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Introduction to the G/?/hya-Sutras ix 


Introduction 3 

Translation 13 


Introduction 135 

Translation 137 


Introduction . . 249 

Translation 251 

Synoptical Survey of the Contents of the Gj/hya-SOtras . 299 


Introduction 311 

Translation 315 

Index 365 

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East -373 


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We begin our introductory remarks on the literature of 
the GWhya-sutras with the attempt to collect the more im- 
portant data which throw light on the development of the 
Grihya ritual during the oldest period of Hindu antiquity. 

There are, as it seems, no direct traces of the Grihya. 
ceremonies in the most ancient portion of Vedic litera- 
ture. It is certain indeed that a number of the most 
important of those ceremonies are contemporaneous with 
or even earlier than the most ancient hymns of the Rig- 
veda, as far as their fundamental elements and character are 
concerned, whatever their precise arrangement may have 
been. However, in the literature of the oldest period they 
play no part. It was another portion of the ritual that 
attracted the attention of the poets to whom we owe the 
hymns to Agni, Indra, and the other deities of the Vedic 
Olympus, viz. the offerings of the .Srauta-Ritual with their 
far superior pomp, or, to state the matter more precisely, 
among the offerings of the £rauta-Ritual the Soma offer- 
ing. In the Soma offering centred the thought, the 
poetry, and we may almost say the life of the Vasish/Aas, 
of the VLrvamitras, &c, in whose families the poetry of the 
Rig-veda had its home. We may assume that the acts of 
the Grihya. worship, being more limited in extent and 
simpler in their ritual construction than the great Soma 
offerings, were not yet at that time, so far as they existed 
at all, decked out with the reciting of the poetic texts, 
which we find later on connected with them, and which in 
the case of the Soma offering came early to be used. 
Probably they were celebrated in simple unadorned fashion; 

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what the person making the offering had to say was 
doubtless limited to short, possibly prose formulas, so that 
these ceremonies remained free from the poetry of the 
above-mentioned families of priests 1 . We think that the 
character of the verses given in the Grmya-sutras, which 
had to be repeated at the performance of the different cere- 
monies, justifies us in making these conjectures. Some of these 
verses indeed are old Vedic verses, but we have no proof 
that they were composed for the purposes of the Grihya 
ceremonies, and the connection in which we find them in 
the Rig-veda proves rather the contrary. Another portion 
of these verses and songs proves to have been composed 
indeed for the very Gnhya ceremonies for which they are 
prescribed in the texts of the ritual : but these verses are 
more recent than the old parts of the Rig-veda. Part of 
them are found in the Rig-veda in a position which speaks 
for their more recent origin, others are not contained in the 
Rig-veda at all. Many of these verses are found in the 
more recent Vedic Sawhitas, especially in the Atharva-veda, 
a Sawhita which may be regarded in the main as a treasure 
of Grihya. verses ; others finally have not as yet been 
traced to any Vedic Sa*»hita, and we know them from the 
GWhya-sutras only. We may infer that, during the latter 
part of the Rig-veda period, ceremonies such as marriage 
and burial began to be decked out with poetry as had long 
been the case with the Soma offering. The principal collec- 
tion of marriage sentences 2 and the sentences for the 

1 It is doubtful whether at the time of the Rig-veda the custom was established 
for the sacrificer to keep burning constantly a sacred Grihya fire besides the 
three irauta fires. There is, as far as I know, no express mention of the GWhya 
fire in the Rig-veda ; but that is no proof that it had then not yet come into 
use. Of the -Srauta fires the garhapatya is the only one that is mentioned, 
though all three were known beyond a doubt (Ludwig, Rig-veda, vol. Hi, 
p. 355 ; in some of the passages cited the word garhapatya does not refer to 
the garhapatya fire.) 

1 Rig-veda X , 85. It is clear that what we have here is not a hymn intended 
to be recited all at once, but that, as in a number of other cases in the Rig-veda, 
the single verses or groups of verses were to be used at different points in the 
performance of a rite (or, in other cases, in the telling of a story). Compare 
my paper, 'Akhyana-Hymnen im Rig-veda,' Zeitschrift derDeutschen Morgen- 
landischen Gesellschaft, vol. xxxix, p. 83. — Many verses of Rig-veda X, 85 occur 
again in the fourteenth book of the Atharva-veda. 

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burial of the dead * are found in the tenth Ma«</ala of the 
Rig-veda, which, for the most part, is known to be of later 
origin than the preceding portions of the collections a . If 
we look into the character of the verses, which these long 
Grjhya songs are composed of, we shall find additional 
grounds for assuming their early origin. A few remarks 
about their metrical character will make this clear 8 . There 
is no other metre in which the contrast between the early 
and later periods of Vedic literature manifests itself so 
clearly as in the Anush/ubh-metre *. The AnushAibh 
hemistich consists of sixteen syllables, which are divided 
by the caesura into two halves of eight syllables each. The 
second of these halves has as a rule the iambic ending 
(v — kj *), though this rule was not so strictly carried out in 
the early as in the later period*. The iambic ending is 
also the rule in the older parts of the Veda for the close of 
the first half, i.e. for the four syllables before the caesura *. 
We know that the later prosody, as we see it in certain 
late parts of Vedic literature, in the Pali Pi/akas of the 
Buddhists, and later in the great epic poems, not only 
departs from the usage of the older period, but adopts a 
directly contrary course, i. e. the iambic ending of the first 
pada, which was formerly the rule, is not allowed at all 
later, and instead of it the prevailing ending is the anti- 

spast (<~> v ). It goes without saying that such a change 

in metrical usage, as the one just described, cannot have 

1 Rig-veda X, 14-16, and several other hymns of the tenth book. Compare 
the note at Arvalayana-GWhya IV, 4. 6. 

• Compare my Hymnen des Rig-veda, vol. i (Prolegomena), pp. 465 seq. 

' Compare the account of the historical development of some of the Vedic 
metres which I have given in my paper, ' Das altindische Alchyfina,' Zeitschrift 
der Dentschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, vol. xxxvii, and my Hymnen des 
Rig-veda, vol. i, pp. 36 seqq. 

4 The Trish/ubh and Gagatt offer a much less promising material for inves- 
tigation, because, so far as can now be made ont, the departures from the old 
type begin at a later period than in the case of the Anush/ubn, 

• Compare Max Muller's introduction to his English translation of the Rig- 
veda, voL i, pp. cxiv seq. 

• To demonstrate this, I have given in my last-quoted paper, p. 6i, statistics 
with regard to the two hymns, Rig-veda I, 10 and VIII, 8 ; in the former the 
iambic ending of the first pada obtains in twenty out of twenty-four cases, in 
the latter in forty-two out of forty-six cases. 

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xii G/tfHYA-SfJTRAS. 

taken place at one jump. And accordingly a consideration 
of the Vedic texts reveals a transition period or rather a 
series of several transition periods between the old and the 
new standpoints. The first change is that every other 
ending of the first pada is allowed by the side of the iambic 
ending. The two forms of the ending, the one prevailing 
in the earliest, and the one prevailing in the later period 
of the prosody, the iambic (v - v *) and the antLspastic 
(w ^), are those that occur most frequently in the in- 
termediate period, but besides them all other possible forms 
are allowed 1 . 

This is precisely the stage of metrical development which 
the great Grihya. songs of the tenth Ma«z/ala of the Rig- 
veda have reached. Let us consider, for instance, the 
marriage songs and the marriage sayings, X, 85, and see 
what kind of ending there is at the end of the first pada. 
Of the first seventeen verses of this Sukta sixteen are in 
Anush/ubh metre (verse 14 is Trish/ubh); we have therefore 
thirty-two cases in which the metrical form of these syllables 
must be investigated. The quantity of the syllable imme- 
diately preceding the caesura being a matter of indifference, 
we have not sixteen but only eight a priori possible com- 
binations for the form of the last four syllables of the pada ; 
I give each of these forms below, adding each time in how 
many of the thirty-two cases it is used : 

-- w* 8 

w-w^ 5 

* 5 

w--* 4 

_ w w * 3 

« «- u 3 
-v-* 1 


1 Compare the statistics as to the frequency of the different metrical forms at the 
ending of the first pada, p. 63 of my above-qnoted paper, and Hymnen des 
Rig-veda, vol. i, p. 38. I have endeavoured in the same paper, p. 65 seq, to 
make it seem probable that this was the stage of prosody prevailing during the 
government of the two Kuru kings Parikshit and (7aname£aya. 

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We see that all the possible combinations are actually 
represented in these thirty-two cases, and accordingly the 
metrical build of this Sukta shows that it belongs to a period 
to which only the latest songs of the Rig-veda collection can 
be referred, but the peculiarities of which may be often 
noticed in the Atharva-veda and in the verses scattered 
throughout the Brahmawa literature 1 . 

A hasty glance suffices to show that those verses of the 
Grzhya ritual which do not appear in the Samhitas, but 
which are quoted at full length in the G«hya-sutras, are 
also in the same stage. For instance, the seven Anush/ubh 
verses which are quoted Sankhayana-Gnhya 1, 19, 5. 6, give 
us the following relations, if we investigate them as we did 
those in Rig-veda X, 85 : 

v--u 4 
_ w _v 3 

w — \j ^ 2 
— <-»<-» ^ 2 
<-> \j \j ^ I 
__ W V ! 
* ! 


Thus even the small number of fourteen hemistichs is 
enough to give us seven of the eight existing combinations, 
and no single one occurs at all often enough to allow us to 
call it predominant. 

Or we may take the saying that accompanies the per- 
formance of the medha^anana on the new-born child. 
In the version of Ajvalayana * we have : 

- - - HI- - — 
medhaw te devaA Savita 

- " w-||„- - - 

medham te Asvinau devau. 
In the version adopted in the school of Gobhila 3 the 

1 For instance, in the verses which occur in the well-known story of iunaArepa 
( Aitareya-Brihmaxa VII, 13 seq.). 
* Asvaliyana-Grrhya I, 15, 2. 
' Mantra- Brahmana I, 5, 9; cf. Gobhila-Grthya II, 7, 21. 

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context of the first line is different, but the metre is the 

medhaw te Mitravaruwau. 
Or the saying with which the pupil (brahma£arin) has to 
lay a log of wood on the fire of the teacher 1 : 

— \j — \j w\\\j — — \j 

Agnaye samidham aharsham 

\J — w — || — — — <-> 

taya tvam Agne vardhasva. 

There would be no object in multiplying the number of 
examples ; those here given are sufficient to prove our pro- 
position, that the development of the GWhya rites in the 
form in which they are described to us in the Sutras, that 
especially their being accompanied with verses, which were 
to be recited by their performance, is later than the time of 
the oldest Vedic poetry, and coincides rather with the 
transition period in the development of the AnushAibh 
metre, a period which lies between the old Vedic and the 
later Buddhistic and epic form. 

Besides the formulae intended to be recited during the 
performance of the various sacred acts, the Gnhya-sutras 
contain a second kind of verses, which differ essentially 
from the first kind in regard to metre; viz. verses of 
ritualistic character, which are inserted here and there 
between the prose Sutras, and of which the subject-matter 
is similar to that of the surrounding prose. We shall have 
to consider these ya^wagathas, as they are occasionally 
called, later ; at present let us go on looking for traces of 
the Grmya ritual and for the origin of Grmya literature 
in the literature which precedes the Sutras. 

The Brihma«a texts, which, as a whole, have for their sub- 
ject-matter the Vaitanika ceremonies celebrated with the 
three holy fires, furnish evidence that the Grmya fire, together 
with the holy acts accomplished in connection with it, were 
also already known. The Aitareya-Brahmawa * gives this 

1 Axvalayana-Grthya I, 21, I. In Paraskara and in the Mantra-Br&hmana 
only the first hemistich has the Anush/nbh form. 
* Aitareya-Brahmawa VIII, 10, 9 : etya grihin pa&JSd gnhyasyagner npa- 

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fire the most usual name, the same name which is used for 
it in the Sutras, gr*hya agni, and describes a ceremony 
to be performed over this fire with expressions which agree 
exactly with the style of the Gnhya-sutras 1 . We often 
find in the Brahmawa texts also mention of the terminus 
technicus, which the Grthya-sutras use many times as 
a comprehensive term for the offerings connected with 
G«hya ritual, the word pakaya^-«a 2 . For instance, the 
.Satapatha Br&hmawa 3 , in order to designate the whole 
body of offerings, uses the expression : all offerings, those 
that are P&kaya^-was and the others. It is especially 
common to find the P4kaya^«as mentioned in the Br&h- 
ma«a texts in connection with the myth of Manu. The 
Taittirtya Sawhita * opposes the whole body of sacrifices 
to the Pakaya^was. The former belonged to the gods, who 
through it attained to the heavenly world; the latter 
concerned Manu: thus the goddess I</a turned to him. 
Similar remarks, bringing Manu or the goddess Idk into 
relation with the Pakaya^-«as, are to be found Taittirtya 
Sawhita VI, 2, 5, 4 ; Aitareya-Brahmawa III, 40, a. How- 
ever, in this case as in many others, the Satapatha Brahmawa 
contains the most detailed data, from which we see how the 
idea of Manu as the performer of PAkaya^was is connected 
with the history of the great deluge, out of which Manu 
alone was left. We read in the Satapatha Brahmawa s : 

vish/ayanv&rabdhaya ritvig antatai kamsena £aturgrth!tas tisra a^yahutfr 
aindrfA prapadam ^nhoti, &c 

1 Some of the places in which the St. Petersburg dictionary sees names of the 
GWhya fire in Brahmawa texts are erroneous or doubtful. Taittirtya Samhit& 
V, 5, 9, 2, not grj'hya but gahya is to be read. Aupasana, .Satapatha 
Brahmawa XII, 3, 5, 5, seems not to refer to a sacrificial fire. Following the 
identity of aupasana and sabhya maintained in the dictionary under the 
heading aupasana, one might be tempted in a place like Satapatha Brahmawa 
H> 3i 2 > 3 to nfer the words ya esha sabh&yam agniA to the domestic fire. 
A different fire is however really meant (K&tyayana-.Srauta-sutra IV, 9, 30). 

3 .Sankhayana I, 1, 1 : pakaya^Sin vyakhySsyamaA ; I, 5, l=Paraskara 1,4, 
I : inUiraA pakaya^fla huto ihutaA prahutaA prarita iti. 

3 I, 4, 3, 10 : sarvan yagMa . . . ye ka. pakaya^Si ye £etare. 

4 I, 7, i, 3 : sarvewa vai ya^Sena deviU suvargara lokam ayan, pSkaya^flena 
Manur arrimyat, &c. 

* I, 8, 1, 6 seq. The translation is that of Prof. Max Miiller (India, what 
can it teach us? p. 135 seq.). 

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' Now the flood had carried away all these creatures, and 
thus Manu was left there alone. Then Manu went about 
singing praises and toiling, wishing for offspring. And he 
sacrificed there also with a Paka-sacrifice. He poured 
clarified butter, thickened milk, whey, and curds in the 
water as a libation.' It is then told how the goddess Ida 
arose out of this offering. I presume that the story of the 
Pakaya^wa as the first offering made by Manu after the 
great flood, stands in a certain correlation to the idea 
of the introduction of the three sacrificial fires through 
Pururavas 1 . Pururavas is the son of Ida ; the original man 
Manu, who brings forth Ida through his offering, cannot 
have made use of a form of offering which presupposes the 
existence of Ida, and which moreover is based on the triad 
of the sacred fires introduced by Pururavas ; hence Manu's 
offering must have been a P4kaya^-«a; we read in one 
of the Grzhya-sutras 2 : 'AH Pakaya^-was are performed 
without Ida.' 

There are still other passages in the Brahmawa texts 
showing that the Grihya offerings were already known; 
I will mention a saying of Ya^navalkya's reported in the 
■Satapatha Brahmawa 3 : he would not allow that the daily 
morning and evening offering was a common offering, but 
said that, in a certain measure, it was a Pakaya^wa. Finally 
I would call attention to the offering prescribed in the last 
book of the Satapatha Brahmawa* for the man ' who wishes 
that a learned son should be born to him ; ' it is there 
stated that the preparation of the Agya (clarified butter) 
should be performed ' according to the rule of the Sthall- 
paka (pot-boiling),' and the way in which the offering is to 

1 It is true that, as far as I know, passages expressly stating this with regard 
to Pururavas have not yet been pointed out in the Brahmana texts ; but the 
words in .Satapatha Br&hmana XI, 5, 1, 14-17, and even in Rig-veda X, 95, 18 
stand in close connection to this prominent characteristic of Pururavas in the 
later texts. 

* .Sankhayana I, 10, 5. ' II, 3, I, 31. 

* XIV, 9, 4, l8-Brthadara*yaka VI, 4, 19 (Sacred Books of the East, voL 
xv, p. 210). Cf. Gfihya-samgraha I, 114 for the expression sthaltp&kavrrta 
which is here used, and which has a technical force in the GWhya literature. 

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be performed is described by means of an expression, 
upaghatam 1 , which often occurs in the Grihya. literature 
in a technical sense. 

We thus see that the Brahmawa books are acquainted 
with the Grihya. fire, and know about the Grihya offerings 
and their permanent technical peculiarities; and it is not 
merely the later portions of the Brahmawa works such as 
the fourteenth book of the Satapatha Brahmawa, in which 
we meet with evidence of this kind; we find it also in 
portions against the antiquity of which no objections can 
be raised. 

While therefore on the one hand the Brahmawa texts 
prove the existence of the Grihya ceremonial, we see on the 
other hand, and first of all by means of the Brahmawa 
texts themselves, that a literary treatment of this 
ritualistic subject-matter, as we find it in the Brahmawas 
themselves with regard to the Srauta offerings, cannot 
then have existed. If there had existed texts, similar to 
the Brahmawa texts preserved to us, which treated of the 
Grihya. ritual, then, even supposing the texts themselves 
had disappeared, we should still necessarily find traces of 
them in the Brahmawas and Sutras. He who will take the 
trouble to collect in the Brahmawa texts the scattered 
references to the then existing literature, will be astonished 
at the great mass of notices of this kind that are preserved : 
but nowhere do we find traces of Grihya Brahmawas. 
And besides, if such works had ever existed, we should 
be at a loss to understand the difference which the Hindus 
make between the Srauta-sutras based on Sruti (reve- 
lation), and the Grzhya-sutras resting on Smrc'ti (tradition) 
alone *. The sacred Grthya acts are regarded as ' smarta,' 
and when the question is raised with what right they can 
be considered as a duty resting on the sacrificer alongside 
of the Srauta acts, the answer is given that they too are 
based on a Sakha of the Veda, but that this Sakha is 

1 See Grihya-sawigiaha I, III. 1 13. 

* The GWhya-sutra of BaudhSyana is called Smarta-sfltra in the best known 
MS. of this work (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiv, p. xzx). 

[30] b 

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xviii gk/hya-sOtras. 

hidden, so that its existence can only be demonstrated by- 
reasoning l . 

But the Brahmawa texts furnish us still in another way 
the most decisive arguments to prove that there have been 
no expositions of the Gr«hya ritual in Brahmawa form : 
they contain exceptionally and scattered through their 
mass sections, in which they treat of subjects which ac- 
cording to later custom would have been treated in the 
Grihya-sutras. Precisely this sporadic appearance of 
Grmya chapters in the midst of expositions of a totally 
different contents leads us to draw the conclusion that 
literary compositions did not then exist, in which these 
chapters would have occupied their proper place as 
integral parts of a whole. Discussions of questions of 
Grmya ritual are found in the Brahmawa literature, natur- 
ally enough in those appendices of various kinds which 
generally follow the exposition of the principal subject of 
the .Srauta ritual. Accordingly we find in the eleventh 
book of the 6'atapatha Brahmawa *, among the manifold 
additions to subjects previously treated, which make up 
the principal contents of this book s , an exposition of the 
Upanayana, i. e. the solemn reception of the pupil by the 
teacher, who is to teach him the Veda. The way in which 
the chapter on the Upanayana is joined to the preceding 
one, is eminently characteristic ; it shows that it is the 
merest accident which has brought about in that place the 
discussion of a subject connected with the Grzhya ritual, 
and that a ceremony such as the Upanayana is properly not 
in its proper place in the midst of the literature of Brahmawa 
texts. A dialogue (brahmodya) between Uddalaka and 
Sau£eya precedes ; the two talk of the Agnihotra and of 
various expiations (prayanHtta) connected with that sacri- 
fice. At the end .Sau^eya, filled with astonishment at the 
wisdom of Uddalaka, declares that he wishes to come to 
him as a pupil (upayani bhagavantam), and Uddalaka 

1 Max Miiller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, pp. 94-96. 

* iatapatha Brahmawa XI, 5, 4. 

• Max Miiller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 359. 

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accepts him as his pupil. It is the telling of this story and 
the decisive words upayani and upaninye which furnish 
the occasion for introducing the following section on the 
Upanayana 1 . The subject is there treated in the peculiar 
style of the Brahmawa texts, a style which we need not 
characterize here. I shall only mention one point, viz. that 
into the description and explanation of the Upanayana 
ceremony has been inserted one of those Slokas, such as we 
often find in the Grthya-sutras also, as a sort of ornamental 
amplification of the prose exposition *. ' Here a Sloka is 
also sung,' says the Brahmana 3 : 

U Vs U I — v/ — — V — 

a£aryo garbhi bhavati hastam adhaya dakshinam 

\j — \j — v/ — || — \j — — \j yj 

trttiyasyam sa ^ayate savitrya saha brahmawaA*. 
From this passage we see, on the one hand, that the 
composition of such isolated 8 Slokas explaining certain 
points of the Grihya ritual goes back to quite an early 
period ; on the other hand, we are compelled to assume 
that the .Slokas of this kind which are quoted in the Gr Aya- 
sutras differ nevertheless from the analogous .Slokas of the 
early period, or at any rate that the old Slokas must have 
undergone a change which modernized their structure, so 
as to be received into the Gr/hya-sutras ; for the metre of 
the .Sloka just quoted, which has the antispast before the 
caesura in neither of its two halves, and which has even a 
double iambus before the caesura in one half, is decidedly of 
an older type than the one peculiar to the Slokas quoted 
in the Gr*hya-sutras e . 

1 This is also the way in which Sayana understands the matter ; he makes 
the following remark : turn hopaninya ity npanayanasya prasrutatrat taddharma 
asmin brahmawe nirupyante. 

* Cf. above, p. xiv ; below, p. zxxv. 
» Sect, ia of the chapter quoted. 

* < The teacher becomes pregnant by laying his right hand (on the pupil for 
the Upanayana) ; on the third day he (i.e. the pupil) is bom as a Brahmana 
along with the Savitrt (which is repeated to him on that day).' 

* It is not likely that verses of this kind are taken from more comprehensive 
and connected metrical texts. 

* Cf. on this point below, p. xxxv. 

b 2 

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xx gk/hya-sOtras. 

Another GrAya section in the Satapatha Brahmawa 
seems to have found its place there through a similar acci- 
dental kind of joining on to a preceding chapter as the 
above-mentioned passage. In XI, 5,5 a story of the battle 
of the gods and Asuras is told : the gods beat the Asuras 
back by means of constantly larger Sattra celebrations and 
conquer for themselves the world of heaven. It seems to 
me that the description of the great Sattras celebrated by 
the gods is the occasion of the joining on of a section be- 
ginning with the words x : * There are five great sacrifices 
(mahaya^was); they are great Sattras: the offering to Beings, 
the offering to men, the offering to the Fathers (i. e. the 
Manes), the offering to the Gods, the offering to the Brah- 
man.' After this introduction follows an account of one of 
the five great offerings, namely of the Brahmaya^wa, i. e. of 
the daily Veda recitation (svadhyaya). The third Adhyaya 
of Ajvalayana's Gr*hya-sutra begins in exactly the same 
way with the sentence : ' Now (follow) the five sacrifices : 
the sacrifice to the Gods, the sacrifice to the Beings, the 
sacrifice to the Fathers, the sacrifice to the Brahman, the 
sacrifice to men,' and then follows here also a discussion 
of the Brahmaya^wa, which is entirely analogous to that 
given in the .Satapatha Brahrnawa. Axvalayana here does 
not content himself with describing the actual course of 
ceremonies as is the rule in the Sutra texts ; he undertakes, 
quite in the way of the Brahmawa texts, to explain their 
meaning : ' In that he recites the Rik&s, he thereby satiates 
the gods with oblations of milk, in that (he recites) the 
Ya^us, with oblations of ghee,' &c. It is plain that the 
mode of exposition adopted by Ajvalayana in this passage, 
which is different from the usual Sutra style, finds its 
explanation in the supposition that exceptionally in this 
case the author of the Grjhya-sutra had before him a 
Brahmawa text, which he could take as his model, whether 
that text was the Satapatha itself or another similar text. 

Among the extremely various prescriptions which we find 

.Satapatha Br&hmaxa XI, 5, 6, 1. 

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in the last sections of the .Satapatha Brahmawa, there is a 
rather long section, which also really belongs to the Grmya 
domain. To quote from this section x : ' If a man wishes 
that a learned son should be born to him, famous, a public 
man, a popular speaker, that he should know all the Vedas, 
and that he should live to his full age, then, after having 
prepared boiled rice with meat and butter, they should both 
eat, being fit to have offspring,' &c. Then follows a descrip- 
tion of an A^ya offering, after which the marital cohabita- 
tion is to be performed with certain formulas. This, 
however, is not the last of the acts through which the father 
assures himself of the possession of such a distinguished 
son ; certain rites follow, which are to be performed at 
birth and after birth, the Ayushya ceremony and the 
Medha^anana. These rites are here prescribed for the 
special case where the father has the above-mentioned 
wishes for the prosperity of his child ; but the description 
agrees essentially with the description of the corresponding 
acts in the Grthya-sutras 8 , which are inculcated for all 
cases, without reference to a determined wish of the father. 
It is a justifiable conjecture that, although this certainly 
does not apply to the whole of ceremonies described in the 
Grihya-sutras, many portions of these ceremonies and 
verses that were used in connection with them, &c, were 
first developed, not as a universal rite or duty, but as the 
special possession of individuals, who hoped to attain special 
goods and advantages by performing the ceremony in this 

It was only later, as I think, that such prescriptions 

■ .Satapatha Brihmawa XIV, 9, 4, 1 7 - Bnhad Arawyaka VI, 4, 18 (Sacred 
Books of the East, vol. xt, p. 119 acq.). 

' Cf. Prof. Max Miiller's notes to the passage quoted from the BWhad Aran- 
yaka. I must mention in this connection a point touched upon by Prof. Muller, 
loc cit p. aa», note 1, vix. that Axval&yana, Grthya I, 13, 1, expressly calls 
' the Upanishad ' the text in which the Puwsavana and similar ceremonies are 
treated. It is probable that the Upanishad which Ajvalayana had in mind 
treated these rites not as a duty to which all were bound, but as a secret that 
assured the realisation of certain wishes. This follows from the character of 
the-Upaaishads, which did not form a part of the Vedic course which all had to 
study, but rather contained a secret doctrine intended for the few. 

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xxii gx/hya-sOtras. 

assumed the character of universality, with which we find 
them propounded in the Grihya-sutras. 

It is scarcely necessary to go through the sections of the 
texts of other Vedic schools referring to the Grihya ritual 
in the same way in which we have done it in the case of the 
.Satapatha Brahmana. The data which we have produced 
from the great Brahmawa of the white Ya^ur-veda, will 
be sufficient for our purpose, which is to give an idea of 
the stage in which the literary treatment of the Grihya 
ritual stood during the Brahma#a period. As we see, there 
were then properly no Grihya texts; but many of the 
elements which we find later in the Grihya. texts were 
either already formed or were in the process of formation. 
Most of the verses which are used for the Grihya acts — 
in so far as they are not verses composed in the oldest 
period for the Soma offering and transferred to the Grihya 
ceremonies — bear the formal imprint of the Brahma»a 
period ; the domestic sacrificial fire and the ritual peculi- 
arities of the Pakaya^was which were to be performed at it, 
were known ; descriptions of some such Pakaya£#as were 
given in prose ; there were also already .Slokas which gave in 
metrical form explanations about certain points of the Grihya 
ritualjust as we find in the Brahmana texts analogous Slokas 
referring to subjects connected with the JSrauta ritual. 

Thus was the next step which the literary development 
took in the Sutra period prepared and rendered easy. The 
more systematic character which the exposition of the 
ritualistic discipline assumed in this period, necessarily led to 
the taking of this step : the domain of the Grihya sacri- 
fices was recognised and expounded as a second great 
principal part of the ritual of sacrifices alongside of the 
Srauta domain which was alone attended to in the earlier 
period. The Grihya-sutras arose which treat, according 
to the expression of Axvalayana in his first sentence, of the 
grihyawi 1 as distinguished from the vaitanikani, or, as 
.S&nkhayana says, of the p&kaya^was, or, as Paraskara 
says, of the grihyasthaltpakanawi karma. The 

Similarly Gobhila : gWhyakannim. 

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Gr*hya-sutras treat their subject of course in exactly the 
same style in which the sacrifices of the Srauta ritual had 
been treated by the Srauta-sutras, which they constantly 
assume to be known and which are the works of teachers of 
the same Vedic schools, and oftentimes even perhaps the 
works of the same authors. Only certain differences in the 
character of the two groups of texts are naturally condi- 
tioned on the one hand by the greater complexity of the 
►Srauta sacrifices and the comparative simplicity of the 
Grihya sacrifices, on the other hand by the fact that the 
.Srauta-sutras are entirely based on Brahmana texts, in 
which the same subjects were treated, while the Grihya- 
sutras, as we have seen, possessed such a foundation only 
for a very small portion of their contents. 

It goes without saying that the above-mentioned state- 
ment that the subjects treated of in the Grzhya-sutras are 
Pakaya^was 1 or Grrhyasthilipakas should not be pressed 
with the utmost strictness, as though nothing were 
treated in the Gr*hya-sutras which does not come under 
these heads. First of all the term Sthalipaka is too narrow, 
since it does not include the offerings of sacrificial butter 
which constituted a great number of ceremonies. But 
besides many ceremonies and observances are taught in the 
Grthya-sutras, which cannot in any way be characterised 
as sacrifices at all, only possessing some inner resemblance 
to the group of sacrifices there treated of, or standing in 
more or less close connection with them 2 . 

The Sutra texts divide the Pakaya^was in various ways ; 
either four or seven principal forms are taken up. The 

* I believe with Stenzler (see his translation of Axvalfiyana, pp. a seq.) that 
p&kaya,f3a means ' boiled offering.' It seems to me that the expression p&ka 
in this connection cannot be otherwise taken than in the word sthalipaka 
(,' pot-boiling '). Prof. Max Miiller (History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 
p. 103), following Hindu authorities, explains P&kaya£tfa as ' a small sacrifice,' 
or, more probably, ' a good sacrifice.' The definition of LS/y&yana may be also 
here quoted (IV, 9, a) : pSkujagfti ity &£akshata ekSgnau yagft&n. 

* Compare, for instance, the account of the ceremonies which are to be per- 
formed for the journey of the newly-married pair to their new home, 5&nkh&yana- 
Grihya I, 15, or the observances to which the Sn&taka is bound, Gobhila III, 5, 
&c. According to the rule .S&nkh&yana I, I a, 13 we are, however, to suppose 
a sacrifice in many ceremonies where there does not seem to be any. 

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xxiv gk/hya-sOtras. 

commonest division is that into the four classes of the 
hutas, ahutas, prahutas, prajitas 1 . The division into 
seven classes is doubtless occasioned by the division of the 
rtsivirya^iwas and of the Somaya^was, which also each in- 
clude seven classes 2 ; for the nature of the sacrifices in 
question would hardly of itself have led to such a division. 
The seven classes taken up are either those given by Gau- 
tama VIII, 15 8 : ' The seven kinds of Pakaya^was, viz. the 
Ashfakd, the Parvawa (Sthalipaka, offered on the new and 
full moon days), the funeral oblations, the .Sravawt, the 
Agrahayawl, the Kaitrt, and the Arvayu^i.' Or else the 
seven classes are established as follows, the fourfold division 
being utilised to some extent* : ' Huta, Prahuta, Ahuta (sic, 
not Ahuta), the spit-ox sacrifice, the Bali offering, the re- 
descent (on the Agrahaya»a day), the Ashfaka sacrifice.' 
According to the account of Prof. Buhler 8 , the exposition 
of Baudhayana, who gives this division, keeps closely to 
the course which it prescribes. For the rest, however, the 
Grihyz texts with which I am acquainted do not follow 
any of these divisions, and this is easily accounted for, if 
we consider the artificial character of these classifications, 
which are undertaken merely for the sake of having a com- 
plete scheme of the sacrifices. On the contrary, as a whole 
the texts give an arrangement which is based on the nature 
of the ceremonies they describe. In many instances we 
find considerable variations between the texts of the dif- 
ferent schools; often enough, in a given text, the place 

1 Sankhfiyana I, 5, t ; 10, 7; Paraskara I, 4, 1. Doubtles3 Prof. Buhler is 
right in finding the same division mentioned also VasishMa XXVI, 10 (Sacred 
Books of the East, vol. xiv, p. 128). Axrel&yana (I, 1, 3) mentions only three 
of the four classes. 

' In LS/yayana (V, 4, 33-24) *H ^ e sacrifices are divided into seven Havir- 
yajflfa-samsth&s and into seven Soma-sa*tsthas, so that the Pakaya^flas do not 
form a class of their own ; they are strangely brought in as the last of the 
Havirya^flas. Cf. Indische Studien, X, 335. 

* Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. 214. 

4 Baudhayana Grthya-sutra, quoted by Buhler, Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. xiv, p. xxxi ; cf. Sayawa's Commentary on Aitareya-BrShmana III, 40, 3 
(p. 296 of Aufrecht's edition). 

5 Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiv, p. xxxii. 

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which is assigned to a given chapter is not to be explained 
without assuming a certain arbitrariness on the part of the 
author. But, as a whole, we cannot fail to recognise in the 
arrangement of the different texts a certain agreement, 
which we will here merely try to explain in its main traits ; 
the points of detail, which would complete what we here 
say, will occur of themselves to any one who looks at the 
texts themselves. 

The domestic life of the Hindus represents, so to speak, 
a circle, in which it is in a certain measure indifferent what 
point is selected as the starting-point. Two especially 
important epochs in this life are : on the one hand, the 
period of studentship of the young Brahma£arin devoted 
to the study of the Veda ; at the beginning of this period 
comes the ceremony of the Upanayana, at the end that of 
the Samavartana; on the other hand, marriage (vivaha), 
which besides has a special importance for the Grthya ritual, 
from the circumstance, that as a rule the cultus of the do- 
mestic sacrificial fire begins with marriage. One can just as 
well imagine an exposition of the G«hya ritual, which pro- 
ceeds from the description of the studentship to that of the 
marriage, as one which proceeds from the description of 
the marriage to that of the studentship. The Samavartana, 
which designates the end of the period of studentship, 
gives the Hindu the right and the duty to found a house- 
hold 1 . On the other hand, if the exposition begins with the 
marriage, there follows naturally the series of ceremonies 
which are to be performed up to the birth of a child, and 
then the ceremonies for the young child, which finally lead 
up to the Upanayana and a description of the period of 
studentship. The Hiranyaken-sutra alone, of the Sutras 
treated of in these translations, follows the first of the two 
orders mentioned 8 ; the other texts follow the other order, 

1 Hiraftyakerinuyi: samftvri'tta fUaryakulan mat&pitaran bibhny&t, tibhyam 
anvgriSHo bharyam upaya&Met. 

* The same may be said with regard to two other Gnhya texts which also 
belong to the black Ya/w-veda, the Manava and the Ka/Aaka. See Jolly, Das 
Dharmasfltra des Vishna and das KiMakagrthyasfltra, p. 75; Von Bradke, 
Zeitschrift der DtuUchen Morgenlaad. GeselUchaft, vol. xxxvi, p. 445. 

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xxvi g/j/hya-sOtras. 

which has been already described by Prof. Max Muller 
almost thirty years ago, and we cannot do better than to 
give his description * : ' Then (i. e. after the marriage) fol- 
low the Samskaras, the rites to be performed at the con- 
ception of a child, at various periods before his birth, at the 
time of his birth, the ceremony of naming the child, of 
carrying him out to see the sun, of feeding him, of cutting 
his hair, and lastly of investing him as a student, and 
handing him to a Guru, under whose care he is to study 
the sacred writings, that is to say, to learn them by heart, 
and to perform all the offices of a Brahma£arin, or religious 

In this way we find, as a rule, in the foreground in the 
first part of the Grzhya-sutras this great group of acts 
which accompany the domestic life from marriage to the. 
studentship and the Samavartana of the child sprung from 
wedlock. We find, however, inserted into the description 
of these ceremonies, in various ways in the different Sutras, 
the exposition of a few ritualistic matters which we have 
not yet mentioned. In the first place a description of 
the setting up of the sacred domestic fire, i. e. of the cere- 
mony which in the domain of the Grz'hya ritual corresponds 
to the agnyadheya of the .Srauta ritual. The setting up of 
the fire forms the necessary preliminary to all sacred acts ; 
the regular time for it is the wedding 2 , so that the fire used 
for the wedding acts accompanies the young couple to their 
home, and there forms the centre of their household wor- 
ship. Accordingly in the Gn'hya-sutras the description of 
the setting up of the fire stands, as a rule, at the beginning 
of the whole, not far from the description of the wedding. 

Next the introductory sections of the Grthya-sutras 
have to describe the type of the Grthya. sacrifice, which is 
universally available and recurs at all household ceremonies. 
This can be done in such a way that this type is described 
for itself, without direct reference to a particular sacrifice. 
This is the case in Paraskara, who in the first chapter of his 

1 History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 204. 

' See, for instance, Paraskara I, a, I : avasathyadhanam darakale. 

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Sutra describes the rites recurring at each sacrifice, and then 
remarks : ' This ritual holds good, whenever a sacrifice is 
offered V Similarly Ajvalayana, in one of the first chapters 
of his work, enumerates the rites which are to be performed 
'whenever he intends to sacrifice V Other texts give a 
general description of the Grihya sacrifice by exempli- 
fying it by one special sacrifice. .Sankhayana * chooses 
for this the sacrifice which the bridegroom has to offer, 
when a favourable answer has been granted to his wooing ; 
Gobhila 4 gives at least the greater part of the rules in ques- 
tion a propos of the full moon and of the new moon sacri- 
fice ; Hira«yakejrtn 6 , who opens his account at the period of 
the studentship of the young Brahmana, describes the 
sacrificial type a propos of the Upanayana rite. 

The sacrifices which are to be offered daily at morning 
and at evening, those which are celebrated monthly on the 
days of the new moon and of the full moon — the Grmya 
copies of the Agnihotra and of the Darjapuraamasa sacri- 
fices — and, thirdly, the daily distribution of the Bali offer- 
ings: these ceremonies are commonly described along 
with what we have called the first great group of the Grihya 
acts, immediately preceding or following the Vivaha. 

We find, as a second group of sacred acts, a series of 
celebrations, which, if the man has founded his household, 
are to be performed regularly at certain times of the year 
at the household fire. So the 5rava«a sacrifice, which is 
offered to the snakes at the time when, on account of 
the danger from snakes, a raised couch is necessary at 
night. At the end of this period the festival of the re- 
descent is celebrated : the exchanging of the high couch 
for the low couch on the ground. Between these two 
festivals comes the Prtshataka offering on the full-moon 
day of the month Arvayu^a ; it receives in the Grmya texts 
the place corresponding to that which actually belongs to 

1 I, I, 5 : etha eva vidhir yatra VraMd dhomaA. 

* I, 3, 1 : atha khalu yatra kva H. hoshyant syftt, &c 

* I, 7-io. • I, 6 seqq. * I, i. 

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it in the series of the festivals. As a rule * the acts we have 
just mentioned are followed, in accordance with the natural 
series, by the Ash/aka festivals, which are celebrated during 
the last months of the year. 

Alongside of these acts which are connected with fixed 
points of the year we find in the various Grihya. texts 
an account of a series of other ceremonies, which, in ac- 
cordance with their nature, have no such fixed position 
in the system of the ritual. Thus, for instance, the rites 
which refer to the choice of a piece of ground to build 
a house or to the building itself; further, the rites con- 
nected with agriculture and cattle raising. In many texts 
we find together with this group of acts also an account 
of the ceremonies, related to fixed points in the year, 
which stand in connection with the annual course of 
Vedic study : the description of the opening festival and 
of the closing festival of the school term, as well as a point 
which generally follows these descriptions, the rules as to 
the anadhyaya, i.e. as to the occasions which necessitate an 
intermission in the study of the Veda for a longer or for 
a shorter period. As a rule, the Gnhya-sutras bring the 
account of these things into the group of acts which refer to 
the household life of the Gr*hastha ; for the Adhyapana, i. e. 
the teaching of the Veda, held the first place among the 
rights and duties of the Brahmaaa who had completed his 
time at school. On the other hand these ceremonies can 
naturally also be considered as connected with the school 
life of the young Hindu, and accordingly they are placed 
in that division by Gobhila 2 , between the description of 
the Upanayana and that of the Samavartana. 

The sacred acts connected with the burial and the 
worship of the dead (the various kinds of Sraddha rites) may 
be designated as a third group of the ceremonies which 
are described to us in the Gnhya-sutras. Finally, a fourth 
group comprises the acts which are connected with the 
attainment of particular desires (kamyani). Among the 

1 Not in iartkhUyana, who describes the Ash/akas before these sacrifices. 
• III, 3. 

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texts here translated we find a somewhat detailed account 
of these ceremonies in the Gobhila-sutra and in the 
Khadira-Gr&ya only '. 

These remarks cannot claim to give a complete outline 
of the contents and arrangement of the Grihya texts; they 
only aim at giving an idea of the fundamental traits, which 
in each particular text are modified by manifold variations, 
but which nevertheless are to these variations as the rule is 
to the exceptions. 

We must now speak of the relations of the G*-*hya-sutras 
to the two other kinds of Sutra texts, with which they have 
so many points of contact in the Srauta-sutras and the 

Prof. Biihler, in several places of the excellent intro- 
ductions which he has prefixed to his translations of the 
Dharma-sutras, has called attention to the fact that the 
relation in which the Sutra texts of the same school stand 
to each other is very different in different schools. Many 
schools possess a great corpus of Sutras, the parts of which 
are the Srauta-sutra, the Grthya-sutra, &c. This is, for 
instance, the case with the Apastamblya school 2 ; its 
Sutra is divided into thirty Prarnas, the contents of which 
are divided as follows : 

I-XXIV: .Srauta-sutra. 

XXV : Paribhashas, &c. 

XXVI : Mantras for the Grihya-sutra. 

XXVII : Gr*hya-sutra. 

XXVIII-XXIX: Dharma-sutra. 

XXX: Sulva-sutra. 

In other cases the single Sutra texts stand more in- 
dependently side by side; they are not considered as 
parts of one and the same great work, but as different 
works. Of course it is the Dharma-sutras above all 
which could be freed from the connection with the other 
Sutra texts to such an extent, that even their belonging 
to a distinct Vedic school may be doubtful. The contents 

» Gobhila IV, 5 seq. ; Khad. IV, 1 seq. 

* liiihler, Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, pp. xi seq. 

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xxx gk/hya-sOtras. 

of this class of Sutras indeed have hardly any connection 
with the subdivisions and differences of the Vedic texts 
handed down in the various schools ; there was no reason 
why Brahmans, who studied various Sakhas of the Veda, 
should not learn the ordinances concerning law and morals 
given in these Sutras as they were formulated in the 
same texts. The Grjhya-sutras are not so independent of 
the differences of the Vedic schools. The close analogy 
between the sacrificial ritual of the Gr*hya acts and that 
of the Srauta acts, and the consequent necessity of taking 
into account the 5rauta ritual in the exposition of the 
Gr*hya ritual, necessarily brought the Grjhya-sutras into 
closer connection with and into greater dependence on 
the .Srauta-sutras than in the case of the Dharma-sutras \ 
But above all, the Grthya ceremonies demanded the 
knowledge of numerous Mantras, and accordingly as these 
Mantras were borrowed from the one or the other Mantra 
.Sakha 2 , there followed in the case of the Grihya. text 
in question an intimate connection with the corresponding 
Mantra school 8 . We find accordingly as a general rule, 
that each Grchya-sutra presupposes a Vedfc Sa/whita, 
whose Mantras it quotes only in their Pratikas 4 , and 
that besides each Grthya-sutra presupposes a previous 

1 Professor Jolly in his article on the Dharma-sutra of Vishwo, p. 71, note 1, 
points out that in the eyes of Hindu commentators also the Dharma-sutras 
differ from the Grthya-sutras in that the former contain rather the universal 
rules, while the latter contain the rales peculiar to individual schools. Cf. 
Weber, Indische Literaturgeschichte, 2. Aufl., S. 296. 

' It seems as though the choice of the Mantras which were to be prescribed 
for the Grihya ceremonies had often been intentionally made so as to comprise 
as many Mantras as possible occurring in the Mantra-Sakhi, which served as 
foundation to the Grthya texts in question. 

* When Govindasvamin (quoted by Biihler, Sacred Books of the East, vol. 
xiv, p. xiii) designates the Grihy&rastrani as sarvadhikarani, this should not be 
understood literally. In general it is true the Grihya acts are the same for 
the disciples of all the Vedic schools, but the Mantras to be used in con- 
nection with them differ. 

* In the introduction to Gobhila I have treated of the special case where a 
GWhya-sutra, besides being connected with one of the great Samhitas, is con- 
nected also with a Gnnya-sa/nhitA of its own, so to speak, with a collection of 
the Mantras to be used at the GWhya acts. 

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knowledge of the ritual which is acquired through the 
study of the proper .Srauta-sutra *. It is not necessary to 
quote the numerous places where the Gri hya-sutras either 
expressly refer to the .Srauta-sutras, or point to them by 
repeating the same phrases or often even whole Sutras. 
It will be sufficient to quote one out of many places, the 
opening words of the Ajvalayana-Grj'hya, which in a way 
characterise this work as a second part of the .Srauta-sutra : 
'The rites based on the spreading (of the three sacred 
fires) have been declared ; we shall declare the Grz'hya rites 2 .' 

Thus it is not difficult to perceive the dependence of the 
Gri hya-sutras on the Srauta-sGtras ; but there remains the 
much more difficult question whether in each particular 
case both texts are to be regarded as by the same author, 
or whether the Grt'hya-sfltra is an appendix to the .Srauta- 
sutra composed by another author. Tradition accepts the 
one alternative for some Sfitras ; for other Sfltras it accepts 
the other ; thus in the domain of the Rig-veda literature 
Arvalayana and Sankhayana are credited with the author- 
ship of a .Srauta-sutra as well as of a Grihya-sOtra ; the same 
is true of Apastamba, Hirawyakerin, and other authors. 
On the other hand, the authorship of the Gfi'hya-sfltras 
which follow the Srauta-sGtras of Katyayana, Lafyayana, 
Drahyayawa, is not ascribed to Katyayana, La/yayana, 
Drahyaya*a, but to Paraskara, Gobhila, and Khadira- 

It seems to me that we should consider the testimony 
of tradition as entirely trustworthy in the second class 
of cases. Tradition is very much inclined to ascribe to 
celebrated masters and heads of schools the origin of works 
which are acknowledged authorities in their schools, even 
though they are not the authors. But it is not likely 
that tradition should have made a mistake in the opposite 

1 In the domain of the Atharva-veda literature alone we find this relation 
reversed ; here the .Sranta-ifHra (the Vaitana-sfltra) presupposes the Grthya-sutra 
(the Katuika-sutra). Cf. Prof. Garbe's preface to his edition of the Vaitana- 
sfltra, p. vii. This relation is not extraordinary, considering the secondary 
character of the Vaitana-sfltra. 

' Uktani vaitfinikani, grihyam vakshyamaA 

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xxxii gx/hya-sCtras. 

direction, that e.g. it should designate Paraskara as author 
when Katyayana himself was the author. 

We shall not be able to trust so implicitly to tradition 
where it puts down the same author for the Grzhya-sutra 
as for the corresponding Srauta-sutra ; the possibility that 
such data are false is so large that we have to treat them 
as doubtful so long as we have not discovered certain proofs 
of their correctness. At present, so far as I can see, we are 
just as little justified in considering that such a proof has 
been made as we are able to prove the opposite state of 
things. It is easy to find the many agreements in contents 
and expression which exist, for instance, between the Srauta- 
sutra and Gr;hya-sutra of Sankhayana, or between the 
Srauta-sutra and the Gr/hya-sutra of Arvalayana 1 . But 
these agreements cannot be considered as sufficient proof 
that in each case the Gri hya-sutra and the Srauta-sutra are 
by the same author. Even if the author of the Gr»hya-sutra 
was not Ajvalayana or Sankhayana in person, still he must 
have been at all events perfectly familiar with the works of 
those teachers, and must have intended to fit his work to 
theirs as closely as possible, so that agreements of this kind 
can in no way astonish us 2 . On the other hand, if the 
Srauta-sutras and Gri hya-sutras are read together, it is 
easy to discover small irregularities in the exposition, 
repetitions and such like, which might seem to indicate 
different authors. But the irregularities of this kind which 
have been detected up to the present are scarcely of such 

1 The parallel passages from the .Sranta-sQtra and the GWhya-sutra of the 
Manavas are brought together in Dr. Von Bradke's interesting paper, ' Ueber 
das MSnava-Gnhya-sutra,' Zeitschrift der Dentschen Morgenland. Gesellschaft, 
vol. xxxvi, p. 451. 

' For this reason I cannot accept the reasoning through which Prof. Biihler 
(Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. xiv) attempts to prove the identity of the 
author of the .Srauta-sutra and of the Dharma-sutra of the Apastambfya school. 
Buhler seems to assume that the repetition of the same Sfltra, and of the same 
irregular grammatical form in the -Srauta-sutra and in the Dharma-sutra, must 
either be purely accidental, or, if this is impossible, that it proves the identity 
of the authors. But there remains a third possible explanation, that the two 
texts are by different authors, one of whom knows and imitates the style of the 

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a character as not to be easily ascribable to mistakes and 
carelessness such as even a careful author may be guilty of 
in the course of a large work 1 . It seems to me then that 
until the discovery of further circumstances throwing light 
on the question of the identity of the authors of the Srautas 
and of the Gr*hyas, it would be premature if we were to 
venture on a decision of this question in one direction or 
the other. 

Prof. Biihler's investigations have made perfectly clear 
the relation in which the Grzhya-sutras and the Dharma- 
sutras stand to each other in those cases, where we have 
texts of both kinds by the same school. In the case of 
the Grthya-sutra and the Dharma-sutra of the Apastam- 
biyas he has proved 2 that both texts were the work of the 
same author according to a common plan, so that the 
Grmya-sutra is as short and terse as possible, because 
Apastamba had reserved for the Dharma-sutra a portion of 
the subject-matter generally treated of in the Gfihya- 
sutras. Besides there are references in each of the two 
texts to the other which strengthen the proof of their being 
written by the same author. In the Sutra collection of 
Hirawyakarin the state of things is different. Here, as 
Prof. Buhler has also shown 8 , we find numerous discrep- 
ancies between the Grihya and the Dharma-sutra, which 
are owing to the fact, that while this teacher took as 
Dharma-sutra that of Apastamba with some unessential 
changes, he composed a Gnhya-sutra of his own. Of the 
two Sutras of Baudhayana, the same distinguished 
scholar, to whom we owe the remarks we have just men- 
tioned, has treated in the Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. xiv, p. xxxi. 

I believe that every reader who compares the two kinds 
of texts will notice that the frame within which the exposi- 
tion of the Dharma-sutras is inclosed, is an essentially 

1 Cf. my remarks in the introduction to the .Sankhayana-Gnhya, vol. xziz, 
pp. 5, 6. 
' Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. xiii seq. 
* Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. xxiii seq. 

[30] C 

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xxxiv gu/hya-sOtras. 

broader one than in the case of the Gr*hya-sutras. We have 
here, I think, the same phenomenon that may also be ob- 
served, for instance, in the domain of the Buddhist Vinaya 
literature, where the exposition of the life of the community 
was at first given only in connection with the explanation of 
the list of sins (Patimokkha) which was promulgated every 
half month at the meetings of the spiritual brethren. It was 
not till later that a more comprehensive exposition, touch- 
ing all the sides of the life of the community was attempted 1 , 
an exposition which, on the one hand, no longer limited 
itself to the points discussed in the Patimokkha, and which, 
on the other hand, necessarily had much in common with 
what was laid down in the Patimokkha. The relation of 
the Grzhya-sAtras and Dharma-sfitras seems to me to be 
of a similar nature. The Grthya-sutras begin to treat of 
the events of the daily life of the household, but they do 
not yet undertake to exhaust the great mass of this subject- 
matter ; on the contrary they confine themselves principally 
to the ritual or sacrificial side of household life, as is natural 
owing to their connection with the older ritualistic literature. 
Then the Dharma-sfltras take an important step further ; 
their purpose is to describe the whole of the rights and 
customs which prevail in private, civic, and public life. 
They naturally among other things touch upon the cere- 
monies treated in the GWhya-sutras, but they generally 
merely mention them and discuss the questions of law and 
custom which are connected with them, without undertaking 
to go into the technical ordinances as to the way in which 
these ceremonies are to be performed 2 . 

Only in a few cases do portions treated of in the domain 
of the Dharma-sutras happen to coincide with portions 
treated of in the Grzhya-sutras. Thus especially, apart from 
a few objects of less importance, the detailed rules for the 
behaviour of the Snataka and the rules for the interruptions 

1 In the work which has KhandhakS as its general title and which has been 
transmitted to us in two parts, Mahavagga and Anllavagga. 

9 Compare, for instance, the explanations concerning the Upanayana in the 
Dharma-sutras (Apastamba I, I ; Gautama I) with the corresponding sections of 
the Gnhya-sutras. 

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of the Veda study (anadhyaya) are generally treated in an 
exactly similar way in the texts of the one and those of 
the other category. 

We have spoken above of the metrical peculiarities of the 
Mantras quoted in the Grmya-sutras, the metre of which 
clearly proves what is indubitable from other reasons, that 
most, if not all, of these verses were composed at a perceptibly 
older period than the descriptions of the sacred acts in the 
midst of which they are inserted 1 . A second kind of verses 
which are quoted in the Grihya-sutras must be carefully dis- 
tinguished from these. It is doubtful whether there are any 
to be found among them which the authors of the Sutras have 
themselves composed ; but they were composed at a period 
decidedly more recent than those Mantras 2 , and they there- 
fore exhibit metrical peculiarities which are essentially 
different. The verses I mean are .Slokas of ritual contents, 
which are quoted to confirm or to complete what is stated 
in the prose, and which are introduced by such expressions 
as tad apy ahuA 'here they say also,' or tad api slokk/t 
' here there are also Slokas,' and other similar phrases s . 

We called attention above (p. xix) to the fact that a verse 
of this kind occurs in one of the Grihya. chapters of the 
Satapatha Brahmawa, in a metre corresponding to the 
peculiarities of the older literary style. On the other hand, 
the verses appearing in the Grthya-sutras differ only in a 
few cases from the standard of the later Sloka prosody, as 
we have it, e. g. in the Mahabharata and in the laws of 
Manu. In the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenland. 
Gesellschaft, vol. xxxvii, p. 67, I have given tables for 
the verses in question out of the ■Sahkhayana-Gr/hya, and 
these tables show that the characteristic ending of the first 

1 We do not mean to deny that among these verses too a few of especially 
modem appearance are to be fonnd; e.g. this is true of the verses which Dr. 
Von Bradke has quoted from the Manava-Grthya II, 14, 34 (Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenland. Gesellschaft, vol. xxxvi, p. 439). 

' Let me here refer to the feet that one of these verses (A.rvalayana-Grs'hva 
IV, 7, 16) concludes with the words, ' thus said 5aunaka.' 

' Axval&yana-Grihya I, 3, 10 designates such a verse as yajttag&thi. 

C 2 

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xxxvi gk/hya-sCtras. 

•Sloka Pada for the later period v — *, which, for instance, 
in the Nalopakhyana of the Mahabharata covers precisely 
five-sixths of all the cases, occurs in Sarikhayana in thirty 
cases out of thirty-nine, that is in about three quarters of 
the cases * ; Sankhayana has still twice the ending \j-\j^ 
which is the rule in the Rig-veda, but which is forbidden 
by the later prosody : prahutaA pitWkarmawa, uktva man- 
tra** spmed apaA 2 . It may be observed that a similar 
treatment of the Sloka metre appears also in the Rig-veda 
Pratijakhya of Saunaka. Here too the modern form of the 
ending of the first pada dominates, although sometimes the 
old iambic form is preserved, e. g. II, 5 antaApada»*viv/7t- 
tayaJt, III, 6 anudattodaye punaA. 

It seems evident that we have in this Sloka form of the 
Sutra period, the last preparatory stage which the develop- 
ment of this metre had to traverse, before it arrived at 
the shape which it assumes in epic poetry ; and it is to be 
hoped that more exhaustive observations on this point 
(account being especially taken of the numerous verses 
quoted in the Dharma-sutras) will throw an important 
light on the chronology of the literature of this period lying 
between the Vedas and the post-Vedic age. 

We add to these remarks on the Slokas quoted in the 
Gnhya-sutras, that we come upon a number of passages in 
the midst of the prose of the Sutras, which without being 
in any way externally designated as verses, have an un- 
mistakable metrical character, being evidently verses which 
the authors of the Sutras found ready made, and which 
they used for their own aphorisms, either without changing 
them at all, or with such slight changes that the original 
form remained clearly recognisable. Thus we read in 
Arvalayana (Gnhya 1, 6, 8), as a definition of the Rakshasa 
marriage: hatva bhittva ka. jirshawi rudatiw rudadbhyo 

1 The few verses which are found in Gobhila preserve the same metrical 
standard as those quoted in JSnkhayana ; it follows that in Gobhila IV, 7, 33, 
axvatthad agnibhayam bruy&t, we cannot change bruy&t in kt, as Prof. Knauer 
proposes. The supernumerary syllable of the first foot is unobjectionable, but 
the form w of the second foot should not be touched. 

' Both passages are to be found in iankhayana-GWhya 1, 10. 

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haret : the approximation of these words to the Sldka. 
metre cannot escape attention, and it is only necessary to 
make rudadbhyaA and rudatiw change places in order 
to obtain a regular 51oka hemistich. In Gobhila the 
Sutras I, 2, 2 1 -27 represent three hemistichs, which with 
one exception (na ka sopanatkaA kva£it) exactly conform 
to the laws of the Sloka metre. II, 4, 2 gives also a hemi- 
stich by slightly changing the order : 

Mahavrikshan smas&nam ka nadfa ka vishamam ka 1 . 

Somewhat more remote from the original verses is 
the wording of the Sutras I, 6, 8. 9 na pravasann upavased 
ity ahuk, patnya vrata** bhavatiti ; we have the metrical 
order in one of the Slokas quoted by Sankhayana (Grmya 
II, 17) : nopavasaA pravise syat patnt dharayate vratam. 

The verses which are thus either expressly quoted, or at 
any rate made use of by the authors of the Gr/hya-sutras, 
do not seem to be taken from connected metrical works any 
more than the ya^tfagathas quoted in the Brahmawas; on 
the contrary in a later period of literature, when texts 
similar to Manu's Code were composed, they evidently 
furnished these texts with some of their materials 2 . 

Leaving out of consideration the Khadira-Grzhya, which 
is evidently a recast of the Gobhiltya-GWhya, and the 
Sutra of Hirawyakerin, which is, at least in part, based 
on that of Apastamba 8 , we are not in regard to the other 
Grthya texts in a condition to prove that one of them 
borrowed from the other. It often happens that single 
Sutras or whole rows of Sutras agree so exactly in different 
texts that this agreement cannot be ascribed to chance ; 
but this does not — so far at least — enable us to tell 
which text is to be looked upon as the source of the 

1 The text has : nadir ka. visharaini ks. maMvrikshan smasinom ta, 

* Cf. Indische Stndien, XV, n. We do not mean to imply anything a* to 
the metrical portions of other Sutra texts than the Gnhya-sutras. As regards 
some verses quoted in the Bandhayana-Dharma-sutra, Prof. Buhler (Sacred 
Books of the East, vol. xiv, p. xli) has shown that they are actually borrowed 
from a metrical treatise on the Sacred Law. 

* Cf. Prof. Buhler's remarks, Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. xxiii. 

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xxxviii g/j/hya-sOtras. 

other, or whether they have a common source which has" 
been lost. 

I will content myself with mentioning two such cases of 
agreement, in the one of which we can at least prove that a 
certain Sutra cannot originally spring from one of the texts 
in which we find it, while in the other case we are able by 
means of a possibly not too uncertain conjecture to recon- 
struct the opening Sutras of a lost Grmya-sutra. 

The description of the-vrishotsarga (i.e. of the setting a 
bull at liberty) agrees almost word for word in the Sutras 
of .Sankhayana (III, n), Paraskara (III, 9), and in the 
KaAfcaka-Grzhya. In Sankhayana we read : 

§ 15 : nabhyasthe*numantrayate mayobhur ity anuvaka- 

(' When the bull is in the midst of the cows, he recites 
over them the texts " mayobhuA, &c," down to the end of 
the Anuvaka.') 

On the other hand in Paraskara we have : 

§ 7 : nabhyastham abhimantrayate mayobhur ity anuvi- 

(' When the bull is in the midst of the cows, he recites 
over it the texts " mayobhuA, &c," down to the end of the 

The quotation mayobhuA is clear, if we refer it to the 
Rig-veda. Hymn X, 169, which stands about in the 
middle of an Anuvaka, begins with this word 1 . On the 
other hand in the Va^asaneyi Sawhita there is no Mantra 
beginning with MayobhuA ; we find this word in the middle 
of the Mantra XVIII, 45, and there follow verses whose use 
at the vnshotsarga would seem in part extremely strange. 
There can thus be no doubt that Paraskara here borrowed 
from a Sutra text belonging to the Rig-veda, a Pratika, 
which, when referred to the Va^asaneyi Safwhita, results in 

The other passage which I wish to discuss here is Para- 

1 In the Taittirtya Samhita (VII, 4, 17) mayobWU is the beginning of an 
Anuvaka ; the expression anuvSkaxeshewa would have no meaning if referred 
to this text. 

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skara 1, 4, 1-5. Paraskara, being just on the point of describ- 
ing the marriage ritual, prefixes a few sentences, the position 
of which here it is not very easy to understand. A general 
division of all Pakaya^was — general remarks on the nature 
of the place for sacrificing : this looks very strange between 
a discussion of the Arghya and marriage ceremonies. Now 
these same sentences are found almost word for word and 
with the same passing on to the marriage ritual in Saiikha- 
yana also (Grthya I, 5. 1- 5)- Here, as in other cases, we 
have the borrowing word for word of such portions of text 
from an older text, and, closely related to this phenomenon, 
the fact that the sentences in question are awkwardly woven 
into the context of the Grmya where we read them, and are 
poorly connected with the surrounding parts. Unless we 
are much deceived, we have here a fragment from an older 
source inserted without connection and without change. It 
would seem that this fragment was the beginning of the 
original work ; for the style and contents of these Sutras 
are peculiarly appropriate for the beginning. Thus, if this 
conjecture is right, that old lost Gr*hya began with the 
main division of all the Pakaya^was into four classes, and 
then proceeded at once to the marriage ritual. Later, 
when the texts which we have, came into existence, the 
feeling evidently arose, that in this way an important part 
of the matter had been overlooked. The supplementary 
matter was then inserted before the old beginning, which 
then naturally, as is to be seen in our texts, joins on rather 
strangely and abruptly to these newly-added portions. 

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G7?/HYA-StJTRA of 

t> [3o] B 


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The Grthya-sutra of Gobhila differs from those of 
5ankhayana, Ajvalayana, Paraskara, Hirawyakejin in one 
essential point : while these texts presuppose only the same 
Vedic Samhitas on which also the corresponding Srauta- 
sutras are based, viz. the Rig-veda-Sa*«htta, the Va^asaneyi- 
Sawhita, and the Taittiriya-Saw/hiti ; the Sutra of Gobhila, 
on the other hand, presupposes, beside the Sawhita of the 
Sama-veda 1 , another collection of Mantras which evidently 
was composed expressly with the purpose of being used at 
Grihya. ceremonies : this collection is preserved to us under 
the title of the Mantra-Brahma«a,and it has been edited 
at Calcutta (1873), with a commentary and Bengali trans- 
lation by Satyavrata Sam&rramin 2 . 

Prof. Knauer of Kiew, to whom all students of the 
Grihya literature are highly indebted for his very accurate 
edition and translation of Gobhila, has been the first to 

1 The term 'Sumhiti of the Sama-veda' oaght to be understood here in its 
narrower sense as denoting the so-called first book of the Sa/nhita, the 
A3anda-&r£ika or collection of Yoni verses (see on the relation between this 
collection and the second book my remarks in the Zeitschrift der Dentschen 
Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, vol. xxxviii, pp. 464 seq.). Prof. Knauer in his 
list of the verses quoted by Gobhila (p. 19 of his translation of the Gobhiltya- 
Grihya.) states that Sama-veda II, 1 1 38 (=1, a?6) and 1 1 39 is quoted in Gobhila 
III, 9, 6, but an accurate analysis of the words of Gobhila shows that the verse 
II, 1139 is not referred to, so that only the verse II, 1 138 remains, which occurs 
also in the first book of the Samhiti. The 'dvika' of which Gobhila speaks in 
that Sutra is not a dvrt^a, but, as the commentators rightly understand it (see 
Knauer' s edition of the text, p. xii , it is a dyad of Samans or melodies, the two 
Kavasha Samans which are based on the text I, a*6, and are given in the great 
Sama-veda edition of Satyavrata S&majramin, vol. i, pp. 566, 567. 

* In the same way the Grjhya-sQtra of Apastamba stands in connection with 
a similar collection of Gnhya verses and formulas, the Apastambtya-Mantra- 

B 2 

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examine into the relation in which the two texts, the 
Mantra-Brahma«a and the Gobhiliya-sutra, stand to each 
other. He has very kindly enabled me to make use, 
before they were published, of the results of his investiga- 
tions, which he has laid down in the introduction to his 
translation of Gobhila. While I wish, therefore, to acknow- 
ledge the obligation under which Prof. Knauer has thus 
laid me, I must try, on the other side, to state my own 
opinion as to the problem in question, which in some 
points differs from, or is even opposed to, the theory by 
which Prof. Knauer has tried to solve it. 

To begin with that side of the question regarding which 
there can scarcely be any doubt : it is certain, I believe, 
that Gobhila supposes the Mantra-Brahmana to be known 
to the students of his Sutra. The reasons which show 
this are obvious enough 1 . By far the greater part of the 
Mantras of which Gobhila quotes the first words, are not 
found in the Sama-veda nor, for the most part, in any 
other Vedic Sawhita, except in the Mantra-Brahmawa, in 
which they stand in exactly the same order in which 
they are referred to by Gobhila. The descriptions of the 
Grihya. sacrifices by Gobhila would have been meaningless 
and useless, and the sacrificer who had to perform his 
domestic ceremonies according to the ritual of Gobhila, 
would have been unable to do so, unless he had known 
those Mantras as contained in the Mantra-Brahma«a. 
And not only the Mantras, but also the order in which the 
Mantras stood, for Sutras such as, for instance, Gobh. II, i, 
10 (' With the two following verses he should wash,' &c), 
would have no meaning except for one who had studied 
the Mantra-Brahma«a which alone could show which ' the 
two following verses ' were. 

There are, consequently, two possibilities : either the 
Mantra-Brahmana existed before the Gobhiltya-sutra, or 
the two works have been composed together and on one 
common plan. It is the first of these alternatives which 
Prof. Knauer maintains ; I wish, on the other hand, to call 

1 Cf. Knauer's Introduction, pp. 14, 31 seq. 

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the attention of Vedic scholars to some facts which seem to 
me to render the second more probable. 

A great part of the Mantras which have to be recited, 
according to Gobhila, at the performance of the Grihya. 
ceremonies, are not given in the Mantra-Brahmawa, but 
they are either found in the Sama-veda-Sa/whita and then 
their Pratikas are quoted by Gobhila, or they are cited by 
Gobhila in extenso. Thus for the ceremonies described 
in the first Prapa/tfaka of Gobhila, such as the morning and 
evening offerings and the sacrifices of the full and new 
moon, the Mantra-Brahmaaa gives, with one single excep- 
tion, no Mantras at all 1 ; but those Mantras, most of which 
consist only of a few words, are given by Gobhila only. It 
is scarcely to be believed that in a Sawhita which had to 
contain the Mantras required for the performance of the 
Grihya. sacrifices, the Mantras belonging to the two daily 
and the two fortnightly sacrifices, which occupy one of the 
first places among all Grihya. ceremonies and are treated 
of accordingly in all Gr/hya-sutras, should have been 
omitted, unless that Sawhita was intended to stand in 
relation to another text by which that deficiency was sup- 
plied : and the Gobhilfya-sutra exactly supplies it. Prof. 
Knauer thinks that those Mantras were omitted because 
they had already found their place ia the Srauta ritual ; 
but we must not forget that in the Srauta ritual of the 
Sama-vedins neither the Agnihotra nor the Dawapurea- 
masa sacrifices, which are performed without the assistance 
of priests of the Udgatr* class, are treated of. Moreover 
the one Mantra- to which we have already alluded 2 , the 
single one which corresponds in the Mantra-Brahma«a to 
the first book of Gobhila, seems to me quite sufficient to 
show that it was not the intention of the compiler of that 
text to disregard that group of sacrifices ; he gave that 
Mantra only, because the other Mantras, consisting of but 
a few words, were given in extenso in the Gobhila text. 
The Mantra of which we speak, belongs to the description 

1 Cf. Knauer's translation, Introduction, p. 25. 
* Mantra-Brfihma*a 1, 1, 1. 

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6 gr/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

of the paryukshawa of the sacrificial fire. The sacrificer 
pours out water to the south, the west, and the north of the 
fire, with the Mantras, ' Adite-numanyasya,' 'Anumate 
•numanyasva,' ' Sarasvaty anumanyasva ' ; then he sprinkles 
water round the fire once or three times with a longer 
Mantra, ' Deva Savita/* prasuva ya^wam prasuva ya^wapatim 
bhagaya. Divyo gandharva/* ketapuA ketaw naA punatu. 
Va^aspatir vkkam naA svadatu/ This last one is the 
Mantra given in its entirety in the Mantra-Brahmawa, while 
Gobhila 1 has only the first words of it. To assume here 
that the author of the Mantra-Brahmawa knew only of that 
one Mantra, and that at the time of Gobhila the custom of 
the Sama-vedins had undergone a change, so that they used 
four Mantras instead of the one, would be, in my opinion, 
an artificial and not very probable way of explaining the 
facts ; a much more natural supposition would be, I 
believe, that the Sutra and the Mantra-Brahma«a describe 
one and the same form of the ceremony, so that the Brah- 
ma«a, by omitting the short Mantras, which were given in 
the Sutra in their entirety, implicitly refers to the Sutra, 
and the Sutra, on the other hand, by quoting only the first 
words of the longer Mantra, refers to the Brahmawa in 
which the full text of that Mantra was given. 

Among the numerous ceremonies described by Gobhila, 
which could furnish the occasion for similar remarks, we 
select only two : the rites performed in the evening of the 
wedding-day 2 , and the sacrifice on the full-moon day of 
Asvayvga. 3 . The bridegroom, having carried away his 
bride from her home, takes her to the house of a Brahmawa, 
and when the stars have appeared, he makes six oblations 
with the six verses lekhasandhishu pakshmasu (Man- 
tra-Br. 1, 3, 1-6) : these are given in the Mantra-Brahmawa, 
and Gobhila has only the Pratika. Then follow two short 
Mantras: the bride, to whom the polar-star has been 
shown, addresses that star with the words : dhruvam asi 
dhruvahaw patikule bhuyasam amushyasav iti; 

1 Gobh. I, 3, 4. • Gobh. II, 3, 17 seq. » Gobh. Ill, 8. 

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and when she sees the star Arundhatl, she says, ruddha- 
h a rn a s m i. As the full wording of these Mantras is given 
by Gobhila, they are omitted in the Brahmawa. Finally 
the bridegroom recites over the bride the Rik dhruva 
dyaur dhruva pr/thiv!, &c. ; this we find in the M.-B. 
(I, 3, 7), the Pratika only being quoted by Gobhila. If one 
were to suppose here that in the two texts two different 
stages in the development of this ceremony are represented, 
so that only the Mantras lekhasandhishu and dhruva 
dyauA would belong to the more ancient form of it, while 
the Mantras dhruvam asi and ruddhaham asmi would 
have been introduced at a later time, it may perhaps not 
be possible to disprove, in the strictest sense of the word, 
such an opinion. But I think the data we have given point 
to another solution of the problem which, if not the only 
admissible, is yet the most probable and natural one. 
Gobhila gave the full wording of the shorter Mantras with 
which the description of the ceremony could be interwoven 
without becoming obscure or disproportionate ; the longer 
Mantras would have interrupted, rather tediously and incon- 
veniently, the coherency of his ritual statements ; so he 
separated them from the rest of his work and made a sepa- 
rate Samhita of them. It is true that there are some 
exceptions to the rule that all long Mantras are given in 
the Mantra-Brahmawa and all short Mantras only in the 
Sutra : on the one hand, there are some Mantras of con- 
siderable extent that are given by Gobhila and omitted in 
the Br4hma#a, thus, for instance, the Mantra yady asi 
saumi used at a preparatory ceremony that belongs to the 
Puwsavana 1 . On the other hand, a number of short 
Mantras which Gobhila gives in extenso, are found never- 
theless also in the Mantra-Brahmawa : such is the case, for 
instance, with many of the Mantras belonging to the 
worship of the Fathers, Gobhila IV, 2. 3, Mantra-Br. II, 3. 

1 Gobh. II, 6, 7. It is possible, though we have no positive evidence for this 
conjecture, that such statements regarding preparatory or auxiliary ceremonies 
may here and there have been added to the Sutra collection in a later time. 
The Khadira-GWhya (II, 2, ao) has instead of that long Mantra only a few 
words which in the Gobbillya-sAtra stand at the end of it. 

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8 g*/hya-sutra of gobhila. 

It appears then, that allowance must be made for a certain 
inconsistency or carelessness in the distribution of the 
material between the two texts : and such an assumption 
will easily be allowed by any one who does not entertain 
very exaggerated ideas as to the care and reflection which 
presided over the composition of the Sutra texts. 

I will add only a few words concerning a second Gr/hya 
ceremony, which calls for the same sort of comment as the 
rites which have just been discussed. For the offering on 
the day of the full moon, Gobhila prescribes (III, 8, a) 
first the verse a no mitravaruwa, second the verse ma 
nas tok e. The Mantra-Brahmawa (II, i, 8) has the second 
of these verses only, not the first: conversely, the first 
verse alone, and not the second, is to be found in the S&m- 
hita of the Sama-veda (I, aao). We could hardly assume, 
as I think, that the Mantra-Brahmawa presupposed another 
form of the rite differing from Gobhila's; we should be 
much more inclined to consider the leaving out of that 
matter, which was contained in other texts of the Sama-veda, 
as a proof that the compiler of the Mantra-Brahma«a 
assumed that those texts were known \ 

And this brings me to one of Prof. Knauer's conjectures 
concerning the Mantra-Brahmawa which I have not yet 
touched. According to tradition we consider the Mantra- 
Brahmana as belonging to the Sama-veda ; in the Calcutta 
edition it is designated as the ' Sama-vedasya Mantra- 
Brahmanam.' Prof. Knauer thinks that it is doubtful 
whether the Mantra-Brahmawa belonged to the Sama-veda 
originally. He conjectures 2 ' that it existed already in the 

' Any one who holds the view that the ritualistic formulas, which are not 
contained in the Mantra-Brahmana, represent later extensions of the ceremonies 
in question, will do well to notice how in any one of the offerings of the .Srauta 
ritual which we possess, both in the old description of the Samhita and Brahmaxa 
texts, and in the more recent description of the Sutra texts, Mantras have been 
added in more recent times to the former ones. I think that it would be difficult 
to draw from such observations any argument of analogy calculated to support 
Dr. Knauer's opinion as to the relation of the Mantras in Gobhila and in the 

9 Introduction to his translation, p. 23. 

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period during which the separate schools were as yet in the 
process of sifting, when there were as yet no Sama-vedists 
in the later and stricter sense of the term V For out of 
249 Mantras of the Mantra-Brahma«a there are only four 
which are found in the Sama-veda 2 , as Prof. Knauer has 
shown, while a much greater number of these Mantras 
occur in the other Vedic Samhitas. I should be inclined 
to conclude the other way : just because the author of the 
Mantra- Brahmawa presupposed a knowledge of the Sawhita 
of the Sama-veda, but not of the other Vedas — or in other 
words because he destined his work for Sama-vedins, he 
did not need to repeat what was in the Sama-veda, but was 
compelled to incorporate in his compilation the Mantras 
out of the Rig-veda or of the Ya^ur-veda 8 . Moreover, I 
would draw the same conclusions from the Mantras cited by 
Gobhila which are absent in the Mantra-Brahma«a, as I did 
from the Mantras which occur in the Mantra-Brahmawa, but 
are not to be found in the Sama-veda. Those Mantras are 
all to be found in the Sama-veda with the exception of those 
which Gobhila has in extenso, and which therefore could 
be omitted in the Mantra-Brahmawa. If we examine the 
thirteen Mantras collected by Prof. Knauer (p. 29), we find 
that in the case of nine of them the passage of the Sama- 
veda (always of the first Ar£ika of the Sama-veda) where 
they are to be found is quoted by Prof. Knauer. 

1 Besides the reasons given below in opposition to this conjecture, I may be 
permitted to point out that this hypothesis is contrary to the whole chronology 
of the GWhya literature which we endeavoured to arrive at in the general 
introduction. It is a priori extremely improbable that there was a Grthya 
Sa/whiti at a time when there was as yet no Sama-veda. 

' Viz. (according to Prof. Knaner's alphabetical list of the Mantras of the 
Mantra- Brahmana) imam stomam arhate, M.-B. II, 4, 2»Sv. 1,66; II, 414; 
tat savitur varexyam, M.-B. 1, 6, 29 = Sv. II, 8 1 1 ; bharamedhmam, M.-B. II, 4, 
3«Sv. II, 415 ; jakema tv&, M.-B. II, 4, 4~Sv. II, 416. 

* Notice that of the four exceptional cases which we put together in the 
previous note, three cases are Mantras which are found only in the second 
AnKka of the Sama-veda, not in the first (cf. above, p. 3, note 1). The fourth 
verse (M.-B. II, 4, 2) is to be found in the first Ar£ika, it is true, but it stands 
closely related to two verses which are not to be found in that Ar£ika (M.-B. 
II, 4, 3. 4). This explains why it was put into the Mantra-Brahmana, as well 
as those two verses. 

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io g/ithya-sCtra of gobhila. 

The four other cases are : 

rik&m sama ya^amahe, Gobh. Ill, 2, 48. 

ta£ £akshur devahitam, III, 8, 5. 

sam anya yanti, III, 9, 7. 

prag-apataye, IV, 7, 36. 
Of these Mantras the first is contained in the Sama-veda 
(I, 369) just as the nine first-mentioned ones ; the second 
is quoted by Gobhila inextenso; the third is to be found 
in the Arawyaka division of the Sama-veda I (vol. ii, p. 292, 
ed. Bibl. Ind.) ; in the fourth finally the text is corrupt ; it 
is intended for the verse out of the Mantra-Brahmawa 
Pra^-apate na tvad etany anyaA. Thus the four 
apparent exceptions all vanish, and we have in the Mantras 
which are absent in the Mantra-Brahma«a a new proof that 
this text belongs to the literature of the Sama-veda K 

Thus, according to my view, we may describe the origin 
of the Mantra-Brahma«a as follows. The Sama-veda con- 
tained in its Sawmita a much smaller number of Mantras 
applicable to the Grihya. rites than either the Rig-veda or 
the Y^ur-veda ; the peculiar character of the Saman texts, 
intended for musical recitations at the most important 
sacrificial offerings, was quite remote from the character of 
formulas suitable for the celebration of a wedding, for the 
birth of a child, for the consecration of fields and flocks. 
Hence it is that, to a much greater extent than Arvalayana 
or Paraskara, Gobhila mentions Mantras for which a refer- 
ence to the Sawhita was not sufficient ; and this led to the 
compiling of a separate Sawmita of such Grzhya-mantras, 
which presupposes the Gr«hya-sutra, just as the latter pre- 
supposes this Sawhita. The almost perfect agreement of 
the Mantra-Brahma«a with Gobhila furnishes a valuable 

1 One will not object that the Mantras in question which are absent in the 
Mantra-Brahmana are all to be found in the Rig-veda as well as in the Sama- 
veda. Since almost all the verses of the Sama-veda are taken from the Rig-veda 
there is nothing astonishing about this. Before one could conclude from this that 
the Mantra-Brahmana belongs to the Rig-veda he would have to answer the 
question, How is it that the verses in question are always verses of the Rig-veda 
which are repeated in the Sama-veda? Why are there not among 
them verses which are not to be found in the Sama-veda ! 

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warrant for the good preservation of the two texts ; of 
small discrepancies I have noted only two : Mantra-Brah- 
maaa I, 6, 15, the formula agantra samaganmahi is 
given for the ceremony of the Upanayana, while Gobhila 
does not prescribe this Mantra for this ceremony, although 
other Grihya. texts do ; and secondly, the Mantra- Brah- 
ma«a II, 5, 1-7 does not consist of six verses as Gobh. IV, 
6, 5-6 allows us to assume, but of seven verses. 

In concluding this introduction notice is to be drawn to 
the fact that the text of Gobhila has preserved for us the 
traces of a division differing from the one into four Prapa- 
A&akas which is handed down by tradition : in a number of 
places certain Sutras or the last words of certain Sutras are 
set down twice, a well-known way of indicating the close of 
a chapter. This repetition, besides occurring at the end of 
the first, third, and fourth Prapa/^aka (not at the end of the 
second), is to be found in the following places which become 
more frequent towards the close of the work : I, 4, 31 ; 
111,6, 15; IV, i,22; 4,34; 5,34; 6, 16. 

Digitized by 


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g^/hya-sOtra of go 


i. Now henceforth we shall explain the domestic 

2. He should perform (the ceremonies) wearing 
the sacrificial cord on his left shoulder and having 
sipped water. 

3. During the northern course of the sun, at the 
time of the increasing moon, on an auspicious day, 
before noon : this he should know as the (proper) 
time (for performing the ceremonies). 

4. And as the prescription (is stated with regard 
to the time of the single ceremonies). 

5. All (ceremonies) are accompanied by the 
<Anviharya (6raddha). 

1, 1-4. Comp. Kh&dira-Gr/bya I, 1, 1. 2. 5. 7. 

5. I cannot give this translation of the words ' sarv£«y ev&n- 
vaharyavanti ' without expressing my doubts as to whether the 
commentator, whom I have followed, is right. He says: 'anu 
pasA&d ahriyate yasmit prakri'tam karma iti, anu p&r&d ahriyate 
yat prastut£t (prakrMt?) karmawa iti j&nvShSryam nandimu- 
khaniddhaw dakshiwS £o£yate.' It is evident that the first expla- 
nation of anvShdrya as a ceremony after which the chief sacrifice 
follows, is inadmissible. Below, IV, 4, 3. 4, Gobhila himself defines 
the AnvahSrya .SWiddha as a monthly ceremony (comp. Manu III, 
123; Max Mtiller, India, p. 240); it is, consequently, different 
from a .Sr&ddha accompanying each Grihya. sacrifice. The .Sloka 
which the commentary quotes from a ' gnhyantara ' seems to me 
not to remove the doubt ; I think rather that it contains a specu- 
lation based on this very passage of Gobhila, taken in the sense in 

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14 gk/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

6. At the end (of each ceremony) he should feed 
worthy (Brahma#as) according to his ability. 

7. A student, after he has studied the Veda, 
when going to put the last piece of wood (on the 
fire), — 

8. Or to seize a wife's hand (i. e. to marry her), — 

9. Should fetch water from a hidden place, should 
sweep a place which is inclined towards north-east, 
or which is level, and should besmear it (with cow- 
dung). Beginning from the centre of it he should 
draw a line from west to east, (another line) from 
south to north which touches that line at its western 
end, and three lines from west to east (touching the 
northwards-turned line at three different points) in 
its midst (i. e. at neither of its ends). He then 
should besprinkle (those lines with water). 

10. In this way the Laksha«a (i. e. the prepara- 
tion of the place for the sacred fire) is performed 

1 1 . With the words ' Bhur, bhuva^, sva^,' they 
carry the fire forward (to that place) so that they 
have it in front of them. 

12. Or after the householder has died, the chief 

which the commentator takes it, and on the Sutras IV, 4, 3. 4. Thus 
I rather believe that we ought to understand anvihirya as a mess 
of food like that offered after the dawapur«amasau sacrifices to 
the officiating priests (Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, 133), 
and I propose to translate : All (sacrifices) are followed by (the 
offering of) the Anv&harya food (to the priest). 

6. Khadira-Grchya I, 1, 3. 

7. The text goes on to treat of the setting up of the domestic 
fire. KhSdira-Gr»hya I, 3, 1. 

9. Khadira-Gr/hya I, 3, 1 seqq. ; Gnhya-sawgraha I, 47 seqq. ; 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XXXV, 557. 
12. I have followed in the translation of parameshMikaranam the 

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(of the family) should do it (i. e. he should set up the 
sacred fire). 

13. In this way, on the coincidence of an (auspi- 
cious) Tithi and an (auspicious) Nakshatra, (or of 
such a Nakshatra) and a Parvan — 

14. On the full- moon day or on the new-moon 
day : then he should celebrate the setting up of his 
(sacred domestic) fire. 

15. He should get fire from a Vaisya's house or 
from a frying-pan, and should set it up (as his sacred 

16. Or (he should fetch it) from the house of one 
who offers many sacrifices, be it a Brahma#a, or a 
Ra^anya, or a Vaijya. 

17. Or he may kindle another fire by attrition 
and may set it up. 

18. That is pure, but it does not bring prosperity. 

19. He may do what he likes (of the things stated 
as admissible in the last Sutras). 

20. When he puts (at the end of his studentship) 
the last piece of wood (on the fire), or when he 
sacrifices when going to seize the hand of a wife, 
that fire he should keep. 

21. That becomes his (sacred) domestic fire. 

22. Thereby his morning oblation has been 

way indicated by the Gnbya-sa/wgraha I, 77, and by Sankhdyana 
(I, 1, 5) : prete vH gr/'hapatau svayaw gy&y&n. I think the 
parameshMf is the same person as the ^yay&n. The commen- 
tary gives a different explanation : paramesial agnir ity a*akshatc, 
tasya paramesh//5ino»gneA karana/n yathoktena vidhina svikaranam. 

15-18. Khtdira-Gnhya I, 5, 3 seqq. 

20, 21. KMdira-Gr/bya I, 5, 1. 2. Comp. also above, Sutras 7 
and 8. 

22. I.e. in the first of the two cases mentioned in Sutra 20, the 

Digitized by 


1 6 g/uhya-sOtra of gobhila. 

23. Beginning from that time the sacrificing (of 
regular morning and evening oblations) in the 
domestic fire is prescribed, so that he begins with 
an evening oblation. 

24. Before the time has come for setting the fire 
in a blaze, he should fetch in the evening and in the 
morning from a hidden place the water with which the 
different acts (such as sipping water) are performed. 

25. Or (he should fetch water only) in the evening. 

26. Or he should draw it out of a water-pot or 
of a barrel. 

27. Before sunset he should set the fire in ablaze, 
and sacrifice the evening oblation after sunset. 

28. In the morning he should set the fire in a 
blaze before sunrise, and should sacrifice the morning 
oblation before sunrise or after it. 

KIydikA 2. 

1. He takes as his ya^»opavtta (i. e. sacrificial 
cord) a string, or a garment, or simply a rope of 
Kusa. grass. 

putting of fuel on the fire, and in the second case, the oblations of 
fried grain, &c, prescribed for the wedding, are considered as the 
sacrificer's morning oblation in his newly-established Grihya fire, 
so that the regular oblations have to begin with the sayamahuti. 

23. Khadira-Gr«hya I, 5, 6. Comp. Prof. Bloomfield's note 2, 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl. Gesellschaft, XXXV, 561. 

27, 28. Khadira-Grz'hya I, 5, 7-9. As to the two cases regarding 
the time of the morning oblation, comp. Indische Studien, X, 329. 

2, 1-4, Rules regarding the Upavtta. Khadira-Gr/hya I, 1, 4-6. 
Compare the detailed description of the nine threads of which the 
Upa vita-string should consist, in the Gr/hya-sawgraha II, 48 seqq. 
A string was evidently considered as the regular and preferable 
form of the Upavtta ; with regard to the second kind of Upavita 
mentioned in Sutra 1, the commentary says, 'A garment (is used), 

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2. Raising his right arm, putting the head into 
(the upavlta), he suspends (the cord) over his left 
shoulder, so that it hangs down on his right side : 
thus he becomes ya^»opavltin. 

3. Raising his left arm, putting the head into (the 
upavlta), he suspends it over his right shoulder, so 
that it hangs down on his left side : thus he becomes 

4. Praiinavltin, however, he is only at sacrifices 
offered to the Manes. 

5. Having gone in a northern direction from the 
fire, having washed his hands and feet, and having 
seated himself, he should sip water three times and 
wipe off (the water) twice. 

6. Having besprinkled his feet (with water) let 
him besprinkle his head. 

7. Let him touch the organs of his senses with 
water : 

8. The two eyes, the nose, the two ears. 

9. Whatever (limb of his body) requires his con- 
sideration (whether it is pure or not), that he 
should touch with water (i. e. with a wet hand). 

10. Here they say : 

1 1. Let him not touch (himself with water, or sip 
water) while walking, 

12. Nor standing, 

1 3. Nor laughing, 

14. Nor looking about, 

15. Nor without bending down, 

if the Upavtta has been lost, for instance, in a forest, and if it is 
impossible to get a string/ A similar remark is given with refer- 
ence to the third kind of Upavtta, the rope of Ku«i grass. 

5-32. Rules regarding the a^amana and upasparjana. 
Khadira-Gr/Tvya I, 1, 7-10 ; Manu II, 60 seqq. 

[30] c 

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1 8 gk/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

i 6. Nor (throwing up the water) with his fingers, 

1 7. Nor except with the (proper) Tlrtha, 

18. Nor uttering a sound, 

19. Nor without looking (at the water), 

20. Nor with his shoulders put back, 

21. Nor wearing a part of his under garment as 
if it were an upper garment, 

22. Nor with warm water, 

23. Nor with foamy water, 

24. And in no case wearing sandals, 

25. (Not) with a turban on his head (?), 

26. (Not with his garment) tied round his neck, 

27. And not stretching out his feet. 

28. When he has finally touched (water) again, he 
becomes pure. 

29. Let him, however, sip only water that reaches 
his heart. 

30. For if he does otherwise, he remains impure. 

31. Now the cases in which he has to touch 
(water) a second time. 

17. As to the Tirthas (or parts of the hand) sacred to the 
different deities or beings, comp. Vasish/>4a III, 64 seqq., &c. See 
also Manu II, 58. 

20. According to the commentary he has to hold his hands 
between his knees. Comp. 5Shkh.-Gr/hya I, 10, 8. Thus the 
shoulders are brought forward. 

21-27. These Sutras form three regular .Sloka hemistichs. 
Only at the end of the second hemistich there is a metrical irregu- 
larity (sop&natkaA kvaiit standing at the end of the verse). 

25. KasaktikaA, which the commentary explains as a compound 
of ka, ' the head,' and asaktik£=£vesh/ika\ 

28. Khddira-Gr/hya I, i, 10. 

29. In other texts (for instance, Manu II, 62 ; Vasisli/fci III, 
31 seqq.) it is stated that a Brahmawa should sip water that reaches 
his heart, a Kshatriya water reaching his throat, a Vairya water 
that wets his palate ; a Sudra should only touch water with his lips. 

Digitized by 


i PRAPArffAKA, 3 kAjvdikA, 6. 19 

32. Having slept, or eaten, or sneezed, or taken a 
bath, or drunk something, or changed (his garments), 
or walked on the high road, or gone to a cemetery, 
he should sip water and then sip water again. 

KAtfDIKA 3. 

1. Having put wood on the (sacred) fire, having 
swept (the ground) round it, he should, bending his 
right knee, pour out to the south of the fire his 
joined hands full of water with (the words), ' Aditi ! 
Give thy consent ! ' 

2. To the west with (the words), 'Anumati! Give 
thy consent ! ' 

3. To the north with (the words), ' Sarasvati ! 
Give thy consent ! ' 

4. With (the words), ' God Savitr? t Give thy im- 
pulse! ' (Mantra-Brahma#a 1, 1, i)he should sprinkle 
(water) round the fire once or thrice so as to keep 
his right side turned towards it — 

5. Interchanging the points at which he begins 
and ends the (sprinkling of water), and sprinkling so 
as to encompass what he is going to offer (with the 
streams of water). 

6. Let him then make oblations of the sacrificial 
food, be it prepared or raw, over the fire. 

32. This Sutra again forms a .Sloka, though a slightly irregular 

3. Rules regarding the daily morning and evening sacrifice. 

1-5. KMdira-Gr/hya I, 2, 17-21. 

6. The sacrificial food is either krita (prepared) or akr/ta (un- 
prepared). A mess of boiled rice, for instance, is kr/ta, rice grains 
are akr/ta. 

C 2 

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7. If it is raw, he should sacrifice after having 
washed it and having let the water drop off. 

8. If it consists in curds or milk or rice gruel, (he 
should sacrifice it) with a brazen bowl, or with the 
pot in which the oblations of boiled rice are pre- 
pared, or also with the (sacrificial spoon called) 
Sruva ; 

9. In the evening the first (oblation) with (the 
formula), ' To Agni Svaha ! ' the second silently, 
in the middle and in the north-eastern part (of the 

10. In the morning the first (oblation) with (the 
formula), ' To Surya Sv&ha ! ' the second again 
silently, again in the middle and in the north-eastern 
part (of the fire). 

1 1. Having put a piece of wood (on the fire), and 
having again sprinkled (water) round it, he should 
pour out again his joined hands full of water in the 
same way (as prescribed in the Sutras 1-3) ; in the 
Mantras he says, 'Thou hast given thy consent' 
(instead of ' Give thy consent '). 

12. Having circumambulated the fire so as to turn 
his right side towards it, having poured out the 
remains of water, and filled the vessel again, and 
put it (in its proper place), (he may do) whatever his 
business is. 

7-12. Khadira-Gnnya I, 5, 10-12. Prodaka in Sutra 7 is 
explained by pragatodaka. 

9-10. Khadira-Gnhya, 1.1. 13-15. 

9. The first oblation is made in the middle, the second, sacred 
to Pra^apati (Sahkhayana I, 3, 15, &c), in the north-eastern part 
of the sacred fire. The tenth Sutra of course is to be understood 
in the same way. 

12. The water is that mentioned chap. 1, 24. With regard to 

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I PRAPArffAKA, 3 kXndikX, 1 8. 21 

13. In that way, from that time (in which he has 
begun to offer the two daily sacrifices) he should 
sacrifice, or should have sacrificed, over the (sacred) 
domestic fire, till the end of his life. 

14. Here now they say : 

15. 'If they like, his wife may offer the morning 
and evening oblations over the domestic fire. For 
his wife is (as it were) his house, and that fire is the 
domestic fire.' 

16. When the morning meal or the evening meal 
is ready, he should make (his wife) say, 'It is 
ready ! ' — 

17. In an unbroken voice (?), having made himself 

18. He replies in a loud voice, 'Om!' Then in 

yathSrtham the commentary says, 'yatharthaw karmapavargavi- 
hitam VSmadevyagSnidikaw pratarahutipafitadvihitaw brahma- 
yzgHzm vi kuryad iti vakyajeshaA.' Similarly in the note on II, 
4, 11 it is said, 'yathirtham iti karmawaA parisamaptir uviyate;' 
II, 8, 17: ' yathartham tantrasamapanaai kuryat,' Ac. In my 
translation I have adopted the opinion of Professor Weber (Indische 
Studien, V, 375), according to whom yathdrtham simply means, 
' (he should behave) as required by circumstances ; ' ' (he should 
do) what happens to be his business.' 

13. The last words are a ^ivitavabhn'that, which literally 
means ' till the Avabhri'tba bath of his life.' The Avabhrttha bath 
is the bath taken at the end of certain sacrifices, so that the 
Avabhrttha of life signifies death. 

15. KhSdira-Gnnya I, 5, 17. 

16-18. Khadira-Gnliya, 1.1. 18, 19. In my translation of Sutra 17 
I have adopted, though not quite without doubt, the conjecture of 
Professor Roth given in Professor Knauer*s note, p. 137. Pro- 
fessor Roth writes ntebhaftgayS va£a or ritebhagayS v&Mi : he 
says simply ' om,' and not ' 6-0-6-0-6-om.' According to the 
commentary Sutra 17 would refer to the wife, not to the husband. 

18. The MSS. give makhya and makshl We ought to read, 
tan ma kshayity upamu. Comp. Apastamba II, 2, 3, 11 

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a low voice : ' To that (food) I bring adoration. 
May it not fail ! ' 

KAndikX 4. 

i. He then should silently offer the Balis. 

2. Let him speak only what refers to the due 
preparation of the food. With guests he may con- 
verse, if he likes. 

3. He then should take some portion of food 
which is fit for sacrifice, should pour over it some 
liquid fit for sacrifice (such as ghee, milk, or curds), 
and should sacrifice it silently in the fire with his 

4. The first oblation is sacred to Pra^apati, the 
second to (Agni) Svish/aknt. 

5. He then should offer the Balis, inside or out- 
side (the Agnyagira), having well cleansed the 

6. Let him pour out water once, and put down 
Balis in four places, and finally sprinkle once (water 
on the four Balis). 

7. Or let him for each Bali which he puts down, 
sprinkle (water) before and afterwards. 

" 8. What he puts down first, that is the Bali be- 
longing to the Earth. What in the second place, to 
Vayu. What in the third place, to the Vlrve devas. 
What in the fourth place, to Pra^apati. 

9. Then he should offer other Balis (near) the 
water-pot, the middle (post, and) the door : the first 
Bali is sacred to the Waters, the second to the Herbs 
and Trees, the third to the Ether. 

4, 1 seqq. The daily Bali offering. Khadira-Grriiya I, 5, 20 seqq. 
9. According to the commentary the first of these three Balis has 

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10. Then he should offer another Bali in the bed 
or in the privy. That Bali belongs either to Kima 
or to Manyu. 

11. Then (another Bali) on the heap of sweep- 
ings ; that (belongs) to the hosts of Rakshas. 

12. The remnants of the Balis he should be- 
sprinkle with water, and should pour them out 
towards the south from right to left; they belong 
to the Fathers. 

13. Let him sacrifice in the fire sitting. 

14. Let him make the oblation to the Fathers 
sitting ; the other (Balis he may offer) as it happens. 

1 5. He should, however, offer those Balis himself 
as long as he stays at home. 

16. Or another person who must be a Brdhma«a 
(should offer them for him). 

1 7. Both the husband and his wife (should offer 
them) : 

18. This is the rule for householders. 

19. The wife in the evening, the man in the morn- 
ing : thus (it is stated). 

20. He should offer such Balis of all food what- 
ever, be it prepared for the Fathers, or for auspicious 

to be offered near the water-pot, the second near the middle door of 
the house, the third (comp. Gautama V, 16) in the air. With the 
genitives the word samfpe is supplied. It is difficult to under- 
stand why the author, if his intention had been to state three places 
in which the Balis had to be offered, should have mentioned only 
two. Thus I believe that the right explanation is that of Professor 
Knauer, who takes madhyama in the sense of the middle post of 
the house (comp. HI, 3, 31). 

11. The commentary explains avasalavi here, as is frequently 
the case, by pitritirthena. I agree with the opinion pronounced 
in the Petersburg Dictionary, in rejecting this explanation. 

19. Comp. Manu III, 121. 

Digitized by 


24 g/uhya-sOtra of gobhila. 

purposes (for instance, for being offered to Brah- 
ma»as), or for (ordinary) purposes. 

21. Only in the case of a sacrifice (this rule) ceases. 

22. If rice and barley are prepared for one and 
the same meal, he should, having offered (Balis) of 
the one or the other (kind of food), consider his duty 
as fulfilled. 

23. If the food is cooked at different times for one 
meal, he should perform this Bali ceremony only once. 

24. If food is prepared at different places for one 
family, he should perform this Bali ceremony only 
from (the food which is prepared in) the kitchen 
belonging to the householder. 

25. However (of the persons belonging to the 
family) he whose food becomes ready before (that 
of the householder), (that person) should offer the 
prescribed portion in the fire, and give to a Brah- 
mawa his share (of the food), and then should eat 

26. He whose (food becomes ready) after (that of 
the householder), should only eat. 

27. Here they say also : 

28. 'At the end of that offering of Balis let him 
pronounce a wish. Then it will be fulfilled to him.' 

29. He himself, however, should offer the Asasya 
Bali, from the barley(-harvest) till the rice(-harvest), 
and from the rice(-harvest) till the barley(-harvest). 
This is called the Asasya Bali. 

22. K&la I take, as the commentator does, for bho^anakala. 

23. Here again kdla occurs in the same sense. Comp. Khi- 
dira-Gnhya I, 5, 34. 

29. Kh&dira-Gr/hya I, 5, 37. The barley-harvest is in the hot 
season, the rice-harvest in autumn (see Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 
243). The sacrificer offers barley from the barley-harvest till the 
rice-harvest ; and rice from the rice-harvest till the barley-harvest. 

Digitized by 


i PRAPArarAKA, 5 kXndikX, 6. 25' 

30. Thus he obtains long life. 

31. When a donation has been made, he should 
offer a Bali of chaff, of the scum of boiled rice, and 
of water. This is sacred to Rudra. This is sacred 
to Rudra. 

KXndikX 5. 

1. Now at the times of the new moon and of the 
full moon (the following ceremonies are performed). 

2. Let him fast on that full-moon day (when the 
full moon rises) at the meeting (of day and night). 

3. The following day, according to some (teachers). 

4. And on that day on which the moon is not 
seen, (he should fast, considering it) as the new- 
moon day. 

5. The ends of the half-months are the time for 
fasting, the beginnings for sacrifice. 

6. With the sacrificial food of the new-moon 

This Bali is called i-sasya, because it is offered until (a) the next 
crop (sasya) is ripe. As to the regulation that the sacrificer has to 
offer it himself, compare above, Sutras 15-19. 

31. Khadira-Gr/'hya I, 5, 30. The repetition of the last words 
makes it probable that this Sutra was at one time considered the 
end of the first book. Comp. Introduction, p. 11. 

5. Description of the sacrifices of the full and new 
moon. Paradigm of the regular Sthalipaka offering. 
The first twelve Sutras of this chapter have been translated by 
Professor Weber, Ueber den Vedakalender namens Jyotisham, 
pp. 50 seq. 

a. See the note below at Sutra 10. 

3. With these two Sutras, ' sandhyam pauwamasfm upavaset ; 
uttaram ity eke/ a passage should be compared which is identically 
found in the Aitareya (VII, n), and in the Kaushttaka Brahmana 
(III, 1) : purvam paurnamasim upavased iti Paihgyam, uttaram iti 

6. The month is reckoned here, as is usually done, as beginning 
with the fortnight of the increasing moon. 

Digitized by 



sacrifice he celebrates the first half (of the month), 
with that of the full-moon sacrifice the second. 

7. Full-moon is the greatest distance of sun and 
moon ; new-moon is their nearest approach. 

8. That day on which the moon is not seen, that 
he should take as the day of new-moon. 

9. Sometimes he may also while (the moon) is 
(still) visible (accept it as the day of new-moon) ; for 
(already then the moon) has made its way. 

10. The time of full-moon is reckoned in three 
ways : (when the full moon rises at) the meeting (of 
day and night), or when it rises after sunset, or when 
it stands high (in the sky at sunset). 

11. Now on what day it becomes full — 

12. The doctrine on this point has to be studied 

7. Here begins a new exposition of the question of full and new 
moon which stands independently by the side of the former sec- 
tions, and which Gobhila has not taken much care to weld together 
with them. Comp. Sutra ro with Sutras 2 and 3, and Sutra 8 with 
Sutra 4. 

10. The first of the three times is that mentioned in Sutra 2. It 
seems to me not very safe to interpret sandhya in that modern 
sense, in which sandhi is used ( for instance, in the verse quoted by 
Madhava, Weber, Jyotisha 51, so that it designates the meeting-point 
of the bright and of the dark fortnight (' avartane yada sandhiA par- 
vapratipador bhavet,' &c). If sandhya were that, we should expect 
that the same word would occupy a similar position in the defini- 
tion of amavasya. I prefer, therefore, with the commentary, to 
understand sandhyS in its ancient sense, as the time which divides 
day from night. Thus sandhya paur«amist, the full-moon 
day, on which the moon rises at the meeting of day and night, 
stands in opposition to uttara paur«amasi (Sutra 2), or to 
astamitodita (scil. paurwamast, Sutra 10), exactly in the same 
way as in the Brahmana passages quoted above (note on § 3) pur vS 
paurwamasf is opposed to uttara paur«amast. The second 
and third cases are those of the full moon rising (shortly) after 
sunset, and of the moon becoming full when standing high in 
the sky. 


by Google 

I PRAPAT-ffAKA, 5 KAYDIKA, 20. 27 

separately. One should study it, or should ascertain 
(the exact time of) the Parvan from those who 
know it. 

13. Now on the day which is the fast-day, on 
that day, in the forenoon, having offered his morn- 
ing oblation, he besmears that surface on which the 
fire is placed, on all sides with cow-dung. 

14. He then gets the pieces of wood ready (which 
are to be put on the fire) — of Khadira or of Pala^a 

15. If Khadira or Pala^a wood cannot be ob- 
tained, it may be wood — as far as it serves the 
purpose — of any tree, with the exception of Vibhi- 
daka, Tilvaka, B&dhaka, Niva, Nimba, Rifavrzksha, 
.Salmali, Aralu, Dadhittha, Kovidara, .Sleshmataka 

16. The Barhis consists of Kusa grass cut off at 
the points at which the blades diverge from the main 

1 7. (The blades should be) cut off near the roots 
at (the ceremonies directed to) the Fathers. 

18. If that (i.e. Kusa. grass) cannot be obtained, 
(he may take) any kind of grass, with the exception 
of .Suka grass, of Saccharum reed, of such grass as 
is apt to break, of Balba^a grass, of Mutava, of Am- 
phidonax reed, of Suntha.. 

19. (He should get ready the following things, 
viz.) Afya, rice or barley to be cooked for the sacri- 
fice, the pot in which the oblation of cooked rice (or 
barley) is prepared, the pot-ladle, the Sruva, the 
water fetched from a hidden place — 

20. And the other things which we shall mention 
in the course of (our exposition of) the ritual. 

19. As to anugupta apaA, see above, chap, i, 9. 

Digitized by 


28 gk/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

21. On that day he should not go away (from his 
house on a journey, &c.) ; 

22. Even from a distant place he should return 
to his house. 

23. (On that day) he may buy goods from others, 
but not sell (such goods). 

24. Let him not speak much. 

25. Let him strive to speak the truth. 

26. In the afternoon husband and wife, after 
having bathed, should eat fast-day food which is 
pleasant to them. It should contain butter (and 
should be prepared) in the due way. 

KajvdikA 6. 

1. Thus has spoken Manatantavya : ' Unoffered 
indeed becomes the offering of a man who does not 
eat fast-day food. 

2. 'He becomes powerless. Hunger will attack 
him. He does not gain favour among people. His 
offspring will be perverse. 

3. ' But he who eats fast -day food, becomes 
powerful. Hunger will not attack him. He gains 

26. Kb&dira-Gnhya II, 1, 4. 6. The commentary explains kiu a- 
lena : it should be easy to digest. Comp. below, II, 1, 2 : (diran 
kurvtta) lakshawapraras&n kutalena. 

6, 1. The teacher's name is spelt elsewhere M&nutantavya, which 
seems to be the more correct spelling. The Khidira-Grthya (II, 
1, 5) has Minadantavya. Dr. Knauer has called attention to 
several other blunders of the MSS., which are unusually frequent 
just in this passage. For I have no doubt that in spite of the 
unanimous agreement of the MSS. we are to change mSnushyd- 
hutir into m&nushasy&hutir, and I think it very probable, to 
say the least, that in Sutra 4 kimayetaupavasathikam should 
be corrected into kSmayey£t&m aupavasathikam, though here 
the singular could possibly be defended by very faithful believers in 
the authority of the MSS. 

Digitized by 


I PRAPArffAKA, 6 KAJVBIKA, 1 4. 29 

favour among people. His offspring will be still 
more blessed. 

4. ' Therefore (husband and wife) should eat fast- 
day food which is pleasant to them.' 

5. Let them sleep that night on the ground. 

6. They should spend that night so as to alternate 
their sleep with waking, entertaining themselves with 
tales or with other discourse. 

7. But they should avoid doing anything unholy 
(such as cohabiting together). 

8. It is said, that when on a journey, he should 
not fast 

9. For (say they, in that case) the observance has 
to be kept by his wife. 

10. Let him do (herein) what he likes. 

11. In the same way also one who has set up the 
(vSrauta) fires should fast — 

1 2. And (he should observe) what is enjoined by 
the sacred tradition. 

13. Now in the forenoon, after (the sacrificer) has 
offered his morning oblation, and has walked round 
the fire on its front side, and strewn to the south of 
the fire eastward-pointed Darbha grass — 

1 4. (The Brahman) stations himself to the east of 
that (grass), facing the west, and with the thumb and 
the fourth finger of his left hand he takes one grass 
blade from the Brahman's seat and throws it away 
to the south-west, in the intermediate direction (be- 
tween south and west), with (the words), ' Away has 
been thrown the dispeller of wealth.' 

4. Or, which is pleasant to him ? See the note on § 1. 
7. Kh4dira-Gr*hya II, 1, 7. 

14. The ceremonies stated in this Sutra have to be performed 
by the Brahman. This is stated in the commentary, and the corn- 

Digitized by 



o gr/hya-sCtra of gobhila. 

15. Having touched water, he then sits down on 
the Brahman's seat, with (the words), ' I sit down on 
the seat of wealth.' 

16. Facing the fire he sits silently, raising his 
joined hands, till the end of the ceremony. 

1 7. Let him speak (only) what refers to the due 
performance of the sacrifice. 

18. Let him not speak what is unworthy of the 

19. If he has spoken what is unworthy of the 
sacrifice, let him murmur a verse, or a Ya^ns, sacred 
to Vishmi. 

20. Or let him only say, ' Adoration to Vishwu ! ' 

21. If one wishes, however, to do himself the 
work both of the Hotrt and of the Brahman, he 
should in the same way place on the Brahman's seat 
a parasol, or an outer garment, or a water-pot, or a 

parison of parallel texts leaves no doubt as to the correctness of 
this view. Thus Hira»yake*in says (I, r) : etasmin kale brahma 
ya^wopavitaw krztvSpa &Samy£pare«agni»j dakshinatikramya brah- 
masadanat tri'nam nirasya, &c. Comp. also the corresponding 
passages of the .Srauta ritual given by Hillebrandt, Neu- und 
Vollmondsopfer, p. 17. I do not think it probable, however, that 
we should read brahma«sanat, so that it would be distinctly 
expressed by the text that the Brahman is the subject (comp. 
Dr. Knauer's Introduction, p. viii). For we read in this same 
Sutra brahmasanat tr*'«am abhisa/ngrrtiya; in Sutra 15, 
brahmasana upavijati; in Sutra 21, brahmasane nidhaya: 
of these passages it is in the second made probable by the sense, and 
it is certain in the third, that brahmasana is to be understood as 
a compound equal to brahmasadana. Thus it would, in my opi- 
nion, be unnatural not to explain it in the same way also in the 
first passage. Par&vasu is opposed to Vasu (Sutra 15) in the same 
way as some texts, for instance Apastamba, oppose Parigvasu to 

16 seqq. Khadira-Gr/hya I, i, 19 seqq. 

?i. 'In the same way' refers to the ceremonies stated in Sutras 

Digitized by 


i PRAPArwAKA, 7 kAjvdikA, 6. 31 

bolster of Darbha grass, and should return in the 
same way (in which he has gone to the Brahman's 
seat), and then should perform the other (duties). 

KA^oikA 7. 

1. He then washes the mortar, the pestle, and the 
winnowing basket, strews to the west of the fire east- 
ward-pointed Darbha grass, and puts (the mortar, 
&c.) on (that grass). 

2. He then pours out, with a brazen vessel or 
with the pot in which the oblations of cooked rice 
are prepared, the grain destined for sacrifice, rice or 
barley — 

3. Once pronouncing the name of the deity (to 
whom the offering will be made) : ' Agreeable to 
such and such (a deity) I pour thee out ; ' twice (it is 
done) silently. 

4. Then to the west, with his face turned east- 
ward, he begins to husk the grain, with his right 
hand lying over the left. 

5. After the grain has three times been winnowed, 
he should wash it thrice (if it is destined) for the 
gods, they say, twice, if for men, once, if for the 

6. Having put a (Darbha) purifier (into the pot 

13 and 14. On the darbha^a/u or, as some MSS. read, da r- 
bhava/u, see Bloomfield's note on the Gr/hya-sawgraha, I, 88, 89. 
Knauer gives darbhava/u/n without adding any various readings. 
Comp. KhSdira-Gr/hya I, 1, 23. 

7, 2, 3. Khadira-Gnbya II, 1, 9. 

4, 5. Comp. Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, pp. 29 seqq. 
Khadira-Grthya II, 1, 10-13. 

6. Hillebrandt, p. 39. 

Digitized by 


32 GRJHYA-SfJTRA of gobhila. 

in which the oblation is to be prepared), he should 
pour the grain (into it). 

7. He should cook the mess of sacrificial food so 
that it is well cooked, stirring it up (with the pot- 
ladle) from left to right. 

8. When it has been cooked, he should sprinkle 
(Afya) on it, should take it from the fire towards the 
north, and should again sprinkle (Afya) on it. 

9. Having put wood on the fire, he should strew 
Kusa. grass round it on all sides, to the east, to the 
south, to the north, to the west — 

10. On all sides in three layers or in five layers — 
n. Thick, so that always an uneven number (of 

blades) are put together. 

12. (He should strew) eastward-pointed grass, 
covering the roots with the points. 

1 3. Or he should strew it to the west (of the fire), 
and should draw (some of the grass which he has 
strewn) from the south end and (some) from the 
north end, in an easterly direction. 

14. He should (arrange the grass so as to) lay the 
points of the southern blades uppermost. 

15. This rule for strewing (grass) round (the fire 
is valid) for all (ceremonies) at which oblations are 

16. Some lay also branches of .Sami wood or of 
Par«a wood round (the fire). 

10. Kh&dira-Gr»hya I, 2, 10. 

ii. This seems to me the most probable translation of ayug- 
masa/nhatam, on which expression Dr. Knauer's note on pp. viii 
seq. of his Introduction should be compared. Comp. Hillebrandt, 
pp. 64 seq. 

13-14. This is the same way of strewing the grass which is 
described in the Manava-Grihya 1, 10, 4. 5 ; KMdira-Gr*nya 1, 2, 9. 

16. Comp. Gr/hya-sawgraha I, 85. 97. 

Digitized by 



17. To the north (of the fire) a Sruva full of 
water (is placed) : this is the Pra«lta water ; 

18. If there is (such water). Or it may be dis- 
pensed with, say some (teachers). 

19. Having put the mess of cooked food on the 
Barhis, and put wood (on the fire), he prepares the 

20. (He may take) ghee, or oil made from Tila 
seeds, or curds, or milk, or rice gruel. 

21. From that same Barhis (he takes two Darbha 
blades and) makes purifiers (of them), of the length 
of one span. 

22. Putting an herb between (them and the in- 
strument with which he cuts them), he cuts them off, 
not with his nail, with (the words), ' Purifiers are ye, 
sacred to Vish«u.' 

23. He then wipes them with water, with (the 
words), ' By Vishmi's mind ye are purified.' 

24. Having purified (the Afya by pouring it into 
the A^ya pot, over which he has laid a Darbha 
purifier), he purifies it (in the pot) with the two 
northward - pointed purifiers (in the following 
way) : 

25. Holding them with his two thumbs and fourth 
fingers, he purifies (the A^ya) three times, from west 
to east, once with the Yafus : ' May the god Savitr* 
purify thee with this uninjured purifier, with the rays 
of the good sun ; ' twice silently. 

20. All the substances which are stated in this Sutra can be con- 
sidered as Agyz. Grshya-samgraha I, 106. 107. 

a 1 seqq. Khidira-GrAya I, 2, 12 seqq. 

24. As to sampuyotpuniti, comp. Hirawyakwin I, 1, 1, 23 : 
pavitrintarbite pStre»pa Sntyopabilam purayitvodagagrSbhyi>/ 
pavitribhyiwj trir utpuya . . . 

[30] D 

Digitized by 


34 gwhya-sOtra of gobhila. 

26. He then should sprinkle them with water and 
should throw them into the fire. 

27. Then, having put that A^ya on the fire, he 
should take it from (the fire) towards the north. 

28. This is the way to prepare the A^ya. 

KANDlKk 8. 

i. To the east (is placed) the A^ya, to the west 
the mess of cooked food. 

2. Having sprinkled (water) round (the fire) and 
poured A^ya on the mess of cooked food, he begins 
to sacrifice simply with the pot-ladle, picking out 
portions of the sacrificial food (without ' underspread- 
ing' and pouring A^ya over the Havis). 

3. If he intends, however, to sacrifice so as to 
' underspread ' (the Havis with A^ya) and to pour 
(A^ya) over it, let him sacrifice first the two A^ya 
portions (in the following way) : 

4. He should take four portions of Agya. — five 
portions (are taken) by the BhWgus — and should 
sacrifice from west to east, on the northern side with 
(the formula), 'To Agni Sv&ha!' on the southern 
side with (the words), ' To Soma Svaha ! ' 

5. He then cuts off (two or three Avadanas) 
from the Havis, having ' spread under ' (A^ya). 

6. (Two Avadanas) from the middle and from the 
east side, if he (belongs to the families who) make 

8, 2. On the sprinkling of water round the fire, comp. above, 
chap. 3, 1 seq. On the technical meaning of upaghatam, see 
Bloomfield's note on GWhya-samgraha Parirish/a I, m (Zeitschrift 
der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XXXV, 568). 

3 seq. Comp. KhMra-Gr/hya II, 1, 17. 

6. Khadira-Gr/hya II, 1, 19 seq. The Upastanwa (Sutra 5) and 

Digitized by 


r PRAPArffAKA, 8 kanjmkA, 14. 35 

four Avadanas. (Three Avadanas) from the middle, 
from the east and from the west side, if (he belongs 
to those who) make five Avadanas. 

7. He sprinkles (A^ya) on the cut-off portions. 

8. He anoints the places from which he has cut 
them off (with Agya,) in order that the strength 
(of the Havis) may not be lost. 

9. He should sacrifice over the middle of the fire 
with (the words), * To Agni Svaha ! ' — 

10. Once or thrice, in that same way. 

11. Now for the Svish/akWt (oblation), after 
having ' spread under ' (Agya), he cuts off once a 
very big (Avadana) from the eastern part of the 
northern part (of the Havis). Twice he should 
sprinkle (Agya.) on it. 

1 2. But if he (belongs to the families who) make 
five Avadanas, he should ' spread under ' twice, and 
cut off (the Avadana), and sprinkle (A^ya) on it 

13. He does not anoint the place from which he 
has cut off, in order that the strength (of the Havis) 
may be lost. 

14. With the words, ' To Agni Svish/akm 

the AbhigMra«a (Sutra 7) are reckoned as two Avadanas, so that 
they form together with the two or three portions cut off from the 
Havis, four or five Avaddnas respectively. On the difference of 
the families regarding the number of Avadanas, comp. Weber, 
Indische Studien, X, 95. 

7 seqq. Comp. Khadira-Gnhya II, 1, 21-24. 

11. Comp. the corresponding regulations of the .Srauta ritual at 
Hillebrandt, Neu-und Vollmondsopfer, 11 7-1 19. 

13. The same rule re-occurs in the ..Srauta ritual ; Hillebrandt, 
1.1. 117, note 8. 

14. The expression used here uttarardhapurvardhe is also 
found in most of the corresponding passages of the .Srauta ritual, 

D 2 

Digitized by 



Svaha ! ' he should sacrifice it over the eastern part 
of the northern part (of the fire). 

15. He should sacrifice oblations of Agya. on (the 
chief oblations of cooked sacrificial food), with the 

16. The insertion (stands) before the Svish/ak^zt 

17. If different sacrifices are performed together, 
there is only one sweeping (of the ground) round (the 
fire) (chap. 3, 1), one (putting of) fuel (on the fire) 
(chap. 7, 19), one Barhis, one sprinkling (of water) 
round (the fire) (chap. 8, 2), one Agya., and one 
offering of the two A^yabhagas (chap. 8, 3). 

18. Having cut off (the Avadanas) for all (the 
single sacrifices), he sacrifices the Svish/akrzt obla- 
tion only once. 

19. After he has sacrificed, he should throw that 
pot-ladle (which he has used in the preceding cere- 
monies) into the fire. 

20. Or having washed it, he should take with it 
(the rest of the sacrificial food), and should eat that 

given by Hillebrandt, 1. 1. 119, note 3. The Khadira-Gr/hya has 

15. If the chief oblations consist in A^ya, they are both preceded 
and followed by the Mahstvyahrrti oblations. See below, chap. 9, 
Sutra 27. 

16. On the Sv&pa (i.e. the special characteristic offerings of 
each sacrifice) see .Saftkhayana-Grihya I, 9, 12, and the note there 
(vol. xxix, p. 28). 

19. According to the commentary, etad would belong to sau- 
vish/akr»'tam (Sutra 18): 'After he has sacrificed that, he should 
throw the pot-ladle into the fire.' The comparison of Baudhayana 
1, 17, 23, atraitan mekshawam £havanrye>nupraharati (Hillebrandt, 
p. 119, note 3), shows that the commentary is wrong, and that 
etad belongs to mekshawam. 

Digitized by 


i PRAPAr#AKA, 8 kajvmkA, 29. 37 

21. The Sruva he should not throw into the fire, 
say some (teachers). 

22. By one who has not set up the sacred fires, 
the mess of cooked food should be offered to Agni 
at the festivals both of the full and of the new 

23. To Agni, or to Agni and Soma, by one who 
has set them up, at the full-moon (sacrifice) ; 

24. To Indra, or to Indra and Agni, or to 
Mahendra, at the new-moon (sacrifice). 

25. Or also one who has set up the sacred fires, 
should offer it to Agni at the festivals both of the 
full and of the new moon. 

26. Having put a piece of wood (on the fire), and 
having afterwards sprinkled (water) round (the fire), 
he performs the Ya^»avastu ceremony (in the 
following way) : 

27. From that same Barhis he should take a 
handful of Kara grass, and should dip it thrice into 
the Agya. or into the Havis, the points, the middle, 
and the roots, with (the words), ' May the birds 
come, licking what has been anointed.' 

28. He then should besprinkle that (handful of 
grass) with water, and should throw it into the fire 
with (the verse), ' Thou who art the lord of cattle, 
Rudra, who walkest with the lines (of cattle), the 
manly one : do no harm to our cattle ; let this be 
offered to thee ! Svaha ! ' 

29. This (ceremony) they call Ya^»avastu. 

22-25. Comp. Kh&dira-Gnhya II, a, 1-4. 

26-29. Kh£dira-Gr*hya II, 1, 26 seq. ; GnTiya-sa/wgraha II, 
1 seq. 

27. The expression tata eva barhishaA has occurred already 
at chap. 7, 21. The Mantra re-occurs in Va£. Sawhiti II, i6e, &c. 

Digitized by 


38 gjuhya-sOtra of gobhila. 

KAjvdikA 9. 

i. He then should take away the remnants of 
the Havis in a northern direction, should take them 
out (of the vessel in which they are), and should 
give them to the Brahman. 

2. He should try to satiate him. 

3. They say indeed with regard to sacrifice : 
' Through the Brahma«a's being satiated (with sacri- 
ficial food) I become satiated myself.' 

4. Then (he should give to the Brahman) what 
other food has just become ready. 

5. Then he should try to gain the favour of 
Brahma#as by (gifts of) food. 

6. A full vessel constitutes the fee for the sacri- 
fice ; that he should give to the Brahman. 

7. A brazen vessel or a wooden cup which has 
been filled with food, with prepared food or with 
raw food, or even only with fruits : this they call a 
full vessel. 

8. The Brahman is the only officiating priest at 
the Pakayaf»as. 

9. (The sacrificer) himself is Hotr*". 

10. A full vessel (see Sutra 7) is the lowest sacri- 
ficial fee at a Pakaya^-wa. 

1 1. The highest is unlimited. 

12. Thus Sudas Pai^avana, after having offered 
the sacrifice of a mess of cooked food to Indra and 

9, 1. Khadira-Grriiya II, i, 29. 

6 seqq. Khadira-Gr«hya II, i, 30. 31. 

8, 9. The native authorities divide these two Sutras after r*'tvik ; 
I propose to divide after pakaya^fleshu. 

12. The commentary here refers to the rule of the Drahyaya»a- 
sutra ( = L£/yayana VIII, 1, 2): sawkhyamatre £a dakshiwa gavaA. 

Digitized by 


i PRApAr#AKA, 9 kXndikA, i 8. 39 

Agni, gave one hundred thousand (cows as the 
sacrificial fee). 

13. Now if he should not be able to get for the 
morning or for the evening oblation, or for the sacri- 
fices of the full or of the new moon at- his (sacred) 
domestic fire, any substance fit for sacrifice or a per- 
son who could sacrifice (instead of himself, if he is 
prevented) : what ought he to do ? 

14. Until the evening oblation the (time for the) 
morning oblation is not elapsed, nor the (time for 
the) evening oblation until the morning oblation. 
Until the new moon the (time for the) sacrifice of 
the full moon is not elapsed, nor the (time for the) 
sacrifice of the new moon until the full moon. 

15. During that interval he should try to obtain 
sacrificial food or to find a sacrificer. 

16. Or (if he does not succeed in this) he should 
cook fruits or leaves of trees or herbs which are 
sacrificially pure, and should sacrifice them. 

17. Or he should at least sacrifice water; thus 
has said Pakayaf»a, the son of Ida. For (even if he 
offers only water) the sacrifice has been performed. 

18. And there is an expiation for one who has 
not sacrificed. 

14 seq. Khadira-Gn'hya II, 2, 5 seq. ; 5$nkh&yana-Gtthya 1, 3, 6. 

16 seqq. Khddira-Gnhya II, 2, 10 seqq. In this teacher PSka- 
yagna., son of Ida., whose opinion on the performance of certain 
Pakaya^#as is here stated, we have of course to see a fictitious sage 
of the same kind with the well-known i?i'shi Pragatha, to whom 
the authorship of a number of Suktas in the Pragatha book (Rig- 
veda, MaWala VIII) is ascribed. 

18, 19. By the repetition of iti these Sutras seem to be charac- 
terised as continuing the statement of Pakaya^fla's opinion ; comp. 
Dr. Knauer's Introduction, p. xvni. As to Sutra 18, comp. S&ii- 
khayana-Gr/hya I, 3, 9. 

Digitized by 


40 gwhya-sCtra of gobhila. 

19. And, (says Pakaya^wa,) a Brahma«a should 
not omit to keep his vow. 

20. Here they say also : 

21. He should keep (his vow) during that time in 
which he does not sacrifice, by abstaining from food. 

22. When he then has obtained (the necessary 
substances for sacrificing), he should make up for 
the (omitted) oblations. 

23. For thus also his vow has been duly kept. 

24. These rules (which have been given with 
regard to the sacrifices of the full and new moon) 
are valid for the Havis oblations which will be 
stated hereafter. 

25. After the end of the Mantra follows the word 

26. At A^ya oblations he should only prepare 
that A^ya (chap. 7, 28) and should sacrifice it, pick- 
ing out portions of it. (He should) not (sacrifice) 
the two Afya portions nor the Svish/akrzt. 

27. At A^ya oblations he should, if no special 
rule is given, sacrifice with the Mahavyahmis before 
and after (the chief ceremonies). 

22. 'He should count the omitted (oblations), should pour the 
corresponding number of oblations into his vessel, and should 
sacrifice them in the due way all at once with one Mantra. In the 
same way also the other oblations (belonging to other gods).' 

24. Is Havis here used as opposed to A^ya (Sutra 26), in the 
same way in which KStySyana says (.Sraut. I, 9, 1. 20): 'vrthfn 
yavan vi havishi ; ubhayata bgyzm havishaA ' ? Comp. below, III, 
8, 10 ; Ajval&yana-Grjhya 1, 10, 26. 

25. KhSdira-Gr/hya 1, 1, 15. 

26. As to upaghatam, comp. the note on chap. 8, 2. 

27. 5SnkMyana-Gr*liya 1, 12, 13 ; KhSdira-Grrhya I, 3, 12-13, 
where the traditional division of the Sutras differs from that which 
is supported by tradition in the text of Gobhila. Gobhila has used 

Digitized by 



28. As at the wedding, thus at the tonsure (of the 
child's head), the initiation (of the Brahma^arin), 
and at the cutting of the beard. 

29. At the end of the ceremony the Vamadevya 
is sung for the sake of averting evil. The Vama- 
devya is sung for the sake of averting evil. 

End of the First PrapaMaka. 

the word d^yahutishu in the beginning of Sutra 26, and it would 
have been superfluous if he had repeated it in connection with the 
words na^yabhdgau na svish/akr»'t. In the corresponding 
Sutras of the Khadira the case was different, and there the words 
na^yabhdgau na svish/akrrt inevitably required the addition 
of a word like a^yihutishu, by which to show which class of 
sacrifices it was which required no A^yabhSgas and no Svish/akrtt. 
The following word in the Khadira text, however, anadeje, 
should be referred, against tradition, to Sutra 13, as is shown by 
the comparison of •S'aftkh&yana-Gr/hya I, 12, 13. 

28. At the wedding, oblations are made first with the three single 
MahSvyihr/'tis, afterwards with the Mahivyahrrtis together; see 
below, II, 1, 25. 26. The tonsure of the child's head is treated of 
below, II, 9; the initiation (upanayana), II, 10; the cutting of the 
beard, III, 1. Comp. KMdira-Gnhya, I, 3, 10. 

29. Apavr*tte karmawi should be corrected into apavr/kte 
karmawi, as has been noticed in the Petersburg Dictionary, s. v. 
apa-vart. The ■Sankhayana-Grz'hya I, 2, 1 says karm&pavarge. 

Digitized by 




1. Under a propitious Nakshatra let him take a 
wife — 

2. Who should possess the auspicious character- 
istics in due way. 

3. If he can find no such (woman, he should take) 
earth-clods — 

4. From an altar, a furrow, a pool, a cow-stable, 
a place where four roads meet, a gambling-place, a 
place where corpses are burnt, and from sterile soil ; 

5. A ninth (earth-clod) mixed of all. 

6. (These he should make) equal (and should) 
make marks at them. 

7. Taking them in his hand he should offer them 
to the girl, and (reciting the formula) : ' Right alone 
is the first ; right nobody oversteps ; on right this 
earth is founded. May N.N. become this universe !' 
— he should pronounce her name and should say : 
' Take one of these.' 

8. If she takes one of the first four (clods), he 
should marry her, 

1, 1-4. Description of the wedding. Comp. Indische Stu- 
dien, V, 288, 305 seq. ; 312 seq. ; .368 seq. 

2. In translating kujralena I have been guided by the com- 
parison of I, 5, 26 (comp. Bohtlingk-Roth, s. v. kurala). The 
commentary understands the Sutra in a different way. He should 
take a woman who possesses auspicious characteristics commended 
by one versed (kiuala) in the characteristics of women. If he can 
find no such person who is able to judge, he should, &c. (Sutra 3). 

4. Comp. A.rvalayana-Gr/hya 1, 5, 5 ; Gr»hya-sa»graha II, 2 1-23. 
7. A.tvalayana-Gr/hya, 1. 1. § 4. 

Digitized by 


ii prapAtztaka, i kXndikX, 14. 43 

9. And according to some (teachers) also, if (she 
takes) the mixed one. 

10. After she has been washed with Klitaka, 
barley and beans, a friend should besprinkle her 
three times at her head, so that her whole body 
becomes wet, with Sura of first quality, with (the 
formula), ' Kama ! I know thy name. Intoxication 
thou art by name,' &c. (Mantra-Brahmawa I, 1, 2). 
(In the passage of the formula), ' Bring hither N. N.,' 
he should pronounce the husband's name. (The 
Mantras should have) the word Svaha at their end. 
With the two following verses he should wash her 
private parts. 

1 1. That has to be done by (female) relatives (of 
the bride). 

12. At the wedding wood has been put on the 
fire to the east of the house, on a surface besmeared 
(with cow-dung). 

13. Then one of the people who assist at the 
wedding, fills a cup with ' firm ' water, and having 
walked with the water-pot round the fire on its 
front side, silent, wrapped in his robe, he stations 
himself to the south (of the fire), facing the north. 

14. Another person with a goad (walks in the 
same way and stations himself in the same place). 

9. See Sutra 5. 

10. ' With Klitaka,' &c, means, with water into which Klttaka, 
&c, has been thrown; comp. Gr/hya-sawgraha II, 15. ' Surd of 
first quality ' is Suri prepared from molasses ; see G/Vhya-sawgraha 
II, 16. Comp., however, also Gr*hya-sa«graha II, 41. 

13. KhSdira-Gr»Tiya 1, 3, 5 ; Gnhya-sawgraha II, 25. 26. ' Firm 
water ' seems to be water which does not dry up. The Gr/hya- 
sawigraha says : ' Water that has its smell, its colour, and its taste, 
which is in great rivers, in wells and other receptacles, and in 
ponds: such water is called "firm;" this is the fixed meaning.' 
Comp. Bloomfield's note, Z. D. M. G. XXXV, 574. 

Digitized by 


44 g/j/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

15. They place roasted grain mixed with .Samt 
leaves, to the amount of four handfuls, in a winnow- 
ing basket behind the fire, 

16. And an upper mill-stone. 

17. Now (the girl) whose hand he is going to 
seize, has been washed, (her whole body) including 
her head. 

18. The husband should put on her a (new) gar- 
ment which has not yet been washed, with the verse, 
'They who spun' (Mantra-Brahma«a I, 1, 5), and 
with (the verse), ' Put on her, dress her ' (1. 1. 6). 

19. Leading forward (from the house to the sacred 
fire, the bride) who is wrapped in her robe and 
wears the sacrificial cord over her left shoulder, he 
should murmur (the verse), ' Soma gave her to the 
Gandharva' (MB. I, 1, 7). 

20. While she, to the west of the fire, pushes for- 
ward with her foot a rush-mat or something else of 
that kind, veiled (with clothes), he should make her 
say : ' May the way which my husband goes, be open 
to me.' 

21. If she does not murmur (these words out of 
shame, &c), he should murmur (them, saying), ' To 
her ' (instead of ' To me '). 

22. She should make the end of the rush-mat 
(Sutra 20) reach the end of the Barhis. 

23. On the east end of the rush-mat she sits down 
to the right of the bridegroom. 

17-19. Khidira-Grihya I, 3, 6. Ya^dfopavttinim in Sutra 19 
means, according to the commentary, that she wears her outer gar- 
ment arranged like the sacrificial cord, over her left shoulder ; for 
women are not allowed to wear the sacrificial cord itself. 

20. Grshya-samgraha II, 27 seq. 

Digitized by 



24. While she touches his right shoulder with her 
right hand, he sacrifices six oblations of A^ya with 
(the verse), 'May Agni go as the first,' and the 
following (verses) (MB. I, i, 9-14) — 

25. And (three oblations) with the Mahavyahrztis, 
one by one ; 

26. A fourth with (the four Mah&vyahWtis) to- 

KAatdikA 2. 

1. After the sacrifice they both arise. 

2. The husband passes behind her back, stations 
himself to the south, with his face turned to the 
north, and seizes the woman's joined hands. 

3. (Standing) to the east (of the girl) her mother 
or her brother, having taken the roasted grain, 
should make the bride tread on the stone with the 
tip of her right foot. 

4. The bridegroom murmurs : ' Tread on this 
stone' (MB. I, 2, 1). 

5. Her brother filling once his joined hands with 
roasted grain, pours it into the bride's joined hands. 

6. After (Afya) has been spread under and poured 
over (the fried grain), she sacrifices that in the fire 
without opening her joined hands, with (the verse 
which the bridegroom [?] recites), ' This woman says' 
(MB. I, 2, 2). 

7. (The verses), ' The god Aryaman,' and, ' Pu- 

24-26. Khadira-GWhya I, 3, 11-13. 

2, 1 seqq. Khadira-Gr/Tiya I, 3, 16 seqq. 

3. The roasted grain is that mentioned chap. 1,15, the stone, 
Sutra 16. 

6. Comp. Grrhya-samgraha II, 34. 

7. On the repetitions of the la^ahoma, see below, Sutras 9. 10. 

Digitized by 


46 g/j/hya-sOtra of gobhila, 

shan ' (1. 1. 3. 4) (are repeated) at the two following 
(oblations of fried grain). 

8. After that sacrifice the husband, passing (be- 
hind her back), returns in the same way, and leads 
her round the fire so that their right sides are turned 
towards it, or a Brahma«a versed in the Mantras 
(does the same), with (the verse), ' The maid from 
the fathers' (MB. I, 2, 5). 

9. After she has thus been lead round, she stands 
as before (Sutras 1. 2), and treads (on the stone) as 
before (Sutra 3), and he murmurs the (Mantra) as 
before (Sutra 4), and (her brother) pours (the fried 
grain into her hands) as before (Siitra 5), and she 
sacrifices as before (Sutra 6). 

10. In the same way three times. 

1 1. After (she) has poured the remnants (of the 
fried grain) into the fire, they make (her) step for- 
ward in a north-easterly direction with (the formula), 
' For sap with one step* (MB. I, 2, 6. 7). 

12. She should put forward her right foot (first) 
and should follow with the left 

13. (The bridegroom) should say (to her), ' Do 
not put the left (foot) before the right.' 

14. The lookers-on he should address with (the 
verse), 'Auspicious ornaments wears this woman' 
(1. 1. 8). 

15. To the west of the fire the water-carrier fol- 
lows (their way) and besprinkles the bridegroom on 
his forehead, and also the other one (i. e. the bride), 

8. As to the words 'in the same way,' see the second Stitra of 
this chapter. 

14-16. Khadira-Gnnya I, 3, 27-31. 

15. Comp. SaftkhSyana-Grzhya I, ia, 5 note (vol. xxix, p. 33). 
The water-carrier is the person mentioned chap. 1, 13. 

Digitized by 


II PRAPArtfAKA, 3 KA2VDIKA, 8. 47 

with this verse (which the bridegroom murmurs), 
' May (the VLrve devas) anoint (or, unite) ' (1. 1. 9). 

16. After she has been (thus) besprinkled, he 
puts up her joined hands with his left hand, seizes 
with his right hand her right hand with the thumb, 
her hand being turned with the palm upwards, and 
murmurs these six verses referring to the seizing of 
(a girl's) hand, ' I seize thy hand ' (MB. I, 2, 10-15). 

1 7. When (these verses) are finished, they carry 
her away — 

KXndika. 3. 

1. To a convenient house of a Brahma«a, which 
is situated in a north-easterly direction. 

2. There wood has been put on the (nuptial) fire. 

3. To the west of the fire a red bull's hide has 
been spread out, with the neck to the east and with 
the hair outside. 

4. On that they make the woman, who has to 
keep silence, sit down. 

5. And (there) she remains sitting until the stars 

6. When (somebody) has said that a star has 
appeared, (the husband) sacrifices six oblations of 
A/ya with the (six verses) commencing with (the 
verse), ' In the junctions of the lines ' (1. 1. I, 3, 1-6). 

7. The remnants of each oblation he should pour 
out over the bride's head. 

8. After the sacrifice they arise, go out (of the 
house), and he shows her the ' firm star ' (i. e. the 

3, 1 seqq. Khadira-Gr;hya I, 4, 1 seqq. 
3. This is the standing description of the bull's hide used at the 
.Srauta or Gr/hya ceremonies; comp. Sahkhlyana 1, 16, 1 note. 

Digitized by 


48 gk/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

9. (Repeating the formula) : ' Firm art thou. 
May I, N. N., become firm in the house of N. N., 
my husband ' — she should pronounce her husband's 
and her own name. 

10. And (he shows her besides the star) Arun- 

n. (She says) : ' I (N. N.) am held fast/ &c, as 
above (Sutra 9). 

12. He then addresses her with the verse, ' Firm 
is the sky' (MB. I, 3, 7). 

13. After she has been addressed (thus), she 
respectfully calls her Guru by his Gotra name. • 

14. Thus she breaks her silence. 

15. From that time through a period of three 
nights they should both avoid eating saline or pun- 
gent food, and should sleep together on the ground 
without having conjugal intercourse. 

16. Here, they say, an Argha reception (should 
be offered to the young husband). 

17. Some say (that this reception should be 
offered) when (the bridegroom and his companions) 
have arrived (at the house of the bride's father). 

18. The first food which he eats, should be food 

10. Arvalayana-Gnhya I, 7, 22. 

11. The play on words (Arundhati — ruddha) is untranslatable. 

13. ' Her Guru' means, according to the commentary, her hus- 
band. The commentary quotes the well-known sentence: patir 
eko guruA strt»am. Perhaps we may also take the Guru for the 
Brahmama in whose house they stay. Comp. also chap. 4, 1 1. 

14. Comp. above, Sutra 4. 

16,17. Khadira-Gr/hya 1, 4, 7. 8. Comp. Sankhayana-Gnhya I, 
12, 10 note. The Gobhila commentary states that this Argha 
reception should be offered by the bride's father. On the different 
opinions of the Sankhayana commentaries see the note quoted. 

18. Khadira-Gnhya I, 4, 10. 

Digitized by 


ii PRApArffAKA, 4 kAwdikA, 3. 49 

fit for sacrifice, over which he has murmured (the 
verses quoted in Sutra 21). 

19. Or he should prepare on the following day a 
mess of cooked food, of which they eat together. 

20. The deities to whom it belongs, are, Agni, 
Pra^apati, the Visve devas, and Anumati. 

a 1. Having taken that food out (of the vessel in 
which it is), and having spread it out, he should 
touch one part of it with his hand, with (the verses), 
'With the tie of food, with the jewel' (MB. I, 3, 8-10). 

22. After he has eaten, and has given the rest to 
the wife, (they may do) what they like. 

23. A cow is the sacrificial fee. 

KAatbikA 4. 

1. When she mounts the chariot, let him murmur 
the verse, 'Adorned with Ki»«uka flowers, of Sal- 
mali wood' (MB. I, 3, 1 1). 

2. On the way he should address crossways, 
rivers and unevennesses (of the soil), big trees, and 
burial grounds, with (the verse), ' May no waylayers 
meet us ' (ibid. 1 2). 

3. If the axle breaks, or something that is bound 
gets loose, or if the chariot is overturned, or if some 
other accident happens, they should put wood on 
the fire which they carry with themselves, should 

22. Khadira-Gnhya 1, 4, 1 1. 14. 

23. Khadira-GriTiya 1, 4, 6. 

4. The way of the bridegroom with the bride to their 
new home, and their arrival. 

2. Perhaps a part of this Sfltra is based on a half 51oka, the two 
parts of which have been transposed in the prose version, mah£- 
vrtksh&n smas!na.m iz nadu £a vishamam kz,. 

3. Comp. Paraskara 1, 10. 
[30] E 

Digitized by 


50 gkjhya-sOtra of gobhila. 

make oblations (of A^ya) with the Vyahrztis, should 
procure a new piece (instead of that which has been 
damaged), and should besmear it with the remnants 
of the A^ya (that has been offered), with (the verse), 
' He who without binding' (Sama-veda I, 244). 

4. Having sung the Vamadevya, he should mount 

5. When they have arrived, the Vamadevya (is 

6. When (the bride) has reached the house, Brah- 
ma«a women of good character, whose husbands 
and sons are living, make her descend (from the 
chariot), and make her sit down on a bull's hide 
with (the verse which the husband recites), ' Here, 
ye cows, bring forth calves' (MB. I, 3, 13). 

7. They should place a boy in her lap. 

8. Into the joined hands of that (boy) they should 
throw lotus-roots (?), 

9. Or fruits. 

10. After she has made that boy rise, she sacri- 
fices the eight ' firm ' A^ya oblations with (the for- 
mula), ' Here is steadiness ' (MB. I, 3, 14). 

1 1. When she has finished, she puts a piece of 
wood (on the fire) and respectfully salutes the Gurus, 
according to seniority, with their Gotra names. Then 
they may do what they like. 

8. The explanation of jakalo/a as j iluka is doubtful Prof. 
Weber believes that we ought to read jakalosh/an (lumps of 
dung) ; see Indische Studien, V, 371. 

10. 'Firm' oblations seem to mean oblations by which the wife 
obtains a firm abode in her husband's house. Comp. Indische 
Studien, V, 376. 

Digitized by 


ii PRApArtfAKA, 5 kXndikX, 9. 51 

KkNDlKA 5. 

1. Now (follow) the ceremonies of the fourth day. 

2. Having put wood on the fire, he four times 
sacrifices expiatory A^ya oblations with (the formula), 
' Agni ! Thou art expiation ' (MB. I, 4, 1)— 

3. (And with the same formula), putting instead of 
Agni, Vayu, Aandra, and Surya ; 

4. A fifth oblation (with the names of the four 
gods) together, changing (in the Mantra the singu- 
lar) into the plural. 

5. The remnants of each oblation he should pour 
into a water-pot. 

6. With that (A^ya) they besmear her body, in- 
cluding her hair and nails, remove (that water and 
A^ya by rubbing her), and wash her. 

7. After three nights have passed, they should 
cohabit, according to some (teachers). 

8. When she has had her monthly illness and the 
blood has ceased to flow, that is the time for co- 

9. With his right hand he should touch her secret 
parts with the verse, ' May Vishmi make thy womb 

5, 1. The A'aturthikarman. 

2, 3. Comp. .Sankh&yana-Grrhya I, 18, 3; Khidira-Gr/hya I, 
4, 13. 

4. I.e. instead of prdya.r4itte (expiation) he uses the plural 
prSyaj^ittayaA; and he says, 'you are the expiations of the 
gods,' &c. 

6. KhSdira-Griliya 1, 4, 13. Hr&sayitvi literally means, 'having 
shortened her.' She is ' shortened' by the removing of the substance 
with which they have besmeared her (hrisayitva' udvartanldinl tad 
abhya%anam apantya, says the commentary). Comp. on the tech- 
nical meaning of hr&sana the GnTiya-sawgraha II, 38, 8-10 ; 
Khidira-Gr/liya 1, 4, 15. 16. 

E 2 

Digitized by 


52 gjuhya-sOtra of gobhila. 

ready' (MB. I, 4, 6), and with that, ' Give conception, 
Sinivali'(l. 1. 7). 

10. When those two verses are finished, they 

KAjvdika 6. 

1. The beginning of the third month of pregnancy 
is the time for the Puwsavana (i. e. the ceremony to 
secure the birth of a son). 

2. In the morning, after^she has been washed, 
sitting on northward-pointed Darbha grass, (all over 
her body) including her head, she sits down to the 
west of the fire on northward-pointed Darbha grass, 
facing the east. 

3. Her husband, standing behind her, should grasp 
down with his right hand over her right shoulder, 
and should touch the uncovered place of her navel 
with the verse, ' The two men, Mitra and Varu«a ' 
(MB. I, 4, 8). 

4. Then they may do what they like. 

5. Then afterwards (the following ceremony should 
be performed). 

6. In a north-easterly direction, having bought 
for three times seven barley corns or beans a Nyag- 
rodha shoot which has fruits on both sides, which 
is not dry and not touched by worms, he should 
set that up. 

7. (He buys it with the Mantras) : 

6, 1 seq. The Puwsavana. Khldira-Gr/hya II, 2, 17 seq. On 
adisadexe the commentary says, adisadere adisamtpapradere 
prathame tr/tiyabhage, ity etat. adimadera iti paMe vyakta evarthaA. 
To me it seems probable that adimade sc is the true reading. 

7. The first Mantra consists of seven sections; with each of 

Digitized by 


ii pRAPArffAKA, 6 kaysikA, ii. 53 

' If thou belongest to Soma, I buy thee for the 
king Soma. 

' If thou belongest to Varu»a, I buy thee for the 
king Varuwa. 

' If thou belongest to the Vasus, I buy thee for 
the Vasus. 

' ' If thou belongest to the Rudras, I buy thee for 
the Rudras. 

' If thou belongest to the Adityas, I buy thee for 
the Adityas. 

' If thou belongest to the Maruts, I buy thee for 
the Maruts. 

' If thou belongest to the Vlrve devas, I buy thee 
for the Vi^ve devas.' 

8. He should set it up with (the Mantra), 'Ye 
herbs, being well-minded, bestow strength on this 
(shoot); for it will do its work.' Then he should 
put grass around it, should take it, and place it in 
the open air. 

9. Having washed a nether mill-stone, a student 
or a (wife) addicted (to her husband), a person who is 
a Brahma»a by birth (only and not by learning), or 
a girl, pounds (that Nyagrodha shoot) without mov- 
ing backward (the stone with which she pounds it). 

10. In the morning, after she has been washed, 
sitting on northward-pointed Darbha grass, (all over 
her body), including her head, she lies down to the 
west of the fire on northward-pointed Darbha grass r 
with her head to the east. 

11. Her husband, standing behind her, should 
seize (the pounded Nyagrodha shoot) with the 

these sections he should, according to the commentary, give three 
barley corns or beans to the owner of the Nyagrodha tree, or put 
them down at the root of the tree. 

Digitized by 



thumb and the fourth finger of his right hand, and 
should insert it into her right nostril with the verse, 
'A man is Agni, a man is Indra' (MB. I, 4, 9). 
12. Then they should do what they like. 

KAjvdikA 7. 

1. Now (follows) the Simantakarawa (or parting 
of the hair), in her first pregnancy, — 

2. In the fourth, or sixth, or eighth month (of her 

3. In the morning, after she has been washed, 
sitting on northward-pointed Darbha grass, (all over 
her body), including her head, she sits down to the 
west of the fire on northward-pointed Darbha grass, 
facing the east. 

4. Her husband, standing behind her, ties (to her 
neck) an Udumbara branch -with an even number of 
unripe fruits on it, with (the verse), ' Rich in sap is 
this tree ' (MB. I, 5, 1). 

5. He then parts her hair upwards (i. e. beginning 
from the front), the first time with Darbha blades, 
with (the word), ' BhM !' the second time with (the 
word), 'Bhuva^!' the third time with (the word), 

6. Then with (a splint of) Viratara (wood) with 
this verse, ' With which Aditi's ' (ibid. 2) ; 

7, iseq. The Simantakarawaor Sfmantonnayana. Khadira- 
Gr*hya II, 2, 24 seq. 

3. This Sutra is identical with chap. 6, 2. 

4. jala/ugrathnam should be emended, in my opinion, so as 
to read fala/ugjrapsam. Comp. Paraskara 1, 15, 4: yugmena 
sa/alugrapsenaudumbarewa. Ajvalayana 1, 14, 4: yugmena jalaVu- 
glapsena. Hirawyakewn II, 1 : salatugrapsam upasawgr/'hya. 

Digitized by 


ii prapAtcjaka, 7 kAjvdikA, i 8. 55 

7. Then with a full spindle, with this verse, ' I 
invoke Rika ' (ibid. 3. 4) ; 

8. And with a porcupine's quill that has three 
white spots, with (the verse), ' Which are thy bless- 
ings, O Raka'(ibid. 5). 

9. (There should be prepared) a mess of boiled 
rice with sesamum seeds, covered with ghee; at 
that he should make her look. 

10. Let him say to her, ' What dost thou see ? ' 
and make her answer, ' Offspring ! ' 

11. That (food) she should eat herself. 

1 2. Brahma«a women should sit by her side, 
pronouncing auspicious words (such as), 'A mother 
of valiant sons ! A mother of living sons ! A living 
husband's wife ! ' 

1 3. Now (follows) the sacrifice for the woman in 

14. When the child is appearing, he strews 
(Darbha grass) round the fire and sacrifices two 
A^ya oblations with this verse, ' She who athwart ' 
(MB. I, 5, 6), and with (the verse), 'Vipariit has 
taken away' (ibid. 7). 

15. ' A male he will be born, N. N. by name ' — (in 
this passage of the last verse) he pronounces a name. 

16. What that (name is), is kept secret. 

17. When they announce to him that a son has 
been born, he should say, ' Delay still cutting off the 
navel-string and giving him the breast.' 

18. Let him have rice and barley-grains pounded 
in the same way as the (Nyagrodha) shoot. 

13 seq. The soshyantihoma. Khadira-Gr/hya II, 2, 28 seq. 
17 seq. Ceremonies for the new-born child (<?atakarman). 
Khadira-Grthya II, 2, 32 seq. 
18. See above, chap. 6, 9. 

Digitized by 


56 g/j/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

19. Seizing (that pounded substance) with the 
thumb and the fourth finger of his right hand, he 
smears it on the tongue of the boy, with the formula, 
•This order' (MB. I, 5,8). 

20. In the same way the production of intelligence 
(is performed). He should give to eat (to the child) 
clarified butter. 

21. Or he takes it with gold (i.e. with a golden 
spoon) and sacrifices it on the face of the boy with 
this verse, 'May Mitra and Varu»a bestow intelli- 
gence on thee ' (MB. I, 5, 9), and with (the verse), 
' The lord of the seat, the wonderful' (Sama-veda I, 


22. Let him say, 'Cut off the navel-string,' and, 
* Give the breast (to the child).' 

23. From that time let him not touch (his wife) 
until ten nights have passed. 

KandikX 8. 

1. On the third (Tithi) of the third bright fort- 
night after his birth, in the morning the father has 
the child washed, including his head, and after sun- 
set, when the evening-red has disappeared, he wor- 
ships (the moon), holding up his joined hands. 

2. Then the mother, having dressed the son in a 
clean garment, hands him, from south to north, with 
his face turned to the north, to the father. 

19. Comp. above, chap. 6, 11. 

23. The impurity (a«iu£a) of the mother lasts through ten days 
after her confinement ; comp. the note on .Sahkhayana-Gr/hya I, 
25, 1 (vol. xxix, p. 51). 

8, 1 seq. Khadira-Gr/hya II, 3, 1 seq. 

Digitized by 


ii PRAPArffAKA, 8 kajvcikA, io. 57 

3. She then passes behind his back and stations 
herself to the north (of her husband). 

4. He then murmurs (the three verses), 'Thy 
heart, O thou whose hair is well parted' (MB. I, 5, 
10-12), and after he has, with the words (standing 
at the end of verse 1 2), ' That this son may not 
come to harm (and thus be torn) from his mother ' — • 

5. Handed him, from south to north, to his 
mother, they may do what they like. 

6. Then in the following bright fortnights (at the 
time) stated above (Sutra 1), the father, filling his 
joined hands with water and turning his face towards 
the moon, worships it — 

7. Letting (the water) flow (out of his joined hands) 
once with the Yapis, 'What in the moon' (MB. I, 
5, 13), and twice silently. Then they may do what 
they like. 

8. When ten nights have elapsed after (the child's) 
birth, or a hundred nights, or one year, the Nama- 
dheyakarawa (or giving a name to the child, is per- 

9. He who is going to perform (that ceremony — 
the father or a representative of the father), sits 
down to the west of the fire on northward-pointed 
Darbha grass, facing the east. 

10. Then the mother, having dressed the son in 
a clean garment, hands him, from south to north, 

6. I am not sure about the meaning of prathamoddish/a eva. 
I have translated according to the commentary, which has the 
following note : prathamoddish/a eva prathamaw yah kala uddish/aA 
kathitaA tasminn eva kale tmiyayim ity etat. — The commentary 
then mentions a reading prathamodita eva, in which udita may 
either be derived from vad or from ud-i. 

8 seq. The Ntmakarawa. Khadira-Gr/hya II, 3, 6 seq. 

10, 1 1. Comp. above, Sutras 2. 3. 

Digitized by 


58 gk/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

with his face turned to the north, to the performer 
(of the ceremony). 

1 1. She then passes behind his back and sits down 
to the north (of him), on northward-pointed Darbha 

12. He then sacrifices to Pra^apati, to the Tithi 
(of the child's birth), to the Nakshatra (of the child's 
birth), and to the (presiding) deity (of that Tithi 
and of that Nakshatra). 

13. He then murmurs the Mantra, 'Who art 
thou? What person art thou?' (MB. I, 5, 14. 15), 
touching the sense-organs at (the boy's) head. 

14. In (the passage of the Mantra), 'Enter upon 
the month, that belongs to Ahaspati (i. e. the lord 
of days), N. N. !' and at the end of the Mantra he 
should give him a name beginning with a sonant, 
with a semivowel in it, with a long vowel or the 
Visarga at the end, (and formed with) a Krtt (suffix). 

15. It should not contain a Taddhita (suffix). 

16. (He should give a name with) an odd (num- 
ber of syllables), ending in -da, to girls. 

1 7. And after he has told the name to the mother 
first, they may do what they like. 

18. A cow constitutes the sacrificial fee. 

19. Every month (after the birth) of the boy, (or) 

12. .Sahkhayana-Grjhya I, 25, 5. In the same Grihya. the enu- 
meration of the Nakshatras with their presiding deities is given, 
I, 26. 

14. .Sahkhayana-Gnhya I, 24, 4 ; Ajvalayana 1, 15, 4 ; Paraskara 
1, 17, 2. In the text read dirghabhinish/anantaw instead of 

19. Monthly sacrifice in commemoration of the child's 
birth. Possibly we should translate : Every month (after the birth) 
of the boy, through one year (comp. .Sahkhayana I, 25, 10. n), or 
on the Parvan days, &c. 

Digitized by 


II PRAPArffAKA, 8 KfofDIKk, 2$. 59 

after one year, or on the Parvan days of the year 
(i. e. on the last Tithi of each of the three seasons) 
he should sacrifice to Agni and Indra, to Heaven 
and Earth, and to the Visve devas. 

20. Having sacrificed to the deity (of the Tithi 
and of the Nakshatra respectively), he should sacri- 
fice to the Tithi and to the Nakshatra. 

2i. When (the father) returns from a journey, or 
when (the son) begins to know, ' This is my father,' 
or when (the son) has been initiated, (the father) 
should grasp with his two hands his son round the 
head, and should murmur, ' From limb by limb thou 
art produced' (MB. I, 5, 1 6-18). 

22. With (the formula), 'With the cattle's hitn- 
kara I kiss thee' (1. 1. 19) he should kiss him. Then 
he may do what he likes. 

23. In the same way (he should do) to his 
younger sons — 

24. According to their age or in the order in 
which he meets them. 

25. Girls he should silently kiss on their head; 
he should silently kiss them on their head. 

20. .SahkMyana-Gr*'hya I, 25, 6. 

21 seq. The father's returning from a journey. KMdira- 
Grihya II, 3, 13 seq. As to upeta, comp. Sankhayana-Gnhya II, 1, 
1 note. The position of the words in Sutra 21 is irregular, so as 
to raise the suspicion that the words yada va . . . upetasya v& 
(' or when the son begins to know . . . has been initiated') are an 
insertion into the text of Gobhila, made by a later compiler, or into 
a more ancient text, made by Gobhila himself. Comp. P&raskara 
I, 18. 

25. As to the repetition of the last words of this Sutra, see the 
notes on I, 4, 31; II, 10, 50; III, 6, 15. 

Digitized by 


60 gk/hya-sCtra of gobhila. 

KXndikX 9. 

i. Now follows the tonsure of the child's head, in 
the third year. 

2. To the east of the house on a surface be- 
smeared (with cow-dung)- wood has been put on 
the fire. 

3. There the following things have been placed : 

4. To the south (of the fire) twenty-one Darbha 
blades, a brass vessel with hot water, a razor of 
Udumbara wood or a mirror, and a barber with a 
razor in his hand ; 

5. To the north, bull's dung and a mess of boiled 
rice with sesamum seeds which may be more or less 

6. Let them fill vessels separately with rice and 
barley, with sesamum seeds and beans, and let them 
place (those vessels) to the east (of the fire). 

7. The boiled rice with sesamum seeds (Sutra 5) 
and all seeds (mentioned in Sutra 6) are given to 
the barber. 

8. Then the mother, having dressed the son in a 
clean garment, sits down to the west of the fire on 
northward-pointed Darbha grass, facing the east. 

9, 1. The A'firfakaraaa. Khadira-Gri'hya II, 3, 16 seq. On the 
literal meaning of A"(Wakara»a, see .Sankhayana I, 28, 1 note. 
2. Comp. above, II, 1, 13. 

5. Comp. above, chap. 7, 9 ; Gnhya-sawgraha II, 39. 

6. I believe that four vessels were filled, one with rice, one with 
barley, one with sesamum seeds, and one with beans. The Dvandva 
compounds vrihiyavais and tilamashais cannot justify the con- 
clusion that one vessel was filled with rice and barley mixed, and 
another with sesamum seeds and beans, for the plural patrawi 
shows that there were more than two vessels. AxvalSyana 1, 1 7, 2, 
says, vrihiyavamashatilanam pr/thak purwararavawi. 

Digitized by 


ii PRAPArtfAKA, 9 kAndika, i 6. 6 1 

g. To the west (of her), facing the east, the per- 
son stations himself who is going to. perform that 

io. He then murmurs, fixing his thoughts on 
Savhrt, looking at the barber, (the Mantra), ' Hither 
has come Savitr* with his razor' (MB. I, 6, i). 

ii. And fixing his thoughts on Vayu, looking at 
the brass vessel with warm water, (he murmurs the 
Mantra), ' With warm water, O Vayu, come hither ' 
(ibid. 2). 

12. Drawing water (out of that vessel) with his 
right hand he moistens the patch of hair on the 
right side (of the boy's head) with (the Mantra), 
' May the waters moisten thee for life ' (ibid. 3). 

13. With (the Mantra), 'Vishmi's tusk art thou' 
(ibid. 4) he looks at the razor of Udumbara wood 
or at the mirror. 

14. With (the Mantra), ' Herb ! Protect him ! ' 
(ibid. 5) he puts seven Darbha blades, with their 
points turned towards (the boy's) head, into the patch 
of hair on the right side of his head. 

15. Pressing them down with his left hand, and 
seizing with his right hand the razor of Udumbara 
wood or the mirror, he touches with it (the Darbha 
blades), with the (Mantra), ' Axe ! Do no harm to 
him ! ' (ibid. 6). 

16. With (the Mantra), 'With which Pushan has 
shaven BWhaspati's head' (ibid. 7), he moves forward 
(that razor or the mirror) three times towards the 
east without cutting (the hair); once with the 
Yafus, twice silently. 

11. I have translated the Mantra according to the reading of 
Ajvalayana (Grihva I, 17, 6) and Paraskara (II, 1, 6): ushwena 
Vaya udakenehi. Gobhila has udakenaidhi. 

Digitized by 


62 gk/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

17. Then (the barber) with the razor of metal 
cuts the hair and throws (the cut off hair ends) on 
the bull's dung. 

18. In the same way (after the same rites have 
been performed), he cuts the patch of hair on the 
back-side ; 

19. And that on the left side. 

20. He should repeat (when going to cut the 
hair on the back-side, and then again on the left 
side, the rites stated above), beginning from the 
moistening of the hair (Sutra 1 2). 

21. Grasping with his two hands (the boy) round 
his head he should murmur (the verse), ' The three- 
fold age of Gamadagni ' (MB. I, 6, 8). 

22. In the same way (the rites are performed) for 
a girl, 

23. (But) silently. 

24. The sacrifice, however, (is performed) with 
the Mantra. 

25. Walking away from the fire in a northerly 
direction they have the arrangement of (the boy's) 
hair made according to the custom of his Gotra and 
of his family. 

26. They throw the hair on the bull's dung (men- 
tioned above), take it to the forest, and bury it 

27. Some throw them on a bunch (of grass or 
the like). 

20. Thus on the back-side seven Darbha blades are put into 
the hair, and on the left side seven. This makes, together with the 
seven blades put into the hair on the right side (Sutra 14), twenty- 
one, the number stated in Sutra 4. 

24. In the description of the Ktuftkanna. given in this chapter 
no sacrifice is mentioned. See, however, I, 9, 28. 

25. Gr/hya-sawgraha II, 40. 

Digitized by 


ii prapAtoaka, io kA;vj>ikA, 7. 63 

28. Then they may do what they like. 

29. A cow constitutes the sacrificial fee. 

KAtfDIKA 10. 

1. In the eighth year after the conception let him 
initiate a Brahma«a, 

2. In the eleventh year after the conception a 

3. In the twelfth year after the conception a 

4. Until the sixteenth year the time has not 
passed for a Brahmawa, until the twenty-second 
for a Kshatriya, until the twenty-fourth for a 

5. After that (time has passed), they become 
patitasavitrika (i. e. they have lost their right of 
being taught the Savitrt), 

6. Let them not initiate such men, nor teach them, 
nor perform sacrifices for them, nor form matrimonial 
alliances with them. 

7. On the day on which the youth is going to 
receive the initiation, on that day, early in the 
morning, they give him to eat, and have his hair 
arranged, and wash him, and deck him with orna- 
ments, and put on him a (new) garment which has 
not yet been washed. 

10, 1 seq. The initiation of the student. Kh4dira-Gr»hya 
II, 4, 1 seq. 

1-4. On the number of years given for the Upanayana of 
persons of the three castes, see the note on .S&nkhayana-Grthya 
II, 1, 1. 

5, 6. See the note on .Sankhayana-Gnhya II, 1, 9. 

Digitized by 


64 gk/hya-sutra of gobhila. 

8. Their garments are made of linen, of hempen 
cloth, of cotton, or of wool (according to the caste to 
which the student belongs). 

9. The skins (which they wear), are an antelope- 
skin, or the skin of a spotted deer, or a goat's 

10. Their girdles are made of M\inga. grass, of 
Ka^a grass, of Tambala. 

11. Their staffs are of Par«a wood, of Bilva 
wood, of A.rvattha wood. 

1 2. The garment of a Brihmawa is made of linen, 
or of hempen cloth, that of a Kshatriya, of cotton, 
that of a Vawya, of wool. 

13. Thereby also the other articles have been 

14. Or if (the proper articles prescribed) cannot 
be got, all (of them may be used) by (persons of) 
all castes. 

15. To the east of the house on a surface 
besmeared (with cow-dung) wood has been put on 
the fire. 

16. Having sacrificed with (the Mantras which 
the student recites) ' Agni! Lord of the vow' (MB. 
I, 6, 9-13), the teacher stations himself to the west 

8. There are four kinds of garments indicated, though only per- 
sons of three castes are concerned. The explanation of this apparent 
incongruence follows from Sutra 1 2. 

10. TSmbala is stated to be a synonym for ra/ta (hemp). 

13. As the garments indicated in Sutra 8 belong, in the order in 
which they are stated, to persons of the three castes respectively, 
thus also of the skins (Sutra 9), of the girdles (Sutra 10), and of 
the staffs (Sutra 11); the first is that belonging to a Brahmawa, the 
second, to a Kshatriya, and the third, to a Vaijya. 

15. Comp. above, chap. 9, 2. 

Digitized by 



of the fire, on northward-pointed Darbha grass, 
facing the east. 

1 7. Between the fire and the teacher the student 
(stands), raising his joined hands, turning his face 
towards the teacher, on northward-pointed Darbha 

18. Standing on his south side a Brahma«a versed 
in the Mantras fills (the student's) joined hands with 

19. And afterwards (those) of the teacher. 

20. Looking (at the student the teacher) mur- 
murs (the verse), ' With him who comes to us, we 
have come together' (MB. I, 6, 14). 

21. He causes (the student) to say, ' I have come 
hither to studentship ' (ibid. 1 6). 

22. In (the words), 'What is thy name' (ibid. 17), 
he asks after his name. 

23. The teacher chooses for him a name which he 
is to use at respectful salutations, 

24. (A name) derived from (the name of) a .deity 
or a Nakshatra, 

25. Or also of his Gotra, according to some 

26. Having let the water run out of his joined 

22, 23. It is evident that the words tasyiMryaA belong to 
Sutra 23, and not to Sutra 22, to which the traditional division 
of the Sutras assigns them. The corresponding section of the 
Mantra-Brahmawa runs thus : ' What is thy name ?' — ' My name is 
N. N. !' It is not clear whether the student, being questioned by the 
teacher, had to indicate his ordinary name, and then to receive from 
the teacher his ' abhivadaniya n&madheya,' or whether he had to 
pronounce, on the teacher's question, directly the abhivadaniya 
name chosen for him by the teacher. The commentary and the 
corresponding passage of the Khadira-Gn'hya (II, 4, 12) are in 
favour of the second alternative. 

[3o] * 

Digitized by 



hands (over the student's hands), the teacher with ' 
his right hand seizes (the student's) right hand 
together with the thumb, with (the formula), ' By 
the impulse of the god Savitr/, with the arms of the 
two A^vins, with Pushan's hands I seize thy hand, 
N.N.!' (ibid. 1 8). 

27. He then makes him turn round from left to 
right with (the formula), ' Move in the sun's course 
after him, N. N. ! ' (ibid. 19). 

28. Grasping down with his right hand over his 
right shoulder he should touch his uncovered navel 
with (the formula), ' Thou art the knot of all breath ' 
(ibid. 20). 

29. Raising himself (from the position implied in 
Sutra 28, he should touch) the place near the navel 
with (the formula), ' Ahura' (ibid. 21). 

30. Raising himself (still more, he should touch) 
the place of the heart with (the formula), ' Kmana ' 
(ibid. 22). 

31. Having touched from behind with his right 
hand (the student's) right shoulder with (the formula), 
' I give thee in charge to Pra^apati, N. N. ! ' 
(ibid. 23)— 

32. And with his left (hand) the left (shoulder) 
with (the formula), ' I give thee in charge to the 
god Savitn, N.N.!' (ibid. 24) — 

33. He then directs him (to observe the duties of 
Brahmaiarya, by the formula), 'A student art thou, 
N.N.!' (ibid. 25). 

34. ' Put on fuel. Eat water. Do the service. 
Do not sleep in the day-time ' (ibid. 26). 

35. Having gone in a northerly direction from 

33, 34. Comp. .Sahkhfyana-Grthya II, 4, 5 note. 

Digitized by 


ii PRApArffAKA, 10 kAjvdikA, 47. 67 

the fire, the teacher sits down to the east, on north- 
ward-pointed Darbha grass, 

36. The student to the west, bending his right 
knee, turning his face towards the teacher, also on 
northward-pointed Darbha grass. 

37. (The teacher) then ties round (the student) 
thrice from left to right the girdle made of Mu«£u 
grass and causes him to repeat (the verse), ' Pro- 
tecting us from evil word ' (ibid. 27), and (the verse), 
' The protectress of right ' (ibid. 28). 

38. Then (the student) respectfully sits down 
near (the teacher) with (the words), ' Recite, sir ! 
May the reverend one recite the Savitrt to me.' 

39. He then recites (the Savitri, ibid. 29) to him, 
Pada by Pada, hemistich by hemistich, and the 
whole verse, 

40. And the Mahavyahmis one by one, with the 
word Om at the end (ibid. 30). 

41. And handing over to him the staff, which 
should be made of (the wood of) a tree, he causes 
him to repeat (the formula), ' O glorious one, make 
me glorious' (ibid. 31). 

42. Then (the student) goes to beg food, 

43. First of his mother, and of two other women 
friends, or of as many as there are in the neighbour- 

44. He announces the alms (received) to his 

45. The rest of the day he stands silently. 

46. After sunset he puts a piece of wood on the 
fire with (the Mantra), ' To Agni I have brought a 
piece of wood' (ibid. 32). 

47. Through a period of three nights he avoids 
eating pungent or saline food. 

F 2 

Digitized by 


68 gu/hya-sCtra of gobhila. 

48. At the end of that (period) a mess of boiled 
rice-grains (is offered) to Savit/7. 

49. Then he may do what he likes. 

50. A cow constitutes the sacrificial fee. 

End of the Second PrapaMaka. 

49, 50. Dr. Knauer very pertinently calls attention to the fact 
that these Sutras are not repeated, as is the rule with regard to the 
concluding words of an Adhyaya or Prapa///aka. Comp. chap. 8, 
25 note. 

Digitized by 


m PRApArffAKA, r kXndikX, 2. 69 

PRApArffAKA III, KAjvdikA 1. 

1. Now (follows) the Godana ceremony (or cutting 
of the beard), in the sixteenth year. 

2. The cutting of the hair (and the beard) has 
been explained by the (description of the) Kbdi.- 
kara«a (II, 9). 

1, 1. After the description of the regular Upanayana here follow, 
in chaps, i and 2, statements regarding the special Vratas which 
the Vedic student has to undergo, or rather which he may undergo, 
in the time of his studentship. Comp. the corresponding state- 
ments on the Vratas of the ^/'gvedins, Sankhayana-Gr/hya II, 1 1 
and 12. By the followers of the Sama-veda the ceremony of the 
God&na, or cutting of the beard (comp. .Sankhayana I, 28, 19 ; 
Paraskara II, 1, 7 seq. ,* Arvalayana I, 18), was put into connec- 
tion with their system of Vratas ; the undergoing of the Godana- 
vrata enabled the student to study the Purvar^ika of the Sama- 
veda. In the commentary on Gobhila III, 1, 28 we find the 
following statements with regard to this Vrata as well as to the 
other Vratas mentioned in Sutra 28 : ' The Upanayana-vrata has 
been declared to refer to the study of the Savitri (comp. Bloomfield's 
notes on Gnhya-sawgraha II, 42.43); the Godana-vrata, to the 
study of the collections of verses sacred to the gods Agni, Indra, 
and Soma Pavamana (this is the Purvar£ika of the Sama-veda) ; the 
Vratika-vrata, to the study of the Aranyaka, with the exclusion of 
the .Sukriya sections ; the Aditya-vrata, to the study of the .Sukriya 
sections ; the Aupanishada-vrata, to the study of the Upanishad- 
Brahmana ; the <7yaishMasamika-vrata, to the study of the A^ya- 
dohas.' The Vratas were connected with a repetition of the 
Upanayana ceremony (Sutras 10 seq.) in the way stated in my 
note on .Sahkhiiyana II, 12, 1. — Khadira-Gnhya II, 5, 1 seq. 

2. Comp. Sahkhayana I, 28, 19, ' The Godanakarman is iden- 
tical with the A'ui/akarman.' Paraskara II, 1, 7, 'At the Keranta 
ceremony he says, " Hair and beard " (instead of " hair," as at the 

Digitized by 


70 gk/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

3. The student has his hair (and beard) cut 

4. He has all the hair of his body shaven. 

5. The sacrificial fee given by a Brahma«a con- 
sists of an ox and a cow, 

6. That given by a Kshatriya, of a pair of 

7. That given by a VaLsya, of a pair of sheep. 

8. Or a cow (is given by persons) of all (castes). 

9. A goat (is given) to the person who catches up 
the hair. 

10. The Upanayana (connected with the Godana- 
vrata and the other Vratas) has been declared by 
the Upanayana (treated of above, II, 10). 

11. (The use of) a garment, however, which has 
not yet been washed, is not required (here), 

12. Nor the adornment. 

13. (One should) not initiate one who does not 
intend to keep the vow through one year. 

14. Handing over to him (i.e. to the student) a 
staff, which should be made of (the wood of) a tree, 
he directs him (to observe the duties connected with 
his vow, in the following words) : 

15. ' Obey thy teacher, except in sinful conduct. 

16. ' Avoid anger and falsehood, 

1 7. ' Sexual intercourse, 

18. ' Sleeping on high (bedsteads), 

19. ' Performances of singing, dancing, &c, the 
use of perfumes and of collyrium, 

3. At the JTu<&kara»a the child sits in the mother's lap and 
others perform the rites for him. 

10. See the note on Sutra 1. 

11. Comp. above, II, 10, 7. 

Digitized by 


Ill PRAPA7"ffAKA, I KAiVMKA, 33. *J\ 

20. ' Bathing, 

21. 'Combing the head, cleansing the teeth, 
washing the feet, 

22. 'Shaving, 

23. ' Eating honey and flesh, 

24. ' Mounting a chariot yoked with cattle, 

25. 'Wearing shoes in the village, 

26. ' Svayam-indriya-mo^anam.' 

27. Wearing the girdle, going the rounds for alms, 
carrying a staff, putting fuel (on the fire), touching 
water, reverentially saluting (the teacher) in the 
morning : these are his standing duties. 

28. The Godana-vrata, the Vritika-vrata, the 
Aditya-vrata, the Aupanishada-vrata, the (Jyaish- 
Afcasamika-vrata (last) one year (each). 

29. Touching water in the evening and in the 
morning (is prescribed) for these (Vratas). 

30. The Aditya-vrata, however, some do not 

31. They who undergo it, wear one garment. 

32. They allow nothing to be between (them- 
selves and) the sun, except trees and (the roofs of) 

33. They do not descend into water deeper than 
knee-deep, except on the injunction of their teacher. 

28. The meaning of these expressions has been explained in the 
note on Sutra 1. 

30. According to the commentary some study the Sukriyas as 
a part of the Arawyaka ; these do not undergo the Aditya-vrata. 
Others, for instance the Kauthumas, separate the .Sukriyas from 
the Ara»yaka and keep a special vow, the Aditya-vrata, by which 
they are enabled to study those texts. 

Digitized by 


72 gk/hya-sCtra of gobhila. 

KandikX 2. 
i. For the Mahanamni verses (the Vrata is to be 
kept) twelve years, 

2. (Or) nine, six, three (years). 

3. These are the various possibilities. 

4. Or also one year, according to some (teachers). 

5. (In this case), however, the observances are 

6. (Keeping the Vrata through one year is allowed 
only) if (the student's) ancestors have learnt the 
Mahanamni verses. 

7. There is also a Brahma»a of the Rauruki 
(5"akha, in which it is said) : 

8. ' The mothers forsooth say to their sons, when 
they suckle them : 

9. ' " Become men, my little sons, who endeavour 
to accomplish the .Sakvart-vrata ! " ' 

10. During (the Vrata preparatory to the study of) 
these (i. e. the Mahanamni verses), touching water 
at the time of each Savana (is prescribed). 

11. Let him not eat in the morning before he has 
touched water. 

12. In the evening, after he has touched water, 
he should not eat, before he has put the piece of 
wood on the fire. 

2, 1. Regarding the MahSnamni or .Sakvarf verses and the 
observances connected with their study, comp. SSnkhayana II, 1 2 
(see especially the note on II, 12, 13) and the sixth Adhy&ya of 
that text. Khadira-Gr/hya II, 5, 22 seq. 

10. The rules as to 'touching water 'have been given above, 
I, 2, 5 seq. The three Savanas or Soma-pressings of which the 
Soma sacrifice consists, are the prata/i-savana, the madhyandina- 
savana, and the tr/'tiya-savana, i. e. the morning Savana, the mid- 
day Savana, and the third or evening Savana. 

12. Comp. above, II, 10, 46; III, 1, 27. 

Digitized by 


Ill PRAPArffAKA, 2 KAWDIKA, 3 1. 73 

13. He should wear dark clothes. 

14. He should eat dark food. 

1 5. Let him be devoted to his teacher. 

16. Let him make way for nobody. 

1 7. He should be addicted to austerities. 

18. He should stand in day-time. 

19. He should sit at night. 

20. And when it is raining, he should not retire 
to a covered place. 

21. He should say to (the god) when he sends 
rain, ' The Sakvarls are water.' 

22. When (the god) sends lightning, he should 
say to him, ' Such forsooth is the nature of the 

23. When (the god) thunders, he should say to 
him, ' The great voice of the great (cow) ! ' 

24. Let him not cross a river without touching 

25. Let him not ascend a ship. 

26. If his life is in danger, however, he may 
ascend (a ship), after having touched water. 

27. In the same way (he should touch water) 
having disembarked. 

28. For in water the virtue of the Mahanamnts is 

29. If he practises these duties, (the god) Par- 
^anya will send rain according to his wish. 

30. The rules about dark (clothes), standing, 
sitting, (making) way, and (dark) food may be con- 
sidered as optional. 

31. After he has kept his vow through one 
third (of the prescribed time, the teacher) should 

30. See Sfttras 13. 18. 19. 16. 14. 

Digitized by 



sing to him the (first) Stotriya verse (of the Maha- 

32. In the same way the two other Stotriya 
verses (after two-thirds of the time and at the end 
of the whole time). 

33. Or all (the three verses) at the end of the 
whole (time). 

34. He should sing them to (the student) who has 
fasted and shuts his eyes. 

35. Having filled a brass vessel with water, 
having thrown into it all sorts of herbs, and dipped 
(the student's) hands into it, the teacher should veil 
(the student's eyes) from left to right with a (new) 
garment that has not yet been washed. 

36. Or he should sing (the Mahanamnts to him) 
immediately after he has veiled (his eyes). 

37. With veiled eyes, keeping silence, he should 
abstain from food through a period of three nights, 
or through one day and one night. 

38. Or he should stand in the forest till sunset 
(and spend the night in the village). 

39. On the next morning he should put wood on 
the fire in the forest, should sacrifice with the 
Mahavyahmis, and should cause the student to 
look at (the following objects, viz.) 

40. Fire, Afya, the sun, a Brahman, a bull, food, 
water, curds, 

41. With (the words), 'The sky have I beheld! 
Light have I beheld ! ' 

35. Comp. «Sankhayana-Gr*hya VI, 3, 7. 

36. I. e. the fasting prescribed in Sfltras 34 and 37 may, if they 
like, follow after the teaching of the sacred song, instead of pre- 
ceding it 

37. Sankhayana-Grrtrya II, 12, 6 seq. 

Digitized by 


Ill PRAPA77/AKA, 2 KAJV0IKA, 49. 75 

42. In that way all (the objects stated in Sutra 40) 
three times. 

43. After the ceremony for averting evil has been 
performed, the student respectfully salutes the 

44. Thus he has to break the silence (enjoined 
upon him). 

45. A bull, a brass vessel, a garment, an optional 
gift (of a cow) : this is the sacrificial fee. 

46. The first time he may choose (either a bull 
or a brass vessel). 

47. Let him provide his teacher with clothes, 
according to some (teachers). 

48. A mess of cooked food, sacred to Indra, (is 
prepared). Let him sacrifice of that (food) with 
this verse, ' To the Rik, to the Saman we sacrifice ' 
(Sama-veda I, 369), or (with the verse), ' The lord 
of the seat, the wonderful' (ibid. I, 171), or with 
both (verses). 

49. This (he should do) at (all) the Anuprava- 
^anlya ceremonies. 

43. Comp. above, I, 9, 29 ; .Sankhayana VI, 3, 1 1 seq. 

45, 46. The student is to give a fee to his teacher three times, 
after he has been taught each of the three Stotriya verses (Sutras 
31. 32). To these three occasions the four objects stated in 
Sutra 45 correspond, so that the first time either the first or the 
second of those objects, the bull or the brass vessel, may be 
chosen ; the second time he gives a garment, the third time a vara 
(or optional gift). Comp. the similar correspondence of four objects 
and three cases to which these objects refer, II, 10, 8. 12. 

48. This is the Anupravaiantya ceremony (or ceremony to be 
performed after the study of a Vedic text has been finished) 
belonging to the Mahan&mnfs ; comp. KMdira-Gnnya II, 5, 34 ; 
Axvalayana-Grthya I, 22, 12 ; Sankhayana II, 8, 1 note. 

49. Perhaps sarvatra (' everywhere ') belongs to Sutra 49, so that 
we should have to translate : This (should be done) everywhere at 

Digitized by 


76 gk/hya-sutra of gobhila. 

50. The Mantra has to be altered everywhere (so 
that he has to say), ' I have kept (the vow)/ ' I have 
been able,' ' Thereby I have prospered,' ' I have 

51. The fee to be given after the study of the 
Parvans is, a goat for the Agni-Parvan, a ram for 
the Indra-Parvan, a cow for die Pavamana-Parvan. 

52. After (the student) has returned (from the 
forest), he should entertain his teacher and his 
retinue with food, 

53. And his fellow-students who have come 

54. The way to sing the (Syesh/^asamans has 
been explained by (the statements given with regard 
to) the Mahanamnl-(vrata). 

55. Here the following standing duties are to be 
observed : 

56. He should not have intercourse with a .Sudra 

57. He should not eat bird's flesh. 

58. He should avoid (constantly living on) the 
same grain, and in the same place, and wearing one 

59. He should perform the rite of ' touching 
water' with water drawn out (of a pond, &c). 

the Anuprava&mtya ceremonies, i. e. also at those Anupravalaniya 
ceremonies which are connected with the study of the other texts. 

50. Instead of ' I will keep the vow,' he says, ' I have kept the 
vow,' &c. ; II, 10, 1 6. 

51. The Parvans are the three great sections, sacred to Agni, 
Indra, and Soma Pavamana, into which the first Samaved&r£ika is 

55. According to the commentary he has to keep these obser- 
vances through his whole life. 

58. Or, wearing always the same garment ? 

Digitized by 


in PRAPArffAKA, 3 kAmhka, 3. 77 

60. From (the time of) his being directed (to 
observe the duties of his Vrata) he should not eat 
from an earthen vessel, 

61. Nor drink (from such a vessel), 

62. (Or rather) from (the time of) his being taught 
(the (Pyesh/^asamans, after the whole preparatory 
time, or after one third of that time), according to 
some (teachers). 

KXj/DiKk 3. 

1. On the full-moon day of Praush^apada (or) 
under (the Nakshatra) Hasta the Upakara»a (or 
opening ceremony of the annual term of Veda-study, 
is performed). 

2. After (the teacher) has sacrificed with the 
Vyahrz'tis, he recites the Savitrl to the students as 
at the Upanayana; 

3. And (he chants) the Savitri with its Saman 

60. Regarding the directions given to the student by the teacher, 
see chap. 1,14. 

6a. See above, Sutras 31. 33. 

3, 1 seq. The Updkarawa ceremony; Khadira-Gnhya III, 2, 
16 seq. Regarding the different terms for this ceremony, comp. 
.Sankhayana IV, 5, a ; Aivalayana III, 5, 3 ; Paraskara II, 10, a. 
Hirawyakej-in says : xravanapaksha oshadhfshu^atisu hastena paur- 
wamasyaw vadhyayopakarma. — It seems impossible to me to adopt 
an explanation of this Sutra, which gives to praush/Aapadi 
another meaning than that based on the constant use of these 
feminines derived from the names of Nakshatras, i.e. the day of 
the full moon which falls under such or such a Nakshatra. Has- 
tena, therefore, necessarily refers to another day besides the 
Praush/Aapadf, on which the Upakarawa may be celebrated. 
Perhaps we may conjecture, praushMapadtm hastena vopa- 

2. Comp. above, II, 10, 39. 

Digitized by 


78 gijjhya-s6tra of gobhila. 

4. And (the Barhaspatya Saman, with the text), 
' Soma, the king, Vanma ' (Sama-veda I, 91). 

5. After they have recited (the first verses) of 
the .Oandas book, from its beginning, they may do 
what they like. 

6. They eat fried barley-grains with (the verse), 
'That which is accompanied by grains and by a 
karambha (i. e. curds with flour)' (Sama-veda I, 210). 

7. They partake of curds with (the verse), ' I 
have praised Dadhikravan' (Sama-veda I, 358). 

8. After they have sipped water, (the teacher) 
should cause them to repeat the first (?) verses, and 
to sing the first (?) S&mans, of the different sections (?)! 

9. On the day sacred to Savitr? they wait. 

10. And at (the beginning of) the northerly 

5. The A^andas book is the first S£mavedar£ika in which the 
verses are arranged according to their metre. 

6. It is not quite clear from the text, in what connection the rites 
described in Sutras 6-8 stand with those treated of in the preceding 
Sutras. The expression yathartham used in Sutra 5 ('yatblr- 
tham iti karmawaA parisamiptir ufyate,' Comm. ; comp. above, I, 
3, 12 note) clearly indicates the close of the ceremony; on the 
other hand the comparison of Paraskara II, 10, 15 seq., Sankha- 
yana IV, 5, 10 seq., Afvaliyana III, 5, 10, seems to show that the 
acts stated in Sutras 6-8 form part of the ceremony described 

8. I do not try to translate this very obscure Sutra according to 
the commentary, in which khi»</ikais explained as ' the number 
(of pupils).' Perhaps the word is a misspelling for kawfika or the 
like, and means sections of the texts. Comp. Khadira-Grshya 
III, 2, 23. The construction (&&ntodakaA . . . karayet) is quite 

9. I.e. they do not continue their study. The day sacred to 
Savitr/ is the day under the constellation of Hasta, mentioned in 
Sutra 1, for Savitr/' is the presiding deity over that Nakshatra 
(comp. Sahkhayana I, 26, 11). 

10. Comp. the note on Sutra 16. 

Digitized by 


in PRAPArffAKA, 3 kamvdikA, i 6. 79 

course of the sun (they wait) one night with one day 
before and one day after it, 

1 1. (Or they interrupt their study for) a period of 
three nights before and afterwards, according to 
some (teachers). 

12. And both times water libations are offered to 
the Aiaryas. 

13. Some perform the Upakarawa on the full- 
moon day of .SVavawa and wait (with studying) the 
time (from that day) till the day sacred to Savitrz 
(Sutra 9). 

14. On the full-moon day of Taisha they leave off 
(studying the Veda). 

15. They should go out of the village in an 
easterly or northerly direction, should go to water 
which reaches higher than to their secret parts, 
should touch water (in the way prescribed above, 
I, 2), and should satiate the metres, the Jftshis, and 
teachers (by libations of water). 

16. After this second Upikara«a, until the (chief) 
Upakara»a (has been performed) again for the Vedic 
texts, an interruption of the study (of the Veda takes 
place), if clouds rise. 

12. Regarding the Tarpa«a ceremony comp. .Sankhayana IV, 9, 
1 note. From the word ' and ' the commentator concludes that the 
libations are offered not only to the A£aryas, but also to the J?»'shis, 
Ac. (Sutra 15). 

13. Comp. Gautama XVI, 1 ; VasishMa XIII, 1 ; Apastamba I, 
9, 1, &c. 

14. Apastamba I, 9, 2, &c. 

15. This is a description of the Utsarga ceremony; comp. 
.Sankhayana IV, 6, 6 ; Ajvalayana III, 5, 21-23 J P&raskara II, 12. 

16. The most natural way of interpreting the text would be, in 
my opinion, to assume that the ' second Upakaraxa ' (pratyupaka- 
rawa) is identical with the Utsarga. The second Upakaraaa thus 
would in the same time conclude the first term for studying the 

Digitized by 



17. If lightning (is observed), or if it thunders, or 
if it is drizzling, (he shall not study) until the same 
time next day. 

18. On the falling of a meteor, or after an earth- 
quake, or an eclipse of the sun or of the moon (the 
study is interrupted until the same time next day), 

19. And if a whirlwind occurs. 

20. Let them not study on the Ash/aka days, 
and on the days of the new moon, 

21. And on the days of the full moon — 

22. In the three months Karttika, Phalguna, and 

23. And (the study is interrupted) for one day and 
one night, 

24. If a fellow-pupil has died, 

25. Or the sovereign of his country ; 

26. Three days, if his teacher (has died) ; 

27. One day and one night, if somebody (has 
died) who has reverentially approached. 

28. If singing, or the sound of a musical instru- 
ment, or weeping is heard, or if it is storming, (the 

Veda, and open a second term. The distinction of two such 
periods, which may be called two terms, is frequently met with in 
other texts, for instance, in Vasish/fa XIII, 5-7 (S. B. E. XIV, 63) ; 
Manu IV, 98. According to the commentary, on the other hand, 
the second Upakarawa is performed at the beginning of the northerly 
course of the sun (comp. Sutras 10-12); it is stated that after that 
ceremony the Uttara (i. e. the UttanWika ?) and the Rahasya texts 
are studied. It deserves to be noticed that Manu (IV, 96) pre- 
scribes the performing of the Utsarga either under the Nakshatra 
Pushya (i. e. Tishya), or on the first day of the bright fortnight of 
MSgha, which is considered as coinciding, at least approximately, 
with the beginning of the northerly course of the sun. 

18. Comp. Manu IV, 105. 

22. These are the days of the ancient Vedic &Uurmasya 

Digitized by 


in PRAPAraAKA, 3 kAjvdikA, 36. 81 

study of the Veda is discontinued) as long as that 
(reason of the interruption) lasts. 

29. As regards other (cases in which the reading 
of the Veda should be discontinued), the practice of 
the .Sish/as (should be followed). 

30. In the case of a prodigy an expiation (has to 
be performed) by the householder (or) by his wife. 

31. If a spar of the roof or the middle (post of the 
house) breaks, or if the water-barrel bursts, let him 
sacrifice (Afya oblations) with the VyahWtis. 

32. If he has seen bad dreams, let him murmur this 
verse, ' To-day, O god Savitrz ' (Sama-veda I, 141). 

33. Now (follows) another (expiation). 

34. If he has touched a piled-up (fire-altar) or a 
sacrificial post, or if he has humming in his ears, or 
if his eye palpitates, or if the sun rises or sets while 
he is sleeping, or if his organs of sense have been 
defiled by something bad, let him sacrifice two Afya 
oblations with the two verses, ' May my strength 
return to me ' (Mantra-Brahma«a I, 6, 33. 34). 

35. Or (let him sacrifice) two pieces of wood 
anointed with Afya. 

36. Or let him murmur (those two verses) at 
light offences. 

29. The definition of a .Sish/a, or instructed person, is given in 
Baudhayana 1, 1, 6 (S. B. E. XIV, 143). 

30-36. Different expiations ; comp. Khadira-Gr/hya II, 5, 35-37. 

34. A'itya means .A'itya agni, the piled-up fire-altar, the con- 
struction of which is treated of, for instance, in the 5atapatha Brah- 
ma«a VI-X. Prof. Weber has devoted to the rites connected with 
the kitya. agni a very detailed paper, Indische Studien, XIII, 21 7 seq. 
That jiitya does not mean here anything different from £itya agni 
is shown by the Manava-Grzlrya I, 3 : yadi . . . akshi va spandet 
karno va kro^ed agni« vS fttyam arohet fmaranaw va gaAAAed 
yupaw vopasp/viet, &c. 

[30] G 

Digitized by 


82 gk/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

KajvdikA 4. 

i. A student, after he has studied the Veda, 

2. And has offered a present to his Guru (i. e. to 
his) teacher, 

3. Should, with the permission (of his parents), 
take a wife, 

4. One who does not belong to the same Gotra, 

5. And who is not a SapiWa relation of his 

6. The best, however, is a ' naked ' girl. 

7. Now the bath (which is taken at the end of 
studentship, will be described). 

8. To the north or the east of the teacher's house 
there is an enclosure. 

9. There the teacher sits down, facing the north, 
on eastward-pointed Darbha grass ; 

4, 1 seq. The description given in this chapter of the SamSvartana, 
or of the ceremony performed at the end of studentship, is opened 
with a few sentences referring to another section of the Gr/'hya ritual, 
namely, to marriage. It seems to me that these first Sutras of this 
chapter once formed, in a text from which Gobhila has taken them, 
the introduction to an exposition of the wedding ceremonies, and 
that Gobhila was induced to transfer them to the description of the 
Samdvartana, by their opening words, 'A student, after he has 
studied the Veda, &c.' With Sutras 1-3, comp. Khadira-Grthya I, 

3. 1. 

3. I prefer to supply, (with the permission) of his parents, and 
not, of his teacher. Hirawyakerin says, samamtta a^iryakulat 
matapitarau bibhr/ySt, tabhyam anugtfato bhlryim upayai^et. 

5. Regarding the term Sapi«</a, see, for instance, Gautama XIV, 
13 (S. B. E. II, 247) : ' Sapi»<&-relationship ceases with the fifth or 
the seventh (ancestor).' Comp. Manu V, 60. 

6. According to the Gr«hya-sa»*graha (II, 17. 18), a 'naked' girl 
is one who has not yet the monthly period, or whose breast is not 
yet developed. Comp. VasishMa XVII, 70 ; Gautama XVIII, 23. 

7 seqq. Comp. Khadira-Grthya III, 1, 1 seqq. 

Digitized by 


in PRApAraAKA, 4 kAwdikA, 21. 83 

10. Facing the east the student on northward- 
pointed Darbha grass. 

11. The teacher should besprinkle (him) with 
lukewarm, scented water, which has been boiled with 
all kinds of herbs. 

1 2. But as if he (i. e. the student, should do so) 
himself — 

13. (In such a way) he is alluded to in the 
Mantras ; (therefore the besprinkling should be 
done rather by the student, and not by the 
teacher [?]). 

14. With (the verse), ' The fires which dwell in 
the waters' (MB. I, 7, 1) — (the student [?]) pours 
his joined hands full of water (on the ground), 

1 5. And again with (the formula), ' What is 
dreadful in the waters, what is cruel in the waters, 
what is turbulent in the waters ' (ibid. 2). 

16. With (the formula), ' The shining one I take 
here ' (ibid. 3) — he besprinkles himself. 

17. And again with (the formula), ' For the sake 
of glory, of splendour ' (ibid. 4). 

18. And again with (the verse), 'By which you 
made the wife (pregnant ? ') (ibid. 5). 

19. A fourth time silently. 

20. He then should rise and should worship the 
sun with the Mantra, ' Rising with (the Maruts) who 
bear shining spears ' (ibid. 6-9), &c. 

21. Optionally he may use the single sections of 

13. In the Mantras prescribed for the besprinkling of the student 
(Mantra-Brdhma»a I, 7, 1 seq.) there occur passages such as, for 
instance, ' Therewith I, N. N., besprinkle myself.' 

21. He may use the first section of the Mantra, which contains 
the word pratar, in the morning, &c. 

G 2 

Digitized by 


84 cr/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

the Mantra separately (in the morning, at noon, and 
in the evening) as indicated in the text 

22. He should add (the formula), 'The eye art 
thou ' (ibid. 9) after (each of the three sections of 
the Mantra, 6-8). 

23. With the verse, ' Loosen the highest fetter, O 
Varu»a ' (ibid. 10), he takes off the girdle. 

24. After he has entertained the Brahma«as with 
food and has eaten himself, he should have his hair, 
his beard, the hair of his body, and his nails cut, so 
as to leave the lock of hair (as required by the 
custom of his family). 

25. Having bathed and adorned himself, and 
having put on two garments (an under-garment 
and an upper-garment) which have not yet been 
washed, he should put a garland (on his head) with 
(the formula), ' Luck art thou ; take delight in me ' 
(ibid. n). 

26. The two shoes (he puts on) with (the formula), 
' Leaders are you ; lead me ' (ibid. 1 2). 

27. With (the formula), ' The Gandharva art 
thou' (ibid. 13), he takes a bamboo staff. 

28. He approaches the teacher together with the 
assembly (of his pupils) and looks at the assembly 
of his teacher's (pupils) with (the words), ' Like an 
eye-ball may I be dear to you ' (ibid. 14). 

29. Sitting down near (the teacher) he touches 
the sense-organs at his head with (the verse), ' The 
she-ichneumon, covered by the lips ' (ibid. 1 5). 

30. Here the teacher should honour him with the 
Argha ceremony. 

31. (The student then) should approach a chariot 
yoked with oxen, and should touch its two side- 
pieces or the two arms of the chariot-pole with 

Digitized by 


in PRAPArHAKA, 5 kXndikH, io. 85 

(the verse), ' O tree, may thy limbs be strong ' 
(ibid. 16). 

32. With (the last words of that verse), ' May he 
who stands on thee, win what can be won ' — he 
mounts it. 

33. Having driven (some distance) in an easterly 
or northerly direction, he turns round from left to 
right and comes back (to his teacher). 

34. When he has come back, the Argha ceremony 
should be performed (for him by his teacher), say 
the Kauhallyas. 

KXndikX 5. 

1. From that time he shall assume a dignified 
demeanour : this is in short the rule (for his 

2. Here the teachers enumerate the following 

3. Na^atalomnyopahisam i&Met. 

4. Nor (should he wish for sport) with a girl who 
is the only child of her mother, 

5. Nor with a woman during her courses, 

6. Nor with one who descends from the same 

7. Let him not eat food which has been brought 
by another door (than the usual), 

8. Or which has been cooked twice, 

9. Or which has stood over night — 

10. Except such as is prepared of vegetables, 
flesh, barley, or flour. 

34. Instead of its being performed at the time stated in Sutra 30. 
5, 1 seq. Rules of conduct for the Snataka; comp. Kbidira- 
Gn'hya III, 1, 33 seq. 

Digitized by 


86 gkzhya-sOtra of gobhila. 

ii. Let him not run while it is raining. 

12. Let him not take himself his shoes in his 
hands (when putting them on or pulling them off). 

1 3. Let him not look into a well. 

14. Let him not gather fruits himself. 

15. He should not wear a scentless wreath, 

16. If it is not a wreath of gold. 

17. (He should not wear a wreath) of which the 
expression mala (garland) has been used. 

18. He should cause the people to call it sra,f 
(wreath). (Then he may wear it.) 

19. He should avoid using the word bhadra 
(' blessed ") without a reason. 

20. He should say (instead of it), mandra 


21. There are three (kinds of) Snatakas : 

22. A Vidyasnataka (or a Snataka by knowledge), 
a Vratasnataka (or a Snataka by the completion of 
his vow), and a Vidya vratasnataka (i. e. Snataka by 

23. Of these the last ranks foremost; the two 
others are equal (to each other). 

24. (A Snataka) should not put on a wet garment. 

25. He should not wear one garment. 

26. He should not praise any person (excessively). 

27. He should not speak of what he has not seen, 
as if he had seen it, 

20. As to the reading, comp. Dr. Knauer's remarks in his edition 
of the text, p. xi of the Introduction. 

21, 22. These Sutras are identical with Paraskara II, 5, 32. 
Comp. the definitions of these three kinds of Snatakas, Paraskara, 

1- •• 33-35- 

25. Comp. above, chap. 2, 58. 

Digitized by 


Ill PRAPArffAKA, 6 KkNDlKA, 2. 87 

28. Nor of what he has not heard, as if he had 
heard it 

29. He should give up everything that forms an 
impediment for his Veda-recitation. 

30. He should endeavour to keep himself (pure 
from every defilement) like a pot of oil. 

31. He should not climb a tree. 

32. He should not go toward evening to another 

33. Nor alone, 

34. Nor together with Wzshalas (or .Sudras). 

35. He should not enter the village by a by-path. 

36. And he should not walk without a companion. 

37. These are the observances for those who have 
performed the Samavartana, 

38. And what (besides) is prescribed by .Sish/as. 


i. When his cows are driven out, he should repeat 
(the verse), ' May (Bhava), the all-valiant one, (and 
Indra protect) these (cows) for me' (MB. I, 8, i). 

2. When they have come back, (he should repeat 
the verse), ' These which are rich in sweet ' (ibid. 2). 

33. That the Snataka is not allowed to go alone to another village, 
follows from Sutra 36 ; thus Sutra 33 is superfluous. The com- 
mentator of course tries to defend Gobhila, but I think he has not 
succeeded. Probably Gobhila has taken the two Sutras from 
different texts on which his own composition seems to be based. 

38. Baudhiyana 1, 1, 6 (S. B. E. XIV, 144) : ' Those are called 
.Sish/as who, in accordance with the sacred law, have studied the 
Veda together with its appendages, know how to draw inferences 
from that, and are able to adduce proofs perceptible by the senses 
from the revealed texts.' 

6, 1 seq. Different ceremonies connected with cattle-keeping. 
Comp. Khadira-Gnhya III, 1, 45 seq. 

Digitized by 


88 g/j/hya-sutra of gobhila. 

3. If he is desirous of thriving (in his cattle), he 
should lick with his tongue the forehead of the first- 
born calf, before it is licked by its mother, and should 
gulp with (the formula), ' Thou art the phlegm of 
the cows ' (ibid. 3). 

4. If he is desirous of thriving (in his cattle), he 
should, when the cows have calved, at night put 
wood on the fire in the cow-stable and should sacri- 
fice churned curds with drops of ghee, with (the 
verse), ' Seizer, seize ' (ibid. 4). 

5. If he is desirous of thriving (in his cattle), he 
makes, when the cows have calved, with a sword of 
Udumbara wood, marks on a male and on a female 
calf, first on the male, then on the female, with (the 
Mantra), ' The world art thou, thousandfold ' (ibid. 
5- 6), 

6. And after he has done so, he should recite 
(over the two calves the Mantra), ' With metal, with 
the butcher's knife ' (ibid. 7). 

7. When the rope (to which the calves are bound) 
is spread out, and (again) when the calves have been 
bound to it, he should recite over it (the verse), 
' This rope, the mother of the cows ' (ibid. 8). 

8. Here now the following (rites) have to be per- 
formed day by day, (viz.) 

9. (The rites at) the driving out (of the cows), at 
the coming back (of the cows), and at the setting 
into motion of the rope (with the calves). 

10. At the cow-sacrifice (i.e. the sacrifice by which 
a thriving condition for the cows is obtained), boiled 
rice-grains with milk (are offered). 

9. See Sfttras 1. 2. 7. 

Digitized by 


Ill PRAPA77/AKA, 7 kAjvBIkA, 7. 89 

11. Let him sacrifice to Agni, Pushan, Indra, and 
I s vara. 

12. To the bull honour is done (by adorning it, 
by lavish food, &c). 

13. By the cow-sacrifice also the horse-sacrifice 
(i.e. the sacrifice by which thriving horses are ob- 
tained) has been explained. 

14. Of deities Yama and Varu»a are added here 
(to the deities stated above) (Sutra 1 1). 

15. (After the cow-sacrifice) the cows are be- 
sprinkled with scented water; the cows are be- 
sprinkled with scented water. 

KajtoikA 7. 

1. Now (follows) the 6rava*a ceremony. 

2. It has to be performed on the full-moon day 
(of the month .5rava«a). 

3. Having besmeared (a surface) to the east of 
the house (with cow-dung), they carry forward (to 
that place) fire taken from the (sacred) domestic fire. 

4. He besmears four spots to the four sides (of 
the fire), 

5. Towards the (four) directions, 

6. (To the extent) of more than one prakrama 
(i.e. step). 

7. He puts a dish on the fire and fries (in that 

15. As to the repetition of the last words of this chapter, see the 
notes on I, 4, 31 ; II, 8, 25; io, 50. 

7, 1 seq. The .SYavawa: ceremony or the Bali-offering to the 
Serpents. Comp. Khadira-Gr«hya III, 2, 1 seq., and the elaborate 
paper of Dr. Winternitz, Der Sarpabali, ein altindischer Schlangen- 
cult (Wien, 1888). 

Digitized by 


90 gk/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

dish) one handful of barley-grains, without burning 

8. To the west of the fire he places a mortar so 
that it stands firmly, and husks (the grains), separating 
(the husked and the unhusked grains ?). 

9. After he has carefully ground them to flour, 
and has thrown (that) into a wooden cup (iamasa), 
and covered it with a winnowing-basket, he puts it 
up (in the house). 

10. Between (the besmeared surface) towards the 
south, and that towards the east (there should be) a 

11. After sunset he takes the wooden cup, (the 
spoon called) Darvi, and the winnowing-basket, and 
goes to (the fire) which has been carried forward 
(Sutra 3). 

12. He throws the flour into the winnowing- 
basket and fills the wooden cup with water. 

13. He takes once a quantity of flour with the 
Darvi spoon, pours out water on the besmeared 
place to the east (of the fire), and offers (there) a 
Bali with (the words), ' O king of Serpents, dwelling 
towards the east, this is thy Bali ! ' (MB. II, 1, 1). 

14. He pours the rest of the water over (that Bali, 
taking care) that it does not carry away the Bali. 

8. As to avahanti, com p. above, I, 7, 4 ; Hillebrandt, Neu- und 
Vollmondsopfer, p. 30. 

11. According to the commentary at iprantta means the fire 
which has been carried forward (Sutra 3). Another explanation is 
then added, which is based on a quotation from a 'tantrantara:' 
* After he has established a fire, he should carry forward one fire- 
brand taken from that fire, in a south-eastern direction, with the 
Mantra ye rupa«i pratimu/MamanaA &c; that fire is the 
atipra»fta fire.' 

Digitized by 


in PRApArnAKA, 7 kAndikX, 21. 91 

15. Turning round from right to left, he besprinkles 
the wooden cup and the Darvi spoon, warms them, 
and (repeats the offering of a Bali) in the same way 
towards the south, towards the west, and towards 
the north, as the Mantra (MB. II, 1, 1. 2) runs, 
without turning away (between the single Bali- 

16. After he has thrown the remnants (of flour) 
out of the basket into the fire, he goes to that fire 
which has not been carried forward. 

1 7. To the west of that fire he touches the earth 
with his two hands turned downwards, and mur- 
murs the Mantra, ' Adoration to the Earth's ' — 
(MB. II, 1, 3). 

18. In the evening boiled rice-grains with milk 
(are prepared). 

19. Of that (milk-rice) he should make oblations 
with (the formulas), ' To .Srava#a, to Vishmi, to Agni, 
to Pra^apati, to the Wisve devas Svaha ! ' 

20. The rest (should be performed) according to 
the Sthaltpaka rite. 

21. To the north of the fire he places a bunch of 
Darbha grass with roots, and murmurs the Mantra, 
* Soma the king ' (ibid. 4), and, ' The agreement 
which you have made ' (ibid. 5). 

15. Literally, 'turning round, following his left arm.' Comp. 
•S&nkhayana II, 3, 2. The Mantra runs thus, ' O king of Serpents, 
dwelling towards the south (the west, the north), this is thy Bali I ' 

16. Comp. Sutra n and the note. 

17. Comp. below, IV, 5, 3. 

20. Gr/hya-samgraha 1, 1 14 : ' Where the technical expression is 
used, "The rest according to the rite of the Sthaltpakas," he 
should, after he has sacrificed the two A^yabhagas, pour (A^ya) 
into the Srui and cut off (the Avadanas with the Srui).' Comp. 
Gobbila I, 8, 3 seq. 

Digitized by 


92 gr/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

22. On the following day he has flour of fried 
barley-grains prepared, and in a new pot, covering 
(it with another pot), he puts it up (in his house). 

23. (Of that flour) he should silently offer Balis 
day by day in the evening, before the sacrifice, until 
the Agrahaya»i day. 

KkNDlKk 8. 

1. On the full-moon day of (the month) Ajvayu^a, 
at the Prz'shataka ceremony, a mess of boiled rice- 
grains with milk, sacred to Rudra, (is prepared). 
. 2. Of that (milk-rice) let him sacrifice, the first 
oblation with (the verse), ' To us, O Mitra and 
Vanma' (Sama-veda I, 220), the second with (the 
verse), ' Not in our offspring ' (Rig-veda I, 114, 8), 

3. And (eight Afya oblations) with the 'cow's 
names ' (i. e. with the formulas), ' The lovely one art 
thou,' &c, with each (name) separately. 

4. The rest (should be performed) according to 
the Sthallpaka rite. 

5. Having carried the Przshataka around the fire, 
turning his right side towards (the fire), and having 
caused the Brahma«as to look at it (i.e. at the Trt- 
shataka), he should look at it himself with (the verse 

23. The sacrifice is that prescribed in Sutras 18. 19, which 
should, as well as the offering of Balis, be daily repeated. 

8, 1 seq. The Pr*'shataka ceremony; comp. Khadira-G/Vhya III, 
3, 1 seq. A Pr/shataka is a mixture of milk or of curds with 
Agya. ; comp. Khad. 1. 1. 3 ; Gr/'hya-sawgraha II, 59 ; .Sankhayana 
IV, 16, 3 note. 

3. The ' cow's names ' are given in the G«hya-sa«graha II, 60 ; 
of the nine names given there the last is omitted at the Pr/shataka 

4. See above, chap. 7, 20 and the note. 

Digitized by 


in PRAPArffAKA, 8 ka/vdikA, i 6. 93 

repeated by the Brahma»as and by the sacrificer), 
'That bright eye, created by the gods, which rises 
on the east — may we see it a hundred autumns ; 
may we live a hundred autumns ! ' 

6. After he has entertained the Brahmawas with 
food and has eaten himself, (the sacrificer and his 
family) should tie (to their arms, necks, &c.) amulets 
made of lac together with all sorts of herbs, for the 
sake of prosperity. 

7. In the evening he should feed the cows with 
the Prz'shataka, and should let the calves join them. 

8. Thus (the cows) will thrive. 

9. At the sacrifice of the first fruits a mess of 
boiled rice-grains with milk, sacred to Indra and 
Agni, (is prepared). 

10. Having sacrificed first a Havis offering of 
that (milk-rice), he sacrifices over that (oblation) 
four A^ya oblations with (the verses), ' To him who 
bears a hundred weapons,' &c. (MB. II, 1, 9-12). 

11. The rest (should be performed) according to 
the Sthallpaka rite. 

1 2. The rest of the remnants of the sacrificial food 
he should give to eat to all (persons present) who 
have received the initiation (Upanayana). 

13. Having ' spread under 'water once, he should 
cut off two portions of the boiled rice-grains, 

14. Three (portions are cut off) by descendants 
of BhWgu. 

15. And over (these portions) water (is poured). 

16. (After the food has been prepared in this 

9 seq. The sacrifice of the first fruits; comp. Khddira-Gri'hya III, 
3, 6 seq. 

ii. See chap. 7, 20 and the note. 

16, 20. Instead of asamsv&dam, sa/nsv&dayeran, I read 

Digitized by 


94 gr/hya-s6tra of gobhila. 

way), he should swallow it without chewing it, with 
(the Mantra), ' From the good to the better ' (ibid. 13). 

17. In the same way three times. 

18. Silently a fourth time. 

19. After he has cut off a greater portion, 

20. They may, if they like, chew that 

2 1 . Having sipped water, they should touch their 
mouths, their heads, and their limbs from above 
downwards, with (the verse), ' This art thou ' 
(ibid. 14). 

22. In the same way (sacrifices of the first fruits 
are performed) of .Syamaka (panicum frumentaceum) 
and of barley. 

23. (At the sacrifice) of .Syamaka (the Mantra 
with which the food is partaken of [comp. Sutra 16], 
is), ' May Agni eat as the first' (ibid. 15). 

24. (At the sacrifice) of barley, 'This barley, 
mixed with honey' (ibid. 16). 

KAjwikA 9. 

1. On the Agrahayawi day (or the full-moon day 
of the month Margartrsha) Bali-offerings (are made). 

2. They have been explained by the »Sr4va«a 

3. He does not murmur (here) the Mantra, 'Adora- 
tion to the Earth's.' 

asa«khada»z, sawkhadayeran. Comp. Khadira-Gr/'hya III, 3, 
13 : asawkhddya pragiret, and the quotations in BShtlingk- Roth's 
Dictionary s. v. sam-khid and a-svad. 

9, 1 seq. The AgrahSyawf ceremony by which the rites devoted 
to the Serpents are concluded. KMdira-Gn'hya HI, 3, 16 seq. 

2. See above, chap. 7. 

3. Comp. chap. 7, 17 : To the west of that fire he touches the 

Digitized by 



4. In the morning, after he has sacrificed the 
(regular) morning oblation, he should have the 
following (plants and branches of trees) fetched, 
viz. Darbha grass, a iSaml (branch), Vlri»a grass, a 
(Badarl branch) with fruits, Apamarga, and .Sirtsha. 
He then should silently throw (a portion) of flour of 
fried barley into the fire, should cause the Brah- 
marcas to pronounce auspicious wishes, and should 
circumambulate the house, turning his right side to- 
wards it, starting from the room for the (sacred) fire, 
striking the smoke (of the sacred fire) with those 
objects (i. e. with the plants and branches mentioned 

5. He should throw away those objects, after he 
has made use of them. 

6. On solid stones he places a water-barrel with 
the two (Samans belonging to the verse), ' Vastosh- 
pati ' (Sama-veda I, 275) and with (that) Rik (itself). 

7. Let him pour two pots of water into that 
barrel with this verse, ' Some assemble ' (Sama-veda- 
Ara»yaka, vol. ii, p. 292, ed. Bibl. Indica). 

8. In the evening boiled rice-grains with milk 
(are prepared). 

9. Of that (milk-rice) he should make an oblation 
with (the Mantra), ' She shone forth as the first' (MB. 
II, 2, 1). 

10. The rest (should be performed) according to 
the Sthalipaka rite. 

earth with his two hands turned downwards, and murmurs the 
Mantra, ' Adoration to the Earth's.' 

6. He sings the twoKavasha Samans of which the verse Sama-veda 
I, 275 is considered as the Yoni, and then repeats that verse itself. 

8. This Sutra is identical with chap. 7, 18. 

10. Comp. chap. 7, 20 note. 

Digitized by 


96 gjwhya-sOtra of gobhila. 

i i. To the west of the fire he touches the Barhis 
with his two hands turned downwards, and murmurs 
the Vyahmis (i. e. the solemn utterances), ' In the 
Kshatra I establish myself (ibid. 2. 3). 

12. To the west of the fire he should have a 
layer spread out, 

1 3. Of northward-pointed grass, 

14. Inclined towards the north. 

15. After they have spread out on that (grass) 
new rugs, the householder sits down (thereon) on 
the southern side. 

16. Then without an interval the others according 
to their age, 

17. And without an interval their wives, each with 
her children. 

18. When they are seated, the householder 
touches the layer (of grass) with his two hands 
turned downwards, and murmurs the verse, ' Be 
soft to us, O Earth ' (ibid. 4). 

19. When he has finished that (verse), they lie 
down on their right sides. 

20. In the same way (they lie down on their right 
sides) three times, turning themselves towards them- 
selves (i. e. turning round forwards, not backwards, 
and thus returning to their former position ?). 

21. They repeat the auspicious hymns as far as 
they know them ; 

• 22. The complex of Samans called Arishfe, 
according to some (teachers). 

20. The explanation which the commentary gives of this difficult 
Sutra can hardly be accepted: trir SvMya trWkr/tvo^bhyasya . . . 
abhyatmam atmano gn'hapater abhimukhyena, atmana Srabhyety 
arthaA. katham nama ? yenaiva kramewopavish/SA tenaiva krame«a 
sawvefanaw trir avartayeyuA. 

22. The commentary gives a second name for this Saman 

Digitized by 



23. Having touched water, they may do whatever 
they like. 

KajvdikA 10. 

1. The Ashfeka (is a festival) sacred to the 

2. It procures prosperity. 

3. It is sacred to Agni, or to the Manes, or to 
Pra^apati, or to the Seasons, or to the Visve devas — 
thus the deity (to which the Ash/aka is sacred), is 
investigated (by different teachers). 

4. There are four Ash/akas in (the four months 
of) the winter ; 

5. These all he should endeavour to celebrate 
with (offerings of) meat ; 

6. Thus says Kautsa. 

7. (There are only) three Ash/akas (in the winter), 
says Audgahamani, 

8. And so say (also) Gautama and Varkakhawafi. 

9. The eighth day of the dark fortnight after the 
Agrahaya»i is called Apupash/aka (i. e. Ash/aka of 
the cakes). 

10. Having prepared grains in the way prescribed 

litany, arish/abhanga. Narayawa says : abodhy agnir (Sv. I, 73) 
mahi trt»am (I, 192) iti dve tvavata (1, 193) ityadikaw sarvaloka- 
prasiddhaw prayugya. 

10, 1 seq. The Ash/aid festivals; Khadira-G/Vhya III, 3, 28. 
Comp. .Sankhayana-Gr/hya III, 12, 1 note (S. B. E. XXIX, 102). • 

4, 7. As to the difference of opinion regarding the number of 
Ash/akas, comp. Weber, Naxatra, second article, p. 337. Gobhila 
himself follows the opinion of Audgahamani, for he mentions only 
three Ash/akas in the winter season, the first following after the 
Agrahayanf full moon (chap. 10, 9), the second after the Taishl 
(10, 18), and the third after the Maghi (IV, 4,17). 

10. See above, I, 7, 2 seq. 

[30] H 

Digitized by 


98 gjwhya-sOtra of gobhila. 

for Sthallpakas, he cooks (those grains and prepares 
thus) a fauru. 

1 1. And (besides he prepares) eight cakes, with- 
out turning them over in the dish (in which he bakes 
them) ; 

12. (Each) in one dish ; 

1 3. Without Mantras, according to Audgahamani ; 

14. Of the size of the (cakes) sacred to Tryam- 

15. After he has baked them, he should pour 
(A^ya) on them, should take them from the fire 
towards the north, and should pour (Afya) on them 

16. In the way prescribed for Sthallpakas he cuts 
off (the prescribed portions) from the mess of boiled 
grains and from the cakes, and sacrifices with (the 
words), ' To the Ash/aka Svaha ! ' 

1 7. The rest (should be performed) according to 
the Sthallpaka rite. 

18. (At the second Ash/aka, on) the eighth day 
after the full-moon day of Taisha, a cow (is sacri- 

19. Shortly before the time of junction (of day 
and night, i. e. before the morning twilight) he should 
place that (cow) to the east of the fire, and when 
(that time) has come, he should sacrifice (A^ya) with 

11. Gr/hya-sawgraha II, 71: prt'thakkapalan kurvtta apupan 
ash/aid vidhau. 

14. Regarding the Traiyambaka cakes, comp. K4ty£yana Srauta- 
sfltra V, 10, 1 seq. ; Vaitana-sutra IX, 18, &c. 

16. See above, I, 8, 5 seq. 

17. Comp. chap. 7, 20 note. 

18. With the following paragraphs the .Srauta rites of the animal 
sacrifice should be compared; see J. Schwab, Das altindische 
Thieropfer (Erlangen, 1886). 

Digitized by 


Ill PRAPA7J7AKA, IO KAiVDIKA, 3 1. 99 

(the verse), 'What, O beasts, you think' (MB. II, 

2. 5). 

20. And after having sacrificed, he should recite 
over (the cow the verse), 'May thy mother give 
leave to thee ' (ibid. 6). 

21. Let him sprinkle (the cow) with water in 
which barley is, with (the words), ' Agreeable to the 
Ash/aka I sprinkle thee.' 

22. Let him carry a fire-brand round it with (the 
verse), ' The lord of goods, the sage (goes) round ' 
(Sama-veda I, 30). 

23. Let him give it water to drink. 

24. The remainder of what it has drunk he should 
pour out under (the feet of) the beast with (the 
formula), ' Away from the gods the Havis has been 
taken' (MB. II, 2, 7). 

25. They then walk in a northerly direction (from 
the fire) and kill (the cow), 

26. The head of which is turned to the east, the 
feet to the north, if the rite is sacred to the gods, 

27. The head to the south, the feet to the west, 
if the rite is sacred to the Manes. 

28. After it has been killed, he should sacrifice 
(Afya) with (the verse), ' If the beast has lowed ' 
(ibid. 8). 

29. And (the sacrificer's) wife should get water 
and should wash all the apertures of the cow's body. 

30. They lay two purifiers (i. e. grass-blades) on 
(the cow's body) near its navel, cut it up in the direc- 
tion of its hairs, and draw the omentum out. 

31. He should spit it on two pieces of wood, on 
one (simple) branch and on another forked branch, 
should besprinkle it (with water), and should 
roast it. 

h 2 

Digitized by 


ioo gk/hya-s6tra of gobhila. 

32. When it has ceased to drop, he should say, 
' Hew the (cow) to pieces — 

33. 'So that the blood does not stain the ground 
to the east of the fire.' 

34. After he has roasted (the omentum), he should 
pour (A^ya) on it, should take it from the fire 
towards the north, and should pour (A^ya) on it 

35. After he has cut off (the prescribed portions 
from) the omentum in the way prescribed for Sthall- 
pikas, or in the way prescribed for the Svish/akrzt 
(oblation), he sacrifices with (the words), ' To the 
Ash/aka Svaha ! ' 

36. The rest (should be performed) according to 
the Sthalipaka rite. The rest according to the 
Sthalipaka rite. 

End of the Third Prapa/&ika. 

32. In the text we ought to read vis asata, as Dr. Knauer has 

35. The regulations concerning the Avadinas are given for 
Sthallpakas, I, 8, 5 seq., and for the Svish/akr;t oblation, I, 8, 
11 seq. 

36. Comp. Ill, 7, 20 note. 

Digitized by 


IV PRAPArffAKA, I KklfDIKk, 10. IOI 

PRAPAraAKA IV, KAjvdikA 1. 

i. He throws the two spits into the fire ; 

2. That which consists of one (simple) branch, 
towards the east, the other one towards the west. 

3. They cut off the Avadana portions from all its 

4. With the exception of the left thigh and the 

5. The left thigh he should keep for the Anvash- 
/akya ceremony. 

6. On the same fire he cooks one mess of rice- 
grains and one of meat, stirring up the one and the 
other separately, from left to right, with two pot- 

7. After he has cooked them, he should pour 
(Afya) on them, should take them from the fire 
towards the north, and should pour (A/ya) on them 

8. Having poured the juice (of the Avadanas) into 
a brazen vessel, 

9. And having placed the Avadanas on a layer (of 
grass) on which branches of the Plaksha (tree) have 
been spread, 

10. He cuts off (the prescribed portions) from the 

1, 1. Comp. Ill, 10, 31. 

3. Comp. Ajvalayana-Gr/hya I, 11, 12; Khadira-Gr/hya III, 4, 
14 seq. 

6. 'He cooks a mess of meat' — i.e. he cooks the Avadanas. 
Comp. Khadira-Gri'hya, 1. 1. 17 ; Ajv.-Gr*hya 1, 11, 12. 

10. See I, 8, 5 seq. 

Digitized by 


ioa g/j/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

Avadanas in the way prescribed for Sthallpakas, 
(and puts those portions) into (another) brazen 
vessel ; 

1 1. And (the portion) for the Svish/akm oblation 

12. Taking of the mess of boiled rice-grains 
(Sutra 6) a portion of the size of a Bilva fruit, he 
should mix that, together with the Avadanas (Sutra 
io), with the juice (Sutra 8). 

13. Taking a fourfold portion of A/ya he should 
sacrifice it with the first of the eight Rika.s, ' Entering 
into fire, the fire ' (MB. II, 2, 9-16). 

14. Of the mixture (Sutra 12) he cuts off the third 
part and sacrifices it with the second and third 

15. He places the word Svaha after the second 
(of those verses, i.e. after the third verse of the 
whole Mantra). 

16. In the same way he sacrifices the other two- 
thirds (of that mixture, the one) with the fourth and 
fifth (verse), and (the other) with the sixth and 
seventh (verse). 

17. Having cut off the rest, he should sacrifice 
the oblation to (Agni) Svish/akr/t with the eighth 

18. Even if he be very deficient in wealth, he 
should celebrate (the Ash/aka) with (the sacrifice of) 
an animal. 

19. Or he should sacrifice a Sthalipaka. 

20. Or he should offer food to a cow. 

20 seq. Regarding these Sutras, which occur nearly identically 
in S&hkhayana III, 14, 4 seq., Ajvateyana II, 4, 8-1 1, comp. the 
note, vol. xxxx, p. 105. 

Digitized by 



21. Or he should burn down brushwood in the 
forest and should say, ' This is my Ash/aki.' 

22. But let him not neglect to do (one of these 
things). But let him not neglect to do (one of these 

KUndikA 2. 

1. On the following day the Anvash/akya (cere- 
mony is performed), 

2. Or on the day which follows after that. 

3. To the south-east (of the house), in the inter- 
mediate direction (between south and east), they 
partition off (a place with mats or the like). 

4. The long-side (of that place should lie) in the 
same (direction). 

5. They should perform (the ceremonies) turning 
their faces towards the same (direction). 

6. (It should measure) at least four prakramas 
(i.e. steps). 

7. (It should have) its entrance from the west. 

8. In the northern part of that enclosure they 
make the Lakshawa and carry the fire (to that place). 

9. To the west of the fire he places a mortar so 
that it stands firmly, and husks, holding his left hand 
uppermost, one handful of rice-grains which he has 
seized with one grasp. 

21. I believe that we ought to correct upadhaya into upadahya. 
.Sankhiyana III, 14, 5 : api viranye kaksham apadahet. Ajvala- 
yana II, 4, 9: agnina" va kaksham uposhet. 

2, 1 seq. The Anvash/akya ceremony; comp. Khidira-Gr«"hya 
III, 5, 1 seq. 

8. 'They make the Lakshawa' means, they prepare the ground 
on which the fire shall be established, by drawing the five lines. 
See above, I, i, 9. 10 j Gr/hya-sawgraha I, 47 seq. 

Digitized by 


104 g/uhya-s6tra of gobhila. 

10. When (the rice) has been husked, 

ii. He should once carefully remove the husks. 

12. And then he should cut off a lump of flesh 
from that thigh and should cut it in small pieces on 
a new slaughtering-bench, 

1 3. (With the intention) that the Findas (or lumps 
of food offered to the Manes) should be thoroughly 
mixed up with flesh. 

14. On the same fire he cooks one mess of rice- 
grains and one of meat, stirring up the one and the 
other separately, from right to left, with the two 

15. After he has cooked them, he should pour 
(Afya) on them, should take them from the fire 
towards the south, and should not pour (A^ya) on 
them again. 

16. In the southern part of the enclosure (Sutras 
3 seq.) he should have three pits dug, so that the 
eastern (pit is dug) first, 

17. One span in length, four inches in breadth 
and in depth. 

18. Having made the Laksha»a to the east of the 
eastern pit, they carry the fire (to that place). 

19. Having carried the fire round the pits on their 
west side, he should put it down on the Lakshawa. 

20. He strews (round the fire) one handful of 
Darbha grass which he has cut off in one portion. 

12. As to the words 'from that thigh,' comp. above, chap. 1, 5. 

14. Comp. chap. 1, 6. The sacrificial food is stirred up here 
from right to left, not from left to right, because it is sacred to the 
Manes. The mess of meat consists of the meat treated of in 
Sutra 11. 

15. Comp. above, chap. 1, 7. 

18, 19. As to lakshawa, comp. Sutra 8 note. 

Digitized by 



21. And (he strews it into) the pits, 

22. Beginning with the eastern (pit). 

23. To the west of the pits he should have a 
layer spread out, 

24. Of southward-pointed Kura. grass, 

25. Inclined towards the south. 

26. And he should put a mat on it. 

27. To that (layer of grass) they fetch for him 
(the following sacrificial implements), one by one, 
from right to left : 

28. The two pots in which sacrificial food has 
been cooked (Sutra 14), the two pot-ladles (Sutra 14), 
one brazen vessel, one Darvi (spoon), and water. 

29. (The sacrificer's) wife places a stone on the 
Barhis and pounds (on that stone the fragrant sub- 
stance called) Sthagara. 

30. And on the same (stone) she grinds some 
collyrium, and anoints therewith three Darbha 
blades, including the interstices (between the single 

31. He should also get some oil made from sesa- 
mum seeds, 

32. And a piece of linen tape. 

33. After he has invited an odd number of blame- 
less Brahma«as, whose faces should be turned towards 
the north, to sit down on a pure spot, 

27. The last words of the Sutra, translated literally, would be : 
'following the left arm.' Comp. Sankh&yana-Gr/hya II, 3, 2. 
They place the different objects apridakshi«yena. 

29. See chap. 3, 16. 30. See chap. 3, 13. 

31. See chap. 3, 15. 

32. See chap. 3, 24. 

33. As to the two classes of paitr/'ka and daivika Brahmanas, 
comp. the note on Sankhayana IV, 1, 2. 

Digitized by 


106 gk/hya-sGtra of gobhila. 

34. And has given them Darbha grass (in order 
that they may sit down thereon), 

35. He gives them (pure) water and afterwards 
sesamum-water, pronouncing his father's name, ' N. 
N. ! To thee this sesamum-water, and to those who 
follow thee here, and to those whom thou followest. 

36. After he has touched water, (he does) the 
same for the other two. 

37. In the same way (he gives them) perfumes. 

38. The words in which he addresses (the Brah- 
ma»as) when going to sacrifice, are, ' I shall offer it 
into the fire.' 

39. After they have replied, ' Offer it,' he should 
cut off (the prescribed portions) from the two messes 
of cooked food (Sutra 14), (and should put those 
portions) into the brazen vessel. He then should 
sacrifice, picking out (portions of the Havis) with 
the pot-ladle, the first (oblation) with (the words), 
' Svaha to Soma Pitrz'mat,' the second with (the 
words), 'Svaha to Agni Kavyavahana' (MB. II, 3, 

34. Comp. the note, p. 932 of the edition of Gobhila in the Bib- 
liotheca Indica. 

35. Regarding the sesamum-water (i. e. water into which sesa- 
mum seeds have been thrown), comp. ArvalSyana-Gnhya IV, 7, 11. 

36. He repeats the same ceremony, pronouncing his grand- 
father's, instead of his father's, name ; then he repeats it for his 

37. He gives perfumes to the Brahmaaas, addressing first his 
father, then his grandfather and his great-grandfather. 

38. 39. Comp. Ajvalayana-Gr/hya IV, 7, 18 seq. Regarding 
the termupagh&ta/w^uhuyit, comp. Gr*hya-sa»»graha I, in seq. 
and Professor Bloomfield's note. Regarding the oblation made to 
Agni Kavyavahana, comp. Apastamba VIII, 15, 20 : Agniw Kavya- 
vahanam Svish/akr/'darthe ya^ati. 

Digitized by 


iv PRAPAri/AKA, 3 kXndikX, 8. 107 

KAndikX 3. 

1. From now onwards he has to perform (the 
rites) wearing his sacrificial cord over his right 
shoulder and keeping silence. 

2. With his left hand he should seize a Darbha 
blade and should (therewith) draw (in the middle 
of the three pits) a line from north to south, with 
(the formula), ' The Asuras have been driven away ' 
(MB. II, 3,3. 

3. Seizing, again with his left hand, a fire-brand, 
he should place it on the south side of the pits with 
(the verse), ' They who assuming (manifold) shapes ' 
(ibid. 4). 

4. He then calls the Fathers (to his sacrifice) with 
(the verse), ' Come hither, ye Fathers, who have 
drunk Soma ' (ibid. 5). 

5. He then should place patra vessels of water 
near the pits. 

6. Seizing, again with his left hand, (the first) 
vessel, he should pour it out from right to left on 
the Darbha grass in the eastern pit, pronouncing his 
father's name, ' N. N. ! Wash thyself, and (may) 
those who follow thee here, and those whom thou 
followest, (wash themselves). To thee Svadha ! ' 

7. After he has touched water, (he does) the same 
for the other two. 

8. Seizing, again with his left hand, the Darvt 
spoon, he should cut off one-third of the mixture (of 

3, 1. Comp. I, 2, 3 seq. 

2. K&tyayana-.Srauta-sfitra IV, 1, 8. 

3. KStyayana-Steiuta-sfltra IV, 1, 9. 

6. KStyayana-Aauta-sfltra IV, 1,10. 

7. See chap. 2, 36. 

Digitized by 


108 gr/hya-sCtra of gobhila. 

the different kinds of sacrificial food) and should put 
down (that Pi#aa), from right to left, on the Darbha 
grass in the eastern pit, pronouncing his father's 
name, ' N. N. ! This Finda. is thine, and of those 
who follow thee here, and of those whom thou 
followest. To thee Svadha ! ' 

9. After he has touched water, (he does) the same 
for the other two. 

10. If he does not know their names, he should 
put down the first Finda. with (the formula), ' Svadha 
to the Fathers dwelling on the earth,' the second 
with (the formula), ' Svadha to the Fathers dwelling 
in the air,' the third with (the formula), ' Svadha to 
the Fathers dwelling in heaven.' 

1 1 . After he has put down (the three Vindas), he 
murmurs, ' Here, O Fathers, enjoy yourselves ; show 
your manly vigour each for his part ' (MB. II, 3, 6). 

12. He should turn away, (should hold his breath,) 
and turning back before he emits his breath, he 
should murmur, ' The Fathers have enjoyed them- 
selves ; they have shown their manly vigour each 
for his part ' (ibid. 7). 

13. Seizing, again with his left hand, a Darbha 
blade (anointed with collyrium ; chap. 2, 30), he 
should put it down, from right to left, on the Fbida. 
in the eastern pit, pronouncing his father's name, 
' N. N. ! This collyrium is thine, and is that of 
those who follow thee here, and of those whom thou 
followest To thee Svadha ! ' 

14. After he has touched water, (he does) the 
same for the other two. 

15. In the same way (he offers) the oil (to the 
fathers) ; 

9, 14. See chap. 2, 36. 15. See chap, a, 31. 

Digitized by 


IV PRAPA777AKA, 3 kAndIkX, 24. IO9 

16. In the same way the perfume. 

17. Then he performs the deprecation (in the 
following way) : 

18. On the eastern pit he lays his hands, turning 
the inside of the right hand upwards, with (the 
formula), 'Adoration to you, O Fathers, for the 
sake of life ! Adoration to you, O Fathers, for the 
sake of vital breath ! ' (MB. II, 3, 8) ; 

19. On the middle (pit), turning the inside of the 
left hand upwards, with (the formula), ' Adoration 
to you, O Fathers, for the sake of terror ! Adora- 
tion to you, O Fathers, for the sake of sap!' (MB., 
loc. cit.) ; 

20. On the last (pit), turning the inside of the 
right hand upwards, with (the formula), ' Adoration 
to you, O Fathers, for the sake of comfort ! Adora- 
tion to you, O Fathers, for the sake of wrath ! ' 
(MB. II, 3, 9)- 

21. Then joining his hands he murmurs, 'Adora- 
tion to you, O Fathers ! O Fathers ! Adoration to 
you ! ' (MB., loc. cit.). 

22. He looks at his house with (the words), ' Give 
us a house, O Fathers!' (MB. II, 3, 10). 

23. He looks at the Piw^as with (the words), ' May 
we give you an abode, O Fathers ! ' (MB. II, 3, 1 1). 

24. Seizing, again with his left hand, the linen 
thread, he should put it down, from right to left, on 
the Vinda. in the eastern pit, pronouncing his father's 

16. See chap. 2, 29. 

1 8 seq. Comp. V%. Sawhitd II, 32. 

23. The Va^asaneyi Sawhita (loc. cit.) has the reading, sato 
vaA pitaro deshma, ' May we give you, O Fathers, of what we 
possess ! ' 

24. Comp. chap. 2, 32. 

Digitized by 


no gr/hya-s6tra of gobhila. 

name, ' N. N. ! This garment is thine, and is that 
of those who follow thee here, and of those whom 
thou followest. To thee Svadha!' (MB. II, 3, 12). 

25. After he has touched water, (he does) the 
same for the other two. 

26. Seizing, again with his left hand, the vessel of 
water (Sutra 5), he should sprinkle (water) round the 
Piwdfes from right to left, with (the verse), ' Bringing 
sap' (MB. II, 3,13). 

27. The middle Finda. (offered to the grandfather) 
the wife (of the sacrificer) should eat, if she is de- 
sirous of a son, with (the verse), ' Give fruit to the 
womb, O Fathers ' (MB. II, 3, 14). 

28. Or of those Brihmawas (that person) who 
receives the remnants (of the sacrificial food, should 
eat that Tinda). 

29. Having besprinkled (and thus extinguished) 
the fire-brand (Sutra 3) with water, with (the verse), 
' Gatavedas has been our messenger for what we 
have offered' (MB. II, 3, 15) — 

30. (The sacrificer) should besprinkle the sacri- 
ficial vessels, and should have them taken back, two 
by two. 

31. The Tindas he should throw into water, 

32. Or into the fire which has been carried for- 
ward (to the east side of the pits, chap. 2, 18), 

33. Or he should give them to a Brahma«a to eat, 

34. Or he should give them to a cow. 

35. On the occasion of a lucky event (such as the 
birth of a son, &c.) or of a meritorious work (such as 
the dedication of a pond or of a garden) he should 
give food to an even number (of Brahmawas). 

25. See chap. 2, 36. 

35. Comp. .Sankhayana-Gr/hya IV, 4. 

Digitized by 


iv PRAPArn aka, 4 kAwdikA, 6. Ill 

36. The rite (is performed) from left to right. 

37. Barley is used instead of sesamum. 

KandikX 4. 

1. By (the description of) the Sthalipaka offered 
at the Anvash/akya ceremony the Yindapitriyagna 
has been declared ; 

2. This is a .Sraddha offered on the day of the 
new moon. 

3. Another (Sraddha) is the Anvaharya. 

4. (It is performed) monthly. 

5. The Havis is prepared (by one who has set up 
the sacred 5rauta fires) in the Dakshiwagni (i.e. in 
that of the three fires which is situated towards the 

6. And from the same (fire the fire is taken which) 

36, 37. .S$nkhayana-Gr*hya IV, 4, 6. 9, Regarding the use of 
sesamum seeds, see above, chap. 2, 35. 

4, 1. Khadira-Gr/hya III, 5, 35. Comp. M. M., 'India, what 
can it teach us ? ' p. 240. The word StMlfpSka is used here, as is 
observed in the commentary, in order to exclude the mess of meat 
(chap. 2, 14) from the rites of the Pi»</apitr/ya^a. 

3. AnvihSrya literally means, what is offered (or given) after 
something else, supplementary. In the commentary on Gobhila, 
p. 666, a verse is quoted : 

amSvasylw dvitfyaw yad anv&h&ryaw tad u^yate, 
' The second (.Sraddha) which is performed on the day of the new 
moon, that is called anvSh&rya.' First comes the PiWapitr/- 
ya^fla, and then follows the AnvShtrya Sr&ddha ; the last is iden- 
tical with the Pirvawa .Sraddha, which is described as the chief 
form of .Sr&ddha ceremonies, for instance in .SUhkh&yana-Gr/hya 
IV, 1. Comp. Manu III, 122. 123, and Kulluka's note; M. M., 
' India, what can it teach us ?' p. 240. 

5. According to the commentary this and the following Sutras 
refer only to the Piw/apitn'ya^Sa, not to the AnvaMiirya .SrSddha. 
Comp. Kh&dira-Gr/hya III, 5, 36-39. 

Digitized by 


ii2 gk/hya-sCtra of gobhila. 

is carried forward (in order to be used at the cere- 

7. In the domestic fire (the Havis is prepared) by 
one who has not set up the (.Srauta) fires. 

8. One pit (only is made) ; 

9. To the south of it the fire has its place. 

10. Here the laying down of the fire-brand is 

11. And (the spreading out of) the layer (of grass), 

12. And the anointing (of the bunches of Darbha 
grass), and the anointing (of the Fathers), 

13. And the (offering of) perfume, 

14. And the ceremony of deprecation. 

15. (The ceremony performed with) the vessel of 
water forms the conclusion (of the Yindapitriyagna). 

16. He should, however, put down one garment 
(for the Fathers in common). 

17. On the eighth day after the full moon of 
Magha a Sthallpika (is prepared). 

18. He should sacrifice of that (Sthaltpaka). 

19. 'To the Ash/aka Svaha ! ' — with (these words) 
he sacrifices. 

20. The rest (should be performed) according to 
the Sthalipaka rite. 

2 1 . Vegetables (are taken instead of meat) as in- 
gredient to the Anvaharya(-rice). 

22. At animal sacrifices offered to the Fathers let 

9. See chap. 2, 18. 10. See chap. 3, 3. 

11. Chap. 2, 23. 12. Chap. 2, 30; 3, 13. 

13. Chap. 3, 16. 14. Chap. 3, 17 seq. 

15. Chap. 3, 26. 16. Comp. chap. 3, 24. 25. 

17-21. Description of the third Ash/aka festival. 

20. Comp. above, III, 7, 20 note. 

21. Comp. IV, 1, 12. 

Digitized by 


iv fravAth aka, 4 kAjvdikA, 30. 113 

him sacrifice the omentum with (the verse), ' Carry 
the omentum, O 6&tavedas, to the Fathers' (MB. 
II, 3, 16) ; 

23. At (such sacrifices) offered to the gods, with 
(the verse), 'Gatavedas, go to the gods with the 
omentum ' (ibid. 1 7). 

24. If no (god to whom the sacrifice should be 
offered, and no Mantra with which the oblation- 
should be made) is known, he sacrifices, assigning 
(his offering to the personified rite which he is per- 
forming), thus as (for instance), ' To the Ash/aka 

25. The rest (should be performed) according to 
the Sthallpaka rite. 

26. If a debt turns up (which he cannot pay), he 
should sacrifice with the middle leaf of Golakas, with 
(the verse), ' The debt which ' (MB. II, 3, 18). 

27. Now (follows) the putting into motion of the 

28. Under an auspicious Nakshatra he should 
cook a mess of sacrificial food and should sacrifice 
to the following deities, namely, to Indra, to the 
Maruts, to Par/anya, to Awtni, to Bhaga. 

29. And he should offer (A/ya) to Sita, A^a, 
Ara^a, Anagha. 

30. The same deities (receive offerings) at the 

25. See III, 7, 20 note. 

26. I am not sure about the translation of the words golaka- 
nam madhyamaparwena. The ordinary meaning of golaka 
is ' ball/ see, for instance, Sahkhdyana-Gr*hya IV, 19, 4. The com- 
mentary says, golakanaw palajanam madhyamaparnena madhya- 

29. The name of the third of those rural deities is spelt differ- 
ently; Dr. Knauer gives the readings, AraaSm, Ara/Mm, Aragam, 
Araram, Aram. 

[30] I 

Digitized by 



furrow-sacrifice, at the thrashing-floor-sacrifice, at the 
sowing, at the reaping of the crop, and at the putting 
of the crop into the barn. 

31. And at mole hills he should sacrifice to the 
king of moles. 

32. To Indrawi a Sthillpaka (is prepared). 

33. Of that he should make an offering with (the 
•verse), ' The Ekash/aki, performing austerities ' 

(MB. II, 3, 19). 

34. The rest (should be performed) according to 
the Sthalipaka ritual. The rest according to the 
Sthalipaka ritual. 

KajvxhkA 5. 

1. At (the sacrifices) for the obtainment of special 
wishes, which will be henceforth described, 

2. And, according to some (teachers), also at (the 
sacrifices) described above (the following rites should 
be performed). 

3. He should touch the earth, to the west of the 
fire, with his two hands turned downwards, with (the 
verse), ' We partake of the earth's ' (MB. II, 4, 1). 

32-34. Khadira-Gr«hya III, 5, 40. I understand that this 
sacrifice stands in connection with the rural festivals which are 
treated of in the preceding Sutras. In the commentary, from 
the Mantra the conclusion is drawn that the ceremony in ques- 
tion belongs to the day of the Ekash/akl But the Ekash/ald 
is the Ash/aki of the dark fortnight of Magha (see S. B. E. XXIX, 
102), and the description of the rites belonging to that day has 
already been given above, Sfttras 17-21. It very frequently occurs 
in the Grthya ritual that Mantras are used at sacrifices standing in 
no connection with those for which they have originally been 

5, 1 seq. Comp. Khadira-Gr/hya I, 2, 6 seq. 

Digitized by 



4. In the night-time (he pronounces that Mantra 
so that it ends with the word) * goods ' (vasu), in the 
day-time (so that it ends) with ' wealth ' (dhanam). 

5. With the three verses, ' This praise' (MB. II, 4, 
2-4) he should wipe along (with his hands) around 
(the fire). 

6. Before sacrifices the Virupaksha formula (MB. 
II, 4, 6) (should be recited). 

7. And at (ceremonies) which are connected with 
special wishes, the Prapada formula (MB. 11,4, 5) — 
(in the following way) : 

8. He should murmur (the Prapada formula), 
'Austerities and splendour,' should perform one 
suppression of breath, and should, fixing his thoughts 
on the object (of his wish), emit his breath, when 
beginning the Virupaksha formula. 

9. When undertaking ceremonies for the obtain- 
ment of special wishes, let him fast during three 
(days and) nights, 

10. Or (let him omit) three meals. 

6-8. Khadira-Gnhya I, 2, 23 ; Gnhya-sawzgraha I, 96. It is 
stated that the recitation of the Virupaksha and Prapada formulas 
and also the parisamuhana (Sutra 5) should be omitted at the 
so-called Kshiprahomas, i.e. at sacrifices performed without the 
assistance of a ya^flavid. See Bloomfield's notes on Gnhya- 
samgraha I, 92. 96. Regarding the way in which a pra«£yama 
('suppression of breath') is performed, comp. Vasish/fa XXV, 13 
(S.B.E. XIV, p. 126). 

9 seq. Khadira-Gr/hya IV, 1, 1 seq. 

10. There are two meals a day. The words of this Sutra, ' Or 
three meals,' are explained in the commentary in the following way. 
He should, if he does not entirely abstain from food through three 
days, take only three meals during that time, i. e. he should take 
one meal a day. The commentator adds that some read abhak- 
tlni instead of bhaktani ('or he should omit three meals'), in 
which case the result would be the same. I prefer the reading 

I 2 

Digitized by 


116 gr/hya-sCtra of gobhila. 

ii. At such ceremonies, however, as are repeated 
regularly, (let him do so only) before their first 

12. He should (simply) fast, however, before such 
ceremonies as are performed on sacrificial days (i. e. 
on the first day of the fortnight). 
. 1 3. (At a ceremony) which ought to be performed 
immediately (after the occurrence by which it has 
been caused), the consecration follows after (the 
ceremony itself). 

14. Let him recite the Prapada formula (Sutras 
7. 8), sitting in the forest on Darbha grass, 

1 5. Of which the panicles are turned towards the 
east, if he is desirous of holy lustre, 

16. To the north, if desirous of sons and of 

1 7. To both directions, if desirous of both. 

18. One who desires that his stock of cattle may 
increase, should offer a sacrifice of rice and barley 

bhaktani, and propose to supply, not, 'he should eat,' but 'he 
should omit' (' abho^anam,' Sutra 9). Possibly the meaning is 
that three successive meals should be omitted; thus also the 
compiler of the Khadira-Gnhya seems to have understood this 

11. Comp., for instance, below, chap. 6, 1. 

12. Comp. below, chaps. 6, 4 ; 8, 23. 

13. My translation of this Sutra differs from the commentary. 
There it is said : ' An occurrence which is perceived only when it 
has happened (sannipatitam eva), and of which the cause by which 
it is produced is unknown, for instance the appearance of a halo, 
is called sannipatika. Such sannipatika ceremonies are upa- 
rish/addaiksha. The diksha is the preparatory consecration 
(of the sacrificer), for instance by three days of fasting. A cere- 
mony which has its diksha after itself is called uparish/addaiksha.' 
Similarly the commentary on Khadira-Gr/hya IV, 1, 3 says, ' upa- 
rish/at sannipatike naimittike karma kntvabhcganam.' 

Digitized by 


IV PRAPATff AKA, 5 kAnDIKX, 30. 1 1 7 

with (the verse), ' He who has a thousand arms, the 
protector of cow-keepers ' (MB. II, 4, 7). 

19. Having murmured the Kautomata verse (ibid. 
8) over fruits of a big tree, he should give them — 

20. To a person whose favour he wishes to gain. 

21. One (fruit) more (than he gives to that 
person), an even number (of fruits), he should keep 

22. There are the five verses, ' Like a tree' (MB. 


23. With these firstly a ceremony (is performed) 
for (obtaining property on) the earth. 

24. He should fast one fortnight, 

25. Or, if .he is not able (to do so, he may drink) 
once a day rice-water, 

26. In which he can see his image. 

2 7. This observance (forms part) of (all) fortnightly 

28. He then should in the full-moon night plunge 
up to his navel into a pool which does not dry up, and 
should sacrifice at the end of (each of those five) 
verses fried grains with his mouth into the water, 
with the word Svaha. 

29. Now (follows) another (ceremony with the 
same five verses). 

30. With the first (verse) one who is desirous of 
the enjoyment (of riches), should worship the sun, 
within sight of (that) person rich in wealth (from 

23. The commentary explains parthivam, ' pnthivyarthaw kri- 
yate, iti parthivam, gramakshetradyartham ;' similarly the com- 
mentary on Khadira-Gnhya IV, 1, 13 says, ' prrthivipatitvaprapty- 
artham idam uktam karma.' 

27. Comp. below, chap. 6, 12. 

28. Gr*hya-sa»?graha II, 11. 

Digitized by 


n8 g/s/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

whom he hopes to obtain wealth) ; then he will 
obtain wealth. 

31. With the second (verse) one who desires that 
his stock of horses and elephants may increase, 
should sacrifice fried grains, while the sun has a halo. 

32. With the third (verse) one who desires that 
his flocks may increase, (should sacrifice) sesamum 
seeds, while the moon (has a halo). 

33. Having worshipped the sun with the fourth 
(verse), let him acquire wealth ; then he will come 
back safe and wealthy. 

34. Having worshipped the sun with the fifth 
(verse) let him return to his house. He will safely 
return home ; he will safely return home. 

KA\ydikA 6. 

1. Let him daily repeat (the formula), ' BhM ! ' 
(MB. II, 4, 14) in order to avert involuntary death. 

2. (He who does so) has nothing to fear from 
serious diseases or from sorcery. 

3. (The ceremony for) driving away misfortune 
(is as follows). 

4. It is performed on the sacrificial day (i. e. on 
the first day of the fortnight). 

5. (Oblations are made with the six verses), ' From 
the head ' (MB. II, 5, 1 seq.), verse by verse. 

6. The seventh (verse is), ' She who athwart' 
(MB. I, 5, 6). 

7. (Then follow) the verses of the Vamadevya, 

6, 1 seq. Comp. Kh&dira-Grchya IV, 1, 19 seq. 
4. Comp. above, chap. 5, 12. 

6. Comp. above, II, 7, 14. 

7. The text belonging to the Vamadevya S&man, is the Trcfa, 
Sama-veda II, 32-34. 

Digitized by 


iv PRAPArffAKA, 6 kAjvxhkA, 14. 119 

8. (And) the Mahavyahmis. 

9. The last (verse) is, ' Pra^apati ' (MB. II, 5, 8). 

10. With the formula, ' I am glory' (MB. II, 5, 9) 
one who is desirous of glory should worship the sun 
in the forenoon, at noon, and in the afternoon, 

11. Changing (the words), ' of the forenoon' (into 
' of the noon,' and ' of the afternoon,' accordingly). 

12. Worshipping (the sun) at the time of the 
morning twilight and of the evening twilight pro- 
cures happiness, (both times) with (the formula), 
'O sun! the ship' (MB. II, 5, 14), and (after that) 
in the morning with (the formula), ' When thou 
risest, O sun, I shall rise with thee ' (ibid. 1 5) ; 
in the evening with (the formula), ' When . thou 
goest to rest, O sun, I shall go to rest with thee ' 
(ibid. 16). 

1 3. One who desires to gain a hundred cart-loads 
(of gold), should keep the vow (of fasting) through 
one fortnight and should on the first day of a dark 
fortnight feed the Brahma«as with boiled milk-rice 
prepared of one Kiwsa of rice. 

14. At the evening twilight (of every day of that 
fortnight), having left the village in a westerly direc- 
tion, and having put wood on the fire at a place where 

10. According to the commentary the formula ya so -ham bha- 
vami comprises five sections; thus it would include the sections 
II, 5, 9-13 of the Mantra-Brahma»a. The Mantra quoted next by 
Gobhila (Sutra 12) is really MB. II, 5, 14. 

13. Comp. chap. 5, 24-27. One Ka«sa is stated to be a 
measure equal to one Dro«a. The more usual spelling is kawsa, 
and this reading is found in the corresponding passage of the 
Khadira-Grrtiya (IV, 2, 1). 

14. As to the meaning of kawa (' small grain of rice '), Comp. 
Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, p. 32, note 1. 

Digitized by 



four roads meet, he should sacrifice the small grains 
(of that rice), turning his face towards the sun, with 
(the words), ' To Bhala Svaha ! To Bhala Svaha ! ' 
(ibid. 17. 18). 

15. (He should repeat those rites) in the same 
way the two next dark fortnights. 

16. During the time between those dark fort- 
nights he should observe chastity till the end (of the 
rite), till the end (of the rite). 

KaydikA 7. 

1 . Let him select the site for building his house — 

2. On even ground, which is covered with grass, 
which cannot be destroyed (by inundations, &c), 

3. On which the waters flow off to the east or to 
the north, 

4. On which plants grow which have no milky 
juice or thorns, and which are not acrid. 

5. The earth should be white, if he is a Brah- 

6. Red, if he is a Kshatriya, 

7. Black, if he is a Vai-rya. 

8. (The soil should be) compact, one-coloured, 
not dry, not salinous, not surrounded by sandy 
desert, not swampy. 

9. (Soil) on which Darbha grass grows, (should 
be chosen) by one who is desirous of holy lustre, 

10. (Soil covered) with big sorts of grass, by one 
who is desirous of strength, 

1 1. (Soil covered) with tender grass, by one who 
is desirous of cattle. 

7, 1 seq. Comp. Khidira-GroTiya IV, 2, 6 seq. 

Digitized by 



12. (The site of the house) should have the form 
of a brick, 

1 3. Or it should have the form of a round island. 

14. Or there should be natural holes (in the 
ground) in all directions. 

15. On such (ground) one who is desirous of fame 
or strength, should build his house with its door to 
the east ; 

16. One who is desirous of children or of cattle, 
(should build it) with its door to the north ; 

17. One who is desirous of all (those things), 
(should build it) with its door to the south. 

18. Let him not build it with its door to the 

19. And a back-door. 

20. The house-door. 

21. So that (he ?) may not be exposed to looks (?). 

19-21. I have translated the words of these Sutras without 
trying to express any meaning. According to the commentary 
the meaning is the following: 19. He should not build a house 
which has its door on the back-side, or which has one front-door 
and one back-door. 20. The house-door should not face the door 
of another house. 21. The house-door should be so constructed 
that the householder cannot be seen by Xindilas, &c, when he is 
performing religious acts or when dining in his house. Or, if 
instead of sawlokt the reading samloki is accepted, the Sutra 
means : the house-door should be so constructed, that valuable ob- 
jects, &c, which are in the house, cannot be seen by passers-by. — 
The commentary on Khadira-Gnhya IV, 2, 15 contains the remark: 
dvaradvayaw (var. lectio, dvaraw dvaraw) parasparam rt'gu 
na syad iti ke/Ht. This seems to me to lead to the right under- 
standing of these Sutras. I think we ought to read and to divide 
in this way: (19) anudvaram £a. (20. 21) grthadvaram 
yathana sawlokisyat. 'And (let him construct) a back-door, 
so that it does not face the (chief) house-door.' The Khadira 
MSS. have the readings, asalloki, asandraloke, samloka. 

Digitized by 


122 gk/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

22. ' Let him avoid an Asvattha tree on the east- 
side (of his house), and a Plaksha on the south-side, 
a Nyagrodha on the west-side, and on the north-side 
an Udumbara. 

23. ' One should say that an Asvattha brings (to 
the house) danger from fire ; one should say that a 
Plaksha tree brings early death (to the inhabitants 
of the house), that a Nyagrodha brings oppression 
through (hostile) arms, that an Udumbara brings 
diseases of the eye. 

24. 'The Asvattha is sacred to the sun, the 
Plaksha to Yama, the Nyagrodha is the tree that 
belongs to Varu»a, the Udumbara, to Pra^apati.' 

25. He should place those (trees) in another place 
than their proper one, 

26. And should sacrifice to those same deities. 

27. Let him put wood on the fire in the middle of 
the house, and sacrifice a black cow, 

28. Or a white goat, 

22-24. These are Slokas to which the commentary very appro- 
priately, though not exactly in the sense in which it was originally 
set down, applies the dictum so frequently found in the Brahmana 
texts: na hy ekasm&d aksharid viridhayanti. Dr. Knauer's 
attempts to restore correct .Slokas are perhaps a little hazardous ; 
he inserts in the third verse kz. after plaksha s, and in the second 
he changes the first bruy&t into kz., whereby the second foot of the 

hemistich loses its regular shape <_> , and receives instead of 

it the form u \j - w. 

25. He should remove an Arvattha tree from the east-side, &c. 

26. He should sacrifice to the deities to whom the transplanted 
trees are sacred. 

27 seq. Here begins the description of the viHstujamana, 
which extends to Sutra 43. As to the animal sacrifice prescribed 
in this Sutra, comp. Dr. Winternitz's essay, Einige Bemerkungen 
tiber das Bauopfer bei den Indern (Sitzungsbericht der Anthrop. 
Gesellschaft in Wien, 19 April, 1887), p. 8. 

Digitized by 


rv PRApArnAKA, 7 kAjvdikA, 41. 123 

29. (The one or the other) together with milk- 

30. Or (only) milk-rice. 

31. Having mingled together the fat (of the 
animal), Afya, its flesh, and the milk-rice, 

32. He should take eight portions (of that mixture) 
and should sacrifice (the following eight oblations) : 

33. The first (verse, accompanying the first obla- 
tion), is, ' Vastoshpati!' (MB. II, 6, 1). 

34. (Then follow) the (three) verses of the Vama- 

35. (And the three) Mahavyahmis. 

36. The last (oblation is offered with the formula), 
« To Pra/apati (svaha).' 

37. After he has sacrificed, he should offer ten 

38. In the different directions (of the horizon), 
from left to right, 

39. And in the intermediate points, 

40. In due order, without a transposition. 

41. (He should offer a Bali) in the east with (the 
formula), ' (Adoration) to Indra ! ' in the interme- 
diate direction — ' To Vayu ! ' in the south — ' To 
Yama!' in the intermediate direction — '(Svadha) 
to the Fathers!' in the west — '(Adoration) to 
Varu«a ! ' in the intermediate direction — ' To 
Maharaja ! ' in the north — * To Soma ! ' in the 
intermediate direction — ' To Mahendra ! ' down- 

34. Comp. above, chap. 6, 7 note. 

36. The commentary says : ' The last oblation should be offered 
with the formula, " To Pra^apati svaha !" ' Probably we ought 
to correct the text, Pra^apata ity uttama, 'the last (verse) is, 
" Pra^pati I" (MB. II, 5, 8);' see above, IV, 6, 9; Khadira- 
Grchya IV, 2, ao. 

Digitized by 


124 gk/hya-sOtra of gobhila. 

wards — 'To Vasuki!' upwards, in the sky (i.e. 
throwing the Bali into the air), with (the formula), 
' Adoration to Brahman ! ' 

42. To the east, upwards, and downwards this 
should be done constantly, day by day. 

43. (The whole ceremony is repeated) every year 
or at the two sacrifices of the first fruits. 

KAjvbikA 8. 

1. At the 6Yava#a and Agrahaya»l sacrifices he 
should leave a remainder of fried grains. 

2. Having gone out of the village in an easterly 
or in a northerly direction, and having put wood on 
the fire at a place where four roads meet, he should 
sacrifice (those fried grains) with his joined hands, 
with the single (verses of the text), ' Hearken, Raka ! ' 
(MB. II, 6, 2-5). 

3. Walking eastward (he should), looking upwards, 
(offer a Bali) to the hosts of divine beings, with (the 
formula), ' Be a giver of wealth ' (ibid. 6) ; 

4. (Walking ?) towards the side, (he should offer 
a Bali) to the hosts of other beings, looking down- 

5. Returning (to the fire) without looking back, he 
should, together with the persons belonging to his 

43. See above, III, 8, 9 seq. 

8, 1. See above, III, 7 ; 9. Comp. Kh£dira-Gr*hya III, 2, 
8 seq. 

4. The commentary says: Tiryaft tirastinam yatha' bhavati 
tathi, iti kriySvlreshanam etat. athava' . . . tiryan tirajviinaA san. 
ArvSfi ought to be corrected to aviri (comp. Khidira-GnTiya III, 

2. 13)- 

5. The commentary explains upetaiA simply by samfpam 

Digitized by 


iv PRAPArtfAKA, 8 kXndika, 14. 125 

family, as far as they have been initiated (by the 
Upanayana), eat the fried grains. 

6. (This ceremony) procures happiness. 

7. (With the two formulas), ' Obeying the will ' 
and '6ankha' (MB. II, 6, 7. 8), he should sacrifice 
two oblations of rice and of barley separately, 

8. With reference to a person whose favour he 
wishes to gain. 

9. This is done daily. 

10. With the Ekaksharya verse (MB. II, 6, 9) 
two rites (are performed) which are connected with 
the observance (of fasting) for a fortnight 

1 1. One who is desirous of long life, should sacri- 
fice (with that verse), in the night of the full moon, 
one hundred pegs of Khadira wood ; 

12. Of iron, if he desires that (his enemies) may 
be killed. 

13. Now another ceremony (performed with the 
same verse). 

14. Having gone out of the village in an easterly 
or in a northerly direction, he should at a place where 
four roads meet, or on a mountain, set an elevated 
surface, consisting of the dung of beasts of the forest, 
on fire, should sweep the coals away, and should 
make an oblation of butter (on that surface) with his 
mouth, repeating that Mantra in his mind. 

7 seq. KMdira-Gr&ya IV, 2, 24 seq. 

7. I.e. be should sacrifice one oblation of rice, and one of 

8. Literally, to a person, &c. The meaning is, he should pro- 
nounce the name of that person. The Sutra is repeated from IV, 
5, 20 ; thus its expressions do not exactly fit the connection in 
which it stands here. 

10 seq. Khadira-Grchya IV, 3, 1 seq. 

Digitized by 



15. If (that oblation of butter) catches fire, twelve 
villages (will be his). 

16. If smoke rises, at least three. 

1 7. They call this ceremony one which is not in 

18. One who desires that his means of livelihood 
may not be exhausted, should sacrifice green cow- 
dung in the evening and in the morning. 

19. Of articles which he has bought, he should, 
after having fasted three (days and) nights, make an 
oblation with the formula, ' Here this Visvakarman ' 
(MB. II, 6, 10). 

20. Of a garment he should offer some threads 
(with that formula), 

2i. Of a cow some hairs (of its tail) ; 

22. In the same way (he should offer some part) 
of other articles which he has bought. 

23. The sacrifice of a full oblation (with the verse, 
' A full oblation I sacrifice,' MB. II, 6, 11) should be 
performed on the sacrificial day (i.e. on the first day 
of the fortnight), 

24. And (on such a day let him sacrifice) with (the 
formula), ' Indramavadat (?) ' (MB. II, 6, 12). 

25. One who is desirous of glory, (should offer) 
the first (oblation); one who is desirous of com- 
panions, the second. 

18. Khadira-Gnhya IV, 3, 18. On haritagomay&n the com- 
mentary has the following note: yaih khalu gomayai^ samkule 
pradere haritani in'nini prarastany utpadyante tin kila gomayan 
haritagomayan &£akshate. te khalv Srdra ihabhipreyante. katham 
£#ayate. teshv eva tatprasiddheA. 

19. Kh£dira-Gr»hya IV, 3, 7. 

23 seq. Khidira-Gnhya IV, 3, 8 seq. The Pratika quoted in 
Sutra 24 is corrupt. 

Digitized by 


IV PRAPArffAKA, 9 kAm>IkA, 9. 1 27 

KA^dikA 9. 

1. One who desires to become a ruler among men 
should fast through a period of eight nights. 

2. Then he should provide a Sruva spoon, a cup 
(for water), and fuel, of Udumbara wood, 

3. Should go out of the village in an easterly or 
in a northerly direction, should put wood on the fire 
at a place where four roads meet, 

4. And should sacrifice Afya, turning his face 
towards the sun, with (the formulas), ' Food indeed 
is the only thing that is pervaded by the metres,' 
and, ' Bliss indeed ' (MB. II, 6, 13. 14) ; 

5. A third (oblation) in the village with (the 
formula), ' The food's essence is ghee ' (ibid. 1 5). 

6. One who is desirous of cattle, (should offer this 
oblation) in a cow-stable. 

7. If (the cow-stable) is damaged by fire (?), (he 
should offer) a monk's robe. 

8. On a dangerous road let him make knots in 
the skirts of the garments (of himself and of his 

9. Approaching those (of the travellers) who wear 
garments (with skirts). 

9, 1 seq. Khadira-Gnhya IV, 3, 10 seq. 

7. Perhaps we ought to follow the commentary and to translate, 
' When (the cow-stable) becomes heated (by the fire on which he is 
going to sacrifice),' &c. (' gosh/>5e»gnim upasamadhayaiva homo 
na kartavya^, kin tv agnim upasamadhayapi tavat pratfkshawfyam 
yavad gosh/ham upatapyamanam bhavati '). I have translated 
Atvaram according to the ordinary meaning of the word ; in the 
commentary it is taken as equivalent to lauha£ur»am (copper 

Digitized by 


128 g/uhya-sOtra of gobhila, 

io. (Let him do so with the three formulas, MB. 
II, 6, 13-15) with the word Sviha at the end of each. 

1 1. This will bring a prosperous journey (to him- 
self) and to his companions. [Or : (He should do 
the same with the garments) of his companions. 
This will bring a prosperous journey.] 

12. One who desires to gain a thousand cart-loads 
(of gold), should sacrifice one thousand oblations of 
flour of fried grains. 

1 3. One who is desirous of cattle, should sacrifice 
one thousand oblations of the excrements of a male 
and a female calf ; 

14. Of a male and a female sheep, if he is desirous 
of flocks. 

1 5. One who desires that his means of livelihood 
may not be exhausted, should sacrifice in the evening 
and in the morning the fallings-off of rice-grains, with 
(the formulas), * To Hunger Svahi ! ' 'To Hunger 
and Thirst Sviha! ' (MB. II, 6, 16. 17). 

16. If somebody has been bitten by a venomous 
animal, he should murmur (the verse), ' Do not fear, 
thou wilt not die' (MB. II, 6, 18), and should be- 
sprinkle him with water. 

1 7. With (the formula), ' Strong one ! Protect ' 
(MB. II, 6, 19), a Snataka, when lying down (to 
sleep), should lay down his bamboo staff near (his 

18. This will bring him luck. 

19. (The verses), 'Thy worm is killed by Atri ' 
(MB. II, 7, 1-4), he should murmur, besprinkling a 
place where he has a worm with water. 

15. KhSdira-Grihya IV, 3, 6. 

16 seq. Kh&dira-Gr/hya IV, 4, 1 seq. 

Digitized by 



20. If he intends to do this for cattle, he should 
fetch in the afternoon an earth-clod taken out of a 
furrow, and should put it down in the open air. 

21. In the morning he should strew the dust of it 
round (the place attacked by worms), and should 
murmur (the same texts). 

KAjvdikA 10. 

1. To the north of the place (in which the Arghya 
reception will be offered to a guest), they should 
bind a cow (to a post or the like), and should 
(reverentially) approach it with (the verse), ' Arha«a 
putra vasa' (MB. II, 8, i). 

2. (The guest to whom the Arghya reception is 
going to be offered) should come forward murmuring, 
' Here I tread on this Padya Vira^ - for the sake of 
the enjoyment of food ' (ibid. 2). 

3. (He should do so) where they are going to 
perform the Arghya ceremony for him, 

4. Or when they perform it. 

5. Let them announce three times (to the guest) 
separately (each of the following things which are 

10, 1 seq. The Arghya reception; Khadira-Gnhya IV, 4, 
5 seq. ; Gnhya-sawgraha II, 62-65. The first words of the Mantra 
quoted in Sutra 1 are corrupt. The Mantra is evidently an adap- 
tation of the well-known verse addressed to the Agrahiyani 
(Gobhila III, 9, 9 ; Mantra-Brahmana II, 2, 1), or to the Ash/aka 
(Paraskara III, 3, 5, 8): prathami ha vyuvasa, &c. The first 
word arhawi ('duly'), containing an allusion to the occasion of 
the Arghya ceremony, to which this Mantra is adapted, seems to 
be quite right ; the third word may be, as Dr. Knauer conjectures, 
uvasa (' she has dwelt,' or perhaps rather 'she has shone '). For 
the second word I am not able to suggest a correction. 

2. Regarding Padya Vii%, comp. Sahkhayana III, 7, 5 note ; 
Paraskara I, 3, 1 2. 

[30] K 

Digitized by 



brought to him) : a bed (of grass to sit down on), 
water for washing the feet, the Argha water, water 
for sipping, and the Madhuparka (i.e. a mixture of 
ghee, curds, and honey). 

6. Let him spread out the bed (of grass, so that 
the points of the grass are) turned to the north, with 
(the verse), 'The herbs which' (MB. II, 8, 3), and 
let him sit down thereon ; 

7. If there are two (beds of grass), with the two 
(verses) separately (MB. II, 8, 3. 4) ; 

8. On the second (he treads) with the feet. 

9. Let him look at the water (with which he is to 
wash his feet), with (the formula), ' From which side 
I see the goddesses ' (ibid. 5). 

10. Let him wash his left foot with (the formula), 
'The left foot I wash;' let him wash his right foot 
with (the formula), 'The right foot I wash' (MB. 

11. Both with the rest (of the Mantra, i.e. with 
the formula), ' First the one, then the other ' (II, 8, 8). 

12. Let him accept the Arghya water with (the 
formula), ' Thou. art the queen of food ' (ibid. 9). 

13. The water (offered to him) for sipping he 
should sip with (the formula), ' Glory art thou ' 
(ibid. 10). 

14. The Madhuparka he should accept with (the 
formula), 'The glory's glory art thou' (ibid. 11). 

15. Let him drink (of it) three times with (the 

8. See Paraskara I, 3, 9. 

11. The commentary says, •?eshe«&va.rish/enodakena. Comp., 
however, Kh&dira-Grihya IV, 4, 11. 

15. I have adopted the reading jrlbhaksho, which is given in 
the Mantra-Brahma»a, and have followed the opinion of the corn- 

Digitized by 


4 PRAPArffAKA, IO KAJVDIKA, 23. 131 

formula which he repeats thrice), ' The glory's food 
art thou ; the might's food art thou ; the bliss's food 
art thou ; bestow bliss on me ' (MB. II, 8, 12) ; 

16. Silently a fourth time. 

1 7. Having drunk more of it, he should give the 
remainder to a Brahmaaa. 

18. After he has sipped water, the barber should 
thrice say to him, ' A cow ! ' 

19. He should reply, ' Let loose the cow from the 
fetter of Varu»a ; bind (with it) him who hates me. 
Kill him and (the enemy) of N. N., (the enemies) of 
both (myself and N. N.). Deliver the cow ; let it 
eat grass, let it drink water' (MB. II, 8, 13). 

20. (And after the cow has been set at liberty), 
let him address it with (the verse), ' The mother of 
the Rudras' (MB. II, 8, 14). 

21. Thus if it is no sacrifice (at which the Arghya 
reception is offered). 

22. (He should say), ' Make it (ready),' if it is a 

23. There are six persons to whom the Arghya 
reception is due, (namely), 

mentator that the whole Mantra, and not its single parts, should 
be repeated each time that he drinks of the Madhuparka. In the 
Kh&dira-Gnhya the text of the Mantra differs, and the rite is 
described differently (IV, 4, 15). 

16, 17. Perhaps these two Sutras should be rather understood 
as forming one Sutra, and should be translated as I have done in 
Khadira-Gnhya IV, 4, 16. 

19. Iti after abhidhehi ought to be omitted. Comp. the 
lengthy discussions on this word, pp. 766 seq. of the edition of 
Gobhila in the Bibliotheca Indica. ' N. N.' is the host who offers 
the Arghya; comp. KhSdira-Gr/bya IV, 4, 18. 

21, 22. In the case of a sacrifice the cow is killed; comp. 
.Safikhayana II, 15, 2. 3 note; Paraskara I, 3, 30. 

K 2 

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132 g/whya-sCtra of gobhila. 

24. A teacher, an officiating priest, a Snitaka, a 
king, the father-in-law, a friend coming as a guest. 

25. They should offer the Arghya reception (to 
such persons not more than) once a year. 

26. But repeatedly in the case of a sacrifice and 
of a wedding. But repeatedly in the case of a sacri- 
fice and of a wedding. 

End of the Fourth Prap4/^aka. 

End of the Gobhila-Grzhya-sutra. 

24. Vivahya is explained in the commentary by vivahayi- 
tavyo^amata. Comp., however, Stnkhayana II, 15, 1 note. 

25, 26. Comp. .SSnkhayana II, 15, 10 and the note. 

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AFTER the excellent remarks of Professor Biihler on the 
position of Hirawyakejin among the Sutra authors of the 
Black Ya.goir-veda (Sacred Books, vol. ii, p. xxiii seq.), I can 
here content myself with shortly indicating the materials 
on which my translation of this Grzhya-sutra, which was 
unpublished when I began to translate it, is based. For 
the first half of the work I could avail myself, in the first 
place, of the text, together with the commentary of Matr*- 
datta, which the late Dr. Schoenberg of Vienna had prepared 
for publication, and which was based on a number of MSS. 
collated by him. It is my melancholy duty gratefully to 
acknowledge here the kindness with which that prematurely 
deceased young scholar has placed at my disposal the 
materials he had collected, and the results of his labour 
which he continued till the last days of his life. For the 
second half of the Sutra his death deprived me of this 
important assistance ; here then Professors Kielhorn of 
Gottingen and Biihler of Vienna have been kind enough 
to enable me to finish the task of this translation, by lending 
me two MSS. of the text and two MSS. of Matr/datta's 
commentary which they possess. 

Finally, Dr. J. Kirste of Vienna very kindly sent me the 
proof-sheets of his valuable edition before it was published. 
With the aid of these my translation has been revised. 

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G/?/HYA-St>TRA of 

Pra-sna I, Pafala 1, Section 1. 

i. We shall explain the Upanayana (i.e. the initia- 
tion of the student). 

2. Let him initiate a Brahma«a at the age of seven 

3. A Ra^anya, of eleven, a Vawya, of twelve. 

4. A Brahmawa in the spring, a Ra^anya in the 
summer, a Vawya in the autumn. 

5. In the time of the increasing moon, under an 
auspicious constellation, preferably (under a con- 
stellation) the name of which is masculine, 

6. He should serve food to an even number of 
Brahmawas and should cause them to say, ' An aus- 
picious day ! Hail ! Good luck ! ' — 

7. (Then he) should have the boy satiated, should 

1, 2. The statement commonly given in the Grihya-sutras and 
Dharma-sutras is, that the initiation of a Brahma*a shall take place 
in his eighth year, though there are differences of opinion whether 
in the eighth year after conception, or after birth (Ajvalayana- 
Grs'hya 1, 19, 1. 2). Matr/'datta states that the rule given here in 
the Gnbya-sfltra refers to the seventh year after birth. In the 
Dharma-sutra (comp. Apastamba I, 1, 18) it is stated that the ini- 
tiation of a Brahmana shall take place in the eighth year after his 
conception. Comp. the remarks of Professor Btthler, S. B. £., 
vol. ii, p. xxiii. 

4. Apastamba I, 1, 18. 

6. Comp. Apastamba I, 13, 8 with BUhler's note. 

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have his hair shaven, and after (the boy) has bathed 
and has been decked with ornaments — 

8. He should dress him in a (new) garment which 
has not yet been washed. 

9. In a place inclined towards the east, (or) in- 
clined towards the north, (or) inclined towards north- 
east, or in an even (place), he raises (the surface on 
which he intends to sacrifice), sprinkles it with water, 

10. Kindles fire by attrition, or fetches common 
(worldly) fire, puts the fire down, and puts wood on 
the fire. 

11. He strews eastward-pointed Darbha grass 
round the fire ; 

1 2. Or (the grass which is strewn) to the west and 
to the east (of the fire), may be northward-pointed. 

13. He (arranges the Darbha blades so as to) lay 
the southern (blades) uppermost, the northern ones 
below, if their points are turned (partly) towards the 
east and (partly) towards the north. 

14. Having strewn Darbha grass, to the south of 
the fire, in the place destined for the Brahman, 

1 5. Having with the two (verses), ' I take (the 
fire) to myself/ and, ' The fire which (has entered) ' — 
taken possession of the fire, 

16. And having, to the north of the fire, spread 
out Darbha grass, he prepares the (following) objects, 

9. Paraskara I, 1, 2 ; 4, 3 ; Ajvalayana I, 3, 1, &c. 
11. Amlayana 1.1.; .Sankhayana I, 8, 1, &c. 

13. Gobhila I, 7, 14. 

14. Gobhila I, 6, 13 ; Paraskara I, 1, 2, &c. 

15. Taittiriya Samhita V, 9,^1.- Comp. also the parallel pas- 
sages, .Satapatha Brahmawa VII, 3, 2, 17 ; Katyayana-Sraut. XVII, 


16. Gobhila I, 7, 1. 

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according as they are required (for the ceremony 
which he is going to perform) : 

1 7. A stone, a (new) garment which has not yet 
been washed, a skin (of an antelope, or a spotted 
deer, &c), a threefold-twisted girdle of Mu#£a grass 
if he is a Brahma»a (who shall be initiated), a bow- 
string for a Ra^anya, a woollen thread for a Vawya, 
a staff of Bilva or of Palisa wood for a Brahma»a, 
of Nyagrodha wood for a R&fanya, of Udumbara 
wood for a Vai^ya. 

18. He binds together the fuel, twenty-one pieces 
of wood, or as many as there are oblations to be 

1 9. Together with that fuel he ties up the (three) 
branches of wood which are to be laid round the fire, 
(which should have the shape of) pegs. 

20. (He gets ready, besides, the spoon called) 
Darvt, a bunch of grass, the A^ya pot, the pot for 
the Pra»lta water, and whatever (else) is required ; 

21. All (those objects) together, or (one after 
the other) as it happens. 

22< At that time the Brahman suspends the sacri- 
ficial cord over his left shoulder, sips water, passes 
by the fire, on its west side, to the south side, throws 
away a grass blade from the Brahman's seat, 
touches water, and sits down with his face turned 
towards the fire. 

17. .Sankh&yana II, t, 15 seqq., &c. As to the stone, comp. 
below, 1, 1, 4, 13. 

18. Comp. AjvaULyana 1, 10, 3, and the passages quoted in the 
note (vol. xxix, p. 173). 

20. Regarding the bunch of grass, see below, I, 2, 6, 9. 
22. Gobhila I, 6, 14 seq. Comp. the passages quoted in the 

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23. He takes as 'purifiers' two straight Darbha 
blades with unbroken points of one span's length, 
cuts them off with something else than his nail, wipes 
them with water, pours water into a vessel over 
which he has laid the purifiers, fills (that vessel) up 
to near the brim, purifies (the water) three times 
with the two Darbha strainers, holding their points 
to the north, places (the water) on Darbha grass on 
the north side of the fire, and covers it with Darbha 

24. Having consecrated the Proksha«l water by 
means of the purifiers as before, having placed the 
vessels upright, and having untied the fuel, he 
sprinkles (the sacrificial vessels) three times with the 
whole (Proksha#l water). 

25. Having warmed the Darvl spoon (over the 
fire), having wiped it, and warmed it again, he puts 
it down. 

26. Having besprinkled (with water) the Darbha 
grass with which the fuel was tied together, he 
throws it into the fire. 

27. He melts the A^ya, pours the A^ya into the 
A^ya pot over which he has laid the purifiers, takes 
some coals (from the fire) towards the north, puts 
(the Agya) on these (coals), throws light (on the 

23. Gobhila 1, 7, 21 seq. ; Sankhayana I, 8, 14 seq. The water 
mentioned in this Sutra is the Prawita water. 

24. Regarding the Proksha»f water, see SShkhayana I, 8, 25 
note. The word which I have translated by ' vessels ' is bilavanti, 
which literally means ' the things which have brims.' Probably this 
expression here has some technical connotation unknown to me. 
Matr/datta simply says, bilavanti patrani. — ' As before ' means, • as 
stated with regard to the Pranfta water.' 

25. Piraskara 1, 1,3. 

27. Sankhayana I, 8, 18 seq. 

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A^ya by means of burning Darbha blades), throws 
two young Darbha shoots into it, moves a fire-brand 
round it three times, takes it (from the coals) towards 
the north, pushes the coals back (into the fire), puri- 
fies the A^ya three times with the two purifiers, 
holding their points towards the north, (drawing 
them through the A^ya from west to east and) 
taking them back (to the west each time), throws 
the two purifiers into the fire, 

Patala 1, Section 2. 

i. And lays the (three) pegs round (the fire). 

2. On the west side (of the fire) he places the 
middle (peg), with its broad end to the north, 

3. On the south side (of the fire the second peg), so 
that it touches the middle one, with its broad end to 
the east, 

4. On the north side (of the fire the third peg), 
so that it touches the middle one, with its broad end 
to the east. 

5. To the west of the fire (the teacher who is 
going to initiate the student), sits down with his face 
turned towards the east. 

6. To the south (of the teacher) the boy, wearing 
the sacrificial cord over his left shoulder, having 
sipped water, sits down and touches (the teacher). 

7. Then (the teacher) sprinkles water round the 
fire (in the following way) : 

8. On the south side (of the fire he sprinkles 

2, 1. The 'pegs' are the pieces of wood mentioned above, i, 19. 
7-10. Gobhila I, 3, 1 seq. The vocative Sarasvate instead of 
Saras vati is given by the MSS. also in the Kh&dira-Gr<hya 1, 2, 19. 

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water) from west to east with (the words), ' Aditi ! 
Give thy consent ! ' — 

9. On the west side, from south to north, with 
(the words), ' Anumati ! Give thy consent ! ' On 
the north side, from west to east, with (the words), 
' Sarasvatl ! Give thy consent ! ' — 

10. On all sides, so as to keep his right side 
turned towards (the fire), with (the Mantra), * God 
SavitW ! Give thy impulse ! ' (Taitt. Sa*»h. I, 7, 7, 1). 

11. Having (thus) sprinkled (water) round (the 
fire), and having anointed the fuel (with A^ya), he 
puts it on (the fire) with (the Mantra), ' This fuel is 
thy self, G&tavedasJ Thereby thou shalt be in- 
flamed and shalt grow. Inflame us and make us 
grow; through offspring, cattle, holy lustre, and 
through the enjoyment of food make us increase. 
Svahi ! ' 

12. He then sacrifices with the (spoon called) 
Darvi (the following oblations) : 

13. Approaching the Darvi (to the fire) by the 
northerly junction of the pegs (laid round the fire), 
and fixing his mind on (the formula), ' To Pra/apati, 
to Manu sviha !' (without pronouncing that Mantra), 
he sacrifices a straight, long, uninterrupted (stream 
of A^ya), directed towards the south-east. 

14. Approaching the Darvi (to the fire) by the 
southern junction of the pegs (laid round the fire), 

11. As to the Mantra, compare .Sankhayana II, 10, 4, &c. 

13, 14. The two oblations described in these Sutras are the 
so-called Agharas; see Sutra 15, and Paraskara I, 5, 3; Arva- 
layana 1, 10, 13. Regarding the northern and the southern junc- 
tion of the Paridhi woods, see above, Sutra3 3 and 4. According 
to Matr/datta, the words Mong, uninterrupted' (Sutra 13) are to be 
supplied also in Sutra 14. 

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(he sacrifices) a straight (stream of A^ya), directed 
towards the north-east, with (the Mantra which he 
pronounces), 'To Indra svaha!' 

15. Having (thus) poured out the two Aghara 
oblations, he sacrifices the two A^yabhagas, 

16. With (the words), ' To Agni sviha ! ' over the 
easterly part of the northerly part (of the fire) ; with 
(the words), ' To Soma svaha ! ' over the easterly 
part of the southerly part (of the fire). 

17. Between them he sacrifices the other (obla- 

18. (He makes four oblations with the following 
Mantras) : ' Thou whom we have set to work, 6&ta- 
vedas ! carry forward (our offerings). Agni ! Per- 
ceive this work (i. e. the sacrifice), as it is performed 
(by us). Thou art a healer, a creator of medicine. 
Through thee may we obtain cows, horses, and 
men. Svihi ! 

' Thou who liest down athwart, thinking, " It is I 
who keep (all things) asunder : " to thee who art 
propitious (to me), I sacrifice this stream of ghee in 
the fire. Sviha ! 

' To the propitious goddess svaha ! 

' To the accomplishing goddess svaha ! ' 

16. Ajvalayana I, 10, 13; .SankhSyana I, 9, 7, &c. As to the 
expressions uttarSrdhapflrvardhe and dakshiȣrdhapur- 
vardhe, comp. Gobhila I, 8, 14 and the note. 

17. I.e. between the places at which the two 'A^ya portions' are 
offered. Comp. .S&nkh&yana I, 9, 8. 

18. .Satapatha Brahmawa XIV, 9, 3, 3 (=Br»"had Aranyaka VI, 
3, 1 ; S. B. E., vol. xv, p. 210); Mantra-BrShma«a I, 5, 6. 

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144 gk/hya-sOtra of hirawyakesin. 

Patala 1, Section 3. 

i. This is the rite for all Darvi-sacrifices. 

2. At the end of the Mantras constantly the word 
Svaha (is pronounced). 

3. (Oblations) for which no Mantras are prescribed 
(are made merely with the words), ' To such and 
such (a deity) svaha!' — according to the deity (to 
whom the oblation is made). 

4. He sacrifices with the VyahWtis, ' BhM ! 
Bhuva^ ! Suva^ ! ' — with the single (three Vyahrztis) 
and with (the three) together. 

5. (The Mantras for the two chief oblations are), 
the (verse), ' Life-giving, Agni ! ' (Taitt. Brahma»a 
I, 2, 1, 11), (and), 

' Life-giving, O god, choosing long life, thou 
whose face is full of ghee, whose back is full of ghee, 
Agni, drinking ghee, the noble ambrosia that comes 
from the cow, lead this (boy) to old age, as a father 
(leads) his son. Svaha ! ' 

6. (Then follow oblations with the verses), 
'This, O Varu»a' (Taitt. II, 1, 11, 6), 

' For this I entreat thee ' (Taitt. Sa#*h., loc. cit.), 

3, 2. Gobhila I, 9, 25. 

3. .SankMyana I, 9, 18. 

4. Sahkhayana I, 12, 12. 13; Gobhila I, 9, 27. As to suvaA, 
the spelling of the Taittiriyas for sva^, see Indische Studien, 
XIII, 105. 

5. 6. In the second Mantra we should read vrt'nano instead of 
grj'wano; comp. Atharva-veda II, 13, 1. As to the Mantras that 
follow, comp. Paraskara I, 2, 8 ; Taittirtya Arawyaka IV, 20, 3. — 
Regarding the Mantra tvam Agne ayasi (sic), comp. Taitt. Bran. 
II, 4, 1, 9; A*valayana-5rauta-sutra I, n, 13; Katyayana-.Srauta- 
sutra XXV, 1, 11 ; Indische Studien, XV, 125. 

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' Thou, Agni' (Taitt. Samh. II, 5, 12, 3), 
' Thus thou, Agni ' (Taitt Samh., loc. cit), 
' Thou, Agni, art quick. Being quick, appointed 
(by us) in our mind (as our messenger), thou who 
art quick, carriest the offering (to the gods). O quick 
one, bestow medicine on us ! Svaha ! ' — (and finally) 
the (verse), 

' Pra^apati !' (Taitt. Samh. I, 8, 14, 2). 

7. (With the verse), ' What I have done too much 
in this sacrifice, or what I have done here deficiently, 
all that may Agni Svish/akrz't, he who knows it, 
make well sacrificed and well offered for me. To 
Agni Svish/ak/-?t, the offerer of well-offered (sacri- 
fices), the offerer of everything, to him who makes 
us succeed in our offerings and in our wishes, svaha ! ' 
— he offers (the Svish/akrz't oblation) over the 
easterly part of the northerly part (of the fire), 
separated from the other oblations. 

8. Here some add as subordinate oblations, before 
the Svish/akm, the Gaya, Abhyatana, and Rash/ra- 
hhrit (oblations). 

9. The Gaya (oblations) he sacrifices with (the 
thirteen Mantras), ' Thought, svaha ! Thinking, 
svaha ! ' — or, • To thought svaha ! To thinking 
svaha!' (&c.) ; 

10. The Abhyatana (oblations) with (the eighteen 
Mantras), ' Agni is the lord of beings ; may he pro- 
tect me ' (&c). 

11. (The words), 'In this power of holiness, in 

7. AtvalSyana-Gr;T)yaI,io,23; 5atapathaBrahma«aXIV,9,4,24. 

8. Comp. the next Sutras and Paraskara I, 5, 7-10. 

9. Taittirfya Sawhita III, 4, 4. 

10. Taittirtya Sarahita III, 4, 5. 

11. See the end of the section quoted in the last note. 

[SO] L 

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this worldly power (&c)' are added to (each section 
of) the Abhyatana formulas. 

12. With (the last of the Abhyatana formulas), 
' Fathers ! Grandfathers ! ' he sacrifices or performs 
worship, wearing the sacrificial cord over his right 

13. The Rash/rabhm (oblations he sacrifices) 
with (the twelve Mantras), ' The champion of truth, 
he whose law is truth.' After having quickly re- 
peated (each) section, he sacrifices the first oblation 
with (the words), ' To him svaha ! ' the second (obla- 
tion) with (the words), ' To them svaha ! ' 

14. Having placed a stone near the northerly 
junction of the pegs (which are laid round the fire), 
(the teacher) — 

PArALA 1, Section 4. 

1. Makes the boy tread on (that stone) with his 
right foot, with (the verse), ' Tread on this stone ; 
like a stone be firm. Destroy those who seek to 
do thee harm ; overcome thy enemies.' 

1 2. ' He performs worship with that Mantra, wearing the sacri- 
ficial cord over his right shoulder, to the Manes. According to 
others, he worships Agni. But this would stand in contradiction 
to the words (of the Mantra).' Matrt'datta. 

13. Taittirfya Sawhita III, 4, 7. 'To him' (tasmai) is mascu- 
line, ' to them' (tibhyaA) feminine. The purport of these words 
will be explained best by a translation of the first section of the 
Rash/rabhrit formulas : ' The champion of truth, he whose law is 
truth, Agni is the Gandharva. His Apsaras are the herbs ; " sap " is 
their name. May he protect this power of holiness and this worldly 
power. May they protect this power of holiness and this worldly 
power. To him svaha 1 To them svaha 1 ' 

14. See above, section 2, § 13. 

4, 1. Comp. Sahkhayana 1, 13, 12 ; Paraskara I, 7, 1. 

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2. After (the boy) has taken off his old (garment), 
(the teacher) makes him put on a (new) garment 
that has not yet been washed, with (the verses), 

' The goddesses who spun, who wove, who spread 
out, and who drew out the skirts on both sides, may 
those goddesses clothe thee with long life. Blessed 
with life put on this garment. 

' Dress him ; through (this) garment make him 
reach a hundred (years) of age ; extend his life. 
BWhaspati has given this garment to king Soma 
that he may put it on. 

' Mayst thou live to old age ; put on the garment ! 
Be a protector of the human tribes against impreca- 
tion. Live a hundred years, full of vigour ; clothe 
thyself in the increase of wealth.' 

3. Having (thus) made (the boy) put on (the 
new garment, the teacher) recites over him (the 

' Thou hast put on this garment for the sake of 
welfare ; thou hast become a protector of thy friends 
against imprecation. Live a hundred long years ; a 
noble man, blessed with life, mayst thou distribute 

4. He then winds the girdle three times from 
left to right round (the boy, so that it covers) his 
navel. (He does so only) twice, according to some 
(teachers). (It is done) with (the verse), 

2. Paraskara I, 4, 13. 12; Atharva-veda II, 13, 2. 3 (XIX, 24). 
Instead of partd&tava u, we ought to read, as the Atharva-veda 
has, paridhatava u. 

3. Atharva-veda II, 13, 3; XIX, 24, 6. 

4. .Sahkhayana II, 2, 1; Paraskara II, 2, 8. The text of the 
Mantra as given by Hirawyakefin is very corrupt, but the corrup- 
tions may be as old as the Hirawyakcri-sutra itself, or even older. 

L 2 

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' Here she has come to us who drives away sin, 
purifying our guard and our protection, bringing us 
strength by (the power of) inhalation and exhalation, 
the sister of the gods, this blessed girdle.' 

5. On the north side of the navel he makes a 
threefold knot (in the girdle) and draws that to the 
south side of the navel. 

6. He then arranges for him the skin (of an ante- 
lope, &c, see Sutra 7) as an outer garment, with 
(the Mantras), 

' The firm, strong eye of Mitra, glorious splendour, 
powerful and flaming, a chaste, mobile vesture, this 
skin put on, a valiant (man), N. N. ! 

' May Aditi tuck up thy garment, that thou mayst 
study the Veda, for the sake of insight and belief 
and of not forgetting what thou hast learnt, for the 
sake of holiness and of holy lustre ! ' 

7. The skin of a black antelope (is worn) by a 
Brahmawa, the skin of a spotted deer by a Ra^anya, 
the skin of a he-goat by a Vauya. 

8. He then gives him in charge (to the gods), a 
Brahma#a with (the verse), ' We give this (boy) in 
charge, O Indra, to Brahman, for the sake of great 
learning. May he (Brahman ?) lead him to old age, 
and may he (the boy) long watch over learning.' 

6. I propose to correct ^arishnu into £arish«u. See .Sankha- 
yana II, 1, 30. 

7. .Sankhayana II, 1, 2. 4. 5, &c, 

8. In the first hemistich I propose to correct pari dadhmasi 
into pari dadmasi. The verse seems to be an adaptation of a 
Mantra which contained a form of the verb pari-dha (comp. 
Atharva-veda XIX, 94, 2) ; thus the reading pari . . . dadhmasi 
found in the MSS. may be easily accounted for. The second 
hemistich is very corrupt, but the Atharva-veda (loc. cit. : yathainaw 
^arase nayat) shows at least the general sense. 

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I PRASNA, 1 PArALA, 4 SECTION, 1 3. 1 49 

A RAfanya (he gives in charge to the gods) with 
(the verse), • We give this boy in charge, O Indra, to 
Brahman, for the sake of great royalty. May he 
lead him to old age, and may he long watch over 

A VaLfya (he gives in charge) with (the verse), 
' We give this boy in charge, O Indra, to Brahman, 
for the sake of great wealth. May he lead him to 
old age, and may he long watch over wealth.' 

9. (The teacher) makes him sit down to the west 
of the fire, facing the north, and makes him eat the 
remnants of the sacrificial food, with these (Mantras), 
' On thee may wisdom, on thee may offspring ' (Taitt. 
Arawyaka, Andhra redaction, X, 44), — altering (the 
text of the Mantras). 

10. Some make (the student) eat ' sprinkled 

11. (The teacher) looks at (the student) while he 
is eating, with the two verses, • At every pursuit we 
invoke strong (Indra)' (Taitt. Sawh. IV, 1, 2, 1), 
(and), ' Him, Agni, lead to long life and splendour' 
(Taitt. Sa/#h. II, 3, 10, 3). 

12. Some make (the boy) eat (that food with 
these two verses). 

1 3. After (the boy) has sipped water, (the teacher) 
causes him to touch (water) and recites over him (the 
verse), ' A hundred autumns are before us, O gods, 
before ye have made our bodies decay, before (our) 

9. The text of those Mantras runs thus, ' On me may wisdom, 
&c.' ; he alters them so as to say, ' On thee,' &c. 

10. Regarding the term ' sprinkled butter,' comp. AjvalSyana- 
Gr/'hya IV, 1, 18. 19. 

13. Rig-veda I, 89. 9. 

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150 g/sjhya-sOtra of hirajvyakesin. 

sons have become fathers ; do not destroy us before 
we have reached (our due) age.' 

End of the First Pa/ala. 

Prasna I, Patala 2, Section 5. 

1. ' To him who comes (to us), we have come. 
Drive ye away death ! May we walk with him 
safely ; may he walk here in bliss ; (may he) walk in 
bliss until (he returns) to his house ' — this (verse the 
teacher repeats) while (the boy) walks round the fire 
so as to keep his right side turned towards it. 

2. (The teacher) then causes him to say, ' I have 
come hither to be a student. Initiate me ! I will 
be a student, impelled by the god Savitr?.' 

3. (The teacher then) asks him : 

4. ' What is thy name ? ' 

5. He says, ' N. N ! ' — what his name is. 

6. (The teacher says), ' Happily, god Savitrz', may 
I attain the goal with this N. N.' — here he pro- 
nounces (the student's) two names. 

7. With (the verse), ' For bliss may the goddesses 
afford us their protection ; may the waters afford 
drink to us. With bliss and happiness may they 
overflow us ' — both wipe themselves off. 

* ... . _ __ — , 

5, i. I read, pra su mrityum yuyotana; comp. Mantra-BrShmawa 
I, 6, 14 (Rig-veda 1, 136, 1, &c). As to the last P£da, comp. Rig- 
veda III, 53, 20. 

2 seq. Comp. Gobhila II, i o, 2 1 seq. ; Paraskara II, 2, 6 ; .S&nkhd- 
yana II, 2, 4, &c. 

5. Matrtdatta, ' As it is said below, " he pronounces his two 
names " (Sutra 6), the student should here also pronounce his two 
names, for instance, "lam Devadatta, Kirttika." ' 

6. ' His common (vySvahSrika) name and his Nakshatra name.' 

7. Rig-veda X, 9, 4. 

Digitized by 



8. Then (the teacher) touches with his right hand 
(the boy's) right shoulder, and with his left (hand) 
his left (shoulder), and draws (the boy's) right arm 
towards himself with the Vyahmis, the Savitri verse, 
and with (the formula), ' By the impulse of the god 
Savitrz, with the arms of the two Ajvins, with 
Pushan's hands I initiate thee, N. N. I' 

9. He then seizes with his right hand (the boy's) 
right hand together with the thumb, with (the words), 
' Agni has seized thy hand ; Soma has seized thy 
hand ; Savitri has seized thy hand ; Sarasvatl has 
seized thy hand ; Pushan has seized thy hand ; Brt- 
haspati has seized thy hand ; Mitra has seized thy 
hand ; Varu«a has seized thy hand ; Tvash/r* has 
seized thy hand ; Dhatr* has seized thy hand ; 
Vishwu has seized thy hand ; Pra^apati has seized 
thy hand.' 

10. ' May SavitW protect thee. Mitra art thou 
by rights ; Agni is thy teacher. 

* By the impulse of the god Savitrz become 
Brz'haspati's pupil. Eat water. Put on fuel. Do 
the service. Do not sleep in the day-time ' — thus 
(the teacher) instructs him. 

11. Then (the teacher) gradually moves his right 

8. The word which I have translated ' draws . . . towards himself ' 
is the same which is also used in the sense of ' he initiates him ' 
(upanayate). Possibly we should correct the text: dakshiwam 
bahum anv abhyatmam upanayate, 'he turns him towards himself 
from left to right (literally, following his right arm).' Comp. 
.Sankhayana II, 3, 2.— Regarding the Mantra, comp. Sankhayana 
II, 2, 12, &c. 

9. Sankhayana II, 2, 11; 3, 1, &c. 

10. .Sankhayana II, 3, 1 ; 4, 5. We ought to read apo«jana, 
instead of apo*sSnaA as* the MSS. have. 

11. .Sankhayana II, 4, 1, &c. 

Digitized by 


152 oj/hya-sCtra of hiranyakesin. 

hand down over (the boy's) right shoulder and 
touches the place of his heart with (the formulas), 
* Thy heart shall dwell in my heart ; my mind thou 
shalt follow with thy mind ; in my word thou shalt 
rejoice with all thy heart ; may Brzhaspati join thee 
to me ! 

' To me alone thou shalt adhere. In me thy 
thoughts shall dwell. Upon me thy veneration 
shall be bent. When I speak, thou shalt be silent' 

12. With (the words), 'Thou art the knot of all 
breath ; do not loosen thyself — (he touches) the 
place of his navel. 

13. After (the teacher) has recited over him (the 

' Bhu^ ! Bhuva^ ! Suva^ ! By offspring may I be- 
come rich in offspring ! By valiant sons, rich in valiant 
sons ! By splendour, rich in splendour ! By wealth, 
rich in wealth ! By wisdom, rich in wisdom ! By 
pupils, rich in holy lustre ! ' 

And (again the formulas), 

' Bhu^ ! I place thee in the Rikas, in Agni, on the 
earth, in voice, in the Brahman, N. N. ! 

' Bhuva^ ! I place thee in the Ya^us, in Vayu, 
in the air, in breath, in the Brahman, N. N. ! 

' Suva^! I place thee in the Samans, m Surya, 
in heaven, in the eye, in the Brahman, N. N. \ 

' May I be beloved (?) and dear to thee, N. N. ! 

13. The reading of the last Mantra is doubtful. Ish/atas 
should possibly be ish/as, but the genitive analasya, or, as some 
of the MSS. have, ana/asya(read, analasasya?), points rather to 
a genitive like i^Matas. If we write i-t^atas and analasasya, 
the translation would be : ' May I be dear to thee, who loves me, 
N. N. ! May I be dear to thee, who art zealous, N. N. ! ' Comp. 
.SaftkhSyana II, 3, 3. 

Digitized by 



May I be dear to thee, the fire (?), N. N. ! Let us 
dwell here ! Let us dwell in breath and life ! Dwell 
in breath and life, N. N. ! ' — 

14. He then seizes with his right hand (the boy's) 
right hand together with the thumb, with the five 
sections, ' Agni is long-lived.' 

1 5. ' May (Agni) bestow on thee long life every- 
where ' (Taitt. Sa*»h. I, 3, 14, 4) — 

Patala 2, Section 6. 

1. (This verse the teacher) murmurs in (the boy's) 
right ear ; 

2. (The verse), ' Life-giving, Agni ' (Taitt. Sawh. 
I, 3, 14, 4) in his left ear. 

3. Both times he adds (to the verses quoted in the 
last Sutras the formula), ' Stand fast in Agni and on 
the earth, in Vayu and in the air, in Surya and in 
heaven. The bliss in which Agni, Vayu, the sun, 
the moon, and the waters go their way, in that bliss 
go thy way, N. N. ! Thou hast become the pupil 
of breath, N.N.!' 

4. Approaching his mouth to (the boy's) mouth 
he murmurs, ' Intelligence may Indra give thee, 
intelligence the goddess Sarasvatt. Intelligence 
may the two Asvins, wreathed with lotus, bestow on 

5. He then gives (the boy) in charge (to the gods 
and demons, with the formulas), ' To Kashaka (?) I 

14. Comp. above, Stitra 9. 
6, 3. Ajval&yana I, 20, 8. 

4. Awalayana 1, 15, 2 ; 22, 26; Paraskara II, 4, 8. 

5. Comp. .Sankh&yana II, 3, 1 ; Paraskara II, 2, 21. The name 

Digitized by 


154 gk/hya-sOtra of hirajvyake^in. 

give thee in charge. To Antaka I give thee in charge. 
To Aghora (" the not frightful one " ) I give thee in 
charge. To Disease ... to Yama ... to Makha . . . 
to Va^ini (" the ruling goddess ") . . . to the earth to- 
gether with VaLsvanara ... to the waters ... to the 
herbs ... to the trees ... to Heaven and Earth ... to 
welfare ... to holy lustre ... to the Vi^ve devas . . . 
to all beings ... to all deities I give thee in charge.' 

6. He now teaches him the Savitri, if he has 
(already) been initiated before. 

7. If he has not been initiated (before, he teaches 
him the Savitri) after three days have elapsed. 

8. (He does so) immediately, says Pushkarasadi. 

9. Having placed to the west of the fire a bunch 
of grass with its poi ts directed towards the north, 
(the teacher) sits down thereon, facing the east, with 
(the formula), ' A giver of royal power art thou, a 
teacher's seat. May I not withdraw from thee.' 

10. The boy raises his joined hands towards the 
sun, embraces (the feet of) his teacher, sits down to 
the south (of the teacher), addresses (him), ' Recite, 
sir ! ' and then says, ' Recite the Savitri, sir ! ' 

1 1. Having recited over (the boy the verse), 'We 
call thee, the lord of the hosts' (Taitt. Samh. II, 3, 
14, 3), he then recites (the Savitri) to him, firstly 
Pada by Pada, then hemistich by hemistich, and 
then the whole verse (in the following way), 

in the first section of the Mantra is spelt KashakSya and Ka*a- 
kay a. Comp. Mantra-Brahmana I, 6, 22 : Krrrana, ida»i te pari- 
dadamy amum; Atharva-veda IV, 10, 7: Kar^anas tvabhirak- 

6. 'A repetition of the initiation takes place as a penance.' 

9-1 1. Comp. Sankhayana II, 5, &c. 

Digitized by 


I PRAtfNA, 2 PAFALA, 7 SECTION, 3. 1 55 

' Bhus ! Tat Savitur vare»yaw (That adorable 

splendour) — 
' Bhuvo ! Bhargo devasya dhlmahi (of the divine 

Savitr* may we obtain) — 
* Suvar ! Dhiyo yo naA pra£odayat (who should 

rouse our prayers). — 
' Bhur bhuvas ! Tat Savitur vare«ya*» bhargo 

devasya dhlmahi — 
' Suvar ! Dhiyo yo pra^odayat. — 
' Bhur bhuvaA suvas ! Tat Savitur . . . pra^oda- 


Pafala 2, Section 7. 

i. He then causes (the student) to put on the 
fire seven pieces of fresh Pala^a wood, with un- 
broken tops, of one span's length, which have been 
anointed with ghee. 

2. One (of these pieces of wood he puts on the 
fire) with (the Mantra), ' To Agni I have brought 
a piece of wood, to the great Catavedas. As thou 
art inflamed, Agni, through that piece of wood, 
thus inflame me through wisdom, insight, offspring, 
cattle, holy lustre, and through the enjoyment of 
food. Svaha ! '— 

3. (Then he puts on the fire) two (pieces of wood 
with the same Mantra, using the dual instead of the 

7, 1 seq. Comp. Ajvalayana I, 21, 1; .Sankhayana II, 10, &c. 
• The putting of ftiel on the fire, and what follows after it, form a 
part of the chief ceremony, not of the recitation of the Savitrt. 
Therefore in the case of one who has not yet been initiated (see I, 
2, 6, 7), it ought to be performed immediately after (the student) 
has been given in charge (to the gods and demons ; I, 2, 6, 5).' 

2. Paraskara II, 4, 3. 

Digitized by 



singular), ' To Agni (I have brought) two pieces of 
wood ; ' 

4. (Then) four (pieces of wood, using the plural), 
' To Agni (I have brought) pieces of wood.' 

5. He then sprinkles (water) round (the fire) as 

6. ' Thou hast given thy consent ; ' ' Thou hast 
given thy impulse ' — thus he changes the end of each 

7. He then worships the (following) deities (with 
the following Mantras), 

8. Agni with (the words), ' Agni, lord of the vow, 
I shall keep the vow ; ' 

9. Vayu with (the words), ' Vayu, lord of the vow, 

{&C - )l \ 

10. Aditya (the sun) with (the words), 'Aditya, 

lord of the vow, (&c.) ; ' 

1 1. The lord of the vows with (the words), * Lord 
of the vows, ruling over the vows (&c.).' 

12. He then gives an optional gift to his Guru 
(i. e. to the teacher). 

1 3. (The teacher) makes him rise with (the verse 
which the student recites), ' Up ! with life ' (Taitt. 
Samh. I, 2, 8, 1) ; he gives him in charge (to the 
sun) with (the words), ' Sun ! This is thy son ; I give 
him in charge to thee ; ' and he worships the sun 
with (the Mantra), ' That bright eye created by the 
gods which rises in the east : may we see it a hundred 
autumns ; may we live a hundred autumns ; may we 

5. Comp. above, I, 1, 2, 7 seq. 

6. He says, ' Anumati ! Thou hast given thy consent ! ' &c. 
8 seq. Comp. Gobhila II, io, 16. 

12. Comp. .Sankhayana I, 14, 13 seq. 

13. Paraskara I, 8, 7; I, 6, 3. 

Digitized by 


I PRASNA, 2 PA7ALA, 7 SECTION, 21. 1 57 

rejoice a hundred autumns ; may we be glad a 
hundred autumns ; may we prosper a hundred 
autumns ; may we hear a hundred autumns ; may 
we speak a hundred autumns ; may we live un- 
decaying a hundred autumns ; and may we long see 
the sun.' 

14. ' May Agni further give thee life. May Agni 
further grant thee bliss. May Indrawith the Maruts 
here give (that) to thee ; may the sun with the Vasus 
give (it) to thee ' — with (this verse the teacher) gives 
him a staff, and then hands over to him a bowl (for 
collecting alms). 

i 5. Then he says to him, ' Go out for alms.' 

16. Let him beg of his mother first ; 

17. Then (let him beg) in other houses where 
they are kindly disposed towards him. 

18. He brings (the food which he has received) 
to his Guru (i. e. to the teacher), and announces it to 
him by saying, ' (These are) the alms.' 

19. (The teacher accepts it) with the words, ' Good 
alms they are.' 

20. ' May all gods bless thee whose first garment 
we accept. May after thee, the prosperous one, the 
well-born, many brothers and friends be born ' — with 
(this verse the teacher) takes (for himself) the former 
garment (of the student). 

21. When the food (with which the Brahmawas 
shall be entertained) is ready, (the student) takes 
some portion of boiled rice, cakes, and flour, mixes 

14. .SahkhSyana II, 6, 2, &c. 

16 seq. .SankhSyana II, 6, 4 seq. ; Apastamba I, 3, 28 seq. 
17. "Die commentary explains r&tikuleshu by gn&iipra,- 
bhri'tishu; — comp. yo*sya r&tir bhavati, I, 3, 9, 18. 
20. See above, I, i, 4, z, and comp. Atharva-veda II, 13, 5. 

Digitized by 


158 gk/hya-sOtra OF HIRAJVYAKESIN. 

(these substances) with clarified butter, and sacrifices 
with (the formulas), 'To Agni svihi! To Soma 
svihi ! To Agni, the eater of food, svihi ! To 
Agni, the lord of food, svaha ! To Pra^ipati svihi ! 
To the Vwve devas svaha ! To all deities svahi ! 
To Agni Svish/akm svahi ! ' 

22. Thus (let him sacrifice) wherever (oblations of 
food are prescribed) for which the deities (to whom 
they shall be offered) are not indicated. 

23. If the deity is indicated, (let him sacrifice) with 
(the words), 'To such and such (a deity) svahi!' — 
according to which deity it is. 

24. Taking (again) some portion of the same 
kinds of food, he offers it as a Bali on eastward- 
pointed Darbha grass, with (the words), ' To Vistu- 
pati (i. e. Vistoshpati) svihi ! ' 

25. After he has served those three kinds of food 
to the Brihma#as, and has caused them to say, 'An 
auspicious day ! Hail ! Good luck ! ' — 

Pafala 2, Section 8. 

1. He keeps through three days the (following) 

2. He eats no pungent or saline food and no vege- 
tables ; he sleeps on the ground ; he does not drink 
out of an earthen vessel; he does not give the 
remnants of his food to a .Sudra ; he does not 
eat honey or meat ; he does not sleep in the day- 

23. Comp. above, I, i, 3, 3. 

24. 'The same,' of course, refers to Sutra 21. 

25. See above, I, 1, 1, 6. 

8, 1. This is the Savitra-vrata. Comp. I, 2, 6, 7 ; Sahkhayana, 
Introduction, p. 8. 

2. Regarding the term ' pungent food,' comp. Professor Bflhler's 
notes on Apastamba 1, 1, 2, 23; II, 6, 15, 15. 

Digitized by 



time ; in the morning and in the evening he brings 
(to his teacher) the food which he has received as 
alms and a pot of water ; every day (he fetches) a 
bundle of firewood ; in the morning and in the 
evening, or daily in the evening he puts fuel on (the 
fire, in the following way) : 

3. Before sprinkling (water) round (the fire), he 
wipes (with his wet hand) from left to right round 
(the fire) with the verse, ' As you have loosed, O 
Vasus, the buffalo-cow' (Taitt. Sawh. IV, 7, 15, 7), 
and sprinkles (water) round (the fire) as above. 

4. (Then) he puts (four) pieces of wood (on the 
fire) with the single (VyeuWtis) and with (the three 
Vyahrztis) together, and (four other pieces) with (the 
following four verses), 

' This fuel is thine, Agni ; thereby thou shalt grow 
and gain vigour. And may we grow and gain vigour. 
Svaha ! 

' May Indra give me insight ; may Sarasvatt, the 
goddess, (give) insight; may both Arvins, wreathed 
with lotus, bestow insight on me. Svaha ! 

'The insight that dwells with the Apsaras, the 
mind that dwells with the Gandharvas, the divine 
insight and that which is born from men : may that 
insight, the fragrant one, rejoice in me ! Svaha ! 

' May insight, the fragrant one, that assumes all 
shapes, the gold-coloured, mobile one, come to me. 
Rich in sap, swelling with milk, may she, insight, the 
lovely-faced one, rejoice in me ! Svaha ! ' 

5. Having wiped round (the fire) in the same 
way, he sprinkles (water) round (the fire) as above. 

3. See I, 1, 2, 7 seq. ; Apastamba Dharma-sfttra I, 1, 4, 18. 

4. Apastamba I, 1, 4, 16; .Saftkhayana II, 10, 4, &c. 

5. See Sfltra 3 and the note. 

Digitized by 



6. He worships the fire with the Mantras, ' What 
thy splendour is, Agni, may I thereby ' (Taitt. Sa*»h. 
Ill, 5, 3, 2), and 'On me may insight, on me off- 
spring ' (Taitt Ara»yaka X, 44). 

7. After the lapse of those three days (Sutra 1) he 
serves in the same way the three kinds of food 
(stated above) to the Brahma#as, causes them to say, 
'An auspicious day! Hail! Good luck!' and dis- 
charges himself of his vow by (repeating) these 
(Mantras) with (the necessary) alterations, ' Agni, 
lord of the vow, I have kept the vow' (see above, 

1, 2, 7, 8). 

8. He keeps the same observances afterwards 

9. Dwelling in his teacher's house. He may eat, 
(however,) pungent and saline food and vegetables. 

10. He wears a staff, has his hair tied in one knot, 
and wears a girdle, 

11. Or he may tie the lock on the crown of the 
head in a knot 

1 2. He wears (an upper garment) dyed with red 
Loth, or the skin (of an antelope, &c). 

13. He does not have intercourse with women. 

14. (The studentship lasts) forty-eight years, or 

6. Afvalayana-Grrhya I, 21, 4. 

7. See I, 2, 7, 21. 25. 

8. He keeps the observances stated in Sutra 2. 

9. See above, Sutra 2. Comp. Apastamba Dbarma-sutra I, 1, 

2, ii, and Sutra 23 of the same section, which stands in contra- 
diction to this Sutra of Hirawyakewn. 

10. 11. Comp. Apastamba I, 1, 2, 31. 32. Matridatta has re- 
ceived into his explanation of the eleventh Sutra the words, * he 
should shave the rest of the hair,' which in the Apastambtya-sutra 
are found in the text. 

14. Ajvalayana-Gnhya I, 22, 3; Apastamba Dharma-sutra I, 
i, 2, 12 seq. 

Digitized by 


I PRAtfNA, 3 PATALA, 0. SECTION, 3. l6l 

twenty-four (years), or twelve (years), or until he 
has learnt (the Veda). 

15. He should not, however, omit keeping the 

16. At the beginning and on the completion of the 
study of a K&nda. (of the Black Ya^ur-veda he sacri- 
fices) with (the verse), ' The lord of the seat, the 
wonderful one, the friend of Indra, the dear one, I 
have entreated for the gift of insight Svaha ! ' 

In the second place the ^?*shi of the K&nda (re- 
ceives an oblation). 

(Then follow oblations with the verses), ' This, O 
Vanma ; ' ' For this I entreat thee ; ' ' Thou, Agni ; ' 
' Thus thou, Agni ;' ' Thou, Agni, art quick ;' ' Pra- 
^apati ! ' and, ' What I have done too much in this 
sacrifice.' Here some add as subordinate oblations 
the Gaya, Abhyatana, and Rash/rabhr/t (oblations) 
as above. 

End of the Second Pa/ala. 

Prasna I, Patala 3, Section 9. 

i. After he has studied the Veda, the bath (which 
signifies the end of his studentship, is taken by him). 

2. We shall explain that (bath). 

3. During the northern course of the sun, in the 
time of the increasing moon, under (the Nakshatra) 
Rohiwi, (or) Mrz'gariras, (or) Tishya, (or) Uttara 

16. Rig-veda I, 18, 6. As the J?»shis of the single Ka«</as are 
considered, Pra^-apati, Soma, Agni, the Vuve devas, Svayambhfl. 
Regarding the Mantras quoted in the last section of this Sutra, see 
above, I, 1, 3, 5-7. 

[30] M 

Digitized by 


1 62 gk/hya-sOtra OF HIRAJVYAKBSIN. 

Phalgun!, (or) Hasta, (or) A~itra, or the two Vwakhas: 
under these (Nakshatras) he may take the bath. 

4. He goes to a place near which water is, puts 
wood on the fire, performs the rites down to the 
oblations made with the Vyahrz'tis, and puts a piece 
of Palasa wood on (the fire) with (the verse), ' Let 
us prepare this song like a chariot, for £atavedas 
who deserves it, with our prayer. For his foresight 
in this assembly is a bliss to us. Agni ! Dwelling in 
thy friendship may we not suffer harm. Svaha ! ' 

5. Then he sacrifices with the Vyahmis as above, 

6. (And another oblation with the verse), ' The 
threefold age of Gamadagni, Karyapa's threefold 
age, the threefold age that belongs to the gods : 
may that threefold age be mine. Svaha ! ' 

7. (Then follow oblations with the verses), ' This, 
O Varuwa,' &c. (see above, I, 2, 8, 16, down to the 
end of the Sutra). 

8. After he has served food to the Brahmawas, 
and has caused them to say, 'An auspicious day! 
Hail ! Good luck ! ' he discharges himself of his vow 
by (repeating) these (Mantras), 'Agni, lord of the 
vow, I have kept the vow.' 

9. Having (thus) discharged himself of his vow, 
he worships the sun with the two (verses), ' Upwards 

9, 4. Comp. I, 1, 3, 4 ; Rig-veda 1, 94, 1. ' Where the words are 
used, " He puts wood on the fire " (agnim upasamSdhaya), he should 
prepare the ground by raising it, &c, should carry the fire to that 
place, should put wood on it, and then he should sacrifice in the 
fire. Where those words are not used, he should (only) strew grass 
round the fire which is (already) established in its proper place, 
and should thus perform the sacrifice.' Matr/datta. 

6. .Sankhayana I, 28, 9. 

8. Comp. I, 2, 7, 25 ; 8, 7. 

Digitized by 



that (<Jatavedas) ' (Taitt. Samh. I, 4, 43, 1), and, 
'The bright' (ibid.). 

10. With (the words), ' (Loosen) from us thy high- 
est band, Varima,' he takes off the upper garment 
which he has worn during his studentship, and puts 
on another (garment). With (the words), ' (Loosen) 
the lowest (fetter),' (he takes off) the under garment ; 
with (the words), ' (Take) away the middle (fetter),' 
the girdle. With (the words), 'And may we, O 
Aditya, under thy law (&c.),' (he deposes) his staff. 
The girdle, the staff, and the black antelope's skin 
he throws into water, sits down to the west of the 
fire, facing the east, and touches the razor (with 
which he is going to be shaven), with (the formula), 
' Razor is thy name ; the axe is thy father. Adora- 
tion to thee ! Do no harm to me ! ' 

11. Having handed over (that razor) to the bar- 
ber, he touches the water with which his hair is to 
be moistened, with (the formula), ' Be blissful, (O 
waters), when we touch you.' [(The barber) then 
pours together warm and cold water. Having 
poured warm (water) into cold (water) — ] 

12. (The barber) moistens the hair near the right 
ear with (the words), ' May the waters moisten thee 
for life, for old age and splendour ' (Taitt. Sawhiti I, 
2, 1, 1). 

10. The words quoted in this Sutra are the parts of a Rik which 
is found in Taittirfya Sawhita I, 5, 11, 3. 

11. The words which I have included in brackets are wanting 
in some of the MSS., and are not explained in the commentaries. 
They are doubtless a spurious addition. Comp. Ajvalayana I, 
17, 6, &c. 

12. Paraskara II, 1, 9. The same expression dakshi/iaw 
godanam, of which I have treated there in the note, is used in 
this Sutra. Comp., besides, .Saftkhayana-Gnnya I, 28, 9; Apa- 

M 2 

Digitized by 


1 64 gr/hya-sCtra of hirajvyakesin. 

13. With (the words), 'Herb ! protect him' (Taitt. 
Sa#*h., loc. cit), he puts an herb with the point up- 
wards into (the hair). 

14. With (the words), 'Axe ! do no harm to him !' 
(Taitt Sa*»h., loc. cit), he touches (that herb) with 
the razor. 

15. With (the words), 'Heard by the gods, I shave 
that (hair) ' (Taitt. Samh., loc. cit), he shaves him. 

16. With (the formula), ' If thou shavest, O shaver, 
my hair and my beard with the razor, the wounding, 
the well-shaped, make our face resplendent but do 
not take away our life ' — (the student who is going 
to take the bath), looks at the barber. 

1 7. He has the beard shaven first, then the hair 
in his arm-pits, then the hair (on his head), then the 
hair of his body, then (he has) his nails (cut). 

18. A person who is kindly disposed (towards the 
student), gathers the hair, the beard, the hair of the 
body, and the nails (that have been cut off), in a 
lump of bull's dung, and buries (that lump of dung) 
in a cow-stable, or near an Udumbara tree, or in a 
clump of Darbha grass, with (the words), ' Thus I 

stamba-Srauta-sutra X, 5, 8; 5atapatha-Br. Ill, 1, 2, 6. Ac- 
cording to M&tn'datta, there is some difference of opinion between 
the different teachers as to whether the Mantras for the moistening 
of the hair and the following rites are to be repeated by the teacher 
or by the barber. 

13. Ajvalayana 1, 17, 8 ; P&raskara II, 1, 10 ; Apastamba->Sraut., 
loc. cit.; KatySyana-Sraut VII, 2, 10. The parallel texts pre- 
scribe that one Kara blade, or three Kara blades, should be put 
into the hair. 

14. Y$£#ikadeva in his commentary on Kity&yana (loc. cit.) 
says, kshure»£bhinidh£ya kshuradh&ram antarhitatrtnasyopari ni- 

16. Arvaldyana I, 17, 16. Comp. also Rig-veda I, 24, 11. 

Digitized by 



hide the sin of N. N., who belongs to the Gotra 

19. Having rubbed himself with powder such as 
is used in bathing, he cleanses his teeth with a stick 
of Udumbara wood — 

Patala 3, Section 10. 

i. With (the formula), 'Stand in your places for 
the sake of the enjoyment of food. ' Stand in your 
places for the sake of long life. Stand in your places 
for the sake of holy lustre. May I be blessed with 
long life, an enjoyer of food, adorned with holy 

2. Then (the teacher) makes him wash himself 
with lukewarm water, with the three verses, ' O 
waters, ye are wholesome' (Taitt. Sawh. IV, i, 5, i), 
with the four verses, ' The gold-coloured, clean, puri- 
fying (waters)' (Taitt. Sawh. V, 6, 1), and with the 
Anuvaka, 'The purifier, the heavenly one' (Taitt. 
Brahma#a I, 4, 8). 

3. Or (instead of performing these rites in the 
neighbourhood of water) they make an enclosure in 
a cow-stable and cover it (from all sides) ; that (the 
student) enters before sunrise, and in that (enclosure) 
the whole (ceremony) is performed. ' On that day 
the sun does not shine upon him,' some say. ' For 
he who shines (i. e. the sun), shines by the splendour 
of those who have taken the bath. Therefore the 
face of a Snataka is, as it were, resplendent (?).' 

4. (His friends or relations) bring him all sorts of 

10, 3. Rephayativa dipyattva. Matr/datta. Comp. Apastamba 
Dharma-sGtra II, 6, 14, 13, and BUhler's note, S. B. E., vol. ii, p. 135. 
4. Comp. above, I, 2, 8, 4. 

Digitized by 


1 66 g/uhya-sOtra of hirawyakesin. 

perfumes, or ground sandal wood; he besprinkles 
that (with water), and worships the gods by raising 
his joined hands towards the east, with (the for- 
mulas), ' Adoration to Graha (the taker) and to 
Abhigraha (the seizer) ! Adoration to .Saka and 
Ga.nga.bha. ! Adoration to those deities who are 
seizers ! ' (Then) he anoints himself with (that 
salve of sandal wood) with (the verse), ' The scent 
that dwells with, the Apsaras, and the splendour that 
dwells with the Gandharvas, divine and human 
scent : may that here enter upon me ! ' 

5. They bring him a pair of (new) garments that 
have not yet been washed. He besprinkles them 
(with water) and puts on the under garment with 
(the formula), ' Thou art Soma's body ; protect my 
body ! Thou who art my own body, enter upon me ; 
thou who art a blissful body, enter upon me.' Then 
he touches water, (puts on) the upper garment with 
the same (Mantra), and sits down to the west of the 
fire, facing the east. 

6. They bring him two ear-rings and a perforated 
pellet of sandal wood or of Badarl wood, overlaid 
with gold (at its aperture) ; these two things he ties 
to a Darbha blade, holds them over the fire, and 
pours over them (into the fire) oblations (of ghee) 
with (the Mantras), 

* May this gold which brings long life and splen- 
dour and increase of wealth, and which gets through 
(all adversities), enter upon me for the sake of long 
life, of splendour, and of victory. Svaha ! 

6. Regarding the first Mantra, comp. Va^as. Sa/nhitS XXXIV, 
50. In the fifth Mantra we ought to read oshadhis tr&yam&na. 
Comp. below, I, 3, 11, 3; Paraskara I, 13; Atharva-veda VIII, 
2, 6. 

Digitized by 



' (This gold) brings high gain, superiority in bat- 
tles, superiority in assemblies ; it conquers treasures. 
All perfections unitedly dwell together in this gold. 
Svaha ! 

' I have obtained an auspicious name like (the 
name) of a father of gold. Thus may (the gold) 
make me shine with golden lustre ; (may it make 
me) beloved among many people ; may it make me 
full of holy lustre. Svaha ! 

' Make me beloved among the gods ; make me 
beloved with Brahman (i. e. among the Brahma»as), 
beloved among Vabyas and .Sudras; make me 
beloved among the kings (L e. among the Ksha- 
triyas). Svaha ! 

4 This herb is protecting, overcoming, and power- 
ful. May it make me shine with golden lustre; 
(may it make me) beloved among many people ; 
may it make me full of holy lustre. Svaha ! ' 

7. Having thrice washed (the two ear-rings) in a 
vessel of water with the same five (Mantras), without 
the word Svaha, (moving them round in the water) 
from left to right — 

Pafala 3, Section 11. 

i. He puts on the two ear-rings, the right one to 
his right ear, the left one to his left ear, with (the 
verse which he repeats for each of the two ear- 
rings), 'VirAf and Svara^", and the aiding powers 
that dwell in our house, the prosperity that dwells in 
the face of royalty: therewith unite me.' 

2. With (the Mantra), ' With the seasons and the 
combinations of seasons, for the sake of long life, of 

11, 2. The end of the Mantra is corrupt. We ought to read, as 

Digitized by 


1 68 g/j/hya-sOtra of hiranyakesin. 

splendour, with the sap that dwells in the year: 
therewith we make them touch the jaws ' — he clasps 
the two ear-rings. 

3. With (the Mantra), 'This herb is protecting, 
overcoming, and powerful. May it make me shine 
with golden lustre ; (may it make me) beloved among 
many people ; may it make me full of holy lustre. 
Thou art not a bond ' — he ties the pellet (of wood, 
mentioned above, Section 10, Sutra 6) to his neck. 

4. He puts on a wreath with the two (verses), 

' Beautiful one, elevate thyself to beauty, beauti- 
fying my face. Beautify my face and make my 
fortune increase ' — (and), 

'(The wreath) which <7amadagni has brought to 
.Sraddha to please her, that I put on (my head) 
together with fortune and splendour.' 

5. ' The salve coming from the Trikakud (moun- 
tain), born on the Himavat, therewith I anoint you 
(i.e. the eyes), and with fortune and splendour. 
(I put ?) into myself the demon of the mountain (?) ' 
— with (this verse) he anoints himself with Traika- 
kuda salve, (or) if he cannot get that, with some 
other (salve). 

6. With (the verse), ' My mind that has fled away' 
(Taitt. Sawhita VI, 6, 7, 2) he looks into a mirror. 

Dr. Kirste has shown, tena samhanu krmmasi (Av. V, 28, 13). 
Matrz'datta says, sa*»grzri«ite*pidh&nenapidadhati pratigrahasam- 
grahawayoA samyuktalvad ekipavargatvat. 

3. The Mantra, with the exception of the last words, is identical 
with the last verse of Section 10, Sfttra 6. Here the MSS. again 
have oshadhe for oshadhis. 

4. Comp. Atharva-veda VI, 137 : yaw Gamadagnir akhanad 
duhitre, &c. ; Paraskara II, 6, 23. 

5. Regarding the Traikakuda salve, comp. Zimmer, Altindisches 
Leben, p. 69, and see Atharva-veda IV, 9, 9. 

Digitized by 



7. With (the formula), ' On the impulse of the 
god,' &c, he takes a staff of reed (which somebody 
hands him), and with (the formula), ' Thou art the 
thunderbolt of Indra. O A.rvins, protect me!' — 
he thrice wipes it off, upwards frpm below. 

8. With (the formula), ' Speed ! Make speed 
away from us those who hate us, robbers, creeping 
things, beasts of prey, Rakshas, Pisa/fcas. Protect 
us, O staff, from danger that comes from men ; pro- 
tect us from every danger; from all sides destroy 
the robbers ' — (and with the verse), ' Not naked (i. e. 
covered with bark) thou art born on all trees, a 
destroyer of foes. Destroy all hosts of enemies 
from every side like Maghavan (Indra) ' — he swings 
(the staff) three times from left to right over his 

9. With (the formula), ' The divine standing- 
places are you. Do not pinch me' — he steps into 
the shoes. 

10. With (the formula), ' Pra^apati's shelter art 
thou, the Brahman's covering ' — he takes the parasol. 

11. With the verse, ' My staff which fell down in 
the open air to the ground, that I take up again for 
the sake of long life, of holiness, of holy lustre ' — 
he takes up his staff, if it has fallen from his 

End of the Third Pa/ala. 

7. He takes the staff with the well-known Savitra formula, ' On 
the impulse of the god Savitrs' ... I take thee.' 

9. Ajvalayana III, 8, 19; Paraskara II, 6, 30. 

10. Ajvalayana III, 8, 19; Paraskara II, 6, 29. 

11. Instead of yamayushe I propose to read ayushe. Comp. 
Paraskara II, 2, 12. 

Digitized by 


170 g*/hya-s6tra of hiraatyakesin. 

Prasna I, Pafala 4, Section 12. 

1. They bring him a chariot, (or) a horse, or an 

2. 'Thou art the (Saman called) Rathantara; 
thou art the Vamadevya ; thou art the Brzhat;' the 
(verse), ' The two Ankas, the two Nyankas ' (Taitt. 
Sawhita I, 7, 7, 2); (the verse), 'May this your 
chariot, O Asvins, not suffer damage, neither in pain 
nor in joy. May it make its way without damage, 
dispersing those who infest us ;' (and the formula), 
' Here is holding, here is keeping asunder ; here 
is enjoyment, here may it enjoy itself:' with (these 
texts) he ascends the chariot, if he enters (the village) 
on a chariot. 

3. 'A horse art thou, a steed art thou' — with 
these eleven 'horses' names' (Taitt. Sa/»h. VII, 1, 
1 2) (he mounts) the horse, if (he intends to enter the 
village) on horseback. 

4. With (the formula), 'With Indra's thunder- 
bolt I bestride thee ; carry (me) ; carry the time ; 
carry me forward to bliss. An elephant art thou. 
The elephant's glory art thou. The elephant's 
splendour art thou. May I become endowed with 
the elephant's glory, with the elephant's splendour ' 
— (he mounts) the elephant, if (he intends to proceed 
to the village) on it. 

12, 2. Comp. PSraskara III, 14, 3-6. 

3. In this Sutra three ' horses' names ' are given as the Pratika 
of the Yajtis quoted, ' Thou art a*va, thou art haya, thou art 
maya.' Matn'datta observes that the third of them is not found in 
the Taittiriya SamhitS, which gives only ten, and not eleven, horses' 

4. Paraskara III, 15, 1 seq. 

Digitized by 


I PRASNA, 4 PArALA, 12 SECTION, 1 4. fjl 

5. He goes to a place where they will do honour 
to him. 

6. With (the verse), ' May the quarters (of the 
horizon) stream together with me ; may all delight 
assemble (here). May all wishes that are dear to 
us, come near unto us; may (our) dear (wishes) 
stream towards us ' — he worships the quarters of the 

7. While approaching the person who is going to 
do honour to him, he looks at him with (the words), 
' Glory art thou ; may I become glory with thee.' 

8. Then (the host who is going to offer the Argha 
reception to the Snataka), having prepared the 
dwelling-place (for his reception), says to him, ' The 
Argha (will be offered)!' 

9. (The guest) replies, ' Do so ! ' 

10. They prepare for him (the Madhuparka or 
' honey mixture ') consisting of three or of five 

11. The three substances are, curds, honey, and 

1 2. The five substances are, curds, honey, ghee, 
water, and ground grains. 

13. Having poured curds into a brass vessel, he 
pours honey into it, (and then the other substances 
stated above). 

14. Having poured (those substances) into a 
smaller vessel, and having covered it with a larger 
(cover than the vessel is), (the host) makes (the 
guest) accept (the following things) separately, one 
after the other, viz. a bunch of grass (to sit down on), 

5. Ajvalayana III, 9, 3; .Sankhayana III, 1, 14. 
10 seq. Paraskara I, 3, 5; Ajvalayana I 24, 5 seq. 
14. Paraskara, loc. cit. ; Arvalayana, loc. cit., § 7. 

Digitized by 



water for washing the feet, the Argha water, water 
for sipping, and the honey-mixture (Madhuparka). 

15. Going after (the single objects which are 
brought to the guest, the host) in a faultless, not 
faltering (?) voice, announces (each of those objects 
to the guest). 

16. The bunch of grass (he announces by three 
times saying), ' The bunch of grass ! ' 

1 7. (The guest) sits down thereon facing the east, 
with (the formula), 'A giver of royal power art thou, 
a teacher's seat ; may I not withdraw from thee.' 

18. (The host) then utters to him the announce- 
ment, ' The water for washing the feet ! ' 

19. With that (water) a ^Sftdra or a .Sudra woman 
washes his feet ; the left foot first for a Brahmawa, 
the right for a person of the two other castes. 

Pafala 4, Section 13. 

1. With (the formula), 'The milk of Vira^- art 
thou. May the milk of Padya Vir4f (dwell) in me ' 
— (the guest) touches the hands of the person that 

15. The text is corrupt and the translation very doubtful. The 
MSS. have, anusa«vr»^-in4 so*nupaki££ayd viiL Mitri- 
datta's note, which is also very corrupt, runs thus : anusamvra^ina' 
saha kurHdina dravyewa tad agrataA krz'tvanuganti. anusaai- 
\rigineti (sic; anugaMawnnusaW, Dr. Kielhorn's MS.) pram£- 
dapa/AaA. sampradatanupaki«£aya" na vidyata upaghatika vlg 
yasya [yasyS, Dr. K.'s MS.] seyani anupaki#M vik . . . kefld 
anusaravngineti (anusawvra^ineti, Dr. Kirste) pa///antara« kriivfL 
vagvueshawam iAManti yathd mrishti. v&k sa.msk.rita. \&k tathi *eti. 
apare yathapa//5am evartham ikihaati. — Perhaps we may correct, 
anusaff/vnrginayanupakifliaya' va/&&. Comp. below, I, 4, 13, 16. 

17. See above, I, 2, 6, 9. 

19. Paraskara I, 3, 10. 11 ; Axvalayana I, 24, 11. 

13, 1. Comp. .Sankhayana HI, 7, 5, &c. 

Digitized by 


I PRASNA, 4 PATALA, 1 3 SECTION, 8. 1 73 

washes his feet, and then he touches himself with 
(the formula), ' May in me dwell brilliancy, energy, 
strength, life, renown, splendour, glory, power ! ' 

2. (The host) then makes to him the announce- 
ment, ' The Argha water ! ' 

3. (The guest) accepts it with (the formula), ' Thou 
earnest to me with glory. Unite me with brilliancy, 
splendour, and milk. Make me beloved by all crea- 
tures, the lord of cattle.' 

4. ' To the ocean I send you, the imperishable 
(waters) ; go back to your source. May I not suffer 
loss in my offspring. May my sap not be shed ' — 
this (verse the guest) recites over the remainder (of 
the Argha water), when it is poured out (by the 
person who had offered it to him). 

5. Then he utters to him the announcement, 'The 
water for sipping ! ' 

6. With (the formula), ' Thou art the first layer 
for Ambrosia,' he sips water. 

7. Then he utters to him the announcement, 
' The honey-mixture ! ' 

8. He accepts that with both hands with the 
Savitra (formula), and places it on the ground with 
(the formula), ' I place thee on the navel of the earth 
in the abode of /da.' He mixes (the different sub- 
stances) three times from left to right with his 
thumb and his fourth finger, with (the formula), 
' What is the honied, highest form of honey which 
consists in the enjoyment of food, by that honied, 

3. PSraskara I, 3, 15. 4. Paraskara I, 3, 14. 

6. Ajvaliyana I, 21,13. 

8. Paraskara I, 3, 18 seq.; A-rvalayana I, 21, 15 seq. — The 
Savitra formula is, ' On the impulse of the god Savitr/' ... I take 
thee/ Comp. above, I, 3, 11, 7. 

Digitized by 


174 gk/hya-sOtra of hirajvyakesin. 

highest form of honey may I become highest, 
honied, and an enjoyer of food.' He partakes of 
it three times with (the formula), ' I eat thee for the 
sake of brilliancy, of luck, of glory, of power, and of 
the enjoyment of food,' and gives the remainder to 
a person who is kindly disposed towards him. 

9. Or he may eat the whole (Madhuparka). Then 
he sips water with (the formula), ' Thou art the co- 
vering of Ambrosia.' 

10. Then he utters to him the announcement, 
' The cow ! ' 

11. That (cow) is either killed or let loose. 

12. If he chooses to let it loose, (he murmurs), 
' This cow will become a milch cow. 

' The mother of the Rudras, the daughter of the 
Vasus, the sister of the Adityas, the navel of immor- 
tality. To the people who understand me, I say, 
" Do not kill the guiltless cow, which is Aditi." 
' Let it drink water ! Let it eat grass ' — 
(And) gives order (to the people), * Om ! Let it 

13. If it shall be killed, (he says), 'A cow art 
thou ; sin is driven away from thee. Drive away 
my sin and the sin of N. N. ! Kill ye him who- 
ever hates me. He is killed whosoever hates me. 
Make (the cow) ready ! ' 

14. If (the cow) is let loose, a meal is prepared 
with other meat, and he announces it (to the guest) 
in the words, * It is ready ! ' 

9. Ajvaliyana I, 21, 27. 28. 

10 seq. A^valayana I, 21, 30 seq. ; Piraskara I, 3, 26 seq. ; 
•Sankhiyana II, 15, 2. 3 note ; Gobhila IV, io, 18 seq. 
13. N. N., of course, means the host's nam a. 
14 seq. Comp. Gobhila I, 3, 16 seq.; Apastamba II, 2, 3, 11. 

Digitized by 


1 PRASNA, 4 PATALA, 1 4 SECTION, 2. 175 

15. He replies, 'It is well prepared; it is the 
Vir&f; it is food. May it not fail! May I obtain 
it ! May it give me strength ! It is well prepared !' 
— and adds, ' Give food to the Brahma»as ! ' 

16. After those (Brahmawas) have eaten, (the 
host) orders blameless (?) food to be brought to him 
(i. e. to the guest). 

17. He accepts that with (the formula), 'May the 
heaven give it to thee; may the earth accept it. 
May the earth give it to thee ; may breath accept it 
May breath eat thee ; may breath drink thee.' 

18. With (the verse), 'May Indra and Agni be- 
stow vigour on me' (Taitt. Saswh. Ill, 3, 3, 3) he 
eats as much as he likes, and gives the remainder to 
a person who is kindly disposed towards him. 

19. If he desires that somebody may not be 
estranged from him, he should sip water with (the 
Mantra), ' Whereon the past and the future and all 
worlds rest, therewith I take hold of thee ; I (take 
hold) of thee ; through the Brahman I take hold of 
thee for myself, N. N. ! ' — 

Patala 4, Section 14. 

1. And should, after that person has eaten, seize 
his right hand. 

2. If he wishes that one of his companions, or a 
pupil, or a servant should faithfully remain with 
him and not go away, he should bathe in the morn- 
ing, should put on clean garments, should show 

16. The meaning of anusamvrj^inam (comp. above, I, 4, 
12, 15) is uncertain. See the commentary, p. 120 of Dr. Kirste's 

1 4, 2. Matr/datta: ' The description of the Samavartana is finished. 

Digitized by 



patience (with that servant, &c.) during the day, 
should speak (only) with Brahma»as, and by night 
he should go to the dwelling-place of that person, 
should make water into a horn of a living animal, 
and should three times walk round his dwelling- 
place, sprinkling (his urine) round it, with (the 
Mantra), ' From the mountain (I sever ?) thee, from 
thy brother, from thy sister, from all thy relations, 
parishlda^ kleshyati (i. e. kvaishyasi ?) jay vat pari- 
kupilena sawkrame#avi£Mida, ulena parimW^o*si 
parimta^Oxsy ulena. 

3. He puts down the horn of the living animal 
in a place which is generally accessible. 

4. One whose companions, pupils, or servants use 
to run away, should rebuke them with (the Mantra), 
' May he who calls hither (?), call you hither ! He 
who brings back, has brought you back (?). May 
the rebuke of Indra always rebuke you. If you, 
who worship your own deceit, despise me (?), .... 
may Indra bind you with his bond, and may he drive 
you back again to me.' 

Now some ceremonies connected with special wishes of the person 
who has performed the Samavartana and has settled in a house, 
will be described.' In my opinion, it would be more correct to 
consider Sutra 18 of the preceding section as the last of the 
aphorisms that regard the Samavartana. With Sutra 2 compare 
Paraskara III, 7; Apastamba VIII, 23, 6. It seems impossible 
to attempt to translate the hopelessly corrupt last lines of the 

4. A part of this Mantra also is most corrupt. In the first line 
I propose to write, nivarto vo nyavivr/'tat. With the last line 
comp. Paraskara III, 7,3. I think that the text of Paraskara should 
be corrected in the following way: pari tv£ hvalano hvalan nivartas 
tva nyavivr/tat, indraA plrena sitvd tva mahyam . . . (three syllables) 
anayet. The Apastambtya Mantrapa/Aa, according to Dr.Winter- 
nitz's copy, gives the following text : anupohvad anuhvayo vivartto 

Digitized by 



5. Then he enters his house, puts a piece of 
Sidhraka wood on (the fire), and sacrifices with the 
' on-drawing verse,' ' Back-bringer, bring them back ' 
(Taitt Samh. Ill, 3, 10, 1). 

6. Now (we shall explain) how one should guard 
his wife. 

7. One whose wife has a paramour, should grind 
big centipedes (?) to powder, and should insert (that 
powder), while his wife is sleeping, into her secret 
parts, with the Mantra, ' Indra .... from other men 
than me.' 

8. Now (follows the sacrifice for procuring) pros- 
perity in trade. 

9. He cuts off (some portion) from (every) article 
of trade and sacrifices it — 

Pafala 4, Section 15. 

1. With (the verse), ' If we trade, O gods, trying 
by our wealth to acquire (new) wealth, O gods, may 

vo nyavivrt'dhat. aindraA parikroro tu vaA parikroratu sarvataA. 
yadi mam atimanyadvd d devi devavattara indraA parena .ritkva, vo 
mahyam id vajam SnaySt sv£ha\ Comp. Prof. Pischel's remarks, 
Philologische Abhandlungen, Martin Hertz zum siebzigsten Ge- 
burtstage von ehemaligen SchQlern dargebracht (Berlin, 1888), 
p. 69 seq. 

7. On sthurd &ridh&[fi\ Matri'datta says, stmM dridMA sthfl- 
r&h ratapadyaA. A part of the Mantra is untranslatable on account 
of the very corrupt condition of the text. The reading given by 
most of the MSS. is, Indr&ya ydsya jepham alikam anye- 
bhyaA purushebhyo*nyatra mat. The Apastambiya Mantra- 
pa/Aa reads, indr&yisya phaligam anyebhya/i purushe- 
bhyonyatra mat. The meaning very probably is that Indra is 
invoked to keep away from the woman the jepha of all other men 
except her husband's. 

15, 1. Comp. Atharva-veda III, 15, 5 ; Gobhila IV, 8, 19. 
[30] N 


Digitized by 



Soma thereon bestow splendour, Agni, Indra, Briha.- 
spati, and taana. Svaha ! ' 

2. Now (follows) the way for appeasing anger. 

3. He addresses the angry person with (the 
verses), ' The power of wrath that dwells here on 
thy forehead, destroying thy enemy (?), may the 
chaste, wise gods take that away. 

' If thou shootest, as it were, the thought dwelling 
in thy face, upwards to thy forehead, I loosen the 
anger of thy heart like the bow-string of an archer. 

' Day, heaven, and earth : we appease thy anger, 
as the womb of a she-mule (cannot conceive).' 

4. Now (follows) the way for obtaining the victory 
in disputes. 

5. He puts wood on the fire at night-time in an 
inner apartment, performs the rites down to the 
Vyahrzti oblations, and sacrifices small grains mixed 
with Afya, with (the verse), ' Tongueless one, thou 
who art without a tongue ! I drive thee away through 
my sacrifice, so that I may gain the victory in the 
dispute, and that N. N. may be defeated by me. 

6. Then in the presence (of his adversary), turned 
towards him, he murmurs (the verses), ' I take away 
the speech from thy mouth, (the speech) that dwells 
in thy mind, (the speech) from thy heart. Out of 
every limb I take thy speech. Wheresoever thy 
speech dwells, thence I take it away. 

3. Paraskara III, 13, 5. Possibly we ought to correct mr»'d- 
dhasya into mridhrasya. Avadyam ought to be ava gy&m; 
see Atharva-veda VI, 42, 1. 

5. The commentary explains kants (small grains) as oleander 
(karavira) seeds. 

6. Comp. PSraskara III, 13, 6. The text of the Mantras is 

Digitized by 



' Rudra with the dark hair-lock ! Hero ! At every 
contest strike down this my adversary, as a tree (is 
struck down) by a thunderbolt. 

' Be defeated, be conquered, when thou speakest. 
Sink down under the earth, when thou speakest, 
struck down by me irresistibly (?) with the hammer 
of . . . (?). That is true what I speak. Fall down, 
inferior to me, N. N. !' 

7. He touches the assembly-hall (in which the 
contest is going on), and murmurs, ' The golden- 
armed, blessed (goddess), whose eyes are not faint, 
who is decked with ornaments, seated in the midst 
of the gods, has spoken for my good. Svaha ! ' 

8. ' For me have the high ones and the low ones, 
for me has this wide earth, for me have Agni and 
Indra accomplished my divine aim' — with (this 
verse) he looks at the assembly, and murmurs (it) 
turned towards (the assembly). 

End of the Fourth Pa/ala. 

Prajna I, PArALA 5, Section 16. 

i. When he has first seen the new moon, he sips 
water, and holding (a pot of) water (in his hands) he 
worships (the moon) with the four (verses), 'Increase* 
(Taitt Sawh. I, 4, 32), ' May thy milk ' (ibid. IV, 
2, 7, 4), ' New and new again (the moon) becomes, 
being born' (ibid. 11,4, J 4> *)> 'That Soma which 
the Adityas make swell' (ibid. II, 4, 14, 1). 

7. Probably we should write a^Jtakshf. 

8. Matndatta says, prativadinam abhj^apaty eva. 
16. This chapter contains different Pray&rAittas. 

N 2 

Digitized by 


180 gk/hya-sAtra of hiranyakeotn. 

2. When he has yawned, he murmurs, ' (May) will 
and insight (dwell) in me.' 

3. If the skirt (of his garment) is blown upon him 
(by the wind), he murmurs, 'A skirt art thou. Thou 
art not a thunderbolt. Adoration be to thee. Do 
no harm to me.' 

4. He should tear off a thread (from that skirt) 
and should blow it away with his mouth. 

5. If a bird has befouled him with its excrements, 
he murmurs, 'The birds that timidly fly together 
with the destroyers, shall pour out on me happy, 
blissful splendour and vigour.' 

Then let him wipe off that (dirt) with something 
else than his hand, and let him wash himself with 

6. 'From the sky, from the wide air a drop of 
water has fallen down on me, bringing luck. With 
my senses, with my mind I have united myself, pro- 
tected by the prayer that is brought forth by the 
righteous ones' — this (verse) he should murmur, if 
a drop of water unexpectedly falls down on him. 

7. ' If a fruit has fallen down from the top of a 
tree, or from the air, it is Vayu (who has made it 
fall). Where it has touched our bodies or the gar- 
ment, (there) may the waters drive away destruction ' 
— this (verse) he should murmur, if a fruit unex- 
pectedly falls down on him. 

8. 'Adoration to him who dwells at the cross-roads, 

2. A.rvalayana-Gr*hya III, 6, 7. 3. Paraskara HI, 15, 17. 

5. I propose to read, nirrrthaiA saha. 

6. Atharva-veda VI, 124, r. Read aukritim kr*tena. 

7. Atharva-veda VI, 124, 2. The Atharva-veda shows the way 
to correct the corrupt third Pida. 

8 seq. Comp. Paraskara III, 15, 7 seq. 

Digitized by 


I PRASNA, 5 PA7ALA, 1 6 SECTION, 1 6. l8l 

whose arrow is the wind, to Rudra ! Adoration to 
Rudra who dwells at the cross-roads !' — this (formula) 
he murmurs when he comes to a cross-road ; 

9. 'Adoration to him who dwells among cattle, 
whose arrow is the wind, to Rudra ! Adoration to 
Rudra who dwells among cattle ! ' — thus at a dung- 

10. 'Adoration to him who dwells among the 
serpents, whose arrow is the wind, to Rudra! 
Adoration to Rudra who dwells among the ser- 
pents!' — thus at a place that is frequented by 

11. 'Adoration to him who dwells in the air, 
whose arrow is the wind, to Rudra ! Adoration to 
Rudra who dwells in the air!' — this (formula) let 
him murmur, if overtaken by a tornado. 

12. 'Adoration to him who dwells in the waters, 
whose arrow is the wind, to Rudra ! Adoration to 
Rudra who dwells in the waters ! ' — this (formula) 
he murmurs when plunging into a river which is full 
of water. 

13. 'Adoration to him who dwells there, whose 
arrow is the wind, to Rudra ! Adoration to Rudra 
who dwells there !' — this (formula) he murmurs when 
approaching a beautiful place, a sacrificial site, or a 
big tree. 

14. If the sun rises whilst he is sleeping, he shall 
fast that day and shall stand silent during that day ; 

15. The same during the night, if the sun sets 
whilst he sleeps. 

16. Let him not touch a sacrificial post. By 

14, 15. Apastamba II, 5, 12, 13. 14; Gobhila III, 3, 34, &c. 
16. Gobhila III, 3, 34. Should it be esha te vayur iti ? 

Digitized by 



touching it, he would bring upon himself (the guilt 
of) whatever faults have been committed at that 
sacrifice. If he touches one (sacrificial post), he 
should say, ' This is thy wind ; ' if two (posts), 
' These are thy two winds ; ' if many (posts), ' These 
are thy winds.' 

1 7. ' The voices that are heard after us (?) and 
around us, the praise that is heard, and the voices of 
the birds, the deer's running (?) athwart: that we 
fear (?) from our enemies ' — this (verse) he murmurs 
when setting out on a road. 

18. ' Like an Udgatrz, O bird, thou singest the 
Saman; like a Brahman's son thou recitest thy 
hymn, when the Soma is pressed. 

'A blessing on us, O bird; bring us luck and 
be kind towards us ! ' — (This Mantra) he murmurs 
against an inauspicious bird ; 

19. 'If thou raisest thy divine voice, entering 
upon living beings, drive away our enemies by thy 
voice. O death, lead them to death ! ' — (thus) against 
a solitary jackal. 

20. Then he throws before the (jackal, as it 
were), a fire-brand that burns at both ends, towards 
that region (in which the jackal's voice is heard), 
with (the words), ' Fire ! Speak to the fire ! Death ! 
Speak to the death ! ' Then he touches water, 

17. The Mantra is very corrupt. Perhaps a ni hut am should be 
corrected into anuhutam, which is the reading of the Apastambfya 
MantrapaVta. In the last PSda bhaySmasi is corrupt; the mean- 
ing seems to be, ' that we (avert from ourselves and) turn it to our 
enemies.' Probably Dr. Kirste is right in reading bha^amasi. 

18. Comp. Rig-veda II, 43, 2. 

19. As to ekasr»ka, 'solitary jackal,' comp. Bflhler's note on 
Apastamba I, 3, 10, 17 (S. B. E., II, 38). MStr»datta says, srig&lo 
mrignsabdam kurvawa ekasr/ka ity ulyate. 

Digitized by 


I PRASNA, 5 PArALA, I 7 SECTION, 4. 1 83 

21. And worships (the jackal) with the Anuvaka, 
' Thou art mighty, thou "uriest away ' (Taitt. Sa.m- 
hiti I, 3, 3). 

PArALA 5, Section 17. 

i. A she-wolf (he addresses) with (the verse), 
' Whether incited by others or whether on its own 
accord the Bhayeafeka (? Bhayoafeka, var. lect.) utters 
this cry, may Indra and Agni, united with Brahman, 
render it blissful to us in our house.' 

2. A bird (he addresses) with (the verse), ' Thou 
fliest, stretching out thy legs ; the left eye . . . ; may 
nothing here suffer harm (through thee) ; ' 

3. An owl (pingala) with (the verse), ' The bird 
with the golden wings flies to the abode of the gods. 
Flying round the village from left to right portend 
us luck by thy cry, O owl ! ' 

4. ' May my faculties return into me ; may life 
return, prosperity return ; may the divine power 
return into me ; may my goods return to me. 

'And may these fires that are stationed on the 
(altars called) Dhishwyas, be in good order here, 
each in its right place. Svaha ! 

' My self has returned, life has returned to me ; 
breath has returned, design has returned to me. 
(Agni) Vauvanara, grown strong with his rays, 
may he dwell in my mind, the standard of immor- 
tality. Svahi ! 

' The food which is eaten in the evening, that does 

17, 2. The commentary explains rakuni (bird) by dhvanksha 
(crow). In the translation of the Mantra (Taitt. Ar. IV, 35) I have 
left out the unintelligible words nipepi kn. The way to correct the 
last PSda is shown by Atharva-veda VI, 57, 3 ; X, 5, 23. 

4. Corup. Ajvalayana-Gribya III, 6, 8. 


Digitized by 


1 84 g/s/hya-sOtra of hirajvyakesin. 

not satiate in the morning him whom hunger assails. 
May all that (which we have seen in our dreams), 
do no harm to us, for it has not been seen by day. 
To Day svaha ! ' — with these (verses) he sacrifices 
sesamum seeds mixed with A^ya, if he has seen a 
bad dream. 

5. NoV the following expiations for portents are 
prescribed. A dove sits down on the hearth, or 
the bees make honey in his house, or a cow (that is 
not a calf) sucks another cow, or a post puts forth 
shoots, or an anthill has arisen (in his house) : cases 
like these (require the following expiation) : 

6. He should bathe in the morning, should put on 
clean garments, should show patience (with every- 
body) during the day, and should speak (only) with 
Brahmawas. Having put wood on the fire in an 
inner apartment, and having performed the rites 
down to the Vyahmi oblations, he sacrifices with 
(the verses), ' This, O Varuwa,' &c. (see above I, 2, 
8, 16, down to the end of the Sutra). Then he 
serves food to the Brahmawas and causes them -to 
say, ' An auspicious day ! Hail ! Good, luck ! ' 

Pafala 5, Section 18. 

1. ' May Indra and Agni make you go. May 
the two Asvins protect you. Brz'haspati is your 
herdsman. May Pushan drive you back again' — 

5. SankMyana V, 5. 8. 1 1 ; Axvalayana III, 7, &c. Kuptva is 
corrupt; we should expect a locative. We ought to correct 
kuptvam, as Dr. Kirste has observed, comp. Apastamba-Gri'hya 
VIII, 23, 9. 

6. Comp. above, 1, 4, 14, 2 ; 15, 5 ; I, 2, 8, 16 ; I, 3, 9, 7. 8. 
18, 1 seq. Comp. .SankMyana III, 9; Gobhila III, 6; Axva- 

layana II, 10. 

Digitized by 


I PRASNA, 5 PAFALA, 1 8 SECTION, 5. 1 85 

this (verse) he recites over the cows when they go 
away (to their pasture-grounds), and (the verse), 
• May Pushan go after our cows ' (Taitt. Sawh. IV, i, 
11, 2). 

2. With (the verse), ' These cows that have come 
hither, free from disease and prolific, may they swim 
(full of wealth) like rivers; may they pour out 
(wealth), as (rivers discharge their floods) into the 
ocean ' — he looks at the cows, when they are coming 

3. With (the formula), ' You are a stand at rest ; 
may I (?) become your stand at rest. You are im- 
movable. Do not move from me. May I not move 
from you, the blessed ones' — (he looks at them) 
when they are standing still. 

4. With (the formula), * I see you full of sap. 
Full of sap you shall see me ' — (he looks at them) 
when they are gone into the stable, and with (the 
formula), ' May I be prosperous through your thou- 
sandfold prospering.' 

5. Then having put wood on the fire amid the 
cows, and having performed the rites down to the 
Vyihmi (oblations), he makes oblations of milk 
with (the verses), 

' Blaze brightly, O Catavedas, driving destruction 
away from me. Bring me cattle and maintenance 
from all quarters of the heaven. Svaha ! 

' May Gatavedas do no harm to us, to cows and 
horses, to men and to all that moves. Come hither, 

3. The Mantra is very corrupt. I think it ought to be corrected 
somehow in the following way: sawstha stha sawzstha vo bhuyasam 
afyuta stha ma ma£ kyodhvzm maham bhavattbhyar £yoshi. Comp. 
also Dr. Kirste's note. 

5. In the second verse I propose to change abibhrad into 

Digitized by 



Agni, fearlessly ; make me attain to welfare ! 

And with (the two verses), ' This is the influx of 
the waters,' and ' Adoration to thee, the rapid one, 
the shining one' (Taitt. Sa*«h. IV, 6, i, 3). 

6. (Then follow oblations with the verses), ' This, 
O Varu»a' (&c. ; see I, 2, 8, 16, down to the end of 
the Sutra). 

End of the Fifth Pa/ala. 

Prasna I, Pafala 6, Section 19. 

1. After he has returned from the teacher's house, 
he should support his father and mother. 

2. With their permission he should take a wife 
belonging to the same caste and country, a ' naked ' 
girl, a virgin who should belong to a different Gotra 
(from her husband's). 

3. Whatever he intends to do (for instance, taking 
a wife), he should do on an auspicious day only, 
during one of the following five spaces of time, viz. 
in the morning, the forenoon, at midday, in the 
afternoon, or in the evening. 

abibhyad; comp. Atharva-veda XIX, 65, 1 : ava taw ^ahi haras& 
G&tavedo * bibhyad ugro»niisha" divam £ roha surya. The last 
words of this verse should be jriyam m£ pratipidaya, or something 

19, 2. sag&t&m savarcim saminabhjg-an&m ka.. M&trz'datta. As 
to the meaning of ' a naked girl,' (i. e. a girl who has not yet the 
monthly illness), comp. Gobhila III, 4, 6 and note. 

3. According to M&tr/datta, ' morning ' means one NSrfiki be- 
fore and one Na<fiM after sunrise ; ' forenoon ' means one Narfiki 
before and one Ni<fik£ after the moment at which the first quarter 
of the day has elapsed ; and thus each of the other three day-times 

Digitized by 


I PRASNA, 6 PAPALA, 1 9 SECTION, 7. 1 87 

4. Having put wood on the fire, and having per- 
formed (the preparatory rites) down to the laying 
of (three) branches round (the fire, the bridegroom) 
looks at the bride who is led to him, with (the verse), 
' Auspicious ornaments does this woman wear. Come 
up to her and behold her. Having brought luck to 
her, go away back to your houses.' 

5. To the south of the bridegroom the bride sits 

6. After she has sipped water, she touches him, 
and he sprinkles (water) round (the fire) as above. 

7. After he has performed the rites down to the 
oblations made with the Vyahr/tis, he sacrifices with 
(the following Mantras), 

' May Agni come hither, the first of gods. May 
he release the offspring of this wife from the fetter 
of death. That may this king Varu»a grant, that 
this wife may not weep over distress (falling to her 
lot) through her sons. Svaha ! 

' May Agni Garhapatya protect this woman. May 
he lead her offspring to old age. With fertile womb 
may she be the mother of living children. May she 
experience delight in her sons. Svaha ! 

' May no noise that comes from thee, arise in the 
house by night. May the (she-goblins called) the 
weeping ones take their abode in another (woman) 

is understood to comprise two NS<fikas. As the whole day consists 
of sixty Nadikas, it is the sixth part of the day (=10 N&fikas) 
which is considered as auspicious for such purposes as taking 
a wife. 

4. See 1, 1, 2, 1 seq. Rig-veda X, 85, 33 ; PSraskara I, 8, 9, &c. 

6. See 1, 1, 2, 7 seq. 

7. Paraskara I, 6, 11. With the third verse comp. Atharva-veda 
XI, 9, 14. 

Digitized by 


1 88 gjj/hya-sOtra of hirajvyakesin. 

than thee. Mayst thou not be beaten at thy breast 
by (the she-goblin) Vikesl (" the rough-haired one "). 
May thy husband live, and mayst thou shine in thy 
husband's world, beholding thy genial offspring! 

' May Heaven protect thy back, Vayu thy thighs, 
and the two Asvins thy breast. May Samtri protect 
thy suckling sons. Until the garment is put on 
(thy sons ?), may EWhaspati guard (them ?), and the 
Virve devas afterwards. Svaha ! 

' Childlessness, the death of sons, evil, and distress, 
I take (from thee), as a wreath (is taken) from the 
head, and (like a wreath) I put all evil on (the head 
of) our foes. Svaha ! 

' With this well-disposed prayer which the gods 
have created, I kill the Pua^as that dwell in thy 
womb. The flesh-devouring death-bringers I cast 
down. May thy sons live to old age. Svaha ! ' 

8. After he has sacrificed with (the verses), ' This, 
O Varuwa/ ' For this I entreat thee,' ' Thou Agni,' 
* Thus thou, Agni,' ' Thou, Agni, art quick,' « Pra^a- 
pati ' — he makes her tread on a stone, with (the 
verse), ' Tread on this stone ; like a stone be firm. 
Destroy those who seek to do thee harm ; overcome 
thy enemies.' 

9. To the west of the fire he strews two layers of 
northward-pointed Darbha grass, the one more to 
the west, the other more to the east. On these 
both (the bridegroom and the bride) station them- 
selves, the one more to the west, the other more to 
the east. 

8. See above, I, 1, 3, 5; I, i, 4, 1. 

Digitized by 


I PRASNA, 6 PA7ALA, 20 SECTION, 2. 1 89 

Prasna I, Pa7"ala 6, Section 20. 

i. Facing the east, while she faces the west, or 
facing the west, while she faces the east, he should 
seize her hand. If he desires to generate male chil- 
dren, let him seize her thumb ; if he desires (to 
generate) female children, her other fingers ; if he 
desires (to generate) both (male and female children), 
let him seize the thumb together with the other 
fingers, (so as to seize the hand) up to the hairs (on 
the hair-side of the hand). 

(He should do so with the two Mantras), 

' SarasvatI ! Promote this (our undertaking), O 
gracious one, rich in studs, thou whom we sing first 
of all that is. 

' I seize thy hand that we may be blessed with 
offspring, that thou mayst live to old age with me, 
thy husband. Bhaga, Aryaman, Savitr*', Purandhi, 
the gods have given thee to me that we may rule 
our house.' 

2. He makes her turn round, from left to right, 
so that she faces the west, and recites over her (the 
following texts), 

'With no evil eye, not bringing death to thy 
husband, bring luck to the cattle, be full of joy and 

20, i. .Sahkhayana 1, 13, 2 ; Ajval&yana I, 7, 3 seq., &c. The 
text of the first Mantra ought to be corrected according to Pdra- 
skara I, 7, 2 ; in the second Mantra we ought to read yathasaA 
instead of yathSsat; comp. Rig-veda X, 85, 36 ; Paraskara I, 6, 
3. The bridegroom and the bride, of course, are to face each 
other ; thus, if the bridegroom stands on the eastern layer of grass 
(Sutra 9 of the preceding section), he is to face the west; if on the 
western, he is to face the east. 

2. The words, agrewa dakshiwam awsam . . . abhy&vartya, evidently 
have the same meaning which is expressed elsewhere (Sankhayana 

Digitized by 



vigour. Give birth to living children, give birth 
to heroes, be friendly. Bring us luck, to men and 

' Thus, Pushan, lead her to us, the highly blessed 
one, into whom men pour forth their sperm, ya na uru 
uyatt visrayatai (read, vurayatai), yasyam usanta^ 
praharema .repam. 

' Soma has acquired thee first (as his wife) ; after 
him the Gandharva has acquired thee. Thy third 
husband is Agni ; the fourth am I, thy human 

' Soma has given her to the Gandharva ; the 
Gandharva has given her to Agni. Agni gives me 
cattle and children, and thee besides. 

* This am I, that art thou ; the heaven I, the earth 
thou ; the Saman I, the Rik thou. Come ! Let us 
join together. Let us unite our sperm that we may 
generate a male child, a son, for the sake of the in- 
crease of wealth, of blessed offspring, of strength. 

' Bountiful Indra, bless this woman with sons and 
with a happy lot. Give her ten sons ; let her hus- 
band be the eleventh.' 

3. After he has made her sit down in her proper 
place (see Sutra 5 of the preceding section), and has 
sprinkled A^ya into her joined hands, he twice pours 
fried grain into them, with (the verse), ' This grain I 
pour (into thy hands) : may it bring prosperity to 
me, and may it unite thee (with me). May this 
Agni grant us that.' 

II, 3, 2), dakshiwam bihum anv&m'tya. With the first Mantra 
comp. Rig-veda X, 85, 44; Piraskara I, 4, 16; with the second, 
Rig-veda, loc. cit., 37; Piraskara, loc. cit.; with the following ones, 
Rig-veda X, 85, 40. 41. 45; P&raskaral, 4, 16; 6, 3, &c. 
3 seq. Comp. .SankhSyana I, 13, 15 seq. 

Digitized by 



4. After he has sprinkled {kg ya) over (the grain 
in her hands), he sacrifices (the grain) with her 
joined hands (which he seizes), with (the verse), 
' This woman, strewing grain into the fire, prays 
thus, " May my husband live long ; may my relations 
be prosperous. Svaha ! " ' 

5. Having made her rise with (the verse which 
she recites), ' Up ! with life' (Taitt. Sa#*h. I, 2, 8, 1), 
and having circumambulated the fire (with her) so 
that their right sides are turned towards it, with (the 
verse), * May we find our way with thee through all 
hostile powers, as through streams of water* — he 
pours fried grain (into her hands, and sacrifices 
them), as before. 

6. Having circumambulated (the fire) a second 
time, he pours fried grain (into her hands, and sacri- 
fices them), as before. 

7. Having circumambulated (the fire) a third 
time, he sacrifices to (Agni) Svish/akrzt. 

8. Here some add as subordinate oblations the 
<7aya, Abhyatana, and Rash/rabhm (oblations) as 

9. To the west of the fire he makes her step for- 
ward in an easterly or a northerly direction the 
(seven) ' steps of Vish«u.' 

10. He says to her, ' Step forward with the right 
(foot) and follow with the left. Do not put the left 
(foot) before the right.' 

5. Comp. above, I, a, 7, 13; Rig-veda II, 7, 3. 

8. Comp. I, 2, 8, 16. 

9 seq. Comp. Gobhila II, 2, 11 seq. ; .Sahkhayana I, 14, 5 seq. 

Digitized by 


192 gr/hya-sOtra of hirajvyakesin. 

Pafala 6, Section 21. 

i. (He makes her step forward, and goes with 
her himself), with (the Mantras), ' One (step) for sap, 
may Vishmi go after thee ; two (steps) for juice, may 
Vish»u go after thee ; three (steps) for vows, may 
Vish»u go after thee ; four (steps) for comfort, may 
Vish«u go after thee; five (steps) for cattle, may 
Vish»u go after thee ; six (steps) for the prospering 
of wealth, may Vishwu go after thee ; seven (steps) 
for the sevenfold Hotmhip, may Vishwu go after 

2. After the seventh step he makes her abide (in 
that position) and murmurs, ' With seven steps we 
have become friends. May I attain to friendship 
with thee. May I not be separated from thy friend- 
ship. Mayst thou not be separated from my friend- 

3. He then puts his right foot on her right foot, 
moves his right hand down gradually over her right 
shoulder, and touches the place of her heart as above, 

4. And the place of her navel with (the formula), 
' Thou art the knot of all breath ; do not loosen 

5. After he has made her sit down to the west of 
the fire, so that she faces the east, he stands to the 
east (of his bride), facing the west, and besprinkles 
her with water, with the three verses, ' O waters, ye 
are wholesome' (Taitt. Sawh. IV, 1, 5, 1), with the 
four verses, ' The gold-coloured, clean, purifying 
waters' (V, 6, 1), and with the Anuvaka, 'The puri- 
fier, the heavenly one' (Taitt. Brahma«a I, 4, 8). 

21, 3. See above, I, 2, 5, 11. 4. See above, I, 2, 5, 12. 

5. Comp. I, 3, 10, 2. 

Digitized by 


I PRASNA, 7 PATALA, 22 SECTION, 8. 1 93 

6. Now they pour seeds (of rice, &c.) on (the 
heads of the bridegroom and bride). 

End of the Sixth Pa/ala. 

Prasna I, Pafala 7, Section 22. 

i. Then they let her depart (in a vehicle from her 
father's house), or they let her be taken away. 

2. Having put (the fire into a vessel) they carry 
that (nuptial) fire behind (the newly-married couple). 

3. It should be kept constantly. 

4. If it goes out, (a new fire) should be kindled 
by attrition, or it should be fetched from the house 
of a .Srotriya. 

5. Besides, if (the fire) goes out, the wife or the 
husband should fast. 

6. When (the bridegroom with his bride) has 
come to his house, he says to her, ' Cross (the 
threshold) with thy right foot first ; do not stand on 
the threshold.' 

7. In the hall, in its easterly part, he puts down 
the fire and puts wood on it. 

8. To the west of the fire he spreads out a red 
bull's skin with the neck to the east, with the hair 

6. explains adhurayanti by vapanti giyipalyoA 
rirasi kshipanti. 

22, 4. ' If the fire on which they had put wood, was a fire pro- 
duced by attrition, (the new fire) should (also) be kindled by attri- 
tion. If it was a common (laukika) fire that they had fetched, (the 
new fire) should be fetched from a Srotriya's house. Thereby it 
is shown that the common fire at the Upanayana ceremony, &c, 
should be fetched only from a •S'rotriya's house.' Matrtdatta. 

[30] o 

Digitized by 


194 gk/hya-sOtra of hirayyakesin. 

9. On that (skin) they both sit down facing the east 
or the north, so that the wife sits behind her hus- 
band, with (the verse), ' Here may the cows sit down, 
here the horses, here the men. Here may also 
Pushan with a thousand (sacrificial) gifts sit down.' 

10. They sit silently until the stars appear. 

1 1 . When the stars have appeared, he goes forth 
from the house (with his wife) in an easterly or 
northerly direction, and worships the quarters (of 
the horizon) with (the hemistich), ' Ye goddesses, ye 
six wide ones' (Taitt. Sa#*h. IV, 7, 14, 2). 

12. (He worships) the stars with (the Pada), ' May 
we not be deprived of our offspring;' 

13. The moon with (the Pada), ' May we not get 
into the power of him who hates us, O king Soma ! ' 

14. He worships the seven i?/shis (ursa major) 
with (the verse), ' The seven AVshis who have led to 
firmness she, ArundhatI, who stands first among the 
six Kmtikas (pleiads) : — may she, the eighth one, 
who leads the conjunction of the (moon with the) 
six KWttikas, the first (among conjunctions) shine 
upon us ! ' Then he worships the polar star with (the 
formula), ' Firm dwelling, firm origin. The firm one 
art thou, standing on the side of firmness. Thou 
art the pillar of the stars ; thus protect me against 
my adversary. 

' Adoration be to the Brahman, to the firm, im- 
movable one ! Adoration be to the Brahman's son, 
Pra^apati! Adoration to the Brahman's children, 

9. Comp. Paraskara I, 8, 10, and the readings quoted there 
from the Atharva-veda. 

12, 13. These are the two last Padas of the verse of which the 
first hemistich is quoted in Sutra 11. 

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to the thirty-three gods! Adoration to the Brah- 
man's children and grandchildren, to the Angiras ! 

' He who knows thee (the polar star) as the firm, 
immovable Brahman with its children and with its 
grandchildren, with such a man children and grand- 
children will firmly dwell, servants and pupils, gar- 
ments and woollen blankets, bronze and gold, wives 
and kings, food, safety, long life, glory, renown, 
splendour, strength, holy lustre, and the enjoyment 
of food. May all these things firmly and immovably 
dwell with me ! ' 

Patala 7, Section 23, 

i. (Then follow the Mantras), ' I know thee as 
the firm Brahman. May I become firm in this world 
and in this country. 

' I know thee as the immovable Brahman. May 
I not be moved away from this world and from this 
country. May he who hates me, my rival, be moved 
away from this world and from this country. 

' I know thee as the unshaken Brahman. May I 
not be shaken off from this world and from this 
country. May he who hates me, my rival, be shaken 
off from this world and from this country. 

' I know thee as the unfailing Brahman. May J 
not fall from this world and from this country. May 
he who hates me, my rival, fall from this world and 
from this country. 

f I know thee as the nave of the universe. May 
I become the nave of this country. I know thee as 
the centre of the universe. May I become the 
centre of this country. I know thee as the string 
that holds the universe. May I become the string 
that holds this country. I know thee as the pillar 

o 2 

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of the universe. May I become the pillar of this 
country. I know thee as the navel of the universe. 
May I become the navel of this country. 

' As the navel is the centre of the Pra»as, thus I 
am the navel. May hundred-and-onefold evil befall 
him who hates us and whom we hate ; may more 
than hundred-and-onefold merit fall to my lot ! ' 

2. Having spoken there with a person that he 
likes, and having returned to the house, he causes 
her to sacrifice a mess of cooked food. 

3. The wife husks (the rice grains of which that 
Sthallpaka is prepared). 

4. She cooks (that Sthallpaka), sprinkles (Agya) 
on it, takes it from the fire, sacrifices to Agni, and 
then sacrifices to Agni Svish/akWt 

5. With (the remains of) that (Sthallpaka) he en- 
tertains a learned Brihma»a whom he reveres. 

6. To that (Brahma#a) he makes a present of a 

7. From that time he constantly sacrifices (ya^ate) 
on the days of the full and of the new moon a^ mess 
of cooked food sacred to Agni. 

8. In the evening and in the morning he con- 
stantly sacrifices (^uhoti) with his hand (and not 
with the Darvl) the two following oblations of rice or 
of barley: 'To Agni Svaha! To Pra^apati Svaha!' 

9. Some (teachers) state that in the morning the 

5, 6. In the commentary these Sutras are divided thus : 5. tena 
brahmawaw vidyavantaw parivevesh/i ; 6. yo*syapa£ito bhavati 
tasmS rishabham dadati. (5. Therewith he entertains a learned 
Brahmana. 6. To one whom he reveres, he presents a bull.) The 
commentator observes that some authorities make one Sutra of the 
two, so that the Brahmawa who receives the food and the one to 
whom the bull is given, would be the same person. 

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former (of these oblations) should be directed to 

10. Through a period of three nights they should 
eat no saline food, should sleep on the ground, wear 
ornaments, and should be chaste. 

ii. In the fourth night, towards morning, he puts 
wood on the fire, performs the (regular) ceremonies 
down to the (regular) expiatory oblations, and sacri- 
fices nine expiatory oblations (with the following 
Mantras) : 

Pa7"ala 7, Section 24. 

i. 'Agni! Expiation! Thou art expiation. I, the 
Brahmarca, entreat thee, desirous of protection. What 
is terrible in her, drive that away from here. Svaha ! 

' Vayu ! Expiation ! Thou art expiation. I, the 
Brahmaoa, entreat thee, desirous of protection. What 
is blameful in her, drive that away from here. Svaha! 

' Sun ! Expiation ! Thou art expiation. I, the 
Brahma#a, entreat thee, desirous of protection. 
What dwells in her that is death-bringing to her 
husband, drive that away from here. Svaha t 

'Sun! Expiation! &c. 

'Vayu! Expiation! &c. 

'Agni! Expiation! &c. 

'Agni! Expiation! &c. 

'Vayu! Expiation! &c. 

' Sun ! Expiation ! &c.' 

ii. According to the commentary he performs the regular cere- 
monies down to the oblation offered with the Mantra, ' Thus thou, 
Agni ' (see above, I, 3, 5, and compare Piraskara 1, 2, 8). Matri- 
datta says, prayaoiittiparyantam krrtva sa tva*> no Agna ity etadan- 
ta»» krrtva nava prayar&tttr ^uhoti . . . vyahr*'tiparyanta« krrtva 
imam me Varuweti Aatasro (I, 3, 5) hutvaiti jiihoti. 

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1q8 g/s/hya-sOtra of hirawyakesin. 

2. Having sacrificed (these oblations), he then 
pours the remainder as an oblation on her head, 
with (the formulas), ' BhM ! I sacrifice fortune over 
thee. Svaha I Bhuva^ ! I sacrifice glory over thee. 
Svaha ! Suva^ ! I sacrifice beauty over thee. 
Svaha ! Bhur bhuva^ suva^ ! I sacrifice bright- 
ness over thee. Svaha 1 ' 

3. There (near the sacrificial fire) he places a 
water-pot, walks round the fire (and that water-pot) 
keeping his right side turned towards it, makes (the 
wife) lie down to the west of the fire, facing east or 
north, and touches her secret parts, with (the for- 
mula), 'We touch thee with the five-forked, auspi- 
cious, unhostile (?), thousandfoldly blessed, glorious 
hand that thou mayst be rich in offspring ! ' 

4. He then cohabits with her with (the formula), 
4 United is our soul, united our hearts, united our 
navel, united our skin. I will bind thee with the 
bond of love ; that shall be insoluble.' 

5. He then embraces her with (the formula), ' Be 
devoted to me ; be my companion. What dwells in 
thee that is death-bringing to thy husband, that I 
make death-bringing to thy paramours. Bring luck 
to me ; be a sharp-cutting (destroyer) to thy para- 

6. He then seeks her mouth with his mouth, with 
(the two verses), 'Honey! Lo! Honey! This is 
honey ! my tongue's speech is honey ; in my mouth 
dwells the honey of the bee ; on my teeth dwells 

'The (magic charm of) concord that belongs to 
the ^akravaka birds, that is brought out of the 

6. With the first verse comp. Taitt. Szmh. VII, 5, 10, 1 ; Katya- 
yana XIII, 3, 21 ; LS/yayana IV, 3, 18. 

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I PRASNA, 7 PA7ALA, 25 SECTION, I. 1 99 

rivers, of which the divine Gandharva is possessed, 
thereby we are concordant.' 

7. A woman that has her monthly courses, keeps 
through a period of three nights the observances 
prescribed in the Brahmawa. 

8. In the fourth night (the husband) having sipped 
water, calls (the wife) who has taken a bath, who 
wears a clean dress and ornaments, and has spoken 
with a Brahma#a, to himself (with the following 
verses) : 

Pafala 7, Section 25. 

i. (a) ' May Vish»u make thy womb ready ; may 
Tvashtri frame the shape (of the child) ; may Pra^a- 
pati pour forth (the sperm) ; may Dhatr* give thee 
conception ! 

(b) 'Give conception, Sinlvall; give conception, 
Sarasvatl ! May the two A^vins, wreathed with 
lotus, give conception to thee ! 

(c) ' The embryo which the two Asvins produce 
with their golden kindling-sticks: that embryo we 
call into thy womb, that thou mayst give birth to it 
after ten months. 

(d) ' As the earth is pregnant with Agni, as the 
heaven is with Indra pregnant, as Viyu dwells in 
the womb of the regions (of the earth), thus I place 
an embryo into thy womb. 

•j. Taitt. Samhita II, 5, 1, 5. 6 : Therefore one should not speak 
with a woman that has her monthly courses, nor sit together with 
her, nor eat food that she has given him, Ac. 

25, 1 (a-c). Rig-veda X, 184, 1-3; comp. S. B. E., vol. xv, p. 22 1. 

(d-f). .Saftkhayana-Gr*hya I, 19. It should be observed that 
the text of Hirawyakejin has in the beginning of (e) quite the 
same blunder which is found also in the 5ankhayana MSS., yasya 
instead of vyasya. 

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2oo gk/hya-sOtra OF HIRAtfYAKESIN. 

(e) ' Open thy womb ; take in the sperm ; may a 
male child, an embryo be begotten in the womb. 
The mother bears him ten months ; may he be born, 
the most valiant of his kin. 

(f) ' May a male embryo enter thy womb, as an 
arrow the quiver ; may a man be born here, thy son, 
after ten months. 

(g) ' I do with thee (the work) that is sacred to 
Pra^apati ; may an embryo enter thy womb. May 
a child be born without deficiency, with all its limbs, 
not blind, not lame, not sucked out by PLra&is. 

(h) ' By the superior powers which the bulls shall 
produce for us, thereby become thou pregnant ; may 
he be born, the most valiant of his kin. 

(i) ' Indra has laid down in the tree the embryo 
of the sterile cow and of the cow that prematurely 
produces ; thereby become thou pregnant ; be a well- 
breeding cow ' — 

And (besides with the two Mantras), ' United are 
our names ' (above, 24, 4), and, ' The concord of the 
^akravaka birds ' (24, 6). 

2. (He should cohabit with her with the formulas), 
' BhM ! Through Pra^apati, the highest bull, I pour 
forth (the sperm) ; conceive a valiant son, N. N. ! — 
Bhuva^! Through Pragapati, &c. — Suva£! Through 
Pra^apati, &c.' Thus he will gain a valiant son. 

3. The Mantras ought to be repeated whenever 
they cohabit, according to Atreya, 

4. Only the first time and after her monthly 
courses, according to Badaraya»a. 

(g) Comp. Atharva-veda III, 23, 5. The Apastambfya Mantra- 
pa/^a reads (a)piji^adhttaA. 

(h) .Sahkh£yana~Gr»'hya 1, 19, 6 ; Atharva-veda III, 23, 4. 
(i) Comp. Atharva-veda III, 23, 1. 

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i prasna, 7 patala, 26 section, 6. 201 

Patala 7, Section 26 \ 

i. The fire which (the sacrificer keeps) from the 
time of his marriage, is called the Aupasana (or 
sacred domestic fire), 

2. With this fire the sacred domestic ceremonies 
are performed. 

3. On account of his worship devoted to this 
(fire the sacrificer) is considered as an Ahitagni (i. e. 
as one who has set up the .Srauta fires), and on 
account of his fortnightly Aaru sacrifices (on the 
days of the new and full moon) as one who offers 
the sacrifices of the new and full moon (as prescribed 
in the .Srauta ritual) ; so (is it taught). 

4. If (the service at the domestic fire) has been 
interrupted for twelve days, the sacrificer ought to 
set the fire up again. 

5. Or he should count all the sacrifices (that have 
been left out), and should offer them. 

6. (The punar&dhana or repeated setting up of 
the fire is performed in the following way) : in an 
enclosed space, having raised (the surface), sprinkled 
it (with water), strewn it with sand, and covered it 
with Udumbara or Plaksha branches, he silently 
brings together the things belonging to (the sacri- 
fice) according as he is able to get them, produces 
fire by attrition out of a sacrificially pure piece of 
wood, or gets a common fire, places it in a big vessel, 
sets it in a blaze, and puts (fuel) on it with the words, 
'BhM! Bhuva/i! SuvaA! Om! Fixity!' 

1 This chapter is left out in Matrj'datta's commentary ; it seems 
to be a later addition. The division of the Sutras is my own. 

26, 3. For tasyauplsanena I think we should read tasyopa- 

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7. He then puts wood on the fire, performs (the 
rites) down to the Vyahmi oblations, and offers 
two ' minda oblations ' (i. e. oblations for making up 
for defects) with (the two Mantras), ' If a defect 
(minda) has arisen in me/ (and), ' Agni has given 
me back my eye ' (Taitt. Sa/»h. Ill, 2, 5, 4). 

8. He offers three 'tantu oblations' with (the 
Mantras), * Stretching the weft (tantu) ' (Taitt. Sawh. 
Ill, 4, 2, 2), 'Awake, Agni!' (IV, 7, 13, 5), 'The 
thirty-three threads of the weft ' (I, 5, 10, 4). 

9. He offers four 'abhyavartin oblations' with 
(the Mantras), 'Agni who turns to us (abhyavartin) !' 
' Agni Angiras ! ' ' Again with sap,' ' With wealth ' 
(Taitt. Samh. IV. 2, 1, 2. 3). 

10. Having made oblations with the single 
Vyahrztis and with (the three Vyahrrtis together), 
and having made an oblation with the verse, 
'Thou art quick, Agni, and free from imprecation. 
Verily (satyam) thou art quick. Held by us in 
our quick mind (manas), with thy quick (mind) 
thou earnest the offering (to the gods). Being 
quick bestow medicine on us ! Svaha ! ' — this (last) 
oblation contains an allusion to the mind (manas), 
it refers to Pra^apati, and alludes to the number 
seven (?), — he quickly repeats in his mind the dara- 
hotri formula (Taitt. Ara»y. Ill, 1, 1). Then he 
makes the sagraha oblation (?); (then follow the 

10. As to the Mantra, ' Thou art quick, &c.,' comp. above, 1, 1, 3, 
5, and the note on .Sankhayana I, 9, 1 2. I cannot see why the 
oblation made with this Mantra is called saptavati (alluding to the 
number seven) ; possibly we ought to read satyavatt (containing 
the word satyam, 'verily'). Can the words sagrahaw hutv& 
mean, * having performed the worship of the planets (graha) at his 
sacrifice ' ? 

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I PRASNA, 7 PATALA, 26 SECTION, 1 8. 203 

oblations), 'This, O Varu#a' (&c. ; see I, 2, 8, 16, 
down to the end of the Sutra). Then he serves 
food to the Brahma«as and causes them to say, ' An 
auspicious day! Hail! Good luck!' he then per- 
forms in the known way the sacrifice of a mess of 
cooked food to Agni. 

11. Here he gives an optional gift to his Guru; 
a pair of clothes, a milch cow, or a bull. 

12. If he sets out on a journey, he makes the fire 
enter himself or the two kindling-sticks in the way 
that has been described (in the -Srauta-sutra). 

1 3. Or let him make it enter a piece of wood, in 
the same way as into the kindling-sticks. 

14. A piece of Khadira wood, or of Pallsa, or of 
Udumbara, or of Ayvattha wood — 

15. With one of these kinds of wood he fetches, 
where he turns in (on his journey), fire from the 
house of a .Srotriya, and puts the (piece of wood) 
into which his fire has entered, on (that fire), with 
the two verses, ' He who has received the oblations ' 
(Taitt. Sawh. IV, 6, 5, 3), and 'Awake!' (IV, 7, 

16. The way in which he sacrifices has been ex-* 
plained (in the .Srauta-sutra). 

17. If one half-monthly sacrifice has been omitted, 
he should have a sacrifice to (Agni) Pathikm per- 
formed over this (fire). If two (half-monthly 
sacrifices), to (Agni) VaLsvanara and Pathikm. If 
more than two, (the fire) has to be set up again. 

18. If the fire is destroyed or lost, or if it is mixed 
with other fires, it has to be set up again. 

12. Comp. .Sahkh&yana V, 1, 1. 

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Prasna I, Pafala 8, Section 27. 

i. If he will have a house built, he should during 
the northerly course of the sun, in the time of the 
increasing moon, under the constellation Rohiwt and 
under the three constellations designated as Uttara 
(Uttara-Phalgunl, Uttara- Ashaa^a, Uttara-Prosh//£a- 
pada^) put wood on the fire, perform the rites down 
to the Vyahrzti oblations, and should sacrifice with 
(the verses), ' This, O Varu«a ' (&c. ; see I, 2, 8, 16, 
down to the end of the Sutra). Then he serves 
food to the Brahma»as and causes them to say, ' An 
auspicious day! Hail! Good luck!' he puts on a 
garment that has not yet been washed, touches 
water, takes a shovel with (the formula), ' On the 
impulse of the god SavitW (Taitt. Sa/»h. I, 3, 1, 1), 
draws lines thrice from the left to the right round 
(the places where the pits for the posts shall be dug) 
with (the formula), ' A line has been drawn ' (Taitt. 
Sa*»h. I, 3, 1, 1), digs the pits (in which the posts 
shall be erected) as it is fit, and casts the earth (dug 
out of those pits) towards the inside (of the building- 

2. He erects the southern door-post with (the 
verse), ' Here I erect a firm house ; it stands in 
peace, streaming ghee. Thus may we walk in thee, 
O house, blessed with heroes, with all heroes, with 
unharmed heroes ; ' 

3. The northern (door-post) with (the verse), 
'Stand here firmly, O house, rich in horses and 
cows, rich in delight ; rich in sap, overflowing with 
milk be set up, for the sake of great happiness.' 

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4. With (the verse), ' To thee (may) the young 
child (go), to thee the calf with its companion, to thee 
the golden cup ; to thee may they go with pots of 
curds ' — he touches the two posts, after they have 
been erected. 

5. In the same way (Sutras 2. 3) he erects the 
two chief posts, 

6. And touches them as above (Sutra 4). 

7. He fixes the beam of the roof on the posts 
with (the formula), ' Rightly ascend the post, O 
beam, erect, shining, drive off the enemies. Give 
us treasures and valiant sons.' 

8. When the house has got its roof, he touches it 
with (the verse), 

' The consort of honour, a blissful refuge, a goddess, 
thou hast been erected by the gods in the beginning ; 
clothed in grass, cheerful thou art ; bring us bliss, to 
men and animals.' 

9. Then, under the constellation Anuradha, the 
ground (on which the house stands) is expiated (in 
the following way). N 

10. By night he puts wood on the fire in an inner 
room (of the house), performs the rites down to the 
VyahWti oblations, and sacrifices (with the following 
Mantras) : 

Pa7"ala 8, Section 28. 
1. The two verses commencing ' Vastoshpati !' 
(Taitt. Sawh. Ill, 4, 10, 1). 

27, 4. The text has the reading #agata saha ; comp. the note 
on Sahkhayana HI, 2, 9. 

8. Comp. Atharva-veda III, 1 1, 5 ; this text shows the way to 
correct the blunders of the Hirawyakerin MSS. 

28, 1. Comp. Rig-veda VII, 54, a ; Taitt. Brahm. Ill, 7, 14, 4 ; 
Rig-veda X, 18, 1 ; Taitt. Brahm. Ill, 7, 14, 5. 

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' Vastoshpati ! Be our furtherer ; make our 
wealth increase in cows and horses, O Indu (i. e. 
Soma), Free from decay may we dwell in thy 
friendship; give us thy favour, as a father to his 
sons. Svaha ! 

' May death go away ; may immortality come to 
us. May Vivasvat's son (Yama) protect us from 
danger. May wealth, like a leaf (that falls) from 
a tree, fall down over us, May .Sailpati (i. e. Indra) 
be with us. Svaha ! 

' Go another way, O death, that belongs to thee, 
separated from the way of the gods. Vastoshpati ! 
To thee who hears us, I speak : do no harm to our 
offspring nor to our heroes. Svaha ! 

' To this most excellent place of rest we have 
gone, by which we shall victoriously gain cows, 
treasures, and horses, May wealth, like a leaf (that 
falls) from a tree, fall down over us. May .Sa^ipati 
be with us. Svaha ! 

'This, O Varu»a' (&c. ; see chap. 27, Sutra 1, 
down to) : 'Hail ! Good luck ! ' 

2. In this way the ground (on which the house 
stands) should be expiated every year ; 

3. Every season, according to some (teachers). 

Fatala 8, Section 29. 

1. ' House, do not fear, do not tremble; bringing 
strength we come back. Bringing strength, gaining 
wealth, wise I come back to the house, rejoicing in 
my mind. 

' Of which the traveller thinks, in which much joy 

29, i. 5ahkMyana-Gr»hya III, 7, 2 ; Atharva-veda VII, 6o t 

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dwells, the house I call. May it know us as. we 
know it. 

' Hither are called the cows ; hither are called 
goats and sheep ; and the sweet essence of food is 
called hither to our house. 

'Hither are called many friends, the sweet com- 
panionship of friends. May our dwellings always be 
unharmed with all our men. 

' Rich in sap, rich in milk, refreshing, full of joy 
and mirth, free from hunger (?) and thirst, O house, 
do not fear us ' — with (these verses) he approaches 
his house (when returning from a journey). 

2. * To thee I turn for the sake of safety, of peace. 
The blissful one ! The helpful one ! Welfare ! 
Welfare ! ' — with (this formula) he enters. 

3. On that day, on which he has arrived, he 
should avoid all quarrelling. 

4. ' The joyful house I enter which does not 
bring death to men; most manly (I enter) the 
auspicious one. Bringing refreshment, with genial 
minds (we enter the house) ; joyfully I lie down in 
it ' — with (this verse) he lies down. 

5. ' May we find our way with thee through all 
hostile powers, as through streams of water ' — with 
(this verse) he looks at his wife ; he looks at his 

End of the First 

5. Comp. above, chap. 20, Sfitra 5; Rig-veda II, 7, 3. 

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Trash a. II, Fatal a 1, Section 1. 

i. Now (follows) the Simantonnayana (or parting 
of the pregnant wife's hair). 

2. In the fourth month of her first pregnancy, in 
the fortnight of the increasing moon, under an 
auspicious constellation he puts wood on the fire, 
performs the rites down to the Vyahrzti oblations, 
and makes four oblations to Dhatr* with (the verse), 
' May Dhatro' give us wealth ' (and the following 
three verses, Taitt. Sa/»h. Ill, 3, 11, 2. 3). 

3. 'This, O Varu«a ' (&c. ; see I, chap. 27, Sutra 2, 
down to) : ' Hail ! Good luck ! ' 

He then makes the wife who has taken a bath, 
who wears a clean dress and ornaments, and has 
spoken with a Brahma#a, sit down to the west of 
the fire, facing the east, in a round apartment. 
Standing to the east (of the wife), facing the west he 
parts her hair upwards (i.e. beginning from the 
front) with a porcupine's quill that has three white 
spots, holding (also) a bunch of unripe fruits, with 
the Vyahrttis (and) with the two (verses), ' I invoke 
RakaV (and), « Thy graces, O Raka ' (Taitt. Sawh. 
Ill, 3, 11, 5). Then he recites over (his wife the 
formulas), ' Soma alone is our king, thus say the 
Brahma#a tribes, sitting near thy banks, O Ganga, 

1, 3. The corrupt word vivr/tta£akra(A) seems to contain a vo- 
cative fem. referring to Gange — avivr«tta£akra? The Apa- 
stambtya MantrapaV^a reads, vivrrtta£akra Ssinas tire»a jamune 
tava. Comp. Afval&yana I, 14, 7 ; Paraskara I, 15, 8. 

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whose wheel does not roll back (?) ! ' (and), ' May we 
find our way with thee through all hostile powers, as 
through streams of water' (above I, 20, 5). 

Pafala 1, Section 2. 

1. Now (follows) the Puwsavana (i. e. the cere- 
mony for securing the birth of a male child). 

2. In the third month, in the fortnight of the 
increasing moon, under an auspicious constellation 
(&c. ; see the preceding section, Sutras 2 and 3, 
down to :) in a round apartment He gives her a 
barley-grain in her right hand with (the formula), 
' A man art thou ; ' 

3. With (the formula), ' The two testicles are ye,' 
two mustard seeds or two beans, on both sides of 
that barley-grain. 

4. With (the formula), ' .Svavrztat ' (? ^vavnttat ?) 
(he pours) a drop of curds (on those grains). That 
he gives her to eat. 

5. After she has sipped water, he touches her 
belly with (the formula), ' With my ten (fingers) I 
touch thee that thou mayst give birth to a child 
after ten months.' 

6. (He pounds) the last shoot of a Nyagrodha 
trunk (and mixes the powder) with ghee, or a silk- 
worm (and mixes the powder) with a pap prepared 
of panick seeds, or a splinter of a sacrificial post 
taken from the north-easterly part (of that post) 
exposed to the fire, or (he takes ashes or soot [?] of) 

2, 2. Comp. the note on Ajvalayana I, 13, 2. 

6. The translation of this Sutra should be considered merely as 
tentative. Some words of the text are uncertain, and the remarks 
of Matridatta are very incorrectly given in the MSS. 

[30] P 

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a fire that has been kindled by attrition, and inserts 
that into the right nostril of (the wife) whose head 
rests on the widely spread root (of an Udumbara 
tree ?). 

7. If she miscarries, he should three times stroke 
(her body), from the navel upwards, with her wet 
hand, with (the formula), ' Thitherwards, not hither- 
wards, may Tvash/rz bind thee in his bonds. Mak- 
ing (the mother) enter upon the seasons, live ten 
months (in thy mother's womb) ; do not bring death 
to men.' 

8. When her confinement has come, he performs 
the kshipraprasavana (i. e. the ceremony for acce- 
lerating the confinement). Having placed a water- 
pot near her head and a Turyantt plant near her 
feet, he touches her belly. 

Patala 1, Section 3. 

1. ' As the wind blows, as the ocean waves, thus 
may the embryo move ; may it come forth together 
with the after-birth' — with (this verse) he strokes 
(her body) from above downwards. 

2. When the child is born, he lays an axe on a 
stone, and a piece of gold on that axe ; after he has 
turned these things upside down (so that the stone 
lies uppermost), he holds the boy over them with 
(the two verses), 

' Be a stone, be an axe, be insuperable gold. 
Thou indeed art the Veda called son ; so live a 
hundred autumns. 

8. Comp. Apastamba-Gr/'hya VI, 14, 14; Ajvaliyana II, 8, 14; 
IV, 4, 8. 

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II PRAtfNA, I PA7ALA, 3 SECTION, 7. 211 

' From limb by limb thou art produced ; out of 
the heart thou art born. Thou indeed art the self 
(atman) called son ; so live a hundred autumns.' 

3. (The contents of this Sutra are similar to those 
of Paraskara I, 16, 2.) 

4. They take the Aupasana (or regular Grihya) 
fire away, and they bring the Sutikagni (or the fire 
of the confinement). 

5. That (fire) is only used for warming (dishes, 

6. No ceremonies are performed with it except 
the fumigation (see the next Sutra). 

7. He fumigates (the child) with small grains 
mixed with mustard seeds. These he throws into 
the coals (of the Sutikagni) (eleven times, each time 
with one of the following Mantras) : 

(a) ' May Sanda. and Marka, Upavlra, *Sa«dfikera, 
Ulukhala, A'yavana vanish from here. Svaha ! 

(b) 'Alikhat, Vilikhat, Animisha, Kiwvadanta, 
Upamiti. Svaha ! 

(c) ' Aryamwa, Kumbhin, «Satru, Patrapa«i, Ni- 
pu»i. Svaha ! 

(d) ' May Antrlmukha, Sarshaparu«a vanish from 
here. Svaha ! 

(e) ' Kerinl, .Svalomin!, Ba^abo^a, Upaklrinl — ^go 
away, vanish from here. Svaha ! 

(f) ' The servants of Kuvera, Vwvavasa (?), sent 
by the king of demons, all of one common origin, 

3, 7. According to Piraskara (I, 16, 23) this is done daily in the 
morning and in the evening, until the mother gets up from child- 
bed.— Comp. the names of the demons, Piraskara 1, 16, 23. — For 
vikhuram (Mantra i) the Apastambtya MantrapaVAa has vidhuram 
(' distress ' or ' a distressed one '). 

P 2 

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walk through the villages, visiting those who 
wake(?). Svaha! 

(g) ' " Kill them ! Bind them ! " thus (says) this 
messenger of Brahman, Agni has encompassed 
them. Indra knows them ; Brzhaspati knows them ; 
I the Brahmawa know them who seize (men), who 
have prominent teeth, rugged hair, hanging breasts. 

(h) ' The night-walkers, wearing ornaments on 
their breasts, with lances in their hands, drinking 
out of skulls ! Svaha ! 

(i) 'Their father U>k£aiAyravyakar#aka walks (?) 
at their head, their mother walks in the rear, seeking 
a vikhura (?) in the village. Svaha ! 

(k) • The sister, the night-walker, looks at the 
family through the rift (?) — she who wakes while 
people sleep, whose mind is turned on the wife that 
has become mother. Svaha ! 

(1) ' O god with the black path, Agni, burn the 
lungs, the hearts, the livers of those (female demons) ; 
burn their eyes. Svaha ! ' 

8. Then he washes his hands and touches the 
ground with (the verses), ' O thou whose hair is well 
parted ! Thy heart that dwells in heaven, in the 
moon : of that immortality impart to us. May I 
not weep over distress (falling to my lot) through 
my sons. 

' I know thy heart, O earth, that dwells in 
heaven, in the moon : thus may I, the lord of im- 
mortality, not weep over distress (falling to my lot) 
through my sons.' 

9. Now (follows) the medha^anana (or production 

8. Paraskara I, 6, 17. 

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of intelligence). With (an instrument of) gold over 
which he has laid a Darbha shoot tied (to that piece 
of gold) he gives to the child, which is held so that 
it faces the east, ghee to eat, with the formulas, 
' BhM ! I sacrifice the Rikas over thee ! BhuvaA ! 
I sacrifice the Ya^us over thee ! Suva^ ! I sacri- 
fice the Samans over thee ! Bhur bhuva^ suva^ ! 
I sacrifice the Atharvan and Angiras hymns over 
thee ! ' 

io. He then bathes the child with lukewarm 
water with (the following Mantras) : 

' From chronic disease, from destruction, from 
wile, from Varu«a's fetter I release thee. I make 
thee guiltless before the Brahman ; may both 
Heaven and Earth be kind towards thee. 

* May Agni together with the waters bring thee 
bliss, Heaven and Earth together with the herbs ; 
may the air together with the wind bring thee bliss ; 
may the four quarters of the heaven bring thee 

4 Rightly have the gods released the sun from 
darkness and from the seizing demon ; they have 
dismissed him from guilt; thus I deliver this boy 
from chronic disease, from curse that comes from 
his kin, from wile, from Vanma's fetter.' 

ii. He then places the child in his mother's lap 
with (the verse) : 

Patala 1, Section 4. 

i. ' The four divine quarters of the heaven, the 
consorts of Wind, whom the sun surveys : to their 

io. Comp. Atharva-veda II, io; Taitt. Brahm. II, 5, 6. 

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long life I turn thee; may consumption go away 
to destruction ! ' 

2. Having placed (him there) he addresses (his 
wife with the Mantra), ' May no demon do harm to 
thy son, no cow that rushes upon him (?). Mayst 
thou become the friend of treasures; mayst thou 
live in prosperity in thy own way.' 

3. He washes her right breast and makes her 
give it to the child with (the formula), 'May this boy 
suckle long life; may he reach old age. Let thy 
breast be exuberant for him, and life, glory, renown, 
splendour, strength.' 

4. In the same way the left breast. 

5. With (the words), ' He does not suffer, he does 
not cry, when we speak to him and when we touch 
him' — he touches both breasts. Then he places a 
covered water-pot near her head, with (the formula), 
' O waters, watch in the house. As you watch with 
the gods, thus watch over this wife, the mother of a 
good son.' 

6. On the twelfth day the mother and the son 
take a bath. 

7. They make the house clean. 

8. They take the Sutikagni away, and they bring 
the Aupasana fire. 

9. Having put wood on that fire, and having per- 
formed the rites down to the Vyahrzti oblations, 
they sacrifice twelve oblations with the verses, ' May 
Dhatr* give us wealth' (III, 3, 11, 2-5); according 
to some (teachers they make) thirteen (oblations). 

4, 2. I am not certain about the translation of dhenur atisami. 
The Apastambiya Mantrapa//ia has aty&Jarwf. Atisarin means, 
suffering from diarrhoea ; perhaps we should read abhisarinf. 

8. Comp. chap. 3, Sutra 4. 

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10. ' This, O Vanma' (&c. ; see I, chap. 27, Sutra 2, 
down to) : ' Hail ! Good luck ! ' Then let him give 
a name to the child, of two syllables or of four sylla- 
bles, beginning with a sonant, with a semi-vowel in 
it, with a long vowel (or) the Visarga at its end, or 
a name that contains the particle su, for such a 
name has a firm foundation ; thus it is understood. 

1 1. Let the father and the mother pronounce 
(that name) first. For it is understood, ' My name 
first, O Catavedas.' 

12. He should give him two names. For it is 
understood (Taitt. Sawzh. VI, 3, 1, 3), 'Therefore a 
Brahmawa who has two names, will have success.' 

13. The second name should be a Nakshatra 

14. The one name should be secret ; by the other 
they should call him. 

15. He should give him the name Somaya/in 
(i. e. performer of Soma sacrifices) as his third name ; 
thus it is understood. 

16. When he returns from a journey, or when his 
son returns, he touches him with (the formula), 'With 
Soma's lustre I touch thee, with Agni's splendour, 
with the glory of the sun.' 

1 7. With (the formula), ' With the hu/»kara (the 
mystical syllable hum) of the cattle I kiss thee, N. N.! 
For the sake of long life and of glory ! Hum]' he 

1 1 . The verse beginning with ' My name,' &c, contains the 
words, ' which my father and my mother have given me in the 
beginning ' (pitS. m&a ka. dadhatur yad agre). 

13. Comp. Professor Weber's second article, 'Die vedischen 
Nachrichten von den Naxatra' (Abh. der Berliner Akademie), 
pp. 316 seq. 

17. Comp. above, I, 2, 5, 14. 

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kisses his head. Then he seizes with his right hand 
(his son's) right hand together with the thumb, with 
the five sections, ( Agni is long-lived.' 

1 8. 'May Agni bestow on thee long life every- 
where' (Taitt. Samh. I, 3, 14, 4) — this (verse) he 
murmurs in (his son's) right ear as above. 

Patala 1, Section 5. 

1. Then (follows) in the sixth month the Anna- 
prlyana (i. e. the first feeding with solid food). 

2. In the fortnight of the increasing moon, under 
an auspicious constellation, he puts wood on the fire, 
performs the rites down to the VyahWti oblations, 
and sacrifices (with the Mantras), ' This, O Varu»a ' 
(&c. ; see I, chap. 27, Sutra 2, down to) : ' Hail ! 
Good luck ! ' Then he gives (to the child) threefold 
food to eat, curds, honey, and ghee, with (the for- 
mula), ' BhM I lay into thee ! Bhuva^ I lay into 
thee ! Suva^ I lay into thee ! ' 

3. Then he gives him (other) food to eat with 
(the formula), ' I give thee to eat the essence of 
water and of the plants. May water and plants be 
kind towards thee. May water and plants do no 
harm to thee.' 

Pafala 1, Section 6. 

1. In the third year (he performs) the Afua&karman 
(i. e. the tonsure of the child's head). 

2. In the fortnight (&c, as in the preceding section, 
Sutra 2, down to) : ' Hail ! Good luck ! ' The boy 
sits down to the west of the fire, facing the east ; 

18. I, 2, 5, 15; 2,6, 1. 

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3. To the north (of the fire) his mother or a stu- 
dent (brahma^arin) holds a lump of bull's dung ; 

4. Therewith he (or she) receives the (cut-off) 

5. He then pours cold and warm water together. 

6. Having poured warm water into cold water he 
moistens the hair near the right ear with (the for- 
mula), ' May the waters moisten thee for life ' (Taitt. 
Sa/«h. I, 2, 1, 1). 

7. With (the formula), ' Herb, protect him ! ' 
(Taitt. Sa*»h., loc. cit.) he puts an herb, with its 
point upwards, into (the hair). 

8. With (the formula), ' Axe, do no harm to him ! ' 
(Taitt. Sa*»h., loc. cit.) he touches (that herb) with 
the razor. 

9. With (the words), ' Heard by the gods, I shave 
that (hair) ' (Taitt. Sa/«h., loc. cit.) he shaves him. 

10. In the same way (he moistens, &c.) the other 
(sides of his head) from left to right. 

11. Behind with (the Mantra), 'The razor with 
which Savitr*', the knowing one, has shaven (the 
beard) of king Soma and Varu»a, with that, ye 
Brahmattas, shave his (head) ; make that he be 
united with vigour, with wealth, with glory.' 

On the left side with (the Mantra), ' (The razor) 
with which Pushan has shaven (the beard) of Bri- 
haspati, of Agni, of Indra, for the sake of long life, 
with that I shave thy (head), N. N. ! ' 

6, 3, 4. Some consider, according to Matrsdatta, these two 
Sutras as one. He says (p. 149 of Dr. Kirste's edition), uttarata 
ity etadadi pratigr;"h«dtfty etadantaw vi sutram, dharayawzs tenisya 
kejan pratipa/ftitavyam (read, pratigr/hnatiti paMitavyam). 

6. As to dakshiwaw godanam unatti, comp. the note on 
Paraskara II, 1, 9. Comp. also above, I, 3, 9, ia. 

7 seq. See above, I, 3, 9, 13 seq. 

Digitized by 


218 gr/hya-sOtra of hiraatyakesin. 

Before with (the Mantra), ' That he may long live 
in joy, and may long see the sun.' 

12. After the hair has been shaven, they arrange 
the locks (which are left over), according to custom 
or according to what family he belongs. 

1 3. A person who is kindly disposed towards him, 
gathers the (cut-off) hair and buries it in a cow- 
stable, or near an Udumbara tree, or in a clump of 
Darbha grass, with (the Mantra), ' Where Pushan, 
Brzhaspati, Savitri, Soma, Agni (dwell), they have 
in many ways searched where they should depose it, 
between heaven and earth, the waters and heaven.' 

14. He makes a gift to a Brahma«a according to 
his liberality. 

15. To the barber (he gives) boiled rice with 

16. In the same way the God&nakarman (or the 
ceremony of shaving the beard) is performed in the 
sixteenth year. 

17. He has him shaven including the top-lock. 

18. Some declare that he leaves there the top- 

19. Or he performs the Godana sacred to Agni. 

20. He gives a cow to his Guru. 

End of the First Pa/ala. 

13. Comp. I, 3, 9, 18. 

14. Literally, according to his faith (yathifraddham). 

19. Agnigodano vi kumdro bhavati upasamadhanadi puwyaha- 
v&tanantam agnik&ryam iva va bhavatity arthaA. Matrj'datta. 
Comp., however, the note on Apastamba-Grihya VI, 16, 13. 

Digitized by 



Prasna II, Pafala 2, Section 7. 

i. Now (follows) the expiation for attacks of the 
dog-demon (epilepsy) (on the boy). 

2. When the attack assails (the boy, the performer 
of the ceremony) arranges his sacrificial cord over 
his left shoulder, sips water, and fetches water with 
a cup that has not yet been used (in order to pour 
it upon the boy). In the middle of the hall he ele- 
vates (the earth at) that place in which they use to 
gamble ; he besprinkles it with water, casts the dice, 
scatters them (on all sides), makes a heap of them, 
spreads them out, makes an opening in the thatched 
roof of the hall, takes the boy in through that (open- 
ing), lays him on his back on the dice, and pours a 
mixture of curds and salt-water upon him, while they 
beat a gong towards the south. (The curds and water 
are poured on the sick boy with the following Mantras), 

' Kurkura, Sukurkura, the Kurkura with the dark 
fetter .... 

* Sarameya runs about, looking, as it were, upon 
the sea. He, the Suviri«a (?), wears golden orna- 
ments on his neck and on his breast, the most excel- 
lent (ornaments) of dogs (?). 

' Suvlriwa, let him loose ! Let him loose, Ekavratya ! 
Let him loose, doggy ! Let him loose, KhaX. ! 

' Teka and Sasarama/awka and Tula and Vitula 
and the white one and the red one. Let him loose ! 
.... the brown and red one. 

' On those two single ones the sarasyakas (?) run 

7, i. jvagraho * pasm&ra unmattaA Sirameya ity eke. Mitr*'- 
datta. — Comp. Paraskara I, 16, 24; Apastamba VII, 18, 1. 

2. The Mantras are partly unintelligible. As to kurkura 
comp. the note on P&raskara 1, 16, 24. 

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down in the third heaven from here. KAatl Go away. 
Sisarama ! Sirameya ! Adoration to thee, Stsara ! 

' Your mother is called the messenger ; your 
father is the mawdakaka (maw^ukaka, the frog ?). 
A^at ! Go away, &c. 

' Your mother is called dula (the staggering one ?) ; 
your father is the ma#d&kaka. Af^at ! Go away, &c. 

' The stallions (stamp with) their feet. Do not 
gnash (?) thy teeth. A*^at ! Go away, &c. 

'The carpenter hammers at (the chariots) that 
have wheels (?). Do not gnash (?) thy teeth. .Oat ! 
Go away,' &c. 

3. Then (the performer of the ceremony) says, 
' Choose a boon.' 

4. (The father or brother of the boy replies), ' I 
choose the boy.' 

5. They should do so, when the attack assails 
him, three times in the day, in the morning, at noon, 
and in the afternoon, and when he has recovered. 

End of the Second Pa/ala. 

Prasna II, PArALA 3, Section 8. 

1. Now (follows) the sacrifice of the sulagava (or 
spit-ox, for propitiating Rudra and averting plague 
in cattle). 

2. In the fortnight of the increasing moon, under 
an auspicious constellation, he puts wood on the fire, 
strews (Darbha grass) on the entire surface around 
the fire, cooks a mess of sacrificial food with milk, 

5. There can be little doubt as to the correctness of the reading 
agadaA instead of agataA. 

8, 1. Comp. Ajvalayana IV, 8; Paraskara III, 8; Apastamba 
VII, 20. 

Digitized by 


II PRAtfNA, 3 PATALA, 8 SECTION, 7. 221 

sprinkles it (with A^ya), takes it from the fire, builds 
two huts to the west of the fire, and has the spit-ox 
led to the southerly (hut) with (the verse), ' May the 
fallow steeds, the harmonious ones, bring thee 
hither, together with the white horses, the bright, 
wind-swift, strong ones, that are as quick as thought. 
Come quickly to my offering, .Sarva ! Om ! ' 

3. To the northerly (hut he has) the 'bountiful 
one ' (led) ; — (i. e. the consort of the spit-ox) ; 

4. To the middle (between the two huts) the 
' conqueror ' (i. e. a calf of those two parents). 

5. He gives them water to drink in the same 
order in which they have been led (to their places), 
prepares three messes of boiled rice, 'spreading 
under' and sprinkling (A^ya) on them, and touches 
(the three beasts with those portions of rice) in the 
order in which they have been led (to their places), 
with (the Mantras), 'May he, the bountiful one, 
touch it. To the bountiful one svaha ! May she, 
the bountiful one, touch it. To the bountiful one 
svaha ! May the conqueror touch it. To the con- 
queror svaha !' 

6. After he has performed (the rites) down to the 
Vyahrzti oblations, he takes the messes of boiled 
rice (to the fire) and sacrifices them (the first with 
the Mantra), 

' To the god Bhava svaha ! To the god Rudra 
svaha! To the god .Sarva svaha! To the god 
Isana . . . PaAipati . . . Ugra . . . Bhima svaha ! To 
the great god svaha ! ' 

7. Then he sacrifices the consort's rice to the con- 
sort (of Rudra, with the Mantra), 'To the consort 

3, 4. The text has mi<Mushtm, ^ayantam. 

Digitized by 



of the god Bhava svaha ! To the consort of the god 
Rudra . . . .Sarva . . . Isana . . . Pampati . . . Ugra . . . 
Bhima ... of i he great god svaha ! ' 

8. Then he sacrifices of the middle portion of rice 
with (the Mantra), ' To the conqueror svaha ! To 
the conqueror svaha ! ' 

9. Then he cuts off from all the three portions of 
rice and sacrifices the Svish/akrzt oblation with (the 
Mantra), ' To Agni Svish/akm svaha ! ' 

10. Around that fire they place their cows so that 
they can smell the smell of that sacrifice. 

11.' With luck may they walk round our full 
face' — with (these words) he walks round all (the 
objects mentioned, viz. the fire, the three beasts, and 
the other cows), so as to turn his right side towards 
them, and worships (the sulagava) with the (eleven) 
Anuvakas, ' Adoration to thee, Rudra, to the wrath ' 
(Taitt. Sa*»h. IV, 5), or with the first and last of 

PArALA 3, Section 9. 

1. Now follows the distribution of Palara leaves 
(at different places). 

2. ' Protector of the house, touch them ! To the 
protector of the house svaha ! Protectress of the 

3 ■ — ■ — ■ — ■ — - — - — ' — ■ — 

9, 1. The text has bau</Ayavihira, on which the commentary 
observes, baudiyani pallrapar»£ni, tesh£« viharo viharawaw nini- 
dereshu sth&panaw baiw/AyavMraA, karmanima va. The baudiya- 
vihira is, as its description clearly shows, a ceremony for propi- 
tiating Rudra and his hosts and for averting evil from the cattle 
and the fields. The commentary understands it as forming part 
of the jfilagava described in chap. 8, and with this opinion it would 
agree very well that no indication of the time at which the bau<//4ya- 
vihara ought to be performed (such as Spuryamawapakshe piwye 
nakshatre) is given. Comp. also Apastamba VII, 20, 5 seq. 

Digitized by 



house, touch them ! To the protectress of the house 
svihi ! Protector of the door, touch them ! To the 
protector of the door svihi ! Protectress of the door, 
touch them ! To the protectress of the door svihi ! ' — 
with (these formulas) he puts down four leaves; (then 
other leaves) with (the formulas), ' Noisy ones, touch 
them ! To the noisy ones svihi ! Quivered ones . . . 
ye that run in the rear . . . Minglers (?)... Choosers 
. . . Eaters, touch them ! To the eaters svihi ! ' — 

3. Then again ten (leaves) with (the formula), 
' Divine hosts, touch them ! To the divine hosts 
svihi ! ' 

4. Then other ten (leaves) with (the formula), 
' Divine hosts that are named and that are not 
named, touch them ! To them svihi ! ' 

5. Then he makes a basket of leaves, puts into it 
a lump of boiled rice with an ' under-spreading ' (of 
A^ya) and sprinkling (A^ya) on it, goes outside his 
pasture-grounds, and hangs (the basket) up at a tree 
with (the formula), ' Quivered ones, touch it ! To 
the quivered ones svihi ! ' 

6. He then performs worship (before that basket) 
with (the formula), ' Adoration to the quivered one, 
to him who wears the quiver ! To the lord of the 
thieves adoration ! ' 

7. With sandal salve, suri and water, unground, 
fried grains, cow-dung, with a bunch of durvi grass, 
with Udumbara, Palisa, .Saml, Vikahkata, and 

5. I have translated avadhaya (instead of avaddya), as Apa- 
stamba VII, 20, 7 reads. 

6. Taittirtya Sawhita IV, 5, 3, 1. Of course the god to whom 
these designations refer is Rudra. 

7. The commentary explains surodaka as rain-water, or. as rain- 
water which has fallen while the sun was shining. 

Digitized by 


224 gwhya-sOtra of hiranyakesin. 

A^vattha (branches), and with a cow-tail he be- 
sprinkles his cows, the bull first, with (the words), 
' Bring luck ! Bring luck ! ' Then (the bull) will 
bring him luck. 

8. He then cooks that mess of sacrificial food, 
sacred to Kshetrapati (the lord of the field), with 
milk, sprinkles it (with A^ya), takes it from the fire, 
and performs a sacrifice to Kshetrapati on the path 
where his cows use to go, without a fire, on four or 
on seven leaves. 

9. He has him (i. e. the Kshetrapati ? an ox repre- 
senting Kshetrapati ?) led (to his place) in the same 
way as the sulagava (chap. 8, § 2). 

10. He sacrifices quickly, (for) the god has a 
strong digestion (?). 

11. He then performs worship with (the two 
verses), ' With the lord of the field,' ' Lord of the 
field ' (Taitt. Sazwh. I, 1, 14, 2. 3). 

1 2. Of (the remains of that sacrificial food) sacred 
to Kshetrapati his uterine relations should partake, 
according as the custom of their family is. 

End of the Third Pa/ala. 

8. Matndatta says, kshaitrapatyam kshetrapatidevatakaw payasi 
sthalipakam, &c. The meaning of the expression 'that (enam) 
mess of sacrificial food ' is doubtful ; the commentary says, enam 
iti purv&peksham purvavad aupasana ev&sydpi .rrapanartham. — The 
last words (on four or on seven leaves) the commentator transfers 
to the next Sutra, but he mentions the different opinion of other 

10. nurtte rfghram ya^ate. kutaA. yataA sa devaA pakaA pa£a- 
narilas tfkshmas (read, tikshwas) tasm&t. Mitr*'datta. — Possibly 
Dr. Kirste is right in reading turtaw ; the corresponding Sutra of 
Apastamba has kshipram (VII, 20, 15), and, as the .Satapatha 
Brahmana (VI, 3, 2, 2) observes, ' yad vai kshipram tat turtam.' 

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II PRA5NA, 4 PAFALA, 10 SECTION, 5. 225 

Prajna II, PArALA 4, Section 10. 

i. On the new-moon day, in the afternoon, or on 
days with an odd number in the dark fortnight the 
monthly (vSraddha is performed). 

2. Having prepared food for the Fathers and 
having arranged southward-pointed Darbha grass 
as seats (for the Brahma«as whom he is going to 
invite), he invites an odd number of pure Brahma»as 
who are versed in the Mantras, with no deficient 
limbs, who are not connected with himself by con- 
sanguinity or by their Gotra or by the Mantras, (such 
as his teacher or his pupils). 

3. In feeding them he should not look at any 
(worldly) purposes. 

4. Having put wood on the fire and strewn south- 
ward pointed and eastward-pointed Darbha grass 
around it, having prepared the A/ya in an Afya pot 
over which he has laid one purifier, having sprinkled 
water round (the fire) from right to left, and put a 
piece of Udumbara wood on (the fire), he sacrifices 
with the (spoon called) Darvi which is made of 
Udumbara wood. 

5. Having performed the rites down to the A^ya- 
bhaga offerings, he suspends his sacrificial cord over 
his right shoulder and calls the Fathers (to his sacri- 
fice) with (the verse), 'Come hither, O Fathers, 
friends of Soma, on your hidden, ancient paths, 
bestowing on us offspring and wealth and long life, 
a life of a hundred autumns.' 

10, 1. Comp. .SSftkhSyana IV, i ; Jbval&yana II, 5, 10 seq. ; 
IV, 7 ; Paraskara III, 10 ; Gobhila IV, 3. 
4. Comp. above, I, 1, 1, 11 seq. 27; 2, 7 seq. 

[30] Q 

Digitized by 



6. He sprinkles water in the same direction (i. e. 
towards the south) with (the verse), ' Divine waters, 
send us Agni. May our Fathers enjoy this sacrifice. 
May they who receive their nourishment every 
month bestow on us wealth with valiant heroes.' 

7. Having performed the rites down to the 
VyahWti oblations with his sacrificial cord over his 
left shoulder, he suspends it over his right shoulder 
and sacrifices with (the following Mantras) : 

' To Soma with the Fathers, svadha ! Adoration ! 

' To Yama with the Ahgiras and with the Fathers, 
svadha ! Adoration ! 

' With the waters that spring in the east and those 
that come from the north : with the waters, the sup- 
porters of the whole world, I interpose another 
one between (myself and) my father. Svadha ! 
Adoration ! 

' I interpose (another one) through the mountains; 
I interpose through the wide earth; through the 
sky and the points of the horizon, through infinite 
bliss I interpose another one between (myself and) 
my grandfather. Svadha ! Adoration ! 

' I interpose (another one) through the seasons, 
through days and nights with the beautiful twilight. 
Through half-months and months I interpose another 
one between (myself and) my great-grandfather. 
Svadha ! Adoration ! ' 

Then he sacrifices with their names : ' To N. N. 
svadha! Adoration! To N.N. svadha ! Adoration!' 

6. Comp. Atharva-veda XVIII, 4, 40. 

7. Comp. .SankhSyana III, 13, 5. The translation there given 
of the words anyam antaA pitur dadhe ought to be changed 
accordingly. — For abhur anyopapadyat&m read matur anyo 
svapadyatim as .Sahkhayana has. 

Digitized by 



' Wherein my mother has done amiss, abandoning 
her duty (towards her husband), may my father 
take that sperm as his own ; may another one fall 
off from the mother. Svadha ! Adoration ! ' 

In the same way a second and a third verse with 
the alteration of the Mantra, ' Wherein my grand- 
mother,' ' Wherein my great-grandmother.' 

Patala 4, Section 11. 

i. 'The Fathers who are here and who are not 
here, and whom we know and whom we do not 
know: Agni, to thee they are known, how many 
they are, (S&tavedas. May they enjoy what thou 
givest them in our oblation. Svadha ! Adoration ! 

'Your limb that this flesh-devouring (Agni) has 
burnt, leading you to the worlds (of the Fathers), (^ata- 
vedas, that I restore to you again. Unviolated with 
all your limbs arise, O Fathers! Svadha! Adoration ! 

'Carry the A/ya, (Jatavedas, to the Fathers, 
where thou knowest them resting afar. May streams 
of A^ya flow to them ; may their wishes with all 
their desires be fulfilled ! Svadha ! Adoration !' 

In the same way a second and a third verse with 
the alteration of the Mantra, ' to the grandfathers,' 
' to the great-grandfathers.' 

2. In the same way he sacrifices of the food, 
altering the Mantra, ' Carry the food, &c.' 

3. Then he sacrifices the Svish/akrzt oblation 

11, 1. Rig-veda X, 15, 13; Atharva-veda XVIII, 4, 64; Axva- 
layana-Gr/hya II, 4, 13, &c. Before the verse, ' Carry the Agyz,' 
the Udffyas, as M&trt'datta states, insert the words, 'He then 
makes oblations of A^-ya (with the Mantra, &c.).' According to 
this reading the words of the second Sutra, ' In the same way, &c.,' 
would refer only to these last oblations. 

Q 2 

Digitized by 


228 gk/hya-sOtra of hiranyakesin. 

with (the formula), ' To Agni Kavyavahana Svish- 
/akn't svadha ! Adoration ! ' 

4. He then touches the food with (the formulas), 
' The earth is thy vessel, the heaven is the lid. I 
sacrifice thee into the Brahman's mouth. I sacrifice 
thee into the up-breathing and down-breathing of 
the Brahma«as. Thou art imperishable ; do not 
perish for the Fathers yonder, in yon world ! The 
earth is steady ; Agni is its surveyor in order that 
what has been given may not be lost. 

' The earth is thy vessel, the heaven is the lid, 
&c. Do not perish for the grandfathers yonder, 
in yon world. The air is steady ; Vayu is its sur- 
veyor, in order that what has been given may 
not be lost 

' The earth is thy vessel, the heaven is the lid, 
&c. Do not perish for the great-grandfathers 
yonder, in yon world. The heaven is steady ; Aditya 
is its surveyor, in order that what has been given 
may not be lost.' 

5. With (the words), ' I establish myself in the 
breath and sacrifice ambrosia/ he causes the Brih- 
ma«as to touch (the food). 

Pa7ala 4, Section 12. 

1. While they are eating, he looks at them with 
(the words), 'My soul (atman) dwells in the Brahman 
that it may be immortal.' 

2, When they have eaten (and go away), he goes 
after them and asks for their permission to take the 
remains of their meal (for the rites which he is going 

5. Comp. Taittiriya Ara*yaka X, 34. 

Digitized by 


II PRA*NA, 4 PAFALA, 12 SECTION, 5. 22$ 

to perform). Then he takes a water-pot and a hand- 
ful of Darbha grass, goes forth to a place that lies in 
a south-easterly intermediate direction, spreads the 
Darbha grass out with its points towards the south, 
and pours out on that (grass) with downward-turned 
hands, ending in the south, three handfuls of water, 
with (the formulas), ' May the fathers, the friends of 
Soma, wipe themselves ! May the grandfathers . . . 
the great-grandfathers, the friends of Soma, wipe 
themselves!' or, ' N. N. ! Wash thyself! N. N. ! 
Wash thyself!' 

3. On that (grass) he puts down, with downward- 
turned hands, ending in the south, the lumps (of 
food for the Fathers). To his father he gives his 
lump with (the words), ' This to thee, father, N. N. ! ' 
to the grandfather with (the words), ' This to thee, 
grandfather, N. N. ! ' to the great-grandfather with 
(the words), 'This to thee, great-grandfather, N. N.!' 
silently a fourth (lump). This (fourth lump) is 

4. Should he not know the names (of the ancestors), 
he gives the lump to the father with (the words), 
' Svadha to the Fathers who dwell on the earth,' to 
the grandfather with (the words), ' Svadha to the 
Fathers who dwell in the air,' to the great-grandfather 
with (the words), ' Svadha to the Fathers who dwell 
in heaven.' 

5. Then he gives, corresponding to each lump, 
collyrium and (other) salve and (something that 
represents) a garment 

3. According to the commentary after each formula the words 
are added, 'and to those who follow thee;' comp. Taitt. Sa/wh. I, 
9, 5. 1 5 HI, 2, 5, 5; Katy.-Sraut. IV, 1, ia. 

Digitized by 



6. The collyrium (he gives), saying three times, 
•Anoint thy eyes, N. N. ! Anoint thy eyes, N. N. ! ' 

7. The salve, saying three times, ' Anoint thyself, 
N.N.! Anoint thyself, N.N.!' 

8. With (the formula), 'These garments are for 
you, O Fathers. Do not seize upon anything else 
that is ours,' he tears off a skirt (of his garment) or 
a flake of wool and puts that down (for the Fathers), 
if he is in the first half of his life. 

9. He tears out some hairs of his body, if in the 
second half. 

10. Then he washes the vessel (in which the food 
was of which he had offered the lumps), and sprin- 
kles (the water with which he has washed it), from 
right to left round (the lumps) with (the Mantra), 
' These honey-sweet waters, bringing refreshment to 
children and grandchildren, giving sweet drink and 
ambrosia to the Fathers, the divine waters refresh 
both (the living and the dead), these rivers, abound- 
ing in water, covered with reeds, with beautiful 
bathing-places; may they flow up to you in yon 
world I ' Then he turns the vessel over, crosses his 
hands so that the left hand becomes right and the 
right hand becomes left, and worships (the Fathers) 
with the formulas of adoration, ' Adoration to you, 
O Fathers, for the sake of sap' (Taitt Samh. Ill, 

2, 5. 5). 

1 1 . Then he goes to the brink of some water and 
pours down three handfuls of water (with the follow- 
ing Mantras) : 

6 seq. A fourth time he gives the same thing silently; comp. 
Sutra 3. 

8, 9. If his age is under fifty years or over fifty years (M&tri- 
datta; comp. the commentary on KatySyana-SVaut. IV, 1, 17. 18). 

Digitized by 


II PRAtfNA, 4 PArALA, 1 3 SECTION, 5. 23 1 

PArALA 4, Section 13. 

i. 'This is for thee, father, this honey-sweet wave, 
rich in water. As great as Agni and the earth are, 
so great is its measure, so great is its might. As 
such a great one I give it. As Agni is imperishable 
and inexhaustible, thus may it be imperishable and 
inexhaustible, sweet drink to my father. By that 
imperishable (wave), that sweet drink, live thou to- 
gether with those, N. N. ! The Rikas are thy might 

' This is for thee, grandfather, &c. ... As great 
as Vayu and the air are ... As Vayu is imperish- 
able ... to my grandfather. . . . The Ya^iis are thy 

' This is for thee, great-grandfather, &c. ... As 
great as Aditya and the heaven are . . . The 
Samans are thy might.' 

2. Returning (from the place where he has per- 
formed the Yxndz. offerings) he puts the substance 
cleaving (to the Sthalt) into the water-pot and pours 
it out, with (the verse), 'Go away, O Fathers, 
friends of Soma, on your hidden, ancient paths. 
After a month return again to our house and eat 
our offerings, rich in offspring, in valiant sons.' 

3. Thereby the (.Sraddha) celebrated in the middle 
of the rainy season has been declared. 

4. There (oblations of) flesh are prescribed ; 

5. Of vegetables, if there is no flesh. 

End of the Fourth Pa/ala. 

3. MadhySvarsham. Comp. the note on Sankhayana III, 
13. i- 

Digitized by 



Prasna II, Patala 5, Section 14. 

Tt. We shall explain (the festival of) the Ash/aka. 

2. The eighth day of the dark fortnight that 
follows after the full moon of Magha* is called 

3. On the day before that Ash/aka, under (the 
Nakshatra) Anuradhas, in the afternoon he puts 
wood on the fire, strews southward-pointed and east- 
ward-pointed Darbha grass around it, and turns rice 
out of four shallow cups over which he has laid one 
purifier, with (the Mantra), ' I turn out, impelled by 
the god Savitrz, this cake prepared from four cups 
(of rice), which may drive away all suffering from the 
Fathers in the other world. On the impulse of the 
god Savitrz, with the arms of the two A^vins, with 
Pushan's hands I turn thee out, agreeable to the 
fathers, the grandfathers, the great-grandfathers.' 

4. With the same purifier he silently strains the 
Proksha»l water; he silently sprinkles (with that 
water the rice and the vessels), silently husks (the 
rice), silently bakes it in four dishes like a Puroa&ya, 
sprinkles (A|ya) on it, takes it from the fire, sprin- 
kles (water) round (the fire) from right to left, and 
puts a piece of Udumbara wood on (the fire). With 
the (spoon called) Darvi which is made of Udumbara 
wood, he cuts off in one continual line which is 
directed towards south-east, (the Avadana portions) 

14, 1. Hirawyakejin describes only one Ash/aid, the Ekish/aka, 
while the other texts speak of three or four Ash/akSs ; comp. the 
quotations in the note on .S&nkhayana III, 12, 1. 

4. The rules of the 5rauta ritual regarding the baking of the 
Puro</lra are given by Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, 
P- 43- 

Digitized by 


II PRAtfNA, 5 PAFALA, 1 4 SECTION, 7. 233 

one after the other, spreading under and sprinkling 
over them (A^ya), and sacrifices them, one after the 
other, in one continual line which is directed towards 
south-east, with (the Mantras), 'The mortars, the 
pressing-stones have made their noise, preparing the 
annual offering. Ekash/aka! May we be rich in 
offspring, in valiant sons, the lords of wealth. Svadha ! 
Adoration ! 

' God Agni ! The cake which is prepared with 
ghee and accompanied by (the word) svadha, that 
the Fathers may satiate themselves — (this our) 
offering carry duly, Agni. I, the son, sacrifice an 
oblation to my fathers. Svadha ! Adoration ! 

' Here is a cake, Agni, prepared from four cups 
(of rice), with ghee, rich in milk, in wealth, in pros- 
perity. May the Fathers gladly accept it all toge- 
ther ; may it be well sacrificed and well offered by 
me. Svadha ! Adoration ! ' 

5. Then he makes oblations of (other) food with 
(the verses), ' The one who shone forth as the first,' 
' The Ekash/aka, devoting herself to austerities,' 
'She who shone forth as the first' (Taitt. Sawhita 
IV, 3, 11, 1. 3. 5). 

6. Cutting off (the Avadanas destined for the 
Svish/akWt oblation) together from the cake and 
from the (other) food and mixing them with clarified 
butter, he makes an oblation thereof with (the for. 
mula), ' To Agni Kavyavahana Svish/ak^'t svadha ! 
Adoration ! ' 

7. That (cake) with ghee and honey and with the 
food (mentioned in Sutras 5. 6) he touches in the 
way prescribed for the .Sraddha ceremony and puts 

7. Comp. above, chap. 11, 4; 12, 2 seq. 

Digitized by 



down lumps (of it) according to the ritual of the 
Pi«^a offerings. 

8. (The remains of) that (cake, &c.) he serves to 
learned Brahmaoas. 

9. He gives them food and presents as at the 
.Sraddha ceremony. 

10. The known (rites) down to the pouring out 
of the handfuls of water (are performed here) as at 
the monthly (.Sraddha). 

Patala 5, Section 15. 

1. On the following day he sacrifices a cow to the 

2. Having put wood on the fire and strewn south- 
ward-pointed and eastward-pointed Darbha grass 
around it, he sacrifices the oblation for the touching 
of the animal (see below), with (the verse), ' This 
cow I touch for the Fathers ; may my assembled 
fathers gladly accept it (which is offered) with fat 
and ghee, with the word svadha ; may it satiate my 
fathers in the other world. Svadha ! Adoration ! ' 
Then he touches (the cow) with one (blade of) 
sacrificial grass and with an unforked Vapasrapawt 
of Udumbara wood, with (the formula), 'I touch 
thee agreeable to the Fathers.' 

3. He sprinkles (the cow with water) with (the 
words), ' I sprinkle thee agreeable to the Fathers.' 

4. When it has been sprinkled and fire has been 

10. See above, chap. 12, 13. 

15, 2. On the Vapajrapawi, comp. KStyayana VI, 5, 7 ; Afval.- 
Grihya I, 11, 8. Comp. besides, Taitt. Sarah. VI, 3, 6; Apa- 
stamba-^rauta-sfltra VII, 8, 3 ; 1 2, 5 seq. 

4. The Udifyas read, as MStr/datta states, 'to the south of 
the fire.' 

Digitized by 


II PRAJNA, 5 PAfALA, 1 5 SECTION, 9. 235 

carried round it, they kill it to the west of the fire, its 
head being turned to the west, its feet to the south. 

5. After it has been killed, he silently 'strengthens' 
its sense-organs (by touching them) with water, and 
silently takes out the omentum, the heart, and the 

6. With the Vapajrapani of Udumbara wood he 
roasts the omentum ; with spits of Udumbara wood 
the other (parts mentioned in Sutra 5) separately. 

7. After he has roasted them, and has sprinkled 
Ajya over them, and has taken them from the fire, 
he sprinkles water round (the fire) from right to left, 
puts a piece of Udumbara wood on (the fire), and 
sacrifices with a Darvi spoon of Udumbara wood 
the omentum, spreading under and sprinkling over 
it (A^ya), with (the verse), 'Carry the omentum, 
Gatavedas, to the Fathers, where thou knowest 
them resting afar. May streams of fat flow to them ; 
may their wishes with all their desires be fulfilled. 
Svadha! Adoration!' 

8. He sacrifices the omentum entirely. The other 
parts (Sutra 5) he should offer to the Brahma»as 
and should feed them (with those parts of the cow). 

9. When the food (for the Brahmawas) is ready, 
he cuts off (the Avadanas) together from the mess 
of boiled rice, and from the pieces of meat, and 
mixing them with clarified butter he makes oblations 

5. On the ' strengthening ' of the sense-organs of an immolated 
victim, comp. Apastamba-.Srauta-sutra VII, 18, 6 seq. Schwab, 
Thieropfer, no. — On matasne, see Indische Studien, IX, 248; 
Schwab 127. 

8. Possibly the reading of the Udtfyas indicated by Mdtndatta, 
vyikr/'tya instead of upakri'tya, is correct. The translation 
would be, ' With the rest, distributing it, &c.' 

Digitized by 


236 gk/hya-sOtra of hirawyakesin. 

thereof with the verses, ' Behold the Ekash&ika, the 
giver of food with meat and ghee, (which is offered) 
with (the word) svadha. By the Brahma#as that 
food is purified. May it be an imperishable (bless- 
ing) to me ! Svadha ! Adoration ! ' 

' The Ekash/aka, devoting herself to austerities, 
the consort of the year, exuberant (with milk), has 
poured forth milk. May you live on that milk, O 
Fathers, all together. May this (food) be well 
Offered and well sacrificed by me ! Svadha 1 Adora- 

' The image of the year ' (Taitt Sawh. V, 7, 2, 1). 

10. After he has sacrificed, he cuts off (the Ava- 
danas) from the food and from the pieces of meat, 
and mixing them with clarified butter he makes an 
oblation with (the formula), ' To Agni Kavyavahana 
Svish/akrst svadha ! Adoration ! ' 

1 1. The known (rites) down to the pouring out of 
the handfuls of water (are performed here) as at the 
monthly (.Sraddha). 

1 2. The gifts of food and presents, however, are 
not necessary here. 

13. On the following day, he prepares food for 
the Fathers with the rest of the meat, and sacrifices 
with (the two verses), ' Thou, Agni, art quick/ (and), 
' Pra^apati !' (see above, I, 1,3, 5). 

14. ( = Sutra 11). 

End of the Fifth Pafela. 

11. See above, chap. 14, 10. 

12. See chap. 14, 9. 

13. This is the so-called Anvash/akya ceremony. 

Digitized by 



Prasna II, Patala 6, Section 16. 

i. Now (follows) the «Srava#4 ceremony, 

2. On the day of that full moon which falls under 
(the Nakshatra) .Sravawa, after the evening Agni- 
hotra he puts wood on the (third of the three .Srauta 
fires, called the) Dakshi«agni. One who has not 
set up the (6rauta) fires, (does the same with) the 
sacred domestic fire. 

3. Then he procures unbroken grains, unbroken 
fried grains, coarsely ground grains, (leaves and 
blossoms) of the Kimsuka. tree, collyrium and (other) 
salve, and Afya. 

4. Having 'spread under' (A^ya) in the (spoon 
called) Darvi, he cuts off (the Avadanas) of those 
kinds of food (mentioned in Sutra 3), mixes them 
with clarified butter, and sacrifices (with the for- 
mulas), ' Adoration to Agni the terrestrial, the lord 
of terrestrial beings ! Sv£ha ! Adoration to Vayu 
the all-pervading, the lord of aerial beings ! Svaha I 
Adoration to Surya, the red one, the lord of celestial 
beings ! SvdhA ! Adoration to Vish»u, the whitish 
one, the lord of the beings that dwell in the quarters 
(of the world). Svaha!' 

5. He anoints the Kimsuka. (flowers and leaves) 
with A^ya, and sacrifices with (the Mantras), ' De- 
voured is the gadfly ; devoured is thirst (?) ; devoured 
is the stinging worm.' ' Devoured is the stinging 
worm; devoured is thirst; devoured is the gadfly,' 

5. I am not sure about the translation of vi£ash/l. Perhaps it is 
only a blunder for vit/v'sh/i, which is the reading of the Apastam- 
bfya Mantrap&rta. Comp. Winternitz, Der Sarpabali, ein altin- 
discher Schlangencult (Wien, 1888), p. 28. 

Digitized by 


238 gk/hya-sOtra op hirajvyakestn. 

' Devoured is thirst ; devoured is the gadfly ; de- 
voured is the stinging worm.' 

6. He takes a water-pot and a handful of Darbha 
grass, goes forth, his face turned towards the east, 
spreads the Darbha grass out with its points towards 
the east, and makes four Bali-offerings on that (grass) 
with (the formulas), ' To the terrestrial Serpents I 
offer this Bali,' ' To the aerial, &c. ; to the celestial, 
&c. ; to the Serpents dwelling in the quarters (of the 
world),' &c 

7. Having given there collyrium and (other) salve 
(to the Serpents), he worships them with the Man- 
tras, ' Adoration be to the Serpents ' (Taitt. Sawhita 
IV, 2, 8, 3). 

8. He should take a water-pot and should at that 
distance in which he wishes the serpents not to 
approach, three times walk round his house, turning 
his right side towards it, and should sprinkle water 
round it with (the formulas), ' Beat away, O white 
one, with thy foot, with the fore-foot and with the 
hind-foot, these seven human females and the three 
(daughters) of the king's tribe. 

' Within the dominion of the white one the Serpent 
has killed nobody. To the white one, the son of 
Vidarva, adoration ! 

' Adoration to the white one, the son of Vidarva ! ' 

9. Then he worships the Serpents towards the 
different regions, one by one with (the corresponding 
section of) these Mantras, ' The convergent one thou 
art called, the eastern region ' (Taitt. Sa/»h. V, 5, 10, 
1 seq.). 

8. Comp. Paraskara II, 14, 19. In the first Mantra I read 
ra^abandhavM ; comp. the note on Par. II, 14, 4. 

Digitized by 


II PRASNA, 7 PA7ALA, 1 7 SECTION, 2. 239 

io. From that time he daily makes the Bali- 
offerings till the full-moon day of Margarlrsha. 

ii. Here the Kiwmika offerings (see $ 5) are not 

12. The sprinkling (of water) round (the house) 
does not take place (see § 8). 

13. The last Bali he offers with (the words), 
' Going to acquit myself, going to acquit myself.' 

End of the Sixth Pa/ala. 

Prasna II, Pa7ala 7, Section 17. 

1. We shall explain the Agrahaya»l ceremony. 

2. On the full-moon day of Margartrsha he puts 
wood on the fire, strews (Darbha grass) on the en- 
tire surface round the fire, cooks a mess of sacrificial 
food with milk, sprinkles it (with A^ya), takes it 
from the fire, performs the rites down to the Vyahrxti 
oblations, and sacrifices (four oblations) with (the 
following Mantras) : 

' This offering, the creeping of \dk, rich in ghee, 
moving and not moving, accept gladly, O (^atavedas. 

13. Some authorities understand, as Matndatta states, that he 
should offer the Bali only with the words as they stand in the 
Sutra, others prescribe the formula (comp. § 6) : 'To the terrestrial 
(aerial, &c.) Serpents I offer this Bali going to acquit myself, going 
to acquit myself.' 

17, 1. Comp. on the Agrahayawf ceremony .Sankhayana IV, 17 ; 
Paraskara III, 2, &c. ; Winternitz, Sarpabali, 32 seq. 

2. The first Mantra is very corrupt ; comp. Atharva-veda III, 
10, 6. Regarding the legend of I<fa, who was procreated out of 
Manu's Paka-sacrifice, and ' came forth as if dripping, and clarified 
butter gathered on her step,' comp. .Satapatha Brahma«a I, 8, 1, 7 
(M. M., India, what can it teach us? p. 136). 

Digitized by 


240 . gk/hya-s<jtra of HIRAtfYAKESIN. 

What domestic animals there are, of all shapes, all 
seven kinds of them : may they gladly dwell here 
and may they prosper. Svaha ! 

' The night which men welcome like a cow that 
comes to them, (the night) which is the consort of 
the year, may that (night) be auspicious to us. Svaha ! 
~ ' Bringing bliss to the cattle, to the wife, bringing 
bliss by night and by day, may this (night) which is 
the consort of the year, be auspicious to us. Svaha ! 

' The full-moon night, bringing abundance, visiting 
one after another, dividing the months and fort- 
nights: may this (night), the full one, protect us. 

3. He sacrifices the oblation to Agni Svishfakrtt 
with (the verse), 'Agni, make this (sacrifice) full that 
it may be well offered. Be victorious, O god, in all 
battles. Shine far and wide, showing us a wide 
path. Bestow on us long life, full of splendour and 
free from decay. Svaha ! ' 

4. Then he washes his hands and touches the 
earth with (the formulas), ' In power I establish my- 
self, in royalty. Among the horses I establish my- 
self, among the cows. In the limbs I establish 
myself, in the self. In the Pra»as I establish myself, 
in prosperity. In Heaven and Earth I establish 
myself, in sacrifice. 

' May the three times eleven gods, the thirty-three, 
the gracious ones, whose Purohita is Brzhaspati, on 
the impulse of the god Savitrz — may the gods with 
(all) the gods give me bliss ! ' 

5. The master of the house sits down at their 
southerly end, 

3. Comp. Taitt. Br. II, 4, 1, 4 ; Paraskara III, 1, 3. 

Digitized by 


II PRASNA, 8 PA7ALA, 1 8 SECTION, 2. 24 1 

6. The other persons to the north, 

7. According to their seniority. 

8. They who know the Mantras among them, 
murmur the Mantras (which will be stated). 

9. With (the verse), ' Be soft to us, O earth, free 
from thorns ; grant us rest ; afford us wide shelter ' 
(Taitt. Ar. X, i, 10), and with the two (verses), 'Verily 
of the mountains' (Taitt. Sawh. II, 2, 12, 2. 3) they 
lie down on their right sides. 

10. With (the verse), 'Up! with life' (Taitt. 
Sawh. I, 2, 8, 1) they arise. 

11. When they have arisen, they murmur, 'We 
have arisen ; we have become immortal.' 

12. In that way they (lie down and) arise that 
night three times. 

13. Having served food to the Brahmawas and 
having caused them to say, ' An auspicious day ! 
Hail ! Good luck ! ' they rest that night. 

End of the Seventh Pa/ala. 

Prasna II, Patala 8, Section 18. 

1. Now we shall explain the opening and the con- 
clusion (of the annual course of study). 

2. During the fortnight that precedes the 6rava«a 

13. 'Here end the Gnnya ceremonies,' says Matridatta. Dr. 
Kirste (Preface, p. viii), accordingly, believes that the three last 
chapters may be later additions. It may be observed in connec- 
tion with this, that in the ApastambJya-Grihya, which throughout 
is so closely related to our text, the ceremonies of the Upakaraxa 
and Utsar^ana, of which these three chapters treat, are not 

18, 2. 5rava»&paksha means, according to Matr/'datta, xrava- 

[30] R 

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242 gk/hya-sOtra of hirajvyakesin. 

full moon, when the herbs have appeared, under (the 
Nakshatra) Hasta or on the full-moon day (itself), 
the opening ceremony of the (annual course of) 
study (is performed). 

3. Having put wood on the fire and performed 
the rites down to the Vyahrsti oblations, he sacrifices 
(with his pupils) to the i?«shis of the K&ndas : ' To 
Pra^apati, the IZishi of a Kawafa, svaha ! To Soma, 
the J&shi of a KWa, svaha I To Agni, the Jtishi 
of a K&nda., svaha ! To the Vi^ve devas, the iftshis 
of a K&nda, svaha ! To Svayambhu, the Rtshi of a 
Ka«a!a, svaha !' — these are the -tfsshis of the Ka#das. 
Or (he sacrifices) to the names of the K&ndas, to the 
Savitrt, to the Rig-veda, the Ya^ur-veda, the Sama- 
veda, the Atharva-veda, and to Sadasaspati. 

4. Having (thus) sacrificed, they repeat the first 
three Anuvakas, 

5. Or the beginnings of all K&ndas. 

6. He enters upon (sacrificing) the Gaya., &c. 
(oblations; see above, I, 1, 3, 8). 

7. After all rites down to the Svish/akm oblation 
have been performed, they stop studying three days 
or one day ; then they should go on studying so as 
to commence where they have broken off: so say 
the teachers. 

8* During the fortnight that precedes the Taish! 
full moon, under (the Nakshatra) Rohi»I or on the 
full-moon day (itself), the Utsarga (or conclusion of 
the term of study) is celebrated. 

»apftrvapaksha, and indeed the moon stands in conjunction with the 
Nakshatra Hasta only on one day of the first, not of the second, 
fortnight of the month ^rSvawa (comp. the note on Awallyana- 
Grrhya III, 5, 2. 3). Comp. taishipakshasya rohinyim, below, § 8. 

8. As to taishipaksha, comp. the note on Sutra 2. 

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9. (The teacher) with his pupils goes in an east- 
erly or northerly direction, and where they find a 
pleasant water with a pleasant bathing-place, they 
dive into it and perform three suppressions of the 
breath with the Agharmarshana hymn (Rig-veda X, 
190 = Taitt. Ar. X, i, 13. 14). Holding purifiers 
(i. e, Darbha blades) in their hands they bathe with 
the three (verses), ' Ye waters, ye are wholesome ' 
(Taitt. Sa/#h. IV, 1, 5, 1), with the four (verses), 
' The gold-coloured, pure, purifying waters ' (T. S. V, 
6, 1, 1 seq.), and with the Anuvaka, ' (Soma) which 
clears itself, the heavenly being ' (Taitt. Br. I, 4, 8) : 
giving the Darbha blades to each other and feigning 
to try to seize (??) each other. 

10. Then they arrange on a pure spot that is in- 
clined towards the east, seats of eastward-pointed 
Darbha grass, so that they end in the north — 

Patala 8, Section 19. 

1. For Brahman, Pra^apati, BWhaspati, Agni, 
Vayu, the Sun, the Moon, the Stars, king Indra, 
king Yama, king Varu#a, king Soma, king Vaisra- 
vawa, for the Vasus, the Rudras, the Adityas, the 
Vwve devas, the Sadhyas, the ifo'bhus, the Bhr/gus, 
the Maruts, the Atharvans, the Angiras : for these 
divine beings. 

9. On the last words of this Sutra, Matr/datta says, ditsanta iveti 
datum i&Manta ivanyonyaw prati. athava aditsanta iveti pa/AaA. 
aditsanto mushnanta ivfinyonyaw. — Professor Kielhorn's text MS. 
has, atsaMa ivanyonyaw* ; Professor Buhler's text MS., ditsamta 

19, 1. According to MaWdatta, they prepare a seat for Brahman 
with the words, ' For Brahman I prepare (a seat),' and so on. Comp. 
chap, ao, 3. 

R 2 

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244 gh/hya-sCtra of hirawyakesin. 

2. Viyvamitra, (7amadagni, Bharadvifa and Gau- 
tama, Atri, Vasish/^a, Karyapa : these are the 
seven ifo'shis. 

3. Wearing their sacrificial cords below (round 
their body) they arrange towards the north, at a 
place that is inclined towards the north, seats of 
northward-pointed Darbha grass, so that they end 
in the east, for Vi.rvamitra, (Samadagni, Bharadva^a, 
Gautama, Atri, VasishMa, Karyapa. 

4. Between Vasish/^a and Kayyapa they arrange 
(a seat) for Arundhatl, (the wife of VasishMa) ; 

5. Towards the south, in a place inclined towards 
the east, for Agastya. 

6. Then for the (following) teachers, ending with 
those who teach (only) one Veda (?), viz. for Krishna 
Dvaipayana, £atukar#ya, Taruksha, Trinabindu, 
Varmin, Vardthin, Va^in, Va^airavas, Satya$ravas, 
Suyravas, Suta^ravas, Somasushmaya»a, Satvavat, 
Br*hadukthaVamadev(y)a ) Va£iratna,Harya i £vayana, 
Udamaya, Gautama, Rinangaya, Ritangaya, Kri- 
taa^aya, Dhana%aya, Babhru, Tryaru«a, Trivarsha, 
Tridhatu, .Slbinta, Parlrara, Vish»u, Rudra, Skanda, 
Ka^trvara, Gvara, Dharma, Artha, Kama, Krodha, 
Vasish//5a, Indra, Tvash/re, Kartri, DhartW, Dhatri, 
Mn'tyu, Savitri, Savitri, and for each Veda, for 
the Rig-veda, the Ya^ur-veda, the Sama-veda, the 
Atharva-veda, the Itihasa and Pura«a. 

7. Towards the south, with their sacrificial cords 
suspended over their right shoulders, in a place in- 
clined towards the south, they arrange seats of south- 
ward-pointed Darbha grass, so that they end in the 
west — 

2. This is a frequently quoted versus memorialis. 

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Pafala 8, Section 20. 

1. For Vaijampayana, Palingu, Tittira [sic], Ukha, 
Atreya, the author of the Pada-text, Kau»rfinya the 
author of the commentary, for the authors of the 
Sutras, for SatyashaaJ^a (Hira#yakerin), for the 
handers-down of the text, for the teachers, the 
./?*shis, the hermits dwelling in the woods, the 
chaste ones, for those who have only one wife. 

2. They prepare (seats) each for his own fathers 
and maternal ancestors. 

3. With (the words), ' For N. N. I prepare (a 
seat) ; for N. N. I prepare (a seat) ' (he prepares) a 

4. With (the words), ' I satiate N. N. ; I satiate 
N. N.' (he makes offerings of) water. 

5. With (the words), 'Adoration to N.N. ! Adora- 
tion to N. N.!' (he offers) perfumes, flowers, incense, 
and lamps. 

6. With (the words), ' To N. N. svaha ! To N. N. 
svaha ! ' (he offers) food. 

7. With (the words), ' I satiate N. N. ; I satiate 
N. N.' (he offers) water with fruits in it. 

8. Having worshipped them with (the words), 
' Adoration to N. N. ! Adoration to N. N. I' — 

9. Having put wood on the fire to the west of the 
surface (on which he had performed the Tarpa«a), 

20, 1. The K&rt</anukrama of the Atreyt-jdkhi, which has been 
printed by Professor Weber in his edition of the Taittirfya SawhitS, 
vol. ii, p. 356, shows that the dative Palihgave ought to be corrected 
to Paingaye. The ' vrrttik&ra ' is there called not Kau/ttfinya, but 

9. There is only one difference between the text of this Sutra 

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and having performed the rites down to the Vyahrzti 
oblations (&c, as above, chap. 18, 3-7). 

10. With the two (verses), ' From joint to joint,' 
'Thou who with a hundred' (Taitt. Sa*#h. IV, 2, 
9, 2) they plant Durvi grass at the shore of the 

11. They stir up waves in the water and run a 
race in an easterly or northerly direction until they 
lose their breath. 

1 2. When they have returned (from that race ? or 
when they have returned from the whole ceremony 
to the village ?) they offer cakes, coarsely ground 
grain, and boiled rice to the Brahmawas. 

1 3. The same (rites are repeated) when they have 
finished the study of the whole Veda, with the ex- 
ception of the planting of Durva grass, of (stirring 
up) the water, and of the race. 

14. Thus they satiate daily (after the Brahma- 
yag'na) the gods, the /??'shis, and the Fathers with 
water ; they satiate them with water. 

End of the Hira« 

and that of chap. 18, 3-7 : instead of hutv£ trin adito « nuvakan 
adhfyate (18, 4) we read here, hutva" prathamenSnuvSkenSdhfyate, 
which I believe must be translated, ' Having sacrificed with the first 
Anuvaka, they recite (that Anuvaka).' Matndatta says, hutva 
prathamottamanuvakam adhtyate. 
13. See Sutras 10 and n. 

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g^/hya-sCtra of Apastamba. 

The short treatise of Apastamba on the Grihya. ritual 
forms one Prarna of the great corpus of the Apastamblya- 
Kalpa-sutra (see Sacred Books, vol. ii, p. xii) and stands, 
among the Grihya texts, in closest connection with the 
Hirawyakeri-GrAya-sutra. The chief difference between 
these two Sutras, both belonging to the Taittiriya School 
of the Black Ya^ur-veda, consists herein, that Apastamba, 
just as has been stated above 1 with regard to Gobhila, 
gives only the rules for the performance of the Grihya 
rites without the Mantras, which are contained in a special 
collection, the Mantrapa^a, standing by the side of the 
Sutras : Hira»yakerin, on the other hand, follows the more 
usual practice, as adopted by .Sankhayana, Ajvalayana, 
Paraskara, of interweaving the description of the ceremonies 
with the text of the corresponding Mantras. As to the 
relation in which the Apastamblya-sutras stand to the 
Mantrapa^a, there is, so far as I can see, no reason why we 
should not extend the theory which we have tried to estab- 
lish with regard to Gobhila, to the evidently parallel case 
of Apastamba : the Sutras presuppose the existence of the 
MantrapaAfca, just as the latter text seems to presuppose 
the Sutras. — The questions regarding the historical relation 
of Apastamba to Hirawyakejin have been treated of by 
Professor Biihler in his Introduction to Apastamba's 
Dharma-sutra, S. B. E., vol. ii, pp. xxiii seq. 

I have here to thank Dr. Winternitz, to whom we are 
indebted for an excellent edition of the Apastamblya- 
Grjhya-sutra, for having placed at my disposal, before publi- 

1 See above, pp. 3 seq. 

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250 gji/hya-sOtra of Apastamba. 

cation, the proof-sheets of his edition, and for lending me 
his copy of the Mantrapa/£a as well as of the commentary 
of Haradatta. The kindness of the same scholar has 
enabled me to make use of Professor Eggeling's copy of 
the first part of Sudarcanarya's commentary and of his 
own copy of the second part of the same work. 

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Paj"ala 1, Section 1. 

i. Now (follow) the ceremonies (the knowledge 
of) which is derived from practice (and not from the 

2. They should be performed during the northern 
course of the sun, on days of the first fortnight (of 
the month), on auspicious days, 

3. With the sacrificial cord suspended over (the 
sacrificer's) left shoulder. 

4. (The rites should be performed) from left to 

5. The beginning should be made on the east 
side or on the north side, 

6. And also the end. 

7. Ceremonies belonging to the Fathers (are per- 
formed) in the second fortnight (of the month), 

8. With the sacrificial cord suspended over the 
right shoulder, 

9. From right to left, 

10. Ending in the south. 

11. Ceremonies occasioned by special occurrences 
(are performed) according as their occasions demand. 

1, i-ii. The Paribh&Ms for the P&kaysvpfeis. 
7-10. Comp. 1 with a, 8 with 3, 9 with 4, 10 with 6. 

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252 gk/hya-sOtra of Apastamba. 

12. Having set the fire in a blaze, he strews east- 
ward-pointed Darbha grass around it, 

13. Or eastward-pointed and northward-pointed 
(grass) ; 

1 4. Southward-pointed at sacrifices to the Fathers, 

15. Or southward-pointed and eastward-pointed. 

16. To the north of the fire he strews Darbha 
grass and (on that) he places the vessels (required 
for sacrifice) upside-down, two by two, if referring to 
ceremonies directed to the gods, 

1 7. All at once, if to men, 

18. One by one, if to the Fathers. 

19. The preparation of the (blades used as) 'puri- 
fiers,' the measure of their length, the preparation 
of the Proksha«t water, and the sprinkling of the 
vessels are the same here as at the sacrifices of the 
new and full moon, (but are performed) in silence. 

20. To the west of the fire he pours water into a 
vessel over which he has laid (two grass blades 
called) purifiers, purifies (the water) three times with 
two northward-pointed purifiers, holds it on a level 
with his nose and mouth, places it to the north of 
the fire on Darbha grass, and covers it with Darbha 

21. On the south side he causes a Brahma«a to 
sit down on Darbha grass. 

22. He melts the Afya, pours it, to the west of 
the fire, into the A^ya-pot, over which he has laid 
two purifiers, draws coals (out of the sacrificial fire) 
towards the north, puts (the Afya) on them, throws 

1 2 seq. Description of the regular form of a Pakaya^tfa. 

19. Comp. .Srauta-sfltra I, 11, 6 seqq. 

20. This is the Prantta water. 

21. The Brahman. 

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I PAiTALA, 2 SECTION, 5. 253 

light on it by means of a burning (grass-blade), 
throws two Darbha points into it, moves a fire- 
brand round it three times, takes it from the fire 
towards the north, sweeps the coals back (into the 
fire), purifies (the Afya) three times with two north- 
ward-pointed purifiers, moving them backward and 
forward, and throws the purifiers into the fire. 

Papala 1, Section 2. 

i. He warms at the fire the implement with 
which he sacrifices, wipes it off with Darbha blades, 
warms it again, sprinkles it (with water), puts it 
down, touches the Darbha blades with water, and 
throws them into the fire. 

2. As paridhis (or pieces of wood laid round the 
fire) yoke-pins are used at the marriage, the Upana- 
yana, the Samavartana, the parting of the (wife's) 
hair, the tonsure of the child's hair, the cutting of the 
beard, and at expiatory ceremonies. 

3. He sprinkles water round the fire, on the 
south side from west to east with (the words), ' Aditi, 
give thy consent ! ' on the west side from south to 
north with ' Anumati, give thy consent ! ' on the 
north side from west to east with ' Sarasvati [sic], 
give thy consent 1 ' all around with ' God Savitn, 
give thy impulse ! ' 

4. At ceremonies belonging to the Fathers (water 
is sprinkled) only all round (the fire), silently. 

5. Having put a piece of wood on the fire, he 

2, 2. On the paridhi woods, comp. chiefly Hillebrandt, Neu- 
und Vollmondsopfer, 66 seq. 

5. The Srauta rules on the two Aghiras are given .Srauta-sutra 
II, 12, 7; 14, 1, 

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254 gk/hya-sCtra of apastamba. 

offers the two Agh&ra oblations as at the sacrifices 
of the new and full moon, silently. 

6. Then he offers the two A^yabhaga oblations, 
over the easterly part of the northerly part (of the 
fire) with (the words), ' To Agni Svaha !' over the 
easterly part of the southerly part (another oblation) 
exactly like the preceding one, with (the words), 
* To Soma Svaha ! ' 

7. Having offered the chief oblations (belonging 
to each sacrifice) according to prescription, he adds 
the following oblations, viz. the Gaya, Abhyatana, 
Rash/rabhrzt oblations, the oblation to Pra^apati, 
the Vyahr/tis one by one, the oblation to (Agni) 
Svish/akm with (the following formula), 'What I 
have done too much in this ceremony, or what I 
have done here too little, all that may Agni Svish- 
tzikrit, he who knows, make well sacrificed and well 
offered. Svaha!' 

8. The sprinkling (of water) round (the fire is 
repeated) as above ; the Mantras are altered so as 
to say, ' Thou hast given thy consent,' ' Thou hast 
given thy impulse.' 

9. The designation ' Pakaya^ »a ' is used of cere- 
monies connected with worldly life. 

10. There the ritual based on the Brahmawa 
(holds good), 

6. Comp. .Srauta-sutra II, 18, 5; Hillebrandt, loc. cit, p. 106, 
note 3. 

•j. On the <7aya, AbhyitSna, R4sh/rabhnt formulas, comp. 
Piraskara I, 5, 7 seq. ; Hira«yake$in I, 1, 3, 7 seq. ; Taitt. Saw- 
hitS. Ill, 4, 4-7. — The last formula occurs also in Axvaliyana I, 
10, 23 ; Hiranyakerin I, 1, 3, 6, &c. 

8. Comp. above, Sutra 3. 

10. According toHaradatta, this Sutra would imply that where- 
soever the ritual described in the preceding Sutras holds good, 

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11. (To which the words allude), 'He sacrifices 
twice ; he wipes off (his hand) twice ; he partakes 
twice (of the sacrificial food) ; having gone away he 
sips (out of the Sru£) and licks off (the Sru£).' 

12. All seasons are fit for marriage with the 
exception of the two months of the .mira season, and 
of the last summer month. 

13. All Nakshatras which are stated to be pure, 
(are fit for marriage) ; 

14. And all auspicious performances. 

1 5. And one should learn from women what cere- 
monies (are required by custom). 

16. Under the Invakas (Nakshatra), (the wooers 
who go to the girl's father) are sent out : such wooers 
are welcome. 

Pafala 1, Section 3. 

i. Under the Maghas (Nakshatra) cows are 
provided ; 

another ritual based on the Brthmana, and more especially on the 
treatment of the Agnihotra in the Br&hmawa, may be used in 
its stead. 

ii. Comp. Taitt. Brahmawa II, i, 4, 5; .Satapatha BrShma«a 
II, 3, 1, 18. 21. — At the Agnihotra the sacrificer, having wiped off 
the SruA with his hand, wipes off the hand on the Barhis or on the 
earth (Apast.-.Sraut. VI, 10, 11 ; n, 4; Kdtydyana IV, 14, 20). 
As to the following acts alluded to in this Sutra, comp. Apastamba 
VI, 11,4.5; "» »• 

16. On the Nakshatra Invakas, comp. Section 3, Sutra 4. This 
Sutra forms a .Sloka-hemistich, on which Haradatta observes, ' This 
verse has not been made by the Sfitrakira.' 

3, 1, 2. Comp. Rig-veda X, 85, 13; Atharva-veda XIV, i, 13; 
Kaorika-sutra 75; Rimiyana I, 71, 24; 72, 13; Weber, Die 
vedischen Nachrichten von den Naxatra, II, 364 seq. These 
parallel passages most decidedly show that in Sutra 2 we ought to 
read vyuhyate, not vyuhyate. 


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256 gr/hya-sOtra of Apastamba. 

2. Under the Phalgunl (Nakshatra) marriage is 

3. A daughter whom he wishes to be dear (to her 
husband), a father should give in marriage under the 
Nish/ya (Nakshatra) ; thus she becomes dear (to her 
husband) ; she does not return (to her father's) house : 
this is an observance based on a Brahmawa. 

4. The word Invakas means Mrzga^iras ; the 
word Nish/ya means Svati. 

5. At the wedding one cow ; 

6. In the house one cow : 

7. With the (first cow) he should prepare an 
Argha reception for the bridegroom as for a guest, 

8. With the other (the bridegroom [?] should do 
so) for a person whom he reveres. 

9. These are the occasions for killing a cow : 
(the arrival of) a guest, (the Ash/aka sacrifice offered 
to) the Fathers, and marriage. 

10. Let (the wooer) avoid in his wooing a girl 
that sleeps, or cries, or has left home. 

11. And let him avoid one who has been given 
(to another), and who is guarded (by her relations), 
and one who looks wicked (?), or who is a most 

3. Comp. Taittirfya Brahmawa I, 5, 2, 3. 

4. Comp. Sutra 3, and above, Section 2, Sutra 16. 

5-8. Comp. .Sahkhayana-Gnhya 1, 12, 10. It is clear that with 
the first cow the bride's father has to receive the bridegroom. The 
' house ' mentioned in Sutra 6 seems to be the house of the newly- 
married couple. In the expression 'whom he reveres/ 'he,' 
according to the commentaries, is the bridegroom. 

10. This Sutra forms a half-floka. 

11. Most expressions in this Sutra are quite doubtful, and their 
translation rests on the explanations of the commentators (see 
pp. 44, 45 of Dr. Winternitz's edition), which are evidently for the 
most part only guesses. 

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1 PAFALA, 3 SECTION, 20. 257 

excellent one (?), or (who is like the fabulous deer) 
xarabha (?), a hunch-back, a girl of monstrous ap- 
pearance, a bald-headed girl, a girl whose skin is 
like a frog's (?), a girl who has gone over to another 
family (?), a girl given to sensual pleasures (?), or a 
herdess, or one who has too many friends, or who 
has a fine younger sister, or one whose age is too 
near to that of the bridegroom (?). 

12. Girls who have the name of a Nakshatra, or 
of a river, or of a tree, are objectionable. 

13. And all girls in whose names the last letter 
but one is r or 1, one should avoid in wooing. 

14. If possible, he should place (the following) 
objects hidden before the girl, and should say to her, 
' Touch (one of these things).' 

15. (The objects are), different kinds of seeds 
mixed together, loose earth from (the kind of sacri- 
ficial altar called) vedi, an earth-clod from a field, 
cow-dung, and an earth-clod from a cemetery. 

16. If she touches one of the former (objects, 
this portends) prosperity as characterized (by the 
nature of what she has touched). 

1 7. The last is regarded as objectionable. 

1 8. Let him marry a girl of good family and 
character, with auspicious characteristics, and of 
good health. 

19. Good family, a good character, auspicious 
characteristics, learning, and good health : these 
are the accomplishments of a bridegroom. 

20. A wife who is pleasing to his mind and his 

ia, 13. These Sfttras would require only slight alterations to 
make a xloka. 

16. The seeds mean offspring, and so on. 

[30] S 

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258 gk/hya-sOtra of Apastamba. 

eyes, will bring happiness to him ; let him pay no 
attention to the other things : such is the opinion of 

Patala 2, Section 4. 

1. Let him send out as his wooers friends who 
have assembled, who are versed in the Mantras. 

2. He should recite over them the first two verses 
(Mantrap. I, 1, 1. 2). 

3. When he himself has seen (the bride), let him 
murmur the third (verse ; M. I, 1, 3). 

4. With the fourth (M. I, 1, 4) let him behold 

5. Let him seize with his thumb and fourth finger 
a Darbha blade, and let him wipe (therewith) the 
interstice between her eye-brows with the next 
Ya^us (M. I, 1, 5), and let him throw it away 
towards the west 

6. If an omen occurs (such as the bride's or her 
relations' weeping), let him murmur the next (verse ; 
M.I, i,6). 

7. With the next (verse; M. I, 1, 7) let him send 
an even number of persons who have assembled 
there, and who are versed in the Mantras, to fetch 

8. With the next Ya^tis (M. I, 1, 8) he places a 
round piece of Darbha net-work on her head ; on 
that, with the next (verse; M. I, 1, 9) he places a 
right yoke-hole ; on this hole he lays with the next 
(verse ; M. I, 1, 10), a piece of gold, and washes her 
with the next five verses (M. I, 2, 1-5), (so that the 

4, 8. As to the last sentence of this Sutra, comp. the statements 
collected by Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, p. 59. 

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2 PAFALA, 4 SECTION, I 7. 259 

water runs over that gold and through the yoke- 
hole); with the next (verse; M. I, 2, 6) he causes 
her to dress in a fresh garment, and with the next 
(M. I, 2, 7) he girds her with a rope. 

9. Then he takes hold of her with the next 
(verse ; M. I, 2, 8) by her right hand, leads her to 
the fire, spreads a mat, west of the fire, so that the 
points of the blades in it are directed towards the 
north, and on this mat they both sit down, the bride- 
groom to the north. 

10. After the ceremonies have been performed 
from the putting of wood on the fire down to the 
A^yabhaga oblations, he recites over her the first 
two (verses of the third Anuvaka). 

ii. Then he should take with his right hand, 
palm down, her right hand which she holds 
palm up. 

12. If he wishes that only daughters may be born 
to him, he should seize only the fingers (without the 
thumb) ; 

1 3. If he wishes that only sons may be born to 
him, the thumb. 

14. He takes (her hand) so as just to touch her 
thumb and the little hairs (on her hand), 

1 5. With the four verses, ' I take thy hand ' 
(Mantrap. I, 3, 3-6). 

16. He then makes her step forward with her 
right foot, to the north of the fire, in an easterly or 
northerly direction, wifh (the formula), ' One step 
for sap' (M. I, 3, 7). 

1 7. At her seventh step he murmurs, ' Be a 
friend ' (M. I, 3, 14). 

s 2 

Digitized by 


260 gk/hya-sOtra of Apastamba. 

Patala 2, Section 5. 

1. Having before the sacrifice gone round the 
fire, so that their right sides are turned towards it, 

2. They sit down in their former position, and 
while she takes hold of him, he offers the oblations 
(indicated by the) next (Mantras), with (the Mantras), 
' To Soma, the acquirer of a wife, Svaha ! ' (M. I, 
4, 1-16), one oblation with each Mantra. 

3. He then causes her, to the north of the fire, to 
tread with her right foot on a stone, with (the verse), 
'Tread' (M.I, 5, 1). 

4. Having ' spread under ' Afya into her joined 
hands, he pours roasted grain twice (into them), and 
sprinkles A^ya over it. 

5. Some say that an uterine relation of hers 
pours the grain (into her hands). 

6. He (?) sacrifices (that grain) with (the verse), 
• This wife * (M. I, 5, 2). 

7. Having gone round the fire, with the right 
side turned towards it, with the next three (verses ; 
M. I, 5, 3-5) he makes her tread on the stone as 
above (M. I, 5, 6). 

8. And the oblation (is performed) with the next 
(verse ; M. I, 5, 7). 

9. (Then follow) again the circumambulation (M. 
I, 5, 8-10), the injunction to tread on the stone 

5. 2. See 4, 9. 3. See below, IV, 10, 9. 

6. * The action of sacrificing belongs to the bridegroom ; the 
hands of the wife represent the sacrificial vessel.' Haradatta. — ' It 
is the bridegroom who sacrifices the grain with the verse, " This 
wife."' SudawanSrya. 

7. See above, Sutra 3. 

Digitized by 


2 PAFALA, 5 SECTION, 22. 26 1 

(I, 5, 11), and the oblation with the next (verse; 

10. (Then) the circumambulation again (I, 5, 


11. He enters upon the performance of the Caya 
and following oblations. 

12. Having performed (the rites) down to the 
sprinkling (of water) round (the fire), and having 
untied the rope with the next two verses (I, 5, 
16. 17), he should then make her depart (from her 
father's house in a vehicle), or should have her 
taken away. 

13. Having put that fire (with which the marriage 
rites have been performed, into a vessel), they 
carry it behind (the newly-married couple). 

14. It should be kept constantly. 

15. If it goes out, (a new fire) should be kindled 
by attrition, 

16. Or it should be fetched from the house of a 

17. Besides, if (the fire) goes out, one of them, 
either the wife or the husband, should fast. 

18. Or he may sacrifice with the next (verse; 
M. I, 5, 18), and not fast. 

19. The next (verse ; M. I, 6, 1) is for putting 
the chariot (on which the young couple is to depart), 
in position ; 

20. With the next two (verses ; M. I, 6, 2. 3), he 
puts the two animals to the chariot ; 

21. First the right one. 

22. When she mounts (the chariot), he recites 
over her the next (verses ; M. I, 6, 4-7). 

11, 12. See Section 2, Sutras 7. 8; Section 4, Sutra 8. 
12 seq. Comp. Hinwyakexin I, 7, 22, 1 seq. 

Digitized by 


262 gr/hya-sOtra of Apastamba. 

23. With the next (verse ; M. I, 6, 8), he spreads 
out two threads in the wheel-tracks (in which the 
chariot is to go), a dark-blue one in the right (track), 
a red one in the left. 

24. With the next (verses; M. I, 6, 9-1 1), he 
walks on these (threads). 

25. And when they pass by bathing-places, posts, 
or cross-roads, let him murmur the next (verse ; 
M.I, 6, 12). 

Pafala 2, Section 6. 

1. The next (verse; M. I, 6, 13), he recites over 
a boat (with which they are going to cross a river). 

2. And let the wife, when she is crossing, not see 
the crew. 

3. When they have crossed, let him murmur the 
next (verse; M. I, 6, 14). 

4. If they have to pass over a cemetery, or if any 
article (which they carry with them), or their chariot 
is damaged, the ceremonies from the putting of 
wood on the fire down to the Afyabhaga oblations 
are performed, and while she takes hold of him, he 
offers the oblations (indicated by the) next (Mantras ; 
M. I, 7, 1-7), then he enters upon the performance 
of the Gaya. and following oblations, and performs 
(the rites) down to the sprinkling (of water) round 
(the fire). 

5. If they pass by trees with milky sap or by , 
other trees that serve as marks, by rivers or by 
deserts, he should murmur the next two (verses ; 
M. I, 7, 8. 9), according to the characteristics in 
them (which refer to these different cases). 

6. With the next (verse) he shows her the house 
(M. I, 7, 10). 

Digitized by 


2 PATALA, 6 SECTION, I 2. 263 

7. With the next two (verses; M. I, 7, 11. 12) 
he unyokes the two animals ; the right one first. 

8. Having, with the next (verse; M. I, 8, 1), 
spread out, in the centre of the house, a red bull's 
skin with the neck to the east, with -the hair up, he 
causes her to recite the next (verse ; M. I, 8, 2), 
while he makes her enter the house, (which she does) 
with her right foot. 

9. And she does not stand on the threshold. 

10. In the north-east part of the house the cere- 
monies from the putting of wood on the fire down 
to the Afyabhaga oblations are performed, and 
while she takes hold of him, he offers the oblations 
(indicated by the) next (Mantras; M. I, 8, 3-15); 
then he enters upon the performance of the Gaya 
and following oblations, and performs (the rites) down 
to the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire). Then 
they sit down with the next (verse ; M. I, 9, 1) on 
the skin, the bridegroom to the north. 

11. He then places with the next (verse; M. I, 
9, 2), the son of a wife who has only sons and 
whose children are alive, in her lap, gives fruits to 
the (child) with the next Ya^tis (M. I, 9, 3), and 
murmurs the next two (verses ; M. 1,9, 4-5). Then 
he (and his wife) observe silence until the stars 

1 2. When the stars have appeared, he goes out 
(of the house with her) in an easterly or northerly 
direction, and shows her the polar star and (the 
star) Arundhatl with the next two verses (M. I, 
9, 6-7), according to the characteristics (contained in 
those verses). 


Digitized by 



Patala 3, Section 7. 

i. He then makes her offer the sacrifice of a 
Sthallpaka sacred to Agni. 

2. The wife husks (the rice grains out of which 
this Sthallpaka is prepared). 

3. After he has cooked (the Sthallpaka), and has 
sprinkled (A^ya) over it, and has taken it from the 
fire towards the east or the north, and has sprinkled 
(A,fya) over it while it stands (there near the fire), 
(the ceremonies) from the putting of wood on the 
fire down to the A^yabhaga oblations (are per- 
formed), and while she takes hold of him, he sacri- 
fices of that Sthallpaka. 

4. The ' spreading under ' and the sprinkling over 
(of A/ya are done) once ; two Avadanas (or cut-off 
portions are taken). 

5. Agni is the deity (of the first oblation) ; the 
offering is made with the word Svaha. 

6. Or he may sacrifice after having picked out, 
once, a portion (of the sacrificial food with the Darvi 

7. Agni Svish/ak^t is the second (deity). 

8. (At the Svish/akrst oblation) the ' spreading 
under' and taking an Avadana are done once, the 
sprinkling over (of A^ya) twice. 

9. The Avadina for the first deity (is taken) out 
of the middle (of the Sthallpaka) ; 

10. It is offered over the centre (of the fire). 

7, 1 seq. Hirawyakcrin I, 7, 23, 2 seq. 

6. As to the technical meaning of upahatya or upaghatam, 
comp. the note on Gobhila I, 8, 2 ; Grihya-samgraha I, in. 

Digitized by 


3 PAFALA, 7 SECTION, 1 9. 265 

1 1. (The Avadana) for the second (deity is taken) 
from the northern part (of the Sthalipaka) ; 

12. It is offered over the easterly part of the 
northerly part (of the fire). 

13. Having silently anointed (a part of) the 
Barhis (by dipping it) into the remains both (of 
the Sth4lipaka and the Afya) in the way prescribed 
(iii the .Srauta ritual) for the (part of the Barhis 
called) Prastara, he throws (that part of the Barhis) 
into the fire. 

14. (The rule regarding) the second sprinkling (of 
water round the fire) is valid (here). 

15. He gives (the remains of) that (sacrificial 
food) with butter to a Brahma«a to eat — 

16. Whom he reveres. To that (Brahma»a) he 
makes the present of a bull. 

17. In the same way, with the exception of the 
sacrificial gift, they should sacrifice a Sthalipaka 
from then onwards, on the days of the new and full 
moon, after having fasted. 

18. Some say that a vessel full (of grain) is the 
sacrificial gift. 

19. From then onwards he should offer morning 
and evening with his hand these two oblations (to 
Agni and to Agni Svish/akrz\) of (rice) grains or 
of barley. 

13. Comp. .Srauta-sutra III, 5, 9 seqq. — On the prastara, see 
Hillebrandt, Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, 64. 142. 146. 

14. See above, I, 2, 8. The upahomas prescribed above, I, 
2, 7, are not performed here, but the second parishe£ana is. 

16. I have altered in my translation the division of the two sen- 
tences. Comp. Hiranyakerin I, 7, 23, 5-6, and the note there. 

19. The two regular daily oblations corresponding to the Agni- 
hotra of the .Srauta ritual. 

Digitized by 


266 gr/hya-sOtra of apastamba. 

20. The deities are the same as at the Sthallpaka 
(just described). 

21. Some say that the first oblation in the morning 
is sacred to Surya. 

22. Before and after (those oblations) the sprink- 
ling (of water) round (the fire is performed) as stated 

23. By the sacrifice of the new and full moon the 
other ceremonies have been explained (the knowledge 
of) which is derived from practice. 

24. The deities (of those rites) are as stated (with 
regard to each particular case), having their place 
between Agni (Sutra 5) and Svish/akr/t (Sutra 7). 

25. The sacrifice (of a cow) on the arrival of a 
guest (should be performed as stated below) without 

26. (The deities) of the Vairvadeva ceremony are 
the Visve devas, 

27. Of ceremonies performed on full-moon days, 
the full-moon day on which they are performed. 

Patala 3, Section 8. 

1. At the opening and concluding ceremonies of 
the Vedic study, the Mishi who is indicated (as the 

22. See I, 2, 3. 8. 23. See I, 1,1. 

25. See below, V, 13, 16. 

26. See Apastamba Dharma-sutra II, 2, 3, 1 (S.B. £., vol. ii, 

P- i°3)- 

27. For instance, the «Srava»f paurnamasi is the deity of the 
ceremonv described below, VII, 18, 5 seq. 

8, 1. Haradatta observes that at the kiWopakarana and kam/a- 
samapana the j?*shi of that ka»</a, at the general adhyayopakarawa 
and samapana all kaix&rshis, should be worshipped. 

Digitized by 


3 PA7ALA, 8 SECTION, IO. 267 

Rtshi of the Ka«da which they study, is the deity to 
whom the ceremony belongs), 

2. And in the second place Sadasaspati (cf. 
Mantrap. I, 9, 8). 

3. They reject a sacrifice performed by a wife or 
by one who has not received the Upanayana initia- 
tion, and a sacrifice of salt or pungent food, or of 
such food as has an admixture of a despised sort 
of food. 

4. Sacrifices connected with special wishes and 
Bali sacrifices (should be performed) as stated (even 
against the clauses of the last Sutra). 

5. Whenever the fire flames up of itself, he should 
put two pieces of wood on it with the next two 
(verses; M. I, 9, 9-10), 

6. Or with (the two formulas\ ' May fortune reach 
me ! May fortune come to me ! ' 

7. Let him notice the day on which he brings his 
wife home. 

8. (From that day) through three nights they 
should both sleep on the ground, they should be 
chaste, and should avoid salt and pungent food. 

9. Between their sleeping-places a staff" is inter- 
posed, which is anointed with perfumes and wrapped 
round with a garment or a thread. 

10. In the last part of the fourth night he takes 
up the (staff) with the next two (verses; M. I, 10, 
1-2), washes it and put; it away; then (the cere- 
monies) from the putting of wood on the fire down 
to the Afyabhaga oblations ,(are •performed), and 
while she takes hold of him, he sacrifices the obla- 
tions (indicated by the) next (Mantras ; M. I, 10, 
3-9) ; then he enters upon the performance of the 
Gaya and following oblations, and performs (the 

Digitized by 


268 g/j/hya-sOtra of Apastamba. 

rites) down to the sprinkling (of water) round (the 
fire). Then he makes her sit down to the west of 
the fire, facing- the east, and pours some hgya. of the 
remains (of those oblations) on her head with the 
(three) Vyahmis and the word Om as the fourth 
(M. I, 10, 10-13). Then they look at each other 
with the next two verses (M. I, 11, 1-2), according 
to the characteristics (contained in those verses); 
with the next verse (M. I, 11, 3) he besmears the 
region of their hearts with remains of A^ya ; then 
he should murmur the next three verses (I, 11, 4-6), 
and should murmur the rest (of the Anuvaka; I, 11, 
7-11) when cohabiting with her. 

ii. Or another person should recite (the rest of 
the Anuvaka) over her, (before they cohabit). 

12. During her (first) monthly illness he instructs 
her about the things forbidden (to menstruous 
women), contained in the Brahmawa, in the section, 
' A menstruous woman with whom,' &c. 

13. After the appearance of her monthly illness, 
he should, when going to cohabit with her after her 
illness, recite over her, after she has bathed, the next 
verses (M. I, 12, 1-13, 4). 

Papa la 3, Section 9. 

1. Each following night with an even number, 
from the fourth (after the beginning of her monthly 
illness) till the sixteenth, brings more excellent 
offspring to them, if chosen for the (first) cohabiting 
after her illness ; thus it is said. 

2. If he sneezes or coughs while going about on 

12. Taittiriya Sawhita' II, 5, 1, 6 seq. 

Digitized by 


3 PAFALA, 9 SECTION, 5. 269 

business, he should touch water and should murmur 
the two following (verses; M. I, 13, 5. 6) according 
to the characteristics (which they contain). 

3. In the same way with the next (Mantras — M. I, 
13, 7-10 — he should address the following objects), 
according to the characteristics (which those Mantras 
contain) : a conspicuous tree, a heap of excrements, 
the skirt (of his garment) which is blown against him 
by the wind, and a shrieking bird. 

4. One (for instance, the wife's father) who wishes 
that the hearts of both (husband and wife) may be in 
accord should observe chastity through at least three 
nights and should prepare a Sthaltpaka. Then (the 
ceremonies) from the putting (of wood) on (the fire) 
down to the A^yabhaga oblations (are performed), 
and while the wife takes hold of him, he sacrifices of 
the Sthalipaka the oblations (indicated by the) next 
(Mantras; M. I, 14, 1-7) ; then he enters upon the 
performance of the Gaya. and following oblations, 
and performs (the rites) down to the sprinkling (of 
water) round (the fire). (The remains of) the (sacri- 
ficial food) with butter, he should give to eat to an 
even number of Brahmawas, at least to two, and 
should cause them to pronounce wishes for his 

5. When the moon, on the following day, will be 
in conjunction with Tishya, she strews three times 
seven barley-grains around (the plant) Clypea Her- 
nandifolia with (the formula), ' If thou belongest 
to Varu»a, I redeem thee from Varu»a. If thou 
belongest to Soma, I redeem thee from Soma.' 

9, 5. Comp. Gobhila II, 6, 6 seq. 

Digitized by 


270 gk/hya-sOtra cf Apastamba. 

6. On the following day she should set upright 
(the plant) with the next (verse; M. I, 15, 1), should 
recite the next three (verses ; M. I, 15, 2-4) over it, 
should tie (its root) with the next (verse ; M. 1, 1 5, 5) to 
her hands so that (her husband) does not see it, and 
should, when they have gone to bed, embrace her 
husband with her arms, with the verse alluding to 
the word upadhana (' putting on ; ' M. I, 15, 6). 

7. Thus he will be subject to her. 

8. By this (rite) also (a wife) overcomes her co- 

9. For this same purpose she worships the sun 
daily with the next Anuvaka (M. I, 16). 

10. If a wife is affected with consumption or is 
otherwise sick, one who has to observe chastity, 
should rub her limbs with young lotus leaves which 
are still rolled up, and with lotus roots, with the next 
(formulas, limb by limb) according to the character- 
istics (contained in those formulas; M. I, 17, 1-6), 
and should throw away (the leaves and roots) towards 
the west. 

11. With the next (verses; M. I, 17, 7-10) he 
should give the wife's garment (which she has worn 
at the wedding [?]) to (a Brahma#a) who knows this 

Pafala 4, Section 10. 

1. We shall explain the Upanayana (or initiation 
of the student). 

2. Let him initiate a Brahma»a in the eighth year 
after the. conception, 

3. A Ra^anya in the eleventh, a Vaisya in the 
twelfth year after the conception. 

Digitized by 


4 PATALA, lO SECTION, 9. 271 

4. Spring, summer, autumn : these are the (fit) 
seasons (for the Upanayana), corresponding to the 
order of the castes. 

5. (The boy's father) serves food to Brahmawas 
and causes them to pronounce auspicious wishes, 
and serves food to the boy. (The teacher ?) pours 
together, with the first Yafus (of the next Anuvaka, 
warm and cold) water, pouring the warm water into 
the cold, and moistens (the boy's) head with the next 
(verse; M. II, i, 2). 

6. Having put three Darbha blades into his hair 
(towards each of the four directions) (the teacher [?]) 
shaves his hair with the next four (verses ; M. II, 1, 
3-6) with the different Mantras, towards the different 
(four) directions. 

7. With the following (verse, M. II, 1, 7, somebody) 
addresses him while he is shaving. 

8. Towards the south, his mother or a Brahma- 
£arin strews barley-grains on a lump of bull's dung ; 
with this (dung) she catches up the hair (that is cut 
off), and puts it down with the next (verse; M. II, 1, 
8) at the root of an Udumbara tree or in a tuft of 
Darbha grass. 

9. After (the boy) has bathed, and (the cere- 
monies) from the putting (of wood) on (the fire) down 
to the A^yabhaga oblations (have been performed), 
he causes him to put a piece of Pal&ra wood on the 

10, 6, 7. The difference which Haradatta makes between the 
teacher who begins to shave him (pravapati) and the barber who 
goes on with shaving (vapantam) seems too artificial. 

7. Haradatta : The teacher addresses the barber, &c. — Sudar- 
jan&rya : The mother of the boy or a Brahma£arin [comp. Sfltra 8] 
. . . addresses the teacher who shaves him. 

9. Comp. above, II, 4, 3. 

Digitized by 



fire with the next (verse ; M. II, 2, 1), and makes him 
tread with his right foot on a stone to the north of 
the fire, with (the verse), ' Tread' (M. II, 2, 2). 

10. Having recited the next two (verses; M. II, 

2, 3. 4) over a garment that has been spun and 
woven on one day, and has caused him, with the 
next three (verses; M. II, 2, 5-7), to put it on, he 
recites over him, after he has put it on, the next 
(verse; M, II, 2, 8). 

1 1 . He ties thrice around him, from left to right, 
a threefold-twisted girdle of Mu«ga grass with the 
next two (verses ; M. II, 2, 9. 10), and (gives him) a 
skin as his outer garment with the next (verse; 
II, 2, 11). 

1 2. To the north of the fire (the teacher) spreads 
out Darbha grass ; on that he causes (the boy) to 
station himself with the next (verse; M. II, 3, 1), 
pours his joined hands full of water into (the boy's) 
joined hands, makes him sprinkle himself three 
times with the next (verse; M. II, 3, 2), takes hold 
of his right hand with the next (formulas; M. II, 3, 
3-12), gives him with the next (formulas; M. II, 3, 
I 3 -2 3) m charge to the deities (mentioned in those 
Mantras), initiates him with the next Ya^us (M. II, 

3, 24), and murmurs into his right ear the (Mantra), 
' Blessed with offspring' (II, 3, 25). 

Patala 4, Section 11. 

I. The boy says, 'I am come to be a student' 
(II, 3, 26). 

II. Comp. Apast. Dharma-sfttra I, 1, 2, 33; 1, 3, 3 seq. 

12. As to the words, 'he initiates him' (upanayati), comp. 
•SSnkhayana II, 2, 11. 12; A-rvalayana I, 20, 4 &c. 

Digitized by 


4 PATALA, II SECTION, 1 3. 273 

2. The other (i.e. the teacher) has to ask; the 
boy has to answer (II, 3, 27-30). 

3. The other murmurs the rest (of the Anuvaka), 

4. And causes the boy to repeat (the Mantra) 
which contains wishes for himself (II, 3, 32). 

5. (The rites) down to the Ajfyabhagas have been 

6. Having then caused him to sacrifice the obla- 
tions (indicated in the) next (Mantras; M. II, 4, 1-1 1), 
he enters upon (the performance) of the Gaya. and 
following oblations. 

7. Having performed (the rites) down to the 
sprinkling (of water) round (the fire), he puts down, 
to the west of the fire, a bunch of northward-pointed 
grass ; on that (the teacher) who performs the ini- 
tiation, sits down with the next Ya^us (M. II, 4, 12). 

8. The boy, sitting to the east (of him), facing the 
west, seizes with his right hand (the teacher's) right 
foot and says, ' Recite the Savitri, Sir ! ' 

9. He recites (the Savitri) to him, 'That (glorious 
splendour) of Savitrz" (Taitt. Samh. I, 5, 6, 4; M. 
11,4, 13); 

10. Pada by Pada, hemistich by hemistich, and 
the whole (verse). 

1 1. (When repeating the Savitri Pada by P&da, 
he pronounces) the Vyahrztis singly at the beginning 
or at the end of the Padas ; 

12. In the same way (the first and the second 
Vyahrzti at the beginning or at the end) of the 
hemistichs ; the last (Vyahrzti, when he repeats) the 
whole verse. 

13. With the next Mantra (M. II, 4, 14) the boy 
touches his upper lip ; 

11, 5. See above, Section io, Sfltra 9. 
[3o] T 

Digitized by 


274 gjuhya-sOtra of Apastamba. 

14. With the next (II, 4, 15) both his ears ; 

15. With the next (II, 5, 1) he tabes up the staff. 

16. The staff of a Brahma#a is made of Pallra. 
wood, that of a R&^anya of a branch of the 
Nyagrodha tree, so that the downward-turned end 
(of the branch) forms the tip (of the staff), that of a 
Vaiyya of Badara or Udumbara wood. 

17. Some state (only), without any reference to 
caste, that the staff should be made of the wood of 
a tree. 

18. After (the teacher) has. made him repeat (the 
formula), 'My memory' (M. II, 5, 2), and he has 
bestowed an optional gift on his teacher, and (the 
teacher) has made him arise with (the formula, 
M. II, 5, 3), ' Up, with life ! ' (the student) worships 
the sun with the next (Mantras ; II, 5, 4). 

19. If (the teacher) wishes, 'May this (student) 
not be estranged from me,' let him take (the student) 
by the right hand with the next (verse ; II, 5, 6). 

20. They keep that fire (used at the Upanayana) 
three days, 

21. And (during that time) salted and pungent 
food should be avoided. 

22. Having wiped (with his hand wet) around 
(the fire) with (the formula), ' Around thee' (M. II, 
6, 1), he should put (twelve) pieces of wood on that 
(fire) with the next Mantras (II, 6, 2-13). 

23. In the same way also on another (fire, when 
the Upanayana fire is kept no longer), 

24. Fetching fuel regularly from the forest 

25. With the next (formula — M. II, 6, 14 — the 
teacher) instructs (the student in his duties). 

16, 17. These Sfitras are identical with Dharma-stttra 1, 1, 2, 38 
(S. B. E., vol. ii, p. 9). 

Digitized by 


5 PATALA, 12 SECTION, 6. 275 

26. On the fourth day (after the Upanayana the 
teacher) takes the garment (of the student) for him- 
self with the next (verse ; M. II, 6, 15), having made 
him put on another (garment). 

Patala 5, Section 12. 

1. Having studied the Veda, when going to take 
the bath (which signifies the end of his studentship), 
he enters a cow-shed before sunrise, hangs over its 
door a skin with the hair inside, and sits there. 

2. On that day the sun should not shine upon 

3. At noon, after (the ceremonies) from the 
putting (of wood) on the fire down to the A^ya- 
bhaga oblations (have been performed), he puts a 
piece of Palaja wood on (the fire) with the next 
(verse ; M. II, 7, 1), sits down to the west of the fire 
on a mat or on eraka grass, recites the next (verse, 
II, 7, 2) over a razor, and hands it over to the 
barber with the next Ya^us (II, 7, 3). (The rites) 
beginning with the pouring together of (warm and 
cold) water down to the burying of the hair are the 
same as above (comp. M. II, 7, 4). 

4. He sits down behind the cow-shed, takes the 
girdle off, and hands it over to a Brahma^arin. 

5. The (Brahma^arin) hides it with the next Ya^us 
(II, 7, 5) at the root of an Udumbara tree or in a 
tuft of Darbha grass. 

6. With water of the description stated above he 

26. The garment which the teacher takes for himself is that 
mentioned above, IV, 10, 10. 
12, 3. See above, IV, 10, 5-8. 
0. See IV, 10, 5. 

T 2 

Digitized by 



bathes with the six next (verses; II, 7, 6-11), and 
with the next (II, 7, 12) he cleanses his teeth with a 
stick of Udumbara wood. 

7. Having bathed and shampooed his body with 
such ingredients as are used in bathing, (aromatic 
powder, &c), 

8. He puts on with the next Ya^us (M. II, 7, 13) 
a fresh under garment, and anoints himself, after 
having given the salve in charge of the deities with 
the next (Mantras, II, 7, 14), with the next (verse, 
II, 7, 15) with sandal salve which is scented with 
all kinds of perfumes. With the next (verse, II, 
7, 16) he moves about a gold pellet with its setting, 
which is strung on a string, three times from left to 
right in a water-pot ; with the next (verse, II, 7, 17) 
he ties the (pellet) to his neck ; in the same way, 
without Mantras, he ties a pellet of Badara wood to 
his left hand, and repeats the rites stated above 
with a fresh upper garment, with the (verses), ' May 
the rich' (comp. above, IV, 10, 10; M. II, 7, 18). 

9. To the skirt (of that garment) he ties two ear- 
rings, puts them into the (sacrificial spoon called) 
Darvi, offers the oblations (indicated by the) next 
(Mantras ; M. II, 8, 1-8), pouring the Afya over (the 
ear-rings), and enters upon (the performance of) the 
Gaya and following oblations. 

10. Having performed (the ceremonies) down to 
the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire), he should 
tie (one of the ear-rings) with the same (verses) to 
his right ear, and with the same (verses one) to his 
left ear. • 

11. In the same way he should with the following 
(formulas, M. II, 8, 9-9, 5), according to the charac- 
teristics (contained in them), (put) a wreath on his 

Digitized by 


5 PArALA, 13 SECTION, 7. 277 

head, anoint (his eyes), look into a mirror, (put on) 
shoes, (and should take) a parasol and a staff. 

1 2. He keeps silence until the stars appear. 

13. When the stars have appeared, he goes away 
towards the east or north, worships the quarters (of 
the horizon) with the next hemistich, and the stars 
and the moon with the next (M. II, 9, 6). 

14. Having spoken with a friend he may go where 
he likes. 

Patala 5, Section 13. 

1 . Now this (is) another (way for performing the 
Sam&vartana). He bathes silently at a bathing- 
place and puts silently a piece of wood on (the fire). 

2. He sits down on a bunch of grass, as stated 
above (comp. M. II, 9, 7), at a place where they are 
going to honour him (with the Argha reception). 

3. A king and a chieftain (sit down) in the same 
way (as a Brihma«a), with the next two (formulas, 
M. II, 9, 8. 9), according to the characteristics (con- 
tained in them). 

4. (The host) announces (to the guest), 'The 
water for washing the feet ! ' 

5. (The guest) should recite the next (verse, II, 
9, 10) over (that water) and should stretch out the 
right foot first to a Br4hma«a, the left to a .Sudra. 

6. Having touched the person who washes him, 
he should touch himself (i.e. his own heart) with the 
next (formula, M. II, 9, 11). 

7. (The host, taking the Argha water) in an 

13, 2. See above, IV, n, 7. 

5. Comp. AfvalAyana-Gr/hya I, 24, 11. 12. 

Digitized by 


278 g/j/hya-sOtra of Apastamba. 

earthen vessel which he holds with two bunches of 
grass, announces (to the guest), ' The Argha water ! ' 

8. (The guest) should recite the next (formula, 
II, 9, 12) over (that water) and should murmur the 
next Ya^us (II, 9, 13), while a part (of the water) is 
poured over his joined hands. 

9. Over the rest (of the water) which is poured 
out towards the east, he recites the next (verse, 
M. II, 9, 14). 

10. (The host) pours together curds and honey in 
a brass vessel, covers it with a larger (brass cover), 
takes hold of it with two bunches of grass, and an- 
nounces (to the guest), ' The honey-mixture ! ' 

11. Some take three substances, (those stated 
before) and ghee. 

1 2. Some take five, (the three stated before), and 
grains, and flour. 

1 3. The guest recites the next two (formulas, M. 
II, 10, 1. 2) over (the honey-mixture) and sips water 
with the two Ya^us (II, 10, 3. 4) before (eating) and 
afterwards ; with the next (verse, II, 10, 5) he should 
partake three times (of the food) and should give 
the remainder to a person towards whom he is kindly 

14. A king or a chieftain should only accept it and 
(give it) to his Purohita. 

1 5. (The host) announces the cow with (the word), 
' The cow ! ' 

16. After the guest has recited the next (formula, 
M. II, 10, 6) over (the cow, the host) cooks its 
omentum, and having performed the 'spreading 
under ' and the sprinkling over (of Agya), he sacri- 
fices it with the next (verse, M. II, 10, 7) with a 
Palasa leaf from the middle or the end (of the stalk). 

Digitized by 


6 PATALA, 14 SECTION, 3. 279 

17. If the guest chooses to let (the cow) loose, he 
murmurs the next (formulas, II, 10, 8-u) in a low 
voice (and says) loudly, 'Om! Let it loose!' (II, 
10, 12). 

18. (In this case) he recites the next (formulas, 
M. II, 10, 13-17) in a low voice over the food which 
is announced to him (instead of the cow), (and says) 
loudly, ' Om ! Make it ready ! ' (II, 10, 18). 

19. For his teacher, for a Rit\\g, for his father- 
in-law, for a king he ought to perform this (Arghya 
ceremony) as often as they visit his house, if at least 
one year has elapsed (since they came last). 

20. For a renowned teacher (of the Veda the 
ceremony should be performed) once. 

Patala 6, Section 14. 

i. The Stmantonnayana (or parting of the preg- 
nant wife's hair, is performed) in her first pregnancy, 
in the fourth month. 

2. (The husband) serves food to Brahmawas and 
causes them to pronounce auspicious wishes ; then, 
after (the ceremonies) from the putting (of wood) on 
the fire down to the Afyabhiga oblations (have been 
performed), he offers the oblations (indicated in the) 
next (Mantras, M. II, it, i-8), while (the wife) takes 
hold of him, and enters upon the (performance) of 
the Gaya and following oblations. 

3. Having performed (the rites) down to the 
sprinkling (of water) round (the fire), he makes her 
sit down to the west of the fire, facing the east, and 
parts her hair upwards (i. e. beginning from the front) 
with a porcupine's quill that has three white spots, 

Digitized by 


280 gr/hya-sCtra of apastamba. 

with three Darbha blades, and with a bunch of un- 
ripe Udumbara fruits, with the Vyahmis or with 
the two next (verses, II, n, 9. 10). 

4. He says to two lute-players, ' Sing !' 

5. Of the next two (verses, II, 1 1, 1 1. 12) the first 
(is to be sung on this occasion) among the (people 
of the) Salvas. 

6. The second (is to be used) for Brahma«as; 
and the river near which they dwell is to be named. 

7. He ties barley-grains with young shoots (to the 
head of the wife) ; then she keeps silence until the 
stars appear. 

8. When the stars have appeared, he goes (with 
his wife) towards the east or north, touches a calf, 
and murmurs the Vyahmis ; then she breaks her 

9. The Puwsavana (i.e. the ceremony to secure 
the birth of a male child) is performed when the 
pregnancy has become visible, under the constel- 
lation Tishya. 

10. From a branch of a Nyagrodha tree, which 
points eastward or northward, he takes a shoot with 
two (fruits that look like) testicles. The putting (of 
wood) on the fire, &c, is performed as at the Siman- 
tonnayana (Sutra 2). 

11. He causes a girl who has not yet attained 
maturity to pound (the Nyagrodha shoot) on an 
upper mill-stone with another upper mill-stone, and 
to pour water on it ; then he makes his wife lie 

6. Ajvalayana I, 14, 7; Paraskara I, 15, 8. Comp. Zeitschrift 
der D. M. Gesellschaft, XXXIX, 88. 

7, 8. Sudanranarya mentions that instead of the singular, ' She 
keeps silence, she breaks her silence,' some read the dual, so that 
the husband and his wife are referred to. 

Digitized by 


6 PATALA, 15 SECTION, 4. 28 1 

down on her back to the west of the fire, facing the 
east, and inserts (the pounded substance) with his 
thumb into her right nostril, with the next Ya^us 

(II, 11, 13)- 

12. Then she will give birth to a son. 

13. Here follows the ceremony to secure a quick 

14. With a shallow cup that has not been used 
before, he draws water in the direction of the river's 
current ; at his wife's feet he lays down a Turyanti 
plant ; he should then touch his wife, who is soon to 
be delivered, on the head, with the next Ya^us 
(II, 11, 14), and should sprinkle her with the water, 
with the next (three) verses (II, n, 15-17). 

1 5. Yadi ^arayu na pated evawvihitabhir evadbhir 
uttarabhyam (II, 11, 18. 19) avokshet. 

PArALA 6, Section 15. 

1. After he has touched the new-born child with 
the Vatsapra hymn (Taitt. Sawh. IV, 2, 2 ; M. II, 
1 1 , 20), and has taken him on his lap with the next 
Yagois (M. II, 1 1, 21), with the next (three) (verses — 
II, 11, 22; 12, 1. 2 — one by one) he addresses the 
child, kisses him on his head, and murmurs (the third 
verse) into his right ear. 

2. And he gives him a Nakshatra name. 

3. That is secret. 

4. He pours together honey and ghee ; into this 
(mixture) he dips a piece of gold which he has tied 
with a noose to a Darbha blade. With the next 
(three) formulas (II, 12, 3-5) he gives the boy (by 

15, 1. We ought to read uttar&bhir, not uttarSbhySm. Comp. 
below, Sutra 12. 

Digitized by 


282 gr/hya-sCtra of Apastamba. 

means of the piece of gold, some of the mixture) to 
eat. With the next five (verses, II, 12, 6-10) he 
bathes him. Then he pours curds and ghee to- 
gether and gives him this (mixture which is called) 
'sprinkled butter' (przshad&fya) to eat out of a 
brass vessel, with the Vyahmis to which the syllable 
'Om' is added as the fourth (II, 12, n-14). The 
remainder he should mix with water and pour out 
in a cow-stable. 

5. With the next (verse, M. II, 13, 1) he places 
(the child) in the mother's lap; with the next (II, 
13, 2) he causes her to give him her right breast; 
with the next two (verses, II, 13, 3. 4) he touches 
the earth, and after (the child) has been laid down, 
(he touches him) with the next (formula, II, 13, 5). 

6. With the next Ya^us (II, 13, 6) he places a 
water-pot at (the child's) head, sacrifices mustard 
seeds and rice-chaff with his joined hands three 
times with each of the next (formulas, II, 13, 7-14, 2), 
repeating each time the word Svaha, and says (to 
the people who are accustomed to enter the room in 
which his wife lies), 'Whenever you enter, strew 
silently (mustard seeds with rice-chaff) on the fire.' 

7. This is to be done until the ten days (after the 
child's birth) have elapsed. 

8. On the tenth day, after (the mother) has risen 
and taken a bath, he gives a name to the son. The 
father and the mother (should pronounce that name 

9. (It should be a name) of two syllables or of 
four syllables ; the first part should be a noun ; the 
second a verb ; it should have a long vowel (or) the 
Visarga at the end, should begin with a sonant, and 
contain a semi-vowel. 

Digitized by 


6 PATALA, 1 6 SECTION, 6. 283 

10. Or it should contain the particle su, for such 
a name has a firm foundation ; thus it is said in a 

11. A girl's name should have an odd number of 

1 2. When (the father) returns from a journey, he 
should address the child and kiss him on his head 
with the next two (verses, M. II, 14, 3. 4), and should 
murmur the next Mantras (II, 14, 5) into his right 

13. With the next Ya^us (II, 14, 6) he addresses 
a daughter (when returning from a journey). 

PArALA 6, Section 16. 

1. In the sixth month after the child's birth he 
serves food to Brahma»as and causes them to pro- 
nounce auspicious wishes ; then he should pour 
together curds, honey, ghee, and boiled rice, and 
should give (the mixture) to the boy to eat, with the 
next (four) Mantras (II, 14, 7-10) ; 

2. (He should feed him) with partridge, according 
to some (teachers). 

3. In the third year after his birth the A"aula (or 
tonsure is performed) under (the Nakshatra of) the 
two Punarvasus. 

4. Brahma«as are entertained with food as at the 
initiation (Upanayana). 

5. The putting (of wood) on the fire, &c. (is per- 
formed) as at the Simantonnayana. 

6. He makes (the boy) sit down to the west of 

12. Corop. above, Sfltra 1. 

16, 4. See above, IV, 10, 5. 5. See above, VI, 14, 2. 

6. Comp. VI, 14, 3. 

Digitized by 


2 84 gr/hya-sutra of Apastamba. 

the fire, facing the east, combs his hair silently with 
a porcupine's quill that has three white spots, with 
three Darbha blades, and with a bunch of unripe 
Udumbara fruits ; and he arranges the locks in the 
fashion of his ancestral ^'shis, 

7. Or according to their family custom. 

8. The ceremonies beginning with the pouring 
together of (warm and cold) water and ending with 
the putting down of the hair are the same (as above ; 
comp. M. II, 14, 11). 

9. He puts down the razor after having washed 
it off. 

10. The ceremony is (repeated) three days with 
the (same razor). (Then) the rite is finished. 

11. (The father) gives an optional gift (to the 
Brahmawa who has assisted). 

1 2. The Godana (or the ceremony of shaving the 
beard, is performed) in the sixteenth year, in exactly 
the same way or optionally under another constel- 

13. Or he may perform the Godana sacred to 

14. Some prescribe the keeping of a vow through 
one year in connection with the Godana. 

8. See IV, 10, 5-8. 

10. I translate as if the words tena tryaham and karmani- 
vrittih formed two Sutras. 

13. ' Having performed the same rites as at the opening of the 
study of the Agneya-kawrfa, he performs an Upasth&na to the deities 
as taught with regard to the .Sukriyavrata.' Haradatta. — 'After the 
ceremonies down to the A^yabhagas have been performed, one 
chief oblation of A^ya is offered with the formula, " To Agni, the 
Jtishi of the Ka«rfa, svahl 1 " ' Sudarjanarya. 

14. Comp. the statements given in the note on Gobhila III, 
1, 1. 

Digitized by 


7 PATALA, 17 SECTION, 7. 285 

15. The difference (between the Aaula and the 
Godana) is that (at the Godana) the whole hair is 
shaven (without leaving the locks). 

16. According to the followers of the Sama-veda 
he should ' touch water.' 

Pafala 7, Section 17. 

i. The ground for building a house should be 
inclined towards the south-west. He elevates the 
surface and sweeps (the earth) with a broom of 
Palara wood or of Saml wood, with the next (verse, 
M. II, 15, 1), in the same (south-west) direction; 

2. In the same way three times. 

3. He touches the ground, which has thus been 
prepared, with the next (verse, II, 15, 2). Then he 
has the pits for the posts dug from left to right, 
throws the earth (from the pits) towards the inside 
(of the building-ground), and erects the right door- 
post with the next two (verses, M. II, 15, 3. 4) ; 

4. In the same way the other (door-post). 

5. Having erected after (the door-posts) the other 
(posts) in the same order in which (the pits) have 
been dug, he recites the next Ya^ois (II, 15, 5) over 
the ridge-pole when it is placed (on the posts), 

6. The next (six) (Ya^us formulas, II, 15, 6-1 1) 
over the (house when it is) finished, according to the 
characteristics contained in the single formulas. 

7. He sets a piece of Pala^a wood or of .Saml 
wood on fire, takes the fire up (in a dish) with the 
next verse (II, 15, 12), carries it to the house with 

16. The udakopasparj ana according to the rite of the Sama- 
vedins is described by Gobbila, I, 2, 5 seqq. 

Digitized by 


286 grjhya-sCtra of Apastamba. 

the next Ya^ns (II, 15, 13), and places the fire in 
the north-eastern part of the house with the next 

(II, 15, 14)- 

8. The place for the water-barrel is to the south 
of that spot 

9. He strews there Darbha grass, so that its 
points are turned in every direction, pours rice and 
barley-grains over the (grass) with the next (verse, 
II, 15, 15), and thereon he places the water-barrel. 

10. With the next (Ya^us, II, 15, 16) he pours 
four potfuls of water into it. 

11. If (the barrel) breaks, he recites the next 
(verse, II, 15, 17) over it. 

12. After the ceremonies from the putting of 
wood on the fire down to the A§yabhaga oblations 
have been performed, he offers the (four) oblations 
(indicated by the) next (Mantras; II, 15, 18-21); 
then he enters upon the performance of the 6aya 
and following oblations. 

13. Having performed (the rites) down to the 
sprinkling (of water) round (the fire), he should 
sprinkle (water) with a water-pot around the house 
or the resting-place on the inside, with the next 
Ya/us (II, 15, 22) three times from left to right; 
then he should serve cakes, flour, and boiled rice to 
the Brahmawas. 

Patala 7, Section 18. 

1. When a boy is attacked by the dog-demon 
(i.e. epilepsy), (the father or another performer of 
the ceremony), having devoted himself to austerities 

18, 1. Comp. P&raskara 1, 16, 24 ; Hirauyakerin II, 3, 7. 

Digitized by 


7 PA7ALA, 1 8 SECTION, 7. 287 

(such as fasting), covers him with a net Then he 
causes a gong to be beaten or a bell to be rung, 
takes (the boy) by another way than the door into 
the gambling-hall, raises (the earth in the middle of 
the hall) at the place in which they gamble, sprin- 
kles it (with water), casts the dice, lays (the boy) on 
his back on the dice, and besprinkles him with his 
joined hands with curds and salt, with the next 
(eleven) (formulas, II, 16, 1-11), in the morning, at 
noon, and at night. 

2. Then he will get well. 

3. Over a boy who suffers from the ' .Sankha ' 
disease, (the father, &c.) having devoted himself to 
austerities, should recite the next two (verses, II, 
16, 12. 13), and should pour (water) on his head with 
a water-pot with the next (verse, II, 16, 14), in the 
morning, at noon, and at night. 

4. Then he will get well. 

5. On the day of the full moon of (the month) 
iSrava»a after sunset a Sthaltpaka (is offered). 

6. After the ceremonies down to the A^yabhaga 
oblations have been performed in the same way as 
at the fortnightly sacrifices, he sacrifices of the 
Sthalipaka, and with each of the next (formulas, 

.II, 16, 15-17) he offers with his joined hands Kim- 
.mka flowers. 

7. With the next (three) verses (II, 17, 1-3) (he 
offers) pieces of Aragvadha wood (Cathartocarpus 
fistula) ; 

3. ' 5ankhin is a person attacked by such a disease that he 
utters cries like the sound of a conch trumpet (jankha).' Haradatta. 

5. Here follows a description of the Sarpabali. 

6. Comp. above, III, 7, 2-3. 

Digitized by 


288 gk/hya-sOtra of Apastamba. 

8. Then the Afya oblations (indicated by the) 
next (Mantras, II, 17, 4-7). 

9. Then he enters upon the performance of the 
6aya and following oblations. 

10. Having performed (the rites) down to the 
sprinkling (of water) round (the fire), he silently 
takes the objects required (for the rites which he 
is going to perform), goes out in an easterly or 
northerly direction, prepares a raised surface, draws 
on it three lines directed towards the east and three 
towards the north, pours water on the (lines), and 
lays (an offering of) flour (for the serpents) on them, 
with the next (formula, II, 17, 8). 

11. Silently (he lays down) unground (?) grain, 
roasted grain, collyrium, ointment, (the fragrant sub- 
stance called) Sthagara, and U .rira root 

12. With the next (formulas, II, 17, 9-26) he 
should worship (the serpents), should sprinkle water 
round (the oblations), should return (to his house) 
silently without looking back, should sprinkle (water) 
with a water-pot from left to. right, thrice around the 
house or the resting-place on the inside, with the 
two verses, ' Beat away, O white one, with thy 
foot' (II, 17, 27. 28), and should offer food to the 

Pafala 7, Section 19. 

1. The unground grain (which is left over, see 
above, VII, 18, 11) they give to the boys to eat. 

2. Let him repeat in the same way this Bali- 
offering of whatever food he has got or of flour, 
from that day to full moon of (the month) Marga- 

Digitized by 


7 PATALA, 19 SECTION, 13. 289 

3. On the day of the full moon of Margarirsha after 
sunset a Sthallpaka (is offered as above, VII, 18, 5). . 

4. In the Mantra for the Bali-offering he changes 
(the word ' I shall offer ' into) ' I have offered.' 

5. Then he does not offer (the Bali) any longer. 

6. (Now follows) the Agraya»a sacrifice (or par- 
taking of the first-fruits) of one who has not set up 
the (.Srauta) fires. 

7. He prepares a Sthallpaka of the fresh fruits, 
sacrifices to the deities of the (5rauta) Agrayawa 
sacrifice with (Agni) Svish/akn't as the fourth, fills 
his mouth with grains, swallows them, sips water, 
forms a lump of the boiled (sacrificial) food, and 
throws it up with the next Ya^us (II, 18, 1) to the 
summit of the house. 

8. (Now follows) the ' redescent ' in the winter. 

9. With the next Yag-us (II, 18, 2) they 'rede- 
scend' (or take as their sleeping-place a layer of 
straw instead of the high bedsteads which they have 
used before). With the next Ya^tis formulas (II, 
18, 3-7) they lie down on a new layer (of straw) on 
their right sides, 

10. The father to the south, the mother to the 
north (of him), and so the others, one after the other 
from the eldest to the youngest. 

1 1 . After he has arisen, he touches the earth with 
the next two (verses, II, 18, 8. 9). 

12. In the same way the lying down, &c, is re- 
peated thrice. 

13. Having prepared a Sthallpaka for l^ana and 

8. Comp. the note on .Sankhayana IV, 17, 1. 

13. The description of the julagava sacrifice, which here 
follows, agrees in most points with the statements of Hira»yakerin 
II, 3. 8- 

[30] U 

Digitized by 


290 gu/hya-sOtra of Apastamba. 

one for Kshetrapati, he goes out in an easterly or 
northerly direction, prepares a raised surface, (and 
then follow the ceremonies) beginning with the put- 
ting of wood on the fire. 

14. To the west of the fire he builds two huts. 

Pafala 7, Section 20. 

1. With the next (verse, II, 18, 10) he has the 
lxana led to the southern (hut), 

2. With worldly words the 'bountiful goddess' to 
the northern (hut), 

3. To the middle (between the two huts) the 
' conqueror.' 

4. He gives them water to drink in the same 
order in which they have been led (to their places), 
takes three portions of boiled rice (from the Sthali- 
paka prepared for l.?ana), takes (these portions of 
rice) to the fire, makes (the three gods) touch them 
with the next (formulas, II, 18, 11-13), sacrifices of 
these portions, to each god of the portion which be- 
longs to him, with the next (formulas, II, 18, 14-30), 
cuts off (Avadinas) from all (portions), and sacrifices 
with the next Ya^us (II, 18, 31) to Agni Svish/akm. 

5. Having worshipped (the god taana) with the 
next Yafus (II, 18, 32), he distributes with the next 
(formulas, II, 18, 33-39) leaves together with por- 
tions of boiled rice, two (leaves) with each (Ya^us), 
then ten to the divine hosts (II, 18, 40), and ten to 
the (divine hosts) that follow (and are referred to in 
the next Yafus, II, 18, 41). 

20, 1-3. Comp. Hirawyak. II, 3, 8, 2-4. Haradatta explains 
the ir&na, the mi<$usM, and the ^ayanta as images of the three 

Digitized by 


7 PATALA, 20 SECTION, 1 9. 29 1 

6. With the next (formulas, II, 18, 42-45) he does 
the same as before (i.e. he distributes two leaves 
with each Mantra). 

7. Having formed a lump of boiled rice, he puts 
it into a basket of leaves, and with the next Ya^us 
(II, 18, 46) hangs it up on a tree. 

8. Here he should murmur the Rudra texts (Taitt 
Sawh. IV, 5), 

9. Or the first and last (Anuvaka). 

10. He places his cows around the fire so that the 
smoke (of the sacrifice) may reach them. 

11. With his firmly shut fist full of Darbha grass 
he besprinkles (them) with scents ; the bull first. 

12. He should perform a sacrifice to Kshetrapati, 
without a fire, in the path used by his cows. 

13. He has (the Kshetrapati) led to his place in 
the same way as the liana (see above, Sutra i). 

14. He puts (portions of boiled rice) into four or 
seven leaves, naming (the god). 

1 5. Let him sacrifice quickly; the god has a strong 
digestion (?). 

16. With the next two (verses, II, 18, 47. 48) he 
does worship (to Kshetrapati). 

1 7. The Sthalipaka (belonging to 1 s&na) he gives 
to the Brahma»as to eat ; 

18. That belonging to Kshetrapati his uterine 
relations eat, 

19. Or as is the custom in their family. 

11. On grumush/i, see the notes of the commentators, p. 93 
of Dr. Winternitz's edition, and the commentary on Taitt. Samhita 
V, 4, S, 3 (Indische Studien, XII, 60). 

15. I have translated here as in Hiranyak. II, 3, 9, 1 1. Haradatta 
and Sudarranarya give another explanation of the words ' pako 
devaA;' see p. 93 of the edition. 

U 2 

Digitized by 


292 gkjhya-sOtra of Apastamba. 

Pafala 8, Section 21. 

i. The times for the monthly .Sraddha are in the 
second fortnight (of the month), as they are stated. 

2. Let him feed, without regard of (worldly) pur- 
poses, pure Brahma»as, versed in the Mantras, who 
are not connected with himself by consanguinity or 
by their Gotra or by the Mantras (such as his teacher 
or his pupils), an odd number, at least three. 

3. He makes oblations of the food (prepared for 
the Brahma#as) with the next (verses, II, 19, 1-7) ; 

4. Then the Afya oblations (indicated by the) 
next (Mantras, II, 19, 8-13). 

5. Or invertedly (i. e. he offers Afya with the 
verses referred to in Sutra 3, and food with those 
referred to in Sutra 4). 

6. Let him touch the whole (food) with the next 
(formulas, II, 19, 14-16). 

7. Or the (single) prepared (portions of food des- 
tined) for the single Brahma#as. 

8. Having caused them with the next (formula, 
II, 20, 1) to touch (the food, he gives it to them 
to eat). 

9. When they have eaten (and gone away), he 
goes after them, circumambulates them, turning his 
right side towards them, spreads out southward- 
pointed Darbha grass in two different layers, pours 
water on it with the next (formulas, II, 20, 2-7), dis- 
tributes the Vindas, ending in the south, with the 
next (formulas, II, 20, 8-13), pours out water as 
before with the next (formulas, 14-19), worships (the 

21, i. Comp. Dharmaj&stra II, 7, 16, 8 seq. ; Sacred Books, 
vol. ii, p. 139. Comp. Professor BUhler's remarks, vol. ii, p. xiv. 

Digitized by 


8 PA7ALA, 22 SECTION, 2. 293 

ancestors) with the next (formulas, II, 20, 20-23), 
sprinkles with the next (verse, 24) water three times 
from right to left round (the Pi»a!as) with a water-pot, 
besprinkles the vessels, which are turned upside 
down, repeating the next Ya^us (25) at least three 
times without taking breath, sets up the vessels two 
by two, cuts off (Avadanas) from all (portions of 
food), and eats of the remains at least one morsel 
with the next Ya,fus (26). 

10. Of the dark fortnight that follows after the 
full moon of Magha, the eighth day falls under 
(the constellation of) GyeshA&a: this day is called 

11. In the evening before that day (he performs) 
the preparatory ceremony. 

12. He bakes a cake of four cups (of rice). 

13. (The cake is prepared) in eight dishes (like a 
Purod&ya), according to some (teachers). 

Patala 8, Section 22. 

1. After the ceremonies down to the A^yabhaga 
oblations have been performed in the same way as 
at the fortnightly sacrifices, he makes with his joined 
hands oblations of the cake with the next (verse, II, 
20, 27). 

2. The rest (of the cake) he makes ready, divides 
(it) into eight parts and offers it to the Brahma#as. 

12, 13. Comp. Hirawyak. II, 5, 14, 3 seq. 

22, 1. Comp. above, VII, 18, 6. 

2. I believe that seshaA means the rest of the cake. The word 
' siddhaA ' possibly refers to such preparations of the food as are 
indicated in Hirawyak. II, 5, 14, 7. Haradatta understands jeshaA 
as the rest of the rites (tantrasya jeshaA) : ' The rest of the rites is 

Digitized by 


294 gwhya-sOtra of Apastamba. 

3. On the following day he touches a cow with 
a Darbha blade, with the words, ' I touch thee 
agreeable to the Fathers.' 

4. Having silently offered five A^ya oblations, and 
having cooked the omentum of the (cow), and per- 
formed the 'spreading. under' and the sprinkling 
over (of Afya), he sacrifices (the omentum) with the 
next (verse, II, 20, 28) with a Pala^a leaf from the 
middle or the end (of the stalk). 

5. (He sacrifices) boiled rice together with the 
meat (of the cow) with the next (verses, II, 20, 29-35), 

6. Food prepared of meal with the next (verse, 
II, 21, 1), 

7. Then the A^a oblations (indicated by the) 
next (Mantras, II, 21, 2-9). 

8. (The rites) from the Svish/akrrt down to the 
offering of the Vmdas are the same (as at the 

9. Some (teachers) prescribe the Pinda. offering 
for the day after the Ash/aka. 

10. Here (follows) another (way for celebrating 
the Ash/aka sacrifice). He sacrifices curds with his 
joined hands in the same way as the cake. 

11. Having left over from the meat of the (cow, 
see above, 3. 4) as much as is required, on the day 
after (the Ash&ka) (he performs) the rite of the 

12. This rite has been explained in the description 
of the monthly -Sraddha. 

13. If he goes out in order to beg for something, 

the regular one, without alterations:' it must be admitted that the 
expressions used by Hirawyak. II, 5, 14, 10 would agree well with 
this explanation. 

4. See above, V, 13, 16. 

Digitized by 


8 PATALA, 23 SECTION, 4. 295 

let him murmur the next (Mantras, II, 21, 10-16) 
and then state his desire. 

14. If he has obtained a chariot, he has the horses 
put to it, lets it face the east, and touches with the 
next (verse, II, 21, 17) the two wheels of the chariot 
or the two side-pieces. 

15. With the next Ya,fus (II, 21, 18) he should 
mount, and drive with the next (verse, II, 21, 19) 
towards the east or north, and should then drive off 
on his business. 

16. Let him mount a horse with the next (for- 
mulas, II, 21, 20-30), 

17. An elephant with the next (formula, II, 21, 31). 

18. If any harm is done him by these two (beasts), 
let him touch the earth as indicated above. 

19. If he is going to a dispute, he takes the 
parasol and the staff in his left hand. 

Patala 8, Section 23. 

1. Having sacrificed, with his right hand, a fist 
full of chaff with the next (verse, II, 21, 32), he 
should go away and murmur the next (verse, 33). 

2. Over an angry person let him recite the two 
next (formulas, II, 22, 1. 2); then his anger will be 

3. One who wishes that his wife should not be 
touched by other men, should have big living centi- 
pedes ground to powder, and should insert (that 
powder) with the next (formula, II, 22, 3), while she 
is sleeping, into her secret parts. 

4. For success (in the generation of children) 

18. See VII, 19, 11. On reshape, comp. below, 23, 9. 
23, 3. Comp. Hirawyak. I, 4, 14, 7. 

Digitized by 


296 gwhya-sOtra of Apastamba. 

let him wash (his wife) with the urine of a red- 
brown cow. 

5. For success (in trade) let him sacrifice with 
the next (verse — II, 22, 4 — some portion) from the 
articles of trade which he has in his house. 

6. If he wishes that somebody be not estranged 
from him, let him pour his own urine into the horn 
of a living animal, and sprinkle (it) with the next 
two (verses, II, 22, 5. 6) three times from right to 
left around (the person) while he is sleeping. 

7. In a path which servants or labourers use to 
run away, he should put plates (used for protecting 
the hands when holding a hot sacrificial pan) on (a 
fire), and should offer the oblations (indicated by the) 
next (Mantras, II, 22, 7-10). 

8. If a fruit falls on him from a tree, or a bird 
befouls him, or a drop of water falls on him when 
no rain is expected, he should wipe that off with 
the next (Mantras, II, 22, 11-13), according to the 
characteristics (contained in these Mantras). 

9. If a post of his house puts forth shoots, or 
if honey is made in his house (by bees), or if the 
footprint of a dove is seen on the hearth, or if 
diseases arise in his household, or in the case of 
other miracles or prodigies, let him perform in the 
new-moon night, at dead of night, at a place where 
he does not hear the noise of water, the rites from 
the putting (of wood) on the fire down to the Afya- 
bhaga oblations, and let him offer the oblations 
(indicated in the) next (Mantras, II, 22, 14-23), and 
enter upon the performance of the Gaya and fol- 
lowing oblations. 

6, 7. Comp. PSraskara III, 7; Hira»yak. I, 4, 13, 19 seqq. 

Digitized by 



8 PAFALA, 23 SECTION^"*©- 

10. Having performed (the ceremonies) down to 
the sprinkling (of water) round (the fire), he puts up 
towards the south with the next (verse, II, 22, 24) a 
stone as a barrier for those among whom a death has 

End of the Apastambiya-Grehya-sutra. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 





i. The sacred Gnhya fire. S.l.i; A. I, 9 ; P. I, 2 ; G. I, 1; 
Kh. I, 5, 1 seq.; H. I, 22, 2 seq.; 26; Ap. 5, 13 seq. 

2. General division of Gnhya sacrifices. S. I, 5 ; 10; A. I, 1, 

2 seq. (comp. Ill, 1); P. I, 4, 1. 

3. Regular morning and evening oblations. S. I, 3, 8 seq. 

(comp. V, 4) ; A. I, 2, 1 seq. ; 9 ; P. I, 9 ; G. 1, 1, 22 seq. ; 
3; 9, 13 seq.; Kh. I, 5, 6 seq.; H. I, 23, 8 seq.; Ap. 7, 
19 seq. 

4. The Bali oblations. 5. II, 14 ; A. I, 2, 3 seq. ; P. II, 9 (comp. 

I, 12); G. I, 4; Kh. I, 5, 20 seq.; Ap. 8, 4. 

5. Sacrifices on the days of the new and full moon. S. 1, 3 (comp. 

V, 4) ; A. 1, 10 ; P. 1, 12 ; G. I, 5 seq.; Kh. II, 1 ; 2, i seq.; 
H.I, 23, 7; Ap.7, 17. 

6. General outline of Gnhya sacrifices. S. I, 7 seq.; A. I, 3; 
P. I, 1 ; G. I, 3 seq. ; Kh. 1, 1 seq. ; H. I, 1, 9 seq. ; Ap. 1, 
1 seq. 

a. The ya£#opavfta, the priUtnivita, the touching of 

water. G. I, 2 ; Kh. 1, 1, 4 seq.; Ap. 1, 3. 8. 

b. Besmearing of the surface with cow-dung, drawing of 

the lines. 5. 1, 7, 2 seq.; A. I, 3, 1; P. 1, 1, 2; G. I, 
1,9; 5.13; Kh. I, 2, 1 seq. 

c. The fire is carried forward. S. I, 7, 9 ; A. I, 3, 1; P. I, 

1, 2 ; G. 1, 1, ii ; Kh. I, 2, 5; H. 1, 1, 10. 

d. The samuhana. S. I, 7, 11; A. I, 3, i; G. IV, 5, 5; 

Kh. I, 2, 6. 

e. The strewing of grass around the sacred fire. S. I, 8, 

1 seq.; A. 1, 3,1; P. 1,1,2; G. 1, 5, 16 seq.; 7, 9 seq.; 
Kh. I, 2, 9 seq.; H. 1, 1, 11 seq.; Ap. 1, 12 seq. 

f. The purifiers. S. I, 8, 14 seq.; A. I, 3, 2 seq.; P. I, 

Digitized by 



i, 2; G.I, 7, 21 seq.; Kh. I, 2, 12 seq.; H. I, 1, 
23; Ap. i, 19. 
g. Preparation of the A^ya for sacrifice. S. 1, 8, 18 seq. ; 

A. I, 3. 3; P- J » I. 2 seq-J A G- Ii 7. *9 seq- J Kh - *» 
2, 14 seq. ; H. I, i, 27 ; Ap. 1, 22. 
h. The A^ya oblations. S. I, 9 ; A. I, 3, 4 seq. ; P. I, 
1, 4; 5. 3 se q- 5 G. I, 8 ; 9, 26 seq. ; Kh. I, 3, 
12 seq. ; H. I, 2, 12 seq. ; 3 ; Ap. 2, 5 seq. 

7. Sacrifices of cooked food. S. I, 3 ; A. I, 10 ; G. I, 6, 

13 seq. ; 7 seq. ; Kh. II, 1 ; Ap. 7. 

8. Animal sacrifice (comp. Ash/aki, Anvash/akya, Sulagava). 

A. I, 11 ; P. Ill, 11 ; G. Ill, 10, 18-IV, 1 ; Kh. Ill, 4; 
H. II, 15. 

a. The omentum. A. 1, 11, 10 (comp. II, 4, 13) ; IV, 8, 

18; P. Ill, 11, 4. 6; G. Ill, 10, 30 seq.; IV, 4, 
22 seq.; Kh. Ill, 4, 9 seq. 25 seq.; H. II, 15, 
6 seq. 

b. The Avadanas. A. I, 11, 12 (comp. II, 4, 14); P. 

Ill, 11, 6 seq.; G. IV, 1, 3. 9 &c; Kh. Ill, 4, 
14 seq.; H. II, 15, 9 seq. 

9. Marriage. 5. I, 5 seq. ; A. I, 5 seq. ; P. I, 4 seq. ; G. II, 1 
seq. ; Kh. I, 3 seq.; H. 1, 19 seq. ; Ap. 2, 12 seq. 

a. Different kinds of marriage (brahma, daiva, &c). A. 


b. Election of the bride. S. I, 5, 5 seq. ; A. I, 5 ; G. II, 

I, 1 seq.; Ill, 4, 4 seq.; H. I, 19, 2; Ap. 3, 
10 seq. 

c. The wooers go to the girl's house. S. I, 6 ; Ap. 2, 

16 ; 4, 1 seq. 

d. Sacrifice when the bride's father has declared his 

assent. 5. 1, 7 seq. 

e. The bride is washed. S. I, 11 ; G. II, 1, 10. 17 ; 

Kh. I, 3, 6. 

f. Dance of four or eight women. S. I, 11, 5. 

g. The bridegroom goes to the girl's house. 5. 1, 1 2. 

h. He gives her a garment, anoints her, gives her a 
mirror, &c. 5". I, 12, 3 seq.; P. I, 4, 12 seq.; G. 

II, 1, 18 ; Kh. I, 3, 6 ; Ap. 4, 8. 

i. Argha at the wedding. 5". I, 12, 10; G. II, 3, 16 
seq. ; Kh. I, 4, 7 seq. ; Ap. 3, 5 seq. 

k. Sacrifice with the Mahavyahri'tis and other formulas 
(Gaya, Abhyatana, &c, formulas). S. I, 12, 11; 

Digitized by 



A. If 1, 3 5 P- I. 5. 3 seq-5 G. II, i, 24 ; Kh. I, 3, 
8. 11 ; H. I, 19, 7 (comp. 3, 8 seq.; 20, 8); Ap. 

5, 2. 11 (comp. 2, 7). 

1. Seizing of the bride's hand. 5 1 . I, 13, 2; A. I, 7, 
3 seq. ; P. I, 7, 3 5 G. II, 2, 16 ; Kh. I, 3, 17. 31 ; 
H. I, 20, 1 ; Ap. 4, 1 1 seq. 

m. The formula, • This am I, that art thou.' 5". I, 13, 
4; A. I, 7,6; H.I, 20, 2. 

n. The treading on the stone. S. I, 13, 10 seq.; A. I, 

7, 7; P. I, 7, 1; G. II, 2, 3; Kh.I, 3, 19; H. I, 
19, 8; Ap. 5,3. 

o. Circumambulation of the fire. S. I, 13, 13; A. I, 7, 

6 ; P. I, 5, 1 ; 7, 3 ; G. II, 2, 8; Kh. I, 3, 24 ; H. 

I, 20, 5; Ap. 5, 1. 7. 
p. Sacrifice of fried grain. S. I, 13, 15 seq. ; A. I, 7, 8 ; 

P. I, 6, 1 seq. ; G. II, 2, 5 seq. ; Kh. I, 3, 20 seq. ; 

H. I, 20, 3 seq. ; Ap. 5, 4 seq. 
q. The seven steps. S. I, 14, 5 seq.; A. I, 7, 19; P. I, 

8, 1 ; G. II, a, 11 ; Kh. I, 3, 26 ; H. I, 20, 9 seq. ; 
21, 1 seq.; Ap. 4, 16. 

r. The bride is carried away to her new home. S. I, 
15; A. I, 7, 21; 8; P. I, 8, 10; 10; G. 11,2, 17 
seq.; 4; Kh. I, 4, 1 seq.; H. I, 22, 1; Ap. 5, 
12 seq. 

s. Ceremonies on entering the new home; looking at 
the polar star. 5. I, 16, 17, comp. A. I, 7, 22; 
comp. P. I, 8, 19; comp. G. II, 3, 5 seq.; 4, 
6 seq.; comp. Kh. I, 4, 3; H. I, 22, 6 seq.; Ap. 

6, 8 seq. 

t. The rites of the fourth day ; the cohabitation. S. I, 
18. 19; P.I, n, A i3J G.II,5; Kh.1,4,12; H.I, 
83, 11 ; 24, 25 ; Ap. 8, 8 seq. 

10. The Puwsavana (i.e. the ceremony to secure the birth of a 

male child). 5. 1, 20 ; A. I, 13 ; P. I, 14 ; G. II, 6 ; Kh. 
II, 2, 17 seq.; H. II, 2 ; Ap. 14, 9 seq. 

11. A ceremony for the protection of the embryo. 5". I, 21 

(comp. A. I, 13, 1). 

12. The Simantonnayana (or parting of the pregnant wife's hair). 

S.l, 22 (comp. V, 4) ; A. I, 14 ; P. 1, 15 ; G. II, 7, 1 seq. ; 
Kh. II, 2, 24 seq. ; H. II, 1 ; Ap. 14, 1 seq. 

Song of lute-players. S.l, 22, 11 seq. ; A. 1, 14, 6 seq. ; 
P. I, 15, 7 seq. (comp. H. II, 1, 3) ; Ap. 14, 4 seq. 

Digitized by 



13. Ceremony before the confinement 5. 1, 23 ; P. I, 16, 1 seq. ; 

G. II, 7, 13 seq. ; Kh. II, 2, 28 seq. ; H. II, 2, 8 seq. ; Ap. 
14, 13 seq. 

14. The Gatakarman (or ceremony for the new-born child) and 

similar rites. S. I, 24 (comp. V, 4) ; A. I, 15 ; P. I, 16, 
3 seq.j G. II, 7, 17 seq^ ; 8, 1 seq.; Kh. II, 2, 32 ; 3, 1 
seq. ; H. H, 3, 2 seq. ; Ap. 15. 

a. Name given to the child. S. I, 34, 4 seq. ; A. I, 15, 

4 seq.; P. I, 17; G. II, 7, 15; 8, 8 seq.; Kh. II, 
2, 30 seq. 3, 6 seq.; H. II, 4, 10 seq.; Ap. 15, 
2 seq. 8 seq. 

b. The 'production of intelligence.' S. L, 24, 9; A. I, 

15, 3 ; P. I, 16, 3; G. II, 7, 20 ; Kh. II, 2, 34 ; H. 

II. 3. 9- 

c. Driving away demons and goblins from the child. 

P.I, 16, 23; H. II, 3, 7. 

15. The getting up of the mother from childbed. S.I, 25 (with 

enumeration of the Nakshatras and their presiding deities, 
chap. 26) ; P. I, 17, 1 ; comp. H. II, 4, 6 ; Ap. 15, 8. 

16. How the father should greet his children when returning 

from a journey. A. I, 15, 9 ; P. I, 18; G. II, 8, 21 ; Kh. 
H, 3. *3; H. II, 4, 16 ; Ap. 15, 12. 

1 7. The feeding of the child with solid food (Annapra^ana). 5. 

I, 27 ; A. I, 16 ; P. I, 19 ; H. II, 5; Ap. 16, 1 seq. 

18. The tonsure of the child's head (ATlWakarman). 5. 1, 28; 

A. I, 17 ; P. II, 1 ; G. II, 9 ; Kh. II, 3, 16 seq. ; H. II, 6 ; 
Ap. 16, 3 seq. 

19. The ceremony of shaving the beard (Godana-Karman, Ke- 

*dnta). S. I, 28, 18 seq.; A. 1, 18; P. II, 1, 3 seq.; G. Ill, 
1 ; Kh. II, 5, 1 seq.; H. II, 6, 16 seq.; Ap. 16, 12 seq. 

20. The initiation of the student Studentship. The Samivar- 

tana. 5. II, i seq. ; III, 1 ; IV, 5 seq.; VI ; A. 1, 19 seq. ; 
III, 5; 8-10; P. II, 2-6; 8; 10-12; G. II, 10-III, 4; 
Kh. II, 4-III, 1, 32 ; III, 2, 16-33 5 H. I, 1 seq.; II, 18- 
20 ; Ap. 10 seq. 

a. Time of the initiation. The patitasavhrfka. £. II, 1, 

1 seq. ; A. I, 19, 1 seq. ; P. II, 2, 1 seq. ; 5, 36 seq.; 
G. II, 10, 1 seq. ; Kh. II, 4, 1 seq. ; H. I, 1, 2 seq. ; 
Ap. 10, 1 seq. 

b. The skin, the girdle, and the staff belonging to the 

different castes. 5. II, 1, 1 seq. 15 seq. ; II, 13; 
A. I, 19, 10 seq. ; P. II, 5, 16 seq. ; G. II, 10, 
8 seq.; H.I, 1, 17; 4, 7; Ap. 11, 16 seq. 

Digitized by 



c. Rite of the initiation. S. II, 1, 26 scq. ; A. I, 20, 

2 seq.; P. II, 2, 5 seq.; G. II, 10, 15 seq.; Kh. II, 

4, 7 seq.; H. I, 1, 5 seq.; 3, 14 seq.; Ap. 10, 
5 seq. 

d. The standing duties of the student (begging, putting 

fuel on the fire, Ac). S. II, 4, 5 ; 6 ; 9 ; 10 ; A. 

I, 20, 11 seq.; 22, 1 seq.; P. II, 2, 2; 4; 5; G. 

II, io, 34. 42 seq. ; Kh. II, 4, 19. 25 seq.; H. I, 

5, 10; 7, 1 seq. 15 seq.; 8, 2. 8 seq.; Ap. 11, 
22 seq. 

e. The Savitrt. S. II, 5 seq.; A. I, 21, 5 seq.; 22, 29 ; 

P. II, 3, 3 seq.; G. II, 10, 38 seq.; Kh. II, 4, 
20 seq. ; H. I, 6, 6 seq. ; Ap. 11,8 seq. 

f. The study of the Veda. S. II, 7 seq.; IV, 8 ; A. I, 

22, 12 seq. ; III, 5, 10 seq. ; P. Ill, 16 ; Kh. Ill, 2, 
22 seq. ; H. I, 8, 16. 

g. Daily recitation of Vedic texts (svadhyaya). S.l, 4; 

A. m, 2-4. 

h. Secret doctrines and special observances connected 
with them. S. II, 11-12; VI, 1-6 ; G. Ill, 1-2; 
Kh. II, 5. 

i. The opening of the annual course of study (Upaka- 
ra»a). 5. IV, 5; A. Ill, 5; P. II, io; a G. Ill, 3; 
Kh. Ill, 2, 16 seq.; H. II, 18, 1 seq.; Ap. 8, 1. 

k. The end of the term (Utsarga). The Tarpawa cere- 
mony. S. IV, 6. 9-10 (comp. VI, 5. 6); A. Ill, 5, 
13. 19 seq. (comp. Ill, 4); P. II, 11, 10 seq.; 12; 
G. Ill, 3, 14 seq.; Kh. Ill, 2, 26 seq.; H. II, 18, 
8 seq.; Ap. 8, 1. 

1. Interruptions of study. S. IV, 7 ; A. IV, 4, 1 7 seq. ; 
P. II, 11; G. Ill, 3, 9 seq. 16 seq.; Kh. Ill, 2, 
27 seq. 

m. The student's setting out on a journey. S. II, 8 ; A. 

III, 10. 

n. The bath taken at the end of studentship (Samavartana). 
S. Ill, 1 ; A. Ill, 8; 9; P. II, 6; 8; G. Ill, 4, 7 
seq.; Kh. Ill, 1 ; H. I, 9 seq.; Ap. 12-13, 3 - 
21. Rules of conduct for a Snataka. S. IV, 11-12 ; A. Ill, 9, 6 ; 
P. II, 7 ; G. Ill, 5 ; Kh. Ill, 1, 33 seq. 

22. House-building. 5. Ill, 2 seq.; A. II, 7 seq. ; P. Ill, 4 seq.; 
G. IV, 7 ; Kh. IV, 2, 6 seq. ; H. I, 27-28 ; Ap. 17. 

Digitized by 



a. Election of the ground. A. II, 7 seq. ; G. IV, 7, 1 seq. ; 

Kh. IV, 2, 6 seq. 

b. Entering the new house. 5. Ill, 4 ; A. II, 9, 9 ; P. 

Ill, 4, 5 seq., 18. 

c. The putting up of the water-barrel. P. Ill, 5 ; Ap. 

17, 8 seq. 

d. Leaving the house when travelling and returning to it. 

S. Ill, 5-7 ; A. II, 10, 1 seq. ; H. I, 29. 

23. Ploughing. S. IV, 13; A. II, io, 3. 4 ; P. II, 13 ; G. IV, 

4, 27 seq. 

24. Partaking of the first-fruits (Agraya«a). S. Ill, 8; A. II, 2, 

4 seq.; P. Ill, 1; G. Ill, 8, 9 seq.; Kh. Ill, 3, 16 seq. ; 
Ap. 19, 6 seq. 

25. Sacrifice to SM. P. II, 17 ; comp. G. IV, 4, 29. 

26. Ceremonies referring to cattle (comp. also the Ajvayu^a sacri- 
fice, below, No. 30). 

a. The driving out of the cows, and other rites referring 

to the cows. 5. Ill, 9 ; A. II, 10, 5 seq. ; G. Ill, 
6; Kh. Ill, 1, 45 seq. ; H. I, 18. 

b. Making marks on the cattle. S. Ill, 10. 

c. The Vr/'shotsarga. £. Ill, 1 1 ; P. Ill, 9. 

d. The Sulagava (' spit-ox ' offered to Rudra). A. IV, 

8 ; P. Ill, 8 ; H. II, 8-9 ; Ap. 19, 13-20, 19. 
o. Distribution of PaULta leaves. P. Ill, 8, 1 1 ; 

H. II, 9, 1 seq. ; Ap. 20, 5 seq. 
0. Sacrifice to Kshetrapati. H. II, 9, 8 seq.; 

Ap. 20, 12 seq. 

27. The .tfaitra offerings. 5. IV, 19. 

28. The >Srava»a sacrifice to the Serpents. S.IV, 15; A. II, 1; P. 

II, 14 ; G. Ill, 7 (comp. IV, 8, 1) ; Kh. Ill, 2, 1 seq. ; H. 
II, 16; Ap. 18, 5-19, 2. 

29. The Praush/Aapada sacrifice. P. II, 15. 

30. The Asvzyuga. sacrifice. 5. IV, 16; A. II, 2, 1-3; P. II, 

16; G. Ill, 8, i^seq. ; Kh. Ill, 3, 1 seq. 

31. The rites of the Agrahayawt (concluding ceremonies of the 

rites devoted to the Serpents). 5. IV, 17. 18; A. II, 3; 
P. Ill, 2 ; G. Ill, 9 (comp. IV, 8, 1) ; Kh. Ill, 3, 6 seq. ; 
H. II, 17 ; Ap. 19, 3 seq. 8 seq.^ 

32. The Ash/akas. 5. Ill, 12-14; A. II, 4, 5; P. Ill, 3; G. 

Digitized by 



III, 10 seq. ; Kh. Ill, 3, 28 seq. ; H. II, 14 seq. ; Ap. 21, 
10 seq. 

a. The first Ash/aid. S. Ill, 12, 2 seq.; P. Ill, 3, 4; 

G. Ill, 10, 9 seq.; Kh. Ill, 3, 30 seq. 

b. The second Ash/aid (animal sacrifice). S. Ill, 13, 

1 seq. ; P. Ill, 3, 8 ; G. HI, 10, 18-IV, 1 ; Kh. HI, 
4, 1 seq. 

c. The third Ash/akl 5". Ill, 14; G. IV, 4, 17 seq. ; 

Kh. Ill, 3, 32 seq. 

d. The Anvash/akya ceremony. S. Ill, 13, 7 ; A. II, 5; 

P. Ill, 3, 10; G. IV, 2. 3; Kh. Ill, 5; H. II, 15; 
Ap. 22, 3 seq. 1 1. 

33. Disease and death of a person who has set up the •Srauta 
fires. A. IV, 1. 

Burning the dead body. A. IV, 2-4. 

The gathering of the bones. A. IV, 5. 

Expiatory ceremonies after the death of a Guru or other 

misfortune. A. IV, 6. 
Death. Burning dead bodies. P. Ill, 10. 

34. .Sraddha offerings to the Fathers. S. IV, 1-4; A. II, 5, 
10 seq. ; IV, 7 ; G. IV, 4 (comp. chap. 2. 3) ; Kh. Ill, 5, 
35; H. II, 10-13; Ap. 21, 1-9. 

a. The invited Brahmanas. 5. IV, 1, 2 seq. ; A. II, 5, 

10 seq.; rV, 7, 2 seq. ; G.IV, 2, 33 seq.; H. II, 10, 
2 seq.; Ap. 21, 2 seq. 

b. Offering of the Piwrfas. 5. IV, 1, 9 seq. ; A. II, 5, 

4 seq.; IV, 7, 28; P. Ill, 10, 50 seq.; G. IV,3, 
8 seq.; Kh. Ill, 5, 18 &c. ; H. II, 12, 3 seq.; Ap. 
21, 9. 

c. The Ekoddish/a Sraddha. S. IV, 2 (comp. A. IV, 7, 

1) ; P. Ill, 10, 50 seq. 

d. The Sapiw/ikarawa. 5. IV, 3 ; V, 9 (comp. P. Ill, 

e. The Abhyudayika .Sraddha. 5. IV, 4, comp. A. II, 

5. 13 J IV, 1,i;G. IV, 3, 35. 

35. The Arghya reception (comp. Argha at the wedding, above, 
9, i). S. II, 15-17; A. I, 24; P. I, a 3 5 G.IV, 10; Kh. 
IV, 4, 5 seq. ; H. I, 12, 7 seq. ; 13 ; Ap. 13, 3 seq. 
a. The persons to whom an Arghya reception is due. 
[30] x 

Digitized by 



5. II, is, 4 seq.; 16, 3; A. I, 24, 1 seq.; P. I, 3, 
1 ; G. IV, 10, 23 seq. ; Kh. IV, 4, 21 seq. ; Ap. 13, 
2 seq.; 14. 19. 20. 

b. The cow offered to the guest. S. II, 15, 1 seq. ; 16, 

1 ; A. I, 24, 30 seq.; P. I, 3, 26 seq.; G. IV, 10, 
18 seq. ; Kh. IV, 17 seq.; H. I, 13, 10 seq.; Ap. 
13, 15 seq. 

c. Miscellaneous rules about the reception of guests. S. 

II, 17. 

Rites for the obtainment of special wishes, for averting 
misfortune; different expiations. 

36. Longer sections are devoted to the description of ceremonies 
for the obtainment of special wishes by G. IV, 5-6 ; 8-9 ; 
Kh. IV, 1-4, 4. Comp. A. Ill, 6, 1 seq. ; Ap. 8, 4. 

a. Rites for procuring success and averting evil in dis- 

putes and on different other occasions. H. I, 14, 
7-15, 8; Ap. 22, 19 seq.; 23, 2 seq. Entering a 
court of justice. P. Ill, 13. 

b. Mounting a chariot and similar acts. A. II, 6 ; P. 

Ill, 14-15. 6 ; Ap. 22, 14. 

c. Rites when going out on business or on dangerous 

ways. A. Ill, 7, 8-10. 

d. Sacrifice of a person menaced by unknown danger. 

A. Ill, n. 

e. Going out and begging. Ap. 22, 13 seq. 

f. Formulas to be pronounced on receiving gifts. P. Ill, 

15, 22 seq. 

g. Crossing a river. 5". IV, 14. 

h. Formulas to be pronounced at cross-roads and other 

different places. P. Ill, 15, 7 seq. ; H. I, 16, 

8 seq. 
i. Rites referring to battles. A. Ill, 12. 
k. Rites in order that friends may not be estranged and 

servants may not run away. P. Ill, 7 ; H. I, 13, 

19-14, 5; Ap. 23, 6. 7. 
1. Rite when first seeing the new moon. H. I, 16, 1. 
m. Rite for establishing concord between husband and 

wife. Ap. 9, 4 seq. 
n. Rite if one cannot pay a debt. G. IV, 4, 26. 
o. Oblations for sick persons. A. Ill, 6, 3 seq. ; for a 

Digitized by 



sick child. P. I, 16, 24 seq. ; for a boy suffering 

from epilepsy. H. II, 7 ; Ap. 18, 1 seq. Cure for 

headache. P. Ill, 6. 
p. Penance of a student who has broken his vow of 

chastity. P. Ill, 12. 
q. Different expiations. 5. V, 1, 8. 9; 5-6; 8; 10; 

11 ; A. Ill, 6, 5-7, 2 ; 7, 7 ; 10, 9 seq. ; G. Ill, 3, 

30 seq.; Kh. II, 5, 35 seq.; H. I, 16, 2 seq. 

14 seq.-chap. 17, 6; Ap. 8, 5 seq.; 9, 2 seq.; 23, 

9 seq. 

Miscellaneous matter. 

37. Qualities of a Brdhmawa on whom gifts should be bestowed. 

S. I, 2. 

38. The choosing of priests for officiating at a sacrifice. A. I, 23. 

39. The JTaitya sacrifice. A. I, 12, 1 seq. (comp. Par. Ill, 11, 

10 seq.). 

40. The Dhanvantari sacrifice. A. I, 12, 7. 

41. Consecration of ponds. S. V, 2. 

42. Consecration of gardens. 5". V, 3. 

43. Sandhya or twilight devotion. & II, 9 ; A. Ill, 7, 3 seq. 

44. The sacrificer setting out on a journey makes the sacred fire 

enter him. 5. V, 1, 1 seq. ; H. I, 26, 1 2 seq. 

X 2 

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Digitized by 


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As Professor Oldenberg was unable to find any other 
texts connected with the Grthya-sfltras, I have tried to 
bring this volume to its proper size by adding a translation 
of Apastamba's Ya^wa-Paribhasha-sfltras. These Stitras 
give some general information about the performance of 
sacrifices, and may prove useful to the students both of the 
5rauta and the Grz'hya sacrifices. Paribhasha is defined 
as a general rule or definition applicable throughout a 
whole system, and more binding than any particular rule. 
How well this sense of paribhasha was understood in India, 
we may see from a passage in the Jmupalavadha XVI, 80 : 

ParitaA pramitaksharapi sarvaw 

vishayam praptavatt gata pratish/Mm 

na khalu pratihanyate kuta.r£it 

paribhasheva gariyas! yada^wa. 
'Whose (the king's) command, though brief, having reached 
the whole kingdom round about and obtained authority, 
is never defeated, being of the highest weight, like a 

These Paribhashas are a very characteristic invention of 
ancient Indian authors, particularly during the Sutra period. 
We find them as early as the Anukramawis, and even at 
that early time they had been elaborated with many purely 
technical contrivances. Thus we are told in the Index to 
the Rig-veda that, as a general rule, if no deity is men- 
tioned in the index of the hymns, Indra must be supposed 
to be the deity addressed ; when no metre is mentioned, 
the metre must be understood to be the TrishAibh ; at the 
beginning of each Mawdala the hymns must be taken to be 
addressed to Agni, till we come to hymns distinctly addressed 
to Indra. Now it is clear that in this case these Paribha- 
shas or general instructions must have been laid down 

Digitized by 


312 Apastamba's yagjva-paribhashA-s^tras. 

before the whole work was carried out. The same applies 
to other Paribhashas, such as those of the metrical Sutras, 
but I feel more doubtful as to the Paribhashas in the gram- 
matical Sutras of Pawini. To judge from the Paribha- 
shendujekhara, it would seem that the Paribhasha-sutras 
to Pacini's grammar also had been settled before a single. 
Sutra of Pawini was composed, and yet it seems almost 
incredible that this gigantic web of Sfttras should have 
been woven on so complicated a warp. This question 
ought to be settled once for all, as it would throw con- 
siderable light on the workmanship of Pawini's Sutras, and 
there is no one better qualified to settle it for us than the 
learned editor of -the Paribhashendujekhara. It is different 
with our Paribhashas. There is no necessity to suppose 
that they were worked out first, before the Sutras were 
composed. They look more like useful generalisations 
than like indispensable preliminary instructions. They 
give us a general idea of the sacrifice, and inculcate rules 
that ought to be observed throughout. But I doubt 
whether they are as essential for enabling the priest to 
carry out the instructions of the Sutras in performing a 
sacrifice as the grammatical paribhashas are in carrying 
out the grammatical rules of Pawini. 

The Apastamba-sutras for which our Paribhashas are 
intended are said to have comprised thirty Pramas (see 
Burnell, Catalogue, p. 19, and p. xxix in Professor Olden- 
berg's Introduction). Burnell mentions that sometimes 
two Pramas, treating of the PahWmedhika rites, were 
counted as the thirty-first and thirty-second of the whole 
work. Of these thirty Prarnas fifteen have been edited 
with Rudradatta's commentary by Professor Garbe in the 
Bibliotheca Indica, 1882-1885. Rudradatta's commentary 
does not seem to have extended beyond the fifteenth 
Pra^na ; some authorities, however, suppose that Haradatta, 
to whom commentaries on the later Prajnas are ascribed, 
was only another name for Rudradatta. According to 
ATau«</appa's Prayogaratnamala (see Burnell, Classified 
Index, I, p. 17 a), the Paribhasha-sutras formed part of the 
twenty-fourth Prarna (/fcaturviwwe tataA prajne nyayapra- 

Digitized by 



varahautrakam). Here Nyaya in the sense of method, 
way, plan, seems to stand for Paribhasha. Another name 
is Samanya-sutra (see Burnell, Classified Index, p. 15 b, 
where it is mentioned as § 4 of Pr&ma XXIV). Aau/a/appa- 
£arya himself, who is said to have been minister of Vira- 
bhupati, the son of the famous king Bukka of Vi^ayanagara, 
begins his work with a paribhasha~pari££//eda. 

I published a German translation of these Sutras with 
notes many years ago, in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 1855. I here give the same 
translation, but I have shortened the notes and compared 
the translation once more with the MSS. 

The principal MSS. used are MS. I. O. L. 1676 b, 259, 
and 1 1 27. MS. 1676 b, now 308, is described in Professor 
Eggeling's Catalogue of the Sanskrit MSS. in the Library 
of the India Office, vol. i, p. 58 b. It is written in Devana- 
garl, contains thirty leaves, and is called at the end iti 
-SYikapardina bhashye uddhrttasaram paribhashapa/alam. 
MS. 259, now 309, contains twenty-seven leaves in Devana- 
garl, and is called at the end iti Kapardisvami-bhashye 
paribhashapa/alam. MS. 1127, now 307, in Devanagarl, 
is dated Sam vat 1691, 5aka 1556, and contains on 
220 leaves portions of Talavrtndanivasin's manual, the 
Apastambasutra-prayoga-vritti, and on pp. 75a-n6a 
Kapardisvamin's commentary on Apastamba's Paribhasha- 
pa/alam. Burnell mentions another copy of this work in 
his Classified Index, I, p. 17 b, and he states (Catalogue, 
p. 24) that, according to tradition, the author was a native 
of Southern India, called A«</appi//ai, and that talavrmda 
or talawthta is a translation of the Tamil panai-kka/u, 
a very common name for villages among palmyra trees 
(panai = palmyra, ka/u = forest). 

While preparing my new translation for the Press, I 
received a printed edition of the text and commentary 
published by '.Sri Satyavratasamajramibha//a£arya in his 
valuable Journal, the Usha, beginning in the eighth fasci- 
culus. He gives also a Bengali translation, and some 
commentaries in the same language, which have proved 
useful in certain difficult passages. 

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SOtra I. 
We shall explain the sacrifice. 


Yaf»a, sacrifice, is an act by which we surrender some- 
thing for the sake of the gods. Such an act must rest on 
a sacred authority (Igama), and serve for man's salvation 
(jreycrtha). The nature of the gift is of less importance. 
It may bepuro^aja, cake; iaru, pulse; sawnayya, mixed 
milk ; pa six, an animal ; soma, the juice of the Soma-plant, 
&c. ; nay, the smallest offerings of butter, flour, and milk 
may serve for the purpose of a sacrifice. 

Y&gna., yaga, ya^ana, and ish/i are considered as 

SCtra II. 

The sacrifice is for the three colours or castes 

(varwa), for Brahma«as and Ra^anyas, also for 

the Vaisya. 


Though the sacrifice is meant for the three castes, here 
called var«a, i.e. colour, the third caste, that of the 
Vaijya or citizen, is mentioned by itself, while the two 
castes, the Brahmawas and Ra^anyas (the Kshatriyas 
or nobles), are mentioned together. This is done because 
there are certain sacrifices (bahuya^amana), performed 
by Brahmawas and Ra,f anyas together, in which Vai-ryas 
take no part. In the 5ankliaj ana-sutras, I, i, 3, also 

Digitized by 


316 Apastamba's yagaa-paribhasha-sCtras. 

the Vauya is mentioned by himself. In Katyayana's 
Sutras, however, no such distinction is made, and we read, 
I, 6, Brahmawa-ra^anya-vaijyana/w srxxteA. Women, 
if properly married, are allowed to participate in sacrifices, 
but no one is allowed to be accompanied by a .Sudra 
woman, even though she be his wife. Properly a Brah- 
ma/fa should marry a wife of his own caste only. A 
Kshatriya may marry a woman of his own or of the 
Brahmawa caste. A Vaijya's proper wife should be 
taken from his own caste. See, however, Manu III, 12 seq. 

The four castes, with the Sudra as the fourth, are 
mentioned once in the Rig-veda, X, 90, 12. The opposition 
between Aryas and Sudras occurs in the Atharva-veda, 
XIX, 62, &c, and in most of the Brahmawas. In the 
Satapatha Brahmana we read of the four castes, Brah- 
ma»a, Ra^anya, Vaijya, and Sudra, and we are told 
that none of them vomits the Soma. Katyiyana excludes 
from the sacrifice the ahgahlna, cripple, sha«</a, eunuch, 
and all ajrotriyas, persons ignorant of the Veda, which 
would bar, of course, the whole class of the Sudras, but 
they are also specially excluded. Concessions, however, 
had to be made at an early time, for instance, in the case 
of the Rathakara, who is admitted to the Agnyadhana, 
&c. This name means chariot-maker, but Apadeva, in 
his Mimawsa-nyaya-prakaja, remarks that, though 
rathakara means a chariot-maker etymologically, it 
should be taken here as the name of a clan, namely that 
of the Saudhanvanas (MS. Mill 46, p. i3 b ). Deva, in 
his commentary on the Katyayana-sutras, makes the same 
remark. See also Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 12 seq. These 
Saudhanvanas, often identified with the .tf/bhus, are 
evidently the followers of Bribu, mentioned RV. VI, 45, 
31 ; 33, and wrongly called Brj'dhu in Manu X, 107 ; see 
M. M., Hist, of A. S. L., p. 494. In the Sankhayana- 
Srauta-sutras, XVI, 11, 11 (ed. Hillebrandt), he is rightly 
called Brtbu. In later times Rathakara is the name of a 
caste, and its members are supposed to be the offspring 
of a marriage between a Mahishya and a Kara«i. A 
Mahishya is the son of a Kshatriya and a Vai>ya, 

Digitized by 


sCtras hi, iv. 3 1 7 

a Kara«i the daughter of a Vataya and a JTudra. 
Sudhanvan also is used in Manu, X, 23, as the name of 
a caste, namely the offspring of fallen (vratya) Vaijyas. 

Another exception is made in favour of a Nishada- 
sthapati, a Nishada chieftain. If it meant a chieftain of 
Nishadas, it might be meant for a Kshatriya who 
happens to be a chieftain of Nishadas. Here it is meant 
for a chieftain who is himself a Nishada, a native settler. 
He is admitted to the Gavedhuka sacrifice. 

Again, although, as a rule, the sacrificer must have 
finished his study of the Veda and be married, a sacrifice 
is mentioned which a Brahma^arin, a student, may 
perform. The case thus provided for is, yo brahma£ari 
striyam upeyat, sa gardabham pajum alabheta. 
As these sacrificers are not upanita, and therefore 
without the sacred fires, their sacrifices have to be per- 
formed with ordinary fires, and the sacrificial offerings, 
the puro</a.ras, are not cooked in kapalas, jars, but on 
the earth, while the avadanas (cuttings), heart, tongue, 
&c, are sacrificed in water, and not in fire. The Nishada 
chieftain has to learn the necessary Vedic verses by heart, 
without having passed through a regular course of Vedic 
study. The same applies to women, who have to recite 
certain verses during the sacrifice. 

That certain women are admitted to the sacrifice, is 
distinctly stated by Katyayana, I, 1, 7, stri £avireshat. 

SOtra III. 
The sacrifice is prescribed by the three Vedas. 

In order to know the whole of the sacrifice, one Veda is 
not sufficient, still less one .rakha (recension) only. The 
sacrifice is conceived as a whole, and its members (ahgas) 
are described in different parts of the three Vedas. 

SOtra IV. 
By the /?*'g-veda, the Ya^ur-veda, the Sama- 
veda (is the sacrifice prescribed). 

Digitized by 


318 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhAshA-sutras. 

SOtra V. 
The Darya-pur«amasau, the new and full- 
moon sacrifices, are prescribed by the Rtg-veda. 
and the Ya^ur-veda. 

SOtra VI. 
The Agnihotra is prescribed by the Ya/ur-veda. 

SOtra VII. 
The Agnish/oma is prescribed by all. 


By saying all, the Atharva-veda is supposed to be in- 
cluded, at least according to one commentator. 

The Agnish/oma requires sixteen priests, the Paju 
sacrifices six, the ATaturmasyas five, the Darja-purwa- 
masas four. 

SOtra VIII. 
With the ^g-veda and Sama-veda the per- 
formance takes place with a loud voice (uk^aiA). 

Even lines of the Ya^nr-veda, if they are contained in 
the .fog-veda and Sama-veda, would have to be pronounced 
with a loud voice. Certain mantras, however, are excepted, 
viz. the £"apa, abhimantrawa, and anumantrana- 

SOtra IX. 

With the Ya^ur-veda the performance takes 
place by murmuring (upimsu). 

This murmuring, upkmsu, is described as a mere opus 
opera turn, the words being repeated without voice and 
without thought. One may see the movements of the 
vocal organs in murmuring, but one should not hear them 
at a distance. If verses from the A7g-veda or Sama-veda 

Digitized by 


sOtras y-xii. 319 

occur in the Ya^nr-veda, they also have to be murmured. 
See Katy. I, 3, 10. 

SOtra X. 

With the exception of addresses, replies, choosing 
of priests (pravara), dialogues, and commands. 


As all these are meant to be understood by others, they 
have therefore to be pronounced in a loud voice. The 
address (ajruta) is om jravaya ; the reply (pratyajruta) 
is astu jrausha/ 1 ; the choosing of priests (pravara) is 
agnir devo hot.a ; a dialogue (samvada) is brahman 
prokshishyami, om proksha; a command (sampresha) 
is prokshawir asadaya. 

SOtra XI. 

In the Samidhenl hymns the recitation is to be 
between (the high and the low tone). 


The Samidhents are the hymns used for lighting the 
fire. One commentator explains antara, between, as be- 
tween high tone (krush/a) and the murmuring (up&msu). 
Another distinguishes three high tones, the krush/a (also 
called tara or krauw/fea), the madhyama, and the 
mandra, and assigns the madhyama to the Samidhenl 
hymns. The mandra notes come from the chest, the 
madhyama notes from the throat, the uttama notes 
from the head. 

Sutra XII. 

Before the A^yabhigas (such as the A^ya-por- 
tions at the Dar ja-pur«amasa), and at the morning 
Savana (oblation of Soma), the recitation is to be 
with the soft (mandra) voice. 

1 See Hillebrandt, Das Altind. Neu- und Vollmondsopfer, p. 94. 

Digitized by V^iOOQlC 

320 Apastamba's ya<?#a-paribhAshA-sOtras. 

The pronunciation is loud, uikaiA, but soft, mandra. 
Satyavrata restricts this rule to the passages mentioned in 
Sutra X. He also treats the second part of Sutras XII, 
XIII, and XIV as separate Sutras. 

SOtra XIII. 

Before the Svish/akrzt (at the Dawa-puraa- 
masa) sacrifice, and at the midday Savana, the 
recitation is to be with the middle voice. 

SOtra XIV. 

In the remainder and at the third Savana with 
the sharp (k rush ta.) voice 1 . 

The remainder refers to the Darja-pur«amasa sacrifice, 
the three Savanas to the Soma sacrifice. Satyavrata 
takes all these rules as referring to the cases mentioned in 
Sutra X. 

SOtra XV. 

The movement of the voice is the same. 


In the three cases mentioned before, the voice moves 
quickly, when the words are to be pronounced high ; 
slowly, when low ; and measuredly, when neither loud 
nor low. 

SOtra XVI. 
The Hotre- priest performs with the Z?*'g-veda. 

SOtra XVII. 
The Udgatrz-priest with the Sama-veda. 

1 See on this, Rig-veda Pratuakhya 13, 17; Ajval. I, 5, 27; 
5ankh. I, 14; Hillebrandt, 1. c. p. 103. 

Digitized by 




The Adhvaryu-priest with the Yafur-veda. 

SOtra XIX. 
The Brahma-priest with all. 


'With all' means with the three Vedas, because the 
Brahma-priest, or superintendent of the whole sacrifice, 
must be acquainted with the three Vedas. Others would 
include the Atharva-veda. 

SOtra XX. 

When it is expressly said, or when it is rendered 
impossible, another priest also may act. 


Vipratishedha is explained by asambhava and 

SOtra XXI. 

The priestly office (artvi^-ya) belongs to the 



Sacrifices may be performed for Kshatriyas, Vaiyyas, 
and, in certain cases, even for others, but never by any 
but Brahmawas. The reason given for this is curious, — 
because Brahmawas only are able to eat the remains of a 
sacrifice. See Satap. Br. II, 3, 1, 39 ; Katyayana IV, 14, 
11 ; also I, 2, 8, com. 

SOtra XXII. 

For all sacrifices the fires are laid once. 

The sacrificial fires have to be arranged for the first time 
[30] Y 

Digitized by 


322 Apastamba's yag;va-paribhAshA-sOtras. 

by a peculiar ceremony, called the Agnyadhana. They 
are generally three (Treta), the Garhapatya, the father ; 
the Dakshiwa, the son ; and the Ahavantya, the grand- 
son. The first laying of the Garhapatya fire-altar takes 
place in spring for a Brahma»a, in summer for a Ra^anya, 
in winter for a Valrya. 


If it is said, g\x hot i, 'he sacrifices,' it should be 
known that sarpir a^ya, melted butter, is meant. 


Sarpis is here taken as an adjective, running; yad 
asarpat tat sarpir abhavat. A^ya is explained as 
navanitavikaradravya^-attyava^anaA jabdaA, i.e. a 
word signifying any kind of substance made of fresh butter. 

In the Aitareya-Brahmawa I, 3, we read kgy&m vai 
devana/K surabhi, ghrztam manushyawam, ayutam 
pitr/«am, navanftao? garbha«am, 'A^-ya is sweet or 
fragrant to the gods, ghr/ta to men, ayuta to the manes, 
navanita to children.' Here the commentator explains 
that a^ya is butter, when melted (vilinaw sarpis), ghr/ta, 
when hardened. Ayuta, sometimes called astu, is butter, 
when slightly melted, nishpakva, when thoroughly melted. 
According to Katyayana I, 8, 37, a^ya is of different 
kinds. It may be simple ghrx'ta, which, as a rule, should 
be made of the milk of cows. But in the absence of a^ya, 
the milk of buffaloes (mahisha), or oil (taila), or sesam-oil 
(firtila), or linseed oil (atasisneha), &c, may be taken. 

Sutra XXIV. 

If it is said, ^uhoti, it should be known that the 
Adhvaryu is meant as performer. 


Though there is a man who offers the sacrifice, yet the 
actual horn a, the throwing of butter &c. into the fire, has 
to be performed by the Adhvaryu priest. 

Digitized by 


sOtras xxiii-xxxi. 323 

SOtra XXV. 
Likewise, the spoon (^uhu) as the vessel. 


Guhu, the spoon, is so called because it is used for pour- 
ing out (^uhoti, homa). 

SOtra XXVI. 

If the ^uhu has been elsewhere employed, let it 
be done with a ladle (sruva). 

The^uhu is a sru£, a spoon, the sruva, a ladle. 

The offering is made in the Ahavanlya fire. 


The sacrificial vessels are kept from the first lay- 
ing of the fires (adhana) for the whole life. 


All sacrificial vessels and instruments are to be kept, and 
most of them are burnt with the sacrificer at his death. 

SOtra XXIX. 
At every sacrifice these vessels are to be purified. 

SOtra XXX. 

The rule for the sacrifice are the Mantras and 

SOtra XXXI. 

The name Veda belongs both to the Mantras 
and Brahma#as. 

y 2 

Digitized by 


324 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhAshA-sOtras. 

The Brahma«as are the precepts for the sacrifice. 


The rest of the Brihma«a, that which does not 
contain precepts, consists of explanations, i.e. re- 
proof, praise, stories, and traditions. 

It is difficult to find words corresponding to technical 
terms in Sanskrit Arthavad a, which I have translated by 
explanation, means not only the telling of the meaning, but 
likewise the telling of the object ; parakr/ti, story, means 
literally the action of another; purakalpa, traditions, 
means the former state. The difference between the two 
is stated to be that parakrzti refers to the act of one 
person, purakalpa to that of several. This subject is fully 
treated in the Purva-mtmawsa. Satyavrata begins a new 
Sutra with ' reproof (ninda). 

All the rest are Mantras. 

SOtra XXXV. 

But passages which are not handed down, are not 
to be classed as Mantras, as, for instance, the pra- 
vara, the words used in choosing priests, divine or 
human ; uha, substitution of one word for another ; 
and namadheya-grahawa, the mentioning of the 
names of particular sacrificers. 

The reason why such passages are not to be treated as 
Mantras is that they should not be subject to some of the 
preceding rules, as, for instance, the murmuring, enjoined 
in SGtra IX. Those passages naturally vary in each 
sacrifice. With regard to the names a distinction is made 

Digitized by 


sOtras xxxii-xxxix. 325 

between the garhyam alma, the domestic name of a 
person, such as Ya^wajarman, and the astrological name, 
such as Rauhina, derived from the star Rohini. 


Likewise the sound of a carriage and the sound 
of a drum. 


These sounds, though serving for the sacrifice, are not 
to be considered as liable to the rules given for the recita- 
tion of Mantras. 


The prohibition of reciting Mantras in the Sva- 
dhyaya does not apply to the sacrifice, because there 
is then a different object. 


S vadhyaya, i. e. self-reading, is the name given to the 
study of the Veda, both in first learning and in afterwards 
repeating it. This study is under several restrictions, but 
these restrictions cease when the Veda is used for sacrificial 

Sacrificial acts are accompanied by one Mantra. 


If it is said that the priest cuts the plants with fourteen 
verses, that means that there are fourteen plants to be cut 
and that one verse is used for each plant. 


This applies also to sacrificial acts which have 
a number and are to be carried out by separate 
(repeated) acts. 

Digitized by 


326 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhAshA-sOtras. 


If a rule is given, such as triA prokshati, he sprinkles 
thrice, the mantra which accompanies the act, is recited 
once only. Again in the case of acts that require repeti- 
tions, such as rubbing, pounding, &c, the hymns are recited 
once only, 


The same applies to rubbing, sleeping, crossing a 
river, down-pours of rain, the conjuring of unlucky 
omens, unless they happened some time ago. 


If several members of the body are to be rubbed, the 
verses required for the purpose are recited once only. 
A prayer is enjoined if one wakes during the night If 
one wakes more than once that prayer is not to be repeated. 
In crossing a river the necessary verse is not to be repeated 
at every wave, nor during a down-pour, at every drop of 
rain. If some unlucky sight has to be conjured, the 
conjuring verse is spoken once and not repeated, unless some 
time has elapsed and a new unlucky sight presents itself. 

SOtra XLI. 
In case of a journey, however, one hymn is used 
till the object (of the journey) has been accom- 


I read prayawe tu-a-arthanirvr*tteA. Another read- 
ing is arthanivrtttiA. 

SOtra XLI I. 

It is the same also with regard to acts which do 
not produce an immediate effect. 

The commentators distinguish between acts which 

Digitized by 


sOtras xl-xlv. 327 

produce a visible effect, such as pounding or sprinkling, 
and acts which do not, such as addressing, approaching, 
looking. The latter are called asawnipatin. Thus when 
the stones used for the preparation of Soma are addressed, 
the hymn which is used for addressing them, is not repeated 
for each single stone, the same as in Sutra XL. Sutras 
XLI and XLII are sometimes joined. 

SOtra XLII I. 

Repetition takes place in the case of the Havish- 
krit, Adhrigu, Puronuvakya, and Manotihymns, 
(because they have to be used) at different times. 


Havishkrzt-adhrigu-puronuvakya-manotam is to 
be taken as a Dvandva compound. 

The Havishkr/t hymn is an invocation when the havis is 
made. The Adhrigu hymn is 'DaivyaA jamitara^,' 
&c. The Puronuvakya hymn is that which precedes 
the Ya^g-ya, immediately after the Sampraisha. The 
Man ota hymn is 'Tvara hy agne prathamo manota,' 
&c. These hymns are to be repeated, if the act which 
they accompany has to be repeated after a certain interval. 

SOtra XLIV. 

When it is expressly stated, one sacrificial act may 
be accompanied by many hymns. 


Thus we read, 'He takes the Abhri, the hoe, with four 

SOtra XLV. 

One ought to let the beginnings of a sacrificial act 
coincide with the end of the Mantras. 

Digitized by 


328 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhAsha-sCtras. 


The mantra which indicates the nature and purpose of 
a sacrificial act should come first, and as soon as it has 
been finished the act should follow. See Katy. I, 3, 5. 


In the case of the aghara, sprinkling of clarified 
butter, and of dhara, pouring out of Soma, the 
beginning of the mantra and the act takes place at 
the same time. 


Mantras are indicated by their first words. 

These first words are often called Pratikas, and rules 
are given in Arvalayana's .Srauta-sutras I, 1, 17-19, as to 
the number of words that should form such a pratika, 
if it is meant for one verse, for three verses, or for a whole 
hymn. According to Arvalayana, if one foot is quoted, it is 
meant for a verse ; if an imperfect foot of an initial verse is 
quoted, it is meant for a whole hymn ; if more than a foot 
is quoted, it is meant for three verses. 

SOtra XLVI 1 1. 

One should know that with the beginning of a 
following mantra, the former mantra is finished. 

SOtra XLIX. 

In the case of Hotra and Ya^amana-mantras, 
an aggregation takes place. 

Hotras are mantras recited by the Hotr*-priest, 
Ya^amanas are mantras recited by the sacrificer himself. 
They are hymns which accompany, but do not enjoin any 
sacrificial act. 

Digitized by 


sCtras xlvi-lii. 329 

SCtra L. 

In the case of the Ya^yas and Anuvakyas this 
(the aggregation) is optional. 

The Yfl^ya is explained by praya££Aati ya^yaya, 
the Anuvakya by ahvayaty anuvakyaya. Sometimes 
more than one are mentioned, but in that case the priest 
is free to do as he likes. According to the same 
principle, when we read that one should sacrifice with 
rice or with barley, that means that rice should be used 
after the rice-harvest, barley after the barley-harvest, 
and not that rice and barley should be used at the same 

It is the same with numbers. 


If we read that, as in the case of fees to be given to 
priests, two, seven, eleven, twelve, twenty-one, sixty, or a 
hundred, this means that either one or the other, not that 
all should be given at the same time. 

SOtra LI I. 
But accumulation is meant in the buying (of Soma), 
in the redemption, and in initiation. 


When it is said that Soma is bought for a goat, gold, &c, 
that it is re-bought from the priests by means of a fee, or 
that at the time of the Dlksha, the purification and 
initiation of a sacrificer, clothes, gold, grain, &c, should be 
given, these are cases not of aut-aut but of et-et. 

The Soma-plant, which is supposed to be bought from 
northern barbarians, is botanically described in an Ayur- 
vedic extract, quoted in the Dhurtasvami-bhashyarfka 
(MS. E.I. H. 531, p. 3 »), as 

Digitized by 


330 ArASTAMBA's yag#a-paribhAshA-sOtras. 

jyamalamla ka nishpatra kshiriwi tva£i mawsala, slesh- 
mala vamani vallt somakhya Magabhqfanam. • The creeper 
called Soma is dark, sour, without leaves, milky, fleshy on 
the surface, producing phlegm and vomiting, food for goats.' 

This passage, quoted from some Ayur-vedic text, is still 
the only one which gives an approximative description of 
the Soma-plant. Dr. Hooker says that the predicates ' sour 
and milky' point to Sarcostemma,but the question is not 
decided yet. For further information see George Watt, 
The Soma Plant, an extract from the third volume of the 
Dictionary of Economic Products of India, and Hillebrandt, 
Vedische Mythologie, pp. 14 seq. 

SOTRA LI 1 1. 

If one has performed an offering to Rudra, to the 
Rikshasas, to Nirrz'ti, or to the Pitrs's, if one 
has cut or broken or thrown away anything, or 
rubbed oneself, &c, one should touch water. 

The touching of water is for the sake of purification. 
Nirasana is left out in some MSS. The ka, inserted after 
abhimarjandni, is explained, as usual, as including other 
acts also, corresponding to our etc. 

SCtra LIV. 

All priestly performances take place on the north- 
ern side of the Vihara. 


Uttarata-upaMraA has to be taken as a compound. 
Vihira is explained as vihriyante*gnayaA patrawi ka 
yasmin dcre, i. e. the sacrificial ground. Upa£ara is 
explained as adhvaryvadina« sa/«£araA, and this sa*»£ara, 
according to Katyayana I, 3, 4a, is the path between the 
ATatvala and Utkara, the Utkara being on the west, the 
praattas on the east of the Vihara. Katyayana I, 8, 26, 
expresses the same rule by uttarata-upaMro yzgna.h, 
the vihara being the place where the yagna. takes place. 

Digitized by 


sOtras liii-lx. 331 

SOtra LV. 

The priest should never turn away from the fire, 
i. e. should never turn his back on the altar. 

SOtra LVI. 
Nor from the Vihira. 

SOtra LVI I. 

Sacrificial utensils should be turned inside, the 
performers being outside. 

The meaning is that the priest should carry such things 
as spoons, vessels, &c, holding them towards the altar. 
The sacrificer and his wife should likewise be on the inside 
of the priest, and the priests should take precedence side- 
ways according to their rank. 


After a sacrificial object has been hallowed by a 
Mantra, the priest should not toss it about 

SOtra LIX. " 

Sacrificial acts intended for the gods, should be 
performed by the priest towards the east or towards 
the north, after he has placed the Brahmanic cord 
over the left and under the right arm (ya.f »opavl- 
tin), and turning towards the right. 

SOtra LX. 

Sacrificial acts intended for the Fathers should be 
performed by the priest towards the south, after he 
has placed the Brahmanic cord over the right and 

Digitized by 


332 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhAsha-sutras. 

under the left arm (prailnavltin), and turning 
towards the left. 

Sutra LXI. 

Ropes which have to be joined, should be joined 
by the priest from left to right, after having tied 
them from right to left. 

Sutra LXI I. 

Ropes which are not joined (single ropes), should 
be tied by the priest from left to right. 

The exact process here intended is not quite clear. The 
ropes seem to have been made of vegetable fibres. See 
Katy. I, 3, 15-17. 

Sutra LXI 1 1. 

Let a man sacrifice with the Amavasya sacrifice 
at the time of the Amavasya, new moon. 


Ama-vasya is the dwelling together, i.e. the conjunction, 
of sun and moon, an astronomical expression which was 
adopted in the common language of the people at a very 
early time. It does not occur, however, in the Rig-veda. 
In our Sutra amavasya is used in the sense both of new 
moon and new-moon sacrifice. 

Sutra LXIV. 

And let a man sacrifice with the Paur#amasy4 

sacrifice at the time of the Paur#amasl, full moon, 

thus it is said. 


Here the full moon is called paurwamast, the sacrifice 
paurwamasya. Satyavrata joins the two Sutras in one, 
and leaves out ya^eteti, which may have belonged to the 

Digitized by 


sOtras lxi-lxv. 333 

SOtra LXV. 

Let a man observe that full-moon day as a day of 
abstinence on which the moon comes out full before. 


The full moon (paurwamasi) is really the very moment 
on which the moon is full and therefore begins to decrease. 
That moment on which sun and moon are, as the Hindus 
said, at the greatest distance from each other, is called the 
parva-sandhi, the juncture of the two phases of the moon. 
Thus the name of paurwamast belongs to the last day of 
the one and to the first day (p rati pad) of the other phase, 
and both days might be called pa urn a mast. If there- 
fore the moon is full on the afternoon, the evening, or the 
twilight of one day, that day should be observed as a fast- 
day, and the next day should be the day of sacrifice. 

The meaning of purastad, which I have translated by 
before, is doubtful. One commentator says it has no 
object, and should be dropped, purastad ity etat pa- 
dam asmin sutra idanf m anvayam na labhate prayo- 
^•anabhavat Purastad, before, may, however, mean 
before the second day, on which the real sacrifice takes 
place, and the commentator mentions purastat-paurwa- 
masi as a name of the £aturda.ri-yukta, i.e. the full 
moon beginning on the fourteenth day. The same kind of 
full moon is also called Anumati, Purva-paurnamasl, 
and Sandhya-paurnamas!, while that which takes place 
on the pratipad, the first day of the lunar phase, is called 
Raka, Uttara-paurwamasi, Astamitodita,and SvaA- 

Corresponding to these two kinds of Paurwamasi there 
are also two kinds of Amavasya. That which falls on the 
fourteenth day is called Purva-amavasya, or Sinivalt, 
the ivy kclI via\ that which falls on the pratipad, the first 
day of the new phase, is called Kuhu, Uttara-amavasya, 
.Svoyukta. See also Ait.-Brahm. II, 4; Nir. XI, 31-32. 

Digitized by 


334 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhAshA-sOtras. 

SOtra LXVI. 

Or the day when one says, To-morrow it will be 



In that case the day before should be observed as a day 
of abstinence. The real full moon would then take place 
in the fore-noon, purvah«e, of the next day. Abstinence, 
upavasa, consists in abstaining from meat and from mai- 
thuna, in shaving beard and head, cutting the nails, and, 
what seems a curious provision, in speaking the truth. See 
Katy.-Srauta-sutras II, i, 8-12. 

SOtra LXVI I. 

The Va^asaneyins mention a third, the Kharvika 

full moon. 


Kharva means small. If one divides the night into 
twelve parts, and if in a portion of the twelfth part the 
greatest distance of sun and moon takes place, then the 
full moon is called kharvika, also kshiwa. Or, if on the 
sixteenth day, the full moon takes place before noon, that 
also is called kharvika paurwamasi. In that case absti- 
nence or fasting takes place on the sixteenth day (tasy&m 
shcK&fe'hany upavasa/*). Both paurwamasls are also called 


Let a man observe* that new-moon day (ama- 

vasya) as a day of abstinence, on which the moon is 

not seen. 


This Sutra has to be connected with Sutra LXV. The 
abstinence takes place on the day, if the actual new moon, 
the nearest approach of sun and moon, falls on the afternoon, 
at night, or at twilight. And this new moon, the junction 
of the fifteenth day and the pratipad, is called Kuhu. 
We should read amavasyam. 

Digitized by 


sOtras lxvi-lxxi. 335 

SOtra LXIX. 

Or the day when one says, To-morrow they will 
not see it. 


In that case, when the real new moon takes place in the 
fore-noon, abstinence is observed on the day before, and 
the new moon is called Sinivalt. Satyavrata reads jvo 
yukta iti va instead of jvo na drash/ara iti va. Dra- 
sh/ara^ should be explained as ikshitara/J, ' they will not 
see it.' There is much difference of opinion on this subject 
among different Sakhas, Sutrakaras, and their com- 
mentators ; see Taitt. Sawh. Ill, 4, 9 ; Weber, Ind. Stud., 
V, p. 228. 

SOtra LXX. 

The principal acts (pradhana), prescribed in one 
(typical) performance, follow the same special rules 


This Sutra is variously explained : Satyavrata's com- 
mentary, which I have followed in the translation, explains 
pradhanani as agneyadtni, i.e. the chief parts of such 
a sacrifice as the Darja-purwamasa ; vidhanani as 
angani. Kapardisvamin's commentary also explains 
vidhanani as the angani of a pradhanam; pradha- 
nam as pur«amasa, &c. It would therefore mean that 
such ceremonies as the agneya (ash/a-kapala), agnt- 
shomiya (ekadara-kapala), and upkmsu, which form the 
pradhanas of the Dar^apurwamasa, retain through- 
out the same vidhanas or angas as prescribed in one 
Frakarana, viz. the Darjapur«amasa. The Angas or 
members are all the things used for sacrificial purposes, 
milk, butter, grains, animals, &c. 

SOtra LXX I. 
The special rules are limited by (the purpose of) 
the (typical) performance (prakara»a). 

Digitized by 


336 Apastamba's yag^a-paribhAshA-sOtras. 

Here the rules (vidhis) are again the Angas, which 
belong to a sacrifice, as the members belong to the body. 

If no special instruction is given (in the .Sruti), 
the acts are general. 

If a special instruction is given, they are re- 


Nirdcra is explained as vijesha-jruti, and the mean- 
ing is supposed to be that unless such a special rule is 
given, the Ahgas of all the Fradhana acts remain the 
same, as, for instance, the Paryagnikarawa, the 
Praya^as, &c. Special instructions are when it is said: 
payasa maitravaruwawz srl«ati, sruvewa putod&s&m 
anakti, he cooks the Maitravaruwa with milk, he anoints 
the Puro^/aja with the spoon, &c. 

The Ash/a-kap&la for Agni, the Ekada^a- 
kapala for Agni-Shomau, and the Upaw^u- 
yaga (the muttered offering of butter), form the 
principal acts at the Paur#amasl, the full moon. 

The Ash/a-kapala is the cake baked in eight cups, 
the Ekadaja-kapala that baked in eleven cups, and 
respectively destined for Agni and Soma. What is 
meant are the sacrificial acts for which these cakes are 

SOtra LXXV. 

The other Homas are Anga. 

The other acts, such as the praya^as and anuya,g-as, 
are auxiliary, and have no promise of reward by themselves. 

Digitized by 


sOtras lxxii-lxxix. 337 


The Ash/a-kapala for Agni, the Ekadasa- 
kapala or Dvada-ya-kapala for Indra-Agni, 
form the principal acts at the Amavasya, the new 
moon, in the case of one who does not sacrifice with 


In the case of one who sacrifices with Soma, the 
second principal act is the Sawnayya (both at the 
full-moon and new-moon sacrifices). 


The Sktnn&yya. is a mixture of dadhi and payas, sour 
and sweet milk, and is intended forlndraor Mahendra 1 . 
It takes the place of the second Furot&sa. at the new-moon 

SOtra LXXVI 1 1. 
In the case of a Brahma#a, who does not sacri- 
fice with Soma, the Agnlshomiya cake is omitted. 

This rule does not seem to be accepted by all schools. 
It is not found in Katyayana, and Hirawyakerin observes: 
Nasomaya^ino brahmawasyagnishomiyaA purcx/lfo vidyata 
ity ekesham. See Hillebrandt, 1. c. p. iii. 


Without distinction of caste, the Aindr&gna 

offering is omitted for one who offers the Sa/«- 



Even though he be not a Somaya^-in, says the com- 

1 Vaidya in his Dictionary explains it, however, as any substance 
mixed with clarified butter and offered as a burnt offering, which 
can hardly be right 

[30] Z 

Digitized by 


338 Apastamba's yao#a-paribhAshA-s6tras. 

This whole matter is summed up in Kapardin's com- 
mentary : Amavasyayam asomaya^ina aindragna-sa»«- 
nayyayor vikalpaA. Paurwamasyaw* tv asomaya^ino brah- 
mawasyagntshomiyayagabhava/*. Tadrahitapi paur«amasi 
purusharthaw sadhayati. Tatra dvayor eva hi yagayoA 
paur«amaslrabdava£yatvam asti, pratyekawt namayogat. 
Tasmad agntshomiyayagarahitav evetarau purusharthaw 

SOtra LXXX. 
The Fitri-yagna., the sacrifice to the fathers, is 
not Anga (auxiliary) because its own time is pre- 


The text should be pitriyagita/i svakalavidhanad anangaA 
syat. This sacrifice for the Manes, called also the Tinda- 
pitriyagna, falls under the new-moon sacrifice, but is to 
be considered as a pradhana, a primary sacrifice, not as 
an anga, a member of the Daua. 

SOtra LXXX I. 

Also, because it is enumerated like the Darya- 
puraamasa sacri6ce. 

This refers to such passages from the Brahma«as as : 
There are four great sacrifices, the Agnihotram, the 
Darcapurcamasau, the JTaturmasyani, and the Yinda- 

Also, because, when the Amav&syi sacrifice is 
barred, the Vitriyagnz. is seen to take place. 

A principal act (pradhana) is accompanied by 
auxiliary acts (anga). 

Digitized by 


sOtras lxxx-lxxxvii. 339 

This Sutra {forms sometimes part of the preceding 
Sutra, and would then refer to the Pitr/ya^wa only. 


A principal act is what has its own name, and is 

prescribed with special reference to place, time, and 



This Sutra is sometimes divided into two ; the first, dese 
kale kartariti nirdi jyate, the second, asva^abdaw yat. 
The following are given as illustrations. If it is said that 
'he should sacrifice with the Vai^vadeva on a slope 
inclined to the East,' we have the locality. If it is said 
that 'he should sacrifice with the Va^apeya in autumn,' 
we have the time. If it is said that ' the sacrificer himself 
should offer the Agnihotra on a parvan (change of the 
moon),' we have the performer. In each of these cases, 
therefore, the prescribed sacrificial act is a pradhana 
sarigam, a principal act with auxiliary members. 

The Darvi-ho ma (libation from a ladle) stands 

by itself. 


Apurva is explained by the commentator, not in its 
usual sense of miraculous, but as not being subject to the 
former regulations. 


They are ordered by the word £"uhoti, he pours 

They are offered with the word Svaha. 

According to Katyayana I, a, 6-7, the ^uhotis are 

z 2 

Digitized by 


340 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhAshA-sOtras. 

offered sitting, the yzg atis standing. See Sutra XCII. The 
^•uhoti acts consist in pouring melted butter into the fire 
of the Ahavaniya altar, which is so called because 'ahu- 
yante<sminn ahutayaA kshipyanta iti.' 

Taking (the butter) once. 

Or, if there are several Ahutis, taking (the butter) 
for each Ahuti. 

Or, doing as he likes in dividing (the butter). 

These three Sutras belong together. They teach that 
one slice (avadana) of butter should be taken, melted, and 
poured on the Ahavaniya fire ; or, if there are more than 
one ahuti, then one slice should be taken for each. This, 
however, is made optional again by the last Sutra. 


There is no fuel (in the Darvi-homa), except at 
the Agnihotra. 


In the case of the Agnihotra it is distinctly stated, 
dve samidhav adadhyat, let him lay down two sticks. 

SOtra XCII. 
One pours out {g uhoti) the Darvi-homas, sitting 
west of the Ahavaniya fire, and bending the right 
knee, or not bending it. 

SOtra XCI 1 1. 
If it is distinctly stated, it is done in a different 

Digitized by 


sOtras lxxxviii-xcvii. 341 


The vidhi, contained in Stitra XCII, is therefore called 
autsargika, general, and liable to exceptions, as when it 
is said, that he turns to the east. 

SOtra XCIV. 
One pours out (^uhoti) all ahutis, west of the 
Ahavanlya fire, passing (the altar) southward, and 
then turning to the north. 

SOtra XCV. 

The Asruta and Pratya^ruta, the Ykg ya and 
Anuvakya, the Upastara»a and Abhighara»a, 
with the slicings, the -Afaturgrz'hita also, and the 
Vasha/kara constitute the Darvi-homas. 

The Ajruta is a jravaya ; the Pratyaxruta, astu 
jrausha/; Anuvakya and Ya^ya are verses, the first 
inviting the deity, the second accompanying the sacrifice. 
Whenever vegetable, animal, or sawnayya offerings have 
to be sliced, upastara«a, spreading, and abhigharawa, 
sprinkling with fat, take place. With kgya offerings 
there is A'aturgrjhita (taking four times), and the 

SOtra XCVI. 

With ahutis one should let the act (the pouring 
out) take place after the Vasha/kara has been 
made, or while it is being made. 

The Vasha/kara consists in the word Vasha/, to be 
uttered by the HoW-priest. The five sacrificial interjections 
are, svaha, jrausha/, vausha/, vasha/, and svadha. 

SOtra XCVI I. 
With the G rah as the act should be made to 
coincide with the Upayama. 

Digitized by 


342 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhAshA-s<jtras. 

Grahas are offerings of Soma, and likewise the vessels 
(£amasa) in which the Soma is offered. The Soma is 
offered with the words upayama-grj"hfto»si, and while 
these words are being uttered, the fluid should be poured 
out (dharam sravayet). 

Sutra XCVIII. 
With the Ish/ak&s, the act should be made to 
coincide with the words taya deva tena. 


When the different ish/akas or bricks are placed to- 
gether for building an altar, &c, the act itself begins with 
the first and ends with the last words of the accompanying 

Sutra XCIX. 

When there is a number of Puroafajas, one 
should slice off" one after another, saying for each 
portion vyavartadhvam (separate) ! 

Turodksa. is a cake made of meal (pakvsJt pishta.pinda.A), 
different from £aru, which is more of a pulse consisting of 
grains of rice or barley, and clarified butter (ghr/tatawrfulo- 
bhayatmakam). This purod&sa. cake has to be divided 
for presentation to different deities. If there are more 
than two deities, the plural vyavartadhvam, separate, has 
to be used. 

SOtra C. 
When the two last are sliced off, he should say for 
each portion, vyavartetham, separate ye two! 

Each slice, avadana, is said to be about a thumb's 
breadth. In the case of sawnayya, the mixture of sour 
and sweet milk, a kind of coagulated sour milk, each por- 
tion is to be of the same breadth, but, as it is fluid, it is 

Digitized by 


sOtras xcviii-civ. 343 

taken out with a ladle (sruva) of a corresponding size ; see 
Katyayana I, 9, 7. 

SOtra CI. 

For these two last portions he makes the indi- 
cation of the deity. 


With the earlier portions, there is a rule which of two 
gods should have the first or the second portion. With the 
last couple, however, the priest may himself assign which- 
ever portion he likes to one or the other god. The com- 
mentary says, svay am eva idam asya iti sankalpayet. 

SOtra CI I. 

When there is a number of Afar us and Puro- 

d(Lsa.s, one separates what belongs to the A!"arus 

and what belongs to the Purod&sas, before the 



Prag adhivapanat, before the strewing, is explained 
by prag adhivapanarthakrtshna^inadanat, before 
one takes the black skin which is used for the strewing. 

SOtra CI 1 1. 
One then marks the two (the materials for the 
ATarus and the Puro*/a.ras) according to the deities 
(for whom they are intended). 

SOtra CIV. 
Let the word idam be the rule. 


This means that the offering (ha vis) intended for each 
deity should be pointed out by the words idam, this, 
AgneA, is for Agni, &c. Thus we read with regard to 
the offerings intended for certain gods and goddesses : 
ida*» Dh&tur, idam Anumatya, RakayAA SinivalyaA, 

Digitized by 


344 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhAsha-sOtras. 

SOtra CV. 

All this applies also to A'arus and PuiWajas 
which are separated. 


The commentary explains vyatishikta by anyonyam 
vyavahita, though it is difficult to see how it can have 
that meaning. It is said that in the Vauvadeva the ATarus 
and TurodSisas are vyatishikta, but that they also have 
to be divided before the adhivapana, and to be marked 
for each deity. Thus we read : Idam AgneA, SavituA, 
Pushwo, Marutaw*, Dyavaprz'thivyoA, &c. 

SOtra CVI. 

At the time when the Kapalas are put on the 

fire, one puts on the £aru with the first kapala 



ATaru is here used for the vessel for boiling the £aru, 
the £arusthali. The first of these verses is dhWsh/ir 
asi. Kapalas are the jars in which the rice is cooked. 


The verse is adapted and changed to dhru vo * si. 

Saw nam a means the same as u ha, i.e. the modification 
of a verse so as to adapt it to the object for which it is 
used. In our case, £aru, being a masculine, dhrzsh/i, a 
feminine, is replaced by dhruva, a masculine. 

SOtra CVI II. 
At the time when the meal is to be cleansed, one 
cleanses the grains. 

This takes place after the £aru-pot has been put on. 
The ta.ndu\a.s are the unhusked grains, pish/a is the 

Digitized by 


sOtras cv-cxiv. 345 

ground flour. In Sanskrit a distinction is made between 
sasya., the corn in the field, dhanya, corn with the husk, 
ta«</ula, grains without husks, anna, roasted grains. 

SOtra CIX. 
At the time of cooking (adlmrapa»a) one 
throws the grains in with the cooking verse. 

This verse is gharmo<si. 

SOtra CX. 
Without taking the iaru (out of the sthail) one 
puts it down. 

SOtra CXI. 
At the Darsa-purtfamisa sacrifices there are 
fifteen Samidhenls. 


Samidhenis are particular verses recited while the fire 
is being kindled. The first and last verses are repeated 
thrice, so as to make fifteen in all. 

SOtra CXI I. 
At the Ish/i and Pa^ubandha sacrifices there 
are seventeen Samidhenls, when they are so 
handed down. 

When it is said that wishful ish/is are performed 
in a murmur, this means that the names of the chief 
deities are pronounced in a murmur (likewise the 
ytgyk and anuvikyi). 

SOtra CXIV. 

The Dar.?a-pur#am&sa sacrifice is the PrakWti 
or norm for all ish/is. 

Digitized by 


346 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhAsha-sOtras. 

The Sutras, in describing the performance of certain 
sacrifices, treat some of them in full detail. These are 
called prakrzti. Prakriyante»smin dharma iti prakaranam 
prakritiA. They form the type of other sacrifices, which 
are therefore looked upon as mere modifications, vikWti, 
and in describing them those points only are fully de- 
scribed in which they differ from their prakri'ti. A sacri- 
fice which is a vikri ti, may again become the prakrz'ti of 
another sacrifice. This system is no doubt compendious, 
but it is not free from difficulty, and, in some cases, from 
uncertainty. It shows how much system there is in the 
Indian sacrifices, and how fully and minutely that system 
must have been elaborated, before it assumed that form in 
which we find it in the Brahmawas and Sutras. It must not 
be supposed that the sacrifices which serve as prakr/ti, 
are therefore historically the most ancient. 

SOtra CXV. 
It is also the norm for the Agntshomtya PaJu, 
the animal sacrifice for Agni-Shomau. 

SOtra CXVI. 
And this is the norm for the Savaniya. 

SOtra CXVI I. 

And the Savaniya is the norm for the Aika- 


SGtra CXVI 1 1. 

And the Aikadasinas are the norm for the 



The rules for the Pajuga«as are therefore to be taken 
over from the Aikada-rinas, the Savaniya, the Agn!- 
shomtya-paju, and the Darra-purwamasa, so far as 
they have been modified in each particular case, and are 

Digitized by 


sOtras cxv-cxxii. 347 

finally determined by the rules of each Pajugana, as, for 
instance, the Aditya-paju. 


The Vai^vadeva is the norm for the Varu»a- 
praghdsa, Sdkamedha, and Slra. 

The Vauvadeva, beginning, like the Darja-purwa- 
masa, with an Agneya ash/akapala, takes certain rules 
from the Darja-pQrwamasa, and transfers these, together 
with its own, as, for instance, the nine praya^as, to the 
Varuwa-praghasa, &c. 

SOtra CXX. 
The Vai^vadevika Ekakapala is the norm for 
all Ekakapalas. 

The Ekakapala is a purorfaja cake, baked in one 
kapala. It is fully described in the Vaijvadeva, and 
then becomes the norm of all Ekakapalas. An ekaka- 
pala cake is not divided. 

SOtra CXXI. 
The Vai^vadevi Amikshi is the norm for the 
Amiksh&s (a preparation of milk). 

SOtra CXX 1 1. 
Here the Vik&ra, the modification, is perceived 

from similarity. 


If it has once been laid down that the Darja-purwa- 
masa is the prakrtti or norm for all ish/is, then simi- 
larity determines the modification in all details, such as the 
offerings and the gods to whom offerings are made. Thus 
A"aru, being a vegetable offering, would rank as a vikara 
of purodksa, which occurs in the Darja-pur«amasa 
sacrifice, and is likewise vegetable. Honey and water 

Digitized by 


348 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhasha-sOtras. 

would be looked upon as most like the Ajya in the 
Darja-purwamasa. Amiksha, a preparation of milk, 
would come nearest to the Samnayya, which is a mixture 
of sour and sweet milk. 


Offerings for one deity are vikaras of the 


In the Darja-pur«amasa, which is the prakrzti of the 
ish/is, the purorfaja for Agni is meant for one deity. 
Hence all offerings to one deity in the vikr*'tis follow the 
general rules of the Agneya purorfaja, as described in 
the Darra-puraamasa, for instance, the £aru for Surya, 
the D vadaja-kapala for Savitr*. 

Offerings for two deities are vikaras of the 



They must, however, be vegetable offerings, because the 
purodSisa. for Agnl-Shomau is a vegetable offering. As an 
instance, the Agnavaishwava Ekadajakapala is quoted. 
Agntshomtyahas a short a, but the first a inagnavaish- 
«ava is long. 

SCtra CXXV. 

Offerings for many deities are vikdras also of the 



The ka. in bahudevataj ka. is explained by the com- 
mentary as intended to include the Agnavaishwava also. 
Any offering intended for more than one deity may be con- 
sidered as intended for many deities. 

They are optionally vikaras of the Aindragna. 

Digitized by 


sOtras cxxiii-cxxviii. 349 

Sometimes these two Sutras are combined into one. The 
commentator, however, sees in theva of aindragnavikara 
va a deeper meaning. Agnt-Shomau, he says, consists of 
four, Indragni of three syllables. Therefore if the name of 
more than one deity consists of four syllables, it should be 
treated as a vikara of the Agntshomiya, if of less than 
four syllables, as a vikara of the Aindragna. 

An exception must be made in the case of the 
gods of the prakrzti, as, for instance, the Aindra 
purWasa, the Saumya £aru. 

The exception applies to cases where the offering in a 
vikrtti sacrifice is meant for the same principal deities 
as those of the prakr?ti offering. For instance, in the 
Darja-pur#amasa Agni and Soma are the deities of the 
Agntshomiya, Indra and Agni of the Aindragna. If 
then in one of the secondary or vikr*ti sacrifices there 
occurs an Aindra purod&sa., or a Saumya £aru, then 
the Aindra purod&sa is treated as a vikara of the Ain- 
dragna, the Saumya £aru as a vikara of the Agnt- 
shomiya. The Somendra £aru also, as its principal 
deity is Soma, would follow the Agnlshomlya, the 
Indrasomiya purorfaja, as its principal deity is Indra, 
would follow the Aindragna. 

If there is sameness both in the offering and in 
the deity, then the offering prevails. 

If a £aru for Pra^apati occurs in a vikrtti sacrifice, it 
would follow that, being offered to Pra^apati, it should be 
offered with murmuring, but, as it is a vegetable offering, it 
follows the norm of the purorfaja, though the purorfa^a is 
intended for Agni. 

Digitized by 


350 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhAshA-sOtras. 

If there is contradiction with regard to the sub- 
stance and the preparation of an offering, the sub- 
stance prevails. 


A purod&sa. may be made of vrihi, rice, or of ntvdra, 
wild growing rice. The wild rice has to be pounded, but 
not the good rice. The preparation, however, has to yield 
in a vikWti, the important point being the substance. 

SOtra CXXX. 
If there is contradiction with regard to the sub- 
stance, the object prevails. 

An example makes the meaning of this Sutra quite clear. 
Generally the y upa or sacrificial post for fastening sacrificial 
animals is made of Khadira wood. But if a post made of 
wood is not strong enough to hold the animal, then an iron 
post is to be used, the object being the fastening of the 
animal, while the material is of less consequence. 

In a Prakrzti sacrifice there is no Oha, modifi- 
cation of the mantras. 

Certain mantras of the Veda have to be slightly altered, 
when their application varies. In the normal sacrifices, how- 
ever, no such alteration takes place. 

In a Vikrhi sacrifice modification takes place, 
according to the sense, but not in an arthavada. 

Some mantras remain the same in the Vikrtti as in 
the Prakr*ti. Others have to be modified so as to be 

Digitized by 


sOtras cxxix-cxxxiv. 351 

adapted to anything new that has to be. If, for instance, 
there is a Puro</aja for Agni in the Prakriti, and in its 
place a Puro</aja for Surya in the Vikr**ti, then we 
must place Surya instead of Agni in the dedicatory 


When we hear words referring to something else, 
that is arthavada. 


Arthavada is generally explained as anything occurring 
in the Brahmawas which is not vidhi or command. Here, 
however, it refers to Mantras or passages recited at the 
sacrifice. We saw how such passages, if they referred to 
some part of the sacrifice, had to be modified under certain 
circumstances according to the sense. Here we are told 
that passages which do not refer to anything special in the 
sacrifice, are arthavada and remain unmodified. All this 
is expressed by the words paravakyajravawat Vakya 
stands for padani, words, such as are used in the nivapa- 
mantra, &c. Some of these words are called samave- 
tarthani, because they tell of something connected with 
the performance of the sacrifice, as, for instance, Agnaye 
^ush/aw nirvapami, I offer what is acceptable to Agni ; 
others are asamavetarthani, as, for instance, Devasya 
tva SavituA prasave. When such passages which are 
not connected with some sacrificial act occur (jravawat), 
they naturally remain unaltered. 


If what is prescribed is absent, a substitute is to 
be taken according to similarity. 


Here we have no longer modification, but substitution 

(pratinidhi). In cases where anything special that has 

been prescribed is wanting, a substitute must be chosen, 

as similar as possible, and producing a similar effect. 


Digitized by 


352 Apastamba's ya<7#a-paribhAshA-s6tras. 

According to Mandana's TrilxAnda, the degrees of similarity 
are to be determined in the following order : 
Karyai rupais tatha pa.rna.iA kshlraiA pushpaiA phalair 

Gandhai rasaii sadrzg gr&hyam purvalabhe param param. 
1 What is similar by effect, by shape, by leaves, by milk, 
by flowers, and by fruit, By smell, or by taste is to be taken 
one after the other, if the former cannot be found.' 

If there is nothing very like, something a little 
like may be substituted, only it must not be pro- 


If in a £aru of mudgas, kidney-beans, phaseolus 
mungo, these kidney-beans should fail, a substitute may 
be taken, but that substitute must not be mashas, phase- 
olus radiatus, because these mashas are expressly for- 
bidden; for it is said, Aya^-wiya vai mashaA, 'Mashas 
are not fit for sacrifice.' 


The substitute should take the nature of that for 
which it is substituted. 

Taddharma, having the same qualities. If, for instance, 
nivara has been substituted for vrlhi, it should be treated 
as if it were vrihi. The name vrlhi should remain, and 
should not be replaced by nivara, just as Soma, if replaced 
by putika, is still called Soma. Thus, when in the course 
of a sacrifice vrihi has once been replaced by nivara, and 
vrihi can be procured afterwards, yet nivara is then to be 
retained to the end. If, however, the substituted nivara 
also come to an end, and afterwards both nivara and vrlhi 
are forthcoming, then vrlhi has the preference. If neither 
be forthcoming, then some substitute is to be taken that 
approaches nearest to the substitute, the nivara, not to the 

Digitized by 


sOtras cxxxv-cxxxix. 353 

original vrihi. Further, if a choice has been allowed be- 
tween vrlhi, rice, and yava, barley, and vrihi has been 
chosen, and afterwards, as substitute for vrihi, nivara, 
then, if nivara come to an end, and in the absence of 
vrihi, when a new supply of both nivara and yava has 
been obtained, the yava is to be avoided, and the original 
substitute for vrlhi, the nivara, must be retained. In most 
of these cases, however, a certain penance also (praya- 
j^itta) is required. 

If something is wanting in the measure, let him 
finish with the rest 

If it is said that a purodksa should be as large as a 
horse's hoof, and there is not quite so much left, yet what- 
ever is left should be used to finish the offering, 

Substitution does not apply to the master, the 
altar-fire, the deity, the word, the act, and a pro- 


The master is meant for the sacrificer himself and his 
wife. Their place cannot, of course, be taken by anybody 
else The altar-fire is supposed to have a supernatural 
power, and cannot be replaced by any other fire. Nothing 
can take the place of the invoked deities, nor of the words 
used in the mantras addressed to them, nor can the sacrifice 
itself be replaced by any other act. Lastly, when it is said 
that mashas, varakas, kodravas are not fit for sacrifice, 
or that a man ought not to sacrifice with what should not be 
eaten by Aryas, nothing else can be substituted for what is 
thus prohibited. 


The Prakriti stops from three causes, from a 
corollary, from a prohibition, and from loss of pur- 

[30] a a 

Digitized by 


354 Apastamba's yaguva-paribhAshA-sOtras. 

A corollary (pratyamnana) occurs, when it is said, 
'instead of Kara grass, let him make a bar his of reeds.' 
A prohibition (pratishedha) occurs, when it is said, 'he 
does not choose an Arsheya.' Loss of purpose(arthalopa) 
occurs, when pesha«a, pounding, would refer to £aru, a 
pulse, that cannot be pounded, while grains can be. 

SOtra CXL. 
The Agnish/oma is the Prakrz'ti of the Ekaha 

The Ekaha are sacrifices accomplished in one day. 


The Dvadasaha is the Prakr/ti of the Ahar- 



The Dvadajaha lasts twelve days and is a Soma sacri- 
fice. It is either an Ahina or a Sattra. An Ahargawa 
is a series of daily and nightly sacrifices. Those which last 
from two nights to eleven nights are called Ahlna. Those 
which last from thirteen to one hundred nights or more 
are called Sattras. 


The Gavamayana is the PrakWti of the S&m- 


The Gavamayana lasts three years, and it is the type 
of all Sawvatsarika sacrifices, whether they last one, two, 
three or more years. They all belong to the class of 

SCtra CXLI 1 1. 
Of the Nikayi sacrifices the first serves as Pra- 

Digitized by 


sGtras cxl-cxlvi. 355 

Among the Nikayi sacrifices, lit. those which consist of 
a number, all having the same name, but different rewards, 
the first is the prakriti of the subsequent ones. The 
commentator calls them sadyaskra &c, and mentions as 
the first the Agnish/oma. See Sutra CXLVI, and Weber, 
Ind. Stud. XIII, p. 218. 

At the Agnish/oma there is the Uttara-vedi. 

The commentator explains this by saying that at the 
Soma sacrifices, i.e. at the Agnish/oma, Ukthya, Sho- 
das'm, and Atiratra, the fire is carried from the Aha- 
vaniya to the Uttara-vedi, which is also called the 
Soma altar. 

SOtra CXLV. 

The fire is valid for the successive sacrifices. 

This fire refers to the fire on the Uttara-vedi, men- 
tioned in the preceding Sutra, and the object of the Sutra 
seems to be to include the act of lighting the fire on the 
Uttara-vedi in the Prakriti, though properly speaking it 
does not form part of the Agnishfoma. But I cannot quite 
understand the argument of the commentator. 


This does not apply to the Sadyaskras, the 

Va^apeya, the Sho^a^in, and the Sarasvata 



With regard to the Shorfa jin and its vikara, the V&ga,- 

peya, the laying of the fire is not mentioned. In the case 

of the Sadyaskras, it becomes impossible, .because they 

• have to be quickly finished. In the case of the Sarasvata 

Sattra, there is the same difficulty on account of not 

remaining in the same place (anavasthapan nagnfc £iyate). 

A a 2 

Digitized by 


356 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhAshA-sOtras. 

A sacrificer wishes the object of his sacrifice at 
the beginning of the sacrifice. 

Some MSS. read kamayeta, 'he should wish,' but the 
commentator explains that such a command (vidhi) is 
unnecessary, because it is natural to form a wish (svataA 


At the beginning of a special part of the sacri- 
fice, one should wish the object of that part of the 



The commentary, though objecting, and objecting rightly, 
to kamayeta, 'he should wish,' in the preceding Sutra, 
accepts kamayeta as determining the present Siitra, 
saying kamayetety anuvartate. One should read 
ya^wahgakamam, not ya^wakamam, for the com- 
mentary explains it by ya£-»angaphalasankalpa^. 
Whether it was really intended that there should be a 
special wish for each part or subsidiary act of a sacrifice 
(ya^wanga), is another question, but the commentator evi- 
dently thought so. 

Katyayana, who treats the same subject (i, a, 10 seq.), 
states that there should be this desire for a reward for 
certain sacrifices which are offered for a certain purpose, 
as, for instance, the Dvada .rah a, but that there are no such 
motives for other sacrifices, and parts of sacrifices. He 
mentions, first of all, a niyama, a precept for the sacrifice, 
such as 'Speak the truth.' Then a nimitta, a special 
cause, as when some accident has taken place that must be 
remedied, for instance, when the house has been burnt down, 
&c. Thirdly, the Agnihotra, the morning and evening 
Homa; fourthly, the Darja-pur«amasau ; fifthly, the 
Dakshaya»a,a vikriti of the Darja-purwamasau, the 
Agrayawa; sixthly, the Niru</Aa-paju, the animal 
sacrifice. All these have to be performed as a sacred 

Digitized by 


sOtras cxlvii, cxlviii. 357 

duty, and without any view to special rewards. Thus we 
read in Vasish/Aa : 

Avajyam brahmawo-gnin adadhita, darjapur«amasagra- 
ya«esh/i£aturmasyapayusomaLr ka. ya^ieta, ' A Brahmawa 
should without fail place his fires, and offer the Dar^a- 
purwamasa, the Agraya«esh/i, the A"aturmasyas, 
the Paju, and the Soma sacrifices.' 

Hartta says: Pakaya^«an ya^ien nityaw* havirya^«a»« 
ka nityajaA, Som&ms ka vidhipurve«a ya ikkhtd dharmam 
avyayam, 'Let a man offer the Pakaya^was always, 
always also the Havirya^-«as, and the Soma sacrifices, 
according to rule, if he wishes for eternal merit.' The 
object of these sacrifices is aparimitani^jreyasarupa- 
moksha, eternal happiness, and hence they have to be 
performed during life at certain seasons, without any 
special occasion (nimitta), and without any special object 
(kama). According to most authorities, however, they 
have to be performed during thirty years only. After that 
the Agnihotra only has to be kept up. The proper seasons 
for these sacrifices are given by Manu, IV, 35-27 : 

4 A Brahmawa shall always offer the Agnihotra at the 
beginning or at the end of the day and of the night, and 
the Danra and Paurcamasa (ish/is) at the end of each half- 
month ; 

4 When the old grain has been consumed the (Agrayawa) 
Ish/i with new grain ; at the end of the (three) seasons the 
(ATaturmasya) sacrifices ; at the solstices an animal (sacri- 
fice) ; at the end of the year Soma offerings ; 

' A Brahmawa, who keeps sacred fires, shall, if he desires 
to live long, not eat new grain or meat, without having 
offered the (Agrayawa) Ish/i with new grain and an animal 
(sacrifice) V 

These Pakaya^was, Havirya^was or ish/is, and 
Soma sacrifices are enumerated by Gautama 3 , as 
follows : 

1 See Manu, transl. by Buhler, S. B. E., XXV, who quotes to 
the same purpose Gaut. VIII, 19-20; Vas. XI, 46; Vi. LIX, 
2-9; Baudh. II, 4, 23 ; Ya#». I, 97, 124-125. 

* KatySyana, p. 34. 

Digitized by 


358 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhAshA-s{)tras. 


Seven Seven 

PakasawsthSs : 

Havirya^dasamsthas : Somasawstbls : 

(i) Ash/aka, 

(1) Agnyadheyam, (1) Agnish/omaA, 

(a) Parvanam, 

(a) Agnihotram, (2) Atyagnisb/bmaA, 

(3) .Sraddham, 

(3) Darjapur«anaasau, (3) UkthyaA, 

(4) Sravawt, 

(4) A'aturm&sy&ni 1 , (4) Shorfarf*, 

(5) Agrahdyav*!, 

(5) Agraya»esh/L4, (5) V%apeyaA, 

(6) ufaitrf, 

(6) NLru<ttaparubandhaA, (6) AtiratraA, 

(7) Ajvayu^gi. 

(7) Sautramam. (7) AptoryamaA. 

In a commentary on Dhurtasvamin's Apastambasutra- 

bhashya (MS. E 

. I. H. 137) another list is given : 

Pakay a^tfas : 

Havirya^tfas : Somaya^ftas : 

(1) AupSsanahomaA, Agnihotram, Agnish/bmaA, 

(a) VaLfvadevam, 

DarjapurwamSsau, Atyagnish/omaA, 

(3) Pirvawam, 

Agrayanam, UkthyaA, 

(4) Ash/aid, 

A'iturmasyani, Shot/art, 

(5) Mtsifrdddham, NiriWjfapasubandhaA, V&^apeyaA, 

(6) SarpabaliA, 

Sautramawl, AtiratraA, 

(7) IxdnabaM. 

Pi»<fepitr»ya£#aA. AptorySmaA. 

This list is nearly the same as one given by Satyavrata 
Samlrrami in the Usha. He gives, however, another list, 
which is : 




Pikasawsthas : 

Haviisamstbas : 

Somasa»xsthas : 

(1) SayawhomaA, 



(a) PratarhomaA, 



(3) Sihalipaka, 



(4) Navaya^tfaA, 



(5) VaLfvadevam, 



(6) Pitnya^SaA, 



(7) Ash/akl 



According to the substances offered, sacrifices are some- 

1 Vauvadevam parva, VaruwapraghSsSA, sakamedhaA. 

1 Agnish/oma, Ukthya, Atiratra, sometimes Sho</arin, are the 
original Soma sacrifices; Atyagnish/oma,Va£apeya, and Aptoryama 
are later. See Weber, Ind. Stud. X, pp. 352, 391. 

Digitized by 


sCtras cxlix, cl. 359 

times divided into vegetable and animal sacrifices. The 
vegetable substances are, tand\x\kh, pish/ani, phalikara«a/4, 
purod&saA, odanaA, yavaguA, prithvkSJt, la^aA, dhanaA, 
and aktavaA. The animal substances are, payaA, dadhi, 
a^yam, amiksha, va^inam, vapa, tva£a£, ma/wsam, lohitam, 
and parurasaA. 

If there are fewer Mantras and more (sacrificial) 
acts, then after dividing them into equal parts, let 
him perform the former with the former, the latter 
with the latter. 


It happens, for instance, in certain ish/is that a pair 
of Ya^-ya and Anuvakya mantras is given, but six acts. 
In that case one half of the mantras is used for one half of 
the acts, and the other half of the mantras for the other 
half of the. acts. 

SOtra CL. 
If there are fewer acts and more Mantras, let him 
perform and act with one mantra, those which re- 
main are optional, as the materials for the sacrificial 



Kapardisvamin seems to have divided this Sutra into 
three, the second being av&rish/a vikalparthaA, the third 
yatha yupadravyawlti. But it is better to take it as one, as 
it is in MS. 1676. 

If there are, for instance, fourteen vapanas, while there 
are many more mantras, let him select fourteen mantras 
and use them for each vapana, while the rest will be 
useful for another performance. A similar case occurs 
when different kinds of wood are recommended for making 
the sacrificial post, or when rice or barley are recommended 
for an offering. Here a choice has to be made. The iti 
at the end is explained as showing that there are other 
instances of the same kind. 

Digitized by 


2,66 Apastamba's yao^a-paribhAshA-sCtras. 

SOtra CLI. 
From the end there takes place omission or 



This refers again to the same subject, namely what has 
to be done if there are either more or less mantras than 
there are acts which they are to accompany. In that case 
it is here allowed to use as many mantras as there are acts, 
and to drop the rest of the mantras. Or, if there are less 
mantras than there are acts, then, after the mantras have 
been equally divided, the last verse is to be multiplied. 
For instance, in the Dvikapala sacrifice for the two Ajvins, 
the placing of the two k a pa las is accompanied by two 
mantras. The rest of the mantras enjoined in the 
prakr/ti is left out. But if there are, for instance, twelve 
or more ish/akas, bricks, to be placed, while there are 
only ten mantras, then the mantras are equally divided, 
and the fifth and tenth to be repeated, as many times as is 
necessary to equal the number of the ishrakas. 

SOtra CLI I. 
As the Prakr/ti has been told before, anything 
that has not been told before, should be at the end. 

This seems to mean that anything new, peculiar to a 
Vikr*'ti, and not mentioned in the Prakf/ti, should come 
in at the end, that is, after those portions of the sacrifice 
which are enjoined in the PrakWti. 


The rule should stand on account of the fitness of 
the Kumbhl, a large pot, the .Sula, the spit for 
boiling the heart, and the two Vapa$rapa#ts, the 
spits for roasting the vapa. 

Kumbhl is explained by .yrowyadipakasamartha 

Digitized by 



bri'hatt sthall; Sula by hrs'dayapakartha yash/iA, 
and Vapajrapawi by vapajrapawarthe yash/1 dve. 
The exact object of the Sutra is not quite clear. Pra- 
bhutva is explained by samarthatva, that is, fitness. 
This would mean, that on account of their fitness, or 
because they can be used for the object for which they are 
intended, or, so long as they can be used, the rule applying 
to them should remain. The commentary explains tan- 
tram by tantrata or ekata. It may mean that the 
same pots and spits should be used, so long as they fulfil 
their purpose. The next Sutra would then form a natural 

SOtra CLIV. 

But if there is a different kind of animal, there is 
difference (in pots and spits), owing to the diversity 
of cooking. 


If different animals are to be cooked, then there must be 
different pots for each (pratipa sum), because each requires 
a different kind of cooking. The commentary adds that, 
as the reason for using different pots is given, that reason 
applies also to young and old animals of the same kind 
C^ati), i. e. the young and small animal would require a 
different pot and a different kind of cooking. 

SOtra CLV. 
At the Vanaspati sacrifice, which is a modifica- 
tion (vikara) of the Svish/akr/t, the addresses 
(nigama) of the deities should take place in the 
Ya^ya, because they are included in the PrakWti. 

These nigamas of the deities are not mentioned in the 
rules of the Vanaspati sacrifice, but they are mentioned 
in the rules for the Svish/akr*t sacrifice of the Darja- 
purwamasa, which is the Prakr/ti, and should therefore 
be taken over. Here again, because a reason is given, it is 

Digitized by 


362 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhAshA-sOtras. 

understood that the same reason would apply to other 
portions of Svish/akrz't also, such as the Dvir abhi- 
gharawa, which is to be retained in the Vanaspati 

SOtra CLVI. 

The Anvarambha#lya or initiatory ceremony 

does not take place in a Vik^'ti, because the 

Vikmis would fall within the time of the Pra- 

krtti, and the Anvarambhawlya has but one 

object, namely (the initiation of) the Danya-purwa- 

masa sacrifice. 


The Anvarambha/ziya ceremony has to be performed 
by those who begin the Darxa-pur«amasa sacrifice. It 
has thus one object only, and is never enjoined for any other 
cause. It is not therefore transferred to any Vikriti, 
such as the Saurya ceremony, &c. The Darja-purwa- 
masa sacrifice having to be performed during the whole of 
life, or during thirty years, the Vikrftis would necessarily 
fall within the same space of time. The initiatory ceremony 
has reference to the Dar.ra~pur»amasa sacrifice only, and 
thus serves as an introduction to all the VikWtis, without 
having to be repeated for each. 

SOtra CLVI I. 

Or (according to others) the Anvarambha»iya 
should take place (in the Vikr/tis also), because the 
time (of the Darja-pur»amasa) does not form an 
essential part. 


This Sutra is not quite clear. It shows clearly enough 
that, according to some authorities, the Anvarambhawlya 
or initiatory ceremony of the Dar$a-pur«amasa sacrifice 
should take place in the Vikrz'tis also ; but why? Because 
the time has not the character of a .resha, which is said to 
be a synonym of anga, an essential part of a sacrifice. 

Digitized by 



When it is said that the Darj-a-pftrwamasa should be 
performed during life, this is not meant as determining the 
time of the sacrifice. It only means that so long as there 
is life a man should perform these sacrifices, and that their 
non-performance would constitute a sin. The former 
argument, therefore, that the time of the Vikr*'ti sacrifices 
would fall within the time of the Prakrz'ti sacrifice is not 


And again, because there is difference in the 


Arambha, the beginning, is explained as the determina- 
tion to perform a certain sacrifice (dar.yapur«amasabhya/» 
yakshya iti nLfifcayapuraAsaraA sankalpaA). The object of 
the undertaking in the case of the Darja-purwamasa 
sacrifice, as the Prakrrti, is simply svarga, in the 
Vikrztis it may be any kind of desire. Therefore the 
Anvarambhawiya ceremony of the Darja-pur«a- 
masas should be transferred to its Vikrt'tis. This 
seems to have been the opinion of the same authorities 
who are referred to in Sutra CLVII. The final outcome 
of the whole controversy, however, is clearly that our 
A^arya is in favour of omitting the Anvarambhawiya in 
the Vikrt'tis. AnayoA pakshayor anvarambhawlya- 
bhavapakshasyaiva balavattvam aMryabhilashi- 
tam iti manyamahe. The Anvarambhawiya is not 
to be considered as an ordinary Anga, but as a special 
act to fit the sacrificer to perform the Darja-purwamasa 
and to perform it through the whole of his life. 

SOtra CLIX. 

For every object (new sacrifice) let him bring 
forward the fire (let him perform the Agniprawa- 
yana, the fetching of the Ahavanlya from the 
Garhapatya fire). When the sacrifice is finished 

Digitized by 


364 Apastamba's yag#a-paribhAshA-s6tras. 

the fire becomes again ordinary fire, as when the 
(divine) fire has returned (to the firesticks). 

The fire for a sacrifice is supposed to be set apart or con- 
secrated (jastriya), but it is so for a special sacrifice only, 
and when that sacrifice is ended, it is supposed to become 
like ordinary fire again. A rtha is prayo^ana, the sacrifice 
for which the fire is intended (agnisadhyavihitakarmanu- 
sh///anam; tasya tasya vihitasya karma«o*nush/^anlrtham 
garhapatyadibhya ahavaniyadyagnim prawayet). The com- 
mentator remarks that there are two Agnis, the one who is 
visible, the other who is the god. Now while the divine 
Agni leaves the coals and ascends or is absorbed again in 
the two firesticks (arawi), the other remains like ordinary 
kitchen fire. See on Samarohana, Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, 
p. 311 ; Arvalayana-Srauta-sutra III, 10, 4-5. 

Digitized by 



agni, the (sacrificial) fire, Sfltra 55, 93 

(Ahavaniya fire), 138, 145, 159; 

the (three) fires, 22. 
agnipranayana, the fetching of the 

Ahavantya from the Garhapatya 

fire, 159. 
agnish/oma, the Agnish/oma, a Soma 

sacrifice, 7, 140, 143 , 144; p. 


agnihotra, the Agnihotra, the morn- 
ing and evening Homa, 6, 91, 
1 4 8 c ; p. 344. 

agnishomiya, intended for Agni and 
Soma, 74, 78, 115, I2 4> " 6 °> 
1 2 7 . 

agnyidhina, the (first) laying of the 
fires, 2 2 c . 

agnyidheya, p. 344. 

anga, member (of the sacrifice), 
auxiliary act, 3 , 70 , 71 , 73 , 
75, 80 (ananga), 83 (slnga), 157 , 
1 58°. 

angahina, cripple, 2°. 

atikram, to pass (the altar), 94. 

atiratra, a Soma sacrifice, 144"; p. 

atyagnish/oma, p. 344. 
atharvaveda, the Atharva-veda, 7 , 

adhivapana, the strewing, 102, 105°. 
adhurapana, cooking, 109. 
adhurapanamantra, the cooking verse 

(gharmoisi), 109. 
adhrigu, the Adhrigu hymn (daivy32> 

■tamitaraA, &c), 43. 
adhvaryu, the Adhvaryu priest, 18, 

ananga, not an Anga, 80. 
anadhyaya, prohibition of reciting, 

an3mnata, not handed down, 35. 
anirdeja, without special instruction, 

anumati, a kind of full moon, 65°. 
anumantrana, the Anumantrana- 

mantras, 8°. 

anuy^a,acertainauxiliaryHoma,75 e . 

anuvSkya, Mantra used for invoca- 
tion, 50, 95, (113), 149 . 

antari, turned inside, 57. 

antara, between (the high and the 
low tone), 11. 

anna, roasted grains, 108°. 

anvSrambhaniy S,i nitiatory ceremony, 
«5<>, 157°, 158°. 

apa££/6id, to slice off (the cake), 99. 

apaparyavn't, to turn away from, 55. 

aparena, west, 92, 94. 

apflrva, standing by itself, 85 ; what 
has not been told before, 152. 

aptoryima, p. 344. 

apratishiddha, not prohibited, 135. 

abhighira/ia, sprinkling with fat, 95. 

abhimantrana, the Abhimantrana- 
mantras, 8 C . 

amantra, not to be classed as Mantras, 

amavasya, new moon, new-moon 

day, 63, 650, 68; new-moon 

sacrifice, 63, 76. 
amedhyapratimantrana, conjuring of 

unlucky omens, 40. 
aya^giya, not fit for sacrifice, 135°. 
ayuta, butter when slightly melted, 

artha, object, 130, 159. 
arthanirvr/tti, accomplishment of the 

object, 41. 
arthalopa, loss of purpose, 139. 
arthavada, explanation, 33 ; that part 

of the Mantra which does not 

refer to anything special in the 

sacrifice, 132, 133. 
avadana, the slice or slicing of butter, 

90", 95, ioo°. 
avavarshana, down-pour of rain, 40. 
surotriya, person ignorant of the 

Veda, 2 . 
ash/aki, p. 344. 
ashfikapala, the cake baked in eight 

cups (at the full-moon and new- 
moon sacrifices), 74, 76. 

Digitized by 


366 Apastamba's ya<?j?a-paribhAsh^-s6tras. 

asannip&in, not producing an imme- 
diate effect, 42. 

asamavetartha, words (of a Mantra) 
not connected with the sacrifice, 


asomayagin, one who does not sacri- 
fice with Soma, 76, 78. 

astamitodita = raka, 65°. 

astu=ayuta, 23°. 

ahargana, a series of daily and nightly 
sacrifices, 141. 

ahma, a series of sacrifices lasting 
from two nights to eleven nights 
(opp. sattra), 141°. 

Hgnavaishnava, for Agni and Vishnu, 

124°, 125°. 
agneya, intended for Agni, 74, 76, 

agrayana, the Agrayaneshri, sacrifice 

with the new grain, 148°; p. 

3grah3yaa!, p. 344. 
aghlra, sprinkling of clarified butter, 

li, to bend (one's knee), 9a. 
%-ya, melted butter, 23, 122°. 
a^yabhagau, the A^ya-portions, 12. 
atmabbimaivana, rubbing oneself, 

adipradish/a, indicated by the first 

words (Mantras), 47. 
adhina, the laying of the fires, 28. 
amikshi, a preparation of milk, 121, 


arambha, the undertaking (of a 

sacrifice), 158. 
Srtvi.pya, the priestly office, 21. 
avap, to throw (the grains) in, 109. 
avr/'tti, repetition, 43. 
avesh/, to tie (ropes), 61. 
Strata, address, 10, 95. 
Sjvayqgt, p. 344. 
asina, sitting, 92. 
aJiavantya, the Ahavaniya fire (the 

grandson), 22«, 27, 94, 144 . 
ahuti, the offering at a Darvihoma, 

94, 96, 89. 

idamj-abda, the word idam (to be 

used for assigning the havis to 

each deity), 104. 
indrasomiya, intended for Indra and 

Soma, 1 2 7 . 
ishfaka, brick (for building the altar, 

Ac), 98, 151". 

ish/i^ya^Xa, sacrifice, i°, 112, 113 
(klmya ish/ayaA), 114, 122°, 
1 2 3 . 

ijanabali, p. 344. 
ishatsadraa, a little like, 135. 

ukthya, a Soma sacrifice, 144°; p. 

ui£ai£, with a loud voice, 8, 12 . 
utkara, heap of rubbish, 54°. 
uttama, highest tone, 1 1°. 
uttara, successive, 145. 
uttarata-upai&ra, on the northern 

side of which the performances 

take place, 54. 
uttaravedi, the Soma altar, 144, 145 . 
Uttaii-am3v3sya=Kuhu, 65 . 
Uttar3-paurnamasf=RSka, 65°. 
utpavana, cleansing, 108. 
utpti, to cleanse (the grains), 108. 
udagapavarga, performed towards the 

north, 59. 
udagSvrJtta, turning to the north 

udgitri, the UdgatW priest, 17. 
upaiara, priestly performance, 54. 
upadhl, to put on the fire, 106. 
upadhana, putting on the fire, 106. 
upabandha, belonging to, 155. 
upayama, the Upayjma, the words 

upayamagrihitO'si, 97. 
upavas, to abstain, 65. 
upavasa, abstaining from meat, &c, 

upastarana, spreading of fat, 95. 
upaspra (apa£), to touch water, 53., by murmuring, 9, n c , 113. 
upi»uuyaga, the muttered offering 

of butter (at the full-moon 

sacrifice), 74. 

uha, substitution of one word for 
another in a Mantra, 35, 107°, 
131, 13a. 

r/gveda, the Rig-veda, 4, 5, 8, 9 , 

ekakapala, a punWasa cake baked in 
one cup, 130. 

ekadevata, offering for one deity, 1 23. 

ekaprakarana, one (typical) perform- 
ance, 70. 

ekamantra, accompanied by one 
Mantra, 38. 

Digitized by 




ekldasakaplla, cake baked in eleven 
cups (at the full-moon and new- 
moon sacrifices), 74, 76, 124 . 

ekaha, sacrifice accomplished in one 
day, 140. 

aikadajina, the Aikadasinas, 117,118. 
aindra, intended for Indra, 127. 
aindrigna, intended for Indra and 
Agni, 76, 79, 125, »26, "7°. 

autsargika (vidhi), general (rule), 93 . 
aupasanahoma, p. 344. 

kan/Qyana, rubbing, 40. 

kapala, jar in which the rice is 

cooked, 106. 
kapalamantra, verse used for the 

Kapala, 106. 
kartW, the performer, 24, 57, 84. 
karmaiodana, precept for the sacri- 
fice, 32. 
karman, sacrifice, sacrificial act, 37, 

38, 44, 45 (karmSdi), 59 (daiva- 

ni karinani), 138, 149, 150, 159. 
kama, object, 147, 148. 
kamay, to wish, 147. 
kamya, wishful, 113 (kamya ish/a- 

kala, time, 80, 84, 157. 
kumbhi, a large pot, 153. 
Kuhfl, the new moon on the first 

day of the lunar phase, 65°, 68°. 
kr/shn^g-ina, black skin used for the 

strewing (adhivapana), 102°. 
kratu, sacrifice, 22, 145, 147 (kratva- 

kratukama, object of the sacrifice, 

kraya, buying (of Soma), 52. 
krush/a, sharp voice, high tone, 1 1°, 

krau&ta, high tone, ii°. 
kshtna = kharvika, 67°. 

kharvika, the Kharvika full moon, 

gavimayana, 142. 

garhapatya, the Garhapatya fire (the 

father), 22 . 
garhya (niman), the domestic name, 

grab, to take (the butter), 88, 89. 
graha, offering of Soma, also Soma 

vessel, 97. 

ghrila, butter when hardened, 23°. 

iaturgrfhtta, the taking four times, 

iaturdajfyukti, the full moon be- 
ginning on the fourteenth day, 


iandramas, moon, 65. 

iaru, a pulse consisting of grains of 
rice or barley, and clarified 
butter, 990, 102, (103, 105), no, 

122°, 123°, I»7, 128°. 

£aru=jtarusthalf, 106, 108°. 

iarupuro^ajiya, belonging to the 
Jfarus and Puro<&ras, 102. 

iarusthalt, vessel for boiling the 
/faru, 106 , (no). 

Aaturmasya, one of the seven Havir- 
yagAas, 7°, 148°; p. 344. 

*atvala, a hole in the ground for the 
sacrifices, 54°. 

lesh&prithaktvanirvartin, to be car- 
ried out by separate (repeated) 
acts, 39. 

iaitrt, p. 344. 

*odana, precept, 32, 86. 

ibedanz, cutting, 53. 

£-apa, the Gapa-mantras, 8°. 
j&tibheda, difference of the kind (of 

animal), 154. 
£&nu, knee, 92. 
guhQ, spoon, 25, 26°. 
g uhoti, see hu. 
^uhotUodana, ordered by the word 

£-uhoti, he pours out, 86. 

taWula, grain, 108, 109. 

taddharma, having the same quali- 
ties, 136. 

tantra, rule, 104, 153. See prati- 

taya-deva-tena, the words for placing 
the bricks together, 98. 

tira, high tone, n°. 

tulyavat, like, 81. 

tritiyasavana, the third oblation of 
Soma, 14. 

dakshma, the Dakshisa fire (the son), 


dakshi/ia, right, 92 (ginu). 
dakshina, southward, 94. 
dakshinapavarga, towards the south, 

Digitized by 


368 Apastamba's yagjva-paribhashA-sOtras. 

darvihoma, libation from a ladle, 85, 
(86 to 91), 92, 95. 

dampfiraamasau, the new and full- 
moon sacrifices, 5, 7 , 14°, 11 1, 
114, 122 , 123 , 137°, 148 , 155 
to 158 ; p. 344- 

dakshayawa, 14 8°. 

dundubhuabda, the sound of a drum, 

devata, deity, 128, 138. 

devatanigama, address of the deity, 

devatopaderana, indication of the 

deity, 101. 
de/a, place, 84. 
daiva, intended for the gods (kar- 

man), 59. 
dravya, substance (of an offering), 

129, 130. 
dravyasamuybtaya, accumulation, 52. 
dvadajakaplla, the cake baked in 

twelve cups (at the new-moon 

sacrifice), 76, 1230. 
dvadaiaha, a Soma sacrifice lasting 

twelve days, 141. 
dvikapala, a cake baked in two cups, 

sacrifice for the two Ajvins, 

i5i c . 
dvidevatd, offering for two deities, 

dhlnva, corn with the husk, 108 . 
dhara, pouring out of Soma, 46. 

naditarana, crossing a river, 40. 

navanita, fresh butter, 23 . 

navaya^«a, p. 344. 

namadheyagrahana, the mentioning 
of the name (of particular sacri- 
ficers), 35. 

nikayin, a series of sacrifices, all 
having the same name, but dif- 
ferent rewards, 143. 

nigama, address, 155. 

ninda, reproof, 33. 

nimitta, special cause, 148°. 

niyama, precept, 148 . 

nirasana, throwing away, 53. 

nirfWyfrapaju, the animal sacrifice, 

148°; p. 344- 
nirdLr, to prescribe with special 

reference to, 84. 
nirdcra, special instruction, 73. See 

nivr/t, to stop, to cease to apply, 138, 


Nishldasthapati, a Nishada chief- 
tain, 2 C . 
ntvira, wild growing rice, 129°, 136 . 
nairn'ta, offering to Nirr/ti, 53. 

pakti, cooking, 154. 

parakriti, story, 33. 

paravSkya, words referring to some- 
thing else, 133. 

parikraya, redemption, 53. 

parva-sandhi, the juncture of the 
two phases of the moon, 65 . 

para, animal sacrifice, 7 , 1 15. 

panigana, 118. 

parubandha, Pajubandha sacrifice, 
112; p. 344. 

p3kaya,?£a, domestic sacrifices, 148° ; 

P- 344- 
patra, sacrificial vessel, 25, 28. 
pan-ana, p. 344. 
pinJapitriyaghi, the sacrifice to the 

Fathers, 8o°; p. 344. 
phri-yagAa, sacrifice to the Fathers, 

80 ; p. 344. 
pitrya, intended for the Fathers, 60. 
pish/a, pi., meal, 108. 
purastat, before, 65. 
purastatpauroamSsf, the full moon 

beginning on the fourteenth 

day, 65 . 
purlkalpa, tradition, 33. 
purodksa, cake made of meal, 78, 99, 

102, (103, I05), 122°, I23 c , I24 c , 

127, 128°, 129 , 137 . 
puronuvaky a, the Puronuvakya hymn 

(preceding the Ya^-ya, following 

after the Sampraisha), 43. 
ptirita, full (the moon), 66. 
pflrna, full (the moon), 65. 
pfirvS-amSvasya, the new moon on 

the fourteenth day, 65 . 
pdrvl-paurnamasi = purastltpaurna- 

masi, 65°. 
paitr/ka, offering to the Pitr/s, S3. 
paurnamast, fuU moon, full-moon 

day, 64, 65, 74. 
paurnamisya, full-moon sacrifice, 64. 
prakarana, typical performance, 70°, 

prakr/ti, norm (for a sacrifice), 114, 

132«, 123 , 1270, 131, 132 , 139, 

140, 152, 155, 156, 157°, 158°. 
prakr/tidevata, the deity of the 

prakr/ti, 127. 
pranf, to bring forward (the fire), 


Digitized by 




pratitantram, at every sacrifice, 29. 
pratinidha, to substitute, 135. 
pratinidhi, substitute, 134, 138. 
pratipad, the first day of the lunar 

phase, 65°. 
pratimantrana, conjuring, 40. 
pratimantram, each (act) with one 

Mantra, 150. 
pratishidh, to bar, 82. 
pratishedha, prohibition, 138, 139. 
pratika, first words of a verse, 47 . 
pratyamnSna, corollary, 1 39. 
pratylrruta, reply, 10, 95. 
pratyahuti, for each Ahuti, 89. 
pradakshinam, turning towards the 

right, from left to right, 59, 61, 

pradana, offering, 87. 
pradhana, principal act, 70, 74, 8o c , 

83, 113 (the name of the chief 

prabhutva, fitness, 153. 
pramana, rule, 30. 

praya^a, a certain auxiliary Homa,7 5°. 
pray ana, journey, 41. 
pravara, the words used in choosing 

priests, 10, 35. 
pra/amsa, praise, 33. 
prasamkhyana, the being enume- 
rated, 81. 
prasavyam, turning towards the left, 

from right to left, 60, 61. 
pragapavarga, performed towards the 

east. 59. 
pragma vttin, with the Brahmanic 

cord over the right and under 

the left arm, 60. 
pr&taiisavana, the morning-oblation 

of Soma, 13. 
pratarhoma, p. 344. 
prayasjiitta, penance, 136°. 

bahudevata, offering for many deities, 

bahumantra, accompanied by many 

hymns, 44. 
Br«dhu=Br/bu, a . 
Br/bu, »°. 

brahman, the Brahma-priest, 19. 
brabmana, m., the Brahmana (caste), 

brabmana, n., the Brihmanas (sacred 

books), 30, 31, 32, 33. 

bhedana, breaking, 53. 

madhyama, middle tone, n c , 13. 
manota, the Manotl hymn (tvam 
hy agne prathamo manota, &c), 


mantra, verse, 30, 31, 34, 37, 44°, 
45 (mantranta), (46), 47, 107 
(mantram samnamati), 1 33°, 149, 
150, 151°. See ekamantra, ba- 

mantravat, hallowed by a Mantra, 

mandra, soft tone, ii°, 12. 

matripaiara, wanting of the mea- 
sure, 137. 

madhyandina, the midday-oblation 
of Soma, 13. 

masha, phaseolus radiatus, 135°. 

misuraddha, p. 344. 

mudga, kidney bean, phaseolus 
mungo, 1 35°. 

raoksha, eternal happiness, 148 . 

ya^, to sacrifice, 63, 64, 87 . 

yagana.=yagriz, i°. 

ya^urveda, the Ya^ur-veda, 4, 5, 6, 

8«, 9, 18. 
yajtfa, sacrifice, 1, 30, 54°. 
ya£#anga, sacrificial utensil, 57, 58. 
ya^tfinga, special part of a sacrifice, 

ya^fangakama, object of part of a 
sacrifice, 148. 

ya^flopavitin, with the Brahmanic 
cord over the left and under 
the right arm, 59. 

yathadevatam, according to the 
deities, 103. 

yathibhlgam, for each portion, 99, 

yathartham, according to the sense, 

yava, barley, 1 36 . 

yaga=yar#a, i°. 

ya^amanl, Mantra recited by the 
sacrificer himself, 49. 

ya^yd, Mantra used with the obla- 
tion, 43 , 50, 95, (1 13), 149°. 155- 

yflpa, the sacrificial post for fasten- 
ing the animal, 130°. 

yfipadravya, material for the sacri- 
ficial post, 150. 

bhid, bhidyate, there is difference, rathakara, chariot-maker, or name 
154. of a clan, 2 , 

[30] Bb 

Digitized by 


370 Apastamba's yaoa^a-paribhAsha-s6tras. 

ratbajabda, the sound of a carriage, 

Rati, the full moon on the first day 

of the lunar phase, 65°. 
rakshasa, offering to the Rakshasas, 

raganya, the Ra^anya (caste), a. 
raudra, offering to Rudra, 53. 

lopa, omission, 151. 

laukika (agni), ordinary (fire), 159. 

vafana, the saying expressly, so, 44, 


vanaspati, the Vanaspati sacrifice, 

155. . 

vapiirapam, the two spits for roast- 
ing the omentum (vapa), 153. 

varuwapragbSsa, a certain sacrifice, 

varna, colour or caste, a. 

vareSvireshewa, without distinction 
of caste, 79. 

vasha/kira, the word Vasha/ (to be 
uttered by the Hotri-priest), 95, 

vasha/kW, to utter the sacrificial in- 
terjection vasha/, 96. 

vakya, words, 133. 

vlksandrava, the movement of the 
voice, 15. 

vSgapeya, a certain Soma sacrifice, 

M 6 ; P- 344- 
va^asaneyin, pi., the Va^asaneyins, 

vShya, turned outside, 57. 
vikalpa, optional, 50, 150. 
vikara, modification, 12a, 133, 124, 

(125), 126, 1270, 146°, 155- 
vikriti, modification (of the prakr/ti), 

II4«, 123 , 127 , 128 , 129°, 132, 

I52«, 156, 157°, 158°. 
vidhana, rule, prescription, 70 (sa- 

manavidhana), 80 (svakalavi- 

vidhi, rule, 71, 93 , 133°, 147 . 
vipratishedha, impossibility, 20. 
virodha, contradiction, 129, 130. 
vivrtddhi, addition, 151. 
vihira, the sacrificial ground, 54, 

veda, the (three) Vedas, 3 ; Veda = 

Mantras and Brihmanas, 31. 
vabya, the Valrya (caste), a. 
vairvadeva, sacrifice for the Virve 

Devas, 119, iao°, 121; p. 344. 

vauvadevika, belonging to the Vabva 

deva, 120. 
vaishamya, diversity, 154. 
vausha/, sacrificial interjection, 96". 
vyatishikta, separated, 105. 
vy a vast hi, to be restricted, 73. 
vyipWta, employed elsewhere, 26. 
vySvr/t, to separate, 99, 100. 
vrihi, rice, 129 , 136 . 

jabda, word, 138. 

jasya, the corn of the field, xo8 c . 

jSkha, recension, 3 . 

jSstriya, consecrated (fire), 159°. 

jish/a, what is prescribed, 1 34. 

xulba, rope, 61. 

jfidra, the Sudra (caste), 2 . 

jflla, spit for boiling the heart (of the 

sacrificial animal), 153. 
jesha, essential part, 157. 
jraddha, p. 344. 
jravant, p. 344. 

jrausha/, sacrificial interjection, 96*. 
zvaipunta=Riki, 650. 
svoyukt£=Kuhfi, 65 , 69 . 

sham/a, eunuch, a , 
shorfajin, a certain Soma sacrifice, 
I44°> 146; P- 344- 

samvada, dialogue, 10. 

samskara, purification, 39; prepara- 
tion (of an offering), 129. 

samsklra, initiation, 52. 

sankhya, number, 51. 

sankhylyukta, having a number, 39. 

samfara, path between the JCStvlla 
and Utkara, 54°. 

sattra, a series of sacrifices lasting 
from thirteen to one hundred 
nights or more (opp. ahina), 
141°, 142°, 146. 

sadyaskaUl, name of the Kharvikl 
full moon and the corresponding 
day of abstinence, 67°. 

sandhya-paurnamisi = purastitpaur- 
namasi, 65°. 

samnam, to adapt and change (a 
verse), 107. 

samnima «= flha, modification of a 
verse, 107 . 

samnipat, Caus., to let coincide, 45, 

samnf, to offer the Samnlyya, 79. 

samavadyo, to divide (the butter), 

Digitized by 




samavetartha, words (of a Mantra) 
connected with the sacrifice, 

samas, to join (ropes), 61, 62. 
sarnanavidhana, having the same rule, 

samaruh, to return (to the firesticks, 

the divine fire), 159. 
samasa, joining, 61 (°am gaJkkbaxiti, 

they have to be joined), 
samidh, fuel, 91. 
samuiiaya, aggregation, 49, 52. 
sampraisha, command, 10, 43°. 
sarpabali, p. 344. 
sarpis, Adj., running, in sarpir %ya, 

melted butter, 33. 
savantya,the Soma sacrifice, 1 16, 117. 
sawvatsarika, a sacrifice lasting one, 

two, or more years, 142. 
sikamedha, a certain sacrifice, 1 19. 
sanga, accompanied by auxiliary acts, 


sadyaskra, 143 s , 146. 

sadharana, general, 72. 

samnayya, the mixture (of sour and 
sweet milk, intended for Indra 
and Mahendra,at the new-moon 
sacrifice), 77, 79 , ioo°, 122 . 

samaveda, the Sama-veda, 4, 8,9°, 17. 

simanya, similarity, 122, 128, 134. 

satnidhent, the hymns or verses used 
for lighting the fire, 11, in. 

sayamhoma, p. 344. 

sarasvata (sattra), 146. 

SinivalT=pflrva-amavasyS, 65 , 69°. 

sira, a certain sacrifice, 119. 

susadma, very like, 135. 

somayaj-in, one who sacrifices with 
Soma, 77, 79°. 

somasamstha, Soma sacrifices, 148° ; 

P- 344- 
somendraiaru, the jhiru intended for 

Soma and Indra, 127. 
sautramasi, p. 344. 
Saudhanvanas, 2°. 
saumya, intended for Soma, 127°. 
strt, woman (admitted to sacrifice), 

a , 
sthllt, see liarusthalT. 
sthalipika, p. 344. 
srni, spoon, 26°. 
sruva, ladle, 26. 

svadha, sacrificial interjection, 96°. 
svapna, sleeping, 40. 
svajabda, having its own name, 84. 
svadhyiya, self-reading (of the Veda), 

svamin, master, i. e. sacrificer, 138. 
sviha, sacrificial interjection, 96°. 
svihikarapradana, (a sacrifice) which 

is offered with the word Sviha, 

svish/akrft, the sacrifice for Agni 
Svish/akr/t, 13, 155. 

haviryaffXa, a class of sacrifices, 

148°; p. 344- 
havishkr/'t, the Havishkr/t hymn, 

used when the havis is made, 

havis, offering, 104°, 128. 
hu, to pour out, to sacrifice, 23, 25°, 

86, 87°, 9h 94- 
hotr/, the HotW-priest, 16, 49 . 
hotra, Mantra recited by the Hotr/- 

priest, 49. 
homa, the Homa, burnt-oblation, 

B b 2 

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Sacred Books of the East 



%* This Series is published with the sanction and co-operation of the Secretary of 
State for India in Council. 

1883, by M. BBBBST BBBAB. 

' M. Renan presente trois nouveaux une seconde, dont 1'inWrfit historique et 
volumes de la grande collection des religienx ne sera pas moindre. M. Max 
"Livres sacrls de l'Orient" (Sacred MUUer a su se procurer la collaboration 
Books of the East}, que dirige a Oxford, des savans les pins Iminens d'Europe et 
avec une si Taste erudition et une critiqne d'Asie. L'Universite' d'Oxford, que cette 
si sure, le savant assoctf de l'Academie grande publication bonore an plus baut 
des Inscriptions, M. Max MUUer. ... La degrf, doit tenir a continuer dans les plus 
premiere serie de ce beau recueil, com- larges proportions une ceuvre aussi philo- 
posee de 34 volumes, est presque achevee. sopniqnement concne que savamment 
M. Max Miiller se propose d'en publier exe'eutee.' 


' We rejoice to notice that a second great edition of the Rig- Veda, can corn- 
series of these translations has been an- pare in importance or in usefulness with 
nounced and has actually begun to appear, this English translation of the Sacred 
The stones, at least, out of which a stately Books of the East, which has been devised 
edifice may hereafter arise, are here being by his foresight, successfully brought so 
brought together. Prof. Max Miiller has far by his persuasive and organising 
deserved well of scientific history. Not power, and will, we trust, by the assist- 
a few minds owe to his enticing words ance of the distinguished scholars he has 
their first attraction to this branch of gathered round him, be carried in due 
study. But no work of his, not even the time to a happy completion.' 

Vrof«««or B. X ABDY , Inaugural I.«ctnr* In th* University of Freiburg-, 1887. 
' Die allgemeine vergleichende Reli- internationalen Orientalistencongress in 
gionswitsenschaft datirt von jenem gross- London der Grundstein gelegt worden 
artigen, in seiner Art einzig dastehenden war, die Cbersetzung derheiligen Biicher 
Untemehmen, ru welchem auf Anregung des Ostens ' (the Sacred Books of the 
Max Miillers im Jahre 1874 auf dem East). 

Th* Bon. ALBlBt 8. O. OABBXVO, 'Words on flxlatlns; Bcllglona.' 
' The recent publication of the " Sacred a great event in the annals of theological 
Books of the East" in English is surely literature.' ♦ 




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Vol. I. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max MUllkr. Part I. The Ehiaiogyz- 
upanishad, The Talavak&ra-upanishad, The Aitareya-inwyaka, 
The Kaushitaki-brShmawa-upanishad, and The VS^asaneyi- 
sawhili-upanishad. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Upanishads contain the philosophy of the Veda. They have 
become the foundation of the later Veddnta doctrines, and indirectly 
of Buddhism. Schopenhauer, speaking of the Upanishads, says : 
' In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating 
as that of the Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life, it trill 
be the solace of my death.' 

[See also Vol. XV.] 

Vol. II. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastaraba, Gautama, V&sish/fta, 
and Baudhiyana. Translated by Georg BOhlrk. Part I. 
Apastamba and Gautama. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, iar. (td. 

The Sacred Laws of the Aryas contain the original treatises on 
which the Laws of Manu and other lawgivers were founded. 

[See also Vol. XIV.] 

Vol. III. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Leggk. 
Part I. The Shu King, The Religious Portions of the Shih 
King, and The Hsiao King. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, i is. 6d. 

Confucius was a collector of ancient traditions, not the founder of 
a new religion. As he lived in the sixth and fifth centuries B. C. 
his works are of unique interest for the study of Ethology. 
[See also Vols. XVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXXIX, and XL.] 

vol. IV. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part I. The VendidSd. 
Second Edition. 8 vo, cloth, 145. 

The Zend-Avesta contains the relics of what was the religion of 
Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes, and, but for the battle of Marathon, 

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might have become the religion of Europe. It forms to the present 
day the sacred book of the Pars is, the so-called fire-worshippers. 
[See alto Vols. XXIII and XXXI.] 

Vol. V. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part I. The Bundahw, Bahman 
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The Pahlavi Texts comprise the theological literature of the revival 
of Zoroaster's religion, beginning with the Sassanian dynasty. They 
are important for a study of Gnosticism. 

[See also Vols. XVIII, XXIV, XXXVII, and XLV1I.] 

vols. VI ato IX. The Qur'an. 

Parts I and II. Translated by E. H. Palmer. Second Edition. 
8vo, cloth, 21 s. 

This translation, carried out according to his own peculiar views 
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Translated by Julius Jolly. 8vo, cloth, ioj. 6</. 

A collection of legal aphorisms, closely connected with one of the 
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time. Of importance for a critical study of the Laws of Maim. 

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Translated by Kashinath Trimbak Tki.akg. Second Edition. 
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The earliest philosophical and religious poem of India. If has been 
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Translated from Pali by F. Max Mullf.r; and 

The Sutta-Nipata, 
Translated from Pali by V. FausbSll ; being Canonical Books 
of the Buddhists. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 10$. 6d. 

The Dhammapada contains the quintessence of Buddhist morality. 
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Vol. XI. Buddhist Suttas. 

Translated from PSli by T. W. Rhys Davids, i. The Maha- 
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A collection of the most important religious, moral, and philosophical 
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Vol. XII. The 6atapatha-Brahma«a, according to the 
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Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part I. Books I and II. 
8vo, cloth, 1 2S. 6d. 

A minute account of the sacrificial ceremonies of the Vedic age. 
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[See also Vols. XXVI, XLI, XL1II, and XLIV.] 

Vol. XIII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 

Oldenberg. Parti. The Pitimokkha. The Mabivagga, I-IV. 

8vo, cloth, 1 ox. 6d. 

The Vinaya Texts give for the first time a translation of the moral 

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[See also Vols. XVII and XX.] 

Vol. XIV. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

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Vol. xv. The Upanishads. 

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Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Vol. xvi. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. 
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[See also Vols. XXVII, XXVHI.] 

Vol. XVII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the PSli by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
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I— III. 8vo, cloth, in. 6d. 

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Vol. XIX. The Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king. 

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This life of Buddha was translated from Sanskrit into Chinese, 
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The religion of the Crainas was founded by a contemporary of Buddha. 
It still counts numerous adherents in India, while there are no 
Buddhists left in India proper, 

[See Vol. XLV.J 

Vol. xxili. The Zend-Avesta. 

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1 ox. 6d. 

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Vol. XXV. Manu. 

Translated by Georo Buhler. 8vo, cloth, 2 is. 
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Vol. XXXII. Vedic Hymns. 

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[See also Vol. XLVI.] 

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