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Introduction 3 

Translation 12 


Introduction 153 

Translation 159 


Introduction 263 

Translation 269 


Introduction 371 

Translation 374 

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East . . . -437 

%* The Second Volume will contain a General Introduction 
to the Gnhya-Sutras. 

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The Gn'hya-sutra ascribed to Slnkhayana, which has 
been edited and translated into German by myself in the 
XVth volume of the Indische Studien, is based on the first 
of the fourVedas, the Rig-veda in the Bashkala recension 1 , 
and among the Brahma«a texts, on the Kaushitaka. Its 
reputed author, whom we ordinarily find called by his family 
name, .Sankhayana, had the proper name Suya^a. This 
we may infer from the lists of Vedic teachers given in 
different Grihya. texts where they describe the Tarpawa 
ceremony. Though in these lists the order of names 
varies very much, yet the two names Suya^vla and Sankha- 
yana are constantly placed side by side, so that this fact 
alone would render it probable that they belonged to the 
same person. Thus we read in the Sahkhayana-Gr/hya 
IV, io = VI, i: 

Kaholawz Kaushitaki^, Mahakaushitakiw, Suya^naw 
.Sankhayanam, A-yvalayanam, Aitareyam, Mahaitareyam. 

Here we have grouped together the two Brahmawa 
authors (with the fictitious doubles, the great Kaushitaki, 
the great Aitareya) and the two corresponding Sutra 
authors belonging to the two chief branches of the Rig- 
veda literature; first comes one Brahmawa author (for 
Kahola Kaushitaki is one person) with the Sutra author 
connected with him, then the second Sutra author and the 
corresponding Brahmawa teacher. 

In the .Sambavya-Grmya (Indische Studien, XV, 154) the 
corresponding passage runs thus : 

Gargya- Gautama- .Sakalya- B&bhravya- Mawrfattavya 

» See IV. 5, 9. 
B 2 

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[sic]- Ma«</ukeyaA Suya^wa- Sawkhy&yana- Gatukar- 
nyeyh/i [sic] Paiwga [sic]- Simbavy'-AitareyaA. 

The same Gn'hya still more explicitly bears witness to 
the name of Suya^vTa Sankhayana, by adding at the end 
of the list from which these names are quoted the following 
words : Suya^/7a Sakhayanas [sic] trz'[pya]tu, i. e. ' May Su- 
y&giia. Sankhayana satiate himself (with the water offering).' 
In the Ajvalayana-Gnhya III, 4, we read : 
Kaholaw Kaushitakam Mahakaushitakaw Paiiigyaw 
Mahapaingyaw* Suya^/iaTW Sahkhayanam Aitareyam 

We may also quote here a Karika given by Narayawa ' 
in his great commentary on the Sihkhayana-Grthya 
(I, 1, 10): 
Atrarawipradanaw yad adhvaryu/* kurute kva£it 2 
mataw tan na Suya^/iasya, mathitaw so 'tra nekkkaXu 
It would perhaps be hazardous to claim for the author of 
this Karika the authority of an independent witness, for 
very likely he may have derived his knowledge from the 
lists of teachers which we have quoted before. But at all 
events the concordance of the three Grihya. texts furnishes 
a proof which, I think, cannot be set aside by another 
testimony which we must mention now. At the end of the 
Kaushitaki-Arawyaka (Adhyiya 15) we find a Vawwa or 
list of the teachers by whom the knowledge contained in that 
Arawyaka is supposed to have been handed down. The 
opening words of this list run thus : 

'Om! Now follows the Vawja. Adoration to the 
Brahman! Adoration to the teachers! We have learnt 
(this text) from Gu«akhya Sankhayana, Gu«akhya 
Sankhayana from Kahola Kaushitaki, Kahola Kaushitaki 
from Uddalaka Arum, &c.' 

It is a very natural supposition that the author of this 
list intended to begin with the name of the Doctor 
eponymus, if we may say so, of the Sutras of his school, and 
then to proceed to name the Doctor eponymus of the 
Brahma/fas, and after him the more ancient teachers and 

1 Manuscr. Chambers 712 (Berlin Royal Library), fol. 12 b. 
' Comp. Paraskara-Gr/hya I, 1, 5 : arawiprailanam eke. 

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sages. But whether the author of this passage really sup- 
posed this Gu«akhya .Sankhayana to be the author of the 
.Sankhayana-sutras, or not, we shall be justified in following 
rather the unanimous statements of the texts previously 
quoted, and in accepting in accordance with them, as the 
full name of our Sutrakara, the name Suya^via .Sankhayana. 

The Grzhya-sfltra which has been here translated pre- 
supposes, as all Gr*hya-sutras do, the existence of the 
.Srauta-sutra, with which it is intimately connected and 
which is referred to in the Grihya. in several instances 1 . 

Here the question arises whether the Grzhya-sutra was 
composed by the same author to whom the authorship of 
the .Srauta-sutra belongs, so that the two texts form to- 
gether, and would, in the conception of their author, be 
intended to form, one great body of Sutras, or, on the other 
hand, whether the Grzhya-sutra is a later addition to the 
.Srauta-sutra. On this question I have ventured, in the 
preface to my German edition of .S&ftkhayana 2 , to offer a few 
remarks which, however, I feel bound to say do not seem to 
myself quite decisive. I there pointed out that the Grihya- 
sutra contains a few aphorisms which we should rather expect 
would have found their place in the .Srauta-sutra, if the two 
texts were composed by the same author and on a common 
plan 3 . But, apart from the possibility that in a work of such 
considerable extent as that collection of Sutras would be, 
such trifling incongruences or irregularities might very 
easily escape the attention even of a very careful author, 
there is still another objection that may be urged against 
the inference drawn by me from such passages. It can be 
shown * that the GWhya texts which we possess are based 
to some extent on one common original, from which they 
have taken verbatim, or nearly verbatim, a certain number 
of aphorisms. Thus if we were to suppose that Sankhayana, 

* See, for instance, Gnhya I, 16, i (.Srauta IV, 16, 2). 
> Indische Studien, vol. xv, pp. 11, 12. 

* The Sutra* with reference to which I made that observation are I, 8, 14 ; 
I4i >3-l5; II, 15, 10. Comp. .Srauta-sutra II, 7, 12 ; IV, 21. 

4 I intend to give some proofs of this in the General Introduction to the 
GWhya-sutras which will be given in the second volume of these translations. 

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or whosoever the author of this Grjhya-sutra may have 
been, found the aphorisms on which I once based my argu- 
ment, in that original text, this would explain the occur- 
rence of those passages in a portion of the great body of 
Sutras different from that in which we should expect to 
meet them. Now several of the passages in question recur 
identically in other Grihya. texts, so that we may infer 
indeed that they are taken from that lost original, and we 
have no means to judge whether the other similar passages 
are not taken from it also. I believe, therefore, that the 
opinion which I once pronounced regarding the relation in 
which the two Sutra texts stand to each other, cannot be 
vindicated, and that it is better to leave that question un- 
answered until perhaps further discoveries throw a new light 
on it. 

For the reconstruction of the correct text of the Sankha- 
yana-Gr«hya, and occasionally also for its interpretation, it 
is of considerable importance that we possess, besides the 
Devanagarl MSS. of the text and of the commentaries, a 
South Indian MS. written in the Grantha character (MS. 
Whish 78 in the library of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
London) which contains a Grihya. based on that of Sarikha- 
yana and following it, during the greater part of the work, 
nearly word for word 1 . It is designated in the MS., at the 
end of the single Adhyayas, as ' Kaushitaka-Gr/hya.' It 
therefore professes to follow the teaching of the same Brah- 
ma«a which is adhered to also by the Sutra school of 
Sankhayana. A metrical commentary, which in the MS. 
follows after the text, names in its opening Sloka a teacher 
Sambavya as the author of this Sutra. The Sloka runs thus : 
Natva Kaushitaka/fcaryaw* 5ambavya;« sutrakn'ttamam 
grihyam tadiyaw sawkshipya vyakhyasye bahuvismrz'tam. 

(' Having bowed to the most excellent author of Sutras, 
to .Sambavya, the A^arya belonging to the Kaushitaka 
school, I shall compose a short commentary on his GWhya, 
which has been forgotten by many.') 

The name of this .Sambavya does not occur among the 

1 Comp. the statements given with regard to that text in my German edition 
of -Saiikhayana, Indische Studien, XV, 4 seq. 

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teachers enumerated in the description of the Tarpawa 
ceremony, neither in Saiikhayana IV, 10, nor in Ajvala- 
yana III, 4 ; but in the list of the .Sambavya-G>"thya itself 
it is found (see above, p. 4) ; and besides it seems to me 
also to be mentioned in Ajvalayana-G«hya IV, 8, 34, in 
which passage it will scarcely be considered too bold to 
conjecture Jfambavya instead of Sawvatya. 

Though the MS. of the .Sambavya-Grjhya is very con- 
fused, and full of blunders of all sorts, yet it deserves to be 
attentively studied by all scholars who are accustomed to 
look, if not in theory yet in practice, on the agreement of 
a few Vedic text MSS., or of a few Indian commentaries, 
as if it had a claim to an unassailable authority to which 
European Orientalists would have no right to deny their 
faith. In the Sankhayana-Grzhya a number of passages 
are found in which corrupt readings or perverse explana- 
tions are supported by all the tSankhayana MSS. and 
by all the Sankhayana commentaries, and if, by a rare 
and fortunate chance, the .Sambavya Grantha MS., which 
is unaffected by the blunders of the Dcvanagart MSS., 
had not been discovered in the south of the peninsula, 
these readings and explanations would seem to rest on the 
unanimous agreement of tradition. Perhaps it seems un- 
necessary to dwell on this point, for very few Orientalists, 
if any, would be prepared to assert that Indian tradition is 
infallible. But when looking over many of the editions 
and translations of the Vedic texts, even such as have been 
published in the last years, one finds plentiful occasion to 
observe that in hundreds of passages tradition has been 
practically treated, by scholars of very high merit, as if it 
had an authority not very far removed from infallibility. 
A case like that of which we have to speak here, in which 
a whole set of MSS., and occasionally also of commentaries, 
can be tested by a MS. of a nearly related text, written in 
a different character and in a distant part of India, will 
strengthen our belief that we are right in judging for our- 
selves, even if that judgment should oppose itself to such 
authorities as Narayawa or Rama£andra or Gayarama. 

Perhaps it will not be out of place to add here, as an 

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8 sankhAyana-gkjhya-sOtra. 

illustration of these remarks, a few observations on one of 
the passages in which the rejection of the traditional S&n- 
khayana reading, together with the traditional .Sankhayana 
explanation, is confirmed by the 5ambavya MS., though 
no doubt, even without the aid of that MS., we ought to 
have formed the right conclusions for ourselves. At .San- 
khayana II, 4, i. 2 the traditional reading is : 

Mama vrate hrtdayam te dadhami mama £ittam anu 
kittum te astu | mama vaiam ekamana ^ushasva Brzhas- 
patish /va niyunaktu mahyam iti | kamasya brahma- 
£aryasyasav iti. 

.Sankhayana is treating here of the Upanayana, or the 
initiation of the student who is received by a teacher and 
intends to study the Veda with him. The teacher on that 
occasion is to pronounce the Mantra which we have just 
transcribed, and which translated into English would run 

1 Under my will I take thy heart ; after my mind shall thy 
mind follow ; in my word thou shalt rejoice with all thy 
heart ; may Br*haspati join thee to me.' ' Of the Brahma- 
£arya of Kama (or lust), N. N. I ' 

The MSS. give the end of the passage as we have printed 
it above, kamasya brahma£aryasyasav iti. This 
Narayawa explains in the following way. Brahmaiarya 
here means the observances which the student has to keep 
through certain periods of time before the different texts 
which he has to learn can be taught him. First comes 
the Savitrl verse, for which he prepares himself by observ- 
ing the savitra vrata; this lasts either one year, or three 
days, or the S&vitri can also be taught him immediately 
(see chap. 5, 1-3). Then follows the jukriya vrata, of 
three days, or twelve days, or one year, or any other period 
of time according to the teacher's pleasure (chap. 11, 10); 
by this vrata the student is enabled to study the main 
portion of the Veda. Finally come the .yak vara, vratika, 
aupanishada observances, each of which has to last one 
year, and which refer to the different parts of the Ara«yaka 
(see chap. 1 1, 1 1 seq., and the sixth book). Now the formula 
of which we treat here refers principally to the savitra 

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vrata. The teacher announces to the student how long 
he has to keep that vrata. He says (Sutra i), ' May Bri- 
haspati join thee to me (Sutra 2) for a brahma^arya (i. e. a 
vrata) of such and such (kamasya) a time (one year, three 
days, &c), N. N. ! ' Kama (the pleasure) would thus stand 
here as an expletive which was to be replaced in each single 
case by the indication of the real space of time that de- 
pended on the teacher's pleasure (' . . . niyunaktu mahyam 
samvatsarikasya trairatrikasyavanvakshikasyava savitrasya 
brahma£aryasyamukamuka,yarmann iti vakyasaz«yogo£"«e- 
yaA'). The same should take place at the corresponding 
forms of Upanayana which had to precede the entrance of the 
student upon the jukriya, .rakvara, &c. observances. This is 
the explanation of Narayawa, with which Rama£andra and 
all the other commentaries agree. It will scarcely be neces- 
sary to observe that the singular use of k 1 m a, on which this 
traditional explanation rests, is neither in accordance with 
the meaning of the word, nor supported by any parallel texts. 
So, even before I had the opportunity of collating the 5am- 
bavya MS., I had no doubt that the system of the Vratas 
has nothing at all to do with our Sfitra, and that its text 
should be made intelligible by a slight alteration touch- 
ing only the quantity of the a in two syllables, by writing, 
Kamasya brahma£ary asy asav iti (thou art the 
Brahma£arin of Kama, N. N. 1), as we read in Ajvalayana I, 
20,8, kasya brahma£aryasi, prawasya brahma£ary 
asi. Afterwards I found that the Grantha MS. of .Sambavya 
gives the very reading which I had conjectured. 

Passages like this are not very rare in the Grihya-sfltras. 
In the other Sfltras we are not in the same favourable 
position of possessing a MS. which enables us, as the 
Grantha MS. of .Sambavya does, to test their text. 

We cannot conclude these introductory remarks without 
speaking of the later additions tacked on at the end of 
the original body of the .Sankhayana-Gnhya-sutras 1 . 
There are unmistakable indications that the fifth and 
sixth books are later additions. The fifth book is 

1 Comp. the remarks in my German edition of iaokhayana, Ind. Stadien, 
XV, 7. 

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io sankhAvana-givhya-sutra. 

designated as a parijishfa in a Karika quoted by 
Narayawa : 

parisish/ad avasathye parvawatikrame karu/t 
Vai^vinarayagnaye ^agnaye 1 tantumate tatha. 

(' According to the Pamish/a, if one of the half-monthly 
sacrifices has been omitted, a mess of rice should be offered 
on the sacred domestic fire to Agni Vai-rvanara and to 
Agni Tantumat.') 

The passages of the ' Paririshfe. ' here referred to are the 
two first aphorisms of V, 4 : 

' Now if a half-monthly sacrifice has not been performed, 
one or the other of them, then a mess of rice (is to be 
offered) — 

'With (the words), "To Agni Vatrvanara svaha I To 
Agni Tantumat svaha 1'" 

There are, besides, several passages in which Naraya«a 
himself mentions the fifth book under the designation of 
ParLreshadhyaya 2 . And even if we had not the authority of 
the Karika and of Narayawa, the contents alone of the fifth 
book would raise our suspicion against its genuineness. 
The matter ordinarily treated of in the Grihya. texts is 
brought to an end in Adhyayas I-IV ; in the fifth book 
we find diverse supplementary additions on points dis- 
cussed before ; rules, which no doubt would have been given 
at their proper place, had the fifth book been composed at 
the same time, and by the same author, as the preceding 
books 3 . Besides, we find different praya.r£itta oblations 
treated of, and a description of two ceremonies which are 
mentioned, as far as I know, in no other Gnhya-sutra, 
but belong to the rites frequently described in such works 
as Purawas, Partrish/as, and later Dharma texts : the con- 
secration of ponds or wells (chap. 2), and the consecration 
of gardens (chap. 3). 

There can thus be little doubt as to the secondary 
character of the fifth book. And this alone suffices to 

' vSgnaye the MS. 
' Naraya«a on I, 9, 3 ; 10, 2. 

' The Paddhati inserts the paraphrase of several of these rules into the 
explanation of the first Adhyaya. 

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furnish an important argument in favour of the same view 
with regard to the sixth book also. This view is further- 
more supported by the opening invocation in that book, 
addressed to Brahman and to a number of mythological 
beings and Vedic sages and teachers. It is evident that 
by such an invocation this book is characterised as a sepa- 
rate treatise, presupposing of course the main body of the 
.SMkhayana-sutras, but not forming part of it in the same 
sense in which, for instance, the second or the third Adhyaya 
does. The object of that treatise is the exposition of the 
ritual connected with the study of the Rahasya texts. The 
sixth book, composed no doubt by a later adherent of the 
.Sankhayana school, returns, in fact, to, and enlarges on, 
matters that have already found their proper place in the 
original Grmya-sutra at II, 12, and partly also at IV, 7. 

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Adhyaya I, Khan da 1. 

i. Now henceforth we shall declare the Paka- 

2. When (a pupil) is going to return (from his 
teacher), let him keep that fire (as his domestic fire) 
on which he has put the last piece of wood (as 
required by the regulations for a student), 

3. Or (he should keep) his nuptial fire. 

1, 1. The ceremonies to be treated of are defined here as the 
Pakayafiias (i.e. oblations of cooked offerings) just as in the 
opening sentence of the Paraskara-Gr/hya they are called gr/hya- 
sthaiipakas. This is indeed the most characteristic form of 
offerings belonging to the domain of the Gr«'hya ritual, though it 
would not be correct to state that the Gr/hya-sutras treat exclu- 
sively of sacrificial ceremonies of this kind. 

2. As to the duty of the Vedic student of putting every day 
a piece of wood on the sacred fire of his teacher, see below, II, 6, 8, 
and compare the G/vhya-saw/graha-parwish/a II, 58. According 
to a Kanka given by Naraya«a, and the Karmapradipa (I, 6, 1 3), 
the prescription of this Sutra regarding the time for the kindling 
of the sacred fire refers exclusively to the case of v&gdana (be- 
trothal). Comp. also Dr. Bloomfield's note on the Gr/hya-sa/w- 
graha-parwish/a I, 76 (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft, XXXV, 560). In the Karika it is stated that if the 
betrothed girl dies after the fire has been kindled, but before the 
marriage, the sacrificer is not to forsake his fire, but to marry 
another girl ; if he cannot find a bride, he should make the fire 
enter into himself according to the rules given by .S'arikhayana- 
Grihya. V, 1, and himself become uttara^ramin, i.e. enter one of 
the two final A^ramas. 

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4. Some declare (that the domestic fire should be 
kindled) at the time of the division of the inheritance. 

5. Or that after the death of the householder the 
eldest one himself (should kindle it). 

6. (It should be kindled) on the day of the new 
moon of the month of Vauakha or on another (new 
moon day). 

7. Some say (that the fire should be kindled) 
according to the (sacrificer's) wishes under the (cor- 
responding) constellation. 

8. He should light his fire at one of the following 
places, viz. in the house of a Vaisya who is rich in 

5. Narayawa: 'If the fire has not been kindled at the time 
stated above, then, after the householder . . . i. e. the father, even 
if he should not have performed the adh£na, or the elder brother 
has died, the eldest son (or the son who after his elder brother's 
death has become the eldest), after he has performed the Sapimtfka- 
ra«a (for the dead father or brother; see below, IV, 3, and the ninth 
chapter of the Paruish/a [book V]), even if he has not divided the 
inheritance with his younger brothers (so that the time stated in the 
fourth Sutra would not have arrived), should kindle the fire him- 
self, i. e. without an officiating priest (rrtvi^). ... Or the Sutra 
should be divided into two; prete vi grshapatau (or after the 
death of the householder), and svayaw ^yayan (the eminent one 
himself), i. e. of Brahma»as, Kshatriyas, and VaLryas a gy&y&n, 
which means a most eminent person, a Brahmana, performs the 
Pakaya^roas himself; for the two other castes the Pakaya^iias have 
to be performed through an officiating priest : this is the meaning 
of this svayaw (himself).' I have given this note of Ndriyawa as 
a specimen of the entirely arbitrary and obviously misleading expla- 
nations which are unfortunately so frequently found in this author, 
as indeed in most of the other Sutra commentators. As to the 
true meaning of this svayaw I still adhere to the explanation 
which I proposed in my German edition of the text (p. 118), that 
in case no division of the inheritance takes place, the sacred fire 
should be kindled on behalf of all the joint-proprietors, but that 
only the eldest brother should act personally (svayaw). 

8. Or, ' at (the fire of) a person rich in cattle, in the house of 
a Vauya,' &c. ? The commentators (see p. 118 of the German 

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14 sankhAyana-gr/hya sOtra. 

cattle, at a frying-pan, or (at the fire of) one who 
offers many sacrifices. 

9. Some say that (the fire should be fetched from 
one of the above-mentioned places) in the evening 
and in the morning. 

10. The inauguration (of the fire) by an evening 
offering should be learnt from the Adhvaryus, ac- 
cording to (my) teacher. 

11. In the morning he shall offer a full oblation 
with a verse sacred to Vish#u, or silently. 

1 2. The time for setting it (i.e. the domestic fire) 
in a blaze and for sacrificing on it has been explained 
by (the rules given with regard to) the Agnihotra. 

edition) differ as to whether in purupaju-vi/kula one or two 
alternatives are contained, and it is interesting to see that the 
Sutra authors themselves differed in this respect ; Paraskara (I, 2, 3), 
when declaring from what place the fire should be fetched, speaks 
of the house of a Vawya rich in cattle ; Ajvaliyana, on the contrary, 
who in the Gr/hya-sutra does not expressly treat of the kindling of 
the domestic fire, in the corresponding passage of the Srauta-sutra 
(II, 2, 1), gives the rule that the dakshi»Sgni is to be fetched 
'from the house of aVauya or from a rich person.' 

9-1 1. I now differ from the opinion which I pronounced in my 
German edition with regard to the relation in which these three 
Sutras stand to each other. I think they ought to be understood 
thus : 9. Some teachers say that the fetching of the fire from its 
yoni, as taught in Sutra 8, ought to be done twice ; in the evening, 
so that the fire, after the necessary rites have been performed, goes 
out, and then again in the morning. 10. But my (the author's) 
teacher (comp. as to iiiryiA, Katyayana's Srauta-sutra I, 3, 7; 
Professor Garbe's note on Vaitana-sutra 1, 3) is of opinion that 
the fire should be fetched only once, and that with this fire the 
ceremonies which are taught by the Adhvaryus are to be per- 
formed in the evening (see, for instance, Kity. IV, 7. 8, which 
passage is paraphrased here by Naraya«a). n. In the morning 
(according to the same teacher, not, as I once understood this 
passage, according to the eke referred to in Sutra 9), a full obla- 
tion is to be offered, &c. 

12. .Srauta-sutra II, 6, 2 seq. 

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13. And ' invested with the sacrificial cord,' &c, 
all these rules, as far as they are applicable, should 
be applied (here also) in consequence of the unity 
of the ritual. 

14. With regard to this they quote also (the 
following .Sloka) : 

15. 'The kinds of Pakaya§-»as, the kinds of Ha- 
virya^was, and again the kinds of Soma sacrifices, 

' Twenty-one by number, these are proclaimed to 
be the kinds of sacrifice.' 

Khajvda 2 1 . 

1. At the end of the sacrificial acts (follows) the 
distribution of food to Brahma#as. 

2. Voice, (pleasantness of) form, age, learning, 
moral character, (right) conduct are the qualities 
(required in the Brahma#as who are to be invited 

13. .Srauta-sutra I, 1, 6. 7: ya^wopaviti devakarmim karoti, 
prSiinavit? pitryam, &c. The unity of the ritual of course means 
the unity of the two great domains of the .Srauta and Gr«hya ritual. 

15. With regard to the twenty-one kinds of sacrifice compare, 
for instance, Gautama VIII, 18-20; Max Mfiller, Z.D.M. G. 
IX, p. lxxiii; Weber, Indische Studien, X, 326. The seven 
kinds of Pdkaya^nas are the Ash/aka' sacrifices (see below, III, 
1 2 seq.), the sacrifices offered at each Parvan (I, 3), the ■SVaddha 
(or funeral) sacrifices (IV, 1 seq.), the sacrifice of the Sravawt 
full moon (IV, 15), of the Agrahaya»f (IV, 17 seq.), of the 
Jfaitri (IV, 19), and of the Ajvayugi (IV, 16). The seven Havis 
sacrifices (belonging, as is the case also with the third division of 
sacrifices, to the .Srauta ritual) are the Agnyddheya, the Agnihotra, 
the sacrifices of the full and new moon, the Agrayana, the three 
Aaturmisya sacrifices, the Nirfli/Aapanibandha, and the SautrS- 
mani. The seven kinds of Soma sacrifices (of which the more 
ancient texts mention only three or four sawsthSs, see Weber, 
Indische Studien, IX, 1 20) are the Agnish/oma, the Atyagnish/oma, 
the Ukthya, the Sho</arin, the Atiratra, the Aptorydma. 

Digitized by 


1 6 sAnkhAyana-gkthya-sOtra. 

3. Learning, however, outweighs every (other 

4. A learned one should not be passed over. 

5. ' The threefold (knowledge, viz. that) which 
refers to the deities, that which refers to the Atman, 
and that which refers to sacrifice, 

' (Handed down) in the Mantras and in the Brah- 
ma«a : this is called learning. 

6. ' A performer of the sacred rights, a man who 
has studied (the Veda), who is old in learning and 
devoted to austerities : 

' He who gives food (even) once to such (a Brah- 
ma«a), hunger will not befall that man any more. 

7. 'Whatsoever deity he may wish to satiate at 
any sacrifice, 

• Destining it to that (deity) in his mind, he shall 
give (the food) to a person like that. 

8. 'An oblation deposited in a person like that 
will never miss its way to the deity; 

' Treasure of men, vessel of gods (in which they 
receive what is given to them) he is called.' 

Khaa t da 3. 

1. Now (follow) the ceremonies of the days of the 
new and full moon. 

He fasts. 

2. In the morning, when the sun shines on the 

3. 1. Most probably this rule should be divided into two Sutras, 
so that atha dar* apur«am£sau would stand as the heading of 
the chapter; comp. below, chap. 18, 1, atha ^aturthlkarma; 
chap. 24, 1, atha ^itakarma, &c. 

2. ' If this is expressly stated, the oblation is to be made in 
night-time ; for instance, at the VSstoshpatlya ceremony it is stated, 
"The tenth oblation of the Sthalipaka, to Agni Svish/aknt at 
night ' ' (see below, III, 4, 8).' Narayawa. 

Digitized by 



top of the great trees, that is the most auspicious 
time for all kinds of sacrifices, unless there be a 
special rule. 

3. With a genial mind, clean, on a pure, protected 
spot, having cooked a full, thin mess of rice, he 
offers that cooked oblation to the deities of the 
festivals of the new and full moon, distributing it in 
the due way. 

4. In the oblations of cooked food the acts of 
taking (the intended oblation), of putting it down 
(near the fire), and of sprinkling it (with water) are 
performed with regard to the deities of the (re- 
spective) Mantras. 

3. On vighana, which I have translated thin, see the note in 
the German edition, pp. 119 seq. 

The deities of the festivals of the new and full moon (i. e. of the 
rites which in the 5rauta ritual correspond to that taught here) are, 
at the full moon, Agni and Agntshomau, at the new moon, Agni, 
Vishmi, and Indragnt, who are preceded in both cases by Agni 
and Soma as the deities of the two %yabhagas (see below, ch. 9, 7), 
and followed by Agni Svish/akrit. For more detailed statements 
see Hillebrandt, Das altindische Neu- und Vollmondsopfer (Jena, 
1879), pp. 102 seq. 

4. For instance, the taking of the portion of food destined to 
Agni should be performed with the Mantra: Agnaye tvd ^ush- 
ta.m gr*h»ami, &c. A number of ceremonies common to the 
Sthalipaka ritual and to the ordinary ritual of A^ya oblations, such 
as the strewing of Kara, grass round the fire, the ceremonies 
regarding the Pavitras (strainers), &c, have to be supplied here 
from the A^ya ritual given below (ch. 7 seq.); this may be looked upon 
as an argument in favour of our conjecture which will be stated in 
the preface (vol. ii of the Gr/hya-sutras), that our text, as probably 
is the case also with the Paraskara-sutra, is based on an original, 
the opening sentences of which are preserved to us in .Sankh. I, 
5, i-5=Paraskara I, 4, 1-5, so that the first chapters of .SahkhsU 
yana, and among them the exposition of the festivals of the full 
and new moon, would have been prefixed to the original commence- 
ment of the text. 

[29] C 

Digitized by 


1 8 jankhAyana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

5. And the rules about the portions to be cut off 
(from the sacrificial food, are valid). 

6. But before the sacrifices of the new and full 
moon one should make offerings to the deities of 
the Anvarambhawiya ceremony. 

7. The time for the new moon sacrifice is not 
elapsed until the full moon, nor that for the full 
moon sacrifice until the new moon. 

8. And some say that the morning oblation may 
be made at the time of the evening oblation, in the 
case of danger. 

9. But the time is fixed, as at the Agnihotra an 
expiation has been prescribed for him who has 
neglected the time. 

10. At the two daily oblations one should use as 
sacrificial food either rice or barley or grains. 

11. In case these are not at hand, other (sorts of 
sacrificial food are) not prohibited. 

12. Some say that if he uses grains, he should 
wash them. 

13. With the other (kinds of food) no such pre- 
paration takes place. 

5. On the a v a d a n a d h a r m & s comp. Weber, Indische Studien, X, 
95; Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, pp. 122 seqq. 

6. The Anvarambha»iya-ish/i is the sacrifice taught in the 
.Srauta texts which is to be performed before the sacrificer for the 
first time offers the Dawapurwamasa sacrifice. See Weber, Indische 
Studien, X, 330; Hillebrandt, loc. cit., p. 185. The deities of this 
ceremony are Agnivishwu, Sarasvati, and Sarasvat. 

7. Comp. the expiatory sacrifice prescribed in the Parijish/a book, 
V, 4. 

8. The text here passes over from the two monthly sacrifices to 
the two daily ones, which correspond to the Agnihotra of the 
.Srauta ritual. 

Digitized by 



14. In the evening (he makes the oblation) to 
Agni, in the morning to Surya, 

15. And after both silently to Pra^pati. 

16. Some (say that) before the first oblation a 
piece of wood (is to be put on the fire). 

i 7. The sprinkling with water as indicated (in the 

Khanda 4. 

t. When he has risen in the morning and has 
sipped water, let him daily repeat his recital. 

2. (This consists of, or is accompanied by, the 
following texts :) the two verses, ' To-day, god 
Savitar ' (Rig-veda V, 82, 4-5) ; the hymn, ' Go 
away, Manasaspati' (X, 164); the hymn, 'Right 
and truth* (X, 190); the verses, 'Look down, ye 
Adityas,' to the end of the hymn (VIII, 47, 11-18); 

14, 15. These are the same deities who are worshipped also at 
the Agnihotra. 

17. .Srauta-sutra II, 6, 9-11. Comp. p. 120 of the German edition. 
4, 1. The Paddhati of Ramafendra understands svadhyayam 

adhtytta as a prescription to perform the daily Brahmaya^na (comp., 
for instance, Arvalayana-Grthya III, 2 ; Apastamba I, n, 22 seq.), 
which consists in the recitation of portions of the Veda ; the hymns 
and verses stated in Sutra 2 are, according to the same authority, 
to be repeated immediately after the recitation of the sv&dhy&ya 
(' svadhyayanantaram'). Nirayawa, on the contrary, considers that 
die svidhyaya prescribed in Sutra 1 consists of those very hymns 
and verses which are indicated in the second Sutra. As to the 
Brahmaya^na, he says that the £a at the end of the second Sutra 
may be referred to it (' the word ka. means that texts procuring a 
long life, such as Rig-veda I, 89, should be murmured, or an in- 
junction of the Brahmaya^raa is intended'). At all events it is very 
difficult to believe that the recitation of the texts stated in this chapter 
should be quite independent from the daily Brahmaya^wa. About 
the performance of the Brahmaya^wa in our days comp. the note of 
Professor Bdhler, Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. 43. 

C 2 

Digitized by 


20 sankhayana-gk/hya-sCtra. 

the verse, ' O Indra, the best treasures' (II, 21, 6) 
the verse, ' The swan dwelling in purity' (IV, 40, 5) 
the verse, 'Adoration to the great ones' (I, 27, 13) 
the verse, 'What we fear, Indra' (VIII, 50, 13); the 
verse, 'And of the sleep' (I, 120, 12); the verse, 'He 
who says to me, O king' (II, 28, 10); the hymn, 
' Let glory be mine, Agni' (X, 128); and the five 
verses, ' Bliss may create for us ' (V, 51,11 seq.). 

Khawda 5. 

1. There are four kinds of Pakaya^was, viz. the 
Huta, the Ahuta, the Prahuta, and the Prasita. 

2. On the following five occasions, viz. the wed- 
ding, the tonsure (of the child's head), the initiation 
(of the BrahmaX'arin), the cutting of the beard, and 
the parting of the hair, (on these occasions) in the 
outer hall — 

3. To a place that has been smeared (with cow- 
dung), which is elevated, and which has been 
sprinkled (with water), he carries forward the fire, 

4. Having kindled it by rubbing, according to 
some teachers, at his marriage. 

5. During the northern course of the sun, in the 

5, 1. This Sutra and the following ones down to the fifth are 
identical with Paraskara I, 4, 1-5 ; it seems to me that we have 
here before us the opening Sutras of a lost text from which this 
passage has been copied both by .Saiikhayana and Paraskara. 
Comp. the preface of the second volume of the Grzhya-sutras. 

With regard to the fourfold division of Pakaya^ftas stated here 
comp. below, chap. 10, 7. 

2. Comp. the Karika quoted by Naraya«a, ' vivahadishu bahyo 
'gnir ma«<fape ka. tad ishyata iti.' 

3. On the Agni-pra«ayana comp. the details given in the Gr/hya- 
samgraha-parwish/a (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen 
Gesellschaft, vol. xxxv), I, 64-69. 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 6 KHAAWA, 5. 2 t 

time of the increasing moon, on an auspicious day 
he shall seize the hand of a girl, 

6. Who should possess (the auspicious) charac- 
teristics (required), 

7. Whose limbs should be proportionate, 

8. Whose hair should be smooth, 

9. Who should also have at her neck two curls 
turned to the right. 

10. (Of such a girl) he shall know that she will 
give birth to six men. 

Khayda 6. 

1. If he will acquire a wife, let him recite over 
the wooers (whom he sends to the girl's father) 
when they go away, the verse, ' Thornless ' (Rig- 
veda X, 85, 23). 

2. When they arrive, they take flowers, fruits, 
barley, and a pot of water. 

3. They say thrice, ' Here I am, sir ! ' 

4. When these words have been uttered, they 
ask the girl in marriage, reciting the clan names, 
the dwellers turning their faces to the east, the 
visitors to the west. 

5. When the matter pleases both sides, let them 
touch a full vessel into which have been put flowers, 

9. On avartau comp. the note in the German edition, p. 121. 

6. 1. 'The wooers, i.e. his own father, &c.' Narayawa. 

3. ' When the father of the suitor and the others, together with 
their Aiarya, have arrived at the house of him who is to give away 
the girl, they station themselves in the hall, and the father of the 
suitor says thrice, " Here am I, N. N. (amukajarman), Sir 1 " — in 
these words he announces himself three times .... For at the 
house of the person who gives the girJ away, there arrive also, in 
order to see the festivities, many other people. In order to dis- 
tinguish himself from these, he pronounces his name.' Narayawa. 

Digitized by 


22 sankhAyana-g*/hya-sOtra. 

fried grain, fruits, barley, and gold, and let them 
recite (the formula), ' Undisturbed art thou, the 
undisturbable vigour of the gods, not cursed, pro- 
tecting against a curse, unexposed to a curse. 
Might I straightway attain to truth. Put me into 

6. With the verse, ' Offspring may produce us ' 
(Rig-veda X, 85, 43), the Aiarya of the girl's 
(family), standing up, places (the vessel) on her 
head (saying), ' Offspring I put into thee, cattle 
I put into thee, splendour and holy lustre I put 
into thee.' 

Khandx 7. 

1. When assent has been declared (by the girl's 
father, the bridegroom) sacrifices. 

2. He besmears a quadrangular space with cow- 

3. (Let him consider in the ceremonies to be 
performed,) of the two eastern intermediate direc- 
tions, the southern one as that to which (the rites) 
should be directed, if the rites belong to the Manes, 

6. The position of the words as well as the sense favours com- 
bining the genitive kanyay&A with a£aryaA, not with mur- 
dhani, though Rama&indra says that the varapaksha£arya is to 
be understood. 

7, 1 seq. Here follows a description of the sacrifice which is to 
be performed when the girl's father has declared his assent 
(praturute) to give her away in marriage: this is the general 
model for all Gr/hya sacrifices. — ' Varo ^uhoti,' Narayana. 

3. ' He here states an exception to the rule, " The ceremonies 
sacred to the Manes are directed towards the south" (.Srauta-sutra 
I, r, 14) .... He should consider the south-eastern direction, 
sacred to Agni, as that to which the ceremonies are to be directed 
(pra/Mm purva>» kalpayet) which are sacred to the Manes, such as 

Digitized by 



4. The northern one, if the rites belong to the 

5. Or rather the east (itself) according to some 

6. He draws in the middle (of the sacrificial 
ground) a line from south to north, 

7. Upwards from this, turned upwards, to the 
south one line, in the middle one, to the north one. 

8. These he sprinkles (with water), 

9. Carries forward the fire with the verse, ' I 
carry forward Agni with genial mind; may he be 
the assembler of goods. Do no harm to us, to the 
old nor to the young ; be a saviour to us, to men 
and animals,' 

10. Or (he carries it forward) silently, 

11. Then he wipes with his wet hand three 
times around the fire, turning his right side to it. 
This they call SamGhana (sweeping together). 

prescribed in the Sutra, " Let him make oblations every month to 
the Fathers" (IV, 1, 1) .... He states an exception to the rule, 
"The ceremonies sacred to the gods are directed towards the east" 
(<SVaut. I, 1, 13) ... . The northern of the two eastern inter- 
mediate directions, sacred to Irana, should be considered as that to 
which the ceremonies sacred to the gods, such as oblations, &c, 
are to be directed.' — Comp. Afvalayana-Sraut. I, 12, 4. 

6-7. See the quotations from R£ma£andra's and Nar&yawa's 
commentaries, p. 1 23 of the German edition. An illustration of the 
form of the stha«</ila with the lines drawn thereon is given by 
Dr. Bloomfield in his note on the Gnhya-sawgraha-parLrish/a I, 52 
seq. ; instead of the three lines, however, which are here prescribed 
in Sutra 7, there are four indicated in accordance with the doctrine 
of that Paruish/a and of Gobhila himself, which are stated to be 
sacred to Pnthivt, Prag-Spati, Indra, and Soma, while the line turned 
from south to north is sacred to Agni. 

9. On the Agniprawayana (carrying forward of the fire) see the 
Gr/hya-sajBgraha-parirish/a I, 64-69. 

Digitized by 


24 sankhayana-gj?/hya-sOtra. 

12. Once, turning his left side to it, in the rites 
belonging to the Manes. 

Khanda. 8. 

1. Now (follows) the strewing (of grass) around 
(the fire). 

2. He strews eastward-pointed Ku,ja grass around 
it, in three layers or in five layers, 

3. Beginning on the east side, then to the west, 
then to the west. 

4. He covers the roots (of the grass-blades) with 
the points. 

5. And all kinds of rites are to be performed 
beginning south, ending north. 

6. He places the Brahman south with the words, 
BhCr Bhuvas SvAff, 

7. Adorns him with flowers, 

8. Carries forward on the north side the Pra»Ita 
waters with the words, 'Who carries ye forward ?' — 

9. Takes up with the left hand the Kusa. blades, 
and arranges them (on the ground) with the right 

8, 1. Comp. the passages quoted in Professor Eggeling's note on 
•Satapatha Br. I, 1, 1, 22. 

6. Ordinarily there was no real Brahman present, and his place 
was filled by a bundle of Kuja grass that represented him. Nara- 
ya»a states that this bundle should consist of fifty blades of Kma 
grass. Comp. also the G/vTiya-sawgraha-paruish/a I, 89-90. 

8. Comp. the passages quoted by Dr. Bloomfield, Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenland. Gesellschaft, vol. xxxv, p. 565, note 2. 

9. This Sutra shows that the paristararca, though already 
treated of in Sutras 1-4, is not to be performed till after the ' carry- 
ing forward' of the PrawM water. Comp. Narlyana's note on Sutra 
1 (p. 123 of the German edition). That this is indeed the order 
of the different acts is confirmed by Paraskara I, 1, 2. 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 8 KHAJV0A, 21. 25 

10. Bending his right knee, 

11. The left when worshipping the Manes. 

12. The strewing around (of the grass) is not 
necessary in the A^ya offerings, 

13. Nor in the standing offerings, according to 

14. He now measures off with the span (of his 
hand) two Kusa. blades, which are not unequal, with 
unbroken points, bearing no young shoots in them, 
and severs them (from their roots) with a Kara, 
blade, saying, * Purifiers are ye.' 

1 5. There are two or three (of these Ku.ja strainers). 

16. He holds them with their points to the east 
and sprinkles them (with water, saying), ' Belonging 
to Vish#u.' 

1 7. With the two Kusa blades he sprinkles (water) 
around the fire three times, keeping his right side 
turned towards it, 

1 8. Takes up the A^ya pot with the words, 'Milk 
of the cows art thou ;' 

19. Puts it on the fire with the words, ' For sap 

20. Takes it from the fire towards the north with 
the words, ' For juice thee ; ' 

21. And holding the two (Kara) strainers with 
their points to the north, seizing them on both sides 

13. 'In the standing offerings, such as theVauvadeva sacrifice in 
the morning and in the evening.' Narayawa. 
14-16. V%asaneyi Sawhita I, 12 a. 

18. Vig. Sarah. IV, 3 a. 

19. V$g. Sarah. I, 22 d. 

20. Va^. Sarah. I, 30 c. 

21. Va^-. Sarah. I, 12 b. — The division of Sutras 21 and 22 
should be after iti, not, as the Indian tradition has it, after 

Digitized by 


26 sAnkhayana-gjuhya-sOtra. 

with his two thumbs and fourth fingers, he bends 
them down, the points upwards, and dips them into 
the Afya with the words, 

' By the impulse of Savitar I purify thee with 
this uninjured purifier, with the rays of the good 

22. (This) preparation of the A^ya (takes place) 
each time. 

2 3. Let him not offer (A^ya) which has not been 
(thus) prepared. 

24. Also the waters in the Sruva spoon (he puri- 
fies) with the words, '(By the impulse) of Savitar 
(I purify) you.' 

25. This (is called) the Pra^ta and the Prok- 
shaatJ water. 

Khanda 9. 

1. The Sruva spoon (serves as) a vessel. 

2. According to the purpose the properties (of 
the different things to be used at each oblation) 
should be chosen. 

3. Taking up Kusa. blades with the left, and the 

24, 25. Rlma^andra: 'He pours water into the Sruva and 
purifies this also, as he had done with the A^ya (Sutra 21) ... . 
He then pours a little portion of that water on to the PrawltS water 
(see above, Sutra 8), and with the rest, which is called the Prok- 
shawf water, he sprinkles the sacrificial food, the fuel, and the 

9, 1. 'When no special rule is stated, the Sruva is to be under- 
stood as the vessel (for the offering). Thereby the rule, "The 
Guhu is the vessel" (.Srauta-sutra III, 19, 5) is abolished (for the 
Gr/hya rites).' Narayawa. 

3. The manner of holding the Sruva in which the A^ya is, is 
described by Katyayana, -Sraut I, 10, 6 seq., Stenzler's note on 
Piraskara I, 1, 4. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Sruva at its bottom with the right hand, with the 
words, ' The hand of Vislmu art thou ' — 

4. He offers with the Sruva the A^ya oblations. 

5. Beginning from the north-west side of the fire 
he offers (the Afya) unintermittingly on the south 
side (of the fire) with (the verse), ' Thou Agni art 
full of foresight' (Rig-veda I, 31, 10). 

6. Beginning from the south-west side of the fire 
he unintermittingly offers on the north side with 
(the verse), ' To whom these snowy mountains ' 
(Rig-veda X, 121, 4). 

7. To Agni belongs the northern Afya portion, 
to Soma the southern. 

8. In the middle (are made) the other oblations, 

9. (With the words,) ' Agni is the begetter; may he 
give to me N. N. as my wife ; svaha ! 

' Soma is rich in wives ; may he make me rich in 
wives by N. N. ; svaha ! 

' Pushan is rich in kindred ; may he make me rich 
in kindred by the father, the mother, the brothers of 
N. N.; svaha!' 

io. At the A^ya oblations the offering of the two 
Afya portions and of the Svish/ak^'t oblation is not 

4. As to the characteristics of Agya. (sacrificial butter), which is 
the substance offered at most of the Gnhya sacrifices, comp. the state- 
ments of the Gr*hya-sa«graha-parwish/a I, 105 seq. 

5. Avi£/5Ainna» (unintermittingly) is explained in Nir.'s com- 
mentary by ekadhSrayS. 

8 seq. Here are indicated the chief oblations of this sacrifice 
(any& a^iutayaA pradhanabhutlfc, Nar.), or the &v&pa (the inser- 
tion, Sutra 12) which comes between the standing introductory and 
concluding oblations. 

10. On Svish/akrrt, comp. Weber, Indische Studien, IX, 217. 

Digitized by 


28 sankhayana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

it. Nor in the standing oblations, according to 

12. The place for the insertion is the interval 
between the Mahavyalm'tis, the general expiation, 
and the oblation to Pra^apati. 

ii. See chap. 8, 13. 

12. This Sutra prescribes where the a vS pa, i.e. the special cha- 
racteristical offerings of each sacrifice, is to be inserted between 
the regular offerings that belong to the standing model. The 
same subject is treated of in the .Srauta-sutra in the two rules, I, 
1 6, 3 and 4 : ' Whatsoever is offered between the two A^ya por- 
tions and the Svish/akr/'t, that is called avapa; this is the chief part 
(pradhana) (of the sacrifice) ; the other (oblations) are subordinate 
thereto (tadangani).' The position of the dvapa among the other 
oblations is indicated by P&raskara in the following rule (I, 5, 6): 
' Between the general expiation and the oblation to Pra^apati, this 
is the place for the avapa.' (The word vivahe at the end of this 
Sutra seems to me to belong not to this rule, but to Sutra 7.) Our 
Sutra is identical with that of Pdraskara word for word ; only instead 
of sarvaprayajjiitta, as Paraskara has, we read here, mahavyd- 
hr»'tisarvapraya.r£itta. This means, I believe, that the avapa, 
preceded and followed by the Mahavyahr/'ti oblations (comp. below, 
I, 12, 13), should be placed between the Sarvapraya^itta and the 
Pra^apatya oblation. The oblations made with the Mahavyihrrtayas 
are four in number ; the corresponding formulas are : bhu h svaha, 
bhuvaA svaha, sva^ svaha, bhur bhuvaA sva// svaha' (comp. 
below, chap. 12,12). The Sarvaprayax&tta (general expiation) con- 
sists of two oblations, one with the three Mahavyahr/tayas, the other 
with the verse ayaj Mgne, quoted in the .Srauta-sutra III, 19, 3, 
and in A^valayana's Srauta-sutra I, 1 1, 13. (On the Sarvaprayar£itta 
in the .Srauta ritual, compare Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmonds- 
opfer, p. 166.) The Pra^apatya oblation is performed with the 
formula Pra^apataye svaha. The discussions of Narayawa on 
this Sutra (see p. 125 of the German edition) evidently fail to bring 
out the true meaning of the text ; according to this commentator 
the oblations follow each other in this order : the two Agyabhagas, 
the principal oblations (pradhanahutaya^), the Svish/akr/'t, the four 
Mahavyahr/'ti oblations, the two Sarvapraya^-itta oblations, the 
Prag-apatya oblation. Finally we may mention the corrupt form in 
which the corresponding passage of the .Sambavya-sutra is pre- 

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I ADHYAYA, 9 KHAN0A, 19. 29 

13. If the oblation consists in A^ya, let him seize 
the Kara, blades in his left hand with his right 
hand at their points and with the left at their roots, 
and let him wet their points (with Afya) in the 
Sruva, the middle and the roots in the A^ya pot ; 

14. In the oblations of cooked food, however, the 
points in the Sru>£, the middle in the Sruva, the roots 
in the A^ya pot 

1 5. When he then has thrown them (into the fire) 
with the words, 'Agni's garment art thou,' 

16. And has put on (the fire) three pieces of 

1 7. (Water) is sprinkled round (the fire) as stated 

18. Oblations for which only the deities are in- 
dicated, but no texts prescribed, are to be made 
merely with the word SvahA, ' To such and such a 
deity svaha ! To such and such a deity svaha ! ' 

19. The ritual (here) declared of the sacrifice (to 

served in the MS. There the two Sutras 10 and 11 are placed 
before the Mantra in Sutra 9. This Mantra then is given down to 
sv&heti, then follows a^yena, which seems to me to form part 
of the same Sutra, and to refer to the oblations to which the Mantra 
belongs. Then the MS. goes on : mahavyahrz'tishu sarvaprd- 
ya.skittiTZ.rn (sic) etad avSpasthinaw d^yahavishi vydhr?'- 
tishu sarvaprdyajiiittdra/w (the syllables prdya^ittdraw 
seem to be expunged) svish/akn'to sthalipake. In the com- 
mentary I find the following .Slokas, which I give exactly as they are 
read in the MS.: tiarinim vydhr/tfnd/» £a prdya.r£ittdhutir 
api yad antaraw tad apapasthanara sarpi^pradhanake. 
sthalipake vyahr«ti»a»» yat tat svish/akr«'tottara»» ahuti- 
nd» pradhdndnd/n nanddaivata£Aandasd*ft yas tu kalas 
tad avapasthanam ita£yate budhaiA tatas tat tarn ma ara- 
bhya prayaf^ittahuti^ kramat. 

17. See above, chap. 8, 17. 

19. This Sutra, though reckoned in the Indian tradition to 

Digitized by 



be performed) when (the father's) assent (to give 
away his daughter) has been declared — 

Khanda 10. 

i. Forms the standard for all sacrifices that pro- 
cure happiness, 

2. And for all Agya. offerings, 

3. For the sacrifice of animals which are tied to a 

4. And for the offerings of boiled (rice) grains and 
of cooked food. 

5. These are performed, all the offerings of cooked 
food, without Prayaga and Anuyaga oblations, with- 
out (the invocation of) the IlA, without Nigada reci- 
tation, and without Samidhen! verses. 

6. There are also the following .Slokas : 

chap. 9, seems to me clearly to belong to the next chapter, and to 
contain the subject, to which the predicate is given in 10, 1. For 
prati-rrute, see chap. 7, 1. 

10, 1. 'As in the .Srauta ritual the sacrifice of the full and new 
moon forms the standard for the ish/is, the parabandha, &c, thus 
the praturut-kalpa is the standard for the vikr/tis of the Smarta 
ritual, such as the ^atakarman (chap. 24), &c.' Narayawa. 

3. ' It is the standard of the sacrifices prescribed in the rules, 
" The animal (offered) to the teacher is sacred to Agni ; to an offi- 
ciating priest, to Br/baspati, &c." ' Nariyawa. This refers to the 
sacrifice of animals which forms part of the Arghya ceremony; see 
II, 15, 4 seq. 

4. ^faruwaw pakaya^nanaw ka. Nariya«a. 

5. On the five Prayag-as and the three AnuySg-as (introductory 
oblations and oblations following on the principal offerings) pre- 
scribed in the .SYauta ritual, comp. Hillebrandt's Neu- und Voll- 
mondsopfer, pp. 94 seq., 134 seq. On the Ila, see ibid., 122 seq. ; 
on nigada, Weber's Ind. Studien, IX, 217, &c. ; on the Samidhent 
verses, Hillebrandt, loc. cit., pp. 74 seq. On this Sutra compare 
also the passage in Katyayana's .Srauta-sutra, VI, 10, 22 seq. 

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7. ' (An oblation is called) Huta, (if made) by the 
performing of the Agnihotra; Ahuta (i.e. unsacri- 
ficed, if) by the Bali offering; Prahuta (i.e. sacrificed 
up, if) by a sacrifice to the Manes ; PrAsita (i. e. tasted, 
if) deposited as an offering in a Brahmawa. 

8. 'Without raising his knees, with spread knees 
let him always offer his oblation ; for the gods never 
accept an offering (that has been made holding the 
hand) not between (the knees). 

9. ' But when he has repeated a text sacred to 
Rudra, to the Rakshas, to the Manes, to the Asuras, 
or that contains an imprecation, let him touch water, 
and so also when he has touched his own body.' 

Khanda. 11. 

1. Now when the bride is to be carried away (to 
the bridegroom's house) that night, or on the next, 
or on the third night, 

2. On that night, when (the darkness of) night is 
gone, they wash the girl up to her head with (water 
that has been made fragrant by) all sorts of herbs 
and the choicest fruits together with scents ; 

7. Comp. chap. 5, 1. 

8. Comp. the Grzhya-samgraha-parirish/a I, 46, and the note, 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XXXV, 556. 
Nar&yana: dakshi«a« bihum g&nvor antare kr/tvety 
arthaA, sarvada' sarvasminn api karmawi havir homadra- 
vyaw #uhuy&t 

9. This verse is found also in the Karmapradfpa III, 8, 4. 

11, 1. The ceremony described in this chapter is called IndrSwt- 
karman. The goddess Indr&ri is mentioned in Sutra 4 among the 
deities to whom A^ya oblations are made. 

2. NixSkale, nir£ madhyastham praharadvayam, tasmin kale atite. 

On the anv&rambha, comp. Weber's Indische Studien, IX, 224. 

Digitized by 


•?2 sAnkhayana-g.r/hya-s6tra. 

3. They put on her a newly-dyed garment or (a 
new one) which has not yet been washed ; 

4. Then (the Alarya of the bride's family) makes 
the girl sit down behind the fire, and while she takes 
hold of him he sacrifices with the Mahavyahmis, 
and then he makes Kg ya oblations to Agni, to Soma, 
to Pra^apati, to Mitra, to Varu«a, to Indra, to 
Indrawl, to the Gandharva, to Bhaga, to Pushan, 
to Tvash/ar, to Brzhaspati, to the king Pratyinlka. 

5. After they have regaled four or eight women, 
who are not widows, with lumps of vegetables, 
Sura, and food, these should perform a dance four 

6. The same deities (they worship also) on behalf 
of the man, 

7. And Vaisravawa and l,jana. 

8. Then follows the distribution of food to Brah- 

KHAiVCA 12. 

1. The bridegroom, who has bathed and for 
whom auspicious ceremonies have been performed, 
is escorted by happy young women, who are not 
widows, to the girl's house. 

2. To these he shall not behave unobsequiously, 
except where forbidden food or a transgression is 

3. Having obtained their permission, he then 
gives her the garment with (the verse), ' The Raibhi 
was ' (Rig-veda X, 85, 6). 

4. The 'king Pratyanika' has given origin to a very curious 
misunderstanding in the .Sambavya-Gr/hya and its commentary; see 
p. 127 of the German edition. 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 12 KKANDA, 9. 33 

4. With (the verse), 'Mind was the cushion' 
(ibid. 7) he takes up the salve-box. 

5. The verse for the anointing is, 'May the Virve 
devas anoint (or, unite),' (ibid. 47.) 

6. 'As this (has protected) SaM the beloved 
one, and Aditi the mother of noble sons, and 
Apala who was free from widowhood, may it 
thus here protect thee, N. N. ! ' — with these words 
(the bridegroom) gives her into her right hand the 
quill of a porcupine (and) a string of three twisted 

7. With the verse, 'Shape by shape' (Rig-veda 
VI, 47, 18) a mirror into the left. 

8. Her relations tie (to her body) a red and 
black, woollen or linen cord with three (amulet) 
gems, with the verse, ' Dark-blue and red ' (Rig- 
veda X, 85, 28). 

9. With the verse, ' Full of honey the herbs ' 
(Rig-veda IV, 57, 3), (the bridegroom) ties (to her 
body) Madhuka flowers. 

12, 5. On the ceremony of 'salving together' (samangana), 
comp. Paraskara I, 4, 14; Gobhila II, 2, &c. Professor Stenzler 
is certainly wrong in translating Paraskara's saman^ayati by 
' heisst sie beide zusammentreten' (according to (rayarima's expli- 
cation, sammukhikaroti). It is clear from Sankhiyana, that a 
real anointing of bridegroom and bride took place. This was per- 
formed, according to Gobhila, by the ' audaka' (this seems to be the 
same person that is mentioned in Paraskara I, 8, 3), of whom it is 
said, pa»igraha»j (i.e. the bridegroom) murdhadcre 'vasinAati, 
tathetaram. Nirayawa, on the contrary, in his note on our pas- 
sage, says that it is the bridegroom who anoints the eyes of the 
girl with the verse quoted. But the word sam-a%ana, and the 
obvious meaning of the whole rite', make it rather probable that 
both were anointed, and that this was done by a third person. 

6. Comp. below, chap. 22, 8, where the use of a porcupine's 
quill is prescribed at the slmantonnayana ceremony; and see 
chap. 22, 10. 

[29] D 

Digitized by 


34 sA&KHAYANA-G/t/HYA-stiTRA. 

10. At the wedding one cow, when the Argha 
ceremony has been performed ; in the house one 
cow : these are the two Madhuparka cows. 

ii. (The bridegroom) makes the girl sit down 
behind the fire, and while she takes hold of him he 
makes three oblations with the Mahivyahrztis. 

10. As to the meaning of arhayitva I differ from the opinion of 
N4raya«a (see his note on p. 127 of the German edition), who takes 
gam as the object of this verb (gam arhayitvS pu^ayitva matS 
rudranam ity rikzm ^apitva [comp. Paraskara I, 3, 27]). The real 
meaning of arhayati is, to perform the Argha ceremony for a 
guest Evidently in this Sutra two different occasions are stated 
on which the Argha reception, eventually with the killing of a cow, 
should be performed ; firstly, the bridegroom should be so received 
in the house of the bride's father; secondly, when the newly- 
married people have arrived at their own house, an Argha reception 
should there be offered to them, perhaps, as the commentaries 
state, by the AHrya. 

11. According to Nar£ya«a it is the AMrya who performs the 
rite prescribed in this Sutra ; Rama&indra, on the contrary, refers it 
to the bridegroom, which seems to me right. Comp. Gobhila II, 1. 

In .Sankhiyana's description of the wedding ceremonies the point 
at which the bride passes over from the paternal power into that 
of her new husband is not expressly indicated. Paraskara (1, 4, 15) 
clearly indicates it (pitra pratt&m adaya), and in the Parirish/a of 
the Afvalayana-Gr/hya this act of handing over the girl is treated 
of in detail (I, 22). On this depends the description in the Prayo- 
garatna, fol. 69; comp. also Colebrooke's Miscell. Essays, I, 210. 
The Paddhati of Rama£andra does not fail to mention the 
kanyapradana, but I do not think that the succession of the 
different rites is stated there correctly. According to the Paddhati 
the bridegroom goes to the house of the girl's father, and there, 
after the madhuparka has been offered, the bride is given over 
to him; he then (labdhavadhfika^) goes (chap. 12,1), accom- 
panied by young women, to the kautuk&gara, where the cere- 
monies described in chap. 12, 3 seq. take place. PSraskara, on 
the contrary, describes the handing over of the garments, the 
anointing, &c, as preceding the giving over of the girl, and 
indeed it is scarcely possible to see in the acts of dressing, adorn- 
ing the girl, &c, in which both the bridegroom and her relations 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 13 KHANDA, 4. 35 

1 2. A fourth (oblation) with (the three MahivyA- 
hWtis) together is to be understood from this rule. 

1 3. In this way, where no express rule is stated, 
in all sacrifices that procure happiness, one is to 
sacrifice before and afterwards with these same 

Khaatda 13. 

1. ' Be queen with thy father-in-law,' with this 
verse (Rig-veda X, 85, 46) her father or brother 
sacrifices with a sword's point on her head, or with 
the Sruva, standing while she is sitting, with his 
face turned to the west, while her face is turned to 
the east. 

2. ' I seize thy hand for the sake of happiness ' 
(Rig-veda X, 85, 36), with these words (the bride- 
groom) seizes with his right hand her right hand 
with the thumb, both hands being turned with the 
palms upwards, he standing while she is sitting, with 
his face turned to the west, while her face is turned 
to the east. 

3. And when he has murmured the following five 

4. (He continues thus,) 'This am I, that art thou; 

take part, anything but preparatory performances that precede 
the decisive moment. The sacrifice, on the contrary, which the 
bridegroom performs, according to chap. 12, 11, in common with 
his bride, seems to presuppose that he has already received her 
from her father; and the ceremonies described in chap. 13, the 
pa«igraha«a, the pronouncing of the Mantra, chap. 13, 4, which 
reminds one of the Roman formula ubi tu Gaius, the seven 
steps — all that should be understood not as intended to establish 
the power of the husband over his wife, but as presupposing that 
power and showing an exercise of it. 

13, 4. Nardyawa states that here four Brahmawas should repeat 

D 2 

Digitized by 



that art thou, this am I ; the heaven I, the earth thou; 
the Rik art thou, the Saman I. So be thou devoted 
to me. 

'Well! Let us here marry. Let us beget off- 
spring. Let us acquire many sons who may reach 
old age.' 

5. (The A&irya) fills, with the words bhur 
bhuva^ sva^, a new water-pot, 

6. Throws into it (branches) with milky sap and 
leaves, of a tree the name of which is masculine, 
together with Kusa grass, 

7. And gold, according to some (teachers), 

8. And hands it over to a student who observes 

9. They should walk round this Stheya water, 
(placed) to the north-east, so that they turn their 
right sides towards it. 

the Surya hymn (Rig-veda X, 85) to the bride. That, according 
to Jankhayana, that hymn is recited at the wedding, is clear from 
chap. 14, 12. 

6. Sakshirant sapalajant sakiuan. Narayana's commen- 
tary divides sa kuxan, and refers sa to the aMrya. But this 
sa would be superfluous, and the substantive to which sakshir&n 
and sapala^an are to be referred, is, as both the nature of the 
case and the corresponding passages show, fakhSn and not 
kufan. Comp. the .Srauta-sutra IV, 17, 5: palajajakhiw sapa- 
lisim nikhaya, and a passage concerning the very rite here 
described, A-rvalayana-parwish/a I, 24: audumbaryarddhaya" 
(read, ardraysl?) j-akhaya sapalaxaya sahira»yapavitray£ 
sadurvapavitraya. The MS. of the .Sambavya-sutra has sa- 
kshtran palajan sakuj-an. 

9. 'The Stheya water has to be so placed that when the bride 
and the bridegroom walk (their seven steps, see chap. 14, 5 seq.), 
their right sides are turned towards it.' Naraya«a. Comp., re- 
garding the Stheya water and its bearer, the Gr/hya-sa/wgraha- 
paruish/a II, 26. 30. 35. 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 1 4 KHANDA, 2. 37 

10. And after (the A^arya) has placed a stone 
towards the northern direction, 

11. (The bridegroom) makes her rise with the 
words, ' Come, thou joyful one,' 

1 2. And makes her tread with the tip of her right 
foot on the stone, with the words, ' Come, tread on 
the stone; like a stone be firm. Tread the foes 
down ; overcome the enemies.' 

13. He then leads her round the fire so that their 
right sides are turned to it, 

14. And gives her a second garment with the 
same text (chap. 1 2, $ 3). 

15. Her father or brother pours out of a basket 
fried grain mixed with Sa.mi leaves into her joined 

' hands. 

16. The spreading under, the sprinkling over, and 
the second sprinkling over (are done) with Afya. 

1 7. She sacrifices those (fried grains). 

Khajvda 14. 

1. ' This woman, strewing grains, prays thus, " May 
I bring bliss to my relations ; may my husband live 
long. SvahaF" — while the husband murmurs (this) 
text, she sacrifices standing. 

2. (All the ceremonies,) beginning from the tread- 

17. I believe that the words forming this Sutra, tan^uhoti, are 
taken from the same lost old Grrtiya text which .Sankhayana has 
followed word for word also in I, 5, 1-5 and elsewhere. This is 
made probable by the comparison of Paraskara I, 6, 2. The 
author of our text, while literally adopting the words of his original, 
has not quite succeeded in welding them together with his own 
statements ; thus the sacrifice of grains is treated of in this Sutra 
and in the first Sfltra of the next chapter, as if there were two 
different acts, while indeed it is one and the same. 

14, 2. The treading on the stone is prescribed in chap. 13, 12. 

Digitized by 


38 sankhAyana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

ing upon the stone, (are repeated) in the same way 
for a second time, 

3. And in the same way a third time. 

4. Silently, if they like, a fourth time. 

5. (The A^arya ?) makes (them) step forward in 
a north-eastern direction seven steps (with the 

6. ' For sap with one step, for juice with two steps, 
for the prospering of wealth with three steps, for 
comfort with four steps, for cattle with five steps, 
for the seasons with six steps. Friend be with 
seven steps.' 

7. (The Aiarya?) 'appeases' those (foot-steps) 
with water. 

8. With the three Apohish/^lyi verses (Rig-veda 
X, 9, 1-3) he wipes (them) with the Stheya water, 

9. And sprinkles it on their heads. 

10. (The bridegroom then) says, ' I give you 
a cow.' 

11. Let him give something to the Brahmawas 
each time at the Sthalipakas and other rites ; 

12. To him who knows the Stirya hymn the 
bride's shift. 

5, 7. According to Ndraya«a it is the teacher who makes them 
walk the seven steps ; the Paddhati says that the bridegroom or 
the A^arya causes her to do so. Comp. Paraskara I, 8, 1 ; Arva- 
liyana I, 7, 19, &c. 

8. Comp. chap. 13, 9. 

9. Probably we should read mftrdhani (ace. dual.), not mur- 
dhani. Asvalayana has firast. Of course the heads of both the 
bridegroom and the bride were sprinkled with water ; comp. Arva- 
lSyana I, 7, 20, &c. 

12. The Suryd hymn is Rig-veda X, 85. Comp. the note above 
on chap. 13, 4. 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 1 5 KHANDA, 3. 39 

13. A cow is the optional gift to be given by 
a Brahmawa, 

14. A village by a Ra^anya, 

1 5. A horse by a VaLyya. 

16. A hundred (cows) with a chariot (he gives to 
a father) who has only daughters. 

17. To those versed in the sacrificial rites he 
gives a horse. 

Khanda 15. 

1. The three verses, ' I loosen thee' (Rig-veda X, 
85, 24), when she departs from the house. 

2. 'The living one they bewail' (Rig-veda X, 
40, 10), if she begins to cry. 

3. The wife then smears the axle of the chariot 
with clarified butter with this (verse), ' They feasted, 
they got drunk' (Rig-veda I, 82, 2), 

13-15. These Sutras, treating of the fee for the sacrifice, are 
identical with Paraskara I, 8, 15-18. Apparently they are taken 
from the same lost original from which several identical passages 
in the Sutras of Paraskara and iankhayana seem to be derived 
(see the notes on chap. 5, 1 ; 13, 7). They stand rather out of 
place here, for they return to the same subject which had already 
been treated of in Sutra io, though in that Sutra, as very frequently 
is the case in our text and in similar ones, only the case of the 
bridegroom being a Brahmana has been taken notice of. 

1 6. Comp. the passages quoted by Professor Stenzler on Para- 
skara I, 8, 18. Nar&ya/za has the following note : ' To a duhitrt- 
mat, i. e. to the father of a girl who has no brother, he shall give 
a hundred cows and besides a chariot, in order to destroy the guilt 
brought about by marrying a girl who has no brother.' Possibly 
we should here emancipate ourselves from the authority of the 
commentators, and explain duhitrtmat 'he who gives his 
daughter in marriage,' the bride's father. Comp. Apastamba II, 
n, 18 ; II, 13, 12 ; Weber, Indische Studien, V, 343, note 2. 

15, 3. Probably the use of this verse on this occasion rests on the 
assonance of its opening word akshan and aksha (rathaksha). 

Digitized by 



4. And with the two (verses), ' Pure are thy 
wheels,' 'Thy two wheels' (Rig-veda X, 85, 12. 16), 
of the two wheels the first with the first (verse) 
and the second with the second (verse), 

5. And the two bulls. 

6. After (the wife?) has put, with this (verse), 
'In the box of the wheel' (Rig-veda VIII, 80, 7), 
a branch of a fruit-bearing tree into each of the 
holes destined for the pins, 

7. Or, if (such branches) are (already) fixed, has 
recited (that verse) over them, 

8. They then harness the two bulls with the two 
(verses), ' Harnessed be thy right one' (Rig-veda I, 
82, 5-6), (the bridegroom) reciting the half-verse, 
'White the two bulls' (Rig-veda X, 85, 10), over 
them when they have been harnessed. 

9. Now should any part of the chariot break or 
burst, let him take the girl to the house of one who 
keeps the sacred fires, 

10. And repair (the damage) with the verse, 
'Cover thyself with the Khadiras' (Rig-veda III, 

53. 19). 

11. A knot with the verse, 'Him like a horse' 

(Rig-veda X, 143, 2). 

12. He then murmurs the five verses, ' May pros- 
perity give us' (Rig-veda V, 51, 11-15). 

13. 'Adorned with Kimsuka. flowers' (Rig-veda X, 
85, 20), when she mounts the chariot; 

14. 'May no waylayers meet us' (ibid. 32), at 
a cross-way ; 

1 5. 'Which the woman's' (ibid. 31), near a cemetery; 

16. The half-verse, 'O tree with thy hundred 

6. See Narayawa's note on famyagarta, p. 129 of the German 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 1 6 KHANDA, $. 4 1 

branches' (Rig-veda III, 8, n), he mutters near a 
big tree; 

17. 'The good protectress' (Rig-veda X, 63, 10), 
■when she ascends a ship ; 

18. ' Carrying stones' (Rig-veda X, 53, 8), when 
she crosses a river; 

19. Optionally (he) also (murmurs the same verse, 
if that is done) with the harnessed chariot ; 

20. ' Up may your wave' (Rig-veda 111,33, 1 3)> at 
deep places (in the river) ; 

21. And (at such places) let her not look out 

22. The seven verses, ' Here may delight' (Rig- 
veda X, 85, 27 seq.), when she has reached the house, 
omitting the verses already employed. 

Khanda 16. 

1. ' A bull's hide* — this has been declared. 

2. On that hide the husband makes her sit down 
and sacrifices, while she takes hold of him, four obla- 
tions (with the following formulas), 

3. ' With god Agni, with the earth-world of the 
worlds, and the Rig-veda of the Vedas : therewith 
I appease thee, N. N., svaha f 

' With god Vayu, with the air-world of the worlds, 

16, 1. In chap. 15, 22 it is said that the bride arrives at the 
house; in 16, 12, that she enters the house. Probably we are to 
understand, therefore, that the sacrifice prescribed in this chapter, 
Sfltras 2 seq., is performed before the house, like the V&stosh- 
patiya karman (below, III, 4). The words, ' has been declared,' 
refer to the .Srauta-sfitra (IV, 16, 2), 'Having spread a red bull's 
skin, with the neck to the north or to the east, with the hair out- 
side, behind the fire, they sit down,' &c. 

2. On anvirambha comp. the quotation in the note on 
chap. 11, 2. 

Digitized by 


42 sankhAyana-gr/hya-sCtra. 

with the Ya^ur-veda of the Vedas : therewith I ap- 
pease thee, N. N., sviha ! 

' With god Surya, with the heaven-world of the 
worlds, with the Sima-veda of the Vedas : therewith 
I appease thee, N. N., svihi ! 

' With god A'andra, with the world of the quarters 
(of the horizon) of the worlds, with the Brahma- 
veda of the Vedas : therewith I appease thee, N. N., 

4. Or, ' Bhu^ ! What harm dwells in thee, bring- 
ing death to thy husband, death to thy husband's 
brother, that I make death-bringing to thy para- 
mour, N. N., svaha!' — thus the first (of the before- 
mentioned formulas) may be joined with the first 
Mahavyahmi, the second with the second, the third 
with the third, the fourth with (the three Maha- 
vyihr/tis) together. 

5. With (the verse), 'With no evil eye' (Rig- 
veda X, 85, 44), let him besmear (her) eyes with 
Afya salve. 

6. (The bridegroom,) having touched the ends of 
her hair with the three (verses), ' How may us the 
resplendent one . . .' (Rig-veda IV, 31, 1-3), 

7. And having quickly recited the four verses, 
'And those divine medicines' (Rig-veda VI 1 1, 18, 8), 
at the end (of that text) with the word sviha (pours 
out) the remainder on (her) head. 

8. Here some place a boy of good birth on both 
sides, in her lap, with this (verse), ' Into thy womb' 
(see below, chap. 19, 6), 

8. It should be noted that the verse i te yonim is quoted here 
only with the Pratika, while its full text is given below, chap. 19, 6. 
Can the Sutras describing this ceremony with the kum&ra ubha- 
y ataA-su^ata be a later addition ? 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 1 7 KHANDA, 9. 43 

9. Or also silently. 

10. Into this (boy's) joined hands (the bridegroom) 
gives fruits and causes (the Brahma»as) to wish an 
auspicious day. 

1 1. Thus she becomes the mother of male children. 

12. With the rest of the hymn, 'Stay ye here 
both' (Rig-veda X, 85, 42 seq.), they make them 
enter the house. 

Khanda 17. 

1. With the verse, ' I praised Dadhikravan' (Rig- 
veda IV, 39, 6), let them drink together curds. 

2. Let them sit silent, when the sun has set, until 
the polar-star appears. 

3. He shows her the polar-star with the words, 
' Firm be thou, thriving with me !' 

4. Let her say, ' I see the polar-star ; may I obtain 

5. Through a period of three nights let them 
refrain from conjugal intercourse. 

6. Let them sleep on the ground. 

7. Let them eat together boiled rice with curds, 
with the three verses, ' Drink and satiate yourselves' 
(Rig-veda VIII, 35, 10). 

8. Let them serve the nuptial fire in the evening 
and in the morning with the words, ' To Agni svaha ! 
To Agni Svish/akm svaha !' 

9. ' Let the two men Mitra and Varu«a, let the 
two men, the Aivins both, let the man Indra and 
also Agni make a man grow in me. Svaha ! ' — with 

17, 2, 3. I have changed in the translation the division of these 
Sutras; the native authorities divide after dhruvadarjanat, while 
I propose to divide after astamite. 

Digitized by 


44 sAnkhAyana-g/i/hya-sOtra. 

(these words she offers) the first oblation if she is 
desirous of pregnancy. 

10. For ten days they are not to set out (from 

Khandx 18. 

i. Now the rites of the fourth day. 

2. When the three nights have elapsed, he makes 
offerings of cooked food (with the texts), 

3. ' Agni ! Thou art expiation ; thou art the ex- 
piation of the gods. What substance dwells in her 
that brings death to her husband, that drive away 
from her. 

' Vayu ! Thou art expiation ; thou art the expiation 
of the gods. What substance dwells in her that 
brings sonlessness, that drive away from her. 

' Surya ! Thou art expiation ; thou art the expia- 
tion of the gods. What substance dwells in her 
that brings destruction to the cattle, that drive away 
from her. 

' To god Aryaman the girls have made sacrifice, 
to Agni; may he, god Aryaman, loosen her from 
this, and not from that place. 

' To god Varuwa the girls have made sacrifice, to 
Agni ; may he, god Varuwa, &c. 

' To god Pushan the girls have made sacrifice, to 
Agni ; may he, god Pushan, &c.' 

4. The seventh oblation with the verse, ' Pra^- 
pati' (Rig-veda X, 121, 10). 

5. The eighth to (Agni) Svish/akr/t. 

18, 3. As to preto munMtu mamutaA compare Paraskara I, 
6, 2: preto mujl^atu mi pate^. This passage shows what 
itaA and amutaA refer to. Comp. Professor Weber's note 3 at 
Indische Studien, V, 347. 

Digitized by 



Khanz>a 19. 

1. Let him pound the root of the Adhya#a& plant 
and sprinkle it at the time of her monthly period 
with the two (verses), 'Speed away from here; a 
husband has she' ( Rig-veda X, 85, 21. 22), with 
svaha at the end of each, into her right nostril. 

2. ' The mouth of the Gandharva VLrvavasu art 
thou' — with these words let him touch her, when he 
is about to cohabit with her. 

3. When he has finished, let him murmur, 

4. * Into thy breath I put the sperm, N. N. !' 

5. Or, 'As the earth is pregnant with Agni, as 
the heaven is with Indra pregnant, as Viyu dwells 
in the womb of the regions (of the earth), thus I place 
an embryo into thy womb, N. N. !' 

6. Or, ' May a male embryo enter thy womb, as 
an arrow the quiver; may a man be born here, a 
son after ten months. 

'Give birth to a male child; may after him 
(another) male be born; their mother shalt thou 
be, of the born, and (to others) mayst thou give birth. 

' In the male verily, in the man dwells the sperm ; 
he shall pour it forth into the woman : thus has 
said Dhatar, thus Pra,fapati has said. 

' Pra^apati has created him, Savitar has shaped 
him. Imparting birth of females to other (women) 
may he put here a man. 

' From the auspicious sperms which the men pro- 

19, 6. The first verse is that quoted already at chap. 16, 8. 
The text of the verses quoted in this Sutra is very corrupt ; see the 
notes on p. 36 of the German edition. 

Digitized by 


46 sankhAyana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

duce for us, produce thou a son ; be a well-breeding 

' Roar, be strong, put into her an embryo, achieve 
it ; a male, thou male, put into her ; to generation 
we call thee. 

' Open thy womb ; take in the man's sperm ; may 
a male child be begotten in the womb. Him thou 
shalt bear ; (having dwelt) ten months in the womb 
may he be born, the most excellent of his kin.' 

Khanda. 20. 

i. In the third month the Puwsavana (i.e. the 
ceremony to secure the birth of a male child), 

2. Under (the Nakshatra) Pushya or .Sravawa. 

3. Having pounded a Soma stalk, or a Kara 
needle, or the last shoot of a Nyagrodha trunk, or 
the part of a sacrificial post which is exposed to 
the fire, 

4. Or (having taken) after the completion of a 
sacrifice the remnants from the <7uhu ladle, 

5. Let him sprinkle it into her right nostril with 
the four verses, 'By Agni may good' (Rig-veda I, 
1, 3), ' That sperm to us' (III, 4, 9), ' May he succeed 
who lights fire' (V, 37, 2), ' Of tawny shape' (II, 3, 9), 
with Svaha at the end (of each verse). 

20, 3. On .ruhga compare the note of Nariya«a and the verse 
quoted from the Karmapradtpa, p. 131 of the German edition. 

On ku^akaw/aka Nar£ya«a says, kurakaw/akaw kufo 
darbhas tasya ka»/akaA sfi£i (su£a, MS. Berol. Orient, fol. 
602) taw v& peshayitvS. I do not understand why the commen- 
tators of Paraskara, whom Professor Stenzler has followed in his 
translation of Par. 1, 14, 4, make ka«/aka equal to mula. 

5. Nasto dakshittataA stands here as in chap. 19, 1. Afva- 
layana I, 13, 6 has dakshiaasya/n nasikayam, and so has also 

Digitized by 



Khartda 21. 

i. In the fourth month the Garbharaksha»a (i.e. 
the ceremony for the protection of the embryo), 

2. Sacrificing six oblations from a mess of cooked 
food with (the six verses of the hymn), ' Agni, joined 
with the prayer' (Rig-veda X, 162), 

3. With (the verses), ' From thy eyes, thy nose' 
(Rig-veda X, 163), verse by verse besmearing her 
limbs with A^ya salve. 

Khajvda 22. 

1. In the seventh month, at her first pregnancy, 
the Stmantonnayana (or parting of the hair). 

2. He causes her, after she has bathed and put 
on a (new) garment which has not yet been washed, 
to sit down behind the fire. 

3. He sacrifices, while she takes hold of him, with 
the Mahavyahmis. 

4. He cooks a mess of food, 

5. According to some (teachers) boiled rice with 
Mudga beans. 

6. The implements used and the Nakshatra should 
be of male gender. 

7. (He then sacrifices with the following texts,) 
' May Dhatar give to his worshipper further life and 
safety ; may we obtain the favour of the god whose 
laws are truthful. 

' Dhatar disposes of offspring and wealth ; Dhatar 
has created this whole world; Dhatar will give a 

P&raskara I, 13. Comp. the natthukamma treated of in the 
Pali Buddhist texts (MahSvagga VI, 13) and in the medical 

Digitized by 


48 sankhAyana-gjjjhya-sOtra. 

son to the sacrificer : to him you shall sacrifice, an 
offering rich in ghee.' 

(Besides) with the three verses, ' Ne^amesha, fly 
away' (Rig-veda Khailika sukta, after X, 184, vol. vi, 
p. 31), and in the sixth place the verse, ' Pra^apati' 
(Rig-veda X, 121, 10). 

8. (The husband then) parts her hair, upwards, 
beginning from the middle, with a porcupine's quill 
that has three white spots, or with a Darbha needle 
together with unripe Udumbara fruits, with the 
words, ' Bhur bhuva^ sva^.' 

9. He lays down (the thing he has used) in her lap, 

10. Ties (the fruits) to a string of three twisted 
threads and fastens them to her neck with the words, 
' Rich in sap is this tree ; like the sappy one be thou 

1 1. (The husband) then says to lute-players, 'Sing 
ye the king — 

12. 'Or if anybody else is still more valiant.' 

13. Having poured fried grain into a water-pot, 
let him cause her to drink it with the six verses, 

22, 8. Comp. above, chap. 12, 6. 

io. Narayana: tisr/bhis tantubhir vr/'tte sutre udumba- 
raphalani . . . gale . . . badhnati. I have translated accordingly. 
Paraskara I, 15, 6 uses the same expression trivrrt. Professor 
Stenzler there translates it, on the authority of Gayarama, 'dreifache 
Haarflechte,' and says in his note on that passage that, according 
to .Sankhayana, he would have to tie the things with a threefold 
string to the neck of the woman, as if .Saftkhayana's statement 
were different from that of Paraskara. But both authors have the 
same word, and only the commentators differ in their explanations 

11. Arvalayana more explicitly says (I, 14, 6), Somam ra^st- 
naw sawgayetam iti. 

13. In my German translation there is a mistake which should 
be corrected. I have there referred shalr/'^a to the verses Rak&ra 

Digitized by 



4 May Vish«u take care of thy womb,' ' I call Raka ', 
(Rig-veda X, 184, 1 ; II, 32, 4-8). 

14. Let him then touch her (with the words), 

15. 'The winged one art thou, the Garutmat; 
the Trivrzt (stoma) is thy head, the Gayatra thy 
eye, the metres thy limbs, the Yafus thy name, the 
Saman thy body.' 

16. Let him cause her to sing merrily, 

1 7. Wearing, if she likes, many gold ornaments. 

18. A bull is the fee for the sacrifice. 

Khajvda 23. 

1. Let him pound the roots of the plants k&katant, 
ma£aka*£atant, koyatakt, of the egg-plant, and of the 
indigo plant, and besmear (therewith) the place in 
which she is going to be confined, in order to drive 
away the Rakshas. 

Khajvba 24. 

1. Now the G&takarman (i. e. ceremony for the 
new-born child). 

aham, which are actually only five in number. The six verses 
are Vish»ur yonim, &c, and the five verses mentioned. 

15. V&^asaneyi Sawhiti XII, 4. 

16, 17. Narayawa : modamani/w harshayuktam tint man- 
galikair gftair gayayet . . . mahahemavatiw bahvabha- 
rawayuktaw va gayayet. 

24, 1. Comp. Dr. Speijer's essay on the Gatakarman (Leiden, 
1872). Narayawa observes that, as it is prescribed below (chap. 
25, 4) that a mess of food is to be cooked in the sutikagni, here 
the sutikagni is established, and sacrifice is performed therein. 
The Sutra 1, 25, 4, from which it is to be inferred that the suti- 
kigni should be kept, is considered, accordingly, as a (Tnapaka 
(see Professor Btihler's notes on Apastamba I, 1 1, 7 ; Gautama 

[29] E 

Digitized by 


50 sankhayana-gk/hya-sCtra. 

2. Let (the father) breathe three times on the 
new-born child and then draw in his breath with the 
words, ' Draw in your breath with the Rik, breathe 
within with the Yafus, breathe forth with the Saman.' 

3. Let him mix together butter and honey, milk 
curds and water, or grind together rice and barley, 
and give it to eat (to the child) thrice from gold (i.e. 
from a golden vessel or with a golden spoon), 

4. With (the verse), ' I administer to thee honey 
food for the festival, the wisdom (" veda") raised by 
Savitar the bountiful ; long-living, protected by the 
gods, live a hundred autumns in this world, N. N. !' — 
(with these words) he gives him a name beginning 
with a sonant, with a semivowel in it, consisting 
of two syllables, or of four syllables, or also of 
six syllables ; he should take a krtt (suffix), not a 

5. That (name only) his father and his mother 
should know. 

6. On the tenth day a name for common use, 
which is pleasing to the Brahma#as. 

7. Let him pulverise black and white and red 
hairs of a black ox, intermix (that powder) with 
those four substances (see Sutra 3), and give it to 
eat (to the child) four times: such (is the opinion 
of) Ma«ofokeya. 

I, 31 ; Nariyawa's note on chap. 25, 4, p. 133 of the German 

2. Abhyavinya should be corrected into abhyapanya, as in 
IV, 18, 1 nearly all the MSS. read nivata instead of nipita. The 
.Sambavya MS. reads in the text, trir abhy&ny£nuprS«ya; in 
the commentary trir a«yap&«yanupra«yS. Comp., on the ter- 
minology of the different vital airs, Speijer, Gatakarma, p. 64 seq. ; 
Eggeling, S. B. E., vol. xii, p. 20. 

Digitized by 



8. If he likes (let him do so) with the words, 
* BhM ! The Rig-veda I lay into thee, N. N., svaha ! 

' Bhuva^ ! The Yafur-veda I lay into thee, N. N., 
svaha ! 

' Sva^ ! The Sama-veda I lay into thee, N. N., 
svaha ! 

4 Bhur bhuva^ sva^! Vikovakya (colloquies), Iti- 
hasa, and Pura»a — Om ! All the Vedas I lay into 
thee, N. N., svaha!' 

9. The production of intelligence (is performed) 
by thrice saying in his right ear, ' Speech !' 

10. And let him recite over (the child the follow- 
ing text), ' Speech, the goddess, united with mind, 
together with breath, the child, uttered by Indra — 
may she rejoice in thee, the goddess, for the sake of 
joy, the great one, the sweet sounding, the music, 
full of music, the flowing, self-produced.' 

1 1. Let him tie a piece of gold to a hempen string, 

12. And bind it to (the child's) right hand until 
(the mother) gets up (from childbed). 

13. After the tenth day let him give it to the 

14. Or keep it himself. 

Khamda 25. 

1. After ten days the getting up (of the mother 
from childbed). 

8. Veti vikalparthe. bhur rrgvedam ityadiJaturbhir mantrair 
as&v ity atra purveva (read ptirvavat?) kumaranamagrahawapflr- 
vakaw kumaram prlrayet. Narayawa. 

12. Balasya dakshine haste. Nardya«a. 

25, 1. After ten days the impurity (arau£a) that falls on the 
mother at her confinement, ceases ; see Gautama XIV, 16; Manu 
V, 62; Vasish/fta IV, 21. 

E 2 

Digitized by 


52 sankhAyana-g/j/hya-sOtra. 

2. Father and mother with washed heads, wearing 
(new) clothes which have not yet been washed; 

3. And so also the child. 

4. Let (the father) cook a mess of food in that 
same fire that has been kept from her confinement, 

5. And let him make oblations to the Tithi of 
(the child's) birth and to three constellations with 
their (presiding) deities. 

6. Let him place in the middle the oblation to 
that constellation under which (the child) is born; 
the deity, however, is constantly to precede (the 
corresponding Nakshatra). 

7. (He then makes two other oblations with the 
verses,) ' (May) this Agni, the excellent one, (give) 
thee to-day life for (our) prayers ; give us life that 
we may live long,' — (and,) ' Life-giving, Agni, be 
strong by Havis ; may thy face and thy seat be full 
of ghee ; drinking ghee, the sweet honey of the 
cow, protect, as a father (protects) his son, here 
N. N.' The tenth oblation of the mess of cooked 
food with the verse, 'Thou, Soma, givest bliss to 
the old one' (Rig-veda I, 91, 7). 

8. Having pronounced aloud (the child's) name, 

9. And caused the Brahma#as to say auspicious 

10. And having sacrificed in the same way every 
month to the Tithi of (the child's) birth, 

11. He sacrifices, when one year has expired, on 
the (ordinary) domestic fire. 

4. Comp. the note on chap. 24, 1. 

7. The first Mantra is corrupt; in the Ajvaliyana-.Srauta-sutra 
(II, 10, 4) its text runs thus, Syush /e vuvato dadhad ayam 
agnir vare»yaA, &c. Comp. Atharva-veda VII, 53, 6. 

11. 'The words "every month" (SQtra 10) retain their value 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 26 KHANDA, 20. 53 

Khanda 26. 

1. To Agni, to the Kn'ttikas. 

2. To Pra^apati, to Rohi»l. 

3. To Soma, to MWgariras. 

4. To Rudra, to the Ardras. 

5. To Aditi, to the two Punarvasus. 

6. To Brzhaspati, to Pushya. 

7. To the Serpents, to the Asleshas. 

8. To the Manes, to the Maghas. 

9. To Bhaga, to the two Phalgunls. 

10. To Aryaman, to the two Phalgunls. 

11. To Savitar, to Hasta. 

12. To Tvash/ar, to A^tri. 

13. To Vayu, to Svati. 

14. To Indra and Agni, to the two Visakhas. 

15. To Mitra, to Anuradha. 

16. To Indra, to Gyesht&a. 

1 7. To Nimtt, to Mula. 

18. To the Waters, to the AshadHs. 

19. To the Vuve devas, to the Asha<$as. 

20. To Brahman, to Abhi^it. 

(here also). Thus the sutik&gni is to be kept through one year. 
After the lapse of that year one should sacrifice every month on 
the domestic fire as long as his life lasts. As it is said " in the 
domestic fire," the sutikagni is not to be kept any longer.' 

26, 1. This chapter is not found in the 5"imbavya-Gr»hya, and 
NarSyawa expressly designates it as kshepaka kharnfa. It is 
a sort of appendix to the Sutras 25, 5. 6 ; a sacrifice having there 
been prescribed to three Nakshatras with their presiding deities, an 
enumeration of the Nakshatras and deities is here given. Compare, 
on similar lists, Weber's second article on the Nakshatras (Abhand- 
lungen der Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1861), pp. 289 
seq., 315, 367 seq. 

Digitized by 


54 sankhayana-gr/hya-sCtra. 

2 1 . To Vish#u, to 

22. To the Vasus, to the DhanishA&as. 

23. To Varu#a, to .Satabhisha/. 

24. To Afa ekapad, to the ProshMapadis. 

25. To Ahi budhnya, to the ProshAfcapadas. 

26. To Pushan, to Revatl. 

27. To the two Afvins, to the two A^vinls. 

28. To Yama, to the Bhara»ls. 

Khan da 27. 

1. In the sixth month the Annaprlrana (i. e. the 
first feeding with solid food). 

2. Goat's flesh, if he is desirous of nourishment, 

3. Flesh of partridge, if desirous of holy lustre, 

4. Fish, if desirous of swiftness, 

5. Boiled rice with ghee, if desirous of splendour — 

6. (Such) food, prepared with milk curds, honey, 
and ghee, he should give (to the child) to eat. 

7. After he has made oblations with (the verses), 
' Lord of food, give us food, painless and strong ; 
bring forward the giver; bestow power on us, on 
men and animals;' 'Whatsoever' (Rig-veda IV, 12, 
4); ' Even of great' (ibid. 5), ' Him, Agni, (lead) to 
long life and splendour ; sharp strength (mayst thou), 
Varuwa, king Soma, protection may Aditi, like a 

27, 2-6. These rules stand here, in the beginning of the chapter, 
as introductory remarks ; the act of feeding itself (Sutra 10) does 
not follow till after the sacrifice and the other performances pre- 
scribed in Sutras 7-9. 

3. This rule evidently rests on the allusion of taittira (partridge 
flesh) to the Taittiriya school. 

7. Both metre and construction show that the PSda imam 
Agna ayushe var^ase is incomplete; the .Sambavya-Gr/hya and 
Taitt. Sawhita II, 3, 10, 3 add kridhi after varX'ase. 

Digitized by 



mother, afford to him, and all the gods that he may 
reach old age' — 

8. And has recited over (the child) the verse, 
1 Powers of life, Agni' (Rig-veda IX, 66, 19), 

9. And has set him down on northward pointed 
Kusa. grass with (the verse), ' Be soft, O earth' (Rig- 
veda I, 22, 15) — 

10. The act of feeding is performed with the 

1 1. Let the mother eat the remnant. 

Khaatba 28. 

1. After one year the AflWakarman (i.e. the ton- 
sure of the child's head); 

2. Or in the third year ; 

3. In the fifth for a Kshatriya ; 

4. In the seventh for a Vaisya. 

5. Having placed the fire (in the outer hall ; see 
chap. 5, 2)— 

6. And having filled vessels with rice and barley, 
sesamum seeds and beans, 

7. And having put down northwards bull-dung 
and a layer of Kusa. grass for receiving the hair, 
a mirror, fresh butter, and a razor of copper, 

8. He pours cold water into warm with (the verse), 
' Mix yourselves, ye holy ones, with your waves, ye 
honied ones, mixing milk with honey, ye lovely ones, 
for the obtaining of wealth.' 

9. ' May the waters moisten thee for life, for old 
age and splendour. The threefold age of Gamad- 
agni, Kasyapa's threefold age, the threefold age of 

28, 1. JTu/ikarman literally means, the preparing of the lock 
or the locks (left when the rest of the hair is shaven). 

Digitized by 


56 sAnkhAyana-g/j/hya-sutra. 

Agastya, the threefold age that belongs to the gods, 
that threefold age I produce for thee ! N. N. !' — with 
these words he sprinkles the right part of his hair 
three times with lukewarm water. 

10. Having loosened the tangled locks, according 
to some (teachers), with a porcupine's quill, 

ii. And having anointed (his hair)with fresh butter, 

12. He puts a young Kusa shoot among (the 
hairs) with the words, ' Herb, protect him !' 

1 3. Having touched the hair and the Ku$a shoot 
with the mirror, 

14. He takes up the copper razor with the words, 
* Sharpness art thou ; the axe is thy father. Do no 
harm to him !' 

1 5. With (the words), ' The razor with which in 
the beginning Savitar, the knowing one, has shaven 
the beard of king Varu«a, and with which Dhatar 
Brzhaspati has shaven Indra's head, with that, ye 
Brahma«as, shave this (head) to-day ; blessed with 
long life, with old age be this man N. N. !' he cuts 
the tips of the hairs and the Kusa shoot. 

16. In the same way a second time; in the same 
way a third time. 

1 7. In the same way twice on the left side. 

18. Under the armpits a sixth and a seventh time 
at the Godanakarman (ceremony of shaving the 

19. The Godanakarman is identical with the 

15. The parallel texts show that instead of Bri'haspatir we 
have to read Br/haspater, instead of adya, asya. So the correct 
translation would be, ' . . . with what Dhatar has shaven Br/has- 
pati's and Indra's head, with that do ye Brahmanas shave this head 
of this (child).' 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 28 K.HANDA, 24. 57 

•20. (It is to be performed) in the sixteenth or in 
the eighteenth year. 

21. At the third turn of shaving, however, he gives 
a cow and a garment that has not yet been washed. 

22. Silently the rites (are performed) for girls. 

23. To the north-east, in a place covered with 
herbs, or in the neighbourhood of water they bury 
the hairs in the earth. 

24. To the barber the vessels of grain. To the 
barber the vessels of grain. 

24. See Sfitra 6. 

Digitized by 


58 sAnkhAyana-gkjhya-sOtra. 

Adhyaya II, Khanda 1. 

1. In the eighth year after the conception let him 
initiate a Brahma#a, 

2. With an antelope-skin, 

1, 1. With regard to the standing terminology of the Upanayana, 
or the initiation of the student, we may observe that upa-nt does 
not mean, as, for instance, Professor Stenzler seems to understand 
it, 'to introduce a student to his teacher.' Thus P&raskara's Sutra 
II, 2, 1, ash/avarshaw brahmanam upanayet, &c, is trans- 
lated by that distinguished scholar, ' Den achtjahrigen Brahmana 
soil er (beim Lehrer) einftihren,' &c. (comp. also AjvalSyana- 
Gr/hya I, 19, 1). The texts clearly point to another translation of 
upa-nt, for they show that the person that introduces the student 
(upanayati or upanayate; the middle is used very frequently, 
for instance, .Satapatha Br&hmana XI, 5, 4, 1 ; .Sahkh. II, 1, 25) is 
not the father or a relation of the youth who could be supposed to 
lead him to the teacher, but the teacher himself; he introduces 
(upanayati) him to the brahma£arya, or introduces him with 
himself, and the student enters upon (upaiti) the brahma^ary a, 
or enters with (upaiti) the teacher; he who has thus entered upon 
studentship, is consequently designated as u pet a (.Sahkh. IV, 8, 1 ; 
Paraskara III, 10, 10), and for the initiation, which is usually called 
upanayana, occasionally also the word u pay an a is used (see the 
Manava-Gr»hya I, 22, quoted by Professor Jolly in his article, Das 
Dharma-sutra des Vishwu, p. 79). The following passages may be 
quoted here as supporting our opinion on this terminology. At 
.Satapatha Brahmawa XI, 5, 3, 13 Sauteya says to Udd&laka Aruwi, 
' I will enter (as a student) with the reverend One ' (upaylni bha- 
gavantam); and Aruni replies, 'Come, enter (with me)!' (ehy 
upehi), ' and he initiated him ' (taw hopaninye). Ibid. XI, 5, 4, 16 
it is stated that according to some a teacher who has initiated a 
Brahmana as a student (brahma«a«/ brahma&iryam upaniya) should 
abstain from sexual intercourse, for a student who enters upon stu- 
dentship (yo brahma^aryam upaiti) becomes, as it were, a garbha, 
&c. Finally we may add that the Buddhist terminology regarding 
the entering into the order or upon a life of righteousness is clearly 
connected with that followed, for instance, in the dialogue between 

Digitized by 



3. Or in the tenth year after the conception. 

4. In the eleventh year after the conception a 
Kshatriya with the skin of a spotted deer, 

5. In the twelfth year after the conception a 
VaLsya with a cow-hide. 

6. Until the sixteenth year the time has not passed 
for a Brahma#a, 

7. Until the twenty-second for a Kshatriya, 

8. Until the twenty-fourth for a VaLyya. 

9. After that (time has passed), they become 
patitasavitrika (men who have lost their right of 
learning the Savitrl). 

.Sauieya and Arum. As 5au£eya there says, upiyani bhaga- 
vantam, we frequently read in the Pali books expressions like this, 
upemi Buddham saranam dhamman Mpi anuttara/n, &c. 
(Dhammap. A//>4akathd, p. 97, ed. Fausbell), and as Aruwi replies, 
ehy upehi, Buddha says to those who wish to be ordained, ehi 
bhikkhu, svakkhdto dhammo, £ara brahma/fcariyaw, &c. 
(Mahavagga I, 6, 32, &c; S. B. E., vol. xiii, p. 74, note). 

The counting of the years not from the birth but from the 
conception occurs both in the Brahmanical and in the Buddhist 
ordinances, comp. H. O., Buddha, sein Leben, seine Lehre, seine 
Gemeinde, p. 354, note 1. Several Gr*hya texts (for instance, ksv. 
I, 19, 1. 2) admit both ways of counting the years. The number 
of years given for the Upanayana of persons of the three castes 
(Brahmawas 8-16, Kshatriyas n-22, Vauyas 12-24) is evidently 
derived from the number of syllables of the three metres which are 
so very frequently stated to correspond to the three castes, to the 
three gods or categories of gods (Agni, Indra, VLrve devas) &c, 
viz. the G&yatrt, the Trish/ubh, and the Gagatl. This is a very 
curious example, showing how in India phantastical speculations 
like those regarding the mystical qualities of the metres, were strong 
enough to influence the customs and institutions of real life. 

9 seq. All these are standing expressions recurring nearly iden- 
tically in most of the Gr/hya and Dharma-sutras. In the rule 
contained in Sutra 13 a number of the parallel texts have vivah- 
eyuA or vivdhayeyuA, others have vyavahareyuA. Comp. 
VasishZ/ia XI, 75; Indische Studien, vol. x, p. 21. 

Digitized by 


60 jAnkhAyana-g/sjhya-sCtra. 

io. Let them not initiate such men, 

1 1. Nor teach them, 

1 2. Nor perform sacrifices for them, 

1 3. Nor have intercourse with them. 

14. Or (let them initiate students of) all (castes) 
wearing a (new) garment that has not yet been 

And wearing a girdle. 

1 5. The girdle of a Brihma#a (shall be) made of 
Mu»/a grass, 

16. That of a Kshatriya (shall be) a bowstring, 

1 7. That of a VaLyya a woollen thread. 

18. The staff of a Brahma»a (shall be) made of 
Pal&Ja or of Bilva wood, 

19. That of a Kshatriya of Nyagrodha wood, 

20. That of a Vaiiya of Udumbara wood. 

21. That of the Brfihmawa shall reach the tip of 
the nose, 

22. That of the Kshatriya the forehead, 

23. That of the Vairya the hair. 

24. Or all (sorts of staffs are to be used) by (men 
of) all (castes). 

25. Whatsoever (the student) wears at his initia- 
tion, is at the disposal of the teacher. 

14. This Sutra should rather be divided into two, as indicated 
in the translation. As to the mekhala(girdle)comp. below, chap. 2, 1. 

21. There is no doubt that prawasammito (which Narayawa 
explains thus, 'pra»a is the wind [or breath]; [the staff should] 
reach to the place where the wind leaves the body, i. e. to the tip 
of the nose') should either be corrected into, or explained as, 
ghrawasammito; the .Sambavya MS. has ghrawantiko brah- 
mawasya. Comp. Gautama I, 26, &c. The parallel texts agree 
in assigning the longer staff to the higher, not as .Sankhayana 
does, to the lower caste. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

II ADHYAYA, 2 KHAtfDA, I. 6 1 

26. Having had him shaved all round (his head) 
he should initiate him. 

27. After (the student) has washed and adorned 

28. (And) after (the teacher) has sacrificed, both 
station themselves behind the fire, the teacher with 
his face turned to the east, the other with his face 
to the west. 

29. Let him initiate him standing while (the other 
also) stands. 

30. [' The firm, powerful eye of Mitra, glorious 
splendour, strong and prosperous, a chaste, flowing 
vesture, this skin I put on, a valiant (man).'] 

Kuan da 2. 

i. ' Here has come to us, protecting (us) from 
evil words, purifying our kin as a purifier, clothing 
herself, by (the power of) inhalation and exhalation, 
with strength, this friendly goddess, this blessed 
girdle' — with these words, three times repeated, 
he ties the girdle from left to right thrice round. 

26. After the introductory remarks given in the preceding Sutras 
the ritual itself of the Upanayana is now described. 

28. Narayawa : hutva 'nadejaparibhlshataA (see above, 1, 12, 13) 
purastatsam^nakam hutva agnim sthapitagniw (see above, 1, 5, 2) 
^aghanena . . . tish/AataA. 

30. This Sutra is wanting in most of the MSS. (see the note, 
p. 48 of the German edition). It contains the Mantra with which 
the A^ina (the hide mentioned in Sutras 2, 4, 5 of this chapter) is 
put on. Narayawa gives the Mantra which he says is taken from 
the MSdhyandina-Gr/hya (in the Paraskara-Grihya it is not found), 
after chap. 2, 3, and he states that the corresponding act to which 
it belongs has its place after the rites concerning the girdle 
(chap. 2, 1) and the sacrificial cord (2, 3). 

Digitized by 


62 sankhAyana-gr/hya-s6tra. 

2. (There should be) one knot, or also three, or 
also five. 

3. He adjusts the sacrificial cord with (the words), 
' The sacrificial cord art thou. With the cord of 
the sacrifice I invest thee.' 

4. He fills the two hollows of (his own and the 
student's) joined hands (with water), and then says 
to him : ' What is thy name ? ' 

5. ' I am N. N., sir,' says the other. 

6. ' Descending from the same i?zshis ? ' says the 

7. ' Descending from the same ^shis, sir,' says 
the other. 

2. 2. Ramaiandra: ' Let him make one, or three, or five knots, 
according to (the student's) Arsheya,' i. e. accordingly as he belongs 
to a family that invokes, in the Pravara ceremony, one, or three, 
or five i?*'shis as their ancestors. Comp. Weber, Indische Studien, 
vol. x, p. 79. 

3. On the sacrificial cord (upavita) comp. the Gr/hya-sa«graha- 
parirish/a II, 48 seq. 

4. Narayawa: AMrya atmano ma»avakasya iang&li udakena 
purayitva, &c. 

6, 7. A similar dialogue between the teacher and the student at 
the Upanayana is given in the Kaurika-sutra (ap. Weber, Indische 
Studien, X, 71). The student there says, 'Make me an Arsheya 
(a descendant of the .fa'shis) and one who has relations, and ini- 
tiate me.' And the teacher replies, ' I make thee an Arsheya and 
one who has relations, and I initiate thee.' As in this passage of 
the Kaujika-sutra the teacher is represented as having the power 
of making, by the Upanayana ceremony, an Arsheya of the stu- 
dent, thus, according to the view expressed by Professor Weber 
(loc. cit., p. 72 seq.), .Saftkhayana would even give it into the 
teacher's power to make the student his samanarsheya, i. e. to 
extend his own Arsheya on as many pupils as he likes. Professor 
Weber understands the sixth Sutra so that the teacher would have 
to say, saminarsheyo bhav&n bruhi (NarSyana : bhavan brfl- 
hfti brahma^arf bhavan bruhity ataA [Sutra 8] siwhavalokananya- 
yenatranusha^yate. According to Rama&mdra's Paddhati he is 

Digitized by 


II ADHYAYA, 2 KHANDA, 1 5. 63 

8. ' Declare (that thou art) a student, sir.' 

9. ' I am a student, sir,' says the other. 

10. With the words, ' Bhur bhuva^ sva^' (the 
teacher) sprinkles thrice with his joined hands (water) 
on the joined hands (of the student), 

11. And seizing (the student's) hands with (his 
own) hands, holding the right uppermost, he murmurs, 

12. 'By the impulse of the god Savitar, with the 
arms of the two A^vins, with Pushan's hands I 
initiate thee, N. N.' 

1 3. Those who are desirous of a host (of adherents, 
he should initiate) with (the verse), ' Thee, (the 
lord) of hosts' (Rig-veda II, 23, 1). 

14. Warriors with (the verse), 'Come here, do not 
come to harm' (Rig-veda VIII, 20, 1). 

15. Sick persons with the Mahavyalmtis. 

only to say saminSrsheyaA). The student answers, samln- 
trsheyo 'ham bho ; Professor Weber, who supplies the imperative 
aslni, translates this, ' May I have the same Arsheya, sir 1' 

I think it more natural to simply translate the teacher's question, 
'Art thou samSnSrsheya?' (or, supplying bh a vin bruhi from 
Sutra 8, ' Declare that thou art samdnirsheya'), and the student's 
reply, 'I am samSnSrsheya, sir I* Thus we ought possibly to 
consider these formulas, which state a fictitious, ideal saminir- 
sheyatva of the teacher and the students as a trace, and as far 
as I can see as the only trace, of an ancient rule requiring a real 
saminirsheyatva of teacher and student. As long as the ritual 
differences between the different Gotras, of which, as is well known, 
only a few traces have survived in the Vedic tradition, had retained 
their full importance, it can indeed scarcely have been considered 
as admissible that a young Brahmawa should be confided to the 
guidance of a teacher who sacrificed and invoked the gods in 
another way than the customs of the pupil's own family required. 

11. Narayana: dakshiwottarabhyaff* dakshwa uttara upari yayos 
tau dakshwottarau, &c. 

Digitized by 


64 sAnkhayana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

Khanda 3. 

i . ' Bhaga has seized thy hand, Savitar has seized 
thy hand, Pushan has seized thy hand, Aryaman 
has seized thy hand. Mitra art thou by right, 
Agni is thy teacher, and I, N. N., both of us. 
Agni, I give this student in charge to thee. Indra, 
I give this student in charge to thee. Sun, I give 
this student in charge to thee. Visve devas, I give 
this student in charge to you, for the sake of long 
life, of blessed offspring and strength, of increase of 
wealth, of mastership of all Vedas, of renown, of bliss.' 

2. 'In Indra's course I move ; in the sun's course 
I move after him' — with these words he turns round 
from left to right, 

3. And grasping down with the span of his right 
hand over (the student's) right shoulder he touches 
the place of his heart with the words, ' May I be 
dear to thy inviolate heart.' 

3, r. Naraya»a : ' Instead of asau (N. N.) he puts the name of 
the student in the vocative case.' I think rather that the teacher 
here pronounced his own name. Comp. asav aha/n bho, chap. 
2, 5, &c, and the Mantra in Paraskara II, 2, 20. 

The text of the Mantra shows that the AMrya here seizes the 
hand of the Brahma&irin ; comp. Awalayana I, 20, 4-6, where it 
is stated that he seizes the student's hand together with the thumb, 
quite in the way prescribed for the wedding at .Saftkh. I, 13, 2. 
Comp. also Paraskara II, 2, 17. Narayawa : mawavakasya grjhita- 
sawpu/a eva^iryo Bhagas ta imam mantra/n £apan, &c. 

2. Literally, ' he turns round, following his right arm.' Nara- 
yawa here has the following note, ' AHryo ba/or dakshiwaa? bihuw 
hastaffz aindrim av/7'tam iti mantrewanvavartayet. ayam artha/$, 
iiarya imawz mantram ^aptva la.m ba/uw £a va^ayitvS pradakshina- 
vartaw karayet.' I believe that the commentator here, as he fre- 
quently does, instead of interpreting the text of .Sahkhayana, fathers 

Digitized by 



4. Having silently turned round from right to 

5. And then laying his hand with the fingers up- 
wards on his (i. e. the student's) heart, he murmurs : 

Khanda 4. 

1. ' Under my will I take thy heart ; my mind shall 
thy mind follow ; in my word thou shalt rejoice with 
all thy heart; may Brzhaspati join thee to me.' 

2. ' Thou art the Brahma^arin of Kama, N. N. ! ' 

3. With the same text (see chap. 3, 2) he turns 
round as before, 

4. And touching with the span of his right hand 
(the student's) right shoulder, he murmurs : 

on him statements belonging to other Sutras, in this case probably 
to Arvaliyana I, 20, 9. As our text has not anvSvartya but 
anvavri'tya, and in the Mantra not Svartasva but Svarte, we 
must conclude that he turned round himself, and, as far as the 
statements of the text go, did not cause the pupil to do so. 

5. The gesture is the same as that prescribed in the Piraskara- 
Grehya I, 8, 8 to the bridegroom at the wedding ; the Mantra there 
is identical with .Sankh. II, 4, 1, the only difference consisting in 
the name of the god who is invoked to unite the two : at the 
wedding this is Prag-apati, of course, because he is ' lord of off- 
spring,' at the Upanayana, Br/haspati, the Brahman tear f£oxf)» 
among the gods. It is very natural that at the Upanayana and at 
the Vivaha, which both are destined to establish an intimate union 
between two persons hitherto strangers to each other, a number of 
identical rites should occur, for instance, the seizing of the hand ; 
see the note on Sutra 1. 

4, 1. Comp. Parask. I, 8, 8, and the note on chap. 3, 3. See 
also Atharva-veda VI, 94, 2. 

2. As to Kamasya brahmaHry asi, see my remarks in the 
Introduction, p. 9. 

3. He turns round as described, chap. 3, 2. N3rdya«a here 
also explains pary£vr»tya parySvartanaai karayitva. See 
our note above, loc. cit. 

[29] F 

Digitized by 


66 sankhayana-gk/hya-sCtra. 

5. 'A student art thou. Put on fuel. Eat water. 
Do the service. Do not sleep in the day-time. 
Keep silence till the putting on of fuel.' 

6. With (the words), ' Thine, Agni, is this piece 
of wood,' he puts the fuel on (the fire), or silently. 


1. After one year (the teacher) recites the Savitri 
(to the student), 

2. (Or) after three nights, 

3. Or immediately. 

4. Let him recite a Gayatrl to a Brahmawa, 

5. A Trish/ubh to a Kshatriya, 

6. A Gagati to a Vaisya. 

7. But let it be anyhow a verse sacred to Savitar. 

8. They seat themselves to the north of the fire, 

9. The teacher with his face turned eastward, the 
other westward. 

5. According to Niriyawa the student correspondingly answers, 
to the teacher's word, 'A student art thou,' 'I will'(asani), to 
' Put on fuel,' ' I will put it on,' &c. Eating water means sipping 
water after having eased oneself. On the putting on of 
fuel, comp. Sutra 6 and chap. 10. The whole formula given in 
this Sutra is already found in the Satapatha Brahmawa XI, 5, 

5, 1. The study of the Veda is opened by the Sivitrt. Comp. 
Satapatha BrShmawa, loc. cit., §§ 6 seq. 

4-6. The Gayatri which the teacher shall recite to a Br&h- 
mana is the same verse of which it is said below, chap. 7, 11, that 
it belongs to Vijvamitra (Rig-veda III, 62, 10); the Trish/ubh 
which is taught to the Kshatriya is a verse ascribed to Hirawya- 
stupa, Rig-veda I, 35, 2 ; the Gagati which is to be repeated to a 
Vaijya is Rig-veda IV, 40, 5, belonging to Vamadeva, or Rig-veda 
I> 35. 9, belonging to Hirawyastupa. See the note on chap. 7, 10. 

9. The same position is prescribed, in the same words, for the 
study of the main part of the Veda, below, chap. 7, 3 ; during 

Digitized by 


II ADHYAya, 6 KHAJVDA, 2. 67 

10. After (the student) has said, ' Recite, sir ! ' — 

11. The teacher, having pronounced the word 
Om, then causes the other one to say, ' Recite the 
Savitri, sir!' 

12. He then recites the Savitri to him, the verse 
' That glorious (splendour) of Savitar ' (Rig-veda 
III, 62, 10) ; (firstly) pada by pada, (then) hemistich 
by hemistich, (and finally) without a stop. 

Khanda. 6. 

1. ' Waters are ye by name ; happy ones are ye 
by name ; sappy ones are ye by name ; undecaying 
ones are ye by name ; fearless ones are ye by name ; 
immortal ones are ye by name. Of you, being such, 
may I partake ; receive me into your favour ' — with 
these words (the teacher) makes the student sip 
water three times, 

2. And hands over to him the staff with the five 

the study of the Arawyaka the position is slightly different (VI, 3, 2). 
According to N£raya»a this Sutra would contain a nishedhaof 
the Sutras 828 and 829 of the Rig-veda-Pr&tif&khya (p. ccxcii of 
Professor Max Mailer's edition). 

10, 11. The Indian tradition divides these Sutras after S^&ryaA, 
so that the words ad hthi bho would have to be pronounced by 
the teacher. Thus also Niriyana explains, iMrya adhthi bho 3 
iti mdnavakam uktvi, &c. In my opinion it is the student or 
the students who say adhlhi bho. Thus the Prituakhya (Sutra 
831, ed. Max Mtlller) says, • They invite him with the words adhihi 
bho 3, all the students the teacher, having embraced his feet.' 
Comp. also below, IV, 8, 12, the greater part of which Sutra is 
word for word identical with these rules ; VI, 3, 6 ; Gautama 1, 46 ; 
Gobhila II, 10, 38. 

6, 1,2. Rima^andra : ' . . . with this Mantra which the teacher 
tells him, and which he (the student) pronounces, he sips water 

F 2 

Digitized by 


68 sAnkhAyana-gk/hya-sAtra. 

verses, 'Blessing may give us' (Rig-veda V, 51, 

3. An optional gift is the fee for the sacrifice. 

4. After (the teacher) has led him round the fire, 
turning his right side towards it, (the student) goes 
through the village to beg food. 

5. (Let him beg,) however, of his mother first, 

6. Or of a woman who will not refuse. 

7. Having announced the alms to his teacher, 
he may eat (the food himself) with the master's 

8. The daily putting on of fuel, the going for 
alms, the sleeping on the ground, and obedience to 
the teacher : these are the standing duties of a 

three times ... He (the teacher) then gives him again the 
staff, which he had given him before silently.' I do not think that 
this double handing over of the staff agrees with the real meaning 
of the text; Gobhila also (II, 10) and Axvalayana (I, 22, r) pre- 
scribe the da«</aprad&na after the repetition of the S&vitrf, 
without mentioning that the same had been already done before; 
Paraskara II, 2,11 speaks of the handing over of the staff before 
the recital of the Savitrf, and does not state that it should be re- 
peated afterwards. 

All these ceremonies, the teaching of the Savitrt as well as the 
da«</aprad£na, were considered as forming part of the Upana- 
yana, even though a longer or shorter space of time (chap. 5, 1-3) 
might elapse between the first arrival of the student at the teacher's 
house and the performing of these rites. This follows from chap. 
1 1, Sutras 2-4. 

2. These five verses have already occurred above at I, 15, 12. 

3. Comp. I, 14, 13-15. 

4 seq. On the student's begging of alms compare the more 
detailed rules in Pdraskara II, 5 ; Apastamba I, 3, &c. 

7. Comp. the passages quoted by Professor Biihler on Apas- 
tamba I, 3, 3 1 (S. B. E., vol. ii, p. 1 2). 

Digitized by 




i. Now (follows the exposition) of the study of 
the Veda. 

2. Both sit down to the north of the fire, 

3. The teacher with his face to the east, the other 
one to the west 

4. After (the student) has reverentially saluted 
the teacher's feet and has sprinkled his (own) hands 
(with water), 

5. And has kneeled down with his right knee on 
young Kma shoots at their roots, 

6. And has grasped round (those Ku*a shoots) in 
their middle with his hands, holding the right upper- 

7. The teacher, having seized them at their tops 

7, 1. N4raya«a: 'Now (atha), i.e. after the observance of the 
Sukriya vrata,' &c. On the Sukriya vrata which has to be under- 
gone before the Anuva&ina treated of in this chapter can be per- 
formed, see the note on chap. 4, 1, and below, chap, n, 9. One 
would have expected that in the arrangement of Sankhayana the 
rites belonging to the Sukriya vrata would precede the exposition 
of the AnuvaAana. Perhaps it was in consequence of the exact 
analogy of the Sukriya with the Sakvara, Vratika, Aupanishada 
vratas, that the description of the former has been postponed till the 
latter had to be treated of. 

Ramaiandra's Paddhati has the following remark here, 'Now 
the way of studying the Veda, called Anuv&Jana, is set forth. This 
can be done only after the Sukriya vrata has been enjoined on 
the student ; before that nothing but the Savitri can be taught to 

2 seq. Comp. above, chap. 2, 8 seq. 

4. The way in which this reverential salutation should be per- 
formed is described below, IV, 12, 1 seq. 

6. On dakshiwottarabhyam, see chap. 2, 11 and Ndrayawa's 
note there. 

Digitized by 



with his left hand, and with his right hand sprinkling 
them with water, then makes the other say : 

8. ' Recite the Savitrl, sir ! ' says the other. 

9. ' I recite the Savitrl to thee ! ' says the teacher. 

10. ' Recite the Gayatrl, sir ! ' says the other. 

4 1 recite the Gayatrl to thee ! ' says the teacher. 

11.' Recite the verse of Vlrvamitra, sir !' says the 

' I recite the verse of Vlrvamitra to thee ! ' says 
the teacher. 

1 2. ' Recite the .tf/shis, sir ! ' says the other. 

' I recite the jRt'shis to thee ! ' says the teacher. 

1 3. ' Recite the deities, sir ! ' says the other. 

' I recite the deities to thee ! ' says the teacher. 

1 4. ' Recite the metres, sir ! ' says the other. 

' I recite the metres to thee ! ' says the teacher. 

1 5. ' Recite the .Sruti, sir ! ' says the other. 

' I recite the *Sruti to thee ! ' says the teacher. 

16. ' Recite the Smrz'ti, sir!' says the other. 

' I recite the Smn'ti to thee ! ' says the teacher. 

17. ' Recite faith and insight, sir!' says the other. 
' I recite faith and insight to thee ! ' says the 


8 seq. Comp. Weber's Indische Studien, vol. x, p. 131 seq. 

10. Comp. the note on chap. 5, 4-6. Narayawa states, in 
accordance with these Sutras of the fifth chapter, that in case the 
student belongs to the second or third caste, an Uha (i. e. a corre- 
sponding alteration of the formulas; from the 6'rauta-sutra, VI, 1, 3 
the definition is quoted here jabdavikiram uham bruvate) takes 
place. If he is a Kshatriya, he has to say, ' Recite the Trish/ubh, 
sir 1* — 'Recite the verse of Hira«yastupa (Rig-veda I, 35, 2), sir I' 
A Vauya has to say, 'Recite the Gagati, sir!' — 'Recite the verse 
of Hirawyastupa (or, of Vamadeva, Rig-veda I, 35, 9 or IV, 40, 5), 

17. Comp. Indische Studien, X, 132, note 1. 

Digitized by 


II ADHYAYA, 7 KHAtfDA, 1 9. fl 

18. In that way, according to what Rishi each 
hymn belongs to and what its deity and its metre is, 
thus (with the corresponding indications of ifo'shi, 
&c.) let him recite each hymn ; 

19. Or also, if he does not know the ^??shis, 
deities, and metres, the teacher recites this verse, 
' That glorious (splendour) of Savitar ' (Rig-veda 
III, 62, 10), pada by pada, hemistich by hemistich, 
(and finally) without a stop, and says, when he has 
finished, ' This (verse belongs to Savitar ; it is a 
Gayatri ; Visvamitra is its Rtshi).' 

18-20. I do not think that Professor Weber (Indische Studien, 
X, 132) has quite exactly rendered the meaning of these Sutras 
when he says, ' The teacher then (i. e. after the formula of Sfltra 1 7 
has been pronounced) teaches him first the i?»shi, the deity, and the 
metre of each Mantra. In case he does not know them himself for 
a Mantra, he recites the holy Savitrt (tat Savitur varewyam). After 
this he teaches him in due order either (1) the single ifr'shis, i.e. the 
hymns belonging to each .fljshi, or (2) the single Anuvakas,' &c. — 
It does not seem quite probable to me that the student should have 
had to leam first the A'shis, deities, and metres of the whole 
Veda, before the text of the hymns was taught him ; I rather believe 
that hymn by hymn the indication of the i?*'shis, &c. preceded the 
anuvahna of the text itself, and with this opinion the statement 
of Nir&yawa agrees, ' Eva*» purvoktena prakarewa r/shidevata^an- 
daApurvakaw tarn taw Agnim f/a ityadikaw mantram mawavaka- 

19. According to Nir&yana by esheti (literally, 'This [is the 
Rt'kJ) it is meant that the teacher, after having recited the Savitrt 
in the three ways mentioned, should say to the student, ' This Rik is 
in the Gayatrt metre. If recited pida by pada, it has three padas. 
Thus also this Rik, if recited hemistich by hemistich, has two 
Avasanas (pauses), the first at the end of the hemistich, the second 
at the end of the third Tarawa (or pada). Thus also this Rik is 
recited without stopping ; at the end of the three £ara»as, or of the 
twenty-four syllables, the pause (avasana) should be made. Thus I 
recite to thee the Savitrt ; I recite to thee the Gayatri ; I recite to 
thee the verse of Vuvamitra.' ' For,' adds Naraya»a, ' if the Gayatri 
has been recited, the whole complex of the Veda being of that very 

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72 sankhayana-gj?/hya-sOtra. 

20. Let him thus recite (the hymns belonging to) 
each .foshi, or (each) Anuvaka ; 

21. Of the short hymns (in the tenth Mawdala) an 

22. Or as much as the master may think fit. 

23. Or optionally he may recite the first and last 
hymn of (each) /?/shi, 

24. Or of (each) Anuvaka, 

25. (Or) one (verse) of the beginning of each 

26. The teacher may optionally say at the begin- 
ning of the hymn, ' This is the commencement' 

27. This has been (further) explained in (the 
treatise about) the .AVshisvadhyaya. 

substance, a complete knowledge thereof has been produced.' The 
commentator then indicates a shorter form for the teacher's words 
which our Sutra prescribes by esheti, 'This verse belongs to 
Savitar ; it is a Gayatri ; its i?/'shi is Vuvamitra.' 

21. The Kshudrasuktas are the hymns Rig-veda X, 129-191. 

24 seq. This seems to be an abridged method by which students 
who had not the intention of becoming Vedic scholars, and probably 
chiefly students of the Kshatriya and Vauya caste, could fulfil their 
duty of learning the Veda ; a student who knew the first and last 
hymn of a i?/shi, or of an Anuvaka, was, as would seem from these 
Sutras, by a sort of fiction considered as though he had known the 
whole portion belonging to that J?/shi, or the whole Anuvaka. 

27. Nardyana explains ^/'shisvadhyaya by mantrasamhita. 
He says, ' The Anuva^ana which has been declared here, is to be 
understood also with regard to the sv&dhyaya, i.e. to the Sawhita 
of the Mantras.' I think there is a blunder in the MS., and instead 
of tad api svadhyaye . . . giieyam we ought to read tad ri'shi- 
svadhyaye . . . gneyzm. In this case we should have to trans- 
late the quoted passage, ' ... is to be understood with regard to 
the i?/'shisvadhyaya, i.e. to, &c.' — I think, however, that the true 
meaning of the Sutra is different from what Narayawa believes it to 
be. The expression vyakhyatam apparently conveys a reference 
to another treatise in which the rules regarding the i?/shisvadhyaya 
would seem to have been fully set forth. The .Srauta-sutra contains 

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28. When (the lesson) is finished, he takes the 
young Kusa. shoots, makes of cow-dung a pit at 
their roots, and sprinkles water on the Kusa (shoots) 
for each hymn. 

29. For the rest of the day standing and fasting. 

Khajvda 8. 

1. In the afternoon, having obtained by begging 
fried barley grains, he shall sacrifice them with his 
hand on the fire according to the rites of the A/ya 
oblations with the text, ' The lord of the seat, the 

no passage which could be the one here referred to; we may 
suppose, therefore, that either a chapter of a Pratuakhya is quoted 
here, or a separate treatise on the special subject of the 7?i'shisv&- 
dhySya. References to such treatises are found in the Sutra texts 
in several instances, of which the most important is that in the 
Gobhila-Grihya I, 5, 13, 'On what day the moon becomes full, the 
knowledge thereof is contained in a special text; that one either 
should study or ascertain when the Parvan is from those who have 
studied it.' 

28. Ndriyawa: 'First stand the Mantras, then the BrShma«a, 
because it contains the viniyoga (the ritual use of the Mantras), 
then the Smr/'ti texts such as Manu, &c. When he has repeated 
these texts to the student, after the end of the Anuva&ina, the 
teacher should take from the student the Kusa. blades which had 
been taken up before for the sake of the Anuvaiana (see Sutras 5 
seq.),' &c. — The teacher is made the subject of this rule also by 
R£ma£andra. On yathisuktam Naiaya«a observes that accord- 
ing to some teachers these water oblations were directed to the 
7?i'shis of the different hymns (/v'shin uddwyeti ke£it). This state- 
ment seems to be countenanced by IV, 6, 6. Comp. the note 
below on IV, 9, 1. 

29. ' This rule concerns the Brahmai&rin.' Naraya/za. See also 
Aivalayana I, 22, 11. 

8, 1 . This is the Anupravaianiyahoma treated of by Aivalayana at 
I, 22, 12 seq. There it is stated that this sacrifice should be per- 
formed as well after the recitation of the Savitri as after the other 

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74 sAnkhAyana-gkzhya-sOtra. 

wonderful' (Rig-veda I, 18, 6 seq.), verse by verse, 
down to the end of the hymn, 

2. Causing the teacher by (the gift of) food to 
pronounce auspicious wishes. 

Khanda 9. 

i. In the forest, with a piece of wood in his hand, 
seated, he performs the Sandhya (or twilight devo- 
tion) constantly, observing silence, turning his face 
north-west, to the region between the chief (west) 
point and the intermediate (north-western) point (of 
the horizon), until the stars appear, 

2. Murmuring, when (the twilight) has passed, 
the Mahavyahrztis, the Savitri, and the auspicious 

3. In the same way in the morning, turning his 
face to the east, standing, until the disk of the sun 

10, 1. When (the sun) has risen, the study (of the 
Veda) goes on. 

portions of the Veda, for instance, as the commentary there has it, 
after the Mah&namnfs, the Mahavrata, and the Upanishad have 
been recited. N&rayawa indicates the time of this sacrifice in the 
words, ' On that same fast-day (chap. 7, 29) in the afternoon.' 

2. 'He shall, by pronouncing such words as svasti bhavanto 
bruvantu, dispose the teacher favourably so that he may say 
svasti I' Nir&yawa. 

9, i. On the SandhyS ceremony comp. chiefly Baudhayana II, 7. 
Samitpawi of course is not sarayatapawi, as Naraya«a explains 
it. On anvash/amade-ra comp. Professor Stenzler's note on 
Ajvalayana III, 7, 4. 

2. The Svastyayanas are texts such as Rig-veda I, 89; IV, 31. 

10, 1. This Sutra evidently should be placed at the end of the 
ninth chapter ; comp. IV, 6, 9. The fact that, as the commentary 
observes, the words nitya/ra vagyata^ (chap. 9, Sutra 1) are to be 

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Kha^da 10. 

2. Every day in the evening and in the morning, 

3. He establishes the fire (in its proper place), 
wipes (with his hand the ground) round (it), sprin- 
kles (water) round (it), bends his right knee, 

4. (And puts fuel on the fire with the texts,) ' To 
Agni I have brought a piece of wood, to the great 
GStavedas ; may he, (Jatavedas, give faith and 
insight to me. Svaha ! 

' Firewood art thou ; may we prosper. Fuel art 
thou ; splendour art thou ; put splendour into me. 
Svaha ! 

' Being inflamed make me prosperous in offspring 
and wealth. Svaha ! 

' Thine is this fuel, Agni ; thereby thou shalt grow 
and gain vigour. And may we grow and gain 
vigour. Svaha ! ' 

supplied here also points in the same direction. That this Sutra 
has nothing to do with the Agnipari^arya, of which the tenth 
chapter treats, becomes evident also from Rama^andra's Paddhati. 

4. Naraya«a: samidham iti mantralingat samidhiw homaA, 
mantrapn'thaktvat karmaprrthaktvam iti nyayat 

In the Atharva-veda XIX, 64, 1 the MSS. have Agne samidham 
aharsham. Professors Roth and Whitney have conjectured in this 
passage agre instead of Agne. It is shown by our passage and 
the corresponding ones in the other Sutras that the true reading is 
Agnaye. Instead of aharsham we should read aharsham, as 
all the parallel texts have. In the passage ' Firewood art thou ; 
might we prosper,' there is a play upon words untranslatable in 
English, 'edho*sy edhishfmahi.' Perhaps instead of samiddho 
m&m samardhaya we should read samrt'ddho mu samar- 
dhaya. As the Mantra referred to the Samidh-offering,samr»ddha 
could very easily be supplanted by the participle of sam-idh. In 
the parallel texts indicated p. 139 of the German edition it should 
be, V%. Sawh. II, 14 a. 

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76 sankhAyana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

5. Having then sprinkled (water) round (the fire), 

6. He approaches the fire with the verse, 'May 
Agni (vouchsafe) to me faith and insight, not-for- 
getting (what I have learned) and memory ; may 
this praiseful (Jatavedas give blessing to us.' 

[7. He makes with ashes the tripuwa^ra sign 
(the sign of three strokes) which is set forth in the 
(treatise on the) Sauparwavrata, which is revealed, 
which agrees with the tradition handed down by the 
ancients, with the five formulas ' The threefold age ' 
(see above, I, 28, 9), one by one, on five (places), 
viz. the forehead, the heart, the right shoulder and 
the left, and then on the back.] 

8. He who approaches the fire after having sacri- 
ficed thus, studies of these Vedas, one, two, three, 
or all. 

Khajvz»a 11. 

1. Now (follows) the directing to the (special) 

2. The rules for it have been explained by the 

3. He does not recite the Savitrt. 

7. This Sutra is wanting in one of the Haug MSS. and in the 
.Sambavya MS. ; Ramafondra's Paddhati takes no notice of it. I 
take it for a later addition. It should be noticed that the words 
dakshinaskandhe . . . ka. pa«£asu form a half -Sloka. 

11, 1. On the four Vratas, of which the .Sukriya precedes the 
study of the main part of the Veda, the Sakvara, Vratika, and 
Aupanishada that of the different sections of the Ara«yaka, see the 
note on chap. 7, 1 and the Introduction, p. 8. On the name of 
the .Sukriya Rama^andra says, jukriyarabdo vedava/W, tatsam- 
bandhad vratam api fukriyam. 

2, 4. See the note on chap. 6, 1. 2. 

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4. Some say that the handing over of the staff 
forms the end (of this ceremony). 

5. During the northern course of the sun, in the 
time of the increasing moon — 

6. The teacher having abstained through one day 
and one night from sexual intercourse and from 
eating flesh — 

7. With the exclusion of the fourteenth day and 
of the eighth (of the half-month), 

8. And of the first and last, according to some 

9. Or on what day else the constellation seems 
lucky to him, on that day he shall direct (the student) 
to the duties of holiness according to the .Sukriya 

10. Let him observe (those) duties through three 
days, or twelve days, or one year, or as long as the 
master may think fit. 

1 1. The 6akvara (observance), however, (is to be 
kept) one year. 

12. (So also) the Vratika and Aupanishada (ob- 

13. When the time has elapsed, when the duties 

4. On the dam/apradana, see chap. 6, 2. 

6. The pleonasm brahma^aryam upetya . . . brahmaHrf 
should be removed by expunging brahma^art, which is omitted in 
the .Sambavya text. Comp. chap. 12, Sutra 8 ; VI, 1, 2. 

7. Comp. below, IV, 7, 7. 

9. In the .Sambavya text this Sutra has a fuller form. It runs 
there thus, ' ... he shall direct (the student) to the duties of holi- 
ness according to the .Sukriya rite, the teacher saying, "Be a .Sukriya- 
brahmaiarin ;" the other one replying, " I will be a Sukriya-brah- 
ma£arin." Thus also at the other observances he shall pronounce 
each time the name of the observance to which he directs him.' 

10. Comp. above, II, 5, 1. 

13. The Samyu Birhaspatya, i.e. the verse beginning with the 

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have been observed, when the Veda has been studied 
down to the .Sawyu-Barhaspatya^hymn), let (the 
teacher then), should he intend to instruct (the 
student) in the secret (part of the Veda), ascertain 
the time (through which the student has to observe 
the special rites) and the rules to be observed, from 
the (special) directions (that are handed down on this 

Khanda 12. 

i. After (the student) has eaten something in the 
morning, in the afternoon, to the north-east — 

words ta£ kh2.m yor & vr»*«?mahe, is the last verse of the Rig- 
veda in the Bashkala redaction. See below, the note on IV, 5, 9. 

On kalaniyamawz, see NSrayana's note, pp. 140 seq. of the 
German edition. 

12, 1 seq. The Indian tradition (with the exception only, as far 
as is known to me, of the .SSmbavya commentary) refers the 
ceremonies described in this chapter, like those treated of in chap, 
n, as well to the .Sukriya as to the .Sakvara and the other Vratas. 
This is not correct. The eleventh chapter gives the rites common 
to the four Vratas ; the .Sukriya vrata is connected with no special 
ceremonies beside those, so that the exposition of this Vrata is 
brought to an end in that chapter. The last Sutra of chap. 1 1 
marks the transition to the special rites which are peculiar to the 
three other Vratas, and are connected with the character of mystical 
secrecy attributed to the Arawyaka, and thus it is with the exclusion 
of the .Sukriya that the twelfth chapter refers only to those Vratas. 
The difference which we have pointed out between the two chapters 
finds its characteristic expression in Sutras 9 and 11 of chap. 11, 
compared with chap. 12, 13. 14; in the former Sutras the state- 
ments there given are expressly extended to the .Sukriya, the 
Sakvara, the Vr&tika, and the Aupanishada, while in the latter 
passage mention is made first of the Mahdnamnis, i.e. the text 
corresponding to the Sakvara vrata, and then the uttar£«i pra- 
karawSni (the following sections) are referred to, i. e. the Mahavrata 
and the Upanishad, so that the .Sukriya vrata or the texts, the study 
of which is entered upon by that Vrata, are left out here. 

There is a good deal of confusion in the several commentaries 

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II ADHYAYA, 1 2 KHANDA, 2. 79 

2. Having sacrificed, the teacher then asks him 
with regard to those deities to whom he has been 
given in charge (see above, chap. 3, 1), ' Hast thou 
fulfilled the duties of holiness before Agni, Indra, 
the Sun, and the VLrve devas ? ' 

with regard to the succession of the different ceremonies taught in 
this chapter. They all agree in stating that after the lapse of the 
year through which the Vrata is kept, a ceremony is performed 
called Uddikshanika, i.e. the giving up of the Diksha, or pre- 
paratory observance. This Uddikshamka consists chiefly in the 
teacher's ascertaining whether the student has fulfilled the duties 
involved by the Vrata (see Sutras 2 and 3). Besides that, there is 
no doubt that a repetition of the Upanayana (chap. 11, 2) also 
formed part of the preparatory rites for the study of the Arawyaka. 
As to the way in which these different ceremonies and the other 
rites described in this chapter would have to be arranged according 
to our text, it is perhaps best to follow the statements given in an 
epitome from the balavabodhanartham i?>shidaivata£<iando- 
paddhati (MS. Berol. Chambers, 199 a, fols. 13-16) ; the slight con- 
fusion therein is not difficult to get rid of. There we read, ' The 
•SUkvara, however, is to be kept one year (chap. 1 1, 1 1). When 
the Uddikshawika' has been performed, and three nights (chap. 1 2, 
6) or one day and one night (ibid. 7) have elapsed, the Upanayana 
should be performed as above (chap. 11, 2), with this difference 
that at the end of the formula mama vrate, &c. (chap. 4, 1) one 
should say, " May Rr/haspati join thee to me for the holy observ- 
ance of the .Sakvara through one year, O Devadattal" (On this 
formula, resting on a misunderstanding of chap. 4, Sutra 2, see the 
Introduction, p. 8.) The rest is the same as at the .Sukriya. Then, 
when the year (chap. 11, 11) has elapsed, and the Uddikshamka has 
been performed, and the three days or the night have passed (chap. 
12, 6. 7), he should go out of the village . . . and in the north-eastern 
direction,' &c. (here follows the description of how the secret 
doctrines should be taught to the student, according to .Sahkh. VI). 
The confusion showing itself in the double mention of the Uddik- 
shawika, before and after the Upanayana, should no doubt be put 
to the account of the excerptor or perhaps even of the MS. ; what 
the meaning of the original Paddhati was is sufficiently shown in 
the remarks on the following Vratas, for instance, on the Vratika 
(fol. 1 6), 'Now follows the Vratika vrata. It lasts one year (chap. 

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3. If he answers, ' I have fulfilled them, sir!' — 

4. The teacher three times envelops, from the left 
to the right, with a fresh garment the face (of the 
student) who is standing behind the fire, in front of 
the teacher, with his face to the east. 

5. He turns the skirt (of that garment) upwards so 
that it cannot slip down, 

6. (And says :) ' Leaving off for three days the 
putting on of fuel, the going for alms, the sleeping 
on the ground, and the obedience to the teacher, 
fast in the forest, in a god's house or in a place 
where Agnihotra is performed, keeping silence, with 
earnest care.' 

11, 12). When the .Sale vara has reached its end [here we find 
added at the margin of the MS., " After the Uddikshamka' has been 
performed." These words ought not to be received into the text; 
in the corresponding passage on the Aupanishada vrata they are 
not found] he performs the whole ceremony, beginning from the 
smearing (of the Stha»<fila with cow-dung), the drawing of the 
lines, &c, as at the Upanayana . . . and then, when one year 
has elapsed, he performs the Uddiksha«ikS, and the rules [given 
in chap. 12, 9 seq.] are observed as above.' I think that here 
the meaning of the text is correctly represented; first comes 
the Upanayana, then follows the Vrata lasting one year, then the 
Uddikshawika. After this ceremony the teacher gives to the 
student the directions mentioned in chap. 12, 16; then follow the 
three days, or the one night (chap. 12, 6. 7), and finally they both 
go out of the village to the north-east, and in the forest they recite 
the Rahasya. 

On the whole ceremonies connected with the study of the Ara- 
wyaka the sixth book should be compared. 

5. Naraya»a : Vastrasya daraA prantabMga[m] uparish/tt knh-a 
tatha badhniyad yatha na sambhr&ryeta adhastan na patati tatha 

6. The things which the student here is ordered to leave off for 
three days are the same that are mentioned above, chap. 6, 8, as his 
standing duties. According to Narayawa this would be the Adeja 
mentioned in chap. 11, 13. 

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7. Here some (teachers) prescribe the same ob- 
servances only for one night, during which he is to 

8. The teacher refrains from eating flesh and from 
sexual intercourse. 

9. When those three days or that night has 
elapsed, going out from the village he shall avoid to 
look at the following (persons or things) that form 
impediments for the study (of the Veda) : 

10. Raw flesh, a Aa#d&la, a woman that has 
lately been confined, or that has her courses, blood, 
persons whose hands have been cut off, cemeteries, 
and all sorts of corpse-like (animals ?) which enter 
(their dens ?) with the mouth first (?), keeping them 
away from the place where he dwells. 

8. Comp. chap. 11, 6. 

10. With Sutika is meant a woman during the first ten days 
after her confinement, for which period the asauia. lasts. — Apa- 
hasta is rendered by Nlrayawa by Winnahasta; the comment 
on the SUmbavya-Gr/hya mentions Syudhihkitahastd«j £a. 
The translation of the last words of this Sutra (sarvtwi ka. s ava- 
rupawi yiny asye na [or tsyena?] pravijeyuA svasya v£s£n 
nirasan) is absolutely uncertain. Narayawa says that such animals 
as lions, serpents, &c. are designated in common use as xavaru- 
p a n i. (This literally means, ' having the form of a corpse.' Imme- 
diately afterwards Narayawa gives a nearly identical explanation of 
javarupa as different from the one stated first. So perhaps we 
may conjecture that his first explanation rests on a reading sarpa- 
rfipani; comp. the reading sarvarupa of Paraskara.) Of these 
the animals entering their dwelling-places with the mouth first 
(Ssyena) are to be understood here as forming, when looked at, an 
impediment for the study. N4raya»a then says that other authori- 
ties understand Java in the sense of a dead human body; then 
javarupawi are beings having the form thereof (tadrupa»i), such as 
dogs, jackals, &c. The words y&ny asyena pravi* eyu/i signify 
that the study is impeded also on the sight of lions, tigers, &c. ; for 
these enter their dwelling-places with their faces first (? anu- 
mukhai/i kr/'tvi). The words svasya vasan nirasan mean, 
[39] G 

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1 1 . Going out (from the village) in a north-eastern 
direction the teacher sits down on a clean spot, 
turning his face to the east. 

12. When the sun has risen, he recites, in the 
way prescribed for the Veda-study, (the Ara»yaka 
texts to the student) who is to keep silence and who 
wears a turban. 

13. This rule is to be observed only for the 
Mahanamnt verses. 

14. At the sections however that follow (after the 
Mahanamnls) the other one hears while the teacher 
recites them for himself. 

15. He gives (to the teacher) the turban, a vessel, 
a good cow. 

16. (The teacher accepts the gifts) with the verses, 

according to Ndr., ' when he — i. e. the teacher — goes out of his 
dwelling-place.' Rima>tandra says that ravarupa either means 
lions, snakes, and other dangerous animals, or nails, horns, and 
other such things that fall off or are severed from the body. 
The text of the .S&mbavya MS. is sarv&ni ia. jy£marupa«i 
ylvanya' (?) pravijeyuA, which the commentary explains, sarvstow 
ka. bhakshyavargSwj ia.. I think there can be little doubt 
that the text of .SSnkhayana is correct (except that some doubt 
will remain as to Ssyena or Ssye na), the more so as the 
passage reoccurs, nearly identically, below at VI, 1, 4. 5. As to 
the translation we can only go so far as to venture the opinion 
that the .Sankhayana text does not admit the interpretation given by 
Gayarama, and accepted by Professor Stenzler (who compares 
Apastamba I, n, 27 ; Gautama XVI, 41) in Paraskara II, n, 3 for 
sarvarupa, which consequently should, in our opinion, be rejected 
also in that passage of Paraskara. For ascertaining the true mean- 
ing of javarupa we shall have to wait until new parallel passages 
have been discovered. 

12. The rules for the Anuvafena have been given above in 
chap. 7. 

1 3. The Mahanamni verses are given in the fourth Ara»yaka of 
the Aitareyinas. See Sacred Books of the East, I, p. xliii. 

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'Thou him' (Rig-veda I, 18, 5), and, 'High in the 
sky' (Rig-veda X, 107, 2), or (he accepts them) all 
with the Pra»ava (i. e. the syllable Om). 

17. Here some prepare a mess of rice for the 
Virve devas at all sections (of the Ara»yaka) ; 

18. For the gods to whom he has been given in 
charge, according to Ma#dfakeya. 

Khanda 13. 

1. Now (follow) the rules regarding the staff. 

2. Let him not leave a passage between himself 
and the staff. 

3. Now should any one of these things, viz. staff, 
girdle, or sacrificial cord, break or rend, the same 
penance (takes place) therefore which (has been 
prescribed) at the wedding with regard to the 

4. If the girdle cannot be repaired, he makes 
another and speaks over it (the following verses) : 

5. ' Thou who knowest the distinction of pure and 
impure, divine protectress Sarasvati, O girdle, pro- 
long my vow unimpaired, unbroken. 

' Thou, Agni, art the pure bearer of vows. Agni, 
carry hither the gods to our sacrifice and our oblation. 

' Bearing the vows, the infallible protector of vows, 
be our messenger, undecaying and mighty. Giving 
treasures, merciful, Agni, protect us, that we may 
live, Gatavedas!' 

6. And he ties the sacrificial cord to the staff. 

7. Here it is said also : 

18. Comp. the second Sfttra of this chapter. 
13, 3. See above, I, 15, 9 seq. 

G 2 

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84 sankhayana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

8. ' Let him sacrifice the sacrificial cord and the 
staff, the girdle and also the skin in water after 
the completion of his vow with a Varu»a-verse or 
with the essence (of the Vedas, i. e. the syllable Om).' 

Khajvjja 14. 

1 . Now (follows) the Vai .rvadeva (sacrifice). 

2. The rite of the sacrifice has been explained. 

3. Let him pour oblations of prepared Vairvadeva 
food in the evening and in the morning into the 
(sacred) domestic fire. 

4. 'To Agni svaha! To Soma svaha! To 
Indra and Agni svaha! To Vishmi svaha! To 
Bharadva^a Dhanvantari svaha! To the Visve 
devas svaha! To Pra^apati svaha! To Aditi 
svaha! To Anumati svaha! To Agni Svish/akm 

8. Nariyawa here quotes Rig-veda I, 24, 6, which is the first 
verse in the Rig-veda addressed to Vartwa (i. e. to Varu«a alone, 
not to Mitra and Varuwa, &c). 

14, 1. The rules regarding the Vauvadeva sacrifice stand here, 
as I have already pointed out in the German edition, p. 142, in 
a very strange position amid the matter that concerns the student, 
and before the description of the ceremony that concludes stu- 
dentship (the Samavartana; HI, 1). On the first word of the 
chapter, atha, N&rayawa observes that thereby the householder 
is marked as the subject of the following rules. It seems rather 
forced to explain the position of this chapter, as Narayawa does, 
by pointing out that in some cases, for instance when the teacher 
is away on a journey, a student also can eventually be called 
upon to perform the Vauvadeva sacrifice (comp. below, chap. 


2. This Sutra shows, according to Narayawa, that the Vairva- 
deva offering does not follow the ordinary type of sacrifice (the 
Pratifrute homakalpa, as it is termed above, I, 9, 19), but the 
form described in the Agnikaryaprakarawa, above, chap. 10, 
3 seq. 

Digitized by 



svaha ! ' — having thus offered the oblations belonging 
to those deities, 

5. He then shall offer Balis (i. e. portions of food) 
in the centre of the floor to the same deities ; (then 
another Bali with the words,) 'Adoration to Brahman 
and to the Brahma»as ! ' and (with the verse), 
' Vastoshpati, accept us' (Rig-veda VII, 54, 1) in the 
centre of the floor to Vastoshpati. 

6. He then distributes Balis, from the left to the 
right, through the different quarters (of the horizon, 
to the presiding deities) in due order (with the 

7. 'Adoration to Indra and to those belonging to 
Indra ! Adoration to Yama and to those belonging 
to Yama ! Adoration to Varu»a and to those be- 
longing to Varu«a! Adoration to Soma and, to those 
belonging to Soma! Adoration to BWhaspati and to 
those belonging to Brz'haspati !' 

8. Then (turned) towards the disk of the sun, 
'Adoration to Aditi and to the Adityas! Adoration 

5. ' He shall offer a Bali to those deities, i. e. to those ten deities 
to whom he has sacrificed, to Agni, &c. (see Sutra 4), addressing 
them with the word, " Adoration (to such and such a deity") — 
because in the other cases the word " adoration " (namaA) has been 
prescribed for the Bali.' Naraya«a. 

6, 7. The distribution of Balis begins in the east, which is the 
part of the horizon sacred to Indra; it then proceeds to the 
south, the west, the north, which are sacred respectively to Yama, 
Vanwa, and Soma. Finally the Bali belonging to Brrhaspati 
and the Barhaspatyas is offered, according to Narayawa, to the 

8. The commentators (see p. 142 of the German edition) differ 
as to whether adityaman</ala means the disk of the sun towards 
which this Bali should be offered, or a place or an apartment of 
circular form (adityama»rfalarupe mam&lagare, as in my opinion 
we ought to correct the reading in Naraya»a's note). 

Digitized by 


86 sankhayana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

to the Nakshatras, to seasons, to months, to half- 
months, to days and nights, to years ! ' 

9. 'To Pushan, the path-maker; to Dhatar, to 
Vidhatar, and to the Maruts ' — (thus) on the 

10. To Vishwu on the grindstone. 

11. 'To the tree' — (thus) in the mortar. 

12. 'To the herbs' — (thus) where the herbs are 

13. 'To Par^anya, to the waters' — (thus) near 
the water-pot. 

14. 'Adoration to .Sri' — (thus) in the bed at the 
head, ' to Bhadrakili ' at the foot. 

15. In the privy, 'Adoration to Sarvannabhuti ! ' 

16. Then (he throws a Bali) into the air, in the 
evening with the words, ' To the night-walkers,' in the 
morning with the words, ' To the day-walkers,' and 
with the verse, ' Which gods ' (Rig-veda 1, 139, 1 1). 

1 7. To the unknown deities to the north, and to 
Dhanapati (i. e. the Lord of treasures). 

18. With the sacrificial cord suspended over the 
right shoulder he pours out the remnant to the south 
with the verse, ' They whom the fire has burnt ' 
(Rig-veda X, 15, 14). 

19. When he has made his offerings to gods, 
fathers (i.e. Manes), and men, let him give food to a 
•Srotriya (i.e. to a learned Brahmarca). 

20. Or let him give alms (of food) to a student. 

21. Let him immediately afterwards offer food to 
a female under his protection, to a pregnant woman, 
to boys, and to old people. 

21. Comp. Bohtlingk-Roth s. v. suvasini, and Professor Btihler's 
note on Gautama V, 25. 

Digitized by 



22. Let him throw (some food) on the ground for 
the dogs, for the dog-butchers, and for the birds. 

23. Let him eat nothing without having cut off 
(and offered as a Bali) a portion thereof. 

24. (Let him) not (eat) alone, 

25. Nor before (the others). 

26. With regard thereto it has been said also in 
the Rik, ' In vain the fool gains food' (Rig-veda X, 

Khavda 15. 

1. Should any one of the six persons (mentioned 
in the .Srauta-sutra and in the Sutras 4-9) to 
whom the Arghya reception is due, visit (him), let 
him make (ready) a cow, a goat, or what (sort of 
food) he thinks most like (thereto). 

2. Let the Argha not be without flesh. 

3. On the occasion of a sacrifice and of a wedding 
let (the guest) say, ' Make it (ready).' 

22, 23. Probably these Sutras should be divided after iti. 

23. 'Purvaw means, he should not eat before his relations 
(bandhubhyaA purvam prathamataA).' Narayana. 

15, 1. This Sutra presupposes the .Srauta-sutra IV, 21, 1 : 'To 
six persons the Argha reception is due, viz. to the teacher, to an 
officiating priest, to the father-in-law, to a king, to a Snataka, to 
a friend.' Here the fourth person mentioned is the fvajura, 
while hi the Gr/hya text the expression vaiv&hya is used. It is 
difficult not to believe that both words are used in the same sense, 
and accordingly Narayawa says viv&hyaA svasxmJt. Comp. Professor 
Stenzler's note on Piraskara I, 3, 1 ; Apastamba II, 8, <j ; Gau- 
tama V, 27. 

Sim&nyatamafli sadruatamam m&shddikam (makhadikam the 
MS.) annam. Nir&yawa. 

2, 3. These Sutras are identical with Piraskara I, 3, 29. 30. 
The following Sutra of PSraskara stands in the Sankh&yana text as 

Digitized by 


88 sankhayana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

4. The animal (offered) to the teacher is sacred to 

5. If offered to an officiating priest, to Brzhaspati ; 

6. If to the father-in-law, to Pra^pati ; 

7. If to a king, to Indra ; 

8. If to a friend, to Mitra ; 

9. If to a Snataka, to Indra and Agni ; 

10. Even if he performs more than one Soma 
sacrifice during a year, let only priests who have 
received (from him) the Arghya reception officiate 
for him, not such who have not received it. 

1 1. Here it is said also : 

Sutra 10. Probably Paraskara here represents the text which both 
Sutrakiras follow, more exactly, and the enumeration given by 
■Saftkhayana in Sutras 4-9 of the different categories of Arghyas 
with the corresponding deities, is an addition to that original stock 
of rules. 

Apparently the two Sutras 2 and 3 stand in contradiction to each 
other, as Sutra 2 seems to prescribe that at the Argha meal in 
every case flesh should be given to the guest, and Sutra 3 specifies 
only two occasions on which the killing of the Argha cow cannot 
be dispensed with. Perhaps the meaning is this, that it is not 
necessary, except in the cases of a sacrifice and of a wedding, to 
kill a cow expressly for that purpose, but that in any case, even if 
the cow offered to the guest be declined by him, the host should 
take care that some flesh be served at that meal. So says Niraya»a 
in his note on Afvalayana-Gr/hya I, 24, 33, ' Pamkaranapakshe 
tanmamsena bho^anam, utsar^anapakshe mawsantarewa.' Similarly 
the Buddhists distinguish between eating flesh and eating the flesh 
of an animal expressly killed in order to entertain that very guest. 

6. The literal translation of vai vahya would be 'a person related 
by marriage.' But comp. the note on Sutra 1. 

8. Priya of course does not mean ^amatar, as is stated in a 
number of commentaries. Gobhila says, p r i y o * t i t h i h. 

11. Other persons, for instance a king, can claim the Argha re- 
ception not more than once a year. Comp. Apastamba II, 8, 7 ; 
Gautama V, 28, 29, &c. 

Digitized by 



Khajvda 16. 

i. 'At the Madhuparka and at the Soma sacrifice, 
at the sacred rites for fathers (Manes) and gods 
only animals may be killed, not elsewhere : thus 
has Manu said. 

2. ' Both his teacher and his father, and also a 
friend who does not stay in his house as a guest : 
whatever these dispose, that let him do; such is 
the established custom. 

3. ' Let him not consider as a guest a person 
living in the same village, or one that comes in 
returning from a journey; (but let him consider as a 
guest only) one who has arrived at his house where 
the wife or the fires (of the host) are. 

4. '(The fire of) the Agnihotra, bulls, and a guest 
that has come in at the right time, children and 
persons of noble families : these burn up him who 
neglects them. 

5. 'A bull, the Agnihotra, and a student, these 
three prosper only if they eat; there is no prosperity 
for them, if they do not eat. 

6. ' Day by day the domestic deities approach 
the man who performs the domestic rites, in order 
to receive their share; (that) let him pour out 
to them. 

Khanda 17. 

1. ' Even if a man constantly gather grass and per- 
form the Agnihotra, a Brahma»a who stays (in his 

16, 3. Comp. Gautama V, 40, &c. 

4. On the right time for the arrival of a guest, see Gautama, 
loc. cit. 

Digitized by 


90 sankhayana-g.r/hya-sOtra. 

house) without receiving honour takes away all his 
good works. 

2. ' One should give (even) if it were only a 
water-pot; one should sacrifice (even) if it were a 
piece of wood ; (even) down to one hymn or to one 
Anuvaka the Brahmaya^«a is enjoined. 

3. ' When on a journey let him not fast ; (during 
that time) the wife keeps the vow. Let his son, his 
brother, or his wife, or his pupil offer the Bali 

4. ' Those who perform this Vai^vadeva sacrifice 
in the evening and in the morning, they will prosper 
in wealth and (long) life, in fame and offspring.' 

Khaat>a 18. 

1. A student who is going to set out on a journey, 
speaks thus to his teacher : 

2. 'Of inhalation and exhalation' — (this he says) 
in a low voice ; ' Om, I will dwell ' — this aloud. 

3. (The teacher) in a low voice (replies), ' To 
inhalation and exhalation I, the wide-extended one, 
resort with thee. To the protecting god I give thee 
in charge. God Savitar; this student belongs to 
thee ; I give him in charge to thee ; protect him ; 
do not forsake him.' 

4. 'Om, hail!' the teacher aloud. 'Hail!' the 
teacher aloud. 

Here ends the Second Adhyaya. 

18, 2. Perhaps vatsy&mi (I will dwell) is a sort of euphemism 
for pra vatsy&mi (I will go away). 

Digitized by 



AdhyAya III, Khazvjja 1. 

i. A bath (shall be taken by the student) when he 
is going to return home (from his teacher). 

2. 'A bull's hide' — this has been declared. On 
that hide he makes him sit down and have his hair 
and beard cut and the hair of the body and the 

3.. Having had (the cut-off hair-ends, &c.) thrown 
away together with rice and barley, with sesamum- 
seed and mustard-seed, with Apamarga and Sada- 
pushpi flowers, 

4. Having sprinkled him (with water) with the 
ApohishAfciya-hymn (Rig-veda X, 9), 

5. Having adorned him, 

6. Having dressed him with two garments with 
(the verse), ' The garments both of you ' (Rig-veda 

I, i5 2 . 1). 

7. He then puts on him a golden ornament (with 
the words), ' Giving life and vigour ' (Va^asaneyi 
Sawhita XXXIV, 50). 

8. With (the verse), ' Mine, Agni, be vigour ' 
(Rig-veda X, 128, 1), the veiling (of the head is 

9. With (the verse), ' House by house the shining 
one' (Rig-veda I, 123, 4) (he takes) the parasol, 

10. With (the verse), ' Rise up' (Rig-veda X, 18, 
6), the shoes, 

l,a. Comp. above, I, 16, 1, and the note there. 
4. Narayawa says here, enaw mawavakam abhishifya abhishekam 
snanam karayitva. Comp. Paraskara II, 6, 9 seq. 

Digitized by 


92 sankhAyana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

i i . With (the verse), ' Long be thy hook ' (Rig- 
veda VIII, 17, 10) he takes a bamboo staff. 

1 2. Let him sit that day in solitude. 

13. With (the verses), 'O tree ! with strong limbs,' 
and, 'A ruler indeed' (Rig-veda VI, 47, 26; X, 152, 1) 
let him mount the chariot. 

14. (Before returning home) let him first approach 
a place where they will perform Argha for him with 
a cow or a goat. 

15. Or let him return (making his start) from cows 
or from a fruit-bearing tree. 

16. With (the verses), ' Indra, give us best goods,' 
and, 'Be friendly, O earth' (Rig-veda II, 21, 6; 
I, 22, 15) he descends (from the chariot). 

1 7. Let him eat that day his favourite food. 

18. To his teacher he shall give (that) pair of 
garments, the turban, ear-rings and jewel, staff and 
shoes, and the parasol. 

Khanda 2. 

1 . If he wishes to have a house built, he draws with 
an Udumbara branch three times a line round (the 
building-ground) with (the words), ' Here I include 
the dwellings for the sake of food,' and sacrifices in 
(its) centre on an elevated spot, 

2. (With the texts,) ' Who art thou ? Whose art 

12. Pratilina evidently means the same thing that is so often 
expressed in the Buddhist texts by pa/isallfna. 

18. The pair of garments are those referred to in Sutra 6; on 
the turban see Sutra 8. On staff and shoes comp. Sutras 10, n; 
on the parasol, Sutra 9. 

2, 1 seqq. On the house of the Vedic Indians, comp. Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, pp. 148 seqq. 

Digitized by 


Ill ADHYAYA, 2 KHANDA, 9. 93 

thou ? To whom do I sacrifice thee, desirous of 
(dwelling in the) village ? Svaha ! 

' Thou art the gods' share on this (earth). From 
here have sprung the fathers who have passed away. 
The ruler has sacrificed, desirous of (dwelling in the) 
village, not omitting anything that belongs to the 
gods. Svaha ! ' 

3. Having had the pits for the posts dug, 

4. He pours water-gruel into them, 

5. And with (the verse), ' This branch of the 
immortal one I erect, a stream of honey, promoting 
wealth. The child, the young one, cries to it ; the 
cow shall low to it, the unceasingly fertile one ' — he 
puts an Udumbara branch which has been besmeared 
with ghee into the pit for the right door-post. 

6. ' This branch of the world I establish, a stream 
of honey, promoting wealth. The child, the young 
one, cries to it ; the cow shall low to it that has a 
young calf — thus to £he left. 

7. In the same way at the two (pits) to the south, 
to the west, and to the north. 

8. With (the verse), 'This branch of this tree, 
that drops ghee, I erect in the immortal. The child, 
the young one, cries to it ; cows shall flock to it, 
unceasingly fertile ones ' — he erects the chief post. 

9. ' May the young child come to it, may 
the calf . . . . ; may they come to it with a cup of 
Parisrut, with pots of curds. 

9. On parisrut, see Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 281. The 
words bhuvanas pari give no sense; Paraskara probably gives 
the true reading, a vatso^ agadaiA saha (III, 4, 4 ; comp. Sfkra 
8 : Vasu/Rj ka. Rudran Adityan Iranaw^agadaiA saha; ^agada is 
explained in (Tayarama's commentary by anuga, anu£ara). The 
word ^agada of course was exposed to all sorts of corruptions; 

Digitized by 


94 $AnkhAyana-gk/hya-s6tra. 

Khajvda 3. 

i. 'Stand here, O post, firm, rich in horses and 
cows, . . . . ; stand safely, dropping ghee ; stand 
here, fixed in the ground, prosperous, long-lasting (?), 
amid the prosperity of people who satiate themselves. 
May the malevolent ones not reach thee ! 

'Hither are called the cows; hither are called 
goats and sheep ; and the sweet essence (?) of food 
is called hither to our house. 

' Stand fast in the Rathantara ; recline on the 
Vamadevya ; establish thyself on the Brzhat ' — with 
(these texts) he touches the chief post. 

2. When the house has been built conformably 
(to its proper dimensions), he touches the posts. 

3. The two (posts) to the east with (the words), 
'Truth and faith!' 

4. Those to the south with (the words), ' Sacrifice 
and gift ! ' 

5. Those to the west with (the words), ' Strength 
and power ! ' 

6. Those to the north with (the words), ' The 
Brahman and the Kshatra ! 

7. ' Fortune the pinnacle, law the chief post ! 

thus the text of Ajvalayana has ^ayatdw saka; the Atharva-veda 
(III, 12, 7) £-agata saha; and from this ^agat to the bhuvana 
found in our text the way is not very long. 

3, 1. According to Narayana the verse given in chap. 2, 9 forms 
one Mantra with those in 3, 1. The meaning of silamSvatf is 
uncertain. The word reoccurs in Rig-veda X, 75, 8. Paraskara 
(III, 4, 4) has "sunrrtavati. On tilvila, comp. Rig-veda V, 62, 
7. The following word is quite uncertain both as to its reading 
and its meaning. Comp. p. 143 seq. of the German edition. On 
kilala, comp. Zimmer, Ioc. cit p. 281. 

7. Comp. Paraskara HI, 4, 18. 

Digitized by 


Ill ADHYAYA, 4 KHAtfDA, 8. 95 

8. ' Day and night the two door-jambs !' 

9. * The year the roof!' 

10. With (the verse), 'A bull, an ocean' (Rig-veda 
V, 47, 3) let him bury an anointed stone under the 

Khaa'ba 4. 

1. At the sacrifice to Vastoshpati — 

2. Having established the (sacred) domestic fire 
outside with (the words), ' I place (here) Agni with 
genial mind; may he be the assembler of goods. 
Do no harm to us, to the old nor to the young; 
be a saviour to us, to men and animals !' — 

3. Having put a new water-pot on fresh eastward- 
pointed Kusa-grass, 

4. And spoken over it (the words), ' Unhurt be 
our men, may our riches not be squandered !' — 

5. He sacrifices three oblations in the forenoon 
with the Stotriya text of the Rathantara with re- 
petition and Kakubh-forming ; 

6. (Three oblations with the Stotriya) of the 
Vamadevya at midday; 

7. Of the Bnhat in the afternoon ; 

8. The four Mahavyahmis, the three verses, 
' Vastoshpati ! ' (Rig-veda VII, 54, 1-3), (the single 
verses,) ' Driving away calamity,' (and) 'Vastoshpati, 

4, 1. The sacrifice to VSstoshpati is celebrated when the sacri- 
ficer enters his new house. 

2. Comp. above, I, 7, 9. 

5-7. On the way of reciting a PragStha, so as to form three 
verses, see Indische Studien, VIII, 25; Zeitschrift der deutschen 
Morg. Gesellschaft, XXXVIII, 476. The Stotriya of the Rathan- 
tara is Rig-veda VII, 32, 22 seq. ; that of the Vamadevya, IV, 31, 
1-3 ; that of the Bnhat, VI, 46, 1 seq. 

Digitized by 


96 sankhAyana-gk/hya-sCtra. 

a firm post' ( Rig- veda VII, 55, 1; VIII, 17, 14), and 
to (Agni) Svish/akm a tenth oblation of cooked 
food at night. 

9. Taking with himself his eldest son and his wife, 
carrying grain, let him enter (the house with the 

' Indra's house is blessed, wealthy, protecting ; 
that I enter with my wife, with offspring, with cattle, 
with increase of wealth, with everything that is 

Khanda 5. 

1. 'To every able one, to every blissful one, to 
you I turn for the sake of safety, of peace. Free 
from danger may we be. May the village give me 
in charge to the forest. All ! give me in charge to 
the great one,' — thus (he speaks) when leaving the 

2. ' May the forest give me in charge to the village. 
Great one ! give me in charge to the all ' — thus 
(he speaks) when entering the village, not without 
(carrying) something (with himself, such as fuel, 
flowers, &c.) 

3. I enter the blessed, joyful house, which does 
not bring death to men ; manly (I enter) that which 
is rich in men. Bringing refreshment, dropping 
ghee (we enter the house) in which I shall joyfully 
rest' — this verse is constantly to be pronounced 
(when he enters the house). 

5, 3. For anyeshv aham we should read perhaps yeshv ahaw. 
Ajvalayana-.Sraut. II, 5, 17 has teshv ahaw. 

Digitized by 


Ill ADHYAYA, 7 KHANDA, 5. 97 

Khamda 6. 

i. One who has not set up the (sacred .Srauta) 
fires, when setting out on a journey, looks at his 

2. (He murmurs the text,) ' Do ye both, Mitra and 
Varu«a, protect this house for me ; unscathed, un- 
disturbed, may Pushan guard it till our return ;' 

3. And murmurs (the verse), ' Upon the path we 
have entered' (Rig-veda VI, 51, 16). 

Khajvda 7. 

1. When he then returns from his journey, he 
looks at his house (and says), 

2. ' House, do not fear, do not tremble ; bringing 
strength we come back. Bringing strength, joyful 
and wise, I come back to thee, to the house, rejoicing 
in my mind. 

' That of which the traveller thinks, that in which 
dwells much joy, that I call the house. May it know 
us as we know it. 

' Hither are called the cows ; hither are called 
goats and sheep ; and the sweet essence (?) of food 
is called hither to our house.' 

3. Having approached the (sacred) domestic fire 
with the verse, ' This Agni is glorious to us, this is 
highly glorious. Worshipping him (?) may we suffer 
no harm ; may he bring us to supremity ' — 

4. Let him pronounce auspicious words. 

5. When accepting the water for washing the feet 
he says, ' The milk of Vir&f art thou ; may I obtain 

7, a. On ktlala, see chap. 3, 1. 

5. Padya virS^ is the Vira# metre, so far as it consists of 

[39] H 

Digitized by 


98 $ankhayana-g/?jhya-sOtra. 

the milk of Virif ; in me (may) the milk of Padya 
Virif (dwell)!' 

Khajvda 8. 

i. When one who has not set up the (sacred 
6rauta) fires, is going to partake of the first-fruits 
(of the harvest), let him sacrifice to the Agraya«a 
deities with (Agni) Svish/akWt as the fourth, and 
with the word Svaha, on his (sacred) domestic fire. 

2. Having recited over (the food) which he is 
going to eat (the formula), 'To Pra^apati I draw 
thee, the proper portion, for luck to me, for glory to 
me, for food to me ! ' — 

3. He thrice eats of it, sprinkling it with water, 
with (the verse), ' From the good you have led us to 
the better, ye gods ! Through thee, the nourishment, 
may we obtain thee. Thus enter into us, O potion, 
bringing refreshment ; be a saviour to us, to men 
and animals ! ' 

4. With (the verse), ' This art thou, breath ; the 
truth I speak. This art thou ; from all directions 
thou hast entered (into all beings). Thou driving 
away old age and sickness from my body be at home 
with me. Do not forsake us, Indra ! ' — he touches the 
place of the heart ; 

Padas ; in this connection, of course, the phrase is intended besides 
to convey the meaning of ' the splendour which dwells in the feet.' 
Comp. Piraskara I, 3, 1 2 and Professor Stenzler's note there. My 
German translation of this Sutra of .SlnkhSyana rests on a misun- 

8, 1. The Agraya«esh/i is the corresponding rite of the .Srauta 
ritual. Comp. Indische Studien, X, 343. The deities of that 
sacrifice are Indra and Agni; the Vwve devSs; Heaven and 

3. In the text read for tvayd^-vasena, tvayi«vasena. 

Digitized by 


Ill ADHYAYA, IO KHAW0A, I. > 99 

5. With (the words), ' The navel art thou ; do not 
fear ; the knot of the breathing powers art thou ; do 
not loosen thyself,' (he touches) the navel ; 

6. With the verse, ' Bliss with our ears ' (Rig-veda 
I, 89, 8), (he touches) the limbs as stated (in that 
verse) ; 

7. Worshipping the sun with the verse, ' Yonder 
eye' (Rig-veda VII, 66, 16). 

Khanda 9. 

i. 'May the noisy (goddesses) keep you away 
from slaughtering hosts. May the entire share, 
O cows, that belongs to this lord of cows, suffer no 
harm among you — (and) 

'May Pushan go after our cows' (Rig-veda VI, 
54, 5) — this he shall speak over the cows when they 
go away (to their pasture-grounds). 

2. 'May Pushan hold' (Rig-veda VI, 54, 10), when 
they run about. 

3. ' May they whose udder with its four holes is 
full of sweet and ghee, be milk-givers to us ; (may 
they be) many in our stable, rich in ghee' — and, 
' The cows have come ' (Rig-veda VI, 28), when they 
have come back. 

4. The last (verse) when he puts them in (into 
the stable). 

5. The hymn, ' Refreshing wind ' (Rig-veda X, 
169), (he recites over the cows), when they are gone 
into the stable. 

Khanda 10. 

1. The new moon that follows after the Phalguna 

9, 1. The noisy ones are the winds; comp. the passage of 
■Sahkhayana-.Srauta-sutra, quoted p. 144 of the German edition. 

H 2 

Digitized by 


ioo sAnkhAyana-g/j/hya-sOtra. 

full moon, falls under (the Nakshatra) Revatl : on 
that (new moon day) he shall have the marks made 
(on his cattle), 

2. With (the words), ' Thou art the world, thou- 
sandfold prospering. To Indra may exertion (?) 
give thee. Inviolate art thou, unhurt, sap, food, 
protection. For as many (cows) I shall do this 
now, for more (than these) may I do it in the latest 

3. Of that (cow) that calves first let him sacrifice 
the biestings with the two verses,' Yearly the milk of 
the cow' (Rig-veda X, 87, 17. 18). 

4. If she brings forth twin-calves, let him sacrifice 
with the Mahavyahmis, and give the mother of the 
twins (to the Brahma#as). 

Kh\nd\ 11. 

1. Now (follows) the VWshotsarga (i.e. setting a 
bull at liberty). 

2. On the Karttika full moon day or on that 
day of the Asvayu/a (month) that falls under (the 
Nakshatra) Revatl — 

3. He sacrifices, after having kindled amid the 
cows a well-inflamed fire, Afya oblations (with the 

4. 'Here is delight; take delight here. Svaha! 

10, 2. The reading of tvl sramo dadat is doubtful. See the 
Various Readings in the German edition. 

11, 1. A part of this chapter is nearly identical with the corre- 
sponding section of the Ka//iaka-gr/hya ; see Jolly's article, Das 
Dharma-sutra des Vishwu, &c. (Sitzung der philos. philol. Classe der 
Bairischen Academie, 7 Juni, 1879), p. 39. Comp. also P&raskara 
HI, 9 ; Vishnu LXXXVI, and Jolly's remarks, in Deutsche Rund- 
schau X, p. 428. 

Digitized by 



Here is still-standing; here is (your) own still- 
standing. Svaha ! 

' I have let the calf join its mother. May the 
calf, sucking its mother's breast, support increase of 
wealth among us. Svaha!' 

5. With the verse, ' May Pushan go after our 
cows' (Rig-veda VI, 54, 5) he sacrifices from (a mess 
of sacrificial food) belonging to Pushan. 

6. Having murmured the Rudra-(hymns), 

7. (He takes) a one-coloured, two-coloured, or 
three-coloured (bull), 

8. Or one that protects the herd, 

9. Or that is protected by the herd, 

10. Or it may also be red. 

11. It should have all its limbs complete, and be 
the finest (bull) in the herd. 

1 2. Having adorned that (bull), 

13. And the four best young cows of the herd, 
having adorned those too, 

14. (He says,) ' This young (bull) I give you as 
your husband ; sporting with him, your lover, walk 
about. Do not desert us (?), being joined (with us) 
from your birth. In increase of wealth, in food may 
we rejoice. Svaha ! ' 

1 5. When (the bull) is in the midst (of the cows), 
he recites over (them), ' Refreshing,' &c. (Rig-veda 
X, 169, 1 seq.) down to the end of the Anuvaka. 

16. With the milk of all of them he shall cook milk- 
rice and feed Brahma»as with it. 

6. Rig-veda I, 43. 114 ; II, 33; VII, 46. 

14. The translation 'do not desert us,' rests on the conjecture 
m&vasthdta; see the Various Readings, and the note on p. 145 
of the German edition. 

Digitized by 


io2 sAnkhAyana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

Khaxda 12. 

i. After the Agrahaya»i (or the full moon day of 
the month Margarirsha) (follow) the three Ash/akas 
in the second fortnight (of the Marga.rtrsha and of the 
two following months). 

2. At the first of these he sacrifices vegetables, 

3. With (the verse), ' She who shone forth first is 
this (earth) ; she walks, having entered into this 
(earth). The wife has brought forth (children), the 
new-creating mother. May the three powers follow 
her. Svaha!' 

4. Now (the oblation for Agni) Svish/akm, 

5. With (the verses), 'She in whom Yama, the 
son of Vivasvat, and all gods are contained, the 
Ash/aka whose face is turned to all sides, she has 
satiated my desires. 

'They call thy teeth "the pressing-stones;" thy 

12, 1. On the Ash/aka festivals, of which some texts reckon 
three, while others have four, comp. Weber, Naxatra (second 
article), pp. 337, 341 seq. ; Bilhler, S. B. E., II, p. 214; Ludwig, 
Rig-veda, vol. iv, pp. 424 seq.; Atharva-veda III, 10. The last 
Ash/aka, which is celebrated in the dark fortnight of Magna, is 
called Ekash/akd; this Ash/akS is called the 'wife of the year,' 'the 
image of the year,' ' the disposer of the days.' If the Phalguna 
month is reckoned as the first of the year, this Ash/aka precedes 
the year's beginning only by a few days; there are also some Vedic 
passages which point to the Ekash/aka's following shortly after the 
beginning of the year; see Weber, loc. cit., p. 342. 

3. Instead of navak/v't the parallel texts (except the Mantrabrah- 
ma«a II, 2, 12) have navagat, which is explained by nutanaviva- 
havatt (Ludwig, loc. cit.); the ' three powers' are understood by 
Madhava(in the commentary on Taitt. Samh. IV, 3, 11) as Agni, 
Surya, and Aandra. 

5. After pavamanaA there is evidently a word wanting that 

Digitized by 


Ill ADHYAYA, 1 3 KHAtfDA, 4. I03 

udder is (Soma) Pavamana ; . . . . are the months 
and half-months. Adoration to thee, O glad-faced 
one! Svaha!' 

KHAtfDA 13. 

i. At the middle (Ash/aka) and in the middle of 
the rainy season, 

2. The four Mahavyahmis (and) the four (verses), 
' They who have thirsted' (Rig-veda X, 15, 9 seq.) : 
having quickly recited (these verses) he shall sacri- 
fice the omentum ; 

3. Or (he shall do so) with the verse, ' Carry the 
omentum, G&tavedas, to the Manes, where thou 
knowest them in the world of virtue. May streams 
of fat flow to them ; may the wishes of the sacrificer 
be fulfilled. Svaha!' 

4. (Then follow) the four Mahavyahrztis (and) 
the four (verses), ' They who have thirsted ' (see 
Sutra 2) : (thus is offered) an eightfold oblation of 
cooked food, together with the cut-off portions. 

indicated the limb of the Ash/aka's body identified with the months 
and half-months. 

13, 1. On madhyavarsha, comp. Weber, loc. cit., pp. 331, 
337. Naraya»a understands not 'in the middle of the rainy 
season,' but ' in the middle of the year ' (see his note, p. 146 of the 
German edition). I cannot help thinking that the word madhya- 
varshe, given by the MSS. here and in Paraskara III, 3, 13, and 
explained by Narayawa, is a corrupt reading which we should 
correct into maghyavarshe ('the festival celebrated during the 
rainy season under the Nakshatra Maghas'), or something like that. 
The MSS. of Arvalayana-Gr/hya II, 5, 9 have maghyavarshaw, ma- 
ghavarshaw, m&dhyavarshaw. Vishmi (LXXVI, i, comp. LXXVIII, 
52, and Professor Jolly's note, Sacred Books of the East, VII, 
p. 240) mentions 'the three Ash/akas, the three Anvash/akas, 
a Magha day which falls on the thirteenth of the dark half of 
the month PraushMapada.' Comp. Manu HI, 273, varshasu fa 
maghasu fa; Ya^rcavalkya I, 260. 

Digitized by 


ic>4 sankhAyana-cr/hya-sOtra. 

5. Or, * Interposed are the mountains ; interposed 
is the wide earth to me. With the sky and all the 
points of the horizon I interpose another one instead 
of the father. To N. N. svaha ! 

' Interposed to me are the seasons, and days and 
nights, the twilight's children. With the months 
and half-months I interpose another one instead of 
the father. To N. N. svaha ! 

' With the standing ones, with the streaming ones, 
with the small ones that flow about : with the waters, 
the supporters of all I interpose another one instead 
of the father. To N. N. svaha ! 

• Wherein my mother has done amiss, going astray, 
faithless to her husband, that sperm may my father 
take as his own ; may another one fall off from the 
mother. To N.N. svaha!' — these four (verses) 
instead of the Mahavyahmis, if (the sacrificer) is an 
illegitimate child. 

6. Or milk-rice (should be offered). 

7. On the next day the Anvash/akya ceremony 
(i.e. ceremony following the Ashfeka) in accordance 
with the rite of the Yindapitriyagna.. 

KHAtfDA 14. 

1 . On the last (Ash/aka) he sacrifices cakes, 

2. With the words, 'The Ukthya and the Atiratra, 
the Sadya^krl together with the metre — Ash/aka ! 

5. Instead of 'N. N.' (the text has the feminine amushyai) the 
sacrificer inserts the name of his mother. For misds, ardhamS- 
sas I propose to read, masais, ardhamasais. 

7. On Anvash/akya, comp. Biihler, S. B. E., XIV, p. 55 ; Jolly, 
loc. cit., p. 59. 

Digitized by 


Ill ADHYAYA, 14 KHAiVDA, 6. 105 

Preparer of cakes ! Adoration to thee, glad-faced 
one. Svaha ! * 

3. A cow or a goat is the animal (to be sacrificed), 
or a mess of cooked food (should be offered). 

4. Or he may optionally offer food to a cow. 

5. Or he may optionally burn down brushwood in 
the forest and say, ' This is my Ash/aka.' 

6. But let him not neglect to do (one of these 
things). But let him not neglect to do (one of these 

Here ends the Third Adhyfiya. 

14> 3-6. 'This is one of the passages which the author has taken 
unchanged from a more ancient Sutra ; see Asv. II, 4, 8-1 1 ; 
Gobhila IV, 1 (end of the chapter). The Sutras do not refer, as 
their position would seem to indicate, to the third, but to the 
second Ash/akS. 

5. Comp. Weber, loc. cit., p. 342, note 1. 

Digitized by 


io6 sAnkhAyana-g/i/hya-s6tra. 

AdhyAya IV, Khanda 1. 

i. Let him offer (Sraddha oblations) every month 
to the fathers. 

2. Having invited an uneven number of Brah- 
mawas, versed in the Veda, at least three, to sit 
down as (representing) the fathers, 

1, i. Khandas 1-4 contain the rules regarding the .Sr&ddha obla- 
tions directed to the Manes. The dinners offered in connection 
with these .Sr&ddha sacrifices to Brahmawas and also — though 
of this of course no notice is taken in Vedic texts — to 3"rama«as 
stood in the first line among the exhibitions of liberality of lay 
people towards priests and monks. Thus we find among the 
stock phrases that constantly reoccur in the Pali Pi/akas, the men- 
tion of Samawas and Brahmawas ' who have eaten the food given 
to them out of faith' (saddhSdeyyani bho^andni bhuw^itva) — 
wherein the ' food given out of faith ' (saddhadeyya) either chiefly 
or exclusively means the .Sraddha dinners, which are so called 
because the sacrificer gives them 'full of faith' (jraddh&sam- 
anvita, Manu III, 275) to the Brahmawas and through them to 
the Manes. 

The principal form of .Sraddha is that treated of in chap, i, 
which is designated in other texts (see, for instance, Arvalayana- 
Gr/hya IV, 7, 1) as pSrvawa jraddha. There are, however, 
besides the parvan of the new moon, other times also considered 
as admissible for the performing of this monthly .Sr&ddha; see 
Gautama XV, 2 seq.; Apastamba II, 16, &c. ; and comp. on the 
.SrSddhas in general the passages quoted by Professor Jolly, Das 
Dharma-sutra des Vishwu (Sitzung der Bair. Akademie, phil. Classe, 
7 Juni, 1879), pp. 46 seq. ; Max Miiller, ' India, what can it teach 
us?' pp. 234 seq., 374 seq. 

2. ' " As the fathers " means : he invites the youngest, middle- 
aged, and eldest Brahmawas to sit down in the place of the father, 
the grandfather, and the great-grandfather ' (Narayawa). A similar 
explanation of pitri'vat is mentioned by Narayawa on A^val&yana- 

Digitized by 


iv adhyAya, t khajvda, 8. 107 

3. And having strewn sesamum into an uneven 
number of water-pots, 

4. He shall pour them out over the hands of the 
Brahma«as, assigning (this gift) to them with the 
words, ' N. N. ! This to thee !' 

5. After this they should be adorned ; 

6. And after he has (respectfully) spoken to them, 
and has put food into the fire, 

7. Assigning (the food) to them with the words, 
' N. N.! This to thee !' he shall cause them to eat. 

8. While they are eating, he shall murmur the 
Mahavyahmis, the Savitri, the Madhuvatlya-verses 
(Rig-veda I, 90, 6 seq.), and verses addressed to 
the Manes and to (Soma) Pavamana. 

Gr/hya IV, 7, 2. My German translation of this Sutra ought to be 
altered accordingly. 

Besides the Brahmawas mentioned in this Sutra, who represent 
the fathers, according to all the commentaries, other Brahma»as 
had to be invited as representing the Vuve devas. N£raya»a gives 
detailed statements as to the number of the paitr/ka and of the 
daivika IMhmawas to be invited, and though at first sight a Euro- 
pean reader would rather be inclined to doubt whether at the 
.Sraddha ceremony, as the author of the text intended to describe 
it, any Brihma»as at all had to be present except the paitr/kas, 
the Sutra 2, 5 shows that the commentators are quite right in their 
statements regarding both categories of Brahmawas. 

5-7. It would be more natural to alter the division of the 
Sutras, so as to bring amantrya in the fifth, annan ka. in the 
seventh Sutra. In this case we should have to translate : 
5. After this, having (respectfully) spoken to them who have been 
adorned (by him with flowers, ornaments, &c.) ; 6. And having 
put (food) into the fire, 7. And having assigned the food to them, 
Ac, he shall cause them to eat. — The respectful address mentioned 
in the fifth Sutra consists, according to Narayawa, in the announce- 
ment, ' Ye Brahmawas, I will put (food) into the fire I ' (comp. Asv.- 
Grihya. IV, 7, 18), which he subsequently does with the formulas, 
' To Agni Kavyavahana svaha 1 To Soma Pitrimat svaha 1 To 
Yama Angirasvat Pitnmat svaha I' Comp. Baudhayana II, 14, 8. 

Digitized by 



9. When they have finished with eating, he shall 
offer the lumps (of flour). 

10. Before (their dinner he shall offer) the lumps, 
according to some (teachers). 

11. Behind (these he places the lumps) for their 
wives, putting something between (these and the 
preceding ones). 

12. To the Brahma«as he shall announce the 

13. The rites of the putting (of food) into the 
fire (see Sutra 6), &c. have been declared (in the 
.Srauta-sutra) by the Pmafopitrzyafwa. 

Khajvda 2. 

1. Now (follows) the Ekoddish/a (i.e. the .Sraddha 
ceremony directed to a single dead person), 

2. With one strainer, 

3. One (pot of) Argha-water, 

4. One lump (of flour). 

5. No inviting (takes place here), nor the putting 

9. As to the way in which the Pi«</as should be offered, Nara- 
yawa refers to the .Srauta-sutra (IV, 4). 

10, 1 1. Find in evidently belongs to the tenth Sutra, not, as the 
Indian tradition takes it, to the eleventh. Between the PiWas of 
the fathers and those belonging to the mothers he puts, according 
to N£r£ya»a, for instance, Darbha grass. 

13. .Srauta-sutra IV, 3 seq. 

2, 1. Eka uddish/o yasmin jraddhe tad ekoddish/am 
(Nar.). This is the kind of .Sraddha sacrifice which is to be per- 
formed for one twice-born during the first year after his death ; see 
Manu III, 247 ; Yd^navalkya I, 250. 

3. This rule about the Argha water corresponds to those given 
with regard to the P£rva»a .Sraddha in the Sutras 3 and 4 of the 
preceding chapter. 

5. 'Because the avahana (inviting) is forbidden here, it follow6 

Digitized by 



(of food) into the fire, nor (do) the Visve dev&s (take 
part in this ceremony). ' Relished ?' — thus are they 
to be asked whether they are satiated. ' May it 
approach (the fathers),' instead of ' imperishable.' 

6. ' Be satisfied,' when sending them away. 

7. Thus through one year, when one has died. 

8. And (then) omission of the fourth one. 

Khanda 3. 

1. Now (follows) the Sapi«dftkara»a (i.e. reception 
of a dead person into the community of T'mda.- 
offerings with the other Manes). 

that it must take place at the Parvawa Sraddha ' (Nar.). According 
to Ramalandra's Paddhati he shall say to the Brahmawas, ' I will 
invite hither the fathers;' and when they give their consent, he 
invites them with Rig-veda X, 16, 12. Comp. YS^wavalkya 1, 232 
seq., &c. Regarding the Vwve devas comp. the note on chap. 1,2; 
as to the trsptapra.rna (the question whether they are satiated) 
comp. Manu III, 251 ; Yagii. I, 240. At the Parvawa Sraddha, 
after the Brahmawas have finished their dinner and rinsed their 
mouths, and after the Pint/as have been offered, the sacrificer says, 
' May what has been given at this .Sraddha to our father N. N., 
who belongs to the gotra N.N., be imperishable 1' (comp. Yi^w. I, 
242.) This phrase is to be altered at the Ekoddish/a Sraddha in 
the way indicated in this Sutra. 

8. After the Ekoddish/a Sraddha has been performed for a dead 
person during the first year after his death, he is to be admitted, by 
the SapiWikara/ja ceremony, among the other Manes, and receives 
thenceforward his Tinda. together with them at the ordinary Par- 
vawa Sraddha. As the ritual of this Sraddha requires that the 
number of the ' fathers ' worshipped should be three, the accession 
of a new person makes necessary the omission of the pra-pra- 
pitamaha, who has now become fourth among the fathers. 

3, 1. It appears to me that this whole chapter is a later addition 
to the original text. The last Sfitra of the preceding chapter, 
treating of the omission of the fourth * father,' which forms, as 
shown in the preceding note, a consequence of the Sapi»fikara»a, 

Digitized by 


no sAnkhayana-g/j/hya-sOtra. 

2. When one year has elapsed, or three half- 

3. Or on a day when something good happens, 

4. He fills four water-pots with sesamum, scents, 
and water, 

5. Three for the fathers, one for the (newly) dead 

6. And pours the pot that belongs to the (newly) 
dead person out into the pots of the fathers with 
the two verses, ' They who commonly ' (Va^asaneyi 
Sawhita XIX, 45. 46). 

7. Thus also the lump (of flour). 

8. This is the Sapm«ftkara»a. 

Khanda 4. 

1. Now (follows) the Abhyudayika (i.e. the 5rad- 
dha ceremony referring to good luck). 

supposes this ceremony to be known and to require no special 
explanation. Had the intention of the author been to treat of the 
Sapi«<itkara«a, this would have been the right place for mentioning 
the feturthavisarga, and not, as we really read it, the end of the 
chapter treating of the Ekoddish/a. As pointing in the same direc- 
tion I will mention that the .Sambavya-Gnhya, while giving the 
first, second, and fourth chapter of this Adhyaya, omits the third. 
Finally it seems decisive to me that the fifth (Paiirish/a) book of 
the .Sankhayana-Grjhya treats of the Sapi«<fikara«a in a whole 
chapter (V, 9), which shows that the text itself, as the author of 
the Paruish/a read it, gave no exposition of this ceremony. 

2. Narayawa says that tripaksha means either three pakshas, 
i. e. one month and a half, or one paksha deficient by three days, 
i. e. twelve days. We need not say that the latter explanation is 
inadmissible ; it evidently rests on a wrong conclusion drawn from 
a passage of another Sutra quoted by him, in which it is stated that 
the Sapi»<flkara»a should be performed sawvatsar&nte dvS- 
dajahe va. 

4, 1. The Abhyudayika .Sraddha has to be performed on such 

Digitized by 


IV ADHYAyA, 4 K.HANDA, 14. Ill 

2. In the fortnight of the increasing moon, on an 
auspicious day, 

3. After the sacrifice to the mothers has been 

4. And an even number of (Brahma#as) versed in 
the Veda have been invited to sit down ; 

5. In the forenoon ; 

6. The rite is performed from left to right. 

7. The murmuring with the omission of the verses 
belonging to the Manes. 

8. The Darbha blades are straight. 

9. Barley is to be used instead of sesamum. 

10. The lumps are mixed with curds, jujube fruits, 
fried grain. 

11. On inviting (the Manes, he should say), ' The 
Nandimukha (glad-faced ?) Manes will I invite.' 

12. 'May the Nandimukha Manes be rejoiced,' 
instead of ' imperishable.' 

1 3. ' The Nandimukha Manes will I make speak,' 
when he makes (the Brahma#as) speak. 

14. '(Was it) well done?' — thus are they to be 
asked whether they are satiated. 

occasions as the birth of a son, the marriage of a son or a daughter, 
the performance of ceremonies such as the namakarman, khdi- 
karman, &c. See Ya^navalkya I, 249. 

3. A .Sraddha ceremony directed to the mothers here precedes 
that consecrated to the fathers. 

6. Professor Stenzler's translation of Ya^raavalkya, loc. cit. (pra- 
dakshwavrztka = die Ehrfurcht beobachtend), has to be corrected 
according to this Sutra. 

7. See chap. 1, 8. 9. See chap. 1, 3. 

11. Concerning the 'invitation'(avahana)see the note on chap. 2, 5. 

12. See chap. 2, 5 and the note there. 

13. ' When he causes them to say Svadha.' Narayawa. Comp. 
Axv.-Grihya IV, 7, 30. 

14. Comp. chap. 2, 5. 

Digitized by 



15. The rest is the same (as in the other kinds of 
*S"raddha rites), as far as it is not prohihited (by 
contrary rules). 

Khajvda 5. 

1 . Now (follows) the Upakara»a (i. e. the ceremony 
by which the annual course of study is opened). 

2. When the herbs appear, under the Nakshatra 
Hasta or -SVavawa, 

3. Let him make oblations of the flour of fried 
barley and of grains, mixed with curds and ghee, 
with the (whole) Veda, verse by verse : thus say 
some (teachers). 

4. Or with the first verses of the Suktas and 

5. With the first verses of the Adhyayas and of 
the sections belonging to the (different) /fo'shis, ac- 
cording to Mawdftikeya. 

6. But Kaushltaki has said : 

7. ' I praise Agni the Purohita ' (Rig-veda I, 1,1), 
this one verse, 

8. ' The Kushumbhaka (mungoose ?) has said it ; ' 
' If thou criest, O bird, announce luck to us ; ' ' Sung 
by Camadagni ; ' ' In thy abode the whole world rests ; ' 

5, 1. As to the Upakarawa, see the statements of Professor 
Weber in his second article on the Nakshatras, Abhandlungen der 
Berliner Akademie, 1861, p. 338, and of Professor Biihler in his 
notes on Apastamba, S. B. E., II, pp. no, in. 

2. The Nakshatra .Sravawa is evidently considered as particu- 
larly fit for this occasion because of its name containing an allusion 
to xruti, &c. 

4. I have followed Narayawa, but perhaps I ought to have trans- 
lated, 'Suktas or Anuvakas,' and in the fifth Sutra, 'Adhyayas or 
the sections, &c.' 

Digitized by 


IV ADHYAYA, 5 KHAJVflA, 1 3. 113 

' Come to our sacrifice, O you that are worthy of 
sacrifice, with care;' 'Whosoever, be he ours, be he 
alien ;' ' Look on, look about ;' ' Come here, Agni, 
the Maruts' friend ;' ' The oblation, O king, cooked 
for thee :' each time two verses, 

9. ' That blessing and bliss we choose ' — this one 
verse (the first and last verse of each Maw^ala). 

10. (Taking something) of the remnants of the 
sacrificed (food) they partake of that sacrificial food 
with this (verse), ' I praised Dadhikravan' (Rig* 
veda IV, 39, 6). 

1 1. They sip water, sit down, 

12. Murmur the Mahavyahmis, the Savitrl, and 
the auspicious hymns commencing from the beginning 
of the Veda, 

1 3. And cause the teacher to pronounce auspicious 

9. According to Kaushftaki, the oblations are made with the first 
and last rikas of each Ma»</ala. The last rik of the tenth Ma/wfela 
quoted here, ta£ khzm yor a vri'wtmahe, is different from the 
verse with which our Sawhita (the Sakala SawmitS of the Rig-veda) 
closes. It is well known that ta£ kh&m yor a vn'wimahe is the 
last verse in the Bashkala Sakha which was adopted by the .Sarikha- 
yana school (comp. Indische Studien, IV, 431 ; Weber, Verzeich- 
niss der Berliner Sanskrit-Handschriften, p. 314, &c. ; Indische 
Literaturgeschichte, second edition, Nachtrag, p. 2). It was also 
known long since that the Bashkala Sakha of the Rig-veda con- 
tains eight hymns more than the Sakala .Sakha. The A"ara»avyuha 
Bhashya (comp. Dr. von Schroeder's Introduction to his excellent 
edition of the Maitrayawi Sawhita, vol. i, p. xxiv), known to me 
through the kindness of Professor Weber, tells which eight hymns 
these are. There it is said (folio 22 of Professor Weber's MS.) 
that in the Bashkala Sa/»hit& there followed after VIII, 48 the first 
two of the Valakhilya hymns, after VIII, 94 the Valakhilya hymns 
3-7, and at the end of the whole collection the so-called sawpSna 
hymn (see Professor Max M tiller's edition, vol. vi, p. 32), which ends 
with the very verse quoted in our SQtra, ta£ khzm yor a vr/'- 

09] I 

Digitized by 



14. Of this (ceremony) it is also said, 

15. 'Desirous (of acquiring) for the hymns in- 
exhaustible vigour, reverence, and also soundness, 
the ./?zshis, by the power of their austerities, have 
discovered the Upakarman. 

16. 'Therefore a constant performer of the six 
kinds of works should, in order that his Mantras 
might be successful, perform the Upakarman — so they 
say — if he wishes for success of his (holy) works. 

17. 'At the time of the Upakarman and of the 
Utsarga an interruption (of the Veda-study) shall 
take place for (three days and) three nights, likewise 
at the Ash/akas for one day and one night, and so on 
the last night of each season.' 

Khajvda 6. 

1. On the first day of the bright fortnight of 

2. To the north-east, 

3. In a place covered with herbs, 

4. Having murmured the hymns sacred to the 
Sun, 'Upwards that £atavedas' (Rig-veda 1,50), 
'The bright face of the gods' (I, 115), 'Adoration 
to Mitra's (eye)' (X, 37), ' From the sky (where he 
dwells) may Surya protect us' (X, 158), 

16. The six kinds of works are, performing sacrifices (ya^ana), 
officiating at the sacrifices of others (yS^ana), studying the Veda 
(adhyayana), teaching the Veda to others (adhySpana), giving (d&na), 
and accepting gifts (pratigraha). NarSya«a. 

17. Concerning the Utsarga, see chap. 6. This Sloka occurs 
also Manu IV, 119 with the reading kshepawam instead ofksha- 
pa«am (' kshapawaw Wandasaw virama anadhyaya^,' Nlrayawa). 
Kshapa«am is correct. 

6, 1. This Khanda. treats of the Utsarga, i.e. the ceremony per- 
formed at the end of the term. 

Digitized by 



5. And having thrown clods of earth (on the 
ground) to the different quarters (of the horizon), 
from the left to the right, with the hymn, ' A ruler 
indeed' (Rig-veda X, 152), verse by verse, 

6. And having satiated (with water) the ./ft'shis, the 
metres, the deities, faith and insight, and the fathers 
man by man, 

7. They interrupt (the study of) the hymns for 
six months and a half, 

8. Or for five and a half. 

9. But if they (wish to) recite them (nevertheless), 
let the recitation go on after a pause of one day and 
one night. 

Khajvda 7. 

1 . Now the interruption (of the Veda recitation) : — 

2. In the case of prodigies until the same time 
(next day), 

3. And in the case of other miracles ; 

4. In the case of lightning, thunder, and rains 
(the recitation shall be interrupted) till the twilight 
has thrice passed; 

5. At a .Sraddha-dinner for one day ; 

6. If a death (of relations) or birth has happened, 
for ten days ; 

7. On the fourteenth days (of the fortnights), the 
new moon days, and the Ash/aka days, 

6. On the tarpawa, comp. chaps. 9 and 10. 

7, 2. The translation of dkalam given in my German edition 
(Wahrend der betreffenden Zeit) is wrong : comp. the commentary 
there quoted at p. 150; Gautama XVI, 22; Professor Stenzler's 
note on Paraskara II, n, 2. 

6. Aghaw sapi»</asodakayor marawaw. N&rayawa. 

7. According to N£raya»a the ka. at the end of this Sutra would 

I 2 

Digitized by 


n6 sankhayana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

8. And on misty days. 

9. And when the teacher has died, for ten days ; 

10. When he has heard of it, for three days ; 

11. And (on the death) of those whose family- 
head he is. 

12. On receiving (gifts) as at the .Sraddha. 

13. On (the death of) a fellow- student ; 

14. When he has followed (the funeral of) a dead 

15. And when he has laid down the lumps of 
flour to the fathers. 

16. At night; 

1 7. During twilight ; 

18. On the full and change of the moon ; 

1 9. After sunset ; 

20. In the neighbourhood of a vS"udra ; 

2 1 . When the sound of a Saman is heard ; 

22. On a burial ground ; 

be intended to convey the meaning that on the pratipad days of 
each fortnight the study should also be interrupted. 

8. The translation of nabhya is quite conjectural. Naraya«a 
gives a different meaning to this word; comp. p. 150 of the 
German edition. 

11. Afcaryaputradaya^. Narayawa. 

21. The reason why the recitation of the Rig-veda is forbidden 
when the sound of a Saman is heard, becomes manifest, for in- 
stance, from Apastamba I, 10, 7, where the discontinuance of the 
Veda-study is prescribed when the barking of dogs, the braying of 
asses, the cry of a wolf, &c, the sound of musical instruments, of 
weeping, and of a Saman is heard. Loud sounds like these would 
disturb the recitation of Rik or Ya^us texts. A very curious opi- 
nion has been recently brought forward by Professor Aufrecht (see 
his edition of the Rig-veda, second edition, vol. ii, p. xxxviii) that 
the incompatibility of the recitation of Rik hymns and of Samans 
' beruht auf der Kenntniss von der Willkur und der zum Theil 
unwiirdigen Weise, in welcher der alte Text des Rig-veda in diesem 
Gesangbuche (i. e. the Samavedarftka) behandelt ist.' 

Digitized by 



23. In a wilderness which belongs to the village ; 

24. In a village where a corpse is ; 

25. On seeing forbidden sights; 

26. On hearing what is forbidden ; 

27. On smelling a foul smell ; 

28. If a high wind blows ; 

29. If a cloud emits (heavy) rain ; 

30. On a carriage road ; 

31. And while the sound of a lute is heard ; 

32. While being on a chariot ; 

33. (In the neighbourhood) of a dog as (in that) 
of a .Sudra ; 

34. Having climbed up a tree; 

35. Having descended into a pit ; 

36. (Immersed) in water ; 

37. While anybody cries ; 

38. While suffering bodily pain ; 
• 39. While he is naked ; 

40. Whilst impure with the remnants of food ; 

41. On a bridge ; 

42. On the occasion of the shaving of the hair 
and the beard until the bath ; 

43. While being rubbed ; 

44. While bathing ; 

45. When having sexual intercourse ; 

46. While being anointed ; 

47. (In the neighbourhood) of a man who has to 
touch corpses (a corpse-bearer, &c), of a woman that 
has recently been confined, or that has her courses, 
as (in the neighbourhood) of a 6"udra ; 

23. GrSmSrawye grdmam (read, grSma?) ev£ra«ya»* vana« tatra 
nfidhfyita. Ndrayana. 

29. Except during the rainy season. Narayawa. 

45. Nariyawa also understands maithuna, and I think that the 
German translation ought to be corrected accordingly. 

Digitized by 



48. With veiled hands ; 

49. In an army ; 

50. In presence of a Brahmawa who has not had 
his meal, and of cows (that have eaten nothing) ; 

51. When (these impediments) have passed, let 
them (continue to) recite (the Veda). 

52. Should any of these cases arise against his 
will, let him (continue to) recite after having held his 
breath and looked at the sun. 

53. (The same rules hold good,) except (those 
regarding) lightning, thunder, and rain, for (the study 
of) the Kalpa. During the five months and a half 
(they have to behave) as while it rains. 

54. Thereof it is also said, 

55. ' Food, water, roots and fruits, and whatsoever 
else .Sraddha-food there may be : even when he has 
(only) accepted, thereof, the study should be inter- 
rupted ; the Brahma#a's hand is his mouth ; so it is 

53. I think that this Sutra contains two different rules which 
have to be separated, viz. 1. vidyutstanayitnuvarshavar^awi 
kalpe; 2. varshavad ardhashashMeshu. The first of these 
rules would extend the cases of anadhyaya mentioned in this 
chapter to the study of the Kalpa-sutra, except the cases of light- 
ning, rain, &c. The second would refer to the five months and a 
half following on the Utsarga ceremony (comp. chap. 6, 8), and 
would imply that during this time the same texts are to be studied 
or not, according as their study is allowed or forbidden during 
rainfall : i. e. the study of the Sawhita is to be discontinued, while 
that of the Kalpa is allowed to go on. Ramafondra and Nara- 
ya»a differ from this interpretation; see p. 151 of the German 

55. Comp. Manu IV, 117; VasishMa XIII, 16. 

Digitized by 



Khajvda 8. 

1. And to (students) who have been duly initiated 
he shall set forth (the Veda) ; 

2. The teacher sitting to the east or to the north, 
the other one to the south, with his face turned to 
the north. 

3. Or two (students shall be so seated). 

4. But more (than two) as there is room (for them). 

5. He should not sit on a high seat in presence of 
a Guru, 

6. Nor on the same seat (with him), 

7. Nor with outstretched feet, 

8. Nor stretching his arms under his knees, 

9. Nor leaning his body (against a support), 

10. Nor forming with his feet a lap, 

1 1. Nor holding his feet like an axe. 

12. After (the student) has said, 'Recite, sir!' the 
teacher shall cause him to pronounce the syllable Om. 

1 3. ' Om,' replies the other. 

14. Thereafter let him recite uninterruptedly. 

1 5. When he has recited, he embraces (his teacher's 

16. Says, 'We have finished, sir!' and (goes away) 
according to his business. 

8, 1. NyayenafishyadharmewaupetaA praptas tebhya^ jishyebhyo 
vartayed adhyayanam a£arya£ pravartayet. • Nlr&yawa. 

11. ATarasaro ku//4arikarupa»i kr?'tva na pa/#ed ity arthaA. 

12. The words adhthi bho (recite, sir I) are pronounced by 
the student ; this follows from the passages quoted in the note on 
II, 5, io. Narayawa states that those words are pronounced by the 
teacher (a&iryo gurui fishyam adhyapanartham adhthi bho 3 iti 
jrabdam uktva . . .). 

Digitized by 



1 7. (He shall say,) ' Leave ! Pause meanwhile ! ' 
according to some (teachers). 

18. Let no one step between (a teacher and 
students) who study. 

19. Let no one change his place during the 

20. Should any fault be committed, let him fast 
three days, or one day and one night, repeat the 
Savitrl as long as he can, and give something to the 
Brahmawas ; then after an interruption of one day 
and one night the study should go on. 

Khajvzja 9. 

1. Having bathed, 

2. And having submerged himself at the time 
prescribed for the bath, he satiates the deities : 

19. The translation of itmanaw vipariharet is conjectural; 
comp. also Ndrayarca's note, p. 151 of the German edition. 

9, 1. It is not expressly stated in our text for what occasion the 
tarpa»a (i. e. satiating of deities, y?/'shis, &c. with water-offerings), 
which is treated of in chap. 9-10, shall be prescribed. The com- 
parison of Baudhayana II, 9 might perhaps lead us to believe that 
the ceremony in question is to be performed whenever the sacrificer 
takes a bath. But the two texts which are most closely connected 
with ours, the -Sambavya and A^valayana Grihyas, seem to point 
clearly to another conclusion. The .Sambavya-sfltra transposes 
the rules about the tarpawa to the place which would correspond 
to Sfttra II, 7, 28 of our text. The passage of the .Sambavya- 
sQtra runs thus: mflle kunda.m kr?'tva yathoktam adbhiA 
parishiiU-aty athemas (so the MS.) tarpayati Agni/4 Pra^S- 
patir Virupaksha^, &c. It ends: pitaraA pitSmahaA pra- 
pitamahaA PailaA Kaho/a^ KaushitakaA (sic) Kaho/dya 
Kaushitakaye svadhastv iti pratipurushaA (sic) pitriVws 
tarpayitvi. The last words are taken from the Sutra IV, 6, 
6 of our text. Thus there can be no doubt that .Sambavya 
intended to prescribe the tarpawa for the conclusion of the 

Digitized by 


IV ADHYAYA, 9 KHAM>A, 3. 121 

3. ' Agni may satiate himself; Vayu may satiate 
himself; Surya may satiate himself; Vishwu may 
satiate himself ; Pra^apati may satiate himself; Viru- 
paksha may satiate himself; Sahasraksha may satiate 
himself; Soma, Brahman, the Vedas, the gods, the 
ifashis, and all the metres, the word Om, the word 
Vashat, the Mahavyahrz'tis, the Savitri, the sacri- 
fices, heaven and earth, the Nakshatras, the air, 
days and nights, the numbers, the twilights, the 
oceans, the rivers, the mountains, fields, herbs, trees, 
Gandharvas and Apsaras, the serpents, the birds, 
the Siddhas, the Sadhyas, the Vipras, the Yakshas, 
the Rakshas, the beings that have these (Rakshas, 
&c.) at their end, may satiate themselves. 

' I satiate the .Shiti J I satiate the Smriti ; I 
satiate the firmness ; I satiate the delight ; I satiate 

vedadhyayana. The same can be said of Axvalayana, who also 
by the position which he assigns to the tarpawa sections (III, 4) 
brings it into a similar connection with the vedddhyayana (see 
Narayawa's commentary on Ajv., loc. cit.). We may also refer to 
the treatise about the study of the Arawyaka, which is appended to 
the Sahkhlyana-Gnhya as its sixth book; there the tarpawa is 
mentioned quite in the same connection (VI, 6, 10 seq.). I believe, 
therefore, that in our text, chapters 9 and 10 have found their place 
here as a sort of supplementary addition to chap. 6, 6, just as in 
the first book the list of Nakshatras seems likewise appended to 
the Sutra I, 25, 5. 

According to Nirayawa, snataA in the first Sutra would refer to 
the bath which forms part of the Samdvartana ceremony (see III, 
1, 1), so that it would be the Gnhastha, who has taken the Samd- 
vartana bath, to whom the following rules refer. 

3. Comp. the similar lists of Axvalayana, Gnhya III, 4 ; S&m- 
bavya, quoted in my German edition of .Sahkhayana, p. 153 ; and 
Baudhayana II, 9 (S. B. E., vol. xiv, pp. 252 seq.). The last 
seems to be the most modern. 

It should be observed that the section of the list contained in 
this Sutra, as well as that given below, chap. 10, 3, is divided into 

Digitized by 



the success ; I satiate the thought ; I satiate belief 
and insight, and the memory, cows and Brahma«as, 
movable and immovable things. All beings may 
satiate themselves!' — so far with the sacrificial cord 
suspended over the left shoulder. 

Khazvda 10. 

i. Now with the sacrificial cord suspended over 
the right shoulder, 

2. Looking in the direction that belongs to the 
Manes (i.e. the south) : 

3. ' The (7?/shis) of the hundred (Rikas), the 
(7?z'shis) of the middle (Ma«^alas), Grztsamada, 
Visvamitra, (Pamadagni, Vamadeva, Atri, Bharad- 
vifa, Vasish//*a, the Pragathas, the (7?z'shis) of the 
Pavamana hymns, the (i?/shis) of the short hymns 
and of the long hymns, Sumantu, Craimini, Vai- 
.yampayana, Paila, the Sutras, the Bhashyas, Gargya, 
Babhru, Babhravya, Mandu, Mawdavya, Gargl Va- 

two parts, in the first of which the name of the being to be wor- 
shipped is given in the nominative case, with the verb tr/'pyatu, 
while in the second it stands in the accusative, with the verb tar- 
pay ami. The first part of this section contains the names of gods 
and of divine beings, such as the rivers, the mountains, &c. ; in the 
second part are found abstract qualities or notions, such as mati, 
dhriti, sruti. Similarly in chapter 10, 3 the Vedic poets, a few 
ancient teachers, and wise women, such as GSrgf or Sulabha, form 
the first part of the list, and then follow, in the accusative case, the 
names of such doctors as .Sahkhayana, Asvalayana, Sakalya. In 
Afvalayana's Sutra of the first of our two sections only the first 
part reoccurs, the second is omitted, while the second section is 
found there in its entirety, with the same difference of names 
given in the nominative and accusative cases. The conjectures, 
however, which I had once based on this difference (see my German 
edition, pp. 152, 153) as to the distinction of a more ancient part of 
the list, and of later supplements, are perhaps too hazardous. 

Digitized by 



£aknavl, VWava Pratitheyi, Sulabha Maitreyl (may 
satiate themselves). 

'(I satiate) Kahola Kaushitaki, Mahakaushltaki, 
Suyaf»a .Sankhayana, Asvalayana, Aitareya, Mahai- 
tareya, Bharadva^a, <7atukar«ya, Paingya, Maha- 
paingya, Bashkala, Gargya, 6akalya, Mawafakeya, 
Mahadamatra, Audav£hi, Mahaudavahi, Sauyami, 
.Saunaki, ^Sakapum, Gautami ; and whatsoever other 
teachers there are, may they all satiate themselves. 

4. ' The fathers man by man. 

5. ' The ancestry of the father may satiate itself. 

6. ' The ancestry of the mother may satiate itself.' 

Khawa 11. 

1. Let him not look at a naked woman, except 
during sexual intercourse, 

2. Nor (look) at the sun while it rises or sets, 

3. At an enemy, 

4. At an evil-doer, 

5. At a person that has to touch dead bodies. 

6. Let him not talk with a woman who has recently 
been confined or who has her courses, 

7. Nor with those (mentioned before). 

8. Let him not eat food from which its strength is 
taken away. 

9. Let him not do his work with implements 
wasted by use. 

10. Let him not eat together (with his wife), 

ll,i seq. Rules of conduct for a Sndtaka, i. e. a man who has 
completed his studentship. 

7. EtaW purvoktaiA anSptidibhir na sawvadet. Narayawa. 

io. Nirayawa states that ' with his wife ' is to be supplied to this 
Sfltra, which indeed is rendered probable through the comparison 
of Gautama IX, 32 ; Manu IV, 43, &c. 

Digitized by 


1 24 sankhAyana-gr/hya-sCtra. 

11. Nor remnants (of food). 

12. Remnants of (food belonging to the) Manes, 
gods, guests, and servants he may eat. 

1 3. Gleaning ears of corn, receiving alms unasked 
for, or for which he has asked the good, performing 
sacrifices for others, are the means of livelihood ; 

14. (Of these) each preceding one is the more 

15. Or if (his livelihood) cannot be gained (in one 
of the ways mentioned), let him follow the occupation 
of a Vai sya. 

16. (He shall be) careful about his duties towards 
Manes and gods. 

17. Indue time (he shall) have intercourse with 
his wife. 

18. He shall not lie down (to sleep) in the day-time, 

19. Nor during the first or the last watch of the 

20. Let him not sit on the bare ground. 

21. He shall constantly perform the prescribed 
duties regarding the use of water. 

22. (And constantly) have his sacrificial cord sus- 
pended over his left shoulder. 

23. Let him not abandon his teacher, 

24. Except on (his teacher's) command, 

25. Or with (his) permission. 

Kha.zv.da 12. 

I. Every day he shall respectfully salute his 

II. Here also Narayawa understands bhdryiyi bhukta- 

15. Comp. Professor Biihler's note on Gautama X, 5, S. B. E., 
vol. ii, p. 225. 

19. Ratre^ purvaprahare ratreA pa^imaprahare ka., Naxaya»a. 

Digitized by 


IV ADHYAYA, 12 KHANDA, 1 5. I 25 

2. And his Gurus, 

3. A .Srotriya when meeting him, 

4. When he returns from a journey, (also) one 
who is not a .Srotriya. 

5. In the words, 'I am N.N., sir!' pronouncing 
his own name, crossing his hands (so as to seize 
with his right hand the right foot, and with his left 
hand the left of the other person). 

6. (The person who has been thus saluted, in reply 
addressing him with his name,) ' N.N.!' and seizing 
his hands, pronounces a wish to him. 

7. Let him not go to a sacrifice without being 
chosen (thereto). 

8. And let him beware of (doing) wrong. 

9. Let him not go to assemblies of people. 

10. If he has come upon (such assemblies), let 
him not point out (anything evil) against (any- 

11. He shall not be a reviler, nor slanderous, nor 
a wanderer from house to house, nor a prattler. 

12. He shall not walk alone, 

1 3. Nor naked, 

14. Nor with veiled hands. 

15. Gods'-houses (he shall walk round) keeping 
the right side turned to them. 

12, 5. NSrtyawa: 'As to how that respectful salutation (abhi- 
vadana) should be performed, he says . . . with his own right hand 
he touches the right foot of the Akirya. or other person (whom he 
salutes), and with his left hand the left foot (comp. Manu II, 72) 
(and says), " I am N. N. (amukararman) of the Gotra N. N., sir I 
I offer my respectful salutation!"' 

6. ' The A/fcarya or other person seizes the hands of the saluting 
person,' &c. Naiiyawa. 

10. See Nar&yana's commentary, p. 154 of the German 

Digitized by 


1 26 sANKHAYANA-G/e/HYA-stiTRA. 

16. Let him not run. 

1 7. Let him not spit 

18. Let him not scratch himself. 

19. Let him not look on urine and excrements. 

20. Let him sit with veiled head, 

21. Not on the bare (ground), 

22. If he has only one garment, suspending his 
sacrificial cord on his ear, 

23. Not turning his face to the sun, 

24. Nor his rump, 

2 5. In the day-time with his face to the north, at 
night to the south. 

26. He shall not (eject) phlegm into water, nor in 
the neighbourhood (of water). 

27. He shall not climb up a tree. 

28. He shall not look down into a well. 

29. He shall not go to an execution-place, 

30. And in no case to a cemetery. 

31. Let him bathe day by day with his clothes on. 

32. When he has bathed, let him put on another 
garment before he is dry. 

Khanda 13. 

1. Under (the Nakshatra) Rohiwi he shall have 
the ploughing done. 

2. Before it is done, he shall offer at the eastern 
boundary of his field a Bali to Heaven and Earth. 

3. With a verse sacred to Heaven and Earth and 
with the words, 'Adoration to Heaven and Earth ! ' 
(he performs his) worship (to Heaven and Earth). 

1 6. According to Ndrayawa we should have to supply, ' while it 
is raining,' which is countenanced by a number of parallel texts, 
for instance, Asv.-Grihya. Ill, 9, 6. 

Digitized by 


IV ADHYAYA, 1 5 KHAtfDA, 2. 1 27 

4. When the plough is being put into motion first, 
let a Brahma«a touch the plough reciting this (verse), 
' For luck may us the plough-shares' (Rig-veda IV, 
57. 8). 

5. 'Through the lord of the field' — with (this 
hymn) (Rig-veda IV, 57), verse by verse, to the 
different directions (of the sky), from left to right, 
worship is done. 

Khanda 14. 

1. When going to cross water, he performs the 
Svastyayana (ceremony for lucky progress). 

2. He sacrifices thrice with his joined hands full 
of water into the waters, with the words, ' Adoration 
to the Sea, the child of the reed! Adoration to 
Varu«a, the lord of righteousness ! Adoration to all 
rivers ! ' — 

3. Murmuring, * May Vi^vakarman, the father of 
them all, relish the food offered.' 

4. Against the stream for flowing (waters) ; up 
into the air for standing ones. 

5. Should he while crossing apprehend any danger, 
let him murmur the hymn of Vasish/^a, ' The eldest 
of which is the sea' (Rig-veda VII, 49); this (will 
serve to him as) a boat. 

Khanda 15. 

1. The 6Vava«a (oblation) he offers on the full 
moon day that falls under (the Nakshatra) .Sravish- 
/>6as, of the flour of fried barley, or of cooked food, 

2. With (the words), ' To Vishwu svaha! To (the 
Nakshatra) svaha! To the full moon of 
*Srava#a svaha ! To the rainy season svaha !' 

Digitized by 


128 sankhAyana-gr/hya-sGtra. 

3. Having established the (sacred) domestic fire 
outside, and having mixed together fried grain and 
the flour of fried barley with butter, he sacrifices — 

4. With (the words), 'To the Lord of the celestial 
Serpents svaha ! To the celestial Serpents svaha ! ' 

5. Having placed to the north of the fire a new 
water-pot on eastward-pointed, fresh Kiua grass, 

6. With (the words), ' May the Lord of the celestial 
Serpents wash himself ! May the celestial Serpents 
wash themselves ! ' — he pours water into it. 

7. With (the words), 'May the Lord of the celestial 
Serpents comb himself ! May the celestial Serpents 
comb themselves ! ' — he makes movements with a 

8. With (the words), ' May the Lord of the celestial 
Serpents paint himself ! May the celestial Serpents 
paint themselves ! ' — he pours out portions of paint. 

9. With (the words), ' May the Lord of the celestial 
Serpents tie (this) to (himself)! May the celestial 
Serpents tie (this) to themselves!' — he offers flowers. 

10. With (the words), 'May the Lord of the celes- 
tial Serpents clothe himself! May the celestial 
Serpents clothe themselves ! ' — he offers a thread. 

11. With (the words), 'May the Lord of the celes- 
tial Serpents anoint (his eyelashes)! May the celestial 
Serpents anoint (their eyelashes)!' — he spirts out 
(small portions of collyrium) with a young Kara 

12. With (the words), 'May the Lord of the celes- 
tial Serpents look (at himself)! May the celestial 
Serpents look (at themselves) ! ' — he makes them 
look in a mirror. 

15, 7. For this signification of phawa, comp. iEullavagga V, 2,3. 

Digitized by 


IV ADHYAYA, 15 KHAMDA, 22. J 29 

13. With (the words), 'Lord of the celestial Ser- 
pents, this is thy Bali ! Celestial Serpents, this is 
your Bali ! ' — he makes a Bali-offering. 

14. In the same way for the aerial (Serpents). 

15. For those dwelling in the directions (of the 

16. For the terrestrial ones. 

17. (He repeats these Mantras) thrice each time, 
the first (part) with higher voice each time, 

18. The second (part) with lower voice each time. 

19. In this way he shall offer day by day with the 
spoon, in small portions, a Bali of the flour of fried 
barley with water, down to the Pratyavarohawa (or 
the ceremony of the 'redescent'), at night, keeping 

20. And (his wife) shall put (it) down silently. 

21. The close of the ceremony is the same as the 

22. With (the verse), 'The good protectress* (Rig- 
veda X, 63, 10), let him ascend the (high) couch. 

17, 18. The text has u££aistarim — u££aistaram, and ni£- 
aistarSw — ni^aistarSm. Naraya»a(comp.the text of his scholion, 
p. 155 of the German edition) understands this in a different way; 
he says that in the water-pot mentioned in the fifth Sutra two 
different sthSnas are to be distinguished, a higher part of it and a 
lower (uttaridharataya). Now when the sacrificer, for instance, as 
prescribed in Sutra 6, invites the Lord of the celestial Serpents, and 
the celestial Serpents to wash themselves, the pouring out of water 
would have to be performed first thrice for the Lord of the celes- 
tial Serpents in the higher place, then thrice for the celestial Ser- 
pents in the lower place. 

19. On the Pratyavaroha«a see chap. 17. 

20. Narayawa : vagyamayukt£ ya^amanapatni eva»J balidravyS- 
dikam upasadayet. 

22. ' From the Sr&vant till the Agrahaya»i (see chap. 17, 1) one 
shall not sleep on the ground out of fear of the snakes.' Narayawa. 

[29] K 

Digitized by 


1 30 sAnkhAyana-g/j/hya-sCtra. 

Khanda 16. 

1. On the full moon day of A^vayu^a a milk-rice 
oblation to Indra. 

2. Having sacrificed A^ya with (the words), ' To 
the two Asvins svaha ! To the two Asvayvg svaha ! 
To the full moon of A.rvayu£a svaha ! To the autumn 
svaha! To Pampati svaha! To the tawny one 

3. He shall sacrifice a mixture of curds and butter 
with this hymn, ' The cows came hither ' (Rig-veda 
VI, 28), verse by verse. 

4. That night they let the calves join their mothers. 

5. Then feeding of the Brahmaatas. 

Khanda 17. 

1 . On the Agrahayafli full moon day he shall re- 

2. (Or) under (the Nakshatra) Rohiwl, or under 
the Prosh/^apadas. 

3. In the morning, having taken a handfull of 5aml 
leaves, Madhuka flowers, reeds, Apamarga plants, 
and of .Sirisha, Udumbara, Kusa. shoots, and jujube 
fruits, and an earth-clod (taken) out of a furrow, 

4. Having put (all that) into a water-pot, 

16, 3. Ghr/tamwraw dadhi pmhatakam. Narayawa. Comp. 
the Gr/'hya-sa/Mgraha II, 59. 

17, 1. The Pratyavarohawa (i.e. redescent) here described is 
the ceremony performed at the end of the time during which 
sleeping on high bedsteads is prescribed (chap. 15, 22). Beginning 
from the Sravani full moon till the Pratyavaroha«a, the offerings to 
the Serpents mentioned above have to be repeated every day 
(chap. 15, 19); the Pratyavaroha«a is the concluding ceremony of 
these rites devoted to the Serpents. 

Digitized by 


IV ADHYAYA, 1 8 KHANDA, 3. 131 

5. And, after he has quickly repeated the Maha- 
vyahmis and the Savitri, having repeatedly immersed 
(it) therein with this hymn, ' May he burn away 
from us pain ' (Rig-veda I, 97), he shall drive away 
the evil from the persons standing under his protec- 
tion, from left to right, and pour out (the water) to 
the north. 

6. A Madhuparka is the fee for the sacrifice. 

Khanda 18. 

1. 'May summer, winter and spring, autumn and 
rainy season be well-ordered to us. May we be 
under the safe protection of these seasons, and may 
they last (to us) through a hundred years. Svaha ! 

' Beat away, O white one, with thy foot, with the fore- 
foot and with the hind-foot, these seven daughters 
of Varu»a and all that belong to the king's tribe. 

' To the white one, the son of Vidarva svaha ! To 
Vidarva svaha ! To Takshaka Vaisaleya svaha ! To 
Visala svaha !' — with (these words) he sacrifices (obla- 
tions) of Afya. 

2. 'May a good winter, a good spring, a good 
summer be bestowed (on us). May the rains be to 
us happy rains ; may the autumns be blessed to us.' 

3. With (the verse), ' Blessing on us, Mitra ' (Rig- 
veda I, 90, 9), he sweeps (the floor) with a Pala^a 

5. <Sara»yebhyo grihebhyaJt (read, gr/hyebhyaA) sarvebhyaA 
sakajat, &c. Nar&yana. 

18, 1. This chapter continues the description of the Pratyavaro- 
haraa begun in the preceding chapter. 

Ra^abandhavaiA, as our text has, should be corrected into 
ra^abandhaviA; comp. Afv. II, 3, 3. 

K 2 

Digitized by 



4. Sprinkles (it with water) with (the verse), ' From 
the sea the wave' (Rig-veda IV, 58, 1), 

5. And spreads out a layer (of straw) with (the 
verse), ' Be soft, O earth' (Rig-veda I, 22, 15). 

6. They then lie down on their sides, the eldest 
one to the right hand — 

7. With (the words), ' In the Brahman I establish 
myself, in the Kshatra,' on (their) right (sides) ; 

8. With (the words), ' Among the horses I establish 
myself, among the cows,' on (their) left (sides) ; 

9. With (the words), ' Among the cattle I establish 
myself, in prosperity,' on (their) right (sides) ; 

10. With (the words), ' Among offspring I establish 
myself, in food,' on (their) left (sides). 

11. With (the verse), 'Arise, the living' (Rig- 
veda I, 113, 16), they arise. 

12. During that night they lie on that layer. 

1 3. Afterwards where they like. 

Khandx 19. 

1 . On the full moon day of Aaitra, 

2. (Taking) jujube leaves, and making of meal 
(images) of couples of animals as it happens. 

3. A figure with prominent navel to Indra and 

4. Balls to Rudra. 

5. According to custom the Nakshatras and 
(their ?) images (?). According to custom the 
Nakshatras and (their ?) images (?). 

Here ends the Fourth Adhyaya. 

1 9, 2-5. Several points in the translation of these Sutras are 
uncertain. See the extracts from the commentary of Nardyawa, 
pp. 156 seq. of the German edition. 

Digitized by 



AdhyAya V, Khajvda 1. 

i. Now when he intends to set out on a journey, 
he makes (his sacred) fire enter into himself, (or) into 
the two kindling sticks, or into (an ordinary) log of 

2. Once with (the text), 'Come, enter into my 
Pra»as,' twice silently. 

3. Or with (the verse), ' This is thy womb' (Rig- 
veda III, 29, 10) he warms the two kindling sticks, 

4. Or an (ordinary log of) wood. 

5. And before sunset the kindling (by attrition), 

6. And at the time of the Vairvadeva sacrifice. 

7. Having carried a common fire to a place that has 
been smeared (with cowdung), which is elevated, and 

1, 1. The ceremony of Samarohawa, by which the duties 
towards the sacred fire are suspended, by causing the fire to ' enter ' 
into the sacrificer's body, or into the two Arams, or into another 
piece of wood, is already mentioned in several passages of the 
Brihmana texts ; comp. the quotations given by Professor Weber, 
Indische Studien, IX, 3 1 1 . Comp. besides As valayana-SVauta-sutra 
III, 10; .Sankhayana-.S"raut. II, 17. The Samaroha«a into the 
sacrificer's own body is done by warming the hands at the sacred 
fire ; see Asv., loc. cit., Sutra 6. In the -Sahkhayana-Srauta-sutra 
the corresponding rule, which regards there of course the Ahitagni, 
runs thus, 'If he performs the Samarohana, he warms his hands at 
the Garhapatya fire, and then touches his Pra»a? with the words, 
"Come, enter into my Prawas." ' On the two other cases, see the 
Sutras 3 and 4. Sutras 2, 3, 5 are taken word for word from the 

2. This Sutra refers only to the case where he causes the fire 
to enter into himself. 

5. Comp. the commentary on Ajv.-Sraut., loc. cit. 8. He makes 
the fire redescend from his body or from the Arawis by performing 
the Manthana (kindling the fire by attrition of the Arams). 

7. The Mantra alluded to here is given in the .Srauta-sutra. It 

Digitized by 


1 34 sAnkhayana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

which has been sprinkled (with water), he makes (the 
sacred fire) redescend (from its receptacle, with the 
formula), ' Redescend !' 

8. If the fire goes out, he sacrifices the two 
Sarvaprayasiitta oblations (oblations for general 
expiation) and (other oblations) with (the formulas), 
'Protect us, Agni, that we may prosper. Svahi! 
Protect us that we may obtain all wealth. Svihi ! 
The sacrifice protect, O resplendent one! Svahi! 
Protect everything, O hundredfold wise one. 

9. In the case of a breach of his vow let him fast 
and sacrifice (an oblation) of A^ya with (the verse), 
' Thou, Agni, art the lord of the vow' (Rig-veda 
VIII, 11, 1). 

Khajvda 2. 

1. Now about (the consecration of) ponds, wells, 
and tanks. 

2. In the bright fortnight, or on an auspicious 

3. Having cooked barley-grains with milk, 

4. He shall sacrifice with the two (verses), 'Thou 

runs thus, ' Redescend, Gatavedas ; carry again offerings to the 
gods, knowing us. Long life, offspring, wealth bestow on us; 
uninjured shine in our dwelling 1' 

8-9. These Sutras stand in no connection with the Sam&roha»a 
treated of before. 

On the two Sarvaprayaj^itta oblations see above, I, 9, 12 and the 
note there. 

The vow spoken of in Sutra 9 Naraya«a refers to the restrictions 
regarding the food which the sacrificer and his wife are to eat on 
the Upavasatha days, connected with the festivals of the full and 
new moon. 

2, 1 seq. Comp. A-rvalayana-Pari-rish/a IV, 9. 

Digitized by 


V ADHYAYA, 3 KHAJVDA, 3> 1 35 

hast us, Agni' (Rig-veda IV, i, 4. 5), (and with the 
verses), 'We propitiate thy wrath' (I, 24, 14), 'This 
my prayer, Varima' (I, 25, 19), ' Loosen the highest, 
Varu«a' (I, 24, 15), 'This prayer of the man who 
exercises himself (VIII, 42, 3), 

5. (And with the words), ' The domestic one, he 
who goes away from the house, the refreshing one, 
he who goes into the kennel, he who dwells in the 
kennel, he who comes out of it, the greedy one, the 
destroyer of enemies' — to the different directions (of 
the horizon), beginning with that belonging to Va- 
ru»a (i. e. the west), from left to right. 

6. In the centre he makes oblations with milk with 
(the verses), ' Having eyes all around' (Rig-veda 
X, 81, 3), 'This has Vishmi' (Rig-veda I, 22, 17), 

7. Plunging (into the water) with (the verse), 
'Whatever here' (Rig-veda VII, 89, 5). 

8. A cow and a pair of clothes is the fee for the 

9. Then feeding of the Brahma#as. 

Khanda 3. 

1. Now at (the consecration of) a garden : having 
established the (sacred) fire (in that garden), 

2. (And) having prepared a mess of cooked food, 

3. He shall sacrifice with (the formulas), ' To 

5. These are names of Agni dwelling in the waters; see 
Piraskara II, 6, 10 ; Mantrabrahmawa I, 7, 1. Several of the 
names are here misspelled ; thus Gnhya., Apagriliya should be, no 
doubt, Gohya, Upagohya, which is the reading given in Paraskara, 
loc. cit. 

3, 1 seqq. Comp. Afvaliyana-Paruish/a IV, 10. N&rayawa uses 
for the ceremony here described the expressions Ar£mapralish/#3, 

Digitized by 



Vishmi svaha! To Indra and Agni svaha! To 
VLrvakarman svaha!' (and with the verses), 'Whom 
the men' (Rig-veda III, 8, 6 seq.), verse by verse. 

4. He recites over (the garden), ' O tree with thy 
hundred branches' (Rig-veda III, 8, 11). 

5. The fee for the sacrifice is gold. 

Kuan da 4. 

1. Now if a half-monthly sacrifice has not been 
performed, one or the other of them, then a mess of 
rice (is to be offered as an expiation), 

2. With (the words), ' To Agni Vai.rvanara svaha ! 
To Agni Tantumat svaha!' 

3. In the case of an intermission of the (morning 
or evening) oblations — 

4. (He shall make expiatory oblations), in the 
evening with (the formula), 'Enlightener of the 
darkness, adoration! Svaha!' 

5. In the morning with (the formula), ' Enlightener 
of the morning, adoration! Svaha!' 

6. After he has sacrificed as many oblations as there 
had been sacrifices (left out), the sacrifice (itself goes 
on) as (stated) above. 


1. If a dove or an owl sits down (on his house), 

2. Let him sacrifice with (the hymn), ' O gods, the 
dove' (Rig-veda X, 165), verse by verse. 

4, 6. Narayawa : 'After he has thus taken and sacrificed as many 
Sruvas full of A^ya as there were sacrifices omitted through his 
guilt, the morning and evening sacrifices have to be performed as 
(stated) above (I, 3, 10) with oblations of rice or barley.' 

Digitized by 


V ADHYAYA, 7 KHANDA, 2. 1 37 

3. If he has seen a bad dream or an occurrence 
boding misfortune, 

4. Or when the cawing of a crow is heard in (the 
dead of) night, 

5. And in the case of other prodigies, 

6. Let him cook rice-grains with milk, 

7. With the milk of a cow that has a calf of the 
same colour (with her own), 

8. But in no case of a black (cow), 

9. And let him sacrifice with the night-hymn (Rig- 
veda X, 127), verse by verse. 

10. Having eaten the remnants of those oblations 
with the Mahavyahretis, 

11. And having recited over his ears (the verse), 
' Blessing with our ears' (Rig-veda I, 89, 8), 

1 2. And over himself (the verse), ' May a hundred 
autumns be before us, ye gods' (ibid. 9), 

13. He shall give something to the Brahma«as. 

Khanda 6. 

1. When a disease has befallen him, 

2. Let him offer boiled rice-grains with Gave- 
dhuka-grass with (the hymn), ' These (prayers) to 
Rudra, the strong one, with braided hair' (Rig-veda 
I, 114), verse by verse. 

Khajvda 7. 

1. If (his wife) gives birth to a child, without the 
Simantonnayana having been performed, 

2. (Or if) the Gatakarman has not been performed 
(for the child), 

7, 1. On the Simantonnayana, see I, 22. 

2. The Gatakarman has been described I, 24. 

Digitized by 


1 38 sAnkhAyana-gkjhya-sOtra. 

3. He places, when ten days have elapsed since 
(the delivery), the little child in the mother's lap, 

4. And after he has sacrificed with the Maha- 
vyalmtis, the sacrifice (that had been omitted, is 
performed) as (stated) above. 

Khanda 8. 

1. If a post puts forth shoots, 

2. Let him prepare a mess of cooked food and 
offer the boiled rice with the two (verses), ' In that 
way bringing forth deeds' (.Srauta-sutra III, 17, 1), 
' Of tawny shape, weighty, a giver of vigour' (Rig- 
veda II, 3, 9). 

3. Should the pot for the Prawiti water, the Afya- 
pot, or any other earthen (vessel) be damaged and 

4. He sacrifices the two Sarvaprayar^itta obla- 
tions and recites the three verses, ' He who without' 
(Rig-veda VIII, 1, 12 seq.), over the broken (vessel). 

5. Should the two (Kara blades which are used as) 
strainers be spoiled before the completion of the 

6. Let him sacrifice the Sarvapraya^^itta and make 
new ones with (the verse), ' In the water, Agni' (Rig- 
veda VIII, 43, 9). 

Khanda 9. 
1. Now (follows) the Sapi//flfikara#a. 

3. On the ten days, comp. I, 25, 1 and the note there. 

8, 3. On the Prawita water, see above, I, 8, 8. 25. 

4. Comp. I, 9, 12 and the note there. 

5. See I, 8, 14 seqq. 6. See Sutra 4. 

9, 1 seqq. Comp. above, IV, 3 and the notes there. 

Digitized by 



2. Let him fill four water-pots (for the Manes) 
from the father upwards, 

3. And prepare in the same way lumps (of flour), 

4. And let him distribute the first lump on the 
(other) three with (the verses), ' They who commonly, 
concordantly (dwell) in Yama's realm, the fathers : 
for them be space, freedom, adoration, sacrifice esta- 
blished among the gods. 

'They who commonly, harmoniously (dwell), the 
living among the living, mine : may their prosperity 
fall to my lot in this world through a hundred 
years' — 

And with the two (verses), ' Equal the design' 
(Rig-veda X, 191, 3. 4). 

5. In the same way the vessels with Argha water. 

6. In the same way for the mother, for a brother, 
and for a wife that has died before (her husband), 
adding (the lump belonging to that person) to those 
(other) lumps. 10. 

1. If the bees make honey in his house, 

2. Let him fast and sacrifice a hundred and eight 
pieces of Udumbara wood, which are besmeared with 
curds, honey, and ghee, with the two (verses), ' No 
(harm) to us in our offspring' (Rig-veda 1, 1 14, 8. 9). 

3. And let him murmur the hymn, ' For welfare 
may Indra and Agni' (Rig-veda VII, 35); and (the 
same hymn should be used) at all (ceremonies), such 

z. On these four vessels, see IV, 3, 4 seq. 

5. These are the vessels mentioned in the second Sutra. 

10, 3. This is a supplementary rule belonging to the exposition 
of the general type of sacrifice. On the ' Pratwruta' sacrifice, see 
I, 7, iseqq.; 1,9, 19. 

Digitized by 


140 sAnkhAyana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

as that of the sacrifice after assent has been declared 
(see above, I, 7, 1). 

4. After he has sacrificed seventeen one span long 
pieces of PalcLra wood, he then seizes the Sruva. 

5. Fifteen at the full and new moon sacrifices. 

6. At the Ash/aka ceremony in the middle of the 
rainy season there may optionally be three (pieces of 
wood) ; the sacrifice as at the Fitrtyagna.. 

Khanda 11. 

1. If an anthill arises in his house, the house 
should be abandoned. 

2. Then, after having fasted three nights (and 
days), he should perform the great expiation. 

Here ends the Fifth Adhyaya. 

4. See I, 9, 1. 3. 

6. Comp. Ill, 13, 1 with the note. 

11, 2. Narayawa understands the 'great expiation' as a rite 
directed to Ganera and to the planets (comp. Ya^«avalkya I, 
276 seq., 292, &c.) ; that this ceremony was known already to the 
author of this Sutra seems very doubtful. Another ' mah&rdnti ' is 
frequently mentioned in the Kauiika-sutra (quoted in Bohtlingk- 
Roth's Dictionary); comp. my German edition of .Sankhiiyana, 
p. 159. 

Digitized by 



Adhyaya VI, Khanda 1. 

i. Now, after having paid reverence to Brah- 
man, to the Brahman'shi, to (those who descend 
from) Brahman's womb, to Indra, Pra/apati, Vasish- 
tha, Vamadeva, Kahola Kaushltaki, Mahakaushltaki, 
Suya^»a »Sankhayana, A^valayana, Aitareya, Mahai- 
tareya, Kityayana, .Sa/yayana, 6akalya, Babhru, Ba- 
bhravya, Mawafu, Ma»davya, and to all the teachers of 
the past, we will henceforth explain the rules for the 
Arawyaka as forming the subject of Svadhyaya (pri- 
vate recitation of a text). 

2. The teacher abstains through one day and one 
night from sexual intercourse and from eating flesh. 

3. Raw flesh, a ATa«dala, a woman that has lately 
been confined, or that has her courses, seeing blood 
or persons whose hands have been cut off: (these 
persons and things he shall know form) impediments 
for the study. 

4. And of the corpse-like (animals ?). 

5. Those which enter (their dens ?) with the 
mouth first (?). 

1, 1 seqq. Comp. the general remarks on this sixth book in the 
Introduction, p. 11. 

For the names in the opening invocation, comp. above, IV, 10 ; 
on the Vratas and the study of the different Ara»yaka sections chiefly 
treated of in this book, see above, II, n. 12, and the Introduction, 
p. 8. 

3. Comp. II, 11, 6. 

3-5. Comp. II, 12, 10, and the note of Narayana, p. 160 of the 
German edition. 

Digitized by 



6. When he has vomited, or when his beard has 
been shaved, 

7. When he has eaten flesh or partaken of a 
.Sraddha or birth dinner, 

8. During the days that immediately follow on 
(days of) study in the village, 

9. Three nights (and days), if (he has been) put 
out of order, 

10. (Or has been violently) seized by others, 

11. And during the second half of the days that 
precede (?) the Parvan days, 

1 2. And if fire-flames, lightning, thunder, (heavy) 
rains, and great clouds appear, 

13. And if a storm (blows) that carries away 
pebbles, as long as that lasts. 

2, 1. During four months after the full moon of 
Ashaa^a let him not study. 

2. Especially the .Sakvari verses (are concerned 
by what has been declared). Such are the rules. 

Khanda 2. 

3. Let them go to a clean spot in the north-eastern 
direction, that receives its light from the east. 

4. The drawing of water (should be done) before 

6. Comp. IV, 7, 42. See also Ait. Ara»yaka V, 3, 9. 

7. Comp. IV, 7, 5. 

2, 2. It seems to me that this Sutra should be divided into two 
(after jakvarya^), so that the words iti niyam&A would corres- 
pond to iti bhashikam, chap. 2, 13. 

3. Comp. II, 12, ii. Perhaps the Petersburg Dictionary is 
right in proposing for prdg^yotisham the translation, vor 
Anbruch des Lichtes. Narayawa says, prak purastat ^yotir 
yasmin tarn . . . praderam. 

Digitized by 


VI ADHYAYA, 3 KHANDA, 2. 1 43 

5. And the entering into the circle with this verse, 
'She who smells of salve' (Rig-veda X, 146, 6). 

6. The circle should have its entrance to the east 
or to the north ; it should be (praised as) excellent 
among the people, not too spacious, not too narrow. 

7. The final expiation (should extend) to the 

8. And the invitation to resume the recitation (is 
done in the following way) : 

9. After they have sipped water that stands out- 
side the circle, 

10. Let them resume the recitation, having per- 
formed the expiation. 

11. If the vessel used in the expiation is damaged, 
sprinkling (with water forms) the expiatory act (to 
be performed for it). 

12. (That) sprinkling, however, (one should per- 
form) holding gold or a bunch of Darbha grass in 
his hand. 

1 3. So far what pertains to the general rules. * 

Khajvda 3. 

1. Now after they have entered the circle — 

2. The teacher sits down with his face to the 
east, the others, according to their rank, (sit down) 
towards the south, with their faces to the north. 

5. The Ma»<fala is a circular space marked by a line of water. 

6. I am doubtful whether we should read va £-an£griyam and 
translate as I have done in accordance with the note of Narayawa, 
or if the reading should be va^anagriyam, 'not in the presence 
of people,' so that^anagriya would mean ^ananam agre. 

7. On the expiation (fanti) comp. chap. 3, 1 2. 

3. 2, 3. Comp. IV, 8, 2-4. 

Digitized by 


144 sankhayana-g/s/hya-sCtra. 

3. If that is impossible, with their faces to all 

4. Let them expect the rising of the sun, 

5. And when they behold it in its splendour, 

6. Let them with (the words), ' Recite, sir!' seize 
with their hands, holding the right hand uppermost, 
the feet of the teacher, which have been washed, 
with the right (hand) the right (foot), with the left 
the left, 

7. And having then put (the hands) into the 
vessel used for the expiation, into water in which 
pieces of Durva stalks are, let them begin their 
study, when their hands have ceased to drip. 

8. This is the rite. But when they are tired, let 
one of them bring it about that the vessel used for 
the expiation be not empty. 

9. And all (should do so) at the beginning and 
the end of (each) Adhyaya. 

10. (All) that is done continuously, without inter- 

1 1 . Now the expiation. 

12. The syllable Om, the Mahavyatmtis, the 
Savitri, the Rathantara, the Br/ hat, the Vamadevya ; 
Brzhat and Rathantara with repetition and Kakubh- 

6. Comp. above, II, 5, 10, &c. 

7. The translation of ap in vamanai// p&«ibhiA is conjectural. 
Narayana's explanation of apinvamana by asawsrz'sh/a is in- 

10. Narayawa explains this Sutra in the following way. If it is 
impossible, for any reason, to recite the whole text, only the begin- 
ning and the concluding words of each Adhyaya (see Sutra 9) arc 
to be repeated; and these should be recited without interruption so 
as to form one continual text. 

12. Comp. above, III, 4, 5. 

Digitized by 


VI ADHYAYA, 4 KHAtfDA, I. 1 45 

13. These (holy words and verses) are (thus) 
made to attain (the number of) ten. 

14. ' Of decades consists the Viri^' — thus says 
the Brahmawa. 

Khajvda 4. 

1. ' Unerring mind, vigorous eye (is) the sun, the 
noblest of the stars. Inauguration, do no harm to 
me!' — with (these words) they look at Savitrz (i. e. 
the sun). 

13. The Gayatri is one verse; the Rathantara and the Br/hat 
are Pragathas which are changed in the usual way into Triias ; the 
VSmadevya is one Trifa : thus the number of ten is obtained. 

14. Kaush. Brahmana 17, 3 ; 19, 5. 

4, 1. The formula 'Adabdham manaA,' &c. has to be recited 
before each of the single Arawyaka texts (the 5akvari verses, the 
Mahavrata, &c); to this formula are added, before or after it, as the 
case may be, other texts specified in the Sutras 2-8. Of these there 
can be no doubt about the meaning of Sutras 7, 8, treating of 
the introductory formulas of the Sa»»hi& section (Kaush. Ar. 
VII-VIII) and of the Mantha section (ibid. IX): before the 
text adabdham, &c. are to be added, in the first case the for- 
mula r/'taw vadishy&mi, &c, in the second case two JRifas 
addressed to Savitr/*. These formulas and verses have been re- 
ceived into the Ara«yaka text and are found there in the order here 
stated, at the beginning of books VII and IX. The meaning 
of the words samhit&n&m tu purvam (Sutra 7) having thus 
been established, I can see no reason why we should not inter- 
pret the words *akvarf»£»* tu purvam (Sutra 3) quite in the 
same way. Thus the introductory benediction for the recital of 
the .Sakvari verses would consist, firstly of the verses stated in 
Sutra 4, then of the formula adabdham, &c; those verses 
would have to be repeated again after the .Sakvart verses (end of 
Sutra 4). The recitation of the Mahavrata (Sutras 1, 2) and of 
the Upanishads (Sutra 5) is preceded by adabdham, &c, and 
then by the four verses stated in Sutra 2. The interpretation which 
Narayaaa gives of this Sutra is not quite the same as that which 
I have here proposed; see p. 163 of the German edition. 
[29] L 

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146 sankhAyana-cr/hya-sutra. 

2. One (verse), ' You both the gladdening one ' 
(Rig-veda X, 131, 4), and the three (verses), 'Bless- 
ing to us on the paths' (Rig-veda X, 63, 15-17) 
(are to be repeated before the recitation) of the 
Mahavrata (chapter). 

3. But (at that) of the ^Sakvari (verses) before 
(the formula mentioned in the first Sutra) : 

4. The three Trz'&as, ' To him, the thirsty one ' 
(Rig-veda VI, 42, 1-3), 'The wealthiest (Soma), O 
wealthy one' (VI, 44, 1-3),' Him who does no harm 
to you' (VI, 44, 4-6), (the verse), 'To him, to him 
the sap of the herb' (VI, 42, 4), (and the verse), 
' Verily thou art a hero ' (VIII, 81, 28) — thus for the 
.Sakvari (verses) before and afterwards. 

5. Now for the Upanishad (texts) — 

6. The same (recitation) as for the Mahavrata. 

7. For the Sawhitas, however, before (the text 
given in the first Sutra the formula has to be 
recited), ' I shall speak right, I shall speak truth 
(&c.)' — this is the difference (in the case of the 

8. Now for the Mantha the two verses (have to 
be recited) before (the formula given in the first 
Sutra), ' This we entreat of Savitar,' ' That glorious 
(splendour) of Savitar' (Rig-veda V, 82, 1 ; III, 
62, 10). 

4. According to the reading of some MSS. we should have to 
translate, or (the verse), ' Verily,' &c. 

7. On the Sawhitas (Kaush. Ar. VII, VIII) see Max Mailer, Rig- 
veda Pratirakhya, pp. 4 seq. ; Ait. Arawyaka III (pp. 305 seqq., ed. 
Bibl. Ind. ; Sacred Books of the East, I, pp. 247 seq.). 

8. Regarding the description of the Mantha sacrifice (Kaush. Ar. 
IX) which has to be performed by one who wishes to attain great- 
ness, comp. Satap. Brahmana XIV, 9, 2; KhinA. Up. V, 2, 4; 
Sacred Books of the East, I, p. 75. 

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VI ADHYAYA, 5 KHAA7BA, 3. 1 47 

9. With (the formula), ' Unerring mind ' (see Sutra 
1), then follow the expiatory formulas that belong 
to the (different) sections. 

10. (All) this on one day. 

Khazvda 5. 

Khanda. 4, n. Now if the time for rising has 
come, they drive away (all) evil, 

1 2. Perform the standing expiation, 

13. And look at the sun with (the words), ' From 
here I take out the brightness (?).' 

Khawda 5, 1. 'That (I place) within myself — 
with (these words they turn their thoughts to the 
universal) Self that is placed (within themselves ?) — 
three times repeated (?). 

2. With (the formula), ' May happiness rejoice in 
me and glory ; may happiness rejoice with me and 
glory ;— 

3. * Together with Indra, with the hosts, with power, 
with glory, with strength I will rise ' — he rises up. 

11, 12. Narayawa has the following note: 'The evil which is 
attached to their body, such as dirt, they drive away, i. e. they 
remove it by means of their reciting (of the sacred texts), and then 
they perform the standing expiation which has been declared 
above, which begins with the syllable Om and with the MaM- 
vydhMis' (see chap. 3, 12). 

5, 1. Nariyawa says that dadhe is supplied to this Mantra from 
the preceding Sutra, and so indeed the Mantra is given in the 
Aitareya recension. The translation of abhinihitaw trir hitam 
is merely tentative; see Narayawa's note, p. 165, of the German 
edition. Perhaps abhinihitara should be taken in its grammatical 
value, and the Suira should be translated, '"That (I place) into 
myself (atmani)" — with these words (they look) at themselves, 
pronouncing (the word Stmani) with Abhinidhana, three times 
repeated (?).' On abhinidhana, comp. Professor Max Mailer's 
edition of the Rig-veda Pratuakhya, pp. cxvii seqq. 

L 2 

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148 sankhayana-g/j/hya-sOtra. 

4. 'May happiness rise to me ; may glory rise to 
me ' — when he has risen. 

5. ' Hereby I shake off the hater, the rival, the 
evil one, and the bringer of misfortune ' — with (this 
formula) having shaken the end of the garment, — 

6. The hymn, ' Away those to the east ' (Rig-veda 
X, 131), the two (verses), 'And may Indra have 
mercy upon us' (II, 41, 1 1. 12), the one (verse), ' Of 
what we are in fear, O Indra' (VIII, 50, 13) — (when 
these texts have been murmured), theyjook with 
(the verse), ' A ruler indeed, great art thou ' (X, 
152, 1) to the east; with (the verse), ' The giver of 
bliss' (X, 152, 2) to the south, turned to the right; 
with (the verse), 'Away the Rakshas'(X, 152, 3) 
to the west; with (the verse), 'Destroy, O Indra, 
our' (X, 152, 4) to the north, turned to the left; 
with (the verse), ' Away, Indra ' (X, 152, 5) to the 
sky, turned to the right. 

Khanda 6. 

1. Having worshipped the Sun with (the verses), 
' Savitrz from the west,' ' This eye ' (Rig-veda X, 
36, 14; VII, 66, 16), 

2. They turn away, come back, sit down. 

3. With (the words), ' As the water is appeased' — 
they draw water out of the vessel used for the 

4. Pour it out on the ground, 

5. Spread (some) of that (water over the ground) 
with (the words), 'As the earth (is appeased),' — 

6, 2. NarSyawa explains vyavartamaniA by paravartami- 

5. Perhaps we should read asyam (scil. pri'thivyim) abhi- 

Digitized by 


VI ADHYAYA, 6 KHAtfDA, 1 6. 1 49 

6. He (then) smears it on his right shoulder with 
(the words), ' Thus may peace dwell in me.' 

7. In the same way a second time. 

8. In the same way a third time. 

9. ' Piece by piece thou art produced ; piece by 
piece thou risest up; bring welfare to us, O house !' — 
with (this text they) take pieces of Durva stalks (out 
of the vessel of water), put them on their heads, 

10. (And make water-offerings with the formulas), 
'May Agni satiate himself; may Vayu satiate him- 
self; may Surya satiate himself ; may Vishwu satiate 
himself; may Pra^apati satiate himself; may Viru- 
piksha satiate himself; may Sahasraksha satiate 
himself; may all beings satiate themselves.' 

1 1. (Then)Sumantu, Gaimini.Vauampayana, Paila, 
and the other teachers (receive their offerings). 

12. (Then) every one (worships in the same way) 
his fathers. 

13. With (the text), 'To the sea you' (*Sraut. IV, 
11, 11) they pour out the water, 

14. Murmur the Vamadevya, 

1 5. And separate according to their pleasure. 

16. (The final benedictory formula runs thus), 
' Through the power of wisdom, of 6ruti and Smn'ti, 
as handed down by tradition, through (that power) 
which has its measure in (the Vedic texts) that have 
been gone through (?), and which is possessed of 

karshanti, and translate, 'they draw (lines of that water) on this 

6. Naraya«a says that all the students are to do so. 

10. Comp. above, IV, 9. On the way in which this Tarpawa is 
to be performed, Narayawa refers to the Sutra II, 7, 5. 

11. Comp. above, IV, 10. 

12. Comp. above, IV, 10, 4-6. 

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1 50 sAnkhayana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

undisputed firmness, may peace be with us in welfare. 
Adoration be to gods, ^'shis, Manes, and men ! May 
they whom we have adored, make happy life, beauty, 
health, peace, incolumity, imperishableness, vigour, 
splendour, glory, power, holy lustre, renown, age, 
offspring, cattle, adoration, increase. From wrongly 
spoken, wrongly used (prayer), from everything that 
is deficient or excessive, for the good of gods and 
^/shis, may the Brahman and Truth protect me ; 
may the Brahman and Truth protect me!' 

End of the Sixth Adhyaya. 

End of the 6ankhayana - Grihya. 

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Most of the questions referring to the Gr/hya-sutra of 
Ajvalayana will be treated of more conveniently in con- 
nection with the different subjects which we shall have to 
discuss in our General Introduction to the GWhya-sutras. 
Here I wish only to call attention to a well-known passage 
of Sha^/gurujishya, in which that commentator gives some 
statements on the works composed by Ajvalayana and by 
his teacher Saunaka. As an important point in that 
passage has, as far as I can see, been misunderstood by 
several eminent scholars, I may perhaps be allowed here to 
try and correct that misunderstanding, though the point 
stands in a less direct connection with the GWhya-sutra than 
with another side of the literary activity of Ajvalayana. 

Shadgurarishya 1 , before speaking of Ajvalayana, makes 
the following statements with regard to Ajvalayana's 
teacher, Saunaka. 'There was,' he says, 'the 5akala 
Sawhita (of the Rig-veda), and the Bashkala Sawhita ; 
following these two Sawhitas and the twenty-one Brah- 
mawas, adopting principally the Aitareyaka and supple- 
menting it by the other texts, he who was revered by 
the whole number of great /?*shis composed the first 
Kalpa-sutra.' He then goes on to speak of A^valayana — 
• 5aunaka's pupil was the venerable A^valayana. He who 
knew everything he had learnt from that teacher, com- 
posed a Sutra and announced (to Saunaka that he had 
done so) 2 .' .Saunaka then destroyed his own Sutra, and 

1 See Max Midler's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 230 seqq. ; 
Indische Stndien, I, 102. 
* This seems to me to be the meaning of sfltraw kr»tv4 nyavedayat; 

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154 asvalayana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

determined that Ajvalayana's Sutra should be adopted by 
the students of that Vedic Sakha. Thus, says Shadguru- 
jishya, there were twelve works of .Saunaka by which a 
correct knowledge of the Rig-veda was preserved, and three 
works of A^valayana. Saunaka's daja granthas were, 
the five Anukramawis, the two Vidhanas, the Barhaddai- 
vata, the Pratuakhya, and a Smarta work \ A-rvalayana, 
on the other hand, composed the Srauta-sutra in twelve 
Adhyayas, the Grihya in four Adhyayas, and the fourth 
Ara«yaka : this is Ajvalayana's great Sutra composition 2 . 

Here we have an interesting and important statement by 
which the authorship of a part of the Aitareyarawyaka, 
which would thus be separated from the rest of that text, 
is ascribed, not to Mahidasa Aitareya, but to an author of 
what maybe called the historical period of Vedic antiquity, 
to Ajvalayana. 

But what is the fourth Arawyaka to which this passage 
refers ? Is it the text which is now set down, for instance, 
in Dr. Ra^endralala Mitra's edition, as the fourth Ara- 
wyaka of the Aitareyinas ? 

Before we give an answer to this question, attention must 
be called to other passages referring, as it could seem, to 
another part, namely, the fifth part of the Arawyaka. 

Sayawa, in his great commentary on the Rig-veda, very 
frequently quotes the pa#£amara«yaka as belonging 
to Saunaka. Thus in vol. i, p. 1 12, ed. Max Miiller, he says : 
pa«£amara«yaka aushwihatr^ajitir iti kha»*/e Saunakena 
sutritaw surupakr/tnum utaya iti triwy endra sanasiw rayim 
iti dve iti. There is indeed in the fifth Ara«yaka a chapter 
beginning with the words aushwihi trik&siti/i, in which the 
words quoted by Sayawa occur 3 . Similar quotations, in 

the case is similar to that where a pupil goes on his rounds for alms and 
announces (nivedayati) to his teacher what he has received. Prof. Max Miiller 
translates these words differently; according to him they mean that Ajvalayana 
' made a Sutra and taught it.' 

1 Comp. Prof. Buhler's article in the Journal As. Soc of Bengal, 1866, 
pp. HQseqq. 

2 Dvadatadhyayakam sutraw *atushka/w gr/hyam eva *a £aturthara»yaka»» 
keti hy Ajvalayanasutrakam. 

* See p. 44S of Dr. Kajendralala Mitra's edition in the Bibliotheca Indies. 

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which the fifth Ara«yaka is assigned to -Saunaka, are found 
in Sayawa's commentary on the Arawyaka itself; see, for 
instance, p. 97, line 19, p. 116, line 3. 

Thus it seems that the authorship of both the fourth and 
the fifth Ara«yaka was ascribed to teachers belonging to 
the Sutra period of Vedic literature, viz. to .Saunaka and 
to A^valayana respectively. And so we find the case 
stated by both Professor Weber, in his ' Vorlesungen uber 
indische Literaturgeschichte 1 ,' and Dr. Ra^endralala Mitra, 
in the Introduction to his edition of the Aitareya Ara- 
«yaka 2 . 

But we must ask ourselves : Are the two books of the 
Arawyaka collection, ascribed to those two authors, really 
two different books? It is a surprising fact that Sha*/gu- 
nm'shya, while speaking of Ajvalayana's authorship of the 
fourth book, and while at the same time intending, as he 
evidently does, to give a complete list of Saunaka's compo- 
sitions, does not mention the fifth Arawyaka among the 
works of that author. In order to account for this omission 
the conjecture seems to suggest itself that Shadgururishya, 
when speaking of the fourth Arawyaka as belonging to 
A-rvalayana, means the same work which Sayawa sets down 
as the fifth, and which he ascribes to .Saunaka. At first 
sight this conjecture may seem perhaps rather hazardous 
or unnatural ; however I believe that, if we compare the two 
texts themselves which are concerned, we shall find it very 
probable and even evident. What do those two Arawyaka 
books contain ? The fourth is very short : it does not fill 
more than one page in the printed edition. Its contents 
consist exclusively of the text of the Mahanamni or 6ak- 
vart verses, which seem to belong to a not less remote 

1 and edition, p. 53 : Obwohl wir fur das vierte Buch des letztem (i. e. of the 
Aitareya Arawyaka) sogar die directe Nachricht haben, dass es dem Ajvala- 
yana, dem Schiiler eines .Saunaka angehort, so wie auch ferner fur das fiinfte 
Bach desselben dieser .Saunaka selbst als Urheber gegolten zu haben scheint, 
nach dem was Colebrooke Misc. Ess. I, 47 n. daruber berichtet. 

' P. 1 1 : If this assumption be admitted, the proper conclusion to be arrived 
at would also be that the whole of the fifth Book belongs to Saunaka, and 
the whole of the fourth Book to A .rvalayana. P. 1 2 : The writings of both 
Arvaiayana and Saunaka which occur in the Ara»yaka, etc. 

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antiquity than the average of the Rig-veda hymns. They 
can indeed be considered as forming part of the Rig-veda 
Sawhita, and it is only on account of the peculiar mystical 
holiness ascribed to these verses, that they were not studied 
in the village but in the forest 1 , and were consequently 
received not into the body of the Sawmita itself, but into 
the Ara«yaka. They are referred to in all Brahmawa texts, 
and perhaps we can even go so far as to pronounce our 
opinion that some passages of the Rig-veda hymns them- 
selves allude to the Sakvari verses : 

yak £/*akvarishu br/hata ravewendre jushmam ada- 
dhata Vasish///a/* (Rig-veda VII, 33, 4). 

rikkm tvaJt posham aste pupushvan gayatraw tvo gayati 
jakvarishu (Rig-veda X, 71, 11). 

So much for the fourth Arawyaka. The fifth contains a 
description of the Mahavrata ceremony. To the same sub- 
ject also the first book is devoted, with the difference that 
the first book is composed in the Brahmawa style, the fifth 
in the Sutra style ' i . 

Now which of these two books can it be that Sha</gu- 
rujishya reckons as belonging to the ' Ajvalayanasutraka ? ' 
It is impossible that it should be the fourth, for the Maha- 
nimni verses never were considered by Indian theologians 
as the work of a human author ; they shared in the a p a u - 
rusheyatva of the Veda, and to say that they have been 
composed by A^valayana, would be inconsistent with the 
most firmly established principles of the literary history of 
the Veda both as conceived by the Indians and by our- 
selves. And even if we were to admit that the Maha- 
namni verses can have been assigned, by an author like 
Sharfgururishya, to Ajvalayana, — and we cannot admit 

1 See -SSnkhayana-Grjhya II, 1 2, 13. 

' Thus Saya«a, in his note on V, i, I, says : Nanu prathamira»yake*pi atha 
mahavratam Indro vai VWtrazu hatvetyadina mahavrataprayogo»bhihitaA, 
pafl&ime«pi tasyaivabhidhane punaruktM syat. nayam doshaA, siltrabrahmana- 
rGpewa tayor vibhedat. pa/7£amara«yakam r«'shiprokta»» sutra«, prathama- 
rawyakan tv apaurusheyaw* brahmawam. ata eva tatrarthavadaprapatf^ena 
sahita vidhaya/; .rruyantc, pa/?/-ame tu na ko py arthavado*sti .... aranya 
cvaitad adhyeyam ity abhipretyadhyetara ara«yaka«(/<r » ntarbhavyadhiyate. 

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this, — there is no possibility whatever that he can have 
used the expression ' A jvalayanasutrakam' with regard 
to the Mahanamnts ; to apply the designation of a Sutra 
to the Mahanamnl hymn would be no less absurd than to 
apply it to any Sukta whatever of the Rik-Sa.mhit&.. On 
the other hand, the fifth book of the Arawyaka is a Sutra ; 
it is the only part of the whole body of the Arawyaka 
collection which is composed in the Sutra style. And it 
treats of a special part of the Rig-veda ritual the rest of 
which is embodied in its entirety, with the omission only of 
that very part, in the two great Sutras of A^valayana. 
There seems to me, therefore, to be little doubt as to 
the fifth Ara«yaka really being the text referred to by 
Sha</gunuishya, though I do not know how to explain his 
setting down this book as the fourth. And I may add 
that there is a passage, hitherto, as far as I know, un- 
noticed, in Sayawa's Sama-veda commentary, in which that 
author directly assigns the fifth Arawyaka not, as in the 
Rig-veda commentary, to Saunaka, but to Ajvalayana. 
Sayawa there says 1 : yatha bahvrikikm adhyapaka maha- 
vrataprayogapratipadakam Ajvalayananirmitaw kalpa- 
sutram arawye * dhiyamana^ pafl£amam arawyakam 
iti vedatvena vyavaharanti. 

Instead of asserting, therefore, that of the two last 
Ara«yakas of the Aitareyinas the one is ascribed to 6au- 
naka, the other to Ajvalayana, we must state the case 
otherwise : not two Arawyakas were, according to Saya«a 
and Sharfgurujishya, composed by those Sutrakaras, but 
one, viz. the fifth, which forms a sort of supplement to the 
great body of the Sutras of that, and which is 
ascribed either to .Saunaka or to A-rvalayana. Perhaps 
further research will enable us to decide whether that 
Sutra portion of the Arawyaka, or we may say quite as 
well, that Arawyaka portion of the Sutra, belongs to the 
author of the Srauta-sutra, or should be considered as a 
remnant of a more ancient composition, of which the por- 
tion studied in the forest has survived, while the portion 

1 SJma-veda (Bibl. Indica), vol. i, p. 19. 

Digitized by 


158 AsvalAyana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

which was taught in the village was superseded by the 
more recent A^valiyana-sutra. 

There would be still many questions with which an In- 
troduction to Axvalayana would have to deal ; thus the 
relation between A^valayana and .Saunaka, which we had 
intended to treat of here with reference to a special point, 
would have to be further discussed with regard to several 
other of its bearings, and the results which follow therefrom 
as to the position of Ajvalayana in the history of Vedic 
literature would have to be stated. But we prefer to re- 
serve the discussion of these questions for the General 
Introduction to the GWhya-sutras. 

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AdhyAya I, KandikX 1. 

i. The (rites) based on the spreading (of the three 
sacred fires) have been declared ; we shall declare the 
GWhya (rites). 

2. There are three (kinds of) Pakayaf»as, the 
hutas, (i.e. the sacrifices) offered over the fire; over 
something that is not the fire, the prahutas; and 
at the feeding of Brahma#as, those offered in the 

3. And they quote also Rikas, ' He who with a 
piece of wood or with an oblation, or with knowledge 

1. 1. The spreading (vitana or, as it is also called, vihSra or 
vistara) of the sacred fires is the taking of two of the three sacri- 
ficial fires, the Ahavaniya fire and the Dakshi/iagni, out of the 
Garhapatya fire (see, for instance, Weber's Indische Studien, IX, 
216 seq.). The rites based on, or connected with the vitana, are 
the rites forming the subject of the .Srauta ritual, which are to be per- 
formed with the three fires. 

2. Comp. .Sankhayana-Grzliya I, 5, 1 ; 1, 10, 7. The division here 
is somewhat different from that given by .Sankhayana ; what Sih- 
khayana calls ahuta,is here prahuta('sacrificed up'); the prahutas 
of 5ankhayana form here no special category; the pra sit as of Sih- 
khlyana are the brahma«i hutas of Afvalayana. Thus Ajvaliyana 
has three categories, while .Saftkh&yana (and quite in the same way 
Paraskara I, 4, 1) gives four. Naraya»a mentions as an example 
of prahuta sacrifices the baliharawa prescribed below, I, 2, 3. 

3. Rig-veda VIII, 19, 5, 'The mortal who with a piece of wood, 
or with an oblation, or with knowledge worships Agni, who with 
adoration (worships him) offering rich sacrifices,' &c. 

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160 JLsvalayana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

4. Even he who only puts a piece of wood (on the 
fire) full of belief, should think, ' Here I offer a sacri- 
fice ; adoration to that (deity) !' 

(The Rik quoted above then says), ' He who with 
an oblation' — and, ' He who with knowledge;' even by 
learning only satisfaction is produced (in the gods). 

Seeing this the Rishi has said, 'To him who does 
not keep away from himself the cows, to him who longs 
for cows, who dwells in the sky, speak a wonderful 
word, sweeter than ghee and honey.' Thereby he 
means, ' This my word, sweeter than ghee and honey, 
is satisfaction (to the god) ; may it be sweeter.' 

(And another Rishi says), ' To thee, O Agni, by 
this Rik we offer an oblation prepared by our heart ; 
may these be oxen, bulls, and cows.' (Thereby he 
means), ' They are my oxen, bulls, and cows (which 
I offer to the god), they who study this text, reciting 
it for themselves (as their Svadhyiya).' 

(And further on the Rik quoted above says), ' He 
who (worships Agni) with adoration, offering rich 
sacrifices.' ' Verily also by the performing of adora- 
tion (the gods may be worshipped) ; for the gods are 
not beyond the performing of adoration ; adoration 
verily is sacrifice' — thus runs a Brahmawa. 

4. The words of the Rik, ' with an oblation,' are here repeated, 
the Vedic instrumental dhuti being replaced and explained by the 
regular form ihutyd. 

The following Rik is taken from the eighth Man</a1a, 24, 20. 
The god compared there with a rutting bull is Indra. 

The following verse is Rig-veda VI, 16, 47 ; we may doubt as to 
the correctness of the explanation given in our text, by which te te 
is referred to the persons studying the hymns of the Rishi. All these 
quotations of course are meant to show that the knowledge of the 
Veda and the performing of namas (adoration) is equivalent to a 
real sacrifice. 

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i adhyAya, 2 kajvbikA, 6. 161 

K.AND1K.A 2. 

i. Now he should make oblations in the evening 
and in the morning of prepared sacrificial food, 

2. To the deities of the Agnihotra, to Soma 
Vanaspati, to Agni and Soma, to Indra and Agni, 
to Heaven and Earth, to Dhanvantari, to Indra, to 
the Virve devas, to Brahman. 

3. He says Svaha, and then he offers the Balis — 

4. To those same deities, to the waters, to the 
herbs and trees, to the house, to the domestic deities, 
to the deities of the ground (on which the house 

5. To Indra and Indra's men, to Yama and 
Yama's men, to Varu«a and Varuwa's men, to Soma 
and Soma's men — these (oblations he makes) to the 
different quarters (of the horizon, of which those are 
the presiding deities). 

6. To Brahman and Brahman's men in the 

2, 1. This is the Vawvadeva sacrifice ; comp. .Sankhsiyana-Gr/hya 
II, 14, &c. 

2. The deities of the Agnihotra are Surya, Agni, and Pra^ipati. 
On Soma Vanaspati see the quotations given in Bohtlingk-Roth's 

Dictionary s.v. vanaspati, 2. 

3. I think the division of the Sutras should be altered, so that 
sv&heti would belong to Sutra 2, and the third Sutra would consist 
only of the words atha baliharawam. In this case we should 
have to translate, 

(1) Now he should make oblations, &c. 

(2) With the words, ' To the deities of the Agnihotra (i. e. to 

Agni, to Surya, to Pra^apati), to Soma Vanaspati, &c, 

(3) Then (follows) the offering of the Balis. 

Comp. Jankh.-Gr/hya II, 14, 4. 5, which passage seems to con- 
firm the view expressed here. 
5. Manu III, 87. 

[29] M 

Digitized by 


1 62 Asvalayana-gji/hya-sOtra. 

7. To the Virve devas, to all day-walking beings — 
thus by day; 

8. To the night-walking (beings) — thus at night 

9. To the Rakshas — thus to the north. 

10. 'Svadha to the fathers (i.e. Manes)' — with 
these words he should pour out the remnants to the 
south, with the sacrificial cord suspended over the 
right shoulder. 

Kawjdika 3. 

1. Now wherever he intends to perform a sacrifice, 
let him besmear (with cowdung) a surface of the 
dimension at least of an arrow on each side ; let him 
draw six lines thereon, one turned to the north, to 
the west (of the spot on which the fire is to be 
placed); two (lines) turned to the east, at the two 
different ends (of the line mentioned first) ; three 
(lines) in the middle (of those two) ; let him sprinkle 
that (place with water), establish the (sacred) fire 
(thereon), put (two or three pieces of fuel) on it, wipe 
(the ground) round (the fire), strew (grass) round (it), 
to the east, to the south, to the west, to the north, 
ending (each time) in the north. Then (follows) 
silently the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire). 

2. With two (Kura. blades used as) strainers the 
purifying of the Afya (is done). 

3. Having taken two Kuia blades with unbroken 
tops, which do not bear a young shoot in them, of 
the measure of a span, at their two ends with his 

3, 1. Comp. .Sahkh.-Grzhya I, 7, 6 seq., where the statements 
regarding the lines to be drawn are somewhat different, and the note 

3. Comp. the description of this act of purifying the A^ya, which 
is in some points more detailed, in .Sankh.-Gr/hya I, 8, 14-21. 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 3 KANDlK.k, IO. 1 63 

thumbs and fourth fingers, with his hands turned 
with the inside upwards, he purifies (the A^ya, from 
the west) to the east, with (the words), ' By the 
impulse of Savitrz I purify thee with this uninjured 
purifier, with the rays of the good sun' — once with 
this formula, twice silently. 

4. The strewing (of grass) round (the fire) may be 
done or not done in the A^ya offerings. 

5. So also the two A^ya portions (may optionally 
be sacrificed) in the Pakaya^was. 

6. And the (assistance of a) Brahman (is optional), 
except at the sacrifice to Dhanvantari and at the 
sacrifice of the spit-ox (offered to Rudra). 

7. Let him sacrifice with (the words), ' To such 
and such a deity svaha!' 

8. If there is no rule (as to the deities to whom 
the sacrifice belongs, they are) Agni, Indra, Pra^a- 
pati, the Vi.rve devas, Brahman. 

9. (Different Pikaya^was, when) offered at the 
same time, should have the same Barhis (sacrificial 
grass), the same fuel, the same Agya, and the same 
(oblation to Agni) Svish/akrzt. 

io. With reference thereto the following sacrificial 
stanza is sung : 

' He who has to perform (different) Pakaya^as, 
should offer them with the same A^ya, the same 

4. Comp. .Sankh.-Gr/hya I, 8, 12. 

5. On the two A^yabhagas offered to Agni and Soma comp. 
below, chap. 10, 13 ; .Sankh.-Gr»hya I, 9, 5 seq. 

6. Comp. on these exceptions the Sutras below, I, 12, 7; IV, 
8, 15. 

7. Comp. <Sankh.-GrzTiya I, 9, 18. 

9. On the oblation to Agni Svish/akrrt, see Indische Studien, 
IX, 217. 

M 2 

Digitized by 


1 64 Asvalayana-grjhya-sutra. 

Barhis, and the same Svish/akrzt, even if the deity 
(of those sacrifices) is not the same.' 

Kajvdika 4. 

1. During the northern course of the sun, in the 
time of the increasing moon, under an auspicious 
Nakshatra the tonsure (of the child's head), the 
initiation (of a BrahmaMrin), the cutting of the 
beard, and marriage (should be celebrated). 

2. According to some (teachers), marriage (may 
be celebrated) at any time. 

3. Before those (ceremonies) let him sacrifice four 
Afya oblations — 

4. With the three (verses), ' Agni, thou purifiest 
life' (Rig-veda IX, 66, 10 seq.), and with (the one 
verse), ' Pra^apati, no other one than thou ' (Rig-veda 
X, 121, 10). 

5. Or with the Vyahmis. 

6. According to some (teachers), the one and the 

7. No such (oblations), according to some (teachers). 

8. At the marriage the fourth oblation with the 
verse, ' Thou (O Agni) art Aryaman towards the girls' 
(Rig-veda V, 3, 2). 

KavdikA 5. 
1. Let him first examine the family (of the intended 
bride or bridegroom), as it has been said above, 

4. i. .Sahkh.-Grrhya I, 5, 2-5. 

5. With the words, bhuA, bhuvaA, svaA, and with the three 
words together. 

6. Thus eight oblations are offered, four with the four i?z'£as 
quoted in the fourth Sutra, and four with the Vyahrrtis. 

7. Neither the oblations with the JZi'&as nor those with the 

5, 1. .Srauta-sutra IX, 3, 20, 'Who on their mother's as well as 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 5 KANDIK/L, 5. 1 65 

' Those who on the mother's and on the father's 

2. Let him give the girl to a (young man) endowed 
with intelligence. 

3. Let him marry a girl that shows the character- 
istics of intelligence, beauty, and moral conduct, and 
who is free from disease. 

4. As the characteristics (mentioned in the pre- 
ceding Sutra) are difficult to discern, let him make 
eight lumps (of earth), recite over the lumps the 
following formula, ' Right has been born first, in the 
beginning; on the right truth is founded. For 
what (destiny) this girl is born, that may she attain 
here. What is true may that be seen,' and let him 
say to the girl, ' Take one of these.' 

5. If she chooses the (lump of earth taken) from a 
field that yields two crops (in one year), he may 
know, ' Her offspring will be rich in food.' If from 
a cow-stable, rich in cattle. If from the earth of a 
Vedi (altar), rich in holy lustre. If from a pool 
which does not dry up, rich in everything. If from 
a gambling-place, addicted to gambling. If from a 
place where four roads meet, wandering to different 
directions. If from a barren spot, poor. If from a 
burial-ground, (she will) bring death to her husband. 

on their father's side through ten generations are endowed with 
knowledge, austerity, and meritorious works,' &c. 

4. I prefer the reading of the Bibliotheca Indica edition, counte- 
nanced by Narayawa's commentary, durvi^neyini lakshawaniti, 
&c. The lumps are to be taken from the eight places mentioned 
in Sutra 5. 

5. No doubt the correct reading is not that given by Nar&yawa 
and accepted by Professor Stenzler, dvipravrS^inl, but vipra- 
vra^inf, as four of Professor Stenzler's MSS. read (see his Variac 
Lectiones, p. 48, and the Petersburg Dictionary s. v. vipravra^in). 

Digitized by 


1 66 asvalayana-g/uhya-sOtra. 

KaadikA 6. 

i. (The father) may give away the girl, having 
decked her with ornaments, pouring out a libation of 
water : this is the wedding (called) Brahma. A son 
born by her (after a wedding of this kind) brings 
purification to twelve descendants and to twelve 
ancestors on both (the husband's and the wife's) 

2. He may give her, having decked her with orna- 
ments, to an officiating priest, whilst a sacrifice with 
the three (Srauta) fires is going on : this (is the wed- 
ding called) Daiva. (A son) brings purification to ten 
descendants and to ten ancestors on both sides. 

3. They fulfil the law together : this (is the wedding 
called) Pra^apatya. (A son) brings purification to 
eight descendants and to eight ancestors on both 

4. He may marry her after having given a bull 
and a cow (to the girl's father) : this (is the wedding 
called) Arsha. (A son) brings purification to seven 
descendants and to seven ancestors on both sides. 

5. He may marry her, after a mutual agreement 
has been made (between the lover and the damsel) : 
this (is the wedding called) Gandharva. 

6. He may marry her after gladdening (her father) 
by money : this (is the wedding called) Asura. 

6, 1. Comp. Vasish/Aa I, 30; Apastamba II, 11, 17; Baudhayana 
I, 20, 2. 

2. Vasish/Aa I, 31; Apastamba II, 11, 19; Baudhayana I, 20, 5. 

3. Baudhayana I, 20, 3. 

4. Vasish//$a I, 32; Apastamba II, 11, 18; Baudhayana I, 20, 4. 

5. Vasish/fta I, 33; Apastamba II, 11, 20; Baudhayana 1, 20, 6. 

6. Vasish/Aa I, 35 (where this rite is designated as Manusha) ; 
Apastamba II, 12,1; Baudhayana I, 20, 7. 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 7 KAMDIKX, 5. 1 67 

7. He may carry her off while (her relatives) sleep 
or pay no attention : this (is the wedding called) 

8. He may carry her off, killing (her relatives) and 
cleaving (their) heads, while she weeps and they weep : 
this (is the wedding called) Rakshasa. 

Kawdika 7. 

1. Now various indeed are the customs of the 
(different) countries and the customs of the (different) 
villages : those one should observe at the wedding. 

2. What, however, is commonly accepted, that we 
shall state. 

3. Having placed to the west of the fire a mill- 
stone, to the north-east (of the fire) a water-pot, he 
should sacrifice, while she takes hold of him. Stand- 
ing, with his face turned to the west, while she is 
sitting and turns her face to the east, he should with 
(the formula), ' I seize thy hand for the sake of 
happiness' seize her thumb if he desires that only 
m^e children may be born to him ; 

4. Her other fingers, (if he is) desirous of female 
(children) ; 

5. Thfe hand on the hair-side together with the 

7. BaudMyana I, 20, 9. 

8. VasishMa 1, 34 (where this rite is called Kshitra) ; Apastamba 
II, a 1, 2 ; Baudhayana I, 20, 8. The text of this Sfitra seems to be 
based on a hemistich hatva" bhittva" ia. shsh&ni rudadbhyo 
rudatlm haret; comp. Manu HI, 33. 

7, 3. Professor Stenzler is evidently right in taking afmSnam as 
in apposition to dri'shadam. Nar&ya»a says, dr/'shat prasiddhS 
anni tatputrakaA. tatrobhayo£ pratisli/Mpanam siddham. 

The sacrifice is that prescribed in -SShkh.-Gr/hya I, 12, n. 12. 
Regarding the rite that follows, comp. .Sankh.-Gnhya I, 13, 2. 

Digitized by 


168 AsvalAyana-gj?/hya-sOtra. 

thumb, (if) desirous of both (male and female 

6. Leading her three times round the fire and the 
water-pot, so that their right sides are turned towards 
(the fire, &c), he murmurs, ' This am I, that art 
thou ; that art thou, this am I ; the heaven I, the 
earth thou; the Saman I, the Rik thou. Come! 
Let us here marry. Let us beget offspring. 
Loving, bright, with genial mind may we live a 
hundred autumns.' 

7. Each time after he has lead her (so) round, he 
makes her tread on the stone with (the words), ' Tread 
on this stone ; like a stone be firm. Overcome the 
enemies ; tread the foes down.' 

8. Having 'spread under' (i.e. having first poured 
Afya over her hands), her brother or a person acting 
in her brother's place pours fried grain twice over 
the wife's joined hands. 

9. Three times for descendants of Gamadagni. 

10. He pours again (A^ya) over (what has been 
left of) the sacrificial food, 

1 1. And over what has been cut off. 

1 2. This is the rule about the portions to be cut off. 

1 3. ' To god Aryaman the girls have made sacrifice, 

6. .Sankhayana-Gnhya I, 13, 4. 9. 13. 

7. .Sankhayana-Grihya I, 13, 12. 

8. .Sankhayana-Gr/hya I, 13, 15. 16. 

9. The two portions of fried grain poured over the bride's hands, 
together with the first (upastara«a) and the second (pratyabhighi- 
rawa) pouring out of A§ya, constitute the four Avattas, or portions 
cut ofT from the Havis. The descendants of Gamadagni were 
pawMvattinas, i.e. they used to cut off five such portions (see 
Katyayana I, 9, 3; Weber, Indische Studien, X, 95); so they had 
to pour out the fried grain three times. 

13. .Sahkhayana-Gr«hya I, 18, 3; 13, 17; 14, 1. 

Digitized by 


i adhyAya, 7 kajvjmkA, 19. 169 

to Agni ; may he, god Aryaman, loosen her from this, 
and not from that place, Svaha ! 

' To god Varuwa the girls have made sacrifice, to 
Agni ; may he, god Varu«a, &c. 

' To god Pushan the girls have made sacrifice, to 
Agni ; may he, god Pushan, &c.' — with (these verses 
recited by the bridegroom) she should sacrifice (the 
fried grain) without opening her joined hands, as if 
(she did so) with the (spoon called) Sru& 

14. Without that leading round (the fire, she sacri- 
fices grain) with the neb of a basket towards herself 
silently a fourth time. 

1 5. Some lead the bride round each time after the 
fried grain has been poured out : thus the two last 
oblations do not follow immediately on each other. 

16. He then loosens her two locks of hair, if they 
are made, (i. e. if) two tufts of wool are bound round 
her hair on the two sides, — 

1 7. With (the Rik), ' I release thee from the band 
of Varu«a' (Rig-veda X, 85, 24). 

1 8. The left one with the following {Rik). 

19. He then causes her to step forward in a north- 
eastern direction seven steps with (the words), ' For 
sap with one step, for juice with two steps, for thriv- 
ing of wealth with three steps, for comfort with four 
steps, for offspring with five steps, for the seasons 

14, 15. According to those teachers whose opinion is related in 
Sutras 6-14, the leading round the fire, the treading on the stone, 
and the offering of fried grain (with the three parts of the Mantra, 
Sutra 13) are repeated thrice ; then follows the offering prescribed in 
Sutra 14, so that the last two offerings follow immediately on each 
other. This is not the case, if in the first three instances the order 
of the different rites is inverted, as stated in Sutra 15. 

In Sutra 14 Narayawa explains s urpapu/a by ko«a. 

19. •Sankh&yana-Grthya 1, 14, 5. 6; 13, 2; Paraskara I, 8, 1. 

Digitized by 


1 70 a^alayana-g/j/hya-sOtra. 

with six steps. Be friend with seven steps. So be 
thou devoted to me. Let us acquire many sons 
who may reach old age !' 

20. Joining together their two heads, (the bride- 
groom ? the A^arya ?) sprinkles them (with water) 
from the water-pot. 

21. And she should dwell that night in the house 
of an old Brihma#a woman whose husband is alive 
and whose children are alive. 

22. When she sees the polar-star, the star Arun- 
dhati, and the seven i?*shis (ursa major), let her 
break the silence (and say), ' May my husband live 
and I get offspring.' 

KajvdikA 8. 

1. If (the newly-married couple) have to make a 
journey (to their new home), let him cause her to 
mount the chariot with the (verse), 'May Pushan 
lead thee from here holding thy hand' (Rig-veda X, 

2. With the hemistich, 'Carrying stones (the river) 
streams ; hold fast each other' (Rig-veda X, 53, 8) 
let him cause her to ascend a ship. 

3. With the following (hemistich) let him make 
her descend (from it). 

4. (He pronounces the verse), ' The living one 
they bewail' (Rig-veda X, 40, 10), if she weeps. 

5. They constantly carry the nuptial fire in front. 

20. •Sahkhayana-Gn'hya I, 14, 9; PSraskara I, 8, 5. 

22. .Sankhayana-GnTiya I, 17, 2 seq.; P&raskara I, 8, 19. 

8, 1. Sahkhayana-GnTiya I, 15, 13. 

2. •Sdhkhayana-Gn'hya I, 15, 17. 18. 

4. .Sankhayana-Gnhya I, 1 5, 2. 

Digitized by 


i adhyAya, 8 kajwikA, 13. 171 

6. At lovely places, trees, and cross-ways let him 
murmur (the verse), ' May no waylayers meet us' 
(Rig-veda X, 85, 32). 

7. At every dwelling-place (on their way) let him 
look at the lookers on, with (the verse), ' Good luck 
brings this woman' (Rig-veda X, 85, 33). 

8. With (the verse), ' Here may delight fulfil itself 
to thee through offspring' (Rig-veda X, 85, 27) he 
should make her enter the house. 

9. Having given its place to the nuptial fire, and 
having spread to the west of it a bull's hide with the 
neck to the east, with the hair outside, he makes 
oblations, while she is sitting on that (hide) and takes 
hold of him, with the four (verses), ' May Pra^apati 
create offspring to us' (Rig-veda X, 85, 43 seq.), 
verse by verse, and with (the verse), ' May all the 
gods unite' (Rig-veda X, 85, 47), he partakes of 
curds and gives (thereof) to her, or he besmears 
their two hearts with the rest of the A^ya (of which 
he has sacrificed). 

10. From that time they should eat no saline food, 
they should be chaste, wear ornaments, sleep on the 
ground three nights or twelve nights ; 

11. Or one year, (according to) some (teachers) ; 
thus, they say, a J?/shi will be born (as their son). 

12. When he has fulfilled (this) observance (and 
has had intercourse with his wife), he should give 
the bride's shift to (the Brahma/za) who knows the 
Surya hymn (Rig-veda X, 85); 

1 3. Food to the Brahmawas ; 

6. S& I, 15, 14. 

8. •Saiikhayana-GnTiya I, 15, 22; 16, 12. 

9. .SSnkhSyana-GnTiya I, 16, 1. 2. 
12. -SafikMyana-Gnfaya I, 14, 12. 

Digitized by 


1 72 asvalayana-g/j/hya-sCtra. 

14. Then he should cause them to pronounce 
auspicious words. 

KandikA 9. 

1. Beginning from the seizing of (the bride's) 
hand (i. e. from the wedding), he should worship the 
domestic (fire) himself, or his wife, or also his son, or 
his daughter, or a pupil. 

2. (The fire) should be kept constantly. 

3. When it goes out, however, the wife should 
fast : thus (say) some (teachers). 

4. The time for setting it in a blaze and for 
sacrificing in it has been explained by (the rules 
given with regard to) the Agnihotra, 

5. And the sacrificial food, except meat. 

6. But if he likes he may (perform the sacrifice) 
with rice, barley, or sesamum. 

7. He should sacrifice in the evening with (the 
formula), 'To Agni svaha!' in the morning with 
(the formula), 'To Surya svaha!' Silently the 
second (oblations) both times. 

KandikZ. 10. 

1. Now the oblations of cooked food on the (two) 
Parvan (i. e. the new and full moon) days. 

2. The fasting (which takes place) thereat has 
been declared by (the corresponding rules regarding) 
the Daryapurwamasa sacrifices. 

9, 1. Comp. ,Sankhiyana-Gr?hya II, 17, 3. 

4. SsLnkhayana-Gnhya I, i, 12; Ajvalayana-Srauta II, 2. 

5. Xs valayana-Srauta II, 3, 1 seq. Nar&yawa : By the prohibi- 
tion of meat which is expressed in the words ' Except meat,' it is to 
be understood that the food to be sacrificed, as stated in other .SSstras, 
may likewise be chosen. 

Digitized by 


i adhyAya, io kandikX, 12. 173 

3. And (so has been declared) the binding together 
of the fuel and of the Barhis, 

4. And the deities (to whom those oblations 
belong), with the exception of the Upaamiya^a 
(offerings at which the formulas are repeated with 
low voice), and of Indra and Mahendra. 

5. Other deities (may be worshipped) according 
to the wishes (which the sacrificer connects with 
his offerings). 

6. For each single deity he pours out four hands- 
ful (of rice, barley, &c), placing two purifiers (i. e. 
Kma blades, on the vessel), with (the formula), 
'Agreeable to such and such (a deity) I pour thee 

7. He then sprinkles them (those four portions of 
Havis with water) in the same way as he had poured 
them out, with (the formula), ' Agreeable to such and 
such (a deity) I sprinkle thee.' 

8. When (the rice or barley grains) have been 
husked and cleansed from the husks three times, let 
him cook (the four portions) separately, 

9. Or throwing (them) together. 

10. If he cooks them separately, let him touch the 
grains, after he has separated them, (and say,) ' This 
to this god ; this to this god.' 

1 1. But if he (cooks the portions) throwing (them) 
together, he should (touch and) sacrifice them, after 
he has put (the single portions) into different vessels. 

12. The portions of sacrificial food, when they 

10, 3. See A*valayana-.Srauta I, 3, 28 Scholion; Kity.-Srauta 
II, 7, 22. 

4. See Hillebrandt, Das altindische Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, 
p. m; my note on •Saftkhayana-GWhya I, 3, 3. 

12. In the Mantra we have a similar play upon words (iddha, 

Digitized by 


1 74 AsvalAyana-gk/hya-s<jtra. 

have been cooked, he sprinkles (with A^ya), takes 
them from the fire towards the north, places them 
on the Barhis, and sprinkles the fuel with A^ya 
with the formula, ' This fuel is thy self, Catavedas ; 
thereby burn thou and increase, and, O burning 
One, make us increase and through offspring, cattle, 
holy lustre, and nourishment make us prosper. 

13. Having silently poured out the two Agharas 
(or A^ya oblations poured out with the Sruva, the 
one from north-west to south-east, the other from 
south-west to north-east), he should sacrifice the two 
hgyz. portions with (the formulas), ' To Agni 
svaha ! To Soma svaha ! '— 

14. The northern one belonging to Agni, the 
southern one to Soma. 

15. It is understood (in the .5ruti), ' The two eyes 
indeed of the sacrifice are the Kg ya portions, 

16. 'Therefore of a man who is sitting with his 
face to the west the southern (i.e. right) eye is 
northern, the northern (i. e. left) eye is southern.' 

17. In the middle (of the two hgyz. portions he 

lit, or burning, and samedhaya, make us prosper) as in .Sankh.- 
Gr/bya II, 10, 4. 

13. Paraskara I, 5, 3 ; Sankh.-Gr/hya I, 9, 5 seq. 

14. .S'ihkh.-Grv'hya I, 9, 7. 

15. Professor Stenzler here very pertinently refers to .Satapatha 
Brahma«a I, 6, 3, 38. 

16. It is doubtful whether this paragraph should be considered 
as forming part of the quotation from the .Sruti. The object of 
this passage is, in my opinion, to explain why the southern Agyz- 
bhaga belongs to Soma, who is the presiding deity of the north, 
and the northern Agyabh&ga to Agni, the presiding deity of the 
south-east. Professor Stenzler's opinion about this paragraph is 
somewhat different. 

17. .Sankh.-Grthya I, 9, 8. 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, IO KANDIK.&, 2$. 1 75 

sacrifices the other) Havis, or more to the west, 
finishing (the oblations) in the east or in the north. 

18. To the north-east the oblation to (Agni) 

19. He cuts off (the Avadana portions) from the 
Havis from the middle and from the eastern part ; 

20. From the middle, the eastern part and the 
western part (the portions have to be cut off) by 
those who make five Avadanas ; 

21. From the northern side the portion for Svish- 

22. Here he omits the second pouring (of A^ya) 
over (what is left of) the sacrificial food. 

23. 'What I have done too much in this ceremony, 
or what I have done here too little, all that may 
Agni Svish/akrz't, he who knows it, make well sacri- 
ficed and well offered for me. To Agni Svish/aknt, 
to him who offers the oblations for general expiation, 
so that they are well offered, to him who makes us 
succeed in what we desire ! Make us in all that we 
desire successful ! Svaha !' 

24. He pours out the full vessel on the Barhis. 

25. This is the Avabhrztha. 

19, 20. See above, the note on 1, 7, 9 about the Avadana portions 
and the peculiar custom of the descendants of ffamadagni with 
regard to them. 

22. Comp. above, I, 7, 10. 'Here' means, at the Svish/aknt 

23. Comp. Paraskara I, 2, 11 ; .Satapatha Brahmana XIV, 9, 
4, 24. On the oblations for general expiation (sarvaprayaj&tta- 
huti) comp. .Sankh.-Gnhya I, 9, 12, and the note. 

24. ' A full vessel which has been put down before, he should 
now pour out on the Barhis.' Naxaya«a. 

25. This pouring out of the vessel holds here the place of the 
Avabhrrtha bath at the end of the Soma sacrifice. See Weber, 
Indische Studien, X, 393 seq. 

Digitized by 


1 76 Asvalayana-g/i/hya-sOtra. 

26. This is the standard form of the Pakaya^was. 

27. What has been left of the Havis is the fee for 
the sacrifice. 

Kaadika 11. 

1. Now (follows) the ritual of the animal sacrifice. 

2. Having prepared to the north of the fire the 
place for the .Samitra fire, having given drink (to 
the animal which he is going to sacrifice), having 
washed the animal, having placed it to the east (of 
the fire) with its face to the west, having made 
oblations with the two Rika.s, ' Agni as our mes- 
senger' (Rig-veda I, 12, 1 seq.), let him touch (the 
animal) from behind with a fresh branch on which 
there are leaves, with (the formula), 'Agreeable to 
such and such (a deity) I touch thee.' 

3. He sprinkles it from before with water in which 
rice and barley are, with (the formula), 'Agreeable to 
such and such (a deity) I sprinkle thee.' 

4. Having given (to the animal) to drink of that 
(water), he should pour out the rest (of it) along its 
right fore-foot. 

5. Having carried fire round (it), performing that 
act only (without repeating a corresponding Mantra), 
they lead it to the north. 

6. In front of it they carry a fire-brand. 

11, 2. The .Samitra fire (literally, the fire of the Samitri, who 
prepares the flesh of the immolated animal) is the one mentioned 
below in Sutras 7 and 10. Comp. Indische Studien, X, 345. 
'I touch thee' is upakaromi; comp. Katyayana-Srauta-sutra 
VI, 3, 19. 26. 

6. It seems that this fire-brand is the same which had been 
carried round the animal, according to Sutra 5. Comp. KdtySyana- 
.Srauta-sutra VI, 5, 2-5. 

Digitized by 



7. This is the .Samitra (fire). 

8. With the two Vaplsrapawt ladles the 'per- 
former' touches the animal. 

9. The sacrificer (touches) the performer. 

10. To the west of the .Samitra (fire) he (the 
■Samitrz) kills (the animal), the head of which is 
turned to the east or to the west, the feet to the 
north ; and having placed a grass-blade on his side 
of the (animal's) navel, (the ' performer ') draws out 
the omentum, cuts off the omentum, seizes it with 
the two Agni^rapawls, sprinkles it with water, warms 
it at the .Samitra (fire), takes it before that fire, 
roasts it, being seated to the south, goes round (the 
two fires), and sacrifices it. 

1 1. At the same fire they cook a mess of food. 

1 2. Having cut off the eleven Avadanas (or por- 
tions which have to be cut off) from the animal, from 
all its limbs, having boiled them at the .Samitra (fire), 

7. Comp. Sutra 2. 

8. On the two Vaplrrapawfs, comp. Katyayana-.SYauta-sutra 
VI, 5, 7 ; Indische Studien, X, 345. The act which is here attri- 
buted to the kartri' ('performer'), belongs in the .Srauta ritual to 
the incumbencies of the Pratiprasthitr*. 

10. On the way in which animals had to bo killed at sacrifices, 
see Weber's Indische Studien, IX, 222 seq. 

On the position of the head and the feet of the victim, comp. K&tyS- 
yana-Srauta-sutra VI, 5, 16. 17. 

According to KStytyana VI, 6, 8 seq. a grass-blade is placed on 
the dead animal's body before the navel (agre»a nabhim) ; through 
that grass-blade he cuts into the body and draws out the omentum. 

' That fire ' is, according to NarSyawa, not the .SSmitra but the 
Aup&sana fire. In the same way in the .Srauta ritual the warming 
of the omentum is performed at the .SSmitra, the boiling at the 
Ahavanfya fire. KStySyana VI, 6, 13. 16. 

11. The Aupisana fire is referred to. 

12. The eleven portions are indicated by KStySyana, .Srauta-sutra 
VI, 7, 6- 

[»9] N 

Digitized by 


1 78 asvalAyana-g/j/hya-sutra. 

and having warmed the heart on a spit, let him sacri- 
fice first from the mess of cooked food (mentioned in 
Sutra 11) ; 

1 3. Or together with the Avadana portions. 

14. From each of the (eleven) Avadanas he cuts 
off two portions. 

15. They perform the rites only (without corre- 
sponding Mantras) with the heart's spit (i.e. the spit 
on which the heart had been ; see Sutra 12). 

Kandika. 12. 

1. At a A'aitya sacrifice he should before the 
Svish/akm (offering) offer a Bali to the Aaitya. 

2. If, however, (the A'aitya) is distant, (he should 
send his Bali) through a leaf-messenger. 

14. 'A PafL&vattin cuts off three portions. Having performed the 
Upastaramt and the Pratyabhighara«a (the first and second pouring 
out of A^ya) he sacrifices (the cut-off portions).' Narayawa. 

15. On the rites regarding the spit, see Katyayana VI, 10, 1 seq. ; 
Indische Studien, X, 346. 

12, 1. There seems to be no doubt that Professor Stenzler is 
right in giving to iaitya in this chapter its ordinary meaning of 
religious shrine (' Denkmal '). The text shows that the ATaitya 
sacrifice was not offered like other sacrifices at the sacrificer's home, 
but that in some cases the offering would have to be sent, at least 
symbolically, to distant places. This confirms Professor Stenzler's 
translation of Jaitya. Naraya«a explains £aitya by £itte bhava, 
and says, ' If he makes a vow to a certain deity, saying, " If I 
obtain such and such a desire, I shall offer to thee an A^ya sacrifice, 
or a Sthalfpaka, or an animal " — and if he then obtains what he 
had wished for and performs that sacrifice to that deity : this is a 
£aitya sacrifice.' I do not know anything that supports this 
statement as to the meaning of £aitya. 

2. ' He should make of a leaf a messenger and a carrying-pole.' 

It is not clear whether besides this image of a messenger there 
was also a real messenger who had to carry the Bali to the ATaitya, 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 13 KAiVDIKA, 2. I 79 

3. With the Rik, ' Where thou knowest, O tree ' 
(Rig-veda V, 5, 10), let him make two lumps (of 
food), put them on a carrying-pole, hand them over 
to the messenger, and say to him, ' Carry this Bali to 
that (Aaitya).' 

4. (He gives him the lump) which is destined for 
the messenger, with (the words), ' This to thee.' 

5. If there is anything dangerous between (them 
and the Aaitya), (he gives him) some weapon also. 

6. If a navigable river is between (them and 
the A!aitya, he gives him) also something like a 
raft with (the words), ' Hereby thou shalt cross.' 

7. At the Dhanvantari sacrifice let him offer first 
a Bali to the Purohita, between the Brahman and 
the fire. 

Kajvdika 13. 

1. The Upanishad (treats of) the Garbhalam- 
bhana, the Puwsavana, and the Anavalobhana (i. e. 
the ceremonies for securing the conception of a child, 
the male gender of the child, and for preventing 
disturbances which could endanger the embryo). 

2. If he does not study (that Upanishad), he 

or whether the whole rite was purely symbolical, and based on 
the principle : In sacris ficta pro veris accipiuntur. 
3. Comp. Paraskara III, 11, 10. 

6. Paraskara III, 11, 11, 

7. Comp. above, chap. 3, 6. 

13, 1. Nirayawa evidently did not know the Upanishad here re- 
ferred to; he states that it belongs to another .SUkhS. Comp. 
Professor Max Mflller's note on Brzhad Arawyaka VI, 4, 24 
(S. B.E., vol. xv, p. 222). 

2. ' He should give her the two beans as a symbol of the 
testicles, and the barley grain as a symbol of the penis.' N£riya«a. 

N 2 

Digitized by 


180 asvalayana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

should in the third month of her pregnancy, under 
(the Nakshatra) Tishya, give to eat (to the wife), 
after she has fasted, in curds from a cow which has 
a calf of the same colour (with herself), two beans 
and one barley grain for each handful of curds. 

3. To his question, ' What dost thou drink ? 
What dost thou drink ? ' she should thrice reply, 
' Generation of a male child ! Generation of a male 

4. Thus three handfuls (of curds). 

5. He then inserts into her right nostril, in the 
shadow of a round apartment, (the sap of) an herb 
which is not faded, 

6. According to some (teachers) with the Pra^avat 
and Clvaputra hymns. 

7. Having sacrificed of a mess of cooked food 
sacred to Pra^apati, he should touch the place of 
her heart with the (verse,) ' What is hidden, O thou 
whose hair is well parted, in thy heart, in Pra^apati, 
that I know; such is my belief. May I not fall 
into distress that comes from sons.' 

5. Naraya»a (comp. also the Prayogaratna, folio 40 ; Ajvalaya- 
nlya-Gnhya-Parirish/a I, 25 ; MS. Chambers 667) separates this 
rite from the ceremony described in Sutras 2-4. He says that 
Sutras 2-4 — as indeed is evidently the case — refer to the Puwsa- 
vana, and in Sutra 5 begins the Anavalobhana (comp. garbhara- 
kshana, .Sahkh. I, 21). To me it seems more probable that the 
text describes one continuous ceremony. There is no difficulty in 
supposing that of the Anavalobhana, though it is mentioned in 
Sutra 1, no description is given in the following Sutras, the same 
being the case undoubtedly with regard to the Garbhalambhana, 
of which a description is found in the A.rv.-Parmsh/a I, 25. 

6. Two texts commencing a te garbho yonim etu and Agnir 
etu prathama^. See Stenzler's Various Readings, p. 48, and the 
Bibliotheca Indica edition, p. 61. 

Digitized by 


i adhyAya, 14 kajvdikA, 7. 181 

KandikA 14. 

1. In the fourth month of pregnancy the Siman- 
tonnayana (or parting of the hair, is performed). 

2. In the fortnight of the increasing moon, when 
the moon stands in conjunction with a Nakshatra 
(that has a name) of masculine gender — 

3. Then he gives its place to the fire, and having 
spread to the west of it a bull's hide with the neck 
to the east, with the hair outside, (he makes obla- 
tions,) while (his wife) is sitting on that (hide) and 
takes hold of him, with the two (verses), ' May 
Dhat?7 give to his worshipper,' with the two verses, 
' I invoke Raka' (Rig-veda II, 32, 4 seq.), and with 
(the texts), ' Ne^amesha,' and, ' Pra^apati, no other 
one than thou' (Rig-veda X, 121, 10). 

4. He then three times parts her hair upwards 
(i. e. beginning from the front) with a bunch con- 
taining an even number of unripe fruits, and with 
a porcupine's quill that has three white spots, and 
with three bunches of Kura grass, with (the words), 
' Bhur, bhuva^, svar, om !' 

5. Or four times. 

6. He gives orders to two lute-players, ' Sing 
king Soma.' 

7. (They sing,) ' May Soma our king bless the 
human race. Settled is the wheel of N.N.' — (here 
they name) the river near which they dwell. 

14, 3. Comp. above, chap. 8, 9. Regarding the two verses Dhata 
dadatu dafushe, see Sankh.-Grj'hya I, 22, 7. The Ne^amesha 
hymn is Rig-veda Khailika sukta, vol. vi, p. 31, ed. Max Mtlller. 

7. Comp. Paraskara I, 15, 8. The Gatha there is somewhat 
different. I cannot see why in the A-rvalayana redaction of it 
nivish/aiakrasau should not be explained, conformably to the 

Digitized by 


182 asvalayana-g/?/hya-s6tra. 

8. And whatever aged Brahmawa woman, whose 
husbands and children are alive, tell them, that let 
them do. 

9. A bull is the fee for the sacrifice. 

Kandivla 15. 

1. When a son has been born, (the father) should, 
before other people touch him, give him to eat from 
gold (i. e. from a golden vessel or with a golden 
spoon) butter and honey with which he has ground 
gold(-dust), with (the verse), ' I administer to thee 
the wisdom (' veda ') of honey, of ghee, raised by 
Savitri the bountiful. Long-living, protected by 
the gods, live a hundred autumns in this world ! ' 

2. Approaching (his mouth) to (the child's) two 
ears he murmurs the ' production of intelligence : ' 
' Intelligence may give to thee god SavitW, intelli- 
gence may goddess Sarasvati, intelligence may give 
to thee the two divine Asvins, wreathed with lotus.' 

3. He touches (the child's) two shoulders with 
(the verse), ' Be a stone, be an axe, be insuperable 
gold. Thou indeed art the Veda, called son ; so 
live a hundred autumns' — and with (the verses), 
4 Indra, give the best treasures' (Rig-veda II, 21, 6), 
' Bestow on us, O bountiful one, O speedy one' 
(Rig-veda III, 36, 10). 

4. And let them give him a name beginning with 

regular Sandhi laws, as nivish/a^akra asau. The wheel of 
course means the dominion. 

15, 1. Comp. A.rv.-G/7'hya-Parmsh/a I, 26. I follow Professor 
Stenzler, who corrects maghondm into maghoni; comp. .Saftkh.- 
Gr/hya I, 24, 4. 

3. Vedo may as well be the nominative of veda as that of 
vedas ('property'). 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 1 6 KANDlKk, 5. 1 83 

a sonant, with a semivowel in it, with the Visarga at 
its end, consisting of two syllables, 

5. Or of four syllables ; 

6. Of two syllables, if he is desirous of firm posi- 
tion; of four syllables, if he is desirous of holy 
lustre ; 

7. But in every case with an even number (of 
syllables) for men, an uneven for women. 

8. And let him also find out (for the child) a name 
to be used at respectful salutations (such as that due 
to the A^arya at the ceremony of the initiation) ; 
that his mother and his father (alone) should know 
till his initiation. 

9. When he returns from a journey, he embraces 
his son's head and murmurs, ' From limb by limb 
thou art produced ; out of the heart thou art born. 
Thou indeed art the self called son ; so live a hun- 
dred autumns ! ' — (thus) he kisses him three times 
on his head. 

10. The rite only (without the Mantra is per- 
formed) for a girl. 

KaothkA 16. 

1. In the sixth month the Annaprasana (i.e. the 
first feeding with solid food). 

2. Goat's flesh, if he is desirous of nourishment, 

3. Flesh of partridge, if desirous of holy lustre, 

4. Boiled rice with ghee, if desirous of splendour : 

5. (Such) food, mixed with curds, honey and ghee 
he should give (to the child) to eat with (the verse), 
' Lord of food, give us food painless and strong ; 

16, 1 seq. Comp. S&hkb.-Grihya. I, 27, 1 seq. The two texts 
are nearly word for word identical. 

Digitized by 


184 Asvalayana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

bring forward the giver ; bestow power on us, on 
men and animals.' 

6. The rite only (without the Mantra) for a girl. 

Kaybika 17. 

1. In the third year the A!aula (i.e. the tonsure 
of the child's head), or according to the custom of 
the family. 

2. To the north of the fire he places vessels which 
are filled respectively, with rice, barley, beans, and 
sesamum seeds ; 

3. To the west (the boy) for whom the ceremony 
shall be performed, in his mother's lap, bull-dung in 
a new vessel, and vSaml leaves are placed. 

4. To the south of the mother the father (is 
seated) holding twenty-one bunches of Kura. grass. 

5. Or the Brahman should hold them. 

6. To the west of (the boy) for whom the cere- 
mony is to be performed, (the father) stations him- 
self and pours cold and warm water together with 
(the words), 'With warm water, O Vayu, come 

7. Taking of that (water), (and) fresh butter, or 
(some) drops of curds, he three times moistens (the 
boy's) head, from the left to the right, with (the 
formula), ' May Aditi cut thy hair ; may the waters 
moisten thee for vigour !' 

8. Into the right part (of the hair) he puts each 

4. He cuts off the hair four times on the right side (Sutras 10- 
14), three times on the left side (Sutra 15); each time three Kara 
bunches are required. This is the reason why twenty-one bunches 
are prescribed. 

8. Each of the four times and of the three times respectively that 
he cuts off the hair ; see the preceding note. 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 17 KAM3IKA, 1 6. 1 85 

time three Ku$a bunches, with the points towards 
(the boy) himself, with (the words), ' Herb ! protect 

9. (With the words,) 'Axe! do no harm to him !' 
he presses a copper razor (on the Kusa blades), 

10. And cuts (the hair) with (the verse), 'The 
razor with which in the beginning Savitrz the 
knowing one has shaved (the beard) of king Soma 
and of Varuwa, with that, ye Brahma»as, shave now 
his (hair), that he may be blessed with long life, with 
old age.' 

11. Each time that he has cut, he gives (the hairs) 
with their points to the east, together with .Saml 
leaves, to the mother. She puts them down on the 

12. 'With what Dhatrz has shaven (the head) of 
BWhaspati, Agni and Indra, for the sake of long life, 
with that I shave thy (head) for the sake of long life, 
of glory, and of welfare' — thus a second time. 

13. 'By what he may at night further see the sun, 
and see it long, with that I shave thy (head) for the 
sake of long life, of glory, and of welfare' — thus a 
third time. 

14. With all (the indicated) Mantras a fourth 

15. Thus three times on the left side (of the 

16. Let him wipe off the edge of the razor with 
(the words), * If thou shavest, as a shaver, his hair 
with the razor, the wounding, the well-shaped, purify 
his head, but do not take away his life.' 

13. Instead of yena bhtiyaj £a ratry&m, Paraskara (II, 1, 16) 
has, yena bhfirij iara divam. 

16. Comp. Paraskara II, 1, 19 ; Atharva-veda VIII, 2, 17. 

Digitized by 


1 86 asvalayana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

i 7. Let him give orders to the barber, ' With luke- 
warm water doing what has to be done with water, 
without doing harm to him, arrange (his hair) well.' 

18. Let him have the arrangement of the hair 
made according to the custom of his family. 

19. The rite only (without the Mantras) for a 

Kajvdika 18. 

1. Thereby the Godanakarman (i.e. the ceremony 
of shaving the beard, is declared). 

2. In the sixteenth year. 

3. Instead of the word ' hair' he should (each time 
that it occurs in the Mantras) put the word ' beard.' 

4. Here they moisten the beard. 

5. (The Mantra is), ' Purify his head and his face, 
but do not take away his life.' 

6. He gives orders (to the barber with the words), 
' Arrange his hair, his beard, the hair of his body, 
and his nails, ending in the north.' 

7. Having bathed and silently stood during the 
rest of the day, let him break his silence in the 
presence of his teacher, (saying to him,) ' I give an 
optional gift (to thee).' 

8. An ox and a cow is the sacrificial fee. 

18. On these family customs, see Gr/hya-sa»graha-pari.rish/aII, 
40 ; Roth, Zur Literatur und Geschichte des Weda, p. 120; Max 
Mtiller, History of A. S. L., p. 54 seq. ; Weber, Indische Studien, X, 95. 

18, 4. See above, chap. 17, 7. 

5. See chap. 17, 16. 

6. According to Narayawa, he says to the barber (chap. 17, 17), 
'With lukewarm water doing what has to be done with water, 
without doing harm to him, arrange his hair, his beard, the hair of 
his body, and his nails, ending in the north.' 

7. 8. On restrictions like that contained in the eighth Sutra as to 
the object in which the vara (optional gift) had to consist, see 
Weber, Indische Studien, V, 343. 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 1 9 KAND1KA, 12. 187 

9. Let (the teacher) impose (on the youth the 
observances declared below) for one year. 

Kawdika 19. 

1. In the eighth year let him initiate a Brahma»a, 

2. Or in the eighth year after the conception ; 

3. In the eleventh a Kshatriya ; 

4. In the twelfth a Vaisya. 

5. Until the sixteenth (year) the time has not 
passed for a Brahma#a ; 

6. Until the twenty-second for a Kshatriya ; 

7. Until the twenty-fourth for a Vai^ya. 

8. After that (time has passed), they become pati- 
tasavitrlka (i.e. they have lost their right of learning 
the Savitrt). 

9. No one should initiate such men, nor teach 
them, nor perform sacrifices for them, nor have inter- 
course with them. 

10. (Let him initiate) the youth who is adorned 
and whose (hair on the) head is arranged, who wears 
a (new) garment that has not yet been washed, or 
an antelope-skin, if he is a Brahma»a, the skin of 
a spotted deer, if a Kshatriya, a goat's skin, if a 

11. If they put on garments, they should put on 
dyed (garments) : the Brahma«a a reddish yellow 
one, the Kshatriya a light red one, the Vauya a 
yellow one. 

1 2. Their girdles are : that of a Brahma»a made 
of Mu»p grass, that of a Kshatriya a bow-string, 
that of a Vaisya woollen. 

9. See below, chap. 22, 22. 

19, 10. By the 'arranging of the hair' the cutting of the hair is 
implied, as is seen from chap. 22, 22. 

Digitized by 


1 88 Asvalayana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

i 3. Their staffs are : that of a Brahma»a of Pallra 
wood, that of a Kshatriya of Udumbara wood, that 
of a Vaisya of Bilva wood. 

Kajvbika 20. 

1 . Or all (sorts of staffs are to be used) by (men 
of) all (castes). 

2. While (the student) takes hold of him, the 
teacher sacrifices and then stations himself to the 
north of the fire, with his face turned to the east. 

3. To the east (of the fire) with his face to the 
west the other one. 

4. (The teacher then) fills the two hollows of (his 
own and the student's) joined hands with water, and 
with the verse, ' That we choose of Savitrz" (Rig- 
veda V, 82, 1) he makes with the full (hollow of his 
own hands the water) flow down on the full (hollow 
of) his, (i.e. the student's hands.) Having (thus) 
poured (the water over his hands) he should with his 
(own) hand seize his (i. e. the student's) hand together 
with the thumb, with (the formula), ' By the impulse 
of the god Savhri, with the arms of the two A.rvins, 
with.Pushan's hands I seize thy hand, N.N. ! ' 

5. With (the words), ' Savim has seized thy hand, 
N. N. !' a second time. 

6. With (the words), ' Agni is thy teacher, N.N. !' 
a third time. 

7. He should cause him to look at the sun while 
the teacher says, ' God Savitrz, this is thy Brahma- 
>£arin ; protect him ; may he not die.' 

20, 2. He offers the oblations prescribed above, chap. 1, 4, 
3 seq. 

Digitized by 


i adhyAya, 21 kajvthkA, 2. 189 

8. (And further the teacher says), ' Whose Brah- 
ma^arin art thou ? The breath's Brahmaiarin art 
thou. Who does initiate thee, and whom (does he 
initiate) ? To whom shall I give thee in charge ?' 

9. With the half verse, *A youth, well attired, 
dressed came hither' (Rig-veda III, 8, 4) he should 
cause him to turn round from the left to the right. 

10. Reaching with his two hands over his (i.e. the 
student's) shoulders (the teacher) should touch the 
place of his heart with the following (half verse). 

11. Having wiped the ground round the fire, the 
student should put on a piece of wood silently. 
' Silence indeed is what belongs to Pra^apati. The 
student becomes belonging to Pra/apati' — this is 
understood (in the 3ruti). 

Kajvjdika 21. 

1. Some (do this) with a Mantra: 'To Agni I 
have brought a piece of wood, to the great <74ta- 
vedas. Through that piece of wood increase thou, 
O Agni ; through the Brahman (may) we (increase). 

2. Having put the fuel (on the fire) and having 

11. On the wiping of the ground round the fire, comp. above, 
chap. 3, 1 ; Sahkhayana-Gnhya I, 7, 11. Narayawa here has the 
following remarks, which I can scarcely believe to express the real 
meaning of this Sutra : ' Here the wiping of the ground round the 
fire is out of place, because the Sawskaras for the fire have already 
been performed. As to that, it should be observed that the wiping is 
mentioned here in order that, when fuel is put on the fire in the 
evening and in the morning, the sprinkling of water and the wiping 
may be performed. But on this occasion (at the Upanayana) the 
student does not perform the wiping, &c, and silently puts a piece 
of wood on that fire.' 

Digitized by 


1 90 asvalAyana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

touched the fire, he three times wipes off his face 
with (the words), ' With splendour I anoint myself.' 

3. ' For with splendour does he anoint himself — 
this is understood (in the .Sruti). 

4. ' On me may Agni bestow insight, on me 
offspring, on me splendour. 

' On me may Indra bestow insight, on me offspring, 
on me strength (indriya). 

' On me may Surya bestow insight, on me offspring, 
on me radiance. 

' What thy splendour is, Agni, may I thereby be- 
come resplendent. 

' What thy vigour is, Agni, may I thereby become 

'What thy consuming power is, Agni, may I thereby 
obtain consuming power ' — with (these formulas) he 
should approach the fire, bend his knee, embrace 
(the teacher's feet), and say to him, ' Recite, sir ! 
The Savitri, sir, recite!' 

5. Seizing with his (i. e. the student's) garment and 
with (his own) hands (the student's) hands (the 
teacher) recites the Savitri, (firstly) Pada by Pada, 
(then) hemistich by hemistich, (and finally) the whole 

6. He should make him recite (the Savitri) as far 
as he is able. 

7. On the place of his (i.e. the student's) heart (the 
teacher) lays his hand with the fingers upwards, with 
(the formula), ' Into my will I take thy heart ; after 
my mind shall thy mind follow ; in my word thou 
shalt rejoice with all thy will ; may Br/haspati join 
thee to me/ 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 22 KAOT5IKA, 12. 191 

Kajvdika 22. 

i. Having tied the girdle round him and given him 
the staff, he should impose the (observances of the) 
Brahma^arya on him — 

2. (With the words), 'A Brahma^arin thou art. 
Eat water. Do the service. Do not sleep in the 
day-time. Devoted to the teacher study the Veda.' 

3. Twelve years lasts the Brahma^arya for (each) 
Veda, or until he has learnt it. 

4. Let him beg (food) in the evening and in the 

5. Let him put fuel on (the fire) in the evening 
and in the morning. 

6. Let him beg first of a man who will not refuse, 

7. Or of a woman who will not refuse. 

8. (In begging he should use the words), 'Sir, 
give food ! ' 

9. Or, '(Sir, give) Anuprava^antya (food).' 

10. That (which he has received) he should an- 
nounce to his teacher. 

11. He should stand the rest of the day. 

12. After sunset (the student) should cook the 
Brahmaudana (or boiled rice with which the Brah- 
mawasare to be fed) for the Anuprava^anlya sacrifice 
(the sacrifice to be performed after a part of the 
Veda has been studied), and should announce to the 
teacher (that it is ready). 

22, 9. Food for the Anuprava^antya offering; see Sutra 12. 

10. .SSnkhayana-Gri'hya II, 6, 7; Paraskara II, 5, 8. 

12.' The student should, according to the rules for the PSkaya^was, 
cook the Anuprava£anfya food and announce it to the teacher in 
the words, " The food is cooked." ' N£raya»a. 

Digitized by 


192 asvalayana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

i 3. The teacher should sacrifice, while the student 
takes hold of him, with the verse, ' The wonderful 
lord of the abode ' (Rig-veda I, 18, 6). 

14. A second time with the Savitrf — 

15. And whatever else has been studied after- 

16. A third time to the /fo'shis. 

17. A fourth time (the oblation) to (Agni) Svi- 

18. Having given food to the Brahmawas he 
should cause them to pronounce the end of the 
Veda (study). 

19. From that time (the student) should eat no 
saline food ; he should observe chastity, and should 
sleep on the ground through three nights, or twelve 
nights, or one year. 

20. When he has fulfilled those observances, (the 
teacher) performs (for him) the ' production of intel- 
ligence,' (in the following way) : 

21. While (the student) towards an unobjectionable 
direction (of the horizon) sprinkles thrice (water) 
from the left to the right with a water-pot round a 

15. Nirayawa mentions as such texts especially those belonging 
to the Arawyaka, viz. the MahSnSmnyas, the Mahavrata, and the 
Upanishad. But there is no reason why we should not think quite 
as well of the Rig-veda Satfzhita" itself. 

18. 'He should say, "Sirs! Pronounce the end of the Veda 
(study)." And they should reply, " May an end of the Veda (study) 
be made." ' N£riya«a. 

20. Comp. above, chap. 15, 2. 

21. ' The objectionable directions are three, the south, the south- 
east, the south-west.' NSr&ya«a. 

Sujravas, which I have translated by ' glorious,' at the same 
time means, ' endowed with good hearing,' i. e. successful in study. 
The student therefore by the same word prays for glory and for 
success in Vedic learning. 

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PaULra. (tree) with one root, or round a Kara bunch, 
if there is no Palara, (the teacher) causes him to say, 
' O glorious one, thou art glorious. As thou, O 
glorious one, art glorious, thus, O glorious one, lead 
me to glory. As thou art the preserver of the 
treasure of sacrifice for the gods, thus may I become 
the preserver of the treasure of the Veda for men.' 

22. Thereby, beginning with his having the hair 
cut, and ending with the giving in charge, the impos- 
ing of observances has been declared. 

23. Thus for one who has not been initiated 

24. Now as regards one who has been initiated 
before : 

25. The cutting of the hair is optional, 

26. And the ' production of intelligence.' 

27. On the giving in charge there are no express 
rules (in this case) ; 

28. And on the time. 

29. (He should recite to him) as the Savitrl (the 
Rik), 'That we choose of god Savitre' (Rig-veda V, 
82, 1). 

KAlfDIKk 23. 

1. He chooses priests (for officiating at a sacrifice) 
with neither deficient nor superfluous limbs, ' who on 

22. The rules stated above for the Upanayana, beginning with 
the prescription regarding the cutting of the hair (given chap. 19, 
10 in the words, ' whose [hair on the] head is arranged ;' see the 
note there), and ending with the ceremony prescribed chap. 20, 8, 
are to be extended also to other cases of the imposing of a vow, 
such, for instance, as that mentioned chap. 18, 9. 

25. See chap. 19, 10. 26. See above, Sutra 20. 

27. See chap. 20, 8. 28. See chap. 4, 1. 

29. Instead of the ordinary Sivitrt, Rig-veda III, 62, 10. 

23, 1. Comp. .Srauta-s&tra IX, 3, 20 ; Gr*bya-sutra I, 5, 1. 
[29] O 

Digitized by 


1 94 ajvalayana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

the mother's and on the father's side (&c.),' as it has 
been said above. 

2. Let him choose young men as officiating priests : 
thus (declare) some (teachers). 

3. He chooses first the Brahman, then the Hotri, 
then the Adhvaryu, then the Udgatri. 

4. Or all who officiate at the Ahina sacrifices and 
at those lasting one day. 

5. The Kaushitakinas prescribe the Sadasya as 
the seventeenth, saying, ' He is the looker-on at the 

6. This has been said in the two Rikz.s, ' He whom 
the officiating priests, performing (the sacrifice) in 
many ways' (Rig- veda VIII, 58, 1. 2). 

7. He chooses the Hotri first. 

8. With (the formula), ' Agni is my Hotri ; he is my 
Hotri ; I choose thee N. N. as my HotW (he chooses) 
the Hotri. 

4. The Ahina sacrifices are those which last more than one day, 
but not more than twelve days. (Indische Studien, IX, 373 ; X, 
355-) The priests officiating at such sacrifices are the sixteen 
stated in the -SYauta-sutra IV, 1, 6. 7. Those besides the sixteen, 
though they are chosen (saty api varawe) for taking part in the 
sacred performances, have not the rank of r/'tvi^as (officiating 
priests); such are the Sadasya, the .SamitW, and the JPamasa- 
dhvaryavaA (schol. .Srautas. loc. cit.). See Max Miiller's History of 
A. S. L., pp. 450, 469 seq. As to the Sadasya, however, there was 
some difference of opinion (see the next Sutra). 

5. On the office of the Sadasya, see Indische Studien, X, 136, 144. 

6. The two Rifas quoted here belong to the tenth among the 
Valakhilya hymns, a hymn omitted in many of the Rig-veda MSS. 
They give no special confirmation to the rules stated in our text, 
but contain only a general allusion to the unity of the sacrifice, 
which the various priests perform in many various ways. 

7. ' If the four (chief) priests have to be chosen, the choosing of 
the Brahmawa stands first in order (see above, Sutra 3) ; if all (the 
sixteen), then the choosing of the Hotr*' stands first in order.' 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAYA, 23 KANDIKA, 1 9. 195 

9. With (the formula), ' A!andramas (the moon) is 
my Brahman; he is my Brahman; I choose thee 
N.N. as my Brahman ' (he chooses) the Brahman, 

10. With (the formula), 'Aditya (the sun) is my 
Adhvaryu; (he is my Adhvaryu, &c.)' — the Adh- 

1 1. With (the formula), ' Par^anya is my Udg&tri ; 
(he is my Udg&tri, &c.) ' — the Udgatrz. 

1 2. With (the formula), ' The waters are my reciters 
of what belongs to the Hotrakas ' — the Hotrakas. 

1 3. With (the formula), ' The rays are my Aama- 
sadhvaryus ' — the A!amasadhvaryus. 

14. With (the formula), 'The ether is my Sada- 
sya' — the Sadasya. 

15. He whom he has chosen should murmur, ' A 
great thing thou hast told me ; splendour thou hast told 
me ; fortune thou hast told me ; glory thou hast told 
me ; praise thou hast told me ; success thou hast told 
me ; enjoyment thou hast told me ; satiating thou hast 
told me ; everything thou hast told me.' 

16. Having murmured (this formula), the Hotri 
declares his assent (in the words), ' Agni is thy 
Hotri; he is thy Hotri; thy human Hotri am I.' 

1 7. ' A!andramas (the moon) is thy Brahman ; he 
is thy Brahman (&c.) ' — thus the Brahman. 

18. In the same way the others according to the 
prescriptions (given above). 

19. And if (the priest who accepts the invitation) 

12. The twelve priests of the sixteen (see § 4 note) who do not 
stand at the head of one of the four categories. Those at the head 
are enumerated in the Sutras 8-1 1. 

13, 14. See above, § 4 note. 

19. Priests who only perform the Agnyadheya for a person, are, 
according to NSraya«a's note on this Sutra, not considered as 

O 2 

Digitized by 


1 96 AsvalAy ana-gwhya-sOtra. 

is going to perform the sacrifice (for the inviting 
person, he should add), ' May that bless me ; may 
that enter upon me ; may I thereby enjoy (bliss).' 

20. The functions of an officiating priest are not 
to be exercised, if abandoned (by another priest), or 
at an Ahina sacrifice with small sacrificial fee, or for 
a person that is sick, or suffering, or affected with 
consumption, or decried among the people in his 
village, or of despised extraction : for such persons 
(the functions of a Ritv'ig should not be exercised). 

21. He (who is chosen as a Ritv'ig) should ask 
the Somapravaka, ' What sacrifice is it ? Who are 

performing a sacrifice for him; consequently the formula given 
here is only to be used by priests who are elected for a Soma 
sacrifice. Stenzler translates, ' So spricht er, wenn er das Opfer 
durch sie vollziehen lassen will.' But this would be yakshya- 
mSina.A, not ya^ayishyan. 

20. The tradition takes ni£adakshi«asya as in apposition to 
ahinasya, and I have translated accordingly. But I cannot help 
thinking that the two words should be separated, so that we should 
have to translate, ' or at an Ahina, or for a person that gives small 
sacrificial fee.' Thus the Brahmawa quoted by Apastamba (see 
the commentary on the Paw&wiwja Brahmawa, vol. i, p. 6, ed. 
Bibl. Indica) gives the following questions which the Jtitvig to be 
chosen should ask, ' Is it no Ahtna sacrifice ? Is the Jiitvlg office 
not abandoned by others? Is the sacrificial fee plentiful?' It is a 
very singular fact, that on the one hand the assistance of a number 
of -fa'tvifas was unanimously declared necessary for the perform- 
ance of an Ahina sacrifice, while on the other hand it was considered 
objectionable, at least among some of the Vedic schools, to officiate 
at such a sacrifice. See Weber's Indische Studien, X, 150, 151. 

On anude^yabhifasta Narayawa says, sadejinabhirastasyaivam 
eke. anye tu .rraddhe pratishiddhasyety ihxiA. It seems to me that 
anudejya (or rather anudesya?) in Sankhayana-.Sraut. V, 1, 10 
(Indische Studien, X, 147) means the same, though the commentary 
on that Sutra ascribes a different meaning to that word. 

2 1 . The Somapravaka is the messenger who invites the priests 
on behalf of the sacrificer to officiate at his intended Soma sacrifice. 
Comp. Indische Studien, IX, 308. 

Digitized by 


i adhyAya, 24 kandikX, 7. 197 

the priests officiating? What is the fee for the 
sacrifice ? ' 

22. If (all the conditions) are favourable, he should 

23. Let (the officiating priests) eat no flesh nor 
have intercourse with a wife until the completion of 
the sacrifice. 

24. ' By this prayer, O Agni, increase ' (Rig-veda 
I, 31, 18) — with (this verse) let him offer (at the end 
of the sacrifice) an oblation of A^ya in (his own) 
Dakshiwagni, and go away where he likes ; 

25. In the same way one who has not set up 
the (.Srauta) fires, in his (sacred) domestic fire with 
this Rik, ' Forgive us, O Agni, this sin ' (Rig-veda 
I, 31, 16). 

KaathkA 24. 

1. When he has chosen the ifotvi^as, he should 
offer the Madhuparka (i. e. honey-mixture) to them 
(in the way described in Sutras 5 and following) ; 

2. To a Snataka, when he comes to his house ; 

3. And to a king ; 

4. And for a teacher, the father-in-law, a paternal 
uncle, and a maternal uncle. 

5. He pours honey into curds, 

6. Or butter, if he can get no honey. 

7. A seat, the water for washing the feet, the 
Arghya water (i. e. perfumed water into which flowers 
have been thrown), the water for sipping, the honey- 

24, 1 seqq. Comp. -Sankhayana-Gnhya II, 15. The second 
Siltra is paraphrased by N£riya«a thus, 'To a person that has 
performed the Samavartana (see below, III, 8), when he comes on 
that day to his house with the intention of forming a matrimonial 

Digitized by 


198 asvalAyana-g.r/hya-sOtra. 

mixture, a cow : every one of these things they 
announce three times (to the guest). 

8. With (the verse), ' I am the highest one among 
my people, as the sun among the thunderbolts. Here 
I tread on him whosoever infests me ' — he should 
sit down on the seat (made of) northward-pointed 

9. Or (he should do so) after he has trodden 
on it. 

10. He should make (his host) wash his feet. 

11. The right foot he should stretch out first to a 

12. The left to a 6udra. 

13. When his feet have been washed, he receives 
the Arghya water in the hollow of his joined hands 
and then sips the water destined thereto, with (the 
formula), ' Thou art the first layer for Ambrosia.' 

14. He looks at the Madhuparka when it is 
brought to him, with (the formula), ' I look at thee 
with Mitra's eye.' 

15. He accepts it with his joined hands with (the 
formula), ' By the impulse of the god Savitrz, with 
the arms of the two Asvins, with the hands of Pushan 
I accept thee.' He then takes it into his left hand, 
looks at it with the three verses, ' Honey the winds 
to the righteous one' (Rig-veda I, 90, 6 seqq.), stirs 
it about three times from left to right with the fourth 
finger and the thumb, and wipes (his fingers) with 
(the formula), ' May the Vasus eat thee with the 
Gayatri metre ' — to the east ; 

16. With (the formula), ' May the Rudras eat thee 
with the Trish/ubh metre ' — to the south ; 

1 7. With (the formula), * May the Adityas eat 
thee with the Caeatl metre ' — to the west ; 

Digitized by 


I ADHYAyA, 24 KAtfZHKA, 32. 1 99 

18. With (the formula), ' May the Vi^ve devas eat 
thee with the Anush/ubh metre ' — to the north. 

19. With (the formula), ' To the beings thee' — he 
three times takes (some of the Madhuparka sub- 
stance) out of the middle of it. 

20. With (the formula), ' The milk of Vir&f art 
thou ' — he should partake thereof the first time, 

21. With, ' The milk of Virif may I obtain ' — the 
second time, 

22. With, ' In me (may) the milk of Padya Vira^- 
(dwell) ' — the third time. 

23. (He should) not (eat) the whole (Madhuparka). 

24. He should not satiate himself. 

25. To a Brahma#a, to the north, he should give 
the remainder. 

26. If that cannot be done, (he should throw it) 
into water. 

27. Or (he may eat) the whole (Madhuparka). 

28. He then makes a rinsing of his mouth follow 
(on the eating of the Madhuparka) with the water 
destined thereto, with (the formula), ' Thou art the 
covering of Ambrosia.' 

29. With (the formula), 'Truth! Glory! Fortune! 
May fortune rest on me !' — a second time. 

30. When he has sipped water, they announce to 
him the cow. 

31. Having murmured, 'Destroyed is my sin ; my 
sin is destroyed,' (he says,) ' Om, do it,' if he chooses 
to have her killed. 

32. Having murmured, ' The mother of the Ru- 
dras, the daughter of the Vasus' (Rig-veda VIII, 

22. On PadyS VirSf, see the note on .Sankhayana-Gr»hya III, 7, 5. 
28. Comp. above, Sutra 13. 

Digitized by 


200 asvalayana-or/hya-sOtra. 

ioi, 15), (he says,) ' Om, let her loose,' if he chooses 
to let her loose. 

33. Let the Madhu parka not be without flesh, 
without flesh. 

End of the First Adhyaya. 

33. Comp. .Sankhayana-Gnhya II, 15, 2. 

Digitized by 




i. On the full moon day of the *Srava#a month 
the .SYavawa ceremony (is performed). 

2. Having filled a new jug with flour of fried 
barley, he lays (this jug) and a spoon for offering 
the Balis on new strings of a carrying pole (and thus 
suspends them). 

3. Having prepared fried barley grains, he smears 
half of them with butter. 

4. After sunset he prepares a mess of cooked food 
and a cake in one dish and sacrifices (the cooked food) 
with the four verses, ' Agni, lead us on a good path 
to wealth ' (Rig-veda I, 189, 1 seqq.), verse by verse, 
and with his hand the (cake) in one dish with (the 
formula), ' To the steady One, the earth-demon, 
svaha !' 

5. (The cake) should be (entirely) immersed (into 
the butter), or its back should be visible. 

6. With (the verse), 'Agni, do not deliver us to 
evil' (Rig-veda I, 189, 5) he sacrifices over it (the 
butter) in which it had lain. 

7. With (the verse), ' May the steeds at our invo- 
cation be for a blessing to us ' (Rig-veda VII, 38, 7) 
(he sacrifices) the besmeared grains with his joined 

8. The other (grains) he should give to his people. 

9. Out of the jug he fills the spoon with flour, 

1, 1. Narayawa's observation that the .Sravawa full moon can fall 
also under certain other Nakshatras than Sravawa itself, furnishes 
no reason why we should think here of solar months, as Prof. 
Stenzler proposes. 

7, 8. See above, Sutra 3. 9. See above, Sutra 1. 

Digitized by 



goes out (of the house) to the east, pours water on 
the ground on a clean spot, sacrifices with (the 
formula), ' To the divine hosts of the serpents 
svaha!' and does reverence to them with (the 
formula), ' The serpents which are terrestrial, which 
are aerial, which are celestial, which dwell in the 
directions (of the horizon) — to them I have brought 
this Bali ; to them I give over this Bali.' 

10. Having gone round (the Bali) from left to 
right, he sits down to the west of the Bali with (the 
words), ' The serpent art thou ; the lord of the 
creeping serpents art thou ; by food thou protectest 
men, by cake the serpents, by sacrifice the gods. 
To me, being in thee, the serpents being in thee 
should do no harm. I give over the firm one 
(i.e. the spoon) to thee.' 

11. ' Firm one, (I give) N. N. (in charge) to thee ! 
Firm one, (I give) N. N. (in charge) to thee!' — 
with (these words he gives) his people, man by man, 
(in charge to the serpent god) ; 

12. ' Firm one, I give myself in charge to thee !' — 
with these words himself at the end. 

1 3. Let no one step between it (i. e. the Bali, and 
the sacrificer), until the giving in charge has been 

14. With (the formula), ' To the divine hosts of 
the serpents svaha!' — let him offer the Bali in the 
evening and in the morning, till the Pratyavarohawa 
(i. e. the ceremony of the ' redescent '). 

1 5. Some count (the days till the Pratyavaroha?za) 

14. On the Pratyavarohawa, see the third chapter of this 

15. I.e. two Bali offerings for each day, one for the morning and 
one for the evening. 

Digitized by 



and offer the corresponding number of Balis already 
on that day (on which the 6rava#a ceremony is 

Kandika 2. 

1. On the full moon day of A^vayu^a the Arvayuft 
ceremony (is performed). 

2. Having adorned the house, having bathed and 
put on clean garments, they should pour out a mess 
of cooked food for Pampati, and should sacrifice it 
with (the formula), ' To Pampati, to .Siva, to .Sawkara, 
to PWshataka svaha !' 

3. He should sacrifice with his joined hands a 
mixture of curds and butter (pn'shataka) with (the 
formula), ' May what is deficient be made full to me ; 
may what is full not decay to me. To Przshataka 

4. ' United with the seasons, united with the 
manners, united with Indra and Agni, svaha ! 

' United with the seasons, united with the manners, 
united with the Virve devas, sviha ! 

' United with the seasons, united with the manners, 
united with Heaven and Earth, svaha !' — with (these 
formulas) a mess of cooked food is offered at the 

2, 2. ' The plural " They should sacrifice it " means, that while 
the sacrifice is performed by the householder, his sons and the 
other persons belonging to the house should touch him.' N&rayawa. 

4. The Agrayaaa sacrifice, which is offered when the sacrificer is 
going to partake of the first-fruits of the harvest, is treated of, with 
relation to a sacrificer who keeps the .Srauta fires, in the .Srauta- 
sutra II, 9. This Sutra in my opinion should be understood as a 
supplementary addition to that chapter. Narayawa refers the rule 
here given to the case of any incident or danger (apad) which pre- 
vents the sacrificer from performing the ceremony in its fuller 
form, as prescribed in the .Srauta-sutra. 

Digitized by 


204 asvalAyana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

Agraya«a sacrifice by one who has set up the (sacred 
vSrauta) fires. 

5. Also by one who has not set up the (*Srauta) 
fires (the same offering is performed) in the (sacred) 
domestic fire. 

KajvdikA 3. 

1. On the full moon of Margartrsha the ' rede- 
scent' (is performed) — on the fourteenth (Tithi), 

2. Or on (the Tithi of) the full moon (itself). 

3. Having again renovated the house by (giving a 
new) coating (to the walls), by spreading out (a new 
roof), and by levelling (the floor), they should sacrifice 
after sunset (oblations) of milk-rice with (the texts), 
' Beat away, O white one, with thy foot, with the fore- 
foot and with the hind-foot, these seven daughters 
of Varuwa and all that belong to the king's tribe. 

' Within the dominion of the white one no serpent 
has killed anything. To the white one, the son of 
Vidarva, adoration ! Svaha !' 

4. Here no oblation to (Agni) Svish/akrzt (is 

5. 'May we be secure from Pra^apati's sons' — 
thus he murmurs while looking at the fire. 

3, 1. On the ceremony of ' redescent,' comp. .Sankhayana-Gr/hya 
IV, 17; Paraskara III, 2. The fourteenth Tithi of the bright fort- 
night, preceding tBe full moon, is referred to. 

3. ' Again ' refers to chap. 2, 2. As to the words ' they should 
sacrifice,' comp. the note on the same Sfttra. The first Mantra 
reoccurs in .SShkhayana-Gr/hya IV, 18, 1. The text of the second 
should be, na vai jvetasyadhyaMre, &c; comp. Paraskara II, 

*4> 5- 

5. The serpents are the children of Karyapa (i.e. Pra^pati) and 
Kadru; see Mahabharata I, 1074 seqq. 

Digitized by 



6. (Saying), ' Be happy and friendly to us ' — he 
should think in his mind of the winter. 

7. To the west of the fire is a well-spread layer (of 
straw); on that he should sit down, murmur (the 
verse), ' Be soft, O earth' (Rig-veda I, 22, 15), and 
lie down (on that layer) with his people, with the 
head to the east and the face to the north. 

8. The others, as there is room. 

9. Or following on each other from the eldest to 
the youngest 

10. Those who know the Mantras, should murmur 
the Mantras. 

11. Arising (they should) three times (murmur the 
verse), ' From that place may the gods bless us ' 
(Rig-veda I, 22, 16). 

12. The same (verse) a fourth time with their 
faces to the south, to the west, and to the north. 

13. Having arisen, having murmured the hymns 
sacred to the Sun and the auspicious hymns, having 
prepared food and given to the Brahma#as to eat, 
he should cause (them) to pronounce auspicious 

KajvdikA 4. 

I. On the eighth days of the four dark fortnights 
of (the two seasons of) winter and -Slrira the Ash/akas 
(are celebrated). 

10. ' The Mantras beginning from "Be soft, O earth" (Sfltra 7) 
down to the auspicious hymns (Sutra 1 3).' Narayarca. 

I I. It follows from Sutra 12 that they are to turn here their faces 
to the east, 

12. They mutter one Pada of that verse, which is in the Gayatrf 
metre, turned towards each of the three directions. 

4, 1. Comp. .Sahkhayana-Grmya III, 12 seqq. The four 

Digitized by 


206 asvalayana-g/j/hya-sOtra. 

2. Or on one (of these days). 

3. The day before, he should offer to the Fathers 
(i. e. Manes) — 

4. Boiled rice, boiled rice with sesamum seeds, 
rice-milk — 

5. Or cakes made of four .Saravas (of ground 

6. Sacrificing with the eight (verses), ' May the 
lower (Fathers) and the higher arise' (Rig-veda X, 15, 
1 seqq.), or with as many (verses) as he likes. 

7. Then on the next day the Ash/akas (are 
celebrated) with an animal (sacrifice) and with a mess 
of cooked food. 

8. He may also give grass to an ox, 

9. Or he may burn down brushwood with fire — 

10. With (the words), ' This is my Ash/aka.' 

11. But he should not omit celebrating the Ash- 

1 2. This (Ash/aka) some state to be sacred to the 
VLrve devas, some to Agni, some to the Sun, some 
to Pra/apati, some state that the Night is its deity, 
some that the Nakshatras are, some that the Seasons 
are, some that the Fathers are, some that cattle is. 

13. Having killed the animal according to the 

months of Hemanta and .Suira are Margarirsha, Pausha, Magha, 
and Phalguna. 

2. The statement of the Prayogaratna that in case the sacrificer 
should celebrate only one Ash/aka festival, the Ash/aka of the 
Magha month is to be selected, well agrees with the designation of 
this Ash/aka as 'the one Ash/aka' (ekash&ka); see Weber, 
Naxatra II, 341 seq. ; Indische Studien, XV, 145. 

7 seqq. Comp. the nearly identical passage in •SankMyana-Gn'hya 
III, 14, 3 seqq. and the note there. Ajvalayana evidently gives 
these rules not as regarding one special Ash/aka but all of them. 

13. Comp. above, I, 11, 1. 2. 10. As to the Mantra, comp. 
•Saftkhayana III, 13, 3. 

Digitized by 



ritual of the animal sacrifice, omitting the sprinkling 
(with water) and the touching of the animal with a 
fresh branch, he should draw out the omentum and 
sacrifice it with (the verse), ' Carry the omentum, 
G&tavedas, to the Fathers, where thou knowest 
them resting afar. May streams of fat flow to them ; 
may all these wishes be fulfilled. Svaha ! ' 

14. Then (follow oblations) of the Avadana por- 
tions and the cooked food, two with (the two verses), 
' Agni, lead us on a good path to wealth ' (Rig-veda 
I, 189, 1 seq.), (and other oblations with the texts), 
' May summer, winter, the seasons be happy to us, 
happy the rainy season, safe to us the autumn. The 
year be our lord who gives breath to us ; may days 
and nights produce long life. Svaha ! 

' Peaceful be the earth, happy the air, may the 
goddess Heaven give us safety. Happy be the 
quarters (of the horizon), the intermediate quarters, 
the upper quarters ; may the waters, the lightnings 
protect us from all sides. Svaha ! 

' May the waters, the rays carry our prayers (to 
the gods) ; may the creator, may the ocean turn 
away evil ; may the past and the future, (may) all 
be safe to me. Protected by Brahman may I pour 
forth songs. Svaha ! 

' May all the Adityas and the divine Vasus, the 
Rudras, the protectors, the Maruts sit down (here). 
May Pra^apati, the abounding one, the highest 
ruler, bestow vigour, offspring, immortality on me. 
Svaha ! 

' Pra^apati, no other one than Thou (Rig-veda X, 

121, IO).' 

14. I read, as Prof. Stenzler and the Petersburg Dictionary do, 
svara ksharawi. Comp. Paraskara III, 3, 6. 

Digitized by 


208 asvalayana-cr/hya-sOtra. 

15. The eighth (oblation) is that to (Agni) Svi- 

16. He should give to the Brahmawas to eat: 
this has been said. 

Kaatdika 5. 

1. On the following day the Anvash/akya (i. e. the 
ceremony following the Ash/aka, is performed). 

2. Having prepared (a portion) of that same meat, 
having established the fire on a surface inclined 
towards the south, having fenced it in, and made a 
door on the north side of the enclosure, having 
strewn round (the fire) three times sacrificial grass 
with its roots, without tossing it, turning the left 
side towards the fire, he should put down the things 
to be offered, boiled rice, boiled rice with sesamum 
seeds, rice-milk, meal-pap with curds, and meal-pap 
with honey. 

3. (The ceremony should be performed) according 
to the ritual of the Vmda.pitrtya.g-na.. 

4. Having sacrificed (of those sorts of food) with 
the exception of the meal-pap with honey, let him 
give (lumps of those substances) to the Fathers. 

5. And to (their) wives, with the addition of rum 
and the scum of boiled rice. 

6. Some (place the lumps to be offered) into pits, 
into two or into six. 

16. See above, chap. 3, 13. 

5, 2. The meat is that of the animal killed on the Ash/akS day ; 
see chap. 4, 13. 

3. This ritual is given in the .Srauta-sutra II, 6 seq. 

4. He sacrifices the two oblations prescribed in the Srauta-sutra 
II, 6, 1 2, to Soma pitnmat and to Agni kavyavaliana. 

Digitized by 



7. In those situated to the east he should give 
(the offerings) to the Fathers. 

8. In those to the west, to the wives. 

9. Thereby the ceremony celebrated in the rainy 
season on the Magha day, in the dark fortnight after 
the full moon of Praush/^apada (has been declared). 

10. And thus he should offer (a celebration like 
the Anvash/akya) to the Fathers every month, 
observing uneven numbers (i. e. selecting a day with 
an uneven number, inviting an uneven number of 
Brahma«as, &c). 

11. He should give food at least to nine (Brah- 

12. Or to an uneven number ; 

13. To an even number on auspicious occasions 
or on the performance of meritorious deeds (such as 
the consecration of ponds, &c.) ; 

14. To an uneven number on other (occasions). 

15. The rite is performed from left to right. 
Barley is to be used instead of sesamum. 

Kajvjhka 6. 

1. When going to mount a chariot he should 
touch the wheels with his two hands separately with 
(the words), ' I touch thy two fore-feet. Thy two 
wheels are the Brzhat and the Rathantara (Samans).' 

9. Comp. the note on •SSftkh&yana-Gnhya III, 13, 1. 

10. Comp. .Sahkhayana-Gnhya IV, 1,1. 
13. .SaftkhSyana-Gr/hya IV, 4, 4. 

15. .Sankhayana-Grjhya IV, 4, 6. 9. 

6, i. 'He should touch at the same time the right wheel with his 
right hand, the left wheel with his left hand.' NarSyana. 
[29] P 

Digitized by 


2 1 o asvalAyan a-gk/hya-sOtra. 

2. ' Thy axle is the Vamadevya ' — with (these 
words he touches) the two (naves) in which the axle 

3. He should mount (the chariot) with the right 
foot first, with (the words), ' With Vayu's strength I 
mount thee, with Indra's power and sovereignty.' 

4. He should touch the reins, or if the horses have 
no reins, (he should touch) the horses with a staff, 
with (the words), ' With Brahman's splendour I seize 
you. With truth I seize you.' 

5. When (the horses) put themselves in motion, 
he should murmur, 'Go forward to thousandfold 
successful vigour, divine chariot, carry us forward!' 
— (and the verse), ' Free, strong be thy limbs !' (Rig- 
veda VI, 47, 26.) 

6. With this (verse he should touch also) other 
articles of wood. 

7. ' May the two oxen be strong, the axle firm ' 
(Rig-veda III, 53, 17) — with (this verse) he should 
touch (each) part of the chariot (alluded to in that 

8. With (the verse), ' The earth, the good pro- 
tectress, the unattained heaven' (Rig-veda X, 63, 10) 
(he should ascend) a ship. 

9. With a new chariot he should drive round a 
widely known tree or round a pool that does not dry 
up, with his right side turned towards it, and then 
should fetch branches which bear fruits, 

2. On the Vedic form of the chariot and of the wheels, comp. 
Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 247. 

6. According to Naraya«a this Sutra would refer only to other 
vehicles of wood, which he is directed to touch with that Rik when 
going to mount them. Perhaps the commentator is right; the 
wording of the Rik is well in keeping with his explanation. 

Digitized by 


ii adhyAya, 7 kandikX, 8. 211 

10. Or something else that belongs to the house- 

11. (He then) should drive (in that chariot) to an 

12. Having murmured, while looking at the sun, 
(the verse), 'Make our renown highest' (Rig-veda 
IV, 31, 15), he should descend. 

13. 'To the bull among my equals ' (Rig-veda X, 
166, 1) — (this verse he should murmur) while 
approaching (that assembly?). 

14. ' May we be called to-day Indra's best friends ' 
(Rig-veda I, 167, 10) — when the sun is setting. 

15. 'Thus I address you, O daughters of heaven, 
while you arise' (Rig-veda IV, 51, 11) — when day 

Kazvbika 7. 

1. Now the examination of the ground (where he 
intends to build a house). 

2. (It must be) non-salinous soil of undisputed 

3. With herbs and trees, 

4. On which much Ku;a and Vlra«a grass grows. 

5. Plants with thorns and with milky juice he 
should dig out with their roots and remove them — 

6. And in the same way the following (sorts of 
plants), viz. Apamarga, potherbs, Til vaka, Parivyadha. 

7. A spot where the waters, flowing together from 
all sides to the centre of it, flow round the resting- 
place, having it on their right side, and then flow 
off to the east without noise — that possesses all 
auspicious qualities. 

8. Where the waters flow off, he should have the 
provision-room built 

p 2 

Digitized by 



9. Thus it becomes rich in food. 

10. On a spot which is inclined towards the south, 
he should have the assembly-room constructed ; thus 
there will be no gambling in it. 

11. (But others say that) in such (an assembly- 
room) the young people become gamblers, quarrel- 
some, and die early. 

12. Where the waters flow together from all 
directions, that assembly-room (situated on such a 
spot) brings luck and is free from gambling. 

Kajvdika 8. 

1. Now he should examine the ground in the 
following ways. 

2. He should dig a pit knee-deep and fill it 
again with the same earth (which he has taken 
out of it). 

3. If (the earth) reaches out (of the pit, the ground 
is) excellent ; if it is level, (it is) of middle quality ; 
if it does not fill (the pit, it is) to be rejected. 

4. After sunset he should fill (the pit) with water 
and leave it so through the night. 

5. If (in the morning) there is water in it, (the 
ground is) excellent ; if it is moist, (it is) of middle 
quality ; if it is dry, (it is) to be rejected. 

6. White (ground), of sweet taste, with sand on 
the surface, (should be elected) by a Brahmarca. 

7. Red (ground) for a Kshatriya. 

8. Yellow (ground) for a Vaiiya. 

9. He should draw a thousand furrows on it and 
should have it measured oft" as quadrangular, with 
equal sides to each (of the four) directions ; 

10. Or as an oblong quadrangle. 

Digitized by 


ii adhyaya, 8 kandikA, 16. 213 

1 ;. With a Saml branch or an Udumbara branch 
he sprinkles it (with water), going thrice round it, 
so that his right side is turned towards it, reciting 
the 5antatiya hymn. 

12. And (so he does again three times) pouring 
out water without interruption, with the three verses, 
' O waters, ye are wholesome' (Rig-veda X, 9, 1 seqq.). 

13. In the interstices between the bamboo staffs 
he should have the (single) rooms constructed. 

14. Into the pits in which the posts are to stand, 
he should have an Avaka, i. e. (the water-plant 
called) .Sipala put down ; then fire will not befall 
him : thus it is understood (in the .Sruti). 

15. Having put (that plant) into the pit in which 
the middle-post is to stand, he should spread (on it) 
eastward-pointed and northward-pointed Kusa. grass 
and should sprinkle (on that grass) water into which 
rice and barley have been thrown, with (the words), 
' To the steady one, the earth-demon, svaha ! ' 

16. He then should, when (the middle-post) is 
being erected, recite over it (the two verses), 

' Stand here, fixed in the ground, prosperous, long- 

8, 11. The hymn of which all verses (except a few) commence 
with, and frequently contain, the word jam (Rig-veda VII, 35). 

13. The bamboo staffs (v&msa.) rest on the chief posts (sthuwS); 
see chap. 9, 1. 2. 

15. Comp. chap. 1, 4. 

16. Comp. .SahkhSyana-Gnhya III, 3, 1 and the note there. How 
stamirSvatlm should be corrected and translated is quite un- 
certain. Instead of poshasva Prof. Stenzler proposes to read 
poshasya, as •S'Snkh&yana has; I have adopted this correction. — 
In the second verse g&yat&m saha seems to be corrupt ; comp. my 
note on .Sankhayana III, 2, 9. Instead of paruritaA we should 
read, as -Slnkh&yana, Paraskara, and the Atharva-veda (III, 1 2, 7) 
have, parisruta/j. 

Digitized by 


2 1 4 asvalayana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

lasting (?), standing amid prosperity. May. the 
malevolent ones not attain thee ! 

' To thee (may) the young child (come), to thee 
the calf. . . ; to thee (may) the cup of Parisrut 
(come) ; (to thee) may they come with pots of curds.' 


i. (Over) the bamboo staff, when it is put on (the 
middle-post, he recites the hemistich), 

2. ' Rightly ascend the post, O staff, bestowing on 
us long life henceforward.' 

3. On four stones, on which Durva grass has been 
spread, he should establish the water-barrel with 
(the words), ' Arise on the earth ' — 

4. Or with (the verse), ' The Arangara sounds, 
three times bound with the strap. It praises the 
welfare ; may it drive away ill.' 

5. He then should pour water into it with (the 
verse), ' Hither may king Varuwa come with the 
plentiful (waters) ; at this place may he stay con- 
tented ; bringing welfare, dropping ghee may they 
lie down together with Mitra.' 

6. He then 'appeases' it (in the following way). 

7. He puts gold into water into which rice and 
barley have been thrown, and (with that water) he 
sprinkles it three times, going round it with his right 
side turned towards it, with the 6antatlya hymn. 

8. And (so he does again three times) pouring out 

9. 4. The meaning of Arangara is unknown to me ; it seems to 
be a musical instrument. Comp. Atharva-veda XX, 135, 13. 

6. The ground on which the house is to be built. 

7. On the .Santatiya hymn, see above, chap. 8. 1 1 . 

8. This Sutra is identical with chap. 8, 12. 

Digitized by 


n adhyAya, io kaatoikA, 6. 215 

water without interruption, with the three verses, ' O 
waters, ye are wholesome ' (Rig-veda X, 9, 1 seqq.). 
9. In the middle of the house he should cook a 
mess of food, sacrifice (therefrom) with the four 
verses, ' Vastoshpati, accept us' (Rig-veda VII, 54, 
1 seqq.), verse by verse, should prepare food, should 
give to the Brahma#as to eat, and should cause them 
to say, ' Lucky is the ground ! Lucky is the ground ! ' 

KajvbikA 10. 

1. It has been declared how he should enter the 
house (when returning from a journey). 

2. The house, when he enters it, should be pro- 
vided with seed-corn. 

3. He should have his field ploughed under the 
Nakshatras Uttara^ ProshMapadas, (Uttara^) Phal- 
gunyas, or Rohi«l. 

4. In order that the wind may blow to him from 
the field, he should offer oblations with the hymn, 
'Through the lord of the field' (Rig-veda IV, 57), 
verse by verse, or he should murmur (that hymn). 

5. He should speak over the cows when they go 
away, the two verses, ' May refreshing wind blow 
over the cows' (Rig-veda X, 169, 1 seq.). 

6. When they come back, (he should recite the 
following verses,) 

' May they whose udder with its four holes is full 

9. Comp. above, chap. 3, 13. 

10, 1. See .Srauta-sfitra II, 5, 17 seqq. It is there expressly 
stated that these rules refer also to an Anahitagni. 

3. .Sankhayana IV, 13, 1. 

5. .Sahkhayana-Gr/hya III, 9. 

6. .Sankhayana, loc. cit. — Should the reading upa maitu be cor- 
rected into upa maita? 

Digitized by 



of honey and ghee, be milk-givers to us ; (may they 
be) many in our stable, rich in ghee. 

' Come hither to me, giving refreshment, bringing 
vigour and strength. Giving inexhaustible milk, rest 
in my stable that I may become the highest one ' — 

And, ' They who have raised their body up to the 
gods ' — the rest of the hymn (Rig-veda X, 169, 3. 4). 

7. Some recite (instead of the texts stated in Sutra 
6) the Agaviya hymn. 

8. He should approach their herds, if the cows do 
not belong to his Guru, with (the words), 'Prospering 
are ye; excellent are ye, beautiful, dear. May I 
become dear to you. May you see bliss in me.' 

End of the Second Adhyaya. 

7. The hymn commencing & gSvo agman (hither came the 
cows) is Rig-veda VI, 28. 

8. Perhaps the last words (which are repeated twice in order to 
mark the end of the Adhyaya) should be written saw mayi 
^anidhvam, 'live with me in harmony together.' 

Digitized by 


Ill ADHYAYA, 2 KAJVDIKA, 2. 217 

AdhyAya III, KandikX 1. 

i. Now (follow) the five sacrifices : 

2. The sacrifice to the Gods, the sacrifice to the 
Beings, the sacrifice to the Fathers, the sacrifice to 
Brahman, the sacrifice to men. 

3. Here now, if he makes oblations over the 
(sacred) fire, this is the sacrifice to the Gods. 

If he makes Bali offerings, this is the sacrifice to 
the Beings. 

If he gives (Pinda. offerings) to the Fathers, this is 
the sacrifice to the Fathers. 

If he studies (Vedic) texts, this is the sacrifice to 

If he gives to men, this is the sacrifice to men. 

4. These (five kinds of) sacrifices he should per- 
form every day. 

KavdikA 2. 

1. Now the rules how one should recite (the Vedic 
texts) for one's self. 

2. He should go out of the village to the east or 
to the north, bathe in water, sip water on a clean spot, 
clad with the sacrificial cord ; he should spread out, 
his garment being not wet, a great quantity of Darbha 
grass, the tufts of which are directed towards the east, 
and should sit down thereon with his face turned to 
the east, making a lap, putting together his hands in 
which he holds purifiers (i. e. Kusa. blades), so that 
the right hand lies uppermost. 

1, 1 seqq. Comp. .Satapatha Brahmawa XI, 5, 6, 1 seqq. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

2 1 8 Asvalayana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

It is understood (in the -Sruti), ' This is what 
Darbha grass is : it is the essence of waters and 
herbs. He thus makes the Brahman provided with 

Looking at the point where heaven and earth 
touch each other, or shutting his eyes, or in whatever 
way he may deem himself apt (for reciting the Veda), 
thus adapting himself he should recite (the sacred 
texts) for himself. 

3. The VyahHtis preceded by (the syllable) Om 
(are pronounced first). 

4. He (then) repeats the Sdvitrl (Rig-veda III, 62, 
10), (firstly) Pada by Pada, (then) hemistich by 
hemistich, thirdly the whole. 

KawcikA 3. 

1. He then should recite for himself (the following 
texts, viz.) the Rikus, the Yafus, the Samans, the 
Atharvan and Arigiras hymns, the Brahma»as, the 
Kalpa (Sutras), the Gathas, the (texts in honour of 
kings and heroes, called) Nar£ja#zsts, the Itihisas 
and Pura«as. 

2. In that he recites the Rikas, he thereby satiates 
the gods with oblations of milk — in that (he recites) 
the Yafus, with oblations of ghee — the Samans, with 
oblations of honey — the Atharvan and Angiras 
hymns, with oblations of Soma — the Brahma»as, 
Kalpas, Gathas, Narasawsis, Itih&sas and Pura«as, 
with oblations of ambrosia. 

3, 1. On this and the following paragraphs comp. chiefly .Satapatha 
Brahmawa XI, 5, 6. Other enumerations, contained in the Veda 
itself, of the texts that were considered as forming the Veda or as 
attached to the body of the Veda, are found in the .Satapatha 
Brahma«a XIV, 5, 4, 10 (Sacred Books, XV, in), and in the 
A7/andogya Upanishad VII, 1 (Sacred Books, I, 109). 

Digitized by 


Ill ADHYAYA, 4 KAJVDIKA, 2. 219 

3. In that he recites the Rzkas, rivers of milk flow, 
as a funeral oblation, to his Fathers. In that (he 
recites) the Ya/us, rivers of ghee — the Samans, 
rivers of honey — the Atharvan and Angiras hymns, 
rivers of Soma — the Brahmawas, Kalpas, Gathas, 
Narajazwsts, Itihisas and Purawas, rivers of ambrosia. 

4. After he has recited (those texts) as far as he 
thinks fit, he should finish with the following (verse), 

' Adoration to Brahman ! Adoration be to Agni ! 
Adoration to the Earth! Adoration to the Herbs ! 
Adoration to the Voice ! Adoration to the Lord of 
the Voice ! Adoration I bring to great Vishrcu !' 

Kawbika 4. 

r. He satiates the deities : ' Pra^apati, Brahman, 
the Vedas, the gods, the ^'shis, all metres, the word 
Om, the word Vasha/, the Vyihmis, the Savitri, the 
sacrifices, Heaven and Earth, the air, days and 
nights, the numbers, the Siddhas, the oceans, the 
rivers, the mountains, the fields, herbs, trees, Gan- 
dharvas and Apsaras, the snakes, the birds, the cows, 
the Sadhyas, the Vipras, the Yakshas, the Rakshas, 
the beings that have these (Rakshas, &c.) at their 

2. Then the .tfzshis : ' The (/?zshis) of the hundred 
(Rikas), the (/?*shis) of the middle (Ma«dalas), Grit- 

4, 1. Comp. .Sahkhayana-Gnhya IV, 9. N£raya«a: 'Having 
finished (the SvSdhyaya) he satiates with water oblations these 

Pra^apati and the following words stand in the nominative ; the 
verb to be supplied is tr*pyatu (trzpyantu), 'may he (they) 
satiate himself (themselves).' 

2. .S&nkhiiyana-Gnhya IV, 10. .S£nkhayana has p&vamanaA, 
'the (i?»'shis) of the Pavam&na hymns,' but pragath&A as A^vali- 
yana has, and not as we should expect, pragathaA. 

Digitized by 


220 AsvalAyana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

samada, Vlrvamitra, Vamadeva, Atri, Bharadva^a, 
Vasish/^a, the Pragithas, the Pavamana hymns, the 
(./fo'shis) of the short hymns, and of the long hymns.' 

3. (Then) with the sacrificial cord suspended over 
the right shoulder : 

4. ' Sumantu, Gaimini, Vaisampayana, Paila, the 
Sutras, the Bhashyas, the Bharata, the Mahabharata, 
the teachers of law, G&nanti, Bahavi, Gargya, Gau- 
tama, 6akalya, Babhravya, Ma«d?avya, Ma«^ukeya, 
Girgl Va&iknavi, Va^ava Pratltheyi, Sulabhi 
Maitreyi, Kahola Kaushitaka, Mahakaushitaka, 
Paingya, Mahapaingya, Suya^»a .Sankhayana, Aita- 
reya, Mahaitareya, the .Sakala (text), the Bashkala 
(text), Su/atavaktra, Audavahi, Mahaudavahi, Sau- 
^iami, .Saunaka, A^valayana — and whatsoever other 
teachers there are, may they all satiate themselves.' 

5. After he has satiated the Fathers man by man, 
and has returned to his house, what he gives (then), 
that is the sacrificial fee. 

6. And it is also understood (in the 6ruti), ' May 
he be standing, walking, sitting, or lying, (the texts 
belonging to) whatsoever sacrifice he repeats, that 
sacrifice indeed he has offered.' 

7. It is understood (in the .Sruti), ' Regarding this 
(Svadhyaya) there are two cases in which the study 
(of the sacred texts) is forbidden : when he is im- 
pure himself, and when the place is.' 

4. The names from Kahola Kaushitaki down to Afval&yana stand 
in the accusative ; tarpayami, ' I satiate N. N.' is to be supplied. 

5. Narayawa : ' He satiates his father, grandfather, and great- 
grandfather, and goes to his house. What he then gives, for 
instance, food offered to guests, or given as alms (to religious 
beggars), is considered as the sacrificial fee for the Brahma- 

6. Comp. .Satapatha Braiima«a XI, 5, 7, 3. 4. 

Digitized by 


Ill ADHYAYA, 5 KAND1KA, 7. 221 

KandikX 5. 
i. Now (follows) the Adhyayopakara#a (i. e. the 
ceremony by which the annual course of study is 
opened) ; 

2. When the herbs appear, (when the moon stands 
in conjunction) with »Srava«a, in the 6riva«a month, 

3. Or on the fifth (Tithi of that month), under 
(the Nakshatra) Hasta. 

4. Having sacrificed the two Afya portions, he 
should offer A^ya oblations (to the following deities, 
viz.) Savitrt, Brahman, Belief, Insight, Wisdom, 
Memory, Sadasaspati, Anumati, the metres, and the 

5. He then sacrifices grains with curds (with the 
following texts) : 

6. ' I praise Agni the Purohita ' — this one verse 
(Rig-veda I, i, i), 

7. ' The Kushumbhaka (mungoose ?) has said it ' — 
' If thou criest, O bird, announce luck to us ' — ' Sung 
by Gamadagni' — 'In thy abode the whole world rests' 

5, 2, 3. Perhaps the division of these Sutras should be altered, so 
that jr&vawasya would belong to Sutra 2. In this case we should 
have to translate, ' 2. When the herbs appear, (on a day on which 
the moon stands in conjunction) with .Sravawa. 3. Or on the 
fifth (Tithi) of the <Srava»a month, under (the Nakshatra) Hasta.' 
Comp. jr£va»asya pan^amim, Par. II, 10, 2. If we count 
the month beginning with the bright fortnight, and assume that the 
full moon day of Havana falls, as the name of the month implies, 
on 6Vava«a, the fifth Tithi of that month will fall indeed on Hasta. 
Comp. on the dates of the Up£kara«a, Prof. Weber's remarks, Die 
vedischen Nachrichten von den Naxatra II, 322, and on the special 
symbolical signification of the Nakshatra *Srava»a in this connection, 
my note on .Sankhayana IV, 5, 2. 

4. On the two A^ya portions, comp. above, 1, 3, 5; 10, 13 seqq. 

7. Comp. .Sankhayana IV, 5, 8. The verses with which the obla- 
tions are performed, are the first and last verses of each Mawfela. 

Digitized by 



— ' Come to our sacrifice, O you that are worthy of 
sacrifice, with care ' — ' Whosoever, be he ours, be he 
alien ' — ' Look on, look about ' — ' Come here, Agni, 
the Maruts' friend ' — ' The oblation, O king, cooked 
for thee ' — each time two verses ; 

8. ' United is your will' (Rig-veda X, 191, 4) — 
this one verse ; 

9. ' That blessing and bliss we choose ' — this one 

10. When he intends to study (the Veda together 
with pupils), he should, while the pupils take hold of 
him, sacrifice to those deities, and sacrifice to (Agni) 
Svish/akrz't, and partake of the grains with curds ; 
then (follows) the ' cleaning.' 

11. Sitting down to the west of the fire on Darbha 
grass, the tufts of which are directed towards the 
east, he should put Darbha blades into a water-pot, 
and making a Brahmaw^ali (i. e. joining his hands as 
a sign of veneration for the Brahman), he should 
murmur (the following texts): 

1 2. The Vyahrz'tis preceded by (the syllable) Om 
{stand first) ; (these) and the Savitrl he should repeat 
three times and then recite the beginning of the 

9. This is the last verse of the 7?/1c-Sawhita in the BSshkala 
.Sakha. See my note on .Sankhayana IV, 5, 9. 

10. The expression, 'Those deities' would, according to NSrS.- 
ya«a, refer not only to the deities stated in Sutra 4, but also to the 
deities of the first and last verses of the Mam/alas (Sutras 6 seqq.). 
On the grains with curds, comp. Sutra 5. The technical sense of 
the ' cleaning ' is explained in the .Srauta-sutra I, 8,2; comp. 
Hillebrandt, Das altindische Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, p. 130, 
note 1. The sacrificer covers his joined hands with the Kara 
grass spread out round the fire, and has water sprinkled on them. 

11. On the term brahman^ali, comp. Manu II, 71. 

Digitized by 


Ill ADHYAYA, 6 KAJVJ5IKA, 1. ,223 

13. In the same way at the Utsarga (i. e. at the 
ceremony performed at the end of the term of Vedic 

14. He should study six months. 

15. One who has performed the Samavartana 
(should live during that time) according to the 
regulations for Brahma^arins. 

16. The others according to the rules. 

17. Some say that he should have intercourse 
with his wife. 

18. That (is a practice) sacred to Pra^apati. 

19. This (Upakara«a) they call varshika (i. e. 
belonging to the rainy season). 

20. On the middle Ash/aka they offer food to 
those deities, and descend into water. 

21. They satiate those same deities (with water 

22. (And besides) the Aiaryas, the ./foshis, and 
the Fathers. 

23. This is the Utsargana. 

Kawbika 6. 

1. Instead of the Kamya ceremonies (i. e. the 
ceremonies, prescribed in the Aauta-sutra, by which 

15. On the Sam&vartana, see below, chap. 8 seq. The restrictions 
referred to consist in the interdiction of eating honey and meat, of 
having sexual intercourse, of sleeping in a bedstead and in the 
day-time, &c. N&rayawa. 

16. Le. the Brahma^arins. 

17. I.e. one who has performed the Samivartana. 

20. After the six months (Sutra 14) have elapsed, on the Ash/aka" 
of Magna. 

23. Or Utsarga, see Sutra 13. 

6, 1. NMyawa divides this Sutra into two : 1. atha k&myanaw 
sthane k&myaA ; 2. ka.ra.vaA. 

Digitized by 


224 Ajvalayana-g/?/hya-sOtra. 

special wishes are attained, oblations of) boiled (rice) 
grains, for the attainment of those wishes, (should be 
made by the Grzhya sacrificer). 

2. He attains (thereby) those same wishes. 

3. For a person that is sick, or suffering, or 
affected with consumption, a mess of boiled (rice) 
grains in six oblations (should he offered) — 

4. With this (hymn), ' I loosen thee by sacrificial 
food, that thou mayst live' (Rig-veda X, 161). 

5. If he has seen a bad dream, he should worship 
the sun with the two verses, ' To-day, god SavitW ' 
(Rig-veda V, 82, 4, 5), and with the five verses, 
' What bad dreams there are among the cows ' (Rig- 
veda VIII, 47, 14 seqq.), 

6. Or with (the verse), 'Whosoever, O king, be 
it a companion or a friend' (Rig-veda II, 28, 10). 

7. When he has sneezed, yawned, seen a dis- 
agreeable sight, smelt a bad smell, when his eye 
palpitates, and when he hears noises in his ears, he 
should murmur, 'Well-eyed may I become with my 
eyes, well-vigoured with my face, well-hearing with 
my ears. May will and insight dwell in me!' 

8. If he has gone to a wife to whom he ought 
not to go, or if he has performed a sacrifice for a 
person for whom he ought not to do so, or has eaten 
forbidden food, or accepted what he ought not to 
accept, or pushed against a piled-up (fire altar) or 

8. Narayawa is evidently wrong in explaining yam y&pan 
Aa. by agni£ayanasthaw yilpam (which is not, as Prof. Stenzler 
takes it, der Opferpfahl auf einem Bestattungsplatze). 
Comp. Gobhila III, 3, 34 ; Gr/hya-sa«graha-pari.sish/a II, 4. 

I have translated the second verse in SCttra 8, as if the text had 
kalpantam. The MSS. give kalpatam. Atharva-vedaVII, 67 has 

Digitized by 


in adhyAya, 7 kandikA, 3. 225 

against a sacrificial post, he should sacrifice two 
A^ya oblations with (the verses), 

' May my faculties return into me, may life return, 
may prosperity return ; may my goods return to 
me ; may the divine power return into me. Svaha ! 

'These fires that are stationed on the (altars 
called) Dhish#yas, may they be here in good order, 
each on its right place. (Agni) Vai^vanara, grown 
strong, the standard of immortality, may he govern 
my mind in my heart. Svaha ! ' 

9. Or (he may sacrifice) two pieces of wood, 

10. Or murmur (the same two verses without any 

KatvdikA 7. 

1. If the sun sets while he is sleeping without 
being sick, he should spend the rest of the night 
keeping silence, without sitting down, and should 
worship the sun (when it rises) with the five 
(verses), 'The light, O sun, by which thou de- 
stroyest darkness' (Rig-veda X, 37, 4 seq.). 

2. If (the sun) rises (while he is sleeping without 
being sick), being fatigued without having done any 
work, or having done work that is not becoming, he 
should keep silence, &c, as before, and perform his 
worship (to the sun) with the following four (verses, 
Rig-veda X, 37, 9 seq.). 

3. Invested with the sacrificial cord, constantly 
fulfilling the prescribed duties regarding the use of 

7, 2. Perhaps we should correct the text, akarmajr&ntam ana- 
bhirupe«a karma»& vS vagyata id, &c. 

3 seq. See ■Stfikhayana-Grihya II, 9. There the same word 
anvash/amadcra occurs. 

09] Q 

Digitized by 



water, he should perform the Sandhya (or twilight 
devotion), observing silence. 

4. In the evening he should, turning his face to 
the north-west, to the region between the chief 
(west) point and the intermediate (north-western) 
point (of the horizon), murmur the Savitri, (beginning) 
when the sun is half set, until the stars appear. 

5. In the same way in the morning — 

6. Standing, with his face turned to the east, 
until the disk (of the sun) appears. 

7. If a dove flies against his house or towards 
it, he should sacrifice with (the hymn), ' O gods, 
the dove' (Rig-veda X, 165), verse by verse, or 
should murmur (that hymn). 

8. ' We have thee, O Lord of the path ' (Rig-veda 
VI, 53) — if he is going out for doing <*ome business. 

9. ' Bring us together, Pushan, with a knowing 
one ' (Rig-veda VI, 54) — if he wishes to find some- 
thing lost, or if he has strayed. 

10. 'Journey over the ways, Pushan' (Rig-veda 
I, 42) — if he is going out on a long or dangerous 

Kajvdika 8. 

1. Now when returning (home from his teacher) 
he should get the following things, viz. a jewel (to 
be tied round the neck), two ear-rings, a pair of 
garments, a parasol, a pair of shoes, a staff, a wreath, 
(pounded seed of the Kara«^a fruit) for rubbing 
with, ointment, eye salve, a turban ; (all that) for 
himself and for the teacher. 

9. Mfl//4a may either mean, ' having lost his way,' or ' bewildered 
in his mind.' Naraya«a prefers the latter explanation (' pra^na- 
hinaA '). 

Digitized by 


in adhyaya, 8 kandikA, io. 227 

2. If he cannot get it for both, only for the teacher. 

3. He then should get a piece of wood of a 
tree which is sacrificially pure, in a north-eastern 
direction — 

4. Sappy (wood) if he wishes for the enjoyment of 
food, or for prosperity, or for splendour ; dry (wood), 
if for holy lustre, 

5. (Wood) which is both (sappy and dry, in its 
different parts), if (he wishes) for both. 

6. Having put the piece of wood on high, and 
having given a cow and food to the Brahmawas, he 
should perform the ceremony of shaving the beard. 

7. He should alter the texts so that they refer to 

8. With Ekaklltaka (he should perform the rub- 

9. Having washed himself with lukewarm water, 
and having put on two (new) garments which have 
not yet been washed, with (the verse), ' Garments 
with fat splendour you put on, (Mitra and Varu»a) ' 
(Rig-veda I, 152, 1), he should anoint his eyes with 
(the words), ' The sharpness of the stone art thou ; 
protect my eye.' 

10. With (the words), ' The sharpness of the stone 

8, 6. ' On high ' means ' not on the ground ' (Narayawa). On 
the gaudanikaw karma (the shaving of the beard), comp. above, 
Adhyaya I, Ka«<nka 18. The word ' ceremony' would mean here, 
according to Narayawa, that he should perform the rite alone, 
without observing such prescriptions as stated above, I, 18, 7. 

7. Thus, instead of ' Herb ! protect html' (I, 17, 8) he is to say, 
' Herb ! protect me 1 ' and so on. 

8. Ekaklitaka is, according to Narayawa and the Prayogaratna, 
the seed of such a Kai&nga. fruit (Pongamia Glabra, Vent.) which 
contains only one grain of seed. Such grains are pounded before 
he rubs himself therewith. 


Digitized by VjOOQlC 


art thou ; protect my ear ' — he should tie on the two 

ii. After having salved his two hands with 
ointment, a Brahma^a should salve his head first, 

1 2. A Ra^anya his two arms, 

13. A Vaisya the belly, 

14. A woman her secret parts, 

15. Persons who gain their livelihood by running, 
their thighs. 

16. With (the formula), 'Free from pain art thou, 
free from pain may I become' — he should put on 
the wreath. 

17. Not (such a wreath) which is called mild. 

18. If they call it mala, he should cause them to 
call it sra^ - . 

19. With (the formula), ' The standing-places of 
the gods are you ; protect me from all sides ' — he 
steps into the shoes, and with (the formula), ' The 
heaven's covering art thou ' — he takes the parasol. 

20. With (the formula), ' Reed thou art ; from 
the tree thou descendest ; protect me from all 
sides ' — (he takes) a staff of reed. 

21. Having with the hymn ' Giving life ' tied the 
jewel to his neck and arranged the turban (on his 
head), he should standing put the piece of wood (on 
the fire). 

21. On the hymn beginning with the words 'Giving life,' see 
Prof. Stenzler's note on this Sutra. Its first verse is identical with 
Va^asaneyi SawhitS. XXXIV, 50 (comp. also .Sankhayana-Gririya 
III, 1, 7), and so are most of its verses found in that Sawhita or in the 
Atharva-veda ; the whole of it occurs among the Rig-veda Khilas 
(vol. vi, p. 25, 2-12). 

Digitized by 


Ill ADHYAYA, 9 KAJVCIKA, 3. 229 


i. (He says), ' Memory and reproach and know- 
ledge, faith, and wisdom as the fifth, what is sacrificed, 
and what is given, and what is studied, and what is 
done, truth, learning, vow — 

' The vow which belongs to Agni together with 
Indra, with Pra^apati, with the .tfzshis, with the 
royal ones among the ifo'shis, with the Fathers, with 
the royal ones among the Fathers, with the human 
beings, with the royal ones among the human beings, 
with shine, over-shine, after-shine, counter-shine, with 
gods and men, with Gandharvas and Apsaras, with 
wild animals and domestic animals, — the vow, be- 
longing to my own self, dwelling in my own self, 
that is my universal vow. Hereby, O Agni, I be- 
come addicted to the universal vow. Svaha ! ' 

2. With (the hymn), ' Mine, Agni, be vigour ' 
(Rig-veda X, 128, 1), verse by verse, he should put 
pieces of wood (on the fire). 

3. He should pass that night at a place where 
they will do honour to him. 

9, 1. '"My memory and my non-memory, that is my double 
vow " — in this way the twelve (parts of which the first section of 
the Mantra consists) should be recited.' NSrayawa. I think the 
commentator is wrong here, and that section should rather be 
recited as it is given in the text without any alteration ; it forms a 
regular .Sloka. AgneA instead of Agne is a conjecture of Prof. 
Stenzler, which I have adopted. 

2. According to Nartyawa the hymn should be recited including 
the Khila, so that ten pieces of wood are offered. Now the hymn 
consists of nine verses ; there can be, consequently, only one 
Khailika verse, which is, I suppose, the first verse of the Khila 
quoted above, p. 228. 

3. By a Madhuparka (N4raya«a). Compare .S£nkhayana-G/-j'hya 
III, 1, 14. 

Digitized by 


2 30 Asvalayana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

4. When, after having finished his (task of) 
learning, he has offered something to the teacher, or 
has received his permission, he should take a bath 
(which signifies the end of his studentship). 

5. He (i.e. the Snataka) has to keep the following 
observances : 

6. He shall not bathe in the night-time ; he shall 
not bathe naked ; he shall not lie down naked ; he 
shall not look at a naked woman, except during 
sexual intercourse ; he shall not run during rain ; 
he shall not climb up a tree ; he shall not descend 
into a well ; he shall not swim with his arms across 
a river ; he shall not expose himself to danger. 
' A great being indeed is a Snataka' — thus it is 
understood (in the 5ruti). 

Kandika 10. 

1. If (a student) wishes to be dismissed (by his 
teacher), he should pronounce before the teacher his 
(i. e. the teacher's ?) name — 

2. (And should say), ' Here we will dwell, sir!' 

4. N&raya«a : He makes an offer to the teacher in the words, 
' What is it that I can do for you ? ' — and what the teacher tells 
him, that he does. 

10, 1. Narayawa refers this rule to a student who has performed 
the Samavartana and wishes to go away. But a comparison of 
Sankhayana-Grrhya II, 18 seems to make it probable that the 
ceremony described here has nothing to do with the Samavartana. 
I take this chapter rather for a description of the way in which a 
student has to take leave of his teacher when setting out on a 
journey. 'His name' is the teacher's name, according to NSraya/ia. 

2. .Saftkhayana II, 18, 1. .Sankh. has ahaw vatsydmi; Afvala- 
yana, idaw vatsyamaA. The commentator says that instead of idaw 
the Ajrama is to be named which the student chooses to enter upon, 
for instance, 'Devadatta, we will dwell in the state of a householder, sir!' 

Digitized by 


in adhyAya, io kawdikA, ii. 231 

3. With a loud voice (the words) following after 
the name. 

4. ' Of inhalation and exhalation ' — (this he says) 
with a low voice, 

5. And (the verse), ' Come hither, Indra, with thy 
lovely-sounding, fallow-coloured (horses)' (Rig-veda 

111,45. 1). 

6. The aged one then murmurs, ' To inhalation 

and exhalation I, the wide-extended one, resort with 
thee. To the god Savitrz I give thee in charge' — 
and the verse. 

7. When he has finished (that verse), and has 
muttered, ' Om ! Forwards! Blessing!' and recited 
(over the student the hymn), ' The great bliss of the 
three' (Rig-veda X, 185) — (he should dismiss him). 

8. On one who has been thus dismissed, danger 
comes from no side — thus it is understood (in the 

9. If he hears (on his way) disagreeable voices of 
birds, he should murmur the two hymns, ' Shrieking, 
manifesting his being' (Rig-veda II, 42, 43), and (the 
verse), ' The divine voice have the gods created ' 
(Rig-veda VIII, 100, 11). 

10. ' Praise the renowned youth who sits on the 
war-chariot' (Rig-veda II, 33, 11) — if (he hears dis- 
agreeable voices) of deer. 

11. From the direction, or from the (being) from 
which he expects danger, towards that direction he 
should throw a fire-brand, burning on both sides, or 
having twirled about a churning-stick from the right 
to the left, with (the words), ' Safety be to me, Mitra 

6. I have translated, as Prof. Stenzler has also done, according 
to .Sankhayana's reading, prawapSnd ... tvaya. The 'aged 
one ' is the teacher, the verse that which is quoted in Sutra 5. 

Digitized by 


232 asvalayana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

and Varu#a ; encounter the foes and burn them up 
with your flame. May they find none who knows 
them and no support ; divided by discord may they 
go to death ' — 

12. He turns the churning-stick downwards with 
(the verse), ' The combined wealth of both, heaped 
together' (Rig-veda X, 84, 7). 

KajvdikA 11. 

I. If unknown danger from all sides (menaces him), 
he should sacrifice eight Afya oblations with (the 

' Pmhivi (the earth) is covered ; she is covered by 
Agni. By her, the covered one, the covering one, 
I ward off the danger of which I am in fear. Svaha ! 

' Antariksha (the air) is covered ; it is covered by 
Vayu. By it, the covered, the covering, I ward off 
the danger of which I am in fear. Svaha ! 

' Dyaus (the heaven) is covered ; she is covered by 
Aditya (the sun). By her, &c. 

'The quarters (of the horizon) are covered; 
they are covered by Aandramas (the moon). By 
them, &c. 

' The waters are covered ; they are covered by 
Varu«a. By them, &c. 

' The creatures are covered ; they are covered by 
Pra«a (the breath). By them, &c. 

' The Vedas are covered ; they are covered by the 
metres. By them, &c. 

* All is covered ; it is covered by Brahman. By 
it, &c. Svaha!' 

II, 1. 'Covered' is vrita; 'I ward off' is the causative of the 
same verb, varaye. 

Digitized by 



2. Then, stationing himself towards the north- 
east, he murmurs the Svasti-Atreya and, ' Of what 
we are in fear, Indra' (Rig-veda VIII, 61, 13 seqq.), 
down to the end of the hymn. 

KandikA 12. 

1. When a battle is beginning, (the royal Purohita) 
should cause the king to put on his armour (in the 
following way). 

2. (The Purohita) stations himself to the west of 
(the king's) chariot with (the hymn ?), ' I have brought 
thee hither ; be here ' (Rig-veda X, 1 73). 

3. With (the verse), ' Like a thunder-cloud is his 
countenance' (Rig-veda VI, 75, 1), he should tender 
the coat of mail to him. 

4. With the following (verse) the bow. 

5. The following (verse) he should cause him to 

6. He should murmur himself the fourth. 

7. With the fifth he should tender the quiver to 

8. When (the king) starts, the sixth. 

9. The seventh (he recites) over the horses. 

10. The eighth he should cause (the king) to 
repeat while looking at the arrows ; 

2. The Svasti-Atreya is the part of the hymn V, 51, which veiy 
frequently contains the word svasti (w. 11-15). There is a Khila 
appended to that hymn (Rig-veda, vol. iii, p. 30), which, according 
to N£r£ya»a, is also to be murmured on this occasion. 

12, 2. According to N£raya»a the Pratika here signifies not the 
verse, but the whole hymn, though a whole Pada is given (comp. 
•Srauta-sutra I, 1, 17). 

Digitized by 


234 asvalayana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

ii. (The verse), 'Like a serpent it encircles the 
arm with its windings' (Rig-veda VI, 75, 14), when 
he ties to his arm the leather (by which the arm is 
protected against the bow-string). 

12. He then mounts up to (the king on his 
chariot), while he is driving, and causes him to 
repeat the Abhlvarta hymn (Rig-veda X, 1 74) and 
the two verses, ' He who, Mitra and Varu#a' (Rig- 
veda VIII, 101, 3 seq.). 

13. He then should look at him with the Aprati- 
ratha, Sksa, and Sauparwa hymns. 

14. The Sauparaa is (the hymn), ' May the 
streams of honey and ghee flow forwards.' 

15. (The king) should drive (in his chariot suc- 
cessively) to all quarters (of the horizon). 

16. He should commence the battle in the line 
of battle invented by Aditya or by U-sanas. 

17. He should touch the drum with the three 
verses, ' Fill earth and heaven with thy roar' (Rig- 
veda VI, 47, 29 seqq.). 

18. With (the verse), 'Shot off fall down' (Rig- 
veda VI, 75, 16), he should shoot off the arrows. 

12. The Abhivarta hymn begins with the word abhivartena, 
and is ascribed to Abhivarta Aiigirasa. 

13. The Apratiratha hymn is Rig-veda X, 103 (ascribed to 
Apratiratha Aindra); the .Sasa, X, 152 (ascribed to 5asa Bharad- 
vagu). On the Saupar«a, see the next Sutra. 

14. This hymn is not found in any Vedic SawhitS, as far 
as I know, nor does it occur in the Supar«adhyaya. I have fol- 
lowed Prof. Stenzler's conjecture pra dharl yantu instead of 
pradharayantu, which is confirmed by Sdya«a's note on 
Aitareya BrShmaz/a VI, 25, 7; VIII, 10, 4 (pp. 365, 399, ed. 

17, 18. According to Narayawa the subject is the king. 

Digitized by 


Ill ADHYAYA, 12 KANOIKA, 20. 235 

19. ' Where the arrows fly' (1. 1. v. 17) — this (verse) 
he should murmur while they are fighting. 

20. Or he should teach (the king the texts men- 
tioned). Or he should teach (the king). 

End of the Third Adhyaya. 

19. Here the subject is the Pwohita. 

Digitized by 


236 AsvalAyana-gjuhya-sOtra. 

AdhyAya IV, Kajvdika 1. 

1. If disease befalls one who has set up the (sacred 
.Srauta) fires, he should leave his home (and go away) 
to the eastern, or northern, or north-eastern direction. 

2. ' The sacred fires are fond of the village ' — thus 
it is said. 

3. Longing for it, desirous of returning to the 
village they might restore him to health — thus it is 
understood (in the iSruti). 

4. Being restored to health, he should offer a 
Soma sacrifice, or an animal sacrifice, or an ordinary 
sacrifice, and take his dwelling (again in the village). 

5. Or without such a sacrifice. 

6. If he dies, one should have a piece of ground 
dug up to the south-east or to the south-west — 

7. At a place which is inclined towards the south 
or towards the south-east. 

8. According to some (teachers), inclined towards 

9. (The piece of ground dug up should be) of the 
length of a man with upraised arms, 

10. Of the breadth of one Vyama (fathom), 

1, 1. Comp. .Srauta-sutra VI, 9, 1. The funeral rites according 
to the Gnhya-sutras have been treated of by Prof. Max Mailer, 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, vol. ix. 

3. I. e. longing for the village. I here differ from Prof. 
Stenzler's translation, 'Indem sie, um nach dem Dorfe zu kommen, 
ihm Gutes wiinschen.' Prof. Stenzler here follows Narayawa, who 
has the following note, gramam agantum i£££anto*gnaya enam 
ahit&gnim a^awsante, ayam agado bhaved iti. 

4. Comp. .Srauta-sutra VI, 9, 7. 

5. .Srauta-sfitra VI, 10, 1. 

Digitized by 



1 1. Of the depth of one Vitasti (span). 

12. The cemetery should be free from all sides. 

13. It should be fertile in herbs. 

14. But plants with thorns and with milky. juice, 
&c, as stated above. 

15. From which the waters flow off to all sides : 
this is a characteristic required for the cemetery 
(rmayana) where the body is to be burned. 

16. 'They cut off (from the dead body) the hair, 
the beard, the hairs of the body, and the nails ' — 
this has been stated above. 

17. (They should provide) plenty of sacrificial 
grass and of butter. 

1 8. They here pour clarified butter into curds. 

19. This is the 'sprinkled butter' used for the 
Fathers (i. e. Manes). 

Kawdika 2. 

1. (The relations of the dead person) now carry 
(his sacred) fires and (his) sacrificial vessels in that 

12. NSr£ya«a: By the word jm&r&na (cemetery) two different 
jmaj&nas are designated here, because below (Sutra 15) a dis- 
tinction is added (to the word jmarana), in the words, ' This is 
a characteristic required for the fmarSna where the body is to be 
burned.' Thus the place where the body is burned, and the place 
where the gathered bones are deposited, both are called jm&f&na. 

14. See above, II, 7, 5. 

15. See the note on Sutra 12. 

16. See the .SVauta-sutra VI, 10, 2. 

17. Dvigulphaw barhir S^yan &u NarSyawa explains dvigulpha 
by prabhuta. Comp. bahulatr/wa, Katy&yana XXV, 7, 15. 

18. 'Here' means, at a ceremony directed to the Manes. 

2, 1. In the direction stated above, chap. 1, 6. 

Digitized by 


238 AsvalAyan a-gr/hya-sOtra. 

2. After them aged persons forming an odd 
number, men and women not going together, (carry) 
the dead body. 

3. Some (say) that (the dead body should be 
carried) in a cart with a seat, drawn by cows. 

4. (Some prescribe) a she-animal for covering (the 
dead body with its limbs) : 

5. A cow, 

6. Or a she-goat of one colour. 

7. Some (take) a black one. 

8. They tie (a rope) to its left fore-foot and lead 
it behind (the dead body). 

9. Then follow the relations (of the dead person), 
wearing their sacrificial cords below (round their 
body), with the hair-locks untied, the older ones 
first, the younger ones last. 

10. When they have thus arrived at the place, 
the performer (of the rites) walks three times round 
the spot with his left side turned towards it, and 
with a 6aml branch sprinkles water on it, with (the 
verse), ' Go away, withdraw, and depart from here ' 
(Rig-veda X, 14, 9). 

11. To the south-east, on an elevated corner (of 
that place), he places the Ahavaniya fire, 

12. To the north-west the Garhapatya fire, 

13. To the south-west the Dakshi«a fire. 

14. After that a person that knows (how to do it), 
piles up between the fires a pile of fuel. 

4. See chap. 3, 20-25. 

10. Kartodakena (i. e. karta udakena) is evidently the right 
reading, not gartodakena. 

12, 13. The words, ' on an elevated corner' (Sutra 11) have to 
be supplied. 

14. As to the pronoun enam, which refers, with an irregular 

Digitized by 


IV ADHYAYA, 2 KAiVDIKA, 22. 239 

15. After sacrificial grass and a black antelope's 
skin with the hair outside has been spread out there, 
they place the dead body thereon, which they have 
carried so as to pass by the Garhapatya fire on its 
north-side, turning its head towards the Ahavanlya. 

1 6. To the north (of the body they place) the wife 
(of the deceased), 

1 7. And a bow for a Kshatriya. 

18. Her brother-in-law, being a representative of 
her husband, or a pupil (of her husband), or an aged 
servant, should cause her .to rise (from that place) 
with (the verse), ' Arise, O wife, to the world of life ' 
(Rig-veda X, 18, 8). 

19. The performer (of the rites) should murmur 
(that verse), if a .Sudra (makes her rise from the pile). 

20. With (the verse), ' Taking the bow out of the 
hand of the deceased' (Rig-veda X, 18, 9), (he takes 
away) the bow. 

21. It has been stated (what is to be done) in 
case a .Sudra (should perform this act). 

22. Having bent the bow, he should, before the 
piling up (of the things mentioned below, which are 
put on the dead body) is done, break it to pieces, 
and throw it (on the pile). 

construction, to the dead person, comp. .Satapatha Br£hma«a XII, 

5, 2. 7- 

16. The wife is made to lie down on the pile. 

18. Possibly the words devaraA and patisth&nfyaA refer to 
two different persons, so that we should have to translate, ' Her 
brother-in-law, (or some other) representative of her husband, &c.' 

19. This refers to the case of the aged servant. The word for 
which we have put .Sudra here and in Sutra 21, is vr/'shala. 

22. See Sutra 19. 

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240 asvalAyana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

KandikA 3. 

1. He should then put the following (sacrificial) 
implements (on the dead body). 

2. Into the right hand the (spoon called) 6\ihu. 

3. Into the left the (other spoon called) Upabhrzt. 

4. On his right side the (wooden sacrificial sword 
called) Sphya, on his left (side) the Agnihotrahavani 
(i. e. the ladle with which the Agnihotra oblations 
are sacrificed). 

5. On his chest the (big sacrificial ladle called) 
Dhruva. On his head the dishes. On his teeth 
the pressing-stones. 

6. On the two sides of his nose the two (smaller 
sacrificial ladles called) Sruvas. 

7. Or, if there is only one (Sruva), breaking it (in 
two pieces). 

8. On his two ears the two Pr&ritrahara»as (i. e. 
the vessels into which the portion of the sacrificial 
food belonging to the Brahman is put). 

9. Or, if there is only one (Prasitraharawa), breaking 
it (in two pieces). 

10. On his belly the (vessel called) Patrf, 

11. And the cup into which the cut-off portions 
(of the sacrificial food) are put. 

1 2. On his secret parts the (staff called) .Samya. 

1 3. On his thighs the two kindling woods. 

3, 1. On the different implements mentioned in the following 
Stitras, comp. Prof. Max Mailer's paper in the Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, vol. ix, pp. vii seqq.; 
lxxviii seqq. 

8. On the Prlritra and the Pra^itraharawas, comp. Hillebrandt, 
Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, pp. 119 (with note 6), 120, 131. 

Digitized by 


IV ADHYAYA, 3 KAWDIKA, 23. 24 1 

14. On his legs the mortar and the pestle. 

15. On his feet the two baskets. 

16. Or, if there is only one (basket), tearing it (in 
two pieces). 

17. Those (of the implements) which have a 
hollow (into which liquids can be poured), are filled 
with sprinkled butter. 

18. The son (of the deceased person) should take 
the under and the upper mill-stone for himself. 

19. And the implements made of copper, iron, 
and earthenware. 

2a Taking out the omentum of the she-animal he 
should cover therewith the head and the mouth (of 
the dead person) with the verse, ' Put on the armour 
(which will protect thee) against Agni, by (that which 
comes from) the cows' (Rig-veda X, 16, 7). 

21. Taking out the kidneys (of the animal) he 
should lay them into the hands (of the dead body) 
with the verse, ' Escape the two hounds, the sons of 
Sarama' (Rig-veda X, 14, 10), the right (kidney) 
into the right (hand), the left into the left. 

22. The heart (of the animal he puts) on the heart 
(of the deceased). 

23. And two lumps (of flour or rice), according to 
some (teachers). 

17. Naraya«a explains ase^anavanti by bilavanti. On 
prishada^ya ('sprinkled butter') comp. the two last Sutras of the 
first chapter. 

19. The statement in .Satapatha Brahma«a XII, 5, 2, 14 is 
somewhat different. 

20. Anustarawya vapam. See chap. 2, 4. 

23. Naraya«a states that these lumps are not put, as one would 
be inclined to believe, on the heart, but into the hands of the 
deceased. Sutra 24 shows that this interpretation is correct. 

[29] R 

Digitized by 


242 a.svalAyana-gk/hya-sOtra. 

24. (Only) if there are no kidneys, according to 
some (teachers). 

25. Having distributed the whole (animal), limb 
by limb (placing its different limbs on the corre- 
sponding limbs of the deceased), and having covered 
it with its hide, he recites, when the Prawlta water is 
carried forward, (the verse), ' Agni, do not overturn 
this cup' (Rig-veda X, 16, 8). 

26. Bending his left knee he should sacrifice A^ya 
oblations into the Dakshma fire with (the formulas), 
' To Agni svaha ! To Kama svaha ! To the world 
svaha ! To Anumati svaha ! ' 

27. A fifth (oblation) on the chest of the deceased 
with (the formula), ' From this one verily thou hast 
been born. May he now be born out of thee, N. N. ! 
To the heaven-world svaha!' 

KandikA 4. 

1. He gives order, ' Light the fires together.' 

2. If the Ahavanlya fire reaches (the body) first, 
he should know, ' It has reached him in the heaven- 
world. He will live there in prosperity, and so will 
this one, i. e. his son, in this world.' 

3. If the Garhapatya fire reaches (the body) first, 
he should know, ' It has reached him in the air- 
world. He will live there in prosperity, and so will 
this one, i. e. his son, in this world.' 

24. I. e. if there is no Anustarawt animal, which is considered as 
optional (see chap. 2, 4). 

25. Comp. Katy&yana XXV, 7, 35. 

27. He who is born out of the deceased, is Agni. See Satapatha 
Brahmawa II, 3, 3, 5; and also XII, 5, 2, 15. 
4, 2. .Satapatha Brahma7/a XII, 5, 2, 10. 
3. .Satapatha Brahmawa 1. 1. § 9. 

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4. If the Dakshi»a fire reaches (the body) first, 
he should know, ' It has reached him in the world of 
men. He will live there in prosperity, and so will 
this one, i. e. his son, in this world.' 

5. If (the three fires) reach (the body) in the same 
moment, they say that this signifies the highest 

6. While (the body) is burning, he recites over it 
the same texts, 'Go on, go on, on the ancient paths' 
(Rig-veda X, 14, 7). 

7. Being burnt by a person who knows this, he 
goes to the heaven-world together with the smoke 
(of the funeral pile) — thus it is understood (in the 

8. To the north-east of the Ahavanlya fire he 
should have a knee-deep pit dug and should have 
an Avaka, i. e. (the water-plant called) .Slpala put 
down into it. From that (pit) he (i. e. the deceased) 
goes out and together with the smoke he goes up 
to the heaven-world — thus it is understood (in the 

9. After he has recited (the verse), ' These living 
ones have separated from the dead' (Rig-veda X, 
18, 3), they turn round from right to left and go 
away without looking back. 

10. When they have come to a place where standing 
water is, having once (plunged into it and) emerged 

4. Satapatha Brahmana 1. 1. § 1 1. 

5. .Satapatha Brdhmawa 1. 1. § 1 2. 

6. 'The same texts' means that the texts indicated in the 
Srauta-sutra VI, 10, 19 (twenty-four verses taken from the hymns 
X, 14, 16, 17, 18, 154) have to be recited. 

8. Comp. above, II, 8, 14. 

10. ' All the SamSnodaka relations (see Manu V, 60), men and 
women, should pour out one handful of water each. Pronouncing 

R 2 

Digitized by 


244 asvalAyana-grjhya-sOtra. 

from it, they pour out one handful (of water), pro- 
nounce the Gotra name and the proper name (of the 
deceased), go out (of the water), put on other gar- 
ments, wring out (the old garments) once, lay them 
away with their skirts to the north, and sit down 
until the stars appear. 

1 1. Or they may enter (their houses), when still (a 
part) of the sun-disk is seen, 

12. The younger ones first, the older ones last. 

13. When they have come to the houses, they 
touch a stone, the fire, cow's dung, fried barley, 
sesamum seeds, and water. 

14. Let them not cook food during that night. 

1 5. Let them subsist on bought or ready-made food. 

16. Let them eat no saline food for three nights. 

17. Let them optionally for twelve nights avoid 
the distribution of gifts and the study (of Vedic texts), 
if one of the chief Gurus (has died). 

18. Ten days after (the death of) Sapiw^as, 

the Gotra name and the proper name of the deceased, saying, for 
instance, " Devadatta, belonging to the Gotra of the Klryapas, this 
water is for thee ! " — they sprinkle it out, with southward-turned 
faces.' Narayawa. 

12. Possibly pravijeyuA (they should enter) belongs to this 
Sutra. In Prof. Stenzler's edition and in the commentary of 
Narayawa it is taken as belonging to Sutra 11. 

15. Vasish/^a IV, 15. Narayawa here observes, 'Some authori- 
ties omit this Sutra.' 

1 7. ' Father and mother and the teacher who, after having per- 
formed the Upanayana for him, has taught him the whole Veda, 
are the chief Gurus. When these have died, they should avoid 
giving gifts and studying the Veda either for twelve nights, or for 
ten nights, this rule standing in correlation with the following one.' 

1 8. The Sapi»</a relationship is generally defined as the relation- 
ship within six degrees, though the statements in the different 

Digitized by 



19. And of a Guru who is no Sapi«da, 

20. And of unmarried female relations. 

2 1. Three nights after(the death of) other teachers, 

22. And of a relation who is no Sap'mda, 

23. And of married female relations, 

24. Of a child that has no teeth, 

25. And of a dead-born child. 

26. One day, after (the death of) a fellow-pupil, 

27. And of a vSrotriya of the same village. 

Kajvdika 5. 

1. The gathering (of the bones is performed) after 
the tenth (Tithi from the death), (on a Tithi) with 
an odd number, of the dark fortnight, under a single 

2. A man into a male urn without special marks, 
a woman into a female one without special marks. 

3. Aged persons of an odd number, not men and 
women together (gather the bones). 

4. The performer of the ceremony walks three 
times round the spot with his left side turned towards 

texts do not exactly agree. See Apastamba II, 15, 2; Manu V, 
60; Gautama XIV, 13 (with Prof. Btihler's note, Sacred Books, 
vol. ii, p. 247, &c). 

21. Comp. Sutras 17, 19. 

5. 1. Naraya«a (comp. the Asvalayana-Gnhya-Parmsh/a III, 7) 
understands this Sutra in a different way. ' After the tenth Tithi 
of the dark fortnight, on a Tithi with an odd number, i. e. on the 
eleventh, thirteenth, or fifteenth.' The single Nakshatras are those 
the name of which does not denote two Nakshatras (as, for instance, 
the two Asha<24as). Comp. Katy.-.Sraut. XXV, 8, 1 ; Manu V, 59. 

2. Urns, with or without protuberances like female breasts, are 
considered as female or male accordingly. 

3. See chap. 2, 2. 

4. Comp. chap. 2, 10. 

Digitized by 



it, and sprinkles on it with a branch milk mixed 
with water, with the verse, ' O cool one, O thou that 
art full of coolness' (Rig-veda X, 16, 14). 

5. With the thumb and the fourth finger they 
should put each single bone (into the urn) without 
making a noise, 

6. The feet first, the head last. 

7. Having well gathered them and purified them 
with a winnowing basket, they should put (the urn) 
into a pit, at a place where the waters from the 
different sides do not flow together, except rain 
water, with (the verse), ' Go to thy mother Earth 
there' (Rig-veda X, 18, 10). 

8. With the following (verse) he should throw 
earth (into the pit). 

9. After he has done so, (he should repeat) the 
following (verse). 

10. Having covered (the urn) with a lid with 
(the verse), ' I fasten to thee' (Rig-veda X, 18, 13), 
they then should go away without looking back, 
should bathe in water, and perform a .Sraddha for 
the deceased. 

Kaatjika 6. 

1. They who have lost a Guru by death, or are 
afflicted by other misfortune, should perform on the 
new-moon day an expiatory ceremony. 

2. Before sunrise they should carry their fire 

7. Narayawa explains pavana by j urpa. He says that the 
' performer ' (kart/v) repeats this and the following texts. 

10. 'They should give a iraddha to the deceased exclusively, 
according to the Ekoddish/a rite.' Naraya«a. 

6, 2. According to Ndrayawa the fire means here not the sacred 
domestic fire, but a common kitchen fire. I doubt whether the 

Digitized by 


iv adhyAya, 6 kaatdikA, 5. 247 

together with its ashes and with its receptacle to the 
south with the half-verse, ' I send far away the flesh- 
devouring Agni ' (Rig-veda X, 16, 9). 

3. Having thrown that (fire) down at a place 
where four roads meet or somewhere else, they walk 
round it three times, turning their left sides towards 
it, beating their left thighs with their left hands. 

4. They then should return home without looking 
back, bathe in water, have their hair, their beards 
the hair of their bodies, and their nails cut, and 
furnish themselves with new jars, pots, vessels for 
rinsing the mouth, wreathed with garlands of .Sami 
flowers, with fuel of .Sami wood, with two pieces of 
.Sami wood for kindling fire, and with branches to be 
laid round the fire, with bull's dung and a bull's hide, 
fresh butter, a stone, and as many bunches of Kusa 
grass as there are young women (in the house). 

5. At the time of the Agni(-hotra) he should 
kindle fire with the hemistich, ' Here may this other 
£atavedas' (Rig-veda X, 16, 9). 

commentator is right. The ceremonies described in the following 
Sutras seem to point rather to a renewal of the sacred Gr/hya 
fire, the old one having proved unlucky to the sacrificer. In the 
same way, in the .Srauta ritual, a sacrificer who, after having per- 
formed the Adhina, has bad luck, performs the Punar&dheya. 

3. Comp. K£tyayana-.Srauta-sutra V, 10, 15. 

5. The text has agnivelSySm, which Naraya«a explains by 
agnihotravihara«akale aparShne. He states that the fire 
should be produced by attrition of two new kindling woods 
(ara»i), mentioned in Sutra 4. The fire thus kindled is to be used, 
he says, as a kitchen-fire. Herein he seems to me to have mis- 
understood the meaning of the ceremony; see the note on Sutra 2. 
The hemistich quoted in this Sutra (which is the second half of 
the same verse of which the first half is prescribed in Sutra 2) 
clearly points to the sacred quality of the fire in question ; it runs 
thus, 'Here may this other Gatavedas carry the offerings to the 
gods, the knowing one.' 

Digitized by 


248 asvalAyana-gr/hya-sOtra. 

6. Keeping that (fire) burning, they sit till the 
silence of the night, repeating the tales of the aged, 
and getting stories of auspicious contents, Itihasas 
and Pura»as, told to them. 

7. When all sounds have ceased, or when (the 
others) have gone to the house or the resting-place, 
(the performer of the ceremony) should pour out an 
uninterrupted stream of water, beginning at the south 
side of the door, with (the verse), ' Spinning the 
thread follow the light of the aerial space ' (Rig-veda 
X, 53, 6), (going round the house), ending at the 
north side of the door. 

8. Having then given its place to the fire, and 
having spread to the west of it a bull's hide with the 
neck to the east, with the hair outside, he should 
cause the people belonging to the house to step on 
that (hide) with (the verse), 'Arise to long life, 
choosing old age' (Rig-veda X, 18, 6). 

9. With (the verse), ' This I lay round the living ' 
(Rig-veda X, 18, 4), he should lay branches round 
(the fire). 

10. After having with (the words), ' A mountain 
(i. e. a stone) they shall place between themselves 
and death,' placed a stone to the north of the fire, 
and having sacrificed with the four (verses), ' Go 
hence, O death, on another way' (Rig-veda X, 18, 

7. The person who pours out the water is, as Narayawa says, 
the kartr*', i. e. the performer of the whole ceremony. The word 
cannot be translated, as Prof. Stenzler does, der Bestatter, no 
funeral ceremonies being here treated of. 

8. See above, I, 8, 9. Here Narayawa sees that the fire is the 
sacred one. He says, atha_rabdo*smin kale»gnyantaram aupS- 
sanam upasamadadhyad iti ^wapanartham. 

10. The words, ' A mountain,' &c, stand at the end of the verse 
quoted in Sutra 9. 

Digitized by 


iv adhyAya, 6 kandikX, i 8. 249 

1-4), verse by verse, he should look at his people 
with (the verse), 'As the days follow each other' 
(ibid. 5). 

11. The young women (belonging to the house) 
should, with each hand separately, with their thumbs 
and fourth fingers, with young Darbha blades, salve 
their eyes with fresh butter, and throw (the Darbha 
blades) away, turning their faces away. 

12. (The performer of the ceremony) should look 
at them, while they are salving themselves, with (the 
verse), ' These women, being no widows, having 
noble husbands' (Rig-veda X, 18, 7). 

13. With (the verse), ' Carrying stones, (the river) 
streams forward ; take hold of each other ' (Rig-veda 
X, 53, 8) — the performer (of the ceremony) first 
should touch the stone. 

14. After that, stationing himself to the north- 
east, while (the others) go round with the fire, with 
bull's dung, and with an uninterrupted stream of 
water, repeating the three verses, ' O waters, ye are 
wholesome' (Rig-veda X, 9, 1 seqq.), he should 
murmur the verse, ' These have led round the cow ' 
(Rig-veda X, 155, 5). 

1 5. A tawny-coloured bull should he lead round — 
thus they say. 

16. They then sit down at a place where they 
intend to tarry, having put on garments that have 
not yet been washed. 

17. (There) they sit, avoiding to sleep, till sun- 

18. After sunrise, having murmured the hymns 
sacred to the sun and the auspicious hymns, having 

18. See above, II, 3, 13. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

250 AsvalAyana-cr/hya-sOtra. 

prepared food, having made oblations with (the hymn), 
' May he drive evil away from us with his shine ' 
(Rig-veda I, 97), verse by verse, having given to the 
Brahma#as to eat,he should cause (them) to pronounce 
auspicious words. 

19. A cow, a cup of metal, and a garment that has 
not yet been washed, constitute the sacrificial fee. 


1. Now at a 6raddha ceremony, at that which is 
celebrated on the Parvan day, or for the attainment 
of special wishes, or at the Abhyudayika .Sraddha 
(i. e. the .Sraddha celebrated when some good luck 
has happened), or at the Ekoddish/a iSVaddha (the 
■Sraddha directed to a single dead person) — 

2. He causes Brahma«as who are endowed with 
learning, moral character, and correct conduct, or 
with one of these (characteristics), who have been 
invited in time, who have taken a bath, washed their 
feet, and sipped water, to sit down, as representa- 
tives of the Fathers, with their faces turned to the 
north, one for each one of the Fathers, or two for 
each, or three for each. 

3. The larger their number is, the greater is the 
reward (which the sacrificer is entitled to expect). 

4. But in no case one (Brahma«a) for all (the 

7, 1. Comp. on the Sraddha ceremonies in general the note on 
►Sankhayana-Gr/hya IV, 1, i,and the quotations given there. The 
Parvawa .S'niddha, which is celebrated on the new-moon day, is 
treated of by .S'ankhayana IV, 1, the Abhyudayika .SrSddha, IV, 
4, the Ekoddish/a 6'raddha, IV, 2. 

Digitized by 


rv adhyAya, 7 kaatdikA, ii. 251 

5. Optionally (he may invite only one Brahma»a) 
except at the first (vSraddha). 

6. By (the exposition of) the Pi#da sacrifice (the 
corresponding rules) have been declared (for the 
.Sraddha ceremonies also). 

7. Having given water (to the Brahmawas), 

8. Having given to them double-folded Darbha 
blades, and a seat, 

9. Having (again) given water (to them), 

10. Having poured water into three vessels of 
metal, of stone, and of earthen-ware, or (into three 
vessels) made of the same substance, over which he 
has put Darbha grass, 

1 1 . And having recited over (that water the verse), 
' For luck and help the divine waters ' (Rig-veda X, 
9, 4), he pours sesamum seeds into it with (the 
formula), 'Sesamum art thou; Soma is thy deity; 
at the Gosava sacrifice thou hast been created by 

5. Anadye. Of the different interpretations of this word which 
Nirayawa gives, it may suffice here to quote two. The first 
•Sraddha may either mean the Parvawa .Sraddha, because this stands 
first among the different kinds of .Sr&ddha ceremonies enumerated 
in Sutra 1 ; or it may mean the Sapi»rfikara»a (see .SSnkhayanalV, 
3), for this is the first occasion on which a dead person receives 
.Sraddha oblations together with two others of the Fathers. 

6. The sacrifice to the Manes, as forming part of the Srauta 
ritual, is explained in the -SYauta-sutra II, 6 seq. 

8. Yi^wavalkya I, 229. 

9. Ya^wavalkya I, 230. The reading of several words of the 
Mantra is doubtful, and the parallel texts, as Prof. Stenzler has not 
failed to observe, differ; especially the words pratnavadbhi^ 
prattaA seem to me to be corrupt. The word pratnavat is 
only known to the Petersburg Dictionary as having the meaning, 
'containing the word pratna,' which will not do here. Thus, I 
think that the reading pratnam adbhiA pn'ktaA should be 
adopted ; the translation would be, ' Anciently thou hast been 
mixed with water.' 

Digitized by 


252 asvalAyana-cr/hya-sCtra. 

the gods. By the ancients thou hast been offered. 
Through the funeral oblation render the Fathers and 
these worlds propitious to us. Svadha ! Adoration !' 

12. (The different rites are performed) from the 
right to the left. 

1 3. With (the part) of the other (i. e. left) hand 
between the thumb (and the fore-finger), because he 
wears the sacrificial cord over his left shoulder, or 
with the right hand which he seizes with the left (he 
offers the Arghya water to the Fathers with the 
words), ' Father, this is thy Arghya. Grandfather, 
this is thy Arghya. Great-grandfather, this is thy 
Arghya' — having first offered (ordinary) water (to 
the Fathers). 

14. When he is going to hand over that (Arghya 
water to the Brahmawas who represent the Fathers, 
he says once each time), ' Svadha ! The Arghya 
water !' 

15. Over (the Arghya water) which has been 

12. Comp. .Sankhayana-Gr/hya IV, 4, 6. 

1 3. The part of the hand above the thumb is called the ' Tirtha 
belonging to the Manes ; ' see, for instance, Baudhiyana's Dharma- 
sutra I, 8, 16. The sacrificer is here understood to wear his sacrificial 
cord suspended over the left shoulder (he is 'ySg'nopavttin'). But 
as the oblation here treated of is directed to the Manes, it is 
required that he should be pri^inavitin. Now he is considered 
as prsU'inavitin, according to Narayawa, not only if the cord is 
suspended over his right shoulder (which is the ordinary meaning 
of pra/iinavttin), but also if the hand with which he performs the 
rites, and the shoulder over which he wears the sacred cord, are 
either both right or both left. Thus here, acting with the left-hand 
and wearing the cord over the left shoulder, he becomes prS^inS- 

The last word (appurvam) is separated by Ndrayawa from the 
rest, so that it forms a separate Sutra. 

1 5. The sacrificer gives the water to the Brdhmawas, and these 

Digitized by 


IV ADHYAYA, 7 KAND1KA, 20. 253 

poured out, he should recite the verse, ' The celestial 
waters which have been produced on the earth, the 
aerial waters and the waters which are terrestrial, 
the gold-coloured ones, apt for sacrifice, may these 
waters bring us luck and be kind to us.' Pouring 
together what has been left (in the three Arghya 
vessels) he moistens his face with that water, if he 
desires that a son should be born to him. 

16. 'He should not take up the first vessel, into 
which the Arghya water for the Fathers has been 
poured. Hidden the Fathers dwell therein : thus 
.Saunaka has said.' 

17. In that moment the gifts of perfumes, gar- 
lands, incense, lights, and clothes are offered (to the 

18. Having taken some food (of the Sthaltpaka 
prepared for the Yxtidzpitriyzgna), and having be- 
smeared it with ghee, he asks (the Brahma«as) for 
their permission by saying, ' I shall offer it in the 
fire,' or, ' I will sacrifice my offering in the fire,' or, 
' I will offer it in the fire.' 

19. The permission (is given in the words), ' It 
may be offered,' or, ' Sacrifice thy offering,' or, 
' Offer it' 

20. He then sacrifices in the fire as stated above, 

pour it out. Instead of pr*thivi sambabhftvuA (pr/'thivt being 
intended as a locative; see Lanman, Noun-inflection in the Veda, 
p. 389) we should read, no doubt, as the parallel texts have, payasi 
sambabhuvuA : ' The celestial waters which have united themselves 
with milk.' 

16. This is a .Sloka. 

17. Manu III, 209; YS^navalkya I, 231. 

20. The oblations alluded to in this Sutra are prescribed in 
the .Srauta-sutra, II, 6, 1 2. They are directed to Soma pitn'mat and 
to Agni kavyavahana. 

Digitized by 



21. Or, if they give their permission, in the 
hands (of the Brahmawas). 

22. ' The mouth of the gods verily is the fire, the 
mouth of the Fathers is the hand ' — thus says the 

23. If in the hands, he assigns to them other food, 
after they have sipped water. 

24. The food (is put together) with the food. 

25. It is said, 'What is given away and offered, 
that brings prosperity.' 

26. When he sees that they are satiated, he should 
recite (the verses) containing the word madhu, and 
(the verse), ' They have eaten, they have enjoyed 
themselves' (Rig-veda I, 82, 2). 

27. Having asked them, ' Relished?' and having 
taken the food, whatever food he has used, together 
with the Sthallpaka, in order to make lumps thereof, 
he should offer the rest (to the Brahma«as). 

28. After they have either accepted (that rest of 
food), or left it (to him), and have finished eating, 
he should, before they have sipped water, put down 
the lumps for the Fathers. 

21. According to Manu (III, 212) this is done only incase there 
is no fire. Possibly abhyanu^riayam belongs to Sutra 20, so 
that we should have to translate, ' He then sacrifices ... if they 
give their permission. Or in the hands.' 

24. ' The food which is left from the oblations he puts with the 
food (Sutra 23) which is to be eaten by the Brahmawas, and has 
been put into the vessels.' Narayawa. 

25. Is sr;'sh/am to be understood in the sense of visr/sh/am ? 
Narayawa explains it by prabhutam. 

26. The verses containing the word madhu are Rig-veda I, 90, 

27. On the question, 'Relished?' compare <Saftkhayana-Gr*hya 
IV, 2, 5. For several kinds of .Sraddha ceremonies a Sthillpaka is 
prescribed, for others it is not ; for the .Sraddhas of the last kind 
the words ' Together with the Sthalipaka ' are not valid. 

Digitized by 


iv adhyAya, 8 kaatoikA, 12. 255 

29. After they have sipped water, according to 
some (teachers). 

30. Having strewn the food on the ground and 
suspended the sacrificial cord over his left shoulder, 
he should dismiss the Brahma#as, (saying to them), 
'Say Om! Svadha!' 

31. Or, 'So be it! Svadha!' 

KandikX 8. 

1. Now the spit-ox (sacrificed to Rudra). 

2. In autumn or in spring, under the (Nakshatra) 

3. The best of his herd, 

4. (An ox) which is neither leprous nor speckled ; 

5. One with black spots, according to some ; 

6. If he likes, a black one, if its colour inclines to 

7. He sprinkles it with water, into which he has 
thrown rice and barley, 

8. From head to tail, 

9. With (the formula), ' Grow up, agreeable to 
Rudra the great god.' 

10. He should let it grow up. When it has cut 
its teeth, or when it has become a bull — 

11. To a quarter (of the horizon) which is sacri- 
ficially pure, 

12. At a place which cannot be seen from the 

30. They reply, ' Om ! Svadhi ! * 

8, 1. According to N£raya«a, the 'spit-ox' sacrifice is so called 
because it is offered to Rudra the spit-wearer. 

5. Kalmisho nama kr/'sh«abindu£itaA. Narayawa. 

10. This Sutra should rather be divided into two. 

11. I. e. to the east or the north. 

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256 asvalAyana-grjhya-sOtra. 

1 3. After midnight, 

14. According to some, after sunrise. 

15. Having caused a Brahman who is versed in 
learning and knows the practice (of this sacrifice), to 
sit down, having driven a fresh branch with leaves 
into the ground as a sacrificial post, (having taken) 
two creeping plants or two Kura ropes as two 
girdles, and having wound the one round the sacri- 
ficial post, and tied the other round the middle of the 
animal's head, he binds it to the sacrificial post or to 
the girdle (which he had tied to that post) with (the 
formula), ' Agreeable to him to whom adoration (is 
brought), I bind thee.' 

16. The sprinkling with water and what follows is 
the same as at the animal sacrifice. 

17. We shall state what is different. 

1 8. Let him sacrifice the omentum with the Patr! 
or with a leaf — thus it is understood (in the -Sruti) — 

19. With (the formulas), ' To Hara, Mn'</a, .Sarva, 
vSiva, Bhava, Mahadeva, Ugra, Bhtma, Parupati, 
Rudra, .Sankara, uana svaha ! ' 

20. Or with the last six (parts of that formula), 

21. Or with (the formula), ' To Rudra svaha !' 

22. Let him make Bali offerings towards the four 
quarters (of the horizon), to each on four rings of 
Kusa. net-work, with (the formulas), ' The hosts, 
Rudra, which thou hast towards the eastern direction, 

1 5. Round the middle of the head means, between the two horns. 

16. See above, I, 11. 

22. This Bali offering is performed, according to Narayawa, 
before the Svish/akM oblation of the chief sacrifice. On ku-rasuna 
the commentator has the note, ' Darbhastambais trinais takalpavad 
(or rather, as Prof. Stenzler writes, ka/akavad) grathitva sarvesham 
agrara gr/hitva, ekikrrtya grathit&A kurasuna u^yante.' 

Digitized by 


rv adhyAya, 8 kandikX, 29. 257 

to them this (offering is brought). Adoration to 
thee ! Do no harm to me !' In this way the 
assigning (of the offerings is performed) according 
to the different quarters (of the horizon). 

23. With the following four hymns he should 
worship the four quarters, viz. ' What shall we to 
Rudra,' ' These prayers to Rudra,' ' To thee, O 
father,' ' These songs to Rudra with the strong bow ' 
(Rig-veda I, 43, 114 ; II, 33 ; VII, 46). 

24. (This) worship to the quarters (of the horizon) 
(is performed) at all sacrifices to Rudra. 

25. The husks and chaff (of the rice), the tail, the 
skin, the head, the feet (of the sacrificial animal) he 
should throw into the fire. 

26. He should turn the skin to some use, according 
to .Sawvatya. 

27. To the north of the fire, on rows of Darbha 
grass, or on rings of Kara net-work, he should pour 
out the blood (of the sacrificial animal) with (the 
formula), ' Hissing ones ! Noisy ones ! Searching 
ones ! Seizing ones ! Serpents ! What here belongs 
to you, take that.' 

28. Then, turning to the north, (he assigns it) to 
the serpents (in the words), ' Hissing ones ! Noisy 
ones ! Searching ones ! Seizing ones ! Serpents ! 
What here belongs to you, take that.' 

Then the serpents take whatever has flowed down 
there of blood or of the contents of stomach and 

29. All names, all hosts, all exaltations belong 

26. Perhaps S&mvatya. is a mis-spelling of the name of the well- 
known Grihya teacher .Sambavya. 

27. Darbhavita is explained in the commentary by darbharslgi. 

[29] S 

Digitized by 


258 AsvalAyana-gr/hya-sCtra. 

to him ; — to a sacrificer who knows that, he gives 


30. Even to a man who only with words sets 
forth (some part) of that (ceremony), he will do no 
harm ; thus it is understood (in the .Sruti). 

31. He should not partake of that (sacrifice). 

32. They should not take anything belonging to 
it into the village. For this god will do harm to 
(human) creatures. 

33. He should keep away his people from the 
vicinity (of the place where he has sacrificed). 

34. On an express injunction, however, he 
should partake (of that sacrificial food), for it will 
bring luck. 

35. This spit-ox sacrifice procures wealth, (open) 
space, purity, sons, cattle, long life, splendour. 

36. After he has sacrificed, he should let loose 
another (animal). 

37. He should not be without such an animal. 

38. Then he will not be without cattle — thus it is 
understood (in the .Sruti). 

39. Muttering the 6antatiya hymn, he should go 
to his house. 

40. If disease befalls his cattle, he should 
sacrifice to that same god in the midst of his cow- 
stable — 

41. A mess of cooked food, which he sacrifices in 
its entirety. 

32. Instead of abhimaruka we ought to read abhimanuka. 
See Aitareya Brahmarca III, 34, and the Petersburg Dictionary 
s. v. abhimanuka. 

36. He should destine another young animal in the way stated 
above (Sutras 7 seqq.) to a new .Sulagava sacrifice. 

39. Rig-veda VII, 35. Comp. above, II, 8, 11. 

Digitized by 


IV ADHYAYA, 8 KAiVDIIcA, 44. 259 

42. Having thrown the sacrificial grass and the 
Agya. into the fire, he should lead his cows through 
the smoke. 

43. Murmuring the *Santatlya hymn, he should go 
in the midst of his cattle. 

44. Adoration to ^Saunaka ! Adoration to .Saunaka ! 

End of the Fourth Adhyiya. 

End of the Ajvalayana-Grzhya-sutra. 

s 2 

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The Grzhya-sutra of Paraskara, which belongs to the 
White Ya^ur-veda and forms an appendix to Katyayana's 
.Srauta-sutra, has been edited, with a German translation, 
by the scholar who was the first to make a Grihya text 
accessible to Orientalists and to begin to grapple with the 
first and most serious difficulties that beset its interpre- 
tation, and who has continued since to do more than any- 
one else towards elucidating that important branch of Vedic 
literature. It would be very unbecoming in any one engaged 
in the study of GWhya texts, not to acknowledge most 
warmly the debt of gratitude which he owes to Professor 
Stenzler. At the same time the respect due to the veteran 
editor and interpreter of Ayvalayana and Paraskara not 
only allows, but requires that one who proposes to himself 
the same task at which Prof. Stenzler has worked with so 
much learning, should state as clearly as possible what 
that distinguished scholar has left for others to do, and 
why one who prepares an English translation of Paraskara 
has a very different task from merely translating into 
English the German translation of Prof. Stenzler. 

If I may venture to express in one word the difference 
between Prof. Stenzler's method, as I understand it, for 
getting at the meaning of a doubtful or obscure passage, 
and the method which I have endeavoured to follow, I 
should say that with Prof. Stenzler the first step and, 

Digitized by 


264 paraskara-gjj/hva-sOtra. 

I believe, in many cases also the last step is to ask how 
Gayarama and Ramakrzshwa understand the passage in 
question, while I hold that we ought rather to make our- 
selves independent from those commentators in the sense 
in which Prof. Max Miiller once expressed himself 1 , 'not 
that I ever despise the traditional interpretation which the 
commentators have preserved to us, but because I think 
that, after having examined it, we have a right to judge for 
ourselves.' There exists a commentary on the Paraskara- 
Grihya. which far surpasses in trustworthiness £ayarama's 
Sa^^anavallabha and Ramakr/shwa's Sawskaragawapati, 
and which is not composed by an author who, as says 

— im Auslegen ist munter ; 

Legt er nicht aus, so legt er unter. 
But the leaves of that commentary are scattered through 
a good many volumes. Here we find a few lines of it in the 
.Satapatha Brahmawa or in Katyayana's Srauta-sutra ; there 
.Sankhayana or A^valayana has preserved a word or a sen- 
tence that belongs to it ; or the law-books of Manu or 
Ya^lavalkya help us to understand a difficult or doubtful 
aphorism of our text. In one word : the only true com- 
mentary on a work like Paraskara's Grihya. is that which 
the ancient literature itself furnishes. No one will say that 
in Prof. Stenzler's translation and notes this commentary 
has not been consulted. But it has been consulted perhaps 
not quite as much as it ought to have been, and Rama- 
krishna. and £ayarama have been consulted too much. 
They have been consulted and followed in many in- 
stances, where a continued consideration of what can be 
the meaning of a word and what can not, and of what the 
parallel texts say with regard to the subject in question, 
would have shown that those commentators, instead of 
interpreting Paraskara's meaning, father on him vague 
opinions of their own. 

Perhaps it will not be out of place here to point our 

1 Sacred Books of the East, vol. xv, p. 2, note a. 

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criticism, lest it should be deemed unjust, by a few remarks 
on a single passage of Paraskara in which the difference of 
Prof. Stenzler's way of translating and of our own becomes 
manifest. Of the numerous passages which could be se- 
lected for this purpose, I choose Sutra I, 2, 5, belonging 
to the description of the setting up of the sacred domestic 
fire. The text of that Sutra runs thus : 

5. arawipradanam eke. 
Prof. Stenzler translates as follows : 

' Einige sagen, es miisse durch Reibholzer erzeugtes Feuer 

The two Sutras which precede give a description of 
that ceremony from which evidently the opinion of the 
'eke' mentioned in this Sutra differs, or to which they 
find it necessary to add something. Those Sutras run 

3. After he has fetched fire from the house of a Vauya 
who is rich in cattle — 

4. All ceremonies are performed as at the cooking of the 
£atushprajya food 1 . 

It seems evident that the Afcaryas to whom the opinion 
spoken of in Sfitra 5 belongs, add, or perhaps substitute, to 
the fetching of the fire which is to be worshipped as the 
sacrificer's domestic fire, from a rich VaLrya's house, another 
rite in which an ara«i, i. e. a stick for kindling the fire by 
attrition, is made use of in some way or other. 

Now if this may be accepted as a vague expression of 
the general purport of the Sutra, what is the literal mean- 
ing of the words ? ' Some (teachers),' it says, ' (prescribe) 
the pradana of the kindling stick (or, of the kindling sticks).' 

What does pradana mean ? Gayarama says, 

'prarabda uparabdarthe. arawyupadanakam eka a£arya 

1 The food which is eaten by the four chief officiating priests of the ..S'rauta 
ritual. For these priests a mess of food is prepared at the ceremony of the 
adhana of the .S'rauta fires. 

Digitized by 


266 pAraskara-gr/hya-sCtra. 

That is : ' The word pra stands in the sense of the word 
upa. Some teachers desire that it (i. e. the fire) should 
have the kindling sticks as its physical basis 1 .' 

Thus, if Gayarama is right, Prof. Stenzler's translation 
would be justified. But can we acquiesce indeed in simply 
accepting the commentator's opinion? Pradana is pra- 
dana and not upadana, as pradadati is not upadatte. 
Pradadati means 'he hands over,' and pradana 'the 
handing over.' This is an established fact, and an inter- 
preter of a Vedic text should not allow himself to be 
induced by a statement like that of Gayarama about the 
preposition pra standing in the sense of upa, to abate one 
iota of it. Thus we are obliged, until passages have been 
discovered which modify our knowledge of what pradana 
means — but such passages most certainly will never be 
discovered — to translate : 

5. Some (teachers say that) the handing over of the 
kindling sticks (takes place). 

We should give that translation even if we were not able 
to find an explanation for it. It appears that Prof. Stenzler, 
as far as we can judge from his note, has not even thought 
of the possibility of disregarding the authority of £ayarama 
and Ramak/-zsh«a, or of looking through the parallel texts 
to see whether they do not throw light on what that 
' handing over of the kindling sticks ' signifies. The text 
to be consulted first is of course Katyayana's .Srauta-sutra. 
As the Srauta ritual contains a description of an adhana 
which is in some way the prototype of the corresponding 
Grihya. ceremony, we may possibly expect to discover, in 
the course of that description, the statements regarding the 
arawi-pradana for which we are searching. Now Katya- 
yana 2 , having described the setting up of the fire in the 
garhapatyagara, states that at sunset the sacrificer and his 

1 Ramak/-/sh«a also, according to Prof. Stenzler's note, explains pradana 
by upadana, karana, utpattisthana. 

2 IV, 7, 15 seqq. The corresponding passage of the Paddhati is found at 
P- 35S of Prof. Weber's edition. 

Digitized by 



wife sit down to the west of the fire which has just been 
established, and then the Adhvaryu hands over to them 
the two kindling sticks 1 . The Paddhati, in describing 
that act, goes into further details. The Adhvaryu hands 
over to the sacrificer the two Arawis, which, as required 
by custom, are wrapped up in new clothes. The wife 
takes the adhararam from his hand and puts it on her lap ; 
the sacrificer puts the uttararawi on his lap, and they do 
homage to them with flowers, saffron, sandal wood, &c. ; 
then, after the performance of some other ceremonies, they 
put the two Arawis away on a chair or bench. The two 
Arawis have to be kept by the sacrificer ; if they are lost or 
burnt or destroyed in any other way, other Arawis must 
be procured, and by their attrition a new fire must be 
kindled 2 . 

Apastamba likewise mentions, in his description of the 
Agny&dhana 3 , the handing over of the two Arawis, and 
indicates a Mantra which the Adhvaryu recites in giving 
them to the sacrificer, and two other Mantras with the one 
of which the sacrificer receives them, while he recites the 
other over the Arawis, after having taken them into his 

Finally we may quote here, as bearing witness to the 
custom of the Arawipradana, a passage taken from Nara- 
yawa's commentary on the .Sinkhayana-Grzhya. Though 
the decisive words in that passage rest only on the autho- 
rity of the commentator and not of the Sutrakara himself, 
they deserve to be taken notice of, as they are not subject 
to the suspicion that they could be influenced by a mis- 
understanding of that very Sutra of Piraskara of which 
we are treating. Narayawa says, in his explanation of 
•Sankhayana 1, 1, 10*: 'To the west of the fire the sacri- 
ficer, and southwards (of him) the wife sits down. The 

1 IV, 7, 22 : arvatuWamfgarbharani praya/fcMati. 

' See the commentary on IV, J, 22, and the passages of the Karmapradipa 
qnoted there. 
' -Srauta-sfitra V, 8, 7 ; vol. i, p. 255, of Prof. Garbe's edition. 
* SSyamahutisafftskSroidhvaryupratyaya ity a£arysU. 

Digitized by 


268 paraskara-gr/hya-sOtra. 

handing over of the kindling sticks does not take 
place. For it is a fire fetched (from a VaLsya's house, &c.) 
which is inaugurated here 1 .' Then the commentator goes 
on to quote a Sloka : 

' The handing over of the Ara«is which the Adhvaryu 
sometimes performs, 

'Is not in accordance with the opinion of Suya^vTa 2 ; he 
does not approve of kindling the fire by attrition 3 .' 

Thus, I think, no doubt can remain as to the real meaning 
of Paraskara's Sutra : it means what its words signify and 
what is in accordance with Katyiyana and Apastamba, 
and it does not mean what the commentators most gratui- 
tously would make it mean. 

Perhaps I have dwelt here too long on the interpretation 
of a few words which are of no peculiar interest in them- 
selves. But I venture to hope that the discussion on these 
words will serve as a specimen, by which the fundamental 
difference of two methods of handling our texts may be 
discerned. Let us never forget how much we owe to the 
scholars who have followed the first of these methods, but 
for ourselves let us choose the second. 

1 Agne/i parHd ya^amano dakshiwata/i patni in upavixati. ara»ipradana»> 
na kartavya/«. ahn'tasyagner eva sawskara/;. 

'' On this name of .SankMyana, see my Introduction to the translation of the 
5ahkhayana-G/Vhya, above, p. 3. 

' Atrara«ipradana»/ yad adhvaryu^ kurute kva£it, 

mataw tan na Suya^/Jasya mathita/« soitra netiAaii. 

Digitized by 



Kanda. I, KandikA 1. 

i. Now henceforth the performance of the do- 
mestic sacrifices of cooked food (will be explained). 

2. Having wiped (around the surface on which 
he intends to perform a sacrifice), having be- 
smeared it (with cowdung), having drawn the lines 
thereon, having taken the earth out (of the lines), 
having besprinkled (the place with water), having 
established the (sacred) fire, having spread out the 
seat for the Brahman to the south, having carried 1 
forward (the Prawita water), having spread (Kusa 
grass) round (the fire), having put down (the dif- 
ferent things used at the sacrifice) according as they 
are wanted, having prepared two (Kusa blades used 
as) strainers, having consecrated the Prokshawi 

1, i. Comp. .Sankhayana-Gnhya I, i ; Afvalayana-Gnhya I,i,&c. 
It seems to me that Professor Stenzler is not quite right in giving 
to the opening words of the text ath&ta£, which he translates ' nun 
also,' the explanation: 'das heisst, nach Beendigung des <Srauta-sutra 
von KStyayana.' I think rather it can be shown that ata£ does 
not contain a reference to something preceding ; thus the .Srauta- 
sutra, which forms the first part of the whole Sutra collection, is 
opened in the same way by the words athato*dhikaraA. 

2. The description of the standard form of domestic sacrifice 
opens with an enumeration of the five so-called bhusawskara 
(parisamuhya, &c). On the samuhana(forparisamuhyaisderived 

Digitized by 


2 70 paraskara-g/?/hya-sOtra. 

water, having sprinkled (with that water the sacri- 
ficial implements) according to what is needed, 
having poured out (the A^ya or sacrificial butter 
into the pot), and having put the sacrificial butter on 
the fire, he should (lustrate the butter by) moving a 
fire-brand round it. 

3. Having warmed the (sacrificial spoon called) 
Sruva, having wiped it, having besprinkled it (with 
water), and warmed it again, he should put it down. 

4. Having taken the Agya. from the fire, having 
purified it, having looked at it, and (having purified) 
the Prokshawi water as above, having taken up the 
Kusa. blades with which he is to take hold (of the 
A^ya pot) by its under surface, having put pieces of 
wood on (the fire), and having sprinkled (water round 
it), he should sacrifice. 

5. This is the rite wherever a sacrifice is per- 

Kajv.dik.a 2. 

1. The setting up of the Avasathya (or sacred 
domestic) fire (is performed) at the time of his 

from the root flh, not from vah ; comp. below, II, 4, 2 : pamnagnim 
parisamflhati), see .Sankhayana I, 7, 1 1 ; Gr/hya-sawzgraha-parLrish/a 
I, 37, &c. On the lines drawn on the sacrificial surface, see .San- 
khayana I, 7, 6 seq.; Ajvalayana I, 3, 1; GrAya-sawgraha-parmsh/a 
I, 47 seq. 

4. Purvavat ('as above') can possibly, as Professor Stenzler 
understands it, have been said with regard to Katyayana's rule, II, 
3, 33 : Tabhyam (scil. pavitrabhy&m) utpunati Savitur va iti. But 
it is also possible that the expression may refer to the second Sutra 
of this chapter, where it is said, prokshawiA sawskrrtya. On upa- 
yamanan ku^an, comp. Katyayana I, 10,6-8. 

2, 1. Comp. .Sankhayana-Gr/hya I, 1, 3. 

Digitized by 


I KAJVDA, 2 KAiVDIKA, 8. 271 

2. At the time of the division of the inheritance, 
according to some (teachers). 

3. After he has fetched fire from the house of a 
VaLrya who is rich in cattle, — 

4. All ceremonies are performed as at the cooking 
of the /6atushprlrya food. 

5. Some (say that) the handing over of the kin- 
dling sticks (should take place), 

6. Because the *Sruti says, 'There are five great 

7. Having cooked a mess of sacrificial food for the 
deities of the Agnyadheya, and having sacrificed the 
two A^-ya portions, he sacrifices (the following) hgya. 
oblations : 

8. ' Thou, Agni ' (Va^. Sawhita XXI, 3) ; ' Thus 

2. .Sankhayana I, 1, 4. 3. Sankhayana I, 1,8. 

4. The Mtushprlrya food is prepared, at the time of the setting up 
of the .Srauta fires, for the four chief officiating priests of the 
.Srauta sacrifices. Comp. .Satapatha Brahmawa II, 1, 4. Kdtyi- 
yana's corresponding rules with regard to the Adhana of the .Srauta 
fires are found at IV, 7, 15. 16. 

5. Comp. the remarks on this Sutra, in the Introduction, pp. 26sseq. 

6. .Satapatha Brahma«a XI, 5, 6, 1 : ' There are five great 
sacrifices which are great Sattras, viz. the sacrifice to living beings, 
the sacrifice to men, the sacrifice to the Manes, the sacrifice to the 
gods, the Brahmaya^na.' As the Gr/hya ceremonies are included 
here under the category of mahayagTias or great sacrifices, they 
require, according to the teachers whose opinion is stated in 
Sutra 5, a form of the Agnyadhana (setting up of the sacred fire) 
analogous to the Agnyadhana of the .Srauta ritual, and containing, 
like that Adhana, the act of the Arawiprad&na or handing over of 
the kindling woods (Sutra 5). 

7. The deities of the Agnyadheya, or of the .Srauta ceremony 
corresponding to the Gnhya rite here treated of, are Agni pava- 
mana, Agni pivaka, Agni ra£i, Aditi. On the A^yabhagas, see 
5ankhayana I, 9, 7, &c. 

8. The verses Va^. Sawh. XXI, 3, 4, the two verses quoted 

Digitized by 


272 pAraskara-gr/hya-sOtra. 

thou, Agni' (Va^. Sawhita XXI, 4); 'This, O 
Varu»a'(XXI, 1) ; ' For this I entreat thee* (XXI, 
2); 'Thy hundred ' (Katy.-Sraut. XXV, 1, 11); 'And 
quick, Agni ' (Katy. 1. 1.) ; ' The highest one * (Va# 
Sawh. XII, 12); ' Be both to us' (ibid. V, 3) — with 
(these verses he sacrifices) eight (oblations) before 
(the oblations of cooked food). 

9. Thus he sacrifices also afterwards, after he has 
made oblations of the mess of cooked food to the 
deities of the Agnyddheya. 

10. And to (Agni) Svishfokrzt, 

n. With (the formulas), 'Into the quick one 
(has been put) Agni's (sacrificial portion) over 
which the word vasha/ has been spoken ; ' ' What I 
have done too much ;' ' O gods who know the way.' 

12. Having sacrificed the Barhis, he partakes (of 
the sacrificial food). 

1 3. Then food is given to the Br&hma#as. 

KSty. XXV, 1, 11, and fifthly the verse V&g. Szmh. XII, 12, are 
prescribed for the Sarvaprayaj&tta (or general expiatory ceremony), 
see Katyayana 1. 1. 

11. Professor Stenzler, following Gayarama, takes the whole as 
one Mantra, which he translates : ' Ungehemmet sei Agni's Spende, 
die durch die That ich iiberreich machte, bahnschaffende Gotter ! ' 
But the words yat karma«atyariri£am are the opening words 
of a Mantra quoted .Satapatha Brahmawa XIV, 9, 4, 24, (comp. 
also Ajvalayana-Gr^'hya I, 10, 23 ; the connection in which atyari- 
ri^am there stands, shows that the word designates a mistake made in 
the sacrificial work by doing too much.) The words deva gStu- 
vidaA are the Pratika of Vag. Sawhita VIII, 21. Thus I have no 
doubt that also ayasy Agner vasha/kr/'tam (or possibly ayasy 
Agner (?) and vasha/krz'tam (?)) is a Pratika. Of course, the 
translation of these words must remain uncertain until the Mantra 
to which they belong has been discovered. 

12. On the throwing into the fire of the Barhis, comp. Katyayana 
III, 8. 

Digitized by 


I KANDA, 3 KAiVDIKA, 9. 273 

KandikA 3. 

i. To six persons the Arghya reception is due : 
to a teacher, to an officiating priest, to the father-in- 
law, to the king, to a friend, to a Snataka. 

2. They should honour them (with the Arghya 
reception) once a year. 

3. But officiating priests (they should receive) 
whenever they intend to perform a sacrifice. 

4. Having ordered a seat to be got (for the guest), 
he says, ' Well, sir ! sit down ! We will do honour 
to you, sir ! ' 

5. They get for him a couch (of grass) to sit down 
on, another for the feet, water for washing the feet, 
the Argha water, water for sipping, and the honey- 
mixture, i. e. curds, honey, and ghee, in a brass 
vessel with a brass cover. 

6. Another person three times announces (to the 
guest) the couch and the other things (when they 
are offered to him). 

7. He accepts the couch. 

8. He sits down thereon with (the verse), ' I am 
the highest one among my people, as the sun among 
the thunder-bolts. Here I tread on whosoever 
infests me.' 

9. With the feet (he treads) on the other (bundle 
of grass). 

3, 1. On vaivihya, which I have translated 'father-in-law,' 
comp. the note on .Sankhayana II, 15, 1. 

2, 3. Comp. below, Sutra 31, and <S$ftkh£yana-Gr»hya II, 15, 10. 
6. Ajvalayana-Grihya I, 24, 7. 

8. I have translated according to the reading of Ajvaldyana 
(1. 1. § 8), vidyuttm instead of udyat&m. 

9, 10. There is no doubt that these Sutras should be divided 

[29] T 

Digitized by 


2 74 pAraskara-gr/hya-sCtra. 

io. When he is seated on the couch, he washes 
(for his guest) the left foot and then the right foot. 
ii. If (the host) is a Brihmawa, the right first. 

12. (He does so) with (the formula), 'The milk 
of Virif art thou. The milk of Vira^" may I obtain. 
(May) the milk of Padya Vira^- (dwell) in me.' 

13. He accepts the Arghya water with (the 
words), ' Waters are ye. May I obtain through you 
all my wishes.' 

14. Pouring it out he recites over (the waters the 
formula), ' To the ocean I send you ; go back to 
your source. Unhurt be our men. May my sap 
not be shed.' 

15. He sips water with (the formula), 'Thou 
earnest to me with glory. Unite me with lustre. 
Make me beloved by all creatures, the lord of cattle, 
unhurtful for the bodies.' 

16. With (the formula), 'With Mitra's' (Va/. 
Sawh., Kawvasakha II, 3, 4) he looks at the Ma- 

1 7. With (the formula), ' By the impulse of the 
god Savitrz ' (Vct^. Sawh. 1. 1.) he accepts it. 

18. Taking it into his left hand he stirs it about 

thus : padayor anyaw. vish/ara Ssiniya savya*» pMam prakshalya 
dakshiwaw prakshalayati. Thus it is said in the KhSdira-Gr/hya : 
vish/aram isttrya . . . adhyasita. padayor dvitiyaya (scil. riik) dvau 
iet. Gobhila has the Sutra : padayor anyam. 

11. The words brShmawaj ket refer to the host, as the com- 
parison of Ajvalayana I, 24, 11, shows. 

12. Comp. Ajvalayana 1. 1. § 22; .Sahkhayana III, 7, 5. 

13. The play on words (ipas= waters, avapnavani=may I 
obtain) is untranslatable. 

16. Ajvalayana-Gr/riya I, 24, 14. 

17. Ajvalayana-Gr/hya I, 24, 15. 

18. A-rvalayana-G/vhya 1. 1. Annasane instead of annajane is 
simply a mistake in spelling. 

Digitized by 


I KANDA, 3 KAiVZUKA, 27. 275 

three times with the fourth finger of his right hand 
with (the formula), ' Adoration to the brown-faced 
One. What has been damaged in thee, when the 
food was eaten, that I cut off from thee.' 

19. And with the fourth finger and the thumb he 
spirts away (some part of the Madhuparka) three 

20. He partakes of it three times with (the 
formula), ' What is the honied, highest form of 
honey, and the enjoyment of food, by that honied, 
highest form of honey, and by that enjoyment of 
food may I become highest, honied, and an enjoyer 
of food.' 

21. Or with (the verses) that contain the word 
' honey,' verse by verse. 

22. Let him give the remainder (of the Madhu- 
parka) to a son or a pupil who is sitting to the north. 

23. Or let him eat the whole of it (himself). 

24. Or he should pour out (the remainder) to the 
east, at an unfrequented spot. 

25. Having sipped water, he touches his bodily 
organs with (the formula), ' May speech dwell in 
my mouth, breath in my nose, sight in my eyes, 
hearing in my ears, strength in my arms, vigour in 
my thighs. May my limbs be unhurt, may my body 
be united with my body ! ' 

26. When (the guest) has sipped water, (the 
host), holding a butcher's knife, says to him three 
times, ' A cow ! ' 

27. He replies, ' The mother of the Rudras, the 
daughter of the Vasus, the sister of the Adityas, the 

21. These are the three verses, Va^. Sa»/hitS. XIII, 27-29. 

22. Axvalayana-Gnhya I, 24, 25. 23. Ajvalayana 1. 1. §27. 
24. Axvalayana 1. 1. § 26. 

T 2 

Digitized by 



navel of immortality. To the people who understand 
me, I say, " Do not kill the guiltless cow, which is 
Aditi." I kill my sin and N.N.'s sin,' — thus, if he 
chooses to have it killed. 

28. But if he chooses to let it loose, he should 
say, ' My sin and N.N.'s sin has been killed. Om! 
Let it loose ! Let it eat grass ! ' 

29. But let the Argha not be without flesh. 

30. On the occasion of a sacrifice and of a wed- 
ding let (the guest) say, ' Make it (ready).' 

31. Even if he performs more than one Soma 
sacrifice during one year, let only priests who have 
received (from him) the Arghya reception, officiate 
for him, not such who have not received it ; for this 
has been prescribed in the .Sruti. 

Kajvcika 4. 

1. There are four kinds of Pakaya^Tzas, viz. the 
huta, the ahuta, the prahuta, and the pra.rita. 

2. On the following five occasions,- viz. the wed- 
ding, the tonsure (of the child's head), the initiation 
(of the Brahma^arin), the cutting of the beard, and 
the parting of the hair, (on these occasions) in the 
outer hall, 

3. On a place that has been smeared (with cow- 
dung), which is elevated, and which has been sprin- 
kled (with water), he establishes the fire, 

29, 30. These Sfitras are identical with two Sutras in the .Sankha- 
yana-Gr«'hya II, 1 5, 2. 3. See the note there. It seems to me inad- 
missible to translate § 29, as Professor Stenzler does: Der Argha 
darf aber nicht immer ohne Fleisch sein. 

31. .Sankhayana-Gr/hya II, 15, 10. 

4. 1-5. See S&nkhayana-Gn'hya I, 5, 1-5 and the notes. 

Digitized by 


i kXnda, 4 kajvdikA, 13. 277 

4. Having kindled it by attrition, according to 
some teachers, at his marriage. 

5. During the northern course of the sun, in the 
time of the increasing moon, on an auspicious day he 
shall seize the hand of a girl, 

6. Under one of the (three times) three Nakshatras 
of which a constellation designated as Uttara is first, 

7. Or under (the Nakshatras) Svati, MWgariras, 
or Rohi#I. 

8. Three (wives are allowed) to a Brahmawa, in 
accordance with the order of the castes, 

9. Two to a Ra^anya, 

10. One to a VaLyya, 

1 1 . One .Sudra wife besides to all, according to 
some (teachers), without using Mantras (at the 
ceremonies of wedding, &c). 

12. He then makes her put on the (under) gar- 
ment with (the verse), ' Live to old age ; put on the 
garment ! Be a protectress of the human tribes 
against imprecation. Live a hundred years full of 
vigour ; clothe thyself in wealth and children. 
Blessed with life put on this garment ! ' 

13. Then the upper garment with (the verse), 
' The goddesses who spun, who wove, who spread 

6. I. e. under the constellations Uttaraphalgunf or the two con- 
stellations following it, Uttar£sha</Aa' or the two constellations follow- 
ing it, Uttarabhidrapada' or the two constellations following it. 

12. The words of the Mantra bhavi kr»sh/inSm abhifasti- 
p&v& no doubt are an imitation of Rig-veda I, 76, 3, bhavil 
n&m abhijastipivi (where the words are applied to Agni). Thus 
the use of the masculine abhi.rastipSva' with reference to the bride 
may be accounted for. 

13. Comp. Atharva-veda XIV, 1, 45. This parallel passage 
shows us the way to correct the text of this very much corrupted 

Digitized by 


278 pAraskara-gr/hya-sOtra. 

out, and who drew out the threads on both sides, 
may those goddesses clothe thee for the sake of 
long life. Blessed with life put on this garment ! ' 

14. (The bride's father?) anoints the two, (while 
the bridegroom recites the verse,) ' May the Visve 
devas, may the waters unite our hearts. May 
Matarijvan, may Dhatrz, may Desh/rl (the ' show- 
ing ' goddess) join us.' 

15. (The bridegroom), having accepted her who is 
given away by her father, takes her and goes away 
(from that place) with (the verse), 'When thou 
wanderest far away with thy heart to the regions of 
the world like the wind, may the gold-winged 
Vaikarwa (i.e. the wind ?) grant that thy heart may 
dwell with me! N.N.!' 

16. He then makes them look at each other 
(while the bridegroom repeats the verses), ' With no 
evil eye, not bringing death to thy husband, bring 
luck to the cattle, be full of joy and vigour. Give 
birth to heroes ; be godly and friendly. Bring us 
luck, to men and animals. 

' Soma has acquired (thee) first (as his wife) ; after 
him the Gandharva has acquired (thee). Thy third 
husband is Agni ; the fourth is thy human husband. 

14. The literal translation would be: ' He salves together (saman- 
^ayati) the two . . . May the waters salve together (samaag-antu) 
our hearts.' It was a real anointing of the bridegroom and of the 
bride, that took place, and we cannot accept Professor Stenzler's 
translation (based on Gayarama's note : samajj^ayati parasparam 
sammukhikaroti), by which the proper signification of samaw^ayati 
is effaced: Dann heisst (der Vater der Braut) sie beide zusam- 
mentreten. See the note on .Sankhayana-Gr/hya I, 12, 5. The 
parallel passage of the Khadira-Gr/hya runs thus : aparenSgnim 
auduko gatva pawigrahaw murdhany avasin£cd, vadhflw X-a, saman- 
^antv ity avasikta/;. 

16. Comp. Rig-veda X, S5, 44. 40. 41. 37. 

Digitized by 


I KANDA, 5 KAiVDIKA, 7. 279 

' Soma has given thee to the Gandharva ; the 
Gandharva has given thee to Agni. Wealth and 
children Agni has given to me, and besides this wife. 

' Pushan ! Lead her to us, the highly blessed one. 
Sa na uru uratl vihara, yasyam usanta^ praharama 
sepam yasyam u kama bahavo nivish/ya (nivish/a ?) 

KandikX 5. 

1. Having led her around the fire, keeping it on 
his right side, according to some (teachers) — 

2. Having pushed with his right foot a bundle of 
grass or a mat to the west of the fire, he sits down. 

3. While (the bride) touches him, (the following 
oblations are made :) the two Aghara oblations, the 
two A^ya portions, the Mahavyahmis, the general 
expiation, the Pra^apatya oblation, and the Svish- 

4. These are regular (oblations) at every sacrifice. 

5. The Svish/akm comes before the Mahavya- 
hmis, if the sacrificial food is different from Ag ya. 

6. The place for the insertion (of the peculiar 
oblations belonging to the different sacrifices) is the 
interval between the general expiation and the 
oblation to Pra^apati. 

7. At the wedding (he may make oblations) with 
the Rash/rablm't formulas (i. e. the formulas pro- 
curing royal power), if he likes, and with the <7aya 
and Abhyatana formulas (i.e. the formulas procuring 

5, 3. See the note on .SSnkhiyana-Gnhya I, 9, 1 2. 

6. See the note 1. 1. — I have altered the division of Sutras 6 and 
7, so as to draw the word vivahe to the seventh Sutra. The rule 
in § 6 has an entirely general character ; the formulas stated in § 7 
are given for the particular occasion of the vivaha ceremony. 

Digitized by 


280 pAraskara-gk/hya-sOtra. 

victory, and aiming [at the hostile powers]), if he 
knows them — 

8. Because it has been said, ' By what sacrifice he 
wishes to attain success.' 

9. (The Gaya formulas run thus) : ' Thought and 
thinking. Intention and intending. The understood 
and understanding. The mind and the .Sakvart 
(verses). The new moon and the full moon. BrihaX 
and Rathantara. 

' Pra^apati, the powerful one in victorious battles, 
has given victories (or, the 6aya formulas) to manly 
Indra. To him all subjects bowed down ; he has 
become powerful and worthy of sacrifice. Svaha ! ' 

10. (The Abhyatana formulas run thus) : ' May 
Agni, the lord of beings, protect me. May Indra, 
(the lord) of the noblest, Yama, of the earth, Vayu, 
of the air, the Sun, of heaven, the Moon, of the 
Nakshatras, B>zhaspati, of the Brahman, Mitra, of 
truth, Varu«a, of the waters, the sea, of the rivers, 
food, the lord of royalty, protect me. May Soma, (the 
lord) of herbs, Savitrz, of impulses, Rudra, of cattle, 
Tvash^z', of forms, Vishrcu, of mountains, the Maruts, 
the lords of hosts, protect me. May the fathers, 

8. Taittirtya Sawhita III, 4, 6, 1 : ' By what sacrifice he wishes 
to attain success, at that (sacrifice) he should make oblations with 
them (i.e. with the Abhyatana Mantras): then he will attain success 
by that sacrifice.' 

9. Instead of sa i havyaA we ought to read probably sa u 
havyaA, or, as the Taitt. Samh. Ill, 4, 4, 1 gives, sa hi havyaA. 
The Maitr. Sawh. has vihavyaA (II, 10, 2). 

10. The words, ' in this power of holiness . . . svahi I ' are to be 
added to each member of the whole formula (comp. Atharva-veda 
V, 24). The expressions 'fathers' and ' grandfathers,' which are 
twice identically repeated in the translation, stand the first time for 
pitara^ pitamahaA, and then for tat&s tatamah&A of the San- 
skrit text. 

Digitized by 


I KAJfDA, 6 KANDlKk, I. 28 1 

the grandfathers, the former, the later, the fathers, 
the grandfathers protect me here in this power of 
holiness, in this worldly power, in this prayer, in this 
Purohitaship, in this sacrifice, in this invocation of 
the gods. Svaha ! ' — this is added each time. 

11. (He then makes other oblations with the fol- 
lowing texts :) 

' May Agni come hither, the first of gods. May 
he release the offspring of this wife from the fetter 
of death. That may this king Varu»a grant, that 
this wife may not weep over distress (falling to her 
lot) through her sons. Svaha ! 

' May Agni Garhapatya protect this woman. May 
he lead her offspring to old age. With fertile womb 
may she be the mother of living children. May she 
experience delight in her sons. Svaha ! 

' Make, Agni, all ways of heaven and earth 
blissful to us, O thou who art worthy of sacrifices. 
What is great, born on this (earth), and praised, (born) 
in heaven, that bestow on us, rich treasures. Svaha ! 

' Come hither, showing us an easy path. Give us 
bright, undecaying life. May death go away ; may 
immortality come to us. May Vivasvat's son make 
us safe from danger. Svaha ! ' 

1 2. And the (verse), ' Another way, O death ' 
(V£f. Sa*»h. XXXV, 7), after the eating (of the 
remnant of the sacrificial food), according to some 

Kajvcika 6. 
1. The girl's brother pours out of his joined hands 
into her joined hands fried grain mixed with .Sami 

6, 1. .S£hkh&yana I, 13, 15 ; AjvalSyana I, 7, 8. 

Digitized by 



2. This she sacrifices, with firmly joined hands, 
standing, (while the bridegroom recites the verses,) 

' To the god Aryaman the girls have made sacri- 
fice, to Agni ; may he, god Aryaman, loosen us from 
here, and not from the husband. Svaha ! 

' This woman, strewing grains, prays thus, " May 
my husband live long ; may my relations be pros- 
perous." Svaha ! 

' These grains I throw into the fire : may this 
bring prosperity to thee, and may it unite me with 
thee. May Agni grant us that. N. N. ! Svaha ! ' 

3. He then seizes her right hand together with 
the thumb, with (the verses), 

' I seize thy hand for the sake of happiness, that 
thou mayst live to old age with me, thy husband. 
Bhaga, Aryaman, Savitrz, Purandhi, the gods have 
given thee to me that we may rule our house. 

' This am I, that art thou ; that art thou, this am I. 
The Saman am I, the Rik thou ; the heaven I, the 
earth thou. 

' Come ! Let us marry. Let us unite our sperm. 
Let us beget offspring. Let us acquire many sons, 
and may they reach old age. 

' Loving, bright, with genial minds may we see a 
hundred autumns, may we live a hundred autumns, 
may we hear a hundred autumns ! ' 

Kajvdika 7. 

1. He then makes her tread on a stone, to the 
north of the fire, with her right foot, (repeating the 

2. .S'ankhayana I, i!S, 3; 14, 1 ; Ajvalayana I, 7, 13. 

3. Rig-vcda X, 85, 36; .SYinkhayana I, 13, 4, &c. 

7, 1. Ajvalayana-Gr/hya I, 7, 7; .SYinkhayana-Gr/liya I, 13,12. 

Digitized by 


I KANDA, 8 KANDlKk, I. 283 

verse,) ' Tread on this stone ; like a stone be firm. 
Tread the foes down ; turn away the enemies.' 

2. He then sings a song: 'Sarasvati! Promote 
this (our undertaking), O gracious one, bountiful 
one, thou whom we sing first of all that is, in whom 
what is, has been born, in whom this whole world 
dwells — that song I will sing to-day which will be 
the highest glory of women.' 

3. They then go round (the fire) with (the verse, 
which the bridegroom repeats,) 

' To thee they have in the beginning carried round 
Surya (the Sun-bride) with the bridal procession. 
Mayst thou give back, Agni, to the husbands the 
wife together with offspring.' 

4. Thus (the same rites are repeated) twice again, 
beginning from the fried grain. 

5. The fourth time she pours the whole fried 
grain by the neb of a basket (into the fire) with (the 
words), ' To Bhaga svaha ! ' 

6. After he has led her round (the fire) three 
times, and has sacrificed the oblation to Pra^apati — 

KawdikA 8. 

1 . Then he makes her step forward in a northern 
direction seven steps (with the words), 

' One for sap, two for juice, three for the pros- 
pering of wealth, four for comfort, five for cattle, six 
for the seasons. Friend ! be with seven steps (united 
to me). So be thou devoted to me.' 

4. See chap. 6, 1. 

5. Comp. Khadira-Gnhya I, 3 : j ftrpe»a -rish/Sn agnSv opya pra- 
gudWtm utkramayet. See also Gobhila II, 2 ; Ajvalayana I, 7, 14. 

8, 1. The parallel texts have sakha and saptapadi for sakhe 
and saptapadi of Paraskara. 

Digitized by 


284 pAraskara-gjwhya-sOtra. 

2. (The words), ' May Vishmi lead thee ' are added 
to every part (of the formula). 

3. From the moment of their going away a man 
who holds a water-pot on his shoulder, stands silent 
to the south of the fire ; 

4. To the north, (according to the opinion) of 
some (teachers). 

5. From that (pot) he sprinkles her (with water) 
on her head (with the formula), 

' The blessed, the most blessed waters, the peace- 
ful ones, the most peaceful ones, may they give 
medicine to thee ' — 

6. And with the three (verses), 'Ye waters are' 
(Vfif. Sawh. XI, 50-52). 

7. He then makes her look at the sun with (the 
verse), 'That eye' (Va^. Sawh. XXXVI, 24). 

8. He then touches her heart, (reaching) over her 
right shoulder, with (the words), ' Into my will I take 
thy heart; thy mind shall follow my mind; in my 
word thou shalt rejoice with all thy heart ; may 
Pra^&pati join thee to me.' 

9. He then recites over her (the verse), ' Auspicious 
ornaments does this woman wear. Come up to her 
and behold her. Having brought luck to her, go 
away back to your houses.' 

10. A strong man snatches her up from the 

3. See above, I, 4, 15. The water mentioned here is desig- 
nated as stheya apa^; see •Sahkhayana-Grz'hya I, 13, 5 seq.; 
Gr/hya-sawgraha II, 26. 35. 

8. See the note on .Sarikhayana-Grihya II, 3, 3. 

9. Rig-veda X, 85, 33. 

10. The Atharva-veda (XX, 127, 12) has the reading pra 
^ayadhvam instead of ni shidantu (in the first Pida); the second 
hemistich there runs thus : iho sahasradakshiwo » pi Push£ ni shtdati. 

Digitized by 


i kXnda, 8 kandikX, 19. 285 

ground, and sets her down in an eastern or northern 
direction in an out-of-the-way house, on a red bull's 
hide, with (the words), 

' Here may the cows sit down, here the horses, 
here the men. Here may sacrifice with a thousand 
gifts, here may Pushan sit down.' 

11. And what (the people in) the village tell them, 
that they should do. 

12. For it is said, 'At weddings and funerals he 
shall enter the village ; ' 

1 3. (And) because the .SVuti says, ' Therefore on 
these two occasions authority rests with the village.' 

14. To the teacher (who helps at the wedding 
ceremonies) he gives an optional gift. 

1 5. A cow is the optional gift to be given by a 

16. A village by a Ra^anya, 

1 7. A horse by a Vai,yya. 

18. A hundred (cows) with a chariot (he gives to 
a father) who has only daughters. 

19. After sunset he shows her the firm star (i.e. 
the polar-star) with (the words), 

' Firm art thou ; I see thee, the firm one. Firm 
be thou with me, O thriving one ! 

1 2. I have ventured, differing from Professor Stenzler (' Bei der 
Hochzeit und auf der Leichenstatte richte er sich nach dem 
Dorfe'), to translate pravuatat according to its original meaning. 
Could this possibly be a rule for Vanaprasthas who live in the 
forest and enter the village only on exceptional occasions ? 

15-17. -SankhSyana I, 14, 13 seqq. 

18. .Sankhayana I, 14, 16. Comp. the note there. 

19. In the text the word ' firm' (dhruva) is neuter in the two 
first instances, and refers to the ' firm star ; ' the third time it is 
feminine, referring to the bride. Paraskara has the vocative 
poshye for the nominative poshyS of 5ankh£yana 1, 17, 3; comp. 
above, § 1 sakhe for sakha. 

Digitized by 



' To me Brzhaspati has given thee ; obtaining 
offspring through me, thy husband, live with me a 
hundred autumns.' 

20. If she does not see (the polar-star), let her say 
notwithstanding, ' I see,' &c. 

21. Through a period of three nights they shall 
eat no saline food ; they shall sleep on the ground ; 
through one year they shall refrain from conjugal 
intercourse, or through a period of twelve nights, or 
of six nights, or at least of three nights. 


1. Beginning from the wedding the worshipping of 
the Aupasana (i. e. sacred domestic) fire (is prescribed). 

2. After sunset and before sunrise (the fire should 

21. .Sahkhayana I, 17, 5. 6; Arvalayana I, 8, 10. 11. 

9, 1. The expression which I have translated 'beginning from 
the wedding' is upayamanaprabhrrti. The Indian commen- 
tators and Professor Stenzler explain the term upayamana as 
implying a reference to the Sfitra I, 1, 4, upayamanan ku.van 
a day a ('having taken up the Kvua blades with which he is to 
take hold of the lower surface of the Agya pot'). 'The worship- 
ping of the domestic fire,' says Stenzler, following the native 
authorities, ' consists in the rites which have been prescribed 
above (I, 1, 4), beginning from the word upayamana, i.e. in 
the taking up of the Ku.ra blades, the putting of wood on the 
fire, the sprinkling and sacrificing. As the rites preceding that 
word, such as the preparation of the sacrificial spoon (I, 1, 3), are 
hereby excluded, the oblations are offered with the hand.' It 
would be easy to show that the upayamana^ kusaA have 
nothing at all to do with the regular morning and evening obla- 
tions of which these Siliras treat. The comparison of Ajvalayana- 
Gnhya I, 9, 1 (see also Manu III, 67, &c.) leaves no doubt that 
upayamana is to be understood here as derived from upayaM/zati 
in its very frequent meaning of marrying. I have translated the 
Sutra accordingly. 

2. On the diflerent statements of Vedic authors with regard to 
the proper time of the morning oblations, see Weber's Indische 
Studien, X, 329. 

Digitized by 


i kXnda, io kawdikA, 2. 287 

be worshipped) with (oblations of) curds, (rice) grains, 
or fried grains. 

3. (He sacrifices) in the evening with (the for- 
mulas), ' To Agni svaha ! To Pra^apati svaha ! ' 

4. In the morning with (the formulas), ' To Surya 
svaha ! To Pra^apati svaha ! ' 

5. ' Men are both Mitra and Varu«a ; men are both 
the A.svins ; men are Indra and Surya. May a man 
be born in me ! Again svaha ! ' — with (this verse) a 
wife who desires to conceive, (should offer) the first 

Kamhka 10. 

i. If (in the chariot) of a king the axle breaks, or 
something that is bound loosens itself, or the chariot 
is overturned, or if another accident happens, or (if 
one of these same things occurs) when a bride is 
carried home, he establishes the same fire, prepares 
A^ya, and sacrifices (two A^ya oblations) separately 
with the two Mantras, ' Here is joy ' (V&£\ Sawh. 
VIII, 51a). 

2. Having got ready another chariot, he (i.e. the 
Purohita or the bridegroom) should make the king 
or the woman sit down thereon with (the formula), 
' In royal power' down to the word,' in sacrifice' 

5. Comp. .Sinkhayana-Gnhya I, 17, 9, where the reading and 
the construction slightly differ. The words punaA svahi at the 
end of the Mantra seem to be corrupt ; the frequent repetition of 
pumiwsam and pumin through the whole verse suggests the 
correction puwzse svahi, or pumbhyaA svahd, 'to the man 
svaha" 1' or ' to the men svihi 1' 

10, 1. 'The same fire' is the senigni (the fire belonging to the 
army) in the case of the king, the nuptial fire in the second case. 
The two Mantras are the two parts of V&g. Sawh. VIII, 51a. 

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288 paraskara-gk/hya-sOtra. 

(Vif. Samh. XX, 10), and with the (verse), ' I have 
seized thee' (ibid. XII, n). 

3. The two beasts that draw the chariot, consti- 
tute the sacrificial fee. 

4. (This is) the penance. 

5. Then (follows) feeding of the Brahmawas. 

KajvbikA 11. 

1. In the fourth night (after the wedding), towards 
morning, (the husband) establishes the fire within 
(the house), assigns his seat, to the south (of it), 
to the Brahman, places a pot of water to the north, 
cooks a mess of sacrificial food, sacrifices the two 
A^-ya portions, and makes (other) A^ya oblations 
with (the following Mantras) : 

2. ' Agni ! Expiation ! Thou art the expiation of 
the gods. I, the Brahmarca, entreat thee, desirous 
of protection. The substance which dwells in her 
that brings death to her husband, that extirpate in 
her. Svaha ! 

' Vayu ! Expiation ! Thou art the expiation of 
the gods. I, the Brahmarca, entreat thee, desirous 
of protection. The substance which dwells in her 
that brings death to her children, that extirpate in 
her. Svaha ! 

' Surya ! Expiation ! Thou art the expiation of 
the gods. I, the Brahmawa, entreat thee, desirous 
of protection. The substance which dwells in her 
that brings death to cattle, that extirpate in her. 

' Aandra ! Expiation ! Thou art the expiation 
of the gods. I, the Brahmawa, entreat thee, desirous 

11, 2. Comp. -Sankhayana-Gnhya I, 18, 3. 

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i kXnda, i i kandikX, 8. 289 

of protection. The substance which dwells in her 
that brings destruction to the house, that extirpate 
in her. Svaha ! 

' Gandharva ! Expiation ! Thou art the expiation 
of the gods. I, the Brahma#a, entreat thee, desirous 
of protection. The substance which dwells in her 
that brings destruction to fame, that extirpate in her. 

3. He sacrifices of the mess of cooked food with 
(the words), ' To Pra^apati svaha ! ' 

4. Each time after he has sacrificed, he pours the 
remainder of the oblations into the water-pot, and 
out of that (pot) he besprinkles her on her head with 
(the words), ' The evil substance which dwells in thee 
that brings death to thy husband, death to thy chil- 
dren, death to cattle, destruction to the house, 
destruction to fame, that I change into one that 
brings death to thy paramour. Thus live with me 
to old age, N.N.!' 

5. He then makes her eat the mess of cooked 
food with (the words), ' I add breath to thy breath, 
bones to thy bones, flesh to thy flesh, skin to thy skin.' 

6. Therefore one should not wish for sport with 
the wife of a *Srotriya who knows this ; for the other 
one is a person who knows this (and is thereby 
enabled to destroy a lover of his wife). 

7. After he has led her to his house, he should 
cohabit with her after each of her monthly periods, 

8. Or as he likes, because it has been said, ' May 
we have intercourse as we like, until a child is born.' 

4. The water-pot is that mentioned in Sutra 1. 
6. Satapatha BrShmawa I, 6, 1, 18; XIV, 9, 4, n (=Br*had 
Arawyaka VI, 4, 12 ; Sacred Books of the East, vol. xv, p. 218). 
8. Taittiriya Sawhita' II, 5, 1, 5. 
[29] U 

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290 paraskara-g/s/hya-sOtra. 

9. He then touches her heart, (reaching) over her 
right shoulder, with (the verse), ' O thou whose hair 
is well parted ! Thy heart that dwells in heaven, in 
the moon, that I know ; may it know me. May we 
see a hundred autumns ; may we live a hundred 
autumns ; may we hear a hundred autumns.' 

10. In the same way afterwards. 

Kajvdika 12. 

1. At the beginning of each half-month he cooks 
a mess of sacrificial food, sacrifices to the deities of 
the festivals of the new and full moon (as stated in 
the 5rauta ritual), and then sacrifices to the following 
deities : to Brahman, to Pra^apati, to the VLrve 
devas, and to Heaven and Earth. 

2. To the VLrve devas a Bali is offered, to the 
domestic deities, and to Aka^a (i.e. the Ether). 

3. From the Vai.rva.deva food he makes oblations 
in the fire with (the formulas), 'To Agni svaha! 
To Pra^ipati svaha ! To the VLrve devas svaha ! 
To Agni Svish/akrzt svaha ! ' 

4. Outside (the house) the wife offers the Bali 
with (the formulas), ' Adoration to the wife ! Adoration 
to the man ! To every time of life, adoration ! To 
the white one with the black teeth, the lord of the 
bad women, adoration ! 

' They who allure my offspring, dwelling in the 
village or in the forest, to them be adoration ; I offer 

9. See above, chap. 8, 8. 

12, i. Comp. >SaAkhayana-G/"/liya I, 3, 3. The deities of the 
corresponding .Srauta festivals are, at the full moon, Agni and 
Agni-shomau; at the new moon, Agni, Vishmi, and IndrSgni. 

2. Comp. below, II, 9, 3. 

3. .Sankhayana-Gr/hya II, 14, 3, 4. 

Digitized by 



a Bali to them. Be welfare to me ! May they give 
me offspring.' 

5. The remainder he washes out with water. 
Then (follows) feeding of the Brahma«as. 

KamsikA 13. 

1. If she does not conceive, he should, after having 
fasted, under (the Nakshatra) Pushya, lay down (in 
his house) the root of a white-blooming Siwhl plant, 
and on the fourth day, after (his wife) has bathed, he 
should in the night-time crush it in water and insert 
it into her right nostril with (the verse), ' This herb 
is protecting, overcoming, and powerful. May I, the 
son of this great (mother), obtain the name of a 

KamjikA 14. 

1. Now the Puwzsavana (i.e. the ceremony to 
secure the birth of a male child), 

2. Before (the child in his mother's womb) moves, 
in the second or third month (of pregnancy). 

3. On a day on which the moon stands in con- 
junction with a Nakshatra (that has a name) of mas- 
culine gender, on that day, after having caused (his 
wife) to fast, to bathe, and to put on two garments 
which have not yet been washed, and after having 
in the night-time crushed in water descending roots 
and shoots of a Nyagrodha tree, he inserts (that into 
her right nostril) as above, with the two (verses), 

13, 1. I have translated according to the reading of a similar 
Mantra found in the Atharva-veda (VIII, 2, 6), which no doubt is 
correct, sahasvatt instead of sarasvati. 

14, 3. The words ' as above ' refer to chap. 13, 1. 

U 2 

Digitized by 



' The gold-child ' (Vif. Sawm. XIII, 4) and ' Formed 
of water' (ibid. XXXI, 17); 

4. A Kma needle and a Soma stalk, according to 
some (teachers). 

5. And he puts gall of a tortoise on her lap. 

If he desires, ' May (the son) become valiant,' he 
recites over him (i.e. over the embryo), modifying the 
rite (?), ' The Supar»a art thou ' (Vif. Samh. XII, 4), 
(the Ya.fus) before (the formulas called) ' steps of 


1. Now the Sfmantonnayana (or parting of the 
pregnant wife's hair). 

2. (It is performed) like the Puwsavana ; 

3. In her first pregnancy, in the sixth or eighth 

4. After he has cooked a mess of sacrificial food, 
containing sesamum and Mudga beans, and has sacri- 
ficed to Pra^apati, he parts for the wife, who is seated 
to the west of the fire on a soft chair, her hair 
upwards (i. e. beginning from the front) with a bunch 
containing an even number of unripe Udumbara 

4. Comp. .SSnkhayana-Gr/hya I, 20, 3. 

5. The commentators state that kurmapitta (gall of tortoise) 
means ' a dish with water.' I place no confidence in this statement, 
though I cannot show at present what its origin is. I am not sure 
about the translation of vikrrtya (or vikrrtya?). But it seems 
impossible to me that it should be the name of the metre Vikr/ti. 
' Steps of Vish«u' is a name for the Ya^-us following in the Samhiti 
on the one prescribed in this Sutra. It begins, ' Vishwu's step art 
thou, &c.' (Va^. Sawh. XII, 5). 

15, 2. I.e. the Nakshatra under which the ceremony is per- 
formed, should be of male gender; the wife is to fast, &c. (see 
chap. 14, 3). 

4. .Sahkhayana-Gr/hya I, 22, 8 ; AjvalSyana 1, 14, 4. 

Digitized by 


I kAaTOA, 1 6 K.ANDIK&, 3. 293 

fruits, and with three bunches of Darbha grass, with 
a porcupine's quill that has three white spots, with 
a stick of Viratara wood, and with a full spindle, 
with the words, ' Bhur bhuva^ svaA.' 

5. Or (he parts the hair once) with each of the 
(three) Mahavyahmis. 

6. He ties (the Udumbara fruits, &c.) to a string 
of three twisted threads with (the words), ' Rich in sap 
is this tree ; like the tree, rich in sap, be thou fruitful.' 

7. (The husband) then says to two lute-players, 
' Sing ye the king, or if anybody else is still more 

8. Here some also prescribe a certain stanza (to be 
sung by the lute-players) : ' Soma alone is our king. 
May these human tribes dwell on thy banks, O 
(river) whose dominion is unbroken, N.N.!' — here he 
names the name of the river near which they dwell. 

9. Then (follows) feeding of the Brahma»as. 

KandikA. 16. 

1. Soshyantlm adbhir abhyukshaty e^atu dasa- 
masya iti (V&f. Sa#zh. VIII, 28) prag yasyai ta iti 
(ibid. 29). 

2. Athavaravapatanam, avaitu pmni sune 
^arayv attave, naiva mawsena pivari na kasmi»z.y 
^anayatam ava^arayu padyatam iti. 

3. When the boy is born, he performs for him, 
before the navel-string is cut off, the medha^ an ana 

6. .Sankhiyana I, 22, 10. 

7. .SShkhayana 1.1. §§ 11, 12 ; AjvalSyana 1.1. § 6. 

8. Ajvateyana 1. 1. § 7. I take avimuktaiakre to be the vocative 
of the feminine. 

16, 1. Satapatha Biihmawa XIV, 9, 4, 22. 
2. Atharva-veda I, 11, 4. 

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294 pAraskara-gk/hya-sOtra. 

(production of intelligence) and the ayushya (rite 
for procuring long life). 

4. (The medhi^anana is performed in the follow- 
ing way :) With his fourth finger and with (an in- 
strument of) gold he gives (to the child) honey 
and ghee, or ghee (alone), to eat with (the formulas), 
' BhM I put into thee ; bhuva^ I put into thee ; 
sva^ I put into thee. Bhur bhuva^ sva^ everything 
I put into thee.' 

5. He then performs the ayushya. 

6. Near his navel or his right ear he murmurs : 
' Agni is long-lived ; through the trees he is long- 
lived. By that long life I make thee long-lived. 

' Soma is long-lived ; through the herbs he is, &c. 

' The Brahman is long-lived ; through the Brah- 
ma«as it is, &c. 

' The gods are long-lived ; through ambrosia 
(amrzta) they are, &c. 

' The i?/shis are long-lived ; through their ob- 
servances they are, &c. 

' The Fathers are long-lived ; through the Svadha 
oblations (or oblations made to the Manes) they 
are, &c. 

' Sacrifice is long-lived ; through sacrificial fee it 
is, &c. 

' The ocean is long-lived ; through the rivers it is 
long-lived. By that long life I make thee long-lived;' 

7. And three times the verse, ' The threefold age ' 
(V&f. Sa»/h. Ill, 62). 

8. If he desires, ' May he live his full term of 

4. Comp. .Satapatha Brahmawa XIV, 9, 4, 23 seqq. (Br/had 
Aranyaka VI, 4, 24 seqq.; S. B.E., XV, 222 seq.). The text has 
anamikaya suvan/antarhitaya, which literally is : with the nameless 
(or fourth) finger, between which (and the food) gold has been put. 

Digitized by 


i kAnda, 16 kajvdikA, 18. 295 

life,' he should touch him with the Vatsapra hymn 
(Va^. Sawh. XII, 18-29). 

9. From the Anuvaka beginning with ' From 
heaven' (XII, 18 seqq.) he omits the last Rik 
(XII, 29). 

10. Having placed five Brahmawas towards the 
(five) regions, he should say to them, ' Breathe ye 
upon this (child).' 

1 1. The (Brahma»a placed) to the east should say, 

12. The one to the south, ' Back-breathing ! ' 

1 3. The one to the west, ' Down-breathing ! ' 

14. The one to the north, ' Out-breathing ! ' 

15. The fifth one, looking upwards, should say, 
' On-breathing ! ' 

16. Or (the father) may do that himself, going 
round (his child), if he can find no (Brahmawas). 

17. He recites over the place at which (the child) 
is born : ' I know, O earth, thy heart that dwells in 
heaven, in the moon. That I know ; may it know 
me. May we see a hundred autumns ; may we live a 
hundred autumns ; may we hear a hundred autumns.' 

18. He then touches him with (the verse), ' Be a 
stone, be an axe, be imperishable gold. Thou indeed 
art the Self called son ; thus live a hundred autumns.' 

11 seqq. In translating the technical terms for the different 
kinds of breath, I adopt the expressions chosen by Professor Max 
Mttller, S. B. E., XV, 94. As to the whole rite, comp. .Satap. Br. XI, 

8, 3. 6. 

17. Comp. above, I, 11, 9. The comparison of the parallel 
Mantra leaves scarcely any doubt that veda (the first word of the 
verse) is the first, not the third person, and bhumi the vocative 
case. Compare the vocative darvi of the V&g. SawhitS, while 
the Atharva-veda has darve. Lanman, Noun-Inflection, p. 390. 

18. Satapatha Brahmawa XIV, 9, 4, 26; A^valayana 1, 15, 3. 


i by Google 

296 pAraskara-cr/hya-sOtra. 

19. He then recites over his mother (the verse), 
' Thou art Ida, the daughter of Mitra and Varu«a ; 
thou strong woman hast born a strong son. Be thou 
blessed with strong children, thou who hast blessed 
us with a strong son.' 

20. He then washes her right breast, and gives it 
to the child with (the verse), ' This breast' (Vag. 
Samh. XVII, 87); 

2 1 . The left (breast) with (the verse), ' Thy breast 
which ' (ibid. XXXVIII, 5) — with these two (verses). 

22. He puts down a pot of water near her head 
with (the verse), ' O waters, you watch with the gods. 
As you watch with the gods, thus watch over this 
mother who is confined, and her child.' 

23. Having established near the door the fire 
that has been kept from (the wife's) confinement, he 
throws into that fire at the time of the morning and 
evening twilight, until (the mother) gets up (from 
childbed), mustard seeds mixed with rice chaff (pro- 
nouncing the following names of demons and goblins) : 
' May Sanda and Marka, Upavira, .Sau«dikeya, 
Ulukhala, Malimlu^a, Drowasa, A!yavana vanish 
hence. Svaha ! 

' May Alikhat, Animisha, Kiwvadanta, Uparruti, 
Haryaksha, Kumbhin, 6atru, Patrapawi, NWma»i, 
Hantrlmukha, Sarshaparu«a, Ayavana vanish hence. 

24. If (the demon bringing disease) Kumara 
attacks the boy, the father covers him with a net 

19. .Satapatha BrShma«a 1. 1. §27. Comp. Professor Max Miiller's 
note, S. B. E., XV, 223 seq. 

21. .Satapatha Brahmawa 1. 1. § 28. 

23. On the sfitikagni, comp. .S'atap. Br. 1. 1. § 23 ; .S&ftkhSyana- 
Grihya. I, 25, 4, &c. 

24. Kurkura seems to me, and this is also Professor Stenzler's 

Digitized by 


I KANDA, 17 KAM3IKA, 4. 297 

or with an upper garment, takes him on his lap, 
and murmurs : ' Kurkura, Sukurkura, Kurkura, who 
holds fast children. A"et! iet! doggy! let him 
loose. Reverence be to thee, the Sisara, barker, 

' That is true that the gods have given a boon to 
thee. Hast thou then chosen even this boy ? 

' A!et ! ket ! doggy ! let him loose. Reverence be 
to thee, the Sisara, barker, bender. 

' That is true that (the divine she-dog) Sarama is 
thy mother, Sisara thy father, the black and the 
speckled (two dogs of Yama) thy brothers. 

' ATet ! >6et ! doggy ! let him loose. Reverence be 
to thee, the Sisara, barker, bender.' 

25. He then touches (the boy) with (the words), 
' He does not suffer, he does not cry, he is not stiff, 
he is not sick, when we speak to him and when we 
touch him.' 

Kajvdika 17. 

1. On the tenth day (after the birth of the child) 
the father, having made (his wife) get up, and having 
fed the Brahma»as, gives a name (to the child), 

2. Of two syllables, or of four syllables, beginning 
with a sonant, with a semivowel in it, with a long 
vowel (or) the Visarga (at its end), with a Krtt 
(suffix), not with a Taddhita ; 

3. With an uneven number of syllables, ending in 
a, with a Taddhita (suffix) to a girl. 

4. (The name) of a Brahma«a (should end in) 

opinion, identical with kurkura, kukkura (' dog '). The Peters- 
burg Dictionary explains it, ' Name eines die Kinder bedrohenden 
Damons (vielleicht eine Personification des Hustens).' 
17, 1. Comp. Gobhila II, 8, 14; Ajvalayana I, 15, 4. 

Digitized by 


298 paraskara-gr/hya-sOtra. 

carman (for inst. Vishwurarman), that of a Kshatriya 
in varman (for inst. Lakshmlvarman), that of a 
Vaisya in gupta (for inst. -ATandragupta). 

5. In the fourth month (follows) the going out. 

6. He makes (the child) look at the sun, pro- 
nouncing (the verse), ' That eye ' (V&£\ Saw/hita 
XXXVI, 24). 

Kanjjika 18. 

1. When he returns from a journey, he approaches 
his house in the manner stated above. 

2. When he sees his son, he murmurs, ' From 
limb by limb thou art produced ; out of the heart 
thou art born. Thou indeed art the Self called son ; 
so live a hundred autumns ! ' 

3. He then kisses his head with (the words), 
' With the hiwkara (the mystical syllable hin) of 
Pra^apati, which gives thousandfold life, I kiss thee, 
N. N. ! Live a hundred autumns ! ' — 

4. And three times with (the words), ' With the 
hiwkara of the cows.' 

5. In his right ear he murmurs, ' Bestow on us, 
O bountiful, onward-pressing Indra, plentiful, rich 
treasures. Give us a hundred autumns to live ; 
give us many heroes, strong-jawed Indra ; * 

6. In the left ear, ' Indra, bestow on us the best 
treasures, insight of mind, happiness, increase of 
wealth, health of our bodies, sweetness of speech, 
and that our days may be good days.' 

7. For a girl he only kisses the head silently. 

18, 1. See Katyayana, 6'rauta-sutra IV, 12, 22 seq. : With the 
words, 'House, be not afraid,' &c. (Vag'. Sawh. Ill, 41) he 
approaches the house. With, ' For peace you ' (III, 43) he 
enters it. 

5. Rig-veda III. 36, 10. 6. Rig-veda II, 21, 6. 

Digitized by 


I KANDA, 19 KANDIKA, 8. 299 

Kandika 19. 

i. In the sixth month the Annapr&rana (or first 
feeding with solid food). 

2. Having cooked a mess of sacrificial food, and 

m A A 

sacrificed the two A^yabhagas, he offers two Agya. 
oblations, (the first with the verse,) ' The gods have 
generated the goddess Speech ; manifold animals 
speak her forth. May she, the sweet-sounding, the 
cow that (for milk) gives sap and juice to us, Speech, 
the highly-praised one, come to us 1 . Svaha ! ' 

3. And the second (oblation) with (the verse), 
' May vigour us to-day' (Va^. Sawhita XVIII, 33). 

4. He then sacrifices (four oblations) of cooked 
food with (the formulas), 

' Through up-breathing may I enjoy food. Svaha ! 

'Through down-breathing may I enjoy smells. 

' Through my eye may I enjoy visible things. 

' Through my ear may I enjoy renown. Svahi ! ' 

5. After he has eaten (himself), he should set 
apart food of all kinds, and of all different sorts of 
flavour, and should give it to him (i.e. to his son) to eat, 

6. Silently or with (the word), ' Hanta ' (i.e. Well !). 
For it is said in the *Sruti, ' Men (live on) the word 

7. (He feeds the child) with flesh of (the bird 
called) Bharadva^i, if he wishes (to the child) 
fluency of speech, 

8. With flesh of partridge, if abundance of nourish- 

2. Rig-veda VIII, 100, 11. 6. Br/had Arawyaka V, 8. 

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300 paraskara-gk/hya-sOtra. 

9. With fish, if swiftness, 

10. (With flesh) of (the bird) Krz'kasha, if long life, 

11. (With flesh) of (the bird) A/i, if desirous of 
holy lustre, 

1 2. With all, if desirous of all. 

13. Or each (sort of) food one by one. Then 
(follows) feeding of the Brahma»as, or each (sort of) 
food one by one. Then feeding of the Brahma»as. 

End of the First Ka«da. 

Digitized by 



KXnda II, Kaawika 1. 

i. When (the son) is one year old, the A'iWakarawa 
(i.e. the tonsure of his head, should be performed), 

2. Or before the lapse of the third (year). 

3. When he is sixteen years old, the Keranta (i.e. 
the shaving of his beard, is to be done), 

4. Or, according as it is considered auspicious by 
all (the different families). 

5. After food has been distributed to the Brah- 
ma«as, the mother takes the boy, bathes him, puts 
on him an under and an upper garment which 
have not yet been washed, and putting him on her 
lap, she sits down to the west of the fire. 

6. The father taking hold (of his wife) sacrifices 
A^ya oblations, and after he has partaken of the 
(sacrificial) food, he pours warm water into cold 
water with (the words), ' With warm water come 
hither, Vayu ! Aditi, cut the hair.' 

7. At the Keyanta ceremony (Sutra 3), ' hafr and 
beard ' (instead of ' hair '). 

8. He throws a piece of fresh butter, or of ghee, 
or some curds into it (i.e. into the water, Sutra 6). 

9. Taking some (water) he moistens the hair 
near the right ear with (the formula), ' On the 
impulse of Savitri may the divine waters moisten 

1, 6. I see no reason why we should not take Aditi for the name 
of the goddess. Comp. Atharva-veda VI, 68, 2 : AditiA fmajru 
vapatu. Arvaliyana-Gr/hya I, 17, 7. Stenzler translates : Unge- 
bundener, die Haare schneide. 

9. The text has, dakshiwaw god&nam undati. The commentary 
on Katyayana V, 2, 14 explains dakshi«a godana : dakshiwakar- 
«asamfpavartina« jiraApradejam. Sayana on .Satapatha Brahmawa 
III, 1, 2, 4 (p. 323, ed. Weber) : godanaw nama kar«asyopari 
pradejaA. The Mantra reoccurs in Katyayana, loc. cit. — Savitra 

Digitized by 



thy body in order that long life and splendour may 
be thine.' 

i o. H aving unravelled (the hair) with a porcupine's 
quill that has three white spots, he puts three young 
Kusa shoots into it with (the formula), ' Herb' (V<if. 
Sawh. IV, i). 

1 1. Taking up a copper razor with (the formula), 
' Friendly by name' (V4f. Sawh. Ill, 63 a), he cuts 
(the hair) with (the formula), ' I cut off' (ibid. 63 b), 
(and with the formula,) 'The razor with which 
Savitrz, the knowing one, has shaven (the beard) of 
king Soma and Varu«a, with that, ye Brahma«as, 
shave his (head), in order that he may be blessed 
with long life and may reach old age.' 

12. Cutting off (the Kusa shoots) together with 
the hair, he throws them on a lump of bull's dung 
which they keep northwards of the fire. 

13. In the same way two other times silently. 

14. The moistening and the other rites are repeated 
with the two other (tufts of hair). 

1 5. Behind with (the verse), ' The threefold age ' 
(Vaf. Samh. Ill, 62). 

16. Then on the left side with (the verse), 'With 
that prayer by which mayst thou, a mighty one, go 
to heaven, and long mayst thou see the sun : with 
that prayer I shave thee for the sake of life, of 
existence, of glory, of welfare.' 

prasutaA should not be translated as Prof. Stenzler does: von 
Sav. erzeugt, but : von Sav. angetrieben. 

10. This Sutra is identical with Katyayana-Sraut. V, 2, 15. 

11. Compare Katyayana 1. 1. § 17. The Mantra, VUg. Sawh. 
Ill, 63 b, is that given by Katyayana, the following one is that 
which the other Gr/hya texts prescribe. 

16. See the various readings of the Mantra given by Professor 
Stenzler, p. 53 of his critical annotations, and compare Afvaltyana- 
Gr/hyal, 17, 13. 

Digitized by 



1 7. Three times he shaves round the head, from 
left to right ; 

18. Including the face, at the Kesanta ceremony. 

19. (He recites the verse,) ' When the shaver 
shaves his hair with the razor, the wounding, the 
well-shaped, purify his head, but do not take away 
his life.' 

20. He adds (the word), ' his face ' at the Keranta 

2 1 . With that water (Sutras 6, 8) he moistens his 
head, and gives the razor to the barber with (the 
words), ' Without wounding him, shave him.' 

22. The locks of hair which are left over, are to 
be arranged as it is considered auspicious (in his 

23. Having put away that lump of dung with the 
hair so that it is hidden in a cow-stable, or in a 
small pond, or in the vicinity of water, he gives an 
optional gift to the teacher ; 

24. A cow at the Kesanta ceremony. 

25. After the Reran ta has been performed, (the 
youth) should observe chastity and should not be 
shaven through one year, or twelve nights, or six 
nights, or at least three nights. 


1. He should initiate a Brahma»a, when he is 
eight years old, or in the eighth year after the con- 

2. A Ra^anya, when he is eleven years old, 

19. Ajvalayana 1. 1. § 16; Atharva-veda VIII, 2, 17. 

20. He repeats the Mantra, given in Sfttra 19, in this form: 
' When the shaver shaves his hair and his face,' Ac. 

23. See above, Sfitra 12. 

Digitized by 


304 pAraskara-g/j/hya-sAtra. 

3. A Vaisya, when he is twelve years old. 

4. Or according as it is considered auspicious by 
all (the different families). 

5. He should feed the Brahma#as. And they 
lead him (i. e. the boy who is to be initiated) on, with 
his head shaven all round.and decked with ornaments. 

6. (The teacher) makes him place himself to the 
west of the fire and say, ' I have come hither for the 
sake of studentship (brahma-6arya).' And, ' I will be 
a student (brahma^Arin).' 

7. He then makes him put on a garment with (the 
verse), ' In the way in which Brzhaspati put the 
garment of immortality on Indra, thus I put (this 
garment) on thee, for the sake of long life, of old 
age, of strength, of splendour.' 

8. He ties round him the girdle with (the verse 
which the youth recites), ' Here has come to me, 
keeping away evil words, purifying my kind as a 
purifyer, clothing herself, by (the power of) inhalation 
and exhalation, with strength, this sisterly goddess, 
this blessed girdle.' 

9. Or, ' A youth, well attired, dressed, came 
hither. He, being born, becomes glorious. Wise 
sages extol him, devout ones, turning their minds 
to the gods.' 

10. Or silently. 

11. He gives him the staff. 

6 seqq. Comp. .S'atapatha Brahma«a XI, 5, 4. 

8. The commentators differ as to whether the A&irya or the 
youth should recite the verse. The comparison of .Sankhayana II, 
2, 1 would rather tend to show that it is the teacher, but Gobhila II, 
10 says expressly : athainaw triA pradakshi«aw murig-amekhala>M 
pariharan vWayatiyaw duruktatparibadhamanety r/tasya goptriti va. 

9. Rig-veda III, 8, 4. The verse is originally addressed to 

Digitized by 


II KAJVDA, 2 KAMDIKA, 20. 305 

1 2. (The student) accepts it with (the verse), ' My 
staff which fell down to the ground in the open air, 
that I take up again for the sake of long life, of 
holiness, of holy lustre.' 

13. According to some (teachers he accepts the 
staff) in the way prescribed for the inauguration, 
because it is said, ' He enters upon a long Sattra (or 
sacrificial period).' 

14. (The teacher) then with his joined hands fills 
(the student's) joined hands with water with the 
three (verses), 'Ye waters are' (Va^ - . Sa/»h. XI, 50 


15. He then makes him look at the sun with (the 
verse), 'That eye' (Vi^. Sawh. XXXVI, 24). 

16. He then touches his heart, (reaching) over his 
right shoulder, with (the words), ' Into my will I take 
thy heart, &c.' 

17. He then seizes (the student's) right hand and 
says, ' What is thy name ? ' 

18. He replies, ' I am N. N., sir !' 

19. He then says to him, 'Whose pupil (brahma- 
£arin) art thou ? ' 

20. After (the student) has said, ' Yours ! ' — (the 

13. Satapatha Brdhmawa XI, 3, 3, 2 : 'He enters upon a long 
Sattra, who enters upon Brahmaforya.' The student, when being 
initiated, ought to behave, consequently, in the same way as those 
who receive the inauguration (dtkshS) for a long Sattra. This is 
the meaning of this Sutra. The rules regarding the staff handed 
over by the Adhvaryu to the Yag-amSna at the dlksha" ceremony 
are given by KStyayana, Aauta-sutra VII, 4, 1-4. 

15. See above, I, 8, 7. 

16. See above, I, 8, 8. 

17 seqq. Comp. .Satapatha Brahma»a XI, 5, 4, 1 seqq. 

20. The words ' I am thy teacher ' are omitted in one of 
Professor Stenzler's MSS. and in his translation. But they are 
given in the parallel passage of the Satapatha Briihmawa. The 
[29] X 

Digitized by 


306 paraskara-g.r/hya-sOtra. 

teacher replies,) ' Indra's pupil art thou ; Agni is thy 
teacher ; I am thy teacher, N. N. ! ' 

21. He then gives him in charge to living beings 
with (the formulas), ' To Pra^apati I give thee in 
charge. To the god Savitr* I give thee in charge. 
To the waters, the herbs I give thee in charge. To 
Heaven and Earth I give thee in charge. To the 
VLsve dev&s I give thee in charge. To all beings I 
give thee in charge for the sake of freedom from 

Kandika 3. 

i. Having walked round the fire with his right 
side turned towards it, he sits down. 

2. Taking hold (of the student), he sacrifices the 
A^-ya oblations, and after having partaken (of the 
remains of the sacrificial food) he instructs him, ' A 
student art thou. Take water. Do the service. Do 
not sleep in the day-time. Keep silence. Put fuel 
on (the fire). Take water.' 

3. He then recites the Savitrl to him, who is 
seated to the north of the fire, with his face to the 
west, sitting near the teacher, and looks (at the 
teacher), while (the teacher) looks at him ; 

4. Some say, to (the student) who is standing or 
seated to the south (of the fire) ; 

5. Pada by Pdda, (then) hemistich by hemistich, 
and the third time the whole (verse), reciting it 
together (with the student) ; 

parallel passage in Sdhkhayana (Grihya II, 3, 1) also runs thus: 
Agnir a^aryas tava, asav, ahaw ^obhau. 

3, 1 seqq. Comp. the corresponding section of the .Satapatha 
Brahmawa XI, 5, 4, 6 seqq. 

4. .Satapatha Brahmawa 1. 1. § 1 4. 

Digitized by 


II KANDA, 4 KAtfDIKA, 3. 307 

6. After one year, or after six months, or after 
twenty-four days, or after twelve days, or after six 
days, or after three days. 

7. To a Brahma«a, however, he should recite a 
(Savitrl) verse in the Gayatrt metre immediately. 
For it is said in the 6ruti, ' To Agni indeed belongs 
the Brihmawa,' 

8. A TrishAibh verse to a Ra^anya, 

9. A 6agatl to a Vauya, 

10. Or a Gayatrl to (persons of) all (castes). 


1. Now the putting on of fuel. 

2. He wipes with his hand (the ground) round the 
fire with (the formula), 'Agni, glorious one, make 
me glorious. As thou, glorious Agni, art glorious, 
thus, O glorious one, bring me to glory. As thou, 
Agni, art the preserver of the treasure of sacrifice 
for the gods, thus may I become the preserver of 
the treasure of the Veda for men.' 

3. Having sprinkled (water) round the fire from 
left to right, he stands up and puts a piece of wood 
on (the fire) with (the texts), 

' To Agni I have brought a piece of wood, to the 
great G&tavedas. As thou, Agni, art inflamed by 
wood, thus I am inflamed by life, insight, vigour, 
offspring, cattle, holy lustre. 

' May my teacher be the father of living sons ; 
may I be full of insight, not forgetful (of what I have 
learned) ; may I become full of glory, of splendour, 
of holy lustre, an enjoyer of food. Svaha ! 

7. Satapatha Brahma»a 1. 1. § 12. 

4. 2. Comp. Axvalayana-Grihya I, 22, 21. 

3. As to anirakarishwu, comp. anirakara«a below, III, 16. 

X 2 

Digitized by 


308 pAraskara-g/?/hya-sCtra. 

4. In the same way (he puts on) a second (piece 
of wood) ; and thus a third. 

5. Or (each piece) with (the verse), ' Thine is this ' 
(V&f. Samh. II, 14). 

6. Or (he uses) both (this verse and the formulas 
given in Sutra 3). 

7. The wiping and sprinkling (of water) round 
(the fire are repeated) as above. 

8. Having warmed his two hands, he wipes his 
mouth with (the formulas) : 

' Agn i , thou art the protector of bodies. Protect my 
body. Agni, thou art the giver of life. Give me life. 
Agni, thou art the giver of vigour. Give me vigour. 

' Agni, what is deficient in my body, that restore to 

' May the god Savitrz bestow insight on me, may 
the goddess Sarasvatl, may the two divine Arvins, 
wreathed with lotus, (bestow) insight (on me).' 

Kandika. 5. 

1. Here (follows the student's) going the rounds 
for alms. 

2. A Brahmawa should beg, addressing (the woman 
from whom he begs alms) with the word ' Lady ' put 
at the beginning (of his request), 

3. A Ra t f anya, with the word ' Lady ' inserted in 
the middle, 

4. A Vauya, with the word ' Lady ' put at the end. 

5. (He should beg) from three women who will 
not refuse ; 

7. See above, Sfitras 2, 3. 

5, 2-4. Comp. Apastamba I, 3, 28 seqq. (S. B. E., II, p. 12); 
Manu II, 49, &c. The Brahma«a says, ' Lady, give alms ; ' the 
Kshatriya, ' Give, lady, alms ;' the Vaijya, 'Give alms, lady.' 

5. A^valayana-Grrtiya I, 22, 7. 

Digitized by 


II KANDA, 5 KAtfDIKA, 1 8. 309 

6. From six, twelve, or an indefinite number. 

7. From his own mother first, according to some 

8. Having announced the alms received to his 
teacher, he should stand, keeping silence, through 
the rest of the day, according to some. 

9. Having fetched fire-wood out of the forest with- 
out damaging (trees), he should put them on that fire 
as above, and should abandon his silence. 

10. He should sleep on the ground and eat no 
pungent or saline food. 

ii. Wearing the staff, worshipping the fire, being 
obedient to his Guru, going the rounds for alms — 
(these are the standing duties of students). 

12. He should avoid honey or flesh, bathing 
(for pleasure), sitting on high seats, going to 
women, falsehood, and taking what is not given 
to him. 

13. Let him live forty-eight years as a student for 
the (four) Vedas, 

14. Or twelve years for each Veda, 

15. Or until he has learnt it. 

16. The garment (of a student) should be made of 
hemp, flax, or wool (accordingly as he is a Brah- 
ma«a, a Kshatriya, or a Vaisya). 

1 7. The upper garment of a Brahma#a should be 
an antelope-skin, 

1 8. That of a R&fanya the skin of a spotted deer, 

8. Arvalayana 1. 1. §§ 10, 11. 

9. The meaning is, he should not break off branches, but only 
gather such as have fallen off. The words 'as above' refer to 
chap. 4. 

12. Gautama II, 13; Apastamba I, 2, 23. 28-30. 21. 26. 
13-15. Comp. Apastamba I, 2, 12 seqq. ; Arvalayana I, 22, 3. 

Digitized by 


3 1 o pAraskara-gr/h ya-sOtra. 

19. That of a Vai-fya a goat's or cow's skin. 

20. Or if (the prescribed sort of garment) is not to 
be had, a cow's hide (should be worn) by all, because 
to that belongs the first place (among all kinds of 

21. The girdle of a Brahmawa should be of 
Mu%a grass, 

22. That of a Kshatriya should be a bowstring, 

23. That of a Vawya, made of Murva (i.e. Sanse- 
veria Roxburghiana). 

24. If there is no Mu«fa (or the other articles 
prescribed in §§ 22, 23, the girdles should be made) 
of Kusa grass, of the plant Asmantaka, or of Balba^a 
grass (respectively). 

25. The staff of a Brahmawa is of Palasa wood, 

26. That of a Ra^anya of Bilva wood, 

27. That of a VaLsya of Udumbara wood. 

28. Or all (sorts of staffs may be used) by all. 

29. If the teacher calls him, he shall rise and then 

30. If (the teacher calls him) while he is lying 
down, (he should answer) sitting; if sitting, standing ; 
if standing, walking up (to the teacher) ; if walking 
up, running up. 

31. If he behaves thus, his fame when he has be- 
come a Snataka (i. e. when he has taken the bath at 
the end of his studentship) will be (such that people 
will say of him), ' To-day he stays there ; to-day he 
stays there.' 

32. There are three (kinds of) Snatakas: aVidya- 
snataka (i. e. a Snataka by knowledge), a Vrata- 

24. Manu II, 43. 

32-35. Comp. Apastamba I, 30, 1-3; Manu IV, 31. The 
term of the vows extends through forty-eight (or thirty-six, &c.) 

Digitized by 


II KASDA, 5 KAMJIKA, 42. 311 

snataka (i. e. a Snataka by the completion of his 
vows), and a Vidya-vrata-snataka (i. e. a Snataka both 
by knowledge and by the completion of his vows). 

33. He who performs the Samavartana ceremony, 
after having finished the study of the Veda, but before 
the time of his vows has expired, is a Vidya-snataka. 

34. He who performs the Samavartana, after his 
vows have expired, but before he has finished the 
study of the Veda, is a Vrata-snataka. 

35. He who performs the Samavartana, after 
having finished both, is a Vidya-vrata-snataka. 

36. Until the sixteenth year the time (for being 
initiated) has not passed for a Brahma«a, 

37. Until the twenty-second for a Ra^anya, 

38. Until the twenty-fourth for a Vaisya. 

39. After that (time has passed), they become 
patitasavitrtka (or persons who have lost the right of 
learning the Savitri). 

40. No one should initiate such men, nor teach 
them, nor perform sacrifices for them, nor have inter- 
course with them. 

41. After the time has passed, (they should do) as 
has been prescribed. 

42. A person whose ancestors through three 
generations have been patitasavitrlkas, is excluded 

years; see above, Sutras 13 and 14, and below, chap. 6, 2. 3. The 
Samavartana is the returning home of the student at the end of his 

36-40. AjvalSyana-Grehya I, 19, 5 seqq. &c. 

41. The general rule here alluded to is, according to the com- 
mentators, that given by KAtySyana, .Srauta-sutra XXV, 1, 12. 13. 
There it is stated which expiatory oblations have to precede, when 
a rite that has not been performed, or that has been incorrectly 
performed, is to be performed for good. 

42. Those who have not been initiated in due time, may act as 

Digitized by 


3 1 2 pAraskara-gr/hya-sOtra. 

from the sacrament (of initiation) and from being 
taught the Veda. 

43. Of such persons those who desire to receive 
the sacrament, may perform the sacrifice of Vratya- 
stoma and then study the Veda, if they like. For 
(of persons who have done that) it is said, ' Inter- 
course with them is permitted.' 

KandikX 6. 

1 . When he has finished the Veda, he should take 
the bath (by which he becomes a Snataka) ; 

2. Or when (he has gone through) a studentship 
of forty-eight years ; 

3. Or also after (a studentship) of twelve years, 
according to some (teachers). 

4. (Let him take the bath only) if his Guru has 
given his permission. 

5. Rules (regarding the performance of sacrifices), 
(texts) to be used (at the sacrifices according to those 
rules), and reasoning (on the meaning of the rites 
and texts) : that is the Veda. 

6. Some say (that the Veda should be studied) 
with its six Angas ; 

stated in Sutra 41. But if the omission has been perpetuated 
through three generations , the descendant of such persons is subject 
to the rules stated in Sutras 42 and 43. 

43. Katyayana, after having given the rules on the Vrdtyastoma 
sacrifice (see Weber, Indische Literaturgeschichte, 2nd edition, 
pp. 73 seq.), says: 'Intercourse with them (who have performed 
that sacrifice) is permitted' (.SYaut. XXII, 4, 28). 

6, 2. See above, chap. 5, 13. 

3. See chap. 5, 14. 

5. The expressions of the text for the three categories are, 
vidhi, vidheya, tarka. 

6. I. e. with the supplementary treatises on ritual, grammar, 
astronomy, etymology, pronunciation of the Mantras, and metrics. 

Digitized by 


ii kAnda., 6 kandikA, 12. 313 

7. Not so that he only knows the ceremonial. 

8. But optionally by one who knows the sacrifices 
(the bath may be taken). 

9. (The student) after having embraced (the feet 
of) his teacher, and put the pieces of wood on the fire, 
places himself northwards of an enclosure, on east- 
ward-pointed Kusa. grass, to the east of eight vessels 
with water. 

10. 'The fires that dwell in the waters; the fire 
which must be hidden, the fire which must be 
covered, the ray of light, the fire which kills the 
mind, the unwavering one, the pain-causing one, the 
destroyer of the body, the fire which kills the organs 
— those I leave behind. The shining one, that I 
seize here ' — with (this formula) he draws water out 
of one (of the eight vessels) ; 

11. With that he besprinkles himself with (the 
words), ' Therewith I besprinkle myself for the sake 
of prosperity, of glory, of holiness, of holy lustre.' 

1 2. (A second time he draws water out of a second 
of the eight vessels with the formula given in Sutra 
10, putting instead of the words, ' The shining one, 
&c.,' the verse) : ' By which you have created pros- 
perity, by which you have touched sura, with which 
you have anointed the eyes, which is your glory, O 

10. As to the names of the eight hostile powers of Agni, comp. 
.Sankhayana-Gnbya V, 2 ; Atharva-veda XIV, 1, 38 ; XVI, 1 ; 
Mantrabrahmana I, 7, 1. 

12. The reading of the Mantra seems to be corrupt. Compare 
the form in which it is given by Bhavadeva, quoted in Professor 
Stenzler's note on this Sutra. Instead of jriyam we have probably 
to read, as Bhavadeva has, striyam; instead of akshyau, akshan. 
Professor Stenzler very pertinently compares Atharva-veda XIV, 1, 
35- 36- Comp. also Mantrabrahmawa I, 7, 5. 

Digitized by 


314 par askara-gr/hya-sOtra. 

13. (And he draws water out of three other 
vessels) with (the three verses), ' Ye waters are ' 
(Vaf. Sa*»h. XI, 50-52), verse by verse. 

14. With (water drawn out of) the three other 
(vessels he besprinkles himself) silently. 

15. Having loosened his girdle with (the verse), 
'The highest band' (Vif. XII, 12), having 
put it down, having put on another garment, he 
worships the sun — 

1 6. With (the formulas), ' Rising, bearing a shining 
spear, Indra stands with the Maruts ; he stands with 
the gods who walk in the morning. Thou art a ten- 
fold winner ; make me a tenfold winner. Make me 
attain to renown. 

' Rising, bearing a shining spear, Indra stands with 
the Maruts ; he stands with the gods who walk in 
day-time. Thou art a hundredfold winner ; make me 
a hundredfold winner. Make me attain to renown. 

' Rising, bearing a shining spear, Indra stands with 
the Maruts ; he stands with the gods who walk in 
the evening. Thou art a thousandfold winner; 
make me a thousandfold winner. Make me attain 
to renown.' 

1 7. Having eaten curds or sesamum seeds, and 
having had his matted hair, the hair of his body, 
and his nails cut, he should cleanse his teeth with an 
Udumbara branch with (the verse), 'Array your- 
selves for the enjoyment of food. Here has come 
king Soma : he will purify my mouth with glory and 

16. In the Mantra the Paraskara MSS. give bhra^abhmh/niA 
and bhra^abhn'sh/i//, and the Gobhila MSS. (Gr/hya III, 4) bhri^a- 
bh/-/sh/ibhi//. Possibly the instrumental case is right. Bohtlingk 
and Roth propose to read bhra^adr/'sh/iA. 

Digitized by 


II KAWDA, 6 KANDIKA, 2$. 315 

18. Having anointed himself and bathed again, he 
takes up the salve for nose and mouth with (the 
words), ' Satiate my up-breathing and down-breath- 
ing ; satiate my eye ; satiate my ear ! ' 

19. Having poured out to the south the water 
with which he has washed his hands, with (the 
words), ' Ye fathers, become pure,' he should salve 
himself and murmur, ' May I become well-looking 
with my eyes, well-shining with my face, well-hearing 
with my ears.' 

20. He then should put on a garment which has 
not yet been washed, or not been soaked in lie, with 
(the formula), ' For the sake of putting on, of bring- 
ing fame, of long life I shall reach old age. I live a 
hundred long autumns. For the sake of the increase 
of wealth I will clothe myself.' 

21. Then the upper garment with (the verse), 
' With glory (come) to me, Heaven and • Earth. 
With glory, Indra and Brzhaspati ! May glory and 
fortune come to me ! may glory be my lot ! ' 

22. If (he has only) one (garment), he should 
cover himself (with a part of that garment as if it 
were an upper garment) with the second part of the 
former (Mantra ; Sfitra 20). 

23. He takes flowers with (the formula), '(The 

20. Comp. K&ty&yana, .Srauta-sutra VII, 2, 18, to which Sutra 
Professor Stenzler refers. 

22. I give this translation merely as tentative. Professor 
Stenzler translates: Wenn er nur Ein Gewand hat, so bedecke er 
sich (noch einmal) mit dem oberen Theile des zuerst angelegten. 
Gayarama (MS. Chambers 373) says : eka»* ket tatrSpi paridhana- 
mantraw pa/Aitva' vastrardham paridhSya dvir a^amya uttarirdhe 
gnhftvt uttariyam [sic] mantnuw pa//4itvottarfya»» kr*tv£ punar dvir 
Seamed ity artha/5. 

23. Hira«y.-Gnhya I, 3, 11, 4. 

Digitized by 


3 1 6 paraskara-gj?/hya-sOtra. 

flowers) which (Jamadagni has brought for the sake 
of faith (has brought to 5raddha ?), of love, of the 
senses, them I take with glory and with fortune.' 

24. He then ties them (to his head) with (the 
verse), ' The high, wide glory, which Indra has 
created for the Apsarases, the flowers bound up 
with that, I tie on to me, to bring me glory!' 

25. He binds a turban to his head with (the 
verse), 'A youth, well attired.' 

26. (He puts on) the two ear-rings with (the 
words), ' An ornament art thou ; may more orna- 
ments be mine.' 

27. He salves his two eyes with (the formula), 
'VrftraV (Vfif. Samh. IV, 3 b). 

28. With (the words), ' Brilliant art thou,' he looks 
at his image in a mirror. 

29. He takes a parasol with (the words), ' Thou 
art Brzhaspati's covering. Shelter me from evil. 
Do not shelter me from splendour and glory.' 

30. With (the words), ' You are supports ; protect 
me from all sides,' he puts on the two shoes. 

3 1 . With (the words), ' From all powers of destruc- 
tion protect me on all sides,' he takes a bamboo staff. 

32. (For) the tooth-cleaner, &c. (the Mantras 
stated above are to be used) in every case ; (for) 
the garment, the parasol, and the shoes, the Mantra 
(should only be recited) if they have not been used 

Kaa t X)IKa 7. 

1. We shall state the rules of conduct for a 

2. Another (may observe those rules) optionally. 

25. See above, chap. 2, 9. 

Digitized by 


ii kAatoa, y kandikX, 12. 317 

3. Dancing, singing, and playing musical instru- 
ments, let him neither perform himself nor go (to 
see or hear it). 

4. Sing, however, he may at his pleasure, for 
there is another saying, ' He sings either or he 
rejoices in (other people's) singing.' 

5. If everything goes well, he shall not go by 
night to another village, and shall not run. 

6. He shall avoid looking into a well, climbing up 
a tree, gathering fruits, crawling through narrow 
openings, bathing naked, jumping over uneven 
ground, using harsh language, looking at the sun 
while it is rising or setting, and begging. For there 
is a 6ruti : ' After he has bathed, he should not 
beg For he who bathes, drives away from himself 

7. If it rains, he shall go without an upper garment, 
and shall say, ' May this, my thunderbolt, drive away 

8. He shall not look at himself in water. 

9. A£cltalomni#2 vipuwstw shandAam ka nopa- 

10. Let him call a pregnant woman 'vi^anya' 
(one who will give birth to a child) ; 

11. An ichneumon (nakula), sakula ; 

12. A skull (kapala), bhagala ; 

7, 3. Comp. the similar rule given in the Buddhist Vinaya, MahS- 
vagga I, 56. 

4. Satapatha Br&hmawa VI, 1, 1, 15. 

5. If no accident happens that makes his going to another 
village necessary. 

6. The passage of the Sruti quoted is found in the Satapatha 
Brihmana XI, 3, 3, 7. Comp. Vasish/fta XII, 2, 10, 25 ; Gautama 
IX, 32, 61, &c. 

12. Gautama IX, 21. 

Digitized by 


318 pAraskara-g/uhya-sOtra. 

13. A rainbow (Indra-dhanu, Indra's bow), ma»i- 
dhanu (the jewelled bow). 

14. A cow that suckles (her calf) he should not 
point out to another (person). 

15. Let him not void urine or excrements on a 
ploughed field, on uncovered ground, or while rising 
up or standing. 

16. He shall wipe himself with wood that has 
fallen off by itself. 

17. He should not wear a dyed garment. 

18. He should be fixed in his intentions, protect 
everybody's life, and be everybody's friend, as it 

Kajvbika 8. 

1. Through a period of three nights (after the 
Samavartana) he should keep (the following) ob- 

2. He shall eat no flesh and not drink out of an 
earthen vessel. 

3. He shall avoid seeing women, 6"udras, dead 
bodies, black birds, and dogs, and shall not talk to 
(such beings). 

4. He shall not eat funeral food, or food of a 

13. GautamalX, 22; Vasish///aXII,32. 33; Apastamba I, 31, 18. 

14. GautamalX, 23; Apastamba I, 31, 10. 

15. Gautama IX, 38; Vasish/Aa XII, 13; Apastamba I, 30, 15. 
18. Before easing himself, he shall first cover the ground with 
grass or the like. 

17. GautamalX, 4; Apastamba I, 30, 10. 
8, 1. The words of this Sutra are repeated from Satapatha 
Brahmawa XIV, 1, 1,28 (only for £arati it is said here £aret). 

2. .Satapatha Brahmawa 1. 1. § 30. 

3. Satapatha Brahmawa 1. 1. § 31. Black birds, according to the 
commentators, mean crows. 

4. Funeral food is such food as described below, III, 10, 26. 

Digitized by 


II KANDA, 9 KAtfDIKA, 3. 319 

*Sudra, or of a woman lying-in (during the period of 
her impurity). 

5. He shall not void urine or excrements, or spit 
out in the sun-shine, and shall not cover himself 
against the sun. 

6. He shall take warm water for (the rites) in 
which water is wanted. 

7. At night he shall eat by the light (of a lamp or 
a fire-brand). 

8. Or only speaking the truth (suffices instead of 
the other observances). 

9. Also a person who has received the diksha (or 
inauguration for a Soma sacrifice), should observe 
these rules beginning from (that which regards) the 
sun-shine (Sutra 5), if he performs the Pravargya 

KandikX 9. 

1. Now (follow) the five great sacrifices. 

2. Of the Vai^vadeva food he should, after 
having sprinkled (water) round (the sacred fire), 
make oblations, with the word Svaha (each time 
repeated), to Brahman, to Fra^apati, to the (deities) 
of the house, to Kayyapa, and to Anumati. 

3. To the domestic deities (he offers) three 

9. The Pravargya ceremony, one of the preparatory ceremonies 
of the Soma sacrifice (Indische Studien, X, 363), was not performed 
at every Soma sacrifice, but there were certain restrictions regarding, 
its performance; see Indische Studien, IX, 219 seq. 

9, 1. The five Mahaya^-was are, the sacrifice to the gods, the 
sacrifice to living Beings, the sacrifice to the Fathers, the sacrifice to 
the Brahman, the sacrifice to men. As to the meaning of the five 
categories, see Ajvalsiyana-Gr/hya III, 1. 

2. Compare above, 1, 12, 3. 

3. Compare above, I, 12, 2. 

Digitized by 


320 paraskara-gk/hya-sOtra. 

(Balis) in- the water-pot : to Paiganya, to the waters, 
to the Earth ; 

4. To Dhatrz and Vidhatrz at the two door- 
posts ; 

5. To the different quarters (of the horizon), to 
Vayu and (to the presiding deities) of the quarters ; 

6. In the middle three (Balis) to Brahman, to the 
Air, to the Sun. 

7. To the north of those (he offers Balis) to the 
Visve devas and to all the beings ; 

8. Further on to Ushas and to the Lord of 
beings ; 

9. To the south (to the Fathers) with (the words), 
'To the Fathers, Svadha! Adoration!' 

10. Having rinsed out the vessel, he should pour 
it out towards the north-west with (the words), ' Con- 
sumption ! this to thee ! ' 

1 1 . Taking the Brahmawa's portion (of the food 
which he is going to distribute), he should give it to 
a Brahmawa, after he has made him wash himself, 
with (the words), ' Well ! (this) to thee ! ' 

1 2. To (religious) mendicants and to guests they 
should apportion (food) as due to them. 

13. The persons belonging to the house, the 
young and the old, should eat what is due to them ; 

14. Afterwards the householder and his wife. 

15. Or the householder (should eat) first, because 

1 1. What I have translated ' the Brahmawa's portion ' is agra. 
See on this word the remark of Nilaka«/Aa quoted by Bohtlingk- 
Roth s.v. agrahara : agra» brahmawabhqg'anaaz, tadartha»* hriyante 
raj-adhanat prrihakkriyante te*graharsL4 kshetrddayaA. According 
to different commentators and lexicographers one Agra is equal to 
four or to sixteen mouthfuls of food. 

15. I cannot indicate any more than Professor Stenzler could, 
where the passage here quoted occurs in a BrShmaaa. 

Digitized by 



the *Siruti says, ' Therefore the householder should 
eat the sweetest food before his guests.' 

16. Every day he should sacrifice with the word 
svaha. If he has no food (to offer, he should make 
his offering) with something else, be it even a piece 
of wood (only), to the gods, or be it (only) a water- 
pot, to the Fathers and to men. 

KajvdikA 10. 

1. Now (follows) the Adhyayopakarman (or open- 
ing ceremony at the beginning of the annual course 
of study). 

2. When the herbs appear, (when the moon stands 
in conjunction) with ^Sravawa, on the full-moon day 
of the .Sravawa month, or on the fifth (Tithi) of 
the Sravawa month under (the Nakshatra) Hasta ; 

3. Having sacrificed the two A^ya portions, he 
offers two A^ya oblations, (namely,) 

4. To the Earth and to Agni, if (he studies) the 

5. To the Air and to Vayu, if the Ya c fur-veda, 

6. To the Heaven and to the Sun, if the Sama- 

7. To the quarters (of the horizon) and to the 
Moon, if the Atharva-veda; 

8. (Besides) to the Brahman, to the metres in 
every case, 

9. And to Pra^apati, to the gods, to the /foshis, 
to Faith, to Insight, to Sadasaspati, to Anumati. 

10. The same (oblations are made) when the 

16. Comp. .SShkhayana-Grchya II, 17, 2; .Satapatha Brahmawa 

XI, 5,6, 2. 

10, 2. Comp. Ajvalayana-Gr/hya III, 5, 2. 3 and my note. 
10. On the different vratas (observances) connected with the 
[29] Y 

Digitized by 


322 paraskara-gjuhya-sOtra. 

observances are imposed (on a student) or given up 
(by him, after having been kept through the pre- 
scribed period of time). 

ii. With (the verse), ' Sadasaspati ' (Vif. Sawh. 
XXXII, 13) (the teacher) three times (sacrifices) 
fried grains. 

12. All should repeat (that verse after him). 

1 3. After each oblation they should each time put 
on the fire three pieces of Udumbara wood, fresh 
branches with leaves, anointed with ghee, reciting 
the Savitri. 

14. And the students (should put wood on the 
fire) in the manner stated above. 

1 5. With (the verse), ' Luck may bring us ' (Vif. 
Samh. IX, 16) they should eat the fried grains with- 
out chewing them. 

16. With the verse, 'Of Dadhikravan' (Va,f. 
Samh. XXIII, 32) they should eat curds. 

17. As many pupils as he wishes to obtain, so 
many sesamum grains should he sacrifice with a 
dice-board, with the Savitri or with the Anuvaka, 
' Bright-resplending ' (V&f. Sa»zh. XVII, 80 seqq.). 

18. After they have eaten (the remainder of the 
sacrificial food, the teacher) should pronounce the 
word Om and then repeat the Savitri three times, 
and the beginnings of the Adhyayas to (the students) 
who are seated facing the west ; 

study of the Veda, such as the .Sukriya-vrata, the .Sakvara-vrata, &c, 
comp. especially .SSftkhayana-Gr/hya II, 11. 12 and the notes there. 
14. See above, chap. 4. 

17. Akarshaphalakena. RSmakr/shwa states that this is a 
board of Udumbara wood, of the length of an arm, and of the 
shape of a serpent. (See Professor Stenzler's note.) 

18. The following Sutras clearly show that this rule is intended 
for students of the Yag-ur-veda only. 

Digitized by 



19. The beginnings of the sections belonging to 
the (different) ^'shis, if they are Bahwz'ias (i. e. if 
they study the JZig-veda), 

20. The Parvans, if they are .Oandogas (i. e. if 
they study the Sama-veda), 

21. The Suktas, if they are Atharvans. 

22. All murmur: ' May- it be ours in common; 
may it bless us in common ; may this Brahman be 
powerful with us together. Indra knows that through 
which, and in which way, no hatred may spring up 
amongst us.' 

23. Through a period of three nights they should 
not study (the Veda). 

24. And they should not cut the hair of their 
bodies and their nails. 

25. Some say (that this should not be done) till 
the Utsarga (i. e. the concluding ceremony of the 
annual course of study). 

Kajvdika 11. 

1. If (a strong) wind is blowing, and on the new- 
moon day there is an entire interruption of study. 

2. If one has partaken of a .Sraddha dinner, if a 
meteor falls, or distant thundering is heard, or if the 
earth quakes, or if fiery apparitions are seen, and 
when a new season begins, (the study shall be 
interrupted) until the same time next day. 

3. If the Utsarga ceremony has been performed, 

20. On the division of the Sama-veda into Parvans, comp. Weber, 
Indische Literaturgeschichte, 2nd edition, p. 72. 

11, 1. 'Entire interruption' means, according to the commen- 
tators, that not only the study of the Veda itself, but also that of the 
Ved&ftgas, or even all sorts of worldly instruction are forbidden. 

3. I have left the words sarvarupe ia. untranslated. Evidently 

Y 2 

Digitized by 


324 paraskara-gk/hya-sOtra. 

if clouds appear, ..... (it shall be interrupted) 
through a period of three nights or till twilight has 
thrice passed. 

4. After he has eaten, until he has (washed and) 
dried his hands ; while being in water ; at night- 
time ; at the time of the morning and evening 
twilight ; while a dead body or a ATa*ft&la is in the 

5. While running, while seeing a person of bad 
fame or who has lost his caste, if a miraculous or 
happy event happens, as long as (that which occa- 
sions the interruption of study) endures. 

6. If hoar-frost (lies on the ground), if a musical 
instrument is heard, or the cry of a person in pain, 
at the border of the village, in a burial ground, or if 
a dog, an ass, an owl, a jackal, or a Saman song is 
heard, or if a learned person approaches, as long as 
(that occasion) endures. 

7. If his Guru has died, let him go down into 
water (for offering water-oblations) and interrupt 
(the study) for ten nights. 

8. If one who has performed with him the Tanu- 
naptra ceremony, or a fellow-pupil (has died), for 
three nights. 

9. If one who is not his fellow-pupil, (has died,) 
for one night. 

sarvarupa is identical with the doubtful word .ravarupa which twice 
occurs in the .Sdhkhayana-Grjhya. See the discussion on that 
word in the note on .Sankhayana II, 12, 10. 

4. On antardivdkirtye, comp. Manu V, 85. Gautama XVI, 19. 

8. The Tinunaptra is an invocation directed to Tanunaptr/' 
(i.e. the wind) by which the officiating priests and the Ya^ at 
a Soma sacrifice pledge their faith to do no harm to each other. 
See Indische Studien, X, 362. 

Digitized by 


II KANDA, 12 KAJVBIKA, 4. 325 

10. After having studied five months and a half, 
they should celebrate the Utsarga, 

1 1. Or six months and a half. 

12. They then mutter this Rik\ 'Ye two young 
sages ! The relation which has expired among us, 
the friendship we dissolve, (turning away) from the 
condition of friendship.' 

13. After having remained together through a 
period of three nights, they separate. 

KajvdikA 12. 

1. In (the month) Pausha, under (the Nakshatra) 
Rohi«l, or at the middle Ash/aka let them celebrate 
the conclusion of the study (of the Veda). 

2. Let them go to the brink of water and make 
water oblations to the gods, the metres, the Vedas, 
the JZishis, the ancient teachers, the Gandharvas, 
the other teachers, the year with its divisions, and 
to their own ancestors and teachers. 

3. After having four times quickly recited the 
Savitri, they should say, ' We have finished.' 

4. Interruption (of the study) and (continuation of 
the) teaching as stated above. 

12. The reading of the Mantra is doubtful. I think it should 
stand as Professor Stenzler has printed it, except that I should 
propose to correct yuva into yuvana(comp. Ajvalayana-SrautaVI, 
12, 12). It is probable that the gods addressed are the two 
Ajvins, who are called kavt and yuvani in several passages of 
the Vedas. 

12, 1. See Ajvalayana-Gr/hya III, 5, 20; .Sahkhayana-Gnhya 
IV, 6. On the three Ash/akas, see below, III, 3, 1. 

4. 5ahkhayana-Gr»hya IV, 5, 17, where the same expression 
kshapa«a for interruptions of the study is used. The words ' as 
above' refer to chap. 10, 23. 24. 

Digitized by 



KajvdikA 13. 

i. On an auspicious day the harnessing to the 
plough. Or under (the Nakshatra) GyeshMa, 
(because that rite is) sacred to Indra. 

2. To Indra, Paiganya, the two A-svins, the 
Maruts, Udalaklryapa, Svatikarl, Sita, and Anumati, 
he offers curds, rice grains, perfumes, and fried 
grains, and then makes the bullocks eat honey and 

3. He should put them to the plough with (the 
verse), ' They harness to the ploughs ' (Vaf. Sawzh. 
XII, 67). 

4. With (the verse), ' For luck may us the plough- 
shares ' (Vaf. Sawzh. XII, 69) let him plough or 
touch the plough-share. 

5. Or (he may) not (do so), because (that verse) 
has been prescribed for (the erection of) the Agni 
(-altar), and the act of sowing stands in connection 
(with it). 

6. After the front-bullock has been sprinkled 
(with water), they then should plough unploughed 

1 3, 1 . Indra is the presiding deity over the constellation (ryesh/Aa ; 
see .Sankhayana-Gr/Tiya I, 26, 16, &c. 

2. The names of the genius Udalakajyapa and of the female 
genius Svatikari occur, as far as I know, only here. BShtlingk- 
Roth propose to read Sphatiwkari ('the goddess who gives 
abundance '). 

5. At the Agni-^ayana ceremony furrows are drawn with the 
plough on the Agni-kshetra with the verses Vis*. Sawzh. XII, 69-72. 
Afterwards grains of different kinds are sown. See Kdtyiyana 
XVII, 2, 12 ; 3, 8; Indische Studien, XIII, 244 seq. Thus in the 
■S'rauta ritual the verse Yog. Sawn. XII, 69 stands in a connection 
which does not conform to the occasion for which it would be used 

Digitized by 


II KANDA, 14 KAJV.DIKA, "J. 327 

7. He should make oblations of cooked sacrificial 
food to the same deities as above, when sowing both 
rice and barley, and at the sacrifice to Sita. 

8. Then (follows) feeding of the Brahma«as. 

KandikX 14. 

1 . Now (follows) the 3rava#a ceremony, 

2. On the full-moon day of the .Sravarca month. 

3. He cooks a mess of sacrificial food, fried grains, 
and a cake in one dish, pounds the greater part of 
the grains, sacrifices the two A^ya portions, and two 
(other) A^ya oblations (with the following verses) : 

4. ' Beat away, O white one, with thy foot, with 
the fore-foot and with the hind-foot, these seven 
[children] of Varu#a and all (daughters) of the king's 
tribe. Svaha ! 

5. ' Within the dominion of the white one, the 
Serpent has seen nobody. To the white one, the 
son of Vidarva, adoration ! Svaha ! ' 

6. He makes oblations of the mess of cooked 
sacrificial food to Vishmi, to .5rava#a, to the full 
moon of »Srava#a, and to the rainy season, 

7. (And oblations) of the grains with (the verse), 
'Accompanied with grains' (Vif. XX, 29). 

7. ' As above ' refers to Sutra 2. On the Slta-ya^jla, see below, 
chap. 17. 

14, 1 seqq. Comp. .Sankhayana IV, 5; Afvalayana II, 1; 
Gobhila III, 7. 

4. Arvalayana II, 3, 3; Sankhayana I V, 18, 1. ForV&ruwaiA 
and ra^abandhavaiA I read ViruniA, ra^abandhavM. Pra^aA 
is an interpolation. 

5. Arvalayana, loc. cit. One is rather tempted to correct ahir 
dadawja kanAana, but Rama^andra's Paddhati on Sahkhayana 
gives the reading dadaria, as the Paraskara MSS. do. 

Digitized by 



8. He sacrifices flour, over which ghee has been 
poured, to the serpents (with the following Mantras) : 

9. ' To the lord of the serpents belonging to Agni, 
of the yellowish, terrestrial ones, svahi ! 

' To the lord of the white serpents belonging to 
Viyu, of the aerial ones, svaha ! 

' To the lord of the overpowering serpents belong- 
ing to Surya, of the celestial ones, svahi ! 

10. The (cake) in one dish he offers entirely 
(without leaving a remainder for the sacrificer) with 
(the formula), ' To the firm one, the son of the 
Earth, svaha ! ' 

11. After he has eaten (of the sacrificial food), he 
throws a portion of the flour into a basket, goes out, 
besmears an elevated spot outside the hall (with 
cowdung), says, while a fire-brand is held (before 
him), ' Do not step between (myself and the fire),' 
and without speaking (anything except the Mantras), 
he causes the serpents to wash themselves, (pouring 
out water for them, with the formulas :) 

12. 'Lord of the serpents belonging to Agni, of 
the yellowish, terrestrial ones, wash thyself ! 

• Lord of the white serpents belonging to Viyu, of 
the aerial ones, wash thyself! 

' Lord of the overpowering serpents belonging to 
Surya, of the celestial ones, wash thyself!' 

13. Each time after the washing has been done, 
he offers to the serpents a Bali of flour, picking out 

11. The ceremony with the fire-brand seems to stand in connec- 
tion with the rule given by Ajvalayana, II, 1, 13, that before the 
sacrificer has ' given himself in charge ' to the serpents, nobody is 
allowed to step between him and the Bali destined for the serpents. 
Comp. also below, Sutra 23. 

13. I have translated upaghatam by 'picking out.' On the full 

Digitized by 


II KANDA, 14 KAiVDIKA, 1 8. 329 

(portions of it) with (the spoon called) Darvl (with 
the formulas) : 

14. ' Lord of the serpents belonging to Agni, of 
the yellowish, terrestrial ones, this is thy Bali ! 

' Lord of the white serpents belonging to Vayu, of 
the aerial ones, this is thy Bali ! 

' Lord of the overpowering serpents belonging to 
Surya, of the celestial ones, this is thy Bali ! ' 

15. After he has made them wash themselves 
as above, he combs them with combs (with the 
formulas) : 

16. ' Lord of the serpents belonging to Agni, of 
the yellowish, terrestrial ones, comb thyself ! 

' Lord of the white serpents belonging to Vayu, of 
the aerial ones, comb thyself ! 

' Lord of the overpowering serpents belonging to 
Surya, of the celestial ones, comb thyself ! ' 

17. (He offers) collyrium, ointment, and garlands 
with (the same formulas), putting at their end, re- 
spectively, the words, 'Salve thy eyes!' 'Anoint 
thyself!' 'Put on garlands!' 

18. The remainder of the flour he pours out on 
the elevated spot (mentioned in Sutra n), pours 
water on it out of a water-pot, and worships the 

technical meaning of the term, which implies the omission of the 
upastarawa and abhigMrawa, see Bloomfield's note on Grihyz-sam- 
graha I, 1 1 1 (Zeitschrift der deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesell- 
schaft, XXXV, 568). 

15. The words 'as above' refer to Sfttra 11. Pralikhati, which 
I have translated 'he combs them,' is the same act for which 
.Sahkhayana (IV, 15, 7) says, phawena £esh/ayati. I think Professor 
Stenzler is wrong in translating : Er scharrt (das Mehl) mit Kammen 
zusammen. Gayarama says : pralekhanaw ka krame«a pratiman- 
tram balikawtf&yanaw kankataiA. tani ka. vaikankatiyani pradeja- 
matrawy ekatodantani kash/Mni bhavanti. 

Digitized by 


330 paraskara-gk/hya-sOtra. 

serpents with the three (verses), ' Adoration be to 
the serpents' (Va^\ Sa#zh. XIII, 6 seqq.). 

19. At that distance in which he wishes the ser- 
pents not to approach (the house), he should three 
times walk round the house, sprinkling an uninter- 
rupted stream of water round it, with the two (verses), 
' Beat away, O white one, with thy foot ' (Sutras 4 
and 5). 

20. He gives away the (spoon called) Darvi (Sutra 
13) and the basket (Sutra 11), having washed and 
warmed them. 

21. Near the door (of the house) they clean them- 
selves with the three (verses), ' O waters, ye are ' 
(Va^ - . Samh. XI, 50 seqq.). 

22. Having put away that remainder of flour in a 
hidden place, he should from that time daily till the 
Agrahayawi, after sunset, when he has performed 
the service to the fire, offer to the serpents a Bali of 
flour, picking out (portions of it) with the Darvi 

23. When he is offering (the Bali), let no one step 
between (the sacrificer and the Bali). 

24. With the Darvi (spoon) he rinses his mouth. 
Having washed it, he puts it away. 

20. According to the commentators he gives these things to the 
man who holds the fire-brand (Sutra n). 

22. The Agrahayam is the full-moon day of Mirgarfrsha, on 
which the Pratyavarohawa ceremony is celebrated. See below, III, 2 ; 
Weber, die vedischen Nachrichten von den Naxatra, II, 332. The 
expression darvyopaghitaw is the same that has occurred above 
in Sutra 13. 

23. Comp. A^valayana-Gr/'hya II, 1, 13, and see above, 
Sutra 11. 

24. Prakshalya seems to me to refer to the Darvi; see Sutra 20. 

Digitized by 


II KANDA, 15 KAiVTNKA, 4. 33 1 

25. They eat the (rice) grains which must not 
form one coherent mass. 

26. Then (follows) the feeding of the Brahma«as. 

Kajvdika" 15. 

1. On the full-moon day of Praush^apada the 
sacrifice to Indra. 

2. Having cooked milk-rice for Indra and cakes, 
and having put cakes round (the fire), he sacrifices 
the two A^ya portions and A^ya oblations to Indra, 
to Indra«l, to Afa Ekapad, to Ahi Budhnya, and to 
the Prosh//&apadas. 

3. After he has eaten (his portion of the sacri- 
ficial food), he offers a Bali to the Maruts. For the 
*Sruti says, ' The Maruts eat what is not-sacrificed.' 

4. (This Bali he offers) in Ajvattha leaves, be- 
cause it is said, ' The Maruts stood in the Asvattha 

25. AsawsyfltSA. Comp. B6htlingk-Roth s.v. saw-stv. 

15, 2. After these A^ya oblations follows the chief oblation of the 
whole sacrifice, the oblation of milk-rice to Indra. In one of 
Professor Stenzler's MSS. there is a special Sutra inserted after 
Sutra 2, 'Of the cooked food he makes an oblation with (the 
formula), " To Indra svaha." ' I do not, however, think it right to 
receive this Sutra into the text, as the other MSS. do not support 
it, and the commentators did not find it in the text which they read. 

3. Professor Stenzler's translation, ' Die Maruts essen kein Opfer,' 
seems to me not quite exact. I should prefer to say, ' Die Maruts 
essen Nicht-Opfer.' This passage, taken from 5atapatha Brahmawa 
I v . 5. 2. 16, is quoted as supporting the rule that a Bali offering 
should be made to the Maruts ; for in the technical language the 
term ahuta is applied to Bali offerings (•Sahkhayana-Grihya I, 
10, 7, hutoxgnihotrahomena, ahuto balikarmana). 

4. When Indra called them to his help against Vri'tra. .Satapatha 
Brahma»a IV, 3, 3, 6. 

Digitized by 


332 paraskara-g/j/hya-sOtra. 

5. (He offers it) with (the texts), ' Brilliantly re- 
splendent' (V&f. Sawh. XVII, 80-85), Mantra by 

6. And with the (Mantra called) Vimukha. 

7. (This Mantra he repeats only) in his mind. 

8. For the 3ruti says, ' These are their names.' 

9. He murmurs, 'To Indra the divine '. (V&f. 
Samh. XVII, 86). 

10. Then (follows) the feeding of the Brahma»as. 

Ka^dika 16. 

1. On the full-moon day of Asvayu^a the (offer- 
ings of) Prwhatakas (are made). 

2. Having cooked milk -rice for Indra he sacrifices 
it, mixed with curds, honey, and ghee, to Indra, In- 
dra«i, the two Asvins, the full moon of A.rvayu£a, 
and to the autumn. 

3. After he has eaten (his portion of the sacrificial 
food), he sacrifices with his joined hands a PWsha- 
taka prepared with curds, with the words, ' May 
what is deficient be made full to me ; may what is 
full not decay to me. Svaha ! ' 

4. The inmates of the house look at the mix- 
ture of curds, honey, and ghee, with the Anuvaka, 

5. This Sutra is identical with the last words of K£ty. XVIII, 4, 23. 

6. This is the first part of Va§\ Sawn. XVII, 86. 

8. .Satapatha Brahmawa IX, 3, i, 26. There it is said that 
mkra^yotis (' brilliantly resplendent ') &c. (the words used in Vif. 
Sawh. XVII, 80) are names of the Maruts. 

9. This Sutra is identical with Katy. XVIII, 4, 25. 

16, 1. Pmhataka means a mixture of curds and butter. Comp. 
•S&nkhayana IV, 16, 3 ; A^valayana II, 2, 3; Gribya-sawgraha- 
parii-ish/a II, 59. 

3. Ajvalayana II, 2, 3. 

Digitized by 


II KXNDA, 17 KAiVDIKA, 6. 333 

'May Indra come hither' (Va^ - . Samh. XX, 47 

5. They let the calves join their mothers that 
night and the Agrahayawl night. 

6. Then (follows) the feeding of the Brahmawas. 

KandivlA 17. 

1. Now (follows) the sacrifice to Sita. 

2. Wherever he sacrifices, be it (on a field) of rice 
or of barley, of that grain he should prepare a mess 
of cooked food. 

3. One who has sacrificed may, if he likes, pre- 
pare elsewhere also a mess of cooked food, either of 
rice or of barley. 

4. (There should be) no doubt (as to whether rice 
or barley is to be taken), as a rule thereon has been 
stated above. 

5. If it is impossible (to take one of the two 
species of corn), (that) is excluded. 

6. To the east or to the north of the field, on a 

5. Sahkhayana IV, 16, 4. 

17, 1. The goddess SM is, as her name indicates, the rustic 
deity of the furrow. 

3. Perhaps the meaning is that a person who has already once 
performed the SitS-ya^»ia on the field, is allowed, when repeating 
the sacrifice another time, to celebrate it elsewhere, and to choose 
at his will between rice and barley. 

4. A rule has been given in the .Srauta-sutra (Katy. I, 9, 1 : 
' Rice or barley, if a Havis [is prescribed] ') which shows that it is 
indifferent whether rice or barley is taken. Thus the sacrificer is 
free to elect the one or the other. At least this is the traditional 
meaning of this Sutra. But possibly we had better understand it 
otherwise. The sacrificer should offer, according to Sutra 3, rice 
or barley. Whether he has to take the one or the other, there can 
be no doubt, as the rule given above (Sfltra 2) shows that rice 
should be cooked, if the ceremony is performed for a rice-field, 
and barley, if for a barley-field. 

Digitized by 


334 paraskara-gjuhya-s6tra. 

clean spot that has been ploughed, so that the crop 
be not damaged, 

7. Or in the village, because (there) both (rice and 
barley) are united, and because no obstacle is there. 

8. Where he intends to cook (the sacrificial food), 
he establishes the fire on a place that has been 
smeared (with cowdung), which is elevated, and 
which has been sprinkled (with water), strews (round 
the fire) Darbha grass mixed with (stalks of) that 
(sort of corn to which the sacrifice refers), sacrifices 
the two Afya portions and Ag-ya. oblations (with the 
following Mantras) : 

9. ' For whom earth and heaven, the intermediate 
points and the chief points (of the horizon) are veiled 
with light, that Indra I invoke here. May his 
weapons be friendly towards us. Svaha ! 

' Whatsoever it be that I wish for at this sacrifice, 

killer of VWtra, may all that be fulfilled to me, 
and may I live a hundred autumns. Svaha ! 

' May success, prosperity, earth, rain, eminence, 
excellence, luck here protect the creatures. Svaha ! 

' In whose substance dwells the prosperity of all 
Vedic and worldly works, Indra's wife Sita I invoke. 
May she not abandon me in whatever work I do. 
Svaha ! 

• Her, who rich in horses, rich in cows, rich in 
delight indefatigably supports living beings, Urvara 
(i. e. the field) who is wreathed with threshing-floors, 

1 invoke at this sacrifice, the firm One. May she 
not abandon me. Svaha ! ' 

10. He makes oblations of the cooked sacrificial 
food to Sita, Ya^a (the goddess of sacrifice), Sami 
(the goddess of zealous devotion), Bhuti (the goddess 
of welfare). 

Digitized by 


ii kAnda, 17 kajvoikA, 16. 335 

11. Some say that the giving (of the sacrificial 
food to the deities) accompanies the Mantras. 

1 2. But this is excluded, as the 6ruti says, ' The 
giving (of the oblation to the deity) accompanies the 
word Svaha.' 

1 3. On the Kara grass which is left over from the 
strewing (of grass round the fire), he offers a Bali to 
the protecting demons of the furrow with (the Man- 
tra), ' They who are sitting towards the east with 
strong bows and quivers, may they protect thee 
from the east, and be vigilant and not abandon thee. 
To them I bring adoration, and I offer this Bali to 

14. Then to the south with (the Mantra), ' They 
who are sitting towards the south, not winking the 
eyes, wearing armour, may they protect thee from 
the south, and be vigilant and not abandon thee. 
To them I bring adoration, and I offer this Bali to 

15. Then to the west with (the Mantra), 'The 
powerful ones, the excellent ones, prosperity, earth, 
Parshm, 3unawkuri, may they protect thee from 
the west, and be vigilant and not abandon thee. 
To them I bring adoration, and I offer this Bali to 

16. Then to the north with (the Mantra), 'The 
fearful ones, like to Vayu in speed, may they protect 

1 2. The quotation has not been as yet identified in the .Sruti 
itself, but the words quoted are found in Katy.-<Sraut. 1, 2, 7. 

14. Some words in the beginning of the Mantra are lost. We 
should probably write : atha dakshiwataA. ye dakshi«ato»nimishaA . . . 
varmiwa asate, &c. Of course it is impossible] to say which is the 
word that is wanting before (or perhaps after) varmwaA. 

15. Parshfl* - , which means 'heel,' stands here, of course, as the 
name of a protecting demon. 

Digitized by 


336 pAraskara-g/j/hya-sOtra. 

thee from the north, on the field, on the threshing- 
floor, in the house, on the way, and be vigilant and 
not abandon thee. To them I bring adoration, and I 
offer this Bali to them.' 

1 7. Of another (sort of food) as the chief (food 
used at this sacrifice), and with the remainder of 
A^ya, he distributes Balis as above. 

18. And the women should make accompanying 
oblations, because such is the custom. 

19. When the ceremony is finished, he should 
feed the Brahma^as. He should feed the Brah- 

End of the Second Ka«da. 

17. See above, chap. 13, 2. 

Digitized by 



KAiVDA III, KandikX 1. 

1 . (Now shall be explained) the partaking of the 
first-fruits (of the harvest), of a person who has not 
set up the (sacred 5rauta) fires. 

2. He cooks a mess of fresh sacrificial food, sacri- 
fices the two A^ya portions, and two Afya oblations, 
(with the formulas), 

' To the hundredfold armed, hundredfold valiant, 
hundredfold blissful one, the vanquisher of enemies 
— he who may create a hundred autumns for us, 
Indra, — may he lead us across (the gulf of) mis- 
fortune. Svaha ! 

' The four paths that go between heaven and 
earth, trodden by the gods — of these (paths) lead us 
to that which may bring us freedom from decay and 
decline, O all ye gods. Svaha !' 

3. Having made oblations of the mess of cooked 
food to the Agrayawa deities, he makes another 
oblation to (Agni) Svish/akrzt with (the verse), 
' Agni, make this (sacrifice) full, that it may be well 
offered. And may the god destroy all hostile 
powers. Come hither, showing us a good path. 
Bestow on us long life, full of splendour and free 
from decay. Svaha!' 

4. He then eats (of the fresh fruits with the 

1. 1. The corresponding ceremony of the .Srauta ritual is treated 
of in K&ty. IV, 6. 

2. A fresh SthalfpSka means probably a Sth&lip&ka prepared from 
the fresh grain of the new harvest. 

3. The deities of the Agrayawa ceremony, which occupies in the 
.Srauta ritual the place corresponding to the rite described here, 
are Indra and Agni, the VLrve devSs, Heaven and Earth. 

[29] * 

Digitized by 


338 paraskara-g/uhya-sOtra. 

verses), ' May Agni eat first, for he knows how the 
Havis (is fit for sacrifice) ; may he, the friend of all 
human tribes, make the herbs blessed to us. 

' From the good you have led us to the better, ye 
gods! Through thee, the nourishment, may we 
obtain thee. Thus enter into us, O potion, bringing 
refreshment, for the good of our children and of our- 
selves, and pleasant.' 

5. Or with the (verse) sacred to Annapati (the 
Lord of food). 

6. For barley, however, (he uses the Mantra), 
' This barley, mixed with honey, they have ploughed 
through Sarasvati under Manu. Indra was lord of 
the plough, the hundredfold wise one ; ploughers 
were the Maruts, the exuberant givers.' 

7. Then (follows) the feeding of the Brahma»as. 

Kandika 2. 

1. On the full-moon day of Margarirsha the 
Agrahaya»i ceremony (is performed). 

2. He cooks a mess of sacrificial food, sacrifices 
two Kg ya oblations as at the sacrifice, and 
other oblations with (the following verses) : 

' The night whom men welcome like a cow that 
comes to them, (the night) which is the consort of 
the year, may that (night) be auspicious to us. 
Svaha ! 

5. The Annapatiya verse is Va§\ Sawh. XI, 83. 

6. Comp. maniv adhi, Rig-veda VIII, 72, 2. 

2, 2. The two oblations belonging to the ■Sravawa' ceremony are 
those stated above, II, 14, 4. 5. 

2. The first verses in which the Agrahayawf night is called the 
consort of the year, or the image of the year, occur elsewhere with 
reference to the Ekash/aka night. See Atharva-veda III, 10 ; Taitt. 

Digitized by 


Ill KANDA, 2 KANDIKA, 6. 339 

' The night which is the image of the year, that 
we worship. May I reach old age, imparting strength 
to my offspring. Svaha ! 

' To the Sawvatsara, to the Parivatsara, to the 
Idivatsara, to the Idvatsara, to the Vatsara bring 
ye great adoration. May we, undecayed, unbeaten, 
long enjoy the favour of these (years) which are 
worthy of sacrifices. Svaha ! 

' May summer, winter and spring, the rains be 
friendly, and may autumn be free of danger to us. 
In the safe protection of these seasons may we 
dwell, (and) may (they) last (to us) through a hundred 
years. Svaha !' 

3. He makes oblations of the cooked food to Soma, 
to (the Nakshatra) MWgasiras, to the full moon of 
Margajirsha, and to the winter. 

4. After he has eaten (of the sacrificial food), he 
throws the remainder of the flour into a basket, (and 
then follow the same rites that have been stated 
above) from (the sacrificer's) going out down to their 
cleaning themselves. 

5. After the cleaning he says, ' The Bali offering 
is finished.' 

6. After they have spread out to the west of 
the fire a layer (of straw) and a garment that has 

Sawhiti V, 7, 2, 1. See also below, P£raskara III, 3, 5. Sawvat- 
sara, Parivatsara, Iddvatsara, &c. are terms designating the different 
years of the quinquennial period of the Yuga. See Zimmer, Altin- 
disches Leben, 369, 370. 

4. See above, II, 14, 11-21 (not 19-21 as indicated by Professor 

6. ' Redescending ' means that they do not sleep any longer on 
high bedsteads, which they did from the Si&vani day till the 
Agrahayani, on account of the danger from the snakes, but on the 
ground. See the notes on S&hkh.-Grihya IV, 15, 22; 17, 1. 

Z 2 

Digitized by 


34-0 paraskara-gkjhya-sOtra. 

not yet been washed, they 'redescend,' having bathed, 
wearing garments which have not yet been washed : 
the master (of the house) southward, his wife to the 
north (of her husband, and then the other persons 
belonging to the house) so that each younger one 
lies more to the north. 

7. Having caused the Brahman to sit down south- 
ward, and having placed to the north a water-pot, a 
.Saml branch, an earth-clod taken out of a furrow, 
and a stone, he murmurs, looking at the fire : ' This 
Agni is most valiant, he is most blessed, the best 
giver of a thousand boons, highly powerful. May 
he establish us both in the highest place.' 

8. To the west of the fire he joins his hands (and 
holds them) towards the east. 

9. With the three (verses), 'The divine ship' 
(V&f. Sawh. XXI, 6-8) they ascend the layer (of 

10. He addresses the Brahman : ' Brahman, we 
will redescend.' 

11. The Brahman having given his permission, 
they redescend with (the words), ' Life, fame, glory, 
strength, enjoyment of food, offspring!' 

1 2. Those who have received the initiation mur- 
mur, ' May a good winter, a good spring, a good 
summer be bestowed on us. Blessed may be to us 
the rains ; may the autumns be blessed to us.' 

13. With (the verse), 'Be soft to us, O earth' 
(Va£\ Sawh. XXXV, 21), they lie down on their 
right sides, their heads turned towards the east. 

10, 11. See the note on § 6. 

12. On upeta, which means a person for whom the Upanayana 
has been performed, see my note, .Sankhayana-Gr/hya II, 1, 1. 

Digitized by 


Ill KANDA, 3 KAJVDIKA, 5. 341 

14. They arise with (the verse), 'Up! with life, 
with blessed life. Up ! with Parian ya's eye, with 
the seven spaces of the earth.' 

15. This (they repeat) two other times, with the 
Brahman's permission. 

16. Let them sleep on the ground four months 
(after the Pratyavaroharca), or as long as they like. 

KajvdikA 3. 

1. After the Agrahaya«l (full moon follow) the 
three Ash/akas. 

2. (The Ash/aka is) sacred to Indra, to the Vi^ve 
devas, to Pra^apati, and to the Fathers. 

3. (The oblations are made) with cakes, flesh, 
and vegetables, according to the order (of the three 

4. The first Ash/aka (is celebrated) on the eighth 
day of the fortnight. 

5. Having cooked a mess of sacrificial food and 
having sacrificed the two A^ya portions, he sacrifices 
Agya oblations with (the texts) : 

(a) ' Thirty sisters go to the appointed place, 

14. The verse occurs, with a few differences, in the Kawva .Sakha 
of the V&g. Sawhita, II, 7, 5. 

3, i. On the Ash/akas, celebrated on the eighth days of the three 
dark fortnights following after the Agrahayawi full moon, see 
•Sankhayana III, 12 seqq. ; Ajvalayana II, 4; Gobhila III, 10. 

2. As there are four deities named, I think it probable that they 
are referred to all Ash/akas indiscriminately ; comp. Arvalayana II, 
4, 12. Thus in the Mantras prescribed for the first Ash/aka 
(Sutras 5 and 6), Indra, the Vwve devas, and Pra^apati are named ; 
to the Fathers belongs the Anvash/akya ceremony. 

3. With regard to the order of these substances the Gr/hya texts 

5. Comp. Taitt. Sawhita IV, 3, 11 ; Atharva-veda III, 10. 

(a) The thirty sisters seem to be the days of the month. As to 

Digitized by 


342 paraskara-g/j/hya-sOtra. 

putting on the same badge. They spread out the 
seasons, the knowing sages ; having the metres in 
their midst they walk around, the brilliant ones. 
Svaha ! 

(b) ' The shining one clothes herself with clouds, 
with the ways of the sun, the divine night : mani- 
fold animals which are born, look about in this 
mother's lap. Svaha ! 

(c) ' The Ekashfeka, devoting herself to austerities, 
has given birth to a child, to the majesty of Indra. 
Through him the gods have conquered the hostile 
tribes ; he became the killer of the Asuras through 
his (divine) powers. Svaha ! 

(d) ' You have made me who am not the younger 
(sister), the younger; speaking the truth I desire 
this : may I be in his (i. e. the sacrificer's ?) favour, 
as you are ; may none of you supplant the other in 
her work. 

(e) 'In my favour dwelt the omniscient one ; he 
has found a firm standing ; he has got a footing. 
May I be in his (i.e. the sacrificer's ?) favour, as you 
are ; may none of you supplant the other in her 

(f ) ' On the five dawns follows the fivefold 
milking ; on the cow with the five names, the five 
seasons. The five regions (of the sky) are estab- 

madhye^an-das, comp. Taitt. Sawh. loc. cit. § i : ^andasvatf 
ushasa pepMne ; § 2 : X'atush/omo abhavad y& turiya" ya^nasya 
pakshav r/'shayo bhavantf, gayatriw trish/ubhaw ^agatim anush/u- 
bham brrhad arkaw yufigunaA suvar a«bharann idam. 

(d) Probably one Ash/aka addresses the others, her sisters, as 
Gayarama explains this verse. 

(f ) The explanation by which the ' fivefold milking ' is referred 
to what is called in Taitt. Brdhmawa II, 2, 9, ' the milkings of 
Pra^apati,' seems to me more than doubtful, for ' the milkings 

Digitized by 


Ill KAJVDA, 3 KAJVDIKA, 6. 343 

lished through the fifteenfold (Stoma); with one 
common face (they look over) the one world. 
Svaha ! 

(g) ' She who shone forth as the first, is the child 
of truth. One (of them) bears the majesty of the 
waters ; one wanders in the courses of the sun ; one 
(in those) of the heat; Savitrz shall govern one. 

(h) ' She who shone forth as the first has become 
a cow in Yama's realm. Give us milk, thou who 
art rich in milk, year by year. Svaha ! 

(i) ' She, the owner of bright bulls, has come to 
us with clouds and with light, she who has all shapes, 
the motley one, whose banner is fire. Carrying on 
the common work, leading us to old age, come to us 
thou who art exempt from old age, Ushas ! Svaha ! 

(k) ' The consort of the seasons, the first one has 
come to us, the leader of days, the producer of off- 
spring. Being one, thou shinest manifold, Ushas. 
Being free from old age, thou leadest to old age 
everything else. Svaha ! ' 

6. He makes offerings of the mess of cooked food 
with (the verses) : 

' May the earth be peaceful, the air friendly to us ; 

of Pra^Spati' are only four : viz. the dark night, the moonlight, 
the twilight, and the day. 

(i) .Sukra-rjshabhd cannot be translated, as Professor Stenzler 
does, ' die schSnste unter den Lichtera' (M&dhava : jukreshu nak- 
shatridishu s resh//i&), for this meaning of rj'shabhi occurs only in 
later texts. The word is a Bahuvrihi compound, as the Petersburg 
Dictionary explains it. 

6. In the first verse I have omitted vya^navai, which impedes 
the construction and violates the metre. The word has found its 
way into the text, no doubt, in consequence of the phrase dlrgham 
iyur vyajnavai occurring in chap. 2, 2. In the second verse 

Digitized by 


344 paraskara-gu/hya-sCtra. 

may the heavens give us bliss and safety. May the 
points (of the horizon), the intermediate points, 
the upper points give us bliss, and may day and 
night create long life for us. Svaha ! 

' May the waters, the rays protect us from all 
sides ; may the creator, may the ocean turn away 
evil. The present and the future, may all be safe 
for me. Protected by Brahman, may I be well 
guarded. Svaha ! 

' May all Adityas and the divine Vasus, may the 
Rudras and Maruts be our protectors. May Pra^a- 
pati, the highest lord, bestow on us vigour, offspring, 
immortality, long life. Svaha ! ' 

7. And with (the formula), ' To the Ash/aka 
Svaha ! * 

8. The middle Ash/aka (is celebrated) with (the 
sacrifice of) a cow. 

9. He sacrifices the omentum of that (cow) with 
(the verse), ' Carry the omentum, O ^atavedas, to 
the fathers' (Vif. Samh. XXXV, 20). 

10. On the day following each (Ash/aka), the 
Anvashfoka day, (he brings a sacrifice) with the left 
ribs and the left thigh, in an enclosure, according to 
(the ritual of) the Plndaphrtyagna.. 

1 1 . Also to the female (ancestors he makes Pi»rta 
offerings) and pours (for them) strong liquor and water 
oblations into pits, and (offers) collyrium, salves, and 

12. (He may also make oblations), if he likes, to 
the teacher and to the pupils who have no children. 

akr/'tad is corrupt. I have translated abhayam; comp. Aivala- 
yana II, 4, 14. In the third verse I have left out mayi, as 
Professor Stenzler has done in his translation. 

Digitized by 


Ill KANDA, 4 KAJVBIKA, 4. 345 

1 3. And in the middle of the rainy season (there 
is) a fourth Ash/aka on which vegetables are offered. 

Kaatdika 4. 

1. Now the building of the house. 

2. Let him have his house built on an auspicious 

3. Into the pits (in which the posts shall be 
erected) he pours an oblation with (the words), ' To 
the steady one, the earth-demon, svaha ! ' 

4. He erects the post. 

1 This navel of the world I set up, a stream of 
wealth, promoting wealth. Here I erect a firm 
house ; may it stand in peace, dropping ghee. 

' Rich in horses and cows, rich in delight be set 
up, for the sake of great happiness. To thee may 
the young calf cry, to thee the lowing cows, the milk- 

' To thee (may) the young child (go), to thee the 
calf with its companions, to thee the cup of Parisrut, 
to thee (may they go) with pots of curds. 

13. 1 have stated in the note on Sankhayana III, 13, 1 my reasons 
for believing that the true reading of this Sutra is not madhya- 
varshe (in the middle of the rainy season), but maghyavarshe 
(the festival celebrated during the rainy season under theNakshatra 
Maghas). There are no express rules given with regard to the 
third Ash/aka, but I think we should understand this Sutra as 
involving a statement on that Ash/aka : (The third Ash/aka) and 
the fourth, on the Maghyavarsha day, are .Sakash/akas (Ash/akas 
on which vegetables are offered). 6ankhayana (Grthya III, 13, 1) 
declares that the ritual of the fourth Ash/aka is identical with that 
of the second. 

4, 3. -Afvalayana-Grjhya II, 8, 15. 

4. On saha (in the third verse) see my note on 
•Sahkhiyana-G/Thya III, 2, 9. 

Digitized by 


346 pAraskara-g.r/hya-s<jtra. 

' The consort of Peace, the great one, beautifully 
attired— bestow on us, O blessed one, wealth and 
manly power, which may be rich in horses and cows, 
full of sap like a tree's leaf. May our wealth in- 
crease here, clothing itself with prospering' — with 
(these four Mantras) he approaches the four (posts). 

5. Having established the fire inside (the house), 
having made the Brahman sit down towards the 
south, having placed a water-pot to the north, 
and cooked a mess of sacrificial food, he goes out 
(of the house), and standing near the door, he 
addresses "the Brahman, ' Brahman, I enter (the 
house) ! ' 

6. When the Brahman has given his consent, he 
enters with (the formula), ' To right I advance, to 
luck I advance ! ' 

7. Having prepared A^ya and sacrificed two 
Agya. oblations with (the two parts of the Mantra), 
' Here is joy' (Va^. Sarah. VIII, 51 a), he sacrifices 
other oblations with (the verses) : 

(a) ' Vastoshpati ! Receive us (into thy protec- 
tion) ; give us good entering and drive away from 
us evil. For what we ask thee, with that favour us: 
be a saviour to us, to men and animals. Svaha ! 

(b) ' Vastoshpati ! Be our furtherer ; make our 
wealth increase in cows and horses, O Indu (i.e. 
Soma). Free from decay may we dwell in thy 
friendship ; give us thy favour, as a father to his 
sons. Svaha ! 

(c) ' Vastoshpati ! Let us be in a fellowship with 
thee, which may be valiant, joyful, and well pro- 
ceeding. Protect our wishes when we rest and 

7. Rig-veda VII, 54; 55, 1. 

Digitized by 


Ill KANDA, 4 KA2VDIKA, 9. 347 

when we do our work. Protect us always, ye 
(gods), and give us welfare. Svaha ! 

(d) ' Driving away calamity, Vastoshpati, assum- 
ing all shapes, be a kind friend to us. Svaha ! ' 

8. He makes offerings of the mess of cooked 
food (with the following Mantras) : 

(a) 'Agni, Indra, Brz'haspati, the Vi^ve devas I 
invoke, Sarasvat! and Va^l. Give me a dwelling- 
place, ye vigorous ones. Svaha ! 

(b) ' To all the divine hosts of serpents, to the 
Himavat, the Sudarcana (mountain), and the Vasus, 
Rudras, Adityas, Isana with his companions, to all 
these I apply. Give me a dwelling-place, ye vigorous 
ones. Svaha ! 

(c) 'To forenoon and afternoon both together with 
noon, to evening and midnight, to the goddess of 
dawn with her wide path, to all these I apply. 
Give me a dwelling-place, ye vigorous ones. Svaha! 

(d) ' To the Creator and the Changer, to Viiva- 
karman, to the herbs and trees, to all these I apply. 
Give me a dwelling-place, ye vigorous ones. Svaha ! 

(e) ' To Dh&tri and Vidhatrz, and to the Lord of 
treasures together with them, to all these I apply. 
Give me a dwelling-place, ye vigorous ones. Svaha ! 

(f) 'As a lucky, a happy (place), give me this 
dwelling-place, Brahman and Pra^apati, and all 
deities. Svaha!' 

9. After he has partaken (of the sacrificial food), 
let him put into a brass vessel the different things 
which he has brought together, Udumbara leaves 
with strong liquor, green turf, cowdung, curds, 

8 a. Va^f is, as the name shows, the goddess of quick vigour. 
Gayarama explains Vi^t, a name of Sita, as a personification of food, 
b. Comp. Afvalayana II, 1, 14. On^agada, comp. above, § 4. 

Digitized by 


348 paraskara-gk/hya-sutra. 

honey, ghee, Kusa grass, and barley, and let him 
besprinkle the seats and shrines (for the images of 
the gods). 

10. He touches (the wall and the posts) at their 
eastern juncture with (the words), ' May luck and 
glory protect thee at thy eastern juncture.' 

ii. He touches (them) at their southern juncture 
with (the words), 'May sacrifice and sacrificial fee 
protect thee at thy southern juncture.' 

12. He touches (them) at their western juncture 
with (the words), ' May food and the Brahmawa pro- 
tect thee at thy western juncture.' 

13. He touches (them) at their northern juncture 
with (the words), ' May vigour and delight protect 
thee at thy northern juncture.' 

14. He then goes out (of the house) and worships 
the quarters (of the horizon, the east) with (the 
formulas), ' May Keta (i. e. will ?) and Suketa (i. e. 
good-will ?) protect me from the east. 

' Agni is Keta ; the Sun is Suketa : to them I 
apply ; to them be adoration ; may they protect me 
from the east.' 

1 5. Then to the south : ' May that which protects 
and that which guards, protect me from the south. 

' The Day is that which protects ; the Night is 
that which guards ; to them I apply ; to them be 
adoration ; may they protect me from the south.' 

16. Then to the west : ' May the shining one 
and the waking one protect me from the west. 

' Food is the shining one ; Breath is the waking 
one ; to them I apply ; to them be adoration ; may 
they protect me from the west.' 

1 7. Then to the north : ' May the sleepless one and 
the not-slumbering one protect me from the north. 

Digitized by 


Ill KAJVDA, 5 KAiTOIKA, 3. 349 

' The Moon is the sleepless one ; the Wind is the 
not-slumbering one ; to them I apply ; to them be 
adoration ; may they protect me from the north.' 

18. When (the house) is finished, he enters it 
with (the formulas), 

' Law, the chief post ! Fortune, the pinnacle ! 
Day and night, the two door-boards ! 

' Indra'shouse is wealthy, protecting; that I enter 
with my children, with my cattle, with everything 
that is mine. 

' Hither is called the whole number (of relatives), 
the friends whose coming is good. Thus (I enter) 
thee, O house. May our dwellings be full of in- 
violable heroes from all sides ! ' 

19. Then (follows) feeding of the Brahma«as. 

Kajvdika 5. 

1. Now (follows) the putting up of the water- 

2. To the north-east he digs a pit like (the pit for) 
a sacrificial post, strews into it Kusa. grass, fried 
grains, fruits of the soap-tree, and other auspicious 
things, and therein he establishes the water-barrel 
with (the words), ' The sea art thou.' 

3. He pours water into it with (the verse), ' Ye 

1 8. Comp. .Sankhayana-GrAya III, 3, 7 seq. ; chap. 4, 10. The 
comparison of .Sahkhayana shows that we have to divide saha 
pra^aya parubhiA, saha yan me kin£id asty, upahutaA, &c. Sadhu- 
sa.m\rita,A (if the reading is correct) seems to me to be the nom. 
plur. of sSdhusa/»vn't. I understand this to be a Bahuvrihi com- 
pound, in which samvrit means ' the approaching.' In Atharva- 
veda VII, 60, 4 we have sakh&yaA svSdusammudaA. After s&le 
a verb meaning • I enter,' or something like that, has been lost. 

5, 3. Rig-vedaX, 30, 12. 

Digitized by 



waters, rich in wealth, ye possess goods. Ye bring 
us good insight and immortality. Ye are the rulers 
over wealth and blessed offspring. May Sarasvati 
give strength to him who praises her ! ' — 

4. And with the three (verses), 'O waters, ye are' 
(Vaf. Sawhita XI, 50 seqq.). 

5. Then (follows) feeding of the Brahma«as. 

Kajvdika 6. 

1. Now the cure for headache. 

2. Having moistened his hands, he passes them 
over his eye-brows with (the verse), ' From the eyes, 
from the ears, from the whiskers, from the chin, 
from the forehead, I drive away this disease of the 

3. If (only) one side (of the head aches, he recites 
the verse), ' Cleaver ! Thou with the disfigured 
eyes ! White-wing ! Renowned one ! And thou 
with the various-coloured wing ! Let his head not 

4. Then it will get better. 

Kajvdika 7. 

1. (Now will be declared) the making water round 
about a servant who is disposed to run away. 

2. While (the servant) is sleeping, he should dis- 
charge his urine into the horn of a living animal, and 
should three times walk round him, turning his left 
side towards him, and sprinkle (the urine) round him, 

7, 1. UiOla-parimeha^. It is probable that u tula, as meaning 
a slave who habitually runs away, is connected with the use of that 
word as the name of a tribe in the north-west of India. 

Digitized by 


Ill KANDA, 8 KANDIKA, 3. 35 1 

with (the verse), ' From the mountain (on which thou 
art born), from thy mother, from thy sister, from thy 
parents and thy brothers, from thy friends I sever 

' Run-away servant, I have made water round thee. 
Having been watered round, where wilt thou go ? ' 

3. Should he run away (nevertheless, his master) 
should establish a fire that has been taken from a 
wood that is on fire, and should sacrifice (in that 
fire) Kusa plates (used for protecting the hands 
when holding a hot sacrificial pan) that have been 
anointed with ghee, with (the formula), ' May the 

stumbler stumble round thee may he tie thee 

with Indra's fetter, loosen thee for me, and may he 
lead another one up (to me).' 

4. Then he will quietly remain (in his master's 

Kajvdika 8. 

1. The spit-ox (sacrificed to Rudra). 

2. It procures (to the sacrificer) heavenly rewards, 
cattle, sons, wealth, renown, long life. 

3. Having taken the sacred domestic fire to the 

3. Ukha ytbhyaw gr/hyate tav i«</vau. Comm. on Katyayana, 
•Sraut. XVI, 4, 2. 

In the Mantra I propose to read, pari tv£ hvalano, &c. Nivr/'- 
ttendravfrudhaA seems to be corrupt ; it seems to be a compound 
of nivn'tta, a second member which is doubtful, and virudh (the 
plant). The meaning may have been ' giving it up to consume the 

4. This Sutra is word for word identical with chap. 6, 4. 
8, i. Ajvalayana-Grzhya IV, 8. 

2. Ajvalayana, loc. cit. § 35. 

3. The ' outspreading ' is the establishing of the three sacred 
.Srauta fires, so that the Grihya fire is considered as the Garhapatya, 
and the Ahavaniya and Dakshiwagni are taken from it. 

Digitized by 


352 paraskara-g/j/hya-sOtra. 

forest, and having performed the ' outspreading,' he 
should sacrifice the animal to Rudra. 

4. One that is not gelded. 

5. Or (it may be) a cow, on account of the 

6. Having cooked the omentum, a mess of sacri- 
ficial food, and the portions cut off (of the victim), 
he sacrifices the omentum to Rudra, the fat to the 
Air, and the cut-off portions together with the mess 
of cooked food to Agni, Rudra, *Sarva, Parupati, 
Ugra, Asani, Bhava, Mahadeva, Isana. 

7. (Then follows a sacrifice to) Vanaspati. 

8. (To Agni) Svish/akm at the end. 

9. Then (follows) the sprinkling round to the 
different quarters (of the horizon). 

10. After the sprinkling has been performed, they 
sacrifice the Patnf-sawya^a offerings to Indrawi, 
Rudrawi, 5arva«t, BhavanI, and Agni GWhapati. 

11. The blood he offers in leaves, on (grass-) 
bunches, as a Bali to Rudra and to his hosts, with 
(the Mantras), 

' The hosts, Rudra, which thou hast to the east, 
to them this Bali (is given). To them and to thee 
be adoration ! 

' The hosts, Rudra, which thou hast to the south 
... to the west ... to the north . . . upwards . . . 

5. On account of the designation of the sacrifice as jula-gava. 

6. Axvalayana, loc. cit. § 19. 

9. Gayarama : disam vyagharawaw kartavyam iti sutmeshaA. 
tai £a vasaya' bhavati yathagnishomiye. 

ro. On the Patni-sawya^a offerings, so called because they are 
chiefly directed to the wives of the gods, see Hillebrandt, Neu- und 
Vollmondsopfer, pp. 151 seqq. 

11. A^valayana, loc. cit. § 22. 

Digitized by 


Ill KANDA, 9 KAJVDIKA, 4. 353 

downwards, to them this Bali (is given). To them 
and to thee be adoration ! ' 

12. The contents of the stomach and of the en- 
trails, besmeared with blood, he throws into the fire 
or buries them in the earth. 

13. Having placed the animal so that the wind 
blows from himself to it, he approaches it with the 
Rudra hymns, or with the first and last Anuvaka. 

14. They do not take anything of that animal to 
the village. 

15. Thereby (also) the cow-sacrifice has been 

16. (It is combined) with (the offering of) milk- 
rice ; (the rites) not corresponding (to that special 
occasion) are omitted. 

1 7. The sacrificial fee at that (sacrifice) is a cow 
of the same age (as the victim). 

KandikA 9. 

1. Now the letting loose of the bull. 

2. (The ceremony) has been declared in the cow- 

3. (It is performed) on the full-moon day of 
Karttika, or on the (day on which the moon stands 
in conjunction with) Revati in the Arvayu^a month. 

4. Having set a fire in a blaze in the midst of the 

12. As to uvadhya, comp. Afvaliyana, § 28. 

13. The Rudra hymns form the sixteenth Adhyiy a of the VS^a- 
saneyi SawhM. Either that whole Adhyaya or the first and last 
Anuvaka of it is recited. 

15. Gobhila III, 6. 

9, 1 seqq. Comp. .SSnkhayana III, 11. 
2. See above, chap. 8, 15. 3. .Sankhayana, loc. cit. § 2. 

4. .SSnkMyana, § 3. Of course, in Professor Stenzler's translation, 
' in der Mitte der Kuche' is a misprint for ' in der Mitte der Ktihe.' 
[29] a a 

Digitized by 


354 paraskara-gjjjhya-sOtra. 

cows, and having prepared Afya, he sacrifices six 
(oblations) with (the Mantras), 'Here is delight' 
(Va^-. Sawh.VIII, 51). 

5. With (the verses), ' May Pushan go after our 
cows ; may Pushan watch over our horses ; may 
Pushan give us strength ' — he sacrifices of (the sacri- 
ficial food) destined for Pushan. 

6. After murmuring the Rudra hymns they adorn 
a one-coloured or a two-coloured (bull) who protects 
the herd or whom the herd protects. Or it should 
be red, deficient in no limb, the calf of a cow that 
has living calves and is a milk-giver ; and it should 
be the finest (bull) in the herd. And besides they 
should adorn the best four young cows of the herd 
and let them loose with this (verse), ' This young 
(bull) I give you as your husband ; run about sport- 
ing with him, your lover. Do not bring down a 
curse upon us, by nature blessed ones. May we 
rejoice in increase of wealth and in comfort.' 

7. When (the bull) stands in the midst of the 
cows, he recites over it (the texts beginning with) 
' Bringing refreshment,' down to the end of the 
Anuvaka (V&g. Sawh. XVIII, 45-50). 

8. With the milk of all (the cows) he should cook 
milk-rice and give it to the Brahmawas to eat. 

5. Rig-veda VI, 54, 5 ; Sankhayana, § 5. 

6. .Sankhayana, §§ 6-14. On the Rudra hymns, see above, 
chap. 8, § 13. Perhaps the words ma" naA fSpta are corrupt; 
the correct reading may possibly be, mS«vasthata. 

7. Sankhiyana, § 15. There is no Mantra in the VS^asaneyi 
Samhita beginning with the word mayobhuA, but this word occurs 
in the middle of XVIII, 45 a ; the texts which he recites begin at 
that word and extend down to the end of the Anuvika. It is clear 
that mayobhfiA was intended in the original text, from which both 
.Sankhayana and Paraskara have taken this Sutra, as the Hik- 
Pratika, Rig-veda X, 169, 1. 

Digitized by 



9. Some also sacrifice an animal, 
io. The ritual thereof has been declared by the 
(ritual for the) spit-ox. 

Kandika 10. 

1. Now the water libations (which are performed 
for deceased persons). 

2. When (a child) that has not reached the age of 
two years dies, his father and mother become impure. 

3. The other (relations) remain pure. 

4. (The impurity lasts) through one night or three 

5. They bury the body without burning it. 

6. If (a child dies) during the impurity of his 
mother (caused by the child's birth), the impurity 
lasts till the (mother's) getting up (from child-bed), 
in the same way as the impurity caused by a child's 

7. In this case (of the child being younger than 
two years) no water libations (are performed). 

. 8. If a child of more than two years dies, all his 
relations should follow (the corpse) to the cemetery — 

9. Singing the Yama song and murmuring the 
Yama hymn, according to some (teachers). 

10. If (the dead person) has received the initiation, 

9. According to the commentators, a goat is sacrificed. 

10. See chap. 8. 

10, 2. Manu V, 68; Ya£«avalkya III, 1. 
7. Manu V, 68 ; Ya^mavalkya III, 1. 

9. The Yama song is stated to be the second verse of Taittiriya 
Aranyaka VI, 5, 3 (' He who day by day leads away cows, horses, 
men, and everything that moves, Vivasvat's son Yama is insatiable 
of the five human tribes'); the Yama hymn is Rig-veda X, 14. 
Comp. Ya^wavalkya III, 2. 

10. The bhfimig'oshana (election of the site for the 6'majrana) is 

a a 2 

Digitized by 


356 PAR ASK AR A-GR/H YA-sti TRA. 

(the rites) from the election of the site (for the 
•Smasana) down to their descending into water (in 
order to bathe themselves) are the same as those 
prescribed for persons who have set up the (sacred 
Srauta) fires. 

11. They burn him with his (sacred) domestic 
fire, if he has kept that ; 

1 2. Silently, with a common fire, other persons. 

13. They should ask one who is related (to the 
deceased person) by blood or by marriage, for (his 
permission to perform) the water-libation, in the 
words, ' We shall perform the libation.' 

14. (He replies), ' Do so now and never again,' if 
the deceased person was not a hundred years old. 

15. (He says) only, ' Do so,' if he was. 

16. All relations (of the deceased),- to the seventh 
or to the tenth degree, descend into water. 

1 7. If dwelling in the same village, (all) as far as 
they can trace their relationship. 

18. They wear (only) one garment, and have the 
sacred cord suspended over the right shoulder. 

19. With the fourth finger of the left hand they 
spirt away (the water) with (the words), ' May he 
drive evil away from us with his splendour' (Va^\ 
Sa*h. XXXV, 6). 

20. Facing the south, they plunge (into the water). 

21. They pour out with joined hands one libation 
of water to the deceased person with (the words), 
' N. N. ! This water to thee ! ' 

22. When they have come out (of the water) and 

treated of in .Satapatha Br&hma«a XIII, 8, 1, 6 seqq. ; K£ty£yana 
6'rauta-sfltra XXI, 3, 15 seqq. On the bath taken after the cere- 
mony, see .Satapatha Br&hma«a XIII, 8, 4, 5 ; K&tySyana XXI, 4, 24. 

1 6. Y&gTiavalkya III, 3. 

22. Yag-wavalkya III, 7 : apavadeyus t£n itihdsaiA puritanaW. 

Digitized by 


Ill KAJVDA, IO KAJVDIKA, 3 1. 357 

have sat down on a pure spot that is covered with 
grass, (those who are versed in ancient tales) should 
entertain them (by telling such tales). 

23. They return to the village without looking 
back, in one row, the youngest walking in front 

24. In the doors of their houses they chew leaves 
of the Pi&imanda (or Nimba) tree, sip water, touch 
water, fire, cowdung, white mustard seeds, and oil, 
tread upon a stone, and then they enter. 

25. Through a period of three nights they should 
remain chaste, sleep on the ground, do no work and 
charge nobody (to do it for them). 

26. Let them eat food which they have bought or 
received (from others) ; (they should eat it) only in 
the day-time, (and should eat) no meat. 

27. Having offered to the deceased person the 
Pmda, naming his name at the washing, at the offer- 
ing (of the Pi«da), and at the second washing — 

28. They should that night put milk and water in 
an earthen vessel into the open air with (the words), 
' Deceased one, bathe here ! ' 

29. The impurity caused by death lasts through 
three nights ; 

30. Through ten nights, according to some 

31. (During that period they) should not perform 
Svadhyaya (or study the Vedic texts for themselves). 

23. Yi^jiavalkya III, 12. 

24. Ya^riavalkya III, 12. 13. 

25. 26. Ya^flavalkya III, 16; Manu V, 73; Vasish/^a IV, 15. 

27. See on the washing and on the offering of the Pi»</a, 
Katyayana-.Srauta-sutra IV, 1, 10. 11. Comp. Weber, Indische 
Studien, X, 82. 

28. Ya^navalkya III, 17. 

29. 30. Ya^navalkya III, 18; Manu V, 59. 

Digitized by 


358 paraskara-gjuhya-sOtra. 

32. They should intermit the standing rites, except 
those performed with the three (.Srauta) fires, 

33. And (with the exception of those performed) 
with the (sacred) domestic fire, according to some 

34. Others should perform (those rites for them). 

35. Those who have touched the dead body should 
not enter the village until the stars appear. 

36. If (they have touched it) in the night-time, 
(they should not enter) till sunrise. 

2,7. The entering and what follows after it is the 
same (for these persons) as for the others. 

38. (Their) impurity lasts through one or two 

39. The same (rites should b'e performed) when 
the teacher (has died), 

40. Or the maternal grandfather or grandmother, 

41. Or unmarried females. 

42. For those who were married, the others should 
do it, 

43. And they for the (others). 

44. If one dies while being absent on a journey, 
(his relations) shall sit (on the ground, as prescribed 
for impure persons) from the time when they have 
heard (of his death), performing the water libation 

37. The position of this Sutra after 35, 36 seems to me to 
indicate that it refers to those who have touched the dead body ; 
comp. Ya^Tiavalkya III, 14 : prav&janidikaw karma pretasawspar- 
jinam api. I believe that the same persons are concerned also in 
Sutra 38. 

42. I.e. the husband and his relatives. Comp. Vasish/Aa IV, 19. 

43. A married female should perform the rites for her husband 
and his relatives. See Professor Biihler's note on Vasish/7/a IV, 19 ; 
S. B. E., XIV, 28. 

44. Ya^-navalkya III, 21; Manu V, 75,76. Comp. Gautama 
XIV, 37 ; Vasish/Aa IV, 14. 

Digitized by 


Ill KANDA, IO KAJV0IKA, 55. 359 

(at that time), until the period (of their impurity) has 
expired ; 

45. If (that period has already) elapsed, through 
one night or three nights. 

46. Optional is the water libation for an officiating 
priest, a father-in-law, a friend, for (distant) relations, 
for a maternal uncle, and for a sister's son ; 

47. And for married females. 

48. On the eleventh day he should give to an 
uneven number of Brahma»as a meal at which meat 
is served. 

49. Some also kill a cow in honour of the deceased 

50. When the Pindas are prepared, the deceased 
person, if he has sons, shall be considered as the first 
of the (three) Fathers (to whom Piwdas are offered). 

5 1 . The fourth one should be left out. 

52. Some (make Vindz. offerings to a deceased 
person) separately through one year (before admit- 
ting him to a share in the common Yitriyzgnz). 

53. But there is a rule, ' There can be no fourth 
Tinda. ' — for this is stated in the SrnXx. 

54. Every day he shall give food to him (i. e. to 
the deceased person), and if he was a Brahmawa, a 
vessel with water. 

55. Some offer also a Yxndz.. 

47. See above, § 42. 

51. See .SsLhkMyana-Gnhya IV, 2, 8. 

52. .SShkhSyana-Grehya VIII, 2. Comp. the description of the 
Sapuwfikarawa, ibid., chap. 3. 

53. There would be four Pi»das, if one were to be offered to the 
recently deceased person, and three others to those Fathers who 
had received Finda. offerings before his death. Therefore one of 
these three Fathers is omitted; see § 51. 

54. Comp. Apastamba I, 13, 1; BaudhSyana II, n, 3. 

Digitized by 


360 pAraskara-gk/hya-sOtra. 

KawdikA 11. 

1. If an animal (is to be sacrificed), let him wash 
it, if it is not a cow ; let him walk round the fires 
and drive in front (of them) a Pallra branch into the 

2. The winding (of a Kara rope) round (that 
branch), the touching (of the animal with the grass- 
blade), the binding (of it to the branch), and the 
sprinkling (of the animal with water) should be per- 
formed in the way prescribed (in the ^Srauta-sutra), 
and whatever else (is to be done). 

3. After he has sacrificed the two oblations before 
and after the killing of the animal, (he) silently (sacri- 
fices) five other (oblations, directed to Pra^apati). 

4. And the omentum is taken out (of the killed 
animal). He should besprinkle it (with water) and 
name the deity (to whom the sacrifice is directed). 

5. (He should name that deity also) at the touch- 
ing (of the animal with the grass-blade), at (its) being 
bound (to the branch), at its being sprinkled (with 
water), and at (the preparation and oblation) of the 
mess of cooked food. 

6. After he has sacrificed the omentum, he cuts 
off the Avadana portions, 

11, 1. The branch replaces the sacrificial post (yupa) of the 
.Srauta ritual. As to agrewa, comp. Katy.-Sraut. VI, 2, ir and 
the commentary. 

2. See Katy.-.Sraut.VT, 3, 15 on the parivyaya«a, ibid. §§ 19, 26 
on the upakarawa, § 2 7 on the niyo^ana, § 33 on the prokshawa. 

3. Katyayana VI, 5,22: He sacrifices ( A^ya) with the words, 
' Svaha to the gods.' § 24 : He sacrifices (A^ya) with the words, 
' To the gods svaha.' In the commentary on § 25 these two 
oblations are called pariparavyahuti. 

4. See Katyayana VI, 6, 13; A-rvalayana-Gr/hya I, 11, 10. 

5. See above, Sutra 2. 

Digitized by 


Ill KAiVDA, 12 KANDlKk, 4. 36 1 

7. All of them, or three, or five. 

8. He sacrifices the Avadana portions together 
with the mess of cooked food. 

9. A limb of the animal is the sacrificial fee. 

10. At (a sacrifice) directed to a special deity he 
should sacrifice (an animal) belonging to that deity, 
should make a portion for that (god), and should 
say to him (i.e. to the messenger who is to convey 
that offering to a place sacred to that deity) : ' Take 
care that this may reach that (god).' 

11. If there is a river between (the sacrificer and 
that sacred place), he may have a boat made, or he 
may dispense with this. 

KAYfllKA 12. 

1. Now (follows) the penance for a student who 
has broken the vow of chastity. 

2. On a new-moon day he shall sacrifice an ass 
on a cross-road (to the goddess Nim'ti). 

3. (And) he shall offer a mess of cooked food to 

4. The Avadana portions are sacrificed into water 
(and not into fire). 

7. The complete number of the AvadSnas (i.e. the portions of 
the killed animal which have to be cut off, such as the heart, the 
tongue, &c.) is eleven; see Katy.-«Sraut. VI, 7, 6; Ajvalayana- 
Grihya. I, n, 12. 

8. Arvalayana-Gr/hya, loc. cit. § 13. 

1 0,11. The way for interpreting these Sutras is shown by 
Arvalayana-Grzhya I, 12. I do not think that they have anything 
to do, as Gayardma states, with reference to Sutra 11, with the 
offering due to a relative who has died while being absent on a 
journey (chap. 10, 44). 

12, 1. See the parallel passages quoted by Professor Biihler in 
his note on Apastamba I, a6, 8 (S. B.E., II, 85), and besides, 
Katyayana I, 1, 13 seqq.; Gautama XXIII, 17 seqq., &c. 

4. This Sutra is identical with Katyayana I, 1, 16. 

Digitized by 


362 paraskara-gk/hya-sCtra. 

5. The PurodiLra (or sacrificial cake), which belongs 
to the animal sacrifice, is cooked on the ground (and 
not in the Kapalas). 

6. (The guilty person) should put on the skin (of 
the ass), 

7. With the tail turned upwards, according to 
some (teachers). 

8. He should through one year go about for alms, 
proclaiming his deed. 

9. After that time he sacrifices two A^ya oblations 
with (the formulas), ' O Lust, I have broken my vow 
of chastity. I have broken my vow of chastity, O 
Lust. To Lust svaha!' — 'O Lust, I have done 
evil. I have done evil, O Lust. To Lust svaha ! ' 

10. He then approaches (the fire) with (the verse), 
' May the Maruts besprinkle me, may Indra, may 
Brzhaspati, may this Agni besprinkle me with off- 
spring and with wealth.' 

1 1 . This is the penance. 

Kandika 13. 

1. Now the entering of a court of justice. 

2. He approaches the court with (the words), 
' Court ! Thou that belongest to the Angiras ! 
Trouble art thou by name ; vehemence art thou by 
name. Thus be adoration to thee ! ' 

3. He then enters (the court) with (the words), 
' (May) the court and the assembly, the two unani- 

5. This Sutra is identical with Katyayana I, 1, 15. 

9. Baudhayana II, 1, 34. 10. Baudhayana II, 1, 35. 

13, 2. The regular Sandhi would be sabha(forsabhe)ahgirasi, 
instead of which the text has sabhangirasi. 

3. In Sanskrit the words sabha (court) and samiti (assembly) are 
of feminine gender. I have translated upa ma sa tish/Aet in the 
sense indicated by Pawini I, 4, 87. 

Digitized by 


Ill KAjVDA, 14 KAJVDIKA, 2. 363 

mous daughters of Pra^apati (protect me). May one 
who does not know me, be below me. May (all) 
people be considerate in what they say.' 

4. When he has arrived at the assembly, he 
should murmur, ' Superior (to my adversaries) I have 
come hither, brilliant, not to be contradicted. The lord 
of this assembly is a man insuperable in his power.' 

5. Should he think, 'This person is angry with 
me,' he addresses him with (the verses), 'The destroy- 
ing power of wrath and anger that dwells here on thy 
forehead, that the chaste, wise gods may take away. 

' Heaven am I and I am Earth ; we both take 
away thy anger ; the she-mule cannot bring forth 
offspring ; N.N.!' 

6. But if he should think, 'This person will do 
evil to me,' he addresses him with (the words), ' I 
take away the speech in thy mouth, I take away 
(the speech) in thy heart. Wheresoever thy speech 
dwells, thence I take it away. What I say, is true. 
Fall down, inferior to me.' 

7. The same is the way to make (a person) subject 
(to one's self). 

KandikA 14. 

1. Now the mounting of a chariot (is declared). 

2. After he has given the order, ' Put the horses 
to it,' and it has been announced, ' They are,' he 
goes to (the chariot, saying), ' This is the Vira^ - ,' and 
touches the two wheels, 

5. Perhaps we should read garbhewstovatarySA saha: we take 
away thy anger together with the offspring of the she-mule (that 
cannot foal). Comp. ATullavagga VII, 2, 5 ; S. B. E., XX, 238. 

6. It is impossible to give a sure restoration of this corrupt 
Mantra. Perhaps we should read something like this : & te vi^am 
Ssya S te hr/daya idade. Comp. Hira»y.-Gr**hya I, 4, 15, 6. 

Digitized by 


364 paraskara-g/uhya-sOtra. 

3. The right (wheel) with (the words), 'The 
Rathantara art thou ' — 

4. The left with (the words), ' The Brehat art 
thou ' — 

5. The pole with (the words), ' The Vamadevya 
art thou.' 

6. He touches the interior of the chariot with his 
hand (saying), 'The two Ankas, the two Nyankas 
which are on both sides of the chariot, which move 
forward with the rushing wind, the far-darting one 
with keen senses, the winged one, may these fires, 
the promoters, promote us.' 

7. With (the words), ' Adoration to Ma»i^ara,' he 
drives on the beast on the right side. 

8. (If going in his chariot) toward (images of) 
gods, let him descend (from the chariot) before he 
has reached them ; if toward Brahma»as, just before 
(reaching them) ; if toward cows, when amid them ; 
if toward fathers, when he has reached them. 

9. A woman or a Vedic student shall not be 

14, 6. The meaning of ahkau and nyahkau cannot be deter- 
mined, as far as I can see. The commentators explain the words 
as the two wheels and the two sides of the chariot, or as the two 
right wheels and the two left wheels of a four-wheeled chariot 
Professor Zimmer (Altindisches Leben,pp. 251 seq.) compares aftka 
with Svtv£, and says, 'Mit ahkau (resp. anku) ware daher die obere 
Einfassung des Wagenkastens (kara, vandhura) bezeichnet, mit 
nyahkau (resp. nyahku) ein zu grosserer Befestigung etwas weiter 
unten (ni) herumlaufender Stab.' To me it seems that ahkau and 
nyahkau are to be understood both as designations of certain 
parts of the chariot and as names of different forms of Agni dwell- 
ing in the chariot. — Comp. Taittiriya SawhitS I, 7, 7, 2 ; Pa/l^a- 
vimsa. Brahmawa I, 7, 5. 

7. The name of the demon Ma»i£ara occurs, as far as I know, 
only here. 

Digitized by 


Ill KANDA, 15 KANDIKA, 4. 365 

10. Having driven a moment beyond (the point 
to which he intends to go) he should murmur, ' Here 
is rest, rest here' (V^f. Sa/#h. VIII, 51). 

1 1. Some add (the words), ' Here shall be no rest' 

12. If the chariot is weak, he should murmur, after 
he has mounted it, ' May this your chariot, O A.svins, 
suffer no damage on bad ways or by being over- 

13. If the horses run away with the chariot, he 
should touch the post (?) or the earth and should 
murmur, ' May this your chariot, O A^vins, suffer 
no damage on bad ways or by being overthrown.' 

14. Thus he will suffer no harm and no damage. 

15. When he has finished his way, and has un- 
yoked the horses, let him have grass and water given 
to them. ' For thus satisfaction is given to the 
beast that draws (the cart) ' — says the .Sruti. 

Kajvdika 15. 

1. Now how he should mount an elephant. 

2. He goes to the elephant and touches it (saying), 
'The elephants' glory art thou. The elephants' 
honour art thou.' 

3. He then mounts it with (the words), 'With 
Indra's thunder-bolt I bestride thee. Make me 
arrive safely.' 

4. Thereby it has also been declared how he 
should mount a horse. 

n. If the reading of the text is correct, the meaning would seem 
to be : We will rest here for a while, but then we will go further. 

13. I cannot say what 'the post' (stambha) here means; it may 
be apart of the chariot. Gayar&ma has dhva^astambha, i.e. the 
staff of a flag, which we are to suppose was carried on the chariot. 
This may be the right explanation. 

15. .Satapatha Brahmawa I, 8, 2, 9. 

Digitized by 


366 paraskara-gr/hya-sOtra. 

5. When he is going to mount a camel, he ad- 
dresses it : ' Thou art the son of Tvash/rz ; Tvash/r* 
is thy deity. Make me arrive safely.' 

6. When he is going to mount a he-ass, he ad- 
dresses it : 'A .Sudra art thou, a .Sudra by birth. To 
Agni thou belongest, with twofold sperm. Make 
me arrive safely.' 

7. A path he addresses : ' Adoration to Rudra 
who dwells on the paths. Make me arrive safely.' 

8. A cross-road he addresses : ' Adoration to 
Rudra who dwells at the cross-roads. Make me 
arrive safely.' 

9. When he intends to swim across a river, he 
addresses it: 'Adoration to Rudra who dwells in 
the waters. Make me arrive safely.' 

10. When going on board a ship, he addresses 
her : ' The good ship' (Vdf. Sawh. XXI, 7). 

1 1. When going to cross (the river), he addresses 
(the ship) : ' The well-protecting ' ( V&f. Sawh. 
XXI, 6). 

12. A forest (through which he is wandering) he 
addresses : ' Adoration to Rudra who dwells in the 
forests. Make me arrive safely.' 

13. A mountain (which he is going to cross) he 
addresses : ' Adoration to Rudra who dwells on the 
mountains. Make me arrive safely.' 

1 4. A burial-ground he addresses : ' Adoration to 
Rudra who dwells among the Fathers. Make me 
arrive safely.' 

1 5. A cow-stable he addresses : ' Adoration to 
Rudra who dwells among the dung-heaps. Make 
me arrive safely.' 

6. The he-ass has twofold sperm, because he begets both asses 
and mules. Taittiriya Saw/hita VII, 1, 1, 2. 

Digitized by 


Ill K&NDA, 15 KAND1K&, 22. 367 

16. And wheresoever else it be, let him always 
say, 'Adoration to Rudra.' For the .SVuti says, 
' Rudra is this universe.' 

17. If the skirt (of his garment) is blown upon 
him (by the wind), he addresses (that skirt) : ' A 
skirt art thou. Thou art not a thunder-bolt. Adora- 
tion be to thee. Do no harm to me ! ' 

18. The thunder he addresses: 'May the rains 
be friendly to us ; may (Indra's) darts be friendly to 
us — may they be friendly to us which thou throwest, 
O killer of Vrztra.' 

19. A howling jackal he addresses : ' Friendly by 
name' (Va^. Sa/»h. Ill, 63). 

20. A shrieking bird he addresses : ' Golden- 
winged bird who goest where the gods send thee ! 
Messenger of Yama, adoration be to thee! What 
has the Kirkariwa told thee ? ' 

21. A tree that serves as a mark (of a boundary, 
&c), he addresses : ' May neither the flash of light- 
ning (destroy thee), nor axe nor wind nor punish- 
ment which the king sends. May thy shoots grow 
up ; may rain fall on thee, in safety from the wind. 
May fire not destroy thy root. Blessing on thee, O lord 
of the forest ! Blessing on me, O lord of the forest !' 

22. If he receives something (given to him), he 
accepts it with (the formula), ' May Heaven give 
thee ; may the Earth accept thee.' Thus (the thing 
given) does not decrease to him who gives it, and 
what he receives increases. 

19. The play on words is untranslatable; 'jackal' is jivS, 
'friendly,' sivzA. 

20. I do not know the meaning of kark^riwaA. Gayar&ma takes 
it for a genitive standing instead of an accusative, and explains it 
by asmadb&dhakam. 

Digitized by 


368 paraskara-gk/hya-sOtra. 

23. If boiled rice is given to him, he accepts it 
with (the formula), ' May Heaven, &c.,' and he par- 
takes thereof twice with (the formulas), ' May Brah- 
man eat thee ! ' — ' May Brahman partake of thee ! ' 

24. If gruel is given to him, (as above) .... three 
times with (the formulas), ' May Brahman eat thee ! ' 
— ' May Brahman partake of thee!' — 'May Brahman 
drink thee ! ' 

Kandika. 16. 

1 . Now each time after a lesson (of the Veda) is 
finished, in order to prevent his forgetting (the texts he 
has studied, the following prayer should be recited) : 

' May my mouth be skilful ; my tongue be honey- 
sweet speech. With my ears I have heard much ; 
do not take away that which I have heard, which 
dwells in me. 

' The Brahman's word art thou ; the Brahman's 
stand art thou ; the Brahman's store-house art thou. 
Fulfilment art thou ; peace art thou ; unforgetfulness 
art thou ; enter into my store-house of the Brahman. 
With the voice I cover thee ! With the voice I cover 
thee ! May I be able to form the vowels, to produce, 
to hold fast and to utter the guttural, pectoral, dental, 
and labial sounds. May my limbs grow strong, my 
voice, breath, eye, ear, honour, and power. What I 
have heard and studied, may that be fixed in my 
mind ; may that be fixed in my mind.' 
End of the Third Ka«afc. 

End of Paraskara's Grzhya-sutra. 

16, 1. As to anirakarawa, comp. anirikarishmi above, II, 4, 3. 
Possibly we should read, ^ihva me raadhumad vai&A. 

Digitized by 



[29] B b 


Digitized by' 


Digitized by 





AMONG the Grantha MSS. collected by the late Dr. 
Burnell and now belonging to the India Office Library, 
there are some MSS. (numbers CLXXII and following 
of the Catalogue) of a Grthya-sutra hitherto unpublished, 
which is ascribed to KhadiraMrya. It belongs to the 
Drahyaya«a school of the Sama-veda, which prevails in 
the south of the Indian peninsula 1 , and it is based on 
the Gobhillya-sutra, from which it has taken the greater 
number of its aphorisms, just as the Drahyiya«a-5rauta- 
sutra, as far as we can judge at present, is nothing but a 
slightly altered redaction of Lafyayana 2 . Like the Gobhila- 
Grzhya it very seldom gives the Mantras in their full ex- 
tent, but quotes them only with their Pratikas, and it is 
easy to identify these quotations in the Mantrabrahmawa 
(published at Calcutta, 1873), which contains the texts 
prescribed by Gobhila for the Grihya. ceremonies. 

The Khadira-Gn'hya has evidently been composed with 
the intention of abridging Gobhila's very detailed and 
somewhat lengthy treatise on the domestic rites. Digres- 
sions, such as, for instance, that introduced by the words 
tatraihad ahu/fc, Gobhila I, 2, 10-27, or sucn as Gobhila's 
explication of the terms paurwamast and amavasya, 
I> 5» 7 seqq., or most of the regulations concerning the 
•Sakvaryas, III, 3, or the Slokas, IV, 7, are invariably left 

1 See Dr. Burnett's Catalogue, p. 56. 

1 Weber, Vorlesungen iiber indische Literaturgeschichte (and edition), p. 87 : 
' Almost the entire difference between this Sutra and that of Laryayana lies in 
the arrangement of the matter treated of, which is in itself very nearly the same 
in both texts, and is expressed in the same words.' Comp. Ananda£andra 
Vedantavagtra's Introduction to his edition of Latyayana (in the Bibliotheca 
Indica), pp. a, 3, and his statements on Drahyayana in the notes of that edition. 

B b 2 

Digitized by 



out, and in the descriptions of the single ceremonies 
throughout the principal points only are given, with the 
omission of all words and of all matter that it seemed 
possible to dispense with. On the other hand, the arrange- 
ment of the Sutras has undergone frequent changes, in 
which the compiler clearly shows his intention of grouping 
together, more carefully than was done in the original text, 
the Sutras which naturally belong to each other. Of the 
Sutras of the Khadira-Gr zhya which cannot be identified in 
Gobhila, several are to be traced back to Lafyayana, or we 
should perhaps rather say, to Drahyayawa. Thus Khad. 
I, i, 14 mantrantam avyaktaw parasyadigraha- 
«ena vidyat evidently corresponds to Lafyayana 1, 1, 3, 
uttaradiA purvantalakshawam, and Khad. I, 1, 24 
avyavr*tti/« ya^/Jangair avyavayaw kek&et is 
identical with *Laty. I, a, 15, avyavayo*vyavr*tti.r kz. 

Upon the whole, though certainly the Khadira-GWhya 
does not contain much matter which is not known to us 
from other sources, it notwithstanding possesses a certain 
interest, since it shows by a very clear example how a 
Sutrakara of the later time would remodel the work of a 
more ancient author, trying to surpass him by a more 
correct arrangement, and especially by what became more 
and more appreciated as the chief accomplishment of Sutra 
composition, the greatest possible succinctness and econo- 
mising of words. To an interpreter of Gobhila the com- 
parison of the Khadira-Grzhya no doubt will suggest in 
many instances a more correct understanding of his text 
than he would have been likely to arrive at without that 
aid, and perhaps even readings of Gobhila which seemed 
hitherto subject to no doubt, will have to give way to 
readings supplied by the Grantha MSS. of the Khadira- 
Grzhya. Thus, Gobhila III, 8, 16, I do not hesitate to 
correct asawsvadam, on the authority of Khad. Ill, 3, 
13, into asawkhadam or asawzkhadan 1 . 

1 Comp. Paraskara II, 10, 15, and the quotations given by Bohtlingk-Roth 
s. v. saw-khad. Forms derived from the two roots, khad and svad, are fre- 
quently interchanged in the MSS. ; see the two articles in the Dictionary. 

Digitized by 



As the text of the Khadira-Gr/hya is very short and 
has not yet been published, it has been printed at the foot 
of the page, together with references to the parallel pas- 
sages of Gobhila. For further explanations of the single 
Sutras, I refer to my translation of Gobhila which will 
form part of the second volume of the Grzhya-sutras, where 
I shall also hope to give some extracts from Rudraskanda's 
commentary on the Khadira-Gnhya. 

Digitized by 



Patala I, Khanda 1. 

i. Now henceforth the domestic sacrifices (will 
be explained). 

2. During the northern course of the sun, at the 
time of the increasing moon, on auspicious days, 
before noon : this is the time at which the con- 
stellations are lucky, unless a special statement is 

3. At the end (of the ceremonies) he should give 
to the Brahma»as to eat according to his ability. 

4. The sacrificial cord is made of a string or [of 
Kusa. grass. 

5. If he suspends it round his neck and raises 
the right arm (so as to wear the cord on his left 
shoulder), he becomes ya^wopavltin. 

6. (If he raises) the left (arm and wears the cord 
on his right shoulder, he becomes) pra^lnivltin. 

7. After having sipped water three times, let him 
wipe off the water twice. 

I, 1, 1. athato grihyaka.rma.ny. 2. udagayanapfirvapakshapu- 
wyaheshu prag avartanad anubha^ kalo^nadeje. 3. *pavarge ya- 
thotsahaw brahma//an ajayed. 4. ya^T/opavitazB sautraw kzusam v£. 
5. grivayaw pratimu^ya dakshi«aw bahum uddhrriya ya^wopavitt 
bhavati. 6. savya;// pra^inaviti. 7. trir a&imyapo dviA parimrj^ita. 

I, 1, i = Gobhila I, 1, 1. 2=1, 1, 3. 3=1, 1, 6. 4-6=1, 2, 
1 seqq. 7-10=1, 2, 5 seqq. 

Digitized by 


I PATALA, I KHAiVflA, 1 7. 375 

8. Having besprinkled his feet (with water), let 
him besprinkle his head. 

9. Let him touch the organs of his senses (i.e. his 
eyes, his nose, and his ears) with water (i. e. with 
a wet hand). 

10. When he has finally touched (water) again, 
he becomes pure. 

11. (If) sitting, standing, or lying down (is pre- 
scribed), he should understand (that it is to be done) 
on northward-pointed Darbha grass, with the face 
turned to the east, to the west of the fire with which 
the sacrifice is performed. 

12. If the word Snana (or bathing) is used, (this 
refers to the whole body) with the head. 

1 3. (The different ceremonies are) performed with 
the right hand, if no special rule is given. 

14. If it is not clear where a Mantra ends, one 
should discern it by (adverting to) the beginning of 
the next Mantra. 

15. The Mantras have the word svaha at their 
end, when offerings are made. 

16. The term Pakaya^wa is used of every sacri- 
fice that is performed with one fire. 

1 7. There the Brahman is (present as) officiating 
priest, with the exception of the morning and 
evening oblations. 

8. padav abhyukshya jiro»bhyukshed. 9. indriya»y adbhiA 
sawspmed. 10. antataA pratyupasprzlrya miir bhavaty. 11. &sa- 
nasthanasa#rve.ranany udagagreshu darbheshu pranmukhasya pra- 
tiyat par&td agner yatra homa syat. 12. saharirasaw snanarabde. 
13. dakshwena pamna kr/'tyam anad&re. 14. mantrantam avyak- 
ta»z parasyddigrahawena vidyat. 15. svahanta mantra homeshu. 
16. pakaya£#a ityikhya yaA ka* ^aikagnau. 17. tatra rrtvig 
brahma sayampratarhoraavarjguw. 

11-14 desunt. 15=1, 9, 25. 16 deest. 17, i8=I, 9, 8. 9. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

376 khAdira-gk/hya-sCtra. 

i 8. The HotWs place is filled by (the sacrificer) 

19. To the south of the fire the Brahman sits 
facing the north, silently, until the oblation has been 
performed, on eastward-pointed (Darbha grass). 

20. But if he likes, he may speak of what refers 
to the sacrifice. 

21. Or if he has spoken (words) which are un- 
worthy of the sacrifice, let him murmur the Maha- 

22. Or (the verse), ' Thus has Vishwu ' (Sv. I, 222). 

23. If he does himself the work both of the 
Brahman and of the Hotr*', let him sit down on 
the Brahman's seat, and (leave that seat) placing 
a parasol on it, or an outer garment, or a water-pot, 
and then let him perform his other duties. 

24. Let him take care not to turn his back to, 
or become separated (by any person or thing inter- 
posed) from what belongs to the sacrifice. 

Khanda 2. 

1. In the eastern part of his dwelling he should 
besmear (the place on which the sacrifice will be 

18. svayarahautraw. 19. dakshi»ato*gner udahmukhas tflshnim 
aste brahma homat prtgagreshu. 20. kamaw tv adhiya^«fa»» vya- 
hared. 21. ayagniy&m v& vyahr/tya mahavythrutr ^aped. 22. 
idawi vishwur ita va. 23. hautrabrahmatve svayaw kurvan brahma- 
sanam [sic] upavuya Mattram uttarasangaw kama»</alu»i va tatra 
kn'tvathdnyat kuryad. 24. avyavrrituw ya^langair avyavayaw 

2, 1. pflrve bhage vcrmano gomayenopalipya tasya madhyadere 
lakshawaw kuryad. 

19 = 1, 6, 13 seqq. 20-22 = 1, 6, iyseqq. 23=1,6,21. 24 deest. 
2, 1 seqq.=Gobhila I, 1, 9 seqq. 

Digitized by 


I PA7AI.A, 2 KHAJV.DA, II. 377 

performed) with cowdung, and should draw in the 
middle of it the lines. 

2. To the south he should draw a line from west 
to east. 

3. From the beginning of that line (he should 
draw a line) from south to north ; from the end (of 
the last-mentioned line) one from west to east; 
between (the first and the third line) three (lines) 
from west to east 

4. He besprinkles that (place) with water, 

5. Establishes the fire (thereon), 

6. Wipes along around (the fire) with the three 
verses, 'This praise' (MB. II, 4, 2-4). 

7. To the west of the fire he touches the earth 
with his two hands turned downwards, with (the 
verse), ' We partake of the earth's' (MB. II, 4, 1). 

8. In night-time (he pronounces that Mantra so 
that it ends with the word) ' goods ' (vasu). 

9. Having strewn Darbha grass to the west (of 
the fire), let him draw (some grass) from the south- 
end and from the north-end (of what he has strewn), 
in an eastern direction. 

10. Or let him omit this drawing (of Darbha 
grass to the east), 

11. And let him strew (the grass) beginning in 
the east, so as to keep his right side turned to the 

2. dakshioatayi pra&m rekham ullikhya. 3. tadarambh&d udWm 
tadavas&nat p&klm tisro madhye praxis. 4. tad abhyukshya. 5. 
*gnim upasam&dhaya. 6. imam stomam iti parisamfthya trz'-tena. 
7. p&r^ad agner bh&mau nyan^au pawl krrivedam bhflmer iti. 8. 
vasvantam ratrau. 9. pat£ad darbhan astirya dakshi»atai piUAim 
prakarshed uttaratar ki. 10. »prakr/shya v&. 11. pikrvopakra- 
vaam pradakshi»am agni/n str/Wuyan mftlany agrai-r ^adayan tri- 
vri\am \>anka.\riXa.m vo. 

6-8= IV, 5, 3 seqq. 9-11=1, 7, 9 seqq. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

378 khAdira-g/uhya-sAtra. 

fire, covering the roots (of the Darbha blades) with 
the points, in three layers or in five layers. 

12. Sitting down he cuts off two span-long Darbha 
points, not with his nail, with (the words), ' Purifiers 
are ye, sacred to Vishwu.' 

13. He wipes them with water, with (the words), 
' By Vishmi's mind are ye purified.' 

14. Holding them with his two thumbs and fourth 
fingers so that their points are turned to the north, 
he three times purifies the A^ya (with them), with 
(the words), ' May the god Savitr* purify thee with 
this uninjured purifier, with the rays of the good sun.' 

1 5. Having sprinkled them (with water) he should 
throw them into the fire. 

16. Having put the A^ya on the fire he should 
take it (from the fire) towards the north. 

1 7. Bending his right knee he should pour out to 
the south of the fire his joined hands full of water 
with (the words), 'Aditi! Give thy consent!' 

18. To the west with (the words), 'Anumati ! Give 
thy consent!' 

19. To the north with (the words), 'Sarasvatl! 
Give thy consent!' 

12. ipavijya darbhagre prSderam&tre pra^Ainatti na nakhena 
pavitre stho vaish«avyav ity. 13. adbhir unmragya Vishwor 
manasa pute stha ity. 14. udagagre «ngush//4abhyam an£mik&- 
bhya»2 ka. samgrihya. trir igyam utpunati devas tva Savitotpunatv 
aMidrewa pavitrewa vasos sflryasya rajmibhir ity. 15. abhyu- 
kshyagnav anuprahared. 16. &gyam adhLrrityottarataA kuryad. 
17. dakshwa^anvakto dakshinenagnim Aditeinumanyasvety uda- 
'kangaiim prasi«£ed. 18. Anumate»numanyasveti parHt. 19. 
Sarasvate [sic, comp. Hirawyakeri-Gr/hya I, 1, 2, 9] *numanya- 
svety uttarata^. 

12-16=1, 7, 21-27. 17-21=1, 3. * se qq- 

Digitized by 


I PA7ALA, 3 KHARTCA, 3. 379 

20. With (the words), 'God SavitW! Give thy 
impulse!' (MB. I, i, i) he should sprinkle (water) 
round the fire so as to keep his right side turned 
towards it, encompassing what he is going to offer 
(with the water). 

21. (This he does) once or thrice. 

22. He puts a piece of wood on (the fire). 

23. He should murmur the Prapada formula 
(MB. II, 4, 5), hold his breath, fix his thoughts on 
something good, and should emit his breath when 
beginning the Virupaksha formula (MB. II, 4, 6). 

24. At ceremonies for the attainment of special 
wishes (he should do so) for each of the objects 
(which he wishes to attain). 

25. He should do so always at sacrifices. 

Khanda 3. 

1. A student after he has studied the Veda and 
has offered a present to his teacher, should, with 
permission (of his parents), take a wife. 

2. And (he should take) the bath (which signifies 
the end of studentship). 

3. Of these two (acts the taking of) the bath 
comes first. 

20. deva SavitaA prasuveti pradakshi«am agniw paryukshed 
abhipariharan havyaw. 21. sakrt't trir va. 22. samidham adhaya. 
23. prapadaw g'apitvopatamya kalyana/n dhyayan vairupaksham 
arabhyo^Avaset. 24. pratikamaw kamyeshu. 25. sarvatraitad 
dhomeshu kuryat. 

3, 1. brahmaiari vedam adhftyopanyahr/'tya gurave«nug^ato darSn 
kurvM. 2. iplavanan? £a. 3. tayor aplavanaw pfirvam. 

22=1, 8, 26. 23 = IV, 5, 6 seqq. 24, 25 desunt. 
3, i=Gobhila III, 4, 1. 2 = 111, 4, 7. 3, 4 desunt. 

Digitized by 


380 khAdira-g/j/hya-sOtra. 

4. As, however, in the (collection of) Mantras 
marriage is treated of (first), it is explained (here) 
before (the bath). 

5. A Brahma«a with a water-pot, wrapped in his 
robe, keeping silence, should step in front of the 
fire and should station himself (to the south of it) 
with his face to the north. 

6. After (the bride) has taken a bath, (the bride- 
groom) should dress her in a garment that has not 
yet been washed, with (the verse), ' They who spun ' 
(MB. I, 1, 5). While she is led up (to him), the 
bridegroom should murmur (the verse), ' Soma gave 
her'(l. 1. 7). 

7. To the south of the bridegroom he (who has 
led her to him) should make her sit down. 

8. While she touches him, (the bridegroom) should 
make oblations of A^ya with the Sruva, picking 
out (portions of it [comp. Paraskara II, 14, 13]), 
with the Mahavyahmis. 

9. A fourth (oblation) with (the three Maha- 
vyahmis) together. 

10. The same at the ceremonies of the tonsure 
(of the child's head), of the initiation (of the Brah- 
ma^arin), and of the cutting of the beard. 

4. mantrabhivadat tu panigrahawasya (correct, pamgraha»a»j ?) 
pfirvaw vyakhyataw. 5. brahmawas sahodakumbhaA pr&vrtto 
vagyato»gre«agniw gatvodahmukhas tish/Aet. 6. snatam ahatena- 
khzAya. yi aknhtann ity aniyamanSya/H pawigraho^apet Somo* dadad 
id. 7. pawigrahasya dakshinata upaverayed. 8. anvarabdhiyaw 
sruve«opaghata/w mahavyahrrtibhir igyzm ^uhuyat. 9. samasta- 
bhu /-aturthim. 10. evaw X-aulopanayanagodaneshv. 

5=U> 1. 13- 6 = 11, i, 17-19. 7 seqq.=II, 1, 23 seqq.; I, 9, 

26 seqq. 

Digitized by 


I PA7VALA, 3 KHAJV0A, 20. 38 1 

11. And at the marriage (he makes oblations) 
with the six verses, ' May Agni go as the first ' (MB. 
I, 1, 9 seqq.). 

12. At Afya oblations, unless a special rule is 
given, the two Afya portions and the Svish/akrzt 
oblation (are) not (offered). 

1 3. After (the chief oblations he should) always 
(make oblations) with the Mahavyahrztis, 

14. And with the (verse) sacred to Pra^apati. 

15. He should make an expiatory oblation. 

16. After the sacrifice they both arise. 

17. (The bridegroom) should pass behind (the 
bride's) back, station himself to the south, and seize 
the bride's hand. 

18. Her mother who has, towards the east, put 
fried grain mixed with Samt leaves into a basket, 

19. Should make the bride tread with the tip of 
her right foot on an upper mill-stone, to the west 
of the fire, with (the verse which the bridegroom 
repeats), ' On this stone' (MB. I, 2, 1). 

20. Her brother, filling once his joined hands 

1 1. Agnir etu prathama iti sha</bhLr £a p&mgraha«e. 1 2. na^ya- 
bhigau na svish/akrr'd a^y&hutishv an&dere. 13. sarvatroparish/an 
mahivydhrAibhiA \ 14. pra^apatyayS Aa. 15. prayaj£itta« gu- 
huyid. 16. dhutvopottish/Aato. 17. 'imprtsh/hzm gatvi dakshi- 
»ato»vasthaya vadhva^aliw grihtfiy&t. 18. ptirvS matt jamfpala- 
jamlrran (var. lect. °mirral) \£g&% Mtirpe krztva. 19. par^ad agner 
dr/shatputram £kramayed vadhfow dakshi»ena prapadenemam ar- 
manam iti. 20. sakndgrAitam afigaAim la^anaw vadhva%alav 
avaped bhrata. 

14, 15 desunt. 16-31 = 11, 2, 1 seqq. 

1 Possibly the Sutras 12 and 13 should be divided thus : 12. na^yabhagau na 
svish/akn'd a^yahutishv. 13. anadere sarvatr &c Comp. Gobhila I, 9, 26. 
27 ; i&nkhayana I, 12, 13 ; 9, 10. 

Digitized by 


382 khadira-gk/hya-sOtra. 

with fried grain, should pour it into the bride's 
joined hands. 

21. Or some friend (instead of the brother). 

22. That she should sacrifice over the fire without 
opening her joined hands with (the verse which the 
bridegroom repeats), 'This woman' (MB. I, 2, 2). 

23. (The verses), 'Aryaman' and 'Pushan' (1.1. 
3, 4) (are repeated) at the two following (oblations 
of fried grain). 

24. After that sacrifice he should go back in the 
same way (see Sutra 1 7), and should lead her round 
the fire, so that their right sides are turned towards 
it with (the formula), ' The maid from the fathers ' 

(1. 1. 5). 

25. (These rites), beginning from his stationing 
himself (to the south, Sutra 17), (are performed) 

26. After (she) has poured the remnants (of the 
fried grain) into the fire, he should make her step 
forward in a north-eastern direction with (the for- 
mula), ' For sap with one step ' (1. 1. 6, 7). 

27. The looking at the lookers-on, the mounting 
of the chariot, the reciting (of Mantras) at places 
difficult to pass (on the way of the bridegroom and 
the bride, is performed) with (verses) suited (to 
those different occasions). 

21. suhr/d v& kzskit. 22. tarn sagnau ^rihuySd aviMidya^alim 
iyaw nSrity. 23. Aryamawaw Pflsha«am ity uttarayor. 24. hute 
tenaiva gatva pradakshwam agnuw pari»ayet kanyala pitr/bhya ity. 
25. avasthanaprabhr/ty evazw trif. 26. jfirpewa rish/an agnav opya 
pragudWim utkramayed ekam isha id. 27. « kshakaveksha/mra- 
tharoha;;adurganumantra«any abhirflpabhir. 

(21 and a part of 27 desunt.) 

Digitized by 


I VAT ALA, 4 KHANDA, 3. 383 

28. Walking forward behind the fire, the water- 
carrier (see Sutra 5) should besprinkle the bride- 
groom on his forehead. 

29. So also the bride. 

30. When he has thus been besprinkled, (he should 
repeat the verse), 'May (the Vijve devas) anoint 
(or, unite) ' (MB. I, 2, 9). 

31. He should seize her right hand, together with 
the thumb, with the six (verses), ' I seize thy hand ' 
(MB. I, 2, 10 seqq.). 

Khan da 4. 

1. He should carry her away in a north-eastern 

2. In a Brahma#a's house he should establish the 
(nuptial) fire, should spread out to the west of the 
fire a red bull's hide with the hair outside and with 
the neck to the east, and should make her, who has 
to keep silence, sit down (thereon). 

3. When (somebody) has said that a star has 
appeared, he should, while she touches him, make 
oblations (of A^ya) with the Sruva, picking out 
(portions of it), with the six (verses) commencing 
with (the verse), 'In the lines' (MB. I, 3, 1 seqq.). 
The remnants he should pour out over the bride's 

28. aparewagnim auduko gatva pawigrahaw mftrdhany avasi&ted. 
29. vadh(k»? £a. 30. sama%antv ity avasikto. 31. dakshiwaw 
pa«i»« saagush/Aa.m grihniyad gribhwami ta iti sha<fbhiA. 

4. 1. pr£gudi£im udvahed. 2. brahma»akule*gnim upasam- 
adhaya pask&d agner lohitam Aarmanarfuham uttaraloma praggrivam 
Sstlrya vagyatam upavwayet. 3. prokte nakshatre»nvarabdhaya/» 
sruvenopaghatafl? ^uhuyat sha</bhir lekhaprabhn'tibhiA sampatan 
avanayan mfirdhani vadhvaA. 

4, i-u=Gobhila II, 3, 1 seqq. 

Digitized by 


384 khadira-gr/hya-sCtra. 

4. Having circumambulated the fire so that their 
right sides are turned towards it, he shows her the 
polar star (literally, the firm one), with the verse, 
' Firm is the sky ' (1. 1. 7). 

5. She should break her silence by respectfully 
calling her Gurus by their Gotra names. 

6. A cow constitutes the sacrificial fee. 

7. Here the Arghya ceremony should be per- 

8. (Or rather it should be performed) when they 
have come (to their house), according to some 
(teachers) : [comp. vSankh. I, 12, 10.] 

9. Through a period of three nights they should 
avoid eating saline, food and drinking milk, and 
should sleep together without having conjugal 

10. Having murmured over food which is fit for 
sacrifice, the (verses), 'With the tie of food' (MB. I, 
3, 8-10), he should pronounce the wife's name, 
'N. N.l' 

11. After he has sacrificed (or, eaten ?) he should 
give the rest to the wife. 

1 2. After the lapse of that period of three nights, 
he should make oblations of A^ya with the four 

4. pradakshiwam agniw? parikramya dhruvaw darjayati dhruva 
dyaur ity. 5. abhiv&dya gurfin (guruw, Gobhila) gotreaa visri^ed 
va£aw. 6. gaur dakshi«a. 7. *tr&rghyam. 8. Sgateshv ity eke. 
9. trirStraw ksharalavane dugdham iti vaiyayantau (vaiyayinau the 
MSS.) saha rayiyataw (jayySt&rc, raryyataw the MSS.) brahma- 
k&rinau. 10. havishyam annam pari^apyinnapa\renety asSv iti 
vadhva ndma brtiyad. 11. hutvokk/iishfam (bhuktv ?) vadhvai 
dadySd. 12. firdhvaw trir&tra£ £atasr/bhir Sgyam ^uhuyad Agne 
prayajkittir iti samasya pajiiaxaim sampat&n avanayann udapatre. 

12-13 = 11, 5, 1 seqq. 

Digitized by 


I PArALA, 5 KHANDA, 5. 385 

verses, 'Agni, thou art expiation' (MB. I, 4, 1 seqq.). 
A fifth (oblation) combining (the names of the four 
gods invoked in those verses). The remnants (of 
A^ya) he should pour into a water-pot. 

13. With that (Afya) he should wash her, in- 
cluding her hair and nails. 

14. Thenceforward he should behave as required 
by circumstances. 

15. At the time of her courses he should touch 
with his right hand her secret parts with (the verse), 
' May Vishmi make thy womb ready' (MB. I, 4, 6). 

16. When (that verse) is finished, he should 
cohabit with her, with (the verse), ' Give conception ' 
(1. 1. 7). 

Khanda 5. 

1. The fire used at his wedding (is kept as) his 
(sacred) domestic fire. 

2. Or that on which he (as a student) puts the 
last piece of wood. 

3. Or (a fire) kindled by attrition : that is pure, 
but it does not bring prosperity. 

4. Or he may get it from a frying-pan. 

5. Or from the house of one who offers many 
sacrifices, with the exception of a 6udra. 

13. tenainaw sakcranakham aplavayet. 14. tato yatharthaw 
syad. 15. rz'tukale dakshwena pamnopastham alabhed Vishwur 
yoni/s kalpayatv iti. 16. samaptSy&w sambhaved garbhan 


5, 1. yasminn agnau pa»w» grzhwly at sa grshyo. 2. yasmin 
vantyawz samidham adadhyan. 3. nirmanthyo va pu»yas so»nar- 
dhuko. 4. <mbarishad vanayed. 5. bahuya^ino vagira^ £Mdra- 

i4=II, 4, it. 15, i6=II, 5, 9, 10. 
5, i-9=Gobhila I, 1, 20-28. 
[29] C C 

Digitized by 


386 KHADIRA-G/tfHYA-stiTRA. 

6. The service (at that sacred domestic fire) begins 
with an evening oblation. 

7. After (the fire) has been set in a blaze before 
sunset or sunrise — 

8. The sacrifice (is performed) after sunset, 

9. (And) after sunrise or before sunrise. 

10. He should with his hand make oblations of 
food which is fit for sacrifice, having washed it, if 
it is raw. 

n. If it consists in curds or milk, with a brazen 

12. Or with the pot in which the oblations of 
cooked rice are prepared. 

13. (In the evening the first oblation with the 
formula), ' To Agni Svaha ! ' in the middle (of the 
sacred fire) ; 

14. The second (oblation) silently in the north- 
eastern part (of the fire). 

15. In the morning the first (oblation with the 
formula), ' To Surya (Svaha) ! ' 

16. The wiping round the fire and the similar 
acts, with the exception of the sprinkling (of water) 
round (the fire), are omitted here. 

17. Some (teachers say) that his wife may offer 
these oblations, for the wife is (as it were) the house, 
and that fire is the domestic fire. 

6. sayamahutyupakramaai pari-fara«a»/. 7. prag astamayodaya- 
bhyaw pradushkrzlya. 8. *stam ite homa. 9. udite £anudite va. 
10. havishyasyannasyakr»*ta»z iet praksh&lya ^uhuyit pinini. 11. 
dadhi £et payo va kawsena. 12. farusthilya vfi. 13. *gnaye 
svaheti madhye. 14. tushmm pragudiiim uttaraw. 15. Sfiryayeti 
prataA pfirvaw. 16. natra parisamfihanSdini paryukshawavaiyaw. 
17. patnt^uhuyad ity eke grihah patnl g/rhyoignir esha iti. 

10-19=1, 3, 6-18 (16 deest). 

Digitized by 


I PATALA, 5 KHANDA, 30. 387 

18. When (the meal) is ready, in the evening 
and in the morning, (the wife) should say, ' It is 
ready ! ' and (the husband) with loud voice, 'Om !' 

19. Then in a low voice : ' May it not fail ! Ado- 
ration to thee ! ' 

20. Of food which is fit for sacrifice he should 
make oblations to Pra^apati and to (Agni) Svish/a- 

21. Then he should make the Bali offerings. 

22. He should put down (a Bali) at four places, 
inside or outside (the Agnyagara) ; 

23. (Another Bali) near the water-barrel ; 

24. (Another) at the middle door ; 

25. (Another) in the bed, 

26. Or in the privy ; 

27. Another on the heap of sweepings. 

28. He should sprinkle each (Bali with water) 
before and afterwards. 

29. The remnants he should pour out together 
with water towards the south. 

30. Of chaff, of water, and of the scum of boiled 
rice (he should offer a Bali) when a donation has 
been made. 

18. siddhe sayamprStar bhfitam ity ukta om ity u££air bruy&t. 
1 9. m& ksha namas ta ity upiw/ju. 20. havishyasyannasya ^uhu- 
ySt pra^ipatyaai sauvish/akn'taw &a. 21. baliw nayed. 22. bahir 
antar v& £atur nidhaya. 23. mamkadeje. 24. madhye dviri. 
25. szyy&m anu. 26. var£a/«' [sic] vi. 27. »tha sastfipam. 28. 
ekaikam ubhayataA parishi#£e£. 29. Mesham adbhis sardhara 
dakshiwa ninayet. 30. phalikarawanSm apim a^dmasveti (read, 
iUSmasyeti) vura»ite. 

20-37=1, 4, 1 seqq. 
C C 2 

Digitized by 


388 khAdira-gk/hya-s<jtra. 

31. The gods to whom the Bali offerings belong, 
are, the Earth, Vayu, Pra^apati, the Vlrve devas, 
the Waters, the Herbs and Trees, the Ether, Kama 
or Manyu, the hosts of Rakshas, the Fathers, 

32. He should do so silently. 

33. He should do so (i.e. offer Balis) of all food. 

34. If for one meal the food gets ready at different 
times, he should do so only once. 

35. If (food is prepared) at different places, (he 
should take) that which belongs to the householder. 

36. Of all food he should offer (something) in the 
fire, and give the due portion to a Brahma#a ; he 
should do so himself. 

3 7. From the rice(-harvest) till the barley (-harvest), 
or from the barley(-harvest) till the rice(-harvest) he 
should offer (the Balis) himself. He should offer 
(the Balis) himself. 

End of the First Pa/ala. 

31. Prj'thivi ViyuA Pra^Spatir Vuve devd Apa Oshadhivanaspa- 
taya AkaraA Kdmo Manyur va Rakshoga/KiA Pitaro Rudra iti 
balidaivatdni. 32. tush«Jw tu kury&t. 33. sarvasya tv anna- 
syaitat kurySd. 34. asakrik ked ekasmin k&le siddhe sakrt'd eva 
kuryid. 35. bahudha £ed yad gn'hapateA. 36. sarvasya tv anna- 
syagnau kri'tvagra/rc brdhmawSya dadySt ; svayara kury&d. 37. vrthi- 
prabhr/'ty a yavebhyo yavebhyo v&*vrihibhya svayara haret svayam 
haret. prathamapa/alaji. 

Digitized by 



Pafala II, Khartda 1. 

i. Of the sacrifices of the new and full moon, the 
full-moon sacrifice should be performed first. 

2. If (the term for the sacrifice) of the new moon 
comes first, he should first celebrate the full-moon 
sacrifice and then perform that 

3. Some say that he should not perform it, and 
wait till the day of the full moon. 

4. In the afternoon, husband and wife, after 
having bathed, should eat fast-day food. 

5. Manadantavya has said : 'He who eats fast- 
day food, obtains offspring better than himself; he 
gains favour ; hunger will not attack him.' 

6. Therefore one should eat (fast-day food) which 
he likes. 

7. He should do nothing unholy (such as cohabit- 
ing with his wife). 

8. After he has sacrificed the morning oblation, 

9. He should pour out the sacrificial food with 
(the formula), ' Agreeable to such and such (a deity) 
I pour thee out : ' (this formula) referring to the 

II, 1, 1. paurwamiisopakramau darjapaurwamasau. 2. dlrjaw 
ket pftrvam upapadyeta paurnamasenesh/vatha tat kurySd. 3. akur- 
van paurwamasim akankshed ity eke. 4. >parah»e snatvaupava- 
sathikam dampatl bhu^iyatam. 5. Minadantavya uvafci: jreyasiw 
prag&m vindate kSmyo bhavaty akshodhuko ya aupavasathika/» 
bhunkte. 6. tasmSd yat kamayeta tad bhu^tta. 7. nSvratyam 
aiaret. 8. pratarahutiwz hutvi 9. havir nirvaped amushmai tv£ 
gushtaM nirvapamiti devatarrayaw sakrid ya^tir vS dvis ttslmtm. 

II, 1, 1-3 desunt. 4=Gobhila I, 5, 26. 5-8=1, 6, 1-13. 
9-16 (15 deest)=I, 7, 2-19. 

Digitized by 


390 khAdira-gk/hya-sOtra. 

deity, or a Ya^us, (is repeated) once ; twice (it is 
done) silently. 

10. He should wash (the food) thrice, (if it is 
destined) for gods ; 

1 1. Twice, if for men ; 

1 2. Once, if for the Fathers. 

13. Stirring it up with the pot-ladle from the left 
to the right he should cook it. 

14. When he has cooked it, he should sprinkle 
(A^ya) on it, should take it from the fire towards the 
north, and should again sprinkle (A^ya) on it. 

15. Thus all kinds of Havis (are prepared). 

16. Having put (the Havis) on the sacrificial 

17. He should sacrifice the two A^ya portions 
(in the following way) : Having taken four portions 
of A^ya — five portions are taken by the Bhr/gus 
(or at least ?) by the Gamadagnyas [see Indische 
Studien, 10, 95] — (he should make two oblations), 
to the north with (the formula), ' To Agni Svaha ! ' 
to the south with (the formula), 'To Soma Svaha!' 

18. Others (do it) conversely. 

19. Having 'spread under' A^ya, he should cut 
off with the pot-ladle (portions) of the Havis from 
the middle and from the eastern side ; 

10. trir devebhyaA prakshalayed. 11. dvir manushyebhyaA. 
12. sakr/'t pitrtbhyo. 13. mekshawena pradakshiwam udSyuva# 
jrapayeX'. 1 4. Mri'tam abhigharyodag udvasya pratyabhigharayet. 
15. sarvawy cvaw havlwshi. 16. barhishy Ssftdyi. 17. i^yabhagau 
^uhuya^' &iturgrihitam agyam grrhitva pa#£avattaw Bhrig&n&m 
Gamadagnyanam Agnaye svahety uttarataA Somayeti dakshi«ato. 
18. vipantam itara. 19. agyam upastirya havisho*vadyen me- 
kshawena madhyat purastad iti. 

17-27 (18, 23 desunt)=I, 8. 3-29. 

Digitized by 


II PA7ALA, I KHANDA, 26. 39 1 

20. One who takes five cut-off portions (see Sutra 
1 7), also from the western side. 

21. After he has sprinkled (Afya) on (the cut-off 
portions), he anoints the places from which he has 
cut them off, (with A^ya). 

22. (This anointing) is omitted at the Svish/akm 

23. He should sacrifice with (the formula), ' To 
N. N. Svaha ! ' — according to the god to whom the 
oblation belongs. 

24. At the Svish/akm oblation he ' spreads under' 
once — twice if he is a Blm'gu — , (cuts off) once (a 
portion) of the Havis, sprinkles (A^ya) on it twice, 
and sacrifices it in a north-eastern direction with (the 
formula), ' To Agni Svish/akm Svaha ! ' 

25. Having put a piece of wood (on the fire), 

26. He should dip Darbha-blades (of the sacrificial 
grass strewn round the fire) three times, the points, 
the middle, and the roots, into the Agya or into the 
Havis with (the words), 'May the birds come, lick- 
ing what has been anointed.' Then, after having 
sprinkled (those Darbha-blades with water), he should 
throw them into the fire, with (the verse), 'Thou 
who art the lord of cattle, Rudra, who walkest with 
the lines (of cattle), the manly one : do no harm to 
our cattle ; let this be offered to thee. Svaha ! ' 

20. Tpask&k fa pawHvatty. 21. abhighlrya pratyanakty ava- 
danasthanani. 22. na svish/akruo. 23. *mushmai sv&heti ^rihuyad 
yaddevatyaw sySt. 24. svish/akn'taA sakri'd upastirya dvir 

Bhrig&n&m sakr/d dhavisho [sic] dvir abhigh&rySgnaye svish/akrite 
svaheti pr£gudMya»» §nhuyat. 25. samidham adhlya. 26. dar- 
bhan &gye havishi va trir avadhayagramadhyamftlany aktaw rihina 
viyantu vaya ity abhyukshyagniv anuprahared yaA pamnam adhi- 
patt Rudras tanti£aro vr/sha p&rfin asma^azK ma himstr etad astu 
hutan tava svaheti. 

Digitized by 


39 2 khAdira-g/s/hya-sOtra. 

27. This (ceremony is called) Ya^»avistu. 

28. He should perform it at all (sacrifices). 

29. The remnants of the Havis he should take 
away in a northern direction, and should give them 
to the Brahman. 

30. A full vessel constitutes the fee for the sacri- 

31. Or as much as he can afford. 

Khajvda 2. 

1. By one who has not set up the sacred fires, 
a mess of cooked food, sacred to Agni, is offered at 
the festivals of the full and new moon ; 

2. By one who has set them up, one sacred to 
Agni and Soma at the full moon ; 

3. One sacred to Indra, or to Mahendra, or to 
Indra and Agni, at the new moon ; 

4. Or as (the sacrifice is performed) by one who 
has not set up the sacred fires. 

5. The time at which the morning oblation may 
be offered, is the whole day ; 

6. For the evening oblation the night ; 

7. For the sacrifice of the full moon the whole 
second fortnight (of the month) ; 

27. tad ya^/favastu. 28. sarvatra kurySd. 29. dhavir u£Mish- 
/am udag udv&sya brahmawe dadyat. 30. pflr«apdtraw dakshiwS. 
31. yathotsahaw vS. 

2, 1. Agneya sthallpSkoinShMgner darjapflr«am4sayor. 2. agnt- 
shomfyaA paurwamSsyam ahitagner. 3. aindro mahendro vaindrdgno 
vamavasyaya/fl. 4. yatM vanahitagnes. 5. sarvam ahaA prStara- 
hute sthana»z. 6. ratris sayamShutes. 7. sarvo»parapakshaA 

28 deest. 29-31 = 1, 9, 1. 6. 11. 

2, i-4 = Gobhila I, 8, 22-25. 5-14 = 1, 9, 14 seqq. 

Digitized by 


II PA7\ALA, 2 KHANDA, 1 9. 393 

8. For the sacrifice of the new moon the first 

9. Some say that he should keep his vow (until 
the sacrifice is performed) by abstaining from food. 

10. If (the proper) sacrificial food is wanting, let 
him offer fruits of sacrificially pure (plants or trees); 

11. Or leaves (of such plants or trees) ; 

12. Or water. 

1 3. For (even if he offers water) the sacrifice has 
been performed. 

14. A penance (is prescribed) for one who does 
not perform the sacrifice. 

15. If no Havis is indicated, one should offer 

16. The deity (only should be named), if no 
Mantra is indicated. 

17. In the third month of the first pregnancy (of 
the sacrificer's wife he should perform) the Pum- 
savana (i. e. the ceremony to secure the birth of 
a son). 

18. After she has bathed, her husband should 
put on her a (new) garment that has not yet been 
washed, and after having sacrificed he should stand 
behind her. 

19. Grasping down over her right shoulder he 

8. pftrvapaksho dawasya. 9. »bhqg r anena santanuyad ity eke. 
10. »vidyamane havye yagfiiy&n§im phalani ^rihuyat. 11. palarani 
v&. 12. »pova\ 13. hutaw hi. 14. priiyaj&ttam ahutasyS. 15. 
•gyatl £iihuyad dhavisho«nad&?e. 16. devata [corr. devataw?] 
mantranadeje. 17. prathamagarbhe trrtiye masi puwsavanazn. 
18. snatam ahatena£Mdya hutva patiA pr;sh/$atas tishMed. 19. 
dakshi»am awsam anvabhimr/jyanantarhitaw (°hita««, "hitan, the 
MSS.) nabhidejam abhimrwet puma/wsav ity. 

15, 16 desunt. 17-23 = 11, 6. 

Digitized by 


394 khAdira-gk/hya-s6tra. 

should touch the uncovered place of her navel with 
(the verse), ' The two men ' (MB. I, 4, 8). 

20. Then another (ceremony). Having bought 
for three times seven barley corns or beans, a 
Nyagrodha-shoot which has fruits on both sides, 
which is not dry, and not touched by worms, he 
should set that up with (the formula), 'Ye herbs 
everywhere, being well-minded, bestow strength on 
this (shoot) ; for it will do its work.' 

21. He then should take it and place it in the 
open air. 

22. A girl, or a (wife) addicted (to her husband), 
or a student, or a Brahma#l should pound (that 
Nyagrodha-shoot) without moving backward (the 
stone with which she pounds it). 

23. (The husband) should make (the wife) who 
has bathed, lie down, and should insert (that pounded 
substance) into her right nostril with (the verse), 
' A man is Agni ' (MB. I, 4, 9). 

24. Then in the fourth or sixth month (of her 
pregnancy) the Slmantonnayana (or parting of the 
hair is performed) for her. 

25. After she has bathed, her husband should 
put on her a garment that has not yet been washed, 

20. athapara« nyagrodlmungam ubhayata^phalim asrimam 
akrmiiparisr/'ptazB trissaptair yavai// parikriyottMpayen mashair va 
sarvatraushadhayas sumanaso bhfitvd (hutvd, hutvi/B the MSS.) 
isyaw vIrya/« samadhatteyaw karma karishyatfty. 21. ahritya 
vaihayasiw kuryat. 22. kumari vratavati brahma^r! brfthmam vi 
peshayed apratyaharanti. 23. snata/« samvesya. dakshiwe nasika- 
srotasy asiw&H puman Agnir ity. 24. athasy&r faturthe masi 
shash//fe va simantonnayanaw. 25. snitam ahatenaMadya hutva 
pati/z pr/sh/^atas tish/Zzann anupfirvaya phalavr/ksh&fikhaya' sakrri. 
simantam unnayet truvetaya jalnlyayam fiiyavato v/Yksha iti. 

24-27 = 11, 7, 1 seqq. 

Digitized by 


II PATALA, 2 KHANDA, 34. 395 

and after having sacrificed, he should stand behind 
her and should part her hair once with a well-pro- 
portioned (?) branch of a tree, on which there are 
fruits, (and) with a porcupine's quill that has three 
white spots, with (the verse), ' Rich in sap is this 
tree ' (MB. I, 5, 1). 

26. While she looks at a mess of boiled rice with 
sesamum seeds, covered with ghee, he should ask 
her, 'What dost thou see ? ' 

27. He should make her reply, 'Offspring !' 

28. When the child is appearing, the sacrifice for 
the woman in labour (is to be performed) — 

29. With the two verses, 'She who athwart' 
(MB. I, 5, 6 seq.). 

30. He should give a name to the child, 'N. N. !' 

31. That (is his) secret (name). 

32. Before the navel-string is cut off and the 
breast is given (to the child, the father) should have 
rice and barley grains pounded in the way prescribed 
for the Nyagrodha- shoot (see Sutra 22). 

33. He should take thereof with his (right) thumb 
and fourth finger and give it to the child to eat, 
with (the formula), ' This order' (MB. I, 5, 8). 

34. And butter with (the verse), 'May intelligence 
to thee' (MB. I, 5, 9). 

26. knsarasthaltpakam uttaraghr/tam aveksha[n]ttm pr/'XMet 
kirn pajyaslti. 27. pra^am iti vafayet. 28. pratish/^ite vastau 
soshyantihomaA. 29. ya tirar^iti dvabhyam. 30. asav iti nama 
dadhyat. 31. tad guhyaw. 32. pran nabhikrmtanat stanadaruU- 
to. vrlhiyavau peshaye^ Mungav/Yta. 33. *ngush/>4enan&mikay& 
Mdaya kumaraw prarayed iyam a§7?eti. 34. sarpiV £a medhan 
ta iti. 

28-34 = 11, 7,13 seqq. 

Digitized by 


396 khadira-g/uhya-sCtra. 

Khajvda 3. 

i. On the third (Tithi) of the third bright fort- 
night after his birth, the father should have the child 
bathed in the morning, and after sunset he should, 
holding up his joined hands, towards the auspicious 
directions (of the horizon), worship the moon. 

2. The mother, having dressed (the son) in a 
clean (garment), should hand him, with his face 
turned to the north, to the father. 

3. She then should pass behind (her husband's) 
back, and should station herself towards the north. 

4. After he has performed worship (to the moon) 
with the three (verses), ' Thy heart, O thou with 
the well-parted hair' (MB. I, 5, 10 seqq.), and has 
handed over the son, turning him towards the north, 
to his mother, he should pour water out of his joined 
hands with (the verse), 'What in the moon' (1. 1. 13). 

5. (He should do the same) twice silently. 

6. After a period of ten nights, or of a hundred 
nights, or of one year after (the child's birth) he 
should give him a name. 

7. He who is going to perform (that ceremony — 
the father or a representative of the father), after he 

3, 1. ganan&g ^yautsne tr/'tiye tritfy&y&m prata snapya kumaram 
astam ite jantisu dikshu piti fondramasam upatish/Aet pT&xgaMA. 
2. suMmkAMya. mata prayaMed udakfirasam. 3. anupr»shMa« 
gatvottaratas tish/^ed. 4. yat te susima iti tisrzbhir upastha- 
yodznidjn matre pradaya yad ada ity apam afigzMm avasi&ted. 
5. dvis tflsh»i;«. 6. ^ananad flrdhvaw dajar&tra^ Mataratrit sa»»- 
vatsarSd va nama kuryat. 7. snSpya kumira« karishyata upa- 
vish/asya m-ttnaX'Mdya mata prayaMed udakrirasam. 

3, i-5 = Gobhila II, 8, 1-7. 6-1 2 = 11, 8, 8-17. 

Digitized by 


II PAFALA, 3 KHANDA, I 7. 397 

has had the boy bathed, should sit down, and the 
mother, having dressed him in a clean (garment), 
should hand him, with his face turned to the north, 
to the performer (of the ceremony). 

8. She then should walk around behind (his) back 
and should sit down towards the north. 

9. He should sacrifice and should touch the sense- 
organs at (the boy's) head with the (Mantra), ' Who 
art thou?' (MB. I, 5, 14, 15.) 

10. ' N. N. ! ' — (at the place thus indicated in the 
Mantra) he should give him a name. 

1 1 . The same (he should pronounce) at the end 
of the Mantra. 

12. He should tell it to the mother first. 

13. (The father) when returning from a journey, 
should grasp (with his two hands) his son round the 
head, with (the verses), ' From limb by limb ' (MB. 
I, 5, 16-18). 

14. With (the formula), 'With the cattle's' (1.1. 
19), he should kiss him. 

15. Silently (he should do the same) with a 

16. In the third year the tonsure (of the child's 
head is performed). 

1 7. There the barber, warm water, a mirror, or a 

8. anupn'sh/4a« gatvottarata upavijed. 9. dhutvS ko»siti tasya 
mukhyan pra«an abhimrwed. 10. asav iti nama kuryat. 11. tad 
eva mantrante. 12. matre prathamam SkhySya. 13. vipro- 
shyang&d angSd iti putrasya mtirdblnaw parigrrtimyit. 14. pajfi- 
r&m tvety abhjgighret. 15. t&shwto? striyas. 16. trrtfye varshe 
£aulan. 17. tatra n&pita ushwodakam adawaA kshuro vaudum- 
baraA pi^filya iti dakshiwata. 

I3- I 5= II » 8 . 21-25* i6-33 =II » 9- 

Digitized by 


398 khadira-gk/hya-sOtra. 

razor of Udumbara-wood, and (Darbha)-blades (are 
placed) towards the south. 

1 8. A bull's dung and a mess of boiled rice with 
sesamum seeds which may be more or less cooked, 
to the north ; 

19. And the mother with the son in her lap. 

20. (The performer of the ceremony), after having 
sacrificed, should look, with (the Mantra), ' Hither 
has come' (MB. I, 6, 1), at the barber, fixing his 
thoughts on (the god) Savitf*. 

21. With (the Mantra), ' With warm water' (1. 1. 2), 
he should look at the warm water, fixing his thoughts 
on Vayu. 

22. With (the Mantra), ' May the waters ' (1.1. 3), 
he moistens (the boy's hair). 

23. With (the Mantra), 'Vishmi's' (1.1. 4), he 
should look at the mirror or at the razor of Udum- 

24. With (the Mantra), 'Herb!' (1.1. 5) he puts 
seven Darbha-blades, with their points upwards 
(i. e. towards the boy's head ?), into (his hair). 

25. With (the formula), 'Axe !' (1. 1. 6) (he presses 
them down) with the mirror or with the razor of 

26. With (the Mantra), 'With which Pushan' 
(1. 1. 7), he should move forward (the razor) three 

18. aiWuho gomayaA kn'sarasthalfpako vrrihapakva ityuttarato. 
19. mata ka. kumaram adaya. 20. hutvayam agad iti nSpitaw 
prekshet Savitaraw dhyiyann. 21. ush«enety ush«odakaw prekshed 
Vayuw dhyayann. 22. apa ity untte (ante, umde, unwte, uhte 
the MSS.). 23. Vishwor ity adanaw prekshetaudumbara»* vau. 
24. ishadha iti darbhapiw^lis saptordhvagra abhinidhSya. 25. sva- 
dhita ity adarjena kshure«audumbare«a va\ 26. yena Pfisheti da- 
kshiwatas triA prohet. 

Digitized by 


II PAFALA, 4 KHAiVBA, 3. 399 

times towards the east on the right side (of the 
boy's hair). 

27. Cutting (the hair) once with a razor of metal 
he should throw the hair on the bull's dung. 

28. The same rites, beginning from the moisten- 
ing (of the hair, are repeated) on the left side and 
on the back side (of the child's head). 

29. Grasping (with his two hands) the boy round 
his head he should murmur (the verse), ' The three- 
fold age' (1.1. 8). 

30. Walking away (from the fire) in a northern 
direction he should have the arrangement of (the 
boy's) hair made according to the custom of his 
Gotra and of his family. 

31. Let them bury the hair in the forest. 

32. Some throw them on a bunch (of grass or 
the like). 

33. A cow constitutes the sacrificial fee. 

KhalNda 4. 

1. Let him initiate a Brahma«a in his eighth year. 

2. For him the time (for being initiated) has 
not passed until his sixteenth (year). 

3. In the eleventh a Kshatriya. 

fj. sakr»'d Syasena praMidyanai/uhe gomaye kcran kuryad. 28. 
undanaprabhrrty evaw parted uttarataj fa. 29. tryayusham iti 
putrasya mfirdhanaw parigr*hya gaped. 30. udanh utsr»'pya kiwa- 
likarayed yathagotrakulakalpam. 31. arawye kej&n nikhaneyuA. 
32. stambe nidadhaty eke. 33. gaur dakshi«5. 

4, 1. ash/ame varshe brdhmanam upanayet. 2. tasya shot/arad 
anatftaA kala. 3. ekadare kshatriyam. 

4, i = Gobhila II, 10. 

Digitized by 


400 khAdira-gk/hya-sutra. 

4. For him (the time has not passed) until the 

5. In the twelfth a VaLrya. 

6. For him (the time has not passed) until the 

7. After (the student's) hair has been arranged, 
and he has been adorned, and dressed in a gar- 
ment which has not yet been washed, (the teacher) 
should sacrifice with (the Mantras which the stu- 
dent recites), 'Agni! Lord of the vow!' (MB. 

8. He should cause (the student) to stand north- 
wards of the fire, facing the west, and to join his 

9. And he should himself join his hands above 
(the student's hands). 

10. A Brahma«a versed in the Mantras who 
stands towards the south, should fill the teacher's 
joined hands with water. 

1 1. While (the student?) looks at him, (the teacher) 
should murmur (the Mantra), 'With him who comes 
to us' (MB. I, 6, 14). 

12. (The student) to whom (the teacher) has said, 
'What is thy name?' should pronounce a name 
which he is to use at respectful salutations, derived 
from (the name of) a deity or a Nakshatra, ' I am 
N.N.!' (1.1. 17.) 

4. tasyS dvaviwrad. 5. dvadaje vauyaw. 6. tasyS >bturvi»iidt. 

7. kujalikr/tam alawkrrtam ahatenaMadya hutvagne vratapata ity. 

8. uttaratoigneA pratyaftmukham avasthSpyS%aliw karayet. 9. 
svayaw Xopari kuryad. 10. dakshiwatas tish/Aan mantra van brSh- 
mawa aMryayodaka^alim purayed. n. agantreti £upet preksha- 
ma«e [sic]. 12. ko namasity ukto devatafraya»» nakshatiijraya« 
vabhivadantyaw nama bruyad asav asmity. 

Digitized by 



1 3. Having let the water run (out of his joined 
hands over the student's hands) the teacher should 
seize with his two hands, holding the right upper- 
most, (the student's) joined hands, with (the formula), 
' By the impulse of the god SavitW (1.1. 18). 

14. With (the formula), 'Move in the sun's course' 
(1. 1. 19) he should make him turn round from left to 

15. Grasping down over his right shoulder he 
should touch his uncovered navel with (the formula), 
' (Thou art the knot) of all breath ' (1. 1. 20). 

16. He then should give him in charge (to the 
gods) with the Antaka and the other formulas 
(1. 1. 20 seqq.). 

17. (He touches) his right shoulder with (the for- 
mula), 'To Pra^apati (I give) thee (in charge)' (1.1. 23), 

18. His left shoulder with his left (hand) with 
(the formula), ' To the god Savitri (I give) thee (in 
charge) ' (1. 1. 24). 

19. Having directed him (to observe the duties 
of Brahma^arya, by the formula), 'A student art 
thou' (1. 1. 25, 26), (the teacher) sitting down should 
from left to right tie round the student, who bends 
his right knee and clasps his hands, the girdle made 
of Mu%a grass, and should cause him to repeat (the 
verse), ' Protecting us from evil word ' (1. 1. 27). 

13. utsngyapo devasya ta iti dakshiwottarabhyaw hast&bhy&m 
arigalim gr*h«iyad a£aryas. 14. Sftryasyeti pradakshwam avartayed. 
15. dakshiwam awsam anvavamr/'.syanantarhit£#z n&bhim alabhet 
pra«&n£m ity. 16. athainaw paridadyad antakaprabhrztibhir. 17. 
dakshinam amsam Pra^&pataye tveti. 18. savyena savyaw dev&ya 
tveti. 19. brahma^Sry asiti sawpreshyopavwya (sawprekshy", 
saraprokshy" the MSS.) dakshiwa^Snvaktam a^galikr/taOT prada- 
kshinam mu^amekhalSm Sbadhnan va^ayed iyam duruktad ity. 
[29] D d 

Digitized by 


402 khAdira-gk/hya-sOtra. 

20. With (the words), ' Recite, sir ! ' (the student) 
should respectfully sit down near (the teacher). 

21. He then recites the Savitrl (1.1. 29) to him, 
Pada by Pida, hemistich by hemistich, (and finally) 
the whole — thus he should teach him the Savitrl, 

22. And the Mahavyahmis, one by one, 

23. And the word Om. 

24. He hands over to him the staff, which should 
be made of (the wood of) a tree — 

25. With (the formula which the student has to 
recite), 'O glorious one, make me glorious' (1.1. 31). 

26. Let him put a piece of wood (on the fire) with 
(the verse), ' To Agni a piece of wood' (1. 1. 32). 

27. Let him go to beg food ; 

28. First of his mother, 

29. Then of other women friends. 

30. He should announce the alms (received) to 
his teacher. 

31. He should stand silently till sunset. 

32. Through a period of three nights he should 
avoid eating saline food and drinking milk. 

Khajvba 5. 
1. At the Godana (or cutting of the beard) the 

20. adhihi bho ity upasidet. 21. tasma - anvaha sivitrlw paiMo 
xrdhar&uas sarvam iti sdvitriwz v&£ayed. 22. mahSvya^ir/tif fcu- 
kaikaxa. 23. owk6ra# £a. 24. praya&4aty asmai varksha« 
da.tida.rn. 25. surravas siuravasam mcti. 26. samidham idadhyid 
Agnaye samidham iti. 27. bhaiksham £aren. 28. mdtaram agre. 
29. .thanyas suhri'da. 30. £#iry£ya bhaikshan nivedayet. 31. 
tish/Aed astamayat tflshwfw. 32. trirdtraw kshSralavawe dugdham 
iti vaiyayet. 

5, 1. atha god&ne taulavat kalpaA. 

5, i-2i = Gobhila III, 1. 

Digitized by 


II PArALA, 5 KHANDA, 1 4. 403 

rite is identical with the ^"aula (cutting of the hair ; 
see above, chap. 3, 16 seqq.). 

2. He should have (his beard) and the hair of 
his body shaven. 

3. The sacrificial fee consists of an ox and a cow, 
or of a pair of horses, or of sheep, for the (three) 
castes respectively, 

4. Or of a cow for all (castes). 

5. A goat (is given) to the person who catches up 
the hair. 

6. The initiation (connected with the Godanakar- 
man, &c.) has been declared. 

7. (One should) not initiate one who does not 
intend to keep the vow through one year. 

8. (The use of) a garment, however, which has 
not yet been washed (see chap. 4, 7), is not prescribed 

9. Nor the adornment (chap. 4, 7). 

10. (The observances prescribed for the Godana- 
vrata are the following :) 

He should sleep on the ground. 

11. He should avoid eating honey and flesh. 

12. He should avoid sexual intercourse, shaving, 
(luxurious) bathing, combing his head, and cleansing 
his teeth and his feet (in a luxurious way). 

1 3. nasya kame reta skandet. 

14. Let him not mount a chariot yoked with 

2. salomaw vSpayed. 3. gouvavimithunani dakshiȣA prrthag 
varwanSai. 4. sarveshSw va" gaur. 5. a^aA k&rapratigrahayo. 
6. »ktam upanayanaw. 7. na£arishyanta« samvatsaram. 8. ani- 
yuktan tv ahatam. 9. athalawkSro. 10. *dhassa«vwy. u.ama- 
dhumSwzsarf sy&n. 12. maithunakshurakr/tyasnanivalekhanadanta- 
dh&vanapadadhavan&nf vaigayen. 13. nasya kdme reta skanden. 
14. na goyuktam arohen. 

D d 2 

Digitized by 


404 khadira-gk/hya-sOtra. 

15. Nor (wear) shoes in the village. 

16. Wearing the girdle, going the rounds for 
alms, (carrying) a staff, putting fuel (on the fire), 
touching water, reverentially saluting (the teacher) 
in the morning : (these are the) standing (duties). 

17. The Godana- vrata, the Vratika-vrata, the 
Aditya-vrata, the Upanishad-vrata, and the Gyesh- 
/^asama-vrata (last) one year (each). 

18. The Aditya-vrata some (do) not (undergo). 

1 9. They who undergo it, wear one garment. 

20. They allow nothing to be between (themselves 
and) the sun. 

2 1 . And they do not descend into water. 

22. For the .Sakvari verses, twelve, nine, six, or 
three (years through which the Vrata is to be kept) 
make up the various possibilities. 

23. He (who keeps the .Sakvara-vrata) wears 
dark clothes. 

24. He eats dark food. 

25. He is entirely addicted to his teacher. 

26. He should stand in day-time. 

27. He should sit at night. 

28. According to some (teachers, the Vrata may 
last only) one year, if the ancestors (of the student) 
have learnt (the .Sakvart verses). 

15. na grama upanahau. 16. mekhaladhara»abhaiksha£ara»a- 
da»(fasamidadhanopaspawanapratarabhivida nityaw. 17. godana- 
vratikadityavratopanisha^gyesh/Aasamikas sawvatsarS. 18. naditya- 
vratam ekeshaw. 19. ye taranty ekavSsaso bhavanty. 20. Sdit- 
ya« ka. nantardadhate. 21. na £apo«bhyupayanti. 22. jakvarfaam 
dvadaja nava sha/trayaiti vikalpaA. 23. kr;'sh»avastraA. 24. 
kr/sh«abhaksha. 25. a£ary&dhinas. 26. tishMed divd. 27. »sita 
naktaw. 28. sawvatsaram ekesham pfirvair smtas ied. 

22-34 = 111, 2. 

Digitized by 


II PAFALA, 5 KHAVDA, 35. 405 

29. (The teacher) should sing (those verses) to 
(the student) who has fasted and veiled his eyes 
(thinking), 'May (the teacher) not burn me (with 
the .Sakvarl verses).' 

30. In the morning they make (the student) look 
at such things as they expect will not burn him, 
viz. water, fire, a calf, the sun. 

31. At water (he should look) with (the words), 
' Water have I beheld ! ' At fire with (the words), 
' Light have I beheld !' At the calf with (the words), 
'Cattle have I beheld!' At the sun with (the 
words), 'The sky have I beheld!' — thus he should 
break his silence. 

32. A cow is the fee (for the teacher), 

33. A brazen vessel, a garment, and a golden 

34. At the Anuprava^anlya ceremonies (see Arva- 
layana-G^'hya I, 22, 12) he should sacrifice Agya 
with (the two verses), 'To the Rik, to the Saman 
we sacrifice' (Sama-veda I, 369), and, 'The lord of 
the seat' (Sv. I, 171). 

35. If he has touched a fire-altar or a sacrificial 
post, if he has humming in his ears, or if his eye 

29. uposhitaya pari»addhakshay£nug£payed yatha' ma na pra- 
dhakshyatiti. 30. tarn pratar abhivfkshayand yany apradhakshy- 
anti manyante*po*gniz» vatsam adityam. 31. apo abhivyakhyam 
ity apo ^yotir abhivyakhyam ity agniw p&rtin abhivyakhyam id 
vatsajw sur [sic] abhivyakhyam ity adityaw visr*£ed vSiaw. 32. 
gaur dakshi»&. 33. kamso vaso rukm&r k&. 34. * nupravafant- 
yeshv rikam sSma Sadasaspatim id A&gyam guhuy&A. 35. £itya- 
yflpopasparjanakarwakrojakshivepaneshu sflrySbhyuditas sflrytbhi- 
nimrukta indriyau ka. pSpaspawaW punar mSm ity et&bhyam Shuttr 
(correct, ahutt ?) ^uhuyad. 

35-37 =111, 3, 34-36- 

Digitized by 


406 khadira-gk/hya-sCtra. 

palpitates, or if the sun rises or sets while he is 
sleeping, or if his organs of sense have been denied 
by something bad, he should sacrifice two oblations 
of A^ya with the two (verses), ' May (my strength) 
return to me;' 

36. Or two pieces of wood anointed with A^ya. 

37. Or he may murmur (those verses) at light 
(offences). Or he may murmur (those verses) at 
light (offences). 

End of the Second Pa/ala. 

36. a^yalipte vi samidhau. 37. ^aped vS laghushu, ^aped va 
laghushu. dvitiyapa/alaA. 

Digitized by 


Ill PA7ALA, I KUANDA, 1 3. 407 


i. When (the student) is going to take the bath 
(at the end of his studentship), he seats himself in 
an enclosure to the east of his teacher's house. 

2. The teacher (sits) facing the north, 

3. On eastward-pointed (Darbha-grass). 

4. Thus one (should act) who is desirous of holy 

5. (The student should sit) in a cow-stable, if he 
is desirous of cattle, 

6. In an assembly-hall, if desirous of renown. 

7. Let him boil water with all kinds of herbs, 

8. And with scents. 

9. With that water, which must be lukewarm, the 
teacher should besprinkle (the student). 

10. Or (the student should do so) himself, because 
that is signified by the Mantra. 

11. Some say that both (should do so). 

12. The teacher should say (in the Mantra), 
'Therewith (I besprinkle) him,' (instead of, 'There- 
with I besprinkle myself). 

13. With (the verses), 'Which in the waters' 
(MB. I, 7, 1) (the student) should pour out his joined 
hands full of water ; 

III, 1, 1. aplavane purastSd SMryakulasya parivrs'ta asta. 2. 
udahmukha SMryzA. 3. pr&gagreshv. 4. eva»» brahmavaivtasa- 
k&mo. 5. gosh/fte parakSmas. 6. sabhiyam yajaskimai. 7. 
sarvaushadhenapaA phinayet. 8. surabhibhw £a. 9. t&bhir rftosh- 
«abhir ££aryo*bhishi#£et. 10. svayaw v& mantr&bhivSdftd. 11. 
ubhav ity eke. 12. tenemam ity &A&ryo brfiy&d. 13. ye apsv ity 
apSm anjg-alim avasi#£ed. 

Ill, 1, i~32=Gobhila III, 4, 7 seqq. (4-6, 1 1, 12, 15, 20 desunt). 


Digitized by' 

408 khadira-gjuhya-sOtra. 

14. And with (the formula), ' What (is dreadful) ' 
in the waters ' (1. 1. 2) ; 

1 5. And silently. 

16. With (the formula), 'The shining one' (1.1. 3), 
he should draw (some water) and should besprinkle 
himself (therewith) ; 

1 7. And with (the verse), ' By which the wife ' 

(1-1. 5); 

18. And silently. 

19. With (the formulas), 'Rising' (1.1. 6-8), he 
should worship the sun. 

20. He may repeat (the sections of that Mantra) 

21. If he repeats them separately, he should add 
at the end (of each section), ' The eye art thou ' 
(1. 1. 9). 

22. With (the verse), 'Loosen the highest ' (1. 1. 10), 
he should take off the girdle. 

23. After he has eaten something, he should have 
his hair, his beard, the hair of his body, and his nails 
cut, so as to leave the lock of hair (as required by 
the custom of his family). 

24. Having adorned himself and put on clothes 
which have not yet been washed, he should put 
a garland (on his head) with (the formula), ' Luck ' 
(1.1. 11). 

25. The two shoes (he puts on) with (the formula), 
' Leaders are you ' (1. 1. 1 2). 

14. yad apam iti X-a. 15. tfish»i# ka,. 16. yo ro£ana iti 
gr/hyatmanam abhishiwXed. 17. yena striyam iti fa. 18. tflsh- 
nm ko. 19. idyann ity adityam upatish/Aet. 20. samasyed va. 
21. viharann anusawharei fokshur aslty. 22. ud uttamam iti me- 
khalam avamu/Wet. 23. prajya vSpaye£ kMk&vargam ker&rma- 
jrulomanakMny. 24. alawk/v'toihatavasasa - srfr iti sra^aw? prati- 
muwfen. 25. netryau stha ity upanahau. 

Digitized by 


Ill PAFALA, I KHANDA, 38. 409 

26. With (the formula), 'The Gandharva art thou' 
(1. 1. 1 3), he takes a bamboo staff. 

27. He should approach the teacher and look at 
the assembly (of pupils, &c.) with (the formula), 
' Like an eye-ball ' (1. 1. 14). 

28. Sitting down, he should touch the sense- 
organs at his head with (the Mantra), ' Covered by 
the lips' (1.1. 15). 

29. Let him touch a chariot yoked with oxen, 
with (the verse), 'O tree' (1. 1. 16). 

30. With (the words), ' He who stands on thee ' 
(1. 1. 16), he should mount it. 

31. Having driven (some distance) in an eastern 
or northern direction, he should turn round from 
left to right. 

32. Some say that when he has come back, (his 
teacher should offer to him) the Argha reception. 

33. From that time he shall assume a dignified 

34. na^atalomnyopahasam i/66^et. 

35. Nor (should he wish for sport) with a girl 
who is the only child of her mother, 

36. Nor with a woman during her courses, 

37. Nor with (a woman) who descends from the 
same Htshis. 

38. Let him not eat food which has been brought 

26. vaiwavaro da»</am adadyad Gandharvo«sity. 27. upetya- 
£aryam parishadam prekshed yaksham ivety. 28. upavijyaush/Aa- 
pidhaneti mukhyan pranan abhimmed. 29. goyuktaw ratham 
ilabhed vanaspata ity. 30. asthata ta ity arohet. 31. pra^im 
praydyodt£i/» vS gatva 1 pradakshwam ivartayet. 32. pratyagata- 
yirghyam ity eke. 33. vrztidharilf sySd ata flrdhvaw. 34. n§g£- 
talomnyopah&sam iAMen. 35. nayugyd (read, niyugvS). 36. na 
ra^asvalayS. 37. na samanarshya. 38. »parayS dvari prapannaA 
(read, prapanna-) dviApakvaparyushitani narniyad. 

33-44=111, 5 (40 deest). 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

41 o khAdira-g/j/hya-sOtra. 

by another door (than the usual), or which has been 
cooked twice, or which has stood over-night — 

39. Except such as is prepared of vegetables, 
flesh, barley, or flour — 

40. Or of milk. 

41. He shall avoid gathering fruits, looking into 
wells, running while it is raining, and taking his 
shoes in his hands. 

42. He should not wear a scentless wreath, 

43. If it is not a wreath of gold. 

44. He should not use the word ' blessed* without 
a reason. 

45. If he is desirous of thriving (in his cattle), he 
should with (the Mantra), ' May these' (MB. I, 8, 1) 
have his cows driven out. 

46. When they have come back, (he should recite 
the Mantra), 'These which are rich in sweet' (1.1. 2). 

47. If he is desirous of thriving (in his cattle), he 
should lick the forehead of the first-born calf, before 
it is licked by its mother, and should gulp with (the 
formula), (' Thou art the phlegm) of the cows ' (1. 1. 3). 

48. When the cows have calved, he should at 
night sacrifice in the cow-stable churned curds with 
drops of ghee, with (the verse), ' Seizer ' (1. 1. 4). 

39. anyatra .rakam&wsayavapish/avikarebhya^. 40. piyasa* £a. 
4 1 . phalapra£ayanodapan£vekshaftavarshatidh$vanopanatsvayamha- 
ra/zani na kuryan. 42. nagandhaw sra^am dharaycn. 43. na 
fed dhirawyasrag. 44. bhadram iti na vrrtM vyiharet. 45. push- 
/ikamo g&A prakalayed ima 1 ma iti. 46. pratySgata' ima" madhu- 
matir iti. 47. push/ik&ma eva prathama^&tasya vatsasya prih 
matu^ pralehanftl lala/am ullihya nigired gavSm iti. 48. sampra- 
^itasu gosh/Ae nirayaw vilayanatf ^nhuyat sawgrahawety. 

45-52= HI, 6. 

Digitized by 


Ill PAfALA, 2 KHANDA, 4. 4II 

49. Now another (ceremony). He should make 
marks on the ears of a male and of a female calf 
with (the formula), ' The world art thou ' (1. 1. 5, 6). 

50. First on the male. 

51. He should recite over them (the Mantra), 
' With metal' (1. 1. 7). . 

52. When the rope (to which the calves are bound) 
is spread out, (let him recite over it the Mantra), 
'This rope '(1.1. 8). 

Khawda 2. 

1. On the full-moon day of (the month) .Srava»a, 
let him carry forward fire from his house, and let 
him besmear (the place around it) to the extent of 
more than one prakrama (i. e. step) towards the 
different directions (of the horizon). 

2. Having once taken a quantity of flour, and 
having put it into (the spoon called) Darvi, he should 
pour out water on the besmeared place to the east 
(of the fire), and should offer a Bali with (the 
formula), (' O king of serpents) dwelling towards 
the east' (MB. II, 1, 1). 

3. He should pour out the rest of the water. 

4. Having touched water, he should do the same 

49. athiparaw vatsamithunayoA karwe lakshaaaw kury&d bhu- 
vanam iti. 50. pu/«so»gre. 51. lohitenety anumantrayeta. 52. 
tanttm pras&rit&m iyan tantiti. 

2, 1. sT&vany&m paur»am£syib» grzhad agnim atiprawlya prati- 
duam upalimped adhike prakrame. 2. sakr/dgr/WtSn saktfln 
darvySw kfi'tva" pfirvopalipte ninlySpo ysJt pra^yam iti baliw nir- 
vapen. 3. ninayed apa/» jesham. 4. apa upasprwyaivaw prati- 
dlram yathilihgam. 

2, 1-7. 14. i5=III, 7- 

Digitized by 



towards the other directions (of the horizon) accord- 
ing as they are mentioned in the Mantras. 

5. Between (the besmeared surface) towards the 
south and that towards the east and the fire (there 
should be) a passage. 

6. After he has thrown tlje remnants (of flour) out 
of the basket into the fire, he should go from (the 
fire) which has been carried forward, to that (fire) 
which has not (been carried forward), and should 
turn his hands downwards (so as to touch the earth 
with them) and should murmur (the Mantra), ' Ado- 
ration to the earth's ' (1. 1. 3). 

7. Thence rising he should place (to the north of 
the fire) a bunch of Darbha-grass with (the Mantra), 
' The king Soma' (1. 1. 4), and should fix his thoughts 
on the serpents that are in that bunch. 

8. Taking a portion of fried grain, he should go 
out of the village in a northern or eastern direction, 
and should sacrifice it with his joined hands with 
the four (verses), 'Hearken, Rika!' (MB. II, 6, 2 

9. Walking eastwards he should murmur, ' Be a 
giver of wealth ' (1. 1. 6). 

10. Thus three times to the different quarters and 
intermediate quarters (of the horizon). 

5. dakshi«apaj£ime antare»Sgni# ia samkarafi. 6. fftrpe«a«sh- 
/an agnSv opyStipramtSd anatiprawitasydrdhaw gatva" nyaftiau pa^if 
kr/'tvd namah Pr/'thivya iti ^apet. 7. tata utth&ya Somo ra^eti 
darbhastambam upasthaya (correct, upasthSpya) stambasth&n sarp&n 
manasa dhyayann. 8. akshadn Sd&ya praft vodah vS. gram&n nish- 
kramya ^uhuyad a^alina haye RSka iti £atasr/bhiA. 9. prSn 
utkramya ^aped vasuvana edhiti. 10. tris triA pratidLram avan- 
taradereshu io. 

8-t3 = IY, 8, 1 seqq. (10 deest). 

Digitized by 


Ill PAFALA, 2 KHAW.DA, 22. 413 

11. Looking upwards (he should offer a Bali) to 
the hosts of divine beings, 

12. (Looking) towards the side, to the hosts of 
other beings ; 

1 3. Looking downwards, he should go back (to the 
fire) without looking back, and should eat the fried 

14. On the following day he should prepare flour 
of fried grain, should put it into a new vessel, and 
after sunset he should offer Balis. 

15. (The same is repeated every day) till the 
Agrahayawi day. 

16. On the full-moon day of Praush/^apada (or) 
under (the Nakshatra) Hasta they should begin the 
Veda-study ; 

17. On the full-moon day of vSrava#a, according 
to some (teachers). 

18. Having sacrificed as at the Upanayana — 

19. He should cause (the students) to recite the 

20. (The verse), 'Soma, the king' (Sama-veda 
I, 91), and the first verses of the Parvans. 

21. Let them eat grain and curds with two 
appropriate (verses). 

22. On the following day in the morning let them 
repeat (the Veda) to their pupils. 

11. »rdhva« prekshan devaya^anebhyas (correct, deva^ane- 
bhyas). 12. tiryahft itara^anebhyo. 13. *v£n prekshan pratyetya- 
navekshann akshatan prlmfyai. 14. Mvobh&te»kshatasaktun 
kr*tv& nave patre nidhayastam ite baltn hared. 15. agrahlyawyaA. 
16. praush/Aapadftw hastenadhyayin upakuryuA. 17. jravawfm 
ity eke. 18. hutvopanayanavat. 19. savitrtm anuva&iyet. 20. 
Somaw iSginzm parvadtww £a. 21. dhana dadhi ka. pritrnryur 
abhirfipabhyaw. 22. fvobhute pratar adhfyfrad! Mishyebhyo. 

i6-33=HI, 3 (22. 2 5. *9> 33 desunt). 

Digitized by 


414 khadira-g/uhya-sOtra. 

23. (After each section of the text) they should 
repeat (as a sort of index ?) the beginnings of the 
Rikas and the Prastavas (of the Samans). 

24. Then the Rahasya texts are chanted, 

25. Except when lightning is seen or thunder 

26. When they have studied four months and a 
half, they finish on the full-moon day of Pausha. 

27. From that time studying is forbidden when 
clouds appear, 

28. And when lightning is seen, or thunder heard, 
or when it is drizzling. 

29. When these three things happen together, 
(studying is forbidden) till the twilight has thrice 

30. On an Ash/aka, on a new-moon day, on the 
(three) festivals which come once in four months, and 
at (the beginning of) the northern course of the sun, 
(studying is forbidden) for one night with one day 
before and one day after it. 

31. And if a fellow-pupil has died. 

32. On the falling of a meteor, or after an earth- 
quake, or an eclipse of the sun or of the moon, on 
these occasions one should know (that studying is 
forbidden) until the same time next day. 

33. The Ka/^as and Kauthumas, however, state 

23. *nuvSkyaA kuryur r;'gadibhiA prast&vaix >&. 24. »nugSna*» 
rahasySnaw. 25. vidyutstanayitnuvar^am. 26. ardhapafl£am&n 
m&san adhitya paushim utsargas. 27. tata flrdhvam mantrana- 
dhyayo (correct, abhr&nadhyayo). 28. vidyutstanayitnuvr»sh/iteshu 
(correct, °prusliiteshu or °pr«'shiteshu ; see Ludwig's note on Rig- 
vedaVIII, 1, 12) kz.. 29. trisannip&te trisandhyam. 30. ash/ak&m 
amavasyaw £aturmSsvr udagayane kz. pakshimm ritriw. 31. sa- 
brahma/arim ka. preta. 32. ulkapate bhumi£ale £yotisho.r /fropa- 
sarga eteshv akdlikaw vidyat. 33. karshvan tu Ka/<4akauthum£A. 

Digitized by 


Ill PAFALA, 3 KHAY0A, IO. 415 

that (when rain has fallen, studying is forbidden) as 
long as the water stands in the ditches. 

Khajvaa 3. 

1. On the full-moon day of Ayvayufa milk-rice 
sacred to Rudra (is prepared). 

2. He should offer it with (the Mantra), ' Not to 
our children.' 

3. Let him pour Agya into milk; this is called 
a PWshataka. 

4. Therewith he should besprinkle the cows when 
they have come home, with (the Mantra), 'May 
Mitra and Varu»a' (Sama-veda I, 220). 

5. That night he should let the calves join their 

6. At the sacrifice of the first-fruits, milk-rice 
sacred to Indra and Agni (is prepared). 

7. Let him sacrifice A^ya with the four (verses), 
' To the bearer of the hundred weapons ' (MB. II, 1, 
9 seqq.), 

8. And afterwards with (the verse), 'May Agni 
eat* (1. Li 5). 

9. All of them who have received the initiation, 
should eat the remainder of that (sacrificial food). 

10. Having ' spread under ' water, he should cut 
off two portions of the new fruits. 

3, 1. &s\a,yvg$m Rudraya p&yaso. 2. mi nas toka iti ^uhuyat. 
3. payasy avanayed igy&m tat pr/shatakaw. 4. ten&bhyagata ga" 
ukshed a no Mitrivarvweti. 5. vatsS»w £a mStr/bhis saha vasayet 
t&m T&tiim. 6. navaya^we pdyasa aindr&gnaA. 7. .ratayudhS- 
yeti £atasr/bhir &gya.m ^uhuySd. 8. uparish/Sd AgnLi prlrnitv 
iti 4a. 9. tasya seshzm prlmiyur yavanta upeta. 10. upastfrySpo 
dvir navasyavadyet. 

3, i-i5=Gobhila III, 8 (3 deest). 

Digitized by 


4i 6 khadira-or/hya-sOtra. 

ii. Three (portions are cut off) by descendants of 

1 2. Over (these portions) water (is poured). 

13. He should swallow (some part of that food) 
three times without chewing it, with (the Mantra), 
' From the good ' (1. 1. 13); 

14. Or at (the partaking of) barley with (the 
Mantra), ' This barley ' (1. 1. 16). 

15. With (the Mantra), 'This art thou' (1.1. 14), 
let him touch the different sense-organs at his head. 

16. The Agrahayarca ceremony has been explained 
by the .Srava#a (ceremony). 

1 7. Let him (not ?) murmur (the Mantra), 'Adora- 
tion to the Earth ' (see chap. 2, 6). 

18. In the evening let him make an oblation of 
milk-rice with (the verse), 'As the first' (MB. II, 2, 1). 

19. Turning downwards his two hands (so as to 
touch the sacrificial grass) he should murmur (the 
Mantra), ' In worldly strength ' (1. 1. 2, 3). 

20. Having spread out to the west of the fire a 
layer of northward-pointed grass, so that it is inclined 
towards the north, the householder sits down on that 

2 1 . (And) the other persons in due order. 

22. Then, without an interval, their wives, 

11. trir Bhrzgfiwam. 12. apafl &>parish/£d. 13. bhadran na 
ity asawkhSdya pragiret tris trir. 14. etam u tyam iti vS yavanSm. 
15. amoisiti mukhySn pranan abhimrwed. 16. igrahdyanam 
karma jrdvawenaiva vy&khy&taw. 1 7. namaA Pr/thivya" iti ^apet 
(read, iti na ^apet ?). 18. pradoshe payasasya ^uhuyit prathameti. 
19. nyaftfou pawi kr/tv& prati kshatra iti^apet. 20. par£ad agne 
svastaram udagagrais tr/'«air udakpravawam asttrya tasminn asta- 
ra«e gr/hapatir aste. 21. «nupflrvam itare. 22. «nantara bhdryaA. 

16-31=111, 9 and 10, 1-17 (29 deest). 

Digitized by 


Ill PATALA, 4 KHAJVOA, I. 417 

23. And their children. 

24. The householder, turning his hands downwards 
(so as to touch the layer of grass), should murmur 
(the Mantra), ' Be soft ' (1. 1. 4). 

25. When he has finished that (verse), they should 
lie down on their right sides. They should turn 
round three times, turning themselves towards them- 
selves (i. e. turning round forwards, not backwards, 
and thus returning to their former position ?). 

26. Let them repeat the auspicious hymns. 

27. Then let them do what they like. 

28. The eighth days of the three dark fortnights 
after the Agrahaya«i are called the Ash/akis. 

29. On (each of) these a mess of cooked food (is " 

30. And eight cakes on the first. 

31. These he should bake in a dish without turning 
them round. 

32. On the last (Ash/aka) vegetables (are offered). 
(So also) at the Anvaharya (Sraddha). 

33. Let him sacrifice with (the formula), ' To the 
Ash/aka Svaha ! ' 

Khanda 4. 

1. On the middle (Ash/aka) a cow (is sacrificed). 

23. putrl? £a. 24. nya/Wau pi«f kritvi. syoneti gr/hapatir 
£apet. 25. samapt&yaw dakshiwaiA panrvai/i sawvueyus tris trir 
abhyStmam avn'tya. 26. svastyayanSni kuryus. 27. tato yathir- 
tham syad. 28. drdhvam SgrahSyawyas tisras t&tnisrash/amyo 
*sh/aka ity a&ikshate. 29. tasu sthalipaka. 30. ash/au £apflpaA 
prathamayaw. 31. tan aparivartayan kapile wapayed. 32. utta- 
va&y&m jakam anvahSrye. 33. *sh/akayai svSheti ^uhuyat. 

4, 1. madhyamayaw gaus. 

32. 33=I V » 4, 17- ai. 

4, i-i3=Gobhila III, 10, 18 seqq. 

[a 9 ] E e 

Digitized by 


4i 8 khAdira-gr/hya-sGtra. 

2. He should place that (cow) to the east of the 
fire, facing the west, and should sacrifice (A^ya) with 
(the verse), 'What, O beasts' (MB. II, 2, 5). 

3. After having made that oblation he should recite 
over (the cow the verse), ' May to thee ' (1. 1. 6). 

4. Let him sprinkle it with water in which barley 
is, with (the formula), ' Agreeable to the Ash/aka I 
sprinkle thee ! ' 

5. Having sprinkled it and carried a fire-brand 
round it, he should give the Proksha»t water (to the 
cow) to drink. 

6. Going in a northern direction (from the fire) 
he should kill (the cow), the head of which is turned 
to the west, the feet to the north. 

7. After it has been killed, he should sacrifice 
(Afya) with (the verse), ' If the beast ' (1. 1. 8). 

8. His wife should wash the apertures of its body. 

9. After (the cow's body) has been opened, so 
that two purifiers (i. e. grass-blades) have been put 
under (the knife), he should have the omentum 
drawn out. 

10. Seizing it with one branch and with another 
forked branch of a sacrificially pure tree he should 
roast it. 

1 1 . When it has ceased to drop, he should hew 
(the cow) to pieces. 

2. tim purastad agneA pratyaftmukhim avasthapya .gTihuyad 
yat parava iti. 3. hutvS. MnumantrayetSnu tveti. 4. yavama- 
tibhir adbhiA prokshed ash/akayai tv£ g\ish/a.m (correct, ^ush/aw) 
prokshamiti. 5. prokshyolmukena parihn'tya proksha»M payayed. 
6. udafth utsri'pya pratyakrirasam ( c sim, °sim the MSS.)udakpadi« 
sawg-«apayet. 7.'pXSy&m ^uhuyad yat p&mr iti. 8. tasyi^ 
patnt srotawsi praksMlayet. 9. pavitre antardhiyotkn'tya vapam 
uddharayed. 10. ya^wiyasya vr/kshasya vi.r£kha\r£khabhya« pari- 
grrhyagnau jrapayet. n. prasrit&y&m virased. 

Digitized by 


Ill V AT 'ALA, 4 KHANDA, 23. 419 

12. The 'spreading under' and sprinkling (of 
A^ya) on (the omentum) has been described. (It is 
done) as at the Svish&krzt oblation (see II, i, 24). 

13. He should sacrifice with (the formula), 'To 
the Ash/aka Svaha !' 

14. The Avadanas (or portions which have to be 
cut off) he should have taken from all its limbs. 

1 5. Not from the left thigh and the lungs. 

16. The left thigh he keeps (for the Anvash/akya). 

1 7. He should cook the Avadanas and a mess of 
sacrificial food, (stirring up the ones and the other) 
with two different pot-ladles. 

18. The juice he lets drop into a brazen vessel. 

19. The Avadanas he puts on branches of the 
Plaksha tree. 

20. From each (Avadana) he should cut off (the 
prescribed portions, and should put them) into a 
brazen vessel ; 

21. And from the mess of cooked food. 

22. Let him take four portions or eight portions of 
A^ya(?) and let him sacrifice it with (the verses), 
' Into Agni ' (MB. II, 2, 9 seqq.). 

23. Let him make oblations out of the brazen 
vessel, each oblation with two of the following 

12. uktam upastaraHSbhighlrawaw yathl svish/akr?to. 13. »sh/a- 
kayai svSheti^uhuyat. 14. sarvangebhyo*vadanany uddharayen. 
15. na savySt sakthno na klomna^. 16. savyam sakthi nidhaya. 

1 7. pnthan mekshaȣbhyam avadanani sthalipaka# kz. xrapayitvS. 

18. ka/wse rasawj prasravya. 19. plakshajakhasv avadanani krrtvai. 
20. ikaikasmat kawseivadyet. 21. sthalipaka£ ka.. 22. ^aturgr/'- 
hltam ash/agnbitaw v£tra (v&gya/w? vatraw, vatra the MSS.)^uhu- 
y£d Agnav id. 23. kawsat parabhir dvabhyam dvabhyam ekaikam 

I4-24=IV, 1, 3-17. 
E e 2 

Digitized by 


420 khAdira-gr/hya-sOtra. 

24. The oblation to (Agni) Svish/akWt with the 
eighth (verse). 

25. At a sacrifice to the Fathers the omentum is 
sacrificed with (the verse), ' Carry the omentum ' (MB. 

II, 3. 16). 

26. At one to the gods with (the verse), ' CPata- 
vedas!' (1. 1. 17.) 

27. If (the deity is) unknown, (in the formula for) 
assigning (the oblation, instead of the name of a deity 
the name of) that (ceremony is put) — 

28. As (for instance), 'To the Ash/aka.' 

29. An animal is the sacrificial fee at (the sacrifice 
of) an animal ; 

30. A full vessel at (that of) a mess of cooked food. 

Khaat)a 5. 

1. On the ninth or tenth (of the dark fortnight) 
the Anvash/akya (ceremony is performed). 

2. To the south-east (of the house) they partition 
off (a place with mats^or the like), and to the northern 
part of that (place) he should carry a fire which has 
been kindled by attrition. 

3. Let him take one portion of rice, let him remove 
the husks once, and let him cook it, stirring it up 
from right to left. 

24. sauvish/akn'tam ash/amya\ 25. vaha vapSm iti pitrye vapS- 
homo. 26. (rataveda iti daivatye. 27. taddderam ana^gtf&te. 28. 
yathash/akSya' iti. 29. pa^ur eva pajor dakshi«S. 30. sthllipS- 
kasya pflr«apatram. 

5, 1. navamiw dajamiw vanvash/akyaw. 2. dakshinapfirva- 
bhage parivarya tatrottarardhe mathitvagni/rc prawayet. 3. sakri'd- 
gnliitan vrihin sakn'tphalikr/tan prasavyam udiyuvafl wapayed. 

25-28 = IV, 4, 22-24 ( 2 9 deest). 30=1, 9, 6. 10. 
5, i-i2 = Gobhila IV, 2. 

Digitized by 


Ill PATALA, 5 KHAJViDA, 1 3. 42 1 

4. And some flesh of that thigh (see above, chap. 
4, 16). 

5. He should take it from the fire in a southern 
direction, and should omit the second sprinkling (of 
A^ya) on it. 

6. To the west of the fire he should dig, in the 
southern part (of the place mentioned in Sutra 2) three 
pits, four inches in depth and breadth. 

7. He should carry the fire to the east of them. 

8. He should strew (Darbha-grass round the fire), 

9. And (into) the pits. 

10. Having spread out to the west of the fire a 
layer of southward-pointed grass so that it is inclined 
towards the south, he should put (a mat) on it. 

1 1. On that (grass) he should place the sacrificial 
implements, one by one. 

12. Cutting off (the prescribed portions of the 
sacrificial food, and putting those portions) into 
the brazen vessel he should sacrifice, picking out 
(portions of the Havis) with the pot-ladle, with (the 
formulas), 'Svaha to Soma Pitmnat! Sviha to 
Agni KavyavahanaP (MB. II, 3, 1, 2.) 

13. With his left hand he should lay down a fire- 
brand on the southern side of the pits (Sutra 6), with 

4. amushm££ fa sakthno mawsam iti. 5. dakshiwodvasya na 
pratyabhigharayet. 6. pajHd agner dakshi»as tisraA karshfM 
khanyai £aturahgulam adhas tiryak X-a. 7. tasawz purastad agnim 
prawayet. 8. str/»uySt. 9. karsh&r ka.. 10. paj£td agne sva- 
staraw dakshinigrais trinair dakshi»£prava«am dstirya br/'slm upari 
nidadhy&t. 11. tasminn ekaikam aharet. 12. kawse samavadaya 
mekshanenopaghatam ^uhuySt svabii Somaya pitr/mate sv&h£gnaye 
kavyav&han&yeti. 13. savyenolmukaw dakshinata^ karshfir nida- 
dhy&d apahata iti. 

I 3-34 = IV, 3 (23 deest). 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

422 khadira-g/mhya-sOtra. 

(the formula), ' (The Asuras have been) driven away ' 
(MB. II, 3, 3). 

14. (He should perform the different rites) in the 
eastern pit for his father, 

15. In the middle for his grandfather, 

16. In the last for his great-grandfather. 

1 7. Let him pour out vessels of water, from right 
to left, into the pits, pronouncing the name of each 
one (of his ancestors), with (the formula), ' N. N. ! 
Wash thyself, and they who follow thee here, and 
they whom thou followest. To thee Svadha !' 

18. In the same way he should put down the 
Piwdfas for them and should murmur, ' Here, O 
Fathers, enjoy yourselves ; show your manly vigour 
each for his part' (MB. II, 3, 6). 

19. After he has spoken thus, he should turn to 
the north, doubling his left arm, turning round from 
right to left. 

20. Holding his breath and fixing his thoughts on 
something good he should, while turning back (in the 
same way), murmur : ' The Fathers have enjoyed 
themselves ; they have shown their manly vigour 
each for his part' (MB. II, 3, 7). 

21. He should sprinkle collyrium on three Darbha- 

14. pfirvasyaw karshva/rc pitur. 15. madhyam&y&w pitama- 
hasyo. 16. .ttamayaw prapMrnahasyo. 17. *dapatra«y apasalavi 
karshushu ninayed ekaikasya namoktvisav avanenikshva ye £atra 
tvanu yims Aa. tvam anu tasmai te svaheti (correct, svadheli). 18. 
tathaiva p'wd&n nidhaya ^aped atra pitaro midayadhvaw yatha- 
bhagam av/v'shayadhvam ity. 19. uktvodann avarteta savyam 
bahum upasaztthr/tya prasavyam &vrt\yo. 20. *pat&mya kaly&»am 
dhyayann ^aped amimadanta pitaro yathi- 
bhagam dvr/'shayishateti. 21. tisro darbhapi^fllir a^^nena 
nighr/'shya karshflshu nidadhyad yathapi«(/az«. 

Digitized by 


Ill PA7ALA, 5 KHAJVflA, 30. 423 

blades, and should put them down into the pits in 
the same way as the Pindas, 

22. And sesamum oil and perfumes. 

23. For the Piwrfas and the following offerings he 
should alter the formula (Sutra 1 7) accordingly. 

24. Now (follows) the deprecation. 

25. On the eastern pit he lays his hands, turning 
the inside of the right hand upwards, with (the for- 
mula), ' Adoration to you, O Fathers, for the sake of 
life ! Adoration to you, O Fathers, for the sake of vital 
breath!' (MB. 11,3,8.) 

26. On the middle, turning the inside of the left 
hand upwards, with (the formula), ' Adoration to you, 
O Fathers, for the sake of terror! Adoration to 
you, O Fathers, for the sake of sap !' (MB. 1. 1.) 

27. On the western, turning the inside of the right 
hand upwards, with (the formula), ' Adoration to you, 
O Fathers, for the sake of comfort (svadha) ! Ado- 
ration to you, O Fathers, for the sake of wrath ! ' 

(MB. II, 3,9.) 

28. Joining his hands — 

29. (He should murmur the formula), ' Adoration 
to you' (MB. 11,3.9). 

30. He should lay down threads into the pits in 
the same way as the Pi#das, with (the formula), 
' This (garment) to you.' 

22. tailaw surabhi iz. 23. pi«</aprabhr*lti yathartham fined. 
24. atha nihnavanazft. 25. pfirvasyaw karshvaw dakshinottanau 
pa«i kr*'tv& namo vaA pitaro ^ivaya namo vaA pitaraj jfishayeti. 
26. savyottanau madhyamayaw namo \&h pitaro ghoraya namo 
\dJi pitaro rasayeti. 27. dakshiwottanau pax&mayaw namo vaA 
pitara svadhayai namo vaA pitaro manyava ity. 28. wgzWm 
krrtva 29. namo va iti. 30. sfltratantfln karshushu nidadhyad 
yathapi»</am etad va ity. 

Digitized by 


424 khadira-grjhya-sOtra. 

31. He should recite over the pits (the verse), 
' Bringing strength' (MB. II, 3, 13). 

32. The middle Vinda. he should give to his wife 
to eat, if she is desirous of a son, with (the verse), 
' Give fruit.' 

33. With (the verse), ' (G&tavedas) has been our 
messenger' (MB. II, 3, 15), he should throw the fire- 
brand into the fire. 

34. They should take the sacrificial vessels back 
two by two. 

35. The same is the rite of the Yvtdapitriyagna.. 

36. Let him cook the Havis in the (sacred) 
domestic fire. 

37. From that fire (let him take the fire which) he 
carries forward (see above, Sutra 2). 

38. (Here is only) one pit. 

39. No layer of grass (Sutra 10). 

40. Of the mess of cooked food sacred to Indra»l 
he should sacrifice with (the verse), ' The Ekash/aka ' 
(MB. II, 3, 19). He should sacrifice with (the verse), 
' The Ekash/aka.' 

End of the Third Pa/ala. 

31. drga.m vahantir id karshfir anumantrayeta. 32. madhyamam 
■pindam putrakamaw pra^ayed adhattety. 33. abhfin no dfita ity 
ulmukam agnau prakshiped. 34. dvandvaw p&tr£«y atihareyur. 
35. esha eva piwrfapitnya^wakalpo. 36. gr/hye*gnau havij srn- 
payet. 37. tata evatiprawayed. 38. eka karshftr. 39. na 
svastara. 40. Indrawyd sthalip£kasyaik£sh/aketi ^uhuydd ek&sh/a- 
keti ^uhuyat. tr/tiyapa/ala^. 

35-39 = I v . 4. 1 seqq. 40=IV, 4, 32. 33. 

Digitized by 



Pafala IV, Kbanda 1. 

i. When undertaking ceremonies for the obtain- 
ment of special wishes, let him omit six meals or 

2. At such ceremonies as are repeated daily, (let 
him do so only) in the beginning ; 

3. After (the ceremony), if it is performed on 
account of a prodigy. 

4. Thus also at the performances of the sacrificial 
day (i. e. of the first day of the fortnight). 

5. One who keeps the vow (of fasting) through 
one fortnight, (may avail himself of the following 
indulgence) : 

6. If he is not able (to subsist entirely without 
food, let him drink) rice-water once a day. 

7. Let him murmur the Prapada formula (MB. II, 
4, 5), sitting in the forest on eastward-pointed grass- 

8. Thus one who is desirous of holy lustre. 

9. One who is desirous of cattle, as stated above 


10. One who desires that his stock of cattle 

IV, 1, 1. kamyeshu sharf bhakt£ni trim va n&rniyan. 2. nitya- 
prayukt£nam idita. 3. uparish/at sinnipatika. 4. evaw ya^ani- 
yaprayogeshv. 5. ardhamasavraty. 6. ajaktau peyam (read, 
pey&m) ekam kalam. 7. ara«ye prapadaw ^aped Ssina^ pr&g- 
agreshv. 8. evaw brahmavarfosakamo. 9. yathoktaw para- 
kama^. 10. sahasrabahur iti pajusvastyayanakimo vrlhiyavau 

IV, 1, i-i8=Gobhila IV, 5, 1, 9, 10, 11, 13, 12, 27, 24, 25, 14, 
15, 18, 19, 20, 27, 28, 22, 23, 30-34 (9 deest). 

Digitized by 


426 khAdira-gr/hya-sutra. 

may increase, should sacrifice rice and barley, with 
(the verse), ' He who has a thousand arms' (MB. 


ii. To one with whom he wishes to become 
associated, he should give fruits of a big tree, 
over which he has murmured the Kautomata verse 
(MB. 11,4,8). 

1 2. Having kept the vow (of fasting) through one 
fortnight, he should in the full-moon night plunge up 
to his navel into a pool which does not dry up, and 
should sacrifice with his mouth fried grain into the 
water, with the five (verses), 'Like a tree' (MB. II, 


13. This ceremony procures (property on) the 

14. One who is desirous of the enjoyment (of 
riches), should worship the sun with the first (of those 
five verses), while one who is rich in wealth should 
look at him. 

1 5. One who desires that his stock of horses and 
elephants may increase, (should sacrifice) fried grain 
with the second (of those verses), while the sun has 
a halo. 

16. One who desires that his flocks may increase, 
(should sacrifice) sesamum seeds with the third (verse), 
while the moon has a halo. 

11. yeneMet sahakaraw kautomatenasya mah£vr«Tcshaphalani 
pari^apya dadyad. 12. ardhamasavratf paurwamasy&w ratrau 
nabhimatra»2 pragahyavidasini tirade* kshatata»</ulan asyena ^uhu- 
yad udake vr/ksha iveti pawXabhiA. 13. parthivaw karma. 14. 
prathamayadityam upatish/tfed bhogak&mo*rthapatau prekshamiwe. 
15. dvittyayakshatata»</ulan aditye parivishyamawe brrtiatpattra- 
svastyayanakamas. 16. tr/tiyaya Xandramasi tilataw</ulan kshudra- 

Digitized by 



17. Having worshipped the sun with the fourth 
(verse), let him try to gain great wealth. 

18. Having worshipped the sun with the fifth, let 
him return home. 

19. In order to avert involuntary death let him 
murmur every day (the formula), ' BhM!' (MB. II, 

4, 14) 

20. On the sacrificial day (i. e. the first day of the 
fortnight) let him make oblations with the six verses, 
' From the head ' (MB. II, 5, i seqq.), with the Vima- 
devya verses, with the Mahavyahrztis, and with the 
verse sacred to Pra^apati (1. 1. 8). 

21. Thus he will drive away misfortune. 

22. On an unsafe road let him murmur the verse, 
'Go away' (Rig-veda X, 164, 1). 

23. One who is desirous of glory should worship 
the sun in the forenoon, at noon, and in the afternoon, 
with (the formula), ' I am glory' (MB. II, 5, 9). 

24. Let him change (the word), ' Of the forenoon/ 
according (to the different times of the day). 

25. Worshipping (the sun) at twilight with the for- 
mula, 'O sun! the ship' (MB. II, 5, 14), procures 

26. At the morning twilight (he says), ' When thou 
risest ' (1. 1. 1 5). 

17. £aturthy&dityam upasthaya gurum artham abhyuttish/Aet. 
18. pa«&imyadityam upasthaya grzMn eyid. 19. anak&mamaram 
nitya»* ^aped bhfir iti. 20. ya^aniye ^uhuyin mfirdhnoidhi ma 
iti sharfbhir vimadevyargbhir mahavyShrz'tibhiA pra^&patyayi te. 
21. »lakshminir«odo. 22. »kshemepathyapehiti^aped. 23. yaro 
sham ity Sdityam upatish/Aed yajaskima/; ptirvah«amadhyandin&- 
paraivieshu. 24. pr£tarah«asyeti yathartham uhed. 25. Sditya 
nSvam iti sandhyopasthdnaw svastyayanam. 26. udyantaw tveti 

i9-27=IV, 6, 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 3, 10-12 (22 deest). 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

428 khadira-g/j/hya-sutra. 

27. At the evening twilight, 'When thou goest to 
rest' (1.1. 16). 

Khanda 2. 

1. Having kept the vow (of fasting) through one 
fortnight, he should, on the first day of the dark fort- 
night, feed the Brahma»as with boiled milk-rice pre- 
pared of one Kawsa of rice. 

2. The small grains of that (rice) he should sacri- 
fice (day by day) at the evening twilight to the west 
of the village, on a place which he has besmeared 
(with cowdung), with the formula, ' To Phala ' (MB. 


3. And with (the formula), 'To Phalla!' The 
same on the first day of the next dark fortnight 

4. He shall observe chastity till the end (of the 

5. A hundred cart-loads (of gold) will be his. 

6. A Brahma«a should elect the site for building 
his house on white ground, a Kshatriya on red, a 
Vai^ya on black, which should be even, covered with 
grass, not salinous, not dry — 

7. Where the water flows off to the north-west. 

8. (Plants) with milky juice or with thorns or acrid 
plants should not be there. 

2 7. pratitish/AantaTM tveti pajX-imam. 

2, 1. ardhamasavratf tamisradau brahma»an Stayed vrihikaw- 
saudanam. 2. tasya ka»an aparasu sandhylsu pratyag gramat 
stha//<filam upalipya Phalayeti ^uhuyit. . 3. PhallSyeti teivam 
evaparasmiws tamisradau. 4. brahma^aryam & samapter. 5. 
a£kajata« bhavati. 6. gaure bhumibhage brihmano lohite 
kshatriyaA krishne vaLfyo*vas;ina>» ^oshayet samaw lomajam 
aniri/zam ajushkaw. 7. yatrodakaw pratyagudiftw pravartate. 
8. kshirina/z ka»/akina// [sic] ka/uklf ^traushadhayo na syur. 

2, i-5 = Gobhila IV, 6, 13-16. 6-23 = IV, 7. 

Digitized by 


IV PATALA, 2 KHANDA, 21. 429 

9. (Soil) on which Darbha-grass grows, brings holy 
lustre ; 

10. Big sorts of grass, strength ; 

1 1. Tender grass, cattle. 

1 2. Or (the site of the house) should have the form 
of bricks (?) or of (?) 

13. Or there should be natural holes (in the 
ground) in all directions. 

14. 15. (A house) with its door to the east brings 
wealth and fame ; with its door to the north, children 
and cattle. By one with its door to the south all 
wishes (are obtained). The back-door should not 
face (?) the house-door. 

16. Milk-rice should be offered, 

17. And a black cow, 

18. Or a white goat. Or only milk-rice. 

19. In the middle of the house he should sacrifice 
the fat (of the animal) and the milk-rice, mixed with 
A^ya, taking eight portions (of that mixture), with 
(the verse), ' Vastoshpati !' (MB. II, 6, i.) 

20. And with the seven last (texts) used at the driv- 
ing away of misfortune (see above, chap. 1, 20, 2 1). 

2i. After he has sacrificed, he should distribute 
Balis in the different directions (of the horizon). 

9. darbhasammitam brahmavarlasyam. 10. brzhattrtWair ba- 
lyam. 11. mridu.trtna.iA paravyatn. 12. jatabhir (corr. .radabhir?) 
ma/wfeladvfpibhir va. 13. yatra va svayawkn'tiA svabhr&h sarvato- 
*bhimukha syu/i. 14. pragdvanww dhanyaw yajasyawz fodag- 
dvaram putryaw pa.ravya»? ka. dakshiwadvare sarve karna\ anudvaraw 
gehadvaram 15. asawlokt (asawzloki ?) syat. 16. payaso 
17. kr;'sh«i ia. gaur. 18. a^o va\ jvetaA pSyasa eva v£. 19. 
madhye vcrmano vasSw pdyasaw H^yena muram ash/agrthitaw? 
^uhuyad Vastoshpata iti. 20. ySf ka. paras saptalakshminir«ode 
tabhw fa. 21. hutva dwara balim nayed. 

Digitized by 


430 khadira-gk/hya-sOtra. 

22. And towards the intermediate points, and up- 
wards and downwards. 

23. This (he should repeat) every year, or at the 
two sacrifices of the first-fruits (of rice and barley). 

24. With the two (formulas), ' Obeying the will ' 
(MB. II, 6, 7, 8), he should sacrifice two oblations. 

25. He should pronounce the name of the person 
whom he wishes to subdue to his will, ' N. N. ;' then 
that person will obey him. 

Khanda 3. 

1 . Keeping the observance (of fasting) through one 
fortnight, let him sacrifice in a full-moon night one 
hundred pegs with the Ekaksharya verse (MB. 11,6, 
9), if he is desirous of having (a large) family. 

2. (Those pegs should be) of Khadira wood, if he 
is desirous of long life. 

3. Now another (ceremony performed with the 
same verse). He should go out of the village in 
an eastern or northern direction, should brush up an 
elevated surface, or (should raise it) on a mountain 
with the dung of beasts of the forest, should set it on 

22. avantaraduaw X'ordhvava^ibhyaff/ ka.i. 23. »vam sawvatsare 
sawvatsare navaya^wayor va. 24. vajawgamSv ityet&bhySm ahutf 
^oihuyad. 25. yam iMed vajam ayanta/rc tasya nama gr«hitvasav 
iti vast hasya bhavati. 

3, 1 . ardhamasavrati paur«amasy&« ratrau jaftkurataw ^uhuyad 
ekaksharyaya s&nvayak&maA. 2. khadiran ayushkamo. 3. *th&- 
paraw. pran vodan va graman nishkramya sihandilam samfihya 
parvate vara«yair gomayai sthSpayitv& (read, gomayais tipayitva ?) 
ingaran apohyasyena ^nhuyad. 

24 = IV, 8, 7 (25 dcest). 

3, i-5 = Gobhila IV, 8, 10-16. 6 = IV, 9, 15. 

Digitized by 



fire, should sweep the coals away (from that surface), 
and should make an oblation (of butter) with his mouth. 

4. If (the butter) catches fire, twelve villages (will 
be his). 

5. If smoke rises, at least three. 

6. Let him sacrifice in the evening and in the 
morning the fallings-ofF of rice-grains. Thus his 
means of livelihood will not be exhausted. 

7. Of articles of trade let him make an oblation 
with (the formula), ' Here (this VLrvakarman),' (MB. 
II, 6, 10.) 

8. On the sacrificial day (i. e. on the first day of 
the fortnight) let him sacrifice a full oblation (with the 
verse MB. II, 6, 1 1, 'A full oblation I sacrifice,' &c). 

9. One who is desirous of companions (should 
sacrifice) with (the formula), 'Indramavadat' (?), (MB. 
II, 6, 12.) 

10. He should fast through a period of eight nights, 
and then should kindle a fire to the east or to the 
north of the village, at a place where four roads meet. 
The fuel should be Udumbara wood, and the Sruva 
and the cup (for water should be of the same wood). 
Let him sacrifice (A^ya) with (the formulas), ' Food 
indeed,' and ' Bliss indeed ' (MB. II, 6, 13, 14). 

11. A third (oblation) in the village with (the for- 
mula), ' The food's ' (1. 1. 1 5). 

4. dvadara grama <fvalite. 5. tryavara dhtone. 6. kambfikan 
sdyawpratar ^nhuyan nasya vrtltiA kshiyata. 7. idam aham imam 
iti pa»yahoma« ^uhuyat. 8. pflrwahomaw ya^-antye ^uhuyad. 
9. Indramavadad iti sahayakamo. 10. «sh/aratroposhito»para*» 
prah vodan va gramai £atushpathe samidhyagnim audumbara 
idhma syat sruvaX-amasau ^a^uhuyid axmam va iti srir va iti. 11. 
grame tr/ttyam annasyety. 

7~9=IV, 8, 19 seqq. io-i6=IV, 9, 1 seqq. 

Digitized by 


432 khadira-g/j/hya-sOtra. 

i 2. Then he will become a ruler. 

13. When (his cows) are sick, let him sacrifice 
milk-rice in the cow-stable. 

14. On a dangerous road let him make knots in 
the skirts of the garments (of those who travel 
together). This will bring a prosperous journey to 
(himself) and his companions. 

15. With the two (formulas), ' To Hunger Svaha !' 
(MB. II, 6, 16, 17), let him sacrifice a thousand obla- 
tions, if he desires to obtain a thousand cart-loads 
(of gold). 

16. One who is desirous of cattle (should sacrifice 
one thousand oblations) of the excrements of a male 
and a female calf. Of a male and a female sheep, if 
he is desirous of flocks. 

1 7. Let him make oblations of fresh cowdung in 
the evening and in the morning ; then his means of 
livelihood will not be exhausted. 

Khaatja 4. 

1. One who has been bitten by a venomous 
animal, he should besprinkle with water, murmuring 
(the verse), ' Do not fear' (MB. II, 6, 18). 

12. adhipatyaw prapnoty. 13. upatapinfshu gosh/>4e payasaw 
^Tihuyad. 14. aksheme pathi vastradafanaw granthtn kuryat saha- 
yinaw (sahayana/ra ?) ka. svastyayanani. 15. kshudhe svahety eta- 
bhyam ahutisahasram ^uhuyid S&tasahasrakamo. 16. vatsa- 
mithunayoA purishe«a parukamo«vimithunayoA kshudrapamkamo. 
17. haritagomayena sayampratar ^Tihuyan n&sya vr/'ttiA kshlyate. 

4, 1. vishavata dash/am adbhir abhyukshan ^apen mi bhaishir 

i7 = IV, 8, 18. 

4, i-4=Gobhi!a IV, 9, 16 seqq. 

Digitized by 


IV PATALA, 4 KHANDA, 9. 433 

2. A Snataka should, when lying down to sleep, 
put his bamboo staff near (his bed) with (the formula), 
' Strong one, protect' (1. 1. 19). This will bring him 

3. A place where he has a worm he should be- 
sprinkle with water, murmuring (the verses), 'Thy 
worm is killed' (MB. II, 7, 1-4). 

4. (If doing this) for his cattle, let him fetch in the 
afternoon an earth-clod taken out of a furrow, and let 
him in the morning strew the dust of it (on the place 
attacked by worms), murmuring (the same texts). 

5. (A guest) who is going to accept the Madhu- 
parka should come forward murmuring, ' Here I tread 
on this' (MB. II, 8, 2). 

6. They announce three times (to the guest) each 
(of the following things which are brought to him) : 
a bed (of grass), water for washing the feet, the Argha 
water, water for sipping, and the Madhuparka ; 

7. And the cow. 

8. Having spread out the bed (of grass, so that the 
points of the grass are) turned to the north, he should 
sit down thereon with (the verse), ' The herbs which ' 
(MB. II, 8, 3). 

9. With the feet (he treads on another bundle of 

2. snatakas sawvuan vainavaw dzndam upanidadhyat tura gopa- 
yeti svastyayanaw. 3. hatas ta (hastata, haAsta, hasta, vitasta, 
the MSS.) iti krimimantaw detain adbhir abhyukshafl ^pet. 4. 
parfinaw £ed aparahwe sitalosh/am ahntya tasya prataA pawsubhiA 
pratishkirafl ^apen. 5. madhuparkawz pratigrahishyann idam 
aham imam iti pratitish/AaS ^aped. 6. vish/arapadyarghya^ama- 
ntyamadhuparka»am ekaika/B trir vedayante. 7. gam io. 8. 
»da#£a/» vish/aram astfrya ya oshadhir ity adhyasita. 9. padayor 
dvitiyayd dvau £ed. 

5-23=IV, 10. 
[29] F f 

Digitized by 


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grass), if there are two, with the second (verse) 


10. Let him look at the water with (the formula), 
4 From which side I see the goddesses ' (1. 1. 5). 

1 1. Let him wash his left foot with (the formula), 
• The left * (1. 1. 6), the right with, ' The right ' (1. 1. 7) ; 
both with the rest (8). 

12. Let him accept the Arghya water with (the 
formula), ' Thou art the queen of food ' (1. 1 9). 

13. The water which he is to sip, (he accepts) with 
(the formula), ' Glory art thou ' (1. 1. 10). 

14. The Madhuparka with (the formula), 'The 
glory's glory art thou' (1. 1. 11). 

1 5. Let him drink three times with (the formulas), 
'The glory's,' 'The might's,' 'The fortune's' (1. 1. 12). 

16. Having drunk more of it a fourth time silently 
he should give the remainder to a Brahma#a. 

1 7. Over the cow, when it has been announced to 
him, he should recite (the formula), ' Let loose the 

18. Instead of ' and of N. N.' (in that formula) he 
should put the name of the person who offers the 
Arghya reception. 

19. Thus if it is no sacrifice (by which the Arghya 
ceremony has been occasioned). 

20. ' Make it (ready),' if it is a sacrifice. 

10. apaA paryed yato devir iti. 11. savya*» pSdam avasi#£ed 
savyam iti dakshi«aw dakshi«am ity ubhau jeshena. 12. mnasya 
rash/rir aslty arghyaw pratigrrtwnyad. 13. yajo*sfty JUamaniyaw*. 
14. yaraso *sfti madhuparkaw. 15. triA pibed yajaso mahasa 
jriya iti. 16. tfish«f»z /Jaturthaw bhfiyo»bhip£ya brahma»&- 
yokkAlshfam dadyad. 17. gam veditam anumantrayeta mu»*a 
gam ity. 18. amushya £ety arhayitur nama brfiy&d. 19. evam 
aya^«e. 20. kuruteti yzgtia.. 

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IV PAFALA, 4 KHAJVDA, 23. 435 

2 1 . The six persons to whom the Arghya reception 
is due are, a teacher, an officiating priest, a Snataka, 
a king, the father-in-law, a friend. 

22. He should honour them (with the Arghya 
reception) once a year ; 

23. But repeatedly in the case of a sacrifice and of 
a wedding. But repeatedly in the case of a sacrifice 
and of a wedding. 

End of the Fourth Pafela. 

End of the Grthyakhanda.. 

21. aHrya r/tvik snatako r&g£ vivahyaA priya iti sharf arghy&A. 
22. pratisawvatsaran arhayet. 23. punar ya^-flavivahaycw £a punar 
ya£#avivahayor £a. £aturthapa/alaA. 

grihyakhandzm samaptam. 

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December. 1887. 

(ttlaten&on $tess, ©xfotli 








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