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PREFACE ix-xvi 

INTRODUCTION xvii-xlvii 

Abbreviations xlviii 


The Gathas (Yasna XXVIII-XXXIV, XLIII-LL LIII) i-i 94 

Visparad I-XXIII . ' . 
Afrinagan I-III 

GahsI-V . . . 
Miscellaneous Fragments 
Index .... 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 
Translations of the Sacred Books of the East 


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It would savour of affectation for me to say very much 
by way of meeting the necessary disadvantages under which 
I labour as in any sense a successor of Professor Darmesteter. 
It is sufficient to state that I believe myself to be fully 
aware of them, and that I trust that those who study my 
work will accord me the more sympathy under the circum- 
stances. Professor Darmesteter.having extended his labours 
in his University, found his entire time so occupied that he 
was obliged to decline further labour on this Series for the 
present. My work on the Gathas had been for some time 
in his hands x , and he requested me, as a friend, to write 
the still needed volume of the translation of the Avesta. 
Although deeply appreciating the undesirableness of follow- 
ing one whose scholarship is only surpassed by his genius, 
I found myself unable to refuse. 

As to my general treatment, experts will not need to be 
informed that I have laboured under no common difficulties. 
On the one hand, it would be extremely imprudent for any 
scholar not placed arbitrarily beyond the reach of criticism, 
to venture to produce a translation of the Yasna, Visparad, 
Afrinagan, and Gahs, without defensive notes. The smallest 
freedom would be hypercriticised by interested parties, and 
after them condemned by their followers. On the other 
hand, even with the imperfect commentary which accom- 
panies the Gathas here, the generous courtesy of the Dele- 
gates of the Clarendon Press has been too abundantly drawn 
upon. One does not expect detailed commentaries in this 
Series. My efforts have therefore been chiefly confined to 
forestalling the possible assaults of unfair or forgetful critics, 
and so to spare myself, in so far as it may be possible, the 
necessity for painful rejoinder. 

1 See the Revue Critique, Nov. t6, 1883. 

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To print a commentary on the Yasna, &c, which would 
be clear to non-specialists, and at the same time interesting, 
would occupy many times more space than could be here 
allowed. In treating the Gathas however, even at the risk 
of too great extension, I have endeavoured to atone for the 
necessary obscurity of notes by ample summaries, and a 
translation supported by paraphrase, as such matter has 
more prospect of being generally instructive than a com- 
mentary which must necessarily have remained obscure. 
These summaries should also be read with the more indul- 
gence, as they are the first of their kind yet attempted, 
Haug's having been different in their scope. With regard 
to all matters of mere form, I expect from all sides a 
similar concession. It will, I trust, be regarded as a suffi- 
cient result if a translation, which has been built up upon 
the strictest critical principles, can be made at all readable. 
For while any student may transcribe from the works of 
others what might be called a translation of the Yasna, to 
render that part of it, termed the Gathas, has been declared 
by a respected authority, 'the severest task in Aryan 
philology 1 .' And certainly, if the extent of preparatory 
studies alone is to be the gauge, the statement cited would 
not seem to be an exaggeration. On mathematical esti- 
mates the amount of labour which will have to be gone 
through to become an independent investigator, seems to be 
much greater than that which presents itself before special- 
ists in more favoured departments. No one should think 
of writing with originality on the Gathas, or the rest of the 
Avesta, who had not long studied the Vedic Sanskrit, and no 
one should think of pronouncing ultimate opinions on the 
Gathas, who has not to a respectable degree mastered the 
Pahlavi commentaries. But while the Vedic, thanks to the 
labours of editor and lexicographers, has long been open to 

1 ' Es bilden diese funf Gathas, die insgesammt metrisch abgefasst sind, den 
sprachlich wichtigsten, aber auch den weitaus schwierigsten teil des ganzen 
Avesta, ja man kann sagen, ohne dass man furchten muss der iibertreibung 
geziehen zu werden,sie bilden den schwierigsten tcil der ganzen indogermanischen 
pbilologie.' Altiranisches Vcrbum ; von C. Bartholomae ; Einleitung, s. 3. 

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hopeful study, the Pahlavi commentaries have never been 
thoroughly made out, and writer after writer advances with 
an open avowal to that effect ; while the explanation, if 
attempted, involves questions of actual decipherment, and 
Persian studies in addition to those of the Sanskrit and 
Zend ; and the language of the Gathas requires also the 
study of a severe comparative philology, and that to an 
unusual, if not unequalled, extent. 

The keen observer will at once see that a department of 
science so circumstanced may cause especial embarrassment. 
On the one hand, it is exposed to the impositions of dilet- 
tanti, and the hard working specialist must be content to 
see those who have advanced with studies one half, or 
less than one half completed, consulted as masters 
by a public which is only ignorant as regards the inner- 
most laws of the science ; and, on the other hand, the 
deficiencies of even the most laborious of specialists must 
leave chasms of imperfection out of which the war of the 
methods must continually re-arise. In handling the Gathas 
especially, I have resorted to the plan of giving a translation 
which is inclusively literal \ but filled out and rounded as 
to form by the free use of additions. As the serious stu- 
dent should read with a strong negative criticism, he may 
notice that I strive occasionally after a more pleasing effect ; 
but, as we lose the metrical flow of the original entirely, 
such an effort to put the rendering somewhat on a level 
with the original in this respect, becomes a real necessity. 
I have, however, in order to guard against misleading the 
reader, generally, but not always, indicated the added words 
by parenthetical curves. That these will be considered un- 
sightly and awkward, I am well aware. I consider them such 
myself, but I have not felt at liberty to refrain from using 
them. As the Gathas are disputed word for word, I could not 
venture to resort to free omissions ; and what a translation 
would be without either additions or omissions, may be 

* That is approximately so ; absolute literalness, even when treated as I pro- 
pose, would be unmanageably awkward. In another work, I give a word for 
word rendering of the Gathas. 

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seen from the occasional word for word renderings given. 
Beyond the Gathas, I have omitted the curves oftener. I 
have in the Gathas, as elsewhere, also endeavoured to impart 
a rhythmical character to the translation, for the reason 
above given, and foreign readers should especially note the 
fact, as well as my effort to preserve the colour of original 
expressions, otherwise they will inevitably inquire why I do 
not spare words. To preserve the colour and warmth, and 
at the same time to include a literal rendering, it is impos- 
sible to spare words and syllables, and it is unwise to 
attempt it. Non-specialists may dislike the frequency of 
alternative renderings as leaving the impression of inde- 
cision, while, at the same time, a decision is always ex- 
pressed by the adoption of a preferred rendering. The 
alternatives were added with the object of showing how 
nearly balanced probabilities may be, and also how unim- 
portant to the general sense the questions among specialists 
often are. 

In transliterating, I have followed the plan used in the 
preceding volumes to avoid confusion, but since the first 
volume was published, great progress has been made in 
this particular, and in a separate work I should have 
adopted a different arrangement 1 . As to other unimportant 
variations from the preceding volumes in matters of usage 
and fashion, I trust that no one will dwell on them for a 
moment z . As regards the usual and inevitable differences 
of opinion on more serious questions, see the remarks in 
the Introduction 3 . I would also state that I have often 
avoided rendering identical passages in identical language, 
as irksome both to reader and writer. I have also not in- 
variably cited the obviously preferable variations of text 
which have been adopted, and which are so familiar to the 

1 Chiefly as to 3, {, », g, *», VL, !?, », M*1 but I write - s, ]i t. 

* As in Aramaiti, Vohu Manah, &c. I also write Neryosangh, and in a 
few places Gatha v a), Ahunavaiti(,i), &c. I regret not to have written Mazdah 

3 Where I differ from Professor Darmesteter, I desire to be considered as 
merely proposing alternative renderings. I have therefore omitted a mass of 
references to the previous volumes as unnecessary. 

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eye in Westergaard, Spiegel, and Geldner. The texts 
of Westergaard have been followed necessarily as to 
extent of matter, as this work is printed before the comple- 
tion of Geldner's text. The oft-recurring formulas and 
prayers at the ends of chapters and sections have been left 
unrendered, and finally for the most part unnoticed, by 
striking out the useless notes. Citations of the Pahlavi and 
Sanskrit translations have been given occasionally in full, in 
order to meet the extraordinary statements which some- 
times appear to the effect that they have not been vital to 
the interpretation of the Gathas. But by giving these ex- 
tracts and by frequently citing the Pahlavi, Neryosangh, and 
the Persian, I have perhaps exposed myself to the miscon- 
ception that I am an extreme advocate of the so-called tra- 
dition 1 , whereas all conscientious critics will acknowledge 
thatl followtheindicationsoftheseworkswith more 
reserve than any writer who professes to have studied them ; 
in fact I may well apprehend censure from ' traditionalists ' 
in this particular. These Asiatic renderings are cited by 
me the more fully when those who neglect them agree with 
their indications ; and they are therefore cited to show that, 
whereas those most opposed to them are nevertheless for- 
getfully indebted to them in nearly every line, therefore in 
all cases of great difficulty they should be studied as an 
absolute necessity before rash conjectures are adopted. 
For it is exactly where we are all most in doubt, that their 
indications become of most worth, when rationally con- 
sidered. These translations should be examined for the 
relics of the truth, the hints, and traces of original explana- 
tions, which may most abound where they are themselves 
most faulty as translations. I therefore never search them 
for exact reproductions. But the citations which I give 

1 The relics of a ' tradition ' direct from the fountain-head are present in the 
Asiatic commentaries, and also the relics of a tradition from later, and, as it 
were, modem scholarship ; and, lastly, there are also present the direct results 
of an ancient scholarship; but to speak of the Pahlavi translations as 'tradi- 
tion,' is merely to use a convenient phrase. I know of no scholar who supposes 
these commentaries to be in a simple sense ' tradition ' from the earliest Zend 

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here constitute only a very small fraction of those needed. 
An argument should be built up on the fullest statements 
of the circumstances, elucidated with scientific complete- 
ness. This alone would have any prospect of obliging 
investigators to acknowledge the truth ; for not only inertia 
and prejudice are arrayed on the other side, but even 
interest. This much is said of the Pahlavi translations ; for 
Ner. is properly cited only as a translation of a translation, 
and, as such, of the highest authority 1 ; so of the Persian. 

Zend is ts will observe that I by no means abandon ex- 
planations merely because they are old, a practice which 
seems almost the fashion. I, however, fully approve of 
testing and assailing again and again all suggestions 
whether old or new. I would simply assert that, while the 
tasks before us remain still so very extensive, it would be 
better for scholars to exercise their sagacity upon passages 
which call loudly for wise conjecture, leaving those which 
are clear as they stand, for later assaults. It will be seen 
that I myself by no means approve of refraining from con- 
jecture 2 , but I would only in all humility insist that we 
should not abandon ourselves to unprepared conjecture. 
As is known 3 , 1 have attempted the present rendering after 
more than ten years of close labour, and after a full trans- 

1 It is to be hoped that our occupations are sufficiently serious to allow us to 
pass over the imperfections of Neryosangh's Sanskrit style. He was especially 
cramped in his mode of expressing himself by a supposed necessity to attempt to 
follow his original (which was not the Gathic but the Pahlavi) word for word. 
His services were most eminently scholarly, and, considering his disadvantages, 
some of the greatest which have been rendered. Prof. R. v. Roth and Dr. Aurel 
Stein have kindly transcribed for me valuable variations. 

* It will be regarded, however, as especially desirable that, in a report from a 
specialist to the learned public in general, the texts should on no account be 
violated by conjectural improvements where they are at all translatable ; alter- 
natives are therefore added. As has been remarked by a recent reviewer on the 
new version of the Scriptures, there is scarcely a line of very ancient writings 
which scholars are not tempted to amend ; but such emendations are seldom 
agreed to among specialists. A first translation should always be attempted 
with the texts as they stand. 

s See the Athensenm, April 12, 1884; and the Academy, Sept. 13, 1884. 
On the entire subject in its connection with the Gnostic and modem philosophies, 
my special labours have included a much longer period of time than that 

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lation of the Pahlavi and Sanskrit translations, together 
with an edition of the Zend, Pahlavi, Sanskrit, and Persian 
texts of the Gathas. It is proper to add that for the pur- 
pose of keeping the judgment free from prejudice, and open 
to honest conviction from the influence of the i?*g-veda, I 
have followed the practice for a number of years of trans- 
cribing the Hymns of the Veda into English in word for 
word written studies, having already so treated by far the 
greater part of them ; some of these are in curtailed state- 
ment, others needlessly full. I have also, on the other 
hand, turned a large portion of the Gathas into Vedic 
Sanskrit. (This, however, is practically a universal custom, 
as all words are compared with the Vedic, so far as analogies 
exist between the Gathas and the JZiks.) If therefore the 
opposed schools regard me as erring in too implicit a reli- 
ance on the hints of the Asiatics on the one side, or in too 
decided a tendency to read the Gathic as Vedic on the 
other, they may be assured that I have not erred from 
interest or prejudice. That my results will please both 
parties it is folly to expect, in fact perfection in the render- 
ing of the Gathas (as of some other ancient works) is for ever 
unattainable, and not to be looked for ; moreover, it would 
not be recognised, if attained ; for no writer, whosoever he 
may be, can produce a rendering of the Gathas without 
meeting the assaults of ignorance or design. However 
imperfect my results may be supposed to be, it is to be hoped 
that they will contribute some little toward establishing 
a convention among scholars as to what the Gathic and 
Zend writings mean ; meanwhile it is confidently expected 
that they will fulfil the requirements of the science of com- 
parative theology. Whatever may be the ultimate truth 
as to questions of close detail, the Yasna, as well as the 
rest of the Avesta, is clear as to its creed. 

My list of obligations is a long one, in fact so long that I 
fear I can express but little compliment in naming advisers, 
as I have made it a practice to consult all available persons, 
as well as books. Making one exception, I will therefore 
reserve to myself the pleasure of recalling them to a future 

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It is sufficients say here that while I follow a new de- 
parture in the treatment of the Asiatic commentaries, yet 
the most prominent writers of the opposing schools have 
courteously favoured me with their advice. Availing myself 
of the exception named, I would take the liberty to express 
my gratitude, here especially, to Dr. E. W.West, our first au- 
thority on Pahlavi, for placing at my disposal various readings 
of the Pahlavi text of the Yasna, of which we have hitherto 
only possessed a single MS. in the Pahlavi character, that 
contained in the oldest Zend writing, the Codex numbered 
five, in the Library of Copenhagen. The variations referred 
to were transcribed by Dr. West from the venerable MS., the 
hereditary property of Dastur Dr. £amaspfi Mino£ihatgi 
Asana of Bombay, and written only nineteen (or twenty- 
two) days later than that numbered five in the Library of 
Copenhagen. By this generous loan I have been enabled 
to print elsewhere the first text of the Pahlavi of the Gathas 
yet edited with comparison of MSS., likewise also for the 
first time translated, in its entirety, into a European lan- 
guage. For this Dr. West, during an extended correspon- 
dence, has furnished me with information on the Pahlavi 
not obtainable elsewhere, together with corrections and re- 
visions. There is another eminent friend whose sacrifices 
of time and labour on my behalf have been exceptional, but 
I will defer the mention of Zend scholars. 

I take this opportunity to express my acknowledgments 
to Professor Dr. von Halm of the Hof- und Staatsbibliothek, 
in Munich, for allowing me the free use of Codex i2 b , of 
Haug's Collection, both at Stuttgart and Hanover; also 
to Professor Dr. Wilmanns of Gottingen ; Geheimrath 
Dr. Forstemann of Leipsic ; and Herr Rath Bodemann of 
Hanover, for the loan of a large number of valuable works 
from their respective public libraries, often, with great 
liberality, renewed. 


Hanover, February, 1886. 

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Many readers, for whom the Zend-Avesta possesses 
only collateral interest, may not understand why any 
introductory remarks are called for to those portions of 
it which are treated in this volume. The extent of the 
matter does not appear at first sight a sufficient reason for 
adding a word to the masterly work which introduces the 
first two volumes, and, in fact, save as regards questions 
which bear upon the Gathas, I avoid for the most part, for 
the present, all discussion of details which chiefly con- 
cern either the sections treated in the first two volumes, or 
the extended parts of the later Avesta treated here. But 
the Gathas are of such a nature, and differ so widely from 
other parts of the Avesta, that some words of separate dis- 
cussion seem quite indispensable, and such a discussion was 
recommended by the author of the other volumes. A second 
reason why a word of introduction is necessary, when the 
translation of the successive parts of the Avesta passes from 
one hand to another, is a reason which bears upon the sub- 
ject with exceptional force. 

It is this : the Avesta, while clearly made out, so far as 
the requirements of comparative theology are concerned, 
yet presents difficulties as to minute detail so great, that as 
yet no two independent scholars can entirely agree as to 
their solution. Master and pupil, friend and friend, must 
differ, and sometimes on questions of no trivial moment. 

The preliminary studies requisite to the formation of 
ultimate opinions are so varied, and of such a nature, involv- 
ing the rendering of matter as yet totally unrendered with 
any scientific exactness in either India or Europe, that no 
person can claim to have satisfied himself in these respects. 
Scholars are therefore obliged to advance biassed by the 
fact that they are preponderatingly Iranists, or preponder- 

[3i] b 

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atingly Vedists, and therefore certain at the outset that they 
must differ to a certain degree from each other, and to a 
certain degree also from the truth. It was also, as might 
well be understood without statement, with a full knowledge 
of the fact that I was inclined to allow especial weight to a 
comparison with the Veda, and that I modified the evidence 
of tradition somewhat more than he did, that Professor 
Darmesteter urged me to accept this task. But while I am 
constrained to say something by way of a preparatory 
treatise here, a sense of the fitness of things induces me to 
be as brief as possible, and I must therefore ask indulgence 
of the reader if my mode of expressing myself seems 
either rough or abrupt. 

As to what the Gathas are in their detail, enough has been 
said in the summaries and notes. From those representa- 
tions, necessarily somewhat scattered, it appears that they 

v comprise seventeen sections of poetical matter, equal in 
extent to about twenty-five to thirty hymns of the Rtg-veda, 
composed in ancient Aryan metres, ascribing supreme (bene- 
ficent) power to the Deity Ahura Mazda, who is yet opposed 
co-ordinately by an evil Deity called Aka Manah, or Angra 
Mainyu. In all respects, save in the one particular that He 
is not the Creator of this evil Deity, and does not possess 
the power to destroy him or his realm, this Ahura Mazda is 
one of the purest conceptions which had yet been produced. 
He has six personified attributes (so one might state it), 
later, but not in the Gathas, described as Archangels, while 
in the Gathas they are at once the abstract attributes of God, 

) or of God's faithful adherents upon earth, and at the same 
time conceived of as persons, all efforts to separate the in- 
stances in which they are spoken of as the mere dispositions 
of the divine or saintly mind, and those in which they are 
spoken of as personal beings, having been in vain. 

We have therefore a profound scheme, perhaps not con- 
sciously invented, but being a growth through centuries; 
and this system is the unity of God in His faithful creatures. 
It is not a polytheism properly so-called, as Ahura forms 
with his Immortals a Heptade, reminding one of the 
Sabellian Trinity. It is not a Pantheism, for it is especially 

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arrested by the domain of the evil Deity. It might be 
called, if we stretch the indications, a Hagio-theism, a de- 
lineation of God in the holy creation. Outside of the 
Heptade is Sraosha, the personified Obedience (and pos- 
sibly Vayu, as once mentioned) ; and, as the emblem of 
the pious, is the Kine's soul, while the Fire is a poetically 
personified symbol of the divine purity and power. As 
opposed to the good God, we have the Evil Mind, or the 
Angry (?) Spirit, not yet provided with full personified attri- 
butes to correspond to the Bountiful Immortals. He has, 
however, a servant, A&shma, the impersonation of invasion 
and rapine, the chief scourge of the Zarathujtrians ; and an 
evil angel, the Dn\f, personified deceit, while the Daevas 
(Devas) of their more southern neighbours (some of whose 
tribes had remained, as servile castes, among the Zarathuy- 
trians) constitute perhaps the general representatives of Aka 
Manah, Aeshma, the Dru^-, &c. The two original spirits 
unite in the creation of the good and evil in existence both 
actually in the present, and in principles which have their 
issue in the future in rewards and punishments. The 
importance of this creed, so far stated, as the dualistical 
creation, and, as an attempted solution, of the hardest 
problem of speculation, should be obvious to every en- 
lightened eye. If there existed a supreme God whose power 
could undo the very laws of life, no evil could have been 
known ; but the doctrine denies that there is any such 
being. The good and the evil in existence limit each 
other. There can be no happiness undefined by sorrow, 
and no goodness which does not resist sin. Accordingly 
the evil principle is recognised as so necessary that it is 
represented by an evil God. His very name, however, is a 
thought, or a passion ; while the good Deity is not respon- 
sible for the wickedness and grief which prevail. His power 
itself could not have prevented their occurrence. And He 
alone has an especially objective name, and one which could 
only be applied to a person. These suggestions, whether 
true or false, are certainly some of the most serious that 
have ever been made l , and we find them originally here. 

1 Haug long since called attention to the likeness of Hegelianism to the 


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As to the nature of religious rewards and punishments, 
we have suggestions scarcely less important in the eye of 
scientific theology, and, as a matter of fact, very much more 
extensively spread. To say that the future rewards held 
out in the Gathas were largely, if not chiefly, spiritual, and 
in the man himself, would be almost a slur upon the truth. 
The truth is, that the mental heaven and hell with which we 
are now familiar as the only future states recognised by 
intelligent people, and thoughts which, in spite of their 
familiarity, can never lose their importance, are not only 
used and expressed in the Gathas, but expressed there, so 
far as we are aware, for the first time. While mankind 
were delivered up to the childish terrors of a future replete 
with horrors visited upon them from without, the early 
Iranian sage announced the eternal truth that the rewards 
of Heaven, and the punishments of Hell, can only be from 
within. He gave us, we may fairly say, through the sys- 
tems which he has influenced, that great doctrine of subjec- 
tive recompense, which must work an essential change in 
the mental habits of every one who receives it. After the 
creation of souls, and the establishment of the laws which 
should govern them, Aramaiti gives a body, and men and 
angels begin their careers. A Mathra is inspired for the 
guidance of the well-disposed. The faithful learn the vows 
of the holy system under the teaching of the Immortals, 
while the infidel and reprobate portion of mankind accept 
the seductions of the Worst Mind, and unite with the Daevas 
in the capital sin of warfare from wanton cruelty, or for dis- 
honest acquisition. The consequence of this latter alliance 
is soon apparent. The Kine, as the representative of the 
holy people, laments under the miseries which make Iranian 
life a load. The efforts to draw a livelihood from honest 
labour are opposed, but not frustrated, by the Daeva-wor- 
shipping tribes who still struggle with the Zarathurtrians 
for the control of the territory. The Kine therefore lifts 

chief ideas in the Zarathurtrian philosophy as centring in its dualism. And 
I think thaT it is quite evident, and I believe conceded by experts, that the 
Hegelian gublated dualism is a descendant from the Zarathurtrian through 
the Gnostics and Jacob Boehme. 

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her wail to Ahura, and His Righteous Order, Asha, who 
respond by the appointment of Zarathurtra, as the indi- 
vidual entrusted with her redemption ; and he, accepting 
his commission, begins his prophetic labours. From this 
on we have a series of lamentations, prayers, praises, and 
exhortations, addressed by Zarathurtra and his immediate 
associates to Ahura and the people, which delineate the 
public and personal sorrows in detail, utter individual sup- 
plications and thanksgivings, and exhort the masses assem- 
bled in special or periodical meetings. 

Here, it must be noted, that the population among whom 
these hymns were composed were chiefly agriculturists and 
herdsmen. Circumstances which affected their interests as 
such were of course paramount with them, and as their land 
and cattle represented their most valuable property, what- 
ever threatened them was the most of all things to be 
dreaded. Accordingly rapine, and the raid, whether coming 
from Turanians or Daeva-worshippers, were regarded as the 
most terrible of visitations. But their moral earnestness in 
their determination to avoid rapine on their part, even when 
tempted by a desire for retaliation, is especially to be noted 1 . 
It was as awful when regarded as a sin as it was when 
suffered as an affliction ; and their animus in this particular 
was most exceptional. While the above facts explain to us, 
on the one hand, the principal deities, and the peculiar hopes 
and fears which inspired. their worship, they lead us also, on 
the other hand, to wonder the more that so subtle a theo- 
logy as we have found expressed in the documents, should 
have arisen amid so simple a community. 

In the course of the recitations we have also special 
intimations of an organised struggle of the Daeva-party 
to overwhelm the Zarathujtrians. At times they seem 
very nearly to have accomplished their object. A 
distinct reference to a battle in the lines occurs, while 
sanguinary violence is alluded to more than once as in 

1 They pray against Ae&hma without qualification. They might practise 
desolating havoc in time of war ; but the raid, as in times of nominal peace, 
seems to have been foreign to them. 

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the line, or in skirmish. We conclude from the pre- 
valence of a thankful tone that the Zarathiutrians gained 
the upper hand during the Gathic period, but although 
the result may have been assured, the struggle at the 
time of the last Gatha was by no means over. In the 
latest Gatha, as in the earliest, we have signs of fierce and 
bloody conflict. The same type of existence prevailed 
greatly later, in the time of the Y&rts, but the scene seems 
very different, and Zarathujtra's human characteristics are 
wholly lost in the mythical attributes with which time and 
superstition had abundantly provided him. By way, then, of 
summarising the chief characteristics of his original system, 
we may say that he and his companions were struggling to 
establish a kingdom under the Sovereign Power of God, 
whose first care was to relieve suffering, and shelter the 
honest and industrious poor 1 . This kingdom was to be 
conducted according to His holy Order, or plan of salva- 
tion, to be permeated by living Piety, and with the ultimate 
object of bestowing both Weal and Immortality. This high 
ideal was also not left as an abstract principle to work its 
way. Society was far too rudimental, then as ever, for the 
efficient survival of unsupported principles. A compact 
hierarchical system seems to have existed, the sacramental 
object being the fire, before which a priesthood officiated 
with unwavering zeal ; but the traces of this are very re- 
stricted in the Gathas, and, according to all probability, it 
was greatly less elaborated at their period than later. 

Such, in very brief outline, is the system which meets us 
as Zarathartrianism in that period of Mazda-worship when 
Zarathujtra lived and composed the Gathic hymns. 

As to the further question, ' Who was Zarathujtra, and 
when and where did he live ? ' diversity of opinion still pre- 

1 The practical operation of this prime principle seems to have been at times 
beneficial to a remarkable, if not unparalleled, extent. Under the Sasanids 
the lower classes enjoyed great protection. See the remarks of Professor Raw- 
linson, The Seventh Oriental Monarchy, page 440 ff. Also recall the extra- 
ordinary treatment of the poor during the drought and famine under Perozes. 
The account is, however, exaggerated. SeeTabari II, p. 130, cited by Professor 
Rawlinson, p. 314. 

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vails, so much so that as regards it I differ slightly even 
from my eminent friend and predecessor. As such differ- 
ences on the subject of the Avesta are however matters of 
course, I freely state my impressions. Who was then the 
person, if any person, corresponding to the name Zarathartra 
in the Gathas ? Did he exist, and was he really the author 
of these ancient hymns ? That he existed as an historical - 
person I have already affirmed ; and as to the hymns as- 
cribed to him and his immediate associates, I have also no 
hesitation. Parts of these productions may have been 
interpolated, but the Gathas, as a whole, show great unity, 
and the interpolations are made in the spirit of the original. 
And that Zarathartra was the name of the individual in 
which this unity centres, we have no sufficient reason to dis- 
pute. The name is mentioned in the most sacred connec- 
tions, as well as in those which depict the reality of the 
prophet's sufferings ; and there is no reason at all why it 
should have come down endeared to humanity, unless it be- 
longed to one, who, in the presence of a Sovereign and a 
kingdom, could impress his personality with greatly more 
defined distinctness upon his contemporaries than either 
that Sovereign or any of his adherents 1 . That any forgery 
is present in the Gathas, any desire to palm off doctrines 
upon the sacred community in the name of the great pro- 
phet, as in the Vendidad and later Yasna, is quite out of 
the question. The Gathas are genuine in their mass, as I 
believe no scholar anywhere now questions. 

For the characteristics of this great teacher, I refer to the 
hymns themselves, which stand alone, of their kind, iri litera- 
ture. Nowhere, at their period, had there been a human 
voice, so far as we have any evidence, which uttered thoughts 
like these. They are now, some of them, the great com- 
monplaces of philosophical religion ; but till then they were 
unheard (agorta). 

And yet we must say of Zarathartra, as of all our first 
announcers, that while he antedates all whose records have 
come down to us, he was probably only the last visible link 

Sec especially the remarks preceding Y. I.. 

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in a far extended chain. His system, like those of his pre- 
decessors and successors, was a growth. His main concep- 
tions had been surmised, although not spoken before. His 
world was ripe for them, and when he appeared, he had 
only to utter and develop them. I would not call him a 
reformer ; he does not repudiate his predecessors. The old 
< ''"Aryan Gods retire before the spiritual Ahura ; but I do 
not think that he especially intended to discredit them. 
One of the inferior ones is mentioned for a moment, but the 
great Benevolence, Order, and Power, together with their 
results in the human subject, Ahura's Piety incarnate in 
men, and their Weal and Immortality as a consequence, 
crowd out all other thoughts. His mental insight is as 
evident from his system as his deep moral inspiration. As 
to his secondary characteristics, his manner of thought and 
expression, we find them peculiar to the last degree. He 
has given us writings in which every syllable seems loaded 
with thought, sometimes much repeated, and to us of the 
present day, very familiar ; but then, when he wrote, one 
would suppose that he intended to ' utter his dark speech.' 
Succinctness is carried to an unexampled extreme 1 , while 
the wonderful idea that God's attributes are His messengers 
sent out into the human soul to ennoble and redeem, makes 
him at times so subtle that the latest scholars cannot tell 
whether he means Asha and Vohu Manah personified as 
Archangels, or as the thoughts and beneficent intentions of 
the Deity reproduced in men. I can recall no passage 
whatsoever in which Vohu Manah, Asha, Khshathra, &c, 
are not strongly felt to mean exactly what they signify as 
words, while at the same time they are prayed to, and be- 
sought to come, as Gods or angels. Either the personifica- 
tion is purely poetical, which would make it, as found in the 
Gathas, considering their age and place, a very remarkable 
phenomenon, or else, having dogmatically personified the 
divine attributes, Zarathostra never forgets to express a 
respect which is higher than ' a respect for persons,' that is, 

1 I regard it as most unfortunate that Zendists should search for easy and 
natural expression in the Gathas, and the expression of commonplace detail. 
It is only in passionate utterance that their style becomes simple. 

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a respect for the principles which they represent. In 
making every laudatory statement, however, I take for 
granted, what I fear is nevertheless far from uniformly 
granted, and that is, that the reader will weigh well what 
makes all the difference, namely, the very remote period at 
which we are obliged to place the Gathas, and the compara- 
tively rude civilisation amid which we must suppose them 
to have been composed. We must set the ideas which lie 
before us in this framework of time and place. If we fail 
to do so, as a matter of course the thoughts and their ex- 
pression will contain for us nothing whatever new ; but as 
viewed in the light of relation,after long weighing the matter, 
I cannot refer to them in any other terms than those which I 
use, without becoming aware that I am recoiling through fear 
of exaggeration from stating what I believe to be the truth. 

As to the personal sentiment of Zarathujtra, we can only 
say that it was devoted. His word zarazdaiti gives the 
keynote to his purposes. We are certain that he was a man of 
courage ; but that he was not scrupulous at shedding blood 
is also evident. He was not reticent under misfortune, while 
yet endowed'with rare persistence to overcome it. 

His sphere was not restricted. The objects which con- 
cern him are provinces as well as villages, armies as well as 
individuals. His circle was the reigning prince and promi- 
nent chieftains, a few gifted men deeply embued with 
religious veneration for the sacred compositions which had 
come down to them from primeval antiquity in ancient 
metres ; and these, together with a priesthood exceptionally 
pure, leading on a sobered population, were also his public. 
But three orders appear in it, the king, the people, and the 
peers. That the times were disturbed is involved in what 
has already been said. One feature alone needs mention, 
. it is that the agitations involved the tenure of the throne. 
Virtaspa had no easy seat, and the prospect of revolution 
in the sense of supersedure was continually before him. As 
to the family life of Zarathujtra, we can only say that he 
commanded respect ; nothing whatever is further known. 

It will be seen from the above sketch that I make the 
widest distinction between the Gathic period and that of the 

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XXvi ' - . THE GATHAS. 

later Avesta. I do so, not influenced very greatly by the 
fact that the Gathas are cited in the later Avesta. Most 
of these citations are indeed genuine and valid as proofs of 
priority, while others are mere displacements of the Gathas 
made for liturgical purposes, as Genesis is read in churches 
sometimes after portions of later matter. But a book may 
be cited by another when it is merely prior to it, and not 
much older. Nor do I lay too much stress upon the differ- 
ence between the Gathic dialect and the so-called Zend ; 
but I do lay very great stress upon the totally dissimilar 
atmospheres of the two portions. In the Gathas all is sober 
and real. The Kine's soul is indeed poetically described as 
wailing aloud, and the Deity with His Immortals is re- 
ported as speaking, hearing, and seeing; but with these 
rhetorical exceptions, everything which occupies the atten- 
tion is practical in the extreme. GrAma and B<?«dva, the 
Karpans, the Kavis, and the Usi^s(-ks), are no mythical mon- 
sters. No dragon threatens the settlements, and no fabulous 
beings defend them. Zarathurtra, Gamaspa, Frashao-stra, 
and Maidhydmah ; the Spitamas, Hv6gvas, the Ha.£ka.t- 
aspas, are as real, and are alluded to with a- simplicity as 
unconscious, as any characters in history. Except inspira- 
tion, there are also no miracles. All the action is made up 
of the exertions and passions of living and suffering men. 
Let the Zendist study the Gathas well, and then let him 
turn to the Yarts or the Vendidad ; he will go from the 
land of reality to the land of fable. He leaves in the one a 
toiling prophet, to meet in the other a phantastic demi-god. 
However ancient the fundamental ideas in the myths of the 
Yarts and Vendidad may be (and some of them were certainly 
older than the Gathas or the oldest Rtks) in the forms in 
which they now stand, they are greatly later. 

As we enter into further and necessary detail, this seems 
to be the place for a word as to the relative ages of the 
several sections which make up these hymns. We see 
struggle and suffering, fear and anger in some of them, and 
we naturally group these together as having been composed 
at a particular stage in Zarathurtra's career. We read 
expressions of happy confidence, and we refer them to a 

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period of repose, as we do those sections >rti » ic med itation, 
speculation, or dogmatic statement, are prominent ; but 
nothing is certain except that Y. LIII must have been 
written after Zarathurtra had attained to a sufficient age to 
have a marriageable daughter. An ancient leader may 
have reached a position of influence from doctrinal produc- 
tions, and afterwards expressed the vicissitudes of an active 
political career. One circumstance must, however, be held 
in view ; and that is, that neither the Gathas, nor any other 
ancient pieces, which were hardly at first committed to 
writing, have been preserved in the form in which they were 
delivered for the first time. The poet himself would file 
them into better (?) order at each subsequent delivery, and 
verses which referred originally to one period of time would, 
if especially striking, be reproduced in subsequent effusions. 
And pieces which the composer may have left in one shape, 
his early successors would be likely to modify by interpola- 
tions, excerptions, or inversions. I believe that the Gathas 
show the presence of less foreign matter than is usual, and 
that the interpolations which are present in them, are them- 
selves of great antiquity, or even practically synchronous 
with the original. Certainly few of them show anything 
like an ingenious attempt at imitation. If there exist any 
interpolations, and we may say a priori that all existing 
compositions of their antiquity are, and must have been, 
interpolated, the additions were the work of the author's 
earliest disciples who composed fully in his spirit, while the 
position of sections in this or that Gatha has little or no- 
thing to do with the question of their relative age, the metres 
being all ancient, and the Ujtavaiti, Spewta-mainyu, &c, 
showing as decided evidence of originality as any parts of the 
Ahunavaiti. (See remarks on the Gatha Ujtavaiti, p. 91 ff.) 
As we proceed from the question of the relative age 
of the particular sections as compared with each other 
to that of their age considered as a whole, we are first 
met by the question as to place. Were the Gathas first 
sung in the East or the West of Iran ? I would here say 
that I regard this point as especially open, as I am even 
inclined to differ in one particular from my eminent friend 

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Professor Darmesteter, but let it be understood, only or 
chiefly, as to the place of origin of the Gathas. I think that 
the scene of the Gathic and original Zarathurtrianism was 
the North-east of Iran, and that the later Avesta was com- 
posed during the hundreds of years during which the Zara- 
thiutrian tribes were migrating westward in Media. 

One certain fact is the occurrence of geographical names 
in Vendidad I, which are obviously intended to describe 
the earliest homes of the Iranian races whose lore was the 
Avesta. The present forms of those names, as they appear 
in the Avesta, are indeed not the most ancient, but they 
occur in passages which plainly repeat very ancient myths. 
These names describe a region from the middle of the 
North of Iran to the East of it, including ancient Bactria, 
but extending as far West as Ragha ; and, as the Gathas are 
unanimously acknowledged to be the oldest portion of the 
Avesta, dealing as they do with Zarathiutra as an historical 
person, we naturally look for the scene of his life in the 
oldest seats. The Zarathurtrian Ragha, much further 
West than the other places mentioned, seems to have a 
special claim to be regarded as his birthplace, as it possesses 
so firm a hold upon his name, but the epithet Zarathurtrian, 
together with the special eminence of the governor of Ragha 
as needing no ' Zarathurtra' over him, that is, no imperial 
chief (see Y. XIX, 19), may both be attributed to successors 
of Zarathartra. From some reason, probably the migration 
of Zarathurtrian influence toward the West, Ragha became 
a stronghold of his descendants ; or his name, entirely apart 
from all family connection, may have become a title for 
leading politico-ecclesiastical officials (compare the Zara- 
thurtrdtema). There is no mention of a foreign origin of 
Zarathurtra in the Gathas, nor is there any expression from 
which wc might infer it. His family seems as settled as 
himself. The Spitamas are mentioned with the same 
familiarity as the Hvdgvas, and the persons named are, 
some of them, related to him. He was no isolated figure 
among the people whom he influenced. Unless then we 
can place Virtaspa and Gamaspa, Frashaortra, and Maid- 
hydmah, in Ragha, we cannot well place Zarathurtra there, 

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for he is to be placed beside them. Tradition of a late and 
dubious character places Vtrtaspa in Bactria; but it is 
better to leave the exact region undecided, as certainty can 
never be reached. 

The other circumstances which are imperative with many 
for a decision for the East as the region where Zarathurtra 
laboured, have been stated with perhaps the greatest power 
and beauty by Darmesteter 1 , who still inclines to the West. 
These are the strong analogies existing between the Zend 
language and the Vedic Sanskrit on the one side, and 
between the gods, heroes, and myths of the Avesta, and 
those of Veda, on the other. 

As bearing, however, in favour of a western origin of the 
Gathic, as well as of the later Avesta, we must confess that 
the West Iranian of the Cuneiform Inscriptions possesses 
the same analogies with the Vedic which the language of the 
Avesta possesses with it ; and no reader should need to be 
reminded that the West Iranian as well as the East Iranian 
was in no sense derived from the Vedic. The old Aryan from 
which all descended was once spread without distinction over 
both West and East, while, on the other hand, the mythological 
features of the Avesta, kindred as they are to those of the 
Eastern Veda, are yet reproduced for us, some of them, in 
the poetry of the mediaeval West as drawn from the Avesta ; 
and the name of Mazda, unknown (?) to the Riks *, appears 
cut in the rocks of Persepolis and Behistun, while all the 
sacred books of the Zarathurtrians, including the Gathas as 
well as the later Avesta, together with their interpretations, 
have come down to us from the West, where the Greeks 
also found their system from the time of Herodotus down. 

Added to which we must acknowledge that the differ- 
ences in dialect between the Avesta and Veda make a wide 
separation as to place far from startling, while myths as well 
as religions migrate as by a law. 

We must therefore consider well before we venture to 
differ from those who decide for the West as the scene of 
Zarathurtra's life. 

1 See the Introduction to the first two volumes, and also Ormuzd and Ahriman. 
1 But cp. &r. VIII, jo, 17, div6 — asurasya vedhasaA (medbasai (?) >. 

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But as we mention the Inscriptions, we must make a very 
careful distinction. Is their theology that of Zarathujtra ? 
If it is, this would certainly constitute a point in conjunction 
with the descriptions of the Greeks, in favour of a still more 
extensive prevalence of Zarathujtrianism in the West at the 
dates which the Inscriptions cover. 

As to this disputed point, I would answer that their 
theology may be the Zarathurtrian in a sense as yet too 
little applied to the term, for it may be Gathic Zarathuj- 
trianism, or at least a Mazda-worship at a stage of develop- 
ment corresponding to the stage of Mazda-worship in which 
it stood when Zarathurtra left it ; but that it was the later 
and fully developed Zarathartrianism, provided with all the 
regulations of the Vendidad, seems out of the question. 

In the first place there is no certain mention of Angra 
Mainyu, or of the Amesha Spewta, in the Inscriptions ; and 
this silence must be accounted for 1 in any case 2 . 

The ready and just suggestion is made that the documents 
are exceedingly limited ; that many deities would not be 
named on so narrow a space, while the statements of 
Herodotus and his successors make it probable that the 
entire system of Zarathmtra was known in the near 
neighbourhood, and must have been very familiar to the 
persons who ordered the Inscriptions to be cut. To this 
the necessary rejoinder might be made, that the familiarity 
of Darius with the later, or indeed with the original, Zara- 
thartrianism, if he was familiar with it, renders the absence 
of the name of Angra Mainyu at least all the more striking. 

What more imperative call could there be for the use of 
that name than in denouncing the opponents whose over- 
throw forms the theme of the mighty writings ? 

As the ' grace of Auramazda ' is mentioned on the one 

1 Some relief is given by a mention of the Draogha, but the bagihya are 
probably Mithra and AnShita (see the Inscription of Artaxerxes Mnemon, 4) 
rather than the Amesha Spe«ta. As we notice the name of Mithra, however, 
we must remark that, as the Mithra worship undoubtedly existed previously to 
the Gathic period, and fell into neglect at the Gathic period, it might be said 
that the greatly later Inscriptions represent Mazda-worship as it existed among 
the ancestors of the Zarathurtrians in a pre-Gathic age or even Vedic age. 

* Angra Mainyu and the Amesha are also prominent in the Gathas. 

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side, one naturally expects to see some reference to the 
' opposition ' of His chief adversary on the other, and one 
also expects to trace some certain recognition of the 
Bountiful Immortals. I think that both were omitted 
because their names retained less weight, as we cannot 
suppose that they were unknown, or, if once known, then 
forgotten. But allowing that it is not quite fair to reason 
from such scanty texts, we are met by the positive fact that 
an important Inscription is written on a tomb * ; and, as the 
burial of the dead was one of the most flagrant violations of 
the Zarathu-rtrian ceremonial law, it is not conceivable that 
Darius could have been a Zarathartrian according to the 
later Faith. He was either a heretical schismatic departing 
from a sacred precept, or he was following the creed of his 
fathers, a Mazda-worshipper, but not ' of Zarathujtra's 
order,' or, if a Zarathurtrian, then a partial inheritor of 
Zarathujtra's religion at an undeveloped stage, while burial 
was not as yet forbidden by it ; and at the same time he 
neglected also prominent doctrines of the Gathas. 

It is not possible that he could have been an isolated 
schismatic as to such a particular. If he composed the 
Inscriptions as a monarch of another religion than that of 
the later Avesta, it would seem to prove either that he was 
an adherent to a cruder, or half effaced, form of Gathic 
Zarathurtrianism, which had found its way during the 
long periods of its existence westward before the later 
Zarathurtrianism arose in the western settlements, or else 
that it, the religion of the Inscriptions, simply originated 
where we find it, from an original and wide-spread Mazda- 
worship which had not yet forbidden the burial of the dead a . 

* And all are the Inscriptions of buried men. See also the statements of 
Professor de Harlez on the subject. 

' And perhaps it had also not forbidden cremation. Geiger (see ' The Civili- 
sation of the Eastern Iranians in Ancient Times ; ' English translation by Darab 
Dastur Peshotan Sa%ana, B. A., p. 90) conjectures that the dakhma were 
originally places for cremation. If this is a correct surmise, both burial and 
cremation may have been permitted at the Gathic period, being forbidden long 
after. At least the original Mazda-worship did not recoil from cremation, 
otherwise the story of the attempt to burn the Lydian Croesus could not have 
arisen. The earlier Persians had no abhorrence of either burial or burning. 
Only the developed Zarathartrian Magism of the Medes obeyed the Vendtdad. 

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That such a Mazda-worship once existed in primeval Iran 
seems certain, and that it was greatly earlier than Zara- 
thurtrianism 1 . It is also very probable that some form of 
it survived unadulterated by Zarathurtrianism. And this is 
as probable a priori when we reflect on what might have 
happened, as it is when we seek for an explanation of the 
burial of a Mazda-worshipper in a tomb. 

As the Asura (Ahura) worship extended into India with 
the Indians as they migrated from Iran, a form of Asura 
worship arose in Iran which added the name of Mazda to 
the original term for God. In the East it began to acquire 
additional peculiarities out of which, when Zarathurtra arose, 
he developed his original system, while in other parts of 
Iran, and with great probability in Persia, it retained its 
original simplicity. At subsequent periods only, the Zara- 
thortrian form spread, first at the Gathic stage, and later a 
second time, and from a centre further West, as the Zarathur- 
trianism of the later Avesta which is reported by the 
Greeks. Either then Darius was a Mazda-worshipper, like 
his fathers, following an original and independent type of 
Mazda-worship, or he was following a mutilated Gathic 
Zarathurtrianism, which may not yet have forbidden burial 2 , 
he and his chieftains adhering to this ancient form, while 
the masses yielded to the novelties, as the patrician Jews 
held to Sadduceeism after the masses had become Pharisees, 
and as the patrician Romans clung to Paganism after Rome 
had become Catholic. In either case it seems to me that 
the Mazda-worship of the Inscriptions might be severed 
from the later Zarathurtrianism ; and that it must be so 
severed on some theory or other, all with one voice seem 
to agree. 

In deciding for the North-east 3 as the scene of Zara- 
thurtra's personal labours, and for the Gathic dialect as 
its more particular form of speech, I am not, I trust, solely 

1 Compare even the Scythic name Thamimasadas, cited by Professor Rawlinson 
(Herod. 3rd edit, iii, p. 195). Were branches of the Scythg themselves in a 
sense Mazda-worshippers, or could the name have been borrowed? 

* And which insisted less upon the personality of Satan. 

' The name Bactrian cannot be considered as more than a convenient 

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or unduly influenced by the occurrence of the eastern names 
in the first chapter of the Vendidad, for those names may 
indicate primeval homes from which the ancestors of Zara- 
thurtra migrated toward the west centuries before his 
appearance. I merely say that the occurrence of the 
names shows that the ancestors of the Zarathujtrian 
Mazda-worshippers once lived in East Iran ; and if that is 
the case, their descendants may have still lived there when 
Zarathurtra developed his system, and it is also possible 
that masses of Zarathurtrians may long have remained 
behind in the East Iranian mountains after the Zarathuj- 
trians of the later Avesta had gone west. The descendant 
may have arisen in the home of his ancestors, and in fact, 
other things being equal, there is a stronger probability 
that he arose there. I do not think that the appearance of 
a later Zarathurtrianism in the west, is a sufficient reason 
for doubting that the founder of the system laboured nearer 
the land of the Vedas, where a VJjtaspa once ruled (?), 
where a Daeva-worship long lingered, and where the 
common names of the Irano-indian gods were heard as 
household words, and which, we may add, was precisely 
the place where we should suppose the Indo-aryans to 
have left the Irano-aryans, as they descended into the 

Having formed an opinion as to the place where Zara- 
thurtra laboured, and proceeding to the question as to 
when he lived and wrote the Gathas, we find ourselves 
under the necessity to form our estimate first as to the age 
of the later parts of the Avesta. While interpolated 
passages, or indeed whole Yarts, may be very late, I 
cannot place the later Avesta in its bulk later than the 
Cuneiform Inscriptions of Darius, for the fact that the In- 
scriptions preserve either a pre-Zarathurtrian Mazdaism, or 
the Zarathujtrianism of the Gathas long previous as it was 
in its origin to that of the Vendtdad, has nothing whatever 
to do with the relative age of the Inscriptions themselves. 
The later Avesta, with its forbiddal of burial and crema- 
tion, must have existed for a long time side by side with 
that religion which has left sepulchral monuments, and 
[31] c 

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whose adherents could contemplate the burning of cap- 
tives ; and analogous facts are universal. 

But aside from the seeming difference in the type of 
Mazda-worship, which simply severs the religion of the 
Inscriptions from that of the more developed Zarathor- 
trianism, and which has, as we have seen, nothing whatever 
to do with the question of the relative ages of the Inscrip- 
tions and the later Avesta, I think that we have some signs 
of a later age in the language of the Inscriptions apart 
from their contents. As, however, Darmesteter is inclined 
to regard the West Iranian, or Cuneiform, as better pre- 
served than the Zend of the later Avesta, I make my few 
remarks only with great hesitation. 

The termination jOO*^-, which would otherwise be justly 
considered as an evidence of degeneration in the Zend, I 
regard as merely a wrong writing for -ahya=Gathic ahya. 
The letter )0 is a relic of the time when the Avesta stood 
in the Pahlavi character ; I think that it is here merely a 
lengthened »0=ya 1 . Terminations also seem much muti- 
lated in the Cuneiform, and the name Auramazda written 
as one word, does not seem to me so original. 

We must indeed remember that a later generation, owing 
to an isolated position, often preserves an older dialect, as 
it may an older form of religion, whereas an earlier genera- 
tion, if its predecessors have lived in a compact society in 
smaller districts, varies the ancient forms, as the old 
Indian developed into Sanskrit and Prakrit. Still we have 
little reason to be certain that the civilisation of Media and 

1 Also *K>* is simply ayam, and should be so transliterated; so also in a 
throng of other words. Salemann has noticed the origin of •© = g, but gives no 
other indication in the present sense. I think that KJ and also (JJ, where they 
equal Aryan ya, should be corrected everywhere, like all other instances of 
miswriting. Unless indeed we can regard the <0, for which KJ (O were often clearly 
miswritten, as itself of double significance, as in Pahlavi. K) might then regularly 
and properly equal both e and ya ; so {» may equal long e" or yS. (aya). Other 
instances of miswriting in Zend would be dat. dual -bya. The Aryan -am was 
first written as the nasal vowel -S, and still further carelessly reduced to -a, but 
never so spoken. On the contrary, in the ace. fern. &c, the nasalisation was 
over-written, too much expressed. The final nasal caused the scribes to write 
the preceding letter as if nasalised, 'S,' but it was never nasalised in speech. 

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Persia was either more or less condensed and social than 
that of Bactria and the East. But beside a priority to the 
Inscriptions, we are obliged to consider the time needed 
for developments. The Greeks of the time of Herodotus 
probably, and those later certainly, found a form of Zara- 
thu.rtrianism in full development in Media ; but if the con- 
temporaries of Herodotus heard familiarly of a Zarathuf- 
trianism there, a long period of time must be allowed for 
its development if it originated in Media, and a still longer 
period if it found its way there from the East. If, then, the 
bulk of the later Avesta existed at the time of Herodotus 
and at that of Darius, how long previously must it have 
been composed ; for such systems do not bloom in a day? 

We have the evidence of historical tradition that the 
Magi 1 were influential even at the time of Cyrus, not 
dwelling upon the possibility of their existence at the 
earliest mention of Medes as the conquerors and rulers of 

Can we then, considering the recognised stagnation of 
ancient Eastern intelligence, ascribe to the development of 
the Median Zarathortrianism a shorter period than from 
one to three centuries? If, then, the bulk of the later 
Avesta must be placed so long before the Inscriptions of 
Darius, where shall we place the earlier Avesta with its 
most important remaining fragments, the Gathas 2 ? 

After studying the Gathas carefully in detail, and be- 
coming also familiar with them as a whole by frequent 
perusal, we must measure the time needed for the change 
from their tone to that of the later Avesta. Could it have 
been less than a century, or centuries ? . Was not as much 
time needed for the Zarathurtra of the Gathas to become 
the Zarathurtra of the later Avesta, as was afterwards con- 
sumed by the migration of the creed from the North-east, 
if it really originated there? As there is undoubtedly a 

1 I regard the Magi as representing the Zarathurtrianism of the Vendtd&d. 
This the false Bardiya endeavoured to introduce, demolishing the temples which 
the old Mazda- worship permitted in Persia. See the Cuneiform Inscription of 
Behistun II ; Darius 61. 

' All in the Gathic dialect is old. 

C 2 

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difference of several centuries between the dates of the 
newest and oldest parts of the later Avesta, so we must 
think of a considerable interval between the oldest parts of 
the later Avesta and the latest parts of the older Avesta, 
for there is the other consideration which imperatively con- 
strains us to avoid concluding for short periods in the 
stages of development. The Vedic Hymns, sung in metres 
closely similar to those in both the Gathas and the later 
Avesta, and naming gods, demons, and heroes so closely 
related, not to speak of myths, challenge us to say whether 
they are, the oldest of them, older or later than the oldest 
parts of the Avesta, and, if there exists any difference as to 
the ages of these ancient productions, how great that 
difference is. The oldest Riks have now an established 
antiquity of about 4000 ; were . the hymns sung on the 
other side of the mountains as old ? The metres of these 
latter are as old as those of the Rig-veda, if not older, and 
their grammatical forms and word structure are often posi- 
tively nearer the original Aryan from which both proceeded. 
If it were not for two circumstances, we should be forced to 
ask very seriously which were the older, and to abandon 
altogether our mention of later dates. Those circum- 
stances are the absence of the Aryan gods from the Gathas ; 
and, secondly, their abstract conceptions. These latter are 
so little offset with expected puerilities that it is often hard 
to believe that the Gathas are old at all. Their antiquity 
is placed beyond dispute by the historic mention of Zara- 
thurtra. But, if Zarathurtra were not indisputably a living 
man in the Gathas, their depth and refinement, together 
with the absence of Mithra, Haoma, &c, would, in them- 
selves considered, force us to place them rather late. As it 
is, the absence of Mithra and his colleagues, who reappear in 
the later Avesta, permits us to place the Gathas con- 
siderably later than the oldest Riks. For no sudden and 
intentional dismissal of the ancient gods is to be accepted 
with Haug, nor any religious schism as the cause (!) of the 
migration of the Indians toward the south. The process 
was of course the reverse. 

The migrating tribes, in consequence of their separation 

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from their brethren in Iran, soon became estranged from 
them, and their most favoured Gods fell slowly into neglect, 
if not disfavour. 

We need time to account for this change, and no short 
interval of time. We can therefore place the Gathas long 
after the oldest Riks. While, therefore, in view of the 
established age of the .fog-veda, the Gathas may possibly 
have been composed as early as about 1500 B.C., it is also 
possible to place them as late as (say) 900-1200 B.C., while 
the fragments in the Gathic dialect must be considered 
somewhat later. The dates of the composition of the several 
parts of the later Avesta, on the other hand, must be sup- 
posed to extend over many centuries, as the various sections 
in the Zend dialect are so much more numerous than those 
in the Gathic, the Gathas themselves representing practi- 
cally but one date. Placing then the oldest portions of the 
later Avesta somewhat earlier than Darius, we are obliged to 
extend the period during which its several parts were com- 
posed so far as perhaps to the third or fourth century 
before Christ, the half-spurious matter contained in them 
being regarded as indefinitely later. 

It seems necessary to state here for the information of 
non-specialists, and as bearing very seriously upon all the 
questions involved, that a very unusually severe controversy 
prevails upon the exegesis of the Avesta, and that it 
centres in the question as to the value of the Asiatic trans- 
lations of it. A similar debate was once held on the Rig- 
veda, but that is now silenced, all agreeing that the 
traditional renderings are neither to be slavishly followed, 
nor blindly ignored. Very different has been the fate of 
Zend philology, and in one important particular the studies 
are poles apart ; for whereas the commentaries on the Riks 
are written in Sanskrit, which is clear to experts, those on 
the Zend-Avesta are written in a language upon which the 
lexicography is most incomplete, and the elucidation of 
these explanations themselves remains by far the most 

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xxxviii the gAthas. 

difficult task now before us. Professor von Spiegel has 
accomplished much toward breaking the rough road of 
science in this direction, and scholars of the first order 
have followed his leading, while all with one accord express 
to him their acknowledgments. But Professor von Spiegel 
has not intended his editions and citations to represent full 
translations. He has, as a matter of course, taken it for 
granted that those who oppose him, as well as those who 
follow him, have studied his Pahlavi editions, not paying 
him the undesired compliment of making his commentaries 
the sole source of their knowledge of tradition. Moreover 
in no branch of science does scholarship make more rapid 
strides than in Pahlavi, several important works having 
appeared since Spiegel's commentaries. 

In the attempt to master the Pahlavi translations of the 
Avesta we must consider many and difficult problems. 

In the first place, and as a matter of course, they cannot 
be at all reasonably attempted without a full knowledge of 
the Gathic and Avesta texts so far as they have been as 
yet otherwise and approximately elucidated. The two 
problems hang together like the arches of a circular 
building, and they should be studied together word for 
word ; for the Pahlavi used is not fully that of the books. 
It is often turned quite out of its course, as Pahlavi, by an 
effort to follow the more highly inflected Zend literally. 
Then, again, a question of the utmost importance meets us 
in estimating the glosses, which are often, but not always, 
from a later hand. A translation of the Pahlavi must of 
course first be considered as in the light of the glosses, for 
the language is so indefinite as to many of its grammatical 
forms, that such an indication as a gloss, if it be proved to 
have been written by the same person who composed the 
text, would be decisive in determining the rendering ; but 
a final translation should be made more strictly in the 
light of the Gathic, so far as it affords on its side positive 
indications, and the glosses, where they do not correspond, 
should be set apart as from a later hand. Then, once 
more, and on the contrary, where the gloss is obviously 
right, and the text erroneous, the former should be appro- 

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priated unencumbered by the latter '. We must recognise 
the traces of former accurate scholarship whether we see 
them in text or gloss, and, from the accumulation of the 
correct surmises, we should construct an argument for the 
probability of the correctness of the hints of the Pahlavi in 
cases of great difficulty. In rendering the Pahlavi as a 
necessary prelude to rendering the Avesta, all possible help 
should of course be sought from the Asiatic translations of 
the Pahlavi, from those of Neryosangh in Sanskrit, and from 
the still later ones in Parsi and Persian. Here, again, those 
who read the Pahlavi only as rendered by Neryosangh need 
great caution. If Neryosangh is simply read like the 
classical Sanskrit, great errors will be committed. He 
needs a glossary of his own, and should be read solely in 
the light of the Pahlavi which was chiefly his original. So 
of the Parsi Persian translations, they must be read with 
especial attention to their originals. After these original 
translations have been fully mastered, and compared with 
an improved rendering of the Gathic, likewise also studied 
in the full light of the Veda, the patient scholar will be sur- 
prised at the result. He will find that to a certain exten- 
sive degree, the two sources of information coincide when 
reasonably estimated, and, moreover, that where the Pah- 
lavi gives us an indication differing from that derived from 
the Vedic, the surmise of the Pahlavi is the more often 
correct. I say ' reasonably estimated,' for not only is the 
Pahlavi, as a less highly inflected language, incapable of 
rendering the Avesta literally, but its authors do not uni- 
formly make the attempt to do so; nor do they always 
follow the order of the Gathic or Zend. Their translations 
generally run word for word as to their outward forms, for 
the ancient interpreters probably regarded such a following 
as essential to a complete rendering, but they found them- 

1 I would here state to the distinguished scholars who have done me the 
honour to study my work on the Gathas, that the Pahlavi translations contained 
in it are those made in the light of the glosses. Here and there final ones will 
be added in a later volume, as from the Pahlavi texts sometimes considered 
apart from the Pahlavi glosses, and in consequence often much nearer the Gathic 
than those from both text and gloss. 

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selves compelled to resort to the most important excep- 
tions. And, lastly, the rejection, or total neglect of the 
Pahlavi translations and their successors, on the ground 
that they contain errors, is a policy which seems to me 
defective, and to the last degree. What absurdities can 
Sayawa be capable of, and yet who would utter final 
opinions upon the Z?;g-veda without either the ability, or 
the attempt, to read Siyawa 1 ? 

It is hardly necessary to mention that the restoration of 
texts goes hand in hand with translation. For how are we 
to interpret a passage before we know that it exists ? And 
of what inestimable worth are the Pahlavi translations as 
evidence to texts! Who does not see that where the 
ancient scribe is most free or erroneous as to form, or root, 
his rendering often shows plainly which of two words stood 
before him in his manuscripts. Our oldest MS. (that of 
Copenhagen, numbered 5) dates from the year 1323 A.D. ; 
and what were the dates of the ancient documents before 
the eyes of the Pahlavi translator who writes in it ? 

We must now ask whether our present Pahlavi transla- 
tions are improvements upon their predecessors, or the 
reverse. That they are improvements in some few in- 
stances is undeniable, for, as we have seen, some of the 
glosses to them from later hands give the truth where the 
text is wide. But the glosses which show a later origin are, 
for the most part, inferior in richness to the texts. Here 
and there a talented, or fortunate, Parsi threw new light on 
the subject, but the general tendency was one of deteriora- 
tion ; that is, before the revival of Parsi-learning under 
Neryosangh (400-500 years ago). This deterioration would 
naturally decrease as we approach successive periods in 
going back to the time when MSS. of the Gathas existed 
according to positive evidence, that is, to the time when, 
according to the An/a Viraf, Alexander's servants found 
skins at Persepolis on which the Avesta had been traced in 

1 Well has Geldner mentioned the 'epoch-making' fhudes Iraniennes of 
Darmesteter (KZ. vol. xxviii, p. 186). It is to be hoped that these brilliant 
pieces will stimulate the study of the relation between the Zend and the New 
Persian through the Ancient Persian and the Pahlavi. 

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gilded letters (for it is not positively proved that the in- 
formants of Herodotus heard the Magian priests singing 
their ' theogonies ' from written books). At each of these 
periods scholarship is proved to have been competent by 
the results which it accomplished. The first of them we 
must place in the sixth century when, on Spiegel's estimate l , 
the Zend characters were modified into their present lucid 
form from the Pahlavi, and distinct short vowels took the 
place of the unknown signs which existed previously. Then 
all MSS. which were to be found must have been collected 
and copied, and, so to speak, re-edited ; and here we must 
accordingly place a period when the Pahlavi translations 
were more valuable than those of any later date. As we go 
further back we come upon another period, when, under 
Shapur II, Adarbad Mahraspend brought the surviving 
portions of the Zend-Avesta together (about A.D. 330). 
Still earlier the servants of Artaxerxes, the Sasanian, col- 
lected yet more abundant writings, when Zarathurtrianism 
was instituted as the state religion. Then, under the Arsa- 
cids (possibly under Vologeses the first), those most 
competent in the realm were directed to gather the then 
extant documents. 

While, if we hold that the entire Avesta was written 
originally in some character different from the Pahlavi, we 
must finally infer the existence of an early epoch, when the 
entire Avesta was brought over in its bulk from the earlier 
East (or West?) Iranian character in which it was first 
inscribed. If this character differed radically from the 
Pahlavi, this transliteration must be regarded as one of the 
most remarkable of literary events. Notwithstanding all 
the now rapidly corrected errors, the texts have been 
handed down with the minutest distinctions of dialect 
preserved 2 , and this proves the existence of competent 
interpreters at a period practically contemporaneous with 
the composition of the later portions of the later Avesta. 
What commentaries must then have existed, not free from 

1 Eranisches Alterthumskunde III, s. 767. 
* See Hiibschmann, KZ. bd. 24, s. 326. 

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xlii ••» % # , he gAthas. 

error, as we see from the Zand of the Avesta, but, as to 
language and general sense, how close ! Even if the degree 
of linguistic knowledge increases only gradually or steadily in 
going back, without any epochs from the time of Neryosangh 
to the inferable date of the latest Zend writings, and if the 
character in which the Avesta was first recorded (after a 
lengthy life as an orally extended lore) differed only as to 
mode and fashion, and not radically, from the Pahlavi (which, 
so far as the later Avesta is concerned, is most probable), 
we have yet the transliteration of the Gathas to account for, 
which perhaps were brought over (after long oral life) from 
the so-called Aryan character, while the existence of a gradual 
tradition of a scholarship does not refute the fact that this 
scholarship must have been at times of the highest cha- 
racter ; it makes high scholarship more probable. 

What translations, we again remark, may have ex- 
isted among these early sages ! And, if they could once 
make translations fresh from the exegesis of the latest Zend 
writers themselves, is it not practically certain, considering 
the tenacity of life manifested by Zoroastrianism, that their 
explanations still lurk in the commentaries which have 
come down to us. And if these inferences be at all correct, 
how should we labour to discover from our present transla- 
tions what these predecessors were ; and what scholar 
cannot perceive that gems of evidence as to texts and sense 
may yet linger in those of our present Pahlavi translations 
which may yet be otherwise most filled with phantastic 
error ? And shall we not therefore conclude that their ex- 
pected inaccuracies, whether small or great, cannot destroy 
their inherent value ? What, then, are we to think of it, 
when the New Persian, a quasi-daughter of the Pahlavi, is 
superficially referred to for linguistic analogies, when even 
the Armenian is also scanned, while the Pahlavi is left un- 
mastered ? Is a quasi-mother language of the New Persian 
any the less likely to afford linguistic analogies because an 
actual translation of the Avesta has been attempted in it, 
and because the Avesta once stood in its characters, while 
it may also present claims to be considered to a certain 
limit a daughter language to both the Gathic and Zend? 

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And should the acknowledged dr&cuky of the cha/acter 
continue to be a reason for avoidin£43t. eftbri»*fo make 
it out 1 ? 

In the endeavour to divide our Avesta texts into originals 
and gloss, we are greatly aided by the metre. Interpolated 
words and phrases are often obvious at a glance, and we 
should never suspend our efforts to discover all the traces 
of metre which exist in- the Avesta, as a necessary step to 
the restoration of the documents to their first form ; but we 
should avoid exaggeration, and a carelessly dogmatic pro- 
cedure in insisting upon reducing lines to an exact, or to a 
supposed exact, number of syllables 2 . I regard it as un- 
wise to suppose that the metrical lines of the Avesta, or 
indeed of any very ancient poetical matter, have been com- 
posed with every line filed into exact proportions. The 
ancient poets would have brought out the measures in many 
a place by accent and a sandhi which are no longer known 
to us. The Vedic Hymns may, to a great extent, form an 
exception, but who would not say that where uniform even- 
ness is at hand, an effort to improve the metre has often 
corrupted the text. Priests or reciters of intelligence would 
here and there round off an awkward strophe, as year after 
year they felt the unevenness of numbers. Metre must 
inevitably bring a perfecting corruption at times, as a de- 
ficiency in the metre must also prove a marring corruption. 
Cases should be carefully discriminated. The expression of 
passionate feeling, for instance, would be likely to cause 

1 One of the most powerful tributes ever paid to the Pahlavi translators was 
Haug's conversion to them. Before studying them he lost no opportunity to 
stigmatise their deficiencies ; later, however, he followed them in many an im- 
portant place, and sometimes with little reserve. 

As writers of the opposed extremes seem honestly convinced of the radical 
error of each other's views, it is obvious that association and interest have much 
to do with decisions. A scholar should put himself fully under the influence 
first of one school and then of the other. The necessity for well-balanced 
studies is extremely great. 

* It is only lately that the variation from eleven to twelve syllables in the 
lines of Trish/up has been applied to the GSfhic metres, nor has the possibility 
of a shifting caesura been acceded to till lately. 

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unevenness in lines. The language would be vigorous and 
idiomatic, and of unusual value as a fragment of ancient 
phrase, but the metre would have suffered. 

Then as to conjectured texts ; after texts have been 
improved from all available relics of ancient tradition, or 
scholarship, as afforded by the Pahlavi translations, and 
from the evidence of metre, we are at times still left with 
readings before us which could not have been original. The 
composers have indeed here and there constructed sentences 
which they either could not, or would not, make easy, but 
as a general thing we may say, that where the text, as it 
stands, gives no satisfactory sense to us, after we have ex- 
hausted the resources of previous Asiatic scholarship, or 
direct analogy, in our efforts to explain it, it is in that case 
not the text as the composer delivered it. We are then 
reduced to conjecture, for how are we to translate a text 
before we are certain that it is integral ? Our first efforts 
should be directed to the detection of losses ; for a text may 
still be of great value when considered as a mass of broken 
sentences, for, if we are certain that such is its character, we 
can often fill out the missing members with much proba- 
bility. But whether we insert supplementary conjectures, 
or merely bracket later interpolations, we must by all means 
in cases of real necessity make the effort to amend the text 
(as also in the Veda). 

Even if we fail in our attempted improvements, we are 
often little worse off than before, for whereas it is possible, 
or even probable, that the composers wrote what we sug- 
gest, it is sometimes not possible that they wrote exactly 
what stands in our texts. We should even suggest alterna- 
tive readings where our present ones are only less probable 
(for the suggestion of an alternative is not the wholesale 
destruction of a sentence), while even when we declare their 
outcoming meaning totally unsatisfactory, the MSS. still re- 
main to other writers to begin on afresh. And in estimating 
what would be reasonable meanings, we should guard care- 
fully against both extremes, and we should especially exer- 
cise a strong negative criticism against the recognition of 

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too much meaning, or too subtle a meaning. Profound and 
subtle conceptions placed where we are obliged to place the 
Gathas, and other ancient portions of the A vesta, are indeed 
precious relics, as such conceptions at any age show 
a higher mental power, but we must doubt them only 
so much the more, and doubt, if we would be scientific 
and conscientious, till doubt becomes no longer possible. 
Beyond that we should turn our suspicions against our 
doubts themselves, which is the proper course if we would 
exhaust the meanings of the Gathas. Unless these are a 
fortuitous concourse of syllables, religiously profound modes 
of thought are manifest throughout. It is therefore strictly 
unscientific to force parts of them to express shallow details, 
and it is above all deplorable to change the text itself in 
order to produce out of it less enlarged meanings * . I say to 
force parts of them, for the great mass of them confessedly 
defies all attempts to reduce them to the statements of simple 

They can never possess the rich colour of the Riks ; it is 
therefore the more to be deplored if we fail to see their 
deep, but awkwardly expressed, and oft-repeated thought. I 
must express my regret that until lately, when the enclitics 
have been more carefully considered, the form of sentences 
in the Gathas does not seem to have been noticed, writers 
conjecturing infinitives and simple accusatives at the ends 
of sentences. Both may, of course, fall there, but when we 
wish to reconstruct a word, we should not change it to a 
form which is not placed according to prevailing analogies. 
Infinitives and accusatives generally, both in the Gathas 
and the Rig-veda., avoid the end of the sentence. The 
accusative, when it falls there, is generally preceded by 
qualifying words often in apposition or agreement with it. 
Also in the conception of translations, authors seem to sup- 

1 Non-specialists most not suppose that our texts are more apparently uncer- 
tain than (say) many portions of the Old Testament. Large portions of them 
are also as clear, at least, as the J?«g-veda ; and the emendations referred to 
need very seldom affect the doctrines. Let the learned public, however, insist 
on scholars making honest attempts to render the texts as they stand before 
their emendations, and greater harmony would result. 

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pose it impossible that the lines can contain anything but 
lengthened prosaic sentences (too often with an accusative, 
or infinitive, pushed awkwardly out to the end). To me 
the Gathic sentence is often very short, and so better adapted 
to poetic expression. 

It has been already implied, and it has been taken for 
granted throughout 1 , that the Avesta should be closely 
compared with the Veda, but let it never be forgotten, in 
the name of science, that the force and meaning of analo- 
gous words in the Gathic and the Vedic cannot be expected 
to be uniformly identical, considering the extent of territory, 
and the length of time, by which those who spoke the two 
languages were separated. The meanings of the Vedic words 
could not hold their own even in India, developing into the 
Sanskrit and Prakrit which differ widely, how truly mis- 
guided is it therefore to attribute necessarily the same 
shades of meaning to the terms of the two sister tongues. 
If even the Gathic hymns stood in the Indian forms, and 
had been discovered in India, having also reference to Indian 
history, no thoughtful writer would have rendered them in 
complete analogy with the Rig-veda. The Gathic usages 
would have been added in our dictionaries to those of the 
Vedic, just as the Sanskrit definitions are added. 

An additional word seems called for as to the results of 
Zarathurtrian theology. Besides its connection with the 
modern philosophy through Gnosticism which has been 
already noticed 2 , a relation between it and the Jewish 
theology since the Captivity has long been mentioned. 
The hagiology, the demonology, the temptation, the para- 
bles, the eschatology, have all been supposed to show traces 
of the time when Persian power was dominant in Jerusalem, 
and with it, Persian literature ; but the discussion of such 
questions requires separate treatises. 

As to the general benefit which has resulted from Zara- 
thartrianism in the past, few reflections need to be added. 
If the mental illumination and spiritual elevation of many 
millions of mankind, throughout long periods of time, are of 

1 See remarks in the Preface, p. xv. ' See note on p. xix. 

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any importance, it would require strong proof to deny that 
Zarathurtrianism has had an influence of very positive power 
in determining the gravest results. That men should be 
taught to look within rather than without, to believe that 
suffering and sin do not originate from the capricious power 
of a Deity still called ' good,' that the ' good thought, word, 
and deed ' should be recognised as essential to all sanctity, 
even in the presence of a superstitious ceremonial, that a 
judgment should have been expected according to the 
deeds done in the body, and the soul consigned to a Heaven 
of virtue or to a Hell of vice, its recompense being pro- 
nounced by the happy or stricken conscience, these can 
never be regarded by serious historians as matters of little 
moment, and if, on the contrary, they are allowed to be 
matters of great moment, the Zend-Avesta should ber 
revered and studied by all who value the records of the 
human race. 

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Barth. = Bartholomae. 

B.V. S. = Vendidad Sade, von Dr. Hermann Brockhans. Leipzig, 1850. 

D. = dastur. 

De inf. = De infinitivi linguarum sanskritae bactricae persicae gTaecae oscae 

umbricae Iatinae gotticae forma et usu, scripsit Eugenins Wilhelmus, 

phil. doctor. 1872. 
G. = CamasRfi. 
H. = Hubschmann. 

Inf. ■= Geschichte des Infinitivs im Indogermanischen, von Dr. Julias Jolly. 1873. 
K. = Kopenhagen MSS. 

K. Z. = Kuhnische Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung. 
M. 1 K. = Mainy6-1 Khard. Ed. West.' 1871. 
Ner. «= Neryosangh. 
P. = Paris MSS. 
Rv. = .ffjg-veda. 
Sp. = Spiegel. 
Trlr. ■= translator. 

V. S. = Ein Kapitel vergleichender Syntax, von Dr. Julius Jolly. 187a. 
Wg. = Westergaard. 

Z. D. M. G. = Zeitschrift der deatschen morgenl'andischen Gesellschaft. 
An asterisk denotes irregularities. 

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The five Gathas of Zarathu-rtra and his immediate 
followers are placed here before the other parts of the 
Yasna on account of their higher antiquity. There existed 
no other Yasna for years or centuries beside them. 

The more remarkable circumstances connected with 
them have been already discussed in the Introduction. 

If it is necessary to recall any of them here, the most 
prominent would be that they are undoubtedly the pro- 
ductions of a small group of influential men who are 
referred to in them for the most part by name ; that 
Zarathurtra, everywhere else nearly or quite a demi-god, 
is here a struggling and suffering man. He is a prophet, 
or a divinely appointed instructor, but thoroughly human 
and real, so far as his situations become apparent. 

Secondly, their historical tone may be emphasised. 
Their doctrines and exhortations concern an actual reli- 
gious movement taking place contemporaneously with their 
composition ; and that movement was exceptionally pure 
and most earnest. Their tone is therefore everywhere 
serious. Nearly all myths are dropped, and likewise, as 
perhaps their most striking peculiarity, even the old Aryan 
gods, who reappear in the later Yasna, Vendldad, and 
Yarts, are, save one, wholly absent. 

The movement in its reformatory character seems to 
have thrown them out, not perhaps with definite intention, 
but because the minds of the devout enthusiasts excluded 
them as having inferior interest, in view of the results 
immediately before them. 

So far as a claim to a high position among the curiosities 
of ancient moral lore is concerned, the reader may trust 
himself freely to the impression that he has before him an 
anthology which was probably composed with as fervent a 
desire to benefit the spiritual and moral natures of those to 
[31] b 

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whom it was addressed as any which the world had yet 
seen. Nay, he may provisionally accept the opinion that 
nowhere else are such traces of intelligent religious earnest- 
ness to be found as existing at the period of the Gathas or 
before them, save in the Semitic scriptures. 

As to their speculative depth; wherever theosophical 
speculation is put into words, the evidence of their grasp 
and subjectivity becomes positive. As the extent of docu- 
ments necessarily produces a certain impression upon the 
mind of an investigator, it must not be forgotten that the 
Gathas were in all probability many times more volu- 
minous than the fragments which now remain to us. The 
historian may argue from what has survived to what once 
existed, and the inevitable conclusion is imposing. 

For additional details see the Introduction, and the sum- 
maries at the head of each Gatha and chapter. 


This Gatha, consisting of seven chapters of the Yasna 
(XXVIII-XXXIV), takes its name from the similarity of 
its metre to that of the Ahuna-vairya formula which also 
occurs before it in the Yasna. It is composed of homo- 
geneous material, but as its material is also homogeneous 
with that of the other Gathas, it probably owes its exist- 
ence as a group of sections to its metrical form. Its lines 
were intended to number sixteen syllables, and they are 
put together in stanzas of three. It is all very ancient 
and probably nearly all original with Zarathurtra himself, 
though parts seem to be put into the mouths of his 
immediate associates and disciples. Whether any persons 
existed in the immediate circle of the sage capable of 
composing hymns like these unaided, is of course a ques- 
tion ; but that some were able to put poetical matter 
together under his guidance or inspiration seems certain. 

An analysis and general summary is placed before each 
chapter as more convenient than massing them all together. 
The reader is reminded that the rhythm of the original, 
so far as it could be reasonably conjectured, is somewhat 
imitated in parts of the translations. 

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The Wail of the Kine. The Call of 
Zarathustra. His Prayer for Aid. 

This chapter, the second in the manuscripts of the Gatha Ahuna- 
vaiti, is placed here as in a more natural order. It may be regarded 
as containing the terminus a quo of the divine revelation. The 
Soul of the Kine, as representing the herds of the holy Iranian 
people, their only means of honourable livelihood, raises its voice, 
and expressing the profoundest needs of an afflicted people, 
addresses Ahura and His Divine Order, Asha, in bitterness. 

i. Recalling another and a later 'groan of the creation,' she 
demands wherefore and for whom she was made, since afflictions 
encompass her; and as her comfort, if not her existence, was 
threatened as much by the unsettled habits induced by constant 
alarms as by the actual incursions of her predatory neighbours, 
she beseeches the Bountiful Immortals to instruct her as to the 
benefits of civilised agriculture, and confirm her protectors in its 
practice, as her only remedy against the evils of which she 

2. Ahura answers by a question to Asha, the personified 
Righteous Order, as to what guardian he had appointed in order 
to smite back the fury which assails her, intimating that some chief 
ought to have been set over her originally who would have averted 
her miseries, training her people in steady tillage and bucolic skill, 
and repelling the destructive raids. 

3. Asha answers that her sufferings were inevitable, that no 
chief could be appointed who could prevent them since none 
was himself without his share of injustice and of passionate 
resentment. He could not answer why this was the case. The 
question, involving the insolvable problem of the origin of evil, 
lay at the foundation of those influences which move the stars of 
destiny; that the religious revelation afforded by the Ratu (as in 

B 2 

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chapter XXX) was intended to meet these problems so far as they 
could be answered 1 , and that therefore all who were entering upon 
active enterprises were in the act of approaching, not him Asha, 
the subordinate archangel, but Mazda himself, who was the 
greatest of beings, and alone able to answer their prayers and 

4. Zarathurtra *, poetically conceived to be present, here inter- 
venes to reaffirm the homage just paid by Asha. He declares 
Ahura Mazda to be himself the most mindful of all the previously 
revealed assertions and directions uttered by himself, and fulfilled 
in the actions of both the Demon-gods of their enemies, and of 
good or evil men. He is also said to be fully cognisant of what 
they will do in the future, and to discriminate between what is 
good and evil as an infallible judge, allotting to us all our destiny in 
future sufferings or rewards. 5. Addressing Ahura and Asha, and 
uniting with the Kine's Soul in her supplication, he questions 
Mazda in his doubt, not in peaceful confidence, as later in the 
impressive hymn, each verse of which begins with the words, 'This 
ask I Thee, aright, Ahura! tell me!' but deprecating from himself, and 
constructively from the Kine, the impending destruction which he 
sees will justly fall upon the wicked as visited by the discriminating 
vengeance acknowledged to be Ahura's attribute (see verse 4). 
6. At last Ahura, showing the intention of His questions, answers 
them himself; no regulating lord in full sympathy with the 
Righteous Order had as yet been discovered or discoverable, but 
He himself will make a selection. He therefore declares himself 
as solemnly appointing Zarathustra to that office. 

And Zarathurtra, inspired by His Good Mind, and guided by 
His righteousness, will accomplish more than has as yet been done 
to rally the thrifty community, and settle their virtuous polity upon 
its desired basis of training and defence. 7. As Zarathuitra is a 
listener in the colloquy between the Deity, the Kine's Soul, and 
Asha, the Righteous Order, so the other Immortals beside Asha s , 
here join in, as if the appointment just made had not been heard, or 
was incredible (see below). Mazda is indeed declared to have 
revealed the sacred Word-of-reason in harmony with the con- 
senting Righteousness, and to have provided food for the Kine and 

1 Something like this is implied. 

* If verses 4, 5, 6, were originally connected. 

9 Or possibly a company of the religious chiefs poetically conceived to be 


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the needy consumers, but who was there adequately endowed 
with the Good Mind, who could promulgate that MSthra with its 
revealed directions as to sustenance of both body and mind ? 

8. Ahura repeats his announcement of Zarathurtra, as if to 
silence the objections. 

As Zarathurtra alone had heard the doctrines from the voice of 
inspiration, so he desired to declare them, and had authority to 
do so, together with a settled position of such a character as to 
make his statements felt. 

9. But an unexpected difficulty arises. The Kine's Soul is by 
no means impressed by the personality of the individual selected 
as her guardian. So far from being the demi-god of the other 
parts of the A vesta, Zarathurtra's declarations are characterised 
by her as ' the voice of a pusillanimous man,' while she, on the 
contrary, expected one truly kingly in his rank and characteris- 
tics, and able to bring his desires to effect, while the Bountiful 
Immortals (or the attending chieftains), as if they had meant their 
question in verse 7 to be a question uttered in mere perplexity or 
contempt, join in with chorus, asking when indeed an effective helper 
will be provided. 

10. Zarathustra, undismayed by the coldness of his reception, 
enters at once upon his office as priest and prophet, praying Ahura for 
the people ; and recognising the names of the ' Immortals,' Khsha- 
thra, Asha, and Vohu Manah, in their original sense, asks Ahura 
to grant to the people in their straits, a Sovereign Authority 
established in the Divine Order, and bestowing the needed quiet 
and happiness for which the suffering provinces, as represented by 
the Kine's Soul in her wail, had expressed their desire. 

And as he prays, he avows his own steadfast confidence in Ahura 
rather than in the DaSvas, as the prime possessor and bestower of 

11. Then, as if eager to receive full equipment upon the spot, 
he not only beseeches for the Righteous Order, the Kingly Power 
of God, and His Good Mind for the masses as represented by the 
Kine, but asks when they are coming to him, and hastening ; and 
he entreats Ahura to bestow His help at once for the great cause, 
and to a very abundant degree, upon himself and his associates. 
(It is singular that the name of Aramaiti does not occur in this 

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(Homage to you, O Sacred Gathas !) 
i. Unto you (O Ahura and Asha!) the Soul of 
the Kine (our sacred herds and folk) cried aloud : 
For whom did ye create me, and by 1 whom did ye 
fashion me ? On me comes the assault of wrath, 
and of violent power, the blow 2 of desolation, 
audacious insolence, and (thievish) 8 might. None 
other pasture-giver * have I than you, therefore do 
ye teach me good (tillage) for the fields (my only 
hope of welfare 6 )! 

Ahura speaks. 
2. Upon this the Creator 6 of the Kine (the holy 

1 Ke m4 tasha/ can only mean this here. The Pahlavi translator 
probably read kahmai. He has val mun li tukhshW (?) hdmanam. 

* One might think of ' inertia' as a rendering for remd, (if read), 
but the afflictions complained of seem rather to imply active violence. 

* Or read tiyvw^ (robbery?) with the Pahlavi translation; 
•yu' and 'vi' would be written much alike in a manuscript. 

4 Vasta. has been found, as I understand, in some manuscripts. 
The Persian manuscript of Haug has a curious vastirWar (vasta- 
ri<£r ?) in the Pahlavi text, which seems to confirm vasta in the 
sense given. 

° As there are very many non-specialists to whom it is important 
to weigh this present subject as closely as it may be possible, 
and as everything here is a matter of the keenest questioning 
among experts, I add occasionally a word-for-word rendering, 
although necessarily very uncouth : To you the Kine's soul cried- 
complaining : For whom me did ye fashion ? Who me made ? 
Against me assaulting -rapine, violence-and, desolations -[blow], 
daring -insolence -and, (thievish) might-and (possibly change the 
text). Not for me a pasture-giver than-you other ; therefore to- 
me teach-ye good (things) for-the-pasture (adj. ace. pi. neut.). 

* I fear that I cannot follow Haug in his later view, where he 
follows tradition in rather an extreme manner, rendering 'the cutter 
(wounder) of the Ox.' Neither Spiegel nor Justi would confide to 
a later myth to this degree (see Y. XXXI, 9 and XL VI, 9). This is 

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herds) asked of Righteousness J : How (was) thy 
guardian for the Kine (appointed) by thee when, as 
having power (over all her fate), ye made her ? (In 
what manner did ye secure) for her, together with 
pasture, a cattle-chief who was both skilled and like- 
wise energetic ? Whom did ye select 2 as her (life's) 
master who might hurl back the fury of the 
wicked 8 ? 

Asha answers. 

3. To Him the (Divine Righteousness) answered 
with 4 his sanctity. (Great was our perplexity); a 
chieftain who was capable of smiting 6 back (their 
fury), and who was himself without hate (was not to 
be obtained by us); among such things as these, 
those things are not to be known (by beings such as 
we) which are the influences which approach • (and 
move) the lofty fires 7 (revealing the favour and the 
will of God «). 

Of beings He is the mightiest to whom those » 

mentioned, however, not as complaining of an error, but solely to 
guard the reader against the mistake of an eminent authority. (See 
also Roth, Z.D.M. G., Bd. 25, s. 9.) 

1 Observe the personification of righteousness. 

* Or, 'what salvation-lord,' governed by data from the pre- 
ceding line ; so also the Pahlavi translator mun av6 pavan nadukfh 
khfta&i . Us ti occurs only here as a verbal form. Supply angha/ in b. 

• The Pahlavi aeshmS anaSr zanun8. 

4 Or read ashem. The Pahlavi has ashavahuto pasukhv5 guft. 
I am not at all inclined to accept vocatives for nominatives in the 

• Sar-^an, compare Verethra^an. The Pahlavi indicates this by 
tanu sardarih. * Possibly, ' by which he approaches.' 

7 The Pahlavi r6shan5 i rasto. 

8 Cp. Y. XXX, 1 : ya noiebu daresata urvaza. 

* The Pahlavi indicates a third person ; and keredushS is far the 
most simply explained as a nom. pi. Recall ma masha and man (?) 
matha. Otherwise, 'to whom I will come with activity and invoking.' 

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who have performed their actions approach with 
invocations. (He has no need to ask!) 

Zarathurtra intervenes *. 

4. The Great Creator a (is himself) most mindful 
of the uttered indications which have been fulfilled 
beforehand hitherto in the deeds of 3 demon- 
gods * and (good or evil) men, and of those which 
shall be fulfilled by them 5 hereafter. He Ahura 
is the discerning arbiter ; so shall it be to us 6 as He 
shall will 7 ! 

5. Therefore it is that we both, my soul 8 and (the 
soul) of the mother ' Kine, (are) making our supplica- 

1 A verse or verses may here have fallen out. 

2 I cannot persuade myself to accept the nearly universally 
accepted comparison of Mazdau and medha*. See note on p. 104. 

* Or, 'He has done by Dafivas?' If thus, absolute and not 
qualified sovereignty would be indicated. See the last line. 

4 Observe that while ' by DaSva-worshippers ' would be an ad- 
mirable rendering for Daevau, because more commonplace and 
therefore safer, it is here impossible on account of mashyair£&. We 
are closely confined to the acceptance of a large idea. Ahura was 
mindful of what transpired in the deeds of DaeVa-gods, and not 
in those of Daeva-worshippers alone. The inst. must be modified. 

5 As varshaitS is elsewhere used in an active sense, it is possible, 
but not probable, that a special predestination may be indicated. 
'He shall do by means of DaSvas and men.' 

* ' To us men,' not to us Amesh6spends, of course 1 

T Verbatim. Mazda the-words most-mindful which for have- 
been-fulfilled before by-means-of- (the actions of) Paevas-and men- 
and what-and (shall)-be-done after, He the discriminating lord; so 
to-us shall-it-be as He shall-choose. 

* This seems to prove positively that a human being speaks here 
and in the previous verse ; ' the soul of Righteousness ' is of course 

* Some have referred the word to the root zan obscurely pre- 
sent in it ; otherwise a drivable cow ; one mature and fit for use. 
The term used in the Vendidid in a common meaning as merely 

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tions for the two worlds to Ahura, and with hands 
stretched out in entreaty, when (we pray to the 
Great Creator 1 with questions in our doubt 2 ; (and 
He will answer). 

Not for the righteous liver, not for the thrifty 
(tiller of the earth), shall there be destruction s to- 
gether with the wicked! 


6. Upon this the Lord, the Great Creator, He 
who understands the mysterious grace 4 by His in- 
sight 6 , spake thus: Not in this manner 6 is a spiritual 
master found for us, nor a chieftain moved by 
Righteousness and appointed (in its spirit); there- 
fore Thee 7 have I named 8 (as such a head) to the 
diligent tiller of the ground ' ! 

designating a cow at a certain age, may be the familiar use of an 
adjective here applied in the ancient Gatha in a sacred sense. 

1 This passage is one of the strongest for the comparison of 
Mazdau and medhl The sense ' asking wisdom in our doubt,' is 
admirable. I cannot however accept the comparison. 

3 Pavan gunianikih hampurs&nf ; root df. 

9 The Pahlavi awastnlmih*, but in other connections fra^yaitu 
might well mean ' continued life ; ' ' life long endured with the wicked.' 

4 The Pahlavi has vishuplmo, which here affords a better 
meaning ; see however Y. XL VIII, 9. We might read as alternative 
here, ' knowing the calamity to be averted.' 

8 Uncertain. The Pahlavi however indicates ' discernment.' 

• One is strongly tempted to read ae>6, ' not a single chief,' but 
the ancient writing read by the Pahlavi translator had a6v& ahu. 

7 This indicates that Zarathurtra had been the speaker in the 
previous verses. 
' Appointed. 

* Verbatim. Thereupon spake Ahura Mazda knowing the- 
wonderful (thing) through-insight (?) not thus a master found, nor a 
ruler righteous-order-from-even from, therefore for thee to-the- 
thrifty-and to-the-husbandman-and (I) as-a-creator I-have-made. 

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The Amesh6spends \ 

7. Mazda has created the inspired Word-of- 
reason which is a MSthra of fatness (for the 
offering), the (Divine) Righteousness consenting 
with Him in his deed. Food he has prepared for 
the Kine and for the eaters 2 , He the one bountiful 
with his (saving) doctrine ; but whom hast Thou, en- 
dowed with the Good Mind, who may give forth 
those (doctrines) by word of mouth to mortals s ? 


8. This man is found for me here who alone 4 has 

1 Or a company of the saints conceived to be present. 

* So some writers, accepting an irregular reading A»arushaeiby6 
after the indication of the Pahlavi translation. Otherwise compare 
' rush ' (?), uru=ru, and render * to the estranged.' We have often 
to stretch the meaning more than this. Converting instructions 
are elsewhere suggested for ' all mankind.' 

8 The translation of Neryosangh is added here not merely because 
it is of interest, but because it is, together with the Pahlavi transla- 
tion, of the last importance in forming correct conclusions. It 
may be rendered as follows; and the reader may regard it as a 
specimen, but by no means a particularly favourable one. At 
the words azut6fa and maretaeibyd different texts were before him 
and the Pahlavi translator as well. Those words are elsewhere 
rendered by the latter £arpih and amutaan : This greatest magni- 
tude (sic) of the MSthra, the Lord produced together with righteous- 
ness as his fellow-worker [ ]. The Great Wise One discloses the 
herds to the eaters; and he discloses also the great matter to 
the well-taught scholars. Who is thine, who endowed with the 
best mind, gives the two things, with the mouth to those who are 
prosecuting studies (sic) ? To expect an ancient rendering to be 
closer would be unreasonable. The errors (as to root) are not errors, 
but the certain signs of differing MSS. This constandy occurs ; and 
it is hardly necessary to add that sometimes from such supposed mis- 
takes we get the only possible means of recovering the original text. 

4 Repeating the announcement in verse 6. The a6va in 6 would 
incline one to read aeva (ye ne aeva), but the manuscript before 
the Pahlavi translator read aev6=khaduk. It is quite out of the 
question to suppose his a&tuno and khaduk to be accidental. 
A sharp distinction is made. 

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hearkened to our enunciations, Zars«uuf£»-Sf!>itarna ! 
Our mighty and completed acts of grace he desires 
to enounce for us, for (Me), the Great Creator and for 
Righteousness; wherefore I will give him the good 
abode 1 (and authoritative place) of such an one as 
speaks a ! 

The Geus Urvan. 
9. Upon this the Soul of the Kine lamented 
(: Woe is unto me) since (I have obtained for myself) 
in my wounding a lord who is powerless to effect (his) 
wish, the (mere) voice of a feeble and pusillanimous 
man, whereas I desire one who is lord over his 
will (and able as one of royal state to bring what he 
desires to effect 3 ). 

The Amesh6spends *. 
( (Aye,) when shall he ever appear who may bring 
to her * help strong-handed * ?) 

1 So the Pahlavi translator, giving the only critical etymology in 
his hudemunfh, the gloss aside. 

* The Pahlavi text corrected by the Persian MS. may be ren- 
dered as follows : This gift I obtained [ ]. For this one is he 
who was listening to that which is our teaching, Zartusht, the Spita- 
man. For us, Auharmazd, and for Aharayih is his desire, [that is, 
that perfectly performed duty, and good works are desired by him]. 
He recites also a remedy-making (free or erroneous), [that is, he 
declares a remedy-making against the Drdg who is in the world] ; 
on account of which saying for his word of piety which he utters, 
they give him a good abode [ ]. (The glosses are often from a 
later hand and erroneous. Sometimes, however, they contain the 
truth while the text is futile. I drop them in the present citations 
when they are of no importance.) 

* Observe that Zarathw tra, like other prophets, met at times little 
honour from his fellow-countrymen who are here well represented 
by the voice of the Kine's SouL (See Y. XLVI, 1.) 

4 Or could not hdi be taken in a reflective sense, and referred 
to the first person like the possessive sve ; see the connection. 

5 Verbatim. Thereupon-and the Kine's Soul wept : (I) who 

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Zarathu rtra *. 

10. Do ye, O Ahura and thou, O Righteousness! 
grant gladness unto these (our disciples), and the 
sovereign Kingdom (of the Deity) such as (is esta- 
blished) in (His) Good Mind by which one bestows 
upon them the peaceful amenities of home and 
quiet happiness (as against the fearful ravages 
which they suffer 2 ), for of these, O Great Creator ! 
I ever thought Thee first possessor 8 1 

ii. And when shall the (Divine) Righteousness, 
the Good Mind (of the Lord, and His) Sovereign 
Power (come) hastening* to me (to give me strength 
for my task and • mission), O Great Creator, the 
Living Lord ! (For without his I cannot advance 

(lament) one-not-able-to-effect-his-wish in-wounding as-a-master (or, 
I established ?) [ ], whom as-against I-wish one wish-controlling-and- 
effecting-as-a-sovereign. When ever he may-(shall)-be who to her 
(possibly to-me-myself ?) shall-give effected-by-tbe-hand help. 

1 Zarathurtra, having accepted his call to be the Ratu or his 
substitute, at once interposes with a prayer for his suffering 

1 See verse i, to which reference is continually made as the 
chief expression of the sufferings to be remedied. 

* The Pahlavi without glosses may be rendered as follows : Give 
ye assistance to these, O Auharmazd, Ashavahut and Khshatraver! 
So also Vohuman, who gives him a pleasing habitation, and also joy. 
I also think that the first gain and obtaining of this is from thee. 
(With the gloss slightly different; but valman should be rendered 
according to ahya.) 

The text literally is as follows: (Do) ye to these, O Ahura 1 
happiness (? possibly strength ; see the Pahlavi) grant, O Asha ! 
Khshathra-and (=the Kingdom) such (kingdom as) by Vohu Manah 
by-which amenities peaceful-joy-and (one) may give-or-establish ; 
I-even of this, O Mazda 1 Thee I thought foremost possessor. 

4 So the Pahlavi translation indicates ; compare gimi and fri 
man (?) matha ; otherwise mamasha = I hasten (to fulfil my 

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or undertake my toil.) Do ye now therefore assign 
unto us your aid and in abundance 1 for our great 
cause. May we be (partakers) of the bountiful 
grace of these your equals 2 (your counsellors and 
servants) 3 ! 

1 The Pahlavi has kabed. For the fundamental idea compare 
pr/tsh + suffix. 

* The Ameshdspends just mentioned, together with whom 
Ahura governs and blesses His people. Ahtna (so conjecturing 
with Barth.), is also quite sufficiently indicated by the lanman of 
the Pahlavi. Whether an instrumental <rhma can be accepted is 
doubtful. The form should be altered. 

If «hma stands, irtem must be understood, or the instrumental 
taken in a possessive sense. 

Ahma has no authority from MSS., but is better than 
anghama, as being nearer the MSS. 

* As an impartial specimen I render Ner. thus: Whence will 
that gift come to me, (the gift which is) Ajavahista, Gvahmana, and 
Saharevara, [that is, sanctity, the highest (best) mind, and the 
sovereignty, where is the place of the reward which will thus come to 
me?]. (Here the translation falls into confusion from an error 
which is most interesting and instructive, because it is corrected by 
Ner. in an alternative rendering in the gloss. As has been seldom 
noticed his original was the Pahlavi word pa</adahunfne</, rather 
than the Gathic paiti-zanata. This Pahlavi form he could not at 
first believe to be a second plural. Indeed the Pahlavi glossist 
may have taken it as a third sg. Neryosangh therefore abortively 
renders word-for-word as follows: You, O Great Wise One! it 
offers or presents more excellently through the ' greatest exalta- 
tion ' (the holy cause). But he recovers himself in the gloss by 
reading the Pahlavi pa</adahun5 vadunyfin as an imperative: 
[Provide a reward through that spotless exaltation (the irreproach- 
able cause)] continuing : Here, O Lord I is the gift (which is) ours, 
and (which comes) to us from Thee.) 

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Prayers chiefly for Grace and for the 
Words of Revelation. 

2. Zarathurtra, having entered upon the duties of his office (XXIX, 
1 1), composes a liturgy for the use of some of his more eminent 
colleagues, possibly, but not at all probably, for the original mover 
in the entire religious effort (see the expressions ' to Zarathurtra 
and to us,' 'to Vijtispi and to me/ 'to Frashaortra and to 
me '). This reciter, whoever he may have been intended to be, is 
represented as standing in the appropriate place as a priest, with 
hands stretched toward Ahura, or His Fire, and praying for the 
possession of spiritual graces from an unselfish motive, and in 
order that he might appease the grief of the Kine's Soul, for whose 
relief Zarathurtra had just been appointed (see XXIX, i, 6, 8). 

3. He approaches Ahura Mazda, spiritually inspired by the 
Good Mind as he declares, and asking for attainments and boons 
for both the bodily and spiritual lives, derived from Righteousness, 
whereby that personified Righteousness might establish the elect in 
a beatified state. 

4. The personality of the Amesh6spends comes again strongly 
forward, as it does so often in worship, in addresses in which 
Righteousness (Asha), the Good Mind ( Vohu Manah), Khshathra 
(the active Power of the Divine Sovereignty), and Aramaiti 
(practical piety in the souls of believers), are besought to come, as 
the Vedic Gods so often are, to the appeals of the supplicant, and 
to his help in the act of worship itself, which is recognised to be 
the one efficient means for furthering the cause of redemption 
which is ever held in view. 

5. As one who offered his soul to heaven, and would know 
by actual experience the blessed rewards bestowed by the holy 
ceremonial and moral actions prescribed by Ahura Mazda, the 
reciter declares that he will teach on in the effort to propagate the 
holy Religious Order, and possessed by the one desire for its 
increase, while power shall last. 

6. With a piety as fervent as it is profound, and speaking with great 
earnestness, he asks Righteousness, as a person, when he shall 
see him, becoming fully acquainted with the Good Mind of God, 
the way which leads to Him, and above all with Obedience. But 
although he addresses these lofty abstractions as persons, it is utterly 

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out of the question to suppose that he did not speak in the deepest 
meaning of the words as expressing states of mind, and qualities 
of character : O thou Divine Righteous Order ! (Thus he seems 
to have meant), O thou divine Righteous Order! when shall I 
see Thee as if present in my own soul and in those of the people 
whom Ahura has committed to my charge ? When shall 1 know 
the Divine Benevolence as made one with the disposition of my 
congregation? When shall I possess by knowledge that only 
way to our most bountiful Ahura which is, not a mythical angel 
Sraosha only, but that angel interpreted 'Obedience to Ahura' 
(observe the dative). One cannot well exaggerate the religious 
depth or subjectivity. Then, with a bathos which shows how then 
as ever superstition could hold its own side by side with the truest 
piety, he exclaims (if the third line was really so composed by 
him as it has come down to us); ' By such a prayer as a MSthra 
spell we can with the greatest vigour repel the unclean beasts and 
creatures which defile our sanctity, or endanger our lives.' 

7. Alluding immediately to this revelation, he beseeches Ahura 
once more to ' come with His Good Mind,' and to grant, not booty, 
nor even wealth, but ' Asha-gifts,' and (as a bestower of righteous- 
ness) long life and powerful spiritual grace to the leading agent 
Zarathurtra (in all probability the composer of the section), and 
to himself, the officiating priest with his helpers, in order that, not 
with carnal weapons, but by his ' lofty ' and holy ' words,' they all 
combined may overcome the torments of the ravagers who had 
made havoc of the settlements, and who were still liable to over- 
whelm the faithful with their raids and rapine (see XLIV, 20). 

8. With an intentional and interesting alliteration he prays to 
Asha for an ashi ; that is, a blessing, even the strenuously attained- 
to gifts of the great Benevolence. Aramaiti likewise becomes the 
object of his petition together with Ahura ; and this time for the 
benefit of Vktaspa the monarch, and for himself that they might 
hear the gracious Mathras, which is indeed the burden of the 
entire piece. 

9. Once more he affords an early (or the earliest (?)) instance of 
the rhetorical trick, and fills one line with three ' vahLrtas,' praying 
Ahura, as being of one mind with Asha (here, for the first time in the 
A vesta, called ' the best'), to grant the same blessing ; and this time 
again with an intentional change, ' to himself and to Frashaortra ; ' 
and not for this world, but for ' all the duration of the Good Mind,' 
using the expression in its concrete sense as heaven ; for heaven to 
him consisted in an inward state. (So also elsewhere in the A vesta, 

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even where the palate and the olfactory nerve are the media of felicity 
or of torture, there also conciliating language on the one side, or 'vile 
speech ' pointed with finest irony on the other, is equally promi- 
nent. It is the mind which chiefly enjoys or suffers.) 

10. Deeply sensible of the spiritual benefits for which he is asking, 
he seems touched with gratitude. Accordingly he adds one more 
petition, which is, that he and his coadjutors, the three just men- 
tioned, may never anger the indulgent mercy which had granted 
them their request ; and that they may persevere, as they have begun, 
in the strenuous service of Ahura, Asha, and Vohu Manah. For 
they are, as he declares, easy to be entreated, and beings who 
desire to bestow spiritual blessings upon mortals, rather than to 
exercise merely capricious favour or cruelty, and who also possess 
the power to bring their benevolence to effect. 

n. As if unwilling to trust his own perception as to his real 
spiritual needs, he prays Ahura 'to fill up his desire,' not with 
what he, the reciter, may in particular request, but with what He, 
Ahura, knows to be the gifts of Righteousness and the divine 
• Benevolence. And these gifts are again mainly the holy revelation, 
for he knows, so he earnestly declares, the words of those mighty 
three to be never void, and to be a sustenance able indeed to fill 
up his wishes, giving him more than he has of himself either the 
intelligence or the grace to ask. 

12. Having added, in verse after verse, some particular to 
heighten the fervour of his request, he sums up all in a final ex- 
pression, as remarkable for its earnestness as for its depth, and begs 
Ahura, as one set for ever for the defence of the Righteous Order 
and the Good Mind (whose hallowed influences he accurately foresaw 
were destined to endure for ages), to tell him, with His very ' voice 
of spirit,' in order that he may declare them to the waiting masses, 
the laws which pervade the moral universe, and according to which 
it arose. For according to these holy principles and so alone, could 
he promulgate a system which might reclaim society from its imper- 
fections and the Iranian saint from his sufferings. )Ahura who, be 
it remarked, is alone addressed in this culminating verse, hears and 
answers by a revelation of these eternal principles, and this answer 
is contained in chapter XXX. By a thorough comprehension of 
that most important document, I hold that we may see how it met 
its purpose as indicated by the capacities and needs of those to 
whom it was addressed, and how by discriminating truth from 
falsehood it helped on the defence of Asha, and the founding of the 
true Benevolence. 

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i. (A strengthening blessing 1 is the thought, a 
blessing is the word, a blessing is the deed of the 
righteous Zarathurtra. May the Bountiful Im- 
mortals 8 accept and help on 8 the chants. Homage 
to you, O sacred Gathas * !) 

2. With venerating (desire) for this (gift) of gracious 
help, O Mazda 8 , and stretching forth my hands (to 
Thee) I pray for the first (blessing) of (Thy) bountiful 
Spirit ; (that is, I beseech of Thee that my) actions 

1 Y&nim cannot well mean ' revealed,' except by the most far- 
fetched conception. The Indian y&na, as in devaya'na, should give 
the fundamental idea, easily reconcileable as it is with the ancient 
rendering of the Pahlavi translator. 

* Notice that the AmeshOspends are mentioned in this early 
heading. In the Gathas themselves the name, 'Bountiful Immortals,' 
does not occur. 

* Possibly, 'take up and continue on the Gathas.' Literally, 
'seize forth.' 

* It is hardly necessary to say that this is no part of the Gathas. 
It is, however, in the Gathic dialect, and as it needs not, or perhaps 
cannot, be considered an intentional imitation, it must be very old. 

* Vocative with the Vendidad Sadah, otherwise the accumula- 
tion of genitives would be suspicious. Ahura is, however, beyond 
any question elsewhere spoken of as ' the most bounteous Spirit.' 
The usage is like that of the Semitic scriptures ; the Holy Spirit is 
both God and ' of God.' As to the rendering ' bounteous,' I fear 
that ' holiest ' (so many) is too bold. Ashavan occurs side by side 
with spettta as applied to Ahura, and ashavan cannot mean 
' righteous ' there, but must mean ' holy.' The Pahlavi renders ety- 
mologically afzunik. Comp. jv&nta. The sole etymological bases 
for the meaning ' holy' are presented by the Lithuanian and Ecclesias- 
tical Sclavonic ; but, as Justi has well remarked, in the conceptions 
of the A vesta that which increases the kingdom of Ahura is equiva- 
lent to what is holy. ' Bountiful ' must therefore be understood in 
a particular sense, only to be rendered by the words, ' gracious, 
sacred, and august.' 

[3*] c 

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(toward) all (may be performed) in (the Divine) 
Righteousness ; and with this I implore from 
Thee the understanding of Thy Benevolent Mind, 
in order that I may propitiate the Soul of the 
Kine 1 (our herds and folk, which cries so bitterly to 

3. And therefore, O Great Creator, the Living 
Lord ! (inspired) by Thy Benevolent Mind, I ap- 
proach You 2 , (and beseech of Thee 8 ) to grant me 
(as a bountiful gift) for both the worlds, the corporeal 
and (for that) of mind, those attainments which are 
to be derived from the (Divine) Righteousness, and 
by means of which (that personified Righteousness* 
within us) may introduce those who are its recipients 
into beatitude and glory s ! 

4. O (thou Divine) Righteousness, and thou Be- 

1 See Y. XXIX, 1. 

* The plural of majesty, or the literal plural, referring to the 
Bountiful Immortals as together. 

8 Plural and singular interchange throughout. 
4 Possibly, ' one may introduce.' 

• See Y. L, 5. #»tthra' and its allied forms are so often associated 
with raoiah and the like, that I do not hesitate to accept an Iranian 
Ava.n=to shine (with Justi). As there is an Indian svar which 
means 'to roar,' and another 'to shine,' and again a svan=to 
sound, so in Iranian there is a Ava.n=to sound, and another = 
to shine, as in asmanem Ananvantem. The 'comfortable stone 
heaven ' is difficult. Comfortable, or even ' delectable mountains ' 
(so we should have to say elsewhere), are not very likely to have 
been recognised or appreciated in the Avesta. 'Glorious beatitude' 

"is a better rendering here. If AvSuhrd, always means 'comfort,' 
how comes it that Anarend is said to be Apathrava/? 'Comfortable 
glory ' is hardly probable. Compare also the ancient jubha. When 
it is the fashion to accept a separate Iranian root at every difficulty, 
small and great, I see no reason for stopping here, where the pres- 
sure is considerable. The Pahlavi also may be read to favour 
my view. (Comp. Aveng=:Ava.n.) 

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nevolent Mind (of Deity) ! I will worship you, and 
Ahura Mazda the first l , for all of whom the Pious 
ready mind (within us) is 2 causing the imperish- 
able Kingdom to advance. (And while I thus utter 
my supplications to You), come Ye to my calls to 
help 3 ! 

5. (Yea, I will approach You with my supplica- 
tions, I) who am delivering up (my) 4 mind and soul 
to that (heavenly) Mount (whither all the redeemed 
at last must pass 6 ), knowing (full well) the holy 
characteristics and rewards * of the (ceremonial and 
moral) actions (prescribed) by Ahura Mazda. (And) 

■ ' Or, ' having no first ' (Roth, reading apourvim). 

* I am very far from a positive rejection of the forms suggested 
by the Pahlavi translator, although he should never be pressed on 
such a point, being often free. As alternative read ' may Piety who 
bestows increase (fem. participle) come to my calls to give grace.' 

* The Pahlavi translator, unable to credit 'ye as=I who' (so 
also modern authority sometimes with regard to other occur- 
rences of ye in this chapter), renders as follows : When I shall be 
your own (thus for ' worship,' and possibly deceived by the form of 
the words, ufyanl and nafrman being nearly alike in the Pahlavi 
character), O Ashavahirt and Vohuman I the first [ ], Auharmazd's 
also [his own I shall be], through whose unweakened acquisition 
his rule over them exists [ ], and [hers also I shall be], Spendar- 
mad's, the giver of increase. She comes to me with joy when 
I invoke her [when I shall call upon you, come ye on toward 
me with joy]. (A plain and noticeable instance of an alterna- 
tive rendering in the gloss. The verb was first thought of as a 
3rd sing, middle subjunctive, afterwards as an imperative 2nd 

* M«» = m + the nasal vowel, and may represent man, or I 
think also mam, adverbially for m<rna; or 'man^'demang.' 

e Mount Albor^, where the Alnva/ Bridge extends ; so also 
important authority; but we might read m«»gaire=mangaire' 

' Ashi, a blessing given in reward ; so elsewhere. 

C 2 

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so long as I am able and may have the power, so 
long will I teach 1 (Your people concerning these 
holy deeds to be done by them with faith toward 
God, and) in the desire (for the coming) of the 
(Divine) Righteousness (within their souls) 2 . 

6. And, thou Righteousness! when shall I see 8 
thee, knowing the Good Mind (of God), and 
(above all the personified) Obedience 4 (of our lives 
which constitutes) the way 6 to the most beneficent 
Ahura Mazda. (Asking this, I thus beseech thee, 
for) with this holy word of supplication we most hold 
off 6 with tongue the flesh-devouring fiends, (the 
very sign and power of all spiritual foulness) T ! 

1 I think it is better to hold by the parallel passage and the sense 
of 'teach' here. The Pahlavi has an irregular form which probably 
means ' I teach,' but might be intended for ' I am taught' 

After the words ' so long as I have the power,' ' I will teach ' is 
rather more natural than ' 1 will learn.' Haug*s rendering of this 
word has never been accepted. Those most opposed to tradition 
follow it here. Perhaps, ' I will teach to desire R.' 

s The Pahlavi translation corrected by MSS. may be rendered 
thus : He who gives up his soul within GaroVmdn does so by the 
aid of Vohuman [ ], and is also intelligent concerning the venera- 
tion which belongs to the doers of good works [ ] in that which 
is Auharmazd's [religion] ; as long as I am a suppliant and have 
the power, so long do I inculcate the desire of Righteousness 
[which is, duty and good works]. 

3 Kad£ mrilikim sumana abhf khyam (Rv. VII, 86, 2). 

4 Obedience, throughout the Avesta and Parsi literature, guides 
the soul to heaven. 

8 Or,' knowing the throne of Ahura' (so the Pahlavi, most scholars 
following); but the construction would be awkward. 'Finding the 
way ' occurs in the Hiks, and gatu need not always mean 'place* 
in the Gathic, because it has that sense most frequently in the Zend. 

• Possibly, ' we may teach the foul polluted men.' Or, ' confess 
the greatest One with Khrafstra(-slaying) tongue.' Perhaps the 
text is to be amended ; yet see XXXIV, 5, 9. 

7 The Pahlavi translation may be rendered thus: O Asha- 
vahirtl when do (shall) I see thee? I know this one by means 

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7. And do Thou, O Lord, the Great Creator! 
come to me with Thy Good Mind ; and do Thou, 
who bestowest gifts through Thy Righteousness, 
bestow alike long-lasting life on us. And (that this 
life may be spent aright, do) Thou by means of Thy 
lofty words (bestow) the (needed) powerful spiritual 
help upon Zarathmtra and upon us 1 , whereby we 
may overcome * the torments of the tormentor. 

8. (And) do thou, O (Divine) Righteousness, bestow 

(upon me) that sacred blessing which is constituted 

by the attainments of the Good Mind (within my 

soul) 3 ; and do thou also, O Piety ! grant unto 


of a good mind's instruction [that is, I see thee in that time when 
every man is intelligent because he is pious; but when shall it be?]. 
And the place of Auharmazd, when do (shall) I see it, I who am a 
suppliant for a benefit ? That place is known through Srdsh [ \ 
that greatest of MSthras is to be taught, given forth with tongue to 
him whose understanding is confused. 

1 It certainly involves a question how the words ' to Zarathurtra 
and to us ' can be compatible with Zarathurtra's authorship. Vis- 
taspa and Frashaojtra (verses 8, 9) are equally excluded. Who is 
then the individual who thus refers to himself with others ? And is this 
verse an interpolation, and with it 8 and 9 ? This last seems to me 
a very feeble suggestion. Was this piece, together with the rest (for 
they all are connected), the work of some unnamed man of influence, 
the true author of Zarathurtrianism ? I think that there is also little 
gained by this supposition. There is no particular reason why 
Zarathurtra's name should have come down to us as the chief 
figure, while that of the prime mover failed to reach us. I should 
say that the piece was composed by Zarathurtra and put into the 
mouth of a leading priest, or that it was composed with many 
others under his inspiration. Or, can there have been a school, 
or family, of Zarathurtrians, religious poets, similar to the Vedic 
seers? (See chap. LIII, 2 Zarathujtru Spitdmd.) 

* This mention of ' overcoming an enemy,' strengthens the pro- 
bability of my view of vavar6imaidi (vaur6imaidl). 

' The Good Mind is now, as we should say, ' the Spirit of God ' 
in the mind of God, and again His Spirit in the human soul. 

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Vtrtaspa and to me our wish ; (yea) may'st Thou 
grant (us), O Mazda, ruler l (as Thou art ! that 
grace) whereby we may hear 2 (with understanding) 
Thy benignant words. 

9. That best (of gifts therefore) do I beseech (of 
Thee), O Thou best (of beings) Ahura ! who art 
one in will with (Thy Divine) Righteousness (within 
us, likewise), the best 3 (of spirits), desiring it (as I 
now do) for the (heroic) man Frashaortra, and for 
me 4 , upon whom also may'st Thou bestow it (not 
for time alone), but for all the ages of Thy Good 
Mind (that reign of Thy Benevolence which shall be 
to us as Heaven 6 ) ! 

1 The Pahlavi correctly renders padakhshS. 

* Probably originally heard, inspired words. Compare Many^iu 
haia Thwa aungha, verse 12. So often. Oral communications 
are figuratively alluded to everywhere. No literal articulation or 
sound (I) is of course intended. (Or 'sravayaemi= proclaim.') 

Neryosangh may be rendered as follows : Grant, O Sanctity 1 this 
devotion which (results) from the priority (an error from misreading 
the characters of the Pahlavi, chiefly his original) of the Good 
Mind [that is, make me so religious that prosperity may result 
to me from my good conduct]. Grant thou to the perfect mind 
[in, or to, the earth (so the Parsis understood Aramaiti)] the wish 
that proceeds from GustSspa and from my people [ ]. Grant 
praisers, O great wise One I kings, who may be announcers of 
your word, and bestowers of arrangements (for the service) ; [that is, 
who may teach thy word, and render it progressive]. 

* The earliest occurrence of Asha Vahwta. The Pahlavi : ' Since 
the best thing that Thou hast [Thy Religion] is better than all other 
things, the best through Righteousness.' 

4 See verses 7 and 8. 

* In the millennial (sic) renovation as well as in heaven. See 
chap. XXX, 4, where Vahwta Manah is equivalent to heaven. The 
Pahlavi gloss has : Atgh Frash6xtar va hSvixtan 1 Frashdrtar, vad 
tanu i pasfno ham&i nadukth pa</af vadun ; that is, for Frashdrtar 
and the disciples of Frashdrtar for ever, until the final body provide 
a benefit thereby. 

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10. And (impressed and moved) by these gifts of 
strengthening grace 1 (which Thou may'st give in 
answer to these prayers) may we never anger You, 
O Ahura Mazda ! (nor Thy) Righteousness (within 
us), nor yet Thy Kindly Mind (toward us), since we 
have most earnestly made effort (helping to advance 
Your cause) in the (chanted) 2 offering of Your 
praisers, for most easy to be invoked (are Ye), 
(Yours are verily both) the desire for (spiritual) 
blessings (for us), and the (Divine) Possession (of 
their power) 8 . 

11. And therefore do Thou, O Lord, the Great 
Creator ! fill up and satisfy (my 4 ) desire with these 
attainments (of the grace) of Thy Good Mind, which 
Thou dost know to be derived from Righteousness, 
(and) which (are verily) sublime 6 , for I have known' 

1 Possibly, ' may we not anger you with our prayers for these 
blessings/ Kfm me havyam ahrm&no ^usheta. 

* That daseme" may now better be referred to a similar root 
with dasvare, I regard the more probable because the Pahlavi 
also freely renders as if it so understood. Its author knew the 
meaning of dasema=daxama. One is reminded of course of the 

* The Pahlavi with its peculiar view of an&Lr (not to be rejected 
too confidently ; see note at another occurrence of it) is interesting 
(as corrected by the Persian MS.): On account of a not-coming 
to you, O Auharmazdl This I would not do [ ]. Ashavahut 
also I will not pain for the sake of a blessing; [that is, I do 
not desire a single blessing which appears displeasing to Asha- 
vahut (this turn of the sense is followed by some who have hitherto 
opposed tradition, but I cannot follow it, although I value every hint 
of the ancient writers). Also Vohuman, the excellent [I do not 
harass him]. 

* Or, ' to those whom thou seest as creatures (?) of V. fill up the 
desire with attainments.' 

* Possibly, 'the righteous,' erethwoig; cp. rrtSVanas (?). Pahl. 
trans. ' 1 friruno.' • Possibly, ' I obtain.' 

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Thine instructions to be never void l of their effect 
(in the struggles) for our (daily) food 2 , and therefore 
worthy objects of desire s . 

12. (Yea, I approach Thee with my prayers, I) 
who by these (great gifts of grace) will * protect 
(Thy) Divine Righteousness, and (Thy) Good Mind 
(within us) for ever. And do Thou therefore, O 
Ahura Mazda ! teach me from Thyself, yea, from 
Thine own mouth of spirit, that I may declare it 
forth to (these Thy waiting people) by what (powers 
and according to what laws 6 ) the primeval world 
arose 6 ! 

1 Ner. has analaso(-a/4) for asuna more correctly than the Pahlavi 

* Or, ' well reaching their aim;' but the Pahlavi translator gives 
his evidence for the meaning 'food'=khurwn6. Recall the con- 
stant prayers for nourishment in the 2?tks. And as favouring the 
ancient translation, see XXIX, 7, where 'food for the eaters' is 
declared to be the gift of God, who is at the same time ' bounteous 
with his doctrine.' 

8 Neryosangh : Evaw ye dharmasya vettaraA * uttamasyaia diter 
manasaA [ ] ekahelayS* MahS^ninin SvSminl tebhyaA* purnaw 
pari^inohi* k&mam ; [kila, [ ] fubhaw tebhyaA kuru]. Evaw^a igis- 
neA* analaso labhatim khadyani vastr&riia vadanena. 

* One is tempted to read nipoungh/as an infinitive, but the Pahlavi 
translation anticipates us all with its more critical bard netrunam. 

6 This question is answered in Y. XXX. 

* Ner. improving upon the Pahlavi has as follows : Yadi sunirik- 
shanataya dharmam p&layami manaria* uttamam sadSpravr/ttaye ; 
[kila, £et satyasya sadvy£pirasya£a raksham karomij. Tvam tat * 
Mahi^nSnin Svtmin I prakmh/am me jikshipaya* [ ] \iH. Adrwya 
Tvatto mukhena [sphu/aya] antar bhuvane purvaw babhuva [t£m 
sr»'sh/im me bruhi]. 

A translation truly remarkable considering the circumstances 
under which it was made. 

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The Doctrine of Dualism. 

1. Accustomed to instruct the masses who throng him on public 
occasions seeking light, the composer constructs this hymn for 
similar opportunities. He may be regarded as continuing the 
thoughts in the close of Y. XXVIII, where he besought Ahura to 
inform him concerning the origin of the world. He says that he 
will declare the counsels of God, by which, as we see, he means 
the great doctrines concerning the origin of good and evil. With 
these he will declare also the praises, the laudatory portions of the 
MSthra, and the sacrifices. And he prays that propitious results 
may be discerned in the heavenly bodies. 

2. He further introduces what he has to say by telling the 
throngs before him that a decisive moment is upon them. They 
are to choose their religion, and not by acclamation with the 
foolish decision of a mob, but man by man, each individually for 
himself. They should therefore arouse themselves and hear with all 
attention, and gaze at the holy Fire with a good and receptive 
disposition of mind. 

3. He then delivers the earliest statement of dualism which has 
come down to us. There were two original spirits, and they are 
called, be it well noted, not two persons, or at least not only two 
persons, but a better thing, or principle, and a worse one. (The 
qualifying words are all in the neuter '.) 

At the next sentence they are personified as a pair, each inde- 
pendent in hi's thoughts, declarations, and actions. Such is the 
short Theodicy, followed at once by an admonition to those before 
him to choose the better. 

4. These two spirits came together as by natural combination, 
to make the opposing phenomena of life and its absence, of Heaven 
and of Hell. 

And Hell is described not as a scene of cruelty inflicted on the 
innocent and the ignorant, but as ' the worst life,' and Heaven as 
equally remote from a superstitious paradise ; that is, as the ' best 
mental state.' 

1 It is also noticeable that the name Angra Mainyu does not occur in this 

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This is the proper Zarathurtrian creation. It is undeniably 
' abstract,' very, and just in proportion as it lacks colour and myth 
are its depths visible. The account of it is also very limited. But 
it must never be forgotten that its existence is the probable proof 
that very much more of the kind existed beside it. Instead of there 
being one hymn sung like this, Y. XXX, there were probably 
many. The two original forces or beings, although separate 
clearly, come together; but they do not lose their distinction. 
Their difference remains as clear as their union. 5. They do not 
blend unrecognisably ; for having created the two principles, they 
choose each his own particular realm. Ahura chooses the righteous 
order of religion, and with it the pious of all ages. The evil spirit 
chooses the wicked. 

The point and meaning of the entire doctrine is that a good 
God cannot be responsible for permanent evil ; that imperfection 
and suffering are original, and inherent in the nature of things, 
and permanently so. The swallowing up of sin and sorrow in 
ultimate happiness belongs to a later period. It is not Githic 
Zarathurtrianism. Evil was the work of an independent being. 

The great thinker saw his point; and it was that the Deity 
Himself could not prevent the evolution of base and revolting 
moral qualities with their consequent miseries in both victim and 
aggressor. An evil God was therefore their author. 

6. But the blood-feuds of War, not to speak of the theological 
animosity, were too much for his philosophy. The sage could not 
regard all men and their circumstances with broad and equable 

The hated Daeva-worshippers, who were doubtless equally con- 
scientious with the Zarathurtrians, are said to have failed of correct 

As they were deliberating, so he recalls, the Worst Mind, a very 
real although ' abstract ' Satan, came upon them, to induce them to 
choose him and his evil realm. They acceded, becoming furious 
in their intention to injure human life. This may be regarded as a 
dramatic, but at the same time, in a moral sense, a philosophical 
statement of a temptation and fall. (For a later one, with more 
colour and less truth, see the temptation proper of Zarathurtra 
himself 1 , recalling as it does so vividly the temptation in the 

7. If we can accept the words ahmSi^i to mean merely ' upon 

1 Comp. Vd. XIX, 1-10. Consider how much time would be required for 
the name of Zarathrurtra to become so involved in myth. 

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this,' we may hold that the statements proceed without a break. Even 
a gap of lost verses does not interrupt the sense. The clothing of 
souls with bodies seems indicated. If so, the doctrine of the Fravashis, 
otherwise foreign to the Gathas.may have its origin by inference here, 
and directly in verse 4. After the creation and first activity of 
the souls of the Archangels on the one hand, and of the Da&vas 
on the other, together with their respective human adherents, the 
one choosing good and the other evil, the remaining Ameshdspends 
unite with Aramaiti in bestowing a body upon the newly created soul. 
(So we must conclude from the language.) And the prophet 
breaks in with the prayer that in the future, and possibly at the 
Frashakar^ the completion of progress, these created souls might 
possess such advantages as they had when Ahura came at first with 
his acts of creation ; that is, that they might be restored again to 
a state of sinless happiness, provided with bodies by Aramaiti as at 
the first. (See Yart XIX, 89.) 

8. But, as he implies, and perhaps expresses in a lost verse, 
vengeance shall come upon the wretched beings who choose the 
Evil Mind as their master. And it shall come, not in the abstract 
merely by any means, but as executed by a numerous, if not once 
predominant party, 'the offspring of the Evil Mind.' And when 
this shall have been completed (and XXXI, 18 shows us that the 
weapons to be used to bring it about were not to be those of 
verbal argument alone) then, as he declares with enthusiasm, ' to 
God shall be the Kingdom,' a Kingdom established in the Divine 
Benevolence, which will pervade its organic life, and which will 
likewise, as the personified ' Immortal,' utter encouragements and 
commands to its loyal citizens. And these citizens will then not 
only defeat the Lie-demon, who is the life of the Dafiva-party, but 
they will deliver her up as a captive to the great Genius of Truth, 
the personified Righteousness. 9. And, as he ardently hoped for the 
coming of the Kingdom into the hands of Ahura, he as ardently 
beseeches that he and his coadjutors, the princes already named, 
may be honoured as the immediate agents in bringing on this 
' millennial ' completion ; nay, he even prays that they may be as 
Ahuras ' in merciful services, declaring that all their thoughts were 
centred in that scene where religious light dwelt as personified in 
her home. 

10. Once more he announces the certain defeat and chastise- 
ment of the incarnate falsehood and her adherents, which enables 

1 As the Ahuras of Mazda, the Amesh&spends. 

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him only the more impressively to describe the rapid reunion of 
the righteous amid the home-happiness of Heaven. 

1 1. Having delivered his brief but weighty communication, he 
commends his hearers for learning the holy vows of the Religion on 
account of the duration of the announced rewards and punishments. 
They shall be long indeed ; and upon their complete inauguration 
full salvation shall be realised for those who shall have learned and 
heeded the invaluable truths. 


i. And now I will proclaim, O ye who are 
drawing near and seeking 1 to be taught! those 
animadversions 2 which appertain to Him who 
knows (all things) whatsoever; the praises which 
are for Ahura, and the sacrifices (which spring) 
from the Good Mind, and likewise the benignant 
meditations inspired by Righteousness. And I 
pray 3 that propitious results may be seen in the 

1 As ' ish ' means approaching with desire, the Pahlavi translator 
has, freely, khvatmno. 

* Read mSzdatha. 

8 So with long 8; but ya£>ta (P" supported by the Pahl.) may be 
the lost dual neuter of the pronoun, referring to the two principles 
discussed below. Y£*>fca=I pray for, although the most natural 
rendering grammatically, does not seem so well adapted here, as a 
prayer for the success of his communication does not harmonise with 
the otherwise dogmatic statements of the composer. The urvata 
(vrata) founded upon the doctrine of dualism bring about salvation. 
They may therefore be touched upon in this introductory verse. 
And that the heavenly bodies contained indications bearing directly 
or indirectly upon human destiny seems to have been early an 
accepted doctrine. (Compare also chap. XXIX, 3, where 'the 
lofty fires ' seem alluded to as moved by the Deity, and this in 
immediate connection with the discussion of the most important 
problems concerning the fate of the holy community.) It is, how- 
ever, not impossible that the lights of the altar may have been 
meant. (See su£a in the second verse.) The Pahlavi translation 

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2. Hear ye then with your ears ; see ye the bright 
flames ' with the (eyes of the) Better Mind. It is for 
a decision as to religions, man and man, each indi- 
vidually for himself. Before the great effort of the 
cause, awake ye 2 (all) to our 3 teaching ! 

3. Thus are the primeval spirits who as a pair * 
(combining their opposite strivings), and (yet each) 
independent in his action, have been famed (of old). 
(They are) a better thing, they two, and a worse 6 , 
as to thought, as to word, and as to deed. And 
between these two let the wisely acting choose aright. 
(Choose ye *) not (as) the evil-doers 7 ! 

has den rdshand pavan vgnuno hu-ravakh-manih. As to y&*&& 
or ya&ia, the Pahlavi does not favour a verbal form. But if the pro- 
noun is accepted, even then change is needed; yae^aya=ye^aye"na 
is hardly possible. We should be obliged to render : And which 
two things (were those?) whereby (adverbially) propitious results 
have been seen in the stars. Others have experienced difficulty, 
and even ashaya££a(?) has been conjecturally suggested for this 
place and chap. LI, 2. Neither Sp. nor Westg. report a long 6. 

1 G6sh£n5 srurf nydkhshunih [aigha* gdsh bara varammunt/j — 
Zak t rdshano. Otherwise 'with the eye;' but see ya rao&bix 
daresata urvaza. The altar-flame would not unnaturally be men- 
tioned after the heavenly lights. 

* Literally, '(be ye) wakeful.' 

s Hardly, ' to teach us.' Possibly, ' to teach this, each one.' 
4 Pahl. transcribes. Notice that paouruye" (pourviyS) is neut.* as 
are vahyd and akem£4, which is not lightly to be passed over. 

• The Pahlavi freely: Benafrman — [aigluan& vinis va kirfak 
benafrman bara yemalelunrf]. They announced themselves as sin 
and good works. Ner. yau pu«ya« papa»a£a svaya** avo£ata/». 

6 Bara vi^W. Ner. vibhaktavan*. If a third plural subjunctive, 
still the force is as if imperative. Possibly it is preterit. 

7 On this important verse I cite Neryosangh. He may be 
rendered as follows : Thus the two spirits [Hormi^da and Ahar- 
mana] who uttered first in the world each his own (principle); [that 
is, who each uttered, one his own good (deed), and the other his 
own sin], these were a pair, in thought, word, and deed, a highest 

* Adverb (?). 

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Google ' 

c ■ 


4. (Yea) when the two spirits came together at 
the first to make 1 life, and life's absence 2 , and to 
determine how the world at the last shall be (ordered), 
for the wicked (Hell) the worst life, for the holy 
(Heaven) the Best Mental State 3 , 

5. (Then when they had finished each his part in 
the deeds of creation, they chose distinctly each his 
separate realm.) He who was the evil of them both 
(chose the evil), thereby working 4 the worst of possible 
results, but the more bounteous spirit 6 chose the 

and a degraded one. And of these two, the one endowed with 
good intelligence [ ] was the distinguisherof the true, and not the one 
endowed with evil intelligence [ ]. (Both he and the Pahlavi fail to 
credit a plural form in ere* vlshyata with Spiegel and Hflbschmann.) 

The Gathic verbatim. Yea (= thereupon) the-two the-two-spirits 
the-two-first-things which-two two-twins two-self-acting-ones were- 
heard-of in-thought in-word-and in-deed these-two a-better an-evil- 
and. Of-which-two-and the wisely-acting (ones) aright may discern, 
not the evil-acting ones. 

1 The Pahlavi read as an infinitive, dazd£=av5 zak dahuno. 
(So also an important authority recently.) Otherwise it has the 
place of a third dual perfect ; ' they two made.' The place of an 
infinitive is not generally at the end of a sentence in Githic. Can 
it be simply a third singular ? ' (Each) makes ' (iamasa' kar6ti). 

* Pavan zendakih — va muni/4 azendakih. Ner. £ivitena£a a^tvi- 
tena£a. Observe the singular abstract zgy&tfmki, which is not 
lightly to be passed over. Why not a more ordinary expression ? 
Have we not here an unusual antithesis ? The danger is great that 
by aiming to reduce all to commonplace for the sake of safety, we 
may demolish many an interesting conception of antiquity. 

s Observe the subjectivity. These verses settle the question as 
to the depth of the Zarathurtrian hymns. Grammar forces us to 
see that the composer had large ideas. The entire cast of reflection 
in the Gathas tends to be abstract as well as subjective. Not so 
their invective and partisan exhortations. 

4 Verezy6 is a nom. sing, masc, as would seem natural from its 
position in the sentence. Compare mathrai* verezyair. 

• Observe that Ahura is undoubtedly called spenifta mainyu. 
Elsewhere we must sometimes render, * His bountiful spirit' 

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(Divine) Righteousness; (yea, He so chose) who 
clothes upon Himself the firm 1 stones of heaven 
(as His robe). And He chose likewise them who 
content Ahura with actions, which (are performed) 
really in accordance with the faith a . 

6. And between these two spirits the Demon-gods 
(and they who give them worship) can make no 
righteous choice 3 , since we have beguiled 4 them. 
As they were questioning and debating in their 
council 8 the (personified *) Worst Mind approached 
them that he might be chosen. (They made their 

1 Zak f sakht sag nihufto asmaniA. Ner. G&ftataram * aklram 

* ' Who with actions really good piously content Ahura.' Let it 
be noticed that fraore/ is not independently translated by the Pah- 
lavi. It is freely included in avo Auharmazd ; and yet this is sup- 
posed by some to be a word-for-word rendering 1 Ner. praka/ai ska 

Verbatim. Of-these-two spirits he-chose-to-himself (he)-who 
(was) the evil (the one) the worst (deeds) working*. The- Righteous- 
Order (accusative) (chose) the spirit most-bountiful (he-)who the 
most-firm stones clothes-on-himself, (those) who-and will-content 
Ahura with real actions believingly Mazda. 

(Properly a verbatim rendering is only possible in an inflected 

' La risto vi^tnfind. They suffer judicial blindness ; a common 
idea in the Gathas ; compare, ' who holds them from the sight of 
the truth,' Ac. 

* The root is indicated by va muni£ valmam&n frtft. I can 
see no escape from the above rather adventurous rendering. See 
also dafshnya he»tu in chap. LIII, 8. Perhaps the idea of injury 
here preponderates over that of deceit; 'since we have impaired 
their power.' The choice between a preterit or an improper sub- 
junctive is also difficult. Possibly, ' so that we may fatally deceive 
them.' Poss. nom. ' deception came upon them, even A. M.' 

• This recalls VendidSd XIX, 45, where the demons assemble 
in council to consider the advent of Zarathurtra. 

• Compare verse 4, where Vahirtem Man6 equals heaven. The 

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fatal decision.) And thereupon they rushed together 
unto the Demon of Fury, that they might pollute * 
the lives of mortals 2 . 

7. Upon this 8 Aramaiti (the personified Piety of 
the saints) approached, and with her came the Sove- 
reign Power, the Good Mind, and the Righteous 
Order. And (to the spiritual creations of good and of 
evil) Aramaiti gave a body, she the abiding and ever 
strenuous *. And for these (Thy people) so let 6 (that 

word is the subject of 'gasa/,' and has the proper place of a 
nominative in the sentence ; cp. Vedic usage. 

1 That they might disease (so literally) the lives of those who 
had not yet been tempted or fallen. 

The Pahlavi: Vtmartniiio ahvan ! marrfuman [aigh, levatman 
aeshm aiuutaan ahukfnSna']. 

Ner. : Ye n^aghnur bhuvanam manushy&nim. 

Hubschmann: 'urn durch ihnPlagen fiber dasLeben desMenschen 
zu bringen.' 

! Verbatim. Of these two spirits not aright may choose the 
Daevas, since these we have beguiled (or have injured). To the- 
questioning ones upon came-he in-order-that he might-be-chosen 
(subjunctive middle) he-the worst mind. Thereupon to-furious- 
rapine they rushed-together in-order-that (yena) they might disease 
(or ruin) the-life of-man. 

3 Or, 'to him;' some unnamed benefactor ; hardly 'to us.' The 
Pahlavi has, avo valman, but Ner. has only tatrafe. Observe ahmai 
in chap. XLIII, 1, and in chap. XL VII. 

4 Root an = in. The Pahlavi freely, pavan astublh. He seems 
to have thought of nam + a priv. 

Kehrpem is feminine. Anma may be a neuter in apposition. 

Otherwise we must accept -m& as a suffix. Or can kehrpem 
(corpus) be a neuter here ? The clothing of the spirits with cor- 
poreal natures enabled them to advance in the development of 
moral qualities by self-restraint and pursuit. As has been observed 
in the summary, no Fravashis appear in the Gathas. Have we here 
possibly an indication of the pre-existence of souls ? If Aramaiti 
gave a body, it may be inferred that a period elapsed between the 
acts of the two spirits and this. 

' That bodies are to be given to the saints as at the first is to 

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body) be (at the last), O Mazda! as it was when 
Thou earnest first with creations 1 ! 

8. And (when the great struggle shall have been 
fought out which began when the Daevas first seized 
the Demon of Wrath as their ally 2 ), and when the 
(just) vengeance shall have come upon these wretches, 
then, O Mazda! the Kingdom shall have been 
gained for Thee by (Thy) Good Mind (within Thy 
folk). For to those, O living Lord ! does (that Good 
Mind 8 ) utter his command, who will deliver the 
Demon of the Lie into the two hands* of the 
Righteous Order (as a captive to a destroyer). 

9. And may we be such as those who bring on 

be inferred from Yart XIX, 89. (Which see in part ii of the 
translations of the Zend-Avesta.) 

1 Verbatim. To-this (to us ?)-and with-Khshathra came, with- 
Manah Vohu, with Asha-and (Aramaiti) thereupon a-body the-con- 
tinuing gave Ar(a)maiti the strenuous (Aramaiti, or the body, a 
vigorous and strenuous thing). 

Of these thine (or to thee) to let-it (the body)-be as thou-camest 
in-creations the-first. 

1 See verse 6. 

5 What else can be the subject of sasti ? 

* Observe the pronounced personification of Righteousness. As 
a matter of course the ultimate sense is more commonplace, as is the 
case with all poetical matter. ' Into the hands of Asha,' is the same 
as to say, ' into the power of the servant of God.' 

But would this be a proper mode of rendering a line of real 
though rudely primitive poetry ? Such renderings are commentary 
rather than translation. The Pahlavi may be rendered as follows : 
Thus also in that creation [in the final body] hatred comes to these 
haters and sinners ; [that is, the avengers shall execute chastisement 
upon them]. And, therefore, O AOharmazd! what to thee is the sove- 
reignty, by that (so possibly) shall Vohuman give a reward. Through 
these, O Auharmazd 1 [through the religion of Auharmazd], when 
one is instructed in Righteousness, [that is, as to the interests of the 
pious] then the Dr% is given into one's hand, [the Drflg' who is 

[31] D 

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this great renovation, and make this world progres- 
sive, (till its perfection shall have been reached). 
(As) the Ahuras of Mazda 1 (even) may we be ; (yea, 
like Thyself), in helpful readiness to meet 2 (Thy 
people), presenting (benefits 8 ) in union with the 
Righteous Order. For there* will our thoughts 
be (tending) where true wisdom shall abide in her 
home 6 . 

10. (And when perfection shall have been attained) 
then shall the blow of destruction fall upon the 
Demon of Falsehood, (and her adherents shall 
perish with her), but swiftest in the happy abode 
of the Good Mind and of Ahura the righteous saints 

1 Otherwise, 'the Ahura-Mazdas,' or, 'O Mazda and the Ahuras!' 
I think that the most natural rendering according to the grammar 
should first be given, notwithstanding something uncommon about 
it. 'All the Ahura-Mazdas,' has been seen by Roth in chapter 
XXXI, 4. 

1 The Pahlavi has the gloss [atghjin hamtshakS han^aman 
madam tanft 1 pasfno kunirno], needlessly enlarged of course, but 
showing the proper root, which is mi/ ; (so Spiegel.) 

* Or possibly sustaining (the feeble). The Pahlavi reads simply 

4 The Pahlavi renders hathri in the Indian sense as asSr*, end- 
lessly; so others elsewhere. Hathra' and yathri are of course 
distinctly in antithesis. 

6 The Pahlavi mihSnS, Persian makin. That mafithd is an ad- 
verbial instrumental meaning, 'in one's home,' seems the more 
probable from the two hathrS, yathrS, adverbs of place. Compare, 
for instance, athra-yathri in XLVI, 16, where sha&ti follows. 
Httbschmann, 'Dort mogen (unsre) Sinne sein, wo die Weisheit 
thront ;' see also huritfiw in the next verse. 

The Parsi-persian MS. has — Aeduno (sic) ham m£ kih in i tu 
hastam (sic) ; [ku &n i tu 'hw8f hastam] In — rastd'hiz kardan 
andar gih&a. 

(c) Kih — minim b6d [ku minim pah — ddrad] a* £ng& danai 
hast [ku, i'hir i iiz pah nSki bih danad] andar makan. 

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shall gather, they who proceed in their walk (on 
earth) in good repute x (and honour) 2 . 

ii. Wherefore, O ye men! ye are learning s (thus) 
these religious incitations which Ahura gave in (our) 
happiness* and (our) sorrow 4 . (And ye are also learn- 
ing) what is the long wounding for the wicked, and 
the blessings which are in store for the righteous. 
And when these (shall have begun their course), 
salvation shall be (your portion 6 )! 

1 Pahlavi, ' mun vadund zak ! .tapir namtkih=they are creating 
a good repute,' as if zazente" were understood in the sense of pro- 
duce. See the sense 'bear' as given for ha, Rig-veda 843, 2 (X, 
1 7). The analogy is, however, not strong. 

a The Pahlavi translation may here be rendered as follows : Thus 
in that dispensation [in the later body] the Dru^ [who is Gan- 
rak Minavad] will be overthrown [ ] when (his) host is scattered. 
Thus they move keenly on [to seize the reward], which is attained 
through the good citizenship of Vohuman [when they shall have 
dwelt in piety]. They who are creating a good renown are thus 
moving on toward Auharmazd and Ashavahixt [that is, the person 
who is of good repute goes forward to seize the reward]. 

* Once more the anomalous form amukhtLrn6 meets us in the 
Pahlavi. May this not be intended to express ' learning,' whereas 
amuzw n6 would express ' teaching ? ' I hardly think so. 

* The Pahlavi translation is only remotely if at all responsible 
for AvhiAa as=sua sponte. This would require Afiti as=*Av&ii with 
difficulty comparing ' yim ' and ' y*m '(?). It is generally considered 
now as=hu + iti ; but the letter f= > ^ seems doubtful 

6 Read aniti=* with impeded progress.' ' In prosperity or adver- 
sity.' But these are conjectures. 

* The Pahlavi : Agtuno akhar valmaoran alt5 nadukfh. I do 
not think that we ought to regard the words of the original as 
expressing universal restoration. But they may well have given the 
first indication toward this later view. Literally, they state it, but 
not when correctly understood. 

(Supplementary note. The Pahlavi word ydmaf which transcribes 
yosnl in verse 4 cannot mean ' by day.' Its imperfect form induced 
the translators to translate ruzha and bhumandale, but these scholars, 
as in many other instances, hinted at a correction.) 

D 2 

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36 the gAthas. 

The Progress and Struggles of the Cause. 

This composition differs from that in XXX as descending from 
the more general to the particular, and from the doctrinal to the 
practical. One might even trace an immediate connection, urvati 
occurring in the last verse of the one and in the first of the other. 
It is, of course, very possible that the verses before us are only a 
remnant of those which originally constituted the piece, and here 
and there one may have been interpolated from other scriptures. 

Some writers prefer to assume a loss of the original text or an 
addition to it at the smallest change of tone, and to assume also 
a change of subject with it I do not regard it as very useful 
to lay too much stress upon these occurrences. 

Whether caused by gaps or interpolations, they do not at all 
affect the fact that the subject-matter is homogeneous and contem- 
poraneous ; and, probably, like many more modern compositions, 
the verses gain in rhetorical effect by being weeded of repetitions. 

We might divide as follows i, 2, an address to the congregation 
to be connected with XXX as its concluding words; 3-5, an 
address to Ahura; 6, an address to the faithful; 7-17, to Ahura; 
18, to the congregation; 19, to Ahura; 20, 21, to the congregation; 
22, an addition. 

Treating the section then as containing homogeneous matter 
which combines well into a unit, I proceed as follows. The sage 
chants his hymn in the presence of the multitude as before. 

1. He declares that while he is reciting things unwillingly heard 
by the hostile party, those same truths are valued as the best of 
existing things by those who are sincerely devoted to Mazda, their 
good disposition quickening their perception. 

2. He then declares that if the truths of the holy Religion are 
not yet clearly seen by the instrumentalities provided, he will ap- 
proach them still more effectively in accordance with the especial 
regulation of the spiritual chieftainship, which Ahura Mazda had 
prepared in response to the lament of the soul of the Kine ; i. e. of 
the Iranian herds and people possibly as representing the entire 
holy, or clean, creation upon earth. And he further asserts that 
this regulation concerns the struggle of the two parties, and will 
bring the cause of the Righteous Order to a successful issue. 

3. Changing his address to Ahura, he proceeds to pray at once 

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for that satisfying decision which would be the natural result of the 
regulation just promised, and which could be given by the instru- 
mentality of the Sacred Fire and holy ritual, affording mental keen- 
ness to the two contending parties. And he declares that this is 
the doctrine which should be proclaimed for the conversion of 
mankind. Here we observe that the Zarathurtrian Mazda-worship 
was aggressive and missionary in its spirit, and in a proselyting 
sense by no means indifferent to the final destiny of the Gentile 
world. (The later and traditional system announced indeed the 
restoration and so the conversion of all men, and that not as an 
object proposed to the efforts of charity, but as a necessary result 
(so by inference; see BundahLr (West), pp. 126, 129). I can find 
no trace of this in the Githas. 
Here we have only the effort to convert.) 

4. Addressing all the Bountiful Immortals, and with the striking 
title of the Ahuras of Mazda, he prays for the establishment of the 
' mighty kingdom ' by means of which he might overcome the per- 
sonified and aggressive falsehood of the opposing and persecuting 

5. In order to enable himself to fulfil his mission, he asks for 
prophetic and judicial knowledge as to what ought to be done, or 
as to what is about to happen in the immediate future. 

6. He lauds the MSthra which we may suppose him to recognise 
as delivered to him afresh in answer to his prayer for prophetic 
light, and he praises co-ordinately with the Word of God that 
Sovereign Authority of Ahura, which was to be established in a 
kingdom where goodness would increase, and be prosperous, if 
not predominant. 

7. He takes the heavenly bodies as evidence of the wisdom of 
Him who created the Sacred Order personified as the ' Immortal ' 
Asha, and also the Good Mind, his equal. And he ascribes the 
support and extension of their hallowing influence to Ahura, be- 
cause He never changes. 

8. He reiterates, in expressions which form the basis for another 
hymn, his conception of Mazda as the supreme object of devotion, 
as the father of the Good Mind personified as His child, as the 
creator of the Righteous Order, and as both the controller and the 
judge of human actions. Therefore the Good Mind and Right- 
eousness are to be worshipped as standing in the closest possible 
relation to him. 

9. He ascribes the ' Immortal ' Piety to Him as well. She is 
His own, and elsewhere His own daughter. He is declared, as in 

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38 the gAthas. 

chapter XXIX, to be the Creator of the Kine, and of Under- 
standing, (His own intelligence), to guide Him in the disposition of 
the destiny of the holy Iranian people. And according to it He 
makes the path for the Kine, which as a matter of course has no 
meaning as applied to bucolics, but is full of meaning when read in 
view of the wail of the Kine's Soul in chapter XXIX, and of the 
intervention of the Deity in her behalf, for He actually appointed 
Zarathurtra to meet her necessities. He adds, however, that her 
free choice is not abolished by the construction 'of this path.' It is 
elsewhere called the ' religion of the Saviour-prophets,' and she is 
free to proceed in it, guided by the first prophet, the ideal husband- 
man, or she can follow the profaner nomad. 

10. But he thankfully exclaims that she does not pause in in- 
decision, nor does she choose perversely. She selects the guardian 
appointed by Ahura, the diligent and pious husbandman, elsewhere 
identified with Zarathurtra himself. He is rich with the spiritual 
wealth of the Good Mind ; and she rejects in his favour the idle and 
free-booting nomad, excluding him from all share in the sacred 
religious system. 

ii. The composer then delineates the struggle which inevitably 
follows this establishment of the needed means of deliverance. 
When Mazda has completed the inspiration of doctrines, teaching 
whither the one endowed with free volition (like the Kine [verse 
9] ) should direct his choice in action (12), there upon the spot, as it 
were, the ignorant DaSva-worshipper makes himself heard beside 
God's spokesman. But the prophet is consoled by the reflection 
that the pious mind will not question the evil Spirit, or the good 
Spirit superficially. It searches both the Spirits, questioning them, 
as it were, in their very home. (Hence it is that Ahura speaks so 
fully concerning Angra Mainyu, delineating his opposition to Him 
in extended detail. See XLV, 2.) 

13. The composer is still more reanimated by the certainty that 
Ahura is gazing into the depths of all questions, trivial and profound; 
which is to say that he observes most closely the men who are dis- 
cussing them. And he declares that he also sees the cruel injustice 
of the punishments which the tyrants visit upon the smallest offences, 
as well as the more flagrant wickedness of those who persecute his 
adherents without even a pretence of justice. 

14. As he recalls the divine forecasting omniscience, he asks 
Ahura once more concerning the future which was close at hand 
with its portentous events. And he inquires as to the nature of the 
veritable and not iniquitous confessions, which were properly due to 

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be made by the righteous believer in order to avert the impending 
calamities, and secure the upper hand in the struggle for the throne. . 
And he inquires also as to the proper expiatory prayers which were 
to be offered by the believer. He does not however fail to inquire 
analogously concerning the wicked, nor to ask how they, as well as 
the righteous, shall be situated in the final consummation. 

15. Particularising as to the latter, he asks what shall be the 
punishment for those who succeed in installing an evil monarch, 
one of the Daeva-party, a prince who cannot exist without the ruth- 
less persecution of the pious husbandman, who repudiates the Lie- 
demon presiding over the counsels and efforts of the opposing 

16. He further asks how "and by what actions the wise man may 
become like Ahura, or his faithful adherent, the expressions used 
implying deep religious feeling. 

1 7. Striving to arouse the perceptions of his hearers, he inquires 
as to which one of the two parties holds to the greater or more im- 
portant religion, the disciple of Asha, the personified Righteous 
Order Ahura's immediate creature (see above), or the opponent. 
And he prays that no blind guide may deceive him, or those who 
belong to him, ' but that the enlightened, yea, even Ahura Himself, 
may speak to him, and become the indicator and demonstrator of 
the truth.' 

18. Closing this address to the Deity, he turns to the congrega- 
tion, vehemently forbidding them to listen to the doctrines of his 
opponents, warning them against the ruin and death which would 
ensue, and fiercely appealing to the sword. 

19. Once more addressing Ahura, he prays that they may on the 
contrary listen to Him who has power to vindicate the conscientious 
Zarathurtrian, inculcating veracity upon him, and encouraging him 
in its practice ; and this by means of the holy sacrifice, or ordeal of 
the Fire. 

20. He solemnly warns those who would seduce the righteous of 
their ultimate fate, and adds that their sorrows will be self-induced, 
if they persevere in their hostility. Their own consciences (as we 
see from Yart XXII) would not only bring on their ruin, but 
would form a part of their punishment. 

21. On the other hand, happiness and immortality will be the lot 
of the faithful. And these 'eternal two' will be given to them, 
accompanied by the fulness of Righteousness, and the exuberant 
vigour of the Good and Kindly Mind within them and bestowing 
its blessings upon them. 

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22. In conclusion he apostrophises the manifest certainty of the 
truths which he declares, and, addressing Ahura, animates the 
faithful not merely with the hope of the objective recompense, but 
with the prospect of being efficient as servants of God. 


i. These doctrines (therefore) we are earnestly 
declaring to You as we recite them forth from 
memory, words (till now) unheard 1 (with faith) by 
those who by means of the doctrinal vows 2 of the 
harmful Lie are delivering the settlements of 
Righteousness to death, but words which are of the 
best unto those who are heartily devoted to Ahura 3 . 

2. And if by this means the indubitable truths* 
are not seen in the soul 6 , then as better (than these 
words) I will come to you all (in my person) with 

1 Roth, ' wollen wir Worte kflnden — ungern gehort von denen, 
welche nach des Unholds Geboten,' &c. Htlbschmann preferring 
' wir sprechen Worte nicht anhorbar fflr diejenigen ' (Casuslehre, s. 
223). A dative of the pronoun is certainly more natural than the abla- 
tive as inst. But on the whole agushtS seems better in its ordinary 
sense, although in so rendering we are obliged to supply a word. 

2 Valmanjan mun pavan afring&nfh t Drfi^ zak i Ahar&yth 
gfihan bard maren^ineW. 

" The Pahlavi may be rendered as follows : Both these benedic- 
tions, which I (we) recite as yours [the Avesta and Zand], we are 
teaching by word to him who is no hearer, [to the destroyer of 
sanctity (the heretical persecutor) [ ] ]. Those who utterly slay the 
world of righteousness through the benedictions of the T>ihg [ ], 
even those might be an excellent thing, if they would cause progress 
in what belongs to Auharmazd. 

4 Read perhaps advayao ; see the Pahlavi. Otherwise ' the way ' 
advSo as panthis; but the participle* does not agree. Compare 
for meaning kavfm advayantam, sakhS idvaySs.* 

6 The Pahlavi renders 'in the soul' freely by 'believes:' Pavan 
niktrixno 14 hSmnun&fo as pavan zak i agumanikth. The general 
indications are to be observed. 

* Is it aloe.? 

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that power, and in that way according to which 
Ahura Mazda knows and appoints His ruler 1 , that 
ruler over both the two (struggling) bands 2 , in 
order that we (in obedience to him), may live ac- 
cording to Righteousness 8 . 

3. And that keenness, that deciding satisfaction, 
which Thou hast given by (Thy) Spirit 4 , and (Thy) 
Fire, and by Thy Righteousness (itself) to the two 
battling (sides), do Thou declare unto us, O Ahura ! 
that vow which is for the seeing 6 (as those endowed 
with mental light). Yea, do Thou declare this that 
we may know it, O Mazda! With the tongue of 
Thy mouth do Thou speak it (that as I preach its 
mighty truths 7 ) I may make all the living believers*! 

1 Comp. chap. XXIX, 2, where the Ratu is discussed ; here the 
word might be the abstract 

* Roth, ' dieser beiden Parteien (Yasna XXXI).' 

* He repels and condemns the evil, and he hallows and helps 
the good. 

* Most striking is the use of mainyu. It is 'the Spirit '= God. 
It is ' His Spirit' It is also used of man's spirit 

* Or, ' from the two ara»i ; ' but see Ssayao in verse 2. The 
Pahlavi translator has avo patkan/arano shnakhtarih ; so uniformly. 
In Y. XL1II, 12, K5 and most MSS., except K4, and likewise 
excepting the printed B.V.S., read ran6iby6 which excludes the 
dual form ; also the fire is not mentioned there. It is however far 
from impossible that the present Pahlavi translation may be a growth 
beyond an earlier one more in accordance with ara«i. The strivers, 
or fighters, might describe the two rubbing-sticks (?). 

* Aimar (sic), vig&rd&r. This meaning suits the connection ad- 
mirably. The word is otherwise difficult, and this general sense is 
followed by some who do not so often cite the Pahlavi translator. 

7 See verse 1. 

* Roth, 'wie ich alle lebenden bekehren soil.' So also the general 
indication of the Pahlavi translator. Pavan huzvanS t Lak — 
zfvandakan harvist-gun hfimnund. Observe that the religious 
system contemplated universal proselytism. 

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4. And when the Divine Righteousness shall be 
inclined to my appeal 1 , and with him all those 
(remaining ones who are as) Mazda's 2 (own) Ahuras 
then with the blessedness (of the reward), with (my) 
Piety and with Thy Best Mind (active within me), I 
will pray 3 for that mighty Kingdom by whose force* 
we may smite the Lie-demon 8 . 

5. Aye, do Thou tell me that I may discern it, 
since through (Thy) Righteous Order the better (lot) 
is e given ; tell me this that I may know it with (Thy) 
Good Mind (as it speaks within me), and that I may 
ponder 7 that to which these my truths 8 belong (and 

1 The general indications karitunt&r and bavihunam point to the 
proper sense. 

* Or, with Roth, ' wenn wirklich sich rufen lassen die Ahura- 
Mazdas.' Otherwise, ' O Mazda and the Ahuras.' HUbschmann also 
maintained that Mazdau was here a plural ; (see his Y. XXX, 10.) 

3 Roth, rendering ishasi in accordance with the Pahlavi, 'erbitte 

* Miin pavan zak 1 valman gurdih — khushido Drbgo ae" sufficiently 
indicates the proper sense. Roth, ' kraft deren wir den Unhold 
bemeistern mogen.' 

6 The Pahlavi may be rendered thus : Since in that dispensation 
[in the final body], I shall be an invoker of Ashavahut, and of 
Auharmazd also [ ] ; and of her who is veneration ' Spendar- 
mad '[], I desire [that best of things which is the reward] of 
Vohuman. Let also that authority which belongs to my people 
[ ] be from the strong one [ ] by whose fortitude [ ] the Drug is 
overcome [ ]. 

* Literally, ' Ye gave.' 

7 I am far from sure that the indication of the Pahlavi is not 
correct here. According to it, when properly understood, we have 
here an accusative with the infinitive; 'that I should establish.' 
Its own translation is however avo li yehabunai. Mo»=man or 
mSm ; en(g)=% the nasal vowel. The Pahl. translator recognises 
men elsewhere as=mini.rno. It was from no ignorance (!) of the 
particular word that he wrote ' li ' here. 

* Or ' my prophet ; ' comp. rj'shi ; that is, ' that with which my 
prophet is concerned.' 

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of which my prophet speaks ; yea), tell me those 
things, O Mazda Ahura! which may not be, and 
which may be 1 . 

6 8 . And that verily shall be the best of all words 
to Him which the All-(wise one) will 8 declare to 
me in very deed, that word which is the Mathra of 
Welfare and of Immortality (for it proclaims His 
beneficent power). And to the Great Creator (shall 
there be) a Realm such as that (whose strength 
I asked for victory 4 ), and which (at the last) shall 
flourish 6 in its holiness to His (glory 6 ) ! 

7. (For He has sovereign control.) He who con- 
ceived of these (truths of the Mathra) as their first 
(inspirer), (and as He thought their existence they 

1 Or, possibly, ' which shall not be, or which shall be.' Is the 
subjunctive here used to express obligation ? Roth has ' was nicht 
sein soil oder was sein soil.' Ner. may be rendered as follows : 
Tell it to me distinctly [ ], that which is the highest gift, and 
which is given to me through sanctity ; [that is, because duty and 
righteousness are fulfilled by me, the best gift of thy reward (is 
gained) by this means ; but how is it possible to make it (actually) 
one's own?]. Grant me the knowledge through the best mind; 
[that is, declare that intelligence to me which comes through good 
conduct], and by which also safety is (secured) to me [ ]. And 
declare either that which is not, or that which is, O Great Wise 
One, the Lord 1 [ ]. 

• An interval of silence seems here to intervene, or lost verses 
leave an unexplained transition. The sage turns again to the 

• Vao*&7 K4 (Barth.). 4 See verse 4. 

• The Pahlavi has Auharmazd avSnd (sic) khurfayih Jand d6n 
valman vakhsh&/ Vohumano. 

• The Parsi-persian MS. is as follows : tj hast buland, kih in 
man agahtha (sic) gu-i Irkarah [ ] mansar i tamam raftani ; [ku, 
tamam pfcdaim pah rah i mansar biz an 'hw&ri i Hdrmuzd 
rasfed], kih pah §awa1> dSrad — bi-marg raftani azaj [ ]. Hdrmuzd 
— 'hudaf /Jand andar u afzaySd Bahman [Ku* pSdixahl pah tan 
1 mard— /fcandt (?) Hdrmuzd pah tan mihman]. 

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(all) as (His) glorious ' (conceptions first) clothed them- 
selves in the stars 8 ), He is through His understanding 
the Creator 8 of the Righteous Order. And thus 
likewise He supports His Beneficent Mind (in His 
saints). And these (holy creatures) may'st Thou 
cause to prosper by Thy Spirit (since they are Thine 
own), O Ahura Mazda! Thou who art for every 
hour the same* ! 

8. Therefore 5 , as the first 6 did I conceive of Thee, 
O Ahura Mazda ! as the one to be adored with the 
mind in the creation, as the Father of the Good 
Mind within us, when I beheld Thee 7 with my 
(enlightened) eyes as the veritable maker of our 
Righteousness, as the Lord of the actions of life 8 ! 

9. Thine, O Ahura! was Piety; yea, Thine, O 
Creator of the Kine! was understanding and the 

1 Mdnaj avo roshanih gumikhto khvarih. //z>athra' and khvarih 
can hardly mean ' comfortable ' here. ' Ease ' is the later sense. 

1 Rao&bfa certainly means, with illuminating objects, stars or 
shining lights. 

* Hubschmann, ' der SchSpfer des Asha.' — Casuslehre, s. 190. 

4 Pavan minavadiklh vakhshin&/ [ ] mun kevani£ ham khfo/ai. 

8 Compare the frequent expression ' spentem a/ ThwS meNht,' in 
chap. XLIII. 

' Roth, ' vornehmsten.' 

7 When I seized Thee (took Thee in) with my eye. The Pahlavi: 
Amatam [ ] pavan ham^ashmih av5 ham vakhdun*/ hdmanih. 

8 DSn ahvano pavan kunwno khurfai hdmanih. 

Ner. may be rendered as follows: Thus thou wert thought at 
the first by me, O Great Wise One, the Lord ! when thou wert 
engaged in the production of Gvahmana [ ]. In which (produc- 
tion) they apprehend the father of the Best Mind when they observe 
him with a full-faced look [ ]. (And thou art the father) of that 
creation which is manifestly righteous ; [that is, thou makest the purer 
creation good in conduct]. Thou art a King in the world as to 
action; [that is, where it is fitting to confer a benefit, and also 
where it is fitting to inflict a punishment, in each of these thou art 

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Spirit 1 , when Thou didst order a path for her ' 
(guiding). From the earth's tiller (aided 2 ) she goeth 3 . 
(in that allotted way), or from him who was never 
tiller. (Thy path hath given her choice 4 .) 

10. (But she did not pause in temptation.) Of 
the two she chose 6 the husbandman, the thrifty 
toiler in the fields 6 , as a holy master endowed with 
the Good Mind's wealth 7 . Never, Mazda! shall 

1 His spewta mainyu ; otherwise ' spiritual (understanding),' but 
mainyu is used elsewhere (verse 3 and 7) alone, and certainly not 
as an adjective even with a substantive understood. The render- 
ing ' spirit ' as ' Thy spirit ' is suspiciously significant ; but what is 
the help ? We are forced by grammar so to translate. 

* The ablative has this force as in Asha/ ha£a. 

* I can hardly accede to an infinitive here: -te" is a rare infinitive 
termination in Gathic. Also the infinitive seldom falls to the end 
of the sentence. The Pahlavi has yatun&/, a present ; but the 
Pahlavi should never be positively cited for the forms, as it is free. 

4 Observe that we are forced by every dictate of logic and 
common sense to avoid the commonplace rendering here. Cattle 
do not have 'paths' made for them, nor do they cry aloud for an 
overseer, or complain at the appointment of one who does not 
appear to them promising ; nor is it one main effort of religion 
'to content the soul of cattle.' Cattle, as the chief article of 
wealth, are taken to signify all civic life. The ' path ' is the path 
for the people to walk in, securing safety for soul and life and 
herds. The adhvan is ' the way' which ' is the religious character- 
istics and teachings of the prophets' (XXXIV, 13). 

8 Observe that this cow (some would say ' ox ') chooses her 
master, unlike other cattle. But observe also, what is more inter- 
esting, that she seems reconciled to the guardian appointed by 
Ahura. In Y. XXIX, 9, she actually ' wept ' at the naming of the 
pusillanimous Zaratruutra, desiring a kingly potentate. Now, how- 
ever, we see that she must have dried her tears, as she is satisfied 
with the simple workman whom he represents notwithstanding 
high rank. 

* In the later Avesta this first vastrya £raya«t is declared to be 

7 Man fruih pavan Vohuman5. 

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46 the gAthas. 

the thieving 1 nomad share the good creed 2 . (For 
the Kine's choice would bestow it 8 !) 

ii. (And this doctrine was the first of rules to 
regulate our actions. Yet the opposer speaks beside 
Thee.) For when first, O Ahura Mazda! Thou 
didst create the (holy) settlements, and didst reveal 
the religious laws* ; and when Thou gavest (us) 
understanding from Thine own mind, and madest 
our (full) bodily life 6 , and (didst thus determine) 
actions (by Thy power), and didst moreover deliver 
to us (nearer) injunctions whereby (as by a rule) the 
wisher may place his choices 6 , 

1 2. (There strife at once arose, and still is raging.) 
There (beside Thy prophet) the truthful or liar, the 
enlightened or unenlightened, lifts his voice (to utter 

1 Pahlavi davasaha£ ; Ner. prat&ayitre. 

! KhupS-hdshmurLmih. ' Judicial blindness ' is everywhere indi- 
cated. (The wicked are kept from the sight of the truth.) Hiibschm., 
Casuslehre, ' der frohen Botschaft.' 

* This seems implied. 

* Or, ' madest the worlds and the souls (?).' 

5 Geldner admirably 'flesh.' The Pahlavi: tanu-h6mandan5 
gin yehabunrf. Notice that ' bodily life or flesh ' is mentioned after 
' understanding.' Compare Y. XXX, f, where Aramaiti gives ' a 
body ' after previous creations. 

6 The Pahlavi has the following interesting gloss: [That is, even 
the actions and teachings of the pious are given forth by thee*; and 
this was also given in this wisdom of thy mind]. And when there 
is a person in whom there is a desire for the other world, that 
desire is granted to him by thee ; [that is, what is necessary when 
he is arriving in the other world, this which is thus required (or 
desired) by him at that time, is given by thee — through that which 
is thy mind and wisdom]. Although not able to follow the in- 
dications of the Pahlavi fully, I think that there is no question but 
that we have an important statement in the last line. It does not 
seem to me possible to render less profoundly than ' where the 
wisher may place his choices,' his religious preferences and beliefs, 
including all moral volition. 

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his faith), and with devoted mind and heart 1 . (But 
without hindrance from this striving, or pausing with 
feeble search 2 , our) Piety steadily 8 questions the two 
spirits* (not here on earth) but (there in the spirit- 
world) where (they dwell as) in their home 6 . 

13. (Yea, my Piety questions searchingly, for 
Thou, O Maker ! hast Thy view on all ; we cannot 
question lightly.) What questions are asked which 
are open* (permitted to our thoughts), or what ques- 
tions (are asked) which are furtive 7 (hiding themselves 
from the light), or (what decision soever we may 
make, and the man) who for the smallest sin binds 
on the heaviest penance, on all 8 with Thy glittering 
eye(s) as a righteous guard Thou art gazing 9 ! 

1 Av6 zak libbemman. * See verse 13. 

s Pavan hagisnb t : the Persian MS. (Haug XII, b) transliter- 
ates khSzuno: Ner. has mano-utthinena (sic). Or, ' immediately.' 

* The evil as well as the good spirit is questioned. The two 
spirits of Y. XXX, 3-6 were here inspiring the conflict. 

* The Pahlavi unvaryingly in the sense of mihSnb [-ar g&s 
tamman yehevun&ft] ; Ner. paralokaniv&siln. See Y. XXX, 9 ; 
XXXIII, 9 ; XXXIV, 6. A questioning which was lightly made 
would indicate a willingness to tamper with error. The Persian 
MS. following the Pahlavi has : An^a bang 1 buland an i dur%A 
guftar [Gani Minu] wa Sn ham »' rast guft&r [Hdrmuzd], &c. But 
Neryosangh is more accurate or literal : Atra bumbam* karoti 
[antar ^agati], mithy&vakta vS satyavakt& vi, &c. 

* Pavan zak t ashkSrako. T NMnfk. 

* Thou seest even the questions and decisions of our thoughts 
as to matters which are simple or difficult, permitted or occult. 

* I have not followed what may yet possibly be a valuable and 
correct hint of tradition. I render Neryosangh : He who asks 
through what is open [through righteousness], or he who asks 
through what is secret [through sin] ; or he (also) who through, or 
on account of, a little sin which has been committed, commits the 
great one to secure a purification ; [that is, who for the sake of 
purification necessary on account of a little sin which has been 
committed, commits a greater one, in order that the first may not 

Digitized by 


48 the gAthas. 

14. This then I will ask Thee, O Ahura Mazda! 
(as I seek Thy counsel once again 1 ). What events 
are coming now, and what events shall come in the 
future 2 ; and what prayers with debt-confessions 3 are 
offered with* the offerings of the holy? And what 
(are the awards) for the wicked ? And how shall they 
be in the (final) state 8 of completion 4 ? 

1 5. And I would ask Thee this, O Mazda ! (con- 
cerning the coadjutor of the wicked) : What is the 
award 7 for him who prepares the throne 8 for the evil, 
for the evil-doer 9 , O Ahura! for him who cannot 
else reclaim 10 his life, not else save 11 with lawless 

become known], upon these two, each of them, look with thy two 
eyes. [Over sins and righteous actions thou art in one way, every- 
where and again, the Lord.] The concretes here may give the 
right indication. 

1 See verse 5. 

2 Mun mado, muni£ yamtun&fo, 'What has come? And what 
is coming ? ' 

8 Mun avam. * Hail in the Indian sense. 

5 Angarrfikih, the judgment ; but Ner. vipakat£, consummation. 

* Neryosangh has as follows: Tad dvitayaw tvattaA* prikkA&mA, 
SvSminI yad agataw, ayatifca, yo* rimm dadate dinebhyaA *pu«- 
yatmane [Hormig- daya yatha yugyate datuw], ye£a, MahS^nSnin ! 
durgatimadbhyai ; katham teshaw asti vipikata' * evam [kila, ya// 
tat kurute, tasmai nidane prasadadanaw kirn bhavati, y&r£a tat 
kurute, tasmai^a kiw bhavatf 'ti ; me bruhi !] This seems to me 
very close, far more so than we have any right to expect as a general 
rule from a Parsi living in India, and only five or six centuries ago, 
too late for ' tradition,' and too early for close criticism. 

7 Roth, ' Ich frage — was die Strafe ist ? ' 

8 The head of a party seems to have been plotting to introduce 
a hostile sovereign. * I d<Lr-kunlrn8. 

10 The Pahlavi translator, ntvtdtn&ft, (otherwise nivSkin&/, 
which I much suspect has become confused with nividinS^o through 
a clerical blunder) ; Ner. labhate. They both refer vinasti to vid 
(so Justi) followed by most. Roth (Yasna XXXI, p. 1 1), 'der sein 
Brot nicht findet ohne Gewalthat an der Heerde.' 

11 The Pahlavi translator sees the root han in the sense of 

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harm to the tiller's herd, to the pious husbandman's 
flock, who speaks no word with lying, (who abjures 
the Lie-demon's faith 1 ) ? 

1 6. Yea, I would ask Thee such a thing as this : 
How such an one as he who, with wise action, has 
striven to promote (Thy holy) Rule 2 over house, and 
region, and province, in the Righteous Order and in 
truth, how he may become like Thee 8 , O Great 
Creator, Living Lord ? And when he may so be- 
come, (this also I would ask), and in what actions 
living he may so be* ? 

17. And which of the (religions) is the greater 
(and the more prevailing 8 as to these questions 
which thus concern the soul ?) Is it that which the 

acquisition, and not from ignorance of the sense given above. In 
another place, he renders vigid min; (see XLVII, 5.) 

1 Neryosangh may be rendered as follows : Thus I ask thee : 
What is for him who seizes upon destruction, and who provides the 
sovereignty for the wicked [ ], and commits that evil action, O 
Lord ! from which he does not acquire life even through a bribe* 
(so meaning), [ ] and who is a calamity to the man who acts for 
herds and men removing calamities from them [ ] ? 

1 Roth, ' der die Herrschaft tiber Hof Gau und Land urn das 
rechte zu fSrdern hat.' 

* Pahlavi, Lak hivand; Neryosangh, tvattulyo; Roth, ' deiner 

4 I render the Sanskrit of Neryosangh thus (it improves on the 
Pahlavi): I ask (thee) thus: How [dost thou bestow] the sovereignty 
upon one when he is beneficently wise ? [ ] (in the body) of him 
who, through the increase of sanctity, is no opposer (of prosperity) 
in provinces or villages ; [that is, with him who is discharging his 
duty and performing acts of sanctity. He is this teacher's teacher, 
he does not contend]. Thine equal, O Great Wise One, the Lord t 
thus is he verily, who (is such) in action, [who is thus Thine equal 
through activity]. 

* Possibly mazy 6 has the sense of mazuta in chap. L, 1. There 
' the most prevailing ' seems to be the proper rendering. 

[30 E 

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50 • tHE GATHAS. 

righteous believes, or the wicked x ? (Let then our 
questionings cease.) Let the enlightened (alone) 
speak to the enlightened. Let not the ignorant (fur- 
ther) deceive us, (high though he may lift his voice 2 ). 
Do Thou thyself, O Ahura Mazda ! declare 3 to us 
(the truth) as Thy Good Mind's full revealer. 

1 8. (And you, ye assembled throngs!) let not a 
man of you lend a hearing to Mathra, or to command 
of that sinner * (ignorant 6 as he is), for home, village, 
region, and province he would deliver to ruin 6 and 
death. But (fly ye to arms without hearing), and 
hew ye them all with the halberd 7 ! 

1 Literally, ' Which of the two (creeds as) the greater does the 
righteous (the believing saint) or the wicked (opponent) believe ? ' 

* See verse 12. 

8 Or with others ' be Thou ' ; but the gloss of the Pahlavi transla- 
tion contains an explanation which may well afford the true solution 
as in so many instances in which he is both consciously and inadver- 
tently followed. It reads [afghmano bara khavitunin& — ]. May 
we not see an az=ah in the form, or at least a separate Iranian root, 
as also in azda (L, 1), where the Pahlavi translator gives the same 
explanation admirably suited to the context. 

Neryosangh : Which is it, the pure of soul, or the wicked who 
teaches as the great one ? [ ] The intelligent speaks to the intelli- 
gent [ ]. Be not thou ignorant after this ; because (ignorance is) 
from the deceiver. Instruct us, O Great Wise One, the Lord 1 [ ] 
Furnish us with a sign through the Best Mind ; [that is, make me 
steadfast in good conduct through the recognition of the dtn]. Such 
renderings may suffice to show that an examination of these ancient 
translations in our search for hints is imperative. Yet the practice 
prevails of omitting a knowledge of the Pahlavi language, on which 
not only the oldest translation of the Avesta, but also the irregular 
Sanskrit of Neryosangh, closely depends. 

4 Jolly, ' Keiner von euch h8re auf die Lieder und Gebote des 
Lilgners.' Roth, ' Rath und Befehle.' 

• Compare evidvao in verse 17. • Dflj-rubimfh. 

7 Saz&? sanSh, 'prepare the sabre.' It was however a two-handed 
weapon ; see Y. LVI, 1 2, (4 Sp.). 

The Parsi-persian MS. : Wa ma kas aSdun az juma kih u 

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19. Let them hear Him who ctmeewed^of the 
Righteous Order for the worlds, the (all)-wise One, 
O Ahura ! For truthful speech He rules with 
absolute sway over words, and ever free of tongue 
(to guide us in our way 1 ). By Thy shining flame 2 
(He doth guide us s , Thine altar's flame with its signs 
of decision and of grace) sent forth for the good of 
the strivers*. 

20. (But, O ye listening men !) he who renders 

darwand mansar junawad wa amu'htiwi (sic); [ku az Araidkan (?) 
Awesta wa Zand ma funawad], £ih andar — maAall rahar wa deh 
dehad bad-raftirn wa marg in i Asmdgh; afidun (sic) dxin 
Asm&g Aan ra sazad si\&A. (Again very close.) 
1 So conjecturally. 

* Compare chap. XXX, 2. ' Behold ye the flames with the better 
mind;' possibly, also chap. XXX, 1, 'the signs in the lights seen 

* According to the grammatical forms the agent here must be a 
divine being, as ye ma»tt ashem ahubi* (see verse 7) is charac- 
teristic of the Deity. The vocative, strange as it may seem, does 
not necessarily exclude Ahura, as the subject referred to in ye. 
Several analogous cases occur. The Deity may here however 
represent His prophet, as the DaSvas do their worshippers in 
the later Avesta. Some writers force the language into a refer- 
ence to the human subject for the sake of the greatly to be desired 

One places Ahura in the instrumental, a case in which the 
Almighty seldom appears. The above translation needs no alterna- 
tive, as the language would be the same whoever ye refers to. 

* See note on verse 3, and read as alternative 'from the two 
ararn.' As an inferior rendering of tradition 1 cite Neryosangh here : 
The matter should be heard (taking gushtil as a third singular in a 
subjunctive sense); [that is, a study should be made of it by him] 
who is even (in any degree) acquainted with the righteous design of 
Hormi^da for both the worlds. He is independent in the literal 
truth of his words, in his freedom of speech, [and his fear has no 
existence]. Thy brilliant fire gives the explanation to the con- 
tenders. [It makes purity and impurity evident.] 

E 2 

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the saint deceived 1 , for him shall be later destruc- 
tion 2 . Long life shall be his lot in the darkness ; 
foul shall be his food ; his speech shall be of the 
lowest 3 . And this, which is such a life 4 as your 
own, O ye vile ! your (perverted) conscience through 
your own deeds will bring* you 8 ! 

21. But Ahura Mazda will give both Universal 
Weal and Immortality 7 in the fulness of His Right- 
eous Order, and from himself 8 as the head 9 of 
Dominion (within His saints). And He will like- 
wise give the Good Mind's vigorous might 10 to him 
who in spirit and deeds is His friend u , (and with 
faith fulfils his vows 12 ). 

I I follow the admirable lead of the Pahlavi here, as the previous 
verse mentions veracity. Its indication is pavan hiftsnb, freely. 

! I differ with diffidence from the hint of the Pahlavi here (as 
elsewhere). It has shivan= tears, which however is free for 
' calamity ' and ' sorrow.' Nom. sing. ; see its position. 

* Anak rubwnth yemalelunSrfo. This, placed together with such 
passages as XL VI, n, XLIX, n, and LI, 13, formed the basis 
for the more complete Y&rt XXII. 

* Others prefer ' place,' but see ayu in line b. 
» 'Has led on'? 

* I cite Ner. : He who betrays the pure through his fraud, may 
(deceit) be (also his portion) at the last ; [that is, let it be so after- 
wards ; it is in his soul]. Long is his journey, and his arrival is in 
darkness; and evil food and increasing lawlessness is his [ ]. 
Darkness is your world, O ye wicked I your in-bred deeds, and 
your din, are leading you on. 

7 That Ameretata/ means more than long life is clear from amesha. 

* Afar nafrman patih. The Gathic would be more literally 
perhaps ' from His own Dominion.' 

* Sardarih. 10 Vazdvarth ; Ner. prvaratvam. 

II One naturally thinks of urvatha (vratha), as having something 
of the sense of vratya. But usage compels also the sense of friend- 
ship. Hubschmann, Casuslehre, s. 259, 'der durch Gesinnung und 
Thaten sich ihm als freund erweist.' 

11 Ner.: Maha^nanf dadau Svamt* avirdadat* amirdadat sawpur- 

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22. And to the wise are these things clear as to 
the one discerning with his mind (not blinded by the 
perverter '). With Thy Good Mind and Thy (holy) 
Kingdom he follows the Righteous Order both in 
his words and his actions. And to Thee, O Ahura 
Mazda ! such a man shall be the most helpful and 
vigorous being 2 (for he serves with every power 8 )! 

naXv&m puwyatmane [ ] xUgsm prabhutvaw rzgnt * Sdhipatyena [ ] 
uttamena pivaratvaw manasi [-tasmSi dadate], yo ni^asya adm- 
yamurteA karmana 1 mitram. 

1 So according to frequent indications. 

1 Tanu aito. Ner. : Sa te — mitram asti niveditatanuA. 

' See chap. XXXIII, 14. The Pahlavi translator renders freely 
as follows : Manifest things (so possibly ; otherwise ' manifestly ') 
(are) these to (so a MS. not yet elsewhere compared) the wise 
when according to his understanding he disposes and reflects, 
[that is, he who meditates with thought upon that which his lord 
and dastur declares to him]. Good is the King for whom they 
would effect righteousness in word and deed, the man whose body 
is a bearer of Thee, O Auharmazd I 

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54 the gAthas. 


The Struggle is continued in the midst of 

i. The same author may well be supposed to continue. The 
first stanzas have been lost, but we observe that the subject of the 
section is still face to face with the Da@va party. He seems to 
see them arrayed and engaged in hostile devotions. But he is not 
intimidated. The friendship of Ahura is before his mind, and he 
expresses his desire that he and his colleagues may become, or 
continue, His apostles, notwithstanding the temporal sorrows 
which, according to XLIII, n, we see that he clearly anticipated 
as the portion of those who would propagate the holy faith. 

2. Mazda answers him, and through him his followers, as 
established in His spiritual sovereignty, accepting the devotion of 
their piety with commendations and implied encouragements. He 
whom they would serve is supreme ; they need not fear. 

3. After reporting this response of Ahura, the composer turns 
with vehemence toward the DaSvas, poetically conceived to be 
present as if before their adherents, who also, according to verse 1, 
are supposed to be in sight (or are dramatically so conceived) cele- 
brating their profane devotions ; and he addresses them as the ' very 
seed' of Satan. Their worshippers belong to the religious false- 
hood and perversity. And they have persistently propagated their 
evil creed, which is in consequence spreading. 

4. They have, so he acknowledges with grief, perverted men's 
minds, making them spokesmen for themselves, and in consequence 
deserters from the great Kindly Disposition of Ahura Mazda, and 
outcasts, fallen from His understanding. 

5. They have destroyed the hopes of mankind for a happy life 
upon earth, and for Immortality in heaven. And in this they are 
not only the seed of the Evil Mind personified, but his servants 
rallying at his word. 

6. Their leader is striving energetically, so he mournfully bewails, 
to effect his evil ends; but it is time that he should recall the 
counteracting measures of Ahura. His holy doctrines are to be 
announced, and their authority established by the divine Khshathra, 
His Sovereign Power personified. 

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7. The composer then contemplates with religious irony the 
infatuated security of the wretched delinquents whom he is apos- 
trophising. Not a man of them knows the destruction which 
awaits him, and which, as he intimates, is close at hand, but Ahura, 
he significantly exclaims, is aware of it. And it will be proportion- 
ably severe. The blindness of sinners to danger seems as definite 
a judgment upon them in his estimate as their blindness to the 

8. To point his anger with an instance he names the apostate 
Yima, whom he supposes to have erred in first introducing the 
consumption of the flesh of cattle. He disavows community with 
him as with them all, declaring himself separate from them in 
Ahura's sight. 

9. He acknowledges that their leader has to a certain degree 
defeated his teachings, and impaired the just estimates of life which 
he had striven to form within the people, (or that he will do this 
if not checked), declaring also that he had made inroads upon his 
property, which was sacred to the holy cause. And he cries aloud 
to Ahura and to Asha with the words of his very soul. 

10. He repeats that their leader threatens to invalidate his 
teachings, blaspheming the supreme object of nature, the Sun, 
together with the sacred Kine, injuring the productive land, and 
carrying murder among the saints. 

11. He utters his bitter wail in view of attempted slaughter, 
and actual spiritual opposition. He points out the plots among 
the powerful and their illegal confiscation of inheritances, as well 
those of women as those of men. And he declares that his op- 
ponents are endeavouring to injure his adherents, as if repelled by 
the best spiritual qualities which an individual could possess. 

ia. He announces the solemn judgment of God upon it all, 
especially reprobating those who deal treacherously against the 
mystical Kine; that is, the holy herds and people, and apostrophis- 
ing those who prefer the Grthma above the saving and sanctifying 
Asha, and the Kingdom of the Lie-demon above the Divine 

13. He declares that Grehma, an opposing chief, desired that 
evil kingdom in the abode of the personified Hell. And he cannot 
refrain from adding that he also enviously desires to share in the 
holy apostleship. But, as he severely rejoins, the messenger of 
God will hold him afar from the sight of the (Divine) Righteousness. 
He can have no share in the Faith. 

(Here it may be noticed that we have some data for presenting 

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56 the gAthas. 

the main features of the struggle. In several instances, centring 
perhaps in the actual description of a battle in XLIV, 15, 16, we 
see traces of the closeness of the controversy. In XLIV, 15, the 
two hosts seem to be closing in regular lines for the ' holy vows 
themselves.' Here, on the other hand, we read of willing complaint 
or ' regretful desire,' while judicial blindness is referred to over and 
over again under various phrases. One might suppose that the 
DaSva-party were very near the Zarathurtrians in many of their 
religious peculiarities, but that they could not accede to, or 
understand, the dualism. After the manner of Pagans they impli- 
cated the Gods in their sins. (Compare the drunken Indra.) At 
all events a bitter and violent war of doctrines was waging with 
both speech and weapons. I think it looks like the struggle ' of 
two parties ' who each claimed to be the proper representative of 
some similar form of faith, similar, of course I mean, outwardly.) 

14. Deploring the establishment of the Kavis who approach 
with stratagems and false teachings to aid the opposing party, the 
composer declares that they say that the Kine herself is to be in- 
jured instead of blessed by the very fire-priest who kindles 1 the 

15. He supports himself however with the hope of ultimate 
success, and with the prospect of his reward, when he and his 
fellow-labourers should be gloriously borne to heaven by Weal and 
Immortality, the ' eternal two,' who not only, as we see, bear saints 
to bliss, but also constitute the beatitude of heaven itself. 

1 6. He confides all at last to Ahura, who is able to control all 
events, and to solve all doubts, and who will support his servants in 
bringing the wicked to vengeance by means of verbal instructions 
and commands. 


(That rival-monarch (thus we may supply the sense 
of lost verses) for whom some are plotting to secure 
the sovereignty, and who, once in power, would 
deliver over home, village, town, and province to 
ruin and to death 2 , is active in his efforts, and offer- 

1 See, however, the notes. 
* Compare XXXI, 15, 18. 

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ing the devotions of his false religion to accomplish 
his ends.) i. His 1 lord-kinsman will pray 2 (as I Zara- 
thurtra prayed), and his labouring villagers, with his 
(trusted) peers, and his (fellow) Daeva-worshippers *. 
But in my mind is the friendship 4 of Ahura Mazda, 
the Great Creator, the living Lord; and Thine 
heralds, O Ahura ! may we be ; may we hold back* 
those who hate and who offend You ! 

2. To these (for whom the prophet spake) Ahura 
Mazda answered, ruling 6 as He does through His 
Good Mind (within their souls), He replied from His 
Sovereign Power, our good friend (as he is) through 
His surpassing 7 Righteousness : We have accepted 

1 Some prominent teacher, representing the entire Da6va-party, 
is alluded to; see verses 6, 7, 9, 10. 

1 Compare yasS in XXVIII, 2. 

' Or, ' his are the DaSvas ;' but the verb yasa/ perhaps affords a 
sufficient expression for Da£v£; ySsen or hewtf may be understood. 
We may also understand the DaeVas here, as the embodied DaeVas, 
in the manner in which the pious worshipper is called Vohu 
Manah. That Dalva should however be used quite simply for 
Dal va- worshipper in this early composition is not probable. In 
the later Avesta it is frequent usage. 

* Or, ' the friend ; ' I recoil as much as possible from abstracts, 
but the Pahlavi has hu-ravakh-manih, and Geldner admirably pro- 
posed brahman. 

8 Aigluan min Lekum lakhv&r yakhsenunfim ; so the Pahlavi 
translation, first venturing on the meaning ' holding back from;' 
dar in the sense of pi, which latter in Iranian can mean hold back 
from advantages as well as from misfortunes. High modern 
authority coincides with the most ancient authority on this latter 
point. It is apt to be a subject of scepticism with some who 
neglect the evidence of tradition. 

* ' Pavan sardarih t Vohuman ; ' Ner. sv&mitayam *. It seems 
difficult to apply the meaning ' being as a refuge ' here ; see the 
following ' from His Kingdom.' 

T Lit. ' glorious.' This casts light upon the expression hv anvaitfr 

Digitized by 


58 the gAthas. 

your good and bountiful Piety, and we have chosen 
her ; ours shall she be 1 ! 

3. But you, O ye Da6vas ! are all a seed from the 
Evil Mind 2 . He who offers sacrifice 8 to You the 
most * is of the Lie-demon, and (he is a child) of per- 
version 6 . In advance 6 (are your) deceits whereby ye 
are famed in the sevenfold 7 earth ! 

4. For ye (are) confusing our thoughts 8 , whereby 
men, giving forth the worst deeds, will speak *, as of 

1 Atgh Spendarmarf Lekum rai fapfr ddsh&n [bundak mtnir- 
nth] zak 1 lanman ai t5 [aighman5 pavan tanu mahman y ehevuna//]. 

Neryosangh : To these the Great Wise (One), the Lord, answered 
in the lordship of the highest (best) mind ; [that is, if, or since, 
Gvahmana had arrived, as a guest, within (their) body]; from 
Saharevara he answered [ ] through (their) righteousness, from the 
well-inclined, and through good conduct, [if truly good conduct 
had arrived as a guest within (their) body]. And he said : I be- 
friend your Earth (so Aramaiti was later understood), the perfect- 
minded one, and your highest one ; she is mine [ ]. 

* Compare Yasna XXX, 6. Where the Dafivas are approached 
by the worst mind as they are consulting. 

8 As those who offer sacrifice to these Dalvas are mentioned 
separately, we are forced to concede a large idea to the composer. 
He addresses the DaeVas as poetically conceived to be present, 
and not merely their worshippers as in verse 1. And this must 
have its weight in the exegesis of other passages. 

4 The Pahlavi translator has kabed. Or mar for mashyd (?). 

8 Or possibly arrogance, avarminlmtar ; Ner. apamanastarar£a. 

* Satunin&/ freely, but indicating the root. The word is a locative. 

7 The seven karshvars, or quarters of the earth, were already 

8 I correct fr6 me (=man) matha (adj. nom. pi.; compare yima 
keredusha and ma masha). I do so after the admirable reading 
of the Pahlavi translator, ar fraz minlmo van/inerf [aigh&r bara 
frifeV, afar minimd bara avo vinas kar</and varrfin6</J. Ner. 
prakr;'sh/a« manaA — mathnaii. Notice that a&rta is awkward as 
a masc, although I have so rendered as more personal 

* VakhshyewtS stood in the ancient writing used by the Pahlavi 
translator, as also now in some of our surviving MSS. ; otherwise 

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the Demon-gods beloved, forsaken by the Good 
Mind ', (far) astray from the understanding of the 
Great Creator, the Living Lord, and (far astray) 
from His Righteousness! 

5. Therefore ye would 2 beguile mankind of happy 
life 8 (upon earth) and of Immortality (beyond it), 
since the Evil Spirit (has ruled) you with his evil 
mind. Yea, he has ruled * you, (ye) who are of the 
Demon-gods, and with an evil word unto action, as 
his ruler 5 (governs) the wicked • ! 

reading vakhshentS with Justi and most others, and mimatha with 
Bartholomae : ' Ye have caused that men who produce the worst 
results are flourishing, loved of the Dafivas (as they are).' But in 
the Casuslehre, Hubschmann preferred ' sie sprechen was den Devas 
angenehm ist,' also reading vakhshewte' (?) (page 240). 

1 So the Pahlavi also indicates aran Vohuman sizd; Ner. 
GvahmanaA* dure* aste. 

1 Improper subjunctive; otherwise ye (have) beguiled. 

' The Pahlavi also freely frtf&/ aruuiaan pavan hu-zfvixnfh. 

4 Fra£inas far from necessarily means ' gave ' ; ' assigned,' ' indi- 
cated' renders it more closely. The Pahlavi has here correctly, but 
freely, £ashW. 

• The Pahlavi has here jalitaih for khshayd, and in XXVIII, 8 
it has paAkhsha for khshaya. I do not think that the word is an 
accusative there. A simple accusative does not so naturally fall to 
the end of the sentence in Gathic; it is generally in apposition when 
so situated. The nominatives tend toward the end of the sentence. 

* Ner.: It is through both of these that he is deceiving (sic, 
unable to follow the Pahlavi which probably renders as a second 
plural; see mun Iekum) mankind in regard to prosperity and 
immortality, [ (saying) if it is possible to live, immortality lies in our 
path]. Since he is yours, O ye base-minded ! O ye base Devas ! 
he is inculcating the lowest actions [ ] of the miscreants; he says that 
sovereignty [is from Aharmana ; (that is, the sovereignty) of certain 
ones (meaning over every one)]. 

The Glthic verbatim is as follows : Therefore ye beguiled (would 
beguile) man of-happy-life, of-immortality-and since you whh-evil 
mind (you) who(are)-and Daevas' (worshippers) the evil-and spirit 
with an-evil (-word as concerning) action with-word (rules), by 

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6. Full of crime (your leader) has desired to 
destroy 1 us, wherefore he is famed, (and his doc- 
trine is declared) ; but if this be so of these, then 
in the same manner, O Ahura ! Thou possessest 2 
(because Thou knowest) the true (teachings) in Thy 
memory*. And in Thy kingdom and Thy Righteous 
Order I will establish Thy precepts (in Thy name) *. 

7. Among these wretched beings 6 (this their 
leader 6 ) knows not that those things 7 which are de- 

which (same) means (has-)commanded the wicked (his) ruler (nom. 
sing, masc; see Y. XXVIII, 8). The nom., as in Vedic, at 
the end. 

* Or, Full of crime ye have striven to attain your ends (?) by 
those things which are reported. (If verse 5 originally preceded) 
makhrti would naturally be regarded as a singular as paouru-aSnio 
is an impossible plural masculine. It might, however, be a singular 
used collectively. In that case we could put the verb in the plural 
with verse 5 in view. As to concrete or abstract, the first is 
obviously correct, and is also so rendered by the Pahlavi translation. 

* Vid (with the perf. va&ii) seems to occur in the Gathas in this 
sense. Or, ' Thou knowest with the Best Mind.' 

* Or ' in the memorised recital;' Ner. praka/am kalayati. 

4 Parsi-persian MS.: Bisyir ktnah-varzandah kfnah 'hwihad, 
[kflj wanih-kirin padafrah kunSd], kih, guft + srud rstSd [kih guft 
fstgd]; ku, kih o.ran bl-jumir [ku, padafrah pah an zamin 
tamim bih kunand, kih ruwin biz in tan dehad]. gihir jumir- 
kunandah H6rmuzd [ku pah wanah wa kirfah jumar-kunand] ; 
wan i buland agah pah Bahman [muzd danad ; ku in kih biyad 
didan]. Pah in »' Tu *' Sumi, Hdrmuzd ! 'hudi, in » §awib 
imQ'htan bih dinfistuwin (sic vid) ; [kih .Sumi padijihv tamim 
bih b6d+ya'hnt + biyad, har kas pah nSki igih bih birad]. 

* The Pahlavi has kinikino. 

* The hva&ta of the first verse, the dursasti of the ninth, &c. 

1 The Pahlavi curiously errs with his r6shano= clear; Ner. 
parishphu/atara^. It would be straining a point to call him free 
in interpreting what is 'collected ' and so ' obvious ' as ' clear.' We 
must, however, never forget that the supposed error of the Pahlavi 
is sometimes the reflex of our own (often necessary) ignorance. 
Vidvau must refer back to the same subject as ahyi in the first 
verse, or possibly to Aka Manah, going a step further back. 

Digitized by 



clared as victorious l (by his allies) are bound together 
for the smiting ; yea, those things by which he was 
famed (as victorious) by his (blade of) glittering iron 2 . 
But the utter destruction 3 of those things Thou, O 
Ahura Mazda ! knowest 4 , most surely 8 ! 

8. Of these wretched beings 8 Yima Vtvanghusha 
was famed to be ; he who, desiring to content T our 
men, was eating kine's flesh in its pieces. But from 8 
(such as) these, O Ahura Mazda ! in Thy discerning 
discrimination, am I (to be seen as distinct 9 ). 

1 Possibly, ' which are by Thee announced as destined and 
proper to be smitten.' The Pahlavi has mun zanuno araukhtSnd 
(sic). J6yi=jay& to jan, as dk&yia is to kan. 

* Compare other allusions to weapons, snaithuS, and possibly 

* So also the Pahlavi, ristak and paVafris. 

4 Na$#/ vtdvau and vaSdutd ahf are in antithesis and emphatic. 

8 A literal rendering of this difficult verse would be as follows : 
Of these wretches, nothing knowing (is he that) for the smiting 
(dat. ja, jan ; cp. form Sk. jS, jan) (are) the-collected-things, which 
things (as) victorious (read jay i) are declared forth, by which 
(things) he has been heard (of) through glittering iron, of which 
things Thou, O-Ahural the ruin, O-Mazdal most knowing art. 
Others take s^nghaite" in the sense of 'cut'(?) and render very 

* The Pahlavi has sheda&n ; Ner. tin dveshinaA. 

7 Or ' teaching,' so the Pahlavi ; Ner. samasvidayati. 

* The Pahlavi translator hits the true rendering here: 'from 
among these I am chosen out by Thee.' Otherwise we have a 
question : Am I of these? The allusion is to the fall of Yima. As 
to the first eating of the flesh of beasts, recall Genesis ix. 3. Some 
have rendered: With regard to these I am of Thine opinion, 
O Mazda (?). 

* The Pahlavi may be rendered as follows : Among (of) these 
demons Yima of the Viva«hinas is famed to have been a wicked 
scourge. It was he who taught men thus: Eat ye our flesh in 
pieces [wide as the breast, long as the arm — (or better with West, 
'in lapfuls and armfuls')]. From among these [ ] I am chosen 
out by Thee, O Auharmazd 1 hereafter ; [that is, even by Thee I 
am considered as good]. 

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9. An evil teacher (as that leader is), he will l 
destroy (our) doctrines, and by his teachings he will 
pervert the (true) understanding of life, seizing away 8 
(from me) my riches s , the choice and real wealth of 
(Thy) Good Mind. To You and to Asha, O Ahura 
Mazda! am I therefore crying with the voice of 
my spirit's * (need) ! 

10. Aye, this man will destroy my doctrines 
(indeed, for he blasphemes the highest of creatures 
that live or are made). He declares that the (sacred) 
Kine 5 and the Sun are the worst of things which 
eye can see; and he will offer the gifts of the 
wicked (as priest to their Demon-gods). And at the 
last he will parch • our meadows with drought, and 
will hurl his mace at Thy saint (who may fall 
before his arms 7 ). 

1 An improper subjunctive. Otherwise : He (has) destroyed (not 
irretrievably, of course; the case was not decided, and finally issued 

* Ap6 — ya»tS; otherwise 'they would take'; Ner. apaharati. 

* Zak t li tshtf av6rt6 [ — khvastak 1 pavan dastdbar]. 

* Pavan valmaruan milayi i minavadthi; Ner. vagbhiA ma- 
nasavrrttyi aham — akrandaye (not following our present Pahlavi 
text, the gloss however). Observe that in reading Ner. we by no 
means ipso facto read the Pahlavi, either in correct translation, or as 
following our texts. Compare XL VI, 2. 

" One thinks somewhat of the familiar foes of the Vedic kine; 
but there can be of course no connection. The Iranian sacred 
Cow did not represent the rain cloud, at least not at all directly. 

* Read viy&pa/ as a demon, without sign: V was miswritten 
for 'y' as often 'y' for 'v.' The Pahlavi language, not to speak 
of the Pahlavi translation, suggests it. How are we to account for 
the word viyavanfneV/? We should not arrest our philology at 
the Zend and Sanskrit. The long vowel is most awkward for a 
comparison with the Indian vap=shear. And I think that 'de- 
stroying the means of irrigation ' gives as good a meaning as 
' shearing the land.' Notice that elsewhere a more correct form 
appears, vfapotemem (Vd. Ill, 15, (51 Sp.) )=viyap6temem. 

7 Literally, ' he will discharge his club at the righteous.' 

Digitized by 



11. Yea, these will destroy my life, for they 
consult with the great l of the wicked (enlightening 
themselves by their words 2 ). And they are seizing 
away 8 the gifts of inherited treasures 4 from both 
household-lord and from house-wife'; (wretched men 
that they are), and those who will fiercely wound 
(my folk, repelled and in no way kindly moved) by 
the better mind of the holy 8 . 

12. (But Ahura will speak His rebuke, for) as to 
those doctrines which (such) men may be (basely) de- 
livering 7 (repelled) by the holiest action, (and galled 8 
by its sacred truth) God hath said : Evil (are they ! 
Yea, unto these He hath said it) who have slain the 
Kine's life by a blessing (and have cursed her while 
they offered to help her 9 ), men by whom Grehmas 
are loved above Righteousness, and the Karpans, 

1 The Pahlavi translator erroneous, or free, as to flkfliterej, indi- 
cates the proper sense of mazibfr by pavan masaf [— pavan 
peshpiyih va ptspayth — ]; but Neryosangh, mahattaya-puraA- 

1 Comp. XXXI, 12, 'there high his voice lifts the truthful or 

* Literally, ' he takes.' 

* Riknah vindwnS. 

* Karfak-kMWai gabri n&rman. 

* Reshfngnd ; see V, 10. The ablative of the cause, comp. ashS/ 
haia ; otherwise with Httbschm., ' Sie die Schaden nehmen mogen 
durch den besten heiligen Geist, O Mazda I ' (Casuslehre, s. 241.) 

7 The Pahlavi translator had probably before him a text reading 
rashayen ; he renders freely r&sh sray&nd. With such a text which 
is far preferable to the one afforded by the MSS. we may read: 
Whereby (yena) men will be opposing and retarding (literally 
wounding) the doctrines which (are derived) from the best (moral 
and ceremonial) action ; but to these men Mazda declared : Evil 
(are ye). See the previous verse. 

* See the previous verse. 

* The Pahlavi has hu-ravakh-manih yemalelund. 

Digitized by 


64 the gAthas. 

and the Throne of those who have wished x for the 
Demon of lies (as their deity and friend 2 ). 

1 3. And the Grehma will seek s for these things 
by means of his (evil) kingdom 4 in the abode of 
(Hell which is 5 ) the Worst Mind (who both are 
together) the destroyers of life, and who, O Mazda ! 
will bewail fl with glad but (envious) wish the message 
of Thy prophet (But he will not abate with his 
vengeance), he will hold them afar from the sight 7 
of the truth ! 

14. His is Grehma 8 ; aye, his ! And to (oppose) 
Thee 9 he will establish the Kavis and (their) scheming 

1 So also indicated by the Pahlavi bavihund. 
8 There is elsewhere evidence enough of a desire to encroach 
upon the truth. 

* So also indicated by bavthuneV. 

* Or, ' which kingdoms, sovereign power.' 
" Comp. XXX 6. 

* Or, ' they gladly complain ; ' so also the Pahlavi: Mun — gar- 
zixno kamak. The singular ^-igereza/ is difficult with ya€4a. 
Many would alter the text at once, and the temptation is great. 

7 Hubschm.,'y* is pa/ daresi/ ashahya der sie abhalte vom Schauen 
des Asha' (Casus. 241). So of XLVI, 4. So also indicated by 
padSnd mm nik£zi.rn5 t Ahariyih ; evidence of a struggle, or at 
least of a desire on the part of a rival party to possess themselves of 
some religious privilege or precedence. See the previous verse; 
also XXXI, 10: Never, O Mazda! never shall the thriftless and 
thieving one share the good doctrine. See still further XLIV, 15, 
where the two hosts meet in hostility ' on account of the doctrinal 

* Grchma appertains to, but is not the particular evil teacher 
referred to throughout. The Pahlavi translator indicates bribery 
as the meaning of the word. Possibly some impious chieftain is 
meant whose procedure was of that nature. The word occurs in 
the plural. 

» A hdi ; Thw6i is difficult. Or (see Y. XLIV, 14), 'Thine under- 
standing has subdued the Kavis.' The Pahlavi translator renders 
masih, as if he had read ahuthwdi, offering an important alternative. 

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plans. Their deeds 1 of power are but deceits 
since they have come as an aid to the wicked 2 , and 
since he has been (falsely) said (to be set) to conquer 
the Kine 3 , he who shall kindle that (very) help of 
grace which removes our death afar, (and lightens 
Thy saving flame). 

15. And therefore will I drive from hence 4 the 
Karpans' and Kavis' disciples. And after these 
(have thus been driven hence and away) then these 
(my princely aiding saints) whom they (now) 
render no longer rulers at will over life, (and deprive 
of their absolute power), these shall be borne (at 

Read : In his dominion he has established the Kavis and their in- 
tended plans. Reading h6ith6i, ' his G. is to be bound.' 

1 The predecessors of the Pahlavi translator seem to have under- 
stood the word var(e)/fcou as conveying the idea of power rather than 
that of brilliancy. He renders freely pavan zak t varzanan av&run6 
danakan6. Supposing the test to stand, and not supplying a forma- 
tion from var(e)z, we may hold that there existed a var(e)A beside 
var(e)z, as there undoubtedly was a har(e)i (see harek*) beside 
har(e)z. This casts light on the Vedic var£as. 

* Amatii parfirend valman darvandSn aiyyarlh [ ] amati^ av8 
Tdra zanifno gufto. The sufferings of the sacred Kine form the 
central thought of much that occurs. 

' Can g&as be a genitive here ? But if a nominative, must not 
ye refer to it ? How then could the Kine 'kindle' the aid of grace ? 
A genitive looks difficult. It is, however, accepted by Spiegel, 
although he renders differently from my translation. The Pahlavi 
may give us invaluable relief here by restoring the text. The ancient 
translator read vao&iya/. Reading with him, we might render: 
When the Kine which (y& ?) caused a death-removing help to be 
declared, was said to be meet for subjection (or slaying, reading an 
infinitive from #an). This rendering is more probable than that 
from sao^aya/. The Kine distinctly caused this help to be de- 
clared. See XXIX. But I make it a matter of principle to follow 
the MSS. in a first translation, where that is at all possible. 

4 The Pahlavi translator differs greatly here, having taken andix 
with adverbial force, and as possessing the a priv. (they being 

[30 F 

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66 the gAthas. 

last) by the (immortal ') two to the home of (Thy) 
Good Mind (in Heaven) * ! 

1 6. (And) this entire 8 (reward of the righteous) is 
from that Best One who teaches 4 in the wide 
(mental) light of the pious 5 , ruling (as supreme), O 
Mazda Ahura 6 ! whose are my woes and my doubt- 

not inclined). He also read somewhat as follows : an&w avaSni(?) 
as y*=from his non-inclination he was blind who (belongs to the 
Karpan and to the Kavi). Whether a truer text is indicated by 
him here is doubtful on account of XLIV, 13, and its nashama ; but 
the unvarying explanation of the Kavis as blind probably derives its 
origin from some such reading here, or elsewhere in lost documents. 

Certainly if aix can be used as a particle, anau is not altogether 
impossible in some such sense. Moreover, the Pahlavi translation 
here and elsewhere has afforded us such a multitude of valuable 
concretes, that we shall do well to think twice before we reject its 
most startling suggestions. Lit. trl. ' what (things are) of the K.' 

1 The Pahlavi translation gives a fine suggestion in the concrete 
sense here; seeing the dual abyi, it explains it as referring to 
HaurvataV and Ameretatd/, which is very probably correct. So 
Spiegel also renders. It is very difficult to decide in which sense 
yeng dai«ti n6i/ jy&Uuf khshayaman«*g vas6 is to be taken. If in 
an evil sense (as vas^-khshayant is sometimes elsewhere taken) one 
might think of such a rendering as this : I have driven the Karpans' 
and Kavis' disciples hence to those (evil rulers) whom they (my 
servants) render no longer wanton tyrants over life. But these (my 
champion saints) shall be borne by the two to the home of Thy 
Good Mind. But strict grammar demands of us that t6i should 
refer back to yeng. Accordingly I suggest as above first. 

* Observe that Vohu Manah equals heaven. Recall XXX, 4, 
' but for the holy Vahifta Manah ; that is heaven.' 

s The Pahlavi has ham ; Neryosangh has sarvam. 

4 Reading sa;4(a)yS&W/ (P n , s*yas£i/; Pahlavi, imukhtwn6 (sic); 
Ner., ttkshapawaw). Otherwise syasAt/, which may well mean 
' lying, reposing ' in the wide (mental) light of the pious (or of the 
offering). Geldner lately admirably suggests a 2nd sg. 

Pavan farSkhu hushih. 

6 If this 'best one* is the Ratu of XXXIII, 1, all is gramma- 
tically clear; but the expressions are rather strong in view of 

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ings 1 (yea, they lie in His power to heal), when I 
shall make (my prophets) men to be sought 2 for the 
harm of the wicked. And this I shall do by the 
word of my mouth (to defend and avenge my saints) ! 

XL VIII, 9, where similar language is certainly applied to Ahura. 
If Ahura is here meant, we have only one instance more to add to 
the many in which Ahura is spoken of in the third person, with an 
address to Him thrown in. See the differing views of XLV, 11. 
Possibly the ' Best One ' was Ahura's Spe/»ta Mainyu. 

1 Zak J pavan gdmanikih. As to aithi, aithivawt seems to prove 
that its meaning must be calamity also in this place. Otherwise one 
is strongly tempted to heed the vigorous indication of the Pahlavi 
translator. Here and in XLVIII, 9, he renders ' manifest,' ' what 
is clear in the midst of my doubt.' The etymology would be far 
simpler. Alternatively dvaStha= terror (bf). 

* Valman t pumman khv&star. The Pahlavi sees ' to be desired' 
in ishy««g. Otherwise one might render: I will cause (verbal) 
missiles (comp. zasta-iftaif) to be cast forth from the mouth for the 
harm of the wicked. 

(Supplementary note. 'Parch with drought' in verse 10 may 
be regarded as having figurative application. The destruction of 
the means of irrigation, so often resorted to in the same regions 
later, would point also to a literal sense, but ' waste our meadows 
like drought' is a safer expression. See further vivapa/, and 
vivapem=viyapa/, viySpem.) 

F 2 

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68 the gAthas. 

Prayers, Hopes, and Self-Consecration. 

Brighter times seem to have arrived. The vengeance so confi- 
dently promised in the close of XXXII is described as near 
at hand. In fact the first three verses seem to belong as much 
to XXXII as to the present chapter. They remind one of the 
choruses of attending saints, or ' Immortals,' in XXIX, perfectly 
germane to the connection, but referring in the third person to 
a speaker who closes the last chapter with a first, and who 
begins again with a first in verse 4. The propriety of a divi- 
sion of chapters here rests upon the fact that the thought conies 
to a climax at XXXII, 16, beginning afresh at XXXIII, 4. 
Whether Zarathurtra, or the chief composer, whatever his name 
may have been, composed these three verses relating, as they do, 
to himself, and put them into the mouth of another, or whether 
their grammatical form indicates another author, is difficult to 
determine. I doubt very greatly whether either the expressions ' I 
approach/ ' I offer,' &c, or the words ' he will act,' ' let him be in 
Asha's pastures,' are at all meant to express more than some modern 
hymns which use ' I ' and ' he.' Both are in constant employment 
in anthology with no change in the person indicated. 'I' and 
'Thy servant' are merely verbal variations. Here, however, the 
change is somewhat marked by the allusion to the chastisement of 
the wicked just previously mentioned in XXXII, 16. 1. It is to 
be noticed that the strictest canon with the original, as indeed with 
the later, Zarathuftrians of the Avesta was the 'primeval law.' 
Unquestionably the precepts understood as following from the 
dualistic principle were intended ; that is to say, no trifling with any 
form of evil, least of all with a foreign creed, was to be tolerated. 
Ahura has no share in the evolution of anything corrupt. We 
may even add that He had no power to prevent either sin or sorrow, 
although He possessed all conceivable power to oppose them. 
According to these fundamental laws, then, the Ratu is said to act, 
as sternly severe upon the evil as he is beneficent to the saint. 
2. The fierce hostilities hitherto pursued are more than justified. 
The injury of the wicked t»y denouncing, planning, or by physical 
violence, is on a par with advising the good. They who pursue 
the enemies of Ahura are actually operating in love to God, and 
sacrificing to religion itself. 

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3. And accordingly the reciter is made to pray in this immediate 
connection for a sincere and useful friend (a vahirta) to the 
believer, to whichever class he may belong, whether chief, allied 
peer, or villager, a friend spiritually enlightened (vidSs), and, accord- 
ing to Ahura's prescript (XXIX, 2), keen, persevering, and brave in 
the cultivation of cattle (thwakbshangha gav6i). ' Let such an one as 
this, so asked for by the Lord himself, so needed by the Kine, let 
him,' he prays, ' be supported in his holy toil for us. Let him till and 
tend, not in the pastures of our valleys only, but in the spiritual 
pastures of the Divine Benevolence where the mystic kine is grazing.' 

4. Taking up the peculiar ' I who ' of XXVIII, the composer returns 
to the first person, continuing in that form with little exception 
until the last verse, which, naming Zarathurtra in the third person, 
implies (if it is not an addition, which, however, it may be) that 
Zarathurtra had been the speaker throughout. As it is highly 
probable that the author who uses this ' I who ' is the same who 
uses it in XXVIII, and if we may take verse 14 as fair evidence 
that Zarathurtra is the speaker here, we acquire some additional 
grounds for believing that the person who wrote (if we can apply 
such an expression to the author) the words ' to Zarathurtra and to 
us/ as well as ' to Virtaspa and to me/ and ' to Frashaortra and 
to me/ was universally recognised to be Zarathurtra himself com- 
posing a piece to be recited by another. As if in response to the 
expression in verse 3, recalling that although a vahirta (a best one) 
to some of each class (verse 1) he was no contenter of the wicked 
(XLIII, 15), he begins a prayer which is only completed by its 
izya in verse 6, and which gathers force by each preceding profes- 
sion of fidelity. And true to a practical dualism, he first abjures 
the leading sin of disobedience to God, and of arrogance, dis- 
content, and dishonesty toward man, accompanied (as it seems 
to have been) with neglect of the all-important duties to the cattle 
who shared the sanctity of ' the soul ' of their representative. And 
perhaps it is this practical severity of dualism as opposed to the 
more facile ' lying ' of the opposed religion, which was the cause of 
that high reputation of the Persians for veracity, which was grouped 
with avoiding debt by Herodotus among the virtues of the race. 

5. I, he goes on to say, or to imply, I who not only abjure dis- 
obedience/insolence, complaint, and lying, but especially invoke 
the great genius who is Obedience himself, Obedience toward God, 
(Thee), endeavouring as I do by this abjuration and prayer to 
attain, not to a 'hundred autumns' of booty and glory, but 
to a long life in the kingdom which was established in the spirit of 

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the Divine Benevolence, and to paths not only for the war-cart, or 
for commerce, but to those rigidly straight paths of moral purity in 
which Ahura dwells, 6. 1, he adds once more, who am thus Thine 
actually invoking (zbaya) invoker, ' straight ' like the paths (erezur), 
I am seeking with longing (kaya) to know from that Best Spirit 
(Thy Spewta Mainyu ?) animated once more by that best mind, to 
know-what ? Shall we regard it as a bathos when we read that he 
thus with cumulative urgency prays to know what the Best Spirit 
thought should be done for the recovery and perfection of the 
fields ? If we turn back to XXIX, i, we shall see that the identical 
word (vastrya) describes the original want of the kine's soul. It 
was vohu vastrya which she implored as her salvation ; and it was 
the sacred agriculturist who alone could afford it, and who as the 
' diligent tiller of the earth ' always remained the typical saint. 
' And as his useful deeds in reclaiming, irrigating, and cultivating 
land, were justly ranked among the first services of a human being, 
and as the last preparation of the gathered grain was perhaps 
humorously, but yet pungently, said to make the DaSvas start, 
and shriek, and fly (see Vendldad III, 32, Sp. 165), and as further, a 
life from the fruits of the earth to this day constitutes the main 
difference between those who live by murderous theft and those 
who live honestly in nearly the same regions, I think we may not 
only see no bathos here, but on the contrary admire the robust 
sense of this early religion 1 , and say that a knowledge as to a true 
policy in the department of agriculture was one of the wisest 
possible desires, and the most of all things worthy of a ' sight of 
Mazda and of consultation with Him.' How the fields had better 
be worked, and how the people could best be kept from bloody 
freebooting as aggressors or as victims, this involved Ahura's 
Righteous Order, Benevolence, Power, and Piety, the four energis- 
ing Immortals all at once. And this only could secure the other 
two rewarding personifications, Welfare and Immortality. 

7. Having prayed for that which is the first virtue of civilised 
existence, work (verezyeldyai), he proceeds to further petitions. 
' Come Ye,' he beseeches in Vedic fashion. Come Ye, O Ahura, 
Asha, and Vohu Manah ! and behold the attentive monarch, the 
leading Magavan, as he listens to my instructions with the other 

1 In this particular. As to ceremonies it had at a later period more than its 
share of absurdities ; but as to honest work as against ' foraging on the enemy ' 
there is a great difference between the Gathas, and some other ancient hymns, 
for instance the V?iks of the Veda. In fact these latter may be regarded as 
representing the opposite extreme. 

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chiefs, and the thronging masses. And let too the sacrificial gifts 
pour in for offering and worship. 

8. He rests at no bare morality for the simple multitude. He 
knows too well the human foible, therefore he asks with vigour for 
sacrifice and hymn. 

9. Encouraging the two pious chiefs whose souls go hand in 
hand, he prays that an influence like that of the ' eternal two' might 
bear their ' spirit ' (sic) to the shining home of Paradise, it having 
attained to perfection by the help of the Best Mind of God within 
it (For mainyu in this sense compare XLIV, 11.) 

10. Asking of Mazda to grant in His love (or 'by His will') 
all the happy phases of life which have been, or which shall ever 
be experienced, he prays that their bodies, that is, their persons, as 
separate accountable individuals (compare narem narem jfoahyai 
tanuyg) might flourish in the graces of the Good Mind, the Holy 
Sovereignty, and the Sacred Order, till they were blessed with the 
urta, the summum bonum. 

1 1. He here prays all the grand abstractions, Piety, the Righteous 
Order (which alone can ' push on ' the settlements), the Good Mind 
of God within His people, and His kingdom, to turn their mental 
ears and listen, and listening to pardon. 

12. And specifying the one central object of desire, the Thrift- 
law, the Avesta of the Ratu, or Saoshyant, he asks Ahura to arise 
to his help and give him spiritual strength by sustaining him through 
the inspiring Righteousness and the Good Mind, in an effective 

13. With a spirituality still deeper than his Semitic colleague, he 
asks, not to see the person of God, but His nature, and especially 
to be able to comprehend and bring home to his mind what the 
Sovereignty of God implies with its ' blessed rewards.' And he asks 
of Piety as first acquired, practised, and then speaking within him, 
to reveal the Gnosis, the Insight, that is, the Religion. 

14. After the fervent language of the previous verses we may 
accept verse 14 as a legitimate continuation. Its ' Zarathurtra ' 
may mean ' I ' just as ' David ' is used by the Psalmist for ' me.' 
And the language can mean nothing but a dedication of all that he 
is and has to God, his flesh, his body, his religious eminence, the 
obedience which he offers in word and deed, inspired by Righteous- 
ness, and the Kingdom which he has succeeded in saving and 
blessing. (I do not think that I have at all exaggerated the grasp 
and fervour of this section. Less could not be said, if the words 
are to be allowed their natural weight.) 

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i. As by the laws of the primeval world, so will 
our spiritual chieftain act (that chief besought-for by 
the Kine 1 , and named as Zarathujtra 2 by the Lord). 
Deeds most just he will do toward the wicked, as 
toward the righteous, and toward him whose deeds 
of fraud 3 and righteous deeds combine (in equal 

2. Yea, (he will act with justice but with ven- 
geance, for) he who does evil to the wicked by word, 
or with thought (and plan), and (who therein does 
not dally, but toils labouring as) with both the hands, 
or he (again) who admonishes one for his good*, such 
as these are offering (a gift) to their religious s faith 
in the love (and with the approving view) of Ahura 
Mazda 8 ; (they are offering to conscience.) 

» See XXIX, i. 

1 See XXIX, 6, 8. 

5 So the Pahl. ; and so also Roth (Z. D. M. G., vol. xxxvii. 5, 223) 
taking milhahya as a nom. pi. (comp. va£ahya). But I am 
strongly inclined to a former view of my own. Y£hya-mhhahy£ 
look irresistibly like two genitives. I would render as an emphatic 
alternative 'what fraud he may lay hold of (Iwmy&saite' with the 
gen.), reach (of the one), and what (seem) to him the righteous 
deeds (of the other).' But if Roth and the Pahlavi are right, we 
have here the origin of the later hamSstaga, the souls in the inter- 
mediate place between Heaven and Hell, whose sins and good 
works have been equal (West, Gloss, to M. I K.). The Persian 
manuscript of Haug 12 b. has : Kih i& (pro ham) u * in ham 
rasfd SstSd an i duiUgh, kih \k (ham) u an /' 'halif [ku, hamgst&n]. 

1 So the Pahlavi also indicates : Val valman t japtr — £ashijn. 
Ner. uttamasya va asvadayanti dehinaA. 

1 Literally, ' they are offering a gift to their own choice ' (var= 
varena; comp. yavarenS). 

* They are holding fast by the holy cause, and their vehemence 
in vengeance does not negative the fact that they are toiling in the 
love of Ahura. Pahlavi : Pa van zak f lak d&shuno, Auharmazd I 

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3. (And so may it be), O Ahura ! Let the man 
who is the best toward the righteous saint, whether 
lord's kinsman J ,or as village labourer, with the allied 2 
peer (of the master), having light, and endowed with 
energy for the cattle (a Ratu such as Ahura sought 
to satisfy their wail), let such an one be (for us) 3 in 
the work-field of the Righteous Order, in the pas- 
tures of Thy Good Mind 4 . 

4. (And I beseech for Thine instruction), I who 
will abjure 5 all disobedience (toward Thee, praying 
that others likewise may withhold it) from Thee ; I 
who abjure the Evil Mind as well, the lordly kins- 
man's arrogance °, and that lying sin which is (alas !) 
the next thing to the people 7 (their most familiar 
fault), and the blaming ally's falsehood, and from 
the Kine the worst care of her meadows 8 (the crime 
of stint in labour 9 ), 

1 Literally, ' with, or as, the kinsman.' 

* ' With the true ally.' 

* See XXIX, 2 : 'Let that pasture-giver whom ye would appoint 
for us, teaching by example and precept vohu vastryS, let him be 
on our sacred pastures, and on our side.' 

* The Pahlavi may be rendered as follows: He who affords 
increase to the righteous on account of the relationship [that is, 
something is given to him ?] does so also on account of the labourer's 
duty, or class [that is, the labourer is to be considered as his own]. 
Through the loyalty ; that is, the loyal class, that which adheres to 
Auharmazd, he has a thorough understanding as to what is (true) 
energy toward the herds. Thus Vohuman (a good mind) is a 
workman with him to whom Righteousness also belongs. 

6 Hubschm. Casuslehre, 'der ich von dir den Ungehorsam und 
schlechten Sinn durch Gebet abwenden will ' (s. 180). 

* Observe that Apa&u certainly designates an upper class. Why 
else arrogance ? 

7 Possibly this severity was the cause of the later high reputation 
of the Zarathurtrians for veracity. 

* Literally, ' from the pasture of the Kine.' 

* The Pahlavi may be rendered : Him who will not listen to 

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5. I, who (abjuring these sins), call earnestly on 
Thine Obedience of all (assisting guardians) the 
greatest one for our help 1 , gaining (thereby 2 ) long 
life in the Realm of (Thy) Good Mind (incarnate in 
our tribes), and paths that are straight from their 
Righteous Order, wherein Ahura Mazda dwells s , 

6. (Yea), I who, as this Thy faithful priest, invoke 
Thee through (my) Righteousness, (now) seek * with 
longing from (Thy) Best Spirit, and with that 8 (best) 
intention of mind, (to know) what 6 he himself 
thought of the working of (our) fields 7 . Therefore 
(because I abjure the Evil Mind, and all disobedience, 

Thee, O Auharmazd ! will I abjure, and Ak6man also, for by him 
there is the despising of relations, and the deception of the labouring 
men who live close at hand [that is, of neighbours]. And he is 
ever bringing censure upon the clients. And he holds to the lowest 
measure of duty toward the Herd. 

1 Avangha ne, or avanghanS, an infinitive (see Wilhelm, de Infin. 
p. 16). The Pahlavi has avo afyyarih. 

a Sraosha ( = listening obedience) is the greatest for help, because 
by a Mathra which appeals to him the way to Ahura is found out 
(XXVIII, 6) and the Demon defeated. If apand is read, so strictly. 
The Pahlavi translator seems to have understood apa n*; baram 
ayafinai pavan dSr-ztvwnih, zak f pavan khu«/ayih t Vohuman. 

Ner. : Avapaya df rghe ^ivitatve. This may well restore for us 
the proper text. Reading apa ne we should render 'obtain for us.' 

9 Ahura Mazda dwells as in His abode amid the paths where 
His saints walk (see XLVI, 16). 

4 So also indicated by bavihuneV. Kaya properly refers to ye. 

8 The Pahlavi translator seems to have seen an imperative in 
ava, rendering it freely aiyyarine^o. 

• Ya may be an instr. sing, or an ace. pi. neut. ' I ask what he 
thought meet to be done ; ' ya does not necessarily equal ye*na in 
every instance. 

7 I need hardly remind the reader that agriculture was the great 
question of orderly and religious life with the Zarathurtrians. 
Without it there was of course no resource but wandering and 
plunder for them. 

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arrogance, falsehood), O Mazda ! would I beseech 
of Thee for a sight of Thee, and for consultation 
with Thee ! (What is Thy will and mind ?) 

7. Come Ye, then, to my best (regulations. 
Come to my men, and my laws '), my very own, O 
Mazda ! and let them see through the Righteous 
Order and (Thy) Good Mind (which Thou wilt 
bestow in Thy drawing near) how I am heard before 
the rich giver 2 (in the assembly of Thy worshippers). 
Yea, (come Ye) ; and let the manifold offerings of 
worship be manifest among us 8 . (Arouse Ye, and 
help our zeal 4 !) 

1 So I render from the context. Otherwise see & t6i izyi in the 
previous verse. 

' I was formerly inclined to understand Ahura here, Indian 
usage permitting. (Indra and other Gods are maghavan.) But 
modern authority, aided by the ancient Pahlavi translator, brings 
me to a better mind. The Pahlavi has pavan fravdn magih. It 
is better to refer the word to the disciple. The more prominent 
members of the congregation are meant. 

* Ner. renders the last line thus : And may these offerings be 
manifest in the midst of us, and accompanied with (sincerest) 

4 There are certain cases where allowance for an ancient scholar 
working under great disadvantages becomes a critical necessity. 
Here the Pahlavi translator was clearly the victim of a manuscript. 
The word ' iidum ' (sic) stood, as similar words so often stand, in 
his MS. as 'ii. dum.' Deeply imbued with a superstitious regard 
for every letter, and with a public equally scrupulous, he saw no 
course before him but to translate each as best he could. He 
chose to render ' 4i ' by an infinitive, preserving the root, and 
could only think of a form of ' da ' for dum (so also moderns in 
another case). Many writers, seeing such a step, cast away his 
paper, regarding themselves as absolved by such a ' blunder ' from 
mastering his translations. But a little honest labour will always 
bring one back to sounder exegesis. In the next following verse 
we have identically the same form in another word, which he renders 
awkwardly but correctly, using d& again, but as a proper auxiliary. 

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76 the gAthas. 

8. (Come Ye) and show me the worthy aims of 
our faith, so that I may approach and fulfil them 
with (Thy) Good Mind, the offering, O Mazda! of 
the One like You l , or the words of praises offered 
with Righteousness. And give Ye as Your offering 2 
(of grace to me) the abiding gifts of Your Immor- 
tality and Welfare ! 

9. And let (one like those 3 ), O Mazda ! bear on 
to Thee the spirit of the two leaders who cause the 
holy ritual Truth to flourish ; let him * bear them to 
(Thy) brilliant home 6 with* preternatural insight, 
and with the Better Mind. Yea, let him bear that 
spirit on as a fellow-help 7 in (furthering) the readi- 

1 To approach the offering of a praiser seems certainly an un- 
natural expression. I think that we are obliged to regard khshmi- 
vatd as another way of saying Yourself rather than ' of Yours ' ; 
and if it equals ' Yourself here, it may elsewhere ; see XXXIV, 2, 
khshmivatd vahm6, also XLIV, 1, nem<? khshmavatd. All acknow- 
ledge mavaite' to mean ' to me.' Htibschmann, Casuslehre, s. 200: 
' dass ich mit frommem sinne an eure Verehrung, Mazda, gehen 

* It is curious that draond seems to be in apposition here. The 
word is used merely in the sense of offering in the later Avesta. It 
might possibly mean 'possessions' here. 

* See XXXII, 15. There helping princes are spoken of 'as 
borne by the two (Haurvata/ and AmeretataV).' Here in immediate 
connection with the same two it is said : Let one bear the spirit of 
the two united chiefs. By the term ' spirit,' which sounds so sus- 
piciously modern, we must nevertheless understand very nearly 
what the word would mean in a modern phrase. By these two 
leaders we may understand either (Jamaspa and Vljtdspa (XLIX, 9) 
or G&maspa and Frashaoxtra. (Compare yavarena Frashaortil 

4 ' Let one bear them.' 

6 Khvarlh maninlrnS. 

The Pahlavi gives its evidence for an instrumental and for a 
less pronounced meaning than the one above. 

7 Hamkart&rih. If the second kar is the root, the sense is figurative. 

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ness l of those (in their holy work) whose souls go 
hand in hand 2 . 

to. (And not for these alone do I pray, but for 
us 3 as well.) All prosperous states * in being which 
have been enjoyed in the past, which men are now 
enjoying, and which shall be known in the future, do 
Thou grant (me) these in Thy love *. (Yea), cause 
(our) bodily and personal life to be blest with sal- 
vation • through (Thy) Good Mind, (Thy) Sovereign 
Power, and (Thy) Sanctity 7 . 

ii. And, O Thou who art the most beneficent 
Ahura Mazda ! and thou who art Aramaiti (our 
piety), and also the Righteous Order who dost 
further on the settlements; and Thou, the Good 
Mind, and the Sovereign Power! hear ye me all, 
and have mercy 8 for every deed which I do what- 
soever 8 ! 

1 Bundako. * Pavan akvfnS ruban6. 

' So more probably. See the first person inverses 8 and n. 

• So the Pahlavi also, hu-zivimih. 

• So the Pahlavi also : Pavan hanS i lak d6shi«i8. ' In Thy 
will' is here very weak. 

• Nadukthii i av6 tanu [am yehabun] ; Ner. jubham tanau. 

7 Neryosangh : Let them continue to live well, and be prosperous 
in all things [ ] those females (ya/r most curiously) who are born 
thus [that is, come from elsewhere (and not from us)], and who 
are [gained over by myself]. Those, O Great Wise One! who 
shall exist [(or) come in the future], let them render these persons 
thine own through friendship to thee. Cause thou the Best Mind 
to increase within me, O Lord I [that is, make my mind ever the 
more piously zealous]. And in view of my righteousness grant me 
a benefit in my body, or person [ ]. 

• So the Pahlavi also : Am bar& amurz&f. 

• Observe that all the Amesh6spends, except the two mentioned 
in verse 8, are here bidden as persons to listen and be merciful. 
These recurring instances (recall the two hands of Asha &c.) 
necessitate the view that the idea of personality is never lost in that 

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12. And Thou, O Ahura ! do Thou (Thyself) 
arise * to me ! Through Aramaiti give me power, 
O most bountiful Spirit Mazda ! through (my) 
faithful appeals and offerings a ; and for (my) Right- 
eousness grant me mighty strength, and (Thy) 
thrift-law 3 through (Thy) Good Mind *. 

1 3. (Arise to give me power), and then for grace 
in a wide perception 8 (that I may view its depth and 
extent), do Thou reveal to me Thy 6 nature (?), O 
Ahura! (the power of Thine attributes), and those of 
Thy (holy) kingdom, and by these, the blessed gifts 7 
of (Thy) Good Mind ! And do Thou, O bountiful 
Piety 8 show forth the religious truths through (Thy) 
Righteous Order. 

of the abstract quality ; and vice versi ; (the latter especially in the 
Gathas where the names always retain much, if not all of their 
original force). As to adai; see vanghuyS (sic) zavd-ada in the next 

1 We seem obliged to suppose that Ahura was poetically con- 
ceived of as sitting (like Vohuman in VendidadXIX, 31 (Wg.)) upon 
an ornamented throne, or we may take the expression as pure 
metaphor equalling ' exert Thy power.' Aramaiti may be a voc. 

* See idai in verse 11. 

8 Pavan zak f Vohuman sardarih. The ' thrift-law ' is the regula- 
tion established by the Ratu demanded in Y. XXIX for the redemp- 
tion of the Kine. It expresses the entire polity and theology of 
the Zarathurtrian people as summed up in the original Avesta. 

* Neryosangh : Up ! O Lord 1 purify me [that is, make me pure, 
or free, from the influence of that tormentor, the Evil Mind] ; and 
grant me perfect spirituality and zeal. For we are recipients of 
Gvahmana, O more mighty spirit [that is, let him be as a guest, 
arrived within my body] ! And let sanctity have power over the 
murderer (?) [ ], and through the lordship of the Best Mind. 

* The Pahlavi has here pavan kamak Hshwno, on which see 
Darmesteter, £tudes Iraniennes, vol. ii, as per index. 

6 Literally, ' Your.' 

7 Ashi has this meaning in the later Avesta. It also means 
' sacred regularity,' ' exactness' in religious duties. 

8 So the Pahlavi also : Ax pavan Aharayth dind fraz dakh- 

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14. Thus, as an offering, Zarathiutra gives the 
life l of his very body. And he offers, likewise, O 
Mazda ! the priority of the Good Mind, (his emi- 
nence gained) by his holiness (with Thy folk) ; and 
he offers (above all his) Obedience (to Thee) in deed 
and in speech, and with these (Thine established) 
Sovereign Power 2 ! 

shaklnS ; Ner. : Puwyena dinim pra^ihnaya. Possibly, ' give light 
to our consciences through Asha' would be better. 

1 The tissues ; the word seems contrasted with bones elsewhere. 
The Pahlavi has khayS, and Ner. ^ivaw (sic). 

* The Pahlavi translation may be rendered as follows : Thus, as 
a gift of generosity, I who am Zartfrst (so freely, and with no error 
from ignorance (!)) give the life of my own body, as the advance [as 
the chieftainship] to Vohuman and to Auharmazd, and to Asha- 
vahirt, in actions [that is, I would do the deeds which Ahariyih 
desires], and would give obedient attention to the word (literally 
the hearing of the word) to (i. e. of) Khshatraver. 

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i. A tone of thankfulness continues. As if in gratitude for 
better fortunes, the prophet declares that he will bestow upon 
Ahura with the foremost, according to the measure of the gifts 
which he has received. Those gifts were the secured Immortality 
(not mere temporal ' deathlessness '), the Righteous Order, and the 
Sovereign Power established in holiness and bestowing the Universal 

2. The kind of gifts which are proposed for offerings are not 
sacrificial beasts or fruits, but the actions of the truly pious citizen 
whose soul is intimately united with Righteousness, the homage of 
prayer, and the songs of praise. As no piety could exist without 
strict ecclesiastical regularity, so no ceremonial punctuality was 
conceived of apart from honour and charity (see verse 5 and 
Yart XXII). 

3. Accordingly the meat-offering, the mention of which imme- 
diately follows, is spoken of as offered with homage to the Right- 
eous Order and to the Divine Sovereignty for the benefit of all the 
sacred settlements, in order to equip the wise man fully, and as a 
helpful blessing among the Immortals themselves and their 

4. And the Fire is likewise mentioned, which was worshipped not 
so much like Agni as the friendly god of the hearth and the altar, 
but more and chiefly like Agni as the priest of the church. 

Not unlike Agni, it is called upon both for inward spiritual 
strength and for temporal blessings in various forms, together with 
vengeance hurled very much as if in the form of a thunderbolt 
(zasta-Lrtiif dere.rta-a£nanghem). 5. To explain what he means by 
his supplications for the coming of the Kingdom, and for holy 
actions (that is, to make it certain that he does not mean punc- 
tilious ritualism apart from the noblest charity), he rhetorically asks : 
'And what is Your Kingdom, that which Zarathurtra establishes and 
offers to You? (XXXIII, 14). What is the kind of prayer (comp. 
XLVIII, 8, and LIII, 1) which I must use, so that I may become 
Yours (Your property) in my actions, not to load Your priesthood 
with sacrifices, nor to fatten Your princes with booty (as too often 
in the i?«ks), nor yet to secure a heavy gift to the poet, but to 
'nourish Your poor ? ' This was the essence of the desired Sanctity 
and the Sovereign Authority. The Kingdom of God, exalted 

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and personified as a separate intelligence, is positively said to be 
something more than a gaudy pageant of material display, even 
TavS Khshathrem yd erezi^yoi ASM drigavl vahy6 (LIII, 9). (See 
also even Vendidad II [part i], where moral duties are lauded.) 

And the composer himself seems to be so conscious of the sharply 
defined difference between such a kingdom and that of the rival 
religion, that he immediately adds an interdict : ' Such is Your King- 
dom, caring for the righteous poor, and therefore we declare You 
irreconcilably distinct from the Da£vas and their polluted followers. 
Ye are beyond them and before in the spirit of Your Reign ! ' 

6. He then utters an impressive doubt, which only deepens our 
admiration at his expressions of faith : ' If it be really true,' he con- 
tinues (see XLI V, 6), ' that Ye are thus with the Righteous Order 
and the Good Mind, the God who looks upon the goodness of the 
heart and the activity of the hands, then give me a sign of it, that 
I may persevere and increase in the depth of my homage while life 
shall last.' 7. For the struggle, though not without signs of a 
favourable issue, was far from over yet. (Hence his misgivings.) 

He then asks with some wistfulness after the ' ar(e)dra,' the men 
that could help, who from the experience of the grace of God, 
could turn sorrow into blessing by establishing the holy religious 
system firmly, but with enlarged and not narrowed understanding. 
And, still a little dispirited, he declares, as so often : ' None have I 
other than You ; therefore I can wait for the ar(e)dra. Do ye save 
us alone by Your already offered means of grace.' 

8. ' For Ye have given me already, as it were, a sign. The 
enemy are checked, and for the moment cowed, if they are not 
repelled. They among whom there was death for so many when 
they had the upper hand, and when their ruler persecuted the holy 
vows, are not only struck with terror by the action which we take, 
but their chief retribution is, as we hold it, spiritual, and therefore, 
in the eye of truth the more severe. They will not encourage 
righteous Order and righteous intentions, and accordingly, the 
personified Good Intention, grieved, will depart from them.' 

9. ' Yea,' he reiterates, amplifying, ' the unfortunate sinners who 
depart from Thy kindly and sacred Piety in this ignorance of all 
experience of Thy Good Mind, will suffer an equal desertion. The 
characteristics of righteousness will, in their turn, avoid them as the 
unclean creatures flee from us.' 10. ' And this is,' thus he con- 
tinues, ' a sign or result which the All-wise declares to me to steady 
my soul as I waver.' ' And these are indeed the cheering proofs of 
Thy favour,' he adds, addressing Ahura, ' which terrify our enemies 

[31] G 

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and advance us, giving us a righteous eminence (XXXIII, 14) in 
Thy Kingdom.' 

ir. 'Therefore that kindly Piety whom these desert in their 
judicial ignorance, will increase for us both the all-comprehensive 
blessings; spiritual Deathlessness begun in anticipation here, and its 
necessary condition, Welfare. And they shall be increased as food 
(sic) for Mazda's straitened people, or better, to His glory as their 
monarch. And by their means Ahura may defend Himself 
efficiently from the persecuting and idolatrous foe.' 12. Taking 
into consideration all that depends on a correct understanding as 
to religious and political duties, he fervently prays to be guided 
aright in the establishment of a ceremonial and of praises, beseech- 
ing Mazda to speak, declaring the kind of worship which may 
secure the ashis (which are the blessed rewards). And he asks to 
be taught those religious paths about which no error was possible, 
the paths which are the Good Mind's own. 

13. After a fashion already known to us (as in XXIX), he 
answers his question himself. That way which Ahura had already 
revealed as the Good Mind's own, was made up of the revealed 
precepts of the Saoshyawts. There, as in the paths where Ahura 
dwells (XXXIII, 5 ; XL VI, 16), the well-doer may prosper from 
his devotion to the religious truths, and gain a reward immediately 
from the hand of God. 14. As if never forgetting the original 
calamity, the woes of the Kine, he further declares that way to be 
the one of all to be chosen for this earthly life, as the vestibule to 
the heavenly one. And he asserts that they who toil for the Kine 
(who represents here, as generally, the holy settlements as well as 
their chief source of riches and support) are striving to further and 
demonstrate the wisdom of that way by every righteous contrivance. 

Nay, he declares that the deeds of Piety are themselves the 
highest wisdom, just as the words and righteous actions of the 
Saoshyawts not only declare and make, but constitute, ' the way.' 

15. Again, concluding with a climacteric and synoptical prayer, 
he beseeches Ahura to speak and reveal to him all the most 
available statements, ceremonies, and praises. And never for- 
getting that all ceremonies, hymns, and sacrifices, sacred as they 
are, are only means to a greater end ; he prays the Deity that 
He may exert that Sovereign Power which is alone supremely 
efficient in relieving actual distress (LIII, 9), for by its holy 
laws and spiritual arms it can alone bring on the Frashakarc/, and 
produce that condition in society in which all human progress shall 
have become complete. 

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i. As to those (three gifts of blessings), Immor- 
tality, the Righteous Order, and the (established) 
Kingdom of Welfare, which Thou, O Mazda ! hast 
given through (holy) deeds, words, and the sacrifice 
unto these (Thy servants here in my sight 1 ), gifts 
(shall) be offered 2 by us in return to Thee, O Ahura ! 
and with the foremost of them all. 

2. Yea, and all those gifts of the Good Spirit 8 
have been given (back in gratitude) to Thee by the 
mind and the deed of the bountiful man, whose soul 
goes hand in hand* with the Righteous Order in 
the settlement, in homage toward the One like You 6 , 

1 The hymns seem to be all composed for public declamation, 
as is evident from various passages. Similar indications often occur 
in the Veda. I formerly connected aSsham with Ameretat&7, &c, 
' a thank-offering for these (gifts).' 

1 I am very sorry to oppose progress on such a subject as dast6, 
but I do not think that it is an infinitive, nor that aitS or mrfiite" 
are such. -T8, or what it represents, I regard as seldom or never 
a Githic suffix, and especially not, as here, where dastfi falls to the 
end of the sentence. Too little attention has been paid to the 
Gathic sentence. The infinitive seldom falls to the end of it ; 
vidvandi vao&lj ta/ mdi vi^idy&i vao^d; viduye" (vidvS) vohu 
mananghd; men&i daidyai yehy& mi rishis; ash£ fradathai as- 
perezatS; Sg6i (?) hadrdyS; ye a&rtem vaenanghe" aogedS; but 
zbaya avanghanS (?) y& verezy&dyii manta vastrya ; sruidySi 
Mazd& fravao&l; kahmai vividuy^ (-v6) vasht; ta/ verezy&dyiU 
hya/ mdi mraota vahwtem; aretha vdizhdyai kamahya urn mdi 
data ; dazdyai hakercna ; but vasmi any &k& viduy S (-v6) ; men- 
daidyai y& T6i MazdS adixtLr, &c. The Pahlavi renders here with 
admirable freedom as a first person, yehabun£m. 

8 Observe this expression. It is the spewta mainyu which, like 
the ' Holy Spirit of God,' is sometimes identical with Him. 

4 Souls are elsewhere said to go hand in hand ; see Y. XXXIII, 9. 

6 I suppose that it is possible that khshmavatfl, here and else- 
where, may refer to the human subject, ' to the praise of your wor- 

G 2 

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O Mazda ! and with the chants of the (thankful) 
praisers 1 . 

3. And unto Thee, O Ahura ! will we offer the 
(thankful) meat-offering with self-humbling praise, 
and to Thy Righteousness (like Thee a person), and 
for all the settlements in Thy kingdom which are 
guarded 2 by Thy Good Mind. For in the perfect 
preparation of the justly acting (has that offering its 
power), O Mazda ! together with all (others of its 
kind). Among those like You and worthy of Your- 
selves, it is a blessing 3 . 

4. And we pray likewise for Thy Fire, O Ahura ! 
strong through Righteousness (as it is), most swift, 
(most) powerful, to the house with joy receiving it, 
in many wonderful ways our help, but to the hater, O 
Mazda ! it is a steadfast * harm as if with weapons 
hurled from the hands 6 . 

shipper,' but it does not sound at all natural. I think that khshma- 
vatd is merely another way of saying 'of you,' as mavawt=me. 
So the Pahlavi also seems to render here: Av6 zak 1 lekum va 
ntyayirno. Ner. also: SamagaiMdmi yushmakam naruaskr;'taye, 

1 This recalls the dasemS-stutam of Y. XXVIII, 10. 

The Pahlavi renders freely and not uncritically, regarding the 
spe»ta nar as Zarathartra himself: Aftino den Gar&rfmano stayem. 
Ner. : Garothmine staumi te. 

* So also the translations: Aigha? parvarun va min frarumh. 
Ner.: Uttamena pratipalya manasa. Compare Y. XXXII, 2 : 
saremand khshathraV. The singular verb is difficult. 

8 Or, ' for as those justly acting, and in preparation will we offer 
it as a blessing together with all who. are among " Your own." ' 
Here khshmavawt equals ' Your own '; rather than ' Yourselves.' 

4 Or 'visible' as fire, but this seems too feeble a conception 
for the place. The Pahlavi translator read dererta as a participle 
from dar(e)z, which is quite as possible as that it should be from 
dar(e)s. He renders yakhsenuneW kino ; Ner., vidadhiti nigraham. 
That he so translated because he was not aware that dere-rta could 
be also a participle from dar(e)s, is no longer tenable. 

6 As by no means a partially selected specimen, let the reader 

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5. What is x then Your Kingdom, O Mazda ? 
What are Your riches ? that I may become 2 Your 
own in my actions, with the Righteous Order, and 
(Thy) Good Mind, to care for Your poor (in their 
suffering s ). Apart from all would we declare You, 
yea, apart from Da£vas 4 , and Khrafstra-polluted 
mortals ! 

consider the following from the Pahlavi : Thus, O Auharmazd ! 
this which is Thy Fire, which is so powerful, is a satisfaction to him 
whose is Aharayih [-when my chieftain (the glossist seeming to 
have a text with a first pronoun ; otherwise the first translator who 
never saw ? us(e)mahi) becomes one by whom duty and charity are 
fulfilled], for it is quick and powerful [the Fire], and remains con- 
tinually in friendship with him, and makes joy manifest to him. 
And therefore, O Auharmazd 1 on him who is the tormentor it 
takes revenge as if with a mighty wish. 

1 Ka/ is often a mere interrogative particle, so modern inter- 
rogatives are also often merely formal. 

2 Bartholomae admirably follows K4 here with its hakhmt; it 
gives a more common explanation of vao, which I am obliged to 
take in a possessive sense beside ne. The manuscript used by the 
Pahlavi writer had, however, ahmt, as many others now extant. 

1 Note the recurrence of this care for the poor, showing what 
the frequent mention of righteousness, the good mind, &c. meant. 

4 Observe that daevair must mean the Demon-gods and not 
their worshippers here; pare vao indicates this, and also mashyiix= 
men, who are separately mentioned. The Pahlavi translator is 
finely critical here, giving us our first hint as to the meaning: 
PSsh Lekum min harvisp-gftno levln5 guft hdman&f [atgh tuban- 
karrfar h6man&/, &c.]. So with antare-mruye" (-v6), he was the 
pioneer also. I render with impartiality : Which (of what kind) is 
your sovereignty? [that is, what thing can I do, whereby your 
sovereignty may be increased through my instrumentality ?] And 
which is your wealth? [that is, what thing shall I do whereby 
riches may be kept in your possession by my means ?] How thus 
in the actions of Auharmazd shall I become yours ? [That is, I (?) 
shall do that thing through which, by my means, your sovereignty 
is extended; and also wealth is kept in your possession by me.] 
For whenever I (?) shall do righteous deeds, [that is, when I (?) 
shall do duty and good works], Vohuman gives nourishment to 
our poor. Before all of every kind, even before them ye are 

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6. If thus Ye are in verity, O Mazda ! with the 
Righteous Order and Thy Good Mind, then grant 
Ye me a sign 1 of this in this world's entire abiding 2 
(while I live amid its scenes), how offering sacrifice 
and praising 3 You the more devoutly 4 , I may 
approach You (in my worship) ! 

7. Where 8 are Thine offerers, O Mazda ! Thy 
helpers, who as the enlightened of the Good Mind 
are producing the doctrines with wide mental light 
as inherited treasures, (delivering them as Thy 
word) in misfortune and in woe 6 ? I know none 
other than You ; then do Ye save us through Your 
righteousness ! 

8. Through these our deeds (of sacrifice and zeal 7 ), 
they are terrified 8 among whom there was (once) 
destruction, and for many (at the time) when the 

declared; [that is, ye are more capable] than the demons, for 
their (?) intellect is perverted, (and ye are also before) men. 
1 So also the Pahlavi dakhrak. 

* So indicated by ketrun&nt. I have no doubt whatever that 
ma&ha should have this sense. See also Y. XXX, 9. 

1 So also the Pahlavi: Pavan afrinagano dahirnS va st&ywnS 
s&tunam madam. 

4 Urvaidyao, if in its original form, looks like a comparative. 
One naturally thinks of a * vrad (?) equivalent to ' vn'dh.' 

* Rhetorically interrogative as often in English, or indeed a mere 
particle. (Compare XL VI, 9.) 

* So also the Pahlavi indicates with its SmukhtLrnS (sic) f hu- 
varuno [i av6 kar va kirfak], muni£ pavan asanih va muni£ pavan 
tangth vadunySn frakh-hushlh. Ner. : .Siksham satyaya yaA sama- 
dhanatve, sawka/atve* 'pi kurute vipula£aitanyaA [kila, yaA k£rya»» 
puwyaw yat samnddhataya kurute] tekia. yat sawka/ataya 'pi kurute, 
tasya vi£«ana£aitanya»2 tasmad bhavati. 

' Nao being taken in a possessive sense. 

8 But the Pahlavi has : * Min zak 1 valmanjan maman kunimS 
lanman Mm'; possibly 'by these actions they terrify us'; the 
middle in the sense of the active. 

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oppressor of Thy holy vows was as the stronger 
oppressing the weaker 1 . They who have not thought 
(in consonance) with Thy Righteous Order, from 
these Thy Good Mind 2 abideth afar. 

9. Aye, they who desert Thy bountiful Piety, O 
Mazda ! that one desired of Thee s , O Thou omnis- 
cient ! and who thus abandon her by reason of the 
evil-doer, and in their ignorance of (Thy) Good 
Mind, from such as these (Aramaiti) with her holiness 
utterly departs * as the red Khrafstras (who destroy 
and pollute all life, flee) from us 6 (Thy faithful 

10. Through the action of this (His) Good Mind 
(as he works his grace within us) the benevolently 
wise 6 One declared a result as its fruit, He knowing 
the bountiful Piety, the creatrix of righteous beings 7 . 
These all, O Mazda Ahura ! in Thy Kingdom (are 

1 It is a mistake to suppose that the Pahlavi translator and his 
followers, Ner. and the Persian MS. (of Haug's Collection), refer 
naidyaunghem and nadentd to the same Sanskrit word. They 
translate them as if referring the first to nadh, and the last to nid. 

2 Min valmaar an bara rakhik atto Vohuman. Asmand seems 
an impossible reading, and cannot be reconciled with Vohu. 

* The hint of the Pahlavi points, as usual, to the general sense, 
leaving us the task of discovering the grammatical structure. 

Here I do not follow the indication of sedkunyfin ; Ner. parikshi- 
pyanti. The voc. ' O Thou ' is free. 

* So also in general the Pahlavi : Min valmaaran kabed Ahara- 
yih seg'dak; Ner. tebhyaA* prabhuto dharmaA* prabhraryati. 

8 So if ahma/ is read, but the MS. before the Pahlavi translator 
read ahm&t ; Ner. etebhyaA (freely). A simpler rendering results ; 
' as from him flee away/ 

* Observe the evidence of the Zend to the prevalent meaning of 
' khratu.' 

7 Or reading hithSm, and in the sense of ' bond,' we coincide 
with Ner. sukhanivasam. HaithSm= the true; hatSm ?= of beings. 
Lit. 'the true creatrix of Asha (the holy).' 

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88 the gAthas. 

' helps to our progress') for they smite (our tyrants) 
with fear 1 . 

ii. And for Thee hath Aramaiti (who is Our 
Piety) increased both the Universal Weal and (its 
continuance in) Immortality, and (with them as ever 
united) the Righteous (ritual and moral) Order 
(established and made firm) in the Kingdom of (Thy 
Good Mind). Those powerful lasting two (hath she 
increased) to (give us the needful) food 2 . And 
through these, O Mazda ! art Thou with Thy perfect 
expellers of hate s . (Thou removest Thy foes afar 4 !) 

1 2. What then are Thy regulations * ? And what 
wilt Thou ? What of praise, or of (fuller) offering ? 
Speak forth that we hear it, O Mazda ! what will 
establish the blessed rewards of Thine ordinance 4 ! 

1 The word voyathrS is difficult to place ; the Pahlavi translator 
divided, reading avo-yathra (possibly avoi athrS), and rendered 
fr6</kushl-att=is smitten down; the Persian better: Fr6d zadar, is 
smiting down. We may well hesitate before rejecting this indica- 
tion, which may point to a better text. Like vafiir, it may indicate 
the severity of the influences of the righteous system, in the midst 
of genial allusion. The ta vispd might refer quite naturally to 
duf-jkayasthani in the previous verse. The form voyathra (cor- 
rected) may represent some derivative from the root bf=to fear. 
Compare byawte' in verse 8. 

2 So likewise the Pahlavi with its khurir no ; otherwise ' for 
glory;' Avai=sva.T. Lit. ' To Thee (are) both Weal and Immor- 

8 Gavid b&h min lak hdmanih ; Ner. vltakash/as tva«i asi. 

4 Ner. : Thus both are (to be derived) from thee, Avirdada's food, 
and that of Amirddda also, [the (food) of the Lord-of-water, and of 
the Lord-of-wood* (so the later Avesta and Parsism)], and in the 
kingdom of the best mind, righteousness is making a revelation 
together with the perfect mind. Do thou also bestow zeal and 
power upon this one, O Great Wise One, the Lord ! From 
torment art thou exempt. 

8 So also viraywno. e Pahlavi arayifno. 

* Otherwise simply ' water and tree.' 

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Teach Thou us the paths through Righteousness, 
those verily trod by (Thy) Good Mind 1 as he lives 
within Thy saints 2 . 

1 3. (Do I ask what is that path ?) That way which 
Thou declarest to me as the path of the Good Mind, 

Ahura! (is made 3 in its parts by) the religious 
precepts and laws of the Saviours, wherein the well- 
doer thrives* from (his) Righteousness 6 . And it 
marks for the good a reward of which Thou art 
Thyself the bestower. 

14. For that (reward), O Mazda ! ye have given 
as the one to be chosen for (our) bodily 6 life through 

1 The Pahlavi has the gloss : Teach us the way of the original 

1 Neryosangh : Kiw te sawm&iyanam [kila, karyaw, te kiwi 
mahinyayitaraw ?] KaA kamaA ? Ka>fe yushmakaw stutiA ? Kaia 
yushmikaw i<gisnL* ? ^rwomi, Maha^wanin! prakr/sh/aw bruhi ! yat 
Aeisi* dharmasya sawmaiyanara, [aho vweshewa pajya ! tasmat 
mahanyayitarat kuru !] .SikshSpaya* asmakaw dharmasya marga»* 
uttamena sv&dhtna/n manasd. [Margaw yam purvanyayavantaw 
asmabhya»z bruhi.] 

* Observe the certainty of a subtle meaning, ' the way it the con- 
sciences or laws.' 

* Geldner has admirably suggested a comparison with vra^ on 
account of the connection 'way.' But as this necessitates two 
urvaz=vraz, and as Ahura is spoken of as 'dwelling' in 'paths,' 

1 do not think that ' thriving in paths ' is very difficult. The pro- 
minent thought is not the going, but the ' right going.' That path 
indicates a reward (so also the Pahlavi ^ashtao, Ner. asvadayaA). 
But we must be thankful for the keen and vigorous discussion. 
Compare urvakhshanguha gaya ^ighaeja. The Pahlavi has hu- 
ravakh-manfh and in Y. XLIV, 8. If vra^ is compared, the idea 
must be happy progress ; but varh (Justi) seems the more obvious 

* Asha, very often personified, is a stronger expression than 
' correctly.' 

* Of course our life on earth, merely in the bodily state. Comp. 
Y. XXVIII, 3. There astavatas£a° evidently means 'of earth,' 
manangh6, ' of heaven ' ( — of corporeal — of mind, without body). 

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the deeds of Thy Good Mind (in us). They who 
work in the toil of the mother 1 Kine, these further 2 
Your merciful care through the understanding's 
action 8 , and (taught) by Thine Order's (word)*. 

1 5. Yea, (show me, O Mazda ! that path and its 
reward) ; tell me the best (of truths) ; reveal the 
best words and best actions, and the confessing 6 
prayer of the praiser through Thy Good Mind 
(living within us) ; and through the Righteous 
Order, O Ahura ! And by Your Sovereign Power 
and grace may'st Thou make life really progressive 6 
(till perfection shall have been reached) ! 

1 Or the ' mature,' ' drivable ' (?) cow. She ' goes on her path ' 
of toil. 

* So fraz yehabftnrf. 

8 Observe that verezflii cannot well mean ' stall ' in this line. 
The Pahlavi likewise sees varzt-att in it ; Ner. vidhtyate, both free 
as to form. 

4 Neryosangh : Sa yato, Maha£»lamn ! kamo 'smikam yat tanu- 
mate ^ivamate diyate [aiiryiya], uttamena karmane manasd 
[khshatriy&ya], y&ria gavi* &&rayitre* A^inSmnyd, [ku/umbine], 
yo yushmSka«» sunirva»a^nSnatay£l, S vim in I buddhyS£a, puwya- 
pradattaya vidhiyate [dtniA]. 

* I concede this shade of meaning to the constant and unvary- 
ing evidence of the Pahlavi translator. He translates uniformly by 
avim yehabun&/ or its equivalents. 

* Bring on 'millennial' perfection when progress shall have been 

The Pahlavi translation is as follows : Pavan zak i lekum khud&yih- 
Auharmazd ! frashakarrfo pavan kamako Sshkarako den ahvino 

Ner. : Yushmakam ra£yena, Svamin ! akhshayatvam sve££<iayi 
parisphu/afli d&syate bhuvane. 

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This Gatha, consisting of Yasna XLIII-XLVI, is named 
from the word which begins it, like the three last collec- 
tions. The fact that the word arta possesses special signi- 
ficance may have influenced the minds of the Parsis of a 
later age, inducing them to associate this first chapter with 
happy anticipations, but it was of course not owing to any 
such circumstance that the name was given to the Gatha. 
The Gatha, like its fellows, has its existence as a unit from 
the nature of its metre. 

It has lines generally of eleven syllables, arranged in 
stanzas of five. It seemed convenient to chant all the 
hymns of one particular metre together. This hymn, from 
some unknown reason, or from pure accident, having stood 
first in the collection in this metre, the Gatha was named 
from its first word. 

The question naturally arises at this place whether this 
Gatha, in its parts or as a whole, is older than the Ahuna- 
vaiti and the others. For supplementary statements on this 
subject, see the Introduction, page xxvii, also elsewhere. 
It is sufficient to recall here that the procedure of the 
Ahunavaiti, and the sequence of the other Gathas in the 
MSS. of the Yasna, have little importance in determining 
the question of relative age. If originally grouped in the 
order of their age, they might easily become transposed for 
the purpose of liturgical recitation. (See the inserted Hapta- 
nghaiti, and Y. LII.) As to the metres present, they afford 
no indications as to relative age. The metre of the U-rtavaiti, 
approaching as it does the TrishAip, may be as old as, or 
older than, that of the Ahunavaiti. The oldest /?*shis sang 
in Trishrup. The sole remaining test of the relative age of 
pieces, is their contents. Do those of the Ahunavaiti show a 
priority to those in the Urtavaiti as regards the particular 
circumstances of which they treat ? So far as I am able to 


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judge, no part of the Ahunavaiti is older than Y. XLVI. 
There we have the man before us at a period in his life 
before he had attained to his supreme position. He not 
only laments the unfavourable prospects of his cause, but 
he is full of vehement animosity, urging on his adherents to 
the overthrow of some powerful opposing leader, and anti- 
cipating an armed struggle so formidable that its partisans 
are elsewhere alluded to (in Y. XLIV) as ' hosts.' We see 
him also exhorting the various chiefs of his party as they 
are evidently standing before him in some large assembly, 
possibly as the army on the eve of an important encounter. 

He refers intimately to the monarch, to his own family, 
the Spitamas, and to the Hvdgvas, as represented by 
Frashaortra. He offers the rewards of Ahura, as he pro- 
nounces His threats and condemnations. Every feature 
bears the strongest evidence of originality. But have we 
not the same in the Gathas Ahunavaiti, Spe«ta-mainyu, 
and the others? Beyond a question. Those passages 
which express grief, fear, and passionate resentment, we 
should naturally refer to Zarathurtra personally, and to the 
earlier portion of his career ; and we can make no distinc- 
tion between such passages when they occur in the Ahun- 
avaiti, U^tavaiti, or elsewhere. As to chapter XXIX with 
its logical commencement, as expressing the sufferings to 
be remedied in the entire effort, together with the call of 
Zarathujtra in immediate connection, and chapter XXX 
with its theosophical statements, we should say that they 
were composed later, during a period of success and reflec- 
tion. But this would be a mere surmise. The time of the 
sage need not necessarily have been consumed in struggles 
even during the early years of his career. 

Chapter LIII seems to belong to a period of mature age, 
but not necessarily to a period of advanced age. It cele- 
brates the marriage of Zarathurtra's daughter, but maidens 
were married early. With the exception of Y. LIII, I 
would say that the occurrence of a piece in this or that 
Gatha has little, if anything, to do with determining the 
question of its relative age. 

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Salvation is announced as universal for be- 
lievers. Reflections of Zarathustra upon 
the sublimity and bountifulness of ahura. 

As, in every instance, it is probable that verses have fallen out 
here and there in this important piece, and some may have been 
inserted, not necessarily from another composer, but from other 
compositions. After certain limits, however, marked signs of at 
least external connection are present. After the first three verses, 
which are quite apart, then from the fourth and fifth on, every alter- 
nate verse has the formula Spe/item a/ thwa Mazdd mcNhi Ahura. 
It would indeed present no difiiculty for a successor to add these 
words to stanzas otherwise also imitated, but whether from the 
leading sage or not, whether from him in one strain, or from him 
as collected from different fragments, the course of thought does 
not so fail in logical sequence as that it is either impossible, or 
displeasing, as a whole in a poetical composition. 

Verses 1-3 are admirable as preliminary. Verses 4-6, with their 
lofty descriptions of power and benevolence in the Deity, prepare 
the way well, with their allusions to the final judgment, for the 
closer reflections in verses 7-15 upon the prophet's call, uttered at 
the instigation of Sraosha (his obedient will). Verse 16 is a closing 
strophe looking much like an addition from another hand, not at 
all because Zarathuxtra is mentioned in the third person, but from 
its general cast. It possesses, however, very great interest from 
these circumstances. If a later addition, it enables us to see how 
the principal features of the system were viewed at a period not 
identical with the earliest, but closely following it. 

1. If we can accept the deeply interesting suggestion of the 
Pahlavi translator, which is, ' Salvation to him to whom there is 
salvation for every man,' we need then suppose no necessary loss 
of verses. Otherwise we are obliged to consider the loss of some 
laudatory verse, or verses, containing such matter as perhaps 
Y. XXXIV, 14, 'This princely priest has devoted all to Thee, 
therefore, salvation to him, whosoever he may be.' Whatever 
may be the actual truth, the main stress of the thoughts is clear 
and appropriate. Using the word vas^-khshaySs in a good sense, 


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the composer beseeches Ahura to grant those two 'mighty and 
eternal ones/ which logically form the complement to each other, 
universal wholeness, welfare of soul and body, without which beati- 
tude was inconceivable, and then the unlimited duration of that 
condition ; for it is quite impossible that ' long life' alone was here 
meant by a term, the equivalent of which soon after designated the 
Bountiful Immortals. We have here again ample data for affirming 
the richness and depth of the religious conceptions. 

The 'powerful and continuous two' are sought together with 
splendour as rewards, not for the gratification of any selfish senti- 
ment, but in order to maintain Asha, the religious Order, on which 
the sacred polity, and the tribal, as well as the national wealth 
depended, but more than any general blessings, the individual sanc- 
tity of life. 2. And this is signalised as the highest good; and 
to this a prayer is added for the ' m&ya,' which recalls the super- 
natural wisdom of the Indian Hercules, about which much phantastic 
and highly coloured myth is grouped ; but here, with the ever- 
recurring contrast, the maya is the mysterious wisdom of the Divine 
Benevolence, colourless and abstract indeed, but yet possessing 
how great religious depth! 

3. The highest blessing, in another and more than once repeated 
phrase, is again besought, as ' the better than the good,' even the 
attainment of the one who guides to the ' straight paths,' which are 
the 'way, even the conceptions and revelations of the Saviours' 
(Y. XXXIV, 13 ; LIII, 2), in which the believer prospers, and Ahura 
dwells, as he dwells in his kingdom, and his 'chosen home' itself 
(Y. XL VI, 16). Whether 'this man who shows the paths' of ' the 
bodily and mental world ' is the same as he who prays for the 
Syapti ahvau astvatas^i hya/>& mananghd (the boons of the two 
worlds) in Y. XXVIII, 3, here referred to in the third person, there 
speaking in the first, and whether he is Zarathujtra himself, are 
questions. It is only necessary to say that, if any relief is gained 
by the supposition, then beyond a doubt Zarathartra may have 
been the composer of both pieces or fragments, here, as in Y. 
XXVIII, 7, referring to himself as in the third person, there, in 
Y. XXVIII, also further representing another who prays, referring 
by name to him as in the third. 

But was Zarathurtra the only sacred singer, or was he the centre 
of a group only, of which he was the life ? (Compare Yathri ve 
afsmaini(?) s«igh3ni— Gamaspa' Hvdgvft; Y. XL VI, 17 ; see also 
the Introduction.) 

4. Proceeding as if the first three verses were absent from his 

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mind (as indeed they may have been only later brought together 
with what now follows), the composer begins his ascriptions of 
praise. He will regard Ahura as all-bountiful and mighty, since 
He has carefully nurtured, as with His very hand, the aids of grace 
which He will bestow, as gifts of forbearance on those now wicked, 
in the hope of penitence, and in the merciful threat of punishment, 
and to the devout disciple, whose piety is never ceremonial only. 
And these means of grace, although abounding in the inculcation 
of moral sanctity in thought, and word, and deed (see Vendtdad 
VIII, roo (Sp. 283) l , where ' thought ' clearly refers to intention in 
the strongest sense of the term), are yet profane, aside from the 
flame of that holy Fire which rallied the masses to a national 
worship, and which was strong for the holy order, as well as by 
means of it. For these reasons he adores their giver, but for still 
another. It was because the might of the Good Mind of Ahura 
approached him within them, and gave him strength for all that 
was before him. 5. Like the Semitic prophet, he poetically con- 
ceives himself as having beheld Ahura, as the chief of the two 
spirits, and as sovereign over all other powers when the world was 
born. And he regards Him as having also then established rewards 
and punishments by his holiness, so separate in its dualistic dis- 
tinction from all complicity with evil either by infliction or per- 
mission. And these rewards and punishments were to have their 
issue not in time alone, but in ' the last turning of the creation ' in ' 

6. And for Ahura's coming in this last changing he fervently 
beseeches, as well as for the appearance of the Sacred Kingdom, 
established and guarded by the divine Benevolence. And this con- 
summation, he implies, will take place when the settlements shall be 
furthered in the Righteous Order, and by means of it, the end of 
progress having been attained ; for then the piety of men's souls . 
will itself be their instructor, delivering the regulations which shall 
silence the controversy of the two sides (Y. XXXI, 3). And these 
regulations are as the wisdom of Ahura's understanding (Y. XXVIII, 
2), so penetrating that all thoughts lie bare to it (Y. XXXI, 13). 

7. He now declares the principles on which he accepted the divine 
call. Sraosha (verse 12), he says, drew near to question him. As 
he is called by Ahura, Obedience, the same who constitutes the way 
to Ahura (or finds His throne (Y. XXVIII, 6)), now draws near 

1 Anaeshem mand, anaeshem va£6, anaeshem .rkyaothnem prove that the 
thought, word, and deed referred to were not limited to a ritual meaning. 

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96 the gAthas. 

him, (I say Sraosha (i. e. Obedience), for if he is not so described as 
drawing near in this verse, he assuredly is so described in a verse 
nearly following (the twelfth)). Beyond a question, the fine subjec- 
tivity here expressed was intended. As the seer cried : O Right- 
eousness! when shall I see thee (in myself and within my people), 
so now he means that his obedient spirit listens to the call of God. 
8. And as his personified conscience questions him as to his origin, 
and the principles on which he would proceed, it represents the 
obedient people, as well as the obedient sage (for the sense of 
Sraosha, while originally applied to the personal will, is not restricted 
to it). 'Loyalty' questions him, that 'loyalty' may report his 
answers. He therefore responds, speaking in his name as 
Zarathurtra (or else one thoroughly in unison with him, here 
speaks in his name). And this is his statement as to the indica- 
tions which shall determine his personality. His course will be 
without a compromise. The unbelieving opposers, as he declares, 
shall meet no favour at his hands, but detestation, while to the de- 
vout disciple he will be as powerful an aid. And this because his 
mind and thought are (as if blinded to the present) fixed upon the 
ideal Kingdom, while for the present he never ceases to toil on, 
making preparations for the Frashakarrf, and constructing hymn 
after hymn to set up the needed machinery of lore. 

9. Again, his conscience and obedient will, as the angel of 
the Deity, questions him ; and this time offers him that chief of 
wished for objects to him, religious knowledge. He mentions 
the holy Fire, with its proper offering, as the theme of his first 

ro. And he beseeches Ahura to answer and to favour him, since 
he invokes such a complete endowment, going hand in hand with 
true Piety, and with no selfish interest in his prayer. He then, with 
a depth which I confess seems suspicious, asks of Mazda to put 
his petitions for him, recalling Y. XXVIII, 1 1, where he beseeches 
Ahura to fill up his desire with what not he, the speaker, but with 
what He, Ahura, knows to be the Good Mind's gifts. Or, with a 
conjectural improvement (?) of the text, he asks of Ahura to ques- 
tion him that he may be questioned indeed, saying as it were, 
' search me, and know me.' But the other reading being retained 
as having superior point, and needing no. conjectured text, we may 
see his further thought : 'Ask Thou our questions for us, and then we 
shall never fail; then we shall be no desireless (ana&sha) men, 
spurned by the wailing kine as flinching champions (Y. XXIX, 9), 
but we shall be indeed Thy rulers, "speaking our mighty wish." 

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Like the isha-khshathra, whom she sought (Y. XXIX, 9), our 
wish shall work our will ; it will accord with the will of God.' 

11. He is, however, not blind to all that lies before him in 
accepting this call. He worships the bounty and majesty of Ahura 
while he is impressing his soul with the import of this conference, 
and that notwithstanding, and none the less, because His will, 
when obeyed in actions, will bring on earthly sufferings. 

12. But notwithstanding all that may be in store for him, he 
hopes to make those doctrines treasures (Y. XXXIV, 7), that is, a 
spiritual wealth (compare also Ahura's tati). One only qualifica- 
tion would he add : ' Wait only before Thou givest the word that 
I should go forth with Thy new truths (which bring such suffering 
to him who first pronounces them), wait till my obedient will, listen- 
ing fully to all which Thou shalt say, shall come to me, and then 
shall that obedient reverence in me and my beloved, help on our 
effort, that we may spread abroad the tidings of Thy promised re- 
compense to win the living to Thee (Y. XXXI, 3).' 13. 'And 
that I may know and make known (so he continues) the true aims 
and objects of desire to those to whom I am at Thy word to go, 
grant me for this long life within Thy Realm, although that life be 
full of bitterness (verse 11 ; and Y. XXXII, 10, 11 ; XL VI, 1), for 
those who propagate Thy cause.' 14. ' Yea, as a friend, both wise 
and powerful, gives to a friend, send to me not only Sraosha, 
an obedient listening will, but raf(e)n6 frakhshnenem, abundant 
grace. Then, and then only, shall I be flanked with a proper ally. 
Then with Thy Sovereign Power, like my Obedient will, as an 
angel sent forth from Thee, and inspired by Thy righteous Order in 
law and ritual, in thought, and word, and deed, then I will go out 
to arouse and head the chiefs, gathering into spiritual hosts the 
many believing priests who even now would bear in mind and 
celebrate Thy mysteries.' 

15. And as he began with fearless severity, so he would end 
without a compromise. ' My patient suffering (so he implies as he 
proceeds (Y. XLVI, 1)) reveals its lesson to me. My mind is long- 
enduring, but that patience, although it may seem to some the 
cowardice of a pusillanimous protector (Y. XXIX, 9), yet it is not 
such in truth, for it declares within me, and forces me to say: 
Let no man please the wicked; this is our only prospect of 

16. And casting back his thoughts he (or another in his name) 
sums all up well : ' Thus doth Zarathurtra choose the spirit, that 
spirit which animates the faithful in their chiefs (Y. XXXIII, 9), 

[30 H 

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and by his side every true believer utters his sympathising prayer : 
Let the Order of life and of the ritual become incarnate in our 
tribes, and strong because it has the valiant power of faithful men 
to obey and to defend it. And let Piety prevail till it covers our 
land blest with the favours of the sacred sun, and as she lives in 
the lives of true adherents, may she in sympathy with the Good 
Mind, thus grant rewards for all our deeds I ' 


i. Salvation to this man 1 , salvation to him who- 
soever (he may be 2 ) ! Let the absolutely ruling 
Great Creator grant (us, He) the living Lord, the 
two eternal powers. Yea, verily 8 , I ask it of Thee 
(O Ahura) for the maintaining * Righteousness. And 
may'st Thou also give it to me, (O inspiring) Piety ! 
splendour 6 (as it is), holy blessings, the Good Mind's 
life 8 . 

2. Yea, to this one 7 may the man endowed with 

1 Ahmai as=to us, does not seem to be good grammar here, 
as it necessitates a forced separation between it and yahmai- 
kahmatfi/. Cp. ahmai yahmai-kahmiLM/ in Y. XLIV, 16. 

* I turn from the fine rendering of the Pahlavi with the greatest 
reluctance : Nadui valman mun zak f valman nadukth kadarzai [afgh 
kadarzaf anjuti min nadukth t valman nadukih], happy is he whose 
benefit is for every one ; [that is, for every man there is happiness 
from his benefit] ; Ner. follows. 

* There is a question whether the particle ga/ (gha/?) may not 
have originated from ga/. Barth. here follows the Pahlavi, reading 
gat6i(?)=pavan yamtunwnd. Lak may have been added, as often, 
to serve as an alternative rendering. 

4 Or ' I will,' so Prof. Jolly (infinitive for imper.). 

• So also the Pahl. ray£-h6mand, not as a rendering merely, but 
as a philological analagon. Otherwise ' riches.' 

• Ga€m recalls sraejta gaya ^(i)vai«ti. 

7 As ahmai would more naturally mean ' to this one ' in the pre- 
vious verse, it is desirable to render it in the same way here. 

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glory 1 give that; best of all things, the (spiritual) 
glory. And do Thou likewise (Thyself) reveal * 
Thine own 3 (gifts) through Thy ■ most bountiful 
spirit, O Mazda! (And do Thou teach us) Thy 
wonderful thoughts of wisdom *, those of Thy Good 
Mind, which Thou hast revealed (to us) by Thy 
Righteousness (within us) with the happy increase 
of (our joy 6 ), and on a long life's every day 6 . 

3. And may that (holy man) approach toward that 
which is the better than the good 7 , he who will show 
to us the straight paths of (spiritual) profit, (the 
blessings) of this corporeal life, and of that the men- 
tal *, in those veritably real (eternal •) worlds, where 
dwells Ahura ; (that holy man) an offerer of Thine 10 , 
O Mazda ! a faithful citizen", and bountiful of (mind). 

1 It is to the last degree improbable that Aviihroyi (^z&thrava' ; 
' y ' miswritten for ' v ') indicates a condition of ease and comfort 
here. The ' easy man ' is the farthest possible from the thoughts 
of the composer. The ' best of all things ' makes a word kindred 
to Aveng (Av&n) appropriate here. 

* /fiki (?), if an imperative (?), may mean guard over ; but the 
Pahlavi translator gives us the better view ; he has lak p6<£kino ; 
Ner. tvam prakajaya. Geldner's £i£ithw4 is important. 

5 Thw£=thy properties. * The Pahl. has merely pa</m£n6. 

* This shade of meaning is expressed by the Pahlavi. 

* Ayare, ace. pi. 

7 This expression seems to equal the summum bonum; so 
also ' worse than the evil ' is the ultimate of woe. 

* Cp. Y. XXVIII, 3. 

* Does haithywg mean ' eternal,' with every passage in which it 
occurs considered ? 

" Thwava»t may, however, like mava«t, simply express the per- 
sonal pronoun here. The position of aredro, &c. is awkward if 
thwava»t=thy : 'Where dwells Ahura, Thyself, O Mazda I bene- 
ficent, wise, and bountiful.' But aredra is almost a special term for 
a zealous partisan. 

" The Pahl. has khup-danSkth, indicating a meaning which would 

H 2 

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4. Yea, I will * regard Thee as mighty and likewise 
bountiful, O Ahura Mazda ! when (I behold) those 
aids of grace (approach me), aids which Thou dost 
guard and nurture 2 as (Thy) just awards to the wicked 
(to hold him far from us), as well as to the righteous 
(for our help), Thy Fire's flame therewith so strong 
through the Holy Order 8 , and when to me the Good 
Mind's power comes 4+6 . 

5. (For) so I conceived of Thee as bountiful, 
O Great Giver, Mazda ! when I beheld Thee as 
supreme 9 in the generation of life, when, as rewarding 7 
deeds and words, Thou didst establish evil for the 
evil, and happy blessings for the good, by Thy 
(great) virtue 8 (to be adjudged to each) in the crea- 
tion's final change. 

6. In which (last) changing Thou shalt come, and 
with Thy bounteous spirit, and Thy sovereign power, 

better apply to Ahura than the one given, which cannot be applied to 

1 Subjunctive (see Prof. Jolly, V. S. p. 28). 

s ' By Thy hand.' » The holy Fire of the altar. 

4 Gimat may be regarded as an improper subjunctive here. 

6 The Pahlavi : ' and that too which renders justice to the wicked 
and also to the righteous. And this Thy Fire is burning, since by it 
the strength of him who lives in Righteousness is (maintained) when 
that violence which approaches with a good intention comes to me.' 

* See Y. XXXI, 8, where the word is also rendered as= vornehm- 

7 Literally, 'When Thou didst render deeds provided with 
rewards.' We are forced to put the action in the past on account 
of zath6i, but the influences originally set in motion were to have 
their issue in the end of the world. 

' I render hunari literally, and bring its Pahlavi translation to 
the same sense as necessarily. Otherwise hunar would generally 
mean ' skill.' Ner. has tava gu«eshu. The Pahlavi would here be 
recognised by all reasonable scholars as striking in its closeness. 

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O Ahura Mazda ! by deeds of whom the settlements 
are furthered through the Righteous Order. And 
saving regulations * likewise unto these shall Aramaiti 
utter, (she, our Piety within us), yea, (laws) of Thine 
understanding which no man may deceive 2 . 

7. Yea, I conceived of Thee as bountiful, O Great 
Giver Mazda ! when he (Thy messenger, Obedience) 
drew near me, and asked me thus : Who 3 art thou ? 
And whose is thine allegiance ? And how to-day 
shall I show the signs that give the light on this (our) 
question, (signs) as to the lands (from whence thou 
earnest) and in thyself ? 

8. Then to him I, Zarathu^tra, as my first answer, 
said : . To the wicked (would that I could be) in very 
truth a strong * tormentor and avenger, but to the 

1 The word ratfo reminds one of the work of the Ratu for the 
afflicted kine. In the last changing, which shall complete the Fra- 
shakarrf, he, or his representatives, will appear as the last Saoshya/tt, 
introducing ' millennial ' blessedness. 

a I render the Pahlavi here as in evidence: 'Through Thee, 

(?) bountiful Spirit ! the changing comes [(later (?) gloss) from 
wickedness to goodness]. And it comes likewise through Auhar- 
mazd's supremacy within a good mind, through whose action the pro- 
gress of AharSyih's settlements is furthered, those which the master is 
instructing with a perfect mind [ ], and in which this Thy wisdom 
shall in no wise be deceived thereby.' 

8 As the kine thought little of her deliverer (see Y. XXIX, 9), so 
Sraosha, the obedient host, is here represented as inquiring as to 
the antecedents of the newly-appointed prophet. But he asks more 
properly concerning the settlements from which he comes than the 
lands. GaStha is not dafo>(h)yu. An origin external to that of 
other chieftains is not at all necessarily indicated by the question. 

* The Pahlavi sees a denominative in isdya (isdva ; y for v) ; it 
is denom. in the Altiranisches Verbum. It differs, however, as 
to root. I offer an alternative in its sense. An open tormentor ; 
[that is, I openly torment the wicked] even as much as I desire, do 

1 torment (them) [(later (?) gloss) Ganrak mlnavad]. 

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ICfc , 7 J at . ■■'.;.• THE GATHAS. 

righte6u"s"fliay'I be a mighty help and joy 1 , since to 
preparations 2 for Thy Kingdom, and in desire (for 
its approach), I would devote myself so long as to 
Thee, O Mazda ! I may praise, and weave my song. 

9. Yea, I conceived of Thee as bountiful, O Ahura 
Mazda ! when (Thine herald) with Thy Good Mind 
near approached me, and asked me thus : For what 
dost thou desire that thou may'st gain, and that 
thou may'st know it ? Then for Thy Fire an offering 
of praise and holiness (I desired. And on that 
offering for myself) 3 as long as I have the power, will 
I meditate 4 , (and for its holy power among Thy 
people will I plan 6 ). 

10. And may'st Thou likewise grant 6 me (Thy) 
Righteousness (within me), since I earnestly invoke 
that perfect readiness (of mind), joining in my prayer 
with Aramaiti (our Piety toward Thee. Yea, pray 
Thou Thyself within me through these holy powers). 
Ask Thou (Thyself) our questions, those which shall 
be asked by us 7 of Thee ; for a question asked by 

1 We must be cautious in accepting the statement that the 
Pahlavi translations attempt to be literal. Here is one which is 
free and far from erroneous: AStund avo aharubd min valman t 
ao^-h&mand aito ; [aighaj, rami nam]. 

3 The Pahlavi here shows only the correct root. * Ma=sm£? 

4 ' So long as I can, will I be of this mind,' seems hardly ex- 
pressed here. Observe the nearly parallel construction in verse 8. 

5 The Pahlavi, Sanskrit, and Persian translations would here be 
regarded once more as extremely close even by opponents, if 
reasonable in their estimates. Manayii seems to me hardly an 
infinitive, as it is comparatively seldom that an infinitive falls to the 
end of a sentence either in Gathic or Vedic. I prefer the indication 
of the Pahlavi with Justi and Bartholomae (in the Altiranisches 

• Read perhaps daidhtr (later shortened to suit the metre). 
' Or, ' ask us that we may be questioned by Thee.' 

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Thee (as its inspirer), is as the 

mighty, whene'er Thy (?) ruler speaks his potent 


ii. Yea, I conceived of Thee as bountiful, O 
Ahura Mazda! when (Thy messenger) with Thy 
Good Mind near approached me, and with your 
words I * first impressed (my soul). Woes then 
'midst men Thy heart-devoted one 8 declared 3 (to 
be) my (portion) ; but that will I* do 4 which Thou 
did'st 8 say was best. 

12. And since Thou, coming thus, Thy legal 
Righteousness in fulness 6 spakest, then declare not 
to me words as yet unheard (with faith or know- 
ledge; command me not) to go forth (with these 
upon my task) before Thy Sraosha 7 (Obedience) 
comes to me, to go on hand in hand with me with 
holy recompense and mighty splendour 8 , whereby to 

1 The Pahlavi translation bears evidence to a less subtle, and 
therefore more probable sense here, but at the same time to a rarer 
grammatical form. It renders didaiNhg as a third person, indicating 
an instance of a third person in 6, and not in the perfect. It also 
recognises a reduplicated form by its pavan nikSzwn8 nikgzeVo. 

* The Pahlavi translator with a curious error, or still more 
curious freedom, has rubak-dahLmih here and elsewhere. Possibly 
the Githic text before the last compiler differed from ours. 

* I still prefer Professor Bartholomae's earlier rendering, after 
the Pahlavi, as more in harmony with mraota and mrao*. 

* Professor Jolly has the important rendering ' das will ich 
thun;' the infinitive in a future or imperative sense. 

* • Ye said.' 

* The Pahlavi unvaryingly kabed. 

7 Here we probably have the missing subject in the other verses. 

* Reading maza raya. (Raya cannot well mean ' riches ' here.) 
The Pahlavi also indicates the division by its free or erroneous mas 
ratu (rat/). Sraosha, an obedient will personified, guides the soul 
as in the later Parsism. Cp. the Arda Virif. 

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give the contending 1 throngs (?), as a blessing 2 , (Your) 
spiritual gifts (of certainty and peace). 

13. Thus I conceived of Thee as bounteous, O 
Ahura Mazda ! when with Thy Good Mind (Sraosha, 
Obedience) approached me. (And I would therefore 
pray thus of Thee, that bounteous one.) In order 
that I may make known to men the true and sacred 
aims of their desires (in the rite or daily toil), grant 
Ye me long life 3 for this, (that blessing *) which none 
with daring may extort 6 from You, even this (gift) 
of that desired a place which has been declared to be 
within Thy Realm. 

14. Yea, as the man enlightened 7 (in Thy law), 
and who has possessions, gives to his friend, (so 
give Ye) me, O Great Creator 8 ! Thy rejoicing and 

1 Here we have the important reading r£n6iby6 as against the 
dual of K4, &c. (see Geldner). No mention of the fire occurs; 
and as the form does not agree with aram, we may well doubt that 
comparison in view of asayau in Y. XXXI, 2, and the unvarying and 
uniform patkan&r&no of the Pahlavi. The rendering 'with the 
sticks' is, however, admirably adapted, and must be considered as 
an emphatic alternative. 

* The Pahlavi supports the reading vi for ve ; it has bara\ Ashi 
might also mean merely ' holy,' as adjective. 

3 In Y. XXVIII, 7, he asks for it that he may crush the malice 
of the foe. 

4 Justi admirably suggested yanem understood. 

* The Pahlavi divides dirrtaitS, and, as I hold, mistakes the root 
as was inevitable. The ancient scribe feared to restore the severed 
fragments, which appeared, as so often, in the MSS. before him. 
I would read daisaitt with Spiegel's c(?) (so Bartholomae, later, how- 
ever, recurring to a division, with Geldner after the Pahlavi, for the 
sake of bringing out an infinitive). 

* Vairy<7U contracted from vairyayau by a corrupting improve- 
ment to regulate the metre. 

' So the Pahlavi indicates, Bartholomae following as against the 
rendering ' possessing.' 

* With regard to Mazdau and medha', I should perhaps long 

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abounding grace, when through Thy sovereign 
Power, and from (the motives of Thy cause of) 
Righteous Order, I stand forth * to go out to ', or 
to arouse, the chiefs 3 of Thy (pure) proclamation, with 
all those (others) who recite Thy well-remembered 4 
MSthra word. 

15. Yea, I conceived of Thee as bounteous, O 
Ahura Mazda ! when with the Good Mind's grace 
Thy Sraosha (Obedience) approached me, (and said) : 
Let the quiet and long-enduring better mind with 
understanding teach (thee) ; let not a foremost 6 man 

since have stated that I object to the comparison, not only because 
medha* is a feminine, and, as Grassmann has supposed, possibly 
represented by the Zend madh, Greek math, but because ' wisdom' 
is an abstract (while su-medh£s, as a compound, does not apply so 
directly). I hold, however, that mazda, the fern, noun in Y, XL, 1 = 
medha 1 . It is also not impossible that this word may be represented 
(with differing shades of meaning) by bo'th madh and mazdam 
(fem.) in Zend. 

1 Read, perhaps, frakhrti; or frlrta, 'with Thine advancing 
kingdom I (am) to go forth to'; (fra + as, participle.) 

1 Prof. Jolly has the important rendering, ' Ich will mich erheben ; ' 
the infinitive in a future or imperative sense. 

' Chieftainships. Compare (not with exactness, however) sir- 

* The idea of reciting from memory seems to be included in 

• The rendering pourto (?) as=pl. of punis is attractive, but dreg- 
vat6 hardly needs, and seldom has, a substantive. The wicked = 
wicked men; and, on the other hand, na constantly claims an accom- 
panying word ; (na isman6 ; na va£demn6 ; hvo na-erethw6 ; na 
spe«t6, y*-na, ke va-na, &c.) Also it is improbable that the words na 
and pouruf, as = puravas, should come together; ' let not a man men 
evil ingratiate (?).' Compare for sense here purvias in one or more 
of its applications. Possibly the meaning is, ' let not a man be fore- 
most in conciliating the wicked.' The Pahlavi likewise has kabed 
(freely). Ner. has: Mi naraA* praiura/* durgatinam bhuy&t* yathi 
katham£it satkarta. An important rendering is that of Professor 

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conciliate the wicked (as sycophant desiring aid), for 
with that (quiet mind of faith), Thy saints have 
brought full many a sinner unto Thee (as convert, 
and in penitence 1 ), 

1 6. Thus, O Ahura Mazda ! this Zarathurtra 
loves 2 the Spirit s , and every man most bounteous 
prays * (beside him) : Be Righteousness life-strong, 
and clothed with body. In that (holy) Realm which 
shines (with splendour) as the sun, let Piety be pre- 
sent ; and may she through the indwelling of Thy 
Good Mind give us blessings in reward for deeds * ! 

Jolly, V.S. s. 47, 'mOchte es wenige Verehrer des Lttgners geben.' 
Cp. Y. XL VI, i, where the composer speaks of the chiefs as on 
their side, 'not contenting' him. 

1 Or, with the Pahl. : Mun a&un5 lak harvisp-gftn6 aharubanS 
pavan anik yakhsenund, for they consider all Thy saints as wicked. 
The rendering above is less natural as conveying the idea of 
a conversion (comp., however, yd ^(i)va»t6 visp«»g vaurayS), but 
it renders the grammatical forms more simply. It is bad policy 
to force a text to express what we happen to believe to be a more 
natural idea. Using the hint of the Pahlavi here in an understanding 
manner, we might then render ' for they hold all sinners as holy.' 

8 I had long since compared verewte with vrmite (-devi'n&m 
avas) ; and am now sustained by Bartholomae's view. 

s Possibly the Spenirta mainyu of Ahura. (See also Y. XLIV, 2.) 

* The Pahlavi, on the contrary, bears evidence to the meaning 
' comes,' which I cannot accept as ' tradition ' in view of the follow- 
ing precatives. 

5 Ner. : ' The kingdom becomes established (in a manner com- 
pletely manifest) in sun-publicity through mental perfection [ ]; 
and upon the workers of righteousness the Good Mind bestows it.' 

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Questions asked of Ahura with thankfulness 
and devotion. 

Many verses may here have fallen out, or, on the other hand, the 
piece having been made up of homogeneous, but not originally con- 
nected fragments, has been left with some abrupt transitions. These, 
however, occasion very little difficulty in exegetical treatment, 
and are also not displeasing. The formula, 'This I ask Thee, 
O Ahura 1 tell me aright' seems to have been suggested by Y. 
XXXI, 14. We might therefore look upon this piece as composed 
later than Y. XXXI, but not necessarily in a later generation, or 
even from another hand. In fact the style is thoroughly homo- 
geneous in certain places with that of pieces which we ascribe 
without a doubt to Zarathartra, and the signs of struggle point 
to the earliest period. It is possible that the words in Y. XXXI, 
and the formula here were of common origin, neither having any 
extended priority to the other, or the words may be original here, 
and derived in Y. XXXI. 

Whether Zarathurtra, or another of the narrow circle of religious 
leaders, was the composer throughout depends upon the further 
questions already more than once broached, as to how far a cor- 
responding intellectual cultivation was extended at the period in 
the community, and as to what is the probability of the existence 
of more than one man in the small group, endowed with the 
peculiar qualities everywhere manifested in these hymns (see re- 
marks in the Introduction and elsewhere). It is safest to say 
that Zarathartra composed most of the matter here before us, and 
that the supplementary fragments were composed under his domin- 
ating, if not immediate, influence. 

Verses 1 and 2 seem an introduction, but hardly give added 
emphasis to the fact that the following questions were expressions 
of devotion, and only in a few instances appeals for knowledge. 
Verses 3-5 are certainly questions intended to express veneration 
while naming particular objects of devout inquiry. Verse 6 stands 
somewhat apart. Verses 7-1 1 enter into details touching the 
moral and religious improvement of the people, 12-14 are po- 
lemical, 15 and 16 are prophetical, &c. 

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i. More closely; the composer beseeches Ahura to speak to 
him, and in a manner characteristic of Himself as in distinction 
from the falsifying utterance of the opposing religion, which was so 
familiarly described as the religion of ' Falsehood.' He is entreated 
to reveal, as is His wont, ' the holy truth.' And the first question 
propounded to Him by the composer, as comprehensive of all 
others, is how he may offer homage, the homage of God Himself 
or of His bountiful spirit ; (see mainyu in verse 2). And he further 
asks that Ahura may speak to him, showing him by what cere- 
monial he may conciliate him, and by what helps of grace that 
spirit, or Ahura Himself, may be inclined to draw near to him in 
accordance with his frequent prayer. 

2. Once more he asks how he may serve that Spirit as the 
foremost one of Heaven (compare Y. XXXI, 8, and the Parsi 
vahLrt) who seeks for this addition of praise to praise, for as the 
supreme claim to our veneration, He had, as a guardian (Y. XXXI, 
13) like Ahura in yet another place, held off destruction from all 
believing saints and from all repentant men (Y. XXXI, 3), and that 
although as ' the chief of Heaven,' yet also as a benignant friend. 

3. From these introductory petitions, inserted perhaps before 
many lost verses, he proceeds in another tone, although he may 
still be said to say what is homogeneous to the foregoing: 'Yea, 
I ask how I may serve Him, O Mazda ! for He is indeed Thyself, 
and therefore, to show my fervent homage, I ask : Who was, not 
the first establisher alone, but the first father, of our holy Order 
as the personified Immortal, and that not by creation, but by 
generation, as the parent generates the child ? Who fixed for stars 
and sun that "way," the undeviating path through space, long 
noticed and studied by our fathers, as no random course, or un- 
known progress save Thee ? ' 

4. The laws of gravitation then become the theme of his praise 
still expressed in the form of questions, also the atmospheric 
phenomena, especially the clouds driven by winds, not like the 
Maruts beyond the mountains perhaps, but still terrible as winds can 
be. But he cannot leave even the sublime objects of nature without 
thinking once more of that spiritual power, the strength of righteous 
character, which was justly more impressive, although still more 
familiar, and which he designates, as ever, by the ' Good Mind.' 
Here this great Immortal is left an immortal thought, and is spoken 
of as ' created,' not ' born ' like Asha (in verse third). 5. Beyond 
a doubt, recognising the satisfactions of energetic life as well as the 
solaces of slumber, and as forming by their contrast the necessary 

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change which builds up happiness, he alludes to the supreme 
arranger as ' well-skilled,' and asks : Who so wisely relieved the 
day by night ? But, again, he cannot close without reverting to the 
course of moral duty. 6. Seized with a doubt which again only 
heightens the fervour of his assurance, he asks whether indeed the 
facts which he proclaims are really what they seem. Whether 
piety, although aided by the Good Mind, implanted through Ahura's 
grace within us, will indeed at last, or soon, assign the purified 
Realm to the servants of Ahura, who were there among the masses 
before his eyes (ta&by6), or to Ahura Himself as their sovereign 
controller (taibyd ?). And, as including all rural riches in herself, 
he asks for whom He had made the kine, not now wailing in her 
grief (Y. XXIX, 9), but ' delight-affording,' on account of the 
influence of Piety and Benevolence embodied in the Kingdom, in- 
ferring that God had made her for these same (the faithful masses). 
7. And going yet further back ; he asks who made that paternal 
and filial Piety itself, together with the Realm which it should 
leaven ? Answering his own inquiries by an inference, he adds : I 
am pressing Thee with fulness in these questions, O Thou bounti- 
ful Spirit (compare mainyw, or mainyu in verse 2), the maker of all 
(sun, stars, and holy qualities). 8. Turning now to verbal revela- 
tions, he asks by what means his soul may prosper in moral good- 
ness, praying that it may indeed thus advance as the expected 
answer would declare. 9. He prays that he may know how he 
may still further sanctify that Religion which the King of the Holy 
Realm (compare anghm* vahwtahyS pourvfm), the one like Ahura 
(see KhshmSvatd and thw&vSs, verse 1) would teach, dwelling in 
the same abode (in which Ahura is also elsewhere said to dwell) 
with the holy Order, and the Good Mind (see Y. XLVI, 16). 

10. Expressing all in a single word, he asks Ahura to reveal to 
him the Daena, the Insight, the substance of that Religion which 
was ' of all things best,' and which alone could ' advance the settle- 
ments ' with the holy ritual and moral Order as its ally, which would 
also render all their moral and ceremonial actions, and moral 
principles just by means of the divine Piety, which was their realisa- 
tion in practice ; and he closes with the exclamation that the wishes 
and desires of his soul, when most embued with wisdom, will seek 
for God. 

11. Following out the influence of Aramaiti (that personified 
Piety), he asks to know by what practical means she may approach, 
and be realised as the characteristic of those to whom the holy 
Insight should be preached, avowing that God knows how prominent 

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he is in his devotion to the matter, and with what hatred seated ' in 
his spirit,' he views the opposing Gods. 12. Then casting a search- 
ing glance over the masses, and perhaps eyeing their several groups, 
each headed by its ' chieftainship ' (sardenau sflighahya), he cries, 
addressing Ahura formally, but the people really (so also elsewhere 
frequently), and says: 'Who is the righteous believer as regards 
these my questions asked of God to express my belief in Him, and 
who is the sceptic ? Which man does the Angra Mainyu govern ; 
or which is as evil as that chief himself?' And, recalling the galling 
fact that some are tolerated who not only do not assist but oppose 
his efforts, and perhaps having some half-convinced sections in full 
sight, he cries with bitterness : ' Why is this sinner, that chief who 
opposes me as Angra Mainyu opposed Ahura (compare paiti-eretfc 
with aa/ m6i paiti-eretfi in Vendfdad I), why is he not believed to be 
what in very truth he is? Why is he still countenanced?' 13. 
And then with a fierceness which reminds us of sazdum snaithisha 
(Y. XXXI, 18), but which is deeper because proposing a less 
material remedy, he asks : ' Why must we abide the sight of these 
opposers, representing their Lie-demon as their Goddess ? How 
can I drive her hence to Hell beneath, not to those who hesitate 
like these, pausing before they condemn the evil party, but to those 
who are already filled with their disobedience, and who, having no 
communion at all with us, receive no light, like these, from the re- 
flected glory of the truth, and who have moreover neither sought 
nor shared like these, the counsels of Thy Good Mind. Yea, how,' 
he reiterates, ' can I deliver up that Lying Goddess, in the persons 
of her adherents, to the Holy Order, in the persons of the 
saints, into their hands, to slay her, not with the snaithir only, 
but to destroy her as a falsehood by the Mathras of Thy doctrine, 
not barely to withstand these wicked corrupters, as we now 
do, enduring the silence of these masses at their deeds (verse 12), 
their fear of them, or their connivance with their creeds, but to 
spread slaughter among them to their total overthrow ? ' 

15. He then presses on the coming collision, and prays to know 
to which of the hosts (compare Ssayou, Y. XXXI, 2) that claim 
the urvata, Ahura will give the prize. 16. And who, he further 
asks, shall be the champion who shall lead the victors, the vere- 
threm^an (compare sar^a, Y. XXIX, 3) who will thus take up the 
snaithir and the Msthra (verse 14), and so at once contend for 
' both the worlds.' And he wishes him not alone pointed out, but 
approached, as Zarathurtra was approached (Y. XLIII), by an 
obedient will, and moved to his holy work by the inspiring Good 

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Mind of Ahura, be that champion Ratu whosoever the Lord might 
wish. Salvation in the shape of success in his great attempt should 
be his portion (Y.XLIII, i ). 17. Half intimating that he himself may 
be the coming man, he begs to know when he can have that con- 
ference in which, as in the desired h^mparjti and dami of Y. 
XXXIII, 6, he may communicate more closely with Ahura, and 
through the revelation which might be vouchsafed, may become a 
protecting leader to secure the ever-named ' abiding two,' ' Weal ' 
and 'Immortality,' which were the 'better than the good,' the 
' vahirta ' of the saints. 

18. A preliminary wish arising, he asks that he may receive the 
honorary gift of mated mares and a camel, as material for sacrifice 
before a battle (?), the highest interests of the people even, their 
lasting Welfare, demanding that he should receive this help. 19. 
For the monarch, or leading chief, who may withhold this justly 
deserved and needed help, or honour, he declares by the terms of 
his following question, that some instant judgment will be forth- 
coming, for the threats of the future condemnation seem for the 
moment only trite. 

20. As a peroration, he appeals to the reason of the wavering 
groups, among the masses who still delay to call evil evil (verse 12), 
and he asks whether the DaSvas, as represented by their adherents, ■ 
had ever been good rulers, when they had the power. Were not 
robbery and violence then the law with them as now ? And did 
not the Kine, as representing the sacred herds and people, lift up 
her wailing voice ? 

(The piece from verse 12 seems to constitute a religious war- 
song. These verses seem not to have been originally connected 
with the calm and thankful contemplations in verses 1-10, but 
later united with them. Verses 1 2-20 stand in the closest connec- 
tion with Y. XL VI, which has, however, preserved more of the ele- 
ments of sorrow and discouragement which influenced the leader 
and his followers at times. See also XLIII, 11.) 


i. This I ask Thee, O Ahura! tell me aright; 
when praise is to be offered, how (shall I complete) 
the praise of the One like You \ O Mazda ? Let 

1 Some who seldom cite the Pahlavi follow it here ; ntyiyixnS 
xak mun aetunft niyayimd f Lekum [dlnfi]. Otherwise one might 

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the One like Thee declare it earnestly to the friend 
who is such as I, thus through Thy Righteousness 
(within us) to offer friendly help 1 to us, so that the 
One like Thee 2 may draw near 3 us through Thy Good 
Mind (within the soul). 

2. This I ask Thee, O Ahura ! tell me aright, how, 
in pleasing Him, may we serve the supreme one of 
(Heaven) the better world 4 ; yea, how to serve that 
chief who may grant us those (blessings of His grace, 
and) who will seek for (grateful requitals at our 
hands) ; for He, bountiful (as He is) through the 
Righteous Order, (will hold off) ruin s from (us) all, 
guardian (as He is) for both the worlds, O Spirit 6 
Mazda ! and a friend. 

read nem£ with B.V. S. (variation) in Y. LVIII, 3, and render, 
' how shall I bow myself in your worship ?' 

1 The Pahl. hamkan&r is likewise followed. The alteration to 
hakfirena is very interesting, but, I think, hardly necessary. 

* Observe the great difficulty in referring Khshmavatd to a human 
subject. Here we have ' the homage of the One like You (of Yours(?)' 
some would say) ; in Y. XXXIII, 8 we have Yasnem Mazdi (Ahura) 
Khshmavatd ; in Y. XXXIV, 2 Khshmavatd vahmS; in Y. XLIX, 6 
Tarn dagnam ya Khshmavatd Ahura. Khshmavatd is sometimes 
merely a way of saying 'of Thyself/ as mavaitS=to me. 

8 Observe also the emphasis on his 'drawing near'; otherwise 
' let Your one declare it to my friend ' (?). 

4 SeeRoth,Y.XXXI,8. See, however, also deHarlez's suggestion, 
perhaps after the hint of the Pahlavi : ' qu'elle a 6t6 l'origine ?' Here 
we have another instance where an entire verse seems to allude to 
Ahura in the third person with an address to Him thrown in, or at 
the close. In connection with anghov vahutahya 1 Ahura must be 
the pourvya, as in Y. XXXI, 8, where Roth renders vornehmster. 
The guardian is also Ahura (see Y. XXXI, 13). 

6 I cannot fully accept the hint of the Pahlavi here as others do 
who seldom heed it. I do not think that ' sin ' is so much indicated 
as 'destruction.' 

' Mainyu is suspiciously expressive as a vocative ; perhaps ' by 
spiritual power ' would be safer. 

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3. This I ask Thee, O Ahura ! tell me aright : 
Who by generation 1 was the first father of the 
Righteous Order (within the world) ? Who gave the 
(recurring) sun and stars 2 their (undeviating) way ? 
Who established that whereby the moon waxes, and 
whereby she wanes 3 , save Thee * ? These things, O 
Great Creator! would I know 8 , and others likewise 

4. This I ask Thee, O Ahura ! tell me aright, who 
from beneath hath sustained the earth and the clouds e 
above that they do not fall ? Who made the waters 
and the plants ? Who to the wind has yoked on 
the storm-clouds, the swift and fleetest two 7 ? Who, 
O Great Creator! is the inspirer of the good 
thoughts (within our souls) ? 

1 ' As a generator (?).' 

1 Bartholomae follows the Pahlavi here as rendered by Ner. 
putting hveng and stansm (-3m) in the genitive, which is in itself far 
better than to regard da/ as governing two accusatives. One would, 
however, rather expect hw«g staram adhvanem da/. 

* All follow the Pahlavi here, which renders with allowable 
freedom. Nerefsaiti (=Pahl. nerefs&/; Ner. nimtlati; Persian 
kahad) might possibly be explained as a nasalised form of an Aryan 
correspondent to arbha, as nar=ar. 

* Possibly from thine influence (?). 

s The infinitive vfduye" (=vidv€) lies here in an unusual place, 
at the end of the sentence. It is because the word has no stress 
upon it. The emphasis rests on the objects which he desires to 
know about ; the entire connection deals with ' knowing ' ; it has 
no prominence. 

* This rendering is not supported by the Pahlavi, which seems to 
report a rendering from some text with an a privative, and a form 
of dar. The 'unsupported' object might mean the 'air-space.' 
See the suggestion of Bartholomae ' the earth and the air-space,' 
comparing the later Sanskrit. 

7 Or ' for velocity,' adverbially. Velocity, however, in the abstract 
as the object yoked-on, is rather too finely drawn. I should prefer 

[3i] I 

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5. This I ask Thee, O Ahura ! tell me aright ; 
who, as a skilful artisan, hath made the lights and 
the darkness * ? Who, as thus skilful, hath made 
sleep and the zest (of waking hours) ? Who (spread) 
the Auroras, the noontides and midnight, monitors 
to discerning (man), duty's true (guides) 2 ? 

6. This I ask Thee, O Ahura ! tell me aright 
these things which I shall speak forth, if they are 
truly thus. Doth the Piety (which we cherish) in 
reality increase 8 the sacred orderliness within our 
actions ? To these Thy true saints hath she given 
the Realm through the Good Mind. For whom hast 
Thou made the Mother-kine, the producer of joy * ? 

7. This I ask Thee, O Ahura ! tell me aright ; 
who fashioned Aramaiti (our piety) the beloved, 
together with Thy Sovereign Power ? Who, through 
his guiding wisdom 6 , hath made the son revering 
the father ? (Who made him beloved 6 ?) With (ques- 

the fleet ones, the lightnings. My rendering follows the indication 
of another, as a dual, but not as to full exegesis. One naturally 
supposes the yoking together of the winds and dark clouds to be 

1 Recall svar yad Irmann adhipa u andho. — 7?v. VII, 88, 2. 

* Ner. : ' Who gave us the lights with his keen discrimination ? 
And who the darkness ? Who, in his keen discrimination, gave (us 
our) sleep and waking ; [that is, our diligence and activity ?] Who 
is he who gave us the time of huj-aina, and the time of rapithvana 
[ ], and the method and calculation of him who discerns by means 
of the just rule [ ] ?' 

8 So also the Pahlavi indicates by ' stavar.' 

4 So I prefer; but the indication of the Pahlavi deserves an 
alternative 'giver of bounty' ; skar=kar. 

' Geus azyau ' was later a common expression for a mature 
animal, but possibly vulgarised from its older special use here. 

* Root ni (?). 

* I thus add as the Pahlavi translator indicates such an element 
in uzemem. 

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tions such as) these, so abundant \ O Mazda ! I press 
Thee, O bountiful Spirit, (Thou) maker of all ! 

8. This I ask Thee, O Ahura! tell me aright, 
that I may ponder 2 these which are Thy revelations, 
O Mazda ! and the words which were asked (of Thee) 
by Thy Good Mind (within us), and that whereby we 
may attain 3 , through Thine Order, to this life"s per- 
fection. Yea, how may my soul with joyfulness 4 
increase in goodness? Let it thus 6 be 6 . 

9. This I ask Thee, O Ahura ! tell me aright, how 
to myself shall I hallow 7 the Faith of Thy people, 

1 Frakhshn?=in abundance (Pahl. kabed; Ner. pra&iram ; 
Persian MS. bisyar). The thought refers back to anyaia viduye" 

* Haug sagaciously renders as if m«»daidyai were a miswriting 
for pend&idyii, which is in itself very possible, as an ' m ' t looks 
much like an inverted in MSS. So the Pahlavi records the 
irregularity also, from which Haug derived his idea. But Haug 
explains the word as an allusion to the five prayer-hours of the day. 
I doubt very greatly whether the five prayer-hours existed at the 
date of the composition of this passage. Such regulations grew up 
much later. The Pahlavi translator indicates elsewhere an accusative 
(m«jg=mam) with an infinitive ' that I should give forth,' which is 
in itself far from impossible. He was aware (!) that m#*g could 
also equal man ; see Y. LIII, 5. 

3 VaSdySi is infinitively used for v6izdyai. 

4 I do think that it is necessary on the whole to postulate two 
similar words here (although Geldner's suggestion is most keen 
and interesting). Urvakluanguha and urvakh.rukhti do not favour 
a comparison with vra^ here. The Pahlavi is indifferent : ifigfin 
denman i li rubano zak t japir hu-ravakh-manlh ? So Ner. uttam- 
anandaA. Barth. begltlckend. 

8 Ka-ta=kena-tena. 

* Or, ' let those things happen to me ;' gam means ' come ' 
more frequently than ' go,' here. Lit. ' let it thus advance.' 

7 JSHgHn denman t li dtn6 yd-r-dasar t ave^ak y6j-dSsary6m ? 
Ner.: Katham idaw ahaw yat* dtniw pavitrataram pavitrayami ; 
[kila, dini/n katham pravartamanam karomi]? As Zarathiutra is 

I 2 

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which the beneficent kingdom's lord hath taught me, 
even the admonitions which He called Thine equal, 
hath taught me through His lofty (and most righteous 
Sovereignty and) Power, as He dwells in like abode 1 
with Thine Order and Thy Good Mind ? 

10. This I ask Thee, O Ahura! tell me aright 
that holy Faith which is of all things best, and which, 
going on hand in hand with Thy people, shall 
further my lands in Asha, Thine order, and, through 
the words of Aramaiti (our piety), shall render 
actions just. The prayers of mine understanding 
will seek 2 for Thee, O Ahura ! 

n. This I ask Thee, O Ahura! tell me aright; 
how to these your (worshippers) may (that Piety 
once again and evermore) approach, to them to whom 
O Lord, Thy Faith is uttered ? Yea, I beseech of 
Thee to tell me this, I who am known to Thee as Thy 
foremost 3 of (servants) ; all other (Gods, with their 

represented as sanctifying the Fire (in Y. IX, i), so here he would 
doubly sanctify the Faith itself. He would ' hallow its name ' 
and meaning. 

1 Pavanaj-hamdemunih-ketrun&/ [pavan hamkhadukth]. 

* I cannot regard the caesura in this verse as possessing ordinary 
importance, the maJwyaa (mahyau) £istdu is especially dependent 
on the following words. The Pahlavi translator hints at an impor- 
tant solution, which is, that a pause should be made before usm ; 
' the wish of mine understanding wishes, and I wish (am wishing) ; 
Khursand h6manam=I am content. If we can accept a break (a 
possibility far too little recognised), the u«n as representing a nom. 
sing, would refer back to the meaning in maA»yau (mahyau). But 
reading fattr (as irregular for fcrtayd on account of the metre) we 
might regard usm as a third pi. Or shall we take it as a 
quasi-third singular, usm being usam (*n=the nasal vowel; comp. 
u£9m as a third sing, imper. after Barth.) ? Let ' the wish (frtir) of 
my enlightened understanding wish for Thee.' 

* Compare • a6shSm tdi, Ahura I mma" pourutemaif daste? 

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polluted worshippers), I look upon with (my) spirit's x 
hate 2 . 

1 2. This I ask Thee, O Ahura ! tell me aright ; 
who is the righteous one in that regard in which s I 
ask Thee my question ? And who is evil ? For 
which is the wicked ? Or which is himself the (fore- 
most) wicked one ? And the vile man who stands 
against me (in this gain of) Thy blessing, wherefore 4 
is he not held and believed to be the sinner that 
he is ? 

1 3. This I ask Thee, O Ahura! tell me aright, how 
shall I banish this Demon-of-the-Lie from us hence 
to those beneath who are filled 5 with rebellion ? 
The friends of Righteousness (as it lives in Thy 
saints) gain no light (from their teachings), nor have 
they loved the questions which Thy Good Mind (asks 
in the soul 6 ) ! 

Auserkoren is a fine but a bold rendering. Election is, however, 
included in all divine prescience. 

1 I have no doubt whatever, but that mainyciw and dvaeshanghil 
belong together. 

1 The Pahlavi translation is as follows: 'Thatwhich I ask of Thee, 
tell me aright, O Auharmazd 1 when shall the perfect mind come to 
those persons [that is, when does the mind of my disciples become 
perfect] ? When shall it come to those who declare this Thy Reli- 
gion, O Auharmazd ? Grant to me before these the proclamation 
of the truth. Against every other spirit which is malevolent I keep 
my guard.' 

5 Yi\s adverbially, or possibly, ' with whom I question.' 

4 .Ajawgha/ is, I think, simply the equivalent for ki (?) angha/ 
=qut fit, how does it happen that ? ' Stands ' free for ' comes.' 

6 The Pahlavi on the contrary takes perenminghd in the sense of 
combating, pa van anyokhshW&'rih patk£rSnd=' (who) are opposing 
you through disobedience.' It is far from certain that he does not 
indicate some improvement in text, or rendering. 

* Or, ' the counsels of holy men.' 

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14. This I ask Thee, O Ahura! tell me aright; 
how shall I deliver that Demon-of-the-Lie into the 
two hands of Thine Order 1 (as he lives in our hosts) 
to cast her down to death through Thy Mathras 
of doctrine, and to send mighty destruction 2 
among her evil believers, to keep those deceitful 
and harsh oppressors from reaching their (fell) aims 3 ? 

1 5. This I ask Thee, O Ahura ! tell me aright. 
If through Thy Righteousness (within our souls) Thou 
hast the power over this for my * protection, when the 
two hosts shall meet in hate 5 (as they strive) for 
those vows which Thou dost desire to maintain, how, 
O Mazda ! and to which of both wilt Thou give 6 the 
day 8 ? 

16. This I ask Thee, O Ahura! tell me aright, 

1 Ash£i with Geldner. 

s The Pahlavi anticipates us in the correct general sense here. 
It has nas,h6nun5. The Persian MS. renders the Pahlavi, hami- 
vandi ntst dehand I darwand. 

8 Andshe" seems regarded as an infinitive by the Pahlavi 
translator, anayStunwno. ' For the destruction of those deceivers ' 
is an obvious alternative to the rendering above (& nSshe' ?). 

* Geldner and Roth render ma/= Sanskrit mad; otherwise ' with 
complete protection.' Or is ma/ ablative for genitive : If thou rulest 
over me to afford me protection ? The Pahlavi affords no indi- 

6 The Pahlavi translator erred widely in his attempt to render the 
word anao^anghS. As it is certain that his MSS. differed from 
ours often, they probably did so here. The verse alludes beyond a 
question to some expected battle in a religious war, and perhaps in 
a religious civil war. It is the most positive allusion to the ' strife 
of the two parties ' (Y. XXXI, 2) which has come down to us. It was 
a struggle concerning the religious vows, or doctrines ; av&Lr urvStiif 
yi tu Mazda dideieghzd. 

6 The Pahlavi renders vananam by ' good thing,' explaining ' the 
sovereign power.' 

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who smites with victory 1 in the protection (of all) who 
exist, and for the sake of, and by means of Thy doc- 
trine ? Yea, clearly reveal a lord having power 2 (to 
save us) for both lives. Then let (our) Obedience 3 
with Thy Good Mind draw near to that (leader), O 
Mazda ! yea, to him to whomsoever * Thou (shalt) 
wish that he should come. 

1 7. This I ask Thee, O Ahura ! tell me aright ; 
how, O Mazda ! shall I proceed to that (great) con- 
ference 6 with You, to that consummation of Your 
own, when my spoken wish 6 shall be (effected) unto 
me, (the desire) to be in the chieftainship 7 (and sup- 
ported) by (the hope of) Weal and Immortality (those 
saving powers of Thy grace), and by that (holy) 
Mathra (Thy word of thought) which fully guides 
our way through Righteousness (within). 

1 Verethrem^a thwa, following the Pahlavi with Westergaard, 
Geldner, and Bartholomae. 

s Compare Y. XXIX, 2 and Y. XXVIII, 3 ; or it may mean 
' promise to establish ' (Barth.). Audi, however, hardly seems to 
need an infinitive with it; it may mean 'appoint.' Compare 
dawsu(patni) for a better sense than 'house-lord,' also for dV»g patfiLr. 

* This casts additional light on the ' one that should come ' in 
Y. XLIII, 7, 9, n, 13, 15. 

4 This recalls ahmai yahmai urt& kahmaWt/. 

8 The comparison with ^ar has long circulated among Zendists. 
Many adopt it. It agrees admirably with the Pahlavi as to sense : 
Aimat, Auharmazd ! daman6 kar</arih t Lekum, when is Your 
appointment of the time ? 

' The Pahlavi va mflnlfc zak i li g6bim5 hfimand khvastar. 

7 Va sardar yehevunwnih madam Haurvadarfva AmerddsW; Ner. 
Svamino bhavishyanti upari Avirdade Amirdade ; comp. also Y. 
XLIX, 8 frae\yt<zungh6 aunghama. Professor Jolly compares buzdyii 
with <pito0ai(lnf. s. 194). The long since circulated comparison with 
bhu^ seems to me hardly so probable. It may, however, deserve an 
alternative ; ' to enjoy Weal and Immortality ' ; but accusatives 

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1 8. (And, having gained Thine audience and Thine 
Order's sacred chieftainship), then I ask of Thee, 
O Ahura ! and tell me aright, how shall I acquire 
that Thy Righteous Order's prize, ten (costly) 
mares male-mated, and with them the camel * (those 
signs of honour and blessing for Thy chief. I ask 
Thee for these gifts for sacrifice). For it was told 
me for the sake of our Welfare (in our salvation), and 
of our Immortality, in what manner Thou 2 shalt give 3 
to these (Thy conquering hosts) both of these Thy 
(gifts* of grace). 

19. This I ask Thee, O Ahura ! tell me aright ; (in 
the case of the recreant, of him) who does not give 
this (honoured) gift to him who hath earned it ; yea, 
who does not give it to this (veracious tiller of the 
earth, to him who in no respect shows favour to the 
Demon-of-the-Lie, even to the) correct speaker 6 (of 
Thy sacrificial word), what shall be his sentence at 

do not fall so naturally to the end of the sentence in Gathic or 
Vedic, without preceding related or qualifying words. 

1 Those suspected of no partisanship for the Pahlavi translation 
follow it here as against Haug, who translated the words ujtremia 
by et amplius 1 It means a camel ; so the Pahlavi translator ren- 
dered many centuries ago before Europeans even knew what the 
Indian tish/ra meant, which simple analogy Neryosangh first drew. 
Horses were material for sacrifice among the Persians accord- 
ing to Herodotus. The reasons for the prayer are not fully 

s So better than as a first person aorist subjunctive, if ta§iby6 is 
to be read. The Pahlavi, however, read taiby6, which is not lightly 
to be passed over. 

5 The rendering ' take ' has long circulated. I do not, however, 
prefer it here. 

* Weal and Immortality, but hi might refer to the two objects, 
' the mares ' and the ' camel.' 

6 The ideal Zarathujtrian ; comp. Y. XXXI, 15 ; XLIX, 9. 

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the first (now at this time, and because of this false 
dealing ? I ask it), knowing well his doom at last 1 . 

20. (And how as to our deluded foes ?) Have 
Daeva-(worshippers) e'er reigned as worthy kings ? 
(This verily I ask of Thee, the Daeva-worshippers) 
who fight 2 for these (who act amiss? Have they 
well reigned) by whom the Karpan and the Usi^(k) 
gave the (sacred) Kine to Rapine 3 , whence, too, 
the Kavian in persistent strength * has flourished ? 
(And these have also never given us tribal wealth nor 
blessings), nor for the Kine have they brought 
waters to the fields for the sake of the Righteous 
Order (in our hosts), to further on their growth (and 
welfare) ! 

1 So also the Pahlavi followed by all. Karfar valman pavan zak 
viniswno aitd fratum; [atgar pavan-vinaskarih pS</afiis fratum 
maman] ? Akas hdmanam zak mun valman att6 afdum [mamanaj 
darvandih] ? Ner. (with regard to him) who does not give the re- 
ward which has come for the one fitted for, or deserving of, it [to 
Garathustra's equal], (the reward) which the truthful man ; [that is, 
the good man] is giving to him, what is the first thing which 
happens through this sin of his ? [that is, what is his first chastise- 
ment in consequence of this fault ?] (For) I am aware of what his 
punishment shall be in the end [ ]. 

* The Pahlavi translator either had a text with some form of pa, 
or was otherwise misled. He renders mun netrund, but gives the 
word the adverse sense of ' hindering ' in the gloss. Ner., however, 
has pratiskhalanti which points to peshye"i«tf, and also tends to show 
that other MSS. of the Pahlavi (and among them the one used by 
Ner.) read differently from our three, K5, D. J., and the Persian 
transliteration. Kam=Ved. kam with dat. 

5 See Y. XXIX, 1. 

4 Professor Wilhelm ' vigour' (De Infin. p. 14). 

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The Doctrine of Dualism. Homage to Ahura. 

This hymn bears fewer traces of a fragmentary condition than 
others. It recalls Y. XXX, and, like it, appears to belong to a 
period, or to an interval, of political repose and theological activity. 
It is smoother and more artificial than is usual, and it goes straight 
on its way from beginning to end. A powerful adversary had just 
been crushed. It was the dufsasti of Y. XXXII, 9. This may 
well have been the result of the conflict alluded to in Y. XLIV, 15, 
16, and possibly in Y. LI, 9, 10, also urged on by the fierce Y. 
XXXI, 1 8 probably often repeated in lost hymns. 

An assembly is addressed as in Y. XXX, 1, but this time as 
coming ' from near and from far.' It may very possibly have been the 
winning side in a late struggle. The first verse sounds like a con- 

It might be said to be intended to be sung, if not shouted, to a 
multitude whose outskirts were by no means within easy reach with 
the voice. At all events attention is summoned with three differing 
expressions. ' Awake your ears to the sound,' literally ' sound ye,' 
in a receptive sense ; (' let the sound peal in your ears '), then 
' listen ' (sraota) ; and then ' ponder ' (mazdaunghddum). ' The 
Antizarathurtra, the evil teacher par eminence, has been defeated,' 
he declares, ' and he will never again destroy the peace of our lives 
(Y. XXXII, 9, 11). His evil creed has been silenced, and his tongue 
can no longer shout out its periods of persuasion or invective 
(Y. XXXI, 12) beside our preachers.' 

2. He then reiterates the chief doctrine for which the parties had 
been at war, and which they should now see clearly in the light of 
their victory. ' The foul evils of society do not lie within the con- 
trol of the holy Ahura in such a manner as that he either originates, 
or tolerates them. They are, on the contrary, the product of the 
personified Anger of the DaSvas, the Mainyu in its evil sense, the 
Angra (angry ?) Spirit. Between this being, or personified abstrac- 
tion, and Ahura, there is a gulf fixed. (Never do we see any 
aspersions upon Ahura's name, or a suspicion of His purity as 
shown by complicity with cruelty, or the toleration of evil passions.) 
•It is also to be noted that the defeated dujsasti may have possibly 
been a Daeva-worshipper chiefly as being a heretic from this Faith 

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of Ahura, believing Him to be implicated in the creation, or permis- 
sion of sin and suffering, or, if the burial or burning of the dead 
was forbidden at this time, then possibly a heretic on these ques- 
tions also. But yet, as a recreant Mazda-worshipper he may have 
claimed a rightful allegiance to the urvata, and the future blessings, 
as well as temporal advantages, involved in a correct discipleship ; 
and so he may have used the name of the sacred tenets of the Re- 
ligion itself to help on a nefarious warfare. In fact he may have 
been a self-styled Mazda-worshipper, but not of ' Zarathurtra's 
order,' not owned at all in any degree by the genuine adherents, 
and met as a real, if not an open, DaSva-worshipper. 

The ardent prophet therefore declares the utter severance between 
the good and the evil, the God and the Demon. It is a popular 
corollary to Y. XXX, 3-6. The two spirits came together 
indeed at first to make life, and its negation, and they co-operate, if 
such a term can be applied to an irreconcilable antagonism out of 
whose antitheses and friction sentient existence alone becomes 
possible. Their union consists in opposition, for if they blend, they 
each cease to be what they are. They are, while upholders of exist- 
ence, yet separate for ever, and that as to every attribute and 

3. And the sage goes on to assert that in this he is proclaiming 
the first Mathra of this life which the all-wise Mazda had revealed 
to him. And, whether sure of the victorious masses before him, or 
whether on the contrary perfectly aware that many a group among 
them had been more convinced by the snaithu than by reason, he 
presses at once upon them that one terrible doctrine which seems 
unfortunately too needful for all successful and sudden propa- 
gandism, and he declares that they who do not act in a manner 
accordant with what he speaks, and even thinks, (having formerly 
announced it), to such delinquents this life should end in woe. 

4. Proceeding in a happier vein, he then dwells upon the father- 
hood of God. He will declare this world's best being who is Mazda 
Himself. He is the father of the Good Mind within His people, 
when that Good Mind is active in good works. So our piety, when 
it is practical, is His daughter, for no pretended good intention can 
claim relationship with Him, nor can any idle sentiment. He needs 
the ' ready mind' within His servant, and He is not to be deceived 
(compare Y. XLIII, 6). 

5. Returning once more to the Mathra, and this time to hold out 
rewards rather than to utter threats, he declares that Happiness and 
Immortality would be the portion of those who listened to, and 

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pondered his revelation, and that Ahura Himself would likewise 
approach them with the rewarding actions of His Good Mind, for 
Ahura was also in all good actions on the one hand, just as His 
Immortal Archangels on the other had their objective existence like- 
wise in the believer's soul. 

6. Turning from admonition to worship, he announces, not what 
he terms the 'first' (verse 3), nor the 'best' (verses 4 and 5), but 
the ' greatest,' element of all, implying that praise, which he now 
expresses, includes both prayer and doctrinal confessions, and he 
calls on Ahura both to listen and to teach. 7. It is the ' greatest' 
element indeed, for it concerns those spiritual blessings which not 
only the offerers who are now living will seek after, but those also 
who shall live in future ; nay, even the spirits of the just desire them 
in the eternal Immortality. And these blessings are, according to a 
well-remembered law, woe to the wicked, and that, not only from 
outward discipline, but from inward grief. And Ahura had esta- 
blished, so he adds, the beneficent, but, as regards the wicked, still 
solemn regulations by the exercise of His Sovereign Power as the 
controller of all (Y. XXIX, 4). 8. Zarathujtra (or his substitute) 
then professes his eagerness to serve the Lord with these words 
which he had called the ' greatest,' and because he had seen Him 
with his very eyes, which he explains as meaning that he had known 
Him through the Righteous Order in his soul, and therefore he 
prays and hopes to pronounce these greatest praises, not in the 
assembly (Y. LI, 3) alone, but in the ' Home of sublimity or song' 
(Y. L, 4). 

9. And he desires all the more fervently to do homage to Ahura, 
because He approaches him with the Power of His divine Authority 
in weal or woe, blessing both men and herds so long as they 
multiplied under the influences of Piety. 10. As the praises were 
the ' greatest,' so he seeks to ' magnify' the Lord in the Yasnas of 
Aramaiti, Ahura being renowned by His unchanging purpose, for 
He will bestow the ' eternal two ' in His holy Kingdom, when it 
shall have been made firm! 11. Yea, he would seek to magnify 
Him who contemns the Da6vas and their party as much as they, in 
their turn, profess to make little of Him and His religious Kingdom, 
contrasted as they were with Ahura's prophet, who honoured Him 
in the holy Insight, the Daena of the Saoshyawt. And this Saoshyawt 
is declared to be the controlling master of every faithful worshipper, 
and he, or the faithful venerator of the reviled Ahura, is also as 
our friend, brother, nay, like Ahura Himself (verse 4), our very 
Father in the Faith. 

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i. Yea, I will speak forth; hear ye; now listen, 
ye who from near, and ye who from afar have come 
seeking 1 (the knowledge). Now ponder 2 ye clearly 
all 3 (that concerns) him 4 . Not for a second time 
shall the false teacher slay our life (of the mind, or 
the body). The wicked is hemmed in with his faith 
and his tongue ! 6 

2. Yea, I will declare the world's two first 9 spirits, 
of whom the more bountiful thus spake to the harm- 
ful 7 : Neither our thoughts, nor commands, nor our 

1 Ish means ' to come seeking.' The bavihtineV of the Pahlavi, 
followed by many, is by no means incorrect. 

■ The reading mazdaungh6dum was suggested to me by Dr. Aurel 
Stein previously (as I believe) to its announcement elsewhere. 
Before this the indication of the Pahlavi (which always hesitates to 
change a MS. regarded at the time as sacred) had been followed 
by all with its necessary error. 

' The 'e' in £ithre must represent a nasalised vowel, as in 

4 1m may be merely a particle. 

5 I would here strongly insist upon an alternative rendering in 
the sense of the Pahlavi. The rendering above is given on prin- 
ciple. A text should never be changed, if it is possible to render it 
as it is. Read, ' the wicked confessing (varetd, active sense) evil 
beliefs with his tongue.' The Pahlavi has zakaj sarftar kSmako va 
zakaj darvandih pavan huzvSno hemnun&f. Many, with this view, 
would at once read vareti without MSS. 

• Observe the peculiar pouruye" (pourviyS, if not a locative), the 
two first things, principles, forces ; so in Y. XXX, 3. 

7 Notice that vahyd akern^a" (in Y. XXX, 3) necessarily apply 
to the mainyu, and not only because, as nominatives, the words fall 
to the end of the sentence. Here we have analogous adjectives 
applied unmistakably to the two. The neuters correspond with 
vahLrtem mano and a&rtem mand, and are of capital importance as 

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understandings, nor our beliefs, nor our deeds, nor 
our consciences, nor our souls, are at one 1 . 

3. Thus I will declare this world's first 2 (teaching), 
that which the all-wise Mazda Ahura hath told me. 
And they among you who will not so fulfil and obey 
this Mathra, as I now shall conceive and declare it, 
to these shall the end of life (issue) in woe. 

4. Thus I will declare forth this world's best(being). 
From (the insight of His) Righteousness Mazda, who 
hath appointed these (things) s , hath known (what He 
utters to be true ; yea, I will declare) Him the father 
of the toiling Good Mind (within us). So is His 

expressing that abstract conception which renders the G&thas so 
much more impressive as the earliest documents of their kind. 

1 The Pahlavi thus glosses : I do not think what thou thinkest, 
[for I think what is pious, and thou thinkest what is impious] ; nor 
our teachings, [for I teach what is pious, and thou, what is impious] 
— nor our religions, for mine is the Gathic, and thine that of the 
sorcerer ; nor our souls, [for he who takes his stand on my religion, 
and he who takes his stand on thy religion, are apart ; their souls do 
not occupy the same position], Ner. : na^a diniA [yato me dmiA 
gSthabhavi te/ta ntkshasf*]. 

a The ' first teaching ' was a prominent idea with the Zarathu- 
jtrians. Z. is called in the later Avesta the paoiry6/kaSsha (sic). He 
hardly plays the rdle of a reformer in the Avesta. He is mentioned 
after others chronologically, not as repudiating them. He might 
better be termed reviver. Yam is difficult ; perhaps daSnam is to 
be understood, or y*m (mathrem) read ; see verse 4, anghiur ahyi 
vahiftem. Neither pourvim nor vahlctem are adverbs. 

8 Some change the text here to another which corresponds to 
some of the terms better. It should, however, first be rendered as it 
stands; the obscurities may well be owing to idiosyncrasy in the 
composer ; possibly also to an affectation of obscurity (or ' dark 
speech'). How can Mazda be said to 'know Himself?' or how 
could any but Ahura be spoken of as ' the Father of Vohu Manah 
and Aramaiti?' He recognised Himself as having generated 
V. M. and A. He was conscious of the completed relation. 

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daughter through good deeds (our) Piety. Not to be 
deceived is the all-viewing * Lord. 

5. Yea, thus I will declare that which the most 
bountiful One told me, that word which is the best 
to be heeded by mortals. They who therein grant 
me obedient 2 attention, upon them cometh Weal to 
bless, and the Immortal being, and in the deeds of 
His Good Mind cometh the Lord. 

6. Aye, thus I will declare forth Him who is 3 of 
all the greatest, praising through my Righteousness, 
I who do aright, those who (dispose of all as well 
aright). Let Ahura Mazda hear with His bounteous 
spirit, in whose homage (what I asked) was asked 4 
with the Good Mind. Aye, let Him exhort me 
through His wisdom (which is ever) the best. 

7. (Yea, I will declare Him) whose blessings the 
offerers will seek for, those who are living now, as 
well as those who have lived (aforetime), as will they 

1 Hishas looks irresistibly like a nom. sing., but may it not be a 
nom. actons from the redup. root ? Compare hishasa/ (although the 
Pahlavi renders with a different cast of meaning). What Indian 
word to compare here is hard to say. I prefer Bartholomae's 
earlier view (as to the meaning) with the Pahlavi harvispd nikirWar. 
By dropping the later glosses, the sense of the Pahlavi comes out 
as usual, much closer to the Gatha. 

* Observe the vigour possessed by ' Sraosha.' It designates the 
angel of Obedience ; and at the same time it is the only word which 
can here bring out the sense when it is understood in its actual 
meaning ; so continually with the words Vohu Manah, Asha, &c. 

8 Lit. 'Him who I, doing aright, (praising Him with His im- 
mortals) who (all likewise) are (beneficent).' Or it may be 'that 

4 So with many who hold the least to the hints of the Pahlavi. 
Otherwise I would render ' there is furtherance,' comparing afrasht- 


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also who are coming 1 (hereafter. Yea, even) the soul(s) 
of the righteous (will desire) them in the eternal 2 
Immortality. (Those things they will desire which 
are blessings to the righteous) but woes to the wicked. 
And these hath Ahura Mazda (established) through 
His kingdom, He, the creator (of all). 

8. Him in our hymns of homage and of praise 
would I faithfully serve, for now with (mine) eye, 1 
see Him clearly, Lord of the good spirit 3 , of word, and 
action, I knowing through my Righteousness Him 
who is Ahura Mazda. And to Him (not here alone, 
but) in His home of song 4 , His praise we 6 shall bear. 

9. Yea, Him with our better Mind we seek to 
honour, who desiring (good), shall come to us (to 
bless) in weal and sorrow 6 . May He, Ahura Mazda, 
make us 7 vigorous through Khshathra's royal power, 

1 BvawtWa (sic) seems, as elsewhere, to express ' those who are 

* The Pahlavi uniformly errs, or is strangely free, with this word. 
The sense 'continuous' is here admirably adapted. 

* This word seems evidently used almost in a modern sense of 
'character,' 'disposition.' Elsewhere we are in doubt whether to 
refer it to the Spenirta Mainyu of Ahura, or to Ahura Himself. 

4 Paradise ; possibly ' home of sublimity.' 

6 The change from singular to plural is frequent. Ner. varies 
from the Pahlavi in the last verse, improving upon it : Evam tasmai 
pranamarn antar Garothmane nidadamahe. This was probably an 
intentional improvement, as the Persian MS. follows our Pahlavi 
text. His MS. of the Pahlavi probably read bara yehabund. 

6 Or, ' who has created weal and sorrow for us with good inten- 
tion, (and as our discipline);' but this is hardly probable. Ahura 
did not originate evil. Spenii, asp#i£a are used adverbially (see 
Y. XXXIV, 7). 

7 I hardly agree to reading verez^nyau (sic) here in the sense of 
' homes.' The meaning is ' endow us with efficiency' in the pursuit 
of the objects mentioned in the context. Or ' the propitiation and 

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our flocks and men in thrift to further, from the good 
support and bearing 1 of His Good Mind, (itself born 
in us) by His Righteousness. 

10. Him in the Yasnas of our Piety we seek to 
.praise with homage, who in His persistent energy 2 
was famed to be (in truth) the Lord Ahura Mazda, 
for He hath appointed in His kingdom, through His 
holy Order and His Good Mind, both Weal and 
Immortality, to grant 3 the eternal mighty pair to this 
our land (and the creation). 

11. (Him would we magnify and praise) who hath 
despised the Da6va-gods and alien men, them who 
before held Him in their derision. Far different 
are (these) from him who gave Him honour. This 
latter one is through the Saoshyawt's bounteous 
Faith, who likewise is the Lord of saving power 4 , 

reverential honour' may have been more directly in the com- 
poser's mind ; ' may He endow our (worship) with efficiency that 
it may accomplish its desired result.' See the positions of the 

The Pahlavi translation also bears witness to the rendering above, 
with its erroneous or free varztaar avo lanman. 

1 As it is impossible for those who have studied the subject to 
believe that the Pahlavi translator did not know the meaning of 
amavandih in Zend, we must suppose him to have had some form 
like hazah before him instead of huza(thwa/). 

2 The Pahlavi translator, rendering this word in the two other places 
by pavan astubih, had evidently some reason for seeing a form of 
naman here. The natural conclusion is that his MS. read differ- 
ently in this place. Ner. renders him appropriately. 

* Dan looks like an accusative infinitive here (Bartholomae) ; 
otherwise the two verbs must be regarded as having indefinite 
pronouns understood, ' one assigns/ and ' they grant.' 

4 I cannot see the applicability of Agni's title ' house-lord' here ; 
compare damsupalni as 'adj. referring to pati. 

[31] K 

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a friend, brother, or a father to us, Mazda 
Lord > ! 

Personal Sufferings, Hopes, and Appeals. 

In treating this most valuable section, we can as usual presuppose 
that the several verses were not originally composed in the order in 
which they now appear. Verses 1-3 seem like a cry ' from the 
depths.' In verse 4 animosity appears; and an appeal to the 
energy of some of his warlike adherents seems to prove that, with 
verses 5 and 6, the composer addressed it to an assembly; 7-10 are 
questions and appeals to Ahura, but, as a matter of course, they 
are none the less really intended to impress the hearers, as well as 
to animate the mind of the reciter. Verses 1 1 and 1 2 were again 
intended to be delivered to adherents. 

Verse 13 is addressed to them in terms. Verse 14 would be 
regarded by some as little suited to the connection, and the rest 
seem spoken to an assembly of chiefs. However different they 
may be as to the particular time or circumstances of their origin, 
they are in general so homogeneous even as to pitch of intensity, 
that, with a little exercise of the mind, we can as usual see the 
reasons why they were put together, or were consecutively com- 
posed ; and in poetic diction sudden changes neither displease nor 
surprise us. 1. Beyond a doubt the leading prophet is the figure 
in the first and second verses ; and those verses are so free from 
imagery that we hold them as describing beyond any reasonable 

1 He who despised the DaSvas, they returning the contempt is 
probably the same person expressed by the two h6i in the previous 
verse. It is therefore Ahura, but the words which mean friend, 
brother, father, are grammatically connected with ye — mainyata, 
the one who reverenced Ahura. The expression ' father ' gives a 
strong impression that Ahura is referred to, notwithstanding the 
vocative. Particularly as we have father in verse 4. The word 
' brother,' however, inclines one to the more closely grammatical 

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question, together with many other passages in the Gathas, the 
afflictions and discouragements of Zarathujtra himself. He knows 
not whither to turn, although he speaks as a public person and in 
command of forces which are scanty indeed (verse 2), but yet still 
able to take the field (Y. XLIV, 15, 16); and his movements also 
concern large districts (' lands '). He is not driven from his house, 
but from his country. It is superfluous to say that religion, although 
blended with a natural ambition, is his leading motive. How he 
shall satisfy Ahura is the one problem which he aims to solve ; but 
his case at this particular juncture shows every discouragement. 

2. Not supposing that his ya=y^na is merely lost in the meaning 
' that,' we see that in relieving his burdened mind he exclaims, not 
that he knows that he is poor in means and troops, but that he 
knows why it is thus. It is the dregva»t's work, whom we may 
also well understand as the drugvawt, the accursed enemy, who 
holds back (verse 4) the bearers of the Holy Order from all success 
in their efforts to gain a righteous livelihood from the favoured 
cattle culture (Y. XXIX, 2), and who, as he with grief long since 
foresaw, should he attain to power, would deliver up home, village, 
district, and province to ruin and death (Y. XXXI, 18). He there- 
fore cries to Ahura in common with the Kine herself (Y. XXIX, 9), 
and his ' behold ' is only a changed expression for her exclama- 
tions (Y. XXIX, 1). 

As a friend, he would have the good Mazda to regard him as 
seeking an especial form of grace ; and he would beseech Him to 
fill up his need (Y. XXVIII, n) in his extremity, teaching him, 
not the value of flocks and followers alone, but of that trti which 
lay deeper than the material wealth which he yet lamented, even 
the blessings of the Holy Order in every home. 3. And therefore 
he continues : Teach me and tell me of those great thoughts, the 
khratavo, the salvation-schemes of the Saviours, elsewhere also 
spoken of as the khratu of life (Y. XXXII, 9) ; for these saving 
helpers would, through a severe conflict and after many a reverse, • 
at last bring on ' Completed Progress.' 

4. But he must arouse himself from the relief and indulgence of 
his grief, he therefore springs to action, and with a cry which we 
hear elsewhere (Y. LIII, 9), and which was in all probability often 
uttered in hymns now lost to us, he urges the reward for the 
chief, who at the head of his retainers, shall expel the world- 
destroyer, the dufsasti (Y. XLV, 1), from power and from life. And 
what is that reward? It seems to be merely the recognition 
and confirmation of merit among the faithful. The man who shall 

K 2 

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expel, or destroy, the heretical tyrant shall be eminent in the recog- 
nition of his services in the support of the people and their sacred 
agricultural civilisation. 

That was to be reward enough, and even that prestige (pourva- 
tatem) was to be given back to God in offering for still further 
service (Y. XXXIII, 14). 

5. And every righteous official is urged to repeat the proclama- 
tion as a warning to every polluted DaSva-worshipper whom he can 
discover, or to whom his voice can reach, as well as to those secret 
adherents who would seem to need encouragement. The charged 
official is to assail the destructive opponent (Y. XXXII, 6-8), only 
after careful discrimination. He is to approach the evil chief, the 
hostile AflaStu (of the blood), as distinct from the inferior noble, or 
the peasant clansman, and he is to tell him fully of the price set on 
his head. 6. 'And the superintendent who has the power, and 
does not thus carry out these instructions, shall himself be delivered 
over to the bonds of that Lie-demon whom the evil " kinsman " 
serves. For there is no compromise in the dualistic moral creed. 
The man who favours the evil is as the evil, and the friend of the 
good is as the good himself; so had the Lord ordained.' 

7. Then, as so often elsewhere, he turns his thoughts to the outward 
emblem as the sign of inward grace, the sacramental Fire without 
which the masses would have had no help to fix the eye, or draw 
prostrations, and he asks with the question of profound devotion : 
Whom have they (Thy Saoshyawts, verse 3) set me, as strengthener 
in these storms, save Thee and Thy symbolic flames ? Yet even 
here he names the Good Mind with them, and the Order. 

8. ' But,' he continues, ' may he who would destroy my settlement 
find every influence and power combined to form his ruin ; may all 
things keep him back from prosperity, and may nothing keep him 
back from harm.' 

9. He calls, then, for a leading helper who may help him magnify 
Ahura, not merely in religious celebrations, but in that universal 
advance of the sacred ' cause,' which follows Ahura's ' conciliation ' 
(verse 1). 

10. As if to hinder the discouragement of those who hear his own 
unburdenings of grief, he declares that he will never leave trie faithful 
few who follow him ; he will go with them to the ' dread assize ' 
itself, as if to help them pass the last of tests. 

11. But the ' wicked,' open or concealed, should not share these 
hopes; their conscience, ever the remorseless executioner, shall 
curse them, as they try to pass the Judgment Bridge ; and hurled 

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from that narrow path (it becomes narrow to the faithless), they 
shall fall to 'eternal' Hell. 

1 2. Their destruction is not, however, yet decided ; there is not 
only hope for the tribesmen of Ahura, but for the pagan, and not for 
the ' alien ' only, but for the Turanian enemy, whose very name had 
been a synonym for suffering. If these even shall repent, they may 
be blest; and some had already turned. The converted tribe 
Fryana offered many pious proselytes. These would help on the 
righteous order together with the holy people, and God would dwell 
with them as well. 

13. Rhetorically referring to himself as in the third person, or 
else representing some second speaker who names his name, he 
can still offer his reward to any prince who will yet come up with 
his retainers to his cause, not kept back by the many refusals which 
he had met (verse 1), nor discouraged by the scant numbers of his 
bands ; and that reward is one which might yet be efficacious to 
induce self-sacrificing succour, for in addition to what had been 
said (see verse 4) he could declare spiritual life from Ahura to be 
the portion of every faithful follower, and with it future temporal 
wealth. And he should declare this true recruit the ' good mate ' 
in the service, the first helper (verse 9) of the tribes. 

14. Here we have what seems a question conceived as uttered 
by some one in the throng, or else simply rhetorically thrown in : 
' Who is that friend, that powerful coadjutor who is thus offered 
this reward, and for such a service?' Zarathuftra names the 
king. But he diverts the minds of hearers from a pernicious trusi 
in individuals. 

He would appeal, so he implies, not to one man only, although 
that one be Vijtaspa, the heroic, but to all whom Ahura would 
recognise in His assembly, through the inspired suffrage of the mass. 

15. And first he addresses the group made up chiefly of his 
family, the Spitamas ; they were, as he implied, enlightened in the 
sacred lore, and among the foremost therefore of the Ar(e)dra. 
16. He then calls on Frashaortra, with the Hv6gvas, exhorting 
all to continue in their righteous course, in harmony with those 
whom they wish for as Saviours for the land, assuring them that 
they will reach at last that sacred scene where the 'Immortals' dwell 
with God. 17. 'That scene,' he further adds, 'where the faithful 
sing their praises in perfection, using the true metres ' (as sacred as 
the Vedic). And he declares that Ahura, who discerns the truth 
infallibly, will heed and answer; for the praises sung there will 
be those of obedient men who offer to the cause. 18. He once 

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134 •-,•■". • . THE GATHAS. 

more holds out his spiritual rewards as the best gifts of the inspired 
revelation, threatening as usual commensurate visitation upon the 
oppressing clans, while both promises and threats are in harmony 
with Ahura's will, for that alone has been his guide in every state- 
ment. 19. After all complaints, and threats, and stern injunctions, 
he closes with the once more repeated word ' reward,' and that 
for every man who shall aid in ' his great affair ' (Y. XXX, 2), and 
he appeals to God Himself, asserting His inspiration for all that 
he has said. 


I. To what land to turn 1 ; aye, whither turning 
shall I go ? On the part of 2 a kinsman (prince), or 
allied peer, none, to conciliate, give s (offerings) to me 
(to help my cause), nor yet the throngs of labour, 
(not) even such as these *, nor yet (still less) the evil 

1 The Pahlavi translator sees the usual meaning in nem6i and 
nem6. He also accepts kam zam adverbially after the constant 
Greek usage. ' In what land shall I establish my religion (as it is 
here rejected) ; whither with my praises (of the true God) shall I 
go?' The rendering is so much richer that I turn from it with 
great reluctance. 

s It is to be regretted that able scholars should so hastily change 
the Gathic text here without first trying to render it as it is. This 
is all the more necessary, as each independent writer disputes 
emendations. Pair! I think ought to stand. The Ava&tu, airyaman, 
and verez«iem are also elsewhere alluded to, as appertaining to 
the hostile party sometimes, and therefore not among those from 
among whom (para ?) the prophet would be expelled. 

3 Dadaiti as a third plural has long been suggested with the 
eagerness of discovery. Its subjects would then be khshnaur, 
and that implied in yS verez«ia. But the construction is difficult 
thus, and it may be greatly doubted whether we had not better 
alter our discovery back into the singular with the Pahlavi. I am 
greatly confirmed in my view of the grammatical form of khshnSuj 
by Bartholomae's decision for a nominal form. Otherwise it would 
be a third singular, with loss of the final dental. 

4 H«£& seems to be an irregular form (see Y. LVIII, 4). I can 

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tyrants of the province. How urafesaafisl-^esniblish 
well the Faith, and thus) conciliate Thy (grace), O 
Lord ? 

2. This know I, Mazda ! wherefore I am thus 
unable to attain my wish 1 , and why my flocks are so 
reduced in number, and why my following is likewise 
scant. Therefore I cry to Thee ; behold it, Lord ! 
desiring helpful grace for me, as friend bestows on 
friend. (Therefore to meet my spirit's need, and this 
as well) declare and teach 2 to me the Good Mind's 

3. When come, Great Giver ! they who are the 
day's enlighteners 3 , to hold the Righteous Order of 
the world upright, and forward pressing ? When are 

only make an exclamatory isque=talisque of it. The Pahlavi 
renders freely as if some form of hi=to bind were before him 
(recall h6Lr?), or perhaps he read ha££, rendering as= these all 
together, hamsayakii ; Ner. ye svaf rewayo. 

1 So the Kine complained of him in Y. XXIX, 9 as ana^sha ; 
so also the Pahlavi, explaining akhvastar [atgham denman atu- 
banikih maman rat khaviiunam]. He proceeds li amat kam ramak 
va amati^ kam-gabra h8manam, explaining anaSshd as not being 
an isha-khshathra. Ma=sma notwithstanding position (?). 

* 'Nim wahr' has long since circulated as a rendering for 
akhs6 ; and with fottm in the sense of ' prayer,' it has afforded the 
admirable sense 'observe, take heed of the desire of the pious.' 
But we have a positive proof of the meaning * teach,' ' declare ' for 
khsa; see Y. LXV, 9 (Wg.). So also in Y. XXVIII, 5. That 
Ahura possessed an foti is clear from Y. XXXIV, 5. And if the 
sage could ask, ' What is your fati (wealth) ? what is your king- 
dom (power over possessions)?' it is certainly not strained to 
suppose that he could say here ; ' tell me concerning your wealth,' 
especially as he bewails his poverty. Irti is in antithesis to the 
idea expressed in kamnafshva and kamnana. So also the 
Pahlavi as translated by the Persian 'hez&nah. 

' Ukshano would seem to be an ancient error for ushano, as 
the Pahlavi translator renders as if reading usha in Y. L, 10, and 

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the schemes of the saviour Saoshyawts with (their) 
lofty revelations (to appear) ? To whom for help 
does he (their chief) approach, who has Thy Good 
Mind (as his fellow-worker J ) ? Thee, for mine 
exhorter and commander, Living Lord ! I choose. 

4. (But e'er these helpers come to me, all rests as 
yet in gloom.) The evil man is holding back 2 those 
who are the bearers of the Righteous Order from 
progress 3 with the Kine, (from progress with the 
sacred cause) within the region, or the province 4 , he, 
the evil governor, endowed with evil might 6 , con- 
suming 6 life with evil deeds. Wherefore, whoever 
hurls him from his power, O Mazda ! or from life, 
stores for the Kine in sacred wisdom shall he make 7 . 

not ukhsM. Otherwise ' increasers of the days ' is a fine expression, 
but suspicious in view of the Pahlavi rendering in Y. L, 10. 
Ner.'s *vika\rayitryo (sic) is striking, but I cannot claim for it all that 
it seems to offer, as Ner. elsewhere renders forms of vakhsh by 
those of kas. The Persian follows the Pahlavi. 

1 Comp. Y. XLIV, 1. 

2 Pa in the sense of ' keeping back from welfare ' as well as 
in that of ' protection,' a sense first taught us by the Pahlavi 
writers, is now at last generally acknowledged. It now, like many 
other suggestions of the Pahlavi, actually casts light in the ren- 
dering of the analogous Vedic word. 

8 So the mass of MSS. with the Pahl. min frav&mLmo ; Persian 
az raftan. The expression might refer to the ' going of the kine,' 
as representing the people in her ' path.' 

4 Comp. Y. XXXI, 18. 

5 Pahl. zak i pavan dflf-stahamak ; Ner. dush/o balatkari. 
The elements seem to be duz + haz6 + bao(=vao). 

" Ush in Iranian seems to have the sense of destruction com- 
bined with it sometimes; hence aoshah, aoshund. 

7 K&t can well mean 'attain to.' Pathm««g as=paths (so I 
formerly rendered) gives a far feebler sense than that indicated by 
the first Zendist, the Pahlavi writer. The ' wisdom ' of preparing 
stores for the kine, even if we suppose an animal only to be meant 

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5. (Yea), he who, as ruler, treats no coming appli- 
cant with injury 1 , as a good citizen (or nobly wise) 
in sacred vow and duty, and living righteously in 
every covenant, who, as an uncorrupted judge, dis- 
cerns the wicked (that leader who, rejecting me, 
would keep back those who propagate the Faith), let 
him, (this righteous judge,) declare (the vengeance) to 
that (hostile 2 ) lord, (my) kinsman. Yea, let him 
crush him when he sallies forth 3 (to approach us for 
our harm) ! 

6. (And he who leaves him in his guilty error has 
my curse.) Yea, he who has the power 4 , and will not 
thus (with stern reproof 6 ) approach him, shall go to 

is obvious. The Iranian winter was something very different from 
that in India. But the kine is not alluded to without a certain 
figurative meaning: she represents the people, and as such she 
cried aloud ; and Zarathiutra received the commission to relieve 
her sufferings as such. That the word hu^irt6w stands in the 
genitive should not disturb us. The 'care for the kine' was a 
matter of national importance, and ' wisdom ' could not better be 
exercised than in this direction. 

1 Or we may render ' he who as ruler does not bestow favours 
upon him who approaches with injur}'.' The hint of the Pahlavi 
favours this. 

* Hvz&avt is here, as in Y. XXXIII, 4 ; Y. XXXII, 1, and the 
first verse of this chapter, the hostile chieftain called ' kinsman ' 
in an aristocratic sense by Zarathujtra and his group. 

3 I compare uzuithyaus^a which is used of the breaking forth 
of water. The Pahlavi translator seems to have had some such idea 
' mun laid heng tao,' but with him the entire line, which divides all 
writers, favours the sense ' in saving him from his impiety.' Khrun- 
ya7 is a verbal form (with Bartholomae). 

4 The Pahlavi translator sees the root is=to wish in ismand, 
' who does not willingly approach him ; ' or ' who does not approach 
desiring (and seeking ?) him.' 

5 I am gratified to see that another takes nearly this view of this 
line. He has ' verfolgt.' 

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the abode of the Lie, (and) the enchainer 1 . For 
he is evil who is the best one to the evil, and he is 
holy who is friendly to the righteous, as Thou didst 
fix the moral laws 2 , O Lord ! 

7. Whom, then, as guard, O Mazda ! hast Thou 3 
set me 4 then when that wicked one still held 6 me 
for his hate ? Whom (had I) then but Thee, Thy 
Fire and Mind, Ahura ! by deeds performed in which 
Thy Righteous rule is saved and nurtured ? There- 
fore that spiritual power 6 (vouchsafing me) for the 
(holy) Faith (its truths) declare. 

8. And as to him who (now by evil power) de- 
livers up my settlements to harm, let not his burning 
(wrath) in deeds attain 7 me. But bearing back 8 the 
(evil will and evil influence of such), let these things 
come (back) to him in anger. Let that to his body 
come which holds from 9 welfare ; but let no (help) 

1 Ha€thahy£, as a masculine, is awkward, as would be ba&hahyS, 
so the Pahl. (of the terrifier). A loc. of haithya may be correct, 
taking daman also as a loc. Otherwise ' to the creatures of the Lie, 
and the enchainer (or terrifier).' 

* Or, ' as Thou didst make the souls at first.' 

5 So with K6, K9 (Barth.). 

4 Some render ' me ' here, who seem elsewhere Joath to translate 
thwavawt as = like thee, thee. Khshmivatd, thwavas, and mavaitey 
in Y. XLIV, 1, may be rendered, ' of you,' ' thou,' and ' to me.' 

6 So the Pahlavi indicates. I have, however, elsewhere, as against 
tradition, rendered as if the root were dar(e)s ; ' has set his eye 
on me for vengeance.' 

e One might be tempted to read ta/ m6i d5s tvem; 'that 
granting me, do Thou speak forth for the faith.' 

7 The Pahlavi translator indicates the root si by his r6sh ; so 
read as alternative, ' let him not wound us.' 

8 The meaning ' but contrariwise ' has been ventured on. The 
indication of the Pahlavi is 'in opposing;' pavan parftrak yam- 

8 The Pahlavi here misses the point, and taking paya/ in its usual 

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at all (approach him, which may) keep him back from 
misery. (And let this happen as I speak) from (venge- 
ful) hate, O Lord ! 

9. But who is the freely helping one who will teach 
me foremost ' how we may adore Thee, Thou the well 
to be invoked 2 as in Thy deeds, the holy 3 , bountiful 
Ahura ? What (words) the Kine's creator 4 spake for 
Thee by aid of, and to aid, the Righteous ritual 
Order, these words of Thine, (Thy people coming) 
with Thy Good Mind, are seeking 6 now (to gain and 
learn from) me 6 , O Mazda Lord ! 

sense, falls into confusion. The ancient scholars, like some of 
their successors, could not always believe that p4 could mean ' to 
hold back from good ' as well as from evil. They recognised it 
sometimes, giving us our instruction on the subject, but not here. 

1 Did the composer appeal to some powerful coadjutor here, or 
does he rhetorically express his perplexity ? 

s Zevtt ttm must equal forms of hu ; but from the constant evidence 
of the Pahlavi to the meaning ' endearing,' one is much inclined to 
suggest a reading as if from zush. 

3 Ashavanem is applied to Ahura, and cannot so well mean 
' righteous ' here. ' Holy ' is the more proper term in this con- 
nection, while spewtem is necessarily excluded from that meaning 
by its occurrence with ashavanem in immediate connection. 

* Notice that the word tashS. occurs here with no mention of 
wounding in the connection (see note 6 on page 6). 

6 I am here recalled to the Pahlavi by some who rarely name it. 
I had rendered, 'these words are inciting me (in duty) through 
Thy Good Mind;' so ish often in the Veda. The Pahlavi trans- 
lator, like his successors, scandalised at the difficult forms, also 
anticipated his successors (as elsewhere often) in getting free from 
the difficulty. He did what is exactly equivalent to what is now 
practised by scholars (sometimes too often). He rendered the text 
as if changed from what he could not understand to what he could 
understand, adhering to the right roots however, which I now 
follow. He knew that ishe«ti mi did not mean, ' I am seeking,' 
but he could not credit the words before him. 

• We have now a suggestion which must often have presented 
itself to those who read the i?«'g-veda constantly, and that is (so 

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10. Whoever, man or woman, shall give to me 
those (gifts) of life which Thou hast known * as best, 
O Mazda ! and as a holy blessing through (Thy) 
Righteous Order, a throne (established) with (Thy) 
Good Mind, (with these I shall go forth ; yea, those) 
whom I shall (accompany and so) incite 2 , to the 
homage of such as You 3 (on earth), forth to the 
Judge's Bridge (itself) with all of them shall I lead 
on 4 (at last). 

11. (And they and I have every need for help, for 
now) the Karpan and the Kavi will join in govern- 
ments 6 to slay the life of man with evil deeds, they 
whom their own souls and their own conscience will 
beery 6 . And when they approach there where the 
Judge's Bridge (extends, unlike the believing ones of 
God, who go so firmly forth with me as guide and 
helper, these shall miss their path and fall '), and 

Bartholomae) that ma may equal sma here and often elsewhere. 
It is well possible, as the ' s ' often disappears. 

1 Notice once more the expression, ' Thou hast known ; ' so in 
Y. XXVIII, 11, the composer confides the very direction of his 
petitions to the discrimination of the Deity. We gain from this the 
true sense of peresa nau yd t6i irhma par-fta ; Ahura's question and 
prayer are mighty when repeated by us, because He has known 
what is best, and what are the true dath«wg for which we should 

* This sense corresponds admirably with the connection ; Ner. 

3 Such as you = you as in the plural of majesty, or as referring 
to Ahura and His Bountiful Immortals (so often). 

* ' Go forth.' 

6 Or, ' with kings ; ' but the Pahlavi has, avo khfo/aylh ay%Snd 
mun Kik va Karapo. 

* So the Pahlavi indicates. Otherwise ' will harden,' or, if khrao- 
dat is read, ' will rage (against).' 

7 Inserted to shed light on the last line ; so the later Parsism. 

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in the Lie's abode for ever shall their habita- 
tion 1 be. 

1 2. (But for the penitent there is yet hope ; for all 
our former foes shall not thus fall, as from the A'inva/ 
Bridge to woe, for) when from among the tribes and 
kith of the Turanian, even among the more powerful 
ones of the Fryana, those shall arise 2 who further on 
the settlements of Piety with energy and zeal, with 
these shall Ahura dwell together through His Good 
Mind (in them), and to them for joyful grace deliver 
His commands 8 . 

13. Yea, he who will propitiate Zarathuytra 
Spitama 4 with gifts midst men, this man is fitted 
for the proclamation, and to him Ahura Mazda will 
give the (prospered) life. And he will likewise 
cause the settlements to thrive in mental goodness. 
We think 6 him, therefore, Your good companion to 
(further and maintain) Your Righteousness (and meet 
for Your approach). 

1 I am again brought back to the Pahlavi, having formerly 
rendered ' bodies,' which I would now put in the second place. 

a The Pahlavi, although as usual free or erroneous as to forms, 
gives us the valuable hint of hen^t-ait for \12gm (sic=^ayen). 

3 Here we have the clear evidence of the conversion of a border 
tribe. The Zarathmtrians had saved some Turanian clan from 
plunder or annihilation, and so secured their friendship. These 
became known as the ' friendly people.' That true Zarathur trian 
piety may have arisen among them is of course possible. 

* It need hardly be said that this reference to Z. in the third 
person, does not prove that the composer was not Z. himself. One 
might even say that his authorship was even not less probable on 
this account. 

8 Let it be noted that the Pahlavi translator gives us our first 
critical knowledge as to the true writing and meaning of nwhmaidl ; 
or will scholars object that he renders in the singular? Valman 
pavan zak t Lekum Aharayih hamtshak minim khup hamkhak; 
Ner. dhySyami xuddha-sakhiyaw. 

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(A voice from among the Chiefs.) 

14. (But where is such an one ?) Whom hast thou 
Zarathu-rtra 1 ! thus a holy friend for the great (effort 
of the) cause ? Who is it who thus desires to speak 
it forth ? (Zarathustra answers. Aye, such an one 
I have.) It is our Kavi Vlrtaspa 2 , the heroic; (and 
not he alone, but all) whom thou shalt (as in Thy 
prophet) meet 3 in the assembly, O Ahura Mazda ! 
these likewise will I call (to my attempt), and with 
Thy Good Mind's words. 

15. O ye HaSia^-aspas, Spitamas ! to you will I 
now address my words, since ye discern the things 
unlawful, and the lawful, for these your actions to 
establish * (firmly on its base) for you the Righteous 
Order through those which are the Lord's primeval 

16. (And to the Hv6gvas would I likewise speak.) 
Thou Frashaortra Hv6gva (whom I see) 6 ; go thou 

1 Shall we regard this verse as misplaced because the subject 
is in the second person ? It is probable (as of very many verses) 
that it was often recited by the composer, or others, in a different 
connection, and perhaps originally so ; but it was a happy thought 
for the effect to introduce it here. Let it be supposed that this 
and the previous verse were arranged to be spoken by another 
voice during the public recital. We see that the interest is much 
increased by the intruding strophe. 

2 This passage may be regarded as recording the call of Vfa- 
t£spa to the holy work. Zu=hu need not always express the 
invocation of the gods. 

8 Others, 'unite.' 

4 Or, ' ye take to you the righteous character to yourselves,' as 
the infinitive is difficult; but in that case Khshmaibyd becomes 
awkward. The translation of d£ as ' take ' has long been familiar. 

6 Obviously composed for an occasion when the several parties 
would be present. 

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(forth) with the generous helpers 1 , with those whom 
we are praying for as for salvation to the land. Go 
thou where Piety joins hand in hand with the 
Righteous Order, where are the wished-for Realms 
of Good Mind, where Mazda in His most honoured 2 
home abides, 

1 7. Where in your measured verse 3 I will declare 
aloud (the praises), not in unmeasured lines, (Jamaspa 
Hv6gva ! but songs of homage (will I weave) with 
ever gained Obedience in offering. (And unto Mazda) 
will I chant them, yea, to Him who will discern aright 
what things are lawful (or) unlawful * (which I thus 
do, or utter), and with His wonder-working thoughts 8 
of Righteousness (attend). 

18. (For) whosoever (offers) sanctity* to me, to 
him shall be the best gifts whatsoever. Yea, of my 

1 Ar(e)dra seems to be especially applied, and might be left un- 

2 I see no impossibility whatever in such a rendering, literally 
in ' his choice-abode ; ' so also the Pahlavi indicates : tamman atgh 
Auharmazd pavan kamak dfin demand ketruneV. The question 
is of ' going ' and ' dwelling,' and the meaning ' abode ' is quite in 
point. As to var, see ist& khshathra; and compare mazdavara. 
Aside from this, vardmam=in blessing. 

* The Pahlavi again, with its followers, gives us our first hint 
at the general meaning here. What else can his paafaan and 
apadmdnik mean, but the regularity, that is, the rhythm and 
cadence of the words ? 

4 Dathem/& adathem&i would be ' the truth and the heresy ' in 

6 If mawtu is taken as an instrumental, (can it be an act. imper. ?) 
vista* might occupy the place of a preterit, but it looks far more 
like a participle, and might be regarded as forming a compositum 
with vahnwHg. Supply the dat. (?) pers. pron. understood before ye. 

* The alteration to yaux, considered as an aorist, has long cir- 
culated, but seems now, like so many of the bolder conceptions, 
to be given up. Yao* is the sister word of the Vedic y6s, and 

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(spirit's) wealth will I bestow on him through Thy 
Good Mind (which I give), but oppressions will I 
send on him who as oppressor will deliver us to 
anguish, O Mazda ! desiring, as I do, to satisfy Your 
choice by righteous (vengeance). This is the decision 
of mine understanding and my will. 

1 9. (Yea, this I earnestly announce.) He who from 
Righteousness (in mind and life) shall verily per- 
form for me, for Zarathustra, that which is thus most 
helpful (for my cause) according to my earnest wish 
(and through my words of urgent zeal) on him shall 
they bestow reward(s) beyond this earth, with all the 
mental 1 blessings gained through the sacred mother- 
kine 2 . And these things (all) did'st Thou (Thyself) 
command to me, O Mazda, Thou most wise s ! 

shows us that some shade of sanctity may inhere in that word. 
The Pahlavi renders more indefinitely by ' yan '=a helpful blessing. 

1 The Pahlavi translator, however, saw mm&, rendering avo li. 
His text may well have justified him. 

2 Bearing ; or is it ' fit to drive ? ' 

3 The Pahlavi here reports another text. 

(Supplementary Notes. AsiV, in verse 18, may equal ' verily 
indeed.' VahijtS, &c.=' the best things of my wealth will I assign 
to him through the Good Mind.' The meaning ' wealth ' seems 
much called for here, and if here, then in verse 2. VasnS in verse 
19 may mean ' through grace.') 

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THE gAtha(A) spejvtA mainyC 


This Gatha, consisting of Yasna XLVII-L, takes its 
name from its commencing words. Like the other Gathas 
it owes its existence as a collection to the nature of its 
metre, as its matter is homogeneous with that of the others. 
Its metre may be said to be Trishfup, as its lines have each 
eleven syllables, and are arranged in stanzas of four. 

A general view precedes each chapter. The grouping of 
hymns in this Gatha has, as usual, little or nothing to do 
with the question of their relative age. 


The Bountifulness of Ahura. 

As in every instance, we may have here only the fragments of a 
more extended piece ; but also, as ever, the circumstance does not 
diminish the value of what remains. Although some signs of author- 
ship apart from Zarathurtra are present, the later verses are not at 
all remote, so far as the period of time which they indicate is con- 
cerned, from the Zarathujtrian verses, and are therefore of nearly 
equal interest, possessing the advantage moreover of affording data 
for estimating the progress of change. 

1. The SpewtS mainyu here is not identical with Ahura, but is, as 
so often, His spirit. It is more than possible that the memorable 
application of the word spenta to the seven, giving us the Ameshd- 
spends, the Amshaspands of literature, derives its origin from the 
first verse here before us, or from lost verses of a similar character. 
All the seven seem purposely and artificially grouped here, although 
' His Spirit ' is of course not one of them. The commencing word 
spe«ta further attracted attention in so far as to form the theme for a 
sort of play upon words in the later epilogue of Visparad XIX. By 
means of this His indwelling Spirit (which idea, or expression, has 
probably no direct connection with the ' Holy Spirit ' of the Old 
and New Testaments, but which, as giving the designation ' spirit ' 
to the Ameshdspends, may well have been the original of the ' seven 
spirits which are before the throne of God'), by means of this 

[3'] L 

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blessed spirit, that is, in accordance with his inmost thoughts, 
Ahura bestows a gift upon the ideal saint (verses 4, 5), upon him 
who works the best results for Zarathurtra (Y. XLVI, 19), the Ratu, 
and the prophet (Y. XXIX, 6, 8). And this gift is declared to be 
the inseparable two, Happiness in every particular, and then both 
the prospect and realisation of the continuance of that Happiness 
in Immortality. And these He bestows, not through His immediate 
action, which no human intellect, or susceptibility, could take in 
unaided, but by His especially revealed Benevolence, His Best 
Mind, as His representative, in accordance with His plan of Order 
and Purity, pervading every moral as well as every spiritual regula- 
tion, and by the exercise of His Royal Power, sent forth as the 
' archangel ' Khshathra, and embodied in the polity of the sacred 
Zarathurtrian state, and this as influenced in all its relations, public 
and domestic, by practical piety called Aramaiti, Ahura's daughter 
(the ready mind). Such a revelation of the component parts of the 
mind and will of the Deity, the simplest labouring class could 
understand for the moment, and for some decades ; but all was, as 
a matter of course, soon to be overgrown with the old weeds of 
superstition and of myth. 

2. Falling into detail and varying expressions, the composer 
prays that Ahura may carry out His holy scheme into action by the 
busy hands and fingers of domestic piety, and by the preached and 
recited words of the Good Mind from the mouth and tongue of 
faithful priests. So, and so only, would He become the Father of 
Asha, the divine Order, and of moral and ritual regularity among 

3. From discourse concerning God, he arises, as so often, to an 
address to Him. That Spirit (referred to in the verses 1, 2) is 
Ahura's own, for He is the One who makes it bounteous ; He 
is the bountiful One who has created the sacred symbolic Kine, 
the emblem and the substance of 'joy/ representing at once the 
possessions of the holy people, and those people themselves. And 
He it is who, in answer to her wail (Y. XXIX, 1, 9), has spread for 
her the meadows ' of Piety ' as arranged in the consultations (Y. 
XXXIII, 6) made on her behalf. 

4. And this ' Spirit/ as might be expected, does not confine its 
attention to the inspiration of Piety alone. The justice of Mazda is 
vindicated. The wicked are afflicted under its influence with a long 
wounding (Y. XXX, 1 1) for their sins, and for their cynical prefer- 
ence for prosperous men of bad and dishonest character as well as 
of heretical faith. 

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5. But he expresses his confidence that Ahura Mazda will, in the 
end, set all aright. He will, unlike the persons just mentioned, give 
unto the ashavan, not kasu alone, but para, (not a meagre share, 
but fulness) of whatever is the best, while the dregvawt and the aka 
(verse 4), the faithless and the wicked, although they may be isvand, 
prosperous, will only taste the enjoyment of their wealth aside from 
God, and therefore marred. So long as they pursue their usual 
course, they live in actions inspired not by the bountiful spirit, but 
by the Evil Mind, a mind as aka as the person alluded to in the 
words parao* (kathS) akfi dregvait6 in the previous verse. 

6. But, as ever, the moral appeals, and ascriptions of praise, lofty 
as they are, are not left without the support and service of the 
ritual. God will give these gifts, and all which are the best, but 
in connection with His Fire imparted to these struggling sides 
(Y. XXXI, 2), the believing and the faithless (verses 4, 5), through 
the increase of His Piety and Order ; for that piety, as ever the 
instructress, will convert all those who come to her, and seek her 
light (Y. XXX, 1; Y. XLV, x). Nay, she will cause all the living 
to choose and believe in God (Y. XXXI, 3). 

(If the first two verses here are more like the work of a disciple, 
the last four show again the original tone. It must never be for- 
gotten, however, that later and even interpolated portions are, in 
their sense, also original, and differ but slightly in their great age 
from pieces more directly from the first composer.) 


I. And to this' (man, His chosen saint), Ahura 
Mazda will give 2 both the two (greatest gifts, His) 

1 Or, 'to us;' but in that case it would be the Kine who 'took 
counsel ' as mentioned in the third verse. This is, however, far from 
impossible, as she is mentioned as uttering her wail, and being 
answered by her maker in Y. XXIX, 1, 2. So understanding, 'to 
us ' becomes an admirable rendering for verse 1 ; but in verse 3, it 
is strained, as the Kine for whom (Y. XXIX, 9) Zarathurtra was 
appointed, could not so readily be declared to be the one which 
was given to ' us,' she representing ' us ' in that place to a great 
extent. There is a certain plausibility about the rendering ' to us,' 
but I think ahmai refers to ashaone" understood (see verses 4 and 5). 
The Pahlavi, moreover, is against a first person. 

* Dan (Geldn.) seems to be a 3rd plural aorist subjunctive ; the 

L 2 

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Universal Weal and Immortality, by means of His 
bountiful Spirit, and with His Best Mind, from (the 
desire to maintain His) Righteous moral Order in 
word and deed, and by the (strength and wisdom) of 
His Sovereign Power, (established) in Piety (among 
His folk). 

2. Aye, (that blessedness, which is the) best 1 
(creation) of this most bounteous spirit, Ahura 
Mazda will bring forth in action with words from the 
mouth and tongue of His Good Mind (within His 
seers), and by the two hands 2 of Aramaiti (His 
Piety as she lives within the soul). And by such 3 
wise (beneficence is) He the father of the righteous 
Order (within our worship and our lives). 

3. And Thou art therein, O Ahura Mazda! the 
bountiful One who appertains to, and who possesses, 
that (most bounteous) spirit in that Thou art He who 
for this * (man, in whom this spirit works) hath made 
the joy-creating Kine. (And as to her), for her, as 

plural being owing to the fact that Ahura gives with the other 
Ameshdspends. Da might also be the relic of the proper word 
which represents the participle ; comp. dSs (sic). 

1 The idea of the summum bonum seems to have early de- 
veloped itself, and from this constant use of this word in the neut. 
singular and plural, and also with anghu. 

* Notice once more the pronounced personification of both 
Vohu Manah and Aramaiti ; see Y. XXX, 8, and Y. XLIV, 14, &c. 
The Pahlavi translation notices the dual form pavan kolt II 

s The Pahlavi seems to lead those who regard 6y& as=a form 
of ava ; it has zak i. 

* This is the ahmdi of the first verse, (but always possibly =' to 
us,' if the verses are not to be brought into any kind of connection.) 
Otherwise it obviously refers to ashaune' * in 4 and 5 ; so the Pahlavi 
throughout. See ahmai and h6i in LI, 6. 

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joyful meadows 1 of her peace, wilt Thou bestow 
(Thine) Aramaiti (who is our Piety as earth con- 
sidered), since he 2 (for her) hath taken counsel with 
Thy Good Mind, Lord ! 

4. (But this Thy bounteous spirit doth not alone 
bestow rewards and blessings on the good.) The 
wicked (foemen of the Faith) are harmed, and 
from (the motives which move) that bounteous 
spirit (of Thine own), O Mazda 8 ! but not thus the 
saints. (And yet the ruler's pride would ever slight 
the righteous.) The feeble man alone stands free 
to give in kindly obligation * to Thy saint, but having 
wealth and ruling power, the evil (man) is (at the 
service) of the wicked, and for much *. 

1 Many would say that we have here an instance in which the 
identity of Aramaiti with the earth is recognised in the Gathas. 
I would say, on the contrary, that here we have an instance in 
which a poetical conception gave rise to a later error or fantastical 
association. Piety, with frugal virtue, induced a thorough hus- 
bandry; and secured the hushiti, peaceful home-life. She gave 
meadows to the Kine; at the next step she poetically represents the 
meadows, and then the earth. If vastrai, it would be for ' nurture.' 

* Or ' she,' as she once bewailed in a colloquy. Otherwise the 
person who was appointed to care for her interests is meant. Com- 
pare Y. XXXIII, 6, where the righteous Zaotar speaks as desiring 
counsels (hrtnparrtdw) in the interest of the pastures, and the laws 
of the sacred agriculture. Cp. also the later reproduction of the 
idea in an extended form in the Vendid&d. The zaotar of 
Y. XXXIII, 6, may have been the ashavan of verses 4 and 5. 

' Voc. with K5 (Barth.). 

4 The Pahlavi gives us, as usual, our first surmise as to the 
meaning of ' kathS ; ' I follow Geldner with regard to it as against 
Haug. The expressions here are not literal. 

* Isva/M/ connects only indirectly with kasnu£?/, as kath6 inter- 
venes. I regard paraor ak6 dregvaite' as presenting the true antithesis 
to kasnu £1/ na ashaunfi. The isva may have k\l merely from the influ- 
ence of jingle, being at the head of the line like kas*uj ; isva means 

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5. But Thou wilt give these gifts, and through Thy 
(most blessed and most) bounteous spirit, O Ahura 
Mazda! to this 1 Thy holy saint, for they are what- 
soever is the best ; but far 2 from Thy love the 
wicked has his portion, abiding in the actions of the 
Evil Mind. 

6. Aye, these things wilt Thou give (to him), O 
Thou Ahura Mazda ! and through Thy bounteous 
spirit, (and) by Thy Fire as in a good bestowal to 

of itself ' possessing means.' Parao* may depend on kathe" under- 
stood, as kastfir depends on it expressed. Moreover, hSs in all the 
instances in which it is .used ends the sense, and here is separated 
by the caesura from parao.r, which, however, is of no great import- 
ance. The discourse is of the wicked ; the holy are incidentally 
mentioned, and here their ill-treatment is signalised. Ak6 cannot 
well mean 'hostile' here; see also aka/ in the following verse. 
Isvl&i/, if understood with n&, alters nothing. ' A man was desirous of 
little for the service of the saint, but even when he himself was rich, 
(in the desire) of much was the evil for the evil.' Or, taking 
kaseuskU as governed by isvaii/ understood with kathe 1 as before 
understood in the last line: 'Only a man (men) (possessed) 
of little was at the service of the righteous, while an evil man 
(men) possessed of much (was at the service) of the wicked.' 
The other translation is : ' Even a man of little means stands to the 
willing service of the saint, but a man even of large means is hostile (?) 
to the wicked.' This is very glib and so attractive, but I cannot 
accept it in view of the context. Gathic expression is often un- 
fortunately far from glib ; but cramped, awkward, and apt to con- 
tain more thought than could be conveniently expressed within the 
counted number of syllables. The glib rendering needs other 
language than that in the MSS. See the following verse, which 
directly contrasts the treatment of the good and evil by Ahura 

' See ahmai in verse 1, and ashaunS in verse 4. Ahura treats 
the saint in a manner the reverse from that practised by the n& 
kasflu* and akd, not giving sparingly to the good, nor much to the 

* The Pahlavi gives us our first surmise here, as usual, bygayld 
min hand i lak d6shunih. 

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the two striving 1 (throngs) through the prosperous 
increase of our Piety, and of the Righteous ritual 
and moral Truth ; for that (Piety of ours instructing) 
doth teach 2 the many coming ones who seek her 
(face) ! 


Anticipated Struggles and Prayers for 
Champions and Defenders. 

This chapter divides itself quite naturally into sections. 1-4 
belong together, then 5 and 6, 7 seems less closely connected ; then 
follows 8-12. 

1. A struggle is evidently at hand, whether the same as that 
to which allusion is more than once made, by incitation, as in 
Y. XXXI, 18; with anxious expectation, as in Y. XLIV, 15, 16; 
or as if in a sense of victory, as in Y. XLV, 1 ; or of defeat, as in 
Y. XLIX, is difficult, or rather impossible to determine. But 
with the verses 10, n, 12 in view, together with the dispirited, 
Y. XLIX, 1, we shall say at once that, if this verse was intended 
to connect with them, an armed struggle had been expected, whether 
the decisive one or not, we need not say. 

The saint, that is, the pious adherent to the Holy Order, what- 
ever may be the result of the preliminary struggles, is encouraged 
by a view of the end. 2. But the burdened worshipper craves still 
further reassurance before the storms of battle came once more 
upon him. 3. For little as the assurances of Ahura are valued 

1 Or, ' by the two aram ; ' but compare the usayau in Y. XXXI, 2 
just preceding randibya ; so here the ashavan and dregva»t are 
mentioned in a preceding verse. The Pahlavi is unvarying with 
patkardirino. I will not positively decide as to this point ; generally, 
however, the preferred rendering is in the text, while on very many 
questions there is nearly an even balance of probabilities. 

a Or, ' chooses to herself; ' but a causative sense may be ex- 
pressed by an intensive form ; the Pahlavi also here bears evidence 
in the same sense to a causative by hemnuneV, itself, however, mean- 
ing only the object caused ; namely, the belief. 

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by the heretic, to the man who understands the true relations, 
what Ahura declares by means of His inspired prophets, the secret- 
announcers, this is, of all things, best ; (he need not ask as else- 
where, Y. XXXI, 17). 4. And whoever would hope for spiritual 
growth and purity must turn his mind to that word of the Deity, 
and pursue its teachings faithfully, and so at last his fears will vanish, 
for his doubts will disappear. He will understand as the Lord 
has taught. 

5. This verse seems a prayer to Aramaiti; when the long 
struggles shall have found their issues, and the one party or the 
other wins the day, let not that party be the evil alliance with its 
monarch. For, if the government is set up, and carried on with 
all the prescribed ceremonial and moral exactness of the wise 
.ffisti; if men who toil for the sacred Kine, and with the virtue 
of those who cultivate her, hold the reins of power, and can so 
suppress the predatory raids on defenceless, as well as unoffending 
victims, then no gift of Ahura, since the tribes became a nation, 
could be looked upon as a greater, or as so great a blessing, as 
the correct Authority, and the Order of the Faith. 

6. For that sacred Kine, as so often already implied or stated, 
was all in all to the pious worshipper. It was she, representing, 
as she did, all wealth in herds, who alone could sustain the home- 
life of happy industry. And this is the reason why Ahura had 
originally caused the herbage to grow for her support. 

7. Urging the overthrow of the spirit of Rapine in accordance 
with the Kine's complaint, he exhorts the armed masses to energetic 
and offensive valour. 

8. He then vehemently, although only rhetorically, asks how 
he may use the proper prayers to rally the needed coadjutors 
among the chiefs (Y. XLVI, 9) to carry on the struggle. 9. 
Again he utters a cry for relief in his suspense, and of entreaty 
for light as to the rewards, which did not concern this life for 
its own sake (verse 1) merely or chiefly; but which were spiritual 
blessings received here in preparation for the spiritual world. 
10. ' When,' he repeats as one among similar questions four times 
repeated, 'when shall the ideal men appear whose thoughtful 
plans (Y. XLVI, 3) shall drive hence the polluted schemes of the 
false priests and of the tyrants (Y. XLVI, 1) ? n. And when shall 
Aramaiti, the kindly piety of home, appear, she who, like the earth, 
spreads pastures for the peaceful kine, when shall she appear with 
holy Khshathra (later well called an angel, or archangel) the 
personified Authority of God over home and state, without which 

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an anarchy as bad as that of the Evil Authority (verse 5) might 
continue or recur; and who was the champion-chief who would 
give them peace through blood (Y. XLVI, 4 ; LIII, 9) ? In a word, 
to whom, as to the coadjutors of such a leader, would the light of 
reason, and the true faith come to inspire and to guide them ? ' 12. 
There is but one only class of human combatanis whom he would 
thus match against that Demon of furious Rapine (v. 6), toward whom 
the evil on their part at their first creation rushed as to their leader 
(Y. XXX, 6), and these are the saving Saoshyawts, the vicegerents of 
the Immortals upon earth, the religious princes Vulaspa, GSm&spa, 
Frashaoftra, and with them, as the greatest among all, he who 
was, with much probability, the speaker in the passage, that is, the 
Ratu appointed by Ahura for the kine and for men, Zarathurtra 
Spitima elsewhere and later called, with hyperbole, the first tiller, 
warrior, and priest. 


1. If through his action 1 in the offering of gifts in 
accordance with the Righteous Order, (Thy saint % ) 
shall smite the Demon-of-the-Lie (the inspiring spirit 
of our foes), when that in very truth shall come 3 , which 
has been (and is still yet) proclaimed as a deceit 4 , 
(when it shall come) in the Immortal life, regarding 
(as it does both) men (to bless), and Daevas* (to 
afflict them), then shall (Thy faithful worshipper) 
increase thereby the celebration of Thy praise, O 
Lord ! and with it blessings * (for Thy folk). 

2. Tell me then, Lord ! (the end), for Thou dost 

1 The Pahlavi has also pavan zak dahiwio ; but a false gloss gives 
an erroneous concrete [pavan tanu t pasino]. Recall idSi paitt 

' See ashadnfi, ashaunS (sic) (Y. XLVII, 4, 5). 

s Read 'as dshut&'=has been pushed on, enacted. I correct 
here as seems so evidently necessary ; but the Pahlavi anticipates 
with its amat zak yamtun6</. 

4 Pavan friftirih. 

• See Y. XXIX, 4. 

• See Y. XXX, 11, sava/t& ashavabyd. 

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know it. (Tell me to grant me strength and courage) 
before those conflicts come which shall encounter me l 
(as leader of Thy tribes) ; shall the champion of Thy 
holy Order, O Ahura ! smite (at last) the evil heretic, 
and when ? (I ask Thee this) ; for this if it be gained 
(is known) to be the (one) good consummation 2 of 
(our) life. 

3. (Yea, tell me then this), for to the enlightened 3 
man is that the best of teachings which the beneficent 
Ahura doth proclaim, and through (the revelations 
of) His holy Order, bounteous as he and wise with 
His intelligence, as well as they 4 who declare to us 
(still other) secret sayings (in His name). The one 
like Thee (their chieftain 6 ) is, O Mazda ! endowed 
with Thy Good Mind's understanding thoughts. 

1 M«»g=m2m or man; -eng is the nasalised vowel. Man is 
suspiciously significant here ; ' mental battles ' is rather advanced 
for the circumstances. It is, however, not impossible. The 
Pahlavi favours mam(?) here; it has av8 li. We might even 
read m<»na on its evidence. The Pahlavi indicates the meaning 
' crises ' under the figure of the ' Bridge,' which was the last great 
crisis to every man in the eye of the earlier, as well as of the later, 
Faith; so also in Y. LI, 12. The 'straits of life' would be an 
admirable meaning ; I differ with hesitation. 

* Pahlavi karrfarih. 

5 See Y. XLIII, 14. 

* Ya6ii/ guzr£-s«igh<7unghd. Or, ' knowing also those who are 
the teachers of secret doctrines.' 

5 We may, with some effort, connect thwivas with va€demn<ii. 
Spe»t6 vidvau, however, must refer to the immediately foregoing 
Ahur6, especially in view of the tvym vidvau, Ahura, of verse 2. 
' The one like Thee ' might even, as in other cases, be only an 
oblique way of rendering ' Thyself; ' but the expression ' with the 
understanding of Vohu Manah' induces me to refer the word 
Thwavas to the servant of Ahura ; in this case, however, this last 
line must of course be drawn to verse 4, although not mechanically 
separated from verse 3. 

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4. (Yea, tell me the secret of the future struggle * ; 
for that enlightened man) must 2 follow close 3 the 
holy Faith (for which that struggle had its toil and 
effort). Yea, O Mazda ! he who would bend his 
mind (till it attains to) that which is the better and more 
holy, must pursue the Da£na close in word and 
action. His will and wish must be consistent with 
his chosen creed and fealty, and in Thine Under- 
standing (which discerneth all) shall he in many ways 4 
be (versed) at last ! 

5. (But while I as yet know not the issue, I can yet 
hope and pray.) Let the good kings obtain the rule. 
Let not the evil monarchs govern us 6 , (but let the 
righteous gain the day and rule us), with deeds done 
in a good discernment.O thou piouswisdom, Aramaiti ! 
sanctifying to men's minds the best of blessings for 
(their) offspring 7 . Yea, for the Kine, (O Aramaiti 8 !) 

1 See verse 2. 

2 Present for imperative, as sometimes in modern languages in 
giving directions. 

' The words are anticipated from the third line. 

4 I follow the Indian sense here with great reluctance. Nani 
may well be, in Iranian, equivalent to ' each several one,' and in 
fact may not impossibly teach us the origin of the word (' man, 
man:' comp. narrai,* narrai*). The Pahl. trlr. is so decided for a 
personal sense, that he renders gabrS ne\rman=man and woman. 
Did he suppose 'woman' to be literally (!) expressed in the text? 

1 Aramaiti is addressed, unless indeed an instrumental is read 
without MSS. An instrumental is of course preferable. 

• The Pahlavi has, with admirable freedom, zakato hu-khu</ai 
pS(/akhshayinwn, va al lanman zak 1 du.f-khua'ai falita yehavunarfo. 
I read hukhshathri khshaye«tam, ma n<r duj-khshathra, to bring 
the metre somewhat into order, as some gross irregularity is present; 
the caesura only, not the sense, is affected by the change. 

7 Or, ' from the birth-hour on ; ' so the Pahlavi. Its gloss reads 
[akhar min zerkhununo avinisih pahlum]. 

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let (Thy) toil be given ', and may'st Thou cause her 
to prosper for our life. 

6. For she will grant us pleasing homes 2 , and, 
(while we live) in this Thy Good Mind's longing s 
prayer (to gain her welfare), she grants us likewise 
lasting strength (for every deed which that Thy Good 
Mind moves us to perform), and therefore hath Mazda 
caused the plants 4 to flourish for her (nurture), He, 
Ahura, in the generation of primeval life. 

7. (Then in our coming strife 6 let both her mortal 
foes be slain.) Let the Wrath-demon of rapine be 
cast down. Smite ye against the envy (which would 
plot against our Throne 6 ), O ye who, abiding by the 
Good Mind, and in accordance with our holy Order, 
desire to hold that refuge 7 fast, to whose sacred 
bond the bounteous man belongs. And therefore, 

1 So Bartholomae, who now holds to a third singular here, 
leaving the text undisturbed, and explaining as an optative. 

2 The Pahlavi seems to render ' comfort ' here, using khvSrlh 
in that sense. 

' So the Pahlavi correctly indicates by its arzuk ; Ner. priyataram. 

4 Compare Y. LI, 7. Are the plants here mentioned as in con- 
nection with Aramaiti in her figurative association with the earth ? 

8 See verses i, 2. 

• Or, 'against the blow,' Y. XXIX, 1. The Pahlavi translator 
here renders parfirak t arSshak, while in Y. XXIX, 1 he renders t 
r€shkun. The variations are probably not real; the renderings 
referring to some forgotten differences of text; or, as often, he 
may have anticipated modern freedom, and ' changed his text ; ' 
that is, rendered it as if changed to a seemingly more intelligible 
form ; so in a throng of similar cases. This is the only rational 
explanation of some of his errors. (He was able to render, and 
has rendered, most grammatical forms in different places.) 

7 The Pahlavi has, however, navidih. Did he read vidhylm, in 
itself a very possible text? 

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O Ahura ! (to save Thy struggling saint who toils 
with changing lot) will I place (that refuge) for him in 
Thy world. 

8. (And how shall I beseech Thee for this victory 
and gift ?) What is the (potent ') prayer to bring on 
that Thy holy Reign 2 ? What for Thy sacred reward 
and blessing for my (soul) ? How shall I seek the 
open helpers for (the spread and maintenance of) Thy 
(great) Order 3 , while I myself live 4 on in Thy Good 
Spirit's deeds ? 

9. (Aye, when shall faith be changed to sight 6 ) ; 
and when shall I in verity discern if Ye indeed have 
power over aught, O Lord ! and through Thy 
Righteous Order (guarding here on earth), O 
Thou within whose (power lie) my griefs 6 and 
doubts? Let then Thy saving prophet find and gain 
aright (for) my delight 7 Thy Good Mind's wonder- 

1 Compare *mava»tem aSshem, also peresi nau yS tdi Ami 
parjtS. Observe that the Pahlavi translator distinguishes the two 
senses of irti. In Y. XL VI, 2 he transcribes the Gathic word, the 
Persian rendering 'hezanah ; Ner. puwyalakshmlm ; here, however, 
he has : Kadar lak, Auharmazd, zak f xapir khvahtrn i khiWayih. 

* Compare verse 5. 

* Ashi might certainly equal aMa here (so Bartholomae) if the 
constant and intentional repetition of the name and idea of Asha,= 
the personified Order, would not have caused confusion. 

* The Pahlavi translator renders a word which occupied the 
place of ^avar6 by yakhsenunWarth ; Ner. following as to root 
(freely as to form). As he, however, renders related forms elsewhere 
by ' living,' ' live,' our only safe conclusion is that he had a different 
word from ^avard (givar6) before him in his MS. 

* Compare Y. XXVIII, 6. 

* I am very far from certain that we do not seriously blunder 
in not following the indication of the Pahlavi here. See remarks 
Y. XXXII, 1 6. 

7 Or, ' let me enjoy as my own ; ' but mdi is difficult, tj^am 
might otherwise be a first personal form in the sense of the Vedic u£. 

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I 58" . v .; ? . TfiE GATHAS. 

working grace" 1 ; yea, let Thy Saoshya#t see how 
gifts of recompense may be his own. 

10. When, Mazda ! shall the men of mind's perfec- 
tion come 2 ? And when shall they drive 3 from hence, 
the soil of this (polluted) drunken joy 4 , whereby the 
Karpans with (their) angry zeal would crush us 5 , and 
by whose inspiration the tyrants of the provinces 
(hold on) their evil rule 6 ? 

1 1 . Yea, when shall our perfected Piety appear 

Bartholomae's third sing, imper. is also of course well possible ; but 
were not the originally abnormal third singulars in -Sm, duhSm 
jayim, vidam, taken over from third pi. subj. '-am ' really 
equalling the nasal vowel merely * ? Comp. also Indian adrwram, 
abudhram, asrj'gram, Zend vavazirem, -am=an. 'Tradition' has, 
Pahl. ztvijnth ; Ner. ^ivitam ; Pers. zistan, for Mam, as if rendering 
'enjoyment,' 'experience of life.' * (am=tam is more difficult.) 

1 Comparing vapus ; otherwise, with the Pahlavi, ' knowing the 
destruction (of the evil) which Vohuman works ; ' see Y. XXIX, 6, 
where the rendering of the Pahlavi is supported by the previous 

3 Comp. Y. XLVI, 3. Kada Mazda" hiient^*— saoshya»tam 
khratavd ? 

5 Compare Y. XXXII, 15. 

* Is Soma-intoxicaiion here referred to ? And was the Haoma- 
worship in abeyance at the time? The Pahlavi seems to have 
understood ' magic ' here, and in the evil sense, that is, judging 
from the perhaps later gloss. Aside from the gloss, however, the 
Pahlavi may well have been, nay, more probably was, intended 
to be read madih as=madahya\ 

5 As to this word, we cannot do better than follow Justi (although 
his work is now a score of years old). The Indian varpas, in the 
sense of deceit, has also been compared. The last Pahlavi trans- 
lator was probably confused by finding this word, as so often, 
divided in his MS. He rendered as best he could, or rather he 
handed down the shattered documents, or oral teachings, of his 
predecessors with his own too often lame additions, the whole 
mass being rich in the relics of the truth. 

* See verse 5. 

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together with * Thy Righteousiu?^™" ivlren shall 
she come, as having the amenities of home for us, 
and provided (like our land) with pastures 2 (for the 
kine ) ? And who shall give us quiet 3 from the cruel 
(men) of evil life and faith ? To whom shall Thy 
Good Mind's sacred wisdom come (to guide them in 
their toil to rescue and avenge us) ? 

12. (To whom ? The answer lieth near.) Such 
shall be the Saviours of the Provinces, and they who, 
through Thy Good Mind's grace, shall go on hand in 
hand with mental keenness 4 (as it spreads among 
Thy saints) by the doing every deed of Thy 
commandment, O Ahura ! through the help of, 
and in accordance with, Thy Holy Order; for such 
as these are set (for us), as steadfast foes of hate ! 


Reverses and Hopes. Honour to Frashaostra 
and other chiefs. 

The chapter divides itself naturally into sections 1-5, 6-1 1. 
Verse 1 2 belongs with chapter L. One of the struggles in the holy 
cause seems to have gone against the party of Asha. I say ' one 

1 Ma/ following AshS shows that we may also have the pre- 
position in pdi ma/. 

1 As Aramaiti is here spoken of as ' having pasture,' that is, as 
inspiring the thrifty husbandmen who cultivate the meadows by 
irrigation, or drainage, she became associated herself with those 
meadows, and so later with the earth ; see Y. XL VII, 2. 

' The Pahlavi sees in ramam enforced quiet not 'from' but 
'to' the wicked; 'who shall deal the finishing blow to the wicked?' 

4 So also the Pahlavi, shnSsinWitrfh. 

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of the struggles,' for from the account of a reverse which we have 
here, and from that of a success which meets us in chapter XLV, i, 
and again from reverses in XL VI, i, 2, &c, we naturally conclude 
that ' the cause ' saw many vicissitudes, in which the last Gatha 
still leaves us. Whether Y. XLV, 1 records a victory which was 
subsequent to the reverse before us, referring to a battle alluded to 
in Y. XLIV, 14, 15, also possibly anticipated in Y. XXXI, can 
never be decided ; the order of the statements in the sequence of 
our present MSS. has little or nothing to do with the possible order 
of the events. 

1. A border chief, B«idva by name, had proved himself too 
formidable (mazirt6) for the moment, and the holy Faith knows 
how to beg for vengeance on the armed Dru^-worshipper. The 
weapons of Ahura were not spiritual only, any more than those of 
Israel were, or those of Mohammed. The death of an armed 
religious enemy was devoutly to be desired for every moral and 
political, as well as for every personal reason. 2. For judicial as 
well as priestly decisions hung on the issue. And this B«idva had 
his functionaries and a system, and they were in full and active 
operation. And this was, beyond a doubt, a rival and settled 
system, and not merely an upstart and insurrectionary one. It had 
caused the true prophet many an hour of thought as well as anger. 
Its functionaries gave him pause (manay&tt). Falsity in religion 
was as ever his opportunity ; and invective follows. ' The priestly 
judge himself who served the Dru^- worshippers was a cheat.' ' The 
holy Order was his foe, and not his helper.' And he did not con- 
tribute at all to the spread of Piety as the Zarathurtrians conceived 
of it, nor indeed really in another sense for the reason that he even 
repudiated the source of pious wisdom, which is holy counsel. 
3. But, however, the evil functionaries might resort to subterfuge 
and strategy, the opposing powers themselves, the Righteous Order 
on the one side, and the power of the Lie-demon on the other, 
were planted in the opposing systems with dualistic clearness, to 
benefit or injure. There was no compromise, as doubtless the 
Dru^-party may have wished. 

And so the poet cries once more for the divine Benevolence to 
be his guardian; or perhaps he may have intended a particular 
chief who represented the Good Mind, while at the same time he 
swept the entire throng and company who adhered to the Lie- 
demon, with his interdict, away from his consideration. 4. He 
declares them closely allied to the Daeva- worshippers, or else he 
puts their worship of the DaSvas in the place of climax as their 

Digitized by 


YASNA XL1X. l6l 

highest offence, not failing to point out what should conciliate sym- 
pathy with him always ; that is, that those who brought the Da6vas, 
and opposed Asha, were the devotees of Rapine (aSshmem vareden); 
for murderous rapine seems to have been, apart from Asha, the 
universal sin. By this these Daeva-worshippers gained a stolen 
livelihood, and spent their ill-gotten mean's in idle waste (fshuyasu 
afshuya«t6). 5! But he who defended the holy DaSna was as meat 
and drink to the people, wise and faithful, as a settled citizen, and 
trained in the habits of the holy State. 

6. He therefore prays once more for right discernment as to how 
he may propagate the Faith. 7. And he calls on the steady 
citizen to listen, beseeching God Himself to give an ear, and to tell 
him who the faithful prince, or peer, or villager, may be, who may 
take the lead (see saw) in giving forth (see sr&vayaSmi) that holy 
Daena, with its frasasti, to the masses who await it. 8. But he asks 
the question as if only to give emphasis to his naming a chief 
and venerated friend. Frashaortra is the man. He is the one 
fitted for the hearing, apt to proclaim the truth (frasruidyii erethwd). 
And he begs that they both (compare Y. XXVIII, 9) may be 
lastingly prominent in that holy Realm which was to counteract 
the depraved polity whose chief had for the moment gained the 
upper hand (verses 1, 2). 9. But the case is in so far uncertain 
and undecided, that he cries for help once more to the ideal citizen 
himself, fearing that he may yet be induced to share the power with 
the heretic, and still declares that men's souls may reach the reward 
of priority only through the holy System of Ahura, and under the 
rulers of His choice. 

10. He therefore confides the result to Ahura, and with it, his 
dependents, those living and those dead. And his thoughts, being 
turned to heaven (n), they also revert as if by antithesis (the 
key-note of the Daena) to future retribution. Those who may be 
wavering, half-inclined to adhere to the opposing party (verse 9), 
are warned in words of peculiar meaning. Those that choose the 
evil sovereign, a dursasti, as in Y. XXXII, 9, or as the sastars of 
Y. XL VI, 1, will not go forward with the saints to the JfTmvaJ 
(Y. XL VI, io), nor will they be met by their consciences under 
pleasing images, and later by the souls of saints who had gone 
before, but the wicked dead shall meet them in the home of Lies, 
with poisoned food, and sneering words. And this shall be a self- 
inflicted vengeance. 

[30 M 

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1 . Bendva, 1 has ever fought with me ; (yea, since 
he first appeared at hand to threaten, and alas to his 
advantage in the strife). He is the most power- 
ful (in brutal might), and (in his predominance) 
would crush my strength as I seek to win back 
the disaffected (in my host) through Righteous* 
(zeal), O Mazda ! Come then with gifts of (vengeful s ) 
good to (meet) my sorrow 4 . Through (Thine in- 
spiring) Good Mind obtain (for me 6 ) that (B*»dva's) 
death 6 ! 

2. (Aye, he is indeed the greatest 7 ), for that 

1 If this word does not simply mean ' a band,' one might suspect 
a relation of root with bSnayen. The Pahlavi has expressively and 
freely badtum here, and vimarth in the next verse, with a like word 
in Y. XXX, 6. This enemy may have been roughly dubbed ' the 
polluted,' or even ' diseased one ; ' analogous occurrences are not 

* I cannot agree to rendering asha ' really,' when applied in an 
evil sense. The sacred word may mean ' really ' when applied to 
the righteous, but then, in that case, the reality indicated has an 
element of sanctity in it, and that of no low order. I am also not 
aware that nte'na is applied in an evil sense in the i?*'g-veda. The 
use of Asha, like that of Vohu Manah and Khshathra, &c, is 
obvious in the Gatha ; the six sacred words were, like the theme 
of a symphony, brought in at every opportunity, with all shades of 
meaning from those of proper names to those of adverbs. With 
slight change of text to a nom., we might render, ' He who seeks to 
please the evil-minded, O Thou A. 1' 

8 Comp. Y. XXXIII, 2. 

4 I cannot agree that arapa should be read rapa for the sake of 
a syllable in the metre. The line has more than eleven syllables 
here, as the Vedic Trish/up often has. Moreover the ancient 
writing before the Pahlavi translator read likewise arapa, and the 
sense demands it. 

• Or, ' may I obtain.' • Se.e Y. LIII, 9. T See the first verse. 

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Bendva's evil judge doth cause me to hesitate and 
ponder (in my earnest course of propagation and 
reform), a deceiver as he is, (estranged) from the 
Righteous Order, and receiving 1 from it (not happi- 
ness) but many a wound. The bountiful and perfect . 
Piety he has not maintained nor strengthened for 
this 2 land, nor questions with Thy Good Mind hath 
he asked 8 (to gain him light), O Lord ! 

3. But (all is not yet lost!) ; for this religious choice* 
(our holy creed, for which our last lost 8 battle has been 
fought), O Mazda ! Thy blessed Order (our guardian 
help) has yet been set to save and bless us. (But) for 
(that evil) Judge, the Demon-of-the-Lie, (is set) to 
deal (for him) her wounds 6 . Therefore do I pray 
(the more) for the sheltering leadership of Thy Good 
Mind (within our folk and our commanders). And 
all the allies of the wicked I abjure 7 . 

4. They who with evil scheme and will shall 
cherish and help on the Wrath of Rapine, and with 
her Rama 8 , and (not by silent favour, but) with their 

1 I would gladly accede to a subjunctive 2nd singular intensive 
here in a causative sense, but a 3rd singular precedes, and a 3rd 
singular follows. I cannot therefore recognise a subjunctive in a 
precative, or imperative, sense here. I think the word is a nomina- 
tive, as its position in the verse corresponds well to that form. It 
may mean ' delivering against us many a wound.' 

* Possibly ' for us in (this) land.' 
» Comp. Y. XLIV, 13. 

4 Comp. Y. XXX, 2. 

See mazlrtd in the first verse. 

• The Pahlavi mun r£shm& pavan Di%. 

7 The Pahlavi translator gave as our first rendering here : 
Andarg harvtsp-gftno darvandan5 min hamkhakfh andarg yemale- 
lunam ; [atgh, min ddstih t levatman valmaruan gavidib yehe- 

' The Pahlavi has ar£shk5=envy. 

M 2 

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very tongues, whose will and wish ' (run) not with 
good but evil deeds. These settle and support the 
Da£vas (in their power, not the Lord). It is 2 the 
wicked's Faith and Insight (so to do. Their faith 
is the perverted). 

5. But he, O Mazda ! is our abundance and our 
fatness 8 , who (will yet dare these unbelieving foes) 
and guard the Faith (against that envious Wrath *), 
and with the Good Mind's power. For every man 
of Piety is a wise citizen 6 in accordance with the holy 
Order, and so are all who are (in truth) within Thy 
Realm, O Lord ! 

6. And now, will I beseech of You, O Mazda, and 
Righteousness (within Thy MSthra) speaks • (to tell 
me) what lies within Your will's intention, that 
(having discerned Your Insight as the enlightened 

1 The Pahlavi gave us our first surmise as to the general meaning 
of vas ; it renders kimak. 

1 Or, 'by that which is the evil's Faith.' 

* The Pahlavi translator gave us our first general indication here 
as elsewhere ; he has shirtnih and £arpih. Reading ' Mazdau,' we 
have 'Mazda (is our source of) abundance and refreshment' 

* See the fourth verse. 

• The Pahlavi has, however, khup shinasakih. I differ with 
hesitation; possibly views may be harmonised. 

• Compare Y. XXIX, 3, where Asha answers. I cannot well 
accept mruit& as an infinitive. Geldner has keenly pointed out 
that fra6shya is inclined to unite with an infinitive, but so are other 
forms of ish and vas. Moreover the infinitive does not so natur- 
ally fall to the end of the sentence in Gathic or Vedic. (See above, 
note on Y. XXXIV, 1.) If an infinitive is insisted upon (so long 
since) let us at least bring the word into more usual shape, using 
the Pahlavi translator, as in one of his most valuable offices, as an 
indirect evidence, where his translation is at fault as a rendering. 
He has : Frizo av5 zak 1 Lekum farmayfim, Auharmazd, va Asha- 
vahwt5£ rii yemalelunam. He had 'mruv6' before him, which 
might be an infinitive. 

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ever must), I may as well discern aright how we can 
herald forth those (truths), and that pure Daena 
(with them) which is the Faith of Him who is Thy- 
self 1 , O Lord. 

7. And (as we speak it forth as taught by Asha) 
then let the (zealous 2 citizen) give heed, and with Thy 
Good Mind, O Ahura Mazda ! Yea, let him give ear in 
accordance with (the dictate of) the Holy Order, and 
do Thou hear alike as well 8 . Who shall be the ally ; 
and who the kinsman-lord himself, who, with his gifts 
and (legal rules), shall institute and settle for the 
serving mass a worthy praise (for God 4 )? 

8. (And I do not ask in vain, for such an one is 
found for us, and near at hand.) To Frashaortra 
hast Thou given that most favouring guardian 
power, the headship 8 of the Holy Order (for us), O 

1 I think that khshm£vat6 equals simply 'yourself ' here, as often 
(so mava»t=me); otherwise 'of your disciple,' which would be 
feeble. Professor Jolly has, V. S., s. 9-7, ' damit wir ihn verkttndigen 
mdchten den Glauben, welcher der euere ist, o Ahura.' 

* See the ninth verse. 

8 Ahura is elsewhere addressed in close connection with human 
beings ; here the human subject is half lost in Vohuman and Asha. 
I hardly think that it is wise to change the text without MSS. A 
lost verse may have relieved all difficulty. 

* Others ' the good doctrine,' or again ' the good repute;' but as 
to the latter, frasasti is coupled so constantly in the later A vesta 
with yasna, and vahma, &c, that I do not feel at liberty to depart 
from that sense. The Pahlavi has also vafriginih, quite in 
harmony with the connection. 

* This verse is clearly an answer to the questions contained in 
verse 7. It is a half answer, even if we render dau (d&o) as a subjunc- 
tive. As the question in verse 7 certainly concerns a chief of some 
kind, I cannot see how we can avoid rendering sawm analogously. 
We need one who gives a refuge rather than one who receives it. 
Compare the Pahlavi, and also the Persian, sar. The Pahlavi 

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1 66 the gAthas. 

Ahura ! This therefore would I pray of Thee (to 
confirm to him that gracious gift), and for myself 
likewise, would I now seek as well that sheltering 
headship which is within Thy Realm ; yea, most 
blest and foremost 1 may we both for ever be within it. 

9. Aye, let the zealous and thrifty husbandman, 
so formed for giving help and blessings 2 , give heed 
and listen when I call, (O Mazda!) Let not the 
truthful (tiller, he who hears and speaks Thy word s ), 
be he who takes * that sheltering chieftainship to- 
gether with the wicked. Let the believing natures 
(only) join in that best recompense. And thus in the 
course of the holy Order are in the fact so joined 
those two, G&maspa and the ' hero ' 8 . 

10. (And since these champions thus join in that 
reward), then therefore will I place as well in Thy 

translation gives its evidence without intermission for this meaning, 
a fact largely overlooked. 

1 I think that the connection fairly proves this meaning ; and it 
has likewise the powerful support of the Pahlavi translation : Ham&i 
vad avo vispS farmSnpatS h6man&nt [aigh, Frashortar [ ] vad tanu 
f pasind hamSt «ilMih yehabun]. 

* It is not to be forgotten that su is the root of Saoshya«t. 

« Comp. Y. XXXI, 15. 

4 Or 'gives;' compare perest ava/ yi mainif ye dregvaite" 
khshathrem huniitf. Professor Jolly, V. S., s. 36 : ' Nicht soil wer 
das Rechte redet, die Herrschaft dem Lugner ttberlassen.' 

8 Y&hf remains a singular, whereas we should expect a dual; (can 
it be such, the form being altered, as so often by later reciters, to 
accommodate the metre ?) For GixaispS. and yukhtS as duals com- 
pare utayuiti tevisht. Yahi probably refers to VtrtSspa (Y. XLVI, 
14). Was it an especial epithet for the kings ? The later Persian 
kings took prominent places in battle. If the duals are not ad- 
mitted, my rendering would be, 'the souls are united with the 
reward through the (influence and example of the) valiant 
Gamaspa.' Perhaps Gamispo is to be read. 

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protection (Thy) Good Mind * (in the living) and the 
spirits (of the dead. Yea, I confide our very) self-hum- 
bling praises, (which we offer, unto Thee), by which 
(Thine) Aramaiti (who is our Piety, exists), and likewise 
sacrificing zeal. And this would we do to further 
Thy great Sovereign Power (among Thy folk), and 
with undying 2 (?) strength. 

11. (But as to faithless reprobates) ; the souls (of 
the evil dead) shall meet those evil men who serve 
their evil rulers, who speak with evil words, and 
harbour evil consciences, these souls (in Hell) shall 
come with evil food 3 (to welcome them), and in the 
Lie's abode their dwelling 4 verily shall be * ! 


The most striking circumstance here, after the rhetorical and 
moral-religious peculiarities have been observed, is the sixth verse ; 
and as to the question of Zarathartrian authorship, it is the most 
striking in the Gathas or the Avesta. In that verse we have 
Zarathurtra, not named alone, which might easily be harmonised 

1 This is probably the foundation for the later identification of 
Vohu Manah and the faithful disciple. 

* Here all is conjectural. The Pahlavi reports an adjective from 
a form of m an (or a participle). They who think upon the throne 
(to seize it) do so with dying power. Wilder conjectures have 
been made; but the Pahlavi translators seldom wilfully guessed. 
They took the shattered results of their predecessors, and worked 
them feebly over ; hence their great value, and the unimportance of 
their errors. They used what intelligence they possessed in re- 
delivering what they heard and read. Vazdanghi cannot well be 
taken in an evil sense, as it is used in a good sense elsewhere. The 
connection maza with ra has long circulated ; maza avfimt ra (?). As 
the souls of the departed are thought of, perhaps ' undying ' is the 
meaning ; compare avraiira (for form) with the Zend avimithrlr. 

s See Yart XXII by Darmesteter, as supplemented. 

' So the Pahlavi ; otherwise ' their bodies shall so lie.' 

5 Verse 12 belongs to the next chapter. 

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1 68 the gAthas. 

with his personal authorship, nor have we only such expressions as 
* to Zarathurtra and to us ' (Y. XXVIII, 7), but we have Zarathurtra 
named as ' mahya razmg sahi/,' ' may he declare my regulations, 
which could only be said, without figure of speech, by some supe- 
rior, if not by the prime mover himself. Were these verses then 
written by the prime mover ? And was he other than Zarathurtra ? 
If so, the entire mass of the Gathas was of course written by him, 
or else their style and character may be regarded as of such a 
character that they could have been composed by four or five 
closely connected individuals. But while verses here and there are 
doubtless the productions of secondary persons, the mass of the 
Gathas cannot be regarded as the work of several different com- 
posers. They are one man's work, directly or indirecdy. If then 
the present section, which is especially original in its tone, was not 
from Zarathurtra, the man whose heart and soul, and, we may add, 
whose power were in Zarathurtrianism, was not Zarathurtra, but 
some unnamed individual far more important (See note on Y. 
XXVIII, 7.) The prominence of the name of Zarathurtra was in 
that case solely owing to the personal activity of Zarathurtra sup- 
ported by the social rank of the Spitamas. Zarathurtra was a 
princely disciple, on the hypothesis mentioned, and nothing more. 
The real author of Zarathurtrianism was, in that case, in no sense 
Zarathurtra ; compare ' to Zarathurtra and to us :' nor yet Vfrtaspa ; 
compare 'to Vtrtaspa and to me :' nor Frashaortra; compare 'to 
Frashaortra and to us ; ' and, we may also say, not (ramaspa, for he is 
addressed in the vocative. He was mentally and personally the 
superior of all of them. In fact he was the power behind both 
throne and home, and yet without a name ! But, in that case, what 
becomes of Y. XXIX, 6, 8 ? Is it probable that the founder of a 
religion (or of a new departure in a religion) would describe 
another as the chosen of God, if he were not in fact supposed to be 
thus eminent ? Or, if a popular and sincerely enthusiastic religious 
composer were about to chant a hymn at a meeting of the re- 
ligious masses, would he be likely to name a person to the animated 
throngs, whom they themselves did not feel to be the life of their 
religious faith? especially, if that person were not prominent 
from the arbitrary circumstance that he was the reigning prince ? 
I do not think that this is at all probable. But if Zara- 
thurtra had, as described, the leading name, and composed a portion 
of the hymns with their lost companions, is it probable that he 
possessed no decided prominence in this matter above Vlrt&spa, 
Frashaortra, and (ram&spa? Was there no central poet, who 

Digitized by 


Y^SNA L. I69 

composed the mass of the metrical lore, dominating by his influence 
those who added portions here and there, or was there a quaternion 
of seers, four Zarathur tras, as one might say ? As we have said, the 
hymns decide it. One man's soul is in them, as a composer's 
feelings are in his compositions, or a master's feelings are in the 
lines of his disciples. But if there was one central figure instead of 
four, and he is mentioned as Zarathur tra, and as the spokesman in 
many portions of the Gathas, being likewise known by inference to 
be the composer of nearly all of them, how can we account for 
the words, ' let him, Zarathurtra, teach or proclaim my regulations ?' 
Can the verse be regarded as put into the mouth of Ahura, as else- 
where? Hardly, for Ahura is addressed in it. I can therefore 
only repeat of this verse, as of the others which present analogous 
questions in Y. XXVIII (with which this chapter L stands in the 
closest connection), that this thoroughly original piece was com- 
posed by Zarathurtra as by far the most prominent individual in 
the religious struggle, dominating his party essentially and posi- 
tively, and that these verses (6-1 1) were simply rhetorically put into 
the mouth of the monarch from the exigency of the style of com- 
position. And I conclude that Vfataspa was supposed to speak 
them, because in the presence of Zarathurtra, it is extremely impro- 
bable that any one but the titular head of the State should have 
been represented as saying of Zarathurtra, ' mahya" raz«»g sahi/.' 

1. The piece from Y. XLIX, 12 to Y. L, 1-5 joins well on with 
Y. XLIX, although the tone is brighter. As he begins with ques- 
tions in Y. XL VIII, 8-1 1, after the prospective prayers of Y. 
XL VIII, 1-7, in which he looks forward to a crisis in the armed 
struggle, so now after the hostile chief has got the upper hand, he 
cries out once more with interrogatives, uttering the questions, not 
of curiosity, but of mournful devotion. 

' The storm has broken over us,' so he would seem to say, ' and I 
have prayed for grace to know how we may administer (Y. XLIV, 9) 
the all-powerful means of help, the Daena, in which Thy Righteous 
Order is set (Y. XLIX, 3). I have cried to Thee for chief and 
peer (verse 7), naming Frashaartra, (Tamaspa, and the Yahin, and 
now, while I invoke you, praying for what in your selection is the 
best (Y. XXVIII, 11 ; Y. XLIV, 10), I would more than ever de- 
clare that I have none other help than Thee and Thy saving Order.' 
2. And he asks once more to know how he who seeks to further 
the sacred herds, as the emblem of the moral thrift of the provinces, 
should proceed in his allotted work. 3. Answering his own ques- 
tion, he says that it is by advance upon the enemy ; he declares 

Digitized by 



that the heroic settler who pushes the holy system to the utmost 
verge of the sacred territory or still further, was the man ' to gain 
the Kine ' for the seeking prophet. 4. But in the midst of struggles, 
he anticipates Gar6<Anan with its praises. 5. For they were all 
prepared for both worship and work, since God had approached to 
aid His prophet, encouraging His discouraged spirit. 6. Here 
Vtrt&spa is represented as intervening; and he addresses Ahura 
literally, but Zarathurtra really, exhorting him indirectly to continue 
on in his work of propagation, undismayed by present circum- 
stances. 7. And with Zarathurtra, he would re-engage the other 
powerful helpers, whom he would yoke on as steeds to gain God's 
praise in Heaven by passing over every bridge of trial safely. 8. Hav- 
ing heard from Zarathujtra his metric words, he will approach with 
them to pray, and, as in Y. XXVIII, 2, 3, ' with hands stretched 
out' with homage, and with vigour. 9. And he looks to attain 
the object of his prayers by religious self-control, and faithful 
action. 10. His efforts vie with the heavenly bodies in their praise 
of God. 1 1. Therefore he will persevere, and as a praiser-king (so 
the Pahlavi in one place) ; and he beseeches that Ahura, the life- 
giver, may help on the all-engrossing cause. 


Y. XLIX, 12 \ What aids of grace hast Thou for 
Thine invoking Zarathurtra, (O Ahura Mazda !) to 
grant him through Thy Righteous Order ? Yea, what 
(aids of 2 grace hast thou for me as) through Thy Good 
Mind given (within my soul), for me who will (still) 
pray to Thee with praises, O Great Creator! be- 
seeching what in accordance with Your wished-for 
aim is best ? 

Y. L, i. Aye, doth my soul indeed obtain assisting 

1 This verse is placed here as obviously more closely related to 
chapter L than to chapter XLIX. Lost verses may, however, have 
intervened between it and Y. L, 1. 

* Another rendering, regarding ka/ as a purely interrogative 
participle, would be, ' Are they (t6i) helpful to the invoking Zara- 
thujtra?' But ka/ t6i is a familiar form; see Y. XXXIV, 1 2, where 
it must mean quid tibi. 

Digitized by 


YASNA L. 171 

grace, and which of Thy blessings is that gift to me, 

Lord ? What saving champion is found to save 
both flocks and herds ? And who for myself other 
than Thy Righteous Order, and Thyself, Ahura? 
Tell me \ O (ye) invoked ones ! Or what of grace 
is there for me save Thy Best Mind (itself) ? 

2. (And if Thy guardian is verily to save our 
wealth) how shall he (obtain, and by what means 
shall he) seek after 2 that joy-creating Kine (who is 
the living symbol of our peace 8 ) ? (How shall that 
man obtain his wish) who shall desire to see her pro- 
vided with pastures for (the welfare of) this land ? 
(That only way is righteousness.) Do Thou then 
grant me lands (so would I ask of Thee) which live 
in justice in the many * splendours of the sun, and 
lands which openly 5 thus live, and which are to be 

1 I should be far from denying that azda may equal addhS, but 
a strengthening adverb seems to me of no particular force here. 

1 formerly rested at the simple explanation az+ da = dha= desire- 
exciting, much desired one. But the Pahlavi translator affords an 
explanation which may surpass that of his successors. He sees 
the meaning : ' When I shall call upon You/ (that is, freely, ' being 
invoked,') ' cause Thou (sic) me to understand fully.' This is the 
remnant of some predecessor's work, who rendered ' tell ye me ;' 
az=ah, otherwise lost in Zend. The plural follows the singular 
too often to excite much doubt; azda=tell ye; so zdt is from az, 
as sy6dum is from as (recall the well-known Indian analogies). 
See also the explanation of the Pahlavi at Y. XXXI, 17. If a 
plural cannot be admitted, then consider a form extended by d. 

* The Pahlavi translates freely, bavihunam. 

8 The Kine must represent the people as well as their live-stock. 
The raids concerned the owners more than their cattle. In answer 
to the cry of the Kine, Zarathartra was sent to the people. 

' I can hardly agree to the rendering ' among people who see 
the sun ' without a needless reconstruction of the text. The Pahlavi 
likewise has pavan khvirlh ; for general meaning, compare Khsha- 
thr6i Aveng daresdi, not as equivalent however. 

5 Askarak sti. 

Digitized by 



sought and gained by me (as conquests for the cause). 
Give Thou this gift ! 

3. (Yea, let that joy-creating one) be his posses- 
sion through the Righteous Order (which he helps to 
bring, that living sign) which (the most valiant 
citizen) may give to him (at once reward and charge), 
and in accordance with Thy Sovereign Authority. 
(May that heroic settler grant him this gift) he who 
may make the (last imperilled) farm to flourish in 
the vigour of Thy blest prosperity, the tract which 
lies the nearest (to the fields) which our foeman holds 
as his \ 

4. (And therefore both in thankfulness and hope) 
will I give sacrifice to You with praises, O Ahura 
Mazda! togetherwith Thine Order and Thy Best Mind 
(in Thy saints), and in accordance with Thy sacred 
Sovereign Power, by whose help the wisher (heaven- 
bound) may stand upon the (certain) pathway 2 , and 
in Thine Home-of-song shall I (by means of these 
my Yasnas offered here) there hear the praises of 
Thine offering saints who see Thy face *. 

5. And we 4 are in readiness as well (to fulfil Your 
praises and declare your words), O Ahura Mazda! 
through Your (grace, and) in accordance with Your 
Holy Order, since Ye advance with friendliness 6 to 
cheer the speaker of Your MSthra-word with open 
acts of visible relief, as if with hand sent forth, 

1 The Pahlavi translation, as usual, not literally exact, still furnishes 
the correct clue, Zak f nazdistd (?) gfihano min valman t darvand 
bakhsh&/ [aigaj zak d&n darim bara yansegunyfin]. 

* Fr6 tair vispalf .ffinvatd fra peretum. 

s Akau (compare the Indian akg) ; ' who approach, and are 
therefore evident (dshkarak) to God, and seeing Him.' Comp. 
akau in Y. LI, 13, which has been thought a loc. 

* See nau. ' To vra^\ 

Digitized by 


YASNA L. 173 

whereby that MSthra-speaker of Your truth may 
bring us on, and settle us, in weal and bliss \ 

6. (Therefore will I incite him to his task the more. 
Let him indeed proclaim the righteous way 2 ) he who 
already lifts his voice in M&thras, O Ahura Mazda ! 
he, Zarathurtra 3 , the faithful friend in accordance 
with the Holy Order, and with self-abasing worship, 
giver of understanding for this land, voice-guider (of 
the way to glory 4 ), let him indeed proclaim and teach 
my regulations, and in accordance with Thy Good 
Mind (as his law). 

7. (And together with that chief speaker of your 
word I would engage yet others in the cause). Your 
well-incited 6 and swift e (servants), O Ahura ! would 
I yoke 7 on (as steeds to take their holy course toward 
heaven), gaining 7 thereby (at last) the Bridges 8 where 

1 See the previous verse, where the wisher stands on the path, 
seeking to reach Gar6<finan. It seems therefore probable that 
hv&thr& refers to deraSnS gard. 

* Compare Y. LIH, 2, daunghd erezto pathd. 

* As remarked, this entire piece recalls Y. XXVIII. Here the 
monarch is represented as speaking precisely as spokesmen are 
introduced in any other composition. We have no reason to sup- 
pose the piece to be the composition of some leading person other 
than Zarathuxtra, because of the words ' let Zarathurtra speak forth 
my regulations.' (See page 169.) 

4 lsh6 staungha/ & paithf. B Consider a suffix ish/i. 

* Here the Pahlavi translator gives us both text and translation, 

1 Or, ' yoke Thou, may'st Thou gain.' 

* The Ainva/ Bridge, either literally or figuratively. Compare 
'the bridge of the earth' (Y. LI, 12). The crises of effort, or 
temptation, are meant, as the JTmvaJ Bridge was the last crisis 
before salvation or perdition. The souls of the good and of the 
evil were met by their own consciences on the Bridge, and en- 
couraged or reviled. 

'When the soul of the pious passes over that Bridge, the width of 

Digitized by 


174 THE gAthas. 

Your adoration (rules and is complete). Yea, I (?) 
yoke on your mighty ones, and with Thy Holy Order, 
and Thy Good Mind. And with these may Ye drive 
on ; aye, be Ye for my help ! 

8. (And as I yoke on Your M&thra-speakers for 
their course, then) would I (myself) approach You in 
the (highest) deed of worship 1 , and with these sacred 
metric feet (of Zarathurtra and his peers 2 ), those 
which are heard and famed afar, as the metric feet of 
zealous worship, and with my hands stretched s out 
(in supplicating prayer). Yea, You (would I approach), 

Mazda ! in union with Your sacred ritual Truth, 
and with the homage of a freely-giving helper 4 , and 
with the good virtue of (Your) Good Mind (in my 

9. Yea, with these Yasnas of Your sacrifice would 

1 approach You, praising back to You (in answer to 
Your mercies), O Ahura ! and Thou, O Righteous- 
ness ! in (the holy) actions of Your Good Mind, (as 
he moves within us), so long indeed as I shall have 
the power, commanding at my will o'er this my sacred 
(privilege) and gift (And doing as) the wise man 
(thus), may I (like him) become a supplicant who 
gains 6 his ends. 

10. (Mine every wish and prayer is this), then 
therefore whatsoever I shall do, and whatsoever deeds 

that Bridge becomes about one league ' (West, Mainyd-t Khard,* 
p. 134). Possibly the extension of the Bridge for the pious arose 
from the plural use here. 

» Compare Y. XXVIII, 3. * See Y. XXVIII, 9. 

8 See Y. XXVIII, a. * See Y. XLVI, 9. 

• The Pahlavi translator accepts a sense of acquisition here as 
well as of desire: AStuno zak t valman f avo hu-d&nak pavan 
khvahfano grfft&r hdmanSnf [mozd]. I accede to its indication, 
holding that gardh certainly has such an element in its meaning. 

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YASNA L. 175 

(of ritual and truth I shall yet further do) on 
account of, (and to make full J ) these (prior deeds of 
worship), yea, whatsoever (holy works) shine bright 2 
as having worth in (all) men's eyes through Thy 
Good Mind (whose character they share ; these as) 
the stars, suns, and the Aurora which brings on the 
light 3 of days, are all, through their Righteous Order, 
(the speakers) of Thy 4 praise, O Thou Great Giver, 
Lord ! 

11. Your praiser then (by eminence) would I be 
named, and (more), would be it, so long as by (Thine 
inspiring) Righteousness I am thus able and may 
have the power. And may the maker of the world 
give help through (His implanted) Good Mind (in 
my fellow-servants). And may that (all) be done 6 (to 
further us) which through His veritable grace is most 
promotive (for the cause) ! 

1 I can here only follow the words as they are written; the 
meaning is clear enough although rather advanced. Reconstruc- 
tions on a large scale are seldom of value. 

* Judging from the context, we may render aiya/ thus. 

5 The Pahlavi translator here renders as if he read usha. In 
Y. XLVI, 3 he translates ukhshand. Professor Wilhelm, preferring 
as above, still recalls the Homeric usage favouring ' increaser.' 
The Pahlavi has vakhshintaar in Y. XLVI, 3. Here h6sh zak f 
arus d&n b£m I. Ner. alone understood arts. 

* 'Your.' 

* An imperative has long been recognised in varrtam ; or read : 
' Let him cause that which is the most furthering of deeds to grow 
influential through veritable grace.' So perhaps better. 

Digitized by 




This Gatha consists of the single chapter Y. LI. It has 
lines of fourteen syllables with caesura in the middle. 


Instructions and Appeals to an Assembly of the 

It is hardly possible that we have here a continuous whole. 
The thoughts, however, harmonise well enough, and the changes 
give little trouble. 1. As so often the Sovereign Authority of 
Ahura, His reign over the hearts and in the minds of His 
faithful worshippers, is the leading theme. That sovereign Power, 
when it is established, will produce every good thing with it, and 
repress every evil, and the composer prays that he may never 
pause at any moment in his efforts to bring that kingdom on. 2. 
Accordingly, as the foremost of objects, he beseeches for both its 
blessings and its protection, and names Aramaiti as the especial 
representative of Ahura in this case to grant the Kingdom as a 
Realm established in spiritual wealth, and whose first effect should 
be the glory of God through the agency of holy dispositions in 

3. The spirit of the Daena is public and prophetic rather than 
occult and mysterious. The people therefore gather to hear 
Gathas recited, and religious harangues delivered as on political 
occasions, and all the more because the Mathras are declared to 
be the results of direct inspiration from Ahura. 4. The present 
recitations are invocations calling for the four energising Immortals, 
the guiding Order, the active Piety, the inspiring Benevolence, and 
the Power-wielding Kingdom, and, in using these names, the 
multitude are also beseeching, by the voice of their spokesman, for 
the Ratu, the Saoshyawt cried for by the Kine, looked for by Asha 
himself, and promised by Ahura. 

Digitized by 


YASNA LI. 177 

5. And the men who press this prayer are, each of them, for 
the moment (n(Ui/), as the Ratu himself. Wise in his homage, 
he seeks to gain the kine, like the ideal husbandman, both as 
property and as emblem, and he desires to establish the Ratu, 
understood as a person, or as the law, which may judge between 
the two sides (Y. XXXI, 2), and, by the expulsion of the evil, give 
quiet to the land (Y. XLVI, 4 ; Y. LIII, 9). 6. Declaring Ahura 
to be the awarder of the highest good and deepest evil, (7) he calls 
on Him to grant the ' eternal two,' the rewarding Immortals (not 
named in the former verse), but only by means of the inspired 
teachings. 8. And as these inculcations are effective for himself, 
he will declare forth their threats and promises to others, being 
repaid for his zealous fidelity in the very act. 9. Recalling the 
hopes of vengeance, he beseeches Ahura to give forth a sign, or 
instrument, from the holy Fire, which may settle the disputes by 
the forged blade of justice. 10. For he declares that the man 
who murderously assaults his adherents in the opposing interest 
(see Y. XXXII, 10, &c.) is inherently and originally perverted in 
his motives, a very son of the Lie, and of the seed of Akoman. 

1 1. While in terms he addresses Ahura, he in reality challenges 
the devotion of the chieftains, as he calls aloud to the Deity. 

12. Here a temptation of Zarathurtra is narrated, as in the 
Vendidad, here dwelling on his youth, there on his maturer man- 
hood. But the verse shows marked signs of later age. 

13. And the soul of the righteous is encouraged by the recorded 
example ; he shall come off the conqueror, as Zarathujtra did. 

14. But the Karpans (priestly chiefs?) of the opposing party, 
following the typical destroyer (as in Y. XXXII), would bring the 
world to ruin, and the creatures to Hell. 

15. The true disciples will however infallibly receive the pro- 
mised recompense. 

1 6. And as for that ATisti, conceived by Mazda to give the 
saving knowledge in the sacred verse, the King of the Realm had 
acquired it. It will be stored in the memory of faithful priests 
under his care and rule; and he will give his subjects a good 
worship (Y. XLIX, 7) in accordance with it. 1 7. A female saint, 
also illustrious in rank, is celebrated with honourable mention ; she 
is, as it were, the ATisti in her person, as she is named in this 

18. Another devoted friend arrests the speaker's eye, as he 
stands in the assembly; (19) and still another. 20. Then, as if 
taking in all with his view, and with an expression which shows 

[30 N 

Digitized by 



his identification with the people, he declares that the 'Archangels' 
are of one mind with Mazda in bestowing spiritual blessings, the 
chief of which are inspired words, the source of their discipline, 
and the guide of their hopes. 

21. And with assurances as to the greatness of the spiritual 
blessings implied in all that he has said, he prays Ahura all the 
more earnestly to grant them to His elect. 22. And he declares 
that Ahura knows and observes the man who fulfils every command 
that he has uttered, as well as believes every doctrine which he 
has divulged, and that, knowing Him, He also marks Him as the 
object of His grace. And he ends by expressing once more his 
desire to approach the Bountiful Immortals, not as naming them 
alone, but naming them, as we may well suppose, with a full 
appreciation of all that is meant by the sacred words which belong 
to them as names. 


i. The good Government (of Ahura 1 ) is to be 
chosen (among all wished-for things 2 ) as that lot 
which most of all brings on (our happiness). Actions 
that oppress us it opposes 3 , through the holy Order 
(which pervades it), and with the pious zeal (of its 
true servants). Therefore, O Great Creator ! let me 

1 It is far better to take Khshathra in its usual and often neces- 
sary sense. And it is especially desirable not to confound it with 
shdithra = kshe"tra. 

* The choice one. 

' One is somewhat inclined to regard vidushemn&ir as a 
monstrous form of vid, which has crept into the text under the 
influence of the two words vfdushe' in verse 8, and owing to an 
attempt to fill out the metre, the original word having been videm- 
nair. The Pahlavi gives no indication except for a form of du=to 
give. Leaving the MSS. intact, I compare dush + vi. 

I render as above on the principle that the text in the MSS. 
should not be violated where it is possible to translate it at all. 
Reading videmnaif we might render, ' that kingdom's privileges are 
shared (it is entered and penetrated) by men who act (by actions) 
in a manner to further its security, (by actions gaining it).' 

Digitized by 


YASNA LI. 179 

produce, and help bring on (that Sovereign Power) 
which is the best for us at every present hour. 

2. And first I will ask for 1 these two blessings of 
Your own, O Thou Great Creator, and thou His 
Righteous Order ! and I also ask of thee, Our 
Piety (personified, as well) ; and grant me this Your 
Sovereign Rule over our desired wealth (to give and 
to preserve it ; and likewise) those spiritual blessings 
which are advantageous for our worship (of Ahura) 
through (the inspiration of His) Good Mind (within 
the soul). 

3. (And it is not I alone who thus appeal to 
You ; I speak for all) who are guarded in the (cere- 
monial and moral) actions of Your (law), and by 
those (inspired) words (which proceed) from the 
tongue of Thy Good Mind (as he speaks within Thy 
Mathra). Yea, these are all assembling (each) to hear 
You, of whom Thou, O Ahura Mazda ! art the fore- 
most guide 2 and light. 

4. (And they cry aloud to Thee, O Mazda ! I 
speaking with them, and in their name) : Where is 
the (promised 3 ) lord of our thrift (the embodied law, 
saving us from the most dreaded dangers that we 
fear 4 , the thrift-lord) of (our) ready zeal ? Where 

1 I have rather reluctantly read y&&& with long 6. Having in 
mind Y. XXX, 1, where Sp.'s B. reads yae^S, and reading yae£a 
here, we might regain the lost dual neuter of the pronoun here 
as in Y. XXX, 1, and so render, 'and which two things belong 
to thee, the possession (rule) of wealth and the blessings.' 

Roth, cited by Geldner, changes to ashaya§£a here and in Y. 
XXX, 1 ; and it is certainly striking that ashi y&& should occur 
twice. I render as above, first, as nearer our MSS., and as 
affording a good sense. 

* See Y. XXXI, 17. 'See verse 5. 

« See Y. XXIX, 1 ; Y. XXXII. 

N 2 


Digitized by 



does he stand to (show us) mercy? Whither are 
(Thy) Righteousness and the Bountiful Aramaiti 
(our Piety) approaching ? From what direction 
comes Thy Best Mind (to inspire and to guide) ? 
And whence (again), O Great Creator ! Thy Sove- 
reign Power (to be our ruler and defence ! ) ? 

5. And it is the tiller of the earth who asks this of 
Thee, O Ahura ! (Thy chosen saint himself) ; he 
has asked this all of Thee, striving to discover how 
he may gain to himself the sacred Kine (and with 
all wealth in herds beside. And he would seek this) 
moved by the motives which flow from Thy Righteous 
Order (and Thy cause), upright as he is in actions, 
and wise in his self-humbling worship (of that 2 One) 
who, as a righteous ruler, has appointed a just con- 
trolling guide for those whom He has made. 

6. (And in partial answer to his question, and to 
solve his doubt, I now declare the truth) : He who 
gives to this (good citizen) that which is better than 
the good 3 ; yea, He who bestows on him in accordance 
with his religious choice is (our) Ahura Mazda (and not 

1 It is hardly necessary to call attention to the fact that these 
abstracts are personified here, as in so many other places in the 
Gathas. We may indeed doubt whether the idea of personification 
was ever wholly absent, the original meaning being likewise never 
lost. Professor Wilhelm prefers taking Ashem as an accusative, 
'how does one (do they) come to Asha?' This is admirable; but 
I am, on the whole, inclined to regard Ashem as a nominative with 
fserator, Ar(a)maitij, &c, taking the plurals yas6 hvyen (hy«i) as 
irregularly extending to the other subjects. 

* So Wilhelm (by letter), taking a form of the pronoun as 
understood. It is difficult to suppose that the vastrya could be 
referred to as appointing the Ratu through the influence of his 
devotion and pious supplications ; as Wilhelm justly says, the third 
line must apply to Ahura. 

5 See Y. XLIII, 3 ; notice ahmai as referring to h6i. 

Digitized by 



a false god of the Da6vas 1 ). And this will He bestow 
through His divine Authority (established in prepa- 
ration here), while on the withholder of the sacrifice, 
who offers nothing to His (cause), He will send worse 
than the evil (and that not here alone, but) in the 
last turning of the creation in its course ! 

7. (And as Thou wilt bestow thus graciously on 
him), so grant me also, O Thou most bountiful 
Spirit Mazda, Thou who hast made both the Kine 
and the waters and the plants 2 (for her support) ! 
both Immortality and Welfare, those two eternal 
powers, and through Thy Good Mind in the doctrine 
(which is revealed through his inspired words 3 ). 

8. (Yea, grant me these two inseparable gifts, for 
having them in store) I will speak for Thee, O Mazda ! 
because to the man of understanding 4 one should 
declare for Thee that which is woe to the wicked, but 
salvation to him who has maintained the holy Order 
(in Thy folk and in his soul). For he is (repaid in 
his deed, and) rejoiced by the Mathra who declares 
it to the wise. 

9. (And when I shall speak, I will declare for You 
that mental) keenness (which reaches the decision), 
and which Thou hast bestowed upon the two striv- 
ing sides 5 , (in Thy satisfying word). And this 

1 See Y. XXXI, 17 where the faith of the dregva/rt is sufficiently 
recognised to form the basis for a question, rhetorical indeed, but 
still a question. 

J From this and similar occurrences of the 'water and the 
plants ' beside ' Immortality and Welfare ' probably arose the later 
peculiar identification of those names with water and plants. 

9 Compare perhaps verse 20. 

4 Otherwise ; ' I will speak for Thee, O Lord ! for the (all)-wise 
one should speak.' 

B Or, ' from the two arawi ; ' see notes on Y. XXXI, 3 and Y. 
XLIII, 12. 

Digitized by 



I will announce by means of Thy flaming Fire; 
yea, I will declare it for the bestowal of that sword 
of justice which is forged from steel \ and wrought 
for both the worlds *. And for the wounding of the 
wicked (with its blade) may'st Thou 3 , O Ahura 
Mazda ! bless and prosper Thine (avenging) saint 4 ! 

10. (Yea, let Thy believer wound the wicked to 
the quick), for he, who totally estranged from this 
(our holy rule 6 ), O Mazda ! seeks to destroy my life, 
is a son 6 of the Lie's creation, and belongs to the 
miscreants ; (but as for me), I call on Asha (Thy 
Righteous Order to be my help) ; and may he come 
with Thy good blessing. 

ii. (And ye who throng the great assembly 7 , it is 
of you I speak while, with my lips, I now address 
the Lord) : Who, O Ahura ! is a loyal friend to the 
Spitama 8 , to Zarathustra? Who has asked his ques- 
tion of the divine Righteousness, (as he approached 9 ) ? 

1 Compare Y. XXXII, 7, foaSna ayangha (lit. iron). 

Others see the ordeal of fire here, and the bath of melted metal 
from which the righteous suffers nothing, but in which the sinner is 
consumed, but rashayanghe' seems to point to injury produced other- 
wise than by dipping, and dakhshta certainly designates a metallic 
instrument elsewhere ; ' sign ' is, however, the original meaning. 

2 So several times; comp. Y. XXVIII, 3, where the depth is 
unmistakable; see also Y. XXXI, 18 with ahubfcc in the next 

3 The Pahlavi while not strictly correct, affords the indication 
of a causative, surfineV. 

* From this verse probably arose the later association of khsha- 
thra-vairya and metal founding and forging. 

8 As invoking Asha is in the antithesis, I regard asha/ as 
understood here. Ga/ seems a particle, but also not im- 
possibly =ga/. As it is twice followed by tS (t6i), the interesting 
change is suggested to gatg, infin. 

6 Or a proper name. 7 See the third verse. 

8 See Y. XLVI, 9, 14. • See the fourth verse. 

Digitized by 


YASNA LI. 183 

By whom is the bounteous Piety (received and 
cherished) ? Or who has been regarded as upright 
and fitted for the great cause of Thy Good Mind ? 

1 2. (' Who is worthy ?' would I ask, for Zarathustra 
was ever such, and from earliest days. He was no 
polluted wretch.) Paederast never gained his ear, 
nor Kavi-follower on this (temptation-)bridge of 
earth, when his body was (maturely) grown, when 
they both hasten(ed) to him with the bosom's 1 impure 
power 2 . 

13. (And he will be likewise victorious on the 
veritable Judgment Bridge, for) the righteous man's 
conscience will truly 3 crush the wicked man's (spirit) 
while his soul rages * fiercely on the open Alnva/ 
Bridge", as he strives by his actions, and his tongue's 

1 Some other portion of the human body, suggested by the con- 
text, may be meant by aodarcr. The word looks like a verbal 
form, 3rd pi., but see the preceding dual. 

* I render the Pahlavi of this most difficult verse as follows : Far 
from satisfying me is the Kik, the paederast, in regard to both of 
the two particulars [food and clothing] on the path of winter ; (far 
from satisfying me) who am Zartusht, the SpiUiman, with whom he 
is; that is, (or 'where') he incites me with his incitation in my 
bodily (?) (sensations ; reading astak (?) ) ; [that is, a person comes, 
and thus also they, or he, would do it to me] ; and this one who (is 
doing) [that to us] is also leading us on, even in our progress in 
the cold [of a winter] of accustomed sin, (or in the cold iniquitous 
winter). This verse seems a very ancient interpolation. 

* Haithim is an adverb; its position also does not so much 
favour an accusative substantive. 

4 So our texts ; but the Pahlavi translator saw khraozhdaitt (see 
Y. XL VI, 11) in his MSS., rendering khruswno yehabund= utter 
cries : ' while his soul cries fiercely.' 

e The occurrence of peretau(io) in this verse sheds light upon the 
peretd in the previous one. Akau(So) seems to be an attracted form 
for a loc. as elsewhere. Perhaps it is miswritten. 

Digitized by 



(cursing speech) to reach 1 (and to pollute) Asha's 
paths (where the faithful souls come). 

14. (And as are those lost spirits, so are our foes.) 
No friends to the creatures 2 are the Karpans, "(not 
granting) complete (harvests) from the fields with 
complete (pasture) for the Kine (chief objects for our 
prayer), bringing woe a by their deeds and their 
teachings. And they 4 will deliver these (beings 5 
whom they lead) at the last (?) by their doctrine(s) 
in the Home of the Lie. 

15. But this is the reward which Zarathuxtra 
declared before (to his friends who counsel with 
Asha), and are fitted for the cause*; Ahura Mazda 
will come the first 7 into His Song Home, Garddfman, 

1 N3svmi(ao) would naturally mean 'reaching'; but the word is 
also elsewhere used in an evil sense, ' reaching to harm.' Y. LIII, 7. 
The Pahlavi, however, indicates the reading nasvau by its nasfnSnd. 
Does the Avesta show an original evil sense to nas=to reach? 
May the two nas possibly have some original connection? That 
hv&is jkyaothnau means here ' by means of rather than ' because 
of is the more probable from the same words in the next verse, 
and this notwithstanding Y. XXXI, 20. 

2 So general a term as 'creatures' should be avoided where 
possible ; but see ye ditha&byd ere* ratum khshayas ashavau ftsta' 
(verse 5). 

3 As to the grammatical structure, all depends on si»d&. Shall 
we bring down n6i/ from the verse above ; or shall we regard send! 
as in an evil sense from sad as in sadra ? The Pahlavi favours the 
former, as also in Y. XXXVIII, 5 (Sp. 15). The general result is 
not, however, affected. Read as alternative: No friends to the 
creatures are the Karpans as to perfect (harvests) from the fields, 
(not) blessing us in the matter of perfect (care and fodder) for the 
cattle, &c. ; (sad in the sense of blessing with n6i/). 

* Free. • Or, ' doctrines.' e See the eleventh verse. 

7 Alternatives would be, ' Ahura will meet these engagements (?) 
made when the reward was promised ;' or, ' the reward which 
Zarathuftra promised before Ahura came into Gar6</man.' Ac- 

Digitized by 


YASNA LI. 185 

and then these gifts will be given you by the Good 
Mind (within you), and with blessings for the cause 
of the Righteous Order (in His hosts). 

16. (And one of you, the greatest, has indeed 
attained to that wisdom which is thus blessed with a 
promise), Kavi Vtrtaspa has reached it in the Realm 
of our great cause (of devotion *), and moved in his 
toil by the chants of the Good Mind (who speaks in 
the Mathra 2 ); yea, he hath attained to that wisdom 
which the bountiful Ahura conceived in accordance 
with Asha, thus to teach us salvation. 

17. (And not alone amidst our princes hath 
sanctity been marked), Frashao^tra, the Hv6gva, hath 
presented a blest and an endeared form (his child 8 ) ; 
and may Ahura Mazda, who has the Sovereign Power, 
grant her (to us), who is so much to be beloved. And 
for the (progress of the) good Religion * do ye, O ye 
people ! receive her with desire *, and for the gaining 
of Asha ; (she will help the great cause). 

18. Yea, that (holy) wisdom, O Gamaspa the 
H vdgva 6 ! these (pious throngs) are choosing through 

cording to the general form of the Gathic sentence, kdist para 
go more naturally together than if the force of the pari was ex- 
tended to gasaJ. The coming of Ahura is elsewhere mentioned ; 
here He enters His audience-chamber before His approaching 

1 Maga may have some such cast of meaning. I have, moreover, 
more than once suspected that the origin of ' magian ' may, not- 
withstanding the m6ghu of the later Avesta, be simply this maga so 
often used in the Gathas to designate ' the cause.' 

* See verse 20. 

* So also the Pahlavi translator in his gloss ; aigham bartman 
pavan ne\rmanih bara yehabune^o. 

4 So also of Zarathuftra's daughter, Y. LIII, 4. 

5 Or, ' cry ye for the gaining of Asha,' as in Y. XXIX, 1. 

* Or, reading a nominative, ' Gamaspa is choosing,' which is itself 

Digitized by 


1 86 the gAthas. 

their Righteousness as the (true) splendours of riches 
(these pious men who are) gaining the kingdom where 
the Good Mind (doth govern). And grant me also, 
O Mazda ! that which these with glad wishes 1 receive 
from Thy grace 2 . 

19. (And this prayer is already and beforehand 
heard.) This established Sovereign Power the 
heroic (Kavi Vtetaspa has given), O Maidhyd-mih 
the Spitama. He who is wise through the Religion, 
and who seeks (the true) life, he is granting it to us s ; 
yea, he has pronounced the laws of Ahura our 
Maker, and declared that which is for (our) life's 
actions (beyond all other things) best. 

20. And, that gift of blessedness for you, all (the 
Bountiful Immortals) with one consent in sympathy 
to help us (are disposed 4 ) to grant ; (and may they 
likewise make) the Holy Order (firm) for us through 
the Good Mind (in our folk) ; and may they reveal 
to us the words with which Piety likewise (speaks 
her truths). And receiving sacrifice with homage 
(from our praises), may they seek 6 for us Ahura 
Mazda's grace. 

21. (Yea, this Kavi Vtetaspa) the man of Aramaiti 
is bounteous, and with understanding in his words 
and his actions. (And as a reward) may Ahura give 

well possible, as var is also conjugated with n ; but rap«i seems 
a plural, and vid6 likewise. 

1 I concede this shade of meaning to the indications of the 

' The Pahlavi gives us our first indication here. 

s If Gamispd (nom.) is read in verse 18, ahmSi might here refer 
to him ; ' to this one.' 

* Or, 'let them grant;' infinitive as imperative. 

• Seeking ; a dual is here disapproved by the source from which 
the suggestion originated. 

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him that Righteousness which is blest, (but) with the 
Religion (alone), and that Sovereign Power which is 
established through the Good Mind (in His folk). 
And this same blessing would I pray from His grace '. 
22. For Ahura Mazda knoweth the man whose 
best gift for the sacrifice is given unto me, and from 
the motive of Righteousness ; (and in thankfulness 
for all, and in prayer for yet still further grace), I will 
worship (the eternal ones) ; yea, I will worship those 
who have ever lived, and who still live, and by their 
own (holy) names, and to their (thrones' 2 ) will I draw 
near with my praise ! 



This Gatha, named from its first words, consists of 
chapter LIII of the Yasna. While its matter is homogeneous 
with that of the other Gathas, it bears some evidence of 
having been composed in the latter portion of Zarathurtra's 
life. It is, as usual, separated from the other Gathas by its 
metre, which shows four lines with two half lines. The first 
two have eleven or twelve syllables ; the third seems to 
have fourteen plus a half line with five, so also the last. Irre- 
gularities seem frequent. The composition has for its sub- 
stance a marriage song, but one of a politically religious 

The piece a-airytfiia-ishyd, Y. LIV, 1, has been considered by 
some as susceptible of a similar metrical arrangement, and it cer- 
tainly looks as if it originally belonged to Y. LIII. It is, however, 

1 I refer Urn to Ahura, supposing it to stand; reading tarn, 
I would refer it to ashi. 
1 Compare Vend. XIX, 31. 

Digitized by 


1 88 the gAthas. 

otherwise divided by Bartholomae (see Arische Forschungen, 2*** 
heft, s. 23). From the past form of sravi, some have thought that 
Zarathiutra was no longer living when this hymn was composed, 
but the word may only mean ' (his prayer) has been, or is heard.' 
If we must, however, render ' was heard,' this does not determine 
the certainty of Zarathu^tra's death. The expression ZaratrmrtrLr 
Spitamd also gives the impression that some heir to Zaratmutra's 
office and prestige existed, but even this is not decisive, for a future 
successor may be for a time a contemporary, while, on the contrary, 
the nuptials of Zarathuxtra's daughter, with the mention of his name, 
and the reference to her 'father' as the one from whom her bride- 
groom obtained her, indicate that Zarathurtra may well have been 
still living. The later forms Zarathortrahe' and fedhrd remain as 
the indications of a later origin than the actual period of Zara- 
thartra's lifetime ; but these circumstances may be owing to 
accidental causes. 

The style has freshness and vigour throughout, and would indi- 
cate Zarathurtrian influence, if not authorship. That Zarathortra 
does not speak in the first person, has no importance whatever in 
the question. The piece is not of course a whole ; but it may well 
be a whole out of which parts have fallen. That the subject passes 
on to the old polemical vehemence in the last verses, is far from 
unnatural. The marriage festival of Zarathurtra's child must 
have been, if without intention, a semi-political occasion, and 
the bard would express himself, as naturally, with regard to the 
struggle which was still going on. This latter fact also shows an 
early date ; the passages referring to the struggle are strongly 
kindred with some in Y. XL VI, and elsewhere. 

Verses 1 and 2 form an admirable introduction; the transition 
to the marriage occasion was, however, contained in lost verses. 
Verses 3, 4, and 5 hang well together ; and 6 and 7 are not at all 
remote from them ; the warlike close, although far from surprising 
us, must have been introduced by one or more now missing 

1. As the object of the 'great cause,' next to the preservation of 
its adherents, was the extension of its influence, first over hesitating 
parties (Y. XLIV, 12), and then over all the living (Y. XXXI, 3), 
it is not surprising that the central prayer of Zarathurtra should 
have culminated in a desire for the conversion of opponents. Even 
Turanians had been known to come over to the holy creed, and 
help prosper the settlements which their kith had so often plun- 
dered (Y. XLVI, 12); he had therefore prayed that those who 

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had heretofore injured the holy Daina might become its disciples 
by a genuine conversion. 2. Having observed the fidelity of con- 
verts and original disciples, the king and his chief nobles would 
celebrate their devotion by hymns, ceremonies, and sacrifices, as 
the symbols of every moral virtue, laying down for the people the 
moral law of the Saviour. 3. As it would be pushing rather far to 
suppose the Saoshyawt to be referred to in tnn^a, and as moreover, 
according to Geldner's admirable suggestion, that title may here 
well refer to Zarathuxtra, it is better to accept a loss of verses, and 
to suppose a person alluded to as the bridegroom, who, if not one 
so eminent as to merit the imposing name of Saoshyant, was still 
at least one of his more prominent satellites, for the ancient poet 
goes on to address a daughter of Zarathurtra as a bride. She is 
the youngest, and her name is as pious as that of a maid of ancient 
Israel, for she is called 'full of the religious knowledge.' Her 
husband is to be a support in holiness, and she is to take counsel 
with piety. 4. Her response is appropriate ; she will vie with her 
husband in every sacred affection, as well as in every domestic 
virtue. 5. The priestly thaliarch then addresses the bridesmaids 
and the pair with suitable admonitions to piety and affection. 
6. Turning now to the assembly, possibly after the recital of some 
stanzas long since vanished, he proceeds with warnings and en- 
couragements. He will exorcise the Demon who was especially 
the slave of the DaSvas ; but he warns all men and women against 
the evil Vayu, the spirit of the air. 7. Charitably concluding that 
they would come forth as conquerors from the trials which still 
awaited them, he next warns them against all solicitations to vice. 
8. Having named profane Demons, his polemical zeal becomes 
fully inflamed. Anticipating with fierce delight the sufferings of the 
wicked, he calls vehemently for the champion, who may, in alliance 
with neighbouring potentates, deliver up the murderous false-leader, 
giving peace to the masses; and he entreats that all haste may be 
used. 9. To arouse the great chiefs to their duty, he recalls (as in 
Y. XXXII) the successes of the foe ; and he calls for the prince 
who may overthrow and expel him, but, as if well aware that the 
human arm could not alone bring salvation, he attributes to Ahura 
the Sovereign Power, which alone can guard helpless innocence 
against lawless plunder and oppression. 

Digitized by 




i . That best prayer has been answered ' , the prayer 
of Zarathiutra Spitama, that Ahura Mazda might 2 
grant him those boons, (the most wished-for) which 
flow from the good Order, even a life that is pros- 
pered 3 for eternal duration, and also those who 
deceived 4 him (may He likewise thus grant him) as 
the good Faith's disciples in word and in deed 6 . 

2. And may Kavi Vtotaspa, and the Zarathu-rtrian 
Spitama ', and Frashaostra too with them, offer pro- 
pitiation to Mazda in thought, word, and deed, and 

1 Some lay stress upon the literal form ' was heard,' and regard 
the expression as indicating the fact that Zarathurtra was no longer 
living (see the remarks in the summary). 

2 Free. 

• I follow the Pahlavi with all ; it has hu-ahumarf. 

4 I follow the friftir of the Pahlavi, as the conversion of those 
formerly hostile is suggested by vauraya and Fryana, not to speak 
of the primary rendering of duferethrtj likhshnushd. The 
Pahlavi also has, ' even he who is the deceiver is to be instructed 
in the word and deed of the good religion.' The MSS. should 
not hastily be abandoned. 

6 That more than a ritualistic sanctity is meant is certain (see 
Y. XXX, 3) ; but that no sanctity could be recognised apart from 
worship is equally undeniable. 

" Who was the Zarathujtrian Spitama ? Some change the text 
after the Pahlavi translator, reading Zarathustra Spitama; but I 
would not follow this evil example in a first translation of a 
translatable text. Why should a Spitama, who was not Zarathustra, 
be called Zarathurtrian ? Were some of the Spitamas not in 
sympathy with their great kinsman, Spitamas who were Mazda- 
yasnians, but not ' of Zarathurtra's order ? ' One would however 
suppose that some one of Zarathurtra's family was meant who 
occupied the position of his especial representative and natural 

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Yasna confessions 1 as they render Him praise, 
making straight paths 2 (for our going), even that 
Faith of the Saoshyawt which Ahura will found s . 

(The master of the feast.) 

3 *. And him will they give Thee, O Pouru&sta, 
Ha6£a/-aspid and Spitami ! young B (as thou art) of 
the daughters of Zarathurtra, him will they* give 
thee as a help in the Good Mind's true service, 
of Asha's and Mazda's, as a chief and a guardian 7 . 
Counsel well then (together 8 ), with the mind of 
Armaiti, most bounteous and pious ; and act with 
just action. 

(She answers.) 

4. I will love 9 and vie with him, since from (my) 
father 10 he gained (me). For the master and toilers, 
and for the lord-kinsman (be) the Good Mind's bright 

1 Free. 

• Recall the 'path made for the Kine,' and 'the way' which 
' Thou declarest to be that of the Good Mind.' 

• That is, will permanently found, establish. 

4 Verses have here fallen out, as some allusion must have been 
made to the bridegroom. 

6 So more according to the hint of the Pahlavi and the statement 
of the Bundahij; West, XXXII, 5. So Geldner, K. Z. 28, 195. 

• Or, ' will he, the Saoshyawt, the bride's father.' 

7 A chieftain, a protecting head. 

• It is, perhaps, safer to refer this ' questioning ' to the pair ; but 
forms of ham with pares are also used of consultations with the 
Deity (see Y. XXXIII, 6). Y. XLIV, 13 nearly necessitates the 
wider and less concrete view here. 

• VarSnf looks somewhat like a gloss, but the metre seems to 
demand it. 

10 Her father's sanction was a reason for devotion to the man 
to whom he had given her. 

Digitized by 



blessing 1 , the pure for the pure ones, and to me 
(be 2 ) the insight (which I gain from his counsel 8 ). 
Mazda grant it, Ahura for good conscience for ever. 

(The priestly master of the feast.) 

5. Monitions for the marrying I speak to (you) 
maidens, to you, I who know them; and heed ye 
my (sayings) : By these 4 laws of the Faith which I 
utter obtain ye the life of the Good Mind (on earth 
and in heaven). (And to you, bride and bridegroom 5 ), 
let each one the other in Righteousness cherish ; thus 
alone unto each shall the home-life be happy. 

6. [Thus real are these things, ye men and ye 
women 6 !] from the Lie-demon protecting, I guard 
o'er my (faithful), and so (I) grant progress (in weal 
and in goodness). And the hate of the Lie (with the 
hate of her) bondsmen (?) I pray from the body, 
(and so would expel it'). For to those who bear 
Vayu 8 , (and bring him to power), his shame 9 mars 
the glory. To these evil truth-harmers by these 
means he reaches. Ye thus slay the life mental (if 
ye follow his courses 10 ). 

1 The Pahlavi translator has sirfh here. 

1 Be/=b&d lies certainly nearer than b<e/=bava/. 

8 See the previous verse. * Or, ' being zealous.' 

8 These words do not seem adapted to the bridesmaids. 

* <?aini is elsewhere used in an evil sense. 

7 I can only render thus literally: From the Dru^ as a 
generous guide (I) who (compare ye in Y. XXVIII) (for) mine, (me) 
a watching guardian (I guide as a rdthema ; nom. sing, with verbal 
force) increasing prosperity, i.e. progress, of the Drbg I pray 
(forth*; I exorcise) of the bond(?) (of the Dr%) the malicious 
injuries* from the body or person. * y§s§-par5. * to 3rd pi. 

8 ' If ye bear, or promote, the interests of Vayu.' 

• Or, 'evil food.' 

10 Some line here is gloss ; the first thought would be to eliminate 

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7. But yours be the recompense, (O ye righteous 
women !) of this great cause. For while lustful desire 
heart-inflamed from the body 1 there beyond goeth 
down where the spirit of evil reaches (to ruin, still) 
ye bring forth the champion 2 to help on the cause, 
(and thus conquer temptation). So your last word is 
' Vayu ' ; (ye cry it in triumph 3 ). 

8. And thus let the sinners by these means be 
foiled * ; and consumed 5 be they likewise. Let them 
shriek in their anger. With good kings let (our 
champion 6 ) deliver 7 the smiter 8 (as a captive in 

the difficult second line ; but the third line might be an effort (by 
the poet himself, or an associate, see the metrical form) to explain, 
or relieve, the awkward second line. Reading ymiS and rathemS, 
and taking ^enayd as in an evil sense, with spasutha as a second 
plural, we might render as a question: 'Do ye, O ye twain, 
ye helpers of the Dru^; do ye regard promotion (as thus to be 
gained) ? ' But in that case verses 6 and 7 should be regarded as 
separated by many lost verses from the fifth verse. But is not the 
first line the gloss ? It is merely an address. 

1 Free. * Lit. ' the greatness.' 

* The difficulty here lies in the first line which seems to declare 
a reward in a good sense. Mizdem is hardly used of retribution. 
It must therefore be taken in a good sense. The following evil 
results must be supposed to have been avoided ; and ' Vayu ' to be 
uttered in triumph. Vayu is used in an evil sense in verse 6. 

If mtedem could be supposed to express retribution, then evil 
men and women would be threatened, and Vayu would be a cry 
uttered in woe. As to Vayu with his two natures, see part ii as 
per index. 

4 The foiling of the evil here recalls idebaomd. 

8 The Pahlavi translator seems to me too free in rendering 
zaJivy^ka. (zahya&i), zanun-hdmand. It also makes a curious 
imitation of letters in gih va mar for ^«iaram. It is of course far 
from certain that he had our present text. 

' See verse 9 ; also Y. XLVI, 4. 

T Recall the delivering of the evil into the two hands of Asha 
(Y. XXX, 8, and Y. XLIV, 14). 

' Khruneram&i must be a gloss. 

[31] O 

Digitized by 


194 the gAthas. 

battle), giving peace to our dwellings, and peace to 
our hamlets. Let him charge 1 those deceivers, 
chaining death as the strongest 2 ; and swift be (the 

9. Through false believers the tormentor makes 
Thy helpers s refusers 4 ; (those who once helped our 
heroes shall no longer give succour). The estranged 
thus desires, and the reprobate 6 wills it, with the will 
that he harbours to conquer our honour 6 . Where is 
then the Lord righteous who will smite them from 
life 7 , and (beguile) them of license ? Mazda ! 
Thine is that power, (which will banish and conquer). 
And Thine is the Kingdom 8 ; and by it Thou 
bestowest the highest (of blessings) on the right- 
living poor 9 ! 

1 'Let him "rout" or "stir" them.' 

* Comp. mazixta=the strongest in Y. XLIX, 1, 'the prevailer.' 
Lit. ' with the chaining of death the greatest.' 

' For narplr I can only suggest the suspiciously simple nar= 
hero (comp. the frequent na) and pf= nourish, support. The 
Pahlavi translator seems likewise to have had some such rendering 
in mind, for he translates dast6bar. 

4 As to rigis, the Pahlavi translation, which is here more than 
usually difficult, hints in the direction above followed, by a word 
which I would restore as re^fnSnd. 

5 The Pahlavi translator erroneously sees ' bridge ' in pesh6, or 
is free with his tan&puhark&no hdmand. See Geldner, Stud. 3. 

• See Geldner, Stud. 54. 7 See Y. XLVI, 4. 

8 Comp. the Ahuna-vairya which takes its last line from this 
place, and Y. XXXIV, 5. Vahyd is a variation for vangh<ruj vahyd. 

' Here I have endeavoured to imitate the swing of the rhythm 
by breaking up the sentences, especially in the second line. 
Literally it would be, ' with the desire, with the virtue-conquering 
(desire) of the reprobate.' Such freedom as the above is often 
a critical necessity in the attempts to reproduce the warmth of the 

Digitized by 



It is now hardly necessary to say that the Yasna is 
the chief liturgy of the Zarathiutrians, in which confession, 
invocation, prayer, exhortation, and praise are all combined 
as in other liturgies. Like other compositions of the kind, 
it is made up of more or less mutually adapted fragments 
of different ages, and modes of composition. The Gathas 
are sung in the middle of it, and in the Vendidad Sadah, 
the Visparad is interpolated within it for the most part at 
the ends of chapters. 

We have no reason to suppose that the Yasna existed in 
its present form in the earlier periods of Zarathurtrianism, 
but we have also no reason to doubt that its present 
arrangement is, as regards us, very ancient. The word 
Yasna means worship including sacrifice. Introductory 
excerpts occur in several MSS., and are now printed by 
Geldner. They are to be found in Y. I, 33 ; Y. Ill, 25 ; 
Y.XL17, 18; Y.XXII,23-37; Y. XXVII, 13, 14; Ny.I.a. 


The Sacrifice Commences. 

1. I announce 1 and I (will) complete (my Yasna) 
to Ahura Mazda, the Creator, the radiant and glo- 
rious, the greatest and the best, the most beautiful (?) 
(to our conceptions), the most firm, the wisest, and 
the one of all whose body 8 is the most perfect, who 

1 Or, ' I invite ; ' but the word seems equal to avaSdhaySma ; 
compare the Vedic vid + ni. Comp. also nt tfi vaSdhayfimi and nt 
v6 va&dhaySmi in Y. I, 21, 22. The Pahlavi favours 'I invite.' 

* Not that Ahura was conceived of as having a body proper. 
The stars are elsewhere poetically described as his body, as other 

O 2 

Digitized by 



attains His ends the most infallibly, because of His 
Righteous Order, to Him who disposes our minds 
aright 1 , who sends His joy-creating grace afar; 
who made us, and has fashioned us, and who has 
nourished and protected us 2 , who is the most 
bounteous Spirit 3 ! 

2. I announce and I (will) complete (my Yasna) to 
the Good Mind, and to Righteousness the Best, and 
to the Sovereignty which is to be desired, and to Piety 
the Bountiful, and to the two, the Universal Weal 
and Immortality, to the body of the Kine, and to 
the Kine's Soul, and to the Fire of Ahura Mazda, 
that one who more than 4 (all) the Bountiful Immor- 
tals has made most effort (for our succour) ! 

3. And I announce and I (will) complete (my 
Yasna) to the Asnya, the day-lords of the ritual 
order, to Havani the holy, the lord 6 of the ritual 
order; and I celebrate, and I (will) complete (my 
Yasna) to Sivanghi and to Vlsya, the holy lord(s) 
of the ritual order. And I announce and (will) com- 
plete (my Yasna) to Mithra of the wide pastures, of 
the thousand ears, and of the myriad eyes, the Yazad 
of the spoken 8 name, and to Riman /foastra. 

divinities are said to be tanu-mSthra, having the MSthra as their 
body ; that is, incarnate in the MSthra. 
1 ' Disposing aright as to mind.' 

* Pahlavi parvan/. 

' Elsewhere the Spe«ta Mainyu is spoken of as His possession. 

4 The Fire seems almost spoken of as one of the Amesha 

8 Lords of the ritual because ruling as chief at the time of their 
mention, and in this sense regarded as genii protecting all ritual 
seasons and times of their class. Vfsya presides over the Vis; 
Sivanghi, over cattle. 

• Having an especial Yaxt. 

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4. I announce and (will) complete (my Yasna) to 
Rapithwina, the holy lord of the ritual order, and to 
Frada/fshu, and to Za»tuma, the holy lord(s) of the 
ritual order; and I celebrate and complete (my Yasna) 
to Righteousness 1 the Best, and to Ahura Mazda's 
Fire \ 

5. I announce and complete (my Yasna) to 
Uzayeirina the holy lord of the ritual order, and 
to Frada/-v!ra and to Da^z/yuma *, the holy lord(s) 
of the ritual order, and to that lofty Ahura Napa/- 
ap&m (the son of waters), and to the waters which 
Ahura Mazda 8 made. 

6. I announce and complete (my Yasna) to Aiwisru- 
thrima (and) Aibigaya 4 , the holy lord(s) of the ritual 
order, and to Zarathurtrdtema, and to him who pos- 
sesses and who gives that prosperity in life which 
furthers all. And I celebrate and complete (my 
Yasna) to the Fravashis of the saints, and to those 
of the women who have many sons 6 , and to a pros- 
perous home-life which continues without reverse 
throughout the year, and to that Might which is well- 
shaped and stately 6 , which strikes victoriously, Ahura- 
made, and to that Victorious Ascendency (which it 

7. I announce and I complete (my Yasna) to 
Ushahina, the holy lord of the ritual order, and to 
Bere^ya (and) Nmanya, the holy lord(s) of the ritual 
order, and to Sraosha (who is Obedience) the blessed, 
endowed with blessed recompense (as a thing com- 

1 Constantly associated together in the later Avesta. 

* Az»=h before y. 

* As opposed to those which might belong to Angra Mainyu. 
4 Or, ' who furthers life.' • ' Men and herds? ' 

* 'Well-grown.' 

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198 YASNA I. 

pleted 1 ), who smites with victory, and furthers the 
settlements, and to Rashnu 2 , the most just, and to 
Ami/ s , who advances the settlements, and causes 
them to increase. 

8. And I announce and I complete (my Yasna) to 
the Mahya, the monthly festivals, lords of the ritual 
order, to the new and the later * moon, the holy lord 
of the ritual order, and to the full moon which scatters 

9. And I announce and complete (my Yasna). to 
the Yairya, yearly feasts, the holy lords of the ritual 
order. I celebrate and complete (my Yasna) to 
Maidyd-zaremya 6 , the holy lord of the ritual order, 
and to Maidy6-shema, the holy lord of the ritual 
order, and to PaitLmahya, and to Ayathrima the 
advancer, and the spender of the strength of males *, 
the holy lord of the ritual order, and to Maidhyairya, 
the holy lord of the ritual order, and to Hamaspath- 
ma£dhaya, the holy lord of the ritual order ; yea, I 
celebrate and complete my Yasna to the seasons, 
lords of the ritual order. 

10. And I announce and complete (my Yasna) to 
all those who are the thirty and three 7 lords of the 
ritual order, which, coming the nearest, are around 
about Havani, and which (as in their festivals) were 

1 I should say that the suffix has this force here as in close con- 
nection with ashyd. 

* Genius of rectitude. * Rectitude in another form. 
4 Literally, ' to the moon within,' showing little light. 

• See the Afrinagan. • The rutting season. 

7 Haug first called attention to the striking coincidence with the 
Indian. In the Aitareya and .Satapatha Brahma»as, in the Atharva- 
veda, and in the RSmayawa, the gods are brought up to the number 
thirty-three. The names differ somewhat however. (See Essays, 
ed. West, 2nd edition, p. 276; see also Hv. 240,9; 250, 2.) 

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inculcated by Ahura Mazda, and were promulgated 
by Zarathustra, as the lords of Asha Vahuta, who is 
Righteousness the Best. 

11. And I announce and complete (my Yasna) to 
the two, to Ahura * and to Mithra, the lofty, and the 
everlasting, and the holy, and to all the stars which 
are Spewta Mainyu's creatures, and to the star 
Tistrya, the resplendent and glorious, and to the 
Moon which contains the seed of the Kine, and to 
the resplendent Sun, him of the rapid steeds, the eye 2 
of Ahura Mazda, and to Mithra the province-ruler. 
And I celebrate and complete my Yasna to Ahura 
Mazda (once again, and as to him who rules the 
month 3 ), the radiant, the glorious, and to the 
Fravashis * of the saints. 

12. And I announce and complete my Yasna to 
thee, the Fire, O Ahura Mazda's son! together with 
all the fires, and to the good waters, even to all the 
waters made by Mazda, and to all the plants which 
Mazda made. 

1 3. And I announce and complete (my Yasna) to 
the Bounteous Mathra, the holy and effective, the 
revelation given against the Daevas*; the Zarathuy- 

1 The star Jupiler has been called Ormuzd by the Persians and 
Armenians, and it may be intended here, as stars are next men- 
tioned, but who can fail to be struck with the resemblance to the 
Mitra-Varu«a of the i?i'g-veda. Possibly both ideas were present 
to the composer. 

a Recall A'akshur Mitrasya Vanwasya AgneA. 

3 The first day of the month is called Ahura Mazda. 

4 The first month is called Fravashi. These are put for the par- 
ticular day of celebration. 

8 This was the Vendidid, the name being a contraction of 
vtdaSva-data. It will not be forgotten that the Vendldad, although 
later put together, contains old Aryan myths which antedate 

Digitized by 


200 YASNA I. 

trian revelation, and to the long descent 1 of the good 
Mazdayasnian Faith. 

14. And I announce and complete (my Yasna) to 
the mountain Ushi-darena 2 , the Mazda-made, with its 
sacred brilliance, and to all the mountains glorious 
with sanctity 3 , with their abundant Glory Mazda- 
made, and to that majestic Glory Mazda-made, the 
unconsumed 4 Glory which Mazda made. And I 
announce and complete (my Yasna) to Ashi the 
good, the blessedness (of the reward), and to Alsti, 
the good religious Knowledge, to the good Eretlw 
(Rectitude 4 ?), and to the good Rasasti^ (persisting 
zeal • ?), and to the Glory and the Benefit which are 

1 5. And I announce and complete (my Yasna) to 
the pious and good Blessing of the religious man 7 , 
the holy, and to the curse of wisdom, the swift and 
redoubted Yazad of potency (to blight). 

16. And I announce and complete (my Yasna) to 
these places and these lands, and to these pastures, 
and these abodes with their springs of water (?) 8 , and 

Zarathurtra, although in its present greatly later form, Zarathurtra 
is a demi-god in it, and his name is involved in myth. 
1 ' The long tradition ; ' so Spiegel. 

* From this mountain the Iranian kings were later supposed to 
have descended ; hence the mention of the ' glory.' 

* Observe the impossibility of the meaning ' comfort,' or mere 
' well-being ' here. 

4 Or possibly 'the unseized,' the Pahlavi agrift(?); Ner. agr»Mt&»; 
Awar, to eat, may have meant ' seize ' originally. 
8 Ereth* (ri'ti ?) seems without inflection. 
' The state of activity (?). 
7 Shall we say, ' of the departed saint ' here ? 

* The Pahlavi with its afkhvar points here perhaps to a better 
text Recall awzhdatennia, awzhdaunghd, awrem. 

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YASNA I. 20 1 

to the waters, land, and plants, and to this earth and to 
yon heaven, and to the holy wind, and to the stars, 
moon, and sun, and to the eternal stars without 
beginning 1 , and self-disposing 2 , and to all the holy 
creatures of Spe»ta-Mainyu, male and female, the 
regulators of the ritual order. 

17. And I announce and complete (my Yasna) to 
that lofty lord who is the ritual Righteousness 8 (itself), 
and to the lords of the days in their duration, and of 
the days during daylight, to the moons, the years, 
and the seasons which are lords of the ritual order at 
the time of Havani 4 . 

18. And I announce and complete (my Yasna) to 
the Fravashis of the saints, the redoubted, which 
overwhelm (the evil), to those of the saints of the 
ancient lore, to those of the next of kin, and to 
the Fravashi of (mine) own 6 soul ! 

19. And I announce and complete (my Yasna) to 
all the lords of the ritual order, and to all the Yazads, 
the beneficent, who dispose (of all) aright, to those 
both heavenly and earthly, who are (meet) for our 
sacrifice and homage because of Asha VahLrta, (of the 
ritual Order which is ' the best % 

20. O (thou) Havani, holy lord of the ritual order, 
and Savanghi, Rapithwina, and Uzayeirina, and 
Aiwisruthrima, (and) Aibigaya, (thou that aidest 

1 Meaning ' without beginning to their course,' and so ' fixed ' (?). 

a Self-determining, not satellites, having the laws of their own 
motion in themselves. 

8 The divine Order par eminence, expressed in the ritual and 
the faith. 

4 Not ' to the chief of Havani,' possibly ' in the lordship,' the 
time when it is especially the object of worship. Thus each object 
of worship becomes in its turn a ' lord or chief of ' the ritual order.' 

* The soul of the celebrant or his client is intended. 

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202 YASNA I. 

life !) if I have offended you, and thou, O Ushahina, 
holy lord of the ritual order ! 

21. If I have offended thee 1 , whether by thought, 
or word, or deed, whether by act of will, or without 
intent or wish, I earnestly make up the deficiency of 
this in praise to thee. If I have caused decrease 2 
in that which is Thy Yasna, and Thy homage, I 
announce (and celebrate 3 ) to thee (the more for 
this) ! 

22. Yea, all ye lords, the greatest ones, holy lords 
of the ritual order, if I have offended you by thought, 
or word, or deed, whether with my will, or without 
intending error 4 , I praise you (now the more) for 
this. I announce to you (the more) if I have caused 
decrease in this which is your Yasna, and your praise. 

23. I would confess myself a Mazda-worshipper, of 
Zarathurtra's order, a foe to the Daevas, devoted to 
the lore of the Lord, for Havani, the holy lord of the 
ritual order, for (his) sacrifice, homage, propitiation, 
and praise, for Savanghi, and for Vlsya, the holy lord 
of the ritual order, for (his) sacrifice, homage, pro- 
pitiation and praise, and for the sacrifice, homage, 
propitiation and praise of the lords of the days in 
their duration, and of the days during daylight, for 

1 Compare J?v. VII, 86, 3-6. 

a Practised, or induced neglect, or omitted portions of it. 

8 * I invite for Thee ' (?). 

* That the thought, word, and deed here were more than the mere 
semi-mechanical use of faculties in reciting the liturgy, is clear. 
At the same time all morality was supposed to be represented in 
the liturgy. The evil man would offend in thought, word, and deed, 
if he recited it carelessly, or with bad conscience, and as guilty of 
any known and unrepented sins. The moral and ceremonial laws 
went hand in hand. 

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YASNA II. 203 

those of the monthly festivals, and for those of the 
yearly ones, and for those of the seasons ! 

The Sacrifice continues. 

1. I desire to approach 1 the Zaothras 2 with my 
worship. I desire to approach the Baresman with 
my worship. I desire to approach the Zaothra con- 
jointly with the Baresman in my worship, and the 
Baresman conjointly with the Zaothra. Yea, I desire 
to approach this Zaothra (here), and with this (present) 
Baresman, and I desire to approach this Baresman 
conjoined with this Zaothra with my praise 3 ; and I 
desire to approach this Baresman with praise pro- 
vided with its Zaothra with its girdle, and spread with 

2. And in this Zaothra 3 and the Baresman I desire 
to approach Ahura Mazda with my praise, the holy 

1 Referring y£s to its more original sense. Or read, ' I desire 
the approach of the various objects of worship, which may be 
correct, as we understand the genius of each several object to be 
invoked. Aside from this, a desire 'to approach' seems quite 
necessary to fill out the sense here. Many of the objects referred 
to were already present, although some, like 'the mountains,' 
needed to be spiritually approached, or indeed invoked. 

* Zaothra seems to me hardly a vocative here. If declined as 
other nouns, it would seem to be exceptionally a masculine ; com- 
pare ahmya zaothre" below. I should feel constrained to regard 
it here as a masc. plural accusative (comp. haoma). 

* If zaothre' is not a loc. masc. it may be used with the loc. masc. 
pronoun irregularly. It would then equal Zaothraya. The letter 
X) is often simply the Pahlavi k> a little lengthened and equivalent 
to ya (aya). » does not merely stand for ya (aya), but it is some- 
times the correct writing for those letters. (Useless repetitions are 

Digitized by 


204 YASNA II. 

lord of the ritual order, and the Bountiful Immortals, 
(all) those who rule aright, and who dispose of all 
aright, these also I desire to approach and with my 

3. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire 
to approach the Asnya with my praise. I desire to 
approach the Hivani with my praise, the holy lord of 
the ritual order, and Savanghi and Vlsya.the holy lords 
of the ritual order. And in this Zaothra with this 
Baresman I desire to approach Mithra with my praise, 
of the wide pastures, of the thousand ears, and of the 
myriad eyes, the Yazad of the spoken name, and Raman 
/foastra with him, the holy lord of the ritual order. 

4. And in this Zaothra and with the Baresman I 
desire to approach Rapithwina with my praise, the 
holy lord of the ritual order ; and Frada/-fshu and 
Za«tuma, the holy lords of the ritual order ; and in 
this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire to approach 
toward Righteousness the Best with my praise, and 
with him the Fire, Ahura Mazda's son. 

5. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire 
to approach Uzay&rina with my praise, and Frada/- 
vira and Da^yyuma ', the holy lords of the ritual 
order ; and with them that lofty lord, the kingly and 
brilliant Apam-napa/ 2 , of the fleet horses, and likewise 
the water Mazda-made and holy, 

6. And Aiwisruthrima, (and) Aibigaya, the holy 
lord(s) of the ritual order, and FradaZ-vlspam-huftiti, 
and Zarathuitr6tema, the holy lord, and the good, 
heroic, and bountiful Fravashis of the saints, and the 
women who have many sons, and a peaceful and 
prosperous home-life that continues without reverse 
throughout the year, and Force well-shaped and 

1 hv=h before y. * Sometimes Napa/-apam. 

Digitized by VJ OOQ IC 

YASNA II. 205 

stately, and the Victorious-blow Ahura-given, and the 
Victorious Ascendency (which it secures), and (7) 
Ushahina, the holy lord of the ritual order, Bere/ya 
and Nmanya, the holy lords of the ritual order, and 
Sraosha, Obedience, the blessed and the stately, 
who smites with the blow of victory, furthering the 
settlements, the holy lord of the ritual order, and 
Rashnu, the most just, and Arst&t, who furthers the 
settlements, and causes them to increase. 

8. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire 
to approach the Mahya, the monthly festivals with my 
praise, the new moon and the waning moon (the moon 
within), the holy lords of the ritual order, and the 
full moon which scatters night, (9) and the Yearly 
festivals, Maidhyd-zaremaya, the holy lord of the 
ritual order, and Maidhyd-shema, and Paitishahya, 
and Ayathrima, .the promoter, who spends the 
strength of males, and Maidhyairya and Hamas- 
pathma&dhaya, and the seasons, the holy lords of the 
ritual order. 

10. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire 
to approach all the lords of the ritual order with my 
praise, the three and thirty who come the nearest 
round about our Havanis, who are those lords (and 
seasons) of Righteousness the Best, which were incul- 
cated by Mazda, and spoken forth by Zarathurtra. 

11. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I 
desire to approach Ahura and Mithra with my praise, 
the lofty, eternal, and the holy two ; and I desire to 
approach the stars, moon, and sun with the Baresman 
plants, and with my praise, and with them Mithra the 
governor of all the provinces, and Ahura Mazda 
the radiant and glorious, and the good, heroic, boun- 
tiful Fravashis of the saints, (12) and thee, the Fire, 

Digitized by 


206 YASNA II. 

Ahura Mazda's son, the holy lord of the ritual order, 
with all the fires ! And I desire to approach the 
good waters in this Zaothra with this Baresman with 
my praise, all best waters, Mazda-made and holy, 
and all the plants which are Mazda-made and holy. 

1 3. And I desire to approach the bounteous Mathra 
in this Zaothra with this Baresman, and with my 
praise, the most glorious as it is, and with it the law 
instituted against the Da&vas; yea, I desire to 
approach the Zarathurtrian law with my praise, and 
(with it) its long descent, and the good Mazdayasnian 
Religion (as complete). 

14. And I desire to approach Mount Ushi-darena in 
this Zaothra, with this Baresman with my praise, 
Mazda-made, and glorious with sanctity, the Yazad- 
(mount). And I desire to approach all the mountains 
with my praise, glorious with sanctity as they are, 
and with abundant glory, Mazda-made, and holy lords 
of the ritual order; and I desire to approach the 
mighty kingly Glory Mazda-made and unconsumed ; 
yea, (even) the mighty unconsumed Glory Mazda- 
made. And I desire to approach Ashi Vanguhi (the 
good blessedness) in my praise, the brilliant, lofty, 
powerful, and stately, saving by inherent power. Yea, 
I desire to approach the Glory Mazda-made with my 
praise ; and I desire to approach the Benefit conferred 
by Mazda. 

15. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I 
desire to approach the Blessing, pious and good, and 
the pious and holy man who utters it, and the mighty 
and redoubted Curse of the wise, the Yazad. 

16. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I 
desire to approach these waters with my praise, and 
these lands and plants, and these places, districts, 

Digitized by 



and pastures, and these dwellings with their springs 
of water \ and this land-ruler, who is Ahura Mazda. 

1 7. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I de- 
sire to approach all the greatest lords with my praise, 
the day-lords, and the month-lords, those of the years, 
and of the seasons, and the good, heroic, bountiful 
Fravashis of the saints. 

18. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I 
desire to approach all the holy Yazads with my 
praise ; yea, even all the lords of the ritual order, 
Havani at his time, and Savanghi at his time, and 
all the greatest lords of the ritual at their proper 


The Yasna advances to the Naming of the 
Objects of Propitiation. 

1. With a Baresman brought to its appointed place 
accompanied with the Zaothra at the time of Havani, 
I desire to approach the Myazda-offering with my 
praise, as it is consumed, and likewise Ameretata/ 2 
(as the guardian of plants and wood) and Haurvata7 
(who guards the water), with the (fresh) meat 8 , for the 
propitiation of Ahura Mazda, and of the Bountiful 

1 See note on Y. I, 16. 

* Spiegel has observed with truth that Ameretati/ and HaurvataV 
may represent severally all the fruits and the liquids offered. 

* The modern Parsis, Haug following, render 'butter'; but 
Spiegel is inclined to discredit this later tradition, holding that 
'flesh' was originally intended; but on its becoming disused in 
India, milk was substituted, hence the error. 

Gaur hudhau, in its primary sense, meant of course ' the Kine 
of blessed endowment.' (Repetitions are again curtailed.) 

Digitized by 


208 . . YASNA III. 

Immortals, and for the propitiation of Sraosha (who 
is Obedience) the blessed, who is endowed with 
sanctity, and who smites with the blow of victory^ 
and causes the settlements to advance. 

2. And I desire to approach Haoma and Para- 
haoma ' with my praise for the propitiation of the 
Fravashi of Spitama Zarathustra, the saint. And I 
desire to approach the (sacred) wood with my praise, 
with the perfume, for the propitiation of thee, the 
Fire, O Ahura Mazda's son ! 

3. And I desire to approach the Haomas with my 
praise for the propitiation of the good waters which 
Mazda created ; and I desire to approach the Haoma- 
water, and the fresh milk 2 with my praise, and the 
plant Hadhana£pata, offered with sanctity for the 
propitiation of the waters which are Mazda-made. 

4. And I desire to approach this Baresman with 
the Zaothra with my praise, with its binding 8 and 
spread with sanctity for the propitiation of the 
Bountiful Immortals. And I desire with (?) my 
voice the thoughts well thought, and the words well 
spoken, and the deeds well done, and the recital of 
the Gathas as they are heard. And I desire to 
approach the well-said Mathras with my praise, and 
this (higher) lordship with this sanctity, and this exact 
regulation 4 (of the Ratu), and the reverential prayer 
for blessings (spoken at the fitting hour) ; and I desire 
to approach them for the contentment and propitiation 

1 The Haoma-juice. 

* So better than ' fresh meat' Fluids are the chief objects of 
attention here. 

8 With its girdle. 

4 Anghuyam— rathwam stand related as ahu and ratu; so also 
the Pahlavi ahuoih and raalh, and Ner. sv&mi&mAa. gurutSw&i. 

Digitized by 



of the holy Yazads, heavenly and earOTyTantTfor the 
contentment of each man's soul. 

5. And I desire to approach the Asnya with my 
praise, the lords of the ritual order, and the H&vani 
and Savanghi and Vlsya, the holy lords of the ritual 
order. And I desire to approach with the Yart l of 
Mithra of the wide pastures, of the thousand ears, 
of the myriad eyes, the Yazad of the spoken name, 
and with him Raman Ifvtstra.. 

6. And I desire to approach Rapithwina with my 
praise, the holy lord of the ritual order, and Fra- 
da/-fshu and Za«tuma, and Righteousness the 
Best, and Ahura Mazda's Fire. 

7. And I desire to approach Uzay&rina, and 
Frada/-vira and Da£z>yuma* with my praise, with 
that lofty Ahura Napa/-apSm, and the waters Mazda- 

8. And Aiwisruthrima, and Aibigaya, and Frida£- 
vispSm-hu^aiti, and Zarathurtrdtema with the Yart 
of the Fravashis of the saints 2 , and of the women 
who have many sons, and the year long unchanged 
prosperity, and of Might, the well-shaped and stately, 
smiting victoriously, Ahura-made and of the Victo- 
rious Ascendency (which it secures). 

9. And I desire to approach Ushahina, Bere^a, 
and Nmanya with the Yart of Sraosha (Obe- 
dience) the sacred, the holy, who smites with the 
blow of victory, and makes the settlements advance, 
and with that of Rashnu, the most just, and Arrta/ 

1 Yertt seems used of an especial Yart here, and subsequently, 
as genitives intrude among datives, the form possibly taking the 
place of the words ' for the propitiation of ; here Yart X may be 
referred to. 

2 Yart XIII. 

[3«] P 

Digitized by 



who furthers the settlements, and causes them to 

10. And I desire to approach the monthly festivals, 
the lords of the ritual order, and the new moon and 
the waning moon, and the full moon which scatters 

ii. And the yearly festivals, Maidhy6-zaremaya, 
Maidhyd-shema, PaitLshahya, and Ayathrima the 
breeder who spends the strength of males, and 
Maidhyairya, and Hamaspathma£dhaya, and the 
seasons, lords of the ritual order, (12) and all those 
lords who are the three and thirty, who approach 
the nearest at the time of Havani, who are the 
Lords of Asha called Vahishta (and whose services 
were) inculcated by Mazda, and pronounced by 
Zarathustra, as the feasts of Righteousness, the 

1 3. And I desire to approach Ahura and Mithra, 
the lofty and imperishable two, the holy, and with the 
Yart of those stars which are the creatures of Spe»ta 
Mainyu, and with the of the star Ti^trya, the 
radiant, the glorious, and with that of the moon which 
contains the seed of cattle, and with that of the 
resplendent sun, the eye of Ahura Mazda, and of 
Mithra, province-lord of the provinces, and with that 
of Ahura Mazda (as He rules this day) the radiant, 
the glorious, and with that of the Fravashis of the 
saints, (who rule this month), 

14. And with thy Yart, the Fire's, O Ahura 
Mazda's son! with all the fires, and to the good 
waters with the Yart of all the waters which are 
Mazda-made, and with that of all the plants which 
Mazda made. 

1 5. And I desire to approach with the Yar t of the 

Digitized by 



Mathra Spe#ta, the holy, the effective, the law com- 
posed against the Da£vas, the Zarathuitrian, and 
with that of the long descent of the Religion which 
Mazda gave. 

1 6. And I desire to approach with the Yart: of Mount 
Ushi-darena, Mazda-made, and of all, glorious with 
sanctity, and abundant in brilliance, and with that of 
the Kingly Glory, Mazda-made ; yea, with that of the 
unconsumed glory which Mazda made, and with that 
of Ashi Vanguhi, and ffisti Vanguhi, and with that of 
the good Ereth*, and the good RasSsta/, and the good 
Glory, and of the Benefit which Mazda gave. 

1 7. And I desire to approach with the Yaxt of the 
good and pious Blessing of the pious man and of 
the saint, and with that of the awful and swift 
Curse of the wise, the Yazad-curse, (18) and to these 
places, regions, pastures, and abodes, with their 
water-springs, and with that of the waters, and the 
lands, and the plants, and with that of this earth and 
yon heaven, and with that of the holy wind and of 
the stars, moon, and sun, and with that of the stars 
without beginning, self-determined and self-moved, 
and with that of all the holy creatures which are 
those of Spe«ta Mainyu, male and female, regulators 
of the ritual order, (19) and with that of the lofty 
lord who is Righteousness (himself, the essence of the 
ritual), and with that of the days in their duration, 
and of the days during daylight, and with that of the 
monthly festivals, and the yearly festivals, and with 
those of the several seasons which are lords of the 
ritual at the time of Havani. 

20. And I desire to approach the meat-offering with 
a Yast, and Haurvata/ (who guards the water), and 
Ameretata/ (who guards the plants and wood), with 

p 2 

Digitized by 



the Yart of the sacred flesh for the propitiation of 
Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed and the mighty, 
whose body is the Mathra, of him of the daring spear, 
the lordly, the Yazad of the spoken name. 

21. And I desire to approach both Haoma and 
the Haoma-juice with a Yart for the propitiation 
of the Fravashi of Zarathurtra Spitima, the saint, 
the Yazad of the spoken name. And I desire to 
approach the wood-billets with a Y&rt, with the 
perfume for the propitiation of thee, the Fire, O 
Ahura Mazda's son ! the Yazad of the spoken name. 

22. And I desire to approach with a Yart for the 
mighty Fravashis of the saints, the overwhelming, 
the Fravashis of those who held to the ancient lore, 
and of those of the next of kin. 

23. And I desire to approach toward all the lords 
of the ritual order with a Yart, toward all the good 
Yazads, heavenly and earthly, who are (set) for wor- 
ship and for praise because of Asha Vahirta (of 
Righteousness the Best). 

24. I will confess myself a Mazdayasnian, of Zara- 
thurtra's order, a foe to the Da6vas, devoted to the 
lore of the Lord for Havani, the holy lord of the ritual 
order, for sacrifice, homage, propitiation, and for 
praise, and for Savanghi and Vlsya, the holy lord(s) 
of the ritual order, and for the sacrifice, homage, 
propitiation, and praise of the day-lords of the days 
in their duration, and of the days during daylight, 
and for the month-regulators, and the year-regulators, 
and for those of the (several) seasons, for their sacri- 
fice, and homage, their propitiation, and their praise. 

(The Zaotar speaks *) : As the Ahu to be 

1 So at least the rubric. One would think that the sentence was 
intended to be dictated to the Ratu to be repeated ; that is, if the 

Digitized by 


YASNA IV. 213 

(revered and) chosen, let the priest speak 1 forth 
to me. 

(The Ratu responds) : As the Ahu to be (revered 
and) chosen, let him who is the Zaotar speak * forth 
to me. 

(The Zaotar again) : So let the Ratu from his 
Righteousness, holy and learned, speak forth ! 

The Offering takes place. 

1. These good thoughts, good words, and good 
deeds 2 , these Haomas, meat-offerings, and Zaothras, 
this Baresman spread with sanctity, this flesh, 
and the two, Haurvata/ (who guards the water) and 
Ameretata/ (who guards the plants and wood), even 
the flesh, the Haoma and Haoma-juice, the wood- 
billets, and their perfume, this sacred lordship 8 and 
chieftainship s , and the timely prayer with blessing, 
and the heard recital of the Gathas, and the well-said 
Mathras, these all we offer, and make known with 
celebrations (here). 

2. Yea, these do we announce with celebrations, 
and we present them to Ahura Mazda, and to Sraosha 

rubric is correct. The sentence as uttered by the priest seems 

1 Present, or infin. for imperative (?). 

2 The fact that somewhat of a more technical sumatf, sukti, 
sukr/'ti adheres to these expressions in this place must not for 
a moment induce us to suppose that their deeper meaning was 
lost. All good thoughts, words, and deeds culminated in the 
ritual, as in an enlightened high ecclesiasticism. They were 
nourished by it, and not lost in it. (Expressions are here varied.) 

* The prominence and supremacy of each deity, or genius, 
while he is especially the object of worship in the ritual order, the 
expressions being taken from the Ahuna-vairya. 

Digitized by 


214 YASNA IV. 

(Obedience) the blessed, and to the Bountiful Immor- 
tals, and to the Fravashis of the saints, and to their 
souls, and to the Fire of Ahura Mazda, the lofty lord 
of the entire creation of the holy, for sacrifice, homage, 
propitiation, and praise. 

3. Yea, further, we present (them to the Bountiful 
Immortals with an especial gift) these thoughts well 
thought, these words well spoken, these deeds well 
done, these Haomas, Myazdas, Zaothras, and this 
Baresman spread with sanctity, the flesh, and 
Haurvata/ (who guards the water), and Ameretata/ 
(who guards the plants and wood), even the 
flesh, Haoma and Parahaoma, the wood-billets, the 
perfume, and this their lordship and their sanctity, 
and this chieftainship, this prayer for blessing, the 
heard recital of the Gathas, and the well-said Mathras. 

4. We offer with our celebrations, and we announce 
them (of a verity) to the Bountiful Immortals, those 
who exercise their rule aright, and who dispose (of 
all) aright, the ever-living, ever-helpful, the male 
divinities among their number who dwell with the 
Good Mind 1 , [and the female 2 ones as well]. 

5. And we announce them in our celebrations as 
more propitious for this house 3 , and for the fur- 
therance of this house, of its herds, and of its men, 
of those now born, and of those yet to be born, the 
holy, yea, for the furtherance of that house of which 
these (men) are thus. 

6. And we present these offerings to the good 

1 Vohu Manah, Asha, and Khshathra. 

a Aramaiti, HaurvatS/, and Ameretata/. 

* It would seem that the Yasna must have been at the time 
celebrated in the houses of the worshippers. Hence perhaps some 
of the priests were pairi^athans. 

Digitized by 


YASNA IV. 215 

Fravashis of the saints who are mighty and over- 
whelming for the succour of the saints. 

7. Yea, we present these hereby to the Creator 
Ahura Mazda, the radiant, the glorious, and the 
heavenly spirit, for the sacrifice, homage, propitiation, 
and praise of the Bountiful Immortals (all). 

8. And we present these hereby to the Day-lords 
of the ritual order, to Havani, to Savanghi, and to 
Visya, the holy lords of the ritual order, for sacrifice, 
homage, propitiation, and for praise, and to Mithra 
of the wide pastures, and the thousand ears, and the 
myriad eyes, the Yazad of the spoken name, 

9. And to Rapithwina, Frada/-fshu, and Za»tuma, 
the holy lords of the ritual order, and to Righteous- 
ness the Best, and to Ahura Mazda's Fire, 

10. And to Uzay£irina, Frada/-vtra, and DaAv- 
yuma \ the holy lords of the ritual order, and to that 
lofty lord Napa^-apam, and to the water Mazda-made, 

n. And to Aiwisruthrima, the life-furtherer 2 , and 
to FradaZ-vIspSm-hufyaiti and Zarathustrdtema, the 
holy lords of the ritual order, and to the Fravashis 
of the saints, and to the women who bring forth 
many sons, and to the Prosperous home-life which 
endures without reverse throughout the year, and to 
Force, well-shaped and stately, and to the Blow of 
victory which Mazda gives, and to the Victorious 
Ascendency which it secures, for their sacrifice, 
homage, their propitiation, and their praise, 

12. And to U shah ina, with Bere,fya and Nmanya, 
and Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed, smiting with 
the blow of victory and furthering the settlements, 
and to Rashnu, the most just, and to Arst&t, furthering 
the settlements, and causing them to increase. 

Dahyuma. ' Aibigaya. 


Digitized by 1 

2l6 YASNA IV. 

1 3. And these we announce and we present hereby 
to the Month-lords of the ritual order, to the new 
moon and the waning moon (the moon within), and 
to the full moon which scatters night, the holy lord 
of the ritual order, for (their) sacrifice, homage, their 
propitiation, and their praise. 

14. And these we announce hereby and we present 
to the Yearly festivals, to Maidhy6-zaremaya, Maidhy6- 
shema, Patwhahya, and to Ayathrima,to Maidhyairya, 
Hamaspathmaedhaya, and to the Seasons as holy 
lords of the ritual order, for sacrifice, homage, propi- 
tiation, and for praise. 

15. And these we announce and we present hereby 
to all those lords who are the three and thirty lords 
of the ritual order, who approach the nearest around 
about our Havani, and which are the festivals of 
Righteousness the Best, inculcated by Mazda, and 
uttered forth by Zarathurtra for their sacrifice, 
homage, propitiation, and praise. 

16. And these we announce and we present to 
Ahura and to Mithra, the lofty, and imperishable, 
and holy two, to the stars, the creatures of Spe»ta 
Mainyu, and to the star Tirtrya, the radiant, the 
glorious, and to the Moon which contains the seed 
of cattle, and to the resplendent Sun, of the swift 
horses, Ahura Mazda's eye, and to Mithra, the lord of 
provinces, for their sacrifice, homage, their propitia- 
tion and their praise ; yea, these we present hereby 
to Ahura Mazda (as he rules this day) and to the 
Fravashis of the saints (as they rule this month), for 
their sacrifice, homage, their propitiation and their 

1 7. And these we announce hereby to thee, the 
Fire, O Ahura Mazda's son ! with all the fires for 

Digitized by 


YASNA IV. 217 

thy sacrifice, homage, propitiation, and praise, and 
to the good waters for the sacrifice, homage, pro- 
pitiation, and praise of all the waters Mazda-made, 
and to all the plants which Mazda made, 

18. And to the Mathra Spe»ta, the holy, the 
effective, the law against the Dadvas, the Zarathus- 
trian statute, and to the long descent of the good 
Mazdayasnian religion. 

^19. And these we announce and we present hereby 
to Mount Ushi-darena, Mazda-made, brilliant with 
sanctity, and to all the mountains shining with their 
holiness, abundantly luminous, and Mazda-made, and 
to the Kingly glory, the unconsumed x glory Mazda- 
made, and to the good Blessedness, and the good 
Religious-knowledge, and the good Rectitude, and 
to the good RasSsta/, and to the Glory and the 
Benefit which Mazda created. ; 

20. And these we offer and present to the pious 
and good Blessing of the pious, and to the swift and 
dreadful Yazad, the Curse of wisdom. 

21. And to these places, pastures, and dwellings 
with their springs of water, their rivers, to the lands 
and to the plants, to this earth and yon heaven, to 
the holy wind, to the stars, moon, and sun, to the 
stars without beginning, self-disposed, and to all the 
holy creatures of the Spewta Mainyu, male and 
female (the rulers as they are of the ritual order). 

22. And these we announce and we present 
hereby to that lofty lord who is Asha, the ritual 
righteousness itself, to the Day-lords, and the Month- 
lords, the Year-lords, and the Seasons who are the 
lords of the ritual at the time of Havani, and for 

1 Unseized (?). 



Digitized by 1 

2l8 YASNA V. 

their sacrifice, homage, their propitiation and their 

23. Yea, these we announce and we present to 
Sraosha, the blessed and mighty, whose body is the 
Mathra, him of the daring spear, the lordly one, and 
to the holy Fravashi of Zarathiutra Spitama, the 

And these we announce and we present to thee, 
the Fire, O Ahura Mazda's son ! for thy sacrifice, 
homage, thy propitiation, and thy praise. 

24. And these we announce and we present to the 
Fravashis of the saints, the mighty and overwhelming, 
of the saints of the ancient lore, and of the next 
of kin. 

25. And these we announce and we present hereby 
to all the good Yazads, earthly and heavenly, who 
are (meet) for sacrifice, homage, propitiation, and for 
praise, because of Asha Vahbta (who is Righteousness 
the Best). 

We worship the Bountiful Immortals who rule 
aright, and who dispose of all aright. 

26. And that one of beings (do we worship) whose 
superior (service) in the sacrifice Ahura Mazda knows, 
and from his righteousness (which he maintains, and 
those of all female beings do we worship) whose 
(higher service is thus likewise known ; yea, all) 
male and female beings do we worship (who are 
such) 1 ! 


This chapter is identical with Yasna XXXVII. 

1 Elsewhere with slight verbal change. 

Digitized by 


VASNA VI. 219 

The Sacrifice continues with fuller expression. 

1. We worship the Creator Ahura Mazda with our 
sacrifice, and the Bountiful Immortals who rule aright, 
and who dispose of all aright. 

2. And we worship the Asnya with our sacrifice, 
and Havani, S&vanghi and Visya, the holy lords of 
the ritual order, and Mithra of the wide pastures, 
of the thousand ears, and myriad eyes, the Yazad of 
the spoken name, and we worship Raman //t-astra. 

3. And we worship Rapithwina with our sacrifice, 
and Frada/-fshu, and the Za»tuma, and Righteousness 
the Best, and the Fire, Ahura Mazda's son, holy lords 
of the ritual order. 

4. And we worship Uzayeirina, and Frada/-vlra, 
and Da^z/yuma*, the holy lord of the ritual order, and 
that kingly Ahura, the radiant Nap4/-apam, of the 
fleet horses, and the water holy, and Mazda-made. 

5. And we worship Aiwisruthrima and Aibigaya 
in our sacrifice, the h.oly lord of the ritual order, and 
Frida/-vlspam-hu£yaiti and the Zarathurtr6tema, the 
holy lord of the ritual order, and the good, heroic, 
bountiful Fravashis of the saints, and the women who 
bring forth many sons, and the Prosperous home-life 
which endures without reverse throughout the year, 
and Force which is well-shaped and stately, and the 
Blow which brings the victory, which is Ahura-given, 
and the Victorious Ascendency (which it secures). 

6. And we worship Ushahina with our sacrifice, and 

1 This chapter differs from Y. II only in having yazamaide' 
instead of the formula ahmya zaothrl barestnanaS^a — SySse' ye\rti. 
Expressions for the same Zend words are purposely varied. 

Digitized by 


220 YASNA VI. 

Bere^ya, and Nminya, and Sraosha (Obedience) the 
blessed and the stately who smites with victory, and 
makes the settlements advance, and Rashnu, the most 
just, and Anrta/ who makes the settlements advance 
and causes them to increase, the holy lords of the 
ritual order. 

7. And we worship the Mahya in our sacrifice, the 
new moon and the waning moon (the moon within) 
and the full moon which scatters night, the holy lord 
pf the ritual order. 

8. And we worship the Yearly festivals in our 
sacrifice, Maidhyd-zaremaya, Maidhyd-shema, Paitis- 
hahya, and Ayathrima, the furtherer (or breeder), the 
spender of virile strength, and Maidhy&irya, the holy 
lord of the ritual order, and Harnaspathmaedhaya, 
and the Seasons (in which they are). 

9. And we worship with our sacrifice all the lords 
of the ritual order, who are the thirty and three who 
approach the nearest around about us at Havani, 
who are the lords of Righteousness the Best, and 
whose observances were inculcated by Ahura Mazda, 
and uttered forth by Zarathurtra. 

10. And we worship Ahura and Mithra with our 
sacrifice, the lofty, and imperishable, and holy two, 
and the stars, moon, and sun, among the plants of 
the Baresman, and Mithra, the province-lord of all the 
provinces, even Ahura Mazda, the radiant, the glo- 
rious, and the good, valiant, and bountiful Fravashis 
of the saints. 

11. And we worship thee, the Fire, Ahura 
Mazda's son, together with all the fires, and the 
good waters, the best and Mazda-made, and holy, 
even all the waters which are Mazda-made and holy, 
and all the plants which Mazda made. 

Digitized by 


VASNA VI. 221 

1 2. And we worship the MSthra Spewta with our 
sacrifice, the glorious and of a truth, the law revealed 
against the DaGvas, the Zarathustrian law, and we 
worship with our sacrifice its long descent, and the 
good Mazdayasnian Religion. 

1 3. And we worship Mount Ushi-darena, theMazda- 
made, the glorious Yazad, shining with holiness, and 
all the mountains that shine with holiness, with 
abundant brilliance, Mazda-made, the holy lords of 
the ritual order. And we worship the mighty Kingly 
glory Mazda-made, the mighty glory, unconsumed 
and Mazda-made, and the good Sanctity, the brilliant, 
the lofty, the powerful and the stately, delivering 
(men) with its inherent power. Yea, we worship 
the Glory, and the Benefit which are Mazda-made. 

14. And we worship the pious and good Blessing 
with our sacrifice, and the pious man, the saint, and 
that Yazad, the mighty Curse of wisdom. 

15. And we worship these waters, lands, and 
plants, these places, districts, pastures, and abodes 
with their springs of water, and we worship this lord 
of the district with our sacrifice, who is Ahura Mazda 


16. And we worship all the greatest lords, the 
Day-lords in the day's duration, and the Day-lords 
during daylight, and the Month-lords, and the Year- 

1 7. And we worship Haurvata/ (who guards the 
water) and Ameretata/ (who guards the plants and 
the wood), and Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed and 
the stately, who smites with the blow of victory, and 
makes the settlements advance, the holy lord of the 
ritual order. 

18. And we worship Haoma with our sacrifice 

Digitized by 



and the Haoma-juice. And we worship the sacred 
Fravashi of Zarathu^tra Spitama the saint. 

And we worship the wood-billets, and the perfume 
and thee, the Fire, Ahura Mazda's son, the holy 
lord of the ritual order. 

19. And we worship the good, heroic, bountiful 
Fravashis of the saints. 

20. And we worship all the holy Yazads, and all 
the lords of the ritual order at the time of Havani, 
and Sdvanghi, and all the greatest lords at their 
(proper) time. (The Y&she hatSm follows.) 

21. The Ratu. As an Ahu (revered and) to be 
chosen, the priest speaks forth to me. 

The Zaotar. So let the Ratu from his Right- 
eousness, holy and learned, speak forth ! 


Presentation of Offerings by the Priest with 
the Object of Propitiation named. 

1. With a complete and sacred offering 1 I offer 
and I give this meat-offering, and (with it) Haurvata/ 
(who guards the water), and Ameretata7 (who guards 
the plants and the wood), and the flesh of the Kine 
of blessed gift, for the propitiation of Ahura Mazda, 
and of the Bountiful Immortals (all, and) for the pro- 
pitiation of Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed, endowed 
with sanctity, who smites with the blow of victory, 
and who causes the settlements to advance. 

1 With Ashi ; possibly ' for a blessing/ as Ashi often has the 
sense of ' reward,' but scrupulous sanctity and completeness seem 
to be the sense here>. (Expressions here are as usual varied.) 

Digitized by 



2. And I offer the Haoma and Haoma-juice with 
a complete and sacred offering for the propitiation 
of the Fravashi of Zarathustra Spitama the saint, 
and I offer the wood-billets with the perfume for 
Thy propitiation, the Fire's, O Ahura Mazda's son! 

3. And I offer the Haomas with a complete and 
sacred offering for propitiation [to the good waters] 
for the good waters Mazda-made. And I offer this 
Haoma-water with scrupulous exactness and with 
sanctity, and this fresh milk, and the plant Hadha- 
naSpata uplifted with a complete and sacred offering 
for the propitiation of the waters which are Mazda- 

4. And I offer this Baresman with its Zaothra 
(and with its binding) for a girdle spread with com- 
plete sanctity and order for the propitiation of the 
Bountiful Immortals, and I offer with my voice the 
thoughts well-thought, the words well-spoken, and 
the deeds well-done, and the heard recital of the 
Gathas, the M&thras well-composed and well-de- 
livered, and this Lordship, and this Sanctity, and this 
ritual mastership, and the timely Prayer for blessings, 
with a complete and sacred offering for the propitia- 
tion of the holy Yazads, heavenly and earthly, and for 
the contentment of the individual soul ! 

5. And I offer to the Asnya with a complete and 
sacred offering, as lords of the ritual order, and. to 
Havani, and to Savanghi and Vlsya, holy lords of 
the ritual order, and to Mithra of the wide pastures, 
of the thousand ears, and myriad eyes, the Yazad of 
the spoken name, and to Raman /foastra. 

6. And I offer with a complete and sacred offering 
to Rapithwina, the holy lord of the ritual order ; and 
I offer to Frada/-fshu and to the Zaatuma, and to 

Digitized by 



Asha Vahista (who is Righteousness the Best) and 
to Ahura Mazda's Fire. 

7. And I offer with a complete and sacred offering 
to UzaySirina, Frada/-vtra, and to the Da^yuma*, 
the holy lord of the ritual order, and to that lofty 
Ahura Napa/-ap&m, and to the waters which Mazda 

8. And I offer with a complete and sacred offering 
to Aiwisruthrima, the life-furtherer, and to Frada/- 
vfspam-hufyaiti, and to the Zarathurtrdtema, and to 
the Fravashis of the saints, and to the women who 
have many sons, and to the Prosperous home-life 
which endures (without reverse) throughout the year, 
and to Force, the well-shaped and stately, and to the 
Blow which smites with victory Ahura-given, and 
to the Victorious Ascendency (which it secures). 

9. And I offer with a complete and sacred offer- 
ing to Ushahina, the holy lord of the ritual order, 
and to Bere^a, and Nmanya, and to Sraosha (Obedi- 
ence) the blessed, endowed with sanctity, who smites 
with the blow of victory, and makes the settlements 
advance, and to Rashnu the most just, and to 
Arsta/ who furthers the settlements and causes them 
to increase. 

10. And I offer with a complete and sacred offer- 
ing to the Mahya, lords of. the ritual order, to the 
new and the waning moon (the moon within), and 
to the full moon which scatters night, holy lords of 
the ritual order. 

11. And I offer with a complete and sacred offer- 
ing to the Yearly festivals, the lords of the ritual 
order, to Maidhyd-zaremaya, and Maidhy6-shema, to 
Paituhahya, and to Ayathrima the furtherer (the 
breeder), the spender of the strength of males, and 

Digitized by 



to Maidhyairya and Hamaspathma£dhaya, holy lords 
of the ritual order, and I offer with sanctity to the 
several seasons, the lords of the ritual order. 

12. And I offer with a complete and sacred offer- 
ing to all those lords who are the thirty and three, 
who approach the nearest round about our Havani, 
and who are the lords of Asha (the ritual by-emi- 
nence), of Righteousness who is (the Best), whose 
observances are inculcated as precepts by Mazda, 
and uttered forth by Zarathu^tra. 

1 3. And I offer with a complete and sacred offer- 
ing to Ahura and Mithra, the lofty and imperishable, 
and holy two, and to the stars which are the creatures 
of Spe«ta Mainyu, and to the star Ti-rtrya, the 
radiant, the glorious, and to the Moon which con- 
tains the seed of cattle in its beams, and to the re- 
splendent Sun of the fleet horses, the eye of 
Ahura Mazda, and to Mithra, the lord of the pro- 
vinces. And I offer with a complete and sacred 
offering to Ahura Mazda, the resplendent, the glo- 
rious, (who rules this day), and to the Fravashis 
of the saints (who name the month). 

14. And I offer with a complete and sacred offer- 
ing to thee, the Fire, O Ahura Mazda's son ! together 
with all the fires, and to the good waters, even to the 
waters which are Mazda-made, and to all the plants 
which Mazda made. 

1 5. And I offer with a complete and sacred offer- 
ing to the Mathra Spe»ta, the holy, the effective, 
revealed against the Da£vas, the Zarathustrian law, 
and to the long descent of the good Religion, of the 
Mazdayasnian faith. 

16. And I offer with a complete and sacred offer- 
ing to Mount Ushi-darena, the Mazda-made, brilliant 

[31] Q 

Digitized by 



with holiness, and to all the mountains shining with 
holiness, of abundant brightness, and which Mazda 
made, and to the Royal glory unconsumed and 
Mazda-made. And I offer with a complete and 
sacred offering to Ashi Vanguhi, and to A"isti 
Vanguhi, and to Eriethtf, and to Rasasta/, and to the 
Glory (and the) Benefit which Mazda made. 

1 7. And I offer with a complete and sacred offer- 
ing to the good and pious Prayer for blessings of the 
pious man, and to that Yazad, the swift and dread- 
ful Curse of the wise. 

18. And I offer with a complete and sacred bless- 
ing to these places, districts, pastures, and abodes 
with their springs of water, and to the waters and 
the lands, and the plants, and to this earth and yon 
heaven, and to the holy wind, and to the stars, 
and the moon, even to the stars without beginning 
(to their course), the self-appointed, and to all 
the holy creatures of Spe»ta Mainyu, be they male 
or female, regulators (as they are) of the ritual 

19. And I offer with a complete and sacred bless- 
ing to that lofty lord who is Righteousness (the Best), 
and the Day-lords, the lords of the days during their 
duration, and to those of the days during daylight, 
and to the Month-lords, and the Year-lords, and to 
those of the seasons, the lords who are lords of the 
ritual, and at the time of Havani. 

20. And I offer the Myazda meat-offering with a 
complete and sacred offering, and Haurvata/ (who 
guards the water), and Ameretati/ (who guards 
the wood), and the flesh of the Kine of blessed 
gift, for the propitiation of Sraosha (Obedience) 
the blessed, whose body is the MSthra, him of the 

Digitized by 



daring spear, the lordly, the Yazad of the spoken 

21. And I offer the Haoma and the Haoma-juice 
for the propitiation of the Fravashi of Zarathurtra 
Spitama the saint, the Yazad of the spoken name. 

And I offer the wood-billets with the perfume for 
Thy propitiation, the Fire's, Ahura Mazda's son, the 
Yazad of the spoken name. 

22. And I offer with a complete and sacred offer- 
ing to the Fravashis of the saints, the mighty and 
overwhelming, to those of the saints of the ancient 
lore, and to those of the next of kin. 

23. And I offer with a complete and sacred offer- 
ing to all the lords of the ritual order, and to all the 
good Yazads heavenly and earthly who are (meet) 
for sacrifice and homage because of Asha who is 
VahLrta (of Righteousness who is the Best). 

24. May that approach to us, and with a sacred 
blessing (O Lord !) whose benefits the offerers are 
seeking for. Thy praisers and M5thra-speakers, O 
Ahura Mazda ! may we be named ; we desire it, and 
such may we be. What reward, O Ahura Mazda ! 
adapted to myself Thou hast appointed unto souls, 

25. Of this do Thou Thyself bestow upon us for 
this world and for that of mind ; (yea, do Thou be- 
stow) so much of this as that we may attain to Thy 
ruling protection and to that of Righteousness for 

26. We sacrifice to the Ahuna-vairya, and to the veracious word 
correctly uttered, and to the good and pious prayer for blessings, 
and to the dreadful curse of the wise, the Yazad, and to HaurvataV 
and AmeretataV, and to the flesh of the Kine of blessed gift, and 
to the Haoma and Haoma-juice, and to the wood-billets, and 
the perfume, for the praise of the pious and good prayer for 

Q 2 

Digitized by 



The YeNhe hitam. 

27. (To that one) of beings do we sacrifice whose 
superior (fidelity) in the sacrifice Ahura Mazda knows 
through his Righteousness (within him, yea, even to 
those female saints do we sacrifice) whose (superior 
sanctity is thus known. We sacrifice to all) both 
males and females whose (superiority is such). (The 
Ratu speaks.) As an Ahu (revered and) to be 
chosen, he who is the Zaotar speaks forth to me. 

(The Zaotar.) So let the Ratu from his Right- 
eousness, holy and learned, speak forth ! 


Offering of the Meat-offering in particular. 
The Faithful Partake. 

1. A blessing is Righteousness (called) the Best. 

It is weal ; it is weal to this (man), 

When toward Righteousness Best there is right. 

I offer the Myazda (of the) meat-offering with 
a complete and sacred offering ; and I offer Haur- 
vatati/ (who guards the water), and Ameretata/ 
(who guards the plants and the wood), and the 
flesh of the blessed Kine; and I offer the Haoma 
and the Haoma-juice, the wood-billets and the 
perfume for the praise of Ahura Mazda, and of the 
Ahuna-vairya, the veracious word, and for that of the 
pious and beneficent Prayer for blessings, and for the 
redoubted Curse of the wise, and for the praise of the 
Haoma, and of the MSthra of the holy Zarathustra ; 
and may it come to us with sacred fulness (to accept 
and to recompense our gift). 

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2. (The Ratu speaks.) Eat, O ye men, of this 
Myazda, the meat-offering, ye who have deserved it 
by your righteousness and correctness! 

3. O ye Bountiful Immortals, and thou, the Maz- 
dayasnian law, ye just men and just women, and ye 
Zaothras, whoever among these Mazdayasnians 
would call himself a Mazdayasnian desiring to live 
in the practice of the liberality of Righteousness [for 
by sorcery the settlements of Righteousness are 
ruined], do ye cause (such an one) to be (still further) 
taught, (ye), who are the waters, the plants, and the 
Zaothras ! 

4. And whoever of these Mazdayasnians, adults, 
when he invokes with earnestness, does not adhere 
to these words, and (so) speaks, he approaches to 
that (word) of the magician ; (but, as against that 
magician's word) ' a blessing is Righteousness (called) 
the Best.' 

5. May'st Thou, O Ahura Mazda ! reign at Thy 
will, and with a saving rule over Thine own crea- 
tures, and render Ye the holy (man) also a sovereign 
at his will over waters, and over plants, and over all the 
clean and sacred (creatures) which contain the seed of 
Righteousness. Strip ye the wicked of all power ! 

6. Absolute in power may the holy be, bereft of 
all free choice the wicked ! Gone (may he be), met 
as foe, carried out from the creatures of Spe«ta 
Mainyu, hemmed in 1 without power over any wish ! 

7. I will incite, even I who am Zarathurtra 2 , the 

1 Or ' shut out,' which would seem better adapted. 

* This piece is a reproduction, or close imitation, of some earlier 
fragment. It sounds like an exhortation delivered while the Faith 
was still new. 

Digitized by 



heads of the houses, villages, Zaatus, and provinces, 
to the careful following of this Religion which is that 
of Ahura, and according to Zarathustra, in their 
thoughts, their words, and their deeds. 

8. I pray for the freedom and glory of the entire 
existence of the holy (man) while I bless it, and I 
pray for the repression and shame 1 of the entire 
existence 2 of the wicked. 

9. Propitiation to Haoma who brings righteous- 
ness (to us) for sacrifice, homage, propitiation, and 
for praise. (The Zaotar ?) As the Ahu to be 
(revered and) chosen, the Zaotar speaks forth to 
me. (The Ratu.) As an Ahu to be (revered and) 
chosen, the Zaotar speaks forth to me. (The 
Zaotar.) So let the Ratu from his Righteousness, 
holy and learned, speak forth ! 


The H6m Yast. 

The Haoma-yart has claims to antiquity (owing to its subject, but 
not to its dialect), next after the SrQs-yzst. H(a)oma=Soma, as a 
deity, flourished not only before the GSthas, but before the Hiks of 
the Veda, in Aryan ages before Iranian and Indian became two 

The astonishing circumstance has been elsewhere noted that a 
hymn, which is a reproduction of an Aryan original, should, not- 
withstanding its earlier characteristics, be necessarily assigned to 

1 The Fahlavi translator, as I think, had a text before him which 
read duzfo'&threm ; I so correct. Against the keen and most 
interesting suggestion of duz + athrem, I am compelled to note 
aAz>athrei, showing a compositum a + hv&lhra., which seems not 
probable if = a + hu + athra. Duaithra, not a^»SthrS, would 
have been written. Cp. toeng=fo;an for root. 

* Possibly ' house.' 

Digitized by 



a date much later than the Gathas in which H(a)oma worship is 
not mentioned. 

Probably on account of bitter animosities prevailing between 
their more southern neighbours and themselves, and the use of 
Soma by the Indians as a stimulant before battle, the Iranians of the 
Gathic period had become lukewarm in their own H(a)oma worship. 
But that it should have revived, as we see it in this Yaxt, after 
having nearly or quite disappeared, is most interesting and re- 
markable. Was it definitively and purposely repudiated by Zara- 
thurtra, afterwards reviving as by a relapse? I do not think 
that it is well to hold to such deliberate and conscious antagonisms, 
and to a definite policy and action based upon them. The Soma- 
worship, like the sacramental acts of other religions which have be- 
come less practised after exaggerated attention, had simply fallen 
into neglect, increased by an aversion to practices outwardly similar 
to those of ' Da6va-worshippers.' The Yzst is, of course, made 
up of fragments, which I have endeavoured to separate by lines. 
In the translation I have given a rhythmical rendering, necessarily 
somewhat free. It was difficult to import sufficient vivacity to 
the piece, while using a uselessly awkward literalness. The 
freedom, as elsewhere, often consists in adding words to point the 
sense, or round the rhythm. (Expressions for identical Zend words 
have been here, as elsewhere, purposely varied.) 

i. At the hour of Havani 1 . H(a)oma came to 
Zarathurtra, as he served the (sacred) Fire, and 
sanctified (its flame), while he sang aloud the 

And Zarathustra asked him : Who art thou, O 
man ! who art of all the incarnate world the most 
beautiful in Thine own body 2 of those whom I have 
seen, (thou) glorious [immortal] ? 

2. Thereupon gave H(a)oma answer 8 , the holy 
one who driveth death afar: I am, O Zarathurtra 

1 In the morning from six to ten. 

* Or, 'beautiful of life.' 

* 'Me,' omitted as interrupting rhythm, seems to be merely 
dramatic ; or did it indicate that there was an original Zarathu- 
xtrian Haoma Gatha from which this is an extension ? 

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232 YASNA IX. 

H(a)oma, the holy and driving death afar ; pray to 
me, O Spitama, prepare me for the taste. Praise 
toward me in (Thy) praises as the other [Saosh- 
ya»ts] praise. 

3. Thereupon spake Zarathurtra : Unto H(a)oma 
be the praise 1 . What man, O H(a)oma! first prepared 
thee for the corporeal world ? What blessedness 
was offered him ? what gain did he acquire ? 

4. Thereupon did H(a)oma answer me, he the 
holy one, and driving death afar : Vlvanghva#t a was 
the first of men who prepared me for the incarnate 
world. This blessedness was offered him ; this gain 
did he acquire, that to him was born a son who was 
Yima, called the brilliant, (he of the many flocks, the 
most glorious of those yet born, the sunlike-one of 
men s ), that he made from his authority both herds 
and people free from dying, both plants and waters 
free from drought, and men could eat imperishable 

5. In the reign of Yima swift of motion was there 
neither cold nor heat, there was neither age nor 
death, nor envy 4 demon-made. Like fifteen-year- 
lings 6 walked the two forth, son and father, in their 
stature and their form, so long as Yima, son of 
Vlvanghvawt ruled, he of the many herds ! 

6. Who was the second man, O H(a)oma! who 

1 Might not the entire sixteenth verse be placed here ? 

' The fifth from Gaya Maretan the Iranian Adam, but his 
counterpart, the Indian Vivasvat, appears not only as the father of 
Yama, but of Manu, and even of the gods, (as promoted mortals ?). 

s Compare svar-drfoas pavam&nts. 

4 So the Pahlavi. 

8 Males, like females, seem to have been considered as developed 
at fifteen years of age. 

Digitized by 


YASNA IX. 233 

prepared thee for the corporeal world ? What sanc- 
tity was offered him ? what gain did he acquire ? 

7. Thereupon gave H(a)oma answer, he the holy 
one, and driving death afar : Athwya ' was the 
second who prepared me for the corporeal world. 
This blessedness was given him, this gain did he 
acquire, that to him a son was born, Thra£taona 2 of 
the heroic tribe, 

8. Who smote the dragon Dahaka 3 , three-jawed 
and triple-headed, six-eyed, with thousand powers, and 
of mighty strength, a lie-demon of 4 the Da6vas, evil 
for our settlements, and wicked, whom the evil spirit 
Angra Mainyu made as the most mighty Druf(k) 
[against the corporeal world], and for the murder of 
(our) settlements, and to slay the (homes) of Asha ! 

9. Who was the third man, O H(a)oma! who 
prepared thee for the corporeal world ? What blessed- 
ness was given him ? what gain did he acquire ? 

10. Thereupon gave H(a)oma answer, the holy one, 
and driving death afar: Thrita", [the most helpful 
of the Samas •], was the third man who prepared me 
for the corporeal world. This blessedness was given 

1 Comp. Trita aptia. 

1 Comp. the Indian Traitana connected with Tritd. 

8 Let it be remembered that Trita smote the Ahi before Indra, 
Indra seeming only to re-enact the more original victory which the 
Avesta notices. Concerning Azhi Dahaka, see Windischmann's 
Zendstudien, s. 136. * Free. 

6 In the ^?/'g-veda Sptya seems only an epithet added to 
the name Trita*; and the two serpents of the Avesta are 
suspicious. Two names seem to have become two persons, or 
has the Avesta the more correct representation ? 

• Have we the Semites here? They certainly penetrated as 
conquerors far into Media, and it seems uncritical to deny their 
leaving traces. The gloss may be very old. 
» And to that of other gods. 

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234 YASNA IX. 

him, this gain did he acquire, that to him two sons 
were born, Urvakhshaya and Keresaspa, the one a 
judge confirming order, the other a youth of great 
ascendant, ringlet-headed 1 , bludgeon-bearing. 

n. He who smote the horny dragon swallowing 
men, and swallowing horses, poisonous, and green 
of colour, over which, as thick as thumbs are, green- 
ish poison flowed aside, on whose back once Keres- 
aspa cooked his meat in iron caldron at the noon- 
day meal ; and the deadly, scorched, upstarted a , and 
springing off, dashed out the water as it boiled. 
Headlong fled affrighted manly-minded 3 Keresaspa, 

1 2. Who was the fourth man who prepared thee, 

1 Comp. Kapardfnam. 

* I abandon reluctantly the admirable comparison of hvts with 
the Indian svid (Geldner), also when explained as an inchoative 
(Barth.), but the resulting meaning is far from natural either here or 
in Vend. Ill, 32 (Sp. 105). That the dragon should begin to 
sweat (I) under the fire which was kindled upon his back, and 
which caused him to spring away, seems difficult. The process was 
not so deliberate. He was scorched, started, and then sprang. 
Also in Vend. Ill, 32 when the barley is produced the demons 
hardly ' sweat (with mental misery).' The idea is too advanced 
for the document. Burnoufs and Haug's ' hiss ' was much better 
in both places. But I prefer the hint of the Pahlavi lali vazlunrf. 
In Vend. Ill, 32 (Sp. io5),khist-hdmand. Ner.taptaf^a sa nma»- 
saJi foikshubhe [dvipado * babhuva]. Whether Awfsa/£a=hisa/£a (?) 
has anything to do with hiz or khiz= Pahlavi akhizidanftt, N. P. 
'htzidan, is a question. I follow tradition without etymological 
help; perhaps we might as well write the word like the better 
known form as a conjecture. 

* The Pahlavi translator makes the attempt to account forthe epithet 
1 manly- minded' as applied to Keresaspa while yet he fled affrighted ; 
he says : Hdmanrf mardminbnih hana yehevun</, afghaj libbem- 
man pavan gas dirt ; Ner.asya paurushamanasatvam * ida.m babhuva 
yad asau £aitanyam sthane dadhau, ' his manly-mindedness was this, 
that he kept his wits on the occasion.' See the same story treated 
somewhat differently in the Yarts by Darmesteter (p. 295, note 2). 

t Or, Skh&tdan5. 

Digitized by 


YASNA IX. 235 

O H(a)oma ! for the corporeal world ? What blessed- 
ness was given him ? what gain did he acquire ? 

13. Thereupon gave H(a)oma answer, he the holy, 
and driving death afar : Pourushaspa 1 was the fourth 
man who prepared me for the corporeal world. This 
blessedness was given him, this gain did he acquire, 
that thou, O Zarathustra ! wast born to him, the just, 
in Pourushaspa's house, the D(a)6va's foe, the friend 
of Mazda's lore, (14) famed in Airyena Vae^ah ; and 
thou, O Zarathustra ! didst recite the first the Ahuna- 
vairya a , four times intoning it, and with verses kept 
apart [(Pazand) each time with louder and still 
louder voice]. 

1 5. And thou didst cause, O Zarathurtra ! all the 
demon-gods to vanish in the ground who aforetime 
flew about this earth in human shape (and power. 
This hast thou done), thou who hast been the 
strongest, and the staunchest, the most active, and 
the swiftest, and (in every deed) the most victorious 
in the two spirits' 3 world. 

16. Thereupon spake Zarathurtra: Praise to 
H(a)oma. Good is H(a)oma, and the well-endowed, 
exact and righteous in its nature, and good inhe- 
rently, and healing, beautiful of form, and good in 
deed, and most successful in its working 4 , golden- 
hued, with bending sprouts. As it is the best for 
drinking, so (through its sacred stimulus) is it the 
most nutritious 6 for the soul. 

1 7. I make my claim on thee, O yellow one ! for 

1 Son of Paltirasp or Sp&arasp; Bundahu XXXII, 1, 2, &c. 
* The Ahuna-vairya is in the Githic dialect, and in the Ahuna- 
vaiti metre ; it may have been composed by Z. It named the Gatha. 
8 Comp. Y. XXX, 6? * Free. 

' Comp. pathmoig gavdi. 

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236 YASNA IX. 

inspiration 1 . I make my claim on thee for strength ; 
I make my claim on thee for victory ; I make my 
claim on thee for health and healing (when healing 
is my need) ; I make my claim on thee for progress 
and increased prosperity, and vigour of the entire 
frame, and for understanding 2 , of each adorning kind, 
and for this, that I may have free course among our 
settlements, having power where I will, overwhelm- 
ing angry malice, and a conqueror of lies. 

18. Yea, I make my claim on thee that I may 
overwhelm the angry hate of haters, of the D(a)evas 
and of mortals, of the sorcerers and sirens 3 , of the 
tyrants *, and the Kavis, of the Karpans, murderous 
bipeds, of the sanctity-destroyers, the profane apos- 
tate bipeds, of the wolves four-footed monsters, of 
the invading host, wide-fronted, which with strata- 
gems 8 advance. 

19. This first blessing I beseech of thee, O 
H(a)oma, thou that drivest death afar ! I beseech 
of thee for (heaven), the best life of the saints, the 
radiant, all-glorious 6 . 

This second blessing I beseech of thee, O 
H(a)oma, thou that drivest death afar! this body's 
health (before that blest life is attained). 

This third blessing I beseech of thee, O H(a)oma, 
thou that drivest death afar ! the long vitality of life. 

1 Or, is madhem related to medha as well as mazdS (fem.) ? 
9 Pahl. farzinakfh. 

8 Hardly * witches ; ' outwardly attractive, but evil female beings. 
1 Pahl. sastSrano. 

6 Pahl. pavan frfft&rfh ; Ner. pratSranatayl 
* Visp6-Ai>&threm does not mean 'comfortable' here. Zfoan 
is the root; comp. Aveng=sun. 

Digitized by 


YASNA IX. 237 

20. This fourth blessing I beseech of thee, 
H(a)oma, thou that drivest death afar! that I may 
stand forth on this earth with desires gained l , and 
powerful, receiving satisfaction, overwhelming the 
assaults of hate, and conquering the lie. 

This fifth blessing, O H (a)oma, I beseech of thee, 
thou that drivest death afar! that I may stand 
victorious on earth, conquering in battles 2 , over- 
whelming the assaults of hate, and conquering the 

21. This sixth blessing I ask of thee, O H(a)oma, 
thou that drivest death afar ! that we may get good 
warning of the thief, good warning of the murderer, 
see first the bludgeon-bearer, get first sight of the 
wolf. May no one whichsoever get first the sight of 
us. In the strife with each may we be they who get 
the first alarm ! 

22. H(a)oma grants to racers 3 who would run a 
course with span both speed and bottom (in their 
horses). H(a)oma grants to women come to bed 
with child a brilliant offspring and a righteous line. 

H(a)oma grants to those (how many!) who have 
long sat searching books, more knowledge and more 

23. H(a)oma grants to those long maidens, who 
sit at home unwed, good husbands, and that as soon 
as asked, he H(a)oma, the well-minded. 

24. H(a)oma lowered Keresani 4 , dethroned him 
from his throne, for he grew so fond of power, that 

1 Pahl. min ^z/astar. 2 Pahl. vanWir pavan kushln8. 

" Arva»td=aurva»td ; so the Pahl. arvand. 

4 Comp. the Vedic Kroanu, archer and demi-god who guarded 
the Soma. Ner. seems to notice that the name recalls that 
of the Christians. 

Digitized by 


238 YASNA IX. 

he treacherously said: No priest behind 1 (and watch- 
ing) shall walk the lands for me, as a counsellor to 
prosper them, he would rob everything of progress, 
he would crush the growth of all ! 

25. Hail to thee, O H(a)oma, who hast power as 
thou wilt, and by thine inborn strength ! Hail to 
thee, thou art well-versed in many sayings, and true 
and holy words. Hail to thee for thou dost ask no 
wily questions, but questionest direct. 

26. Forth hath Mazda borne to thee, the star- 
bespangled girdle 2 , the spirit-made, the ancient one, 
the Mazdayasnian Faith. 

So with this thou art begirt on the summits of the 
mountains, for the spreading of the precepts, and the 
headings 8 of the Mathra, (and to help the MSthra's 

27. O H(a)oma, thou house-lord, and thou clan- 
lord, thou tribe-lord, and chieftain of the land, and 
thou successful learned teacher, for aggressive 
strength I speak to thee, for that which smites with 
victory, and for my body's saving, and for manifold 
delight ! 

28. Bear off from us the torment and the malice 
of the hateful. Divert the angry foe's intent ! 

What man soever in this house is violent and 
wicked, what man soever in this village, or this 
tribe, or province, seize thou away the fleetness from 

1 So the Pahlavi, before others, read apas ; comp. fras. 

* Haug's keen-sighted suggestion, pourvanim=paurva=the 
Pleiades + nt= leading the P., looks doubtful, and seems refuted 
by Yart XXIV, 29, where Darmesteter renders a word probably 
akin, as ' the many.' I would here render ' the former.' 

s The ' grasp,' the ' summary of them.' 

Digitized by 


YASNA IX. 239 

his feet ; throw thou a veil of darkness o'er his 
mind ; make thou his intellect (at once) a wreck ! 

29. Let not the man who harms us, mind or 
body, have power to go forth on both his legs, or 
hold with both his hands, or see with both his eyes, 
not the land (beneath his feet), or the herd before 
his face. 

30. At the aroused and fearful 1 Dragon, green, 
and belching forth his poison, for the righteous 
saint that perishes, yellow H(a)oma, hurl thy mace 2 ! 

At the (murderous) bludgeon-bearer, committing 
deeds unheard of 8 , blood-thirsty, (drunk) with fury, 
yellow H(a)oma, hurl thy mace ! 

31. Against the wicked human tyrant, hurling 
weapons at the head, for the righteous saint that 
perishes, yellow H(a)oma, hurl thy mace ! 

Against the righteousness-disturber, the unholy 
life-destroyer, thoughts and words of our 4 religion 
well-delivering, yet in actions never reaching, for 
the righteous saint that perishes, yellow H(a)oma, 
hurl thy mace ! 

32. Against the body of the harlot, with her magic 
minds o'erthrowing with (intoxicating) pleasures 6 , to 
the lusts her person offering, whose 6 mind as vapour 
wavers as it flies before the wind, for the righteous 
saint that perishes, yellow H(a)oma, hurl thy mace! 

1 Pahl. sakhmakan ; Ner. bhayawkare. 

* Or, ' strike thy club.' ' ' Deeds apart,' ' evil deeds.' 

* Free. » Or, 'holding.' 

' Ye^he" must be an error ; otherwise ' offering the person to him 
whose mind as vapour wavers.' 

Digitized by 


240 YASNA X. 


1. Let the Demon-gods and Goddesses fly far 
away 1 from hence, and let the good Sraosha make 
here his home ! [And may the good Blessedness 
here likewise dwell], and may she here spread delight 
and peace within this house, Ahura's, which is sanc- 
tified by H(a)oma, bringing righteousness (to all). 

2. At the first force of thy pressure, O intelligent ! 
I praise thee with my voice, while I grasp at first 
thy shoots. At thy next pressure, O intelligent ! I 
praise thee with my voice, when as with full force of 
a man I crush thee down. 

3. I praise the cloud that waters thee, and the 
rains which make thee grow on the summits of the 
mountains ; and I praise thy lofty mountains where 
the H(a)oma branches spread 2 . 

4. This wide earth do I praise, expanded far 
(with paths), the productive, the full bearing, thy 
mother, holy plant ! Yea, I praise the lands where 
thou dost grow, sweet-scented, swiftly spreading, the 
good growth of the Lord. O H(a)oma, thou grow- 
est on the mountains, apart on many paths 8 , and 
there still may'st thou flourish. The springs of 
Righteousness most verily thou art, (and the foun- 
tains of the ritual find their source in thee) ! 

1 The Pahlavi as corrected by the MS. of Dastur Hoshanggi 
(j&maspgi has baii akhar min latamman pa</£nd bari sh£d&-; 
Ner. i?»te paf&it asm&t prapatanti, rite devSA rrte devasahaySA 
devyaA, uttamaA .SVcwo nivasati. 

* Or, 'where, O Haomal thou hast grown,' reading — Ira with 
Barth. as 2nd sing. perf. pret. middle. 

' Or, ' on the pathways of the birds.' 

Digitized by 



5. Grow (then) because I pray to thee on all thy 
stems and branches, in all thy shoots (and tendrils) 
increase thou through my word ! 

6. H(a)oma grows while he is praised, and the 
man who praises him is therewith more victorious. 
The lightest pressure of thee, H(a)oma, thy feeblest 
praise, the slightest tasting of thy juice, avails to the 
thousand-smiting of the D(a)£vas. 

7. Wasting doth vanish from that house, and with 
it foulness, whither in verity they bear thee, and 
where thy praise in truth is sung, the drink of 
H(a)oma, famed, health-bringing (as thou art). 
[(Pazand) to his village and abode they bear him.] 

8. All other toxicants go hand in hand with Rapine 
of the bloody spear, but H (a)oma's stirring power goes 
hand in hand with friendship. [Light is the drunken- 
ness of H(a)oma (Pazand).] 

Who as a tender son caresses H(a)oma, forth to 
the bodies of such persons H(a)oma comes to heal. 

9. Of all the healing virtues, H(a)oma, whereby 
thou art a healer, grant me some. Of all the vic- 
torious powers, whereby thou art a victor, grant me 
some. A faithful praiser will I be to thee, O H (a)oma, 
and a faithful praiser (is) a better (thing) than Right- 
eousness the Best ; so hath the Lord, declaring (it), 

10. Swift l and wise hath the well-skilled 2 Deity 
created thee ; swift and wise on high Haraiti did He, 
the well-skilled, plant thee. 

11. And taught (by implanted instinct) on every 

1 Having immediate effect, and giving wisdom. 
* Comp. Y. XLIV, 5. 

[3i] R 

Digitized by 


242 YASNA X. 

side, the bounteous 1 birds have carried thee to the 
Peaks-above-the-eagles 2 , to the mount's extremest 
summit, to the gorges and abysses, to the heights of 
many pathways 3 , to the snow-peaks ever whitened. 

12. There, H(a)oma, on the ranges dost thou 
grow of many kinds. Now thou growest of milky 
whiteness, and now thou growest golden ; and forth 
thine healing liquors flow for the inspiring of the 
pious. So terrify away from me the (death's) aim 
of the curser. So terrify and crush his thought who 
stands as my maligner. 

13. Praise be to thee, O H(a)oma, (for he makes 
the poor man's thoughts as great as any of the 
richest whomsoever.) Praise be to H(a)oma, (for he 
makes the poor man's thoughts as great as when 
mind reacheth culmination.) With manifold retainers 
dost thou, O H(a)oma, endow the man who drinks 
thee mixed with milk ; yea, more prosperous thou 
makest him, and more endowed with mind. 

14. Do not vanish from me suddenly like milk- 
drops in the rain ; let thine exhilarations go forth 
ever vigorous and fresh ; and let them come to me 
with strong effect. Before thee, holy H(a)oma, thou 
bearer of the ritual truth, and around thee would I 
cast this body, a body which (as all) may see (is fit 
for gift and) grown 4 . 

15. I renounce with vehemence the murderous 
woman's * emptiness, the 6aini's, hers, with intellect 

1 Possibly ' the birds taught by the bounteous one ; ' the ' God- 
taught birds.' 

1 Elsewhere and here also possibly a proper name. 

• Or the ' pathways of the birds ; ' so Haug, following Spiegel 
and Justi. Gu^rati, as above. 

4 Which is seen as mine well-grown. 

1 Gaini seems always used in an evil sense in the later Avesta. 

Digitized by 


YASNA X. 243 

dethroned K She vainly thinks to foil us, and would 
beguile both Fire-priest and H(a)oma ; but she her- 
self, deceived therein, shall perish. And when she 
sits at home 2 , and wrongly eats of H(a)oma's offer- 
ing, priest's mother will that never make her, nor 
give her holy 8 sons ! 

1 6. 4 To five do I belong, to five others do I not ; 
of the good thought am I, of the evil am I not ; of 
the good word am I, of the evil am I not; of the 
good deed am I, and of the evil, not. 

To Obedience am I given, and to deaf disobedi- 
ence, not ; to the saint do I belong, and to the 
wicked, not ; and so from this on till the ending shall 
be the spirits' parting. (The two shall here divide.) 

1 7. Thereupon spake Zarathustra : Praise to 
H(a)oma, Mazda-made. Good is H(a)oma, Mazda- 
made. All the plants of H(a)oma praise I, on the 
heights of lofty mountains, in the gorges of the 
valleys, in the clefts (of sundered hill-sides) cut for 
the bundles bound by women. From the silver cup 
I pour Thee to the golden chalice over 6 . Let me 
not thy (sacred) liquor spill to earth, of precious 

18. These are thy Gathas 6 , holy H(a)oma, these 

1 I would correct to a form of khratu. 

* Compare the avoiding the service mentioned by the Pahlavi 
translator on Y. LIH, 5. 

8 Or, more safely, ' many sons.' * Haoma speaks. 

5 Here the priest evidendy manipulates the cups containing the 

• The application of this term here seems to point to a high 
antiquity for the Haoma Yart ; if not in the present piece, which is 
not so old as the Gathas, then in previous hymns to Haoma of which 
this Yart is an improvement, or extension. 

R 2 

Digitized by 


244 YASNA XI. 

thy songs, and these thy teachings \ and these thy 
truthful ritual words, health 2 -imparting, victory- 
giving, from harmful hatred healing giving. 

19. These and thou art mine, and forth let thine 
exhilarations flow ; bright and sparkling let them 
hold on their (steadfast) way ; for light are thine 
exhilaration(s), and flying lightly come they here. 
Victory-giving smiteth H(a)oma, victory-giving is 
it worshipped ; with this Gathic word we praise it. 

20. Praise to the Kine ; praise and victory (be) 
spoken to her! Food for the Kine, and pasture! 
' For the Kine let thrift use toil ; yield thou us food 8 .' 

2 1 . We worship the yellow lofty one ; we worship 
H(a)oma who causes progress, who makes the settle- 
ments advance; we worship H(a)oma who drives 
death afar ; yea, we worship all the H(a)oma plants. 
And we worship (their) blessedness, and the Fravashi 
of Zarathurtra Spitama, the saint 4 . 

Prelude to the H(a)oma-offering 6 . 

1. Three clean creatures (full of blessings) curse 
betimes while yet invoking, the cow, the horse, and 
then H(a)oma. The cow cries to her driver* thus : 

1 Ner. possibly figuratively y&i kawKt asvadan&A. 

1 Ner. saundaryaw. s See Y. XLVIII, 5. 

4 The YSNhe- Mtam follows. 

* This characteristic fragment is repeated and extended in the 
later literature of the Parsis. The curse of the cow, horse, and of 
Haoma (scilicet the priest) when they are stinted, was extended 
to all domestic animals. It has been difficult to avoid the full 
metrical rhythm of the original with its jingling cadence. A full 
freedom is also not avoided. 

• Not ' to the priest ; ' Ner. gr/hftaram. 

Digitized by 


YASNA XI. 245 

Childless be thou, shorn of offspring, evil-famed, and 
slander-followed, who foddered l fairly dost not use 
me, but fattenest me for wife or children, and for thy 
niggard selfish meal. 

2. The horse cries to his rider thus : Be not 
spanner a of the racers ; stretch no coursers to full- 
speed ; do not stride across the fleetest, thou, who 
dost not pray me swiftness in the meeting thick 
with numbers, in the circuit thronged with men. 

3. H(a)oma speaks his drinker thus : Childless be 
thou, shorn of offspring, evil-famed, and slander- 
followed, who holdest me from full outpouring, as a 
robber, skulls in-crushing. No head-smiter 'am I 
ever, holy H(a)oma, far from death 4 . 

4. Forth my father gave an offering, tongue and 
left eye chose Ahura, set apart for H(a)oma's meal. 

5. Who this offering would deny me, eats himself, 
or prays it from me, this which Mazda gave to bless 
me, tongue with left eye (as my portion). 

6. In his house is born no fire-priest, warrior ne'er 
in chariot standing, never more the thrifty tiller. In 
his home be born Dah&kas, Murakas of evil practice, 
doing deeds of double nature. 

7. Quick, cut off then H(a)oma's portion, gift of 
flesh for doughty H(a)oma! Heed lest H(a)oma 

1 * Who dost not give me cooked (food) ' seems improbable. If 
Asastam means fodder, why is it fern., especially here with a 
feminine correlative? I think that 'having good food' is the 
meaning of the word, as an adjective, and agreeing with gam 
understood. Possibly, ' who dost not bestow upon me as the one 

' Dialectically used. 

* 'Light is the intoxication of Haoma;' (other toxicants smite 
the head). 

• ' Having death afar.* 


Digitized by 


246 YASNA XI. 

bind thee fettered, as he bound the fell Turanian 
Frangrasyan 1 (the murderous robber) fast in iron 
close-surrounded in the mid-third 2 of this earth ! 
8. Thereupon spake Zarathastra 3 : Praise to H(a)oma 
made by Mazda, good is H(a)oma Mazda-made. 

9. * Who to us is one hereupon to thee (becomes) 
two, to be made to three, for the five 6 -making of the 
four, for the seven-making of the sixth, who are your 
nine in the decade (?), who serve you and with zeal*. 

10. T To thee, O holy H(a)oma! bearer of the 
ritual sanctity, I offer this my person which is seen 
(by all to be) mature, (and fit for gift) ; to H(a)oma 
the effective do I offer it, and to the sacred exhilara- 
tion which he bestows; and do thou grant to me (for 
this), O holy H(a)oma ! thou that drivest death afar, 
(Heaven) the best world of the saints, shining, all 

1 A Turanian king. 

* Observe the threefold division of the earth; see it also in 
Vend. II. 

* A poetical reproduction. Z. had been long among the ancient 

4 The Raspi at present hands the Haoma-cup to the priest at 
this point ; the efficacy of the liquor is supposed to be multiplied. 

• Pe«daidyii is to be read as of course; the letter 0, not unlike t 
in a MS. when turned, was probably half inverted. 

• This seems rendered by the Pahlavi as an interlude between 
the Ratu and the Zaotar; comp. Y. XXVIII, n. Several broken 
sentences from other parts of the Avesta are here doubtfully 
recalled, perhaps as having especial sanctity. 

7 The Raspi brings the Haoma-vessel to the Baresman at this 
point ; and touching its stand, the Mah-ru, lays a cloth on the 
•right hand of the Zaotar, who, looking at the vessel, proceeds to 
recite as follows in verse 10. 

Digitized by 



1 1. (The Ashem Vohu, &c.) 

12-15. May'st Thou rule at Thy will, O Lord 1 ! 

16. I confess myself a Mazdayasnian of Zara- 
thurtra's order-'. 

1 7. 3 1 celebrate my praises for good thoughts, 
good words, and good deeds for my thoughts, my 
speeches, and (my) actions. With chanting praises 
I present all good thoughts, good words, and good 
deeds, and with rejection I repudiate all evil thoughts, 
and words, and deeds. 18. Here I give to you, O 
ye Bountiful Immortals! sacrifice and homage with 
the mind, with words, deeds, and my entire person ; 
yea, (I offer) to you the flesh of my very body (as 
your own). And I praise Righteousness. A bless- 
ing is Righteousness (called) the Best, &c. 


The Mazdayasnian Confession*. 

1. I drive 6 the Da£vas hence; I confess as a 
Mazda-worshipper of the order of Zarathustra, 
estranged from the Dadvas, devoted to the lore of 

1 See Y. VIII, 5-8. » See Y. Ill, 24, 25. 

8 This piece is in the Githic dialect, and therefore an especially 
fitting prelude to the Confession of faith in Y. XII. 

4 This piece in the Githic dialect has claims to higher antiquity 
next after the Haptanghaiti. Its retrospective cast shows that it 
is later than the original period. Verse 7 savours of a later date 
with its reference to the plants and waters. That Zarathurtra, 
Kavi VtftSspa, Frashaortra, and (JamSspa are named by no means 
proves that they were still living. Still, they are not mentioned 
with any fanciful or superstitious exaggeration; they are not yet 

6 As a partial explanation of naismi * from nas, compare the 
aorist nerat. Possibly also from nad, ' I curse the demons.' 

Digitized by 



the Lord, a praiser 1 of the Bountiful Immortals; and 
to Ahura Mazda, the good and endowed with good 
possessions, I attribute all things good, to the holy 
One, the resplendent, to the glorious, whose are all 
things whatsoever which are good ; whose is the 
Kine, whose is Asha (the righteous order pervading 
all things pure), whose are the stars, in whose lights 
the glorious beings and objects are clothed 2 . 

2. And I choose Piety, the bounteous and the 
good, mine may she be 3 . And therefore I loudly 
deprecate all robbery * and violence against the 
(sacred) Kine, and all drought 6 to the wasting of 
the Mazdayasnian villages. 

3. Away from (?) their thoughts do I wish to lead 
(the thought of) wandering at will, (away the thought 
of) free nomadic pitching of the tent, for I wish to re- 
move (?) all wandering from 6 (their) Kine which abide 
in steadfastness upon this land ; and bowing down in 
worship to Righteousness I dedicate my offerings 
with praise so far as that. Never may I stand as a 
source of wasting, never as a source of withering to 
the Mazdayasnian villages, not for the love 7 of body 
or of life. 

4. Away do I abjure the shelter and headship of the 

1 And sacrificer. 

• A genuine citation from the Gtthas (see Y. XXXI, 7). 

* A genuine allusion to the Gathas (Y. XXXII, 2). 

4 This preserves the proper reading of tayur&i (so the Pahlavi) 
in Y. XXIX, 1. 

• Viyipa/ as beyond a doubt ; so viy£pem in verse 3. 

* Fr£ has the same force as in fra perenaoiti (?), to fill forth, to 
empty. Otherwise, 'forth to their thoughts I offer in my prayer 
free ranging at their choice, and a lodging where they will, to- 
gether with their cattle which dwell upon this land.' 

T Comp. nairi-£inangh6, khratu-iinanghd, and sha£td-£inangh6. 

Digitized by 



Dadvas, evil as they are ; aye, utterly bereft of good, 
and void of virtue, deceitful in their wickedness, of 
(all) beings those most like the Demon-of-the-Lie, the 
most loathsome of existing things, and the ones the 
most of all bereft of good. 

5. Off, off, do I abjure the Daevas and all pos- 
sessed by them, the sorcerers and all that hold to ' 
their devices, and every existing being of the sort ; 
their thoughts do I abjure, their words- and actions, 
and their seed (that propagate their sin) ; away do I 
abjure their shelter and their headship, and the ini- 
quitous of every kind who act as Rakhshas act! 

Thus and so in very deed might Ahura Mazda 
have indicated * to Zarathu-rtra in every question 
which Zarathurtra asked, and in all the consultations 
in the which they two conversed together. 6. Thus 
and so might Zarathurtra have abjured the shelter 
and the headship of the Daevas in all the questions, 
and in all the consultations with which they two con- 
versed together, Zarathustra and the Lord. 

And so I myself, in whatsoever circumstances 
I may be placed, as a worshipper of Mazda, and of 
Zarathurtra's order, would so abjure the Daevas and 
their shelter, as he who 2 was the holy Zarathustra 
abjured them (once of old). 

7. To that religious sanctity 3 to which the waters 
appertain, do I belong, to that sanctity to which the 
plants, to that sanctity to which the Kine of blessed 
gift 4 , to that religious sanctity to which Ahura 
Mazda, who made both Kine and holy men, belongs, 

1 Reading adakhshayaM ; otherwise khshayaeta, commanded. 
* The Pahlavi structure ' he who ' foreshadowed, as often. 
' Not in the sense of recompense here. 
4 Observe this original meaning; 'butter' is here impossible. 

Digitized by 


250 , YASNA XIII. 

to that sanctity do I. Of that creed which Zara- 
thustra held, which Kavi Vfotaspa, and those two, 
Frashaostra and (^amaspa ; yea, of that religious 
faith which every Saoshya»t who shall (yet come 
to) save (us), the holy ones who do the deeds of 
real significance, of that creed, and of that lore, 
am I. 

8. A Mazda-worshipper I am, of Zarathustra's 
order ; (so) do I confess, as a praiser and confessor, 
and I therefore praise aloud the well-thought thought, 
the word well spoken, and the deed well done ; 

9. Yea, I praise at once the Faith of Mazda, the 
Faith which has no faltering utterance 1 , the Faith 
that wields the felling halbert 2 , the Faith of kindred 
marriage, the holy (Creed), which is the most impos- 
ing, best, and most beautiful of all religions which 
exist, and of all that shall in future come to know- 
ledge, Ahura's Faith, the Zarathustrian creed. Yea, 
to Ahura Mazda do I ascribe all good, and such 
shall be the worship of the Mazdayasnian belief! 


Invocations and Dedications. 

1. I address (my invocation to) Ahura Mazda. 
And I invoke (among guardian beings) the chief of 

1 Fraspavaokhedhram ; ' y ' miswritten for * v.' Fra seems to be 
prohibitive ' speech without falling, or hesitation ; ' better as adj. 

* Comp. Y. XXXI, 18. 

' This Ratu is the description and representation of the Nmand- 
paiti as occupying the attention of the worshippers chiefly at the 
time of his mention in the course of the ritual. (I vary the ex- 
pression ' chief with that of ' lord ' here for the sake of change.) 
Once established as a Ratu in the ritual, he became a guardian 
genius Nmanya ; so of the others. (Y. XIII is in the Gathic dialect.) 

Digitized by 


the house-lord, and the chief of the Vis-lord 1 , and the 
chief of the Zawtu-lord 2 . And I invoke the chief of 
the province-lord 8 . And the chief of women I in- 
voke, the Mazdayasnian Faith, the blessed and good 
Pare«di *, her who is the holy one of human-kind s . 
And I invoke this (holy) earth which bears us. 

2. And I invoke the friendly and most helpful 
person's lord, the Fire of Ahura Mazda, and also the 
most energetic lords of holy men, those who are 
most strenuous 7 in their care of cattle and the fields, 
and the chief of the thrifty tiller of the earth. And 
I invoke the steady settler 8 of sanctity, (and) the 
chief of the charioteer. 

3. And I invoke the chief of the fire-priest by 
means of the most imposing sciences of the Mazda- 
yasnian Faith. And I invoke the chief of the 
Atharvan, and his pupils I invoke ; yea, the lords of 
each of them. I invoke these lords, and I summon 
the Bountiful Immortals here, and the Prophets who 
shall serve us, the wisest as they are, the most scru- 

' Visya. * Zawtuma. * DaA»yuma=Dahyuma. 

4 The goddess of riches. 

* Lit. biped; see elsewhere where quadruped means merely beast. 
" Or, 'households.' . 

7 Ashethw6zgatema (several manuscripts have ashe) finds its 
explanation from the Pahlavi of Dastur Hoshanggi GamSspgi's MS. 
It may be read kabed rang- rasirntum instead of kabed ydm raswn- 
tum. The ancient error of ydm arose from the fact that the 
copyist had before him a form which might be read either xbg 
or rang-, the characters being identical for either word. He could 
not reconcile himself to rang' in the sense of effort, and so decided 
for rog; but in order to guide his successors aright, he changed 
it for its synonym y6m, which, as Spiegel well remarks, affords but 
little sense. But the word is rang 1 , as I believe, and this is at once 
corroborated by Ner.'s bahukle sz. Read ar + thwakhra + gatemS = 
kabed + rang- + rasun turn, the most progressing with painful energy. 

* Or, ' steadiest forces.' 

Digitized by 



pulous in their exactness (as) they utter words (of 
doctrine and of service), the most devoted (to their 
duties likewise), and the most glorious in their 
thoughts (?) 1 . And I invoke the most imposing 
forces of the Mazdayasnian Faith, and the fire-priests 
I invoke, and the charioteers, the warriors, and the 
thrifty tillers of the soil. 

4. And to You, O Ye Bountiful Immortals! Ye who 
rule aright, and dispose (of all) aright, I offer the flesh 
of my very frame, and all the blessings of my life. 

Thus a the two spirits 3 thought, thus they spoke, 
and thus they did ; 

5. And therefore as Thou, O Ahura Mazda ! 
didst think, speak, dispose, and do all things good 
(for us), so to Thee would we give, so would we 
assign to Thee our homage ; so would we worship 
Thee with our sacrifices. So would we bow before 
Thee with these gifts, and so direct our prayers to 
Thee with confessions of our debt. 

6. By the kinship of the good kindred *, by that 
of Righteousness the good (Thy righteous servant's 
nature) would we approach Thee, and by that of the 
good thrift-law, and of Piety the good. 

7. And we would worship the Fravashi of the 
Kine of blessed gift 6 , and that of the holy Gaya 
Maretan, and we would worship the holy Fravashi • 

1 I should think that the reference was here to khratav5, Y. 
XL VI, 3. See Y. XXXII, 14, as alternatively rendered. 

* A portion of the text has here fallen out. 

s The recognition of a strong dualism here is imperative. Ahura 
alone is praised. 

4 Or, ' of the good kinsman, the lord (?).' 

• Elsewhere meaning ' meat,' just as Ameretata/ and Haurvata/ 
mean wood and water. ' Or, • sanctity and the Fravashi' 

Digitized by 



of Zarathu-rtra Spitama, the saint. Yea, that one 
of beings do we worship whose better (service) 
in the sacrifice Ahura Mazda knows; (even those 
women do we worship) whose 1 (better service thus 
is known). Yea, both (holy) men and women (do 
we worship whom Ahura Mazda knows 2 ). As the 
Ahu is excelling, so is our Ratu, one who rules from 
the Righteous Order, a creator of mental goodness, 
and of life's actions done for Mazda ; and the Kingdom 
is to Ahura which to the poor (may offer) nurture s . 

A blessing is the Right called the best, there is 
weal, there is weal to this (man), when toward Right- 
eousness Best (he does) right 2 . 

8. We worship the Ahuna-vairya ; and we worship 
Asha Vahirta the best (?), the bountiful Immortal. 
And we sacrifice to the Hi fraoreti, even to the con- 
fession and laudation of the Mazdayasnian Faith ! 


1. I will come to You, O Ye Bountiful Immortals! 
as a praiser and a priest, and an invoker and sacri- 
ficer, as a memorising reciter and a chanter, for Your 
sacrifice and homage, which are to be offered to You, 
the Bountiful Immortals, and for our dedication and 
sanctification ; (yea, for ours) who are the holy pro- 
phets (destined to benefit the saints). 

2. And to You, O Ye Bountiful Immortals 2 ! would 
I dedicate the flesh of my very body s , and all the 
blessings of a prospered life 4 . 

3. In this Zaothra with this Baresman, I desire to 

1 Feminine. * Elsewhere with verbal difference. 

• See Y. XXXIII, 14. * Verses 1, 2 are Gathic. 

Digitized by 


254 YASNA XV. 

approach the holy Yazads with my praise \ and all 
the holy lords of the ritual order at their times, 
Havani at his time, and Savanghi andVisya at their 
times. 4. I confess myself a Mazdayasnian, and of 
Zarathimra's order 2 . 

5. The Zaotar speaks : As an Ahu (revered and) 
chosen, the Zaotar (?) speaks forth to me (?). 

The Ratu speaks: As an Ahu (revered and) to be 
chosen, the Zaotar speaks forth to me. 

The Zaotar : So let the Ratu from his Righteous- 
ness, holy and learned, speak forth ! 

The Sacrifice continues. 

1. With precept, praise, and with delight produced 
by grace 3 , I call upon the Bountiful Immortals the 
good, and also therewith the beautiful by name * ; 
and I sacrifice to them with the blessing of the good 
ritual, with the earnest blessings of the good Mazda- 
yasnian Faith. 

2. Whose best gift from his Righteousness is mine 
in the offering Ahura this knoweth ; who have lived, 
and live ever, by their names these I worship, while 
I draw near with praises 5 . The Good Kingdom is 
to be chosen, that lot which most of all bears on (our 
blessings 6 ). 

3. Let Sraosha (Obedience) be here present for 

• See Y. II, 18. s See Y. Ill, 24, 25. 

3 Root rap=rabh, a reception of grace, or being received by 

4 Naman may be meant for a locative ; ' with the beautiful things 
in their name (?).' 

• See Y. LI, 22. • See Y. LI, 1. 

Digitized by 



the sacrifice of Ahura Mazda, the most beneficent, 
the holy, who is so dear to us as at the first, so at 
the last ; yea, let him be present here \ 

4. As the Ahu (revered and) to be chosen, the 
Atarevakhsha thus speaks forth to me. 

(Response) : So let the Ratu from his righteous- 
ness, holy and learned, speak forth ! 


The Sacrifice continues with increased 
fulness of expression. 

1. We worship Ahura Mazda, the holy lord of the 
ritual order, who disposes (all) aright, the greatest 
Yazad, who is also the most beneficent, and the one 
who causes the settlements to advance, the creator 
of good creatures ; yea, we worship Him with these 
offered Zaothras, and with truthfully and scrupu- 
lously delivered words ; and we worship every holy 
Yazad of the heaven (as well) ! 

2. And we worship Zarathurtra Spit4ma in our 
sacrifice, the holy lord of the ritual order with these 
Zaothras and with faithfully delivered words ; and 
we worship every holy earthly Yazad as we worship 
him ; and we worship also the Fravashi of Zarathurtra 
Spitama, the saint. And we worship the utterances 
of Zarathu-rtra and his religion, his faith and his 

3. And we worship the former religions of the 
world 2 devoted to Righteousness which were insti- 

1 This fragment in the GSthic dialect might more properly be 
placed before the Sr6sh Yart. 

* So the Pahlavi translator, probably reading angheu s ; otherwise 

Digitized by 



tuted at the creation, the holy religions of the 
Creator Ahura Mazda, the resplendent and glorious. 
And we worship Vdhu Manah (the Good Mind), and 
Asha Vahi-rta (who is Righteousness the Best), and 
Khshathra-vairya, the Kingdom to be desired, and 
the good and bountiful Aramaiti (true piety in the 
believers), and Haurvata/ and Ameretata/ (our Weal 
and Immortality). 

4. Yea, we worship the Creator Ahura Mazda and 
the Fire, Ahura Mazda's son, and the good waters 
which are Mazda-made and holy, and the resplendent 
sun of the swift horses, and the moon with the seed 
of cattle (in his beams ') ; and we worship the star 
Tirtrya, the lustrous and glorious ; and we worship 
the soul of the Kine of blessed endowment, (5) and its 
Creator Ahura Mazda ; and we worship Mithra of the 
wide pastures, and Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed, 
and Rashnu the most just, and the good, heroic, 
bountiful Fravashis of the saints, and the Blow-of- 
victory Ahura-given (as it is). And we worship 
Raman //z/astra, and the bounteous Wind of blessed 
gift, (6) and (its) Creator Ahura Mazda, and the good 
Mazdayasnian Religion, and the good Blessedness 
and Ama/. 

And we worship the heaven and the earth of 
blessed gift, and the bounteous Mathra, and the 
stars without beginning (to their course), self-dispos- 
ing as they are. 

7. And we worship the glorious works of Right- 
eousness in which the souls of the dead find satis- 
faction and delight [(Pazand) which are the Fravashis 

*of the conscience that loves the right.' In Yart XIII, 118 the 
word is a proper name through an error. 

1 Possibly in allusion to the menses. The moon is masc. 

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of the saints], and we worship (Heaven) the best 
world of the saints, shining, all glorious. 

8. And we worship the two, the milk-offering and 
the libation, the two which cause the waters to flow 
forth 1 , and the plants to flourish, the two foes who 
meet the Dragon * demon-made ; and who are set to 
meet, to defeat, and to put to flight, that cheat 2 , the 
Pairika, and to contradict the insulting malice of the 
Ashemaogha (the persecuting heretic) and that of the 
unholy tyrant full of death 3 . 

9. And we worship all waters and all plants, and 
all good men and all good women. And we worship 
all these Yazads, heavenly and earthly 4 , who are 
beneficent and holy. 

10. And we worship thee (our) dwelling-place who 
art the (earth, our) bounteous Aramaiti 6 , and Thee, 
O Ahura Mazda, O holy Lord of this abode 9 ! which 
is the home of healthy herds and healthy men, and 
of those who are both endowed with health and 
lover(s) of the ritual right 

(Response of the individual worshipper (?).) Where- 
fore whichever of persons, or whatever of bodily in- 
fluences, is most helpful and preserving in that abode 
(thus owned by Mazda) let this meet me in mine 
abode, and there may it abide for summer and for 
winter. (Or 7 let that one meet me in all my house, 

1 We cannot mistake a connection here with y6 ahiz« ^aghana — 
aySsrigzt sartave sapta sfndhun. 

* Or is it possible that a plague of mice is meant, mflj being 
here indeclinable ? 

' Ordering the execution of many of his subjects. 
4 Ga&hyafci with J 3, Ku. 

* Later association of A. and the earth. 
' Originally recited in private houses. 

7 Alternative. 

[31] S 

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in whom are what of influences are the most mighty 
power for the body and the person's life ; yea, let 
that one meet me there, and there abide for summer 
and for winter (for my help) !) 

To the Fires, Waters, Plants, &c. 

i-io 1 , 11. We worship thee, the Fire, O Ahura 
Mazda's son ! We worship the fire Berezi-savangha 
(of the lofty use 2 ), and the fire Vohu-fryana (the 
good and friendly 3 ), and the fire Urvazirta (the 
most beneficial and most helpful 4 ), and the fire 
VazLrta (the most supporting *), and the fire Spmi-rta 
(the most bountiful 8 ), and Nairya-sangha the Yazad 
of the royal lineage 7 , and that fire which is the 
house-lord of all houses and Mazda-made, even the 
son of Ahura Mazda, the holy lord of the ritual 
order, with all the fires. 

12. And we worship the good and best waters 
Mazda-made, holy, all the waters Mazda-made and 
holy, and all the plants which Mazda made, and 
which are holy. 

1 See chapter VI, which is nearly identical with XVII, 1-10. 
8 This fire is that before Ahura Mazda and the kings. 
3 This fire dwells in the bodies of men and beasts (animal 

* This is in trees and plants. 

* This in the clouds (lightning). 

6 This is the fire which is applied in the world (Bundahu, West, 
page 61). 

7 That N. is here referred to as connected with the fire, seems 
certain; this fire corresponds with that of Vahrara in places of 

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1 3. And we worship the M2thra-spe#ta (the boun- 
teous word-of-reason), the Zarathurtrian law against 
the Daevas, and its long descent. 

14. And we worship Mount Ushi-darena which is 
Mazda-made and shining with its holiness, and all 
the mountains shining with holiness, and of abundant 
glory, and which Mazda made — . 

1 5. And we worship the good and pious prayer 
for blessings, (16) and these waters and (these 
lands), (17) and all the greatest chieftains, lords of 
the ritual order 1 ; 

18. And I praise, invoke, and glorify the good, 
heroic, bountiful Fravashis of the saints, those of 
the house, the Vis, the Za»tuma, the DaAzyuma 2 , 
and the Zarathu-rtrdtema, and all the holy Yazads * ! 


1. Grant me, Thou who art maker of the Kine, 
plants and waters, Immortality, Mazda ! Grant, too, 
Weal, Spirit bounteous — . 


Zand or Commentary on the Ahuna-vairya 
Formulas 8 . 

(As the Ahu is excellent, so (is) the Ratu (one who 
rules) from the righteous Order, a creator of mental 
goodness and of life's actions done for Mazda ; and 

1 1-17 occur also in MSS. as Y. LIX, 1-17. 

2 Dahyuma. • The Y6Nh6 hatSm follows. 
* See Y. LI, 7, and Y. XLVII. 

6 The obvious errors contained in this ancient comment cannot 

S 2 

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the Kingdom (is) for Ahura which to the poor shall 
offer a nurturer.) 

i. Zarathartra asked of Ahura Mazda : O Ahura 
Mazda, Thou most bounteous Spirit ! maker 1 of the 
corporeal worlds, the holy One ! which was that 
word which Thou did'st declare to me, (2) which 
was before the sky, and before the water, before the 
earth, and before the cattle, before the plants, and 
before the fire, and before the holy man, and the 
Demon-gods (the Daevas), before the Khrafstra- 
men 2 , and before all the incarnate world; even 
before all the good creatures made by Mazda, and 
which contain (and are) the seed of righteousness ? 

3. Thereupon Ahura Mazda said: It was this 
piece s , the Ahuna-vairya, O Spitama Zarathurtra ! 
which I pronounced as thine (4) before the sky, and 
before the waters, before the land, and before the 
cattle and the plants, and before the fire, Ahura 
Mazda's son, before the holy man 4 , and before the 
Daevas, and Khrafstra-men, and before the entire 
corporeal world, even before the good creatures 
made by Mazda, which contain (and are) the seed 
of righteousness. 

5. It was these part(s) of the Ahuna-vairya, O Spi- 

destroy its great interest as a specimen of early exegesis. Where 
I hold it to be erroneous may be seen from my rendering of the 
Ahuna without further observations. The Ahuna-vairya is in the 
Gathic dialect, and the Ahunavaiti metre. This Zand is in the 
Zend (sic). Ahu gives better sense as a nom. 

1 See dounghdi/ para below. 

' May not khrafstra be a degeneration from kehrp-astar? 
While the term may be applied to wild beasts, one is strongly 
inclined to hold that foul insects are chiefly referred to. 

* This part of the Ahuna (?), meaning its several parts. 

4 Tradition naturally specifies Gaya Maretan. 

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tama Zarathurtra! which especially belongs to me, and 
when each is intoned aloud without the (needless) re- 
petition 1 of verses and of words, and without their 
omission, it is worth a hundred of their other stanzas, 
even although they are prominent in the ritual, and 
likewise equally as well recited without additions or 
omissions; nay, further, when it is intoned imperfectly 
but added to, and with omissions, it is even then in 
effect equivalent (not to a hundred indeed, but) to ten 
other (stanzas) that are prominent. 
/6. And whoever in this world of mine which is 
corporeal shall mentally recall, O Spitama* Zarathu- 
stra. ! a portion of the Ahuna-vairya, and having thus 
recalled it, shall undertone it, or beginning to recite 
it with the undertone, shall then utter it aloud, or 
chanting it with intoning voice, shall worship thus, 
then with even threefold (safety and with speed 2 ) I 
will bring his soul over the Bridge of Alnva/, I who 
am Ahura Mazda (I will help him to pass over it) 
to Heaven (the best life), and to Righteousness the 
Best, and to the lights of heaven 3 . 

7. And whoever, O Spitama Zarathustra ! while 
undertoning the part(s) of the Ahuna-vairya (or this 
piece the Ahuna-vairya), takes ought therefrom, 
whether the half, or the third, or the fourth, or the 
fifth, I who am Ahura Mazda will draw his soul off 

1 I do not think that mispronunciation is here intended; the 
Pahlavi has abarS shutakth; aighaj bard Id khelmuneV; Ner. 
na jete. I am strongly inclined to read anapashuta for ana- 

* Three times seems to me to lack meaning, but it may have 
given rise to a foolish belief that the soul went three times before 
death to heaven. 

* Vahuta&byd retaining this sense here. 

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from the better world ; yea, so far off will I withdraw 
it as the earth is large and wide ; [and this 1 earth 
is as long as it is broad *]. 

8. And I pronounced this saying which contains 
its Ahu and its Ratu 3 before the creation of this 
heaven, before the making of the waters, and the 
plants, and the four-footed kine, before the birth of 
the holy biped man, before this sun with its body 
made for the acquisition of the creation of the 
Bountiful Immortals*. 

9. "And the more bountiful G of the two Spirits 
(Ahura) declared to me' (Zarathurtra) the entire 
creation of the pure, that which exists at present, 
that which is in the course of emerging into exist- 
ence 8 , and that which shall be, with reference to the 
performance and realisation ' of the actions of a life 
devoted to Mazda 9 .' 

10. And this word is the most emphatic of the 
words which have ever been pronounced, or which 
are 10 now spoken, or which shall be spoken in future; 
for (the eminence of) this utterance is a thing of such 
a nature, that if all the corporeal and living world 

1 1m here equals iyam. * PSzand. 

3 So, referring to the wording of the Ahuna. 

4 Enabling us to receive the blessings which they bestow through 
the influence oF the sun. ' The sun-shaped matter ' would give 
us a materialism. The Pahlavi has ' levin& min zak khurkhsh§do 
brtnft (?) kerpo tanu 1 khurkhsh£</ pavan baii ayipakih 1 ameshd- 
spendanS yehabun*/.' 

6 I hold that Ahura speaks no further here. 

• See Y. XLV, 1. 

7 Of course fictitious, as Z. had long been among the dead. 

• Does bavai«ti£a mean ' past ? ' 

• Through the state of action ; fkyaothananam angh«u Mazddi. 
10 Can mruy£(-v£) be a third singular like ghn&, is6 ? 

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should learn it, and learning should hold fast by it, 
they would be redeemed from their mortality ! 

11. And this our word I have proclaimed as a 
symbol to be learned 1 , and to be recited, as it were, 
to every one of the beings under the influence of 
and for the sake of Righteousness the Best. 

1 2. And * as ' (the worshipper has) here spoken it 
forth, when he has thus ' appointed ' the ' Lord and 
regulator V so (by thus reciting these authoritative 
words), he acknowledges Ahura Mazda (as prior to, 
and supreme) over, those creatures who have ' the 
mind' 3 as their first. ' As ' he acknowledges Him 
as the greatest of them all, ' so ' he assigns the crea- 
tures to Him (as to their originator). 

1 3. As he undertones the third sentence, he there- 
by announces that 'all the amenities of life appertain 
to the ' good ' Mazda 4 , (and come) from Him. As 
he recites ' dazda manangh6,' ' the creator of mind,' 
he acknowledges Him as superior and prior to mind ; 
and as he makes Him the one who indicates (the 
truth) to mind, (saying) ' manangh6 of mind,' which 
means that by this much he makes Him (its director), 
and then he makes Him ' the lord of actions *.' 

14. And when he acknowledges Him for the crea- 
tures thus, ' O Mazda * ! ' he acknowledges Him (as 

1 Or, ' it has been declared to us, the learner, and the one in 
charge of the ritual.' 

s In the words yatha ahu vairyd, atha rarur. 

* See dazda mananghd, coming ' before ' fkyaothananam angrww, 
khshathrem, and vastarem. 

4 Can the Ahuna have lost words, and is Mazdau hu^tfe vang- 
heas a citation? At all events, the Zandist errs in separating 
vanghnu from mananghfi. He attributes mystical meaning to 
every word. * 

6 Comp. ahu-fkyaothananam. ' Reading Mazda (?). 

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their ruler) when he assigns the creatures to Him 
thus. He then assigns the Kingdom to Ahura 1 , 
saying : ' Thine, O Mazda ! is the Kingdom.' And he 
assigns a nourisher and protector to the poor, say- 
ing: Yim drigubyd dada/ vastarem; that is, as a 
friend to Spitama 2 . This is the fifth sentence, (and 
it concludes) the entire recital and word, (even) the 
whole of this word of Ahura Mazda 8 . 

15. He who is the best (of all) Ahura Mazda, pro- 
nounced the Ahuna-vairya, and as He pronounced it 
as the best, so He caused it to have its effect *, (He, 
ever) the same, (as He is). 

The evil one at once 6 arose (to oppose Him), but 
He (Ahura) repelled that wicked one with His inter- 
dict, and with this repelling renunciation : Neither 
our minds are in harmony, nor our precepts, nor our 
comprehensions, nor our beliefs, nor our words, nor 
our actions, nor our consciences, nor our souls 8 ! 

Catechetical Zand 7 . 

16. And this saying, uttered by Mazda, has three 
stages, or measures 8 , and belongs to four classes 
(of men as its supporters), and to five chiefs (in 
the political world, without whom its efficiency is 

1 Khshafhrem££ Ahurai a. 

* As having the interest of the poor at heart. 

5 Supposing Ahura (?) to be meant by Ahu and Ratu; see 
Mazdai Ahur&i. The Zandist may have rendered : As Ahura is 
the (first) to be chosen, so He is our Ratu from His righteousness, 
the creator of Vohuman (including all good creatures), &c. 

4 'Praised' (?). 

* Reading haithwa/; Pahlavitiz; possibly ' being present' 

* See Y. XLV, 2. 

1 This Zand diners, as to the application of Ahu and Ratu, from 
the former. 

* Afsman elsewhere applies to metre. 

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marred), and it has a conclusion ending with a gift. 
(Question.) How are its measures (constituted) ? 
(Answer.) The good thought, the good word, and 
the good deed. 17. (Question.) With what classes of 
men ? (Answer.) The priest, the charioteer (as the 
chief of warriors), the systematic tiller 1 of the ground, 
and the artisan 2 . These classes therefore accompany 
the religious man throughout his entire duty 8 with 
the correct thought, the truthful word, and the right- 
eous action. These are the classes and states in 
life which give attention to the rulers 4 , and fulfil the 
(laws) of religion ; (yea, they are the guides and com- 
panions of that religious man) through whose actions 
the settlements are furthered in righteousness. 

18. (Question.) How are the chiefs (constituted)? 
(Answer.) They are the house-chief, the village-chief, 
and the tribe-chief, the chief of the province, and the 
Zarathurtra s as the fifth. That is, so far as those 
provinces are concerned which are different from, 
and outside of the Zarathustrian regency, or domain. 
[Ragha e which has four chiefs (only) is the Zarathu- 
strian (district) ]. (Question.) How are the chiefs of 
this one constituted ? (Answer.) They (are) the house- 
chief, the village-chief, the tribe-chief, and the Zara- 
thustra as the fourth. 19. (Question.) What is the 
thought well thought ? (Answer.) (It is that which 
the holy man thinks), the one who holds the holy 
thought to be before all other things 7 . (Question.) 

1 These are ' the poor/ but not mendicants. 

a A class not in the Gathas ; observe the rise of a caste system. 

' Or, ' experience.' * Or, * the ritual' 

8 The title of a governor. 

• It did not need the fifth. It was a centre of rule. 

T Ashavan manas paoiryd. 

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266 YASNA XX. 

What is the word well spoken ? (Answer.) It is the 
Mathra Spe#ta\ the bounteous word of reason. 
(Question.) What is the deed well done ? (Answer.) 
It is that done with praises 2 , and by the crea- 
tures who regard Righteousness as before all other 
things. 20. (Question.) Mazda made a proclamation, 
whom did He announce ? (Answer.) Some one who 
was holy, and yet both heavenly and mundane 8 . 
(Question.) What was His character, He who made 
this sacred enunciation ? (Answer.) He who is the 
best (of all), the ruling one. (Question.) Of what 
character (did He proclaim him the coming one) ? 
(Answer.) As holy and the best, a ruler who exer- 
cises no wanton or despotic power 4 . 

21. We sacrifice to the (several) part(s) of the 
Ahuna-vairya. We sacrifice to the memorised re- 
cital of the Ahuna-vairya, and its regular chanting 
and its use in the full Yasna. 


Zand, or Commentary, on the Ashem VohO. 

1. A blessing is Righteousness (called) the best ; 
there is weal, there is weal to this man .when the 
Right (helps) the Righteousness best, (when the 
pious man serves it in truth 5 ). Ahura Mazda 
spake forth : Ashem vohu valmtem astl. To this 
Asha, the holy ritual sanctity, one attributes the 

1 Probably the Gathas with their lost portions, also the VendJdad. 
8 Ritual strictness based upon practical piety. 
3 The Saoshya«t. 

* The latter part of this Zand shows that the Ratu was recog- 
nised as a human ruler in it. 

" Elsewhere verbally different; 'when Asha is for A.V.' 

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YASNA XX. 267 

qualities of ' good ' and ' best,' as one attributes pro- 
perty to an owner ; thus this sentence vohu vahlrtem 
astt is substantiated (at once 1 ). 

2. Usta astl urta ahmai ; by this attribution of 
blessedness (the praiser) assigns every person (or 
thing) of a sacred nature to every holy person, and 
as one usually (?) and regularly (?) 2 assigns every 
person or thing (?) 3 that is holy to every holy man. 

3. Yya^ ashai vahirtai * ; by these words the wor- 
shipper ascribes the entire Mathra (to Asha VahLsta), 
and ascribes all to the MSthra, as one ascribes the 
kingdom to Righteousness, and as one ascribes 
righteousness to the invoking saint ; yea, as one 
ascribes righteousness to us who are the prophets 
(who shall help and bless the people). The three 
maxims of the sentences (are thus fulfilled). And 
every word (in its detail), and the entire utterance in 
its proclamation, is the word of Ahura Mazda. 

Catechetical Addition 6 . 

4. Mazda has made a proclamation. (Question.) 
Whom did He announce ? (Answer.) That holy 
one who is both heavenly and earthly. (Question.) 
Of what character is He who has thus announced 
Him? '(Answer.) He is the best, and the one who 
is exercising sovereign power. (Question.) Of what 
character is the man whom H e announced ? (Answer.) 

1 It is carried into effect; possibly 'rendered fit for praising ' (?). 
4 The Pahlavi indicates n& stiitya (?). 

* Ashavanem here and in Y. XIX, 19 might be a neuter from 
a transition, or addition. 

4 'Ashem.' 

* This Catechetical addition is identical with that in Y. XIX. 
The wording alone is slightly altered in the translation to relieve 
the sameness. 

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The holy and the best, the one who rules with no 
capricious tyranny. 

We sacrifice to the (several) part(s) of the Asha 
VahLrta (prayer). We sacrifice to the heard-recital 
of the Asha Vahirta, to its memorising, its chant- 
ing, and its sacrificial use 1 ! 


Catechetical Zand, or Commentary upon the 
Yenhe hAtAm 2 . 

(The YeNhe\ (To that one) of beings do we 
offer, whose superior (fidelity) in the sacrifice Ahura 
Mazda recognises by reason of the sanctity (within 
him ; yea, even to those female saints also do we 
sacrifice) whose (superior fidelity is thus likewise 
known ; thus) we sacrifice to (all, to both) the males 
and females (of the saints) !) 

1 The YeNhS hatam follows. 

2 The expressions in this prayer were suggested by Y. LI, 22 ; 
but the Zand does not consistently follow the thoughts in the 
GStha. Tmi understood should be supplied as an object for 
yazamaide' in connection with y$Nh£, as well as tauski for young- 
ham. In Y. LI, 22, it is, however, by no means certain that yazai 
applies to a tern y£hya\ Holding the twenty-first verse in mind, 
I am obliged to refer y6hyS to na spe«t6. Here, however, men and 
women are worshipped, as it is improbable that the ' Immortals ' 
whose names are in the feminine are meant The prayer is in 
the Gathic dialect, and ancient metre would hardly contain so 
artificial a formation. It can only be defended from the Xeng 
yazai Av&is nanwnu of Y. LI, 22. 

Or did the composer of the prayer correctly render Y. LI, 22, 
and boldly write his succinct words as being clear to his hearers 
from explanations which are now lost ? Such explanations (oral 
or written) as a matter of course existed from the first. No com- 
poser fails to discuss his productions. 

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i. A word for the Yasna by Zarathurtra, the saint. 
YeNhd, &c. H ere the worshipper indicates and offers 
the Yasna (which is the sacrificial worship) of Mazda 
as by the command (or as the institution) of Ahura 1 . 
HatSm. Here the worshipper offers the sacrificial 
worship as if with the beings who are among those 
who are destined to live 2 . 2. YaunghSm. Here he 
indicates and offers the sacrificial worship of those 
holy females who have Aramaiti at their head 3 , as 
homage to the Immortals. These are the three 
sentences which comprehend all the Yasnian speech. 
(Question.) To whom is this Yasna addressed? 
(Answer.) To the Bountiful Immortals (in the course 
of the Yasna). 3. Thereupon spake Mazda : Salva- 
tion to this one, whosoever he may be ! May the 
absolute ruler Ahura grant it. (Question.) 4. Whom 
did He answer with this answer? (Answer.) He 
answered : The state of salvation ; and with this 
answer, ' the state of salvation,' he answered^ every 
saint who exists, every one who is coming into exist- 
ence, and every one who shall exist in the future. 
(Question. Who answered thus ? Answer.) The 
best One. (Question. What did He answer ?) 
(Answer.) The best thing. (That is,) the best One, 
Mazda, answered the best and the holy (answer) for 
the better and the holy man. 5. We sacrifice to this 
piece, the Ye^he" hatam, the prominent and holy 

1 Referring ye^he" to Ahura (?). J Fit to live, clean. 

* The Ameshdspends whose names are in the feminine ; so the 
Zandist erroneously. 

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The Sacrifice continues. 

1. With the Baresman brought hither together 
with the Zaothra, for the worship of the Creator 
Ahura Mazda, the resplendent, the glorious, and for 
that of the Bountiful Immortals, I desire to approach 
this Haoma with my praise, offered (as it is) with 
punctilious sanctity (or, for a blessing), and this fresh 
milk, and this plant Hadhana£pata. 2. And, as an 
act of worship to the beneficent waters, I desire to 
approach these Zaothras with (my) praise offered (as 
they are) with punctilious sanctity, having the 
Haoma with them, and the flesh, with the Hadhi- 
naepata. And I desire to approach the Haoma- 
water.with my praise for the beneficent waters ; and 
I desire to approach the stone mortar and the iron 
mortar with my praise. 3. And I desire to approach 
this plant for the Baresman with my praise, and the 
well-timed prayer for blessings, that which has 
approached (to accept our homage), and the memo- 
rised recital and the fulfilment of the good Mazda- 
yasnian Faith, and the heard recital of the Gathas, 
and) the well-timed and successful prayer for bless- 
ings, that of the holy lord of the ritual order. And 
I desire to approach these wood-billets and their 
perfume with my praise, — thine, the Fire's, O Ahura 
Mazda's son ! Yea, I desire to approach all good 
things with my praise, those which Mazda made, and 
which have the seed of sanctity (within them), (4) for 
the propitiation of Ahura Mazda and of the Bountiful 

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Immortals, and of Sraosha the blessed, and of Ahura 
Mazda's Fire, the lofty ritual lord 1 ! 

20. And I desire to approach this Haoma with 
(my) praise, that which is thus lifted up with sanctity, 
and this milk (fresh as it is, and as if) living and 
lifted up with sanctity, and this plant the Hadhana£- 
pata lifted up with sanctity. 21. And I desire to 
approach these Zaothras with (my) praise for the bene- 
ficial waters, these Zaothras which have the H(a)oma 
with them and the milk with them, and the Hadhana£- 
pata, and which are lifted up with sanctity. And I 
desire to approach the Haoma-water with (my) praise 
for the beneficial waters, and the two mortars, the 
stone one and the iron one, (22) and I desire to 
approach this branch for the Baresman with my 
praise, and the memorised recital and fulfilment of 
the Mazdayasnian law, and the heard recital of the 
Gathas, and the well-timed and persistent prayer for 
blessings (uttered) by the holy lord 2 of the ritual order, 
and this wood and perfume, even thine, O Fire, Ahura 
Mazda's son, and all good objects Mazda-made (23) 
for the propitiation of Ahura Mazda, the resplendent, 
the glorious, and of the Bountiful Immortals, and of 
Mithra of the wide pastures, and of Raman Hv astra 3 , 
(24) and of the resplendent sun, immortal, radiant, of 
the fleet horses, and of Vayu, (of predominant influ- 
ence and) working on high, set over the other beings 
in the creation [(PAzand) ; that is for thee thus 
(O Vayu) when thine influence is that which apper- 

1 '5-19= Y. Ill, 5-19; 20-23=1-4 from imem. 

* The priest? (Repetitions are, as everywhere, curtailed and 

' For closer rendering of details, see verses 2, 3, 4, which differ 
chiefly in the final dedication. 

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tains to Spe»ta Mainyu x ], and for the propitiation 
of the most just knowledge Mazda-given, and of the 
holy and good Religion, the Mazdayasnian Faith; 

(25) for the propitiation of the MSthra Spe#ta, (the 
bounteous) and holy, and the effective, instituted 
against the Daevas, the Zarathurtrian law, and of the 
long descent of the good Mazdayasnian Faith 2 [the 
holding in mind and devotion to the MSthra Spe»ta, 
and knowledge of the Mazdayasnian Religion] for the 
propitiation of the understanding which is innate and 
Mazda-made, and of that which is heard by the ear ; 

(26) and for thy propitiation, the Fire's, O Ahura 
Mazda's son ! [(Pazand) ; (yea) thine, the Fire's, O 
Ahura Mazda's son] with all the fires, and for the 
propitiation of Mount Ushi-darena, the Mazda-made, 
radiant with sanctity ; (27) and of all the holy Yazads, 
spiritual and earthly, and of the holy Frayashis, the 
redoubted and overwhelming, those of the ancient 
lore, and those of the next of kin and of the Yazad 
of the spoken name ! 


The Fravashis of the Saints; Prayers for 
their approach 3 . 

i. I desire to approach with my praise 4 those 
Fravashis which have existed from of old, the 
Fravashis of the houses, and of the villages, of the 
communities, and of the provinces, which hold the 

1 And not the evil Vayu, which appertains to Angra Mainyu. 
s Insert, ' and of the good Zarathur trian devotion.' 
8 This chapter is said to be reserved for funeral occasions. 
* Or, ' I pray for the approach.' See Y. XXVI. 

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heaven in its place apart, and the water, land, 
and cattle, which hold the children in the wombs 
safely enclosed apart so that they do not; miscarry. 
2. And I desire to approach toward the Fravashi * 
of Ahura Mazda, and with my praise, and for 
those of the Bountiful Immortals, with all the holy 
Fravashis which are those of the heavenly Yazads. 
And I desire to approach the Fravashi of Gaya 
Maretan (the life-man) in my worship with my praise, 
and for that of Zarathurtra Spitama, and for those of 
Kavi Vfatispa, and of Isa/-vastra 2 , the Zarathurtrian, 
with all the holy Fravashis of the other ancient 
counsellors as well. 3. And I desire in my worship 
to approach toward every holy Fravashi whosesoever 
it may be, and wheresoever dead upon this earth (its 
possessor may have lain), the pious woman, or the 
girl of tender years, the maiden diligent (among the 
cattle) in the field (who) may have dwelt (here ; yea, 
all) which are now worshipped from this house 8 , 
which are attentive to, and which attain to (our) 
good Yasnas and (our) homage. 4. Yea, I desire to 
approach the Fravashis of the saints with my praise, 
redoubted (as they are) and overwhelming, the 
Fravashis of those who held to the ancient lore, and 
the Fravashis of the next-of-kin ; and I desire to ap- 
proach toward the Fravashi of mine own * soul in my 
worship with my praise ; and I desire therewith to 
approach toward all the lords of the ritual, and with 

1 Fravashi seems a dative ; comp. utf. 

a Zarathujtra's eldest son by his wife Padokhshah ; he was the 
chief of priests according to tradition. 

* This Yasna was recited from house to house. 

4 The 'own' soul; notice the seeming distinction between 
Fravashi and soul. 

[3i] T 


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praise ; and I desire to approach all the good Yazads 
with my praise, the heavenly and the earthly, who 
are meet; for sacrifice and homage, because of 
Righteousness the Best! 

i . (And having approached these Haomas with our 
worship), we present them to Ahura Mazda ; (yea, we 
present) these Haomas, Myazdas, Zaothras, and the 
Baresman spread with punctilious sanctity, and the 
flesh, and the milk, fresh as if living, and lifted up 
with punctilious sanctity, and this branch the Hadh- 
anaepata likewise lifted up with sanctity. 

2. (And having approached these Zaothras in our 
worship), we present them to the good waters having 
the Haoma with them, and the milk, and the HadhinaG- 
pata, and lifted up with scrupulous sanctity ; and (with 
them) we present the Haoma-water to the good 
waters, and both the stone and the iron mortar. 

3. And we present this plant of the Baresman, and 
the timely prayer for blessings, which has approached 
in the due course of the ritual, and the recollection 
and practice * of the good Mazdayasnian Religion, 
and the heard recital of the Gathas, and the timely 
prayer for blessings which has approached as the 
prayer of the holy lord of the ritual order ; and these 
wood-billets, and the perfume, (even) thine, the Fire's, 
O Ahura Mazda's son ! and all good objects Mazda- 
made, which have the seed of righteousness, we offer 
and present. 4. And these we present hereby to 
Ahura Mazda, and to Sraosha (Obedience) the 

1 Or the memorised recital and performance of its rites. 

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blessed (and Righteous), and to the Bountiful Im- 
mortals; and to the Fravashis of the saints, even 
to the souls of the saints, and to the Fire of Ahura 
Mazda, the lofty lord of entire holy creation, for 
sacrifice, homage, propitiation, and for praise. 

5. And these we present hereby to the Fravashi 
of Zarathurtra Spitama, the saint, for sacrifice, pro- 
pitiation, and for praise, and to that of the people x 
who love Righteousness, with all the holy Fravashis 
of the saints who are dead and who are -living, and 
to those of men who are as yet unborn, and to those 
of the prophets who will serve us, and will labour to 
complete the progress and renovation of the world 2 . 

6. And we present these Haomas, Myazdas, Zao- 
thras, and the Baresman spread with sanctity, and 
the flesh, and the milk (fresh as if) living, and lifted 
up with sanctity, and the Hadhana£pata branch. 

7. And we present these Zaothras to the beneficial 
waters having the Haoma with them, and the flesh, 
and the Hadhanaepata lifted up with sanctity, and 
the Haoma-water, to the good waters, with the stone 
and iron mortars, (8) and this plant of the Baresman, 
(and) the timely Prayer and the recollection and 
practice of the good Mazdayasnian Faith 3 , and 
these wood-billets, and the perfume, thine, the Fire's, 
O Ahura Mazda's son! and all objects which are 
Mazda-made, and which have, and are, the seed of 
Righteousness, these we offer and present. 

9. (Yea,) we present these hereby to the Bountiful 
Immortals who rule aright, and who dispose of all 

1 Elsewhere perhaps, erroneously, as a proper name: or read 

1 Pahlavi frashakanf kar<£r£n. 

* ' And the heard recital of the Gathas.' 

T 2 

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aright, the ever-living, ever-helpful, who abide with 
the Good Mind (of the Lord and of His folk') ! 


1. And we worship the Bountiful Immortals with 
our sacrifice, who rule aright, and who dispose of all 
aright ; and we worship this Haoma, this flesh and 
branch, (2) and these Zaothras for the good waters, 
having the Haoma with them, and the flesh with them, 
and Hadhanaepata, and lifted up with sanctity, and we 
worship the Haoma-water for the beneficial waters ; 
and we worship the two, the stone mortar and the 
iron mortar ; (3) and we worship this plant for the 
Baresman and the well-timed prayer for blessings 
which has approached (in its proper place within the 
ritual course), and also both the remembrance and 
the practice 2 of the good Mazdayasnian Religion, and 
the heard recital of the Gathas, and the well-timed 
prayer for blessings of the holy lord of the ritual 
order which has approached, and these wood-billets 
with the perfume, (even) thine, the Fire's, O Ahura 
Mazda's son ! and we worship all good objects which 
are Mazda-made, and which contain (and are) the 
seed of Righteousness. 

4. And we worship Ahura Mazda with our sacri- 
fice, the resplendent, the glorious, and the Bountiful 
Immortals who rule aright, and who dispose (of all) 
aright, and Mithra of the wide pastures and Raman 
//oastra ; and we worship the shining sun, the re- 
splendent, the immortal, of the fleet horses. 

1 See Y. IV, 4-25, which is repeated here. Expressions are 

1 Or the memorised recital and fulfilment. 

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5. And we worship the holy wind which works on 
high, placed higher than the other creatures in the 
creation ; and we worship this which is thine, O 
Vayu ! and which appertains to the Spe»ta Mainyu 
within thee ; and we worship the most true religious 
Knowledge, Mazda-made and holy, and the good 
Mazdayasnian law. 

6. And we worship the MSthra Spe«ta verily 
glorious (as it is), even the law pronounced against 
the Daevas, the ZarathuJtrian law, and its long de- 
scent l ; yea, we worship the good Mazdayasnian 
Religion, and the Mathra which is heart-devoted and 
bounteous (imparting heart's devotion to the saint) ; 
yea, we worship the Mazdayasnian Religion main- 
tained in the understanding 2 of the saint ; and we 
honour that science which is the Mathra Spe«ta, and 
the innate understanding Mazda-made, and the de- 
rived understanding, heard with ear, and Mazda- 

7. Yea, we worship thee, the Fire, Ahura Mazda's 
son ! the holy lord of the ritual order ; and we wor- 
ship all the Fires, and Mount Ushi-darena (which 
holds the light 3 ) Mazda-made and holy, the Yazad 
mount, brilliant with sanctity. 8. And we worship 
every holy spiritual 4 Yazad ; and every holy earthly 
Yazad (who exists) ! 

1 Its long tradition. 
1 Or maintaining the understanding. 

' A sunrise or sunset mountain; see the word applied intel- 
lectually just previously, also previous notes on it. 
* That is, heavenly. 

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The Fravashis; Sacrifice and Praise to them. 

1. I praise, invoke, and weave my hymn to the 
good, heroic, and bountiful Fravashis of the saints ; 
(and having invoked these, then) we worship the 
Nmanyas, and the Vlsyas, and the Za#tumas, and 
the Da^vyumas \ and the Zarathurtr6temas. 

2. And of all these prior Fravashis, we worship 
here the Fravashi of Ahura Mazda, which is the 
greatest and the best, the most beautiful and the 
firmest, the most wise and the best in form, and the 
one that attains the most its ends because of Right- 
eousness. 3. And (having invoked them) hither, we 
worship the good, heroic, bountiful Fravashis of the 
holy ones, those of the Bountiful Immortals, the 
brilliant, of effective glance, the lofty, the devoted, 
the swift ones of the creatures of Ahura who are 
imperishable and holy. 

4. And (having invoked them) hither, we worship 
the spirit and conscience, the intelligence and soul 
and Fravashi of those holy men and women who 
early heard the lore and commands (of God 2 ), and 
loved and strove after Righteousness, the ritual 
truth ; and we worship the soul of the Kine of blessed 
gift. 5. And (having invoked it) hither, we worship 
the Fravashi of Gaya Maretan the holy, and the 
sanctity and Fravashi of Zarathurtra Spitima the 
saint ; and we worship the Fravashi of Kavi Vktaspa 
the holy, and that of Isa/-vastra the Zarathu.rtrian, 
the saint 

1 Dahyumas. * ' Of the early religion.' 

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6. And (having invoked them) hither, we worship 
the life, conscience, intelligence, soul and Fravashi 
of the next of kin, of the saints male and female 
who have striven after the ritual truth, which are 
those of the dead and living saints, and which are 
those also of men as yet unborn, of the future pro- 
phets who will help on the renovation, and complete 
the human progress, with them all. 

7. And (having invoked them) hither, we worship 
the souls of the dead [(Pazand) which are the 
Fravashis of the saints '] ; and of all the next of kin 
who have passed away in this house, of the ASthra- 
paitis (the teachers) and of the disciples ; yea, of all 
holy men and women ; (8) and we worship the 
Fravashis of all the holy teachers and disciples ; and 
of all the saints both male and female. 

9. (And having invoked them) hither we worship 
the Fravashis of all the holy children who fulfil the 
deeds of piety ; and we worship the Fravashis of 
the saints within the province ; and those of the 
saints without the province. 10. We worship the 
Fravashis of (those) holy men and holy women ; we 
worship all the good, heroic, bountiful Fravashis of 
the saints from Gaya Maretan (the first created) to 
the Saoshya»t, the victorious 2 . 

11. Yea, we worship all the Fravashis of the 
saints, and we worship the souls of the dead 
[(Pazand) which are the Fravashis of the saints] ! 

1 Whether a real distinction existed in the minds of these early 
writers, between a Fravashi and a departed soul, is hard to say. 
That a Fravashi was worshipped as existing before the person to 
whom it appertained was born, may be owing to a poetical, and 
not a dogmatic, anticipation. 

s From the Iranian Adam to the Christ of the resurrection ; see 
Yart XIX, 89, 91. 


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Prelude to the Chief Recital of the 

i. This is to render 1 Him who is of all the greatest, 
our lord 2 and master 3 (even) Ahura Mazda. And this 
to smite * the wicked Angra Mainyu, and to smite 
A£shma of the bloody spear, and the Mazainya 
Da£vas, and to smite all the wicked Varenya 

2. And this is to further Ahura Mazda, the re- 
splendent, the glorious, to further the Bountiful 
Immortals, and the influences of the star Tirtrya, the 
resplendent, the glorious, (and) to the furtherance of 
the holy man, and of all the (bountiful and) holy crea- 
tures of the Bounteous Spirit 

3-5 5 . 6. The Haomas are crushed, O Mazda, 
Khshathra, and Asha, O ye Lords ! Good is Sraosha 
who accompanies the sacrifice with the great glory ', 
and may he be present affording strenuous help. 

7. We are offering saving acts of wisdom and of 
worship with the sacred gift of the Ahuna-vairya 
intoned with sanctity, and of the two mortars here 

1 Dazdyai would be an infin. for an imperative ; but it here refers 
to the Ahuna. We might say, ' Let this render,' &c. 

* See Y. XXXIV, 5. 

s Referring to the Ahu and Ratu of the Ahuna, but with 
erroneous application. 

• Comp. Vend. XIX, 9 (Wg.). 

8 The Ahuna appears here in the MS. with Y. XXXIV, 5, the & 
airyrtna, and the Ashem Vohu. 
' Maza rayi ; otherwise mazaraya, with greatness (see Y. XLIII, 

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brought forward 1 with holy act, and with that of the 
correctly uttered words likewise ; and therefore may 
they be to us the more saving in their wise signifi- 

8-12 *. 13. As the Ahu is excellent, so is the 
Ratu (one who rules) from (his) sanctity, a creator 
of mental goodness, and of life's actions done for 
Mazda ; and the Kingdom (is) for Ahura, which to 
the poor may offer a nurturer. 14. (What is Your 
Kingdom, Your riches ; how may I be Your own 
in my actions, to nourish Your poor, O Mazda ? 
Beyond ; yea, beyond all we declare You, far from 
DaSvas and Khrafstra-accursed mortals 3 !) 

15. We worship the Ahuna-vairya. We worship 
Asha Vahuta, the most beautiful 4 , the Bountiful 
Immortal 6 . 


Yasna HaptanghAiti. 

With the Yasna of the ' Seven Chapters ' which ranks next in 
antiquity after the Gathas, we already pass into an atmosphere 
distinct from theirs. The dialect still lingers, but the spirit is 
changed. We have advanced personification of the Bountiful 
Immortals; that is, their personification seems more prominent, 
while the ideas of which they are the personification already, and 
to a proportionate degree, have grown dim. The name Amesha 
Spewta occurs : the Fravashis appear ; the Fire is worshipped, the 
Earth, and the Grass. 

To the waters, to the Soul of the Kine, and to all holy or clean 

1 Here the Parsi priests now manipulate the mortars. 

2 See Y. XXXIII, 11-14 ; and Y. I, 23, and Y. XII. 

• See Y. XXXIV, 15. The Ashem follows. 

• Or, ' the best.' 

• The YSnM hatlm follows. For Y. XXVIH-XXXIV, see the 
Githa Ahunavaiti above, pp. 3-194. 


Digitized by 



beings, the very word yazamaide 4 is applied for the first time. On 
the other hand, many later objects of worship are totally absent, 
the six seasons of the creation, the five divisions of the day, the 
five GSthas, Zarathortra, the Baresman, the Haoma, &c. A con- 
siderable period of time must have elapsed since the GSthas had 
been composed, and a lengthy period must also be supposed to 
have passed before the Avesta of the later type began to be sung 
and recited. The chapter numbered XLII in the Vendid&d Sadah 
of Brockhaus (1850), and in the edition of Westergaard (185a), 
and numbered XLI, 18-35 in Spiegel's edition, seems a later ad- 
dition ; but it cannot be very much later, as it preserves the dialect 
and general features. An intentional imitation is not probable. 
Spiegel has included it with chapter XLI to preserve the number 
• seven;' and if the entire section is to be called ' the Yasnas of the 
Seven Chapters,' it should most certainly not be numbered XLII 1 
I so number merely to follow Westergaard, as do the first two 
parts of these translations from the Avesta. This portion should 
neither be incorporated with chapter XLI, nor numbered as a sepa- 
rate one ; it should be noted as a supplement. The name ' Seven 
Chapters ' was of course given to the pieces long after their com- 

Praise to Ahura and the Immortals ; Prayer for 
the Practice and Diffusion of the Faith. 

1. We sacrifice to Ahura Mazda, the holy Lord 
of the ritual order, and to the Bountiful Immortals, 
who rule aright, who dispose of all aright ; and we 
sacrifice to the entire creation of the clean, the 
spiritual and the mundane, with the longing blessing 
of the beneficent ritual, with the longing blessing of 
the benignant Religion, the Mazdayasnian Faith. 

2. We are praisers of good thoughts, of good 
words, and of good actions, of those now and those 
hereafter 1 [(Pazand) of those being done, and of those 

1 The Pahlavi translator, as so often, first saw the proper expla- 
nation here. 

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completed]. We implant 1 (?) them (with our homage, 
and we do this) the more, and yet the more since we 
are (praisers) of the good (from whom they spring). 

3. That, therefore, would we choose, O Ahura 
Mazda ! and thou, O Righteousness the beauteous ! 
that we should think, and speak, and do those 
thoughts, and words, and deeds, among actual good * 
thoughts, and words, and actions, which are the best 
for both the worlds ; (4) and together with these 
gifts (?) and actions which are thus the best, we 
would pray for the Kine (which represents the pure 
creation), that she may have comfort and have 
fodder from the famed, and from the humble, from 
the potent and the weak. 

5. To the best of good rulers (is) verily the King- 
dom, because we render and ascribe it to Him, and 
make it thoroughly His own (?), to Mazda Ahura 
do we ascribe it, and to Righteousness the Best. 
6. As thus both man or woman knows (the duty), 
both thoroughly and truly, so let him, or her, declare 
it and fulfil it, and inculcate it upon those who may 
perform it as it is. 7. We would be deeply mindful 
of Your sacrifice and homage, Yours, O Ahura 
Mazda ! and the best, (and we would be mindful) of 
the nurture of the Kine. And that let us inculcate 
and perform for You according as we may, and (for) 
such (praisers as we are). 

8. Under the shelter 3 of the ritual Order let us do 
so in the active fulfilment 3 of its (precepts) toward 
every one of the (clean) and better creatures which 

1 Or, we are ' purifiers,' or ' adorners.' Tradition ' spreading from 
man to man,' so thoroughly implanting themselves; comp. per- 
haps nid. 

* Hatam in this sense. ' Or, « in the house and stall.' 

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are fit to live 1 , with a gift for both the worlds. 
9. Yea, those words and sayings, O Ahura Mazda ! 
we would proclaim as Righteousness, and as of the 
better mind (?) ; and we would make Thee the one 
who both supports (us in our proclamation) of them, 
and who throws still further light upon them (as 
they are), 

10. And by reason of Thy Righteous Order, Thy 
Good Mind, and Thy Sovereign Power, and through 
the instrumentality of our praises of Thee, O 
Ahura Mazda ! and for the purpose of (still further) 
praises, by Thy spoken words, and for (still further) 
spoken words, through Thy Yasna, and for (still 
further) Yasnas (would we thus proclaim them, and 
make Thee the bestower of our light). 

To Ahura and the Fire. 

1. We would approach You two, O (Ye) primeval 
ones in the house 2 of this Thy holy Fire, O Ahura 
Mazda, Thou most bounteous Spirit ! Who brings 
pollutions to this (Thy flame) him wilt Thou cover 
with pollutions (in his turn). 2. But as the most 
friendly do Thou give us zeal, O Fire of the 
Lord ! and approach us 8 , and with the loving 
blessing of the most friendly, with the praise of the 

1 Or, ' live-stock.' 

* Or, ' in the service of the Fire ;' so the Pahlavi : consider also 
the occurrence of forms of var(e)z in the other sense in the close 
proximity. Fire temples did not exist; some shelter, however, 
must have been afforded. Also the dual pouruyS(-ve) may refer 
to Ahura and the Fire. Comp. Y. XXX, 3. Or, is it * at first ? ' 

* Possibly, * but most favoured is he whom (y«m).' 

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YASNA XXfWU ' ri'r liV 1 285 

most adored. Yea, may'st thoihappwaelrfo aid us 
in this our greatest (undertaking) among the efforts 
of our zeal. 

3. The Fire of Ahura Mazda art thou verily * ; 
yea, the most bounteous one of His Spirit, wherefore 
Thine is the most potent of all names (for grace), 
O Fire of the Lord! 4. And therefore we would 
approach Thee, (O Ahura !) with the help of Thy 
Good Mind (which Thou dost implant within us), 
with Thy (good) Righteousness, and with the actions 
and the words inculcated by Thy good wisdom ! 

5. We therefore bow before Thee, and we direct 
our prayers to Thee with confessions of our guilt, 
O Ahura Mazda ! with all the good thoughts (which 
Thou dost inspire), with all the words well said, and 
the deeds well done, with these would we approach 
Thee. 6. And to Thy most beauteous body 2 do 
we make our deep acknowledgments, O Ahura 
Mazda ! to those stars (which are Thy body) ; and 
to that one, the highest of the high, [such as the sun 
was called] ! 


To Ahura, the holy Creation, the Fravashis 
of the Just, and the Bountiful Immortals. 

1. Thus therefore do we worship Ahura Mazda, 
who made the Kine (the living creation), and the 
(embodied) Righteousness (which is incarnate in the 
clean), and the waters, and the wholesome plants, 
the stars, and the earth, and all (existing) objects 

1 V6i looks as if it represented v&( here. 
» See Y. I, 1. 

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that are good. 2. Yea, we worship Him for His 
Sovereign Power and His greatness, beneficent (as 
they are), and with priority among the Yazads x who 
abide beside the Kine (and care for her protection 
and support). 

3. And we worship Him under His name as 
Lord, to Mazda dear, the most beneficent (of 
names). We worship him with our bones, and with 
our flesh, (with our bodies and our life). And we 
worship the 2 Fravashis of the saints, of holy men, 
and holy women ; (4) and Righteousness the Best 
do we worship, the most beauteous, the Bountiful 
Immortal and that which is endowed with light in 
all things good. 

5. And we worship the Good Mind (of the Lord), 
and His Sovereign Power, and the Good Faith, the 
good law of our thrift, and Piety the ready mind 
(within Thy folk) ! 


To the Earth and the Sacred Waters. 

1. And now we worship this earth which bears 
us, together with Thy wives 8 , O Ahura Mazda! 
yea, those Thy wives do we worship which are so 
desired from their sanctity. 2. We sacrifice to their 
zealous wishes, and their capabilities, their inquiries 
(as to duty), and their wise acts of pious reverence, 

1 Or, ' with the priority in the Yasnas, (we who are they) who 

2 Tern is interpolated ; or shall we render : ' We worship Him ' 
as in the F. with adverbial use as in the Greek, and often here ? 

8 Compare the Indian gnas. The waters are wives, as is the 
earth ; below they are mothers. 

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and with these their blessedness, their full vigour 
and good portions, their good fame and ample 
wealth. 3. O ye waters ! now we worship you, you 
that are showered down, and you that stand in pools 
and vats, and you that bear forth (our loaded 
vessels ?) ye female Ahuras of Ahura, you that 
serve us (all) in helpful ways, well forded and full- 
flowing, and effective for the bathings, we will seek 
you and for both the worlds ! 4. Therefore did 
Ahura Mazda give you names, O ye beneficent 1 
ones! when He who made the good bestowed you. 
And by these names we worship you, and by them 
we would ingratiate ourselves with you, and with 
them would we bow before you, and direct our 
prayers to you with free confessions of our debt. 
O waters, ye who are productive a , and ye'maternal 
ones, ye with heat 3 that suckles the (frail and) needy 
(before birth), ye waters (that have once been) rulers 
of (us) all, we will now address you as the best, and 
the most beautiful ; those (are) yours, those good 
(objects) of our offerings, ye long of arm to reach 
our sickness, or misfortune *, ye mothers of our life I 

To the Soul of the Kine, &c. 

1. And now we sacrifice to the Kine's soul, and 
to her created body, and we sacrifice to the souls 

1 Vanguhfj with K4, &c. 

* Compare azi as applied to the Kine. 

* Compare agnayas, reading agnayd. Or is it agnivau with 
a suffix va i 

' Or, ' our sicknesses and welfare.' 

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288 YASNA XL. 

of cattle who are fit to live * (for us), and whose (we ?) 
are, such as are the same to them. 

2. And we worship the souls of those beasts 
which are tame and broken in, and of wild herds, 
and the souls of the saints wherever they were 
born, both of men and of women, whose good 
consciences are conquering in the strife against the 
Daevas, or will conquer, or have conquered. 

3. And now we worship the Bountiful Immortals 
(all) the good, and both those male 2 , and those 
female 8 (by their names). The males among them 
do we worship, ever living, and ever helpful, who 
dwell beside the pious, and the females thus the 
same. 4. As Thou, O Ahura Mazda ! hast thought 
and spoken, as thou hast determined, and hast done 
these things (effecting) what is good, therefore do 
we offer to Thee, therefore do we ascribe to Thee 
our praises, and worship Thee, and bow ourselves 
before Thee ; and therefore would we direct our 
prayers to Thee, Ahura! with confessions of our 

5. And we thus draw near to Thee together with 
the good kinship of our kindred, with that of Righte- 
ousness the blessed, and the good law of thrift and 
energy and the good Piety, the ready mind (within 
Thy folk) ! 


Prayers for Helpers. 

1. And now in these Thy dispensations, O Ahura 
Mazda ! do Thou wisely * act for us, and with abun- 

1 Live-stock. * Y6i. * Yaus&i. 

4 A fem. noun mazd&=medh£. 

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dance with Thy bounty and Thy tenderness 1 as 
touching us; and grant that reward which Thou 
hast appointed to our souls, O Ahura Mazda! 2. Of 
this do Thou Thyself bestow upon us for this world 
and the spiritual ; and now as part thereof (do Thou 
grant) that we may attain to fellowship with Thee, 
and Thy Righteousness for all duration. 

3. And do Thou grant us, O Ahura! men who 
are righteous, and both lovers and producers of the 
Right as well. And give us trained beasts for the 
pastures, broken in for riding 2 , and for bearing, (that 
they may be) in ' helpful s companionship with us, 
and as a source of long enduring vigour, and a 
means of rejoicing grace to us for this 4 . 

4. So let there be a kinsman lord for us, with the 
labourers of the village, and so likewise let there be 
the clients (or the peers *). And by the help of those 
may we arise. 

So may we be to You, O Mazda Ahura ! holy and 
true 6 , and with free giving of our gifts. 

A Prayer to Ahura as the King, the Life, 


1. Praises, and songs, and adorations do we offer 
to Ahura Mazda, and to Righteousness the Best ; yea, 
we offer and we ascribe them, and proclaim them. 
2. And to Thy good Kingdom, O Ahura Mazda! 

1 Otherwise, ' understanding which protects ' (?). 

* So the Pahlavi and Ner. * Bezvaite. * May we be rejoicing (?). 
8 Hakh<fma (=-a) replacing the airyaman of the Gathas, and 

throwing light upon its meaning. The form is irregular. 

* Or, ' holy n'shis ' (ereshayd ?). 

[31] u 

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may we attain for ever, and a good King be Thou 
over us ; and let each man of us, and so each woman, 
thus abide, O Thou most beneficent of beings, and 
for both the worlds ! 3. Thus do we render Thee, 
the helpful Yazad, endowed with good devices, the 
friend of them (who worship Thee) with (well-adjusted) 
ritual ; so may'st Thou be to us our life, and our 
body's vigour, O Thou most beneficent of beings, and 
that for both the worlds ! 

4. Aye, let us win and conquer (?) long life, 
O Ahura Mazda! in Thy grace, and through Thy 
will may we be powerful. May'st Thou lay hold on 
us to help, and long, and with salvation, O Thou 
most beneficent of beings ! 

5. Thy praisers and Mathra-speakers may we be 
called 1 , Ahura Mazda ! so do we wish, and to this 
may we attain 2 . What reward most meet for our 
deserving Thou hast appointed for the souls, O 
Ahura Mazda! (6) of that do Thou bestow on us 
for this life, and for that of mind 3 . Of that reward 
(do Thou Thyself grant this advantage), that we may 
come under Thy protecting guardianship, and that of 
Righteousness for ever. We sacrifice to that brave 
Yasna, the Yasna Haptanghaiti *, the holy, the 
ritual chief! 


A Supplement to the HaptanghAiti 8 . 

1. We worship You, O Ye Bountiful Immortals ! 
with the entire collection of this Yasna, Haptanghaiti 

1 See Y. L, 11. " Or, 'abide.' ' See Y. XXVIII, 3. 

* Here the Haptanghaiti once ended. 

* Of not greatly later origin. 

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(as we sum up all). And we sacrifice to the foun- 
tains of the waters, and to the fordings of the rivers, 
to the forkings of the highways, and to the meetings 
of the roads. 

2. And we sacrifice to the hills that run with 
torrents, and the lakes that brim with waters, and to 
the corn that fills the corn-fields ; and we sacrifice to 
both the protector and the Creator, to both Zarathu- 
.rtra and the Lord. 

3. And we sacrifice to both earth and heaven, and 
to the stormy wind that Mazda made, and to the 
peak of high Haraiti, and to the land, and all things 

4. And we worship the Good Mind (in the living) 
and the spirits of the saints. And we sacrifice to 
the fish of fifty-fins 1 , and to that sacred beast the 
Unicorn 2 (?) which stands in Vouru-kasha, and we 
sacrifice to that sea of Vouru-kasha where he stands, 
(5) and to the Haoma, golden-flowered, growing on 
the heights ; yea, to the Haoma that restores us, and 
aids this world's advance. We sacrifice to Haoma that 
driveth death afar, (6) and to the flood-streams of the 
waters, and to the great flights of the birds, and to 
the approaches of the Fire-priests, as they approach 
us from afar s , and seek to gain the provinces, and 
spread the ritual lore. And we sacrifice to the 
Bountiful Immortals all 4 ! 

1 See, however, Bundahu (West), p. 66. 

1 See Bundahij, chap. XIX, also Darmesteter, Ormuzd and 
Ahriman (pp. 148-150). 

8 Y6i ygya dflra/ points to a migration of Zaroastrianism, coming 

* For Yasna XLIII-LI, see above, pp. 98-187. 

U 2 

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A Prayer for Sanctity and its Benefits. 

i. I pray with benedictions for a benefit, and for 
the good, even for the entire creation of the holy 
(and the clean) ; I beseech for them for the (genera- 
tion which is) now alive, for that which is just coming 
into life \ and for that which shall be hereafter. And 
(I pray for that) sanctity which leads to prosperity, 
and which has long afforded shelter 2 , which goes on 
hand in hand with it 8 , which joins it in its walk, and 
of itself becoming its close companion as it delivers 
forth its precepts, (2) bearing every form of healing 
virtue which comes to us in waters *, appertains to 
cattle, or is found in plants, and overwhelming all 
the harmful malice of the Daevas, (and their ser- 
vants) who might harm this dwelling 6 and its lord, 
(3) bringing good gifts, and better blessings, given 
very early, and later (gifts), leading to successes, and 
for a long time giving shelter 6 . And so the greatest, 
and the best, and most beautiful benefits of sanctity 
fall likewise to our lot (4) for the sacrifice, homage, 
propitiation, and the praise of the Bountiful Immor- 
tals, for the bringing prosperity to this abode, and 
for the prosperity of the entire creation of the holy, 

1 Or, ' for that which is past ? ' bav3ithyai£a. 

* Dareghd-varethmanem is treated as a feminine; see also 
daregh6-varethman6 in verse 3. 

' Have we hv6-aiwisha£im, as representing some more regular 

4 Medicinal springs. 

8 This Yasna was celebrated from house to house. 

• Varethmand. 

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and the clean, (and as for this, so) for the opposition 
of the entire evil creation. (And I pray for this) as 
I praise through Righteousness, I who am benefi- 
cent, those who are (likewise of a better mind) '. 5-8. 
(See Y. VIII, 5-8.) (For Y. LI 1 1, see Gathas, pp. 

YASNA LIV 8 (Sp. LI 1 1). 

The Airy£mA-ishy6. 

1. Let the Airyaman, the desired friend and peers- 
man, draw near for grace to the men and to the 
women who are taught of Zarathustra, for the joyful 
grace of the. Good Mind, whereby the conscience 
may attain its wished-for .recompense. I pray for 
the sacred reward of the ritual order which is 
(likewise so much) to be desired ; and may Ahura 
Mazda grant 3 it, (or cause it to increase). 

2. We sacrifice to the Airymia-ishy6, the power- 
ful, the victoriously smiting, the opponent of as- 
saulting malice, the greatest of the sentences of 
the holy ritual order. And. we sacrifice to the 
bounteous Gathas that rule supreme in the ritual, 
the holy (and august). And we sacrifice to the 
Praises of the Yasna which were the productions of 
the world of old 4 . 

1 Citation from the Gathas (Y. XLV, 6). 

* This piece in the Gathic dialect, and in a metre supposed by 
some to be identical with that of the Vahi.rt6i.rti, is very old, and 
ranks with the Ahuna-vairya and Ashem Vohu in importance. 

* Or, can masata (sic) equal ' with his liberality, or majesty,' leaving 
yawtu to be understood with Ahur6 ? 

* The later Avesta notes the antiquity of the older. 

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294 YASNA LV. 

The Worship of the GAthas as concluded, and 


i. We present hereby and we make known, as 
our offering to the bountiful Gathas which rule (as 
the leading chants) within (the appointed times and 
seasons of) the Ritual, all our landed riches, and 
our persons, together with our very bones and 
tissues, our forms and forces, our consciousness, our 
soul, and Fravashi. 

2. That which Gathas (may) be to us, which are 
our guardians and defenders, and our spiritual food, 
yea, which (may) be to our souls both food and cloth- 
ing, such are these Gathas to us, guardians, and 
defenders, and (spiritual) food, even such they are, 
both food and clothing to the soul. 

And (may) they be to us (for this our offering) 
abundant givers of rewards, and just and righteous 
ones, for the world beyond the present, after the 
parting of our consciousness and body. 3. And 
may these (Praises of the Offering) come forth, and 
appear for us with power and victorious assault, with 
health and healing, with progress, and with growth, 
with preparation and protection, with beneficence 
and sanctity, and abounding with gifts 2 toward him 
who can understand ; yea, let them appear (with 
free liberality to the enlightened), let them appear as 

1 Staota YSsnya seems to designate that part of the Yasna which 
begins with the Sr6sh Yart. 

* Fraraiti ; or possibly ' to the freely giving,' (the term. ' -ti ' as a 

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YASNA LV. 295 

Mazda, the most beneficent, has produced them, He 
the one who is victorious when He smites, and who 
helps the settlements advance, for the protection, 
and the guarding of the religious order of the settle- 
ments which are now being furthered, and of those 
which shall bring salvation to us, and for the protec- 
tion of the entire creation of the holy (and the 

4. And may'st thou, (O Asha ! who abidest within 
the Gathas '), give to every holy man who comes 
with this prayer for a blessing, and endeavouring to 
help himself 2 , according to his good thoughts, and 
words, and deeds. 

5. We are therefore worshipping both the (divine) 
Righteousness and the Good Mind, and the bounti- 
ful Gathas, that rule as the leading chants within (the 
times and the seasons of) the holy ritual order. 

6. And we worship the Praises of the Yasna which 
were the production of the ancient world, those which 
are (now) recollected and put in use 3 , those which 
are now learned and taught, those which are being 
held (in mind, and so) repeated, those remembered 
and recited, and those worshipped, and thus the 
ones which further the world through grace in its 

And we worship the part(s) 4 of the Praises of the 
Yasna, and their recitation as it is heard, even their 
memorised recital, and their chanting, and their offer- 
ing (as complete). 

1 Conjectural ; see Ashem below. * Pahlavi av6 nafrtnan. 

' Recited from memory, and used in the ceremonial. 
* The part, ' each part.' 


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Introduction to the Sr6sh Vast. 

1. Let Sraosha (the listening Obedience) be pre- 
sent here for the worship of Ahura Mazda, the most 
beneficent, and holy, of him) who is desired by us as 
at the first, so at the last ; and so again may atten- 
tive Obedience be present here for the worship of 
Ahura Mazda, the most beneficent and the holy who 
(is so) desired by us. 

2. (Yea), let Sraosha (the attentive Obedience) 
be present here for the worship of the good waters, 
and for the Fravashis of the saints which are so 
desired by us, [and for (their J ) souls], as at the 'first, 
so at the last. 

And thus again may Sraosha (the listening Obedi- 
ence) be present here for the worship of the good 
waters, and for the Fravashis of the saints, which 
are so desired by us, [(and) for (their) souls]. 

3. Let Sraosha (the listening Obedience) be pre- 
sent here for the worship of the good waters ; yea, 
let the good Obedience be here for the worship of 
the good and bountiful Immortals who rule aright, 
and dispose (of all) aright, the good, and for the wor- 
ship of the good Sanctity, or Blessedness, who is 
closely knit with the Righteous Order, to perfect us, 
and to incite us. May Sraosha (Obedience) be here 
present for the worship of the good waters, he the 
good and the holy 2 , as at the first, so at the last. 

1 One might be inclined to render ' who are so desired by us 
for our souls.' But I think that the words are Pazand to the 

■ Or, * endowed with recompense.' 

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4. And so again may Sraosha, (Obedience) the 
good, be present here for the worship of the good 
waters, and of the good 1 and bountiful Immortals, 
and of Blessedness the good who is closely knit with 
the Righteous Order to perfect and to incite us 2 . 
Yea, we worship Sraosha the blessed and the stately, 
who smites with victory, and who furthers the settle- 
ments in their advance, the holy lord of the ritual 
order 8 . 

The Sr6sh Yast 4 . 

1. A blessing is Righteousness (called) the Best, 

Propitiation be to Sraosha, Obedience the blessed, 
the mighty, the incarnate word of reason, whose body 
is the MSthra, him of the daring spear, devoted to 
the Lord, for (his) sacrificial worship, homage, pro- 
pitiation, and praise. 

1 Of the female (feminine) names. 

* Or, ' give to us.' The Ahuna and Ashem Vohu follow here. 
The YSuhe' h&tam, &c. follows. 

4 As Sraosha is the only divinity of the later groups mentioned 
in the first four G&thas, this Y&rt would seem to have claims to 
antiquity next after the pieces in the G&thic dialect. The name 
Sraosha does not appear to have lost its meaning as an abstract 
quality, notwithstanding the materialistic imagery. With Y. 
XXVIII, 6 in view, where Sraosha ' finds the way ' to Ahura, or 
' finds His throne,' we may understand that the worshippers, who 
first heard this Yajt, praised listening obedience, or repentance, as 
they did nearly all the remaining abstract qualities, together with 
their principal prayers, and hymns themselves. The rhythm of the 
original has been somewhat imitated in the rendering given, as 
it is difficult to avoid doing so, and to avoid other objectionable 
features at the same time. 

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2. We worship Sraosha, (Obedience) the blessed, 
the stately, him who smites with the blow of victory, 
and who furthers the settlements, the holy, (ruling) 
as the ritual lord. Him do we worship, who in l the 
creation of Mazda the first adored Ahura, with the 
Baresman spread, who worshipped the Bountiful 
Immortals 2 (first), who worshipped both the pro- 
tector and the Creator, who are 3 (both) creating all 
things in the creation. 

3. For his splendour and his glory, for his might, 
and the blow which smites with victory, I will wor- 
ship him with the Yasna of the Yazads, with a Yasna 
loud intoned, him Obedience the blessed, with the 
consecrated waters, and the good Blessedness, the 
lofty, and Nairya-sangha, the stately ; and may he 
draw near to us to aid us, he who smites with victory, 
Obedience the blessed ! 

4. We worship Sraosha, Obedience the blessed, 
and that lofty Lord who is Ahura Mazda Himself, 
Him who has attained the most to this our ritual, 
Him who has approached the nearest to us in our 
celebrations. And we worship all the words of 
Zarathustra, and all the deeds well done (for him), 
both those that have been done (in times gone by), 

1 So ' tradition.' 

* Sraosha was not reckoned as one of the Ameshdspends at the 
time of the composition of this verse. 

3 Comp. Y. XXX, 4; but Ahura and some one of the Immortals, 
or possibly Zarathuftra (see Y. XLII, 2), must be meant here. 
Angra Mainyu could not have been worshipped as either protector 
or creator. Observe the present tense. 

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and those which are yet to be done (for him in times 
to come). 


5. We worship Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed 
and the stately, him who smites with the blow of 
victory, who prospers the settlements, the holy ritual 
lord, (6) who first spread forth the Baresman, and 
the three bundles, and the five bundles, and the 
seven bundles, and the nine, till it was heaped for us 
knee-high, and to the middle of the thighs 1 , for the 
Bountiful Immortals, for their worship, and their 
homage, and their propitiation, and their praise. 

For his splendour and his glory, for his might, and the blow 
which smites with victory, I will worship him with the Yasna of the 
Yazads, with a Yasna loud intoned, him Obedience the blessed, 

with the consecrated waters. 


7. We worship Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed, 
the stately, who smites with the blow of victory, 
who furthers the settlements, the holy ritual chief. 

8. Who first chanted the Gathas, the five 2 Gathas 
of Zarathurtra, the Spitama, the holy (with the 
fashion) of their metres 3 , and after the well-con- 
structed order of their words, together with the Zand 
which they contain, and the questions 4 which they 

1 Le Barsom est de cinq branches dans les Darouns ordinaires. 
II est de sept branches pour le Daroun No naber, pour le Freoues- 
chi, et pour le Gah&nb&r. II est de neuf branches pour le Daroun 
des Rois, et pour celui du Mobed des Mobeds (Anquetil). 

* This proves that the Gathas were greatly older than this 
Yart. That the Gathas were originally five seems improbable; 
yet they had become reduced to that number at this time. 

8 Nom. sing. ? 

* Comp. ta/ thw& peresd, &c. ; ' questions back and forth.' 

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utter, and the answers which they give, for the 
Bountiful Immortals,' for their sacrifice and homage, 
their propitiation, and their praise. 

For his splendour and his glory, for his might .... 


9. We worship Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed and 
the stately, who smites with the blow of victory, and 
who furthers the settlements, the holy ritual chief, 
(10) who for the poor among (our) men and women 
built a mighty house \ who after sunset, and with his 
levelled battle-axe, smites Aeshema bloody wounds, 
and having struck the head, casts him lightly (?) 2 (to 
the earth), as the stronger (smites) the weaker. 

For his splendour and his glory, for his might .... 

11. We worship Sraosha, Obedience the blessed 
and the stately, him who smites with the blow of 
victory, who furthers the settlements, the holy ritual 
chief, as the energetic, and the swift, the strong, the 
daring (and redoubted) hero, (12) who comes back 
from all his battles (and comes from them) a con- 
queror, who amid the Bountiful Immortals sits as 
companion at their meeting s . 

For his splendour and his glory, for his might .... 

1 One of the earliest notices of the kind. 

* Hu + angh, or can sas=to be inactive, indicate a change? 

8 This is possibly the origin of a later view which established 
Sraosha as one of the Immortals, to fill up the number seven 
■without including Ahura. The original 'seven spirits' included 

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13. We worship Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed, 
who is the strongest and most persistent of the 
youths, the most energetic, and the swiftest, who of 
all the youths strikes most with terror l from afar (?). 
[Be ye desirous, O ye Mazdayasnians ! of the Yasna 
of Obedience the blessed 2 .] 

14. Far from this house, this village, and this 
tribe, and from this country, the evil and destructive 
terrors (shall) depart. In the dwelling of that man 
in whose abode Obedience the blessed, who smites 
victoriously, is satisfied and welcomed, there is that 
holy man who thus contents him (most) forward in 
the thinking better thoughts, in the speaking truthful 
(ritual) words, and in the doing holy deeds 8 . 

For his splendour and his glory, for his might .... 


1 5. We worship Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed 
and the stately, who is the conqueror of the Kayadha, 
and the Kiidhya, who was the smiter of the Lie- 
demon of the Daevas, the one veritably powerful, 
the destroyer of the world, who is the guardian and 
watchman over all the migrations (?) of the tribes. 

16. Who sleeplessly and vigilant guards the crea- 
tures of Ahura, who sleeplessly and with vigilance 

1 =kat-tar«teinem, comp. for form katpayam. 

* Possibly an ancient interpolation. Repetitions are curtailed. 

* This verse 14 may be an ancient extension of the Yaxt; it 
may of course be taken for granted that within a certain period 
at a very remote time, the Yart was altered and improved. 

Verse 16 may have originally formed two sections; the formula 
' we worship,' &c. having been omitted. 

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saves them, who with halberd raised- on high guards 
all the corporeal world after setting of the sun, (i 7) 
who has never slept in quiet since the two Spirits 
made the worlds, [the bounteous and the evil one 1 ], 
who guards the homes of Asha, who battles all (?) 
the days long and the nights with all the Daevas 
[(Pazand) the Mazanian], (18) nor terror-stricken does 
he turn in affright before (their power) ; but before him 
all the Daevas turn in affright against their will, and 
rush to darkness in their fear. 

For his splendour and his glory, for his might .... 


19. We worship Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed, 
whom Haoma worshipped on the highest height of 
high Haraiti, he Haoma, the reviver 2 , and the 
healer, the beautiful, the kingly 8 , of the golden 
eye, (20) of the gracious words *, of the warning and 
the guarding words, who intones our hymns on 
every side 6 , who possesses understanding and of 
every brilliant form, which abounds in many an ex- 
planation * and revelation of the word, who has the 
first place in the Mathra. 

For his splendour and his glory, for his might .... 


2 1 . We worship Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed, 

1 This seems a gloss ; its import is correct. 

2 The renovator, as completing the progress which makes things 
fresh, frashdkereti. 

8 Possibly compare soma ra^an ; but see the following adjective, 
and read as alternative ' brilliant.' 

• Possibly ' who excites to much speech.' 

• Comp. pairi ga&hS, Y. XXXIV, 2. 

• Having much Zand. 

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YASNA LV1I. 303 

whose house stands with its thousand pillars, as vic- 
torious, on the highest height of high Haraiti, self- 
lighted from within, star-studded from without, (22) 
to whom the Ahuna-vairya has come, the axe of 
victory 1 , and the Haptanghaiti, and the Fshushd- 
m5thra which smites with victory, and all the Yasna 

For his splendour and his glory, for his might .... 


23. We worship Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed, 
by whose might and victorious power, and wise con- 
duct, and (full) knowledge, the Bountiful Immortals * 
descehd upon this earth of seven quarters. 

24. Who as teacher of the law will stride forth 
upon this earth with its dwellers in the body, and 
ruling as he will. 

And in this Religion, Ahura Mazda has been con- 
fessed s with faith, and the Good Mind likewise with 
Him, and Righteousness the Best, and Khshathra- 
vairya, and Piety the Bounteous, and the Universal 
Weal and Immortality'; and the question to the Lord 
is asked, and Mazda's lore (is written). 

25. O Sraosha (Obedience), thou blessed one, and 
stately ! protect us for the lives ; yea, for both, (for 
that) of this world which is corporeal, and for the 
world of mind, against unhappy * death, and the re- 
morseless Wrath of rapine, against the hosts with 
ill-intent, who lift their bloody spears 6 against us ; 

' Comp.Vend. XIX, 10. 

* They listen to Obedience, and so descend. 

* The meaning 'doth confess,' if correct, would show a very 
great degeneration from the lore of the Gathic period. 

4 Lit. ' evil.' ' Bannered spears ; spears with streamers. 

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yea, against their assaults whom 1 the Wrath-demon 
will set on, and Vldhatu, demon-made. 26. Therefore 
may'st thou, O Sraosha, the blessed and the stately ! 
grant swiftness to our teams, soundness to our bodies, 
and abundant observation 2 of our foes, and their , 
smiting (as we mark them), and their sudden death. 
For his splendour and his glory, for his might .... 


27. We worship Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed, 
whom four racers draw in harness, white and shining, 
beautiful, and powerful 3 , quick to learn, and fleet \ 
obeying before speech, heeding orders from the 
mind, with their hoofs of horn gold-covered, (28) 
fleeter than (our) horses, swifter than the winds, more 
rapid than the rain(-drops as they fall) ; yea, fleeter 
than the clouds, or well-winged birds, or the well- 
shot arrow as it flies 6 ,(2q) which overtake these swift 
ones all, as they fly after a them pursuing, but which 
are never overtaken when they flee, which plunge 
away from both the weapons (hurled on this side 
and on that) and draw Sraosha with them, the good 
Sraosha and the blessed ; which from both the 
weapons (those on this side and on that) bear the 
good Obedience the blessed, plunging forward in 
their zeal, when he takes his course from India on 
the East, and when he lights down in the West 

For his splendour and his glory, for his might .... 

1 The hosts. * So the Pahlavi and Ner. See also Y. IX, 2 1. 

8 Spewta can hardly mean 'holy' here. 

4 Asavaforasaya(?); 'y'miswrittenfor'v.' Comp. gitava (form). 

• Reading anghamanayau for aNh6 manayau ; otherwise, ' swifter 
than one's thought ' (?). 

* Lit. ' not those after overtake.' Possibly ' these who all overtake 
those who fly with turned backs, who are not overtaken from behind.' 

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30. We worship Obedience the blessed and the 
stately, who though lofty and so high, yea, even to 
the girdle, yet stoops to Mazda's creatures, (31) who 
thrice within the day, and three times of a night, 
will drive on to that Karshvar //^aniratha, called 
the luminous, as he holds in both the hands 1 and 
poizes his knife-like battle-axe, which flies as of 
itself, and to cleave the Da£vas' skulls, (32) to hew 
down Angra Mainyu, the wicked, and to hew down 
Rapine of the bloody spear, to hew down the Dadvas 
of Mazendran 2 , and every Demon-god. 

For his splendour and his glory, for his might .... 


33. We worship Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed 
and the stately, him who smites with victory, both 
here and not here, and on this entire earth. And 
we worship all the (gifts) of Sraosha (Obedience) the 
blessed, the mighty, and the strong, whose body is 
the Mathra. 

Yea, we worship (all the martial gifts) of 
Sraosha (Obedience) the mighty, both armed with 
shielding armour, and a warrior strong of hand, 
skull-cleaver of the Da£vas, conquering the en- 
dowments :1 of the conqueror, the holy conqueror 
of the conqueror, and (his) victorious powers, and 
the Ascendency which it bestows, and we worship 

1 Snaithij must designate a two-handed weapon. 

* Observe how far West the word Daeva is applied; also, if 
Hindvd is not in a gloss in verse 29, the fact proves that a vast 
geographical extent was familiar to the writers of the Avesta. 

' Vanaitfr, fem. as vispau refers to attributes celebrated in the 

[3«] X 

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this Ascendency of Sraosha's (the same which con- 
quers theirs) ; and that of Arrti do we praise as well. 
34. And every house by Sraosha guarded do we 
worship, wherein the blessed friendly Sraosha is 
befriended and made welcome, where the holy man 
is far advanced (?) in holy thoughts, and righteous 
words and deeds. 

For his splendour and his glory, for his might, which smites with 
victory, I will worship him with the Yasna of the Yazads, with a 
Yasna loud-intoned, him Obedience the blessed, with the conse- 
crated waters, and the good Blessedness, the lofty, and Nairya- 
sangha, the stately, and may he come to us to aid us, he who smites 
with victory, Obedience the blessed ! 


The Fsh0sh6-mathra '. 

1. (Introduction.) (To the increase of our homage 
and praise of God) we offer this service 2 which, as 
our defence 3 , may shield us, which is worship 4 with 
its beneficent results ; and Blessedness is with it of 
a verity 6 , and Piety as well. [ (Pazand) and of this 
worship the results here mentioned are the well- 
thought thought, the word well spoken, and the 
deed well done] ; and let this our worship shelter 
us from the Da6va and from the evil-minded man. 
2. And to this worship do we confide 6 our settle- 

1 This piece in the Gathic dialect has claims to an antiquity 
as high as Y. XII. It recalls the Gathas in many ways. The 
increaser of cattle is identical with the thrifty tiller, and is the 
typical saint. 

* The Pahlavi has surf a partial transcription, but the word is 

5 See nipatu. 4 Nem<r with Kn. 

* Ha + ge/; comp. Indian sa + gha/; or possibly from hai. 

* ' Make mention of.' 

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ments and persons for protection and care, for 
guarding, and for oversight ; (3) and in this worship 
will we abide, Ahura Mazda ! and with joy. 

In this worship do we exercise our choices ; and 
to it will we approach, and to it will we belong; 
yea, to revering worship will we confide our settle- 
ments and . persons for protection, and for care, for 
guarding, and for oversight, to such worship as is 
the praise of such as You x . 


4. The owner of herds is the righteous (one), and 
he is victorious when he strikes, and thus he is the 
best ; [ (Pazand) we therefore offer (this) service (for 
herd-owners 2 )] for the herd-owner is the father of the 
Kine by the help of him who follows the ritual order ; 
and he is the father of the holy man as well, and of 
the sanctified creation 8 . He is in verity the be- 
stower of blessings, and to him 4 , O Ye Bountiful 
Immortals 6 ! we render, (and his do we make) Your 
greatness, Your goodness, and Your (spiritual) 
beauty, and let this man, the cattle-owner, approach 
to guard over us; and may he be our watchman 
together with the Righteous Order, and with store 
for our nourishment and full generous liberality, 
together with sharing of the goods 6 , with gentle- 
ness 7 , and with Ahura Mazda's sacred Fire! 

1 Khshmavatd is often Gathic for ' You.' 

* Pazand, as fshfish* is a plural, and not Gathic. Or, ' we make 
men cattle-owners (we invite them to be such).' 

8 The creation is mentioned in connection with the Kine. The 
typical saint stands at the head of the clean creation. 

* Whose? • See below. 

* Root vi+da (dhisha); so also the Pahl. 'bara dahimth.' 

7 Aktnlh va atashi* 1 Auharmazd-datf. The word is difficult. 

X 2 

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5. O Ye Bountiful Immortals! as Ye have made 
us, so do Ye save us, holy men, and saintly women 
(as we are, and steadfast in the faith) 1 . Save us, 
O Ye Bountiful Immortals ! Ye who rule aright, and 
who dispose (of all) aright, for none other do I know, 
save You; then with Your Righteousness 2 do Ye 
save us. 

6. And we offer hereby our thoughts, and words, 
and actions, our herds, and men, to the Bountiful 
Spirit. And may the creative stars of Ahura Mazda, 
the Creator, shine down on us, and round about us 3 
with full herds and healthy settlements, with healthy 
herds and healthy men, and with all in vigour, and 
endowed with the blessing of the Lord. 7. Praise 
to Thee, O Fire of Ahura Mazda ! may'st thou come 
to (us in) the greatest one of the engrossing interests* 
for the help of the great (effort), for the joy-pro- 
ducing grace of the great (interest of our cause) ; 
grant us both Weal and Deathlessness ! 

8. We sacrifice to the entire collection of the 
Praises of the Yasna, with the careful structure of 
their language which has reached the most its 
object. And we offer (our homage) in our cele- 
brations to Thy body, O Ahura Mazda ! the most 
beautiful of forms, these stars, and to that one, the 
highest of the high [ (Pazand) such as the sun was 
called]. Yea, we worship the Praises of the Yasna 
which were the production of the world of old. 

1 Or, ' male and female holy ones, (the Amesha).' 

■ Y. XXXIV, 7. 

* Lit. ' may we be closely beheld by the creative lights,' &c. 

4 Allusion to maz«-yaunghd. 

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Mutual Blessings. 

1-17. (See Y. XVII, 1-17.) 18-27. (See Y. 
XXVI, 1-10.) 28. We worship Verethraghna, the 
Ahura-made, the victorious blow; and we worship 
the Saoshya«t, who smites with victory; and we sacri- 
fice to this Baresman with its Zaothra and its girdle 
(which is its band) and which is spread with sanctity. 
And we sacrifice to (our) own soul(s), and to (our) 
own Fravashi(s). 29. (See Y. XVII, 19.) 30. (The 
Ratu speaks) : O thou good (servant of the Lord) ! 
may that be thine which is better than the good; 
may'st thou acquire that which is (thine) own 1 in the 
Zaothra ; may'st thou attain to that reward which 
the Zaotar has been obtaining 2 , who is far advanced 
in his good thoughts, and words, and deeds. 

3 1 . (The Zaotar speaks) : May that happen to 
you (likewise) which is better than the good, and 
may that not happen which is worse than the evil, 
and may that likewise not be my lot. 32. As (our) 
Ahu (is) excellent, so (is our) Ratu (one who rules) 
from his Righteousness, a creator of mental good- 
ness, and of life's actions done for Mazda, and the 
Kingdom (is) to Ahura which to the poor will offer 
a nurturer. A blessing is Asha called the Best, &c. 
We sacrifice to the Ahuna-vairya ; we sacrifice to 
Asha Valmta 8 the most beautiful, the Bountiful 

1 Avo naljman. 

* Hanayamno aungha, a periphrastic perfect. 

* Asha VahLfta occurs as immediately suggested by the Ashem 

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Immortal. And we sacrifice to the Fshushd-mSthra, 
the by-spoken 1 . And we sacrifice to the entire col- 
lection of the Praises of the Yasna ; (yea), to the 
Yasna Praises which were instituted in the world 
of yore. 


Prayers for the Dwelling of the Sacrificer 2 . 

i. Thus that better than the good may he ap- 
proach, who shows to us straight paths of profit 
appertaining to this bodily life and to the mental 
likewise, in the eternal (?) realms where dwells Ahura ; 
yea, may he approach it, who is Thy worthy servant, 
and good citizen, O Great giver Lord 3 ! 

2. May these blessings approach this house, which 
are the wise perceptions of the saints, the sacred 
blessings bestowed through the ritual, their guile- 
less characteristics, together with their recognition 
of what is due ; and may the Righteous Order appear 
for this village, and the Divine Sovereign Power, 
together with the benefit and glorious welfare (which 

3. And with these the long enduring prominence 
of this Religion of Ahura's, the Zarathurtrian Faith. 
And may the Kine 4 be now with greatest speed 
within (the farm-yard of) this house, most speedily 

Vohu formula, Asha Vahirta seems therefore a proper name, both 
here and in the formula, if one place explains the other (?). 

1 The ever-spoken (?). The YSNhe' and Ahuna follow. 

* Said on the visitation of farm-houses by the travelling priest. 

8 See Y. XLIII, 3. 

4 Gaur seems feminine here, and used collectively, and hafe. 
has the Indian sense of sa/Sa. 

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may the rewarded sanctity and the strength of the 
holy man be here, most speedily as well Ahura's 
lore. 4. And may the good and heroic and boun- 
tiful Fravashis of the saints come here, and may 
they go hand in hand with us with the healing 
virtues of (their) blessed gifts as wide-spread as the 
earth, as far-spread as the rivers, as high-reaching 1 
as the sun, for the furtherance 2 of the better men, 
for the hindrance of the hostile, and for the abundant 
growth of riches and of glory. 

5. May Sraosha (Obedience) conquer disobedi- 
ence 8 within this house, and may peace triumph 
over discord here, and generous giving over avarice, 
reverence 8 over contempt, speech with truthful words 
over lying utterance. May the Righteous Order 
gain the victory over the Demon of the Lie*. 

6. As in this (house) the Bountiful Immortals 
seek for good Yasnas and good praises from the 
blessed Sraosha (who governs here), and as they 
seek for (one) good sacrifice and act of homage 
(more especially their own) which is a good offering 6 
(to them) for (our) salvation, and a good offering in 
praise, together with a long continued offering of the 
entire self 6 , (7) let not then (their) brilliant glory 7 
ever desert this house, nor the bright abundance, 
nor an illustrious 8 offspring legitimately ° born, nor 
that long continued companionship which is the 

1 Earth-wide, stream-long, sun-high. * Irti seems a dative. 

• The name Sraosha had not lost its original meaning; so of 

4 Asha-Drnf em ? s Possibly, ' good support.' 

• Pahl. benafrman. 

' Zfoathrava/ Avarend determines the sense. 8 See 'Af&thrava/.' 

• The Pahl. does not necessarily render ' heavenly ; ' the word 
elsewhere means ' original/ 

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furtherance of that good blessedness which teaches 
concerning glory 1 . 8-10 ( = Y. VIII, 5-7). 

11. In order that our minds may be 2 delighted, 
and our souls the best, let our bodies be glorified 
as well, and let them, O Mazda ! go likewise openly 
(unto Heaven) as the best world 3 of the saints as 
devoted to Ahura, (12) and accompanied by Asha 
Vahi-rta (who is Righteousness the Best), and the 
most beautiful ! And may we see Thee, and may 
we, approaching, come around about Thee, and 
attain to entire companionship with Thee ! And 
we sacrifice to the Righteous Order, the best, the 
most beautiful, the bounteous Immortal! 


1. Let us peal 4 forth the Ahuna-vairya in our 
liturgy between the heaven and earth, and let us 
send forth the Asha Vahbta in our prayer the 
same, and the Y£n1i6 hatSm. And let us send 
forth in our liturgies between the heaven and earth 
the pious and good prayer of the pious man for 
blessings, (2) for the encounter with, and for the 
displacement of Angra Mainyu with his creatures 
which are likewise evil as he is, for he is filled 
with death (for those whom he has made). Aye, 
let us send that petition forth for the encounter with, 
and for the dislodgment of the Ka^&aredhas and of 
the individual Ka/waredha 6 the male, and the female 

1 Or, ' welfare.' * .dunghan. 

5 The nom. is difficult. The Ashem Vohu and Ahuna follow. 
4 De Harlez, ' faisons retentir.' 

8 The Pahlavi perhaps 'diminishers;' Darmesteter, 'causing to 

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(to the last individual of each), (3) and for the en- 
counter with, and the dislodgment of the Kayadhas, 
and of the individual Kayadhians, male and female 1 , 
and of the thieves and robbers, of the Zandas 2 , and 
the sorcerers, of the covenant breakers, and of those 
who tamper with the covenants. 4. Yea, we send it 
forth for the encounter with, and for the overthrow 
of the murderers of the saints, and of those who 
hate and torment us for our Faith, and of those 
who persecute the ritual, and the tyrant full of 
death. Yea, let us peal them forth for the en- 
counter with, and the overthrow of the wicked, O 
Zarathurtra Spitama ! whoever they may be, whose 
thoughts, and words, and works are not congenial 
to the holy ritual laws. 

5. And how shall we drive the Demon of the Lie 
from hence from us 3 ? Aye, how shall we, the pro- 
phets who are yet to serve and save (thy people), 
drive the Druf from hence, so that we, having power 
over her as being utterly without power, may drive 
her hence with blow from the seven Karshvars, for 
the encounter with, and for the dislodgment of the 
entire evil world * ? 

To the Fire. 

1. I offer my sacrifice and homage to thee, the 
Fire, as a good offering, and an offering with our hail 

1 ' Cannibals ' has been suggested as the meaning here. 
* The later Zendiks are of course not meant, unless we have an 

' Citation from the Gathas, Y. XLV, 6. * Citations follow. 

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3 1 4 YASNA LXII. 

of salvation, even as an offering of praise with benedic- 
tions, to thee, the Fire, O Ahura Mazda's son ! Meet 
for sacrifice art thou, and worthy of (our) homage. 
And as meet for sacrifice, and thus worthy of our 
homage, may'st thou be in the houses of men (who 
worship Mazda). Salvation be to this man who 
worships thee in verity and truth, with wood in 
hand, and Baresman ready, with flesh in hand, and 
holding too the mortar. 2. And may'st thou 
be (ever) fed with wood as the prescription orders. 
Yea, may'st thou have thy perfume justly, and thy 
sacred butter without fail, and thine andirons regu- 
larly placed. Be of full-age as to thy nourishment, 
of the canon's age as to the measure of thy food, O 
Fire, Ahura Mazda's son ! 3. Be now aflame 1 within 
this house ; be ever without fail in flame ; be all 
ashine within this house ; be on thy growth 2 within 
this house ; for long time be thou thus to the further- 
ance of the heroic (renovation), to the completion of 
(all) progress, yea, even till the good heroic (millennial) 
time when that renovation shall have become com- 
plete. 4. Give me, O Fire, Ahura Mazda's son ! a 
speedy glory, speedy nourishment, and speedy booty, 
and abundant glory, abundant nourishment, abun- 
dant booty, an expanded mind, and nimbleness 
of tongue for soul and understanding, even an 
understanding continually growing in its largeness, 
and that never wanders 3 , and long enduring virile 
power, (5) an offspring sure of foot, that never 
sleeps on watch [not for a third part of the day, 
or night], and that rises quick from bed*, and 

1 Or, ' for giving light.' 

2 Or, ' to give light ' ? comp. ukhshand and ukhshS. 

' Read apairyathrem. * Or, ' has the quickest place.' 

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likewise a wakeful offspring, heTjj^j9**<*Crt^hj*e', or 
reclaim, legitimate, keeping order in men's meet- 
ings, (yea,) drawing men to assemblies through 
their influence and word, grown to power, skilful, 
redeeming others from oppression, served by many 
followers, which may advance my line (in pros- 
perity and fame), and (my) Vis, and my Za#tu, and 
(my) province, (yea, an offspring) which may deliver 
orders to the Province as (firm and righteous 
rulers). 6. And ma/st thou grant me, O Fire, Ahura 
Mazda's Son I that whereby instructors may be 
(given) me, now and for evermore, (giving light to me 
of Heaven) the best life of the saints, brilliant, all 
glorious. And may I have experience l of the good 
reward, and the good renown, and of the long fore- 
casting preparation of the soul. 7. The Fire of Ahura 
Mazda addresses this admonition to all for whom he 
cooks the night and morning (meal). From all 
these, O Spitama ! he wishes 2 to secure good care, 
and healthful care (as guarding for salvation), the 
care of a true praiser. 8. At both the hands of all 
who come by me, I, the Fire, keenly look : What 
brings the mate to his mate (thus I say to him), the 
one who walks at large, to him who sits at home ? 
[We worship the bounteous Fire, the swift-driving 
charioteer 8 .] 

9. And if this man who passes brings him wood 
brought (with good measure that is) with sacred care, 
or if he brings the Baresman spread with sanctity, or 

1 Bartholomae follows tradition boldly here, rendering ' aushalten, 
festhalten an ; giriftar yehvun£ni(t).' 

* Or, ' is worshipped for.' 

8 This curious gloss seems thrown in as a solace to the Fire for 
the expression preceding. It savours of the /?/k. 

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the HadhanaSpata plant, then afterwards Ahura 
Mazda's Fire will bless him, contented, not offended, 
and in (its) satisfaction (saying thus). 10. May a 
herd of kine be with thee, and a multitude of men, 
may an active mind go with thee, and an active soul 
as well. As a blest soul may'st thou live through 
thy life, the nights which thou shall live. This is 
the blessing of the Fire for him who brings it wood 
(well) dried, sought out for flaming, purified with the 
earnest blessing of the sacred ritual truth 1 . 1 1. We 
strive after the flowing on of the good waters, and 
their ebb 2 as well, and the sounding of their waves, 
desiring their propitiation ; I desire to approach 
them with my praise 8 . 12 = Y. Ill, 24, 25. 

(See Y. XV, 2 ; Y. LXVI, 2 ; Y. XXXVIII, 3.) 

(See Y. XLVI, 3; Y. L, 6-1 1.) 


To Ardvi SOra AnAhita, and the Waters. 

1. I will praise the water Ardvi Sura Anahita, the 
wide-flowing (as it is) and healing in its influence, 

1 The Ashem Vohu occurs here. * Or, ' falling.' 

8 See as alternative Darmesteter's masterly rendering of the Ata* 

NySyi-r, 7-18. 

4 This chapter is composed of short passages from other 

portions of the Yasna collected together possibly for the purpose 

of filling out the number of sections to some figure no longer 


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efficacious against the Da£vas, devoted to Ahura's 
lore, and to be worshipped with sacrifice within the 
corporeal world, furthering all living things 1 (?) and 
holy, helping on the increase and improvement of our 
herds and settlements, holy, and increasing our wealth, 
holy, and helping on the progress of the Province, holy 
(as she is)? 2. (Ardvi Sura Anahita) who purifies the 
seed of all male beings, who sanctifies the wombs of 
all women to the birth, who makes all women fortu- 
nate in labour, who brings all women a regular and 
timely flow of milk, (3) (Ardvi Sura Anahita) with 
a volume sounding from afar 2 , which is alone equal 
in its bulk to all the waters which flow forth upon 
earth, which flows down with mighty volume from high 
Hukairya to the sea Vouru-kasha. 4. And all the 
gulfs 8 in Vouru-kasha are stirred (when it falls down), 
all the middle doth well up when Ardvi Sura Anahita 
rushes in, when she plunges foaming into them, she, 
whose are a thousand tributaries, and a thousand 
outlets, and each as it flows in, or rushes out, is a 
forty days' ride in length to a rider mounted well. 

5. And the (chief) outlet to this one water (Ardvi 
Sura Anahita) goes apart, dividing to all the seven 
Karshvars. And this outlet to my river, Ardvi 
Sura Anahita, bears off its waters always in summer 
and in winter. This my river purifies the seed of 
men, and wombs of women, and women's milk *. 

6. Let the saints' Fravashis now draw near, those 
of the saints who live, or have lived, of those born, 
or yet to be born ; yea, let them come near which 

1 The Pahlavi has gin, or guy, in which latter case the meaning 
' springs ' would be better. 
* Or, ' famed from afar.' * Lit, ' sides.' 

4 See Darmesteter's Aban Ya*t, I-V. 

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31 8 YASNA LXV. 

have borne these waters up stream from the nearest 
ones (that lie below as the outlet pours away *). 

7. Let not our waters be for the man of ill intent, of 
evil speech, or deeds, or conscience ; let them not be 
for the offender of a friend, not for an insulter of a 
Magian 2 , nor for one who harms the workmen, nor 
for one who hates his kindred. And let not our 
good waters (which are not only good, but) best, and 
Mazda-made, help on the man who strives to mar our 
settlements which are not to be corrupted, nor him 
who would mar our bodies, (our) uncorrupted (selves), 
(8) nor the thief, or bludgeon-bearing ruffian whowould 
slaughter the disciples, nor a sorcerer, nor a burier 
of dead bodies, nor the jealous, nor the niggard, nor 
the godless heretic who slays disciples, nor the evil 
tyrant among men. Against these may our waters 
come as torments. As destructive may these come (?), 
may they come to him who has done those first (foul 
evils), as to him who does the last 3 . 

9. O waters ! rest* still within your places while 
the invoking priest shall offer. 

Shall not the invoker make offering to these good 
waters, and with the inculcated words ? (And how 
shall this be done ?) Shall he not be tongue-fettered, 
if he offers else than with the ritual ? Shall (not) 
the words be so delivered as the A£thrapaiti teaches? 
Where shall the blessings be (inserted) ? Where the 
supplications with confessions ? Where the gifts of 
those that offer? io 6 . (It shall be only thus) as Ahura 
Mazda showed before to Zarathustra, and as Zara- 

1 Or, ' drawn up in vapours for the supply of the waters by 
the rain.' 

* So the indication of the Pahlavi. 

8 f-df. 4 Or, ' rejoice ye.' ' Response. 

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thortra taught the corporeal worlds (the men on 
earth) ! Thou shalt pray the first petition to the 
waters, O Zarathustra, and after that thou shalt offer 
the Zaothras to the waters, sanctified, and sought 
out with pious care ; and thou shalt pronounce these 
words (as follows, thus) : (1 1) O ye waters, I beseech of 
you this favour ; and grant ye me this great one in 
whose bestowal ye flow down to me for the bettering 
(of my state), with a never-failing truth. O ye 
waters, I beseech of you for wealth of many kinds 
(which gives) power (to its holder 1 ), and for an off- 
spring self-dependent whom multitudes will bless, 
and for whose wasting, or defeat, or death, or 
vengeful punishment, or overtaking, no one prays. 
12. And this do I beseech of you, O waters, this, 
O ye lands, and this, ye plants ! This wealth and 
offspring I beseech of You, O Ye Bountiful Immor- 
tals, who rule aright, who dispose (of all) aright, O 
Ye good beings, male and female 2 , givers of good 
things ; and this I beseech of you, O ye beneficent, 
mighty, and overwhelming Fravashis of the saints, 
and this (of thee), O Mithra of the wide pastures, 
and this of thee, O blest and stately Sraosha ; and 
of thee, O Rashnu the most just, and of thee, O Fire, 
Ahura Mazda's son ; and of thee, O lofty lord, the 
royal ApSm-napa/, of the fleet horses ; aye, of You 
all, ye Yazads, bestowers of the better gifts and 
holy. 13. And this do ye therefore grant me, O 
ye holy waters, and ye lands 3 ! 

14. And grant me likewise what is still greater 
than this all, and still better than this all, and more 

' Powerful. 2 Some of the names are in the feminine. 

' Here repeat as above from ' O ye plants ' to ' givers of the 
better thing and holy.' 

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beautiful, and more exceeding precious (and that is, 
Immortality and Welfare 1 ), O Ye Yazads, holy and 
ruling mightily, and powerful at once, and grant it 
speedily according to this Gathic (?) word : (Yea), by 
veritable grace let that be done 2 (?) for us which is 
most promotive of our weal. 15. And according to 
this further word again : Grant me, Thou who art 
maker of the Kine, the plants, and the waters, 
Immortality and likewise Weal, O Ahura Mazda, 
Thou most bounteous Spirit. And grant me these 
two eternal gifts through Thy Good Mind in the 
doctrine 3 . 

16-18. (See Y. XV, 2; Y. LVI, 3-4 «.) 

To the Ahurian One 6 . 
1. I am now offering this Zaothra here with sanc- 
tity 6 , together with the Haoma and the flesh, and 
the Hadhanaepata lifted up with sacred regularity as 
to thee.O Ahurian One, for the propitiation of Ahura 
Mazda, of the Bountiful Immortals, of Sraosha 
(Obedience) the blessed, and of the Fire of Ahura 
Mazda, the ritual's lofty lord. 2. Y. VII, 5-19. 3. Y. 
XXII, XXVIII, 24-27. 


1-4. (SeeY. XXIII, 1-4, replacing 'I desire to ap- 
proach with sanctity ' by ' I offer with sanctity ; ' see 
also Y.V1I, 24.) 5-7. (See Y. XXXVIII, 5-5.) 

1 See below. * See Y. L, 11. s See Y. LI, 7. 

4 The Ahuna and Ashem Vohu follow. 

1 I should say Ardvi Sura Anahita; see Y. LXVIII, 10, where 
the good waters arc addressed as Ahurian Ones of Ahura. 
* Or, ' for a blessing.' 

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To the Ahurian One, and the Waters. 

1. We offer this to thee, O Ahurian (daughter) 
ofAhura! as a help * (?) for life. If we have offended 
thee, let this Zaothra then attain to thee (for satis- 
faction), for it is thine with its Haoma, and its milk, 
and its Hadhanaepata. 2. And may'st thou approach 
to me for milk and for libation, O Zaothra! as 
health, for healing, and for progress, for growth and 
in preparation for ceremonial merit, for good renown, 
for equanimity 2 , and for that victory which makes 
the settlements advance. 

3. Yea, we worship thee with sacrifice, O thou 
Ahurian (daughter) of Ahura with the Zaothras of 
the good thought ; and we worship, O Ahura, one 
with the Zaothras of the good word and deed (4) for 
the enlightenment of the thoughts, and words, and 
actions, for preparation for the soul, for the settle- 
ment's advance, and to prepare the saints endowed 
with ritual merit. 

5. And grant me, O thou Ahurian One ! Heaven, 
and to have an offspring manly and legitimate, who 
may promote my house, my village, my tribe and 
province, and the authority thereof. 

6. We sacrifice to thee, O thou Ahurian one! 
And we sacrifice to the sea Vouru-kasha, and to all 
waters upon earth, whether standing, or running, or 
waters of the well, or spring-waters which peren- 

1 The Pahlavi translator saw the root av in this sense here 
with K4, 11 ; P6, but the form is strange. 
1 So the Pahlavi indicates with no impossible suggestion. 

[30 Y 

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nially flow, or the drippings of the rains, or the irriga- 
tions of canals. 7. With this hymn from the (spirit of) 
the Yasna do we worship thee, and with the homage 
which it offers as it is the most legitimate l Yasna, 
and homage of them (all) because of Righteousness 
the Best. We sacrifice to the good waters, and to 
the best, which Mazda created. 8. And we sacri- 
fice to the two, to the milk and to the libation, which 
make the waters flow, and the plants sprout forth, 
opposing therein the Dragon Daeva-made, for the 
arrest of that cheat the Pairika, and to contradict 
the insulting malice of the Ashemaogha (the dis- 
turber and destroyer of our Faith), and of the 
unholy tyrant full of death, and of the human 
Da6va (worshipper) of hateful malice (and intent). 

9. And may'st thou hear our sacrificial chants, 
O thou Ahurian (daughter) of Ahura! Yea, be 
propitiated by our Yasna, O Ahurian one ! and so 
may'st thou be present 2 at our Yasna ; may'st thou 
come to us to help, as we chant our full-offered Y&yt, 
with the full offering of Zaothras. 

10. If any man shall sacrifice to you, O ye good 
waters, the Ahurian ones of Ahura ! with the best 
and most fitting Zaothras offered piously, (11) to 
that man ye give both splendour and glory, with 
health and vigour of the body and prominence of 
form ; yea, to him ye give possessions which entail 
abundant glory, and a legitimate scion, and a long 
enduring life, and (Heaven at the last), the best life 
of the saints, shining, all glorious. 1 2. And to me 
also do ye now give it, to me who am offering 
this Yasna as a priest 3 . 

1 Or 'virtuous,' with Darmesteter. * May'st thou sit. 

' Zdio t yajtar homanam. 

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(Response 1 .) And to us Mazdayasnians who are 
likewise offering sacrifice, do ye grant (both the 
desire and knowledge of the path that is correct 2 ), 
to us colleagues, and disciples, A£thrapaitis and 
Aethryas, men and women as well as children, and 
maidens of the field, (13) who think good only, for 
the overwhelming of oppression and of malice in 
the raids of the invader, and in face of foes who 
hate. Grant to us both the desire 3 of, and the 
knowledge of that straightest path, the straightest 
because of Righteousness, and of (Heaven) the best 
life of the Saints, shining, all glorious. As the Ahu 
is excellent, so is the Ratu (one who rules) from the 
Righteous Order, a creator of mental goodness and 
of life's actions done for Mazda. And the kingdom 
(is) for Ahura, which to the poor may offer nurture. 
14. (The Zaotar speaks): I beseech with my bene- 
diction for a safe abode, for a joyful and a long 
abode for the dwellers in this village from whence 
these Zaothras (which I offer come). And I pray 
in my benediction for a safe abode, and a quiet and 
a joyful one, and a long abiding to every Mazda- 
yasnian village, and for a succour even with my 
wants, for a succour with salutations of salvation, 
and for one with praises, O Fire * ! and for thee, O 
Ahurian one of Ahura ! do I ask the fullest Vast. 

15. And I pray for(?) Raman //z>astra for this 
Province, and for healthfulness and healing. And 
I pray for it with my blessing for you pious men, 
for all. And I pray for him who is saintly with (true) 
goodness, whosoever he may be, between heaven 

' Or,' the priest continues speaking for the people.' * See below, 
* Or, ' this desire, the knowledge.' * Or, ' of the Fire.' 

Y 2 

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and the earth, for a thousand healing remedies, and 
for ten thousand of the same. 

16-19. (See Y. VIII, 5-8.) 20. Thus may it 
happen as I pray. 21. And by this may I gain 1 
(that) blessing, the good Blessedness (our sanctity 
rewarded). And we address, and we invoke reli- 
gious zeal and capability, and the waters with our 
Yasna 2 thus : O ye good waters ! since (they are) 
yours, do ye, as you are asked, grant splendour 
and grant glory, ye who are well able so to give ; 
and do ye, O ye waters ! grant (once more) that 
helpful blessing which was gained from you of old ! 

22. Praise (be) to Ahura Mazda, and to the 
Bountiful Immortals. Praise (be) to Mithra of the 
wide pastures. Praise to the fleet-horsed sun. 
Praise to (the star which so we name, and with this 
sun) Ahura Mazda's eyes. Praise to the Kine 3 (the 
herds of blessed gift). Praise to Gaya (Maretan) 
and to the Fravashi of Zarathurtra (first of) saints ; 
yea, praise to the entire creation of the holy (and 
the clean), to those now living, and to those just 
passing into life, and to those of days to come. 
23. And do Thou then Ahura, as in answer to these 
our prayers and songs of praise, cause us to prosper 
to salvation through Thy Good Mind, the Sovereign 
Power, and Thy Righteous Order (in Thy ritual 
and law 4 ) ! 

1 Or, ' the good wisdom ' from the second da (good adjustment). 

» Passages follow from Y. XXXVIII, 2-5. 

' The Gathic Kine. 

* See Y. XXXIII, 10. Citations follow from Y. XXXVI, 6; 
Y. XLIII, 6, also the Ashem and Y. Ill, 24, 25 ; then Y. XLVII, 1-7. 
Then the words ' we worship the chapter Spewta-mainyu from the 
beginning,' then the YeNhe - h&tam. 

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This chapter is composed of fragments : see Y. 
XV, 2 ; and Y. LI, 1 and 22. 


To the Bountiful Immortals, and the 
Institutions of Religion. 

1. I would worship these (the Bountiful Im- 
mortals) with my sacrifice, those who rule aright, 
and who dispose (of all) aright, and this one (es- 
pecially) I would approach with my praise, (Ahura 
Mazda). He is thus hymned (in our praise-songs). 
Yea, we worship in our sacrifice that deity and 
lord, who is Ahura Mazda, the Creator, the gracious 
helper, the maker 1 of all good things ; and we wor- 
ship in our sacrifice Zarathustra Spitama, that 
chieftain (of the rite). 

2. And we would declare those institutions 
established for us, exact (and undeviating as they 
are). And I would declare forth those of Ahura 
Mazda, those of the Good Mind, and of Asha 
Vahista (who is Righteousness the Best), and those 
of Khshatra-vairya (the Realm to be desired), and 
those of the Bountiful Aramalti (the Piety within 
us), and those of Weal and Immortality, and those 
which appertain to the body 2 of the Kine, and 
to the Kine's soul, and those which appertain to 
Ahura Mazda's Fire, (3) and those of Sraosha (Obe- 

1 Reading tashvaunghem(?) (comp. dadhvaunghem), according to 
the indication of the Pahlavi. 

1 Tashan with change of accent. So the Pahlavi indicates. 

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dience) the blessed, and of Rashnu the most just, 
and those of Mithra of the wide pastures, and of 
(the good and) holy Wind, and of the good Mazda- 
yasnian Religion, and of the good and pious Prayer 
for blessings, and those of the good and pious 
Prayer which frees one from belying, and the good 
and pious Prayer for blessing against unbelieving 
words 1 . 4. (And these we would declare) in order 
that we may attain unto that speech which is uttered 
with (true) religious zeal, or that we may be as 
prophets of the provinces, that we may succour him s 
who lifts his voice (for Mazda 3 ), that we may be as 
prophets who smite with victory, the befriended of 
Ahura Mazda, and persons the most useful to Him 4 , 
holy men (indeed) who think good thoughts, and 
speak good words, and do good deeds. 5. That 
he may approach us with the Good Mind 6 , and that 
(our souls) may advance in good, let it thus come ; 
yea, ' how may my soul advance in good ? let it 
thus advance e .' 

6. We praise the flood and ebb of the good 
waters, and their roar, and that high Ahura, the 
royal Apam-napa/, the glittering one, of the fleet 
horses ; and this for the sacrifice, and homage, and 
propitiation, and praise of the entire holy creation ; 
and may Sraosha (Obedience) be here (to aid us). 
7. (Yea), we sacrifice to Sraosha, Obedience the 
blessed 7 . 

1 Read the gloss to the Pahlavi in Visp. IX, 3, anSranfhS. 

* Or, bare«t(i, ' let them lift.' 

3 Y.XXXI, 12. « See Y. XXXI, 22. « Y. XLIV, 1. 

• Y. XLIV, 8. T The YeNhe hltam. 

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The Yasna Concluding. 

1. Frashacwtra, the holy, asked the saintly Zara- 
thuitra : Answer me, O thou most eminent Zara- 
thurtra, what is (in very truth) the memorised recital 
of the rites ? 

What is the completed delivery of the Gathas 1 ? 
2. Upon this Zarathustra said : (It is as follows.) We 
worship Ahura Mazda with our sacrifice (as) the holy 
lord of the ritual order; and we sacrifice to Zara- 
thustra likewise as to a holy lord of the ritual order ; 
and we sacrifice also to the Fravashi of Zarathustra, 
the saint. And we sacrifice to the Bountiful Im- 
mortals, (the guardians 2 ) of the saints. 3. And we 
sacrifice to (all) the good heroic and bounteous 
Fravashis of the saints, of the bodily (world on 
earth), and of the mental (those in Heaven). 
And we worship that one of ritual lords who attains 
the most his ends ; and we sacrifice to that one of the 
Yazads, lords of the ritual order, who is the most 
strenuous, who gains the most, who reaches most to 
what he seeks, even that well-timed Prayer which is 
the prayer of that holy ritual lord, and which has 
approached the nearest (to us for our help). 

4. We sacrifice to Ahura Mazda, the holy lord of 

1 This, while very ancient as regards us, is of course not genuine 
in its present shape. It was doubtless composed long after Frasha- 
wtra and Zarathurtra had ceased to live. It may be, however, an 
expansion of an earlier document. 

* ' The Amesha Spewta of the holy ones.' 

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the ritual order, and we worship His entire body 1 , 
and we worship the Bountiful Immortals all ; and we 
worship all the ritual lords. And we sacrifice to the 
entire Mazdayasnian Faith. And we worship all the 
sacred metres. 

5. And we worship the entire bounteous Mathra, 
even the entire system of the Faith set up against 
the Daevas ; and we worship its complete and long 
descent. And we sacrifice to all the holy Yazads, 
heavenly and earthly ; and we worship all the 
good, heroic, and bountiful Fravashis of the saints. 
6. And we worship all the holy creatures which 
Mazda created, and which possess the holy institu- 
tions 2 , which were established holy in their nature *, 
which possess the holy lore, and the holy sacrifice, 
which are holy, and for the holy, and to be worshipped 
by the holy. And we worship all the five * Gathas, 
the holy ones, and the entire Yasna [its flow and its 
ebb 6 , and the sounding (of its chants)]. 7. And we 
sacrifice to all the Praises of the Yasna, and to all the 
words which Mazda spake, which are the most fatal 
to evil thoughts, and words, and deeds; (8) and which 
designate 6 the evil thought, and word, and deed, and 
which then cut down and fell every evil thought, and 
word, and deed. [(Pazand.) One would think of it as 

1 The heavenly bodies are thus termed elsewhere, and the sun is 
called his eye. { written for if. 
J Possibly, 'were created pure.' 
' ' Shaped holy.' 
4 Or, ' are worshipped as holy,' vahmyafo, or yfisnya/fra. 

* This figure is too advanced to be probable. The text has 
been disturbed. The words describe the waters elsewhere. 

• So with the Pahlavi, referring the word to the third kar, the root 
of khratu, passive (?) form, with active sense. It also, however, not 
impossibly might mean ' cut around,' preparatory to felling. 

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when the fire cuts, sucks out, and consumes the dry 
wood which has been sanctified and carefully selected 
(for its flame).] And we sacrifice to the strength, the 
victory, the glory, and the speed of all these words 
(as they go forth for their work). 9. And we sacrifice 
to all the springs of water, and to the water-streams 
as well, and to growing plants, and forest-trees *, and 
to the entire land and heaven, and to all the stars, 
and to the moon and sun, even to all the lights with- 
out beginning (to their course) *. And we sacrifice 
to all cattle, and to the aquatic beasts, and to the 
beasts that live on land, and to all that strike the 
wing, and to the beasts that roam the plains, and to 
those of cloven hoof. 10. And to all Thy good and 
holy female (creatures) in the creation do we sacrifice, 
(O Thou who art) Ahura Mazda s the skilful maker ! 
on account of which Thou hast made many things 
and good things (in Thy world). And we sacrifice to 
those male creatures in the creation which are Thine 
and which are meet for sacrifice because of Asha 
Vahbta (of Righteousness the Best). And we 
sacrifice to all the mountains brilliant with holiness, 
and to all the lakes which Mazda created, and to all 
fires. And we sacrifice to all the truthful and cor- 
rectly spoken words, (11) even those which have 
both rewards and Piety within them. Yea, we 
worship (you) for protection and shielding, for 
guarding and watching ; and may ye be to me for 

I call upon the Gathas here, the bountiful holy ones, 

1 Elsewhere rendered ' stems.' 

* Not determined like the course of a planet. 

* We should expect the vocative after ' Thy.' 

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ruling in the ritual order ; yea, we sacrifice to you, (O 
ye Gathas !) for protection and shielding, for guarding 
and watching. Mine may ye be as a preparation. For 
me, for (mine) own soul I call on (you) ', and we would 
worship (you) for protection and for shielding, for 
guarding and for watching. 12. And we sacrifice to 
Weal, the complete welfare, holy and ruling in its 
course in the ritual order ; and we sacrifice to Death- 
lessness (the immortal being of the good), holy, and 
ruling in the ritual order. And we sacrifice to the 
question of the Lord, and to His lore, the holy chiefs, 
and to the heroic Haptanghaiti, the holy lord of the 
ritual order. 1 3. (Frasha.) Let the holy Zarathustra 
himself seek out a friend and a protector. And I say 2 
to thee (O Zarathurtra !) to make to thee a friend holy 
beyond the holy, and truer than the true, for that is 
the better thing ; for he is evil who is the best to the 
evil, and he is holy to whom the holy is a friend 3 , 
(14) for these are the best of words, those which 
Ahura Mazda spoke to Zarathustra. 

And 4 do thou, O Zarathustra! pronounce these 
words at the last ending of (thy) life. 1 5. For if, 
O Zarathustra ! thou shalt pronounce these words 
at the last ending of (thy) life I, Ahura Mazda, will 
keep your soul away from Hell. Yea, so far away 
shall I hold it as is the breadth and extension of 
the earth [(Pazand) and the earth is as wide as it 
is long]. 

16. As thou dost desire, O holy (one)! so shalt 
thou be, holy shalt thou cause (thy) soul to pass over 

1 Or, 'I would invoke (mine) own soul;' see verse 18. 

* Possibly the rejoinder of Frashaojtra, or these are 'the best 
words ' referred to in verse 14 ; but the section is a dialogue. 

• Y. XLVI, 6. « Ahura speaks. 

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the Alnva/ Bridge ; holy shalt thou come into Heaven. 
Thou shalt intone the Gatha Ustavai'ti, reciting the 
salvation hail K 

1 7. We sacrifice to the active man, and to the man 
of good intent, for the hindrance of darkness, of 
wasting of the strength and life, and of distraction. 
And we sacrifice to health and healing, to progress 
and to growth, for the hindrance of impurity, and of 
the diseases of the skin 2 . 

18. And we sacrifice to the ( Yasna's) ending words, 
to those which end the Gathas. And we sacrifice to 
the bounteous Hymns themselves which rule in the 
ritual course, the holy ones. 

And we sacrifice to the Praise-songs of the Yasna 
which were the products of the world of yore ; yea, 
we sacrifice to all the Staota-Y£snya hymns. And we 
sacrifice to (our) own soul and to (our) Fravashi. 
19-21. (See Y. VI, 14-16.) 22. I praise, invoke, and 
I weave my song to the good, heroic, bountiful 
Fravashis of the saints, to those of the house, 
and of the village, the district and the province, and 
to those of the Zarathurtr6temas. 23. And we sacri- 
fice to the Fire, Ahura Mazda's son, the holy ritual 

And we sacrifice to this Baresman having the 
Zaothra with it, and its girdle with it, and spread 
with sanctity, the holy ritual chief. And we sacrifice 
to ApSm-napa/, and to Nairya-sangha, and to that 
Yazad, the wise man's swift Curse. 

And we sacrifice to the souls of the dead, [which 
are the Fravashis of the saints]. 24. And we sacri- 
fice to that lofty Lord who is Ahura Mazda Himself. 

1 Y. XLIII, 1 follows. * Diseases arising from filth. 

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25. And we pray (again) for the Kine (once more) 
with these gifts and (ceremonial) actions which are 
the best 1 . 26-28. (See Y. VIII, 5-7.) 29-31. (See 
Y. LX, 11-13.) 


1 See Y. XXXV, 4; Y. XLVIII, 6. 

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i. I announce 2 , and (will) complete (my Yasna) to 
the lords 3 of the spiritual creatures, and to the lords 
of the earthly creatures, to the lords 8 of those which 
live under the waters, and to the lords of those 
which live upon land, to the lords of those which 
strike the wing, and to the lords of those which roam 
(wild) upon the plains, to the lords of those of (home- 
beasts) of the cloven hoof, holy lords of the ritual 

2. I announce, and I (will) complete (my Yasna) to 
the Yearly festivals, the lords of the ritual order, 
to Maidhyo-zaremaya, the milk-giver, the holy lord of 
the ritual order, and to Maidhy6-shema, the pasture- 
giver, and to PaitLmahya, the corn-giver, and to 
Ayathrima, the furtherer or breeder, the spender of 
the seed of males, and to Maidhyairya the cold *, the 
holy lord of the ritual order, and to Hamaspath- 
mae'dhaya, the especial time for ritual deeds 6 , holy 
lords of the ritual order. 

1 This Visparad consists of additions to various portions of the 
Yasna ; and its several chapters generally follow the corresponding 
portions of the Yasna in the Vendidad Sidah. The word Visparad 
means ' all the chiefs,' referring to the ' lords of the ritual/ Chapter I 
should be read immediately after Yasna I, 9. 

* Or, ' I invite.' 

* Lords because ruling as chief objects of attention during their 
mention in the course of the sacrifice, also, as in this case, genii 
guarding over all of their class. 

' So De Hnrlez, admirably following the Pahl. sardik (sic). 

* Pavan yazlrn kan/arih. 

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3. I announce, and I (will) complete (my Yasna) 
to the settlements of the future one, when the future l 
shall produce them as it were anew, and I celebrate 
and will complete (my Yasna) to the Praises of the 
Yasna 2 collected, completed, and much-offered, and 
to the Myazdas of the saints of the ritual, male and 

4. And I announce, and will complete (my Yasna) 
to the Seasons, the lords of the ritual order, and 
to the heard recital of the Ahuna-vairya, and to 
Righteousness the Best, to him who has (?) our 
praise, and to the Y^Nhe hatam, the frequent chant 
of sacrifice :! , the holy, and ruling in the ritual order. 

5. And I announce and complete (my Yasna) to 
the Gatha Ahunavaiti, the holy, ruling in the ritual 
order, and to those women who bring forth many 
sons of many talents, Mazda-given, and holy lords of 
the ritual order, and to that (chant) which has its Ahu 
and its Ratu * (before it in the Yasna). 

And I celebrate, and will complete (my sacrifice) 
to the Yasna Haptanghaiti *, holy, and ruling in the 
ritual order, [and to the water Ardvi Anahita •]. 

6. And I announce, and I (will) complete (my 
Yasna) to the Gatha Urtavaiti, the holy, ruling in 
the ritual order, and to the mountains which shine 

1 ^4unghairy6, a collective, or zfzanen, a participle. 

* Here is praise to a part of the Yasna itself, although not yet 
recited in the V. S. 

s Its chief word is yazamaidS, it is 'the well-sacrificed,' the 
word often occurring. 

4 Or, ' to him who is devoted to the Ahuna, with its Ahu and 
Ratu (?).' 

* Observe the priority of the Haptanghaiti ; it should be read 

' Interpolated. 

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with holiness, the abundantly brilliant 1 and Mazda- 
made, the holy lords of the ritual order. 

And I announce, and (will) complete (my Yasna) 
to the Gatha Spe#ta-mainyu, the holy, ruling in 
the ritual order ; and I celebrate and will complete 
(my Yasna) to Verethraghna (the blow of victory 2 ) 
Ahura-given, the holy lord of the ritual order. 

7. And I announce, and (will) complete (my Yasna) 
to the Gatha Vohu-khshathra, holy, ruling in the 
ritual order, and to Mithra of the wide pastures, and 
to Raman Jfv&stra., the holy lords of the ritual order. 
And I celebrate and will complete my Yasna to the 
Gatha Vahi.rt6i.yti, the holy, ruling in the ritual order. 
And I celebrate and will complete my Yasna to 
the good and pious Prayer for blessings, the bene- 
diction of the pious 3 , and to that Yazad, the redoubted 
and swift Curse of the wise, the holy lord of the ritual 

8. And I announce, and (will) complete (my Yasna) 
to the Airy*ma-ishyd,the holy lord of the ritual order, 
and to the Fshusho-mathra, and to that lofty lord 
Hadhaokhdha *, the holy lord of the ritual order. 

9. And I announce, and (will) complete (my Yasna) 
to the questions asked of Ahura, and to the lore of 
Ahura, to the Ahurian Da^z>yuma (Dahyuma), and 
to the Ahurian Zarathurtrdtema, holy lords of the 
ritual order, and to the farm-house with its pastures 

1 This sense is most obvious. 

1 The 'fiend-smiting' is the common meaning of vritrah!?; but 
verethra is clearly ' victory ' in Zend ; vn'tra also equals defensive 

8 Can dahmahe^a mean ' the departed saint' here ? 

* A lost part of the Avesta, two fragments of which only survive. 

[30 Z 

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which give pasture to the Kine of blessed gift, and 
to the holy cattle-breeding man l . 


i. In this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire to 
approach the lords of (the ritual) which are spiritual 
with my praise ; and I desire to approach the earthly 
lords (as well). And I desire to approach the lords 
of the water with my praise, and the lords of the 
land ; and I desire to approach with my praise those 
chiefs which strike the wing, and those which wander 
wild at large, and those of the cloven hoof, who are 
chiefs of the ritual (in their turn). 

2. In this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire to 
approach the holy Yearly festivals with my praise, 
the lords of the ritual order, Maidhy6-zaremaya, the 
milk-giver, and Maidhyd-shema, the pasture-giver, 
and Paitimahya, the corn-giver, and Ayathrima the 
breeder, the spender of the seed of males, Maidhy- 
airya, the cold, Hamaspathmae'dhaya, the especial 
time for ritual duties, the holy lords of the ritual 

3. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire 
to approach the future one of the settlements with 
my praise, the holy lord of the ritual order, when the 
future one shall produce (them as it were anew). 

And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire 
to approach all these chieftains of the ritual with my 
praise whom Ahura Mazda mentioned to Zarathurtra 

1 Comp. Y. XXIX, 2. Y. I, 10-23 follows. 
1 Visparad II should be read after Yasna II, 8, of which it is an 

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for sacrifice and homage because of Asha Vahwta (of 
Righteousness the Best). 

4. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire 
to approach Thee \ the lord, with my praise, Thou 
who art Ahura Mazda, the spiritual lord and regu- 
lator 2 of the spiritual creatures [the lord and regulator 
of the spiritual creation]. 

And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire 
to approach thee, Zarathurtra Spitama, with my 
praise, the terrestrial (lord and regulator) of the 
terrestrial creation, [the lord and regulator of the 
terrestrial creation]. 

5. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire 
to approach the man who recites the ritual rites with 
my praise, who is maintaining thus the thought well 
thought, and the word well spoken, and the deed well 
done, and Piety the bountiful, even him 8 who main- 
tains the MSthra of the Saoshyawt, by whose actions 
the settlements are advanced in the righteous order. 

6. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire 
to approach the (yearly) Seasons with my praise, the 
holy lords of the ritual order, and the Ahuna-vairya 
as it is recited, and Asha Vahirta when he is lauded *, 
and the Ye^hS hatSm, the frequent chant of sacrifice. 

7. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire 
to approach the Gatha Ahunavaiti with my praise. 

1 It is certainly not impossible that the idea of ' invoking the 
approach of Ahura ' was meant, but ' approaching him ' is more 

' Ahumia ratumia, applied to the same person, the usage 
arising from an erroneous rendering of the Ahuna-vairya; see 
Y. XIX, 12. 

* Yd, with K? b , Kn, daretem, passive form; or, 'who (has) the 
Mathra held.' The text must, however, be in disorder. 

4 In the Ashem Vohu. 

Z 2 

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And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire to 
worship those women with my praise who are well- 
portioned 1 , and of good parentage, and who are 
stately in their growth ; yea, I desire to approach 
that chant in my praise which has the Ahu and the 
Ratu, [for He is verily the one who has the Ahu and 
the Ratu, that is, Ahura Mazda *]. 

And I desire to approach the heroic Yasna Hap- 
tanghaiti in my praise, the holy, and ruling in the ritual 
order ; and Ardvi Sura Anahita, the holy, and ruling 
in the ritual order. 

8. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire 
to approach the Gatha U^tavaiti with my praise, the 
holy, and ruling in the ritual order ; and I desire to 
approach those mountains 3 with my praise which 
shine with holiness, abundantly glorious, Mazda- 
made, the holy lords of the ritual order, and the 
Gatha Spe«ta-mainyu, and Verethraghna, the blow of 
victory, Mazda-given, the holy lord of the ritual order, 
and the Victorious Ascendency (which it bestows). 

9. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire 
to approach the Gatha Vohu-khshathra with my 
praise, the holy, and ruling in the ritual order, and 
Mithra of the wide pastures, and Raman Hv&stm, 
and the Gatha Vahi.rt6i.rti, and the pious and good 
prayer for blessings, and the pious and holy man, and 
that Yazad, the redoubted and swift curse of the wise. 

10. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I 
desire to approach the Airyemi-ishyd with my 

1 So the Pahlavi. * Erroneous Pizand. 

8 This sentence affords support to my rendering of SySsS, as 
expressing a desire to approach, rather than one for the approach of 
(the Genius of) the Mountain ; at the same time the latter idea may 
very possibly be the correct one. (Expressions are curtailed.) 

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£ 4 (.IF0RN * ^.>> 

praise, and the Fshushd-mathra, and thatlottylord, 
the Hadhaokhdha, holy lord(s) of the ritual order. 

1 1. And in this Zaothra with this Baresman I desire 
to approach the question asked of Ahura, and the lore 
of the Lord (which he reveals in answer), and the 
farm-house of the man possessed of pastures, and 
the pasture produced for the Kine of blessed gift, 
and the holy cattle-breeding man 1 . 


Beginning of the Haoma Offering; Roll-call 
of the Priest*. 

i. (The Zaotar speaks.) (I call for) the Hlvanan 8 , 
and would have him here. 

(The Ratu answers.) I will come (and fulfil his 

(The Zaotar speaks.) I would have the Atare- 
vakhsha * here. 

(The Ratu answers.) I will come (and fulfil the 
services which fall to his charge). 

(The Zaotar.) I would have the Frabaretar s . 

(The Ratu.) I will come (and fulfil the services 
which fall to his charge). 

(The Zaotar.) I would have the Abere* • present. 

(The Ratu.) I will come (for him). 

1 Y. II, 10 follows Visparad II, n. 

* This chapter 1-5 follows Y. XI, 1-8 in the Vendidad Sadah; 
so, appropriately. 

' The Ratu answers for all according to the rubric printed by 
Westergaard, but of later origin than the text It arose from the 
fact that the several offices were later united in that of the Ratu. 
Originally the corresponding official answered to his title. The 
Havanan was the Mobad who pounded the Haoma in the mortar. 

4 The Mobad who fed the Fire. 

6 The Mobad who aided the presentations. * The water carrier. 

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(The Zaotar.) I would have the Asnatar \ 

(The Ratu.) I will come (and do the duties which 
he serves). 

(The Zaotar.) I would have the Ra£thwi.rkar 2 to 
be here. 

(The Ratu.) I will come (for him). 

(The Zaotar.) I would have the Sraoshavareza * 
present, the wisest one, the most correct and veracious 
in his speech. 

(The Ratu.) I will come. 2. (The Zaotar.) I 
would have the Fire-priest to be here, and the warrior, 
and the thrifty tiller * of the earth, and the house-lord, 
and the lords of the Vis and the Za»tu. 

3. And I summon the youth of holy thoughts, 
words and works, and of good conscience ; (yea), the 
youth of good speech, given (in marriage) to his kin 6 . 
And I summon the province-ranger, and the itinerant 
of many arts, and the house-mistress. 

4. And I summon the woman advanced in her holy 
thoughts, and words, and deeds, and well subordinated, 
whose ruler is her lord *, the holy one, who is (as) the 
bounteous Aramaiti ; (yea), I summon even Thy 
wives, O Ahura ! And I summon likewise the holy 
man advanced in his good thoughts, and words, and 
deeds, who is learned in pious lore, and innocent of 
the Kayadha, and by whose deeds the settlements are 
furthered in the righteous order. 

1 The washer. 

* The mixer (?), or the Mobad who attended to disinfections. 

* The Mobad who attended to penance. 
4 The typical layman. 

This important custom was fully treated in the lost Nask, 
No. 16 (or No. 18; by another reckoning). 

' So the most, but ratukhshathra means elsewhere ' ruling in 
the ritual as supreme.' 

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5. Yea, we summon you, whoever you may be, if 
only chiefs of the Mazdayasnians ; and we summon 
the Bounteous Immortals, and the pious Saoshya»ts 
(the prophets for our help), the most correct and 
truthful in their speech, the most zealous, the most 
glorious in their thoughts, the greatest ones, and the 
powerful ; and we summon the Fire-priests, and the 
warriors, and the diligent husbandman of the Mazda- 
yasnian Faith. 

6 \ (The Zaotar.) As an Ahu to be (revered and) 
chosen, the Atarevakhsha (announcing) speaks forth 8 
to me. 

(The Ratu [?].) So let the Ratu from his righteous- 
ness, holy and learned, speak forth. 

(The Ratu.) As an Ahu to be (revered and) chosen, 
the Zaotar (announcing) speaks forth 2 to me. 

(The Zaotar.) So let the Ratu from (his) righteous- 
ness, holy and learned, speak forth. 

(The Ratu.) Thou art the announcer for us, O 
Fire-priest! [(Pazand.) It is the 8 Zaotar (who is 

(The Zaotar.) I will come as this Zaotar, and recite 
the StaotaY6snya with memorised intoning, chanting, 
and praise. 


1. (Yea,) we sacrifice to the thoughts of the mind, 
and to the good wisdom, and to the good and blessed 

1 This section follows Y. XI, 9-15 in the V. S., preceding a 
section described as Y. XI, 59, 60, in the B. V. S. 

* Probably in an imperative sense, or, with some, an infinitive. 

* Read Zaotasti which contains sandhi. It. seems a gloss to 
explain the Athraom (sic). It is zaota asti. 

4 This section, preceding Y. XI, closed in the B.V. S., seems to me 

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sanctity, and to the good religious knowledge, and 
to good health (of soul and body). [At their (several) 
seasons, and with the presence of seasonable circum- 
stances, they are hymned 1 .] 2. Confession is to 
be made for the Kine ; we, Zarathurtrian Mazda- 
yasnians, celebrate at the sacrificial time for the 
Myazda-offering, at the time for the Ratufriti, the 
prayer for blessings, for the sacrificial worship, 
homage, propitiation, and praise of the entire crea- 
tion of the holy (and the clean). 

VISPARAD V (Sp. VI) 8 . 

1. I come to You, O Ye Bountiful Immortals! as 
a praiser priest, and invoker, as a memoriser, reciting 
(Your ritual), and as a chanter for Your sacrifice and 
homage, Your propitiation, and Your praise ; (yea, 
for Yours) the Bountiful Immortals, and for our 
preparation, (O ye holy Saoshyawts!) and for your 
well-timed prayer for blessings, and your sanctifi- 
cation, and for our victorious smiting of our foes, 
beneficial (as it is) for our souls, for ours, the 
Saoshya«ts, (with you), and holy. 2. And I make 
my offering to You, O Ye Bountiful Immortals, 
who rule aright, and who dispose (of all) aright! 
(Yea), I offer You the flesh of my very body, and 
all the blessings of my life as well. 

3. And I confess my belief in Thee, O Ahura 

to belong properly after Yasna VIII, and the Myazda offering with 
the Ratufriti. 

1 Pazand. 

1 This piece should be read after Yasna XIV, with which it is 
nearly identical. The language of the translation is slightly varied 
to relieve the effect of sameness. 

Digitized by 


visparad vi, vii. 345 

Mazda! and as a Mazdayasnian of the order of 
Zarathurtra, and in accordance with his Faith. 


In accordance with the precept, with praise, and 
with the joyful reception of grace, with Zaothras 
intelligently offered, with sacrificial words correctly 
spoken, I call the good Amesha Spewta by their 
names of beauty ; yea, I worship the Bountiful 
Immortals by their beautiful names, with the blessing 
of the ritual Order, with the longing blessing of 
Righteousness the good. 


i. We worship the (sacrificial) words correctly 
uttered, and Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed, and 
the good Ashi, (the blest order of our rites), and 
Nairya-sangha. And we worship the victorious 
Peace as the unprostrated and unmoved. And we 
sacrifice to the Fravashis of the saints, and to the 
KmvdJ Bridge, and to the Gar6 Nmana of Ahura, 
even Heaven, the best world of the saints, the shining 
and all glorious ! 

2. And we sacrifice to that better path 3 that leads 
to that Best World (as well). And we worship 
Arcta7 (Justice) the good, which helps the settlements 
to advance and flourish, benefiting them thereby, 
that Anrta/ which is the Mazdayasnian Faith ; and 
(with her) we worship Rashnu the most just, and 

1 Nearly identical with Yasna XV. 

* This chapter should be read after Yasna XVII, which it appro- 
priately follows in the Vendlddd Sadah. 
8 Possibly '.the best (better) course of that best world.' 

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Mithra of the wide pastures. And we worship 
Pare«di the wealthy, wealthy with a wealth of 
thoughts, with a throng of words, and with a breadth 
of actions, [for she makes our persons agile (for 
good thoughts and words and actions)]. 3. And 
we worship that virile defensive 1 Heroism which 
possesses men who think beforehand, and heroic 
men, which is fleeter 2 than the fleet, stronger than 
the strong, which comes to him who is endowed by 
God, which, when especially made theirs by men, 
produces one who is a freer of the body. And we 
worship Sleep 3 , the Mazda-made, the gladdener of the 
herd and men. 4. And we worship those things in 
the creation of the holy which are the ancient insti- 
tutions, those formed before the sky, the water, the 
land, the plants, and the Kine of blessed gift. And 
we worship the sea Vouru-kasha, and the stormy 
wind which is made by Mazda, and the shining 
heaven, of old created, the first-made earthly object 
of (all) the earthly world. 

5. And we worship thee, the Fire, O Ahura 
Mazda's son ! the holy lord of the ritual order, and 
this Baresman, having the Zaothra with it, and the 
girdle with it, spread out with sanctity, the holy 
ritual chief, and we worship ApSm-napa/ (the son 
of waters). 

1 One might consider, ' virile power which has men and heroes 
in the mind beforehand ;' but vareti=gurdth. 

* Asyayau (sic) and takhmfitajyayau (sic) agree with feminines ; 
possibly because of the male qualities referred to. They might be 
said to be in apposition rather than in agreement with the feminine. 

* Sleep is elsewhere an evil; a Demon, Bushyasta, rules it; but 
this is untimely sleep; see, on the other hand, Y. XLIV, 5. 

Digitized by 


visparad viii, ix. 347 


i. With this word be Thou approached 1 , with the 
proper word be Thou present here, Thou who art 
Ahura Mazda, the holy, together with the good 
Yazads who are the Bountiful Immortals, who rule 
aright, and dispose (of all) aright, together with fifty, 
and a hundred, and a thousand, and ten thousand, and 
millions, and yet more. 

2. And to Him who rules the best let the King- 
dom be 2 ! 

VISPARAD IX (Sp. X) 8 . 

i. (I desire to offer my homage and my praise 4 ) to 
the offered Haomas and Zaothras, and to those also 
which shall yet be offered, which smite victoriously, 
and are foes of hatred, and following in company (as 
they do) with the healing virtues of sanctity, following 
also in company with those of ATisti (religious know- 
ledge), and with the remedies of Mazda, and with 
those of Zarathujtra and the Zarathu.str6tema, (2) and 
to the offered Haomas and Zaothras which accompany 
those remedies which belong to the holy disciple well 
versed in good devices 6 , and accompanying those of 
the itinerant also versed in good devices 6 , and accom- 
panying those likewise of the good Mazdayasnian 
Faith, and those of the pious and beneficent Prayer 
for blessings, and of the pious and good veracity, and 

1 ' Mediated ' (?), or ' known,' madhayangha (-uha). 

* See Y. XXXV, 5. 

* This section should be read before Y. XXII. 

* Supplied necessarily from Visp. X, 2 ; see its genitive. 
' Or, ' sciences ' (in some cases medical). 

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of the pious word against unbelief, (3) for information 
and explanation, for preparation (?) and devotion, for 
the libation and complete offering, for the complete 
recital of the liturgy memorised as well ; and to those 
Haomas which are pungent, bounteous, holy, and 
offered with sanctity (and for a blessing), to those 
which are yet to be offered with sanctity, and which 
are now being celebrated, and which are likewise in 
the future to be celebrated, to those which are being 
pressed with sanctity, and to those which are yet to 
be pressed, (to these I desire to approach, and to 
express my homage and my praise). 4. And I desire 
to express my homage and my praise to the strength 
of the strong, and to the victorious blow of the mighty, 
to the powerful Rectitude and Blessedness, to Alsti 
and the Priority for the powerful Ascendency, and 
to these powerful Yazads which are the Bountiful 
Immortals, who rule aright, and dispose of all aright, 
ever-living, ever-helpful, who, male and female, dwell 
together with the Good Mind, (to these I desire in my 
homage and my praises to approach) ; (5) (yea, I 
desire to approach for homage and praises toward) 
our Universal Weal and Immortality, to the body of 
the Kine, and to the Kine's Soul. (And I desire to 
approach) the Fire of the spoken name \ and toward 
that farm-house which is sanctified and which has 
fields and comfort 2 , and mercy (for the poor) ; (6) 
as a praiser with praise for the sacrifice, homage, 
which is this praise of Ahura Mazda, of the Bountiful 
Immortals, and of the holy and lofty Lord, for the 
sacrifice, and homage of the Lord that most attains 
his ends, and which is this praise of that blessedness 

1 Having a Yart. 

s Here is an instance where fiv&lhra. may mean ' comfort.' 

Digitized by 


visparad x, xi. 349 

which has approached us, and of that well-timed 
prayer for blessings offered in the ritual, (7) which is 
likewise the praise of the Mathra Spewta (the boun- 
teous word of reason), and of the Mazdayasnian 
Religion, and the Praises of the Yasnas \ which is 
also that of all the lords of the ritual, and of all the 
well-timed prayers for blessings, for the sacrifice, 
homage, propitiation, and glorification of the entire 
creation of the holy (and the clean). 

VISPARAD X (Sp. XI) 2 . 

1 . I desire to approach the Arezahis with my praise, 
and the Savahis, and Fradadhafshu,and Vldadhafshu, 
and Vouru-barerti, and Vouru-^arerti, and this Karsh- 
var which is /jfoaniratha. 2. And I desire to ap- 
proach the stone mortar with my praise, and the 
iron mortar, and the cup that holds the Zaothra, and 
the hair (which stays the spilling 3 ), and Thy Bares- 
man spread with sanctity. And I desire to approach 
the Ahuna-vairya with my praise, and the ritual 
prayers beside Ahuna, and the standing offices of 
the Mazdayasnian Faith. 


1 . To Ahura Mazda would we present * our offered 
Haomas and that which is lifted up, as the most 

1 Perhaps ' the Yarts in the Yasna,' otherwise the latter portion 
of the Yasna. 

* This section follows Y. XXII. 

8 The varesa consists (as used at present) of three, five, or seven 
hairs from the tail of a white bull, which are tied to a gold, silver, 
copper, or brass ring. This can be used as long as the bull lives, 
but as often as it is used it must be reconsecrated. (Haug.) 

4 The wording is purposely varied in the renderings to avoid 

Digitized by 



beneficial to Verethraghna (the blow of victory) which 
furthers the settlements ; and that which is offered 
to the good and holy king, and that which is offered to 
the holy ruler which rules according to, or in the 
ritual, and we make known our Haomas to the Boun- 
tiful Immortals, and to the good waters ; and we 
present our Haomas each to (our) own soul 1 ; and 
we announce our Haomas in our celebration to the 
entire creation of the holy (and the clean). 

2. Yea, we present these Haomas and Haoma- 
implements.and these spread mats, and these Myazdas, 
these stones, the first in the creation, the stone mortar 
brought here with the yellow 2 Haoma in it, and the 
iron mortar brought here with the yellow Haoma in 
it, this Haoma-water, and this Baresman spread 
with sanctity, (3) these bodies, and (their) forces, these 
striving Zaothras (that seek to find Thy grace), this 
holy Haoma, and the flesh, and the holy man, and 
the saint's innate thoughts, even the Saoshya»ts' 
innate thoughts. 

And we present this fresh milk as an offering, 
now lifted up with sanctity, and this Hadhana6pata 
plant, lifted up with sanctity ; (4) and we offer, and 
present these Zaothras with our celebration, having 
the Haoma with them, and the milk, and the Hadha- 
na£pata, to the good waters and offered up with 
piety. And we present the Haoma-water in our 
celebrations to the good waters, and both the stone 
and the iron mortar, (5) and this branch for the 
Baresman, and the prayer for blessings uttered at 
the fitting moment which has approached (for our 
help in its order with the prayers), and the recollec- 

1 To the soul of the person who may be reciting. 
* Zairi with K4. 

Digitized by 



tion and practice of the good Mazdayasnian law, and 
the heard recital of the Gathas, the well-timed prayer 
for blessings as it comes uttered by the saint (and for 
our help), and ruling (while it is spoken) as a ritual 
lord, and these wood-billets, and the perfume even 
Thine, the Fire's, O Ahura Mazda's son! and all good 
objects (which are ours), and Mazda-made, and which 
have the seed of sanctity (or are that seed). 

6. Yea, these we make known and we announce 
in this our celebration to Ahura Mazda (as our gift), 
and to Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed, and to Ashi 
(who is the recompense), and to Rashnu the most just, 
and to Mithra of the wide pastures, and to the Boun- 
tiful Immortals, and the Fravashis of the saints, and 
to their souls, and to the Fire of Ahura Mazda, the 
lord, and to the lofty lord (the Apam-napa/ ?), and 
to the Myazda, the lord, and to the well-timed prayer 
for blessings as it rules in the order of our prayers, 
for the sacrifice, homage, propitiation, and adoration 
of the entire creation of the holy (and the clean). 
7. Yea, these we make known in this our celebra- 
tion hereby for the Fravashi of Zarathurtra Spitama, 
the saint, for its sacrifice, homage, propitiation, and 
praise, and to the (Fravashi) of Anghuyu(P) 1 who hath 
loved righteousness, together with all the holy Fra- 
vashis of the saints, of those now dead, and of those 
of the living, and of those of men unborn, of the 
prophets that shall serve us, bringing on the renova- 
tion of the completed world. 8-1 1, see verses 2-5. 

1 2. Yea, we would make these known hereby in 
our celebrations to the Bountiful Immortals, who rule 

1 Here, erroneously, a proper name as in Yart XIII. Possibly 
of that Zarathurtrian world (period) which loved righteousness ; the 
word occurs after the name of Z. I think,,that ' y ' should be ' v.' 

Digitized by 



aright, and who dispose (of all) aright, the ever-living, 
ever-helpful, who are good (?), and bestowers of the 
good, who dwell with the Good Mind [(Pazand) for 
they who are the Bountiful Immortals abide with 
the Good Mind, they who rule aright, and dispose 
(of all) aright, for thence they are regulated, and 
thence they arose, (namely,) from the Good Mind l ]. 
1 3. And we make known these our celebrations as 
the more promotive for this 2 house, for the fur- 
therance of this house, and as benefits for this house, 
because of the increase of this household, as over- 
coming the restrictions which impede this household, 
and as overcoming the harmful malice which may 
mar this house, to bless its herds, and its retainers, 
born, and yet to be born, for the saints of the house 
as it was aforetime, of it as it 3 stands here now, and 
to which we likewise now belong as the Saoshya»ts of 
the provinces, (14) [which (is that we are Saoshya«ts) 
for the saints who do good deeds, and of the female 
saints who do good deeds, and of the saints who do 
the deeds conspicuously good, and of the females 
likewise thus, of the saints who do good deeds upon 
good deeds, and of the females thus the same]. 
15. And we make these known in our celebrations 
to the good Fravashis of the saints which are for- 
midable and overwhelming in their aid. 16. And 
we make these known in our celebrations hereby to 
Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed, and to the good 

1 Vohu Manah certainly appears the most prominent here. They 
arose from the ' good thought ' of Ahura. 

8 This office was celebrated in private houses by itinerant priests. 

* Y§NhS aSm might be a citation from some lost prayer. The 
singular a6m may, however, be taken collectively, as families are 
spoken of. 

Digitized by 



Blessedness, and to Nairya-sangha, and to the vic- 
torious Peace, and to Ahura Mazda's Fire, and to 
the lofty lord, for sacrifice, homage, propitiation, and 
for praise, to the entire creation of the holy and the 
clean. 17, i8 = Visp. X, 1, 2. 

19. (Sp. XIII.) Yea, we make that known which is 
lifted up in offering, and which is the Avesta x as the 
holy Ahura Mazda directed that it should be said, 
and as Zarathurtra, the holy, directed, and as I, the 
priest, who am acquainted with their sacrifice and 
homage, am now letting it be known. I who under- 
stand the lawful and legitimate Avesta 2 , and the 
ritual prescripts (20) for Your sacrifice, homage, and 
propitiation, O Ye who are the Bountiful Immortals, 
and for our preparation (?), and for the success of our 
well-uttered prayer for blessings, for victory, sanctifi- 
cation, and the well-being of our souls, (of ours), for 
(we are) the holy Saoshyawts. 

21. Yea, we make these known in our celebrations 
here, and we offer them to Him who is Ahura Mazda, 
of all the greatest, the master and the Lord. 


1 . For the offered Haomas which have been offered 
in libation to that lofty Lord Ahura Mazda and to 
the holy Zarathurtra Spitama (produce) abundance 
in cattle and in men ; and this * abundance is (as) the 
good Sraosha, who accompanies (us) with the great 

1 Avista probably = Avesta; compare Veda. The moral and 
ceremonial laws. 

1 Avestic. s Follows Y. XXVII. 

4 Hi seems to have a certain conjunctive force like sa in com- 
position, ' And thereto the good Sraosha ;' or is it an interjection ? 
[30 a a 

Digitized by 



splendour of sanctity, and may he 1 be here with 
energetic effort (to aid us in our worship). 

2. We offer the wise offerings of the Ahuna-vairya 
intoned with sanctity and yet to be intoned, possessing 
their many teachings of religious wisdom (as they do), 
and those of the two mortars which pour the Haomas 
out, and which are pushed forward with precision 2 , 
and are now in the course of being thus advanced 
once more 3 . 3. (And so we teach as well the many 
teachings of the religious wisdom) contained in the 
words correctly spoken, in the Zarathurtrian utter- 
ances 4 , and in the ceremonies correctly practised, 
and the Baresmans spread exactly, and the Haomas 
pressed correctly, and the praise, Yasnas, and the 
doctrines of the Mazdayasnian Religion with their 
recitations, and their movements. 4. For thus they 
may become to us more full of devices and of wisdom, 
and so we offer these wise ritual deeds in the creation, 
so we impart them with their many points of meaning 
while we (ourselves) still ponder them as those which 
Ahura Mazda, the holy One, delivered, which have 
(as if) their nourishment from Vohu Manah 8 and 
their growth from the Righteous Order, which are 
the greatest of all beings, the best, and the most 
beautiful ; for thus shall these be to us the more full 
of wisest meaning, and more full of incitation 6 , and 
may we be among those (who are) of Spe«ta Mainyu's 
world in that we are imparting (to the chosen) these 

1 Recall he& of Y. XLVI, 1. 

' With punctilious sanctity. 

3 TheParsi priests at present make appropriate manipulations here. 

* In the now ancient Gathas, &c. 

5 Compare ga&hau vfspau you vohu thraorta mananghS. 

* Or, 'may we be more zealous than any- who are in the 
creation of the bounteous spirit.' 

Digitized by 



precepts of the wisest meaning and these incitations 
which are contained therein. 5. And full of wisest 
meaning be ye two to us, O (thou) stone mortar, and 
(thou) the iron one, as ye are now turned, and as ye 
are now being advanced 1 , ye two mortars of the 
house, [and of the village, of the tribe, and of the 
province, and ye who are in this house (itself), this 
village, tribe, and province] ; yea, in those which are 
ours, Mazdayasnians, who are steadfast in our wor- 
ship, who appear with our wood-billets and our 
perfumes, and with our supplicated blessings [(Pa- 
zand) for so may they be to us, the more full of 
wisest teaching]. 


1. According to the ritual we worship Ahura 
Mazda; according to the ritual we worship the Boun- 
tiful Immortals; and we sacrifice to the sacrificial 
word correctly spoken, and to every Mathra (as to a 
sacred word of reason). And we sacrifice to Zara- 
thurtra, him who is especially the possessor of the 
Mathra 3 ; and we sacrifice to the ' blessings for the 
saints'*; and we worship the 'hail' 8 addressed to 
the Bountiful Immortals. 

2. Also we worship the three principal (chapters) 
uttered (in the Yasna) without addition or omission 6 ; 

1 Referring to manipulations. 

' This fragment follows Y. XXX in the Vendldid Sadah, and 
was written in allusion to Y. XXVIII, Y. XXIX, and Y. XXX. 

* Referring to mathra srevaSmd in Yasna XXVIII, 8. 

* Referring to the words sava&l ashavabyfi in Yasna XXX, 11. 
5 Referring to the word urta in Yasna XXX, 11. 

* The three first chapters XXVIII-XXX; the text has bad 
grammar, or broken connection. 

a a 2 

Digitized by 



and we worship the three principal ones without 
addition or omission ; we worship the three com- 
mencing ones entire without addition or omission 1 . 
And we worship the entirety 2 of the three principal 
ones without addition or omission ; and their Has, 
their metrical lines, their words, and their word- 
structure [and their recital, memorising, chanting, and 
their steadfast offering]. 


i. (We worship Ahura Mazda, the holy Lord of the 
ritual order 4 ; and we sacrifice to the Gatha Ahuna- 
vaiti) with its measures, and word-structure, and its 
Zand, with its questions and counter-questions, with 
its words and its metric feet. And we sacrifice to 
these as well-recited, and now in the course of being 
recited, as well-worshipped, and now in the course of 
being used in worship 8 . 2. (Yea, we sacrifice to it) in 

1 It is difficult to see how anapishuta can mean 'without retrench- 
ment,' but the context seems to require it, and the Pahlavi transla- 
tion bears evidence to it. Perhaps read anapashutS. 

2 'The whole three first.' Some suppose the three prayers to be 
intended (the Ahuna-vairya, the Ashem Vohu, and the Ye^hS 
hatain). I think that the three chapters XXVIII-XXX are meant. 
As the piece follows those three chapters in the VendldSd Sadah, so 
its expressions indicate a reference to them. This might tend to 
show that the Ahunavaiti was at one time, if not originally, divided 
at this place. 

5 This fragment was written in evident allusion to the entire 
Ahunavaiti, which it follows in the VendidSd Stdah. It expresses 
the veneration acquired by the first Githa long after its com- 

4 From the Vendid&d Sddah. 

* Fr&yazewtam may be a metaplasm; otherwise 'of the sacri- 

Digitized by 


visparad xv. 357 

its own ' wisdom ' 1 , in its own ' clearness ' 2 , in its own 
Moving intention' 2 , in its sovereignty, and its own 
ritual order, and its ' acquired boon ' 2 , which is also 
that given by Ahura Mazda for the promotion of 
piety, for that thought which originates from the 
' heart-devoted self' 2 . 

3. (Sp. Chapter XVII.) Also we worship the 
Ahuna-vairya, the holy lord of the ritual order, the 
holy lord with its Ahu and its Ratu [(Pazand) ; for 
He is the one with the title Ahu and Ratu, who is 
Ahura Mazda 8 ]. 4. And we sacrifice to the con- 
stituent parts of the Gatha Ahunavaiti, to its chapters, 
and its metrical lines, its words, and word-structure, 
(and to its heard-recital, and memorised recital, its 
continuous and its steadfast offering]. 


1. Hold your feet in readiness, and your two hands, 
and your understandings 6 , O ye Zarathu-rtrian Maz- 
dayasnians ! for the well-doing of lawful deeds in 
accordance with the sacred Order, and for the 
avoidance of the unlawful and evil deeds which 
are contrary to the ritual. Let the good deeds for the 
furtherance of husbandry be done 6 here. Render 
ye the needy rich 7 . 2. Let Sraosha (Obedience) 
be present here for the worship of Ahura Mazda, 

1 Dami with K4. Possibly in their own house (dami=dani). 

! These words probably allude severally, say, to dam in Y. 
XXXI, 7, JithrS in Y. XXXI, 22, zaoshfi in Y. XXXIII, 2, 10, 
ayapta in Y. XXVIII, 8, to zarzdau in Y. XXXI, 1. 

* Erroneous. 

4 This piece is a later composed prelude to the Haptanghaiti, 
which it precedes in the Vendidad Sadah. 

" Sursum corda I ' Comp. gav6i verezyitam, Y. XLVIII, 5. 

7 ' Place the needy with those without need.' 

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the most helpful, and the holy, who is so desired by 
us in the pronunciation, and for the service, and the 
pondering 1 of the Yasna Haptanghiiti, for the heart's 
devotion to it, for its memorisation, and its victorious 
and holy recital (or for the victorious saint), without 
addition or omission, (3) which has been intoned, and 
which shall yet be uttered as great, powerful, smiting 
with victory, separate from harmful malice, for the 
pronunciation of victorious words for Ahura Mazda's 
Fire. (4, 5 are identical with Visp. IX, 6, 7.) 


1. And we worship the Fire here, Ahura 
Mazda's son, and the Yazads having the seed of 
fire in them, and the Rashnus having the seed of 
fire 3 in them ; and we worship the Fravashis of the 
saints. And we worship Sraosha who smites with 
victory, and the holy man, and the entire creation 
of the holy (and the clean). 2. And we worship 
the Blessedness and the Fravashi of Zarathu-stra 
Spitama, the saint. And we worship the saints and 
their blessed Fravashis (as of one). And we worship 
all their Fravashis (as considered each apart), and 
those of the saints within the Province, and those of 
the saints without the Province ; yea, we worship the 
Fravashis of holy men and holy women (wherever 
they may be, those devoted to the Order of the 
Faith). And we sacrifice to those whose (service) 

1 Possibly m3zdataS£a. 

* This piece follows the Haptanghaiti in the Vendtd&d SSdah ; 
it was intended as a sequel to it. 

* Having the power to propagate its worship, maintaining it 
unextinguished. De Harlez makes the admirable suggestion, 
' bright as flame ' ; but the Pahlavi renders tokhmak. 

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for us in the Yasna Ahura Mazda, the holy, has 
known as the better 1 , and of these Zarathustra is the 
living chief 2 and master. And we sacrifice to the fields 
and the waters, the lands and the plants, and to the 
constituent parts of the Yasna Haptanghaiti, its 
chapters, its metred lines, its words, and word- 


And we strive after the good thoughts, words, and 
deeds inculcated in the Yasna Haptanghaiti. A 
blessing is the Right (called) the Best, (there is) 
weal; (there is) weal for this (man) when toward 
Righteousness Best (there is) right. 


1. We worship Ahura Mazda with the urta 6 . And 
we worship the Amesha Spe»ta with the usta., and the 
holy man, the saint. And we worship the prior world 
of the holy (and of the clean) with an usta., and the 
state of weal and salvation for the holy man (the saint). 
2. And we worship that life-long state of blessed- 
ness (for the holy) which is the evil man's calamity 8 ; 
yea, we worship his eternal 7 salvation, and with the 
salvation prayer. And we sacrifice to every saint who 

1 Comp. Y. LI, 22. 

1 Anghiw^a raturfo here referred to the same person ; comp. aim. 

8 An addition to chapter XVI. 

* This piece having reference to various expressions in the 
Gatha Uxtavaiti, follows it in the Vendidad Sadah. 

5 Referring to urti in Y. XLIII, 1. • See Y. XLV, 7. 

7 Akaranem=the eternal thing; otherwise an adjective of two 
terminations; or, finally, read -am. 

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exists, who is now coming into existence, and who 
shall exist in future. 


1. We worship Ahura Mazda the bountiful; and 
we worship the Bountiful Immortals (saying the 
Spe»ta). And we sacrifice to the bountiful saint, 
and to the bountiful anticipative understanding 2 . 
Also we sacrifice to the good and bountiful Aramaiti 
(the ready mind). And we worship her together 
with s the bountiful creatures in the creation of the 
pure. And we sacrifice to the holy creatures who 
have intelligence as their first 4 , (to those foremost 
in their mind). And we worship the omniscient 
understanding, and Him who is Ahura Mazda (Him- 
self). 2. And we sacrifice to the shining sun, which 
is the highest of the high ; yea, we worship the 
sun together with the Bountiful Immortals, and the 
MSthras with their good ceremonies 8 . Also we 
sacrifice to the glorious achievements, and to this 
glory (which we have gained). And we sacrifice to 
the herds which have the Fire and its blessings 6 . 
Also we worship the holy benefit which is so widely 

1 The word spe«ta throughout alludes to the Gatha Spe»tS- 
mainyu, but it is of course not without grammatical application. 

* In the Bundahij especially referred to Ahura. 

* Or, ' together with the bountiful creatures we worship the holy 

4 This expression may have been accidentally determined by 
the position of the word mand in the Ahuna-vairya formula ; see 
Y. XIX. 12. 

* Or, ' the well-fulfilled.' 

* ' Fire-made ' is unintelligible ; ' fire gifts-having ' may refer to 
the flocks and herds, as expressing the source of that prosperity 
which is represented by the holy Fire. 

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diffused 1 , and that wisdom which is the bounteous 
Aramaiti, whose are the laws 2 of the Righteous 
Order, and of those holy creatures who have Righte- 
ousness as their first. 


1. (Homage to the Githa Vohu-khshathra 4 ! We 
sacrifice to the Vohu-khshathra), (the good king- 
dom) even the Khshathra-vairya, the kingdom to 
be desired ; and we sacrifice to the iron-founding 5 , 
and to the (sacrificial) words 6 correctly spoken which 
smite (the foe) with victory, and which hold the 
Daevas subject. 

And we worship that reward and that health, that 
healing and that progress, that growth and that 
victorious smiting 7 (2) which are between the 
Vohu-khshathra and the Vahi.rt6i.yti 8 , (and which are 
acquired by us) by the memorised recital of the good 
thoughts, good words, and good deeds, for the with- 
standing of evil thoughts, and words, and deeds ; 
yea, for the undoing of all treacherous thoughts 
(directed) against me, and of all false words, and 
unfair deeds. 3. [And we sacrifice to the later 
Yasna, the heroic Haptanghaiti 9 , (and which as it 
recurs becomes) the holy ritual chief.] 

1 Pahl. fravaft su</. 2 Dathra with K4. 

* This piece from the later Avesta follows Y. LI, in the Vendl- 
dad Sadah. 

4 From the Vendidad Sadah. 

5 Associated with this Githa from Y. LI, 9. 

* Compare Y. LI, 3. T Y. LI, 9 ; also perhaps Y. LIII, 8, 9. 

8 Between ; that is, described in the space between the Vohu- 
khshathra and the Vahwtdijti, i.e. in Y. LII. See hamistee' in 
Y. LII, 4, and paitLrtaU-fi in Visp. XX, 2. 

* This would seem misplaced ; perhaps Y. XLII is meant, which 
follows the Haptanghaiti. 

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362. • -'• VISPARAD XXI, XXII. 


1. We strive earnestly, and we take up our Yasna 
and our homage to the good waters, and to the fertile 
fruit-trees (which bear as of themselves), and to the 
Fravashis of the saints ; yea, we take up our Yasna, 
and our homage earnestly to those beings which are 
(so) good, the waters, and the trees, and the Fravashis 
of the saints, (2) and to the Kine, and to Gaya 
(Maretan), and to the MSthra Spe»ta (the bounteous 
word-of-reason), the holy, which works (within and for 
us with effect), to these we take up our Yasnas and 
our homage with earnest zeal, and to Thee, O Ahura 
Mazda ! and to thee, O Zarathurtra, we do the same ; 
and to thee, O lofty lord (the ApSm-napi/), and to 
the Bountiful Immortals. 3. And we sacrifice to the 
listening (that hears our prayers) and to that mercy, 
and to the hearing of (our spoken) homage, and to that 
mercy which is (shown in response to our offered) 
praise. And we sacrifice to the frariiti vtdushS, 
which is contained in the piece ^^ada^naw ashaonls ; 
and we sacrifice to ' the good praise which is without 
hypocrisy, and which has no malice (as its end)' ; 
and we sacrifice to the later Yasna and to its 
offering; and we sacrifice to the chapters of the 
later Yasna, and to its metrical lines, its words, and 


With this chant (fully) chanted, and which is for 
the Bountiful Immortals and the holy Saoshya»ts 
(who are the prophets who shall serve us), and by 
means of these (ceremonial) actions, which are (of all) 

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the best, we desire to utter our supplications for the 
Kine. It is that chant which the saint has recognised 
as good and fruitful of blessed gifts, and which the 
sinner does not know *. May we never reach that 
(ill-luck that the sinner) may outstrip us (in our 
chanting), not in the matter of a plan (thought out), 
or of words (delivered), or ceremonies (done 2 ), nor 
yet in any offering whatever when he (?) approaches 
(us for harm). 


i. We worship Ahura Mazda as the best* (worship 
to be offered in our gifts). We worship the Amesha 
Spe/rta (once more, and as) the best. We worship 
Asha Vahirta (who is Righteousness the Best). And 
we sacrifice to those (prayers) which are evident as 
the best ; that is, the Praises of the Yasnas. 

Also we sacrifice to that best wish, which is that 
of Asha Vahirta, and we worship Heaven, which is 
the best world of the saints, bright and all-glorious ; 
and we sacrifice likewise to that best approach which 
leads to 6 it. 2. And we sacrifice to that reward, 

1 The parties are divided by knowledge and ignorance (compare 
the Gnosis). See Y. XXXI, 12 

* Not in thought, word, or deed may we reach (his) priority 
in progress. 

8 This piece from the later Avesta follows Y. LIII, in the Ven- 
dfdid Sddah, and has reference to its expressions. 

* It is an important suggestion which holds vahutem as equal 
to ' saving vahlrtem,' in allusion to the VahLrta' trtLr ; but as the 
word is inflected further on (see vahlrtahS), and as it moreover 
once applies to Asha, as Asha VahLrta, it is better to render it 
as having adjective application throughout, being none the less, of 
course, an intentional echo of the first word of Y. LIII, 1. 

* Or, 'of it' 

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health, healing, furtherance, and increase, and to 
that victory which is within x the two, the Ahuna- 
vairya and the Airy«ni-ishy6, through the memor- 
ised recital of the good thoughts, words, "and deeds 
(which they enjoin). 

1 Possibly ' between them,' meaning the Gathas which are so 

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As to the present use of these blessings, says Haug 
(ed. West) : ' AfrInagan are blessings which are to be recited 
over a meal consisting of wine, milk, and fruits, to which an 
angel, or the spirit of a deceased person, is invited, and 
in whose honour the meal is prepared. After the con- 
secration (which only a priest can perform) is over, the 
meal is eaten by those who are present. The performance 
of these Afrinagan is required of every Parsi at certain 
fixed seasons of the year. These are the six Gahanbars, 
each lasting five days (at the six original seasons of the 
year) for which the Afrinagan Gahanbar is intended, the 
five Gatha-days (the five last days of the year), during 
which the Afrinagan Gatha must be used ; and, lastly, the 
third day (ArdibahLrt) of the first month (Fravardin) in the 
year, at which the performance of Afrinagan Rapithwin, 
devoted to the spirit presiding over the southern quarter 
(who is the guardian of the way to paradise), is enjoined 
to every Parsi whose soul wants to pass the Kinvad after 
death.' (Essays, 2nd edition, page 224.) 

i. Afr1n[-agAn] gahanbAr 1 . 

1. I confess myself a Mazda-worshipper, and of 
Zarathimra's order, a foe of the Da£vas, devoted to 
the lore of the Lord, for the holy Havani 1 , the regu- 
lator of the ritual order (and its lord in its turn), for 
its sacrifice, homage, propitiation, and praise ; (and I 
confess myself) for Savanghi and for Vlsya, the holy 
lords of the ritual order, for their sacrifice, homage, 

1 The Afrin for the morning hours from 6 to 10. 

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368 Afr!n[-agAn] i. 

propitiation, and praise, and for that of the Asnya, 
the day-lords of the days during daylight, and of the 
days in their length, for the Mahya, month-lords, and 
the Yairya, year-lords, and for those of the especial 
seasons, and for the worship, homage, propitiation, 
and praise of that lofty lord who is the Ritual 
Righteousness (itself) ; yea, for the worship, homage, 
propitiation, and praise of the lords of the days, 
months, years, and seasons — for those lords of the 
ritual order who are of all the greatest, who are the 
regulators of the ritual at the time of Havani. 

2. To Maidhy6-zaremya ', the lord [or to Maidhyd- 
shema \ the lord, or to Paitwhahya 1 , the lord, or to 
Ayathrima 1 , Maidhyairya 1 , or Hamaspathma&ihaya], 
be propitiation, homage, and praise. 

3. O ye Mazdayasnians who are here present! 
offer ye 2 this ritual service, and present ye the Myazda 
which is that of the Maidhyd-zaremaya, taking a piece 
of sound flesh from a choice beast, with a full flow of 

4. If ye are able to do this, (well) ; if ye are unable 
to do it, ye may take then (a portion) of some liquor 
of equal value, it matters not which it is, and have it 
consumed as it is proper ; and so be ye discreet from 
your obedience, most correctly faithful in your speech, 
most saintly from your sanctity, best ordered in your 
exercise of power, least straitened by oppressions, 
heart-easy with rejoicings, most merciful of givers, 
most helpful to the poor, fulfilling most the ritual, 
the blest and longed-for Asha, (coy ?) riches woman- 
minded (?) bringing (as reward). If ye can do this 

1 The name of the season at the time present, when the text is 
recited, is to be used. 

* Bring ye, O these Mazdayasnians ! 

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AFRiN[-AGAN] I. 369 

and with vigour, (well) ; (5) if not, bring wood to the 
Ratu's house. It matters not what [kind, so it be 
well cut, and very dry, and in^loads of fitting size. 
If that is possible, (well); if riot, then let a man bring 
wood to the Ratu's dwelling, and heap it up as high 
as the ear, or to reach the fore-shoulder, or with the 
fore-arm measure, (or at least as high as the end of the 
hanging hand). If that is possible, (well) ; (6) but if it 
has not been possible, then let the worshipper (with the 
mind's offering) ascribe the power to him who rules the 
best, Ahura, (saying 1 ) : Wherefore for this cause verily 
we offer and ascribe the Sovereign Power to Ahura 
Mazda, who rules the best, and to Righteousness (the 
ritual and moral Order), and we complete our sacri- 
fice to them. Thus is the Myazda offered with the 
well-timed prayer for blessings. 

7. In case that a man does not give of the first 
Myazda which is that of the Maidhyd-zaremaya, O 
Spitama Zarathurtra ! the Ratu that has the right to 
that Myazda, and who has this person under his 
guidance, expels 2 that (false) disciple who has not 
his Myazda with him, as a man that does not worship, 
from the midst of the Mazda-worshippers. 8. In the 
case that a man does not give of the second Myazda, 
O Spitama Zarathurtra ! which is that of the Mai- 
dhy6-shema, then let 2 the Ratu to whom the Myazda 
should come, and who has the person under his 
guidance, expel that disciple, since he comes without 
his Myazda, as he would a man who refuses to recite 
his vows, from among the number of the Mazda- 

1 Or, ' because we offer.' 

1 Not 'renders him (detected) among the Mazdayasnians ; ' 
compare for form a»tar£-mruy6 ; see also fra-dasti and fra-perena- 
oiti ; also the present may be used for the imperative. 
[31] B b 

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370 Afr!n[-agAn] 

worshippers. 9. In the case that a man does not 
give of the third Myazda, O Spitama Zarathustra ! 
which is that of Paitishahya, then let the Ratu who 
ought to receive that Myazda, and who has had the 
person under his guidance, expel that disciple which 
brings no Myazda, as a detected * reprobate, from 
among the number of the Mazdayasnians. 10. In 
case that a man does not offer of the fourth Myazda, O 
Spitama Zarathurtra ! which is that of the Ayathrima, 
let the Ratu who ought to receive that Myazda, and 
who has the person under his guidance, expel that dis- 
ciple, since he brings no Myazda, as a refuse * beast 
from among the number of the Mazdayasnians. 11 . In 
the case that a man does not give of the fifth Myazda, 
which is that of the Maidhyairya, then let the Ratu 
to whom that Myazda belongs as a perquisite, and 
who has that person under his guidance, expel him, 
since he brings no Myazda, as an alien 3 , from among 
the number of the Mazdayasnians. 12. In case that 
a man does not give of the sixth Myazda, which is 
that of the Hamaspathmaeclhaya, O Spitama Zara- 
thuytra ! let the Ratu to whom that Myazda belongs 
as a perquisite, and who has this person under his 
discipline to learn him the lore of Ahura, expel him, 
(as ignorant) since he brings no Myazda, from among 
the number of the Mazdayasnians. 13.. And let 
him decry him afterwards without hesitation 4 , and 
drive 6 him out ; and let that Ratu lay upon him after- 

1 Possibly ' having a breast burnt by the ordeal,' and so 'detected ; ' 
or ' hot-breasted, vehement ' (?) ; comp. uras. 

2 It may be ' (his) excluded beast,' or ' his stray beast ' (?). 

' Or, possibly, ' he is rejected when offering himself as arrived 
from the settlements ' (?). 

4 ' Without recoiling.' • Syazdaydi/. 

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AfrJn[-agan] i. 371 

wards the expiating deeds without reserve ; and in 
accordance with these rules, let the disciple treat the 
Ratu. (Let him beware of failure to bring his 
Myazda, or if he fails let the disciple bear, as is 
befitting, what is due.) A blessing is Righteousness 
(called) the Best, jt is weal, it is weal for this (man) 
when toward Righteousness Best there is right. 
14. I bless with my prayer the royal Province-chiefs 
(who are faithful worshippers) of Ahura Mazda, the 
resplendent, the glorious, (beseeching) for superior 
strength for them, and for more important victory, 
and more influential rule, and desiring for them fur- 
ther authoritative power, and helpful support, and 
long duration to their reign, and the prolonged 
vitality of their frames, and health. 1 5. And I pray 
in my benediction for strength well-shaped and stately 
of growth, and which smites victoriously, Ahura- 
made, and crushing, and for an ascendency abun- 
dantly subduing all who are filled with furious hate, 
assaulting the evil-minded enemies, and destroying, 
as if at once, the deadly, godless * foes. 

16. And I pray in my blessing that he (the 
province-governor) may conquer in victorious battles 
every malicious foe, and each malignant, profane in 
thoughts, and words, and actions, (17) that he may 
indeed be constantly victorious in his own religious 
thoughts, and words, and deeds, and unvarying in 
the smiting of every foe, and of every Daeva- 
worshipper, and that he may, as he proceeds 2 , be 
well rewarded, and of good repute, possessing a far- 
foreseeing preparation of the soul. 18. And I pray 
with blessings thus : Live thou long and blessed be 

1 Unfriendly and untrue ; ' * avratya.' 
* Recall ydi zaze«t6 vanghau sravahf. 
B b 2 

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372 AFRtN[-AGAN] II. 

thou, ' hail ' to thee ; live for the aid of holy men, 
and for the crushing of the evil; and I pray for 
Heaven (for thee) the best world of the saints, 
shining, all glorious. And thus may it happen as I 
pray — l . 19. And I bless in my prayer the sacrifice, 
and homage, and the strength, and swiftness of the 
day-lords during daylight, and of the lords of the days 
in their length, of the month-lords, and the year-lords, 
and of the lords of the seasons * (in their course), and 
for the worship, homage, propitiation, and praise of 
the lofty lord who is the Righteous Ritual itself, 
and of those lords of the ritual who are of all the 
greatest, and who are the lords of the ritual at the 
time of Havani, for Maidhyd-zaremaya the lord, [(or) 
for Maidhyd-shema the lord, (or) for Paitwhahya 2 the 
lord, or for Ayathrima, Maidhyairya, or Hamaspath- 
ma&lhaya 2+8 ]. 

II. Afr1n[-agAn]* gAtha*. 

1. As the Ahu is (revered and) to be chosen, so (is) 
the Ratu (one who rules) from the Righteous Order, a 
creator of mental goodness, and of life's actions done 
for Ahura, and the Kingdom (is) to Mazda, which to 
the poor may offer a nurturer. 

I confess myself a Mazda-worshipper — for the 
praise of Ahura Mazda, the resplendent, the glorious, 
and of the Bountiful Immortals, for the bountiful and 

1 See Y. XXXV, 2. The Ahuna follows. 

* The name varies with the season in which the sacrifice is made. 
8 As in 18. 

* Recited during the days called after the Gathas, the last five 
of the year. A long period of time must have elapsed since the 
Gathas were composed, as they probably were not originally ' five,' 
and yet seem to have been only remembered as such. 

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Afr!n[-agAn] hi. 373 

holy Githas which rule in the ritual order. (Pro- 
pitiation and praise be) to the Githa Ahunavaiti, and 
to the Githa Urtavaiti, to the Githa Spe#ti-mainyu, 
and to the Gatha Vohu-khshathra, and to the Gatha 
Vahi.rt6i.rti. 2. Propitiation to the Fravashis of the 
saints, the mighty, overwhelming, even to those of 
the saints of yore, who held the primeval faith (the 
Githic faith), and to those of the next of kin. 

3. We sacrifice to Ahura Mazda, the resplendent, 
the glorious ; and we sacrifice to the Amesha Spe»ta 
who rule aright, and who dispose (of all aright). 
And we sacrifice to the bounteous and holy Githas, 
which rule (as the first) in the ritual order. 

We sacrifice to the Githa Ahunavaiti, the holy, 
as it rules in the ritual order ; and we sacrifice to the 
Gatha Urtavaiti, the holy, as it rules in the ritual 
order ; and we sacrifice to the Gatha Spe«ta-mainyu, 
the holy, as it rules in the ritual order ; and we sacri- 
fice to the Githa Vohu-khshathra, the holy, as it 
rules in the ritual order; and we sacrifice to the 
Githa Vahi.rt6i.rti, the holy, as it rules in the ritual 
order. 4 = Yt. XIII, 49-5 2 1 . 


1 . I confess myself a Mazda-worshipper, of Zara- 
thu-rtra's order, a foe to the Daevas, devoted to the 
lore of the Lord, for Rapithwina, the holy lord of 
the ritual order, for sacrifice, homage, propitiation, 
and praise, and for Frida^-fshu 3 and Za«tuma 4 , 

1 Verses 5, 6= A. 1, 14-18 ; for verse 6, see verses i, 2 ; also see 
A. I, 19. 

2 To be recited on the third day (Ardibahirt) of the first month 
(Fravardin). " A genius who furthered cattle. 

* The genius of the Za»tu, presiding over this Gah Rapithvin. . / 

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374 Afr!n[-agan] hi. 

the holy lord(s) of the ritual order. 2. And to Ahura 
Mazda, the resplendent, the glorious, and to the 
Bountiful Immortals, be propitiation, and to Asha 
Vahi^ta (who is Righteousness the Best), and to the 
Fire, Ahura Mazda's son, and to all the holy Yazads, 
heavenly and earthly, and to the Fravashis of the 
saints, the mighty and overwhelming — . 

3. For thus did Ahura Mazda speak to Spitama 
Zarathustra the word which was spoken for the ritual 
time of the Rapithwina, (saying) : Ask us, O holy 
Zarathu-stra \ what are Thy questions to be asked of 
us 2 , for Thy question is as that mighty one when Thy 
ruler speaks his mighty wish 1 . 4. Then Zarathurtra 
asked Ahura Mazda : O Ahura Mazda, most boun- 
tiful s creator of the material worlds and holy ! what 
does that man acquire, what does he merit, what re- 
ward shall there be for that man (5) who shall recite 
the Rapithwina office with the Rapithwina prayer for 
blessing, and who shall sacrifice with 4 the Rapithwina 
office with hands (well) washed, and with (well) 
washed mortars, with the Baresman spread, and 
with Haoma high uplifted, and with fire brightly 
flaming, with Ahuna-vairya loud intoned, with Haoma- 
moistened tongue, and with a body MSthra-bound ? 
6. And Ahura Mazda answered him : As the wind from 
the southern quarter, O Spitama ! causes the entire 
material world to advance and to increase, and as it 
will bless it 8 , rejoice it, and cause it to progress 6 , 
such a like reward does such a man receive, (7) who 

' Erroneous. s Ahmai ; see Y. XLIII, 10 with fhmi. 

' Insert ' spirit.' 4 Or, ' to.' 

8 SaoshyatWa; or can saoshyawti be a locative absolute, pre- 
serving a fuller form ? 
* Or, ' causes it to enter into helpful joy ' (?). 

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AFRiN[-AGAN] in. 375 

recites the Rapithwina-ratu with the Rapithwina 
blessing, and sacrifices with x it with (well) washed 
hands, and mortars, with Baresman spread, and 
Haoma lifted, with fire brightly flaming, and with 
Ahuna-vairya loud intoned, and with Haoma-mois- 
tened tongue, and a body MSthra-bound ! 8. Thus 
hath Ahura Mazda declared to Spitama Zarathurtra 
the word which (should be) spoken at the Rapithwina 
time. 9, io. (See A. I, 14-19.) 

• Or, 'to.' 


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The Gahs are the five divisions of the day. The Havani 
from 6 to 10 A.M., the Rapithwina from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m., 
the Uzay&rina from 3 to 6 p.m., the Aiwisruthrima from 
6 to 12 P.M., the Ushahina from 12 P.M. to 6 a.m. The 
Gahs here following are prayers which must be recited 
at the Gahs of the day; hence their name 1 . 


Unto Ahura Mazda be propitiation. A blessing 
is Righteousness (called) the Best — . 

1. I confess myself a Mazda-worshipper, of Zara- 
thmtra's order, a foe to the Daevas, devoted to the 
lore of the Lord, for the holy Havani, regulator of 
the ritual order, for its sacrifice, homage, propitiation, 
and praise, and for Sivanghi and Vlsya, the righteous 
regulators) of the ritual order, for their homage, sa- 
crifice, propitiation, and praise, and for those of the 
Asnya, the day-lords during daylight, and the Ayara, 
lords of the days in their length, and for the Mahya, 
the month-lords, and the Yairya, year-lords, and for 
those of the especial seasons. 

2. And to Mithra of the wide pastures, of the 
thousand ears, of the myriad eyes, the Yazad of 
the spoken name B , be sacrifice, homage, propitiation, 
and praise, and to Raman //t/istra. 

3. 4. And we sacrifice to Ahura Mazda the holy 

1 The term Gih, itself, may have arisen from the practice of 
chanting the Gathas at different fixed times in the day. 

2 To be recited every day at the time of Havani. 
* Having a special Yart. 

Digitized by 


380 gAh 1. 

lord of the ritual Order, and to Zarathurtra, and to the 
Fravashi of Zarathurtra, the saint And we sacrifice 
to the Bounteous Immortals, (the guardians) of the 
saints, and to the good, heroic, and bounteous Fra- 
vashis of the saints (of the living and of the dead), of 
the bodily, and of those in heaven. And we sacrifice 
to the highest of the lords, the one that most attains 
its ends ; and we sacrifice to the most strenuous of 
the Yazads, the most satisfying of the lords of the 
ritual order, the one who reaches (what he seeks), 
the most infallibly of those who have as yet 
approached the nearest in the ritual, even to the 
timely prayer of the saint who rules in the ritual 
order. 5. And we sacrifice to the Havani, the holy 
lord of the ritual order, and to the Universal Weal, 
the holy, ruling in the ritual order, and to Deathless- 
ness, the holy, ruling in the ritual order. And we 
sacrifice to the question and lore of the holy lord of 
the ritual. And we sacrifice to that heroic mighty 
Yasna, the Haptanghaiti, the lord of the ritual order. 
6. And we sacrifice to Savanghi and Vlsya, the holy 
lord(s) of the ritual order ; and we sacrifice to the 
Airy*ma-ishy6 ', the holy lord of the ritual order, 
the powerful, victoriously smiting, that which no hate 
can reach, which overwhelms all torments, and which 
passes over all torments with victory, which is the 
uppermost, and the middle, and the foremost, for 
the effective invocation of that surpassing MSthra, 
the five Gathas. 

7, 8. And we sacrifice to Mithra of the wide pas- 
tures — , and to Raman //i/astra, for the worship and 
exaltation of Vlsya, the chief. And we sacrifice to 

1 The personified prayer ; see Y. LIV. 


Digitized by 1 

gAh ii. 381 

Vlsya, the holy lord of the ritual order, and to 
Mithra, and to Raman Hv&sXxa. — . 

9-1 1. And we sacrifice to thee, the Fire, O Ahura 
Mazda's son, the holy lord of the ritual order. And 
we sacrifice to this Baresman which has the Zaothra 
with it, and the girdle with it, and which is spread 
with exact sanctity, itself the holy lord. And we 
sacrifice to the ApSm-napa/, and to Nairya-sangha, 
and to that Yazad, the swift curse of the wise. 
And we sacrifice to the souls of the dead, [which are 
the Fravashis of the saints]. And we worship that 
exalted Lord who is Ahura Mazda, the highest object 
of the ritual order, who is the one who has attained 
the most to homage in the ritual. And we sacrifice 
to all the words which Zarathurtra spake, and to all 
the deeds well done, and to those which shall yet be 
done in days to come. (And) we sacrifice to that male 
one of beings whose (gift) in the offering Ahura doth 
know to be better, and of female saints, the same. 
As the Ahu is to be (revered and) chosen, so (is) the 
Ratu, one who rules from the Righteous Order, a 
creator of mental goodness, and of life's actions done 
for Mazda, and the Kingdom (is) to Ahura, which to 
the poor shall offer a nurturer — . 


1. Propitiation to Ahura Mazda. A blessing is 
Asha Vahirta. I confess as a Mazda-worshipper, and 
of Zarathurtra's order — for Rapithwina, the holy lord 
of the ritual order, for sacrifice, homage, propitiation, 
and for praise, and for Frada/-fshu and Za«tuma, the 
holy lord(s) of the ritual order, for sacrifice, homage, 

1 Recited every day at the hour of Rapithwina. 

Digitized by VJ OOQ IC 

382 gAh 11. 

propitiation, and for praise. 2. And propitiation be 
to Asha Vahista, and to Ahura Mazda's Fire, for 
sacrifice, homage, propitiation, and praise 1 . 3, 4. 
(See Y. LXXI, 2, 3.) 

5. And we sacrifice to the Rapithwina, the holy lord 
of the ritual order, and to the Gatha Ahunavaiti, the 
holy, and ruling in the ritual order ; and to the Gatha 
Urtavaiti, and to the Gatha Spewta-mainyu, and to the 
Gatha Vohu-khshathra, and to the Gatha Vahutdirti, 
holy, and ruling in the ritual order. 6. And we sa- 
crifice to Frada/-fshu, and to Za»tuma, and to the 
Fsh0sh6-mathra, even to the word correctly spoken, 
and we sacrifice to the (many) words correctly spoken, 
even to the victorious ones which slay the Demon- 
gods (the Da6vas 2 ). And we sacrifice to the waters 
and the lands, and to the plants, and to the heavenly 
Yazads who are givers of the holy and the good. 
And we sacrifice to the Bountiful Immortals, (the 
guardians) of the saints. 

7. And we sacrifice to the good, heroic, bountiful 
Fravashis of the saints, and to the heights of Asha 
(called) Vahi-rta, and to the greatest MSthras as 
moving us to action, the greatest as teaching faith- 
fulness to holy vows, the greatest as referring to 
actions which are evidently just, and the greatest 
for the acquisition of the Mazdayasnian Faith. 
8. And we sacrifice to that assembly and reunion 
which the Bountiful Immortals hold when they 
gather (?) on the heights of Heaven, for the sacrifice 
and homage of Za«tuma, the lord. 

And we (therefore) sacrifice to Za»tuma (as) the 
holy lord of the ritual order. 9. And we sacrifice 

1 The Ahuna follows. 

1 Zarathor tra conquered the Demon with the Ahuna-vairya. 

Digitized by 


gAh hi. 383 

to Asha Valmta (who is Righteousness the Best), and 
to the Fire, Ahura Mazda's son — . 1 o. Yea, we sacri- 
fice to Thee, the Fire, Ahura Mazda's son, the holy 
ritual lord — . 

I bless the sacrifice, homage, strength, and swift- 
ness of Asha Vahi-rta, and of the Fire, of Ahura 
Mazda — . And to this one be the glory ! 


1. Propitiation to Ahura Mazda! A blessing is 
Asha Vahi^ta — . I confess myself a Mazdayasnian of 
the order of Zarathustra, a foe to the Daevas, devoted 
to the lore of the Lord, for the Uzay&rina, the holy lord 
of the ritual order, for sacrifice, homage, propitiation, 
and praise, and for Frada^-vtra and Da^z/yuma, the 
holy lord(s) of the ritual order, for their sacrifice, 
homage, propitiation, and praise. 2. And to that 
lofty Ahura, ApSm-napa/, and to the waters which 
Mazda created be sacrifice, homage, propitiation, and 
praise 2 ! 3, 4. (G. I, 3, 4.) 5. We sacrifice to the Uza- 
y£irina, the holy lord of the ritual order. And we sa- 
crifice to the Zaotar, the holy lord of the ritual order, 
and to the Havanan, and to the Atarevakhsha, and to 
the Frabaretar, and to the Abere/, and to the Asnatar, 
and the Ra£thwukar, and to the Sraoshavareza, holy 
lords of the ritual order. 6. And we sacrifice to 
Frada/-vlra and Da^zyuma, the holy lord of the 
ritual order. And we sacrifice to the stars, the moon, 
and the sun, and to the constellations (?), and we 
sacrifice to the stars without beginning (to their 
course ?), and to the glory of the doctrinal proclama- 

1 Recited every day at the hour of Uzayelrina. 
* The Ahuna follows. 

Digitized by 


384 gAh iv. 

tions which are the evil man's distress 1 . 7. And 
we sacrifice to the manifest performer of the truth 
(the correct maintainer of the rites), the holy lord of 
the ritual order. And we sacrifice to the later lore ; 
yea, we sacrifice to the manifest fulfiller of the 
truth, and to the (entire) creation of the holy (and 
the clean) by day and by night with Zaothras together 
with offered prayers, for the sacrifice and homage of 
Da/foyuma, the lord. And we sacrifice to Da^^yuma, 
the holy lord of the ritual order. 8. And we sacrifice 
to that lofty and royal lord, the brilliant ApSm- 
napa/ of the fleet horses ; and we sacrifice to the 
water which is Mazda-made and holy. 9, 10. And 
we sacrifice to thee, the Fire, Ahura Mazda's son *. 
11 8 . And I bless the sacrifice, homage, strength, and 
swiftness of that lofty Ahura Napa/-ap5m, and of 
the water which Mazda created *. 


1. Propitiation be to Ahura Mazda. A blessing 
is Asha Vahi sta. — . I confess myself a Mazdayasnian, 
and of Zarathurtra's order, a foe to the Daevas, 
devoted to the lore of the Lord, for Aiwisruthrima, 
and Aibigaya 6 , the holy lord(s) of the ritual order, for 
their sacrifice, homage, propitiation, and praise, and 
for FradaZ-vlspam-hufyiiti T and Zarathu.rtr6tema 8 , 
the holy lord(s) of the ritual order, for their sacrifice, 
homage, propitiation, and praise. 2. And to the 

1 See Y. XLV, 7. 8 The Y%iM hatam here follows. 

* The Ahuna follows. 4 The Ashem follows. 
5 Recited every day at the hour of Aiwisruthrima. 

* Or, 'that furthers life.' 

7 The genius presiding over all that furthers happiness. 

* The genius presiding over the highest office in a province. 

Digitized by 


gAh iv. 385 

Fravashis of the saints, and to the women who have 
many sons, and to that prosperity of home which 
lasts without reverse throughout the year, and to 
Strength, well-shaped and stately, and to the victorious 
Blow Ahura-given, and for the crushing Ascendency 
which it bestows, (to all) be propitiation — . 3, 4. (See 
Gah I, 3, 4.) 5. And we sacrifice to Aiwisruthrima 
(and) Aibigaya, the holy lord(s) of the ritual order, 
and to thee, O Ahura Mazda's Fire ! And we sacri- 
fice to the stone-mortar, and to the iron-mortar, 
and to this Baresman spread with sanctity, with the 
Zaothra, and with its girdle, holy lords of the ritual 
order. Also we sacrifice to the sacred two, to the 
waters and the plants, and to the sacred vows 
for the soul, (as) holy lord(s) of the ritual order. 
6. Also we sacrifice to FradaZ-vlspam-hu^-yaiti (as) 
ruling in the ritual order ; and we sacrifice to Zara- 
thmtra, the holy lord of the ritual ; also we sacrifice 
to the Mathra Spewta, (the bounteous word of 
reason 1 ), and to the soul of the Kine, and to the 
Zarathurtr6tema 2 . 7. Also we sacrifice to the Fire- 
priest, the holy lord of the ritual order, and to the 
charioteer (the warrior), the holy lord of the ritual 
order. Also we sacrifice to the thrifty tiller of the 
earth, the holy lord of the ritual order. And we sacri- 
fice to the house-lord, and to the village-chief, and 
to the Za«tu-chief, and to the province-chief of the 
province, the holy lord of the ritual order. 8. And 
we sacrifice to the youth of the good thoughts, good 
words, and good deeds, even to the youth of good 
conscience, the holy lord of the ritual order ; yea, we 

1 The Gathas and Vendtdad ; the first verse of the Gathas 
mentions the Kine's soul. 
1 ' And to Zarathurtra.' 

[30 C C 

Digitized by VJ OOQ IC 

386 gAh iv. 

sacrifice to the youth of the spoken word (who spoke 
the words which we hold so dear x ), the holy lord of 
the ritual order. Yea, we sacrifice to the youth who 
is given to his kin (and married to his blood), the 
holy lord of the ritual order. And we sacrifice to 
him who ranges through the province a , and to the 
itinerant with his many arts 8 , the holy ritual lords. 
And we sacrifice to the house-mistress, holy, and 
ruling in the ritual order. 9. And we sacrifice to the 
holy woman forward * in good thoughts, and words, 
and deeds, receiving her instructions well, having her 
husband as her lord, the holy, and such as Aramaiti, 
the bounteous, is, and such as are thy wives, O Mazda, 

And we sacrifice to the holy man most forward in 
good thoughts, and words, and works, wise as to 
piety, simple as to sin, by whose deeds the settle- 
ments advance in the holy order, for the worship and 
homage of the Zarathujtrotema, the lord. And we 
sacrifice to the Zarathurtrdtema, the holy lord of the 
ritual order. 10. And we sacrifice to the good, 
heroic, bountiful Fravashis of the saints, and to the 
women who have many sons, and to that Prosperity 
which endures throughout the year, and to the well- 
shaped and stately Strength. And we sacrifice to 
the Blow of Victory, Ahura-given, and to the crushing 
Ascendency which it secures. 11, 12. (See Gah I, 9, 
10.) 13. (The Ahuna-vairya, &c.) 

1 See Yart XXII. 

3 It is very probable that the Yasna was at that period celebrated 
from house to house. 
* Medical? 
' Is it possibly, ' favouring good thoughts,' &c. ? 

Digitized by 


gAh v. 387 


1. Propitiation to Ahura Mazda. I confess myself 
a Mazda-worshipper, of the order of Zarathurtra, a foe 
to the Daevas, devoted to the lore of the Lord, for 
the Ushahina, for sacrifice, homage, propitiation, and 
praise, and to Bere^ya and Nmanya, the holy lord(s) 
of the ritual order. 2. Propitiation be to Sraosha 
(Obedience) the blessed, endowed with recompense, 
smiting with the blow of victory, and causing the 
settlements to advance and to increase. 

3, 4. (See Gah I, 3, 4.) 5. We sacrifice to Usha- 
hina, the holy lord of the ritual order; and we 
sacrifice to the beautiful Aurora, and to the dawn of 
morning; yea, we sacrifice to the morning, the shining 2 , 
of the glittering horses, having the men of forethought 
(as its servants), yea, having men of forethought and 
heroes (awake and at their work), to the morning 
which gives light within the house 8 . And we sacrifice 
to the lights of dawn which are radiant with their light 
and fleetest horses which sweep over (?) the seven- 
fold earth. And we sacrifice to Ahura Mazda, the 
holy lord of the ritual order, and to the Good Mind, 
and to Asha VahLrta (who is Righteousness the Best), 
and to Khshathra-vairya, and to Aramaiti, the boun- 
teous and the good. 

6. And we sacrifice to Berefya, even the holy 
lord of the ritual order, even to Nmanya with the 
longing desire for the good Asha, and with the longing 
desire for the good Mazdayasnian law, for the worship 

1 Recited every day at the hour of Ushahina. 

2 So, better than ' royal/ which is, however, possible. 
* Or, ' while it abides.' 

C C 2 

Digitized by 


388 gAh v. 

and homage of Nmanya, the lord. 7. And we sacrifice 
to Sraosha, and to Rashnu, the most just, and to 
Ar.rta7, who causes the settlements to advance and 
to increase. 8, 9. (See Gah I, 9, 10.) 10. And I 
bless the sacrifice, homage, strength, and swiftness 
of Sraosha (Obedience) the blessed, endowed with 
sanctity, smiting with the blow of victory, and who 
causes the settlements to advance ; and I bless the 
sacrifice of Rashnu, the most just, and that of Arst&t, 
who causes the settlements to advance and to in- 

The Ashem and the Ahmai ra&r£a. 

Digitized by 




i. (An incitation to the priest or worshipper.) As 
thou keepest company with the Good Mind, and 
with Righteousness the Best, and with Khshathra- 
vairya (the Kingdom to be desired), speak to the 
male and female disciples of Zarathurtra Spitama 
the saint, (and declare) the praise which is to be 
spoken, that of the Yasna, even the words against 
which no anger 1 shall prevail. 

2. And do thou, O Zarathustra s ! declare our 
words for sacrifice and worship, ours, the Bountiful 
Immortals', that the waters may (thus) be sacrificed to 
by thee, and the plants, the Fravashis of the saints, 
and the created Yazads, heavenly and earthly, which 
are holy and beneficent. 


i. I confess myself a Mazda-worshipper — for the 
praise of Thra£taona, the Athwyan. Let them de- 
clare it — . Propitiation be to the Fravashi of Thra6- 
taona, the Athwyan, the saint. 2. We sacrifice to 
ThraStaona, the Athwyan, the holy lord of the ritual 
order ; and may we be free from the dog Kuro 3 , 
and the Tarewani s , and the Karpan, (we who are) 
of 4 those who sacrifice in order. 3. (The Ahuna 

1 Others ' the unrestricted words.' 

2 Perhaps ' Zarathurtra ' is here merely the equivalent of ' priest.* 

3 Obscure. 4 Awkward formations. 

Digitized by 



follows.) Sacrifice, homage, strength, and swiftness 
be to the Fravashi of ThraGtaona, the saint. (The 
Ahem and Ahmai rae\afei follow.) 


i. All good thoughts, and all good words, and all 
good deeds are thought, and spoken, and done with 
intelligence; and all evil thoughts, and words, and 
deeds are thought, and spoken, and done with folly. 
2. And let (the men who think, and speak, and do) 
all good thoughts, and words, and deeds inhabit 1 
Heaven (as their home). And let those who think, 
and speak, and do evil thoughts, and words, and 
deeds abide in Hell. For to all who think good 
thoughts, speak good words, and do good deeds, 
Heaven, the best world, belongs. And this is evident, 
and as of course (?) (or, ' and therewith their seed '). 


i. I proclaim the Airy<?ma-ishyd as the greatest 
of all authoritative prayers, O Spitama ! as the most 
influential and helpful for progress; and may the 
Saoshyawts (who would further us) use it and 
revere it. 

2. I am speaking in accordance with it, O Spitama! 
and therefore I shall rule as sovereign over creatures 
which are mine, I who am Ahura Mazda. Let no 
one rule as Angra Mainyu * over realms that are his 
own, O Zarathurtra Spitama ! 3. Let Angra Mainyu 
be hid beneath the earth 8 . Let the Daevas likewise 

1 Asha6ta=i + sha6ta used subjunctively. 
* Insert ' of the evil faith.' 

' In Y. IX, 14, 15, it is the Ahuna-vairya which drives the 
Daevas beneath the earth. 

Digitized by 



disappear. Let the dead arise (unhindered by these 
foes), and let bodily life be sustained in these now 
lifeless bodies. 


1. To Ahura Mazda, the radiant, the glorious, to 
the Bountiful Immortals, to Force well-shaped and 
stately, to the Blow of Victory, Ahura-given, to the 
Victorious Ascendency (which it secures), to the path 
of pleasantness, to the good Zarenumawt 1 , to the 
' Glowing ' Mountain made by Mazda, and to all 
the Yazads ! 2. We sacrifice to Ahura Mazda, the 
radiant, the glorious, and to the Bountiful Immortals 
who rule aright, who dispose (of all) aright, and to 
Force well-shaped and stately, and to the Blow of 
Victory, and to the Ascendency of Victory, and 
to the path of pleasantness, and to Zarenuma»t, the 
good, which Mazda created, and to the ' Glowing ' 
Mount, and to every saint. 

VI «. 

Propitiation be to the created body of the Kine 
of blessed endowment, and to the Kine's soul (so, 
if there is one cow presented 8 ). Propitiation be to 
the body and soul of you two (so, if there are two s ). 
— To your body and soul (if there are three, or the 
entire herd 8 ). (The Ahuna follows.) 

1 According to the Bundahlr, the name of a lake. 

1 This fragment was spoken when the milk was drawn from the 
cow, or cows, for the offering, and when the water was received 
with which the udder of the cow was to be washed. (Sp. transl. 
vol. iii, p. 254.) 

* These words are in Persian introduced as rubric. 

Digitized by 



VII 1 . 

i. To the good waters, and to all the waters which 
Mazda created, and to that lofty lord, ApSm-napi/, 
and to thee, O Ahurian One of Ahura, that water 
which Mazda created ! be sacrifice, homage, propitia- 
tion, and praise. (The Ahuna follows.) 2. We utter 
our praises forth to thee, O Ahurian One of Ahura ! 
and we complete good sacrifices, and deeds of adora- 
tion, with good gifts of offering, and gifts with praise, 
which are appropriate to thee among the holy Yazads. 
I will seek to render thee content. I will pour thee 
out. [Let them now recite the lofty Gathas which 
belong to the ritual.] 


1. The moons* of the season will wane. Let the 
Mazdayasnian (pray) for a smiter who may destroy 
quickly (the demon who causes their decrease). And 
quickly indeed may the malignant one die off — . For 
no one of her adherents can maintain this Druf(k) 
by prayers. 

2. Smiting fiercely 3 with her weapon, she, the 
Dru^k), goes on, and most mighty she has been. 
And she wanders on, O Zarathuytra ! as mindful of 
her might, and strong 4 in proportion as she advances 

1 This was to be spoken when the vessel containing the Zaothras 
was taken in hand (Sp.). 

* This fragment is very much broken in its connections, and most 
corrupt in its grammatical forms. The translation is entirely 
conjectural. Section IX has also irregularities. 

* Some form of dva may be conjectured. 

* ' With her weapon.' 

Digitized by 



as the sinful Dnif (k). But may Khshathra * be with 
me — , so that .... the deadly one may die away, 
for thereupon the blow of destruction shall come 
upon the Druf(k) a . 


i. The Ahuna-vairya is a prayer to be (revered 
and) chosen as the choice one of Mazda. The 
Khshathra-vairya is likewise such, and the Ya 
da£na 8 . They (it) will gain the reward. Yatha 
ahu vairyd. It is the word of Mazda. They are 
the words in season. It is the MSthra-spe»ta 
word, the unsubdued, the undeceived, the victorious, 
the opponent of malice, the healing and victorious 
word of Mazda, which, as it is pronounced *, gives 
most the victory to him who utters it 2. I have 
declared the hymn which is most helpful and victo- 
rious against the words of A£shma, which is health- 
giving and healing, and conducive to progress, the 
multiplier, and the furtherer of growth. And let 
the worshipper present it with a liberal offering .... 
with its pleasing words. Let that be done through 
veritable grace which helps us on the most e . The 
Kingdom (is) to Ahura, which to the poor may grant 
a nurturer °. 

' Khshathra>6a ? * See Y. XXX, 10. 

* So I conjecture as the commencing words of some piece. 

4 'For healing.' • Y. L, 11. 

' Last line of the Ahuna. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Agshma, page xix, xxi, 161, 280, 393. 

Aethrapaiti, 279, 318, 323. 

A6thrya, 323. 

Age of the Gathas, &c, xxviii-xxxvii ; 
age as compared with one an- 
other, xxvii, 92. 

Agni, 80, 129. 

AM, 233. 

Ahuna-vairya, 2, 194, 227, 228, 254, 
260, 261, 264, 293, 303, 309, 
3", SI*, 349, 354, 35«, 357. 
360, 364, 372, 374, 375, 384, 
386, 391, 392, 393. 

Ahunavaiti(t), xxvii, 2, 3, 91, 92, 

336, 339, 373. 38a. 
Ahurian, 287, 320, 321, 322, 323, 

337, 39». 

Ahfl, 228, 230, 255, 259, 262, 281, 

309, 3»3i 336, 357, 37», 381. 
Aibigaya, 197, 201, 204, 209, 215, 

»i9, 384, 385- 
Airy«na-ishy6, 293, 337, 34©, 3«4> 

380, 390. 
Airyfina Vaejjah, 235. 
Aiwisrflthrima, 197, 201, 204, 209, 

215, »'9, aa 4 , 379, 384, 385- 
Aka Manah, xviii, xix, 60. 
Albory, 19. 
Alexander, xl. 
Ameretatif, 66, 76, 207, 211, 213, 

226, 227, 228, 252, 256. 
Amesha Spenta, xxx, 281, 327, 345, 

351, 363. 
Ameshdspends, 11, 13, 14, 27, 145, 

148, 269 ; (bidden to approach, 

An&hita, xxx. 
Angra Mainyu, xxx, 25, no, 233, 

272, 298, 312, 390. 
Apam-napi/, 197, 204, 209, 215, 219, 

«4, 3»9, i*6, 331, 346, 35', 

362, 381, 383, 384, 392. 
Arani, 41. 
Archangels, xxiv, 27, 124, 178. 

ArJZ Vtraf, xl. 

Ardibahut, 367. 

Ardvi Sflra Anahita, 316, 336, 340. 

Arezahi, 349. 

Armenian, xlii. 

Arsacids, xli. 

Axst&t, 198, 205, 209, 215, 220, 224, 

>S6, 345, 388. 
Ar/ti, 306. 

Artaxerxes Mnemon, xxx. 
Artaxerxes, the Sasanian, xli. 
Aryan, x, xviii, xxiv, xlii, 1. 
Asha, xxiv, 3, 5, 6, 7, 12, 14, 15, 16, 

33, 39, 44, 68, 77, 89, 94, 127, 

157, 159, 161, 16a, 164, 165, 
168, 176, 182, 191, 225, 248, 
»95, 302, 311, 368, 387. 
Asha Vahuta, 2, 201, 218, 267, 268, 
281, 309, 312, 325, 329, 339, 

363, 374, 382, 383, 384. 

Ashem Vohfl, 293, 356. 

Ashi, 200, 345. 

Ashi Vanguhi, 206, 211. 

Asiatic Commentaries, xxxvii-xliii. 

Asnya, 196, 219, 223, 368, 379. 

Aurora; 114, 175, 387. 

Authorship of the Gathas, xxiii, 2, 
167-169, 173. 

Avesta, xxix, xxxi, xxxiii, xxxv, 
xxxix, xli, xlii, xlvi, xlvii, 15, 17, 
40, 51, 68, 71, 78, 88, 126, 167, 
184, 185, 282, 293, 337, 353, 

Ayara, 379. 

Ayathrima, 198, 205, 210, 216, 220, 
«4> 335, 338, 3*8, 370, 37». 

Azhi Dahlka, 233. 

Abere/, 341, 383. 

Adarbad Mahraspend, xli. 

AfrlnagSn, ix, 367. 

Aramaiti(l), xii, 14, 15, 27, 3a, 33, 
4 6 » 58, 77, 87, 88, 101, 109, 124, 
126, 146, 148, 149, 150, 152, 
155, 156, 159, i67, «7*, 180, 

Digitized by 




186, 191, 156, 357, 369, jii, 
, 325, 342, 360, 361, 386. 
Asnatar, 34a, 383. 
Atarevakhsha, 355, 341, 343, 383. 
Atharvan, 151. 
Athwya, 333, 389. 

Babylon, xxxv. 

Bactria, xxviii, xxix, xxxii, xxxv. 

Bagahya, xxx. 

Bardiya, xxxv. 

Baresman, 203, 304, 205, 206, 207, 
308, 213, 246, 253, 270, 299, 
3<>9. 3'4, 3*5, 33*, 338, 339, 
340, 341, 346, 349, 35°, 354, 
374, 381- 

Battle, 39, 50, no, 118, 154, 163, 

Behistun, xxix, xxxv. 

Bfndva, xxvi, 160, 162, 163. 

Bere^ya, perhaps better as adj., 
197, 205, 209, 215, 230, 224, 

Bridge, 140, 154, 183, 194, 261. 
Bundahb, 37, 360, 391. 
Burial, xxxi. 
Bfishyasta, 346. 

Captivity, xlvi. 
Conversion of all men, 41. 
Cow, 45, 391. 
Creation, 108, 196. 
Cremation, xxxi. 
Croesus, xxxi. 

Cuneiform Ins., xxix, xxxiv. 
Cyrus, xxxv. 

Da£na, 124, 126, 155, 161, 165,169, 

Dagva, xix, xx, xxi, 8, 26, 27, 39, 51, 
54, 57, 58, 59, 70, 85, no, in, 
121, 122, 129, 132, 153, 160, 

l6l, I64, 189, I99, 202, 211, 

312, 331, 335, 236, 24I, 247, 

249, 260, 272, 280, 28l, 292, 

3OI, 302, 305, 306, 317, 322, 

3<>6, 371, 379, 387, 390. 
Dahaka, 233, 245. 
Da£t>yuma (Dahyuma), 197, 204, 

209, 215, 219, 224, 251, 259, 

378, 337, 384- 
Dakhma, xxxi. 
Darius, xxx, xxxi, xxxii, xxxiii, xxxv, 

Daughter, 37, 92, 133, 146. 

Demi-gods, 4, 85, 240, 260. 

Dog, 389. 

Dragon, xxvi, 233, 234, 239, 322. 

Draogha, xxx. 

Di% (Drug), xix, 33, 35, 40, 160, 

163, 192, 233, 313, 392, 393. 
Dualism, xix, 35, 36, 133. 

Ereth?, 326. 

Fire, 41, 80, 84, 95, 96, 100, 102, 

116, 133, 138, 147, 150, 177, 

182, 196, 199, 204, 206, 308, 

209, 210, 212, 314, 315, 216, 

219, 220, 222, 223, 224, 235, 
227, 258, 260, 370, 371, 373, 

274, «75, 276, 277, 281, 284, 
385, 314, 3*5, 316, 3*9, 3*o, 
323, 335, 33i, 34«, 348, 35', 
353, 358, 360, 374, 375, 381, 
383, 384, 385. 
Fire priest, 343. 

— Berezi-savangha, 358. 

— Speni/ta, 358. 

— Urvlzuta, 358. 

— Vizirta, 358. 

— Vohu-frySna, 358. 
Frabaretar, 341, 383. 
Frangrasyan, 346. 
Frashakan/, 27, 82, 96, 101. 
Frashaojtra, xxvi, xxviii, 14, 15, 32, 

69, 76, 92, 133, 142, 153, 161, 
165, 168, 169, 185, 190, 247, 
*5<>, 327, 330. 

Fravashi, 27, 32, 197, 199, 201, 204, 
205, 207, 208, 209, 212, 314, 
215, 216, 218, 219, 223, 324, 
227, 344, 255, 356, 259, 272, 
273, 275. 278, 279, 281, 286, 
294, 296, 309, 311, 317, 3*9, 
324, 327, 328, 331, 345, 35', 
352, 358, 362, 374, 38l, 382, 
385, 386. 

Frada/-fshu, 197, 304, 309, 315, 319, 
333, 373, 381, 383. 

Fridaf-vira, 197, 304, 309, 315, 319, 
224, 383. 

Frldaz-vtspam-hugySiti, 204, 209, 
215, 219,224, 384, 385. 

Fryina, 133,141,190. 

FshGsh6-mathra, 303, 306, 310, 337, 
34', 383. 

Gahanbar, 367. 
Ganrak Minavad, 35. 

Digitized by 




GarcWman, 19, 109, 170, 173, 184, 


Gaya Maretan, 252, 260, 324, 362. 

Gah, ix. 373, 379- 

Gatha(a), ix-xlvii, 1-194, 195, 208, 
213, 214, 230, 231, 243, 270, 
281, 282, 293, 295, 299, 329, 
330» 33i» 336. 337, 339i 34°. 
35i» 356, 372. 373, 39*. 

Geisj Urvan, 11. 

Gnostic, xiv, xx, xlvi, 71. 

Grrhma, xxvi, 63, 64. 

Gaini, 192, 242. 

Gamaspa, xxvi, xxviii, 76, 94, 143, 

153, 166, 168, 169, 185, 247, 


Hadhaokhdha, 337, 341. 
Hadhanaepata, 208, 270, 316, 320, 

321, 350. 
Haeto-aspa, xxvi, 142, 191. 
Hamaspathma§dhaya, 198, 205, 210, 

216, 220, 225, 335, 338, 370, 

HamestagS, 72. 
Haoma, 158, 208, 213, 214, 227, 228, 

230,231, 232, 233, 235-246, 271, 

302, 321, 347, 349, 350, 353, 

354, 374, 375. 
Haoma-water, 208, 227, 228, 270, 

HaptanghaMti(i), 91, 247, 281, 303, 

33°, 336, 340, 380. 
Haraiti, 241, 302, 303. 
Haurvada./, 119. 
Haurvata/, 66, 76, 207, 211, 213, 

226, 228, 252, 256. 
Havan, 379. 
Havanan, 341, 383. 
Havani, 196, 198, 201, 202, 205, 207, 

209, 210, 211, 212, 215, 219, 

222, 223, 226, 231, 254, 367, 

3<58, 372, 379, 380. 
Heaven, a spiritual state, xx, xlvii, 

25, 30. 
Hegelianism, xix. 
Hell, a spiritual state, xx, xlvii, 25, 

Heptade, xviii. 
Herodotus, xxix, xxx, xxxv, 69, 

Historical character of the Githas, 

xxvi, 1. 
Hoshangpi G., 240, 251. 
H8m Yajt, 230. 

Hukairya, 317. 
Jfoaniratha, 305, 349. 
Hvogva, xxvi, xxviii, 92, 94, 133, 
142, 185. 

Immortality, 94. 
India, xxxii, 1 37. 
Indo-aryans, xxxiii. 
Inscriptions, xxx, xxxiv. 
Iran, xxxvii, 137. 
Irano-aryans, xxxiii. 
Isha-khshathra, 97. 
Israel, 160. 
trti, 97, 135. 

Ka^iaredhas, 312. 

Karpans, xxvi, 63, 65, 66, 121, 140, 
158, 177, 184, 236, 389. 

Karshvar, 58, 305, 313, 3 17, 349- 

Kavis, xxvi, 56, 64, 65, 66, 121, 140, 
142, 183, 185, 186, 190, 236, 
247, 250, 273. 

Kayadha, 301, 313, 342. 

Kaidhya, 301. 

Keresani, 237. 

Keresaspa, 234. 

Khrafstra, 20, 85, 87, 260, 281. 

Khshathra, xxiv, 12, 14, 33, 55, 128, 
146, 152, 162, 178. 

Khshathra-vairya, 182, 256, 325, 361, 
387, 389. 

Kine, xix, xx, cp. xxix, 14, 36, 38, 
44, 46, 55, 56, 62, 63, 65, 69, 72, 
73, 82, 90, in, 114, 121, 131, 
135, 136, J 37, 146, M7, 148, 
»49, '52, 171, 176, 177, 180, 
184, 196, 226, 237, 244, 248, 
249, a59, 262, 283, 386, 307, 
310, 320, 325, 332, 346, 348, 

363, 385, 391. 
Kuro, 389. 

ATinva/ Bridge, 141, 161, 173, 183, 

33i, 345, 367. 
ATisti, 152, 177, 200, 211, 226, 347. 

Last judgment, 95, 100. 

Magavan, 70. 

Maghavan, 75. 

Magi, xxxv. 

Magian, xxxi, 185, 318. 

Magic, 239. 

Maidhyiirya, 198, 205, 210, 216, 220, 

. 225, 335, 338, 368, 370, 372. 

Maidhy6-mah, xxvi, xxviii, 186. 

Digitized by 




Maidhyd-shema, 198, 205, 210, 216, 
220, 224, 335, 338, 368, 369, 

Maidhy6-zaremaya, 198, 205, aio, 
216, 220, 224, 335, 338, 368, 
369, 372. 

Marriage song, 187. 

Maruts, 108. 

Mazainya, 280. 

Mazdaism, xxix seq. 

Mazdayasnian, 206, 217, 225, 229, 
238, 247, 253, 256, 270, 272, 
277, 282, 323, 328, 343, 344, 
345, 347, 349, 351, 354, 355, 
357, 3«8, 369, 370, 382, 383, 

Mazendran, 305. 

Mah-rfl, 246. 

Mihya, 198, 205, 220, 224, 368, 379. 

Mazanian, 302. 

Mathra, xx, 10, 15, 21, 25, 37, 74, 105, 
no, 119, 123, 126, 172, 173, 
174, 176, 179, 181, 185, 199, 
206, 208, 213, 214, 217, 218, 
227, 228, 238, 256, 259, 266, 
267, 272, 277, 290, 297, 302, 
305, 306, 307, 310, 328, 339, 
34», 349, 355, 3«o, 362, 374, 

w 375, 380, 382, 385, 393. 

Medes. xxxi. 

Medha, 8, 9, 104. 

Media, xxxiv, xxxv. 

Metres, xviii, xlii, 133. 

Mithra, xxx, 196, 199, 204, 205, 209, 
210, 216, 219, 220, 223, 425, 
»56, 271, 319, 326, 337, 346, 

„ 351, 379, 380, 381. 

Mobad, 341, 342. 

Mohammed, 160. 

Moon, 113. 

Mortar, 270, 35o, 354, 355, 374, 385- 
Mount Albor^, 19. 
M8ghu, 185. 
MOrakas, 245. 

Myazdas, 207, 214, 226, 228, 229, 
350, 368, 369, 370, 371. 

Nairya-sangha, 258, 298, 331, 345, 
VT 353, 381. 
Neryosangh, xii, xiv, xxxix. 
Nmanya, 197, 205, 209, 215, 220, 
"4, 387, 388. 

Omniscience of Ahura, 47, 101. 
Origin of evil, xix, 25, 29, 30, 31. 
Originality of the Gathas, xx. 

Padokhshah, 273. 

Paederast, 183. 

Pairika, 257. 

PaitLrhahya, 198, 205, aio, 316, 

220, 224, 335, 338, 368, 370, 

Pantheism, xviii. 
Paradise, 71, 143, 261. 
Parahaoma, 308, 214. 
Parendi, 251, 346. 
Parsi, xxxix, xl, 48, 108. 
Paltirasp, 235. 
Perozes, xxii. 
Persepolis, xxix, xl. 
Persian, xi, xxxi, xxxix, xl, xlii, xlvi, 

6, 34, 69. 
Personification of Ameshdspends, 

Place of Origin of the Gathas, xxviii- 

Pleiades, 238. 
Pouruiista, 191. 
Pourushaspa, 235. 
Pu%Sb, xxxiii. 

RaethwiAar, 34a, 383. 

Ragha, xxviii, xxix. 

Rakshas, 249. 

Rapithwina, 197, 201, 204, 209, 215, 

219, 223, 3«7, 373, 374, 379, 

381, 38a. 
RasSstil, 200, 211, 217, 236. 
Rashnu, 198, 205, 209, 215, 220, 324, 

256, 3'9, 3a6, 345, 351, .358, 

Raspi, 246. 
Ratu, 3, 12, 41, 66, 71, 73, 78, 101, 

146, 163, 176, 177, 180, 208, 

213, 228, 230, 246, 250, 253, 

a 54> 259, 26a, 3°9, 3*3, 33«> 

340, 343, 357, 369, 370, 371, 

Ratufriti, 344. 
Rama, 163. 

Raman ffc&stra, 196,. 304, 209, 356, 
_ 271, 323, 337, 340, 379, 380. 
Recompense to the good and evil, 

34, 35, 52, 100, 161, 167. 
Renovation of the world, 33, 82, 90, 

Resurrection, 391. 
Hig-veda, xxxvi, xxxvii, xl, xlv, 35, 

114, 139, »<*2, 199, 233. 
jR/ks, xv, xxxvi, xxxviii, xlv, 30, 24, 

Jtcshi, 91. 

Digitized by 




Sadduceeism, xxxii. 

Saoshyant, 71, 8a, ioi, 134, 139, 131, 
133, 136, »53i 158, 176. 189. 
191, 333, 350, s66, 309, 339, 
343, 344, 350, 353, 3*»i 390. 

Sasanids, xxii. 

Satan, 36, 54. 

Savahis, 349. 

Saviours, 89, 94, 131, 133, 189. 

Samas, 233. 

Savanghi, 196, 301, 303, 304, 307, 

309, 313, 315, aI 9> a32 > aa 3» 

354, 367, 379. 380. 

Sayana, xl. 

Scyths, xxxii. 

Shapur II, xli. 

Snaithij, no, 133, 305. 

Soma, 158, 331. 

Sovereignty of Ahura, 8. 

SprtiLrta fire, 258. 

Spenta mainyu, 45, 67, 70, 83, 106, 
145, 199, 301, 3IO, 311, 316, 
317, 335, 336, 339, 372, 377. 

Spenta-mainyu Githa,xxvii, 93, 145, 

3<>7, 337> 34<>» 3K 373, 381, 

Spitami, 191. 
Spitama (Spitama), xxvi, xxviii, 93, 

133, <4l> l8 3, 186, 188, 190, 

313, 318, 337, 355, 364, 399, 

3«3> 3«5, 3»5, 339, 35', 353, 
37o, 374, 375, 389, 390. 
Sraosha (transl. Obedience), 15, ao, 
74, 93, 95, 96, 97, *oi, 103, 
104, 105, 137, 197, 305, 308, 

309, 313, 315, 3l8, 331, 322, 

334, 354, 356, 371, 274, »8o, 
396, 397-306, 311, 319, 320, 

335, i*6, 353, 353, 357, 358, 

SraoshSvareza, 343, 383. 
SrSsb Yart, 396, 397. 
Staota YSsnya, 394, 331. 

Texts, xliv. 

Thradtaona, 333, 389, 390. 

Thrita, 333. 

Tutrya, 199, 310, 216, 335, 356, 380. 

Tradition, xii. 

Traitani, 233. 

Trisbrup, xliii, 91, 145, 162. 

Turanian, xxi, 133, 141, 188, 346. 

Unicorn (?), 391. 
Urvakhshaya, 334. 
Urvlzlrta, 358. 

Ushahina, 197, 20s, 305, 309, 315, 

319, "4, 379, 387. 
Usbi-darena, 200, 206, 311, 325,359, 

Usig-(k), xxvi, 131. 
U-rtavaiti(i), xxvii, 91, 93, 331, 336, 

34°, 359, 373, 383. 
Urta, 7, 91. 
Uzaygirina, 197, 201, 204, 209, 215, 

319, «4, 379, 383. 

Vahijta Manab, 31, 66. 
Vahirt8Lrti(i), 393, 337, 34°, 3 fi i» 

373, 383. 
Varenya, 280. 
Varesa, 349. 

Vayu, xix, 189, 192, 193, 271, 273. 
Veda, xxix, xxxix, xliv, 14, 32, 102, 

136, 143, 164. 
Vedic, x, xv, xxix, xxxvi, xliii, xlvi, 

14, 33, los, 136, 143, 164. 
Vendidad, xxiii, xxvi, xxx, xxxiii, 1, 

78,81,95, no, 149. 
Vendidad Sadah, 17, 195, 335, 355, 

356, 358, 359, 361, 3*3- 
Verethraghna, 337, 340, 350. 
Visparad, ix, 332, &c. 
Vivasvat, 333. 
Vidadhafshu, 349. 
VidMtu, 304. 
Vis, 359, 315, 342. 
Vutaspa, xxv, xxviii, xxix, xxxiii, 14, 

15, 23, 69, 76, 133, I43, 153, 
166, 168, 169, 170, I85, 186, 
I90, 247, 350. 

Visya, 196, 303, 304, 309, 312, 215, 
319, 333, 351, 367, 379, 380. 

Vivanghusha, 61. 

Vtvanghvast, 333. 

Vohu-fryana, 358. 

Vohu-khshathra, 337, 340, 361, 373, 

Vohu Manah, xii, xxiv, 5, is, 16, 33, 
66, 137, 148, 154, i6s, 356, 353, 

Vologeses I, xli. 
Vouru-kasha, 317, 331, 346. 

Waters, 386, 316, 393. 

Yama, 333. 
Yasna, ix, 1, 91, 195. 
Yait, 1. 

Yazad, 307, 309, 212, 218, 237, 255, 
358, 359, 373, 306, 330, 337, 

Digitized by 






328,-331, 337, 347, 348, 374. 

380, 389, 391, 393. 
Ylirya, 198, 368, 379. 
YeNhd hatam, 928, 268, 281, 336. 
Yima, 61, 233. 

Zand, 40, 356. 

Zandas, 313. 

Zairtu, 230, 251, 315, 342, 373, 385. 

Zantuma, 197, 204, 209, 215, 219, 

"3, »59, 373. 381, 382. 
Zaotar, 149, 213, 228, 230, 246, 254, 

342, 343. 383. 

Zaothra, 203, 204, 206, 207, 213, 
"4, 355, 3°9, 3*«, 323. 338, 
339. 34o, 34i, 35o, 384, 385- 

Zarathmtra, personal history, xxiii, 
xxiv ; call, 9 ; unfavourable re- 
ception, 5, 11, ioi, 103 ; conse- 
cration to Ahura, 79, 108 ; suf- 
fering, 9 3, 1 34 ; trust in Ahura, 8 1 . 

Zarathmtrotema, 197, 204, 209, 215, 

»*4» 359, 33«, 337, 347, 384, 

385, 386. 
Zarenumant, 391. 
Zendiks, 313. 

In addition to the occurrences cited above, the words aeshma, aka 
manah, ameretata/, amesha spenta, asha, ashi vanguhi, asnya, aramaiti, 
atharvan, dr%, frashakan/, ganrak minavad, haurvata/, irti, khshathra, 
tinvat, iisti, mazdayasnian, mahya, mathra, ratu, spenta mainyu, sraosha, 
vahijta manah, verethraghna, visya, vohu manah, zaotar occur as translated. 

"With regard to the subject indexed as the originality of the Gathas, it is 
not intended to deny that the original migrations of the entire. Aryan race 
may have been from the North-west 

On page 198 read Maidhyd-shema, Maidhy6-zaremaya ; p. 204, -^yaiti ; 
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