial stake ^ : the Adhvaryu takes 
a sprinkled and an unsprinkled one; and in like 
manner the PratiprasthS.tr? takes a sprinkled and an 
unsprinkled one. And the Adhvaryu takes the 
6ukra, the Pratiprasthitr? the Manthin. 

14. The Adhvaryu cleanses (his cup) with the 
unsprinkled chip, with, 'Swept away is Sandal' 
In like manner the Pratiprasthitrz with, 'Swept 
away is Marka!' Thus even while drawing (the 
cups), they drive away the two Asura-Rakshas. With 
'May the 5'ukra-sipping gods lead thee 
forward!' the Adhvaryu walks out (of the cart- 
shed); with 'May the Manthin-sipping gods 
lead thee forward!' the Pratiprasthitrz: thus they 
lead forward those two (libations) to the deities. 

15. Behind the Ahavaniya fire they put their 
(right) elbows together, and deposit (the cups) on 
the high altar : the Adhvaryu on the right hip, 
and the Pratiprasthdtr? on the left — without quit- 
ting their hold of them — with ' Unassailable art 

even thus, no satisfactory sense, it seems to me, can be extracted 
from this line. When the Soma is mixed with milk or some other 
substance (as meal) two stalks of (kuja) reed-grass are laid on the 
cup, the accessory substance being then poured through them. 
Kdty. IX, 6, 9-10. 

' In paragraphs 13-31 the libations from the 5\ikraand Manthin 
cups are anticipated. For their proper place in the actual perform- 
ance, see note to IV, 3, 1, i. 



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IV KANDA, 2 ADHyAya, 1 BRAhMAJVA, 1 8. 283 

thou!' whereby they make the high altar unassail- 
able by evil spirits ; for they are about, in walking 
round it, to pass by the fire : hereby, then, they 
propitiate it, and so the fire does not injure them, 
while they walk round it on different sides ^. 

16. The Adhvaryu walks round it (on the north 
side) with (VS^. S. VII, 13), 'Abounding in 
heroes, producing heroes' — for to this (libation) 
corresponds the eater, and the hero is the eater : 
hence he says, ' Abounding in heroes, producing 
heroes ! ' — ' encompass thou * the sacrificer with 
growth of wealth ! ' By saying ' Encompass thou 
the sacrificer with growth of wealth!' he invokes 
a blessing upon the sacrificer. 

1 7. And the Pratiprasthitr? walks round (on the 
south side)with (Vif. S. VII, 18), ' Abounding in 
creatures, producing creatures' — for to this 
(libation) corresponds the food, and the creatures, 
the people, are the food : hence he says, ' Abounding 
in creatures, producing creatures,* — 'encompass 
thou the sacrificer with growth of wealth !' By 
saying ' Encompass thou the sacrificer with growth 
of wealth !' he invokes a blessing on the sacrificer. 

18. They step out (from the altar) after closing 
the two (cups with their hands) : thereby they make 
them invisible ; whence no one sees yonder sun and 
moon when they go forward (eastwards). Having 
gone round to the front (of the stake), they uncover 
(the cups), and offer them while standing in front : 
thereby they make them visible ; whence every one 

* The Petersburg Dictionary takes ' vi-pari-i' in the sense of 
' to turn round.' Cf. KSty. IX, 10, 8 ; ' vividhaw dakshi«a utta- 
ratar >ta paribhogam ishyantau (!),' S4ya»a. 

^ Or, ' walk round to the sacrificer.' 



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284 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAJVA. 

sees yonder sun and moon when they go backwards. 
Hence also no one sees the seed which is cast forwards, 
but every one sees what is produced backwards. 

19. They put their elbows together behind the 
sacrificial stake, unless the fire should blaze up^; but 
if the fire blaze up, they may join their elbows in 
front of the stake, — the Adhvaryu with, ' The ^ukra 
(bright), uniting with the sky, with the earth, 
with the brightly shining;' the Pratiprasthitr? 
with, ' The Manthin, uniting with the sky, with 
the earth, with the manthin-shining.' Thus 
they make these two (cups) the resting-places of the 
eyes, and join the two eyes together : whence these 
two eyes are joined together with bones all round*. 

20. The Adhvaryu throws the unsprinkled stake- 
chip outside (the altar) with, ' Cast out is Sanda. ! ' 
and in like manner the Pratiprasthitn with, ' Cast 
out is Mark a!' Thus they drive away the two 
Asura-Rakshas before the offerings. 

21. Thereupon the Adhvaryu throws the sprinkled 
stake-chip on the Ahavanlya with, 'Thou art the 
abode of the .Sukra!' and in like manner the 
Pratiprasthitrz with, 'Thou art the abode of the 
Manthin!' These two (chips), forsooth, are the 
kindlers of the eyes, — he kindles the eyes therewith ; 
whence these eyes are kindled. 

22. Thereon he mutters (V^. S. VII, 14), 'May 



' The sacrificial stake stands immediately in front of the high 
altar and fire. ' Yadi tato 'gnir nodbidheta,' KS«va text. 

* That is, the cups represent the sockets of the eyes, and the 
libations the eyes themselves. Perhaps, however, we ought to 
translate, ' whence these eyes are joined together (so as to be) on 
both sides of the bone,' the sacrificial stake representing the bone 
or bridge of the nose. See paragraph 25. 



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IV kXndA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAJVA, 27. 285 

we be the preservers of thine unbroken man- 
hood and prosperity, O divine Soma ! ' This is 
the benediction of that performance : he thereby in- 
vokes a blessing, 

23. He then calls (on the Agnldh) for the 3'rausha/, 
and says, ' Urge thou for Indra the Soma-draughts 
brought forward, the pure, sweet-flowing, of the 
morrow's morning feast ! ' As the Vasha^ is uttered, 
the Adhvaryu offers; then the. Pratiprasthit^? ; 
then the cup-bearers (^mas&dhvaryu). 

24. Those two offer while standing in front (of 
the fire) ; for these two (libations) are the eyes : 
thus they put those eyes in the front; and hence 
these eyes are in the front. 

25. They offer while standing on both sides of 
the stake ; for what the nose is, that is the sacrificial 
stake : hence these two eyes are on both sides of 
the nose. 

26. Being consecrated by Vasha/, these two (liba- 
tions) are offered with a prayer. Now it is because 
the entire Savana is offered after these two (libations) 
that they attain to this (distinction)^ ; and the reason 
why the entire Savana is offered after them, is that 
they are most distinctly Pra^lpati's own : for they 
are the eyes, and the eye is the truth, and Pra^ipati 
is the truth ; — this is why the entire Savana is offered 
after them. 

27. He offers with, ' This is the first consecra- 
tion, assuringall boons: he isthe first, Varu«a, 

' ' And because these two (libations), having been consecrated 
by Vasha/, are offered with a mantra, therefore they attain this 
(distinction) that the entire Savana is offered after them ; and the 
reason why the entire Savana is offered after them, is that these two 
are its eyes,' &c. 



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286 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

Mitra, Agni ; — he is the first, Br^haspati, the 
wise: to that Indra offer ye the liquor, HailM' 

28. Now when he offers with, ' This is the first — 
he is the first,' it is just as with cast seed ; for the 
eyes doubtless are formed first * : hence he offers 
with, ' This is the first — he is the first.' 

29. He then gives directions : — ' Let the Hotrz's 
cup advance ! let the Brahman's, the Chanters', the 
Sacrificer's (cups) advance! Ye cup-bearers of the 
fire-priests *, approach and fill up (the cups) with pure 
Soma!' — this is a composite direction. Having gone 
round (to behind the high altar) the PratiprasthitW 
pours his residue (of Soma) into the Adhvaryu's 
(6'ukra) vessel ; whereby he makes the food pay 
tribute to the eater. The Adhvaryu pours it into 
the Hotre's cup for drinking ; because the draught 
belongs to the utterer of the Vasha/ ; for the Vasha^ 
is the breath, and that breath has, as it were, de- 
parted from him while uttering the Vasha/. Now 
the draught is breath : thus he puts that breath 
back into him. 

30. And the reason why they do not take those 

* Or, according to Mahidhara, ' To that Indra offer ye the liquor 
with Svihil' The PratiprasthStrt makes his libation after the 
Adhvaryu. The KS«va texts read, ' When the Vasha/ has been 
uttered, the Adhvaryu offers, then the PratiprasthStn, then the 
others offer;' and, according to KSty. IX, 11, 2, the Kamasi- 
dhvaryus make libations from the cups of the nine A'amasins (see 
note 2, next page) with, 'This to Indra' at the Vasha/, and 
' This to Agni' at the Anu-vasha/. These libations are evidently 
referred to in paragraph 31. 

* ? .S'aj'vad dha vai retasaA siktasya sambhavatar /^kshusht eva 
prathame sambhavatas tasmid v eva»» ^pati ; K4«va rec. 

' 'Sadasydnaw hotri«am.' The subordinate priests to whom 
the dhishwyas (except that of the Hotn) belong, both those in the 
Sadas and the Agnldhra. See page 148, note 4. 



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IV KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAJVA, 32. 287 

two (cups) behind \ but do so take the other cups, 
is that those two are the eyes. The residue (of 
Soma), then, he pours into the HotWs cup. 

31. They now fill up the cups of the fire-priests. 
For those residues* are remains of oblations, in- 
sufficient for offering: he now fills them up again, 
and thus they become sufficient for offering : there- 
fore they fill up the cups of the fire-priests. 

32. Thereupon they make the fire-priests offer 
together*. Now the fire-priests combined convey 

' That is, to the Sadas, for the priests to drink from. 

* Viz. the residues in the ^amasas of the Hotrakas. The filling (by 
the Unnetr/) of the cups of the A'amasins — Hotr/, Brahman, UdgStrj, 
(and Sacrificer) ; Prajistrt, BrShmawS^Aawsin, Potr/', Nesh/r«, and 
Agnidhra ; that of the A^^avaka remains empty for the present — 
takes place before the libations from the .Sukra and Manthin grahas. 
Their cups are filled by the Unnetr« with Soma-juice from the 
Pfltabhrjt, with an ' underlayer ' and final ' sprinkling ' or ' basting ' 
of ' pure ' Soma from the Dro»akalara. Previous to the filling, the 
Adhvaryu calls on the Maitrivaruwa to ' recite to (those cups) being 
drawn,' the latter then reciting the hymn, Rig-veda 1, 16, while the 
cups are filled. When the .S'rausha/ is about to be pronounced by 
the Agnidh for the Siikra and Manthin libations, the cup-bearers 
lift (udyam) the cups, and, after the PratiprasthStrt has made his 
libation, they also pour some Soma-juice into the fire. The cup- 
bearers of the first four A'amasins do so twice (and then take their 
cups back to the Sadas), the others only once. Thereupon the 
cup-bearers of these last five — the so-cajled Hotrakas, or subordi- 
nate Hotr/s — are summoned again, and their cups having been filled 
up with ' pure' Soma, the Adhvaryu makes, after the SrzushaJ, two 
more libations from each at the Vasha/ and Anuvasha/ respectively. 
For the offering-formulas and Anuvasha/kSras, seeArv. V, 5, 18-19. 
Holding the Agnidh's cup in his hand, he then goes to the Sadas 
and sits down facing the Hotri, whereupon they drink together the 
Soma in the dvidevatya cups. 

' The phrase ' hotri^ (fem.) sawyS^yanti ' is apparently analo- 
gous to the ' patntA sawyS^yanti' [they perform the PatnfsawyS^as, 
or, make the wives (of die gods) participate in the sacrifice] of the 



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288 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

the sacrifice to the gods, — it is them he thereby 
satisfies together, thinking, ' Satisfied and pleased 
they shall convey the sacrifice to the gods : ' there- 
fore they make the fire-priests offer together. 

33. When (the libation of) the first, or last^ fire- 
priest has been offered, he addresses them (V^. S. 
VII, 15), 'Let the priests' offices be satisfied, 
they that have obtained a good sacrifice of 
sweet drink; they that are well-pleased, 
when they have obtained good offering with 
Svihd!' for this is the satisfaction of the priests' 
(offices). Thereupon he approaches (to the Hotrz's 
hearth) and sits down with his face to the west, with 
'The Agntdh hath sacrificed!' for on this occa- 
sion the Agnldh sacrifices last of those that sacrifice : 
hence he says, ' The Agnldh hath sacrificed.' 

Second BrAhmajva. 

I. The Agraya«a graha, forsooth, is his self 
(body, trunk), and as such it is his all ; for this self 
is one's all. Therefore he draws it by means of this 
(earth), for of her is the bowl *, and with a bowl he 
draws this (libation) ; and this (earth) is all, as this 

Haviryagnai. See part i, p. 256. Indeed Mahldhara identifies the 
hotrSs with the metres of the offering-formulas, thus treating them 
as a kind of deities. 

' The order of the dhish«ya-priests is (i. Hotri), 2. Prajistrj 
(Maitrivaruwa), 3. BiihmaniiAimsin, 4. Fotri, 5. Nesh/r«, 6. MM- 
vSka — the fires of all of whom are in the Sadas — and 7. the Agnidh 
(in the Agntdhra fire-house). The A^^ivaka, however, is for the 
present excluded from offering. 

' Viz. inasmuch as the bowl is made of clay, — asySA prithivyiA 
sakSjdt sthail bhavati utpadyate ; Sdy. The Agraya»a, Ukthya, and 
Dhruva grahas are drawn in a sthSli (pot or bowl). 



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IV KAJVZJA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAA'A, 8. 289 

graha is all : hence he takes it by means of this 
(earth), 

2. He draws it full ; for the ' full' means all, and 
this graha is all : therefore he draws it full. 

3. He draws it for the All-gods ; for the All-gods 
are all, and this graha is all : therefore he draws 
it for the All-gods. 

4. He draws it at all (three) Soma feasts ; for the 
(three) feasts mean all, and this graha is all : there- 
fore he draws it at all the feasts. 

5. And if the king (Soma) become exhausted, they 
extend him from out of that (bowl), make him issue 
therefrom ; for the Agraya«a is the body, and from 
the body all these limbs issue. Therefrom they 
draw at the end the Hiriyo^na cup ' : whereby the 
sacrifice is established at the end in this resting-place, 
the body (or its own self). 

6. Thenastowhyitiscalled Agrayawa. His speech 
which he restrains, on taking up that press-stone *, 
spoke out again first at this (libation) ; and because 
it spoke out first (agre) at this (libation), therefore 
this is called the Agrayawa'. 

7. It was from fear of the evil spirits that (the 
gods) restrained their speech. Previously to this he 
draws six grahas, and this is the seventh : for there 
are six seasons in the year, and the year is all. 

8. And all being conquered and free from danger 
and injury*, the gods now first uttered speech ; and 

' See IV, 4, 3, a. 

' The Upiwfusavana, cf. Ill, 9, 4, 6. 

' The primary meaning seems to be ' firstling.' For the Agra- 
ya«esh/i, or offering of first-fruits, see part i, p. 369. 

* Or perhaps, ' and their entire conquest being free from danger 
and injury;' or, 'security and peace (abhayam anish/ram) having 

[26] U 



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290 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

in like manner does he first utter speech now that 
everything is conquered and free from danger and 
injury. 

9. He now draws it from that (stream of Soma^) 
with (V^. S. VII, 19; Rig-veda I, 139, 11), Ye 
Gods, who are eleven in heaven, who are 
eleven on earth, and who are eleven dwelling 
in glory in the (aerial) waters: do ye graciously 
accept this sacrifice! — Thou art taken with a 
support: thou art Agraya^a, a good firstling 
(sv-igraya«a)!' Hereby he makes that speech of 
renewed vigour ; whence he speaks therewith in a 
different way, while yet the same, in order to avoid 
sameness ; for were he to take it with, ' Thou art 
Agrayawa, thou art Agraya«a,' he would commit (the 
fault of) sameness : therefore he says, ' Thou art 
Agraya»a, a good dgraya«a.' 

10. 'Guard the sacrifice! guard the lord of 
the sacrifice!' whereby he utters freed speech, 
meaning to say, ' Protect the sacrifice ! protect the 
sacrificer!' for the lord of the sacrifice is the sacri- 
ficer. ' May Vish«u guard thee with his might! 
guard thou Vish«u!' whereby he utters freed 
speech — Vishwu being the sacrifice — ' May the sacri- 

been completely gained.' Cf. IV, 3, 3, 5 ; also III, 6, 3, 1 1 ; 8, 1, 
9 ; 8, 2, 3. 

' The Agrayawa is taken rather from two streams of Soma, viz. 
from that poured by the sacrificer from the Hotn's cup into the 
Drowakalaja, and from another poured out by the Unnetr*, and 
consisting either of Soma taken from the Adhavaniya or, according 
to others, of the residue of the XJpimsu libation, which had been 
temporarily kept in the Agraya«a bowl (see p. 255, note 2), and has 
to be emptied by the Unnetr* into some other vessel, when that 
bowl is about to be used for the Agraya«a libation. See Kity. IX, 
6, 15 comm. 



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IV KAJVDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, I4. 29I 

fice protect thee with its power! protect thou the 
sacrifice!' — 'Guard thou the Soma feasts all 
around!' whereby he means this very graha, because 
that belongs to all (three) Soma feasts", 

1 1. Having then wrapped up (the bowl in) a fringed 
filtering-cloth, he utters 'Hih!' Now that same 
speech (Vi^, fern.), being unsupported, lay exhausted. 
By means of the ' Hin' the gods infused breath into 
that exhausted speech, for the 'Hin' is breath, the 
' Hih' is indeed breath : hence one cannot utter the 
sound 'hin' after closing his nostrils. By means of 
that breath she rose again, for when one who is ex- 
hausted takes breath, he rises again. And in like 
manner does he now infuse breath into the exhausted 
speech by means of the ' Hin,' and through that 
breath she rises again. Thrice he utters the ' Hih,' 
for threefold is the sacrifice. 

12. He then says (Vi^. S. VH, 21), 'Soma be- 
cometh pure!' For that (speech) which, for fear of 
the Asura-Rakshas, they (the gods) did not utter, 
he now utters and reveals when all is conquered 
and free from danger and injury : therefore he says, 
' Soma becometh pure.' 

13. ' For this priesthood, for this nobility' — 
whereby he means to say, ' for the priesthood as well 
as for the nobility;' — 'for the Soma-pressing 
sacrificer he becometh pure;' whereby he 
means to say, 'for the sacrificer.' 

14. Here now they say, ' Having said this much, 
let him deposit (the cup) ; for as much as the priest- 
hood, and the nobility, and the people are, so much 

* The Agraya»a libation is repeated at the midday as well as at 
the evening feast. 



U 2 



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292 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA. 

means this All, since Indra and Agni are this AlP : 
hence, having said this much, let him deposit (the 
cup).' 

15. Let him, nevertheless, say this more, 'For 
sap and pith he becometh pure,' — by saying 'for 
sap' he means to say 'for rain;' and 'for pith' he 
says with a view to that pith or juice which springs 
from rain; — 'for the waters and plants he be- 
cometh pure,' this he says for the waters and 
plants; — 'for heaven and earth he becometh 
pure,' this he says for those two, heaven and earth, 
whereon this All rests; — 'for well-being he be- 
cometh pure,' whereby he means to say 'for good.' 

16. Here now some say, 'for spiritual lustre he 
becometh pure;' but let him not say so, for in say- 
ing 'for this priesthood,' he says it with a view to 
spiritual lustre. With, 'Thee for the All-gods! 
this is thy womb: thee for the All-gods!' he 
deposits (the cup) ; for it is for the All-gods that he 
draws it. He deposits it in the middle (of the 
mound) ; for this is his trunk, and that trunk is, as 
it were, in the middle. On the right (south) side of 
it is the Ukthya bowl, and on the left side the Aditya 
bowl. 



Third Brahmaa'a. 

I. That Ukthya (graha), forsooth, is his unde- 
fined breath (vital air) ^, and as such it is that self of 
his; for the undefined breath is the self; it is his 

' On Indra and Agni, as the divine representatives of the two 
privileged castes, see part i, Introd. p. xvi seq. 

' We ought doubtless, with the K3«va text, to read ' prSwaA ' 
instead of ' atmS.' 



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IV K\ND\, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 5. 293 

vital energy. Hence he draws it by means of this 
(earth), because of her is the bowl, and he draws it 
with a bowl ; — for undecaying and immortal is this 
(earth), and undecaying and immortal is the vital 
energy; therefore he draws it by means of this 
(earth or bowl). 

2. He draws it full; for full means all, and the 
vital energy means all : therefore he draws it full. 

3. That Dhruva (graha)', forsooth, (also) is his 
vital energy; by it his body is held together, and 
the joints are knit together. For (when) the last 
cup has not yet been drawn from that (Soma juice 
in the Ukthya vessel) for the A^^vdka priest, 

4. Then he takes the king (Soma) down (from the 
cart)**, and pours one third of the Vasattvaris (into 
the Adhavanlya trough). Thus the joint unites ; for, 
indeed, he makes (the Ukthya cup) the first of the 
second pressing (Soma feast), and the last of the 
first : that which belongs to the second pressing he 
makes first, and that which belongs to the first he 
makes last. Thus he interlocks them ; whence these 
joints are interlocked: this one overlapping thus, 
and this one thus. 

5. In like manner at the midday pressing : (when) 

' See IV, 2, 4, 1 seq. 

' At the end of the morning feast the Soma in the Ukthya bowl 
(sthili) is poured into the Ukthya cup (patra) in three portions ; 
and part of each having been offered, the remaining juice is drunk by 
the Hot/-»'s assistants, viz. the Prafdstrt, BiihmsMiiAamsin, and 
Ait^avika. Each of these potations is preceded by the chanting 
of an S^a-stotra, and the recitation of the Sjgya-rastra (see next 
page, note 2). But before the portion of the last-named priest is 
poured into his cup (<iamasa), fresh Soma-plants are taken down 
from the cart for the midday pressing ; one half of the remaining 
Vasativari water (or one third of the original quantity) being also 
poured into the Adhavaniya trough. See III, 9, 2, 3. 



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294 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA^^TA. 

the last cup has not yet been drawn therefrom for 
the AM^LvAka. priest, he pours (the remaining) one- 
third of the Vasativari (into the Adhavantya). Thus 
the joint unites ; for, indeed, he makes it the first of 
the second pressing, and the last of the first pressing' : 
that which belongs to the second pressing he makes 
first, and that which belongs to the first he makes 
last. Thus he interlocks them ; whence these joints 
are interlocked : this one overlapping thus, and this 
one thus. And because his body is thereby held 
together, therefore this (graha) is his vital energy. 

6. This (Ukthya graha) is the cow of plenty, 
Indra's special portion. At the morning feast he 
(the Adhvaryu) divides it for three songs of praise *, 
and at the midday feast for three, — this makes six 
times, for there are six seasons, and the seasons 
mature all wishes here on earth : for this reason, 
then, this (libation) is the cow of plenty, Indra's 
special portion. 

7. He draws it without (reciting) a purorui; for 
the puroru^ is a song of praise, since the puroru>& 
is a i?zi, and the song of praise is /^i^ ; and the 
libation is Sdman ; and what other (formula) he 
mutters, that is Ya^s. Formerly these same 
(puroru/^ verses) were apart' from the Hi^s, apart 
from the Ya^us, and apart from the S4mans. 



* That is to say, the last (thing) of the first of the last two press- 
ings, or of the midday pressing. 

' Uktha, lit. ' recitation,' is the old term for ' f astra' (IV, 3, 2, 
I seq.). Regarding the three fastras of the Hotrakas, for the reci- 
tation of which the Ukthya graha is divided between those priests, 
see notes on IV, 3, i, 25; 3, 3, 19. 

' The Ka«va text reads thrice 'abhyardhe.' Regarding the 
puroru* formulas sec p. 268, note i. 



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IV KANDA, 2 ADHyAyA, 3 BrAhMAWA, II. 295 

8. The gods said, ' Come, let us place them 
among the Ya^s : thus this science will be still 
more manifold.' Accordingly they placed them 
among the Ya^s, and thenceforward this science 
was still more manifold. 

9. And the reason why he draws this (graha) 
without a puroru/^, is that the puroru^ is praise, 
(being) a Ri^, and the song of praise is m^ ; and 
in that he divides it for recitations, thereby indeed 
it becomes possessed of a puroru/^ : hence he draws 
it without a puroru/^. 

10. Now he draws it from that (stream of Soma'), 
with (Vd^. S. VII, 22), 'Thou art taken with a 
support: thee for Indra, possessed of the 
great (chant), possessed of vigour,' — for Indra 
is the deity of the sacrifice ; wherefore he says 
'thee for Indra;' and by 'possessed of the great 
(chant), possessed of vigour,' he means to say ' for 
him, the strong;' — 'I take (thee) the song- 
pleasing,' for he indeed takes it for songs of 
praise ; — 'what great vigour is thine, O Indra' 
— whereby he means to say, ' what strength is thine, 
O Indra' — 'for that (I take) thee! forVish«u — 
thee!' for he takes it for the life of the sacrifice: 
hence he says, ' for that — thee ! for Vishwu — thee ! ' 
With, 'This is thy womb : thee for the songs of 
praise!' he deposits it; for he indeed takes it for 
songs of praise. 

11. He distributes it" with, 'Thee, the god- 

' See p. 256, note i. 

* That is, he pours, for each of the three assistant priests, his 
respective portion into the Ukthja-pdtra. This distribution does 
not however take place till the end of the morning performance ; 
see note to IV, 2, 2, 4 ; 3, i, 25. 



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296 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

pleasing', I take for the gods, for the life of 
the sacrifice.' He who would perform it in this 
manner would assume the command^; but let him 
rather distribute it to the respective deities. 

12. With, 'Thee, the god- pleasing, I take for 
Mitra and Varu«a, for the life of the sacri- 
fice!' (he takes the portion) for the Maitrivaru«a 
priest; — for in verses to Mitra and Varu»a they 
(the UdgAtris) chant praises for this (libation) ; 
and he (the Hotri) afterwards recites verses to 
Mitra and Varuwa for the ^astra, and offers with a 
verse to Mitra and Varu»a. 

13. With, 'Thee, the god-pleasing, I take for 
Indra, for the life of the sacrifice!' (he takes 
the portion) for the BrAhma«Si^awsin ; for in verses 
to Indra praises are chanted for this (libation); and 
verses to Indra are afterwards recited as a ^astra, 
and offering is made with a verse to Indra. 

14. With, ' Thee, the god-pleasing, I take for 
I ndra and Agni, for the life of the sacrifice !' 
(he takes the portion) for the A/^Mvfika ; for in 
verses to Indra and Agni praises are chanted for 
this (libation); and verses to Indra and Agni are 
afterwards recited as a ^astra, and offering is made 

' Or, the god-prospering- (i. e. the one prospering the gods), devivi. 

- Prafasanaw kurydt. The same phrase occurs 1, 9, i, 14, where 
I translated ' will ensure dominion,' — probably wrongly, though I am 
by no means sure of the correct meaning. Siya«a there seems to 
take it in the sense of ' he bids(the gods grant his request), thus having 
chiefly his own interest in view' — 'prarisyante 'to deviA prdrthya- 
mdnd iti prardsanam parusham sydt sdkshdt svdrthaparatva/n kuryad 
ity artha^.' The KS»va text reads, ' let him not divide (the libation) 
with this (formula), for he who divides it thus — prarisanaw kurj'it' 
Perhaps he means to say, that by using that formula one would 
put oneself above the gods. At I, 9, i, 14 ' one would give orders 
(to the gods)' is probably the right translation. 



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IV KAJVZ3A, 2 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, i8. 297 

with a verse to Indra and Agni. With, ' Thee .... 
for Indra,' he performs at the midday feast, for the 
midday feast is sacred to Indra. 

15. Now the AarakAdhvaryus * divide (the U kthya 
libation into three portions), with ' Thou art taken 
with a support : thee, the god-pleasing, I take for 
the gods; (thee) the praise-pleasing, for praises, — 
agreeable to Mitra and Varu«a ! ' — with ' This is thy 
womb : thee to Mitra and Varu«a !' he (the A'ara- 
kidhvaryu) deposits it ; and with ' Thou art a re- 
offering' he touches the sthdll. 

1 6. ' Thou art taken with a support : thee, the 
god-pleasing, I take for the gods ; (thee) the praise- 
pleasing, for praises, — agreeable to Indra ! — This is 
thy womb : thee to Indra !' thus he deposits it ; and 
with ' Thou art a re-offering' he touches the sthdl!. 

17. 'Thou art taken with a support: thee, the 
god-pleasing, I take for the gods ; (thee) the praise- 
pleasing, for praises, — agreeable to Indra and Agni ! 
— This is thy womb : thee for Indra and Agni !' thus 
he deposits it. He does not at this (third por- 
tion) touch the sthill with ' Thou art a re-offering.' 
' . . . . Thee for Indra I' he says each time at the mid- 
day feast, for the midday feast is sacred to Indra. 
Twice he touches the sthdll with ' Thou art a re- 
offering ;' and silently he puts it down the third time. 

1 8. But, in order to avoid sameness (of perform- 
ance), let him not take it out with the ' support ;' nor 
let him deposit it in the 'womb;' for this (Ukthya 

' ' Such is the rule (sthiti) ; but the A'arakSdhvaryus divide it in 
this way.' Ki«va text The formulas of the Taitt. S. I, 4, 1 2, and 
MaitrSy. S. I, 3, 14, differ from the above ; perhaps the Kd/Aaka 
is referred to ; see v. Schrofeder, M. S. I, p. 36, note 3. 



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298 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAA^A. 

libation) has at first been taken with the ' support,' 
and it has at first been deposited in the womb ; — and 
were he now also to take it with the ' support,' and 
deposit it in the ' womb,' he would assuredly commit 
(the fault of) sameness. And as to his touching the 
sth&li with ' Thou art a re-offering,* he will indeed 
again take a libation therefrom. Let him not heed 
this, but let him put down (the vessel) silently. 

Fourth BaAHMAiVA. 

1. That (opening of) vital air of his which is in 
front, that, forsooth, is the Vai^vfinara (graha); 
and that which is behind is the Dhruva. Formerly, 
indeed, both these grahas, the Dhruva and Vai^vi- 
nara, were drawn ; and even now one of them is 
still drawn, to wit, the Dhruva^ And if he acquire 
a knowledge of that (Vai^vdnara graha) either from 
the A'arakas, or from anywhere else, let him pour it 
into the sacrificer's cup ; but this (Dhruva graha he 
pours) into the Hotrt's cup*. 

2. Now, what part of him there is below the 
navel, that part of his self, that vital energy of his, 
is this (Dhruva) : hence he draws it by means of this 
(earth), because of her is the bowl (sthiU) ', and with 
a bowl he draws it ; — for undecaying and immortal 
is this (earth), and undecaying and immortal is the 
vital energy : therefore he draws it by means of this 
(earth). 



* ' Formerly they took these two separately, as Dhruva and Vai- 
jvSnara ; but now they take them as one only.' Ka«va text. 

* Both these libations are reserved for the evening feast. 
' See p. 288, note 2. 



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IV kAa'Z»A, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 7. 299 

3. He draws it full ; for full means all, and the 
vital energy means all : therefore he draws it full. 

4. He draws it for(Agni) Vai^vinara; for Vai^vd- 
nara (' he that belongs to all men ') is the year, 
and the vital energy (life) is the year: therefore he 
draws it for Vai,yvdnara. 

5. Having been drawn at the morning pressing, 
it reposes apart from that time : thus he guides him 
(the sacrificer) safely through all the pressings. 

6. Let him not pour it (into the Hotrt's cup) 
during the chanting ; for, verily, were he to pour it 
out during the chanting, the sacrificer would not live 
through the year. 

7. He pours it out during the recitation of the 
iastra ; whereby he guides him safely over the 
twelvefold chant of praise : thus he obtains ever 
continued life, and thus does the sacrificer live long. 
Therefore the Brahman should sit through the 
praise of Agni (Agnish/oma)'; till the offering of 
this (libation) he must not slip away* — nor must he 

* 1 Tasmad brdhmano 'gnish/omasat syit. The obvious meaning 
of this sentence is, 'hence the celebrator of the Agnish/oma should 
be a BrShman,' or, perhaps, ' hence a Brahman should celebrate 
the Agnish/oma;' but I do not see how it can have that meaning 
here, without at least a double-entendre in the term 'agnish/o- 
masad,' Agnish/oma in that case ('the praise of Agni') referring 
both to the sacrifice generally and to the chanting (stoma or stotra). 
See next note. My MS. of Sayawa's commentary (from the library 
of the MahSrS^ of Bikaner) has unfortunately an omission here. 

* Viz. from the Sadas; ' nlisarpet,' KS«va text. The verb 
sarp, 'to glide or creep,' is used technically of a peculiar noiseless 
mode of leaving (ni^sarp) the Sadas and returning thither (prasarp 
or pratisarp, see paragraph 10), and respectfully approaching the 
dhish«ya fires. If it has to be taken here in that sense, the first 
prohibition would seem to refer to the Hotr» (cf. Ait. Br. II, 22, 
where the question is argued whether or not the Hotrz' ought to 



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300 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

discharge urine : thus he obtains the full life — for 
this (libation) is his life — thus he reaches the full 
(measure of) life. 

8. For, what part of him there is below the navel, 
that part of his self is this (Dhruva libation). Hence 
were he to slip away or discharge urine before the 
offering of this (libation), he would discharge the 
Dhruva (the firm, constant one) : hence, lest he should 
discharge the Dhruva, he sits through the praise of 
Agni. This, indeed, applies only to the sacrificer*, 
for this (libation) is part of the sacrificer's self. 

9. He sits through the praise of Agni*; — for 
Soma is glory : hence they both approach, he who 
partakes of the Soma and he who does not, — they 
approach, forsooth, to behold that glory. And thus 
indeed the Br&hmans, having crept near together, 
take unto them that glory, when they drink (the 
Soma) ; — and verily whosoever, knowing this, drinks 
(Soma), becomes glorious' indeed. 

1 0. Now, those same (priests) having, while gliding 
along*, deposited that glory in him who sits through 
(celebrates) the praise of Agni, they glide along 
and turn away from that glory* : having thus en- 
compassed it, he again takes that glory unto him- 

proceed to the chanting-place with the other priests, and is decided 
in the negative); since the sacrificer, to whom the second prohibi- 
tion refers (KSty. IX, 6, 23), goes along with them, according to 
IV, 2, 5, 4. According to the commentary on KSty. IX, 6, 33, 
in performing the sarpana the priests and sacrificer should move 
along sitting at the morning feast; walking with bent bodies at 
the midday feast ; and walking upright at the evening feast. 

' Tad u tad ya^g^manasyaiva. Ka«va text. 

' Or, he indeed becomes a celebrator of the Agnish/oma. 

' The K^/va text has 'yarasvi.' 

* See p. 299, note 2. 

• The Ka«va MS. (W.) reads, ' agnish/omasad etad ydxaA sanni- 



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IV KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 1 4. 3OI 

self ; — verily, whosoever, knowing this, sits .through 
(celebrates) the praise of Agni, he passes away after 
becoming the most glorious of these (men). 

11. Now, the gods and the Asuras, both of them 
sprung from Pra^dpati, were contending for this sacri- 
fice — their father Pra^^pati, the year, — saying, ' Ours 
he shall be ! ours he shall be !' 

12. Then the gods went on singing praises and 
toiling. They devised this Agnish/oma feast, and 
by means of this Agnish/oma feast they appropriated 
the entire sacrifice and excluded the Asuras from the 
sacrifice. And in like manner does this (sacrificer), by 
means of this Agnish/oma feast, now appropriate the 
entire sacrifice, and exclude his enemies from the 
sacrifice : therefore he celebrates the Agnish/oma. 

13. Having drawn it (the Dhruva graha), he de- 
posits it with the northern cart', lest he should con- 
found the vital airs, for the grahas are vital airs : 
now the other grahas he deposits on the raised 
(mound), but this one (he deposits) after pushing 
(the dust) aside without leaving as much as a blade 
of grass between*. 

14. For those (other cups of Soma) are that part 
of his body from the navel upwards, and above, as it 
were, is what is from the navel upwards, and above, 
as it were, is what is raised: therefore he deposits 

dhdyata etasmSt paranio y^&so (sic) bhavanti ' (' ihey turn away 
from that glorious one '). 

' The dhruva-sthSli is placed just in front of the northern prop. 

' Lit. not putting a blade of grass between (the sthalt and the 
ground on which it stands). Cf Katy. IX, 2, i8. Apparently 
he is to shift the sthalt along the ground from the khara to the 
place where it is to stand, all grass and other objects being thus 
removed between this vessel and those standing on the mound 
(' vyuhyaita/« na tr/«a»» fenSntardhaya,' Ki«va text). 



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302 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

(the Others) on the raised (mound), and this one (he 
deposits) after pushing (the dust) aside without leav- 
ing as much as a blade of grass between. 

1 5. For this (cup of Soma) is that part of his body 
from the navel downwards ; and below, as it were, 
is what is from the navel downwards ; and below, as 
it were, is what (one deposits) after pushing (the 
dust) aside and leaving not so much as a blade of 
grass between: therefore he deposits this (Dhruva 
graha) after pushing (the dust) aside, without leaving 
so much as a blade of grass between. 

16. Now, that sacrifice which is being performed 
is Pra^ipati, from whom these creatures on earth 
have been born, — and indeed even now they are 
born after this (sacrifice). The creatures that are 
born therefrom after those (libations) which he de- 
posits on the raised (mound), stand on this (earth) 
with something different from their own self, — for 
those which stand on hoofs indeed stand on this 
(earth) with something different from their own self. 
And when he deposits this (Dhruva cup) after shift- 
ing aside (the dust), and not leaving so much as a 
blade of grass between, — the creatures that are born 
thereafter from this (sacrifice), stand on this (earth) 
with their own self, namely, men and wild beasts \ 

1 7. Moreover, on the one hand, in throwing up 
(the mound) he puts upon this (earth) something dif- 
ferent from it; and those creatures that are born 
from this (sacrifice) after those (libations) which he 
deposits on the raised (mound), they stand on this 
(earth) with something different from their own self, 
namely, with hoofs. 

' i'vSpada, lit. ' dog-footed ' beasts. 



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IV KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 20. 303 

18. And, on the other hand, they offer in the 
Ahavaniya^ a sacrificial cake, parched barley-grains, 
porridge, sour curds, and clotted curds, — this is like 
pouring (food) into one's mouth. But this (libation) 
remains apart, (being) of one form like water. Hence 
while he eats the multiform food with that mouth 
(the fire), he lets flow from that opening the uniform 
(libation) like water. Then as to why it is called 
Dhruva. 

19. Now, once on a time, the gods, while perform- 
ing sacrifice, were afraid of an attack from the Asura- 
Rakshas. The Asufa-Rakshas assailed them from 
the south, and overturned those southern cups of 
Soma, — even that southern Soma-cart they over- 
turned ; but that other (cart) they could not overturn : 
the northern cart then kept the southern cart steady*. 
And because they could not overturn that (northern 
cup) therefore it is called Dhruva (firm)^ 

20. They indeed watch over it ; for this (cup of 
Soma) is the head of Giyatrl, G^yatrl being the 
sacrifice, — there are twelve chants (stotra) and twelve 
recitations (^astra) : that makes twenty-four, and of 
twenty-four syllables consists the Giyatrl. This cup 
of Soma is her head ; but the head means excellence, 
for the head indeed means excellence : hence people 
say of him who is the best man of a place, that ' so 
and so is the head of such and such a place.' And, 
indeed, the best man' would come to harm, if this 

' See IV,- 2, 5, isseq. 

• ' They (the gods) then made the southern cart firm from (or 
by means of) the northern cart.' KS«va text. 

' It is more probable that the Dhruva (firm, constant) derives its 
name from the fact that it remains intact till the very end of the 
Agnish/oma, as suggested in the Petersburg Dictionary. 



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304 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

(cup) were to come to harm ; and, the best man being 
the sacrificer, they watch (this cup) lest the sacrificer 
should come to harm. 

21. Moreover, this (graha) is Giyatrl's calf, Giya- 
trl being the sacrifice, — there are twelve chants and 
twelve recitations : that makes twenty-four, and of 
twenty-four syllables consists the Giyatrl. This is 
her calf; — when they watch it, then they watch these 
calves for the sake of the milking ; ' as they yield 
this milk, even so may this Gdyatri yield all the 
sacrificer's wishes,' — this is why they watch it. 

2 2. And when both the Adhvaryu and the Prati- 
prasthcltrz walk out (of the cart-shed) and (afterwards) 
enter (again)\ it is as if (a cow) were to come with 
the calf tied to her. They come to this cup of Soma, 
and he (the Adhvaryu) pours it out ; whereby he lets 
loose the G&yatrl : ' Made over to the sacrificer, may 
this Giyatrl yield all his desires!' for this reason he 
pours it out. 

23. He pours it (into the HotWs cup') with (V^. 
S. VII, 25), 'The firm Soma I pour out — or, I 
take — with firm mind and speech: now may 
Indra make our people of one mind, free from 
enemies!' whereby he means to say, 'so that Indra 
may make these our creatures, the people, of one 
mind and free from enemies, for their happiness and 
glory and nourishment ! ' 

24. Here now he draws it from that (stream of 
Soma)^ (Vi^. S. VII, 24; Rig-veda VI, 7, i), ' Agni 

' Viz. at the evening feast, when the Adhvaryu pours the Soma 
from the Dhruva-sthali into the Hotrt's cup (paragraph 23). 

* See p. 256, note i. The preceding paragraphs anticipate the 
future rites regarding this libation, the original drawing of which is 
only now described. 



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IV kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, 2. 305 

Vai^vinara, the crest of heaven, the disposer 
of the earth, born in the sacred rite, the wise 
all-ruler, the guest of men, — him the gods 
have begotten as a vessel for their mouth. 
Thou art taken with a support: thou art firm 
(Dhruva), of firm abode, the firmest of the firm, 
the most solidly founded of the solid 1 This 
is thy womb — thee for Vai^vinara!' therewith 
he deposits- it after pushing (the dust) aside, and not 
leaving so much as a blade of grass between : for he 
indeed takes it for (Agni) Vaijv^nara. 



Fifth Brahmajva. 

1. Having drawn the cups of Soma, and gone out 
(of the cart-shed to the high altar)*, he offers the 
oblation of drops*. The reason why he offers the 
oblation of drops is this. Whatever drops of that 
(Soma) are spilt here, to them he now wishes a safe 
journey to the Ahavaniya, for the Ahavanlya is the 
resting-place of offerings : this is why he offers the 
oblation of drops. 

2. He offers with (V4f. S. VH, 26; Rig-veda X, 
17, 12), 'Whatever drop of thine leapeth 

' The libations (grahas) having been taken, and the remaining 
Nigrdbhyd water, mixed with Soma-juice, poured from the Hotr»''s 
cup into the Drowakalara (p. 256, note i), the Adhvaryu, Pratipra- 
sthatrt, Prastotr*; Udgitr;, Pratihartr/, and Sacrificer walk out of 
the Havirdhina shed, each following one touching the hem of the 
garment of the one before him, and betake themselves to the altar. 

' The vipru</-homa, an expiatory oblation for the Soma spilt 
during the pressing, consists of a praiarawt spoon full of ghee. 
According to Afv. V, 2, 6, and LS/y. 1, 1 1, 9, it would seem that each 
of those taking part in the Sarpana (see p. 299, note 2) makes two 
oblations (called ' pravntta-homa ' by LS/y. St. and PaTltaviwxa Br.). 
[26] X 



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3o6 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

away, whatever stalk of thine,' — whatever par- 
ticle (of Soma) is spilt, that is a drop, that indeed he 
means ; and by ' whatever stalk of thine' he mentions 
the stalk; — 'stone-pressed, from the lap of the 
press-bowls;' for pressed by the stone^ it leaps 
away from the two press-bowls; — 'be it from the 
Adhvaryu or from the strainer,' — for it leaps 
away either from the Adhvaryu's hands or from the 
strainer, — 'that I offer unto thee in my mind 
consecrated by Vasha^, Hail!' whereby it be- 
comes for him as an offering consecrated by Vasha/. 

3. Thereupon the Adhvaryu takes two stalks of 
grass from the covered altar. The two Adhvaryus* 
proceed first (to the chanting-place beside the pit), 
as the out-breathing and in-breathing of the sacri- 
fice ; then the Vrastotri, as the voice of the sacrifice ; 
then the Vdgttrt, as the self (or body), the Pra^pati, 
of the sacrifice ; then the Pratihartr?, either as the 
physician or the through-breathing^ 

4. The Sacrificer holds on to those five priests 
from behind*, for as much as those five priests are, 
so much is the whole sacrifice, the sacrifice beingr 
fivefold : hence the Sacrificer thereby holds on to 
the sacrifice. 

5. He (the Adhvaryu) then throws one of the two 

' ' Grdva-^yuta ' seems to be taken by the author in the sense of 
' set in motion by the (pressing) stone.' The Rig-veda reads 
' bdhu-^ta ;' also ' dhishawiyiA ' instead of ' dhishawayoA.' 

* That is, the Adhvaryu and his assistant, the PratiprasthStr/. 

' Ait. Br. II, 20 enumerates Adhvaryu, Prastotrj, Pratihartr/', 
Udgatn, and Brahman (see alsoA^v. V, 2, 4-5); the Ld/yiy. Sfttra 
I, II, Adhvaryu, Prastotr/', Udgiln, Pratihartr/, Brahman, and 
Sacrificer. 

* That is, each holds on to the hem of the garment of the one 
who precedes him. 



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IV kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 5 brAhmava, 7. 307 

stalks of grass forward towards the pit\ with, 'Thou 
art the ascent of the gods!' for when the gods 
through the sacrifice attained to the heavenly world, 
it was from that pit that they went upwards to the 
heavenly world : he thus makes the sacrificer look 
along the road to heaven. 

' 6. He then throws down the other stalk in front 
of the chanters, silently, for those chanters represent 
the hymn of praise (stotra), Pra^pati (the sacrifice), — 
he (Pra^pati) draws to himself everything here, and 
takes possession of everything here : it is to him that 
that stalk is offered, and thus he does not draw the 
Adhvaryu to himself, and take possession of him. And 
when they mutter*, — for the chanters mutter now', — 
7. Then he bespeaks the chant, saying, ' Soma 
becometh pure!' He bespeaks the chant right off*, 
and they chant right off; for these chants, the 
Pavaminct^", are directed towards the gods, since 

' The UdgStr/s (chanters) also throw stalks of grass to the south 
with their left hands, with the text, Pan^av. I, 3, 3. 

' And when he thinks ' they have muttered ' (atha yadd manyate 
'^pishur iti) — for the chanters mutter now. Ki«va text. 

' For the mantras the Udgalns have to mutter on this occasion, 
previous to the chanting, see TSWya Br. I, 3, 4-6. The recita- 
tion of the A^arastra, by the Hotrt, succeeding the chanting of 
the Bahishpavamina-stotra, is likewise preceded by a prayer mut- 
tered by that priest, for which see Ait. Br. II, 38 ; Ajv. V, 9. 

* That is, without repeating that formula, in the same way as 
the PavamSna chants are performed without repealing single 
verses. See p. 308, note a. 

' The first stotra at each pressing is called pavamSna (puri- 
fying, i. e. during the chanting of which the Soma becomes clari- 
fied), viz. the BahishpavamSna at the morning, the Madhyan- 
dina pavamina at the midday, and the Arbhava (or tr«ttya) 
pavamSna at the evening pressing. The other stotras are called 
Dhurya, 'to be harnessed, belonging to or forming a team.' For 
the correspondence between the stotra and rastra, see p. 325, note 2. 

X 2 



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3o8 ^atapatha-brAhmatva. 

the gods thereby attained to the heavenly world 
right off (straightway) : therefore he bespeaks the 
chant right off, and right off they chant, 

8, With ' Turn ye back H' (he bespeaks) the other 
chants (viz. the Dhuryas), and turning back (or re- 
peating) they chant the Dhuryas*, for the latter 



' This is Saya»a's interpretation of ' upSvartadhvam,' instead of 
'draw near,' as translated by me at I, 5, 2, 12, He is probably 
right in connecting it with the repetitions which certain verses have 
to undergo in the dhurya-stotras, 

* There are many different stomas, or forms of chanting stotras, 
named from the number of verses produced in each form (generally 
by repetitions of certain verses). Those required for the Sharfaha and 
Dvddajaha (see IV, 5, 4, i seq.) are: trivr;t (9), paft^adaja (15), 
saptadaja (17), ekaviw ja (21), tri«ava (27), trayastriwja (33), 
kztUTvimsz (24), iaLtusiatyiiimsz (44), and ash/aiatv4rimja 
(48). The first four of these are those most frequently used, and 
the only ones used at the Agnish/oma. AH these stomas, with one 
exception (24), have two or more different varieties or arrange- 
ments, called vish/uti, differing from one another either in the 
order in which the several verses are to be chanted, or in regard to 
the number of repetitions which the corresponding verses have to 
undergo. Besides, stomas are generally performed in three turns or 
rounds, parySya, consisting of a triplet of verses (some of which 
may have to be repeated more than once), and preceded by the sound 
'hu«' (Hihkdra). Thus the first Agyastotra, Simav. II, 10-12, 
(consisting of three verses, a, b, c,) is to be performed in the pan^a- 
da^a-stoma; that is, the three verses have to be so treated, by 
repetitions, as to produce fifteen verses in three turns. Now, as 
there are three different varieties of performing the panyfadara- 
stoma, the stotra might be chanted in one or other of the following 
three arrangements : — 

I. Hum aaa b c -v this form is called 'pan>fa- 
Hum a bbb c > pawAinJ,' i.e. consisting 
Hum a b c c c ) of five in each row. 

Or 2. Hum aaa be") 

Hum a b c > ('apard' or 'other, second'). 



Hum a bbb 



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IV KANDA, 2 ADHyAyA, 5 BRAhMAJVA, 9. 3O9 

are directed towards these creatures : whence crea- 
tures are produced here repeatedly. 

9. And as to why they chant the Bahishpava- 
mdna here (near the idtvila). In the beginning, 
forsooth, yonder sun was here on earth'. The sea- 
sons embraced him and ascended from hence to the 
heavenly world : there he burns firmly established 

Or 3. Hum a b c \ ,,. e . n j , . ^, 

•^ ' this form is called 'udyatt,' 



Hum a bbb c > 
ccc ) 



TT u { OT the ascending one. 

Hum aaabcccj 

The three paryiyas of a stoma (or vishAiti) show each three 
subdivisions (viz. aaa — b — c, being those of the first parydya 
above), called vish/4va. When the Udgitr»s are about to com- 
mence a chant, the Prastotn spreads in their midst a cloth, doubled 
up so that the unwoven fringe lies over the selvage, either towards 
the east or north. Thereon he marks the subdivisions of the 
rounds, by means of sticks (kuj&), a span long, of some kind of 
wood suitable for sacrifice, split lengthways along the pith (the 
bark being left outside) and somewhat pointed at one end, then 
smeared over with some fragrant substance, and wrapped up singly 
in pieces of the same kind of cloth as that spread on the ground. 
The marking of the vish/ivas, or subdivisions, takes place at the end 
of the prastdva or prelude (see next page, note i) in this way, that 
each vish/ava is marked by as many sticks as the corresponding 
verse has to be repeated ; those of the first vish/dva being laid down 
with the point to the north, then behind or west of them those of 
the second turn with the point to the west, and behind them those 
of the third turn with the point to the north. Thereupon those of 
the other two rounds are laid down in the same way, each turn 
north of the preceding one. Hence the arrangement of sticks for 
the first of the above varieties of the paniadaja-stoma would be 
three straight, one across, one straight ; one straight, three across, 
one straight ; one straight, one across, three straight. 

With the exception of the BahishpavamSna, the chanting is 
performed in the Sadas by the side of the Udumbara post (see 
III, 6, I, 2 seq.), the latter being likewise enclosed in a cloth of 
the above description, wrapt round it from left to right, with the 
Unwoven fringe towards the top. 

• Cf. T&miysi Br. VI, 7, 24. 



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3IO 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

in the seasons. And in like manner do the priests 
thereby embrace the sacrificer and ascend from hence 
to the heavenly world ; this is why they chant the 
Bahishpavamdna here. 

lo. The Bahishpavamfina * chant truly is a ship 

* The Bahishpavamdna-(stotra), or ' outside-pavamana,' — so 
called because (on the first day of a Soma-sacrifice) it is performed 
outside the altar (commentary on Pawiav. Br. VI, 8, lo-ii ; or out- 
side the Sadas, Siy.on SSmav. S. p. 47), — is chanted in the Trivrjt, 
or threefold, stoma ; consisting, as it does, of three gSyatrt triplets 
(SSmav. II, 1-9 for the Agnish/oma), and none of its verses being 
chanted more than once. This stoma has three different varieties, viz. 
the udyatl, or ascending mode, the first turn of which consists of 
the first verses of the three triplets, the second turn of the second 
verses, and the third turn of the last verses, hence a' a' a' — b' b* 
b' — c' c' c'; the parivartint, or reverting mode, following the 
natural order, a' b' c* — a' b' c* — a' b' c'; and the kuliyini, or 
web-like mode, performed in the order a' b' c' — b' c' a' — c' a' b'. 
Cf. Haug, Transl. Ait. Br. p. 237, where, however, these forms are 
described quite differently. The term used for the natural order 
of verses in the parivartinl vish/uti is ' pa-riii,' i. e. thitherwards, 
straight off. From the statement in paragraph 7 above, that ' they 
chant straight off (parSk),' one might therefore infer that that par- 
ticular mode of chanting ought to be used for the Bahishpavamina- 
stotra ; but the term ' parSk ' may also be taken as referring to 
each of the several verses being chanted ' straight off,' without any 
repetition. Haug, Transl. Ait. Br. p. 1 20 note, remarks : ' Each of 
these verses is for the purpose of chanting divided into four parts : 
Prastdva, i.e. prelude, the first being preceded by hum, to be 
sung by the Prastotar ; Vdgttha, the principal part of the Saman, 
preceded by Om, to be chanted by the Udgitar ; the PratiMra, 
i. e. response [ ? rather check, stop ; cf. IV, 3, 4, 22], introduced by 
hum, to be chanted by the Pratihartar; and the Nidhana, i. e. 
finale, to be sung by all three. To give the student an idea of 
this division, I here subjoin the second of these r//tas in the Siman 
form, distinguishing its four parts : — 

[The connected rik form is: Abhi te madhunS payo — athar- 
vS«o arijrayur — devaw devSya devayu.] 

' Prastdva : abhi te madhuni payo/n. 

' UdgUha : ova ithnv&no ajif rSdeyurva»i devSyadl 



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IV KAJVDA, 2 ADHVAYA, 5 BRAHMAJVA, II. 3II 

bound heavenwards : the priests are its spars and 
oars, the means of reaching the heavenly world. If 
there be a blameworthy one, even that one (priest) 
would make it sink : he makes it sink, even as one 
who ascends a ship that is full would make it sink. 
And, indeed, every sacrifice is a ship bound heaven- 
wards : hence one should seek to keep a blameworthy 
(priest) away from every sacrifice. 

II. Thereupon, when the chanting is over', he 

' Pralihdra : hum iviyo. 

' Nidhana : s&m. 

'The Nidhanas, i. e. finales, are for the nine Pavamana-stotra 
verses the following ones: sSt, sim, suvSA, i</a, vak, and S. (for 
the four last verses).' See also Burnell, Arsheyabr. p. xlv seq. 

* Li/y. 1, 1 2 ; 11, 1 ; Tiitdyz Br. VI, 7 seq. give the following 
details : The Prastotrr" takes the prastara (bunch of grass, repre- 
senting the Sacrificer) from the Adhvaryu and says, ' Brahman, we 
will chant, O PrafSstar I' The Brahman and Maitrivaruna having 
given their assent (Ajv. V, 2, 12-14), the Prastotri hands the pra- 
stara to the UdgStr/. The latter touches his right thigh with it 
(or bends his right knee thereon) and 'harnesses' (introduces) the 
chant by the formula, ' Wiih Agni's fire, with Indra's might, with 
Sflrya's brilliance, may Bnliaspati harness thee,' &c. (TSWya Br. 
I. 3i 5)> whereupon he mutters, 'I will make food,' &c. (ib. 6); 
and after looking towards the pit and a vessel of water and the sun, 
he commences the chant. The three chanters are seated west of the 
Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthatr/ (who look towards them), viz. the 
UdgStr/' facing the north, the Prastotr/' the west, and the Prati- 
hartri' the south (or south-east). To the west of them are seated 
three, four, or six subordinate singers, or choristers (upagStrt), 
who accompany the chanting in a deep voice with the sound ' Ho.' 
When the chant is completed, the UdgStr/ says, ' I have made 
food,' and makes the sacrificer mutter the formula, ' Thou art a 
falcon,' &c. (Paw*. Br. I, 3, 8); whereupon he Ukes a stalk of 
grass from the prastara, cuts oflF the top and bottom, so as to make 
it of the length of four thumbs' breadths, and throws it into the 
pit with, 'If it has been chanted,' &c. (ib. II, i, 8). They then 
pour out the vessel of water into the pit, with, ' I send you to the 
sea,' &c., and make 3, 5, 7 or 9 steps northwards outside the altar, 



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312 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA^A. 

Utters this speech, — ' Agnidh, spread the fires ! strew 
the barhis! Prepare the cakes! go on with the 
victim 1' The Agrrtdh spreads the fires, that is to 
say, kindles them' ; he strews that barhis*, thinking, 
' When the barhis is strewn, I wiU offer to the gods 
on the kindled (fire).' — ' Prepare the cakes,' he says, 
because he is about to proceed with the cakes ; and, 
' Go on with the victim,' because he is about to get 
ready the victim *. 

12. Having again entered (the cart-shed) he draws 
the A^vina graha*. Having drawn the A^vina graha 
he goes out and girds the sacrificial stake*; and having 
girt the stake he gets ready the victim : he thereby 
puts flavour (juice) into him (Soma — the sacrificer). 

13. Having been slain at the morning feast, it 
continues being cooked till the evening feast; 
whereby he puts flavour (juice) into the whole 
sacrifice, imbues it with flavour. 

14. Let him therefore, at the Agnish/oma, slay a 
(victim) sacred to Agni, for there is harmony when, 
at the Agnish/oma, he slays a (victim) for Agni. If 

whereupon they betake themselves to the Agnidhrlya, During the 
chanting, the Unnetr/ pours the Soma-juice from the Adhavaniya 
trough through the strainer into the PQtabhr«t. 

^ The Agnidh takes burning coals from the Agntdhriya fire, and 
puts them on the dhishnya hearths, in the order in which they were 
raised. See p. 148, note 4. 

' He spreads a layer of (ulapa) grass along the ' spine ' (the line 
from the middle of the back to the middle of the front side) of the 
altar. 

' PanuR hy SlipsyamSno (!) bhavati. Kd«va MS. 

* Having taken this cup of Soma or libation (with the formula, 
VS^. S. VII, 11) from the Drona-kalara or the P(ktabhr»t, he makes 
the sacrificer eye the several cups and Soma vessels, as set forth IV, 
5 , 6, 1 seq. J the Arvina being looked at sixth in order (or fourth of the 
grahas), not tenth (as was its order of drawing). See IV, 1, 5, 1 6. 

' See III, 7, 1, 19 seq. 



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IV KhfDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAA'A, 1 4. 313 

it be an Ukthya sacrifice, let him slay one to Indra and 
Agni in the second place, for songs of praise (uktha) ^ 
refer to Indra and Agni. If it be a Shoa^ayin sacri- 
fice, let him slay one to Indra in the third place, for 
the sixteenfold chant (shoa^ayin)" means Indra. If it 
be an Atiritra, let him slay one to SarasvatI in the 
fourth place, for SarasvatI is speech, and speech (vS^, 
fern.) is female, as the night (rStri, fem.) is female : 
he thus duly distinguishes the forms of sacrifice *. 

' Or, the (three) Uktha-stotras (Simav. II, 55-62) and f astras, 
the characteristic feature of the Ukthya sacrifice. Cf. p. 325, note 2; 
and IV, 6, 3, 3. 

* The Sho</a*i-stotra (SSmav. II, 302-304) chanted in the 
ekavimra stoma is the characteristic stotra of the Shot/a^in sacrifice. 
The term meaning ' having a sixteenth ' (viz. stotra), it evidently 
refers originally to the sacrifice, and has then also been applied to 
the stotra and ^astra. See also Hang, Ait. Br. Transl. p. 255, note 2. 

• On this occasion the same rites are performed as at the sacri- 
fice of the Agnishomiya buck (III, 6, 4, i seq.), viz. from the girding 
of the stake (III, 7, i, 19) to the election of the Hotri' (III, 7, 4, 9). 
Then the other priests are elected, viz. Adhvaryu (and Pratipra- 
sthSt/-;), the PrajSstr/ (Maitravaruna), the BrAhmawSi^awsin, the 
Potr/, the Nesh/n", the Agiridhra, and finally the sacrificer himself; 
after which each of them makes two election-oblations (pravnta- 
homa) of ghee, the first with, ' May I be well-pleasing to Speech, 
well-pleasing to the Lord of speech : O divine Speech, what 
sweetest, most pleasing speech is thine, therewith endow me 1 
Hail to SarasvatI I' the second with, 'May the holy SarasvatI, 
of abundant powers, rich in devotion, accept favourably our sacri- 
fice !' Thereupon they proceed with the animal off'ering up to the 
offering of the omentum (vapa) and cleansing (III, 8, 2, 30) ; after 
which all the eighteen priests and the sacrificer perform the Sar- 
pa«a (see p. 299, note 2), that is, they step up to the eight dhishwya 
hearths (with formulas Vi^. S. V, 31 a-d; 32 a-d respectively), 
the Adhvarj'u then pointing out the Ahavaniya, the Bahishpava- 
mSna place, the ^atvila, &c. (with VS^. S. V, 32 e seq.) ; and 
touching the Sadas and its door-posts, and addressing Sflrya (the 
sun), the Hitvigs (oflSciating priests) and dhislwya hearths (with V, 
33-34). KSty. IX, 8, 8-25. For the duties of the Udgatr/s, see 
Li/y. ^r. II, 2, 10 seq. 



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314 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

15. Thereupon he proceeds with (the offering of) 
the cakes of the Soma feast. Now Soma is a god, 
for Soma was in the heaven ; — ' Soma, forsooth, was 
Vmra; the mountains and stones are his body: 
thereon grows that plant called U^^ni,' said 6'veta- 
ketu Auddilaki; 'that they bring hither and 
press.' 

16. Now when he slays the victim, he thereby 
puts flavour into it ; and when he proceeds with (the 
offering of) the Soma feast cakes, he puts sap into 
it : thus it becomes Soma for him. 

1 7. They all belong to Indra ; for Indra is the deity 
of the sacrifice : that is why they all belong to Indra. 

1 8. And as to why there are a cake, parched 
barley-grain, a porridge, sour curds, and clotted 
curds, — it is that those who are the deities of the 
sacrifice shall be well-pleased. 

19. For, when one has eaten cake here, he wishes, 
' I should like to take parched grains, I should like 
to eat porridge, I should like to eat sour curds, 
I should like to eat clotted curds ! ' All these (are 
objects of one's) wishes : it is in order that those who 
are the deities of the sacrifice shall be well-pleased. 
Now as to why that offering of clotted curds (payasyi) 
is prepared only at the morning libation, and not at 
the two other libations (Soma feasts). 

20. The G&yatr!, forsooth, bears the morning 
libation (to the gods), the Trish/ubh the midday 
libation, and the 6^agatt the evening libation, — but, 
then, the Trish/ubh bears the midday libation, not 
alone, (but) with both the Gdyatrl and the Brehatl ' ; 
and the G^agatl (bears) the evening libation, not alone, 

' For the metres of which the Madhyandina-pavamSna stotra is 
composed, see p. 333, note i. 



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IV KAJVDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAJVA, 22. 315 

(but) with the Giyatrl, the Kakubh, and Ushwih, and 
the Anush/ubh ^. 

21. The GAyatrl alone bears singly the morning 
libation, — with those two sets of five (pahkti) *, the 
set of five chants, and the set of five oblations : 
there are four A^ya (chants) * and the Bahishpava- 
mina is the fifth, — the Padkti metre is five-footed — 
with that pankti of chants, not alone, the Giyatrl 
bears the morning libation. 

22. To Indra belongs the cake, to the two bay 
steeds the parched grains (dhini^) *, to POshan the 
porridge (karambha), to Sarasvatl the sour curds 
(dadhi), and to Mitra and Varu«a the clotted curds 
(payasyd)*, — the Pankti is five-footed — with that 
pankti of oblations, not alone, the Gdyatrl bears the 

' The Arbhava or Trttiya-pavamdna stotra, Samav. II, 
39~52 (see note on IV, 3, 5, 24), is made up of five parts, com- 
posed chiefly in the Gayatrt, Kakubh, Ush«ih, AnushAibh, and 
Gag&tt metres respectively. It is chanted in the Saptadaja-stoma, 
the seventeen verses being obtained in the following way. The 
Gayatrl triplet (II, 39-41) is chanted twice, in the Gayatra and 
Samhita tunes, making six verses. Then verses 43 and 44 once 
each, in the Sapha and Paushkala tunes respectively. Then the 
triplet II, 47-49 twice, in the Syivisvz and Andhtgava tunes (six 
verses). And finally the triplet II, 50-52 once, in the Kdva tune 
(three verses). This makes together seventeen verses. Verses 43, 
45, and 46 of the Samhita are omitted in the chanting. 

' Pankti means both ' a set of five,' and the pahkti metre, con- 
sisting of five octosyllabic feet. 

' See p. 325, note 2. 

* Taitt. Br. I, 5, n assigns them to the Ajvins, for the reason 
that they performed cures therewith. 

• These five sacrificial dishes, called savaniySA (or aindr&A) 
pwrodisii, are placed together in one vessel (pitrl) — the puro- 
(/aja proper, or rice-cake to Indra, being placed in the centre — and 
oblations are made from them to the respective deities at one and 
the same time, two pieces being cut from each dish into the ^uhfl 
for the chief offering, and one piece from each into the upabhr/t 



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3l6 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAyA. 

morning libation (to the gods) : for the sake of com- 
pleting that pankti, that oblation of clotted curds to 
Mitra and Varu«a is prepared only at the morning 
libation, and not at the two other libations. 

Third AdhyAya. First BrAhma^a. 

I . Having drunk (Soma) * and said, ' We are 

spoon, for the svish/akr«t. While cutting the portion he calls on 
the MaitrSvanwa to ' Recite (the invitatory prayer) of the cakes of 
the morning feast for Indra!' The anuv4kyd (Rig-veda III, 
52, i) having been recited by the Maitrivaruwa, the Adhvaryu 
steps to the fire, calls on the Agnldhra for the ^rausha/ formula 
(see I, 5, 2, 16, with note), and thereupon on the Maitrivaru«a to 
'Urge the cakes of the morning feast brought forward for Indra 1' 
That priest then urges, 'Let the Hotn" pronounce the offering prayer 
to Indra I May Indra with his bays eat the grain ! [O Hotar, pro- 
nounce the offering prayer!]' Whereupon the Hotrt recites, 'We 
who worship (part i, p. 142, note), — May Indra with his bays eat 
the grains, with POshan the porridge; with Sarasvatt, with Bh4- 
rati, the sour curds, with Mitra and Varu«a the clotted curds I [cf. 
Ait. Br. II, 24 ; Taitt. Br. I, 5, 11 ; Ajv. V, 4, 3] Vaushat I' when 
the Adhvaryu pours the oblation into the fire. For the oblation to 
Agni Svish/akn't the invitatory prayer is Rig-veda III, 28, i, and the 
offering formula ' Havir agne vihi,' ' graciously accept the offering, 
O Agni I' The offerings completed, the dishes of sacrificial food 
are placed on the Hotr/'s hearth. 

' The FuTodisz offerings, described in the preceding paragraphs, 
are followed by libations from the dvidevatya cups, viz. the Ain- 
dravayava, Maitravaru»a, and Ajvina. Each time the Adhvaryu is 
about to make a libation, the PratiprasthStrj' draws Soma-juice 
into the Aditya cup (p&tra) and makes libations therefrom immedi- 
ately after the Adhvaryu on the north side of the fire. And each 
time he pours the remains from the Aditya cup into the Aditya 
sthdli with, ' Thee to the Adityas 1' finally covering the latter with 
the former (see IV, 3, 5, 6). Then follows the filling of the cups 
of the A'amasins (see p. 287, note 2), and the libations from the 
6'ukra and Manthin grahas (already anticipated in IV, 2, i, 13- 
31) and from the cups of the A'amasins. Thereupon the Adhvaryu 
goes to the Sadas and sits down opposite the Hotr/; and in 
alternate draughts and with mutual 'invitations' they empty the 



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rV KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 3. 3 1 7 

invited together^,' he (the Adhvaryu) rises. He 
takes a piece of the cake, and at the place where 
the AMSivkka., being seated, is now (about to) recite, 
he puts the piece of cake in his hand and says, 
'O A/^^ivika, say what thou hast to say!' Now, 
the AiAtv&ka. was excluded (from the Soma) *. 

2. Indra and Agni preserved him for the produc- 
tion of creatures, whence the A-^<4ivAka priest belongs 
to Indra and Agni. But it is by means of that 
sacrificial food, the piece of cake which he now puts 
in his hand, and by means of that (saying) of the 
seers which he now recites, it is thereby they (Indra 
and Agni) pr.eserve him. 

3. When the AiMv4ka has (again) taken his seat 

dvidevatya cups. The remains are poured into the Hotr/'s cup, 
and portions of the parodisas having then been put into those 
cups, they are deposited in the left track of the southern cart. The 
Adhvaryu and Fratiprasthdtrt then drink the remains of the iSukra 
and Manthin cups ; the other priests also drinking from their cups, 
without, however, quite emptying them, after which the cup-bearers 
deposit them in the HavirdhSna, behind the axle of the southern 
cart. Henceforward, till the Vaifvadeva cup is drawn (IV, 3, 1, 
25), those cups are called n&riis^msa. The Adhvaryu then takes 
a piece of the sacrificial cake and rises, calling out, 'We are invited 
together;' after which follows the rehabilitation of the A^Aivdka, 
referred to above. Being called upon by the Adhvaryu, he recites 
the verse Rig-veda V, 25, i (beginning with ' a^/ia,' whence perhaps 
his name), ' Hither will I sing Agni the god for your protection,' 
&c., and then says, 'Ye BrShmans, invite us Brahmans also!' 
whereupon the Adhvaryu says, 'This Brihman desires an invita- 
tion : invite him. Hot/-/ 1' Being then invited, he pronounces an 
anuvdkyi, and his cup-bearer fills his cup, which henceforth ranks 
last but one, thus preceding that of the Agnidhra. He now drinks 
from his cup, and the latter is then deposited along with the other 
Jfamasas; whereupon the priests, who have taken part in the 
offering of the puro</lras, and the sacrificer eat the Idi in the 
Agnidhra fire-house. 

' Or rather, we have been mutually invited. 

* See III, 6, *, 12, 



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3 1 8 SATAPATHA-BRAH MAN A. 

(behind his hearth), he (his Adhvaryu) proceeds with 
the libations of the seasons (^ztugraha). The 
reason why he proceeds with the libations of the 
seasons when the A^^ivika is seated, is that the 
Aii^ivika represents a sexual union, since the hkhk- 
vaka belongs to Indra and Agni, and Indra and 
Agni are two, and a productive union means a pair : 
from that same productive union he produces the 
seasons, the year. 

4. And again why he proceeds with the libations 
of the seasons, when the A^-^&vika is seated. The 
seasons, the year, are everything ; he thus produces 
everything : this is why he proceeds yvith the liba- 
tions of the seasons when the AM^vika is seated. 

5. Let him draw twelve of them, — twelve months 
there are in the year : therefore he should draw 
twelve (cups of Soma). But he may also draw 
thirteen, for, they say, there is a thirteenth month '. 
Let him nevertheless draw twelve only, for such is 
completeness. 

6. He draws them from the Drowakala^a (Soma 
trough), for the Dro«akalaJa is Pra^pati, and from 
out of that Pra^ipati he produces the seasons, the 
year. 

7. He draws them by means of double-mouthed 
cups ^ ; — for where is the end of those two (cups) 
that are double-mouthed ? Hence this year revolves 
without end. When he has drawn this (libation), he 
does not deposit it : whence this year is ceaseless. 

8. He recites no invitatory prayer ; since one 

* See part i, p. 321, note 6. 

* The two Ri\M vessels are made of kSrshmarya orajvattha wood, 
of the shape of spoon-bowls, with spouts on both sides. Kity. 
IX, 2, 13. 



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IV KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAA'A, lO. 319 

invites with an invitatory prayer, and the present 
season has already come, either by day or by night. 
Nor does he utter a second Vasha/, lest he should 
turn away the seasons. Simultaneously they (the 
Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthatr?) draw the two first 
and the two last libations : thus they embrace every- 
thing here by means of the year, and everything 
here is embraced within the year. 

9. Out (of the Havirdhdna shed) walks the one, 
in steps the other, whence these months pass follow- 
ing one another. But were both to walk out to- 
gether, or were both to enter together, these months 
would assuredly pass separated one from the other : 
therefore while out walks the one, in steps the other. 

10. Six times they perform' with, 'With the 

' The twelve J?;tugrahas are drawn alternately by the Adhvaryu 
and PratiprasthStr/' — the first two and the last two simultaneously, 
the others singly, so that the one enters the cart-shed while the 
other leaves. Both in entering and leaving the Pratiprasthatri 
passes by the Adhvaryu on the north side, and for a moment 
encircles him by passing his arms round him and holding his own 
vessel south of him. With the exception of the last two libations, 
the libations are offered up entire (holocausts). When either of 
them is about to offer one of the first six libations, he calls on the 
Maitrdvaru«a to 'Prompt (the Hotr;, &c.) by the season]' — and at 
the four succeeding ones (after turning round the vessels so as to 
put the other mouth in front) to ' Prompt by the seasons 1' For the 
last two libations they again reverse the vessels to the previous 
position and call on him to 'Prompt by the season !' The MaitrS- 
varu«a's formula runs thus : ' Let the Hotr/ pronounce the offering 
prayer to Indral — From the Hotr«'s cup, from heaven to earth, 
may he drink Soma together with the season (or, seasons)! 
O Hotr/, pronounce the offering prayer I ' Whereupon the Hotr/ 
(Potr/, &c.) recites — 'We who worship, — From the Hotr/'s cup, 
from heaven to earth, may he drink Soma together with the season 
(or, seasons)! Vausha/I' These formulas are slightly varied 
according to the deity to whom the libation is offered, and the 
priest who pronounces the offering prayer and Vausha/. The 



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SATAPATIIA-BRAHMAiVA. 



season ' — thereby the gods created the day ; and 
four times with, 'With the seasons' — thereby they 
created the night. And, assuredly, were only this 
much (used), there would be nothing but night: it 
would never pass away. 

11. Over and above they perform twice with the 
formula ' With the season ; ' thereby the gods subse- 
quently gave the day (again), whence it is now day 
here, then it will be night, and to-morrow day. 

12. By ' With the season' the gods forsooth created 
the men, and by ' With the seasons ' the beasts ; and 
because they created the beasts in the middle of those 
(men), therefore these beasts (cattle), being shut in 
on both sides, have come into the power of men, 

13. And having performed six times with, 'With 
the season,' they both turn round their vessels to the 
other side ; and having performed four times with, 
' With the seasons,' they turn round their vessels to 
the other side : from the one side (or mouth) indeed 
the gods created the day, and from the other side 
the night ; from the one side the gods created men, 
and from the other beasts. 

14. Now he draws the cups (for the seasons) 

deities and offering priests of the twelve libations are: i. Indra — 
the Hotr;'; 2. the Maruts — the Potrt ; 3. Tvash/r« and the wives 
of the gods — the Nesh/r«'; 4. Agni — the AgnJdhra ; 5. Indra- 
Brahman — the BrihmawSiAawsin ; 6. Mitra-Varu«a — the MaitrS- 
varu«a; 7-10. Deva Draviwodas — the Hotr/, Votrt, Nesh/r/', and 
A^>4ivika respectively; 11. the Ajvins — the Hotr«; 12. Agni 
Gr/liapati — the Hotr«". For this last libation, the MaitrSvaruwa in 
the first place calls on the sacrificer with, ' O lord of the house, 
pronounce the offering prayer 1' and the sacrificer then again on the 
Hotr* with, 'O Holrt, pronounce the offering prayer upon this!' 
whereupon the Hotr«' pronounces the (sacrificer's) offering prayer. 
K5ty, IX, 13; .Sankhayana St. VII, 8; Haug, Transl. Ait. Br. 
P- 135. 



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IV kXnda, 3 adhyAya, i BRAHMAyA, i8. 321 

therefrom ^ with (V^. S. VII, 30), 'Thou art 
taken with a support: thee for Madhu!' the 
Adhvaryu takes (the first); with 'Thou art taken 
with a support: thee for MAdhava!' the Prati- 
prasthAtrt (the second). These two are the spring 
(months"): because in spring plants sprout and trees 
are brought to ripeness, therefore these two are 
Madhu (sweet) and M&dhava. 

15. With 'Thou art taken with a support: 
thee for .Sukra ! ' the Adhvaryu draws (the third) ; 
with 'Thou art taken with a support: thee for 
Su^iV the PratiprasthAtr* (the fourth). These two 
are the summer (months) : because during them it 
bums fiercest, therefore these two are .Sukra (clear) 
and ^u^ (bright). 

16. With 'Thou art taken with a support: 
thee for Nabhas ! ' the Adhvaryu draws (the fifth) ; 
with 'Thou art taken with a support: thee for 
Nabhasya ! ' the Pratiprasthdtr* (the sixth). These 
two are (the months) of the rainy season : it rains 
from yonder sky, and hence these two are Nabhas 
(mist, cloud) and Nabhasya. 

17. With 'Thou art taken with a support: 
thee for Ish (sap)!' the Adhvaryu draws (the 
seventh); with 'Thou art taken with a support: 
thee for Cr^ (food)!' the Pratiprasth4tW (the 
eighth). These two are the autumn (months) : be- 
cause in autumn food (t^rg) and juice, (namely) plants, 
ripen, therefore these two are Isha and Or^. 

18. With 'Thou art taken with a support: 
thee for Sahas!' the Adhvaryu draws (the ninth); 
with 'Thou art taken with a support: thee for 

' Viz. from the Dro«akalaja trough ; see paragraph 6. 
• The KS«va text adds riit in each case. 
[36] V 



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3 2 i DATAPATH A-BRAhMAJVA. 

Sahasya!' the Pratiprasthitr? (the tenth). These 
two are the winter (months) : because the winter 
by force (sahas) brings these creatures into his 
power, therefore these two are Saha and Sahasya. 

19. With ' Thou art taken with a support : thee 
for Tapas!' the Adhvaryu draws (the eleventh); 
with ' Thou art taken with a support : thee for 
Tapasya ! ' the Pratiprasthdtr? (the twelfth). These 
two are (the months) of the dewy season : because 
during them it freezes most severely, therefore these 
two are Tapas and Tapasya. 

20. With 'Thou art taken with a support: 
thee to A»«hasaspati (lord of trouble)!' he (the 
Adhvaryu) draws the thirteenth libation, if he 
draw a thirteenth. The Pratiprasdiitr/ then pours 
his residue into the Adhvaryu's vessel, or the 
Adhvaryu pours his residue into the Pratiprasthdtre's 
vessel. He (the Adhvaryu) takes it (to the Sadas) 
for the purpose of drinking it \ 

21. Thereupon the Pratiprasthitr/ draws the 
AindrAgna graha with the vessel not used for the 
drinking. The reason why he draws the Aindrdgna 
libation with the vessel not used for drinking is that 



* The KS«va text has 'bhakshyam' instead of 'bhaksham.' 
Each of the priests who have pronounced the oflfering prayer and 
Vausha/ partakes of this Soma in his respective order, — the Hotr» 
thus taking four draughts ; and the Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthitrt 
(who, after drawing the Aindrigna cup, join them in the Sadas) 
drinking alternately from the same vessel with those Hotr« priests, 
who pronounced the Vasha/ at their libations. As at the drawing 
of the libations, the vessel is turned round after the sixth and tenth 
offering priests have drank. The vessel having been emptied, the 
Adhvaryu takes it outside the Sadas, and then sits down in front of 
the Hotri's hearth, with his face to the east, till the recitation of the. 
"•Sastra (IV, 3, 2, 2). 



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IV KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAATA, 25. 323 

no second Vasha/ is pronounced on the /?? tugrahas, 
and for them he is about to take the AindrAgna 
graha : thus they become consecrated for him by a 
second Vasha/ through the Aindrigna. 

22. And again, why he draws the Aindrigna graha.. 
By drawing the libationa to the seasons he has gene- 
rated this All, and having generated this All, he now 
establishes it on the out-breathing and in-breathing : 
hence this All is established on the out-breathing 
and in-breathing, for Indra and Agni are the out- 
breathing and in-breathing, and these two, heaven 
and earth, are the out-breathing and in-breathing, 
and within these two this All is established. 

23. And again, why he draws the Aindrigna cup- 
By drawing the libations to the seasons he has gene- 
rated this All, and having generated this All, he lays 
the out-breathing and in-breathing into this All : 
hence these two, the out-breathing and in-breathing, 
are laid into (or beneficial, hita, in) this All. 

24. He now draws it from that (drowakala^a 
trough) with (Vif. S, VII, 3, i ; Rig-veda III, 12, i), 
' O Indra and Agni, through our songs come ye 
hither to the Soma, to the agreeable fume: 
drink thereof, urged by our hymn! — Thou art 
taken with a support: thee to Indra and Agni!' 
— ^with 'This is thy womb: thee to Indra and 
Agni!' he deposits it (on the mound), for it is for 
Indra and Agni that he draws it. 

25. Thereupon he draws the Vai^vadeva cup^ 

' According to Kity. IX, 13, 33 seq. the order of performance is as 
follows. In the first place the first A^a-xastra is recited. There- 
upon the Adhvaryu fetches the AindrSgna cup from the HavirdhSna 
(where it was deposited by the Pratiprasthdtn), makes a libation 
from it — after calling on the Hotri, as at all libations accompanied 

y 2 



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324 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

For by drawing the Rhugrahas he has generated 
this All; but were there nothing but that, there would 
indeed be only as many creatures as were created in 
the beginning : no (more) would be generated. 

26. Now, in that he draws the Vai.Jvadeva graha, 
thereby he sends forth this All, these creatures in 
due order: whence these creatures are generated 
again repeatedly. He draws it with the Su^ra. cup, 
for the SuJkra. (bright) is yonder burning (sun), and 

by a fastra, ' Singer of praises, recite Soma's offering prayer;' the 
ndrifamsa cups being shaken by the cup-bearers at the same time 
— and then drinks the remaining Soma with the Hotr;. There- 
upon he draws the VaLrvadeva cup from the Dronakala^a, pours 
the remaining juice from the latter into the Tdtabhrtt, and spreads 
the straining-cloth over the empty vessels for the midday pressing. 
He also prepares the Savantya purodiras (see p. 315, note 4), 
for the midday feast, omitting however the dish of clotted curds 
(payasyS). Then follows the chanting of the first Agyai stotra by 
the UdgStrjs, and the recitation of the Pratlga-fastra by the Hotr/, 
after which takes place the Vai^adeva libation (and emptying 
of the cup) in the same way as with the Aindrigna — the >iamasas 
being also drained of their contents by the respective priests. 
Then follows the distribution — already referred to IV, 2, 3, 11 seq. 
—of the Soma in the Ukthya bowl into three parts for the three 
Hotrakas, now about to recite their jastras (preceded by their respec- 
tive stotras). The Adhvaryu takes one portion of the Soma, calls on 
theUdgdtris to chant the stotra, and afterwards on the Praristrt(Mai- 
tr&varuna) to recite his jastra ; after which he makes a libation from 
the portion of Soma, and pours the remainder into the Pra* istr«'s 
cup, to be drunk by that priest. In the same way the Pratipra- 
sthdtrj' then proceeds with the portions of the two other Hotrakas, 
viz. the BrShroa«ij(^amsin and A^^av&ka. Each time also the ten 
^masas are filled, and after libations therefrom, are emptied by 
the iTamasins. See also p. 287, note 2. At the end of the per- 
formance the priests pass silently out (niAsarp, see p. 299, 
note i) of ihe Sadas by the back-door and out of the Vedi; the 
midday performance afterwards beginning with the pratisarpa«a, 
or 'creeping back' to the Sadas, with homage to the dhishwya 
hearths, &c. 



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IV KkNDA, 3 ADHyAvA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, I. 325 

what rays of his there are, they are the All-gods : 
therefore he draws it with the .Sukra cup. 

27. He draws it from that (Soma in the Dro«a- 
kalara) with (V4f. S. VII, 33 ; Rig-veda I, 3, 7), ' Ye 
protectors and supporters of men, O All-gods, 
come hither, ye givers, to the giver's liquor! — 
Thou art taken with a support: thee to the 
All-gods!' with 'This is thy womb: thee to 
the All-gods ! ' he deposits it S for it is for the All- 
gods that he draws it. 

Second BRkuMANA. 

I. Now truly when the Hotri praises (recites the 
jastra*), he sings, and to him thus singing the 

* Viz. in the place of the -Sukra cup, on the south-east corner of 
the khara or mound. 

• Everychant or hymn(stotra)oftheUdgitr«si8 followed bya 
* song of praise ' (f astra) recited by the Hotrz or one of his three 
assistants (Maitr&varu/>a,Br&hma/iiiAamsin, and AMSvika); the first 
two jastras at each savana being recited by the Hotr«, and the three 
additional ones at the morning and midday feast by his assistants 
(Hotrakas). The exact correlation between the stotras and J'astras 
at the three savanas will appear from the following table : — 

I. Prita^-savana. 



1. Bahish-pavamina-stotra. 

2. A^ya-stotra \ 

^' " > dhuryas. 

5- » / 

II. MSdhyandina-savana. 



I. A^a-fastra (Hotr;). 

a. Praflga-iastra (Hot/i). 

3- ), 

4. > A^a-jastras (Hotrakas). 

6- J 



Mddhyandina-pavamdna- 
stotra. 
7. Pr/sh/4a-stotra 

8 

dhuryas. 



9 



6. Marutvatfya-jastra (Hotr«). 

7. Nishkevalya-xastra (Hotr«). 

9. „ „ > (Hotrakas). 

lo. ,, ,, j 



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326 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA^A. 

Adhvaryu responds (prati-i-gar), whence the name 
response (pratigara). 

2. [The Hotrt] calls upon that (Adhvaryu) seated 
(before him) with his face towards the east *. For all 



II. VaLrvadeva-«stra (Hotr/). 
13. AgnimSruU-fastra (Hotrt). 



III. Tntfya-savana. 

11. Arbhava (or Tr»ttya)-pava- 

mina. 

12. Agnish/mia-sdman (Ya^^- 

These are the twelve stotras and jastras of the Agnish/oma. At 
the Ukthya sacrifice, the performance of the evenmg feast is 
completed by the addition of three uktha stotras and lastias, one 
for each Hotraka. 

• While the Adhvaryu sits before the Sadas, with his back to the 
Hotri(p. 322, note i), the latter performs the (tftsh«!m-)^apa^ 
i.e. the muttering of the formula ' May Father Mdtarijvan grant 
flawless (verse-) feet I may the bards sing flawless hymns I' &c. 
Ait. Br. II, 38 ; Arv. St. V, 9, i — after which he addresses to the 
Adhvaryu his call (ShSva), 'f5»»sSv5m (let us two recite, Om)!' 
— which formula is used at all x astras, except that, at the midday 
and evening libations, it is j)receded by ' Adhvaryo' (O Adhvaryu) ; 
while at the evening savana the first syllable of the verb is repeated, 
thus ' sosomsivo.' — The Adhvaryu rises, turns round so as to face 
the Hotr/, and responds by ' soms&mo daiva (we recite, O divine 
one)!' According to Ait. Br. Ill, 12, the Ahava and Pratigara 
together are to consist of the number of syllables corresponding 
to the metre of the respective libation, viz. 8, 11, 12 respectively. 
Then follows the Hotrj's Tfishni;»-jamsa or ' silent praise ; ' viz. 
' Earth I Agni is the light, the light is Agni, Om I — Indra is the 
light, Ether! the light is Indra, Om! Sfirya is the light, the 
light, Heaven! is Surya, Om!'— This is followed by a Puroru;i, 
or preliminary invocation of a deity, recited in a loud voice, 
and consisting of twelve short formulas resembling the Nivid 
(part i, p. 114, note 2 ; ib. I, 4, 2, 5 seq.), which, indeed, takes its 
place in the xastras of the midday and evening libations, being 
inserted in the middle or before the last verse of the hymn of the 
xastra; viz. 'Agni kindled by the gods, Agni kindled by man, 
Agni the well-kindling, the Hotrj" chosen by the gods, the Hotr« 
chosen by men, the carrier of offerings, the leader of sacrifices, the 
irresistible Hotr/, the swift carrier of oblations : may he, the god, 



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IV kXndA, 3 ADHVAyA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 3. 327 

Others except the Udgitr/ perform their priestly 
duties while facing the east, and in this manner that 
priestly duty of his is performed towards the east. 

3, Now the Udgdt^? is Pra^pati, and the Hot^', 
(being) the Rtk (fem.), is a female. And when he 
chants, then the UdgStw*, Pra^pati, implants seed 
in the female Hotri, the Jitk ; this the Hotri brings 
forth by means of the jastra (recitation), he sharpens 

bring hither the gods I may Agni, the god, worship the gods I 
may (Agni), the knower of beings, perform the sacrificial rites 1' 
(Ait. Br. II, 34.) Then follows the hymn, the A^ya-sflkta, the 
chief part of the jastra, viz. Rig-veda III, 13, 'To him, your 
god Agni, will I sing with loudest voice ; may he come hither to 
us with the gods ; may he, the best offerer, sit down on our sacred 
grass I ' &c. ; the seven (anush/ubh) verses of which are recited in the 
order i, 5, 4, 6, 3, 2, 7. The first and last verses being, however, 
repeated thrice, the number is thus raised to eleven. The recitation 
of the hymn is followed by the so-called ukthavirya (' the strength 
of the pi^ise"), consisting of the formula uktham vi^i, 'praise 
hath been stmg,' with some words added to it differing at different 
jastras, — at the present jastra 'ghoshiya tvS,' 'thee (I have recited) 
for sound (praise) 1' [for school-di£ferences as to these formulas, 
see Haug, Transl. Ait. Br. p. 1 77], — to which the Adhvaryu responds, 
Om ukthari^, 'yea, singer of praise !' The Ukthavirya, together 
with the response, is again to consist of as many syllables as the 
characteristic metre of the respective libation. Then follows the 
recitation, by the Agntdhra (Ait. Br. VI, 14), of the y&gyi or offering 
prayer, viz. Rig-veda III, 25, 4. — As regards the term ' tgya.,' the 
PanA. Br. VII, 2, i, 2, derives it from &gi, a race, in accordance with 
the following legend : When Pr^pati offered himself as a sacrifice 
to the gods, the latter could not agree as to which of them should 
have the first share. Pra^pati then proposed that they should 
run a race for it. In this race Agni came off first, then Mitra- 
varuna, then Indra. To each of these three divinities an ^a 
was thereupon assigned ; and, by a- secret understanding between 
Indra and Agni, these two divided the fourth S^a between them. 
Hence the igneya, maitr&varwia, aindra, and aindrdgna .rastra (and 
stotra), belonging to the Hotr/, Maitravaru«a, Brihma«d-{Aa»isin, 
and AkA&\ika. priests respectively. 



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328 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

it even as this man is sharpened ^, and because he 
thereby sharpens (so) therefore it is called jastra. 

4. Having turned round (so as to face the Hotrt, 
the Adhvaryu) then responds : thereby he quickens * 
that implanted seed. On the other hand, were he 
to respond while standing with his face turned away 
(from the Hotrt), that implanted seed would assuredly 
perish away, and would not be brought forth ; but thus 
facing each other (the male and female) bring forth 
the implanted seed. 

5. Now the strength of the metres was exhausted 
by the gods, for it was by the metres that the gods 
attained the world of heaven. And the response 
(song) is ecstasy (mada *) — what ecstasy there is in 
the rik and that which there is in the Siman, that is 
sap : this sap he now lays into the metres, and thus 
makes the metres of restored strength ; and with 
them of restored strength they perform the sacrifice. 

6. Hence if (the Hotrt) recites by half- verses, let 
(the Adhvaryu) respond at each half-verse ; and if he 
recites by pddas (hemistichs), let him respond at 
each p4da. For whenever, in reciting, he (the 
Hotri) draws breath, there the Asura-Rakshas 
rush into the sacrifice : there he (the Adhvaryu) 
closes it up by means of the response, so that the 
evil spirits, the Rakshas, cannot rush in ; and thus he 
destroys the world of the sacrificer's enemies. 

* That is, fashions him, or makes him slender. A fanciful 
derivation of jastra {szms, to recite, praise, cf. carmen), from the 
root S&, (jo), to sharpen (? or from sis, to cut, carve). ' Yathiyam 
purovartt purushas tlkshnzkritaA, avaya(va)vibh&gena spash/ikritas 
tathi rastrenaitad reta^ syaxi spash/am karoti,' SSy. 

* Upanimadati, ' cheers ;' the Kinvz text (W.) has ' upanivadatL' 
° Or, intoxication, intoxicating diink. See paragraph 10, and 

p. 330, note I. 



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IV kAjvda, 3 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 10. 329 

7. Now, in the beginning the metres consisted 
of four syllables. Then Gagati flew up for Soma 
and came back, leaving behind three syllables. Then 
TrishAibh flew up for Soma and came back, leaving 
behind one syllable. Then Giyatrt flew up for 
Soma, and she came back bringing with her those 
syllables as well as Soma. Thus she came to consist 
of eight syllables : wherefore they say, ' Gdyatrl is 
octosyllabic' 

8. With her they performed the morning feast of 
the Soma-sacrifice, — ^whence the morning feast per- 
tains to Gdyatrl. With her they performed the 
midday feast Trish/ubh then said to her, ' To thee 
will I come with three syllables : invite me, and 
exclude me not from the sacrifice ! ' — ' So be it ! ' she 
said and invited her. Thus the Trish/ubh came to 
consist of eleven syllables, and therefore they say, 
' The midday Soma feast pertains to Trish/ubh.' 

9. With her (Giyatrl) indeed they performed the 
evening feast. Cagatl then said to her, ' To thee 
will I come with one syllable : invite me, and exclude 
me not from the sacrifice !' — ' So be it !' she said and 
invited her. Thus the 6^agat! came to consist of 
twelve syllables; and therefore they say, 'The even- 
ing Soma feast pertains to 6^agatl.' 

10. As to this they say, 'Surely all the Soma 
feasts pertain to Gfiyatrl, since G&yatri alone went 
on increasing.' At the morning feast he should 
therefore respond with a complete (formula), for 
complete ' Gdyatrl returned. At the midday feast 

' Or perhaps, successful, samsiddhfi [svaktySnj akshardny apari- 
tyagyMkn^i. (? avikr/lli), SSy.]. The response (pratigara) here 
alluded to, is probably the one ordinarily used by the Adhvaryu, 
whenever the Hotrt pauses in his recitation, at the end of half- 



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33© DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiVA. 

(he responds with a formula) containing once (the 
verb) ' to rejoice (mad) *,' for she (Trish/ubh) came 
back, leaving one syllable behind; and with that 
same (formula) he then completes her, makes her 
whole, — 

11. When trish/ubh verses were Tecited. At the 
evening Soma feast (the Adhvaryu responds with a 
formula) containing thrice (the verb) 'to rejoice*,' 
for she (Gagati) came back leaving three syllables 
behind ; and with these (formulas) he then completes 
her, makes her whole, — 

12. When (the hymn) to Heaven and Earth is 
recited ^ Now these creatures subsist on those two, 



verses (or pSdas), nivids, &c., viz. 'Oth&mo daiva,*— or, 6thivo 
daivom, whenever the Hotr» puts in the sacred syllable 'om.' 
' Tasmit kiiznid gijatra-prdta^isavane sa»tsiddham avikn'ta/n vi- 
dhisyaminam omantam prati-grtliMiyit,' Siy. For the Adhvaryu's 
response, ' szmsimo daiva,' to the Hotrt's summons (ihiva), see 
p. 326, note I. 

' When the first verse of the trish/ubh hymn, Rig-veda X, 73, is 
recited by the Hotr» in the Marutvattya S'astra at the midday feast, 
the Adhvaryu's response is ' madimo daiva ' (we rejoice, O divine 
one). Kity. X, 3, 8; cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, p. 37. 

* According to Kdty. X, 6, 6 ' maddmo daiva ' is optionally the 
Adhvaryu's response at the recitation in the Agnimdrutra .Sastra of 
three of the so-called Anupantya(or SvSdushkiliya) trish/ubh verses 
VI, 4 7, 1-4 (see note on IV, 4, 2, 1 8). Possibly the present paragraph 
may refer to those verses, in which case the words ' when trish/ubh 
verses are recited ' would begin a fresh paragraph. Sayawa, how- 
ever, seems to take it in the same way as above ; cf. also the 
Ki»va reading in next^note. 

' This is the (Gagatt) hymn I, 159 recited in the Vaixvadeva 
S'astra. According to Kdty. X, 6, 5, the response is to be thrice 
(after each of the three first verses) ' mad^mo daiva.' The Kinva 
has for paragraphs 10-12, 'At the morning feast he responds by 
a complete (formula), for complete GSyatrl returned. At the 
midday feast he responds once with one containing " mad," when he 



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IV KAJVDA, 3 ADHVAYA,.3 BRAHMAJVA, I. 33 1 

the heaven and the earth — he thereby imbues those 
two, heaven and earth, with vigour ; and upon those 
two, thus vigorous and aflfording the means of sub- 
sistence, these creatures subsist. Let him respond 
with ' Om ! ' only, for that is truth, that the gods 
know. 

13. Now some respond with ' Othimo daiva vdk,' 
saying, ' The response is speech (vdk) : thus we 
obtain speech.' But let him not do this ; for surely, 
in whichsoever way he may respond, speech is 
obtained by him, since he responds by speech. Let 
him therefore respond with ' Om ^ ! ' only, for Uiat is 
truth, that the gods know. 

Third BRAHMAiVA. 

C. The Madhyandina Savana, or Midday Soma Feast. 

1. He presses out (the Soma-juice) with 'Iha! 
Iha*!' (hither), whereby he draws Indra nigh; and 

recites trish/ubh verses, for she (TrishAibh) returned leaving one syl- 
lable behind : hereby now he completes her, makes her whole. .At 
the evening feast with something containing thrice " mad," for she 
((ragatt) returned leaving three syllables behind : hereby now he 
completes her, makes her whole. At the (hymn) to Heaven and 
Earth he responds with one that contains " mad ; " when he recites 
(the hymn) Heaven and Earth — these creatures subsisting on those 
two, Heaven and Earth — he thereby puts juice into them, and 
upon those two, thus rendered juiceful, these creatures subsist. 
He responds with " Om," for that is truth, that the gods know.' 

' That is, instead of ' v4k,' hence ' OthSmo daivom.' ' Om ' 
pure and simple is the response at the end of the jastra. 

• 'Iha' (here, hither) with the last syllable protracted. The 
Hotn's cup with the Nigribhyi (vasattvar?) water having been 
handed to the sacrificer, and the fillet or band (ushnisha) with 
which the Soma-plants are tied together, to the Grivastut, the 
pressing is performed in the same way as the ' great pressing,' at 



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332 satapatha-brAhmaj^ta. 

with 'Brihatl Bn'hat!' (great), whereby he draws 
Indra^ nigh. 

2. The ^'ukra and Manthin grahas he draws 
first, for thereby the Soma feast comes to be supplied 
with pure Soma (jukra). Thereupon the Agray a«a, 
for that (cup) is drawn at all (three) feasts. Then 
the Marutvattya cup; then the Ukthya, for here 
also there are songs of praise (Uktha)". 

3. Now some draw the Marutvatiya after they 
have drawn the Ukthya ; but let him not do this, — 
let him rather draw the Ukthya after he has drawn 
the Marutvatiya. 



the PrStaisavana (see p. 256, note i). Meanwhile the GrSvastut 
takes the band, and winds it thrice round his head and face from 
left to right. And whenever Soma-stalks are taken out for pressing 
he extols the stones by chanting the Grdva-stotra or ' praise of the 
stones.' According to Arv. St, V, 12 ; Ait. Br. VI, 7, 2, this chant 
consists of the verses Rig-veda I, 24, 3; V, 81, i; VIII, 81, i ; 
VIII, I, I, followed by the hjTnn X, 94, ascribed to the serpent 
Jit'shi Arbuda. Before the last verse of this h}'mn he inserts the 
hymns X, 76 and X, 175 (ascribed to the serpents Garatkarwa and 
Arbuda respectively) ; and either before, or between, or after these 
two hymns he throws in the pSvaminIA (Rig-veda IX) according 
to requirement, till the pressing is completed, or the libations are 
to be drawn, when having wound up with the last verse of the 
first Arbuda hymn, he makes over the band to the sacrificer. 
The five cups mentioned in paragraph 2 are filled from the stream 
of Soma flowing from the Hotri's cup into the Dronakalara; 
the Agraya«a (p. 290, note 2) however being taken (in the Agra- 
ya«a sthllt or bowl) from that and two other streams, poured 
by the Unnetr/ from the Adhavaniya, and by the PratiprasthStr/ 
from some vessel containing the Soma previously kept in the 
Agrayana sthdli. 

' Probably on account of the connection of the Br«hat-sSman 
with Indra; see part i, p. 196, note 2. 

* See p. 294, note 2. SSya«a here curiously explains the term by 
' stotra«i.' 



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IV KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 5. 333 

4. These, then, are five gfrahas he draws ; for that 
midday Pavamdna chant is a thunderbolt : hence it 
is a fifteenfold five-hymned chant ', for the thunder- 
bolt is fifteenfold*. He is so by means of these 
five grahas (cups of Soma ') : for five are these 
fingers, and with the fingers he hurls (the thunder- 
bolt). 

5. Indra hurled the thunderbolt at Yrkra. ; and 
having smitten Vr«tra, the wicked, and safety and 
peace being secured*, he led forth the dakshi»&s 
(gifts to priests). Wherefore now also, when they 
(the Udgitr/s) chant the midday Pavamina, and 
safety and peace are secured, the dakshiwis are 
led forth. And so, forsooth, does he now by means 
of those five cups of Soma hurl the thunderbolt 
at the wicked, hateful enemy, and having smitten 
Vrztra, the wicked, and safety and peace being 



* The Midhyandina-pavamdna-stotra, SSmav. II, 22-29, 
is made up of three hymns (sfikta), consisting of three giyatrt 
(12-24), 'wo br/Tiatt (and satobrthati, 25, 26), and three trish/ubh 
verses (27-29) respectively. These are chanted in such a way as 
to produce five SSman hymns (i. e. a hymn of three verses), viz. 
the gayatrt triplet is chanted twice, in the GSyatra and Amahiyava 
tunes ; — the briTiati-satobriTiatl couplet is likewise chanted twice, in 
the Raurava and Yaudhl^ya tunes, the two verses being as usual 
(by the repetition of certain pddas) made into three. These, with 
the addition of the trish/ubh hymn, chanted in the Aujana tune, 
make five Saman hymns of three verses each, or altogether fifteen 
verses (pan^ada^stoma). 

' Or consists of the fifteenfold (chant), as Saya«a takes it. 
Regarding the connection between the patl^adaja-stoma (the 
characteristic stoma of the midday pressing) and Indra (the deity of 
the midday pressing), see part i, introd. p. xviii. 

' Perhaps ' graha ' has here a double meaning, viz. ' that which is 
taken, a draught, cup of Soma,' and 'the laker, se zer.' 

* See p. 289, note 4. 



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. 334 DATAPATH A-BrAhMAJVA. 

secured, he leads forth the dakshi«5s. iThis is why 
he draws those five cups. 

6. Then as to why he draws the Marutvatlya 
cups. Now this, the midday pressing feast, is 
Indra's special (nishkevalya) feast: thereby he 
strove to smite Vr«tra, thereby he strove to van- 
quish him. But the Maruts, having on that 
account* withdrawn, were standing on an Ajvattha 
tree * (Ficus Religiosa). Now Indra is the nobility, 
and the Maruts are the people, and through the people 
the noble becomes strong : therefore the two Utta 
cups (they say) ' may be of asvattha wood ; but in 
reality they are of kirshmarya wood. 

7. Indra called on them, saying, ' Do ye join me 
that with you as my force I may smite VritraV 
They said, ' What will be our (reward) then V He 
drew those two Marutvatlya cups for them. 

8. They said, * Having put aside this one (cup) 
for our vigour, we will join thee.' Having accord- 
ingly put it aside for their vigour *, they joined him. 
But Indra sought to obtain it, thinking, ' They have 
come to me after putting aside their vigour.' 

* Lit. 'thus;' 'iti«ibdenipakrama«aprakiro 'bbinayena pradar- 
jyate,' Siy. 

* This passage would seem to be based on a mistaken interpre- 
tation of Rig-veda 1, 135, 8; where the bard says that ' the victorious 
(glyava^) have come nigh to the arvattha,' the '^yavaA ' here evi- 
dently referring (not to the Maruts, as in 1, 119, 3), but to the 
powerful draughts of Soma flowing into the ajvattha vessel. The 
Kinva. tej^t reads, Sd (i. e. vis, the people or Maruts) hlrvatthe 
tishMate. 

' The Kanva text inserts ' itythuA.' 

* The context seems to be purposely ambiguous, as it may also 
be construed tnus : They said, ' After putting aside this (cup), we 
will come (attain) to strength.' Having accordingly put it aside, 
they came to strength. 



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IV KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAWA, 12. 335 

9. He said, 'Do ye join me with vigour!' — 
' Then draw a third cup for us,' they said. He 
drew a third cup for them, with, 'Thou art taken 
with a support, — thee for the vigour of the Maruts !' 
They then joined him with vigour, — and he con- 
quered with them, and smote Vmra with them ; — 
for Indra is the nobility, and the Maruts are the 
people, and through the people the noble becomes 
strong. Hence he now bestows that ■ strength on 
the nobility, and therefore he draws the Marutvattya 
cups. 

10. Let him draw them for Indra Marutvat 
(accompanied by the Maruts), and not for the 
Maruts likewise. For were he also to draw cups 
for the Maruts, he would make the people re- 
fractory to the nobility. He thus assigns to the 
Maruts a share therein, after Indra, whereby he 
makes the people subservient and obedient to the 
nobility: therefore let him draw the cups for Indra 
Marutvat, and not for the Maruts likewise. 

11. But he was afraid of their desertion, — 'Lest 
they should desert me, lest they should take to 
some other (party)*,' so thinking, he by that (share 
in the libation) made them unwilling to desert him. 
This is why he should draw the grahas for Indra 
Marutvat. 

12. He draws them with the two vessels of the . 
seasons, for the year, the sacrifice, means the sea- 
sons. There, at the morning Soma feast, they are' 
overtly attended to, in that he draws the grahas for 
the seasons ^ ; and now they are covertly attended 



' For the construction, see p. 33, note i. 
» See IV, 3, I, 3seq. 



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336 satapatha-brAhmaj^a. 

to, in that he draws the Marutvatlya grahas with 
the two vessels of the seasons. 

13. He draws (the first) from that (stream of 
Soma)', with (V^. S. VII, 35 ; Rig-veda III, 51, 7), 
'O Indra, leader of the Maruts, drink thou the 
Soma here, as thou drankest of the liquor 
at (the sacrifice of) the Son of 5'aryiti : by thy 
guidance, in thy protection, O Lord, do the 
wise serve, thee with good offerings! — Thou 
art taken with a support: thee to Indra 
Marutvat! — This is thy womb: thee to Indra 
Marutvatl'. 

14. [The second he draws * with V^. S. VII, 36 ; 



' See p. 331, note 2. 

' Here the author again anticipates, important parts of the per- 
formance being not even referred to. On the present occasion 
only one Marutvatiya cup is drawn and deposited on the mound 
(khara). The Ukthya cup having then been drawn and deposited, 
the priests leave the Havirdhina in the same way as at the morning 
performance (see IV, 2, 5, i, with note), and perform the Viprurf- 
homas, or drop-oflFerings. Thereupon the priests ' creep ' (sarp), 
with their upper bodies bent parallel to the ground, to the Sadas, 
where, near the Udumbara post, the chanting of the midday 
Pavam&na-stotra now takes place after the necessary pre- 
liminaries. If the Pravargya has been performed on the pre- 
ceding day (see III, 4, 4, i, with note), the Dadhi-gharma, or 
libation of hot milk mixed with sour milk, is now made. Then 
follow the oblations from the Savaniya-puro<^ja (see IV, 2, 5, 
15 seq., and p. 323, note i). Thereupon filling of the cups of the 
ten A'amasins, and the libations from (and drinking of) the 5ukra 
and Manthin cups. After the eating of the Idi of the puro</afas, 
the DSkshi»a-homas and distribution of the sacrificial fees take 
place, as set forth in the next Brahma»a. Thereupon the Adhvaryu 
calls on the MaitrSvarvwa to pronounce the invitatory prayer to 
Indra Marutvat (viz. Rig-veda III, 51, 7), ' O Indra, attended by the 
Maruts, here drink the Soma,' &c., followed by the order (praisha), 
'Let the Hotrt pronounce the oflfering prayer to Indra Marutvatl* 



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IV KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 1 4. 337 

Rig-veda III, 47, 5], 'The mighty bull, followed 
by the Maruts, the bountiful, divine ruler 
Indra, — him, the all-subduing, the terrible 
bestower of victory, do we now invoke for 
new favour.-^Thou art taken with a support : 
thee to Indra Marutvat! — This is thy womb : 
thee to Indra Marutvat!' — with 'Thou art 

The PratiprasthStr?' now draws a second Marutvattya cnp in the 
other /?rtu-pStra. The offering prayer (Rig-veda III, 47, 2, 
'United with the host of Maruts, O Indra, drink the Soma, 
O wise hero I' &c.) having meanwhile been pronounced by the 
Hotr/, the Adhvaiyu makes libations from the first cup at the 
Vasha/ and Anuvasha/. Then pouring the remains of the juice 
into some other vessel, to be taken to the Sadas, he enters the 
HavirdhSna and draws the third Marutvatlya graha with the cup 
just emptied. Having deposited it, he betakes himself to the 
Sadas to drink with the Hotrt' the remains of the first libation. 
Thereupon the Hotr/ recites the Marutvattya SasIta. 

The Marutvatlya 5astra consists of the following parts. 
After the summons (ihiva) to the Adhvaryu, and the response 
(pratigara) of the latter, the Hotn intones the 

Pratipad (opening triplet), Rig-veda VIII, 57, 1-3, followed by 
the Anu^ara (sequel), VIII, 2, 1-3. 

Then the Indranihava prag4tha(VIII, 53, 5) and theBrSh- 
ma»aspatya pragitha (I, 40, 5). 

Then follow the three Dhdyyds (complementary verses), III, 
20,4; 1,91,2; 1,64,6; and the Marutvattya pragfttha,Vin, 
89, 3, succeeded by the hymn X, 73, the chief part of the iastra, 
in the middle of which (after the sixth verse), the Nivid ('Let us 
sing, Om ! may Indra with the Maruts drink of the Soma,' &c.) is 
inserted. 

Having recited the last verse (paridhSntyS or closing verse) of 
the hymn, he concludes the i'astraby the Ukthavlrya, ' Praise has 
been sung to Indra who hears thee I' Thereupon the offering 
prayer III, 47, 4 is pronounced, and libations are made, both at the 
Vasha/ and Anuvasha/, by the Adhvaryu from the third, and after 
him each time, by the PratiprasthStri' from the second graha. 

The priests having drank in the Sadas the Soma remaining 
from the grahas and in the ^amasas, the Mihendra cup is 
drawn. 

[26] 2 



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338 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

taken with a support: thee for the strength 
of the Maruts!' he draws the third cup. 

1 5. Thereupon he draws the Mihendra cup. For 
Indra was then bound up with evil, in the shape 
of the people, the Maruts; as one might, for the 
sake of victory, eat from the same vessel with the 
people \ so it was when they drew a cup for him in 
common with the Maruts. 

16. When all was conquered and free from danger 
and injury, the gods plucked him from out of all 
evil — even as one might pluck out a reed from its 
sheath — when they drew the cup for the Great 
Indra. And even as the reed becomes leafless, so is 
he thereby freed from all evil, when one draws the 
MS.hendra cup. 

1 7. And again, why he draws the Mdhendra cup. 
Before the slaughter of Vmra, he was indeed Indra ; 
but when he had slain Vritrz., he became the Great 
Indra, even as one who has conquered all around, 
becomes a Great King (mahir^i^) : therefore he 
draws the Mdhendra cup. And, moreover, he for- 
sooth makes him great for the slaughter of Vmra : 
therefore also he draws the Mdhendra cup. He 
draws it in the ^ukra vessel, for bright (jukra) and 
great indeed is he (the sun) that burns yonder: 
therefore he draws it in the ^ukra vessel. 

18. He thus draws it from that (Dro«akalaja or 
Patabhm), with (V4f. S. VII, 39; Rig-veda VI, 19, 
i), 'Great is Indra and hero-like, gladdening 
the people, of double stature and unimpaired 
in power. For our sake he waxed strong for 
heroic deed, — ^great and broad was he, and 

' That is, as a chief, or lord, might do so with a clansman (vaix- 
yena, Kdnva text) ; or as the master of a house with his servants. 



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IV KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, IQ. 339 

well-shapen by the shapers'. — Thou art taken 
with a support: thee to Mahendra!' — with 
'This is thy womb: thee to Mahendra!' he 
deposits it ; for it is indeed for the Great Indra that 
he draws it. 

19. And having bespoken (the chant*), he says 
this speech, — ' Pressers, press ye 1 make the mortars 

' Or, according to Ludwig, 'rendered favourable by the per- 
formers (priests).' 

* That is, the (first) Pr/shMa-stotra, consisting of the Rathan- 
tara-sSman, SSmav. II, 30-31. For the way in which the two 
verses are manipulated (by repetition of the last p&da of the 
first, and of the second p&da of the second verse), so as to yield 
a three-versed choral, see Haug, Ait. Br. II, p. 198 ; Weber, Ind. 
Stud. VIII, p. 25. These chants derive their name from the circum- 
stance that the Simans employed in them are capable of being 
used as ' pnsh/ias,' that is, of being chanted twice with another 
S&man inserted between them, — or, to speak symbolically, to 
serve as the womb for the reception of an embryo. For this pur- 
pose the Rathantara and Bnhat Sdmans are chiefly used. See 
note on IV, 5, 4, 13. Whenever the PnshMas are chanted in this way 
(which they are not at the ordinary Agnish/bma), it is chiefly at this 
very place in the Soma performance, at the midday libation. The 
chant is succeeded by the recitation, by the Hotr/', of the Nishke- 
valya 5astra, consisting of the following parts. The Ahiva 
(and pratigara) is followed by the Stotriya (Rig-veda VII, 32, 
22-23, identical with the Rathantara) and Anurflpa (VIII, 3, 
7-8) prag&thas; then a dhiyyi, X, 74, 6 ; the Sima-pragitha, 
VIII, 3, I, and the hymn (to Indra) I, 32, with the Nivid 
inserted in the middle (after the eighth verse). Finally the Hotrj 
pronounces the Ukthavirya, and the ofiering prayer, VII, 22, i, 
after which the Mihendra libation is poured into the fire. 

Then follows the distribution of the Ukthya graha among the 
three assistants of the Hotr», and the recitation of their (nishkevalya) 
jaslras — each preceded by a Przsh/Aa-stotra [Simav. II, 32-34 
(chanted to the VSmadevya-sSman) ; 35-36 (Naudhasa); 37-38 
(Kileya) respectively] — as at the conclusion of the morning per- 
formance ; see p. 295, note 2. Thereupon he addresses the above 
summons to the respective priests, for the preparations necessary 
for the evening pressing. 

Z 2 



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340 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

resound ! Agntdh, stir the sour milk ! be thou mind- 
ful of Soma's (pap)!' It is for the evening's press- 
feast that those pressers press out (the Soma-juice), 
for the evening feast they make the mortars resound, 
for the evening feast the Agnldh stirs the sour milk, 
for the evening feast he boils the pap for Soma. For 
these two press-feasts, the morning feast and the 
midday feast, are indeed rich in pure Soma, are rich 
in juice; but that third press-feast is emptied of 
the pure Soma. Hence he forms it from out of this 
midday feast; and thus that third press-feast be- 
comes for him rich in pure Soma, rich in juice : 
this is why he now speaks that speech. 

Fourth Brahmajva. 

1. Now, they slay the sacrifice, when they spread 
(perform) it : — to wit, when they press out the king 
(Soma), they slay him ; when they quiet the victim, 
they slay it ; and with mortar and pestle, with the 
upper and nether millstone, they slay the havis 
offering. 

2. When slain, that sacrifice was no longer vigor- 
ous. By means of dakshi«is (gifts to the priests) 
the gods invigorated it : hence the name dakshi«i, 
because thereby they invigorated (dak shay) it. What- 
ever, therefore, fails in this sacrifice, when slain, that 
he now invigorates by means of gifts to the priests ; 
then the sacrifice becomes indeed successful : for 
this reason he makes gifts to the priests. 

■ 3. Now at the Havirya^wa, indeed, they give as 
little as six or twelve (cows^), but no Soma-sacrifice 
should have dakshiwis of less than a hundred. For 

' See II, 2, 2, 3-5. 

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IV kA;vx>a, 3 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 6. 341 

he, Prj^pati^, forsooth, is the visible sacrifice; and 
man is nearest to Prs^^pati, and he has a life of a 
hundred years, a hundred powers, a hundred energies. 
Only by a hundred he invigorates him, and not by 
less than a hundred : wherefore no Soma-sacrifice 
should have dakshi«ds of less than a hundred ; nor 
should any one officiate as a priest for a sacrificer 
at a (Soma-sacrifice) where less than a hundred are 
given, — ' lest he should be an eyewitness when they 
will but slay and not invigorate him (Soma).' 

4. Now, truly, there are two kinds of gods ; for 
the gods, forsooth, are the gods; and the learned 
BrAhmans versed in sacred lore are the human gods. 
And the sacrifice to them is twofold, oblations (being 
the sacrifice) to the gods, and gifts to the priests 
being that to the human gods, to the learned Brih- 
mans versed in sacred lore. With oblations, forsooth, 
one gratifies the gods, and with gifts to the priests 
the human gods, the learned Br&hmans versed in 
sacred lore. These two kinds of gods, when grati- 
fied, convey him to the heavenly world. 

5. But it is to the officiating priests, forsooth, that 
these gifts of his belong, for they prepare him an- 
other self, — to wit, this sacrifice, consisting of Rik 
and Ya/us and S&man and oblations, — that becomes 
his self in yonder world : 'It is they that have 
generated me,' from this (consideration) he should 
give the gifts to officiating priests and not to non- 
officiating. 

6. Having gone back to the Girhapatya fire*, he 

' ' For he, Soma, doubtless is the visible Pr^pati (pratyakshaw 
pni^pati^).' KSwva text. 

' That is, the fire at the front door of the hall (the old Ahava- 
ntya fire). Each priest has to perform two such d&kshi»a-homas 



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342 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

offers the gift offerings. Having tied a piece of gold 
in a fringed cloth ^, and laid it (into the spoon), he 
offers. * May there be a place for me in the world 
of the gods ! ' With this hope he offers whoever offers : 
that same sacrifice of his goes to the world of the 
gods ; and behind it goes the gift he gives to the 
priests, and holding on to the gift follows the 
sacrificer. 

7. Now, there are four (kinds of) gifts to priests, — 
gold, the cow, cloth, and the horse. But it is not 
proper that he should lay a horse's foot or a cow's 
foot (into the spoon) : hence he ties up a piece of 
gold in a fringed cloth, and having laid it (into the 
spoon) he offers. 

8. He offers with two verses to the Sun. For 
yonder world is shut off by darkness ; and dispelling 
the darkness by that light he reaches the heavenly 
world : therefore he offers with two verses to the Sun. 

9. He offers with this giyatrt verse (V^. S. VII, 
41 ; Rig-veda I, 50, i), 'The lights bear on high 
that divine knower of beings, SClrya, that all 
may see him, — Hail!* — for the giyatrl is this 
earth, and she is a safe resting-place : hence he 
thereby stands firmly on this safe resting-place. 

10. He then makes the second offering with this 
trish/ubh verse (V^. S. VII, 42 ; Rig-veda 1, 115, i), 
'The brilliant front* of the gods hath risen, 

of ghee. For the Hotn's formulas, see Axv. 5'r. V, 13, 14. For 
the proper place of these ofiferings in the performance, see p. 336, 
note 2. 

* Or rather, in a cloth such as is used at a dardhoma, or obla- 
tion at which the fringe (or unwoven end) of a cloth is used 
(dajdhomlya). 

' That is, either ' face ' or ' van-guard,' antka. 



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VfKkNDA, 3 ADHyAyA, 4 BRAhMAJVA, I4. 343 

the eye of Mitra, Varu«a, and Agni : SOrya, the 
soul of the movable and immovable, hath 
filled the heaven and the earth and the air, — 
Hail!' whereby he approaches the world (of the 
gods). 

1 1. He then makes either one or two oblations on 
the Agntdhra (fire). The reason why he makes one or 
two oblations on the Ag^Idhra fire is that Agni rules 
over beasts (cattle) •, and they lie round about him on 
every side : it is him he pleases by this oblation, and 
thus pleased he is gracious unto this (sacrificer), and 
the latter offers (to the priests a cow) graciously 
given up by him (AgTii). 

12. He offers with (Vif. S. VH, 43 ; Rig-veda I, 
189, i), 'O Agni, lead us on a good path unto 
wealth; thou, O god, that knowest all works! 
keep thou from us the sin that leadeth astray, 
and we will offer unto thee most ample adora. 
tion, — 'Hail!' Thereupon, if he intends to give 
away a horse, harnessed or unharnessed, let him 
make a second oblation; but if not, he need not 
attend to this. 

13. He offers with (Vi^. S. VII, 44), 'May this 
Agni make wide room for us : may he march in 
front smiting the haters! May he gain riches 
in the winning of riches: may he, fiercely 
rushing, conquer the enemies! Hail!' for the 
horse is a winner of riches (spoils, prizes). 

14. Thereupon, taking some gold, (the sacrificer) 



' For this usurpation, on the part of Agni, of one of Rudra's 
functions, S&yam. refers to a legend in the Taittiriyaka (Taitt. S. I, 
5, i), where Agni is identified with Rudra, Agni being so called 
because he roared (rud). See also Sax. Br. I, 7, 3, 8. 



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344 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

goes to the hall. South of the altar stand the 
Dakshi«i (cows). Standing in front of the hall, he 
respectfully addresses them ' with (V^. S. VII, 45), 
'By your beauty have I come to beauty.' 
Now at first cattle did not submit to being 
gfiven away. Laying aside their own beauteous 
forms* they approached with their (bare) bodies. 
The gods then went up to them from the offering 
ground with their (the animals') own forms; and 
they, knowing their own forms, resigned them- 
selves and became well-disposed to being given 
away. And in like manner does he now go up to 
them from the offering ground with their own 
forms ; and they, knowing their own forms, resign 
themselves and become well-disposed to being given 
away. 

15. 'May the all-knowing Tutha distribute 
you ! ' — Now, Tutha is the Brahman : he thus dis- 
tributes them by means of the Brahman. And the 
Brahman knows who is fit to receive a dakshi«4 and 
who is unfit : thus these (cows) of his are given away 
only to him who is fit to receive a dakshi»d and not 
to him who is unfit. 

16. 'Go ye forward in the way of truth,' — for 
whosoever walks in the way of the gods, walks in 
the way of truth ; — ' ye of shining (iandra) gifts !' 
whereby they walk with that light (^ndra, the 
moon). 

' The cows are driven past him along the back of the altar, 
between the hall and Sadas, and then along the north side of the 
altar, south of the Agnldhra and between the pit (iitvila) and heap 
of rubbish (utkara), the sacrificer following them as far as the 
Agnldhra. At the same time the Subrahmawy^ litany (see III, 3, 
4, 17 seq.) may be recited. 

' Saya«a explains ' rfipa«i ' by ' sSmarthyini,' capabilities, powers. 



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IV KAJVCA, 3 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 20. 345 

17. He then goes to the Sadas, saying, ' Behold 
thou the heaven, behold the air I' whereby he 
means to say, ' May I through thee, the dakshiwd, see 
the (heavenly) world.' 

18. Thereupon he looks on the Sadas, with, 
'Unite with the Sadas-priests !' whereby he 
means to say, ' May the Sadas-priests not go beyond 
thee!' 

19. He then takes the gold and goes up to the 
AgnLdhra (fire-house), saying (V^. S. VU, 46), 
'May I this day obtain a Brfihman who has a 
father and forefathers!' — for he who is renowned 
and of renowned family, is one who has a father and 
forefathers ; and by the gifts which he gives to a 
renowned (priest), though they be but few, he gains 
g^eat things. — 'A Jiish'i, the scion of ^/shis,' for 
he who is renowned as learned in sacred lore, is a 
Jitshi, the scion of ^t'shis ; — ' of well-bestowed 
gifts,' for he indeed is one on whom gifts are well- 
bestowed. 

20. Having thus respectfully sat down by the 
Agnidh, he gives him the gold, with 'Given (rita) 
by us, go ye to the gods ! ' — for whatever sacrificial 
gift he gives unhesitatingly, with a liberal (rita) mind, 
thereby he gains great things, ' Go ye to the gods,' he 
says, for he who sacrifices, sacrifices with the hope, 
' May there be a place for me in the world of the 
gods ; ' and he thus makes him a sharer in the world of 
the gods. — 'Enter ye to the Giver!' whereby he 
means to say, ' Enter ye into me ! ' and thus those 
(cows)* do not get lost to him. And as to his giving 

' The cows (and other gifts) are presented at the same time, viz. 
either a hundred to each officiating priest, or to each his propor- 
tionate share of an aggregate of a hundred cows, viz. twelve cows 



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3 



346 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

a dakshiwd first to the AgTildh, it was from thence 
(from the Agnldhra)* that all the gods gained 
immortality : therefore he gives the dakshi«d first to 
the Agntdh, 

21. Then, approaching in the same way, he 
gives some gold to an Atreya *, For, at the time 
when they recite the morning prayer, they were 
once upon a time singing praises here in front*. 
Now Atri was the Hotrt of the ^?shis. Then the 
darkness of the Asuras came rushing into the Sadas. 
The y?/shis said to Atri, 'Come back here, and 
dispel this darkness ! ' He dispelled that darkness ; 
and thinking, ' He indeed is the light who has dis- 
pelled this darkness,' they brought him this light, 
gold, for a sacrificial gift, — for gold is indeed light ; 
and by that same splendour and energy the Jitshi 
dispelled the darkness. And so does he now also 
dispel the darkness by that light : therefore he be- 
stows gold on an Atreya. 

to each of the first four priests, six to each of the second four 
(Brahma«S^Aa«sin, &c., see § 22), four to each of the third four, 
and three cows to each of the remaining four priests. 
' See III, 6, I, 27-28, 

* That is, one of Atreya descent, who does not officiate as a 
priest, and who is seated in front of the Sadas. According to the 
Kiwva text (and K&ty. X, 2, 21) the Adhvaryu approaches him 
with 'Ka Atreyam' — who (?sees) the Atreya? — thrice repeated. 
Kdtyiyana specifies some subdivision of the (female line of) the 
Atreya race — also mentioned in the same order in the Pravar^- 
dhyaya — as excluded from this privilege. On this legend cf. V, 3, 2, 
2 ; Taitt. S. II, i, 2, 2 ; T&ndysi Br. VI, 6, 8; Ind. Stud. Ill, p. 464- 

' Viz. early in the morning of the sutyi day, when the Pritar- 
anuvdka is recited. See p. 229, note 2. 

* I take 'puri' in the sense of ' in front' (cf. Ill, 9, i, 12), that 
is, in the havirdhina shed, and not in that of ' formerly ' (Ind. Stud. 
X, 1 58). The KS«va text brings out the meaning still more clearly : 
Sayad itreySya hira»ya»» dadSty, atrir hi v4 rtshtnSjn hot& sa yatro 



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IV KAJVCA, 3 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 24. ;?47 

22. Then to the Brahman, for the Brahman watches 
over the sacrifice from the south. Then to the Udgd- 
tri (chanter); then to the Hotri; then to the two 
Adhvaryus, seated in the cart-shed. Then, having 
returned (to the Sadas he presents gold) to the 
Prastot/-^'; then to the MaitrAvaruwa ; then to the 
Brfihma«^^a»/sin ; then to the Votri; then to the 
Nesh/r? ; then to the A^>4ivika; then to the Unnetr? ; 
then to the Grfivastut ; then to the Subrahmanyfi. To 
the Pratihartrz he presents it last, since he is the re- 
strainer (pratihartr?) ^ : he thus in the end restrains (the 
cows) for him, and so they do not become lost to him. 

23. Thereupon he (the Adhvaryu) says (to the 
Maitrivaru«a), ' Recite (the invitatory prayer) to 
Indra, followed by the Maruts ! ' Now when, in the 
beginning, Pra^pati gave gifts, Indra thought within 
himself, ' Everything here, forsooth, he will give 
away, and not anything will he leave for us.' He 
then, to stop the giving, raised up that thunderbolt 
'Recite to Indra Marutvat!' and thereafter he 
(Pra^^pati) gave no more. And in like manner is 
that thunderbolt ' Recite to Indra Marutvat ! ' now 
raised up to stop the giving, and thereafter he (the 
sacrificer) gives no more. 

24. There are, then, four (kinds of) sacrificial gifts : 
Gold — thereby indeed he preserves his own life, for 
gold is life. That he (Pra^pati or Varu«a) gave 

ha vd ada isinzA pr&taranuv&kam anv&ha tad dha smaitat purd- 
stno hoti jamsaty atha par^t tamzA sado 'bhipupluve. Te ho^s 
tamo vi ida»i sado 'bhyaprosh/eti pratyan prehtti pratyan prehtti sa 
pratyan prait sa tat tamo 'p^an, &c. SSyana abo interprets it by 
< pikvasmin pradexe dhavantyasya samtpe.' 

* For the part taken by the Pratihartr* in the chanting of stotras, 
see p. 310, note i. 



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348 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

to Agni, performing the office of the Agnldh (fire- 
kindler) : wherefore now also gold is given to the 
Agnldh. 

25. Then the Cow — thereby he preserves his own 
breath, for the cow is breath, since the cow is food, 
and breath also is food : her he gave to Rudra, the 
Hotrt. 

26. Then Cloth — thereby he preserves his own 
skin, for the cloth is skin : this he gave to Br/has- 
pati, who chanted. 

27. Then the Horse — ^for the horse is a thunder- 
bolt : he thereby makes, the thunderbolt the leader. 
And, moreover, he who sacrifices, sacrifices with the 
hope ' May there be a place for me in Yama's world!' 
He thus makes him a sharer in Yama's world. This 
he gave to Yama, the Brahman. 

28. The (proifered) gold he (the Adhvaryu) goes 
to meet (accepts) with (Vif. S. VII, 47), 'Let 
Varu«a give thee to me (who am) Agni!' for to 
Agni Varu«a gave it. ' May I obtain immortality! 
be thou life to the giver, joy (mayas) to me, 
the receiver!' 

29. And the cow he accepts with, ' Let Varu«a 
give thee to me, Rudra!' for to Rudra Varu«a 
gave her. ' May I obtain immortality ! be thou 
breath to the giver, strength (vayas) to me, the 
receiver!' 

30. And the cloth he accepts with, 'LetVaru»a 
give thee to me, Br/haspati I' for to Brzhaspati 
Varu«a gave it. 'May I obtain immortality! 
be thou a skin to the giver, joy to me, the 
receiver!' 

31. And the horse he accepts with, ' Let Varu»a 
give thee to me, Yama!' for to Yama Varuwa 



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IV KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 33. 349 

gave it. 'May I obtain immortality! be thou 
a steed (haya^) to the giver, strength (vayas) to 
me, the receiver!' 

32. And whatever other gift he gives that he gives 
with the hope, ' May I also have this in yonder 
world!' That he accepts with (V4^. S. VII, 48), 
'Who hath given it? to whom hath he given 
it ? Hope hath given it, for Hope hath he given 
it: Hope is the giver, Hope the receiver. This 
to thee, O Hope !' Thus he assigns it to a deity. 

33. Here they say*, — Let him not assign it to any 
deity; for whatsoever deity he here kindles, that 
deity, being kindled, becomes ever more glorious 
from one day to the morrow ; and to whatever fire 
he here adds fuel, that fire, being kindled, becomes 
ever more glorious from one day to the morrow ; and 
ever more glorious does he become, whosoever, know- 
ing this, accepts (a gift) : even as one offers in kindled 
fire, so does he offer that (gift) which he gives to 
one learned in the scriptures. Therefore he who 
is learned in the scriptures need not assign (the gift 
to a deity). 

' The Kd«va text of this paragraph seems more correct : Thus 
he assigns it to deities ; for when he bestows (abhyidhS) anything 
on a deity, that deity thereby shines ever more brilliantly ; and 
whatever (fuel) he adds to the fire, thereby it shines ever more bril- 
liantly : and more glorious does he become from day to day who- 
soever, knowing it, accepts it thus. Here now Asuri said, ' But be 
who is learned in the scriptures need not regard this ; for as one 
puts fuel on kindled fire, and offers on kindled fire, thus he gives 
who gives gifts to one learned in the scriptures.' 



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350 jatapatha-brahmajva. 

Fifth BrAhmajva. 
D. The TritIya Savana, or Evening Pressing. 

1. Now there are three kinds of gods, — the 
Vasus, the Rudras, and the Adityas. Between them 
the press-feasts are divided : the morning pressing 
belongs to the Vasus, the midday pressing to the 
Rudras, and the third pressing to the Adityas. 
But the morning pressing belonged to the Vasus 
exclusively, and the midday pressing to the Rudras 
exclusively, and the third pressing to the Adityas 
conjointly (with others), 

2. The Adityas then said, *As that morning 
pressing belongs exclusively to the Vasus, and that 
midday pressing exclusively to the Rudras, so offer 
ye now to us a libation before the common (pressing).' 
The gods said, 'So be it!' After the completion of 
the midday pressing, they offered that (libation) pre- 
vious to the third pressing \ And in like manner is 
that libation offered to this day after the completion 
of the midday pressing and previous to the third 
pressing. 

3. The Adityas said, ' Neither in the one pressing 
have we a share nor in the other : we fear lest the 
Rakshas might injure us !' 

4. They said to the (cups) belonging to two deities 
(dvidevatya^), 'We are afraid of the Rakshas : pray, 
let us enter into you!' 

' The Aditya-graha, with which the succeeding paragraphs 
deal, is considered as not belonging to the TrA!ya Savana proper, 
but as a preliminary ceremony. 

' For the three dvidevatya grahas (AindfavSyava, Maitri- 
varuwa, and Ajvina), see Brihmawas IV, i, 3-5. 



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IV KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAJVA, 7. 35 1 

5. The Dvidevatyas said, ' What will be our re- 
ward then ? ' — ' By us ye shall be supplied with the 
Anuvasha/M' said the Adityas. — 'So be it!' — They 
entered into the dvidevatya cups. 

6. Hence, when at the morning pressing he (the 
Adhvaryu) proceeds with the dvidevatya cups, the 
Pratiprasthdtri draws Soma-juice from the Dro«a- 
kalaya into the Aditya vessel, with this much (of the 
formula, V^. S, VIII, i), 'Thou art taken with a 
support!' The Adhvaryu calls for the (Agnldh's) 
.Srausha/, and after the Adhvaryu's libation the Pra- 
tiprasthitr? pours (his juice into the fire), and with 
this much 'Thee to the Adityas!' he pours the 
remains (into the Aditya-sthiU). In the same way 
at all (three dvidevatya libations). 

7. Thus, the reason why the Pratiprasthitr? draws 
the Soma-juice, is that they entered into the dvide- 
vatya cups. And the Adityas then said, ' By us ye 
shall be supplied with the Anuvasha/!' For, that 
second libation which he (the Pratiprasthdtr/) makes, 
he makes to (Agni) Svish/akr?t, and by means of 
the Svish/akm these (dvidevatyas) are supplied 
with the Anuvasha/; and thus those (libations) of 

* At the three dvidevatya libations no Anuvasha/kira is per- 
mitted ; that is to say, the Hotr«' is not to pronounce the words, 
'O Agni, accept of the Soma I' after the Vasha/, with which the 
offering prayer (yigyi) concludes. But as the libation, ordinarily 
made at the Anuvasha/, corresponds to the oblation to Agni Svish- 
fykrtt made after each chief oblation at the havirysi^wa (see I, 7, 3 ; 
Ait. Br. Ill, 5), there is apparently no such Svish/akr«l oblation at 
the dvidevatya libations. Now, as each of these chief libations, 
made by the Adhvaryu, is followed by one made by the Pratipra- 
sth4tr» from the Aditya vessel (see p. 316, note i), these latter liba- 
tions are here, as it were, identified with the Svish/akr/'t and the 
Anuvasha/kara. 



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352 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA>rA. 

his are supplied with the Anuvasha/, having the 
(oblation to AgTii) Svish^akm performed for them. 
He offers on the north part (of the fire), for that 
is the region of that god* : hence he offers on the 
north part, 

8. And again, why the Pratiprasthitr? draws the 
Soma. They entered into the Dvidevatyas; and 
from those which they entered he thereby draws 
them out. He then covers it* — for they were afraid 
of the Rakshas — with 'O Vish»u, Far-strider, 
here is thy Soma, protect it lest they should 
injure it!' For Vish«u is the sacrifice: to the 
sacrifice he thus makes it over for protection. Now, 
after the completion of the midday Soma feast and 
before the evening feast he says, ' Come hither, 
Sacrificerl' 

9. They enter (the Havirdhina) together, — the 
Adhvaryu, Sacrificer, Agnldhra, PratiprasthitW, 
IJnnetrt, and whatever other attendant (of the 
Adhvaryu) there is*. They close both doors, — for 
they (the Adityas) were afraid of the Rakshas. He 
(the Adhvaryu) takes up the Aditya-sthill and 
Aditya-pitra, and holds them close over the Piita- 
hhrit, ' lest (any Soma-juice) should be spilt' 

10. He then draws (the juice from the sthill into 
the pitra) with (V^. S. VIII, 2; Rig-veda VIII, 
51, 7), 'At no time art thou barren, and never 
failest thou the worshipper, O Indra; but 



' See I, 7, 3, 20. 

* The remains of Soma-juice he pours after each libation from 
the Aditya-pdtra into the Aditya-sthdlt, and finally puts the former 
on the latter by way of a lid. See p. 316, note i. 

' While they enter by the front door, the mistress of the house 
enters by the back (west) door. Katy. X, 4, 2. 



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IV KAN DA, 3 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMA^A, 1 4. 353 

more and ever more is thy divine gift in- 
creased, O mighty lord ! — Thee to the Adityas !' 

11. Let him not draw it with a 'support' — for it 
was originally drawn with a support — to avoid a 
repetition (of sacrificial performance) ; but were he 
now also to draw it with a support, he would cer- 
tainly commit a repetition. 

12. Having withdrawn (the cup for a moment 
from the flowing juice), he again pours it in with 
(Vag-. S. VIII, 3; Rig-veda VIII, 52, 7), 'At no 
time art thou heedless, but watchest over both 
generations; the Soma feast^ is thy strength, 
O fourth Aditya: the ambrosia is ready for 
thee in the heavens! — Thee to the Adityas!' 

1 3. Thereupon he takes sour milk ; for the even- 
ing pressing belongs to the Adityas, and cattle are 
after (the manner of) the Adityas* : he thereby puts 
milk into the cattle, and thus that milk in cattle is 
beneficial ^ ' He should put it right in the centre 
(of the Aditya cup),' they say, ' for that milk is right 
in the centre of cattle.' But let him rather put it in 
the back part (of the cup), for that milk is in the 
hind part of cattle. 

14. And the reason why he takes sour milk is that 
those remains (of Soma) poured together are the 
leavings of offerings, and insufficient for an oblation : 
he now increases those (remains), and thus they 

' The Rig-veda reads 'havanam' (invocation) instead of 'sa- 
vanam.' 

• Or, cattle correspond, stand in relation, to the Adityas. SSyawa 
takes ' anu ' in the sense of ' behind, inferior to, dependent upon 
(htna).' The cattle are inferior to, or dependent upon, the Adi- 
tyas, inasmuch as the Adityas give the rain on which the cattle 
depend for their food. 

" Or, 'put' (hita) into them. 
[26] A a 



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354 .SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

become sufficient for an oblation. This is why he 
takes sour milk. 

15. He takes it with (Vlf. S. VIII, 4; Rig-veda 
I, 107, i), 'The sacrifice draweth nigh to the 
glory of the gods: be ye merciful, O Adityas! 
Let your favour incline unto us, that it may 
set us free from all trouble! — Thee to the 
Adityas!' 

16. He mixes it by means of the Vp^msusavana. 
stone'. For, indeed, that Aditya Vivasvat (the sun) 
is really the same as the Upi»*jusavana, and this 
is the Aditya libation : thus he makes him delight in 
his own share. 

17. He touches it neither with the fringe nor with 
(the woven part of) the straining-cloth ; for those two 
pressings, the morning pressing and midday pressing, 
forsooth are rich in pure Soma, rich in juice, but this, 
the third pressing, is emptied of its pure Soma. 
Now, in that he does not touch it either with the 
fringe or the straining-cloth, thereby that third press- 
ing of his also becomes rich in pure Soma and juice : 
therefore he touches it neither with the fringe nor 
with the straining-cloth. 

18. He mixes it with (Vdf. S. VIII, 5), 'O 
Aditya Vivasvat, this is thy draught of Soma : 
feast thou upon it!' Thereupon he hands the Upa»«- 
^usavana to the Vnnetri. Then he says to the Un- 
netrt, ' Drop in the pressing-stones!' He drops them 
either into the Adhavanlya or into a cup *. 

' See p. 238, note 2. 

* ' Into the Adhavantya trough or into a iamasa cup containing 
Soma-juice,' KSty. X, 4, 10 ; ' into the Adhavanlya or the Sam- 
bharawt,' Kd«va text; 'into the Adhavantya or into the graha,' 
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 386. Perhaps the next paragraph has to 



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IV KAJVBA, 3 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAiVA, 21. 355 

19. After drawing the king (Soma) — the third 
press-feast belonging to the Adityas, and the 
pressing-stones being after (the manner of) the 
Adityas, he thus makes them delight in their own 
share — they open the doors. 

20. He now walks out, covering (the cup with 
his hand or the sthiU) ; for they (the Adityas) were 
afraid of the Rakshas. He then says (to the Mai- 
trivaru«a), 'Recite (the invitatory prayer) to the 
Adityas !' If he likes, he may now enumerate (their 
qualities) ; but let him rather enumerate them, after 
he has called for the .Srausha/, — ' Prompt (the Hotri 
to recite the offering prayer) to the Adityas, the be- 
loved, rite-loving, law-loving lords of the great 
abode, the rulers of the wide air.' He offers, as the 
Vasha/ is pronounced. He (the Hotri) pronounces 
no Anuvasha/, lest he should consign the cattle to 
the fire. The remains (of juice in the sth4ll and 
graha) he (the Adhvaryu) hands to the Pratipra- 
sthitW. '^ 

21. Thereupon he again enters (the Havirdh4na) 
and draws the Agraya«a g^aha*. They spread 
(over the Pdtabhm) a straining-cloth with the fringe 
towards the north. The Adhvaryu pours out (the 

be taken along with this : ' Or into a ^amasa, after drawing Soma 
(into it).' According to Kdty., the stones are taken out again 
immediately and laid down in their places on the pressing-skin. 

' See p. 353, note 2. S&yznz again takes ' anu' in the sense of 
' after, behind,' apparently on the ground that, in the above formu- 
las, the stones are mentioned after the Aditya. The text of my 
manuscript is, however, rather corrupt at this place. 

* The Agraya«a Soma was originally drawn into the Agraya«a 
bowl (sthili) and deposited in its place in the centre of the khara. 
It is now poured from the bowl into some other vessel, and 
thence through a straining-cloth into the Pfltabhr/t. 

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356 jatapatha-brAhmaj^ta. 

juice) of the Ag^aya«a; the Pratiprasth^tr? holds 
out (and pours in) the two residues (of the Aditya 
graha*) ; the UnnetW adds thereto (some juice from 
the Adhavanlya) by means of a ^amasa cup or a 
dipping- vessel (udaw^na). 

22. Thus he draws the Agrayawa graha from four 
streams ; for the evening pressing belongs to the 
Adityas, and cows are after the manner of the 
Adityas ; whence this milk of cows is of a fourfold 
nature : therefore he draws the Agrayawa from four 
streams*. 

23. And as to why the PratiprasthitW holds out 
the two residues : this is (the remains of) the Aditya 
libation, and for the Aditya libation he pronounces no 
Anuvasha/; and from that (Agraya«a graha) he 
intends to draw the SS.vitra graha, — so that the 
Anuvasha/ is performed for it by means of the 
Sivitra graha. 

24. And again why the Pratiprasthdtr? holds out 
the two residues. Previous to that mixed (press- 
feast), previous to the evening feast, they have offered 
that (unmixed or special) libation to those (Adityas); 
but this libation is taken for the evening feast: thereby 
the Adityas take part in the evening feast, and thus 
they are not excluded from the sacrifice. This is 
why the Pratiprasthcltr? holds out the two residues*. 

' ' Sampraskandayati pratiprasth&tadityapitrayai samsravam,' 
Kd»va text. 

* In drawing the Agrayawa cup he uses the same formula as at 
the morning pressing. See IV, 2, 2, 9 seq. 

* In the actual performance of the Agnish/oma the drawing of 
the Agraya«a graha is followed by sour milk being poured to the 
Soma-juice left in the Pfltabhr/t, the compound being consecrated 
by the lady eying it with an appropriate mantra. Thereupon they 
leave the Havirdhdna shed in the same way as at the morning feast 



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IV KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAWA, 2. 357 



Fourth AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. Savitr/, forsooth, is his* mind: therefore he 
draws the Sivitra cup. And, forsooth, Savitri is 
his breath (vital air) ; — ^when he draws the UpSimsu 
cup, then he puts into him that vital air in front ; and 
when he draws the S&vitra cup, then he puts into 
him that vital air behind : thus those two vital airs 
on both sides are beneficial (or, put into him), both 
that which is above and that which is below. 

2. And the sacrifice, forsooth, is the seasons, the 
year. There, at the morning feast, they are overtly 
attended to, in that he draws the cups for the seasons ; 
and at the midday feast they are covertly attended to, 
in that he takes the Marutvatlya libations by means 
of the two Ritu vessels*. Now here (at the evening 
feast) they neither draw any libation expressly for 
the seasons, nor is any libation taken with the two 
Uttu vessels. 

(see IV, 2, 5, I, with notes), and perform the Viprad-homas, fol- 
lowed by the Sarpa«a and chanting of the Arbhava, or Trillyar 
Pavamana stotra (for an account of which, see p. 314, note 2). 
Then follow the oblations from the victim (which has been cooking 
since the morning, see IV, 2, 5, 1 3), &c., up to the eating of the 
pajvi(/a (see III, 8, 3, 4 seq.) ; and offering of the four Savaniya- 
purorflras, likewise up to the eating of the idi. Previous to the 
eating, small pieces of rice-cake are thrown into the ^masa cups, 
as an oblation to the sacrificer's deceased ancestors, with naming 
of his father, grandfather, and great-grandfather (as at the Pi«</api- 
triyzgvA, II, 4, 2, 19 seq.); whereupon the pieces are eaten along 
with the \di. 

' Viz. that of Ya^Tia, the sacrificial man, representing the sacri- 
iicer himself, with a view to the preparation of a new body in a 
future existence. 

* See IV, 3, 3, 12. 



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358 DATAPATH A-BRAhMA^A. 

3. But Sav'itrt, forsooth, is he that bums yonder 
(the sun) ; and he indeed is all the seasons : thus the 
seasons, the year, are overtly attended to at the 
evening feast, — for this reason he draws the S4vitra 
cup. 

4. He draws it with the Upd««ju vessel. For 
Savitn is his mind, and the IJp&msu is his breath : 
therefore he draws it with the Uptmsu vessel; or 
with the Antaryima vessel, for that is one and the 
same, since the Upkmsu and Antaryima are the out- 
breathing and in-breathing^. 

5. He draws it from the Ag^yawa graha; for 
Sscvitrt is his mind, and the Ag^yawa is his body 
(or self) : he thus puts the mind into the body. 
Savitr? is his breath, and the Agrayawa is his body : 
he thus puts the breath into the body. 

6. He thus draws it therefrom with (V^. S. VHI, 
6; Rig-veda VI, 71, 6), ' Bring thou forth boons 
for us this day, O Savitar, boons to-morrow, 
boons day by day: O God, through this our 
prayer may we be sharers of boons, of a good 
and plenteous abode! — Thou art taken with a 
support! — Thou art Savitrt's joy-giver, thou 
art a joy-giver: give me joy! speed the 
sacrifice; speed the lord of the sacrifice to 
(receive) his share!' 

7. Having drawn it, he does not deposit it; for 
Savitrt is his (Ya^^a's) mind, and hence this mind 
is restless. And Savitr? is his breath: hence this 
breath passes to and fro unrestingly. He then 
says (to the Maitrivaruwa), ' Recite (the invitatory 
prayer) to the god Savitrz'!' Having called for the 

» See IV, I, I, I. 

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IV kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, i brahmajva, io. 359 

vSrausha/, he says, ' Prompt (the Hotri to recite the 
offering prayer) to the god Savitrz!' The Vasha/ 
having been pronounced, he offers. He (the Hotri) 
pronounces no Anuvasha/^ — for Savitr/ is his 
mind, — 'lest he should consign his mind to the 
fire ;' and SavitW being his breath, — ' lest he should 
consign his breath to the fire.' 

8. Then with the (same) vessel, without drinking 
therefrom*, he draws the Vai^vadeva graha. The 
reason why he draws the Vai,fvadeva graha with the 
(same) vessel, without drinking therefrom, is this : 
on the Savitra graha he (the Hotri) pronounces no 
Anuvasha/, and it is therefrom that he is about to 
draw the Vai^vadeva graha, — thus it is by means of 
the Vai,yvadeva that it becomes supplied with the 
Anuvasha/ for him. 

9. And further why he draws the Vai,fvadeva 
g^ha. Savitrz, forsooth, is his mind, and the 
Vijve Devi^ (All-gods, or all the gods*) are 
everything here : he thus makes everything here 
subservient and obedient to the mind, and hence 
everything here is subservient and obedient to 
the mind. 

10. And again why he draws the Vairvadeva 
gp-aha. Savitr?, forsooth, is his breath, and the All- 
gods are everything here : he thereby puts the out- 
breathing and in-breathing into everything here, and 



' See p. 351, note i. 

• Lit. ' with the not-drank-from vessel.' He is not to drink with 
the Hotri the remains of the Sdvitra graha, which is to be offered 
up entirely (holocaust). 

* In Ait. Br. Ill, 31 five classes of beings, viz. the gods and 
men, the Gandharva-Apsaras, the serpents and the manes, are in- 
cluded in the term Vlrve DeviA. 



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360 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

thus the out-breathing and in-breathing become bene- 
ficial (or put) in everything here. 

11. And again why he draws the Vai.rvadeva 
graha. The evening feast belongs to the All-gods : 
thus indeed it is called on the part of the SS.man, in 
that the evening feast is called Vai^vadeva on the 
part of the Rik^, and in the same way on the part of 
the Ya^s, by way of preparatory rite, when he draws 
that Mah&-vai,yvadeva graha. 

12. He draws it from the PAtabhm; for the 
Pdtabhret belongs to the All-gods, because there- 
from they draw (Soma-juice) for the gods, therefrom 
for men, therefrom for the Fathers : hence the 
PGtabhm belongs to the All-gods. 

13. He draws it without a purorui^^, for he draws 
it for the All-gods, and the All-gods are everything, 
the Rik and Ya^s and Saman ; and even in that he 
draws it for the All-gods, thereby it becomes supplied 
with a purorui for him : therefore he draws it with- 
out a purorui. 

14. He thus draws it therefrom with (V^. S. VHI, 
8), 'Thou art taken with a support: thou art 
well-guarded,well-established,' — for well-guarded 
and well-established is the breath, — 'homage to the 
great bull !' — the great bull is Pra^pati (the lord of 
creatures) : ' homage to Pra^pati,' he thereby means 
to say. — 'Thee to the All-gods! this is thy 
womb, — thee to the All-gods!' Therewith he 

' The first jastra of the Tr»'t}ya-savana, now about to be recited 
by the Hotr» (Rig-veda priest), is the Vaifvadeva ^astra ; hence also, 
he argues, it is Vairvadeva on the part of the Siman, because of 
the intimate connection of the SSman chants (here the Trrttya, or 
Arbhava, pavamina stotra; see p. 325, note 2) with the xastras. 

* See p. 268, note i. 



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IV kA^^da, 4 adhyAya, i brAiimawa, i 5. 361 

deposits it ; for it is for the All-gods that he draws 
it. Thereupon he goes (to the Sadas) and sits down 
(in front of the Hotri) with his face to the east'. 

1 5. And when he (the Hotrt) recites this (verse), 
'With one and ten for thine own sake, with 
two and twenty for offering, with three 
and thirty for up-bearing (the sacrifice to the 
gods); with thy teams, O Viyu, do thou here 
unloose them!' — during (the recitation of) this 
verse to Vclyu the drinking- vessels are unyoked*, 
for beasts have Vdyu for their leader; and Vdyu 

* He remains thus seated till the Hotri" utters the Ahava 
' Adhvaryo sos^msivom ' (Adhvaryu, let us sing !), when he turns 
round and makes his response (pratigara) '5amsSmo daivom.' 
See p. 326, note i. 

The Vaifvadeva jastra consists of the following parts: — 
Pratipad (opening triplet), Rig-veda V, 82, 1-3. 
Anu^ara (sequel), ib. 4-7. 

Sfikta (hymn) to Savitr/, IV, 54. Before the last verse the 
Nivid (' May the god Savitr/' drink of the Soma !' &c.) is inserted ; 
to which the verse to Viyu, referred to in paragraph 15, is added. 
Sflkta to Heaven and Earth, 1, 159, with the Nivid ' May 
Heaven and Earth delight in the Soma I' &c., inserted before the 
last verse ; the Adhvaryu's response being thrice ' Maddmo daiva,' 
see p. 330, note 3. 
Dhdyya verse, I, 4, i. 

Sftkta to the i?/bhus, 1, 1 1 1 ; with Nivid before the last verse. 
Three Dhiyyis, X, 123, 1 ; X, 63, 3 ; IV, 50, 6. 
Sfiktato VLfve Devi*, I, 89 ; with Nivid before the last verse. 
The concluding verse (paridhinlyi) is recited thrice; the 
first time with stops at every half verse, the second and third 
time at every pSda. 

Ukthavirya, 'Praise has been sung to Indra, to the gods, to 
hear thee I' 
Then follows the recitation of the offering prayer VI, 52, 13, 
after which the libation is made, the remaining juice being then 
drunk, as well as that in the ^masas. 

» That is, having been rinsed in the Mdr^llya, the three dvide- 
vatya are deposited on the khara by the Pratiprasthdtr/. 



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362 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

(wind) is breath, since it is by means of the breath 
that beasts move about. 

16. Now once on a time he went away from the 
gods with the beasts. The gods called after him at 
the morning pressing, — he returned not They called 
after him at the midday pressing, — but he returned 
not. They called after him at the evening pressing. 

1 7. Being about to return, he said, * If I were to 
return to you, what would be my reward ? ' — ' By 
thee these vessels would be yoked, and by thee they 
would be unloosed!' — Hence those vessels are 
yoked by that (Vdyu), when he (the Adhvaryu) 
draws the (cups) for Indra and Viyu and so forth ^. 
And now those vessels are unloosed by him, when 
he says, 'with thy teams, O Vdyu, do thou here 
unloose them;' — teams mean cattle: thus he un- 
looses those vessels by means of cattle. 

18. Now, had he returned at the morning press- 
ing — the morning pressing belonging to the Giyatr!, 
and the Giyatrl being the priesthood * — then cattle 
would have come to be with priests only. And 
had he returned at the midday pressing — the mid- 
day pressing belonging to Indra, and Indra being 
the nobility — cattle would have come to be with 
nobles only. But in that he returned at the evening 
pressing — the evening pressing belonging to the 
All-gods, and the All-gods being everything here — 
therefore there are cattle everywhere here. 

' See IV, I, 3-10. 

* Perhaps we ought to read, with the Ki«va text, gSyatraw vai 
prdta^savanam giyatram agne; ji^ando brahma vi agnir, brdh- 
ma«eshu haiva pa^avo 'bhavishyan, ' the morning pressing relating 
to the giyatrJ, and the gSyatri metre belonging to Agni, and Agni 
being the priesthood.' 



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IV kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva^^^j,. — "J^.-^.^ 




Second BrAhmajva. 

1. He proceeds with (the offering of) 
pap ; for Soma is the sacrificial food of the gods ; 
and here now sacrificial food is prepared for Soma 
on his part ; and thus Soma is not excluded there- 
from. It is a rice-pap (iaru), for rice-pap is food 
for the gods, since rice-pap is boiled rice, and boiled 
rice is clearly food : therefore it is a rice-pap. 

2. Neither at the morning feast, nor at the mid- 
day feast does he offer it, for those two press- 
feasts, the morning feast and the midday feast, are 
the exclusive feasts of the gods ; and Soma is sacred 
to the Fathers '. 

3. But were he to offer it at the morning feast, or 
at the midday feast, he would cause discord between 
the gods and Fathers. He offers it at the evening 
feast, because the evening feast belongs to the All- 
gods* : thus he does not cause discord. He recites 
no invitatory prayer (but only an offering prayer), for 
the Fathers have passed away once for all: hence 
he recites no invitatory prayer. 

4. Having, in the first place, taken ghee in four 
ladlings, and having called (on the Agnldh) for the 
6'rausha/, he says, ' Recite the offering prayer of the 
ghee ! ' and offers as the Vasha/ is uttered. What- 
ever oblations have been offered previous to this 
(^ru), therefrom he separates this one (to Soma), and 
thus he causes no discord. 

• Probably, because Soma is slain in being sacrificed (see IV, 3, 
4, i), and therefore belongs to the Fathers or Departed Spirits. 

' And the All-gods (or all the gods) mean everything. See IV, 
4, 1. 4- 



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364 -satapatha-brAhm^ya. 

5. Having poured (into the spoon) an ' underlayer' 
of ghee, he makes two cuttings from the rice-pap ; 
and bastes them with ghee above. Having called 
for the ^rausha/, he says, ' Recite the offering prayer 
of the Saumya (rice-pap) ! ' and offers as the Vashci/ 
is uttered. 

6. He then takes ghee a second time by four 
ladlings, and having called for the vSrausha/, he says, 
' Recite the offering prayer of the ghee ! * and offers 
as the Vasha/ is uttered. From whatever oblations 
he intends to offer hereafter, he thereby separates 
this one (to Soma), and thus he causes no dis- 
cord. If he chooses, he may offer (ghee) on both 
sides (before and after the Soma's rice-pap) ; or, if he 
chooses, he may offer on one side only *. 

7. Now there is an offering-spoon called ' pra- 
^ra«!.' Therein the Adhvaryu takes ghee by four 
ladlings (with the dipping-spoon) and pours it on the 
Dhish«ya hearths by means of fagots (held over 
them). The reason why he pours ghee on the 
hearths by means of fagots is this. Because, on a 
former occasion ^, the gods said to those (Gandharva 



" The homa of ghee, made before the rice-pap oblation to Soma, 
belongs to Agni, and the one made after the oblation, to Vish«u. 
If only one homa be made, it belongs to Agni and Vishwu. The 
Ki«va text reads, ' Tad \i ihur anyatarata eva pariya^et purastad 
eveti,' now they say, ' He should offer on one side only, and that 
in front (previously to the >taru).' For the offering formulas, see 
A.SV. V, 19, 3 ; Ait. Br. Ill, 32. After the completion of these 
offerings, the Adhvaryu pours ordinary ghee on the rice-pap and 
presents it to the Hotrj, who looks at it while pronouncing some 
formulas (Afv. V, 19, 4, 5), and he smears his eyes with the ghee 
on the pap, after which the latter is handed to the chanters 
(udgitri) to be eaten by them. 

» See III, 6, 2, 19. 



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IV kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhma^a, 10. 365 

Soma-wardens), ' At the third pressing an offering of 
ghee shall fall to your share, but not one of Soma, 
for the Soma-draught has been taken from you, 
wherefore ye are not worthy of a Soma-offering,' 
that same offering of ghee now falls to their share at 
the evening pressing, but not one of Soma, in that 
he pours ghee on the hearths by means of fagots. 
One after another, in the order in which they were 
thrown up, and with the same formulas \ he pours 
ghee upon them ; on the Mir/dllya last of all. 

8. Now some make a second pouring on the 
Agnldhrlya hearth, thinking, ' In the North (or up- 
wards) shall this sacred work of ours be accom- 
plished!' but let him not do it in this way, but 
rather the Mdr^dlfya last*. 

9. Now, while the Adhvaryu pours ghee on the 
hearths by means of fagots, the PratiprasthAtr* 
draws the Pitnlvata* cup. For from the sacrifice 
creatures are produced; and being produced from 
the sacrifice, they are produced from union; and 
being produced from union, they are produced from 
the hind part of the sacrifice; — hence he thereby 
produces them from a productive union, from the 
hind part of the sacrifice : therefore he draws the 
Pfi,tnlvata cup. 

10. He draws it with the IJpSimsu. vessel. If he 

* Viz., Va^. S. V, 31, 32. The Agnldhra hearth is prepared first, 
and the Mir^iltya last of the eight dhishnyas. See p. 148, note 4. 

' Or, uppermost (uttamam ; the KS«vas read ' antamdm '). 

' The meaning of the term pitntvata is ' relating to the patntvant 
(L e. wived or mated one),' the ' patntvant ' being probably Soma with 
the water mixed with it ; or Agni with the wives of the gods, (with 
special reference to the sacrificer's wife); cf. Taitt. S. VI, 5, 8, i, 2. 
According to the KS«va text, Agni associated with the goddess 
Speech (Vik patnl) seems to be understood. 



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366 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

draws the Sdvitra libation with the Upkmsu vessel, 
(he draws) this one with the Antaryclma vessel ; and 
if he draws the Sdvitra with the Antaryima vessel 
(he draws) this one with the IJp&msu vessel ; — for 
one and the same indeed are the Uip^msu and 
Antaryima, being breath, and that which is the out- 
breathing is also the in-breathing. Now the breath 
(prS.«a, masc.) is male, and the wife is female: a 
productive union is thus brought about. 

1 1. He draws it without a puroru^S — the puroru^ 
being manhood, — lest he should bestow manhood on 
women : therefore he draws it without a puroru^. 

12. He thus draws it from that (Agraya»a g^aha) 
with (Va^. S. VIII, 9), 'Thou art taken with a 
support: Of thee, divine Soma, begotten by 
Brzhaspati' — BWhaspati is the priesthood: 'of 
thee, divine Soma, the priest-begotten' he thereby 
means to say — 'Of thee, the potent juice' — 'of 
the powerful (manly) juice' he means to say when he 
says 'of thee, the potent juice' — 'May I prosper 
the draughts of thee, the mated one^!' he does 
not now draw it for the wives, lest he should bestow 
manhood on women : therefore he does not now 
draw it for the wives. 

13. He (the Adhvaryu) then mixes it with the 
residue (of ghee) which is left in the pra^ra«l spoon. 
Now other libations he completes by mixing, but 
this one he diminishes; for ghee is a thunderbolt, 



' See p. 268, note i. 

* In the St. Petersburg Dictionary 'patnlvataA' seems to be 
taken as qualifying 'grahin;' but cp. Rig-veda VIII, 82, 22, 
'United with their wives (i.e. the water mixed with the Soma- 
juice ?) these Soma-draughts (sut^) go longing to the rejoicing.' 



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IV KkNDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMA^^A, 1 6. 367 

and by that thunderbolt, the ghee, the gods smote 
the wives and unmanned them, and thus smitten and 
unmanned they neither owned any self nor did they 
own any heritage. And in like manner does he now, 
by that thunderbolt, the ghee, smite the wives and 
unman them ; and thus smitten and unmanned, they 
neither own^ any self nor do they own any heritage. 

14. He mixes it, with (V^. S. VIII, 9), 'I am 
above, I am below; and what space there is 
between, that was my father; — I saw the sun 
on both sides: I am what is highest to the 
gods in secret.' In that he mixes with ' I — I,' 
thereby he bestows manhood on men. 

15. He then says, 'Agnldh, pronounce the offer- 
ing prayer of the Pdtnlvata ! ' The Agnldh is male, 
and the wife is female : thus a productive union is 
brought about. He offers with (V^. S. VIII, 10), 
'O Agni, wife-leader"!' — Agni is male, and the 
wife is female : thus a productive union is brought 
about. 

16. 'Together with the divine Tvash/r/' — 
for Tvash/W transforms the cast seed : thus he 
thereby transforms the cast seed; — 'drink the 
Soma, Hail!' therewith he offers on the north 
(left) part (of the fire) ; what other offerings there 
are, they are the gods, and these are the wives : thus 
alone it is a proper union, since the woman lies on 
the left (north) side of the man. The Adhvaryu 
takes a draught of Soma to the Agnldh, and the 
latter says, ' Adhvaryu, invite me !* [It might be said 



' ' tj,' etymologically connected with ' own.' 
* Or, wived, mated one, 'patnivan;' the KSnva text reads 'Agne 
Vak patni.' See preceding page, note 2. 



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368 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

that] he should not invite him, since how can there 
be an invitation of one smitten and unmanned ? He 
should nevertheless invite him : they offer in his fire, 
and utter the Vasha/, — therefore he should invite 
him. 

17. He then gives orders, 'Agntdh, sit in the 
Neshirt's lap ! Nesh/f«, lead up the lady, and make 
her exchange looks with the \Jdg&trt\ Unnetr*, 
fill up the Hotre's cup, and let no Soma-juice re- 
main !' Thus, if it be an Agnish/oma sacrifice. 

18. But if it be an Ukthya^ let him say, ' Lengthen 
out the Soma!' — Holding the same vessel (from 
which the Pitnlvata libation was made, the Agnldh) 
sits down in the Nesh/r?"s lap, — for he, the Agnldh, 
is in reality Aghi, and the Nesh/r/ is female : the 
Agntdh is male, and the Nesh/r? female, — a pro- 
ductive union is thus brought about. The Neshiri 
leads up the lady and makes her exchange looks 
with the Udgitr/", with ' Thou art Pra^dpati, the 

* ' But if it be an Ukthya, or Shodafin, or Atiritra, or VS^peya, 
KSwva text. See towards the end of next note. 

* KSty. X, 7 and schol. supply the following details. The 
Unnetrt puts down the ^amasa cups behind the high altar, and 
pours into them the entire Soma-juice remaining in the Pfitabhr;'t, 
putting but little into the Hotr»'s cup, to leave room in it for the 
dhruva libation. Besides this the Agraya»a is the only Soma that 
remains. The Adhvaryu then, by touching the Soma in the 
Hotr;"s cup with two stalks of grass, gives the signal for the 
chanting of the Agnish/oma Sdman (viz. the Ya^fniya^jliya, 
Simav. II, 53, 54), wrapping up his head, if he chooses, in the 
same way as the Udgdtr/s. Meanwhile the Nesh/r? leads up the 
lady through the back door into the Sadas, makes her sit down 
north of the Vdgitri and exchange looks with the latter three 
times (at the ' Wim,' see p. 308, note 2). Three times also (at every 
Nidhana) she uncovers her right leg and pours on it some of the 
p&nneyanl water fetched by her in the morning (see III, 9, 3, 27), 



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IV KANDA, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, I. 369 

male, the bestower of seed : lay thou seed into 
me!' The Udgitrt is Pra^dpati, and the lady is a 
woman : a productive union is thus brought about. 

Third Brahmaata. 

I. The metres, forsooth, are the (draught) cattle 
of the gods. Even as harnessed cattle here on earth 

whereupon she returns to her own tent. Then follows ihe 
recitation of the Agnimiruta xastra, consisting of the fol- 
lowing parts :— 
Sflkta (hymn), Rig-veda III, 3, to Agni Vaijv^nara, with Nivid 
('May Agni Vai^dnara feast on this Soma,' &c.) inserted 
before the last verse. 
DhSyyi, I, 43, 6; or (verse to Rudra) II, 33, i. 
Sfikta, I, 87, to Maruts, with Nivid ('May the Maruts feast on 
this Soma,' &c.) before the last verse. 

(Stotriya prag&tha, VI, 48, 1-2 (identical with the text of 
the Ya^niya^niya Siman). 
Anurflpa pragatha, VII, 16, n-ia (antistrophe). 

Sfikta to Agni Citavedas, 1, 143, with Nivid before the last verse. 

Tristich to Apai (waters), X, 9, 1-3, recited in breaks, the Hotr» 
having previously uncovered his head (as do the other priests) 
and touched water, and the others holding on to him from 
behind. This and the following parts also have the Ahava 
(' jOOTsSvom ') before each of them. 

Verse VI, 50, 14 to Agni Budhnya. 

Verses V, 46, 7-8 to wives of gods. 

Verses II, 32, 4-5 to Rdkl 

Verse VI, 49, 7 to Pdviravt (daughter of lightning). 

Verse X, 14, 4 to Yama. 

Verse X, 14, 3 to Kavyas (manes). 

\erses X, 15, i, 3, 2 to PitaraA (fathers), with the Ahiva before 
each verse. 

Anupiniya (or Svidushkiliya) verses VI, 47, 1-4 to Indra. After 
each of the first three the Adhvaryu may respond to the 
Horn's Ahiva, with ' madimo daiva ' (instead of ' f awsSrno 
daiva'). See note on IV, 3, 2, n. 

Verse to Vish«u and Varu«a (Atharva-veda VII, 25, i). 
[26] B b 



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370 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA^A. 

draw for men, so do the harnessed metres draw the 
sacrifice for the gods^ And whenever the metres 
g^tified the gods, then the gods gratified the metres. 
Now it has been previous to this, that the har- 
nessed metres have drawn the sacrifice to the gods, 
that they have gratified them^: 

2. He now draws the Hiriyo^ana' graha — the 
Hiriyq^na being the metres — it is the metres he 
thereby gratifies : this is why he draws the HAriyo- 
^na graha. 

3. He draws it as an additional (libation); since 

Verse to Vishwi, Rig-veda 1, 154, i. 

Verse toPra^pati, X, 53, 6. 

Paridh^ntyd (concluding verse) IV, 17, 20, in reciting which the 
Hotn° touches the ground ; and during the recitation of the 
last pSda the Dhruva graha is poured into the Hotr^s cup. 

Ukthavirya, 'Praise has been sung to Indra, to the gods, for 
hearing (?) thee I' 

YS^yS (offering prayer) V, 60, 8, at the conclusion of which 
hbations are made to Agni and the Maruts, both at the 
Vasha/ and Anuvasha/. 
Then follow the after-oflferings of the animal sacrifice (see III, 8, 
4, 1 seq.). 

At the Ukthya (and other Soma-sacrifices) the Ukthya graha 
is drawn immediately after the drawing of the Agraya»a (see IV, 
3, 5, 24, with note). Previous to the after-offerings the Ukthp 
graha is divided, as at the morning and midday performances 
(see p. 293, note 2), between the three Hotrakas, with a view to the 
recitation of their jastras which form the distinctive feature of the 
Ukthya sacrifice, bringing up the number of jastras (and stotras) 
from twelve (of the Agnish/oma) to fifteen. Besides, the Ukthya 
requires the immolation of at least two victims on the Soma-day, 
viz. a he-goat to Indra and Agni, besides the one to Agni. 

* See I, 8, 2, 8 ; the translation has been amended in accord- 
ance with Professor Whitney's suggestions, American Journal of 
Philology, III, p. 406. 

"^ That is, referring to the ' hari-yqg'ana,' or (Indra's) team of bay 
steeds. 



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IV kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 7. 371 

he draws it when he (the Hotri) pronounces the 
'All-hail and blessing ^' For there are here the 
gods, and the metres in addition to them ; and there 
are men, and beasts in addition to them : therefore 
he draws it as an additional one. 

4. He draws it in the Drowakalaya. Now Soma 
was Vmra. When the gods slew him, his head 
rolled off * : it became the Dro«akalaja. Thereinto 
flowed together so much of the juice as it could 
hold*; that was in excess; and so is this graha in 
excess : he thus puts the excess to the excess, — 
therefore he draws it in the Dro«akala^. 

5. He draws it without a purorui-formula, for he* 
draws it for the metres ; and in that he draws it for 
the metres, even thereby that (graha) of his becomes 
supplied with a purorui : therefore he draws it with- 
out a purorui. 

6. He now draws it from that (Ag^ya»a graha) 
with (V4^. S. Vin, 11), 'Thou art taken with a 
support: of bay colour art thou, meet for 
the team of bay steeds, — thee to the pair of 
bay steeds!' Now, the two bay horses are the J?t& 
and S^man: it is for the Jii^ and Siman that he 
draws it. 

7. He then pours parched grain into it with, ' Ye 
are the bays' grains, united with the Soma for 



* For the .Sam-yos, see part i, p. 254, note. The pronuncia- 
tion of that formula takes place after the offering proper is 
completed. 

' ? Or burst (udvavarta), as the St. Petersburg Dictionary takes it. 
The KS«va text reads, — Vri'trovai soma Ssittaw yatradeviA pitreshu 
vyagnliwata tasya mfirdhno (!) vyavartta sa dronakala^o 'bhavat. 

' YSvan v4 yivin vi rasaA, (? some indeterminate quantity of the 
juice.) Cf. IV, 4, 5, 13. 

B b 2 



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372 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAyA. 

Indra !' Whatever metres there are, both measured 
and unmeasured, they all thereby drink (of the 
Soma^). 

8. For this (libation) the IJnnetri^ calls for the 
^Srausha/ ; — for the Unnetr? is in excess (additional), 
since he does not call for the 6rausha/ for any other 
(libation) ; and this libation also is in excess : thus 
he puts the excess to the excess, — therefore the 
Unnetf/ calls for the 3'rausha^. 

9. Placing (the Dro«akala«i) on his head, he calls 
for the xSrausha/, — for this (vessel) is his (Soma's) 
head. He first says (to the Maitrivaru«a), ' Recite 
(the invitatory prayer) for the Soma-draughts with 
grains!' Having called for the 5raushaA he says, 
' Prompt (the Hotri to pronounce the offering prayer 
on) the Soma-draughts with grain brought forward*!' 
and offers as the Vasha/ and Anuvasha/ are uttered. 
They then divide the grain between them for the 
sake of the Soma-draught. 

10. Now some take the Dro«akala«i over to the 
Hotrt, on the ground that ' the draught belongs to 
the utterer of the Vasha/.' But let him not do it 
thus; for the other draughts are (taken by the 
respective priests) according to the z^amasa cups, but 
this one is in excess : therefore there is a draught 
in it for all of them, — for this reason they divide 
the grain between them for the sake of the Soma- 
draught. 

* The text might also be taken in the sense of ' Whatever metre 
there is, both measured and unmeasured, all that he thereby con- 
sumes.' The libation is, however, taken out for the metres or 
cattle, represented by the grain. 

' Instead of the Agnidhra, see I, 5, 2, 16, with note. 

' Regarding ' prasthitam,' see p. 1 98, note 3. 



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IV KAJVCA, 4 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, I 3. 373 



1 1. They must not bite them with their teeth, — 
for these (grains) mean cattle, — thinking 'lest we 
should do aught to crush our cattle!' They only 
drink it in with their breath ^ with (V%-. S. VIII, 
12), 'What horse-winning, what cow-winning 
draught is thine*;' for they are cattle: therefore 
he says, 'what horse-winning, what cow-winning 
draught is thine;' — 'Of that draught, offered 
with Ya^us, praised by chants',' — for Ya^us- 
prayers have indeed been offered, and chants have 
been chanted; — 'sung by hymns,' — for songs 
(^astras) have been sung; — 'Of the invited* do I 
drink, invited,' — for invited, he now drinks of the 
invited. 

12. They must not throw them into the fire, lest 
they offer remains (of offerings) in the fire. They 
rather, throw them on the high altar : thus they are 
not excluded from the sacrifice. 

1 3. Thereupon they touch the vessels filled (with 
water') which some call Apsushom^^ (Soma-draughts 
in water). For even as a yoked (animal) draws, so 

' They are only to smell the grains steeped in the Soma-juice. 

* The Ki«va recension adds, ' O divine Soma I' 

' Lit., having Ya^s offered, and chants chanted for it. 

* ? I. e. ' that to which I am invited.' 

* That is, the ten Aamasins touch their respective ^amasa cups, 
filled with water and placed in the proper order from south to 
north, behind the pit (>fatvila), after putting fresh kuxa stalks on 
them. Those priests who have no cups of their own touch the cups 
of those with whom they are most nearly connected, viz. the four 
Adhvaryus that of the Nesh/n", the Udgitr/'s assistants that of their 
principal, the Grivastut that of the Hotr«*. Thereupon they touch 
their faces and betake themselves to the Agnidhra fire-house, to 
partake of sour milk. Then follow, on the Garhapatya (at the front 
hall door), the Patnisa>7iyS^s of the cakes of the animal offering, 
followed by the Samish/aya^s. See also lA/y. St. II, ii, 16 seq. 



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374 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

do they who perform the priestly duties. But the 
yoked (animal) galls or scratches itself; and watef 
is a means of soothing, a medicine : thus wherever 
in this (sacrifice) they gall or scratch themselves — 
water being a means of soothing — they soothe by 
that means of soothing, water ; they heal it by water. 
This is why they touch the vessels filled (with water). 

14. They touch them with (Va^. S. VIII, 14), 
'With lustre, with sap, with bodies^ have we 
united, — with the happy spirit: may Tvash/W, 
the dispenser of boons, grant us riches, and 
may he smooth what was injured in our body!' 
thus they heal what was torn. 

1 5. They then touch their faces. There is a two- 
fold reason why they touch their faces ; — water, for- 
sooth, is the elixir of immortality : it is with the elixir 
of immortality that they thus touch themselves. And, 
moreover, they thus deposit that holy work into their 
own self: therefore they touch their faces. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 
£. Concluding Ceremonies. 

1. Now, it is nine Samish/aya^us* he offers on 
this occasion. The reason why he offers nine Sa- 
mish/aya^s is that those stotra-verses at the Bahish- 
pavamdna' chant amount to nine. Thus there is 
at both ends an inferior (incomplete) virS^*, for the 

* See I, 9, 3, 6. Cf. Atharva-veda VI, 53, 3. The Thtdyz Br. I, 
3, 9 reads ' sa»» tapobhW (with fervour). 

* See I, 9, 2, 25 seq. 
' See p. 310, note i. 

* The virS^ consists of pddas of ten syllables. For the same 
speculation, see II, 5, i, 20. 



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IV kXnDA, 4 ADHYAyA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 6. 375 

sake of production : it was from that same inferior 
(lower) source of production on both sides that Pra- 
^pati produced the creatures, — from the one (he 
created) the upright, and from the other those tend- 
ing to the ground. And in like manner does he 
(the Adhvaryu) now create creatures from that lower 
source of production on both sides, — from the one 
the upright, and from the other those tending to the 
ground. 

2. The call ' Him' is the tenth of stotra-verses, 
and the ' Sv4h4' (the tenth) of these (Samish/ayajfus) : 
and thus does this incomplete viri^ come to consist 
of tens and tens. 

3. And as to why they are called Samish/aya^s. 
Whatever deities he invites at this sacrifice, and for 
whatever deities this sacrifice is performed, they all 
are thereby ' sacrificed- to together' (sam-ish/a); 
and because, after all those (deities) have been 'sacri- 
ficed-to together,' he now offers those (libations), 
therefore they are called Samish/aya^us. 

4. And as to why he offers the Samish/aya^s. 
Now, the self of him who has sacrificed has, as it 
were, become emptied, since he gives away of what- 
ever is his : it is him he fills again by three out of 
these (oblations). 

5. And as to the three following which he offers, — 
whatever deities he invites at this sacrifice, and for 
whatever deities this sacrifice is performed, they 
continue waiting till the Samish/aya^s are performed, 
thinking, 'These, forsooth, he must offer unto us!' 
It is these same deities he thereby dismisses in due 
form whithersoever their course lies. 

6. And as to the three last which he offers, — in 
performing the sacrifice he has produced it, and. 



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376 satapatha-brAhma^a. 

having produced it, he firmly establishes it where 
there is a safe resting-place for it : this is why he 
performs the Samish/ayji^us. 

7. He offers (the first) with (VAf. S. VIII, 15; 
Rig-veda V, 42, 4), 'With thought lead us, O 
Indra, to meet with kine,' — 'with thought:' him 
who was emptied he thereby fills with thought; 
'with kine;' him who was emptied he thereby fills 
with kine; — 'with patrons, O mighty Lord, with 
well-being; with prayer which is divinely in- 
spired V — 'with prayer:' him who was emptied he 
thereby fills with prayer ; — * with the favour of the 
adorablegods! Hail!' 

8. [The second with Vif. S. VIII, 16], 'With 
lustre, with sap, with bodies,' — 'with lustre:' 
him who was emptied he thereby fills with lustre ; 
' with sap,' — sap is vigour — him who was emptied he 
thus fills with sap; — 'We have united, with the 
happy spirit: may Tvash/r/, the dispenser of 
boons, grant us riches, and may he smooth 
what was injured in our body!' Thus they heal 
what was torn. 

9. [The third with Vif. S. VI 1 1, 17; Atharva-veda 
VII, 17,4], 'May the gracious Dhitrt, Savitrz, 
Pra^ipati, the guardian of treasures, and the 
divine Agni accept this (offering) ; and Tvash- 
irt and Vish»u : grant ye willingly to the 
sacrificer wealth together with children ! 
Hail!' Him who was emptied he fills ag^in, when 
he says, 'grant ye wealth to the sacrificer, Hail !' 



' ? The author of the Brihina»a would rather seem to take it in 
the sense of ' with the priestly authority (sacerdotium) instituted by 
the gods.' 



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IV kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 12. 377 

10. [The fourth with Vif. S. VIII, i8»], 'Acces- 
sible homes have we prepared for you, O gods, 
who graciously came to this Soma feast;' — 
whereby he. means to say, 'seats easy of access we 
have prepared for you, O gods, who have graciously 
come to this Soma feast;' — 'Carrying and driving 
the offerings,' thereby he dismisses the several 
deities ; ' Those forsooth who are without cars may 
go away carrying ; and those who have cars may go 
away driving,' this is what he means to say ; there- 
fore he says, ' Carrying and driving the offerings ;' — 
'bestow goods on him, ye good! Hail!' 

1 1 . [The fifth with Vi^. S. VI 1 1 , 1 9 ; Atharva-veda 
VII, 97, 3], 'The willing gods whom thou, O 
God,broughtesthither, speed them each to his 
own abode, O Agni !' For to Agni he said, ' Bring 
hither such and such gods! bring hither such and 
such gods!' and to him he now says, 'Whatever 
gods thou hast brought hither, make them go whither- 
soever their course lies !' — 'Ye have all eaten and 
drunk,' — for they have eaten the cakes of the animal 
offering, and they have drunk the king Soma : there- 
fore he says, ' ye have all eaten and drunk ;' — ' Draw 
ye nigh to the air, to the heat, to the light! 
Hail !' Hereby, then, he dismisses the deities. 

12. [The sixth with Vif. S. VIII, 20], 'Thee, O 
Agni, have we chosen here for our Hotri at 
the opening of this sacrifice: severally hast 
thou offered to them, and severally hast thou 
toiled; well-knowing the sacrifice, draw thou 
nigh*, thou the wise! Hail!' by this (verse) he 
releases Agni, dismisses Agni. 

' Cf. Atharva-veda VII, 97, 4. 

* That is, according to Mahidhara, 'knowing that the sacrifice 



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378 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

13. [The seventh with Vi^. S. VIII, 21], 'Ye 
path -finding gods,' — for the gods are, indeed, 
the finders of the path; — 'having found the 
path,' — ' having found the sacrifice,' he thereby 
means to say; — 'go ye in the path!' therewith he 
dismisses them in due form; — 'O divine Lord of 
mind, this sacrifice — Svihi! — give thou to the 
wind !' for the sacrifice, indeed, is yonder blowing ■ 
(wind): having thus completed this sacrifice, he 
establishes it in that sacrifice, and thus unites sacri- 
fice with sacrifice, — hence he says, ' Svihi ! g^ve (it) 
to the wind!' 

14. [The eighth with V^. S. VIII, 22], ' O sacri- 
fice, go to the sacrifice, go to the lord of the 
sacrifice, go to thine own womb. Hail!' — the 
sacrifice, thus established, he thereby establishes in 
its own womb. [The ninth he offers with], 'This 
is thy sacrifice, O lord of the sacrifice, bestow- 
ing numerous heroes, together with the song 
of praise: do thou accept it. Hail!' the sacrifice, 
thus established, bestowing numerous heroes, toge- 
ther with the song of praise he thereby finally 
establishes in the sacrificer. 

Fifth BRAHMAyA. 

I. He now betakes himself to the expiatory bath 
(avabhrztha). The reason why he betakes him- 
self to the expiatory bath is this. What vital sap 
there has been in him (Soma and the sacrificer), that 
(sap) of his he (the priest) has produced (extracted) 
for the offerings. Now that body (of Soma, i. e. 

is accomplished, go thou to thine own house !' Cf, Atharva-veda 
VII, 97, I ('draw near to Soma I'). 



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IV KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAJVA, 3. 379 

the Soma-husks), — there is no sap in it; (yet) it 
is not to be cast away : they take it down to the 
water and — water being sap — he puts that sap into 
it. Thus he unites him with that sap, and thus he 
produces him from it, — he (Soma), even when pro- 
duced, produces him (the sacrificer)* : and because 
they take it down {ava-hri') to the water, therefore 
(the bath is called) avabhmha. 

2. In the first place he performs the Samish/ay^us 
offerings, for the Samish/aya^s are the extreme end 
of the sacrifice. As soon as he has performed the 
Samish/aya^s, they go together to the ^4tvila (pit) 
with whatever he (the sacrificer) has about him*: 
both the black-deer's horn* and the girdle he throws 
into the pit, — 

3. With (V4f. S. VIII, 23), ' Be thou nor adder 
nor viper!' Now when they take the Soma-husks 
down to the water, that forsooth is the wishing of 
' good-speed*!' to it, and this now is the 'good-speed ! ' 
to him (the sacrificer) ; for snakes are like rope, and 
snakes' haunts are like wells (pits), and there is as 
it were a feud between men and snakes : ' Lest that 
should spring therefrom,' he thinks, and therefore he 
says, ' Be thou nor adder nor viper!' 

* ? That is, as the Soma plants become juicy again, so the sacri- 
ficer has his vital sap or spirit restored. 

* Or, according to the St. Petersburg Dictionary, ' they throw it 
into the water.' 

* Or, whatever is connected with Soma(?). According to KSty. 
X, 8, 1 a, 19 the throne (isandi) and Audumbart, as well as the 
Soma vessels, Dronakalara, &c., are to be carried in the first place 
to the j(dtvdla, and from there to the water. 

* See III, a, 1, 18. The PratiprasthStri' is silently to throw after 
the lady's zone and peg (for scratching herself). 

* For the ' svagdkira,' see I, 8, 3, 1 1. 



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380 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

4. He then makes (the sacrificer) say (Rig-veda 
I, 24, 8), 'Broad forsooth is the path which 
king Varu«a hath made for the sun to walk 
along,' — whereby he means to say, ' even as there 
is for the sun that broad path, free from danger and 
injury, so may there be for me here a broad path, 
free from danger and injury.' 

5. 'For the footless hath he made feet to 
put down\' for, although he (the sun) is footless, 
yet he is able to walk; — 'And the forbidder is 
he of all thatwoundeth the heart,' — thus he frees 
him from every guilt and evil of the heart, 

6. He then says, ' Sing the Sdman ! ' or ' Speak 
the Siman ! ' but let him rather say ' Sing,' for they 
do sing the Sdman. The reason why he sings the 
Siman is that the evil spirits may not injure that 
body of his outside the sacrifice, for the Siman is a 
repeller of the evil spirits. 

7. He (the PrastotW) sings a (verse) to Agni, for 
Agni is a repeller of the evil spirits. He sings in 
the Atii,4andas; for this, the Ati>^^andas, is all 
the metres*: therefore he sings in the Atii^andas. 

8. He sings, 'Agni burneth, Agni en- 
countereth with flames, — AhivaA! AhivaA'!' 
Thus he drives the evil spirits away from here. 

* Or, 'To the footless he has given to put down his feet:' in 
either sense it seems to be taken by the author of the Brihmaffa 
(and the St. Petersburg Dictionary). Perhaps, however, 'apade' 
had better be taken, with Mahidbara (and Siya/ia?), in the sense of 
' padarahite,' i. e. ' in the trackless (ether) he caused him (the sun) 
to plant his feet.' Similarly Ludwig, ' Im Ortlosen hat er sie die 
Filsse niedersetzen lassen.' 

* ' Eshi vai sarvam ati yad atij(Aanda^,' K&nva. text Atii^ndas, 
i. e. over-metre, redundant metre, is the generic term for metres 
consisting of more than forty-eight syllables. 

' All the priests, as well as the sacrificer, are to join in the 



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IV KklfDA, 4 ADHYAyA, 5 BRAHMAJVA, 1 3. 38 1 

9. They walk out (from the sacrificial ground) 
northwards, along the back of the pit and the front 
side of the Agnldhra : then they proceed in whatever 
direction the water is. 

10. Where there is a standing pool of flowing 
water, there let him (the sacrificer) descend into the 
water — for whatsoever parts of flowing water flow 
not, these are holden by Varu«a ; and the expiatory 
bath belongs to Varu»a — to free himself from 
Varu»a. But if he does not find such, he may 
descend into any water. 

11. While he makes him descend into the water, 
he bids him say, 'Homage be to Varu«a: down- 
trodden is Varu«a's snare!' thus he delivers him 
from every snare of Varu»a, from every (infliction ^) 
of Varu«a. 

12. Thereupon, taking ghee in four ladlings, and 
throwing down a kindling-stick (on the water), he 
offers thereon, with (V^^. S. VIII, 24), 'The face 
of Agni, the waters, have I entered, escaping 
from the power of demons, O son of the 
waters! In every homestead offer thou 
the log, O Agni! let thy tongue dart forth 
towards the ghee, — Hail!' 

1 3. Now, once on a time, the gods made so much 
of Agni, as would go in *, enter the water, in order 
that the evil spirits should not rise therefrom ; 
for Agni is the repeller of evil spirits. It is 
him he kindles by this kindling-stick and by this 

nidhana (finale, or concluding word of the SSman). According to 
K&ty. X, 8, 16, 17 the Sdman is chanted thrice, viz. in starting 
from the ^atvila, midwa)', and at the water-side. 

* Or guilt against Varu«a. See p. 221, note i. 

' Agner ySvad v4 ySvad vS. Cf. p. 371, note 3. 



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382 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

oblation, thinking ' On the kindled (fire) will I offer 
to the gods ! ' 

14. Then, having taken ghee a second time in 
four ladlings, and having called for the (Agntdhra's) 
^rausha/, he says, ' Pronounce the offering prayer 
to the Kindling-sticks!' He offers four fore- 
offerings, omitting that to the Barhis ^ — the Barhis 
being offspring, and the expiatory bath belonging to 
Varu«a — lest Varu«a should seize upon his offspring. 
This is why he offers four fore-offerings, omitting 
that to the Barhis. 

15. Then follows a cake on one potsherd for 
Varu«a. For whatever sap there had been in him 
(Soma), that sap of his he has produced (extracted) 
for the offerings. Now that body : there is no sap 
in it. But the cake is sap : that sap he puts into it. 
Thus he unites him with that sap, and so produces 
him from it, — he (Soma), even when produced, pro- 
duces him (the sacrificer): hence there is a cake on 
one potsherd for Varu«a. 

16. Having made an ' underlayer' of ghee (in the 
offering-spoon), he says, while making the cuttings 
from the cake *, ' Recite (the invitatory prayer) to 
Varu«a ! ' Here now some make two cuttings from 
the Soma-husks, but let him not do so; for that 
(heap of husks) is an empty body, unfit for offering. 
He makes two cuttings (from the cake) and bastes 
them once with ghee, and anoints (replenishes the 
places whence) the cuttings (have been made). 
Having called for the ^Jrausha/, he says, ' Recite the 

■ For the usual five prayS^as, see I, 5, 3, 8-13. 

* As a rule, cakes on one potsherd are to be offered entire. 
The present cake, however, is to be an exception, and the usual 
two portions are to be cut from it. See part i, p. 192, note. 



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IV kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, 19. 383 

offering prayer to Varuwa ! ' and offers as the Vasha/ 
is uttered. 

1 7. Then, having made an underlayer of ghee, he 
says, while putting the (remainder of the) cake (into 
the spoon), ' Recite the invitatory prayer to Agni 
and Varu«a ! ' This is for (Agni) Svish/akrzt ^ ; and 
as to why he does not say ' To Agni,' it is lest 
Varu«a might seize upon Agni. If before he has 
cut twice from the Soma-husks, he now does so 
once, but if (he did) not, he need not heed it. He 
then bastes it twice with butter on the upper side ; 
and having called for the 6rausha/, he says, ' Recite 
the offering prayer to Agni and Varuwa ! ' and offers 
as the Vasha/ is uttered. 

18. Now these are six oblations ; for there are six 
seasons in the year, and Varu«a is the year : hence 
there are six oblations. 

1 9. This is the course of the Adityas * ; and these 
Yafiis, they say, belong to the Adityas. Let (the 
Adhvaryu) endeavour to perform as much of it as is 
his (the sacrificer's) wish. And if the sacrificer tell 
him to do otherwise, then he should do otherwise. 
He may also perform those same four fore-offerings, 
— omitting that to the Barhis — two butter-portions, 
(the oblations of cake) to Varu«a and Agni-Varu«a, 
and two after-offerings,— omitting the one to the 
Barhis; — this makes ten. Now the vir^ consists 

' See I, 7, 3, 7 seq. 

* Professor Weber, Ind. Stud. X, p. 393, refers us to XIV, 9, 4, 
33, where it is stated that the VS^saneyin Adhvaryu has to study 
the Ya^s of the Aditya i?»shi. One might also be inclined to 
think that, by ' Adityin&m ayanam ' and ' AhgirasSm ayanam ' the 
author intended to connect the Agnish/oma with the sacrificial 
sessions designated by those terms, for which see Ajv. St. XII, 
1-2 ; Ait. Br. IV, 1 7, with Haug's notes. 



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384 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

of ten syllables, and the sacrifice is vir^ : thus he 
makes the sacrifice to be like the vir^f. 

20. This is the course of the Angiras. Having 
performed the offerings either way, (the Adhvaryu) 
makes the pot, in which the husks are, float with 
(V4f. S. VIII, 25), 'In the ocean, in the waters, 
is thy heart (O Soma)' — for the ocean is the 
waters, and water is sap : that sap he now puts into 
him (Soma), and thus he unites him with that sap, and 
produces him therefrom ; and he (Soma), even when 
produced, produces him (the sacrificer) ; — ' May the 
plants and the waters unite with thee!' — 
thereby he puts two kinds of sap into him, that 
which is in plants, and that which is in water, — 'that 
we may serve thee, O lord of the sacrifice, in 
the singing of praises and the utterance of 
worships with Sv&hi!' Whatever is good in the 
sacrifice, that he thereby puts into him. 

21. Thereupon, letting it go, he stands by it with 
(y^. S. VIII, 26), 'Ye divine waters, this is 
your child,' — for he (Soma) indeed is the child of 
the waters, — 'bear ye him, well-beloved, well- 
nourished!' he thereby makes him over to the 
waters for protection — 'This, O divine Soma, is 
thine abode: thrive thou well therein, and 
thrive thou'' thoroughly!' whereby he means to 
say, ' Be thou therein for our happiness, and shield 
us from all inflictions ! ' 

* See part i, p. 249, note i. 

* ' Vakshva ' is by Mahidhara (and apparently by the author of 
the Brahma«a) referred to 'vah;' by the St. Petersburg Dictionary 
to ' vas ' for ' vatsva.' I have referred it to ' vaksh.' The KS«va 
text reads, Pari ^a vakshi jam ^a vakshlti pari ka, no gopdya mm 
ki, na edhfty evaitad iha. 



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IV kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 5 brAhmawa, 23. 385 

22. He then immerses it with (Vdf. S. VIII, 27), 
'O laving bath, laving thou glidest along: 
with the help of the gods may I wipe out the 
sin committed against the gods; and with 
the help of the mortals that committed against 
mortals!' — for the sin committed against the gods 
he has indeed wiped out with the help of the gods, 
namely, with the help of king Soma ; and the sin 
committed against mortals he has wiped out with the 
help of mortals, namely, by means of the animal 
victim and the sacrificial cake : — ' Preserve me, O 
god, from i'njury from the fiercely-howling 
(demon) ! ' whereby he means to say, ' Preserve me 
from all inflictions ! ' 

23. Thereupon both (the sacrificer and his wife) 
having descended, bathe, and wash each other's 
back. Having wrapped themselves in fresh gar- 
ments^ they step out : even as a snake casts its skin, 
so does he cjist away all his sin, — there is not in him 
even as much sin as there is in a toothless child. 
By the same way by which they came out (from the 
sacrificial ground), they return thither * ; and, having 
returned, he puts a kindling-stick on the Ahavaniya 
(at the front hall-door) with, 'Thou art the kindler 
of the gods ! ' He thereby kindles the sacrificer him- 

* According to the Mtnava S&tra, as quoted on KSty. X, 9, 6, 
the sacrificer wraps himself in the cloth in which the Soma stalks 
were tied (somopanahana), and his wife in the outer cloth tied 
round the Soma bundle (paryi»ahana). The Soma vessels and 
implements are likewise thrown into the water. 

' While going thither they all mutter the AmahlyS verse, Rig- 
veda VlII, 48, 3, ' We have drunk Soma, we have become immortal, 
we have gone to the light, we have attained to the gods : what 
now can the enemy do unto us, what the guile, immortal, of the 
mortal?' 

[36] C C 



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386 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

self, for along with the kindling of the gods the 
sacrificer is kindled'. 



Fifth AdhyAya. First BrAhmaya. 

1. He proceeds with the rice-pap to Adit i, as the 
concluding oblation. The reason why there is a 
rice-pap for Aditi is this. Because, on that former 
occasion ^ the gods said to her, ' Thine forsooth shall 
be the opening, and thine the concluding oblation,' 
therefore he prepares that share for her at both 
ends (of the Soma-sacrifice). 

2. And because, on that occasion, he offers when 
about to go forth (upa-pra-i) to buy the king (Soma), 
therefore that (opening oblation) is called PrAya- 
«lya. And because he now offers after coming out 
(ud-i-i) from the expiatory bath, therefore this (con- 
cluding oblation) is called Udayawtya*. For this 
indeed is one and the same oblation : to Aditi be- 
longs the opening, to Aditi the concluding (oblation); 
for Aditi is this (earth). 

3. To Pathyd Svasti he offers first (at the open- 
ing sacrifice) : then the gods, through speech, saw their 
way in what was unknown to them, for by speech the 
confused becomes known. But now that it is known, 
he performs in the proper order. 

4. To Agni he offers first, then to Soma, then 
to Savhrt, then to PathyA Svasti, then to Aditi. 
Now Pathyi Svasti (the wishingof a 'happy journey') 

* The sacrificer sits down behind the j^lddvirya fire and spreads 
the black deer-skin over his knees ; the Adhvaryu then making an 
oblation of ghee from the dipping-spoon. 

* See III, 2, 3, 6. ' See p. 48, note i. 



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IV kXnda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 8. 387 

is speech, and Aditi is this (earth) : on her the gods 
thereby established speech, and thus established 
thereon speech speaks here. 

5. Thereupon he slaughters a barren anAban- 
dhyd^ cow for Mitra and Varu«a. And this indeed 
is performed as a different sacrifice, and that an 
animal offering ; for the Samish&iyj^s form the end 
of the sacrifice. 

6. The reason why there is a barren cow for 
Mitra and Varu«a is this. Whatever part of 
his (sacrifice)* who has offered is well-offered that 
part of his Mitra takes, and whatever is ill-offered 
that Varuwa takes. 

7. Then they say, ' What has become of the sacri- 
ficer ?' — whatever well-offered part of his (sacrifice) 
Mitra here takes, that he now again surrenders to 
him, being pleased with this (cow) ; and whatever 
ill-offered part of his Varu«a takes, that indeed he 
makes well-offered for him, being pleased with this 
(cow), and surrenders it again to him. This forsooth 
is his own sacrifice*, his own merit. 

8. And again, why there is a barren cow for Mitra 
and Varu«a. Now, when the gods caused the cast 
seed to spring, — there is that jastra called Agnimd- 
ruta*: in connection therewith it is explained how 

* The meaning of this technical term would seem to be ' to be 
bound (or immolated) after' the sacrifice. 

' Or, of him, the sacrificer. 

' That is, the sacrifice of his own self. 

* The same passage occurs at I, 7, 4, 4, where I erroneously 
supplied ' samabhavat.' It is a broken, incoherent construction. 
The explanation, referred to in these two passages, may be Ait. 
Br. Ill, 34, though in that case one might have expected a some- 
what closer adherence to the order of production there proposed ; 

C C 2 



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388 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

the gods caused that seed to spring. From it the 
coals (angora) sprung, and from the coals the An- 
giras ; and after that the other animals ^ 

9. Then the dust of the ashes which remained : 
therefrom the ass was produced, — hence when it is 
dusty anywhere, people say, ' A very place for asses, 
forsooth* !' And when no sap whatever remained, — 
thence was produced that Barren cow belonging to 
Mitra and Varu«a; wherefore that (cow) does not 
bring forth, for from sap seed is produced, and from 
seed cattle. And because she was produced at the 
end, therefore she comes after the end of the sacri- 
fice. Hence also a barren cow for Mitra and Varu«a 
is the most proper here : if he cannot obtain a barren 
cow, it may also be a bullock'. 

10. Then the Yisve Dev&A applied themselves* a 
second time : thence the Vai^adevl (cow) was pro- 
duced ; then the BSrhaspatyi : that is the end, for 
Brihaspati is the end. 

11. And whosoever g^ves a thousand or more 



see part i, p. 210, note i. Regarding the Agnimdruta jastra, see 
above, p. 369 note. , 

' ? Or, the others, the animals (tad anv anye paxava^). Cp. the 
French idiom, ' Les femmes et nous autres hommes.' The KA»va 
text reads, tad anu parava^. 

* The KS»va reads. And when they (the coals) became dust of 
ashes, the ass was produced therefrom: hence they call 'asses' 
place' where the dust of the ashes (lies). 

' KSty. X, 9, 15 allows, in lieu of the animal offering, an oblation 
of clotted curds (payasy^ or dmikshi). See also II, 4, 2, 14. 

* i They applied their minds, or, they took hold (amartmr<.fanta) : 
'Tad u \isve dev4 marimrwSOT kakrite tato dvittyi vairvadevt 
samabhavat.' KS»va text, perhaps the verb has here the same 
meaning as 'dhfi' in the passage of the Ait Br. referred to, tad 
(reto) maruto 'dhunvan. 



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IV KANDA, 5 ADHYAyA, I BRAhMAJVA, I 3. 389 

(cows to the priests), he will slaughter all these ; — 
indeed, everything is obtained, everything conquered 
by him who gives a thousand or more. Those (three) 
cows are everything, (when offered) thus in the 
proper order: first one to Mitra and Varu«a, then 
one to the All-gods, then one to Brzhaspati. 

12. And those who perform a long sacrificial 
session, for a year or more, they will slaughter all 
these^; — indeed everything is obtained, everything 
conquered by those who perform a long sacrificial 
session, for a year or more : those (cows) are every- 
thing, (when offered) thus in the proper order. 

13. Thereupon he performs the Udavasiniyi 
ish/i (completing oblation). He prepares a cake 
on five potsherds for Agni. Its invitatory and of- 
fering prayers are five-footed panktis*. For at this 
time the sacrifice of him who has sacrificed is, as it 
were, exhausted in strength : it, as it were, passes 
away from him. Now all sacrifices are Agni, since 
all sacrifices are performed in him, the domestic 
sacrifices as well as others. He thus takes hold 

•again of the sacrifice, and thus tiiat sacrifice of his is 



' The immolation of the three anubandhyS cows is prescribed at 
the end of the Gavimayana (see note on IV, $, 4, 14), and at other 
Sattras (sacrificial session) lasting at least a yen, and endowed with 
fees of at least a thousand cows, except the Sirasvata Sattra. 
KSty. XIII, 4, 4, 6- 

* The Udavas4niy4 ish/i is performed, with certain modifica- 
tions, on the model of the Paunarddheyiki ish/i, or oflFering for the 
re-establishment of the sacred fire ; for which see II, 2, 3, 4 seq., 
and especially the notes on part i, p. 317 seq. It is to be per- 
formed somewhere north of the sacrificial ground on a fire pro- 
duced -by the churning of the ara«is or (pairs of) chuming-sticks, 
with which the priests have previously ' lifted' their several fires. 
See p. 90, notes 4 and 5; and part i^ p. 396, note i. 



y 



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390 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

not exhausted in strength, and does not pass away 
from him. 

14. The reason why the cake is one on five pot- 
sherds, and the invitatory and offering prayers are 
panktis (verses of five feet), is that the sacrifice is 
fivefold. He thus takes hold again of the sacrifice, 
and thus that sacrifice of his is not exhausted in 
strengfth, and does not pass away from him. 

15. The priests' fee for it is gold; for this is a 
sacrifice to Ag^i, and gold is Agni's seed : therefore 
the priests' fee is gold. Or an ox, for such a one is 
of Agni's nature as regards its shoulder, since its 
shoulder (bearing the yoke) is as if burnt by fire. 

16. Or^, he takes ghee in five ladlings, and offers 
it with the verse to Vish«u (V&g^. S. V, 38), ' Stride 
thou widely, O Vish«u, make wide room for 
our abode! drink the ghee, thou born of ghee, 
and speed the lord of the sacrifice ever on- 
wards, Hail!' For Vish«u is the sacrifice: he thus 
takes hold again of the sacrifice, and thus his sacri- 
fice is not exhausted in strength, and does not pass 
away from him. And let him on this occasion give 
as much as he can afford, for no offering, they say, 
should be without a Dakshi«d. When this Udava- 
sinlyd-ish/i is completed, he offers the (ordinary) 
evening (milk-)offering*, — but the morning offering 
at its proper time. 

* According to Kdty. X, 9, 20 (as interpreted by the commen- 
tator) this (Vaish»avt) dhuti may optionally take the place of the 
UdavasSnJyd ish^. ' Atho ' has evidently the force of ' or* here, as 
in IV, 6, 4, 5. The K&ttva, text has atho apy dhutim eva ^hu- 
ydt; with the same meaning, cf. I, i, 3, 3; also 'uto,' note to 
IV, 5. 2, 13- 

' For the Agnihotra, or morning and evening libation of milk, 
see II, 3, 4; 3, 4. The performance being completed, the tempo- 



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IV kAnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 2. 391 



Second Brahmajva. 

t. They lay hands on the barren cow', and having 
laid hands on it, they quiet it. It having been 
quieted**, he says (to the slaughterer), ' Pull out the 
omentum!' The omentum having been pulled out*, 
let him tell (the slaughterer) to search groping for an 
embryo. If they do not find one, why need they care ? 
and if they find one, atonement is made therefore. 

2. For surely it is not right that, thinking it to be 
one (cow), they should perform, as it were, with that 
one ; or that, thinking them to be two, they should 
perform, as it were, with two*. Let him bid (the 



rary erections, as the Sadas, cart-shed, Agntdhra fire-house, Ac, 
are set on fire, and the sacrificer and priests go home. 

' The order of this and the succeeding Brihma»as differs con- 
siderably in the two recensions. In the K&nva recension the pre- 
sent Brihmawa (the text of which also differs very much) is preceded 
by three others (V, 6, 1-3), corresponding to M. IV, 5, 3 ; IV, 5, 
4 and IV, 5, 6, respectively. 

* The text has simply, he (viz. the Samitri or butcher) having 
quieted it, he (the Adhvaryu) says, {S.) having pulled it out, let 
him (A.) bid. . . . 

' The meaning of this would seem to be, that they should not 
content themselves with the supposition of its being a barren cow, 
but that they should ascertain whether she is not — as the term is — 
'ash/Spadt,' or eight-footed, i.e. a cow with calf (cf. par. 12), and 
should in that case make atonement. The K^va text reads, Now 
when they thus proceed with that (animal offering), they, thinking 
it to be one (cow) only, pronounce the 4prf verses (4pri«anti). 
They turn out to be two (te dve bhavataA) ; and surely it is not 
right that one should cast away that on which the &pri verses have 
been pronounced. Now that juice has flowed together from all 
the limbs : thus offering is also made with those sacrificial portions 
of that (embryo). And the sacrifice is as much as the havis and 
Svish/akr/t: he thus connects that whole (embryo) with that sacri- 



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392 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 



slaughterer) get ready the pot (sth&ll) and the cloth 
(ush«lsha) '. 

3. They then perform with the omentum, just as 
its mode of performance is*. Having performed 
with the omentum, both the Adhvaryu and Sacrificer 
return (to the sacrificial ground). The Adhvaryu 
says, ' Pull out that embryo !' otherwise he would not 
pull it out from the womb, since it is only pulled out 
from the womb of a sick or dead (female) ; but when 
the embryo is full grown, then indeed it comes out 
through birth : let him bid him pull it out even after 
tearing asunder the thighs. 

4. When it is pulled out, he addresses it with 
(V^. S. VIII, 28), 'May the embryo of ten 
months move together with the caul!' — by say- 
ing, ' May it move,' he puts breath into it ; and ' of 
ten months' he says, because when an embryo is full 
grown, then it is one of ten months : thus, even though 
it is not ten months old, he makes it one of ten months 
by means of the Brahman (prayer), the Y^fus. 

5. ' Together with the caul' — this he says so that, 
like a ten months' (calf), it may go out with the 
caul', — 'As yonder wind moveth, as the ocean 
moveth;' — thereby he puts breath into it; — 'So 
hath this ten months' (calf) slipped out with 
the caul ;' — this he means to say so that, like a ten 
months' calf, it may slip out with the caul. 

6. Here now they say, 'What is he to do with 

fice, and thus that which is superfluous (atirikta) becomes not 
superfluous. 

' The comm. on Kity. XXV, 10, 7, describes the ushntsha, used 
on this occasion, as a small cloth, or kerchief. 

* See III, 8, 2, i6seq. 

' Or, even as a ten months' calf moves with the caul, so he 
means to say (that) this (should take place). 



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IV KkjiDA, 5 ADHYAyA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 8. 393 

that embryo?' — They might cut off a portion from 
every limb, even as (is done) the portioning of other 
portions. But let him notdo so ; for that (embryo) surely 
has its limbs undeveloped. Having cut it below the 
neck, they should let that fat juice drip into the pot ; 
for that same juice drips from all its limbs, and thus 
it is a portion cut out from all its limbs. He then 
cuts the sacrificial portions of the cow in the same 
way in which they are (usually) portioned off. 

7. They cook them on the cooking-fire of the 
animal offering : at the same time^ they cook that fat 
juice. Having wrapped the embryo in the cloth, he 
lays it down by the side of the cooking-fire. When 
it (the victim) is cooked, he puts together* the 
(flesh) portions and bastes only them, but not that 
juice. They remove the victim (from the fire) ; and 
at the same time they remove that juice. 

8. They take it along the back of the pit, between 
the sacrificial stake and the fire. It having been put 
down south (of the fire), the Pratiprasthdtrz cuts off 
the sacrificial portions. He then makes an under- 
layer (of ghee) in both offering-spoons, and addresses 
(the Hotrt) for the recitation to the ManotA deity 
on the havis. Thereupon they make cuttings from 
the portions of the cow, in the same way in which 
cuttings are made from them '. 

9. Now there is an offering-spoon called praiara«l : 

' Or, in the same place. The KS«va text reads, Having cut off 
the head, and let the juice (rasa) flow out, he cooks it by the side 
of (prativejam) the (flesh) portions. And when they proceed with 
the havis, then having made an underlayer of ghee, and, taking 
twice from that juice, having basted (the portions therewith), he 
replenishes the (places of the) two portions. 

* ? Read ' samuhya' for ' samudya.' See III, 8, 3, 5 seq. 

' See III, 8, 3, 15 seq. 



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394 satapatha-brAhmajita. 

therein the Pratiprasthitr? makes an underlayer of 
ghee for the fat juice, takes two portions (from the 
juice), bastes them once (with ghee), and replenishes 
(the juice whence) both portions (have been taken). 
He (the Adhvaryu) then addresses (the Hotrt) for 
the recitation (of the invitatory prayer). Having 
called for the ^Srausha/, he says (to the Maitriva- 
ru«a), ' Prompt (the Hotri to recite the offering 
prayer)!' As the Vashai is uttered, the Adhvaryu 
offers (the flesh portions). After the Adhvaryu 's 
oblation the Pratiprasthitrz offers (the fat juice) — 

lo. With(V4f. S.VIII, 29), 'Thou whose fruit 
is fit for sacrifice,' — for embryos are unfit for 
sacrifice : this one he thus makes fit for sacrifice by 
means of the Brahman, the Ya^s; — 'thou who 
hast a golden womb,' — for on that former occa- 
sion ^, they rend the womb when they tear out (the 
embryo) ; and gold means immortal life ; he thus 
makes that womb of her (the cow) immortal; — 
'Him whose limbs are unbroken, I have 
brought together with his mother, Hail!' 
Thus, if it be a male (embryo) ; but if it be a female 
one, with, ' Her whose limbs are unbroken, I have 
brought together with her mother. Hail ! ' And, if 
it be an indistinguishable embryo, let him offer in 
making it male, since embryos (g^rbha, masc.) are 
male, ' Him whose limbs are unbroken, I have 
brought together with his mother, Hail ! ' For on 
that former occasion, when they tear out (the em- 
bryo) they separate it from its mother : now, having 
rendered it successful by means of the Brahman, the 
Ya^s, he brings it again together with its mother in 
the midst of the sacrifice. 

* See par. 3. 

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IV KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAYA, 1 3. v 395 

^ 

11. Thereupon the Adhvaryu makes the oblatif 
to the Lord of the forest'. Having made the obla- 
tion to the Lord of the forest, the Adhvaryu, while 
pouring together the sacrificial portions that are for 
the upabhr?'/, says (to the Hotri), ' Recite the invita- 
tory prayer to Agni Svish/akrzt ! ' The Pratipra- 
sth&tri comes and takes all that fat juice, and pours 
twice (ghee) thereon. Having called for the ^rausha/, 
the Adhvaryu says, ' Prompt ! ' and offers as the Vasha/ 
is uttered. After the Adhvaryu's oblation the Prati- 
prasthdtn offers, — 

12. With (Va^. S. VIII, 30), 'The bountiful 
multiform juice",' — by 'bountiful' he means to 
say (the bestower) 'of numerous gifts;' and 'the 
multiform ' he says, because embryos are, as it were, 
multiform, — 'The strong juice hath invested 
itself with greatness:' — for it (the embryo) is 
indeed invested * in the mother. — ' May the worlds 
spread along her, the one-footed, two-footed, 
three-footed, four-footed, eight-footed, — 
'Hail!' He thereby magnifies her (the cow): far 
more, forsooth, does he gain by offering an eight- 
footed one, than by one not eight-footed. 

13. Here now they say, 'What is he to do with 
that embryo * ? ' They may expose it on a tree ; for 

' See III, 8, 3, 33. 

* Indu, lit. 'droop,' a term usually applied to the draughts of 
Soma, a connection with which doubtless is here intended. 

* A different simile is implied in the original ' antar mahiminam 

* The Kt»va text is much briefer here : He then ties up the 
head {sinA pratinahya, ? with the body) either with a cloth (ushntsha), 
or with bast (vakala), and having pushed asunder the cooking-fire of 
the animal offering, he lays it above them, with ' Verily, O Maruts 
. . ./ for the common people are eaters of raw flesh, and the Maruts 



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396 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

embryos have the air for their support, and the tree 
is, as it were, the same as the air : thus he establishes 
it on its own support. But, say they, if, in that case, 
any one were to curse him, saying, 'They shall 
expose him ^ dead on a tree,' then verily it would 
be so. 

14. They may throw it into the water, for water is 
the support of everything here : he thus establishes 
it in the water. But, say they, if, in that case, any 
one were to curse him, saying, ' He shall die in 
water ! ' then verily it would be so. 

1 5. They may bury it in a mole-hill ; for this 
(earth) is the support of everything here : he thus 
establishes it on this same (earth). But, say they, if, 
in that case, any one were to curse him, saying, ' They 
shall quickly prepare a burying-place for him, being 
dead ! ' then verily it would be so. 

16. He may offer it to the Maruts on the cooking- 
fire of the animal sacrifice ; for the Maruts, the clans 
(common people) of the gods, are not oblation-eaters 
(ahuta-ad)*, and the uncooked embryo, as it were, is no 
oblation (ahuta) ; and the animal cooking-fire is taken 
from the Ahavanlya : liius indeed it (the embryo) is 

are the people : he thus establishes it with the Maruts. Or (uto) 
with a verse to Heaven and Earth, ' The great Heaven and Earth 
. . . ,' for additional superfluous (atirikta) is that (garbha), beyond 
these two, heaven and earth, nothing whatever remains (or, nothing 
surpasses them, atirUyata) : thus he establishes it within those two, 
heaven and earth ; and while being superfluous, it comes to be no 
longer superfluous (or redundant). 

' 'Enam' apparently refers both to the sacrificer and to the 
embryo (garbha, masc). 

* For the common people are eaters of raw flesh (imid), and 
the Maruts are the people. KS«va text. Neither a Kshatriya nor 
a Vaifya can eat remains of offerings, but only a BrShman is hutSd, 
Ait. Br. VII, 19. 



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IV kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, i. 397 

not excluded from the sacrifice, and yet is not 
(offered) directly in the Ahavaniya (offering-fire). 
And the Maruts are of the gods : he thus establishes 
it with the Maruts ^ 

17. As soon as he has performed the Samish/a- 
yji^s offerings, when the coals are only just extin- 
gfuished, he takes that embryo with the cloth, and 
standing with his face to the east, he offers it with a 
verse to the Maruts (V^f. S. VIII, 31; Rig-veda I, 
86, i), — 'Verily, O Maruts, in whosesoever 
house ye drink, the heroes of the sky, he is 
the best protected man.' He utters no Sv&hi 
(hail), for the Maruts, the clans of the gods are no 
oblation-eaters, and no oblation, as it were, is what is 
offered without Svihi. And the Maruts are of the 
gods : he thus establishes it with the Maruts. 

18. Jie then covers it over with the coals with 
(V4f. S. VIII, 32; Rig-veda I, 22, 13), 'The 
great Heaven and Earth may mix this our 
sacrifice, and fill us with nourishments!' 

Third BrAhmajva. 

I. The Sho^/a^in* (graha) forsooth is Indra. 
Now, at one time the beings surpassed (ati-rii) 

* One might expect ' deveshu : ' thus he establishes it with the 
gods; unless it is intended as the final decision: 'hence he consigns 
it to the Maruts.' The wording is, however, the same as in the 
preceding paragraphs. 

* The author has now completed his exposition of the simplest 
form of Soma-sacrifice, viz. the Agnish/oma, the libations of 
which are accompanied hy twelve chants (stotra) and as many 
recitations (jastra), and which (on the press-day) requires one victim 
to Agni (see IV, 2, 5, 14). He has also incidentjJly (IV, 4, 2, 18) 
touched upon the characteristic features of the Uk thy a sacrifice, 
viz. its second victim, a he-goat to Indra- Agni, and three additional 
Uktha stotras and jastras (p. 370 note). He now proceeds to 



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398 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

Indra — the beings being the creatures — ^they were 
in a state of equality, as it were, with him. 

2. Indra then bethought himself, ' How can I 
stand forth over everything here, and how may 
everything here be beneath me?' He saw that 
graha, and drew it for himself. Then he stood forth 
over everything here, and everything here was 



consider another libation which, with its accompanying stotra and 
jastra, forms the distinctive feature of the Shot/a^in sacrifice, i.e. 
the one having sixteen or a sixteenth (hymn). This sacrifice also 
requires a third victim on the press-day, viz. a ram to Indra. By the 
addition, on the other hand, of the Sho</aHn graha, with its chant 
and recitation, to an ordinary Agnish/oma, another form of one 
day's (ekiha) Soma-sacrifice is obtained, viz. the Atyagnish/oma, 
or redundant Agnish/oma, with thirteen stotras and iastras. This 
form of sacrifice is, however, comparatively rarely used, and was 
probably devised on mere theoretic grounds, to complete the sacri- 
ficial system. A somewhat more common form is the AtirStra, 
lit. ' that which has a night over and above,' differing as it does 
from the Shot/aiin in that — besides a fourth victim (a he-goat to 
Sarasvati) — it has in addition a night performance of libations, with 
three rounds (parydyas) of four stotras and jastras each (one for 
the Hotrt and for each of his three assistants), and concluding at 
daybreak with one more stotra, the sandhi (twilight) stotra, and the 
A^ina sa.stn and offering. These are the forms of Soma-sacrifice 
referred to in the present book, as required for the performance of 
sacrificial sessions (twelve days and more) of which its concluding 
portion treats. With another form, the VS^apeya sacrifice, the 
author deals in the next K&ttdiL. These — with the Aptoryima, 
which to the Atiritra adds another course of four Atirikta, or 
superadded stotras — constitute in the later official classification the 
seven fundamental forms (samsthii) of Soma-sacrifice. This term, 
meaning properly ' termination, consummation,' probably applied 
originally to the concluding rites of the Soma-sacrifice proper, as 
the distinctive features of the several forms of sacrifice, but by a 
natural transition, became the generic terms for the complete forms 
of sacrifice. See Professor Weber's somewhat different explanation, 
Ind. Stud. IX, 229. 



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IV KAiVDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 5. 399 

beneath him. And, verily, for whomsoever, know- 
ing this, they draw that cup of Soma, he stands 
forth over everything here, and everything here is 
beneath him. 

3, Wherefore it has been said by the ^«shi (Rig- 
veda III, 32, 11), 'The sky hath not reached thy 
greatness, when thou didst rest on the earth with 
thine other thigh,' — for, verily, yonder sky did not 
reach up to his other thigh ^ : so did he stand forth 
over everything here, and everything here was be- 
neath him. And, verily, for whomsoever, knowing 
this, they draw that cup of Soma, he stands forth 
over everything here, and everything here is beneath 
him, 

4, He draws it with a verse to the lord of the bay 
steeds (Indra Harivant) ; they (the Udgitm) chant 
verses to (Indra) Harivant, and he (the Hotrt) after- 
wards recites verses to (Indra) Harivant For Indra 
seized upon the strength, the fury (haras) of his 
enemies, the Asuras; and in like manner does he 
(the sacrificer) now seize upon the strength, the fury 
of his enemies : therefore he draws the graha with a 
verse to (Indra) Harivant; they chant verses to 
Harivant, and he (the Hotrt) afterwards recites 
verses to Harivant, 

5, He draws it with an Anush/ubh verse ; for the 
morning press-feast belongs to the Gfiyatrl, the mid- 
day feast to the Trish/ubh, and the evening feast to 
the Cagat!, The AnushAibh, then, is over and above* 
(ati-rikta), and he thus makes that (Soma of the 

' ? Or either of his thighs. The situation depicted in this verse 
would seem that of the warrior Indra lying or kneeling on Vriira, 
whom he has thrown on the ground, 

' Or, additional, in excess ; see IV, 4, 3, 4, 



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400 .satapatha-brAhmaa'a. 

Shoa^ayin) to remain over : hence he takes it with an 
Anush/ubh. 

6. He draws it in a square cup; for there are 
three worlds : these same worlds he gains by three 
corners, and by the foui"th corner he makes that 
(Soma) to remain over; — therefore he draws it in 
a square cup. 

7. Let him draw it at the morning pressing, after 
drawing the Agraya»a. Having been drawn at the 
morning pressing, it reposes apart from that time: 
he thus makes it to outlast all (three) pressings. 

8. Or he may draw it at the midday pressing, 
after drawing the Agraya«a, — but this is mere 
speculation : let him rather draw it at the morning 
pressing, after drawing the Agraya»a : having been 
drawn at the morning pressing, it reposes apart 
from that time. 

9. He thus draws it therefrom with (V^. S. VHI, 
33; Rig-veda I, 84, 3), 'Mount the chariot, O 
slayer of Vr/tra, thy bay steeds have been 
harnessed by prayer! May the stone by its 
sound draw hitherward thy mind! — Thou art 
taken with a support: thee to Indra Shoa^a^in 
(the sixteenfold) ! — This is thy womb: thee to 
Indra Shod^a^in!' 

10. Or with this (verse. Wig. S. VHI, 34; Rig- 
veda I, 10, 3), 'Harness thy long-maned, girth- 
filling bay steeds! Come hither to us, O 
Indra, drinker of Soma, to hear our songs! 
Thou art taken with a support: thee to Indra 
Shoafa^in! — This is thy womb: thee to Indra 
Shod^a^in!' 

11. Thereupon he returns (to the sadas) and be- 
speaks the chant with, ' Soma has been left over : 



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IV kAnda, 5 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, ii. 401 

Turn ye back^ !' for he indeed causes it to remain 
over by that (Sho</ajin graha). He (the Adhvaryu) 
bespeaks it" before the setting of the sun ; and after 
sunset he (the Hotrt) follows it up by reciting the 
^astra : thus he thereby joins day and night toge- 
ther, — therefore he bespeaks (the stotra)' before the 



* See IV, 2, 5, 8. The verb, here and elsewhere translated by 
' to bespeak,' is upi-krt, the proper meaning of which would seem 
to be ' to prepare, to introduce, to bring up ' the chant. As the 
same verb is, however, also used for the ' driving up, or bringing 
up' of cattle (to the stable), it may perhaps have a similar meaning 
in connection with the stotra ; the metres of the chant (which are 
often called the cattle of the gods) being, as it were, ' led up ' 
(or ' put to ') by the Adhvaryu, to be ' harnessed ' or ' yoked ' (yvg) 
by the Udgitn; see p. 311, note i. Instead of the Prastara, 
handed to the Udg&tn' on the occasion of the Pavaminas, two 
stalks of sacrificial grass are generally used with other chants ; but 
certain stotras and sdmans require to be 'introduced' by special 
objects, such as a fan, or the two churning sticks (for producing 
fire), or water mixed with avaki plants, or an arrow. 

* ? Read * tad' for ' tam ; ' or ' he calls upon him (the Udgitr/).' 
' The Sho</a;i-stotra usually consists of the Gaurivtta SSman 

(S. V. II, 303-4) ; but the Ninada S&man (ib. II, 790-3) may be 
used instead. It is performed in the ekavimra stoma, i.e. the three 
verses are chanted in three turns, so as, by repetitions, to produce 
twenty-one verses ; the usual form being aaa-bbb-c; a-bbb- 
ccc; aaa-b-ccc. For some modifications in the present case, 
see Haug, Transl. Ait. Br. p. 258 note. The first tiun is to be per- 
formed in a low voice, while the sun is going down ; the second in 
a middle voice, when the sun has disappeared, but not entirely 
the daylight ; and the third turn in a loud voice, when darkness 
is closing in. If, for some reason or other, the stotra is entirely 
performed after sunset, it is chanted with a loud voice through- 
out. During the chanting a horse (black, if possible), or a 
bullock, or he-goat is to stand at the front (or back) gate of the 
sadas, facing the latter. Besides, a piece of gold is to circulate 
among the chanters, each of them holding it, while his turn of 
chanting lasts, and the Udgdtri' (or all three) doing so during the 
nidhana or finale. 

[36] D d 



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402 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA^A. 

setting of the sun, and after sunset he follows it up 
by reciting the «istra\ 

THE DVADA^iHA*. 
Fourth BrAhmawa. 

1. Now, at first the gods were all alike, all good. 
Of them, being all alike, all good, three desired, 
' May we be superior'!' — Agni, Indra, and SArya. 

2. They went on praising and toiling. They saw 
those Atigrfihyas*, and drew (grah) them for them- 

' The Shorfaji-xastra is minutely described in the Ait. Br. IV, 
3 seq. The opening verses are in the AnushAibh metre (of sixteen 
syllables), but otherwise also the Hotr; has by means of pauses and 
insertions of formulas (nivid) to bring out its ' sixteenfold ' character 
so as to accord with its designation. 

* The DvSdajdha, or twelve days' performance, forms the con- 
necting link between the so-called Ahtna sacrifices (consisting of 
between two and twelve press-days) and the sattras, or sacri- 
ficial sessions (of twelve press-days and upwards); since it can 
be performed as one or the other. As a sattra (which seems to be 
its usual character) it consists of the Da^aritra, or ten nights* (or 
days') period, preceded and followed by an Atirdtra, as the pr&ya- 
fftya (opening) and udayantya (concluding) days. The Daxa- 
r&tra, on its part, consists of three tryahas (or tridua), viz. a 
Trish/hya. sha^faha (see note 4), and three Ukthya days, the 
so-called ^Aandomas (on which see Haug, Ait. Br.Transl. p. 347). 
These are followed by an Atyagnish/oma day, called Aviv&kya 
(i. e. on which there should be ' no dispute, or quarrel '). 

* Ati-tish/Mv4naA, lit ' standing forth over (all others,* see IV, 
5, 3, 2). In this, as in the preceding Brdhmawa, the prefix ati has 
to do service repeatedly for etymological and symbolical purposes. 

* I. e. cups of Soma ' to be drawn over and above ' (Weber, Ind. 
Stud. IX, 235 ; for a different explanation see Haug, Ait. Br. 
Transl. p. 490). These three grahas are required at the Pr/'sh- 
ihya, shai/aha, which forms part of the Dv&da^&ha (see note 2), 
and of sacrificial sessions generally. The sha</aha, or period 
of six Soma days, which (though itself consisting of two trya^ia, or 



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IV kAjvdA, 5 ADHYAyA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 3. 403 

selves over and above (ati) : hence the name Ati- 
grihyas. They became superior, even as they are 
now superior* : and verily he becomes superior for 
whomsoever, knowing this, they draw those cups of 
Soma. 

3. And at first there was not in Agni that lustre 
which is now in him. He desired, ' May that lustre 
be in me!' He saw this graha, and drew it for 
himself, and henceforth that lustre was in him. 

tridua) may be considered as forming a kind of unit in sattras, or 
sacrificial sessions, is of two kinds, viz. the Abhiplava shatfaha 
and the Pr»sh/Aya shat/aha. Both require (for the Hotrz's pr/sh- 
/^a-stotra at the midday pressing) the use of the Rathantara-siman 
on uneven, and that of the Br/liat-sSman on even days. The chief 
difference between them is that while the pr/sh/Aa-stotras of the 
Abhiplava are performed in the ordinary (Agnish/oma) way, the 
Vrt'sh/Aya sha^/aha requires their performance in the proper pr«sh/4a 
form, see p. 339, note 2. Besides, while the Abhiplava sha</aha 
consists of four Ukthya days, preceded and followed by one Agni- 
sh/oma day; the first day of the Pmh/Aya sha</aha is an Agnish/oma, 
the fourth a Shot&jin, the remaining four days being Ukthyas. 
There is also a difference between the two in regard to the stomas, 
or forms of chanting, used ; for while the Trtsh/Aya. requires succes- 
sively one of the six principal stomas (from the TrivrtH up to the 
Trayastri/Hja, as given p. 308, note a) for each day, the Abhi- 
plava requires the first four stomas (Trivnt to Ekavixwa) for each 
day, though in a different order. In this respect, three groups or 
forms are assumed for the performance of the stotras at the Agni- 
sh/oma and Ukthya, viz. the Gyotish/oma [a. Bahishpavavamina 
in the Trivrrt ; b. A^astotras and c. MSdhyandina-pavamSna in the 
Pan^dara ; d. the Prish/jta-stotras and e. Arbhava-pavavamina in 
the Saptadara; and f. the Agnish/oma siman in the Ekavimra 
stoma]; the Gosh/oroa [a. Pafi-tadara; b. Trivr«'t; c. Saptada«; 
e. f. (and g. Ukthastotras) Ekaviwja] ; and Ayush/oma [a. Trivr»t; 
b. Paniadara ; c. d. Saptadara ; e. f. g. Ekavi»wa]. These forms 
are distributed over the two tridua of the Abhiplava in the order : 
6yotish/oma, Gosh/oma, Ayush/oma; Gosh/oma, Ayush/oma, Gyo- 
tish/oma. 
' Lit. even as they are now the superiority, i.e. a superior power. 

D d 2 



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404 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

4. And at first there was not in Indra that power 
which is now in him. He desired, ' May that power 
be in me ! ' He saw this graha and drew it for himself, 
and henceforth that power was in him. 

5. And at first there was not in Sftrya that splen- 
dour which is now in him. He desired, ' May that 
splendour be in me !' He saw this graha and drew 
it for himself, and henceforth that splendour was 
in him. And verily for whomsoever, knowing this, 
they draw those cups of Soma, he takes unto him- 
self those same fires (energies), those same powers. 

6. Let him draw them at the morning pressing, 
after drawing the Agrayawa ; for the Agraya«a is the 
self (body), and many parts of this self are one each 
(and thus) over and above (the others), such as the 
lung' and heart, and others. 

7. Or he might draw them from the Pfttabhnt, at 
the midday pressing, after drawing the Ukthya, or 
when about to bespeak (the chant), for the Ukthya 
indeed is the same as that undefined self of his. 
But this is mere speculation : let him rather draw 
them at the morning pressing, after drawing the 
Agraya«a. 

8. They are offered after the offering of the 
Mdhendra graha ; for that, the Mdhendra, is Indra's 
special cup; and so are the (Nishkevalya) stotra 
and ^astra specially his. But the sacrificer is Indra; 
and for the sacrificer's benefit (these cups) are drawn : 
therefore they are offered after the offering of the 
Mdhendra graha. 

9. He thus draws them therefrom [the first with 



* That is, the right lung (kloman), the left lung being called by 
a dififerent name. See St. Petersb. Diet. s. v. 



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IV kXnDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 4 BrAhMAJVA, 1 3, 405 

Vfi^. S. VIII, 38; Rig-veda IX, 66, 2i]S'0 Agni, 
skilful in works, become thou pure, bestowing 
upon us lustre and manly vigour, and upon me 
health and wealth! — Thou art taken with a 
support : thee to Agni, for lustre ! — This is thy 
womb: thee to Agni, for lustre!' 

10. [The second with V4f. S. VIII, 39 ; Rig-veda 
VIII, 76, 10], ' Uprising by thy power didst thou 
move thy jaws, O Indra, drinking the cup- 
drawn juice! — Thou art taken with a support: 
thee to Indra for power! — This is thy womb: 
thee to Indra for power!' 

11. [The third with Vd^. S. VIII, 40; Rig-veda 
I, 50, 3], 'His beacons have appeared, his beams, 
wide and far over the people, shining splen- 
didly like fires! — Thou art taken with a sup- 
port: thee to Siirya for splendour! — This is 
thy womb : thee to Sflrya for splendour !' 

12. The drinking of these (cups is performed by 
the sacrificers with the resp. texts), 'O lustrous 
Agni, lustrous art thou among the gods: may 
I be lustrous among men! — Most powerful 
Indra, most powerful art thou among the gods: 
may I be the most powerful among men! — 
Most splendid SArya, most splendid art thou 
among the gods: may I be the most splendid 
among men!' And, verily, these same splendours, 
these same powers he takes unto himself for whom- 
soever, knowing this, they draw these cups. 

1 3. Let him draw them on the first three days of 
the Pmh/>4ya sharfaha* ; namely, the Agni cup on 

' The K4»vas use a different formula, viz. Rig-veda IX, 66, 19. 
See V^. S. ed. Weber, p. 254 (XII). 
* See page 402, note 4. In conjunction with the Rathantara 



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4o6 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

the first day, the Indra cup on the second, the Sflrya 
cup on the third — thus one day by day. 

14. Some', however, draw them on the last three 
days ; but let him not do so : let him rather draw 
them on the first three days. But should he intend 
to draw them on the last three days, let him first 
draw them on the first three days and let him then 
draw them on the last three days. In like manner 
they are drawn (all three) in their proper order, on 
one and the same day, at the Vijva^t* with all the 

Fifth BrAhmajva. 

1. Pra^cipati, forsooth, is that sacrifice which is 
performed here, and from which these creatures have 
been produced : and in like manner are they pro- 
duced thereafter even to this day. 

2. After the Vp&msn cup goats are produced. 
Now that (cup) is again employed in the sacrifice : 
hence creatures are here produced again and again. 

3. After the Ant^yama cup sheep are produced. 
Now that (cup) is again employed at the sacrifice : 
hence creatures are here produced again and again. 

(Sima-veda II, 30-3 1 ) and BrAat (II, 1 59-60) s&mans, the other four 
principal pr/shMa simans — viz. the Vairflpa (II, 212—13), Vaii^a 
(II, 277-9), -S^kvara (II, 1 151-3 ; or MahinSmnt, 1-3), and Raivata 
(II, 434-6) — are used respectively by the Hotrj on the last four 
days of the shat/aha. As regards the Hotr{''s assistants, while the 
Maitr£varu»a always uses the same siman, as at the Agnish/oma, 
viz. the VSmadevya (II, 32-34), the sSmans used by the other 
Hotrakas are given in the Sima-veda immediately after the respec- 
tive sSman of the Hotr», mentioned above. 

' The Ka«va text ascribes this practice to the ATarakas. 

' Regarding the sacrificial session, called Gavdm ayana, of 
which the Vijvagit forms part, see p. 426, note 3. 



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IV KANDA, 5 adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, 8. 407 

4. And because of those two (cups) which are 
together he offers the Up^msu first, therefore, of 
goats and sheep when they are together \ the goats 
go first, and the sheep behind them. 

5. And because, having offered the UpA«wu, he 
wipes (the vessel) upwards, therefore these goats 
walk like nimbly* climbing spokes. 

6. And because, having offered the Antarydma, he 
wipes (the vessel) downwards, therefore these sheep 
walk with their heads down, as if digging. Now 
they, the goats and sheep, are most conspicuously 
Prjiflpati-like : whence, bringing forth thrice in the 
year, they produce two or three * (young ones). 

7. After* the .Sukra cup men are produced. Now 
that (cup) is again employed at the sacrifice : hence 
creatures are here produced again and again. But 
the .Sukra (bright) is the same as he that burns 
yonder, and he indeed is Indra ; and of animals, man 
is Indra-Hke* : whence he rules over animals. 

8. After the Rttu cup the one-hoofed species is 
produced. Now that (cup) is again employed in the 
sacrifice : hence creatures are here produced again 
and again. And such-like is the J?ttu cup', and such- 
like the head of the one-hoofed. The Agfraya«a 

' That is, in mixed flocks. In the compound ' ^vika ' (K^v. 
agtvayzA, aJyts xa) Si€t) also the goats come first. 

* Perhaps ' ara ' has to be taken in the sense of ' quick, nimble,' 
instead of ' spokes,' and ' rfltara' might mean ' flying up,' ' popping 
up their heads,' as opposed to ' aviiinartrshan.' 

* ? Or, three (times) two, ' dvau trin iti ; ' the K&nva text reads 
(of goats alone) ' tiims trtn.' 

' Or, along with, correspondingly with, anu. 

' Or, connected with Indra, Indra's own (aindra). 

* The two y?ttupdtras are shaped like spoon-bowls, with spouls 
on both sides. 



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4o8 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

cup, the Ukthya cup, and the Aditya cup, — after 
them cows are produced. Now, these are again 
employed in the sacrifice : hence creatures are here 
produced again and again. 

9. And because goats are produced after the 
fewest cups, therefore, though bringing forth thrice 
in a year, producing two or three, (they are) very 
few, for they are produced after the fewest cups. 

10. And because cows are produced after the 
most cups, therefore, though bringing forth once in 
a year, and producing one each time, (they are) most 
numerous, for they are produced after the most 
cups. 

11. Then, in the Dro«akalaya (trough) he finally 
draws the Hfiriyo^na graha. Now, the Dro»aka- 
lasa is Pra^pati; — he turns unto these creatures, 
and fosters them, and kisses them ' : he fosters them 
in that he produces them. 

12. Now, these same cups after which creatures 
are produced, are five, — those of the Upkmsu and 
Antaryima (counting as) one and the same, the 
.Sukra cup, the Rku cup, the Agraya«a cup, and the 
Ukthya cup ; for there are five seasons in the year, 
and Pra^pati is the year, and the sacrifice is Prii^- 
pati. But if there be six seasons in the year, then 
the Aditya cup is the sixth of them. 

13. But indeed there is only that one cup after 
which creatures are produced here, to wit, the 
IJp&fnsu cup; for the Up^msu. is breath, and 
Prj^pati is breath, and everything here is after 
Pra^pati. 

' Or, smells, sniflfs at them (as a cow does the calf). 



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rv kXnDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 6 BRAHMAiVA, 3. 409 



Sixth BrAhmana. 

1. Pra^^pati, forsooth, is that sacrifice which is 
here performed, and whence these creatures have 
been produced, and in like manner are they pro- 
duced therefrom even to this day. Having drawn 
the Asvina. graha, he makes (the sacrificer) eye 
(the several cups, while muttering) the Avaki^a 
formulas \ 

2. The VpSLmsu cup he eyes first with (V^. S. 
VII, 27), ' For mine out-breathing, (a) giver of 
lustre*, become thou pure for lustre!' Then 
the Updwjusavana stone with, 'For my through- 
breathing, giver of lustre, become thou pure 
for lustre I ' Then the Antaryfima cup with, ' For 
mine up-breathing, giver of lustre, become 
thou pure for lustre!' Then the Aindraviyava 
with, 'For my voice, giver of lustre, become 
thou pure for lustre!' Then the Maitr4varu«a 
with, ' For mine intelligence and will, giver of 
lustre, become thou pure for lustre!' Then the 
Ajvina with, ' For mine ear, giver of lustre, be- 
come thou pure for lustre!' Then the .Su^ra 
and Manthin with, 'For mine eyes, givers of 
lustre, become ye pure for lustre!' 

3. Then the Agraya«a with (V&g: S. VII, 28), 
'For my mind, giver of lustre, become thou 
pure for lustre!' Then the Ukthya with, 'For 

' For the proper place of this ceremony in the actual performance 
of the Agnish/bma, see p. 313, note 4. 

* Either, thou who bestowest lustre on my out-breathing . . . , or, 
Thou who art a bestower of lustre, become thou pure for lustre 
to my out-breathing. 



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4IO DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiV A. 

my vigour, giver of lustre, become thou pure 
for lustre ! ' Then the Dhruva with, ' For my life, 
giver of lustre, become thou pure for lustre ! ' 
Then the two Soma-troughs (Pfltabhm and Adhava- 
ntya) with, ' For all mine offspring, givers of 
lustre, become ye pure for lustre!' Now the 
two troughs belong to the All-gods, for therefrom 
they draw (Soma) for the gods, therefrom for men, 
therefrom for the Fathers : therefore the two Soma- 
troughs belong to the All-gods. 

4. Then the Dro^akala^a with (V^. S. VII, 29), 
'Who (ka) art thou? Which one art thou?' — 
Ka is Pra^pati; — 'Whose (kasya, or Ka's) art 
thou? who (ka)art thou by name?' — Ka ('who') 
by name is Pra^pati; — ' Thou upon whose name 
we have thought,' for he indeed thinks upon his 
name; — 'Thou whom we have gladdened with 
Soma;' — for he indeed gladdens him with Soma. 
Having drawn the Arvina cup, he prays for blessing 
part after part (of the sacrifice) with, 'May I be 
abundantly supplied with offspring,' thereby 
he prays for offspring; — 'abundantly supplied 
with men,' thereby he prays for men (heroes); — 
'abundantly supplied with food!' thereby he 
prays for prosperity. 

5. He must not let every one eye them, but only 
him who is well known, or one who is his friend, or 
one who, being learned in sacred lore, may acquire 
these (texts) through study. Having drawn the 
Ajvina cup, he (thus) produces the whole sacrifice ; 
and having produced the whole sacrifice, he deposits 
it in his own self, and makes it his own. 



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IV kAnDA, 5 ADHYAyA, 7 BRAHMAiVA, 4. 4I I 



Seventh BrAhmawa. 

1. Now, there are here thirty-four utterances, 
called expiations '. Pra^ipati, forsooth, is that sacri- 
fice which is performed here, and from which these 
creatures have been produced, — and in like manner 
are they produced therefrom even to this day. 

2. There are eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve 
Adityas ; and these two, Heaven and Earth, are 
the (thirty-second and) thirty-third. And there are 
thirty-three gods, and Prj^pati is the thirty-fourth ; 
— thus he makes him (the sacrificer, or Ya^na.) to be 
Pra/dpati*: now that' is, for that is immortal, and 
what is immortal that is. But what is mortal that 
also is Pra^pati ; for Pra^pati is everything : thus 
he makes him to be Pra^pati, and hence there are 
these thirty-four utterances, called expiations. 

3. Now some call these (formulas) the ' forms of 
the sacrifice;' but, indeed, they are rather the joints 
of the sacrifice : this same sacrifice, in being per- 
formed, is continually becoming those deities. 

4. Now should the cow, which supplies the 
gharma *, fail (to give milk), let them go to another ; 
and at the same place where they otherwise make 
that gharma (milk) flow', let them place her with her 

* Viz. the formulas, V^. S. VIII, 54-58, employed for making 
good any mishaps during the Soma-sacrifice. Cf. SaX. Br. XII, 
6, 1, I seq. In the KSjtva, recension, V, 7, 4, kaniAkis 5-10 cor- 
respond to the present BrShmana, while kani^kis 1-4 contain the 
account of the Mahavratiya graha corresponding to M. IV, 6, 4. 

* ? Or, this then he makes Pra^pati to be ; but see IV, 6, i, 5. 

* ? I.e. that divine race or element. The K^i»va text reads, etS- 
vad v& idam asty, etad dhy amrttam, yad dhy axaritAm tad asti. 

* See p. 104, note 3. 

* That is, when they milk the cow with the Mantras ' Flow thou 



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412 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJ»rA. 

head towards the north, or in front of the hall with 
her face to the east. 

5. And that which is the right one of the two 
bones with hair-tufts which protrude on both sides 
of her tail-bone, — thereon he offers those thirty- 
four oblations of ghee ; for as much as are those 
thirty-four utterances, so much is the sacrifice : thus 
he lays the whole sacrifice entirely into her ; for there- 
from she lets the gharma (milk) flow, and this is the 
atonement therefore. 

6. And if any part of the sacrifice were to fail, let 
him make an oblation with regard thereto on the 
Ahavanlya during the consecration and the Upasads, 
and on the Agnldhra during the Soma feast — ^for 
whatever point of the sacrifice fails, that breaks — 
and whichever then is the deity in that (special 
offering), through that one he heals it, through that 
he puts it together again. 

7. And if anything' be spilt, let him pour water 
thereon — everything here being pervaded (or ob- 
tained) by water — for the obtainment of everything* ; 
with a verse to Vish«u and Varu»a, — for whatsoever 
distress one undergoes here on earth, all that Varu«a 
inflicts »,—(Vi^, S. VIII, 59; Atharva-veda VII, 25, 



for the AjvinsI' &c., see IV, 2, i, 11 seq. Perhaps yasySw 
vttAyim has to be taken in the sense of ' at the same time at which ■ 
they make it flow,' as is done in the St Petersb. Diet Compare, 
however, the K&nvz reading, tad y&m upasamkr&meTUS tim agrena 
v& dikshitajSMm yatra vainam etat pinvayanti tad enim pT&Mm 
voiiUm v4 sthSpayitavai brty&t. 

• Viz. any Soma, according to K4ty. XXV, 2, 9 ; or any clotted 
ghee (przshadS^a), according to the Kinvd, text 

' For this construction, see p. 15, note 3. 

" Or, whatsoever undergoes (suff^ering) here on earth, all that 
Vanuta causes to undergo it 



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IV KAJViJA, 5 ADHYAYA, 7 BRAHMAJVA, 9. 4I3 

i), 'They by whose vigour the spheres were 
propped up, who are in strength the strongest 
and mightiest; who sway with powers unre- 
sisted, to Vish»u and Varu«a hath it gone at 
the morning prayer !' For Vish«u is the sacrifice, 
and it is that (sacrifice) of his which now undergoes 
distress ; and Varu«a is the inflicter : thus by both 
these deities — that whose (sacrifice) undergoes dis- 
tress, and that which inflicts it — he heals (the joint 
of the sacrifice), by both he puts it together. 

8. And let him then touch (the spilt material) with 
(Vi^, S. VIII, 60), ' To the gods, to the sky hath 
the sacrifice gone : may wealth thence accrue 
to me ! to the men, to the air hath the sacrifice 
gone: may wealth thence accrue to me! to the 
Fathers, to the earth hath the sacrifice gone : 
may wealth thence accrue to me!' — 'To what- 
ever world the sacrifice has gone, thence happiness 
has come to me ^ ! ' this is what he thereby means 
to say. 

9. Here now Aru»i said, ' Why should he sacrifice 
who would think himself the worse for a miscarriage 
of the sacrifice ? I, for one, am the better for a mis- 
carriage of the sacrifice^!' This, then, he said with 
reference to the adoption of those benedictions. 

* This last sentence (* To whatever world . . . ") is treated as if it 
belonged to the sacrificial formula, to which it is attached in the 
Samhitl The misuke (which doubtless there is) probably arose 
from the omission of the ' iti ' in the Br&hmana. In the Kdnva text 
of the Brihmana, the analogous sentence appears clearly as belong- 
ing to the exposition, and not to the Samhiti. 

* Kim sa ya^wena ya^teti yo yzgvaJi syit tena vyrj'ddhena f reyo 
n&bhigai/ied iti. Kinva text. 



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414 ^ATAPATHA-BRAHMAAA. 



Eighth BrAhmaiva. 

1. Nowwhen at that TrirAtra* sacrifice he gives 
those thousand (cows), then that one is made the one- 
thousandth*. On the first day he brings three hundred 
and thirty-three ; and likewise on the second day he 
brings three hundred and thirty-three ; and likewise 
on the third day he brings three hundred and thirty- 
three. Then that one-thousandth is left over. 

2. She should be three-coloured, they say, for that 
is the most perfect form for her. But let it be a red 
one, and spotted, for that indeed is the most perfect 
form for her. 

3. Let it be one that has not been approached 
(by a bull), for she, the Sdhasrt, is in reality V^ 
(speech) ; but V^, forsooth, is of unimpaired vigour, 
and so is one of unimpaired vigour which has not 
been approached : therefore it should be one that 
has not been approached. 

4. He may lead her up (to the sacrificial ground) 
on the first day ; for she, the Sihasrt, is in reality 
VSi^, and hers, VSi's, is that thousandfold progeny '. 

' The Sahasradakshiwa Triritra, or sacrifice of three 
(pressing) days, with a thousand cows as the priests' fee, is men- 
tioned Kity. XIII, 4, 15 seq. as, apparently, an independent 
Ahtna sacrifice. I do not, however, know whether it might not 
be added on to some other sacrificial performance, as, for instance, 
to the Prt'sh/iiya shat&ha, thus forming together with this the 
NavarStra (or first nine days of the Dararitra, see p. 402, note 2). 
KSty. gives no indication as to the particular forms of Soma-sacri- 
fice required for the several days ; but, guided no doubt by the 
Brdhmana, he confines his remarks to the manner of distribution of 
the dakshi>»is. 

' S&hasrt, lit. ' she who makes the dakshi»i to consist of one 
thousand.' 

' Or, — and from her,Vai, those thousand (cows) were produced ; 



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IV kAnda, 5 adhvAya, 8 brahmajva, io. 415 

She walks at the head (of the other 333 cows), and 
behind her follows her progeny. Or he may lead her 
up on the last day ; then her progeny precedes her, 
and she herself walks behind. This, however, is mere 
speculation : let him lead her up on the last day, — 
her progeny precedes her, and she herself walks 
behind. 

5. North of the Havirdhina shed, and south of 
the Agnldhra fire-house he makes her smell the 
Dro»akala.fa ; for the Dro»akalam is the sacrifice ; 
thus he makes her see the sacrifice. 

6. With (Vdf. S. VIII, 42), ' Smell the trough : 
may the drops enter thee, O mighty one ! ' Now 
he who gives a thousand (cows) becomes, as it were, 
emptied : him, thus emptied, he thereby replenishes, 
when he says, ' Smell the trough : may the drops 
enter thee, O mighty one ! ' 

7. 'Return again with sap!' him who is emptied 
he thus replenishes when he says, ' Return again with 
sap!' 

8. 'And milk to us a thousandfold!' him 
who is emptied he thus replenishes with a thou- 
sand (forces), when he says, 'And milk to us a 
thousandfold ! ' 

9. ' Broad-streamed, milk-abounding, — may 
wealth come back to me !' him who is emptied he 
thus replenishes when he says, ' May wealth come 
back to me!' 

10. He then mutters in her right ear, 'O Idi, 
blithesome, adorable, lovable, bright, shining, 
Aditi (inviolable), ^arasvatl (sapful), mighty, 

or, — and from her (the thousandth cow) that thousandfold progeny 
of VSi was produced ; see IV, 6, 7, 3, where the thousandfold pro- 
geny of ya is identified with the Vedic texts generally. 



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41 6 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAJVA. 

glorious, — these are thy names, O cow : tell thou 
the gods of me as a doer of good!' — or, 'speak 
thou . . . .' These indeed are her names with the 
gods : he thus means to say, 'whatever thy names are 
with the gods, therewith tell the gods of me as a doer 
of good.' 

11. They release her. If, not urged by any man, 
she goes eastwards, then let him know that this 
sacrificer has succeeded, that he has won the happy 
world. If she goes northwards, let him know that 
the sacrificer will be more glorious in this world. If 
she goes westwards, let him know that he will be 
rich in dependants and crops. If she goes south- 
wards, let him know that the sacrificer will quickly 
depart from this world. Such are the ways of 
knowledge, 

12. And what three (cows) there are each time 
over and above the (three hundred and) thirty, 
thereto they add that one ^. Now, when they draw 
out a Vir^ (verse), they pull it asunder, and a Vir^ 
which is pulled asunder is torn in two ; — and the 
Vir^ consisting of ten syllables, he thus makes the 
Virif complete. Let him give her to the HotW; 
for the Hotri is a thousandfold * : therefore let him 
give her to the Hotrt. 

* I am not certain whether I understand this passage rightly. 
According to paragraph i6, and K&ty. XIII, 4, 23, he is to give 
away the cows by tens. This would leave three each day, or nine 
on the three days. To them he is to add the Sibasri, and give 
the ten cows to the Hotr». — A common Vir^ verse consists of 
three times ten syllables; but there are also such as consist of 
three times eleven syllables. These latter the sacrificer is thus 
represented (by withholding three cows out of thirty-three) to make 
into a proper YirSig. 

* That is, accordmg to the St. Petersb. Diet., he possesses a 



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IV kAjvdA, 5 ADHYAYA, 8 BRAHMAJVA, l6. 417 

13. Or let him appoint two UnnetWs, and let him 
give her to him, of the two, who does not call for the 
.Srausha/ ; for defective, indeed, is he who, being an 
officiating priest, does not call for the ^rausha/ ; and 
defective also is the Vir^ which is pulled asunder : 
thus he puts the defective to the defective. 

14. Now they say, one ought not to give anything 
above a thousand (cows), because by a thousand he 
obtains all the objects of his desire. But Asuri said, 
' Let him give according to his wish : by a thousand 
he indeed obtains all his wishes ; and anything else 
(that he gives) is likewise given at his wish '.' 

15. And should he intend to give a cart yoked 
(with a team of oxen), or something else, let him give 
it either after the offering of the omentum of the 
barren cow, or at the concluding (udavasdnljd) 
offering. 

16. In bringing the dakshi«as, let him bring com- 
plete decads. If he intends to give one (cow) to any 
(priest), let him pass over a decad to ten such 
(priests). If he intends to give two to any one, let 
him pass over a decad to five such (priests). If he 
intends to give three to any one, let him pass over a 
decad to three such ^. If he intends to give five to 

thoxisand verses ; — if it does not rather refer to the extent of the 
Rig-veda, consisting of rather more than a thousand (1028) hymns. 
Cp. also 'the thousandfold progeny of Vai,' p. 414, note 3. 

* The KSwva text has much the same reasoning, but does not 
ascribe it to any one. 

' In this and all other cases the text has ' to those three (ten 
&c.).' It is not clear in what manner he is to divide the ten 
cows between the three priests, unless indeed he is to repeat the 
same process three times, giving the odd cow each time to another 
priest. The Ka«va text only mentions two of the cases here 
given, viz. that if he intends to give one cow to each (ekaikam), 

[26] E e 



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4 1 8 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

any one, let him pass over a decad to two such. 
Thus up to a hundred : and thus this perfect Virif 
of his becomes a cow of plenty for him in yonder 
world. 

Ninth BrAhmaa'a. 

I. When he performs a twelve days' sacrifice with 
transposed metres (Dvfidai'iha vy(!idAakkB.ndB.s), 
then he (the Adhvaryu) transposes the g^ahas (cups 
of Soma) ; and both the Udg4tr/ and the Hotri 
transpose the metres. Now there is first that normal 
Tryaha (triduum), with settled metres ' : there he 
draws the cup beginning with the Aindraviyava. 

he is to give ten to ten such ; and if he intends to give two to each, he 
is to give ten to five such. Professor Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 5 2, remarks 
that this paragraph is not clear to him, and suggests that it may 
be interpolated. It does not appear, what the exact proportion of 
the thousand cows is for each of the sixteen priests ; but we may 
assume that it did not differ much from that given at the Agni- 
sh/oma (see p. 345, note), and that this result was brought about by 
repeated distributions among varied groupings of the priests. 

* That is, three days, on which the order of the Agnish/oma is 
observed. Hence, having drawn the Vpimsn and AntarySma 
cups (IV, I, I and 2), which must always be drawn first, he draws 
the AindravSyava cup (IV, i, 3) and so on. The same order is 
preserved on the fifth, eighth, and last three days. On the fourth 
and ninth days, on the other hand, he follows up the Upinm and 
AntarySma by the grahas of the third pressing, beginning with the 
Agraya«a (IV, 3, 5, 21 seq.); these being then succeeded by 
those of the morning and midday pressings ; and on the sixth and 
seventh days the Vp&tftsu and Antaryima cups are succeeded by 
the grahas of the midday pressing, beginning with the ^ukra cup 
(IV, 3, 3, 2). This change of the proper order of performance, of 
course, involves .a different arrangement of the stotras and jastras 
(or ' the metres,' as they are called in the texts). This dislocation 
of the three pressings is afterjvards to be rectified by the various 
cups being ' deposited ' on the khara in their normal order. In the 
last two paragraphs "of the present Brihmana the author, however. 



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IV kAnda, 5 adhyAya, 9 brAhmajva, 5. 41 9 

2. Then, on the fourth day, he transposes the 
grahas, and they transpose the metres. There he 
draws the cups beginning with the Agraya«a, — for 
that fourth day is Pra^fipati's own ; and the Agraya«a 
is the self, and Pra^pati is the self: therefore he 
draws the cups beginning with the Agraya«a. 

3. Having drawn that (Agraya«a) cup, he does not 
deposit it — the grahas being the vital airs — lest he 
should disorder the vital airs ' ; for he would indeed 
disorder the vital airs, were he to deposit it. They 
sit near holding that (cup) * ; and (the Adhvaryu) 
draws (the other) cups ; and while he draws the 
cups, then whenever the tinie of that cup (in the 
order of performance comes), he utters 'Him' and 
deposits it. Then follows that normal' fifth day; 
on that he draws the cups beginning with the 
Aindraviyava. 

4. Thereupon, on the sixth day, he transposes the 
grahas, and they transpose the metres. There he 
draws the cups beginning with the ^ukra; for that 
sixth day is Indra's own, and the i^ukra (bright, clear) 
is he that burns yonder, and he (the sun) indeed is 
Indra : therefore he draws the cups beginning with 
the .Sukra. 

5. Having drawn that (cup), he does not deposit 
it — :the grahas being the vital airs — lest he should 
disorder the vital airs ; for he would indeed disorder 
the vital airs, were he to deposit it. They sit near 

discountenances this practice of changing the natural order of 
drawing the cups. 

' For this construction see p. 15, note 3. 

* 'Having given it to some one else (to hold), he draws the 
other cups.' KS«va text. 

» Or, that 'known' fifth day, i.e. performed in the manner 
known, or explained before (viz. at the Agnish/bma). 

E e 2 



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420 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

holding that (cup) ; and he draws (the other) cups ; 
and while he draws the cups, then whenever the 
time of that (cup comes), he deposits it 

6. Then, on the seventh day, he transposes the 
grahas, and they transpose the metres. There he 
draws the cups beginning with the .Sukra cup ; for 
that seventh day belongs to the Br?hatl ('great' 
metre) ; for the 6'ukra is he that burns yonder, and 
he indeed is great: therefore he draws the cups 
beginning with the 6'ukra. 

7. Having drawn that (cup), he does not deposit 
it — the grahas being the vital airs — lest he should 
disorder the vital airs ; for he would indeed disorder 
the vital airs, were he to deposit it. They sit near 
holding that (cup) ; and he draws the (other) cups ; 
and while he draws the cups, then whenever the 
time of that (cup comes), he deposits it Then 
follows that normal eighth day : there he draws the 
cups beginning with the Aindraviyava. 

8. Then, on the ninth day, he transposes the 
grahas, and they transpose the metres. There he 
draws the cups beginning with the Agraya«a; for 
that ninth day belongs to the 6^agatl (metre), and 
the Agraya«a is the self, and the self (soul) is this 
whole world (^gat): therefore he draws the cups 
beginning with the Agrayawa. 

9. Having drawn it, he does not deposit it — the 
grahas being the vital airs — lest he should disorder 
the vital airs ; for he would indeed disorder the vital 
airs, were he to deposit it. They sit near holding 
that (cup) ; and he draws the (other) cups ; and 
while he draws the cups, when the time of that (cup 
comes), he utters 'Him' and deposits it 

10. Now they say, He should not transpose the 



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IV KANDA, 5 ADHVAYA, lO BRAHMAJVA, 2. 42 1 

cups — the cups being the vital airs — lest he should 
disorder the vital airs ; for he would indeed disorder 
the vital airs, were he to transpose them : therefore 
he should not transpose (the cups). 

1 1. But let him, nevertheless, transpose them ; for 
the cups are the limbs, and in sleeping one likes to 
turn ^ his limbs from one side to the other : therefore 
let him nevertheless transpose them, 

1 2. Nevertheless, he should not transpose them — 
the cups being the vital airs — lest he should disorder 
the vital airs ; for he would indeed disorder the vital 
airs, were he to transpose (the cups) : therefore let 
him not transpose them. 

13. What, then, is the Adhvaryu to do in that 
case, when both the UdgAtr? and Hotrt transpose 
(change) the metres * ? In that, at the morning 
pressing, he draws first the Aindrav&yava cup ; and 
at the midday pressing the ^ukra cup ; and at the 
evening pressing the Agraya«a cup, — thereby for- 
sooth the Adhvaryu transposes (the cups). 

Tenth BrAhmajva*. 

1. If the Soma is carried off, let him say, 'Run 
about and seek!' If they find it, why should they 
care ? But if they do not find it, atonement is made 
therefore. 

2. Now there are two kinds of Phfilguna plants, 

■ In the text our subordinate clause is, as usual, the principal 
clause: 'one sleeps in turning his limbs from one side to the 
other.' 

• The chanters and the Kotri in any case use different metres, 
as the principal ones, at different pressings. 

» In the Ka«va text I have met with nothing corresponding to 
this Br&hma»a. 



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422 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

the red-flowering and the brown-flowering. Those 
Philguna plants which have brown flowers one may 
press ; for they, the brown-flowering Phdlgunas, are 
akin to the Soma-plant : therefore he may press those 
with brown flowers. 

3. If they cannot get brown-flowering (Phcllgunas), 
he may press the Syenahrita.^ plant. For when 
Giyatrl flew up for Soma, a sprig of Soma fell from 
her, as she was bringing him : it became the 6'yena- 
hrita. plant : therefore he may press the-^yenahr/ta 
plant. 

4. If they cannot get the ►S'yenahrzta, he may press 
Adira plants. For when the head of the sacrifice 
was cut off", then Addra plants sprung from the sap 
which spirted from it : therefore he may press Addra 
plants. 

5. If they cannot get Addras, he may press brown 
Dlib (dflrvi) plants, for they, the brown Ddb plants, 
are akin to the Soma : therefore he may press brown 
DOb plants. 

6. If they cannot get brown Ddb plants, he may 
also press any kind of yellow Kusa. plants. In that 
case let him also give one cow ; and, when he comes 
out of the purificatory bath, let him again become 
consecrated, for the atonement for that (use of plants 
other than Soma) is a second sacrifice. So much then 
as to those robbed of their Soma. 

7. Now as to those who burst their Soma-trough 
(kalara). If the trough bursts, let him say, ' Try to 
catch it ! ' If they catch a handful or a goupenful " (of 
Soma), let them perform, as far as is in their power ', 

' That is, the plant ' carried away by the falcon (or eagle).' 
' Scotch for the measure of both hands placed side by side ; Ags. 
geap, Low Germ. gGpse. 

YathSprabhSvam : Kdty. XXV, 12, 24 seems to take it in the 



3 



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IV KAiVrA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAAA, I. 423 

after pouring (water) to it from other ekadhana 
pitchers. But if they do not catch any, let them 
perform, as far as is in their power, after pouring out 
some of the Agraya«a and pouring (water) thereto 
from other ekadhana pitchers. And if the trough 
bursts before the dakshiwd (cows) have been led up, 
let him then give one cow ; and after coming out from 
the purificatory bath, let him be consecrated again ; for 
the atonement for that (mishap) is a second sacrifice. 
So much then as to those who burst the trough. 

8. Then as to those by whom any Soma is left over. 
If any (Soma) be left after the Agnish/oma, let him 
draw the Ukthya cup from the POtabhm. If any 
be left after the Ukthya, let him undertake the 
Shoi/a^in. If any be left after the Sho^a^in, let 
them undertake a night (performance) ^ If any be 
left after the night (performance), let them undertake 
a day (performance) *. But nothing, surely, remains 
after that*. 

Sixth Adhyaya. First Brahmajva. 

I. Now, the Amsu (graha), forsooth, is no other 
than Pra^pati : that (cup) is his (Ya^«a s or the 

sense of ' abundantly,' as he circumscribes it by ' prabhSvayanta^i ' 
(which the commentator explains by ' distributing over the several 
vessels'). 

' That is, he is to perform an Atiritra, see p. 397, note 2. 

' KSty. XXV, 13, 12-14, •'i tliat emergency, prescribes tither 
the Br/hat-saman (by which a seventeenth stotra is obtained at the 
VS^apeya sacrifice, for which see more in Kindz V), or the 
MahSvrata (see IV, 6, 4, i, with note), or the AptorySma (see 
p. 398, note). 

• The meaning of this seems to be, that after the AplorySma, 
no other sacrifice remains at which he could dispose of any Soma 
that might be left (and hence one must finish it at that sacrifice). 
According to KSty. ib. 15, he is to repeat the Aptoryima, if any 
Soma remains after the first performance. 



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424 • satapatiia-brAhmajva. 

Sacrificer's) self, for Praf&pati is the self. Hence 
when they draw that (cup) they produce that self of his. 
Therein they lay these vital airs, according to as these 
vital airs, the grahas, are explained*; and verily the 
sacrificer is bom with his whole body in yonder world. 

2. Where they draw that (cup), then that is (like) 
having a hold ' ; and where they do not draw it, then 
that is (like) having no hold : therefore, then, he 
draws the Amsu. 

3. He draws it with a vessel of u</umbara wood ; 
for that (cup) is Pra^pati, and the ua^umbara tree is 
Pra^dpati's own : therefore he draws it with a vessel 
of u</umbara wood. 

4. He draws it with a square vessel ; for there are 
here three worlds : these three worlds he obtains by 
three (corners). And Pra^pati is the fourth over 
and above these three worlds : thus he obtains Pra^- 
pati by the fourth (corner) : therefore he draws it 
with a square vessel. 

5. Silently he takes up the pressing-stone ; silently 
he throws down the Soma-plants (amsu) ; silently he 
pours water thereon ; silently raising (the stone), he 

' Or body (Stman); amsu meaning the Soma-plant, and hence 
the body of the Soma. This graha seems to consist of im- 
perfectly pressed Soma-plants in water. Cf. KSty. XII, 5, 6-1 2. 
See also Sit. Br. IV, i, i, 2; Taitt. S. VI, 6, 10; SSy. on Taitt 
S. I, p. 603. In the KS«va text this Brdhma»a is followed by one 
on the Adibhya graha, which is identified with speech. 

' Or, perhaps, according to as the grahas are explained as 
being these vital airs. 

' Or, like something that has a handle. The Kinvz text reads, — 
for whomsoever they draw that (cup), his vital airs are, as it were, 
supplied with a firmer hold, and, as it were, firmly established 
(drambha«avattart iva pratish/iitS iva). And for whomsoever they 
do not draw it, his vital airs are, as it were, without any hold (' bolt- 
loser') and quite unrestrained (an&rambhanatard ivisyiyatatarS 
iva fT&n&A), 



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IV kXnda, 6 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 12. 425 

presses once ; silently he offers that (libation) without 
drawing breath : thus he makes him (the sacrificer) 
to be Pra^dpati. 

6. Now there is a piece of gold in that (spoon) : 
that he smells at. And if he either galls or scratches 
himself at this (sacrifice), — gold being immortal life, — 
he lays that immortal life into his own self. 

7. As to this Rima Aupatasvini said, ' Let him 
freely breathe out and freely breathe in : if he but . 
offers silently, thereby he makes him (the sacrificer) 
to be Pra^pati.' 

8. Now there is a piece of gold in that (spoon) : 
that he smells at. And if he either galls or scratches 
himself at this (sacrifice), — gold being immortal life, — 
he lays that immortal life into his own self. 

9. As to this Budila A^yvatarS^vi said,' Let him 
draw it after merely raising (the stone), and let him 
not press ; for they do press for other deities : thus 
he does different from what he does for other deities ; 
and in that he raises (the stone) thereby indeed the 
pressing takes place for him.' 

10. As to this Yi/»avalkya said, * Nay, let him 
press : "The unpressed Soma delighted not the mighty 
Indra, nor the outpressed draughts without prayer," 
thus spake the Rzshi (Rig-veda VII, 26, i). For no 
other deity does he strike but once : thus he does 
different from what he does for other deities, — there- 
fore let him press!' 

11. Twelve heifers pregnant with their first calf 
are the priests' fee for this (graha). Now there are 
twelve months in the year, and Pra^pati is the year, 
and the Amsu is Pra^dpati : thus he makes him (the 
sacrificer) to be Pra^pati. 

1 2. They have twelve embryo calves, — that makes 



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426 jatapatha-brAhmajva, 

twenty-four. Now there are twenty-four half-moons 
in the year, and Pra^pati is the year, and the Amsn 
is Pra^fipati : thus he makes him to be Pra^pati. 

13. Now Kaukdsta' indeed g^ve as many as 
twenty-four heifers with their first calf as dakshiw^s, 
and a bull as the twenty-fifth, and gold ; and truly that 
is what he gave. 

14. This (graha) should not be drawn for every 
one, since this is his (Ya^«a's) self. It should only 
be drawn for one who is well known, or one who is 
his (the Adhvaryu's) friend, or one who, being learned 
in sacred lore, would acquire it by his study. 

15. It should be drawn at a (sacrifice with) a 
thousand (cows as the priests' fee) ; for a thousand 
is everything, and this (graha) is everything. It 
should be drawn at (a sacrifice) where the entire 
property is given away, for the entire property is 
everything, and this (graha) is everything. It 
should be drawn at a Vixvjifit with all the VrishiAas, 
for the Vijva^it ('all-conquering') is everything, 
and this (cup) is everything. It should be drawn 
at a V^peya and RSjg^siiya, for that is everything. 
It should be drawn at a sattra (sacrificial session), 
for the sattra means everything*, and this (cup) 
means everything. These are the drawings. 

THE GAVAM AYANA'. 
Second BRAHMAiVA. 
1. Verily, they who sit (sacrificing) for a year, by 
means of six months go to him that bums yonder : 

' The Ka«va MSS. read ' Kattkthasta.' 

' Perhaps the author here means to connect sattra (satra) with 
the adverbs satram, satri, ' altogether, always,' instead of with the 
verb sad, to sit; but cf. IV, 6, 8, i. 

° The great sacrificial session (sattra), called Gavdm ayana, or 



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IV KANDA, 6 ADHyAyA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, I. 427 

SO it is told on the part of the SAman, in as much as 
it is made of the form of that (sun) it is told on the 
part of the Rik * ; and now in like manner on the 
part of the Yafus, by means of preparatory rite, 
when they draw that (graha) *, they thereby also go 
to him (the sun). 

cows' walk (or course), usually extends over twelve months (of 
30 days), and consbts of the following parts : 

Priya«iya Atiritra, or opening day. 
^aturviwja day, an Ukthya, all the stotras of which are in 
the A!aturvim^ stoma. 
Five months, each consisting of four Abhiplava shai^ihas 
and one Pr»sh/Aya sharfaha ( » 30 days). Cf. p. 402, n. 2. 
Three Abhiplavas and one 
PnshMya. 
Abhi^it day. 

Three Svarasdman days. 



28 days, which, with the two 
opening days, complete the 
sixth month. 



28 days, which, wjth the two 
concluding days, complete 
the seventh month. 



ViSHUVANT or central day. 

Three Svarasiman days. 
Vif va^it day. 

One Pr»sh/Aya and three 

Abhiplavas. 
Four months, each consisting of four Abhiplavas and one 
Prish/Aya. 

-Three Abhiplava sharfahas. ^ 

One Gosh/oma(Agnish/oma,p.403,n.). 
One Aytish/oma (Ukthya). ^ 30 days. 

One Da^aritra (the ten central days of | 
the Dvidariha, p. 402, note 2). J 
Mahivrata day. 
Udayaniya Atirdtra. 

In imitation of the retrograde course of the sun, the order of 
the performance during the second part of the year is, generally 
speaking, the reverse of that of the former half. 

' Ta etaw sha</bhir mSsair yanti, usmSt pzr&nio grahi grihyaate 
pariAjH stotrSffi parinii jastrini. Ta elam shash/Ae mdse ga^tianti 
tad etasya rfipam kriyate. Kinva text. 

' Viz. the Atigr4hya cup to Sftrya (IV, 5, 4, 2 seq.), which has 



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428 jatapatha-brAhmatva. 

2. He thus takes it therefrom with (V^. S. VIII, 
41; Rig-veda I, 50, i)\ 'The lights bear on high 
that divine knower of beings, Sflrya, that all 
may see him ! — Thou art drawnwith a support : 
thee to Sfirya for splendour! — This is thy 
womb : thee to S6rya for splendour!' 

Third Brahmaj?a. 

1. Now as to the manner of animal offerings. 
One may perform with the (ordinary) set of eleven 
victims. He seizes one for Agni as the first victim, 
and one for Varu»a (as the last) ; then again one for 
Agni : in this way let him perform with the set of 
eleven victims ^. 

2. Or one may day after day seize a victim for 
Indra and Agni ; for all the gods are Agni, since in 
Agni offering is made to all the deities ; and Indra is 
the deity of the sacrifice : thus he neither offends any 
of the deities, nor does he offend him who is the deity 
of the sacrifice. 

3. Then as to the manner (of animal offering) in 
accordance with the Stoma*. At the Agnish/oma 

to be drawn on the Vishu vant or middle day of the Gavim ayana ; 
an animal sacrifice to the same deity being ako prescribed. 

' The Kinvz text allows the alternative mantra, Rig-veda 1, 50, 3 ; 
V^. S. VIII, 40, Adrwram asya ketava^, &c. See IV, 5, 4, 11. 

* See III, 9, I, 5 seq. He is to sacrifice one victim each day, 
and if after the eleventh day, the performance is to go on (as at 
the DvSdajaha), he is to begin anew with the first victim of 
the ekddafint. According to the Ka«va text and KSty. XII, 6, 17 
he is on such an odd day to immolate all the remaining victims of 
the set of eleven. Thus on the last (twelfth) day of the Dvidadiha 
— the Udayaniya Atirdtra — he would have to sacrifice the entire 
set of eleven victims. 

' I. e. the particular form of the (7yotish/oma, which is being 
performed. 



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IV KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAhMAJ^TA, I. 429 

let him seize a (victim) for Agni ; for it is befitting 
that at the Agnish/oma (' Agni's praise ') he should 
seize a victim for Agni. If it be an Ukthya sacrifice, 
let him seize as the second (victim) one for Indra 
and Agni, for the hymns (uktha)' belong to Indra 
and Agni. If it be a Shodiafin sacrifice, let him 
seize as the third (victim) one for Indra ; for the 
Sho</ayin (graha) is Indra. If it be an Atir&tra, let 
him seize as the fourth (victim) one for Sarasvatl ; 
for Sarasvatl is Viut (speech), and V^ is a female, 
and so is r&tri (fem., * night ') female. Thus he duly 
distinguishes between the sacrificial performances. 
Such are the three manners (of animal offering) : 
he may perform in whichever manner he pleases. 
Two victims must needs be seized, — for Sflrya he 
seizes the second on the Vishuvant day, and for 
Pra^pati at the Mahivrata. 

Fourth Brahma^a. 

I. Then as to the Mahivratfya (graha)*. Now 
when Pra^pati had created the living beings, his 

' That is, the hymns of the Rig-veda, the single collections of 
which begin with the hymns to Agni, followed by those to Indra. 
The 'ukthSni' here can scarcely refer to the three additional 
jastras of the Ukthya sacrifice, as they are composed of hymns to 
Indra-Vanwa, Indra-Brtliaspati, and Indra-Vish«u respectively. 
Ajv. ^r. VI, I ; Ait Br. Ill, 50. Cp. IV, a, 5, 14. 

• The drawing of this cup forms part of the performance of the 
last but one day of the Gav4m ayana, the so-called Mahdvrata 
(great vow) day, on which the following particulars are supplied by 
Kdtyiyana XIII, 2, 16 seq. The particular form of sacrifice pre- 
scribed for the day is the Ag^ish/oma. A victim to Pra^apati is 
to be immolated. The Mahdvrattya-graha is drawn as an addi- 
tional libation (like the AtigrShyas, IV, 5, 4, 2). The signal for 
the chanting of the Pr;'sh/^a-stotras is given by (a Brihman) play- 
ing, with a rattan plectrum, on a harp with a hundred strings of 



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430 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

joints were relaxed : with his relaxed joints he was 
unable to raise himself. Then the gods went on 
praising and toiling. They saw this Mahivrattya 
(cup) and drew it for him : thereby they restored his 
joints. 

2. With his joints thus restored, he approached 
this food, what food of Pra^pati there is, — for what 
eating is to men, that the vrata (fast-food, or religious 
observance generally) is to the gods. And because 
(they say), 'Great, indeed, is this vrata whereby he has 
raised himself,' therefore it is called Mahivratlya. 

3. Now, even as Prs^pati then was, when he had 
created the living beings, so are those who sit (in 
sacrificial session) for a year ; and as Pra^pati then, 
after a year, approached food, so do they now, after a 
year, approach food, for whomsoever that knows this, 
they draw that cup. 

4. Let him draw it for Indra Vimrtdh (the Averter 
of scorn), for, verily, the scorners of those who sit for 

M»ng?t. grass. During the chanting and recitation, the UdgStn sits 
on an ann-chair, the Hotr>' on a hammock or swing, the Adbvaryu 
on a board, and the other priests on cushions of grass. Then 
follow several curious ceremonies, performed partly inside and partly 
outside the Vedi. The performance of the Sattra is alternately 
lauded and vituperated by two persons [the one, a Br&bman, seated 
at the front door of the Sadas ; the other, a S^dra, at the back door ; 
both facing each other; — thus LS/y. IV, 3, according to which 
authority, however, they are merely to say respectively, • These 
Sattrins have not succeeded!' — 'They have succeeded I*] At 
the same time a harlot and a theological student (brahma^jiirin) 
upbraid one another (in front of the Agnldhrtya fire shed) ; while 
(south of the Mir^Iiya) a sham contest takes place between an 
Arya (Vaijya) and a i'fldra for the possession of a round white 
skin, the S&dia. having to give in (after the third effort, when the 
Arya beats him with the skin). Thereupon a couple is shut up in 
an enclosed space south of the Mir^iya (or behind the Agn!- 
dhriya, LS/y.) for maithuna. 



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IV KANDA, 6 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 6. 431 

a year are smitten, and all is won by them : hence 
for Indra Vimn'dh,— with (Vif. S. VIII, 44; Rig- 
veda X, 152, 4), 'Scatter thou our scorners, O 
Indra, lay them low that war against us, and 
send them, that persecute us, to the nether- 
most darkness! — Thou art taken with a sup- 
port: thee to Indra Vimrii'dh! — This is thy 
womb: thee to Indra Yimrt'dhV 

5. Or for Vijvakarman (the All-worker), for all 
work is done, everything is won by those who sit in 
session for a year: hence for Vi,rvakarman, — with 
(VAf. S. VIII, 45 ; Rig-veda X, 81, 7), ' Vfi/^aspati 
Vijvakarman, the thought-speeder', let us 
invoke for protection in our struggle' this 
day: may he, the all-beneficient worker of 
good, delight in all our offerings' for our pro- 
tection ! — Th ou art taken with a support : thee 
to Indra Vijvakarman*! — This is thy womb: 
thee to Indra Vi^vakarman!' 

6. But if he knows the (verse) referring to Indra 
(and) Vijvakarman, let him draw it thus* (V5^. S. 
VIII, 46), ' O Vijvakarman, with strengthening 
libation madest thou Indra an invincible 
champion : to him did the people bow down of 

' Or, the thought-swift (mancsg^). 

• For the different meanings of 'v3^' see Max MQUer, 'India, 
what can it teach us?' p. 164. 

' Or, in all our invocations (havana). 

• The identification of Vijvakarman with Indra was probably 
suggested by the final pSda of the preceding verse of the hymn 
(Rig-veda X, 81, 6) : ' May there be (or may he, Vijvakarman, be) 
for us a Sflri Maghavan' (a rich patron ; terms frequently applied to 
Indra). But cp. Muir, O. S. T. vol. iv, p. 7. 

• The KS«va text does not give the verse, but remarks merely, — 
But if he can get (vindet) an aindrt valrvakarmani (verse), let him 
draw it therewith. 



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432 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJV A. 

old, because' he, the mighty, is worthy of 
adoration. — Thou art taken with a support: 
thee to Indra Vi^vakarman! — This is thy 
womb; thee to Indra Vi^vakarman! ' 

Fifth BrAhma;va. 

1. Now the graha^ forsooth, is he that burns 
yonder, since by him all these creatures are held 
(swayed). Hence they say, 'We take (grah) the 
grahas,' ' They walk, seized by the grahas.' 

2. The graha, forsooth, is W^ (speech); for by 
speech everything is swayed (grah) here*, — what 
wonder, then *, that Vtk is the graha ? 

3. The graha, forsooth, is the name, for everything 
is held (fixed) by a name here, — ^what wonder, then, 
that the name is the graha } We know the names of 
many, and are they not thereby held by us* ? 

' I see no other way of rendering ' yathi-asat ' in this passage. 

' That is, the seizer, holder, swayer. According to the St 
Petersb. Diet, the word ' graha ' probably has not already in this 
passage the later meaning of 'planet' as the one holding or in- 
fluencing man; but that of some demoniac being. The whole 
Brihmana is a play on the word ' graha ' in its active and passive 
meanings of seizer, holder, influence; and draught, Hbation. The 
corresponding Brihmawa of the Ki«va text (V, 7, i) diflfers widely 
from our text. Its general drift fe as follows : The graha is the 
breath, — the graha of that breath is food, — the graha of that food 
is the water, — the graha of that water is fire, — the graha of the fire 
(Agni) is the breath, — thus the deities are seized by him, and he 
wins a place in the world of the deities. 

' Perhaps with the double- entendre, ' everything (libation &c.) is 
drawn with speech here.' 

* ? Kimu tad yad vag graha/i. The usual meaning of kim u, 
' how much more,' ' still more so,' seems hardly to suit this passage. 

' ? Or, ' are not those of us (that have a name) held (ktiown) 
thereby ?' In either case, however, the interrogative force of ' atha,' 
without any other particle, is rather unusual. 



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IV KktfDA, 6 adhyAya, 6 brAhma:va, 5. 433 

4. The graha, forsooth, is food ; for by food every- 
thing is kept (grah) here : hence as many as eat our 
food, all those are kept by us. Such is the natural 
order of things. 

5. And as to this graha of Soma, that is food ; for 
whatever deity one draws this graha, that deity, 
being seized by this graha, fulfils that wish of his 
for which he draws it. He approaches either the 
rising or the setting sun, thinking, 'Thou art the 
seizer, seize thou N.N. by such and such a disease ! 
may N.N. not obtain such and such !' (naming) him 
whom he hates ; or with, ' May such and such a wish 
not be fulfilled to him !' and, assuredly, that wish is not 
fulfilled to him for whom he thus approaches (the sun). 

Sixth BrAhmajva, 

1. Now once on a time the gods, while performing 
sacrifice, were afraid of an attack from the Asura- 
Rakshas. They said, 'Who of us shall sit on the 
south side ; we will then enter upon the sacrifice on 
the north side in a place free from danger and injury.' 

2. They said, ' He who is the strongest of us, let 
him sit on the south side ; we will then enter upon 
the sacrifice on the north side in a place free from 
danger and injury.' 

3. They said, ' Verily, Indra is the strongest of us : 
let Indra sit on the south side ; we will then enter upon 
the sacrifice on the north side in a place free from 
danger and injury.' 

4. They said to Indra, * Verily, thou art the 
strongest of us : sit thou on the south side ; we will 
then enter upon the sacrifice on the north side 
in a place free from danger and injury.' 

5. He said, 'What will be my reward then?' — 
' The office of Brihma«d>f>4a»/sin shall be thine, the 

[26] F f 

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434 a'ATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

Brahmasdman ^ shall be thine ! ' — Hence one elects 
the Brdhmawi^^awsin with, ' Indra is the Brahman, 
by virtue of the Brahmaship ! ' for to Indra belongs 
this (office). Indra sat on the south side, and they 
entered upon the sacrifice on the north side in a place 
free from danger and injury. Therefore let him who 
is the strongest sit on the south side, and let them 
then enter upon the sacrifice on the north side in a 
place free from danger and injury. Now he, for- 
sooth, who is the most learned of Brdhmans, is the 
strongest of them ; and as now any one is (able to 
become) a (superintendent) Brahman* — nay, does he 
not sit still ? — therefore whosoever is the strongest 

' That is, the SSman which supplies the text for the Stotra 
chanted in connection with the BrihmsM&Mhsjndn's .Sastra, and 
forming the Stotriya verse of the latter. Thus, at the midday 
savana, the (Prish/Aa.) Stotra of that priest usually consists of the 
Naudhasa-siman (Siraa-veda II, 35-36), if the Rathantara-sSman 
(Sdma-veda II, 30-31) is used for the Hotr;'s Stotra; but, if the 
Br«hat-sSman (ib. II, 159-160) is used for the latter, then the 
iyaita-siman (II, 161-2) is used as the Brahma-siman. See p. 339, 
note 2. The reason, however, why special mention is made of 
the Brahma»^^amsin in this place, probably is that at the Gavim 
ayana the Brahma-siman is treated in a peculiar way. For, while 
on 142 days of the first half of the year, — ^viz. on the ^aturvixwa, 
on all (6x23) Abhiplavika days and on the three Svara-sdman days, 
— one and the same tune, the Abhtvarta-s^man, is to be used day 
by day, but each time with a different pragitha stanza (thus the 
pragatha S. V. II, 35-36, usually chanted to the Naudhasa tune, 
being on this occasion chanted to the Abhivarta tune); on the 
corresponding days of the second half of the year, one and the 
same stanza, ' Indra kratuw na i bhara ' (S. V. II, 806-7), •* to b^ 
used day by day, but with different tunes (six such being given in 
the Calc. ed. vol. iv, pp. 529-34). T&ndya. Br. IV, 3, i seq. 

* According to XII, 6, i, 40 only priests of the VasishMa 
family could become Brahmans, or superintendent priests, in olden 
times ; because they alone knew the Somabhaga mantras ; but now 
every one learns them, and can therefore become a Brahman. 



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IV KANDA, 6 ADHVAVA, 6 BRAHMAATA, 8. 4^5 

of them, let him sit on the south side, and let them 
then enter upon the sacrifice on the north side in a 
place free from danger and injury. Hence Br&h- 
mans sit on the south side (of the vedi), and they 
enter upon the sacrifice on the north side in a place 
free from danger and injury. 

6. When (the Prastotrz) says, ' Brahman, we will 
chant, O Praydstar!' then the Brahman mutters 
(V^. S. II, 12), 'This thy sacrifice, O divine 
Savitar, have they announced unto Brt- 
haspati (the lord of prayer), the Brahman': 
therefore speed the sacrifice, speed the lord 
of the sacrifice, speed me^! — Praise ye at the 
impulse (prasava) of Savitre!' The significance 
is the same (as before)'. With this (text) most pro- 
bably enter upon (the chant). 

7. But one may also enter upon it with, 'O divine 
Savitar; this, O Br?haspati, forwards!' There- 
with he hastes to Savitr? for his impulsion, for he is 
the impeller (prasavitr«) of the gods ; and ' O Briha.- 
spati, forwards ! ' he says, because Br«haspati is the 
Brahman of the gods, — thus he announces it to him 
who is the Brahman of the gods : therefore he says, 
' O Brzhaspati, forwards * ! ' 

8. The Maitr^varuwa then mutters, 'Impelled 

' Mahidhara interprets, ' This sacrifice, O divine Savitar, they 
announce to thee and to Brtliaspati, the Brahman.' Perhaps the 
correct meaning (though not that assumed by the Brihmana) is, 
'This sacrifice they announce to thee as the BnTiaspati, the 
Brahman ! ' and similarly the mantra in the next paragraph. 

' The K4«va text adds here the verse V3^. S. II, 13 ; see S'at. 
Br. I, 7, 4, 22, with the same various reading '^otir.' 

' See I, 7, 4, 21. Asau nvaivaitasya ya^sho bandhur ya evisau 
dar^apiirnamtsayo^ ; Kinva, text. 

* On 'pra' see part i, p. 10 1 note. 

F f 2 



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436 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

by the divine Savitr?, acceptable to Mitra 
andVaru«a!' Therewith he hastes to SavitW for 
his impulsion, for he is the impeller of the gods ; and 
' acceptable to Mitra and Varu«a ' he says, because 
Mitra and Varu»a are the deities of the MaitrS- 
varu«a (Pras^strf), — thus he announces it to those 
who are the deities of the Maitrivaru«a : therefore 
he says, ' acceptable to Mitra and Varu»a.' 

Seventh BrAhmajva. 

1. Threefold, forsooth, is science; the Jit^s, the 
Ya^us, and the Simans. The Jit^s are this (earth), 
since it is thereon that he who sings them, does sing 
them ; the Jit^s are speech, since it is by speech that 
he who sings them, does sing them. And the Ya^s, 
forsooth, are the air, and the S&mans the sky. That 
same threefold science is used in the Soma-sacrifice. 

2. By the Jitk he conquers this world, by the 
Yci^s the air, and by the Sdman the sky. There- 
fore whosoever has learnt one of these sciences, let 
him endeavour to learn also what is contained in the 
two others : by the Jitk, forsooth, he conquers this 
world, by the Ya^s the air, and by the Saman the sky. 

3. This, then, is the thousandfold progeny of V&i 
(speech) ^. Indra (obtained for his share) two-thirds, 
and Vish«u one-third*: the Ht^s and Simans are 
Indra, and the Yafus are Vish«u. Therefore in the 
Sadas they perform (the ^Jastras and Stotras) with 
the Jit^ and Sdman, for the Sadas is Indra's own. 

4. And by means of these Ya^s they, as it were, 
bring forward (puras) that Vish«u, the sacrifice : hence 
the name ' p\ira.skara.m ' (preparatory ceremony). 

• See IV, 5, 8, <. 

' Thus according to the KS«va text, — dvau bhSgdv indro 
'bhsi^taikam vishnU't. 



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IV KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 7 BRAhMAA'A, 9. 437 

5. Both the Jitis and the Simans are Speech, and 
the Yc^s are the Mind. Now wherever this Speech 
was, there everything was done, everything was 
known ; but wherever Mind was, there nothing what- 
ever was done, nothing was known, for no one knows 
(understands) those who think in their mind. 

6. The gods said to Speech, ' Go thou forward 
and make this known ! ' She said, ' What will be 
my reward then ? ' — ' Whatever in the sacrifice is 
offered with Svihi, and without Vasha/, that shall 
be thine!' Hence whatever in the sacrifice is 
offered with Svdhd, and without Vasha/, that belongs 
to Speech. She then went forward and made that 
known, saying, ' Do this so ! do this so !' 

7. Therefore they also perform with the Jit^ in 
the Havirdhfina : he (the Hotrt) recites the morning 
prayer, he recites the kindling-verses; he (the Gri- 
vastut) praises the pressing-stones, — for thus, in- 
deed, they (Speech and Mind) became yoke-fellows. 

8. And hence they also perform with the Ya^s 
in the Sadas : they raise up the Udumbara post, 
they erect the Sadas, they throw up the dhish«ya 
hearths, — for thus they became yoke-fellows. 

9. That same Sadas they enclose on all sides with 
a view to that generation, thinking, ' Quite secretly 
shall be carried on that generation ! ' for improper, 
indeed, is the generation which another sees : hence 
even when a husband and wife are seen, while carry- 
ing on intercourse, they run away from each other, 
for they give offence. Therefore to any one looking 
into the Sadas, except through the door, let him say, 
' Look not ! ' for it is as if he were seeing intercourse 
being carried on. Freely (one may look) through the 
door, for the door is made by the gods. 



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438 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAJ?A. 

10. In like manner they enclose the Havirdhina 
on all sides with a view to that generation, thinking, 
' Quite secretly this generation shall be carried on !' 
for improper, indeed, is the generation which another 
sees : hence even when a husband and wife are seen, 
while carrying on intercourse, they run away from each 
other, for they give offence. Therefore to any one 
looking into the Havirdhdna, except through the door, 
let him say, ' Look not!' for it is as if he were seeing 
intercourse being carried on. Freely (one may look) 
through the door, for the door is made by the gods. 

11. Now there, in the Sadas, that male, the 
S&man, longs after the female, the Rik, From that 
generation Indra was produced : from fire, indeed, fire 
is produced, viz. Indra from the Rik and the Sdman ; 
for Indra they call him that burns yonder (the sun). 

12. And there, in the Havirdhina, that male, the 
Soma, longs after the female, the water. From that 
generation the moon was produced : from food, in- 
deed, food is produced, viz. the moon from water 
and Soma ; for the moon is the food of him that 
burns yonder*. Hence he thereby produces the 
sacrificer, and for him he produces food : from the 
Rik and SAman he produces the sacrificer, and from 
water and Soma he produces food for him. 

1 3. Now with the Ya^s the gods first performed 
sacrifice, then with the Rik, then with the SSman ; 
and in like manner do they now perform the sacrifice, 
first with the Yc^s, then with the Rik, then with 
the Sdman ; for Yj^s, they say, is the same as 
Ya^s (worship). 

14. Now when the gods milked (the objects of) 
their wishes from these sciences, the Ya^s science 

' See I, 6, 4, 13 seq. 



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IV KANDA, 6 ADHYAvA, J BRAHMAi^TA, 1 9. 439 

milked most wishes. It became, as it were, emptied 
the most ; it was not equal to the other two sciences, — 
the air-world was not equal to the two other worlds. 

15. The gods desired, 'How can this science be- 
come equal to the other two sciences ; how can the 
air-world become equal to the two other worlds ? ' 

16. They said, ' Let us perform in a low voice 
with the Ya^s : then that science will become 
equal to the other two sciences ; then the air-world 
will become equal to the two other worlds ! ' 

1 7. They performed with them in a low voice, and 
thereby strengthened them ; and henceforth that 
science was equal to the other two sciences, and the 
air-world was equal to the two other worlds. 
Therefore the Ycigus, while being distinct, are yet 
indistinct ; and therefore the air-world, while being 
distinct, is yet indistinct (indefinable). 

18. He who performs with the Yjifus in a low 
voice, strengthens them ; and they, thus strengthened, 
strengthen him. But he who performs in a loud voice, 
weakens them, and, being weak, they weaken him. 

19. The Jit^s and S&mans, forsooth, are speech, 
and the Ya^us are the mind ; and so those who per- 
form with the J^t& and Siman are speech, and 
those who perform with the Yzi^s are the mind. 
Hence nothing whatever is done, unless ordered by 
the Adhvaryu : when the Adhvaryu says, ' Recite 
(the invitatory prayer) ! Pronounce the offering 
prayer ! ' then those who perform with the Jit'jt per- 
form it. And when the Adhvaryu says, ' Soma be- 
cometh pure : turn ye back ^ ! ' then those who per- 
form with the Sdman perform it, — for speech speaks 
not but what is conceived by the mind. 

» See IV, 2, 5, 8. 

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440 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA. 

20. Thus, then, the Adhvaryu, the mind, walks, as 
it were, in front (puraf-^arati) : hence the name ' pura- 
j^ara«a ' ; ' and verily, he who knows this, stands, as 
it were, in front through prosperity and glory. 

21. Now that same pura5>fcira«a (going before) is 
nothing else than yonder burning (sun) : one ought 
to perform in accordance with his (the sun's) course. 
When he (the Adhvaryu) has "drawn a cup of Soma, 
let him turn round in accordance with his course; 
when he has responded (to the Hot^e's recitation), 
let him turn round in accordance with his course ; 
when he has offered a graha, let him turn round in 
accordance with his course: he (the sun), verily, 
is the supporter; and whosoever, knowing this, is 
able to perform in accordance with his course, he, 
forsooth, is able to support his dependants *. 

. Eighth BRAHMAivA. 

I. Now the consecration-ceremony' (for the sacri- 
ficial session) is a sitting down, is a session (sattra) : 
hence they say of them, 'they sit.' And when 
thereafter they perform the sacrifice, then they 
(under)go ; then he, who is the leader, leads : hence 
they say of them, ' they (under)go *.' 

* That is, preparation, preparatory ceremony; — and hence also 
the ' taking the lead, being the precursor.' 

* In the Kinva. text this is the last Brahmana of the (fifth) 
KSMda. 

' For the Dikshi see III, i, i, i seq. In the K&ava, text I 
have found nothing corresponding to the present Brdhma«a. 

* That is to say, the verb ' i ' (to go ; more especially its com- 
pound upa-i, to undergo, go through, undertake) is used of sacri- 
ficial performances in the Sattra lasting for twelve (pressing) days 
and upward, to distinguish the latter from the abina-sacrifices, 
lasting for from two to twelve (pressing) days. 



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IV KANDA, 6 adhyAva, 8 brAhmaaa, 5. 441 

2. The consecration-ceremony, then, is a sitting 
down, it is a session, it is an (under)going, it is the 
(under)going of a session. And when afterwards, 
having reached the end of the sacrifice, they rise, 
that is ' the rising : ' hence they say of them, ' They 
have risen.' So much, then, for preliminary remark. 

3. Now those who are about to consecrate them- 
selves settle (the time and place) between them. If 
they intend to construct a fire-altar, they take up 
their (ordinary sacrificial) fires on churning-sticks ' 
and betake themselves together to where they are 
about to perform the animal offering to Pra^pati. 
Having churned (the fire), and put fire-wood on, 
they take out the Ahavaniya fire, and perform that 
animal offering to Pr^lpati. 

4. Its head they keep*. If their consecration 
does not fall upon that same day (of the animal 
offering), then, taking up the fires (again) on the 
churning-sticks, they disperse to their several 
(homes) and perform the (daily) offerings. 

5. But if their consecration falls upon that same 
day, then, taking up the fires (ag^in) on the churning- 
sticks, they betake themselves to where they intend 
to perform the consecration-ceremony. The Grtha.- 
pati' churns (his fire) first somewhere about the 
centre of the hall ; and one half of the others settle 
down south and one half north of him. Having 



* That is to say, they hold their churning-sticks to the fires to 
get warm ; see part i, p. 396, note i, 

* The head of the victim (or victims, see VI, 2, i seq.) wQl have 
to be put in the bottom layer of the fire-altar, to impart stability 
to the latter. 

* See p. 97, note i. At a Sattra the GriTiapati, as well as all 
the other rtXvig, should be a Brdhman; KSty. I, 6, 13-16. 



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442 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAW A. 

churned (their fires), and put on fire-wood, they take 
one fire-brand each and betake themselves together 
to the Gr?hapati's Girhapatya fire. Having taken out 
the Ahavanfya from the Gr«hapati's G&rhapatya, 
they perform the consecration-ceremony. They 
have one and the same Ahavanfya, but different 
Gcirhapatyas, during the consecration and the 
Upasads '. 

6. Then, on whatever day their purchase (of Soma- 
plants) takes place, on that day he raises the Girha- 
patya hearth; and on the Upavasatha day* the 
dhish«ya hearths for the others. At the time of 
the Vaisargina' offerings, the wives come forward 
together; and they (the sacrificers) abandon those 
other (Girhapatya) fires *. As soon as the Vaisar^na 
offering has been performed, — 

7. He leads forward the king (Soma). That 
Agnldhrlya fire has just been taken up on the sup- 
port *, when they take one fire-brand each (from the 
fire at the hall-door) and disperse to their several 
dhish»ya hearths : ' They who do so,' said Yi^»a- 
valkya, ' slay with those fire-brands of theirs.' This 
now is one way. 

* At Sattras there are usually twelve Upasad days. See p. 105, 
note I. Ait. Br. IV, 24 enjoins twelve days for the Dtkshd and as 
many for the Upasads of the Dvdda^ha. KSty. XII, 1,19; 2, 14 
gives no special rule regarding the duration of the Dikshi, but 
enjoins twelve Upasads. See also Li/y. Ill, 3, 27; Asv. VI, i, 2. 

' The day before the first pressing day. 
' See III, 6, 3, I seq. 

* Or, those minor (? western) fires, viz. they extinguish those 
south and north of the Grihapati's Girhapatya, or (optionally) also 
the latter, it being again supplied by the fire-brand from the 
i'aiadvSrya fire. Cf. Kity. XII, i, 25-26. 

* See III, 6, 3, 9 seq. 



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IV kXnda, 6 adhyAya, 8 brAhmajva, 12. 443 

8. Then there is this second. Having taken up 
their fires on churning-sticks, they betake themselves 
to where they intend to perform the animal offering 
to Pra^pati. Having churned (the fire), and put 
on (fire-wood), they take out the Ahavanlya and per- 
form that animal offering to Pra/ipati. 

9. Its head they keep. If their consecration does 
not fall upon the same day, then, taking up the 
fires (again) on the churning-sticks, they disperse to 
their several (homes), and perform (the ordinary) 
offerings. 

10. But if their consecration falls upon the same 
day, then, taking up the fires (again) on the 
churning-sticks, they betake themselves to where 
they intend to perform the consecration-ceremony. 
The Gr^hapati churns first, and then the others 
churn, seated round about him, and throw each the 
(fire) produced by him on the Grzhapati's Girha- 
patya. Having taken out the Ahavanlya from the 
Gr^hapati's Girhapatya, they perform the Dlkshd. 
Theirs is the same Ahavanlya and the same Girha- 
patya during the consecration and the Upasads. 

1 1. Then, on whatever day their purchase (of 
Soma-plants) takes place, on that day he piles up the 
G4rhapatya hearth, and on the Upavasatha day the 
dhish«ya hearths for the others. At the time of the 
Vaisar/ina offerings the wives come forward to- 
gether ; they (the sacrificers) abandon that (common 
Girhapatya) fire. As soon as the Vaisar^na offer- 
ing has taken place, — 

12. He leads forward the king. That Agnldhrlya 
fire has just been taken up on the support, when they 
take one fire-brand each and disperse to their several 
dhish^^ya hearths. But those who do it thus, raise 



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444 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

lip Strife, and strife comes upon them ; they become 
contentious, and, moreover, strife comes upon that 
community where they sacrifice. This is the second 
way. 

13. Then there is this third. They commune with 
each other over the Gr^Tiapati's churning-sticks, — 
' What fire shall be produced therefrom, be that ours 
in common ! what we shall gain by this sacrifice, by 
this animal offering, be that ours in common ! In 
common be our good work ! whosoever shall do evil, 
be that his alone 1 ' Having thus spoken, the Grz- 
hapati first takes up (the fire on the churning-sticks) 
for himself, then he takes it up for the others, or 
they take it ' up for themselves. They betake them- 
selves to where they intend to perform the animal 
offering to Pra^pati. Having churned (the fire) 
and put on (fire-wood), they take out the Ahavantya 
and perform that animal offering to Pra^pati. 

14. Its head they keep. If their consecration 
does not fall on the same day, then, taking up 
(again) the fires on the churning-sticks, they disperse 
to their several (homes), and perform (the ordinary) 
offerings. 

1 5. But if their consecration falls on the same day, 
they commune with each other over the G/'^'hapati's 
churning-sticks, — ' What fire shall be produced there- 
from, be that ours in common ! what we shall gain 
by this sacrifice, by this session, be that ours in 
common! In common be our good work! Whoso- 
ever shall do evil, be that his alone ! ' Having thus 
spoken, the Gr^Tiapati first takes up (the fire) on the 
churning-sticks for himself, then he takes it up for 

^ Or, according to Kdty. XII, 3, 8-9, each takes up two fires, 
viz. his own and that of the GnTiapati. 



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IV kAjvda, 6 adhyAya, 8 brAhmaa'a, i8. 445 

the others, or they take it up for themselves. They 
betake themselves to where they intend to perform 
the consecration-ceremony. Having churned (the 
fire) and put on (fire-wood), they take out the 
Ahavanlya and perform the consecration-ceremony. 
Theirs is the same Ahavanlya and the same G4rha- 
patya during the consecration arid the Upasads. 

16. And on whatever day their purchase (of Soma- 
plants) takes place, on that day he piles up the G4r- 
hapatya hearth, and on the Upavasatha day the 
dhish»ya hearths for the others. At the time of 
the Vaisai^na offerings the wives come forward 
together; and they (the sacrificers) abandon that 
(Girhapatya) fire. As soon as the Vaisar^na offer- 
ing has been performed, — 

17. He leads forward the king. That Agnldhrlya 
fire has just been taken up on the support, when 
they take one fire-brand each and disperse to their 
several dhish«ya hearths. Thus is this done, and 
not (left) undone. The reason why they have dif- 
ferent dhish«yas, is that there may be wider space 
for moving about; and why they have different 
purodflras \ is that more sacrificial food may be left 
over for completeness. 

18. Now then the sacrificial session is explained, 
whereby the gods quickly drove out evil, and gained 
the supreme authority which they now wield : having 
one Grzhapati, one purod&sa., one dhish»ya, they 
quickly drove out mischief and quickly were born 
again. And in like manner will these (sacrificers), 
by having one Gr^hapati, one pxirod&Sdi, one dhish- 
«ya, quickly drive out evil and be born again. 

' The usual Savanija-purorflras (III, 8, 3, i) are to be offered 
separately on each fire. 



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446 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

19. Now, in that former case, there is a hall with 
the roof-beams running from south to north S — that 
is human practice. There are one and the same 
Ahavanlya, and different Gdrhapatyas — that is dis- 
similar. On the Grthapati's GArhapatya they per- 
form the Patnlsawy^i^s with the tail (of the victim), 
and the others sit offering in response with ghee — 
that is dissimilar. 

20. But here there is a hall with the roof-beams 
running from west to east* ; that is as with the gods. 
There are the same Ahavanlya, the same Girha- 
patya, and the same Agnldhrlya : thus this sacrificial 
session is successful, even as the one day's Soma- 
sacrifice was successful, there is no failure for it 
Its course is one and the same in everything except 
the dhish«yas. 

Ninth BRAHMAiVA. 

1. Now, once on a time, the gods were sitting* 
in a sacrificial session, thinking, ' May we attain 
excellence, may we be glorious, may we be eaters 
of food ! ' That same food, gained by them, wished 
to go away from them, — and, food being cattle, 
it was the cattle that wished to go away from 
them, thinking, 'It is to be feared lest they, being 
exhausted, may hurt us* : how, indeed, will they deal 
with us ? ' 

2. They offered these two oblations in the GSr- 

• Viz. the Sadas, see p. 128, note i. 

" As in the case of the 'Pi&itna.-v&msz of ordinary ish/is. See 
III, I, I, 6-7. 

• The KinvA text has nisheduA, * they sat down.' See IV, 
6, 8, I. 

' See p. 31, note i. 



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IV KAJVDA, 6 ADUYAya, 9 BRAhMAIVA, 7, 447 

hapatya; and — the GArhapatya being a house 
(griha), and a house being a resting-place — they 
thereby secured them in the house, and thus that 
food, gained by them, did not go away from them. 

3. And in like manner do these 6'attrins now sit 
through a sacrificial session, thinking, ' May we attain 
excellence, may we be glorious, may we be eaters of 
food!' That food, gained by them, wishes to go 
away from them, — ^and, food being cattle, it is the 
cattle that wish to go away from them, thinking, ' It 
is to be feared lest they, being exhausted, may hurt 
us : how, indeed, will they deal with us ?' 

4. They offer these two oblations ' in the Gdrha- 
patya ; and — the G4rhapatya being a house, and the 
house being a resting-place — they thereby secure 
them in the house, and thus that food, gained by 
them, does not go away from them. 

5. And in like manner that offered food wishes to 
go away from him, thinking, ' It is to be feared lest 
this one will hurt me : how, indeed, will he deal 
with me ? ' 

6. He first eats a very little from the further 
(back) end of it ; — thereby he encourages it : it 
knows, 'It was not so as I thought: he has in no 
wise hurt me.' Thus it becomes attached to him, 
and, indeed, whosoever, knowing this, is able to 
observe the vow thereof, he becomes an eater of 
food, dear to food. 

7. This, then, is done at the Sattrotthfina (rising 
from the session) on the tenth day^. Each of them 

* Viz. those referred to in paragraphs 8 and 9. 

* That is, on the tenth day of the Da^ar&tra, and hence either 
the last but one day of the sessional DvSdariha (p. 402, note 2), or 
the last day but two of the Gavdm ayana (p. 426, note 3), called 



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448 satapatha-brAhmajva, 

sits speechless, strengthening his voice' : with that 
(voice) strengthened and reinvigorated they perform 
the last day. Then the others are dismissed, either 
(for) fetching fuel or to their day's reading of the 
scriptures. Now also they take food. 

8. In the afternoon, having come together and 
touched water, they enter the ladies' hall*, and 
while the others hold on to him from behind, he' 

Avivikya. The ceremonies here described take place in the after- 
noon, after the regular performance of that day's (atyagnish/oma) 
Soma-sacrifice. 

' ' Each of them (? or, one by one), speech-bound, guards Soma 
till the wakening,' Kity. XII, 4, i. According to the Ka«va text 
only one (eko haishim) does so (but perhaps at a time), while the 
others disperse (vitish/Aante). 

' The Patnifdla seems to be identical here with the PrSiina- 
vazwa (see KSty. XII, 4, 7), unless it be some shed or tent adjoining 
the latter, cf. Apast. St. X, 5, comm. The sacrificial formula of the 
first offering seems to refer to the domestic hearth, the centre of the 
family Fife, as a source of joy and strength to the householder. 

. ' According to the KSwva text, the Adhvaryu makes the obla- 
tions; but if he does not know how to perform them (i.e. if they 
are not recognised by his school as belonging to the Adhvaryu's 
duties), the Gr/Tiapati does so ; and if he cannot do so, any one 
that knows them, may perform them. Regarding these oblations, 
and the order of the subsequent ceremonies, there is indeed con- 
siderable difference of opinion among the ritualistic authorities. 
According to Asv. VIII, 13, 1-2 all of them offer, but only the first 
oblation is to be performed on the Garhapatya, and the second on 
the Agnidhriya. Ld/y. Ill, 7, 8 seq., on the other hand, enjoins 
the Udgitr*' to perform two oblations on the Garhapatya ; the first 
with the (somewhat modified) formula, assigned in our text to the 
second oblation, while the second oblation is to be made with 
' Svihi ' simply. [The first of the above formulas is, according to 
that authority, to be used by them, when they touch the Udumbara 
post, see IV, 6, 9, 23.] The oblations completed, they are to pro- 
ceed to the Ahavantya, where the UdgStr»s are to chant thrice the 
SSman II, 1126 (?); after which they enter the Sadas to perform 
the Mdnasa-stotra. 



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IV kInda, 6 adhyAya, 9 brAhmava, 12. 449 

offers (on the ^S^Udvdrya fire) those two oblations ; 
(the first) with (V^. S. VIII, 51), 'Here is joy: 
here rejoice ye! here is stability, here is (your) 
own stability, — Hail I ' He thereby addresses the 
cattle ; they thereby secure cattle for themselves. 

9. And the second he offers with, ' Letting the 
sucking calf to the mother,' — ^he means to say by 
this, ' letting the fire go to the earth ;' — ' a sucking 
calf drinking from the mother,' — he thereby 
means the fire sucking the (moisture of the) earth ; 
— 'may he maintain increase of wealth among 
us, — Hail !' increase of wealth is cattle : they thus 
secure cattle for themselves. 

10. They go out eastward, and enter the (shed of 
the) Havirdhina carts from behind towards the 
front; for from the front towards the back (they 
enter) when about to perform the sacrifice, but thus 
(it is done) at the rising from the session. 

11. On the hinder shaft of the northern cart* they 
sing the S&man (V^. S. VIII, 52), called 'the 
completion of the session,' — there it is that they 
reach completeness ; or on the northern hip of the 
high altar ; but the other is the more usual, — 

12. That is, on the hinder shaft of the northern 
cart. 'We have gone to the light, we have 
become immortal,' — ^for they who sit through a 
sacrificial session become indeed the light, they 

' According to Kity. XII, 4, lo and comm., the southern shaft 
of the northern cart is intended. Similarly the Kd»va text, — while 
touching the right shaft of the northern cart he sings thereon the 
S&man 'the completion (success) of the session.' The words 
'sattrasya n'ddhi^' are doubtless the name of the Sdman, which 
has been erroneously made, with ' asi ' appended to it in the Mddhy. 
text of the Sa/nhitS, the beginning of the S&man. 
[36] G g 



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450 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

become immortal; — 'to the sky have we as- 
cended from the earth,' — for they who sit through 
a sacrificial session indeed ascend from the earth to 
the sky; — 'we have attained to the gods,' — for 
they indeed attain to the gods; — 'to heaven, to 
the light!' thrice they repeat the finale; for they 
indeed become (partakers of) heaven and bliss. 
Thus, whatever the nature of his Siman is, that 
they come to be who sit through a sacrificial session. 

13. They creeps along right under the axle of the 
southern cart : even as a snake frees itself from its 
skin, so do they free themselves from all evil. They 
creep along with an ati^i^andas verse ; for that, the 
ati^^andas (redundant metre), is all the metres; — 
thus evil does not overtake them : therefore they 
creep along with an ati^-^andas verse. 

14. They creep along with (V^. S. VIII, 53 ; 
Rig-veda I, 132, 6), *0 Indra and Parvata, 
leaders in battle, smite ye every one that wars 
against us, smite him with the thunderbolt! 
him that is hidden may it please in the far 
retreat which he hath reached: our foes, O 
hero, on all sides may the tearer tear to 
pieces, — on all sides!' 

15. They go out eastward, and enter the Sadas 
from the front towards the back ; for from the back 
towards the front (they do so) when about to per- 
form the sacrifice ; but thus (they do) at the rising 
from the session. 

16. They sit down by their several dhishwya- 
hearths. Now, once on a time, the pith of VtJk 
(speech) wished to desert the gods who had won it ; 
it tried to creep away along this earth, for Y^k is 

' See p. 299, note 2. 

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IV KANDA, 6 ADHyAyA, 9 BRAHMAiVA, 1 7. 45 I 

this earth : her pith are these plants and trees. By 
means of this S4man^ they overtook it, and, thus 
overtaken, it returned to them. Hence upwards on 
this earth grow the plants, and upwards the trees. 
And in like manner does the pith of V^ wish to 
desert these (sacrificers) who have won it, and tries 
to creep away along this earth, — for V^ is this 
earth : her pith are these plants and trees. By 
means of this Sdman they overtake it, and, thus 
overtaken, it returns to them. Hence upwards on 
this earth grow the plants, and upwards the trees. 

1 7. They chant verses of the queen of serpents ; 
for the queen of serpents is this earth : through her 
they thus obtain everything. The prelude is per- 
formed by (the Udg&tri) himself*, and the chant is 
not joined in (by the choristers % lest some one else 
overhear it. For he would cause (the performance) 
to be in excess were another to chant; he would 
cause an excess, were another to join in it ; he would 
cause an excess, were another to overhear it : there- 
fore the prelude is performed by (the Udgfitr/) him- 
self, and the chant is not joined in. 

' Viz. the so-called M&nasa-stotra (mental chant), Sdma-veda 
II, 726-8 (Rig-veda X, 189, 1-3, ascribed to the queen of serpents): 
'The spotted bull has come up, &c.,' performed inaudibly. In 
connection with this Stotra, an imaginary libation to Fra^pati- 
Vdyu is performed, everything connected with which, from the 
upikarana (or introduction, on the part of the Adhvaryu, see p. 401, 
note i) up to the bhaksha, or drinking of the cup by the priests, is 
done 'mentally' (that is, as would seem, by gestures merely). 
According to Ajv. II, 13, 6, however, the Hotr»' recites the same 
hymn in a low voice {uji&msu), but not inaudibly, as a .Sastra. But 
see p. 453, note i. 

* Not by the Prastotr», as is otherwise the casej see p. 310, 
note I. 

' See p. 311, note i. 

Gg2 



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452 ^ATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA. 

1 8. The Hotrt recites the Four-Hotr? formulas, 
whereby he follows up that chant by a ^astra '. If 
the Hotrt does not know them, let the Grzhapati 
recite them ; but it is the Hotrt' s recitation *. 

19. Then the Adhvaryu's response* is, 'These 
sacrificers have prospered: happiness hath 
accrued unto them !' whereby he bespeaks success 
to human speech. 

20. Thereupon they utter the Brahmodya* in 

* According to this (and T&ndyA Br. IV, 9, 13) it would seem 
that the Hotrt is not to recite the hymn of the Manasa-stotra, as 
prescribed by the Ait. Br. and Afv. 

' The ^aturhotr* formulas — so-called from four priests, Ag- 
ntdh, Adhvaryu, Hotr»', and Upavaktrt, being mentioned in them 
— are as follows : ' Their offering-spoon was (the power of) think- 
ing ; the ghee was thought ; the altar was speech ; the barhis was 
object of meditation ; the fire was intelligence ; the Agntdh was 
understanding; the oblation was breath; the Adhvaryu was the 
S&man ; the Hotr» was Va^aspati ; the Upavaktr/ was the mind ;' 
— at the end of each of these ten formulas the Adhvaryu, according 
to Afv., responds, ' Yea (om), Hotarl So (it is), O Hotarl' — (the 
Hotn proceeds), ' They forsooth took that (minasa) graha ; O 
VAfespati I O disposer (or decree), O name ! Let us praise thy 
name I Praise thou (and) by our name go to heaven ! What success 
the gods have obtained with Pra^pati as their gr/hapati, that 
success shall we obtain !' 

' ? That is, at the conclusion of the /4aturhotr«'-mantras. Afv., 
on the other hand, makes the Hotrt conclude the Brahmodya with 
the benediction, 'O Adhvaryu, we have succeeded!' to which the 
latter is to respond, ' We have succeeded, O Hotar I' 

* That is, a discussion, or disputation, regarding the nature 
of the Brahman. According to T&ndya. Br. IV, 9, 14, as inter- 
preted by the commentary, the performance consists rather in (or 
is followed by ?) vituperative remarks on Pra^ dpati, whom they have 
now safely got into their power (allusion being made, for instance, to 
his criminal relations to his daughter ; to his having created thieves, 
gad-flies and mosquitos, &c.) ; but this, it seems to me, is probably 
a wrong interpretation of the 'parivadanti' in the text, which may 
mean that ' they discourse ' upon Pra^pati. So also Kdty. XII, 4, 



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IV kXnDA, 6 ADHyAyA, 9 BRAHMAiVA, 21. 453 

(the form of a) dialogue. For everything, indeed, is 
obtained, everything gained by them that sit through 
a sacrificial session, — they have performed with 
YagvLS prayers : these have obtained so much, have 
acquired so much ; they have recited Jitk verses : 
these have obtained so much, have acquired so 
much ; they have chanted S&mans : these have 
obtained so much, have acquired so much. But this 
has not been obtained, this has not been acquired 
by them, namely, the (theological) discussion, the 
sacred discourse : this is what they thereby obtain, 
what they acquire. 

21. Having 'crept' up to the Udumbara post, 
they restrain their speech. Now, they who perform 
the sacrifice with speech, milk and suck out the 



21, Prs^fipater agu«SkhySnam, ' agu»a' may have to be taken in the 
sense of 'nirguwa' or 'nirgunatvam' (unqualifiedness, uncondi- 
tionedness), rather than in that of 'vice;' and it is worthy of note 
that the Prs^pati-tanu formulas, preceding the Brahmodya proper, 
consist chiefly in the enumeration of negative qualities. 'The 
twelve bodies of PrS^pati are qualified as follows : — the eater of 
food and the mistress of food ; the happy and glorious ; the abodeless 
and dauntless; the unattained and unattainable; the invincible 
and irresistible; the unpreceded and unmatched.' Then follows 
the Brahmodya : — 'Agni is the house-lord (gr/hapati),' so say some : 
' he is the house-lord of this world ;' — ' VSyu is the house-lord,' so 
say some : ' he is the house-lord of the airy region ; ' — yonder (sun), 
forsooth, is the house-lord : he who burns yonder, he is the lord, 
and the seasons are the house. Verily, to whatsoever (sacrificers) 
he becomes the gr/Tiapati, who knows that divine gnhapati, that 
gr/hapati prospers, and they, the sacrificers, prosper : to whatsoever 
(sacrificers) he becomes the gr/liapati, who knows the divine averter 
of evil, that gr<'hapati averts evil, and they, the sacrificers, avert evil I 
See Ait Br. V, 25. According to ksv., the Hotr» alone would 
seem to repeat the Brahmodya. The expression v&kov4kya (dia- 
logue) apparently refers to the controversial form of this discourse. 
See also A. Ludwig, Rig-veda, III, p. 390 seq. 



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454 5'atapatha-brAhmaa'A. 

sacrifice ; for sacrifice is speech. And previously to 
this, each of them sits speechless, strengthening his 
speech *, and with their speech thus strengthened 
and reinvigorated they perform the last day. But 
at this (disputation) the entire speech, thus obtained, 
becomes exhausted : that speech they all strengthen 
(by remaining) speechless, and with it thus strength- 
ened and reinvigorated they perform the Atirdtra *. 

22. They sit touching the Udumbara post', for 
strength is food, and the Udumbara tree is strength : 
with strength he thus invigorates speech. 

23. When the sun has set, they go out (of the 
Sadas) eastward, and sit down behind the Ahavanlya, 
in front of the Havirdhdna shed. Round them, 
sitting speechless, the Pratiprasthitre carries the 
Vasativarl water*. For whatever object they per- 
form the session, therewith let them release their 
speech. For in olden times the ^«his were wont 
to hold sacrificial sessions for certain objects, — '.such 
is our wish : may that be fulfilled !' And if they be 
desirous of different objects, desirous of subjects, 
desirous of offspring, desirous of cattle, — 

' The construction of the text is quite irregular, and I am by no 
means certain whether ' tim esh^m pur& ' should not be separated 
from what follows, and have the verbs 'viduhanti' and 'nirdha- 
yanti ' supplied after them, — That (speech) of theirs (they milk and 
suck out) before this. Each now sits speech-bound, strengthening 
his speech, &c. 

' That is, the last day of the DvSdajdha, or of the Gavdmayana, 
the so-called Udayaniya-atirdtra. 

' According to LSty. Ill, 8, n they form a circle roimd the 
Udumbara post and touch it, muttering the mantra, 'Here is stability, 
here is (our) own stability! Here is joy: here rejoice yel' or, 'In 
me is stability, in me is (your) own stability I in me is joy : in me 
rejoice yel' or both. See p. 448, note 3. 

* See III, 9, 2, I seq. 



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IV kXnda, 6 adhyAya, 9 brahmajva, 25. 455 

24, Let them release their speech with this (Vif. 
S. VIII, 53), 'Earth! Air! Sky!' Thus they 
render their speech auspicious by means of the 
truth, and with that auspicious (speech) they pray 
for blessings, — ' May we be abundantly supplied 
with offspring!' — thereby they pray for offspring ; 
— 'May we be abundantly supplied with men!' 
— thereby they pray for men ; — ' May we be 
abundantly supplied with food!' thereby they 
pray for prosperity. 

25. Thereupon the Grz'hapati, or whomsoever the 
Grehapati may call upon, recites the Subrahma«yi 
litany^. Some, indeed, recite the Subrahma»y4 
each separately ; but rather let the GnTiapati, or 
whomsoever the Gr^hapati may call upon, recite 
the Subrahma«yfi. Having desired an invitation 
to that (Atirdtra feast), they put kindling-sticks on 
the fire *. 

■ See III, 3, 4, 17 seq. 

' According to the comm. on Kity. XII, 4, 28 it is the reciter 
of the SubnJimawyd who, having said *0 Subrahma«y£, invite 
me thereto I' puts sticks on the fire. 



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INDEX TO PARTS I AND II. 

{KXNDAS I— IV.) 



I, Part I, page loi. 

abhighirana, I, 193. 

abhiplava-sha/&ba, II, 403. 

abhtvarta-saman, II, 434. 

abortion, causing of, II, 11. 

adibbya-graha, II, 434. 

Sddra plant, a sulMtitute for Soma- 
plants, II, 433. 

idhitaya^us, II, 30, 33, 33. 

adhrigu litany, II, 188. 

adhvara, I, 114. 

Adhvaryu, I, introd. xx seq., xxvi ; 
must not pass between dhish- 
nyas, II, 153; passes north of 
Agnldhra shed, ib. ; his re- 
sponse (pratigara), 331, 336, 
338, 330, 331 ; he is the head 
of the sacrifice, 376 ; goes in 
front, 440. 

Aditi, I, 35, 73, 307 ; has seven or 
eight sons, 1 1, 1 3 ; to her belong 
the Priyantya and Udayantya- 
ishtt, II, 48, 386 ; is the earth, 
51 ; two-headed, 57 ; her share 
in the Soma feast, 359. 

Aditya, seven or eight Adityas, sons 
of Aditi, II, 13; they accom- 
pany Varuna, 93 ; Vivasvat (sun) 
the Aditya, 13; is the eve, 39 ; 
the vyina, 340; Adityifr and 
Angirasa^, 113; Indra with Va- 
sus, Rudras, and Adityas, 341, 
350; evening feast is theirs, 
ib.; cattle after their manner, 
353; the press-stones, 355; to 
them belong the jagw, 383 ; 
AdityinSm ayana, II, 383; 
twelve Adityas, eight Vasus, 
and eleven Rudras, 411. 

dditya-graha, II, 350, 353. 

Sghira, two libations of ghee (to 
Pn\gapati and Indra), 1,91, 134 ; 



(to Agn!shomau and Vishnu), II, 

106. 
Agn3-vishirQ, cake to, II, i3 ; to them 

belongs diksbauiyesh/i, 83. 
Agni, representative of priestly caste 

(brahman), I, introd. xviseq. ; 
bur different forms, I, 47, 136, 
453; their names, II, 118; 
^uts out Asuras, I, 54 ; is the 
youngest, 108 ; messenger of 
gods, no, 156 ; ancestral Hotri, 
115 ; repeller of Raksbas, 158 ; 
II, 99; best of gods, I, 163; 
seeks for Indra, 175 ; identified 
with Rudra, 301 ; II, 343 ; with 
Pr^f3pati, I, 346, 386; with 
Rudra, Varwia, Indra, Mitra, 
Brahman, 340 seq. ; unites with 
waters, 377 ; gold is his seed, 
377 ; milk ditto, 326 ; Agni first 
created by Prcuipati, 333 seq., 
343 seq., 389 ; the root and pro- 
genitor of deities, 386 ; II, 98 ; 
is te^^ I, 418, 419; originally 
alone immortal, 310; covets the 
beasts deposited with him, 347 ; 
all forms (rflpa) deposited with 
him, 314; Agni VaijvSnara, 104 
seq.; oblations to Agni pava- 
mana, ptvaka, and juii, 304 
seq. ; Agni pavamSna and indu- 
mat, 330; Agni anikavat, 408 ; 
Agni kavyavahana, 430; the 
woof of cloth belongs to Agni, 
11,9; Agni is alt the deities, 1 3 ; 
the lower (Vishnu the upper) 
half of the sacrifice, 13 ; Indra, 
Soma, and Agni, 33 ; Agni is the 
brahman (sacerdotium) and sa- 
crifice, 38; speech, 39; Vrata- 
pati, 44, 45 ; guardian of the 
east, 50; Agni attended by 



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458 



5'atapatha-brAhmajva. 



the Vasus, 93 ; messenger to 
Angiras and Adityas, 113; Agni 
Vai/vinara's ashes is gravel, 
1 30; Agni head of deities, 184 ; 
his victim, ai8; the lotus of 
the earth, 377 ; Vanina, Mitra, 
and Agni, 385; Agni vaiivlnara, 
305 ; rules over beasts, 343 ; 
officiates as Agnidh, 348 ; Agni 
with VSyu and Sflrya, I, 335, 
3»7; II, 45 J ; Agni, Varuaa, 
and Indra, leaders of the gods, 

I, 449 seq. ; Agni, Soma, and 
Vishau form the thunderbolt, 

II, 108; five-kapila cake to 
Agni, 389; Agni, Indra, and 
Sflrya superior to the others, 
403. 

Agnidhra (Agntdh), identical with 
Agni, 1, 58; ought to be learned, 
and receives first the dakshini, 
II, 148; heads procession with 
a firebrand, 187, 195 ; with 
the vasattvart water, 335; sits 
in the Nesh<r»*s lap, 368. 

Agnidhrlya (Agn!dhra) fire -shed, 
Y%;^a's arm, II, 136 ; erection 
of, 147, 148 ; from thence the 
gods gained immortality, 147 ; 
sacred to the All-gods, 148 ; 
the gods stay therein beside the 
vasativari water, 326. 

Agnihotra, I, 2, 330 seq. ; is the Sun, 
327; time of, 338 seq.; two 
Ubations each time, 332, 334; 
a domestic sacrifice, 333 ; first 
of sacrifices, 344 ; a heavenward 
sailing ship, 345 ; number of, in 
the year, 346. 

agnihotra-havant, ladle, I, 11, 67, 

agnimaruta-jastra, I, 209; II, 369. 

agni-pra»ayana, I, 398 ; II, 131 seq., 
157 seq.; cf. fire. 

agnirahasya, I, introd. xxx seq. 

Agnfehomau, I, 169, 373 seq., 377, 
379; Agni and Soma (offered 
to separately, I, 364) ; seize 
the Soma sacrificer between 
their jaws, II, 82, 161; are 
yoke-fellows, 106. 

agntshomtya he-goat, II, 83 ; black- 
spotted, 83 ; sacrifice of, 163 
seq. 

Agnishroma, II, 301; stotras and 
jastras, 325, 326, 397, 



agnish/oma-siman, II, 368. 
Agny3dh3na (agnyldheya), I, i, t, 

274 seq. 
agnyanvadhana, I, 3. 
agnyuddharana, I, 3; time of, 328 

seq. 
agnyupasthlna, I, 339 seq. 
Sgrayana-graha, II, 288 seq., 331, 

355; -sthili, ib. ; drawn for 

AJl-gods, 289 ; at all three Sa- 

vanas, ib.; mode of drawing, 

290; depositing, 292. 
Agrayaneshri, offering of first-fruits, 

1, 369 seq. 
3gur Cye yaig-amahe'), I, 142, 148. 
^^abhaga, butter portions to Agni 

and Soma, I, 159 seq. 
&gja.-tastTZ, II, 393 ; -stotra, 393, 

in- 

AbalyS, Indra as lover of, II, 81. 

Shiva, II, 336, 361. 

ahSvai&, II, 380. 

Ahavantya, used for cooking, I, 18; 
when taken out from Girha- 
patya, 338 seq.; is Yagiia.'s 
mouth, II, 136. 

Shavaniya, I, 308; II, 187. 

Ihuti (^hoti-offering), I, 263. 

aindrigna-graha, II, 322 seq. 

aindravlyava (graha), II, 265 seq.; 
shape of cup, 277. 

airs, vital, three, I, 19 seq. ; nine, 
140; seven, II, 17; ten, 35; 
ten (besides out-breathing, in- 
breathing, and through-breath- 
ing), 210; speech, out-breath- 
ing and in-breathing, eye and 
ear, 39. 

AiMvlka, priest, II, 317 seq. 

Ikhfltkara, moie-hill, I, 441 ; earth 
of (akhukartsha), 278. 

ikhylnavidaii, I, introd. xsiv. 

Akuli, Asura priest, I, 39. 

aiyuta, 1, 156. 

altar, see vedi. 

AmarSvat}, I, no. 

amivisya, 1, 172, 177. 

am^u-graha = Pn^pati, II, 348, 
433 seq. 

Anarnat singamana (as the sabhya 
fire) resides with man, I, 338. 

Angiras and Adityas perform a 
Soma-sacrifice, II, 113 ; a name 
of Agni, 118 ; Angirasim ayana, 
384. 

anlka, I, 408 seq.; II, 343. 



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INDEX TO PARTS I AND II. 



459 



animal (victim), fivefold, II, 34; sa- 
crifice, 162 seq. 

anointment of Dikshita with fresh 
butter, II, I J ; of his eyes with 
Traikakuda ointment, 14 ; of 
the sacrificial stake, 170; of the 
victim, 1 8 J. 

antai&i^ta, peg, II, 1 1 1. 

antarySma (graha), II, 257 seq.; is 
the night and offered at sunrise, 
261 ; offered entirely, 263. 

anflbandhy^, barren cow slaughtered 
at Soma-sacrifice, I, 379; II, 
217 ; maitrivarunt, 387, 391 
seq.: vaLfvadevt and bSrhas- 
patyl, 388. 

anumantra^ia, 1, 124, 154. 

anush/ubh, metre, is speech, II, 21, 
24. 

anuvlky3, invitatory prayer, I, 119, 
135, 170 seq., 195. 

anuvasha/kira, II, 351. 

anuy3^ after-offering; three at 
havirya^^a, I, 80, 230 seq., 445 ; 
nine at Vaijvadeva, Vanwa- 
praghlsiifr, &c., 390, 404, 418 ; 
eleven at animal offerings, II, 
210. 

anvlhlrya, I, 7, 49. 

anvlhlryapa>ana fire (dakshinSgni), 
I> 339) when taken out from 
Girhapatya, 340. 

anv3-rabh, 1 1, 40. 

anvarambhaniyl-islui, I, 7, 386 ; II, 
40. 

af^na, I, 120. 

apasalavi (apadakshina), I, 441 ; re- 
ferring to the Fathers, II, 29. 

Apastamba, I, introd. xxxix seq. 

aponaptriya sQkta, II, 232. 

ipri-hymns, I, introd. xv; II, 185. 

apsu-dtkshi, II, 5. 

apsushoml;6, II, 373. 

Aptorylma, II, 398. 

Aptya, I, 47 seq, 

apQpa, cake, I, 317. 

Spyayana, strengthening of Soma- 
plants, I, 178; II, 100, 103. 

arani, I, 275 ; are held while the 
priiina-vamja is approved of, 

II. 5- 
Aram, I, 57, 
irbhava, or trittya pavamEna stotra, 

11,315. 
Arrant (phalgunt), nakshatra, I, 385. 
itrsheya, 1,115. 



Anua Aupaveti, I, introd. xli, 3 1 3, 

» 453- 

Anui, I, 14; Takshan recites for 
him, 335 ; arranger of Subrah- 
manyi litany, II, 82, 413. 

Arunmukhas, I, 57. 

Arurmaghas, I, 57. 

Arvivasu, I, 137. 

Asat PImsava, resides with man, I, 

, 338. 

AshL/iia SIvayasa, I, 4. 

as-patra, I, 117. 

Ejravana (jrausha/), I, 132, 140, 142 
seq. 

Asuras, contend against gods, I, 54 ; 
by speech (numerals), 153; 
divide the world with gods, 59 
seq. ; have darkness and magic 
(mlyi) assigned to them by 
Praj-ipati, 362; defile plants, 
370; deprived of (intelligible) 
speech, II, 31; build three 
strongholds, one in each world, 
ro5; bury magic charms, 135; 
the blood spirting out from 
victims is their share, 193. 

Asuri, I, introd. xxxv, 169, 300, 432, 
448; H, 349. 

a/vavlla-grass, II, 89. 

ijvina-gniha, II, 273 seq.; drawn in 
the tenth place and offered in 
the third, 276, 312; shape of 
cup, 278. 

A/vins, Adhvaryus of gods, 1, 16, 53; 
II, 276 ; wander about on earth 
performing cures, 274 seq. ; are 
heaven and earth, 276. 

Atharvlngirah, I, 38. 

atigrahya (graha), 1 1, 402 seq. 

ati>i6andas, II, 66, 380. 

AtirStra, II, 398. 

Atithye^/i (guest-offering to Soma), 
II, 51, 85 seq. 

Atreya, II, 346. 

Atri, etymology, I, 131; hotri of 
iUshis, II, 346. 

Atyagnish/oma, II, 398. 

audgrabhana, II, 20. 

audumbari. See udumbara post. 

Aupoditeya (Tumi^^ Vaiyaghapa- 
dya), I, 271. 

austerity (tapas), world conquered 
by, II, III. 

avabhritha, expiatory bath, I, 406 ; 
II, 378; jfilivabhWtha, 215. 

avadlna, portion, 1, 191. 



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460 



JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 



Ivahana (devatinSm), 1, 118, 157. 

avakira formulas, II, 409. 

avintaradiksha, II, 97seq. 

avintareda, I, aai. 

avara, II, 353. 

avivlkya, II, 403, 448. 

ayavan, 1, 199. 

Ayu, I, 389 ; II, 91 ; a name of 

Agni, 118. 
Syush/oma, II, 403. 

bahishpaTainlna(stotra), II, 307, 309 
seq. 

bali, I, 339. 

barhis, I, 84 seq., 147, 333. 

Barku Virdwa, I, 5. 

beasts, ruler of (Rudra), I, 301 ; II, 
153 ! Tvash/W, II, 180. 

Bhaga, is blind, I, 310. 

Bhillaveya (Indradyuinna), I, 306, 
293. 

Bhava (Rudra-Agni), I, aoi. 

Bhrigu-Anglras, I, 38. 

bhflr bhuvaJi svaA, I, 396; II, 37. 

BhOtavat (Rudra), I, 309. 

black-deer skin (krisbi^na), I, 33; 
two, representing heaven and 
earth, II, 35; Soma placed 
thereon, 160. 

brahmabhiga, I, 314. 

brahmahatySl, I, 48. 

Brahman priest, I, introd. xx seq., 
323; II, 347,434. 

Brahman, the glowing fire, I, 341. 

BrShmana, human god, I, 309, 374 ; 
follows the Kshatriya, 47, 453 ; 
may be without a king, but not 
vice versS, II, 270. 

brShmana, I, introd. xxii seq. 

BrahmanSij&amsin, is Indra, II, 433. 

brahmanicide, I, 47 ; II, 343. 

brahmasSdana, I, 6. 

brahmasaman, II, 434. 

brahmodya, II, 452. 

BWhaspati, I, introd. xvi seq. ; Angi- 
rasa, I, 67 ; as Brahman priest, 
311 ; the brahman (n.), II, 33, 
59 ; is dyumna, 34 ; animal 
offering to, 319 ; Br/haspati the 
purohita of Soma, oppressed by 
Soma, 258 ; Brihaspati the wise, 
is the first, 286; officiates as 
Udgltri, 348. 

brjhatt, metre, I, 175 ; II, 112. 

bWhatWastra, II, 430. 

brihat-siman,I,i96,322; 11,339,403. 



Budila Arvatariivi, II, 425. 

bull, at Sakamedba^, representative 

of Indra, I, 416. 
butter, fresh, used for anointing the 

Diksbita, II, 14; melted: see 

ghee. 

calf, first-bom of season, dakshixi at 
Agrayanesh/i, I, 373 ; dakshina 
at Vaijvadeva (seasonal sacri- 
fice), 390. 

carpenter, unclean, I, 33. 

cart, receptacle of bavis, 1, 13 seq. ; 
bound with thongs, 453; turned 
roimd and placed on altar, II, 
137 seq.; description of, 132. 

caste, I , introd. xii,xviii,28,453;II,4. 

castles, three, built by the AJsuras, 
II, 105. 

cattle, threefold, II, 38. 

charms, only effective when buried 
in the ground, II, 135; for- 
mulas against, 137. 

chip, first of the sacrificial stake, II, 
164, 169; svaru, 173, 186; four 
chips, 382. 

cloth, its parts assigned to various 
deities, II, 9. 

confession of sin, I, 397. 

consecration (dtkshi) for Soma- 
sacrifice, II, i seq. 

covenant of Tanfinapat, not to be 
broken, II, 95 seq. 

cow, when created, coveted by Agni, 

I, 326 ; her skin originally on 
man, II, 9 ; her flesh not to be 
eaten by the consecrated, 1 1 ; to 
be eaten according to Y^f*ival- 
kya, ib. ; her ten properties, 69. 

creatures, of three kinds, I, 384 ; 
the upright and those tending 
downwards, 387, 404. 

dadhigharma, II, 336. 
Dadhya^> Atharvana, teaches the 
A^vins the madhu - brlhmaxa, 

II, a77. 

Daivya, messenger of Asuras, I, iii. 

Daksha (Pra^apati), I, 375. 

Daksha PSrvati, I, 377. 

Dakshayanas, I, 377. 

DakshSyana sacrifice, I, 374 seq. 

dakshina, I, 48, 308; (the greater 
the better), 309, 332 ; not to be 
accepted, if refused by some 
one else, II, 116; different 



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INDEX TO PARTS I AND II. 



461 



kinds of, 340 seq. ; are the sacri- 
fice to human godis, 341, 417. 

Dakshinigni ( anvahiryapaiana ), 
when taken out from G3rha- 
patya, I, 339 seq.; altar near it 
at pitnya^a, 422. 

dikshiaa-homa, II, 336, 341. 

dakshi^ikaraaa, I, 37. 

Danava (Vr/tra), 1, 166. 

DanSyfl, 1, 166. 

Danu, 1, 166. 

darbha grass, I, 84. 

Darjapflrnamasa-ish/!, I, i seq. 

darvihoma, oblation of spoonful of 
boiled rice, to Indra, I, 415. 

datipavitra, straining-cloth, II, 348, 
258. 

da^aratra, II, 402. 

deasil (deiseil, dessel), I, 37. 

death, identification with the sun, I, 
343 seq. 

debt, owed by man to Jushis, 
fathers, and men, 1, 190. 

deva (SavitW), I, 46- 

DevabhSga Srautarsha, purohita to 
Kurus and SW^^yas, I, 377. 

dhiman, I, 74, 93. 

dhdnya, I, 39. 

dhayyl, I, 11 a. 

dhi^ya, hearth-mounds, represent 
the Gandharvas, II, 73; over- 
turned by Asuras, 147; pre- 
paration of, 148 seq.; fagots 
held over them, 364. 

dhrisbti, I, 33. 

dhruva (graha), II, 293, 298 seq.; 
-sthll!, 298. 

dbruv3, spoon, I, 67 ; II, 23. 

dhurya (stotra), II, 307. 

DtkshI, consecration, II, i seq.; 
apsu-d., 5 ; intermediate, 97 seq, 

Dtkshaniyesh/i, II, 12 seq. 

Dikshita, consecrated, is an embryo, 
II, 19; is Vishnu, 39; (dht- 
kshita), 47. 

doshSvastar, I, 354. 

drona-kalaja, II, 257 seq., 268, 318; 
is Vritra's head, 371. 

drop, Soma as bindu, II. 157; obla- 
tion of drops (stoka), 195 seq. 

durvl (dfib) plant, a substitute for 
Soma-plants, II, 422. 

dvlda/lha, II, 403 ; vyCuUaiisndas, 
418. 

dvidevatya grahas, II, 366 ; shape of 
cups, 277, 3J6, 351- 



DyivSprfthivt, heaven and earth, 
cake-offering to, at Agrayane- 
sbri, I, 369 seq. ; ditto at Vai- 
/vadeva, 388; contain the uni- 
verse, II, 19, 26 ; when agreeing 
(uniting) they give rain, I, 196, 
241 ; hymn to, 330. 

Dyutina, son of the Maruts, II, 144. 

Earth, trembling like lotus-leaf, I, 
379 ; creation of, 280; goes to 
witness the Asuras' animal of- 
fering, II, 207. 

east, quarter of gods, II, i, 3, 4 ; 
(faultless) man offers, facing 
east, II, 3; assigned to Agni, 50. 

ekidatini, set of eleven stakes, II, 
173, 176 seq., 218 seq. 

ekadhana, II, 102, 233, 333, 335, 
237. 

ekavimja (stoma), II, 401. 

elephant, its origin, 11, 13 ; not to 
be accepted as a gift, ib. 

embryo, expulsion of, II, 11, 19; 
have their hands closed, 27 ; en- 
veloped in the amnion and pla- 
centa, 28, 29, 73 ; found in cow 
slaughtered, 391 ; unfit for sa- 
crifice, 394, 396. 

ewe, image of, at Varunapragh3sifr, 
I, 395 seq. 

eye, the truth, I, 78 ; man's eye is 
sore (secreting matter), II, 14 ; 
entered by 5usbia the Danava, ib. 

falcon (? eagle), Soma as falcon, II, 
80; Glyatrt, 88. 

fast. See vrata. 

fast-food, II, 37 seq. 

Fathers (manes). See Pitantfr. 

fingers, bending in of, II, 18, 98; 
(nameless) ring-finger, eating 
with, I, 333 ; gold tied to it, II, 
63 ; different fingers used in 
meting out Soma-plants, 67; 
loosening of fingers, 163. 

Fire, kindling of, I,. 95 seq.; 
production of (by churning, 
agni - manthana), 375, 394, 
»97, 3". 389; II, 90 seq.; 
carrying fire round (paryagni- 
karana), 1,45 ; II, 187 ; leading 
forwards (agni-pra^ayana), I, 
398; II, 131 seq., 157 seq.; 
homage to, at time of Agni- 
hotra, I, 301, 332 seq., 348 seq. ; 



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462 



JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 



homage to, when leaving home, 
360; mounting of (samiropana), 
396; womb of the sacrifice, II, 
19 ; serves as a skin to the sacri- 
ficer (as embryo), 98. 

fire-place, fivefold lustration of, I, 
«• «76, 359- 

fish, accursed, 1,452; Manu's, 316 
seq. 

five, number, I, 16. 

flood, legend of the, I, ai6. 

food, threefold (^cattle), II, a8. 

Full-moon sacrifice, I, i, 17, 180. 

Cagatt, metre, means cattle, II, 88. 

6'anaka Vaideha, I, introd. xxxi, xlii 
seq. 

Gsjidaki, I, 104. 

Gandharvas, steal Soma, 11,53 ; fond 
of women, 53, 333 ; receive 
purchase price for Soma, 72, 
152 ; Soma-wardens, 150 seq., 

GIrhapatya, used for cooking, 1, 18 ; 
sacred to sacrificer, 339. 

gatarrf, I, 98, 183. 

Gatavedas, 1, 119. 

gaurivtta-siman, II, 401. 

Gavam ayana, II, 426. 

GSyatrt, I, 80, 91, 97, 100; fetches 
Soma, 183; II, 52, 150, 329; 
as a falcon, 88, 341 ; by means 
of a khadira stick, 151 ; is the 
earth, 1, 194; Agni, 234 ; II, 87; 
fore-part of the sacrifice, 89; 
her calf is the dhruva graha, 304. 

gharma, I, 44; (samr%), II, 105, 
411. 

^i&asha, I, 216. 

ghee (ghr/ta), sap of heaven and 
earth, I, 372 ; a purifier, II, 8 ; 
belongs to the gods, 14 ; a thun- 
derbolt, 106, 170. 

girdle, hempen, putting on for con- 
secration, II, 28, 98 ; of sacri- 
ficial stake, 172. 

Gtvala ATailaki, I, 336. 

goat (he-) tied up at agnyadhina, I, 
292 ; she-goat given for Soma, 
II, 71, 74 ; goat and sheep, 407. 

gods, path to, I, 267 ; how they be- 
came immortal, 310 seq.; do 
not sleep, II, 44 ; thrice eleven, 
390 ; three kinds of, 350 ; eight 
Vasus, eleven Rudras, and 
twelve Adityas, 411, 



gold, Agni's seed, I, 277 ; II, 59, 390 ; 
piece of gold used in offering, 
II, 54; tied to the ring-finger 
(as a symbol of truth), 63, 70; 
symbol of the sun, 115, 224; 
put in right wheel-track and 
offered on, 130; with oblation 
of omentum, 198. 

gosh/oma, II, 403, 

Gotama RShQgaaa, 1, 104 seq. 

Graha, cup of Soma, II, 347, 259; 
meanings of, 433 seq. 

grSva-stotra, II, 332. 

Gravastut, assistant of HotW, 1, 223, 

3J4- 

gravel (sikat3), the ashes of Agni 

Valfvlnara, II, 120. 
grjhapati, II, 97, 441, 453, 455. 
Gr/hya-sfltra, I, introd. xlviiL 
guhQ, offering-spoon, 1,67 seq., 139; 

II, 23; portions of victim for 

juhd, 204. 
Gyotish/oma, II, 403. 

hart, the two bay steeds, are the Rii 
and Siman, II, 371. 

Harivant (Indra), II, 399. 

hiriyo^na (gratia), II, 289, 370 seq. 

Hasta (nakshatra), I, 386. 

havirdhSna, I, 14 ; Soma-cart shed, 
II, 126 seq.; sacred to Vishnu, 
126, 131; belongs exclusively 
to the gods, 146 ; Soma placed 
there, 160. 

haviryaig^a, I, introd. xv, xlviii. 

havis, 1, 151. 

havishkrit, I, 27. 

havishpahkti, I, 16. 

havyadati, 1, 107. 

heart, of victim, is roasted first, 11, 
301 ; offered, 304. 

Heaven and Earth. See dySva- 
pnthivt. 

hih, I, 100, 325. 

Hira^yagarbha, I, 271. 

HiranyastQpa, I, 175. 

hirajiyavati-ahuti, II, 52 seq. 

horn, of black antelope, used for 
scratching, II, 32, 33; taking 
up earth, 43. 

horse, present at production and 
carrying forward of fire, I, 297 
seq.; white horse (symbol of 
sun), daksbini at ^unlstrtya, 
447 ; at the SadyaAkr!, II, 1 15 ; 
at Soma-sacrifice, 348. 



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INDEX TO PARTS I AND II. 



463 



hotii (ssMijigaj-), II, a87. ^ 
Hotraka (Maitravaruna, BrahmanS- 

ibamsia, and AJUAvSka.), II, 295 

seq., 334. 
Hotri, seven, I, 223. 

i/&, I, 316 seq.; II, 60. 

IJiJ), I, 147, 152. 

immortality, gained by the gods, II, 

147. 

Indra, representative of the Kshatra, 
I, introd. xvi seq. ; slays Vr/tra, 
I, 20, 52, 166, 175. 416, 452 ; H, 
365 ; slays VLjvarflpa, 1, 47, 164 ; 
is deity of sacrifice, 1, 129 ; the 
Vasu of gods, 176; overturns 
Asuras' fire-altar, 287 ; resides 
with man, 338; is the blazing 
fire, 340; Indra Vimr/dh, 375; 
11,430; Indra and Maruts- 
Kshatra and VLr, I, 399 ; Agni, 
Varuaa, and Indra, leaders of 
gods, 449 seq. ; Indra, Soma, 
and Agni, II, 22 ; he is bom 
of Ya^a and Vl>, 32; the 
ruddy cow belongs to Indra 
vritrahan, 63 ; Indra's amours, 
81 ; called Kamika, Gautama, 
83 ; attended by the Maruts, 
93 ; Indra the chief of gods, 93 ; 
is the Sun, 96 ; delights in songs, 
146; animal offering to, 220; 
indra with the Vasus, Rudras, 
and Adityas, 241 ; is assigned a 
special ( chief's ) share, 241 ; 
everything submits to him, even 
the wind, 343 ; leader of the 
sacrifice, 363 ; the cow of 
plenty (KSmaduh) his special 
portion, 394 ; Indra marutvant, 
335seq., 347; stands over every- 
tiiing, 398 ; Indra harivant, 399 ; 
Indra sho^ajin, 400 ; Indra, 
Agni, and Sflrya, superior to 
others, 402 ; Indra vijvakarman, 
431 ; Indra, the strongest of 
gods, 433; is the Brihmani- 
ibsMtsin, ib.; to Indra belong 
Rii and SIman, 436 ; he is pro- 
duced by them, 438 ; Indra and 
Parvata, leaders in battle, 450. 

Indrlgnt, win the race, I, 371 ; cake 
to, at Agrayaneshfi, ib. ; at 
Dakshiyanesh/i, 375, 378; at 
Vanu>apragh3si6, 393 ; at Ma- 
bihavis,4i9; are the Kshatra, 



371 ; outbreathing and in- 
breathing, 393 ; animal offering 
to, 331 ; are all the gods, 335 ; 
the universe, 392 ; cup to them, 

3a3. 
indrajatru, 1, 165. 
IndrivishnQ, divide one thousand by 

three, II, 63. 
IrSvat!, I, 1 10. 
ish/i (y^gati-oifering), I, 263. 



Ka (Pr«4pati), I, 8, 395 ; II, 410. 
Kadrfi (and Supamt), II, 52 seq., 

149 seq. ; is the earth, 149. 
KahoJa Kaushitaki, I, 370. 
kimaduh, cow of plenty, Indra's 

special portion, II, 294. 
JTamasidhvaryu, II, 287. 
JTamasins, enumerated, II, 387; 

touch the cups, 373. 
kamyeshfi, I, 97. 
Ka»va-j|kh3, I, introd. xxviii seq., 

xxxviii, xliv seq. 
kapllas, I, 31 ; arrangement of, 34. 
JTarakas, I, introd. xxvi; a ATaraka 

Adhvaryu curses Y^^valkya, 

II, 197, 262, 297, 298. 
karambha, porridge, I, 395 ; II, 303. 
Karatoyi, 1, 104. 
Karira fruit, offered at Vani»a- 

praghlslfr, I, 394. 
kirshmarya tree, Rakshas-killer, II, 

89. 
*ani (pap of whole rice-grains), I, 

7, 311,410. 
Kl/Aaka, I, introd. xxvi seq. 
iaturhotrj formulas, II, 453. 
ifSturmSsya, seasonal sacrifice, I, 383 

seq. ; detached sacrifices, 407. 
iatushprirya, I, 275, 292, 373. 
jiitvila, pit, II, 116, 379. 
KStyiyana, I, introd. xxxv seq., xl. 
Kaukiista (KaukthasU), II, 426. 
Kavasha AilQsha (Ailushiputra), I, 

introd. xxxv. 
khadira stick, therewith Soma car- 
ried off" by GSyatri, II, 151, 
ibandoaa, II, 403. 
Kilata, Asura priest, I, 39. 
kim-purusha, I, 51. 
kim u, II, 433. 
king, paying homage to (Soma as) 

supreme ruler, II, 79 ; attended 

by heralds and headmen, 87. 
^ttrl (nakshatra), I, 286. 



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464 



satapatha-brAhmajva. 



knot, attribute of VariMa, I, 73 ; II, 
146. 

Kosala-Videhas, I, introd. slii. 

Krrjinu (Gandharva archer), 1, 183 ; 
II, 73 ; footless archer, 78. 

Kr/ttikas, I, 383. 

Kshatra, served by the Viz, I, 393; 
Kshatra and Vis, Indra and 
Maruts, 399 ; Varuna and Ma- 
ruts, 401. 

Kshatriya, oppressor of Vairya, I, 
83 ; served by Vu, 94 ; lives on 
them, II, 66; before a Ksha- 
triya approaching the people go 
doMm, 338 ; should always have 
recourse to a Brslhinan, 370. 

kukkuta, I, 30. 

Kurukshetra, II, 375. 

Kurus, I, introd. xliii, 377. 

Kuru-Pa^j^alas, I, introd. xli seq., 
193 ; nature of their speech, 
II, 50. 

kora-plant, yellow, a substitute for 
Soma-plants, II, 433. 

kur3, II, 309. 

Kufri V%a/ravasa, I, introd. xxxiii. 

JTyavana Bhargava (Abgirasa), II, 
373 seq. 

lines, drawing of, on hearth, I, 3, 
376 ; round the altar (pari- 
graha), 63 ; round foot-print of 
Soma-cow, II, 60; one line 
drawn with the sphya in follow- 
ing the fire carried to uttara- 
vedi, 131. 

lute, created by the gods, II, 53. 

madant?, (hot) lustral water, II, 100. 
madhuklni/a, I, introd. xxxiv; ma- 

dhu-brihmaAa, II, 377. 
MSdhuki, I, 300. 

madhyama (kWa), I, introd. xxix. 
MIdhyandina, I, introd. xxviii seq. 
mildhyandina-pavainlna (stotra), 11, 

^ 333, SSfi- 
madhyandina - savana, belongs to 

Trishftibh, II, 350; to the Ru- 

dras, 330, 331 seq. 
Magbavan, I, introd. xi. 
mahSbhishava, great pressing, II, 

344, 356. 
mahad uktham, II, 430. 
mahShavis, great oblation, at Sika- 

medhl/i (offerings to Agni, Soma, 

Savitri, Sarasvati, and POshan, 



Indrign!, Mahendra, and Vinra- 

karman), I, 417 seq. 
mah3r^ II, 338. 
mahivrata, II, 439. 
mahSvratiya-graha, II, 439. 
Mahendra, 1, 183, 419; II, 338. 
mShendra, graha, II, 337 seq. 
Maitravanwa (or Praj3stri),assistant 

of Hotrt, I, 333, 334 ; II, 183 ; 

prompts the Hotr», 188; his 

cup meets the Vasatfvart water, 

335 seq. 
Maitrlvaruna-graha, II, 369 seq. ; 

mixed with milk, 371 ; sha^ of 

cup, 378. 
Maitriyani-sa»thit3, I, introd. xxvi. 
man, the highest of animals, II, 310 ; 

his skin now on the cow, 9. 
Manas (mind) and V3i (speech), I, 

134 seq. ; II, 55 ; inherited by 

gods and Asuras respectively, 

30 ; are heaven and earth, ib. 
mSnasa-stotra, II, 451. 
Man3vt, wife of Manu, I, 39. 
Manes (Fathers). See PitaraA. 
Manoti deity, offering to, II, 303, 

393. 
mantha, gruel, II, 378. 
Manthin graha, II, 378 seq., 316 

seq., 333. 
Manu, his bull, 1, 39 ; Manu and the 

iish, 3 16 seq. 
MSr^Dya, shed, in Ya^r^'s arm, II, 

136 ; erection, 148. 
Marka and SinJi, two Asuras, II, 

379 seq. 
marriage between kinsfolk, I, 338. 
MirtSm/a, abortive child of Aditi, 

II, 13. 

Maruts, representative of the y'uzb, 
I, introd. xvii, 387, 393, 399 ; 
divided into troups of seven 
each, 394 ; threaten to destroy 
creatures, 393, 394; Marutai& 
sintapanLi, 409 ; Marato gri- 
hamedhinaifii 409 ; Marutaii krt- 
i^maji, 416 ; Maruts accompany 
Indra, II, 93 ; DyutSna, son of 
the Maruts, 144; Ordhvanabhas, 
son of the Maruts, 198 ; animal 
offering to Maruts, 330; assist 
Indra in smiting Vn'tra, 334 ; 
embryo of slaughtered cow 
offered to Maruts, 396. 

marutvattya (graha), II, 333, 334, 
336; jastra, 337. 



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INDEX TO PARTS I AND II. 



465 



M3tarijTan's cauldron, I, 186. 

MedhStithi's ram, Indra, II, 81. 

Men! (? wife) of Vrjshanarva, II, 81. 

metres, I, 80, 96 ; Soma supreme 
ruler of metres, 1 1, 65 ; they are 
his attendants, 87 ; their part in 
the guest-offering, 88; in the 
production of fire, 91 ; at Soma- 
sacrifice, J14, jis, 319; are the 
draught cattle of the gods, 
369 seq. 

milk, should be cooked, I, 330; 
sustains creatures, 385 seq., 
388 ; offered to Viyu, 446. 

mill-stones, I, 38 seq. 

mind, is sacrifice, II, 30 ; heaven, ib. 

Mitra, the waning fire, I, 341 ; the 
waning moon, 380; implants 
seed in Varuna, ib. ; (friendly) 
tying of foot by Mitra, II, 57 ; 
what is of Mitra is not of Va- 
rwia, ib.; Mitra, priesthood, 
can exist without the Kshatra, 
but not vice versS, 370; every 
one's friend, 371 ; Mitra is the 
brahman, the truth, 173; Va- 
runa, Mitra, and Agni, 385. 

MitrSvarunau, offering of payasyl to, 
at DSkshiya»esh/i, I, 375 seq., 
378 seq.; they are the out- 
breathing and in-breathing, II, 
39: intelligence and will, 369; 
brahman and kshatra, 370 ; 
anObandhyi cow to, 387. 

MieiJUa, speaks barbarous, unintelli- 
gible language, II, 33. 

mole-hill used for hearth, I, 378; 
for burying Rudra's oblation in, 
44 1 ; for burying the embryo 
of a slaughtered cow, II, 396. 

months, names of, II, 301. 

moon, waxing and waning = Vanina 
and Mitra, I, 381. 

Mr/gajirsha I, 384. 

MQgayantii?, I, 443. 

muaUa (mortar), I, 36. 

Nabhas, a name of Agni, II, 118. 

Na4& Naishadha, resides with man, 
I, 338. 

nails, cutting of, II, 6. 

Nakshatra, etymology, I, 388, 453 ; 
lights of righteous men, 369 ; 
those suitable for agnyidhSna, 
383 seq. ; the meshes of cloth 
belong to them, II, 10. 

[a6] 



nSkshatra name, I, 351. 

name, a second, to be taken, II, 154. 

ninada-siman, II, 401. 

NarSjamsa, 1, 136, 146, 333. 

nlrlramsa cups, belong to Fathers, 
II, 154- 

navaratra. If, 414. 

Nesh/ri, priest, leads up the Patnt, 
II, 190 ; takes the Agntdh in his 
lap, 368. 

nidhana, II, 310, 311. 

nigada, I, 114, 303. 

nigrSbha formula, II, 345. 

nigrlbhyl, the Vasattvari water 
poured into the Hotrt's cup, 
II, 336; used for moistening 
the Soma-plants, 340, 343 ; ety- 
mology, 343, 347. 

nirvapana, I, 168. 

nishkevalya-jastra, II, 339. 

nivi, tuck of nether garment, sacred 
to Manes, I, 368, 435 ; (Soma), 
II 39. 

nivid, formulas, II, 135. 

north, quarter of men, II, 3, 4 ; of 
Fathya Svasti (speech), 50; 
sacrifice performed north, 103. 

north-east, II, 8. 

omentum. See vapl. 

on/, II, 66. 

oshadhi, etymology, I, 333. 

Otos and Ephialtes, myth of (piling 
of Ossa on Olympus, and Pelion 
on Ossa), I, 386. 

ox, present at production and carry- 
ing forward of fire, I, 397 ; its 
flesh not to be eaten by conse- 
crated, II, II ; to be eaten ac- 
cording to y^^avalkya, ib. ; 
black oxen, insure rain, 78; is of 
Agni's nature, 390. 

p^iBLjagSa, 1, introd. xlviii, 333. 

palifa, tree, identified with the brah- 
man, I, 90 ; central leaflet of 
palira leaf used for offering on 
to Rudra, 439 ; branch used 
for driving the calves from the 
cows, 183; for driving Soma, 
II. 78. 

Pinini, I, introd. xxxv seq. 

pa^^adaja-stoma, 1, 96 ; II, 308, 333. 

Pa^^llas, I, introd. xli. 

Pa*H, I, 61, 300. 

pankti, II, 315. 

Hh 



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panne,gana water, used by Patnt for 
cleansing the Tictim, II, 190. 

parak, II, 310. 

Parlvasu, 1, 137. 

paridhi, enclosing-stick, I, 87 seq. ; 
offering of, 245 ; II, 135. 

parigraha, line of enclosure, I, 60 
seq. 

parna, I, 183 ; II, 78. 

Parvata, Indra and Parvata, leaders 
in battle, II, 450. 

paryagnikaraua, I, 45; II, 187. 

parySya (turn of chanting), 11, 308 
seq. 

pajupurodita, II, 199 seq. 

Pata^^li, I, introd. xxxvi seq. 

path to Gods or Fathers, I, 367. 

FathyS svasti, offering to, II, 49, 50, 
386. 

Patnt, girding of, I, 71 seq.; seat, 
7a; interrogated by Pratipras- 
thatW as to her lovers, 396 ; the 
house her resting-place, II, 61 ; 
exchanges looks with Udgatrr, 
368 ; touches (bids welcome to) 
Soma when he enters the hall, 
87 ; anoints axle of Soma-cart, 
130; b led up by Nesh/W to 
cleanse the victim, 190 seq. 

patni-/Sla, II, 448. 

patntsamySj'a, I, 75, 356 seq. ; not 
performed at PrSyantyeshfi, II, 
53 ; at animal offerings per- 
formed with tailof victim,II, 315. 

patnivant, II, 365 seq. 

patntvata-graha, II, 365 seq. 

pStra, cup, II, 359. 

pavamina (stotra), II, 307. 

pavam^nesbri, I, 304. 

pavitra (strainer, purifier), consisting 
of two stalls of grass, 1, 19 ; II, 
16 ; of one, three, seven, or 
twenty-one stalks, 17 ; (strain- 
ing-cloth), 358. 

payasyi, clotted curds offered to 
MitrSvarunau, 378 seq. ; prepa- 
ration, 381; sexual union with 
whey, 388, 394. 

pebbles, used for hearth, I, 280. 

philguna plants, a substitute for 
Soma-plants, II, 421. 

Phalguni, I, 385. 

piWa, (round) rice-cakes to deceased 
ancestors, I, 366. 

Piiwfepitr/ya^^a, I, 361 seq. 

pish^-pesbiura, I, 41. 



Pitaraifr (Manes, Fathers) ; condi- 
tions of existence assigned to 
them by Pr^pati, I, 361 ; 
Pitanbfr somavanta<&, barhisha- 
dtJ>, agnishvittiifr, 421 ; path to 
Pitarajfr, 367; the ntvi (tuck) 
sacred to Pitaraifr, 368, 435 ; 
the thrum of cloth sacred to, 
II, 9; ruddy cows with reddish- 
white eyes belong to Pitaraifr, 
63 ; part of post dug into the 
ground is sacred to them, 143 ; 
pit ditto, 169. 

?itr/ttrtha, I, 365. 
'itriyagAa, oblation to Manes, I, 
361 seq., 430 seq. 
plaksha (ficus infectoria) branches 
used to cover the altar, II, lao, 

303. 

plants, are the vis, II, 65. 

porcupine-quill used for shaving, I, 
450. 

pra, 1,101; 11,435- 

pradakshina, I, 37, 45, 373, 443 : cf. 
prasalavi, apas., dakshiniklra. 

Pra^pati, father of gods and Asuras, 
I, 54 ; II, 301 ; creates and be- 
comes exhausted, I, 173 ; ena- 
moured of his daughter, 208 
seq.; creates Agni, 323 seq., 
343 ; creates living beings, 384 ; 
heals the creatures stricken by 
Varuna, 391 ; assigns conditions 
of life to creatures, 361 ; iden- 
tified with Agni, 346; with 
Agni and Savitri, 386; is Dak- 
sha, 375; is vasishtta, 376; 
man nearest to him, 384 ; Pra- 
^pati, lord of thought and 
speech, II, 17 ; becomes an em- 
bryo, 38 ; is the sacrifice, the 
year, 37 ; exhausted, fortifies 
himself by animal offering, 317 
seq. ; arbiter between Indra 
and VHyu, 268 ; is over and 
above the thirty-one gods and 
heaven and earth, 411; over 
and above the three worlds, 
434; libation to Pra^pati- 
Vlyu, 451. 

praj^pati-tanu formulas, II, 453. 

pi^t, the easterly line, I, 63; II, 
33; forms the back -bone of 
vedi, 113. 

prSi^tna-vam/a, II, 3 ; used for the 
consecrated, 4 ; approved of, 5. 



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INDEX TO PARTS I AND II. 



467 



pr3»a, I, 19, 130 : cf. airs, vitaL 

piinadina, I, 94, 438. 

pnu>itai6, I, 9, 23, 365 ; II, la. 

pn-mi, I, 161. 

prasalavi (pradakshina), I, 443 ; 

strings twisted, II, 29. 
prifitra, fore-portion (Brahman's), 

I, 213. 

prl^itra-hanuta, I, 69, 213. 

prastara, 1,84 seq., 92seq.;(thesacri- 
ficer), 240 seq., 389, 405 ; II, 89 ; 
amends made on the prastara, 
103 ; anointed when thrown 
into the fire, 103, 104. 

prastSva, II, 310. 

prasthita, II, 198, 373. 

Prastotri, II, 310, 311. 

Prlta/«avana, II, 338 seq.; belongs 
to Ulyatrt, 250 ; to the Vasus, 
350. 

Prttaranuvlka, morning-prayer, II, 
226 seq. 

Prattdar^a .Svaikna, I, 376. 

pratigara, Adhvaryu's response, II, 
231. 326, 328, 361. 

pratihira, II, 310. 

Pratihartri, II, 310, 347. 

Pratiprasthdtr/, assistant of Adh- 
varyu, roasts the omentum, II, 
196. 

pratyabhighlrana, replenishing, I, 
201, 414. 

pratylirlvana, I, 132, 140. 

praUga-jastra, II, 334. 

pravara, I, introd. xvi, 95, 1 14 seq., 
131 seq. 

pravargya, I, 44 ; II, 104. 

pravn'tta (pravrita) homa, II, 305. 

pray^ (fore-offering), five at havir- 
ya^«a, I, 138 seq., 318 seq., 
445 ; four at avabhWtha, 11, 
383 ; nine at Vaijvadeva, Va- 
runapraghas^jb, &c., 390, 400, 
418 ; eleven at animal offer- 
ing, II, 185, 2ro. 

Prayantyesh/i, belongs to Aditi, II, 
47 ; oblations to Patbyl svasti, 
Agnl, Soma, Savitr/, and Aditi, 
49-51. 

press-board (adhishavana), II, 140. 

pressing-skin, round and dyed red, 

II, 140. 

press.«tones (five), II, 140, 327. 
priest, medium of worship, II, 3. 
prtsbad-^ya, clotted butter, I, 
404. 



pr/sh/Aa-stotra, II, 339, 403; -saman, 

406. 
prkhibya sha//aha, 11,402, 403, 405. 
prokshan?, sprinkling water, I, 20, 

83 ; II, 133, 139, 143, 159, 168, 

181. 
Prometheus, 1, 186. 
Punaridheya, I, 385, 313 seq. 
Punarvasii, I, 385. 
puraji(arana, II, 436, 440. 
purisha, I, 64. 
pQraiihuti, full- offering, I, 303 ; II, 

»5. 

puro<^, I, 33. 

puro^a, preparation of, I, 43 seq. ; 
etymology, 162. 

purohita, I, introd. sll, 377; 11,370. 

puronU, preliminary formula, II, 
335, 380, 395. 

PurQravas, I, 389 ; II, 91. 

PQshan, distributer of portions, I, 
53; toothless, 311 ; identified 
with the earth, 418; II, 57; 
represents (prosperity) cattle, 
II, 33; guardian of paths, 57; 
Pdshan's speed is the wind, 
305; animal offering to, 319. 

pGti, II, 8. 

Quarters (du), oblation of whey to 
dlrajfr, pradua^, idisii, vidija^, 
uddbaifr, I, 383 ; oblation of fat 
gravy, II, 309. 

Rakshas, etymology, I, 8; roam 
about the air, ib.; II, 16; pur- 
sue women, 3 s. 

ram, image of, at Varuna-praghisiifr, 
I, 395 seq.; Vanwa's victim, ib. 

RSma Aupatasvini, II, 425. 

rathantara-saman, I, 196, 333; II, 

339. 403- 

rauhina (fire-altar constructed by 
Asuras), I, 286. 

razor, copper, I, 450; II, 7. 

reed, used for anointing, being a 
thunderbolt, II, 15; for inter- 
twining with zone, 38. 

region (dij). See quarter. 

repetition of sacrificial performance 
to be avoided, I, 80. 

JUbhus, II, 361. 

Rig-veda, arrangement of hymns, I, 
introd. xvi, xx seq. 

rtksha (ursa major), I, 283. 

Rjsbi, the seven, I, 383. 

H h 2 



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468 



satapatha-brAhmajva. 



rrtu-graha, oblations for seasons, II, 
318 seq.; -pitra, 407. 

Robbit (nakshatra), I, 383. 

Rudra, purification after mention- 
ing bis name, I, 3 ; identified 
with Agni (iSarva, Bhava, Pa- 
jQnam pati), 301; is the newly- 
kindled fire, 340 ; pierces Pra- 
jSpati, 309 ; to Rudra is due 
what is injured in the sacrifice, 
311 ; pursues creatures, 340; 
Tryambaka oblations to Rudra, 
on a cross-road, 438 ; the mole 
sacred to him, 440; Rudra with 
Vasus, II, 59; the Rudras ac- 
company Soma, 93 ; (pajQnEm 
ish/e, 153. See Tvash/r«) ; 
Indra with Vasus, Rudras, and 
Adityas, 341, 350; Rudra offi- 
ciates as Hotri, 348 ; eleven 
Rudras, eight Vasus, and twelve 
Adityas, 411. 



sabhya, hall-fire, I, 303; resides with 
man (as Ana/nat sifigamana), 
338; worship of, 339. 

sacrifice, Indo-Iranian, I, introd. 
XV, 49; is roan, 78; 11,35,136; 
passes from priest to priest, I, 
140 seq.; from fother to son, 
163 ; as tortoise, 161 ; place of, 
II, I seq. ; BrShman, R^^nya, 
and Vaijya, able to sacrifice, 
4 ; of equal measure with the 
year, 16; is invisible, 19; is 
speech, 33, 34; the Brahman, 
ib.; fivefold, 34; changed into 
a horse, 89.; animal sacrifice, 
163 seq. ; the Sacrifice (Ya^^a) 
is Soma, 346 ; fashioned like a 
bird, 364. 

sacrificer (y%gam3na), is the victim, 
I, 49, 62, 78 ; his foot used for 
measuring uttara-vedi, II, 119. 

sacrificial essence (medbl), I, 50. 

Sadlnira, I, introd. xlli, 104 seq. 

Sadas (text), is Ya^a's belly, II, 
137 ; construction of, 140 seq.; 
sacred to Indra, 1 4 1 ; is common 
to gods and men, 146. 

sadasya, II, 386. 

s3dhyl;&, 'blessed' gods, II, 174. 

sadyaj&krl, kind of Soma-sacrifice, II, 
ii4> 

Sahadeva SirHgaya, I, 376. 



Saharakshas, messenger of Asuras, I, 
no; II, 115. 

sihasrt, II, 414. 

SikamedhiSifr (seasonal sacrifice), 1, 
384, 408 seq.; cake to Agni 
Anikavat, 408 ; i»ru to Marutaii 
sintapani^, 409 ; ditto griha- 
medhiniifr, ib.; darvihoma, 415; 
cake to Maruts, 416; mahlhavis, 
417 seq.; PitWya^^a, 430. 

iSakvart metre, II, 336. 

/I13 (hall), measure of, II, 3. 

salt, used for hearth, I, 378. 

sSman, I, 100 ; is the truth, II, 97. 

samiropana, lifting or mounting of 
fire, I, 396. 

samavatta, cuttings from 'u&, 1, 319; 
II, 303; -dhint, 307. 

sambhdra, I, 376 seq. 

SImgtvt-putra, I, introd. xxzii seq. 

jamf leaves, ofiered at Varunapra- 
ghSsai, I, 395. 

samidb, I, 91 seq., 95 seq., i4(S, 

1S3. 

simidbent, I, 95 seq.; II, 13. 
samisb/ay^gois, one, I, 363 seq., 445; 

three, 390, 406, 418; nine, II, 

374; the end of the sacrifice, 

13. 374 seq. 
tamitri, butcher, cooks the victim, 

II, 300. 
samsrava, offering of, I, 336. 
samsthS, II, 398. 
jamyS, yoke-pin, used as wedge, I, 

39; II, 116 seq. 
sawy^e, 1, 164, 307. 
iSamyu Barhaspatya, I, 354. 
/amyuvSka, I, 336, 347, 354 seq. 
SatiJa. and Marka, two Asuras, II, 

279 seq. 
sandhyl, twilight worship, I, 344. 
iS3it</ilya, I, introd. xxxi seq., xlvi. 
sSnnSyya, I, 163, 178 seq., 381. 
saptahotrl, I, 333. 
jarabha, I, 53. 
Sarasvati, river, I, 104 seq. 
Sarasvatt, goddess, oblation to, I, 

418; speech, II, 33; animal 

offering to, 318. 
sarpana, II, 399. 
sarpar^^, II, 451. 
5arva (Rudra-Agni), I, 30t. 
•Saryiita Manava, II, 273 seq. 
sasni, I, 15. 
^astra, twelve at Agnishtoma, II, 

303, 335 seq. 



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INDEX TO PARTS I AND II. 



469 



&tapatha - brlhmana, I, introd. 

xxviii seq. 
fatanidriya-homa, I, 346. 
sattra, sacrificial session, II, 402, 

436, 440 ; sattrasya r/ddhi, 449. 
sattrotthSna, II, 441, 447. 
Sltyaya^^a (Sityay^g^i), II, 2. 
saumya-adhvara, I, 26, 114. 
saumya iira, II, 364. 
sautramant, I, 165. 
savaatya puro<&a, II, 330, 314, 315, 

334- 

savitra-graba, II, 357. 

Savitri, the intermediate progenitor 
(Pra^Spati), I, 386; is netri 
(leader), II, 24; repres. cattle, 
49 ; (the sun) guardian of the 
west, 50; animal offering to, 
221 ; the sun, the mind, 358. 

Sivitrl (jplyatri), I, 356. 

seasons (ritu), five, 1, 98 ; II, 16, 24, 
50, 241; six, 1, 281; II, loi, 
289 ; siding with Asuras, I, 155 
seq. ; identified with gods and 
fathers, 289; with the castes, 
290 ; the divine coursers, 382 ; 
oblation of whey, ib. ; consort 
with Soma, 245. 

session, sacrificial. See sattra; rising 
from, sattrotthina, 

sha^ha, II, 402. 

sha</avatta, 1, 229. 

shash/ipatha, I, introd. xxix, xxxii, 
xlvi. 

shaving, II, 6. 

sheep, goats and, II, 407. 

shot/arin, stotra, II, 313, 401; jastra, 
402 ; graha and sanrstbi, 398 ; 
Indra, 400. 

silver,notsuitablefordaksbin3s,I,322. 

sin, confession of, I, 397 ; expiation 
of, 398, 406; 11,385. 

snakes, west their quarter, II, 4; 
the fore-edge (?) belongs to 
them, 10. 

Soma, plant (juice) and moon, I, 
176; fetched by Gayatr!, 183, 
452; II, 52, 341; establishes 
the fire, I, 313; ofFering to 
Soma (and Agni) at PitriyagAa, 
364; Indra, Soma, and Agni, 
II, 33; purchase of, 63 seq.; 
Soma is seed, ib. ; Soma-cloth, 
wrapper and head-band, 64; 
picking of Soma-plants, ib. ; 
Soma the Kshatra, 65, 87; 



meting out of Soma, 66 ; tied 
up in the form of a man, 68 ; 
iKirgaining for Soma, 69 seq.; 
Soma driven on car, 74; grows 
on mountains, 77; seated on 
throne of udumbara wood, 84 ; 
enters the hall, ib. ; guest- 
offering to Soma, 85 seq.; 
Soma attended by the Rudras, 
93 ; Soma strengthened (i- 
pyai), loo ; Soma is Vritra, 
100, 271, 314; Agni, Soma, and 
Vishjiu form the thunderbolt, 
108 ; Soma, when carried off 
by Giyatrt, was enclosed in two 
golden cups, 150; Soma placed 
on sacriRcer's lap, 156; Soma 
the nimble, 157; enters the 
Havirdhina, 160; is Vanaspati, 
208; animal offering to, 218; 
Soma taken down from cart, 
327; watched in the Agn\- 
dhra, ib.; pressing of, 238 seq.; 
meting out, 340; deposits his 
three bodies (or lights) in the 
three worlds, 242 ; consorts with 
the seasons, 245; explanation 
of the name, 246; pressing, 
349; great pressing, 256; op- 
presses his family -priest Br.'- 
haspati, 258 ; king Soma struck 
in the eye by Vanma, 381 ; ifaru 
to Soma, 363 ; substitutes of 
Soma-plants, 421 seq. — On 
Soma-myth generally, 1 1, introd. 
xi seq. 

Soma-krayant, cow, is \U, II, 54, 
56, 58; her seven foot-prints, 
59 ; colour of, 62 ; her virtues, 
69; dust of foot-print scattered 
behind Girhapatya, 156. 

Soma-sacrilicer, sacred, II, 35. 

Soma-seller, II, 69; beaten, jt. 

south,quarterof Fathers, II, 2,4, 165. 

spaces, the six (urvt), I, 1 36. 

speech. See Viii ; four grades of 
speech, II, 268. 

sphya (wooden sword), I, 6, 13, 54, 
66; II, 60, 131. 

spoons, sacrificial, I, 67 seq.; brush- 
ing of, 69 seq., 78 seq.; separa- 
tion (vyfihana) of, 236, 404. 

sprinkling (with lustral water), I, 2, 
30, 83; II, 133, 139, 143, 159, 
168, 181. 

jHtddha {pitrijagHa), 1,361 seq., 420. 



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470 



JATAPATHA-BRAH MAYA. 



jrausha/, I, 132, 140, 142, 239. 

Srauta-sacrifices, I, 26. 

Sri^gayns, a prosperous tribe, 1, 376. 

/ritdvadana, I, 439. 

sru*, offering-spoon, 1, 67; II, 30, 33. 

sruva, dipping-spoon, I, 68 ; II, 20. 

staff, the Dikshita's, a thunderbolt, 

II, 34; reaches up to his mouth, 

ib. 
stambay^goir-harana, I, 55; II, 118. 
stoma, kinds of, II, 308. 
stomayoga, II, 311. 
stotra, twelve at AgnisWoma, II, 

303 ; preparation (upikarana) 

for, 3o7seq.; 3«5 seq. 
strainer, straining-cloth. See pa- 

vitra, dajapavitra. 
Subrahma»iyi,priest,drives the Soma- 

cart, II, 77; litany, 81, 230. 
5'Qdra, must not enter the prSiina- 

vam^a, II, 4. 
SukanyS, daughter of 5arylta Ml- 

nava, II, 273. 
5ukra graha, II, 278 seq., 316 seq., 

332. 
s&ktavlka, I, 236 seq., 347 seq., 405. 
jQlSvabhr/tha, spit-bath, II, 215. 
Sun, rays of, are the righteous dead, 

I, 269; are purifiers, II, 18; 
they are the gods, 224 ; the sun 
is the final goal, I, 271 ; moving 
north and south, 289; (Viva- 
svat) is the Aditya, II, 13; 
the eye, 39 ; wards off evil 
spirits, 77; is Indra, 96; (sflrya) 
given as dakshina to the A&giras, 
114; its rays are the gods sipping 
motes of light, 254 ; the lotus of 
the heavens, 277 ; offering to, 
342 ; the eye of Mitra, Vanwa, 
and Agni, 343. 

5uniLftrtya (seasonal sacrifice), I, 384, 

444 seq. 
sunwise circumambulation. Cf. pra- 

dakshina, dakshi/ziklra, prasa- 

lavi. 
Suparn! (and KadrO), II, 52 seq., 

149 seq.; is V&i, 149. 
Suparntkldrava (Sauparoakldrava), 

II, 150. 

Suplan Slr^^ya, I, 376. 

jQipa, winnowing-basket, I, 11, 30, 
J98. 

Sflrya (with Agni and VSyu), I, 325, 
327; II, 453; SQrya is death, 
i> 343 ) bis rays attached to 



creatures, ib. ; wards off evil 
spirits, II, 77; given as da- 
kshinS to the Afigiras, 114; the 
soul ofthe universe, 343; Indra, 
Agni and Sfirya, superior to 
others, 402. 

Sushna, the Dinava, enters the eye 
of man, II, 14. 

svaga, I, 244, 259 ; 11,379- 

svaha, 1, 324 (derivation of), 148 seq., 
153; 11,252. 

svaru, chip, II, 173, 186. 

.Svetaketu (AuddSlaki), I, introd. 
xli seq.; II, 100, 314. 

Svish^kWt, I, 129, 151, 199 seq., 
37a. 

/yenahrfta plant, a substitute for 
Soma-plants, II, 422. 

Taittiftyas, I, introd. xxvi seq. 
Takshan, recites for Anuri, I, 335. 
tanu, II, 10. 

tan<)havir-isb/i, I, 304, 317. 
TanOnafSt, 1, 146 seq., 152 ; isVSyu, 

II, 94. 95- 
Tinfinaptra, covenant of TanunajSt, 

II, 93 seq. 
tapas (austerity), world conquered 

by, II, III. 
thousand, one, divided by three, II, 

63. 
thunderbolt, composed of anika, 

jalya, and kulmala, II, 108. 
Tittiri (jlokiifr), I, introd. xxxviii. 
Traikakuda ointment, II, 15. 
trayt vidyS, II, 436. 
trees, fit for sacrificial purposes, 1,90. 
Trikakud, mount, originally Vrrtra's 

eye. If, is- 
trii^tra (sahasradakshina), II, 414. 
Trish/ubh, is the sky, I, 195, 205; 

the air, 334; the kshktra, 11, 

87. 
Trita, I, introd. xvii, 47 seq. 
Tr/ttya-savana, II, 35oseq.; belongs 

to Gagatt, 350. 
Tryambakajfr (seasonal offerings), I, 

437 seq.; offered to Rudra, 438. 
tryafiga, the three limbs, the portion 

of Agni svish/akrit in animal 

offerings, II, 205, 307. 
Tumi*ea Aupoditeya, I, 271. 
Tura Kivasheya, I, introd. wx' 

seq. 
Tutha (the brahman), II, 344. 
Tvashtri, father of Vi/varfipa, 1, 47> 



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INDEX TO PARTS 1 AND 11. 



471 



164 seq.; offering to, 258; ob- 
tains the forms from Agni, 314; 
victim and stake for Tvashtri, 
II, 177; pajQnIm ishte, (? 153), 
180; spits upon the head of a 
victim, aoa ; fashions the seed, 
367; dispenser of boons and 
healer, 374. 
tyiga, dedicatory formula, I, 303. 

udSna, I, 19, 76, lao. 
udavas3ntyesh/i, II, 389. 
udayan)yesh;i, II, 48, 51, 386 seq. 
Udgitr/, I,introd.xxseq. ; chanting 

of, II, 307 seq., 310; exchanges 

looks with Patni, 368. 
udgttha, II, 310. 
udumbara post (in Sadas), 11, 141 ; 

made of the sacrificer's size, 

14a ; touching of, 448, 453, 454. 
udumbara wood, food and strength, 

H, 34. 
uktha ( = jastra), II, 394, 313. 
ukthavirya, II, 337. 
Ukthya-graha,II, 393 seq., 333, 336 ; 

distribution among hotrakas, 

395 seq., 339, 370; -sthlli and 

pitra, 393. 
Ukthya sacrifice, II, 336, 370, 397. 
ulQkbala, I, a6. 
UnnetW, calls for the /rausha/ at 

the hariyo^na libation, II, 373; 

two Unnetr/s, 417. 
upabhr/t, I, 67 seq., 139; portions 

of victim for upabhr/t, II, 305. 
upakarana, the introducing of the 

stotra, II, 401. 
up3mju-graha, II, 338 seq., 344, 

248; offered, 35s; is the day, 

and offered at night, 361. 
uplmju-savana, stone, II, 338; is 

Aditya Vivasvat, 340, 256, 354. 
upiwjuya^ (low-voiced offering), 

1,118,192, 372. 
upanSmuka, I, 326. 
uparava, sounding-hole, 11, 135 seq. 
upasad (homage or siege), II, 104 

seq.; three, 108; or twelve, 

109; the fasting connected with 

them, 110 ; at sattras, 443. 
upasar^nt, I, 42, 65. 
upastarana, I, 192. 
upavaktW, II, 452. 
upavasatha, fast-day, I, i, 5, 291; II, 

323. 
upavesha, I, 33, 125. 



upayS^a, by-offerings of Pratipra- 
sthitr/, II, 204; eleven, 210, 
212; four additional (aty-upa- 

7»g)> '14- 
upayama, formula of 'support,' II, 

259 seq. 
Urdbvanabhas (?VSyu), son of the 

Maruts, II, 198. 
Urvajt, I, 389; II, 91. 
urvt, I, 136. 

ush^nS (the Soma-plant), II, 314. 
ushaisha, II, 392. 
utkara, I, 35, 54. 
utpavana, I, 76. 
uttara, II, 3. 
uttarlhi, II, 50. 
uttaravedi, 1, 388, 393, 393, 417; II, 

113; is Vki, 115; measure of, 

116; is a woman, 130. 

Vs^fapeya, II, 398. 
V%asaneyaka, I, introd. xxxiz. 
V^gasaneyinai&, I, introd. xxxvi seq. 
Vaikarnau, I, introd. xlii. 
vaisar^ina oblations, II, 155 seq., 

Vaijvadeva (seasonal sacrifice), 1, 383 
seq. ; cake to Agni, 386 ; hum 
for Soma, ib. ; cake for Savitr/, 
ib.; ianx for Sarasvat}, ib. ; 
cake for Maruts, 387 ; payasyl 
to Vi/ve deviA, 388; cake to 
Heaven and Earth, ib. 

Vaijvadeva-graba, II, 323 seq., 359 
seq. ; (mahi-), 360. 

Vai/vatieva-jastra, II, 360 seq. 

Vaijvanara-graha, II, 398. 

Vii (speech) and Manas (mind), I, 
124 seq.; II, 55 seq.; inherited 
by Asuras and gods respectively, 
II, 30; Vai wooed by Yigfla, 
30 seq.; sent by the gods to 
the Gandharvas, 53; given as 
dakshin3 to the Aftgiras, 114; 
becomes a lioness, 115; VSJt 
speaks intelligibly in men, 367, 
268 ; her thousandfold pro- 
geny, 414, 436; pith of VsU, 

450- 
Viiaspati, lord of speech, is the 

out-breathing, II, 250. 
vikovikya, II, 453. 
vakshva, II, 384. 
VSmadevya-s^man, I, 222. 
yamja (roof-beam), II, 3, 146. 
va/n^as, lists of, I, introd. xxxiv. 



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472 



SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 



vanaspati (lord of forest, tree), obla- 
tion to, II, ao8, 395 ; is Soma, 

308. 

▼apl, omentum, cut out and roasted, 
II, 194 seq.; offered, 198, 391. 

vaplrrapant, omentum-spit, II, 194. 

Tarsha, varshiifr, I, 315. 

V3rsh»ya (Varshw), II, 2. 

Vanina, noose of, I, ^i, 391 ; 
II, 161 ; (noose of sacred 
order), 181 ; Icnot, I, 73 ; 
rope, II, 57, 181 ; he establislies 
the fire and becomes Icing Va- 
nwa, I, 313; is the brightly- 
burning fire, 340 ; the waxing 
moon, 380 (cf. Mitra, the wan- 
ing); seizes creatures by disease, 
39i> 398) is the Kshatra, 393, 
401 ; the ram his victim, 395 ; 
Varuna guardian of conjugal 
vow, 397 ; Agni, Varuna, and 
Indra, leaders of gods, 449 seq. ; 
oblation to Varuna and the Ma- 
ruts, 394,395; Varuna attended 
by Adityas, II, 93 ; swearing by 
Varuna (?), ai6 ; animal offering 
to, aa I ; Varuna the Kshatra, 
cannot exist without the priest- 
hood, a70 ; strikes king Soma 
in the eye, aSi; Varuna, Mitra, 
and Agni, a85 ; king Varuna has 
made a path for the sun, 380. 

Varunapraghasai> (seasonal sacrifice), 
I> 384, 391 seq.; cake to In- 
dragnt, 593; payasy^ to Varuna 
and to the Maruts, 394 ; cake to 
I^a> 395; dishes of karambha 
(porridge) to Vanina and the 
Maruts, 395 seq. 

vasi, fat gravy, II, 205 ; offered 
(vas^homa), ao7. 

vas^homahavant, II, 303. 

vasattvari water, II, 147, aaaseq. ; 
carrying around of, 335, 454; 
etymology, aa6, aji ; meets 
the water in Maitr^varuna cup, 
335 ; in the Hotrrs cup it be- 
comes the NigribhyaA, 336, 393. 

vasha/ (vausha/), 1, 88, 135, 143, 171, 
193 seq., 197 seq., 198. 

VxAAiibayTigHz, I, 376. 

VSstavya (Rudra), I, a 00. 

Vasu, 1, 176 ; the Vasus accompany 
Rudra, 59, Agni, II, 93 ; Indra 
with Vasus, Rudras, and Adi- 
tyas, 341, 350; eight Vasus, 



eleven Rudras, twelve Adityas, 
411. 

viyavya, Soma-cnps, II, 158, 267. 

Vayu (with Agni and Sflrya), I, 335, 
337; 11,453; oblation of drops 
(stoka) to Vayu, II, 195; sent by 
the gods to ascertain if Vr/tra be 
slain, 365 ; leader of beasts, 361 ; 
libation toPra^pati-V3yu,45i. 

veda, bunch of grass, I, 41, 84. 

vedi, etymology, I, 60 ; measure and 
construction of, 63 seq. ; lustra- 
tion of, 433 ; Soma-altars pre- 
pared, II, III ; vedi is as large 
as the earth, 175. 

Vedic science, threefold, I, 24. 

victim, kinds of, I, 50; killing of, 
II, 178 seq.; mode of killing, 
189; skinning and cutting open, 
193 seq.; cutting up, aooseq. ; 
offering of portions, 304 seq.; 
touching of, 209 ; the eleven, 
a 18 seq. ; those suitable for cer- 
tain forms of saxn-ifice, 313, 313, 
438, 429. 

Videgha Mithava, I, introd. xli seq., 
104 seq. 

Videhas, I, introd. xlii. 

vidbr/ti, stalks of grass laid across 
the barhis, I, 93 ; II, 89. 

vikabkata tree, when created, I, 335. 

yvng, I, 11; II, 68, iia; incom- 
plete, I, 390; II, 374. 

vif, serves the Kshatra, I, 393 ; eat 
no offerings, 398 ; is the Ksha- 
triya's food, II, 66; go down 
before a Kshatriya, 338. 

Vishnu, three steps of, I, 15, 268 ; 
III 155 ; Vishnu a dwarf, I, 59 ; 
etymology, 73 ; is the upper 
(Agni the lower) half of the 
sacrifice, II, 13; is the conse- 
crated, 39 ; formula referring 
to Vishnu used for atonement, 
35; Agni, Soma, and Vishnu form 
the thunderbolt, 108 ; fixed like 
an eye in the heavens, 173; to 
Vishnu belong the Ya^-us, 436. 

vish/3va, II, 309. 

vishfuti, II, 308 seq. 

vishuvant day, II, 437. 

vijvadhlyas, 1, 188. 

vijvakarman, I, 188. 

Viivakarman,_ offering to, I, 419; 
with the Adityas, II, 133; Indra, 
43«. 



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INDEX TO PARTS I AND II. 



473 



VijvarDpa, son of Tvash/W, I, 47, 
164 seq. 

VifvSvasu, Gandbaira, I, 90 ; steals 
Soma from Giyatrt, II, 53. 

vbvSyu, 1, 188. 

Vbve Devit (All-gods), representa- 
tive ofVij, I, introd. xvi, 304, 
371 ; oblation of iaru at Agra- 
yaneshti, 369 seq. ; share with 
indra and Agni, 371 ; the threads 
of cloth belong to them, II, 10 ; 
they are the ear, 39 ; the air 
belongs to them, 208; animal 
offering to, 330. 

vlti, 1, 107. 

Vivasvat (the sun), is the Aditya, II, 
13 ; Aditya Vivasvat, the yy&na 
of the Soma-sacrifice, 340. 

vrata, I, i seq.; II, 6. 

vrata-dughl, cow, II, 40, 43. 

vratopanlya, I, 3. 

Vr/shanajva's Meni (wife?), II, 81. 

Vr/tra, slain by Indra, I, 30 seq.; 
53, 453 ; II, 365 ; by the waters, 
II, 343, 343, 347 ; (Danava), I, 
166 ; Vritra is Soma, II, 100. 

vyina, I, 19, 30, 130. 

vy^diaibandas (dvada^Sha), II, 418. 

water, a thunderbolt, II, 7; the 
waters slay Vr/'tra, 343, 343, 
347. 

west, quarter of snakes, II, 4; of 
Savitri (the sun), 50; sleeping 
with head towards, forbidden, 

11,4. 
wether, hair-tuil of, II, 125. 
whey, offering of, to divine coursers 

(seasons), I, 383; is seed, 388. 
wind, tells the gods the thoughts of 

men, II, 94. 



woman, given to vain things, II, 53. 
worlds, three, II, 36. 
worship, is truth, I, 313. 

Ya^a (sacrifice) wooes VSi, II, 
30 seq. 

Y^Aavalkani brShnumini, I, Introd. 
xxxvi seq. 

Y^^avalkya, I, Introd. xxx seq., 5, 
76, 77, 371, 333, 370, 384 (con- 
tradicted); II, 3; f advocates 
the eating of the flesh of cows 
and oxen), 11, 14; cursed by a 
Aaraka Adhvaryu, 197, 379, 

435, 44a. 

ya^^ya^^iya (sSman), II, 368. 

ya^opavitin, I, 361, 424. 

Ya^ur-veda, I, introd. xxvil. 

y^ya,1, 119,135. 143, i7oseq., 195. 

Yama, king, resides with man, I, 
338 ; chief of Fathers, 364 ; 
Yama angirasvat pitr/mat, 439 ; 
officiates as Brahman priest, II, 
348. 

yava, II, 142, t68. 

yavan, I, 199. 

yavihotra, I, 199. 

yfipa, sacrificial stake, I, 160; II, 
31, 3^, 39, 4<>, io> ; is Ya^^a's 
crest-lock, 136; belongs to 
Vishnu, 163, 164; cutting of, 
163 seq.; size of, 166; raising 
of, 167 seq.; anointing of, 170 ; 
girding, 173 ; means of ascend- 
ing to the 'blessed' gods, 174; 
it is eight-cornered, 174 ; is not 
thrown into the fire, lb.; is a 
thunderbolt, 175, 176 ; wife- 
stake. 177; eleven: see eki 
dajint. 

Yfip^uti, stake-offering, II, 163 seq. 



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474 jatapatha-brahma;?a. 

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 
Part I. (Vol. XII of Series.) 

Page Tii, line 15. Read, — Stambhaya^us. 

P. xvi, 1. 8. Read, — arrangement. 

P. Tax, 1. 2. Read,— 'sixty ' for * forty.' 

P. xliv, 1. a8. Read, — 'recensions' for 'relations.' 

P. 3, 1. a seq. I now take ' pflti ' in the sense of ' fool,' and would translate 
thus, — ^The reason why he touches water is this : man fotsootb is impure ; 
in that he speaks untruth, thereby he is foul within. Now water is pure : 
' Having become pure, I will enter on the vow," &c. See Part II, p. 8, n. i. 

P. 9, paragraph 18, Cf. * mas ignis, quod ibi semen, aqua femina, quod fetus 
alitur hnmore.' Varro, L. L. 5, 61. 

P. 65, last line. Read,— a composite direction. 

P. 94, 1. 8. Read, — ' vedi ' for ' prastaia.' 

P. 142, 1. I. Read, — ' Turn ye back ! ' for ' draw near ! ' see Part 11, p. 308, n. 1. 

P. 166, par. 13. Read, — Now while Indra, being thus pushedaside, was moving 
on, he addressed . . . 

P. 183, 1. 6. Dele, — (the moon). 

P. JIG, note I. Read twice, — 'jastra' for 'sistn.' 

P. a 31, L 4 seq. Instead of, — 'Before the Rakshas (come),' B. R.'s Diet, inter- 
prets, perhaps rightly, ' Safely from the Rakshas.' 

P. 263, par. 37. — ^These same deities . . . ; for an improved rendering, cf. IV, 

4. 4. S-6. 
P. 308, 1. ai. For, — 'and in presaing,' read 'to wit, in pressing.' 
P. 333> 1. 15. 'whom, surely, he would not eat;' for this construction, see Part 

II, p. 31, n. I. 
P. 338, 1. 9. Read, —Verily, with him . . . 
P. 389, 1. j6. Read,—' Ayu ' for ' Ayns.' 

PART II. (Vol, XXVI.) 

p. a, 1. 4. Read, — 'sacrificer' for 'sacrifice.* 

P. 31, note 3. Cf. J. Muir, O. S. T. II, p. ii4note. 

P. 71, note I. According to Ap. ^r. X, ao, 12 he is to bny the Soma from a 

Kautsa BrShman ; otherwise fi-om any Br^man ; otherwise from one who 

is not a Btihman. 
P. 77, 11. 37, 3a. Read, — Subrahmanyii. 
P. 103, note 1. Read, — Spyiyanam. 
P. 138, 1. 26. Read,— (*Aadis). 
P. 153, 1. 6, to Rudra cf. HI, 7, 3, 11. 
P. aol, 1. 4. Read, — iiamitar. 
P. 334, 11. 17-20. Dele thrice 'for.' 

P. 267, par. 10. Cf. A. Bergaigne, La Religion VWique, I, p. 171. 
P. 386, note 3. Read, — sadasySn&m hotran&m. 
P. 305, last line. Cf. Ap. XI, 30, i (pravrtta-boma). 
P. 334, 11. 8, 9. Read, — ^hkra. 

P. 334. "ote a. Cf. Atharva-veda V, 4, 3; Kuhn, Herabkunft, p. ia6 seq. 
P. 441, 1. 15. Read,— all-beneficent 



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PLAN OF SACRIFICIAL GROUND. 



475 



PLAN OF SACRIFICIAL GROUND. 



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pr s Place for praMtt£A. 
n = Utliara (heap of nil> 

bishX 



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