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vAyu, AND vAta 


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. xicix 

Hymns, Translatiojs 

and Notes : — 

Ma«</ala X, 


The Unknown God . 

1 -» 



Indra and the Maruts 




Agni and the Maruts . 

53 -> 



The Maruts .... 




jt .... 




»» .... 




,, • * . ■ 

106 • 



»t .... 




»» • 




»» .... 




»» «... 




The Maruts and Indra 




The Maruts .... 




,, .... 

272 » 



>> • • . . . 




Dialogue between Indra and Agastya 




The Maruts .... 




,, .... 




,» . . . . . 




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,, .... 




,, .... 




», . . . . . 




,, . . . . . 




„ .... 




„ .... 




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Mawdala V, 


Agni and the Maruts . 

35 » 



The Maruts .... 




II .... 




1* .... 




11 .... 




II .... 




II .... 




The Maruts and Rudra 




The Maruts .... 




» .... 




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11 .... 




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11 ..... 




Rudra, the Father of the Maruts . 




Soma and Rudra 












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II ..... 


Appendices : — 


II. List of the more important Passages quoted in the 

Preface and in the Notes 530 

III. A Bibliographical List of the more important 

Publications on the Rig-veda '. . 540 

Corrigenda 551 

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . . 553 

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I finished the Preface to the first volume of my trans- 
lation of the Hymns to the Maruts with the following 
words : 

' The second volume, which I am now preparing for Press, 
will contain the remaining hymns addressed to the Maruts. 
The notes will necessarily have to be reduced to smaller 
dimensions, but they must always constitute the more im- 
portant part in a translation or, more truly, in a deciphering 
of Vedic hymns.' 

This was written more than twenty years ago, but though 
since that time Vedic scholarship has advanced with giant 
steps, I still hold exactly the same opinion which I held 
then with regard to the principles that ought to be followed 
by the first translators of the Veda. I hold that they 
ought to be decipherers, and that they are bound to justify 
every word of their translation in exactly the same manner 
in which the decipherers of hieroglyphic or cuneiform 
inscriptions justify every step they take. I therefore called 
my translation the first traduction raisonn^e. I took 
as an example which I tried to follow, though well aware 
of my inability to reach its excellence, the Commentaire 
sur le Yasna by my friend and teacher, Eugene Burnouf. 
Burnouf considered a commentary of 940 pages quarto 
as by no means excessive for a thorough interpretation of 
the first chapter of the Zoroastrian Veda, and only those 
unacquainted with the real difficulties of the Rig-veda 
would venture to say that its ancient words and thoughts 
required a less painstaking elucidation than those of the 
Avcsta. In spite of all that has been said and written to 
the contrary, and with every wish to learn from those who 
think that the difficulties of a translation of Vedic hymns 
have been unduly exaggerated by me, I cannot in the least 

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modify what I said twenty, or rather forty years ago, that 
a mere translation of the Veda, however accurate, intelligible, 
poetical, and even beautiful, is of absolutely no value for 
the advancement of Vedic scholarship, unless it is followed 
by pieces justificatives, that is, unless the translator 
gives his reasons why he has translated every word about 
which there can be any doubt, in his own way, and not 
in any other. 

It is well known that Professor von Roth, one of our most 
eminent Vedic scholars, holds the very opposite opinion. 
He declares that a metrical translation is the best com- 
mentary, and that if he could ever think of a translation of 
the Rig-veda, he would throw the chief weight, not on the 
notes, but on the translation of the text. ' A translation,' 
he writes, ' must speak for itself. As a rule, it only re- 
quires a commentary where it is not directly convincing, 
and where the translator does not feel secure.' 

Between opinions so diametrically opposed, no com- 
promise seems possible, and yet I feel convinced that when 
we come to discuss any controverted passage, Professor von 
Roth will have to adopt exactly the same principles of 
translation which I have followed. 

On one point, however, I am quite willing to agree with 
my adversaries, namely, that a metrical rendering would 
convey a truer idea of the hymns of the Vedic /?*shis than 
a prose rendering. When I had to translate Vedic hymns 
into German, I have generally, if not always, endeavoured 
to clothe them in a metrical form. In English I feel unable 
to do so, but I have no doubt that future scholars will find 
it possible to add rhythm and even rhyme, after the true 
meaning of the ancient verses has once been determined. 
But even with regard to my German metrical translations, 
I feel in honesty bound to confess that a metrical transla- 
tion is often an excuse only for an inaccurate translation. 
If we could make sure of a translator like Ruckert, even 
the impossible might become possible. But as there are 
few, if any, who, like him, are great alike as scholars and 
poets, the mere scholar seems to me to be doing his duty 
better when he produces a correct translation, though in 

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prose, than if he has to make any concessions, however small, 
on the side of faithfulness in favour of rhythm and rhyme. 

If a metrical, an intelligible, and, generally speaking, a 
beautiful translation were all we wanted, why should so 
many scholars clamour for. a new translation, when they 
have that by Grassmann? It rests on Bohtlingk and 
Roth's Dictionary, or represents, as we are told, even 
a more advanced stage of Vedic scholarship. Yet after 
the well-known contributors of certain critical Journals 
had repeated ever so many times all that could possibly 
be said in praise of Grassmann's, and in dispraise of 
Ludwig's translation, what is the result? Grassmann's 
metrical translation, the merits of which, considering the 
time when it was published, I have never been loth to 
acknowledge, is hardly ever appealed to, while Ludwig's 
prose rendering, with all its drawbacks, is universally con- 
sidered as the only scholarlike translation of the Rig-veda 
now in existence. Time tries the troth in everything. 

There is another point also on which I am quite willing 
to admit that my adversaries are right. 'No one who 
knows anything about the Veda,' they say, ' would think of 
attempting a translation of it at present. A translation of 
the Rig-veda is a task for the next century.' No one feels 
this more strongly than I do ; no one has been more un- 
willing to make even a beginning in this arduous under- 
taking. Yet a beginning has to be made. We have to 
advance step by step, nay, inch by inch, if we ever hope to 
make a breach in that apparently impregnable fortress. 
If by translation we mean a complete, satisfactory, and 
final translation of the whole of the Rig-veda, I should feel 
inclined to go even further than Professor von Roth. Not 
only shall we have to wait till the next century for such 
a work, but I doubt whether we shall ever obtain it. In 
some cases the text is so corrupt that no conjectural 
criticism will restore, no power of divination interpret it. 
In other cases, verses and phrases seem to have been 
jumbled together by later writers in the most thoughtless 
manner. My principle therefore has always been, Let 
us translate what we can, and thus reduce the untranslateable 

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portion to narrower and narrower limits. But in doing this 
we ought not to be too proud to take our friends, and even our 
adversaries, into our confidence. A translation on the sic 
volo sic j ubeo principle does far more harm than good. It 
may be true that a judge, if he is wise, will deliver his 
judgment, but never propound his reasons. But a scholar 
is a pleader rather than a judge, and he is in duty bound 
to propound his reasons. 

In order to make the difference between Professor von 
Roth's translations and my own quite clear, I readily accept 
the text which he has himself chosen. He took one of the 
hymns which I had translated with notes (the 165th hymn 
of the first Mandate), and translated it himself metrically, 
in order to show us what, according to him, a really perfect 
translation ought to be ». Let us then compare the results. 

On many points Professor von Roth adopts the same ren- 
derings which I had adopted, only that he gives no reasons, 
while I do so, at least for all debatable passages. First of 
all, I had tried to prove that the two verses in the begin- 
ning, which the Anukramawi ascribes to Indra, should be 
ascribed to the poet. Professor von Roth takes the same 
view, but for the rest of the hymn adopts, like myself, that 
distribution of the verses among the singer, the Maruts, and 
Indra which the Anukramawi suggests. I mention this be- 
cause Ludwig has defended the view of the author of the Anu- 
krama«i with very strong arguments. He quotes from the 
Taitt. Br. II, 7, 11, and from the Ta«rfya Br. XXI, 14, 5, the 
old legend that Agastya made offerings to the Maruts, that, 
with or without Agastya's consent, Indra seized them, and 
that the Maruts then tried to frighten Indra away with 
lightning. Agastya and Indra, however, pacified the Maruts 
with this very hymn. 

Verse 1. 

The first verse von Roth translates as follows : 
' Auf welcher Fahrt sind insgemein begrifien 
Die altersgleichen mitgebornen Marut? 
Was wollen sie? woher des Wegs? Das Pfeifen 
Der Manner klingt: sie haben ein Begehren.' 

Z. D. M. G., 1870, XXIV, p. 301. 

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Von Roth here translates .rubh by Fahrt, journey. But 
does jubh ever possess that meaning ? Von Roth himself 
in the Dictionary translates suhh bySchonheit, Schmuck, 
Bereitschaft. Grassmann, otherwise a strict adherent of 
von Roth, does not venture even to give Bereitschaft, but 
only endorses Glanz and Pracht. Ludwig, a higher autho- 
rity than Grassmann, translates subh by Glanz. I say then 
that to translate jubh by Fahrt, journey, may be poetical, 
but it is not scholarlike. On the meanings of jubh I have 
treated 1, 87, 3, note 2. See also Gaedicke, Accusativ, p. 163. 
But there comes another consideration. That mimikshire 
is used in the sense of being joined with splendour, &c. 
we see from such passages as I, 87, 6, bhanu-bhiA sam 
mimikshire, i. e. * they were joined with splendour,' and this 
is said, as in our passage, of the Maruts. Prof, von Roth 
brings forward no passage where mimikshire is used in the 
sense in which he uses it here, and therefore I say again, 
his rendering may be poetical, but it is not scholarlike. 

To translate ar£anti jushmam by ' das Pfeifen klingt,' is, 
to say the least, very free. -Sushma comes, no doubt, from 
was, to breathe, and the transition of meaning from breath 
to strength is intelligible enough. In the Psalms we read 
(xviii. 15), 'At the blast of the breath of thy nostrils the 
channels of waters were seen, and the foundations of the 
earth were discovered.' Again (Job iv. 9), ' By the blast of 
God they perish, and by the breath of his nostrils are they 
consumed ; ' Isaiah xi. 4, ' And with the breath of his lips 
shall he slay the wicked.' Wrestlers know why breath or 
wind means strength, and even in the expression ' une oeuvre 
de longue haleine,' the original intention of breath is still 
perceived. In most passages therefore in the Rig-veda 
where .rush ma occurs, and where it means strength, 
prowess, vigour, we may, if we like, translate it by breath, 
though it is clear that the poet himself was not always 
aware of the etymological meaning of the word. Where 
the sound of jushma is mentioned (IX, 50, 1; X, 3, 6, &c), it 
means clearly breath. But when, as in VI, 19, 8, jushma 
has the adjectives dhanaspr/t, sudaksha, we can hardly 
translate it by anything but strength. When, therefore, 

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von Roth translates .rushma by whistling, and anfcanti 
by sounding, I must demur. Whistling is different from 
breathing, nor do I know of any passage where ark with 
.rushma or with .any similar word for sound means simply 
to sound a whistle. Why not translate, they sing their 
strength, i.e. the Maruts, by their breathing or howl- 
ing, proclaim themselves their strength? We find a similar 
idea in I, 87, 3, ' the Maruts have themselves glorified their 
greatness.' Neither Grassmann nor Ludwig venture to take 
.rushma in the sense of whistle, or ar£anti in the sense of 
sounding. Bergaigne seems to take vrishanaA as a genitive, 
referring to Indra, 'ils chantent la force a Indra,' which 
may have been the original meaning, but seems hardly 
appropriate when the verse is placed in the mouth of Indra 
himself (J ourn. Asiat. 1884, p. 199). Sushma never occurs 
as an adjective. The passages in which von Roth admits 
.rushma as an adj ective are not adequate. Does mitgeboren 
in German convey the meaning of sani/aA, 'of the same 

Verse 2. 

The second verse contains few difficulties, and is well 
rendered by von Roth : 

'An wessen Spriichen freuen sich die Jungen? 
Wer lenkt die Marut her zu seinem Opfer? 
Gleich Falken streichend durch den Raum der Liifte — 
Wie bringt man sie mit Wunscheskraft zum Stehen?' 

Verse 3. 

The third verse is rendered by von Roth : 
'Wie kommt es, Indra, dass du sonst so munter, 
Heut' ganz alleine fahrst, sag an Gebieter! 
Du pflegtest auf der Fahrt mit uns zu plaudern ; 
Was hast du wider uns, sprich, Rosselenker t ' 
Von Roth takes kutaA in a causal sense, why ? I believe 
that kutaA never occurs in that sense in the Rig-veda. If 
it does, passages should be produced to prove it. 

M^hinaA can never be translated by 'sonst so munter.' 
This imparts a modern idea which is not in the original. 

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SubhanafA does not mean aufder Fahrt,andplaudern, 
adopted from Grassmann, instead of sam prikkkase, intro- 
duces again quite a modern idea. Ludwig calls such an 
idea ' abgeschmackt,' insipid, which is rather strong, but 
not far wrong. 

Verse 4. 
Von Roth : 
'Ich Hebe Spriiche, Wiinsche und die Tranke, 
Der Duft steigt auf, die Presse ist geriistet; 
Sie flehen, locken mich mit ihrem Anruf, 
Und meine Fiichse fuhren mich zum Mahle.' 
It is curious how quickly all difficulties which beset the 
first line seem to vanish in a metrical translation, but the 
scholar should face the difficulties, though the poet may 
evade them. 

To translate jushmaA iyarti by ' der Duft steigt auf,' the 
flavour of the sacrifices rises up, is more than even Grass- 
mann ventures on. It is simply impossible. Benfey 
(Entstehung der mit r anlautenden Personalendungen, p. 34) 
translates : ' My thunderbolt, when hurled by me, moves 

Again, prabhr/taA me adriA does not mean diePresseist 
geriistet. Where does Indra ever speak of the stones 
used for pressing the Soma as my stone, and where does 
prabhr/taA ever mean geriistet ? 

Verse 5. 
Von Roth : 
' So werden wir und mit uns unsre Freunde (Nachbarn), 
Die freien Manner, unsre Riistung nehmen, 
Und lustig unsre Schecken alsbald schirren. 

Du kommst uns eben ganz nach Wunsch, o Indra.' 
The first lines are unnecessarily free, and the last decidedly 
wrong. How can svadham anu hi tab babhtftha mean ' Du 
kommst uns eben ganz nach Wunsch?' Svadha does not 
mean wish, but nature, custom, wont (see I, 6, 4, note 2 ; 
and Bergaigne, Journ. Asiat. 1884, p. 407). Babhutha 
means ' thou hast become,' not ' thou contest.' 

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Verse 6. 
Von Roth : 

'Da war's auch nicht so ganz nach Wunsch, o Maruts, 
Als ihr allein mich gegen Ahi schicktet! 
Ich aber kraftig, tapfer, unerschrocken, 

Ich traf die Gegner alle mit Geschossen.' 
The only doubtful line is the last. Von Roth's former 
translation of nam, to bend away from, to escape from (cf. 
<peiya> and bhug-), seems to me still the right one. He now 
translates ' I directed my arrow on every enemy,' when the 
genitive, as ruled by anamam, requires confirmation. As 
to sam adhatta I certainly think von Roth's last interpreta- 
tion better than his first. In the Dictionary he explained 
samdha in our passage by to implicate. Grassmann trans- 
lated it by to leave or to desert, Ludwig by to employ. I 
took it formerly in the usual sense of joining, so that yat 
mam ekam samadhatta should be the explanation of 
svadha, the old custom that you should join me when I am 
alone. But the construction is against this, and I have 
therefore altered my translation, so that the sense is, Where 
was that old custom you speak of, when you made me to 
be alone, i. e. when you left me alone, in the fight with 
Ahi ? The udatta of anamam is not irregular, because it 

is preceded by hi. 

Verse 7. 
Von Roth : 
'Gewaltiges hast du gethan im Bunde 

Mit uns, o Held, wir mit vereinter Starke, 
Gewaltiges vermogen wir, du machtiger 

Indra, wenn es uns Ernst ist, ihr Gesellen.' 
By this translation, the contrast between 'thou hast done 
great things with us,' and ' Now let us do great things once 
more,' is lost. Kr*'«avama expresses an exhortation, not a 
simple fact, and on this point Grassmann's metrical transla- 
tion is decidedly preferable. 

Verse 8. 
Von Roth : 
' Vr»'tra schlug ich mit eigner Kraft, ihr Marut, 

Und meine Wuth war's, die so kiihn mich machte, 

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Ich war's, der — in der Faust den Blitz — dem Menschen 

Den Zugang bahnte zu den blinkenden Gewassern.' 
This is a very good translation, except that there are 
some syllables too much in the last line. What I miss is the 
accent on the I. Perhaps this might become stronger by 
translating : 

* Ich schlug mit eigner Kraft den VWtra nieder, 
Ich, Maruts, stark durch meinen Zorn geworden ; 
Ich war's, der blitzbcwaffnet fur den Menschen 
Dem lichten Wasser freie Bahn geschaffen.' 

Verse 9. 
Von Roth : 
' Gewiss, nichts ist was je dir widerstunde, 
Und so wie du gibts keinen zweiten Gott mehr, 
Nicht jetzt, noch kiinftig, der was du vermochte : 
Thu' denn begeistert was zu thun dich luster..' 
Here I doubt about begeistert being a true rendering 
of pravrtddha, grown strong. As to karishya^ instead of 
karishya", the reading of the MSS., Roth is inclined to adopt 
my conjecture, as supported by the analogous passage in 
IV, 30, 23. The form which Ludwig quotes as analogous 
to karishyam, namely, pravatsyam, I cannot find, unless it 
is meant for Apast. Srauta S. VI, zj, 2, namo vo«stu 
pravatsyam iti BahvrikkA, where however pravatsyam is 
probably meant for pravatsam. 

Grassmann has understood devata rightly, while Roth's 
translation leaves it doubtful. 

Verse 10. 
Von Roth : 

' So soil der Starke Vorrang mir allein sein : 
Was ich gewagt, vollfiihr' ich mit Verstandniss. 
Man kennt mich als den Starken wohl, ihr Marut, 

An was ich riihre, Indra der bemeistert's.' 
Von Roth has adopted the translation of the second line, 
which I suggested in a note ; Ludwig prefers the more 
abrupt construction which I preferred in the translation. 
It is difficult to decide. 

n o] b 

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Verse 11. 
Von Roth : 

' Entziickt hat euer Riihmen mich, ihr Marut, 

Das lobenswerthe Wort, das ihr gesprochen, 

Fiir mich— den Indra — fur den freud'gen Helden, 

Als Freunde fur den Freund, fur mich — von selbst ihr.' 

The last words fiir mich — von selbst ihr are not very 

clear, but the same may be said of the original tanve" tanubhi/*. 

I still adhere to my remark that tanu, self, must refer to 

the same person, though I see that all other translators 

take an opposite view. Non liquet. 

Verse 12. 

Von Roth : 
' Gefallen find ich, wie sie sind, an ihnen, 

In Raschheit und in Frische unvergleichlich. 

So oft ich euch, Marut, im Schmuck erblickte, 
Erfreut' ich mich und freue jetzt an euch mich.' 

This is again one of those verses which it is far easier to 
translate than to construe. AkkA&nta. me may mean, they 
pleased me, but then what is the meaning of Madayatha 
ka. nunam, ' may you please me now,' instead of what we 
should expect, ' you do please me now.' In order to avoid 
this, I took the more frequent meaning of Mad, to appear, 
and translated, ' you have appeared formerly, appear to me 

To translate anedyaA srivaA Si ish&A dadhanaA, by ' in 
Raschheit und in Frische unvergleichlich,' is poetical, but 
how does it benefit the scholar? I take a dha in the 
sense of bringing or giving, as it is often used ; cf. II, 38, 
5. This is more compatible with ishaA, food, vigour. I 
am not certain that anedyaA can mean blameless. Roth 
s. v. derives anedya from a-nedya, and nedya from nid. 
But how we get from nid to nedya, he does not say. He 
suggests anedyaA or anedyajravaA as emendations. I sug- 
gested anedyam. But I suspect there is something else 
behind all this. AnedlyaA may have been intended for 
' having nothing coming nearer,' and like an-uttama, might 
express excellence. Or anedyaA may have been an adverb, 
not nearly. 

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These are mere guesses, and they are rather contradicted 
by anedyaA, used in the plural, with anavadyaA. Still it is 
better to point out difficulties than to slur them over by 
translating 'in Raschheit und in Frische unvergleichlich.' 
It is possible that both Roth and Saya«a thought that 
anedyaA was connected with nedlyaA ; but what scholars 
want to know is the exact construction of a sentence. 

Von Roth: Verse 13. 

' 1st irgendwo ein Fest fur euch bereitet, 

So fahrt doch her zu unsrer Schaar, ihr Schaaren! 
Der Andacht Regungen in uns belebend, 

Und werdet Zeugen unserer frommen Werke.' 
In this verse there is no difficulty, except the exact 
meaning of apivatayanta/fc, on which I have spoken in 
note i. 

Verse 14. 
Von Roth : 

'Wo dankbar huldigend der Dichter lobsingt, 
Hier wo uns Manya's Kunst zusammenfuhrte, 
Da kehret ein, ihr Marut, bei den Frommen, 
Euch gelten ja des Beters heil'ge Spriiche.' 
Prof, von Roth admits that this is a difficult verse. He 
translates it, but again he does not help us to construe it. 
Grassmann also gives us a metrical translation, but it differs 
widely from von Roth's : 

•Wenn wie zur Spende euch der Dichter herlockt, 
Und der Gesang des Weisen uns herbeizog,' &c. ; 
and so does Geldner's version, unless we are to consider 
this as an improved rendering from von Roth's own pen : 
'Wenn uns des Manya Kunst zur Feier herzieht, 

Wie Dichter ja zu Festen gerne rufen,' &c. 
Here Geldner conjectures duvasya* for duvasyat, and 
takes duvase as an infinitive. 

Von Roth: Verse 15. 

' Geweiht ist euch der Preis, Marut, die Lieder, 
Des Manya, des Mandarasohns, des Dichters, 
Mit Labung kommt herbei, mir selbst zur Starkung 
[Gebt Labung uns und wasserreiche Fluren].' 

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How tanve vayam is to mean * mir selbst zur Starkung ' 
has not been explained by von Roth. No doubt tanve may 
mean mir selbst, and vaylm zur Starkung ; but though this 
may satisfy a poet, scholars want to know how to construe. 
It seems to me that Roth and Lanman (Noun-inflection, p. 
552) have made the same mistake which I made in taking 
isham for an accusative of ish, which ought to be isham, 
and in admitting the masculine gender for vrig&aa. in the 
sense of Flu r. 

I still take yastsh/a for the 3 p. sing, of the precative 
Atmanepada, like ^anishish/a and vanishtsh/a. With the 
preposition ava, yasisishMaA in IV, 1, 4, means to turn 
away. With the preposition £ therefore yaslsh/a may 
well mean to turn towards, to bring. If we took yastsh/a 
as a 2 p. plur. in the sense of come, we could not account 
for the long t, nor for the accusative vayam. We thus get 
the meaning, ' May this your hymn of praise bring vaya'm,' 
i. e. a branch, an offshoot or offspring, tanve, for ourselves, 
isha", together with food. We then begin a new sentence : 
'May we find an invigorating autumn with quickening 
rain.' It is true that isha, as a name of an autumn month, 
does not occur again in the Rig-veda, but it is found in 
the .Satapatha-brahmawa. Vrz^-ana, possibly in the sense 
of people or enemies, we have in VII, 32, 27, ignktkh 
vrigiuikft, where Roth reads wrongly adnata vrtgAnA; V, 
44, 1 (?); VI, 35, 5. (7iradanu also would be an appropriate 
epithet to ishi. 

Professor Oldenberg has sent me the following notes on 
this difficult hymn. He thinks it is what he calls an 
Akhyana-hymn, consisting of verses which originally formed 
part of a story in prose. He has treated of this class of 
hymns in the Zeitschrift der D. M. G. XXXIX, 60 seq. 
He would prefer to ascribe verses 1 and 2 to Indra, who 
addresses the Maruts when he meets them as they return 
from a sacrifice. In this case, however, we should have to 
accept riramama as a pluralis majestaticus, and I 
doubt whether Indra ever speaks of himself in the plural, 
except it may be in using the pronoun naJt. 

In verse 4 Professor Oldenberg prefers to take pra- 

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bhrito me adriA in the sense of 'the stone for pressing 
the Soma has been brought forth,' and he adds that me 
need not mean ' my stone,' but ' brought forward for me.' 
He would prefer to read jushmam iyarti, as in IV, 17, 12 ; 
X, 75. 3. though he does not consider this alteration of the 
text necessary. 

Professor Oldenberg would ascribe vv. 13 and 14 to Indra. 
The 14th verse would then mean, 'After Manya has brought 
us (the gods) hither, turn, O Maruts, towards the sage.' Of 
this interpretation I should like to adopt at all events the 
last sentence, taking varta for vart-ta, the 2 p. plur. 
imperat. of writ, after the Ad class. 

The text of the Maitrayaw! Samhita, lately published 
by Dr. L. von Schrceder, yields a few interesting various 
readings: v. 5, ekam instead of etan; v. 12, jrrava instead 
of jrava ; and v. 15, vayawsi as a variant for vayam, which 
looks like a conjectural emendation. 

A comparison like the one we have here instituted between 
two translations of the same hymn, will serve to show how 
useless any rendering, whether in prose or poetry, would be 
without notes to justify the meanings of every doubtful 
word and sentence. It will, no doubt, disclose at the same 
time the unsettled state of Vedic scholarship, but the more 
fully this fact is acknowledged, the better, I believe, it will 
be for the progress of our studies. They have suffered 
more than from anything else from that baneful positivism 
which has done so much harm in hieroglyphic and cuneiform 
researches. That the same words and names should be 
interpreted differently from year to year, is perfectly in- 
telligible to every one who is familiar with the nature of 
these decipherments. What has seriously injured the credit 
of these studies is that the latest decipherments have always 
been represented as final and unchangeable. Vedic hymns 
may seem more easy to decipher than Babylonian and 
Egyptian inscriptions, and in one sense they are. But 
when we come to really difficult passages, the Vedic hymns 
often require a far greater effort of divination than the 
hymns addressed to Egyptian or Babylonian deities. And 
there is this additional difficulty that when we deal with 

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inscriptions, we have at all events the text as it was 
engraved from the first, and we are safe against later 
modifications and interpolations, while in the case of the 
Veda, even though the text as presupposed by the Pr&ti- 
j&khyas may be considered as authoritative for the fifth 
century B.C., how do we know what changes it may have 
undergone before that time? Nor can I help giving 
expression once more to misgivings I have so often ex- 
pressed, whether the date of the Pratuakhyas is really 
beyond the reach of doubt, and whether, if it is, there 
is no other way of escaping from the conclusion that the 
whole collection of the hymns of the Rig-veda, including 
even the Valakhilya hymns, existed at that early time*. 
The more I study the hymns, the more I feel staggered 
at the conclusion at which all Sanskrit scholars seem to 
have arrived, touching their age. That many of them are 
old, older than anything else in Sanskrit, their grammar, if 
nothing else, proclaims in the clearest way. But that some 
of them are modern imitations is a conviction that forces 
itself even on the least sceptical minds. Here too we must 
guard against positivism, and suspend our judgment, and 
accept correction with a teachable spirit. No one would 
be more grateful for a way out of the maze of Vedic 
chronology than I should be, if a more modern date could 
be assigned to some of the Vedic hymns than the period 
of the rise of Buddhism. But how can we account for 
Buddhism without Vedic hymns ? In the oldest Buddhist 
Suttas the hymns of three Vedas are constantly referred 
to, and warnings are uttered even against the fourth Veda, 
the Athabbana b . The Upanishads also, the latest pro- 
ductions of the Brahmawa period, must have been known 
to the founders of Buddhism. From all this there seems 
to be no escape, and yet I must confess that my conscience 
quivers in assigning such compositions as the Valakhilya 
hymns to a period preceding the rise of Buddhism in 

* See Preface to the first edition, p. xixii. 

* Tuva/akasutta, ver. 937; Sacred Books of the East, vol. x, p. 176; Intro- 
duction, p. xiii. 

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I have often been asked why I began my translation of 
the Rig-veda with the hymns addressed to the Maruts or 
the Storm-gods, which are certainly not the most attractive 
of Vedic hymns. I had several reasons, though, as often 
happens, I could hardly say which of them determined my 

First of all, they are the most difficult hymns, and 
therefore they had a peculiar attraction in my eyes. 

Secondly, as even when translated they required a con- 
siderable effort before they could be fully understood, I 
hoped they would prove attractive to serious students only, 
and frighten away the casual reader who has done so much 
harm by meddling with Vedic antiquities. Our grapes, I 
am glad to say, are still sour, and ought to remain so for 
some time longer. 

Thirdly, there are few hymns which place the original 
character of the so-called deities to whom they are addressed 
in so clear a light as the hymns addressed to the Maruts 
or Storm-gods. There can be no doubt about the meaning of 
the name, whatever difference of opinion there may be about 
its etymology. Marut and maruta in ordinary Sanskrit 
mean wind, and more particularly a strong wind, differing by 
its violent character from vayu or vata *. Nor do the hymns 
themselves leave us in any doubt as to the natural phe- 
nomena with which the Maruts are identified. Storms 
which root up the trees of the forest, lightning, thunder, 
and showers of rain, are the background from which the 
Maruts in their personal and dramatic character rise before 
our eyes. In one verse the Maruts are the very phenomena 
of nature as convulsed by a thunderstorm ; in the next, 
with the slightest change of expression, they are young men, 
driving on chariots, hurling the thunderbolt, and crushing 
the clouds in order to win the rain. Now they are the 
sons of Rudra and Prani, the friends and brothers of Indra, 
now they quarrel with Indra and claim their own rightful 
share of praise and sacrifice. Nay, after a time the storm- 
gods in India, like the storm-gods in other countries, 

* The Vftyus are mentioned by the side of the Maruts, Rv. II, n, 14. 

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obtain a kind of supremacy, and are invoked by them- 
selves, as if there were no other gods beside them. In 
most of the later native dictionaries, in the Medini, VLrva, 
Hema£andra, Amara, and Anekarthadhvanima^ari, Marut 
is given as a synonym of deva, or god in general *, and so is 
Maru in Pali. 

But while the hymns addressed to the Maruts enable us to 
watch the successive stages in the development of so-called 
deities more clearly than any other hymns, there is no doubt 
one drawback, namely, the uncertainty of the etymology of 
Marut. The etymology of the name is and always must 
be the best key to the original intention of a deity. What- 
ever Zeus became afterwards, he was originally conceived 
as Dyaus, the bright sky. Whatever changes came over 
Ceres in later times, her first name and her first conception 
was Sarad, harvest. With regard to Marut I have myself 
no doubt whatever that Mar-ut comes from the root MM, 
in the sense of grinding, crushing, pounding (Sk. mr*'«ati, 
himsayam, part, murca, crushed, like mrzdita ; Amur and 
amuri, destroyer). There is no objection to this etymology, 
either on the ground of phonetic rules, or on account of 
the meaning of Marut b . Professor Kuhn's idea that the 
name of the Maruts was derived from the root MM, to die, 
and that the Maruts were originally conceived as the souls 
of the departed, and afterwards as ghosts, spirits, winds, 
and lastly as storms, derives no support from the Veda. 
Another etymology, proposed in Bohtlingk's Dictionary, 
which derives Marut from a root MM, to shine, labours 
under two disadvantages ; first, that there is no such root in 
Sanskrit ° ; secondly, that the lurid splendour of the light- 
ning is but a subordinate feature in the character of the 
Maruts. No better etymology having been proposed, I still 
maintain that the derivation of Marut from MM, to pound, 
to smash, is free from any objection, and that the original 
conception of the Maruts was that of the crushing, smash- 
ing, striking, tearing, destroying storms. 

• Anundoram Borooah, Sanskrit Grammar, vol. iii, p. 333. 
b See Lectures on the Science of Language, vol. ii, p. 357 seq. 
c Martti is a word of very doubtful origin. 

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It is true that we have only two words in Sanskrit formed 
by the suffix ut, marut and garut in garut-mat, but 
there are other suffixes which are equally restricted to one 
or two nouns only. This ut represents an old suffix vat, 
just as us presupposes vas, in vidus (vidusht, vidush- 
rara) for vid-vas, nom. vid-van, ace. vidvamsam. 
In a similar way we find side by side par us, knot, 
parvan, knot, and parvata, stone, cloud, presupposing 
such forms as *parvat and parut. If then by the side of 
*parut, we find, Latin pars, partis, why should we 
object to Mars, Martis as a parallel form of Marut? 
I do not say the two words are identical, I only main* 
tain that, the root is the same, and the two suffixes arc 
mere variants. No doubt Marut might have appeared 
in Latin as Marut, like the neuter cap-ut, capitis 
(cf. prae-ceps, prae-cipis, and prae-cipitis); but 
Mars, Martis is as good a derivation from MM as Fors, 
Fortis is from GHjR*. Dr. von Bradke (Zeitschrift der 
D.M.G., vol. xl, p. 349), though identifying Marut with 
Mars, proposes a new derivation of Marut, as being 
originally *Mavr*t, which would correspond well with 
Mavors. But *Mavr» t has no meaning in Sanskrit, and 
seems grammatically an impossible formation. 

If there could be any doubt as to the original identity 
of Marut and Mars, it is dispelled by the Umbrian name 
cerfo Martio, which, as Grassmann b has shown, corre- 
sponds exactly to the expression jardha-s mfiruta-s, the 
host of the Maruts. Such minute coincidences can hardly 
be accidental, though, as I have myself often remarked, the 
chapter of accidents in language is certainly larger than we 
suppose. Thus, in our case, I pointed out that we can 
observe the transition of the gods of storms into the gods 
of destruction and war, not only in the Veda, but likewise 
in the mythology of the Polynesians ; and yet the similarity 
in the Polynesian name of Mar u can only be accidental . 

- Biographies of Words, p. 13. 

fc Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xvi, p. 190 ; and note to Rv. I, 37, 1, p. 70. 

c M. M., Science of Religion, p. 355. 

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And I may add that in Estonian also we find storm-gods 
called Marutu uled or maro, plural marud*. 

Fourthly, the hymns addressed to the Maruts seemed to 
me to possess an interest of their own, because, as it is 
difficult to doubt the identity of the two names, Marut 
and Mars, they offered an excellent opportunity for watching 
the peculiar changes which the same deity would undergo 
when transferred to India on one side and to Europe on the 
other. Whether the Greek Ares also was an offshoot of 
the same root must seem more doubtful, and I contented 
myself with giving the principal reasons for and against 
this theory b . 

Though these inducements which led me to select the 
hymns to the Maruts as the first instalment of a translation of 
the Rig-veda could hardly prevail with me now, yet I was 
obliged to place them once more in the foreground, because 
the volume containing the translation of these hymns with 
very full notes has been used for many years as a text 
book by those who were beginning the study of the Rig- 
veda, and was out of print. In order to meet the demand 
for a book which could serve as an easy introduction to 
Vedic studies, I decided to reprint the translation of the 
hymns to the Maruts, and most of the notes, though here 
and there somewhat abbreviated, and then to continue the 
same hymns, followed by others addressed to Rudra, 
Vayu, and Vata. My task would, of course, have been 
much easier, if I had been satisfied with making a selec- 
tion, and translating those hymns, or those verses only, 
which afford no very great difficulties. As it is, I have 
grappled with every hymn and every verse addressed to 
the Maruts, so that my readers will find in this volume 
all that the Vedic poets had to say about the Storm- 

In order to show, however, that Vedic hymns, though 
they begin with a description of the most striking phe- 
nomena of nature, are by no means confined to that 

* Bertram, Ilmatar, Dorpat, 1871, p. 98. 

b Lectures on the Science of Language, vol. ii, p. 357. 

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narrow sphere, but rise in the end to the most sublime 
conception of a supreme Deity, I have placed one hymn, 
that addressed to the Unknown God, at the head of 
my collection. This will clear me, I hope, of the very 
unfair suspicion that, by beginning my translation of 
the Rig-veda with hymns celebrating the wild forces of 
nature only, I had wished to represent the Vedic religion 
as nature-worship and nothing else. It will give the 
thoughtful reader a foretaste of what he may expect in 
the end, and show how vast a sphere of religious thought 
is filled by what we call by a very promiscuous name, 
the Veda. 

The MS. of this volume was ready, and the printing of 
it was actually begun in 1885. A succession of new calls 
on my time, which admitted of no refusal, have delayed the 
actual publication till now. This delay, however, has been 
compensated by one very great advantage. Beginning 
with hymn 167 of the first Ma»</ala, Professor Oldenberg 
has, in the most generous spirit, lent me his help in the final 
revision of my translation and notes. It is chiefly due to 
him that the results of the latest attempts at the interpre- 
tation of the Veda, which are scattered about in learned 
articles and monographs, have been utilised for this volume. 
His suggestions, I need hardly say, have proved most 
valuable; and though he should not be held responsible 
for any mistakes that may be discovered, whether in the 
translation or in the notes, my readers may at all events 
take it for granted that, where my translation seems 
unsatisfactory, Professor Oldenberg also had nothing better 
to suggest. 

Considering my advancing years, I thought I should act 
in the true interest of Vedic scholarship, if for the future 
also I divided my work with him. While for this volume 
the chief responsibility rests with me, the second volume 
will contain the hymns to Agni, as translated and an- 
notated by him, and revised by me. In places where we 
really differ, we shall say so. For the rest, we are willing 
to share both blame and praise. Our chief object is to 
help forward a critical study of the Veda, and we are well 


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aware that much of what has been done and can be done 
in the present state of Vedic scholarship, is only a kind of 
reconnaissance, if not a forlorn hope, to be followed here- 
after by a patient siege of the hitherto impregnable fortress 
of ancient Vedic literature. 


Oxford : 
6th Dec. 1 891. 

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When some twenty years ago I decided on undertaking 
the first edition of the two texts and the commentary of 
the Rig-veda, I little expected that it would fall to my lot 

M7u to publish also what may, without presump- 

What a trans- . ,, ■ * ** « - /•« 

lation of the tion, be called the first translation of the 
Rl ?I v f d t ancient sacred hymns of the Brahmans. Such 

ought to be. J 

is the charm of deciphering step by step 
the dark and helpless utterances of the early poets of 
India, and discovering from time to time behind words 
that for years seemed unintelligible, the simple though 
strange expressions of primitive thought and primitive 
faith, that it required no small amount of self-denial to 
decide in favour of devoting a life to the publishing of the 
materiab rather than to the drawing of the results which 
those materials supply to the student of ancient language 
and ancient religion. Even five and twenty years ago, and 
without waiting for the publication of Sayawa's com- 
mentary, much might have been achieved in the interpreta- 
tion of the hymns of the Rig-veda. With the MSS. then 
accessible in the principal libraries of Europe, a tolerably 
correct text of the Sawhita might have been published, and 
these ancient relics of a primitive religion might have been 
at least partially deciphered and translated in the same way 
in which ancient inscriptions are deciphered and translated, 
viz. by a careful collection of all grammatical forms, and 
by a complete intercomparison of all passages in which the 
same words and the same phrases occur. When I resolved 
to devote my leisure to a critical edition of the text and 
commentary of the Rig-veda rather than to an independent 
study of that text, it was chiefly from a conviction that the 
traditional interpretation of the Rig-veda, as embodied in 
the commentary of Sayawa and other works of a similar 

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character, could not be neglected with impunity, and that 
sooner or later a complete edition of these works would be 
recognised as a necessity. It was better therefore to begin 
with the beginning, though it seemed hard sometimes to 
spend forty years in the wilderness instead of rushing 
straight into the promised land. 

It is well known to those who have followed my literary 
publications that I never entertained any exaggerated 
opinion as to the value of the traditional interpretation of 
the Veda, handed down in the theological schools of India, 
and preserved to us in the great commentary of Saya«a. 
More than twenty years ago, when it required more courage 
to speak out than now, I expressed my opinion on that sub- 
ject in no ambiguous language, and was blamed for it by 
some of those who now speak of Sayawa as a mere drag in 
the progress of Vedic scholarship. Even a drag, however, 
is sometimes more conducive to the safe advancement of 
learning than a whip ; and those who recollect the history 
of Vedic scholarship during the last five and twenty years, 
know best that, with all its faults and weaknesses, Sayawa's 
commentary was a sine qu4 non for a scholarlike study 
of the Rig-veda. I do not wonder that others who have 
more recently entered on that study are inclined to speak 
disparagingly of the scholastic interpretations of Sayawa. 
They hardly know how much we all owe to his guidance in 
effecting our first entrance into this fortress of Vedic lan- 
guage and Vedic religion, and how much even they, without 
being aware of it, are indebted to that Indian Eustathius. 
I do not withdraw an opinion which I expressed many 
years ago, and for which I was much blamed at the time, 
that Saya«a in many cases teaches us how the Veda ought 
not to be, rather than how it ought to be understood. 
But for all that, who does not know how much assistance 
may be derived from a first translation, even though it is 
imperfect, nay, how often the very mistakes of our pre- 
decessors help us in finding the right track ? If now we can 
walk without Sayawa, we ought to bear in mind that five 
and twenty years ago we could not have made even our 
first steps, we could never, at least, have gained a firm 

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footing without his leading strings. If therefore we can now 
see further than he could, let us not forget that we are 
standing on his shoulders. 

I do not regret in the least the time which I have devoted 
to the somewhat tedious work of editing the commentary 
of Sayawa, and editing it according to the strictest rules of 
critical scholarship. The Veda, I feel convinced, will 
occupy scholars for centuries to come, and will take and 
maintain for ever its position as the most ancient of books 
in the library of mankind. Such a book, and the com- 
mentary of such a book, should be edited once for all ; and 
unless some unexpected discovery is made of more ancient 
MSS., I do not anticipate that any future Bekker or 
Dindorf will find much to glean for a new edition of Sayawa, 
or that the text, as restored by me from a collation of the 
best MSS. accessible in Europe, will ever be materially 
shaken *. It has taken a long time, I know ; but those who 
find fault with me for the delay, should remember that few 

• Since the publication of the first volume of the Rig-veda, many new MSS. 
have come before me, partly copied for me, partly lent to me for a time by 
scholars in India, but every one of them belonged clearly to one of the three 
families which I have described in my introduction to the first volume of the 
Rig-veda. In the beginning of the first Ash/aka, and occasionally at the 
beginning of other Ash/akas, likewise in the commentary on hymns which were 
studied by native scholars with particular interest, various readings occur in 
some MSS., which seem at first to betoken an independent source, but which 
are in reality mere marginal notes, due to more or less learned students of 
these MSS. Thus after verse 3 of the introduction one MS. reads : sa praha 
nn'patjm, rigan, sayanaryo mamanupa^, sarva/w vetty esha vedinaw vyikhya- 
tri'tvena, yiyyatam. The same MS., after verse 4, adds : ityukto madhavar- 
yena vtrabukkamah!patL4, anvaiat saya»a£aryam vedarthasya prakSLrane. 

I had for a time some hope that MSS. written in Grantha or other South- 
Indian alphabets might have preserved an independent text of Sayana, but 
from some specimens of a Grantha MS. collated for me by Mr. Eggeling, I do 
not think that even this hope is meant to be realised. The MS. in question 
contains a few independent various readings, such as are found in all MSS., and 
owe their origin clearly to the jottings of individual students. When at the end 
of verse 6, I found the independent reading, vyutpannas tavata sarva riio 
vyakhyatum arhati, I expected that other various readings of the same character 
might follow. But after a few additions in the beginning, and those clearly 
taken from other parts of Sayana's commentary, nothing of real importance 
could be gleaned from that MS. I may mention as more important specimens of 
marginal notes that, before the first punaA kidmam, on page 44, line 24 ( 1 st ed. ), 
this MS. reads : athava ya£flasya devam iti sambandhaA, ya^tfasya prakirakam 
ityarth&i, purohitam iti prtthagvueshanam. And again, page 44, line 26, 


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scholars, if any, have worked for others more than I have 
done in copying and editing Sanskrit texts, and that after 
all one cannot give up the whole of one's life to the colla- 
tion of Oriental MSS. and the correction of proof-sheets. 
The two concluding volumes have long been ready for 
Press, and as soon as I can find leisure, they too shall be 
printed and published *. 

In now venturing to publish the first volume of my trans- 
lation of the Rig-veda, I am fully aware that the fate which 
awaits it will be very different from that of my edition of 
the text and commentary. It is a mere contribution 
towards a better understanding of the Vedic hymns, and 
though I hope it may give in the main a right rendering 
of the sense of the Vedic poets, I feel convinced that on 
many points my translation is liable to correction, and will 
sooner or later be replaced by a more satisfactory one. It 
is difficult to explain to those who have not themselves 
worked at the Veda, how it is that, though we may under- 
stand almost every word, yet we find it so difficult to lay 
hold of a whole chain of connected thought, and to discover 
expressions that will not throw a wrong shade on the 
original features of the ancient words of the Veda. We 
have, on the one hand, to avoid giving to our translations 
too modern a character, or paraphrasing instead of trans- 
lating ; while, on the other, we cannot retain expressions 
which, if literally rendered in English or any modern 
tongue, would have an air of quaintness or absurdity 
totally foreign to the intention of the ancient poets. There 
are, as all Vedic scholars know, whole verses which, as yet, 
yield no sense whatever. There are words the meaning of 

before punaA ktdr&am, this MS. adds : athava ritvigam Wtvigvid (vad) ya^fla- 
nirv&hakam hot&ram devanSm iihvataram ; tatha ratnadhStamam. In the same 
line, after rataanam, we read rama«tyadhanana« vS, taken from page 46, 
line 2. Various readings like these, however, occur on the first sheets only, 
soon after the MS. follows the usual and recognised text. [This opinion has 
been considerably modified after a complete collation of this MS., made for 
me by Dr. Wintemitz.] For the later Ash/akas, where all the MSS. are very 
deficient, and where an independent authority would be of real use, no Grantha 
MS. has as yet been discovered. 

* They have since been printed, but the translation has in consequence been 

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which we can only guess. Here, no doubt, a continued 
study will remove some of our difficulties, and many a 
passage that is now dark, will receive light hereafter from a 
happy combination. Much has already been achieved by 
the efforts of European scholars, but much more remains to 
be done ; and our only chance of seeing any rapid progress 
made lies, I believe, in communicating freely what every 
one has found out by himself, and not minding if others 
point out to us that we have overlooked the very passage 
that would at once have solved our difficulties, that our 
conjectures were unnecessary, and our emendations wrong. 
True and honest scholars whose conscience tells them that 
they have done their best, and who care for the subject on 
which they are engaged far more than for the praise of 
benevolent or the blame of malignant critics, ought not to 
take any notice of merely frivolous censure. There are 
mistakes, no doubt, of which we ought to be ashamed, and 
for which the only amende honorable we can make is 
to openly confess and retract them. But there are others, 
particularly in a subject like Vedic interpretation, which we 
should forgive, as we wish to be forgiven. This can be 
done without lowering the standard of true scholarship or 
vitiating the healthy tone of scientific morality. Kindness 
and gentleness are not incompatible with earnestness, — far 
from it ! — and where these elements are wanting, not only 
is the joy embittered which is the inherent reward of all 
bond fide work, but selfishness, malignity, aye, even un- 
truthfulness, gain the upper hand, and the healthy growth 
of science is stunted. While in my translation of the Veda 
and in the remarks that I have to make in the course of 
my commentary, I shall frequently differ from other 
scholars, I hope I shall never say an unkind word of men 
who have done their best, and who have done what they 
have done in a truly scholarlike, that is, in a humble spirit. 
It would be unpleasant, even were it possible within the 
limits assigned, to criticise every opinion that has been put 
forward on the meaning of certain words or on the con- 
struction of certain verses of the Veda. I prefer, as much 
as possible, to vindicate my own translation, instead of 
O] c 

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examining the translations of other scholars, whether Indian 
or European. Siyawa's translation, as rendered into Eng- 
lish by Professor Wilson, is before the world. Let those 
who take an interest in these matters compare it with the 
translation here proposed. In order to give readers who do 
not possess that translation, an opportunity of comparing it 
with my own, I have for a few hymns printed that as well 
as the translations of Langlois and Benfey • on the same page 
with my own. Everybody will thus be enabled to judge of 
the peculiar character of each of these translations. That 
of Saya«a represents the tradition of India ; that of 
Langlois is the ingenious, but thoroughly uncritical, guess- 
work of a man of taste ; that of Benfey is the rendering of 
a scholar, who has carefully worked out the history of some 
words, but who assigns to other words either the traditional 
meaning recorded by Saya«a, or a conjectural meaning 
which, however, would not always stand the test of an inter- 
comparison of all passages in which these words occur. I 
may say, in general, that Sayawa's translation was of great 
use to me in the beginning, though it seldom afforded help 
for the really difficult passages. Langlois' translation has 
hardly ever yielded real assistance, while I sincerely regret 
that Benfey's rendering does not extend beyond the first 

It may sound self-contradictory, if, after confessing the 

help which I derived from these translations, I venture to 

call my own the first translation of the 

The first Rig-veda. The word translation, however, 

traduction ° ' ' 

raisoniile. has many meanings. I mean by translation, 
not a mere rendering of the hymns of the 
Rig-veda into English, French, or German, but a full account 
of the reasons which justify the translator in assigning such 
a power to such a word, and such a meaning to such a 
sentence. I mean by translation a real deciphering, a work 
like that which Burnouf performed in his first attempts at 
a translation of the Avesta, — a traduction raisonn£e, if 
such an expression may be used. Without such a process, 

* In the new edition, Langlois' translation has been omitted, and those of 
Lndwig and Grassmann have been inserted occasionally only. 

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without a running commentary, a mere translation of the 
ancient hymns of the Brahmans will never lead to any solid 
results. Even if the translator has discovered the right 
meaning of a word or of a whole sentence, his mere transla- 
tion does not help us much, unless he shows us the process 
by which he has arrived at it, unless he places before us 
the pieces justificatives of his final judgment. The 
Veda teems with words that require a justification ; not so 
much the words which occur but once or twice, though 
many of these are difficult enough, but rather the common 
words and particles, which occur again and again, which we 
understand to a certain point, and can render in a vague 
way, but which must be defined before they can be trans- 
lated, and before they can convey to us any real and 
tangible meaning. It was out of the question in a trans- 
lation of this character to attempt either an imitation of 
the original rhythm or metre, or to introduce the totally 
foreign element of rhyming. Such translations may follow 
by and by: at present a metrical translation would only 
be an excuse for an inaccurate translation. 

While engaged in collecting the evidence on which the 
meaning of every word and every sentence must be founded, 
I have derived the most important assistance from the 
Sanskrit Dictionary of Professors Bohtlingk and Roth, 
which has been in course of publication during the last 
sixteen years. The Vedic portion of that Dictionary may, 
I believe, be taken as the almost exclusive work of Professor 
Roth, and as such, for the sake of brevity, I shall treat it 
in my notes. It would be ungrateful were I not to acknow- 
ledge most fully the real benefit which this publication has 
conferred on every student of Sanskrit, and my only regret 
is that its publication has not proceeded more rapidly, so 
that even now years will elapse before we can hope to see 
it finished. But my sincere admiration for the work per- 
formed by the compilers of that Dictionary does not prevent 
me from differing, in many cases, from the explanations of 
Vedic words given by Professor Roth. If I do not always 
criticise Professor Roth's explanations when I differ from 
him, the reason is obvious. A dictionary without a full 

c 2 

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translation of each passage, or without a justification of the 
meanings assigned to each word, is only a preliminary step 
to a translation. It represents a first classification of the 
meanings of the same word in different passages, but it 
gives us no means of judging how, according to the opinion 
of the compiler, the meaning of each single word should be 
made to fit the general sense of a whole sentence. I do 
not say this in disparagement, for, in a dictionary, it can 
hardly be otherwise ; I only refer to it in order to explain 
the difficulty I felt whenever I differed from Professor Roth, 
and was yet unable to tell how the meaning assigned by 
him to certain words would be justified by the author of 
the Dictionary himself. On this ground I have throughout 
preferred to explain every step by which I arrived at my 
own renderings, rather than to write a running criticism of 
Professor Roth's Dictionary. My obligations to him I like 
to express thus once for all, by stating that whenever I 
found that I agreed with him, I felt greatly assured as 
to the soundness of my own rendering, while whenever I 
differed from him, I never did so without careful con- 

The works, however, which I have hitherto mentioned, 
though the most important, are by no means the only ones 
that have been of use to me in preparing my translation of 
the Rig-veda. The numerous articles on certain hymns, 
verses, or single words occurring in the Rig-veda, published 
by Vedic scholars in Europe and India during the last 
thirty years, were read by me at the time of their publica- 
tion, and have helped me to overcome difficulties, the very 
existence of which is now forgotten. If I go back still 
further, I feel that in grappling with the first and the 
greatest of difficulties in the study of the Veda, I and many 
others are more deeply indebted than it is possible to say, 
to one whose early loss has been one of the greatest mis- 
fortunes to Sanskrit scholarship. It was in Burnouf's 
lectures that we first learnt what the Veda was, and how 
it should form the foundation of all our studies. Not only 
did he most liberally communicate to his pupils his valuable 
MSS.. and teach us how to use these tools, but the results 

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of his own experience were freely placed at our service, we 
were warned against researches which he knew to be useless, 
we were encouraged in undertakings which he knew to be 
full of promise. His minute analysis of long passages of 
Sayawa, his independent interpretations of the text of the 
hymns, his comparisons between the words and grammatical 
forms, the thoughts and legends of the Veda and Avesta, 
his brilliant divination checked by an inexorable sense of 
truth, and his dry logical method enlivened by sallies of 
humour and sparks of imaginative genius, though not easily 
forgotten, and always remembered with gratitude, are 
now beyond the reach of praise or blame. Were I to 
criticise what he or other scholars have said and written 
many years ago, they might justly complain of such criticism. 
It is no longer necessary to prove that Nabhanedish/Aa 
cannot mean ' new relatives,' or that there never was a race 
of Etendhras, or that the angels of the Bible are in no way 
connected with the Ahgiras of the Vedic hymns ; and it 
would, on the other hand, be a mere waste of time, were I 
to attempt to find out who first discovered that in the Veda 
deva does not always mean divine, but sometimes means 
brilliant. In fact, it could not be done. 

In a new subject like that of the interpretation of the 
Veda, there are certain things which everybody discovers 
who has eyes to see. Their discovery requires so little 
research that it seems almost an insult to say that they 
were discovered by this or that scholar. Take, for instance, 
the peculiar pronunciation of certain words, rendered neces- 
sary by the requirements of Vedic metres. I believe that 
my learned friend Professor Kuhn was one of the first to 
call general attention to the fact that semivowels must fre- 
quently be changed into their corresponding vowels, and 
that long vowels must sometimes be pronounced as two 
syllables. It is clear, however, from Rosen's notes to the 
first Ash/aka (I, i, 8), that he, too, was perfectly aware of 
this fact, and that he recognised the prevalence of this rule, 
not only with regard to semivowels (see his note to RV. I, 
2, 9) and long vowels which are the result of Sandhi, but 
likewise with regard to others that occur in the body of a 

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word. 'Animadverte,' he writes, 'tres syllabas postremas 
vocis adhvarawam dipodiae iambicae munus sustinentes, 
penultima syllaba praeter iambi prioris arsin, thesin quoque 
sequentis pedis ferente. Satis frequentia sunt, in hac prae- 
sertim dipodiae iambicae sede, exempla syllabae natura 
longae in tres moras productae. De qua re nihil quidem 
memoratum invenio apud Pingalam aliosque qui de arte 
metrica scripserunt : sed numeros ita, ut modo dictum est, 
computandos esse, taciti agnoscere videntur, quum versus 
una syllaba mancus non eos offendat.' 

Now this is exactly the case. The ancient grammarians, 
as we shall see, teach distinctly that where two vowels have 
coalesced into one according to the rules of Sandhi, they 
may be pronounced as two syllables ; and though they do 
not teach the same with regard to semivowels and long 
vowels occurring in the body of the word, yet they tacitly 
recognise that rule, by frequently taking its effects for 
granted. Thus in Sutra 950 of the Pratijakhya, verse IX, 
in, 1, is called an Atyash/i, and the first pada is said to 
consist of twelve syllables. In order to get this number, 
the author must have read, 

aya ru£i hariwyi punlnaA. 

Immediately after, verse IV, 1, 3, is called a Dhr*ti, and the 
first pada must again have twelve syllables. Here there- 
fore the author takes it for granted that we should read, 

sakhe sakhayam abhy 4 vawjtsva*. 

No one, in fact, with any ear for rhythm, whether Saunaka 
and Pingala, or Rosen and Kuhn, could have helped ob- 
serving these rules when reading the Veda. But it is quite 
a different case when we come to the question as to which 
words admit of such protracted pronunciation, and which 
do not. Here one scholar may differ from another according 
to the view he takes of the character of Vedic metres, and 
here one has to take careful account of the minute and 

• See also Sutra 937 seq. I cannot find any authority for the statement of 
Professor Kuhn (Beitrage, vol. iii, p. 1 14) that, according to the Rik-prStirakhya, 
it is the first semivowel that must be dissolved, unless he referred to the 
remarks of the commentator to Sutra 973. 

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ingenious observations contained in numerous articles by 
Professors Kuhn, Bollensen, Grassmann, and others. 

With regard to the interpretation of certain words and 
sentences too, it may happen that explanations which have 
taxed the ingenuity of some scholars to the utmost, seem 
to others so self-evident that they would hardly think of 
quoting anybody's name in support of them, to say nothing 
of the endless and useless work it would entail, were we 
obliged always to find out who was the first to propose this 
or that interpretation. It is impossible here to lay down 
general rules: — each scholar must be guided by his own 
sense of justice to others and by self-respect. Let us take 
one instance. From the first time that I read the fourth 
hymn of the Rig-veda, I translated the fifth and sixth 

uta bruvantu naA nidaA ni/t anyataA £it arata, 

dadhanlA fndre ft diivaA, 
uta naA su-bhigan ariA voiiyuA dasma krz'sh/ayaA, 

syama ft mdrasya .rarmawi. 

i. Whether our enemies say, 'Move away elsewhere, you 
who offer worship to Indra only,' — 

i. Or whether, O mighty one, all people call us blessed : 
may we always remain in the keeping of Indra. 

About the general sense of this passage I imagined there 
could be no doubt, although one word in it, viz. arMr, re- 
quired an explanation. Yet the variety of interpretations 
proposed by different scholars is extraordinary. First, if 
we look to Sayana, he translates : 

i. May our priests praise Indra 1 O enemies, go away 
from this place, and also from another place I Our priests 
(may praise Indra), they who are always performing wor- 
ship for Indra. 

2. O destroyer of enemies ! may the enemy call us pos- 
sessed of wealth ; how much more, friendly people ! May 
we be in the happiness of Indra t 

Professor Wilson did not follow Saya«a closely, but 
translated : 

i. Let our ministers, earnestly performing his worship, 

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exclaim : Depart, ye revilers, from hence and every other 
place (where he is adored). 

2. Destroyer of foes, let our enemies say we are pros- 
perous : let men (congratulate us). May we ever abide in 
the felicity (derived from the favour) of Indra. 

Langlois translated : 

1. Que (ces amis), en fttant Indra, puissent dire: Vous, 
qui etes nos adversaires, retirez-vous loin d'ici. 

2. Que nos ennemis nous appellent des hommes fortunes, 
places que nous sommes sous la protection d'Indra. 

Stevenson translated : 

1. Let all men again join in praising Indra. A vaunt ye 
profane scoffers, remove from hence, and from every other 
place, while we perform the rites of Indra. 

2. O foe-destroyer, (through thy favour) even our enemies 
speak peaceably to us, the possessors of wealth ; what 
wonder then if other men do so. Let us ever enjoy the 
happiness which springs from Indra's blessing. 

Professor Benfey translated : 

i. And let the scoffers say, They are rejected by every 
one else, therefore they celebrate Indra alone. 

2. And may the enemy and the country proclaim us as 
happy, O destroyer, if we are only in Indra's keeping'. 

Professor Roth, s.v. anyata^, took this word rightly in 
the sense of ' to a different place,' and must therefore have 
taken that sentence 'move away elsewhere' in the same 
sense in which I take it. Later, however, s.v. ar, he cor- 
rected himself, and proposed to translate the same words 
by ' you neglect something else.' 

Professor Bollensen (Orient und Occident, vol. ii, p. 462), 

* I add Grassmann's and Ludwig's renderings : 
Grassmann: Mag spot lend sagen nnser Feind: 

'Kein Andrer kiimmert sich nm sie; 

Drum feiem Indra sie allein.' 

Und glikklich mogen, Machtigerl 

Die Freundesstamme nennen wis, 

Nur wenn wir sind in Indra's Schotz. 
Lndwig: Mogen nnsere tadler sagen: sogar noch anderes entgeht each 
(dabei), wenn ihr dienst dem Indra tut. 

Oder moge nns gliickseligc nennen der fromme, so nennen, o wnndertatcr, 
die (fiinf ) voUcer, in Indra's schntze mogen wir sein. 

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adopting to a certain extent the second rendering of Professor 
Roth in preference to that of Professor Benfey, endeavoured 
to show that the ' something else which is neglected,' is not 
something indefinite, but the Worship of all the other gods, 
except Indra. 

It might, no doubt, be said that every one of these trans- 
lations contains something that is right, though mixed up 
with a great deal that. is wrong; but to attempt for every 
verse of the Veda to quote and to criticise every previous 
translation, would be an invidious and useless task. In the 
case just quoted, it might seem right to state that Professor 
Bollensen was the first to see that ar/A should be joined 
with VrishtiysJt, and that he therefore proposed to alter it 
to ariA, as a nom. plur. But on referring to Rosen, I find 
that, to a certain extent, he had anticipated Professor Bol- 
lensen 's remark, for though, in his cautious way, he abstained 
from altering the text, yet he remarked : Possitne ariA 
pluralis esse, contractu terminatione, pro arayaA ? 

After these preliminary remarks I have to say a few 
Plan of the words on the general plan of my translation, 
work. J d no t attempt as yet a translation of the 

whole of the Rig-veda, and I therefore considered myself at 
liberty to group the hymns according to the deities to which 
they are addressed. By this process, I believe, a great advan- 
tage is gained. We see at one glance all that has been 
said of a certain god, and we gain a more complete insight 
into his nature and character. Something of the same kind 
had been attempted by the original collectors of the ten 
books, for it can hardly be by accident that each of them 
begins with hymns addressed to Agni, and that these are 
followed by hymns addressed to Indra. The only excep- 
tion to this rule is the eighth MaWala, for the ninth being 
devoted to one deity, to Soma, can hardly be accounted an 
exception. But if we take the Rig-veda as a whole, we 
find hymns, addressed to the same deities, not only 
scattered about in different books, but not even grouped 
together when they occur in one and the same book. Here, 
as we lose nothing by giving up the old arrangement, we 

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are surely at liberty, for our own purposes, to put together 
such hymns as have a common object, and to place before 
the reader as much material as possible for an exhaustive 
study of each individual deity. 

I give for each hymn the Sanskrit original ' in what is 
known as the Pada text, i.e. the text in which all words 
(pada) stand by themselves, as they do in Greek or Latin, 
without being joined together according to the rules of 
Sandhi. The text in which the words are thus joined, as 
they are in all other Sanskrit texts, is called the Sawthita 
text. Whether the Pada or the Sawhita text be the more 
ancient, may seem difficult to settle. As far as I can judge, 
they seem to me, in their present form, the product of the 
same period of Vedic scholarship. The Pratijakhyas, it is 
true, start from the Pada text, take it, as it were, for 
granted, and devote their rules to the explanation of those 
changes which that text undergoes in being changed into 
the Sa*whita text. But, on the other hand, the Pada text 
in some cases clearly presupposes the Sawhita text. It 
leaves out passages which are repeated more than once, 
while the Sawhita text always repeats these passages ; it 
abstains from dividing the termination of the locative plural 
su, whenever in the Sawzhita text, i. e. according to the rules 
of Sandhi, it becomes shu ; hence nadlshu,a£ishu, but ap-su; 
and it gives short vowels instead of the long ones of the 
Sawhita, even in cases where the long vowels are justified 
by the rules of the Vedic language. It is certain, in fact, 
that neither the Pada nor the Sa*»hita text, as we now 
possess them, represents the original text of the Veda. 
Both show clear traces of scholastic influences. But if we 
try to restore the original form of the Vedic hymns, we 
shall certainly arrive at some kind of Pada text rather than 
at a Sawhita text; nay, even in their present form, the 
original metre and rhythm of the ancient hymns of the./?*shis 
are far more perceptible when the words are divided, than 
when we join them together throughout according to the 
rules of Sandhi. Lastly, for practical purposes, the Pada 
text is far superior to the Sawmita text in which the final 

* This is left out in the second edition. 

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and initial letters, that is, the most important letters of 
words, are constantly disguised, and liable therefore to 
different interpretations. Although in some passages we 
may differ from the interpretation adopted by the Pada 
text, and although certain Vedic words have, no doubt, 
been wrongly analysed and divided by .Sakalya, yet such 
cases are comparatively few, and where they occur, they 
are interesting as carrying us back to the earliest attempts 
of Vedic scholarship. In the vast majority of cases the 
divided text, with a few such rules as we have to observe 
in reading Latin, nay, even in reading Pali verses, brings 
us certainly much nearer to the original utterance of the 
ancient Rtshis than the amalgamated text. 

The critical principles by which I have been guided in 
editing for the first time the text of the Rig-veda, require 

Principles of a f ew words of explanation, as they have lately 
criticism. been challenged on grounds which, I think, 
rest on a complete misapprehension of my previous state- 
ments on this subject. 

As far as we are able to judge at present, we can hardly 
speak of various readings in the Vedic hymns, in the usual 
sense of that word. Various readings to be gathered from 
a collation of different MSS., now accessible to us, there 
are none. After collating a considerable number of MSS., 
I have succeeded, I believe, in fixing on three representative 
MSS., as described in the preface to the first volume of my 
edition of the Rig-veda. Even these MSS. are not free 
from blunders, — for what MS. is ? — but these blunders have 
no claim to the title of various readings. They are lapsus 
calami, and no more; and, what is important, they have 
not become traditional a . 

• Thus X, 101, 2, one of the Pada MSS. (P a) reads distinctly ya^flam pra 
VrimXa. sakhSyaJl, but all the other MSS. have nayata, and there can be little 
doubt that it was the frequent repetition of the verb Vri in this verse which 
led the writer to substitute kWnuta for nayata. No other MS., as far as I am 
aware, repeats this blunder. In IX, 86, 34, the writer of the same MS. puts 
rs£asi instead of dh&vasi, because his eye was caught by raji in the preceding 
line. X, 16, 5, the same MS. reads sam ga&Masva instead of ga&Matam, which 
is supported by Si, S 2, P 1, while S 3 has a peculiar and more important 
reading, ga^Matat. X, 67, 6, the same MS. P a has vi £akartha instead of 
vi Jakarta. 

A number of various readings which have been gleaned from Pandit Tira- 

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The text, as deduced from the best MSS. of the Samhita 
text, can be controlled by four independent checks. The 
first is, of course, a collation of the best MSS. of the 
Samhita text. 

The second check to be applied to the Samhita text is a 
comparison with the Pada text, of which, again, I possessed 
at least one excellent MS., and several more modern 

The third check was a comparison of this text with 
Sayawa's commentary, or rather with the text which is 
presupposed by that commentary. In the few cases where 
the Pada text seemed to differ from the Sa/nhita text, a 
note was added to that effect, in the various readings of my 
edition ; and the same was done, at least in all important 
cases, where Saya«a clearly followed a text at variance 
with our own. 

The fourth check was a comparison of any doubtful 
passage with the numerous passages quoted in the Prati- 

These were the principles by which I was guided in the 
critical restoration of the text of the Rig-veda, and I believe 
I may say that the text as printed by me is more correct 
than any MS. now accessible, more trustworthy than the 
text followed by Saya«a, and in all important points identi- 
cally the same with that text which the authors of the 

natha's Tuladan&dipaddhati (see Triibner's American and Oriental Literary 
Record, July 31, 1868) belong to the same class. They may be due either to 
the copyists of the MSS. which Pandit Taranatha used while compiling his 
work, or they may by accident have crept into his own MS. Anyhow, not one 
of them is supported either by the best MSS. accessible in Europe, or by any 
passage in the Pratu&khya. 

RV. IX, 11, 2, read devayu instead of devayuA b . 

IX, ii, 4, 

„ areata 


ar£ate k . 

IX. 14. 2, 

„ yadt sabandhavaA 


yaddtptabandhavaA b . 

IX, 16, 3. 

„ anaptam 


anuptam b . 

IX, 17. 2, 

„ suv&nasa 


stuvanasa b . 

IX, 31, 2, 

„ pravr»»vanto 


pravrwvato b . 

IX, 48, 2, 

„ s&mvrikta. 


sa/»yukta b . 

IX, 49, 1, 

„ no'pam 


no yam b . 

IX. 54. 3. 

„ sflryaA 


sflryam b . 

IX, 59. 3. 

„ sida ni 


stdati b . 

b As printed by Pandit Taranatha. 

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Pratuakhya followed in their critical researches in the fifth 
or sixth century before our era. I believe that starting 
from that date our text of the Veda is better authenticated, 
and supported by a more perfect apparatus criticus, 
than the text of any Greek or Latin author, and I do not 
think that diplomatic criticism can ever go beyond what 
has been achieved in the constitution of the text of the 
Vedic hymns. 

Far be it from me to say that the editio princeps of 

the text thus constituted was printed without mistakes. 

. , . , But most of these mistakes are mistakes 

Aufrecht s ... . , , , 

Romanised Re- which no attentive reader could fail to detect. 

P^°^ e Cases like II, 35, 1, where ^gishat instead 
of ^oshishat was printed three times, so as 
to perplex even Professor Roth, or II, 13, 14, where jasa- 
minam occurs three times instead of .r&famanam, are, I 
believe, of rare occurrence. Nor do I think that, unless 
some quite unexpected discoveries are made, there ever 
will be a new critical edition, or, as we call it in Germany, 
a new recension of the hymns of the Rig-veda. If by col- 
lating new MSS., or by a careful study of the Pratuakhya, 
or by conjectural emendations, a more correct text could 
have been produced, we may be certain that a critical 
scholar like Professor Aufrecht would have given us such a 
text. But after carefully collating several MSS. of Pro- 
fessor Wilson's collection, and after enjoying the advantage 
of Professor Weber's assistance in collating the MSS. of the 
Royal Library at Berlin, and after a minute study of the 
Pratijakhya, he frankly states that in the text of the Rig-veda, 
transcribed in Roman letters, which he printed at Berlin, he 
followed my edition, and that he had to correct but a small 
number of misprints. For the two Mawrfalas which I had not 
yet published, I lent him the very MSS. on which my edition 
is founded ; and there will be accordingly but few passages 
in these two concluding Mawdalas, which I have still to 
publish, where the text will materially differ from that of 
his Romanised transcript. 

No one, I should think, who is at all acquainted with the 
rules of diplomatic criticism, would easily bring himself to 

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touch a text resting on such authorities as the text of 
the Rig-veda. What would a Greek scholar give, if he 
could say of Homer that his text was in every word, 
in every syllable, in every vowel, in every accent, the 
same as the text used by Peisistratos in the sixth century 
B. c. ! A text thus preserved in its integrity for so many 
centuries, must remain for ever the authoritative text of the 

To remove, for instance, the eleven hymns 49-59 in the 
eighth Mandala. from their proper place, or count them by 

vaiakhiiya themselves as Valakhilya * hymns, seems to 
Hymns. me) though no doubt perfectly harmless, 
little short of a critical sacrilege. Why Saya«a does not 
explain these hymns, I confess I do not know b ; but what- 
ever the reason was, it was not because they did not exist 
at his time, or because he thought them spurious. They 
are regularly counted in Katyayana's Sarvanukrama, though 
here the same accident has happened. One commentator, 
Sharfguriuishya, the one most commonly used, does not 
explain them ; but another commentator, Cagannatha, does 
explain them, exactly as they occur in the Sarvanukrama, 
only leaving out hymn 58. That these hymns had some- 
thing peculiar in the eyes of native scholars, is clear enough. 
They may for a time have formed a separate collection, they 

* The earliest interpretation of the name VSlakhilya is found in the Taittiriya- 
ftranyaka, I, 23. We are told that Pra^&pati created the world, and in the 
process of creation the following interlude occurs : 

sa tapoitapyata. sa tapas taptva rartram adhunuta. tasya yan mawsam 
astt tatoirunii ketavo vatanuanft n'shaya udatishMan. ye nakhki, te vaikha- 
nasaA. ye ball*, te balakhilyti. 

He burned with emotion. Having bumt with emotion, he shook his body. 
From what was his flesh, the .tftshis, called Aruwas, Kerns, and Vatanuanas, 
sprang forth. His nails became the Vaikh&nasas, his hairs the BSlakhilyas. 

The author of this allegory therefore took bala or vala in valakhilya, not in 
the sense of child, but identified it with bala, hair. 

The commentator remarks with regard to tapas : nStra tapa upavasadir Apam, 
kimtn srash/avyam vastu kldnjam iti paryalo£anarupam. 

* A similar omission was pointed out by Professor Roth. Verses a 1-24 of 
the 53rd hymn of the third Mamiala, which contain imprecations against 
VasishMa, are left out by the writer of a Pada MS., and by a copyist of 
Sayana's commentary, probably because they both belonged to the family of 
VasishMa, See my first edition of the Rig-veda, vol. ii, p. lvi. Notes. 

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may have been considered of more modern origin '. I shall 
go even further than those who remove these hymns from 
the place which they have occupied for more than two 
thousand years. I admit they disturb the regularity both 
of the Mawrfala and the Ash/aka divisions, and I have 
pointed out myself that they are not counted in the ancient 
Anukramawis ascribed to .Saunaka ; (History of Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature, p. 2 20.) But, on the other hand, verses 
taken from these hymns occur in all the other Vedas b ; 
they are mentioned by name in the Brahmawas (Ait. Br. V, 
15 ; VI, 24), the Arawyakas (Ait. Ar. V, 10, p. 445), and the 
Sutras (Asv. .Srauta Sutras, VIII, 2, 3), while they are never 
included in the manuscripts of Parirish/as or Khilas or 
apocryphal hymns, nor mentioned by Katyayana as mere 
Khilas in his Sarvanukrama. Eight of them are men- 
tioned in the Brthaddevata, without any allusion to their 
apocryphal character : 

Parawy ash/au tu suktany rishirt&m tigmate^asam, 
Aindrawy atra tu pragatho bahudaivataA 
Rig antyagner a£ety agniA suryam antyapado^agau. 
Praska«var ka. przshadhraj ka pradad yad vastu kiw<£ana 
Bhurid iti tu suktabhyam akhilam parikirtitam. 
Aindrawy ubhayam ity atra sha/ agneyat para«i tu. 
' The next eight hymns belong to •/?jshis of keen intel- 
lect d ; they are addressed to Indra, but the 26th Pragatha 

* S4ya«a (RV. X, 88, 18) quotes these hymns as Valakhilya-sawhita. In 
the Mahabhirata XII, 59 ; 1 10 seq. the Valakhilyas are called the ministers of 
King Vainya, whose astrologer was Garga, and his domestic priest -Sukra ; see 
Kern, BWhat-sa/nhita, transl. p. II. 

b This is a criterion of some importance, and it might have been mentioned, 
for instance, by Professor Bollensen in his interesting article on the Dvipadft 
Vir^g- hymns ascribed to Parirara (I, 65-70) that not a single verse of them 
occurs in any of the other Vedas. 

e Sayana in his commentary (RV. X, 37, 15) speaks of eight, while in the 
Ait Ar. V, 10, the first six are qnoted (containing fifty-six verses, comm.), as 
being used together for certain sacrificial purposes. 

d Lest .Saunaka be suspected of having applied this epithet, tigmate^as, to 
the Valakhilyas in order to fill the verse (p&dapuran&rtham), I may point out 
that the same epithet is applied to the Valakhilyas in the Maitry-upanishad 1, 3. 
The nom. plur. which occurs there is tigmate^nsavi, and the commentator 
remarks: tigmate^asas ttvrate^aso * tyur^-itaprabhAviU ; te/asi ityeva/nvidha 
etauWASkhasanketapaMxf JAandasaA sarvatra. See also Maitr. Up. VI, 39. 

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xlviii VEDIC HYMNS. 

(VIII, 54, 3-4, which verses form the 26th couplet, if count- 
ing from VIII, 49, 1) is addressed to many gods. The last 
verse (of these eight hymns), VIII, 56, 5, beginning with 
the words a£ety agniA, is addressed to Agni, and the last 
foot celebrates Surya. Whatsoever Praska»va and Pn'sha- 
dhra gave (or, if we read prj'shadhraya, whatever Praskawva 
gave to Pr»shadhra), all that is celebrated in the two hymns 
beginning with bhurtt. After the hymn addressed to Agni 
(VIII, 60), there follow six hymns addressed to Indra, 
beginning with ubhayam.' 

But the most important point of all is this, that these 
hymns, which exist both in the Pada and Sawhita texts, are 
quoted by the Pratwakhya, not only for general purposes, 
but for special passages occurring in them, and nowhere 
else. Thus in Sutra 154, hetaya^ is quoted as one of the 
few words which do not require the elision of a following 
short a. In order to appreciate what is implied by this 
special quotation, it is necessary to have a clear insight into 
the mechanism of the Pratuakhya. Its chief object is to 
bring under general categories the changes which the sepa- 
rate words of the Pada text undergo when joined together 
in the Arsht Sawhita, and to do this with the utmost 
brevity possible. Now the Sandhi rules, as observed in the 
Sawmita of the Rig-veda, are by no means so uniform and 
regular as they are in later Sanskrit, and hence it is some- 
times extremely difficult to bring all the exceptional cases 
under more or less general rules. In our passage the 
author of the Pratuakhya endeavours to comprehend all 
the passages where an initial a in the Veda is not elided 
after a final e or o. In ordinary Sanskrit it would be always 
elided, in the Sawhita it is sometimes elided, and sometimes 
not. Thus the Pratijakhya begins in Sutra 138 by stating 
that if the short a stands at the beginning of a pada or foot, 
it is always elided. Why it should be always elided in the 
very place where the metre most strongly requires that it 
should be pronounced, does not concern the author of the 
Pratuakhya. He is a statistician, not a grammarian, and 
he therefore simply adds in Sutra 153 the only three excep- 
tional passages where the a, under these very circumstances, 

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happens to be not elided. He then proceeds in SAtra 139 
to state that a is elided even in the middle of a pada, pro- 
vided it be light, followed by y or v, and these, y or v, again 
followed by a light vowel. Hence the Samhita writes te 
*vadan, so » yam, but not jikshanto»vratam, for here the a 
of avratam is heavy; nor mitramaho»vadyat, for here the 
a following the v is heavy 

Then follows again an extension of this rule, viz. in the 
case of words ending in avo. After these, a short a, even 
if followed by other consonants besides y or v, may be 
elided, but the other conditions must be fulfilled, i. e. the 
short a must be light, and the vowel of the next syllable 
must again be light. Thus the Sawhita writes indeed gavo 
'bhlta/t, but not gavo«gman, because here the a is heavy, 
being followed by two consonants. 

After this, a more general rule is given, or, more cor- 
rectly, a more comprehensive observation is made, viz. that 
under all circumstances initial a is elided, if the preceding 
word ends in aye, ayaA, ave, or avaA. As might be 
expected, however, so large a class must have numerous 
exceptions, and these can only be collected by quoting 
every word ending in these syllables, or every passage in 
which the exceptions occur. Before these exceptions are 
enumerated, some other more or less general observations 
are made, providing for the elision of initial a. Initial a, 
according to Sutra 142, is to be elided if the preceding 
word is vaA, and if this vaJt is preceded by a, na, pra, kva, 
kitrdJt, savita, eva, or kaA. There is, of course, no intel- 
ligible reason why, if these words precede vaA, the next a 
should be elided. It is a mere statement of facts, and, 
generally speaking, these statements are minutely accurate. 
There is probably no verse in the whole of the Rig-veda 
where an initial a after vaJt is elided, unless these very 
words precede, or unless some other observation has been 
made to provide for the elision of the a For instance, in 
V, 25, 1, we find vaA preceded by a&k/ia, which is not among 
the words just mentioned, and here the Sawhita does not 
elide the a of agnim, which follows after va^. After all 
these more or less general observations as to the elision of 
[32] d 

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an initial a are thus exhausted, the author of the Prati- 
.rakhya descends into particulars, and gives lists, first, of 
words the initial a of which is always elided ; secondly, of 
words which, if preceding, require under all circumstances 
the elision of the initial a of the next word, whatever may 
have been said to the contrary in the preceding Sutras. 
Afterwards, he gives a number of passages which defy all 
rules, and must be given on their own merits, and as they 
stand in the Sawhitl. Lastly, follow special exceptions 
to the more or less general rules given before. And here, 
among these special exceptions, we see that the author of 
the Pratuakhya finds it necessary to quote a passage from a 
Valakhilya hymn in which hetayaA occurs, i.e. a word 
ending in ayaA, and where, in defiance of Sutra 141, which 
required the elision of a following initial a under all circum- 
stances (sarvatha), the initial a of asya is not elided ; VIII, 
50, 2, Sawhita, jatanika hetayo asya. It might be objected 
that the Pratixakhya only quotes hetayaA as an exceptional 
word, and does not refer directly to the verse in the 
Valakhilya hymn. But fortunately hetaya^ occurs but 
twice in the whole of the Rig-veda ; and in the other 
passage where it occurs, I, 190, 4, neither the rule nor the 
exception as to the elision of an initial a, could apply. 
The author of the PratLrakhya therefore makes no distinc- 
tion between the Valakhilya and any other hymns of the 
Rig-veda, and he would have considered his phonetic 
statistics equally at fault, if it had been possible to quote 
one single passage from the hymns VIII, 49 to 59, as con- 
travening his observations, as if such passages had been 
alleged from the hymns of Vasish/Aa or VLrvamitra. 

It would lead me too far, were I to enter here into similar 
cases in support of the fact that the PratLsakhya makes no 
distinction between the Valakhilya and any other hymns of 
the Rig-veda-sa/whita a . But I doubt whether the bearing 
of this fact has ever been fully realised. Here we see that 
the absence of the elision of a short a which follows after a 
word ending in aya/t, was considered of sufficient importance 

* The Pralixakhya takes into account both the 5akala and Bashkala jakhas, 
as may be seen from Sutra 1057. 

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to be recorded in a special rule, because in most cases the 
Sawhita elides an initial a, if preceded by a word ending in 
ayaA. What does this prove? It proves, unless all our 
views on the chronology of Vedic literature are wrong, that 
in the fifth century B.C. at least, or previously rather to the 
time when the Pratijakhya was composed, both the Pada 
and the Sawhita texts were so firmly settled that it was im- 
possible, for the sake of uniformity or regularity, to omit 
one single short a ; and it proves a fortiori, that the 
hymn in which that irregular short a occurs, formed at that 
time part of the Vedic canon. I confess I feel sometimes 
frightened by the stringency of this argument, and I should 
like to see a possibility by which we could explain the 
addition, not of the Valakhilya hymns only, but of other 
much more modern sounding hymns, at a later time than 
the period of the Pratijakhyas. But until that possibility 
is shown, we must abide by our own conclusions ; and then 
I ask, who is the critic who would dare to tamper with a 
canon of scripture of which every iota was settled before the 
time of Cyrus, and which we possess in exactly that form 
in which it is described to us by the authors of the 
Pratuakhyas ? I say again, that I am not free from mis- 
givings on the subject, and my critical conscience would be 
far better satisfied if we could ascribe the Pratuakhya and 
all it presupposes to a much later date. But until that is 
done, the fact remains that the two divergent texts, the 
Pada and Sawhita, which we now possess, existed, as we 
now possess them, previous to the time of the Pratuakhya. 
They have not diverged nor varied since, and the vertex to 
which they point, starting from the distance of the two 
texts as measured by the PratLrakhya, carries us back far 
beyond the time of Saunaka, if we wish to determine the 
date of the first authorised collection of the hymns, both in 
their Pada and in their Samhita form. 

Instances abound, if we compare the Pada and Samhita 
texts, where, if uniformity between the two texts had been 
the object of the scholars of the ancient Parishads, the 
lengthening or shortening of a vowel would at once have 
removed the apparent discordance between the two tradi- 


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tional texts. Nor should it be supposed that such minute 
discordances between the two, as the length or shortness of 
a vowel, were always rendered necessary by the require- 
ments of the metre, and that for that reason the ancient 
students or the later copyists of the Veda abstained from 
altering the peculiar spelling of words, which seemed re- 
quired by the exigencies of the metre in the Sa*«hit£ text, 
but not in the Pada text. Though this may be true in 
some cases, it is not so in all. There are short vowels in 
the Sawmitd where, according to grammar, we expect long 
vowels, and where, according to metre, there was no neces- 
sity for shortening them. Yet in these very places all the 
MSS. of the Samhita text give the irregular short, and all 
the MSS. of the Pada text the regular long vowel, and the 
authors of the PratLfakhyas bear witness that the same 
minute difference existed at their own time, nay, previous to 
their own time. In VII, 60, 12, the Sawdiita text gives : 

iy&m deva pur6hitir yuvabhyaw* ya^w^shu mitravaruwav 

This primacy, O (two) gods, was made for you two, O 
Mitra and Varu/za, at the sacrifices I 

Here it is quite clear that deva is meant for a dual, and 
ought to have been deva or devau. The metre does not 
require a short syllable, and yet all the Samhita MSS. read 
devS, and all the Pada MSS. read deva ; and what is more 
important, the authors of the PratLrakhya had to register 
this small divergence of the two texts, which existed in their 
time as it exists in our own *. 

Nor let it be supposed, that the writers of our MSS. were 
so careful and so conscientious that they would, when 
copying MSS., regulate every consonant or vowel according 
to the rules of the Pratwakhya. This is by no means 
the case. The writers of Vedic MSS. are on the whole 
more accurate than the writers of other MSS., but their 
learning does not seem to extend to a knowledge of the 
minute rules of the PratLrakhya, and they will commit 

* See Prittuakhya, Sutra 309 seqq., where several more instances of the same 
kind are given. I should prefer to take devapurohiti as one word, bnt that was 
not the intention of the authors of the Samhita and Pada texts. 

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occasionally the very mistakes against which they are 
warned by the PratLrakhya. Thus the Pratuakhya (Sutra 
799) warns the students against a common mistake of 
changing vaiyarva into vayyajva, i. e. by changing ai to a, 
and doubling the semivowel y. But this very mistake 
occurs in S2, and another MS. gives vaiyyarva. See 
p. lvi. 

If these arguments are sound, and if nothing can be said 
against the critical principles by which I have been guided 
Aufrecht's hi editing the text of the Rig-veda, if the 
mistakes. fourfold check, described above, fulfils every 
requirement that could be made for restoring that text 
which was known to Sayawa, and which was known, probably 
2000 years earlier, to the authors of the Pratirakhyas, what 
can be the motives, it may fairly be asked, of those who 
clamour for a new and more critical edition, and who 
imagine that the editio princeps of the Rig-veda will 
share the fate of most of the editiones principes of the 
Greek and Roman classics, and be supplanted by new 
editions founded on the collation of other MSS. ? No one 
could have rejoiced more sincerely than I did at the publi- 
cation of the Romanised transliteration of the Rig-veda, 
carried out with so much patience and accuracy by Pro- 
fessor Aufrecht. It showed that there was a growing 
interest in this, the only true Veda ; it showed that even 
those who could not read Sanskrit in the original Devana- 
gari, wished to have access to the original text of these 
ancient hymns ; it showed that the study of the Veda had 
a future before it like no other book of Sanskrit literature. 
My learned friend Professor Aufrecht has been most 
unfairly charged with having printed this Romanised text 
me insciente vel invito. My edition is publici juris, 
like any edition of Homer or Plato, and anybody might, 
with proper acknowledgment, have reprinted it, either in 
Roman or Devanagari letters. But far from keeping me 
in ignorance of his plan, Professor Aufrecht applied to me 
for the loan of the MSS. of the two Mam/alas which I had 
not yet published, and I lent them to him most gladly, 
because, by seeing them printed at once, I felt far less 

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guilty in delaying the publication of the last volumes of my 
edition of the text and commentary. Nor could anything 
have been more honourable than the way in which Pro- 
fessor Aufrecht speaks of the true relation of his Romanised 
text to my edition. That there are misprints, and I, speak- 
ing for myself, ought to say mistakes also, in my edition of 
the Rig-veda, I know but too well ; and if Professor 
Aufrecht, after carefully transcribing every word, could 
honestly say that their number is small, I doubt whether 
other scholars will be able to prove that their number is 
large. I believe I may with the same honesty return Pro- 
fessor Aufrecht's compliment, and considering the great 
difficulty of avoiding misprints in Romanised transcripts, 
I have always thought and I have always said that his 
reprint of the hymns of the Veda is remarkably correct and 
accurate. What, however, I must protest against, and 
what, I feel sure, Professor Aufrecht himself would equally 
protest against, is the supposition, and more than supposi- 
tion of certain scholars, that wherever this later Latin 
transcript differs from my own Devanagari text, Professor 
Aufrecht is right, and I am wrong ; that his various readings 
rest on the authority of new MSS., and constitute in fact a 
new recension of the Vedic hymns. Against this supposi- 
tion I must protest most strongly, not for my own sake, but 
for the sake of the old book, and, still more, for the sake of 
the truth. No doubt it is natural to suppose that where a 
later edition differs from a former edition, it does so inten- 
tionally ; and I do not complain of those who, without 
being able to have recourse to MSS. in order to test the 
authority of various readings, concluded that wherever the 
new text differed from the old, it was because the old text 
was at fault. In order to satisfy my own conscience on this 
point, I have collated a number of passages where Pro- 
fessor Aufrecht's text differs from my own, and I feel 
satisfied that in the vast majority of cases, I am right and 
he is wrong, and that his variations do not rest on the 
authority of MSS. I must not shrink from the duty of 
making good this assertion, and I therefore proceed to an 
examination of such passages as have occurred to me on 

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occasionally referring to his text, pointing out the readings 
both where he is right, and where he is wrong. The 
differences between the two texts may appear trifling, but 
I shall not avail myself of that plea. On the contrary, I 
quite agree with those scholars who hold that in truly 
critical scholarship there is nothing trifling. Besides, it is 
in the nature of the case that what may, by a stretch of the 
word, be called various readings in the Veda, must be con- 
fined to single letters or accents, and can but seldom extend 
to whole words, and never to whole sentences. I must 
therefore beg my readers to have patience while I endeavour 
to show that the text of the Rig-veda, as first published 
by me, though by no means faultless, was nevertheless not 
edited in so perfunctory a manner as some learned critics 
seem to suppose, and that it will not be easy to supplant 
it either by a collation of new MSS., such as are accessible 
at present, or by occasional references to the Pratirakhya. 

I begin with some mistakes of my own, mistakes which 
I might have avoided, if I had always consulted the 
Pratlrakhya, where single words or whole passages of 
the Veda are quoted. Some of these mistakes have been 
removed by Professor Aufrecht, others, however, appear in 
his transcript as they appear in my own edition. 

I need hardly point out passages where palpable mis- 
prints in my edition have been repeated in Professor 
Aufrecht's text. I mean by palpable misprints, cases 
where a glance at the Pada text or at the Sawhita text 
or a reference to Sayawa's commentary would show at 
once what was intended. Thus, for instance, in VI, 15, 3, 
vrtdh.6, as I had printed in the Sawhita, was clearly a 
misprint for vr*dh6, as may be seen from the Pada, which 
gives vrtdhiA, and from Sayawa. Here, though Professor 
Aufrecht repeats vridhi, I think it hardly necessary to 
show that the authority of the best MSS. (S 2 alone 
contains a correction of vndh6 to vridh6) is in favour of 
vridh&A, whatever we may think of the relative value of 
these two readings. One must be careful, however, in 
a text like that of the Vedic hymns, where the presence 
or absence of a single letter or accent begins to become 

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the object of the most learned and painstaking discussions, 
not to claim too large an indulgence for misprints. A 
misprint in the Sawhita, if repeated in the Pada, or if 
admitted even in the commentary of Sayawa, though it 
need not be put down to the editor's deplorable ignorance, 
becomes yet a serious matter, and I willingly take all the 
blame which is justly due for occasional accidents of this 
character. Such are, for instance, II, 12, 14, jasamanam 
instead of jaramanam ; I, 124, 4, sudhyuva/i, in the Pada, 
instead of .rundhyuva// ; and the substitution in several 
places of a short u instead of a long in such forms 
as .rujavama, when occurring in the Pada; cf. I, 166, 14; 
167, 9. 

It is clear from the Pratuakhya, Sutra 819 and 163, 5, 
that the words utf fndra in IV, 29, 1, should not be joined 
together, but that the hiatus should remain. Hence 
utindra, as printed in my edition and repeated in Professor 
Aufrecht's, should be corrected, and the hiatus be pre- 
served, as it is in the fourth verse of the same hymn, uti 
itth£. MSS. S 1, S 3 are right ; in S 2 the words are 

It follows from Sutra 799 that to double the y in 
vaiyarva is a mistake, but a mistake which had to be 
pointed out and guarded against as early as the time of 
the Pratuakhya. In VIII, 26, 11, therefore, vaiyyarvasya, 
as printed in my edition and repeated in Professor Auf- 
recht's, should be changed to vaiyarvasya. MSS. S 1, S3 
are right, likewise P 1, P 2; but S 2 has the double 
mistake vayyarvasya, as described in the Pratifikhya; 
another MS. of Wilson's has vaiyy. The same applies 
to VIII, 23, 24, and VIII, 24, 23. P 1 admits the mistaken 
spelling vayyarva. 

Some corrections that ought to be made in the Pada- 
pa///a only, as printed in my edition, are pointed out in 
a note to Sutra 738 of the PratLrakhya. Thus, according 
to Sutra 583, 6, jruya^ in the Pada text of II, 10, 2, 
should be changed to jruyaV*. MSS. P i, P 2 have the 
short u. 

In V, 7, 8, I had printed stiJiih shma, leaving the a of 

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shma short in accordance with the Prati-rakhya, Sutra 514, 
where a string of words is given before which sma must not 
be lengthened, and where under No. 11 we find yasmai. 
Professor Aufrecht has altered this, and gives the a as 
long, which is wrong. The MSS. S 1, S a, S 3 have the 
short a. 

Another word before which sma ought not to be length- 
ened is mavate. Hence, according to Sutra 514, 14, I 
ought not to have printed in VI, 65, 4, shma mavate, but 
shma mavate. Here Professor Aufrecht has retained the 
long a, which is wrong. MSS. Si, S a, S3 have the 
short a. 

It follows from Sutra 499 that in 1, 1 38, 4, we should not 
lengthen the vowel of sii. Hence, instead of asya" u shu* 
«a upa sataye, as printed in my edition and repeated by 
Professor Aufrecht, we should read asyS u shu «a upa 
sataye. S 1, S 2, S 3 have short u*. 

In VII, 31, 4, 1 had by mistake printed viddhf instead of 
viddhi. The same reading is adopted by Professor Auf- 
recht (II, p. 24), but the authority of the PratLrakhya, 
Sutra 445, can hardly be overruled. S 1, S 2, S 3 have 

While in cases like these, the Pratuakhya is an authority 
which, as far as I can judge, ought to overrule the authority 
of every MS., however ancient, we must in other cases 
depend either on the testimony of the best MSS. or be 
guided, in fixing on the right reading, by Saya«a and the 
rules of grammar. I shall therefore, in cases where I 
cannot consider Professor Aufrecht's readings as autho- 
ritative improvements, have to give my reasons why I 
adhere to the readings which I had originally adopted. 

In V, 9, 4, I had printed by mistake puru yd instead of 
purfl yd. I had, however, corrected this misprint in my 
edition of the Pratuakhya, 393, 533. Professor Aufrecht 
decides in favour of puru with a short u, but against the 
authority of the MSS., S 1, S 2, S 3, which have purff. 

* In the same verse, I, 138, 4, the shu in 6 shu tv& should nut be lengthened, 
for there is no rule, as far as I can see, in the PrStirakhya that would require 
the lengthening of su before tva. See PWitijakhya, 491. f 

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It was certainly a great mistake of mine, though it may 
seem more excusable in a Romanised transcript, that I did 
not follow the writers of the best MSS. in their use of the 
Avagraha, or, I should rather say, of that sign which, as 
far as the Veda is concerned, is very wrongly designated by 
the name of Avagraha. Avagraha, according to the Prati- 
jakhya, never occurs in the Sawhita text, but is the name 
given to that halt, stoppage, or pause which in the Pada 
text separates the component parts of compound words. 
That pause has the length of one short vowel, i.e. one 
matra. Of course, nothing is said by the Pratuakhya as 
to how the pause should be represented graphically, but it 
is several times alluded to as of importance in the recitation 
and accentuation of the Veda. What we have been in the 
habit of calling Avagraha is by the writers of certain MSS. 
of the Sawhita text used as the sign of the Vivr z'tti or hiatus. 
This hiatus, however, is very different from the Avagraha, 
for while the Avagraha has the length of one matra, the 
Vivr/tti or hiatus has the length of i matra, if the two 
vowels are short ; of 4 matra, if either vowel is long ; of | 
matra, if both vowels are long. Now I have several times 
called attention to the fact that though this hiatus is marked 
in certain MSS. by the sign », I have in my edition omitted 
it, because I thought that the hiatus spoke for itself and 
did not require a sign to attract the attention of European 
readers ; while, on the contrary, I have inserted that sign 
where MSS. hardly ever use it, viz. when a short initial a 
is elided after a final e or o ; (see my remarks on pp. 36, 39, 
of my edition of the Pratuakhya.) Although I thought, 
and still think, that this use of the sign * is more useful for 
practical purposes, yet I regret that, in this one particular, 
I should have deviated from the authority of the best MSS., 
and caused some misunderstandings on the part of those 
who have made use of my edition. If, for instance, I had 
placed the sign of the Vivrttti, the *, in its proper place, or 
if, at least, I had not inserted it where, as we say, the initial 
a has been elided after e or o, Professor Bollensen would 
have seen at once that the authors of the PratLrikhyas 
fully agree with him in looking on this change, not as an 

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elision, but as a contraction. If, as sometimes happens, 
final o or e remain unchanged before initial short a, this 
is called the Pa«£ala and TrSJkya. padavr*tti (Sutra 137). 
If, on the contrary, final o or e become one (ekibhavati) 
with the initial short a, this is called the Abhinihita sandhi 
(Sutra 138). While the former, the hiatus of the Pa«£ala 
and Eastern schools, is marked by the writers of several 
MSS. by the sign », the Abhinihita sandhi, being a sandhi, 
is not marked by any sign ». 

I, 3, 1 a. ra^ati (Aufr. p. 2) instead of ra^ati (M. M. vol. i, 
p. 75) is wrong. 

I. 7. 9- ya 6kzA (Aufr. p. 5) should be yd ekaA (M. M. 
vol. i, p. 1 10), because the relative pronoun is never without 
an accent. The relative particle yatha may be without an 
accent, if it stands at the end of a pada ; and though there 
are exceptions to this rule, yet in VIII, 21, 5, where Pro- 
fessor Aufrecht gives yatha, the MSS. are unanimous in 
favour of yatha (M. M. vol. iv, p. 480). See Phi/-sutra, ed. 
Kielhorn, p. 54. 

I, 10, 11. a tfi (Aufr. p. 7) should be a" tfl (M. M. vol. i, 
p. 139), because a is never without the accent. 

I, 10, 1 a. gus\i&h, which Professor Aufrecht specially 
mentions as having no final Visarga in the Pada, has 
the Visarga in all the MSS., (Aufr. p. 7, M. M. vol. i, 
p. 140.) 

I, 11, 4. kavir (Aufr. p. 7) should be kavir (M. M. vol. i, 

P- 143)- 

I, 22, 8, read ra'dhawzsi. 

1, 40, 1 and 6. There is no excuse for the accent either on 
tvemahe or on v6£ema, while sa£aft in I, 51, n, ought to 
have the accent on the first syllable. 

I, 49, 3. Rosen was right in not eliding the a in div6 
antebhyaA. S 1, S 2, S 3 preserve the initial a, nor does 
the Pratuakhya anywhere provide for its suppression. 

I, 54, 8. kshatram (Aufr. p. 46) is a mere misprint for 

* As to the system or want of system, according to which the Abhinihita 
sandhi takes place in the Samhiti, see p. xlviii seq. 


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I» 55> 7- vandanamid (Aufr. p. 47) instead of vandanasrud 
(M. M. vol. i, p. 514) is wrong. 

I, 57, 2. sam&ita instead of samlrita had been corrected 
in my reprint of the first Mawafala, published at Leipzig. 
See Boliensen, Zeitschrift der D. M. G., vol xxii, p. 626. 

I, 61, 7, read vishnuA ; I, 64, 2, read sukayaJt ; I, 64, 5, 
read dhfftayaA. 

I, 61, 16. Rosen had rightly printed hariyo^ana with 
a long a both in the Sawhita and Pada texts, and I ought 
not to have given the short a instead. All the MSS., S 1, 
S 2, S 3, P 1, and P 2, give the long a. Professor Auf- 
recht gives the short a in the Pada, which is wrong. 

I, 67, 2 (4). vidantlm (M. M. vol. i, p. 595) is perfectly 
right, as far as the authority of the MSS. and of Sayawa is 
concerned, and should not have been altered to vindantim 
(Aufr. p. 57). 

I, 72, 2, read vatsam ; I, 72, 6, readparun ; I, 76, 3, read 
dhakshy ; I, 82, 1, read yada\ 

I, 83, 3. Rosen was right in giving asamyatta^. I gave 
asawyata/z on the authority of P 1, but all the other MSS. 
have tt 

I, 84, 1. indra(Aufr. p. 68) cannot have the accent on the 
first syllable, because it does not stand at the beginning of 
a pada (M. M. vol. i, p. 677). The same applies to indra, VI, 
41, 4, (Aufr. p. 429) instead of indra (M. M. vol. iii, p. 734) ; 
to agne, I, 140, 12, (Aufr. p. 130) instead of agne (M. M. 
vol. ii, p. 133). In III, 36, 3, on the contrary, indra, being 
at the head of a pada, ought to have the accent on the first 
syllable, fndra (M. M. vol. ii, p. 855), not indra (Aufr. p. 249). 
The same mistake occurs again, III, 36, 10 (Aufr. p. 250) ; 
IV, 32, 7, (Aufr. p. 305) ; IV, 32, 12, (Aufr. p. 305) ; VIII, 3, 
12, (Aufr. vol. ii, p. 86). In V, 61, 1, naraA should have no 
accent ; whereas in VII, 91, 3, it should have the accent on 
the first syllable. In VIII, 8, 19, vipanyu should have no 
accent, and Professor Aufrecht gives it correctly in the 
notes, where he has likewise very properly removed the 
Avagraha which I had inserted. 

I, 88, 1, read yita (M. M. vol. i, p. 708), not yatha(Aufr. 
p. 72). 

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I, 90, i, read r^unitf; I, 94, 11, read yavasaclo (M. M. 
vol. i, p. 766), not yayasa"do (Aufr. p. 80). 

1, 1 18, 9. abhibhfitim (Aufr. p. 105) instead of abhfbhutim 
(M. M. vol. i, p. 957) cannot be right, considering that in all 
other passages abhfohuti has the accent on the second 
syllable. S i, S 2, S 3 have the accent on the i. 

I, 128, 4. ghrtWrtr (Aufr. p. 117) instead of ghr»tamr 
(M. M. vol. ii, p. 52) is wrong. 

I, 144, 2, read parivn'tAA (M. M. vol. ii, p. 155) instead 
of pariWtaA (Aufr. p. 133). 

I> J 45» 5- Professor Aufrecht (p. 134) gives upamasyam, 
both in the Sawhita and Pada texts, as having the accent on 
the last syllable. I had placed the accent on the penulti- 
mate, (Pada, upa-masyam, vol. ii, p. 161,) and whatever 
may be the reading of other MSS., this is the only possible 
accentuation. S 1, S a, S 3 have the right accent. 

I, 148, 4. purflwi (Aufr. p. 136) instead of purfiwi (M. M. 
vol. ii, p. 170) does not rest, as far as I know, on the autho- 
rity of any MSS. S 1, S 2, S 3 have purtfm. 

I» J 5 i > 7' ga/bMatho (Aufr. p. 137) should be ga£££atho 
(M. M. vol. ii, p. 181). 

I, 161, 12. All the Pada MSS. read pra abravlt, sepa- 
rating the two words and accentuating each. Though the 
accent is irregular, yet, considering the peculiar construc- 
tion of the verse, in which pra and pr6 are used as adverbs 
rather than as prepositions, I should not venture with 
Professor Aufrecht (p. 144) to write pra abravit. The 
MSS. likewise have & a^agan, I, 161,4; and pra agaA, 
VIII, 48, 2, not pra ag&A, as Aufrecht gives in his second 

I, 163, 11. dhrig-iman (Aufr. p. 147) instead of dhra^l- 
man (M. M. vol. ii, p. 245) is wrong. 

I, 163, 13. gamya (Aufr. p. 148) instead of gamya" (M. M. 
vol. ii, p. 246) is wrong. 

I, 164, 17, read parewa (M. M. vol. ii, p. 259) instead of 
parewa (Aufr. p. 149). 

I, 164, 38. The first £ikyuA ought to have the accent, and 
has it in all the MSS., (Aufr. p. 151, M. M. vol. ii, p. 278.) 

I, 165, 5. A mere change of accent may seem a small /■ 

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matter, yet it is frequently of the highest importance in the 
interpretation of the Veda. Thus in I, 165, 5, I had, in 
accordance with the MSS. S 1, S a, S 3, printed &an 
(vol. ii, p. 293) with the accent on the first syllable. Pro- 
fessor Aufrecht alters this into eta"n (p. 153), which, no 
doubt, would be the right form, if it were intended for the 
accusative plural of the pronoun, but not if it is meant, as it 
is here, for the accusative plural of 6ta., the speckled deer of 
the Maruts. 

I, 165, 15. yasish/a (Aufr. p. 154) instead of yasish/a 
(M. M. vol. ii, p. 298) is not supported by any MS. 

I, 169, 7, instead of patayanta (Aufr. p. 158), read pata- 
yanta (M. M. vol. ii, p. 322). 

1, 174, 7. kuyava£am (Aufr. p. 162) should be kuyava£am 
(M. M. vol. ii, p. 340). 

I, 177, 1. yukta", which I had adopted from MS. S 3 
(prima manu), is not supported by other MSS., though P 2 
reads yuttka". Professor Aufrecht, who had retained yukta" 
in the text, has afterwards corrected it to yuktva", and in 
this he was right. In I, 177, 2, gahi for yahi is wrong. 

I, 188, 4. astriwan (Aufr. p. 171) instead of astr/»an 
(M. M. vol. ii, p. 395) can only be a misprint. 

II, 29, 6. kartid (Aufr. p. 203) instead of karta"d (M. M. 
voL ii, p. 560) is wrong. 

II, 40, 4 kakra. (Aufr. p. 214) instead of £akra (M. M. 
vol. ii, p. 614) is wrong. 

HI, 7, 7. guA (Aufr. p. 226) instead of giiA (M. M. vol. ii, 
p. 666) is wrong ; likewise III, 30, 10, g&A (Aufr. p. 241) 
instead of g&h (M. M. vol. ii, p. 792). 

IN, 17, 1. ijjyate (Aufr. p. 232) instead of a^yate (M. M. 
vol. ii, p. 722) is impossible. 

III, 47, 1. Professor Aufrecht (p. 256) puts the nomina- 
tive fndro instead of the vocative indra, which I had given 
(vol. ii, p. 902). I doubt whether any MSS. support that 
change (S 1, S 2, S 3 have indra), but it is clear that 
Sayawa takes indra as a vocative, and likewise the Nirukta. 

Ill, 50, 2. Professor Aufrecht (p. 258) gives asya, both in 
the Sawhita and Pada, without the accent on the last syl- 
lable. But all the MSS. that I know (S 1, S 2, S 3, P 1, 

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P 2) give it with the accent on the last syllable (M. M. 
vol. ii, p. 912), and this no doubt is right. The same mis- 
take occurs again in III, 51, 10, (Aufr. p. 259); IV, 5, 11, 
(Aufr. p. 281); IV, 36, 2, (Aufr. p. 309); V, 12, 3, (Aufr. 
P- 337) 5 while in VIII, 103, 9, (Aufr. vol. ii, p. 195) the 
MSS. consistently give asya as unaccented, whereas Pro- 
fessor Aufrecht, in this very passage, places the accent on 
the last syllable. On the same page (p. 259) amandan, in 
the Pada, is a misprint for amandan. 

III, 53, 18. asi (Aufr. p. 262) instead of asi (M. M.vol. ii, 
p. 934) is wrong, because hf requires that the accent should 
remain on asi. S 1, S 2, S3, Pi, Pj have asi. 

IV, 4, 7. sva ayushe (Aufr. p. 279) instead of sva ayushi 
(M. M. vol. iii, p. 37) is not supported by any good MSS., 
nor required by the sense of the passage. S 1, S 2, S 3, 
P 1, P 2 have ayushi. 

IV, 5, 7. arupitam, in the Pada, (Aufr. p. 280) instead of 
arupitam (M. M. vol. iii, p. 45) is right, as had been shown 
in the Pratirakhya, Sutra 179, though by a misprint the long 
a of the Samhita had been put in the place of the short a of 
the Pada. 

IV, 5, 9. read gaiiA (M. M. vol. iii, p. 46) instead of g6k 
(Aufr. p. 281). 

IV, 15, 2. yati, with the accent on the first syllable, is 
supported by all MSS. against yati (Aufr. p. 287). The 
same applies to yati in IV, 29, 2, and to varante in IV, 

IV, 18, 11. ami, without any accent (Aufr. p. 293), instead 
of ami (M. M. vol. iii, p. 105) is wrong, because amf is never 

IV, 21,9. no, without an accent (Aufr. p. 296), instead of 
no (M. M. vol. iii, p. 120) is wrong. 

IV, 26, 3. atithigvam (Aufr. p. 300) instead of atithigvam 
(M. M. vol. iii, p. 140) and VI, 47, 22, atithigvasya (Aufr. 
p. 437) instead of atithigvasya (M. M. vol. iii, p. 776) are 
wrong, for atithigva never occurs again except with the 
accent on the last syllable. The MSS. do not vary. Nor 
do they vary in the accentuation of kutsa : hence kutsam 
(Aufr. p. 300) should be kutsam (M. M. vol. iii. p. 139). 

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IV, 36, 6. Professor Aufrecht (p. 309) has altered the 
accent of avishuA into avishuA, but the MSS. are unanimous 
in favour of aVishuA (M. M. vol. iii, p. 181). 

Again in IV, 41, 9, the MSS. support the accentuation 
of igman (M. M. vol. iii, p. 200), while Professor Aufrecht 
(p. 313) has altered it to agman. 

IV, 42, 9. adlrat, being preceded by hf, ought to have 
the accent; (Aufrecht, p. 314, has adlrat without the 
accent.) For the same reason, V, 29, 3, dvindat (M. M. 
vol. iii, p. 342) ought not to have been altered to avindat 
(Aufr. p. 344). 

IV, 50, 4. vy6man is a misprint for vyoman. 

V, 15, 5. Professor Aufrecht (p. 338) writes dirgham 
instead of dogham (M. M. vol. iii, p. 314). This, no doubt, 
was done intentionally, and not by accident, as we see from 
the change of accent. But d6gham, though it occurs but 
once, is supported in this place by all the best MSS., and 
has been accepted by Professor Roth in his Dictionary. 

V, 34, 4. prayato (Aufr. p. 351) instead of prayata (M. M. 
vol. iii, p. 371) is wrong. 

V, 42, 9. visarmawam (Aufr. p. 358) instead of visar- 
mSwam (M. M. vol. iii, p. 402) is wrong. 

V, 44, 4. parvawe" (Aufr. p. 360) instead of- pravawe" 
(M. M. vol. iii, p. 415) is wrong. 

V, 83, 4. vdnti (Aufr. p. 389) instead of vanti (M. M. 
vol. iii, p. 554) is supported by no MSS. 

V, 85, 6. &sink&nt\A (Aufr. p. 391) instead of asiȣanti^ 
(M. M. vol. iii, p. 560) is not supported either by MSS. or 
by grammar, as sink belongs to the Tud-class. On the 
same grounds ishayantaA, VI, 16, 27 (M. M. vol. iii, p. 638), 
ought not to have been changed to ishayantaA (Aufr. 
p. 408), nor VI, 24, 7, avakanrayanti (M. M. vol. iii, p. 687) 
into avakawayanti (Aufr. p. 418). 

VI, 46, 10, read girvanas (M. M. vol. iii, p. 763) instead of 
gfrvawas (Aufr. p. 435). 

VI, 60, 10. kr/«oti (Aufr. p. 450) instead of kr*'«6ti (M. M. 
vol. iii, p. 839) is wrong. 

VII, 40, 4. aryamS £paA (Aufr. vol. ii, p. 35), in the Pada, 
instead of aryama' ap&fc (M. M. vol. iv. p. 81) is wrong. 

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VII, 51, 1. adityanam (Aufr. vol. H, p. 40) instead of 
adityanam (M. M. vol. iv, p. 103) is wrong. 

VII, 64, 2. i/am (Aufr. vol. H, p. 50) instead of (/am (M. M. 
vol. iv, p. 146) is wrong. In the same verse gopaA in the 
Pada should be changed in my edition to gopa. 

VII, 66, 5. yd (Aufr. vol. it, p. 51) instead of y6 (M. M. 
vol. iv, p. 151) is indeed supported by S 3, but evidently 
untenable on account of atipfprati. 

VII, 7a, 3. In abudhran Professor Aufrecht has pro- 
perly altered the wrong spelling abudhnan ; and, as far 
as the authority of the best MSS. is concerned (S 1, S 2, 
S 3), he is also right in putting a final n, although Pro- 
fessor Bollensen prefers the dental n ; (Zeitschrift der 
D. M. G., vol. xxii, p. 599.) The fact is that Vedic MSS. 
use the Anusvara dot for final nasals before all class-letters, 
and leave it to us to interpret that dot according to the 
letter which follows. Before I felt quite certain on this 
point, I have in several cases retained the dot, as given by 
the MSS., instead of changing it, as I ought to have done 
according to my system of writing Devanagari, into the 
corresponding nasal, provided it represents an original n. 
In I, 71, 1, S 2, S3 have the dot in a^nshran, but S 1 has 
dental n. In IX, 87, 5, asregran has the dot ; i. e. S 1 has 
the dot, and nkh, dental n joined to kh ; S 2 has nkk 
without the dot before the n ; S 3 has the dot, and then 
kh. In IV, 24, 6, the spelling of the Samhita avivenaw* tam 
would leave it doubtful whether we ought to read avivenan 
tam or avivenam tam ; S 1 and S 3 read avivenaw tint, 
but S 2 has avivenan tam ; P 2 has avi-venan tam, and 
P 1 had the same originally, though a later hand changed 
it to avi-venaw taw. In IV, 25, 3, on the contrary, S 1 
and S 3 write avivenaw* ; S 2, avivenam ; P 1 and P a, 
avi-vena#z. What is intended is clear enough, viz. avi- 
venan in IV, 24, 6 ; avi-venam in IV, 25, 3. [In the new 
edition avivenam has been left in both passages.] 

VII, 73, 1. a^vina (Aufr. vol. ii, p. 56) instead of asvink 
(M. M. vol. iv, p. 176) is wrong. On the same page, dhfshwye, 
VII, 72, 3, should have the accent on the first syllable. 

VII, 77, 1. In this verse, which has been so often dis- 

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cussed (see Kuhn, Beitrage, vol. iii, p. 472 ; Bohtlingk and 
Roth, Dictionary, vol. ii, p. 968 ; Bollensen, Orient und 
Occident, vol. ii, p. 463), all the MSS. which I know, read 
£arayai, and not either £ar£thai nor ^arffyai. 

VIII, 2, 29. kirfwam (Aufr. vol. ii, p. 84) instead of 
karf«am (M. M. vol. iv, p. 308) does not rest on the authority 
of any MSS., nor is it supported by Sayawa. 

VIII, 9, 9. Professor Aufrecht has altered the very 
important form a£u£yuvimahi (M. M. vol. iv, p. 389) to 
a£u£yavimahi (vol. ii, p. 98). The question is whether this 
was done intentionally and on the authority of any MSS. 
My own MSS. support the form a£u£yuvimahi, and I see 
that Professor Roth accepts this form. 

VIII, 33, 14. ayantlram (Aufr. vol. ii, p. 129) instead of 
ayantaram (M. M. vol. iv, p. 567) is wrong. 

VIII, 47, 15. dushvapnyam (Aufr. vol.ii, p. 151) is not so 
correct as du^shvapnyam (M. M. vol. iv, p. 660), or, better, 
dushshvapnyam (Pratuakhya, Sutras 255 and 364), though 
it is perfectly true that the MSS. write dushvapnyam. 

[I ought to state that all these errata have been corrected 
by Professor Aufrecht in his second edition.] 

In the ninth and tenth Mawdalas I have not to defend 
myself, and I need not therefore give a list of the passages 
where I think that Professor Aufrecht's text is not sup- 
ported by the best MSS. My own edition of these Mao/a- 
las will soon be published, and I need hardly say that 
where it differs from Professor Aufrecht's text, I am pre- 
pared to show that I had the best authorities on my side. 

Professor Aufrecht writes in the second edition of his 
Romanised text of the Rig-veda (p. iv) : 'Um den Herren, 
My own die diese Druckfehler in majorem gloriam 
mistakes. suam mit so grosser Schonung hervor- 
gehoben haben, einen Gegendienst zu erweisen, bemerke 
ich einige derselben.' Dieser Gegendienst, so gut er 
gemeint war, ist leider nicht sehr bedeutend ausgefallen, 
auch nicht immer in majorem gloriam Catonis. 

In I, 161, 2, Professor Aufrecht objects to daturas 
kr/«otana. I felt doubtful about it, and in the commentary 
I printed kaXuraA kr/«otana. In IV, 3$, 5, the reading 

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£atus kara is sanctioned by the authority of the Pratua- 
khya, Sutra 281,4. 

In I, 181, 5, Aufrecht prefers mathra; Sayana, Boht- 
lingk and Roth, and I prefer mathna. 

In II, 11, 10, he has discovered that ^urvit was meant 
for^urvat Whitney still quotes ^urvit. 

In III, 9, 4, he has discovered that apsu should be *psu ; 
but this had been already corrected. 

In III, 25, 2, the final a of vaha ought to be long in the 

In IV, 19, 4, instead of driiAk ni read dr/Mani. 

In VII, 33, 2, instead of avrwita read *vrinlt&. 

In VII, 35, 13, the Visarga in devagopaA should be 

In VII, 42, 2, the Anusvara in yumkshva should be 

In VIII, 2, 30, the anudattatara should be shifted from 
the ultimate to the penultimate, dadhire\ not dadhire. 

In VIII, 51, 3, avishyanta was meant for arishyantam. 

In VIII, 55, 5, for na read a. The MSS. vary in both cases. 

In IX, 108, 7, in vanakraksha, the kra was printed as ri. 
Professor Aufrecht might have seen it correctly printed in 
the index. Sayawa read vanarsksha. 

In X, 28, 11, Professor Aufrecht thinks that the Pada 
should have godhaA instead of godha. I think godha is 
right, in spite of Professor Aufrecht's appeal to the silence of 
the Pratijakhya. The fact is that godhaA never occurs, while 
godha occurs in the preceding verse, and again VIII, 69, 9. 

After such a flourish of trumpets, we expected more 
from Professor Aufrecht ; still we must learn to be grateful 
even for small mercies. 

Having said so much in vindication of the text of the 
Rig-veda as published by me, and in defence of my prin- 
ciples of criticism which seem to me so self-evident as 
hardly to deserve the name of canones critici, I feel 
bound at the same time both to acknowledge some in- 
accuracies that have occurred in the index at the end of 
each volume, and to defend some entries in that index 
which have been challenged without sufficient cause. 

e 2 

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It has been supposed that in the index at the end of my 

fourth volume, the seventeenth verse of the 34th hymn in 

SSya«a*s the seventh Mawrfala has been wrongly 

qn °*e wu m assigned to Ahi Budhnya, and that one half 

nukrama»l. only of that verse should have been reserved 
for that deity. I do not deny that we should be justified in 
deriving that sense from the words of the Anukramawika, 
but I cannot admit that my own interpretation is untenable. 
As Sayawa does not speak authoritatively on the subject, I 
followed the authority of Sharfgunwishya. This commen- 
tator of the Anukramawika says : atra ka. abgiLm ukthair 
ahim gr*'«isha ity ardhar^cb^namno* devasya stutiA ; mA 
no*hir budhnya ity ardhar£o*hirbudhnyanamno devasya b . 
Another commentator says: abg&m ukthair ardhar£o*hiA ; 
uttaro mi no»hir ity ahir budhnyaA. From this we learn 
that both commentators looked upon the Dvipadas as 
ardhar£as or half- verses, and ascribed the whole of verse 16 
to Ahir ab^-aA, the whole of verse 17 to Ahir budhnya^. 
It will be seen from an accurate examination of Sayawa's 
commentary on verse 17, that in the second interpretation 
of the second half of verse 17, he labours to show that in this 
portion, too, Ahir budhnya^ may be considered as the deity. 

It is perfectly right to say that the words of the Anu- 
kramamka, abg&m ahek, signify that the verse beginning 
with abfam, belongs to Ahi. But there was no misprint in 
my index. It will be seen that Sha^gururishya goes even 
beyond me, and calls that deity simply Ab^a, leaving out 
Ahi altogether, as understood. I was anxious to show the 
distinction between Ab^a AhiA and Ahir Budhnya^, as the 
deities of the two successive verses, and I did not expect 
that any reader could possibly misinterpret my entry °. 

With regard to hymns 91 and 9a of the seventh Ma- 
ndala., it is true, that in the index I did not mention that 
certain verses in which two deities are mentioned (91, 2 ; 

* I find that Mr. Macdonell in his edition of the SarvSnukramawt reads 
ardhar/'o i hinamno. If this is right, part of my argument would fall. 

b MS. Wilson 379 has, ardhar£o namano daivatasya, and in the margin * hi. 
Ahirbudhnya seems to have been taken as one word. 

c The editor of the Bombay edition of the text of the Rig-veda assigns 
verse 16 to Ahi, verse 17 to Ahirbudhnya. 

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4-7 ; 9a, 2), must be considered as addressed not to Vayu 
alone, but to Vayu and Indra. It will be seen from 
Sayawa's introduction to hymn 90, that he, too, wrongly 
limits the sentence of the AnukramamkA, aindry&y ka. yd. 
dvivaduktl*, to the fifth and following verses of hymn 90, 
and that he never alludes to this proviso again in his intro- 
ductory remarks to hymn 91 and 9a, though, of course, he 
explains the verses, in which a dual occurs, as addressed to 
two deities, viz. Indra and Vayu. The same omission, 
whether intentional or unintentional, occurs in Shad- 
gumrishya's commentary. The other commentary, how- 
ever, assigns the verses of the three hymns rightly. The 
subject has evidently been one that excited attention in very 
early days, for in the Aitareya-brahmawa, V, 20, we actually 
find that the word vam which occurs in hymn 90, 1, and 
which might be taken as a dual, though Sayawa explains it 
as a singular, is changed into te *. 

In hymn VII, 104, rakshoha»au might certainly be added 
as an epithet of Indra-Somau, and Sha</gururishya clearly 
takes it in that sense. The Anukramamka says : indrasoma 
paȣadhikaindrasomawi r&kshoghnaw japabhuapaprayam. 

In hymn VIII, 67, it has been supposed that the readings 
Samada and Samada instead of Sammada and Sammada 
were due to a misprint This is not the case. That I was 
aware of the other spelling of this name, viz. Sammada and 
Sammada, I had shown in my History of Ancient Sanskrit 
Literature (and ed.), p. 39, where I had translated the 
passage of the Sankhayana-sQtras in which Matsya Sam- 
mada occurs, and had also called attention to the Ajvala- 
yana-sOtras X, 7, and the Satapatha-brahmawa XIII, 3, 1, 1, 

* The interpunction of Dr. Hang's edition (p. 128) should be after te. 
Shai/gurarishya says: ata eva brfihmanasutrayoA praiige vfiyavyatvaya pra 
vtraya xu£ayo dadrire b vam iti dviva&masthane ta ity ekava*anapaMa/4 krila/t, 
vam ity uktaw< ied aindratvam ka. syad iti. Possibly the same change should 
be made in Asvalayana's &auta S&tras, VIII, 11, and it has been made by 
Rama Narayawa Vidyaratna. The remark of the commentator, however, 
dadrire ta iti prayogap&MaA, looks as if vim might have been retained in the 
text. The MSS. I have collated are in favour of te. 

b Mr. Macdonell (Sarvanukramawt, p. 133) inserts ta iti after dadrire. f 

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where the same passage is found. I there spelt the name 
Sammada, because the majority of the MSS. were in favour 
of that spelling. In the edition of the Arvalayana-sutras, 
which has since been published by Rama Narayana Vidya- 
ra«ya, the name is spelt Samada. My own opinion is that 
Sammada is the right spelling, but that does not prove that 
Saya«a thought so ; and unless I deviated from the prin- 
ciples which I had adopted for a critical restoration of 
Sayana's text, I could not but write Samada in our passage. 
B i and B 4 omit samada, but both give samadakhyasya ; 
Ca. gives likewise samadakhyasya, and A. semadakhyasya. 
This, I believe, was meant by the writer for sammada- 
khyasya, for in the passage from the Anukramawi both A. 
and Ca. give sammado. I then consulted the commentary 
of Sharfguturishya, and there again the same MS. gave 
twice sammada, once samada, which is explained by 
samadakhyamahaminara^aputraA. A better MS. of Sharf- 
gurorishya, MS. Wilson 379, gives the readings sammado, 
sammada, and sammadakhyasya. The other commentary 
gives distinctly samanda. [I have adopted sammada in 
the new edition.] 

In IX, 68, Professor Aufrecht adopts what he considers 
the bold reading Vatsaprt ; I prefer to be timid and allow 
Saya«a his own reading VatsaprI ; see Sarvanukramani, 
ed. Macdonell, pp. 34, 146. 

It will be seen from these remarks that many things 
have to be considered before one can form an independent 
judgment as to the exact view adopted by Saya«a in 
places where he differs from other authorities, or as to the 
exact words in which he clothed his meaning. Such cases 
occur again and again. Thus in IX, 86, I find that Pro- 
fessor Aufrecht ascribes the first ten verses to the Akrtsh/as, 
whereas Sayawa calls them Akrishfas. It is perfectly true 
that the best MSS. of the Anukramawika have Akri'sh/a, it 
is equally true that the name of these Akr/sh/as is spelt 
with a short a in the Harivawsa, 11,533, but an editor of 
Sayawa's work is not to alter the occasional mistakes of that 
learned commentator, and Sayawa certainly called these 
poets Akrishtas. 

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Verses a 1-30 of the same hymn are ascribed by Professor 
Aufrecht to the PrwniyaA Here, again, several MSS. 
support that reading ; and in Sharfgururishya's commen- 
tary, the correction of prismyaA into ftrisn&yzA is made 
by a later hand. But Sayawa clearly took prwnayaA for a 
nominative plural of prism, and in this case he certainly 
was right. The Dictionary of Bohtlingk and Roth quotes 
the Mahabharata, VII, 8728, in support of the peculiar 
reading of prwniyaA, but the published text gives pmnayaA. 
Professor Benfey, in his list of poets (Ind. Stud vol. iii, p. 
223), gives prwniyqja as one word, not pmniyoga, as stated 
in the Dictionary of Bohtlingk and Roth, but this is 
evidently meant for two words, viz. prisn&yo'gdJi. How- 
ever, whether prisniyaJt or prisnay&h be the real name of 
these poets, an editor of Sayawa is bound to give that 
reading of the name which S&ya/za believed to be the right 
one, i. e. prisoayaJt • 

Again, in the same hymn, Professor Aufrecht ascribes 
verses 31-40 to the Atris. We should then have to read 
tr*tlye * trayaA. But S&ya«a read tri'tiy e trayaA, and ascribes 
verses 31-40 to the three companies together of the J?tshis 
mentioned before On this point the MSS. admit of no 
doubt, for we read : £aturthasya ka. darar£asya dkrishtk 
mashA ityadidvinamanas trayo gawa drash/4raA. I do not 
say that the other explanation is wrong ; I only say that, 
whether right or wrong, Sayawa certainly read traya^, not 
atraya^ ; and an editor of Siyana. has no more right to 
correct the text, supported by the best MSS., in the first 
and second, than in the third of these passages, all taken 
from one and the same hymn. 

But though I insist so strongly on a strict observance 

of the rules of diplomatic criticism with regard to the text 

Old mistakes of the Rig-veda, nay, even of S£ya«a, I 

in the text, insist equally strongly on the right of in- 
dependent criticism, which ought to begin where diplo- 

* Professor Aufrecht in his new edition of the text (1877) adopts the more 
timid reading prunaya*. See also Brthat-Samhita, transl. by Kern, p. a : 
Sikatli pmnayo garga valakhilya marttipJU bhrigavo * ngirasaj £aiva sukshmii 
£anye maharshayaA. 


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matic criticism ends. Considering the startling antiquity 
which we can claim for every letter and accent of our MSS., 
so far as they are authenticated by the Pratisakhya, to say 
nothing of the passages of many hymns which are quoted 
verbatim in the Brahmawas, the Kalpa-sutras, the Nirukta, 
the Brzhaddevata, and the Anukrama«is, I should deem it 
reckless to alter one single letter or one single accent in an 
edition of the hymns of the Rig-veda. As the text has been 
handed down to us, so it should remain; and whatever 
alterations and corrections we, the critical Mle^Mas of the 
nineteenth century, have to propose, should be kept distinct 
from that time-hallowed inheritance Unlikely as it may 
sound, it is true nevertheless that we, the scholars of the 
nineteenth century, are able to point out mistakes in the 
text of the Rig-veda which escaped the attention of the most 
learned among the native scholars of the sixth century B.C. 
No doubt, these scholars, even if they had perceived such 
mistakes, would hardly have ventured to correct the text of 
their sacred writings. The authors of the Pratisakhya had 
before their eyes or ears a text ready made, of which they 
registered every peculiarity, nay, in which they would note 
and preserve every single irregularity, even though it stood 
alone amidst hundreds of analogous cases. With us the case 
is different. Where we see a rule observed in 99 cases, we 
feel strongly tempted and sometimes justified in altering 
the 100th case in accordance with what we consider to be a 
general rule. Yet even then I feel convinced we ought not 
to do more than place our conjectural readings below the 
textus receptus of the Veda, — a text so ancient and 
venerable that no scholar of any historical tact or critical 
taste would venture to foist into it a conjectural reading, 
however plausible, nay, however undeniable. 
sthatu/i &ui- There can be no clearer case of corruption 
tham. i n the traditional text of the Rig-veda than, 
for instance, in I, 70, 4, where the Pada text reads : 

vardhan yam purvM: kshapdA vf-rupaA sthatuA ka. ratham 

All scholars who have touched on this verse, Professors 
Benfey, Bollensen, Roth, and others, have pointed out that 

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instead of kz. ratham, the original poet must have said 
ifcaratham. The phrase sthatu// £aratham, what stands and 
moves, occurs several times. It is evidently an ancient 
phrase, and hence we can account for the preservation in it 
of the old termination of the nom. sing, of neuters in ri, 
which here, as in the Greek n&p-rvp or n&p-rvs, masc, appears 
as ur or us, while in the ordinary Sanskrit we find ri only. 
This nom. sing. neut. in us, explains also the common geni- 
tives and ablatives, pituA, matuA, &c, which stand for pitur-s, 
matur-s. This phrase sthatuA £aratham occurs : 

I> 58, 5- sthatuA £ardtham bhayate patatriwaA. 

What stands and what moves is afraid of Agni. 

I, 68, 1. sthatu^ /taratham aktun vf ur«ot. 

He lighted up what stands and what moves during every 

I, 72, 6. p&run ka. sthatr/h £aratham ka. pahi. 

Protect the cattle, and what stands and moves I 

Here it has been proposed to read sthatuA instead of 
sthatrm, and I confess that this emendation is very plaus- 
ible. One does not see how paju, cattle, could be called 
immobilia or fixtures, unless the poet wished to make a 
distinction between cattle that are kept fastened in stables, 
and cattle that are allowed to roam about freely in the 
homestead. This distinction is alluded to, for instance, in 
the .Satapatha-brahmawa, XI, 8, 3, 2. saurya evaisha pasuA 
syad iti, tasmad etasminn astamite pajravo badhyante; 
badhnanty ekan yathagosh///am, eka upasamayanti. 

I, 70, 2. gdrbha/i ka. sthatam gaYbhaA £ardtham, (read 
sth&tra'm, and see Bollensen, Orient und Occident, vol. ii, 
p. 462.) 

He who is within all that stands and all that moves. 

The word £aratha, if it occurs by itself, means flock, 
movable property: 

III, 31, 15. £t it sakhi-bhya/; £aratham sam airat. 

He brought together, for his friends, the flocks. 

VIII, 33, 8. puru-tra' £aratham dadhe. 

He bestowed flocks on many people. 

X, 92, 13. pra na^ push£ £aratham — avatu. 

May Pushan protect our flock I 

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Another idiomatic phrase in which sthatuJfc occurs is 
sthatii/fc ^dgataA, and here sthatu/fc is really a genitive : 

IV, 53, 6. g&%a.t&h sthatuA ubhayasya yaA van. 

He who is lord of both, of what is movable and what is 

VI, 50, 7. vfjvasya sthatuA ^dgataA ^dnitrtA. 
They who created all that stands and moves. 

VII, 60, 2. v£jvasya sthatuA ^agataA ka gopa'A. 

The guardians of all that stands and moves. Cf. X, 63, 8. 

I» 2 59. 3- sthAtuA ka. satyam ^agataJfc ka. dharmawi pu- 
trasya pathaA padam advay&vinaA. 

Truly while you uphold all that stands and moves, you 
protect the home of the guileless son. Cf. II, 31, 5. 

But although I have no doubt that in 1, 70, 4, the original 
poet said sthatiiA £aratham, I should be loath to suppress 
the evidence of the mistake and alter the Fada text from 
ka ratham to £aratham. The very mistake is instructive, 
as showing us the kind of misapprehension to which the 
collectors of the Vedic text were liable, and enabling us to 
judge how far the limits of conjectural criticism may safely 
be extended. 

A still more extraordinary case of misunderstanding 

on the part of the original compilers of the Vedic texts, 

and likewise of the authors of the Pratirfl- 


khyas, the Niruktas, and other Vedic treatises, 
has been pointed out by Professor Kuhn. In an article of 
his, ' Zur altesten Geschichte der Indogermanischen Volker ' 
(Indische Studien, vol. i, p. 351), he made the following 
observation : 'The Lithuanian laukas, Lett, lauks, Pruss. 
laukas.all meaning field, agree exactly with the Sk. lokas, 
world, Lat. locus, Low Germ, (in East-Frisia and Olden- 
burg) louch, 16ch, village. All these words are to be 
traced back to the Sk. uru, Gr. eipvs, broad, wide. The 
initial u is lost, as in Goth, rums, O. H. G. rumi, rtimin 
(Low Germ, r ft me, an open uncultivated field in a forest), 
and the r changed into 1. In support of this derivation it 
should be observed that in the Veda loka is frequently 
preceded by the particle u, which probably was only sepa- 
rated from it by the Diaskeuastse, and that the meaning is 

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that of open space.' Although this derivation has met with 
little favour, I confess that I look upon this remark, except- 
ing only the Latin locus*, i. e. stlocus, as one of the most 
ingenious of this eminent scholar. The fact is that this 
particle u before loka is one of the most puzzling occurrences 
in the Veda. Professor Bollensen says that loka never 
occurs without a preceding u in the first eight Mawrfalas, 
and this is perfectly true with the exception of one passage 
which he has overlooked, VIII, ioo, ia, dyauA dehf lokam 
va^raya vi-skabhe, Dyu ! give room for the lightning to 
step forth 1 Professor Bollensen (1. c. p. 603) reads vritraya 
instead of va^raya, without authority. He objects to dyauA 
as a vocative, which should be dyatfA ; but dyauA may be 
Ay6h, a genitive belonging to va^raya, in which case we 
should translate, Make room for the lightning of Dyu to 
step forth 1 

But what is even more important is the fact that the 
occurrence of this unaccented u at the beginning of a pada 
is against the very rules, or, at least, runs counter to the 
very observations which the authors of the Pratuakhya 
have made on the inadmissibility of an unaccented word 
in such a place, so that they had to insert a special provi- 
sion, Prat. 978, exempting the unaccented u from this obser- 
vation: anudattam tu padadau novaigam vidyate padam, 
' no unaccented word is found at the beginning of a pada 
except u I ' Although I have frequently insisted on the 
fact that such statements of the PratLrikhya are not to be 
considered as rules, but simply as more or less general 
statistical accumulations of facts actually occurring in the 
Veda, I have also pointed out that we are at liberty to found 
on these collected facts inductive observations which may 
assume the character of real rules. Thus, in our case, we 
can well understand why there should be none, or, at least, 
very few instances, where an unaccented word begins a pada. 
We should not begin a verse with an enclitic particle in any 
other language either; and as in Sanskrit a verb at the 

* On locos, see Corssen, Krit. Beitr. p. 463, and Aussprache, and ed., p. 810. 
Corssen does not derive it from a root sta or sthi, bnt identifies it with Goth, 
strik-s, Engl, stroke, strecke. 

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beginning of a pada receives ipso facto the accent, and as 
the same applies to vocatives, no chance is left for an un- 
accented word in that place, except it be a particle. But 
the one particle that offends against this general observation 
is u, and the very word before which this u causes this 
metrical offence, is loka. Can any argument be more 
tempting in favour of admitting an old form uloka instead 
of u loka ? Lokam is preceded by u in I, 93, 6 ; II, 30, 6 ; 
(asmfn bhaya-sthe kr/»utam u lokam, make room for us, 
grant an escape to us, in this danger!) IV, 17, 17; VI, 
2 3> 3 5 7 (with unim) ; 47, 8 (unim naA lokam, or ulokam ?) ; 
73, 2 ; VII, 20, 2 ; 33, 5 (with unim) ; 60, 9 (with unim) ; 

84, 2 (with unim) ; 99, 4 (with urum) ; IX, 92, 5 ; X, 13, 2 ; 
16, 4 (sukrftam u lokam); 30, 7; 104, 10; 180, 3 (with 
unim). Loke is preceded by u in III, 29, 8 ; V, 1, 6 ; loka- 
kr/t, IX, 86, 21 ; X, 133, 1. In all remaining passages u 
loka is found at the beginning of a pada : lokik, III, 37, 1 1 ; 
lokam, III, 2, 9 (u lokam u dv6 (fti) upa^amfm tyatuA) ; V, 
4, 11; loka-kr*'tnum, VIII, 15, 4; IX, 2, 8. The only 
passages in which loka occurs without being preceded by u, 
are lokam, VI, 47, 8 (see above) ; VIII, 100, 12 ; X, 14, 9 ; 

85, 20 (amr/tasya) ; lok£6, IX, 113, 9; lokan, X, 90, 14; 
loke, IX, 113,7* ; X, 85,24. 

It should be remembered that in the Gathas the u of 
words beginning with urv° does not count metrically 
(Hubschmann, Ein Zoroastrisches Lied, p. 37), and that in 
Pali also uru must be treated as monosyllabic, in such pas- 
sages as Mahav., p. 2, line 5. The same applies to passages 
in the Rig-veda, such as I, 138, 3 ; VII, 39, 3, where the 
metre requires uru to be treated as one syllable. In 
IX, 96, 15, the original reading may have been urur iva, 
instead of uru-iva. 

Considering all this, I feel as convinced as it is possible to 
be in such matters, that in all the passages where u loka 
occurs and where it means space, carriere ouverte, free- 
dom, we ought to read uloka ; but in spite of this I could 
never bring myself to insert this word, of which neither the 
authors of the Brahmawas nor the writers of the Pratuakhyas 
or even later grammarians had any idea, into the text. On 

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the contrary, I should here, too, consider it most useful to 
leave the traditional reading, and to add the corrections in 
the margin, in order that, if these conjectural emendations 
are in time considered as beyond the reach of doubt, they 
may be used as evidence in support of conjectures which, 
without such evidence, might seem intolerable in the eyes of 
timid critics. 

There remains one difficulty about this hypothetical word 
uloka, which it is but fair to mention. If it is derived from 
uru, or, as Professor Bollensen suggests, from urva£ or urvak, 
the change of va into o would require further support. 
Neither maghon for maghavan, nor durowa for dura-vana 
are strictly analogous cases, because in each we have an a 
preceding the va or u. Strictly speaking, uroka presupposes 
uravaka, as s\6ka. presupposes jravaka, or 6ka, house, avaka 
(from av, not from uk). It should also be mentioned that a 
compound such as RV. X, 128, a, urulokam (scil. antari- 
ksham) is strange, and shows how completely the origin of 
loka was forgotten at the time when the hymns of the tenth 
Ma/ft/ala were composed. But all this does not persuade us 
to accept Ascoli's conjecture (Lezioni di Fonologia Compa- 
rata, p. 235), that as uloga (but not uloka) is a regular 
Tamil form of loka, uloka in the Veda might be due to a 
reaction of the aboriginal dialects on the Vedic Sanskrit. 
We want far more evidence before admitting such a reaction 
during the Vedic period. 

The most powerful instrument that has hitherto been 
applied to the emendation of Vedic texts, is the metre. 
Metrical Metre means measure, and uniform measure, 
cntiasm. an( j h ence fts importance for critical pur- 
poses, as second only to that of grammar. If our know- 
ledge of the metrical system of the Vedic poets rests on 
a sound basis, any deviations from the general rule are 
rightly objected to; and if by a slight alteration they 
can be removed, and the metre be restored, we naturally 
feel inclined to adopt such emendations. Two safeguards, 
however, "are needed in this kind of conjectural criticism. 
We ought to be quite certain that the anomaly is impos- 
sible, and we ought to be able to explain to a certain extent y 

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lxxvili VEDIC HYMNS. 

how the deviation from the original correct text could have 
occurred. As this subject has of late years received con- 
siderable attention, and as emendations of the Vedic texts, 
supported by metrical arguments, have been carried on on 
a very large scale, it becomes absolutely necessary to re- 
examine the grounds on which these emendations are 
supposed to rest. There are, in fact, but few hymns in 
which some verses or some words have not been challenged 
for metrical reasons, and I feel bound, therefore, at the 
very beginning of my translation of the Rig-veda, to 
express my own opinion on this subject, and to give my 
reasons why in so many cases I allow metrical anomalies 
to remain which by some of the most learned and ingenious 
among Vedic scholars would be pronounced intolerable. 

Even if the theory of the ancient metres had not been so 
carefully worked out by the authors of the Pratwakhyas 
and the Anukrama«is, an independent study of the Veda 
would have enabled us to discover the general rules by 
which the Vedic poets were guided in the composition of 
their works. Nor would it have been difficult to show how 
constantly these general principles are violated by the 
introduction of phonetic changes which in the later Sanskrit 
are called the euphonic changes of Sandhi, and according 
to which final vowels must be joined with initial vowels, 
and final consonants adapted to initial consonants, until at 
last each sentence becomes a continuous chain of closely 
linked syllables. 

It is far easier, as I remarked before, to discover the 
original and natural rhythm of the Vedic hymns by reading 
them in the Pada than in the Sawhita text, and after some 
practice our ear becomes sufficiently schooled to tell us at 
once how each line ought to be pronounced. We find, on 
the one hand, that the rules of Sandhi, instead of being 
generally binding, were treated by the Vedic poets as 
poetical licences only ; and, on the other, that a greater 
freedom of pronunciation was allowed even in the body of 
words than would be tolerated in the later Sanskrit. If a 
syllable was wanted to complete the metre, a semivowel 
might be pronounced as a vowel, many a long vowel might 

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be protracted so as to count for two syllables, and short 
vowels might be inserted between certain consonants, of 
which no trace exists in the ordinary Sanskrit. If, on the 
contrary, there were too many syllables, then the rules of 
Sandhi were observed, or two short syllables contracted by 
rapid pronunciation into one ; nay, in a few cases, a final m 
or s, it seems, was omitted. It would be a mistake to 
suppose that the authors of the Pratwakhyas were not aware 
of this freedom allowed or required in the pronunciation of 
the Vedic hymns. Though they abstained from intro- 
ducing into the text changes of pronunciation which even 
we ourselves would never tolerate, if inserted in the texts 
of Homer and Plautus,in the Pali verses of Buddha, or even 
in modern English poetry, the authors of the Pratirakhya 
were clearly aware that in many places one syllable had to 
be pronounced as two, or two as one. They were clearly 
aware that certain vowels, generally considered as long, had 
to be pronounced as short, and that in order to satisfy the 
demands of the metre, certain changes of pronunciation 
were indispensable. They knew all this, but they did not 
change the text. And this shows that the text, as they 
describe it, enjoyed even in their time a high authority, 
that they did not make it, but that, such as it is, with all 
its incongruities, it had been made before their time. In 
many cases, no doubt, certain syllables in the hymns of the 
Veda had been actually lengthened or shortened in the text in accordance with the metre in which they 
are composed. But this was done by the poets themselves, 
or, at all events, it was not done by the authors of the 
Pratijakhya. They simply register such changes, but they 
do not enjoin them, and in this we, too, should follow their 
example. It is, therefore, a point of some importance in 
the critical restoration and proper pronunciation of Vedic 
texts, that in the rules which we have to follow in order 
to satisfy the demands of the metre, we should carefully 
distinguish between what is sanctioned by ancient autho- 
rity, and what is the result of our own observations. This 
I shall now proceed to do. 

First, then, the authors of the PratLrakhya distinctly admit 

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that, in order to uphold the rules they have themselves laid 
down, certain syllables are to be pronounced as two syllables. 
We read in Sutra 537 : ' In a deficient pada the 
right number is to be provided for by protrac- 
tion of semivowels (which were originally vowels), and of 
contracted vowels (which were originally two independent 
vowels).' It is only by this process that the short syllable 
which has been lengthened in the Sa;«hita, viz. the sixth, 
or the eighth, or the tenth, can be shown to have occupied 
and to occupy that place where alone, according to a former 
rule, a short syllable is liable to be lengthened. Thus we 

I, 161, 11. udvatsvasml akWwotana trz'wam. 
This would seem to be a verse of eleven syllables, in which 
the ninth syllable na has been lengthened. This, however, 
is against the system of the Pratijakhya. But if we pro- 
tract the semivowel v in udvatsv, and change it back into u, 
which it was originally, then we gain one syllable, the whole 
verse has twelve syllables, na occupies the tenth place, and 
it now belongs to that class of cases which is included in a 
former Sutra, 523. 

The same applies to X, 103, 13, where we read : 

~ _ WW- 

preta ^ayata naraA. 

This is a verse of seven syllables, in which the fifth syllable 
is lengthened, without any authority. Let us protract preta 
by bringing it back to its original component elements pra 
ita, and we get a verse of eight syllables, the sixth syllable 
now falls under the general observation, and is lengthened 
in the Sawhita accordingly. 

The same rules are repeated in a later portion of the 
Pratuakhya. Here rules had been given as to the number 
of syllables of which certain metres consist, and it is added 
(Sutras 97a, 973) that where that number is deficient, it 
should be completed by protracting contracted vowels, and 
by separating consonantal groups in which semivowels 
(originally vowels) occur, by means of their corresponding 

The rules in both places are given in almost identically 

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the same words, and the only difference between the two 
passages is this, that, according to the former, semivowels 
are simply changed back into their vowels, while, according 
to the latter, the semivowel remains, but is separated from 
the preceding consonant by its corresponding vowel. 

These rules therefore show clearly that the authors of 
the PratLrakhya, though they would have shrunk from 
altering one single letter of the authorised Sawzhita, recog- 
nised the fact that where two vowels had been contracted 
into one, they might yet be pronounced as two ; and where 
a vowel before another vowel had been changed into a 
semivowel, it might either be pronounced as a vowel, or as 
a semivowel preceded by its corresponding vowel. More 
than these two modifications, however, the PratLrakhya 
does not allow, or, at least, does not distinctly sanction. 
The commentator indeed tries to show that by the wording 
of the Sutras in both places, a third modification is sanc- 
tioned, viz. the vocalisation, in the body of a word, of semi- 
vowels which do not owe their origin to an original vowel. 
But in both places this interpretation is purely artificial. 
Some such rule ought to have been given, but it was not 
given by the authors of the Prati-fakhya. It ought to have 
been given, for it is only by observing such a rule that in 
I, 61, 12, gor na parva vi rada tirar^I, we get a verse of 
eleven syllables, and thus secure for da in rada the eighth 
place, where alone the short a could be lengthened. Yet we 
look in vain for a rule sanctioning the change of semivowels 
into vowels, except where the semivowels can rightly be called 
kshaipra-varaa (Sutra 974), i.e. semivowels that were origin- 
ally vowels. The independent (svabhavika) semivowels, as 
e. g. the v in parva, are not included ; and to suppose that 
in Sutra 527 these semivowels were indicated by varwa is 
impossible, particularly if we compare the similar wording 
of Sutra 974*. 

• It will be seen from my edition of the Pratirakhya, particularly from the 
extracts from Uva/a, given after Sutra 974, that the idea of making two 
syllables out of goA, never entered Uva/a's mind. M. Regnier was right, 
Professor Kuhn (Beitrage, vol. iv, p. 187) was wrong. Uva/a, no doubt, wishes 
to show that original (svabhavika) semivowels are liable to vyuha, or at least 

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lxxxii VEDIC HYMNS. 

We look in vain, too, in the PratLrakhya for another rule 
according to which long vowels, even if they do not owe 
their origin to the coalescence of two vowels, are liable to 
be protracted. However, this rule, too, though never dis- 
tinctly sanctioned, is observed in the PratLrakhya, for unless 
its author observed it, he could not have obtained in the 
verses quoted by the PratLrakhya the number of syllables 
which he ascribes to them. According to Sutra 937, the 
verse, RV. X, 134, 1, is a Mahapahkti, and consists of six 
padas, of eight syllables each. In order to obtain that 
number, we must read : 

samra^-am £arsha»inam. 

We may therefore say that, without allowing any actual 
change in the received text of the Sawhita, the PratLra- 
khya distinctly allows a lengthened pronunciation of certain 
syllables, which in the Pada text form two syllables ; and 
we may add that, by implication, it allows the same even 
in cases where the Pada text also gives but one instead of 
two syllables. Having this authority in our favour, I do 
not think that we use too much liberty if we extend this 
modified pronunciation, recognised in so many cases by the 
ancient scholars of India themselves, to other cases where 
it seems to us required as well, in order to satisfy the 
metrical rules of the Veda. 

Secondly, I believe it can be proved that, if not the 
authors of the Pratijakhya, those at least who constituted 

Shortening of the Vedic text which was current in the 

long vowels. 31^;^ schools and which we now have 
before us, were fully aware that certain long vowels and 
diphthongs could be used as short. The authors of the 
Pratijakhya remark that certain changes which can take 
place before a short syllable only, take place likewise before 
the word no, although the vowel of this ' no ' is by them 
supposed to be long. After having stated in Sutra 5 3 3 
that the eighth syllable of hendecasyllabics and dodeca- 
syllabics, if short, is lengthened, provided a short syllable 

to vyavSya; but though this is true in fact, Uva/a does not succeed in his 
attempt to prove that the rules of the Pratuakhya sanction it. 

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follows, they remark that for this purpose aaJt or no is 
treated as a short syllable : 

w _ w - ww_„4_- 

X, 59, 4. dyu-bhiA hitaA ^arima su naA astu, (Sawh. 
su no astu.) 

Again, in stating that the tenth syllable of hendecasyl- 
labics and dodecasyllabics, if short, is lengthened, provided 
a short syllable follows, the same exception is understood 
to be made in favour of naJt or no, as a short syllable : 

VII, 48, 4. nu devisaA varivaA kartana rikA, (Sarah, 
kartand. no, bhuta no, &c.) 

With regard to e being shortened before a short a 
where, according to rule, the a should be elided, we actu- 
ally find that the Sawzhita gives a instead of e in RV. 
VIII, 72, 5. viti stdtave ambyam, Sawh. v£ti st6tava 
ambyam. (PratLr. 177, 5.) 

I do not ascribe very much weight to the authority 
which we may derive from these observations with regard 
to our own treatment of the diphthongs e and o as either 
long or short in the Veda, yet in answer to those who are 
incredulous as to the fact that the vowels e and o could 
ever be short in Sanskrit, an appeal to the authority of 
those who constituted our text, and in constituting it clearly 
treated o as a short vowel, may not be without weight. 
We may also appeal to the fact that in Pali and Prakn't 
every final o and e can be treated as either long or short*. 
Starting from this we may certainly extend this observa- 
tion, as it has been extended by Professor Kuhn, but we 
must not extend it too far- It is quite clear that in the 
same verse e and o can be used both as long and short. 
I give the Sarahita text : 

I, 84, 17. ka ishate | tu^yate ko bibhaya 

ko mawsate | santam indraw ko anti, 
kas tokaya | ka ibhayota riye 
adhi bravat | tanve ko ^anaya. 

* See Lassen, Inst. Linguae Pracriticae, pp. 145, 147, 151 ; Cowell, Varani>M, 
Introduction, p. xvii. Kedarabha/7a says : Paninir bhagav&n prakrttalakshanam 
api vakti samskritad anyat, dirghaksharam £a kutra£id ek&m matr&m npaitlti. 
Secundum d'Alwisinm commentator docet sermonem esse de litteris Sanscriticis 
t et 0. Cf. Pischel, De Grammaticis prakriticis, 1874. 


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But although there can be no doubt that e and o, when 
final, or at the end of the first member of a compound, may 
be treated in the Veda as anceps, there is no evidence, I 
believe, to show that the same licence applies to a medial 
or initial e or o. In IV, 45, 5, we must scan 

usraA ^arante prati vastoA ayvinl, 
ending the verse with an epitritus tertius instead of the 
usual dijambus*. 

Thirdly, the fact that the initial short a, if following upon 
a word ending in o or e, is frequently not to be elided, is 
clearly recognised by the authors of the Prathrakhya (see 
p. xlviii). Nay, that they wished it to be pronounced even 
in passages where, in accordance with the requirements of 
the Pratijrakhya, it had to disappear in the Sawhita text, we 
may conclude from Sutra 978. It is there stated that no 
pada should ever begin with a word that has no accent. 
The exceptions to this rule are few, and they are discussed 
in Sutras 978-987. But if the initial a were not pronounced 
in I, i, 9, saA naA pit£-iva sunave agne su-upayanaA bhava, 
the second pada would begin with *gne, a word which, after 
the elision of the initial a, would be a word without an 
accent b . 

Fourthly, the fact that other long vowels, besides e and 
o, may under certain circumstances be used as short in the 
Veda, is not merely a modern theory, but rests on no less 
an authority than Pa»ini himself. 

• See Professor Weber's pertinent remarks in Kuhn's Beitrage, toI. iii, p. 394. 
I do not think that in the verses adduced by Professor Kuhn, in which final o 
is considered by him as an iambus or trochee, this scanning is inevitable. Thus 
we may scan the Samhitft text : 

I, 88, 2. rukmo na kittaA svadhitmn. 

I, 141, 8. ratho na yataA .HkvabhiA krzto. 

I, 174, 3. simho na dame apamsi vastoA. 

VI, 34, 3. aksbo na Aakryoh jura b«han 

X, 3, I. ino ragann aratiA samiddho. 

This leaves but one of Professor Kuhn's examples (Beitrage, vol. iv, p. 191) 
unexplained: I, 191, 1. kankato na kafikato, where iva for na would remove 
the difficulty. 

b This subject, the shortness of e and o in the Veda, has been admirably 
treated by Mr. Maurice Bloomfield, ' Final as before Sonants,' Baltimore, 188a. 
Reprinted from the American Journal of Philology, vol. iii, No. 1. 

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Pacini says, VI, i, 127, that i, u, ri (see RV. Bh. IV, i, 
1 2) at the end of a pada (but not in a compound •) may 
remain unchanged, if a different vowel follows, and that, if 
long, they may be shortened. He ascribes this rule, or, 
more correctly, the first portion of it only, to Sakalya, 
Pratijakhya 155 seq. b Thus £akrl atra may become /fcakrl 
atra or kakry atra. Madhu atra may become madhu atra 
or madhv atra. In VI, 1, 128, Pacini adds that a, i, u, ri 
may remain unchanged before ri, and, if long, may be 
shortened, and this again according to the teaching of 
Sakalya, i.e. PratLrakhya 136 °. Hence brahma rishiA be- 
comes brahma rishiA or brahmarshiA; kumart risyaJt be- 
comes kumarl risyzh or kumary risyaA. This rule enables 
us to explain a number of passages in which the Sa/whita 
text either changes the final long vowel into a semivowel, 
or leaves it unchanged, when the vowel is a pragrjhya vowel. 
To the first class belong such passages as I, 163, 12; IV, 
38, 10, va^i arva, Saw-h. va^yarva ; VI, 7, 3, va^tf agne, Sawn, 
va^yagne; VI, 20, 13, pakthi arkai^, Sawh. pakthyarka{A ; 
IV, 22, 4, jushm? £ g6A, Sawh. jushrnya" g6A. In these pas- 
sages i is the termination of a nom. masc. of a stem ending 
in in. Secondly, IV, 24, 8, patni kkkha, Samh. pitnyikkAa. ; 
IV, 34, 1, devi ahnam, Sawzh. devyahnam ; V, 75, 4, v&n\kl 
5-hita, Samh. va«i£ya'hita ; VI, 61, 4, avitrf avatu, Samh. 
avitryavatu. In these passages the I is the termination of 
feminines. In X, 15, 4, tit" arva"k, Sawn. utyarvaTt, the final 
i of the instrumental uti ought not to have been changed 
into a semivowel, for, though not followed by fti, it is to be 
treated as pragrjhya; (PratLr. 163, 5.) It is, however, 

■ There are certain compounds in which, according to Professor Kahn, two 
vowels have been contracted into one short vowel. This is certainly the 
opinion of Hindu grammarians, also of the compiler of the Pada text. But 
most of them would admit of another explanation. Thus dhanvar»asa/4, which 
is divided into dhanva-arwasaA, may be dhanu-arnasaA (RV. V, 45, 2). 
Dhanartam, divided into dhana-ar£am, may have been dhana-rt£am (RV. X, 
46, 5). 5atar£asam (RV. VII, 100, 3) may be taken as xata-n£asam instead of 

b In the Pratifikhya the rule which allows vowel before vowel to remain 
unchanged, is restricted to special passages, and in some of them the two 
vowels are savaroa ; cf. Sutra 163. 

• Cf.Vajuan. PrarMkhya, IV, 48 ; Indische Studien, vol. ix, 309 ; vol. x, 406. 

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lxxxvi VEDIC HYMNS. 

mentioned as an exception in SAtra 174, 9. The same 
applies to II, 3, 4, v6di fti asyam, Saom- veViyasya'm. The 
pragrjhya i ought not to have been changed into a semi- 
vowel, but the fact that it had been changed irregularly, 
was again duly registered in Sutra 174, 5. These two 
pragr*hya i therefore, which have really to be pronounced 
short, were irregularly changed in the Samhita into the 
semivowel ; and as this semivowel, like all semivowels, may 
take vyavaya, the same object was attained as if it had been 
written by a short vowel. With regard to pragrzhya u, no 
such indication is given by the Sawhita text ; but in such 
passages as I, 46, 13, jambhu fti jam-bhu 4 gatam, Sawh. 
jambhu 4 gatam; V, 43, 4, bahti fti adrim, Sawh. bahu 1 
adrim, the pragrAya u of the dual can be used as short, like 
the u of madhu atra, given as an example by the commen- 
tators of Pawini. 

To Professor Kuhn, I believe, belongs the merit of having 
extended this rule to final a. That the a of the dual may 
become short, was mentioned in the PratLrakhya, Sutra 309, 
though in none of the passages there mentioned is there any 
metrical necessity for this shortening (see p. Hi). This being 
the case, it is impossible to deny that where this 4 is followed 
by a vowel, and where Sandhi between the two vowels is 
impossible, the final 4 may be treated as short. Whether it 
must be so treated, depends on the view which we take of 
the Vedic metres, and will have to be discussed hereafter. 
I agree with Professor Kuhn when he scans : 

VI, 63, 1. leva tya valgCi puru-huti adya, (Sawm. puru- 
hut4dya) ; and not kva ty4 valgfl puruhutadya, although we 
might quote other verses as ending with an epitritus primus. 

IV, 3, 13. ma v&rasya pra-mmataA ml 4pe>6, (Sawh. 
mape^,) although the dispondeus is possible. 

I, 77, 1. katha dlrema agnaye k4 asmai, (Sa**h. k4smai.) 

VI, 24, 5. arya^ varasya pari-eta asti. ' 

Even in a compound like tv4-uta, I should shorten the 
first vowel, e. g. 

X, 148, 1. tmana tan4 sanuyama tva-ftta^, 
although the passage is not mentioned by the Pr4tly4khya 

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among those where a short final vowel in the eighth place 
is not lengthened when a short syllable follows ». 

But when we come to the second pada of a Gayatri, and 
find there a long 1, and that long a not followed by a vowel, 
I cannot agree with Professor Kuhn, that the long a, even 
under such circumstances, ought to be shortened We may 

V, 5, 7. vatasya patmanl/ita daivya hotara manushaA 

The same choriambic ending occurs even in the last pada 
of a Gayatri, and is perfectly free from objection at the end 
of the other padas. 

So, again, we may admit the shortening of au to o in sano 
avye and sano avyaye, as quoted in the PratLrakhya, 174 
and 177, but this would not justify the shortening of au to 
av in Anush/ubh verses, such as 

V, 86, 5. martaya devau adabhl, 
awja-iva deviu arvate, 
while, with regard to the Trish/ubh and Gagati verses, our 
views on these metres must naturally depend on the difficul- 
ties we meet with in carrying them out systematically. 

There is no reason for shortening a in 

V, 5, 10. devanam guhya namani. 

It is the second pada of a Gayatri here ; and we shall see 
that, even in the third pada, four long syllables occur again 
and again. 

For the same reason I cannot follow Dr. Kuhn in a 
number of other passages where, for the sake of the metre, 
he proposes to change a long 1 into a short one. Such 
passages are in the Pada text : 

VI, 46, 11. didyava£ tigma-murdhana/r, not murdhana//. 
I, 15, 6. r/tuna ya^wam Irathe, not ajathe. 

V, 66, a. samyak asuryam ijite, not iyate. 
V, 67, 1. varshish/Z/am kshatram ajathe, not Irathe. See 
Beitragej vol. iii, p. 122. 

1,46, 6. tim asme rlsatham isham, not rlsatham isham. 

• I see that Professor Kuhn, vol. iv, p. 1 86, has anticipated this observation 
in esh/au, to be read I-lsh/aa. 

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lxxxvili VEDIC HYMNS. 

IV, 32, 23. babhru yameshu jobhete, not jobhete. 

IV, 45, 3. uta pnyam madhune yu^gltham ratham, not 
yungclthani ratham. 

V. 74, 3. kam ikkha. yunghhe ratham, not yuagathe 

IV, 55, 1. dyavlbhuml (fti) adite trasithim naA, not tri- 
sitham na/i. 

V, 41, 1. r?tasya va sadasT trasithim naA, not trasithim 

I must enter the same protest against shortening other 
long vowels in the following verses which Professor Kuhn 
proposes to make metrically correct by this remedy : 

I, 4a, 6. hlra«yavlrimat-tama, not vllrimat-tama. 

Here the short syllable of gawam-bhi/4 in V, 60, 8, cannot 
be quoted as a precedent, for the i in gawarri, walking in 
companies, was never long, and could therefore not be 
shortened. Still less can we quote nari-bhyaA as an 
instance of a long i being shortened, for nari-bhyaA is 
derived from nariA, not from nari, and occurs with a short 
i even when the metre requires a long syllable ; I, 43, 6. 
nr*'-bhya£ nlri-bhyaA gave. The fact is, that in the Rig- 
veda the forms narishu and nari-bhyaA never occur, but 
always narishu, nari-bhyaA ; while from vlrt We never find 
any forms with short i, but always va^ishu, vaVi-bhi/4. 

Nor is there any justification for change in I, 35, 16. 
gava/4 na gavyuti^ anu, the second pada of a Gayatri. Nor 
in V, 56, 3. rtkshaA na vzh marutaA jimi-vln ama/i In 
most of the passages mentioned by Professor Kuhn on 
p. 122, this peculiarity may be observed, that the eighth 
syllable is short, or, at all events, may be short, when the 
ninth is long : 

VI, 44, 21. vn'shwe te induA vmhabha plpaya. 

I, 73, 1. syona-jiA atithiA na prlwanaA. 

VII, 13, 1. bhare havi>& na barhishi prbiAnkA. 

II, 28, 7. enaA knwvantam asura bhrfaanti. 

Before, however, we can settle the question whether in 

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these and other places certain vowels should be pronounced 
as either long or short, we must settle the more general 

Metre and question, what authority we have for requir- 

Grammar. ; n g a i on g or a s hort syllable in certain places 
of the Vedic metres. 

If we declare ourselves free from all authority, either 
grammatical or metrical, we may either sacrifice all 
grammar to metre, or all metre to grammar. We may 
introduce the strictest rules of metre, determining the 
length or shortness of every syllable, and then ignore 
all rules of grammar and quantity, treat short syllables as 
long, or long ones as short, and thus secure the triumph of 
metre. Or, we may allow great latitude in Vedic metres, 
particularly in certain padas, and thus retain all the rules of 
grammar which determine the quantity of syllables. It 
may be said even that the result would really be the same 
in either case, and that the policy of ' thorough ' might 
perhaps prove most useful in the end. It may be so here- 
after, but in the present state of Vedic scholarship it seems 
more expedient to be guided by native tradition, and to 
study the compromise which the ancient students of the 
Veda have tried to effect between grammar on one side and 
metre on the other. 

Now it has generally been supposed that the Pratiyakhya 
teaches that there must be a long syllable in the eighth or 
tenth place of TraishAibha and Cagata, and in the sixth 
place of Anush/ubha padas. This is not the case. The 
Pratijakhya, no doubt, says, that a short final vowel, but 
not any short syllable, occupying the eighth or tenth place 
in a Traish/ubha and Cagata pada, or the sixth place in a 
Gayatra pada, is lengthened, but it never says that it must 
be lengthened ; on the contrary, it gives a number of cases 
where it is not so lengthened. But, what is even more 
important, the Pratuakhya distinctly adds a proviso which 
shows that the ancient critics of the Veda did not consider 
the trochee as the only possible foot for the sixth and 
seventh syllables of Gayatra, or for the eighth and ninth, or 
tenth and eleventh syllables of Traish/ubha and Cagata 
padas. They distinctly admit that the seventh and the 

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ninth and the eleventh syllables in such padas may be long, 
and that in that case the preceding short vowel is not 
lengthened. We thus get the iambus in the very place 
which is generally occupied by the trochee. According to 
the Pratuakhya, the general scheme for the Gayatra would 
be, not only 

6 7 

+ + + + | + -^ +, 
but also g j 

+ + + + | + ^-+; 
and for the TraishAabha and £agata, not only 

8 9 

+ + ++|+++-|«++ ( + ), 
but also 8 . 

+ + + +| + + + v^|-++ ( + ). 
And again, for the same padas, not only 


+ + + + I + + + + I+ -^(+)> 
but also IOII 

+ + + +I + + + + I+ ^-(+). 
Before appealing, however, to the Pratisakhya for the 
establishment of such a rule as that the sixth syllable 
of AnushAibha and the eighth or tenth syllable of Trai- 
shAibha and Cagata padas must be lengthened, provided 
a short syllable follows, it is indispensable that we should 
have a clear appreciation of the real character of the Prati- 
jakhya. If we carefully follow the thread which runs 
through these books, we shall soon perceive that, even with 
the proviso that a short syllable follows, the PratLsakhya 
never teaches that certain final vowels must be lengthened. 
The object of the Prati-rakhya, as I pointed out on a former 
occasion, is to register all the facts which possess a phonetic 
interest. In doing this, all kinds of plans are adopted in 
order to bring as large a number of cases as possible under 
general categories. These categories are purely technical 
and external, and they never assume, with the authors of 
the Pratijakhya, the character of general rules. Let us 
now, after these preliminary remarks, return to the Sfttras 
523 to 535, which we discussed before. The Pratirakhya 
simply says that certain syllables which are short in the 

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Pada, if occupying a certain place in a verse, are lengthened 
in the Sawhita, provided a short syllable follows. This 
looks, no doubt, like a general rule which should be carried 
out under all circumstances. But this idea never entered 
the minds of the authors of the Pratuakhya. They only 
give this rule as the most convenient way of registering the 
lengthening of certain syllables which have actually been 
lengthened in the text of the Sawhita, while they remain 
short in the Pada ; and after having done this, they proceed 
to give a number of verses where the same rule might be 
supposed to apply, but where in the text of the Sawhita 
the short syllable has not been lengthened. After having 
given a long string of words which are short in the Pada 
and long in the Sawhita, and where no intelligible reason 
of their lengthening can be given, at least not by the 
authors of the Pratijakhya, the Pratuakhya adds in Sutra 
523, ' The final vowel of the eighth syllable is lengthened 
in padas of eleven and twelve syllables, provided a syllable 
follows which is short in the Sawhita.' As instances the 
commentator gives (Sawhita text) : 

I, 32, 4. taditna jatrum na kfla vivitse. 

I, 94, i. agne sakhye ma rishama vayam tava. 

Then follows another rule (Sutra 525) that 'The final 
vowel of the tenth syllable in pidas of eleven and twelve 
syllables is lengthened, provided a syllable follows which 
is short in the Sawhita.' As instances the commentator 
gives : 

III, 54, 22. aha vfrva sumana dldthi naA. 

II, 34, 9. ava rudrl araso hantana vidhaA. 

Lastly, a rule is given (Sutra 526) that 'The final vowel 
of the sixth syllable is lengthened in a pada of eight 
syllables, provided a syllable follows which is short : ' - 

— — — I A w — 

I, 5, 10. frano yavaya vadham. 

If the seventh syllable is long no change takes place : 

IX, 67, 30. i pavasva deva soma. 

While we ourselves should look upon these rules as 

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founded in the very nature of the metre, which, no doubt, 
to a certain extent they are, the authors of the PratLsakhya 
use them simply as convenient nets for catching as many 
cases as possible of lengthened syllables actually occurring 
in the text of the Sawhita. For this purpose, and in order 
to avoid giving a number of special rules, they add in this 
place an observation, very important to us as throwing 
light on the real pronunciation of the Vedic hymns at the 
time when our Sawhita text was finally settled, but with 
them again a mere expedient for enlarging the preceding 
rules, and thus catching more cases of lengthening at one 
haul. They say in Sutra 527, that in order to get the 
right number of syllables in such verses, we must pro- 
nounce sometimes one syllable as two. Thus only can the 
lengthened syllable be got into one of the places required 
by the preceding Sutra, viz. the sixth, the eighth, or the 
tenth place, and thus only can a large number of lengthened 
syllables be comprehended under the same general rule of 
the PratLrakhya. In all this we ourselves can easily recog- 
nise a principle which guided the compilers of the Sawhita 
text, or the very authors of the hymns, in lengthening 
syllables which in the Pada text are short, and which 
were liable to be lengthened because they occupied certain 
places on which the stress of the metre would naturally fall. 
We also see quite clearly that these compilers, or those 
whose pronunciation they tried to perpetuate, must have 
pronounced certain syllables as two syllables, and we 
naturally consider that we have a right to try the same 
expedient in other cases where to us, though not to them, 
the metre seems deficient, and where it could be rendered 
perfect by pronouncing one syllable as two. Such thoughts, 
however, never entered the minds of the authors of the 
PratLrakhyas, who are satisfied with explaining what is, 
according to the authority of the Sawmita, and who never 
attempt to say what ought to be, even against the authority 
of the Sawhita. While in some cases they have ears to 
hear and to appreciate the natural flow of the poetical lan- 
guage of the ^j'shis, they seem at other times as deaf as 
the adder to the voice of the charmer. 

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A general rule, therefore, in our sense of the word, that 
the eighth syllable in hendecasyllabics and dodecasyllabics, 
the tenth syllable in hendecasyllabics and dodecasyllabics, 
and the sixth syllable in octosyllabics should be lengthened, 
rests in no sense on the authority of ancient grammarians. 
Even as a mere observation, they restrict it by the con- 
dition that the next syllable must be short, in order to pro- 
voke the lengthening of the preceding syllable, thereby 
sanctioning, of course, many exceptions; and they then 
proceed to quote a number of cases where, in spite of all, 
the short syllable remains short*. Tn some of these quota- 
tions they are no doubt wrong, but in most of them their 
statement cannot be disputed. 

As to the eighth syllable being short in hendecasyllabics 
and dodecasyllabics, they quote such verses as, 

VI, 66, 4. antar (fti) santaA avadyani punani*. 

Thus we see that in VI, 44, 9, varshiyaA vayaA krinuhi 
sakibhl/t, hi remains short; while in VI, 25, 3,gahi vr/shwylni 
krwmhl para£aA, it Is lengthened in the Sawhita, the only 
difference being that in the second passage the accent is 
on hi. 

As to the tenth syllable being short in a dodecasyllabic, 
they quote 

II, 27, 14. adite mitra varuwa uta tnrila.. 

As to the tenth syllable being short in a hendecasyllabic, 
they quote 

II, 20, 1. vayam te vayaA indra viddhi su naA. 

As to the sixth syllable being short in an octosyllabic, 
they quote 

VIII, 23, 26. mahaA vuvin abhi sataA. 

A large number of similar exceptions are collected from 

* ' Wo die achtsilbigen Reihen mit herbeigezogen sind, ist es in der Regel 
bei solchen Liedem geschehen, die im Ganzen von der regelmassigen Form 
weniger abweichen, und fur solche Falle, wo auch das Pratiralchya die Langung 
der sechsten Silbe in achtsilbigen Reihen vorschreibt, namlich wo die siebente 
von Nator kurz ist. Die achtsilbigen Reihen bediirfen einer emeuten Dnrch- 
forschung, da es mehrfach schwer fallt, den Samhitatext mit der Vorschrift der 
Pritu£khva in Dbereinstimraung zn bringen.' Kahn, Beitrage, vol. iii, p. 450 ; 
and still more strongly, p. 458. 

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528, 3 to 534, 94, and this does not include any cases where 
the ninth, the eleventh, or the seventh syllable is long, 
instead of being short, while it does include cases where the 
eighth syllable is long, though the ninth is not short, or, at 
least, is not short according to the views of the collectors of 
these passages. See Sutra 52a, 6. 

Besides the cases mentioned by the Pratuakhya itself, 
where a short syllable, though occupying a place which 
would seem to require lengthening, remains short, there are 
many others which the Pratijakhya does not mention, be- 
cause, from its point of view, there was no necessity for 
doing so. The Pratuakhya has been blamed* for omitting 
such cases as I, 93, 6, uru*« yzgnkya. £akrathur u lokam ; 
or I, 96, 1 , deva agnim dharayan draviwodam. But though 
occupying the eighth place, and though followed by a short 
syllable, these syllables could never fall under the general 
observation of the Pratuakhya, because that general ob- 
servation refers to final vowels only, but not to short 
syllables in general. Similar cases are, 1, 107, i»; 122, 9; 
130,10; 152,6; 154,1; 158,5"; 163,2; 167, 10* 5-171, 4; 
173. 6 J 179. l *5 182, 8»; 186, 6,&c. 

If, therefore, we say that, happen what may, these 
metrical rules must be observed, and the text of the Veda 
altered in order to satisfy the requirements of these rules, 
we ought to know at all events that we do this on our own 
responsibility, and that we cannot shield ourselves behind 
the authority of Saunaka or Katyayana. Now it is well 
known that Professor Kuhn b has laid down the rule that the 
TraishAibha padas must end in a bacchius or amphibrachys 
yj- u , and the Cagata padas in a dijambus or paeon 
secundus ^ — >-- K With regard to AnushAibha padas, he 
requires the dijambus or paeon secundus w — ^^ at the 
end of a whole verse only, allowing greater freedom in the 
formation of the preceding padas. In a later article, 

* ' Dazn kommt, dass der uns vorliegende Samhitatext vielfaltig gar nicht 
mit kanaka's allgemeiner Regel iibereinstimmt, indem die Verlangerung 
kurzer S il ben nicht unter den Bedingnngen eingetreten ist, die er vorschreibt.' 
Kuhn, Beitrage, vol. iii, p. 459. 

b Beitrage zur Vergleichenden Sprachforschung, vol. iii, p. 118. 

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however, the final pada, too, in AnushAibha metre is 
allowed greater freedom, and the rule, as above given, 
is strictly maintained with regard to the Traish/ubha and 
£agata padas only. 

This subject is so important, and affects so large a 

number of passages in the Veda, that it requires the 

The four pnn- most careful examination. The Vedic metres, 

cipal padas. though at first sight very perplexing, are 
very simple, if reduced to their primary elements. The 
authors of the Pratlyakhyas have elaborated a most com- 
plicated system. Counting the syllables in the most 
mechanical manner, they have assigned nearly a hundred 
names to every variety which they discovered in the hymns 
of the Rig-veda*. But they also observed that the con- 
stituent elements of all these metres were really but four, 
(Sutras 988, 989) : 

1. The Gayatra pada, of eight syllables, ending in w -. 

2. The Vaira^-a pada, of ten syllables, ending in — . 

3. The TraishAibha pada, of eleven syllables, ending 

in — . 

4. The Cagata pada, of twelve syllables, ending in w -. 

Then follows an important rule, Sutra 990 : ' The pen- 
ultimate syllable,' he says, ' in a Gayatra and G&gata pada 
is light (laghu), in a Vaira^-a and TraishAibha pada heavy 
(guru).' This is called their vr/tta. 

This word vrz'tta, which is generally translated by metre, 

had evidently originally a more special meaning. It meant 

. the final rhythm, or if we take it literally, the 

turn. Hence vn'tta is the same word as the Latin versus, 
verse ; but I do not wish to decide whether the connection 
between the two words is historical, or simply etymological. 
In Latin, versus is always supposed to have meant origin- 
ally a furrow, then a line, then a verse. In Sanskrit the 
metaphor that led to the formation of vr/tta, in the sense 
of final rhythm, has nothing to do with ploughing. If, as 
I have tried to prove (Chips from a German Workshop, 

* See Appendix to my edition of the Pratirakhya, p. ccclvi. 

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vol. i, p. 84), the names assigned to metres and metrical 
language were derived from words originally referring to 
choregic movements, wftta must have meant the turn, i. e. 
the last step of any given movement ; and this turn, as 
determining the general character of the whole movement, 
would naturally be regulated by more severe rules, while 
greater freedom would be allowed for the rest. 

Having touched on this subject, I may add another 
fact in support of my view. The words TrishAibh and 
AnushAibh, names for the most common metres, are 
generally derived from a root stubh, to praise. I believe 
they should be derived from a root stubh, which is pre- 
served in Greek, not only in <nv(f>fK6s, hard, <rrv<l>ekl(a>, to 
strike hard, but in the root <rreix<f>, from which <rrin<j>vkov, 
stamped or pressed olives or grapes, and o<rr«fic£jjs, untrodden 
(grapes), then unshaken ; and in ot4*j8o>, to shake, to ram, 
0TO/3&0, to scold, &c. In Sanskrit this root is mentioned in 
the Dhatupa/Aa X, 34, shtubhu stambhe, and it exists in 
a parallel form as stambh, lit. to stamp down, then to fix, 
to make firm, with which Bopp has compared the German 
stampfen, to stamp; (Glossarium, s. v. stambh.) I therefore 
look upon TrishAibh as meaning originally tripudium, (sup- 
posing this word to be derived from tri and pes, according 
to the expression in Horace, pepulisse ter pede terram, Hor. 
Od. iii. 18,) and I explain its name 'Three-step,' by the fact 
that the three last syllables w - w, which form the character- 
istic feature of that metre, and may be called its real vr/tta 
or turn, were audibly stamped at the end of each turn or 
strophe. I explain AnushAibh, which consists of four equal 
padas, each of eight syllables, as the ' After-step,' because 
each line was stamped regularly after the other, possibly 
by two choruses, each side taking its turn. There is one 
passage in the Veda where AnushAibh seems to have 
preserved this meaning : 

X, 124, 9. anu-stubham anu £ar£uryama»am fndram nf 
kikyuA kavayaA manisha". 

Poets by their wisdom discovered Indra dancing to an 

In V, 52, 12, £Aanda#-stubha/* kubhanyavaA utsam £ 

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klrina.A nrituA, in measured steps (i.e. stepping the metre) 
and wildly shouting the gleemen have danced toward the 

Other names of metres which point to a similar origin, 
Le to their original connection with dances, are Pada- 
pankti, 'Step-row;' Nyanku-sarittl, 'Roe-step;' Abhisariwt, 
' Contre-danse,' &c. 

If now we return to the statement of the Pratijakhya in 
reference to the vrittas, we should observe how careful its 
author is in his language. He does not say that the 
penultimate is long or short, but he simply states, that, 
from a metrical point of view, it must be considered as 
light or heavy, which need not mean more than that it 
must be pronounced with or without stress. The fact that 
the author of the PratLrakhya uses these terms, laghu and 
guru, instead of hrasva, short, and dlrgha, long, shows in 
fact that he was aware that the penultimate in these padas 
is not invariably long or short, though, from a metrical 
point of view, it is always heavy or light. 

It is perfectly true that if we keep to these four padas, 
(to which one more pada, viz. the half Vaira^a, consisting 
of five syllables, might be added,) we can reduce nearly all 
the hymns of the Rig-veda to their simple elements which 
the ancient poets combined together, in general in a very 
simple way, but occasionally with greater freedom. The 
most important strophes, formed out of these padas, are, 

1. Three Gayatra padas = the Gayatrt, (24 syllables.) 

2. Four Gayatra padas=the AnushAibh, (32 syllables.) 

3. Four Vaira^a padas = the Vira^f, (40 syllables.) 

4. Four TraishAibha padas= the TrishAibh,(44 syllables.) 

5. Four Cagata padas = the Gagatt, (48 syllables.) 
Between the Gayatrt and AnushAibh strophes, another 

strophe may be formed, by mixture of Gayatra and Gagata 
padas, consisting of 28 syllables, and commonly called 
Ush»ih ; likewise between the AnushAibh and the Vira^*, 
a strophe may be formed, consisting of 36 syllables, and 
commonly called Brihatl. 

In a collection of hymns, however, like that of the Rig- 
veda, where poems of different ages, different places, and 

[3«] g 

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different families have been put together, we must be 
prepared for exceptions to many rules. Thus, although 
the final turn of the hendecasyllabic Traishftibha is, as 
a rule, the bacchius, w — , yet if we take, for instance, 
the 77th hymn of the tenth Mandala., we clearly perceive 
another hendecasyllabic pada of a totally different struc- 
ture, and worked up into one of the most beautiful strophes 
by an ancient poet. Each line is divided into two halves, 
the first consisting of seven syllables, being an exact 
counterpart of the first member of a Saturnian verse (fato 
Romae Metelli) ; the second a dijambus, answering boldly 
to the broken rhythm of the first member'. We have, in 
fact, a TrishAibh where the turn or the three-step, ^ — , 
instead of being at the end, stands in the middle of 
the line. 

X, 77, 1-5, in the Pada text : 

1. abhra-prushaA na vl£l prusha vasu, 

havishmantaA na yagH&A vi-^anushaA 1 &c. 
Another strophe, the nature of which has been totally 
misapprehended by native metricians, occurs in IV, 10. It 
is there called Padapankti and Mahapadapankti ; nay, 
attempts have been made to treat it even as an Ushwih, or 
as a kind of Gayatrt. The real character of that strophe 
is so palpable that it is difficult to understand how it could 
have been mistaken. It consists of two lines, the first 
embracing three or four feet of five syllables each, having 
the ictus on the first and the fourth syllables, and resembling 
the last line of a Sapphic verse. The second line is simply 

* Professor Kuhn (vol. Ui, p. 450) is inclined to admit the same metre as 
varying in certain hymns with ordinary Traish/ubha padas, but the evidence 
be brings forward is hardly sufficient. Even if we object to the endings 

v - v - and u -, V, 33, 4, may be a Clgata, with vyflha of dasa, the 

remark quoted from the Pratirakhya being of no consequence on such 
points; and the same remedy would apply to V, 41, 5, with vyflha of eshe. 
In VI, 47, 31 , vyflha of asmpainaiA ; in I, 33, 9, vyflha of indra and 
rodast ; in II, 24, 5, vyflha of madbhU would produce the same effect ; while 
in I, 1 a 1, 8, we must either admit the Traish/ubha vntta - « - or scan 
dhukshan. In III, 58, 6, I should admit vyflha for nara; in IV, 16, 6, for 
mandram ; in I, 100, 8, for gyoliA, always supposing that we consider the 
ending — w - incompatible with a TrishAibh verse. 

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a TrishAibh. It is what we should call an asynartete 
strophe, and the contrast of the rhythm in the first and 
second lines is very effective. I am not certain whether 
Professor Bollensen, who has touched on this metre in an 
article just published (Zeitschrift der D. M. G., vol. xxii, 
P- 57 2 )> shares this opinion. He has clearly seen that the 
division of the lines, as given in the MSS. of the Sawhita 
text, is wrong ; but he seems inclined to admit the same 
rhythm throughout, and to treat the strophe as consisting of 
four lines of five syllables each, and one of six syllables, 
which last line is to submit to the prevailing rhythm of the 
preceding lines. If we differ, however, as to the internal 
architecture of this strophe, we agree in condemning the 
interpretation proposed by the Prati-rakhya ; and I should, 
in connection with this, like to call attention to two im- 
portant facts : first, that the Sawhita text, in not changing, 
for instance, the final t of martat, betrays itself as clearly 
later than the elaboration of the ancient theory of metres, 
later than the invention of such a metre as the Padapankti ; 
and secondly, that the accentuation, too, of the Sawhita is 
thus proved to be posterior to the establishment of these 
fanciful metrical divisions, and hence cannot throughout 
claim so irrefragable an authority as certainly belongs to it 
in many cases. I give the Samhita text : 

i. Agne tarn adyalarvaw na stomal I kratuw na bhadram, 

hrjdisprwam n'dhyama ta ohaiA. 
2, Adhl hy agne I krator bhadrasya I dakshasya sadhoA, 
rathlr rttasya brthato babhutha, &c. 

Now it is perfectly true that, as a general rule, the 
syllables composing the vrj'tta or turn of the different 
metres, and described by the Prati-rakhya as heavy or 
light, are in reality long or short. The question, however, 
is this, have we a right, or are we obliged, in cases where 
that syllable is not either long or short, as it ought to be, 
so to alter the text, or so to change the rules of pro- 
nunciation, that the penultimate may again be what we wish 
it to be? 

If we begin with the Gayatra pada, we have not to read 

g 2 

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long before we find that it would be hopeless to try to 
crush the Gayatrt verses of the Vedic Rishis on this Pro- 
crustean bed. Even Professor Kuhn very 

Gayatra Padas. . T¥ 

soon perceived that this was impossible. He 

had to admit that in the Gayatrt the two first padas, at all 
events, were free from this rule, and though he tried to 
retain it for the third or final pada, he was obliged after a 
time to give it up even there. Again, it is perfectly true, 
that in the third pada of the Gayatrt, and in the second 
and fourth padas of the AnushAibh strophe, greater care is 
taken by the poets to secure a short syllable for the penul- 
timate, but here, too, exceptions cannot be entirely removed. 
We have only to take such a single hymn as I, 27, and we 
shall see that it would be impossible to reduce it to 
the uniform standard of Gayatrt padas, all ending in a 

But what confirms me even more in my view that such 
strict uniformity must not be looked for in the ancient 
Conjectural hymns of the Rishis, is the fact that in many 
emendations, cases it would be so very easy to replace 
the irregular by a regular dipodia. Supposing that the 
original poets had restricted themselves to the dijambus, 
who could have put in the place of that regular dijambus 
an irregular dipodia? Certainly not the authors of the 
Pratijakhya, for their ears had clearly discovered the 
general rhythm of the ancient metres ; nor their pre- 
decessors, for they had in many instances preserved the 
tradition of syllables lengthened in accordance with the 
requirements of the metre. I do not mean to insist too 
strongly on this argument, or to represent those who 
handed down the tradition of the Veda as endowed with 
anything like apaurusheyatva. Strange accidents have 
happened in the text of the Veda, but they have generally 
happened when the sense of the hymns had ceased to be 
understood ; and if anything helped to preserve the Veda 
from greater accidents, it was due, I believe, to the very 
fact that the metre continued to be understood, and that 
oral tradition, however much it might fail in other respects, 
had at all events to satisfy the ears of the hearers. I should 

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have been much less surprised if all irregularities in the 
metre had been smoothed down by the flux and reflux of 
oral tradition, a fact which is so apparent in the text of 
Homer, where the gaps occasioned by the loss of the 
digamma, were made good by the insertion of unmeaning 
particles ; but I find it difficult to imagine by what class of 
men, who must have lived between the original poets and 
the age of the Pratijakhyas, the simple rhythm of the Vedic 
metres should have been disregarded, and the sense of 
rhythm, which ancient people possess in a far higher degree 
than we ourselves, been violated through crude and pur- 
poseless alterations. I shall give a few specimens only. 
What but a regard for real antiquity could have induced 
people in VIII, 2, 8, to preserve the defective foot of a 
Gayatrf verse, samane adhi bhlrman ? Any one acquainted 
with Sanskrit would naturally read samane adhi bharma«I. 
But who would have changed bharmam, if that had been 
there originally, to bharman? I believe we must scan 
samane adhi bharman, or samane adhi bharman, the paeon 
tertius being a perfectly legitimate foot at the end of a 
Gayatri verse. In X, 158, 1, we can understand how an 
accident happened. The original poet may have said : 

Suryo no divas patu patu vito antarikshat, agnlr naA 
parthivebhyaA. Here one of the two patu was lost. But 
if in the same hymn we find in the second verse two feet of 
nine instead of eight syllables each, I should not venture to 
alter this except in pronunciation, because no reason can be 
imagined why any one should have put these irregular lines 
in the place of regular ones. 

In V, 41, 10, grtttite agnir etarl na shshaiA, .ro&shk&ro ni 
rwati vana, every modern Pandit would naturally read 
vanani instead of vana, in order to get the regular TrishAibh 
metre. But this being the case, how can we imagine that 
even the most ignorant member of an ancient Parishad 
should wilfully have altered vanani into vana ? What sur- 
prises one is, that vana should have been spared, in spite of 
every temptation to change it into vanani » for I cannot 
doubt for one moment that vana is the right reading, only 

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that the ancient poets pronounced it vana. Wherever we 
alter the text of the Rig-veda by conjecture, we ought to 
be able, if possible, to give some explanation how the mis- 
take which we wish to remove came to be committed. If a 
passage is obscure, difficult to construe, if it contains words 
which occur in no other place, then we can understand how, 
during a long process of oral tradition, accidents may have 
happened. But when everything is smooth and easy, when 
the intention of the poet is not to be mistaken, when the 
same phrase has occurred many times before, then to sup- 
pose that a simple and perspicuous sentence was changed 
into a complicated and obscure string of words, is more 
difficult to understand. I know there are passages where 
we cannot as yet account for the manner in which an evi- 
dently faulty reading found its way into both the Pada and 
Samhita texts, but in those very passages we cannot be too 
circumspect. If we read VIII, 40, 9, purvish /a indro- 
pamataya/* purvir uta prajastayaA, nothing seems more 
tempting than to omit indra, and to read purvish /a upama- 
tay&A. Nor would it be difficult to account for the insertion 
of indra ; for though one would hardly venture to call it 
a marginal gloss that crept into the text — a case which, as 
far as I can see, has never happened in the hymns of the 
Rig-veda — it might be taken for an explanation given by 
an A^arya to his pupils, in order to inform them that the 
ninth verse, different from the eighth, was addressed to 
Indra. But however plausible this may sound, the question 
remains whether the traditional reading could not be main- 
tained, by admitting synizesis of opa, and reading pfirvish 
/a indropamltayaA. For a similar synizesis of — w, see III, 
6, 10. pra£i adhvareva tasthatu/;, unless we read pra£y 

Another and more difficult case of synizesis occurs in 

VII, 86, 4. ava tvanena namasa tura(A) iyim. 
It would be easy to conjecture tvareyam instead of tura 
iyam, but tvareyam, in the sense of ' let me hasten,' is not 
Vedic. The choriambic ending, however, of a TrishAibh 

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can be proved to be legitimate, and if that is the case, then 

even the synizesis of tura, though hard, ought not to be 

regarded as impossible. 

In II, 18, 5, i vi/M_aty4 triawata ylhy arvin, 
-_._w_.s-a_ w — 
a £atvari»»ata haribhir yu/anaA, 

I pafl&Lrata surathebhir indra, 
a shash/yl saptatyl somapeyam, 
Professor Kuhn proposes to omit the a at the beginning of 
the second line, in order to have eleven instead of twelve 
syllables. By doing so he loses the uniformity of the four 
padas, which all begin with a, while by admitting synizesis 
of haribhL4 all necessity for conjectural emendation dis- 

If the poets of the Veda had objected to a paeon quartus 
(«_w^-) at the end of a Gayatrt, what could have been 
easier than to change IV, 52, 1, divo adanri duhitl, into 
adanri duhitl divaA? or X, 118, 6, adabhyaw grjhapatim, 

into grthapatim adlbhyam ? 

If an epitritus secundus (- _• — ) had been objectionable 
in the same place, why not say VI, 61, 10, stomyl bhfit 
sarasvati, instead of sarasvati stomyl bhftt ? Why not VIII, 
a, 11, revantaw hi srinomi tvl, instead of revantam hi tva 
srinomi ? 

If an ionicus a minore (^ w — ) had been excluded from 
that place, why not say I, 30, io.^antrtbhyaA sakhe vaso, 
instead of sakhe vaso ^aritr/bhyaA ? or I, 41, 7, varuwasya 
mahi psara/;, instead of mahi psaro varuwasya ? 

If a dispondeus ( ) was to be avoided, then V, 68, 3, 

mahi vkm kshatram deveshu, might easily have been re- 
placed by deveshu vaw* kshatram mahi, and VIII, _, 10, 
jukra Ifiraw yl£ante, by jukra ya£anta iiriram. 

If no epitritus primus (-• ) was allowed, why not say 

VI, 61, 11, nidas pltu sarasvati, instead of sarasvati nidas 
pitu, or VIII, 79, 4, dvesho yavir aghasya kit, instead of 
yavlr aghasya £id dveshaA ? 

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Even the epitritus tertius ( — <-> -) might easily have been 
avoided by dropping the augment of apam in X, 119, 1-13, 
kuvit somasylpam iti. It is, in fact, a variety of less frequent 
occurrence than the rest, and might possibly be eliminated 
with some chance of success. 

Lastly, the choriambus (- w v -) could have been removed 
in III, 24, 5, s\s\hi taJt sunumataA, by reading sunumataA 
jlrihi naA, and in VIII, 2, 31, sanad amrjkto dayate, by 
reading amrtkto dayate sanat. 

But I am afraid the idea that regularity is better than 
irregularity, and that in the Veda, where there is a possibility, 
the regular metre is to be restored by means of conjectural 
emendations, has been so ably advocated by some of the 
most eminent scholars, that a merely general argument 
would now be of no avail. I must therefore give as much 
evidence as I can bring together in support of the contrary 
opinion; and though the process is a tedious one, the 
importance of the consequences with regard to Vedic 
criticism leaves me no alternative. With regard, then, to 
Seven the final dipodia of Gayatrt verses, I still 
Gayatra Vrrttas. j,^ an( j maintain, that, although the dijambus 
is by far the most general metre, the following seven 
varieties have to be recognised in the poetry of the Veda » : 

I. yj-yj-, «. yjyjyj-, 3. -yj — , 4. ww — , 5. , 

6. w , 7. — <-> — , 8. —w\->—. 

I do not pretend to give every passage in which these 
varieties occur, but I hope I shall give a sufficient number 
in support of every one of them. I have confined myself 
almost entirely to the final dipodia of Gayatrt verses, as the 
AnushAibha verses would have swelled the lists too much. 

I, 12, 9. tasmai pavaka m«7aya. (Instead of mrt/aya, 
it has been proposed to read man/aya.) 
I, 18, 9. divo na sadmamakhasam. 
I, 42, 4 ; 46, 2; 97, 1-8; III, 11, 3; 27, 10; IV, 15, 7; 

* See some important remarks on these varieties in Mr. J. Boxwell's article 
* On the Trish/ubh Metre,' Journal Asiat. Soc. Beng., 1885, p. 79. 

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32,4; 52,1; V.5,9; 7,4; 7,5; 7,7; 9,4; 53,1a; 61,3; 
61, 11; 64,5; 65,4; 8a, 9; VI, 16,17; 16,18; 16,45; 
45. 17 5 61, 4; VII, 15, 14; 66, a ; VIII, 6, 35 ; 6, 43 ; 
3a, 10 ; 44, a8 ; 45, 31 ; 7a, 6 ; 7a, 13 ; 80, I ; 83, 3 ; 93, 
a7; IX, 61, 5; 64,1; X, 118, 6. 

§ 3- 

I, aa, 11. a££^innapatra£ sa£antam. 

I, 30, 13. kshumanto yabhir madema. 

I, 41, 8 ; 90, 1 ; 90, 4 j iao, 1 ; V, 19, 1 ; 70, 3 ; VI, 61, 
10; VIII, a, a; a, 4; 2, 5; 2, " ; 2, 12; 2, 13; a, 14; 
a, 15; a, 16; a, 17 ; a, 39; a, 30; a, 33; a, 33 ; a, 36 ; 
a, 37; 7, 3°; 7, 335 "» 2; 11, 3; 11, 4; 16, 3; 16, 4; 
16, 5 ; 16, 7 ; 46, a ; 71, 3 ; 81, 1 ; 81, 3 ; 81, 4 ; 81, 7 ; 
81, 9; 94, 3; IX, 63, 5; X, 30, 4; SO, 7. 

§ 4- <-<« — —. 

I, 3, 8. usra iva svasarawi. 

I, 37, 4. agne deveshu pra vokaJi. 

I, 30, 10 ; 30, 15 ; 38, 7 ; 38, 8 ; 41, 7 ; 43, 7 ; II, 6, 3 ; 
III, 37, 3 ; V, 83, 7 ; VI, 16, 25 ; 16, 36 ; 61, 12 ; VIII, 3, 
I ; 3, 3 ; 3, 8 ; 3, 18 ; 3, 19 ; 3, 21 ; 3, 33 ; 3, 23 ; 2, 26 ; 
a, 35 5 16, 3 ; 16, 6 ; 16, 8 ; 71, 9 ; 79, 3 ; IX, 21, 5 ; 6a, 6 ; 
66, 31 ; X, 20, 5 ; 185, 1 ; 185, 2 ; 185, 3. 

§5. . 

I, 2, 7. dhiyaw ghrj'tl/fciw* sidhanti. 

I, 3, 4. awvibhis tana pQtasaA. 

I, 37, 3; 90, 2; II, 6, 4; III, 41, 8; V, 68, 3; 68, 4; 
VIII, 3, 10; 3, 34; 16, 1; 16, 13; 79, a; IX, 66, 17; X, 
ao, 6 ; 20, 8. 

§ 6. w — . 

I, 15, 6. rz'tuna ysgnam Isathe. 

I, 38, 2. leva vo gavo na rawyanti (see note to I, 38, 2). 

I, 3 8 » 9 5 86, 9 ; III, 27, 3 ; 41, 3 5 J V, 32, 23 ; V, 68, 5 ; 
70, a; VI, 61, 11; VIII, a, ao; 2,25; 7,32; 26,19; 79,4; 
79.5; 8*>6; X, 158,4. 

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§ 7. 

I, 10, 8. saw gl asmabhyaw dhunuhi. 
I, 1 2, 5. agne tva«w rakshasvinaA. 

I. 37, 15 5 43, 8 5 46, 6 ; III, 62, 7 ; IV, 30, 21 ; V, 86, 5 ; 
VIII, 5, 32 ; 5, 35 ; X, 119, 1-13 ; 144, 4. 

§ 8. — \j \j — . 

I, 2, 9. dakshaw* dad hate apasam (or § 2). 

1,6, 10. indram maho vl ra^asaA. 

I, 27, 6 ; 30, ai ; 41,9; 90, 5 ; III, 24, 5 ; V, 19, 9 ; 
70, ij 70, 4; 82, 8; VIII, 2, 27; 2, 31; 16, 9; 55, 4; 
67,19; 81,5; 81,8; IX, 47, 2. 

But although with regard to the Gayatra, and I may 
add, the AnushAibha padas, the evidence as to the variety 
Traish/ubha and of their vrj'ttas is such that it can hardly be 
Cagata P&das. resist a muc h m0 re determined stand 
has been made in defence of the vrrtta of the Traish- 
Aibha and Gagata padas. Here Professor Kuhn and 
those who follow him maintain that the rule is absolute, 
that the former must end in w - w, the latter in w — ^ -, 
and that the eighth syllable, immediately preceding these 
syllables, ought, if possible, to be long. Nor can I deny 
that Professor Kuhn has brought forward powerful argu- 
ments in support of his theory, and that his emendations 
of the Vedic text recommend themselves by their great 
ingenuity and simplicity. If his theory could be carried 
out, I should readily admit that we should gain something. 
We should have throughout the Veda a perfectly uniform 
metre, and wherever we found any violation of it, we 
should be justified in resorting to conjectural criticism. 

The only question is at what price this strict uniformity 
can be obtained. If, for instance, in order to have the 
regular vrt'ttas at the end of Traish/ubha and G'agata 
lines, we were obliged to repeal all rules of prosody, to 
allow almost every short vowel to be used as long, and 
eyfery long vowel to be used as short, whether long by 
nature or by position, we should have gained very little, we 

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should have robbed Peter to pay Paul, we should have 
removed no difficulty, but only ignored the causes which 
created it. Now, if we examine the process by which 
Professor Kuhn establishes the regularity of the vrj'ttas or 
final syllables of TraishAibha and Cagata padas, we find, in 
addition to the rules laid down before, and in which he is 
supported, as we saw, to a great extent by the PratLrakhya 
and Pawini, viz. the anceps nature of e and o, and of a long 
final vowel before a vowel, the following exceptions or 
metrical licences, without which that metrical uniformity 
at which he aims, could not be obtained : 

Prosodial i. The vowel o in the body of a word is to 

Licences. jjg treated as optionally short : 
w - - ^ _ _ 
H> 39) 3- P rat ' vastor usra (see Trish/. § 5). 

Here the o of vastoA is supposed to be short, although it 
is the Gu«a of u, and therefore very different from the final 
e of sarve or aste, or the final o of sarvo for sarvas or mano 
for manas *. It should be remarked that in Greek, too, the 
final diphthongs corresponding to the e of sarve and aste 
are treated as short, as far as the accent is concerned. 
Hence Ultioikoi, rvirrerai, and even yv&jiai, nom. plur. In 
Latin, too, the old terminations of the nom. sing, o and u, 
instead of the later us, are short (Neue, Formenlehre, 
§ 23 seq.) 

VI, 5 1 . I 5- gopa ami 

Here the o of gopa is treated as short, in order to get 
v/ - \j - instead of — ^ — , which is perfectly legitimate at 
the end of an Ush«ih. 

2. The long t and u are treated as short, not only before 
vowels, which is legitimate, but also before consonants. 

VII, 62, 4. dyavabhumi adite trasithiw naA (see Trish/. 

The forms Iriya and r&siya in VII, 32, 18, occur at the 
end of octosyllabic or Gayatra padas, and are therefore 

* A very strong divergence of opinion is expressed on this point by Professor 
Bollensen. He says : ' O and E erst spater in die Schrifttafel anfgenommen, 
bewahren ihre Lange durch das gauze indische Schriftenthum bis ins Apa- 
bhramra hinab. Selbstverstandlich kann kurz o and e im Veda erst recht nicht 
zngelassen werden.' Zeitschrift der D. M. G., vol. xxii, p. 574. 

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perfectly legitimate, yet Professor Kuhn would change 
them too, into trtya and rasiya. In VII, 28, 4, even 
mayi is treated as may! (see Trish/. § 5) ; and in VII, 68, 1, 
vitam as vitam. If, in explanation of this shortening of 
vltam, vlhi is quoted, which is identified with vihi, this can 
hardly be considered as an argument, for vihi occurs where 
no short syllable is required, IV, 48, 1 • II, 26, % ; and 
where, therefore, the shortening of the vowel cannot be 
attributed to metrical reasons. 

3. Final m followed by an initial consonant is allowed 
to make no position, and even in the middle of a word 
a nasal followed by a liquid is supposed to make positio 
debilis. Several of the instances, however, given in support, 
are from Gayatra padas, where Professor Kuhn, in some of 
his later articles, has himself allowed greater latitude; 
others admit of different scanning, as for instance, 

I, 117, 8. mahaA kshowasya arvinl kawvaya. 

Here, even if we considered the dispondeus as illegiti- 
mate, we might scan kawvaya, for this scanning occurs in 
other places, while to treat the first a as short before nv 
seems tantamount to surrendering all rules of prosody. 

4. Final n before semivowels, mutes, and double n before 
vowels make no position'. Ex. Ill, 49, 1. yasmin vLrvA 
(Trish/.§5); 1,174,5. yasmi» £akan; 1,186,4. sasmin(n) 
fidhan b . 

5. Final Visarga before sibilants makes no position . 
Ex. IV, 2i, 10. satya^ samra/ (Trishf. § 5). Even in 1, 63, 4. 

* Professor Kuhn has afterwards (Beitrage, vol. iv, p. 207) modified this 
view, and instead of allowing a final nasal vowel followed by a mute to make 
positio debilis, he thinks that the nasal should in most cases be omitted 

b Here a distinction should be made, I think, between an n before a con- 
sonant, and a final n following a short vowel, which, according to the rules of 
Sandhi, is doubled, if a vowel follows. In the latter case, the vowel before the n 
remains, no doubt, short in many cases, or, more correctly, the doubling of the 
n does not take place, e.g. I, 63, 4; 186, 4. In other places, the doubling 
seems preferable, e.g. I, 33, 11, though Professor Kuhn would remove it 
altogether. Kuhn, Beitrage, vol. iii, p. 125. 

« Here, too, according to later researches, Professor Kuhn would rather omit 
the final sibilant altogether, loc. cit vol. iv, p. 207. 

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„ O O „ — — — 

kodiA sakha (probably a Gagata), and V, 82, 4. savtA sau- 
bhagam (a Gay. § 7), the long i is treated as short, and the 
short a of sakha is lengthened, because an aspirate follows. 

6. S before mutes makes no position. Ex. VI, 66, 11. 
iigra aspridhran (Trish/. § 3). 

7. 5 before k makes no position. Ex. vwvaj/fcandriU, &c. 

8. Mutes before s make no position. Ex. rakshas, accord- 
ing to Professor Kuhn, in the seventh only, but 

see I, ia, 5 ; kutsa, &c. 

9. Mutes before r or v make no position. Ex. surlpra, 

10. Sibilants before y make no position. Ex. dasyun. 

11. R followed by mutes or sibilants makes no position. 
Ex. ayur^lvase.^MardiA, varshlsh/Aam. 


1 2. Words like smaddlsh/fn, &c. retain their vowel short 
before two following consonants. 

We now proceed to consider a number of prosodial rules 
which Professor Kuhn proposes to repeal in order to have 
a long syllable where the MSS. supply a short : 

1. The vowel ri is to be pronounced as long, or rather as ar. 
Ex. 1, 12, 9. tasmai pavaka mrt/aya is to be read mardaya ; 
V, 33, 10. sa»*vara«asya HsheA is to be read arshei. But 
why not sa»*vara«asya~mheA (i. e. siarsheA) ? 

2. The a privativum may be lengthened. Ex. aga.nJt, 


3. Short vowels before liquids may be long. Ex. nara/i, 
taruta, tarati, marutam, harivaA, arushi, dadhur iha, suvita 
(P- 47i). 

4. Short vowels before nasals may be lengthened. Ex. 
£anan, sanitar, tanuA, upa na.A. 

5. Short vowels before the ma of the superlative may be 
lengthened. Ex. nrttama. 

6. The short a in the roots jam and yam, and in am (the 
termination of the accusative) may be lengthened. 

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7. The group ava is to be pronounced aua. Ex. avase 
becomes auase; savita becomes sauita; nava becomes naua. 

8. The group aya is to be changed into aia or ea. Ex. 

www —ww 

nayasi becomes naiasi. 

9. The group va is to be changed into ua, and this ua 
to be treated as a kind of diphthong and therefore long. 

Ex. kawvatama^ becomes kanuatama^; varuwaA becomes 

10. The short vowel in the reduplicated syllable of per- 

O w — 9 w — 

fects is to be lengthened. Ex. tatana^, dadhire. 

11. Short vowels before all aspirates may be lengthened. 
Ex. rathaA becomes rathaA ; sakha becomes sakha. 

12. Short vowels before h and all sibilants may be 
lengthened. Ex. mahini becomes mahmi ; usig&m becomes 
uji^am ; rishate becomes rishate; dasat becomes dasat. 

13. The short vowel before t may be lengthened. Ex. 
va^avataA becomes va^avataA; atithi^ becomes atithiA. 

14. The short vowel before d may be lengthened. Ex. 
udaram becomes udaram ; ud ava becomes ud ava. 

15. The short vowel before p may be lengthened. Ex, 
apam becomes apam ; tapushim becomes tapushim ; gri- 
hapatim becomes grihapatim. 

16. The short vowel before g and g may be lengthened, 
Ex. sanushag asat becomes sanushag asat ; yuna^an be- 
comes yuna^an. 

Let us now turn back for one moment to look at the 
slaughter which has been committed! Is there one 
single rule of prosody that has been spared ? Is there one 
single short syllable that must always remain short, or 
a long syllable that must always remain long ? If all re- 
strictions of prosody are thus removed, our metres, no 
doubt, become perfectly regular. But it should be remem- 
bered that these metrical rules, for which all this carnage 
has been committed, are not founded upon any a priori 
principles, but deduced by ancient or modern metricians 
from those very hymns which seem so constantly to violate 

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them. Neither ancient nor modern metricians had, as far 
as we know, any evidence to go upon besides the hymns of 
the Rig-veda ; and the philosophical speculations as to the 
origin of metres in which some of them indulge, and from 
which they would fain derive some of their unbending rules, 
are, as need hardly be said, of no consequence whatever. I 
cannot understand what definite idea even modern writers 
connect with such statements as that, for instance, the 
TrishAibh metre sprang from the Gagati metre, that the 
eleven syllables of the former are an abbreviation of the 
twelve syllables of the latter. Surely, metres are not made 
artificially, and by addition or subtraction. Metres have a 
natural origin in the rhythmic sentiment of different people, 
and they become artificial and arithmetical in the same way 
as language with its innate principles of law and analogy 
becomes in course of time grammatical and artificial. To 
derive one metre from another is like deriving a genitive 
from a nominative, which we may do indeed for grammatical 
purposes, but which no one would venture to do who is at 
all acquainted with the natural and independent production 
of grammatical forms. Were we to arrange the TrishAibh 
and £agatl metres in chronological order, I should decidedly 
place the TrishAibh first, for we see, as it were before our 
eyes, how sometimes one foot, sometimes two and three feet 
in a TrishAibh verse admit an additional syllable at the end, 
particularly in set phrases which would not submit to a 
TrishAibh ending. The phrase sa.m no bhava dvipade sam 
£atushpade is evidently a solemn phrase, and we see it 
brought in without hesitation, even though every other 
line of the same strophe or hymn is TrishAibh, i.e. hendeca- 
syllabic, not dodecasyllabic. See, for instance, VI, 74, 1 ; 
VII, 54, 1 ; X, 85, 44 ; 165, 1. However, I maintain by no 
means that this was the actual origin of 6'agatl metres ; I only 
refer to it in order to show the groundlessness of metrical 
theories which represent the component elements, a foot of 
one or two or four syllables as given first, and as afterwards 
compounded into systems of two, three or four such feet, and 
who therefore would wish us to look upon the hendecasyl- 
labic TrishAibh as originally a dodecasyllabic Cagati, only 

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deprived of its tail. If my explanation of the name of Tri- 
sh/ubh, i. e. Three-step, is right, its origin must be ascribed to 
a far more natural process than that of artificial amputation. 
It was to accompany a choros, i.e. a dance, which after 
advancing freely for eight steps in one direction, turned 
back (vr/tta) with three steps, the second of which was 
strongly marked, and would therefore, whether in song or 
recitation, be naturally accompanied by a long syllable. It 
certainly is so in the vast majority of Trishrubhs which 
have been handed down to us. But if among these verses 
we find a small number in which this simple and palpable 
rhythm is violated, and which nevertheless were preserved 
from the first in that imperfect form, although the tempta- 
tion to set them right must have been as great to the 
ancient as it has proved to be to the modern students of 
the Veda, are we to say that nearly all, if not all, the rules 
that determine the length and shortness of syllables, and 
which alone give character to every verse, are to be sus- 
pended ? Or, ought we not rather to consider, whether the 
ancient choregic poets may not have indulged occasionally 
in an irregular movement ? We see that this was so with 
regard to Gayatrt verses. We see the greater freedom of 
the first and second padas occasionally extend to the third ; 
and it will be impossible, without intolerable violence, to 
remove all the varieties of the last pada of a Gayatrt of 
which I have given examples above, pages civ seqq. 

It is, of course, impossible to give here all the evidence 
that might be brought forward in support of similar freedom 
Tnuh/nbha in TrishAibh verses, and I admit that the 
vwtu. number of real varieties with them is smaller 
than with the Gayatris. In order to make the evidence 
which I have to bring forward in support of these varieties as 
unassailable as possible, I have excluded nearly every pada 
that occurs only in the first, second, or third line of a 
strophe, and have restricted myself, with few exceptions, 
and those chiefly referring to padas that had been quoted 
by other scholars in support of their own theories, to the 
final padas of Trishrubh verses. Yet even with this limited 
evidence, I think I shall be able to establish at least three 

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varieties of TrishAibh. Preserving the same classification 
which I adopted before for the Gayatris, so as to include 
the important eighth syllable of the Trish/ubh, which does 
not properly belong to the vr/'tta, I maintain that class 4. 

\j w , class 5. , and class 8. — <-> w — must be 

recognised as legimate endings in the hymns of the Veda, 
and that by recognising them we are relieved from nearly 
all, if not all, the more violent prosodial licences which 
Professor Kuhn felt himself obliged to admit in his theory 
of Vedic metres. 

§ 4. *•* w • 

The verses which fall under § 4 are so numerous that 
after those of the first MaWala, mentioned above, they 
need not be given here in full. They are simply cases 
where the eighth syllable is not lengthened, and they 
cannot be supposed to run counter to any rule of the Prati- 
jakhya, for the simple reason that the Prattaakhya never 
gave such a rule as that the eighth syllable must be 
lengthened, if the ninth is short. Examples will be found 
in the final pada of Trish/ubhs: II, 30, 6; III, 36, 4; 53, 
15. 54»«; IV, 1,16; 2, 7; 9; 11; 4,12; 6,1; 2; 4; 7,7; 

ii» 5 ; 17, 3 ; 23. 6 ; »4, * ; 27, i ; 28. 5 ; 55, 5 ; 57, 2 ; v,i, 

2 ; VI, 17, 10 ; 21, 8 ; 23, 7 ; 25,5; 29,6; 33, 1 ; 62, 1 ; 63, 
7; VII, 21,5; 28, 3 ; 42, 4 ; 5<5, 15 5 60,10; 84,2592,4; 
VIII, 1, 33 ; 96, 9 ; IX, 92, 5 ; X, 61, 12 ; 13 ; 74, 3 ; 1 17, 7. 

In support of § 5. , the number of cases is smaller, 

but it should be remembered that it might be considerably 
increased if I had not restricted myself to the final pada of 
each Trish/ubh, while the first, second, and third padas 
would have yielded a much larger harvest : 

§5- • 

I, 89, 9. ma no madhya ririshatlyur ganto/;. 
I, 92, 6. supratika saumanasIya^gaA 
1,114,5; 117,2; 122,1; 122,8; 186,3; 11,4,2; HI, 
49, 2 ; IV, 3, 9 ; 26, 6 ; V, 41, 14 5 VI, 25, 2 ; 66, 1 1 ; VII, 
8, 6; 28, 4; 68, 1; 71, 2; 78, 1; 93, 7"; IX, 90, 4; X, 

[3*1 h 

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I do not wish to deny that in several of these lines it 
would be possible to remove the long syllable from the 
ninth place by conjectural emendation. Instead of ayur 
in I, 89, 9, we might read ^yu ; in I, 9a, 6, we might drop 
the augment of a^tgar ; in II, 4, 2, we might admit syni- 

zesis in aratir, and then read ^ira-arva^, as in I, 141, 12. 
In VI, 25, 2, after eliding the a of ava, we might read 
dasiA. But even if, in addition to all this, we were to 
admit the possible suppression of final m in asmabhyam, 
mahyam, and in the accusative singular, or the suppres- 
sion of s in the nominative singular, both of which would 
be extreme measures, we should still have a number of 
cases which could not be righted without even more vio- 
lent remedies. Why then should we not rather admit 
the occasional appearance of a metrical variation which 
certainly has a powerful precedent in the dispondeus of 
Gayatris ? I am not now acquainted with the last results 
of metrical criticism in Virgil, but, unless some new theories 
now prevail, I well recollect that spondaic hexameters, 
though small in number, much smaller than in the Veda, 
were recognised by the best scholars, and no emendations 
attempted to remove them. If then in Virgil we read, 

' Cum patribus populoque, penatibusque et magnis dis,' 
why not follow the authority of the best MSS. and the 
tradition of the PratLrakhyas and admit a dispondeus at 
the end of a Trish/ubh rather than suspend, in order to 
meet this single difficulty, some of the most fundamental 
rules of prosody? 

I now proceed to give a more numerous list of Trai- 
shAibha padas ending in a choriambus, - <-» ^ -, again con- 
fining myself, with few exceptions, to final padas : 

§8. — v yj — . 
I, 62, 3. sam usriyabhir vav&ranta nara*. 
I, 103, 4. yad dha sunuifc jravase nima dadhe. 
1,121,9; 122, io b ; 173,8; 186,2; 11,4,3 5 *9bi; 33> 
14; IV, 1, I9 e »; 25, 4; 39, 2; V, 30, 12; 41, 4; 41, 15; 

• ' Nnr eine Stelle habe ich mir angemerkt, wo das Metrum aam verlangt.' 

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vi,4,7; ^.s; "»4; 13- lb ; J 3. jd ; 2 °» lb ; 3 °. ld ; 29.4; 
M> 3; 33. 5 > 44, 11 ; 49. '2; <58, 5; 68 > 7; vii, 19, 10; 

62, 4; IX, 97, 26; X, 55, 8; 99, 9 ; io8, 6; 169, 1. 

It is perfectly true that this sudden change in the rhythm 
of TrishAibh verses, making their ending iambic instead of 
trochaic, grates on our ears. But, I believe, that if we admit 
a short stop after the seventh syllable, the intended rhythm 
of these verses will become intelligible. We remarked a 
similar break in the verses of hymn X, 77, where the sudden 
transition to an iambic metre was used with great effect, and 
the choriambic ending, though less effective, is by no means 
offensive. It should be remarked also, that in many, though 
not in all cases, a caesura takes place after the seventh syl- 
lable, and this is, no doubt, a great help towards a better 
delivery of these choriambic Trish/ubhs. 

While, however, I contend for the recognition of these 
three varieties of the normal Trish/ubh metre, I am quite 
willing to admit that other variations besides these, which 
occur from time to time in the Veda, form a legitimate 
subject of critical discussion. 

§ 2. \j \j \j — . 

TrishAibh verses, the final pada of which ends buuu-, 

I should generally prefer to treat as ending in a Gagata 

pada, in which this ending is more legitimate. Thus I 

should propose to scan: 

« _ >, _ „ 1 - „ « _ 

I, 122, 11. prajastaye mahina rathavate. 

Ill, 20, 5. vasfin rudraft adityaft iha huve. 

V, 2, 1. puraA pajyanti nihitam (tam) aratau. 

VI, 13, 5. vayo v«kayaraye ^asuraye. 

j 1, \j — <-> — . 
I should propose the same medela for some final padas 
of TrishAibhs apparently ending in <j — w — . We might 
indeed, as has been suggested, treat these verses as single 
instances of that peculiar metre which we saw carried out in 
the whole of hymn X, 77, but at the end of a verse the ad- 

Kiihn, Bcitrage, vol. iv, p. 180 ; Bollensen, Zeitschrift der D. M. G., vol. xxii, 
p. 587- 


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mission of an occasional Cagata pada is more in accordance 
with the habit of the Vedic poets. Thus I should scan : 

V, 33, 4. vr»shii samatsu dasasya nlma £it *. 

V, 41, 5 b . raya eshe»vase dadhtta dhlA. 

After what I have said before on the real character of the 
teaching of the PratLrakhya, I need not show again that the 
fact of Uva/a's counting ta of dadhlta as the tenth syllable 
is of no importance in determining the real nature of these 
hymns, though it is of importance, as Professor Kuhn re- 
marks (Beitrage, vol. iii, p. 451), in showing that Uva/a con- 
sidered himself at perfect liberty in counting or not counting, 
for his own purposes, the elided syllable of avase. 

VII, 4, 6. mapsavaA pari shadlma maduvaA. 

§6. „ . 

Final padas of Trishftibhs ending in ^ are very 

scarce. In VI, 1, 4, 

bhadrayaw te ra«ayanta samdrishfau, 
it would be very easy to read bhadrayaw te sa/wdmh/au 
rawayanta ; and in X, 74, 2, 

dyaur na vlrebhiA krtVtavanta svaiA, 
we may either recognise a Gagata pada, or read 

dyaur na vlrebhiA kr*«avanta svaiA, 
which would agree with the metre of hymn X, 77. 

§ 7- 

Padas ending in <~- - do not occur as final in any 

Traish/ubha hymn, but as many Cagata padas occur in 
the body of TraishAibha hymns, we have to scan them as 
dodecasyllabic : 

I, 63, 4*. tvam ha tyad indra kodiA sakhl. 

IV, 26, 6 b . paravataA jakuno mandram madam. 

The adjective pavaka which frequently occurs at the end 
of final and internal padas of TrishAibh hymns has always 

* Professor Kuhn has finally adopted the same scanning, Beitrage, vol. iv, 
p. 184. 

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to be scanned plvaka. Cf. IV, 51, a; VI, 5, a; 10,4; 51,3; 

VII, 3, 1 ; 9; 9. i b ; 5<5, «; X, 46, 7". 

I must reserve what I have to say about other metres 
of the Veda for another opportunity, but I cannot leave 

Omission of this subject without referring once more to a 
final m and s. metrical licence which has been strongly 
advocated by Professor Kuhn and others, and by the 
admission of which there is no doubt that many diffi- 
culties might be removed, I mean the occasional omission 
of a final m and s, and the subsequent contraction of the 
final and initial vowels. The arguments that have been 
brought forward in support of this are very powerful. 
There is the general argument that final s and m are 
liable to be dropt in other Aryan languages, and par- 
ticularly for metrical purposes. There is the stronger argu- 
ment that in some cases final s and m in Sanskrit may or 
may not be omitted, even apart from any metrical stress. 
In Sanskrit we find that the demonstrative pronoun sas 
appears most frequently as sa (sa dadati), and if followed 
by liquid vowels, it may coalesce with them even in later 
Sanskrit. Thus we see saisha for sa esha, sendra-fc for sa 
indraA sanctioned for metrical purposes even by Pacini, 
VI, 1, 134. We might refer also to feminines which have 
s in the nominative singular after bases in u, but drop it 
after bases in !. We find in the Samhita text, V, 7, 8, 
svadhitiva, instead of svadhitiA-iva in the Pada text, sanc- 
tioned by the Prati-rakhya 259 ; likewise IX, 61, 10, Saw- 
hita, bhtfmy £ dade, instead of Pada, bhtfrni/; £ dade. But 
before we draw any general conclusions from such in- 
stances, we should consider whether they do not admit 
of a grammatical instead of a metrical explanation. The 
nominative singular of the demonstrative pronoun was sa 
before it was sas ; by the side of bhtfmiA we have a 
secondary form bhfimi; and we may conclude from sva- 
dhitt-van, I, 88, a, that the Vedic poets knew of a form 
svadhiti, by the side of svadhitiA. 

As to the suppression of final m, however, we see it 
admitted by the best authorities, or we see at least alter- 
nate forms with or without m, in tubhya, which occurs 

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frequently instead of tiibhyam*, and twice, at least, with- 
out apparently any metrical reason b . We find asmSka 
instead of asma'kam (I, 173, io), yushma'ka instead of 
yushmalcam (VII, 59, 9-10), ya^adhva instead of ya/adh- 
vam (VIII, 2, 37) sanctioned both by the Sawhita and Pada 
texts °. 

If then we have such precedents, it may well be asked 
why we should hesitate to adopt the same expedient, the 
omission of final m and s, whenever the Vedic metres 
seem to require it. Professor Bollensen's remark, that 
Vedic verses cannot be treated to all the licences of Latin 
scanning" 1 , is hardly a sufficient answer; and he himself, 
though under a slightly different form, would admit as 
much, if not more, than has been admitted on this point by 
Professors Kuhn and Roth. On a priori grounds I should 
by no means feel opposed to the admission of a possible 
elision of final s or m, or even n ; and my only doubt is 
whether it is really necessary for the proper scanning of 
Vedic metres. 

My own opinion has always been, that if we admit on 
a larger scale what in single words can hardly be doubted 
by anybody, viz. the pronunciation of two 
syllables as one, we need not fall back on 
the elision of final consonants in order to arrive at a proper 
scanning of Vedic metres. On this point I shall have to 
say a few words in conclusion, because I shall frequently 
avail myself of this licence, for the purpose of righting 
apparently corrupt verses in the hymns of the Rig-veda ; 
and I feel bound to explain, once for all, why I avail my- 
self of it in preference to other emendations which have 
been proposed by scholars such as Professors Benfey, Kuhn, 
Roth, Bollensen, and others. 

The merit of having first pointed out some cases where 

" I. 54. 9 ; 135. > ; HI, 4 3 . 8 ; V, 11, 5 ; VII, 32, 7 ; VIII, 51, 9 ; 76, 8 ; 
82, 5 ; IX, 63, 27 ; 86, 30 ; X, 167, 1. 

" II, 11,3; V,3o,6. 

c See Bollensen, Orient und Occident, vol. iii, p. 459; Kuhn, Beitrage, 
vol. iv, p. 199. 

d Orient und Occident, vol. Iv, p. 449. 

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two syllables must be treated as one, belongs, I believe, to 
Professor Bollensen in his article, ' Zur Herstellung dcs 
Veda,' published in Benfey's Orient und Occident, vol. ii, 
p. 461. He proposed, for instance, to write hylna" instead of 
hiyana', IX, 13, 6 ; dhyan6 instead of dhiyan6, VIII, 49, 5 ; 
sahyase instead of sahiyase, I, 71, 4 ; yano instead of iyano, 
VIII, 50, 5, &c. The actual alteration of these words seems 
to me unnecessary; nor should we think of resorting to 
such violent measures in Greek where, as far as metrical 
purposes are concerned, two vowels have not unfrequently 
to be treated as one. 

That iva counts in many passages as one syllable is 
admitted by everybody. The only point on which I differ 
is that I do not see why iva, when monosyllabic, should be 
changed to va, instead of being pronounced quickly, or, to 
adopt the terminology of Greek grammarians, by synizesis*. 
Synizesis is well explained by Greek scholars as a quick 
pronunciation of two vowels so that neither should be lost, 
and as different thereby from synalcephe, which means the 
contraction of two vowels into one b . This synizesis is by 
no means restricted to iva and a few other words, but seems 
to me a very frequent expedient resorted to by the ancient 

Originally it may have arisen from the fact that language 
allows in many cases alternate forms of one or two sylla- 
bles. As in Greek we have double forms like &Xeyap6s and 
i\yeivos, ya\aKTo<f>iyos. and yka.KTo<f>ayo$, wenjrrfs and ittt)v6s, 
•jTwcuxfe and irtwcwfe °, and as in Latin we have the shortening 

* Synizesis in Greek applies only to the quick pronunciation of two vowels, 
if in immediate contact ; and not, if separated by consonants. Samprasarana 
might seem a more appropriate term, bnt though the grammatical process 
designated in Sanskrit by Samprasarana offers some analogies, it conld only by 
a new definition be applied to the metrical process here intended. 

b A. B. p. 835, 30. tori Si Ir Toft koivoTs filrpoit xal i) KaXovfUtn) owtie- 
fiirqois 1) xai ovrifotu \lyfrcu. "Orov fHf (pwyriirraiv lir&M.ri\os ylrrjTm 1} 
wpapopi, r6rt ylrerm i) awlfaoit «It ftim evMaftyr. tutuplpti ti avm*.m<prjr 
1) fiir f&p ypamiArar tori /tXmnJ, i) Si xpivmr /raj i) piv amaX<H<(^, in \iyt- 
tcu, ipairrrcu, J ti 06. Mehlhom, Griechische Grammatik, § 101. Thus in 

C >- w _ _ ~ w - 

VtorriXtfun we have synizesis, in NoinrruA«>iot synseresis. 
' Cf. Mehlhom, Griechische Grammatik, $ {7. 

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or suppression of vowels carried out on the largest scale », 
we find in Sanskrit, too, such double forms as prt'thvi or 
przthivi, adhi and dhi, api and pi, ava and va. The occur- 
rence of such forms which have nothing to do with metrical 
considerations, but are perfectly legitimate from a gram- 
matical point of view, would encourage a tendency to treat 
two syllables — and particularly two short syllables — as one, 
whenever an occasion arose. There are, besides, in the 
Vedic Sanskrit a number of forms where, as we saw, a long 
syllable has to be pronounced as two. In some of these 
cases this pronunciation is legitimate, i.e. it preserves an 
original dissyllabic form which in course of time had become 
monosyllabic. In other cases the same process takes place 
through a mistaken sense of analogy, where we cannot prove 
that an original dissyllabic form had any existence even in 
a prehistoric state of language. The occurrence of a number 
of such alternate forms would naturally leave a general im- 
pression in the minds of poets that two short syllables and 
one long syllable were under certain circumstances inter- 
changeable. So considerable a number of words in which 
a long syllable has to be pronounced as two syllables has 
been collected by Professors Kuhn, Bollensen, and others, 
that no doubt can remain on this subject. Vedic poets, 
being allowed to change a semivowel into a vowel, were 

— — — — — w— v — — 

free to say nasatyl and nasatya, VIII, 5, 32 ; prjthivyas 
and prithivyliA ; pitroA and pltroA, I, 31, 4. They could 
separate compound words, and pronounce ghrrtlnnaA or 
ghn'ta-annaA, VII, 3, 1 . They could insert a kind of shewa 
or svarabhakti in words like samne or samne, VIII, 6, 47 ; 
dhlmne or dhamne, VIII, 92, 25; arlvwaA and aravwaA, 
IX, 63, 5. They might vary between panri and panti. 
I, 41, 2; yathana and ylthana, I, 39, 3; nidhltoA and 
nidhltoA, I, 41, 9 ; tredha and tredhA, I, 34, 8 ; devlA and 
dev&A (besides devasa^), I, 23, 24 ; rodasl and rodasf, I, 33, 
9 5 59. 4 5 64, 9 ; and rodasyoA, I, 33, 5 ; 59, 2 ; 117, 10 ; 

* See the important chapters on ' Kiirzung der Vokale' and 'Tilgung der 
Vokale' in Corssen's 'Aussprache des Lateinischen ; ' and more especially his 
remarks on the so-called irrational vowels in Plantns, ibid. vol. ii, p. 70. 

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VI, 24, 3; VII, 6, %\ X, 74, i». Need we wonder then 
if we find that, on the other hand, they allowed themselves 

to pronounce pr*'thivi as prjthivi, 1, 191, 6 ; VII, 34, 7 ; 99, 3; 

dhrzshwava as dhmhwava, V, 52, 14; suvana as suvina? 
There is no reason why we should change the spelling of 
suvana into svana. The metre itself tells us at once where 
suvana is to be pronounced as two or as three syllables. 
Nor is it possible to believe that those who first handed 
down and afterwards wrote down the text of the Vedic 
hymns, should have been ignorant of that freedom of pro- 
nunciation. Why, there is not one single passage in the 
whole of the ninth Mawdala, where, as far as I know, su- 
vana should not be pronounced as dissyllabic, i.e. as 

suvina ; and to suppose that the scholars of India did 
not know how that superfluous syllable should be re- 
moved, is really taking too low an estimate of men like 
Vya/i or Saunaka. 

But if we once admit that in these cases two syllables 
separated by a single consonant were pronounced as one 
and were metrically counted as one, we can hardly resist 
the evidence in favour of a similar pronunciation in a large 
number of other words, and we shall find that by the 
admission of this rapid pronunciation, or of what in Plautus 
we should call irrational vowels, many verses assume at 
once their regular form without the necessity of admitting 
the suppression of final s, m, n, or the introduction of 
other prosodial licences. To my mind the most convinc- 
ing passages are those where, as in the Atyash/i and 
similar hymns, a poet repeats the same phrase twice, alter- 
ing only one or two words, but without endeavouring to 
avoid an excess of syllables which, to our mind, unless 
we resort to synizesis, would completely destroy the uni- 
formity of the metre. Thus we read : 

I, 133, 6. apurushaghno » pratita jura satvabhiA, 

trisaptaiA jflra satvabhiA. 

* Professor Bollensen in some of these passages proposes to read rodasios. 
In I, 96, 4, no change is necessary if we read viiam. Zeitschrift der D. M. G., 
vol. xxii, p. 587. f 

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Here no * pra must be pronounced with one ictus only, in 
order to get a complete agreement between the two iambic 

I> *34> 5- u g r ^ ishawanta bhurvawi, 
apam ishanta bhurvawi. 
As ishanta never occurs again, I suspect that the original 
reading was ishawanta in both lines, and that in the second 
line ishawanta, pronounced rapidly, was mistaken for ishanta. 
Is not bhurva«i a locative, corresponding to the datives in 
vane which are so frequently used in the sense of infinitives ? 
See note to I, 6, 8, page 47 seq. In 1, 138, 3, we must read : 

ahe/amana urusamsa. sari bhava, 
va^e-v&g-e sart bhava. 
In I, 129, 11, 
adhl hi tvi ^anita ^i^anad vaso, 

rakshohawaw tvi ^anad vaso, 
we might try to remove the difficulty by omitting vaso at 
the end of the refrain, but this would be against the general 
character of these hymns. We want the last word vaso, if 
possible, at the end of both lines. But, if so, we must admit 
two cases of synizesis, or, if this seems too clumsy, we must 
omit tva. 

I shall now proceed to give a number of other examples 
in which the same consonantal synizesis seems necessary in 
order to make the rhythm of the verses perceptible to our 
ears as it was to the ears of the ancient i?;shis. 
The preposition anu takes synizesis in 

I, 127, 1. ghritasya. vibhrishflm anu vashri jo£isha. Cf. 
X, 14, 1. 

The preposition abhi : 

I, 91, 23. rayo bhlgam sahasavann abhi yudhya. 
Here Professor Kuhn changes sahasavan into sahasva/z, 
which, no doubt, is a very simple and very plausible emen- 
dation. But in altering the text of the Veda many things 
have to be considered, and in our case it might be objected 
that sahasvaA never occurs again as an epithet of Soma. 

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As an invocation sahasvaA refers to no deity but Agni, and 
even in its other cases it is applied to Agni and Indra only. 
However, I do not by any means maintain that sahasva// 
could not be applied to Soma, for nearly the same argu- 
ments could be used against sahasavan, if conjecturally put 
in the place of sahasvaA ; I only wish to point out how 
everything ought to be tried first, before we resort in the 
Veda to conjectural emendations. Therefore, if in our pas- 
sage there should be any objection to admitting the syni- 
zesis in abhi, I should much rather propose synizesis of 
sahasavan, than change it into sahasvaA. There is synizesis 

in maha, e.g. 1, 133, 6. avar maha indra dadrzhi jrudht naA. 
Although this verse is quoted by the Pratuakhya, Stitra 
523, as one in which the lengthened syllable dhi of midhi 
does not occupy the tenth place, and which therefore re- 
quired special mention, the original poet evidently thought 
otherwise, and lengthened the syllable, being a syllable 
liable to be lengthened, because it really occupied the tenth 
place, and therefore received a peculiar stress. 

The preposition pari : 

VI, 5a, 14. mi vo va£a*wsl pari£akshya«i voiam, 

sumneshv Id vo antaml madema. 
Here Professor Kuhn (Beitrage, vol. iv, p. 197) begins the 
last pada with vo£am, but this is impossible, unless wc 
change the accent of vo£am, though even then the separa- 
tion of the verb from ma and the accumulation of two 
verbs in the last line would be objectionable. 

Hari is pronounced as hari: 

VII, 32, 12. ya indro harivan na dabhanti tarn ripaA. 
II, 1 8, 5. a £atvariwwata hanbhir yu^anaA. 

Hence I propose to scan the difficult verse I, 167, 1, as 
follows : 

sahasram ta indra-fitayo na/t, 
sahasram isho harivo gfirtatamaA*, 

* As to the scanning of the second line see p. cxiv. 

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sahasram rayo mldayadhyai, 
sahasri«a upa no yantu va^aA. 

That the final o instead of as is treated as a short 
syllable we saw before, and in I, 133, 6, we observed that 
it was liable to synizesis. We see the same in 

I> i75» 6. maya ivapo na tr/shyate babhfltha. 
- - w _ s~^ - w - 

V, 61, 16. a ya^fwiyaso vavrtttana. 

The pragrjhya i of the dual is known in the Veda to be 
liable in certain cases to Sandhi. If we extend this licence 
beyond the limits recognised by the Pratuakhya, we might 

VI, 53, 14. ubhe rodasy ap&w napa£ ka. manma, or we 
might shorten the i before the a, and admitting synizesis, 

ubhe rodasi apam napiLfc ka. manma. 

In III, 6, 10, we must either admit Sandhi between 
pr&fci and adhvareVa, or contract the first two syllables 
of adhvareva. 

The o and e of vocatives before vowels, when changed 
into av or a(y), are liable to synizesis : 

IV, 48, 1. vlyav a £andre»a rathena (Anush/ubh, c.) 

IV, 1, a. sa bhrltaram varu«am agna a vavn'tsva. 

The termination avaA also, before vowels, seems to count 

as one syllable in V, 5a, 14, divo vl dhr*sh«ava qgasa, which 
would render Professor Bollensen's correction (Orient und 
Occident, vol. ii, p. 480), dhWshwuqgasi, unnecessary. 

Like ava and iva, we find aya and iya, too, in several 
words liable to be contracted in pronunciation ; e.g. vayam, 
VI, 23, 5; ayam, I, 177, 4; iyam, VII, 66, 8 2 ; I, 186, 11 
(unless we read vo*sme) ; X, 129, 6. Professor Bollensen's 
proposal to change iyam to im, and ayam to am (Orient 
und Occident, vol. ii, p. 461), would only cause obscurity, 
without any adequate gain, while other words would by a 
similar suppression of vowels or consonants become simply 
irrecognisable. In I, 169, 6, for instance, adha has to be 

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pronounced with one ictus ; in VI, 26, 7, sadhavira is tri- 
syllabic. In VI, 10, 1, we must admit synizesis in adhvare* ; 
in I, 161, 8, either in udakam or in abravitana; I, no, 9, 
in rzbhuman ; VIII, 79, 4, in divaA ; V, 4, 6, in nrt'tama 
(unless we read so»gne) ; I, 164, 17, in paraA; VI, 15, 14, 
in pavaka ; I, 191, 6 ; VII, 34, 7 ; 99, 3, in prithivi; II, ao, 
8, in puraA; VI, 10, 1, in prayatf; VI, 17, 7, in brmit ; 
IX, 19, 6, in bhiyasam ; 1, 133, 6, in mah&A ; II, 28, 6 ; IV, 
1, a ; VI, 75, 18, in varuwa ; III, 30, 31 , in vr«shabha ; VII, 
41, 6, in v&gln&A; II, 43, a, in jtrumatiA; VI, 51, a, in 
sanutar ; VI, 18, ia, in sthavirasya, &c. 

These remarks will, I hope, suffice in order to justify the 
principles by which I have been guided in my treatment of 
the text and in my translation of the Rig-veda. I know 
I shall seem to some to have been too timid in retaining 
whatever can possibly be retained in the traditional text of 
these ancient hymns, while others will look upon the emen- 
dations which I have suggested as unpardonable temerity. 
Let everything be weighed in the just scales of argument. 
Those who argue for victory, and not for truth, can have no 
hearing in our court. There is too much serious work to 
be done to allow time for wrangling or abuse. Any dic- 
tionary will supply strong words to those who condescend 
to such warfare, but strong arguments require honest labour, 
sound judgment, and, above all, a genuine love of truth. 

The second volume, which I am now preparing for Press, 
will contain the remaining hymns addressed to the Maruts. 
The notes will necessarily have to be reduced to smaller 
dimensions, but they must always constitute the more im- 
portant part in a translation or, more truly, in a deciphering 
of Vedic hymns. 


Parks End, Oxford: 
March, 1869. 

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To the Unknown God. 

i. In the beginning there arose the Golden Child 
(Hirawya-garbha 1 ); as soon as born, he alone was 
the lord of all that is. He stablished the earth and 
this heaven: — Who is the God to whom we shall 
offer sacrifice ? 

2. He who gives breath, he who gives strength, 
whose 1 command all the bright gods revere, whose 
shadow* is immortality, whose shadow is death : — 
Who is the God to whom we shall offer sacrifice ? 

3. He who through his might became the sole 
king of the breathing and twinkling 1 world, who 
governs all this, man and beast : — Who is the God 
to whom we shall offer sacrifice ? 

4. He through whose might 1 these snowy moun- 
tains are, and the sea, they say, with the distant 
river (the Rasa*), he of whom these regions are 
indeed the two arms : — Who is the God to whom 
we shall offer sacrifice ? 

5. He through whom the awful heaven and the 
earth were made fast 1 , he through whom the ether 
was stablished, and the firmament; he who measured 
the air in the sky 8 : — Who is the God to whom we 
shall offer sacrifice ? 

[3»] B 

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6. He to whom heaven and earth 1 , standing firm 
by his will, look up, trembling in their mind; he 
over whom the risen sun shines forth : — Who is the 
God to whom we shall offer sacrifioe ? 

7. When the great waters 1 went everywhere, 
holding the germ (Hira»ya-garbha), and generating 
light, then there arose from them the (sole 2 ) breath 
of the gods : — Who is the God to whom we shall 
offer sacrifice ? 

8. He who by his might looked even over the 
waters which held power (the germ) and generated 
the sacrifice (light 1 ), he who alone is God above 
all gods 2 : — Who is the God to whom we shall 
offer sacrifice ? 

9. May he not hurt us, he who is the begetter 
of the earth, or he, the righteous, who begat the 
heaven; he who also begat the bright and mighty 
waters : — Who is the God to whom we shall offer 
sacrifice ? 

[io 1 . Pra^apati, no other than thou embraces all 
these created things. May that be ours which we 
desire when sacrificing to thee : may we be lords 
of wealth I] 

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NOTES. X, 121. 


This hymn is ascribed to Hirawyagarbha Pra^apatya, and 
is supposed to be addressed to Ka, Who, i.e. the Unknown 

First translated in my History of Ancient Sanskrit Litera- 
ture, 1859, p. 569 ; see also Hibbert Lectures, 1882, p. 301; 
Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, IV, p. 15. 

Verse i=VS. XIII, 4; XXIII, 1 ; XXV, 10 ; TS. IV, 
1,8,3; a. 8. *; AVIV, 2, 7. 

Verse 2=VS. XXV, 13 ; TS. IV, 1, 8, 4; VII, 5, 17, 1 ; 
AV. IV, 2, 1 ; XIII, 3, 24. 

Verse 3=VS. XXIII, 3 ; XXV, 11 ; TS. IV, 1, 8, 4; 
VII, 5, 16, 1 ; AV. IV, 2, 2. 

Verse 4=VS. XXV, 12 ; TS. IV, 1, 8, 4 ; AV. IV, 2, 5. 

Verse 5= VS. XXXII, 6 ; TS. IV, 1, 8, 5 ; AV. IV, 2, 4. 

Verse 6= VS. XXXII, 7; TS. IV, 1, 8, 5 ; AV. IV, 2, 3. 

Verse 7= VS. XXVII, 25 ; XXXII, 7 ; TS. II, 2, 12, 1 ; 
IV, 1, 8, 5 ; TA. I, 23, 8 ; AV. IV, 2, 6. 

Verse 8=VS. XXVII, 26 ; XXXII. 7 ; TS. IV, 1, 8, 6. 

Verse 9=VS. XII, 102 ; TS. IV, 2, 7, 1. 

Verse io=VS. X, 20; XXIII, 65; TS. I, 8, 14, 2 ; III, 
2,5,6; TB. II, 8, 1, 2 ; III, 5, 7, 1 ; AV. VII, 79, 4 ; 80, 3. 

This is one of the hymns which has always been sus- 
pected as modern by European interpreters. The reason 
is clear. To us the conception of one God, which pervades 
the whole of this hymn, seems later than the conception of 
many individual gods, as recognised in various aspects of 
nature, such as the gods of the sky, the sun, the storms, 
or the fire. And in a certain sense we may be right, and 
language also confirms our sentiment. In our hymn there 
are several words which do not occur again in the Rig- 
veda, or which occur in places only which have likewise 
been suspected to be of more modern date. Hirawyagarbha 

B 2 

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itself is an &ira£ XeyJ/xeiw. Sdm avartata is found only 
in the last Ma.nda.te., X, 90, 14; 129, 4. Bhuta also, in 
the sense of what is, occurs in the tenth Mandate, only. It 
is used three times (X, 55, 2 ; 58, 12 ; 90, 2) as opposed to 
bhavya, i. e. what is and what will be ; and once more in 
the sense of all that is (X, 85, 17). Atma.dK/t, in the sense 
of giving life, is another &ra£ Xey6fievov. Pra^fsh is re- 
stricted to Mandates I (I, 145, 1), IX (IX, 66, 6 ; 86, 32), 
and our passage. Himavat, Swa£ keyofievov. The repeti- 
tion of the relative pronoun in verses 2 and 4 is unusual. 
In the tenth verse the compound yat-kamaA is modern, 
and the insertion of etffni between tvat and anyaA is at all 
events exceptional. The passage V, 31, 2 is not parallel, 
because in tvat indra visyaA anyat, the ablative tvat is 
governed by vasyaA. In VI, 21, 10, na tvfiv&n any&A amr?ta 
tvit asti, any&A is separated from tv&t by a vocative only, 
as in VIII, 24, 11. 

But when we say that a certain hymn is modern, we must 
carefully consider what we mean. Our hymn, for instance, 
must have existed not only previous to the Brahmawa 
period, for many Brahmawas presuppose it, but previous to 
the Mantra period also. It is true that no verse of it occurs 
in the Sama-veda, but in the S&ma-veda-brclhmawa IX, 9, 
12, verse 1 at least is mentioned*. Most of its verses, 
however, occur in the Va^asaneyi-sawhita, in the Taittirtya- 
sawhita, and in the Atharva-veda-sawmita, nay, the last 
verse, to my mind the most suspicious of all, occurs most 
frequently in the other Sawmitas and Brahmawas. 

But though most of the verses of our hymn occur in other 
Saomitas, they do not always occur in the same order. 

In the V3g\ Sawh. we have the first verse in XIII, 4, but 
no other verse of our hymn follows. We have the first 
verse again in XXIII, 1, but not followed by verse 2, but 
by verse 3 (XXIII, 3) b . Then we have verse 1 once more 

* The last line is here, tasmai ta indo havisha vidhema, let us 
sacrifice to him with thy oblation, O Soma 1 
b Var. lect. nimeshataA. 

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NOTES. X, 121. 

in XXV, 10, followed by verse 3 (XXV, 11), by verse 4 
(XXV, 12), and then by verse a (XXV, 13). 

We have verses 5, 6, 7, 8 in VS. XXXII, 6 and 7, and verses 
7 and 8 in VS. XXVII, 25 and 26, while verse 9 is found in 
XII, 102 only* and the last verse in X, 20 b , and XXIII, 65. 

In the Taitt. Sawthita the verses follow more regularly, 
still never quite in the same order as in the Rig-veda. In 
TS. IV, 1, 8, 3 , we have verses 1 to 8, but verse 3 before 
verse 2, and verse 6 before verse 5, while verse 9 follows in 
IV, 2, 7) 1. 

InTS. v. 3 stands before v. 2,inVII,5, 16,1, and VII, 5, 17, 1. 

In TS. II, 2, 12, the pratikas of verses 1, 7, 10 are quoted 
in succession. 

Verse 7 occurs with important various readings in TA. 
1, 23, 8, apo ha yad br/hatir garbham ayan dakshawz dadhina 
^anayantiA svayambhum, tata im6«dhyasr^yanta sirgSJt. 

Lastly in the AV. we find verses 1 to 7 from IV, 2, 1, to 
IV, 2, 7, but arranged in a different order, viz. as 2, 3, 6, 5, 4, 
7, 1, and with important various readings. 

Verse 2, yo' 3 syeje dvipado yaj £atushpadaA, as third 
pada; also in XIII, 3, 24. 

Verse 3, ek6 rSg& ; yasya Mayfimrftaw yasya mrttyuA, 
as third pada. 

Verse4, yasya v/jve ; samudr£ yasya ras£m fd ahuA ; imSska.. 

Verse 5, yasya dyaiir urvT pr/'thivf ka. mahf yasyada urva- 
1 ntariksham, yasyasau stfro vftato mahitva". 

Verse 6, avatar £askabhan£ bhiyasane rodasi ahvayetham 
(sic), yasyasau panth£ ra^aso vimfinaA. 

Verse 7, fipo agre vfjvam avan garbhaw dadhana amr/ta 
ritagii&h, yfisu devfshv adhi deva aslt. 

Verse 10, vfrva rupa»i paribhfir ^a^ana, see VII, 79, 4, 
and 80, 3. 

We are justified, therefore, in looking upon the 
verses, composing this hymn, as existing before the 

» Var. lect mi' ma, satyadharma vyana/, pratham6 for brihztXk. 
h Var. lect rup&i for bhutani. 

c Var. lect., ver. 5, dridhi, dual for irilhi; ver. 6, uditau vye"u* 
for tidito vibhSti; ver. 8, agnim for y agnim. 

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final arrangement of the four Sawhitas, and if we persist 
in calling a hymn, dating from that period, a modern hymn, 
we must make it quite clear that, according to the present 
state of our knowledge, such a hymn cannot well be more 
modern than iooo B. c. Besides the variations in the 
arrangement of the verses of our hymn, the very considerable 
various readings which we find in the VS., TS., and AV. 
are highly instructive, as showing the frequent employment 
of our hymn for sacrificial purposes. In several cases these 
various readings are of great importance, as we shall see. 

Verse 1. 

MuiR : Hirartyagarbha arose in the beginning ; born, 
he was the one lord of things existing. He established 
the earth and this sky: to what god shall we offer our 
oblation ? 

LUDWIG: Hira«yagarbha hat zuerst sich gebildet, er 
ward geboren als einziger herr alles gewordenen, dise erde 
und disen himel halt er ; Ka, dem gotte, mochten wir mit 
havis aufwarten. 

Note 1. Hirawyagarbha* has been translated in different 
ways, and it would perhaps be best to keep it as a proper 
name, which it is in later times. It means literally the 
golden embryo, the golden germ or child, or born of a 
golden womb, and was no doubt an attempt at naming 
the sun. Soon, however, that name became mythological. 
The golden child was supposed to have been so called 
because it was Pra^apati, the lord of creation, when 
dwelling as yet in the golden egg, and Hirawyagarbha 
became in the end a recognised name of Pra^apati, see 
Say. on X, 121, i. All this is fully explained by S4ya«a, 
TS. IV, i, 8, 3 ; IV, 2, 8, a ; by Mahldhara,VS. XIII, 4. 

Verse 2. 
MuiR: He who gives breath, who gives strength, 
whose command all, [even] the gods, reverence, whose 
shadow is immortality, whose shadow is death: to what 
god shall we offer our oblation ? 

» M. M., India, What can it teach us? pp. 144, 162. 

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NOTES." — OJ-T2I, 3. 

LUDWIG : Geber des lebendigen hauches, geber def 
kraft, zu des unterweisung alle gotter sich einfinden, 
des glanz die unsterblichkeit, dessen der tod ist, Ka, dem 
gotte, mochten wir mit havis aufwarten. 

Note 1. In order to account for the repetition of yasya, 
Sayawa and Mahtdhara take vi-rve for men, and deva^ 
for gods. 

Note 2. It is difficult to say what is meant by Maya, 
shadow. I take it in the sense of what belongs to the god, 
as the shadow belongs to a man, what follows him, or is 
determined by him. In that sense Sayawa also takes it, 
TS. IV, 1, 8, 4, yasya pra^apatej Mayavat svadhinam 
amn'tam, moksharupam, mrityu/t, pra«inam marawam api, 
yasya k/t&yeva svadhinaA ; and, though not quite so clearly, 
in RV. X, 121, 2. Mahtdhara on the contrary takes kAkyk 
in the sense of refuge, and says, whose shadow, i.e. whose 
worship, preceded by knowledge, is amr/ta, immortality, 
a means of deliverance *, while ignorance of him is death, 
or leads to sawsara. 

Verse 8. 

MuiR : Who by his might became the sole king of the 
breathing and winking world, who is the lord of this two- 
footed and four-footed [creation] : to what god shall we 
offer our oblation ? 

Ludwig : Der des atmenden, augenbewegenden leben- 
digen durch seine grosze der einzige konig geworden ; der 
verfugt iiber disz zwei- und vier-fiiszige, Ka, dem gotte, 
mochten wir mit havis aufwarten. 

Note 1. It is difficult to say whether nimishata/; 
means twinkling or sleeping. It has both meanings as 
to wink has in English. Sayawa (X, 121, 3; TS. IV, 
1, 8, 4) and Mahldhara (VS. XXIII, 3") explain it by 
winking. This may be right as expressing sensuous per- 
ception, in addition to mere breathing. In X, 190, 2, 
vfrvasya mishat6 van means, lord of all that winks, i.e. 

• muktihetu, not yuktihetu, as Weber prints. 
b Is nimeshdto in XXIII, 3, a varia lectio, or an araddha ? In 
XXV, 13, we read nimishato. 

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lives. The later idea, that the gods do not wink, has 
nothing to do with our passage. 

Verse 4. 

MuiR : Whose greatness these snowy mountains, and 
the sea with the Rasa (river), declare, — of whom these 
regions, of whom they are the arms : to what god shall we 
offer our oblation ? 

Ludwig : Dessen die schneebedeckten (berge, die Hima- 
van) vermoge seiner grosze, als des eigentum man ocean 
und Rasa nennt, des dise himelsgegenden, des arme sie, 
Ka, dem gotte, mochten wir mit havis aufwarten. 

Note 1. Muir*s translation, which suggests itself very 
naturally to a European mind, is impossible, because 
mahitva cannot be either mahitvam (as Sayawa also and 
Mahldhara suggest), or mahitv&ni ; and because khuA does 
not mean declare. Otherwise nothing could be better 
than his rendering : ' Whose greatness these snowy moun- 
tains, and the sea with the Rasa (river), declare.' 

Mahitva, as Sayawa also rightly perceives, TS. IV, i, 8, 
4, is a very common instrumental (see Lanman, Noun- 
inflection, pp. 335-6), and the same mahitvS must be sup- 
plied for samudram. We might make the whole sentence 
dependent on SihuA without much change of meaning. 
The Atharva-veda text supplies a lectio facilior, but not 
therefore melior. 

Note 2. The Rasa is a distant river, in some respects like 
the Greek Okeanos. Dr. Aufrecht takes it as a name of 
the milky way, Z. D. M. G. XIII, 498 : see Muir, S. T. II, 

P- 373. n. 19- 

Verse 5. 

MuiR : By whom the sky is fiery, and the earth fixed, 
by whom the firmament and the heaven were established, 
who in the atmosphere is the measurer of the aerial space : 
to what god shall we offer our oblation ? 

LUDWIG : Durch den gewaltig der himel und fest die 
erde, durch den gestiitzt Svar, und das gewolbe, der die 
raume im mittelgebiete ausgemeszen, Ka, dem gotte, 
mochten wir mit havis aufwarten. 

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NOTES. X, 121, 6. 

Note 1. In this verse I decidedly prefer the reading of 
the Atharva-veda, yena dyaur ugra prithivi kz. drilAe. It 
seems not a lectio facilior, and we avoid the statement that 
the heaven has been made ugra. Ugra, as applied to 
dyaus, means awful and grand, as an inherent quality 
rather, and not simply strong. See Ludwig, Notes, p. 441. 

Note 2. Ra^-aso vim&mJt has been fully discussed by 
Muir, S. T. IV, p. 71, but it is difficult to find a right 
translation for it, because the cosmography of the Veda is 
so different from our own (see I, 6, 9, note 1, and I, 19, 3, 
note 1). I think we may translate it here by the air, or even 
by space, particularly the bright air in the sky, the sky 
(antariksha or nabhas) being between heaven (dyu) and 
earth (pWthivl), while svaA and naka are still higher than 
the heaven (dyu), svaA being sometimes explained as the 
abode of the sun, the ether, or empyrean, naka, the firmament, 
as svarga (Mahidhara) ; or svdJt as svarga, and naka as 
aditya (Sayawa). Vimana is here simply the measurer, 
though vima, from meaning to measure, is apt to take the 
meaning of to make, which is an excuse for Saya«a's 
rendering, • who makes the rain in the sky.' 

The Atharva-veda rendering is very free, and certainly 
no improvement. 

Verse 6. 

MuiR : To whom two contending armies, sustained by 
his succour, looked up, trembling in mind ; over whom 
the risen sun shines: to what god shall we offer our 
oblation ? 

Ludwig : Auf den die beiden schlachtreihen durch (ihre) 
begirde aufgestellt in ordnung ihren blick richten, zitternd, 
im geiste, wo daruber hin aufgegangen Sura ausstralt, Ka, 
dem gotte, mochten wir mit havis aufwarten. 

Hote 1. It would be well to read r6dasi for krandast 
(which B. R. explain by 'two armies'), and the various 
reading in AV. IV, 3, 3 decidedly points in that direction. 
But even if krandast stands, it must be taken in the same 
sense as r6dasl. Uditau vyeti in TS. IV, 1, 8, 5 is explained 
by udayavishaye vividhaw g&ikft&ti. 

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Verse 1. 

MuiR: When the great waters pervaded the universe 
containing an embryo, and generating fire, thence arose 
the one spirit (asu) of the gods : to what god shall we 
offer our oblation ? 

Ludwig : AIs die groszen waszer kamen, die alien keim 
in sich faszten, zeugend den Agni, da kam zu stande der 
gotter einziger lebensgeist ; Ka, dem gotte, mochten wir 
mit havis aufwarten. 

Mote 1. The waters here referred to have to be under- 
stood as the waters in the beginning of the creation, where, 
as we read (RV. X, 129, 3), ' everything was like a sea 
without a light,' or, as the .Satapatha-brahmawa (XI, 1, 6, 1) 
says, ' everything was water and sea.' These waters held 
the germ*, and produced the golden light, the sun b , whence 
arose the life of all the gods, viz. Pra^apati. The Atharva- 
veda adds a verse which repeats the same idea more 
clearly: Spo vatsaw ^anayantir garbham igre samairayan, 
tasyota£-ayamanasy61ba astd dhira«yiya^,'In the beginning 
the waters, producing a young, brought forth an embryo, and 
when it was being born, it had a golden covering.' The sun- 
rise serves here as elsewhere as an image of the creation. 

Mote 2. Grassmann proposes to omit eka, because it is 
absent in the Maitrayawi Sakha. The metre shows the same. 

Verse 8. 

MuiR : He who through his greatness beheld the waters 
which contained power, and generated sacrifice, who was 
the one god above the gods : to what god shall we offer 
our oblation ? 

LUDWIG : Der in seiner grosze sogar die waszer iiber- 
schaute, wie sie die fahigkeit besitzend erzeugten das 
opfer, der der einzige gott war liber den gottern, Ka, 
dem gotte, mochten wir mit havis aufwarten. 

Mote 1. In dakshaw dadhana ^anayantlr yzgnim, we 
have a repetition of w! at was said in the preceding verse, 

« See RV. X, 82, 5-6. »> See RV. X, 72, 7. 

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NOTES. X, 121, IO. II 

daksham standing for garbham, yagh&m for agnfm, which 
is actually the reading of TS. The Atharva-veda does not 
contain this verse, which is used as an any! vikalpita ya^ya 

Note 2. It is curious that one of the most important 
sentences in the Rig-veda, yo deveshv adhi deva eka astt, 
should have been changed in the Atharva-veda IV, 2, 6 into 
yasu devishv adhi deva asit, ' over which divine waters there 
was the god.' See Ludwig, Notes, p. 441. 

Vers* 9. 

MuiR : May he not injure us, he who is the generator 
of the earth, who, ruling by fixed ordinances, produced the 
heavens, who produced the great and brilliant waters : to 
what god shall we offer our oblation ? 

LuDWIG : Nicht schadige uns, der der erde erzeuger, 
oder der den himel bereitet mit warhafter satzung, der auch 
die wasser, die hellen, die machtigen erzeugt hat, Ka, dem 
gotte, mochten wir mit havis aufwarten. 

Verse 10. 

Mum : Pra^apati, no other than thou is lord over 
all these created things: may we obtain that, through 
desire of which we have invoked thee : may we become 
masters of riches. 

LUDWIG : Pra^Apati, kein anderer als du hat umfasst die 
wesen alle, der wunsch, um deswillen wir dir opfern, der 
werde uns zu teil, besitzer von reichtiimern mogen wir sein. 

Note 1. This verse is certainly extremely weak after 
all that preceded, still, to judge from its frequent occur- 
rence, we cannot well discard it. All we can say is that 
nowhere, except in the Rig-veda, does it form the final 
verse of our hymn, and thus spoil its whole character. 

That character consists chiefly in the burden of the 
nine verses, Kasmai devaya havisha vidhema, 'To what 
god shall we offer sacrifice?' This is clearly meant to 
express a desire of finding out the true, but unknown god, 
and to do so, even after all has been said that can be said 
of a supreme god. To finish such a hymn with a statement 

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that Pra^-apati is the god who deserves our sacrifice, may 
be very natural theologically, but it is entirely uncalled 
for poetically. The very phrase Kasmai devaya havisha 
vidhema must have been a familiar phrase, for we find in 
a hymn addressed to the wind, X, 168, 4, after all has been 
said that can be said of him, the concluding line : gh6sha£ 
ft asya srinvire na rupam tasmai vfitaya havfsha vidhema, 
' his sound indeed is heard, but he is not seen — to that 
Vata let us offer sacrifice.' 

But more than this, on the strength of hymns like our 
own in which the interrogative pronoun ka, ' who,' occurs, 
the Brahmans actually invented a god of the name of 
Ka. I pointed this out many years ago in my History of 
Ancient Sanskrit Literature (i860, p. 433), where I said : 
' In accordance with the same system, we find that the 
authors of the Brahmawas had so completely broken with 
the past that, forgetful of the poetical character of the 
hymns, and the yearning of the poets after the unknown 
god, they exalted the interrogative pronoun into a deity, 
and acknowledged a god ' Ka, or Who.' In the Taittiriya- 
sawhita (I, 7, 6, 6), in the Kaushitaki-brahmawa (XXIV, 
4), in the Ta«dya-brahma«a (XV, 10), and in the Sata- 
patha-brahma«a B , whenever interrogative verses occur, 
the author states, that Ka is Pra^apati, or ' the Lord of 
Creatures' (Pra^apatir vai KaJi). Nor did they stop there. 
Some of the hymns in which the interrogative pronoun 
occurred were called Kadvat, i.e. having kad or quid. 
But soon a new adjective was formed, and not only the 
hymns, but the sacrifices also, offered to the god, were 
called Kaya, or who-ish b . This word, which is not to 
be identified with the Latin cujus, cuja, cujum, but is 
merely the artificial product of an effete mind, is found 
in the Taittiriya-sawmita (I, 8, 3, 1), and in the Vi^a- 
saneyi-sawzhita (XXIV, 15). At the time of Pawini 

» .Satap. Brahm. 1, 1, 1, 13 ; II, 5, 2, 13 ; IV, 5, 6, 4; also Aitar. 
Brihm. Ill, 21. 

b Ajv. St. Sutra II, 17, 14; Katy. St. Sutra V, 4, 23; Vait. 
Sutra VIII, 22, ed. Garbe. 

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NOTES. X, 121, IO. 13 

this word had acquired such legitimacy as to call for a 
separate rule explaining its formation (Pa«. IV, 2, 25). 
The commentator there explains Ka by Brahman. After 
this we can hardly wonder that in the later Sanskrit 
literature of the Pura#as, Ka appears as a recognised 
god, as the supreme god, with a genealogy of his own, 
perhaps even with a wife ; and that in the Laws of Manu, 
one of the recognised forms of marriage, generally known 
by the name of Pra^apati-marriage, occurs under the 
monstrous title of * Kaya.' Stranger still, grammarians 
who know that ka forms the dative kasmai only if it is 
an interrogative pronoun, consider kasmai in our hymn 
as irregular, because, as a proper name, Ka ought to form 
the dative Kaya. 

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To Indra and the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. Those who stand around* him while he moves 
on, harness the bright red (steed) 1 ; the lights in 
heaven shine forth s . 

2. They harness to the chariot on each side his 
(Indra's) 1 two favourite bays, the brown, the bold, 
who can carry the hero. 

3. Thou who createst light where there was no 
light, and form, O men 1 ! where there was no form, 
hast been born together with the dawns *. 

4. Thereupon 1 they (the Maruts), according to 
their wont 2 , assumed again the form of new-born 
babes 8 , taking their sacred name. 

5. Thou, O Indra, with the swift Maruts 1 , who 
break even through the stronghold*, hast found 
even in their hiding-place the bright ones 8 (days 
or clouds). 

6. The pious singers 1 (the Maruts) have, after 
their own mind *, shouted towards the giver of 
wealth, the great, the glorious (Indra). 

7. Mayest thou 1 (host of the Maruts) be verily 
seen * coming together with Indra, the fearless : you 
are both happy-making, and of equal splendour. 

8. With the beloved hosts of Indra, with the 
blameless, hasting* (Maruts), the sacrificer 1 cries 

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9. From yonder, O traveller (Indra), come hither, 
or from the light* of heaven ' ; the singers all yearn 
for it ; — 

10. Or we ask Indra for help from here, or 
from heaven, or from above the earth, or from the 
great sky. 

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This hymn is ascribed to Kanva, the son of Ghora. The 
metre is Gayatri throughout. 

Verse i = SV. II, 818 ; VS. XXIII, 5; AV. XX, 26, 4; 
47, 10 ; 69, 9 ; TS. VII, 4, ao, 1 ; TB. Ill, 9, 4, 1. 

Verse a=SV. II, 819 ; VS. XXIII, 6 ; AV. XX, a6, 5 ; 
47, 11; 69, 10; TS. VII, 4, ao, 1. 

Verse 3 = SV. II, 820 ; VS. XXIX, 37 ; AV. XX, 26, 6 ; 
47, 1 a ; 69, 1 1 ; TS. VII, 4, ao, 1 ; TB. Ill, 9, 4, 3- 

Verse 4=SV. II, 101 ; AV. XX, 40, 3 ; 69, 12. 

Verse 5=SV. II, 202; AV. XX, 70, 1. 

Verse 6=AV. XX, 70, 2. 

Verse 7=SV. II, 200 ; AV. XX, 40, 1 ; 70, 3. 

Verse 8=AV. XX, 40, 2 ; 70, 4. 

Verse9=AV. XX, 70,5. 

Verse io=AV. XX, 70, 6. 

Verse 1. 

Wilson : The circumstationed (inhabitants of the three 
worlds) associate with (Indra), the mighty (Sun), the inde- 
structive (fire), the moving (wind), and the lights that shine 
in the sky. 

BENFEY: Die rothe Sonne schirr'n sie an, die wandelt 
um die stehenden, Strahlen strahlen am Himmel auf. 

LuDWIG: Sie spannen an den hellen, den roten, den 
vom feststehenden hinwegwandelnden ; heller glanz erstralt 
am Himmel. 

Note 1. The poet begins with a somewhat abrupt 
description of a sunrise. Indra is taken as the god of the 
bright day, whose steed is the sun, and whose companions 
the Maruts, or the storm-gods. Arusha, meaning originally 
red, is used as a proper name of the horse or of the rising 
sun, though it occurs more frequently as the name of the 
red horses or flames of Agni, the god of fire, and also of 
the morning light. In our passage, Arusha, a substantive, 
meaning the red of the morning, has taken bradhna as an 

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NOTES. I, 6, I. 17 

adjective, — bradhna meaning, as far as can be made out, 
bright in general, though, as it is especially applied to the 
Soma-juice, perhaps bright-brown or yellow. Names of 
colour are difficult to translate from one language into 
another, for their shades vary, and withdraw themselves 
from sharp definition. We shall meet with this difficulty 
again and again in the Veda ; see RV. X, ao, 9. 

As it has actually been doubted whether bradhna arusha 
can be meant for the sun, and whether the Vedic poets 
ever looked upon the sun as a horse, I may quote Va^\ 
Samh. XXIII, 4, where the same verse occurs and is de- 
clared to be addressed to the sun ; and Satap. Br. XIII, 
2,6, 1, where we read, yun^-anti bradhnam arusham £aran- 
tam iti, asau va adityo bradhno * rusho • mum evasma 
adityaw yunakti svargasya lokasya samash/yai. Ludwig 
remarks justly that the sun has been conceived as a chariot 
also, and that bradhna arusha may have been thus under- 
stood here. Delbruck translates quite boldly : Sie schirren 
die rothe Sonne an. See also Tait. Br. Ill, 7, 7,4; Tawrfya 
Br. XXIII, 3, 5 ; 5ankh. Br. II, 17, 3 ; Ludwig, Comm. ii. 
p. 173. M. Bergaigne (Rel. Ved. iii. p. 324) remarks very 
truly: 'Le soleil est tantdt une roue, tantdt un char, tantdt 
un cheval, trainant le char, tantdt un heros mont6 sur le 
char et dirigeant les chevaux.' 

The following passages will illustrate the principal mean- 
ing of arusha, and justify the translation here adopted. 

ArushA, as an Adjective. 

Arusha is used as an adjective in the sense of red : 

VII, 97, 6. rim jagmasa* arusha'saA isv&A brf haspatim 
saha-valiaA vahanti, — nabhaA na rupam arusham vdsanaA. 

Powerful red horses, drawing together draw him, Brshas- 
pati : horses clothed in red colour, like the sky. 

Ill, 1, 4. jvetam ^•a^rtfl.nim arushim mahi-tvfi. 

Agni, the white, when born ; the red, by growth. 

Ill, 15, 3. kr*'sh«#su agne arusha^ v( bhahi. 

Shine, O Agni, red among the dark ones. 

Ill, 31, 21 ; VI, 37, 7. 

[3»] C 

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VII, 75, 6. prati dyutanam arushasaA isvSJt kittak a&ri- 
stdsi ushasam vahantaA. 

The red horses, the beautiful, were seen bringing to us 
the bright dawn. 

V, 43, « 5 I, "8, 5 5 IV, 43. <*; V, 73, 5 ; I, 36, 9 ; VII, 
3, 3; 16, 3; X,45, 7; I, 141, 8. 

II, 2, 8. saA idhanaA ushasaA rlmyaA anu sv&fc na didet 
arushe»a bhanuna. 

He (Agni), lit after the lovely dawns, shone like the sky 
with his red splendour. 

III, 29, 6 ; IV, 58, 7 ; I, 114, 5 ; V, 59, 5 ; 12, 2; 12, 6 ; 
VI, 8, 1. 

VI, 48, 6. jyavasu arushii vrfeha. 

In the dark (nights) the red hero (Agni). Cf. Ill, 7, 5. 

In one passage vrfehan arusha is intended for fire in the 
shape of lightning. 

X, 89, 9. n( amftreshu vadham indra tumram vrfehan 
vr/sha«am arusham .mini. 

Whet, O strong Indra, the heavy strong red weapon, 
against the enemies. 

X, 43, 9. ut^ayatam paraniA^y6tisha saha — vi ro£atam 
arushaA bhanuna shk'ih. 

May the axe (the thunderbolt) appear with the light — 
may the red one blaze forth, bright with splendour. 

X, 1,6; VI, 3, 6. 

X, 20, 9. krtshniA svzt&h arusha/fc yama/i asya bradhnaA 
rigr&A uta sdnaA. 

His (Agni's) path is black, white, red, bright, reddish, 
and yellow. 

Here it is extremely difficult to keep all the colours 

Arusha is frequently applied to Soma, particularly in the 
9th Mawrfala. There we read : 

IX, 8, 6. arushaA hariA. IX, 71, 7. arusha/; divaA kavW 
vrfeha. IX, 74, 1. vaj^i arushaA. IX, 82, 1. arushifc v^sha 
hariA. IX, 89, 3. harim arusham. 

IX, in, 1. arushaA h&riA. See also IX, 25, 5 ; 61, 21. 
In IX, 72, 1, arusha seems used as a substantive in the 
sense of red-horse. 

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NOTES. I, 6, I. 19 

Professor Spiegel, in his important review of my transla- 
tion (Heidelberger Jahrbiicher, 1870, p. 104), points out 
that aurusha in Zend means white, so that it would seem as 
if the original meaning of arusha had been bright, bright 
like fire, and thus red. 

ArushA, as an Appellative. 

Arusha is used as an appellative, and in the following 
senses : 

1. The one red-horse of the Sun, the two or more red- 
horses of Agni. 

1,6, 1. yuw^dnti bradhnam arusham. 

They yoke the bright red-horse (the Sun). 

I, 94, ie. yat ayukthaA arush£ rohita rathe. 

When thou (Agni) hadst yoked the two red-horses and 
the two ruddy horses to the chariot. I, 146, a. 

II, 10, a. sruy&A agnlA — havam me — jyavfi ratham vaha- 
Xzh rohita va uta arusha. 

Mayest thou, Agni, hear my call, whether the two black, 
or the two ruddy, or the two red-horses carry you. 

Here three kinds of colours are clearly distinguished, 
and an intentional difference is made between rohita and 
arusha. IV, a, 3. 

IV, 6, 9. tava ty6 agne harftaA — r6hitasaA — arushasa>& 

To thee (Agni) belong these bays, these ruddy, these red- 
horses, the stallions. 

Here, again, three kinds of horses are distinguished — 
Harfts, R6hitas, and Arushis. 

VIII, 34, 17. ye" rigr&h vfita-rawhasaA arushasaA raghu- 

Here arusha may be the subject, and the rest adjectives ; 
but it is also possible to take all the words as adjectives, 
referring them to Ini in the next verse. The fact that rigxk 
likewise expresses a peculiar red colour, is no objection, as 
may be seen from I, 6, 1 ; 94, 10. 

VII, 4a, a. yunkshva — harftaA rohita^ ka. yi va sadman 

C 2 

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Yoke (0 Agni) the bays, and the ruddy horses, or the 
red-horses which are in thy stable. VII,. 16, a. 

2. The cloud, represented as one of the horses of the 

I. 8 5» 5- "ta arushasya vf syanti dhaVaA. 

(When you go to the battle, O Maruts), the streams of 
the red (horse) flow off. 

V, 56, 7. uta syaA va^i arushaA. 

This strong red-horse, — meant for one of the horses of 
the Maruts, but, at the same time, as sending rain. 

ArushA, as the Proper Name of a Solar Deity. 

Besides the passages in which arusha is used either as an 
adjective, in the sense of red, or as an appellative, meaning 
some kind of horse, there are others in which, as I pointed 
out in my Essay on Comparative Mythology', Arusha 
occurs as a proper name, as the name of a solar deity, as 
the bright deity of the morning (Morgenroth). My inter- 
pretation of some of these passages has been contested, nor 
shall I deny that in some of them a different interpretation 
is possible, and that in looking for traces of Arusha, as a 
Vedic deity, representing the morning or the rising sun, and 
containing, as I endeavoured to show, the first germs of the 
Greek name of Eros, I may have seen more indications of 
the presence of that deity in the Veda than others would 
feel inclined to acknowledge. Yet in going over the same 
ground again, I think that even verses which for a time I 
felt inclined to surrender, yield a better sense, if we take the 
word arusha, which occurs in them as a substantive, as the 
name of a matutinal deity, than if we look upon it as an 
adjective or a mere appellative. It might be said that 
wherever this arusha occurs, apparently as the name of a 
deity, we ought to supply Agni or Indra or Surya. This is 
true to a certain extent, for the sun, or the light of the 
morning, or the bright sky form no doubt the substance and 

*■ Chips from a German Workshop, and ed., vol. ii, p. 137 seq. 
Selected Essays, vol. i, p. 444. 

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NOTES. I, 6,1. 21 

Subject-matter of this deity. But the same applies to many 
other names originally intended for these conceptions, but 
which, nevertheless, in the course of time, became inde- 
pendent names of independent deities. In our passage 
I, 6, i, yun^anti bradhnam arusham, we may retain for 
arusha the appellative power of steed or red-steed, but if we 
could ask the poet what he meant by this red-steed, or if 
we ask ourselves what we can possibly understand by it, 
the answer would be, the morning sun, or the light of the 
morning. In other passages, however, this meaning of red- 
steed is really no longer applicable, and we can only 
translate Arusha by the Red, understanding by this name 
the deity of the morning or of the morning sun, the later 

VII, 71, 1. apa svasuA ushasaA nak^ihtte rinikti kmh- 
mh arushSya pantham. 

The Night retires from her sister, the Dawn ; the Dark 
one yields the path to the Red one, i. e. the red morning. 

Here Arusha shares the same half-mythological character 
as Ushas. Where we should speak of dawn and morning 
as mere periods of time, the Vedic poet speaks of them as 
living and intelligent beings, half human, half divine, as 
powers of nature capable of understanding his prayers, and 
powerful enough to reward his praises. I do not think 
therefore that we need hesitate to take Arusha in this 
passage as a proper name of the morning, or of the morning 
sun, to whom the dark goddess, the Night, yields the path 
when he rises in the East. 

VI, 49, 3. divaA sisum sahasaA sunum agnfm yzgRisya. 
ketum arusham ya^adhyai. 

To worship the child of Dyu, the son of strength, Agni, 
the light of the sacrifice, the Red one (Arusha). 

In this verse, where the name of Agni actually occurs, it 
would be easier than in the preceding verse to translate 
arusha as an adjective, referring it either to Agni, the god 
of fire, or to ya^wasya ketum, the light of the sacrifice. 
I had myself yielded * so far to these considerations that I 

• Chips from a German Workshop, vol ii, p. 139. 

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gave up my former translation, and rendered this verse by 
' to worship Agni, the child of the sky, the son of strength, 
the red light of the sacrifice a .' But I return to my original 
translation, and I prefer to see in Arusha an independent 
name, intended, no doubt, for Agni, as the representative of 
the rising sun and, at the same time, of the sacrificial fire of 
the morning, but nevertheless as having in the mind of the 
poet a personality of his own. He is the child of Dyu, 
originally the offspring of heaven. He is the son of strength, 
originally generated by the strong rubbing of the arawis, i. e. 
the wood for kindling fire. He is the light of the sacrifice, 
whether as reminding man that the time for the morning 
sacrifice has come, or as himself lighting the sacrifice on the 
Eastern altar of the sky. He is Arusha, originally as 
clothed in bright red colour, but gradually changed into the 
representative of the morning. We see at once, if examin- 
ing these various expressions, how some of them, like the 
child of Dyu, are easily carried away into mythology, while 
others, such as the son of strength, or the light of the 
sacrifice, resist that unconscious metamorphosis. That 
Arusha was infected by mythology, that it had approached 
at least that point where nomina become changed into 
numina, we see by the verse immediately following : 

VI, 49, 3. arushasya duhitara vfrupe (fti vf-rftpe) strfohiA 
anyfi pip\s6 sffraA any! 

There are two different daughters of Arusha ; the one 
is clad in stars, the other belongs to the sun, or is the 
wife of Svar. 

Here Arusha is clearly a mythological being, like Agni 
or Savitar or Vauvanara ; and if Day and Night are called 
his daughters, he, too, can hardly have been conceived 
otherwise than as endowed with human attributes, as 
the child of Dyu, as the father of Day and Night, and 
not as a mere period of time, not as a mere cause or 

IV, 15, 6. tarn arvantam na sanasfm arusham na divaA 
sisum marmr%jyante dive^dive. 

• Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1867, p. 204. 

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NOTES. I, 6, I. 23 

They trim the fire day by day, like a strong horse, like 
Arusha, the child of Dyu. 

Here, too, Arusha, the child of Dyu, has to be taken as 
a personal character, and, if the na after arusham is right, a 
distinction is clearly made between Agni, the sacrificial fire, 
to whom the hymn is addressed, and Arusha, the child of 
heaven, the pure and bright morning, here used as a simile 
for the cleaning or trimming of the fire on the altar. 

V, 47, 3. arushiA su-par»a/4. 

Arusha, the morning sun, with beautiful wings. 

The Feminine ArushI, as an Adjective. 

Arusht, like arusha, is used as an adjective, in the same 
sense as arusha, i. e. red : 

III, 55, 11. sy&vi ka. yat arusht £a svasarau. 
As the dark and the red are sisters. 

I, 92, 1 and 2. g&vsJt arushiA and arushiA gSJt. 

The red cows of the dawn. 

I, 92, 2. rurantam bhanum ArushU astsnyuA. 

The red dawns obtained bright splendour. 

Here ushasaA, the dawns, occur in the same line, so that 
we may take arushiA either as an adjective, referring to the 
dawns, or as a substantive, as a name of the dawn or of 
her cows. 

I, 30, 21. ajve na £itre arushi. 

Thou beautiful red dawn, thou, like a mare. 

Here, too, the vocative arushi is probably to be taken as 
an adjective, particularly if we consider the next following 

IV, 52, 2. irva-iva /KirS arusht matfi gavam rtta-vari 
sakha abhut asvlno/t ush£6. 

The dawn, beautiful and red, like a mare, the mother of 
the cows (days), the never-failing, she became the friend 
of the Arvins. 

X, 5, 5. sapta svasr/A arushtA. 

The seven red sisters. 

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The Feminine ArushI, as a Substantive. 

If used as a substantive, arushi seems to mean the dawn. 
It is likewise used as a name of the horses of Agni, Indra, 
and Soma ; also as a name for mare in general. 

It means dawn in X, 8, 3, though the text points here so 
clearly to the dawn, and the very name of dawn is men- 
tioned so immediately after, that this one passage seems 
hardly sufficient to establish the use of arushi as a recog- 
nised name of the dawn. Other passages, however, would 
likewise gain in perspicuity, if we took arushi by itself as 
a name of the dawn, just as we had to admit in several 
passages arusha by itself as a name of the morning. Cf. I, 

Arushi means the horses of Agni, in I, 14, 12 : 

yukshva hi arushi^ rathe harftaA deva rohftaA. 

Yoke, O god (Agni), the red-horses to the chariot, the 
bays, the ruddy. 

I, 72, 10. pra nUtA agne arushU a^anan. 

They knew the red-horses, Agni, coming down. VIII, 
69, 5. 

Soma, as we saw, was frequently spoken of as arushaA 

In IX, in, 2, tridhfitubhiA arushibhiA seems to refer 
to the same red-horses of Soma, though this is not quite 

The passages where arushi means simply a mare, without 
any reference to colour, are VIII, 68, 18, and VIII, 55, 3. 

It is curious that Arusha, which in the Veda means red, 
should, as pointed out before, in its Zend form aurusha, 
mean white. That in the Veda it means red, and not white, 
is shown, for instance, by X, 20, 9, where jvetd, the name 
for white, is mentioned by the side of arusha. Most likely 
arusha meant originally brilliant, and became fixed with 
different shades of brilliancy in Sanskrit and Persian. 
Arusha presupposes a form ar-vas, and is derived from a 
root ar in the sense of running or rushing. See Chips 
from a German Workshop, vol. ii, pp. 135, 137. 

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NOTES. I, 6, I. 25 

Having thus explained the different meanings of arushi 
and arushi in the Rig-veda, I feel it incumbent, at least for 
once, to explain the reasons why I differ from the classifi- 
cation of Vedic passages as given in the Dictionary pub- 
lished by Boehtlingk and Roth. Here, too, the passages 
in which arusha is used as an adjective are very properly 
separated from those in which it appears as a substantive. 
To begin with the first, it is said that * arusha means ruddy, 
the colour of Agni and his horses ; he (Agni) himself appears 
as a red-horse.' In support of this, the following passages 
are quoted : 

III, i, 4. avardhayan su-bhagam sapta yahvtt .rvetim 
gagiikukm arusham mahi-tv£, sisum na g&tim abhf aruA 
irvaA. Here, however, it is only said that Agni was born 
brilliant-white*, and grew red, that the horses came to him 
as they come to a new-born foal. Agni himself is not called 
a red-horse. 

III, 7, 5. Here, again, vtishnaA arushasya is no doubt 
meant for Agni. But vr/shan by itself does not mean 
horse, though it is added to different names of horses to 
qualify them as male horses; cf. VII, 69, 1, & vim rathaA 
vWshabhiA yatu irvaiA, may your chariot come near 
with powerful horses, i. e. with stallions. See note to I, 
85, 12. We are therefore not justified in translating arushi 
vrfehan by red-horse, but only by the red male, or the red 

In III, 31, 3, agnfA gQg-ne ^uhvi re^amanaA mahaA putran 
arushasya pra-yikshe, I do not venture to say who is meant 
by the mahaA putr&i arushasya, whether Adityas or Maruts, 
but hardly the sons of Agni, as Agni himself is mentioned 
as only born. But, even if it were so, the father of these 
sons (putra) could hardly be intended here for a horse. 

IV, 6, 9. tava tye" agne harftaA ghrtta-sn£A rdhit&saA 
rign-iJik&h au-ifik&h, arushasaA vrfeha«aA r*£-u-mushkfiA. 
Here, so far from Agni being represented as a red-horse, 
his different horses, the Harfts or bays, the Rdhitas or 

» See V, 1, 4. xvetdA v$gf gijzte igre ahn&m. X, 1, 6. arushlA 
glVSA pade* i&jU. 

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ruddy, and the arushffsaA vr/sha«aA, the red stallions, are 
distinctly mentioned. Here vr/shan may be translated by 
stallion, instead of simply by male, because arusha is here a 
substantive, the name of a horse. 

V, i, 5- ^dnish/a hi gknydJi agre ahnam hitd/i hiteshu 
arusha^ vdneshu. Here arusha^ is simply an adjective, red, 
referring to Agni, who is understood throughout the hymn 
to be the object of praise. He is said to be kind to those 
who are kind to him, and to be red in the woods, i. e. 
brilliant in the wood which he consumes ; cf. Ill, 29, 6. 
Nothing is said about his equine nature. 

In V, 1 a, 2 and 6, VI, 48, 6, we have again simply arusha 
vr/shan, which does not mean the red-horse, but the red 
male, the red hero, i. e. Agni. 

In VI, 49, 2, diva/4 sisum sahasaA sunum agnfm ya^vtasya 
ketum arusham ya^adhyai, there is no trace of Agni being 
conceived as a horse. He is called the child of the sky or 
of Dyu, the son of strength (who is produced by strong 
rubbing of wood), the light or the beacon of the sacrifice, 
and lastly Arusha, which, for reasons stated above, I take 
to be used here as a name. 

Next follow the passages in which, according to Professor 
Roth, arusha, as an adjective, is said to be applied to the 
horses, cows, and other teams of the gods, particularly of 
the dawn, the A-rvins, and Brzhaspati. 

I, 118, 5. pari vam isv&A vapushaA patang&fc vayaA 
vahantu arush&& abhike. Here we find the vayaA arushSA 
of the Arvins, which it is better to translate by red birds, as 
immediately before the winged horses are mentioned. In 
fact, whenever arusha is applied to the vehicle of the Asvins, 
it is to be understood of these red birds, IV, 43, 6. 

In I, 92, 1 and 2 (not 20), arushi occurs three times, 
referring twice to the cows of the dawn, once to the dawn 

In IV, 15, 6, tam arvantam nd sanasfm arusham nd divaA 
sisum marmr^gyante dive-dive, arushd does not refer to the 
horse or any other animal of Agni. The verse speaks of a 
horse by way of comparison only, and says that the sacrificers 
clean or trim Agni, the fire, as people clean a horse. We 

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NOTES. I, 6, I. 27 

cannot join arusham in the next pida with arvantam in the 
preceding pada, for the second na would then be without 
any construction. The construction is certainly not easy, 
but I think it is safer to translate : they trim him (Agni), 
day by day, as they clean a strong horse, as they clean 
Arusha, the child of Dyu. In fact, as far as I know, arusha 
is never used as the name of the one single horse belonging 
to Agni, but always of two or more. 

In III, 31, 21, antar (fti) krisht&n arushaf/i dhama bhiA 
gat, dhama bhiA is said to mean flames of lightning. But 
dhaman in the Rig-veda does not mean flames, and it 
seems better to translate, with thy red companies, scil. 
the Maruts. 

That arusha in one or two passages means the red cloud, 
is true. But in X, 43, 9, arusha refers to the thunderbolt 
mentioned in the same verse; and in I, 114, 5, everything 
refers to Rudra, and not to a red cloud, in the proper sense 
of the word. 

Further on, where the meanings attributable to arushi in 
the Veda are collected, it is said that arushi means a red 
mare, also the teams of Agni and Ushas. Now, here, 
surely, a distinction should have been made between those 
passages in which arushi means a real horse, and those 
where it expresses the imaginary steeds of Agni. The 
former, it should be observed, occur in one only, 
and in places of somewhat doubtful authority, in VIII, 55, 
3, a Vala'khilya hymn, and in VIII, 68, 18, a danastuti or 
panegyric. Besides, no passage is given where arushi means 
the horses of the dawn, and I doubt whether such a passage 
exists, while the one verse where arushi is really used for 
the horses of Indra, is not mentioned at all. Lastly, two 
passages are set apart where arushi is supposed to mean 
flames. Now, it may be perfectly true that the red-horses 
of Agni are meant for flames, just as the red-horses of Indra 
may be the rays of the sun. But, in that case, the red- 
horses of Agni should always have been thus translated, or 
rather interpreted, and not in one passage only. In IX, 
111, 2, arushi is said to mean flames, but no further light is 
thrown upon that very difficult passage. 

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Note 2. Pari tasthushaA. I take this form as a nomi- 
native plural like abibhyushaA, I, n, 5, tvam devSA abi- 
bhyushaA tu^yamanasaA avishuA, 'the gods, stirred up, 
came to thee, not fearing ;' and like dadushaA, I, 54, 8, ye 
te indra dadushaA vardhayanti mahi kshatram, ' who giving 
or by their gifts increase thy great power, O Indra.' Here 
we might possibly take it as a gen. sing, referring to te, but 
dadivan is far more appropriate as an epithet of the sacrificer 
than of the god. (See Benfey, Vocativ, p. 24; and Hermes, 
p. 16.) It is well known among Sanskrit scholars that Pro- 
fessor Whitney, in reviewing my translation, declared that 
the participial form tasthushaA had no right to be anything 
but an accusative plural or a genitive or ablative singular. 
(See Chips from a German Workshop, vol. iv, p. 508.) Dr. 
Kern, however, in his translation of the Bnhat-Samhita 
had shown long before that nom. plur. such as vidushaA are 
by no means rare, even in the Mahabharata and kindred 
works. Dr. Lanman (Journ. Americ. Or. Soc. X, p. 513) 
has now entered abibhyushaA as a nom. plur., but he prefers 
to take tasthushaA as an ace. plural, so that we should have 
to translate Mrantam pari tasthiishaA by ' walking round 
Chose who stand.' This may be grammatically possible ; 
but who could be meant by tasthushafc, standing ones? 
And, secondly, is it usual in Vedic Sanskrit to say £arati 
pdri tam, ' he walks round him ?' We find pari ta«e yati, or 
tarn pari yati, but hardly yati pari tam, ' he goes round him,' 
except when pari stands independent of the verb and means 
' around,' e. g. IX, 72, 8, pavasva pari pfirthivam x&gah. It is 
more difficult to decide whether we should adopt Ludwig's 
interpretation, who takes pari tasthushaA in the sense of 
* away from what is firm.' This is correct grammatically, and 
tasthivat, as opposed to ^agat, is often used in the sense of 
what is immovable. But is it ever used in that sense by 
itself? I doubt it, though I may add in support of it such 
a passage as I, 191, 9, ut apaptat asau sdryavfc .... adityaA 
parvatebhyaA, a verse where the expression visvidrishfaA 
adrzsh/aha is analogous to our ketum krt»van aketave. I 
therefore retain pari tasthushaA as a nom. plural in the sense 
of standing around, circumstantes, possibly of parLfcara, 

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NOTES. I, 6, 2. 29 

attendants. ParishA&ana or sthana comes to mean an 
abode, and paritasthivantas would be bystanders, attend- 
ants, the people, in fact, who are supposed to harness the 

Though I do not assign great weight to interpretations 
of hymns, as given by the Brahmaxras, I may mention that 
in the Taitt. Br. Ill, 9, 4, i, paritasthushaA is explained as a 
nom. plur., ime vai lokaA paritasthushaA, while Saya«a in 
his commentary (Sama-veda II, 6, 3, 12, 1) has parito«va- 
sthita lokatrayavartinaA pra«ina^. 

Note 3. R6£ante ro/tana. A similar expression occurs 
III, 61, 5, where it is said of Ushas, the dawn, that she 
lighted the lights in the sky, pra tokanS. ruru£e ra«va- 

Verse 8. 

Wilson : They (the charioteers) harness to his car 
his two desirable coursers, placed on either hand, bay- 
coloured, high-spirited, chief-bearing. 

Benfey : Die lieben Falben schirren sie zu beiden Seiten 
des Wagens an, braune, kiihne, held-tragende. 

Ludwig : Sie spannen seine lieblichen falben an den 
wagen mit auseinandergehenden seiten, die blutroten, 
mutigen, helden-bringenden. 

Note 1. Although no name is given, the pronoun asya 
clearly refers to Indra, for it is he to whom the two bays 
belong. The next verse, therefore, must likewise be taken 
as addressed to Indra, and not to the sun or the morning- 
red, spoken of as a horse or a chariot in the first verse. 

Vipakshasa is well explained by Saya«a, vividhe pakshasf 
rathasya parjvau yayos tau vipakshasau, rathasya dvayo^ 
parrvayor ycjgitav ity arthaA. The only doubt is whether 
it refers to the two sides of the chariot, or of the principal 
horse. That horses were sometimes yoked so that one 
should act as leader, and two should be harnessed on each 
side, we see in I, 39, 6, note. 

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Verse 3. 

WILSON : Mortals, you owe your (daily) birth (to such 
an Indra), who, with the rays of the morning, gives sense to 
the senseless, and to the formless, form. 

BENFEY: Licht machend — Manner! — das Dunkele und 
kenntlich das Unkenntliche, entsprangst du mit dem Mor- 

LUDWIG : Sichtbarkeit schaffend dem unsichtbaren, 
gestalt o schmuckreiche (Marut) dem gestaltlosen, wurdet 
ihr mit den Ushas zusammen geboren. 

Note 1. In the TB. Ill, 9, 4, several of these mantras are 
enjoined for the Arvamedha. When the banner (dhva^a) 
is fastened, this verse is to be used, because ketu was 
supposed to mean a banner. The vocative maryaA, which 
I have translated by O men, had evidently become a mere 
exclamation at a very early time. Even in our passage it 
is clear that the poet does not address any men in particular, 
for he addresses Indra, nor is marya used in the general 
sense of men. It means males, or male offspring. It 
sounds more like some kind of asseveration or oath, like the 
Latin mehercle, or like the English O ye powers, and it is 
therefore quoted as a nipata or particle in the Va^-. Pratu. 
II, 16. It can hardly be taken here as addressed to the Maruts, 
though the Maruts are the subject of the next verse. Kluge 
in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xxv, p. 309, points out that mary&A 
as an interjection does not occur again in the Rig-veda. But 
the Rig-veda contains many words which occur once only, 
and the author of Vkg. Pratuakhya is no mean authority. 
See also Ta«</ya Brahm. VII, 6, 5. If Dr. Kluge proposes to 
read maryai as a dative (like km<p) he knows, of course, that 
such a form does not only never occur again in the Rig-veda, 
but never in the whole of Sanskrit literature. Grassmann and 
Lanman (N. I., p. 339) both seem to imagine that the Pada 
text has marya, but it has maryiA, and no accent. If mary&A 
had the accent, we might possibly translate, * the youths, i. e. 
the Maruts, made,' taking krinvaa for akrzwvan, or the more 
usual akurvan ; but in that case the transition to a^iyathaA 
would be very sudden. See, however, I, 6, 7. 

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NOTES. I, 6, 4. 31 

Sayawa explains it mzrykh, manushya^ 1 idam lr£aryam 
pajyata. Another explanation of this verse, which evi- 
dently troubled the ancient commentators as much as us, 
is, ' O mortal, i. e. O sun (dying daily), thou hast been born 
with the dawn.' 

Note 2. UshadbhiA, an instrumental plural which attracted 
the attention of the author of the Varttika to Pa«. VII, 4, 
48. It occurs but. once, but the regular form, ushobhiA, 
does not occur at all in the Rig-veda. The same grammarian 
mentions mas, month, as changing the final s of its base into 
d before bhis. This, too, is confirmed by RV. II, 24, 5, 
where madbhM? occurs. Two other words, svavas, offering 
good protection, and svatavas, of independent strength, 
mentioned together as liable to the same change, do not 
occur with bhiA in the Rig-veda, but the forms svavadbhiA 
and svatavadbhiA probably occurred in some other Vedic 
writings. SvatavadbhyaA has been pointed out by Professor 
Aufrecht in the Va^asan. Samhita XXIV, 16, and svatavo- 
bhya/i in Satap. Br. II, 5, 1, 14. That the nom. svavan, which 
is always trisyllabic, is not to be divided into sva-van, 
as proposed by .Sakalya, but into su-av&n, is implied by 
Varttika to Pa«. VIII, 4, 48, and distinctly stated in the 
Siddhanta-Kaumudi. That the final n of the nom. su-avan 
disappeared before semi-vowels is confirmed by the .Sakala- 
pratirakhya, Sutra 287 ; see also Va^asan. PratLr. Ill, Sutra 
135 (Weber, Ind. Stud. vol. iv, p. 206). On the proper 
division of su-avas, see Aufrecht, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, vol. xiii, p. 499. 

Verse 4. 

WlLSON : Thereafter, verily, those who bear names 
invoked in holy rites (the Maruts), having seen the rain 
about to be engendered, instigated him to resume his 
embryo condition (in the clouds). 

Benfey : Sodann von freien Stiicken gleich erregen 
wieder Schwangerschaft die heilgen Namen tragenden. 

LudwiG: Da haben namlich in ihrer gottlichen weise 
dise der Yrism leibesfrucht gebracht, opfer verdienenden 
namen erwerbend. 

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Note 1. At must here take vyuha and be pronounced as 
an iambus. This is exceptional with at, but there are at 
least two other passages where the same pronunciation is 
necessary. I, 148, 4, fit rotate vane & vi-hM-va, though 
in the line immediately following it is monosyllabic. Also 
in V, 7, io, St agne apriwataA. 

Note 2. Svadha", literally one's own place, afterwards; 
one's own nature. It was a great triumph for the science 
of Comparative Philology that, long before the existence of 
such a word as svadha in Sanskrit was known, it should 
have been postulated by Professor Benfey in his Griechisches 
Wurzellexicon, published in 1839, and in the appendix of 
1842. Svadha' was known, it is true, in the ordinary San- 
skrit, but there it only occurred as an exclamation used on 
presenting an oblation to the manes. It was also explained 
to mean food offered to deceased ancestors, or to be the 
name of a personification of Maya or worldly illusion, or of 
a nymph. But Professor Benfey, with great ingenuity, pos« 
tulated for Sanskrit a noun svadha - , as corresponding to the 
Greek iOos and the German, sitte, O. H. G. sit-u, Gothic 
sid-u. The noun svadha" has since been discovered in the 
Veda, where it occurs very frequently ; and its true meaning 
in many passages where native tradition had entirely mis- 
understood it, has really been restored by means of its 
etymological identification with the Greek Idos or ^0os. See 
Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. ii, p. 134 ; voL xii, p. 158. 

The expressions ami svadham and svadham anu are of 
frequent occurrence. They mean, according to the nature 
or character of the persons spoken of, and may be trans- 
lated by as usual, or according to a person's wont. Thus in 
our passage we may translate, The Maruts are born again, 
i. e. as soon as Indra appeared with the dawn, according to 
their wont ; they are always born as soon as Indra appears, 
for such is their nature. 

I» '°5, 5- indra svadham anu hf aaA babhtftha. 

For, Indra, according to thy wont, thou art with us. 

VIII, 20, 7. svadham anu jrfyam nara/4 — vahante. 

According to their wont, the men (the Maruts) carry 

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notes, i, 6, 4. 33 

Thou hast grown (Indra) according to thy nature. 

IV, 33, 6. anu svadham ribh&vaJt ^agmuA etam. 

According to their nature, the ^tbhus went to her, scil. 
the cow ; or, according to this their nature, they came. 

IV, 5*, 6; I, 33, " 5 I, 88, 6; VII, 56, 13 ; III, 5 i, „. 

In all these passages svadha* may be rendered by manner, 
habit, usage, and anu svadham would seem to correspond to 
the Greek i£ tdovs. Yet the history of these words in 
Sanskrit and Greek has not been exactly the same. First 
of all we observe in Greek a division between I0os and JjOos, 
and whereas the former comes very near in meaning to the 
Sanskrit svadhfi, the latter shows in Homer a much more 
primitive and material sense. It means in Homer, not a 
person's own nature, but the own place, for instance, of 
animals, the haunts of horses, lions, fish ; in Hesiod, also of 
men. Horn. II. XV, 268, ixtrd r ijdea ko.1 vofibv hntatv, loca 
consueta et pascua. Svadha* in the Veda does not occur 
in that sense, although etymologically it might take the 
meaning of one's own place: cf. dha-man, familia, &c. 
Whether in Greek IjOos, from meaning lair, haunt, home, 
came, like voy.6$ and vSpos, to mean habit, manner, character, 
which would be quite possible, or whether Ijdos in that 
meaning represents a second start from the same point, 
which in Sanskrit was fixed in svadha 1 , is impossible to 
determine. In Sanskrit svadhfi clearly shows the meaning 
of one's own nature, power, disposition. It does not mean 
power or nature in general, but always the power of some 
one, the peculiarity, the individuality of a person. This 
will appear from the following passages : 

II, 3, 8. tiariA devtt svadhaya barhlA 8, idam ikk/tidram 

May the three goddesses protect by their power the 
sacred pile unbroken. 

IV, 13, 5. kaya yati svadhaya. 

By what inherent power does he (the Sun) move on ? 

IV, 26, 4. a£akraya svadhaya. 

By a power which requires no chariot, i.e. by himself 
without a chariot. 

The same expression occurs again X, 27, 19. 

[32] D 

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In some places the verb mad, to delight, joined with 
svadhaya, seems to mean to revel in his strength, to be 
proud of his might. 

V, 32, 4. svadhaya madantam. 

VWtra who delights in his strength. 

VII, 47, 3. svadhaya madantlA. 

The waters who delight in their strength. See X, 124, 8. 

In other passages, however, as we shall see, the same 
phrase (and this is rather unusual) requires to be taken in 
a different sense, so as to mean to rejoice in food. 

I, 164,38; III, 17,5. 

III, 35, 10. mdra pfba svadhaya £it sutasya &gn6A va 
pahi ^ihvaya ya^atra. 

Indra drink of the libation by thyself (by thy own power), 
or with the tongue of Agni, O worshipful. 

To drink with the tongue of Agni is a bold but not 
unusual expression. V, 51, 2. agn£A pibata ^ihvaya. X, 

I, 165, 6. kva syfivaA marutaA svadhSasit yat mam ekam 

sam-adhatta ahi-hatye. 

Where was that custom of yours, O Maruts, when you 
left me alone in the killing of Ahi ? 

VII, 8, 3. kaya naA agne vl vasaA su-vr*ktfm k&m te (fti) 
svadham rinzvaJt jasyamanaA. 

In what character dost thou light up our work, and what 
character dost thou assume, when thou art praised ? 

IV, 5 8, 4; IV, 45. 6. 

I, 64, 4. sakam ga^nire svadhaya. 

They (the Maruts) were born together, according to their 
nature; very much like anu svadham, I, 6, 4. One can 
hardly render it here by 'they were born by their own 
strength,' or ' by spontaneous generation.' 

In other passages, however, svadhaya, meaning originally 
by its own power, or nature, comes to mean, by itself, 
sponte sua. 

VII, 78, 4 8. asthat ratham svadhaya yu^yamanam. 

She, the dawn, mounted the chariot which was harnessed 
by itself, by its own power, without requiring the assistance 
of people to put the horses to. 

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NOTES. I, 6, 4. 

X, 129, 2. ffnit avatam svadhaya tat e"kam. 

That only One breathed breathlessly (or freely) by its 
own strength, i. e. by itself. 

In the same sense svadhabhiA is used in several passages : 

I, 113, 13. amr/ta £arati svadhabhiA. 

The immortal Dawn moves along by her own strength, 
i.e. by herself. 

VIII, 10, 6. yat va svadhfitbhi/* adhi-tfsh/AathaA ratham. 

Or whether ye mount your chariot by your own strength, 
ye Asvins. 

I, 164, 30. giv&A mrftasya £arati svadhabhiA amartya/2 
martyena sa-yoniA. 

The living moves by the powers of the dead, the immortal 
is the brother of the mortal. Ill, 26, 8 ; V, 60, 4. 

There are doubtful passages, such as 1, 180, 6, in which 
the meaning of svadhabhiA, too, is doubtful. In VI, 2, 8, 
svadha looks like an adverb, instead of svadhaya, and would 
then refer to parypma. The same applies to VIII, 32, 6. 

But svadha" means also food, lit. one's own portion, the 
sacrificial offering due to each god, and lastly, food in 

1, 108, 12. yat indragni (iti) ut-ita sfiryasya madhye div&A 
svadhaya madayethe (fti). 

Whether you, Indra and Agni, delight in your food at 
the rising of the sun or at midday. 

X, 15, 12. tvam agne 1/itaA ^ata-vedaA ava/ havyani 
surabhmi kritvi, pra adaA pitr/-bhyaA svadhaya t6 akshan 
addhf tvam deva pra-yata haviWshi. 13. ye" ka. iha pitaraA 
yi ka. na iha yan £a vidma ySn dm (fti) ka. na pra-vidma, 
tvam vettha yati te" ^ata-vedaA svadhabhiA ya£-«am su- 
krztam ^ushasva. 14. y6 agni-dagdha^ ye" anagni-dagdhaA 
madhye div&h svadhaya madayante, t^bhiA sva-raV asu- 
nitim etffm yatha-vajam tanvam kalpayasva. 

12. Thou, O Agni Gatavedas, hast carried, when im- 
plored, the offerings which thou hast rendered sweet : thou 
hast given them to the fathers, they fed on their share. 
Eat thou, O god, the proffered oblations. 13. Our fathers 
who are here, and those who are not here, our fathers whom 
we know and those whom we do not know, thou knowest 

D 2 

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how many they are, O G&tavedas, accept the well-made 
sacrifice with the sacrificial portions. 14. They who, whe- 
ther burnt by fire or not burnt by fire, rejoice in their 
offering in the midst of heaven, give to them, O king, that 
life, and thy (their) own body, according to thy will. 

Ill, 4, 7. sapta przkshasa£ svadhaya madanti. 

The seven horses delight in their food. 

X, 14, 7. ubha r%ana svadhaya madanti. 

The two kings delighting in their food. 

IX, 113, 10. yatra kama^ ni-kama'A ka., y&tra. bradhnasya 
vish/apam, svadhS ka. yatra Wpti^ ka. tdtra mam amr/tam 

Where wishes and desires are, where the cup of the bright 
Soma is (or, where the highest place of the sun is), where 
there is food and rejoicing, there make me immortal. 

I» i54. 4- y£sya trf purwa madhuna- padlini akshiyamawa 
svadhaya madanti. 

He (Vishwu) whose three places, full of sweet, imperish- 
able, delight or abound in food. 

V, 34, 1 ; II, 35> 7 ; 1. 1<58, 9 ; 1, 176, %. 

In the tenth book svadha is used very much as it occurs 
in the later Sanskrit, as the name of a peculiar sacrificial rite. 

X, 14, 3. ya'n ka. deva^ vavredhuA ye" ka, devSn svaha 
anye" svadhaya any6 madanti. 

Those whom the gods cherish, and those who cherish the 
gods, the one delight in Svahi, the others in Svadha ; or, in 
praise and food. 

Note 8. The expression garbha-tvam 4-irir6 is matched 
by that of III, 60, 3, saudhanvanasaA amrzta-tvam & trire, 
the Saudhanvanas (the i?*bhus) obtained immortality, or be- 
came immortal. I do not think that punar erire can mean, 
as Ludwig supposes, they pushed away their state of garbha. 
The idea that the Maruts assumed the form of a garbha, 
lit. of an embryo or a new-born child, is only meant to ex- 
press that they were born, or that the storms burst forth 
from the womb of the sky as soon as Indra arises to do 
battle against the demon of darkness. Thus we read, 
I, 134, 4, a^anayaA marutaA vakshawabhyaA, Thou, Vayu, 
hast produced the Maruts from the bowels (of the sky). 

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NOTES. I, 6, 5. 37 

As assisting Indra in this battle, the Maruts, whose name 
retained for a long time its purely appellative meaning of 
storms, attained their rank as deities by the side of Indra, 
or, as the poet expresses it, they assumed their sacred 
name. This seems to be the whole meaning of the later 
legend that the Maruts, like the Z?ibhus, were not originally 
gods, but became deified for their works. See also Kern, 
Translation of IWhat-sawzhita, p. 1 1 7, note. 

Other explanations are : they made that which was born 
within the cloud into a garbha or embryo ; or, they arose 
with Aditya, proceeded with Savitar, and when Savitar set, 
they became again garbhas ; see Sama-veda 1 1, 2, 7, a, comm. 

Verse 5. 

WlLSON : Associated with the conveying Maruts, the 
traversers of places difficult of access, thou, Indra, hast dis- 
covered the cows hidden in the cave. 

BENFEY : Mit den die Festen brechenden, den Stiirm- 
enden fandst, Indra, du die Kiihe in der Grotte gar. 

LUDWIG : Und mit denen, die das feste sogar anbrechen, 
selbst im versteck, o Indra, mit den priesterlichen, fandest 
du die morgenstralen auf. 

Note 1. Sayawa explains vahnibhiA in the sense of 
Marudbhi^, and he tells the oft-repeated story how the 
cows were carried off by the Pa»is from the world of the 
gods, and thrown into darkness, and how Indra with the 
Maruts conquered them and brought them back. Every- 
body seems to have accepted this explanation of Sayawa, 
and I myself do not venture to depart from it. Yet it 
should be stated that the use of vahni as a name of the 
Maruts is by no means well established. Vahni is in fact a 
most difficult word in the Veda. In later Sanskrit it means 
fire, and is quoted also as a name of Agni, the god of fire, 
but we do not learn why a word which etymologically 
means carrier, from vah, to carry, should have assumed the 
meaning of fire. It may be that vah, which in Sanskrit, 
Greek, and Latin means chiefly to carry, expressed origin- 

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ally the idea of moving about (the German be-wegen), 
in which case vah-ni, fire, would have been formed with the 
same purpose as ag-nf, ig-nis, fire, from Sk. af, dy-o>,ag-o. 
In Alvis-mal, V, 94, we read, kalla Vag Vanir, the Wanes 
call fire Vag, i.e. wavy. But in Sanskrit Agni is so con- 
stantly represented as the carrier of the sacrificial oblation, 
that something may also be said in favour of the Indian 
scholastic interpreters who take vahni, as applied to Agni, 
in the sense of carrier. However that may be, it admits 
of no doubt that vahni, in the Veda, is distinctly applied to 
the bright fire or light. In some passages it looks very 
much like a proper name of Agni, in his various characters 
of terrestrial and celestial light. It is used for the sacri- 
ficial fire : 

V, 50, 4. yatra vahniA abhf-hitaA. 

Where the sacrificial fire is placed. 

It is applied to Agni : 

VII, 7, 5. asadi vritAA vahniA a-^-aganvan agni A brahma*. 
The chosen light came nigh, and sat down, Agni, the 


Here Agni is, as usual, represented as a priest, chosen 
like a priest, for the performance of the sacrifice. But, for 
that very reason, vahni may here have the meaning of 
priest, which, as we shall see, it has in many places, and 
the translation would then be more natural : He, the chosen 
minister, came near and sat down, Agni, the priest. 

VIII, 23, 3. vahniA vindate vasu. 

Agni finds wealth (for those who offer sacrifices ?). 

More frequently vahni is applied to the celestial Agni, 
or other solar deities, where it is difficult to translate it in 
English except by an adjective : 

III, 5, 1. apa dvara tamasaA vahni/* avar (fty avaA). 

Agni opened the two doors of darkness. 

1, 160, 3. saA vahniA putra/z pitr6A pavi'tra-van punati 
dhixa/z bhuvanani mayaya. 

That light, the son of the two parents, full of brightness, 
the wise, brightens the world by his power. 

Agni is even called vahni-tama (IV, 1, 4), which hardly 
means more than the brightest. 

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NOTES. I, 6, 5. 39 

II, 17, 4. St r6dast (fti) ^y6tisha vahniA & atanot. 

Then the bright (Indra) stretched out or filled heaven 
and earth with his light. 

II, 38, 1. dt tun (fti) syih devaA savitfi— vahnL* asthat. 

The divine Savitar, the luminous, arose. 

Besides this meaning of light or fire, however, there are 
clearly two other meanings of vahni which must be admitted 
in the Veda, first that of a carrier, vehicle, and, it may be, 
horse ; secondly that of minister or priest. 

VI, 57, 3. ag&k anyasya vahnayaA hirl (fti) anyasya sam- 

The bearers of the one (Pushan) are goats, the bays are 
yoked for the other (Indra). 

I, 14, 6. ghriti-prishtteA manaA-yugaA ye" tva vahanti 

The horses with shining backs, obedient to thy will, 
which carry thee (Agni). 

VIII, 3, 23. yasmai anye" daja prati dhuram vahanti vah- 

A horse against whom other ten horses carry a weight ; 
i. e. it requires ten horses to carry the weight which this one 
horse carries. (See X, n, 7. vahamanaA ajvai^.) 

II, 37, 3. m^dyantu te vahnayaA ydbhiA lyase. 

May thy horses be fat on which thou goest. II, 24, 13. 

I, 44, 13. midhf jrut-karwa vahni-bhiA. 

Agni, who hast ears to hear, hear, on thy horses. Unless 
vahni- bhi/* is joined with the words that follow, devaf/* 

III, 6, a. va^yantam te vahnayaA sapta-gihvAA ». 

May thy seven-tongued horses be called. Here vahna- 
yaA is clearly meant for the flames of Agni, yet I doubt 
whether we should be justified in dropping the simile, 
as the plural of vahni is nowhere used in the bald sense 
of flames. 

In one passage vahni is supposed to be used as a feminine, 
or at all events applied to a feminine subject : 

VIII, 94, 1. yukta vihniA rathanam. 

8 Cf. I, 58, 7. saptii gvhv&A. 

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She is yoked as the drawer of the chariots. Probably, 
however, vahniA should here be changed into vahni. 

The passages in which vahni is applied to Soma in the 
ninth and tenth Mawrfalas throw little light on the subject. 
(IX, 9, 6 ; 20, 5 ; 6 ; 36, 2 ; 64, 19 ; 89, 1 ; X, 101, 10.) 

Instead of viram vupatiA, lord of men (VII, 7, 4), we find 
IX, 108, 10. viram v&hni/i na vlsp&tiA. One feels inclined 
to translate here vahniA by leader, but it is more likely that 
vahni is here again the common name of Soma, and that it 
is inserted between vis&m na vlrpatiA, which is meant to 
form one phrase. 

In IX, 97, 34, tisraA vakaA irayati pra vahniA, we may 
take vahni as the common appellation of Soma. But it 
may also mean minister or priest, as in the passages which 
we have now to examine. Cf. X, 11, 6. 

For besides these passages in which vahni clearly means 
vector, carrier, drawer, horse, there is a large class of verses 
in which it can only be translated by minister, i. e. officiating 
minister, and, as it would seem, chiefly singer or reciter'. 

The verb vah was used in Sanskrit in the sense of 
carrying out (ud-vah, ausfiihren), or performing a rite, 
particularly as applied to the reciting of hymns. Hence 
such compounds as uktha-vahas or st6ma-vahas, offering 
hymns of praise, and ya^vla-vahas. Thus we read : 

V, 79, 4. abhf y6 tva vibha-vari st6maiA grin&nti vah- 

The ministers who praise thee, splendid Dawn, with 
I, 48, 11. ye tva grt/tanti vahnayaA. 
The ministers who praise thee. 
VII, 75, 5. ushaA u£Mati vahni-bhiA gr*«ana\ 
The dawn lights up, praised by the ministers. 

VI, 39, 1 . mandrasya kave^ divyasya vahneA. 
Of the sweet poet, of the heavenly priest .... 

VII, 82, 4. yuvam ft yut-su pr/tanasu vahnayaA yuvSm 
kshemasya pra-save" mita-^f/JavaA, IranS vasvaA ubhayasya 
karava£ /ndravaruwa su-hava havamahe. 

a See Taitt. Brahm. I, 1, 6, 10. vahnir vi anarfvan, vahnir 

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NOTES. I, 6, 5. 41 

We, as ministers, invoke you only in fights and battles ; 
we, as suppliants, (invoke) you for the granting of treasure ; 
we, as poets, (invoke) you, the lords of twofold wealth, you, 
Indra and Varuwa, who listen to our call. 

VI, 32, 3. s&h vahni-bhi^ r/kva-bhi^ g6shu .rlrvat mita- 
gnn-b\aA puru-kr/tva^igaya. 

He (Indra) was victorious often among the cows, always 
with celebrating and suppliant ministers. 

I have placed these two passages together because 
they seem to me to illustrate each other, and to show 
that although in the second passage the celebrating and 
suppliant ministers may be intended for the Maruts, yet 
no argument could be drawn from this verse in favour of 
vahni by itself meaning the Maruts. See also VIII, 6, 2 ; 
13,15; X, 114, 2. 

IV, 21, 6. hota yih naA mahan sam-varaweshu vahniA. 

The Hotar who is our great priest in the sanctuaries. 

I, 128, 4. vahniA vedhifc a^ayata. 
Because the wise priest (Agni) was born. 

The same name which in these passages is applied to 
Agni, is in others, and, as it will be seen, in the same 
sense, applied to Indra. 

II, 21, 2. tuvi-graye vahnaye. 

To the strong-voiced priest or leader. 

The fact that vahni is followed in several passages by 
ukthafA would seem to show that the office of the vahni 
was chiefly that of recitation or of addressing prayers to 
the gods. 

III, 20, 1. agnfm ushasam axv/na dadhi-kram vf-ushrishu 
havate vahni/* uktha/A. 

The priest at the break of day calls with his hymns Agni, 
Ushas, the Ajvins, and Dadhikra. 

I, 184, 1. tS. vam adya tau aparam huvema u£Mantyam 
ushasi vahni^ ukthaf^. 

Let us invoke the two Ajvins to-day and to-morrow, the 
priest with his hymns is there when the dawn appears. 

In a similar sense, it would seem, as vihni/t ukthaf^, the 
Vedic poets frequently use the words vahni^ asa. This 
asa is the instrumental singular of is, mouth, and it is used 

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in other phrases also of the mouth as the instrument of 

VI, 32, 1. va^rtee jam-tamani v&k&msi as£ sthaviraya 

I have shaped with my mouth blessed words to the 
wielder of the thunderbolt, the strong Indra. 

X, 1 15, 3. asa vahnim na sokishS. vi-rapjmam. 

He who sings with his flame as the poet with his mouth. 
See also I, 38, 14. mimihi sl6ka.m asye, make a song in thy 

Thus we find vahni£ asa 1 in the same place in the sixth 
and seventh Ma«d?alas (VI, 16, 9 ; VII, 16, 9), in the phrase 
vahniA asS viduA-taraA, applied to Agni in the sense of the 
priest wise with his mouth, or taking vahniA asfi as it were 
one word, the wise poet. 

I, 129, 5. vahniA asa, vahniA naJi ikkha.. 

Indra, as a priest by his lips, as a priest coming to- 
wards us. 

From the parallelism of this passage it would seem that 
Professor Roth concluded the meaning of asa » to be near, 


» As, mouth, the Latin os, oris, has been derived from a root as, 
to breathe, preserved in the Sanskrit as-u, spirit, asu-ra, endowed 
with spirit, living, the living god. Though I agree with Curtius in 
admitting a primitive root as, to breathe, from which as-u, breath, 
must have sprung, I have always hesitated about the derivation of 
is and Ssya, mouth, from the same root. I do not think, however, 
that the lengthening of the vowel in as is so great a difficulty as has 
been supposed (Kuhn, Zeitschrift, vol. xvii, p. 145). Several roots 
lengthen their vowel a, when used as substantives without derivative 
suffixes. In some cases this lengthening is restricted to the Anga 
base, as in anadVih ; in others to the Anga and Pada base, as in 
vlrvavaV, virvavi</bhi^, &c. ; in others again it pervades the whole 
declension, as in turashl/: (see Sanskrit Grammar, §§ a 10, 208, 
175.) Among ordinary words vSi offers a clear instance of a 
lengthened vowel. In the Veda we find rrifshaham, VI, 14, 4, and 
r/VishaTiam (Sawhita), I, 64, 15. In X, 71, 10 the Sawhitd has 
sabh£s&he'na, the Pada sabhisahena. We find vah in apsu-vih (Sam. 
Ved.), indra-vih, havya-vdh. Sah at the end of compounds, such as 
nr/'-sah, pr/"tand-sah, bhuri-sah, satra-sah, vibhi-sah, sada-sah, varies 
between a long and short a : (see Regnier, £tude sur l'idiome du 

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notes, i, 6, 5. 43 

or coram. In the NighawAi, II, 16, the right reading is 
evidently asat, not asa ; see Nirukta, ed. Satyavrata Sama- 
jrami, vol. i, p. 264. Asa, however, is an old variant, as may 
be seen from Rig-veda-bhashya 1, 127, 8 ; X, 115, 3. 

I, 76, 4. pra^a-vata va£asa vahniA asfi a* k& huv£ nf ka. 
satsi iha devai'^. 

With words in which my people join, I, the poet, invoke» 
and thou (Agni) sittest down with the gods. 

VI, 11, 2. pavakaya ^uhvl vahniA asa*. 

Thou, a poet with a bright tongue, O Agni ! 

Grassmann thinks that vahnir asa can always be translated 
by ' vor das Angesicht bringend,' but this does not appear 
to be the case in his translation. 

The question now arises in what sense vahni is used when 
applied without further definition to certain deities. Most 
deities in the Veda are represented as driving or driven, 
and many as poets or priests. When the Ajvins are called 
vahnt, VIII, 8, 1 2 ; VII, 73, 4, it may mean riders. But when 
the VLrve Devas are so called, I, 3, 9, or the .# tbhus, the 
exact meaning is more doubtful. The Maruts are certainly 
riders, and whatever other scholars may say to the contrary, 
it can be proved that they were supposed to sit astride on 
horseback, and to have the bridle through the horse's 
nostrils (V, 61, 2). But if in our verse I, 6, 5, we translate 
vahni as an epithet, rider, and not only as an epithet, but 
as a name of the Maruts, we cannot support our transla- 
tion by independent evidence, but must rely partly on 
the authority of Sayawa, partly on the general tenor of the 
text before us, where the Maruts are mentioned in the pre- 
ceding verse, and, if I am right, in the verse following also. 
On the other hand, if vahni can thus be used as a name of 

Wdas, p. in.) At all events no instance has yet been pointed 
out in Sanskrit, showing the same contraction which we should 
have to admit if, as has been proposed, we derived is from av-as, 
or from an-as. From 'an' we have in the Veda ana, mouth or face, 
1, 52, 15. From as, to breathe, the Latin omen, originally os-men, 
a whisper, might likewise be derived. See Bopp, Comp. Gr. par. 
909 ; Kuhn in Ind. Stud. I, 333. 

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the Maruts, there is at least one other passage which would 
gain in clearness by the admission of that meaning, viz. 

X, 138, 1. tava tye" indra sakhy^shu vahnaya* — vf adar- 
diruA valam. 

In thy friendship, Indra, these Maruts tore asunder the 

Note 2. I have translated vi/u by stronghold, though it is 
only an adjective, meaning firm. Dr. Oscar Meyer, in his 
able essay Quaestiones Homericae, specimen prius, Bonnae, 
1 867, has tried to show that this vi/ii is the original form 
of "IAios, and he has brought some further evidence to show 
that the siege and conquest of Troy, as I pointed out in my 
Lectures on the Science of Language, vol. ii, p. 470, was 
originally described in language borrowed from the siege 
and conquest of the dark night by the powers of light, or 
from the destruction of the cloud by the weapons of Indra. 
It ought to be considered, however, that vi/u in the Veda 
has not dwindled down as yet to a mere name, and that 
therefore it may have originally retained its purely appella- 
tive power in Greek as well as in Sanskrit, and from meaning 
a stronghold in general, have come to mean the stronghold 
of Troy. 

Note 3. The bright cows are here the cows of the morn- 
ing, the dawns, or the days themselves, which are represented 
as rescued at the end of each night by the power of Indra, 
or similar solar gods. Indra's companions in that daily 
rescue are here the Maruts, the storms, the same com- 
panions who act even a more prominent part in the battle 
of Indra against the dark clouds. These two battles are 
often mixed up together, so that possibly usr/yaA may have 
been meant for clouds. 

Verse 6. 

WILSON : The reciters of praises praise the mighty 
(troop of Maruts), who are celebrated, and conscious of the 
power of bestowing wealth in like manner as they (glorify) 
the counsellor (Indra). 

Benfey : Nach ihrer Einsicht verherrlichend besingen 
Sanger den Schatzeherrn, den beriihmten, gewaltigen. 

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NOTES, i, 6, 7. 45 

LUDWIG : Als fromme heran zum liede haben die Sanger 
ihn, der trefliches findet, beriihmten gesungen. 

Note 1. The reasons why I take glr&A as a masculine in 
the sense of singer or praiser, may be seen in a note to 

I. 37. i°- 

Note 2. ydtha matfm, lit. according to their mind, accord- 
ing to their heart's desire. Cf. II, 24, 13. 

Verse 7. 

WlLSON: May you be seen, Maruts, accompanied by 
the undaunted (Indra); both rejoicing, and of equal 

Benfey : So lass mit Indra denn vereint, dem furcht- 
losen, erblicken dich, beide erfreu'nd und glanzesgleich. 

LUDWIG : Mit Indra zusammen wirst du gesehn zusam- 
mengehend mit dem furchtlosen, mild ihr zwei, von gleichem 

Note 1. The sudden transition from the plural to the 
singular is strange, but the host of the Maruts is frequently 
spoken of in the singular, and nothing else can here be 
intended. It may be true, as Professor Benfey suggests, 
that the verses here put together stood originally in a 
different order, or that they were taken from different 
sources. Yet though the Sama-veda would seem to sanction 
a small alteration in the order of the verses, the alteration 
of verses 7, 4, 5, as following each other, would not help us 
much. The Atharva-veda sanctions no change in the order 
of these verses. 

The transition to the dual at the end of the verse is 
likewise abrupt, not more so, however, than we are prepared 
for in the Veda. The suggestion of the Nirukta (IV, 12) 
that these duals might be taken as instrumentals of the 
singular, is of no real value. 

Note 2. Dr/kshase, a very valuable form, well explained 
by drisyeth&/i, a second person singular conjunctive of the 
First Aorist Atmanepada, the termination 'sase' corre- 
sponding to Greek <nj, as the conjunctive takes the personal 
terminations of the present in both languages. Similar 

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forms, viz. przkshase, X, 22, 7, mawsase, X, 27, 10 ; Ath. 
Veda VII, 20, 2-6, and possibly vfvakshase, X, 21, 1-8, 
24, 1-3, 25, 1 -11, will have to be considered hereafter. 
(Nirukta, ed. Roth, p. 30, Notes.) As Ludwig has pointed 
out, the Ta«</ya-branma«a XII, 2, 6, 7, reads dnfcshuse, and 
explains it by ime loka dadrisire. Saya«a, however, explains 
dwidh&to^ karmawi madhyamaikava£ane vyatyayena se- 
pratyaye drz'kshusa iti ruparn. See Delbrtick, Syntaktische 
Forschungen, I, p. 1 1 1. The story of Indra's being forsaken 
by all the gods in his battle against Vrt'tra, but being helped 
by the Maruts, is often mentioned ; see RV. VIII, 96, 7 ; 
SV. I, 4, 1, 4, 2 ; Ait. Br. Ill, 20. 

Verse 8. 

Wilson : This rite is performed in adoration of the 
powerful Indra, along with the irreproachable, heavenward- 
tending, and amiable bands (of the Maruts). 

Benfey : Durch Indra's Hebe Schaaren, die untadligen, 
himmelstiirmenden, strahlet das Opfer machtiglich. 

LUDWIG : Mit den tadellosen, morgens erscheinenden 
singt der kampfer sighaft, mit des Indra zu liebenden 

Note 1. Ar£ati, which I have here translated by he cries 
aloud, means literally, he celebrates. I do not know of any 
passage where ar£ati, when used, as here, without an object, 
means to shine, as Professor Benfey translates it. The real 
difficulty, however, lies in makha, which Saya«a explains 
by sacrifice, and which I have ventured to translate by 
priest or sacrificer. Makha, as an adjective, means, as far 
as we can judge, strong or vigorous, and is applied to 
various deities, such as Pushan I, 138, 1, SavitrcVI, 71, 1, 
Soma XI, 20, 7, Indra III, 34, 2, the Maruts I, 64, 11 ; VI, 
66, 9. By itself, makha is never used as the name of any 
deity, and it cannot therefore, as Professor Roth proposes, 
be used in our passage as a name of Indra, or be referred to 
Indra as a significant adjective. In I, 119, 3, makha is 
applied to men or warriors, but it does not follow that 
makha by itself means warriors, though it may be connected 

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notes, i, 6, 8. 47 

with the Greek fia\ os lQ avnixa\o<t. See Curtius, Grundziige, 
p. 293 5 Grassmann, in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xvi, p. 164. 

There are two passages where maltha refers to an enemy 
of the gods, IX, ioi, 13; X, 171, a. 

Among the remaining passages there is one where makha 
is used in parallelism with vahni, X, 11, 6. vfvakti vahniA, 
su-apasyate makhdA. Here I propose to translate, The poet 
speaks out, the priest works well. The same meaning seems 
applicable likewise to the phrase makhasya davane, to the 
offering of the priest, though I should prefer to translate ' to 
share in the sacrifice.' 

I, 134, 1. £ yahi davane, vayo (fti), makhasya davane. 

Come, Vayu, to the offering, to the offering of the priest. 

VIII, 7, 27. & nsJt makhasya davane — devasaA lipa gan- 

Come, gods, to the offering of our priest. 

Professor Roth proposes to render makha in these passages 
by ' attestation of joy, celebration, praise,' and he takes da- 
vane as a dative of davan, anomenactionis, meaning, the 
giving. There are some passages where one feels inclined to 
admit a noun davana, and to take davane as a locative sing. 

VI, 71,2. devasya vayam savituA savlmani 

sr6shtAc syama vasunaA ka. davane. 

May we be in the favour of the god Savitar, and in the 
best award of his treasure. 

In II, 11, 1, and II, 11, 12, the locative would likewise 
be preferable ; but there is a decided majority of passages 
in which davane occurs and where it is to be taken as a 
dative*, nor is there any other instance in the Veda of a 
nomen actionis being formed by vana. It is better, 
therefore, in VI, 71, 2, to refer srishtAe to savlmani, and to 
make allowance in the other passages for the idiomatic use 
of such phrases as davane vasunam or raydA davane, 
whether from da or from do. See De Infinitivi forma 
et usu, by E.Wilhelm, 1873, p. 17. 

» RV. I, 61, 10; 122, 5 ;1 134, a; i39» 6 > H, 1,10; IV, 29, 5; 
32.9; V, 59,1; 4; 65,3; VIII, 25,20; 45, 10; (92, 26); 46,25; 
27; 63,5; 69, 17; 70, 12; IX, 93, 4; X, 32, 5; 44, 7; 50, 7. 

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The termination vine explains, as has been shown by 
Professor Benfey, Greek infinitives such as bovvai, i. e. 
boevai or loFevat — Sanskrit da-vane. The termination mane 
in dS-mane, for the purpose of giving, explains, as the same 
scholar has proved, the ancient infinitives in Greek, such 
as bo-fievat. It may be added that the regular infinitives 
in Greek, ending in tvai, as kekotir-ivcu, are likewise 
matched by Vedic forms such as IX, 61, 30. dhfirv-ane, or 
VI, 61, 13. vibhv-ane, and turv-ane (Delbriick in K. Z. 
XVIII, p. 82 ; Bopp, Accent, §§ 106, 113, 117). It is hardly 
right to say that vibhvane in VI, 61, 13, should be taken as 
an instrumental, for it does not refer to the chariot, but 
to Sarasvatt. In the termination eu>, which stands for tvi, 
like ets for e<n, we have, on the contrary, not a dative, but a 
locative of an abstract noun in an, both cases, as we see from 
their juxta-position in VI, 71,2, being equally applicable to 
express the relation which we are accustomed to call infini- 
tive. See RV. I, 134, 5. ugraA ishananta bhurvawi, apam 
ishanta bhurvawi. 

Note 2. Abhidyu I now translate by hastening, and 
derive it from div, divyati, in its original meaning of to 
throw forth, to break forth, to shine. As from this root we 
have didyii, weapon, what is thrown, pi. didyavaA, and 
possibly didyut, the weapon, particularly Indra's weapon or 
thunderbolt, abhfdyu might mean breaking forth, rushing 
forth towards us, something like prakri/fnaA, another name 
of the Maruts. How abhfdyu could mean conque>ant, 
maitrc du jour, as M. Bergaigne maintains, I do not see. 
Abhfdyffn, 1, 33, 1 1 ; 190, 4, does not differ much from anu- 
dyttn, i.e. it is used vtpsayam. 

Verses 9, 10. 

WILSON: Therefore circumambient (troop of Maruts), 
come hither, whether from the region of the sky, or from 
the solar sphere ; for, in this rite, (the priest) fully recites 
your praises. 

Benfey : Von hier, oder vom Himmel komm ob dem 
iEther, Umkreisender ! zu dir streben die Lieder all. 

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NOTES. I, 6, 9-IO. 49 

Ludwig : Von hieher, o Pari.fman, kom, oder von des 
himels glanzfirmamente her; zu disem streben unsere 
lieder auf. 

Wilson: We invoke Indra, — whether he come from 
this earthly region, or from the heaven above, or from the 
vast firmament, — that he may give (us) wealth. 

BENFEY : Von hier, oder vom Himmel ob der Erde be- 
gehren Spende wir, oder, Indra ! aus weiter Luft. 

LUDWIG : Von hier zu empfangen verlangen wir, oder 
vom himel, oder vom irdischen raume her, oder aus dem 
grossen luftkreis den Indra. 

Note 1. Although the names for earth, sky, and heaven 
vary in different parts of the Veda, yet the expression divaA 
ro£anam occurs so frequently that we can hardly take it in 
this place in a sense different from its ordinary meaning. 
Professor Benfey thinks that ro£ana may here mean ether, 
and he translates 'come from heaven above the ether;' 
and in the next verse, 'come from heaven above the 
earth.' At first, every reader would feel inclined to 
take the two phrases, divaA va ro£an£t adhi, and divaA 
va plrthivat adhi, as parallel ; yet I believe they are not 
quite so. 

The following passages will show that the two words 
ro£anam divaA belong together, and that they signify the 
light of heaven, or the bright place of heaven. 

VIII, 98, 3. igakkfaJt ro£anam dw&h. 

Thou (Indra) wentest to the light of heaven. 1, 155, 3. 

Ill, 6, 8. urau va yi antarikshe— divaA va ye* ro£ane\ 

In the wide sky, or in the light of heaven. 

VIII, 8a, 4. upame* ro^ane" divaA. 
In the highest light of heaven. 

IX, 86, 27. b-jtlye prishtAi adhi ro£an£ diviA. 

On the third ridge, in the light of heaven. See also I, 
105,5; VIII, 69, 3. 

The very phrase which we find in our verse, only with £it 
instead of va, occurs again, I, 49, 1 ; VIII, 8, 7 ; and the 
same sense must probably be assigned to VIII, 1, 18, adha 
gxaih adha va diva^ br/hata/* ro£anat Adhi. 
[3*] E 

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Either from the earth, or from the light of the great 
heaven, increase, O Indra ! 

Ro£ana also occurs in the plural : 

I, 146, 1 .vfjva d'wAA ro&ana". 

All the bright regions of heaven. 

Saya/za : 'All the bright palaces of the gods.' See III, 

13, 9. 

The same word ro£ana, and in the same sense, is some- 
times joined with stfrya and nftka. 

Thus, I, 14, 9. suryasya rofcanat vkvan devan — h6ta iha 

May the Hotar bring the Virve Devas hither from the 
light of the sun, or from the bright realm of the sun. 

Ill, 22, 3. y&A rokan6 parastit sdryasya. 

The waters which are above, in the bright realm of the 
sun, and those which are below. 

I, 19, 6. ye" nfikasya adhi ro£ane\ divf dcvasaA asate. 

They who in the light of the firmament, in heaven, are 
enthroned as gods. 

Here div/, in heaven, seems to be the same as the light of 
the firmament, nalcasya ro£ane\ 

Thus ro£ana occurs also frequently by itself, when it 
clearly has the meaning of heaven. 

It is said of the dawn, I, 49, 4 ; of the sun, I, 50, 4 ; and 
of Indra, III, 44, 4. 

virvam & bhiti ro£anam, he lights up the whole sky. 

We also read of three royfcanas, where, though it is difficult 
to say what is really meant, we must translate, the three 
skies. The cosmography of the Veda is, as I said before, 
somewhat vague and varying. There is, of course, the 
natural division of the world into heaven and earth (dyii and 
bhflmi), and the threefold division into earth, sky, and heaven, 
where sky is meant for the region intermediate between 
heaven and earth (prithivl, antariksha, dyu). There is also 
a fourfold division,- for instance, 

VIII, 97, 5. yat va asi ro£an6 divaA 
samudrasya adhi vishfapi, 
yat parthive sadane vr*'trahan-tama, 
yat antarikshe & gahi. 

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NOTES. I, 6, 9-IO. 51 

Whether thou, O greatest killer of VWtra, art in the light 
of heaven, or in the basin of the sea, or in the place of the 
earth, or in the sky, come hither ! 

V, 52, 7. yi vavndhanta pfirthivaA ye - urau antarikshe &, 
vrig&ne va nadfnam sadha-sthe va mahd/t divAA. 

The Maruts who grew, being on the earth, those who are 
in the wide sky, or in the realm of the rivers, or in the 
abode of the great heaven. 

But very soon these three or more regions are each 
spoken of as threefold. Thus, 

I, 102, 8. tisraA bhtfmi* tn«i ro£an£. 
The three earths, the three skies. 

II, 27, 9. trf ro&ma' divyi dharayanta. 

The Adityas support the three heavenly skies. 

V, 69, 1. trf ro£an£ varuna trfn uta dytfn trfwi mitra 
dharayathaA ra^-amsi. 

Mitra and Varu«a, you support the three lights, and the 
three heavens, and the three skies. 

Here there seems some confusion, which Sayawa's corn* 
mentary makes even worse confounded. What can ro£an£ 
mean as distinct from dyu and ra^as ? The fourth verse of 
the same hymn throws no light on the subject, and I should 
feel inclined to take divya'-pa'rthivasya as one word, though 
even then the cosmic division here adopted is by no means 
clear. However, there is a still more complicated division 
alluded to in IV, 53, 5 : 

trlA antariksham savitfi mahi-tvanl trf rigtmsi pari-bhffA 
trim ro^antf, tisri£ divaA prithlviA tisraA invati. 

Here we have the sky thrice, three welkins, three lights, 
three heavens, three earths. 

A careful consideration of all these passages will show, I 
think, that in our passage we must take divaA va ro^anfit 
adhi in its usual sense, and that we cannot separate the two 

In the next verse, on the contrary, it seems equally clear 
that divaA and pSrthivat must be separated. At all events 
there is no passage in the Rig-veda where pfirthiva is 
joined as an adjective with dyu. Parthiva as an adjective 
is frequently joined with ra^as, never with dyu. See I, 81, 

£ 2 

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5 ; 90, 7 ; VIII, 88, 5 ; IX, 7a, 8 : in the plural, I, 154, 1 ; 
V, 81, 3; VI, 31, a; 49» 3- 

Parthivani also occurs by itself, when it refers to the earth, 
as opposed to the sky and heaven. 

X, 32, 2. vi indra yasi divyani ro£an£ vf parthivani ra^asa. 

Indra thou goest in the sky between the heavenly lights 
and the earthly. 

VIII, 94, 9. & y6 visvk parthivani paprathan ro£ana divaA. 

The Maruts who stretched out all the earthly lights, and 
the lights of heaven. 

VI, 61, n. a-paprusht parthivani uni rigzh antariksham. 

Sarasvat) filling the earthly places, the wide welkin, the 
sky. This is a doubtful passage. 

Lastly, parthivani by itself seems to signify earth, sky, 
and heaven, if those are the three regions which Vishwu 
measured with his three steps; or east, the zenith, and 
west, if these were intended as the three steps of that deity. 
For we read : 

I> l 55> 4* y<^ parthivani tri-bMA it vfgama-bhiA uni kra- 

He (Vish«u) who strode wide with his three strides across 
the regions of the earth. 

These two concluding verses might also be taken as 
containing the actual invocation of the sacrificer, which is 
mentioned in verse 8. In that case the full stop at the 
end of verse 8 should be removed. 

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To Agni (the god of Fire) and the Maruts 
(the Storm-gods). 

i. Thou art called forth to this fair sacrifice for 
a draught of milk ' ; with the Maruts come hither, 
O Agni ! 

2. No god indeed, no mortal, is beyond the might 1 
of thee, the mighty one; with the Maruts come 
hither, O Agni ! 

3. They who know of the great sky 1 , the Visve 
Devas 2 without guile 8 ; with those Maruts come 
hither, O Agni ! 

4. The strong ones who sing their song 1 , uncon- 
querable by force ; with the Maruts come hither, 
O Agni ! 

5. They who are brilliant, of terrible designs, 
powerful, and devourers of foes; with the Maruts 
come hither, O Agni ! 

6. They who in heaven are enthroned as gods, 
in the light of the firmament 1 ; with the Maruts 
come hither, O Agni ! 

7. They who toss the clouds 1 across the surging 
sea*; with the Maruts come hither, O Agni ! 

8. They who shoot with their darts (lightnings) 
across the sea with might ; with the Maruts come 
hither, O Agni I 

9. I pour out to thee for the early draught * the 
sweet (juice) of Soma ; with the Maruts come hither, 
O Agni! 

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This hymn is ascribed to Medhatithi, of the family of 
Kawva. Verse I=SV. I, 16. 

Verse 1. 

Wilson : Earnestly art thou invoked to this perfect rite, 
to drink the Soma juice ; come, Agni, with the Maruts. 

BENFEY : Zu diesem schonen Opfer wirst du gerufen, zum 
Trank der Milch!— Mit diesen Marut's, Agni! komm ! 

Ludwig : Her zu diesem schonen opfer, gerufen wirst 
zum milchtrank du, mit den Marut, Agni, kom. 

Note 1. Gopitha is explained by Yaska and Saya#a as 
drinking of Soma. I have kept to the literal signification 
of the word, a draught of milk. In the last verse of our 
hymn the libation offered to Agni and the Maruts is said to 
consist of Soma, but Soma was commonly mixed with 
milk. The other meaning assigned to gopitha, protection, 
would give the sense : ' Thou art called for the sake of pro- 
tection.' But pltha has clearly the sense of drinking in 
soma-pitha, RV. I, 51, 7, and may therefore be taken in the 
same sense in gopitha. 

Verse 2. 

Wilson : No god nor man has power over a rite (dedi- 
cated) to thee, who art mighty: come, Agni, with the 

Benfey : Denn nicht ein Gott, kein Sterblicher ragt 
iiber dein, des Grossen, Macht — Mit diesen Marut's, Agni ! 

Ludwig : Es iiberragt kein gott, kein sterblicher die 
einsicht dein des grossen, mit den Marut, Agni, kom. 

Note 1. The Sanskrit kratu expresses power both of body 
and mind. ParaA governs the accusative. 

Verse S. 
Wilson : Who all are divine, and devoid of malignity, 

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NOTES. I, 19, 3. 55 

and who know (how to cause the descent) of great waters : 
come, Agni, with the Maruts. 

Benfey : Die guten Gotter, welche all bestehen in dem 
weiten Raum — Mit diesen Marut's, Agni 1 komm ! 

LUDWIG : Die wissen um den grossen raum, alle gotter 
truges bar, mit den Marut, Agni, kom. 

Note 1. The sky or welkin (ra^as) is the proper abode of 
the Maruts, and 'they who know of means simply 'they 
who dwell ' in the great sky. The Vedic poets distinguish 
commonly between the three worlds, the earth, prz'thivf, f., 
or parthiva, n. ; the sky, ra^as ; and the heaven, dyii : see I, 
6, 9, note 1. The phrase mahaA ra^asaA occurs I, 6, 10 ; 
1 68, 6, &c. Sayawa takes ra^as for water or rain : see on 
this my article in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xii, p. 28. In 
some passages ra^as means ' darkness,' and might be identi- 
fied with the Greek "Epej3os ; Ath. Veda VIII, 2, 1. pirayami 
tvi ra^asa lit tva mr*ty6r apiparam, ' I bring thee out of 
darkness, out of death I brought thee.' The identification 
of ra^as with lp«/3os (Leo Meyer, in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. 
vi, p. 19) must however remain doubtful, until stronger 
evidence has been brought forward in support of a Greek /3 
representing a Sanskrit g, even in the middle of a word. See 
my article in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xv, p. 215; Curtius, 
Grundziige (fifth edition), p. 480. 

Note 2. The appellation Vtrve dev&A, all gods together, 
or, more properly, host-gods, is often applied to the Maruts ; 
cf. I, 23, 8 ; 10. Benfey connects this line with the preced- 
ing verse, considering Vkve dcv&A, it seems, inappropriate 
as an epithet of the Maruts. 

Note 3. On adruh, without guile or deceit, without hatred, 
see Kuhn's excellent article, Zeitschrift fur die Vergleich- 
ende Sprachforschung, vol. i, pp. 179, 193. Adriih is applied 
to the Maruts again in VIII, 46, 4, though in connection with 
other gods. It is applied to the Vijve Devas, RV. I, 3, 9 ; 
IX, 102, 5: the Adityas, RV. VIII, 19, 34; 67, 13: the 
Rudras, RV. IX, 73, 7 : to Heaven and Earth, RV. II, 41, 
21 ; III, 56, 1 ; IV, 56, 2 ; VII, 66,18: to Mitra and Varuwa, 
RV. V, 68, 4 : to Agni, RV. VI, 15, 7 ; VIII, 44, 10. The 
form adhruk occurs in the sixth only. 

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Verse 4. 

Wilson : Who are fierce, and send down rain, and are 
unsurpassed in strength : come, Agni, with the Maruts. 

BENFEY : Die schrecklich-unbesiegbaren, die machtiglich 
Licht angefacht — Mit diesen Marut's, Agni ! komm ! 

LUDWIG: Die singen, die gewaltigen, ihr lied unange- 
griffen durch (ihre) kraft, mit den Marut, Agni, kom. 

Note 1. Sayawa explains arka by water. Hence Wilson : 
' Who are fierce and send down rain.' But arka has only 
received this meaning of water in the artificial system of 
interpretation first started by the authors of the Brahmawas, 
who had lost all knowledge of the natural sense of the 
ancient hymns. The passages in which arka is explained 
as water in the Brahma«as are quoted by Saya«a, but they 
require no refutation. On the singing of the Maruts, see 
note to I, 38,15; also Bergaigne, Journ. As. 1884, p. 194. 
The perfect in the Veda, like the perfect in Homer, has 
frequently to be rendered in English by the present. 

Verse 6. 

Wilson: Who are brilliant, of terrific forms, who are 
possessors of great wealth, and are devourers of the malevo- 
lent : come, Agni, with the Maruts. 

BENFEY: Die glanzend-grau'ngestaltigen, hochherr- 
schend feindvernichtenden — Mit diesen Marut's, Agni ! 

LUDWIG : Die glanzvollen, von schrecklicher gestalt, von 
grosser herschaft, feindverzerer, mit den Marut, Agni, kom. 

Verse 6. 

Wilson: Who are divinities abiding in the radiant 
heaven above the sun : come, Agni, with the Maruts. 

Benfey: Die Gotter die im Himmel sind ob dem 
Lichtkreis des Gottersitz's — Mit diesen Marut's, Agni! 

LUDWIG : Die ob der himmelswolbung glanz, am himel 
die gotter sitzen, mit den Marut, Agni, kom. 

Note 1. Naka must be translated by firmament, as there 

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NOTES, i, 19, 7- 57 

is no other word in English besides heaven, and that is 
wanted to render dyii. Like the Jewish firmament, the 
Indian naka, too, is adorned with stars ; cf. I, 68, 10. 
pipeja naTcam strfohl/t. Dyii, heaven, is supposed to be 
above the ra^as, sky or welkin. Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xii, 
p. *8. 

Saya«a: 'In the radiant heaven above the sun.' See 
note 1 to I, 6, 9 ; p. 49. 

Verse 7. 

Wilson: Who scatter the clouds, and agitate the sea 
(with waves) : come, Agni, with the Maruts. 

BenfeY : Welche iiber das wogende Meer hinjagen die 
Wolkenschaar — Mit diesen Marut's, Agni I komm ! 

Ludwig : Die die berge wiegend hindurch durchs wogen- 
meer bewegen, mit den Marut, Agni, kom. 

Note 1. That parvata (mountain) is used in the sense of 
cloud, without any further explanation, is clear from many 

I> 57, 6. tvam tam indra parvatam mahfim urum va^rewa 
va^rin parva-jaA £akartitha. 

Thou, Indra, hast cut this great broad cloud to pieces 
with thy lightning. Cf. I, 85, 10. 

We actually find two similes mixed up together, such 
as V, 33, a. tfdhaA parvatasya, the udder of the cloud. All 
we can do is to translate parvata by mountain, but always 
to remember that mountain means cloud. In the Edda, 
too, the rocks, said to have been fashioned out of Ymir's 
bones, are supposed to be intended for clouds. In Old 
Norse klakkr means, both cloud and rock ; nay, the 
English word cloud itself has been identified with the 
Anglo-Saxon clud, rock. See Justi, Orient und Occident, 
vol. ii, p. 62. See Grimm, Deutsche Grammatik, I 3 , 398, 
4*45 also Kuhn, Weisse Frau, p. ia. 

Note 2. Whether the surging sea is to be taken for the 
sea or for the air, depends on the view which we take of 
the earliest cosmography of the Vedic Rishis. Sayawa 
explains : ' They who make the clouds to go, and stir the 

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watery sea.' Wilson remarks that the influence of the 
winds upon the sea, alluded to in this and the following verse, 
indicates more familiarity with the ocean than we should 
have expected from the traditional inland position of the 
early Hindus, and it has therefore been supposed by others 
that, even in passages like our own, samudra was meant 
for the sky, the waters above the firmament. But although 
there are passages in the Rig-veda where samudra must be 
taken to mean the welkin (RV. 1, 95, 3. samudra £kam divf 
£kam ap-su), this word shows in by far the larger number of 
passages the clear meaning of ocean. There is one famous 
passage, VII, 95, 2, which proves that the Vedic poets, who 
were supposed to have known the upper courses only of 
the rivers of the Penjab, had followed the greatest and most 
sacred of their rivers, the Sarasvati, as far as the Indian 
ocean. It is well known that, as early as the composition 
of the laws of the Manavas, and possibly as early as the 
composition of the Sutras on which these metrical laws 
are based, the river Sarasvati had changed its course, and 
that the place where that river disappeared under ground 
was called Vinarana*, the loss. This Vinaxana forms, ac- 
cording to the laws of the Manavas, the western frontier of 
Madhyad&ra, the eastern frontier being formed by the con- 
fluence of the Ganga and Yamuna. Madhyadexa is a sec- 
tion of Aryavarta, the abode of the Aryas in the widest 
sense. Aryavarta shares with Madhyadera the same fron- 
tiers in the north and the south, viz. the Himalaya and 
Vindhya mountains, but it extends beyond Madhyadera to 
the west and east as far as the western and eastern seas. 
A section of Madhyadexa, again, is the country described as 
that of the Brahmarshis, which comprises only Kurukshetra, 
the countries of the Matsyas, Pan£alas (Kanyakub^a, ac- 
cording to Kulluka), and .Surasenas (Mathura, according to 
Kulluka). The most sacred spot of all, however, is that 
section of the Brahmarshi country which lies between the 
rivers D/-/shadvati and Sarasvati, and which in the laws of 

* Mentioned in LiTy. .Srauta Sfltras, X, 15, 1; Pan£avi»wa 
BrShm. XXV, 10, 1 ; see Hist. A. S. L., p. ia. 

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NOTES. I, 19, 7. 59 

the Manavas is called Brahmavarta. In the Sutras which 
supplied the material to the authors of the metrical law- 
books, the Vinajana is mentioned for the first time in the 
Baudhayana Sutras, I, 2, 9, ' Aryavarta lies to the east of 
the region where (the Sarasvati) disappears, to the west of 
the Black-forest, to the north of the Paripatra (mountains), 
to the south of the Himalaya.' The name of the Sarasvati- 
is not mentioned, but no other river can be understood. 
What is curious, however, is, that in the VasishAfca Sutras 
where the same frontiers of Aryavarta are given (1, 8), the 
MSS. read originally prig adansat, i. e. east of the Adam 
mountains, which was afterwards changed into prag adar- 
janat, and interpreted ' east of the invisibility, or of the dis- 
appearance of the Sarasvati.' Vasish/^a quotes another 
authority, a Gatha of the Bhallavins, which says : ' In the west 
the boundary river,' i. e. sindhur vidharawl. This sindhur vi- 
dharani is another name of the old Sarasvati, and in Baudha- 
yana I, a, 1 2, the same verse is quoted, though the reading 
of vidharawi varies with vi£ara»l and visarawl. See Buhler, 
1. c. Madhyadera is mentioned in one of the ParLrish/as 
(MS. 510, Wilson) as a kind of model country, but it is 
there described as lying east of Daj4r«a a , west of Kam- 
pilya b , north of Pariyatra , and south of the Himavat, or 
again, in a more general way, as the Duab of the Ganga 
and Yamuna d . 

It is 'very curious that while in the later Sanskrit lite- 

» See Wilson's Vishwu-pura»a, ed. Hall, pp. 154, 155, 159, 160. 

b See Wilson's Vishflu-purana, ed. Hall, p. 161. 

c L. c, pp. 123, 127. Instead of Pariyatra, other MSS. read 
ParipStra; see Buhler, Vasish/4a I, 8. 

d Prag dar&raat pratyak kimpilyad udak pariyStrad, dakshwena 
himavataA. Gangiyamunayor antaram eke madhyade^am ity a^ak- 
shate. Medhatithi says that Madhyadera, the middle country, was 
not called so because it was in the middle of the earth, but because 
it was neither too high nor too low. Albiruny, too, remarks that 
Madhyad&ra was between the sea and the northern mountains, 
between the hot and the cold countries, equally distant from the 
eastern and western frontiers. See Reinaud, Me'moire sur l'lnde, 
p. 46. 

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rature the disappearance of the Sarasvatt in the desert is 
a fact familiar to every writer, no mention of it should 
occur during the whole of the Vedic period, and it is still 
more curious that in one of the hymns of the Rig-veda we 
should have a distinct statement that the Sarasvatt fell into 
the sea: 

VII, 95, i-2. pra ksh6dasa dhayasa sasre esha* sarasvatt 
dharuwam Syast ptfA, pra-babadhana rathyl-iva yati visv&h 
apaA mahinS sfndhuA anyaA. eka aAetat sarasvatt nadinam 
siki/t yatf girf-bhyaA £ samudrSt, rayaA £e*tanti bhuvanasya 
bhffreA ghn'tam pdyaA duduhe naliushaya. 

i. 'With her fertilising stream this Sarasvatt comes forth — 
(she is to us) a stronghold, an iron gate. Moving along as 
on a chariot, this river surpasses in greatness all other 
waters, a. Alone among all rivers Sarasvatt listened, she 
who goes pure from the mountains as far as the 
sea. She who knows of the manifold wealth of the world, 
has poured out to man her fat milk.' 

Here we see samudra used clearly in the sense of sea, the 
Indian sea, and we have at the same time a new indication 
of the distance which separates the Vedic age from that of 
the later Sanskrit literature. Though it may not be pos- 
sible to determine by geological evidence the time of the 
changes which modified the southern area of the Penjab 
and caused the Sarasvatt to disappear in the desert, still 
the fact remains that the loss of the Sarasvatt is later than the 
Vedic age, and that at that time the waters of the Sarasvatt 
reached the sea. Professor Wilson had observed long ago 
in reference to the rivers of that part of India, that there 
have been, no doubt, considerable changes here, both in 
the nomenclature and in the courses of the rivers, and this 
remark has been fully confirmed by later observations. I 
believe it can be proved that in the Vedic age the Sarasvatt 
was a river as large as the Sutlej, that it was the last of the 
rivers of the Penjab, and therefore the iron gate, or the real 
frontier against the rest of India. At present the Sarasvatt 
is so small a river that the epithets applied to the Sarasvatt 
in the Veda have become quite inapplicable to it. The Vedic 
Rishis, though acquainted with numerous rivers, including 

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NOTES. I, 19, 7. 6l 

the Indus and Ganges, call the Sarasvatt the mother 
of rivers (VII, 36, 6. sarasvati saptathi smdhu-mata), the 
strongest of rivers (VI, 61, 13. apasam apaA-tama), and in 
our passage, VII, 95, 2, we have, as far as I can judge, 
conclusive evidence that the old Sarasvati reached in its 
course the Indian sea, either by itself, or united with the 
Indus ». 

But this passage, though important as showing the appli- 
cation of samudra, i. e. con flu vies, to the Indian sea, 
and proving the acquaintance of the Vedic Rishla with 
the southern coast of India, is by no means the only one in 
which samudra must be translated by sea. Thus we read, 

VII, 49, 2: 

ySJi SpaA divy&A uta va sravanti khanftrimaA uta va y&h 
svayam-^fA, samudra-arthaA y&h sukayaJt p&vak&A t&A fipaA 
devMt iha mam avantu. 

The waters which are from heaven, or those which flow 
after being dug, or those which spring up by themselves, the 
bright, pure waters that tend to the sea, may those divine 
waters protect me here 1 

I, 71, 7. agnfm visvSJi abhf priksho/t sa£ante samudram 
na sravataA sapta yahvtt. 

All kinds of food go to Agni, as the seven rivers go to 
the sea. 

Cf. I, 190, 7. samudram na sravata^ r6dha-£akraA. 

V, 78, 8. ydtM v&taJt yatha vanam yithi samudraA e^ati. 
As the wind moves, as the forest moves, as the sea moves 

(or the sky). 

In hymn X, 58, the same expression occurs which we have 
in our hymn, and samudram arcavam there as here admits 
but of one explanation, the surging sea. 

Samudra in many passages of the Rig-veda has to be 
taken as an adjective, in the sense of watery or flowing: 

VI, 58, 3. yfis te pushan n&vaJt antaA samudre* hir&ny&yiA 
antarikshe £aranti. 

Thy golden ships, O Pushan, which move within the 
watery sky. 

» See 'India, what can it teach us?' pp. 170, 171. 

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VII, 70, 2. yih vim samudrfm sarftaA pf parti. 

He who carries you across the watery rivers. 

1, 161, 14. at-bhi^ yati varuwaA samudrafA. 

Varu«a moves in the flowing waters. 

In both these passages samudra, as an adjective, does 
not conform to the gender of the noun. See Bollensen, 
Orient und Occident, vol. ii, p. 467. 

II, 16, 3. na samudraf/r parvataLfc indra te rathaA (na 

Thy chariot, O Indra, is not to be overcome by the 
watery clouds. 

Verse 8. 

Wilson: Who spread (through the firmament), along 
with the rays (of the sun), and, with their strength, agitate 
the ocean : come, Agni, with the Maruts. 

BENFEY: Die mit Blitzen schleuderen.machtig iiber das 
Meer hinaus — Mit diesen Marut's, Agni ! komm I 

LUDWIG: Die mit stralen ihre richtung nemen mit 
gewalt durchs mer, mit den Marut, Agni, kom. 

Verse 9. 

WILSON : I pour out the sweet Soma juice for thy drink- 
ing, (as) of old : come, Agni, with the Maruts. 

BENFEY : Ich giesse zu dem ersten Trank fur dich des 
Soma Honig aus — Mit diesen Marut's, Agni 1 komm I 

LUDWIG : Ich giesze dir zum ersten trunk madhu mit dem 
soma zu ; mit den Marut, Agni, kom. 

Note 1. Purvapfti, the early draught, implies at the same 
time the priority of the god to whom it is given. 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. Sing forth, Ka»vas, to the sportive host of 
your Maruts, brilliant on their chariots, and un- 
scathed \ — 

2. They who were born together, self-luminous, 
with the spotted deer (the clouds) ', the spears, the 
daggers, the glittering ornaments *. 

3. I hear their 1 whips, almost close by, when they 
crack them in their hands ; they gain splendour * on 
their way 8 . 

4. Sing forth the god-given prayer to the wild 1 
host of your Maruts, endowed with terrible vigour a 
and strength. 

5. Celebrate the bull among the cows (the storm 
among the clouds) \ for it is the sportive host of the 
Maruts ; he grew as he tasted the rain ". 

6. Who, O ye men, is the strongest among you 
here, ye shakers of heaven and earth, when you 
shake them like the hem of a garment 1 ? 

7. At your approach the son of man holds himself 
down ; the gnarled cloud x fled at your fierce anger. 

8. They at whose racings 1 the earth, like a hoary 
king, trembles for fear on their ways, 

9. Their birth is strong indeed : there is strength 
to come forth from their mother, nay, there is vigour 
twice enough for it *. 

10. And these sons, the singers ', stretched out 
the fences in their racings 2 ; the cows had to walk 

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ii. They cause this long and broad unceasing 
rain 1 to fall on their ways. 

12. O Maruts, with such strength as yours, you 
have caused men to tremble *, you have caused the 
mountains to tremble. 

13. As the Maruts pass 1 along, they talk together 
on the way : does any one hear them ? 

14. Come fast on your quick steeds! there are 
worshippers 1 for you among the Kawvas : may you 
well rejoice among them. 

15. Truly there is enough for your rejoicing. We 
always are their servants, that we may live even the 
whole of life. 

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NOTES. I, 37, I. 65 


This hymn is ascribed to Kawva, the son of Ghora. 

Verse i=TS. IV, 3, 13, 6. 
Verse 3=SV. I, 135. 
Verse 10= SV. I, 221. 

Verse 1. 

WILSON: Celebrate, Ka«vas, the aggregate strength 
of the Maruts, sportive, without horses, but shining in 
their car. 

BENFEY : Kawviden, auf! begriisst mit Sang, die muntre 
Heerschaar der Marut's, die rasch'ste, wagenglanzende. 

Ludwig : Eurer spilenden schar, der Marutschar, der un- 
angreifbaren, die auf wagen glanzt, der singt, o Ka«vas, zu. 

Note 1. Wilson translates anarvawam by without horses, 
though the commentator distinctly explains the word 
by without an enemy. A Brahmawa passage explains : 
bhratrrvyo va arva, ity jrutyantarat. See TS. IV, 3, 13, 6. 
Wilson considers it doubtful whether arvan can ever mean 
enemy. The fact is, that in the Rig-veda an-arvan never 
means without horses, but always without hurt or free 
from enemies; and the commentator is perfectly right, 
as far as the sense is concerned, in rendering the word by 
without an enemy, or unopposed (apraty-/?'ta). An-arvan 
is not formed from arvat, horse, racer, but from arvan ; 
and this is derived from the same root which yields arus, 
n. a wound, rt'ti (see I, 64, 15, note), &c. The accusative 
of anarvat, without a horse, would be anarvantam, not 

The root ar, in the sense of hurting, is distantly connected 
with the root mar : see Lectures on the Science of Language, 
Second Series, p. 323. It exists in the Greek oXAvju, cor- 
responding to Sanskrit rt'nomi, i. e. arnomi, I hurt, likewise 

[3»] * 

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in oflXi}, wound, which cannot be derived from Sky ; in oikos, 
ovXiosf, hurtful, and 6ko6s, destructive : see Curtius, Grundziigc 
der Griechischen Etymologie (funfte Ausgabe), p. 37a. In 
the Veda ar has the sense of offending or injuring, par- 
ticularly if preceded by upa. 

X, 164, 3. yat a-jasa niA-jasa abhi-jasa upa-arima g&- 
gmtaJt yat svapantaA.agnf^ vfjvani apa duA-kn'tani a^ush/ani 
are asmat dadhatu. 

If we have offended, or whatever fault we have com- 
mitted, by bidding, blaming, or forbidding, while waking 
or while sleeping, may Agni remove all wicked misdeeds 
far from us. 

Hence upara, injury, VII, 86, 6. asti gySyka. kantyasaA 
upa-are, the older man is there to injure, to offend, to mis- 
lead, the young : (History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 
second edition, p. 541.) Roth translates upara by Verfeh- 
lung, missing. Ari, enemy, too, is best derived from this 
root, and not from ra, to give, with the negative particle, as 
if meaning originally, as Sayawa supposes, a man who does 
not give. In ararivan, gen. ararushaA, hostile, Rosen recog- 
nised many years ago a participle of a really reduplicated 
perfect of ar, and he likewise traced araru, enemy, back to 
the same root : see his note to I, 18, 3. 

From this root ar, to hurt, arvan, hurting, as well as 
arus, wound, are derived in the same manner as both 
dhanvan and dhanus, bow, are formed from dhan ; ya^van 
and ya^us from y&g, parvan and parus from par. See 
Kuhn, Zeitschrift, vol. ii, p. 233. 

Anarvan, then, is the same as anarus, Sat. P. Brahma»a 
III, 1, 3, 7; and from meaning originally without a wound 
or without one who can wound, it takes the more general 
sense of uninjured, invulnerable, perfect, strong, (cf. integer, 
intact, and entire.) This meaning is applicable to I, 94, 2 ; 
136, 5 ; II, 6, 5 ; V, 49, 4 ; VII, ao, 3 ; 97, 5 ; X, 61, 13 ; 
65, 3. In I, 116, 16, anarvan seems to be used as an 
adverb; in I, 51, 12, as applied to s\6ka., it may have the 
more general meaning of irresistible, powerful. 

There are two passages in which the nom. sing, arvan, 
and one in which the ace. sing, arvawam, occur, apparently 

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NOTES. I, 37, I. 67 

meaning horse. But in I, 163, 13, and IX, 97, 25, arvan 
stands in the Pada text only, the Sawhita has arvS ikkkz 
and arvl iva. In X, 46, 5, the text hfrkmia* rum na arvawam 
dhana-ar£am is too doubtful to allow of any safe induction, 
particularly as the Sama-veda gives a totally different 
reading. I do not think, therefore, that arvat, horse, admits 
in the nom. and ace. sing, of any forms but arva and arvan- 
tam*. Pacini (VI, 4, 127) allows the forms arvan and arva- 
«am, but in anarvan only, which, as we saw, has nothing 
in common with arvat, horse. Benfey: 'die rascheste 
(keinen Renner habend, uneinholbar),' the quickest (having 
no racer, hence not to be reached). M. Bergaigne (Joura. 
As. 1884, p. 188) tries to defend anarvan in the sense of 
anajva, without considering the grammatical objections. In 
VI, 66, 7 (not I, 6, 7) anajvaA does not refer to ykmaJt. 

The masculine anarvawam after the neuter jardhas is 
curious ; jardhas means might, but it is here used to express 
a might or an aggregate of strong men or gods, and the 
nom. plur. yi, who, in the next verse, shows the same 
transition of thought, not only from the singular to the 
plural, but also from the neuter to the masculine, which 
must be admitted in anarv&«am b . It would be possible, if 
necessary, to explain away the irregularity of anarvawamby 
admitting a rapid transition from the Maruts to Indra, the 
eldest among the Maruts (cf. I, 23, 8. indra-^ yeshtASJt 
marut-gawaA), and it would be easier still to alter jardhas 
into .sirdham, as an accusative singular of the masculine 
noun jardha, which has the same meaning as the neuter 
jardhas. There is one passage, V, 56, 9, which would seem 
to give ample countenance to such a conjecture : 

tam vaA jardham rathe-jubham — & huve. 

I call hither this your host, brilliant on chariots. 

Again, II, 30, 11, we read : 

tam vaA jardham marutam — girS upa bruve. 

I call with my voice on this your host of Maruts. 

» See Bugge, K. Z. XIX, p. 403. 

b Bollensen (Z. D. M. G. XXII, 603) calls it a vulgar Donatus ; 
see, however, Lanman, Noun-Inflection, pp. 330, 536. 

F 2 

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VIII, 93, 16. jrutdm vaJi wztrahan-tamam pra jardham 
£arsha«mam, 8, jushe. 

I pant for the glorious, victorious, host of the quick 

From this jardha we have also the genitive jardhasya, 
VII, 56,8(4): 

subhriA vaA jdshmaA krudhmi min&msi dhuniA muni£- 
iva jdrdhasya dhrishn6A. 

Your prowess is brilliant, your minds furious ; the shout 
of the daring host is like one possessed. 

We have likewise the dative jardhaya, the instrumental 
jardhena, and the ace. plur. jdrdhan ; and in most cases, 
except in two or three where jardha seems to be used as 
an adjective, meaning strong, these words are applied to the 
host of the Maruts. 

But the other word jardhas is equally well authenticated, 
and we find of it, not only the nominative, accusative, and 
vocative sing, jardhas, but likewise the nom. plur. s&rdh&msi. 

The nominative singular occurs in our very hymn : 

I, 37, 5. kri/am yat jardhaA maYutam. 

Which is the sportive host of the Maruts. 

I, 1 27, 6. s&A hi jdrdha^ na marutam tuvi-svaniA. 

For he (Agni) is strong-voiced like the host of the Maruts. 

IV, 6, 10. tuvi-svanasa^ marutam na s&rdhaA. 

Thy flames (Agni) are strong-voiced like the host of the 

V, 46, 5. uta tyat naA marutam s&rdhaJt & gamat. 
May also that host of the Maruts come to us. 

II, 1, 5. tvam naram sirdhaA asi puru-vasuA. 
Thou (Agni), full of riches, art the host of the men. 
This host of men seems to me intended again for the 

Maruts, although it is true that in thus identifying Agni 
with different gods, the poet repeats himself in the next 

II, 1, 6. tvam jardha^ marutam. 

Thou art the host of the Maruts. 

If this repetition seems offensive, the first naram .rardhas 
might be taken for some other company of gods. Thus 
we find: 

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NOTES. I, 37, I. 69 

VII, 44, 5. srin6tu na/4 dafvyam sirdhaA agnUt srz'«vantu 
visve mahishaVi amuriA. 

May the divine host, may Agni, hear us, may the Vuve 
hear us, the strong, the wise. 

Or III, 19, 4. si* & vaha deva-tatim yavishMa sirdhaA 
yat adya divyam ya^asi. 

Bring thou hither, O Agni, the gods, that you may 
sacrifice to-day to the divine host. 

Or I, 139, 1. & nu tat s&rdhaJt divyam v/Vwimahe. 

We chose for us now that divine host. 

As in these last, so in many other passages, jardhas is 
used as a neuter in the accusative. For instance, 

I, 106, i; II, 11, 14. marutam sirdhzA. 

II. 3. 3 ; VI, 3, 8. sirdhaJt marutam. 
The vocative occurs, 

V, 46, a. agne mdra varu«a mftra div&A jardhaA pra 
yanta mfiruta uta vishno (fti). 

Agni, Indra, Varuwa, Mitra, gods, host of the Maruts, 
come forth, and Vish«u ! 

We see how throughout all these passages those in which 
jardha and jardhas are applied to the Maruts, or to some 
other company of gods, preponderate most decidedly. Yet 
passages occur in the Rig-veda where both jardha and sir- 
dhas are applied to other hosts or companies. Thus V, 53, 
10, jdrdha refers to chariots, while in I, 133, 3, ^ardhas is 
applied to evil spirits. 

If the passages hitherto examined were all that occur in 
the Rig-veda, we might still feel startled at the construction 
of our verse, where jardhas is not only followed by mascu- 
line adjectives in the singular, but, in the next verse, by a 
pronoun in the plural. But if we take the last irregularity 
first, we find the same construction, viz. jardhas followed by 
ye, in III, 3a, 4 : 

mdrasya jardhaA marutaA ye fisan. 

The host of Indra, that was the Maruts. 

As to the change of genders, we find adjectives in the 
masculine after jardhas, in 

V, 52, 8. sirdhsJt marutam ut sztnaa. satya-xavasam r/bh- 

Digitized by 



Celebrate the host of the Maruts, the truly vigorous, the 

Here, too, the poet afterwards continues in the plural, 
though as he uses the demonstrative, and not, as in our 
passage, the relative pronoun, we cannot quote this in 
support of the irregularity which has here to be explained. 
Anyhow the construction of our verse, though bold and 
unusual, is not so unusual as to force us to adopt conjectural 
remedies. In V, 58, a, we find yi after gawAA. On the 
Umbrian Cerfo Martio, as possibly the same as jardha-s 
maruta-s, see Grassman, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xvi, p. 190. 
The Zend raredha, kind, species, is the same word. 

Verse 2. 

WILSON: Who, borne by spotted deer, were born self- 
radiant, with weapons, war-cries, and decorations. 

Benfey : Die mit Hirschen und Speeren gleich mit 
Donnern und mit Blitzen auch — selbststrahlende — geboren 

Ludwig : Die mit vilfarbigen speeren, mit der schwerter 
glanze, sichtbar wurden mit eignem leuchten. 

Note 1. The spotted deer (pr/shati) are the recognised 
animals of the Maruts, and were originally, as it would 
seem, intended for the rain-clouds. S&yawa is perfectly 
aware of the original meaning of pr&hati, as clouds. 
The legendary school, he says, takes them for deer with 
white spots, the etymological school for many-coloured 
lines of clouds : (RV. BH. I, 64, 8.) This passage shows 
that although prfehatt, as Roth observes, may mean a 
spotted cow or a spotted horse, — the Maruts, in fact, are 
called sometimes prishat-asvSJt, having piebald horses, 
or, having przshats for their horses, VII, 40, 3, — yet the 
later tradition in India had distinctly declared in favour 
of spotted deer. The Vedic poets, however, admitted both 
ideas, and they speak in the same hymn, nay, in the same 
verse, of the fallow deer and of the horses of the Maruts. 
Thus V, 58, 1, the Maruts are called Irii-ayvaA, possessed 
of quick horses ; and in V, 58, 6, we read yat pra ayasish/a 
pr/shatlbhiA isvaiA — rathebhiA, where the gender of prfeha- 

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NOTES. I, 37, 3. 71 

tlbhifc would hardly allow us to join it with isv&iA, but 
where we must translate : When you come with the deer, 
the horses, the chariots, or with your deer, as horses. 
Ludwig joins pmhatlbhiA with rtshtibhih, and again in I, 
64, 8 ; see note 1 to I, 87, 4. 

Note 2. The spears and daggers of the Maruts are meant 
for the thunderbolts, and the glittering ornaments for the 
lightning. Sayawa takes vSsi in this passage for war-cries 
on the authority of the Nirukta, where vSst is given among 
the names of the voice. From other passages, however, it 
becomes clear that vaVt is a weapon of the Maruts ; and 
Saya«a, too, explains it sometimes in that sense : cf. V, 53, 
4 ; 57, 2. Thus I, 88, 3, the vaVis are spoken of as being 
on the bodies of the Maruts. In V, 53, 4, the Maruts are 
said to shine in their ornaments and their vftsls. Here 
Sayawa, too, translates v&st rightly by weapon ; and in his 
remarks on I, 88, 3, he says that vftrt was a weapon com- 
monly called ara, which is a shoemaker's awl. See Dhamma- 
pada, ver. 401. This reminds one of framea, which at 
one time was supposed to be connected with the German 
pfrieme. See, however, Grimm (Deutsche Grammatik, 
vol. i, p. 138) and Leo Meyer (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. vi, 
p. 424). In VIII, 29, 3, the god Tvash/ar is said to carry 
an iron v&si in his hand. Grassman (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. 
xvi, p. 163) translates vaji by axe. That angi is to be taken 
in the sense of ornament, and not in the sense of ointment, 
is shown by passages like VIII, 29, 1, where a golden orna- 
ment is mentioned, angi ahkte hirawyayam. Sakam, 
together, is used with reference to the birth of the Maruts ; 
see I, 64, 4. It should not be connected with v&ibhiA. 

Verse 3. 

Wilson : I hear the cracking of the whips in their 
hands, wonderfully inspiring (courage) in the fight. 

Benfey : Schier hier erschallt der Peitsche Knall, wenn sie 
in ihrer Hand erklingt ; leuchtend fahr'n sie im Sturm herab. 

LUDWIG : Als ware es hier, so hort man es, wenn die 
geisslen in ihren handen knallen ; wunderbar strecken sie 
auf ihrer fart sich nieder. 

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If ote 1. Eshim should be pronounced as a creticus ; also 
in verses 9, 13, 15. This is a very common vyuha. On the 
whips as lightning, see Grimm, Donner, p. 27. 

Note 2. I should have taken £itram as an adverb, like 
Benfey, if ni ring were not usually construed with an accu- 
sative. Ring in the 3rd pers. plur. pres. Atm. is treated 
like a verb of the Ad-clas9. The SV. seems to read 
yamam, and the commentator explains it by ratham. 

Mote 3. The locative ySman is frequently used of the 
path on which the gods move and approach the sacrifice ; 
hence, it sometimes means, as in our passage, in the sky. 
YSmam in BR., s. v. a.rg, is wrong. 

We might also translate : ' Here, close by, I hear what 
the whips in their hands say; they drive forth the beautiful 
(chariot) on the road.' See SV. I, 2, 1, 5, 1, comm. 

Verse 4. 

Wilson: Address the god-given prayer to those who 
are your strength, the destroyers of foes, the powerful, pos- 
sessed of brilliant reputation. 

Benfey : Singt eurer Schaar, der wuhlenden, der strahl- 
enreichen, kraftigen ein gotterfiilletes Gebet ! 

LUDWIG : Eurer kitnen schar, von blendender herlichkeit, 
der kraftvollen, soil ein von den gottern eingegebenes 
brahma gesungen werden. 

Mote 1. Benfey translates ghrfehvi by burrowing, and 
refers it to the thunderbolt that uproots the earth. He 
points out that ghr/shvi means also, for the same reason, 
the boar, as proved by Kuhn (Die Herabkunft des Feuers, 
S. 202). is evidently a common name for boar, the 
Norse grfss, and the god of the wind, Grimnir or Grimr, is 
conceived as a boar, shaking the cornfield, in such phrases 
as ' Der Eber geht ins Korn ' (Gentha, 1. c. p. 14). I prefer, 
however, in this place the general sense assigned to the 
adjective ghrishu and ghrfehvi, exuberant, brisk, wild. See 
Kuhn in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xi, p. 385. Wilson, after 
Sayawa, translates destroyers of foes. On the representation 
of the clouds as boars, see Nir. V, 4. 

Mote 2. Tvesha-dyumna is difficult to render. Both 

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NOTES. I, 37, 5. 73 

tvesha and dyumna are derived from roots that mean to 
shine, to be bright, to glow. Derivatives from tvish express 
the idea of fieriness, fierceness, and fury. In IV, 17, a, 
tvish is used correlatively, with manyu, wrath. Deriva- 
tives from dyu convey the idea of brightness and briskness. 
Both qualities are frequently applied to the Maruts. 

Verse 6. 

WILSON : Praise the sportive and resistless might of the 
Maruts, who were born amongst kine, and whose strength 
has been nourished by (the enjoyment of) the milk. 

Benfey : Preist hoch die muntre Marutschaar die unbe- 
siegbar in den Kuh'n, im Schlund des Safts wuchs sie 

Ludwig : Preise wie unter kiihen den stier, (so) der 
Marut spilende schar, beim verschlingen des saftes ist sie 
grosz geworden. 

If ote 1. This translation is merely conjectural. I suppose 
that the wind driving the clouds before him, is here com- 
pared to a bull among cows, cf. V, 52, 3 : 

te syandrasaA na ukshanaA ati skandanti jarvarU. 

They, the Maruts, like rushing bulls, mount on the dark 

The last sentence states that the wind grows even stronger 
after it has tasted the rain (I, 85, 2. t6 ukshitfisaA mahimS- 
nam lyata). 

Note 2. I take^ambhe in the sense of ^ambhane. (On 
the root £abh and its derivatives, see Kuhn, Zeitschrift fur 
vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft, vol. i, p. 123 seq.) It 
would be better to read mukhe, instead of sukhe, in the 
commentary. The Maruts were not born of milk for Primi, 
as Wilson says in a note, but from the milk of Prwni. 
Tristd is called their mother, Rudra their father : (V, 52, 16 ; 
60, 5.) 

Benfey takes the cows for clouds in which the lightnings 
dwell ; and the abyss of the sap is by him supposed to be 
again the clouds. 

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Verse 6. 

Wilson : Which is chief leader among you, agitators of 
heaven and earth, who shake all around, like the top (of 
a tree)? 

Benfey: Wer,Helden! ist der erste euch— ihr Erd- und 
Himmel-schiitterer t — wenn ihr sie schuttelt Wipfeln gleich ? 

LUDWIG: Wer ist der grosste bei euch, helden, wenn vom 
himel und der erde, schiitteler, ihr am saume gleichsam 
ruttelt ! 

Mote 1. Antam na, literally, like an end, is explained by 
Sayawa as the top of a tree. Wilson, Langlois, and Benfey 
accept that interpretation. Roth proposes, like the hem of 
a garment, which I prefer ; for vastranta, the end of a gar- 
ment, is a common expression in later Sanskrit, while anta 
is never applied to a tree in the sense of the top of a tree. 
Here agra would be more appropriate. 

Verse 7. 

WILSON : The householder, in dread of your fierce and 
violent approach, has planted a firm (buttress) ; for the 
many-ridged mountain is shattered (before you). 

Benfey : Vor eurem Gange beuget sich, vor eurem 
wilden Zorn der Mann ; der Hiigel weichet und der Berg. 

LUDWIG : Vor eurem anzug, eurem gewaltigen eifer, 
niederduckte sich der mensch, wich der festgeknotete 

Note 1. Sayaoa translates : ' Man has planted a firm 
buttress to give stability to his dwelling.' The reading ni 
for nf, which Aufrecht adopted, is untenable, as Ludwig 
shows. It has been altered in the second edition. 
See also VIII, 7, 5, nf yemir& Nidadhre is the perfect 
Atmanepada, and expresses the holding down of the head 
or the cowering attitude of man. I have taken ugr&ya 
manyave over to ^ftilta, because these words could hardly 
form an apposition to yKmaya. As the Vedic poets speak 
of the very mountains as shaken by the storms, we might 
translate parvato girfA by the gnarled or rocky mount; 

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notes, i, 37, 9. 75 

but there is no authority for translating ^-fhita by it is 
shattered, and we should have to translate, the mountain 
yielded or bent before your anger. Cf. V, 57, 3 : 

nf vaJi vana^ihate yfimanaA bhiyfi. 

The forests get out of your way from fear. 

V, 60, 2. vana £it ugraA filiate nf vaA bhiyK pr*thivf kit 
refute parvataA kit. 

Even the forests, ye fearful Maruts, yield from fear of 
you ; even the earth trembles, even the mountain. 

In I, 166, 5, yat tvesha-yamaA nadayanta parvatan, we 
may translate 'when they on their fiery course made the 
parvatas (clouds) to sound or thunder,' but it is more likely 
that nadayati here means to cause to shake or vibrate, and 
that parvata stands for mountain. We ought to remember 
such poetical expressions as 1 Kings xix. 11, 'and a great, 
strong wind rent the mountains, and brake in pieces the 
rocks before the Lord/ 

Verse 8. 

WlLSON : At whose impetuous approach earth trembles ; 
like an enfeebled monarch, through dread (of his enemies). 

BENFEY : Bei deren Lauf bei deren Sturm die Erde 
zittert voller Furcht, wie ein altergebeugter Mann. 

LUDWIG : Bei deren marschen zitterte wie ein gealtet 
stammeshaupt die erd vor furcht auf ihren wegen. 

Note L A^-ma seems to express the act of racing or 
running (like &g\, race, battle), while yfima is the road itself 
where the racing takes place. A very similar passage 
occurs in I, 87, 3. The comparison of the earth (fem.) to 
a king (masc.) would be considered a grave offence in the 
later Sanskrit literature. In 1, 87, 3, vithurS takes the place 
of vijpati. 

Verse 9. 

Wilson : Stable is their birthplace, (the sky) ; yet the 
birds (are able) to issue from (the sphere of) their parent: 
for your strength is everywhere (divided) between two 
(regions, — or, heaven and earth). 

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BENFEY : Kaum geboren sind sie so stark, dass ihrer 
Mutter sie entfliehn : ist ja doch zwiefach ihre Kraft. 

LUDWIG : Denn fest ist ihr geburtsort, vogel (sind sie) 
von der mutter fortzugehn, nach dem, wie von altersher 
ihre kraft. 

Oder, Denn fest ist ihre kraft geworden von der mutter sich 
zu trennen, da schon von alters her ihre kraft diss wollte. 

Mote 1. A very difficult verse. The birth of the Maruts 
is frequently alluded to, as well as their surpassing strength, 
as soon as born. Hence the first sentence admits of little 
doubt. But what follows is very abrupt. Vayas may be 
the plural of vi, bird, or it may be vayas, the neuter, 
meaning vital strength: see Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xv, 
p. 217. The Maruts are frequently compared to birds (cf. I, 
87, 2 ; 88, 1), but it is usual to indicate the comparison by 
na or iva. I therefore take vayas as a nom. sing, neut., in 
the sense of vigour, life. They are called brzhadvayasaA 
in a Nivid ; see Ludwig, p. 226. Nir-i is used with par- 
ticular reference to the birth of a child (cf. V, 78, 7 ; 9). 

Verse 10. 

Wilson : They are the generators of speech : they spread 
out the waters in their courses: they urge the lowing 
(cattle) to enter (the water), up to their knees, (to drink.) 

Benfey : In ihrem Lauf erheben dann diese Sohne Getos 
und Fluth, die bis zum Knie den Kiihen geht. 

LUDWIG : Und dise sone, die Sanger, denten auf ihren 
ziigen ihre banen aus, so dass briillend sie uns ganz nahe 

Note 1. If we could take sunavaA gkaA in the sense of the 
sons of voice, i. e. of thunder, which would remove many 
difficulties, the accent of gira/t would have to be changed. 
The commentator takes sunu in the sense of utpadaka, 
producers of sound. GlraJt, however, occurs at least once 
more, in the sense of singers or poets, IX, 63, 10, where 
glraJt can only be a vocative, O ye singers ! In I, 6, 6, the 
translation of gfraA by singers, i.e. the Maruts, may be 
contested, but if we consider that giraJt, in the sense of 

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notes, i, 37, io. 77 

hymns, is feminine, and is followed by the very word which 
is here used, viz. devayantaA, as a feminine, viz. devayantiA, 
VII, 1 8, 3, we can hardly doubt that in I, 6, 6, gfraA is a 
masculine and means singers. The same applies to VI, 
6$, io. In VI, 52, 9, upa aa/t sunavaA gfraA jrtwvantu amrl- 
tasya ye, the construction is, of course, quite different. 

Note 2. The expression that the Maruts enlarged or 
extended the fences of their race-course (RV. IV, 58, 7), 
can only mean that they swept over the whole sky, and 
drove the clouds away from all the corners. KashAfca 
may mean the wooden enclosures (car ceres) or the 
wooden poles that served as turning and winning-posts 
(metae). The Sama-veda has ya^-weshu instead of a^meshu. 
That the translation of this verse is purely tentative, and 
far from satisfactory, was known to all Vedic scholars, but 
I doubt whether they will consider the interpretation which 
M. Bergaigne proposes with so much assurance, as less ten- 
tative and more satisfactory. He translates (Journ. As. 1 884, 
P* a 39)> ' des fils ont, dans leur marche, allonge leurs chants 
comme des chemins, pour y marcher a genoux (sur les 
genoux) en mugissant (en chantant).' I shall content my- 
self with shortly pointing out the misgivings which every 
Vedic scholar would feel at once in proposing such a ren- 
dering. First as to the conception itself. Can a poet say, 
'The Maruts have stretched out their songs in order to 
march on them on their knees ? ' ' The roads,' as M. Ber- 
gaigne shows himself, are only a simile, and no one walks 
on a simile. Secondly, the idea that these Maruts widened 
the roads on which they march, is common enough, but 
that they lengthened their songs, like paths, is never said by 
the Vedic i?*shis, nor would they in such a case have left 
out the particle na or iva. Lastly, though many things are 
said of the Maruts, I do not remember that they ever 
appear on their knees. I do not think, therefore, that 
M. Bergaigne's infallible method helps us much beyond 
where we were before. Conjectures are easy, but for that 
very reason, one does not like to bring them forward. One 
might propose to read sunavaA divaA, a very common 
name of the Maruts. One might go a step further, identify 

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giA with bharatt, and point out that the Maruts are called 
the sons of Bharata, II, 36, 2. But all this leaves us in 
utter uncertainty, and where a scholar feels the ground so 
uncertain beneath his feet, he hesitates to speak with papal 
authority. M. Bergaigne's strong point is that abhj£viu 
means on their knees, not up to their knees. Here again, I 
ask, does abhi in prepositional compounds ever mean on ? 
If abhij^nu is used in the same sense in which we use ' on 
our knees,' it would in Sanskrit mean only ' bowing up to 
the knees.' Now in I, 72, 5, abhi^viu seems to express a 
positive expression of reverence. With regard to the other 
passages where abhjg*/hi occurs, M. Bergaigne has not shown 
how they ought to be translated so as to give a clear sense. 
I do not pretend to solve the difficulties, but I think it is 
better to confess our difficulties than to hide them under 
the veil of a so-called systematic interpretation. Abhj^viu, 
like mita^wu, may have expressed a position of the knees, 
expressive of strength, but on such points very little 
information is to be gained from Indian commentators. 

The last sentence expresses the result of this race, viz. 
the falling of so much rain that the cows had to walk up to 
their knees in water. This becomes still clearer from the 
next verse. 

Sayawa : These, the producers of speech, have spread 
water in their courses, they cause the cows to walk up to 
their knees in order to drink the water. 

Verse 11. 

Wilson : They drive before them, in their course, the 
long, vast, uninjurable, rain-retaining cloud. 

Benfey : Dann treiben sie im Sturm heran jenen langen 
und breiten Spross der Wolke unerschopflichen. 

LUDWIG : Sogar disen langen, breiten, das kind der 
wolke, den unfeindlichen, schleudern auf ihren ziigen sie 

Note 1. Rain is called the offspring of the cloud, mih6 
napat, and is then treated as a masculine ; cf. apam 
napat, &c. 

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notes, i, 37, 14. 79 

Verse 12. 

Wilson : Maruts, as you have vigour, invigorate man- 
kind : give animation to the clouds. 

Benfey: O Marut'sl mit der Kraft, die ihr besitzt, 
werft ihr Geschopfe um, die Berge werft ihr um sogar. 

Ludwig : O Marut, so wie eure kraft ist, warft ihr die 
leute nieder, warft ihr die berge nieder. 

Note 1. In VIII, 72, 8, a£u£yavtt is explained by vya- 
darayat, he tore open. A£u£yavitana is the Vedic form of 
the 2nd pers. plur. of the reduplicated aorist. 

Verse 18. 

Wilson : Wherever the Maruts pass, they fill the way 
with clamour : every one hears their (noise). 

BENFEY : Wenn die Marut's des Weges ziehn, dann 
sprechen mit einander sie und mancher mag sie horen. 

Ludwig : Wenn die Marut wandern, sprechen auf dem 
weg sie mit einander, es horet sie ein jeder. 

Hote 1. Yanti has to be pronounced as an amphi- 

Verse 14. 

Wilson : Come quickly, with your swift (vehicles). The 
offerings of the Kawvas are prepared. Be pleased with 

BENFEY : Auf schnellen kommet schnell herbei, bei 
Kawva's Spross sind Feste euch : da wollt euch schon 

Ludwig : Brecht rasch auf mit raschen rossen, bei den 
Kawva's ist euer dienst, dort eben erfreuet euch. 

Note 1. Benfey supposes that diivaA stands in the sin- 
gular instead of the plural. But why should the plural 
have been used, as the singular (asti) would have created 
no kind of difficulty? It is better to take duvaA as a 
nominative plural of a noun dQ, worshipper, derived 
from the same root which yielded diivaA, worship. We 
certainly find a-duvaA, as. a nom. plur., in the sense of 
not-worshipping : 

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VII, 4, 6. m& tva vaydm sahasa-van aviraA ma apsavaA 
pari sadama ma aduvaA. 

May we not, hero, sit round thee like men without 
strength, without beauty (cf. VIII, 7, 7), without worship. 

Here Saya#a explains aduva-6 very well by parlfrarawa- 
hinaA, which seems better than Roth's explanation 'zogernd, 
ohne Eifer.' 

Verse 15. 

WlLSON : The oflfering is prepared for your gratification : 
we are your (worshippers), that we may live all our life. 

Benfey : Geriistet ist fur euren Rausch und wir gehoren, 
traun ! euch an fur unser ganzes Lebelang. 

LUDWIG : Er ist euch zur trunkesfreude, und wir gleich- 
falls euer hier, dass unsere ganze dauer wir erleben. 

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«A I, HYMN 3$. 8 I 


To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. What then now ? When 1 will you take (us) as 
a dear father takes his son by both hands, O ye gods, 
for whom the sacred grass has been trimmed * ? 

2. Where now? On what errand of yours are 
you going, in heaven, not on earth 1 ? Where are 
your cows sporting ? 

3. Where are your newest favours \ O Maruts ? 
Where the blessings ? Where all delights ? 

4. If you, sons of Frisni, were mortals, and your 
praiser an immortal 1 , — 

5. Then never 1 should your praiser be unwelcome, 
like a deer in pasture grass 2 , nor should he go on the 
path of Yama 8 . 

6. Let not one sin 1 after another, difficult to be 
conquered, overcome us; may it depart 3 together 
with greed. 

7. Truly they are terrible and powerful ; even to 
the desert the Rudriyas bring rain that is never 
dried up 1 . 

8. The lightning lows like a cow, it follows as a 
mother follows after her young, when the shower (of 
the Maruts) has been let loose '. 

9. Even by day the Maruts create darkness with 
the water-bearing cloud 1 , when they drench the 

10. Then from the shouting of the Maruts over 
the whole space of the earth \ men reeled forward. 

1 1. Maruts on your strong-hoofed never-wearying 3 

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steeds 1 go after those bright ones (the clouds), which 
are still locked up 2 . 

1 2. May your fellies be strong, the chariots, and 
their horses, may your reins * be well-fashioned. 

13. Speak forth for ever with thy voice to praise 
the Lord of prayer 1 , Agni, who is like a friend 2 , the 
bright one. 

14. Fashion a hymn in thy mouth ! Expand like 
the cloud 1 ! Sing a song of praise. 

15. Worship the host of the Maruts, the terrible, 
the glorious, the musical \ May they be magnified 
here among us 2 . 

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NOTES. I, 38, I. 83 


This hymn is ascribed to Kawva, the son of Ghora. The 
metre is Gayatrl throughout. Several verses, however, end 
in a spondee instead of the usual iambus. No attempt 
should be made to improve such verses by conjecture, for 
they are clearly meant to end in spondees. Thus in verses 
3, 7, 8, and 9, all the three padas alike have their final 
spondee. In verse 7, the ionicus a minore is with an evi- 
dent intention repeated thrice. No verse of the hymn 
occurs in SV., VS., AV. ; but verse 8 = TS. Ill, 1, 11, 5 ; 
verse 9 = TS. II, 4, 8, 1. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Kadha-priyaA is taken in the Padapa/Aa as one 
word, and Saya«a explains it by delighted by or delighting 
in praise, a nominative plural. A similar compound, kadha- 
priya, occurs in I, 30, 20, and there too the vocative sing, 
fern., kadhapriye, is explained by Saya«a as fond of praise. 
In order to obtain this meaning, kadha has to be identified 
with katha, story, which is simply impossible. There is 
another compound, adha-priya, nom. dual, which occurs 
VIII, 8, 4, and which Saya«a explains either as delighted 
here below, or as a corruption of kadha-priya. 

In Boehtlingk and Roth's Dictionary, kadha-priya and 
kadha-pri are both taken as compounds of kadha, an 
interrogative adverb, and priya or pri, to love or delight, 
and they are explained as meaning kind or loving to whom ? 
In the same manner adha-priya is explained as kind then 
and there. 

It must be confessed, however, that a compound like 
kadha-prl, kind to whom?, is somewhat strange, and it 
seems preferable to separate the words, and to write kadha 
priya and adha priya. 

It should be observed that the compounds kadha-prl 
and kadha-priya occur always in sentences where there is 
another interrogative pronoun. The two interrogatives 
kat — kadha, what — where, and kas — kadha, who — where, 
occurring in the same sentence, an idiom so common in 

G 2 

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Greek, may have puzzled the author of the Pada text, and 
the compound being once sanctioned by the authority of 
.Sakalya, Sayawa would explain it as best he could. But if 
we admit the double use of the interrogative in Sanskrit, 
as in Greek, then, in our passage, priyaA would be an adjec- 
tive belonging to pita", and we might translate : ' What then 
now ? When will you take (us), as a dear father takes his 
son by both hands, O ye Maruts ? ' In the same manner 
we ought to translate I, 30, 20 : 

kaA te ushaA kadha priye bhug6 marta£ amartyc. 

Who and where was there a mortal to be loved by thee, 
O beloved, immortal Dawn ? 

In VIII, 7, 31, where the same words are repeated as in 
our passage, it is likewise better to write : 

kat ha nunam kadha priyaA yat mdram a^ahatana, Yih 
vaA sakhi-tv^ ohate. 

What then now? Where is there a friend, now that you 
have forsaken Indra ? Who watches for your friendship ? 

Why in VIII, 8, 4, adha priya should have been joined 
into one word is more difficult to say, yet here, too, the 
compound might easily be separated. 

Kadha does not occur again, but would be formed in 
analogy with adha. It occurs in Zend as kadha. 

Kuhn, Beitrage IV, p. 186, has shown that kush/AaA 
(RV. V, 74, 1) is a similar monster, and stands for ku shtAaA. 

The words kat ha nunam commonly introduce an inter- 
rogative sentence, literally, What then now ? cf. X, 10, 4. 

Note 2. Vrzkta-barhis is generally a name of the priest, 
so called because he has to trim the sacrificial grass. ' The 
sacred Kusa. grass (Poa cynosuroides), after having had 
the roots cut off, is spread on the Vedi or altar, and upon 
it the libation of Soma-juice, or oblation of clarified butter, 
is poured out. In other places, a tuft of it in a similar 
position is supposed to form a fitting seat for the deity or 
deities invoked to the sacrifice. According to Mr. Steven- 
son, it is also strewn over the floor of the chamber in which 
the worship is performed.' 

Cf. VI, 1 r, 5. vringi ha yat namasa barhf/fc agnau, ayami 
snik ghrj'ta-vati su-vriktlA. 

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NOTES. I, 38, 2. 85 

When I reverentially trim the truss for Agni, when the 
well-trimmed ladle, full of butter, is stretched forth. 

In our passage, unless we change the accent, it must be 
taken as an epithet of the Maruts, they for whom the grass- 
altar has been prepared. They are again invoked by the 
■same name, VIII, 7, 20: 

kva nunam su-danavaA madatha vr/kta-barhisha^. 

Where do ye rejoice now, you gods for whom the altar is 
trimmed ? 

Otherwise, wzkta-barhishaA might, with a change of 
accent, supply an accusative to dadhidhve : ' Will you take 
the worshippers in your arms ? ' This, though decidedly 
better, is not absolutely necessary, because to take by the 
hand may be used as a neuter verb. 

Wilson : Maruts, who are fond of praise, and for whom 
the sacred grass is trimmed, when will you take us by both 
hands as a father does his son? 

Benfey : Wo weilt ihr gem ? was habt ihr jetzt — gleich- 
wie ein Vater seinen Sohn — in Handen, da das Opfer 

Verse 2. 

Bote 1. The idea of the first verse, that the Maruts 
should not be detained by other pursuits, is carried on in 
the second. The poet asks, what they have to do in the 
sky, instead of coming down to the earth. The last sen- 
tence seems to mean 'where tarry your herds?' viz. the 
clouds. Saya«a translates : ' Where do worshippers, like 
lowing cows, praise you?' Wilson: 'Where do they who 
worship you cry to you, like cattle?' Benfey: 'Wojauchzt 
man euch, gleich wie Stiere? (Ihre Verehrer briillen vor 
Freude iiber ihre Gegenwart, wie Stiere.)' The verb 
rawyati, however, when followed by an accusative, means 
to love, to accept with pleasure. The gods accept the 
offerings and the prayers : 

V, 18, 1. vtrvani y&h amartyaA havyS marteshu rawyati. 

The immortal who deigns to accept all offerings among 

V, 74, 3. kasya brahmam rawyathaA. 

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Whose prayers do ye accept ? 

Followed by a locative rawyati' means to delight in. 
Both the gods are said to delight in prayers (VIII, 12, 18 ; 
33, 16), and prayers are said to delight in the gods (VIII, 
16, 2). I therefore take ra«yanti in the sense of tarrying, 
disporting, and na, if it is to be retained, in the sense of- 
not ; where do they not sport? meaning that they are to be 
found everywhere, except where the poet desires them to 
be. We thus get rid of the simile of singing poets and 
lowing cows, which, though not too bold for Vedic bards, 
would here come in too abruptly. It would be much 
better, however, if the negative particle could be omitted 
altogether. If we retain it, we must read : kva vAA \ 
gavaA I na ra« | yantf | . But the fact is that through the 
whole of the Rig-veda kva has always to be pronounced as 
two syllables, kuva. There is only one passage, V, 61, 2, 
where, before a vowel, we have to read kva : kuva vo 'svkA, 
kvabhfoava^. In other passages, even before vowels, we 
always have to read kuva, e.g. I, 161, 4. kuvet=kva it; I, 
105, 4. kuvartam=kva re'tam. In I, 35, 7, we must read 
either kuvedantm suryaA, making suryaA trisyllabic, or 
kuva idantm, leaving a hiatus. In I, 168, 6, kvavaram is 
kuvavaram : ^akalya, forgetting this, and wishing to im- 
prove the metre, added na, thereby, in reality, destroying 
both the metre and the sense. Kva occurs as dissyllabic in 
the Rig-veda at least forty-one times. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The meanings of sumna in the first five Mawafolas 
are well explained by Professor Aufrecht in Kuhn's Zeit- 
schrift, vol. iv, p. 274. As to suvitS in the plural, see X, 
86, 21, and VIII, 93, 29, where Indra is said to bring all 
suvitas. It frequently occurs in the singular : 

X, 148, 1. a naA bhara suvitam yasya £akan. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. One might translate : ' If you, sons of "Prism, 

were mortals, the immortal would be your worshipper.' 

But this seems almost too deep and elaborate a compliment 

for a primitive age. Langlois translates : * Quand vous ne 

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NOTES. I, 38, 5. 87 

seriez pas immortels, (faites toutefois) que votre panegyriste 
jouisse d'une longue vie.' Wilson's translation is obscure : 
' That you, sons of Pmni, may become mortals, and your 
panegyrist become immortal.' Saya«a translates : ' Though 
you, sons of Pmni, were mortal, yet your worshipper would 
be immortal.' Ludwig has, ' Wenn ihr, o kinder der Pmni, 
sterbliche waret, der unsterbliche ware euer Sanger dann. 
Nicht werde euch unlieb der sanger.wie ein wildes tier auf der 
weide, nicht des Yama Pfad betrete er.' I think it best to 
connect the fourth and fifth verses, and I feel justified in 
so doing by other passages where the same or a similar 
idea is expressed, viz. that if the god were the poet and the 
poet the god, then the poet would be more liberal to the 
god than the god is to him. Whether syat should have the 
udatta, I cannot tell. Thus I translated a passage, VII, 32, 
18, in my History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 545 : 
' If I were lord of as much as thou, I should support the 
sacred bard, thou scatterer of wealth, I should not abandon 
him to misery. I should award wealth day by day to him 
who magnifies, I should award it to whosoever it be.' 
Another parallel passage is pointed out by Mr. J. Muir, 
(On the Interpretation of the Veda, p. 79 ; see also Sanskrit 
Texts, V, 303.) VIII, 19, 25 : ' If, Agni, thou wert a mortal, 
and I were an immortal, I should not abandon thee to male- 
diction or to wretchedness ; my worshipper should not be 
miserable or distressed.' Still more to the point is another, 
passage, VIII, 44, 23 : ' If I were thou, and thou wert I, then 
thy wishes should be fulfilled.' See also VIII, 14, 1, 2. 
As to the metre it is clear that we ought to read 

martasa^ syltana. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. M£, though it seems to stand for na, retains its 
prohibitive sense. 

Note 2. Yavasa is explained by Sayawa as grass, and 
Wilson's Dictionary, too, gives to it the meaning of meadow 
or pasture grass, whereas yava is barley. The Greek ((& 
or C«<& is likewise explained as barley or rye, fodder for 
horses. See I, 91, 13. g&vaA na yavaseshu, like cows in 

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Note 3. The path of Yama can only be the path first 
followed by Yama, or that leads to Yama, as the ruler of 
the departed. 

X, 14, 8. sam gakkAasva. pitr/-bhi^ sam yamena. 

Meet with the fathers, meet with Yama (X, 14, 10 ; 15, 8). 

X, 14, 7. yamam pajyasi varu«am ka devdm. 

Thou wilt see (there) Yama and the divine Varu«a. 

X, 165, 4. tasmai yamfiya ndmaA astu mrz'tydve. 

Adoration to that Yama, to Death ! 

Wilson : Never may your worshipper be indifferent to 
you, as a deer (is never indifferent) to pasture, so that he 
may not tread the path of Yama. 

Benfey : Wer euch besingt, der sei euch nicht gleich- 
giiltig, wie das Wild im Gras, nicht wandl' er auf des Yama 

A^ioshya is translated insatiable by Professor Goldstiicker. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. One of the meanings of nfro'ti is sin. It is 
derived from the same root which yielded riti, in the sense 
of right. N/m'ti was conceived, it would seem, as going 
away from the path of right, the German Vergehen. Nfr- 
riti was personified as a power of evil and destruction. 

VII, 104, 9. ahaye va tan pra-dddatus6maA$Lvadadhatu 
nUi-ribzh upa-sthe. 

May Soma hand them over to Ahi, or place them in the 
lap of Nim'ti. 

1, 117, 5. susupv&wsam na xAh-riith upd-sthe.. 

Like one who sleeps in the lap of Nim'ti. 

Here Sayawa explains Nim'ti as earth, and he attaches 
the same meaning to the word in other places which will 
have to be considered hereafter. Cf. Lectures on the 
Science of Language, Second Series, p. 562. 

Wilson treats Nim'ti as a male deity, and translates the 
last words, ' let him perish with our evil desires.' 

Note 2. Padish/d is formed as an optative of the Atmane- 
pada, but with the additional s before the t, which, in the 
ordinary Sanskrit, is restricted to the so-called benedictive 
(Grammar, § 385 ; Bopp, Kritische Grammatik, ed. 1834, 

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NOTES. I, 38, 7. 89 

§ 329, note). Pad means originally to go. Thus RV. IX, 
73, 9, atra kartam ava padati aprabhu//, may the impotent 
go down into the pit. In certain constructions it gradually 
assumed the meaning of to perish, and native commentators 
are inclined to explain it by pat, to fall. One can watch 
the transition of meaning from going into perishing in such 
phrases as VS. XI, 46, ma pady ayushaA pura, literally, 
' may he not go before the time,' but really intended for 
' may he not die before the time.' In the Rig-veda padtsh/a 
is generally qualified by some words to show that it is to be 
taken in malam partem. Thus in our passage, and in 
111,53, 21 ; VII, 104, 16 ; 17. In 1, 79, 11, however, padish/a 
saA is by itself used in a maledictory sense, per eat, may 
he perish ! In another, VI, 20, 5, pffdi by itself conveys the 
idea of perishing. This may have some weight in deter- 
mining the origin of the Latin pestis (Corssen, Kritische 
Beitrage, p. 396), for it shows that, even without preposi- 
tions, such as a or vi, pad may have an ill-omened meaning. 
In the Aitareya-brahma#a VII, 14 (History of Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature, p. 471), pad, as applied to a child's 
teeth, means to go, to fall out. With sam, however, pad 
has always a good meaning, and this shows that originally 
its meaning was neutral. Another translation, suggested 
by Ludwig, might be : ' Let not one dreadful Nimti (sin) 
after another strike us.' 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. The only difficult word is avatam. Saya«a 
explains it, ' without wind.' But it is hardly possible to 
understand how the Maruts, themselves the gods of the 
storm, the sons of Rudra, could be said to bring clouds 
without wind. Langlois, it is true, translates without any 
misgivings : ' Ces dieux peuvent sur un sol dess£che faire 
tomber la pluie sans l'accompagner de vent.' Wilson : ' They 
send down rain without wind upon the desert.' Benfey saw 
the incongruous character of the epithet, and explained it 
away by saying that the winds bring rain, and after they 
have brought it, they moderate their violence in order not to 
drive it away again ; hence rain without wind. Yet even 

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this explanation, though ingenious, and, as I am told, particu- 
larly truthful in an eastern climate, is somewhat too artificial. 
If we changed the accent, avatam, unchecked, unconquered, 
would be better than avatam, windless. But avata, uncon- 
quered, does not occur in the Rig-veda, except as applied 
to persons. It occurs most frequently in the phrase vanvan 
avataA, which Saya«a explains well by hiwsan ahimsit&A, 
hurting, but not hurt: (VI, 16, 30; 18, 1 ; IX, 89, 7.) 
In IX, 96, 8, we read pnt-sii vanvan avataA, in battles 
attacking, but not attacked, which renders the meaning of 
avata perfectly clear. In VI, 64, 5, where it is applied to 
Ushas, it may be translated by unconquerable, intact. 

There are several passages, however, where avata occurs 
with the accent on the last syllable, and where it is accord- 
ingly explained as a Bahuvrihi, meaning either windless or 
motionless, from vata, wind, or from vata, going (I, 6a, 10). 
In some of these passages we can hardly doubt that the 
accent ought to be changed, and that we ought to read 
avata. Thus in VI, 64, 4, avate is clearly a vocative applied 
to Ushas, who is called avata, unconquerable, in the verse 
immediately following. In I, 52, 4, the Maruts are called 
avataA, which can only be avatM, unconquerable ; nor can 
we hesitate in VIII, 79, 7, to change avataA into avataA, as 
an epithet applied to Soma, and preceded by adrcptakratuA, 
of unimpaired strength, unconquerable. 

But even then we find no evidence that avata, uncon- 
quered, could be applied to rain or to a cloud, and I there- 
fore propose another explanation, though equally founded 
on the supposition that the accent of avatam in our passage " 
should be on the first syllable. 

I take vata as a Vedic form instead of the later vana, the 
past participle of vai, to wither. Similarly we find in the 
Veda^ita, instead of^ina, the latter form being sanctioned 
by Pa«ini. Va means to get dry, to flag, to get exhausted ; 
avata therefore, as applied to a cloud, would mean not dry, 
not withered, as applied to rain, not dried up, but remaining 
on the ground. It is important to remark that in one 
passage, VI, 67, 7, Sayawa, too, explains avata, as applied to 
rivers, by ajushka, not dry ; and the same meaning would 

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NOTES. I, 38, 8. 91 

be applicable to avat&4 in I, 62, 10. In this sense of not 
withered, not dry, avatam in our passage would form a per- 
fectly appropriate epithet of the rain, while neither windless 
nor unconquered would yield an appropriate sense. In the 
famous passage, X, 129, 2, anit avatam svadhaya tat £kam, 
that only One breathed breathless by itself, avatam might be 
taken, in accordance with its accent, as windless or breath- 
less, and the poet may have wished to give this antithetical 
point to his verse. But avatam, as an adverb, would here 
be equally appropriate, and we should then have to trans- 
late, 'that only One breathed freely by itself.' Ludwig 
translates, • Als treue die blendenden, die stiirmenden 
Rudriya auf oder flache sogar, als brunnen die wolke 
schaffen.' This presupposes the conjectural reading ava- 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The peculiar structure of the metre in the 
seventh and eighth verses should be noted. Though we 
may scan 

UU I \J 1^1 I \j \j yj I 

— — \j — — \j — — I — — yj — — \J — — \J — W \J — — 

by throwing the accent on the short antepenultimate, yet 
the movement of the metre becomes far more natural by 
throwing the accent on the long penultimate, thus reading 


Sayan A : Like a cow the lightning roars, (the lightning) 
attends (on the Maruts) as the mother cow on her calf, 
because their rain is let loose at the time of lightning and 

Wilson: The lightning roars like a parent cow that 
bellows for its calf, and hence the rain is set free by the 

BENFEY : Es blitzt — wie eine Kuh briillt es — die Mutter 
folgt dem Kalb gleichsam — wenn ihr Regen losgelassen. 
(Der Donner folgt dem Blitz, wie eine Kuh ihrem Kalbe.) 

VcLsra as a masculine means a bull, and it is used as a 
name of the Maruts in some passages, VIII, 7, 3 ; 7. As 

■--UU — — — — KJ — \j \S — — \J -WW 

.yjJ.-^J.-\-J.yjJ.-yj lyjJ.-J.yjyj. 

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a feminine it means a cow, particularly a cow with a calf, a 
milch cow. Hence also a mother, X, 119, 4. The lowing 
of the lightning must be intended for the distant thunder, 
and the idea that the lightning goe3 near or looks for the 
rain is not foreign to the Vedic poets. See 1, 39, 9 : ' Come 
to us, Maruts, with your entire help, as lightnings (come to, 
i. e. seek for) the rain I ' 

Verse 9. 
Koto 1. That paiyanya here and in other places means 
cloud has been well illustrated by Dr. Biihler, Orient und 
Occident, vol. i, p. 221. It is interesting to watch the 
personifying process which is very palpable in this word, 
and by which Paiganya becomes at last a friend and com- 
panion of Indra. See now, ' India, what can it teach us ? ' 
p. 183 seq. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. Sadma, as a neuter, means originally a seat, and 
is frequently used in the sense of altar : IV, 9, 3. sa^ sadma 
pari niyate h6ta; VII, 18, 22. h6ta-iva sadma pari emi 
r£bhan. It soon, however, assumed the more general meaning 
of place, as 

X, 1, 1. agnfA bhanuna nirata vfjva sadmani apraA. 

Agni with brilliant light thou filledst all places. 

It is lastly used with special reference to heaven and 
earth, the two sadmani, 1, 185, 6 ; III, 55, 2. In our passage 
sadma parthivam is the same as parthive sadane in VIII, 
97, 5. Here the earth is mentioned together with heaven, 
the sea, and the sky. Saya#a takes sadma as ' dwelling,' so 
do Wilson and Langlois. Benfey translates ' der Erde Sitz,' 
and makes it the subject of the sentence, which may be 
right : ' From the roaring of the Maruts the seat of the 
earth trembles, and all men tremble.' Sadman, with the 
accent on the last syllable, is also used as a masculine in 
the Rig-veda, I, 173, 1 ; VI, 51, 12. sadmanam divyam. 

Verse 11. 
Note 1. I have translated vi/u-pa#fbhiA, as if it were 
vl/upa«ibhiA, for this is the right accent of a Bahuvrihi 

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NOTES. I, 38, 1 1. 93 

compound. Thus the first member retains its own accent in 
pr*thu-pa»i, bhtfri-pawi, vr/sha-pawi, &c. It is possible that 
the accent may have been changed in our passage, because 
the compound is used, not as an adjective, but as a kind of 
substantive, as the name of a horse. Pa/*/, hand, means, as 
applied to horses, hoof : 

II, 31, %. prithivySA sanau ,§anghananta pawf-bhiA. 

When they strike with their hoofs on the summit of the 

This meaning appears still more clearly in such com- 
pounds as dravat-pam : 

VIII, 5, 35. hira«yaye«a rathena dravatpam-bhiA isvaiA. 

On a golden chariot, on quick-hoofed horses. 

The horses of the Maruts, which in our verse are called 
vt/u-pa«/, strong-hoofed, are called VIII, 7, 27. hfrawya- 
pa»i, golden-hoofed : 

isvaXh h/ra«yapa»i-bhiA devasaA upa gantana. 

On your golden-hoofed horses come hither, O gods. 

Those who retain the accent of the MSS. ought to trans- 
late, ' Maruts, with your strong hands go after the clouds.' 

Hot© 2. R6dhasvatl is explained by Sayawa as river. It 
does not occur again in the Rig-veda. Rodhas is enclosure 
or fence, the bank of a river ; but it does not follow that 
r6dhasvat, having enclosures or banks, was applicable to 
rivers only. II, 15, 8, it is said that he emptied or opened 
the artificial enclosures of Bala, these being the clouds 
conquered by Indra. Hence I take r6dhasvati in the sense 
of a cloud yet unopened, which is followed or driven on by 
the Maruts. 

ATitra, bright or many-coloured, is applied to the clouds, 
V, 63, 3. £itn£bhiA abhraiA. 

Not© 3. Roth and Ludwig take akhidrayaman for a name 
of horse, which seems right. The word does not occur 
again in the Rig-veda. 

WILSON : Maruts, with strong hands, come along the 
beautifully-embanked rivers with unobstructed progress. 

BENFEY : Mit euren starken Handen folgt den hehren 
eingeschlossnen nach in unermiid'tem Gang, Maruts. 

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Verse 12. 

Note 1. Abhfru, rein, does not mean finger in the Rig- 
veda, though Sayawa frequently explains it so, misled by 
Yaska, who gives abhlru among the names of finger. 
Wilson : ' May your fingers be well skilled (to hold the 

Verse 18. 

Note 1. Agni is frequently invoked together with the 
Maruts, and is even called marut-sakha, the friend of the 
Maruts, VIII, 92, 14. It seems better, therefore, to refer 
brahmanas patim to Agni, than, with Sayawa, to the host 
of the Maruts (marudgawam). Brahmanaspati and Br/has- 
pati are both varieties of Agni, the priest and purohita of 
gods and men, and as such he is invoked together with the 
Maruts in other passages, I, 40, 1. Tana is an adverb, 
meaning constantly, always, for ever. Cf. II, 2, 1 ; VIII, 
4°. 7- 

Wilson : Declare in our presence (priests), with voice 
attuned to praise Brahmawaspati, Agni, and the beautiful 

Benfey : Lass schallen immerfort das Lied zu griissen 
Brahmawaspati, Agni, Mitra, den herrlichen. 

Note 2. Mitra is never, as far as I know, invoked together 
with the Maruts, and it is better to take mitram as friend. 
Besides na cannot be left here untranslated. Ludwig 
translates, 'beautiful like Mitra,' that is, bright like the sun. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. The second sentence is obscure. Sayawa trans- 
lates : ' Let the choir of priests make a hymn of praise, let 
them utter or expand it, like as a cloud sends forth rain.' 
Wilson similarly : ' Utter the verse that is in your mouth, 
spread it out like a cloud spreading rain.' Benfey: ' Ein 
Preislied schaffe in dem Mund, ertone dem Patyanya gleichV 
He takes Paiganya for the god of thunder, and supposes the 
hymn of praise to be compared to it on account of its loud- 
ness. Tatana^ can only be the second person singular of 
the conjunctive of the reduplicated perfect, of which we 

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NOTES. I, 38, 15. 95 

have also tatanat, tatanama, tatanan, and tatananta. Ta- 
tana-4 can be addressed either to the host of the Maruts, or 
to the poet. I take it in the latter sense, for a similar verse 
occurs VIII, 2 1 , 1 8. It is said there of a patron that he alone 
is a king, that all others about the river Sarasvati are only 
small kings, and the poet adds: 'May he spread like a 
cloud with the rain,' giving hundreds and thousands (par- 
^anya^-iva tatanat hi vrishtyli). Ludwig takes tan in the 
sense of thundering ; thunder like Paiganya ! 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. It is difficult to find an appropriate rendering for 
arkfn. It means praising, celebrating, singing, and it is in 
the last sense only that it is applicable to the Maruts. 
Wilson translates, 'entitled to adoration ;' Benfey, 'flaming.' 
Boehtlingk and Roth admit the sense of flaming in one 
passage, but give to arkfn in this place the meaning of 
praising. If it simply meant, possessed of arka, i. e. songs 
of praise, it would be a very lame epithet after panasyu. 
But other passages, like 1, 19, 4 ; 52, 15, show that the con- 
ception of the Maruts as singers was most familiar to the 
Vedic .fo'shis (I, 64, 10 ; Kuhn, Zeitschrift, vol. i, p. 521, 
note); and arka is the very name applied to their songs 
(1, 19, 4). In the Edda, too, 'storm and thunder are repre- 
sented as a lay, as the wondrous music of the wild hunt. 
The dwarfs and Elbs sing the so-called Alb-leich which 
carries off everything, trees and mountains.' See Justi in 
Orient und Occident, vol. ii, p. 62 ; Genthe, Windgottheiten, 
p. 4; 11. There is no doubt therefore that arkfn here means 
musician, and that the arka of the Maruts is the music of 
the winds. 

Note 2. VWddha, literally grown, is used in the Veda as 
an honorific epithet, with the meaning of mighty, great, or 
magnified : 

III, 32, 7. y&gHmaJi ft namasa vrtddham fndram 
brrhantam rishvim a^aram yiivanam. 

We worship with praise the mighty Indra, the great, the 
exalted, the immortal, the vigorous. 

Here neither is wz'ddha intended to express old age, 

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nor yiivan young age, but both are meant as laudatory 
epithets. See Darmesteter, Ormazd et Ahriman, p. 91 seq. 

Asan is the so-called Le* of as, to be. This Le* is pro- 
perly an imperative, which gradually sinks down to a mere 
subjunctive, and is generally called so. Of as, we find the 
following Le* forms: belonging to the present, we have 
asasi, II, 26, 2 ; asati, VI, 23, 9 ; asathaA, VI, 63, 1 ; and 
asatha, V, 61,4 : belonging to the imperfect, asaA, VIII, 100, 
2 ; asat, I, 9, 5 ; asama, I, 173, 9 ; asan, I, 89, 1. Asam, a 
form quoted by Roth from Rig-veda X, 27, 4, is really £fsam. 

We find, for instance, asaA, with an imperative or opta- 
tive meaning, in 

VIII, 100, 2. asaA ka. tvam dakshiwataA sakha me 
adha vritrSni ^anghanava bhfiri. 

And be thou my friend on my right hand, and we shall 
kill many enemies. 

Here we see the transition of meaning from an impera- 
tive to the conditional. In English, too, we may say, ' Do 
this and you shall live,' which means nearly the same as, 
' If you do this, you will live.' Thus we may translate this 
passage : ' And if thou be my friend on my right side, then 
we shall kill many enemies.' 

X, 124, 1. imam naA agne upa ya^vtam & ihi — 
asaA havya-vfiV uta toA puraA-g&A. 

Here we have the imperative ihi and the Let isaA used 
in the same sense. 

Far more frequently, however, asaA is used in relative 
sentences, such as, 

VI, 36, 5. asaA yatha naA javasa £akana£. 
That thou mayest be ours, delighting in strength. 

VII, 24, 1. asaA yatha naA avitS vridhi ka.. 

That thou mayest be our helper and for our increase. 
See also X, 44, 4 ; 85, 26 ; 36. 
WILSON : May they be exalted by this our worship. 
Benfey : Mogen die Hohen hier bei uns sein. 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. When you thus from afar cast forwards your 
measure 1 , like a blast of fire, through whose wisdom 
is it, through whose design*? To whom do you go, 
to whom, ye shakers (of the earth) ? 

2. May your weapons be firm to attack, strong 
also to withstand. May yours be the more glorious 
power, nor that of the deceitful mortal. 

3. When you overthrow what is firm, O ye men, 
and whirl about what is heavy, you pass 1 through 
the trees of the earth, through the clefts of the 
rocks 2 . 

4. No real foe of yours is known in heaven, nor 
on earth, ye devourers of foes ! May power be 
yours, together with your race 1 ! O Rudras, can it 
be defied * ? 

5. They make the rocks tremble, they tear asun- 
der the kings of the forest *. Come on, Maruts, like 
madmen, ye gods, with your whole tribe. 

6. You have harnessed the spotted deer to your 
chariots, a red one draws as leader * ; even the earth 
listened 8 at your approach, and men were frightened. ( 

7. O Rudras, we quickly desire your help for our 
race. Come now to us with help, as of yore ; thus? 
now for the sake of the frightened Ka«va 1 . 

8. Whatever fiend,' roused by you or roused by' 
men, attacks us, deprive him of power, of strength, 
and of your favours \ 

9. For you, chasing and wise Maruts, have wholly 

[3»] H 


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protected * Ka»va. Come to us, Maruts, with your 
whole favours, as lightnings 8 (go in quest of) the 

10. Bounteous givers, you carry whole strength, 
whole power, ye shakers (of the world). Send, O 
Maruts, against the wrathful enemy of the poets an 
enemy, like an arrow *. 

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notes, i, 39, i. 99 


This hymn is ascribed to Ka«va, the son of Ghora. The 
metre varies between Br&att and Satobrjhati, the odd 
.verses being composed in the former, the even verses in 
the latter metre. Each couple of such verses is called a 
Barhata Pragatha. The BWhati consists of 8 + 8 + 12 + 8, 
the Satobrmatt of 13 + 8 + 12 + 8 syllables. No verse of 
this hymn occurs in SV., VS., AV. ; verse 5=TB. II, 4, 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Mana, which I translate by measure, is explained 
by Sayawa as meaning strength. Wilson : ' When you 
direct your awful vigour downwards from afar, as light 
(descends from heaven).' Benfey: 'Wenn ihr aus weiter 
Ferne so wie Strahlen schleudert euren Stolz (das worauf 
ihr stolz seid: euren Blitz).' Langlois: 'Lorsque vous 
lancez votre souffle puissant.' I doubt whether mana is 
ever used in the Rig-veda in the sense of pride, which no 
doubt it has, as a masculine, in later Sanskrit : cf. Hala- 
yudha, ed. Aufrecht, iv, 37. Mana, as a masculine, means 
frequently a poet in the Rig-veda, viz. a measurer, a thinker 
or maker; as a neuter it means a measure, or what is 
measured or made. Thus V, 85, 5, we read : 

manena-iva tasthi-van antarikshe vf yih mame" pmhivlm 

He (Varu«a) who standing in the welkin has measured 
the earth with the sun, as with a measure. 

In this passage, as well as in ours, we must take measure, 
not in the abstract sense, but as a measuring line, which is 
cast forward to measure the distance of an object, — a simile, 
perfectly applicable to the Maruts, who seem with their 
weapons to strike the trees and mountains when they them- 
selves are still far off. Another explanation might be given, 
if mana could be taken in the sense of measure, i. e. shape 
or form, but this is doubtful. 

H 2 


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Note 2. Varpas, which has generally been translated by 
body or form, is here explained by praise. Benfey puts 
Werk (i.e. Gesang, Gebet); Langlois, maison. Varpas, 
which, without much reason, has been compared to Latin 
corpus, must here be taken in a more general sense. Thus 
VI, 44, 14, asya made puni varpaotsi vidvan, is applied to 
Indra as knowing many schemes, many thoughts, many 
things, when he is inspired by the Soma-juice ; see I, 19, 5. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Benfey takes vi yathana in a causative sense, 
you destroy, you cause the trees to go asunder. But even 
without assigning to ya a causative meaning, to go through, 
to pierce, would convey the idea of destruction. In some 
passages, however, vi-ya is certainly used in the simple sense 
of passing through, without involving the idea of destruction : 

VIII, 73, 13. rathaA viyati r6das! (fti). 

Your chariot which passes through or between heaven 
and earth. 

In other passages the mere passing across implies con- 
quest and destruction : 

1, 116,20. vi-bhinduna rathena vi parvatan ayatam. 

On your dissevering chariot you went across, or, you rent, 
the mountains (the clouds). 

In other passages, however, a causative meaning seems 
equally, and even more applicable : 

VIII, 7, 23. vi w*'tram parva-.$4A yayuA vi parvatan. 

They passed through Vr/'tra piecemeal, they passed 
through the mountains (the clouds) ; or, they destroyed 
Vr*'tra, cutting him to pieces, they destroyed the clouds. 

Likewise I, 86, 10. vi yata vkvam atrfwam. 

Walk athwart every evil spirit, or destroy every evil 
spirit I See before, I, 19, 7 ; 37, 7. 

We must scan vi yathana vaninaA prtthivyaA. 

Note 2. It might seem preferable to translate &s&A par- 
vatanam by the spaces of the clouds, for parvata means 
clouds in many places. Yet here, and still more clearly in 
verse 5, where parvata occurs again, the object of the poet 

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NOTES. I, 39, 5. I OI 

is to show the strength of the Maruts. In that case the 
mere shaking or bursting of the clouds would sound very 
tame by the side of the shaking and breaking of the forest 
trees. Vedic poets do not shrink from the conception that 
the Maruts shake even mountains, and Indra is even said to 
have cut off the mountain tops : IV, 19, 4. ava abhinat kaku- 
bhaA parvatanam. In the later literature, too, the same idea 
occurs : Mahabh. Vana-parva, ver. 10974, dyauA svit patati 
kim bhumir diryate parvato nu kim, does the sky fall ? is 
the earth torn asunder, or the mountain ? 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Sayana was evidently without an authoritative 
explanation of tana yvgS,. He tries to explain it by 
' through the union of you may strength to resist be quickly 
extended.' Wilson : ' May your collective strength be 
quickly exerted.' Benfey takes tana as adverb and leaves 
out yu^a* : ' Zu alien Zeiten, O Furchtbare ! — sei im Nu zu 
iiberwalt'gen euch die Macht.' Yu^tf, an instrumental, if 
used together with another instrumental, becomes in the 
Veda a mere preposition : cf. VII, 43, 5 ; 95, 4. raya yugti. ; 
X> 83, 3. tapasa yu,g-a ; X, 102, 12. vadhrina y\xgS. ; VII, 32, 
20. puram-dhyi yvg& ; VI, 56, 2. sakhya yu^S ; VIII, 68, 
9. tva* yv\g&. As to the meaning of tan, see B. R. 3. v., 
where tan in our passage is explained as continuation. The 
offspring or race of the Maruts is mentioned again in the 
next verse. 

Note 2. I take nu £it a-dhr/she as an abrupt interro- 
gative sentence, viz. Can it be defied ? Can it be resisted ? 
See V, 87, 2 : 

tat vdJi maruta/* na a-dhr&he s&vaJi. 

Your strength, O Maruts, is not to be defied. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Large trees of the forest are called the kings or 
lords of the forest. Instead of pro arata, the Taitt. Br. 
II, 4, 4, 2, reads pr6 varata, which Sayawa explains by pro, 
prakarshewa, avarata dhavata. 

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Verse 6. 

Note 1. Prishri is explained by Sayawa as a sort of yoke 
in the middle, when three horses or other animals are 
harnessed to a car; r6hita as a kind of red deer. Hence 
Wilson remarks that the sense may be, 'The red deer 
yoked between them aids to drag the car.' But he adds 
that the construction of the original is obscure, and ap- 
parently rude and ungrammatical. Benfey translates, ' Sie 
fuhrt ein flammenrothes Joch,' and remarks against Wilson 
that Sayawa's definition of prashri as yoke is right, but that 
of r6hita as deer, wrong. If Sayawa's authority is to be 
invoked at all, one might appeal from S&yawa in this place 
to Saya«a VIII, 7, 28, where prashri is explained by him 
either by quick or by pramukhe yu^yamanaA, harnessed in 
front. The verse is 

yat esham pr/shattA rathe prashri^ vahati r6hitaA. 

When the red leader draws or leads their spotted deer in 
the chariot. 

VI, 47, 24. prashriA is explained as tripada adharaw ; tad- 
vad vahantiti prash/ayo*jvaA. In 1, 100, 17, prashribhiA, as 
applied to men, means friends or supporters, or, as Sayawa 
explains, parrvasthair anyair rishibYak. 

Ludwig (IV, ad 25, 8) adds some useful information. He 
quotes from the coram, on Taitt. S. 1,7,8; v&madakshiwayor 
a^vayor madhya ish&dvayam prasarya tayor madhye sap- 
tyakhya^ativLreshopetam zsva.m yuwgyat. The right horse 
is said to be the arva, the left va^-J, the middle sapti/*. 
Lafyayana II, 7, 23, calls the two side-horses prashrt. 
According to Sayawa (Taitt. S. I, 7, 8, p. 1024) prashri 
means originally a tripod for holding a pot (see above), and 
afterwards a chariot with three horses. In that case we 
should have to translate, the red chariot moves along. 

Note 2. Aufrecht derives ajrot from sru, to shake, without 
necessity, however ; see Muir's Sanskrit Texts, IV, p. 494. 

Ludwig also remarks that ajrot might be translated by 
the earth trembled or vibrated. Similar passages occur 
RV. I, 127, 3. vi/ii £it yasya sam-«'tau .mivat vana-iva yat 
sthiram, at whose approach even what is firm and strong 

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NOTES. I, 39, IO. IO3 

will shake, like the forests. Roth translates, the earth 
yielded, got out of your way. 

Verse 7. 
Mote 1. Kawva, the author of the hymn. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. The abhva, fiend, or, as Benfey translates it very 
happily, Ungethum, may have been sent by the Maruts 
themselves, or by some mortal. With reference to yushm£- 
shita it is said afterwards that the Maruts are to withdraw 
their help from him. I have adopted Wilson's and Ludwig's 
interpretation of vi yuyota, with the instrumental. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The verb dada is the second pers. plur. of the 
perfect of da, and is used here in the sense of to keep, to 
protect, as is well shown by B. and R. s. v. di 4, base dad. 
Saya«a did not understand the word, and took it for an 
irregular imperative ; yet he assigned to the verb the proper 
sense of to keep, instead of to give. Hence Wilson : ' Up- 
hold the sacrificer Kawva.' Benfey, less correctly, ' Den 
Kawva gabt ihr,' as if Ka»va had been the highest gift of 
the Maruts. 

Note 2. The simile, as lightnings go to the rain, is not 
very telling. It may have been suggested by the idea that 
the lightnings run about to find the rain, or the tertium 
comparationis may simply be the quickness of lightning. 
Wilson : ' As the lightnings bring the rain.' Benfey : ' (So 
schnell) gleichwie der Blitz zum Regen kommt.' Lightning 
precedes the rain, and may therefore be represented as 
looking about for the rain. Ludwig proposes some bold 
conjectures. He would change kd«vam to ra«vam, and 
take the words from asamibhLfc to ganta as a parenthesis. 
He translates : ' For nothing imperfect, you highly to be 
revered Maruts, no, something delightful you gave — (with 
perfect aids, Maruts, come to us) — as lightnings give rain.' 

Verse 10. 
Note 1. Wilson : ' Let loose your anger.' Sayawa : ' Let 
loose a murderer who hates.' 

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Pari-manyu, which occurs but once in the Rig-veda, 
corresponds as nearly as possible to the Greek irepCOvnos. 
Manyu, like OvpSs, means courage, spirit, anger; and in 
the compound parimanyu, as in itepiOvy-os, the preposition 
pari seems to strengthen the simple notion of the word. 
That pari is used in that sense in later Sanskrit is well 
known; for instance, in parilaghu, perlevis, parikshama, 
withered away: see Pott, Etymologische Forschungen, 
second edition, vol. i, p. 487. How pari, originally meaning 
round about, came to mean excessive, is difficult to explain 
with certainty. It may have been, because what surrounds 
exceeds, but it may also have been because what is done all 
around a thing is done thoroughly. See Curtius, Grundzvige, 
fifth edition, p. 274. Thus we find in the Veda, VIII, 
75, 9, pari-dveshas, lit. one who hates all around, then a 
great hater : 

ma 7 naA . . . pari-dveshasaA a.mha.M, drtnlA na navam a 

May the grasp of the violent hater strike us not, as the 
wave strikes a ship. 

Again, pari-sprAih means literally one who strives round 
about, then an eager enemy, a rival (fern.) : 

IX, 53, 1. nudasva y&A pari-spr^dhaA. 

Drive away those who are rivals. 

Pari-krora means originally one who shouts at one from 
every side, who abuses one roundly, then an angry reviler. 
This word, though not mentioned in B. R.'s Dictionary, 
occurs in 

I, 29, 7. sarvam pari-kroram ^ahi. 
Kill every reviler ! 

The same idea which is here expressed by pari-krora, is 
in other places expressed by pari-rap, lit. one who shouts 
round about, who defies on every side, a calumniator, an 
enemy, one who ' be-rattles.' 

II, 23, 3. & vi-bfidhya pari-rapaA. 
Having struck down the enemies. 
II, 23, 14. vf pari-rapaA ardaya. 
Destroy the enemies. 

In the same way as the words meaning to hate, to 

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NOTES. I, 39, IO. IO5 

oppose, to attack, are strengthened by this preposition, 
which conveys the idea of round about, we also find words 
expressive of love strengthened by the same preposition. 
Thus from prita/*, loved, we have pari-prltaA, lit. loved all 
round, then loved very much : I, 190, 6. pari-prita// na 
mitral; cf. X, 27, 12. We also find IX, 72, 1. pari-prfyaA, 
those who love fully or all around, which may mean great 
lovers, or surrounding friends. 

In all these cases the intensifying power of pari arises 
from representing the action of the verb as taking place 
on every side, thoroughly, excessively ; but in other cases, 
mentioned by Professor Pott, particularly where this pre- 
position is joined to a noun which implies some definite 
limit, its magnifying power is no doubt due to the fact that 
what is around, is outside, and therefore beyond. Thus in 
Greek rtpfyierpoy expresses the same idea as ittipfierpos (loc. 
cit. p. 488), but I doubt whether pari ever occurs in that 
sense in Sanskrit compounds. 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. For the manly host, the joyful, the wise, for the 
Maruts bring thou, O Nodhas 1 , a pure offering 2 . 
I prepare songs, like as a handy priest 3 , wise in his 
mind, prepares the water, mighty at sacrifices. 

2. They are born, the tall bulls of Dyu 1 (heaven), 
the manly youths 2 of Rudra, the divine, the blame- 
less, pure, and bright like suns; scattering rain- 
drops, full of terrible designs, like giants 3 . 

3. The youthful Rudras, they who never grow 
old, the slayers of the demon 1 , have grown irre- 
sistible like mountains. They throw down with 
their strength all beings, even the strongest, on 
earth and in heaven. 

4. They deck themselves with glittering orna- 
ments 2 for a marvellous show ; on their chests they 
fastened gold (chains) for beauty 2 ; the spears on 
their shoulders pound to pieces 3 ; they were born 
together by themselves *, the men of Dyu. 

5. They who confer power l , the roarers 2 , the de- 
vourers of foes, they made winds and lightnings by 
their powers. The shakers milk the heavenly udders 
(clouds), they sprinkle the earth all round with milk 

6. The bounteous 1 Maruts pour forth 2 water, 
mighty at sacrifices, the fat milk (of the clouds). 
They seem to lead 3 about the powerful horse, the 
cloud, to make it rain; they milk the thundering, 
unceasing spring *. 

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MAtfDALA I, HYMN 64. I07 

7. Mighty they are, powerful, of beautiful splen-' 
dour, strong in themselves 1 like mountains, (yet)j 
swiftly gliding along; — you chew up forests, like 
wild elephants 2 , when you have assumed your 
powers among the red flames a . 

8. Like lions they roar, the wise Maruts, they, 
are handsome like gazelles 1 , the all-knowing. By i 
night 2 with their spotted deer (rain-clouds) and with 
their spears (lightnings) they rouse the companions 
together, they whose ire through strength is like the 
ire of serpents. 

9. You who march in companies, the friends of 
man, heroes, whose ire through strength is like thei 
ire of serpents 1 , salute heaven and earth 2 ! On the 
seats on your chariots, O Maruts, the lightning stands, 
visible like light 8 . 

10. All-knowing, surrounded with wealth, endowed 
with powers, singers 1 , men of endless prowess, armed 
with strong rings 2 , they, the archers, have taken the 
arrow in their fists. 

11. The Maruts who with the golden tires of their 
wheels increase the rain, stir up the clouds like wan- 
derers on the road. They are brisk, indefatigable 1 , 
they move by themselves ; they throw down what is 
firm, the Maruts with their brilliant spears make 
(everything) to reel *. 

12. We invoke with prayer 1 the offspring of Ru- 
dra, the brisk, the pure, the worshipful 2 , the active. 
Cling 3 for happiness-sake to the strong company of 
the Maruts, the chasers of the sky 4 , the powerful, 
the impetuous *. 

13. The mortal whom ye, Maruts, protected, he 
indeed surpasses people in strength through your 
protection. He carries off booty with his horses, 

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treasures with his men ; he acquires honourable * 
wisdom, and he prospers *. 

14. Give, O Maruts, to our lords strength glorious, 
invincible in battle, brilliant, wealth-acquiring, praise- 
worthy, known to all men 1 . Let us foster our kith 
and kin during a hundred winters. 

15. Will 1 you then, O Maruts, grant unto us 
wealth, durable, rich in men, defying all onslaughts 2 ? 
— wealth a hundred and a thousand-fold, always 
increasing? — May he who is rich in prayers* (the 
host of the Maruts) come early and soon ! 

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NOTES. I, 64, I. IO9 


This hymn is ascribed to Nodhas, of the family of Go- 
tama. No verse of this hymn occurs in SV., VS., AV. ; 
but verse 6=TS. Ill, i, 11, 7. 

Verse 1. 

Vote 1. The first line is addressed by the poet to 

Note 2. Suvriktf is generally explained by a hymn of 
praise, and it cannot be denied that in this place, as in most 
others, that meaning would be quite satisfactory. Etymo- 
logically, however, suvr*ktf means the cleaning and trim- 
ming of the grass on which, as.on a small altar, the oblation 
is offered : cf. vrzktabarhis, 1, 38, i, note 2, page 84. Hence, 
although the same word might be metaphorically applied 
to a carefully trimmed, pure, and holy hymn of praise, 
yet wherever in the Veda the primary meaning is appli- 
cable, it seems safer to retain it : cf. Ill, 61, 5 ; VI, 11, 5. 

Prof. Roth, in the Melanges Asiatiques, vii, p. 612, calls 
the derivation, which he himself discovered, a ' Columbus- 
Egg.' He derives suvr?kti from su+rtkti, and translates it 
by excellent praise. He supports the insertion of v, by 
the analogy of su-v-ita, for su-ita. This derivation is cer- 
tainly very ingenious, but there are some difficulties which 
have still to be accounted for. That the substantive rzkti 
does not occur by itself would not be fatal, because other 
words in the Veda occur as uttarapadas only. But there 
is the compound namowtkti in X, 131, 2, which shows that 
vrtkti existed as a substantive, though it is true that the 
Va^asaneyins (X, 32) read namaukti instead. Taitt. S. I, 8, 
31 ; Taitt. Br. II, 6, 1, 3 ; and Ath. V. XX, 125, 2, have all 
namovr»kti. There is also the compound svavrtkti in RV. 
X, 21, 1. Are these to be separated from su-vr»kti, and 
ought we not to take into consideration also the Zend 
hvarsta, as pointed out by M. Darmesteter (Ormazd, 

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p. 10, note), meaning well performed, perfect in a liturgical 
sense ? 

Hote 8. Apis, with the accent on the last syllable, is the 
accusative plural of ap, water, and it is so explained by 
Sayawa. He translates: 'I show forth these hymns of 
praise, like water, i. e. everywhere, as Paiganya sends down 
rain at once in every place.' Benfey explains : ' I make 
these hymns smooth like water, i.e. so that they run smooth 
like water.' He compares pvd/ios, as derived from p(u>. Lud- 
wig translates : ' Als ein kunstfertiger das werk im geiste, 
auch geschickt mit der hand mach ich schon die in der 
opferversammlungen machtig wirkenden lieder.' I thought 
formerly that we ought either to change the accent, and 
read ipa/j, or the last vowel, and read ap&&. In the former 
case the meaning would be, ' As one wise in mind and 
clever performs his work, so do I compose these hymns.' 
In the second case we should translate : ' Like a workman, 
wise in mind and handy, I put together these hymns.' 

Still there is one point which has hitherto been over- 
looked by all translators, namely, that ap&A vidatheshu 
abhuvaA, occurring in the first and sixth verses, ought to 
be taken in the same sense in both passages. Now ap&A 
vidatheshu abhuvaA seems to mean water efficacious at 
sacrifices. In the sixth verse I now translate: 'The 
bounteous Maruts pour down water, mighty or efficacious at 
sacrifices, the fat milk (of the clouds).' Hence in the 
first verse I should now like to translate : ' I prepare my 
songs, like as a handy priest, wise in his mind, prepares 
the water mighty or efficacious at sacrifices.' Roth 
assigns to vidatha a too exclusively political meaning. 
Vidatha may be an assembly, a public meeting, a witena- 
gemot, or an huXriarla,, but public meetings at that time 
had always a religious character, so that vidatha must 
often be translated by sacrifice. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. It is difficult to say in passages like this, whether 
Dyu should be taken as heaven or as a personified deity. 
When the Maruts are called Rudrasya maryaA, the boys of 

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NOTES. I, 64, 4. Ill 

Rudra (VII, 56, 1), the personification is always preserved. 
Hence if the same beings are called DivaA marya/s, this too, 
I think, should be translated the boys of Dyu (III, 54, 13 ; 
V, 59, 6), not the sons of heaven. The bulls of Dyu is a 
more primitive and more vigorous expression for what we 
should call the fertilising winds of heaven. 

Note 2. Marya is a male, particularly a young male, a 
young man, a bridegroom (1, 115, 2 ; III, 33, 10 ; IV, 20, 5 ; 
V, 61, 4, with vtra). 

The Maruts have grown strong like well-grown manly 
youths. See also V, 59, 3. 

V, 59, 5. maryaA-iva su-vrtdhaA vavridhuA ndra/e. 

The men have grown strong like well-grown stallions. 

In some passages it has simply the meaning of man : 

I, 91, 13. maryaA-iva sve okye. 

Like a man in his own house. 

Mote 3. The simile, like giants, is not quite clear. Satvan 
means a strong man, but it seems intended here to convey 
the idea of supernatural strength. Benfey translates, ' like 
brave warriors ; ' Wilson, ' like evil spirits.' Ghoravarpas is 
an adjective belonging to the Maruts rather than to the 
giants, and may mean of awful aspect, 1, 19, 5« or of cruel 
mind ; cf. I, 39, 1, note 2. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Abhog-ghanaA, the slayers of the demon, are 
the slayers of the clouds, viz. of such clouds as do not 
yield rain. Abhqf, not nurturing, seems to be a name of 
the rainless cloud, like Namu>K (na-mu£, not delivering 
rain), the name of another demon, killed by Indra ; see 
Benfey, Glossar, s. v. The cloud which sends rain is called 
bhiijfman : 

VIII, 50, a. girIA na bhu^ma maghavat-su pinvate. 

Like a feeding cloud he showers his gifts on the wor- 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The ornaments of the Maruts are best described 

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awseshu vaA rishiiyaA pat-su khadaya^ vaksha^-su 

On your shoulders are the spears, on your feet rings, on 
your chests gold ornaments. See also 1, 166, 10, &c. 

Rukma as a masc. plur. is frequently used for ornaments 
which are worn on the breast by the Maruts. The Maruts 
are actually called rukmavakshasa^, gold-breasted (II, 34, 
* ; V, 55, 1 ; 57, 5). In the Ajval. Srauta-sutra IX, 4, 
rukma is mentioned as an ornament to be given to the 
Hotri priest ; it is said to be round. 

Note 2. Vapushe and jubhe, as parallel expressions, 
occur also VI, 63, 6. Cf. Delbriick, K. Z. xviii, 96. 

Note 3. Nf mimrzkshur does not occur again in the 
Rig-veda, and Roth has suggested to read nf mimikshur 
instead ; see ni + maig". He does not, however, give our 
passage under mya£, but under mraksh, and this seems 
indeed preferable. No doubt, there is ample analogy for 
mimikshu^, and the meaning would be, their spears stick 
firm to their shoulders. But as the MSS. give mimrikshuA, 
and as it is possible to find a meaning for this, I do not 
propose to alter the text. The question is only, what does 
mimrikshuJi mean ? Mraksh means to grind, to rub, and 
Roth proposes to render our passage by ' the spears rub 
together on our shoulders.' The objections to this trans- 
lation are the preposition ni, and the active voice of the 
verb. I take mraksh in the sense of grinding, pounding, 
destroying, which is likewise appropriate to mraksha-krftvan 
(VIII, 61, 10), and tuvi-mraksha (VI, 18, 2), and I translate, 
' the spears on their shoulders pound to pieces.' 

Note 4. The idea that the Maruts owe everything, if not 
their birth, at least their strength (sva-tavasaA, sva-bhana- 
v&h, sva-srftaA), to themselves is of frequent occurrence in 
these hymns. See verse 7, note 1. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. They are themselves compared to kings (I, 85, 
8), and called f.sana, lords (I, 87, 4). 
Note 2. Dhuni is connected with root dhvan, to dun or 

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NOTES. I, 64, 6. II3 

to din. Sdyatta explains it by bending or shaking, and 
Benfey, too, translates it by Erschiitterer. Roth gives 
the right meaning. 

Verse a. 

Note 1. I translate sudffnavaA by bounteous, or good 
givers, for, if we have to choose between the two meanings 
of bounteous or endowed with liquid drops or dew, the 
former is the more appropriate in most passages. We 
might, of course, admit two words, one meaning, possessed 
of good water, the other, bounteous; the former derived 
from dfinu, neuter, water, or rain, the other from danu, 
giving. It cannot be denied, for instance, that whenever 
the Maruts are called sudtfnavaA, the meaning, possessed of 
good rain, would be applicable : 1, 40, 1 ; 44, 14 ; 64, 6 ; 85, 
10; II, 34, 8; III, 26,5; V, 52, 5; 53, 6; 57, 5; VIII, 
20, 18; X, 78, 5; I, 15, 2; 23, 9; 39, 10. Yet, even in 
these passages, while sud£nava£ in the sense of possessed 
of good rain is possible throughout, that of good giver would 
sometimes be preferable, for instance, I, 15, 2, as compared 
with 1, 15, 3. Though sudfinu, in the sense of possessed of 
good water, sounds as strange as would suvr/shri in the 
sense of possessed of good rain, or sumegha, possessed of 
good clouds, yet it is difficult to separate sudfinavaA and 
^iradanavaA, both epithets of the Maruts. 

When the same word is applied to Indra, VII, 31, 2 ; 
X, 23, 6 ; to Vishwu, VIII, 25, 1 2 ; to the Ajvins, 1, 1 12, 1 1 ; 
to Mitra and Varu«a, V, 62, 9 ; to Indra and Varuwa, IV, 
41, 8, the meaning of giver of good rain might still seem 
natural. But with Agni, VI, 2, 4 ; the Adityas, V, 67, 4 ; 
VIII, 18, 12 ; 19, 34 ; 67, 16 ; the Vasus, I, 106, 1 ; X, 66, 
12; the Virve, X, 65, 11, such an epithet would not be 
appropriate, while sudanavaA, in the sense of bounteous 
givers, is applicable to all. The objection that d&nu, giver, 
does not occur in the Veda, is of no force, for many words 
occur at the end of compounds only, and we shall see 
passages where sudanu must be translated by good giver. 
Nor would the accent of danu, giver, be an obstacle, con- 
sidering that the author of the U«adi-sutras had no Vedic 
[3»] I 

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authority to guide him in the determination of the accent of 
danu. Several words in nu have the accent on the first 
syllable. But one might go even a step further, and find 
a more appropriate meaning for sudanu by identifying it 
with the Zend hudanu, which means, not a good giver, 
but a good knower, wise. True, this root da, to know, does 
not occur in the ordinary Sanskrit ; and Hubschmann 
(Ein Zoroastrisches Lied, 187a, p. 48) tries to prove that 
the root da, to know, does not exist in Zend either. But 
even thus we might have the derivation in Sanskrit and 
Zend, while the root was kept alive in Greek only (ftaq/xt, 
bd(is). This, however, is only a conjecture ; what is certain 
is this, that apart from the passages where sudltnu is thus 
applied to various deities, in the sense of bounteous or wise, 
it also occurs as applied to the sacrificer, where it can only 
mean giver. This is clear from the following passages : 

I, 47, 8. su-krfte su-danave. 

To him who acts well and gives well. 

VII, 96,4. ^ani-yantaA nu agrava^ putri-yantaA su-dana- 
vaA, sarasvantam havamahe. 

We, being unmarried, and wishing for wives and wishing 
for sons, offering sacrifices, call now upon Sarasvat 

VIII, 103, 7. su-danava^ deva-yavaA. 

Offering sacrifices, and longing for the gods. Cf. X, 17 a, 
a ; 3 ; VI, 16, 8. 

IV, 4, 7. saA ft agne astu su-bhagaA su-danuA y&A tva 
nftyena havfsha y&A ukthafA pfprishati. 

O Agni, let the liberal sacrificer be happy, who wishes 
to please thee by perpetual offerings and hymns. See also 
VI, 16, 8; 68,5; X, 17a, 2,3. 

It must be confessed that even the meaning of danu is 
by no means quite clear. It is clear enough where it means 
demon, II, 11, 18 ; 12, 11 ; IV, 30, 7 ; X,'i20, 6, the seven 
demons. In I, 3a, 9 ; III, 30, 8, dfinu, demon, is applied to 
the mother of Vn'tra, the dark cloud. From this danu we 
have the derivative danava, meaning again demon. Why 
the demons, conquered by Indra, were called danu, is not 
clear, unless they were conceived originally as dark clouds, 
like Danu, the mother of Indra. Danu might mean wise, 

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NOTES. I, 64, 6. II5 

or even powerful, for this meaning also is ascribed to danu 
by the author of the Uwadi-sutras. If the latter meaning is 
authentic, and not only deduced ex post from the name of 
Danu and Danava, it might throw light on the Celtic dana, 
fortis, from which Zeuss derives the name of the Danube. 

Sometimes dfinu, as a neuter, is explained as Soma : 

X, 43, 7. apaA na sfndhum abhf yat sam-aksharan s6masa/f 
fndram kulySA-iva hradam, vardhanti vfpraA mahaA asya 
sadane yavam na vrishtiA divyena dSnuna. 

When the Somas run together to Indra, like water to 
the river, like channels to the lake, then the priests increase 
his greatness in the sanctuary, as rain the corn, by the 
heavenly Soma-juice, or by heavenly moisture. 

In the next verse ^iradanu is explained as the sacrificer 
whose Soma is always alive, always ready. 

In VI, 50, 13, however, dfinu papn'A is doubtful. As an 
epithet to ApSm napat, it may mean he who wishes for 
Soma, or he who grants Soma ; but in neither case is there 
any tangible sense, unless Soma is taken as a name of the 
fertilising rain or dew. Again, VIII, 25, 5, Mitra and 
Varu«a are called sripra-danu, which may mean possessed 
of flowing rain. And in the next verse, sam yS dSnuni 
yemathuA may be rendered by Mitra and Varu«a, who 
brought together rain. 

The fact that Mitra-Varuwau and the Arvins are called 
danunaspati does not throw much more light on the sub- 
ject, and the one passage where danu occurs as a feminine, 
I> 54> 7> danuA asmai lipari pinvate diva^, may be trans- 
lated by rain pours forth for him, below the sky, but the 
translation is by no means certain. 

D£nu£itra, applied to the dawn, the water of the clouds, 
and the three worlds (V, 59, 8 ; 31, 6 ; I, 174, 7), means 
most likely bright with dew or rain ; and danumat vasu, 
the treasure conquered by Indra from the clouds, can be 
translated by the treasure of rain. Taking all the evidence 
together, we can hardly doubt that danu existed in the 
sense of liquid, rain, dew, and also Soma ; yet it is equally 
certain that dfinu existed in the sense of giver, if not of 
gift, and that from this, in certain passages, at all events, 

I 2 

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sudanu must be derived, as a synonym of sudavan, sudfi- 
man, &c. 

Spiegel admits two Words danu in the Veda and Avesta, 
the one meaning enemy, the other river. Darmesteter 
(Ormazd, p. 220) takes danu as a cloud, water, or river. 
Ludwig translates sudanu by possessed of excellent gifts. 

Note 2. I thought formerly that pinvanti was here con- 
strued with two accusatives, in the sense of 'they fill the 
water (with) fat milk.' 

Cf. VI, 63, 8. dhenum taA {sham pinvatam asakram. 

You filled our cow (with) constant food. 

Similarly duh, to milk, to extract, is construed with two 
accusatives : Pa«. 1, 4, 51. gam dogdhi payaA, he milks the 
cow milk. 

RV. IX, 107, 5. duhdrtaA fidhaA divyam madhu priyam. 

Milking the heavenly udder (and extracting from it) the 
precious sweet, i. e. the rain. 

But I now prefer to translate pmvanti ipik by they 
pour out water, and I take payaA ghrftavat as a descrip- 
tion of the water, namely, the fat milk of the clouds. After 
that parenthesis, vidatheshu abhuvaA is again an epithet of 
apa£, as it was in the first verse. 

Note 8. The leading about of the clouds is intended, 
like the leading about of horses, to tame them, and make 
them obedient to the wishes of their riders, the Maruts. 
AtyaA \§gi is a strong horse, possibly a stallion ; but this 
horse is here meant to signify the clouds. Thus we read : 

V, 83, 6. divaA vah vrwh/fm marutaA raridhvam pr6 pin- 
vata vr/shnaJt fijvasya dhfiraA. 

Give us, O Maruts, the rain of heaven, pour forth the 
streams of the stallion (the cloud). 

In the original the simile is quite clear, and no one 
required to be told that the &tyaA v&gt was meant for the 
cloud. Va,ffn by itself means a horse, as I, 66, 2 ; 6g, 3. 
va£i na prit&&, like a favourite horse; I, 116, 6. paidv&& 
va^", the horse of Pedu. But being derived from vSga,, 
strength, va^fn retained always something of its etymo- 
logical meaning, and was therefore easily and naturally 
transferred to the cloud, the giver of strength, the source 

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NOTES. I, 64, 7. II7 

of food. Even without the na, i. e. as if, the simile would 
have been understood in Sanskrit, while in English it is 
hardly intelligible without a commentary. Benfey dis- 
covers some additional idea in support of the poet's com- 
parison: 'Ich bin kein Pferdekenner,' he says, 'aber ich 
glaube bemerkt zu haben, dass man Fferde, welche rasch 
gelaufen sind, zum Uriniren zu bewegen sucht. So lassen 
hier die Maruts die durch ihren Sturm rasch fortgetriebenen 
Wolken Wasser herab stromen.' 

Note 4. Utsa, well, is meant again for cloud, though we 
should hardly be justified in classing it as a name of cloud, 
because the original meaning of utsa, spring, is really re- 
tained, as much as that of avata, well, in I, 85, 10-11. The 
adjectives stanayantam and akshitam seem more applicable 
to cloud, yet they may be applied also to a spring. Yaska 
derives utsa from ut-sar, to go forth ; ut-sad, to go out ; 
ut-syand, to well out ; or from ud, to wet. In V, 32, a, the 
wells shut up by the seasons are identified with the udder 
of the cloud. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Svfitavas means really having their own inde- 
pendent strength, a strength not derived from the support 
of others. The yet which I have added in brackets seems 
to have been in the poet's mind, though it is not expressed. 
In I, 87, 4, the Maruts are called sva-srft, going by them- 
selves, i. e. moving freely, independently, wherever they list. 
See I, 64, 4, note 4. 

Bote 2. Mrig&A hast/na/;, wild animals with a hand or a 
trunk, must be meant for elephants, although it has been 
doubted whether the poets of the Veda were acquainted 
with that animal. Hastfn is the received name for elephant 
in the later Sanskrit, and it is hardly applicable to any 
other animal. If they are said to eat the forests, this may 
be understood in the sense of crushing or chewing, as well 
as of eating 

Note 8. The chief difficulty of the last sentence has been 
pointed out in B. and R.'s Dictionary, s.v. ftruwi. Aruwi 
does not occur again in the whole of the Rig-veda. If we 
take it with Sayawa as a various reading of aruwi", then the 

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Aruwis could only be the ruddy cows of the dawn or of 
Indra, with whom the Maruts, in this passage, can have no 
concern. Nor would it be intelligible why they should be 
called Srunt in this one place only. If, as suggested by 
B. and R., the original text had been yada aruwishu, it 
would be difficult to understand how so simple a reading 
could have been corrupted. 

Another difficulty is the verb ayugdhvam, which is not 
found again in the Rig-veda together with tavishl. TaVishI, 
vigour, is construed with dha, to take strength, V, 32, a. 
adhatthaA ; V, 55, 2. dadhidhve ; X, 10a, 8. adhatta ; also 
with vas, IV, 16, 14 ; with pat, X, 113, 5, &c. But it is not 
likely that to put vigour into the cows could be expressed 
in Sanskrit by 'you join vigour in the cows.' If tavishl 
must be taken in the sense which it seems always to pos- 
sess, viz. vigour, it would be least objectionable to translate, 
' when you joined vigour, i. e. when you assumed vigour, 
while being among the Aru#ls.' The Aru«ls being the cows 
of the dawn, aruwtshu might simply mean in the morning. 
Considering, however, that the Maruts are said to eat up 
forests, firuwl, in this place, is best taken in the sense of red 
flames, viz. of fire or forest-fire (davagni), so that the sense 
would be, ' When you, Storms, assume vigour among the 
flames, you eat up forests, like elephants.' Benfey : 'Wenn 
mit den rothen eure Kraft ihr angeschirrt. Die rothen sind 
die Antilopen, das Vehikel der Maruts, wegen der Schnel- 
ligkeit derselben.' 

Verse 8. 

Mote 1. As pis& does not occur again in the Rig-veda, 
and as Sayawa, without attempting any etymological argu- 
ments, simply gives it as a name of deer, it seems best to 
adopt that sense till something better can be discovered. 
Supta, too, does not occur again. In VII, 18, 2, pis is ex- 
plained by gold,&c. ; VII,57,3,the Maruts are called visvzpis. 

Note 2. KshapaA can only be the accusative plural, used 
in a temporal sense. It is so used in the expression kshapaA 
usr&A ka., by night and by day, lit. nights and days (VII, 15, 
8). In VI, $2, 15, we find kshapaA usra'A in the same sense. 

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NOTES. I, 64, 9. 119 

IV, 53, 7. kshapabhiA aha-bhiA, by night and by day. 1, 44, 
8, the loc. plur. vyushrishu, in the mornings, is followed 
by kshapa/r, the ace. plur., by night, and here the genitive 
kshapa^ would certainly be preferable, in the sense of at the 
brightening up of the night. The ace. plur. occurs again in 
I, 116, 4, where tisraA is used as an accusative (II, 2, 2; 
VIII, 41, 3). KshapaA, with the accent on the last, must 
be taken as a genitivus temporalis, like the German 
Nachts (I, 79, 6). In VIII, 19, 31. kshapaA vastushu 
means at the brightening up of the night, i. e. in the morning. 
Thus, in III, 50, 4, Indra is called kshapam vasts' ^anita* 
sfiryasya, the lighter up of nights, the parent of the sun. 
In VIII, 26, 3, ati kshapa^, the genitive may be governed 
by ati. In IV, 16, 19, however, the accusative kshapa/4 
would be more natural, nor do I see how a genitive could 
here be accounted for : 

dyaVaA na dyumnaW abhf santa// arya/j kshapa^ madema 
jarada^ £a purvW. 

May we rejoice many years, overcoming our enemies as 
the days overcome the nights by splendour. 

The same applies to I, 70, 4, where kshapdA occurs with 
the accent on the last syllable, whereas we expect kshapaA 
as nom. or ace. plural. Here B. and R. in the Sanskrit 
Dictionary, s. v. kshap, rightly, I believe, suppose it to be a 
nom. plur. in spite of the accent. 

Verse 0. 

Note 1. Ahimanyu comes very near to Angra-mainyu ; 
cf. Darmesteter, Ormazd, p. 94. 

Note 2. R6dasi, a dual, though frequently followed by 
ubhe" (I, 10, 8 ; 33, 9 ; 54, 2), means heaven and earth, ex- 
cluding the antariksha or the air between the two. Hence, 
if this is to be included, it has to be added: I, 73, 8. 
apapri-van r6dasi antariksham. Cf. V, 85, 3. We must scan 
rodasf. See Kuhn, Beitrage, vol. iv, p. 193. Should 
rodasi stand for rodasim, as elsewhere? She is certainly 
intended by what follows in the next line. 

Note 3. The comparison is not quite distinct. Amati 
means originally impetus, then power, e. g. V, 69, 1 : 

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vavr/dhanau amatim kshatrfyasya. 

Increasing the might of the warrior. 

But it is most frequently used of the effulgence of the 
sun, (III, 38, 8; V, 45. *; 62, 5; VII, 38, 1 ; a; 45. 3-) 
See also V, 56, 8, where the same companion of the Maruts 
is called Rodasi'. The comparative particle na is used twice. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. See I, 38, 14, p. 95. 

Note 2. In w/sha-khadi the meaning of khadi is by no 
means clear. Saya/ra evidently guesses, and proposes two 
meanings, weapon or food. In several passages where khadi 
occurs, it seems to be an ornament rather than a weapon, 
yet if derived from khad, to bite, it may originally have 
signified some kind of weapon. Roth translates it by ring, 
and it is certain that these khadis were to be seen not only 
on the arms and shoulders, but likewise on the feet of the 
Maruts. There is a famous weapon in India, the £akra or 
quoit, a ring with sharp edges, which is thrown from a 
great distance with fatal effect. Bollensen (Orient und 
Occident, vol. ii, p. 46) suggests for Wshan the meaning 
of hole in the ear, and then translates the compound as 
having earrings in the hole of the ear. But vrtfshan does 
not mean the hole in the lap of the ear, nor has vr*'shabha 
that meaning either in the Veda or elsewhere. Wilson gives 
for vr*'shabha, not for vr/shan, the meaning of orifice of the 
ear, but this is very different from the hole in the lap of 
the ear. Benfey suggests that the khadis were made of the 
teeth of wild animals, and hence their name of biters. Vrt- 
shan conveys the meaning of strong, though possibly with 
the implied idea of rain-producing, fertilising. See p. 138. 
In RV. V, 87, 1, Osthoff translates sukhadaye by jucunde 
praebenti, Benfey by schonverzehrendem ; Muir, 
Sanskrit Texts, IV, 70, has the right rendering. Cf. note to 
1, 166, 9. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Formerly explained as 'zum Kampfe wandelnd.' 
See Kuhn, Zeitschrift, vol. iv, p. 19. 

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NOTES. I, 64, 12. 121 

Note 2. Wilson : Augmenters of rain, they drive, with 
golden wheels, the clouds asunder ; as elephants (in a herd, 
break down the trees in their way). They are honoured 
with sacrifices, visitants of the hall of offering, spontaneous 
assailers (of their foes), subverters of what are stable, im- 
movable themselves, and wearers of shining weapons. 

BENFEY : Weghemmnissen gleich schleudern die Fluth- 
mehrer mit den goldnen Felgen das Gewolk empor, die 
nie miiden Kampfer, frei schreitend-festesstiirzenden, die 
schweres thu'nden, lanzenstrahlenden Maruts. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. Havasa, instead of what one should expect, 
havasa, occurs but once more in another Marut hymn, VI, 
66, 11. 

Note 2. ■ Vanfn does not occur again as an epithet of the 
Maruts. It is explained by Sayawa as a possessive adjective 
derived from vana, water, and Benfey accordingly translates 
it by fluthversehn. This, however, is not confirmed by 
any authoritative passages. Vanfn, unless it means con- 
nected with the forest, a tree, in which sense it occurs 
frequently, is only applied to the worshippers or priests in 
the sense of venerating or adoring (cf. venero, venustus, 
&c.) : 

III, 40, 7. abhf dyumnani van/naA fndram sa£ante akshita. 

The inexhaustible treasures of the worshipper go towards 

VIII, 3, 5. mdram vanfnaA havamahe. 

We, the worshippers, call Indra. 

Unless it can be proved by independent evidence that 
vanfn means possessed of water, we must restrict vanfn to 
its two meanings, of which the only one here applicable, 
though weak, is adoring. The Maruts are frequently repre- 
sented as singers and priests, yet the epithets here applied 
to them stand much in need of some definite explanation, 
as the poet could hardly have meant to string a number of 
vague and ill-connected epithets together. If one might 
conjecture, svanfnam instead of vanfnam would be an im- 
provement. It is a scarce word, and occurs but once more 

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in the Veda, III, 26, 5, where it is used of the Maruts, in 
the sense of noisy, turbulent. 

Note 3. Sar£ata, which I have here translated literally by 
to cling, is often used in the sense of following or revering 

II, 1, 13. tvam rati~sa£aA adhvareshu satire. 

The gods who are fond of offerings cling to thee, follow 
thee, at the sacrifices. 

The Soma libation is said to reach the god : 

II, 22, 1. saA enam saj£at devaA devam. The gods too 
are said to cling to their worshippers, i. e. to love and 
protect them : III, 16, 2 ; VII, 18, 25. The horses are said 
to follow their drivers : VI, 36, 3 ; VII, 90, 3, &c. It is 
used very much like the Greek <$7r<i£a>. 

Note 4. Ra^astfiA may mean rousing the dust of the 
earth, a very appropriate epithet of the Maruts. Sayawa 
explains it thus, and most translators have adopted his 
explanation. But as the epithets here are not simply 
descriptive, but laudatory, it seems preferable, in this place, 
to retain the usual meaning of rigzs, sky. When Soma is 
called r&gastft/i, IX, 108, 7, Sayawa too explains it by 
te.gasam prerakam, and IX, 48, 4, by udakasya prerakam. 

Note 5. Rjgtshln, derived from rigtsha* ffigisha. is what 
remains of the Soma-plant after it has once been squeezed, 
and what is used again for the third libation. Now as the 
Maruts are invoked at the third libation, they were called 
rigishln, as drinking at their later libation the juice made of 
the r^isha. This, at least, is the opinion of the Indian 
commentators. But it is much more likely that the Maruts 
were invoked at the third libation, because originally they 
had been called rjgishln by the Vedic poets, this ragishm 
being derived from r^isha, and r(flsha from rig, to strive, 
to yearn, like purisha from prt, manisha from man ; (see 
U«adi-sutras, p. 273.) This rig is the same root which we 
have in ipiyuv, to reach, dpyrj, emotion, and Spyui, furious 
transports of worshippers. Thus the Maruts from being 
called rigishin, impetuous, came to be taken for drinkers of 
rigisha, the fermenting and overflowing Soma, and were 
assigned accordingly to the third libation at sacrifices. 

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NOTES. I, 64, t4. 123 

H^gishln, as an epithet, is not confined to the Maruts ; it 
is given to Indra, with whom it could not have had a purely 
ceremonial meaning (VIII, 76, 5). 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. AprikkAy&, literally, to be asked for, to be in- 
quired for, to be greeted and honoured. A word of an 
apparently modern character, but occurring again in the 
Rig-veda as applied to a prince, and to the vessel containing 
the Soma. 

Note 2. Pushyati might be joined with kratu and taken 
in a transitive sense, he increases his strength. But push- 
yati is also used as an intransitive, and means he prospers : 

I» 83, 3. asawi-yataA vrat6 te ksheti pushyati. 

Without let he dwells in thy service and prospers. 

Roth reads asawyattaA, against the authority of the 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. The difficulty of this verse arises from the uncer- 
tainty whether the epithets dhanasp>-/tam, ukthyam, and 
vLrva£arsha*tim belong to jushma, strength, or to toka, kith 
and kin. Roth and Benfey connect them with tokfi. Now 
dhanasprft is applicable to toka, yet it never occurs joined 
with toka again, while it is used with jiishma, VI, 19, 8. 
Ukthya, literally, to be praised with hymns, is not used 
again as an epithet of toka, though it is quite appropriate to 
any gift of the gods. Lastly, vuva£arsha«i is never applied 
to toka, while it is an epithet used, if not exactly of the 
strength, jushma, given by the gods, yet of the fame given 
by them : 

X, 93, 10. dhatam vtreshu vLrva-£arsha«i .rravaA. 

Give to these men world-wide glory. Cf. Ill, 2, 15. 

The next difficulty is the exact meaning of virvfi-£arsha«i, 
and such cognate words as vijvd-kr/'sh/i, vlrva-manusha. 
The only intelligible meaning I can suggest for these words 
is, known to all men ; originally, belonging to, reaching to 
all men ; as we say, world-wide or European fame, meaning 
by it fame extending over the whole of Europe, or over the 
whole world. If Indra, Agni, and the Maruts are called by 

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these names, they mean, as far as I can judge, known, wor- 
shipped by all men. Benfey translates allverstandig. 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. Riti, the first element of rfti-saham, never occurs 
by itself in the Rig-veda. It comes from the root ar, to 
hurt, which was mentioned before (p. 65) in connection with 
ar-van, hurting, arus, wound, and ari, enemy. Sam-r*'ti 
occurs I, 32, 6. Riti therefore means hurting, and rrti-s&h 
means one who can stand an attack. In our passage rayfm 
vlra-vantam rzti-saham means really wealth consisting in 
men who are able to withstand all onslaughts. 

The word is used in a similar sense, VI, 14, 4 : 

agnMr aps$m rzti-saham vlram dadati sat-patim, yasya 
trasanti sam-£akshi jatravaA bhiyS. 

Agni gives a strong son who is able to withstand all on- 
slaughts, from fear of whose strength the enemies tremble 
when they see him. 

In other passages r/ti-sah is applied to Indra : 

VIII, 45, 35. bibhaya hi tva-vataA ugrSt abhi-prabhangf- 
naA dasmat aham riti-s&haft. 

For I stand in fear of a powerful man like thee, of one 
who crushes his enemies, who is strong and withstands all 

VIII, 68, j. tuvi-kurmfm rz'ti-saham mdra s&vishtAa. 

Thee, O most powerful Indra, of mighty strength, able 
to withstand all onslaughts. 

VIII, 88, 1. tam vaA dasmam r/ti-saham — fndram 
g\A-bhUi navamahe. 

We call Indra the strong, the resisting, with our songs. 

Note 2. The last sentence finishes six of the hymns 
ascribed to Nodhas. It is more appropriate in a hymn 
addressed to single deities, such as Agni or Indra, than 
in a hymn to the Maruts. We must supply rardha, in 
order to get a collective word in the masculine singular. 

Nu, as usual, should be scanned nu. 

Note 3. Dhiyfi-vasu, as an epithet of the gods, means 
rich in prayers, i. e. invoked by many worshippers. It does 

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NOTES. I, 64, 15. 125 

not occur frequently. Besides the hymns of Nodhas, it 
only occurs independently in I, 3, 10 (Sarasvatl), III, 3, 2, 
III, 28, 1 (Agni), these hymns being all ascribed to the 
family of Vijvamitra. In the last verse, which forms the 
burden of the hymns of Nodhas, it may have been in- 
tended to mean, he Who is rich through the hymn just 
recited, or he who rejoices in the hymn, the god to whom 
it is addressed. 

Nodhas, the poet, belongB, according to the Anukramawi, 
to the family of Gotama, and in the hymns which are 
ascribed to him, I, 58-64, the Gotamas are mentioned 
several times: 

I, 60, 5. tarn tva vayam patim agne rayiwam pra samsi.- 
maA matf-bhiA gotamasaA. 

We, the Gotamas, praise thee with hymns, Agni, the lord 
of treasures. 

I, 61, 16. ev& te hari'-ycgana su-vriktf mdra brahmam 
g6tamasaA akran. 

Truly the Gotamas made holy prayers for thee, O Indra 
with brilliant horses 1 See also I, 63, 9. 

In one passage Nodhas himself is called Gotama : 

I, 62, 13. sana-yate* g6tama>ft indra nfivyam 
atakshat brahma hari-yo^-anaya, 
su-nlthaya naJt javasana nodh&ft — 
pritaA makshu dhiyS-vasuA ^agamyat. 

Gotama made a new song for the old (god) with brilliant 
horses, O Indra I May Nodhas be a good leader to us, 
O powerful Indra ! May he who is rich in prayers (Indra) 
come early and soon I 

I feel justified therefore In following the Anukrama«i 
and taking Nodhas as a proper name. It occurs so 
again in 

I, 61, 14. sadya£ bhuvat viryaya nodhaA. 

May Nodhas quickly attain to power ! 

In 1, 124, 4. nodh&4-iva may mean like Nodhas, but more 
likely it has the general meaning of poet 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. Those who glance forth like wives and yoke- 
fellows 1 , the powerful sons of Rudra on their way, 
they, the Maruts, iiave indeed made heaven and 
earth to grow 2 ; they, the strong and wild, delight in 
the sacrifices. 

2. When grown up \ they attained to greatness ; 
the Rudras have established their seat in the sky. 
While singing their song and increasing their vigour, 
the sons of "Prism have clothed themselves in beauty *. 

3. When these sons of the cow (Prtsni) 1 adorn 
themselves with glittering ornaments, the brilliant a 
ones put bright weapons on their bodies 8 . They 
drive away every adversary*; fatness (rain) streams 
along their paths ; — 

4. When you 1 , the powerful, who shine with 
your spears, shaking even what is unshakable by 
strength, — when you, O Maruts, the manly hosts 2 , 
had yoked the spotted deer, swift as thought, to 
your chariots ; — 

5. When you had yoked the spotted deer before 
your chariots, hurling 1 the stone (thunderbolt) in the 
fight, then the streams of the red-(horse) 2 rush forth : 
like a skin 8 with water they water the earth. 

6. May the swiftly-gliding, swift-winged horses 
carry you hither! Come forth with your arms 1 ! 
Sit down on the grass-pile ; a wide seat has been 
made for you. Rejoice, O Maruts, in the sweet 
food 2 . 

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MAM) ALA I, HYMN 85. 1 27 

7. Strong in themselves, they grew l with might ; 
they stepped to the firmament, they made their seat 
wide. When Vishwu ' saved the enrapturing Soma, 
the Maruts sat down like birds on their beloved 

8. Like 1 heroes indeed thirsting for fight they 
rush about ; like combatants eager for glory they 
have striven in battles. All beings are afraid of 
the Maruts; they are men terrible to behold, like 

9. When the clever Tvash/ar 1 had turned the 
well-made, golden, thousand-edged thunderbolt, Indra 
takes it to perform his manly deeds 2 ; he slew VWtra, 
he forced out the stream of water. 

10. By their power they pushed the well 1 aloft, 
they clove asunder the rock (cloud), however strong. 
Blowing forth their voice 2 the bounteous Maruts 
performed, while drunk of Soma, their glorious 

11. They pushed the well (cloud) athwart this 
way, they poured out the spring to the thirsty 
Gotama. The Maruts with beautiful splendour 
approach him with help, they in their own ways 
satisfied the desire of the sage. 

12. The shelters which you have for him who 
praises you, grant them threefold * to the man who 
gives ! Extend the same to us, O Maruts ! Give 
us, ye heroes 2 , wealth with valiant offspring ! 

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This hymn is ascribed to Gotama. No verse of this 
hymn occurs in SV., VS. ; verse 6=AV. XX, 13, 2 ; verse 
7=TS.IV,i,ii,3;versei3=TS.I > 5,ii,5;TB.tI,8,5,6. 

Verse 1. 

2STote 1. The phrase ^AnayaA na saptayaA is obscure. As 
gkm. has always the meaning of wife, and sapti in the singu- 
lar, dual, and plural means horse, it might be supposed 
that ^anayaA could be connected with saptayaA, so as to 
signify mares. But although ^ani is coupled with patni, 
I, 62, 10, in the sense of mother-wife, and though sapti is 
most commonly joined with some other name for horse, yet 
^anayaA sdptayaA never occurs, for the simple reason that 
it would be too elaborate and almost absurd an expression 
for vadzvkA. We find sapti joined with va^fn, I, 162, 1 ; 
with rathya, II, 31, 7; atyam na slptim, III, 22, 1; sapti 
hart, III, 35, 2 ; ajva sapti-iva, VI, 59, 3. 

We might then suppose the thought of the poet to have 
been this : What appears before us like race-horses, viz. the 
storms coursing through the sky, that is really the host of 
the Maruts. But then ^anayaA remains unexplained, and 
it is impossible to take £anaya£ na saptayaA as two similes, 
like unto horses, like unto wives. 

I believe, therefore, that we must here take sapti in its 
original etymological sense, which would beju-mentum, 
a yoked animal, a beast of draught, or rather a follower, a 
horse that will follow. Sapti, therefore, could never be 
a wild horse, but always a tamed horse, a horse that will 
go in harness. Cf. IX, 21, 4. hitaA na saptayaA rathe, like 
horses put to the chariot; or in the singular, IX, 70, jo. 
hitaA na sipti/t, like a harnessed horse. The root is sap, 
which in the Veda means to follow, to attend on, to wor- 
ship. But if sapti means originally animals that will go 

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NOTES. I, 85, I. 129 

together, it may in our passage have retained the sense 
of yoke-fellow (<ri(vyos), and be intended as an adjective to, wives. There is at least one other passage where 
this meaning would seem to be more appropriate, viz. 

VIII, 20, 23. yuyam sakhaya/z saptaya^. 

You (Maruts), friends and followers ! or you, friends and 
comrades ! 

Here it is hardly possible to assign to sapti the sense of 
horse, for the Maruts, though likened to horses, are never 
thus barely invoked as saptaya/z ! 

If then we translate, 4 Those who glance forth like wives 
and yoke-fellows,' i.e. like wives of the same husband, the 
question still recurs how the simile holds good, and how 
the Maruts rushing forth together in all their beauty can 
be compared to wives. In answer to this we have to bear 
in mind that the idea of many wives belonging to one hus- 
band (sapatni) is familiar to the Vedic poet, and that their 
impetuously rushing into the arms of their husbands, and 
appearing before them in all their beauty, are frequent 
images in their poetry. In such phrases as patim na 
g&nayaJi and ^anaya/z na garbham, the £unis, the wives or 
mothers, are represented as running together after their 
husbands or children. This impetuous approach the poet 
may have wished to allude to in our passage also, but 
though it might have been understood at once by his 
hearers, it is almost impossible to convey this implied idea 
in any other language. 

Wilson translates : ' The Maruts, who are going forth, 
decorate themselves like females : they are gliders (through 
the air), the sons of Rudra, and the doers of good works, 
by which they promote the welfare of earth and heaven. 
Heroes, who grind (the solid rocks), they delight in 

Ludwig translates: 'Die ganz besonders sich schmucken 
wie frauen, die renner, zu ihrem zuge,' &c. This is possible, 
yet the simile sounds somewhat forced. 

Not© 2. The meaning of this phrase, which occurs very 
frequently, was originally that the storms by driving away 
the dark clouds, made the earth and the sky to appear 
O] K 

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larger and wider. It afterwards takes a more general sense 
of increasing, strengthening, blessing. 

Verse 2. 

Hote 1. Ukshita is here a participle of vaksh or uksh, to 
grow, to wax ; not of uksh, to sprinkle, to anoint, to 
inaugurate, as explained by Siyawa. Thus it is said of the 
Maruts, V, 55, 3. sakam g&t&A— sakam ukshit&i, born 
together, and grown up together. 

Note 2. The same expression occurs VIII, 38, 5. sapt6 
(fti) adhi sriya/i dhire. See also I, 11 6, 17; IX, 68, 1. 

Verse 3. 

Bote 1. G6-mSitri, like g6-gata, a name of the Maruts, 
who are also called prkni-mataraA, smdhu-mataraA. 

Bote 2. Subhra is applied to the Maruts, 1, 19, 5. Other- 
wise, no doubt, it might refer, as Ludwig remarks, to, virvik- 
mataA, always supposing that virukmat is a feminine. 
Whether tanushu subhrSJi can stand for tanushu jubhrasu is 
more doubtful. 

Bote 3. VinikmataA must be an accusative plural. It 
occurs I, 127, 3, as an epithet of o^as; VI, 49, 5, as an 
epithet of the chariot of the Arvins. In our place, however, 
it must be taken as a substantive, signifying something 
which the Maruts wear, probably armour or weapons. 
This follows chiefly from X, 138, 4. jatrun arrmat virukmata, 
Indra tore his enemies with the bright weapon. In VIII, 
ao, 11, where rukma occurs as a masculine plural, vf bhra^ante 
rukmasa^ adhi bahushu, their bright things shine on their 
arms, it seems likewise to be meant for weapons ; according 
to Sayawa, for chains. In V, 55, 3 ; X, 78, 3, the Maruts 
are called vi-rokf«a/*, bright like the rays of the sun or the 
tongues of fire. 

Bote 4. Observe the short syllable in the tenth syllable 
of this Pada ; Benfey, Vedica, p. 124; Lanman, Noun- 
Inflection, pp. 378, 543. 

Verse 4. 
Bote L The sudden transition from the third to the 
second person is not unusual in the Vedic hymns, the fact 

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NOTES. I, 85, 5. 131 

being that where we in a relative sentence should use the 
same person as that of the principal verb, the Vedic poets 
frequently use the third. 

note a. VWsha-vrata is untranslatable for reasons stated 
p. 138 seq. ; it means consisting of companies of vmhans, 
in whatever sense that word be taken. Wilson in his 
translation mistakes a£yuta for a£yuta£, and vrata for 
vrata. He translates the former by 'incapable of being 
overthrown,' the latter by 'entrusted with the duty of 
sending rain,' both against the authority of Sayawa. VWsha- 
vrata occurs twice in the Rig-veda as an epithet of Soma 
only, IX, 62, 11 ; 64, 1. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. If we take adri for cloud, then ramh might have 
the meaning of stirring up. 

V, 32, 3. tvam utsan ritu-bhik badbadhan&n itzmhah. 

Thou madest the springs to run that had been shut up by 
the seasons. 

VIII, 19, 6. tasya ft arvanta/i rawhayante tskvsJt. 

His horses only run quick. 

But adri often means stone, in the sense of weapon, or 
bolt (cf. adrivaA, voc., wielder of the thunderbolt), and 
ra/ffhayati would then have the meaning of hurling. This 
is the meaning adopted by Benfey and Ludwig. 

Note 2. The red may be the dark red cloud, but arusha 
has almost become a proper name, and its original meaning 
of redness is forgotten. Nay, it is possible that arusha, as 
applied to the same power of darkness which is best known 
by the names of Vrztra, Dasyu, &c, may never have had 
the sense of redness, but been formed straight from ar, to 
hurt, from which arvan, arus, &c. (see p. 65 seq.). It 
would then mean simply the hurter, the enemy. It is 
possible also to take arusha in the sense of the red horse, the 
leader between the two Haris, when we ought to remember 
that the Maruts pour forth the streams of the stallion, RV. 
V, 83, 6. pra pinvata vrishmJt Isvasya dharaA, and that 
they lead about the horse to make it rain, RV. I, 64, 6. 
atyam na mih£ vi nayanti va^i'nam. 

K 2 

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Note 3. Sayawa explains : • They moisten the whole earth 
like a hide,' a hide representing a small surface which is 
watered without great effort. Wilson : ' They moisten the 
earth, like a hide, with water.' Langlois : * Alors les 
gouttes d'eau, percant comme la peau de ce (nuage) bien- 
faisant viennent inonder la terre.' Benfey : ' Dann sturzen 
reichlich aus der rothen (Gewitterwolke) Tropfen, mit Fluth 
wie eine Haut die Erde netzend. (Dass die Erde so durch- 
nasst wird, wie durchregnetes Leder.)' If the poet had 
intended to compare the earth, before it is moistened by 
rain, to a hide, he might have had in his mind the dryness 
of a tanned skin, or, as Professor Benfey says, of leather. 
If, on the contrary, the simile refers to the streams of water, 
then £arma-iva, like a skin, might either be taken in the 
technical acceptation of the skin through which, at the 
preparation of the Soma, the streams (dharaA) of that 
beverage are squeezed and distilled, or we may take the 
word in the more general sense of water-skin. In that case 
the comparison, though not very pointedly expressed, as it 
would have been by later Sanskrit poets, would still be 
complete. The streams of the red-(horse), i. e. of the cloud, 
rush forth, and they, whether the streams liberated by the 
Maruts, or the Maruts themselves, moisten the earth with 
water, like a skin, i. e. like a skin in which water is kept and 
from which it is poured out. The cloud itself being called 
a skin by Vedic poets (I, 129, 3) makes the comparison still 
more natural. 

One other explanation might suggest itself, if the singular 
of /fcarma should be considered objectionable on account of 
the plural of the verb. Vedic poets speak of the skin of 
the earth. Thus : 

X, 68, 4. bhumyaA udna-iva vf tvi£am bibheda. 

He (B^haspati) having driven the cows from the cave, 
cut the skin of the earth, as it were, with water, i. e. 
saturated it with rain. 

The construction, however, if we took /karma in the sense 
of surface, would be very irregular, and we should have 
to translate : They moisten the earth with water like a skin, 
L e. skin-deep. 

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NOTES. I, 85, 7. I33 

We ought to scan £armevodabhiA vi undanti bhuma, 
for £armeva udabhiA vyundanti bhflrna would give an 
unusual caesura. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. AV. XX, 13, 2. With your arms, i.e. according 
to Saya«a, with armfuls of gifts. Though this expression 
does not occur again so baldly, we read I, 166, 10, of the 
Maruts, that there are many gifts in their strong arms, 
bhtfrtoi bhadrfi naryeshu bahushu ; nor does bahu, as used 
in the plural, as far as I am able to judge, ever convey 
any meaning but that of arms. The idea that the Maruts 
are carried along by their arms as by wings, does not rest 
on Vedic authority, otherwise we might join raghupatvana^ 
with bahubhi//, come forth swiftly flying on your arms! 
As it is, and with the accent on the antepenultimate, we 
must refer raghupatvanaA to saptaya^, horses. 

Note 2. The sweet food is Soma. 

Verse *1. 

Note 1. The initial ' a ' of avardhanta must be elided, or 
' t6 a ' be pronounced as two short syllables equal to one 

Note 2. Taitt. S. IV, 1, 11, 3. Vishwu, whose character in 
the hymns of the Veda is very different from that assumed 
by him in later periods of Hindu religion, must here be 
taken as the friend and companion of Indra. Like the 
Maruts, he assisted Indra in his battle against VWtra and 
the conquest of the clouds. When Indra was forsaken by 
all the gods, Vish«u came to his help. 

IV, 18, 11. uta mata mahisham anu avenat ami (fti) tva 
^ahati putra devaA, 

atha abravit v«'tram fndra/fc hanishyan sakhe vish«o (fti) 
vi-taram vf kramasva. 

The mother also called after the bull, these gods forsake 
thee, O son ; then, when going to kill Vritra., Indra said, 
Friend, Vishwu, step forward I 

This stepping of Vishwu is emblematic of the rising, the 
culminating, and setting of the sun; and in VIII, 12, 27, 

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Vish«u is said to perform it throngh the power of Indra. 
In VI, 20, 2, Indra is said to have killed VWtra, assisted by 
Vishwu (vfshwuna sa^anaA). Vishwu is therefore invoked 
together with Indra, VI, 69, 8 ; VII, 99 ; with the Maruts, 
V, 87 ; VII, 36, 9. In VII, 93, 8, Indra, Vishwu, and the 
Maruts are called upon together. Nay, maVuta, belonging 
to the Maruts, becomes actually an epithet of Vishwu, V, 
46, 2. maruta uta vishwo (fti) ; and in I, 156, 4. maVutasya 
vedhasa-4 has been pointed out by Roth as an appellation of 
Vish#u. The mention of Vish«u in our hymn is therefore 
by no means exceptional, but the whole purport of this 
verse is nevertheless very doubtful, chiefly owing to the fact 
that several of the words occurring in it lend themselves to 
different interpretations. 

The translations of Wilson, Benfey, and others have not 
rendered the sense which the poet intends to describe at all 
clear. Wilson says : ' May they for whom Vish«u defends 
(the sacrifice), that bestows all desires and confers delight, 
come (quickly) like birds, and sit down upon the pleasant 
and sacred grass.' Benfey: 'Wenn Vish«u schiitzt den 
rauschtriefcnden tropfenden (Soma), sitzen wie Vogel sie 
auf der geliebten Streu.' Langlois : ' Quand Vich«ou vient 
prendre sa part de nos enivrantes libations, eux, comme des 
oiseaux, arrivent aussi sur le cousa qui leur est cher.' 
Ludwig : ' Als Vish«u half dem zum rauschtrank eilenden 
stiere, setzten sie sich wie vogel aufs Iiebe barhis.' 

Whence all these varieties? First, because aVat may 
mean, he defended or protected, but likewise, it is sup- 
posed, he descried, became aware. Secondly, because 
v^shan is one of the most vague and hence most difficult 
words in the Veda, and may mean Indra, Soma, or the 
cloud : (see the note on Vr/shan, p. 138.) Thirdly, because 
the adjective belonging to vr/shan, which generally helps 
us to determine which vrfehan is meant, is here itself of 
doubtful import, and certainly applicable to Indra as well 
as to Soma and the Arvins, possibly even to the cloud. 
Mada-iyut is readily explained by the commentators as 
bringing down pride, a meaning which the word might well 
have in modern Sanskrit, but which it clearly has not in 

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NOTES. I, 85, 7. 135 

the Veda. Even where the thunderbolt of Indra is called 
mada£yut, and where the meaning of ' bringing down pride ' 
would seem most appropriate, we ought to translate ' wildly- 
rushing down.' 

VIII, 96, 5. 8. yat va^ram bahvoA indra dhatse mada- 
£yutam ahaye hantavaf dm (fti). 

When thou tookest the wildly rushing thunderbolt in thy 
arms in order to slay Ahi. 

When applied to the gods, the meaning of madaiyut is 
by no means certain. It might mean rushing about fiercely, 
reeling with delight, this delight being produced by the 
Soma, but it may also mean sending down delight, i. e. rain 
or Soma. The root £yu is particularly applicable to the 
sending down of rain; cf. Taitt. Sawh. II, 4, 9, a; 10, 3; 
III, 3, 4, 1 ; and Indra and his horses, to whom this epithet 
is chiefly applied, are frequently asked to send down rain. 
However, mada£yut is also applied to real horses (1, 126,4) 
where givers of rain would be an inappropriate epithet. I 
should therefore translate mada£yiit, when applied to Indra, 
to his horses, to the A jvins, or to horses in general by furiously 
or wildly moving about, as if ' made or madena £yavate,' 
he moves in a state of delight, or in a state of intoxication, 
such as was not incompatible with the character of the 
ancient gods. Here again the difficulty of rendering Vedic 
thought in English, or any other modern language, becomes 
apparent, for we have no poetical word to express a high 
state of mental excitement produced by drinking the in- 
toxicating juice of the S om a or other plants, which has 
not something opprobrious mixed up with it, while in 
ancient times that state of excitement was celebrated 
as a blessing of the gods, as not unworthy of the gods 
themselves, nay, as a state in which both the warrior 
and the poet would perform their highest achievements. 
The German Rausch is the nearest approach to the San- 
skrit mada. 

VIII, 1, 21. vfcvesham tarutaram mada-£yutam made hi 
sma dadati naA. 

Indra, the conqueror of all, who rushes about in rapture, 
for in rapture he bestows gifts upon us. Cf. I, 51, 2. 

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The horses of Indra are called mada^yiit, I, 81, 3; VIII, 
33. l8 5 34, 9- Ordinary horses, 1, 136, 4. 

It is more surprising to see this epithet applied to the 
Ajvins, who are generally represented as moving about 
with exemplary steadiness. However we read : 

VIII, 33, 16. mana^-gavasa vr*sha«a mada-£yuta. 

Ye two Ajvins, quick as thought, powerful, wildly moving ; 
or, as Sayana proposes, liberal givers, humblers of your ene- 
mies. See also VIII, 35, 19. 

Most frequently mada£yiit is applied to Soma, X, 30, 9 ; 
IX, 32, 1 ; 53, 4 ; 79, 3 ; 108, 11 ; where particularly the last 
passage deserves attention, in which Soma is called mada- 
£yutam sahasra-dharam wishabham. 

Lastly, even the wealth itself which the Maruts are 
asked to send down from heaven, most likely rain, is 
called, VIII, 7, 13, rayfm mada-£yutam puru-kshiim vlyva- 

In all these passages we must translate mada-£yut by 
bringing delight, showering down delight. 

We have thus arrived at the conclusion that vr/sha»am 
mada-^yutam, as used in our passage I, 85, 7, might be 
meant either for Indra or for Soma. If the Ajvins can 
be called vr/sha«au mada-£yiita, the same expression would 
be even more applicable to Indra. On the other hand, 
if Soma is called vrishabh&k mada-£yut, the same Soma 
may legitimately be called vtishk mada-^yut. In deciding 
whether Indra or Soma be meant, we must now have 
recourse to other hymns, in which the relations of the 
Maruts with Vish«u, Soma, and Indra are alluded to. 

If Indra were intended, and if the first words meant 
• When Vishwu perceived the approach of Indra,' we should 
expect, not that the Maruts sat down on the sacrificial 
pile, but that they rushed to the battle. The idea that 
the Maruts come to the sacrifice, like birds, is common 
enough : 

VIII, 30, 10. vrishawarvena marutaA vrfeha-psuna rathena 
vrfeha-nabhina, & syen&saA na pakshka^ w/tha nara^ havyS 
nzA vltaye gata. 

Come ye Maruts together, to eat our offerings, on your 

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NOTES. I, 85, IO. I37 

strong-horsed, strong-shaped, strong-naved chariot, hke 
winged hawks! 

But when the Maruts thus come to a sacrifice it is to 
participate in it, and particularly in the Soma that is 
offered by the sacrificer. This Soma, it is said in other 
hymns, was prepared by Vish«u for Indra (II, 22, 1), and 
Vishwu is said to have brought the Soma for Indra (X, 
113, 2). If we keep these and similar passages in mind, 
and consider that in the preceding verse the Maruts have 
been invited to sit down on the sacrificial pile and to rejoice 
in the sweet food, we shall see that the same train of 
thought is carried on in our verse, the only new idea being 
that the saving or, possibly, the descrying of the Soma is 
ascribed to Vishwu. See, however, Bergaigne, Journ. Asiat. 
1884, p. 47a. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. On na and iva together, see Bollensen, Orient und 
Occident, II, 470. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Tvash/ar, the workman of the gods, frequently 
also the fashioner and creator. 

Note 2. Nari, the loc. sing, of art, but, if so, with a 
wrong accent, occurs only in this phrase as used here, and 
as repeated in VIII, 96, 19. nari apamsi karta sAA vritra- 
ha. Its meaning is not clear. It can hardly mean 'on 
man,' without some more definite application. If nri could 
be used as a name of VWtra or any other enemy, it would 
mean, to do his deeds against the man, on the enemy. 
Nri, however, is ordinarily an honorific term, chiefly applied 
to Indra, IV, 25, 4. nare naryaya nr/-tamaya nrin&m, and 
hence its application to Vr/tra would be objectionable. 
Sayawa explains it in the sense of battle. I believe that 
nari stands for narya, the ace. plur. neut. of narya, manly, 
and the frequent epithet of apas, and I have translated 
accordingly. Indra is called narya-apas, VIII, 93, 1. See 
also Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xxv, p. 601. 

Verse 10. 
Note 1. Avati, a well, here meant for cloud, like litsa, 

I, 64, 6. 

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Note 2. DhamantaA vawam is translated by Sayawa as 
playing on the lyre, by Benfey as blowing the flute. Such 
a rendering, particularly the latter, would be very appro- 
priate, but there is no authority for va«a meaning either 
lyre or flute in the Veda. Va«a occurs five times only. 
In one passage, VIII, 30, 8. gobhi^ v&ttaA a^yate, it means 
arrow ; the arrow is sent -forth from the bow-strings. The 
same meaning seems applicable to IX, 50, 1. va«asya 
£odaya pavfm. In another passage, IX, 97, 8. pra vadanti 
vawam, they send forth their voice, is applied to the 
Maruts, as in our passage ; in IV, 24, 9, the sense is 
doubtful, but here too va«a clearly does not mean a 
musical instrument See III, 30, 10. Spiegel compares 
the Huzvaresh and Armenian vang (Pers. banig), voice. 
M. Senart (Journal Asiatique, 1874, p. 381) is in favour of 
taking va«a for flute. 

Verse 12. 

Bote 1. In the Taitt. S. I, 5, n, we have jayamanaya, 
and in the Taitt. Br. II, 8, 5, 6, jawwamanaya, but Sayawa 
explains .raramanaya, ja»wana#* kurvate. He explains 
tridhatuni by aranam, panam, khadanam. 

Note 2. In vr/shan we have one of those words which it 
is almost impossible to translate accurately. It occurs over 
and over again in the Vedic hymns, and if we once know 
the various ideas which it either expresses or implies, we 
have little difficulty in understanding its import in a vague 
and general way, though we look in vain for corresponding 
terms in any modern language. In the Veda, and in ancient 
languages generally, one and the same word is frequently 
made to do service for many. Words retain their general 
meaning, though at the same time they are evidently used 
with a definite purpose. This is not only a peculiar phase 
of language, but a peculiar phase of thought, and as to us 
this phase has become strange and unreal, it is very difficult 
to transport ourselves back into it, still more to translate 
the pregnant terms of the Vedic poets into the definite 
languages which we have to use. Let us imagine a state of 

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NOTES. I, 85, 12. I39 

thought and speech in which virtus still meant manliness, 
though it might also be applied to the virtue of a woman ; 
or let us try to speak and think a language which expressed 
the bright and the divine, the brilliant and the beautiful, 
the straight and the right, the bull and the hero, the 
shepherd and the king by the same terms, and we shall see 
how difficult it would be to translate such terms without 
losing either the key-note that was still sounding, or the 
harmonics which were set vibrating by it in the minds of 
the poets and their listeners. 

I. Vr/shan, male. 

VWshan, being derived from a root vmh, sparger e, meant 
no doubt originally the male, whether applied to animals 
or men. In this sense vrishan occurs frequently in the 
Veda, either as determining the sex of the animal which is 
mentioned, or as standing by itself and meaning the male. 
In either case, however, it implies the idea of strength and 
eminence, which we lose whether we translate it by man 
or male. 

Thus isva is horse, but VII, 69, 1, we read: 

3. vam ratha^ — vr/sha-bhiA yatu ajvaiA. 

May your chariot come near with powerful horses, i. e. 
with stallions. 

The Haris, the horses of Indra, are frequently called 
vrfehawa : 

I, 177, 1. yuktvfi hart (fti) vr/sha«a. 

Having yoked the bay stallions. 

Vrz'shabha, though itself originally meaning the male 
animal, had become fixed as the name of the bull, and in 
this process it had lost so much of its etymological import 
that the Vedic poet did not hesitate to define vrtshabha 
itself by the addition of w/shan. Thus we find : 

VIII, 93, 7. s&A vr/sha vn'shabhaA bhuvat. 

May he (Indra) be a strong bull. 

I, 54, a. vrfeha vrisha-tvfi vr*shabha>&. 

Indra by his strength a strong bull ; but, literally, Indra 
by his manliness a male bull. 

Even vr/shabha loses again its definite meaning ; and as 

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bull in bull-calf means simply male, or in bull-trout, large, 
so vmhabha is added to atya, horse, to convey the meaning 
of large or powerful : 

I, 1 77, a. yi te vr/sha«aA vrishabhSasJt indra — atyaA. 

Thy strong and powerful horses ; literally, thy male bull- 

When vrfehan and vr*'shabha are used as adjectives, for 
instance with jiishma, strength, they hardly differ in 
meaning : 

VI, 19, 8. & naJt bhara vWshaaam .rush mam indra. 

Bring us thy manly strength, O Indra. 

And in the next verse : 

VI, 19, 9. £ te jiishmaA wtshabha^ etu. 

May thy manly strength come near. 

Va/wsaga, too, which is clearly the name for bull, is 
defined by w/shan, I, 7, 8 : 

vr/sha yuthfi-iva va/«sagaA. 

As the strong bull scares the herds. 

The same applies to varaTia, which, though by itself 
meaning boar, is determined again by w/shan : 

X, 67, 7. vr/sha-bhiA varaliaiA. 

With strong boars. 

In III, 2, 11, we read : 

vr/sha — nanadat na siwhaA. 

Like a roaring lion. 

If used by itself, w/shan, at least in the Rig-veda, can 
hardly be said to be the name of any special animal, though 
in later Sanskrit it may mean bull or horse. Thus if we 
read, X, 43, 8, vrfeha na kruddha^, we can only translate 
like an angry male, though, no doubt, like a wild bull, 
would seem more appropriate. 

I, 186, 5. y£na napatam apam ^unama mana^-giivaA 
vrfehawaA yam vahanti. 

That we may excite the SQn of the water (Agni), whom 
the males, quick as thought, carry along. 

Here the males are no doubt the horses or stallions 
of Agni. But, though this follows from the context, 
it would be wrong to say that vrfehan by itself means 


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NOTES, I, 85, 12. 141 

If used by itself, vrfehan most frequently means man, 
and chiefly in his sexual character. Thus : 
I, 140, 6. vr/sha-iva patniA abhf eti r6ruvat. 
Agni comes roaring like a husband to his wives. 

I, 179, 1. api dm (fti) mi patnlA vr/sha«a£ ^agamyu/*. 
Will the husbands now come to their wives ? 

II, 16, 8. sakr/t su te sumatf-bhiA — sam patnibhiA na 
vr/shanaA nastmahi. 

May we for once cling firmly to thy blessings, as hus- 
bands cling to their wives. 

V, 47, 6. upa-praksh£ vr/sha«aA m6daman&& div££ pathS 
vadhviLfc yanti AkkAa.. 

The exulting men come for the embrace on the path of 
heaven towards their wives. 

In one or two passages vr/shan would seem to have a 
still more definite meaning, particularly in the formula 
sflraA dr/rike vr/sha«aA £a pauwsye, which occurs IV, 41, 
6; X, 9a, 7. See also I, 179, 1. 

In all the passages which we have hitherto examined 
vr/shan clearly retained its etymological meaning, though 
even then it was not always possible to translate it by 

The same meaning has been retained in other languages 
in which this word can be traced. Thus, in Zend, arshan 
(the later gushan) is used to express the sex of animals in 
such expressions as arpahe" arshno, gen. a male horse; 
varazahe arshno, gen. a male boar; g^us arshnd, gen. a 
male ox ; but likewise in the sense of man or hero, as arsha 
hujrava, the hero Huyrava. In Greek we find &p<rqv and 
&j!>f>r)v used in the same way to distinguish the sex of animals, 
as ipo-fvts fmroi, fiovv &p<rtva. In Latin the same word may 
be recognised in the proper name Varro, and in varo 
and baro. 

.We now come to another class of passages in which 
vf/shan is clearly intended to express more than merely 
the masculine gender. In some of them the etymological 
meaning of sparger e, to pour forth, seems to come out 
again, and it is well known that Indian commentators are 
very fond of explaining w/shan by giver of rain, giver of 

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good gifts, bounteous. The first of these meanings may 
indeed be admitted in certain passages, but in others it is 
more than doubtful 

II. VWshan, fertilising. 

I, 181, 8. vr/sha vim meghaA may be translated, your 
raining cloud. 

I, 129, 3. dasmaA hf sma vr/sha«am pfnvasi tvafcma. 

Thou art strong, thou fillest the rainy skin, i. e. the cloud. 

See also IV, 22, 6 ; and possibly V, 83, 6. 

It may be that, when applied to Soma too, vr/shan 
retained something of its etymological meaning, that it 
meant gushing forth, poured out, though in many places 
it is impossible to render vr/shan, as applied to Soma, by 
anything but strong. All we can admit is that vr/shan, if 
translated by strong, means also strengthening and invigo- 
rating, an idea not entirely absent even in our expression, a 
strong drink. 

III. Vr/shan, strong. 

I, 80, 2. saA tva amadat vr/sha madaA, s6maA — sutaA. 

This strong draught inspirited thee, the poured out 

I, 91, 2. tvam vr/sha vrishn-tvibhiA. 

Thou, Soma, art strong by strength. 

I, 175, 1. vr/sha te vr/sh«e Induk vkgi sahasra-sfftama^. 

For thee, the strong one, there is strong drink, powerful, 

In the ninth Ma»</ala, specially dedicated to the praises 
of Soma, the inspiriting beverage of gods and men, the 
repetition of vr/shan, as applied to the juice and to the god 
who drinks it, is constant. Indo vr/sha or vr/sha indo 
are incessant invocations, and become at last perfectly 

IV. Vr/shan, epitheton ornans. 

There can be no doubt, in fact, that already in the 
hymns of the Veda, vr/shan had dwindled away to a mere 
epitheton ornans, and that in order to understand it cor- 
rectly, we must, as much as possible, forget its etymological 

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NOTES. 1,85,12. 143 

colouring, and render it by hero or strong. Indra, Agni, 
the Ajvins, Vishwu, the i?»bhus (IV, 35, 6), all are vr/shan, 
which means no longer male, but manly, strong. 

In the following passages vr/shan is thus applied to 
Indra : 

I, 54, 2. yih dhrwhauna jivasa r6dasi (fti) ubh£ (fti) 
vr/sha vmha-tv4 vre'shabha^ ni-n'/f^ate. 

(Praise Indra) who by his daring strength conquers both 
heaven and earth, a bull, strong in strength. 

I, 100, 1. sih y&A vrfeha vrfehwyebhiA sam-ok&A m&h&k 
divaA prr'thivyfiA k& sam-rfi7 satfna-satva havyaA bhareshu 
marutvan naA bhavatu indraA tit". 

He who is strong, wedded to strength, who is the king 
of the great sky and the earth, of mighty might, to be 
invoked in battles, — may Indra with the Maruts come to 
our help! 

I, 16,1. S, tvavahantu harayaA vr/sha«am soma-pitaye, 
indra tva suVa-£akshasaA. 

May the bays bring thee hither, the strong one, to the 
Soma-draught, may the sunny-eyed horses (bring) thee, O 

IV, 16, 20. eva ft indraya vmhabhaya vriahtte brahma 
akarma bhr/gavaA na ratham. 

Thus we have made a hymn for Indra, the strong bull, 
as the Bhrzgus make a chariot. 

X, 153, 2. tvam vr*shan vr/sha ft asi. 

Thou, O hero, art indeed a hero; and not, Thou, O 
male, art indeed a male ; still less, Thou, O bull, art indeed 
a bull. 

I, 10 1, 1. avasyavaA vr/sha«am va^ra-dakshiwam marut- 
vantam sakhyaya havamahe. 

Longing for help we call as our friend the hero who 
wields the thunderbolt, who is accompanied by the Maruts. 

VIII, 6, 14. nf .nishwe indra dhamasfm va^ram^aghantha 
dasyavi, vr/sha hf ugra jr/wvishe. 

Thou, O Indra, hast struck the strong thunderbolt against 
•Sushwa, the fiend ; for, terrible one, thou art called hero ! 

VIII, 6, 40. vavr/dhanaA lipa dyavi vr/sha va^r" aroravit 
vr/tra-ha" soma-pfitamaA. 

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Growing up by day, the hero with the thunderbolt has 
roared, the VWtra-killer, the great Soma-drinker. 

V, 35,4. vWsha hf asi rfidhase^a^nish6 vrlshni tesivsJi. 

Thou (India) art a hero, thou wast born to be bounteous ; 
in thee, the hero, there is might. 

V. VarshishMa, strongest, best, oldest. 

It is curious to watch the last stage of the meaning of 
w/shan in the comparative and superlative varshiyas and 
varshish/j&a. In the Veda, varshish/i4a still means excellent, 
but in later Sanskrit it is considered as the superlative of 
vraldha, old, so that we see w/shan, from meaning originally 
manly, vigorous, young, assuming in the end the meaning of 
old. (M. M., Sanskrit Grammar, § 252.) 

Yet even thus, when vrfehan means simply strong or 
hero, its sexual sense is not always forgotten, and it breaks 
out, for instance, in such passages as, 

I) 3*> 7- vrishnaJi vadhri/j prati-manam bubhushan puru- 
tra vritri/t ajayat vf-astaA. 

VWtra, the eunuch, trying to be like unto a man (like unto 
Indra), was lying, broken to many pieces. 

The next passages show vr/shan as applied to Agni : 

III, 27, 15. vrfehawam tva vayam vr/shan vrfehawaA sam 

O, strong one, let us the strong ones kindle thee, the 
strong ! 

V, 1, 1 a. avo£ama kavaye medhyaya v&kaA vandaru vri- 
shabhaya vrishne. 

We have spoken an adoring speech for the worshipful 
poet, for the strong bull (Agni). 

Vishwu is called vr/shan, I, 154, 3 : 

pra vfsh«ave jusham etu manma giri-kshfte uru-gayaya 

May this hymn go forth to Vish«u, he who dwells in the 
mountain (cloud), who strides wide, the hero ! 

Rudra is called vr/shan : 

II, 34, 2. rudraA yat va/i maruta^ rukma-vakshasaA vWsha 
4fani prfonyaA jukre fldhani. 

When Rudra, the strong man, begat you, O Maruts with 

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NOTES. I, 85, 12. 145 

bright ornaments on your chests, in the bright lap of 

That the Maruts, the sons of Rudra, are called vr/shan, 
we have seen before, and shall see frequently again (I, 
165, 1; II, 33, 13; VII, 56, ao; ai; 58, 6). The whole 
company of the Maruts is called vr/sha ganiA, the strong 
or manly host, i. e. the host of the Maruts, without any 
further qualification. 

VI. Vr/shan, name of various deities. 

Here lies, indeed, the chief difficulty which is raised by 
the common use of vr/shan in the Veda, that when it occurs 
by itself, it often remains doubtful who is meant by it, Indra, 
or Soma, or the Maruts, or some other deity. We shall 
examine a few of these passages, and first some where 
vr/shan refers to Indra : 

IV, 30, 10. apa ush&A anasa^ sarat sam-pish/at aha 
bibhyushl, nf yat stm .dmathat vr/sha. 

Ushas went away from her broken chariot, fearing lest 
the hero should do her violence. 

Here vr/shan is clearly meant for Indra, who, as we learn 
from the preceding verse, was trying to conquer Ushas, as 
Apollo did Daphne ; and it should be observed that the 
word itself, by which Indra is here designated, is particularly 
appropriate to the circumstances. 

1, 103, 6. bhOfri-karmawe vr/shabhaya vr/sh«e satya-.rosh- 
maya sunavama s6mam, yaA a-dr/tya paripanthwva s&raA 
AyagvanaA vi-bh4fan eti vedaA. 

Let us pour out the Soma for the strong bull, the per- 
former of many exploits, whose strength is true, the hero 
who, watching like a footpad, comes to us dividing the 
wealth of the infidel. 

Here it is clear again from the context that Indra only 
can be meant. 

But in other passages this is more doubtful : 

III, 61, 7. r/tasya budhne ushasam ishawyan vr/sha mahi 
(fti) r6dast (fti) 8. viveya. 

The hero in the depth of the heaven, yearning for the 
dawns, has entered the great sky and the earth. 
[3»] L 

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The hero who yearns for the dawns, is generally Indra ; 
here, however, considering that Agni is mentioned in the 
preceding verse, it is more likely that this god, as the light 
of the morning, may have been meant by the poet. That 
Agni, too, may be called w/shan, without any other epithet 
to show that he is meant rather than any other god, is clear 
from such passages as, 

VI, 3, 7. vr/sha ruksha^ 6shadhtshu nunot. 

He the wild hero shouted among the plants. 

In VII, 60, 9, vrj'shawau, the dual, is meant for Mitra and 
Varuwa ; in the next verse, vrishanaA, the plural, must mean 
the same gods and their companions. 

That Soma is called simply vr/shan, not only in the ninth 
Ma«</ala, but elsewhere, too, we see from such passages as, 

III, 43, 7. rndra pfoa w/sha-dhutasya vHshnaA (& yam te 
syen&A ujate .g-abh&ra), yasya mdde £yavayasi pra krishlfA 
yasya made apa gotrfi vavdrtha. 

Indra drink of the male (the strong Soma), bruised by the 
males (the heavy stones), inspirited by whom thou makest 
the people fall down, inspirited by whom thou hast opened 
the stables. 

Here Saya«a, too, sees rightly that ' the male bruised by 
the males ' is the Soma-plant, which, in order to yield the 
intoxicating juice, has to be bruised by stones, which stones 
are again likened to two males. But unless the words, 
enclosed in brackets, had stood in the text, words which 
clearly point to Soma, I doubt whether Sayawa would have 
so readily admitted the definite meaning of w/shan as Soma. 

I, 109, 3. m£ Medma rarmin fti nfidhamaniA pitr/Wsm 
saktiA anu-ya£MamanaA, indragnf-bhyam kam vr/sha«aA 
madanti ta hf adri (fti) dhishdwiya^ upd-sthe. 

We pray, let us not break the cords (which, by means of 
the sacrifices offered by each generation of our forefathers, 
unite us with the gods) ; we strive after the powers of our 
fathers. The Somas rejoice for Indra and Agni ; for the 
two stones are in the lap of the vessel. 

First, as to the construction, the fact that participles are 
thus used as finite verbs, and particularly when the subject 
changes in the next sentence, is proved by other passages, 

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NOTES. I, 85, 12. I47 

such as II, 11, 4. The sense is that the new generation 
does not break the sacrificial succession, but offers Soma, 
like their fathers. The Soma-plants are ready, and, when 
pressed by two stones, their juice flows into the Soma- 
vessel. There maybe a double entendre in dhisha«aya£ 
upa-sthe, which Sanskrit scholars will easily perceive. 

When w/shan is thus used by itself, we must be chiefly 
guided by the adjectives or other indications before we 
determine on the most plausible translation. Thus we 

1. 55' 4- sa ^ ft vane namasyu-bhiA va^asyate Hru ^aneshu 
pra-bruva«aA indriyam, vrfshl k/tindu/t bhavati haryataA 
vWsha ksh^mena dh^nam magha-va yat fnvati. 

In the first verse the subject may be Indra or Soma : 
4 He alone is praised by worshippers in the forest (or in the 
wooden vessel), he who shows forth among men his fair 
power.' But who is meant to be the subject of the next 
verse? Even Sayawa is doubtful. He translates first : 
' The bounteous excites the man who wishes to sacrifice ; 
when the sacrificer, the rich, by the protection of Indra, 
stirs up his voice.' But he allows an optional translation for 
the last sentences : ' when the powerful male, Indra, by his 
enduring mind reaches the praise offered by the sacrificer.' 

According to these suggestions, Wilson translated : He 
(Indra) is the granter of their wishes (to those who solicit 
him) ; he is the encourager of those who desire to worship 
(him), when the wealthy offerer of oblations, enjoying his 
protection, recites his praise. 

Benfey : The bull becomes friendly, the bull becomes 
desirable, when the sacrificer kindly advances praise. 

LANGLOIS : When the noble Maghavan receives the 
homage of our hymns, his heart is flattered, and he 
responds to the wishes of his servant by his gifts. 

As far as I know, the adjective £Aandu does not occur 
again, and can therefore give us no hint. But haryata, 
which is applied to vr/shan in our verse, is the standing 
epithet of Soma. It means delicious, and occurs very 
frequently in the ninth Ma«</ala. It is likewise applied 
to Agni, Pushan, the Haris, the thunderbolt, but wherever 

L 2 

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it occurs our first thought is of Soma. Thus, without 
quoting from the Soma-Ma»*/ala, we read, X, 96, 1, harya- 
tam madam, the delicious draught, i. e. Soma. 

X, 96, 9. pltva* madasya haryatasya andhasaA, means 
having drunk of the draught of the delicious Soma. 

VIII, 72, 18. padam haryatasya ni-dhanyam, means the 
place where the delicious Soma resides. 

Ill, 44, 1. haryata^ s6ma.A. 

Delicious Soma. 

II, 21, 1. bhara fndraya somam ya^ataya haryatam. 

Bring delicious Soma for the holy Indra. 

I, 130, 2. madaya haryataya te tuv{A-tamaya dhayase. 

That thou mayest drink the delicious and most powerful 
draught, i. e. the Soma. 

If, then, we know that vr/shan by itself is used in the 
sense of Soma, haryata w/shan can hardly be anything 
else. Va£asyate also is peculiar to Soma in the sense of 
murmuring, or as it were talking, and never occurs as a 
passive. I therefore should prefer to assign the whole verse 
to Soma, and translate: He indeed, when in the wooden 
vessel, talks with his worshippers, proclaiming his fair power 
among men ; the strong Soma is pleasing, the strong Soma 
is delicious, when the sacrificer safely brings the cow, i. e. the 
milk to be mixed with the Soma. 

That Indra was thirsting for Soma had been said in the 
second verse, and he is again called the Soma-drinker in the 
seventh verse. A verse dedicated to Soma therefore seems to 
come in quite naturally, though the Anukramawt does not 
sanction it. 

That the Maruts are called w/shan, without further ex- 
planations, will appear from the following- passages: 

I, 85, 12. rayfm naA dhatta vrishanaA su-viram. 

Give us wealth, ye heroes, consisting of good offspring. 

VIII, 96, 14. fehyami va/i vr*'sha«a/* yudhyata a^au. 

I wish for you, heroes (Maruts), fight in the race ! 

In all the passages which we have hitherto examined, 
w/shan was always applied to living beings, whether 
animals, men, or gods. But as, in Greek, &p<rr)v means 
at last simply strong, and is applied, for instance, to the 

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NOTES. I, 85, 12. 149 

crash of the sea, ktj/wos &p<ri\v ir6trrov, so in the Veda 
vr/shan is applied to the roaring of the storms and similar 

V, 87, 5. svanaA vr/sha. 

Your powerful sound (O Maruts). 

X, 47, 1. ^agnbhma te dakshiwam indra hastam vasu- 
yavaA vasu-pate vasunam, vidma h/ tva g6-patim jura 
gonam asmabhyam £itram vr/sha«am rayfm d&A. 

We have taken thy right hand, O Indra, wishing for 
treasures, treasurer of treasures, for we know thee, O hero, 
to be the lord of cattle ; give us bright and strong wealth. 

Should £itra here refer to treasures, and vr/shan to cattle ? 

X, 89, 9. nf amftreshu vadham indra tumram vr/shan 
vr/sha«am arusham jinhi. 

Whet, O hero, the heavy strong red weapon against the 

The long a in vr/sha»am is certainly startling, but it 
occurs once more, IX, 34, 3, where there can be no doubt 
that it is the accusative of vr/shan. Professor Roth takes 
vr/shan here in the sense of bull (s. v. tumra), but he does 
not translate the whole passage. 

III, 29, 9. kr/«6ta dhumam vr/sha«am sakhaya//. 
Make a mighty smoke, O friends ! 

Strength itself is called vr/shan, if I am right in trans- 
lating the phrase vr/sha«am .rushmam by manly strength. 
It occurs, 

IV, 24, 7. tasmin dadhat vr/sha«am .rushmam fndra&. 
Indra may give to him manly strength. 

VI, 19, 8. & xaJt bhara vr/shawam .rushmam indra. 
Bring to us, O Indra, manly strength. 

VII, 24, 4. asm6 (fti) dadhat vr/sha«am .rushmam indra. 
Giving to us, O Indra, manly strength. 

See also VI, 1 9, 9, jushma^ vrishabhaA, used in the same 

VII. Vr/shan, general and empty term of praise. 

This constant play on the word vr/shan, which we have 
observed in the passages hitherto examined, and which 
give by no means a full idea of the real frequency of its 

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occurrence in the Veda, has evidently had its influence on 
the Vedic it? /shis, who occasionally seem to delight in the 
most silly and unmeaning repetitions of this word, and 
its compounds and derivatives. Here no language can 
supply any adequate translation ; for though we may 
translate words which express thoughts, it is useless to 
attempt to render mere idle play with words. I shall give 
a few instances : 

I) 1 77> 3- & tishfy&a ratham vr/sha te sutaA 
aoma/t pari-sikta madhuni, yuktvfi vr/sha-bhyam vmhabha 
kshitJnSrn hari-bhyam yahi pra-vata upa madrfk. 

Mount the strong car, the strong Soma is poured out 
for thee, sweets are sprinkled round ; come down towards 
us, thou bull of men, with the strong bays, having yoked 

But this is nothing yet compared to other passages, when 
the poet cannot get enough of vr/shan and vr/shabha. 

II, 16, 6. vr/sha te v&graA uta te vr/sha rathaA vr/sha»a 
hart (fti) vr/shabhSm Syudha, vtishnaA madasya vnshabha 
tvam trishe fndra s6masya vr/shabhasya tr/pwuhi. 

Thy thunderbolt is strong, and thy car is strong, 
strong are the bays, the weapons are powerful, thou, 
bull, art lord of the strong draught, Indra rejoice in the 
powerful Soma ! 

V, 36, 5- vr/sha tva vr/sha»am vardhatu dyatiA vr/sha 
vr/sha-bhyam vahase hari-bhyam, saA naA vr/sha vr/sha- 
rathaA su-jipra vr/sha-krato (fti) vr/sha va^rin bhare dhaA. 

May the strong sky increase thee, the strong; a 
strong one thou art, carried by two strong bays ; do 
thou who art strong, with a strong car, O thou of strong 
might, strong holder of the thunderbolt, keep us in battle 1 

V, 40, 2-3. vr/sha graVa vr/sha madaA vr/sha s6ma// 
ayam sutaA, vr/shan indra vr/sha-bhiA vr/trahan-tama, 
vr/sha tva vr/sha«am huve. 

The stone is strong, the draught is strong, this Soma 
that has been poured out is strong, O thou strong Indra, 
who killest Vr/tra with the strong ones (the Maruts), I, 
the strong, call thee, the strong. 

VIII, 13, 31-33. vr/sha ayam indra te rathaA ut6 (fti) te 

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NOTES. I, 85, 12. I51 

vr/sha«a hart (fti), vr/sha tvim jata-krato (fti) vr/sha havaA. 
vr/sha grava vr/sha mada/J vr/sha somaA ayam sutaA, vr/sha 
yagiiiA ydm fnvasi vr/sh4 hava/6. vr/sha tv& vr/sha«am 
huve va^rin £itrabhiA utf-bhiA, vavdntha hf prati-stutim 
vr/sh4 havaA. 

This thy car is strong, O Indra, and thy bays are 
strong; thou art strong, O omnipotent, our call is strong. 
The stone is strong, the draught is strong, the Soma is 
strong, which is here poured out ; the sacrifice which thou 
orderest is strong, our call is strong. I, the strong, 
call thee, the strong, thou holder of the thunderbolt, with 
manifold blessings ; for thou hast desired our praise ; our 
call is strong. 

There are other passages of the same kind, but they are 
too tedious to be here repeated. The commentator, through- 
out, gives to each vr/shan its full meaning either of 
showering down or bounteous, or male or bull ; but a word 
which can thus be used at random has clearly lost its 
definite power, and cannot call forth any definite ideas in 
the mind of the listener. It cannot be denied that here 
and there the original meaning of vr/shan would be appro- 
priate even where the poet is only pouring out a stream of 
majestic sound, but we are not called upon to impart sense 
to what are verba et praeterquam nihil. When we 
read, I, J 33, 3, vtftaA ap£m vr/sha«-van, we are justified, no 
doubt, in translating, ' the wind who pours forth water;' 
and X, 93, 5, apfim vr/sha»-vasu (fti) sfiryama'sa, means ' Sun 
and Moon, givers of water.' But even in some passages 
where vr/shan is followed by the word vr/sh, it is curious to 
observe that vr/sh is not necessarily used in the sense of rain- 
ing or pouring forth, but rather in the sense of drinking. 

VI, 68, 1 1. mdravaruwa madhumat-tamasya vrishnaJt s6- 
masya vr/sha«a B ft vr/shetham. 

• The dual vr»sha»au occurs only when the next word begins 
with a vowel Before an initial a, a, i, the au is always changed 
into Sv in the Samhid (I, 108, 7-12; 116, 21; 117, 19; 153, 2; 
I 57» 5; !5 8 > l > l8o » 7 5 VII, 61, 5). Before u the preceding au 
becomes a in the Sawhita, but the Pada gives au, in order to show 
that no Sandhi can take place between the two vowels (VII, 60, 9; 

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Indra and Varu«a, you strong ones, may you drink of 
the sweetest strong Soma. 

That a-vrz'sh means to drink or to eat, was known to 
Saya«a and to the author of the >Satapatha-brahma#a, who 
paraphrases a vmhayadhvam by arnita, eat. 

The same phrase occurs I, 108, 3. 

I, 104, 9. ura-vyikkAgatAire 8, wishasva. 

Thou of vast extent, drink (the Soma) in thy stomach. 

The same phrase occurs X, 96, 13. 

VIII, 61, 3. 8, vrsshasva — sutasya indra andhasa^. 

Drink, Indra, of the Soma that is poured out. 

In conclusion, a few passages may be pointed out in 
which vrfehan seems to be the proper name of a pious 
worshipper : 

I, 36, 10. yam tva devasaA manave dadhu^ iha ya^ish- 
ttom havya-vahana, yam ka#va// medhya-atithiA dhana- 
spr/tam yam vr/sha- yam upa-stutaA. 

Thee, O Agni, whom the gods placed here for man, the 
most worthy of worship, O carrier of oblations, thee whom 
Kawva, thee whom Medhyatithi placed, as the giver of 
wealth, thee whom Vn'shan placed and Upastuta. 

Here the commentator takes VWshan as Indra, but this 
would break the symmetry of the sentence. That Upa- 
stuta^ is here to be taken as a proper name, as Upastuta, 
the son of Vrtsh/ihavya, is clear from verse 17: 

dignik pra avat mitrS uta medhya-atithim agnlA satK upa- 

Agni protected also the two friends, Medhyatithi and 
Upastuta, in battle. 

The fact is that whenever upastuta has the accent on the 
last syllable, it is intended as a proper name, while, if used 
as a participle, in the sense of praised, it has the accent on 
the first. 

X, 66, 7). Before consonants the dual always ends in S, both in 
the Sawhid and Pada. But there are a few passages where the 
final i occurs before initial vowels, and where the two vowels are 
allowed to form one syllable. In four passages this happens before 
an initial 4(1, 108, 3; VI, 68, 11; I, 177, 1; II, 16, 5). Once, 
and once. only, it happens before u, in VIII, 22, 12. 

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NOTES. 1,85,12. I53 

VIII, 5, 25. yatha £it kdwvam aVatam priyd-medham 

As you have protected Ka«va, Priyamedha, Upastutd. 
Cf. I, in, 15. 

VIII, 103, 8. prd mawzhishA&aya gayata — lipa-stutasa/* 
agnaye (accent of the vocative). 

Sing, O Upastutas, to the worthiest, to Agni ! 

X, 115, 9. fti tva agne vrtsh/i-hdvyasya putrid upa- 
stutasaA rfehayaA avo£an. 

By these names, O Agni, did the sons of Vrishrihavya, 
the Upastutas, the i?jshis, speak to you. 

Vn'shan occurs once more as a proper name in VI, 16, 
14 and 15 : 

tarn dm (fti) tva dadhydn. rishiA putrdA idhe dtharvawa^, 
vrj'tra-hanam puram-dardm. 

tdm ikt (fti) tva pathydA vr/sha sdm idhe dasyuhan- 
tamam, dhanam-^aydm rd«e-ra«e. 

Thee, O Agni, did Dadhya£ kindle, the Rishi, the son of 
Atharvan, thee the killer of Vrt'tra, the destroyer of towns ; 

Thee, O Agni, did Vr/shan Pathya kindle, thee the best 
killer of enemies, the conqueror of wealth in every battle. 

Here the context can leave no doubt that Dadhya£ and 
Vrtshan were both intended as proper names. Yet as 
early as the composition of the Satapatha-brahmawa, this 
was entirely misunderstood. Dadhya£, the son of Atharvan, 
is explained as speech, Vmhan Pathya as mind (Sat. Br. 
VI, 3, 3, 4). On this Mahtdhara, in his remarks on Vkg: 
Sawh. XI, 34, improves still further. For though he allows 
his personality to Dadhya£, the son of Atharvan, he says 
that Pathya comes from pathin, path, and means he who 
moves on the right path ; or it comes from pathas, which 
means sky, and is here used in the sense of the sky of the 
heart. He then takes vr/shan as mind, and translates the 
mind of the heart. Such is a small chapter in the history 
of the rise and fall of the Indian mind ! 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. O Maruts, that man in whose dwelling you 
drink (the Soma), ye mighty (sons) of heaven, he 
indeed has the best guardians K 

2. You who are propitiated 1 either by sacrifices 
or from the prayers of the sage, hear the call, O 
Maruts ! 

3. Aye, the powerful man to whom you have 
granted a sage, he will live in a stable rich in cattle 1 . 

4. On the altar of this strong man (here) 1 Soma is 
poured out in daily sacrifices ; praise and joy are 

5. To him let the mighty 1 Maruts listen, to him 
who surpasses all men, as the flowing rain-clouds 2 
pass over the sun. 

6. For we, O Maruts, have sacrificed at many 
harvests, through the mercies l of the swift gods (the 

7. May that mortal be blessed, -0 chasing Maruts, 
whose offerings you carry off 1 . 

8. You take notice either of the sweat of him who 
praises you, ye men of true strength, or of the desire 
of the suppliant 1 . 

9. O ye of true strength, make this manifest with 
might ! strike the fiend 1 with your lightning ! 

10. Hide the hideous darkness, destroy 1 every 
tusky 2 fiend. Make the light which we long for ! 

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NOTES. I, 86, 2. 155 


This hymn is ascribed to Gotatna. 

Verse i=VS.VIII, 31 ; AV. XX, 1, 2 ; TS. IV, 2, 11, 1. 

Verse 2= TS. IV, 2, n, a. 

Verse 6= TS. IV, 3, 13,5. 

Verse8=SV II, 944- 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. V/mahas occurs only once more as an epithet of 
the Maruts, V, 87, 4. Being an adjective derived from 
mahas, strength, it means very strong. The strong ones of 
heaven is an expression analogous to I, 64, 2. divaA rish- 
vasaA ukshana£ ; I, 64, 4. divaA naraA. The Ait. Brahmana 
VI, 10, takes gopa, guardian, as Indra. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. The construction of this verse is not clear. 
Ya^via-vahas has two meanings in the Veda. It is applied 
to the priest who carries or performs the sacrifice : 

III, 8, 3, and 24, 1. \&xkaJi dhkh ya^vJa-vahase. 

Grant splendour to the sacrificer ! 

But it is also used of the gods who carry off the sacri- 
fice, and in that case it means hardly more than worshipped 
or propitiated ; I, 15, 1 1 (Ajvinau) ; IV, 47, 4 (Indra and 
Vayu); VIII, 12, 20 (Indra). In our verse it is used in 
the latter sense, and it is properly construed with the in- 
strumental yzgnakh. The difficulty is the gen. plur. matt- 
nam, instead of matfbhiA. The sense, however, seems to 
allow of but one construction, and we may suppose that the 
genitive depends on the ya^vJa in ya^viavahas, ' accepting 
the worship of the prayers of the priest.' Benfey refers 
ya^viaW to the preceding verse, and joins havam to vfprasya 
matinam : ' Durch Opfer — Opferfordrer ihr ! — oder ihr hort 
— Maruts — den Ruf der Lieder, die der Priester schuf.' 

The Samhita text lengthens the last syllable of jri«uta, as 
suggested by the metre. 

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If the accent allowed ya^wavahasaA to be taken as a 
genitive, the translation, as suggested by Ludwig, might be, 
' Either for the sake of the sacrifices of the sacrificer, or 
because of the prayers of the sage, O Maruts, hear the 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The genitive yasya va^-fna^ depends on vfpra. 
Anu-taksh, like anu-grah, anu-^vla, seems to convey the 
meaning of doing in behalf or for the benefit of a person. 
Ganta might also be translated in a hostile sense, he will 
go into, he will conquer many a stable full of cows. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Ludwig has pointed out that asya may refer 
to the present sacrificer. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. I have altered a bhuvaA into abhuvaA, for I do 
not think that bhiivaA, the second pers. sing, even if it were 
bhuvat, the third pers., could be joined with the relative 
pronoun yaA in the second pada. The phrase vlsv&A 
y&A ka.rshamk abhf occurs more than once, and is never 
preceded by the verb bhuva// or bhuvat. Abhiiva^, on the 
contrary, is applied to the Maruts, I, 64, 6, vidatheshu 
abhuva// ;• and as there can be no doubt who are the deities 
invoked, abhuvaA, the strong ones, is as appropriate an 
epithet as v/mahas in the first verse. 

Note 2. Sasrushi^ IshaA, as connected with stfra, the sun, 
can only be meant for the flowing waters, the rain-clouds, 
the givers of ish or vigour. They are called divyaA (shaA : 

VIII, 5, 21. uta naA divylA IshaA uta smdhun varshatha^. 

You rain down on us the heavenly waters and the rivers. 

Wilson translates : May the Maruts, victorious over all 
men, hear (the praises) of this (their worshipper) ; and may 
(abundant) food be obtained by him who praises them. 

Benfey : Ihn, der ob alien Menschen ragt, sollen horen 
die Labungen, und nahn, die irgend Weisen nahn. 

Ludwig : Horen sollen von ihm, der iiber alien menschen 
ist, die erden, seine bis zur sonne gelangten krafte. In his 

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NOTES. I, 86, 9. 157 

notes he would prefer: Von ihm sollen sie gegenwartig 
horen, von ihm der alle menschen iibertrift (und die in die 
sonne wegegangenen), die darbringungen. 

•Sroshantu does not occur again ; but we find jr6shan, I, 
68, 5; jr6shama»a, III, 8, 10 ; VII, 51, 1; VII, 7, 6. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. The expression dvobhiA, with the help, the 
blessings, the mercies, is generally used with reference to 
divine assistance; (I, 117, 19; 167, 2; 185, 10 ; 11 ; IV, 
23, 7 ; 41, 6 ; V, 74, 6 ; VI, 47, 13 ; VII, 20, 1 ; 35, 1, &c.) 
It seems best therefore to take as a name or 
epithet of the Maruts, although, after the invocation of 
the Maruts by name, this repetition is somewhat unusual. 
I should have preferred, ' with the help of our men, of our 
active and busy companions,' for £arsha«f is used in that 
sense also. Only dvobhiA would not be in its right place 
then. The same applies to the various reading in TS. IV, 
3. J 3, 5» where instead of ivobhiA we find mahobhi^. This 
too is used with reference to gods, and particularly to the 
Maruts ; see I, 165, 5, note. 

Verse 7. 

Note L Par, with ati, means to carry over (I, 97, 8 ; 99, 
I ; 174, 9; III, 15, 3 ; 20, 4; IV, 39, I ; V, 25, 9 ; 73, 8; 
VII, 40, 4; 97, 4; VIII, 26, 5; 67, 2, &c); with apa, to 
remove (I, 129, 5); with ni/t, to throw down. Hence, if 
used by itself, unless it means to overrun, as frequently, 
it can only have the general sense of carrying, taking, 
accepting, or accomplishing. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Vida as second pers. plur. perf. is frequent, 
generally with the final 'a ' long in the Sawhita, I, 156, 3 ; 

V, 41. 13 ! 55, «• 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Observe the long penultimate in raksha/*, instead 
of the usual short syllable. Cf. I, 1 3, 5, and see Kuhn, 
Beitrage, vol. iii, p. 456. 

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Verse 10. 

Note 1. See note 1 to I, 39, 3. 

Note 2. Atrfn, which stands for attrfn, is one of the 
many names assigned to the powers of darkness and mis- 
chief. It is derived from atrd, which means tooth or jaw, 
and therefore meant originally an ogre with large teeth or 
jaws, a devourer. Besides atra, we also find in the Veda 
dtra, with the accent on the first syllable, and meaning 
what serves for eating, or food : 

X, 79, 2. itrawi asmai pa/~bhM: sdm bharanti. 

They bring together food for him (Agni) with their feet. 

With the accent on the last syllable, atra in one passage 
means an eater or an ogre, like atrfn : 

V, 32, 8. apadam atram — mridhri-v&kam. 
Indra killed the footless ogre, the babbler. 
It means tooth or jaw : 

1, 1 29, 8. svaydm sS rishayadhyai yfi naA upa-ishe" atrafA. 

May she herself go to destruction who attacks us with 
her teeth. 

It is probably from atra in the sense of tooth (cf. <$8wres= 
ibSvTft) that atrfn is derived, meaning ogre or a devouring 
devil In the later Sanskrit, too, the Asuras are repre- 
sented as having large tusks, Mahabh. V, 3572, damshtrino 
bhtmaveglr ka.. 

Thus we read I, 21, 5, that Indra and Agni destroy the 
Rakshas, and the poet continues : 

ipra^aA santu atrfwaA. 

May the ogres be without offspring ! 

IX, 86, 48. ^ahf vlsvbn rakshdsaA indo (fti) atrfwaA. 

Kill, O Soma, all the tusky Rakshas. Cf. IX, 104, 6 ; 105, 6. 

VI, 51, 14. ^ahf nf atHwam pa«fm. 
Kill, O Soma, the tusky Pawi. 

I, 94, 9. vadhafA duA-s&mskn dpa du/t-dhya/i gsAii 
dure" va y6 inti vi k6 £it atrlnaA. 

Strike with thy blows, O Agni, the evil-spoken, evil- 
minded (spirits), the ogres, those who are far or who are near. 

See also I, 36, 14; ao; VI, 16, 28; VII, 104, 1; 5; 
VIII, 12, I ; 19, 15 ; X, 36, 4 ; 118, 1. 

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MA7VDALA I, HYMN 87. 1 59 


To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 
i. Endowed with exceeding vigour and power, 
the singers, the never flinching, the immovable, the 
impetuous, the most beloved and most manly, have 
decked themselves with their glittering ornaments, 
a few only \ like the heavens with the stars. 

2. When you have seen your way through the 
clefts, like birds, O Maruts, on whatever road it be 1 , 
then the casks (clouds) on your chariots trickle every- 
where, and you pour out the honey-like fatness (the 
rain) for him who praises you. 

3. At their racings the earth shakes, as if broken 1 , 
when on the (heavenly) paths they harness (their 
deer) for victory s . They the sportive, the roaring, 
with bright spears, the shakers (of the clouds) have 
themselves glorified their greatness. 

4. That youthful company (of the Maruts), with 
their spotted horses 1 , moves by itself; hence 2 it 
exercises lordship, invested with powers. Thou 
indeed art true, thou searchest out sin 8 , thou art 
without blemish. Therefore the manly host will 
help this prayer. 

5. We speak after the kind of our old father, our 
tongue goes forth at the sight l of the Soma : when 
the singers (the Maruts) had joined' I ndra in deed*, 
then only they took their holy names ; — 

6. These Maruts, armed with beautiful rings, 
obtained splendours for their glory 1 , they ob- 
tained 2 rays, and men to celebrate them ; nay, 
armed with daggers, speeding along, and fearless, 
they found the beloved domain of the Maruts *. 

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This hymn is ascribed to Gotama. No verse in SV., 
VS., AV. 
Verse 3=TS. IV, 3, 13, 7. 
Verse 3=TS. IV, 3, 13, 7. 
Verse 6=TS. II, i, 11, 3 ; IV, 3, 11, a. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Re - £it refers to the Maruts, who are represented 
as gradually rising or just showing themselves, as yet only 
few in number, like the first stars in the sky. Ki £it, some, 
is opposed to sarve, all. The same expression occurs again, 
V, 53, 1 3, where the Maruts are compared to a few thieves. 
B. and R., and those who follow them, translate usra^ iva 
str/-bhi// by 'like cows marked with stars on their fore- 
heads.' Such cows no doubt exist, but they can hardly be 
said to become visible by these frontal stars, as the Maruts 
by their ornaments. We must take usrftA here in the same 
sense as dya'vaA ; II, 34, 3, it is said that the Maruts were 
perceived dyavaA na stri-bhiA, like the heavens with the 

I, 166, 11. dure-dr/jaA ye* divyfiTA-iva str^-bhiA. 

Who are visible far away, like the heavens (or heavenly 
beings) by the stars. 

And the same is said of Agni, II, 3, 5. dyau/i ai strl- 
bhiA /Htayat r6dast (fti) anu. StribhSh occurs I, 68, 5 ; IV, 
7> 3 5 VI, 49, 3 ; 13. It always means stars, and the 
meaning of rays (strahl) rests, as yet, on etymological 
authority only. The evening sky would, no doubt, be more 
appropriate than usrfiA, which applies chiefly to the dawn. 
But in the Indian mind, the two dawns, i. e. the dawn and 
the gloaming, are so closely united and identified, that 
their names, too, are frequently interchangeable. 

Verse 2. 
Note 1. I translate yayf not by a goer, a traveller, i. e. the 

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NOTES. I, 87, 3. l6l 

cloud (this is the explanation proposed by Sayawa, and 
adopted by Professor Benfey), but by path. Sayawa (TS. 
IV, 3, 13, 7) renders yayim by gatim. Etymologically 
yay/ may mean either, and in some passages I feel doubtful 
as to which is the more appropriate meaning. But in 
parallel passages yayf is clearly replaced by yama. Thus : 

VIII, 7, 2. yat — yamam subhrSJi a£idhvam. 

When you, bright Maruts, have seen your way. 

See also VIII, 7, 4. yat yfimam yanti vayu-bhiA. 

When they (the Maruts) go on their path with the winds. 

VIII, 7, 14. adhi-iva yat giriwam yamam jubhraA a£i- 

When you, bright Maruts, had seen your way, as it were, 
from above the mountains. 

The same phrase occurs, even without yama or yayf, in 

V, 55, 7. na parvataA na nadyaA varanta vaA yatra 
a£idhvam marutaA ga^^ata it u tit. 

Not mountains, not rivers, keep you back ; where you 
have seen (your way), there you go. 

Though yayf does not occur frequently in the Rig-veda, 
the meaning of path seems throughout more applicable 
than that of traveller. 

V, 87, 5. tveshaA yayiA. 

Your path, O Maruts, is blazing. 

V, 73, 7. ugraA vam kakuha/; yayih. 

Fearful is your pass on high. 

I, 51, 11. ugraA yay/m niA apaA sr6tasa asngat. 

The fearful Indra sent the waters forth on their way 

X, 92, 5. pra — yayfna yanti smdhavaA. 

The waters go forth on their path. 

Ludwig takes k6sa as buckets on the chariots of the 
Maruts, which seems right. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. Cf. I, 37, 8, page 75. There is no authority for 
Sayawa's explanation of vithurS-iva, the earth trembles like 
a widow. VithurS occurs several times in the Rig-veda, 
but never in the sense of widow. Thus : 

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I, 1 68, 6. yat £yavayatha vithurS-iva sim-hitam. 

When you, Maruts, throw down what is compact, like 
brittle things. 

I, 186, a ; VI, 25, 3 ; 46, 6 ; VIII, 96, 2 ; X, 77, 4 (vi- 
thuryati). The Maruts themselves are called avithura in 
verse 1. Spiegel compares the Zend aiwithura. As to 
4?ma and ySma, see I, 37, 8, page 75. 

Note 2. .Subh is one of those words to which it is very 
difficult always to assign a definite special meaning. Being 
derived from subh, to shine, the commentator has no diffi- 
culty in explaining it by splendour, beauty ; sometimes by 
water. But although subh means originally splendour, and 
is used in that sense in many passages, yet there are others 
where so vague a meaning seems very inappropriate. In 
our verse Sayawa proposes two translations, either, ' When 
the Maruts harness the clouds,' or, 'When the Maruts 
harness their chariots, for the bright rain-water.' Now the 
idea that the Maruts harness their chariots in order to 
make the clouds yield their rain, can hardly be expressed 
by the simple word jubhe\ i. e. for brightness' sake. As 
the Maruts are frequently praised for their glittering orna- 
ments, their splendour might be intended in this passage, 
as it certainly is in others. Thus : 

I> &5> 3. yit jubhayante awg-f-bhiA tanCshu subhrtJt 
dadhire virukmataA. 

When the Maruts adorn themselves with glittering 
ornaments, the brilliant ones put bright weapons on their 

VII, 56, 6. subhS. jobhish^a^, sriyS. sam-mulaA, 6gdJi~ 
bhih ugx&k. 

The most brilliant by their brilliancy, united with beauty, 
terrible by terrors. 

In I, 64, 4, I have translated vakshaA-su rukmKn adhi 
yetire jubhe by ' they fix gold (chains) on their chests for 
beauty.' And the same meaning is applicable to I, 1 1 7. 5> 
subh€ rukmam na darratam n/-khatam, and other passages : 
IV, 51, 6 ; VI, 63, 6. 

But in our verse and others which we shall examine, 
beauty and brilliancy would be very weak renderings for 

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NOTES. I, 87, 3. 163 

jubhe. * When they harnessed their chariots or their deer 
for the sake of beauty,' means nothing, or, at least, very 
little. I take, therefore, subhi in this and similar phrases 
in the sense of triumph or glory or victory. ' When they 
harness their chariots for to conquer,' implies brilliancy, 
glory, victory, but it conveys at the same time a tangible 
meaning. Let us now see whether the same meaning is 
appropriate in other passages : 

I, 23, 1 1. ^ayatam-iva tanyatuA marutam eti dhrishnu- 
yfi yat jubham yathana naraA. 

The thundering voice of the Maruts comes fiercely, like 
that of conquerors, when you go to conquer, O men ! 

Sayawa : * When you go to the brilliant place of sacrifice.' 
Wilson : • When you accept the auspicious (offering).' 
Benfey : * Wenn ihr euren Schmuck nehmt.' 

V, 57, 2. yathana jiibham, you go to conquer. Cf. V, 55, 1. 

Sayawa : ' For the sake of water, or, in a chariot.' 

V, 52, 8. jardha^ mSrutam lit samsa. — uta sma te .yubhe 
naraA pra syandra^ yufata tmana. 

Praise the host of the Maruts, whether they, the men, 
the quickly moving, have by themselves harnessed (the 
chariots) for conquest. 

Saya«a: * For the sake of water.' Cf. X, 105, 3. 

V, 57, 3. jubhi yat ugraA pr/shatiA ayugdhvam. 

When you have harnessed the deer for conquest. 

Sayawa : • For the sake of water.' 

Ill, 26, 4. subh6 — prfehatiA ayukshata. 

They had harnessed the deer for victory. 

Saya«a: 'They had harnessed in the water the deer 
together (with the fires).' 

V, 63, 5. ratham yu«gate manitaA .rubhe' su-kham s&raJi 
na — g6-ishrishu. 

The Maruts harness the chariot meet for conquest, like a 
hero in battles. 

Sayawa : ' For the sake of water.' 

I, 88, 2. jubhe kirn yanti — isvui/t. 

The Maruts go on their horses towards conquest. 

Sayawa : ' In order to brighten the worshipper, or, for 
the sake of water.' 

M 2 

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1,119, 3. sam yat mithaA pasprrdhanSsaA agmata jubh6 
rnakha.^ amita^ ^ayava^ ra«e. 

When striving with each other they came together, for 
the sake of glory, the brisk (Maruts), immeasurable (in 
strength), panting for victory in the fight. 

Sayawa : * For the sake of brilliant wealth.' 

VII, 82, 5. mariit-bhiA ugraA jiibham anyih tyate. 

The other, the fearful (Indra), goes with the Maruts to 

Saya«a : ' He takes brilliant decoration.' 

I, 167, 6. & asthapayanta yuvatfm yuvanaA subh6 nf- 

The Maruts, the youths, placed the maid (lightning 
on their chariot), their companion for victory (jubhe' 

Saya«a : ' For the sake of water, or, on the brilliant 
chariot.' Cf. I, 127, 6; 165, 1. 

VI, 62, 4. j-ubham prflcsham {sham uigam vdhanta. 

The Arvins bringing glory, wealth, drink, and food. 

VIII, 36, 13. xubhe" £akrate, you bring him to glory. 
.Subham-yavan is an epithet of the Maruts, I, 89, 7; 

V, 61, 13. Cf. jubhra-yavina,VIII, %6, 19 (Ajvinau). 
•Subhara-yfi, of the wind, IV, 3, 6. 
.Subham-yu, of the rays of the dawn, X, 78, 7. 

Verae 4. 

Note 1. Sayawa : ' With spotted deer for their horses.' 
See I, 37, a, note 1, page 70 ; as Pushan is called a^irva, 
having goats for his horses, RV. V, 58, %. 

That the Maruts have not only pmhatts, but horses for 
their chariots, we have seen before. In I, 88, 1, we have 
arvapar«ai^ rathebhiA. 

Note 2. Ayfi is a word of very rare occurrence in the 
Rig-veda. It is the instrum. sing, of the feminine pronominal 
base a or !, and as a pronoun followed by a noun it is fre- 
quently to be met with ; V, 45, 11. aya dhiyS, &c. But in 
our verse it is irregular in form as not entering into Sandhi 
with isini/t. This irregularity, however, which might have 
led us to suppose an original ayst/*, indefatigable, corre- 

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NOTES. I, 87, 5. 165 

sponding with the following dsi, is vouched for by the 
Pada text, in such matters a better authority than the Sa;«- 
hita text, and certainly in this case fully borne out by the 
PratLr&khya, 1, 163, 10. Unless we read aya'A, we must take 
aya as an adverb, in the sense of thus or hence ; cf. VI, 66, 4. 
In some passages where ayS seems thus to be used as an 
adverb, it would be better to supply a noun from the pre- 
ceding verse. Thus in II, 6, 2, ayfi refers to samfdham in 
II, 6, 1. In VI, 17, 15, a similar noun, samfdha or girif, 
should be supplied. But there are other passages where, 
unless we suppose that the verse was meant to illustrate a 
ceremonial act, such as the placing of a samfdh, and that 
ay£ pointed to it, we must take it as a simple adverb, 
like the Greek t<j> : RV. Ill, 12, 2; IX, 53, 2; 106, 14. 
In X, 116, 9, the Pada reads ayi^-iva, not &y&, as given 
by Roth; in VI, 66, 4, iya mi, the accent is likewise on 
the first. 

Note 3. i??«a-yavan is well explained by B. and R. as 
going after debt, searching out sin. Saya«a, though he 
explains rj'wa-yavan by removing sin, derives it nevertheless 
correctly from rina and ya, and not from yu. The same 
formation is found in jubham-yavan, &c. ; and as there is 
rina-y& besides rina-yivan, so we find jubham-yfi besides 
jubham-yavan. Ludwig prefers the derivation from yu. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. The Soma-juice inspires the poet with eloquence. 

Note 2. S&mi occurs again in II, 31, 6 ; III, 55, 3 ; VIII, 
45, 27; X, 40, 1. Grassmann has shown that it may be 
taken as an instrum. of s&mi, meaning work, but with special 
reference to the toil of the battle-field or the sacrifice. It 
is used in the former sense in 

VIII, 45, 27. vi ana/ turvi«e s&mi. 

He (Indra) was able to overcome, lit. he reached to, or 
he arrived at the overcoming or at victory by toil. 

But, like other words which have the general meaning of 
working or toiling, s&mi is used both in a general sense, 
and in the more special sense of sacrifice. 

X, 40, 1. v&stoA-vastoA vdhamanam dhiyS s&mi. 

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Your chariot, O Axvins, driven along every morning by 
thought and deed. 

II, 31, 6. ap£m napat Iru-h^ma dhiyfi jdmi. 

Apim napat (Agni) moving quickly by thought and 

In these two passages it might be possible, with a slight 
alteration of the accent, to read dhiya-jami as one word. 
Dhiya-jam would mean the sacrificer who is engaged in 
prayer ; cf. dhiya-^iir, V, 43, 15. Thus we read : 

VI, 2, 4. yaA te su-dfinave dhiyS martaA jajamate. 

The mortal who toils for thee, the liberal god, with 

There is no necessity, however, for such a change, and 
the authority of the MSS. is against it. See also IX, 74, 7. 

In III, 55, 3, .rami ikkkz. didye purvyaVri, Roth takes Jami 
as an ace. plur. neut., Lanman as an instrum., Grassmann as 
a locative. 

I glance back at the former sacrifices. See B. R. s.v. di 
and .rami. 

In other passages the feminine si.m\ seems to mean 
work, sacrificial work, but, as far as we can see, not simply 
sacrifice. Thus the .tftbhus and others are said to have 
acquired immortality by their work or works, jamt or 
s&mMttk, I, 20, 2; 110, 4; III, 60, 3 ; IV, 33, 4. Cf. IV, 
22, 8 ; 17, 18 ; V, 4*, IO ; 77, 4 5 VI, 52, I ; VIII, 75, 14 5 
IX, 74, 7 ; X, 28, 12. In VI, 3, 2, we read : 

\g6 yagn4bh\k jajame' jamibhiA. 

I have sacrificed with sacrifices, I have worked with 
pious works. 

Here the verb jam must be taken in the sense of 
working, or performing ceremonial worship, while in other 
places (III, 29, 16 ; V, 2, 7) it may be perhaps taken in the 
more special sense of singing songs of praise. The Greek 
Kti/x-vw, to work, to labour, to tire (Sanskrit jamyati), the 
Greek KOfubrj and ko/xi^co, to labour for or take care of a 
person, and possibly even the Greek k&ixos, a song or a 
festival (not a village song), may all find their explana- 
tion in the Sanskrit root jam. 

The idea that the Maruts did not originally enjoy divine 

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NOTES. I, 87, 6. 167 

honours will occur again and again : cf. I, 6, 4 ; 7a, 3. 
A similar expression is used of the .ff/bhus, I, 30, 8, &c. 
But while originally the expression of obtaining sacred names 
meant no more than obtaining a sacred or divine character, 
it was soon taken literally, and a number of names were 
invented for the Maruts which even in the Va^asan. Saaahita 
XVII, 80-85 amount to 49, i. e. 7 x 7. Ya^-nfya, properly 
' worthy of sacrifice,' has the meaning of divine or sacred. 
The Greek iyios has been compared withya^ya, sacrificio 
colendus, which is not a Vedic word. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. .SViyase kdm seems to be the same as the more 
frequent sriy6 kam. .Sriyase only occurs twice more, V, 59, 3. 
The chief irregularity consists in the absence of Guwa, which 
is provided for by Pacini's kasen (III, 4, 9). Similar in- 
finitives, if they may so be called, are bhiyase, V, 29, 4 ; 
vrzdhase, V, 64, 5; dhruvase, VII, 70, 1; tu^ise, IV, 23, 7; 
m&fase, VIII, 4,17; vnȣase,VIII, 76,1; rǣase,VII, 61, 6. 
In VI, 39, 5, rikAse may be a dat. sing, of the masculine, to 
the praiser. 

Note 2. Mimikshire from myaksh, to be united with. 
Rannf, rays, after bhanu, splendour, may seem weak. It 
might be possible to assign to r&ym/ the meaning of reins, 
and take rtkvabhir in the sense of sounding or tinkling. 
In V, 79, 8, ar£f is used in juxtaposition with rasmi. 

Note 8. The bearing of this concluding verse is not quite 
clear, unless we take it as a continuation of the preceding 
verse. It was there said that the Maruts (the rtkvkna/i) 
obtained their holy names after having joined Indra in his 
work, which means that they then and there became what 
they are. Having thus obtained their true character and a 
place among the gods, they may be said to have won at the 
same time splendour, and worshippers to sing their praises, 
and to have established themselves in what became after- 
wards known as their own domain, their own place among 
the gods who are invoked at the sacrifice. See VII, 58, 1. 

The metre requires that we should read dhamana^. 

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Benfey translates : Gedeih'n zu spenden woll'n die 
schongeschmucketen mit Lichtern, Strahlen mit Lobsangern 
regenen ; die briillenden, furchtlosen, stiirmischen, sie sind 
bekannt als Glieder des geliebten Marutstamms. 

Wilson: Combining with the solar rays, they have 
willingly poured down (rain) for the welfare (of mankind), 
and, hymned by the priests, have been pleased partakers 
of the (sacrificial food). Addressed with praises, moving 
swiftly, and exempt from fear, they have become possessed 
of a station agreeable and suitable to the Maruts. 

LUDWIG : Zu herlichkeit haben dise sich mit liechtglanz 
versehen, mit sausenden ziigeln die schonberingten, schwert- 
bewaffnet die kraftvollen, ohne furcht besitzen sie die 
freundliche Marutmacht 

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MAY.DALA I, HYMN 88. 1 69 


To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. Come hither, Maruts, on your chariots charged 
with lightning, resounding with beautiful songs 1 , 
stored with spears, and winged with horses ! Fly s 
to us like birds, with your best food 2 , you mighty 

2. They come gloriously on their red, or, it may 
be, on their tawny horses which hasten their chariots. 
He who holds the axe 1 is brilliant like gold; — 
with the tire 2 of the chariot they have struck the 

3. On your bodies there are daggers for beauty ; 
may they stir up our minds l as they stir up the 
forests. For yourselves, O well-born Maruts, the 
vigorous (among you) shake 8 the stone (for distilling 

4. Days went round you and came back 1 , O 
hawks, back to this prayer, and to this sacred 
rite; the Gotamas making prayer with songs, 
pushed up the lid of the well (the cloud) for to 

5. No such hymn 1 was ever known as this which 
Gotama sounded for you, O Maruts, when he saw you 
on golden wheels, wild boars* rushing about with 
iron tusks. 

6. This comforting speech rushes sounding towards 
you, like the speech of a suppliant : it rushed freely 
from our hands as our speeches are wont to do. 

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This hymn is ascribed to Gotama, the son of Rahugawa. 
The metre varies. Verses 1 and 6 are put down as 
Prastara-pankti, i. e. as 1 2 + 1 2 + 8 + 8. By merely counting 
the syllables, and dissolving semivowels, it is just possible 
to get twenty-four syllables in the first line of verses 1 and 6. 
The old metricians must have scanned verse 1 : 

a vidyunmat-bhiA maruta^ su-arkaiA 

rathebhiA yata^rishrimat-bhiA arva-par«al£. 

Again verse 6: esha sya vaA maruta^ anu-bhartrf 

prati stobhati vaghataA na va«i. 
But the general character of these lines shows that they 
were intended for hendecasyllabics, each ending in a 
bacchius, though even then they are not free from irregu- 
larities. The first verse would scan : 

I vidyunmat-bhiA marutaA su-arkal& 
rathebhi/6 yata~r*shiimat-(bhiA) arva-par«aiA. 
And verse 6 : eshi. sya vaA marutaA-anu-bhartrl 

prati stobhati vaghataA na v£«t. 
Our only difficulty would be the termination bhiA of rishfi- 
mat-bhiA. I cannot adopt Professor Kuhn's suggestion to 
drop the Visarga of bhiA and change i into y (Beitrage, 
vol. iv, p. 198), for this would be a license without any 
parallel. It is different with sa^, originally sa, or with 
feminines in \h, where parallel forms in 1 are intelli- 
gible. The simplest correction would be to read rathebhiA 
yata'V*'shri-mantaA~ajva-par»aiA. One might urge in sup- 
port of this reading that in all other passages where 
rzsh/imat occurs, it refers to the Maruts themselves, and 
never to their chariots. Yet the difficulty remains, how 
could so simple a reading have been replaced by a more 
difficult one? 

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NOTES. I, 88, I. T71 

In the two Gayatrl padas which follow I feel equally 
reluctant to alter. I therefore scan 

1 varshTsh/Aaya naA ishl vaykA na paptata su-may&A, 
taking the dactyl of paptata as representing a spondee, and 
admitting the exceptional bacchius instead of the am- 
phimacer at the end of the line. 
The last line of verse 6 should be scanned : 

astobhayat vr*tha~as£m anu svadham gabhastyoA. 

There are two other verses in this hymn where the metre 
is difficult. In the last pada of verse 5 we have seven 
syllables instead of eleven. Again, I say, it would be most 
easy to insert one of the many tetrasyllabic epithets of the 
Maruts. But this would have been equally easy for the 
collectors of the Veda. Now the authors of the Anukra- 
mawis distinctly state that this fifth verse is vir&/rtipa, i. e. 
that one of its padas consists of eight syllables. How 
they would have made eight syllables out of vi-dhivataA 
varahtin does not appear, but at all events they knew that 
last pada to be imperfect. The rhythm does not suffer by 
this omission, as long as we scan vi-dhavataA varlhCm. 

Lastly, there is the third pada of the second verse, 
rukma^ na kitraA svadhiti-van. It would not be possible 
to get eleven syllables out of this, unless we admitted vyuha 
not only in svadhitivln or svadhitt-van, but also in £itraA. 
Kuhn (Beitrage, vol. iv, p. 19a) proposes to scan rukmaii 
na UtardJt svadhitivan. Nothing would be easier than to 
insert esham after kitr&A, but the question occurs again, 
how could esham be lost, or why, if by some accident it 
had been lost, was not so obvious a correction made by 
•Saunaka and Katyayana ? 

No verse of this hymn occurs in SV., VS., AV., TS., TB. 

Verso L 
Note 1. Alluding to the music of the Maruts, and not to 
the splendour of the lightning which is mentioned before. 
See Wolf, Beitrage zur Deutschen Mythologie, vol. ii, 
p. 137. ' Das Ross und den Wagen des Gottcs begleitet 
munterer Hornerschall, entweder stosst er selbst ins Horn, 

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oder sein Gefolge. Oft vernimmt man auch eine liebliche 
Musik, der keine auf Erden gleich kommt (Miillenhof, 582). 
Das wird das Pfeifen und Heulen des Sturmes sein, nur in 
idealisirter Art.' Ibid. p. 158. 

Note 2. Varshish/Aa, which is generally explained as the 
superlative of vraldha, old (PA«. VI, 4, 157), has in most 
passages of the Rig-veda the more general meaning of 
strong or excellent : VI, 47, 9. fsham £ vakshi ishSm vdr- 
shish/7*am ; III, 13, 7 (vdsu); III, 26, 8 (ratna); III, 16, 3 
(ra{) ; IV, 31, 15 ; VIII, 46, 24 (sr&vaA) ; IV, 22, 9 (nrt'mwa) ; 
V, 67, 1 (kshatrd) ; VI, 45, 31 (murdhdn). In some 
passages, however, it may be taken in the sense of oldest 
(I, 37, 6 ; V, 7, 1), though by no means necessarily. Vdr- 
shishA&a is derived in reality from vr/shan, in the sense of 
strong, excellent. See note to I, 85, 12, page 144. 

Note 3. Paptata, the second person plural of the im- 
perative of what is commonly, though without much reason, 
called the aorist of the causative of pat. It is curiously 
like the Greek wfrrrere, but it has the meaning of flying 
rather than falling ; see Curtius, Grundziige, p. 190. Two 
other forms formed on the same principle occur in the Rig- 
veda, paptaA and paptan : 

II, 31, 1. prd yit v&yaJi nd paptan. 
That they may fly to us like birds. 
VI, 6% 6. prd vam vdya>6 — inu paptan. 
May your birds fly after you. 

X, 95, 1 5. purtiravaA ma* mr/thaA mfi pra paptaA. 
Purdravas, do not die, do not go away ! 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Though svadhiti-v&n does not occur again, it can 
only mean he who holds the axe, or, it may be, the sword 
or the thunderbolt, the latter particularly, if Indra is here 
intended. Svadhiti signifies axe : 

III, 2, 10. sva-dhitim ni te^ase. 

They adorned Agni like an axe to shine or to cut. 

The svddhiti is used by the butcher, I, 162, 9 ; 18 ; 20 ; 
and by the wood-cutter or carpenter, III, 8,6; 1 1 ; X, 89, 
7, &c. Roth (s. v.) takes svadhiti as meaning also a tree, 

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NOTES. I, 88, 3. 173 

possibly the oak, and he translates svadhitivan in our 
passage by a chariot made of the wood of the Svadhiti 
tree. In RV. IX, 96, 6, svadhitir vananim may well mean 
'the strong axe among woods,' the axe being naturally 
made of the strongest wood. In V, 33, 10, a devf svadhiti^ 
is mentioned, possibly the lightning, the companion of Indra 
and the Maruts. 

Note 2. The tire of the chariot of the Maruts is frequently 
mentioned. It was considered not only as an essential 
part of their chariot, but likewise as useful for crushing the 
enemy : 

V, 5a, 9. uta pavya* rathanam adrim bhindanti 6<fasa. 

They cut the mountain (cloud) with the tire of their 

I, 166, 10. pavfshu kshur&V; adhi. 

On their tires are sharp edges. 

In V, 31, 5, tires are mentioned without horses and 
chariot, which were turned by Indra against the Dasyus 
(I, 64, 11). I doubt, however, whether in India or else- 
where the tires or the wheels of chariots were ever used as 
weapons of attack, as detached from the chariot ; (see M. M., 
On Pavtrava, in Beitrage zur Vergleichenden Sprach- 
forschung, vol. iii, p. 447.) If we translate the figurative 
language of the Vedic poets into matter-of-fact terms, the 
tires of the chariots of the Maruts may be rendered by 
thunderbolts ; yet by the poets of the Veda, as by the 
ancient people of Germany, thunder was really supposed 
to be the noise of the chariot of a god, and it was but a 
continuation of the same belief that the sharp wheels of 
that chariot were supposed to cut and crush the clouds ; 
(see M. M., loc. cit, p. 444.) 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. That the vfirfs are small weapons, knives or 
daggers, we saw before, p. 71. Sayawa here explains v&st 
by a weapon commonly called ara, or an awl. In X, 101, 
10, v&ris are mentioned, made of stone, ajman-mayi. 

The difficulty begins with the second half. Medhfi, as 
here written in the Pada text, could only be a plural of 

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a neuter medha, but such a neuter does nowhere exist in 
the Veda. We only find the masculine m&lha, sacrifice, 
which is out of the question here, on account of its accent 
Hence the passage III, 58, a, urdhv&4 bhavanti pitara-iva 
midh&A, is of no assistance, unless we alter the accent. 
The feminine medha* means will, thought, prayer : I, 1 8, 6 ; 
II, 34, 7 ; IV, 33, 10; V, 27,4; 4», 13 ; VII, 104, 6 ; VIII, 
6, 10; 5a, 9; IX, 9, 9; 26, 3; 3a, 6; 65, 16; 107, 25; 
X, 91, 8. The construction does not allow us to take 
medhfi as a Vedic instrumental instead of medhaya, nor 
does such a form occur anywhere else in the Rig-veda. 
Nothing remains, I believe, but to have recourse to con- 
jecture, and the addition of a single Visarga in the Pada 
would remove all difficulty. In the next line, if tuvi-dyum- 
nlsaA be the subject, it would signify the priests. This, 
however, is again without any warrant from the Rig-veda, 
where tuvi-dyumna is always used as an epithet of gods. 
I therefore take it as referring to the Maruts, as an 
adjective in the nominative, following the vocatives marutaA 
su-giLtk/t. The conception that the Maruts stir up the 
forests is not of unfrequent occurrence in the Rig-veda : 
cf. 1, 171, 3. That urdhvd is used of the mind, in the sense 
of roused, may be seen in I, 119, a ; 134, 1 ; 144, 1 ; VII, 
64, 4. The idea in the poet's mind seems to have been 
that the thunderbolts of the Maruts rouse up men to prayer 
as they stir the tops of the forest trees. Ludwig takes 
medha, masc., in the sense of lance, comparing it with 
Icelandic meidhr, but the two words cannot well be the 
same. Possibly vana may be meant for lances : ' May 
they raise our minds, like lances ;' see note to I, 171, 3. 

Note 2. On dhan in the sense of to agitate, see B. and 
R. s. v. The shaking of the stone may be the shaking of 
the stone for distilling the heavenly Soma or the rain ; but 
adri may also be meant for the thunderbolt. I now take 
tuvidyumna for an adjective referring to the Maruts, be- 
cause it is a divine rather than a human epithet. Still, the 
passage is doubtful. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The first question is, which is the subject, ahani 

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NOTES. 1,88,4. *75 

or gridhr&A ? If gridhr&A were the subject, then we should 
have to translate it by the eager poets, and take ahani in 
the sense of vLrva ahani. The sense then might be : ' Day 
by day did the eager poets sing around you this prayer.' 
There would be several objections, however, to this render- 
ing. First, gr/dhr&A, though metaphorically applicable to 
poets, never occurs again as signifying poets or priests. 
One passage only could be quoted in support, IX, 97, 57, 
kavayaA ni gtidhrdA (not gridhr&A), like greedy poets. 
But even here, if indeed the translation is right, the 
adjective is explained by kavf, and does not stand by 
itself. Secondly, ahani by itself is never used adverbially 
in the sense of day after day. The only similar passage 
that might be quoted is III, 34, 10, and that is very 
doubtful. To take ahani as a totally different word, viz. 
as 4+hani, without ceasing, without wearying, would be 
too bold in the present state of Vedic interpretation. If 
then we take ahani as the subject, gr/dhraA would have to 
be taken as a vocative, and intended for the Maruts. Now, 
it is perfectly true, that by itself gr/dhra, hawk, does not 
occur again as a name of the Maruts, but jyena, hawk, 
and particularly a strong hawk (IX, 96, 6), is not only a 
common simile applied to the Maruts, but is actually used 
as one of their names : 

VII, 56, 3. abhf sva-pffbhiA mithaA vapanta v£ta-svanasa^ 
syea&A asprtdhran. 

They plucked each other with their beaks (?), the hawks, 
rushing like the wind, strove together. 

AguA might be the aorist of gai, to sing, or of ga, 
to go: 

I, 174, 8. sana t£ te indra navyaA 8. aguA. 

New poets, O Indra, sang these thy old deeds. 

Ill, 56, a. gavaA & aguA. 

The cows approached. 

If then the sense of the first line is, ' Days went and 
came back to you,' the next question is whether we are 
to extend the construction to the next words, ima'm dhfyam 
varkaryam ka. devmi, or whether these words are to be 
joined to k«'«vantaA, like brihma. The meaning of 

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varkarya' is, of course, unknown. Sayawa's interpretation 
as 'what is to be made by means of water' is merely 
etymological, and does not help us much. It is true that 
the object of the hymn, which is addressed to the Maruts, 
is rain, and that literally varkarya might be explained as 
'that the effect of which is rain.' But this is far too 
artificial a word for Vedic poets. Possibly there was some 
other word that had become unintelligible and which, by 
a slight change, was turned into varkaryfi, in order to 
give the meaning of rain-producing. It might have been 
Varkarya, glorious, or the song of a poet called Varkara, or, 
as Ludwig suggests, Vr*kari. The most likely supposition 
is that varkarya' was the name given to some famous hymn, 
some paean or song of triumph belonging to the Gotamas, 
possibly to some verses of the very hymn before us. In 
this case the epithet devf would be quite appropriate, for 
it is frequently used for a sacred or sacrificial song : IV, 43, 
1. devfm su-stutfm ; III, 18, 3. imam dhfyam ^ata-s^yaya 
devnn. See, however, the note to verse 6. 

The purport of the whole line would then be that many 
days have gone for the Maruts as well as for the famous 
hymn once addressed to them by Gotama, or, in other 
words, that the Gotamas have long been devoted to the 
Maruts, an idea frequently recurring in the hymns of the 
Veda, and, in our case, carried on in the next verse, where 
it is said that the present hymn is like one that Gotama 
composed when he saw the Maruts or spoke of them as 
wild boars with iron tusks. The pushing up the lid of the 
well for to drink, means that they obtained rain from the 
cloud, which is here, as before, represented as a covered 

See another explanation in Haug, tJber die urspriingliche 
Bedeutung des Wortes Brahma, 1868, p. 5. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Yo^ana commonly means a chariot : 
VI, 62, 6. arewii-bhiA yo^-anebhiA bhqganta. 
You who possess dustless chariots. 
VIII, 72, 6. ajva-vat yq^anam brihiU 

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notes. 1,88,6. 177 

The great chariot with horses. 

It then became the name for a distance to be accom- 
plished without unharnessing the horses, just as the Latin 
jugum, a yoke, then a juger of land, 'quod uno jugo 
bourn uno die exarari posset* Pliny XVIII, 3, 3, 9. 

In our passage, however, yo^ana means a hymn, lit. a 
composition, which is clearly its meaning in 

VIII, 90, 3. brahma te indra girvawaA kriyante anatid- 
bhuta, imS ^ushasva hari-arva yo^ana fndra yS te 

Unequalled prayers are made for thee, praiseworthy 
Indra ; accept these hymns which we have devised for 
thee, O Indra with bright horses I 

Note 2. VaraTiu has here the same meaning as varaha, 
wild boar (VIII, 77, 10 ; X, 28, 4). It occurs once more, I, 
i2i, 11, as applied to Vntra, who is also called varaha, I, 
61, 7 ; X, 99, 6. In X, 67, 7, vr/sha-bhiA varfihaiA (with 
the accent on the penultimate) is intended for the Maruts*. 
Except in this passage, varaha has the accent on the last 
syllable. In IX, 97, 7, varaha is applied to Soma. 

Verse 6. 


This last verse is almost unintelligible to me. I give, 
however, the various attempts that have been made to 
explain it. 

Wilson : This is that praise, Maruts, which, suited (to 
your merits), glorifies every one of you. The speech of the 
priest has now glorified you, without difficulty, with sacred 
verses, since (you have placed) food in our hands. 

Benfey : Dies Lied — Maruts t — das hinter euch empor- 
strebt, es klingt zuriick gleich eines Beters Stimme. Miihlos 
schuf solche Lieder er, entsprechend eurer Arme Kraft. 
(Note: Der zum Himmel schallende Lobgesang findet 
seinen Widerhall (wirklich, ' bebt zuriick ') in dem Sturm- 

a See Genthe, Die Windgottheiten, 1 86 1 , p. 1 4 ; Grimm, Deutsche 
Mythologie, p. 689. Grimm mentions eburtSrung (boar-throng) 
as a name of Orion, the star that betokens storm. 
[3»] N 

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geheul der Maruts, welches mit dem Geheul des Betenden 
verglichen wird.) 

LUDW1G : Dises lied, o Marut, euch unterstiitzend (auf- 
nemend) als eines priesters braust euch entgegen, nach- 
brausen hat es gemacht ohne miihe ia (die) der nahe die 
gottliche weise (ihrer) arme. 

My own translation is to a great extent conjectural. 
It seems to me from verse 3, that the poet offers both a 
hymn of praise and a libation of Soma. Possibly varkarya 
in verse 4 might be taken in the sense of Soma-juice, and 
be derived from valkala, which in later Sanskrit means the 
bark of trees. In that case verse 5 would again refer to 
the hymn of Gotama, and verse 6 to the libation which is 
to accompany it Anu-bhartn does not occur again, but 
it can only mean what supports or refreshes, and therefore 
would be applicable to a libation of Soma which supports 
the gods. The verb stobhati would well express the rushing 
sound of the Soma, as in I, 168, 8, it expresses the rushing 
noise of the waters against the fellies of the chariots. The 
next line adds little beyond stating that this libation of 
Soma rushes forth freely from the hands, the gabhastis 
being specially mentioned in other passages where the 
crushing of the Soma-plant is described : 

IX, 71, 3. adri-bhi^ sutaA pavate gabhastyoA. 

The Soma squeezed by the stones runs from the hands. 

The translation would then be : O Maruts, this comfort- 
ing draught (of Soma) rushes towards you, like the speech 
of a suppliant; it rushed freely from our hands, as our 
draughts (of Soma) are wont to do. 

On svadhS, see p. 32. 

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To the Maruts and Indra. 

The Prologue. 

The sacrificer speaks : 

i. To what splendour do the Maruts all equally 1 
cling 2 , they who are of the same age, and dwell 
in the same nest ? With what thoughts ? — from 
whence are they come 3 ? • Do these heroes sing 
forth their (own) strength *, wishing for wealth ? 

2. Whose prayers have the youths accepted ? 
Who has turned the Maruts to his own sacrifice ? 
By what strong desire x may we arrest them, they 
who float through the air like hawks ? 

The Dialogue. 

The Maruts speak : 

3. From whence 1 , O Indra, dost thou come alone, 
thou who art mighty ? O lord of men a , what has 
thus happened to thee ? Thou greetest (us) s when 
thou comest together with (us), the bright (Maruts)*. 
Tell us then, thou with thy bay horses, what thou 
hast against us ! 

Indra speaks : 

4. The sacred songs are mine, (mine are) the 
prayers 1 ; sweet * are the libations ! My strength 
rises 8 , my thunderbolt is hurled forth. They call 
for me, the hymns yearn for me. Here are my 
horses, they carry me hither. 

The Maruts speak : 

5. From thence, in company with our strong 

N 2 

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friends 1 , having adorned our bodies, we now har- 
ness our fallow deer 2 with all our might 3 ; — for, 
Indra, according to custom, thou hast come to be 
with us. 

Indra speaks: 

6. Where, O Maruts, was that custom with you, 
when you left me alone in the killing of Ahi ? I 
indeed am terrible, powerful, strong, — I escaped 
from the blows of every enemy 1 . 

The Maruts speak : 

7. Thou hast achieved much with us as com- 
panions *. With equal valour, O hero ! let us 
achieve then many things, O thou most powerful, 
O Indra! whatever we, O Maruts, wish with our 
mind 2 . 

Indra speaks : 

8. I slew VWtra, O Maruts, with (Indra's) might, 
having grown powerful through my own vigour; I, 
who hold the thunderbolt in my arms, have made 
these all-brilliant waters to flow freely for man \ 

The Maruts speak : 

9. Nothing, O mighty lord, is strong 1 before thee ; 
no one is known among the gods 2 like unto thee. No 
one who is now born 8 comes near, no one who has 
been born. Do what thou wilt do *, thou who art 
grown so strong. 

Indra speaks : 

10. Almighty strength be mine alone, whatever I 
may do, daring in my heart 1 ; for I indeed, O Maruts, 
am known as terrible : of all that I threw down, I, 
Indra, am the lord. 

Indra speaks : 

11. O Maruts, now your praise has pleased me, 
the glorious hymn which you have made for me, ye 

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MAM) ALA I, HYMN 1 65. l8l 

men! — for me, for Indra, for the joyful hero, as 
friends for a friend, for your own sake, and by your 
own efforts \ , 

Indra speaks: 

12. Truly, there they are, shining towards me, 
bringing blameless glory, bringing food. O Maruts, 
wherever I have looked for you, you have appeared 
to me in bright splendour: appear to me also 

The Epilogue. 

The sacrificer speaks : 

1 3. Who has magnified you here, O Maruts ? 
Come hither, O friends, towards your friends. Ye 
brilliant Maruts, welcoming 1 these prayers, be mind- 
ful 2 of these my rites. 

14. The wisdom of Manya has brought us hither, 
that he should help as the poet helps the performer 
of a sacrifice 1 : turn hither quickly 2 ! Maruts, on to 
the sage ! the singer has recited these prayers for 

15. May this your praise, O Maruts, this song of 
Mandarya, the son of Mana 1 , the poet, bring offspring 2 
for ourselves with food. May we have an invigorat- 
ing autumn, with quickening rain 8 . 

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A critical examination of Professor von Roth's remarks on this hymn, 
together with some supplementary notes of my own, will be found in the Pre- 
face to this volume. 

According to the Anukramawika this hymn is a dialogue 
between Agastya, the Maruts, and Indra. A careful consi- 
deration of the hymn would probably have led us to a similar 
conclusion, but I doubt whether it would have led us to 
adopt the same distribution of the verses among the poet, 
the Maruts, and Indra, as that adopted by the author of the 
Anukramamka. He assigns the first two verses to Indra, 
the third, fifth, seventh, and ninth to the Maruts, the 
fourth, sixth, eighth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth to Indra, 
and the three concluding verses to Agastya. I think that 
the two verses in the beginning, as well as the three con- 
cluding verses, belong certainly to Agastya or to whoever 
else the real performer of the sacrifice may have been. The 
two verses in the beginning cannot be ascribed to Indra, 
who, to judge from his language, would never say: 
'By what strong desire may we arrest the Maruts?' It 
might seem, in fact, as if the three following verses too 
should be ascribed to the sacrificer. so that the dialogue 
between Indra and the Maruts would begin only with the 
sixth verse. The third verse might well be addressed to 
Indra by the sacrificer, and in the fourth verse we might 
see a description of all that he had done for Indra. What 
is against this view, however, is the phrase prabhn'taA me 
adriA. If used by the sacrificer, it might seem to mean, 
' my stone, i. e. the stone used for squeezing the Soma, has 
been brought forth.' But though Professor Roth assigns 
this meaning to prabhrtta in our passage, I doubt whether, 
in connection with adri, or with va^ra, prabhrtta can mean 
anything but hurled. Thus we read : 

I, 61, 13. asmaf ft u*» (iti) prd bhara — wi'trSya va^ram. 

Hurl thou, Indra, the thunderbolt against this VWtra. 

V, 32, 7- y£t !m va^rasya pra-bhr*tau dadfibha. 

When Indra conquered him in the hurling of the 

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NOTES. I, 165. 183 

I therefore suppose the dialogue to begin with verse 3, 
and I find that Langlois, though it may be from different 
reasons, arrived at the same conclusion. 

There can be little doubt that the other verses, to verse 
12, are rightly apportioned between Indra and the Maruts. 
Verse 12 might perhaps be attributed again to the wor- 
shipper of the Maruts, but as there is no absolute necessity 
for assigning it to him, it is better to follow the tradition 
and to take it as the last verse of Indra's speech. It would 
seem, in fact, as if these ten verses, from 3 to 12, formed 
an independent poem, which was intended to show the 
divine power of the Maruts. That their divine power was 
sometimes denied, and that Indra's occasional contempt of 
them was well known to the Vedic poets, will become 
evident from other hymns. This dialogue seems therefore 
to have been distinctly intended to show that, in spite of 
occasional misunderstandings between the Maruts and the 
all-powerful Indra, Indra himself had fully recognised their 
power and accepted their friendship. If we suppose that 
this dialogue was repeated at sacrifices in honour of the 
Maruts, or that possibly it was acted by two parties, one 
representing Indra, the other the Maruts and their followers, 
then the two verses in the beginning and the three at the 
end ought to be placed in the mouth of the actual sacrificer, 
whoever he was. He begins by asking, Who has attracted 
the Maruts to his sacrifice, and by what act of praise and 
worship can they be delighted ? Then follows the dialogue 
in honour of the Maruts, and after it the sacrificer asks 
again, 'Who has magnified the Maruts, i. e. have not we 
magnified them ? ' and he implores them to grant him their 
friendship in recognition of his acts of worship. If then 
we suppose that the dialogue was the work of Mandarya 
Manya, the fourteenth verse, too, would lose something of 
its obscurity. Coming from the mouth of the actual sacri- 
ficer, it would mean, ' the wisdom, or the poetical power, of 
Manya has brought us to this, has induced us to do 
this, i. e. to perform this dialogue of Manya, so that he, 
Manya, should assist, as a poet assists the priest at a 
sacrifice.' Of course all this is and can only be guess-work. 

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We do not know the age of Manya nor that of Agastya. 
We do not know whether they were contemporaries or not. 
But supposing that Manya was present at the sacrifice, 
vfpra might be meant for Manya; and in the last words, too, 
'the singer has recited these prayers for you,' the singer 
(^arita) might again be Manya, the powerful poet whose 
services the sacrificcr had engaged, and whose famous 
dialogue between Indra and the Maruts was considered a 
safe means of winning their favour. It would be in keeping 
with all this, if in the last verse the sacrificer once more 
informed the Maruts that this hymn of praise was the work 
of the famous poet Mandarya, the son of Mana, and if he then 
concluded with the usual prayer for safety, food, and progeny. 
No verse of this hymn occurs in the Sama-veda ; verse 3 = 
VS. XXXIII, 27; verse 4= VS. XXXIII, 78; verse 6=TB. 
11,8,3,5; verse 8=TB. 11,8,3,6; verse 9=VS.XXXIII,79. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. As samani occurs in the Veda as the femi- 
nine of samana (cf. IV, 51, 9; X, 191, 3; 4), samanya* 
might, no doubt, be taken as an instrumental, belonging 
to jubhS. We should then have to translate : ' With what 
equal splendour are the Maruts endowed ?' Sayawa adopts 
the same explanation, while Wilson, who seems to have 
read samanya^, translates 'of one dignity.' Professor Roth, 
a v. myaksh, would seem to take samanya - as some kind 
of substantive, and he refers to another passage, I, 167, 4, 
sadharawyS-iva marutaA mimikshu^, without, however, de- 
tailing his interpretation of these passages. 

It cannot be said that Sayawa's explanation is objec- 
tionable, yet there is something awkward in qualifying by 
an adjective, however indefinite, what forms the subject 
of an interrogative sentence, and it would be possible to 
avoid this, by taking samanya" as an adverb. It is clearly 
used as an adverb in III, 54, 7 ; VIII, 83, 8. 

Note 2. MimikshuA is the perfect of myaksh, in the 
sense of to be firmly joined with something. It has there- 
fore a more definite meaning than the Latin miscere and 
the Greek nCaytiv, which come from the same source, i. e. 

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NOTES. I, 165, I. 185 

from a root mik or mig, in Sanskrit also mis in mLr-ra ; 
(see Curtius, Grundziige, p. 300.) There may be indeed 
one or two passages in the Veda where myaksh seems to 
have the simple meaning of mixing, but it will be seen that 
they constitute a small minority compared with those where 
myaksh has the meaning of holding to, sticking to ; I mean 

X, 104, 2. mimikshuA yam adrayaA indra tubhyam. 

The Soma which the stones have mixed for thee. 

This form cannot be derived from mimiksh, but is the 
3rd pers. plur. perf. Parasm. of myaksh. It may, however, 
be translated, ' This Soma which the stones have grasped or 
squeezed for thee,' as may be seen from passages quoted 
hereafter, in which myaksh is construed with an accusative. 

II, 3, 11. ghrztam mimikshe. 

The butter has been mixed. 

This form cannot be derived from mimiksh, but is the 
3rd pers. sing. perf. Atm. of myaksh. If the meaning of 
mixing should be considered inadmissible, we might in 
this verse also translate, 'The butter has become fixed, 
solid, or coagulated.' 

Leaving out of consideration for the present the forms 
which are derived from mimiksh, we find the following 
passages in which myaksh occurs. Its original meaning 
must have been to be mixed with, to be joined to, and 
in many passages that original sense is still to be recog- 
nised, only with the additional idea of being firmly joined, 
of sticking to, or, in an active sense, laying hold of, grasping 

1. Without any case : 

I, 169, 3. amyak sa te indra rishtih asme" (fti). 

This thy spear, O Indra, sat firm for us. 

This would mean that Indra held his weapon well, as a 
soldier ought to hold his spear. Amyak is the 3rd pers. 
sing, of a second aor. Parasm., amyaksham, amyak(sh + 1) ; 
(Say. prapnoti.) Cf. VIII, 61, 18. 

2. With locative : 

X, 44, 2. mimyaksha va^raA nW-pate gabhastau. 
In thy fist, O king, the thunderbolt rests firmly. 

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I, 167, 3. mimyaksha y^shu su-dhita — rishtiA. 

To whom clings the well-grasped spear. 

VI, 50, 5. mimyaksha ydshu rodasi nii devi. 

To whom the goddess Rodasi clings. (Say. sawga^Mate.) 

VI, 11, 5. amyakshi sadma sadane pr*thivya^. 

The seat was firmly set on the seat of the earth. (Say. 
gamyate, parigrzhyate.) It is the 3rd pers. sing. aor. pass. 

VI, 29, 2. & yasmin haste naryaA mimikshu£ & rathe 
hirawyaye rathe-sthfiA, & r&ymayaA gabhastyoA sthurayo^ 
a adhvan a.svasaA vrfeha«aA yug&n&A. 

To whose hand men cling, in whose golden chariot the 
drivers stand firm, in whose strong fists the reins are well 
held, on whose path the harnessed stallions hold together. 
(Say. asi^yante, apuryante ; or asin£anti, purayanti.) 

X, 96, 3. fndre nf rupS harita mimikshire. 

Bright colours stuck or clung or settled on Indra. (Say. 
nishiktani babhuvuA ; mihe£ sanantat karmawi rupam.) 
8. With instrumental : 

I, 165, 1. kaya jubha" marutaA sam mimikshu^. 

To what splendour do the Maruts cling; or, what 
splendour clings to them? 

V, 58, 5. svaya matya* manitaA sim mimikshuA. (See 
also I, 165, 1.) 

The Maruts cling to their own thought or will. (Say. 
vrzshtya samyak si«£anti.) 

I, 167, 4. yavya* sadharawya'-iva maruta^ mimikshuA. 

The Maruts cling to the young maid, as if she belonged 
to all. See I, 173, 12 ; VIII, 98, 8 ; or VI, 27, 6. 

I, 87, 6. bhanu-bhi^ sam mimikshire. 

The Maruts were joined with splendour. (Say. mea^um 

4. With accusative: 

VIII, 61, 18. nf ya* va^ram mimikshatuA. 

Thy two arms which have firmly grasped the thunderbolt. 
(Say. parigrzhwitaA) 

Here I should also prefer to place VII, 20, 4, if we might 
read mimikshe or mimyaksha, for it is impossible to take 
mfmikshan for anything but a participle of the desiderative 
of mih, which does not yield an appropriate meaning. 

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NOTES. I, 165, I. 187 

nf vagram fndraA mfmikshan. 

Grasping firmly the thunderbolt. (Say. jatrushu pra- 

VI, 39, 3. jriye te pfida diivaA £ mimikshuA. 

Thy servants embrace thy feet for their happiness. (Say. 
asi«£anti, samarpayanti.) 

Like other verbs which mean to join, myaksh, if accom- 
panied by prepositions expressive of separation, means to 
separate. (Cf . vi-yukta, s e - j u n c t u s.) 

II, 28, 6. apo ((ti) su myaksha varuwa bhiyasam mat. 

Remove well from me, O Varuwa, terror. (Say. apa- 

Quite distinct from this is the desiderative or inchoative 
verb mimiksh, from mih, in the sense of to sprinkle, or 
to shower, chiefly used with reference to the gods who 
are asked to sprinkle the sacrifice with rain. Thus we 

I, 142, 3. madhva ya^-nam mlmikshati. 

(Narlvawsa) sprinkles the sacrifice with rain. 

IX, 107, 6. madhva ya^wam mimiksha naJi. 

Sprinkle (O Soma) our sacrifice with rain. 

I, 34, 3. triA adya ya^nam madhuna mimikshatam. 

O Arvins, sprinkle the sacrifice with rain thrice to-day ! 

I, 47, 4. madhva ya^nam mimikshatam. 

O Arvins, sprinkle the sacrifice with rain ! 

5. Without madhu : 

I, 23, 13. mahf dya.uA pr/thivi ha. naA imam ya^vJam 

May the great heaven and earth sprinkle this our sacrifice. 

6. With madhu in the accusative : 

VI, 70, 5. madhu naA dyavaprt'thivi (fti) mimikshatam. 

May heaven and earth shower down rain for us. 

Very frequently the Arvins are asked to sprinkle the 
sacrifice with their whip. This whip seems originally, like 
tiie whip of the Maruts, to have been intended for the 
cracking noise of the storm, preceding the rain. Then as 
whips had possibly some similarity to the instruments used 
for sprinkling butter on the sacrificial viands, the Arvins are 

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asked to sprinkle the sacrifice with their whip, i. e. to give 

I, 157, 4. madhu-matya naA kiyaya mimikshatam. 

O Ajvins, sprinkle us with your rain-giving whip. 

I, 22, 3. taya ya^wam mimikshatam. 

O Aivins, sprinkle the sacrifice with it (your whip). 

7. Lastly, we find such phrases as, 

I, 48, 16. sim naA rayai — mimikshvd. 

Sprinkle us with wealth, i. e. shower wealth down upon 
us. Here mih is really treated as a Hu-verb in the 
Atmanepada, though others take it for mimikshasva. 

As an adjective, mimikshu is applied to Indra (III, 50, 3), 
and mimiksha to Soma (VI, 34, 4). 

Note 3. I do not see how 6t&saA can here be taken in 
any sense but that suggested by the Pada, S-itasaA, come 
near. Professor Roth thinks it not impossible that it may 
be meant for 6t&A, the fallow deer, the usual team of the 
Maruts. These Etas are mentioned in verse 5, but there 
the Pada gives quite correctly £tan, not S-itan, and S£ya«a 
explains it accordingly by gantun. 

Note 4. The idea that the Maruts proclaim their own 
strength occurred before, I, 87, 3. It is a perfectly natural 
conception, for the louder the voice of the wind, the greater 
its strength, and vice versa. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Manas here, as elsewhere, is used in the sense of 
thought preceding speech, desire, or devotion not yet ex- 
pressed in prayer. See Taitt. Sarah. V, 1, 3, 3. yat purusho 
manasabhiga££<6ati tad vkkk vadati, what a man grasps in 
his mind, that he expresses by speech. Professor Roth sug- 
gests an emendation which is ingenious, but not necessary, 
viz. mahfi namasa, with great adoration, an expression which 
occurs, if not in VI, 52, 17, at least in VII, 12, 1. We 
find, however, the phrase mahS manasi in 

VI, 40, 4. a yahi sisvzt usat& yayatha fndra mah£ manasa 

upa brahmawi srinnvaJt im£ mJt dtha te yagn&A tanve 
viyaJt dhat. 

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NOTES. I, 165, 3. 189 

Come hither, thou hast always come, Indra, to our 
libation through our yearning great desire. Mayest thou 
hear these our prayers, and may then the sacrifice put 
vigour in thy body. 

It is curious to observe that throughout the Rig-veda the 
instrumental singular mahfi is always used as an adjective 
belonging to some term or other for praise and prayer. 
Besides the passages mentioned, we find : 

II, 24, 1. aya vidhema navaya mah£ gira". 

Let us sacrifice with this new great song. 

VI, 52, 17. su-uktena mahg namasa a* vivase. 

I worship with a hymn with great adoration, or I worship 
with a great hymn in adoration. VIII, 46, 14. gaya girfi 
mahS vf-^etasam. Celebrate the wise Indra with a great 
song. Otherwise we might translate, Thou hast always 
come with a great yearning desire. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. We ought to scan kuta^ tvam indra mahinaA 
san, because yasi, being anudatta, could not begin a new 
pada. It would be more natural to translate kiitaA by 
why? for the Maruts evidently wish to express their sur- 
prise at Indra's going to do battle alone and without their 
assistance. I do not think, however, that in the Rig-veda, 
even in the latest hymns, kiita/* has as yet a causal meaning, 
and I have therefore translated it in the same sense in which 
it occurs before in the poet's address to the Maruts. 

Note a. Sat-pati, lord of men, means lord of real men, 
of heroes, and should not be translated by good lord. Sat 
by itself is frequently used in the sense of heroes, of men 
physically rather than morally good : 

II, 1, 3. tvam agne IndraJt vrishabh&A satam asi. 

Thou, Agni, art Indra, the hero among heroes. 

Ii J 73> 7- samat-su tva jura sat£m ura«am. 

Thee, O hero, in battles the protector of (good and true) 

Note 3. The meaning of sam pr*'&Mase is very much the 
same as that of sam vadasva in I, 170, 5. 

Note 4. Subhana is evidently meant as a name for the 

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Maruts, who thus speak of themselves in the third person, 
which is by no means unusual in the Rig-veda. 
Mahidhara explains jubhanaiA by jobhanair vaianaiA. 

Verse 4. 

Indra certainly addresses his old friends, the Maruts, 
very unceremoniously, but this, though at first startling, 
was evidently the intention of the poet He wished to 
represent a squabble between Indra and the Maruts, such 
as they were familiar with in their own village life, and 
this was to be followed by a reconciliation. The boorish 
rudeness, selfishness, and boastfulness here ascribed to 
Indra may seem offensive to those who cannot divest 
themselves of the modern meaning of deities, but looked 
upon from the right point of view, it is really full of interest. 
Note 1. Brahmawi and matayaA are here mentioned 
separately in the same way as a distinction is made 
between brahman, st6ma, and uktha, IV, 22, i ; VI, 23, 1 ; 
between brahmawi and glraA, III, 51, 6 ; between brahma, 
glnJt, and st6maA, VI, 38, 3 ; between brahma, gfraA, ukthK, 
and manma, VI, 38, 4, &c. 

. Note 2. .Sam, which I have here translated by sweet, is 
a difficult word to render. It is used as a substantive, as 
an adjective, and as an adverb; and in several instances 
it must remain doubtful whether it was meant for one or 
the other. The adverbial character is almost always, if 
not always, applicable, though in English there is no 
adverb of such general import as jam, and we must there- 
fore render it differently, although we are able to perceive 
that in the mind of the poet it might still have been con- 
ceived as an adverb, in the sense of ' well.' I shall arrange 
the principal passages in which jam occurs according to the 
verbs with which it is construed. 
1. With bhu : 

VIII, 79, 7. bhava naA soma jam hrale. 

Be thou, Soma, well (pleasant) to our heart. Cf. VIII, 

8a, 3- 
VIII, 48, 4. jam naA bhava hnde & pltaA indo (fti). 

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NOTES. I, 165, 4. 191 

Be thou well (sweet) to our heart, when drunk, O Soma J 
Cf. X, 9, 4. 

I, 90, 9. jam rah bhavatu aryamg. 
May Aryaman be well (kind) to us ! 

VI, 74, 1. jam naJi bhutam dvi-pdde jam £atu*-pade. 
May Soma and Rudrabewell (kind) to our men and cattle. 
Here jam might be rendered as an adverb, or as an 

adjective, or even as a substantive, in the sense of health 
or blessing. 

Cf. VII, 54, 1 ; IX, 69, 7. The expression dvipad and 
£atu^-pad is curiously like what occurs in the prayers of 
the Eugubian tables, Fisovie Sanrie, ditu ocre Fisi, tote 
Jovine, ocrer Fisie, totar Jovinar dupursus, peturpursus 
fato fito (Umbrische Sprachdenkmaler, ed. Aufrecht, p. 198); 
and also in the edicts of Piyadasi, dupada-£atupadesu 
pakhivaliialesu, ' aux bipedes, aux quadrupedes, aux vola- 
tiles, aux animaux qui se meuvent dans les eaux.' See 
Burnouf, Lotus, p. 667. 

II, 38, 11. jam yat stotW-bhyaA apaye bhavati. 

What may be well (a pleasure) for the praisers, for the friend. 
X, 37, 10. jam naJt bhava £akshasa. 
Be kind to us with thy light 1 

2. With as: 
VIII, 17, 6. s6maA jdm astu te hridi. 
May the Soma be well (agreeable) to thy heart I 
I. 5> 7- -^ m te santu pra-^etase. 
May the Somas be well (pleasing) to thee, the wise ! 
V, 11, 5. tubhyam manisha iyam astu jam hn'de. 
May this prayer be well (acceptable) to thy heart ! 
I, 114, 1. yatha jam asat dvi-pide y&dtuA-pade. 
That it may be well for our men and cattle. Cf. X, 
165, 1 ; 3. 

VII, 86, 8. jam naA ksheme jam tint (fti) y6ge naA astu. 
May it be well with us in keeping and acquiring ! 

V, 7, 9. & yih te— agne jam asti dhayase. 
He who is lief to thee to support, i.e. he whom thou 
likest to support. 

V, 74, 9. jam Hm (fti) su vdm — asmakam astu ka.rkriti/i. 
Let there be happiness to you — glory to us 1 

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3. With as or bhu understood : 
VI, 45, 22. jam yat gave na jakme. 
A song which is pleasant to the mighty Indra, as food 
to an ox. 
VIII, 13, n. jam ft hf te. 
For it is well for thee. 
X, 86, 15. mantha/j te indra jam Yirt'66. 
The mixture is pleasant to thy heart, O Indra 1 
X, 97, 18. aram kamaya, Jam Im'de. 
Enough for love, pleasant to the heart. 
VI, 34, 3. jam tat asmai. 
That is pleasant to him. 

VI, 21,4. kaA te yagn&h manase jam varaya. 
What sacrifice seems to thy mind pleasant to select ? 

4. With kar : 
I, 43, 6. jam na^ karati arvate. 

May he do well to our horse, i. e. may he benefit our horses. 
IV, 1, 3. tokSya tu^e — jam kralhi. 
Do good to our children and progeny, or bless us for 
the procreation of children. 
VIII, 18, 8. jam raJt karata^ ajvfna. 
May the two Ajvins do us good ! 

. 5. With vah : 

1, 157, 3. jam mJi a vakshat dvi-pade £atuA-pade. 
May he bring blessing to us for man and cattle. 

VIII, 5, 20. tena naA — pajve tokfiya jam gave, vahatam 
pivartA fshaA. 

Bring to us rich food, a blessing to cattle, to children, 
and to the ox. 

6. With verbs, such as pu, vA, and others, where it is 
clearly used as an adverb : 

IX, 1 1, 3. saA na^ pavasva jam gave jam ^anaya jam 
arvate, jam ra^an 6shadhibhya//. 

Do thou, king Soma, stream upon us, a blessing for the 
ox, a blessing for man, a blessing for the horse, a blessing 
for the plants. Cf. IX, 11, 7 ; 60, 4; 61, 15 ; 109, 5. 

VII, 35, 4. jam mh ishiraA abhf vatu vataA. 

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NOTES. I, 165, 4. 193 

May the brisk wind blow kindly upon us, or blow a 
blessing upon us I 

VII, 35, 6. jam naA tvash/a gnSbbiA ihi srinotu. 

May Tvash/ar with the goddesses hear us here well, i. e. 
auspiciously ! 

VII, 35, 8. jam naA sffryaA — lit etu. 
May the sun rise auspiciously for us ! 

VIII, 18, 9. jam na^ tapatu stfryaA, 
May the sun warm us well ! 

III, 13, 6. jam naA soka — agne. 
Shine well for us, O Agni ! 

Sam Y6A. 

Sam also occurs in a phrase that has puzzled the inter- 
preters of the Veda very much, viz. jam y6A. These are 
two words, and must both be taken as substantives, though 
originally they may have been adverbs. Their meaning 
seems to have been much the same, and in English they 
may safely be rendered by health and wealth, in the old 
acceptation of these words : 

I, 93, 7. dhattam ya^amanaya jam y6A. 

Give, Agni and Soma, to the sacrificer health and wealth. 

1, 106, 5. jam yi>h yat te manu^-hitam tat tmahe. 

Brchaspati, we ask for health and wealth which thou 
gavest to Manu. 

I, 114, 2. yat jam ka y6h ka, manuA a-ye^-e" pitS tat 
ajyama tava rudra pra-nltishu. 

Rudra, the health and wealth which Manu, the father, 
obtained, may we reach it under thy guidance. 

II, ^, 13. yani manu A avr*'«tta pita* naJt tH jam ka y6h ka 
rudrasya vajmi. 

The medicines which our father Manu chose, those I 
desire, the health and wealth of Rudra. 
1, 189, 2. bhava tokfiya tanayaya jam y6A. 
Be to our offspring health and wealth 1 

IV, ia, 5. yikkAa tokfiya tanayaya jam y6A. 
Give to our offspring health and wealth ! 

V, 69, 3. f/e tokaya tanayaya sim y6A. 

I ask for our offspring health and wealth. 

[3»] O 

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VI, 50, 7. dhfita tokaya tanayaya jam y6k. 
Give to our offspring health and wealth ! 
X, 182, 1. atha karat ya^amanaya jam y6h. 

May he then produce for the sacrificer health and wealth. 

VII, 69, 5. tena naJt jam y6h — nf ajvina vahatam. 

On that chariot bring to us, Axvins, health and wealth. 

Ill, 17, 3. atha bhava ya^amanaya jam y6A. 

Then, Agni, be health and wealth to the sacrificer. 

Ill, 18, 4. brzhat v&yaA jajamaneshu dhehi, revat agne 
vijvamitreshu jam y6h. 

Give, Agni, much food to those who praise thee, give to 
the VLrvamitras richly health and wealth. 

X, 15, 4. atha naA jam y6h arapa/fc dadhata. 

And give us health and wealth without a flaw! Cf. X, 59, 8. 

X, 37, 11. tat asme jam y6h arapaA dadhatana. 

And give to us health and wealth without a flaw! 

V, 47, 7. tat astu mitra-varuwa tat agne jam y6h asma- 
bhyam idam astu jastam. 

Let this, Mitra-Varuwa, let this, Agni, be health and 
wealth to us ; may this be auspicious ! 

V, 5s, 14. vmh/vi jam y6h SipaA usrf bhesha^am syama 
marutaA saha. 

Let us be together with you, Maruts, after health, 
wealth, water, and medicine have been showered down in 
the morning. 

VIII, 39, 4. jam ka. y6h kz. miyaJt dadhe. 
He gave health, wealth, and happiness. 
VIII, 71, 15. agnfm jam y6k ka. datave. 
We ask Agni to give us health and wealth. 
X, 9, 4. jam y6h abhf sravantu naJt. 

May the waters come to us, as health and wealth, or may 
they run towards us auspiciously. 

Note 3. If we retain the reading of the MSS. jushma£ 
iyarti, we must take it as an independent phrase, and 
translate it by ' my strength rises.' For jushma, though in 
this and other places it is frequently explained as an adjective, 
meaning powerful, is, as far as I can see, always a substantive, 
and means breath, strength. There may be a few passages 
in which, as there occur several words for strength, it might 

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NOTES. I, 165, 5. I95 

be possible to translate jushma by strong. But even there 
it is better to keep to the general meaning of Jiishma, and 
translate it as a substantive. 

Iyarti means to rise and to raise. It is particularly 
applied to prayers raised by the poet in honour of the gods, 
and the similes used in connection with this, show clearly 
what the action implied by iyarti really is. For instance, 

1, 116, 1. stoman iyarmi abhrfya-iva v&taJi. 

I stir up hymns as the wind stirs the clouds. 

X, 116,9. su-va£asy£m iyarmi smdhau-iva pra irayam 
navam arkafA. 

I stir up sweet praise, as if I rowed a ship on the river 
with hymns. 

In the sense of rising it occurs, 

X, 140, a. pavaka-var£4A .rukra-var£aA anuna-var£a£ ut 
iyarshi bhanuna. 

Thou risest up with splendour, Agni, thou of bright, 
resplendent, undiminished majesty. 

We might therefore safely translate in our verse ' my 
strength rises,' although it is true that such a phrase does 
not occur again, and that in other passages where iyarti and 
jushma occur together, the former governs the latter in the 
accusative. Cf. IV, 17, 12; X, 75, 3. 

Mahidhara translates, ' my held-up thunderbolt moves on 
destroying everything,' but he admits another rendering in 
which adri would mean the stone used for pressing the Soma. 

"Verse 6. 

Note 1. If, as we can hardly avoid, we ascribe this verse 
to the Maruts, we must recognise in it the usual offer of help 
to Indra on the part of the Maruts. The question then only 
is, who are the strong friends in whose company they appear ? 
It would be well if one could render antamebhiA by horses, as 
Sayawa does, but there is no authority for it. Sva-kshatra is 
an adjective, meaning endowed with independent strength, 
synonymous with sva-tavas, I, 166, 2. It is applied to the 
mind of Indra, 1, 54, 3 ; V, 35, 4 ; to the Maruts, V, 48, 1 , but 
never to horses. As it stands, we can only suppose that a 
distinction is made between the Maruts and their followers, 

O 2 

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and that after calling together their followers, and adorning 
themselves for battle, they proceed to harness their chariots. 
Cf. 1, 107, a. 

Note 2. Etan, in all MSS. which I consulted, has here 
the accent on the first syllable, and Professor Aufrecht 
ought not to have altered the word into etan. If the accent 
had not been preserved by the tradition of the schools, the 
later interpreters would certainly have taken etan for the 
demonstrative pronoun. As it is, in spite of accent and 
termination, Sayawa in I, 166, 10, seems to take 6t&A for 
ete\ In other passages, however, Saya«a, too, has perceived 
the difference, and in I, 169, 6, he explains the word very 
fully as pr/shadvaraa gantaro va arva va. In this passage 
the Etas are clearly the deer of the Maruts, the Pre'shatls : 

I, 169, 6. adha yat esham prc'thu-budhnasa/z €t&A. 

In the next verse, however, £ta seems applied to the 
Maruts themselves : 

1, 169, 7. prati ghora«am etanam ay&sam marutam srinve 
a-yatam upabdf/z. 

The sound of the terrible, speckled, indefatigable Maruts 
is heard, as they approach ; unless we translate : 

The noise of the terrible deer of the indefatigable Maruts 
is heard, as they approach. 

In I, 166, 10, awseshu 6t$Jt, I adopt Professor Roth's 
conjecture, that e"taA means the skins of the fallow deer, so 
that we should have to translate : On their shoulders are 
the deer-skins. 

In the other passages where eta occurs it is used as a 
simile only, and therefore throws no light on the relation of 
the Etas to the Maruts. In both passages, however (V, 54, 
5 ; X, 77, 2), the simile refers to the Maruts, though to 
their speed only, and not to their colour. 

Note 3. MihsJt-bhi/i, which I have translated 'with all 
our might,' seems to be used almost as an adverb, mightily 
or quickly (makshu), although the original meaning, with 
our powers, through our might, is likewise applicable. The 
original meaning is quite perceptible in passages like 

V, 62, 3. adharayatam pn'thivim uta dySm mftra-ra^ana 
varuwa mahaA-bhiA. 

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NOTES. I, 165, 6. I97 

Kings Mitra and Varuwa, you have supported heaven 
and earth by your powers. 

VII, 3, 7. tibhiA nzh agne amitai^ mahaA-bhiA jatam 
purbhi/s ayasibhi^ nf pahi. 

With those immeasurable powers, O Agni, protect us, 
with a hundred iron strongholds. 

I, 90, %. t£— mahaA-bhiA, vrata rakshante virvaha. 

They always protect the laws by their powers. 

VII, 71,1. tvam naA agne maha^-blii/* pahf. 

Protect us, Agni, with thy power. 

In other passages, however, we see maha^-bhi^ used of 
the light or of the flames of Agni and of the dawn : 

IV, 14, 1. devaA r6£amanaA mahaA-bhi^. 
Agni, the god, brilliant with his powers. 

VI, 64, 2. devi ro^amana mahaA-bhL*. 
O goddess, brilliant with thy powers. 

The powers of the Maruts are referred to by the same 
name in the following passages : 

V, 58, 5- pra-pra^ayante— m&haJt-bhi/t. 
The Maruts are born with their powers. 

VII, 58, %. pra ye" mihaJt-bh'iA o^asa uta santi. 

The Maruts who excel in power and strength. Cf. Ill, 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Indra in this dialogue is evidently represented 
as claiming everything for himself alone. He affects con- 
tempt for the help proffered by the Maruts, and seems to 
deny that he was at any time beholden to their assistance. 
By asking, Where was that custom that I should be with 
you and you with me in battle ? he implies that it was not 
always their custom, and that he can dispense with their 
succour now. He wants to be alone, as in his former battle 
with Ahi, and does not wish that they should join him 
(cf. I, 33, 4). Professor Roth takes sam-adhatta in the 
sense of implicating, but it can hardly be said that the 
Maruts ever implicated Indra in his fight against Ahi. 
Certainly this is not in keeping with the general tenor of 
this dialogue where, on the contrary, Indra shuns the 


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company of the Maruts. But while on this point I differ 
from Professor Roth, I think he has rightly interpreted the 
meaning of anamam. Out of the four passages in which 
badhasnafA occurs, it is three times joined with nam, and 
every time has the sense of to bend away from, to escape 
from. See also Sonne, in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. xii, p. 348. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. See VII, 39, 6. sakshtmahi yu^yebhiA mi devafA. 

Note 2. The last words leave no doubt as to their 
meaning, for the phrase is one of frequent occurrence. The 
only difficulty is the vocative maruta^, where we should 
expect the nominative. It is quite possible, however, that 
the Maruts should here address themselves, though, no 
doubt, it would be easy to alter the accent. As to the 
phrase itself, see 

VIII, 61, 4. tatha ft asat mdra kratva yatha v&szJt. 

May it be so, O Indra, as thou mayest desire by thy mind. 

VIII, 66, 4. vsgrf— ft karat mdraA kratva yatha virat. 

May Indra with the thunderbolt act as he may desire in 
his mind. Cf. VIII, 20, 17 ; 28, 4, &c. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Here again Indra claims everything for himself, 
denying that the Maruts in any way assisted him while 
performing his great deeds. These deeds are the killing of 
Vn'tra, who withholds the waters, i. e. the rain from the 
earth, and the consequent liberation of the waters, so that 
they flow down freely for the benefit of Manu, that is, of 

When Indra says that he slew Vrttra indriye«a, he 
evidently chooses that word with a purpose, and we must 
therefore translate it here, not only by might, but by 
Indra's peculiar might. Indriya, as derived from mdra, 
means originally Indra-hood, then power in general, just 
as verethraghna in Zend means victory in general, though 
originally it meant the slaying of Vrftra. 

On badhim, see Bollensen, Z. D. M. G. XXII, p. 594. 

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NOTES. I, 165, 9. 199 

He takes badhim for a contraction of badhisham, in analogy 
with badhls and He refers to akramim, X, 166, 5, 
and badhlm, X, 28, 7. 

Verse 0. 

Note 1. Anutta, in the sense of ' not shaken,' not shake- 
able, i n 6 b r a n 1 a b 1 c, is strange ; likewise the genitive, where 
we expect the instrumental. Still, nud, by itself, occurs 
in similar phrases, e. g. VI, 1 7, 5, nutth£4 a^yutam, thou 
shookest what is unshakeable, which might have been ex- 
pressed by ikukyavaA anuttam, and I cannot bring myself 
to believe that in our passage Aufrecht's conjectural emen- 
dation is called for. He (K. Z. XXVI, 611) takes anutta 
for anudatta, like pratta for pradatta, &c, and proposes to 
omit the negative particle, translating the verse : ' Certainly 
it is conceded to thee, there is none among the gods like 
unto thee.' 

But though I cannot adopt this emendation here, I think 
that in other passages Aufrecht's rendering of anutta is far 
more appropriate than to take it for a-nutta ; for instance, 
I, 80, 7; 111,31,13; VII, 34, 11. 

There remains one verse in which anutta seems to mean 
not shaken, not overcome, namely, VIII, 90, 5, tvam 
vritT&ni hamsi apratmi ekaA ft anutta £arsha«i-dhr/t&, thou, 
being alone, killest the irresistible enemies with the 
thunderbolt (?). However, anuda, in the sense of conceding, 
yielding, nachgeben, is certainly a very familiar idea in 
Vedic poetry. 

II, xa, 10. yiA jardhate na anu-dadati jrsdhyam, who 
does not forgive the hurter his hurt. 

I, 53> 8 » n » ai » 4 5 33. "5 x » 3 8 » 5> Indra is called 
ananudaA, not yielding, not surrendering. 

We must therefore admit two anuttas, one a-nutta, the 
other anu(da)tta. In anutta-manyu I prefer the former, 
' of irresistible fury,' while Aufrecht prefers the latter, ' of 
recognised, or universally-admitted fury.' 

Note 2. Devata in the ordinary sense of a deity never 
occurs in the Rig-veda. The word, in fact, as a feminine 
substantive occurs but twice, and in the tenth Manila 

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only. But even there it does not mean deity. In X, 24, 6, 
devaA devataya means, O gods, by your godhead, i. e. by 
your divine power. In X, 98, 1, br/haspate prati me 
devatam ihi, I take devata in the same sense as devatati, 
and translate, O Br/haspati, come to my sacrifice. 

In all other places where devata occurs in the Rig-veda 
it is a local adverb, and means among the gods. I shall 
only quote those passages in which Professor Roth assigns 
to devata a different meaning : 

I, 55, 3. prd vtryewa devata ati £ekite. 

He is pre-eminent among the gods by his strength. 

I, 22, 5. saA £etta devata padam. 

He knows the place among the gods. 

I, 100, 15. na yasya devaA devata na martaA SpaA £ana 
javasaA antam apiiA. 

He, the end of whose power neither the gods among the 
gods, nor mortals, nor even the waters have reached. 

Here the translation of devata in the sense of ' by their 
godhead,' would be equally applicable, yet nothing would 
be gained as, in either case, devata is a weak repetition. 

VI, 4, 7. fndram na tva javasa devata vayiim pr*»anti 
rffdhasa iW-tamaA. 

The best among men celebrate thee, O Agni, as like 
unto Indra in strength among the gods, as like unto Vayu 
in liberality. See also devatati, VIII, 74, 3 ; X, 8, a. 

Note 8. The juxta-position of ^ayamanaA and g&t£A 
would seem to show that, if the latter had a past, the 
former had a future meaning. To us, ' No one who will be 
born and no one who has been born,' would certainly 
sound more natural. The Hindu, however, is familiar with 
the idea as here expressed, and in order to comprehend all 
beings, he speaks of those who are born and those who are 
being born. Thus in a Padarish/a of the Pavamanis (IX, 
67) we read : 

yan me garbhe vasataA papam ugram, 
y*g .^ayamanasya £a Mmkid anyat, 
^atasya ka. yak £api vardhato me, 
tat pavamanibhir aham punami. 

Note 4. KarishyS is written in all the MSS. without a 

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NOTES. I, 165, II. 20I 

Visarga, and unless we add the Visarga on our own authority, 
we should have to take it as an entirely anomalous ace. 
plur. neut. of a passive participle of the future, karishyam 
standing for karyam, faciendum. It is much easier, 
however, to explain this form if we add the Visarga, and read 
karishya^, which would then be a second person singular of 
a Vedic conjunctive of the future. This form occurs at least 
once more in the Veda : 

IV, 30, 33. uta nunam yat indriyam karishy&i indra 
pauwsyam, adya naki-6 tat £ minat. 

O Indra, let no man destroy to-day whatever manly feat 
thou art now going to achieve. 

Verse 10. 

Mote 1. As I have translated these words, they sound 
rather abrupt. The meaning, however, would be clear 
enough, viz. almighty power belongs to me, therefore I can 
dare and do. If this abrupt expression should offend, it 
may be avoided, by taking the participle dadhrzshvan as a 
finite verb, and translating, Whatever I have been daring, I 
shall do according to my will. 

Verse 11. 

Mote 1. In this verse Indra, after having declined with no 
uncertain sound the friendship of the Maruts, seems to 
repent himself of his unkindness towards his old friends. 
The words of praise which they addressed to him in verse 9, 
in spite of the rebuff they had received from Indra, have 
touched his heart, and we may suppose that, after this, 
their reconciliation was complete. The words of Indra are 
clear enough, the only difficulty occurs in the last words; 
which are so idiomatic that it is impossible to render them 
in English. In tanve tanubhi^, literally for the body by 
the bodies, tanu is used like the pronoun self. Both must 
therefore refer to the same subject. We cannot translate 
' for myself made by yourselves,' but must take the two 
words together, so that they should mean, ' the hymn which 
you have made for your own benefit and by your own 

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Verse 13. 

Note 1. Spiegel, in his review, called my attention to the 
Zend api-vat, which Burnouf discussed in his 'Etudes,' 
p. 328. Burnouf tries to show that vat in Zend has the 
meaning of knowing, and that it occurs with the preposition 
api, in apivatahe and apivataiti. If this is the same word 
as in Sanskrit, then apivatayati would be a causative, 
meaning to make known. The meaning of vat, however, 
is doubtful in Zend, and hardly appropriate in the few pas- 
sages where it occurs in the Veda. Roth, in the Dictionary, 
explains vat by verstehn, begreifen, the causative by be- 
greiflich machen; but in our passage he translates it by 
belebend, Ludwig by aufspiirend. Till we get more light, I 
shall feel content to translate apivat by to approach, to 
obtain, and the causative by to make approach, to invite, 
to welcome. 

The following are the passages in which api-vat occurs : 

VII, 3, 10. api kratum su-^tasam vatema. 

May we obtain an excellent understanding ; not, Awaken 
in us a good sense. 

VII, 60, 6. api kratum su-£etesam vatantaA. 

They (Mitra and Varuwa) obtaining an excellent under- 

1, 138, 2. tarn ya^na-s&dham dpi vatayamasi. 

Him, Agni, the performer of the sacrifice, we make 
approach, we invite. 

X, 20, 1 ; 25, 1. bhadram naA dpi vataya manaA, daksham 
uta kratum. 

Bring to us, i. e. give us, a good mind, and a strong under- 

X, 13, 5. pitr£ putrftsaA api avtvatan rit&m. 

The sons obtained the right forthe father (an obscure verse). 

As to svapivata, VII, 46, 3, I should derive it from van, 
in the sense of implored, desired ; see, however, Muir, San- 
skrit Texts, IV, p. 314, note; Nirukta, ed. Roth, p. 135. 

Note 2. On ndvedi*, see IV, 23, 4. 

Verse 14. 
Note 1. This is a verse which, without some conjectural 

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NOTES. I, 165, 14. 203 

alterations, it seems impossible to translate. Sayawa, of 
course, has a translation ready for it, so has M. Langlois, 
but both of them offend against the simplest rules of 
grammar and logic. The first question is, who is meant 
by asman (which is here used as an amphimacer), the 
sacrifkers or the Maruts? The verb & kakri would well 
apply to the medha" manyasya, the hymn of Manya, which 
is intended to bring the Maruts to the sacrifice, this bringing 
to the sacrifice being the very meaning of a kar. But then 
we have the vocative marutaA in the next line, and even if 
we changed the vocative into the accusative, we should not 
gain much, as the Maruts could hardly call upon anybody 
to turn them towards the sage. 

If, on the contrary, we admit that asman refers to those 
who offer the sacrifice, then we must make a distinction, 
which, it is true, is not an unusual one, between those who 
here speak of themselves in the first person, and who provide 
the sacrifice, and the poet Mandarya Manya, who was 
employed by them to compose or to recite this hymn. 

But even if we adopt this alternative, many difficulties 
still remain. First of all, we have to change the accent of 
£akre into £akre, which may seem a slight change, but is not 
the less objectionable when we consider that in our emenda- 
tions of the Vedic hymns we must think rather of accidents 
that might happen in oral traditions than of the lapsus 
calami of later scribes. Secondly, we must suppose that 
the hymn of Mandarya Manya ends with verse 13, and 
that the last verses were supplied by the sacrificers them- 
selves. Possibly the dialogue only, from verse 3 to verse 
12, was the work of Manya, and the rest added at some 
solemn occasion. 

Other difficulties, however, remain. Duvasytft is taken 
by Sayawa as an ablative of duvasya, worthy of duvas, 
i. e. of worship, of sacrifice. Unfortunately this duvasya does 
not occur again, though it would be formed quite regularly, 
like namasya, worthy of worship, from namas, worship. 

If we take duvasyfit as the 3rd pers. sing, of the present 
in the Vedic conjunctive, we must also confess that this 
conjunctive does not occur again. But the verb duvasyati 

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occurs frequently. It seems to have two meanings. It is 
derived from diivas, which in the Vedic language means 
worship or sacrifice, just as karma, work, has assumed the 
special sense of sacrifice. Derived from diivas in this sense, 
duvasyati means to worship. But diivas meant originally 
any opus operatum. The root from which diivas is 
derived, is lost in Sanskrit, but it exists in other languages. 
It must have been du or du in the sense of acting, or 
sedulously working. It exists in Zend as du, to do, in 
Gothic as taujan, gataujan, Old High-German zawjan, 
Modern German zauen (Grimm, Gram. i 2 . p. 1041). The 
Gothic tavi,opus, Old High-German zouwi, Middle High- 
German gezouwe (Grimm, Gram. Hi. p. 499), come from 
the same source; and it is possible, too, that the Old 
Norse taufr, modern tofrar, incantamenta, the Old High- 
German zoupar, Middle High-German zouber, both 
neuter, and the modern Zauber, may find their expla- 
nation in the Sanskrit diivas. Derived from diivas, in the 
sense of work, we have duvasyati in the sense of helping, 
providing, the German schaf fen and verschaffen. 

In the sense of worshipping, duvasyati occurs, 

III, a, 8. duvasyita— ^atd-vedasam. 

Worship 6"atavedas. 

V, 28, 6. S^uhota duvasydta agnfm. 

Invoke, worship Agni. Cf. Ill, 13, 3 ; 1, 13. 

Ill, 3, 1. AgniA hi devSn — duvasyati. 

Agni performs the worship of the gods. Cf. VII, 8a, 5. 

I, 167, 6. sutd-somaA duvasyan. 

He who has poured out Soma and worships. 

In many passages duvasyati is joined with an instru- 
mental : 

V, 42, 11. nimnA-bhiA devdm — duvasya. 

Worship the god with praises. 

I, 78, 2. tam u tva g6tamaA girfi — duvasyati. 

Gotama worships thee with a song. 

V, 49, 2. su-uktafA devam — duvasya. 
Worship the god with hymns. 

VI, 16, 46. vitif ya^ devdm — duvasy^t. 
He who worships the god with a feast. 

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NOTES. I, I65, 14. 205 

X, 14, i. yamam — havfsha duvasya. 

Worship Yama with an oblation. 

VI, 15, 6. agnfm-agnim \zh samfdha duvasyata. 

Worship Agni with your log of wood. Cf. VIII, 44, I. 

Ill, 1, 2. samft-bhi/fc agnfm namasa duvasyan. 

They worshipped Agni with logs of wood, with praise. 

In the more general and, I suppose, more original sense 
of caring for, attending, we find duvasyati : 

III, 51, 3. anehasaA stubha^ IndraA duvasyati. 

Indra provides for the matchless worshippers. 

I, 1 1 a, 15. kalfm yfibhi^ — duvasyathaA. 

By the succours with which you help Kali. Cf. 1, 1 1 a, 21. 

I, 6a, 10. duvasyanti svasara/* ahrayawam. 

The sisters attend the proud (Agni). 

1, 119, 10. yuvam pedave — .rvetam — duvasyathaA. 

You provide for Pedu the white horse. 

If, then, we take duvasyati in the sense of working for, 
assisting, it may be with the special sense of assisting at a 
sacred act, like huiKovdv ; and if we take duvas, as it has the 
accent on the last syllable, as the performer of a sacrifice, 
we may venture to translate, ' that he should help, as the 
singer helps the performer of the sacrifice *.' The singer 
or the poet may be called the assistant at a sacrifice, for 
his presence was not necessary at all sacrifices, the songs 
constituting an ornament rather than an essential part in 
most sacred acts. But though I think it right to offer this 
conjectural interpretation, I am far from supposing that it 
gives us the real sense of this difficult verse. Duvasyfit 
may be, as Sayawa suggests, an ablative of duvasya ; and 
duvasya, like namasya, if we change the accent, may mean 
he who is to be worshipped, or worshipping. In this way 
a different interpretation might suggest itself, though I 
confess I do not see that any other interpretation as yet 
suggested is satisfactory. Some happy thought may some 
day or other clear up this difficulty, when those who have 

» Kar in the sense of officiating at a sacrifice is equally construed 
with a dative, X, 97, 22. yasmai kr»"«6ti brihmajtiA, he for whom 
a Brlhmana performs a sacrifice. 

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toiled, but toiled in a wrong direction, will receive scant 
thanks for the trouble they have taken. See Bollensen, 
Z.D.M.G. XVIII, p. 606. 

Note 2. In the second line, the words 6 su varta remind 
us of similar phrases in the Veda, but we want an ac- 
cusative, governed by varta ; whereas marutaA, to judge 
from its accent, can only be a vocative. Thus we read : 

1, 138, 4. 6 (fti) su tva vavrstimahi st6mebhi>4. 

May we turn thee quickly hither by our praises ! 

VIII, 7, 33. 6 (fti) su vri&wdJt — vavrj'tyam. 

May I turn the heroes quickly hither ! 

Compare also passages like III, 33, 8 : 

6 (fti) su svasaraA karave srinota.. 

Listen quickly, O sisters, to the poet. 

I. !39. 7- o (fti) su naA agne srinuhi. 

Hear us quickly, O Agni. 

Cf. 1, 1 8a, 1 ; II, 34, 15 ; VII, 59, 5 ; VIII, 2, 19 ; X, 179, 2. 

Unless we change the accent, we must translate, ' Bring 
hither quickly 1' and we must take these words as addressed 
to the karu, the poet, whose hymn is supposed to attract the 
gods to the sacrifice. By a quick transition, the next words, 
marutaA vfpram ikkAa., would then have to be taken as ad- 
dressed to the gods, ' Maruts, on to the sage 1 ' and the last 
words would become intelligible by laying stress on the vaA, 
' for you, and not for Indra or any other god, has the singer 
recited these hymns.' See, however, Preface, p. xxi. 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. I translate Manya, the son of Mana, because the 
poet, so called in 1, 189, 8, is in all probability the same as 
our Mandarya Manya. But it may also be Manya, the 
descendant of Mandari. The Manas are mentioned I, 172, 
5; 182, 8. 

Note 2. Va^-. S. XXXIV, 48. The second line is diffi- 
cult, owing to the uncertain meaning of vayam. 

A isha** yastsh/a has been rendered, ' Come hither with 

a There was a misprint in the Sawhita text'eshS instead of e'sha', 
which was afterwards repeated whenever the same verse occurred 

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NOTES. I, 165, 15. 207 

water or drink or rain,' yaslshfa being the aorist without 
the augment and with the intermediate vowel lengthened. 
The indicative occurs in 

V, 58, 6. yat pra ayasish/a prfehatibhiA isvaiA. 

When you Maruts came forth with your fallow deer and 
your horses. 

But what is the meaning of vayfim ? Vay£ means a 
germ, a sprout, an offshoot, a branch, as may be seen from 
the following passages : 

II, 5, 4. vidv&n asya vratfi dhruvfi vayfiA-iva anu rohate. 

He who knows his eternal laws, springs up like young 
sprouts. (Better vaya"-iva.) 

VI, 7, 6. tasya ft u*» (fti) vtrva bhuvana adhi mtirdhani 
vaySA-iva ruruhuA. 

From above the head of Vauvanara all worlds have 
grown, like young sprouts. 

VIII, 1 3, 6. stotfi — vayfiA-iva anu rohate. (Better vaya'-iva.) 

The worshipper grows up like young sprouts. 

VIII, 13, 17. fndram ksho»% avardhayan vay&^-iva. 

The people made Indra to grow like young sprouts. 

VIII, 19, 33. yasya te agne anye" agnaya& upa-kshftaA 

Agni, of whom the other fires are like parasitical shoots. 

I» 59. i- vayfiA ft agne agnayaA te anye\ 

O Agni, the other fires are indeed offshoots of thee. 

H. $5, 8. vaySA ft anyS bhuvanani asya. 

The other worlds are indeed his (the rising sun's) off- 

VI, 13, 1. tvat vlsv& — saubhagani agne vf yanti vanfnaA 
na vaySA. 

From thee, O Agni, spring all happinesses, as the sprouts 
of a tree. 

VI, 24, 3. vnkshasya nii (na?) te — vaySA vf fitayaA 

Succours sprang from thee, like the branches of a tree. 

V, 1, 1. yahvSA-iva pra vaySm ut-g-fhanaA pra bhanavaA 
sisrate nfikam Akkha.. 

Like birds (?) flying up to a branch, the flames of Agni 
went up to heaven ; (or like strong men reaching up to.) 


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VI, 57, 5. tlim pbshniA su-matfm vaydm vrtkshisya. pri 
vaySm-iva mdrasya ka. £ rabhamahe. 

Let us reach this favour of Pushan and of Indra, as one 
reaches forth to the branch of a tree. 

There remain some doubtful passages in which vaya 
occurs, VII, 40, 5, and X, 92, 3 ; 134, 6. In the first pas- 
sage, as in our own, vaya// is trisyllabic. 

If vayS can be used in the sense of offshoot or sprout, 
we may conclude that the same word, used in the singular, 
might mean offspring, particularly when joined with tanve. 
' Give a branch to our body,' would be understood even in 
languages less metaphorical than that of the Vedas ; and as 
the prayer for 'olive branches' is a constant theme of the 
Vedic poets, the very absence of that prayer here, might 
justify us in assigning this sense to vayfim. In VI, 2, 5, the 
expression vay&Vantam kshiyam, a house with branches, 
means the same as nr/vintam, a house with children and 
men. See M. M., On Bioy and vivas, in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, 
vol. xv, p. 215. Benfey (Endungen in tans, p. 37) takes 
vayam as a genitive plural, referring it to the Maruts, as 
closely connected with each other, like branches of a tree. 
This is much the same interpretation as that of Mahidhara 
(VS. XXXIV, 48), who translates 'come near for the body, 
i.e. for the bodily strength of the fellows, the Maruts.' 
Ludwig takes it as a possible instrumental of vayam. 

It is preferable, however, to take ySsish/a as a precative 
Atm., in order to account for the long t, and to accept it as 
a third person singular, referring to stdmaA. 

Mote 3. Vrtgina. means an enclosure, a vopos, whether it 
be derived from vrig, to ward off, like arx from arcere, or 
from vrig, in the sense of clearing, as in vrzkta-barhis, barhfA 
pri vringe, 1, 116, 1. In either case the meaning remains 
much the same, viz. a field, cleared for pasture or agri- 
culture, — a clearing, as it is called in America, or a camp, — 
enclosed with hurdles or walls, so as to be capable of 
defence against wild animals or against enemies. In this 
sense, however, vrig&na. is a neuter, while as a masculine it 
means powerful, invigorating. See Preface, p. xx, 

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MAM) ALA I, HYMN 1 66. 209 


To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. Let us now proclaim for the robust 1 host, for 
the herald 2 of the powerful (Indra), their ancient 
greatness ! O ye strong-voiced Maruts, you heroes, 
prove your powers on your march, as with a torch, as 
with a sword 8 ! 

2. Like parents bringing a dainty to 1 their own 8 
son, the wild (Maruts) play playfully at the sacri- 
fices. The Rudras reach the* worshipper with their 
protection, strong in themselves, they do not fail the 

3. For him to whom the immortal guardians have 
given fulness of wealth, and who is himself a giver 
of oblations, the Maruts, who gladden men with 
the milk .(of rain), pour out, like friends, many 

4. You who have stirred 1 up the clouds with 
might, your horses rushed a forth, self-guided. All 
beings who dwell in houses s are afraid of you, your 
march is brilliant with your spears thrust forth. 

5. When they whose march is terrible have caused 
the rocks to tremble 1 , or when the manly Maruts 
have shaken the back of heaven, then every lord of 
the forest fears at your racing, each shrub flies out 
of your way *, whirling like chariot-wheels 8 . 

6. You, O terrible Maruts, whose ranks are never 
broken, favourably 1 fulfil our prayer 2 ! Wherever 
your gory-toothed 3 lightning bites*, it crunches 5 
cattle, like a well-aimed bolt *. 

[3*] p 

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7. The Maruts whose gifts are firm, whose bounties 
are never ceasing, who do not revile 1 , and who are 
highly praised at the sacrifices, they sing their song 2 
for to drink the sweet juice : they know the first 
manly deeds of the hero (Indra). 

8. The man whom you have guarded, O Maruts, 
shield him with hundredfold strongholds from injury 1 
and mischief, — the man whom you, O fearful, power- 
ful singers, protect from reproach in the prosperity of 
his children. 

9. On your chariots, O Maruts, there are all good 
things, strong weapons 1 are piled up clashing against 
each other. When you are on your journeys, you 
carry the rings 2 on your shoulders, and your axle 
turns the two wheels at once 8 . 

10. In their manly arms there are many good 
things, on their chests golden chains 1 , flaring 2 
ornaments, on their shoulders speckled deer-skins 3 , 
on their fellies sharp edges * ; as birds spread their 
wings, they spread out splendours behind. 

11. They, mighty by might, all-powerful powers 1 , 
visible from afar like the heavens 2 with the stars, 
sweet-toned, soft-tongued singers with their mouths 3 , 
the Maruts, united with Indra, shout all around. 

1 2. This is your greatness 1 , well-born Maruts! — 
your bounty 8 extends far, as the sway 2 of Aditi 4 . 
Not even 6 Indra in his scorn 8 can injure that bounty, 
on whatever man you have bestowed it for his good 

13. This is your kinship (with us), O Maruts, that 
you, immortals, in former years have often protected 
the singer \ Having through this prayer granted a 
hearing to man, all these heroes together have 
become well-known by their valiant deeds. 

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MAATOALA I, HYMN 1 66. 211 

14. That we may long flourish, O Maruts, with 
your wealth, O ye racers, that our men may spread 
in the camp, therefore let me achieve the rite with 
these offerings. 

15. May this praise, O Maruts, this song of 
Mindarya, the son of Mana, the poet, ask you 
with food for offspring for ourselves 1 May we 
have an invigorating autumn, with quickening 
rain ! 

P 2 

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This hymn is ascribed to Agastya, the reputed son of 
Mitravarimau, and brother of Vasish/fo. The metre in 
verses 1-13 is Gagatl, in 14, 15 Trish/ubh. No verse of this 
hymn occurs in SV., VS., AV., TS., TB. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. RabhascL, an adjective of rabhas, and this again 
from the root rabh, to rush upon a thing, 4-rabh, to begin a 
thing. From this root rabh we have the Latin robur, in 
the general sense of strength, while in rabies the original 
meaning of impetuous motion has been more clearly pre- 
served. The Greek \&{ipos, too, as pointed out by Cowell, 
comes from this root. In the Vedic Sanskrit, derivatives 
from the root rabh convey the meaning both of quickness and 
of strength. Quickness in ancient languages frequently im- 
plies strength, and strength implies quickness, as we see, for 
instance, from the German sn el, which, from meaning origin- 
ally strong, comes to mean in modern German quick, and 
quick only. The German bald again, meaning soon, comes 
from the Gothic balths, the English bold. Thus we read : 

1, 145, 3. si swh & adatta sim ribha^. 

The child (Agni) acquired vigour. 

Indra is called rabhaA-da^, giver of strength ; and 
rabhasd, vigorous, is applied not only to the Maruts, who 
in V, 58, 5, are called rdbhish/M&, the most vigorous, but 
also to Agni, II, 10, 4, and to Indra, III, 31, 12. 

In the sense of rabid, furious, it occurs in 

X, 95, 14. ddha enam vrtkkh rabhasasa^ adyuA. 

May rabid wolves eat him ! 

In the next verse rabhasd, the epithet of the wolves, is 
replaced by a\riva, which means unlucky, uncanny. 

In our hymn rabhasd occurs once more, and is applied 
there, in verse 10, to the aJigi or glittering ornaments of 
the Maruts. Here Sayawa translates it by lovely, and it 
was most likely intended to convey the idea of lively or 
brilliant splendour, though it may mean also strong. See 
also IX, 96, 1. 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, I. 213 

Note 2. Ketii, derived from an old root ki, in Sanskrit 
ki, to perceive, from which also £itra, conspicuous, ken- 
speckled, beautiful, means originally that by which a thing 
is perceived or known, whether a sign, or a flag, or a herald. 
It is the Gothic haidu, species. It then takes the more 
general sense of light and splendour. In our passage, herald 
seems to me the most appropriate rendering, though B. and 
R. prefer the sense of banner. The Maruts come before 
Indra, they announce the arrival of Indra, they are the first 
of his army. 

Note S. The real difficulty of our verse lies in the two 
comparisons aidhS-iva and yudhS-iva. Neither of them 
occurs again in the Rig-veda. B. and R. explain aidhS as 
an instrumental of afdh, flaming, or flame, and derive it 
from the root idh, to kindle, with the preposition a. Pro- 
fessor Bollenscn in his excellent article Zur Herstellung 
des Veda (Orient und Occident, vol. iii, p. 473) says : ' The 
analysis of the text given in the Pada, viz. aidh£-iva and 
yudhfi-iva, is contrary to all sense. The common predicate 
is tavishawi kartana, exercise your power, you roarers, 
i. e. blow as if you meant to kindle the fire on the altar, 
show your power as if you went to battle. We ought 
therefore to read aidhe | va and yudhe" | va. Both are 
infinitives, aidh is nothing but the root idh + a, to kindle, 
to light.' Now this is certainly a very ingenious explana- 
tion, but it rests on a supposition which I cannot consider 
as proved, viz. that in the Veda, as in Pali, the compara- 
tive particle iva may be changed, as shown in the preface 
to the first edition, to va. It must be admitted that the 
two short syllables of iva are occasionally counted in the 
Veda as one, but yudh6-iva, though it might become yudha 
iva, would never in the Veda become yudheVa. 

As yudhfi occurs frequently in the Veda, we may begin 
by admitting that the parallel form aidhS must be explained 
in analogy to yudha". Now yudh is a verbal noun and 
means fighting. We have the accusative yudham, 1, 5$, 7 ; 
the genitive yudhaA, VIII, 37, 17 ; the dative yudhe\ I, 61, 
13 ; the locative yudhf, I, 8, 3 ; the instrumental yudhfi, I, 
5$, 7, &c. ; loc. plur. yut-su, I, 91, 21. As long as yudh 

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retains the general predicative meaning of fighting, some 
of these cases may be called infinitives. But yiidh soon 
assumes not only the meaning of battle, battle-ground, but 
also of instrument of fighting, weapon. In another passage, 
X, 103, 2, yiidha^ may be taken as a vocative plural, meaning 
fighters. Passages in which yudh means clearly weapon, 
are, for instance, 

V,5a,6. SmkmafMyudMnara^r/shvaArwhAfcasr/kshata. 

With their bright chains, with their weapon, the tall men 
have stretched forth the spears. 

x > 55> 8 - pftvi s6masya div&k & vridh&ai/t s&raJt nlk 
yudhfi adhamat dasyun. 

The hero, growing, after drinking the Soma, blew away 
from the sky the enemies with his weapon. See also X, 103,4. 

I therefore take yudh in our passage also in the sense of 
weapon or sword, and, in accordance with this, I assign to 
afdh the meaning of torch. Whether afdh comes from idh 
with the preposition 4, which, after all, would only give edh, 
or whether we have in the Sanskrit afdh the same peculiar 
strengthening which this very root shows in Greek and 
Latin*, would be difficult to decide. The torch of the 
Maruts is the lightning, the weapon the thunderbolt, and 
by both they manifest their strength ; ferro et igne, as 
Ludwig remarks. 

Wilson: We proclaim eagerly, Maruts, your ancient 
greatness, for (the sake of inducing) your prompt appear- 
ance, as the indication of (the approach of) the showerer (of 
benefits). Loud-roaring and mighty Maruts, you exert 
your vigorous energies for the advance (to the sacrifice), as 
if it was to battle. 

Verge a. 

Note 1. That upa can be construed with the accusative 
is clear from many passages : 
III, 35, %. upa imam ya^/tam & vahataA fndram. 
Bring Indra to this sacrifice 1 
I, 25, 4. vayaA na vasati/ft upa. 
As birds (fly) to their nests. 

* Schleicher, Compendium, § 36, dSBu, af%>, aMowra ; and § 49, 
aides, aidilis aestas. 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 2. 215 

Note 2. Nftya, from ni + tya , ) means originally what is 
inside, in tern us, then what is one's own; and is opposed 
to nfsh/ya, from nis + tya, what is outside, strange, or 
hostile. Nftya has been well compared with mgk, literally 
eingeboren, then, like nftya, one's own. What is inside, 
or in a thing or place, is its own, is peculiar to it, does not 
move or change, and hence the secondary meanings of nftya, 
one's own, unchanging, eternal. Thus we find nftya used 
in the sense of internal or domestic : 

I, 73, 4. tarn tva naraA dame & nftyam iddham agne 
sa£anta kshitfshu dhruv&su. 

Our men worshipped thee, O Agni, lighted within the 
house in safe places. 

This I believe to be a more appropriate rendering than if 
we take nftya in the sense of always, continuously lighted, 
or, as some propose, in the sense of eternal, everlasting. 

VII, 1, 2. dakshayya/* yih dame fisa nftyaA. 

Agni who is to be pleased within the house, i. e. as belong- 
ing to the house, and, in that sense, who is to be pleased 
always. Cf. 1, 140, 7 ; 141, 2 ; X, 12, 2, and III, 25, 5, where 
nftyaA, however, may have been intended as an adjective 
belonging to the vocative suno. 

Most frequently nftya occurs with sunu, I, 66, 1 ; 185, 2 ; 
tanaya, III, 15, 2 ; X, 39, 14; toka, II, 2, 11 ; apf.VII, 88, 6; 
pati, I, 71, 1, and has always the meaning of one's own, 
very much like the later Sanskrit n\ga., which never occurs 
in the Rig-veda, though it makes its appearance in the 

Nfsh/ya, extraneus, occurs three times in the Rig-veda: 

VI, 75,19. y&h naA svih innaJt yaA ka. nfsh/yaA^-fghawsati. 

Whoever wishes to hurt us, our own friend or a stranger 
from without. 

x » l 33> 5- y^ o** mdra abhi-dfeati sa-nabhiA yaA ka. 

He who infests us,0 Indra, whether a relative or a stranger. 

VIII, 1, 13. mfi bhuma nfsh/yaA-iva fndratvad ara«aA-iva. 

• Apa-tya ; cf. Bopp, Accentuationssystem, § 138, im-virai, Nach- 

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Let us not be like outsiders, O Indra, not like strangers 
to thee. 

Wilson : Ever accepting the sweet (libation), as (they 
would) a son, they sport playfully at sacrifices, demolishing 
(all intruders). 

LUDWIG : Wie einen nicht absterbenden Sohn das 

Madhu bringend. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Avyata, aVedic second aorist of vt (a^ - ), to stir up, 
to excite. From it pravayawa, a goad, pra-vetar, a driver. 
The Greek ot-a-rpos, gad-fly, has been referred to the same 
root. See Fick, Worterbuch, p. 1 70. 

Roth ( Wenzel, Instrumental, p. 54) translates : ' While you 
quickly throw yourselves into the mists ; ' from a verb vya. 

Note 2. Adhra^an, from dhra^-, a root which, by meta- 
thesis of aspiration, would assume the form of dra^"A or 
dragh. In Greek, the final medial aspirate being hardened, 
reacts on the initial media, and changes it to t, as bahu 
becomes irijx" s, budh m>0, bandh ittvd. This would give us 
Tp«Xi the Greek root for running, Goth, thrag-jan. 

Note 3. Harmya is used here as an adjective of bhuvana, 
and can only mean living in houses. It does not, however, 
occur again in the same sense, though it occurs several 
times as a substantive, meaning house. Its original mean- 
ing is fire-pit, then hearth, then house, a transition of 
meaning analogous to that of aedes. Most of the ancient 
nations begin their kitchen with a fire-pit. ' They dig a 
hole in the ground, take a piece of the animal's raw hide, 
and press it down with their hands close to the sides of the 
hole, which thus becomes a sort of pot or basin. This they 
fill with water, and they make a number of stones red-hot 
in a fire close by. The meat is put into the water, and the 
stones dropped in till the meat is boiled. Catlin describes 
the process as awkward and tedious, and says that since the 
Assinaboins had learnt from the Mandans to make pottery, 
and had been supplied with vessels by the traders, they had 
entirely done away the .custom, " excepting at public fes- 
tivals; where they seem, like all others of the human 
family, to take pleasure in cherishing and perpetuating 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 4. 217 

their ancient 01810™$^." ' This pit was called harmya b or 
gharma, which is the Latin form us. Thus we read : 

VII, 56, 16. te" harmye-sthaA slszv&A na" jubhrSA. 

The Maruts bright like boys standing by the hearth. 

From meaning fire-pit, or hearth, harmya afterwards takes 
the more general sense of house : 

VII, 55, 6. tesham sam hanmaA akshawi yatha idam 
harmyim tatha. 

We shut their eyes as we shut this house (possibly, this 

VII, 76, a. prati^i S. agat adhi harmy^bhyaA. 

The dawn comes near, over the house-tops. 

X, 46, 3. gktik & harmy^shu. 

Agni, born in the houses. 

X, 73, 10. many6A iyaya harmy^shu tasthau. 

He came from Manyu, he remained in the houses. 

In some of these passages harmya might be taken in 
the sense of householder ; but as harmya" in VII, 55, 6, has 
clearly the meaning of a building, it seems better not to 
assign to it unnecessarily any new significations. 

If harmya or *harma meant originally a fire-pit, then a 
hearth, a house, we see the close connection between 
harma and gharma, harmya and gharmya. Thus by the 
side of harmyesh/^a we find gharmyesh/Aa (RV. X, 106, 5). 
We find gharma meaning, not only heat in general, but 
fire-pit, hearth ; and we find the same word used for what 
we should call the pit, a place of torture and punishment 
from which the gods save their worshippers, or into which 
they throw the evil-doers. 

V, 32, 5. yuyutsantam tamasi harmye" dh&A. 

» Tylor, Early History of Mankind, p. 262. 

b Spiegel, who had formerly identified harmya' with the Zend 
zairimya in zairimyamira, has afterwards recalled this identifica- 
tion; see Spiegel, Av. Ubers. I, p. 190; Commentar flber den 
Avesta, I, p. 297; Justi, Handbuch, p. 119; Haug, Pahlavi 
Glossary, p. 22. According to the Parsis, the Hairimyawura, a 
daeva animal which appears at the rising of the sun, is the turtle, 
and Darmesteter (Ormazd et Ahriman, p. 283) identifies zair in 
zair-imya with the Greek x**-w» Sanskrit har-mu/a. 

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When thou, Indra, hadst placed .Sushwa, who was anxious 
to fight, in the darkness of the pit. 

In the next verse we find 

asurye tamasi, in the ghastly darkness. 

VIII, 5, 33. yuvam ka«vaya nasatya api-riptaya harmy£ 
s&svat hti/i das-asyatha^. 

You, Nasatyas, always grant your aid to Ka«va when 
thrown into the pit. 

This fiery pit into which Atri is thrown, and whence he, 
too, was saved by the Ajvins, is likewise called gharma, 
I, ua, 7 ; 119, 6; VIII, 73, 3 ; X, 80, 3. 

Lastly we find : 

X, 114, 10. yadK yama£ bhavati harmyd hitaA. 

When Yama is seated in the house, or in the nether world. 

When the Pitars, too, the spirits of the departed, the 
Manes, are called gharma-sad, this is probably intended to 
mean, dwelling on the hearth (X, 15, 9 and 10), and not 
dwelling in the abode of Yama. 

Kuhn, Zeitschrift, vol. ii, p. 234 : • Die ihr die Luft erfullt 
mit eurer Kraft, hervorsturmt ihr selbst-gelenkten Laufes." 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Nad certainly means to sound, and the causative 
might be translated by ' to make cry or shriek.' If we took 
parvata in the sense of cloud, we might translate, ' When 
you make the clouds roar;' if we took parvata for moun- 
tain, we might, with Professor Wilson, render the passage 
by ' When your brilliant coursers make the mountains echo.' 
But nad, like other roots which afterwards take the mean- 
ing of sounding, means originally to vibrate, to shake ; and 
if we compare analogous passages where nad occurs, we 
shall see that in our verse, too, the Vedic poet undoubtedly 
meant nad to be taken in that sense : 

VIII, 20, 5. a£yuta Mt vaA a^man fi nfinadati pirvatasaA 
vanaspatiA, bhflmi^ yameshu rebate. 

At your racing even things that are immovable vibrate, 
the rocks, the lord of the forest ; the earth quivers on your 
ways. (See I, 37, 7, note 1.) Grassmann here translates 

Note a. See 1, 37, 7, note 1. 

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notes, i, 1 66, 6. 219 

Note 3. Rathiydnti-iva does not occur again. Sayawa 
explains it, like a woman who wishes for a chariot, or who 
rides in a chariot. I join it with 6shadhi, and take it in the 
sense of upamanad a£are (Pkn. Ill, 1, 10), i. e. to behave 
like or to be like a chariot, whether the comparison is meant 
to express simply the quickness of chariots or the whirling 
of their wheels. The Pada has rathiyantl, whereas the 
more regular form is that of the Sawhita, rathiyantl. Cf. 
Pratirakhya, 587. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Su-£etiina, the instrumental of su-£etu, kindness, 
good-mindedness, favour. This word occurs in the instru- 
mental only, and always refers to the kindness of the gods; 
not, like sumatf, to the kindness of the worshipper also : 

I, 79, 9. & naA agne su-£etuna rayfm vuvfyu-poshasam, 
maft/ikam dhehi givise. 

Give us, O Agni, through thy favour wealth which sup- 
ports our whole life, give us grace to live. 

1, 127, il. s&h xxzh nedish/Aam didmanaA & bhara agne 
devebhLi sa~£anaA su-£etund mahaA r&y&A su-£etiina\ 

Thou, O Agni, seen close to us, bring to us, in union 
with the gods, by thy favour, great riches, by thy favour I 

Ii I 59> 5- asmdbhyam dyilv&pr*thivt (fti) su-£etuna rayfm 
dhattam vasu-mantam jata-gvfnam. 

Give to us, O DyAv4pr»thivt, by your favour, wealth, 
consisting of treasures and many flocks. 

V, 51, 11. svastf dydvApr/thivt (fti) su-£etunft. 

Give us, O Dyaviprj'thivi, happiness through your favour ! 

V, 64, 2. tK bahav4 su-£etunA prd yantam asmai ar£ate. 

Stretch out your arms with kindness to this worshipper ! 

In one passage of the ninth Ma/a/ala (IX, 65, 30) we meet 
with su-£etunam, as an accusative, referring to Soma, the 
gracious, and this would pre-suppose a substantive £etuna, 
which, however, does not exist. 

Note a. Sumatf has, no doubt, in most passages in the 
Rig-veda, the meaning of favour, the favour of the gods. 
' Let us obtain your favour, let us be in your favour,' are 
familiar expressions of the Vedic poets. But there are also 
numerous passages where that meaning is inapplicable, and 

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where, as in our passage, we must translate sumatf by- 
prayer or desire. 

In the following passages sumatf is clearly used in its 
original sense of favour, blessing, or even gift : 

I) 73> ^ (7). su-matfm bhfkshamawaA. 

Begging for thy favour. 

1, 171, 1. su-ukt6na bhikshe su-matfm tur£«am. 

With a hymn I beg for the favour of the quick Maruts. 

1, 114, 3. ajyama te su-matfm. 

May we obtain thy favour I Cf. 1, 1 14, 9. 

I, 1 14, 4. su-matfm ft vaydm asya & vrmimahe. 

We choose his favour. Cf. Ill, 33, 1 1. 

I, 117, 23. sada kavi (fti) su-matfm S, kake vim. 
I always desire your favour, O ye wise Ayvins. 

I> I56> 3- mah&A te vish«o (fti) su-matfm bha^amahe. 

May we, O Vish/ro, enjoy the favour of thee, the mighty ! 

Bhiksh, to beg, used above, is an old desiderative form 
of bha^ - , and means to wish to enjoy. 

Ill, 4, t. su-matfm rasi vdsvaA. 

Thou grantest the favour of wealth. 

VII, 39, 1. urdhvaA agnlA su-matfm vasvaA ajret. 

The lighted fire went up for the favour of wealth. Cf. VII, 
60,11; IX, 97, 26. 

Ill, 57, 6. vaso (fti) rfisva su-matfm virvi-^anyam. 

Grant us, O Vasu,thy favour, which is glorious among menl 

VII, 100, 2. tvam vishwo (fti)su-matfm vLsvd-^anyam — daA. 
Mayest thou, Vish«u, give thy favour, which is glorious 

among men! 

X, 11, 7. yih te agne su-matfm mixtaJt akshat. 
The mortal who obtained thy favour, O Agni 

II, 34, 15. arv&fei s£ marutaA y£ vaA utfA 6 (fti) sd vlrrfi-iva 

Your help, O Maruts, which is to usward, your favour 
may it come near, like a cow! 

VIII, 22, 4. asman akkAa. su-matfA vam jubhaA pati (fti) & 
dhemiA-iva dhavatu. 

May your favour, O Arvins, hasten towards us, like a cow ! 

But this meaning is by no means the invariable meaning 

of sumatf, and it will easily be seen that, in the following 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 6. 221 

passages, the word must be translated by prayer. Thus 
when Sarasvati is called (I, 3, 1 1) £etanti su-matinSm, this 
can only mean she who knows of the prayers, as before she is 
called £odayitn sunr/tanam, she who excites songs of praise : 

1, 151, 7. ikkha. glraJt su-matfm gantam asrna-yu" (fti). 

Come towards the songs, towards the prayer, you who are 
longing for us. Cf. X, 20, 10. 

II, 43, 3. tush»im asinaA su-matfm iikiddhi rah. 

Sitting quiet, listen, O Salami (bird), to our prayer ! 

V, 1, 10. 8. bhandishAfcasya su-matfm /Hkiddhi. 

Take notice of the prayer of thy best praiser I Cf. V, 33, 1. 

VII, 18, 4. & naA fndraA su-matfm gantu ikkksi. 

May Indra come to our prayer I 

VII, 31, 10. pra-£etase prd su-matfm kr*«udhvam. 
Make a prayer for the wise god ! 

IX, 96, 2. su-matfm yati ikkhz. 
He (Soma) goes near to the prayer. 

X, 148, 3. rlshXnkm vfpraA su-matfm kak&xtkh. 
Thou, the wise, desiring the prayer of the Rhh\s. 

VIII, 22, 6. ta vam adya sumatf-bhL4 subh&h pati (fti) 
arvina pra stuvtmahi. 

Let us praise to-day the glorious A^vins with our prayers. 

IX, 74, 1. tam tmahe su-mati. 
We implore him with prayer. 

In our passage the verb pipartana, fill or fulfil, indicates 
in what sense sumatf ought to be taken. Su-matfm pipar- 
tana is no more than kamam pipartana, fulfil our desire ! 
See VII, 62, 3. & naA kamam pupurantu ; I, 158, 2. kama- 
pre«a-iva manasa. On sumna, see Burnouf, Etudes, p. 91, 
and Aufrecht, in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. iv, p. 274. 

Note 3. KrfviA-datl has been a crux to ancient and 
modern interpreters. It is mentioned as a difficult word 
in the NighawAi, and all that Yiska has to say is that it 
means possessed of cutting teeth (Nir. VI, 30. krivirdati 
vikartanadantt). Professor Roth, in his note to this passage, 
says that krivi can never have the meaning of well, which 
is ascribed to it in the Nigha«Ai III, 23, but seems rather 
to mean an animal, perhaps the wild boar, Kavpos, with 
metathesis of v and r. He translates our passage : ' Where 

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your lightning with boar-teeth tears.' In his Dictionary, 
however, he only says, 'krivis, perhaps the name of an 
animal, and d ant, tooth.' Sayawa contents himself with 
explaining krivirdatl by vikshepaw&rtladantt, having teeth 
that scatter about. 

My own translation is founded on the supposition that 
kr/vis, the first portion of krfvirdati, has nothing to do with 
krivi, but is a dialectic variety of kravi's, raw flesh, the 
Greek Kp4as, Latin caro, cruor. It means what is raw, 
bloody, or gory. From it the adjective krura, horrible, 
cruentus (Curtius, Grundziige, p. 14a ; Kuhn, Zeitschrift, 
vol. ii, p. 235). A name of the goddess Durga in later 
Sanskrit is kruradantt, and with a similar conception the 
lightning, I believe, is here called krfvirdati, with gory teeth. 

Note 4. It should be observed that in radati the simile 
of the teeth of the lightning is carried on. For radati may 
be supposed to have had in the Veda, too, the original 
meaning of radere and rddere, to scratch, to gnaw. Rada 
and radana in the later Sanskrit mean tooth. It is curious, 
however, that there is no other passage in the Rig-veda 
where rad clearly means to bite. It means to cut, in 

I, 61, 12. g6A na parva vi rada tirarM. 

Cut his joint through, as the joint of an ox. 

But in most passages where rad occurs in the Veda, it 
has the meaning of giving. It is not the same which we 
have in the Zend rad, to give, and which Justi rightly 
identifies with the root r&dh. But rad, to divide, may, like 
the German theilen in zutheilen,have taken the meaning 
of giving. Greek bala> means to divide, but yields bats, portion, 
meal, just as Sanskrit day, to divide, yields dayas, share, i. e. 

This meaning is evident in the following passages : 

VII, 79, 4. tavat ushaA rSdha^ asmabhyam rasva yfivat 
stotri-bhyzA arada£ g««anS. 

Grant us, Ushas, so much wealth as thou hast given to 
the singers, when praised. 

1, 116, 7. kakshivate aradatam puram-dhim. 

You gave wisdom to Kakshivat. 

I, 169, 8. rada marut-bhiA jurudha^ g6-agraA. 

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notes, i, 1 66, 6. 223 

Give to the Maruts gifts, rich in cattle. 

VII, 62, 3. vf naJt sahasram jurudhaA radantu. 

May they (the gods) give to us a thousand gifts 1 

1, 117, 11. vtigam vfpraya — radanta. 

Giving spoil to the sage ! 

VI, 61, 6. rada pusha'-iva naA sanfm. 
Give us, Sarasvatl, wealth, like Pushan I 

IX, 93, 4. rada ffido (fti) rayfm. 
Give us, O Indra, wealth ! 

VII, 33, 18. rada-vaso (fti). 
Indra, thou who givest wealth I 

In many passages, however, this verb rad is connected 
with words meaning way or path, and it then becomes a 
question whether it simply means to grant a way, or to cut 
a way open for some one. In Zend, too, the same idiom 
occurs, and Professor Justi explains it by ' prepare a way.' 
I subjoin the principal passages : 

VI, 30, 3. yat ibhyaA aradaA gatum indra. 

That thou hast cut a way for them (the rivers). Cf. VII, 
74, 4- 

IV, 19, 2. prd vartantt aradaA virva-dhenaA. 

Thou (Indra) hast cut open the paths for all the cows. 

X, 75, 2. pra te aradat varuwaA ya"tave pathaA. 
Varuwa cut the paths for thee to go. 

VII, 87, 1. radat patha/s varu«aA sflryaya. 
Varuwa cut paths for Surya. 

V, 80, 3. pathaA ridanti suvit&ya devf. 

She, the dawn, cutting open the paths for welfare. 
VII, 60, 4. yasmai aditySA adhvanaA radanti. 
For whom the Adityas cut roads. 

II, 30, 2. pathaA radanti^ — dhunaya^ yanti irtham. 
Cutting their paths, the rivers go to their goal. 

This last verse seems to show that the cutting open of 
a road is really the idea expressed by rad in all these 
passages. And thus we find the rivers themselves saying 
that Indra cut them out or delivered them : 

III, 33, 6. mdr&% asman aradat va^ra-bahuA. Cf. X, 89, 7. 
Kote 6. Rittstti, like the preceding expressions krfvirdatl 

and radati, is not chosen at random, for though it has the 

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general meaning of crushing or destroying, it is used by 
the Vedic poets with special reference to the chewing or 
crunching by means of the teeth. For instance, 

1, 148, 4. puruwi dasmaA nf ri«ati ^ambhaiA. 

Agni crunches many things with his jaws. 

1, 127, 4. sthirS £it anna nf ri«ati 6^asa. 

Even tough morsels he (Agni) crunches fiercely. 

In a more general sense we find it used, 

V, 41, 10. sokiA-kesaA nf riwati vana. 

Agni with flaming hair swallows or destroys the forests. 

IV, 19, 3. ahim vAgrcna. vf rinlL/t. 

Thou destroyedst Ahi with the thunderbolt. 

X, 120, 1. sadyaA gagnknati nf riwati .satrun. 

As soon as born he destroys his enemies. 

Note 6. Sudhita-iva barha#a. I think the explanation 
of this phrase given by Sayawa may be retained. He ex- 
plains sudhita by suhita, i. e. sush/Au prerita, well thrown, 
well levelled, and barhawa by hatis, tatsadhana hetir va, a 
blow or its instrument, a weapon. Professor Roth takes 
barhawa as an instrumental, used adverbially, in the sense 
of powerfully, but he does not explain in what sense 
sudhita-iva ought then to be taken. We cannot well refer 
it to didyut, lightning, on account of the iva, which requires 
something that can form a simile of the lightning. Nor is 
su-dhita ever used as a substantive so as to take the place 
of svadhitiva. Su-dhita has apparently many meanings, 
but they all centre in one common conception. Su-dhita 
means well placed, of a thing which is at rest, well arranged, 
well ordered, secure ; or it means well sent, well thrown, of 
a thing which has been in motion. Applied to human 
beings, it means well disposed or kind. 

Ill, 23, 1. nf^-mathitaA su-dhita^ £ sadha-sthe. 

Agni produced by rubbing, and well placed in his abode. 

VII, 42, 4. sii-prita^ agnfA su-dhitaA dame &. 

Agni, who is cherished and well placed in the house. 

Ill, 29, 2. arawyo^ ni-hitaJt ^ata-vedaA garbha£-iva sti- 
dhitaA garbhfwishu. 

Agni placed in the two fire-sticks, well placed like an 
embryo in the mothers. Cf. X, 27, 16. 

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notes. I, 166, 6. 225 

VIII, 60, 4. abhf prayawsi sii-dhita & vaso (fti) gahi. 

Come, O Vasu, to these well-placed offerings. Cf. 1, 135, 
4 ; VI, 15, 15 ; X, 53, 2. 

X, 70, 8. sii-dhita haviwshi. 

The well-placed offerings. 

IV, 2, 10 (adhvaram). VII, 7, 3 (barhfA). 

As applied to ayus, life, siidhita may be translated by 
well established, safe : 

II, 37, 10. arySma flyuwjshi sii-dhitani pflrva. 

May we obtain the happy long lives of our forefathers. 

IV, 50, 8. saA ft ksheti su-dhitaA 6kasi sve\ 

That man dwells secure in his own house. 

Applied to a missile weapon, siidhita may mean well 
placed, as it were, well shouldered, well held, before it is 
thrown ; or well levelled, well aimed, when it is thrown : 

1, 167, 3. mimyaksha yeshu su-dhit4 — rishtUt. 

To whom the well held spear sticks fast. 

VI, 33, 3. tvam tan indra ubhayan am ft ran dasa vrttr&m 
£rya ka. jura, vadhU vana-iva su-dhitebhiA atkaiA. 

. Thou, Indra, O hero, struckest both enemies, the bar- 
barous and the Aryan fiends, like forests with well-aimed 

Applied to a poem, siidhita means well arranged or 

1, 140, 1 1. idam agne su-dhitam dM-dhitat adhi priyfit 
fl« (fti) >E-it manmanaA pr6yaJt astu te. 

May this perfect prayer be more agreeable to thee than 
an imperfect one, though thou likest it. 

VII, 32, 13. mantram akharvam su-dhitam. 
A poem, not mean, well contrived. 

As applied to men, siidhita means very much the same 
as hita, well disposed, kind : 

IV, 6, 7. adha mitraA na sii-dhitaA pavakaA agnfA dldaya 
mSnushishu vikshu. 

Then, like a kind friend, Agni shone among the children 
of man. 

V, 3, 2. mitram su-dhitam. 

VI, 15, 2. mitram na yam su-dhitam. 

VIII, 23, 8. mitram na ^ane sii-dhitam rtta-vani. 

[3»] Q 

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X, 115, 7. mitrasaA ni ye" 9U-dhita/4. 

At last sii-dhita, without reference to human beings, 
takes the general sense of kind, good: 

III, 11, 8. pari vfavani sii-dhita agne/* arydma manma- 

May we obtain through our prayers all the goods of 

Here, however, prayaw/si may have to be supplied, and 
in that case this passage, too, should be classed with those 
mentioned above, VIII, 60, 4, &c. 

If then we consider that sudhita, as applied to weapons, 
means well held or well aimed, we can hardly doubt that 
barha»a is here, as Sayawa says, some kind of weapon. I 
should derive it from barhayati, to crush, which we have, 
for instance, 

I> l 33> 5- pwanga-bhrishrim ambhri*am pu&Hm indra 
sam mrina., sarvam raksha^ nf-barhaya. 

Pound together the fearful Fis&ki with his fiery weapons, 
strike down every Rakshas. 

II, 33, 8. brftiaspate deva-nfdaA nf barhaya. 

BrAaspati strike down the scoffers of the gods. Cf. VI, 

61, 3- 

Barhawa would therefore mean a weapon intended to 
crush an enemy, a block of stone, it may be, or a heavy 
club, and in that sense barhana occurs at least once 

VIII, 63, 7. yat pft^f^a-^anyaya vuff fndre ghosha^ asn- 
kshata, astr*«at barha»d vipAA. 

When shouts have been sent up to Indra by the people 
of the five clans, then the club scattered the spears ; or, 
then he scattered the spears with his club. 

In other passages Professor Roth is no doubt right when 
he assigns to barha»a an adverbial meaning, but I do not 
think that this meaning would be appropriate in our verse. 
Grassmann also translates, ' ein wohlgezielter Pfeil.' 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Alktrin&saJt, a word which occurs but once more, 
and which had evidently become unintelligible even at the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES. I, 1 66, 7. 227 

time of Yaska. He (Nir. VI, %) explains it by alamatardano 
meghaA, the cloud which opens easily. This, at least, is the 
translation given by Professor Roth, though not without 
hesitation. AlamatardanaA, as a compound, is explained 
by the commentator as atardanaparyaptaA, alam atardayi- 
tum udakam, i. e. capable of letting off the water. But 
Devara^uya^van explains it differently. He says : alam 
paryaptam atardanam hi/wsa yasya, bahudakatva££^abalo 
megho vueshyate, i. e. whose injuring is great ; the dark 
cloud is so called because it contains much water. Saya«a, 
too, attempts several explanations. In III, 30, 10, he seems 
to derive it from trih, to kill, not, like Yaska, from trid, 
and he explains its meaning as the cloud which is exceed- 
ingly hurt by reason of its holding so much water. In our 
passage he explains it either as anatr/wa, free from injury, 
or good hurters of enemies, or good givers of rewards. 

From all this I am afraid we gain nothing. Let us now 
see what modern commentators have proposed in order to 
discover an appropriate meaning in this word. Professor 
Roth suggests that the word may be derived from r4, to 
give, and .the suffix tr*'«a, and the negative particle, thus 
meaning, one who does not give or yield anything. But, 
if so, how is this adjective applicable to the Maruts, who in 
this very verse are praised for their generosity? Langlois 
in our passage translates, ' heureux de nos louanges ; ' in 
III, 30, 10, 'qui laissait fletrir les plantes.' Wilson in our 
passage translates, 'devoid of malevolence;' but in III, 30, 
10, 'heavy.' 

I do not pretend to solve all these difficulties, but I may 
say this in defence of my own explanation that it fulfils the 
condition of being applicable both to the Maruts and to 
the demon Bala. The suffix tn'«a is certainly irregular, 
and I should much prefer to write alatrina, for in that case 
we might derive latrin from latra, and to this latra, i.e. 
ratra, I should ascribe the sense of barking. The root rai 
or ra means to bark, and has been connected by Professor 
Aufrecht with Latin rire, in r ire, and possibly inritare*, 

» Kuhn, Zeitschrift, vol. ix, p. 233. 
Q 2 

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thus showing a transition of meaning from barking, to pro- 
voking or attacking. The same root ra explains also the 
Latin litf are, to bark, allatrare, to assail ; and, whatever 
ancient etymologists may say to the contrary, the Latin 
latro, an assailer. The old derivation ' latrones eos antiqui 
dicebant, qui conducti militabant, airi> tjjs Xarptiat,' seems to 
me one of those etymologies in which the scholars of Rome, 
who had leamt a little Greek, delighted as much as scholars 
who know a little Sanskrit delight in finding some plausible 
derivation for any Greek or Latin word in Sanskrit. I know 
that Curtius (Grundziige, p. 326) and Corssen (Kritische 
Nachtrage, p. 239) take a different view; but a foreign 
word, derived from Xdrpov, pay, hire, would never have 
proved so fertile as latro has been in Latin. 

If then we could write alatri«asaA, we should have an 
appropriate epithet of the Maruts, in the sense of not 
assailing or not reviling, in fact, free from malevolence, as 
Wilson translated the word, or rather Sayaaa's explanation 
of it, atardanarahita. What gives me some confidence in 
this explanation is this, that it is equally applicable to the 
other passage where alatr*«a occurs, III, 30, 10 : 

alktrin&A va.HA indra vragih g6/i purfi hantoA bhayamana^ 
vi Ara. 

Without barking did Vala, the keeper of the cow, full of 
fear, open, before thou struckest him. 

If it should be objected that vra,?a means always stable, 
and is not used again in the sense of keeper, one might 
reply that vrag£A, in the nom. sing., occurs in this one 
single passage only, and that bhayamanaA, fearing, clearly 
implies a personification. Otherwise, one might translate : 
' Vala was quiet, O Indra, and the stable of the cow came 
open, full of fear, before thou struckest.' The meaning of 
al&trini would remain the same, the not-barking being here 
used as a sign that Indra's enemy was cowed, and no longer 
inclined to revile or defy the power of Indra. Horn. hymn, 
in Merc. 145, oi8£ icvvts \(XAkovto. 

Not© 2. See I, 38, 15, note 1, page 95. 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 9. 229 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Abhf-hruti seems to have the meaning of assault, 
injury, insult. It occurs but once, but abhf-hrut, a feminine 
substantive with the same meaning, occurs several times. 
The verb hru, which is not mentioned in the Dhatupa^a, 
but has been identified with hvar, occurs in our hymn, 
verse 12: 

I, 128,5. saA naA trasate du/*-itat abhi-hruta/* .rawsat 
agh£t abhi-hnita/4. 

He protects us from evil, from assault, from evil speaking, 
from assault. 

X, 63, 11. trayadhvam naA duA-eVayaA abhi-hrutaA. 

Protect us from mischievous injury ! 

1, 189, 6. abhi-hrutam asi hi deva vishpa/. 

For thou, god, art the deliverer from all assaults. Vishpa/, 
deliverer, from vi and spar, to bind. 

Vf-hruta, which occurs twice, means evidently what has 
been injured or spoiled : 

VIII, 1, 12. fshkarta vi-hrutam piinar (iti). 

He who sets right what has been injured. Cf. VIII, 20, 26. 

Avi-hruta again clearly means uninjured, intact, entire : 

V, 66, 2. t& hi kshatram avi-hrutam— &ate. 

For they both have obtained uninjured power. 

X, 170, 1. &yuA dadhat ya^via-patau avi-hrutam. 

Giving uninjured life to the lord of the sacrifice. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Tavisha certainly means strength, and that it is 
used in the plural in the sense of acts of strength, we can 
see from the first verse of our hymn and other passages. 
But when we read that tavisham are placed on the chariots 
of the Maruts, just as before bhadra, good things, food, &c, 
are mentioned, it is clear that so abstract a meaning as 
strength or powers would not be applicable here. We 
might take it in the modern sense of forces, i. e. your armies, 
your companions are on your chariots, striving with each 
other ; but as the word is a neuter, weapons, as the means 

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of strength, seemed a preferable rendering. As to mitha- 
spr/dhya, see 1, 119, 3, p. 164. 

Note 2. The rendering of this passage must depend on 
the question whether the khadfs, whatever they are, can be 
carried on the shoulders or not. We saw before (p. 1 20) 
that khadfs were used both as ornaments and as weapons, 
and that, when used as weapons, they were most likely rings 
or quoits with sharp edges. There is at least one other 
passage where these khadfs are said to be worn on the 
shoulders : 

VII, 56, 13. awseshu 8, marutaA khadayaA vaA vaksha//-su 
rukmaA upa-jijriya«aA. 

On your shoulders are the quoits, on your chests the 
golden chains are fastened. 

In other places the khadfs are said to be in the hands, 
hasteshu, but this would only show that they are there when 
actually used for fighting. Thus we read : 

1, 168, 3. ffesham awzscshu rambhfnt-iva rarabhe, hasteshu 
khadfA ka. kritlA ka. sam dadhe. 

To their shoulders there clings as if a clinging wife, in 
their hands the quoit is held and the dagger. 

InV, 58, 2, the Maruts are called khfidi-hasta, holding 
the quoits in their hands. There is one passage which 
was mentioned before (p. 112), where the khadfs are said to 
be on the feet of the Maruts, and on the strength of this 
passage Professor Roth proposes to alter pra-patheshu to 
pra-padeshu, and to translate, 'The khadfs are on your 
forefeet.' I do not think this emendation necessary. 
Though we do not know the exact shape and character 
of the khadf, we know that it was a weapon, most likely a 
ring, occasionally used for ornament, and carried along 
either on the feet or on the shoulders, but in actual battle 
held in the hand. The weapon which Vish«u holds in one 
of his right hands, the so-called £akra, may be the modern 
representation of the ancient khadf. What, however, is 
quite certain is this, that khadf in the Veda never means 
food, as Sayawa optionally interprets it. This interpretation 
is accepted by Wilson, who translates, 'At your resting- 
places on the road refreshments (are ready).' Nay, he 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, IO. *3I 

goes on in a note to use this passage as a proof of the 
advanced civilisation of India at the time of the Vedic 
^»'shis. ' The expression,' he says, ' is worthy of note, as 
indicating the existence of accommodations for the use of 
travellers : the prapatha is the choltri of the south of India, 
the sarai of the Mohammedans, a place by the road-side 
where the travellers may find shelter and provisions.' 

Note 8. This last passage shows that the poet is really 
representing to himself the Maruts as on their journey, and 
he therefore adds, ' your axle turns the two (IV, 30, 2) 
wheels together,' which probably means no more than, ' your 
chariot is going smoothly or quickly.' Though the expres- 
sion seems to us hardly correct, yet one can well imagine 
how the axle was supposed to turn the wheels as the horses 
were drawing the axle, and the axle acted on the wheels. 
Anyhow, no other translation seems possible. Samaya in 
the Veda means together, at once, and is the Greek 6njj, 
generally 6j*ov or 6/m3s, the Latin s i m u 1. Cf. 1, 56, 6 ; 73, 6 ; 
113, 10 ; 163, 3 ; VII, 66, 15 ; IX, 75, 4; 85, 5 ; 97, 56. 

Vrit means to turn, and is frequently used with reference 
to the wheels : 

VIII, 46, 23. disa jyavaA — nemfm nf vavn'tuA. 

The ten black horses turn down the felly or the wheel. 

IV, 30, 2. satrH te anu kr»'sh/ayaA vtrvaA £akr£-iva 

All men turn always round thee, like wheels. 

That the Atmanepada of vrit may be used in an active 
sense we see from 

I, 191, 15. tataA visham pra vavn'te. 

I turn the poison out from here. 

All the words used in this sentence are very old words, 
and we can with few exceptions turn them into Greek or 
Latin. In Latin we should have axis vos(ter) circos 
simul divertit. In Greek &£»v v{ix&v) kvk\o> 6nfj .... 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. See I, 64, 4, note 1, page m. 
Note 2. See 1, 166, 1, note i, page 212. 

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Hot© 3. On eta in the sense of fallow deer, or, it may be, 
antelope, see 1, 165, 5, note 2, page 196. 

Eta originally means variegated, and thus becomes a 
name of any speckled deer, it being difficult to say what 
exact species is meant. Sayana in our passage explains 
6t&A by juklavarwa malaA, many-coloured wreaths or chains, 
which may be right. Yet the suggestion of Professor Roth 
that etaA, deer, stands here for the skins of fallow deer, is 
certainly more poetical, and quite in accordance with the 
Vedic idiom, which uses, for instance, go, cow, not only in 
the sense of milk, — that is done even in more homely 
English, — but also for leather, and thong. It is likewise 
in accordance with what we know of the earliest dress of 
the Vedic Indians, that deer-skins should here be men- 
tioned. We learn from Arvalayana's Gnhya-sutras, of 
which we now possess an excellent edition by Professor 
Stenzler, and a reprint of the text and commentary by 
Rama Narayawa Vidyaratna, in the Bibliotheca Indica, 
that a boy when he was brought to his tutor, i. e. from the 
eighth to possibly the twenty-fourth year, had to be well 
combed, and attired in a new dress. A Brahmawa should 
wear the skin of an antelope (ai»eya), the Kshatriya the 
skin of a deer (raurava), the VaUya the skin of a goat (a^a). 
If they wore dresses, that of the Brahmawa should be dark 
red (kashaya), that of the Kshatriya bright red (mai^ish/Aa), 
that of the VaLrya yellow (haridra). The girdle of the 
Brahmawa should be of Muriga grass, that of the Kshatriya 
a bow-string, that of the Vairya made of sheep's wool. 
The same regulations occur in other Sutras, as, for instance, 
the Dharma-sutras of the Apastambiyas and Gautamas, 
though there are certain characteristic differences in each, 
Which may be due either to local or to chronological causes. 
Thus according to the Apastambiya-sutras, which have 
been published by Professor Biihler, the Brahmawa may 
wear the skin of the hariwa deer, or that of the antelope 
(aiweyam), but the latter must be from the black antelope 
(kr*'sh»am), and, a proviso is added, that if a man wears 
the black antelope skin, he must never spread it out to sit 
or sleep on it. As materials for the dress, Apastamba 

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NOTES. I, 166, I O. 233 

allows s&na, hemp*, or kshuma, flax, and he adds that 
woollen dresses are allowed to all castes, as well as the 
kambala (masc), which seems to be any cloth made of 
vegetable substances (darbhadinirmitam £iram kambalam). 
He then adds a curious remark, which would seem to show 

• Sattz is an old Aryan word, though its meanings differ. Hesy- 
chius and Eustathius mention navya as being synonymous with 
^rlaSoi, reed. Pollux gives two forms, moto and Kara, (Pollux X, 

166, irraKua hi tori ^riados t) iv roit wcariois f/v kcu Kavav Kakovaw. VII, 

176, Kdvvcu ii ri «<c Ktaafrav irA/ypa.) This is important, because the 
same difference of spelling occurs also in ndwoflis and «Wtos or 
icavmpos, a model, a lay figure, which Lobeck derives from namu. 
In Old Norse we have hanp-r, in A. S. haenep, hemp, Old High- 
Germ, hanaf. 

The occurrence of the word *a»a is of importance as showing at 
how early a time the Aryans of India were acquainted with the uses 
and the name of hemp. Our word hemp, the A. S. haenep, the 
Old Norse hanp-r, are all borrowed from Latin cannabis, which, 
like other borrowed words, has undergone the regular changes re- 
quired by Grimm's law in Low-German, and also in High-German, 
hanaf. The Slavonic nations seem to have borrowed their word 
for hemp (Lith. kanapg) from the Goths, the Celtic nations (Ir. 
canaib) from the Romans (cf. Kuhn, Beitrage, vol. ii, p. 382). 
The Latin cannabis is borrowed from Greek, and the Greeks, to 
judge from the account of Herodotus, most likely adopted the word 
from the Aryan Thracians and Scythians (Her. IV, 74; Pictet, Les 
Aryens, vol. i, p. 314). Kdwa/fo being a foreign word, it would be 
useless to attempt an explanation of the final element bis, which 
is added to xana, the Sanskrit word for hemp. It may be visa ( 
fibre, or it may be anything else. Certain it is that the main ele- 
ment in the name of hemp was the same among the settlers in 
Northern India, and among the Thracians and Scythians through 
whom the Greeks first became acquainted with hemp. 

The history of the word nawa&is must be kept distinct from that 
of the Greek norm or icava, reed. Both spellings occur, for Pollux, 

X, 166, Writes rrravdica 8c Am yffla6os t) iv rote axarioic tjti xai Kavan 
Kakovaiv, but VII, 1 76, kcuivw. ii ro « Kavdffav irXry/ia. This Word 

Kama may be the same as the Sanskrit jana, only with this differ- 
ence, that it was retained as common property by Greeks and 
Indians before they separated, and was applied differently in later 
times by the one and the other. 

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that the Brahma«as preferred skins, and the Kshatriyas 
clothes, for he says that those who wish well to the Brah- 
mawas should wear a^ina, skins, and those who wish well to 
the Kshatriyas should wear vastra, clothes, and those who 
wish well to both should wear both, but, in that case, the skin 
should always form the outer garment. The Dharma-sutras 
of the Gautamas, which were published in India, prescribe 
likewise for the Brahmana the black antelope skin, and allow 
clothes of hemp or linen (jawakshauma^ira) as well as kuta- 
pas (woollen cloth) for all. What is new among the Gau- 
tamas is, that they add the karpasa, the cotton dress, which 
is important as showing an early knowledge of this manu- 
facture. The karpasa dress occurs once more as a present 
to be given to the Potar priest (Asv. 5rauta-sutras IX, 4), 
and was evidently considered as a valuable present, taking 
precedence of the kshaumi or linen dress. It is provided 
that the cotton dress should not be dyed, for this, I sup- 
pose, is the meaning of avikrtta. Immediately after, how- 
ever, it is said, that some authorities say the dress should 
be dyed red (kashayam apy eke), the very expression which 
occurred in Apastamba, and that, in that case, the red for 
the Brahmawa's dress should be taken from the bark of 
trees (varksha). Manu, who here, as elsewhere, simply 
paraphrases the ancient Sutras, says, II, 41 : 

karsh«arauravabastani £arma*i brahmaMri«a/i 
vasirann anupurvyewa ;a»akshaumavikani ka.. 

' Let Brahma^arins wear (as outer garments) the skins of 
the black antelope, the deer, the goat, (as under garments) 
dresses of hemp, flax, and sheep's wool, in the order of the 
three castes.' 

The Sanskrit name for a dressed skin is a^ina, a word 
which does not occur in the Rig-veda, but which, if Bopp 
is right in deriving it from a^a, goat, as cdyis from <u£, 
would have meant originally, not skin in general, but a 
goat-skin. The skins of the eta, here ascribed to the 
Maruts, would be identical with the aiweya, which Arvala- 
yana ascribes to the Brahmana, not, as we should expect, to 
the Kshatriya, if, as has been supposed, ai«eya is derived 
from ena, which is a secondary form, particularly in the 

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NOTES. I, 166, II. 235 

feminine ent, of eta. There is, however, another word, erfa, 
a kind of sheep, which, but for Fes t us, might be haedus, 
and by its side e«a, a kind of antelope. These two forms 
pre-suppose an earlier er«a or area, and point therefore in 
a different direction, though hardly to &pva. 

Note 4. I translate kshura by sharp edges, but it might 
have been translated literally by razors, for, strange as it 
may sound, razors were known, not only during the Vedic 
period, but even previous to the Aryan separation. The 
Sanskrit kshura is the Greek £vp6s or (vpov. In the Veda 
we have clear allusions to shaving : 

X, 14a, 4. yadfi te vfftaA anu-vSti soklA, vapta-iva jmajru 
vapasi pra bhfima. 

When the wind blows after thy blast, then thou shavest 
the earth as a barber shaves the beard. Cf. I, 65, 4. 

If, as B. and R. suggest, vaptar, barber, is connected with 
the more modern name for barber in Sanskrit, viz. napita, 
we should have to admit a root svap, in the sense of tearing 
or pulling, vellere, from which we might derive the Vedic 
svapff (VII, 56, 3), beak. Corresponding to this we find in 
Old High-German snabul, beak, (schnepfe, snipe,) and 
in Old Norse nef. The Anglo-Saxon neb means mouth 
and nose, while in modern English n e b or n i b is used for 
the bill or beak of a bird*. Another derivation of napita, 
proposed by Professor Weber (Kuhn's Beitrage, vol. i, p. 505), 
who takes napita as a dialectic form of snapitar, balneator, 
or lavator, might be admitted if it could be proved that in 
India also the barber was at the same time a balneator. 
Burnouf, Lotus, p. 452, translating from the Saman/7a-phala 
Sutta, mentions among the different professions of the 
people those of ' portier,' ' barbier,' and ' baigneur.' 

Verse 11. 
Note 1. Vf-bhutayaA is properly a substantive, meaning 

■ Grimm, Deutsche Grammatik, vol. iii, pp. 400, 409. There 
is not yet sufficient evidence to show that Sanskrit sv, German sn, 
and Sanskrit n are interchangeable, but there is at least one case 
that may be analogous. Sanskrit sva%, to embrace, to twist round 
a person, German slango, Schlange, snake, and Sanskrit n&ga, 
snake. Grimm, Deutsche Grammatik, vol. iii, p. 364. 

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power, but, like other substantives*, and particularly sub- 
stantives with prepositions, it can be used as an adjective, 
and is, in fact, more frequently used as an adjective than as 
a substantive. In English we may translate it by power. 
It is a substantive, 

I, 8, 9. eva hi te vf-bhutayaA utayaA indra mfi-vate sadyaA 
£it santi dlrushe. 

For indeed thy powers, O Indra, are at once shelters for 
a sacrificer, like me. 

But it is an adjective, 

I. 3°. 5- vf-bhutiA astu sunr/ta. 

May the prayer be powerful. 

VI, 17, 4. maham anunam tavasam vf-bhutim matsarasa/j 
.farhmhanta pra-saham. 

The sweet draughts of Soma delighted the great, the 
perfect, the strong, the powerful, the unyielding Indra. 

Cf. VIII, 49, 6; 50,6. 

Vibhv2A, with the Svarita on the last syllable, has to be 
pronounced vibhua/*. In III, 6, 9, we find vi-bhavaA. 

Note 2. See I, 87, 1, note 1, page 160. 

Vote 3. See I, 6, 5, note 1, page 41. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. Mahi-tvanam, greatness, is formed by the suffix 
tvana, which Professor Aufrecht has identified with the 
Greek <rbvy\ (avvov) ; see Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. i, p. 482. 
The origin of this suffix has been explained by Professor 
Benfey, ibid. vol. vii, p. 120, who traces it back to the suffix 
tvan, for instance, i-tvan, goer, in prataA-ftva=prataA-yava. 

Note 2. Vrata is one of the many words which, though 
we may perceive their one central idea, and their original 
purport, we have to translate by various terms in order to 
make them intelligible in every passage where they occur. 
Vrata (from vri, vrinoti), I believe, meant originally what is 
enclosed, protected, set apart, the Greek vo/ios : 

1. V, 46, 7. y&4 pSrthivasaA ytiJt apSm dpi vtsXi X&h naA 
devVi su-havaA jarma ya^Mata. 

B See Benfey, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, vol. ii, p. 216. 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 12. 237 

O ye gracious goddesses, who are on the earth or in the 
realm of the waters, grant us your protection ! 

Here vrata is used like vr^ana, see I, 165, 15, note 3, 
page 308. 

X, 1 14, 2. tisam nf kikyuA kavayaA ni-d&nam pareshu y&A 
guhyeshu vrateshu. 

The poets discovered their (the Nimtis') origin, who are 
in the far hidden chambers. 

1, 1 63, 3. asi tritiA gtihyena vratena. 

Thou art Trita within the hidden place, or with the 
secret work. 

Dr. Muir sent me another passage : 

HI, 54, 5. dadrwre esham avam£ sadamsi pareshu yS. 
guhyeshu vrateshu. 

2. Vrata means what is fenced off or forbidden, what is 
determined, what is settled, and hence, like dharman, law, 
ordinance. Varayati means to prohibit. In this sense vrati 
occurs very frequently : 

I, 25, 1. yit £it hi te visdJi yatha pra deva varuwa vratdm, 
minlmisi dyavi-dyavi. 

Whatever law of thine we break, O Varuwa, day by day, 
men as we are. 

II, 8, 3. yasya vratam na mfyate. 
Whose law is not broken. 

III, 32, 8, indrasya karma su-kn'ta purtfwi vratffni devaA 
na minanti visve. 

The deeds of Indra are well done and many, all the gods 
do not break his laws, or do not injure his ordinances. 

II, 24, 12. vfrvam satyam maghavana yuv6A ft apaA £ana 
prd minanti vratam vam. 

All that is yours, O powerful gods, is true; even the 
waters do not break your law. 

II, 38, 7. nakiA asya tani vrata devasya savituA minanti. 

No one breaks these laws of this god Savitar. Cf. II, 


I, 92, 12. aminatl dafvyani vratSni. 

Not injuring the divine ordinances. Cf. 1, 124, 2. 

X, 12, 5. kit asya ati vratam £akrima. 

Which of his laws have we overstepped ? 


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VIII, 25, 16. tasya vratini anu vaA £aramasi. 

His ordinances we follow. 

X, 33, 9. nd devfinam ati vratam jata-atma £ani ^ivati. 

No one lives beyond the statute of the gods, even if he 
had a hundred lives. 

VII, 5, 4. taVa tri-dh£tu prcthivi uti dyauA vafovanara 
vratam agne sa£anta. 

The earth and the sky followed thy threefold law, O 
Agni Vaijvanara. 

VII, 87, 7. y£A mri/ayati ^akrushe £it agaA vaydm syama 
varuwe anaga^, anu vratani aditeA ridhintaJt. 

Let us be sinless before Varuwa, who is gracious even to 
him who has committed sin, performing the laws of Aditi ! 

II, 28, 8. nama£ purS te varuwa uta nunam uta aparam 
tuvi-^ita bravama, tv6 hi kam pdrvate na jrit£ni apra- 
£yutani duA-dabha vratini. 

Formerly, and now, and also in future let us give praise 
to thee, O Varuwa ; for in thee, O unconquerable, all laws 
are grounded, immovable as on a rock. 

A very frequent expression is anu vratam, according to 
the command of a god, II, 38, 3 ; 6 ; VIII, 40, 8 ; or simply 
anu vratam, according to law and order : 

I, 136, 5. tarn aryamfi abhf rakshati nr^u-yantam Anu 

Aryaman protects him who acts uprightly according 
to law. 

Cf. Ill, 61,1; IV, 13, 3 ;V, 69, 1. 

3. The laws or ordinances or institutions of the gods are 
sometimes taken for the sacrifices which are supposed to be 
enjoined by the gods, and the performance of which is, in a 
certain sense, the performance of the divine will. 

I> 93> 8. yaA agmshoma havfsha saparya't devadrtta 
manasa yaA ghr*t£na, tasya vratam rakshatam patam im- 

He who worships Agni and Soma with oblations, with a 
godly mind, or with an offering, protect his sacrifice, shield 
him from evil ! 

I, 31, 2. tvam agne prathamaA angiraA-tamaA kavfA 
devanam pari bhushasi vratam. 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 12. 239 

Agni, the first and wisest of poets, thou performest the 
sacrifice of the gods. 

Ill, 3, 9. tasya vrat&ni bhuri-poshfoaA vayam upa bhu- 
shema dame & suvr*ktf-bhiA. 

Let us, who possess much wealth, perform with prayers 
the sacrifices of Agni within our house. 

In another acceptation the vratas of the gods are what 
they perform and establish themselves, their own deeds : 

III, 6, 5. vrata* te agne mahataA mahani tava kratva 
rodasl (fti) £ tatantha. 

The deeds of thee, the great Agni, are great, by thy 
power thou hast stretched out heaven and earth. 

¥111,42, 1. astabhnat dyam asuraA vLrva-vedaA amimita 
varimawam prithivy&A, ft asldat virva bhuvanani sam-ra/ 
vfjva ft tani varuwasya vratani. 

The wise spirit established the sky, and made the width 
of the earth, as king he approached all beings, — all these 
are the works of Varu«a. 

VI, 14, 3. tfirvantaA dasyum ayava£ vrataMs sflcshantaft 

Men fight the fiend, trying to overcome by their deeds 
him who performs no sacrifices ; or, the lawless enemy. 

Lastly; vrata comes to mean sway, power, or work, and 
the expression vrate tava signifies, at thy command, under 
thy auspices : 

I, 24, 15. atha vayam aditya vrate tava anagasaA aditaye 

Then, O Aditya, under thy auspices may we be guiltless 
before Aditi. 

VI, 54, 9. ptfshan tava vrate vayam na rishyema kada 

O Pushan, may we never fail under thy protection. 

X, 36, 13. ye savituA satya-savasya virve mitrasya vrate 
varuwasya devfiA. 

All the gods who are in the power of Savitar, Mitra, and 

V, 83, 5. yasya vrate prfthiv? namnamiti yasya vrate 
japha-vat ^arbhurlti, yasya vrate 6shadhi£ vi^vd-rupaA saA 
naJt par^anya mahi sirma. yakkha,. 


Digitized by 



At whose bidding the earth bows down, at whose bidding 
hoofed animals run about, at whose bidding the plants 
assume all shapes, mayest thou, O Paiyanya, yield us great 
protection I 

Vote 8. Datra, if derived from da, would mean gift, 
and that meaning is certainly the most applicable in some 
passages where it occurs : 

IX, 97, 55. asi bhagaA asi datrasya data". 
Thou art Bhaga, thou art the giver of the gift. 

In other passages, too, particularly in those where the 
verb da or some similar verb occurs in the same verse, it 
can hardly be doubted that the poet took datra, like datra 
or dattra, in the sense of gift, bounty, largess : 

1, 116, 6. yam arvina dadathuA jvetam ayvam — tat vam 
datram mahi ktrt^nyam bhfit. 

The white horse, O Arvins, which you gave, that your 
gift was great and to be praised. 

1. 1 $5> 3- aneha^ datram iditeA anarvam huve\ 

I call for the unrivalled, the uninjured bounty of Aditi. 

VII, 56, 21. ma" vaA datrat marutaA nUi arama. 
May we not fall away from your bounty, O Maruts I 
III, 54, 16. yuvam hi sthaA rayi-dau naA rayiwam ddtram 


For you, Nasatyas, are our givers of riches, you protect 
the gift 

VI, 20, 7. rt^irvane datram dlriishe daA. 

To Rigisvan, the giver, thou givest the gift. 

VIII, 43, 33. tit te sahasva tmahe datram yat na upa- 
dasyati, tvdt agne varyam vasu. 

We ask thee, strong hero, for the gift which does not 
perish ; we ask from thee the precious wealth. 

X, 69, 4. datram rakshasva yat idam te asme^ (fti). 
Protect this gift of thine which thou hast given to us. 
VIII, 44, 18. frishe vfiryasya hi datrasya agne svaA-pati^. 
For thou, O Agni, lord of heaven, art the master of the 

precious gift. Cf. IV, 38, 1. 

Professor Roth considers that datra is derived rather from 
da, to divide, and that it means share, lot, possession. But 
there is not a single passage where the meaning of gift or 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

NOTES. I, l66, 12. 241 

bounty does not answer all purposes. In VII, 56, 21, ma 
vaA datrfft marutaA n(// arama, is surely best translated by, 
' let us not fall away from your bounty,' and in our own 
passage the same meaning should be assigned to datra. 
The idea of datra, bounty, is by no means incompatible 
with vrata, realm, dominion, sway, if we consider that the 
sphere within which the bounty of a king or a god is 
exercised and accepted, is in one sense his realm. What 
the poet therefore says in our passage is simply this, that 
the bounty of the Maruts extends as far as the realm of 
Aditi, i. e. is endless, or extends everywhere, Aditi being in 
its original conception the deity of the unbounded world 
beyond, the earliest attempt at expressing the Infinite. 

As to d&tra occurring once with the accent on the first 
syllable in the sense of sickle, see M. M., ' Ober eine S telle 
in Yaska's Commentar zum NaighawAika,' Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 1853, vol. vii, 

P- 375- 

VIII, 78, 10. tava ft indra aham a-jasd haste d&ram £ana 
K dade. 

Trusting in thee alone, O Indra, I take the sickle in my 

This datra, sickle, is derived from do, to cut. 

Aditi, the Infinite. 

Note 4. Aditi, an ancient god or goddess, is in reality 
the earliest name invented to express the Infinite ; not the 
Infinite as the result of a long process of abstract reasoning, 
but the visible Infinite, visible, as it were, to the naked eye, 
the endless expanse beyond the earth, beyond the clouds, 
beyond the sky. That was called A-diti, the un-bound, 
the un-bounded ; one might almost say, but for fear of 
misunderstandings, the Absolute, for it is derived from 
diti, bond, and the negative particle, and meant therefore 
originally what is free from bonds of any kind, whether of 
space or time, free from physical weakness, free from moral 
guilt Such a conception became of necessity a being, a 
person, a god. To us such a name and such a conception 
seem decidedly modern, and to find in the Veda Aditi, the 

[32] R 

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Infinite, as the mother of the principal gods, is certainly, 
at first sight, startling. But the fact is that the thoughts 
of primitive humanity were not only different from our 
thoughts, but different also from what we think their 
thoughts ought to have been. The poets of the Veda 
indulged freely in theogonic speculations, without being 
frightened by any contradictions. They knew of Indra as 
the greatest of gods, they knew of Agni as the god of gods, 
they knew of Varuwa as the ruler of all, but they were by 
no means startled at the idea that their Indra had a mother, 
or that their Agni was born like a babe from the friction of 
two fire-sticks, or that Varu«a and his brother Mitra were 
nursed in the lap of Aditi. Some poet would take hold of 
the idea of an unbounded power, of Aditi, originally without 
any reference to other gods. Very soon these ideas met, 
and, without any misgivings, either the gods were made 
subordinate to, and represented as the sons of Aditi, or where 
Indra was to be praised as supreme, Aditi was represented 
as doing him homage. 

VIII, ia, 14. uta sva-ra^e aditi£ st6mam mdraya £^ nat - 

And Aditi produced a hymn for Indra, the king. 

Here Professor Roth takes Aditi as an epithet of Agni, 
not as the name of the goddess Aditi, while Dr. Muir rightly 
takes it in the latter sense, and likewise retains st6mam in- 
stead of s6mam, as printed by Professor Aufrecht Cf. 
VII, 38, 4. 

The idea of the Infinite, as I have tried to show else- 
where, was most powerfully impressed on the awakening 
mind, or, as we now say, was revealed, by the East*. f It 
is impossible to enter fully into all the thoughts and feelings 
that passed through the minds of the early poets when they 
formed names for that far, far East from whence even the 
early dawn, the sun, the day, their own life, seemed to 
spring. A new life flashed up every morning before their 
eyes, and the fresh breezes of the dawn reached them like 
greetings from the distant lands beyond the mountains, 
beyond the clouds, beyond the dawn, beyond " the immortal 

• Lectures on the Science of Language, Second Series, p. 499. 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 12. 243 

sea which brought us hither." The dawn seemed to them 
to open golden gates for the sun to pass in triumph, and 
while those gates were open, their eyes and their mind 
strove in their childish way to pierce beyond the limits 
of this finite world. That silent aspect awakened in the 
human mind the conception of the Infinite, the Immortal, 
the Divine.' Aditi is a name for that distant East, but 
Aditi is more than the dawn. Aditi is beyond the dawn, 
and in one place (1, 113, 19) the dawn is called 'the face of 
Aditi,' aditer antkam. Thus we read : 

V, 62, 8. hfra«ya-rupam ushasa£ vf-ush/au ayaA-sthu«am 
ut-ita stfryasya, £ rohath&i varuwa mitra gartam ataA 
£akshathe (fti) aditim dftim £a. 

Mitra and Varuwa, you mount your chariot, which is 
golden, when the dawn bursts forth, and has iron poles at 
the setting of the sun : from thence you see Aditi and Diti, 
i. e. what is yonder and what is here. 

If we keep this original conception of Aditi clearly before 
our mind, the various forms which Aditi assumes, even in 
the hymns of the Veda, will not seem incoherent. Aditi is 
not a prominent deity in the Veda, she is celebrated rather 
in her sons, the Adityas, than in her own person. While 
there are so many hymns addressed to Ushas, the dawn, 
or Indra, or Agni, or Savitar, there is but one hymn, X, 72, 
which from our point of view", though not from that of Indian 
theologians, might be called a hymn to Aditi. Nevertheless 
Aditi is a familiar name ; a name of the past, whether in 
time or in thought only, and a name that lives on in the 
name of the Adityas, the sons of Aditi, including the prin- 
cipal deities of the Veda. 

Aditi and the Adityas. 
Thus we read : 

I, 107, 2. upa naA dev&A avasa £ gamantu angirasam 
sSma-bhiA stuyamanaA, mdra/* indriya/A marutaA marut- 
bhiA adityaf/* naA aditiA sArma. yawsat. 

May the gods come to us with their help, praised by the 
songs of the Angiras, — Indra with his powers, the Maruts with 
the storms, may Aditi with the Adityas give us protection I 

R 2 

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X, 66, 3. indraft vasu-bhi£ pari patu naA gayam adityafA 
naJt dditi/s jarma ya££Aatu, rudraA rudrebhiA devaA m«/a- 
yati naA tvash/a naA gnibhiA suvitaya/invatu. 

May Indra with the Vasus watch our house, may Aditi 
with the Adityas give us protection, may the divine Rudra 
with the Rudras have mercy upon us, may Tvash/ar with 
the mothers bring us to happiness! 

III, 54, 20. adityafA naA aditiA m'«otu yikkAa.nt\i naA 
marutaA jarma bhadram. 

May Aditi with the Adityas hear us, may the Maruts 
give us good protection! 

In another passage Varu«a takes the place of Aditi as 
the leader of the Adityas : 

VII, 35, 6. sim naJt mdraA vasu-bhiA devaA astu jam 
adity^bhiA varuwaA SMrsimsaJi, jam na/* rudraA rudrebhiA 
^•alashaA jam na/t tvash/a gnSbhiA iha srmotoi. 

May Indra bless us, the god with the Vasus ! May Varuwa, 
the glorious, bless us with the Adityas ! May the relieving 
Rudra with the Rudras bless us ! May Tvash/ar with the 
mothers kindly hear us here ! 

Even in passages where the poet seems to profess an 
exclusive worship of Aditi, as in 

V, 69, 3. prataA devim aditim ^ohavimi madhyandine 
ut-ita suryasya, 

I invoke the divine Aditi early in the morning, at noon, 
and at the setting of the sun, 

Mitra and Varuwa, her principal sons, are mentioned imme- 
diately after, and implored, like her, to bestow blessings on 
their worshipper. 

Her exclusive worship appears once, in VIII, 19, 14. 

A very frequent expression 1*9 that of adity&fc aditiA 
without any copula, to signify the Adityas and Aditi : 

IV, 25, 3. kaA devanam avaA adya vrintte kaA adityan 
aditim gy6\\h \tte. 

Who does choose now the protection of the gods? Who 
asks the Adityas, Aditi, for their light ? 

VI, 51, 5. vfjve adityaA adite sa-goshaA asmabhyam 
jarma bahulam vl yanta. 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 12. 245 

All ye Adityas, Aditi together, grant to us your manifold 
protection I 

X, 39, 11. na tarn ra/anau adite kuta/t £ana na imhaA 
amoti duA-itam nikiA bhayam. 

ye two kings (the Arvins), Aditi, no evil reaches him 
from anywhere, no misfortune, no fear (whom you protect). 
Cf. VII, 66, 6. 

X, 6$, 5. tan £ vivasa namasa suvr/ktf-bhLfc mahiA adityan 
aditim svastaye. 

1 cherish them with worship and with hymns, the great 
Adityas, Aditi, for happiness' sake. 

X, 63, 17. eva plated sunuA avivralhat vdJt visve aditya/; 
adite mantshf. 

The wise son of Plati magnified you, all ye Adityas, Aditi ! 

X, 65, 9. paiyanyavffta vmhabhfi purishtea indravayfl (fti) 
varu«aA mitral aryamK, dev^n aditySn aditim havamahe y6 
pfirthivasaA divyfisaA ap-su yL 

There are Paiyanya and Vata, the powerful, the givers of 
rain, Indra and Vayu, Varuwa, Mitra, Aryaman, we call the 
divine Adityas, Aditi, those who dwell on the earth, in 
heaven, in the waters. 

We may not be justified in saying that there ever was a 
period in the history of the religious thought of India, 
a period preceding the worship of the Adityas, when Aditi, 
the Infinite, was worshipped, though to the sage who first 
coined this name, it expressed, no doubt, for a time the 
principal, if not the only object of his faith and worship. 

Aditi and Daksha. 

Soon, however, the same mental process which led on 
later speculators from the earth to the elephant, and from 
the elephant to the tortoise, led the Vedic poets beyond 
Aditi, the Infinite. There was something beyond that 
Infinite which for a time they had grasped by the name 
of Aditi, and this, whether intentionally or by a mere 
accident of language, they called daksha, literally power 
or the powerful. All this, no doubt, sounds strikingly 
modern, yet, though the passages in which this daksha 
is mentioned are few in number, I should not venture to 

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say that they are necessarily modern, even if by modern we 
mean only later than 1000 B. c. Nothing can bring the 
perplexity of the ancient mind, if once drawn into this vortex 
of speculation, more clearly before us than if we read : 

X, 7a, 4-5. aditeA dakshaA a^ayata dakshat u»* (fti) 
aditiA pari, — aditiA hf a^anish/a daksha yS. duhita tdva, tam 
devSA anu a^ayanta bhadra/; amWta-bandhavaA. 

Daksha was born of Aditi, and Aditi from Daksha. For 
Aditi was born, O Daksha, she who is thy daughter; after her 
the gods were born, the blessed, who share in immortality. 

Or, in more mythological language : 

X, 64, 5. dakshasya va adite^anmani vrat£ ra^ana mitrs*- 
varu«a £ vivasasi. 

Or thou, O Aditi, nursest in the birthplace of Daksha the 
two kings, Mitra and Varuwa. 

Nay, even this does not suffice. There is something again 
beyond Aditi and Daksha, and one poet says : 

X, 5, 7. asat ka. sat kz param£ vf-oman dakshasya ^anman 
aditeA upa-sthe. 

Not-being and Being are in the highest heaven, in the 
birthplace of Daksha, in the lap of Aditi. 

At last something like a theogony, though full of contra- 
dictions, was imagined, and in the same hymn from which 
we have already quoted, the poet says : 

X, 7 2 , 1-4. devanam nti vayam^-ana pra vo£ama vipanyaya, 
uktheshu jasyamaneshu yih (yat ?) paxyat ut-tare yuge\ 1 . 

brahma»aA patiA eta" sam karmftraA-iva adhamat, devanam 
purvy£ yuge AsaiaJi sat a^ayata. a. 

devanam yuge prathame asataA sat a^ayata, tat &sSJt anu 
a^ayanta tat uttana-padaA pari. 3. 

bhffA gagne uttana-padaA bhuvaA aVaA aj-ayanta, aditeA 
daksha// a^ayata, dakshat ixm (fti) aditi/* pari. 4. 

1. Let us now with praise proclaim the births of the 
gods, that a man may see them in a future age, whenever 
these hymns are sung. 

a. Brahmawaspati * blew them together like a smith (with 

a Brahmawaspati, literally the lord of prayer, or the lord of the 
sacrifice, sometimes a representative of Agni (I, 38, 13, note), but 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 12. 247 

his bellows) ; in a former age of the gods, Being was born 
from Not-being. 

3. In the first age of the gods, Being was born from 
Not-being, after it were born the Regions (space), from them 
Uttanapada ; 

4. From Uttanapad the Earth was born, the Regions 
were born from the Earth. Daksha was born of Aditi, and 
Aditi from Daksha. 

The ideas of Being and Not-being (rb Sv and rb pq 6») 
are familiar to the Hindus from a very early time in their 
intellectual growth, and they can only have been the result 
of abstract speculation. Therefore daksha, too, in the 
sense of power or potent ia, may have been a metaphysical 
conception. But it may also have been suggested by a 
mere accident of language, a never-failing source of ancient 
thoughts. The name daksha-pitaraA, an epithet of the gods, 
has generally been translated by ' those who have Daksha 
for their father.' But it may have been used originally in 
a very different sense. Professor Roth has, I think, con- 
vincingly proved that this epithet daksha-pitar, as given to 
certain gods, does not mean, the gods who have Daksha 
for their father, but that it had originally the simpler 
meaning of fathers of strength, or, as he translates it, 
'preserving, possessing, granting faculties*.' This is par- 
ticularly clear in one passage : 

111,27,9. bhutanam garbham & dadhe, dakshasya pitaram. 

I place Agni, the source of all beings, the father of 

by no means identical with him (see VII, 41, 1); sometimes per- 
forming the deeds of Indra, but again by no means identical with 
him (see II, 23, 18. fndrewa yug& — nih apam aub^aA arwavam ; cf. 
VIII, 96, 15). In II, 26, 3, he is called father of the gods (deva'nam 
pitaram); in II, 23, 2, the creator of all beings (vfrvesham ^-anita'). 
* The accent in this case cannot help us in determining whether 
daksha-pitar means having Daksha for their father (Ao«pojrarwp), or 
father of strength. In the first case daksha would rightly retain 
its accent (daksha-pitar) as a Bahuvrihi ; in the second, the analogy 
of such Tatpurusha compounds as griha-pati (P&». VI, 2, 18) 
would be sufficient to justify the purvapadaprakntisvaratvam. 

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After this we can hardly hesitate how to translate the 
next verse : 

VI, 50, 2. su-gy6tishaA — daksha-pitrfti — devan. 
The resplendent gods, the fathers of strength. 

It may seem more doubtful, when we come to gods like 
Mitra and Varuwa, whom we are so much accustomed to 
regard as Adityas, or sons of Aditi, and who therefore, 
according to the theogony mentioned before, would have 
the best claim to the name of sons of Daksha ; yet here, 
too, the original and simple meaning is preferable; nay, it 
is most likely that from passages like this, the later ex- 
planation, which makes Mitra and Varuwa the sons of 
Daksha, may have sprung. 

VII, 66, 2. y£— su-daksha daksha-pitara. 

Mitra and Varuwa, who are of good strength, the fathers 
of strength. 

Lastly, even men may claim this name ; for, unless we 
change the accent, we must translate : 

VIII, 63, 10. avasyavaA yushm&bhiA daksha-pitara^. 
We suppliants, being, through your aid, fathers of 


But whatever view we take, whether we take daksha in 
the sense of power, as a personification of a philosophical 
conception, or as the result of a mythological misunder- 
standing occasioned by the name of daksha-pitar, the fact 
remains that in certain hymns of the Rig-veda (VIII, 25, 5) 
Daksha, like Aditi, has become a divine person, and has 
retained his place as one of the Adityas to the very latest 
time of Purawic tradition. 

Aditi in her Cosmic Character. 

But to return to Aditi. Let us look upon her as the 
Infinite personified, and most passages, even those where 
she is presented as a subordinate deity, will become 

Aditi, in her cosmic character, is the Beyond, the un- 
bounded realm beyond earth, sky, and heaven, and origin- 
ally she was distinct from the sky, the earth, and the ocean. 
Aditi is mentioned by the side of heaven and earth, which 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 12. 249 

shows that, though in more general language she may be 
identified with heaven and earth in their unlimited character, 
her original conception was different. This we see in pas- 
sages where different deities or powers are invoked together, 
particularly if they are invoked together in the same verse, 
and where Aditi holds a separate place by the side of heaven 
and earth : 

I, 94, 16 (final), tit naA mitraA v&runaA mamahantam 
dditLfc sindhuA prethiv" uta dy&uA. 

May Mitra and Varuwa grant us this, may Aditi, Sindhu 
(sea), the Earth, and the Sky ! 

In other passages, too, where Aditi has assumed a more 
personal character, she still holds her own by the side of 
heaven and earth ; cf. IX, 97, 58 (final) : 

I, 191, 6. dyau^ vaA pita* prithlvi mAtfi s6maA bhrSta 
aditi^ svasa. 

The Sky is your father, the Earth your mother, Soma 
your brother, Aditi your sister. 

VIII, 101, 15. matS rudranam duhitfi vasunam svasl 
adityanam amr/tasya nibhi/t, pri nu vo£am itikitiishe^anaya 
m& gam dnagam aditim vadhish/a. 

The mother of the Rudras, the daughter of the Vasus, 
the sister of the Adityas, the source of immortality, I tell 
it forth to the man of understanding, may he not offend the 
cow, the guiltless Aditi ! Cf. 1, 153, 3 ; IX, 96, 15 ; Va^-asan. 

VI, 51, 5. dyzuA pftar (fti) pr/thivi m&taJt adhruk agne 
bhr&taA vasavaA mril&ta. roJt, visve aditya^ adite sa-f6shaA 
asmabhyam .yarma bahulam vi yanta. 

Sky, father, Earth, kind mother, Fire, brother, bright 
gods, have mercy upon us I All Adityas (and) Aditi 
together, grant us your manifold protection I 

X, 63, 10. su-trfima«am prrthivfm dyfim anehasam su- 
jarmiwam dditim su-pranitim, dafvim naVam su-aritram 
anagasam asravantim & ruhema svastaye. 

Let us for welfare step into the divine boat, with good 
oars, faultless and leakless — the well-protecting Earth, the 
peerless Sky, the sheltering, well-guiding Aditi I 

X, 66, 4. aditiA dyavapr/'thivf (fti). 


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Aditi, and Heaven and Earth. 

Where two or more verses come together, the fact that 
Aditi is mentioned by the side of Heaven and Earth may 
seem less convincing, because in these Nivids or long strings 
of invocations different names or representatives of one and 
the same power are not unfrequently put together. For 

X, 36, 1-3. ushasanakta brjhati (fti) su-pejasa dyava- 
kshfimi varuwaA mitral aryamfi, mdram huve marutaA 
parvatan apaA adityan dyavapr/thivi (fti) apaA svar (fti 
sv&A). 1. 

dyaiiA ka. nzJt przthivi ka. pra-£etasa r/tavari (fty rita- 
vari) rakshatam imhasaA rishaA, mS duA-vidatra aiA-ritiA 
xaJi trata tat devanam avaA adya wurtmahe. a. 

vlrvasmat naA aditiA patu awhasa/4 mata mitrasya varu- 
wasya revataA svSA-vat gy6\ih avr/kam narimahi. 3. 

1. There are the grand and beautiful Morning and Night, 
Heaven and Earth, Varuwa, Mitra, Aryaman ; I call Indra, 
the Maruts, the Waters, the Adityas, Heaven and Earth, 
the Waters, the Heaven. 

2. May Heaven and Earth, the provident, the righteous, 
preserve us from sin and mischief 1 May the malevolent 
Nirrtti not rule over us I This blessing of the gods we 
ask for to-day. 

3. May Aditi protect us from all sin, the. mother of 
Mitra and of the rich Varu«a ! May we obtain heavenly 
light without enemies I This blessing of the gods we ask 
for to-day. 

Here we cannot but admit that Dyavakshama, heaven and 
earth, is meant for the same divine couple as Dyavaprjthivi, 
heaven and earth, although under slightly differing names 
they are invoked separately. The waters are invoked twice 
in the same verse and under the same name ; nor is there 
any indication that, as in other passages, the waters of 
the sky are meant as distinct from the waters of the sea. 
Nevertheless even here, Aditi, who in the third verse is 
called distinctly the mother of Mitra and Varuna, cannot 
well have been meant for the same deity as Heaven and 
Earth, mentioned in the second verse; and the author of 

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NOTES. I, 166, 12. 251 

these two verses, while asking the same blessing from both, 
must have been aware of the original independent character 
of Aditi. 

Aditi as Mother. 

In this character of a deity of the far East, of an Orient 
in the true sense of the word, Aditi was naturally thought 
of as the mother of certain gods, particularly of those that 
were connected with the daily rising and setting of the sun. 
If it was asked whence comes the dawn, or the sun, or 
whence come day and night, or Mitra and Varu«a, or any of 
the bright, solar, eastern deities, the natural answer was that 
they come from the Orient, that they are the sons of Aditi. 
Thus we read in 

IX, 74, 3. urvf gavyutiA aditeA rtt&m yate. 

Wide is the space for him who goes on the right path 
of Aditi. 

In VIII, 25, 3, we are told that Aditi bore Mitra and 
Varu«a, and these in verse 5 are called the sons of Daksha 
(power), and the grandsons of .Savas, which again means 
might : napata favasa/* maha^ sunfl (fti) dakshasya su-kratu 
(fti). In X, 36, 3, Aditi is called the mother of Mitra and 
Varuwa; likewise in X, 132, 6; see also VI, 67, 4. In 
VIII, 47, 9, Aditi is called the mother of Mitra, Aryaman, 
Varuwa, who in VII, 60, 5 are called her sons. In X, 1 1, 1, 
Varuwa is called yahvaA aditofc, the son of Aditi (cf. VIII, 
19, 12) ; in VII, 41, 2, Bhaga is mentioned as her son. In 
X, 72, 8, we hear of eight sons of Aditi, but it is added that 
she approached the gods with seven sons only, and that 
the eighth (martaWa, addled egg) was thrown away : ash/au 
putrasa^ aditeA ye" gkt&h tanv&fc pari, devan upa pra ait 
sapta-bhiA para mkrtkndim asyat. 

In X, 63, 2, the gods in general are represented as born 
from Aditi, the waters, and the earth: ye stha^ataV/ aditeA 
at-bhyaA pari ye pr/thivya^ te me iha jruta havam. 

You who are born of Aditi, from the water, you who are 
born of the earth, hear ye all my call I 

The number seven, with regard to the Adityas, occurs 
also in 


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IX, 114, 3. saptd disaA nana-suryaA sapta h6tara/j 
ritvigaJi, dev&A adity&& ye" sapta t£bhL4 soma abhf raksha 

There are seven regions with their different suns, there 
are seven Hotars as priests, those who are the seven gods, 
the Adityas, with them, O Soma, protect us ! 

The Seven Adityas. 

This number of seven Adityas requires an explanation. 
To say that seven is a solemn or sacred number is to say 
very little, for however solemn or sacred that number may 
be elsewhere, it is not more sacred than any other number 
in the Veda. The often-mentioned seven rivers have a real 
geographical foundation, like the seven hills of Rome. The 
seven flames or treasures of Agni (V, 1, 5) and of Soma and 
Rudra (VI, 74, 1), the seven paridhis or logs at certain 
sacrifices (X, 90, 15), the seven Harits or horses of the sun, 
the seven Hotar priests (III, 7, 7 ; 10, 4), the seven cities 
of the enemy destroyed by Indra (I, 63, 7), and even 
the seven .fo'shis (X, 82, 2 ; 109, 4), all these do not prove 
that the number of seven was more sacred than the number 
of one or three or five or ten used in the Veda in a very 
similar way. With regard to the seven Adityas, however, 
we are still able to see that their number of seven or 
eight had something to do with solar movements. If their 
number had always been eight, we should feel inclined to 
trace the number of the Adityas back to the eight regions, 
or the eight cardinal points of the heaven. Thus we read : 

1, 35. 8. ash/au vi akhyat kakubhaA pritbivySik. 

The god Savitar lighted up the eight points of the earth 
(not the eight hills). 

But we have seen already that though the number of 
Adityas was originally supposed to have been eight, it was 
reduced to seven, and this could hardly be said in any 
sense of the eight points of the compass. Cf. Taitt. Ar. 
I, 7, 6. 

As we cannot think in ancient India of the seven planets, 
I can only suggest the seven days or tithis of the four 
parvans of the lunar month as a possible prototype of the 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 12. .253 

Adityas. This might even explain the destruction of the 
eighth Aditya, considering that the eighth day of each 
parvan, owing to its uncertainty, might be represented as 
exposed to decay and destruction. This would explain 
such passages as, 

IV, 7, 5. yaj-ishAfcam sapta dhSma-bhi^. 

Agni, most worthy of sacrifice in the seven stations. 

IX, 102, 2. ya^wasya sapta dhama-bhi£. 
In the seven stations of the sacrifice. 

The seven threads of the sacrifice may have the same 
origin : 

II, 5, 2. a yasmin sapta rarmaya^ tatSA y^vJasya netari, 
manushvat dafvyam ash/amam. 

In whom, as the leader of the sacrifice, the seven threads 
are stretched out, — the eighth divine being is manlike (?). 

The sacrifice itself is called, X, 124, 1, sapta-tantu, having 
seven threads. 

X, 122, 3. sapta dha"mani pari-yan amartyaA. 

Agni, the immortal, who goes round the seven stations. 

X, 8, 4. ushaA-ushaA hf vaso (fti) agram £shi tvam yama- 
yoA abhava/« vi-bh£va,n't£ya sapta dadhishe padani^anayan 
mitram tanve svSyai. 

For thou, Vasu (Agni), comest "first every morning, thou 
art the illuminator of the twins (day and night). Thou 
holdest the seven places for the sacrifice, creating Mitra (the 
sun) for thy own body. 

X, 5, 6. sapta maryada// kaviyaA tatakshu^ tasam &am 
ft abhf amhur&A gat. 

The sages established the seven divisions, but mischief 
befell one of them. 

1, 22, 16. ata^ devaA avantu naA yktaJi vishnuA vi-£akram£ 
prithivyO/i sapta dhfeia-bhi^. 

May the gods protect us from whence Vish«u strode 
forth, by the seven stations of the earth ! 

Even the names of the seven or eight Adityas are not 
definitely known, at least not from the hymns of the Rig- 
veda. In II, 27, 1, we have a list of six names: Mitra, 
Aryaman, Bhaga, Varu«a, Daksha, AmsaA. These with 
Aditi would give us seven. In VI, 50, 1, we have Aditi, 

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Varuwa, Mitra, Agnf, Aryaman, Savitar, and Bhaga. In 
I, 89, 3, Bhaga, Mitra, Aditi, Daksha, Aryaman, Varuwa, 
S6ma, Arvfna, and Sarasvatl are invoked together with an 
old invocation, purvaya ni-vfda. In the Taittiriya-arawyaka, 
I» J 3> 3> we find the following list : 1. Mitra, 2. Varuwa, 
3. Dhatar, 4. Aryaman, 5. Amsa, 6. Bhaga, 7. Indra, 
8. Vivasvat, but there, too, the eighth son is said to be 
Marta«</a, or, according to the commentator, Aditya. 

The character of Aditi as the mother of certain gods is 
also indicated by some of her epithets, such as ra^a-putra, 
having kings for her sons ; su-putra*, having good sons ; 
ugra-putra, having terrible sons : 

II, 27, 7. pfpartu naA aditiA ra^a-putra ati dv^shawsi 
aryama* su-g^bhiA, brjhat mitrasya varu«asya sirma. upa 
syama puru-viraA irishtkA. 

May Aditi with her royal sons, may Aryaman carry us 
on easy roads across the hatreds ; may we with many sons 
and without hurt obtain the great protection of Mitra and 
Varu«a 1 

III, 4, 11. barhfA naA astam aditiA su-putrif. 

May Aditi with her excellent sons sit on our sacred pile I 
VIII, 67, 11. parshi din£ gabhire a ugra-putre gigh&m- 
sataA, mSkiA tokasya naJt rishat. 

Protect us, O goddess with terrible sons, from the enemy 
in shallow or deep water, and no one will hurt our off- 
spring ! 

Aditi identified with other Deities. 

Aditi, however, for the very reason that she was origin- 
ally intended for the Infinite, for something beyond the 
visible world, was liable to be identified with a number of 
finite deities which might all be represented as resting on 
Aditi, as participating in Aditi, as being Aditi. Thus we 

I, 89, 10 (final), iditi/t dyaiiA aditi h antariksham aditi/* 
mata saA pitS saA putrid, visve devSA aditi& pinka. ^anaA 
aditi h ^atam aditiA ^ani-tvam. 

Aditi is the heaven, Aditi the sky, Aditi the mother, the 

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NOTES, I, 1 66, 12. 255 

father, the son. All the gods are Aditi, the five clans, the 
past is Aditi, Aditi is the future. 

But although Aditi may thus be said to be everything, 
heaven, sky, and all the gods, no passage occurs, in the 
Rig-veda at least, where the special meaning of heaven or 
earth is expressed by Aditi. In X, 63, 3, where Aditi 
seems to mean sky, we shall see that it ought to be taken 
as a masculine, either in the sense of Aditya, or as an 
epithet, unbounded, immortal. In 1, 72, 9, we ought probably 
to read pr*thvf and pronounce pr/thuvf, and translate ' the 
wide Aditi, the mother with her sons ; ' and not, as Benfey 
does, ' the Earth, the eternal mother.' 

It is more difficult to determine whether in one passage 
Aditi has not been used in the sense of life after life, or as 
the name of the place whither people went after death, or 
of the deity presiding over that place. In a well-known 
hymn, supposed to have been uttered by Sun&Asepa. when 
on the point of being sacrificed by his own father, the 
following verse occurs : 

I, 24, 1. Vkh naJt mahyaf aditaye punaA dat, pitaram ka. 
droeyam mataram ka. 

Who will give us back to the great Aditi, that I may see 
father and mother ? 

As the supposed utterer of this hymn is still among the 
living, Aditi can hardly be taken in the sense of earth, nor 
would the wish to see father and mother be intelligible in 
the mouth of one who is going to be sacrificed by his own 
father. If we discard the story of SunaJtsepa, and take the 
hymn as uttered by any poet who craves for the protection 
of the gods in the presence of danger and death, then we 
may choose between the two meanings of earth or liberty, 
and translate, either, Who will give us back to the great 
earth? or, Who will restore us to the great Aditi, the 
goddess of freedom? 

Aditi and Diti. 

There is one other passage which might receive light if 
we could take Aditi in the sense of Hades, but I give this 
translation as a mere guess : 


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IV, a, 11. ray£ ka oaJt su-apatyaya deva dftim ka. rasva 
aditim urushya. 

That we may enjoy our wealth and healthy offspring, give 
us this life on earth, keep off the life to come ! Cf. 1, 152, 6. 

It should be borne in mind that Diti occurs in the Rig- 
veda thrice only, and in one passage it should, I believe, be 
changed into Aditi. This passage occurs in VII, 15, 12. 
tvam agne vira-vat y&saA devdA ka savitS bhdgaA, dftiA ka. 
diti varyam. Here the name of Diti is so unusual, and 
that of Aditi, on the contrary, so natural, that I have little 
doubt that the poet had put the name of Aditi ; and that 
later reciters, not aware of the occasional license of putting 
two short syllables instead of one, changed it into Aditi. 
If we remove this passage, then Diti, in the Rig-veda at 
least, occurs twice only, and each time together or in con- 
trast with Aditi ; cf. V, 62, 8, page 243. I have no doubt, 
therefore, that Professor Roth is right when he says that 
Diti is a being without any definite conception, a mere 
reflex of Aditi. We can clearly watch her first emergence 
into existence through what is hardly more than a play of 
words, whereas in the epic and Purawic literature this Diti 
(like the Suras) has grown into a definite person, one of the 
daughters of Daksha, the wife of Kajyapa, the mother of 
the enemies of the gods, the Daityas. Such is the growth 
of legend, mythology and religion t 

Aditi in her Moral Character. 

Besides the cosmical character of Aditi, which we have 
hitherto examined, this goddess has also assumed a very 
prominent moral character. Aditi, like Varu«a, delivers 
from sin. Why this should be so, we can still understand 
if we watch the transition which led from a purely cosmical 
to a moral conception of Aditi. Sin in the Veda is frequently 
conceived as a bond or a chain from which the repentant 
sinner wishes to be freed : 

VII, 86, 5. ava drugdhani pi'trya sriga. nak ava y& vayam 
kakrimi tanubhi/z, ava ra^an paru-Wpam na tayiim sr^a 
vatsam na damna^ vasish/Aam. 

Absolve us from the sins of our fathers, and from those 

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which we have committed with our own bodies. Release 
Vasish//4a, O king, like a thief who has feasted on stolen 
cattle ; release him like a calf from the rope *. 

VIII, 67, 14. te naA asnaA vr/ka«am idityisaJt mum6£ata 
stenam baddham-iva adite. 

O Adityas, deliver us from the mouth of the wolves, like 
a bound thief, O Aditi I Cf. VIII, 67, 18. 

5unaAjepa, who, as we saw before, wishes to be restored 
to the great Aditi, is represented as bound (dita) by ropes, 
and in V, a, 7, we read : 

suna.k-s6p&m £it nf-ditam sahasrat yffpat amu££a£ aja- 
mish/a hi saA, eva asmat agne vf mumugdhi pajan h6tar (fti) 
kikitvaJt iha tu ni-sadya. 

Agni, thou hast released the bound SunaAsepa from 
the stake, for he had prayed ; thus take from us, too, these 
ropes, O sagacious Hotar, after thou hast settled here. 

Expressions like these, words like da*man, bond, nf-dita, 
bound, naturally suggested a-diti, the un-bound or un- 
bounded, as one of those deities who could best remove 
the bonds of sin or misery. If we once realise this con- 
catenation of thought and language, many passages of the 
Veda that seemed obscure, will become intelligible. 

VII, 51,1. aditySnam avasa nutancna sakshtmahi jarmawa 
jam-tamena, anagaA-tvd aditi-tve* turtfsaA imam ya^am 
dadhatu jr6shamd«aA. 

May we obtain the new favour of the Adityas, their best 
protection ; may the quick Maruts listen and place this 
sacrifice in guiltlessness and Aditi-hood. 

1 have translated the last words literally, in order to 
make their meaning quite clear. Agas has the same 
meaning as the Greek iyot, guilt, abomination; an-agas- 
tva, therefore, as applied to a sacrifice or to the man who 
makes it, means guiltlessness, purity. Aditi-tvd, Aditi-hood, 
has a similar meaning, it means freedom from bonds, from 
anything that hinders the proper performance of a religious 
act ; it may come to mean perfection or holiness. 

* See M. M., History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 2nd ed., 
P- 54i. 

[3*] S 

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Aditi having once been conceived as granting this adititva, 
soon assumed a very definite moral character, and hence the 
following invocations ; 

I, 24, 15. lit ut-tamam varuwa pfuam asmat ava adhamam 
vf madhyamam irathaya, atha vayam aditya vrate" tava 
anagasaA aditaye syama. 

O Varuwa, lift the highest rope, draw off the lowest, 
remove the middle; then, O Aditya, let us be in thy 
service free of guilt before Aditi. 

V, 8a, 6. anagasaA aditaye devasya savituA sav£, vkva 
vamani dhimahi. 

May we, guiltless before Aditi, and in the keeping of the 
god Savitar, obtain all goods I Professor Roth here trans- 
lates Aditi by freedom or security. \ 

I, 162, 22. anagaA-tvam naA aditiA krinotu. 

May Aditi give us sinlessness I Cf. VII, 51,1. 

IV, 13, 4. yat £it hi te purusha-trfi y&vishtfa. a£itti-bhL& 
kakrimi kat £it agaA, lcr/dhf sii asmlfn aditeA anagan vf 
6o&msi sisrathaA vfshvak agne. 

Whatever, O youthful god, we have committed against 
thee, men as we are, whatever sin through thoughtlessness, 
make us guiltless of Aditi, loosen the sins on all sides, O 

VII, 93, 7. saA agne ena namasa sam-iddha^ ikkfa. mitram 
varu«am fndram vokeA, yat sim figaA £akmna tat su mrila. 
tat aryama aditiA jisrathantu. 

O Agni, thou who hast been kindled with this adoration, 
greet Mitra, Varu«a, and Indra. Whatever sin we have com- 
mitted, do thou pardon it 1 May Aryaman, Aditi loose it I 

Here the plural jvrathantu should be observed, instead 
of the dual. 

VIII, 18, 6-7. aditiA Toh dfva parum aditiA naktam adva- 
ykh, aditi/? patu awhasaA sad£-wzdha. 

uta sy& aaJt dfva matf/4 dditiA utya" & gamat, sa jam-tati 
mayaA karat apa srfdhaA. 

May Aditi by day protect our cattle, may she, who never 
deceives, protect by night ; may she, with steady increase, 
protect us from evil I 

And may she, the thoughtful Aditi, come with help to 

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NOTES. I, l66, 12. 259 

us by day; may she kindly bring happiness to us, and carry 
away all enemies 1 Cf. X, 36, 3, page 251. 

X, 87, 18. & vrw£yantam iditaye duA-eviA. 

May the evil-doers be cut off from Aditi ! or literally, 
may they be rooted out before Aditi ! 

II, 27, 14. adite mftra viruwa uta mrtla. yat vaA vayam 
kakrimi kit £it £ga£, urd aryam abhayam gy6tih indra mfi 
na^ dfrghfi^ abhf naran timisraA. 

Aditi, Mitra, and also Varu«a forgive, if we have com- 
mitted any sin against you. May I obtain the wide and 
fearless light, O Indra 1 May not the long darkness 
reach us! 

VII, 87, 7. yih mri/iyiti £akrushe kit ftgaA vayam syima 
vamwe inigi&, anu vratani aditeA ndhantaA yuyam pita 
svastf-bhiA sidi rxaJt. 

May we be sinless before Varu«a, who is gracious even to 
him who has committed sin, and may we follow the laws of 
Aditi J Protect us always with your blessings I 

Lastly, Aditi, like all other gods, is represented as a giver 
of worldly goods, and implored to bestow them on her 
worshippers, or to protect them by her power : 

I, 43, a. yithi n&k aditiA kirat pirve nr^-bhyaA yithi 
give, yithi tokiya rudrfyam. 

That Aditi may bring Rudra's favour to our cattle, our 
men, our cow, our offspring. 

1, 153, 3. pipaya dheniiA iditL$ rzt&ya^iniya mitrivaruwi 

Aditi, the cow, gives food to the righteous man, O Mitra 
and Varu«a, who makes offerings to the gods. Cf. VIII, 
101, 15. 

I. I 85, 3. anehaA ditrim aditeA anarvim huve\ 

I call for the unrivalled, uninjured gift of Aditi. Here 
Professor Roth again assigns to Aditi the meaning of free- 
dom or security. 

VII, 40, a. d/desh/u dev* aditi// riknzk. 

May the divine Aditi assign wealth ! 

X, 100, 1. i sarvi-titim iditim vr*«imahe. 

We implore Aditi for health and wealth. 

I, 94, 15. yasmai tvim su-dravi«aA didira^ anigiA-tvim 

S 2 

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adite sarva-tata, yam bhadrdwa .savasi /fcodayasi pra^a-vata 
rldhasa tc" syama. 

To whom thou, possessor of good treasures, grantest 
guiltlessness, O Aditi, in health and wealth •, whom thou 
quickenest with precious strength and with riches in pro- 
geny, may we be they I Cf. II, 40, 6 ; IV, 2$, 5 ; X, 1 1, a. 

The principal epithets of Aditi have been mentioned in 
the passages quoted above, and they throw no further light 
on the nature of the goddess. She was called devl, god- 
dess, again and again ; another frequent epithet is anarvan, 
uninjured, unscathed. Being invoked to grant light (VII, 8a, 
10), she is herself called luminous, £y6tishmati, 1, 136, 3; 
and svSrvati, heavenly. Being the goddess of the infinite 
expanse, she, even with greater right than the dawn, is 
called uru£l, VIII, 67, ia; uruvya£as, V, 46, 6; uruvra^a, 
VIII, 67, 1 a ; and possibly prtthvi in I, 7a, 9. As support- 
ing everything, she is called dharayatkshiti, supporting the 
earth, I, 136, 3 ; and vLrva^anya, VII, 10, 4. To her sons 
she owes the names of ra^aputra, II, 27, 7 ; suputrfi, III, 4, 
1 1 ; and ugraputra, VIII, 67, 1 1 : to her wealth that of 
sudravmas, I, 94, 15, though others refer this epithet to 
Agni. There remains one name pastya, IV, 55, 3 ; VIII, 
37, 5, meaning housewife, which again indicates her character 
as mother of the gods. 

I have thus given all the evidence that can be collected 
from the Rig-veda as throwing light on the character of the 
goddess Aditi, and I have carefully excluded everything 
that rests only on the authority of the Ya^-ur- or Atharva- 
vedas, or of the Brahmawas and Ara«yakas, because in all 
they give beyond the repetitions from the Rig-veda, they 
seem to me to represent a later phase of thought that ought 
not to be mixed up with the more primitive conceptions of 
the Rig-veda. Not that the Rig-veda is free from what 
seems decidedly modern, or at all events secondary and 
late. But it is well to keep the great collections, as such, 

a On sarvatati, sal us, see Benfey's excellent remarks in Orient 
und Occident, vol. ii, p. 519. Professor Roth takes aditi here as 
an epithet of Agni. 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 12. 26l 

separate, whatever our opinions may be as to the age of 
their component parts. 

In the Atharva-veda Aditi appears more unintelligible, 
more completely mythological, than in the Rig-veda. We 
read, for instance, Atharva-veda VII, 6, 1 : 

' Aditi is the sky, Aditi is the welkin, Aditi is mother, is 
father, is son ; all the gods are Aditi, and the five clans of 
men ; Aditi is what was, Aditi is what will be. 

•We invoke for our protection the great mother of the 
well-ruling gods, the wife of Rita, the powerful, never-aging, 
far-spreading, the sheltering, well-guiding Aditi.' 

In the Taittiriya-arawyaka and similar works the mytho- 
logical confusion becomes greater still. Much valuable mate- 
rial for an analytical study of Aditi may be found in B. and 
R.'s Dictionary, and in several of Dr. Muir*s excellent contri- 
butions to a knowledge ofVedic theogonyand mythology. 

Aditi as an Adjective. 

But although the foregoing remarks give as complete 
a description of Aditi as can be gathered from the hymns 
of the Rig-veda, a few words have to be added on certain 
passages where the word aditi occurs, and where it clearly 
cannot mean the goddess Aditi, as a feminine, but must be 
taken either as the name of a corresponding masculine 
deity, or as an adjective in the sense of unrestrained, 
independent, free. 

V, 59, 8. mfmatu dyaiiA aditiA vltaye naA. 

May the boundless Dyu (sky) help us to our repast ! 

Here aditi must either be taken in the sense of Aditya, 
or better in its original sense of unbounded, as an adjective 
belonging to Dyu, the masculine deity of the sky. 

Dyu or the sky is called dditi or unbounded in another 
passage, X, 63,3: 

yebhyaA matfi madhu-mat pfnvate payaA ptyusham dyauA 
aditiA adri-barhaA. 

The gods to whom their mother yields the sweet milk, 
and the unbounded sky, as firm as a rock, their food. 

IV, 3, 8. kathH jardhaya manitam rrtaya kathfi sure 
brihzti prikkkyim&na.A, prati brava/fc aditaye turaya. 

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How wilt thou tell it to the host of the Maruts, how to 
the bright heaven, when thou art asked ? How to the quick 

Here Aditi cannot be the goddess, partly on account of 
the masculine gender of turaya, partly because she is never 
called quick. Aditi must here be the name of one of the 
Adityas, or it may refer back to sur6 br*hate\ It can 
hardly be joined, as Professor Roth proposes, with jardhaya 
marutam, owing to the intervening sure brzhate\ 

In several passages aditi, as an epithet, refers to Agni : 

IV, i, ao (final), vfjvesham aditLi ya^tffyanam vfrvesham 
atithLfc manushatfam. 

He, Agni, the Aditi, or the freest, among all the gods ; 
he the guest among all men. 

The same play on the words aditi and atithi occurs again ; 

VII, 9, 3. amuraA kavfA aditiA vivasvan su-sawsat mitraA 
atithiA siv&A nah, /Htra-bhanuA ushasam bhati agre. 

The wise poet, Aditi, Vivasvat, Mitra with his good com- 
pany, our welcome guest, he (Agni) with brilliant light 
came at the head of the dawns. 

Here, though I admit that several renderings are pos- 
sible, Aditi is meant as a name of Agni, to whom the whole 
hymn is addressed, and who, as usual, is identified with 
other gods, or, at all events, invoked by their names. We 
may translate aditiA vivasvan by 'the brilliant Aditi,' or 
' the unchecked, the brilliant,' or by ' the boundless Vivasvat,' 
but on no account can we take aditi here as the female 
goddess. The same applies to VIII, 19, 14, where Aditi, 
unless we suppose the goddess brought in in the most 
abrupt way, must be taken as a name of Agni ; while in 
X, 9a, 14, aditim anarvawam, to judge from other epithets 
given in the same verse, has most likely to be taken again 
as an appellative of Agni. In some passages it would, no 
doubt, be possible to take Aditi as the name of a female 
deity, if it were certain that no other meaning could be 
assigned to this word. But if we once know that Aditi 
was the name of a male deity also, the structure of these 
passages becomes far more perfect, if we take Aditi in that 
sense : 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 12. 263 

IV, 39, 3. anagasam tam aditi^ kr*»otu saA mitre»a 
vanmena sa.~g6sh.2Ji. 

May Aditi make him free from sin, he who is allied with 
Mitra and Varu«a. 

We have had several passages in which Aditi, the female 
deity, is represented as sa/osha^ or allied with other 
Adityas, but if siA is the right reading here, Aditi in this 
verse can only be the male deity. The pronoun sa cannot 
refer to tam. 

With regard to other passages, such as IX, 81, 5 ; VI, 
51, 3, and even some of those translated above in which 
Aditi has been taken as a female goddess, the question 
must be left open till further evidence can be obtained. 
There is only one more passage which has been often dis- • 
cussed, and where aditi was supposed to have the meaning 
of earth : 

VII, 18, 8. duA-adhyaA aditim srevayantaA a£etasa£ vi 
^■agribhre parushwim. 

Professor Roth in one of his earliest essays translated 
this line, ' The evil-disposed wished to dry the earth, the 
fools split the Parush«i,' and he supposed its meaning to 
have been that the enemies of Sudas swam across the 
Parushwi in order to attack Sudas. We might accept this 
translation, if it could be explained how by throwing them- 
selves into the river, the enemies made the earth dry, 
though even then there would remain this difficulty that, 
with the exception of one other doubtful passage, discussed 
before, aditi never means earth. We might possibly trans- 
late : ' The evil-disposed, the fools, laid dry and divided 
the boundless river Parushwt.' This would be a description 
of a stratagem very common in ancient warfare, viz. diverting 
the course of a river and laying its original bed dry by 
digging a new channel, and thus dividing the old river. 
This is also the sense accepted by Sayawa, who does not 
say that vigraha means dividing the waves of a river, as 
Professor Roth renders kulabhcda, but that it means 
dividing or cutting through its banks. In the Dictionary 
Professor Roth assigns to aditi in this passage the meaning 
of endless, inexhaustible. 


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Note 5. Nothing is more difficult in the interpretation of 
the Veda than to gain an accurate knowledge of the power 
of particles and conjunctions. The particle £ana, we are 
told, is used both affirmatively and negatively, a statement 
which shows better than anything else the uncertainty to 
which every translation of Vedic hymns is as yet exposed. 
It is perfectly true that in the text of the Rig-veda, as we 
now read it, £ana means both indeed and no. But this very 
fact shows that we ought to distinguish where the first 
collectors of the Vedic hymns have not distinguished, and 
that while in the former case we read £ana, we ought in the 
latter to read ka. na. 

I begin with those passages in which £ana is used 
emphatically, though originally it may have been a double 

I a. In negative sentences : 

1, 18, 7. yasmat riti na sidhyati yagn&h v'vpdJi-kitaJt £ana. 

Without whom the sacrifice does not succeed, not even 
that of the sage. 

V, 34, 5. na asunvata sa&ate pushyata £ana. 

He does not cling to a man who offers no libations, even 
though he be thriving. 

I, 24, 6. nahf te kshatram na sahaA na manyum vayaA 
£ana ami (fti) patayantaA apuA. 

For thy power, thy strength, thy anger even these birds 
which fly up, do not reach. Cf. 1, 100, 15. 

1, 155, 5. tr/tiyam asya n&V\h S. dadharshati vayaA £ana 
patayantaA patatrf«aA. 

This third step no one approaches, not even the winged 
birds which fly up. 

I, 55, 1. diva/; £it asya varimfi vf papratha, fndram nd 
mahna pr/thivi ka.n& prdti. 

The width of the heavens is stretched out, even the earth 
in her greatness is no match for Indra. 

I b. In positive sentences : 
VII, 32, 13. purvK £ana pra-sitayaA taranti tarn yih fndre 
kdrma«i bhuvat. 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, f,2. ' 265 

Even many snares pass him who is with Indra in his work. 

VIII, 2, 14. ukthdm £ana jasyamanam igok arlA £ £iketa, 
nd gayatram glyamanam. 

He (Indra) marks indeed a poor man's prayer that is 
recited, but not a hymn that is sung. (Doubtful.) 

VIII, 78, 10. tava ft indra ahdm a -.rasa haste datram £ana 
i dade. 

Hoping in thee alone, O Indra, I take even this sickle in 
my hand. 

I» 55t 5' ddha £ana jrat dadhati tvfshi-mate fndraya 
vdgram ni-ghanighnate vadham. 

Then indeed they believe in Indra, the majestic, when he 
hurls the bolt to strike. 

1, 152, 2. etdt £ana tvak vl £iketat esham. 

Does one of them understand even this ? 

IV, 18, 9. mamat £ana used in the same sense as 
mamat £it. 

1, 139, 2. dhibhfA £and mdnasa sv^bhiA akshd-bhiA. 

V, 41, 13. vdyaA k&ni su-bhvaA £ ava yanti. 

VII, 18, 9. ajiiA kaaii ft abhi-pitvdm^agama. 

VIII, 91, 3. & kzni tva £ikitsama>£ adhi £ana tvi nd 

We wish to know thee, indeed, but we cannot understand 

X, 49, 5. ahdm randhayam mr/gayam .mitdrvawe ydt ma 
dfihita vayuna £and anu-shak. 

VI, 26, 7. ahdm £and tdt surf-bhiA anaryam. 
May I also obtain this with the lords. 

Ic. Frequently £and occurs after interrogative pro- 
nouns, to which it imparts an indefinite meaning, and 
principally in negative sentences : 

I, 74, 7. nd y6h upabdfA Asvy&k srt'nvi rdthasya kdt £and, 
ydt agne ySsi dutySm. 

No sound of horses is heard, and no sound of the chariot, 
when thou, O Agni, goest on thy message. 

I, 81, 5. nd tvS-van indra kdA £and nd ^atdA nd /ani- 

No one is like thee, O Indra, no one has been born, no 
one will be ! 

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I, 84, ao. mfC te rffdha/wsi mS te utaya^ vaso (fti) asman 
kada £ana dabhan. 

May thy gifts, may thy help, O Vasu, never fail us! 

Many more passages might be given to illustrate the 
use of £ana or kis £ana and its derivatives in negative 

Cf.1,105, 3; 136,1; 139,5; II, 16, 3; 23,5; 28,6; III, 
36, 4 ; IV, 31, 9 ; V, 4a, 6 ; 82, 2 ; VI, 3, 2 ; ao, 4 ; 47, 1 » 
3; 48,17; 54, 95 59,4; 69,8; 75,16; VII, 32,1; 19; 
59> 3 J 8 *> 7 5 104, 3 5 VIII, 19, 6 ; 23, 15 ; 24, 15 ; 28, 4 ; 
47, 7 5 64, 2 ; 66, 13 ; 68,19; IX, 61, 27 ; 69,6; 114,4; 
x >33> 95 39, "5 48,5; 49, IO ; 59,8; 62,9; 85,3; 86, 
11; 95, I; 112, 9; 119,6; 7; 128, 4; 129, 2; 152, 1; 
168,3; 185, 2. 

Id. In a few passages, however, we find the indefinite 
pronoun k& £ana used in sentences which are not negative : 

III, 30, t. tftikshante abhf-jastim ^ananam fndra tvat & 
kaA £ana hf pra-keta£. 

They bear the scoffing of men; for, Indra, from thee 
comes every wisdom. 

I, 113, 8. ushSA mr/tam kam £ana bodhayantl. 

Ushas, who wakes every dead (or one who is as if dead). 

I, 191, 7. idrishtSJt kfm £ana iha v&h sarve sakam nf 

Invisible ones, whatever you are, vanish all together t 

II. We now come to passages in which £ana stands for 
kz. na, and therefore renders the sentence negative without 
any further negative particle It might seem possible to 
escape from this admission, by taking certain sentences in 
an interrogative sense. But this would apply to certain 
sentences only, and would seem forced even there : 

II, 16, 2. yasmat fndrat hriha.tih kfm £ana rai riti. 
Beside whom, (beside) the great Indra, there is not 

anything. . 

II, 24, 12. vfcvam satyam magha-vana y\xv6A ft &pa££ana 
pra minanti vratam vam. 

Everything, you mighty ones, belongs indeed to you ; 
even the waters do not transgress your law. 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 12. 2^7 

IV, 30, 3. vfjve £ana ft ana* tva devasaA indra yuyudhuA. 
Even all the gods do not ever fight thee, O India. 

V, 34, 7. duA-ge" £ana dhriyate vlsvzh & puni g&xaJt yih 
asya tavishim a£ukrudhat. 

Even in a stronghold many a man is not often preserved 
who has excited his anger. 
VII, 83, a. yasmin &g& bhavati kfm £ana priyam. 
In which struggle there is nothing good whatsoever. 

VII, 86, 6. svapnaA £ana ft ann'tasya pra-yots". 
Even sleep does not remove all evil. 

In this passage I formerly took £ana as affirmative, not 
as negative, and therefore assigned to prayotfi the same 
meaning which Sayawa assigns to it, one who brings or 
mixes, whereas it ought to be, as rightly seen by Roth, one 
who removes. 

VIII, 1, 5. mahe' £ana tvam adri-vaA para julkaya deyam, 
na sahasraya na ayutaya va^ri-vaA na jataya jata-magha. 

I should not give thee up, wielder of the thunderbolt, 
even for a great price, not for a thousand, not for ten 
thousand (?), not for a hundred, O Ihdra, thou who art 
possessed of a hundred powers ! 

VIII, 51, 7. kadi -fcina starf* asi. 

Thou art never sterile. 

VIII, 52, 7. kadfi £ana pra yukkhasi. 

Thou art never weary. 

VIII, 55, 5. £akshusha kani. sam-naje. 

Not to be reached even with eye. 

X, 56, 4. mahimna^ esham pitaraA £ana trire. 

Note 6. Considering the particular circumstances men- 
tioned in this and the preceding hymn, of Indra's forsaking 
his companions, the Maruts, or even scorning their help, one 
feels strongly tempted to take tya^as in its etymological 
sense of leaving or forsaking, and to translate, by his for- 
saking you, or, if he should forsake you. The poet may 
have meant the word to convey that idea, which no doubt 
would be most appropriate here; but it must be con- 
fessed, at the same time, that in other passages where tya^as 
occurs, that meaning could hardly be ascribed to it. Strange 
as it may seem, no one who is acquainted with the general 

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train of thought in the Vedic hymns can fail to see that 
tyigas in most passages means attack, onslaught ; it may be 
even the instrument of an attack, a weapon. How it should 
come to take this meaning is indeed difficult to explain, and 
I do not wonder that Professor Roth in his Dictionary 
simply renders the word by forlornness, need, danger, or by 
estrangement, unkindness, malignity. But let us look at 
the passages, and we shall see that these abstract conceptions 
are quite out of place : 

VIII, 47, 7. na tam tigmam £ana ty&gdJi na drasad abhf 
tarn guru. 

No sharp blow, no heavy one, shall come near him whom 
you protect. 

Here the two adjectives tigma, sharp, and guru, heavy, 
point to something tangible, and I feel much inclined to 
take tya^as in this passage as a weapon, as something that 
is let off with violence, rather than in the more abstract sense 
of onslaught. 

1, 169, 1. maha£ £it asi tya^asaA varuta*. 

Thou art the shielder from a great attack. 

IV, 43, 4. kaA vim mahaA kit tyigasaJt abhike urushyatam 
madhvi dasra rah uti. 

Who is against your great attack ? Protect us with your 
help, O Arvins, ye strong ones. 

Here Professor Roth seems to join mahaA £it tya/asaA 
abhike urushyatam, but in that case it would be impossible 
to construe the first words, kaA vam. 

1, 1 19, 8. aga&Watam kr/pama«am para-vati pituAsvasya 
ty4?asa ni-badhitam. 

You went from afar to the suppliant, who had been struck 
down by the violence of his own father. 

According to Professor Roth ty&gaa would here mean 
forlornness, need, or danger. But nfbadhita is a strong verb, 
as we may see in 

VIII, 64, 2. pada* pamn aridhasaA nf badhasva mahSn asi. 

Strike the useless Pa»is down with thy foot, for thou art 

X, 18, 11. lit iva«£asva pn'thivi mfi nf bidhathaA. 

Open, O earth, do not press on him (i. e. the dead, who is 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 12. 269 

to be buried ; cf. M. M., Ober Todtenbestattung, Zeitschrift 
der D. M. G., vol. ix, p. xv). 

VII, 83, 6. yatra rft^a-bhi^ dasi-bhlA nf-badhitam pra 
su-dasam avatam trftsu-bhiA saha. 

Where you protected Sudas with the Tr/tsus, when he 
was pressed or set upon by the ten kings. 

Another passage in which tya^as occurs is, 

VI, 62, 10. sanutyena tya^asa martyasya vanushyatam dpi 
jlrsha vavriktam. 

By your covert attack turn back the heads of those even 
who harass the mortal. 

Though this passage may seem less decisive, yet it is 
difficult to see how tya^asa could here, according to Professor 
Roth, be rendered by forlornness or danger. Something is 
required by which enemies can be turned back. Nor can 
it be doubtful that rfrsha' is governed by vavrtktam, meaning 
turn back their heads, for the same expression occurs again 
in Ii 33> 5- P^ && jirshS vxvriguh te" indra aya^vanaA 
ya^va-bhiA spardhamana^. 

Professor Benfey translates this verse by, ' Kopfuber flohn 
sie alle vor dir;' but it may be rendered more literally, 
' These lawless people fighting with the pious turned away 
their heads.' 

X, 144, 6. evd tat indraA mduna devdshu £it dharayate 
mahi tyigoA. 

Indeed through this draught Indra can hold out against 
that great attack even among the gods. 

X, 79, 6. kfm dev&hu ty&gaA 6naA ^akartha. 

What insult, what sin hast thou committed among the 

In these two passages the meaning of tya^as as attack or 
assault is at least as appropriate as that proposed by Professor 
Roth, estrangement, malignity. 

There remains one passage, VI, 3, 1. yam tvam mitr6»a 
varuwaA sa-^oshaA deVa pSsi ty4fasa martam imhsJt. 

I confess that the construction of this verse is not clear 
to me, and I doubt whether it is possible to use tya^asa as 
a verbal noun governing an accusative. If this were possible, 
one might translate, ' The mortal whom thou, O God (Agni), 

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Varutta, together with Mitra, protectest by pushing back 
evil.' More probably we should translate, 'Whom thou 
protectest from evil by thy might.' 

If it be asked how tya^as can possibly have the meaning 
which has been assigned to it in all the passages in which 
it occurs, viz. that of forcibly attacking or pushing away, we 
can only account for it by supposing that tyag, before it 
came to mean to leave, meant to push off, to drive away 
with violence (verstossen instead of verlassen). This meaning 
may still be perceived occasionally in the use of tyag; e. g. 
devas tya^antu mam, may the gods forsake me ! i. e. may 
the gods drive me awayl Even in the latest Sanskrit tyaf 
is used with regard to an arrow that is let off. ' To expel ' is 
expressed by nis-tya^. Those who believe in the production 
of new roots by the addition of prepositional prefixes might 
possibly see in tya^f an original ati-a^ - , to drive off; but, 
however that may be, there is evidence enough to show 
that tya^f expressed originally a more violent act of separa- 
tion than it does in ordinary Sanskrit, though here, too, 
passages occur in which tya^- may be translated by to 
throw, to fling ; for instance, khe dhulim yas tya^ed nkkn.iT 
murdhni tasyaiva sa patet, he who throws up dust in the air, 
it will fall on his head. Ind. Spr. 1582. 

Mu£, too, is used in a similar manner ; for instance, va^ram 
mokshyate te mahendraA, Mahabh. XIV, 363. Cf. Dham- 
mapada, ver. 389. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. SAfHsa, masc, means a spell, whether for good or 
for evil, a blessing as well as a curse. It means a curse, or, 
at all events, a calumny : 

I, 18, 3. ma* naA s&msaJi ararushaA dhurtUi prawak 

Let not the curse of the enemy, the onslaught of a mortal 
hurt us, 

I, 94, 8. asmakam simsaA abhf astu du/t-dhy&A. 

May our curse overcome the wicked I 

III, 18, 2. tapa .s-awsam ararusha^. 

Burn the curse of the enemy } 

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NOTES. I, 1 66, 13. 271 

VII, 25, 2. &r6 tarn simsam kr*'«uhi ninits6A. 

Take far away the curse of the reviler I Cf. VII, 34, 12. 

It means blessing : 

II, 31, 6. uta vah samsam ur(fam-iva smash 

We desire your blessing as a blessing for suppliants. 

X, 31, 1. a na^ devandm upa vetu simsaA. 

May the blessing of the gods come to us ! 

X, 7, 1. urushya naA uni-bhiA deva simsaiA. 

Protect us, god, with thy wide blessings ! 

II, 23, 10. ma nsJt duA-s&msaA abhi-dipsM trata pra su- 
simsah matf-bhU tarishimahi. 

Let not an evil-speaking enemy conquer us; may we, 
enjoying good report, increase by our prayers ! 

In some passages, however, as pointed out by Grassmann, 
samsa may best be rendered by singer, praiser. Grassmann 
marks one passage only, 

II, 26, 1. rig&h ft samsah vanavat vanushyataA. 

May the righteous singer conquer his enemies. 

He admits, however, doubtfully, the explanation of B. R.,. 
that rignh samsah may be taken as one word, meaning, 
' requiring the right.' This explanation seems surrendered 
by B. R. in the second edition of their Dictionary, and I 
doubt whether simsak can mean here anything but singer. 
That being so, the same meaning seems more appropriate 
in other verses also, which I formerly translated differ- 
ently, e. g. 

VII, 56, 19. iine - simsam vanushyataA nf panti, 

They, the Maruts, protect the singer from his enemy. 

Lastly, samsa means praise, the spell addressed by 
men to the gods, or prayer: 

I, 33, 7. pra sunvata^ stuvata^ simsam avaA. 

Thou hast regarded the prayer of him who offers libation 
and praise. 

X, 42, 6. yasmin vayam dadhima simsam fndre. 

Indra in whom we place our hope. Cf. asams, Wester- 
gaard, Radices Linguae Sanscritae, s. v. sams. 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. O Indra, a thousand have been thy helps ac- 
corded to us, a thousand, O driver of the bays, have 
been thy most delightful viands. May thousands of 
treasures richly to enjoy, may goods l come to us a 

2. May the Maruts come towards us with their 
aids, the mighty ones, or with their best aids from the 
great heaven, now that their furthest steeds have 
rushed forth on the distant shore of the sea ; 

3. There clings x to the Maruts one who moves in 
secret, like a man's wife (the lightning 2 ), and who is 
like a spear carried behind 8 , well grasped, resplen- 
dent, gold-adorned; there is also with them Vai 
(the voice of thunder), like unto a courtly, eloquent 

4. Far away the brilliant, untiring Maruts cling 
to their young maid, as if she belonged to them all 1 ; 
but the terrible ones did not drive away Rodast (the 
lightning), for they wished her to grow 8 their friend. 

5. When the divine Rodast with dishevelled 
locks, the manly-minded, wished to follow them, she 
went, like Surya (the Dawn), to the chariot of her 
servant, with terrible look, as with the pace of a 

6. As soon as the poet with the libations, O 
Maruts, had sung his song at the sacrifice, pouring 
out Soma, the youthful men (the Maruts) placed the 
young maid (in their chariot) as their companion for 
victory, mighty in assemblies. 

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M AND ALA I, HYMN 1 6 "J. 2J$ 

7. I praise what is the praiseworthy true greatness 
of those Maruts, that the manly-minded, proud, and 
strong one (Rodas!) drives with them towards the 
blessed mothers. 

8. They protect 1 Mitra and Varu»a from the 
unspeakable, and Aryaman also finds out the in- 
famous. Even what is firm and unshakable is 
being shaken * ; but he who dispenses treasures s , 
O Maruts, has grown (in strength). 

9. No people indeed, whether near to us, or from 
afar, have ever found the end of your strength, 
O Maruts ! The Maruts, strong in daring strength, 
have, like the sea, boldly 1 surrounded their haters. 

10. May we to-day, may we to-morrow in battle 
be called the most beloved of Indra. We were so 
formerly, may we truly be so day by day, and may 
the lord of the Maruts be with us. 

11. May this praise, O Maruts, this song of 
Mindarya, the son of Mana, the poet, ask you 
with food for offspring for ourselves! May we 
have an invigorating autumn, with quickening rain ! 


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Ascribed to Agastya, addressed to the Maruts, but the 
first verse to Indra. Metre Trish/ubh throughout. 

No verse of this hymn occurs in the Sama-veda, nor in the 

other Sawhitas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. We must keep va^a, as a general term, distinct 
from ajva, horses, and go, cows, for the poets themselves 
distinguish between gavydntaA, arvayantaA, and va^ayantaA ; 
see IV, 17, 16; VI, 8,6. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. On mimyaksha, see before, 1, 165, 1, note 2. 

Note 2. The spear of the Maruts is meant for the light- 
ning, and we actually find n'shrf-vidyutaA, having the 
lightning for their spear, as an epithet of the Maruts, • 
I, 168, 5 ; V, 53, 13. 

The rest of this verse is difficult, and has been variously 
rendered by different scholars. We must remember that 
the lightning is represented as the wife or the beloved of 
the Maruts. In that character she is called Rodasf, with the 
accent on the last syllable, and kept distinct from r6dasi, 
the dual, with the accent on the antepenultimate, which 
means heaven and earth. 

This Rodasf occurs : 

V, 56, 8. i. yasmin tasthau su-ra«ani bfbhratl saH marutsu 

The chariot on which, carrying pleasant gifts, stands 
Rodasi among the Maruts. 

VI, 50, 5. mimyaksha y^shu rodas" nu devf. 
To whom clings the divine Rodasi. 

VI, 66, 6. adha sma eshu rodasi svk-sakxh & amavatsu 
tasthau na r6kaA. 

When they (the Maruts) had joined the two Rodas, Le. 
heaven and earth, then the self-brilliant Rodasi came among 
the strong ones. 

The name of R6dast, heaven and earth, is so much more 
frequent in the Rig-veda than that of Rodasf, that in 

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NOTES. I, 167, 3. 275 

several passages the iti which stands after duals, has been 
wrongly inserted after Rodasi in the singular. It is so in 
our hymn, verse 4, where we must read rodasim instead of 
rodasi iti, and again in X, 92, 11. 

Besides the lightning, however, the thunder also may be 
said to be in the company of the Maruts, to be their friend 
or their wife, and it is this double relationship which seems 
to be hinted at in our hymn. 

The thunder is called V&i, voice, the voice of heaven, 
also called by the author of the Anukrama/ti, Ambhrinl. 
It was natural to identify this ambhrz'wa with Greek S@pi.pof, 
terrible, particularly as it is used of the thunder, SPptpov 
ipp6vTtj<rt, Hes. Th. 839, and is applied to Athene as 6f3pipo- 
Ttirpr). But there are difficulties pointed out by Curtius, 
Grundziige, p. 532, which have not yet been removed. This 
V&k says of herself (X, 1 25, 1 2) that she stretched the bow 
for Rudra, the father of the Maruts, that her birth-place 
is in the waters (clouds), and that she fills heaven and 
earth. See also X, 1 14, 8. 

In 1, 173, 3. ant&A d&t&A na rodasi £arat vaTc. 

The voice (thunder) moved between heaven and earth, 
like a messenger. 

In VIII, 100, 10 and 11, after it has been said that the 
thunderbolt lies hidden in the water, the poet says : yat 
va"k vadantl avi-£etanani rash/ri devanam ni-sasacla mandra, 
when the voice, the queen of the gods, the delightful, uttering 
incomprehensible sounds, sat down. If, in our verse, we 
take Va£ in the sense of thunder, but as a feminine, it 
seems to me that the poet, speaking of the lightning and 
thunder as the two companions of the Maruts, represents 
the first, Rodast, or the lightning, as the recognised wife, 
hiding herself in the house, while the other, the loud thunder, 
is represented as a more public companion of the Maruts, 
distinctly called vidatheshu pa^ra (verse 6), a good speaker 
at assemblies. This contrast, if it is really what the poet 
intended, throws a curious light on the social character of 
the Vedic times, as it presupposes two classes of wives, not 
necessarily simultaneous, however, — a house-wife, who stays 
at home and is not much seen, and a wife who appears In 

T 2 

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public and takes part in the society and conversation of 
the sabha, the assembly-room, and the vidathas, the meet- 
ings. The loud voice of the thunder as well as the usual 
hiding of the lightning might well suggest this comparison. 
That good manners, such as are required in public, and 
ready speech, were highly esteemed in Vedic times, we 
learn from such words as sabheya and vidathya. Sabh^ya, 
from sabhi, assembly, court, comes to mean courtly, polite ; 
vidathya, from vidatha, assembly, experienced, learned. 

VIII, 4, 9. £andra^ yati sabhSm upa. 

Thy friend, Indra, goes brilliant towards the assembly. 

X, 34, 6. sabham eti kitava^. 

The gambler goes to the assembly. 

VI, 38, 6. br*hat vaJt vaya// u£yate sabhasu. 

Your great strength is spoken of in the assemblies. 

Wealth is described as consisting in sabhas, houses, 
IV, 2, 5 j and a friend is described as sabhasaha, strong in 
the assembly, X, 71, 10. 

Sabheya is used as an epithet of vipra (II, 24, 13), and 
a son is praised as sabheya, vidathya, and sadanya, i.e. as 
distinguished in the assemblies. 

Vidathya, in fact, means much the same as sabheya, 
namely, good for, distinguished at vidathas, meetings for 
social, political, or religious purposes, IV, 21, 2 ; VII, 36, 
8, &c. 

Note 3. Upara na rishti/i. I do not see how upara can 
here mean the cloud, if it ever has that meaning. I take 
upara as opposed to purva, i. e. behind, as opposed to 
before. In that sense upara is used, X, 77,3; X, 15, 2; 
44, 7, &c. It would therefore mean the spear on the 
back, or the spear drawn back before it is hurled forward. 

B. R. propose to read saw-vak, colloquium, but they give 
no explanation. The reference to VS. IX, 2, is wrong. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The fourth verse carries on the same ideas which 
were hinted at in the third. We must again change rodas", 
the dual, into rodasfm, which is sufficiently indicated by 
the accent. Yavya I take as an instrumental of yavl, or of 

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NOTES. I, 167, 7. 277 

yavya. It means the youthful maid, and corresponds to 
yuvati in verse 6. Yavya would be the exact form which 
Curtius (Grundziige, p. 589) postulated as the Sanskrit pro- 
totype of Hebe*. Now, if the Maruts correspond to Mars in 
Latin, and to Ares in Greek, the fact that in the Iliad 
Hebe bathes and clothes Ares b , may be of some signific- 
ance. Sadharaxi is used in the sense of uxor communis, 
and, would show a familiarity with the idea of polyandry 
recognised in the epic poetry of the Mahabharata. 

But although the Maruts cling to this maid (the Va£, 
or thunder), they do not cast off Rodast, their lawful wife, 
the lightning, but wish her to grow for their friendship, i. e. 
as their friend. 

Aya'sa/* yavya* must be scanned w ^ w — <j . In VI, 

66, 5, ayasaA manna 7 must be scanned as w^w-w 

(mahimna ?). 

Note 2. Vr/dham, as the accent shows, is here an infini- 
tive governed by ^ushanta. 

Verse 6. 
See von Bradke, Dyaus Asura, p. 76. 

Verse 6. 

I translate arki by poet. The construction would become 
too cumbersome if we translated, 'as soon as the hymn 
with the libations was there for you, as soon as the sacrificer 
sang his song.' 

Verse 7. 

The meaning of the second line is obscure, unless we 
adopt Ludwig's ingenious view that Rodasl is here con- 
ceived as Eileithyia, the goddess who helps mothers in 
childbirth. I confess that it is a bold conjecture, and there 
is nothing in Vedic literature to support it. All I can say 
is that Eileithyia is in Greek, like Hebe (Yavya) and Ares 
(Marut), a child of Hera, and that lightning as well as dawn 
might become a symbol of birth. The etymology and the 

» Wir mttsscn ein vorgriechisches yavS oder moglicherweise 
yavyi annehmen. 

>>ILV, 905. 

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very form of ElktlOvia is doubtful, and so is that of Rodasu 
It is tempting to connect rodast, in the sense of heaven 
and earth, with O. S. radur, A. S. rodor (Grimm, Myth, 
p. 66a), but that is impossible. Cf. 1, 101, 7. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. I do not see how panti, the plural, can refer to 
Mitra and Varuwa, nor how these gods could here be intro- 
duced as acting the part of the Maruts. I therefore refer 
panti to the Maruts, who may be said to protect Mitra and 
Varuwa, day and night, and all that belongs to them, from 
evil and disgrace. Aryaman is then brought in, as being 
constantly connected with Mitra-varu«au, and the finding 
out, the perceiving from a distance, of the infamous enemies, 
who might injure Mitra-varu«au, is parenthetically ascribed 
to him. See Ludwig, Anmerkungen, p. 239. 

Note 2. ATyavante cannot and need not be taken for 
£yavayanti, though a£yuta£ut is a common epithet of the 
Maruts. It is quite true that the shaking of the unshakable 
mountains is the work of the Maruts, but that is under- 
stood, even though it is not expressed. In V, 60, 3, we read, 
parvataA £it mahi vriddh&A bibhaya, even the very great 
mountain feared, i. e. the Maruts. 

Note 3. Dati in d£tivara has been derived by certain 
Sanskrit scholars from da, to give. It means, no doubt, 
gift, but it is derived from da (do, dyati), to share, and 
means first, a share, and then a gift. D&ivara is applied 
to the Maruts, V, 58, 3; III, 51, 9, and must therefore be 
applied to them in our passage also, though the construc- 
tion becomes thereby extremely difficult. It means pos- 
sessed of a treasure of goods which they distribute. The 
growing, too, which is here predicated by vavralhe, leads 
us to think of the Maruts, as in 1, 37, 5, or of their friend 
Indra, I, 53, 2 ; 81, 1 ; VI, 30, 1. It is never, so far as 
I know, applied to the sacrificer. 

Verse 9. 
Note 1. DhfTshata" is used as an adverb ; see I, 71, 5 ; 
174,4; 11,30, 4, &c. Perhaps tmana maybe supplied as 
in I, 54, 4. 

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MAiVDALA I, HYMN 1 68. 279 



To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. To every sacrifice 1 you hasten together 2 , you 
accept prayer after prayer, O quick Maruts ! Let me 
therefore bring you hither by my prayers from 
heaven and earth, for our welfare, and for our great 
protection ; 

2. The shakers who were born to bring food and 
light 1 , self-born and self-supported, like springs 2 , 
like thousandfold waves of water, aye, visibly like 
unto excellent bulls 8 , 

3. Those Maruts, like Soma-drops 1 , which squeezed 
from ripe stems dwell, when drunk, in the hearts of 
the worshipper — see how on their shoulders there 
clings as if a clinging wife ; in their hands the quoit 
is held and the sword. 

4. Lightly they have come down from heaven of 
their own accord : Immortals, stir yourselves with 
the whip! The mighty Maruts on dustless paths, 
armed with brilliant spears, have shaken down even 
the strong places. 

5. O ye Maruts, who are armed with lightning- 
spears, who stirs you from within by himself, as the 
jaws are stirred by the tongue l ? You shake the 
sky 2 , as if on the search for food ; you are invoked 
by many s , like the (solar) horse of the day *. 

6. Where, O Maruts, is the top, where the bottom 
of the mighty sky where you came ? When you 
throw down with the thunderbolt what is strong, 
like brittle things, you fly across the terrible sea ! 

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7. As your conquest is violent, splendid, terrible, 
full and crushing, so, O Maruts, is your gift de- 
lightful, like the largess of a liberal worshipper, 
wide-spreading, laughing like heavenly lightning. 

8. From the tires of their chariot-wheels streams 
gush forth, when they send out the voice of the 
clouds ; the lightnings smiled upon the earth, when 
the Maruts shower down fatness (fertile rain). 

9. Vrisni 1 brought forth for the great fight the 
terrible train of the untiring Maruts : when fed they 
produced the dark cloud 8 , and then looked about for 
invigorating food 2 . 

10. May this praise, O Maruts, this song of 
Mandarya, the son of Mana, the poet, ask you 
with food for offspring for ourselves ! May we 
have an invigorating autumn, with quickening rain ! 

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NOTES. I, 1 68, I. 28l 


This hymn is ascribed to Agastya. Verses 1-7, Gagati ; 
8-10, Trish/ubh. No verse of this hymn occurs in the 
SV, VS., TS., AS. 

Verse 1. 

There can be little doubt that the text of the first line is 
corrupt. Ludwig admits this, but both he and Grassmann 
translate the verse. 

Grassmann : Durch stetes Opfer mocht ich euch gewin- 
nen recht, Gebet, das zu euch Gottern drengt, empfangt ihr 

Ludwig : Bei jedem opfer ist zusammen mit euch der 
siegreich thatige, in jedem lied hat der fromme an euch 

Ludwig proposes to read adidhiye or devayarf a didhiye, 
but even then the construction remains difficult. 

Note 1. YagntL-yagM, an adverbial expression, much the 
same as yagne yagnt (I, 136, 1); it occurs once more in 
VI, 48, 1. 

Note 2. TuturvamA does occur here only, but is formed 
like ^ugurvawi, I, 142, 8, and Jiuukvani, VIII, 23, 5. Pos- 
sibly tuturvawiA might stand for the host of the Maruts 
in the singular, 'you hasten together to every sacrifice.' 
As to dadhidhve, used in a similar sense, see IV, 34, 3 ; 37, 1. 

As a conjecture, though no more, I propose to read 
evayAA u. 

Eva, in the sense of going, quick, is used of the horses of 
the Maruts, I, 166, 4. More frequently it has the sense 
of going, moving, than of manner (mos), and as an adverb 
eva and evam mean in this way (K. Z. II, 235). From 
this is derived evay&A, in the sense of quickly moving, an 
epithet applied to Vishwu, I, 156, 1, and to the Maruts, 
V, 41, 16 : katha" dlrema namasa su-dtfnun eva-ya manitaA 
akMa.-uktha.Ut, How shall we worship with praise and invo- 
cations the liberal quick-moving Maruts? I read, with 
Roth, eva-yii ; otherwise we should have to take evaya as 

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an adverbial instrumental, like asaya - from asa ; see Grass- 
mann, s. v. asaya. 

In one hymn (V, 87) Evaya-marut, as one word, has become 
an invocation, reminding us of iju 4>o!/3e, or Evoe Bacche, 
and similar forms. Possibly rjia may be viatica, though the 
vowels do not correspond regularly (see yayi, I, 87, 2, 
note 1). 

From eva we have also eva-yavan (fem. evayavart, VI, 
48, 1 a), which Benfey proposed to divide into evaya-van, 
quick, again an epithet ofVishwu and the Maruts. If then 
we read evayaA u, without the accent on the last syllable, 
we should have a proper invocation of the Maruts, ' You, 
quick Maruts, accept prayer after prayer.' 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Isham svar are joined again in VII, 66, 9. saha 
{sham svaA £a dhimahi. It seems to mean food and light, 
or water and light, water being considered as invigorating 
and supporting. Abhi^ayanta governs the accusative. 

Note 2. The meaning of spring was first assigned to 
vavra by Grassmann. 

Note 3. Though I cannot find gavaA and uksha«a// again, 
used in apposition to each other, I have little doubt that 
Grassmann is right in taking both as one word, like ravpos 
fiovs in Greek. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The first line of this verse is extremely difficult. 
Grassmann translates : 

Den Somasaften gleichen sie, den kraftigen, 
Die eingeschliirft sich regen, nimmer wirkungslos. 

Ludwig : Die wie Soma, das gepresst aus saftvollen 
Stengel, aufgenommen ins innere freundlich weilen. 

It may be that the Maruts are likened to Somas, because 
they refresh and strengthen. So we read VIII, 48, 9 : 

tvam hf naA tanvaA Soma gop£A g&re-gatre ni-sasattha. 

For thou, O Soma, has sat down as a guardian in every 
member of our body. 

It is possible, therefore, though I shall say no more, that 
the poet wished to say that the Maruts, bringing rain and 

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notes, i, 1 68, 6. 283 

cooling the air, are like Somas in their refreshing and in- 
vigorating power, when stirring the hearts of men. In X, 
78, 2, the Maruts are once more compared with Somas, 
su-s&tm&na/i na s6mi/t rttim yate\ Should there be a 
dative hidden in asate ? 

Rambhi»i I now take with S&yawa in the sense of a wife 
clinging to the shoulders of her husband, though what is 
meant is the spear, or some other weapon, slung over the 
shoulders; see I, 167, 3. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Hanva-iva ^ihvayd gives no sense, if we take 
hanva as an instrum. sing. Hanu is generally used in the 
dual, in the Rig-veda always, meaning the two jaws or the 
two lips. Thus Ait. Br. VII, 11. hanu sa^ihve ; AV. X, 
a, 7. hanvor hi ^ihvam adadhaA, he placed the tongue in 
the jaws. I should therefore prefer to read hanu iva, which 
would improve the metre also, or take hanva for a dual, as 
Sayawa does. 

One might also translate, ' Who amongst you, O Maruts, 
moves by himself, as the jaws by the tongue,' but the 
simile would not be so perfect. The meaning is the same 
as in the preceding verse, viz. that the Maruts are self-born, 
self-determined, and that they move along without horses 
and chariots. In X, 78, 2, the Maruts are called svayu^f, 
like the winds. 

Note 2. I feel doubtful about dhanva^yut, and feel 
inclined towards Sayawa's explanation, who takes dhanvan 
for antariksha. It would then correspond to parvata-yfryiit, 
dhruva-£yut, &c. 

Note 3. Purupraisha may also be, You who have the 
command of many. 

Note 4. As to ahanyaV; na 6tasaA, see V, 1,4. svet&ft 
va^f^ayate agre ahnam. 

Verse 6. 
Vithura translated before, I, 87, 3, by broken, means also 
breakable or brittle. Sayawa explains it by grass, which 
may be true, though I see no authority for it. Grassmann 
translates it by leaves. It is derived from vyath. 

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Vers© 7. 

Satf and rati are used on purpose, the former meaning 
the acquisition or conquest of good things, the latter the 
giving away of them. The onslaught of the Maruts is first 
described as violent and crushing ; their liberality in giving 
away what they have conquered, chiefly rain, is represented 
as delightful, like the gifts of a liberal worshipper. Then 
follows prithvtgr&yi asuryeva gingatt. Here asurya re- 
minds us of the asurya in the preceding hymn, where it 
occurred as an epithet of Rodast, the lightning. Pri'thu- 
gri.y\, wide-spreading, seems to apply best to the rain, that 
is, the rati, though it might also apply to the lightning. 
However, the rati is the storm with rain and lightning, and 
I therefore propose to read g&gghati for g&ngaXl. Gang is 
a root which occurs here only, and ga.ggh too is a root 
which is unknown to most students of Sanskrit. Benfey», 
to whom we owe so much, was the first to point out that 
g&ggh, which Yiska explains by to make a noise and 
applies to murmuring waters, is a popular formof^aksh, to 
laugh, a reduplicated form of has. He shows that ksh is 
changed into kkh in zkkkk for aksha, and into gh and ggk, 
in Pali and Prakrit, e. g. ghk for ksha. The original form 
£aksh, to laugh, occurs I, 55, 7. tvam etan rudataA ^akshataA 
ka. ayodhayaA, thou foughtest them, the crying and the 

That the lightning is often represented as laughing we 
see from the very next verse, ava smayanta vidyutaA, the 
lightnings laughed down ; and the very fact that this idea 
occurs in the next verse confirms me in the view that it was 
in the poet's mind in the preceding one. See also I, 23, 1 2. 
haskarat vidyiitaA pari &taAgat£/i avantu naA manitaA mri- 
/ayantu na^. 

In the only other passage where gang occurs, VIII, 43, 8, 
ar£lsha £a»ganabhavan, applied to Agni, admits of the 
same correction, gagghaxAbhiyzn, and of the same trans- 
lation, ' laughing with splendour.' 

Benfey's objection to the spelling of gaghgh with two 

* G5tt Nachr., 1876, No. 13, s. 334. 

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NOTES. I, 1 68, 9. 285 

aspirates is just with regard to pronunciation, but this 
would hardly justify our changing the style of our MSS., 
which, in this and in other cases, write the two aspirates, 
though intending them for non-aspirate and aspirate. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Prwni, the mother of the Maruts, who are often 
called Prkni-mataraA, g6-mataraA, and sfndhu-mataraA. 

Note 2. As to svadha in the sense of food, see before, 
I, 6, 4, note a, and X, 157, 5. 

Note 3. Abhva is more than dark clouds, it is the dark 
gathering of clouds before a storm, ein Unwetter, or, if 
conceived as a masculine, as in I, 39, 8, ein Ungethum. 
Such words are simply untranslatable. 

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Dialogue between Indra and his Worshipper, 

i. Indra : There is no such thing to-day, nor will 
it be so to-morrow. Who knows what strange thing 1 
this is ? We must consult the thought of another, 
for even what we once knew seems to vanish. 

2. Agastya: Why dost thou wish to kill us, 
O Indra ? the Maruts are thy brothers ; fare kindly 
with them, and do not strike 1 us in battle. 

3. The Maruts : O brother Agastya, why, being 
a friend, dost thou despise us ? We know quite 
well what thy mind was. Dost thou not wish to 
give to us ? 

4. Agastya : Let them prepare the altar, let 
them light the fire in front! Here we two will 
spread 2 for thee the sacrifice, to be seen 1 by the 

5. Agastya: Thou rulest, O lord of treasures ; thou, 
lord of friends, art the most generous. Indra, speak 
again with the Maruts, and then consume our 
offerings at the right season. 

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NOTES. I, 170. 287 


Although this hymn is not directly addressed to the 
Maruts, yet as it refers to the before-mentioned rivalry 
between the Maruts and Indra, and as the author is sup- 
posed to be the same, namely Agastya, I give its translation 

None of its verses occurs in SV., VS., TS., AV. 

The Anukramawika ascribes verses 1, 3, 4 to Indra, 2 and 
5 to Agastya ; Ludwig assigns verses 1 and 3 to the Maruts, 
2, 4, and 5 to Agastya ; Grassmann gives verse 1 to Indra, 
a and 3 to the Maruts, and 4 and 5 to Agastya. 

The hymn admits of several explanations. There was 
a sacrifice in which Indra and the Maruts were invoked 
together, and it is quite possible that our hymn may owe 
its origin to this. But it is possible also that the sacrifice 
may be the embodiment of the same ideas which were 
originally expressed in this and similar hymns, namely, that 
Indra, however powerful by himself, could not dispense 
with the assistance of the storm-gods. I prefer to take the 
latter view, but I do not consider the former so untenable 
as I did formerly. The idea that a great god like Indra 
did not like to be praised together with others is an old 
idea, and we find traces of it in the hymns themselves, e. g. 
II, 3^, 4. ma" du^stuti, ma" sahutl. 

It is quite possible, therefore, that our hymn contains the 
libretto of a little ceremonial drama in which different 
choruses of priests are introduced as preparing a sacrifice 
for the Maruts and for Indra, and as trying to appease the 
great Indra, who is supposed to feel slighted. Possibly 
Indra and the Maruts too may have been actually repre- 
sented by some actors, so that here, as elsewhere, the first 
seeds of the drama would be found in sacrificial per- 

I propose, though this can only be hypothetical, to take 
the first verse as a vehement complaint of Indra, when 
asked to share the sacrifice with the Maruts. In the second 

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verse Agastya is introduced as trying to pacify Indra. The 
third verse is most likely an appeal of the Maruts to remind 
Indra that the sacrifice was originally intended for them. 
Verses 4 and 5 belong to Agastya, who, though frightened 
into obedience to Indra, still implores him to make his 
peace with the Maruts. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. In the first verse Indra expresses his surprise in 
disconnected sentences, saying that such a thing has never 
happened before. I do not take adbhuta (nie da gewesen) 
in the sense of future, because that is already contained in 
sv&s. The second line expresses that Indra does not 
remember such a thing, and must ask some one else, 
whether he remembers anything like it. We ought to 
take abhisa»*£ar£«ya as one word, and probably in the 
sense of to be approached or to be accepted. Abhisam£arin, 
however, means also changeable. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. VadhiA is the augmentless indicative, not sub- 
junctive; see, however, Delbriick, Synt. Forsch. I, pp. m, 
verse 4. 

Note 1. JTetana refers to yagna. as in VIII, 13, 8. It 
means that which attracts the attention of the gods (IV, 
7, 2), and might be translated by beacon. 

Note 2. The dual tanavavahai is strange. It may refer, 
as Grassmann supposes, to Agastya and his wife, Lopa- 
mudra, but even that is very unusual. See Oldenberg, 
K. Z. XXXIX, 62. Professor Oldenberg (K. Z. XXXIX, 
60 seq.) takes this and the next hymn as parts of the same 
Akhyina hymn, and as intimately connected with the 
Marutvattya 5astra of the midday Savana, in the Soma 

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MANDALA I, HYMN 171. 289 


To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. I come to you with this adoration, with a 
hymn I implore the favour 1 of the quick (Maruts). 
O Maruts, you have rejoiced 2 in it clearly 3 , put 
down then all anger and unharness your horses ! 

2. This reverent praise of yours, O Maruts, 
fashioned in the heart, has been offered by the 
mind 1 , O gods! Come to it, pleased in your mind, 
for you give increase to (our) worship 2 . 

3. May the Maruts when they have been praised 
be gracious to us, and likewise Maghavat (Indra), 
the best giver of happiness, when he has been 
praised. May our trees (our lances) 1 through our 
valour stand always erect, O Maruts ! 

4. I am afraid of this powerful one, and trembling 
in fear of Indra. For you the offerings were pre- 
pared, — we have now put them away, forgive us ! 

5. Thou through whom the Manas 1 see the 
mornings, whenever the eternal dawns flash forth 
with power 2 , O Indra, O strong hero, grant thou 
glory to us with the Maruts, terrible with the 
terrible ones, strong and a giver of victory. 

6. O Indra, protect thou these bravest of men 1 
(the Maruts), let thy anger be turned away 2 from 
the Maruts, for thou hast become 3 victorious to- 
gether with those brilliant heroes. May we have an 
invigorating autumn, with quickening rain ! 

[33] u 

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The Anukramawi assigns verses i and a to the Maruts, 
the rest to Indra Marutvat. The poet is again Agastya. 
The whole hymn corresponds to the situation as described 
in the preceding hymns, and leads on to a kind of compro- 
mise between the Maruts, who seem really the favourite gods 
of the poet, and Indra, an irresistible and supreme deity 
whose claims cannot be disregarded. 

None of the verses of this hymn occurs in SV., VS., TS., 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Sumati here means clearly favour, as in I, 73, 6, 
7 ; while in I, 166, 6 it means equally clearly prayer. 

Note 2. Ludwig takes rara«atl as referring to suktdna 
and namascL The accent of rara«ata is irregular, and like- 
wise the retaining of the final long a in the Pada text. 
Otherwise the form is perfectly regular, namely the a p. 
plural of the reduplicated aorist, or the so-called aorist 
of the causative*. Pdwini (VII, 4, a, 3) gives a number of 
verbs which form that aorist asuu-, and not asu-u, e. g. 
ayajasat, not ajlrasat ; ababadhat, ayaya£at, &c. Some verbs 
may take both forms, e. g. abibhra^at and ababhra^at. This 
option applies to all Kawyadi verbs, and one of these is 
raw, which therefore at the time of Katyayana was supposed 
to have formed its reduplicated aorist both as arara«at and 
as arirawat. Without the augment we expect rfrawata or 
rarawata. The question is why the final a should have 
been lengthened not only in the Sawhita, that would be 
explicable, but in the Pada text also. The conjunctive of 
the perfect would be rarawata. See also Delbriick, Verbum, 
p. in. 

Note 3. Vedyabhis, which Ludwig translates here by u m 
dessentwillen, was ihr erfaren sollt, I have trans- 
lated by clearly, though tentatively only. 

a See Sanskrit Grammar, § 372, note. 

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NOTES. I, 171, 5- 291 

Verse a. 

Note 1. The same idea is expressed in X, 47, 7. hr/di- 
spriszA manasa va£yamanaA. 

Note 2. NamasaA vrj'dhasaA is intended to convey the 
idea that the Maruts increase or bless those who worship 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The second line has given rise to various inter- 

Grassmann : 

Uns mogen aufrecht stehn wie schone Baume 
Nach unsrem Wunsch, O Maruts, alle Tage. 

Ludwig : Hoch mogen sein unsere "kampfenden lanzen, 
alle tage, O Marut, sigesstreben. 

As komya never occurs again, it must for the present be 
left unexplained. 

There was another difficult passage, I, 88, 3. medha - vana 
na k«"«avante urdhva, which I translated, ' May the Maruts 
stir up our minds as they stir up the forests.' I pointed out 
there that urdhva means not only upright, but straight and 
strong (I, 172, 3; II, 30, 3), and I conjectured that the 
erect trees might have been used as a symbol of strength 
and triumph. Vana, however, may have been used poetic- 
ally for anything made of wood, just as cow is used for 
leather or anything made of leather. In that case vana 
might be meant for the wooden walls of houses, or even 
for lances (like boipara from 8rfpv=Sk. daru), and the adjec- 
tive would probably have to determine the true meaning. 
If connected with komala it might have the same meaning 
as ti£<or6s. 

Prof. Oldenberg suggests that vanani may be meant for 
the wooden vessels containing the Soma 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The Manas are the people of Manya, see 1, 165, 
15, note 1, and there is no necessity for taking mana, with 
Grassmann, as a general name for poet (Kuhn's Zeitschrift, 
vol. xvi, p. 174). 

U 2 

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Note 2. It is doubtful to which word javasd belongs. 
I take it to be used adverbially with vyushrishu. 

Verse 6. 

Note L We might also translate, ' protect men from the 
stronger one,' as we read I, iao, 4. patam ka. sahyasa/4 
yuvam ka. rabhyasaA naA ; and still more clearly in IV, 55, 1. 
sahiyasa^ varu«a mitra martat. But I doubt whether nr/n 
by itself would be used in the sense of our men, while 
nara/2 is a common name of the Maruts, whether as diva/; 
nara//, I, 64, 4, or as naraA by themselves, I, 64, 10 ; 166, 
13, &c. 

Note 2. On the meaning of avaya in avayatahe/a^, see 
Introduction, p. xx: 

Note 3. On dadhana/*, see VIII, 97, 13, &c. 

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M AND ALA I, HYMN I 72. 293 


To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. May your march be brilliant, brilliant through 
your protection, O Maruts, you bounteous givers, 
shining like snakes ! 

2. May that straightforward shaft of yours, O 
Maruts, bounteous givers, be far from us, and far 
the stone which you hurl ! 

3. Spare, O bounteous givers, the people of 
T>*»askanda, lift us up that we may live ! 

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The hymn is ascribed to Agastya, the metre is Gayatri. 
None of its verses occurs in SV., VS., TS., AV. 

Verse 1. 

Prof. Oldenberg conjectures kitrS. htiA, and possibly mahi- 
bhanava£ for ahibhanava^. See for yZxaaJt kittik utf V, 
52, 2. te ySman panti ; also VI, 48, 9. 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. The Maruts charged with rain 1 , endowed with 
fierce force, terrible like wild beasts 2 , blazing 3 in 
their strength 4 , brilliant like fires, and impetuous 6 , 
have uncovered the (rain-giving) cows by blowing 
away the cloud*. 

2. The (Maruts) with their rings 1 appeared like 
the heavens with their stars 2 , they shone wide like 
streams from clouds as soon as Rudra, the strong 
man, was born for you, O golden-breasted Maruts, 
in the bright lap of Frisni*. 

3. They wash 1 their horses like racers in the 
courses, they hasten with the points of the reed 2 
on their quick steeds. O golden-jawed 3 Maruts, 
violently shaking (your jaws), you go quick 4 with 
your spotted deer 6 , being friends of one mind. 

4. Those Maruts have grown to feed 1 all these 
beings, or, it may be, (they have come) hither for 
the sake of a friend, they who always bring quicken- 
ing rain. They have spotted horses, their bounties 
cannot be taken away, they are like headlong 
charioteers on their ways 2 . 

5. O Maruts, wielding your brilliant spears, come 
hither on smooth 1 roads with your fiery 2 cows 
(clouds) whose udders are swelling; (come hither), 
being of one mind, like swans toward their nests, to 
enjoy the sweet offering. 

6. O one-minded Maruts, come to our prayers, 
come to our libations like (Indra) praised by men 1 ! 

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Fulfil (our prayer) like the udder of a barren cow 2 , 
and make the prayer glorious by booty to the singer. 

7. Grant us this strong horse for our chariot, a 
draught 1 that rouses our prayers, from day to day, 
food to the singers, and to the poet in our home- 
steads 2 luck 8 , wisdom, inviolable and invincible 

8. When the gold-breasted Maruts harness the 
horses to their chariots, bounteous 1 in wealth, then 
it is as if a cow in the folds poured out 2 to her calf 
copious food, to every man who has offered libations. 

9. Whatever mortal enemy may have placed us 
among wolves 1 , shield us from hurt, ye Vasus! 
Turn the wheels with burning heat 2 against him, 
and strike down the weapon of the impious fiend, O 
Rudras ! 

10. Your march, O Maruts, appears brilliant, 
whether even friends have milked the udder of 
Pmni, or whether, O sons of Rudra, you mean to 
blame him who praises you, and to weaken those 
who are weakening Trita, O unbeguiled heroes 1 . 

11. We invoke you, the great Maruts, the con- 
stant wanderers, at the offering of the rapid Vishmi 1 ; 
holding ladles (full of libations) and prayerful we ask 
the golden-coloured and exalted Maruts for glorious 

12. The Daragvas (Maruts?) 1 carried on 2 the 
sacrifice first ; may they rouse us at the break of 
dawn. Like the dawn, they uncover the dark nights 
with the red (rays), the strong ones, with their bril- 
liant light, as with a sea of milk. 

1 3. With the (morning) clouds, as if with glitter- 
ing red ornaments 1 , these Maruts have grown great 
in the sacred places 2 . Streaming down with rush- 

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ing splendour 8 , they have assumed their bright and 
brilliant colour. 

14. Approaching 1 them for their great protection 
to help us, we invoke them with this worship, they 
whom Trita may bring near, like the five Hotr? 
priests for victory 2 , descending on their chariot to 

15. May that grace of yours by which you help 
the wretched * across all anguish, and by which you 
deliver the worshipper from the re viler, come hither, 
O Maruts ; may your favour approach us like a cow 
(going to her calf) ! 

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Hymn ascribed to Gr/tsamada. Metre, 1-14 Gagati, 15 
TrishAibh, according to the paribhasha in the Sarvanu- 
kramawi 12, 13. See also Ludwig, III, p. 59 ; Bergaigne, 
Recherches sur l'histoire de la liturgie v^dique, 1889, pp. 
66seq. ; Oldenberg, Prolegomena, p. 144. None of its verses 
occurs in SV., VS., AV. The first verse is found in TB. 
H> 5> 5> 4> with three various readings, viz. tavishdbhir 
urmfbhi/z instead of tavishibhir arkinaJi, bhrumim instead of 
bhWmim, and rfpa instead of apa. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Dharavara'A, a word of doubtful import, possi- 
bly meaning wishing for rain, or the suitors of the streams 
of rain. The Maruts are sometimes represented as varas 
or suitors ; cf. V, 60, 4. 

Note 2. Cf. II, 33, 11. 

Note 3. Bergaigne, II, 381, translates a.rkina.k by chan- 
tres, singers, deriving it, as it would seem, from arka 
which, as he maintains (Journ. Asiat. 1884, IV, pp. 194 
seq.), means always song in the RV. (Rel. V6d. I, 279). 
This, however, is not the case, as has been well shown 
by Pischel, Ved. Stud. I, pp. 23 seq. Besides, unless we 
change ar/rinaA into arkiwaA, we must connect it with ar£i, 
light. Thus we read VIII, 41, 8, anHna padl 

Note 4. Tavishibhir urmfbhi/z, the reading of the 
Taittiriyas, is explained by Sayawa by balavadbhir gama- 
naiA. It may have been taken from RV. VI, 61,2. 

Note 5. On r^ishfn, see I, 64, 12 6 ; I, 87, 1. 

Note 6. Bhr/mi seems to me a name of the cloud, 
driven about by the wind. The Taittiriyas read bhrumim, 
and Sayawa explains it by meghaw dhamanta; £alayanta#. 
In most passages, no doubt, bhrimi means quick, fresh, and 
is opposed to radhra, IV, 32, 2 ; VII, 56, 20. In I, 31, 16, as 
applied to Agni, it may mean quick. But in our passage 
that meaning is impossible, and I prefer the traditional 

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NOTES. II, 34, 2. 299 

meaning of cloud to that of storm-wind, adopted by Benfey 
and Roth. The expression ' to blow a storm-wind ' is not 
usual, while dham is used in the sense of blowing away 
clouds and darkness. The cows would then be the waters 
in the clouds. It is possible, however, that Sayawa's 
explanation, according to which bhrz'mi is a musical instru- 
ment, may rest on some traditional authority. In this case 
it would correspond to dhamanta/; va«am, in I, 85, 10 2 . 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On khadin, see I, 166, 9, note 2. On rukma- 
vakshas, I, 64, 4, note 1. Golden-breasted is meant for 
armed with golden chest-plates. The meaning seems to 
be that the Maruts with their brilliant khadis appear like 
the heavens with their brilliant stars. The Maruts are not 
themselves lightning and rain, but they are seen in them, 
as Agni is not the fire, but present in the fire, or the god 
of fire. Thus we read, RV. Ill, 26, 6. agneA bhfmam 
marutam 6gaA, ' The splendour of Agni, the strength of 
the Maruts,' i. e. the lightning. It must be admitted, how- 
ever, that a conjecture, proposed by Bollensen (Z.D.M.G. 
XLI, p. 501), would improve the verse. He proposes to 
read rishiayaJt instead of vrish/aysJi. We should then 
have to translate, ' Their spears shone like lightnings from 
the clouds.' These r/shris or spears are mentioned by the 
side of khadi and rukma in RV. V, 54, 1 1, and the com- 
pound rishtividyutak is applied to the Maruts in I, 168, 5 
and V, 5a, 13. The difficulty which remains is abhtlySJi. 

Note 2. On dyavo na strtbhiA, see note to I, 87, 1. 

Note 3. The second line is full of difficulties. No 
doubt the Maruts are represented as the sons of Rudra 
(V, 60, 5 ; VI, 66, 3), and as the sons of Pmni, fern., being 
called Prfoni-mataraA. Their birth is sometimes spoken of 
as unknown (VII, 56, 2), but hardly as mysterious. Who 
knows their birth, hardly means more than 'the wind blow- 
eth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, 
but canst not tell whence it cometh.' Pmni as a feminine 
is the speckled sky, and the cloud may have been conceived 


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as the udder at the same time that Prwni was conceived 
as a cow (I, 160, 3). Nothing seems therefore more natural 
than that we should translate, ' When Rudra had begotten 
you in the bright lap of Prism.' The bright lap, jukram 
fidhafl, is an idiomatic expression (VI, 66, 1 ; IV, 3, 10), and 
I see no reason why we should with Roth, K.Z. XXVI, 49, 
change the sukr6 of the padapa/^a into sukra/i and refer it 
to vr&ha. 

The real difficulty lies in a^ani. Can it mean he begot, 
as Bergaigne (Religion Vedique, III, 35) interprets it? 
Wherever a^ani occurs it means he was born, and I doubt 
whether it can mean anything else. It is easy to suggest 
3£anit, for though the third person of the aorist never 
occurs in the RV., the other persons, such as a^anish/a, 
^anish/waw, are there. But, as the verse now stands, we 
must translate, ' When Rudra was born for you, he the 
strong one in the bright udder of "Prism.' Could Rudra 
be here conceived as the son, he who in other passages is 
represented as the husband of Prism? There is another 
passage which may yield the same sense, VI, 66, 3. vid6 
hi mata" mah&A main s&, s& ft pr/jniw subhve garbham S. 
adhat, ' for she, the great, is known as the mother of the 
great, that very Prisni conceived the germ (the Maruts) for 
the strong one.' 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Ukshante is explained by washing, cleaning the 
horses, before they start for a new race. See V, 59, 1. 
ukshante irvan, followed by tarushante S. r&gzh ; IX, 109, 
10. isvaJi na nikti£ va^i dhanaya ; Satap. Br. XI, 5, 5, 13. 
Pischel (Ved. Stud. I, 189) supposes that it always refers 
to the washing after a race. 

Note 2. Nadasya karwai^ is very difficult. Sayawa's 
explanation, meghasya madhyapradesaiA, 'through the 
hollows of the cloud,' presupposes that nada by itself can 
in the RV. be used in the sense of cloud, and that karwa, 
ear, may have the meaning of a hole or a passage. To 
take, as BR. propose, karwa in the sense of karwa, eared, 
with long ears, would not help us much. Grassmann's 

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NOTES. II, 34, 3. 301 

translation, ' mit der Wolke schnellen Fittigen,' is based 
on a conjectural reading, nadasya parwaiA. Ludwig's trans- 
lation, ' mit des fluszes wellen den raschen eilen sie,' is 
ingenious, but too bold, for kar«a never means waves, nor 
nada river in the Rig-veda. The Vedarthayatna gives : 
* they rush with steeds that make the roar,' taking karwaiA 
for kartr*bhiA, which again is simply impossible. The best 
explanation is that suggested by Pischel, Ved. Stud., p. 189. 
He takes nada for reed, and points out that whips were 
made of reeds. The kar«a would be the sharp point of 
the reed, most useful for a whip. I cannot, however, follow 
him in taking InibhiA in the sense of accelerating. I think 
it refers to arva in the preceding pida. 

Note 3. HfrawyaripraA. .Sipra, in the dual jipre, is in- 
tended for the jaws, the upper and lower jaws, as in RV. I, 
101, 10. vf syasva sipre, open the jaws. See Zimmer, Altin- 
disches Leben, p. 249, note. RV. Ill, 3a, 1 ; V, 36, 2, jipre 
and hanu ; VIII, 76, 10 ; X, 96, 9. jfpre hariwl davidhvataA ; 
X, 105, 5. jfprabhyam jiprfwlvan. In the plural, however, 
sipr&A, V, 54, 1 1 (siptkk jlrshasu vftataA hirawyaylA), VIII, 
7, 25, is intended for something worn on the head, made 
of gold or gold threads. As we speak of the ears of 
a cap, that is, lappets which protect the ears, or of the 
cheeks of a machine, so in this case the jaws seem to have 
been intended for what protects the jaws, and not neces- 
sarily for the real jaw-bones of an animal, used as an 
helmet, and afterwards imitated in any kind of metal. 
As to jiprin it may mean helmeted or possessed of jaws. 
To be possessed of jaws is no peculiar distinction, yet in 
several of the passages where jiprin occurs, there is a clear 
reference to eating and drinking; see VI, 44, 14; VIII, 2, 
a8 J 17. 4 ; 3 3 > a 4 ; 33> 7 » 9 2 > 4 ; see also jfpravan in VI, 
17, 2. It is possible therefore that like saripra, .riprin also 
was used in the sense of possessed of jaw-bones, i.e. of 
strong jaw-bones. Even such epithets as hfrawya-jipra, 
hari-jipra, hfri-jipra may mean possessed of golden, possibly 
of strong jaws. (M. M., Biographies of Words, p. 263, note.) 
Roth takes hariripra as yellow-jawed, hfrijipra as golden- 
cheeked, or with golden helmet, hirawyaripra, with golden 

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helmet A decision between golden-jawed or golden-hel- 
meted is difficult, yet golden-jawed is applicable in all cases. 

In our passage we must be guided by davidhvataA, which 
together with slpra. occurs again X, 96, 9. jfpre va^aya 
hariwi davidhvataA, shaking the golden jaws, and it seems 
best to translate : O ye golden-jawed Maruts, shaking (your 
jaws), you go to feed. 

Note 4. If we retain the accent in pWksham, we shall 
have to take it as an adverb, from pnksha, quick, vigorous, 
like the German snel. This view is supported by Pischel, 
Ved. Stud. I, 96. If, however, we could change the accent 
into prflcsham, we might defend Sayawa's interpretation. 
We should have to take pr/ksham as the accusative of 
priksh, corresponding to the dative prikshe" in the next 
verse. Pr/ksh is used together with subh, ish, urj- (VI, 
62, 4), and as we have jubham ya, we might take prflcsham 
ya in the sense of going for food, in search of food. But 
it is better to take przksham as an adverb. In the next 
verse priksh6 is really a kind of infinitive, governing 

Note 5. Tradition explains the Trishatis as spotted deer, 
but pmhadarva, as an epithet of the Maruts, need not mean 
having Prsshatis for their horses, but having spotted horses. 
See Bergaigne, Rel.V^d. II, p. 378, note. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Ludwig translates : Zu narung haben sie alle dise 
wesen gebracht; Grassmann: Zur Labung netzten alle 
diese Wesen sie. Ludwig suggests £itraya for mitraya; 
Oldenberg, far better, mitrayavaA, looking for friends, like 
mitrayuvaA, in I, 173, 10. 

Note 2. On vayuna, see Pischel in Vedische Studien, 
p. 301. But why does Pischel translate rigipyi by bulls, 
referring to VI, 67, 11 ? 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. AdhvasmabhiA seems to mean unimpeded or 
smooth. Cf. IX, 91,3. 
Note 2. The meaning of mdhanvabhiA is very doubtful. 

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NOTES. II, 34, 7. 303 

Verao 6. 

Note 1. NarSV« na simsah, the original form of Nar4- 
szmsaJi, I take here as a proper name, Mannerlob (like 
Frauenlob, the poet) referring to Indra. Bergaigne, I, 
p. 305, doubts whether Narajawsa can be a proper name 
in our passage, but on p. 308 he calls it an appellation of 

Note 2. Ajvam iva, gives a sense, but one quite in- 
appropriate to the Veda. It would mean, 'fill the cow 
in her udder like a mare.' I therefore propose to read 
asvam iva (asuam iva), from asu, a cow that is barren, 
or a cow that has not yet calved. Thus we read, 
I, iia, 3. ySbhiA dhenum asvam pfnvathaA, 'with the 
same help with which you nourish a barren cow.' Cf. 
I, 116, 22. staryam pipyathuA ga'm, 'you have filled the 
barren cow.' If asviim iva dhenum is a simile, we want an 
object to which it refers, and this we find in dhfyam. Thus 
we read, V, 71, 2 ; VII, 94, 2 ; IX, 19, 2, pipyatam dhfyaA, 
to fulfil prayers. I know, of course, that such changes in 
the sacred text will for the present seem most objection- 
able to my friends in India, but I doubt not that the time 
will come when they will see that such emendations are 
inevitable. I see that in the appendix to the Petersburg 
Dictionary, s. v. asu, the same conjecture has been sug- 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Here again I have taken great liberties. Apa- 
nam is explained by Sayawa as a participle for apnuvantam. 
This participle, though quite correct (see Lindner, Altin- 
dische Nominalbildung, p. 54), does not occur again in the 
R.V., nor does it yield a proper meaning. It could only 
mean, ' give us a horse to the chariot, an obtaining prayer, 
rousing the attention (of the gods) day by day.' Apana 
may mean a drinking or carousing, and I do not see why 
we should not take it in that sense. Sacrifices in ancient 
times were often festivals ; VII, 22, 3. imS brahma sa- 
dhama'de ^ushasva, ' accept these prayers at our feast.' If 
we suppose that apana refers to the drinking of Soma, then 

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nothing is more appropriate than to call the drinking 
£itayat, exciting, brahma, a hymn. Anyhow I can dis- 
cover no better meaning in this line. Grassmann, who 
knows that £itayati means to excite, yet translates : ' Gebt 
Gebet, das durchdringt, euch erinnernd Tag fur Tag.' 
Ludwig : ' Das erfolgreiche brahma, das erinnernde tag 
fur tag.' Possibly we should have to change the accent 
from apana to apana. Apana in IX, 10, 5 is equally 

Note 2. On vngana, see I, 165, 15 3 . For fuller discus- 
sions of the various meanings of vr^fana, see Geldner, 
Ved. Stud. I, 139; Oldenberg, Gottinger gel. Anzeigen, 
1890, pp. 410 seq. ; Ph. Colinet, Les principes de l'exejjese 
v^dique d'apres MM. Pischel et Geldner, p. 28; Ludwig, 
t)ber Methode bei Interpretation des Rigveda, 1890, pp. 
27 seq. 

Note 3. Sanf means acquiring, success, luck, gain, and is 
often placed in juxtaposition with medha", wisdom. If they 
are thus placed side by side, sanf looks almost like an ad- 
jective, meaning efficient. RV. I, 18, 6. sanfm medham 
ayasisham, 'I had asked for efficient, true, real wisdom,' 
or, ' I had asked for success and wisdom.' In such pas- 
sages, however, as V, 27, 4. dadat rik& sanfm yate" dadat 
medham rz'tayate\ it is clear that sanf was considered as 
independent and different from medhS (rt£ayate = ritA- 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. On suda'nava/*, see note to I, 64, 6. It must often 
be left open whether sudanu was understood as bounteous, 
or as having good rain or good Soma. 

Note 2. Pinvate, lit. to make swell or abound. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. VWkaUiti is an old locative of wtkatat, wolf- 
hood. To place us in wolf hood means to treat us as wolves, 
or as vogelfrei. Others take it to mean treating us as a 
wolf would treat us. 

Note 2. Tapusha £akrfya. According to Lanman (p. 571) 
tapusha might be taken as an ace. dual fem. I know, 

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NOTES. II, 34, IO. 305 

however, of no strictly analogous cases, and prefer to take 
tapusha as an instrumental, this being its usual employ- 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. The second line is obscure. Neither Grassmann 
nor Ludwig nor Sayana can extract any intelligible meaning 
from it. I have translated it, but I am far from satisfied. 
There may be an antithesis between the friends (the Maruts 
themselves, see V, 53, 2), milking the udder of Prwni, and 
the Maruts coming to blame their friends for not offering 
them sacrifices, or for offering them sacrifices in common 
with Indra. In the first case when they, as friends, milk 
the cloud, their approach is brilliant and auspicious. In 
the second case, when they come to blame those who ought 
to celebrate them, or those who are actually hostile to 
them by causing the ruin or decay of a friend of the 
Maruts, such as Trita, their approach is likewise brilliant, 
but not auspicious. Trita is a friend of the Maruts whom 
they assist in battle, and it is possible that this legend may 
be alluded to here. Sometimes Trita seems also connected 
with the third libation which was offered at sunset, just 
as Vishttu represented the second libation which was 
offered at noon*. Thus we read, VIII, ia, 16. yat s6mam 
indra vfshwavi yat va gha trite* aptye* yat va marutsu 
mandase, 'whether you, Indra, enjoy the Soma near 
Vishmi, or near Trita Aptya, or among the Maruts.' 
.Sakapum, as quoted by Yaska (Nir. XII, 19), explains 
the three steps of Vishwu as earth, sky, and heaven ; 
Aurwavibha distinguishes Samarohawa, Vish/zupada, and 
Gayariras. But all this does not help us to disentangle our 
verse. It should be added that Bergaigne makes Tritam 
to be governed by duhtiA (Rel. Ved. II, 327). We should 
then have to translate, 'or whether they milk Trita in 
order to blame the singer, to make them old who make 

* Odinn is styled Thridi, by the side of Har and Tafnhar (the 
high and the even high) as the Third High. At other times he is 
Tveggi (secundus). Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, vol. i, p. 16a. 

[3»] x 

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others old, or who themselves become old.' This, however, 
does not help us much. Professor Oldenberg conjectures 
that possibly ^uratam might be changed to ^riratam, and 
that the dual of the verb might refer to Rudra and Frisni ; 
or we might read^urati for^nrata, if it refers to Rudriyas. 
Navamanasya might also be used in the sense of making a 
noise (see 1, 29,5), and possibly navamanasya nide - might have 
been intended for shouting and laughing to scorn. But all 
this leaves the true meaning of the verse as unfathomable as 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. V/shwor eshasya prabhr/the - is obscure. At the 
offering of the rapid Vishnu is supposed to mean, when the 
rapid Vishnu offers Soma. The same phrase occurs again, 
VII, 40, 5. In VIII, 20, 3, we can translate, 'we know 
the strength of the Maruts, and of the hasting Vishwu, 
the bounteous gods.' In VII, 39, 5, the reading is vfshwum 
esham. Bergaigne (II, 419) is inclined to take vishwu esha 
as Soma. We should then translate, 'at the offering of 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. The Daragvas are mentioned as an old priestly 
family, like the Angiras, and they seem also, like the 
Angiras, to have their prototypes or their ancestors among 
the divine hosts. Could they here be identified with the 
Maruts? They are said to have been the first to carry 
on the sacrifice, and they are asked to rouse men at the 
break of the day. Now the same may be said of the 
Maruts. They are often connected with the dawn, probably 
because the storms break forth with greater vigour in the 
morning, or, it may be, because the chasing away of the 
darkness of the night recalls the struggle between the dark- 
ness of the thunderstorm and the brightness of the sun. 
The matutinal character of the Maruts appears, for instance, 
in V, 5$, 14 (usrf bhesha^am), and their father Dyaus is 
likewise called vrf'shabha* usrfyan, V, 58, 6. In the second 
line ur«ute, though in the singular, refers also to the 
Maruts in the plural ; see Bergaigne, Melanges Renier, 

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NOTES. II, 34, 1 3. 307 

Paris, 1886, p. 80. There still remain two difficult words, 
mahcLfe and g6-ar«asa. The former (see Lanman, p. 501) 
may be taken as an adjective referring to the Daragvas 
or Maruts, unless we take it as an adverb, quickly, like 
makshu. If we could change it into mah&, it would form 
an appropriate adjective to ^yotisha, as in IV, 50, 4. On 
g6-ar«asa all that can be said is that it mostly occurs where 
something is uncovered or revealed, so I, 112, 18 ; X, 38, 2. 
Note 2. On ya^f»am vah, to carry on the sacrifice like 
a wagon, see Bergaigne, Rel. V6d. II, 259-260. See also 
RV. VIII, 16, 15 ; 58, 1, and y%f«a-vahas. 

Verse 13. 
Note 1. In interpreting this obscure verse we must begin 
with what is clear. The aruti&A angiyaA are the well- 
known ornaments of the Maruts, mentioned I, 37, 2, note ; 
I, 64, 4, note, &c. The Maruts shine in these ornaments 
or paints, I, 85, 3 ; 87, 1 ; V, 56, 1 ; X, 78, 7. Though we 
do not know their special character, we know that, like 
the daggers, spears, and bracelets of the Maruts, they were 
supposed to contribute to their beautiful appearance. 
Again, we know that when the Maruts are said to grow 
(vavr*dhuA), that means that they grow in strength, in 
spirits, and in, splendour, or, in a physical sense, that the 
storms increase, that the thunder roars, and the lightnings 
flash, see V, 55, 3 ; 59, 5. Now if it is said that the Rudras 
grew with kshonis, as if with bright red ornaments, we 
must have in these kshowls the physical prototype of what 
are metaphorically called their glittering ornaments. And 
here we can only think either of the bright morning clouds 
(referring to ushaV/ na ramiVi aru«a/A apa urnute in the 
preceding verse), or lightnings. These bright clouds of 
heaven are sometimes conceived as the mothers (III, 9, 2. 
apaA mktrf/i), and more especially the mothers of the 
Maruts, who are in consequence called Sfndhu-mataraA, 
X, 78, 6, a name elsewhere given to Soma, IX, 61, 7, and 
to the Ajvins, I, 46, 2. It is said of a well-known hero, 
Pururavas (originally a solar hero), that as soon as he was 
born the women (gna/z) were there, and immediately after- 

X 2 

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wards that the rivers increased or cherished him, X, 95, 7. 
In other passages too these celestial rivers or waters or 
clouds are represented as women, whether mothers or wives 
(X, 124, 7). A number of names are given to these beings, 
when introduced as the companions of the Apsaras Urvarf, 
and it is said of them that they came along like angky&h 
aruwaya/z, like bright red ornaments, X, 95, 6. It seems clear 
therefore that the zrutt&A angkyaJt of the Maruts have to be 
explained by the bright red clouds of the morning, or in 
more mythological language, by the Apsaras, who are said 
to be like aruwayaA ang&ya/i. Hence, whatever its ety- 
mology may have been, ksho«fbhi/e in our passage must 
refer to the clouds of heaven, and the verse can only be 
translated, ' the Rudras grew with the clouds as with their 
red ornaments,' that is, the clouds were their red orna- 
ments, and as the clouds grew in splendour, the Maruts 
grew with their splendid ornaments. 

Professor Geldner arrived at a similar conclusion. In 
Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XI, p. 327, and more recently in 
Ved. Stud., p. 277, he assigned to ksho/zi the meaning of 
woman, which is quite possible, and would make it a 
synonym of the celestial gnas. But he translates, ' the 
Maruts excite themselves with red colours as with women.' 
These are hardly Vedic thoughts, and the position of na 
would remain anomalous. Nor should we gain much if we 
read te ksho«aya/fc aruwebhiA na a^fibhiA, 'these Rudras 
were delighted like wives by bright ornaments.' The bright 
ornaments have once for all a settled meaning, they are 
peculiar to the Maruts, and cannot in a Marut hymn be 
taken in any other sense. 

Then comes the question, how is the meaning assigned 
to kshowt, namely cloud, or, as personified, Apsaras, ap- 
plicable to other passages? In X, 95, 9, it seems most 
appropriate: 'So long as the mortal (Pururavas), longing 
for the immortal (Apsaras), does not come near with 
strength to those kshonis, i. e. those Apsaras, or morning 
clouds, they beautified their bodies like ducks ' (an excellent 
image, if one watches ducks cleaning themselves in the 
water), 'like sporting horses biting each other.' Geldner 

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notes, n, 34, 13. 309 

translates this verse somewhat differently, Ved. Stud. I, 
p. 276. 

Having disposed of these two passages where ksho«t 
occurs in the plural, we have next to consider those where 
it stands in the dual. Here ksho«i always means heaven 
and earth, like rodast, dyavaprz'thiv!, &c. 

VIII, 7, 22. sam u tye° mahati// apAA sam kshow? sam u 
sffryam . . . parvaraA dadhu/*. They, the Maruts, set the 
great waters (the sky), heaven and earth and the sun piece- 
meal (or, they put them together piece by piece). 

VIII, 52, 10. sam indraA rSyaJt bWhatfA adhunuta sam 
kshowf sam u stfryam. Indra shook the great treasures, 
heaven and earth, and the sun. 

VIII, 99, 6. anu te jushmam turayantam JyatuA ksho«? 
slsum na matara. Heaven and earth followed thy rapid 
strength, like mother-cows their calf. 

II, 16, 3. na kshonfbhyam paribhvg te indriyam. Thy 
strength is not to be compassed by heaven and earth. 

If after this we look at the passage translated by Professor 
Geldner, I, 180, 5. apaA kshom sa£ate ma"hina vam, we see 
at once that apaA and kshow? cannot be separated, and that 
we must translate, your Mahina reaches heaven and earth 
and the sky. Mahini, according to Professor Geldner, 
means the magnificent woman, namely Surya, but it is 
possible that it may have been meant for ' mahima, your 
greatness reaches heaven and earth and the sky.' Ap&A, 
which Professor Geldner translates ' from the water,' is the 
ace. plural, meaning the waters between heaven and earth, 
or the sky. It occurs again in connection with heaven and 
earth, the sun, heaven, and generally without any copula. 
Thus, VIII, 7, 22. apa/i, kshow*, stfryam, i.e. the waters (the 
sky), heaven and earth, the sun. I, $6, 8. r6dasi apaA, 
heaven and earth and the waters ; cf. V, 31, 6. Likewise 

1, 52, 12. apaA svZA paribhflA eshi &. dfvam; V, 14, 4. 
avindat g&h a.paA svSA ; VI, 47, 14. apaA gSA ; cf. VI, 60, 

2. VII, 44, 1. dyaVapn'thivi apdA svZA, cf. X, 36, 1 ; IX. 
90,4; 91,6. 

There remain five passages where kshowiA occurs, and 
where Professor Geldner's conjecture that it means women 

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holds good. In I, 54, i, it may mean real women, or the 
women of the clouds. In I, 57, 4; 173, 7; VIII, 3, 
10; 13, 17; also in X, 22, 9, women seems the most 
plausible translation. 

Rote 2. Ritasya. sadanani is almost impossible to trans- 
late. It may be the places in heaven where the Maruts 
are supposed to be, or the places where sacrifices are 
offered to them. 

Note 3. Atyena pa^-asa has been explained in different 
ways. Sayana renders it by always moving power; 
Grassmann by ' mit schnell erregtem Schimmer ; ' Ludwig, 
' mit eilender kraft,' though he is no longer satisfied with 
this meaning, and suggests ' net for catching.' Roth has 
touched several times on this word. In the Allgemeine 
Monatsschrift of 1851, p. 87, he suggested for pa^as the 
meaning of ' impression of a foot or of a carriage, perhaps 
also reflection.' In his Notes on the Nirukta, p. 78 seq., 
he is very hard on the Indian commentators who explain 
the word by strength, but who never go conscientiously 
through all the passages in which a word occurs. He then 
still maintained that the word ought to be translated by 

It seems, however, that the most appropriate meaning in 
the passages in which pa^as occurs is splendour, though of 
course a stream of light may be conceived as a bright 
train or path. In some the meaning of light seems quite 
inevitable, for instance, III, 15, 1. vf pa^-asa pr/thuni 
s6suk&mJt. Agni, shining with broad light 

VIII, 46, 25. 8. . . . yahf makhaya pa^ase. Come hither, 
Vayu, for strong light. 

Ill, 14, 1. (agnfA) prfthivya'm f&gaA ajret. Agni assumed 
(or spread) splendour on earth. 

VII, 10, 1. ush&A na g&r&Jt prj'thii \>&gah ajret. (Agni,) 
like the lover of the dawn, assumed (or spread) wide 

Ill, 61, 5. urdhvam madhudha divf p%aA ajret. The 
dawn assumed rising splendour in the sky. 
■ VII, 3, 4. vf yasya te pr/thivya'm pa^aA airet. Thou 
(Agni) whose splendour spread on earth. 

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NOTES. 11,34,15. 311 

IX, 68, 3. abhivni^an akshitam pa^aA a" dade. (Soma) 
approaching assumed imperishable splendour. This splen- 
dour of Soma is also mentioned in IX, 109, 21, and the 
expression that he shakes his splendour (vr/tha kar) occurs 
IX, 76, 1 ; 88, 5. (Cf. Geldner, Ved. Stud. I, p. 117.) 

In VI, 21, 7. abhi tva pSgaA rakshasaA vf tasthe, it would, 
no doubt, seem preferable to translate, ' the power of the 
Rakshas came upon thee,' but the ugram p£gaA, the fierce 
light, is not out of place either, while in most of the pas- 
sages which we have examined, the meaning of power would 
be entirely out of place. 

In I, 121, 11, heaven and earth seem to be called pa^asl, 
the two splendours. Pischel, Ved. Stud. p. 87, translates 
atyena pfLgask by ' durch das stattliche Ross,' namely the 
Soma, but pSgas seems to be something that belongs to 
Soma, not Soma himself. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. Grassmann suggests iyanSA instead of iyanaA. 

Note 2. Abh/sh/aye, for superiority or victory, rather 
than for assistance. Abhish/i, with accent on the last 
syllable, means conqueror or victorious ; see RV. I, 9, 1 ; 
111,34,4; X, 100, 12; 104,10. 

Vene 15. 

Note 1. On radhra and its various applications, see Pischel, 
Ved. Stud. I, p. 124. 

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To the Maruts (the- Storm-gods). 

i. O Sy&v&sva., sing boldly with 1 the Maruts, the 
singers who, worthy themselves of sacrifice, rejoice 
in their guileless glory 2 according to their nature. 

2. They are indeed boldly the friends of strong 
power; they on their march protect all who by 
themselves are full of daring l . 

3. Like rushing bulls, these Maruts spring over 1 
the dark cows (the clouds) 2 , and then we perceive 
the might of the Maruts in heaven and on earth. 

4. Let us boldly offer praise and sacrifice to your 
Maruts, to all them who protect the generation of 
men, who protect the mortal from injury. 

5. They who are worthy, bounteous, men of per- 
fect strength, to those heavenly Maruts who are 
worthy of sacrifice, praise the sacrifice ! 

6. The tall men 1 , coming near with their bright 
chains, and their weapon, have hurled forth their 
spears. Behind these Maruts there came by itself 
the splendour of heaven, like laughing lightnings 2 . 

7. Those who have grown up on earth, or in the 
wide sky, or in the realm of the rivers, or in the 
abode of the great heaven, 

8. Praise that host of the Maruts, endowed with 
true strength and boldness 1 , whether those rushing 
heroes have by themselves harnessed (their horses) 
for triumph, 

9. Or whether these brilliant Maruts have in the 
(speckled) cloud clothed themselves in wool 1 , or 

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MAJVDALA. V, HYMN 52. 313 

whether by their strength they cut the mountain 
asunder with the tire of their chariot ; 

10. Call them comers, or goers, or enterers, or 
followers, under all these names, they watch on the 
straw 1 for my sacrifice. 

11. The men (the Maruts) watch, and their steeds 
watch. Then, so brilliant are their forms to be 
seen, that people say, Look at the strangers 1 ! 

12. In measured steps 1 and wildly shouting 2 the 
gleemen 8 have danced toward the well (the cloud). 
They who appeared one by one like thieves, were 
helpers to me to see the light*. 

13. Worship, therefore, O seer, that host of 
Maruts, and keep and delight them with your voice, 
they who are themselves wise 1 poets, tall heroes 
armed with lightning-spears. 

14. Approach, O seer, the host of Maruts, as a 
woman approaches a friend, for a gift 1 ; and you, 
Maruts, bold in your strength 2 , hasten hither, even 
from heaven, when you have been praised by our 

15. If he, after perceiving them, has approached 
them as gods with an offering, then may he for a 
gift remain united with the brilliant (Maruts), who 
by their ornaments are glorious on their march. 

16. They, the wise 1 Maruts, the lords, who, when 
there was inquiry for their kindred, told me of the 
cow, they told me of Prism as their mother, and of 
the strong Rudra as their father. 

17. The seven and seven heroes 1 gave me each 
a hundred. On the Yamuna I clear off glorious 
wealth in cows, I clear wealth in horses. 

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This hymn is ascribed to Sy&v&sva. Atreya. Metre, 
AnushAibh, 1-5, 7-15; Pankti, 6, 16, and 17. Saya«a 
seems to take verse 16 as an AnushAibh, which of course 
is a mistake. No verse of this hymn occurs in SV., VS., 
TS., TB., MS., AV. 

Verse L 

Note L One expects the dative or accusative after ar£a. 
The instrumental leaves us no choice but to translate, 
'Sing with the Maruts, who are themselves famous as 
singers.' Cf. I, 6, 8 ; V, 60, 8. 

Note 2. On srivaJi madanti, see Gaedicke, Accusativ, 


Verse 2. 

Note L Dhmhadv/nas may also refer to the Maruts. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. One expects adhi instead of ati, see Gaedicke, 
Accusativ, p. 95 seq. 

Note 2. See note to I, 37, 5 ; also, Bartholomae in 
Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, an. The' whole verse has 
been discussed by Benfey, Vedica und Verwandtes, p. 152 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. This verse has been discussed before, I, 168, 7, 
note. Benfey (Nachrichten der K. Ges. der Wiss. zu 
Gottingen, 1876, 38 Juni ; comp. Vedica und Verwandtes, 
p. 141) translated it : * Heran . . . haben die Helden, die 
hehren, ihre Speere geschleudert ; ihnen, den Maruts, nach 
(erheben sich) traun gleichsam lachende Blitze, erhebt sich 
selbst des Himmels Glanz.' Rishv&A seems here, as in 
verse 13, to refer to the Maruts, as in IV, 19, 1, rishvim 
refers to Indra, though it can be used of weapons also, see 
VI, 18, 10. As to the instrumentalis comitativus in 
xv.kma.lA and yudhS, see Lanman, p. 335. 

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NOTES. V, 52, 9. 315 

Note 2. Bcnfey's explanation of g&gkghsXXh is ingenious, 
though it leaves some difficulties. The writing of ghgh in 
Devanagari may have been meant for ggh, as in akhkhalt- 
kr/tya, VII, 103, 3. But there remains the fact that^aksh 
occurs in the sense of laughing, I, 33, 7, and one does not 
see why it should have undergone a Prakritic change in 
our passage, and not there. It might be a mimetic word, to 
express.the sound of rattling and clattering ; cf. gzngaxA- 
bhavan, VIII, 43, 8. 

Verae 8. 

Note 1. As to the adjective in the masculine gender after 
jardhas, see I, 37, 1, note. The meaning of r/bhvas, bold, 
rabid, is doubtful ; see Bergaigne, Rel. V6d. II, 408. 

Verae 9. 

Note 1. Sayawa takes Parushwi as the name of one of 
the rivers of the Punjab, called the Iravati, and at present 
the Ravi. Parushwi might mean speckled, muddy, as a 
synonym of prism. Roth has suggested that parushni 
might here mean cloud. But what is the meaning of 
parushwi in a similar passage, IV, 22, 2. (fndraA) sriyi 
parushttim ushama«aA flrcam yasyaA parvawi sakhyaya 
vivye ? If it means that Indra clothed himself in speckled 
wool, that wool might be intended for what we call woolly 
or fleecy clouds. As the Maruts often perform the same 
acts as Indra, we might read in our verse uta sma te" 
parushwls firnkA, and pronounce uta sma te* parushwia 
u"r»aA, though Lanman, p. 395, objects to ias for Is in the 
ace. plur. See, however, hetfA adevlA in VIII, 61, 16. The 
instrumental singular is possible, but again unusual with 
vas, parushttya tfrwa. Possibly the original meaning of 
parush/ri may have been forgotten, and if the name of the 
river Parushwi was generally known, it might easily have 
taken the place of parusbnt, the cloud. For other explana- 
tions see Roth, t)ber gewisse Kiirzungen, Wien, 1887 ; 
Bartholomae, in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXIX, 583 ; Schmidt, 
Die Pluralbildungen der indogermanischen Neutra, 1889, 
P- 3°7- 

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Verse 10. 

Note L Vishl&riA does not occur again, and Lanman is 
therefore quite justified in assigning to it the meaning of 
straw (p. 339). He paraphrases: 'Let their customs carry 
them where they may, yet when I sacrifice, they wait 
quietly on the straw, i. e. the altar, for it.' He reads in the 
Pada text vi-stare - for vi-staraA. Vish/arm, which occurs 
AV. IV, 34, 1, does not throw much light on the exact 
meaning of vish/ara in this place. If we retain vish/ariA, 
the nominative, we must assign to it the meaning of crowd, 
and refer it to the Maruts. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. Paravata is a turtle-dove (VS. XXIV, 25), and it 
is just possible that the Maruts might have been compared 
to them. But paravata is used in VIII, 100, 6, as an epithet 
of vasu, wealth, and in VIII, 34, 18, we read of ratis (not 
ratris), i. e. gifts of Paravata. The river Sarasvati is called 
paravataghni, killing Paravata, VI, 61, a, and in the 
Paw^av. Br. IX, 4, 11, we hear that Turarravas and the 
P&ravatas offered their Somas together. I am therefore 
inclined to take Paravata, lit. distant people, extranei, 
strangers, as a name of an Aryan border clan with whom 
the Vedic Aryas were sometimes at war, sometimes at 
peace. In that case the frontier-river, the Sarasvati, might 
be called the destroyer or enemy of the Paravatas. As 
their wealth and gifts have been mentioned, to compare 
the Maruts with the PAravatas may mean no more than 
that the Maruts also are rich and generous. Ludwig 
thinks of the IlapvrJTai, which seems more doubtful. For 
a different interpretation see Delbriick, Syntax, p. 531. 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. I take Manda/«tubh in the sense of stepping 
(according to) a measure, as explained in my Preface(ist ed.), 
p. cii, though I do not doubt that that meaning was after- 
wards forgotten, and replaced by the technical meaning 
of stubh, to shout See Bohtlingk-Roth, s.v. stubh, and 

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NOTES. V, 52, 15. 317 

stobhagrantha, Sama-veda, Bibl. Ind., II, p. 519. It can 
hardly be supposed that such artificial performances of 
Vedic hymns, as are preserved in the Sama-veda, could 
have suggested the first names of the ancient metres. 

Note 2. Kubhanyii can only be derived from bhan, to 

Note 3. The kirf«aA are probably intended here for 
strolling minstrels who, when they approached the well 
of a village (here the cloud), might be taken either for 
friends or foes. 

Note 4. Drisi tvishe\ Grassmann translates: 'Wie 
Rauberbanden schienen sic gcschart zum Andrang meinem 
Blick.' Ludwig better : ' Heifer waren sie, glanz zu sehn.' 
We must either read drisi tvishe\ to see the light, or drisi 
tvishf, to be seen by light. See, however, P. G., Ved. Stud, 
p. 225. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. Vedhas, wise. The different possible meanings 
of this word have been discussed by Ludwig, Z.D.M.G. 
XL, p. 716 ; and by Bartholomae, in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, 
XXVII, p. 361. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. On dana*, see Lanman, pp. 533, $35 ; P. G., Ved. 
Stud. p. 10 1. 
Note 2. Dhrzshwava^ Cgasa to be read - w - v -. 

Verse 15. 

This verse, as Roth says, is very obscure, and the 
translation is purely tentative. Grassmann derives vak- 
sha«a from vah in the sense of an offering. It may more 
easily be derived from vaksh, i.e. what gives increase, 
and be taken as an instrumental. Pischel shows that in 
many passages vakshawa in the plural has the meaning of 
yoni, also of the yoni on the altar. But even this meaning 
does not throw much light on our passage. The first pada 
may possibly be taken in an interrogative and conditional 
sense, or we may translate : ' Now, having perceived them, 
may he, as a refreshing draught goes to the gods, come 

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together with the Maruts for his reward.' Whatever the 
verse may mean, esham devan cannot mean the gods of 
the Maruts, or prove the existence of idols, as Bollensen 
(Z.D.M.G. XXII, 587) and even Muir (S.T. V, 454) 
imagined. The translation of Pischel, Ved. Stud. p. 101, 
surfbhLA angibbiA mit • Herren, die schmieren, d. h. ordent- 
lich bezahlen,' seems too exclusively German. Could 
angin be an adjective, in the sense of possessed of angis ? 

Verse 16. 

Note 1. If jfkvas is not to be derived from jak (see 
Hubschmann, Vocalsystem, pp. 64, 186), we should have 
to derive nis, night, from a root altogether different from 
that which yields nakt, nakta, &c. But how does* jfkvas 
come to mean, according to Ludwig, both bunch of flowers, 
and flaming ? Does he connect it with jikha ? Surely, if 
jiksh may stand for jirak-s, why not .rik-vas for *.mak- 
vas ? ' Bright' leaves it doubtful whether it means clever or 

Verse 17. 

Note 1. The seven, seven heroes need not be the 
Maruts, but some liberal patrons who rewarded Syavlfva. 
See Bergaigne, Rel. Ved. II, 371. 

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MAWJ3ALA V, HYMN 53. 319 


To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. Who knows their birth ? or who was of yore 
in the favour of the Maruts, when they harnessed 
the spotted deer l ? 

2. Who has heard them when they had mounted 
their chariots, how they went forth ? For the sake 
of what liberal giver (Sudas) did they run, and their 
comrades followed 1 , (as) streams of rain (filled) with 
food ? 

3. They themselves said to me when day by day 1 
they came to the feast with their birds * : they (the 
Maruts) are manly youths and blameless ; seeing 
them, praise them thus ; 

4. They who shine by themselves in their 
ornaments x , their daggers, their garlands, their 
golden chains, their rings, going 2 on their chariots 
and on dry land. 

5. O Maruts, givers of quickening rain, I am 
made to rejoice, following after your chariots, as 
after days 1 going with rain. 

6. The bucket which the bounteous heroes shook 
down from heaven for their worshipper, that cloud 
they send 1 along heaven and earth, and showers 
follow on the dry land. 

7. The rivers having pierced 1 the air with a rush 
of water, went forth like milk-cows; when your 
spotted deer roll about 2 like horses that have hasted 
to the resting-place on their road. 

8. Come hither, O Maruts, from heaven„ from the 
sky, even from near 1 ; do not go far away ! 

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9. Let not the Rasa, the Anitabhi, the Kubhi, 
the Krumu, let not the Sindhu delay you ! Let not 
the marshy Sarayu prevent you ! May your favour 
be with us alone ! 

10. The showers come forth after the host of your 
chariots, after the terrible Marut-host of the ever- 
youthful heroes '. 

1 1. Let us then follow with our praises and our 
prayers each host of yours, each troop, each company 1 . 

1 2. To what well-born generous worshipper have 
the Maruts gone to-day on that march, 

1 3. On which you bring to kith and kin the never- 
failing seed of corn ? Give us that for which we 
ask you, wealth and everlasting happiness! 

14. Let us safely pass through our revilers, leaving 
behind the unspeakable and the enemies. Let us 
be with you when in the morning x you shower down 
health, wealth 2 , water, and medicine, O Maruts ! 

15. That mortal, O men, O Maruts, whom you 
protect, may well be always beloved by the gods, 
and rich in valiant offspring. May we be such ! 

16. Praise the liberal Maruts, and may they 
delight on the path of this man here who praises* 
them, like cows in fodder. When they go, call after 
them as for old friends, praise them who love you, 
with your song ! 

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NOTES. V, 53, 4. 32I 


Ascribed to Sy&v&sva. Atreya. Metre, 1, 5, 10, 11, 15 
Kakubh ; % Brzhat! ; 3 Anushrubh ; 4 Pura-ush«ih ; 6, 7, 
9, 13, 14, 16 Satobrrhatt ; 8, ia Gayatrl. No verse of this 
hymn occurs in SV., VS., AV. ; the sixth verse is found in 
TS. II, 4, 8, 1; MS. II, 4, 7 ; Ka/Aaka XI, 9. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Kilast, as fem. of kilasa, does not occur again. 
It seems to have meant spotted or marked with pocks, and 
would be intended for the prfehatls. Does Kailasa come 
from the same source ? 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Kasmai sasruA is much the same as kasmai adya 
su^ataya . . . pra yayuA, in verse ia. We must then begin 
a new sentence, anu apayaA, their comrades after, namely 
sasru/s. Thus we read in verse 10 tarn vaJt jardham . . . 
anu pra yanti w/sh/ayaA, where the streams of rain are 
represented as the followers of the Maruts. We might also 
translate in our sentence : For what liberal giver did their 
comrades, the streams of rain with food follow after (the 

Verse 3. 

Note L tlpa dyubhi/r occurs again VIII, 40, 8, and 
seems to mean from day to day. 

Note 2. The birds of the Maruts, probably of the same 
character as the birds of the A^vins. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. I translate ang\ by ornament in general, not by 
paint or ointment, though that may have been its original 

Note 2. On jraya, see Pa«. Ill, 3, 24. Dhanvasu may 
possibly have been intended as governed by svabhanava^, 
and not by sxky&h ; see, however, VIII, 33, 6. smisrvshu 

[3*] Y r 

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Verse 6. 
Note 1. On dyaVaA, nom. plur., and rdtMn, ace. plur., 
compare Bergaigne, Melanges Renier, p. 88. The text is 
doubtful, and may be a corruption of vrishttA dyavaA yatfA 

Verse 8. 

Note L The Taittiriyas, TS. II, 4, 8, i, read par^dnya^ ; 
the Maitreyas, prd parfdnya^ sr^atam and yantu. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Tatrzddnd, as trid occurs in the Veda in the 
Parasmaipada only, may be intended for a passive, bored, 
dug out, tapped. One would, however, expect in that case an 
instrumental, marudbhi//, by whom they were brought forth. 

Note 2. The words vf yid vdrtanta enyaA have received 
various explanations. Wilson translates : ' When the rivers 
rush in various directions.' Sayawa admits also another 
meaning : ' When the rivers grow.' Ludwig translates : ' Sich 
verteilend gehn die schimmeraden auszeinander.' Grass- 
mann, very boldly: 'Wie Hengste traufelnd, wenn vom 
Wege heimgekehrt, sie zu den bunten Stuten gehn,' Vi-vrit 
seems, however, to have a very special meaning, namely, 
rolling on the ground, and this the spotted deer are here 
said to have done, like horses at the end of their journey. 
We read of the sacrificial horse, .Sat. Br. XIII, 5, i, 16. sa 
yady ava vA ^ighred vi vA varteta, samr*ddho me yagtia. iti 
ha vidy&t ; cf. XI, 2, 5, 3. In the TS. VII, 1, 19, 3, the com- 
mentator explains vivartanam by nirgatya bhumau viluw- 
A&anam, the rolling on the ground. The same meaning is 
applicable to Mah&parinibbana Sutta, p. 66 (Childers), where 
the Bhikkhus are said to roll on the ground when they hear 
of Buddha's death ; also to MaMbh. Ill, 11 953 (of a wild 
boar). The meaning therefore in our passage seems to be, 
when the deer roll on the ground, as horses are wont to 
do at the end of a journey. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. Amfit corresponds here to pn'thivi in other 
places. Originally it may have meant from the home. 

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NOTES. V, 53, IO. 323 

Verse 9. 

This verse has often been discussed on account of the 
names of the rivers which it contains. .Syavlrva had 
mentioned the YamunA in 52, 17, and some interpreters 
have been inclined to give to parushnl in 5a, 9 a geogra- 
phical meaning, taking it for the river Ravi, instead of 
translating it by cloud. The geographical names are 
certainly interesting, but they have been discussed so often 
that I need not dwell on them here. (See M. M., India, 
p. 163.) 

The Rasa, known to the Zoroastrians as the Raaha, was 
originally the name of a real river, but when the Aryas 
moved away from it into the Punjab, it assumed a mythical 
character, and became a kind of Okeanos, surrounding the 
extreme limits of the world. 

Anitabha seems to be the name of a new river or part 
of a river. It can hardly be taken as an epithet of Rasa, 
as Ludwig suggests. Anitabha, whose splendour has not 
departed (Ludwig), or, amitabha, of endless splendour, 
would hardly be Vedic formations. (Chips, I, p. 157 ; 
Hibbert Lect., p. 207 ; India, pp. 166, 173, notes.) 

Kubha is the Ko></»jj> or Ka><f>rjs of the Greeks, the Kabul 
river. The Krumu I take to be the Kurrum. (India, 
p. 177, note.) 

The Sindhu is the Indus, though it is difficult to say 
which part of it, while the Sarayu has been supposed to be 
the Sarayu, the affluent of the Ganga, but may also be a 
more general name for some more northern river in the 
Punjab. (See Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, pp. 1 7 f., 45 ; 
Muir, S. T. II, p. xxv, note.) 

Verse 10. 
Note 1. Navyasinam has been a puzzle to all interpreters. 
Saya«a seems to me to give the right interpretation, 
namely, nutananam. As from a%asa, instr. sing., straight- 
way, a«jfasiha was formed, straightforward ; from ndvyas&, 
instr. sing., anew, navyasina seems to have been formed in 
the sense of new. Navyasinam might then be a somewhat 

Y 2 


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irregular gen. plur., referring to gawam marutam, the Marut- 
host of the young men ; see V, 58, 1. Lanman (p. 515) 
takes it for a gen. plur. fern., but in that case it could not 
refer to rathanam. Zimmer translates endlos, Bergaigne 
(II, 400) thinks of new or rejuvenescent mothers. 

Verse 11. 
Note 1. See III, 26, 6. 

Verse 14. 

Mote 1. Usrf, in the morning. Lanman (p. 427) proposes 
to read ushari, but the metre would be better preserved by 
reading vrishtvi as trisyllabic. The difficulty is the con- 
struction of the gerund vr tshtvl, which refers to the Maruts, 
and syama saha, which refers to the sacrificers. 

Note 2. On jam y6h, see I, 165, 4, note 2. 

The metrical structure of this hymn is interesting. If 
we represent the foot of eight syllables by a, that of twelve 
by b, we find the following succession : 

fiaba f 3 

( 2 a a b a I 4 

I 7 b a b a / 13 a a a 

f 10 aba VI-|i3baba f 15 aba 

In aba li4baba 1 16 b a b 

a a a a 
aaa f 8 a a a 

III-{ 6 b aba IV t pbaba 

b a b a 

We find that I contains the question, II the answer, III 
description of rain, IV prayer and invitation, V praise of 
the companions, VI prayer, VII conclusion. Comp. Olden- 
berg's Prolegomena, p. 106 seq. 

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MAWALA V, HYMN 54. 325 



To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. You have fashioned 1 this speech for the bril- 
liant Marut-host which shakes the mountains : cele- 
brate then the great manhood in honour of that host 
who praises the warm milk (of the sacrifice), and 
sacrifices on the height of heaven 2 , whose glory is 

2. O Maruts, your powerful men (came) forth 
searching for water, invigorating, harnessing their 
horses, swarming around. When they aim with the 
lightning, Trita shouts, and the waters murmur, 
running around on their course. 

3. These Maruts are men brilliant with lightning, 
they shoot with thunderbolts, they blaze with the 
wind, they shake the mountains, and suddenly, when 
wishing to give water 1 , they whirl the hail; they 
have thundering strength, they are robust, they are 

4. When you drive forth 1 the nights, O Rudras, 
the days, O powerful men, the sky, the mists, ye 
shakers, the plains, like ships, and the strongholds, 
O Maruts, you suffer nowhere. 

5. That strength of yours, O Maruts, that great- 
ness extended far as the sun extends its daily course, 
when you, like your deer on their march, went down 
to the (western) mountain with untouched splendour 1 . 

6. Your host, O Maruts, shone forth when, O 
sages, you strip, like a caterpillar, the waving tree \ 


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Conduct then, O friends, our service 2 to a good end, 
as the eye conducts the man in walking. 

7. That man, O Maruts, is not overpowered, he 
is not killed, he does not fail, he does not shake, he 
does not drop, his goods do not perish, nor his 
protections, if you lead him rightly, whether he be a 
seer or a king. 

8. The men with their steeds, like conquerors of 
clans, like Aryaman (Mitra and Varu^a) 1 , the 
Maruts, carrying waterskins 2 , fill the well; when 
the strong ones roar, they moisten the earth with 
the juice of sweetness 3 . 

9. When the Maruts come forth this earth bows, 
the heaven bows, the paths in the sky bow, and the 
cloud-mountains with their quickening rain. 

10. When you rejoice at sunrise, O Maruts, toiling 
together 1 , men of Svar (sun-light), men of Dyu 
(heaven), your horses never tire in running, and you 
quickly reach the end of your journey. 

11. On your shoulders are the spears, on your 
feet rings, on your chests golden chains, O Maruts, 
on your chariot gems ; fiery lightnings in your fists, 
and golden headbands tied round your heads *. 

12.O Maruts, you shake the red apple 1 from the 
firmament, whose splendour no enemy 2 can touch ; 
the hamlets bowed when the Maruts blazed, and the 
pious people (the Maruts) intoned their far-reaching 

13. O wise Maruts, let us carry off 1 the wealth of 
food which you have bestowed on us ; give us 2 , O 
Maruts, such thousandfold wealth as never fails 3 , 
like the star Tishya * from heaven ! 

14. O Maruts, you protect our wealth of excellent 
men, and the seer, clever in song ; you give to 

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MANDALA V, HYMN 54. 327 

Bharata (the warrior) 1 a strong horse*, you make 
the king to be obeyed s . 

15. O you who are quickly ready to help, I 
implore you for wealth whereby we may overshadow 
all men, like the sky. O Maruts, be pleased with 
this word of mine, and let us speed by its speed 
over a hundred winters ! 


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The same poet, Syavajva Atreya. Metre, 1-13, 15 
Gagatl ; 14 Trish/ubh. None of the verses of this hymn 
occurs in SV., VS., AV., TS., TB., MS. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Ana^a, explained as a 2nd pers. plur. perf., re- 
ferring to the same people who are addressed by areata. 
It may be also the first person of the imperative ; see 
Benfey, Uber die Entstehung der mit r anlautenden Per- 
sonalendungen, p. 5, note. 

Note 2. Possibly the second line of this verse may refer 
to ceremonial technicalities. Gharma means heat and 
summer, but also the sacrificial vessel (formus) in which 
the milk is heated, and the warm milk itself. Ya^van can 
only mean sacrificing, and div&A prishtAa. is the back of 
heaven, the highest roof of heaven ; see triprf sh/fta. Thus 
we read, I, 115, 3. harfta/t . . . diviA & prishtA&m asthu^. 
See also I, 164, 10 ; 166, 5; III, a, ia ; IX, 36, 6; 66,5; 
69, 5; 83, a ; 86, ay. It would seem therefore as if the 
Maruts themselves were here represented as performing 
sacrificial acts in the highest heaven, praising the milk, 
that is, the rain, which they pour down from heaven to 
earth. Possibly the text is corrupt. If yjgyu could have 
the same meaning as praya^yu, I should like to conjecture, 
divaA S. prishtkim ya^yave. In IX, 61, ia. mdraya ya^-- 
yave seems to mean 'to the chasing Indra.' See also aya^i 
(erjagend), obtaining. Might we conjecture diva a* prxksha- 
yavane? Przkshayama occurs as a name; see also II, 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Abda, wish to give water, is very doubtful. Both 
abda and abdi, in abdimat, mean cloud. The text seems 

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notes, v, 54, 5- 329 

Verse 4. 

Mote 1. The meaning of vyag is doubtfuL It may 
simply mean to make visible. 

Verse 5. 

If ote 1. The last words an&rvadam yat nf ayatana girfm 
are difficult. Sayawa has an explanation ready, viz. when 
you throw down the cloud or the mountain which gives 
no water or which does not give up the horses carried off 
by the Pawis. Grassmann too is ready with an explanation : 
'A Is ihr unnahbar glanzend, Hirschen gleich, den Berg auf 
eurer Fahrt durchranntet, den kein Ross erreicht.' Ludwig : 
'Als ihr nider gehn machtet den nicht vergangliches ge- 
benden (d. i. die waszer ; oder : die rosse verweigernden ?) 

Giri may be the cloud, and nothing could be more 
appropriate than that the Maruts should come down upon 
the cloud or go over it, in order to make it give up the 
rain. But arvada means ' giving horses,' and though rain- 
clouds may be compared to horses, it does not follow that 
axva by itself could mean rain. Arvada is used of the 
dawn, 1, 113, 18, possibly as giving horses, that is, wealth, 
but possibly also, as bringing the horses to the morning 
sun. These horses start with the dawn or the sun in the 
morning, and they rest in the evening. The legend that 
Agni hid himself in an Ajvattha tree (Sayana, RV. 1, 65, 1) 
may owe its origin to asvattha, i.e. horse-stable, having 
been a name of the West (K. Z. I, 467) ; cf. tish/Aadgu, at 
sunset. In X, 8, 3, the Dawns are called Irvabudhna/r, 
which may mean that they had their resting-place among 
the horses. The Maruts, more particularly, are said to 
dwell in the Arvattha tree, when Indra called them to his 
help against "VWtra ; cf. .Sat. Brahm. IV, 3, 3, 6; Par. 
Gnhy. II, 15, 4. Possibly therefore, though I say no more, 
possibly the Dawn or the East might have been called 
arvada, the West anarvada, and in that case it might be 
said that the Maruts are of unsullied splendour, when they 

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go down to the western mountain. M. Bergaigne explains, 
• La montagne qui ne donne pas, qui retient le cheval, le 
cheval mythique, soleil ou Eclair.' My own impression, 
however, is that anarvadam is an old mistake, though 
I cannot accept Ludwig's conjecture a-narva-dam. Why 
not anu svadham, or anarva-yaA, moving without horses ? 
cf. V, 42, 10. 

Verse 6. 

Mote 1. This is, no doubt, a bold simile, but a very true 
one. In one night caterpillars will eat off the whole foliage 
of a tree, and in the same way a violent storm in the 
autumn will strip every leaf. Arwasam as an adjective, 
with the accent on the last syllable, does not occur again, 
but it can hardly mean anything but waving. If it will 
stand for the sea, we might translate, ' When you clear the 
waving sea (or air), as the caterpillar a tree.' 

Note 2. Aramati seems here to mean service or obe- 
dience, not a person who is willing to serve. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. To translate aryamawaA by friends is unsatisfac- 
tory. Bergaigne takes it for Aryaman, Mitra, and Varuwa, 
the three Aryamans, as we say the two Mitras, and points 
out that these three gods do send rain, in I, 79, 3 ; VII, 
4°. 4- 

Note 2. It ought to be kavandhfnaA as much as 
kavandha, V, 85, 3. 

Note 3. MadhvaA andhasa; Grassmann, ' mit des Honigs 

Verse 10. 

Note L Sabharas is evidently a recognised epithet of 
the Maruts, see VS. XVII, 81 and 84, but its meaning is 
doubtful. We have virvabharasam, IV, 1, 19, as an epithet 
of Agni, which does not help us much. If bharas means 
burden, sabharas may mean those who work together, 
companions, friends. 

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NOTES. V, 54, 13. 331 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. See Muir, S. T. V, p. 149. On siprSJt &c, see 
11,34,3. note- 
Verse 12. 

Note 1. The red apple to be shaken from the firmament 
can only be the lightning. Vi-dhu is construed with two 
accusatives, as in III, 45, 4 ; V, 57, 3. Gaedicke, Accusativ, 
p. 266. 

Note 2. AryiA cannot be a vocative, on account of the 
accent, nor a nominative on account of the context. There 
remains nothing but to take it as a genitive, and connect 
it with agrzbhlta, though such a construction has few 
parallels, except perhaps in such sentences as havyaA 
£arsha»ina'm, VI, 22, 1, &c. Possibly it may be intended 
as an epithet of the Maruts. Bergaigne (Journ. As. 1884, 
p. 190), ' au profit du pauvre.' Geldner (Ved. Stud. I, p. 148) 
proposes a very bold translation : ' The sacrificial nets 
are being contracted, when the Maruts rush on. The 
priests (rit&yu) roar their (as catching-net) extended shout- 
ing.' The sense is said to be that when the Maruts 
appear, all priests try to catch them by shouting. See, 
however, Oldenberg in Gott. Gel. Anzeigen, 1890, p. 414. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. For rathySLA.see II, 24, 15. rayaA syama rathyaV* 
vayasvataA ; VI, 48, 9. 

Note 2. Raranta, 2nd pers. plur. imp. intens., but Pada 
has raranta. Why not rarata ? 

Note 8. YukkAatl has been compared by Kuhn (K. Z. 
Ill, 328) with bva-Kti ; but see Brugmann, Grundriss, I, pp. 
no, 118. 

Note 4. Tishya must be the name of a star, hardly, as 
Sayawa suggests, of the sun. It ought to be a star which 
does not set. See Weber, Cber alte iranische Sternnamen, 
p. 14. Ludwig quotes from TS. II, 2, 10, 1 seq., an 
identification of Tishya with Rudra. 

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Verse 14. 

Note L Grassmann marks this verse as late, Ludwig 
defends it We must know what is meant by late before 
we decide. Bharata may mean simply a warrior, or a 
Bharata ; see Ludwig, III, 175-176; Oldenberg, Buddha 
(1st edition), p. 413. 

Note 2. Arvantam vagam, a horse, his strength. See 
Bergaigne, Rel. VM II, 405 ; Pischel, Ved. Stud. p. 46. 

Note 8. Could jrushrimat here mean obedient ? 

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MANDALA V, HYMN 55. 333 



To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. The chasing 1 Maruts with gleaming spears, 
the golden-breasted, have gained great strength, 
they move along on quick well-broken horses ; — 
when they went in triumph, the chariots followed. 

2. You have yourselves, you know, acquired 
power ; you shine bright and wide, you great ones. 
They have even measured the sky with their 
strength ; — when they went in triumph, the chariots 

3. The strong heroes, born together, and nour- 
ished together, have further grown to real beauty. 
They shine brilliantly like the rays of the sun ; — 
when they went in triumph, the chariots followed. 

4. Your greatness, O Maruts, is to be honoured, 
it is to be yearned for like the sight of the sun. 
Place us also in immortality; — when they went in 
triumph, the chariots followed. 

5. O Maruts, you raise 1 the rain from the sea, 
and rain it down, O yeomen 2 ! Your milch-cows, O 
destroyers 8 , are never destroyed ; — when they went 
in triumph, the chariots followed. 

6. When you have joined the deer as horses 1 to 
the shafts, and have clothed yourselves in golden 
garments, then, O Maruts, you scatter all enemies ; — 
when they went in triumph, the chariots followed. 

7. Not mountains, not rivers have kept you back, 
wherever you see, O Maruts, there you go. You 

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go even round heaven and earth ; — when they went 
in triumph, the chariots followed. 

8. Be it old, O Maruts, or be it new, be it spoken, 
O Vasus, or be it recited, you take cognisance of 
it all ;— when they went in triumph, the chariots 

9. Have mercy on us, O Maruts, do not strike us, 
extend to us your manifold protection. Do remem- 
ber the praise, the friendship ; — when they went in 
triumph, the chariots followed. 

10. Lead us, O Maruts, towards greater wealth, 
and out of tribulations, when you have been praised. 
O worshipful Maruts, accept our offering, and let us 
be lords of treasures ! 

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NOTES. V, 55, 5. 335 


The same poet, Sy&v&sva, Atreya. Metre, 1-9 Gagatt; 
10 Trish/ubh. None of the verses occurs in SV., VS., 
AV. Verse 5 is found in TS. II, 4, 8, a ; MS. II, 4, 7. 
The refrain probably means that when the Maruts march 
in triumph, the chariots of their army, or the chariots of 
other gods, follow. The latter view is taken by Sayawa, 
TS. II, 4, 8, 2. 

Verse 1. 

Note L Praya^yu, generally explained by rushing for- 
ward, but in that sense hardly to be derived from yzg, 
to sacrifice, may stand for an old Vedic form prayakshyu, 
changed into praya^yu by priests who had forgotten the 
root yaksh, and thought of nothing but sacrifices. This 
root yaksh has been identified by Grassmann with OHG. 
jag6n (venari, persequi), originally to rush after, to hunt, 
to try to injure or kill (cf. mr/ga«yavaA, X, 40, 4). This 
would explain most derivations from yaksh, not excepting 
the later Yakshas, and would yield an excellent sense for 
prayakshyu, as an epithet of the Maruts. See note to VII, 
56, 16. Pischel, Ved. Stud. I, p. 98, is satisfied with deriv- 
ing praya^yu and prtsh/Aapraya^ - from the root yag, to 
sacrifice, and translates it by sacrificing, but in the sense of 
causing sacrifices to be offered. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. The verb trayatha is transitive ; see Gaedicke, 
Accusativ, p. 54, and compare AV. IV, 27, 4. apaA 
samudra'd dfvam ud vahanti. 

Note 2. I have translated purishiwaA by yeomen, in the 
sense of cultivators of the land. I have followed Roth, 
who shows that purisha means soil, and that purtshin is 
used for an occupier of the soil, a landlord. See K. Z. 
XXVI, p. 65. 

Note 8. Dasra, powerful, a common epithet of the Arvins, 
seems here, when joined with dasyanti, to retain something 


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of its etymological meaning, which comes out clearly in 
das, to attack, unless it is derived from dams. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. I prefer to translate here ' the deer as horses,' not 
1 the speckled horses.' See, however, II, 34, 4, and Pischel, 
Ved. Stud. p. 226. 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. O Agni, on to the strong host (of the Maruts), 
bedecked with golden chains and ornaments 1 . To- 
day I call the folk of the Maruts down from the 
light of heaven. 

2. As thou (Agni) thinkest in thine heart, to the 
same object my wishes have gone. Strengthen thou 
these Maruts, terrible to behold, who have come 
nearest to thy invocations. 

3. Like a bountiful lady 1 , the earth comes towards 
us, staggering, yet rejoicing ; for your onslaught, O 
Maruts, is vigorous, like a bear, and fearful, like a 
wild bull. 

4. They who by their strength disperse wildly 1 
like bulls, impatient of the yoke, they by their 
marches make the heavenly stone, the rocky moun- 
tain (cloud) 2 to shake. 

5. Arise, for now I call with my hymns x the troop 
of these Maruts, grown strong together, the mani- 
fold, the incomparable, as if calling a drove of bulls. 

6. Harness the red mares to the chariot, har- 
ness the ruddy horses to the chariots, harness the 
two bays, ready to drive in the yoke, most vehement 
to drive in the yoke. 

7. And this red stallion too, loudly neighing, has 
been placed here, beautiful to behold; may it not 
cause you delay on your marches, O Maruts; spur 
him forth on your chariots. 

[3*] z 

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8. We call towards us the glorious chariot of the 
Maruts, whereon there stands also Rodasl \ carrying 
delightful gifts, among the Maruts. 

9. I call hither this your host, brilliant on chariots, 
terrible and glorious; among which she, the well- 
born and fortunate, the bounteous lady, is also mag- 
nified among the Maruts. 

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NOTES. V, 56, 8. 339 


The same poet and deity, though Agni is invoked in 
the first, possibly in the second verse also. Metre, 1, 2, 4-6, 
8, 9 IWhati ; 3, 7 Satobrthatt. None of the verses occurs 
in SV, VS., AV., TS., MS. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Here again some interpreters of the Veda take 

aagi in the sense of paint, war-paint. It may be so, but the 

more general meaning of colours or ornament seems, as yet, 


Verse S. 

Note 1. The earth is frequently represented as trembling 

under the fury of the Maruts. Here she is first called 

mi/&ushmati, a curious compound which, in our verse, may 

possibly have a more special meaning. As the earth is 

not only struck down by the storm, but at the" same time 

covered with water and fertilised, she is represented as 

struck down and staggering, but likewise as rejoicing, 

possibly, as drunk. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Vrftha means pell-mell, confusedly, wildly ; see 
also Geldner, Ved. Stud. p. 1 15. 

Note 2. Afma svaryaA seems to mean the thunderbolt 
like v&gnh svarya^ in I, 3a, a ; 61, 6. See also V, 30, 8. 
In that case we should have to translate, 'they let the 
heavenly bolt fall down on the rocky mountain.' But 
/feyavayati is never used for the hurling of the thunderbolt, 
nor is it construed with two accusatives. It always means 
to shake what is firm, and we have therefore to translate, 
' they shake the heavenly stone (the sky), the rocky moun- 
tain (the cloud).' Parvata and giri often occur together, as 
in I, 37, 7; VIII, 64, 5. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. St6maL6 may possibly refer to samukshitanam. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. On Rodasi, see before, I, 167, 3. 

z 2 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. O Rudras, joined by Indra, friends on golden 
chariots, come hither for our welfare ! This prayer 
from us is acceptable to you like the springs of 
heaven to a thirsty soul longing for water. 

2. O you sons of Trisni, you are armed with 
daggers and spears, you are wise, carrying good 
bows and arrows and quivers, possessed of good 
horses and chariots. With your good weapons, O 
Maruts, you go to triumph ! 

3. You shake 1 the sky and the mountains (clouds) 
for wealth to the liberal giver; the forests bend 
down out of your way from fear 2 . O sons of Pmni, 
you rouse the earth when you, O terrible ones, have 
harnessed the spotted deer for triumph ! 

4. The Maruts, blazing with the wind, clothed in 
rain, are as like one another as twins, and well 
adorned. They have tawny horses, and red horses, 
they are faultless, endowed with exceeding vigour ; 
they are in greatness wide as the heaven. 

5. Rich in rain-drops, well adorned, bounteous, 
terrible to behold, of inexhaustible wealth, noble by 
birth, golden-breasted, these singers of the sky 1 have 
obtained their immortal name 2 . 

6. Spears are on your two shoulders, in your 
arms are placed strength, power, and might. Manly 
thoughts dwell in your heads, on your chariots are 
weapons, and every beauty has been laid on your 

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MAM) ALA V, HYMN 57. 34 1 

7. O Maruts, you have given us wealth of cows, 
horses, chariots, and heroes, golden wealth ! O men 
of Rudra, bestow on us great praise, and may I 
enjoy your divine protection ! 

8. Hark, O heroes, O Maruts! Be gracious to 
us ! You who are of great bounty, immortal, right- 
eous, truly listening to us, poets, young, dwelling on 
mighty mountains \ and grown mighty. 

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The same poet and deity. Metre, 1-6 Gagatl; 7, 8 
TrishAibh. None of its verses occurs in SV., VS., AV., 
TS.; verse 6 in MS. IV, 11, 4. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Dhu is construed with two accusatives, see RV. 
Ill, 45, 4 ; otherwise vasu might be connected with 
dlrushe. The third pada is almost literally repeated soon 
after, V, 60, a ; see note 1 to I, 37, 7. 

Note 2. YamanaA bhiy5 may be from fear of your 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. In divaA ark£4 even Bergaigne allows that arka 
may mean singer, not song. 

Note 2. N£ma, name, is here as elsewhere what is meant 
by the name, therefore immortal being or immortality. 

Verse 8. 

Note L IWhadgirayaA cannot well mean with a powerful 
voice. The Maruts are called girishAfca, VIII, 94, 12, dwell- 
ing on mountains, and like brthaddiva, brzhadgiri seems to 
have been intended for dwelling on high mountains. 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. I praise 1 now the powerful company of these 
ever-young Maruts, who drive violently along with 
quick horses; aye, the sovereigns are lords of Amma 
(the immortal). 

2. The terrible company, the powerful, adorned 
with quoits on their hands, given to roaring, potent, 
dispensing treasures, they who are beneficent, infinite 
in greatness, praise, O poet, these men of great 
wealth ! 

3. May your water-carriers come here to-day, all 
the Maruts who stir up the rain. That fire which 
has been lighted for you, O Maruts, accept it, O 
young singers ! 

4. O worshipful Maruts, you create for man an 
active king, fashioned by Vibhvan 1 ; from you comes 
the man who can fight with his fist, and is quick 
with his arm, from you the man with good horses 
and valiant heroes. 

5. Like the spokes of a wheel, no one is last, like 
the days they are born on and on, not deficient in 
might. The very high sons of Pmni are full of 
fury, the Maruts cling firmly to their own will 1 . 

6. When you have come forth with your speckled 
deer as horses 1 on strong-fellied chariots, O Maruts, 
the waters gush, the forests go asunder 2 ; — let Dyu 8 
(Sky) roar down, the bull of the Dawn. 

7. At their approach, even the earth opened wide, 


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and they placed (sowed) their own 1 strength (the 
rain), as a husband the germ. Indeed they have 
harnessed the winds as horses to the yoke, and the 
men of Rudra have changed their sweat into rain. 

8. Hark, O heroes, O Maruts ! Be gracious to 
us ! You who are of great bounty, immortal, right- 
eous, truly listening to us, poets, young, dwelling on 
mighty mountains, and grown mighty. 

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NOTES. V, 58, 4. 345 


The same poet and deity. Metre, Trishtfubh. None of 
the verses occurs in SV., VS., AV., TS. Verses 3 and 5 
are found in TB. II, 5, 5, 3 ; II, 8, 5, 7 ; MS. IV, 11, 2; 
IV, 4, 18. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. On stushd, see M.M., Selected Essays, I, p. 162; 
Wilhelm, De infinitivi forma et usu, p. 10; Bartholomae, 
in Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XV, p. 219. I take stushe" as 
1 pers. sing. Aor. Attn, (not, as Avery, of the Present) in 
many places where it has been taken as an infinitive. For 
instance, II, 31, 5 ; VI, 49, 1 ; 51, 3 (with vote) ; 62, 1 (with 
huve) ; VIII, 5, 4 ; 7, 32 ; 74, 1 ; 84, 1 (here the second 
pada must begin with stushd). It may be an indicative or 
a subjunctive. As to stushe, without an accent, its charac- 
ter cannot be doubtful ; see I, 1 22, 8 ; 159, 1 ; V, 33, 6 ; 
VI, 21, 2 ; 48, 14 ; VIII, 21, 9 ; 23, 2 ; 23, 7 (grim). In 
II, 20, 4, tarn u stushe fndram tarn grinishe, grinishe is an 
aorist with vikara«a, like punishd, I praise that Indra, I 
laud him. In I, 46, 1, stushe" may be the infinitive, but not 
necessarily. It is an infinitive in I, 122, 7. stushe" sa vim 
varuwa mitra rattfc, your gift, Varu«a and Mitra, is to be 
praised. Likewise in VIII, 4, 17 (see BR. s. v. saman) ; 
24, 1 ; 63, 3, though in several of these passages it must 
remain doubtful whether stushe" should be taken as an 
absolute infinitive, or as a finite verb. In VIII, 65, 5, fndra 
grinishe" u stushe^ means, ' Indra, I laud and praise,' as in II, 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Vibhva-tash/a is generally explained as made 
by a master, or by Vibhvan, one of the i?«bhus. This 
may be so, though it seems a bold expression (see Ber- 
gaigne, II, 410-411). But may it not be a mere synonym 
of sutash/a, and intended for vibhvane tash/a ? see Selected 
Essays, I, p. 143. 

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Verse 5. 

Note 1. See Taitt. Br. II, 8, 5, 7. As to mimikshuA, see 
note to 1, 165, 1. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. On prfehatibhiA isvash, see II, 34, 4 ; V, 55, 6. 
Bergaigne's note (II, p. 378) does not settle the question 
whether the horses of the Maruts were speckled, or whether 
they had speckled deer for their horses. 

Note 2. On mate" vanani, see V, 57, 3. 

Note 8. Dyaus, the father of the Maruts, the oldest and 
highest god of heaven, the strong bull, or, it may be, the 
man of the dawn. See v. Bradke, Dyaus Asura, p. 63 ; 
Bergaigne, I, p. 316. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Roth conjectures svam for svam, taking it as a 
locative of su, genetrix. This is not without difficulties, 
nor is it necessary. That we find in the Rig-veda no other 
locative in am after monosyllabic stems in u is perhaps no 
serious objection. But the text as it stands can be trans- 
lated, 'as a husband the germ, they have placed (sown) 
their own strength.' .Savas is the same as w/sh«yam and 
vHshni sivak in VIII, 3, 8; 10. DhuA is used like dha in 

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MANDALA. V, HYMN 59. 347 


To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. They truly 1 tried to make you grant them 
welfare. Do thou sing 2 praises to Heaven (Dyu), 
I offer sacrifice (reta) to the Earth. The Maruts 
wash their horses and race to the air, they soften 
their splendour by waving mists. 

2. The earth trembles with fear from their onset. 
She sways like a full ship, that goes rolling 1 . The 
heroes who appear on their marches, visible from 
afar, strive together within the great (sacrificial) 
assembly 2 . 

3. Your horn is exalted for glory \ as the horns 
of cows; your eye is like the sun 2 , when the mist is 
scattered. Like strong racers, you are beautiful, 
O heroes, you think of glory, like manly youths 3 . 

4. Who could reach, O Maruts, the great wise 
thoughts, who the great manly deeds of you, great 
ones ? You shake the earth like a speck of dust, 
when you are carried forth for granting welfare. 

5. These kinsmen 1 (the Maruts) are like red 
horses, like heroes eager for battle, and they have 
rushed forward to fight. They are like well-grown 
manly youths, and the men have grown strong, with 
streams of rain they dim the eye of the sun. 

6. At their outbreak there is none among them 
who is the eldest, or the youngest, or the middle : 
they have grown by their own might, these sons of 
Prtsni, noble by birth, the boys of Dyaus; come 
hither to us ! 

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7. Those who like birds flew with strength in 
rows ' from the ridge of the mighty heaven to its 
ends, their horses shook the springs 2 of the moun- 
tain (cloud) so that people on both sides 3 knew it 

8. May 1 Dyaus Aditi (the unbounded) 2 roar for 
our feast, may the dew-lighted Dawns come striving 
together ; these, the Maruts, O poet, (the sons) of 
Rudra, have shaken the heavenly bucket (cloud), 
when they had been praised. 

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notes, v, 59, 2. 349 


The same poet and deity. Metre, 1-7 Cagatl ; 8 Tri- 
shAibh. None of the verses occurs in SV, VS., AV V TB., 
TS., MS. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. If we accept the text as it stands, we have to 
translate, 'The spy called out to you to grant welfare.' 
The spy is" then either Agni (Bergaigne, II, p. 378) or the 
priest. See also VIII, 61, 15 ; X, 35, 8. But there are 
many objections to this. Pra-krand is not used in that 
sense, and we should expect pra krant suvitaya. Pra-kar, 
when it is construed with a dative, means generally to 
prepare some one for something, to cause some one to do 
a thing. Thus, I, 186, 10. pr6 ajvmau avase kr*'«udhvam, 
get the Ajvins to protect. VI, 21, 9. pra utaye varu«am 
mitram fndram maruta^ krzshva avase naA adya, make 
Varu«a, Mitra, and Indra to protect, make the Maruts to 
protect us to-day. X, 64, 7. pra vaA vayum — st6maiA 
kr*«udhvam sakhyaya pushawam, make Vayu by your 
praises to be your friend. I, 112, 8. pra andham sron&m 
£akshase &ave krith&A, whereby you make the blind and 
lame to see and to walk. The poet therefore seems to 
have said in our verse also, ' They (my men or priests) 
made you or wished you to give them welfare.' What spa/ 
can mean in such a sentence, is difficult to say. Till we 
know better, we must simply accept it as a particle of 
asseveration, like bat. 

JTote 2. Ar£a may also be the first person. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. With regard to vyathir yati, cf. I, 117, 15. 
samudram avyathfr ^aganvan, and VIII, 45, 19. vyathir 
^aganvarasa/s ; Bergaigne, Journ. As. 1884, p. 490. 

Note 2. Mah6 vidathe must be taken as a locative sing. 
It occurs again X, 96, 1. We have similar forms in mah£ 
ra«e, IX, 66, 13, &c. The locative is governed by antlA, 

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as in II, 27, 8. vidathe antaA esham. The etymology 
and the meaning of vidatha have been often discussed, 
for the last time by M. Regnaud, Revue de l'histoire 
des religions, 1890. Prof. Roth, as M. Regnaud states, 
explains it by conseil, avis, reunion ou Ton deUi- 
bere, assembled, troupe, arm6e. Grassmann takes 
it generally for reunion, rencontre, combat. Geldner 
derives it from vid, in the sense of art, science. 
Ludwig derives it likewise from vid, but in the sense of 
Bekann tschaft, then Gesellsc haft, and lastly as synony- 
mous with ya^fwa, sacrifice, assemblage. M. Regnaud differs 
from all his predecessors, and derives vidatha from vidh, 
to sacrifice. He maintains that *vidhatha would become 
vidatha, like adhak from dah or dhagh, and phaliga for parigha. 
I know nothing about the etymology of phaliga, but if it 
stands for parigha, the second aspirate has lost its aspiration 
and thrown it on the initial. In adhak, the final has lost 
its aspiration, and thus allowed its appearance in the initial. 
But in vidatha, if it stood for vidhatha, there would be no 
phonetic excuse whatever for changing dh into d, at least 
in Sanskrit. It is possible that in Sanskrit such a form as 
vidhatha might have been avoided, but there is no phonetic 
law to prevent the formation of such a word as vidhatha, 
like u£atha, ya^atha, &c. We say vidhatha in the 2 pers. 
plur., as we say bodhatha. No Sanskrit grammarian could 
derive vidatha from vidh. If therefore vidatha signifies 
sacrifice, this is not because it is derived from vidh, to 
sacrifice. Vidatha may have been the name of a sacred 
act, as veda is of sacred knowledge. But the fact remains 
that it is best translated by assembly, particularly an 
assembly for sacrificial purposes. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. On sriy&se, see I, 87, 6. 

Note 2. I see no necessity for changing stiryaA into 
sdraA, see Bergaigne, Melanges Renier, p. 94. He would 
translate, ' they are like the eye of the sun.' 

Note 8. MaryaA may be bridegrooms, as in V, 60, 4 

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notes, v, 59, 8. 351 

(var£4 iva), but there is nothing to indicate that meaning 
here. The difficulty is to find a word to express jriydse. 
It means to shine, but at the same time to excel. Possibly 
it may have even a more definite meaning, such as to shine 
in battle, or to triumph. 

V Verse 5. 

Note 1. As to sabandhu, see VIII, 20, 21. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. On sriniA, see Gaedicke, p. 164; Bergaigne, M61. 
Renier, p. 94. 

Note 2. The meaning of nabhanu, spring, is doubtful. 

Note 3. Ubhaye refers to many on both sides, and 
cannot be taken for ubhe, heaven and earth. It may 
mean all, particularly when there are two sides only, as 
in a battle. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Ludwig seems to have seen the true meaning of 
this verse, namely that, though, Dyaus may roar for the 
feast, and though the Dawns may strive to come near, 
the Maruts alone deserve the sacrifice, because they opened 
the chest of rain. 

Note 2. On Dyaus Aditi, see note to I, 166, 12, p. 261, 
where the translation has to be corrected. 

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To Agni and the Maruts. 

i. I implore 1 Agni, the gracious, with salutations, 
may he sit down here, and gather what we have 
made 2 . I offer 3 (him sacrifice) as with racing 
chariots; may I, turning to the right, accomplish 
this hymn to the Maruts. 

2. Those who approached on their glorious deer, 
on their easy chariots, the Rudras, the Maruts, — 
through fear of you, ye terrible ones, the forests 
even bend down, the earth shakes, and also the 
mountain (cloud). 

3. At your shouting, even the mountain (cloud), 
grown large, fears, and\he ridge of heaven trembles. 
When you play together, O Maruts, armed with 
spears, you run together like waters. 

4. Like rich suitors the Maruts have themselves x 
adorned their bodies with golden ornaments ; more 
glorious for glory 2 , and powerful on their chariots, 
they have brought together splendours on their 

5. As brothers, no one being the eldest or the 
youngest, they have grown up together to happi- 
ness. Young is their clever father Rudra, flowing 
with plenty is Prism (their mother), always kind to 
the Maruts. 

6. O happy Maruts, whether you are in the 
highest, or in the middle, or in the lowest heaven, 
from thence, O Rudras, or thou also, O Agni, 
take notice of this libation which we offer. 

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MAJV0ALA V, HYMN 6o. 353 

7. When Agni, and you, wealthy Maruts, drive 
down from the higher heaven over the ridges, 
give then, if pleased, you roarers, O destroyers of 
enemies 1 , wealth to the sacrificer who prepares 

8. Agni, be pleased to drink Soma with the 
brilliant Maruts, the singers, approaching in com- 
panies 1 , with the men (Ayus 2 ), who brighten and 
enliven everything ; do this, O Vai^vanara (Agni), 
thou who art always endowed with splendour. 

[3»] a a 

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This hymn, by the same poet, is supposed to be addressed 
either to the Maruts alone, or to the Maruts and Agni. 
The same might have been said of hymn 56 and others 
which are used for the Agnimaruta Sastra. See Bergaigne, 
Recherches sur l'histoire de la liturgie v^dique, p. 38. Metre, 
1-6 Trish/ubh ; 7, 8 Gagatt. No verse of this hymn occurs 
in SV., VS., AV., TS., TB., except verse 1 in AV. VII, 50, 
3; TB. II, 7, 12, 4; MS. IV, 14, 11; verse 3 in TS. Ill, 
1, 11, 5; MS. IV, 12, 5 ; verse 6 in TB. II, 7, 12, 4 

Verse 1. 

The AV. reads svavasum, prasakt6, pradakshi/tam, all of 
them inferior readings. The TB. agrees with RV., except 
that it seems to read prasaptaA (prakarshewa samagata^). 

Note 1. That \l or id has originally the meaning of im- 
ploring, asking, begging, we see from such passages as 
RV. Ill, 48, 3. upasthaya mataram annam airta, 'he, having 
approached his mother, asked for food,' unless we prefer 
to construe id with two accusatives, ' he, having approached, 
asked his mother for food.' The same verb is also con- 
strued with the accusative of the god implored, the dative 
of the object, and the instrumental of the means by which 
he is implored. See RV. VIII, 71, 14 agnfm t/ishva avase 
ga'thabhiA, implore Agni with songs for his protection. 
Whether the root id is distantly connected with either ish, 
to desire (Brugmann, I, 591), or with ard, to stir, or with ar, 
to go, is a question which admits of many, or of no answer. 

Note 2. Vi£i kr/tam seems to have the settled meaning 
of gathering in what one has made at play, or in battle ; 
see X, 42, 9 ; 43, 5 ; IX, 97, 58 ; X, 102, 2. The same 
meaning is applicable here, though we may also translate, 
' Take notice of our krz'ta or our karma, i. e. the sacrifice.' 
A similar thought is expressed in verse 6. Sayawa explains 
v^anatu and vi£inuyat. 

Note 3. Perhaps pra bhare means, ' I am carried forth,' as 
in V, 59, 4, where it is applied to the Maruts. 

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NOTES. V, 60, 8. 355, 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. See note 2 to I, 6, 4. Instead of svadha'bhiA we 
have svayam in VII, 56, 11. 

Note 2. Stiyi sr6y&.tnsaA is difficult to translate ; cf. II, 
33, 3. srishtAaA sriySi asi. Lud wig translates, zu herlichkeit 
die herlichen. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. On rlradas, see Aufrecht, Bezzenb. Beitr. XIV, 


Verse 8. 

Note 1. On ganasri, see BR. s. v. ; Lanman, 37a ; Benfey, 
VedicaundVerwandtes.p. 108; Pischel.Ved. Stud. 1, 53 seq. 
Ludwig translates scharenherlich, but what does that mean ? 
' Shining in their companies ' is a possible meaning, but the 
analogy of abhlrrf and adhvara^rf points in another direc- 

Note 2. On the Ayus as a proper name, see Bergaigne, 
Rel. Ved. I, 62 ; II, 323. 

A a 2 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. Who are you, O men, the very best, who have 
approached one by one, from the furthest distance 1 ? 

2. Where are your horses, where the bridles ? 
How could you, how did you come ? — the seat on 
the back, the rein in the nostrils ? 

3. Their goad is on the croup 1 , the heroes 
stretched their legs apart 2 . . . 

4. Move along, heroes, young men, the sons of an 
excellent mother \ so that you may warm yourselves 
at our fire 2 . 

5. (1.) May the woman, if she stretched out her 
arm x as a rest for the hero, praised by .Syavlrva 2 , 
gain cattle consisting of horses, cows, and a hundred 

6. (2.) Many a woman is even more often kindlier 
than a godless and miserly man, 

7. (3.) A woman who finds out the weak, the 
thirsty, the needy, and is mindful of the gods. 

8. (4.) Even though many an unpraiseworthy 
miser (Pa»i) is called a man, she is worth as much 
in weregild. 

9. (5.) Also the young woman joyfully whispered 
to me, to .Syava, the road, — and the two bays went 
straight to Puruml/^a \ the wise, the far-famed, 

10. (6.) Who gave me a hundred cows, like 
Vaidada^vi, like Taranta, in magnificence. 

11. (1.) The Maruts, who drive on their quick 
horses, drinking the delightful mead, have gained 
glory here ; 

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MAJVDALA V, HYMN 6 1. 357 

12. (2.) They on whose chariots Rodasl 1 glitters 
in glory 2 , like the golden disk above in heaven ; 

J 3« (3«) That youthful company of the Maruts, 
with blazing chariots, blameless, triumphant, irre- 

14. (4.) Who now knows of them where the 
strikers rejoice, the well-born, the faultless ? 

15. (5.) You who are fond of praise, become the 
leaders of the mortal, listening to his imploring 
invocations, thus is my thought 1 . 

16. (6.) Bring then to us delightful and resplen- 
dent x treasures, ye worshipful Maruts, destroyers of 

17. (1.) O night, like a charioteer, carry away this 
hymn to Darbhya, and these songs, O goddess. 

18. (2.) And then tell him thus from me, 'When 
Rathavlti offers Soma, my desire never goes away 
from me.' 

19. (3.) That mighty Rathavlti dwells among 
people rich in cattle 1 , retired among the mountains. 


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This hymn is of a very composite nature. It is addressed 
to the Maruts by Sy&vtsva.. According to the Anukramant, 
however, the Maruts are addressed in vv. 1-4, 11-16 only; 
w. 5-8 are addressed to .Sarfyasi Tarantamahishi, 9 to 
Puruml/^a Vaidadarvi, 10 to Taranta Vaidadarvi, 17-19 to 
Rathaviti Darbhya. None of the verses occurs in SV., 
VS., AV., TS., TB., MS. Metre, 1-4, 6-8, 10-19 Gayatri ; 
5 Anush/ubh ; 9 Satobrchatl. 

It has been pointed out that in the hymns addressed to 
the Maruts beginning with V, 5a, and ending with V, 60, 
there is the usual decrease in the number of verses of each 
successive hymn, viz. 17, 16, 15, 10, 9, 8, 8, 8, 8. Our hymn, 
however, which is the last in the collection of hymns ad- 
dressed by .Syavajva to the Maruts, breaks the rule, and 
it has been suggested with great plausibility that it contains 
a number of verses thrown together at random. Possibly 
the four verses in the beginning formed an independent 
hymn, addressed to the Maruts, and again 5-10, and 11-16, 
followed by an appendix, 17-19. These verses refer to a 
legend which will have to be discussed at verse 5. 

Verse 1. 
Note 1. As to paramasyAA paravata^, see TS. IV, 1, 9, 3, 
where we also find (IV, 1, 9, 2) parasya adhi s&mv&taA. 

Verse 3. 

Note L Gaghane, like £aghanata&, may mean simply 
behind, as agre and agrataA mean before. 

Note 2. It is clear that the Maruts are here supposed 
to sit astride on their horses. This is also shown by 
prishtte sadas (v. 2), and by putrakrj'the" na g&naysJi, they 
stretched out their legs, ois ywawces Iv T€Kv<ynoU%. Zimmer 
(p. 230) says, • Zum Reiten wurde das Ross nicht benutzt.' 
On p. 295 he modifies this by saying, ' Keine einzige klare 
Stelle des Rigveda ist mir bekannt, wo das Reiten beim 
Kampfe erwahnt wurde ; man fahrt immer zu Wagen, wie 
die Griechen in homerischen Zeiten.' 

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NOTES. V, 6 1, 5. 359 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Bhadra^lnayaA, generally rendered by 'pos- 
sessed of beautiful wives,' seems really to mean ' possessed 
of an excellent mother.' G&ni clearly means mother, when 
Agni dvimata, having two mothers, is called dvi^-aniA ; for 
it is never said that he has two wives. Besides, the Maruts 
are constantly addressed as the sons of their mother, Pmni, 
while their wives are mentioned but rarely. However, the 
other meaning is not impossible. See also Bergaigne, II, 
387 seq. 

Note 2. The fire here intended is, I suppose, the sacri- 
ficial fire, to which the Maruts are here invited as they had 

been in former hymns. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Ludwig compares the A. S. expression healsge- 
bedde; see also RV. X, 10, 10. 

Note 2. I have very little belief in the legends which are 
told in the Brahmanas and in the Anukrama«i in illustra- 
tion of certain apparently personal and historical allusions 
in the hymns of the Veda. It is clear in many cases that 
they are made up from indications contained in the hymns, 
as in IX, 58, 3, and it seems best therefore to forget them 
altogether in interpreting the words of the Vedic hymns. 

The story told in the introductory verses, quoted by 
Sayawa, is this : — * Anfcananas Atreya was chosen by Ratha- 
viti Darbhya to be his Ritv'ig- priest. At the sacrifice 
Ar£ananas saw the daughter of Rathavtti and asked her 
in marriage for his son 5yavlrva. Rathavtti consulted his 
wife, but she declined on the ground that no daughter of 
theirs had ever been given to a man who was not a poet 
(Riahi). Thereupon Syavlrva performed penance, and 
travelled about collecting alms. He thus came to S&sU 
yasi, who recommended him, as a Rishi, to her husband, 
king Taranta. King Taranta was very generous to him, 
and sent him on to his younger brother, Purum5/Aa. On 
his way to Purum!/-4a, .Syavlrva saw the Maruts, and com- 
posed a hymn in their praise (w. 11-16). He had thus 
become a real poet or Rishi, and on returning home, he 
received from Rathaviti his daughter in marriage.' 

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5aunaka confirms the same story, see Saya«a's com- 
mentary to V, 61, 17. Here therefore we have to deal 
with two princely brothers, both Vaidadajvis, namely 
Taranta and Purumi/fcu They both give presents to 
Syavlrva, who is a Brahmana, and he marries the daughter 
of another prince, Rathaviti Darbhya. 

In the Ta«</ya-Brahma«a, however, XIII, 7, 12, another 
story is told, which I quoted in my edition of the Rig-veda 
at IX, 58, 3 (vol. v, p. xxxiii). Here Dhvasra and Puru- 
shanti are introduced as wishing to give presents to the 
two Vaidadajvis, Taranta and Purumi/Aa. These hesitate 
for a while, because they have no right to accept a present 
without deserving it or having done something for it. 
They then compose a hymn in praise of Dhvasra and 
Purushanti, and after that feel justified in accepting their 

Here therefore the Vaidadajvis are receivers, not givers 
of presents, therefore of princely, not, as has been sup- 
posed, of priestly rank, and this would agree better with 
the words of verse 9, puruml/Aaya vfpraya. See on all 
this Oldenberg in Z. D. M. G. XLII, p. 232. 

If we accept this story, we have to take jlriyasi in verse 
6 as a proper name. 

But sistyast may be a comparative of jar-vat (see B.-R. 
s.v.), and would then mean, more frequent. We expect, 
no doubt, an adverb rather like s&svat, but a feminine 
corresponding to vasyast is perhaps admissible. In that 
case we should have simply to deal with some woman, tva 
strf, who, as the poet says, is as good as, if not better 
than, many a man. 

Verse 8. 
This verse is very obscure. Sayawa translates : 'And the 
other half (the husband of .Sajryasi, viz. Taranta) is a man 
not praised (enough), thus I, the poet, say: and that 
Taranta is equal or just in the giving of wealth.' Grass- 
mann translates : ' Und dagegen ist mancher nicht lobens- 
werth geizig, der ein Mann sich nennt, ein solcher ist der 
Strafe verfallen.' Ludwig: 'Auch mancher halbmensch, 

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NOTES. V, 6l, II. 361 

ungepriesen, der " mensch " zwar heiszt, doch ein Pa«i ist, 
der ist auf bdse gabe nur bedacht.' 

The first light that was thrown on this verse came from 
Prof. Roth. He showed (Z.D.M.G. XLI, p. 673) that 
vairadeya means weregild, the German wergelt, the price 
to be given for a man killed. Vaira would here be derived 
from vlra, man, the Goth, wafr, the Latin vir, and vaira- 
deya would mean what is to be given as the value of a 
man. Still I doubt whether Prof. Roth has discovered 
the true meaning of the verse. He translates: 'So ist 
auch mancher Mann nicht zu loben, mehr ein Pawi (un- 
fromm, gegen die Gotter karg, zugleich Bezeichnung 
habsiichtiger Damoncn), obschon man ihn einen Menschen 
nennt — nur am Wergeld steht er den andern gleich.' I 
confess I do not see much point in this. It is quite clear 
that the poet praises a charitable woman, and wishes to say 
that she is sometimes better than a man, if he gives 
nothing. Now the weregild, if we may say so, for women 
was generally, though not always, less than that for men, 
and I therefore propose to read sa" vafradeye ft sama", and 
translate : ' Even though many an unpraiseworthy miser 
(Pa/zi) is called man, she is like him in weregild, i.e. she is 
worth as much, even though she is a woman.' On uta, see 
Delbriick, Syntaktische Forschungen, V, p. 528. 

Verse 9. 
Note 1. Purumi/Aa is here clearly the man from whom 
benefits are expected, and therefore could not be the same 
as Puruml/Aa Vaidadajvi, mentioned by the commentator, 
who accepted gifts from Dhvasra and Purushanti. Nor 
can Taranta Vaidadajvi in the next verse be taken for a 
recipient, but only for a giver, and therefore, most likely, a 
prince. The whole story, however, is by no means clear, 
and I doubt whether the commentator drew his informa- 
tion from any source except his own brain. 

Verse 11. 

I agree with Ludwig that a new hymn begins with 
verse 11. 

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Verse 12. 

Note 1. I have adopted the reading Rodasi vibhra^ate in 
my translation ; cf. VI, 66, 6, where Rodasi is compared 
with a r6kaA. 

Note 2. Roth (K.Z. XXVI, 51) takes jriya'dhi as jriyas 
adhi, but such a sandhi has not yet been established in the 
hymns of the Rig-veda, see Oldenberg, Proleg. p. 459, Anm. 
1. Oldenberg himself suggests Jrfy6«dhi, and would trans- 
late, 'They whose charms shine over the two worlds on 
their chariots.' Pischel (Ved. Stud. p. 54) translates yesham 
sriyS. by ' for whose sake.' 

Verse 16. 
Note 1. On itthfi dhiya', see Pischel, Ved. Stud. p. 184. 

Verse 16. 
Note 1. The Pada ought to have puru-£andra', as sug- 
gested by Grassmann and Ludwig. 

Verses 17-19. 

These verses are very peculiar, and may refer to histori- 
cal events, for Dalbhya or Darbhya and Rathavlti sound 
like real names. Of course the Indian commentators are 
never at a loss to tell us what it all refers to, but we can 
never say how little they knew, and how much they invented. 
The invocation of t)rmya, if it is meant for the Night, and 
the request that she may convey the hymn to Darbhya, is 
different from the usual style of the hymns. See, however, 
VIII, 24, 28, and Oldenberg, Z.D.M.G. XXXIX, 89. 

The following names, occurring in our hymn, have the sanc- 
tion of the Anukramani : .Sajiyasi Tarantamahishi (V, 6 1, 5 ; 
8), Purumi/^a Vaidadajvi (V, 61, 9), Taranta Vaidadarvi 
(V, 61, 10), Rathavlti Dalbhya (V, 61, 17-19). There is 
another PurumiZ&a, a Sauhotra, in IV, 43, and a Puruml/Aa 
Angirasa in VIII, 71. 

Verse 19. 
Note L See Oldenberg, Z.D.M.G. XXXIX, 89. He 
corrects g6matiA to g6matim, the name of a river, men- 
tioned in a very similar way in VIII, 24, 30. 

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MAA' D ALA V, HYMN 87. 363 


To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. Let your voice-born 1 prayers go forth to the 
great Vish»u, accompanied by the Maruts, Evaya- 
marut, and to the chasing host, adorned with good 
rings, the strong, in their jubilant throng, to the 
shouting power (of the Maruts). 

2. O Maruts, you who are born great, and pro- 
claim it yourselves by knowledge, Evayamarut, that 
power of yours cannot be approached by wisdom, 
that (power) of theirs (cannot be approached) by 
gift or might 1 ; they are like unapproachable moun- 

3. They who are heard with their voice from the 
high heaven, the brilliant and strong, Evayamarut, 
in whose council no tyrant 1 reigns, the rushing 
chariots 2 of these roaring Maruts come forth 3 , like 
fires with their own lightning. 

4. The wide-striding (Vishwu) 1 strode forth from 
the great common seat, Evayamarut. When he has 
started by himself from his own place along the 
ridges, O ye striving, mighty 2 Maruts, he goes 
together with the heroes (the Maruts), conferring 

5. Impetuous, like your own shout, the strong one 
(Vishwu) made everything tremble, the terrible, the 
wanderer 1 , the mighty, Evayamarut ; strong with him 
you advanced self-luminous, with firm reins, golden 
coloured, well-armed 2 , speeding along. 

6. Your greatness is infinite, ye Maruts, endowed 

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with full power, may that terrible power help, Evaya- 
marut. In your raid 1 you are indeed to be seen as 
charioteers ; deliver us therefore from the enemy, 
like shining fires. 

7. May then these Rudras, lively like fires and 
with vigorous shine, help, Evayamarut The seat 
of the earth is stretched out far and wide 1 , when the 
hosts of these faultless Maruts come quickly to the 

8. Come kindly on your path, O Maruts, listen to 
the call of him who praises you, Evayamarut. Con- 
fidants of the great Vish»u, may you together, like 
charioteers, keep all hateful things far 1 , by your 
wonderful skill. 

9. Come zealously 1 to our sacrifice, ye worshipful, 
hear our guileless call, Evayamarut Like the oldest 
mountains in the sky, O wise guardians, prove your- 
selves for him irresistible to the enemy. 

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NOTES. V, 87, I. 365 


This hymn is evidently a later addition at the end of the 
fifth Maw^ala. It is addressed to the Maruts, and is 
ascribed to Evayamarut Atreya. None of its verses occurs 
in SV., VS., AV., TS., TB., MS., except the first, which is 
found in SV. I, 463. Metre, Atj^agatl. 

The name of the poet is due to the refrain Evayamarut 
which occurs in every verse, and sometimes as an integral 
portion of the verse. Evayamarut is a sacrificial shout, much 
like Eioi in Greek, Evoe in Latin, though I do not mean 
to say that the two are identical. EvayaA, as I explained 
in note to 1, 168, 1, js an epithet of Vish#u, as well as of 
the Maruts, meaning quickly moving. Evayamarut, there- 
fore, may mean the 'quick Marut.' This is strange, no 
doubt, because in the Rig-veda the Maruts always occur in 
the plural, except in some doubtful passages. Still Evaya- 
marut, the quick Marut, might be a name of Vishwu. 
It cannot be taken as a Dvandva, Vishnu and the 

This hymn was translated by Benfey in his glossary to 
the Sama-veda, p. 39. Benfey takes evaya as identical 
with evot, and explains it as an adverbial instrumental, 
like ajuya, in the sense of sturmisch. But this would leave 
evayavan unexplained. 

Verse 1. 

Mote 1. Giri-^a^ may mean 'produced on the mountains,' 
but it may also mean 'produced in the throat or voice,' and 
it is so explained elsewhere, for instance in SV. I, 46a 
(Bibl. Ind, vol. i, p. 922). girau va£i nishpann&i ; [also by 
another commentator, hrtdaye ^ata, ya^a^ata va ity 
uktam]. Oldenberg suggests girj^e, which would be much 
better, considering how Vishwu is called girikshit, girish/Aa, 
&c. ; see Bergaigne, II, 47. Most of the epithets have 
occurred before. I take javase as a substantive, like 
rardhas, not as an adjective. As to dhunivrata, see V, 58, 
2 ; as to praya^yu, V, 55, 1. 

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Verse 2. 

Note 1. Kratva, dan£, and manna" seem to me in this 
place to belong together. The difficulty lies in the transi- 
tion from vzA to esham, but this is not uncommon. On 
mahina"=mahimna, dana", and manna", see Wenzel, Instru- 
mental, p. 1 7 ; Lanman, p. 533. Pischel, Ved. Stud. p. 101, 
translates, ' Ihre Macht gereicht ihnen zu grosser Gabe.' 
See also VIII, ao, 14. G&t&A mahina", born by greatness, 
seems to mean born in greatness, or born great. It would 
be easy to write mahln&A. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The translation of frt is purely conjectural. 

Note 2. SyandrasaA, as suggested, by Oldenberg, are 
probably meant for rathaA. Syandana is a carriage in 
later Sanskrit. In VIII, 20, 3, we have to supply rathaiA ; 
in VI, 66, a, rathaA. 

Note 8. Pra, with the verb understood, they come forth ; 
cf. VII, 87, 1. pra areamsi samudrfya naduiam ; X, 75, 1. 
Dhuni, like dhuti, has become almost a name of the Maruts, 
see I, 64, 5. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. The god here meant seems to be Vish«u, 
mentioned already in verse 1, and probably recalled by the 
Evaya in Evayamarut. 

Note 2. We must either take vi'spardhasaA and v/ma- 
hasa^ with Benfey as names of the horses, or accept them 
as vocatives, addressed to the Maruts. Vimahas is used as 
an epithet of the Maruts, see I, 86, 1. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. On yaytfc, see note to I, 87, a ; but it seems 
better to take it here as an adjective. 

Note 2. On svayudha, see Geldner, Ved. Stud. I, p. 143 ; 
Oldenberg, Gott. Gel. Anzeigen, 1890, p. 434. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Prasiti may be, as Ludwig translates it, fang- 
schnur, a noose, but it can hardly mean Noth, as Grassmann 

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NOTES. V, 87, 9. 367 

suggests. I take it here in the sense of shooting forth, 
onslaught, raid; cf. VII, 46, 4. Geldner, Ved. Stud. I, 
p. 139, takes it for a trap. Lanman, p. 386, is right in con- 
sidering the locative in au before consonants a sure sign of 
the modern origin of this hymn. 

Verse 7. 

Mote 1. The idea that the earth is stretched out or 
becomes large during a thunderstorm has been met with 
before, V, 58, 7. We read I, 37, 8 ; 87, 3, that at the 
racings of the Maruts the earth trembled, and that the 
Maruts enlarged the fences in their races. I therefore 
translate, though tentatively only, that the earth is opened 
far and wide, as a race-course for the faultless Maruts, 
whose hosts a*, appear, a^meshu, on the courses, maha^, 
quickly. If the accent of paprathe could be changed, we 
might translate, ' at whose coursings (a^meshu a") the seat of 
the earth is quickly stretched out far and wide,' and then 
take s&rdh&msi ddbhutainasam in apposition to rudrasaA. 
Adbhutainas, in whom no fault is seen. 

Bergaigne translates, 'faisant du mal mysteneusement.' 
See Geldner, in K. Z. XXVIII, 199, Anm. 2 ; Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage, III, 169. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Cf.VI, 48, 10. 

Verse 9. 
Note 1. Sujami, generally explained as a shortened in- 
strumental, for surami=suramya, used in an adverbial 
sense. Siuami has a short i here, because it stands at the 
end of a pada, otherwise the i is long, see VII, 16, 2 ; X, 28, 
1 2, even before a vowel. The same applies in the Rig-veda 
to .rami ; it has short i at the end of a pada, see II, 31, 6 ; 
VIII, 45, 27 ; X, 40, 1. The phrase dhiya" jami, which has 
short i in II, 31,6 ; X, 40, 1, has long i in IX, 74, 7. dhiya" 
.rami. It is shortened, however, before vowels in the middle 
of a pada, and written jamy ; see I, 87, 5 ; III, 55, 3. 


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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. This may well be a marvel, even to an in- 
telligent man, that anything should have taken the 
same name dhenu, cow: — the one is always brim- 
ming to give milk among men, but Frtsni (the cloud, 
the mother of the Maruts) poured out her bright 
udder once (only). 

2. The Maruts who shone like kindled fires, as 
they grew stronger twice and thrice, — their golden, 
dustless (chariots 1 ) became full of manly courage 
and strength. 

3. They who 1 are the sons of the bounteous 
Rudra, and whom she indeed was strong enough 
to bear ; for she, the great, is known as the mother 
of the great, that very Frtsni conceived the germ 
for the strong one (Rudra). 

4. They who do not shrink from being born in 
this way 1 , and who within (the womb) clean them- 
selves from all impurity 2 , when they have been 
brought forth brilliant, according to their pleasure, 
they sprinkle their bodies with splendour. 

5. Among them there is no one who does not 
strive to be brought forth quickly ; and they assume 
the defiant name of Maruts. They who are not 
(unkind 1 ), never tiring in strength 2 , will the generous 
sacrificer be able to bring down these fierce ones ? 

6. Fierce in strength, followed by daring armies, 
these Maruts have brought together heaven and 
earth 1 , both firmly established 2 ; then the self- 

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shining Rodasl stood among the impetuous Maruts, 
like 8 a light. 

7. Even though your carriage, O Maruts, be with- 
out your deer ', without horses, and not driven by 
any charioteer, without drag 8 , and without reins, yet, 
crossing the air 3 , it passes between heaven and 
earth, finishing its courses. 

8. No one can stop, no one can overcome him 
whom you, O Maruts, protect in battle. He whom 
you protect in his kith, his cattle, his kin, and his 
waters, he breaks the stronghold at the close of the 
day 1 . 

9. Offer a beautiful song to the host of the 
Maruts, the singers, the quick, the strong, who 
resist violence with violence; O Agni, the earth 
trembles before the champions. 

10. Blazing like the flame of the sacrifices, flicker- 
ing like the tongues of the fire, shouters, like roaring 
fighters, the flame-born Maruts are unassailable. 

11. I invite with my call this strong and Marut- 
like son of Rudra 1 , armed with flaming spears. 
Bright thoughts, like wild waters from the moun- 
tain 2 , strove to reach the host of heaven. 

[3*] B b 

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Hymn ascribed to Bharadva^a Barhaspatya. None of 
its verses occurs in SV., VS., AV. Verse a in MS. IV, 
14, ii. Verse 9 in TS. IV, 1, 11, 3; TB. II, 8, 5, 5; 
MS. IV, 10, 3. Verse 10 in MS. IV, 14, 11. Metre, 

Verse 1. 

The meaning seems to be that it is strange that two 
things, namely, a real cow and the cloud, i.e. Primi, the 
mother of the Maruts, should both be called dhenu, cow ; 
that the one should always yield milk to men, while the 
other has her bright udder milked but once. This may 
mean that dhenu, a cow, yields her milk always, that 
dhenu, a cloud, yields rain but once, or, that Primi gave 
birth but once to the Maruts. See also VI, 48, 22; 
Gaedicke, Accusativ, p. 19 ; DelbrUck, Tempuslehre, p. 102. 
Dhenu must be taken as the neuter form, and as a nomin- 
ative, as is shown by II, 37, 2. dad/A y&A nama patyate. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. It seems necessary to take arewavaA hirawyaya- 
saA for rathaA, chariots, as in V, 87, 3. Sayawa takes the 
same view, and I do not see how the verse gives sense in 
any other way. The first pada might be referred to the 
Maruts, or to the chariots. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The relative pronouns may be supposed to carry 
on the subject, viz. MarutaA, from the preceding verse, 
unless we supply esham mata*. I am doubtful about mah6 
mam"; cf. I, 102, 1; II, ^j, 8. Grassmann proposes to 
read maham, gen. plur. ; Ludwig thinks of garbha. It may 
also be a compound, as in mahamaha, mahamahivrata, or 
an adverb, but the construction remains difficult throughout. 
Oldenberg suggests that the second pada may have been 
van ko nu prisni/t da'dhr/vi^ bharadhyai. 

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notes, vi, 66, 6. 371 

Verse 4. 

Note L A tentative rendering and no more. I take aya 
for aya" as an adverb in the sense of thus, in this way, see 
I, 87, 4, note 2. Grassmann seems to take it as an instr. 
fern., dependent on ^anushaA, which is possible, but without 
analogy. Lanman, p. 358, takes it for ayaA, nom. plur. 
of aya, wanderer, and translates, ' as long as the ones now 
wanderers quit not their birth.' Grassmann : ' Die nicht 
verleugnen die Geburt aus jener.' But is £an with instru- 
mental ever used of a woman giving birth to a child? 
Ludwig : ' Die sich nicht weigern der geburt.' 

Note 2. Pu with accusative occurs AV. XIX, 33, 3. 

Verse 6. 

This verse is again very obscure. It would be more 
honest to say that it is untranslatable. Possibly the poet 
may have taken dohase in the same sense as duhr£ in verse 
4. The Maruts are bora as by being milked from the udder 
of Prani. It would then mean, ' Among whom there is no 
one not striving to be born quickly.' 

Note 1. Stauna is an unknown word. Sayawa explains 
it as stena, thieves. It probably meant something not 
favourable, something that must be denied of the Maruts. 
This is all we can say. It cannot be a corruption of 
stavanlA, praised. 

Note 2. Ayas can hardly refer to Prwni, never tiring to 
suckle the Maruts. In B.-R. ayas is explained as sich 
nicht anstrengend, behende, leicht, unermiidlich. See also 
Windisch, K.Z. XXVII, 170; also Johansson, Bezzenb. 
Beitr. XV, p. 180. 

Verse 6. 

Note L To join together heaven and earth is, as Ber- 
gaigne remarks (II, p. 374, n. 1), the apparent effect of a 
thunderstorm, when the clouds cover both in impenetrable 
darkness. We have the same expression in VIII, 20, 4. 

Note 2. On sum^ke, see Geldner, K. Z. XXIV, 145 ; 
and Windisch, Festgruss an Bohtlingk, p. 114. 

Note 8. The na, placed before r6kaA, is irregular, see 
Bergaigne, Melanges Renier, p. 79. Oldenberg suggests 

B b 2 


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narokaA=nn'-okaA, 'she who is fond of the men,' namely, 

of the Maruts. The corruption may be due to the writers 

of our text. 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. AnenaA is strange, and might be changed into 
aneta^ ; it cannot be anen&4, without guilt. 

Note 2. If avasa in an-avasa comes from ava-so, it may 
mean the step for descending or ascending, or possibly a 
drag. Bergaigne explains it by sine viatico. 

Note 3. Ra^aA-ttfA, according to Ludwig, den Staub 
aufwirbelnd, which seems too much opposed to arewu, 
dustless. Ra^as + tar means to pass through the air, 
and in that sense only conquering the air. Geldner, Ved. 
Stud. p. 123, ignores the various shades of meaning in tur 
at the end of compounds. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. PaVye dy6A, according to Grassmann, * on the 
decisive day,' like parye divf. 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. I have translated Rudrasya sunum by the son 
of Rudra. It is true that a single Marut, as the son of 
Rudra, is not mentioned ; but on the other hand, one could 
hardly call the whole company of the Maruts, the maruta 
scil. ga«a, the son of Rudra. In 1, 64, 12, we have Rudrasya 
sunu- in one pada, and maruta gana in the next. The 
Rtbhus also are called in the same line savasaJi napataA, 
and indrasya suno, IV, 37, 4. Here sunu corresponds 
almost to the English offspring, only it is masculine. 

Note 2. GirayaA may have been meant for giryaA, a 
possible ablative of giri; see Lanman, p. 383. Ugr£A would 
then refer to UpaJb, unless we break the sentence into two, 
viz. ' my bright thoughts tend to the host of heaven,' and 
' the fierce Maruts strive like waters from the mountain.' 
If we compare, however, IX, 95, 3. apam iva fd urmayaA 
tartura»a£ pra manisha7* irate s6mam ikMa., we see that 
the whole verse forms one sentence. All would be right 
if we could change girayaA into giribhyaA, but is not this 
a conjecture nim is facilis? 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. Who are these resplendent men, dwelling to- 
gether, the boys of Rudra, also 1 with good horses ? 

2. No one indeed knows their births, they alone 
know each other's birthplace. 

3. They plucked each other with their beaks 1 ; 
the hawks, rushing like the wind, strove together. 

4. A wise man understands these secrets 1 , that 
Pmni, the great, bore an udder. 

5. May that clan be rich in heroes by the Maruts, 
always victorious, rich in manhood ! 

6. They are quickest to go, most splendid with 
splendour, endowed with beauty, strong with strength. 

7. Strong is your strength, steadfast your powers, 
and thus by the Maruts is this clan mighty. 

8. Resplendent is your breath, furious are the 
minds of the wild host, like a shouting maniac K 

9. Keep from us entirely your flame, let not your 
hatred reach us here. 

10. I call on the dear names of your swift ones, 
so that the greedy should be satisfied \ O Maruts, 

11. The well-armed, the swift, decked with beauti- 
ful chains, who themselves adorn their bodies. 

12. Bright are the libations for you, the bright 
ones, O Maruts, a bright sacrifice I prepare for the 
bright. In proper order came those who truly 
follow the order, the bright born, the bright, the 

13. On your shoulders, O Maruts, are the rings, 


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on your chests the golden chains are fastened ; far- 
shining like lightnings with showers 1 , you wield 
your weapons, according to your wont. 

14. Your hidden x splendours come forth ; spread 
out your powers (names), O racers ! Accept, O 
Maruts, this thousandfold, domestic share, as an 
offering for the house-gods 2 . 

15. If you thus listen, O Maruts, to this praise, 
at the invocation of the powerful sage, give him 
quickly a share of wealth in plentiful offspring, which 
no selfish enemy shall be able to hurt. 

16. The Maruts, who are fleet like racers, the 
manly youths, shone like Yakshas 1 ; they are 
beautiful like boys standing round the hearth, they 
play about like calves who are still sucking. 

1 7. May the bounteous Maruts be gracious to us, 
opening up to us the firm heaven and earth. May 
that bolt of yours which kills catde and men, be 
far from us! Incline to us, O Vasus, with your 

18. The Hotrt priest calls on you again and 
again, sitting down and praising your common gift, 
O Maruts. O strong ones, he who is the guardian 
of so much wealth, he calls on you with praises, 
free from guile. 

19. These Maruts stop the swift, they bend 
strength by strength \ they ward off the curse of 
the plotter, and turn 8 their heavy hatred on the 

20. These Maruts stir up even the sluggard 1 , 
even the vagrant 2 , as the gods 3 pleased. O strong 
ones, drive away the darkness, and grant us all our. 
kith and kin. 

21. May we not fall away from your bounty, O 

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MAiVflALA VII, HYMN 56. 375 

Maruts, may we not stay behind, O charioteers, in 
the distribution of your gifts. Let us share in the 
brilliant wealth, the well-acquired, that belongs to 
you, O strong ones. 

22. When valiant men fiercely fight together, for 
rivers, plants, and houses \ then, O Maruts, sons of 
Rudra, be in battles our protectors from the enemy. 

23. O Maruts, you have valued 1 the praises 
which our fathers have formerly recited to you ; with 
the Maruts the victor is terrible in battle, with the 
Maruts alone the racer wins the prize. 

24. O Maruts, may we have a strong son, who 
is lord among men, a ruler, through whom we may 
cross the waters to dwell in safety, and then obtain 
our own home for you l . 

25. May Indra then, Varu«a, Mitra, Agni, the 
waters, the plants, the trees of the forest be pleased 
with us. Let us be in the keeping, in the lap of 
the Maruts ; protect us always with your favours. 

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Ascribed to Vasish/#a. Verse i occurs in SV. I, 433 ; 
verse 10 in TS. II, 1, 11, 1 ; MS. IV, 11, 2 ; verse 12 in TB. 
II, 8, 5,5 ; MS. IV, 14, 18 ; verse 13 in TB. II, 8, 5, 5 ; MS. 
IV, 14, 18 ; verse 14 in TS. IV, 3, 13, 6 ; MS. IV, 10, 5 ; 
verse 16 in TS. IV, 3, 13, 7 ; MS. IV, 10, 5 ; verse 19 in 
TB. II, 8, 5, 6; MS. IV, 14, 18. Metre, 1-11 Dvipada 
Vira^; 13-25 TrishAibh. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. The SV. reads atha for the older adha. Sanika 
in the edition of the Bibl. Ind. is a misprint for sani/a. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. Sva-pu is explained by Roth as possibly a 
broom, raising the dust. Grassmann translates it by light, 
Ludwig by blowing. I suggest to take it for *vapu, in the 
sense of beak or claw, from vap, which follows immediately. 
See note to I, 88, 4. I do not see how the other meanings 
assigned to svapu give any sense. Oldenberg therefore 
suggests pavanta, ' Sie stromten hell auf einander zu mit 
ihren svapus.' 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Sayawa explains et&ai ninyS. by jvetavaroani 
marudatmakani bhutani. He takes udhas as a locative. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. Geldner translates : ' Der Spielmann des wilden 
Heeres ist wie ein Muni,' and adds, 'Aberwas ist ein Muni 
im Veda?' 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. I read tripia for tripit of the Pada text, and 
refer vavajana^ to the Maruts. The TS. has trt'pat, and 
the commentary explains it by tr/ptim. The first line is 
Vira^-, the second TrishAibh, and the TrishAibh metre is 
afterwards carried on. 

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NOTES. VII, 56, 16. 377 

Verse 11. 

This verse refers to the Maruts, not, as Ludwig thinks, 
to the priests. Dr. v. Bradke (Dyaus Asura, p. 65) proposes 
to join verses 10 and 11 into one Trish/ubh, and possibly to 
insert £ before huve. I doubt whether for the present such 
changes are justified. On the structure of this hymn, see 
Oldenberg, Prol. 96, Anm. 3 ; 200, Anm. 5. 

Verse 13. 

Note 1. TB. II, 8, 5, 6, reads vyrjsh/ibhiA (not vrishii- 
bhi/t), and the commentator explains, vynsh/ibhir ayudha- 
vueshair vyrish/yakhyair, vijeshe»a ro£amanaA sthitkA. 
And again, rishtaya. eva vLrish/atvad vyrj'sh/aya ity u/feyante. 
Bollensen, Z. D. M. G. XLI, 501, conjectures rishtibhiA for 
vn'sh/ibhiA, which is very ingenious. See also note 1 to 

II. 34, 2- 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. Budhnya, explained by budhne bhavani, and also 
by kalapravrtttani. 

Note 2. Grthamedhtya may refer to the Maruts as grtha- 
medhas or gr*'hamedhinas ; see RV. VII, 59, 10 ; VS. XXIV, 
16. The gr*hamedhiya ish/i in Sat, Br. XI, 5, 2, 4, is meant 
for the Maruts. 

Verse 16. 

Note 1. Yakshadrfra^ is explained as wishing to see a 
sacrifice or feast. Ludwig retains this meaning. Grassmann 
translates, ' wie feurige Blitze funkeln.' Yaksha may mean 
a shooting star or any meteor, literally what shoots or 
hastens along; see VII, 61, 5. n£ yasu £itram dadwe na 
yaksham ; also note to V, 55, 1. But drts is not sadrw. 
If we follow the later Sanskrit, yaksha would mean a class 
of spirits, followers of Kuvera, also ghosts in general. If 
this is not too modern a conception for the Rig-veda, we 
might translate yakshadrw, 'appearing as ghosts' (see 
Kaur. Sutra 95 in BR.), or, considering the expression 
iXyah na ya*«sat yakshabhr/t viket&Ji, I, 190, 4, take it 
for a name of horses. 

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Verse 10. 
Note 1. Does not sahasa & stand for sahasa Si, and not 
for sahasaA £? Comp. Oldenberg, Prolegomena, 465 seq. 

ITote 2. On dadhanti, see Hubschmann, Indogerm. Vocal- 
system, p. 1 a. 

Verse 20. 

Mote 1. On radhra, see Pischel, Ved. Stud. pp. 124 seq. 

Note 2. Bhrani is doubtful, but as it stands by the side 
of radhra, it seems to have a bad meaning, such as a 
vagrant, unsteady. 

Note 8. The Vasus are often mentioned with the Adityas 
and Rudras, see III, 8, 8 ; X, 66,12; 138, 9. By them- 
selves they became almost synonymous with the Devas. 
Thus in VII, 11, 4, we read that Agni became the master 
of all sacrifices, kratum hf asya VasavaA ^-ushanta atha 
devfUi dadhire havyavaliam, 'for the Vasus liked his wisdom, 
therefore the Devas made him the carrier of offerings.' See 
also V, 3, 10. pita* Vaso yadi tat ^oshayise. In one pas- 
sage, VI, 50, 4, VasavaA means the Maruts. In our passage 
it seems better to take it in the sense of gods, but we might 
also refer it to the Maruts. 

Verse 22. 
Note 1. With pada b, compare VII, 70, 3 b. 

Verse 23. 

Note 1. I have taken bhffri £akra in the sense of magni 
facere, though I can find no analogous passages. 

Verse 24. 

Note 1. This verse has been well explained by Dr. v. 
Bradke, Dyaus Asura, p. 66. Svam 6ksJt, our own home, 
occurs IV, 50, 8 ; V, 33, 4 5 VI, 41, 1 ; VIII, 72, 14 Abhyas 
means generally to obtain what is not our own. See also 
VII, 48, 2. VaA, which I have translated 'for you,' may 
also mean ' from you.' 

Verse 25. 

This verse is marked as a galita taken from VII, 34, 25, 
while the last pada is a galita taken from VII, 1, 25. 

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MAY0ALA VII, HYMN 57- 379 



To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. O ye worshipful, your company of Maruts is 

fond of honey, they who delight in their strength at 

the sacrifices, the Maruts, who shake even the wide 

heaven and earth, and fill the well, when they move 

about, the terrible ones. 

2. Truly the Maruts find out the man who praises 
them, and guide the thoughts of the sacrificer. Sit 
down then to rejoice to-day, on the altar 1 in our 
assemblies 2 well pleased. 

3. Others do not shine so much as these Maruts 
with their golden chains, their weapons, and their 
own bodies ; the all-adorned, adorning heaven and 
earth, brighten themselves with the same brightness, 
when starting for triumph. 

4. May your shining thunderbolt be far from us, 
O Maruts, whatever sin we may commit against 
you, men as we are : O worshipful, let us not fall 
under 1 its power, let your best favour rest on us. 

5. May the Maruts be pleased with whatever little 
we have done here, they the faultless, the bright, 
the pure. Protect us, ye worshipful, with your 
favours, lead us to prosperity through booty. 

6. And let the manly Maruts, when they have 
been praised, under whatever names, enjoy these 
offerings ! Grant that our offspring may not die *, 
raise up for us riches 8 , glory, and wealth. 

7. O Maruts, when you have thus been praised, 
come all together with help towards our lords who 
with their hundredfold wealth freely prosper us ; — 
protect us always with your favours ! 


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Ascribed to Vasish/Aa. None of its verses occurs in SV., 
VS., AV., TS., TB., MS. Metre, Trishflibh. 

Verse 1. 

This hymn has been translated by Geldner and Kaegi. 
The first verse is most difficult. G.-K. avoid all difficulties 
by translating, ' Beim Fest des siissen Trankes weiss man 
tiichtig euch zu begeistern, hehre Schaar der Marut.' 
Ludwig grapples with them by translating: 'An eures 
madhu kraft, o zu vererende, freut bei den opfern sich 
der Marut geschlecht' I doubt, however, whether javas 
is ever ascribed to madhu, though it is ascribed to 
Soma. Oldenberg suggests, 'The sweet ones' is your 
Marut-name, O worshipful, they who rejoice in their 
strength at the sacrifices.' Here the difficulty would be 
that Marutam nama is the recognised term for the name, 
i. e. the kin of the Maruts. Still, unless we venture on a 
conjecture, this would seem to be the best rendering. 
Could we change madhvaA vaA nama marutam into madh- 
vad vaA nama marutam? Madhvad is a Vedic word, 
though it occurs once only, in 1, 164, 22, and as trisyllabic. 
Its very rarity would help to account for the change. The 
meaning would then be, 'your Marut kin eats honey, is /, 
fond of honey.' 

It has been proved that the present madati is always 
neutral, meaning to rejoice, while mand (Par.) is transitive, 
to make rejoice. Otherwise madhvad might possibly have 
been taken in the sense of sweet things, as in I, 180, 4; 
IX, 89, 3, and construed with madanti. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Barhis, which I translate by altar, is the simplest 
form of an altar, mere turf or kura-grass, on which the 
offerings are placed. See note to VII, 46, 4. 

Note 2. On vidatha, see my note, V, 59, 2. 

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notes, vii, 57, 6. 381 

Verse 8. 

See Gaedicke, Accusativ, p. 241 ; his rendering would be 
acceptable but for the a. Without any verb of motion a 
ra^as can hardly mean 'through the air,' nor £ rodasi 
'through the worlds.' 

Verse 4. 
Note 1. On api bhu and api as, see B.-R. s. v. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. AmWta cannot be rendered by immortality in 
our sense, it simply means not dying. 

Note 2. GigritA, imp. aor. caus. of gar. RayaA, ace. 


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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

1. Sing to the company (of the Maruts), growing 
up together, the strong among the divine host 1 : 
they stir heaven and earth by their might, they 
mount up to the firmament from the abyss of 

2. Even your birth 1 was with fire and fury, O 
Maruts ! You, terrible, wrathful, never tiring ! You 
who stand forth with might and strength ; every one 
who sees the sun 2 , fears at your coming. 

3. Grant mighty strength to our lords, if the 
Maruts are pleased with our praise. As a trodden 
path furthers a man, may they further us ; help us 
with your brilliant favours. 

4. Favoured by you, O Maruts, a wise man wins 
a hundred, favoured by you a strong racer wins a 
thousand, favoured by you a king also kills his 
enemy : may that gift of yours prevail, O ye shakers. 

5. I invite these bounteous sons of Rudra 1 , will 
these Maruts turn again to us ? Whatever they 
hated secretly or openly, that sin we pray the swift 
ones to forgive. 

6. This praise of our lords has been spoken : may 
the Maruts be pleased with this hymn. Keep far 
from us, O strong ones, all hatred, protect us always 
with your favours ! 

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NOTES. VII, 58, I. 383 


Ascribed to Vasish/^a. None of its verses occurs in 
SV., VS., AV., TS., TB., MS. Metre, TrishAibh. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Dhaman is one of the cruces of translators, and 
it remains so after all that has been written on the subject 
by Bergaigne, III, 210 seq. There are many words in the 
Veda which it is simply impossible to translate, because 
their meaning has not yet been differentiated, and they 
convey such general or rather vague concepts that it is ut- 
terly impossible to match them in our modern languages. 
Translators are often blamed that they do not always 
render the same Vedic by the same English word. It 
would be simply impossible to do so, because, according to 
the different surroundings in which it occurs, the same word 
receives different shades of meaning which in English can 
only be approximately expressed by different words. 
Bergaigne is, no doubt, right when he says that dha-man 
is derived from dha, to set or settle, and that it therefore 
meant at first what is settled. From this he proceeds to 
argue that the original meaning of dhaman, from which all 
others are derived, is law. But law is a very late and very 
abstract word, and we must never forget that words always 
progress from the concrete to the abstract, from the material 
to the spiritual, and but seldom, and at a much later time, in 
an opposite direction. Now even if we were to admit that 
dhaman does not occur in the Veda in the sense of settlement, 
i.e. abode, this is certainly its most general meaning after- 
wards, and no one would maintain that a settlement, i.e. a 
household, was called dhaman, because it involved a settle- 
ment, i. e. laws. The same applies to vrata. Bergaigne (III, 
213) agrees with me that vrata should be derived from 
var, to surround, to guard, and not from var, to choose, 
but he thinks that it meant at once 'garde, protection,' 

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and not ' lieu clos.' I still hold that like vonos, vrata must 
have meant first a real hedge, or tpnos, and then only an 
abstract enclosure, i.e. a law, vo/xos. In this case we can see 
the actual transition of thought. People would begin by say- 
ing, 'there is a fence here against your cattle,' and this would 
in time assume the meaning 'there is a defence against your 
cattle straying on my meadow.' But it would be impossi- 
ble to begin, as Bergaigne (p. 216) does, with the abstract 
meaning of protection, law, and then return and use the 
word in such phrases as V, 46, 7. apam vrate\ ' within the 
pale of the waters.' 

Dhaman, therefore, meant originally, I still believe, what 
was actually laid down or settled, hence an abode. When, 
as in the Veda, it means law, I do not say that this was 
necessarily derived from the meaning of abode. I only 
maintain that it was a second, if not a secondary, meaning, 
and that, at all events, the meaning of abode cannot be 
derived from that of law. 

After dhaman meant what is settled, it has sometimes to 
be translated by law, by nature, sometimes by class, or 
clan, where it comes very near to naman, name, while 
sometimes it may best be rendered by a general and 
abstract suffix, or even by a plural. Thus in our passage, 
dafvyasya dhamna^ is not very different from devanam. 

What is peculiar to our passage is the genitive governed 
by tuvishman. After all the learning which Bergaigne has 
expended on the analysis of dhaman, he does not help us 
to a translation of our sentence. If we translate ' of the 
divine law, powerful,' we have words, but no sense. I take 
dafvyasya dhamnaA as a genitivus partitivus, such as AV. 
IV > 37» 5> oshadhinam virudham viryavati. See Kuhn, 
Zeitschrift XIII, 1 %o ; Siecke, Genitivus, p. 14. Grassmann : 
'Diemachtigwalten in der Gotter Wohnsitz.' Ludwig: 'Die 
von gottlicher natur, die starke.' He denies that tuvishman 
could be followed by the genitive. I do not maintain that 
I am satisfied on that point. All I say in this as in many 
other cases is that my translation gives something which 
we can understand. Let others give us something better. 

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NOTES. VII, 58, 5. 385 

Note 2. On Nirr&i, see Hibbert Lectures, p. 245 ; Lect. 
Science of Lang., vol. ii, p. 562. Avawwa, literally with- 
out beams of support, or bottomless. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. On^anus, see Lanman, p. 571. 

Note 2. Svardr/lc, according to Grassmann, der lichte 
Himmel ; according to Ludwig, jeder der das licht schaut. 
Sayawa, among other meanings, gives that of tree. See 
VII, 83, 2. 

Verse 3. 

On the construction of this verse, see Delbriick, Syntax, 
p. 384, and Bergaigne, Melanges Renier, p. 82. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. With regard to tan milMshaJi rudrasya, ' these 
bounteous (sons) of Rudra,' see VIII, 20, 3. 

[3»] C C r 

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To the Maruts and Rudra. 

i. Whom you protect again and again, O gods, 
and whom you lead, to him, O Agni, Varu»a, Mitra, 
Aryaman, and Maruts, yield your protection. 

2. He who sacrifices, O gods, overcomes his 
enemies by your protection on a happy day. He 
who gives to your delight, spreads forth his dwell- 
ing, spreads out much food. 

3. This Vasish//fca will not despise even the last 
among you, O Maruts ; drink 1 all of you, to-day, at 
my libation here, full of desire. 

4. Your help does not indeed fail that man in 
battle to whom you granted it, O men ! Your 
newest favour has turned hither, come quick then, 
ye who wish to drink. 

5. O ye whose gifts are cheering, come to drink 
the (juice of the Soma) flowers : these are your 
libations, O Maruts, for I gave them to you, do not 
go elsewhere! 

6. Sit down on our altar and protect 1 us, to give 
us brilliant riches. O Maruts, who never miss the 
Soma mead, hail to you here to enjoy yourselves. 

7. Having adorned their bodies, the swans with 
dark blue backs came flying in secret 1 — the whole 
flock sat down all around me, like gay men, delight- 
ing in the Soma offering. 

8. O Maruts, that hateful man who beyond our 
thoughts tries to hurt us, O Vasus, may he catch 
the snares of Druh, kill him with your hottest bolt ! 

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9. O you Maruts, full of heat, here is the libation ; 
be pleased to accept it, O you who destroy the 
enemies by your help 1 . 

10. O you who accept the domestic sacrifices 1 , 
come hither, O Maruts, do not keep away, you who 
are bounteous by your help 2 . 

11. O Maruts, strong and wise, with sun-bright 
skins, I choose the sacrifice for you here and there 1 . 

12. We sacrifice to Tryambaka 1 , the sweet- 
scented, wealth-increasing (Rudra). May I be de- 
tached from death, like a gourd from its stem, but 
not 2 from the immortal 3 . 

c c 2 

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Ascribed to Vasish/^a. Verse 12 addressed to Rudra. 

Verse 3 occurs SV. I, 241 ; verse 8, AV. VII, 77, 2 ; 
TS. IV, 3, 13, 3 ; MS. IV, 10, 5 ; verse 9, AV. VII, 77, 1 ; 
TS. IV, 3, 13, 3; MS. IV, 10, 5 ; verse 10, TS. IV, 3, 13, 
5 ; MS. IV, 10, 5 ; verse 11, TA. I, 4, 3 ; MS. IV, io, 3 ; 
verse ia, VS. Ill, 60; AV. XIV, 1, 17; TS. I, 8, 6, a ; 
MS. I, to, 4 ; TA. X, 56 ; .Sat. Br. II, 6, 2, ia. 

Metre, 1, 3, 5 Brzhati; 2, 4, 6 Satobrzhati ; 7, 8 TrishAibh; 
9, 10, 11 Gayatrt; ia AnushAibh. 

Verse 2. 
With pada a compare I, 110,7; withe and d, VIII, 37, 16. 

Verse 3. 
Note 1. SV. has pibantu, and as a various reading the 
comment, gives pivanta. Sute" sa£a is a standing phrase. 

Verse 6. 
Note 1. I cannot see how avita can stand for avish/a 
(Delbriick, Verb, 1 86 ; Whitney, Gram. § 908). I translate 
as if the text gave avata. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. On the secret approach of the Maruts, see I, 88, 5. 

Verse 8. 
The text in the AV. VII, 77, a, is bad, y6 no marto 
maruto durhrzwayus, prati muȣatam sAA, and tapasa for 
hanmana. The TS. IV, 3, 13, 3, has tiriA satyani. It reads 
besides, yd no marto vasavo durh««ayus tiraA satyani 
maruta/* ^fghi^sat druhdA paVam, and tapasa. Tira£ 
£ittani may mean 'beyond all conception,' as Grassmann 
takes it, or ' unobserved,' as B.-R. suggest. TiraA satyani 
might mean ' in spite of all pledges,' but that is probably 
an emendation. All this shows the unsettled state of 
Vedic tradition, outside that of the Rig-veda ; see Olden- 
berg, Prolegomena, p. 338. 

Verse 0. 
Note 1. Cti, taken here as a dative, by Lanman, p. 382. 

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NOTES. VII, 59, 12. 389 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. On the Maruts grzhamedhina^, see Sat. Br. II, 
5, 3, 4. Possibly the Maruts may be called grzhamedhas, 
i. e. gWhasthas, performing the Grzhya sacrifices. See on 
these names TS. I, 8, 4, 1 ; a. 

Note 2. The last pada in the TS. is pramuȣanto no 

Verse 11. 

Note 1. On ihdha, seeDelbriick, Syntax, p. 51. It means 
' here and there,' that is, ' again and again.' 

Verse 12. 

Note 1. Tryambaka is a name of Rudra, but its original 
meaning is doubtful. Some commentators explain it by 
' three-eyed,' but its natural meaning would be ' having 
three mothers.' The Sat. Br. II, 6, 3, 9, derives it from 
Stry-ambika, because Ambika, Rudra's sister, shares the 
sacrifice with him. 

Note 2. On mi with optative, see Delbriick, Synt. Forsch. 
I, 194 ; Syntax, 338, 361, Anm. 1. 

Note 3. That amrttat is right, not, as Grassmann suggests, 
amrzta, is clear from the parallel forms, pr&6 muȣami 
n&muta^, or it6 mukshtya ma'muta/*. Pischel in Z.D.M.G. 
XL, 1 a 1, demands too much logical accuracy from a poet ; 
see AV. XIV, 1, 17 ; VS. Ill, 60. 

All scholars seem to agree that this hymn is a composite 
hymn, and that it breaks the law of decrease in the number of 
verses. It begins with three Pragathas, verses 1 and a, 3 and 4, 
5 and 6, which may be in their right place. Then follow two 
TrishAibhs, 7 and 8, which may form a hymn by themselves. 
The next three Gayatris, which clearly belong together, are 
a later addition ; so is the last verse, which ought to stand 
in the Atharva rather than in the Rig-veda. The Pada 
text does not divide this last verse. See on this subject, 
Oldenberg, Z.D.M.G. XXXVIII,449seq.,Proleg.aoo; 511 ; 
Bergaigne, Recherches sur 1'histoire de la Samhita, II, 10. 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). / 

i. When the sage has poured out the threefold 1 
draught to you, O Maruts, then you shine forth in 
the mountains (clouds). 

2. Aye, when, O bright Maruts, growing in 
strength, you have seen your way, then the moun- 
tains (clouds) have gone down \ 

3. The sons of Frisni, the bulls, have risen 
together with the winds, they have drawn forth the 
swelling draught. 

4. The Maruts sow the mist, they shake the 
mountains (clouds), when they go their way with 
the winds, 

5. When the mountain bent down before your 
march, the rivers before your rule, before your 
great power (blast). 

6. We invoke you by night for our protection, 
you by day, you while the sacrifice proceeds. 

7. And they rise up on their courses, the beauti- 
ful, of reddish hue 1 , the bulls, above the ridge of 
the sky. 

8. With might they send forth a ray of light, that 
the sun may have a path to walk 1 : they have 
spread far and wide with their lights. 

9. Accept, O Maruts, this my speech, this hymn 
of praise, O .# zbhukshans \ this my call. 

10. The Trisnis 1 (the clouds) yielded three lakes 
(from their udders) as mead for the wielder of the 
thunderbolt (Indra), the well, the water-skin, the 
watering-pot 2 . 

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11. O Maruts, whenever we call you from 
heaven, wishing for your favour, come hither to- 
wards us. 

12. For you are bounteous 1 , in our house, O 
Rudras, ^'bhukshans : you are attentive, when you 
enjoy (the libations). 

1 3. O Maruts, bring to us from heaven enrapturing 
wealth, which nourishes many, which satisfies all. 

14. When you have seen your way, brilliant 
Maruts, as it were from above 1 the mountains, you 
rejoice in the (Soma) drops which have been pressed 

1 5. Let the mortal with his prayers ask the favour 
of that immense, unconquerable (host) 1 of them, 

16. Who like torrents 1 foam along heaven and 
earth with their streams of rain, drawing the inex- 
haustible well. 

17. These sons of Trtsni rise up together with 
rattlings, with chariots, with the winds, and with 
songs of praise. 

18. That (help) with which you helped Turvasa, 
Yadu, and Ka»va when he carried off riches, that 
we pray for, greatly for our wealth. 

19. O bounteous Maruts, may these draughts, 
swelling like butter, strengthen you, together with 
the prayers of Ka»va. 

20. Where do you rejoice now, O bounteous 
Maruts, when an altar has been prepared for you ? 
What priest serves you ? 

21. For you for whom we have prepared an altar, 
do not, as it was with you formerly, in return for 
these praises, gladden the companies of our sacri- 

22. These Maruts have brought together piece 

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by piece * the great waters, heaven and earth, the 
sun, and the thunderbolt ; 

23. And, while performing their manly work, 
they have trodden VWtra to pieces, and the dark 
mountains (clouds). 

24. They protected the strength and intelligence 
of the fighting Trita, they protected Indra in his 
struggle with VWtra. 

25. Holding lightnings in their hands, they hasten 
heavenward, golden helmets 1 are on their head; 
the brilliant Maruts have adorned themselves for 

26. When with U^ana 2 you have come from afar 
to Uksh«orandhra (ox-hollow) 1 , he roared from fear, 
like Dyu (the sky). 

27. O gods, come to us with your golden-hoofed 
horses, for the offering of the sacrifice x . 

28. When the red leader leads their spotted deer 
in their chariot, the brilliant Maruts approach and 
let the waters run. 

29. The heroes went downwards to »Sarya#avat, 
to Sushoma, to Arfika, to Pastyavat 

30. When will you come hither, O Maruts, to the 
sage who calls you so, with your consolations to the 
suppliant ? 

31. What then now? Where are your friends, 
now that you have forsaken Indra ? Who is counted 
in your friendship ? 

32. O Ka«vas, I praise Agni, together with our 
Maruts, who carry the thunderbolt in their hands, 
and are armed with golden daggers. 

33. Might I succeed in bringing hither the strong 
hunters, hither with their splendid booty for the 
newest blessings. 

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34. The hills even sink low, as if they thought 
themselves valleys, the mountains even bow them- 
selves down. 

35. The crossing (horses) bring them hither, 
flying through the air ; they bestow strength on the 
man who praises them. 

36. The old fire 1 has been born, like the shine 2 
by the splendour of the sun, and the Maruts have 
spread far and wide with their lights. 


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Ascribed to Punarvatsa Ka«va. Verse 8 occurs MS. 
IV, 12, 5 ; verse n in TS. I, 5, u, 4; MS. IV, 10, 4 ; 
verse 28 in AV. XIII, 1, 21. Metre, Gayatrl. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. Trish/ubham is an adjective belonging to {sham. 
The same expression occurs again, VIII, 69,1, as agalita, and 
is therefore of little help. In IX, 62, 24, the isha/i are called 
parish/ubha^, which seems to mean something like pari- 
srut, i. e. standing round about. I therefore take trish/ubh 
in our passage simply as threefold, referring probably to 
the morning, noon, and evening sacrifice. The sacrifice is 
often called trivrit, X, 52, 4 ; 124, 1. Some scholars ascribe 
to stubh in trish/ubh the meaning of liturgical shouting. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Besides n{ ahasata, we find ud ahasata, I, 9, 4, 
and apa ahasata, IX, 73, 6. On ki, see verse 14, and V, 55, 
7. It is often impossible to say whether the Vedic Aorist 
should be translated in English by the perfect or the im- 
perfect. If we take the verse as describing an historical 
fact, it would be, ' When you saw your way, or, as soon as 
you had seen your way, the clouds fell.' If it is meant as 
a repeated event, it would be, ' when, i. e. whenever you 
have seen your way, the clouds have fallen.' The difficulty 
lies in English, and though the grammars lay down rules, 
usage does not conform to them. The difference in the 
use of tenses in English is so great that in the revised 
version of the Bible, a number of passages had to be trans- 
lated differently for the English and for the American 
public. Thus in Rom. ii. 12, the English edition gives, 
' For as many as have sinned without law, shall perish 
without law.' The American edition changes this into 'As 
many as sinned without the law.' Gal. iii. 22, English: 
'The scripture hath shut up;' American: 'The scripture 
shut up.' It was on account of this and other changes of 

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notes, viii, 7, 10. 395 

idiom which have sprung up between English and American, 
that different editions of the revised version had actually to 
be printed for England and America. No wonder, there- 
fore, that an American critic should in his innocence have 
charged me with not knowing the difference between the 
aorist, the imperfect, and the perfect in Vedic Sanskrit ! 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Aruwapsu, perhaps reddish-coloured, an epithet 
of the dawn, here applied to the Maruts. The Maruts are 
sometimes called vr/shapsu, ahrutapsu, 1, 52, 4 ; VIII, 20, 7. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. The relation between the light cast forth by the 
Maruts and the path of the sun is not quite clear, except 
that in other places also the Maruts are connected with the 
morning. The darkness preceding a thunderstorm may be 
identified with the darkness of the night, preceding the 
sunrise. See Bergaigne, II, 379 seq. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. The meaning of r zbhukshan is doubtful. It is 
applied to Indra and the Maruts. See Bergaigne, II, 403 ; 
404 note ; 41a. 

Verse 10. 

Note 1. The Prwnis in the plural fern.- are the clouds, see 
VIII, 6, 19. Mythologically there is but one Prani, the 
mother of the Maruts. See also Bergaigne, II, 397. 

Note 2. I am doubtful about the three lakes of Madhu, 
here of rain, poured from their udders by the clouds. The 
number three is common enough, and Ludwig has pointed 
out a parallel passage from the AV. X, 10, 10-12, where 
we read of three patras, filled with milk and Soma. Many 
similar passages have been collected by Bergaigne, I, 177, 
but again without a definite result. The question is whether 
the three words utsa, kavandha, and udrin are meant as 
names of the three patras, in our passage, of the three 
lakes, or whether they should be taken as an apposition, 

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the three lakes, namely, the well (of the sky), the skin full 
of water, and udrin, the watering-pot. Udrin is elsewhere 
an adjective only, but I think we must here translate, • the 
well, the water-skin, the watering-pot.' 

Verse 12. 

N ote 1. On sudanavaA as vocative, see Delbriick, Syntax, 
p. 106. 

Verse 14. 

Note 1. For adhi with genitive, one expects ati. But 
Delbriick doubts whether ati can govern the genitive. See 
Altind. Syntax, p. 440. 

Verse 15. 

Note 1. As adabhyasya can only refer to etavata^, I have 
taken etavat in the sense of ga»a, followed by esham. But 
I am not certain that the rendering is right. 

Verse 16. 

Note L I have ventured to translate drapsa^ by torrents. 
Neither drops nor sparks nor banners seem to yield an 
appropriate simile, but I feel very doubtful. See VIII, 96, 
13 ; IX, 73, 1. 

Verse 22. 

Note 1. I thought at first that by sam parvara^ dadhuA 
was meant the mixing or confounding together of heaven and 
earth ; it being impossible, during a storm, to distinguish the 
two. But there is clearly, as Ludwig points out, an opposi- 
tion between sam dadhuA and vf yaya/t. I therefore take 
parv&raA in verse z% in the sense of piece by piece, as in 
AV. IV, 1 a, 7. sam dadhat parusha paruA, while in verse 
23 it means in pieces. 

Verse 25. 

Note 1. On sipr&A, see note to II, 34, 3. 

Verse 26. 

Note 1. Uksh«4/t randhram, ' the hollow of the bull,' what- 
ever that may be, is not mentioned again. If it is meant for 

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NOTES. VIII, 7, 29. 397 

the dark cloud which hides the rain, then the roar of the bull 
would be the thunder of the cloud, stirred by the Maruts. 
Aukshworandhra, however, is the technical name of certain 
Samans, so that Ukshworandhra may have been, like Ujana 
(later U-ranas), a proper name. See TtLndya. Br. XIII, 9, 
18; 19. 

Note 2. If urana stands for uranaya it might mean, 'with 
desire,' but it seems more likely that it refers to the ^j'shi, 
who is called ILrana in the Rig-veda, and Ujanas in later 
writings. See Lanman, p. 562, 1. 21; Bergaigne, II, 338, 
n. 3 ; Schmidt, K. Z. XXVI, 40a, n. 1. 

Verse 27. 
Note 1. On makhasya davane, see note to 1, 6, 8, where I 
accepted the old explanation, ' Come to the offering of the 
priest.' But does makha mean priest ? In later Sanskrit it 
means sacrifice, so that makhasya davane has been translated, 
' for the offering of the sacrifice,' that is, • that we may be able 
to offer you sacrifice.' If makha means glad and refers to 
Soma, which is doubtful, the sense would be the same. 
Possibly davane may here be derived from do, to divide, 
but this would not help us much. 

Verse 28. 
The AV. reads yam tva pr/shatl rathe prash/ir vahati 
rohita, subh& yasi riwann apiA, which yields no help. 

Verse 29. 
This verse is very difficult. First of all, nf^akraya can 
hardly mean ' without a chariot ' (B.-R.), but seems an ad- 
verb, meaning downwards. But the chief difficulty lies in 
this, that we must decide, once for all, whether words, such 
as sushoma, jaryawavat, aiglka, pastyavat, &c, are to be 
interpreted in their natural sense, as expressing localities, 
well known to the poet, or in their technical sense, as names 
of sacrificial vessels. That this decision is by no means 
easy, may be inferred from the fact that two scholars, Roth 
and Ludwig, differ completely, the former preferring the 
technical, the latter the geographical meaning. We must 

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remember that in the hymns to the Maruts the poets speak 
occasionally of the countries, far and near, visited by the 
storm-winds. We must also bear in mind that in our very 
passage the poet asks the Maruts to come to him, and not 
to tarry with other people. When, therefore, he says, that 
they went to .Saryawavat, &c, is that likely to be meant 
for a tank of Soma at his own or any other sacrifice ? 

•Saryawavat is derived from jarya, this from .rara. .Sara 
means reed, arrow ; jarya, made of reeds, jarya, an arrow, 
but also reeds tied together and used at the sacrifice for 
carrying Soma-oblations. From it, .raryawa, which, accord- . 
ing to S5ya«a, means lands in Kurukshetra (RV. VIII, 6, 
39), and from which .Saryawavat is derived, as the name of 
a lake in that neighbourhood (not a Landstrich, B.-R.). 
When this jaryawavat occurs in the Rig-veda, the question 
is, does it mean that lake, evidently a famous lake and a 
holy place in the early settlements of the Vedic Aryas, or 
does it mean, as others suppose, a sacrificial vessel made of 
reeds ? It occurs in the Rig-veda seven times. 

In I, 84, 14, Indra is said to have found the head of the 
horse, which had been removed among the mountains 
(clouds) at Saryawavat. This seems to me the lake in 
which the sun sets. In the 8th Ma«*/ala jaryawavat occurs 
three times. In VIII, 6, 39, Indra is invoked to rejoice 
at «Sarya«avat, or, according to others, in a vessel full of 
Soma. In our passage the Maruts went to .Saryawavat, to 
Sushoma, Ar^lka, and Pastyavat, countries, it would seem, 
not vessels. In VIII, 64, 11, after saying that the Soma 
had been prepared among the Purus, it is added that the 
Soma is sweetest in .Saryawavat, oh the Sushoma, and in 
Aiglkiya. In IX, 65, 22, we read of Somas prepared far 
and near, and at .Saryawavat, and in the next verse we read 
of Somas to be found either among the Atgikas, among 
the Pastyas, or among the Five Tribes. In IX, 113, 1 ; 2, 
Indra is asked to drink Soma at Saryawavat, and the Soma 
is asked to come from Aiglka. In X, 35, 2, the aid is 
implored of heaven and earth, of the rivers and the moun- 
tains, and these mountains are called jaryawavataw. 

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NOTES. VIII, 7, 36. 399 

Ar^kiyi, besides the three passages mentioned already, 
occurs X, 75, 5) where it is clearly a river as well as 
Sushoma, while in IX, 65, 23, the Ar^ikas, in the plural, 
could only be the name of a people. 

Taking all this into account, it seems to me that we 
ought to accept the tradition that Saryawavat was a lake 
and the adjoining district in Kurukshetra, that Aigikl was 
the name of a river, Ar^tka the name of the adjoining 
country, Ar^-ikaA, of the inhabitants, Aiglkiya another 
name of Aiglki, the river, and Aigtklyam another name of 
the country Aigika. Sushoma in our passage is probably 
the name of the country near the Sushomi, and Pasty&vat, 
though it might be an adjective meaning filled with ham- 
lets, is probably another geographical name ; see, however, 
IX, 65, 23. Ludwig takes Saryaw&vat as a name of the 
Eastern Sarasvatt; see Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 
19 ; but we should expect 5arya«avatt as the name of a 
river. See also Bergaigne, I, 206, who, according to his 
system, takes all these names as ' preparateurs celestes du 

Verse 81. 

See I, 38, 1, note 1. 

Verse 36. 

Note 1. Sayaaa may be right in stating that this verse 
was intended for an Agnimaruta sacrifice, and that there- 
fore Agni was praised first, and afterwards the Maruts. In 
that case purvya might mean first. 

Note 2. .Oandas is doubtful ; see, however, 1, 92, 6. 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. Come hither, do not fail, when you march 
forward ! Do not stay away, O united friends, you 
who can bend even what is firm. 

2. O Maruts, .tfzbhukshans, come hither on your 
flaming strong fellies 1 , O Rudras, come to us to-day 
with food, you much-desired ones, come to the 
sacrifice, you friends of the Sobharis *. 

3. For we know indeed the terrible strength of 
the sons of Rudra, of the vigorous Maruts, the 
liberal givers 1 of Soma 2 (rain). 

4. The islands (clouds) were scattered, but the 
monster remained 1 , heaven and earth were joined 
together. O you who are armed with bright rings, 
the tracts (of the sky) 2 expanded, whenever you 
stir, radiant with your own splendour. 

5. Even things that cannot be thrown down 
resound at your race, the mountains, the lord of the 
forest, — the earth quivers on your marches. 

6. The upper sky makes wide room, to let your 
violence pass, O Maruts, when these strong-armed 
heroes display their energies in their own bodies. 

7. According to their wont these men, exceeding 
terrible, impetuous, with strong and unbending 
forms \ bring with them beautiful light 2 . 

8. The arrow of the Sobharis is shot from the 
bowstrings at the golden chest on the chariot of the 
Maruts 1 . They, the kindred of the cow (Pmni), 

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the •well-born, should enjoy their food, the great 
ones should help us. 

9. Bring forward, O strongly-anointed 1 (priests), 
your libations to the strong host of the Maruts, the 
strongly advancing. 

10. O Maruts, O heroes, come quickly hither, like 
winged hawks, on your chariot with strong horses, 
of strong shape, with strong naves, to enjoy our 

11. Their anointing is the same, the golden chains 
shine on their arms, their spears sparkle. 

12. These strong, manly, strong-armed Maruts, 
do not strive among themselves ; firm are the bows, 
the weapons on your chariot, and on your faces are 

13. They whose terrible name 1 , wide-spreading 
like the ocean, is the one of all that is of use, whose 
strength is like the vigour of their father, 

14. Worship these Maruts, and praise them ! Of 
these shouters, as of moving spokes \ no one is the 
last ; this is theirs by gift, by greatness 2 is it theirs. 

15. Happy, is he who was under your protection, 
O Maruts, in former mornings, or who may be so 
even now. 

16. Or he, O men, whose libations you went to 
enjoy ; that mighty one, O shakers, will obtain your 
favours with brilliant riches and booty. 

17. As the sons of Rudra, the servants of the 
divine Dyu \ will it, O youths, so shall it be. 

18. Whatever liberal givers may worship 1 the 
Maruts, and move about together as generous * 
benefactors, even from them turn 3 towards us with 
a kinder heart, you youths ! 

19. O Sobhari, call loud with your newest song 
[32] d d 

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the young, strong, and pure Maruts, as the plougher 
calls the cows. 

20. Worship the Maruts with a song, they who 
are strong like a boxer, called in to assist those who 
call 1 for him in all fights ; (worship them) the most 
glorious, like bright-shining bulls. 

21. Yes, O united friends, kindred, O Maruts, by 
a common birth, the oxen lick one another's humps 1 . 

22. O ye dancers, with golden ornaments on your 
chests, even a mortal comes (to ask) for your brother- 
hood * ; take care of us, ye Maruts, for your friend- 
ship lasts for ever. 

23. O bounteous Maruts, bring us some of your 
Marut-medicine, you friends, and (quick, like) steeds. 

24. With the favours whereby you favour the 
Sindhu, whereby you save, whereby you help Krivi \ 
with those propitious favours be our delight, O 
delightful ones, ye who never hate your followers 2 . 

25. O Maruts, for whom we have prepared good 
altars, whatever medicine x there is on the Sindhu, 
on the Asiknt, in the seas, on the mountains, 

26. Seeing it, you carry it all on your bodies. 
Bless us with it ! Down to the earth, O Maruts ', 
with what hurts our sick one, — straighten what is 
crooked ! 

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NOTES. VIII, 20, 4. 403 


Ascribed to Sobhari Ka«va ; metre, Kakubha pragatha. 
Verse i = SV. I, 401 ; verse 2i = SV. I, 404. 

Verse 1. 
SV. reads sthata, and Aridhk kid yamayish«ava&. 

Verse 2. 

N ote 1. It might be better to supply rathai^, but the poet 
may have used pars pro toto. 

Note 2. The Sobharis, who are mentioned in the 8th 
Ma»</ala only, are clearly a clan of that name, and their 
hymns form a small collection by itself. See Oldenberg, 
Prolegomena, p. 209 seq. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Mi/Avas is sometimes used by itself in the 
sense of patron or benefactor, VII, 86, 7 ; 97, a. Whether 
it can govern a genitive is doubtful, but see VII, 58, 5, note. 

Note 2. Here again, as in II, 34, 11, Vishmi esha seems 
to mean Soma, possibly the food, or even the seed (retas) 
of Vish«u. Sayawa too takes Vish«u as a name of rain. 
In I, 154, 5, we read that the spring of madhu is in the 
highest place of Vishwu. Could it mean the generous sons 
of Vishwu ? 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. My translation is purely conjectural. I take 
dvipa for isolated or scattered clouds, different from the 
du££/mna, which I take for the black mass of storm-clouds, 
threatening destruction. Grassmann : ' Die Wolkeninseln 
stoben und das Unheil floh.' Ludwig: 'Empor stigen 
gewaltig die waszerinseln, still stand das ungluck.' 

Note 2. The coming together of heaven and earth and 
their apparent widening have been ascribed to the Maruts 
before. It seems hardly possible to translate dhanvani 
here by bows. I take it for the wide expanse, as if the 
desert, of the sky. 

D d 2 

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Verse 7. 

Note 1. On psu in wtshapsu, see note to VIII, 7, 7. 
Note 2. Possibly srlyam vahante has to be taken like 
iubham ya, see Gaedicke, Accusativ, p. 163. 

Verse 8. 
Note 1. In support of the translation which I proposed 
in I, 85, 10, note a, all I can say is that zg is a verb used 
for shooting forth an arrow, see I, 112, 16, and that vawa 
may be used in the sense of bawa, reed and arrow, and that 
go is used for bowstring, see B.-R. s. v. The question, 
however, arises, how does this verse come in here ? How 
does the fact that the Sobharis, who are praising the storm- 
gods, shoot their arrow at the golden chest on their chariot, 
agree with what precedes and follows ? 

Let us look first whether a more natural translation can 
be found. B.-R. translate : ' The sacrificial music of the 
Sobharis is furnished and therefore made more attractive 
by draughts of milk (or animal food).' In order to support 
such a translation, it should be proved, first, that va«a ever 
means sacrificial music, and that such sacrificial music can 
be spoken of as a^yate (it is furnished), gobhiA (by milk- 
draughts). Grassmann translates : ' Dutch Milchtrank 
wird der Sobharis Musik belohnt.' Here again it must be 
proved that va«a can mean sacrificial music, and a^yate, it 
is rewarded. Ludwig translates : ' Mit der milch wird 
gesalbt den Sobhari der zapfen am wagen am goldnen 
korbe.' This is explained to mean that ' the bolt on the 
chariot of the Maruts is to be greased with milk, so that 
the milk may stream down on the Sobharis.' I doubt 
whether vawa can mean bolt, and I do not see that the 
intention of the poet, namely to ask for rain, would be con- 
veyed by such words. 

Sayana interprets : ' Through the cows, i. e. the hymns, 
of the Sobharis the lyre of the Maruts is made evident;' 
or, ' by the cows, i. e. the Maruts, the lyre is manifested for 
the sake of the Sobharis.' 

In support of my own translation I can only appeal to a 

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NOTES. VIII, 20, 17. 405 

custom ascribed by Herodotus (IV, 94) to another ancient 
Aryan tribe, namely the Thracians, who, when there is 
thunder and lightning, shoot arrows against the sky. Hero- 
dotus in trying to find a motive for this says they do it to 
threaten the god, because they believe in no other god but 
their own. This may be so ; the only question is whether 
in shooting their arrows against the sky, they hoped to 
drive the clouds away, or wished them to give up their 
treasure, namely the rain. I should feel inclined to take 
the latter view, but in either case we see that what the 
Thracians did, was exactly what the Sobharis are said to 
do here, namely to shoot an arrow at the golden chest or 
treasure on the chariot of the Maruts. This is, of course, 
no more than a conjecture, and I shall gladly give it up, if 
a more appropriate meaning can be elicited from this line. 
What is against it is the frequent occurrence of &ng with 
gobhi^ in the sense of covering with milk, see IX, 45, 3 ; 
V, 3, 2, &c. As to rathe hira«yaye, see VIII, 22, 9. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. Vrr'shad-a^fayaA for vmha«-a«£ayaA, see J. 
Schmidt, K. Z. XXVI, 358. It cannot mean 'raining 
down ointments,' as Grassmann supposes, because that 
would be varshad-aagayaA, if it existed at all. Besides, 
the angis are never poured down, nor are they sacrificial 
viands. The repetition of the word vr/'shan is intentional, 
and has been discussed before. 

Verse 13. 
Note 1. Naman is, of course, more than the mere name ; 
but name can be used in much the same sense. 

Verse 14. 

Mote 1. The simile of the aras, as in V, 58, 5, seems to 
require another negative. 

Note 2. See V, 87, 2, on dana - and malma". 

Verse 17. 
Note 1. On divaA asurasya vedhasaA, see von Bradke, 
Dyaus Asura, pp. 44 and 46. It should be remembered, 

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however, that vedhas and medhas interchange. Thus in 
RV. IX, 102, 4, we have vedham, in SV. I, 101, medham. 
On medhas, the Zend mazda, see Darmesteter, Ormazd, 
p. 29. I take servant in the sense of worshipper, from 

Verse 18. 

Note 1. Arhanti, in the sense of arhayanti, to worship, 
seems better than to be worthy of, or to have a right to. 

Note 2. MilAushaJt can be nominative, see Lanman, 
p. 511 ; but it may also refer to the Maruts, and then be 

Note 3. Instead of & vavrtdhvam, which Ludwig trans- 
lates, Nemt uns fiir euch in besitz, Grassmann trans- 
lates, Wendet euch zu uns her. He read therefore a" 
vavraldhvam, and this, the plural corresponding to & 
vavrt'tsva, seems to be the right reading. 

Verse 20. 
Note 1. Grassmann proposes to change prz'tsu hotr/shu 
into yutsii prz'tsushu. But may not h6trzshu be used here in a 
sense corresponding to that of havya ? Havya has almost 
the technical meaning of an ally who is to be called for 
assistance. Thus IV, 24, 2. s&k vri'trahatye havyaA ; VII, 
32, 24. bhare-bhare ka. havyaA, &c. Now a havyaA, one 
who is called, presupposes a hdtri, one who calls for assist- 
ance. It is true that hotr*', from hu, to pour out, has so 
completely become a technical name that it seems strange 
to see it used here, in a new etymological sense, as caller. 
But the connection with havya may justify what may 
have been meant as a play on the words. Wilson seems 
to have taken the verse in a similar sense, when he trans- 
lates : ' and like a boxer who has been challenged over his 
challengers.' He, like Ludwig, takes hotri as a challenger. 
I prefer to take it as calling for aid. I am not satisfied, 
however, with either translation, nor does Grassmann or 
Ludwig offer anything useful. 

Verse 21. 
Note 1. In the SV. marutaA and rihate have the accent 

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NOTES. VIII, 20, 26. 407 

on the second syllable. SabandhavaA was used before of 
the Maruts, V, 59, 5 ; according to its accent it would here 
refer to gaVaA. I can see no meaning in this verse except 
a very naturalistic one, namely that the Maruts, who are 
described as friends and brothers, as never quarrelling and 
always of one mind, are here compared to oxen, grazing 
in the same field, and so far from fighting, actually licking 
the humps on each other's backs. 

Verse 22. 

Note 1. Grassmann, ' geht euch an um eure Briiderschaft ;' 
possibly, ' becomes your brother.' 

Verse* 24. 

Note 1. It is, no doubt, very tempting to change tflrvatha 
into turviram, as Ludwig proposes. The difficulty is to under- 
stand how such a change should have come about. Sindhu 
may mean here, not so much the river, as the people living 
on its shores. Krivi is said to be an old name of 
the Pa8>6alas (Sat. Br. XIII, 5, 4, 7). But, because the 
Pa££alas were called Krivis, and because in later times we 
often hear of Kuru-Pa«£alas, it does in no way follow that 
the Krivis were, identical with the Kurus. It proves rather 
the contrary. Kuru may be derived from kar, and may 
have meant active, but it may also have had a very dif- 
ferent original meaning. A derivation of krivi from kar is 
still more objectionable. 

Note 2. Asa£advisha^, which I translate by not hating 
your followers, is translated by Ludwig : ' ihr, denen kein 
haszer folgt' It may also be rendered by ' hating those 
who do not follow you.' 

Verse 25. 

Note 1. The medicines are generally brought by Rudra, 
and by his sons, the Maruts. 

Verse 26. 

Note 1. As to kshama* rapaA, see X, 59, 8-10 ; AV. VI, 
57, 3 ; as to fshkarta, VIII, 1, 12. 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. The cow, wishing for glory, the mother of the 
bounteous Maruts, sends forth her milk; the two 
horses 1 have been harnessed to the chariots, — 

2. She in whose lap 1 all gods observe their duties, 
sun and moon (also), that they may be Seen ; 

3. Therefore all our friends 1 , the singers, invite 
the Maruts always, to drink (our) Soma. 

4. This Soma here has been prepared, the Maruts 
drink of it, the A-rvins also drink of the lord 
(Soma) *. 

5. Mitra, Aryaman, Vanma drink of the Soma 
which is continually 1 clarified, dwelling in three 
abodes 2 , procuring offspring. 

6. May Indra also rejoice to his satisfaction in 
this pressed juice, mixed with milk, like a Hotr* 1 
at the morning-sacrifice. 

7. Did the brilliant lords flare up ? Endowed 
with pure strength they rush, like water, through 
their enemies. 

8. Shall I now choose the favour of you, the 
great gods, who by yourselves shine forth mar- 

9. The Maruts, who, when going to drink Soma, 
spread out the whole earth and the lights of heaven. 

10. I call now them who are endowed with pure 
strength, you, O Maruts, from heaven, that you may 
drink the Soma here ; 

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11. I call now those Maruts who hold heaven 
and earth asunder, that they may drink the Soma 
here ; 

12. I call now that manly company of the Maruts, 
dwelling in the mountains, that they may drink the 
Soma here. 

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Ascribed to Bindu or Putadaksha. Metre, Gayatrl. 
Verse i=SV. I, 149; verse 4=SV. I, 174; II, 1135 ; 
verse 5=SV. II, 1136 ; verse 6=SV. II, 1137. The whole 
hymn can easily be divided into trikas. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. I adopt Ludwig's correction of the Pada, chang- 
ing vahniA to vahn! iti, though it interrupts somewhat the 
connection between the first and second verses. Still it 
seems as impossible to change Yrisnl, the mother of the 
Maruts, into a cart-horse as into a sucking-calf. This we 
should have to do, if we took dhayati in its usual sense of 
sucking. Still dhayati means to suck, not to suckle. The 
commentary to the SV. explains vahnlA as vo^Art, the 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. I should prefer to take upasthe in the sense of 
proximity, which, as in the case of vrjkshopasthe, may be 
translated by shadow, or protection. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. I cannot believe that we can take arya £ in our 
passage as ary6 &, and translate it with Pischel (Z. D. M. G. 
XL, p. 125) by 'our singers among the Aryas.' With the 
plural karavaA we should expect aryeshu §., not ary£ a - ; 
see also Bergaigne, III, 287 ; II, 218. Pada a and b are 
galita, see VI, 45, 33. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Svara^- seems to be meant for Soma as lord, 
not as brilliant. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Tana is generally explained by urcastukanirmita 
dajapavitra; see also Bergaigne, I, 179. 
Note 2. The three abodes are either the morning, noon, 

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NOTES. VIII, 94, 9. 411 

and evening sacrifices, or the three Soma-vessels, the 
Drowakakua, Adhavantya, and Putabhr/'t 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. I do not see why h6ta-iva should not mean ' like 
the priest,' for the priest also rejoices in the libation ; see 
Arthasawigraha, ed. Thibaut, pp. 10 and 20. Ludwig 
prefers to take h6ta for Agni, fire. 

Verse 9. 
Note 1. See note to I, 6, 9, and 10, note t. 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i . Let me with my voice shower 2 wealth like 
cloud-showers 2 , like sacrifices of a sage, rich in 
oblations. I have praised the goodly host of the 
Maruts 8 , so that they may be worthy of a Brahman 4 , 
so that they may be glorious. 

2. These boys have prepared their ornaments for 
beauty, the goodly host of the Maruts, through 
many nights ; the sons of Dyu struggled, like harts, 
they, the Adityas, grew high, like banners 1 . 

3. They who by their own might seem to have 
risen above heaven and earth, like the sun above 
the cloud, they are glorious, like brilliant heroes, 
they shine forth like foe-destroying youths. 

4. When you move along on the bottom of the 
waters, the earth seems to break and to melt 1 . This 
perfect sacrifice is meet for you, come hither 
together, as if enjoying our offerings. 

5. You are as drivers 1 on the poles with their 
reins, and as brilliant with light at daybreak ; like 
hawks, you are famous destroyers of foes ; like 
wells 2 springing forth, you scatter moisture. 

6. When you, O Maruts, come from afar, knowing 
the great treasure of the hidden place, O Vasus, the 
treasure which has to be gained, then keep away 
also from afar all who hate us. 

7. The man who, firm in his sacrifice, offers gifts 
to the Maruts to the end of the ceremony 1 , he 

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gains health and wealth, blessed with offspring ; he 
shall also be in the keeping of the gods. 

8. They are indeed our guardians, to be wor- 
shipped at all sacrifices, most blissful by their name 
of Adityas ; may they, swiftly driving on their 
chariots, protect our prayer, quick even on their 
march, delighting in our sacrifice. 

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Ascribed to Syumaramri Bhargava. On the metre, see 
Rig-veda, translation, Introd. p. civ ; Benfey, Quantitats- 
versch. IV, a ; 38-39 ; Oldenberg, Prolegomena, 9a. This 
hymn and the next belong closely together. They are 
both so artificial and obscure that a translation of them 
can only be tentative. None of its verses occurs in SV., 
VS., AV., TS., TB., MS. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. I take prusha for prushawi. 

Note 2. I do not think that abhrapnishaA can be meant 
for the Maruts. 

Note 3. The na in many of the verses seems to be due 
to a mere trick, and untranslatable. 

Note 4. Or, ' I have praised the priestly host, so that 
they may be worthy of good Marut-hood.' 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Akr£4, banners, Grassmann ; columns, Ludwig. 
The meaning is utterly unknown. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. See Aurel Mayr, Beitrage aus dem Rig-Veda, 
p. 1 a. ' The earth melted,' see Ps. xlvi. 6. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Prayu^ seems to mean here a driver ; pra-yu^ - 
is often used of the Maruts as harnessing or driving their 
horses ; see I, 85, 5 ; V, 52, 8. 

Note 2. Prava has been derived from pru, to float.. I 
should prefer to derive it from pra-van, from which 
we have pra-va«a, precipice, possibly the Latin ad- 
jective pronus, and, very irregularly, Greek irprjvrjs. 
Stems in radical n frequently enter the class of stems 
in a and a, and pravan would become pravaA or 
pravaA, as -^an becomes -gkh and -g*h; cf. Lanman, 

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NOTES. X, 77, 7. 415 

p. 478. Others take vana for a mere suffix like vat. Prava, 
rushing forward, would have been a good name for a 
spring. This, of course, is a mere conjecture. Others 
derive prava-s from va, to blow. As a substantive prava 
as well as upava occurs AV. XII, 1, 51. vatasya pravam 
upavam anu vaty arklA. But these words mean the blow- 
ing before and the blowing after, and not blowers. . There 
are the verbs prava and anuva in Tkndya. Br. I, 9, 7 ; TS. 
Ill, 5, 2, 3 ; IV, 4, 1, 1. They are there referred to dawn 
and night. These passages, however, seem too technical 
to allow us to fix the original meaning of prava-A. Prava 
in RV. I, 34, 8, remains unexplained. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. On u&riki, see Ludwig's note. 

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods). 

i. Full of devotion like priests with their prayers, 
wealthy like pious men, who please the gods with 
their offerings, beautiful to behold like brilliant 
kings, without a blemish like the youths of our 
hamlets — 

2. They who are gold-breasted like Agni with 
his splendour, quick to help like self-harnessed 
winds, good leaders like the oldest experts, they are 
to the righteous man like Somas, that yield the best 

3. They who are roaring and hasting like winds, 
brilliant like the tongues of fires, powerful like 
mailed soldiers, full of blessings like the prayers 
of our fathers, 

4. Who hold together like the spokes of chariot- 
wheels, who glance forward like victorious heroes, 
who scatter ghnta 1 like wooing youths, who chant 
beautifully like singers, intoning a hymn of praise, 

5. Who are swift like the best of horses, who are 
bounteous like lords of chariots on a suit, who are 
hastening on like water with downward floods, who 
are like the manifold ' Angiras with their (numerous) 

6. These noble sons of Sindhu * are like grinding- 
stones, they are always like Soma-stones 2 , tearing 
everything to pieces ; these sons of a good mother 
are like playful children, they are by their glare like 
a great troop on its march. 

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7. Illumining the sacrifice 1 like the rays of the 
dawn, they shone forth in their ornaments like 
triumphant warriors ; the Maruts with bright spears 
seem like running rivers, from afar they measure 
many miles. 

8. O gods, make us happy and rich, prospering 
us, your praisers, O Maruts ! Remember our praise 
and our friendship, for from of old there are always 
with you gifts of treasures. 

O] e e 

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Ascribed to Syumaranni Bhargava. None of its verses 
occurs elsewhere. Metre, i, 3, 4, 8 Trishrubh; 2, 5-7 

Verae 4. 

Note 1. GhWtaprush, Fett spriihend, Gluth austheilend, 
according to Grassmann ; ghrj'ta-spriihend, according to 
Ludwig. Sayawa takes vareyavaA as wishing to give pre- 
sents, and explains that such gifts were preceded by a gift 
of water, so that ghntaprushaA would mean, giving water or 
rain. The real meaning is difficult. 

Verse 5. 

Note 1. Vwvarupa may have been meant in a more 
special and mythological sense. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. Sfndhu-mataraA may be a synonym of Prwni- 
mataraA, sindhu being used as a name of the water in the 
sky. It may also mean, having the river Sindhu for their 
mother, i. e. coming from the region of the river. Bergaigne 
translates (II, 397), ' qui ont pour mere la riviere celeste. 
Cette riviere peut £tre une des formes de la vache qui passe 
aussi pour leur mere.' 

Note 2. The graVa«aA and adrayaA are probably meant 
for stones used for pounding corn and squeezing Soma. 

Verse 7. 
Note 1. On adhvararrt, see Pischel, Ved. Stud. p. 53. 

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MAA>£>ALA I, HYMN 43. 


i. What could we say to Rudra, the wise, the 
most liberal, the most powerful, that is most welcome 
to his heart, — 

2. So that Aditi * may bring Rudra's healing to 
the cattle, to men, to cow, and kith, 

3. So that Mitra, that Varu«a, that Rudra hear 
us, and all the united Maruts \ 

4. We implore Rudra, the lord of songs, the lord 
of animal sacrifices 1 , the possessor of healing 
medicines 2 , for health, wealth s , and his favour. 

5. He who shines like the bright sun, and like 
gold, who is the best Vasu among the gods, 

6. May he bring health to our horse, welfare to 
ram and ewe, to men, to women, and to the cow ! 

7. Bestow on us, O Soma, the happiness of a 
hundred men^ great glory of strong manhood 1 ; 

8. O Soma 1 , let not those who harass and injure 
overthrow us ; O Indu, help us to booty ! 

9. Whatever beings are thine, the immortal, in 
the highest place of the law, on its summit *, in its 
centre, O Soma, cherish them, remember them who 
honour thee. 

e e 2 

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Ascribed to Kawva Ghaura, and addressed to Rudra (i, 
2, 4-6), to Rudra and Mitra-Varu«au (3), and to Soma (7-9). 
Metre, Gayatri (1-8) ; AnushAibh (9). Verse 2 in TS. Ill, 
4, ii, a; MS. IV, ia, 6. 

The hymn may be divided into two, the first from 1-6, 
the second from 7-9. See, however, Bergaigne, III, 32, 
n. x ; and Recherches sur l'hist. de la Sawhita, I, 65. He 
would prefer to divide the whole into three hymns. 

Verse 1. 
See TA. X, 17, 1 ; Delbriick, Synt. Forsch. I, 246. 

Verse 2. 

Note 1. Ludwig takes Aditi here as a name of Rudra ; 
also Hillebrandt, Uber die Gottin Aditi, p. 6. 

Verse 3. 

Note 1. The vlsve sa^6shasaA, following on Rudra, can 
hardly be meant for any but the Maruts, who are often 
called sa£*6shasa£. But it may also have been intended 
for all the gods together. 

Verse 4. 

Note 1. Gathapatim and medhapatim are both difficult. 
We expect gathapatim and medhapatim. If, as Ludwig 
maintains, gatha in Zend is equivalent to nftu, season, then 
gathapati might be rj'tupati, a name of Agni, X, a, 1. But 
this is extremely doubtful. We must derive gathapati from 
gathii, I, 167, 6, and medhapati from medha, animal sacri- 
fice, till we know more on the subject. 

Note 2. £alasha-bhesha£am, an epithet of Rudra ; see 
VIII, 29, 5, where Rudra is intended. In II, 33, 7, the arm 
of Rudra is called bheshag^A £alasha£ ; in VII, 35, 6, Rudra 
himself is called ^alashaA. Galasha seems connected with 
^ala, water. Bergaigne, III, 3a, translates it by adoucis- 

Note 3. On s&mydA, see note a to 1, 165, 4. 

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NOTES. I, 43, 9. 421 

Verse 7. 

Note 1. Tuvi-nr*m»a would seem more appropriate as a 
vocative. In verse 8, too, I should prefer to take Soma as 
a vocative, like Benfey and Grassmann. 

Verse 8. 

Note 1. I read Soma, paribaclha/i. See Delbriick, Synt 
Forsch. p. 116. 

Verse 9. 

Note 1. Unless we can take murdha' for a locative, attracted 
by na'bha, I should propose to read murdhan na'bha. It can 
hardly be an adverbial Dvandva, murdha-nabhd, nor do I 
see how it can be applied as a nominative to Rudra. The 
whole verse is difficult, possibly a later addition. On rj'tasya 
amr/tasya dhaman, see IX, 97, 32 ; 1 10, 4 (dharman). 

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i . We offer these prayers ' to Rudra, the strong, 
whose hair is braided s , who rules over heroes s , that 
he may be a blessing to man and beast, that every- 
thing in this our village may be prosperous and free 
from disease. 

2. Be gracious to us, O Rudra, and give us joy, 
and we shall honour thee, the ruler of heroes, with 
worship. What health and wealth father Manu 
acquired by his sacrifices, may we obtain the same, 
O Rudra, under thy guidance. 

3. O bounteous Rudra, may we by sacrifice 
obtain the goodwill of thee, the ruler of heroes ; 
come to our clans, well-disposed, and, with unharmed 
men, we shall offer our libation to thee. 

4. We call down for our help the fierce Rudra, 
who fulfils our sacrifice, the swift, the wise ; may he 
drive far away from us the anger of the gods ; we 
desire his goodwill only. 

5. We call down with worship the red boar of the 
sky, the god with braided hair, the blazing form ; 
may he who carries in his hand the best medicines 
grant us protection, shield, and shelter ! 

6. This speech is spoken for the father of the 
Maruts, sweeter than sweet, a joy 1 to Rudra ; grant 
to us also, O immortal, the food of mortals, be 
gracious to us and to our kith and kin ! 

7. Do not slay our great or our small ones, our 

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MAJVBALA I, HYMN 1 1 4. 423 

growing or our grown ones, our father or our mother, 
and do not hurt our own x bodies, O Rudra ! 

8. O Rudra, hurt us not in our kith and kin, nor 
in our own life, not in our cows, nor in our horses ! 
Do not slay our men in thy wrath : carrying liba- 
tions, we call on thee always. 

9. Like a shepherd 1 , I have driven these praises 
near to thee ; O father of the Maruts, grant us thy 
favour ! For thy goodwill is auspicious, and most 
gracious, hence we desire thy protection alone. 

10. Let thy cow-slaying and thy man-slaying be 
far away \ and let thy favour be with us, O ruler of 
heroes! Be gracious to us, and bless us, O god, 
and then give us twofold protection a . 

n. We have uttered our supplication to him, 
desiring his help ; may Rudra with the Maruts hear 
our call. May Mitra, Varuwa, Aditi, the River, 
Earth, and the Sky grant us this ! 

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Ascribed to Kutsa Ahgirasa. Metre, 1-9 Gagati ; io, 11 
TrishAibh Verse i=VS. XVI, 48; TS. IV, 5, 10, 1; 
MS. II, 9, 9 (yatha naA jam) ; verse a=TS. IV, 5, 10, a; 
verse 7=VS. XVI, 15; TS. IV, 5, 10, a; verse 8=VS. 
XVI, 16; TS. Ill, 4, 11, * J IV, 5, 10, 3 ; MS. IV, ia, 6 
(ayushi ; havfshmanto namasa vidhema te) ; verse io=TS. 
IV, 5, 10, 3. 

Verse 1. 

Note 1. TS. reads imam matfm, and yatha naA jam. 

Note 2. Kapardin is an epithet not only of Rudra, but 
also of Pushan (VI, 55, a ; IX, 67, 1 1), and of a Vedic clan, 
the Tritaus (VII, 83, 8) or Vasish/Aas ; see Roth, Zur 
Literatur und Geschichte des Weda, pp. 94 seq. ; Olden- 
berg, Z.D.M.G. XLII, p. 307. Kaparda is the name of a 
shell, and the hair twisted together in the form of a shell 
seems to have suggested the name of kapardin. 

Note 8. Kshayad-vira means 'ruling over heroes,' just 
as mandad-vira (VIII, 69, 1) means ' delighting heroes.' 
This meaning is applicable to all passages where kshayad- 
vira occurs, and there is no reason why we should translate 
it by * destroyer of heroes,' which can hardly be considered 
as an epitheton ornans. No doubt, a god who rules and 
protects can also be conceived as punishing and destroying, 
and this is particularly the case with Rudra. Hence in 
certain passages Rudra may well be invoked as nrthan (IV 
3, 6), just as we read of the Maruts (VII, 56, 17) : « May 
that bolt of yours which kills cattle and men be far from 
us ! Incline to us, O Vasu, with your favours I ' See Muir, 
S.T. IV, p. 301, note. 

Verse 2. 
TS. reads aya^e" and prawitau. See Ludwig, Notes, 
p. 265. 

Verse 6. 

Note 1. On the meaning of vardhana and vridh in Zend, 
see Darmesteter, Ormazd, pp. 41, 6 ; 9a, 1. 

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NOTES. I, 114, I O. 425 

Verse 7. 

Note 1.