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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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\MK1VKR.HARVAR!) LIBRARY 



AH bSTK 



HARVARD DEPOSITORY 
BRITTLE BOOK 





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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



[35] a 

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Jonbon 
HENRY FROWDE 




Oxford University Press Warehouse 
Amen Corner, E.C. 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 

F. MAX MttLLER 



VOL. XXXV 



c 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1890 

[All rights reserved] 



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tele/ \ 



Asv^st i*- <-</ < ' c / ■ r 5 



PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

BV HORACE HART. PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



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THE QUESTIONS 



OF 



KING MILINDA 



TRANSLATED FROM THE PALI 



T. W. RHYS DAVIDS 



#jrfor& 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1 890 

[ All rights reserved ] 



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/(WD 

.S3 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction 

The Sinhalese version of the Milinda 
Buddhaghosa's four references to it . 
MSS. and edition of the text . 
King Milinda the same as Menander 
Notices of him in classical writers . 

His coins 

His birthplace, Kalasi, probably =Karisi . 

The author not the same as NagSr^u«a . 

Passages in the Pi/akas referred to silently 

Pali books, &c, referred to by name 

Pi/aka passages quoted .... 

Length of the Pi/akas .... 

Results of these comparisons . 

Differences between our author and the Pi/akas 

Proper names outside the Pi/akas . 

Differences of language between our author and the 

Pi/akas 

The Milinda as a work of art 



PACB 

xi 

xii 

xiv 

xvi 

xviii 

xix 

xx 

xxiii 

xxv 

xxvii 

xxix 

xxxi 

xxxvi 

xxxviii 

xl 

xliii 

xlv 
xlviii 



Translation of the Text. 

Book I. The Secular Narrative i 

Description of Sagala 2 

Previous births of Milinda and N&gasena ... 4 

Milinda's greatness and wisdom and love of disputation 6 

Birth story of Ndgasena 10 

His admission as a novice into the Order ... 20 

His conversion 25 

His attainment of Arahatship 29 

Milinda confutes Ayupala 30 

Nagasena arrives ; his character 34 

Milinda goes to him 36 



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Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



Book II. The Distinguishing Characteristics of 
Ethical Qualities . 
Individuality and name 
The chariot simile - . . . 
The riddle of seniority 

(Interlude) How kings and scholars respectively discuss 
No soul in the breath . 
Aim of Buddhist renunciation 
Re-incarnation .... 
Wisdom and reasoning distinguished 
' Virtue's the base ' . . . 

Faith 

Perseverance .... 
Mindfulness .... 
Meditation .... 

Continued identity and re-individualisation 
Wisdom and intelligence distinguished 

Time 

Origin and development of qualities 
Is there a soul ? . . 
Thought and sight 
Contact, sensation, and idea 

Book III. The Removal of Difficulties . 
Rich and poor . . . . 
Renunciation again m . 

Nirvawa and Karma 

Difficulties of various kinds as to transmigration 
viduality, and the Buddha . 



indi 



Book IV. The Solving of Dilemmas 
Milinda finds dilemmas in the Holy Writ 
And takes the Buddhist vows 
Third meeting between him and Nagasena . 
i st Dilemma. If the Buddha has really quite passed 

away, what is the good of paying honour to his 

relics? 

2nd Dilemma. How can the Buddha be omniscient, 

when it is said that he reflects ? . . . . 
3rd Dilemma. Why did he admit Devadatta to the 

Order, if he knew of the schism he would create ? . 



40 

41 
43 
45 
46 

48 

49 
50 
5i 
53 
54 
57 
58 
60 

<>3-77 
66 

77 
82 

86 
89 
92 

100 
100 
101 
106 

120 

137 
»37 
138 
140 



144 



154 



162 



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CONTENTS. 



IX 



4th Dilemma. Vessantara's earthquake 

5th Dilemma. King Sivi 

7th Dilemma. Difference in prophecies as to the dura- 
tion of the faith 

8th Dilemma. The Buddha's sinlessness and his suf- 
ferings 

9th Dilemma. Why should the Buddha have meditated 
10th Dilemma. Why did the Buddha boast ? 
nth Dilemma. How could the Buddha revoke regu 

lations he had made ? . 
1 2th Dilemma. Why did the Buddha refuse to answer 

certain questions ? . . . 
13th Dilemma. Contradictory statements by the Buddha 

as to fear 

14th Dilemma. How can Pirit cure disease? 

15th Dilemma. How could the evil one turn peopl 

against the Buddha ? 

16th Dilemma. Contradiction as to conscious crime 
17th Dilemma. Contradiction as to the Buddha's wish 

to be the chief .... 
1 8th Dilemma. How could a schism have arisen in the 

Buddha's life? .... 
19th Dilemma. Why do members of the Order accept 

reverence? 

20th Dilemma. The evil results of preaching 

22nd Dilemma. Was not the Buddha once angry with 

Sudinna? 

23rd Dilemma. The tree talking 

24th Dilemma. The Buddha's last meal 

25th Dilemma. Adoration of relics 

26th Dilemma. The splinter of rock . 

27th Dilemma. Contradictory description of the Samawa 

28th Dilemma. Buddha's boasting 

29th Dilemma. How can the kind punish others ? 

30th Dilemma. Was not the Buddha angry at A!atuma? 

31st Dilemma. How could Moggallana have had mira 

culous powers seeing that he was murdered ? 
32nd Dilemma. Why should the rules of the Order be 

kept secret ? 

33rd Dilemma. Contradictions about falsehood 



170 
179 

185 

190 
196 
198 

202 

204 

206 
213 

219 
224 

225 

227 

232 
234 

237 
241 
242 
246 
248 
251 
253 
254 
257 

261 

264 
268 



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CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



34th Dilemma. Did not the Omniscient One once doubt ? 270 

35th Dilemma. Suicide 273 

36th Dilemma. Love to all beings . . . -279 

37th Dilemma. Wickedness and prosperity . . . 283 

38th Dilemma. Women's wiles 294 

39th Dilemma. Did not the Arahats once show fear? . 297 
40th Dilemma. Did not the Omniscient One once change 

his mind? 301 

Appendix. Devadatta in the Gitakas .... 303 

Addenda et Corrigenda 305 

Index of Proper Names 307 

Index of Subjects 311 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . . 317 



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INTRODUCTION. 

The work of which a translation is here, for the first 
time, presented to the English reading public, has had a 
strange and interesting history. Written in Northern India, 
at or a little after the beginning of the Christian era, and 
either in Sanskrit itself or in some North Indian Prakrit, it 
has been entirely lost in the land of its origin, and (so far 
as is at present known) is not extant in any of the homes 
of the various sects and schools of the Buddhists, except 
only in Ceylon, and in those countries which have derived 
their Buddhism from Ceylon. It is true that General 
Cunningham says 1 that the name of Milinda ' is still famous 
in all Buddhist countries.' But he is here drawing a very 
wide conclusion from an isolated fact. For in his note 
he refers only to Hardy, who is good evidence for Ceylon, 
but who does not even say that the ' Milinda ' was known 
elsewhere. 

Preserved there, and translated at a very early date 
into Pali, it has become, in its southern home, a book of 
standard authority, is put into the hands of those who have 
begun to doubt the cardinal points of Buddhist doctrine, 
has been long a popular work in its Pali form, has been 
translated into Sinhalese, and occupies a unique position, 
second only to the Pali Pi/akas (and perhaps also to the 
celebrated work of Buddhaghosa, the 'Path of Purity'). 
From Ceylon it has been transferred, in its Pali form, 
to both Burma and Siam, and in those countries also it 
enjoys so high a repute, that it has been commented on (if 
not translated). It is not merely the only work composed 
among the Northern Buddhists which is regarded with 
reverence by the orthodox Buddhists of the southern 

1 In his ' Ancient Geography of India,' p. 186. 



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XII THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 

schools ; it is the only one which has survived at all 
amongst them. And it is the only prose work composed 
in ancient India which would be considered, from the 
modern point of view, as a successful work of art. 

The external evidence for these statements is, at present, 
both very slight and, for the most part, late. There ap- 
peared at Colombo in the year of Buddha 2420 (1877 A.D.) 
a volume of 650 pages, large 8vo. — the most considerable in 
point of size as yet issued from the Sinhalese press — entitled 
Milinda Pra-SA'aya. It was published at the expense of 
five Buddhist gentlemen whose names deserve to be here 
recorded. They are Karolis Piris, Abraham Liwera, Luis 
Mendis, Nandis Mendis Amara-sekara, and Charlis Arnolis 
Mendis Wijaya-ratna Amara-sekara. It is stated in the 
preface that the account of the celebrated discussion held be- 
tween Milinda and Nagasena, about 500 years after the death 
of the Buddha, was translated into the Magadhi language by 
' teachers of old ' (purwa^arin wisin) ; — that that Pali ver- 
sion was translated into Sinhalese, at the instance and under 
the patronage of King Kirtti .Sri Ra^a-si/wha, who came 
to the throne of Ceylon in the year of Buddha 2290 (1747 
A.D.), by a member of the Buddhist Order named Hinari- 
kumbure Sumangala, a lineal successor, in the line of 
teacher and pupil (anujishya), of the celebrated Wceli- 
wi/a Sarawankara, who had been appointed Sawgha- 
ra^-a, or chief of the Order — that 'this priceless book, 
unsurpassable as a means either for learning the Buddhist 
doctrine, or for growth in the knowledge of it, or for the 
suppression of erroneous opinions,' had become corrupt by 
frequent copying — that, at the instigation of the well-known 
scholar Mohor/i-watte Gunananda, these five had had 
the texts corrected and restored by several learned Bhikkhus 
(kipa namak lawa), and had had indices and a glossary 
added, and now published the thus revised and improved 
edition. 

The Sinhalese translation, thus introduced to us, follows 
the Pali throughout, except that it here and there adds, in 
the way of gloss, extracts from one or other of the numerous 
Pi/aka texts referred to, and also that it starts with a pro- 



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INTRODUCTION. Xlll 



phecy, put into the mouth of the Buddha when on his 
death-bed, that this discussion would take place about 500 
years after his death, and that it inserts further, at the 
point indicated in my note on p. 3 of the present version, 
an account of how the Sinhalese translator came to write 
his version. His own account of the matter adds to the 
details given above that he wrote the work at the Upo- 
satha Arama of the Maha Wihara near Sri-ward- 
hana-pura, 'a place famous for the possession of a temple 
containing the celebrated Tooth Relic, and a monastery 
which had been the residence of Woe 1 i wi /a S a ra«an k a r a, 
the Sa/wgha-ra^-a, and of the famous scholars and com- 
mentators Darami/i-pola Dhamma-rakkhita and 
Madhurasato/a Dhammakkhandha.' 

As Kirtti Sri Ra^fa-si/wha reigned till 1781 J , this would 
only prove that our Pali work was extant in Ceylon in its 
present form, and there regarded as of great antiquity and 
high authority, towards the close of the last century. And 
no other mention of the work has, as yet, been discovered 
in any older Sinhalese author. But in the present deplor- 
able state of our ignorance of the varied and ancient literature 
of Ceylon, the argument ex silentio would be simply of no 
value. Now that the Ceylon Government have introduced 
into the Legislative Council a bill for the utilisation, in the 
interests of education, of the endowments of the Buddhist 
monasteries, it may be hoped that the value of the books 
written in those monasteries will not be forgotten, and that 
a sufficient yearly sum will be put aside for the editing and 
publication of a literature of such great historical value 2 . 
At present we can only deplore the impossibility of tracing 
the history of the 'Questions of Milinda' in other 
works written by the scholarly natives of its southern home. 

That it will be mentioned in those works there can be 



1 See Tumour's Mahavansa, p. lxviii. 

* I believe that none of the many vernacular literatures of India can compare 
for a moment with the Sinhalese, whether judged from the point of view of 
literary excellence, variety of contents, age, or historical value. And yet a few 
hundreds a year for ten years would probably suffice, on the system followed by 
the Pali Text Society, for the editing and publication of the whole. 



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XIV THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 

but little doubt. For the great Indian writer, who long 
ago found in that beautiful and peaceful island the best 
scope for his industrious scholarship, is already known to 
have mentioned the book no less than four times in his 
commentaries; and that in such a manner that we may 
fairly hope to find other references to it when his writings 
shall have been more completely published. In his com- 
mentary on the Book of the Great Decease, VI, 3, Buddha- 
ghosa refers to the quotation of that passage made in the 
conversation between Milinda and Nagasena, translated 
below, at IV, 2, 1 \ And again, in his commentary on the 
Ambatf/fca Sutta (D. Ill, 2, 12) he quotes the words of a 
conversation between Milinda and Nagasena on the subject 
he is there discussing. The actual words he uses (they 
will be found at pp. 275, 276 of the edition of the Sumangala 
Vilasini, edited for the Pali Text Society by Professor Car- 
penter and myself) are not the same as those of our author 
at the corresponding passage of Mr. Trenckner's text (pp. 
168, 169 ; IV, 3, 11), but they are the same in substance. 

The above two references in Buddhaghosa to our author 
were pointed out by myself. Dr. Morris has pointed out 
two others, and in each of those also Buddhaghosa is found 
to quote words differing from Mr. Trenckner's text. The 
former of these two was mentioned in a letter to the 
'Academy' of the 12th November, 1881. In the Mano- 
ratha Purawi, his commentary on the Anguttara, on the 
passage marked in Dr. Morris's edition as I, 5, 8, Buddha- 
ghosa says : — 

'Imasmiw* pan' atthe Milinda-ra^-4 dhamma- 
kathika-Nagasenattheraw* pukkkl: "Bhante Naga- 
sena, ekasmim aM/zarakkhawe pavattita-£itta- 
sa/wkhara sake rupino assa klva maha-rasi bhavey- 
yati?"' 

And he then gives the answer: — ' Vahasatanaw kho 
maha-ra^-a vihtnam addfia-kblan kz. vaha vthi 
sattammanani dve ka. tumba eka££^arakkha«e 



1 This was already pointed out in a note to my translation of the text com- 
mented on (' Buddhist Suttas,' vol. xi of the Sacred Books of the East, p. 112). 



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INTRODUCTION. XV 



pavattitassa £ittassa sarikham pi na upenti kalam 
pi na upenti kala-bhagam pi na upentiti.' 

This passage of the Milinda, referred to by Buddhaghosa, 
will be found on p. 102 of Mr. Trenckner's edition, trans- 
lated below at IV, 1, 19. But the question is not found 
there at all, and the answer, though much the same in the 
published text, still differs in the concluding words. Mr. 
Trenckner marks the passage in his text as corrupt, and it 
may well be that Buddhaghosa has preserved for us an 
older and better reading. 

The other passage quoted by Dr. Morris (in the 
'Academy' of the nth January, 1881) is from the Pa- 
paya Sudan!, Buddhaghosa's still unedited Commentary 
on the Ma^f//ima Nikaya. It is in the comment on the 
Brahmayu Suttanta, and as it is not accessible elsewhere 
I give this passage also in full here. With reference, oddly 
enough, to the same passage referred to above (pp. 168, 
169 of the text, translated below at IV, 3, n) Buddhaghosa 
there says : — 

'Vutta*« eta.ni Nagasenattherena Milinda- 
ra»«a pulMena: "Na mahara^a Bhagava guy- 
haw dasseti khkyztn Bhagava dassetlti."' 

In this case, as in the other quotation of the same pas- 
sage, the words quoted are not quite the same as those 
given in the published text, and on the other hand they 
agree with, though they are much shorter than, the words 
as given in the Sumangala Vilasini. 

It would be premature to attempt to arrive at the reason 
of this difference between Buddhaghosa's citations and 
Mr. Trenckner's edition of the text. It may be that 
Buddhaghosa is consciously summarising, or that he is 
quoting roughly from memory, or that he is himself trans- 
lating or summarising from the original work, or that he is 
quoting from another Pali version, or that he is quoting 
from another recension of the text of the existing Pali 
version. We must have the full text of all his references 
to the 'Questions of Milinda' before us, before we 
try to choose between these, and possibly other, alternative 
explanations. What is at present certain is that when 



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XVI THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 

Buddhaghosa wrote his great works, that is about 430 A. D., 
he had before him a book giving the conversations between 
Milinda and Nagasena. And more than that. He intro- 
duces his comment above referred to on the AmbaflVia 
Sutta by saying, after simply quoting the words of the 
text he is explaining : ' What would be the use of any one 
else saying anything on this? For Nagasena, the Elder, 
himself said as follows in reply to Milinda, the king x ' — 
and he then quotes Nagasena, and adds not a word of his 
own. It follows that the greatest of all Buddhist writers 
known to us by name regarded the 'Questions of 
Milinda' as a work of so great authority that an opinion 
put by its author into the mouth of Nagasena should be 
taken as decisive. And this is not only the only book, out- 
side the Pali Pi/akas, which Buddhaghosa defers to in this 
way, it is the only book, except the previous commentaries, 
which he is known even to refer to at all. But, on the 
other hand, he says nothing in these passages to throw any 
further light on the date, or any light on the authorship, of 
the work to which he assigns so distinguished, even so 
unique, a position. 

So far as to what is known about our 'Questions of 
Milinda' in Ceylon. The work also exists, certainly in 
Pali, and probably in translations into the local dialects, in 
Burma and Siam. For Mr. Trenckner mentions (Intro- 
duction, p. iv) a copy in the Burmese character of the Pali 
text sent to him by Dr. Rost, there is another copy in that 
character in the Colombo Museum 2 , and Mr. J. G. Scott, of 
the Burmese Civil Service, has sent to England a Burmese 
Nissaya of the Milinda (a kind of translation, giving the 
Pali text, word for word, followed by the interpretation of 
those words in Burmese s ). A manuscript of the Pali text, 
brought from Siam, is referred to in the Sinhalese MSS. in 
the marginal note quoted by Mr. Trenckner at p. vi of the 

' Kim ettha aAflena vattabbam? Vuttam etarn Nagasenattheren' 
eva Milinda-raJJJIa puf/Aena .... (Sumangala Vilasin!, Ioc. cit.). 

* See p. 51 of tbe ' Journal of the Pali Text Society * for 188a. 

* This Nissaya is now in the possession of his brother, the Bursar of St. 
John's College, Cambridge. 



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INTRODUCTION. XVII 



Introduction to his edition. And there exists in the library 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, a complete MS., in excellent 
condition, in the Siamese-Pali character 1 , while there are 
numerous fragments in the Paris Bibliotheque Nationale of 
one or more MSS. of the. text, in the same Kambojan 
character used in Siam for the writing of Pali texts a . 

It may be noticed here that there are seven MSS. of the 
text written in the Ceylon character known to exist in 
Europe. Two of them (one a very ancient one) are in the 
Copenhagen University Library, two in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale 2 , one in the Cambridge University Library 3 , and 
two in the India Office Library 4 . Three only of these 
seven have been used by Mr. Trenckner for his very able 
and accurate edition of the text, published in 1880. 



That is all the external evidence at present available. 
What can be inferred from the book itself is about as 
follows. It consists of the discussion of a number of points 
of Buddhist doctrine treated in the form of conversations 
between King Milinda and Nagasena the Elder (Thera). 
It must be plain to every reader of the following pages that 
these are not real conversations. What we have before us 
is really an historical romance, though the didactic aim 
overshadows the story. Men of straw, often very skilfully 
put together, are set up for the purpose, not so much of 
knocking them down again, as of elucidating some points 
of ethical or psychological belief while doing so. The 
king himself plays a very subordinate part. The questions 
raised, or dilemmas stated, are put into his mouth. But 
the solutions, to give opportunity for which the questions 
or dilemmas are invented, are the really important part of 
the work, and these are put into the mouth of Nagasena. 
The dialogues are introduced by a carefully constructed 



* By the kindness of the Master and Fellows of the College I have been 
allowed to collate this MS. in London. 

1 See ' Journal of the Pali Text Society* for i88a, p. 35. 
» See * Jonmal of the Pali Text Society' for 1883, p. 146. 

• See ' Journal of the Pali Text Society ' for 188a, p. 1 19. 

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XV111 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 

preliminary story, in which the reader's interest in them is 
aroused by anticipation. And the ability of this part of 
the work is very great. For in spite of the facts that all 
the praise lavished therein upon both Milinda and Nagasena 
js in reality only praise of the book itself, and that the 
reader knows this very well, yet he will find it almost 
impossible to escape from the influence of the eloquent 
words in which importance and dignity are lent to the 
occasion of their meeting ; and of the charm and skill with 
which the whole fiction is maintained. 

The question then arises whether the personages were 
any more real than the conversations. Milinda is supposed 
to be the Menander, who appears in the list of the Greek 
kings of Baktria, since he is described in the book as being 
a king of the Yonakas reigning at Sagala (the Eufhydemia 
of the Greeks), and there is no other name in the list which 
comes so near to Milinda. This identification of the two 
names is certainly correct. For whether it was our author 
who deliberately made the change in adapting the Greek 
name to the Indian dialect in which he wrote, or whether 
the change is due to a natural phonetic decay, the same 
causes will have been of influence. Indra or Inda is a not 
uncommon termination of Indian names, and meaning king 
is so appropriate to a king, that a foreign king's name end- 
ing in -ander would almost inevitably come to end in 
-inda. Then the sequence of the liquids of m-n-n would 
tend in an Indian dialect to be altered in some way by 
dissimilation, and Mr. Trenckner adduces seven instances 
in Pali of 1 taking the place of n, or n of 1, in similar cir- 
cumstances 1 . 

There remains only the change of the first E in Men- 
ander to I. Now in the Indian part of the inscription, on 
undoubted coins of Menander, the oldest authorities read 
Minanda as the king's name*, and though that interpreta- 
tion has now, on the authority of better specimens, been 
given up, there is no doubt that Milinda runs more easily 



1 ' Pali Miscellany,' part i, p. 55. 

* For instance, Wilson in his ' Ariana Antiqua,' p. 283. 



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INTRODUCTION. XIX 



from the tongue than Melinda, and Mil may well have 
seemed as appropriate a commencement for a Milakkha's 
name as -inda is for the ending of a king's name. So 
Men-ander became Mil-inda. 

It may be added here that other Greek names are men- 
tioned by our author— Devamantiya at 1, 42, and the same 
officer, together with Anantakaya, Mankura, and Sabba- 
dinna, at II, 3. There is a similar effort in these other Pali 
forms of Greek words to make them give some approach to 
a meaning in the Indian dialect : but in each case the new 
forms remain as really unintelligible to an Indian as Mil-inda 
would be. Thus Deva-mantiya, which may be formed on 
Demetrios, looks, at first sight, Indian enough. But if it 
meant anything, it could only mean 'counsellor of the 
gods.' And so also both Ananta and Kaya are Indian 
words. But the compound Ananta-kaya would mean 
'having an infinite body,' which is absurd as the name of 
a courtier. It may possibly be made up to represent An- 
tiochos. What Mankura and Sabbadinna (called simply 
Dinna at p. 87) may be supposed to be intended for it is 
difficult to say 1 . But the identification of Milinda with 
Menander is as certain as that of ATandagutta with Sandro- 
kottos. 

Very little is told us, in the Greek or Roman writers, 
about any of the Greek kings of Baktria. It is a significant 
fact that it is precisely of Menander-Milinda that they tell 
us most, though this most is unfortunately not much. 

Strabo, in his Geography 2 , mentions Menander as one 
of the two Baktrian kings who were instrumental in spread- 
ing the Greek dominion furthest to the East into India. 
He crossed the Hypanis (that is the Sutlej) and penetrated 
as far as the Isamos (probably the Jumna). 

Then in the title of the lost forty-first book of Justin's 
work, Menander and Apollodotus are mentioned as ' Indian 
kings.' 

Finally, Plutarch 3 tells us an anecdote of Menander. 

' Compare Mr. Trenckner's note at p. 70 of the ' Pali Miscellany.' 

' Edit Muller, xi, 11, 1. * De Repob. Ger., p. 821. 

D2 



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XX THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 

He was, he says, as a ruler noted for justice, and enjoyed 
such popularity with his subjects, that upon his death, which 
took place in camp, diverse cities contended for the posses- 
sion of his ashes. The dispute was only adjusted by the 
representatives of the cities agreeing that the relics should 
be divided amongst them, and that they should severally 
erect monuments (fxrwma, no doubt dagabas or sthupas) 
to his memory. 

This last statement is very curious as being precisely 
analogous to the statement in the ' Book of the Great De- 
cease V as to what occurred after the death of the Buddha 
himself. But it would be very hazardous to draw any con- 
clusion from this coincidence. 

The only remaining ancient evidence about Menander- 
Milinda (apart from what is said by our author himself), is 
that of coins. And, as is usually the case, the evidence of 
the coins will be found to confirm, but to add very little to, 
what is otherwise known. 

As many as twenty-two 2 different coins have been dis- 
covered, some of them in very considerable numbers, bear- 
ing the name, and eight of them the effigy, of Menander. 
They have been found over a very wide extent of country, 
as far west as Kabul, as far east as Mathura, and one of 
them as far north as Kashmir. Curiously enough we find 
a confirmation of this wide currency of Menander-Milinda's 
coins in the work of the anonymous author of the ' Periplus 
Maris Erythraei.' He says 3 that Menander's coins, to- 
gether with those of Apollodotos, were current, many years 
after his death, at Barygaza, the modern Baroach, on the 
coast of Gujarat. 

The portrait on the coins is very characteristic, with a 
long face and an intelligent expression, and is sometimes 
that of a young man, and at other times that of a very 
old man. It may be inferred therefore that his reign 



1 Mahaparinibbana Suttanta VI, 58-62, translated in my ' Buddhist Sottas ' 
(vol. xi of the Sacred Books of the East), pp. 133-135. 

* This number would be greatly increased if the differences of the monograms 
were allowed for. 

* Chapter 47 of Midler's edition. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXI 



was as long as his power was extensive. All the coins 
have a legend in Greek letters on one side, and a corre- 
sponding legend in Ariano-pali letters on the other side. 
On twenty-one out of the twenty-two, the inscriptions, 
according to the latest interpretations from a comparison 
of the best examples, are respectively, 

BAS1LE6S SdTEROS Menandrou 

and 

Maharacasa tradatasa Menandrasa 1 . 

Wilson read 2 the last word Minadasa. But when he 
wrote, in 1840, the alphabet was neither so well known as 
it is now, nor had such good examples come to hand. So 
that though the Mi- is plain enough on several coins, it is 
almost certainly a mere mistake for M e, from which it only 
differs by the centre vowel stroke being slightly prolonged. 

Fifteen of the coins have a figure of Pallas either on one 
side or the other. A ' victory,' a horse jumping, a dolphin, 
a head (perhaps of* a god), a two-humped camel, an 
elephant goad, a boar, a wheel, and a palm branch are 
each found on one side or the other of one of the coins ; 
and an elephant, an owl, and a bull's head each occur 
twice. These are all the emblems or figures on the coins. 
None of them are distinctively Buddhist, though the wheel 
might be claimed as the Buddhist wheel, and the palm branch 
and the elephant would be quite in place on Buddhist 
coins. It may be said, therefore, that the bulk of the coins 
are clearly pagan, and not Buddhist ; and that though two 
or three are doubtful, even they are probably not Buddhist. 

One coin, however, a very rare one, differs, as to its 
inscription, from all the rest that have the legend. It has 
on one side 

Basile6s dikaiou Menandrou, 
and on the other, 

Maharacasa dharmikasa 3 Menandrasa. 

1 See Alfred Von Sallet, ' Die Nachfolger Alexander's des Grosses in Baktrien 
nod Indien,' Berlin, 1879; and Professor Percy Gardiner's ' Catalogue of the 
Coins of the Greek and Scythic Kings of Baktria and India,' London, 1886. 

• In his * Ariana Antiqua,' p. 283, London, 1841. 

* The r is a little doubtful and is written, if at all, after the dh, though 
intended to be pronounced before the m. 



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XXU THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 

Is any reference intended here to the Buddhist Dharma 
as distinct from the ordinary righteousness of kings? I 
think not. The coin is one of those with the figure of 
Pallas on the side which bears the Greek legend, and five 
others of the Baktrian Greek kings use a similar legend on 
their coins. These are Agathocles, Heliokles, Archebios, 
Strato, and Zoilos. There is also another coin in the series 
with a legend into which the word Dharma enters, but 
which has not yet been deciphered with certainty — that 
bearing in the Greek legend the name of Sy-Hermaios, and 
supposed to have been struck by Kadphises I. If there is 
anything Buddhist in this coin of Menander's, then the 
others also must be Buddhist. But it is much simpler to 
take the word dharmikasa in the sense of the word 
used in the corresponding Greek legend, and to translate 
it simply ' the Righteous,' or, better still, ' the Just.' Only 
when we call to mind how frequent in the Pali texts is the 
description of the ideal king (whether Buddhist or not) as 
dhammiko dhamma-r^a, we cannot refuse to see 
the connection between this phrase and the legend of the 
coins, and to note how at least six of the Greek kings, one 
of whom is Menander, are sufficiently desirous to meet the 
views of their Buddhist subjects to fix upon ' Righteous- 
ness ' or ' Justice ' as the characteristic by which they wish 
to be known. The use of this epithet is very probably the 
foundation of the tradition preserved by Plutarch, that 
Menander was, as a ruler, noted for justice; and it is 
certainly evidence of the Buddhist influences by which he 
was surrounded. But it is no evidence at all that he 
actually became a Buddhist. 

To sum up. — Menander-Milinda was one of those Greek 
kings who carried on in Baktria the Greek dominion 
founded by Alexander the Great. He was certainly one 
of the most important, probably the most important, of 
those kings. He carried the Greek arms further into 
India than any of his predecessors had done, and every- 
thing confirms the view given by our author at I, 9 of his 
justice and his power, of his ability and his wealth. He 
must have reigned for a considerable time in the latter 



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INTRODUCTION. XXU1 



part of the second century B.C., probably from about 140 
to about 115, or even no B.C. 1 His fame extended, as did 
that of no other Baktrian king, to the West, and he is the 
only Baktrian Greek king who has been remembered in 
India. Our author makes him say, incidentally 2 , that he 
was born at Kalasi in Alasantla (= Alexandria), a name given 
to an island presumably in the Indus, And, as was referred 
to above, Plutarch has preserved the tradition that he died 
in camp, in a campaign against the Indians in the valley of 
the Ganges. 

[It is interesting to point out, in this connection, that 
the town (gama) of Kalasi has not been found mentioned 
elsewhere. Now among the very numerous coins of the 
Baktrian kings there is one, and only one, giving in the 
legend, not the name of a king, but the name of a city, 
the city of Karisi. As this coin was struck about 180 B.C. 
by Eukratides, who was probably the first of these kings 
to obtain a settlement on the banks of the Indus, it is 
possible that the two names, one in the Pali form (or 
more probably in the form of the dialect used by our 
author), the other in the local form, are identical ; and 
that the coin was struck in commemoration of the fact of 
the Greeks having reached the Indus. If that be so, then 
that they gave the name Alasanda (Alexandria) to the 
island on which the town was built, and not to the town 
itself, seems to show that the town was not founded by 
them, but was already an important place when they took it.] 



Beyond this all is conjecture. When our author says 
that Milinda was converted to Buddhism 3 , he may be 
either relating an actual tradition, or he may be inventing 
for his own purposes. There is nothing inherently im- 
possible, or even improbable, in the story. We know that 
all the Baktrians, kings and people alike, eventually became 



1 See the chronological table in the Introduction to Professor Gardner'* 
work, qnoted below. 

■ See the translation below of III, J, 5. 
' See p. 420 of the Pali text. 



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XXIV THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 

Buddhist. But the passage occurs in a part of the book 
which is open to much doubt. We have to place against it 
the negative evidence that none of Menander's coins show 
any decisive signs of his conversion. And the passage in 
question goes much further. It says that he afterwards 
gave up the kingdom to his son, and having entered the 
Buddhist Order, attained to Arahatship. The Sinhalese 
MSS. add a marginal note to the effect that the whole of this 
passage with its context was derived from a MS. brought 
from Siam. Mr. Trenckner is therefore of opinion l that it 
belongs to a spurious supplement. That may be so, in 
spite of the fact that it is quite in our author's style, 
and forms an appropriate close to the book. But it is 
incredible that an author of the literary skill so evident 
throughout the work should have closed his book de- 
liberately in the middle of a paragraph, without any 
closing words to round it off. The Siamese MS. may 
after all have preserved the reading of older and better 
MSS. than those in Ceylon, and the last leaf of the 
book may have been lost there. There must have been 
some conclusion, if not in the manner of the paragraph 
under discussion, then in some other words which we may 
not be able to trace. But even if our author actually 
wrote that Menander did become a Bhikkhu and an Arahat, 
that is very poor evidence of the fact, unless he not only 
intended what he states to be taken quite literally, but also 
wrote soon after the events he thus deliberately records. 

Now the opinion has been expressed above that we 
have to deal with a book of didactic ethics and religious 
controversy cast into the form of historical romance. If this 
is correct no one would be more astonished than the author 
himself at the inconsistency of modern critics if they took 
his historical statements au grand serieux, while they 
made light of his ethical arguments. It is true that he would 
scarcely have been guilty of anything that seemed grossly 
improbable, at the time when he wrote, to the readers whom 
he addressed. But if, as is most probable, he wrote in North- 

1 ' Introduction,' pp. v, vi 



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INTRODUCTION. XXV 



Western India when the memory of the actual facts of 
Menander's reign was fading away — that is, some gene- 
rations after his death — he may well have converted him to 
Buddhism, as the most fitting close to the discussion he 
records, without intending at all to convey thereby any real 
historical event. 

This brings us to the next point of our argument. 



We have seen that the work must have been written 
some considerable time before Buddhaghosa, and after the 
death of Menander. Can its date be determined with 
greater accuracy than this ? The story of Nagasena intro- 
duces to us his father So«uttara, his teachers Rohawa, 
Assagutta of the Vattaniya hermitage, and Dhamma- 
rakkhita of the Asoka Arama near Pa&liputta, and there 
is also mention of a teacher named Ayupala dwelling at 
the Sankheyya hermitage near Sagala. None of these 
persons and none of these places are read of elsewhere in 
any Buddhist text, whether Sanskrit or Pali. For the 
Ajvagupta referred to in passing at p. 351 of the Divya- 
vadana has nothing in common (except the name) with 
our Assagutta, the Rohawa of Anguttara, III, 66, is quite 
distinct from our Rohawa, and there is not the slightest 
reason for supposing Nagasena to be another form of the 
name Nagaigu^a, found in both the Chinese and Tibetan 
Buddhist literatures 1 , and in the Jain lists 2 . The famous 
Buddhist scholar so called was the reputed founder of the 
Mahayana school of Buddhism. Our Nagasena represents 
throughout the older teaching. If there is any connection 
at all between the two names, Nagasena must have been 
invented as a contrast to Nagaig-una, and not with the 
least idea of identifying two men whose doctrines are so 
radically opposed. Even were there any reason to believe 
this to be the case, it would not help us much, for the date 



1 See the passages quoted by Dr. Wenzel in the ' Journal of the Pali Text 
Society' for 1886, pp. 1-4. 

* See Professor Weber in the ' Handschriftenverzeichniss der koniglichen 
Bibliothek in Berlin,' voL v, part a, p. 365. 



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XXVI THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 

• 

of Nagaiguwa is quite as much open to dispute as that of 
the author of the ' Questions of Milinda V 

I ought to mention here that an opinion of a Naga- 
sena is, according to Burnouf 2 , discussed at length in the 
Abhidharma Kosa. Vyakhyi ; and that Schiefner s quotes 
from a Tibetan work, the Bu-ston, the statement that a 
schism took place under a Thera Nagasena 137 years after 
the Buddha's death. It would be very interesting if the 
former were our Nigasena. And if Schiefner's restora- 
tion of the name found in his Tibetan authority be correct, 
and the authority itself be trustworthy, it is possibly 
the fading memory of that Nagasena which induced our 
author to adopt the name as that of the principal interlo- 
cutor in his ' Questions of Milinda.' 

Finally, Professor Kern, of Leiden — who believes that 
Buddha is the sun, and most of his principal disciples stars — 
believes also not only that our Nagasena is an historical 
person, but also that there never was a Buddhist cleric of 
that name; and that Nagasena is simply Pata%ali, the 
author of the Yoga philosophy, under another name. If 
this is not a joke, it is a strange piece of credulity. 

The only reason alleged in support of it is that Pata«gali 
has the epithets of Nagera and of Phawin. That he was a 
Hindu who believed in the soul-theory of the current ani- 
mistic creed, while all the opinions put into Nagasena's 
mouth are those of a thorough-going Buddhist and non- 
individualist, is to count as nothing against this chance simi- 
larity, not of names, but of the name on one side with an epi- 
thet on the other. To identify John Stuart Mill with Dean 
Milman would be sober sense compared with this proposal. 



1 Compare on this point Dr. Wenzel, loc cit, with Dr. Burgess in the 
'Archaeological Reports for Southern India,' vol. i, pp. 5-9. Dr. Burgess thinks 
the most probable date of his death is about aoo A. D. 

The identification of Nagar^una and Nagasena was made independently by 
Major Bird in the ' Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society ' 
for October, 1844 (who was followed by the Rev. R. Spence Hardy at p. 517 
of his ' Manual of Buddhism,' published in i860), and by Benfey in his article 
' Indien ' in Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopedia (who was followed by Bumouf at 
p. 570 of his ' Introduction,' &c, published in 1844). 

* Loc. cit. ' Note to his translation of Taranatha, p. 298. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



XXV11 



But it is deliberately put forward to support an accusation 
against the Buddhists of having falsely appropriated to 
themselves every famous man in India 1 . Any mud, it 
would seem, is good enough to pelt the Buddhists with. 
Yet who is it, after all, who really makes the ' appropria- 
tion,' the Buddhists or Professor Kern himself? 



It would seem, therefore, that most of our author's person 
and place names are probably inventions of his own 2 . 

But it is quite different with the books quoted by our 

author. In several passages he has evidently in his mind 

certain Pali texts which deal with similar matters. So far 

as yet ascertained the texts thus silently referred to, either 

in the present volume or in the subsequent untranslated 

portion of the book, are as follows : 

Page of this 
volume. 

8 . . Digha Nikaya II, i, 2. 

10 II, 20. 

10 . . „ „ II, 1. 

38 . . „ „ II, 10. 

38 • • „ „ II, 11. 

40 . . Katha Vatthu I, 1. 

41 . . Aftguttara I, 15, 4-7. 
41 . . Digha Nikaya II, 17. 

41 •• ,, „ H, 23- 

42 . . „ „ II, 26. 

59 , XVII. 

80 . . Mahavagga 1, 1, 1. 

129. . Various (see my note). 

132 . . A'ullavagga IX, 1, 4. 

163 . . Aullavagga VII, 1, 27. 

170 . . Vessantara Gataka. 

179 . . Sivi G&taka. 

204 . . Maggfiima. Nikaya LXIII. 



1 Kern's 'Buddhismus' (the German translation), vol. ii, p. 443. 

' As these pages were passing through the press I have found Assagntta of 
the Vattaniya hermitage, mentioned in the last chapter of the Saddhamma 
Samgaha, which is passing through the press for the Pali Text Society. But 
this is taken no doubt from the Milinda, and is not an independent reference to 
any such teacher as an historical person. (The Saddhamma Sawgaha was 
written by Dhamma-kitti in Ceylon, probably in the twelfth century.) 



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XXV111 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 



Page of this 


volume 




212 


. Gataka (No. 69). 


256 


. Sutta Vibhanga (PSr. 4). 


257 


. AUtuma Sutta (No. 67). 


259 


. A'ullavagga IX, 1, 3. 


264 


. Mahavagga II, 16, 8. 


275 


Dhamma-lakka-pavattana Sutta. 


277 


Anguttara II, 1, 1. 


283 


. The 540th Gataka. 


285 


. Amba GStaka (No. 474). 


285 


Dummedha Gataka (No. 122). 


286 


. Tittira Gataka (No. 438). 


286 


. Khantiv&da Gataka (No. 313). 


287 


. Aflla-Nandiya Gataka (No. 222). 


287 


. Ta/MAa-sukara Gataka (No. 492). 


288 


Kariya-pi/aka II, 6. 


288 


. Sflava-naga Gataka (No. 72). 


288 


. Sabba-daMa Gataka (No. 241). 


289 


Apaw/aka Gataka (No. 1). 


289 


Nigrodha-miga Gdtaka (No. 12). 


290 


. Nigrodha Gataka (No. 445). 


290 


Maha-paduma Gataka (No. 472). 


290 


. Maha-patapa GStaka (No. 358). 


294 


Ummagga Gataka (No. 546). 


298 


A'ullavagga VII, 3, 11. 


302 


. . Anguttara IV, 13. 


J age of th 


e 


Pali Text 




220 


Gataka, No. 310 (vol. iii, p. 32). 


231 


. Sutta Nipata I, 4. 


236 


. Gataka (vol. i, p. 56). 


256 


. . „ (vol. iv, p. 232, line 20). 


277 


. Vessantara Gataka. 


289 


. Gataka (vol. i, p. 57). 


291 


Gataka (Nos. 258, 541, 494, and 243) 


313 


Ma^yAima Nikaya, No. 75 (p. 502). 



In several other passages he refers to a Pali book, or a 
chapter in a Pali book, by name. This is much more 
valuable for our purposes than the silent, and sometimes 
doubtful, references in the last list. So far as is yet ascer- 
tained, these references are as follows : 



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INTRODUCTION. 



XXIX 



Page of this 


volume. 




1,3 


. Vinaya, Sutta, Abhidhamma. 


21 


. The Suttantas. 


21 


The Abhidhamma. 


21 


. . Dhamma Sawga«i. 


21 


. Vibhahga. 


21 


. Dhdtu Katha\ 


21 


. . Puggala Pa#»atti. 


21 


. KathaVatthu. 


22 


. Yamaka. 


22 


. Pa/Mana. 


22 


. The Abhidhamma Pi/aka. 


25 


. The Abhidhamma. 


27 


The Abhidhamma. 


28 


. The three Pi/akas. 


31 


MahS Samaya Suttanta (No. 20 in the Dtgha). 


31 


. Mahi Mangala Suttanta (Sutta NipSta II, 4). 


32 


. Sama-kitta-pariyaya Suttanta (unknown). 


32 


Rahulovada Suttanta (No. 147 in the MzggMma.). 


32 


. Parabhava Suttanta (Sutta NipSta I, 6). 


34 


. The three Pi/akas. 


56 


. Sa/»yutta Nikaya (the words quoted are in the 




Sutta Nipata). 


71.88 


The Abhidhamma. 


137 


. . The ninefold Scriptures. 


195 


Moliya Stvaka chapter of the Samyutta. 


213 


. Ratana Sutta (in the Sutta Nipata II, 1). 


. 213 


. Khandha Paritta (not traced). 


213 


. Mora Paritta (Gataka, Nos. 159, 491). 


213 


Dhagagga Paritta (in the Gataka Book). 


213 


. A/Sna/iya Paritta (in the Dtgha Nikaya). 


213 


. Angulimaia Paritta (not traced). 


232 


. The Patimokkha. 


264-267 


. Patimokkha, Vinaya Pi/aka. 


Page of th 


e 


Pali Text 




241 


. Dhamma-dayada Sutta of the MaggMma. Nikaya 




(vol. i, p. 13). 


242 


Sawyutta Nikaya (vol. i, p. 67). 


258 


Dakkhi»a Vibhanga of the MagyAima Nikaya 



(No. 142). 
281 . . ATariya Pi/aka G. 53. 



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XXX 



THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 



Page of the 
Pali Text, 

341 
341 
341 
341 
342 
342 
348 
349 
349 
349 
349 
349 
349 
349 
349 
349 
349 
350 
35° 
350 
350 
350 
362 

369 
37' 

372 
377 

378 
379 
381 
384 
385 
389 
392 
396 
399 
40i 
402 

403 



Navangam Buddha-va&nam. 

The Gataka Book. 

The Dtgha Nikaya. 

The MaggMmz Nildya. 

The Sajnyutta Nikaya. 

The Khuddaka Nikiya. 

The three Pi/akas. 

Maha Rahulovida (in the Majgriima, No. 147). 

Maha Mangala Suttanta (in the Sutta Nipata II, 4). 

Sama-fttta Pariyaya (not traced). 

Parabhava Suttanta (in the Sutta Nipata I, 6). 

Purabheda Suttanta (Sutta NipSta IV, 10). 

Kalaha-vivada Suttanta (Sutta Nipata IV, 11). 

•flfula Vyuha Suttanta (Sutta NipSta IV, 12). 

MahS Vyuha Suttanta (Sutta NipSta IV, 13). 

Tuva/aka Suttanta (Sutta Nipata IV, 14). 

Siriputta Suttanta (Sutta Nipata IV, 16). 

Maha-samaya Suttanta (in the Dtgha, No. 20). 

Sakkha-pawha- Suttanta (Digha, No. 21). 

Tiroku</</a Suttanta (in the Khuddaka PaMa, No. 7). 

Ratana Suttanta (in the Sutta Nipata II, 1). 

The Abhidhamma. 

Ekuttara Nikaya (=Anguttara I, 13, 7). 

Dhaniya-sutta of the Sutta NipSta (I, 2). 

Kummupama Suttanta of the Samyutta Nikaya 

(not yet printed). 
Vidhura Pu«»aka G&taka. 
SaMa Sawyutta of the Sawyutta NikSya (not yet 

printed). 
Dhammapada (verse 327). 
Sawiyutta (55, 7). 
Sutasoma Gataka (No. 537). 
Kawha G&laka. (No. 440, vol. iv, p. 10). 
Sutta Nipata (1, 12, 1). 
Samyutta Nikaya. 

Ekuttara Nikaya (=Anguttara X, 5, 8). 
Lomahamsana Pariyaya. 
Sawyutta Nikaya (III, 5, 6, vol. i, p. 73). 

» » (XVI, 1, 3, vol. ii, p. 194). 

A'akkavaka Crataka (No. 451, vol. iv, p. 71). 
A'ulJa Narada Gataka (not traced). 



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INTRODUCTION. 



XXXI 



Page of the 
Pali Text. 

4<>3 • 

405 • 
406 

408 . 

408 . 

409 . 
411 . 
414 . 



Sawyutta Nikaya (not traced). 
Lakkhawa Suttanta of the Dfgha Nikaya (No. 30). 
Bhalla/iya Gataka (No. 504, vol. iv, p. 439). 
, Parinibb&na-suttanta of the Digha Nikaya (D. 

XVI, 5) 24). 
, Dhammapada (verse 32). 

Sa/wyutta Nikaya (XIV, 16, vol. ii, p. 158). 
. Sutta Nipata (II, 6, 10). 
„ (III,n,43). 

Lastly, our author quotes a large number of passages 
from the Pi/aka texts, which he introduces (without naming 
any book) by the formulas : ' It was said by the Blessed 
One;' or, 'It is said by you' (you in the plural, you members 
of the Order) ; or, ' It was said by so and so ' (naming some 
particular member of the Order). A great many of these 
quotations have already been traced, either by Mr. Trenck- 
ner or myseif. Occasionally words thus attributed, by our 
author, to the Buddha, are, in the Pi/akas, attributed to 
some one else. Such passages are distinguished in the follow- 
ing list by an asterisk added to the letter B, which marks 
those of them attributed by our author to the Buddha. 
The women quoted are distinguished by the title ' Sister.' 



II, 1, 1, p. 45. 


Sister Va^ird. 


Sawyutta Nikaya V, 10, 6. 


II. i,9. P- 53- 


B*. 


., VII, 1, 6. 


II, 1, 9, p. 54. 


B. 


Not traced. 


II, 1,11, p. 57. 


B. 


.. .. 


II, i, 13, p. 61. 


B. 


Sawyutta NiMya XXI, 5. 


II, 2, 4, p. 69. 


B. 


Not traced. 


H> 3. 1. P- 79- 


B. 


Maxima Nikaya XXI. 


II. 3. 2. P- 80. 


B. 


„ XVIII. 


Ill, 4, 3, p. IOI. 


B*. 


Sarayutta Nikaya II, 3, 2. 


HI, 4. 4. P- i°4- 


B. 


Anguttara III, 35, 4. 


III, 6, 1, p. 114. 


B. 


Not traced. 


IV, 1, 10, p. 145. 


Sariputta, 


.. .. 


IV, 1, 13, p, 150. 


B. 


Digha Nikaya XIV, 6, 1. 


IV, 1, 35, p. 170. 


B. 


., .. XIV, 3, 13. 


IV, 1,42, p. 179. 


In the Sutta. 


Not traced. 


IV, i, 55. P- 185. 


B. 


A'ullavagga X, 1, 6. 


IV, i,55. P- 186. 


B. 


Digha Nikaya XIV, 5, 62. 



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xxxu 



THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 



IV, i, 67, p. 196. 


You. 


Not traced. 




IV, i, 


67, p. 196. 


You. 


•» » 




IV, i, 


71, p. 199. 


B. 


Digha Nikaya XIV, 3, 60. 




IV, 1, 


71, p. 199. 


B. 


„ „ XIV, 3, 63. 




IV, a 


1, p. 202. 


B. 


Not traced. 




IV, a 


1, p. 202. 


B. 


Digha Nikaya XIV, 6, 3. 




IV, 2 


, 4, p. 204. 


B. 


„ „ XIV, 2, 32 




IV, 2 


6, p. 206. 


B. 


Dhammapada 129. 




IV, 2 


6, p. 206. 


B. 


Not traced. 




IV, 2 


15, P- "3- 


B. 


Dhammapada 127, 8. 




IV, 2 


20, p. 214. 


You. 


Not traced. 




IV, 2, 


20, p. 214. 


You. 


» ,, 




IV, 2 


27, P-224- 


You. 


» „ 




IV, 2, 


29, p. 225. 


B. 


Digha Nikaya XIV, 2, 32. 




IV, 2 


29, p. 225. 


B. 


Not traced. 




IV, 2 


31, p. 227. 


You. 


■> >> 




IV, 2 


31, p. 227. 


You. 


„ „ 




IV, 3 


I, p. 229. 


B. 


Various (see note). 




IV, 3 


I, p. 229. 


You. 


Agga##a Sutta (Digha). 




IV, 3, 


5, P- 234- 


You. 


Not traced. 




IV, 3 


5, P- 234- 


You. 


>» »i 




IV, 3 


15, p. 238. 


S&riputta. 


,» ,, 




IV, 3 


15. P- 238. 


B. 


Paxa^ika I, 5, n. 




IV, 3 


19, p. 241. 


B*. 


G$taka III, 24. 




IV, 3 
IV, 3, 


19, p. 241. 
21, p. 242. 


B. 


GdtakalV, 210. 




The Theras. 


Digha Nikiya XIV, 4, 23. 




IV, 3, 


21, p. 243. 


B. 


XIV, 4, 57. 




IV, 3 


24, p. 246. 


B. 


Not traced. 




IV, 3 


24, p. 246. 


B. 


Mah£-parinibbina Sutta 
XVI, 5, 24). 


(D. 


IV, 3, 


27, p. 248. 


You. 


Not traced. 




IV, 3, 


27, p. 248. 


You. 


A'ullavagga VII, 3, 9. 




IV, 3 


31, P- 251- 


B. 


Not traced. 




IV, 3, 


31, P- 251- 


B. 


„ 1, 




IV, 3, 


33. P- 253- 


B. 


Brahma^ala Sutta (D. 1, 1, 


5)- 


IV, 3, 


33. P- 253- 


B. 


Sela Sutta (SN. Ill, 7, 7). 




IV, 3 


35, P- 254- 


B*. 


The 521st Gataka. 




IV, 3, 


38. P- 257- 


B. 


Dhaniya Sutta (SN. I, 2, 2 


)■ 


IV, 4 


r, p. 261. 


B. 


Anguttara I, 14, 1. 




IV, 4, 


4, p. 264. 


B. 


Aftguttara III, 124. 




IV, 4 


9, p. 268. 


B. 


PStimokkha (Pa*. 1). 




IV, 4, 


ii, p. 270. 


B. 


Not traced. 




IV, 4, 


11, p. 271. 


B. 


„ », 





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INTRODUCTION. XXxili 


IV, 4, 13. P- 273. 


B. 


Sutta Vibhaftga (Par. 3, 5, 13). 


IV, 4, 13, p. 273. 


B. 


Not traced. 


IV, 4, 16, p. 279. 


B. 


Aftguttara XI, 2, 5, and the 
169th Gataka. 


IV, 4, 16, p. 280. 


You. 


The 540th G&taka.. 


IV, 4, 17, P- 283- 


You. 


Not traced. 


IV, 4, 42, p. 294- 


B*. 


The 536th Gataka. 


IV, 4, 44. P- 297. 


B. 


Not traced. 


IV, 4,46, p. 301. 


You. 


.. .» 


The P41i Text. 






P. 211,1.6. 


B. 


Muni Sutta (SN. I, 12, 3). 


211, 1. 8. 


B. 


A'ullavagga VI, 1, 5. 


213, 1. 6. 


B. 


Dhammapada 168. 


213.1- 7- 


B. 


MzggAimz Nikaya 77. 


215, 1. 10. 


B. 


Not traced. 


215,1. 12. 


B. 


Ahguttara I, 14, 4. 


217, 1. 9. 


B. 


Sawyutta Nikaya XXI. 


217, 1. 11. 


B. 


Not traced. 


219J. 14. 


B. 


» i> 


219,1- 15- 


It is said. 


G£taka (No. 433). 


221, 1. 20. 


B. 


A'Aaddanta Gataka (vol.v, p.49). 


221, 1. 24. 


It is said. 


Not traced. 


223, 1. 16. 


B. 


Maxima Nikaya (No. 87). 


223, 1. 18. 


It is said. 


». » .. 


225, 1. 2. 


B. 


Sela Sutta (SN. Ill, 7, 33). 


228, 1. 2. 


B. 


Sutta Nipatal, 4, 6=111, 4, 26. 


230. 1- 13- 


B*. 


Kapi Gataka (vol. iii, p. 354). 


232. 1- 7- 


You. 


Not traced. 


232, 1. 10. 


You. 


»> .» 


235. 1- 2. 


B. 


Maxima I, p. 1 7 7 = Vinaya I, 
. p. 8. 
MaggAima. (No. 86). 


23S. 1- 4- 


B. 


236, 1. 27. 


B. 


Ahguttara I, 15, 10. 


240, 1. 3. 


B. 


Ma^Aima Nikaya (No. 142). 


242,1. 17. 


Sariputta. 


Not traced. . 


242, 1. 26. 


B. 


Samyutta Nikaya 44. 


245. 1. i- 


B. 


Sawyutta 6, 14 (vol. i, p. 157) 
=Thera-gatha 256, 7=Di- 
vyavadana, p. 300. 


253, 1- »• 


You. 


Not traced. 


255. 1- 8. 


You. 


.» »» 


262. 


B. 


.» .. 


323- 


You. 


»» »> 


[35] 


C 





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XXXIV THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 



The P41i Text. 






P- 333- 


B. 


Dhammapada 54-56 (taken in 
part from Anguttara III, 79). 


366, 1. 6. 


B. 


Sawyutta XX, 8, 5. 


366, 1. 10. 


Sariputta. 


Thera-gatha 985. 


367. 1- 8- 


B. 


Not traced (see S. XII, 63, 8). 


367J. 19. 


MahdKaMayana. 


Thera-gatha 501. 


368, 1. 2. 


B. 


Sawyutta 46, 7. 


368, 1. 6. 


Sariputta. 


Not traced. 


368, 1. 20. 


Abulia Panthaka. 


,, ,, 


369. 1- 5- 


B. 


Sutta Nipata I, 2, 12. 


369, 1. 22. 


The Theras who 
held the Synod 
(at Ra^agaha). 


Not traced. 


370,1. 11. 


Sariputta. 


Not traced. 


37'.1- 14. 


Upasena. 


Thera-gatha 577. 


371.1- 28. 


B. 


Sawyutta 1,17,2 (vol. i, p. 7). 


372,1. 12. 


Rihula. 


Not traced. 


37*. 1- 23- 


B. 


Gataka (No. 545). 


373. 1- i3- 


Sariputta. 


Not traced. 


374, 1- 5- 


Sariputta. 


,, ,. 


374,1. 16. 


Sariputta. 


,, „ 


375, 1- 15- 


B. 


Maxima (vol. i, p. 33). 


376, 1. 3- 


Anuruddha. 


Not traced. 


376, 1. 17. 


Rahula. 


,» ., 


377. 1- M- 


B. 


Sawiyutta 55, 7. 


378, 1- 5- 


Sariputta. 


Not traced. 


378,1.17. 


B. 


Maha-parinibbana Sutta (D. 
XVI, 2, 12). 


379. 1- i- 


B. 


Dhammapada 327. 


379, 1- M- 


B. 


Sawyutta 55, 7. 


380, 1. 1. 


Sariputta. 


Not traced. 


381, 1. 15. 


B. 


Sutasoma Gataka (No. 537). 


383- 1- 3- 


Sister Subhadda. 


Not traced. 


384, 1. 4. 


B. 


Kawha Gataka (vol iv, p. 10). 


385. 1- 1. 


B. 


(?) NaggAima. Nikaya (No. 62). 


385, 1. 28. 


B. 


Sutta Nipata 1, 12, 1. 


386, 1. 12. 


B. 


Dhammapada 81. 


386, 1. 19. 


B. 


Dhammapada 404 (from SN. 






HI, 9, 35)- 


386, 1. 26. 


Subhuti. 


Not traced. 


387, 1- 8. 


B. 


Dhammapada 28. 


387, 1- 16. 


Sister Subhadda. 


Not traced. 


388, 1. 14. 


B. 


Ma££'i$imaNikaya(vol.i,p.424). 

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INTRODUCTION. 



XXXV 



The P&li Text. 






P. 3»9> 1- 9- 


B. 


Sawyutta NikSya XVI, 3. 


390J. 17. 


Vaftgfsa. 


Not traced. 


391, 1. 6. 


Subhuti. 


.. .. 


391, 1. 21. 


B. 


Dhammapada 350. 


39a, 1- 3- 


B. 


Ahguttara X, 5, 8. 


392, 1. 10. 


B. 


Not traced. 


393. 1- 3- 


Vangisa. 


.. .. 


393. 1- 25- 


B. 


.» .» 


394. 1- 6- 


Upasena. 


»> ». 


394. 1- 16- 


Upasena. 


>. .. 


394. '• a 8. 


Sariputta. 


» >i 


395. 1- 9- 


Mahi Kassapa. 


». »» 


395. 1- 22- 


Upasena. 


Thera-gSthi 580. 


396, 1- 3- 


B. 


Ma^Aima Nikaya(vol. i, p. 74). 


396, 1. 20. 


Sariputta. 


Not traced. 


397. 1- 15- 


Sariputta. 


» » 


398. 1- 5- 


PiWola. 


>> >. 


399. 1- x 6- 


B. 


Sa/wyutta Nik&ya III, 5, 6 (vol. 
i. P- 73)- 


401, 1. 10. 


B. 


Sawyutta NMya XVI, 1, 3 
(vol. ii, p. 194). 


4 02, 1. 8. 


B. 


A'akkavaka G&taka (vol. iv, p. 
71 ; not in III, 520). 


402, 1. 26. 


Brahma. 


Sawyutta NikSyaVI,2,4 (vol. i, 
p. i54=Thera-gath4 142). 


403. 1- 13- 


B. 


Aulla-narada Gataka (vol. iv, 
p. 223). 


403, 1. 27. 


B. 


Sawiyutta NikSya (vol. iii.p.i 25). 


404, 1. 12. 


Pifln/ola. 


Not traced. 


405. 1- 3- 


B. 


DJgha NikSya XXX. 


405, 1. 22. 


Anuruddha. 


Not traced. 


407, 1. 1. 


Sariputta. 


Thera-gatha 982, 3. 


407, 1. 20. 


Anuruddha. 


Not traced. 


408, 1. 8. 


B. 


Digha NikSya XVI, 5, 24. 


408, 1. 22. 


B. 


Dhammapada 32. 


409, 1. 17. 


B. 


Sawyutta NikSya XIV, 16 (= 
Thera-gSthS 148, 266). 


410, 1. 8. 


Sariputta. 


Not traced l . 


4 r 1, 1. 9. 


Sariputta. 


»» »> 


411, 1. 29. 


B. 


Sutta NipSta II, 6, 10. 



1 That is, not in the Pi/akas. The stanza is found in the commentary on the 
Dhammapada (Fansbbll, p. 147), and also in Buddhaghosa's Papa/Ua Sudan! 
(see Tienckner's note) — each time with a variation at the close of the verse. 

C 2 



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XXXVI THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 



The Pili Text. 










P. 412, 1. 21. 


Moghara^a. 




Not tracec 


. 


413, 1. 6. 


Rahula. 




» w 




414, 1. 1. 


B. 




Sutta NipSta (not traced '). 


414, 1. 18. 


B. 




»> i» 


Ill, 11, 43. 


415, 1. 14. 


B. 




Not traced 


. 


416, 1. 4. 


Sariputta. 




» >> 




416, 1. 29. 


UpSli. 




»i »i 




417,1. 12. 


B. 




»> »» 




418, 1. 1. 


Moggallana. 




»» >» 




419,1. 11. 


Sariputta. 




»» >» 




Now the Pili Pi/akas consist of the 


following twenty- 


nine books : 






Title. 


No. of printed 
pages 8vo. 




1. The Sutta Vibhahga . . 


617* 




2. The Khandhakas . . . 


668* 




a. Mahavagga . 360 




The Vinaya 


b. A'ullavagga , 308 




PlFAKA. 


3. The Parivira .... 


226* 




Total .... 


1511* 




4. The DJgha Nikaya . . 


75° 


The Sutta 

Pi taka 


5. The Ma^Aima Nik&ya 


1000 


6. The Sawyutta Nikaya . 


1250 


X 1 1 AJkA* 


7. The Ahguttara Nikaya 
Total . . . 


1500 

4500 ' 


(The four great 
Nikayas.) 


8. The Khuddaka PaVAa 


10* 




9. The Dhammapadas . . 


<°* \ 




10. The Udanas .... 


80* 




11. The Iti-vuttakas . . 


. 100* 


The Khuddaka 


12. The Sutta Nipita . . 


200* 


NikAya. 


13. The VimSna Vatthu 


85* 


(The repeaters of 


14. The Peta Vatthu . . 


90* 


the Digha add 


15. The Thera-GathS . . 


. 100* 


I these to the Sut- 
' ta Pi/aka. The 


16. The Theri-Gatha . . 


35* 


17. The Gatakas. . . . 


70 


repeaters of the 


1 8. The Niddesa .... 


300 


Ma^Aima add 


19. The Pa/isambhidA . . 


400 


them to the Abhi- 


20. The ApadSnas . . . 


400 


dhamma Pi/aka.) 


21. The Buddha Vansa 


60* 




22. The A'ariyS Pi/aka . . 


30* j 




Total .... 


2000 





1 Mr. Trenckner gives no reference, and I have searched through the Sutta 
Nipita, which has no index, in vain. 



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INTRODUCTION. 


XXXVll 


23. The Dhamma Sangawi 


260* \ 




24. The Vibhahga . . . 


325 




25. The Katha Vatthu . . 


440 




26. The Puggala Pa»«atti . 


75* 




27. The Dhatu Katha . . 


100 


j. The Abhidhamma 

PI7-AKA. 


28. The Yamakas . . . 


400 


29. The Pa/MSna . . . 


600 




Total Abhidhamma 


2200 






10,211 ) 





This shows the total extent of the three Pi/akas to be 
about 10,000 pages 8vo. as printed, or to be printed, by 
the Pali Text Society 1 . If our English Bible, in the 
older authorised version, were to be printed in the same 
manner and type and on the same size of page, it would 
occupy about 5,oco pages. So that the Buddhist Bible 
without its repetitions (some of which are very frequent, 
and others very long), would only occupy about double the 
space of the English Bible. This would not have been a 
literature too large to be familiarly known to our author. 
What is the conclusion which can fairly be drawn, from 
a comparison of the last list with those preceding it, as 
to his knowledge of those books now held, by living 
Buddhists, to be canonical ? 

The answer to this question will be of some importance 
for another reason beyond the help it will afford towards 
settling the date of the original ' Questions of Milinda.' 
As is well known, Asoka, in the only one of his edicts, 
addressed specially to the members of the Buddhist Order 
of mendicants, selects seven portions of the Buddhist Scrip- 
tures, which he mentions by name, and expresses his desire 
that not only the brethren and sisters of the Order, but 
also the laity, should constantly learn by heart and reflect 
upon those seven. Now not one of the seven titles which 
occur in the edict is identical with any of the twenty-nine 
in the last list. Whereupon certain Indianists have rejoiced 
at being able to score a point, as they think, against these 



1 This estimate excludes the space occupied by notes. The books marked 
with an asterisk in the foregoing list have already been printed. 



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XXXV1U THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 

unbrahmanical Buddhists, and have jumped to the conclu- 
sion that the Buddhist canon must be late and spurious ; 
and that the Buddhism of Asoka's time must have been 
very different from the Buddhism of the Pali Pi/akas. That 
would be much the same as if a Japanese scholar, at a time 
when he knew little or nothing of Christianity, except the 
names of the books in the Bible, were to have found an open 
letter of Constantine's in which he urges both the clergy 
and laity to look upon the Word of God as their only 
authority, and to constantly repeat and earnestly meditate 
upon the Psalm of the Shepherd, the words of Lemuel, the 
Prophecy of the Servant of the Lord, the Sermon on the 
Mount, the Exaltation of Charity, the Question of Nico- 
demus, and the story of the Prodigal Son — and that our 
Oriental critic should jump to the conclusion that the 
canonical books of the Christians could not have been 
known in the time of Constantine, and that the Christi- 
anity of Constantine was really quite different from, and 
much more simple than the Christianity of the Bible. As 
a matter of fact the existence of such a letter would prove 
very little, either way, as to the date of the books in the 
Bible as we now have them. If our Japanese scholar were 
to discover afterwards a Christian work, even much later 
than the time of Constantine, in which the canonical books 
of the Christians were both quoted and referred to, he 
would have much surer ground for a sounder historical 
criticism. And he would possibly come to see that the 
seven portions selected for special honour and commenda- 
tion were not intended as an exhaustive list even of re- 
markable passages, much less for an exhaustive list of 
canonical books, but that the number seven was merely 
chosen in deference to the sacred character attaching to 
that number in the sacred literature. 

Such a book is our Milinda. It is, as we have seen, 
later than the canonical books of the Pali Pi/akas, and on 
the other hand, not only older than the great commentaries, 
but the only book, outside the canon, regarded in them as 
an authority which may be implicitly followed. And I 
venture to think that the most simple working hypothesis 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 



by which to explain the numerous and varied references 
and quotations it makes, as shown in the preceding lists, 
from the Pi/akas as a whole, and from the various books 
contained in them, is that the Pali Pi/akas were known, 
in their entirety, and very nearly, if not quite, as we now 
have them, to our author. For out of the twenty-nine 
books of the Pi/akas, we find in the lists of works referred 
to by him the three Pi/akas as a whole, the Vinaya Pi/aka 
as a whole, and all of its component books except the 
Parivara (which was composed in Ceylon), the Sutta Pi/aka 
and each of the four great Nikayas, the Abhidhamma Pi- 
/aka and each of its seven component books, and the 
Khuddaka Nikaya as a whole and several of its separate 
books. And when we further recollect the very large num- 
ber of quotations appearing in my lists as not yet traced in 
the Pi/akas, we see the necessity of being very chary in 
drawing any argument ex silentio with respect to those 
books not occurring in the lists. 

To sum up. — It may be said generally that while the 
Sutta Vibhanga and the Khandhakas, the four great 
Nikayas, and the Abhidhamma were certainly known to 
our author, he very likely had no knowledge of the Pari- 
vara ; and it remains to be seen how far his knowledge of 
the Khuddaka Nikaya, which he happens to mention once 1 
as a whole by name, did actually extend. At present it is 
only clear that he knew the Khuddaka Pa///a, the Dham- 
mapada collection of sacred verses, the Sutta Nipata, the 
Thera and Theri-gatha, the Catakas, and the Kariyl 
Pi/aka. I hope to return to this question in the Introduc- 
tion to my second volume, only pointing out here that the 
doubtful books (those concerning which our author is ap- 
parently silent) would occupy about two thousand pages 
octavo, out of the ten thousand of which the three Pi/akas 
would, if printed, consist : and that those two thousand 
pages belong, for the most part, precisely to that part of 
the Pi/akas which have not yet been edited, so that there 
they may very likely, after all, be quoted in one or other 



Page 342 of the printed text. 



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xl THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 

of the numerous quotations entered as ' not traced ' in my 
lists 1 . 



Such being the extent, so far as can at present be shown, 
of our author's knowledge of the three Pi/akas, the question 
arises as to the degree and accuracy of his knowledge. In 
the great majority of cases his quotations or references 
entirely agree with the readings shown by our texts. But 
there are a few exceptions. And as these are both in- 
teresting and instructive, it will be advisable to point them 
out in detail. 

The reference to the Avi/K Hell as being outside the 
earth, if not at variance with, is at least an addition to the 
teaching of the Pi/akas as to cosmogony 2 . But there is 
some reason to believe that the passage may be an inter- 
polation, and the difference itself is not only doubtful but 
also of no particular importance. 

The description of the contents of the Puggala Pa««atti 
given in I, 26, does not really agree with the text. The 
book, in its first section, sets out six different sorts of dis- 
crimination or distinction. One paragraph only is devoted 
to each of the first five discriminations, and the author or 
authors then proceed, in the rest of the book, to deal 
with the details of the last of the six. Our author gives 
the six as the divisions of the book itself. 

But I think it is clear that so far as the description is 
inaccurate, the error is due, not to any difference between 
the text as he had it and that which we now possess, but 
simply to our author laying too great a stress upon the 
opening paragraphs of the book. 

In the reference to the Buddha's first sermon, the Foun- 
dation of the Kingdom of Righteousness (in I, 38), our 
author says that ' eighteen ko/is of Brahma gods, and an 
innumerable company of other gods, attained to compre- 



1 About half of the canonical books, besides a considerable number of the 
uncanonical works, have already been edited in the last few years, chiefly owing 
to the Pali Text Society's labours. 

' See the passages quoted in my note at p. 9. 



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INTRODUCTION. xli 



hension of the truth.' There is no statement of the kind 
in the Pifaka account of this event (see my translation in 
' Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 146-155). But it is not inconsistent 
with the Pali, and is doubtless added from some edifying 
commentary. 

There is a difference of reading between the lines put 
into Sariputta's mouth, at II, 2, 4, and those ascribed to 
Sariputta in the Thera Gatha (1002, 1003). If the Milinda 
reading is not found in some hitherto unpublished passage, 
we have here a real case of divergence. 

Perhaps the most important apparent variation between 
our author and the Pi/aka texts is the statement put by 
him, in IV, 4, 9, into the mouth of the Buddha, that a 
deliberate lie is one of the offences called PAri^-ika, that is, 
involving exclusion from the Order. Now in the old Canon 
Law there are only four Para^ika offences— breach of chas- 
tity, theft, murder, and a false claim to extraordinary spiritual 
powers (see my translation in vol. i, pp. 1-5 of the ' Vinaya 
Texts ') ; and falsehood is placed quite distinctly under 
another category, that of the Pa£ittiyas, offences requiring 
repentance (see p. 32 of the same translation). If our author 
was a member of the Order, as he almost certainly was, it 
would seem almost incredible that he should make an error 
in a matter of such common knowledge, and of such vital 
importance, as the number and nature of the Para^ikas. 
And indeed, in the immediate context, he refers to the 
Pa&ttiya rule, though not in the exact words used in the text 
of the Patimokkha. I think that he must have known very 
well what he was talking about. And that a passage, not yet 
traced, will be found in the unpublished parts of the Pi/akas, 
in which the Buddha is made to say that falsehood is a 
Para^fika — just as a Christian might maintain that false- 
hood is forbidden in the Ten Commandments, and yet be 
perfectly aware of the exact phraseology of the Ten Words. 

In IV, 4, 26, our author identifies the learned pig in the 
Ta££Aa-sukara Cataka with the Bodisat. He differs here 
from the Cataka Commentary, in which the Bodisat is 
identified with the tree-god, who acts as a kind of Greek 
chorus in the story. And the summaries in IV, 4, 28 of 



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xlii THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 

Ruru Cataka, and in IV, 4, 30 of the Sabba-da/Aa Cataka, 
do not exactly agree with Professor Fausboll's text \ But 
the commentary is not the text ; and it is well known that 
there are numerous such light variations in the different ex- 
pansions of the verses, which latter alone form the actual text. 

In IV, 4, 44 we find our author giving a version of a 
well-known incident in the Buddhist Gospel story different 
from the oldest version of it in the Pi/aka texts. This is 
another instance of an expansion of the original adopted 
from some unknown commentator, and does not argue an 
ignorance of the text as we have it. 

I have noticed in the untranslated portion of our author, 
four or five cases of readings apparently different from the 
Pi/aka texts he refers to. These I hope to deal with in my 
next volume. But I may notice here that two stanzas, 
given on p. 414 of the text, and said on p. 413 to be 'in 
the Sutta Nipata,' are not found in Professor Fausboll's 
edition of that work ; and we have there, in all probability, 
another case of real divergence. But the reading in the 
Milinda may possibly be found to be incorrect. 

The general result of this comparison, when we remember 
the very large number of passages quoted, will be held, 
I trust, to confirm the conclusion reached above, that our 
author knew the Pi/akas practically as we now have them, 
that is as they have been handed down in Ceylon. 



Outside the Pi/akas there are unfortunately no references 
to actual books. But there are several references to coun- 
tries and persons which are of importance, in as much as 
they show a knowledge in our author of places or occur- 
rences not mentioned in the sacred books. It will be most 
convenient to arrange these passages first in an alphabetical 
list, and then to make a few remarks on the conclusions the 
list suggests. They are as follows : — 

Name. Page of the Pali Text. 

Anantakaya (Yonako) . . . .29, 30. 

Alasando (dipo) 82,327,331,359. 

Asoka (dhamma-rag'a) . . . 121. 

1 See my notes to the passages quoted. 



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INTRODUCTION. 


xlm 


Name. 


Page of the Pali Text. 


Asokarama (near Patna) 


. 16, 17. 


Assagutta (iyasma) 


• 6, 7, 14. 


Ayupala (ayasmS) 


. 19. 


tlM(nadi) 


• 70. 


Kalasi (g£mo) .... 


• 83. 


Kasmtra (ra/Maw) 


• 82,327,331. 


Kola-pa//ana (seaport) 


• 359- 


Gandhara (ra/Mam) 


• 327. 33'- 


.ffandagutto (ra^a) 


. 292. 


ATna(? China) .... 


"I. 327. 33'»359- 


Takkola (? =Karko/a) 


• 359- 


Tissatthera (lekhS^ariyo) 


7'- 


Devamantiya (Yonako) 


22-24, 2 9> 3°- 


Dhamma-rakkhita (Syasma) . 


16, 18. 


Nikumba (ra/Maw) 


• 327- 


Bindumatf (ganika) . . 


121. 


Bhaddasdla (senapati-putto) 


292. 


BharukaAMa (men of) . 


33i- 


Mankura (Yonako) 


29. 3°- 


Madhura (nigamo) 


33'- 


Yonaka (the tribe) 


1, 4, 20, 68. 


Rakkhita-tala (in the Himalayas) . 


6, 7, 12, 18. 


Rohana (Syasma) 


7, 10. 


Vahga (Bengal) . . . . . 


359- 


Vattaniya (senasana/n) 


10, 12, 14-16. 


Vi^amba-vatthu (senasanaw) 


12. 


Vilata (ra//Aa«) 


327.331 


Saka-yavana (the countries of) 


327. 33'- 


Sankheyya(parive«a/n) 


19, 22. 


Sabbadinna or Dinna (Yonako) . 


29, 56. 


Sagala (nagaram) . . . . 


1,3,5, 14.22. 


Sura/Ma (nigamo) . . . . 


359, men of, 331. 


Suva»«a-bhumi (? Burma) 


359- 


Sonuttara (brahmano) . 


9- 



It will be noticed that the only names of persons, besides 
those occurring in the story itself, are, in one passage, Asoka 
and Bindumati the courtesan, and in another /Sfandragupta 
and Bhaddasala who fought against him. Of places, besides 
those in the story, we have a considerable number of names 
referring to the Panjab, and adjacent countries; and be- 
sides these the names only of a few places or countries on 



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xllV THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 

the sea coast. The island Alasanda in the Indus, and the 
town of Kalasi situated in that island, have been discussed 
above. The country of the Sakas and Yavanas, Gan- 
dhara, Kashmir, Bharuka££/*a, Surat, and Madhura, explain 
themselves. Nikumba and Vilata were probably in the 
same neighbourhood, but these names have not been met 
with elsewhere, and I can suggest no identification of them. 
The places on the sea coast, to which a merchant ship could 
sail, mentioned on p. 359, are mostly well known. Kola- 
pattana must, I think, be some place on the Koromandel 
coast, and Suva«»a-bhumi be meant for the seaboard of 
Burma and Siam. The author mentions no places in the 
interior south of the Ganges. 

At four places he gives lists of famous rivers. In three 
out of the four he simply repeats the list of five — Gangs, 
Yamuna, A&ravatt, Sarabhu, and Mahi — so often enume- 
rated together in the Pi/akas 1 . In the fourth passage 
(p. 114) he adds five others — the Sindhu, the Sarassati, the 
Vetravati, the Vitawsa, and the Aandabhaga. Of these 
the first two are well known. Professor Eduard Miiller 
suggests 2 that the Vitawsa is the same as the Vitasta (the 
Hydaspes of the Greeks and the modern Bihat). The 
Vetravati is one of the principal affluents of the Jumna ; 
and the ATandrabhaga rises in the North- West Himalayas, 
and is not unfrequently referred to as the Asikni of the 
Vedas, the Akesines of the Greek geographers, the modern 
Kinab s . 

The list is meagre enough. An ethical treatise is scarcely 
the place to look for much geographical or historical mat- 
ter. But unless our author deliberately concealed his 
knowledge, and made all the remarks he put into the 
mouth of Nagasena correspond with what that teacher 
might fairly be expected to have known, the whole list 
points to the definite conclusion that the writer of the 
' Questions of Milinda ' resided in the far North- West of 

1 See pp. 70, 87, 380 of the Pali text. 
* ' Journal of the Pali Text Society,' 1888, p. 87. 

" See Lassen, ' Indische Alterthumskunde,' vol. i, p. 43 (first edition, p. 55 of 
the second edition), and the passages there quoted. 



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INTRODUCTION. xlv 



India, or in the Panjab itself. And this is confirmed by the 
great improbability of any memory of Menander having 
survived elsewhere, and more especially in Ceylon, where 
we should naturally look for our author's residence if he 
did not live in the region thus suggested. 



As my space is here limited, I postpone to the next 
volume the discussion as to how far the knowledge displayed 
by our author, the conditions of society with which he 
shows himself acquainted, and the religious beliefs he gives 
utterance to, afford evidence of his date. I will only say 
here that on all these points his -work shows clear signs of 
being later than the Pi/aka texts. And in the present 
state of our knowledge, or rather of our ignorance, of Pali, 
there is very little to be drawn from the language used by 
our author. In the first place we do not know for certain 
whether we have the original before us, or a translation 
from the Sanskrit or from some Northern dialect. And 
if, as is probably the case, we have a translation, it would 
be very difficult to say whether any peculiarity we may 
find in it is really due to the translator, or to the original 
author. No doubt a translator, finding in his original a 
word not existing in Pali, but formed according to rules of 
derivation obtaining in Pali, would coin the corresponding 
Pali form. And in doing so he might very likely be led 
into mistake, if his original were Prakrit, by misunderstand- 
ing the derivation of the Prakrit word before him. Childers 
in comparing Buddhist Sanskrit with Pali, has pointed out 
several cases where such mistakes have occurred, and has 
supposed that in every case the Sanskrit translator mis- 
understood a Pali word before him K As I have suggested 
elsewhere it is, to say the least, quite as likely that the 
Sanskrit Buddhist texts are often founded on older works, 
not in Pali, but in some other Prakrit *. And it may be 
possible hereafter to form some opinion as to what that 
dialect was which the Sanskrit writers must have had be- 

1 See the articles in his * Pali Dictionary,' referred to under note 3, p. xi of the 
Introduction. 

' See the note on pp. i;8, 179 of my ' Buddhist Suttas.' 



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xlvi 



THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 



fore them, to lead them into the particular blunders they 
have made. In the same way an argument may be drawn 
from the words found exclusively in Milinda as to the dia- 
lect which he spoke, and in which he probably wrote. A 
list of the words our author uses, and not found in the 
Pi/akas, can only be tentative, as we have not as yet the 
whole of the Pi/aka texts in print. But it will be useful, 
even now, to give the following imperfect list of such as 
I have noted in my copy of Childers' ' Dictionary.' 



Word. 


Page of the Pali Text. Note. 


A/aka . 


. 418 


. See 'Journal,' 1886, p. 158. 


Anekamsikata 


• 93 


,, ,, ,. P-I23- 


Awapako 


• 147 • 


. Peon, officer. 


Anika/Ma 


• 234 


. Sentinel. 


Anughayati . 


• 343 


. Trace by smell. 


Anuparivattati 


204, 253, 307 


. Turn towards. 


Antobhaviko . 


• 95 


. 'Journal,' 1886, p. 124. 


Avapana 


• 279 


,, P- 157- 


Asipasa 


. 191 


. . A caste so called. 


Anupeseti 


31.36 


. Send after. 


Asadaniyaw . 


• 205 


. Injury. 


A/ona ' . 


. 191 


. Professional beggars. 


Ayuhito 


. 181 


. Busy. 


Ayuhako 


. 207 


. Busy. 


f Bhaddiputta' 
1 Bha/tfputtS 


. 191 


' [ A caste so called. 


• 133 


Bhavatfha 


• 92, 93. 342 


. Introducing verses. 


A'andakanta . 


. 118 


. A kind of gem. 


jKavaka 


156, 200 . 


. Wretch. 


Dhamadhamayati 


. 117 


. To blow. 


Ekaniko 


. 402 


. On the one true path. 


GhanikS 


. 191 


. Musicians. 


Gilanako 


• 74 


. A sick man, a patient. 


Hiriyati 


. 171 


. Is made afraid of sin. 


Issatthako 


• 4'9 


. Archer. 


Galupika 


• 407 


. Leech. 


Kali-devata . 


. 191 . 


. Worshippers of Kali. 


Ka/utnika 


78, 79 


. Reminding. 


Kummiga 


• 346 


. Animal. 



1 Hlna/i-kumbure (p. 252) reads ananayo. 
8 The Sinhalese has bhaddiputrayo. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



xlvii 



Name. Page of the Pali Text. Note. 


Lakanaka 


• 377 • 


. Anchor. 


LaMaka 137,242,256,362 . 


. Epithet of the Nikayas. 


Laftghako . 34,191,331 . 


. Tumbler. 


Lekhaniyo . 


. 172 . 


. Sharp (of medicine). 


Mamkata 


• 384 • 


. Done by me. 


Manthayati . 


• 173 • 


. Churn. 


Manibhadda . 


. i 9 r . 


. A caste so called. 


Na/M&yiko . 


. 201 


. (?) Farmer. 


Na^Ua . 


• 105 . 


. The weapon so called. 


Niyyamaka . 


194.376 • 


. Pilot. 


Okassa . 


. 210 . 


. Rudely. 


Pabbata 


. 191 . 


. A caste so called. 


Pakkhanno 


M4.390 • 


. Lost, fallen. 


Parima^yakS . 


• 343 


. Touchers of. 


Parimutti 


. 112 


. Release. 


Parira^gita 


• 75 


. Marked over. 


Parisa»ha 


. 198 . 


. Subtle. 


Pariyoga * 


. 118 


. Cauldron. 


Pa/isalliyati . 


• i39 • 


. To be secluded. 


Pa/isisaka 


. 90 


. Chignon. 


PeirihikS . 


. 402 


. A bird so called. 


Pi/aka . 


18, &c. 


. See my note to p. 28. 


Piwsati . 


• 43 


. Compound (a medicine). 


Ratani* 


• 85 


. Cubit. 


Saiiika 


. 226 


. . True. 


SSmayiko 


22 


. . Learned in doctrine. 


Supina . 


• 147 


• Dog. 


TawyathS . 


1 


. . See Trenckner's ' PSli Mis- 
cellany,' p. 55. 


Thtla . 


. 62 


. . Gong. 


Tipe/ako 


. 90 


. . Who knows the Pi/akas. 


UAMadeti 2 


41 (see 315) 


. . Perfume the body. 


tfhana . 


• 3* 


. . Synthesis. 


Ukkalati 


• M3 


. Revoke. 


Uparama 


41.44 


. . Cessation. 


Vi^yadharo . 


. 153, 200 


. . Magician. 


YogSva^aro . 43, 


400 and foil. 


. . See my note on p. 68. 


Yogin . 


. 2, 400 foil. 


. . Ascetic. 



1 This word has been found in the Pi/akas ^e. g. Maxima I, 480) in the 
sense of ' practice.' 
* The Pi/aka form is ratana. 



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xlviii THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 

This list might be considerably extended if words were 
included which differ from those used in the Pi/akas only 
by the addition of well-known suffixes or prefixes — such, 
for instance, as viparivattati, at p. 117, only found as 
yet elsewhere in the Tela Ka/aha Gatha, verse 37. But 
such words are really only a further utilisation of the exist- 
ing resources of the language, and would afford little or no 
ground for argument as to the time and place at which our 
author wrote. I have thought it best, therefore, to omit 
them, at least at present. 

If we turn from isolated words to the evidence of style it 
will be acknowledged by every reader that the Milinda has 
a marked style of its own, different alike from the formal 
exactness of most of the Pi/aka texts, and from the later 
manner of any other Pali or Sanskrit-Buddhist authors as 
yet published. It is no doubt the charm of its style which 
has been one of the principal reasons for the great popu- 
larity of the book. Even a reader who takes no interest in 
the points that are raised, or in the method in which the 
questions are discussed, will be able, I trust, to see, even 
through the dark veil of a lame and wooden translation, 
what the merits of the original must be. And to a devout 
Buddhist, in whose eyes the book he was reading offered 
a correct solution of the most serious difficulties in religion, 
of the deepest problems of life, — to whose whole intellectual 
training and sympathies the way in which the puzzles are 
put, and solved, so exactly appealed, — to such a reader 
both the easy grace of the opening dialogue, as of a ship 
sailing in calm waters, and the real eloquence of occasional 
passages, more especially of the perorations by which the 
solutions are sometimes closed, must have been a continual 
feast. I venture to think that the ' Questions of Milinda ' 
is undoubtedly the master-piece of Indian prose ; and in- 
deed is the best book of its class, from a literary point of 
view, that had then been produced in any country. Limits 
of space prevent the discussion of this last proposition, 
however interesting: and it would be, no doubt, difficult 
to prove that anything from India was better than the cor- 
responding thing produced by our noble selves, or by those 



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INTRODUCTION. xlix 



whose Karma we inherit. But in ancient Indian literature 
there are only two or three works which can at all com- 
pare with it. It ought not to seem odd that these also are 
Buddhist and Pali ; that is, that they come from the same 
school. And while the Dtgha Nikaya may be held to 
excel it in stately dignity, the Visuddhi Magga in sustained 
power, and the Cataka book in varied humour, the palm 
will probably be eventually given to the 'Questions of 
Milinda ' as a work of art. 

I am aware that this conclusion is entirely at variance 
with the often repeated depreciation of Buddhist literature. 
But the fact is that this depreciation rests upon ignorance, 
and is supported by prejudice. As a critical judgment it 
will not survive the publication and translation of those 
great Buddhist works which it overlooks or ignores. Some 
Sanskrit scholars, familiar with the Brahmin estimate of 
matters Indian, and filled with a very rational and proper 
admiration for the many fine qualities which the old Brah- 
mins possessed, may find it hard to recognise the merits of 
sectarian works written in dialects which violate their most 
cherished laws of speech. But the historical student of the 
evolution of thought, and of the rise of literature in India, 
will more and more look upon the question as a whole, and 
will estimate at its right value all Indian work, irrespective 
of dialect or creed. 

T. W. RHYS DAVIDS. 
Temple, 

August, 1889. 



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THE QUESTIONS 



OF 



KING MILINDA. 



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■_ .U I i 



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THE QUESTIONS 

OF 

KING MILINDA. 



Reverence be to the Blessed One, the 
Arahat, the SammA-sambuddha. 



BOOK I. 

the secular narrative'. 



i. King Milinda, at Sagala the famous town of yore, 
To Nagasena, the world famous sage, repaired. 
(So the deep Ganges to the deeper ocean flows.) 
To him, the eloquent, the bearer of the torch 
Of Truth, dispeller of the darkness of men's minds, 
Subtle and knotty questions did he put, many, 
Turning on many points. Then were solutions 

given 
Profound in meaning, gaining access to the heart, 
Sweet to the ear, and passing wonderful and 

strange. 
For Nagasena's talk plunged to the hidden 

depths 
Of Vinaya and of Abhidhamma (Law and 

Thought) 

1 Bahira-katha, literally 'outside talk;' so called in contradis- 
tinction to the religious character of the subjects treated of in the 
remaining books. 

r [35] b 

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THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. I, a. 

Unravelling all the meshes of the Suttas' net, 

Glittering the while with metaphors and reason- 
ing high. 

Come then! Apply your minds, and let your 
hearts rejoice, 

And hearken to these subtle questionings, all 
grounds 

Of doubt well fitted to resolve. 



2. Thus hath it been handed down by tradition — 
There is in the country of the Yonakas 1 a great 
centre of trade 2 , a city that is called Sagala, situate 
in a delightful country well watered and hilly, 
abounding in parks and gardens and groves and 
lakes and tanks, a paradise of rivers and mountains 
and woods. Wise architects have laid it out a , and 
its people know of no oppression, since all their 
enemies and adversaries have been put down. 
Brave is its defence, with many and various strong 
towers and ramparts, with superb gates and en- 
trance archways; and with the royal citadel in its 
midst, white walled and deeply moated. Well laid 
out are its streets, squares, cross roads, and market 
places 4 . Well displayed are the innumerable sorts 
of costly merchandise [2] with which its shops are 
filled. It is richly adorned with hundreds of alms- 

1 That is Ionians, the Pali word for Baktrian Greeks. 

s N&nS-pu/a-bhedanaw, literally 'the distributing place of 
parcels of merchandise of many kinds.' Trenckner renders it 
'surrounded with a number of dependent towns/ but surely 
entrep6t is the idea suggested. 

9 Sutavanta-nimmitam; which Trenckner renders ' pious are 
its people.' But I prefer the Sinhalese interpretation. 

* This list recurs at pp. 34, 330 of the text. See below, p. 53. 



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1,3- THE CITY OF SAGALA. 3 

halls of various kinds ; and splendid with hundreds 
of thousands of magnificent mansions, which rise 
aloft like the mountain peaks of the Himalayas. 
Its streets are filled with elephants, horses, car- 
riages, and foot-passengers, frequented by groups of 
handsome men and beautiful women, and crowded 
by men of all sorts and conditions, Brahmans, 
nobles, artificers, and servants. They resound with 
cries of welcome to the teachers of every creed, and 
the city is the resort of the leading men of each of 
the differing sects. Shops are there for the sale of 
Benares muslin, of Ko/umbara stuffs 1 , and of other 
cloths of various kinds ; and sweet odours are ex- 
haled from the bazaars, where all sorts of flowers 
and perfumes are tastefully set out Jewels are 
there in plenty, such as men's hearts desire, and 
guilds of traders in all sorts of finery display their 
goods in the bazaars that face all quarters of the 
sky. So full is the city of money, and of gold and 
silver ware, of copper and stone ware, that it is a 
very mine of dazzling treasures. And there is laid 
up there much store of property and corn and things 
of value in warehouses — foods and drinks of every 
sort, syrups and sweetmeats of every kind. In 
wealth it rivals Uttara-kuru, and in glory it is as 
A/akamandi, the city of the gods 2 . 

3. Having said thus much we must now relate the 
previous birth history of these two persons (Milinda 



1 It is worth noting, as there is a doubt about the spelling, that 
Hina/i-kumbur£ reads Ko/umbara, not Kodumbara. 

* Here follow in Hina/i-kumbur&'s version two pages of intro- 
ductory matter, explaining how he came to undertake his transla- 
tion. 

B 2 



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4 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 1,4- 

and Nagasena) and the various sorts of puzzles 1 . 
This we shall do under six heads : — 
i. Their previous history (Pubba-yoga). 

2. The Milinda problems. 

3. Questions as to distinguishing characteristics. 

4. Puzzles arising out of contradictory statements. 

5. Puzzles arising out of ambiguity. 

6. Discussions turning on metaphor. 

And of these the Milinda problems are in two 
divisions — questions as to distinctive characteristics, 
and questions aiming at the dispelling of doubt; 
and the puzzles arising out of contradictory state- 
ments are in two divisions — the long chapter, and 
the problems in the life of the recluse. 



THEIR PREVIOUS HISTORY (pUBBA-YOGa). 

4. By Pubba-yoga is meant their past Karma (their 
doings in this or previous lives). Long ago, they 
say, when Kassapa the Buddha was promulgating 
the faith, there dwelt in one community near the 
Ganges a great company of members of the Order. 
There the brethren, true to established rules and 
duties, rose early in the morning, and taking the 
long-handled brooms, would sweep out the court- 
yard and collect the rubbish into a heap, meditating 
the while on the virtues of the Buddha. 

5. One day a brother told a novice to remove the 
heap of dust. But he, as if he heard not, went 
about his business ; and on being called a second 
time, and a third, still went his way as if he had not 
heard. Then the brother, angry with so intractable 
a novice, dealt him a blow with the broom stick. 

1 These six words are added from Hina/i-kumbure\ 



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1,8. THEIR PREVIOUS BIRTH. 5 

[3] This time, not daring to refuse, he set about the 
task crying ; and as he did so he muttered to him- 
self this first aspiration : ' May I, by reason of this 
meritorious act of throwing out the rubbish, in each 
successive condition in which I may be born up to 
the time when I attain Nirvawa, be powerful and 
glorious as the midday sun ! ' 

6. When he had finished his work he went to the 
river side to bathe, and on beholding the mighty bil- 
lows of the Ganges seething and surging, he uttered 
this second aspiration : ' May I, in each successive 
condition in which I may be born till I attain Nir- 
vana, possess the power of saying the right thing, 
and saying it instantly, under any circumstance 
that may arise, carrying all before me like this 
mighty surge ! ' 

7. Now that brother, after he had put the broom 
away in the broom closet, had likewise' wandered 
down to the river side to bathe, and as he walked he 
happened to overhear what the novice had said. 
Then thinking : ' If this fellow, on the ground of 
such an act of merit, which after all was instigated 
by me, can harbour hopes like this, what may not I 
attain to ? ' he too made his wish, and it was thus : 
' In each successive condition in which I may be born 
till I attain Nirvaaa, may I too be ready in saying 
the right thing at once, and more especially may I 
have the power of unravelling and of solving each pro- 
blem and each puzzling question this young man may 
put — carrying all before me like this mighty surge ! ' 

8. Then for the whole period between one 
Buddha and the next these two people wandered 
from existence to existence among gods and men. 
And our Buddha saw them too, and just as he did 



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6 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 1,9. 

to the son of Moggalt and to Tissa the Elder, so 
to them also did he foretell their future fate, saying : 
' Five hundred years after I have passed away will 
these two reappear, and the subtle Law and Doc- 
trine taught by me will they two explain, unravelling 
and disentangling its difficulties by questions put 
and metaphors adduced.' 

9. Of the two the novice became the king of the 
city of Sagala in India, Milinda by name, learned, 
eloquent, wise, and able; and a faithful observer, 
and that at the right time, of all the various acts of 
devotion and ceremony enjoined by his own sacred 
hymns concerning things past, present, and to 
come. Many were the arts and sciences he knew — 
holy tradition and secular law ; the Sankhya, Yoga, 
Nyaya, and Vaweshika systems of philosophy; arith- 
metic; music; medicine; the four Vedas, the Purawas, 
and the Itihdsas ; astronomy, magic, causation 1 , and 
spells ; the art of war ; poetry ; conveyancing 2 — 
in a word, the whole nineteen s . 

[4] As a disputant he was hard to equal, harder 

1 Hetu, literally 'cause.' Trenckner has ' logic (?);' Hina/i- 
kumbure" repeats the word. 

* M u dda, literally ' seal-ring.' The meaning of the term (which 
recurs in similar lists at Digha I, 1, 25; I, 2, 14; and below, 
p. 59 of the text) is quite clear, but the exact details of the 'art' 
are unknown. I follow Buddhaghosa's comment on those passages. 
Trenckner leaves the word untranslated, and Hina/i-kumburS says, 
' JEngillen cel-wfma,' that is, ' adhering with the finger,' which I do 
not understand, unless it means the sealing of a document. At 
IV, 3, 25, the context makes it probable that ' law of property ' 
would be the best rendering. 

3 The number of the Sippas (Arts and Sciences) is usually 
given as eighteen. In the Gataka (p. 58, 1. 29, Professor Faus- 
boll's edition) it is twelve. 



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I, 10. MILINDA THE KING. 



still to overcome ; the acknowledged superior of all 
the founders of the various schools of thought. And 
as in wisdom so in strength of body, swiftness, and 
valour there was found none equal to Milinda in all 
India. He was rich too, mighty in wealth and pros- 
perity, and the number of his armed hosts knew 
no end. 

10. Now one day Milinda the king proceeded 
forth out of the city to pass in review the innu- 
merable host of his mighty army in its fourfold 
array (of elephants, cavalry, bowmen, and soldiers 
on foot). And when the numbering of the forces 
was over, the king, who was fond of wordy disputa- 
tion, and eager for discussion with casuists, sophists 1 , 
and gentry of that sort, looked at the sun (to ascer- 
tain the time), and then said to his ministers : ' The 
day is yet young. What would be the use of 
getting back to town so early ? Is there no learned 
person, whether wandering teacher 2 or Brahman, 
the head of some school or order, or the master of 
some band of pupils (even though he profess faith 

1 Lokayatas and Vita»</as. Other Pali passages, where 
they are mentioned, are Aullavagga V, 3, 2 ; Anguttara III, 58, 1 ; 
Sumangala Vilasini, 96, 247; and below, § 22 (p. 17). See also 
Weber, • Bhagavati,' II, 246 ; Muir, ' Sanskrit Texts,' III, 95 ; 
Deussen, 'Das Vedanta-System,' 310. 

* Sam an a. There is no expression in English corresponding 
to this common word in Pali texts. It means any ' religious ' (in 
the technical meaning of that word) who is not a recluse according 
to the orthodox Brahman rules. It includes therefore many who 
were not Buddhists, and also even Brahmans if they had joined 
the Buddhists or (rains, or any other of the non-conforming bodies. 
The Samawas remained in one place during the rains, and for the 
rest of the year wandered from place to place, promulgating their 
particular views. They were not necessarily ascetics in any strict 
use of that term; though they were usually celibates. 



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8 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MIL1NDA. I, n. 

in the Arahat, the Supreme Buddha), who would be 
able to talk with me, and resolve my doubts V 

1 1. Thereupon the five hundred Yonakas said to 
Milinda the king : ' There are the six Masters, O 
king ! — Purawa Kassapa, Makkhali of the cowshed \ 
the NigawMa of the Nata clan, Sa%aya the son of 
the Bela/Ma woman, Afita of the garment of hair, 
and Pakudha Ka££ayana. These are well known 
as famous* founders of schools, followed by bands of 
disciples and hearers, and highly honoured by the 
people. Go, great king ! put to them your pro- 
blems, and have your doubts resolved V 

12. So king Milinda, attended by the five hun- 
dred Yonakas, mounted the royal car with its 
splendid equipage, and went out to the dwelling- 
place of Puraaa Kassapa, exchanged with him the 
compliments of friendly greeting, and took his seat 
courteously apart. And thus sitting he said to 



1 So called because he was said to have been born in a cowshed. 
See the Sumangala, p. 143. All these six teachers were contem- 
poraries of the Buddha, and lived therefore about five hundred 
years before Milinda. 

1 All this is a mere echo of the opening paragraphs in the 
SSma»#a-phala (D. 2), where A^Atasattu is described as visiting 
these six famous sophists. And the plagiarism is all the more 
inartistic as the old names are retained, and no explanation is 
given of their being born twice at an interval of five hundred 
years. One may indeed ask what is a glaring anachronism to our 
good Buddhist romancer compared with the advantage of intro- 
ducing the stock-names when he has to talk of heretics ? But the 
whole book is so full of literary skill, that it is at least strange that 
its author should have made this blunder; and there are other 
reasons for thinking the whole episode an interpolation. (See 
note on §§ 13, 15.) So that probably our § 15 came originally 
immediately after § 10, and then (after the episode in §§ 15-36) 
§ 37 takes up the narrative interrupted at the end of § 10. 



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I, 13- THE HERETICS OF OLD. Q 

him : ' Who is it, venerable Kassapa, who rules the 
world?' 

' The Earth, great king, rules the world ! ' 

' But, venerable Kassapa, if it be the Earth that 
rules the world, how comes it that some men go to 
the Avl^i hell \ thus getting outside the sphere of 
the Earth?' [5] 

When he had thus spoken, neither could Pfirawa 
Kassapa swallow the puzzle, nor could he bring it 
up ; crestfallen, driven to silence, and moody 2 , there 
he sat. 

13. Then Milinda the king said to Makkhali of 
the cowshed 3 '. ' Are there, venerable Gosala, good 
and evil acts ? Is there such a thing as fruit, 
ultimate result, of good and evil acts ? ' 

' There are no such acts, O king ; and no such 
fruit, or ultimate result. Those who here in the 
world are nobles, they, O king, when they go to the 



1 Avt£i (probably 'the Waveless'). The mention of this par- 
ticular hell as being outside the earth is noteworthy. One would 
expect to find the Lokantarika hell so described. Spence Hardy 
indeed goes so far as to say that the Avift is seven hundred miles 
directly under the great Bo Tree at Budh Gaya (Manual, p. 26), 
which would be within the sphere of the earth. But there is 
nothing in the Pali texts yet published as to its position. See 
JEullavagga VII, 4, 8; Aftguttara III, 56; CTataka I, 71, 96; 
Vanka Gati Drpana, 20. There is a list of the hells at Sutta Nipata 

III, 10, but the AvliW is not one of them. This blunder, improb- 
able in a writer so learned as our author elsewhere shows himself, 
is another reason for thinking these sections to be an interpolation. 

* Pattakkhando pa^Myanto. See my note on A'ullavagga 

IV, 4, 7, and compare Ahguttara III, 73, 4. 

* This, again, is most clumsy, as the rival teachers must have 
dwelt far apart. And it will be seen that, notwithstanding the 
parade of the six names at the beginning of this episode, the 
remaining four are no further mentioned. 



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IO THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. T, 14. 

other world, will become nobles once more. And 
those who are Brahmans, or of the middle class, or 
workpeople, or outcasts here, will in the next world 
become the same. What then is the use of good or 
evil acts x ? ' 

' If, venerable Gosala, it be as you say then, by 
parity of reasoning, those who, here in this world, 
have a hand cut off, must in the next world become 
persons with a hand cut off, and in like manner 
those who have had a foot cut off or an ear or 
their nose ! ' 

And at this saying Makkhali was silenced. 

14. Then thought Milinda the king within him- 
self*: ' All India is an empty thing, it is verily like 
chaff ! There is no one, either recluse or Brahman, 
capable of discussing things with me, and dispelling 
my doubts.' And he said to his ministers : ' Beau- 
tiful is the night and pleasant ! Who is the recluse 
or Brahman we can visit to-night to question him, 
who will be able to converse with us and dispel our 
doubts 8 ? ' And at that saying the counsellors re- 
mained silent, and stood there gazing upon the face 
of the king. 

15. Now at that time the city of Sagala had for 
twelve years been devoid of learned men, whether 
Brahmans, Samaras, or laymen. But wherever the 
king heard that such persons dwelt, thither he would 

1 This is quite in accord with the opinions attributed to Mak- 
khali Gosala in the Samagda-phala (D. 2, 20), and in the Sumangala 
Vilisini on it (see especially p. 166). 

* See below, p. 30. 

* This is an echo of the words in the corresponding passage of 
the SamaMa-phala Sutta (D. 2, 1). 



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I, 16. ASSAGUTTA. 1 1 

go and put his questions to them *. [6] But they all 
alike, being unable to satisfy the king by their 
solution of his problems, departed hither and 
thither, or if they did not leave for some other 
place, were at all events reduced to silence. And 
the brethren of the Order went, for the most part, to 
the Himalaya mountains. 

1 6. Now at that time there dwelt, in the moun- 
tain region of the Himalayas, on the Guarded 
Slope, an innumerable company of Arahats (brethren 
who, while yet alive, had attained Nirv4»a). And 
the venerable Assagutta, by means of his divine 
power of hearing, heard those words of king Mi- 
linda. And he convened an assembly of the Order 
on the summit of the Yugandhara mountain, and 
asked the brethren : ' Is there any member of the 
Order able to hold converse with Milinda the king, 
and resolve his doubts ? ' 

Then were they all silent. And a second and a 
third time he put the same question to them, and 
still none of all the number spake. Then he said 
to the assembled Order : ' There is, reverend Sirs, 
in the heaven of the Thirty-three 2 , and east of the 
Vefayanta palace, a mansion called Ketumatl, 
wherein dwells the god Mahasena. He is able to 
hold converse with Milinda the king, and to resolve 
his doubts.' And the innumerable company of 

1 This paragraph is so unnecessary after what has been said in 
the preceding episode, and at the same time so contradictory to 
the fact of two teachers at least living in or near the city, that it 
would really seem probable that it (or perhaps § 14) came ori- 
ginally directly after § 10, the rest being an interpolation, and a 
clumsy one. 

* These are the principal gods of the Vedic pantheon. 



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12 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 1,17. 

Arahats vanished from the summit of the Yugan- 
dhara mountain, and appeared in the heaven of the 
Thirty-three. 

17, And Sakka, the king of the gods, beheld 
those brethren of the Order as they were coming 
from afar. And at the sight of them he went up to 
the venerable Assagutta, and bowed down before 
him, and stood reverently aside. And so standing 
he said to him : ' Great, reverend Sir, is the com- 
pany of the brethren that has come. What is it 
that they want ? I am at the service of the Order. 
What can I do for you ?' 

And the venerable Assagutta replied : ' There is, 
O king, in India, in the city of Sagala, a king named 
Milinda. As a disputant he is hard to equal, 
harder still to overcome, he is the acknowledged 
superior of all the founders of the various schools 
of thought. He is in the habit of visiting the mem- 
bers of the Order and harassing them by questions 
of speculative import.' 

Then said Sakka, the king of the gods, to him : 
' That same king Milinda, venerable one, left this 
condition to be born as a man. And there dwells 
in the mansion Ketumatl a god, Mahasena by name, 
who is able to hold converse with him and to re- 
solve his doubts. [7] That god we will beseech to 
suffer himself to be reborn into the world of men.' 

1 8. So Sakka, the king of the gods, preceded by 
the Order, entered the Ketumatl mansion; and when 
he had embraced Mahasena the god, he said to 
him : ' The Order of the brethren, Lord, makes this 
request of you — to be reborn into the world of men.' 

1 1 have no desire, Sir, for the world of men, so 
overladen with action (Karma). Hard is life as a 



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I, 19. MAHASENA THE GOD. 1 3 

man. It is here, Sir, in the world of the gods that, 
being reborn in ever higher and higher spheres, I 
hope to pass away!' 

And a second and a third time did Sakka, the 
king of the gods, make the same request, and the 
reply was still the same. Then the venerable Assa- 
gutta addressed Mahasena the god, and said : ' On 
passing in review, Lord, the worlds of gods and men, 
there is none but thee that we find able to succour the 
faith by refuting the heretical views of Milinda the 
king. The whole Order beseeches thee, Lord, saying : 
" Condescend, O worthy one, to be reborn among 
men, in order to lend to the religion of the Blessed 
One thy powerful aid." ' 

Then was Mahasena the god overjoyed and de- 
lighted in heart at the thought that he would be 
able to help the faith by refuting the heresy of 
Milinda ; and he gave them his word, and said : 
' Very well then, venerable ones, I consent to be 
reborn in the world of men.' 

19. Then the brethren, having thus accomplished 
the task they had taken in hand, vanished from the 
heaven of the Thirty-three, and reappeared on the 
Guarded Slope in the Himalaya mountains. And 
the venerable Assagutta addressed the Order, and 
said : ' Is there, venerable ones, any brother belong- 
ing to this company of the Order, who has not 
appeared in the assembly?' 

Thereupon a certain brother said there was, that 
Rohana had a week previously gone into the moun- 
tains, and become buried in meditation, [8] and 
suggested that a messenger should be sent to him. 
And at that very moment the venerable Rohana 
aroused himself from his meditation, and was aware 



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14 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. I, ao. 

that the Order was expecting him l . And vanishing 
from the mountain top, he appeared in the presence 
of the innumerable company of the brethren. 

And the venerable Assagutta said to him : ' How 
now, venerable Rohana ! When the religion of the 
Buddha is in danger of crumbling away, have you 
no eyes for the work of the Order ?' 

' It was through inadvertence, Sir,' said he. 

' Then, venerable Rohana, atone for it' 

« What, Sir, should I do?' 

' There is a Brahman village, venerable Rohana, 
called Ka^angala 2 , at the foot of the Himalaya 
mountains, and there dwells there a Brahman called 
So»uttara. He will have a son called Nagasena. 
Go to that house for alms during seven years and 
ten months. After the lapse of that time thou 
shalt draw away the boy from a worldly life, and 
cause him to enter the Order. When he shall have 
abandoned the world, then shalt thou be free of the 
atonement for thy fault.' 

' Let it be even as thou sayest,' said the venerable 
Rohana in assent. 

20. Now Mahasena the god passed away from 
the world of the gods, and was reborn in the womb 
of the wife of the Brahman So»uttara. And at the 
moment of his conception three strange, wonderful 
things took place : — arms and weapons became all 



1 Pa/imaneti. Childers does not give this meaning to the word. 
But it is the usual one. Compare Sumangala, vol. i, pp. 276, 280 ; 
Vinaya Pi/aka IV, 212 ; A'ullavagga VI, 13, 2 ; Gataka II, 423. 

* This is a famous place in Buddhist story. It is at the extreme 
limit, to the East, of the Buddhist Holy Land, the ' Middle Country.' 
See Sumangala Vilasini on D. 2, 40 (p. 1 73); Mahavagga V, 1 3, 1 2 ; 
Gataka I, 49. 



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I, 31. MAHASENA THE GOD. 1 5 

ablaze, the tender grain became ripe in a moment, 
and there was a great rain (in the time of drought). 
And the venerable Rohana went to that house for 
alms for seven years and ten months from the day 
of Mahasena's re-incarnation, but never once did he 
receive so much as a spoonful of boiled rice, or a 
ladleful of sour gruel, or a greeting, or a stretching 
forth of the joined hands, or any sort of salutation. 
Nay rather it was insults and taunts that fell to his 
share : and there was no one who so much as said, 
' Be so good, Sir, as to go on to the next house V 

But when all that period had gone by he one day 
happened to have those very words addressed to 
him. And on that day the Brahman, on his way 
back from his work in the fields, [9] saw the Elder as 
he met him on his return, and said : ' Well, hermit, 
have you been to our place ? ' 

' Yes, Brahman, I have.' 

' But did you get anything there ? ' 

* Yes, Brahman, I did.' 

And he was displeased at this, and went on home, 
and asked them : 'Did you give anything to that 
hermit ?' 

' We gave him nothing,' was the reply. 

21. Thereupon the Brahman, the next day, seated 
himself right in the doorway, thinking to himself: 
' To-day I'll put that hermit to shame for having told 
a lie.' And the moment that the Elder in due course 
came up to the house again, he said : ' Yesterday 
you said you had got something at my house, having 

1 This is the ordinary polite formula used by an Indian peasant 
when he wishes to express his inability (or his disinclination) to give 
food to a mendicant friar. 



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16 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. I, 23. 

all the while got nothing ! Is lying allowed to you 
fellows ?' 

And the Elder replied : ' Brahman, for seven 
years and ten months no one even went so far as to 
suggest politely that I should pass on. Yesterday this 
courtesy was extended to me. It was to that that 
I referred.' 

The Brahman thought to himself : ' If these men, at 
the mere experience of a little courtesy, acknowledge 
in a public place, and with thanks, that they have re- 
ceived an alms, what will they not do if they really 
receive a gift ! ' And he was much struck by this, 
and had an alms bestowed upon the Elder from the 
rice and curry prepared for his own use, and added 
furthermore : ' Every day you shall receive here 
food of the same kind.' And having watched the 
Elder as he visited the place from that day onwards, 
and noticed how subdued was his demeanour, he be- 
came more and more pleased with him, and invited 
him to take there regularly his midday meal. And the 
Elder gave, by silence, his consent ; and daily from 
that time forth, when he had finished his meal, and 
was about to depart, he would pronounce some short 
passage or other from the words of the Buddha 1 . 

22. Now the Brahman's wife had, after her ten 
months, brought forth her son ; and they called his 
name Nagasena. He grew up in due course till he 
became seven years old, and his father said to the 
child : ' Do you want, [10] dear Nagasena, to study 
the learning traditional in this Brahmanical house 
of ours ? ' 

1 This custom is a rule with the mendicant friars. It is their 
way of ' returning thanks,' as we should say. See below, p. 25. 



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I, 23. BRAHMAN KNOWLEDGE. 1 7 

' What is it called, father ? ' said he. 

' The three Vedas are called learning (Sikkha), 
other kinds of knowledge are only arts, my dear.' 

'Yes, I should like to learn them, father,' said 
the boy. 

Then So/mttara the Brahman gave to a Brahman 
teacher a thousand pieces as his teaching fee, and 
had a divan spread for him aside in an inner cham- 
ber, and said to him : ' Do thou, Brahman, teach 
this boy the sacred hymns by heart.' 

So the teacher made the boy repeat the hymns, 
urging him to get them by heart. And young Naga- 
sena, after one repetition of them, had learnt the three 
Vedas by heart, could intone them correctly, had 
understood their meaning, could fix the right place of 
each particular verse 1 , and had grasped the mysteries 
they contained 2 . All at once there arose in him 
an intuitive insight into the Vedas, with a know- 
ledge of their lexicography, of their prosody, of their 
grammar, and of the legends attaching to the cha- 
racters in them. He became a philologist and 
grammarian, and skilled alike in casuistry and in the 
knowledge of the bodily marks that foreshadow the 
greatness of a man s . 

23. Then young Nagasena said to his father : ' Is 



1 Suvava/Mapita, or perhaps its use in ceremonies or sacri- 
fices. The phrase only occurs in this passage. It is literally, ' The 
three Vedas were well fixed by the boy.' Hina/i-kumbure' simply 
repeats the word. 

* On the exact force of the special terms translated in these 
clauses, one may further compare the corresponding phrases used 
of learning the Buddhist texts in iCullavagga IV, 14, 17 ; IX, 5, 1. 

' The above are the stock phrases for the learning of a scholarly 
Brahman, and one or two points in the details are uncertain. 

[35] C 



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1 8 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 1,23. 

there anything more to be learned in this Brahman- 
ical family of ours, or is this all ? ' 

' There is no more, Nagasena, my dear. This is 
all/ was the reply. 

And young Nagasena repeated his lesson to his 
teacher for the last time, and went out of the house, 
and in obedience to an impulse arising in his heart 
as the result of previous Karma, sought a place of 
solitude, where he gave himself up to meditation. 
And he reviewed what he had learnt throughout 
from beginning to end, and found no value in it 
anywhere at all. And he exclaimed in bitterness of 
soul : 'Empty forsooth are these Vedas, and as chaff. 
There is in them neither reality, nor worth, nor 
essential truth ! ' 

That moment the venerable Rohana, seated at 
his hermitage at Vattaniya, felt in his mind what 
was passing in the heart of Nagasena. And he 
robed himself, and taking his alms-bowl in his hand, 
he vanished from Vattaniya and appeared near the 
Brahman village Ka^angala. And young Naga- 
sena, as he stood again in the doorway, saw him 
coming in the distance. At the sight of him he be- 
came happy and glad, and a sweet hope sprang up 
in his heart that from him he might learn the essen- 
tial truth. And he went [11] to him, and said : 
' Who art thou, Sir, that thou art thus bald-headed, 
and wearest yellow robes ? ' 

'They call me a recluse, my child' (Pabba^ita : 
literally, 'one who has abandoned;' that is, the 
worldly life). 

' And why do they call thee " one who has aban- 
doned?"' 

' Because a recluse is one who has receded from 



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I, 23. REASONS FOR SHAVING. 1 9 

the world in order to make the stain of sinful things 
recede. It is for that reason, my child, that they 
call me a recluse.' 

' Why, Sir, dost thou not wear hair as others do ? ' 
' A recluse shaves off his hair and beard on the 
recognition of the sixteen impediments therein to 
the higher life. And what are those sixteen 1 ? The 
impediments of ornamenting it, and decking it out, 
of putting oil upon it, of shampooing it, of placing 
garlands round it, of using scents and unguents, and 
myrobalan seeds, and dyes, and ribbons, and combs, 
of calling in the barber, of unravelling curls, and of 
the possibility of vermin. When their hair falls off 
they are grieved and harassed ; yea, they lament 
sometimes, and cry, and' beat their breasts, or fall 
headlong in a swoon — and entangled by these and 
such impediments men may forget those parts of 
wisdom or learning which are delicate and subtle.' 

' And why, Sir, are not thy garments, too, as those 
of other men ? ' 

' Beautiful clothes, my boy, such as are worn by 
worldly men, are inseparable from the five cravings 2 . 
But whatsoever dangers lurk in dress he who wears 
the yellow robes knows nothing of. It is for that 
reason that my dress is not as other men's.' 

' Dost thou know, Lord, what is real knowledge ?' 
' Yes, lad, the real knowledge I know ; and what 
is the best hymn (mantra) in the world, that too I 
know.' 

' Couldst thou teach it, Lord, to me too ?' 

1 This odd idea of the ' impediments ' in the wearing of hair and 
beard is in accord both with modern habits of shaving, and also 
with a good deal of early Christian and mediaeval ethics. 

* The lust of the eye, of the ear, &c. 

C 2 



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20 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 1,24. 

' Yes, I could.' 
' Teach me, then.' 

'Just now is not the right time for that; we have 
come down to the village for alms.' 

24. Then' young Nagasena took the alms-bowl 
the venerable Rohana was carrying, and led him 
into the house, and with his own hand supplied him 
with food, hard and soft, as much as he required. 
And when he saw that he had finished his meal, 
and withdrawn his hand from the bowl, he said to 
him : ' Now, Sir, will you teach me that hymn ?' 

1 When thou hast become free from impediments, 
my lad, by taking upon thee, and with thy parents' 
consent, the hermit's dress I wear, then I can teach 
it thee.' 

25. So young [12] Nagasena went to his father 
and mother, and said : ' This recluse says he knows 
the best hymn in the world, but that he cannot teach 
it to any one who has not entered the Order as his 
pupil. I should like to enter the Order and learn 
that hymn.' 

And his parents gave their consent; for they 
wished him to learn the hymn, even at the cost of 
retiring from the world ; and they thought that when 
he had learned it he would come back again \ 

Then the venerable Rohana took Nagasena to 
the Vattaniya hermitage, to the Vi^amba Vatthu, 
and having spent the night there, took him on to 
the Guarded Slope, and there, in the midst of the 
innumerable company of the Arahats, young Niga- 
sena was admitted, as a novice, into the Order. 



1 Under the rules of the Buddhist Order any one can leave it as 
soon as he likes. 



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1,26. BUDDHIST EDUCATION. 21 

26. And then, when he had been admitted to 
the Order, the venerable Nagasena said to the 
venerable Rohana : ' I have adopted your dress ; 
now teach me that hymn/ 

Then the venerable Rohana thought thus to 
himself: ' In what ought I first to instruct him, in 
the Discourses (Suttanta) or in the deeper things 
of the faith (Abhidhamma) ?' and inasmuch as he 
saw that Nagasena was intelligent, and could master 
the Abhidhamma with ease, he gave him his first 
lesson in that. 

And the venerable Nagasena, after hearing it 
repeated but once, knew by heart the whole of 
the Abhidhamma — that is to say, the Dhamma 
Sangawi, with its great divisions into good, bad, 
and indifferent qualities, and its subdivisions into 
couples and triplets 1 — the Vibhanga, with its 
eighteen chapters, beginning with the book on the 
constituent elements of beings — the Dhatu Katha, 
with its fourteen books, beginning with that on 
compensation and non-compensation — the Puggala 
Pa»»atti, with its six divisions into discrimination 
of the various constituent elements, discrimination 
of the various senses and of the properties they 
apprehend, and so on 2 — the Katha Vatthu, with its 
thousand sections, five hundred on as many points 



1 Compare, for instance, p. 125 of the edition of this summary 
of Buddhist ethical psychology, edited for the Pali Text Society, by 
Dr. Edward Mailer, of Bern (London, 1885). 

2 The six kinds of discrimination (Pa##atti) referred to, are 
those set out in § 1 of the Puggala. The work itself is an ethical 
tractate dealing only with the last of the six (the discrimination of 
individuals). See the edition by Dr. Morris, published by the 
Pali Text Society (London, 1883). 



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2 2 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. I, 27. 

of our own views, and five hundred on as many 
points of our opponents' views — the Yamaka, with 
its ten divisions into complementary propositions as 
to origins, as to constituent elements, and so on — 
and the Pa/Mana, with its twenty-four chapters on 
the reason of causes, the reason of ideas, and the 
rest. And he said [13] : * That will do, Sir. You 
need not propound it again. That will suffice for 
my being able to rehearse it.' 

27. Then Nagasena went to the innumerable 
company of the Arahats, and said : ' I should like 
to propound the whole of the Abhidhamma Pi/aka, 
without abridgement, arranging it under the three 
heads of good, bad, and indifferent qualities.' And 
they gave him leave. And in seven months the 
venerable Nagasena recited the seven books of the 
Abhidhamma in full. And the earth thundered, 
the gods shouted their applause, the Brahma gods 
clapped their hands, and there came down a shower 
from heaven of sweet-scented sandal-wood dust, and 
of Mandarava flowers ! And the innumerable com- 
pany of the Arahats, then and there at the Guarded 
Slope, admitted the venerable Nagasena, then 
twenty years of age, to full membership in the 
higher grade of the Order. 

• 28. Now the next day after he had thus been 
admitted into full membership in the Order, the 
venerable Nagasena robed himself at dawn, and 
taking his bowl, accompanied his teacher on his 
round for alms to the village below. And as he 
went this thought arose within him : ' It was, after 
all, empty-headed and foolish of my teacher to leave 
the rest of the Buddha's word aside, and teach me 
the Abhidhamma first ! ' 



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1,29. nAgasena's punishment. 23 

And the venerable Rohana became aware in his 
own mind of what was passing in the mind of Naga- 
sena, and he said to him : ' That is an unworthy 
reflection that thou art making, Nagasena ; it is not 
worthy of thee so to think.' 

' How strange and wonderful,' thought Nagasena, 
' that my teacher should be able to tell in his own 
mind what I am thinking of ! I must ask his pardon.' 
And he said : ' Forgive me, Sir ; I will never make 
such a reflection again.' 

[14] ' I cannot forgive you, Nagasena, simply on that 
promise,' was the reply. ' But there is a city called 
Sagala, where a king rules whose name is Milinda, 
and he harasses the brethren by putting puzzles to 
them of heretical tendency. You will have earned 
your pardon, Nagasena, when you shall have gone 
there, and overcome that king in argument, and 
brought him to take delight in the truth.' 

' Not only let king Milinda, holy one, but let all 
the kings of India come and propound questions to 
me, and I will break all those puzzles up and solve 
them, if only you will pardon me ! ' exclaimed Na- 
gasena. But when he found it was of no avail, he 
said : ' Where, Sir, do you advise me to spend the 
three months of the rains now coming on 1 ?' 

29. ' There is a brother named Assagutta dwell- 
ing at the Vattaniya hermitage. Go, Nagasena, to 
him ; and in my name bow down to his feet, and 
say : " My teacher, holy one, salutes you reverently, 
and asks whether you are in health and ease, in full 
vigour and comfort. He has sent me here to pass 



' It would be against the rules to go at once, during the rains, to 
Sagala. So he would spend that time in preparation. 



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24 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. - 1,30. 

the three months of the rains under your charge." 
When he asks you your teacher's name, tell it him. 
But when he asks you his own name, say : " My 
teacher, Sir, knows your name." ' 

And Nagasena bowed down before the venerable 
Rohana, and passing him on his right hand as he 
left him, took his bowl and robe, and went on from 
place to place till he came to the Vattaniya hermit- 
age, begging for his food on the way. And on his 
arrival he saluted the venerable Assagutta, and said 
exactly what he had been told to say, [15] and to the 
last reply Assagutta said : ' Very well then, Naga- 
sena, put by your bowl and robe.' And the next 
day Nagasena swept out the teacher's cell, and put 
the drinking water and tooth-cleansers ready for him 
to use. The Elder swept out the cell again, threw 
away the water and the tooth-cleansers, and fetched 
others, and said not a word of any kind. So it 
went on for seven days. On the seventh the Elder 
again asked him the same questions as before. And 
on Nagasena again making the same replies, he gave 
him leave to pass the rainy season there. 

30. Now a certain woman, a distinguished follower 
of the faith, had for thirty years and more adminis- 
tered to the wants of the venerable Assagutta. And 
at the end of that rainy season she came one day to 
him, and asked whether there was any other brother 
staying with him. And when she was told that 
there was one, named Nagasena, she invited the 
Elder, and Nagasena with him, to take their midday 
meal the next day at her house. And the Elder 
signified, by silence, his consent. The next forenoon 
the Elder robed himself, and taking his bowl in his 
hand, went down, accompanied by Nagasena as his 



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1,31. NAGASENAS CONVERSION. 25 

attendant, to the dwelling-place of that disciple, and 
there they sat down on the seats prepared for them. 
And she gave to both of them food, hard and soft, as 
much as they required, waiting upon them with her 
own hands. When Assagutta had finished his meal, 
and the hand was withdrawn from the bowl, he said 
to Nagasena: 'Do thou, Nagasena, give the thanks 
to this distinguished lady.' And, so saying, he rose 
from his seat, and went away. [16] 

31. And the lady said to Nagasena: 'I am old, 
friend Nagasena. Let the thanksgiving be from the 
deeper things of the faith.' 

And Nagasena, in pronouncing the thanksgiving 
discourse 1 , dwelt on the profounder side of the 
Abhidhamma, not on matters of mere ordinary 
morality, but on those relating to Arahatship 2 . And 
as the lady sat there listening, there arose in her 
heart the Insight into the Truth 3 , clear and stainless, 
which perceives that whatsoever has beginning, that 
has the inherent quality of passing away. And Na- 
gasena also/when he had concluded that thanksgiving 
discourse, felt the force of the truths he himself had 
preached, and he too arrived at insight 4 — he too 

1 See the note above, p. 15. 

* Sunnati, used here in the sense of Nirvawa. Compare An- 
guttara II, 5, 6; (Jataka III, 191 ; Aullavagga XII, 2, 5. 

* Dhamma-£akkhu. This perception of the impermanency 
of all things and all beings is called ' the Eye for the Truth,' and 
is the sign of the entrance upon the path to Arahatship, i. e. Nir- 
vi»a. It is the same among Buddhists as conversion is among 
the Christians. Compare Acts xxvi. 18 ('Open their eyes, and 
turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan 
unto God ') and other similar passages. 

* VipassanS. Childers says this is an attribute of Arahatship; 
and Trenckner translates it 'superior intelligence.' But Arahats 



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26 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 1,32. 

entered, as he sat there, upon the stream (that is to 
say, upon the first stage of the Excellent Way to 
Arahatship). 

32. Then the venerable Assagutta, as he was 
sitting in his arbour, was aware that they both had 
attained to insight, and he exclaimed : ' Well done ! 
well done, Nagasena ! by one arrow shot you have 
hit two noble quarries!' And at the same time 
thousands of the gods shouted their approval. 

Now the venerable Nagasena arose and returned 
to Assagutta, and saluting him, took a seat reve- 
rently apart. And Assagutta said to him : ' Do 
thou now go, Nagasena, to Pa/aliputta. There, in 
the Asoka Park, dwells the venerable Dhamma- 
rakkhita. Under him you should learn the words 
of the Buddha.' 

' How far is it, Sir, from here to Pa/aliputta.' 

'A hundred leagues 1 , Nagasena.' 

' Great, Sir, is the distance. It will be difficult to 
get food on the way. How shall I get there ? ' 

' Only go straight on, Nagasena. You shall get 
food on the way, rice from which the black grains 
have been picked out, with curries and gravies of 
various sorts.' 

' Very well, Sir ! ' said Nagasena, and bowing 

only have it, because they have all the powers possessed by those 
in the previous stages of the path, and it is only superior as being 
above and beyond the intelligence of the worldly wise, or even of 
the mere moralist. It is less than the ' Divine Eye,' and Nagasena 
was not yet an Arahat Compare the passages quoted by Childers 
under Dhamma-£akkhu and Dibba-£akkhu, and also Maha- 
vagga I, 6, 33; G&taka 1, 140; Sumahgala Vilasini, 237, 278. 

1 Yo^anas: that is, leagues of seven miles each. See my 
'Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon,' p. 16, in Thomas's 
' Numismata Orientalia,' vol. i. 



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1,34- nAgasena arrives at insight. 27 

down before his teacher, and passing him on the 
right side as he went, he took his bowl and his robe 
and departed for Pa/aliputta. 

33. [17] At that time a merchant of Pa/aliputta 
was on his way back to that city with five hundred 
waggons. And when he saw the venerable Naga- 
sena coming in the distance, he stopped the wag- 
gons, and saluted Nagasena, and asked him : 
' Whither art thou going, father ? ' 

' To Pa/aliputta, householder.' 

' That is well, father. We too are going thither. 
It will be more convenient for thee to go with us.' 

And the merchant, pleased with Nagasena's 
manners, provided him with food, hard and soft, 
as much as he required, waiting upon him with his 
own hands. And when the meal was over, he took a 
low seat, and sat down reverently apart. So seated, 
he said to the venerable Nagasena : ' What, father, 
is your name ? ' 

' I am called Nagasena, householder.' 

' Dost thou know, father, what are the words of 
Buddha?' 

' I know the Abhidhamma.' 

' We are most fortunate, father ; this is indeed an 
advantage. I am a student of the Abhidhamma, 
and so art thou. Repeat to me, father, some 
passages from it' 

Then the venerable Nagasena preached to him 
from the Abhidhamma, and by degrees as he did so 
there arose in Nagasena's heart the Insight into the 
Truth, clear and stainless, which perceives that what- 
soever has in itself the necessity of beginning, that 
too has also the inherent quality of passing away. 

34. And the Pa/aliputta merchant sent on his 



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28 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 1,35. | 



waggons in advance, and followed himself after 
them. And at a place where the road divided, not 
far from P&feliputta, he stopped, and said to Niga- 
sena : ' This is the turning to the Asoka Park. 
Now I have here a rare piece of woollen stuff, sixteen 
cubits by eight. [18] Do me the favour of accepting 
it.' And Nagasena did so. And the merchant, 
pleased and glad, with joyful heart, and full of con- 
tent and happiness, saluted the venerable Naga- 
sena, and keeping him on his right hand as he 
passed round him, went on his way. 

35. But Nagasena went on to the Asoka Park to 
Dhamma-rakkhita. And after saluting him, and telling 
him on what errand he had come, he learnt by heart, 
from the mouth of the venerable Dhamma-rakkhita, 
the whole of the three baskets 1 of the Buddha's 
word in three months, and after a single recital, so 
far as the letter (that is, knowing the words by 
heart) was concerned. And in three months more 
he mastered the spirit (that is, the deeper meaning 
of the sense of the words). 

But at the end of that time the venerable Dham- 

1 Pi/akas. This expression is not used in the sacred books of 
the canon itself. When it first came into use is unknown. This 
is the earliest passage in which it has hitherto been found in the 
technical sense of a division of the Scriptures. It was in full use 
at the time of Buddhaghosa (see the Sumahgala Vilasint, pp. 15, 
16, 17, 18, &c, and the Samanta Pasadika, printed in Oldenberg's 
'Vinaya Pi/aka,' vol. iii, p. 293). The tertium quid of the 
comparison is not the basket or the box as a receptacle for preser- 
vation, but as a means of handing on (as Eastern navvies removing 
earth put it into baskets and pass these latter on from hand to hand). 
So the expression ' three baskets' means not 'the three collections,' 
but 'the three bodies of oral tradition as handed down from 
teacher to teacher.' See Trenckner's decisive argument in his 
' Pali Miscellanies,' pp. 67-69. 



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1,36. kAgasena gains nirvaata. 29 

ma-rakkhita addressed him, and said : ' Just, Naga- 
sena, as a herdsman tends the cows, but others 
enjoy their produce, so thou too earnest in thy 
head the whole three baskets of the Buddha's word, 
and still art not yet a partaker of the fruit of 
Sama«aship.' 

' Though that be so, holy one, say no more,' was 
the reply. And on that very day, at night, he attained 
to Arahatship and with it to the fourfold power of 
that Wisdom possessed by all Arahats (that is to 
say : the realisation of the sense, and the apprecia- 
tion of the deep religious teaching contained in the 
word, the power of intuitive judgment, and the power 
of correct and ready exposition) 1 . And at the 
moment of his penetrating the truth all the gods 
shouted their approval, and the earth thundered, and 
the Brahma gods clapped their hands, and there fell 
from heaven a shower of sweet-scented sandal dust 
and of Mandarava flowers. 

36. Now at that time the innumerable company 
of the Arahats at the Guarded Slope in the Hima- 
laya mountains sent a message to him to come, for 
they were anxious to see him. And when he heard 
the message the venerable Nagasena vanished from 
the Asoka Park and appeared before them. And 
they said : ' Nagasena, that king Milinda is in the 
habit of harassing the brethren by knotty questions 
and by argumentations this way and that. Do 
thou, Nagasena, go and [19] master him.' 

' Not only let king Milinda, holy ones, but let all 
the kings of India, come and propound questions to 



1 The four Pa/isambhidas, which form the subject of one of 
the books of the Sutta Pi/aka. 



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30 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 1,37. 

me. I will break all those puzzles up and solve 
them. You may go fearlessly to Sagala.' 

Then all the Elders went to the city of Sagala, 
lighting it up with their yellow robes like lamps, 
and bringing down upon it the breezes from the 
heights where the sages dwell 1 . 

2 37. At that time the venerable Ayupala was 
living at the Sankheyya hermitage. And king 
Milinda said to his counsellors : ' Beautiful is the 
night and pleasant ! Who is the wandering teacher 
or Brahman we can visit to night to question him 
who will be able to converse with us and to resolve 
our doubts ? ' 

And the five hundred Yonakas replied : ' There 
is the Elder, Lord, named Ayupala, versed in the 
three baskets, and in all the traditional lore. He is 
living now at the Sankheyya hermitage. To him you 
might go, O king, and put your questions to him.' 

' Very well, then. Let the venerable one be 
informed that we are coming.' 

1 Isi-vataw parivataw (nagarawi) akawsu. The meaning 
of this phrase, which has not been found elsewhere, is doubtful. 
Trenckner renders ' making it respire the odour of saints.' The 
literal translation would be 'making it blown round about by 
./foshi-wind.' Perhaps it may be meant to convey the idea of 
' scented with the sweet breath of the wise.' But in any case the 
connotation is intended to be a pleasant one. Calling to mind 
the analogous phrase vi^anavata/w £rama*», 'a hermitage with 
breezes from the desert.' (Mahavagga I, 22, 1 7 = A'ullavagga VI, 
4, 8.) I venture to suggest the rendering adopted above. Hina/i- 
kumbure' (p. 24) has j?t°shiwarayahge gamanigamanayem 
j^anita wa kfvara witayew pratiwataya kalahuya. 'They 
set its air in commotion produced by the waving of the robes of 
the coming and going AYshis.' 

9 We here take up the original episode of Milinda as interrupted 
at § 15 (or if there is an interpolation at § 10). 



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1,38. AYUPALA SILENCED. 3 1 

Then the royal astrologer sent a message to 
Ayupala to the effect that king Milinda desired to 
call upon him. And the venerable one said : ' Let 
him come.' 

So Milinda the king, attended by the five hun- 
dred Yonakas, mounted his royal chariot and pro- 
ceeded to the Sankheyya hermitage, to the place 
where Ayupala dwelt, and exchanged with him the 
greetings and compliments of friendship and cour- 
tesy, and took his seat respectfully apart. And then 
he said to him : 

38. ' Of what use, venerable Ayupala, is the re- 
nunciation of the world carried out by the members 
of your Order, and in what do you place the sum- 
mum bonum ?' 

'Our renunciation, O king,' replied the Elder, 'is 
for the sake of being able to live in righteousness, 
and in spiritual calm.' 

' Is there, Sir, any layman who lives so ? ' 

' Yes, great king, there are such laymen. At the 
time when the Blessed One set rolling the royal 
chariot wheel of the kingdom of righteousness at 
Benares, at the Deer Park, [20] eighteen ko/is of 
the Brahma gods, and an innumerable company of 
other gods, attained to comprehension of the truth \ 
And not one of those beings, all of whom were lay- 
men, had renounced the world. And again when 
the Blessed One delivered the Maha Samaya dis- 
course 2 , and the discourse on the 'Greatest Blessing 3 ,' 

1 See my 'Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 153-155. There is nothing 
about the eighteen ko/is in the Pi/aka text referred to. 

* No. 20 in the Dlgha Nikaya. 

' In the Maha Mahgala, translated in my 'Buddhism,' pp. 
125-127. 



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32 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 1,38. 

and the Exposition of Quietism 1 , and the Exhorta- 
tion to Rahula 2 , the multitude of gods who attained 
to comprehension of the truth cannot be numbered. 
And not one of those beings, all of whom were 
laymen, had renounced the world V 

'Then, most venerable Ayupala, your renuncia- 
tion is of no use. It must be in consequence of sins 
committed in some former birth, that the Buddhist 
Sama«as renounce the world, and even subject 
themselves to the restraints of one or other of the 
thirteen aids to purity 4 ! Those who remain on 
one seat till they have finished their repast were, 
forsooth, in some former birth, thieves who robbed 
other men of their food. It is in consequence of 
the Karma of having so deprived others of food that 
they have now only such food as they can get at 
one sitting ; and are not allowed to eat from time to 
time as they want. It is no virtue on their part, no 
meritorious abstinence, no righteousness of life. And 
they who live in the open air were, forsooth, in 

1 Sama-£itta-pariyaya Suttanta. It is not certain which Sutta 
is here referred to. Trenckner identifies it with a short Sutta in 
the Ahguttara (II, 4, 5). It is true that the ten short Suttas in 
A. II, 4 are (in the Burmese MSS. only) called collectively Sama- 
Aitta Vagga. But the separate Suttas have no separate titles; 
the title of the Vagga is not found in the Sinhalese MSS., and 
is probably later than the text; and it is not, after all, identical 
with the title here given. 

* There are several Suttas of this name in the Pali Pi/akas. 
The one referred to here (and also, it may be added, in the Asoka 
Edicts) is probably the shorter one (A'ula Rahulovada Sutta) 
found both in the Ma^yAima (No. 147) and in the Samyutta 
(XXXIV, 120). See Trenckner's note on this passage. 

* This way of looking at gods as laymen, still ' in the world,' is 
thoroughly Buddhist. 

4 The dhutahgas, enumerated by Childers sub voce. 



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1,39- Ayupala silenced. 33 

some former birth, dacoits who plundered whole vil- 
lages. It is in consequence of the Karma of having 
destroyed other people's homes, that they live now 
without a home, and are not allowed the use of huts. 
It is no virtue on their part, no meritorious absti- 
nence, no righteousness of life. And those who 
never lie down, they, forsooth, in some former birth, 
were highwaymen who seized travellers, and bound 
them, and left them sitting there. It is in conse- 
quence of the Karma of that habit that they have 
become Nesa^ika in this life (men who always 
sit) and get no beds to lie on. It is no virtue on 
their part, no meritorious abstinence, no righteous- 
ness of life ! ' 

39. And when he had thus spoken the venerable 
Ayupala was silenced, and had not a word to say in 
reply. Then the five hundred Yonakas said to the 
king: 'The Elder, O king, is learned, but is also 
diffident. It is for that reason that he makes no 
rejoinder. But the king on seeing how silent Ayu- 
pala had become, clapped his hands [21] and cried 
out : 'All India is an empty thing, it is verily like 
chaff! There is no one, either Sama/za or Brahman, 
capable of discussing things with me and dispelling 
my doubts 1 ! ' 

As he looked, however, at the assembly and saw 
how fearless and self-possessed the Yonakas ap- 
peared, he thought within himself : ' For a certainty 
there must be, methinks, some other learned brother 
capable of disputing with me, or those Yonakas 
would not be thus confident.' And he said to them : 



1 See above, p. 10, § 14. 
[35] . D 



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34 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 1, 40. 

' Is there, my good men, any other learned brother 
to discuss things with me and dispel my doubts ?' 

40. Now at that time the venerable N£gasena, 
after making his alms-tour through the villages, 
towns, and cities, had in due course arrived at 
Sagala, attended by a band of Samawas, as the 
leader of a company of the Order ; the head of a 
body of disciples ; the teacher of a school ; famous 
and renowned, and highly esteemed by the people. 
And he was learned, clever, wise, sagacious, and able; 
a skilful expounder, of subdued manners, but full of 
courage; well versed in tradition, master of the three 
Baskets (Pi/akas), and erudite in Vedic lore '. He 
was in possession of the highest (Buddhist) insight, 
a master of all that had been handed down in the 
schools, and of the various discriminations 2 by which 
the most abstruse points can be explained. He knew 
by heart the ninefold divisions of the doctrine of the 
Buddha to perfection 3 , and was equally skilled in 
discerning both the spirit and the letter of the 
Word. Endowed with instantaneous and varied 
power of repartee, and wealth of language, and 
beauty of eloquence, he was difficult to equal, and 
still more difficult to excel, difficult to answer, to 
repel, or to refute. He was imperturbable as the 
depths of the sea, immovable as the king of moun- 
tains ; victorious in the struggle with evil, a dispeller 



1 This is always explained as wise in the Buddhist Vedas, that 
is, the three Pi/akas. 

! Pa/isambhid&s: see above, the note on p. 29. 

' Parami-ppatto. This is an unusual use of PSrami, but it 
occurs again below, p. 36, in a similar connection, and there can 
be no doubt of its meaning, Trenckner translates it ' better than 
any one else.' 



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I, 41. NAGASENA. 35 

of darkness and diffuser of light; mighty in elo- 
quence, a confounder of the followers of other 
masters, and a crusher-out of the adherents of rival 
doctrines (malleus hereticorum). Honoured and 
revered by the brethren and sisters of the Order, 
and its lay adherents of either sex, and by kings 
and their high officials, he was in the abundant 
receipt of all the requisites of a member of the Order 
— robes and bowl and lodging, and whatever is need- 
ful for the sick — receiving the highest veneration 
no less than material gifts. To the wise and dis- 
cerning who came to him with listening ear he 
displayed the ninefold jewel of the Conqueror's 
word, he pointed out to them the path of righteous- 
ness, bore aloft for them the torch of truth, set up 
for them the sacred pillar of the truth 1 , and cele- 
brated for their benefit the sacrifice of the truth. 
For them he waved the banner, raised the standard, 
blew the trumpet, and beat the drum of truth. 
And with his mighty lion's voice, [22] like Indra's 
thunder but sweet the while, he poured out upon 
them a plenteous shower, heavy with drops of 
mercy, and brilliant with the coruscations of the 
lightning flashes of his knowledge, of the nectar 
waters of the teaching of the Nirvawa of the truth — 
thus satisfying to the full a thirsty world. 

41. There then, at the Sankheyya hermitage, did 
the venerable Nagasena, with a numerous company 
of the brethren, dwell 2 . Therefore is it said : 

1 Dhamma-yupam; with allusion to the sacred sacrificial post, 
which plays so great a part in Brahman ritual. 

* Literally 'with eighty thousand:' but this merely means to 
say, with a large (undefined) number. See the use of the phrase 
in the Na/apSna GStaka (Fausboll, No. 20). 

D 2 



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36 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 1, 42. 

' Learned, with varied eloquence, sagacious, bold, 
Master of views, in exposition sound, 
The brethren — wise themselves in holy writ, 
Repeaters of the fivefold sacred word — 
Put Nagasena as their leader and their chief. 
Him, Nagasena of clear mind and wisdom deep, 
Who knew which was the right Path, which the 

false, 
And had himself attained Nirvawa's placid heights! 

Attended by the wise, by holders to the Truth, 
He had gone from town to town, and come to 

Sagala ; 
And now he dwelt there in Sankheyya's grove, 
Appearing, among men, like the lion of the hills.' 

42. And Devamantiya said to king Milinda : 
' Wait a little, great king, wait a little ! There is an 
Elder named Nagasena, learned, able, and wise, of 
subdued manners, yet full of courage, versed in the 
traditions, a master of language, and ready in reply, 
one who understands alike the spirit and the letter 
of the law, and can expound its difficulties and 
refute objections to perfection 1 . He is staying at 
present at the Sankheyya hermitage. You should go, 
great king, and put your questions to him. He is able 
to discuss things with you, and dispel your doubts.' 

Then when Milinda the king heard the name 
Nagasena, thus suddenly introduced, he was seized 
with fear, and with anxiety, and the hairs of his 
body stood on end 2 . But he asked Devamantiya : 
' Is that really so ? ' 



1 See above, p. 34, note 3. 

8 The name itself, which means 'Chief of Naga Snakes,' is 



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1,43- nAgasena. 37 

And Devamantiya replied : 'He is capable, Sire, 
of discussing things with the guardians of the world 
— with Indra, Yama, Varu#a, Kuvera, Pra^apati, 
Suyima, [23] and Santushita — and even with the 
great Brahma himself, the progenitor of mankind, 
how much more then with a mere human being!' 

' Do you then, Devamantiya,' said the king, ' send 
a messenger to say I am coming' 

And he did so. And NAgasena sent word back 
that he might come. And the king, attended by 
the five hundred Yonakas, mounted his royal chariot, 
and proceeded with a great retinue to the Sankheyya 
hermitage, and to the place where Nagasena dwelt. 

43. At that time the venerable Nagasena was 
seated with the innumerable company of the 
brethren of the Order, in the open hall in front 
of the hermitage 1 . So king Milinda saw the assem- 
bly from afar, and he said to Devamantiya : ' Whose, 
Devamantiya, is this so mighty retinue ?' 

' These are they who follow the venerable Naga- 
sena,' was the reply. 

Then at the sight there came over king Milinda 



terrible enough, especially as the Nagas were looked upon as 
supernatural beings. But it is no doubt also intended that the 
king had heard of his fame. 

1 Ma»</ala-mala, that is a hall consisting only of a roof, sup- 
ported by pillars which are connected by a dwarf wall two or 
three feet in height. The roof projects beyond the pillars, so that 
the space within is well shaded. It is a kind of open air drawing- 
room attached to most hermitages, and may be so small that it can 
be rightly rendered arbour (see above, p. 25), or sufficiently large 
to accommodate a considerable number. Usually of wood, some- 
times of stone, it is always graceful in appearance and pleasant to 
use. It is mentioned in the corresponding passage of the SamaflSa 
Phala (D. II, 10). 



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o 



8 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 1,44. 



a feeling of fear and of anxiety, and the hairs of his 
body stood on end l . But nevertheless, though he 
felt like an elephant hemmed in by rhinoceroses, 
like a serpent surrounded by the Garudfas (the 
snake-eating mythical birds), like a jackal sur- 
rounded by boa-constrictors, or a bear by buffaloes, 
like a frog pursued by a serpent, or a deer by a 
panther, like a snake in the hands of a snake 
charmer, or a rat played with by a cat, or a devil 
charmed by an exorcist, like the moon when it is 
seized by Rahu, like a snake caught in a basket, 
or a bird in a cage, or a fish in a net, like a man 
who has lost his way in a dense forest haunted by 
wild beasts, like a Yakkha (ogre) who has sinned 
against Vessavana (the king of ogres and fairies), 
or like a god whose term of life as a god has 
reached its end — though confused and terrified, 
anxious, and beside himself in an agony of fear like 
that — yet at the thought that he must at least avoid 
humiliation in the sight of the people, he took 
courage, and said to Devamantiya : ' You need not 
[24] trouble to point out to me which is Nagasena. 
I shall pick him out unaided.' 

' Certainly, Sire, recognise him yourself,' said he 2 . 

44. Now Nagasena was junior in seniority (rec- 
koned from the date of his full membership in the 



1 This again, like the passage at p. 8, is an echo of the SSmaflfla 
Phala. (See D. 2, 10 of our forthcoming edition, or p. 116 of 
Grimblot.) 

" In the corresponding passage of the S&maHHz Phala (rivaka 
points out the Buddha to A^tasattu (§ n, Grimblot, p. 117). 
This would be in the memory of all his readers, and our author 
alters the story in this case to show how superior Milinda was to 
the royal interlocutor in the older dialogue. 



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1, 44. nAgasena. 39 

Order) to the half of that great company seated in 
front of him, and senior to the half seated behind 
him. And as he looked over the whole of the 
assembly, in front, and down the centre, and be- 
hind, king Milinda detected Nagasena seated in the 
middle, and, like a shaggy lion who knows no fear 
or frenzy, entirely devoid of nervous agitation, and 
free from shyness and trepidation. And as soon as 
he saw him, he knew by his mien that that was Na- 
gasena, and he pointed him out to Devamantiya. 

' Yes, great king,' said he, ' that is Nagasena. 
Well hast thou, Sire, recognised the sage.' 

Whereupon the king rejoiced that he had re- 
cognised Nagasena without having had him pointed 
out to him. But nevertheless, at the sight of him, 
the king was seized with nervous excitement and 
trepidation and fear. Therefore is it said : 
' At the sight of Nagasena, wise and pure, 
Subdued in all that is the best subjection, 
Milinda uttered this foreboding word — 
" Many the talkers I have visited, 
Many the conversations I have had, 
But never yet, till now, to-day, has fear, 
So strange, so terrible, o'erpowered my heart. 
Verily now defeat must be my lot, 
And victory his, so troubled is my mind." ' 



Here ends the introductory secular narrative 
(Bahira-katha) 1 . 

1 See note on p. 1. This book closes in Hfna/i-kumburS's 
Si/nhalese version with the title 'Purwa Yoga yayi;' and is of 
course identical with the Pubba-yoga referred to above, p. 4, 
as the first division of the work. 



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40 THE QUESTIONS OF KING M1LINDA. II, I, I. 



/ 



BOOK II. 
Lake haw a Pajvha. 

the distinguishing characteristics of ethical 
qualities. 

Chapter 1. 

i . [25] Now Milinda the king went up to where 
the venerable Nagasena was, and addressed him 
with the greetings and compliments of friendship 
and courtesy, and took his seat respectfully apart. 
And Nagasena reciprocated his courtesy, so that 
the heart of the king was propitiated. 

And Milinda began by asking, x ' How is your 
Reverence known, and what, Sir, is your name ? ' 

' I am known as Nagasena, O king, and it is by 
that name that my brethren in the faith address me. 
But although parents, O king, give such a name as 
Nagasena, or Sfirasena, or Vlrasena, or Sihasena, 
. yet this, Sire, — Nagasena and so on — is only a gene- 
rally understood term, a designation in common use. 
For there is no permanent individuality (no soul) 
involved in the matter 2 .' 

1 There is a free translation of the Sinhalese version of the 
following dialogues (down to the end of our § 4) in Spence Hardy's 
' Manual of Buddhism,' pp. 424-429. But it is very unreliable as 
a reproduction of either the Si/whalese or the Pali, and slurs over 
the doubtful passages. 

a Na p uggalo upalabbhati. This thesis, that 'there is no 
individual,' is discussed at the opening of the Katha Vatthu (leaf 
ka of my MS.) Put into modern philosophical phraseology it 
amounts to saying that there is no permanent subject underlying 
the temporary phenomena visible in a man's individuality. But 



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11,1,1. INDIVIDUALITY. 4 1 

Then Milinda called upon the Yonakas and the 
brethren to witness : ' This Nagasena says there is 
no permanent individuality (no soul) implied in his 
name. Is it now even possible to approve him in 
that ? ' And turning to Nagasena, he said : ' If, 
most reverend Nagasena, there be no permanent 
individuality (no soul) involved in the matter, 
who is it, pray, who gives to you members of the 
Order your robes and food and lodging and neces- 
saries for the sick ? Who is it who enjoys such 
things when given ? Who is it who lives a life of 
righteousness ? Who is it who devotes himself to 
meditation ? Who is it who attains to the goal of 
the Excellent Way, to the Nirvawa of Arahatship ? 
And who is it who destroys living creatures ? who 
is it who takes what is not his own ? who is it who 
lives an evil life of worldly lusts, who speaks lies, 
who drinks strong drink, who (in a word) com- 
mits any one of the five sins which work out their 
bitter fruit even in this life * ? If that be so there is 
neither merit nor demerit ; there is neither doer nor 
causer of good or evil deeds 2 ; there is neither fruit 
nor result of good or evil Karma 3 . [26] — If, most 
reverend Nagasena, we are to think that were a man 

I doubt whether, even in our author's time, the conception 'subject' 
was common ground, or that the word puggala had acquired 
that special connotation. 

1 Pa#£anantariya-kammaw karoti. See my note on .ffulla- 
vagga VII, 3, 9 (' Vinaya Texts,' vol. iii, p. 246, in the Sacred 
Books of the East). 

1 This is no doubt said in these words with allusion to the 
opinion ascribed in the Samara Phala (D. II, 17) to Pura«a 
Kassapa. 

9 This is the opinion ascribed in identical words in the S&matffla 
Phala (D. II, 23) to A^ita of the garment of hair. 



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42 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, I, I. 

to kill you there would be no murder \ then it follows 
that there are no real masters or teachers in your 
Order, and that your ordinations are void. — You 
tell me that your brethren in the Order are in the 
habit of addressing you as Nagasena. Now what is 
that Nagasena ? Do you mean to say that the hair 
is Nagasena ? ' 

' I don't say that, great king.' 

' Or the hairs on the body, perhaps ? ' 

' Certainly not.' 

'Or is it the nails, the teeth, the skin, the flesh, the 
nerves, the bones, the marrow, the kidneys, the heart, 
the liver, the abdomen, the spleen, the lungs, the 
larger intestines, the lower intestines, the stomach, 
the faeces, the bile, the phlegm, the pus, the blood, the 
sweat, the fat, the tears, the serum, the saliva, the 
mucus, the oil that lubricates the joints, the urine, or 
the brain, or any or all of these, that is Nagasena 2 ?' 

And to each of these he answered no. 

' Is it the outward form then (Rupa) that is 
Nagasena, or the sensations (Vedana), or the ideas 
(Sa«»a), or the confections (the constituent elements 
of character, Sawkhara), or the consciousness (Vi«- 
»ana), that is Nagasena 3 ?' 

And to each of these also he answered no. 



1 This is practically the same opinion as is ascribed in the 
Sama/iWa Phala (D. II, 26) to Pakudha Ka/MSyana. 

s This list of the thirty-two forms (a£aras) of organic matter 
in the human body occurs already in the Khuddaka Pa//4a, § 3. 
It is the standard list always used in similar connections ; and is, 
no doubt, supposed to be exhaustive. There are sixteen (half as 
many) aMras of the mind according to Dipavamsa I, 42. 

* These are the five Skandhas, which include in them the whole 
bodily and mental constituents of any being. See p. 80. 



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II, I, I. SIMILE OF THE CHARIOT. 43 

' Then is it all these Skandhas combined that are 
Nagasena ?' 

' No ! great king.' 

' But is there anything outside the five Skandhas 
that is Nagasena ?' 

And still he answered no. 

' Then thus, ask as I may, I can discover no 
Nagasena. Nagasena is a mere empty sound. Who 
then is the Nagasena that we see before us ? It is 
a falsehood that your reverence has spoken, an 
untruth ! ' 

And the venerable Nagasena said to Milinda 
the king : ' You, Sire, have been brought up in 
great luxury, as beseems your noble birth. If you 
were to walk this dry weather on the hot and sandy 
ground, trampling under foot the gritty, gravelly 
grains of the hard sand, your feet would hurt you. 
And as your body would be in pain, your mind 
would be disturbed, and you would experience a 
sense of bodily suffering. How then did you come, 
on foot, or in a chariot ? ' 

' I did not come, Sir, on foot [27]. I came in a 
carriage.' 

' Then if you came, Sire, in a carriage, explain to 
me what that is. Is it the pole that is the chariot ?' 

' I did not say that.' 

' Is it the axle that is the chariot ? ' 

' Certainly not.' 

* Is it the wheels, or the framework, or the ropes, 
or the yoke, or the spokes of the wheels, or the 
goad, that are the chariot ? ' 

And to all these he still answered no. 

'Then is it all these parts of it that are the 
chariot ? ' 



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44 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, I, I. 

4 No, Sir.' 

'But is there anything outside them that is the 
chariot ? ' 

And still he answered no. 

'Then thus, ask as I may, I can discover no 
chariot. Chariot is a mere empty sound. What 
then is the chariot you say you came in ? It 
is a falsehood that your Majesty has spoken, an 
untruth ! There is no such thing as a chariot ! 
You are king over all India, a mighty monarch. Of 
whom then are you afraid that you speak untruth ? 
And he called upon the Yonakas and the brethren 
to witness, saying : ' Milinda the king here has said 
that he came by carriage. But when asked in that 
case to explain what the carriage was, he is unable 
to establish what he averred. Is it, forsooth, pos- 
sible to approve him in that ? ' 

When he had thus spoken the five hundred Yo- 
nakas shouted their applause, and said to the king : 
' Now let your Majesty get out of that if you can ?' 

And Milinda the king replied to Nagasena, and 
said : ' I have spoken no untruth, reverend Sir. It 
is on account of its having all these things — the 
pole, and the axle, the wheels, and the framework, 
the ropes, the yoke, the spokes, and the goad — that 
it comes under the generally understood term, the 
designation in common use, of " chariot" ' 

' Very good ! Your Majesty has rightly grasped 
the meaning of " chariot." And just even so it is on 
account of all those things you questioned me about 
— [28] the thirty-two kinds of organic matter in a 
human body, and the five constituent elements of 
being — that I come under the generally understood 
term, the designation in common use, of "Nagasena." 



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II, I, 2. SENIORITY. 45 

For it was said, Sire, by our Sister Vafira in the 
presence of the Blessed One : 

'"Just as it is by the condition precedent of the 
co-existence of its various parts that the word 
' chariot ' is used, just so is it that when the Skan- 
dhas are there we talk of a ' being 1 .' " ' 

' Most wonderful, Nagasena, and most strange. 
Well has the puzzle put to you, most difficult though 
it was, been solved. Were the Buddha himself 
here he would approve your answer. Well done, 
well done, Nagasena ! ' 



2. 'How many years seniority have you, Naga- 
sena ? ' 

' Seven, your Majesty.' 

' But how can you say it is your " seven ?" Is it 
you who are "seven," or the number that is "seven?"' 

Now that moment the figure of the king, decked 
in all the finery of his royal ornaments, cast its 
shadow on the ground, and was reflected in a vessel 
of water. And Nagasena asked him : ' Your figure, 
O king, is now shadowed upon the ground, and 
reflected in the water, how now, are you the king, 
or is the reflection the king ? ' 

' I am the king, Nagasena, but the shadow comes 
into existence because of me.' 

' Just even so, O king, the number of the years is 
seven, I am not seven. But it is because of me, 
O king, that the number seven has come into ex- 
istence ; and it is mine in the same sense as the 
shadow is yours 2 .' 

1 From the Sawyutta Nikaya V, io, 6. 

1 Hardy (p. 427, § 4 of the first edition) has quite missed the 
point of this crux. 



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46 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, i, 3- 

'Most wonderful again, and strange, Nagasena. 
Well has the question put to you, most difficult 
though it was, been solved ! ' 



3. The king said : ' Reverend Sir, will you discuss 
with me again ? ' 

' If your Majesty will discuss as a scholar (pandit), 
well ; but if you will discuss as a king, no.' 

' How is it then that scholars discuss ?' 

'When scholars talk a matter over one with 
another then is there a winding up \ an unravelling ; 
one or other is convicted of error 2 , and he then 
acknowledges his mistake; [29] distinctions are 
drawn, and contra-distinctions 3 ; and yet thereby 
they are not angered. Thus do scholars, O king, 
discuss.' 

' And how do kings discuss ? ' 

' When a king, your Majesty, discusses a matter, 
and he advances a point, if any one differ from him 
on that point, he is apt to fine him, saying : " In- 
flict such and such a punishment upon that fellow ! " 
Thus, your Majesty, do kings discuss 4 .' 

'Very well. It is as a scholar, not as a king, 
that I will discuss. Let your reverence talk unre- 
strainedly, as you would with a brother, or a novice, 
or a lay disciple, or even with a servant Be not 
afraid!' 



1 Ave/Aana»»; not in Childers, but see (Titaka II, 9 ; IV, 383, 
384 ; and Morris in the 'Journal of the Pali Text Society,' 1887. 

* Niggiho kartyati, as for instance below, p. 142. 

* Pa/iviseso; not in Childers, but see again Gataka II, 9. 

4 Hardy, loc. cit. § 5, puts all this into the mouths of 'the 
priests.' 



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IT, 1, 3. SABBADINNA. 47 

'Very good, your Majesty,' said Nagasena, with 
thankfulness. 

' Nagasena, I have a question to ask you ;' said 
the king. 

' Pray ask it, Sire.' 

' I have asked it, your Reverence.' 

' That is answered already.' 

' What have you answered ? ' 

' To what, then, does your Majesty refer ?' 

But Milinda the king thought : ' This Bhikkhu is 
a great scholar. He is quite capable of discussing 
things with me. And I shall have a number of 
points on which to question him, and before I can 
ask them all, the sun will set. It would be better 
to carry on the discussion at home to-morrow.' 
And he said to Devamantiya : ' You may let his 
reverence know that the discussion with the king 
shall be resumed to-morrow at the palace.' And so 
saying, he took leave of Nagasena, and mounted 
his horse, and went away, muttering as he went, 
' Nagasena, Nagasena ! ' 

And Devamantiya delivered his message to Naga- 
sena, who accepted the proposal with gladness. And 
early the next morning Devamantiya and Ananta- 
kaya and Mankura and Sabbadinna went to the 
king, and said : ' Is his reverence, Nagasena, to 
come, [30] Sire, to-day ? ' 

' Yes, he is to come.' 

'With how many of the brethren is he to come ?' 

' With as many as he likes.' 

And Sabbadinna said : ' Let him come with ten.' 
But the king repeated what he had said. And on Sab- 
badinna reiterating his suggestion, the king rejoined : 
' All this preparation has been made, and I say : 



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48 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, 1, 4. 

" Let him come with as many as he likes," yet 
Sabbadinna says : " Let him come with ten." Does 
he suppose we are not capable of feeding so many ?' 
Then Sabbadinna was ashamed. 



4. And Devamantiya and Anantakaya and Man- 
kura went to Nagasena and told him what the king 
had said. And the venerable Nagasena robed him- 
self in the forenoon, and taking his bowl in his hand, 
went to Sagala with the whole company of the 
brethren. And Anantakaya, as he walked beside 
Nagasena, said : 

' When, your reverence, I say, " Nagasena," what 
is that Nagasena ?' 

The Elder replied : ' What do you think Naga- 
sena is ? ' 

'The soul, the inner breath which comes and 
goes, that I suppose to be Nagasena.' 

' But if that breath having gone forth should not 
return, or having returned should not go forth, 
would the man be alive ? ' 

' Certainly [31] not, Sir.' 

' But those trumpeters, when they blow their 
trumpets, does their breath return again to them ?' 

' No, Sir, it does not.' 

' Or those pipers, when they blow their pipes or 
horns, does their breath return again to them ? ' 

' No, Sir.' 

* Then why don't they die ? ' 

' I am not capable of arguing with such a reasoner. 
Pray tell me, Sir, how the matter stands.' 

' There is no soul in the breath. These inhala- 
tions and exhalations are merely constituent powers 



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II, i, 5. RENUNCIATION. 49 

of the bodily frame,' said the Elder. And he talked 
to him from the Abhidhamma l to such effect that * 
Anantakiya confessed himself as a supporter of the 
Order. 

5. And the venerable Nagasena went to the king, 
and sat down on the seat prepared for him. And 
the king provided Nagasena and his following with 
food, both hard and soft, as much as they required : 
and presented each brother with a suit of garments, 
and Nagasena himself with a set of three robes. 
And then he said to him : ' Be pleased to keep your 
seat here, and with you ten of the brethren. Let 
the rest depart' 

And when he saw that Nagasena had finished his 
meal, he took a lower seat, and sat beside him, and 
said : 'What shall we discuss ?' 

' We want to arrive at truth. Let our discussion 
be about the truth.' 

And the king said : 'What is the object, Sir, of 
your 2 renunciation, and what the summum bonum 
at which you aim ?' 

' Why do you ask ? Our renunciation is to the 
end that this sorrow may perish away, and that no 
further sorrow may arise ; the complete passing 
away, without cleaving to the world, is our highest 
aim.' 

' How now, Sir ! Is it for such high reasons that 
all members of it have joined the Order ? ' 

[32] ' Certainly not, Sire. Some for those reasons, 

'•' I venture to think it is incorrect to put a full stop, as Mr. 
Trenckner has done, after akasi. 

* Plural. 'You members of the Buddhist Order.' The question 
is further elaborated below, III, 1, 3, and above, I, 38. 

[35] E 



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50 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, 1, 6. 

but some have left the world in terror at the tyranny 
of kings. Some have joined us to be safe from being 
robbed, some harassed by debt, and some perhaps 
to gain a livelihood.' 

' But for what object, Sir, did you yourself join.' 
1 1 was received into the Order when I was a mere 
boy, I knew not then the ultimate aim. But I 
thought : " They are wise scholars, these Buddhist 
Sama#as, they will be able to teach me." And by 
them I have been taught ; and now do I both know 
and understand what is at once the reason for, and 
the advantage of renunciation.' 
' Well put, Nagasena ! ' 



6. The king said : ' Nagasena, is there any one 
who after death is not reindividualised ?' 

' Some are so, and some not' 

'Who are they?' 

'A sinful being is reindividualised, a sinless 
one is not.' 

' Will you be reindividualised ? ' 

' If when I die, I die with craving for existence in 
my heart, yes ; but if not, no V 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



7. The king said : ' Nagasena, he who escapes rein- 
dividualisation is it by reasoning that he escapes it?' 

' Both by reasoning 2 , your Majesty, and by wis- 
dom 3 , and by other good qualities.' 

' But are not reasoning and wisdom surely much 
the same ? ' 

' Certainly not Reasoning is one thing, wisdom 

1 Repeated below, with an illustration, Chap. 2, § 7, p. 76. 
* Yoniso manasikSra. * Pa££&. See pp. 59, 64, 128. 



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11,1,9. REASON AND WISDOM. , 5 1 

another. Sheep and goats, oxen and buffaloes, 
camels and asses have reasoning, but wisdom they 
have not' 

' Well put, Nagasena !' 



8. The king said: 'What is the characteristic 
mark of reasoning, and what of wisdom ?' 

' Reasoning has always comprehension as its 
mark; but wisdom has cutting off 1 .' 

' But how is comprehension the characteristic of 
reasoning, and cutting off of wisdom ? Give me an 
illustration.' 

' You remember the barley reapers ? ' 

'Yes, certainly.' [33] 

' How do they reap the barley?' 

1 With the left hand they grasp the barley into a 
bunch, and taking the sickle into the right hand, they 
cut it off with that.' 

'Just even so, O king, does the recluse by his 
thinking grasp his mind, and by his wisdom cut off 
his failings. In this way is it that comprehension 
is the characteristic of reasoning, but cutting off of 
wisdom.' 

' Well put, Nagasena ! ' 



9. The king said : ' When you said just now, 
"And by other good qualities," to which did you 
refer ?' 



1 In the long list of the distinguishing characteristics of ethical 
qualities given by Buddhaghosa in the Sumangala, p. 63, pa^dnana 
is the mark of paddindriya, avi^aya akampiyam of paflfla- 
bala, and tad-uttariyam of paMa simply. He gives no ' mark ' 
of yoniso manasikara. 

E 2 



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5 2 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, 1, 9. 

'Good conduct, great king, and faith, and per- 
severance, and mindfulness, and meditation 1 . 

'And what is the characteristic mark of good 
conduct ? ' 

' It has as its characteristic that it is the basis of 
all good qualities. The five moral powers 2 — faith, 
perseverance, mindfulness, meditation, and wisdom — ; 
the seven conditions of Arahatship 8 — self-possession, 
investigation of the Dhamma, perseverance, joy, 
calm, meditation, and equanimity — ; the Path ; readi- 
ness of memory (unbroken self-possession) 4 ; the four 
kinds of right exertion 6 ; the four constituent bases of 
extraordinary powers 6 ; the four stages of ecstasy 7 ; 
the eight forms of spiritual emancipation 8 ; the four 
modes of self-concentration * ; and the eight states 
of intense contemplation 10 have each and all of them 
good conduct (the observance of outward morality) 
as their basis. And to him who builds upon that 
foundation, O king, all these good conditions will 
not decrease 11 .' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

'Just, O king, as all those forms of animal and 
vegetable life which grow, develope, and mature, do 
so with the earth as their basis ; just so does the 
recluse, who is devoted in effort, develope in himself 
the five moral powers, and so on, by means of 
virtue, on the basis of virtue.' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

I Silam, saddha, viriyam, sati, samddhi. 

3 Indriya-balani. a BoggAahgL * Satipa//Mna. 
5 SammappadhSna. * Iddhipada. ' Ghana.. 

• Vimokha. • Samadhi. 10 Sam&patti. 

II The above-mentioned meritorious conditions are those the sum 
of which make Arahatship. 



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11,1,9- GOOD CONDUCT. 53 

'Just, O king, as all the occupations which involve 
bodily exertion are carried on in ultimate dependence 
upon the earth, just so does the recluse develope in 
himself the five moral powers, and so on, by means 
of virtue, on the basis of virtue.' [34] 

' Give me a still better illustration.' 

' Just, O king, as the architect of a city, when he 
wants to build one, first clears the site of the town, 
and then proceeds to get rid of all the stumps and 
thorny brakes, and thus makes it level, and only then 
does he lay out the streets and squares, and cross- 
roads and market places, and so build the city ; just 
so does the recluse develope in himself the five 
moral powers, and so on, by means of virtue, on the 
basis of virtue.' 

' Can you give me one more simile ? ' 

'Just, O king, as an acrobat 1 , when he wants to 
exhibit his skill, first digs over the ground, and pro- 
ceeds to get rid of all the stones and fragments of 
broken pottery, and thus to make it smooth, and 
only then, on soft earth, shows his tricks ; just even 
so does the recluse develope in himself the five 
moral powers, and so on, by means of virtue, on the 
basis of virtue. For it has been said, Sire, by the 
Blessed One : 

"Virtue's the base on which the man who's wise 
I • Can train his heart, and make his wisdom grow. 
Thus shall the strenuous Bhikkhu, undeceived, 
Unravel all the tangled skein of life 2 . 



1 Langhako, not in Childers; but compare Gataka I, 431, and 
below, pp. 191, 331 of the text 

J This verse occurs twice in the Sawyutta (1, 3, 3, and VII, 1, 6). 



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54 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, i, 10. 

"This is the base — like the great earth to men — 
And this the root of all increase in goodness, 
The starting-point of all the Buddhas' teaching, 
Virtue, to wit, on which true bliss depends 1 ." ' 
' Well said, Nagasena ! ' 



10 2 . The king said, 'Venerable Nagasena, what is 
the characteristic mark of faith ? ' 

' Tranquillisation, O king, and aspiration 3 .' 
' And how is tranquillisation the mark of faith ?' 
'As faith, O king, springs up in the heart it 
breaks through the five hindrances — lust, malice, 
mental sloth, spiritual pride, and doubt — and the 
heart, free from these hindrances, [35] becomes clear, 
serene, untroubled.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

'Just, O king, as a suzerain king, when on the 
march with his fourfold army, might cross over a 
small stream, and the water, disturbed by the ele- 
phants and cavalry, the chariots and the bowmen, 
might become fouled, turbid *, and muddy. And 

1 Vara-pStimokkhiyo, a poetical expression found only in this 
passage, and of the exact connotation of which I am uncertain. 
It is not in Childers; and Hina/i-kumbure' gives no assistance. 
The whole line may mean, ' The scheme of a virtuous life as 
laid down in the most excellent Patimokkha.' See the use of 
Sawyutta-Nik&ya-vare below, p. 36 of the text. On the whole 
section compare M. P. S. 1, 1 2. 

* This section is summarised in Hardy's ' Manual of Buddhism,' 
pp. 411, 412 (1st edition). 

3 Sampasadana and sampakkhandana. Buddhaghosa, loc. 
cit., does not give faith in his list, but he gives the power of faith 
(saddha-bala), and as its 'mark' 'that it cannot be shaken by 
incredulity.' 

4 Lu/ita, not in Childers; but compare Aftguttara I, 55, and 
' Book of the Great Decease,' IV, 26-32. 



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II, I, IO. FAITH. 55 

when he was on the other side the monarch might 
give command to his attendants, saying: "Bring 
some water, my good men. I would fain drink." 
Now suppose the monarch had a water-clearing 
gem?, and those men, in obedience to the order, 
were to throw the jewel into the water ; then at once 
all the mud would precipitate itself, and the sandy 
atoms of shell and bits of water-plants would dis- 
appear, and the water would become clear, trans- 
parent, and serene, and they would then bring 
some of it to the monarch to drink. The water is 
the heart ; the royal servants are the recluse ; the 
mud, the sandy atoms, and the bits of water-plants 
are evil dispositions; and the water-cleansing gem 
is faith.* 

'And how is aspiration the mark of faith ?' 

' In as much as the recluse, on perceiving how 
the hearts of others have been set free, aspires to 
enter as it were by a leap upon the fruit of the 
first stage, or of the second, or of the third in the 
Excellent Way, or to gain Arahatship itself, and thus 
applies himself to the attainment of what he has 
not reached, to the experience of what he has not 
yet felt, to the realisation of what he has not yet 
realised, — therefore is it that aspiration is the mark 
of faith.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

'Just, O king, as if a mighty storm [36] were to 
break upon a mountain top and pour out rain, the 
water would flow down according to the levels, and 
after filling up the crevices and chasms and gullies 

' Udakappasadako ma«i. Doubtless a magic gem is meant : 
with allusion particularly to the Wondrous Gem (the Mawi-ratana) 
of the mythical King of Glory (see my ' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 256). 



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56 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IT, I, 10. 

of the hill, would emptyitself into the brook below, 
so that the stream would rush along, overflowing 
both its banks. Now suppose a crowd of people, 
one after the other, were to come up, and being 
ignorant of the real breadth or depth of the water, 
were to stand fearful and hesitating on the brink. 
And suppose a certain man should arrive, who 
knowing exactly his own strength and power should 
gird himself firmly and, with a spring, land him- 
self on the other side. Then the rest of the 
people, seeing him safe on the other side, would 
likewise cross. That is the kind of way in which 
the recluse, by faith \ aspires to leap, as it were by 
a bound, into higher things. For this has been 
said, O king, by the Blessed One in the Sawyutta 
Nikaya : 

" By faith he crosses over the stream, 
By earnestness the sea of life ; 
By steadfastness all grief he stills, 
By wisdom is he purified 2 ."' 

'Well put, Nagasena!' 

1 In the Buddha, in the sufficiency of the Excellent Way he 
taught, and in the capacity of man to walk along it. It is spoken 
of slightingly (compared with Arahatship) in Mahivagga V, i, 21 — 
in the Mahaparinibbana SuttaVI, o(of Ananda, who has faith, com- 
pared with the brethren, who have entered one or other of the 
stages of the Excellent Way) — and in Ahguttara III, 2 1 (in com- 
parison with intuitive insight and intellectual perception). For this 
last comparison see further the Puggala Padflatti III, 3. From 
these passages a fair idea of the Buddhist view of faith could be 
formed. Although the Buddhist faith and the Christian faith are 
in things contradictory, the two conditions of heart are strikingly 
similar both in origin and in consequence. 

* This verse is not yet reached in the Pali Text Society's edition 
of the Sawyutta, but it is found also in the Sutta Nipata-1, 10, 4. 



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11,1,11. PERSEVERANCE. 57 

11 1 . The king said : ' What, Nagasena, is the 
characteristic mark of perseverance ? ' 

' The rendering of support, O king, is the mark 
of perseverance 2 . All those good qualities which 
it supports do not fall away.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

'Just as a man, if a house were falling, would 
make a prop for it of another post, and the house 
so supported would not fall ; just so, O king, is 
the rendering of support the mark of perseverance, 
and all those good qualities which it supports do 
not fall away.' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

'Just as when a large army has broken up a 
small one, then the king of the latter would call to 
mind every possible ally and reinforce his small 
army 8 , and by that means the small army might 
in its turn break up the large one ; just so, O king, 
is the rendering of support the mark of perseverance, 
and all those good qualities which it supports do not 
fall away [37]. For it has been said by the Blessed 
On.e : " The persevering hearer of the noble truth, 
O Bhikkhus, puts away evil and cultivates goodness, 
puts away that which is wrong and developes in him- 
self that which is right, and thus does he keep him- 
self pure." ' 



1 This section is summarised by Hardy, loc. cit. p. 409. 

1 Buddhaghosa, loc. cit., says that paggaha (tension) is the 
mark of viriyindriya. 

' Aflflama«f#a»» anusSreyya anupeseyya. This is the way 
in which Hina/i-kumbure' understands this doubtful passage. Hardy 
has bungled the whole simile. Both the words are new, and I am 
not sure that the first does not after all come from the root sar, to 
follow. 



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58 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, i, u. 

'Well put, Nagasena!' 



1 2. The king said : ' What, Nagasena, is the 
characteristic mark of mindfulness 1 ?' 
' Repetition, O king, and keeping up V 
' And how is repetition the mark of mindfulness ? ' 
' As mindfulness, O king, springs up in his heart 
he repeats over the good and evil, right and wrong, 
slight and important, dark and light qualities, and 
those that resemble them, saying to himself: " These 
are the four modes of keeping oneself ready and 
mindful, these the four modes of spiritual effort, 
these the four bases of extraordinary powers, these 
the five organs of the moral sense, these the five 
mental powers, these the seven bases of Arahatship, 
these the eight divisions of the Excellent Way, this 
is serenity and this insight, this is wisdom and this 
emancipation V Thus does the recluse follow after 

1 Sati, summarised in Hardy's ' Manual,' p. 412. 

2 Api/dpana and upaganhana, both new words. This definition 
is in keeping with the etymological meaning of the word sati, which 
is ' memory.' It is one of the most difficult words (in its secondary, 
ethical, and more usual meaning) in the whole Buddhist system 
of ethical psychology to translate. Hardy renders ' conscience,' 
which is certainly wrong ; and Gogerly (see my ' Buddhist Suttas,' 
p. 144) has 'meditation,' which is equally wide of the mark. 
I have sometimes rendered it 'self-possession.' It means that 
activity of mind, constant presence of mind, wakefulness of heart, 
which is the foe of carelessness, inadvertence, self-forgetfulness. 
And it is a very constant theme of the Buddhist moralist. Buddha- 
ghosa, loc. cit., makes upa/Mana, 'readiness,' its mark. 

J These are the various moral qualities and mental habits which 
together make up Arahatship, and may be said also to make up 
Buddhism (as the Buddha taught it). It was on these that he laid 
special stress, in his last address to the members of the Order, just 
before his death ('Book of the Great Decease,' III, 65, in my 
' Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 60-63) 5 an d the details of them will be 
found in the note to that passage. 



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II, I, ia. MINDFULNESS (SATl). 59 

those qualities that are desirable, and not after those 
that are not; thus does he cultivate those which 
ought to be practised, and not those which ought 
not. That is how repetition is the mark of mind- 
fulness.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' It is like the treasurer of the imperial sovran 1 , 
who reminds his royal master early and late of his 
glory, saying : " So many are thy war elephants, O 
king, and so many thy cavalry 2 , thy war chariots 
and thy bowmen, so much the quantity of thy 
money, and gold, and wealth, may your Majesty keep 
yourself in mind thereof.' 

' And how, Sir, is keeping up a mark of mind- 
fulness ? ' 

' As mindfulness springs up in his heart, O king, 
he searches out the categories of good qualities 
and their opposites, saying to himself : " Such and 
such qualities are good, and such bad ; [38] such 
and such qualities helpful, and such the reverse." 
Thus does the recluse make what is evil in himself 
to disappear, and keeps up what is good. That is 
how keeping up is the mark of mindfulness.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' It is like the confidential adviser of that imperial 

1 Alakkavattissa bha»</agariko, no doubt with allusion to 
the gahapati-ratanam, one of the seven treasures of the mythical 
King of Glory (see my ' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 257). It is particularly 
interesting to me to find here the use of the word ' treasurer ' in- 
stead of 'householder;' for it was in that exact sense that I had 
understood the word gahapati in that connection, at a time when, 
in the then state of Pali scholarship, it seemed very bold to do so. 

' Literally ' horses.' The whole list is again a manifest allusion 
to the corresponding one in the Sutta of the Great King of 
Glory. 



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60 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, I, 13. 

sovran 1 who instructs him in good and evil, 
saying : " These things are bad for the king and 
these good, these helpful and these the reverse." 
And thus the king makes the evil in himself die out, 
and keeps up the good.' 
' Well put, Nagasena ! ' 



1 3*. The king said: 'What, Nagasena, is the 
characteristic mark of meditation s ? ' 

' Being the leader, O king. All good qualities 
have meditation as their chief, they incline to it, lead 
up towards it, are as so many slopes up the side of 
the mountain of meditation.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' As all the rafters of the roof of a house, O king, 
go up to the apex, slope towards it, are joined on 
together at it, and the apex is acknowledged to be 
the top of all ; so is the habit of meditation in its 
relation to other good qualities.' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

' It is like a king, your Majesty, when he goes 
down to battle with his army in its fourfold array. 
The whole army — elephants, cavalry, war chariots, 
and bowmen — would have him as their chief, their 

1 Pariwayaka, the seventh treasure of the King of Glory. 
(Compare the 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 359.) It will be seen that our 
author is in substantial agreement with the older tradition, and 
does not, like the Lalita Vistara, understand under this officer a 
general. 

* Omitted by Hardy. 

3 Samadhi. Buddhaghosa, loc. cit. p. 65, gives also 'being 
the chief as its mark, but he previously (p. 64) gives avikkhepa, 
' serenity,' as the mark of samma- samadhi, and also (p. 63) of 
samidhindriya, while 'being unshaken by spiritual pride' is his 
mark (p. 63) of Samadhi-bala. 



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II, I, 14. WISDOM. 6 1 

lines would incline towards him, lead up to him, they 
would be so many mountain slopes, one above 
another, with him as their summit, round him they 
would all be ranged. [39] And it has been said, O 
king, by the Blessed One : " Cultivate in yourself, 
O Bhikkhus, the habit of meditation. He who is 
established therein knows things as they really are 1 .'" 
' Well put, Nagasena !' 



14. The king said: 'What, Nagasena, is the 
characteristic mark of wisdom 2 ? ' 

' I have already told you, O king, how cutting off, 
severance, is its mark 8 , but enlightenment is also 
its mark.' 

' And how is enlightenment its mark ? ' 

* When wisdom springs up in the heart, O king, 
it dispels the darkness of ignorance, it causes the 
radiance of knowledge to arise, it makes the light of 
intelligence to shine forth 4 , and it makes the Noble 
Truths plain. Thus does the recluse who is devoted 
to effort perceive with the clearest wisdom the imper- 
manency (of all beings and things), the suffering 
(that is inherent in individuality), and the absence 
of any soul.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' It is like a lamp, O king, which a man might 
introduce into a house in darkness. When the lamp 
had been brought in it would dispel the darkness, 

1 Sawyutta Niktya XXI, 5. 

* VnHHL Hardy in the 'Manual of Buddhism,' pp. 414, 415, 
gives a jumble of this passage and several others. 

* See above, p. 51. 

4 Vidawseti, not in Childers; but compare Theri G4th&, 74; 
Anguttara III, 103; and Gataka III, 222. 



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62 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, I, 15. 

cause radiance to arise, and light to shine forth, and 
make the objects there plainly visible. Just so 
would wisdom in a man have such effects as were 
just now set forth.' 
' Well put, Nagasena !' 



1 5. The king said : ' These qualities which are 
so different 1 , Nagasena, do they bring about one 
and the same result ? ' 

' They do. The putting an end to evil disposi- 
tions.' 

' How is that ? Give me an illustration.' 

' They are like the various parts of an army — 
elephants, cavalry, war chariots, and archers — who 
all work to one end, to wit : the conquest in battle of 
the opposing army.' 

' Well put, Nagasena !' 



Here ends the First Chapter. 



1 That is, the five referred to above, p. 51, § 9. 



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II, a, i. IDENTITY. 63 



Book II. Chapter 2. 

i. [40] The king said : ' He who is born, N£ga- 
sena, does he remain the same or become another ? ' 

' Neither the same nor another.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' Now what do you think, O king ? You were 
once a baby, a tender thing, and small in size, lying 
flat on your back. Was that the same as you 
who are now grown up ? ' 

' No. That child was one, I am another.' 

' If you are not that child, it will follow that you 
have had neither mother nor father, no ! nor teacher. 
You cannot have been taught either learning, or 
behaviour, or wisdom. What, great king! is the 
mother of the embryo in the first stage different 
from the mother of the embryo in the second stage, 
or the third, or the fourth 1 ? Is the mother of the 
baby a different person from the mother of the 
grown-up man ? Is the person who goes to school 
one, and the same when he has finished his schooling 
another ? Is it one who commits a crime, another who 
is punished by having his hands or feet cut off 2 ?' 

' Certainly not. But what would you, Sir, say to 
that ? * 

The Elder replied : ' I should say that I am the 
same person, now I am grown up, as I was when I was 
a tender tiny baby, flat on my back. For all these 
states are included in one by means of this body.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

1 On these four stages see Gataka IV, 496, and Sawyutta X, r, 3. 
* Hardy makes sad nonsense of all this. 



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64 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, a, r. 

' Suppose a man, O king, were to light a lamp, 
would it burn the night through ? ' 

' Yes, it might do so.' 

' Now, is it the same flame that burns in the first 
watch of the night, Sir, and in the second?' 

' No.' 

' Or the same that burns in the second watch and 
in the third ? ' 

'No.' 

1 Then is there one lamp in the first watch, and 
another in the second, and another in the third ? ' 

' No. The light comes from the same lamp all 
the night through.' 

' Just so, O king, is the continuity of a person or 
thing maintained. One comes into being, another 
passes away ; and the rebirth is, as it were, simul- 
taneous. Thus neither as the same nor as another 
does a man go on to the last phase of his self-con- 
sciousness V 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

1 Hardy (p. 429) renders this as follows: 'In the same way, 
great king, one being is conceived, another is born, another dies ; 
when comprehended by the mind, it is like a thing that has no 
before, and no after; no preceding, no succeeding existence. 
Thus the being who is born does not continue the same, nor does 
he become another; the last winyana, or consciousness, is thus 
united with the rest.' (1) He confesses himself in doubt as to the 
last few words, but is quite unconscious of having completely mis- 
interpreted the whole paragraph. 

The meaning is really quite plain in both the Pali and the 
Sinhalese. A man, at any one moment, is precisely all that he is 
then conscious of. The phase of his self-consciousness, the totality 
of that of which he is conscious, is always changing ; and is so 
different at death from what it was at birth that, in a certain sense, 
he is not the same at the one time as he was at the other. But 
there is a continuity in the whole series; — a continuity dependent 



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II, a, 2. ASSURANCE OF SALVATION. 65 

' It is like milk, [41] which when once taken from 
the cow, turns, after a lapse of time, first to curds, 
and then from curds to butter, and then from butter 
to ghee. Now would it be right to say that the 
milk was the same thing as the curds, or the butter, 
or the ghee ? ' 

* Certainly not ; but they are produced out of it.' 

* Just so, O king, is the continuity of a person or 
thing maintained. One comes into being, another 
passes away ; and the rebirth is, as it were, simul- 
taneous. Thus neither as the same nor as another 
does a man go on to the last phase of his self-con- 
sciousness.' 

' Well put, Nagasena !' 



2 *. The king said : 'Is a man, Nagasena, who 
will not be reborn, aware of the fact ? ' 

* Yes, O king.' 

' And how does he know it ? ' 

' By the cessation of all that is cause, proximate 
or remote 2 , of rebirth.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' Suppose a farmer, great king, had ploughed and 
sown and filled his granary ; and then for a period 
should neither plough nor sow, but live on the 

on the whole body. And this fits the simile, in which the lamp is 
the body, and the flame the changing self-consciousness; whereas 
it is impossible to make the simile fit the conclusion as rendered 
by Hardy. 

On the phrase apubbaw a£ariyam see Dr. Morris's note at 
p. 101 of the Pali Text Society's Journal, 1887, and the passages 
he there quotes. 

* Omitted in Hardy. The correlative question is discussed 
below, III, 5, 8, p. 112. 

' That is to say, Tanha and Upadana. 

[35] r 



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66 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, a, 3. 

stored-up grain, or dispose of it in barter, or deal 
with it as he had need. Would the farmer be aware, 
great king, that his granary was not getting filled ? ' 

' Yes, he ought to know it.' 

' But how ?' 

' He would know that the cause, proximate and 
remote, of the filling of the granary had ceased.' 

'Just so with the man you spoke of. By the 
cessation of all that leads to rebirth, he would be 
conscious of having escaped his liability to it' 

' Well explained, Nagasena ! ' 



3 \ The king said : ' He who has intelligence, 
Nagasena, has he also wisdom * ? ' 

' Yes, great king.' [42] 

' What ; are they both the same ? ' 

' Yes.* 

'Then would he, with his intelligence — which, 
you say, is the same as wisdom — be still in bewilder- 
ment or not ? * 

' In regard to some things, yes ; in regard to 
others, no.' 

' What would he be in bewilderment about ? ' 

' He would still be in bewilderment as to those 
parts of learning he had not learnt, as to those 
countries he had not seen, and as to those names 
or terms he had not heard.' 

' And wherein would he not be in bewilderment ? ' 

'As regards that which has been accomplished 
by insight — (the perception, that is,) of the imper- 



1 Summarised in Hardy's 'Manual,' p. 414. 

• Nina, and paMi 



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II, a, 3. INTELLIGENCE AND WISDOM. 67 

manence of all beings, of the suffering inherent in 
individuality, and of the non-existence of any soul V 

' Then what would have become of his delusions 
on those points.' 

' When intelligence has once arisen, that moment 
delusion has died away.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

'It is like the lamp, which when a man has brought 
into a darkened room, then the darkness would 
vanish away, and light would appear.' 

' And what, Nagasena, on the other hand, has 
then become of his wisdom ?' 

'When the reasoning wisdom has effected that 
which it has to do, then the reasoning ceases to go 
on. But that which has been acquired by means of 
it remains — the knowledge, to wit, of the imper- 
manence of every being, of the suffering inherent in 
individuality, and of the absence of any soul.' 

' Give me an illustration, reverend Sir, of what 
you have last said.' 

'It is as when a man wants, during the night, 
to send a letter, and after having his clerk called, 
has a lamp lit, and gets the letter written. Then, 
when that has been done, he extinguishes the lamp. 
But though the lamp had been put out the writing 
would still be there. Thus does reasoning cease, 
and knowledge remain.' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

' In Eastern districts [43] the peasants have a 
custom of arranging five pots full of water behind 

1 That is, he might still be wrong on matters of mere worldly 
knowledge, but would be clear in his mind as to the fundamental 
truths of religion. Compare the analogous distinctions often drawn 
as to the inspiration of Scripture, or the infallibility of the Pope. 

F 2 



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68 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 11,2,3- 

each hut with the object of putting out at once any 
spark of fire that may be kindled. Suppose now 
the house had caught fire, and they had thrown those 
five potfulls of water over the hut, and the fire had 
gone out, would those peasants then think of still 
going on using the water-pots ?' 

' No, Sir, the water-pots would be done with. 
What would be the use of them (on that occasion) 
any more ? ' 

' The five water-pots are the five organs of moral 
sense — faith, to wit, and perseverance in effort, and 
mindfulness, and meditation, and the reasoning wis- 
dom. The peasantry are the recluse, who is devoted 
in effort 1 ; the fire is sinfulness. As the fire is put 
out by the water in the five pots, so is sinfulness 
extinguished by the five organs of moral sense, and 
when once extinguished it does not again arise 2 .' 

4 Give me a further illustration.' 

' It is like a physician who goes to the sick man 
with the five kinds of drugs made from medicinal 

1 Yog£va£aro ; one of the technical terms in constant use by 
our author, but not found in the Pali Pifakas. Hardy renders it, 
' who is seeking NirvSwa ; ' but though this may be suggested by 
the term, it is not its meaning. Literally it is ' he whose sphere, 
whose constant resort, is Yoga.' Now yoga is ' diligence, devotion, 
mental concentration;' and there is nothing to show that our 
author is using the word as an epithet of Arahatship. It seems to 
me, therefore, that the whole compound merely means one of those 
' religious,' in the technical sense, who were also religious in the 
higher, more usual sense. It would thus be analogous to the 
phrase sawgam&vaAaro, 'at home in war,' used of a war elephant 
in the Sawgamiva^ara Gataka (Fausboll, II, 95), and of a 
soldier below, Mil. 44. 

* This must, I think, be understood in a modified sense, for the 
first of the four Great Exertions (Sammappadh&nas) is the effort 
to prevent sinful conditions arising. 



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II, 2, 4. SUICIDE. 69 

roots 1 , and grinding them up, gives him to drink, 
and thereby his sickness passes away. Would the 
physician in that case think of making any further 
use of the medicine ?' 

' Certainly not, the medicine has done its work. 
What would be the use of any more ?' 

'Just so, O king, when sinfulness is destroyed by 
the five moral powers, then reasoning ceases, but 
knowledge remains.' 

[44] ' Give me a further illustration.' 

' It is like a warrior, at home in war, who takes 
five javelins and goes down to battle to conquer 
the foe. And when he has cast them the enemy is 
broken. There is no need for him to go on casting 
javelins any more.' 

•Well put, Nagasena!' 



4. The king said : ' He who will not be reborn, 
Nagasena, does he still feel any painful sensation ?' 

The Elder replied: 'Some he feels and some not.' 

'Which are they?' 

'He may feel bodily pain, O king; but mental 
pain he would not.' 

'-How would that be so ?' 

' Because the causes, proximate or remote, of 
bodily pain still continue, he would be liable to it. 
But the causes, proximate or remote, of mental 
agony having ceased, he could not feel it. For it 
has been said by the Blessed One : " One kind of 
pain he suffers, bodily pain : but not mental." ' 

' Then why, Sir, does he not die ?' 

' The Arahat, O king, has need neither to curry 

1 Panla mtila bhessa^ani : not the five principal sorts of 
medicine mentioned by Childers. 



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70 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, a, 5. 

favour nor to bear malice. He shakes not down 
the unripe fruit, but awaits the full time of its ma- 
turity. For it has been said, O king, by the Elder, 
Sariputta, the Commander of the faith [45] : 
"It is not death, it is not life I welcome ; 
As the hireling his wage, so do I bide my time. 
It is not death, it is not life I want; 
Mindful and thoughtful do I bide my time 1 .'" 
' Well put, Nagasena !' 



5. The king said: 'Is a pleasant sensation, Naga- 
sena, good or evil or indifferent ?' 

' It may be any one of the three.' 

' But surely, Sir, if good conditions are not painful, 
and painful ones not good, then there can arise no 
good condition that is at the same time painful V 

' Now, what do you think, great king ? Suppose 
a man were to hold in one hand a red-hot ball of 
iron, and in the other a lump of icy snow, would they 
both hurt him ?' 

1 Yes ; they both would.' 

' But are they both hot ?' 

' Certainly not.' 

' But are they both cold ?' 

'No.' 

' Then acknowledge yourself put in the wrong ! 
If the heat hurts, and they are not both hot, the 
pain cannot come from the heat. If the cold hurts, 

1 These verses are nearly the same as those put in reverse order 
into Sariputta's mouth in the Theri Gatha, 1003, 1002. And the 
first two lines, as Dr. Rost was good enough to point out to me, 
are identical (except as to a slight grammatical variation) with Manu 

VI, 45- 

* And the same, therefore, of pleasant sensations that are evil 



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n, 2, 6. WHAT IS REBORN ? 7 1 

and they are not both cold, the pain cannot come 
from the cold. How then, O king, can they both 
hurt you, since they are not both hot, nor both cold, 
and (as one is hot and the other cold) the pain comes 
neither from the hot nor from the cold ? ' 

' I am not equal to argument with you. Be so 
good, Sir, as to explain how the matter stands.' 

Then the Elder reasoned with king Milinda, per- 
suading him by talk on the subject drawn from the 
Abhidhamma, such as : ' There are these six plea- 
sures, O king, connected with life in the world, and 
these other six with renunciation. There are six 
griefs connected with life in the world, and six with 
renunciation. There are six kinds of indifference 
to pleasure and to grief connected with life in the 
world, and six with renunciation. [46] Altogether 
there are thus six series of six, that is to say, thirty- 
six kinds of sensations in the present, and the like 
number in the past, and the like in the future. And 
adding all these up in one total we arrive at one 
hundred and eight kinds of sensation.' 

' Well put, Nagasena !' 



6 1 . The king said : ' What is it, Nagasena, that is 
reborn ?' 

' Name-and-form is reborn.' 

'What, is it this same name-and-form that is re- 
born?' 

' No : but by this name-and-form deeds are done, 
good or evil, and by these deeds (this Karma) 
another name-and-form is reborn.' 

1 This dialogue is in Hardy, p. 429 (No. 7). 



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72 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, a, 6. 

' If that be so, Sir, would not the new being be 
released from its evil Karma 1 ?' 

The Elder replied : ' Yes, if it were not reborn. 
But just because it is reborn, O king, it is therefore 
not released from its evil Karma.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' Suppose, O king, some man were to steal a 
mango from another man, and the owner of the 
mango were to seize him and bring him before the 
king, and charge him with the crime. And the thief 
were to say : " Your Majesty ! I have not taken 
away this man's mangoes. Those that he put in the 
ground are different from the ones I took. I do not 
deserve to be punished." How then ? would he be 
guilty?' 

'Certainly, Sir. He would deserve to be pun- 
ished.' 

' But on what ground ?' 

' Because, in spite of whatever he may say, he 
would be guilty in respect of the last mango which 
•resulted from the first one (the owner set in the 
ground).' 

'Just so, great king, deeds good or evil are done 
by this name-and-form and another is reborn. But 
that other is not thereby released from its deeds (its 
Karma).' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

' It is like rice or sugar so stolen, of which the 
same might be said as of the mango. [47] Or it is 
like the fire which a man, in the cold season, might 
kindle, and when he had warmed himself, leave still 
burning, and go away. Then if that fire were to set 

1 Repeated below, III, 5, 7, p. 1 1 2. 



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II, 2, 6. KARMA. 73 

another man's field on fire, and the owner of the 
field were to seize him, and bring him before the 
king, and charge him with the injury, and he were 
to say : " Your Majesty ! It was not I who set this 
man's field on fire.. The fire I left burning was 
a different one from that which burnt his field. 
I am not guilty." Now would the man, O king, 
be guilty?' 

' Certainly, Sir.' 

'But why?' 

• Because, in spite of whatever he might say, he 
would be guilty in respect of the subsequent fire 
that resulted from the previous one.' 

' Just so, great king, deeds good or evil are done 
by this name-and-form and another is reborn. But 
that other is not thereby released from its deeds (its 
Karma).' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

' Suppose, O king, a man were to take a lamp and 
go up into the top storey of his house, and there eat 
his meal. And the lamp blazing up were to set the 
thatch on fire, and from that the house should catch 
fire, and that house having caught fire the whole 
village should be burnt. And they should seize him 
and ask : " What, you fellow, did you set our village 
on fire for?" And he should reply: " I've not set 
your village on fire ! The flame of the lamp, by the 
light of which I was eating, was one thing ; the fire 
which burnt your village was another thing." Now 
if they, thus disputing, should go to law before 
you, O king, in whose favour would you decide 
the case ? ' 

' In the villagers' favour.' 

•But why?' 



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74 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 11,2,6. 

' Because, Sir, in spite of whatever the man might 
say, the one fire was produced from the other.' 

'Just so, great king, it is one name-and-form which 
has its end in death, and another name-and-form 
which is reborn. But the second is the result of 
the first, and is therefore not set free from its 
evil deeds.' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

' Suppose, O king, a man were to choose a young 
girl in marriage, and give a price * for her and go 
away. [48] And she in due course should grow up 
to full age, and then another man were to pay a price 
for her and marry her. And when the first one had 
come back he should say : " Why, you fellow, have 
you carried off my wife?" And the other were to 
reply: " It's not your wife I have carried off! The 
little girl, the mere child, whom you chose in mar- 
riage and paid a price for is one ; the girl grown up 
to full age whom I chose in marriage and paid a 
price for, is another." Now if they, thus disputing, 
were to go to law about it before you, O king, in 
whose favour would you decide the case ?' 

' In favour of the first' 

'But why?' 

' Because, in spite of whatever the second might 
say, the grown-up girl would have been derived 
from the other girl.' 

'Just so, great king, it is one name-and-form which 
has its end in death, and another name-and-form 

1 Sunkaa* datvd. Literally 'paying a tax.' So early were 
early marriages 1 Compare Theri GSthi, 402. Hina/i-kumbur6, 
p. 58, has woe/up di, ' having provided her with means of sub- 
sistence.' But, of course, the Sunka must have been a price paid 
to the parents. 



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II, 2, 7- KARMA. 75 

which is reborn. But the second is the result of the 
first, and is therefore not set free from its evil deeds.' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

' Suppose a man, O king, were to buy of a herds- 
man a vessel of milk, and go away leaving it in his 
charge, saying : " I will come for it to-morrow;" and 
the next day it were to become curds. And when the 
man should come and ask for it, then suppose the 
other were to offer him the curds, and he should 
say: "It was not curds I bought of you; give me 
my vessel of milk." And the other were to reply : 
" Without any fault of mine 1 your milk has turned 
to curds." Now if they, thus disputing, were to go 
to law about it before you, O king, in whose favour 
would you decide the case ?' 

' In favour of the herdsman.' 

'But why?* 

' Because, in spite of whatever the other might 
say, the curds were derived from the milk.' 

' Just so, great king, it is one name-and-form that 
finds its end in death, and another that is reborn. 
But that other is the result of the first, and is there- 
fore not thereby released from its evil deeds (its 
bad Karma).' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



7 2 . The king said : ' Will you, Nagasena, be 
reborn ? ' 

1 Ag anato : there is an ambiguity here, as the word may mean 
' to me not knowing it,' or ' to you not knowing it.' Hina/i- 
kumbure' takes the latter interpretation, and renders : ' O come ! 
Do you not know that your milk has become curds?' (Embala, 
tage kiri mawu bawa no dannehi doeyi.) 

* Not in Hardy. 



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76 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, a, 8. 

1 Nay, great king, what is the use of asking that 
question again ? Have I not already told you that 
if, when I die, [49] I die with craving in my heart, 
I shall ; but if not, not 1 ? ' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' Suppose, O king, a man were to render service 
to the king 2 ; and the king, pleased with him, were 
to bestow an office upon him. And then that he, 
while living through that appointment, in the full 
possession and enjoyment of all the pleasures of 
sense, should publicly declare that the king had 
repaid him naught. Now would that man, O king, 
be acting rightly ? ' 

' Most certainly not' 

'Just so, great king, what is the use of asking 
that question again ? Have I not already told you 
that if, when I die, I die with craving in my heart, 
I shall ; and if not, not ? ' 

' You are ready, Nagasena, in reply.' 



8. The king said : ' You were talking just now of 
name-and-form. What does " name " mean in that 
expression, and what " form " ? ' 

' Whatever is gross therein, that is " form": what- 
ever is subtle, mental, that is " name." ' 

' Why is it, Nagasena, that name is not reborn 
separately, or form separately ? ' 

' These conditions, great king, are connected one 
with the other ; and spring into being together.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' As a hen, great king, would not get a yoke or 

1 See above, Chapter i, § 6, p. 50. 

8 This simile, with a different conclusion, recurs below, II, 3, 10 
(P- 93). 



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II, a, 9. TIME. 77 

an egg-shell separately, but both would arise in 
one, they two being intimately dependent one on 
the other ; just so, if there were no name there 
would be no form. What is meant by name in that 
expression being intimately dependent on what is 
meant by form, they spring up together. And this 
is, through time immemorial, their nature V 
' You are ready, Nagasena, in reply.' 



9. The king said : ' You speak, Nagasena, of time 
immemorial. What does this word " time " mean ?' 
' Past time, O king, and present, and future.' 
' But what ? is there such a thing as time ? ' 
' There is time which exists, and time which 
does not.' 

' Which then exists, and which not ? ' 
[50] ' There are Confections (constituent poten- 
tialities of being) 2 , O king, which are past in the 
sense of having passed away, and ceased to be, 
or of having been dissolved, or altogether changed. 
To them time is not. But there are conditions of 
heart which are now producing their effect, or still 
have in them the inherent possibility of producing 

1 Evam etarn dfgham addhanaw sambhavitam: which 
Hardy, p. 141, renders: *They accompany each other (as to the 
species, but not as to the individual) during infinitude.' But even 
the Sinhalese text cannot be made to mean this. 

1 Samkh&r&. See the full list in my ' Buddhism,' pp. 91, 92 
(a list, indeed, not found as yet in the Pi/akas, and probably later, 
but yet founded on the older divisions, and explanatory of them). 
They are all those divisions into which existence (or the process of 
becoming and ceasing to be as Buddhism looks at it) should be 
divided, and are practically so many sorts of action (Karma). For 
the older divisions see the note at the passages quoted in ' Vinaya 
Texts,' I, 76. 



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78 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, 2, 9. 

effect, or which will otherwise lead to reindividuali- 
sation. To them time is. Where there are beings 
who, when dead, will be reborn, there time is. 
Where there are beings who, when dead, will not 
be reborn, there time is not ; and where there are 
beings who are altogether set free (who, having 
attained Nirviwa in their present life, have come to 
the end of that life), there time is not — because of 
their having been quite set free V 
' You are ready, Nagasena, in reply.' 



Here ends the Second Chapter. 



1 Parinibbutatti. Hardy renders this whole clause (the last 
lines) : ' Nirviwa is attained, time is no longer.' But this is one of 
the endless confusions arising out of not knowing the distinction 
between Nirvawa and Parinirvawa. To a man who had ' attained 
Nirva»a ' there would still be time as long as he was in the enjoy- 
ment of it, that is as long as he continued in his present (and last) 
existence. The Sinhalese is perfectly clear. 



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II, 3, ». CAUSATION. 79 



Book II. Chapter 3. 

i. The king said : ' What is the root, Nigasena, 
of past time, and what of present, and what of 
future time ? ' 

' Ignorance. By reason of Ignorance came the 
Confections, by reason of the Confections conscious- 
ness, by reason of consciousness name-and-form, by 
reason of name-and-form the six organs of sense \ 
by reason of them contact, by reason of contact 
sensation, by reason of sensation thirst, by reason of 
thirst craving, by reason of craving becoming, by 
reason of becoming birth, by reason of birth old 
age and death, grief, lamentation, sorrow, pain, and 
despair. Thus is it that the ultimate point in the 
past of all this time is not apparent.' 

' You are ready, Nigasena, in reply.' 



2. The king said : ' You say that the ultimate 
point of time is not apparent. Give me an illustra- 
tion of that.' 

'Suppose, O king, a man were to plant in the 
ground a tiny seed, and that it were to come up as 
a shoot, and in due course grow, develope, and 
mature until it produced a fruit. [51] And then the 
man, taking a seed from that fruit, were again to 
plant it in the ground, and all should happen as 
before. Now would there be any end to this 
series ? ' 

* Certainly not, Sir.' 

1 Sa/ayatanani, that is the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body (as the 
organ of touch), and mind (or, as we should say, brain). 



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80 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, 3, a. 

' Just so, O king, the ultimate point in the past of 
the whole of this time is not apparent.' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

' The hen lays an egg. From the egg comes a 
hen. From the hen an egg. Is there any end to 
this series ? ' 

' No.' 

' Just so, O king, the ultimate point in the past of 
the whole of this time is not apparent.' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

Then the Elder drew a circle on the ground and 
asked the king : ' Is there any end to this circle ? ' 

* No, it has no end.' 

' Well, that is like those circles spoken of by the 
Blessed One 1 . " By reason of the eye and of forms 
there arises sight 2 , when these three come together 
there is touch, by reason of touch sensation, by 
reason of sensation a longing (Ta»ha, thirst), by 
reason of the longing action (Karma), and from 
action eye is once more produced 3 ." Now is there 
any end to this series ? ' 

4 No.' 

1 Htna/i-kumbure' applies this to the previous words (the circles 
of the chain of life quoted in § 1 from the Mahavagga I, 1, 2), and 
he is followed by Hardy, p. 434. Trenckner makes it apply to the 
following words, giving the reference to No. 18 in the Magg^ima 
Nikaya, and I think he is right Whichever way it is taken, the 
result is much the same. 

' A"akkhu-viflna»a. It is not clear from the terse phraseology 
of this passage whether this is supposed to be a subjective stage pre- 
liminary to the ' touch ' (phasso), or whether it is inclusive of it. 
(Compare Dhamma Saftgawi, 589, 599, 620.) I am inclined to 
think it is the former. But if the latter be meant it might be ren- 
dered ' there arises that consciousness (of existence) which is 
dependent upon the eye.' See below, § 4. 

8 That is, another eye in another birth. 



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11,3,3- THE FIRST BEGINNINGS. 8 1 

Then setting out a precisely corresponding circle 
of each of the other organs of sense (of the ear, 
nose, tongue, body, and mind 1 ), he in each case put 
the same question. And the reply being always 
the same, he concluded : 

'Just so, O king, the ultimate point of time in 
the past is not apparent.' 

' You are ready, Nagasena, in reply.' 

3. The king said : ' When you say that the 
ultimate point is not apparent, what do you mean 
by " ultimate point " ? ' 

' Of whatsoever time is past. It is the ultimate 
point of that, O king, that I speak of.' 

' But, if so, when you say that it is not apparent, 
do you mean to say that of everything ? Is the 
ultimate point of everything unknown ? ' 

' Partly so, and partly not.' 

' Then which is so, and which not ? ' 

' Formerly, O king, everything in every form, 
everything in every mode, was ignorance. It is to 
us as if it were not. In reference to that the 
ultimate beginning is unknown. But that, which 
has not been, becomes ; as soon as it has begun to 
become it dissolves away again. In reference to 
that the ultimate beginning is known V [52] 

'But, reverend Sir, if that which was not, becomes, 
and as soon as it has begun to become passes again 

1 In the text the whole sentence is repeated of each. 

* That is, ' the beginning of each link in the chain — the begin- 
ning of each individuality — can be traced, but not the beginning of 
each chain. Each life is a link in a chain of lives, bound together 
by cause and effect, different, yet the same. There are an infinite 
number of such chains ; and there is no reference in the discussion 
to any greater unity, or to any " ultimate point " of all the chains.' 
[35] G 



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82 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 11,3,4. 

away, then surely, being thus cut off at both ends, it 
must be entirely destroyed 1 ? ' 

' Nay, surely, O king, if it be thus cut off at both 
ends, can it not at both ends be made to grow 
again 2 ? ' 

' Yes, it might. But that is not my question. 
Could it grow again from the point at which it 
was cut off ? ' 

' Certainly.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

Then the Elder repeated the simile of the tree 
and the seed, and said that the Skandhas (the con- 
stituent elements of all life, organic and inorganic) 
were so many seeds, and the king confessed himself 
satisfied. 

4. The king said : ' Are there any Confections 3 
which are produced ? ' 

' Certainly.' 

' Which are they ? ' 

' Where there is an eye, and also forms, there is 
sight 4 , where there is sight there is a contact through 
the eye, where there is contact through the eye 
there is a sensation, where there is sensation there 
is a longing 6 , where there is longing there is a grasp- 
ing 6 , where there is grasping there is a becoming, 

1 That is, ' each individuality must be separate. The supposed 
chain does not really exist.' 

s There is an odd change of gender here. Possibly the word 
' ignorance ' has been dropped out. Trenckner says the passage is 
corrupt, and the Sinhalese is so involved as to be unintelligible. 

* SankhSrS, potentialities, possible forms, of sentient existence. 

4 jK"akkhu-vi»M«a. See note 2 above, p. 80. 

B TawhS, thirst. 

' Upadana, a stretching out towards a satisfaction of the long- 
ing, and therefore a craving for life, time, in which to satisfy it 



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H, 3, 5. BECOMING. 83 

where there is becoming there is birth, and at 
birth old age and death, grief, lamentation, pain, 
sorrow, and despair begin to be. Thus is the rise 
of the whole of this class of pain. — Where there is 
neither eye nor form there is no sight, where there 
is not sight there is no contact through the eye, 
where there is not contact there is no sensation, 
where there is not sensation there is no long- 
ing, where there is not longing there is no grasping, 
where there is not grasping there is no becoming, 
where there is not becoming there is no birth, and 
where there is not birth there is neither old age 
nor death nor grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and 
despair. Thus is the ending of all this class of 
pain.' 

' Very good, Nigasena ! ' 

5. The king said : ' Are there any Confections 
(qualities) which spring into being without a gradual 
becoming?' 

' No. They all have a gradual becoming.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' Now what do you think, great king ? Did this 
house in which you are sitting spring suddenly into 
being ? ' 

[53] ' Certainly not, Sir. There is nothing here 
which arose in that way. Each portion of it has 
had its gradual becoming — these beams had their 
becoming in the forest, and this clay in the earth, 
and by the moil and toil of women and of men * was 
this house produced.' 

1 It is a small matter, but noteworthy, that the Buddhist texts 
always put the women first. 

G 2 



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84 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 11,3,5- 

' Just so, great king, there is no Confection which 
has sprung into being without a gradual becoming. 
It is by a process of evolution that Confections 
come to be ! ' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

' They are like all kinds of trees and plants which, 
when set in the ground, grow, develope, and mature, 
and then yield their fruits and flowers. The trees 
do not spring into being without a becoming. It is 
by a process of evolution that they become what 
they are. Just so, great king, there is no Confection 
which has sprung into being without a gradual 
becoming. It is by a process of evolution that 
Confections come to be ! ' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

' They are like the pots of various kinds which a 
potter might form when he has dug up the clay out 
of the earth. The pots do not spring into being 
without a becoming. It is by a process of evolution 
that they become what they are. Just so, great 
king, there is no Confection which has sprung into 
being without a gradual becoming. It is by a pro- 
cess of evolution that Confections come to be ! ' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

' Suppose, O king, there were no bridge of metal 
on a mandolin 1 , no leather, no hollow space, no frame, 
no neck, no strings, no bow, and no human effort or 
exertion, would there be music ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' But if all these things were there, would not 
there be a sound ? ' 



1 V}«Sya pattaw. I don't know what this is. The Sinhalese 
merely repeats the words. 



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II, 3.5- FORMATION OF QUALITIES. 85 

' Of course there would.' 

' Just so, great king, there is no Confection which 
has sprung into being without a gradual becoming. 
It is by a process of evolution that Confections 
come to be ! ' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

'Suppose, O king, there were no fire-stick ap- 
paratus 1 , no twirling-stick \ and no cord for the 
twirling-stick, and no matrix x , and no burnt rag for 
tinder, and no human effort and exertion, could 
there be fire by attrition ? ' 

' Certainly not' 

4 But if all these conditions were present, then 
might not fire appear ? ' 

' Yes, certainly.' 

[54] 'Just so, great king, there is no Confection 
which has sprung into being without a gradual 
becoming. It is by a process of evolution that 
Confections come to be ! ' 

' Give me one more illustration.' 

' Suppose, O king, there were no burning glass, 
and no heat of the sun, and no dried cow-dung for 
tinder, could there be fire ? ' 

' Certainly not.' 

' But where these things are present there fire 
might be struck, might it not ? ' 

' Yes.' 

' Just so, great king, there is no Confection which 

1 Ara«i, araai-potako, and uttararawi. The exact differentiation 
of these parts of the fire-stick apparatus is uncertain. The Sin- 
halese throws no real light on them, as it translates them respec- 
tively ya/a ltya, 'under wood,' matu liya, 'upper wood,' and 
uturu llya, also 'upper wood.' This method of ignition was 
probably quite as strange to Hina/i-kumbure as it is to us. 



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/ 



g 6 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, 3, 6. 

has sprung into being without a gradual becoming. 
It. is by a process of evolution that Confections 
come to be ! ' 
y ' Give me another illustration.' 

' Suppose, O king, there were no looking-glass, 
and no light, and no face in front of it, would there 
appear an image ?' 

' No.' 

' But given these things.there might be a reflection ? ' 

' Yes, Sir, there might.' 

' Just so, great king, there is no Confection which 
has sprung into being without a gradual becoming. 
It is by a process of evolution that Confections 
come to be !' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



6. The king said : ' Is there, Nagasena, such a 
thing as the soul * ? ' 

'What is this, O king, the soul (Vedagu) ?' 

' The living principle within 2 which sees forms 
through the eye, hears sounds through the ear, 
experiences tastes through the tongue, smells odours 
through the nose, feels touch through the body, and 
discerns things (conditions, " dhamma ") through the 
mind — just as we, sitting here in the palace, can look 
out of any window out of which we wish to look, the 
east window or the west, or the north or the south.' 

The Elder replied : ' I will tell you about the five 

1 Vedagu, see below, III, 5, 6, p. in, not found in this 
meaning in the Pi/akas. 

* Abbhantare ^ivo, also not found in this sense in the Pi/akas. 
At tit, rendered just above 'image' or 'reflection,' is the word 
used in them for soul. Hina/i-kumbure' renders this here by 
pra«a ^twa, 'breath-soul.' See below, III, 7, 15, p. 132; and 
above, II, 4, p. 48 ; and II, 2, 6, p. 71. 



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11,3,6- THE SOUL. 87 

doors 1 , great king. Listen, and give heed atten- 
tively. If the living principle within sees forms 
through the eye in the manner that you mention, 
[55] choosing its window as it likes, can it not then see 
forms not only through the eye, but also through each 
of the other five organs of sense ? And in like man- 
ner can it not then as well hear sounds, and experience 
taste, and smell odours,and feel touch, and discern con- 
ditions through each of the other five organs of sense, 
besides the one you have in each case specified ? ' 

* No, Sir.' 

' Then these powers are not united one to an- 
other indiscriminately, the latter sense to the former 
organ, and so on. Now we, as we are seated here 
in the palace, with these windows all thrown open, 
and in full daylight, if we only stretch forth our 
heads, see all kinds of objects plainly. Can the 
living principle do the same when the doors of the 
eyes are thrown open ? When the doors of the ear 
are thrown open, can it do so ? Can it then not 
only hear sounds, but see sights, experience tastes, 
smell odours, feel ' touch, and discern conditions ? 
And so with each of its windows ? ' 

« No, Sir.' 

[56] 'Then these powers are not united one to 
another indiscriminately. Now again, great king, if 
Dinna here were to go outside and stand in the 
gateway, would you be aware that he had done so ? ' 

' Yes, I should know it.' 

' And if the same Dinna were to come back again, 
and stand before you, would you be aware of his 
having done so ?' 

1 It is odd be does not say six. 



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88 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 11,3,6. 

' Yes, I should know it.' 

' Well, great king, would the living principle within 
discern, in like manner, if anything possessing flavour 
were laid upon the tongue, its sourness, or its salt- 
ness, or its acidity, or its pungency, or its astrin- 
gency, or its sweetness * ? ' 

' Yes, it would know it.' 

' But when the flavour had passed into the 
stomach would it still discern these things ? ' 

' Certainly not.' 

' Then these powers are not united one to the other 
indiscriminately. Now suppose, O king, a man were 
to have a hundred vessels of honey brought and 
poured into one trough, and then, having had another 
man's mouth closed over and tied up, were to have 
him cast into the trough full of honey. Would he 
know whether that into which he had been thrown 
was sweet or whether it was not ?' 

• No, Sir.' 

' But why not ?' 

' Because the honey could not get into his mouth.' 

'Then, great king, these powers are not united 
one to another indiscriminately '.' 

' I am not capable of discussing with such a 
reasoner. Be pleased, Sir, to explain to me how 
the matter stands.' 

Then the Elder convinced Milinda the king with 
discourse drawn from the Abhidhamma, saying : ' It 
is by reason, O king, of the eye and of forms that 
sight arises, and those other conditions — contact, 

1 This list recurs below, II, 4, 1. 

2 That is : ' Your " living principle within " cannot make use of 
whichever of its windows it pleases. And the simile of a man inside 
a house does not hold good of the soul.' See the end of II, 3, 16. 



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n, 3, 7. THE SOUL. 89 

sensation, idea, thought, abstraction, sense of vitality, 
and attention 1 — arise each simultaneously with its 
predecessor. And a similar succession of cause and 
effect arises when each of the other five organs of 
sense is brought into play. [57] And so herein there 
is no such thing as soul (Vedagu) V 

7. The king said : ' Does thought-perception 3 
arise wherever sight arises * ? ' 

' Yes, O king, where the one is there is the other.' 

' And which of the two arises first ?' 

' First sight, then thought.' 

' Then does the sight issue, as it were, a com- 
mand to thought, saying : " Do you spring up there 
where I have ? " or does thought issue command to 
sight, saying : " Where you spring up there will I." ' 

' It is not so, great king. There is no intercourse 
between the one and the other.' 

' Then how is it, Sir, that thought arises wherever 
sight does ?' 

'Because of there being a sloping down, and because 
of there being a door, and because of there being a 
habit 6 , and because of there being an association.' 

' How is that ? Give me an illustration of mind 
arising where sight arises because of there being a 
sloping down.' 

' Now what do you think, great king ? When it 
rains 6 , where will the water go to ?' 

1 The last four are /tetana, ekaggata, ^tvitindriyaw, and 
manasikaro; and in the Sinhalese are simply repeated in their 
Sinhalese form. 

* This conclusion is all wrong in Hardy, pp. 457, 458. 

3 Mano-viS#a«a»». * -ATakkhu-viStfawaM. 

5 JTmnattH, which Hina/i-kumburS renders purudu bcewin. 

* Deve vassante: 'when the god rains.' 



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90 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, 3, 7- 

' It will follow the slope of the ground.' 

' And if it were to rain again, where would the 
water go to ?' 

' It would go the same way as the first water had 
gone.' 

' What then ? Does the first water issue, as it 
were, command to the second, saying : " Do you go 
where I have ?" Or does the second issue com- 
mand to the first, saying : " Whithersoever you go, 
thither will I"?' 

' It is not so, Sir. There is no intercourse between 
the two. Each goes its way because of the slope of 
the ground.' 

' Just so, great king, [58] is it by reason of the 
natural slope that where sight has arisen there also 
does thought arise. And neither does the sight- 
perception issue command to the mind-perception, 
saying : " Where I have arisen, there do thou also 
spring up ; " nor does the mind-perception inform 
the sight-perception, saying : " Where thou hast 
arisen, there will I also spring up." There is no 
conversation, as it were, between them. All that 
happens, happens through natural slope.' 

' Now give me an illustration of there being a door.' 

' What do you think, great king ? Suppose a king 
had a frontier city, and it was .strongly defended 
with towers and bulwarks, and had only one gate- 
way. If a man wanted to leave the city, how would 
he go out ?' 

' By the gate, certainly.' 

' And if another man wanted to leave it, how would 
he go out ?' 

' The same way as the first' 

' What then ? Would the first man tell the second : 



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II, 3, 7- SENSATION AND IDEAS. 9 1 

" Mind you go out the same way as I do" ? Or would 
the second tell the first : " The way you go out, I 
shall go out too"?' 

' Certainly not, Sir. There would be no communi- 
cation between them. They would go that way 
because that was the gate.' 

'Just so, great king, with thought and sight.' 

* Now give me an illustration of thought arising 
where sight is because of habit.' 

' What do you think, great king ? If one cart 
went ahead, which way would a second cart go ?' 

' The same as the first.' 

' But would the first tell the second to go where it 
went, [59] or the second tell the first that it would go 
where it (the first) had gone ?' 

' No, Sir. There would be no communication 
between the two. The second would follow the 
first out of habit.' 

'Just so, great king, with sight and thought.' 

' Now give me an illustration of how thought 
arises, where sight has arisen, through association.' 

' In the art of calculating by using the joints of 
the fingers as signs or marks 1 , in the art of arithmetic 
pure and simple 2 , in the art of estimating the probable 



1 Mudda. Hina/i-kumburS is here a little fuller than Buddha- 
ghosa at vol. i,p. 95 of the Sumahgala. He says: yam se cengili 
purukhi alwa gena sa»«fa ko/a kiyana hasta mudra 
jas tray a, 'the finger-ring art, so called from seizing on the joints 
of the fingers, and using them as signs.' 

1 Gawana. Hma/i-kumbure° says: a££Aidra wu ga.na.rn 
*astraya,'theart of unbroken counting,' which is precisely Buddha- 
ghosa's explanation (confirming the reading we have there adopted), 
and probably means arithmetic without the aids involved in the last 
phrase. We have here in that case an interesting peep into the 



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92 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 11,3,8. 

yield of growing crops \ and in the art of writing, O 
king, the beginner is clumsy. But after a certain 
time with attention and practice he becomes expert. 
Just so is it that, where sight has arisen, thought 
too by association springs up.' 

And in response to similar questions, the Elder 
declared that in the same way thought sprang up 
wherever there was hearing, or taste, or smell, or 
touch : that in each case it was subsequent to the 
other, but arose without communication from [60] 
the natural causes above set out. 

8. The king said : ' Where thought (mental per- 
ception 2 ) is, Nagasena, is there always sensation ?' 

' Yes, where thought arises there is contact, and 
there is sensation, and there is idea, and there is 
conceived intention, and there is reflection, and there 
is investigation s .' 



9. ' Reverend Sir, what is the distinguishing cha- 
racteristic of contact (Phassa)?' 

* Touch *, O king.' 

4 But give me an illustration.' 

' It is as when two rams are butting together, O 

progress of arithmetical knowledge. When our author wrote, the 
old way of counting on the fingers was still in vogue, but the 
modern system was coming into general use. 

1 Saftkha, literally ' calculation,' but which Hardy amplifies into 
Kshetraya wrsksha vilokaya ko/a phala prama»aya 
kiyannawu sawkhya .rastraya. 

* Mano-vi##a»a as all through the last section. The reader 
must not forget that ma no is here strictly an organ of sense, on an 
exact level with eye, ear, tongue, &c. 

* A'etanS, vitakko, and vi/fcaro. See fuller further on, §§ n, 
13. *4- 

4 Phusana. So also Buddhaghosa at p. 63 of the Sumahgala. 



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II, 3. 10. SENSATION AND IDEA. 93 

king. The eye should be regarded as one of those 
two, the form (object) as the other, and the contact 
as the union of the two.' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

' It is as when two cymbals * are clashed together. 
The one is as the eye, the other as the object, and 
the junction of the two is like contact.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



10. ' Reverend Sir, what is the characteristic mark 
of sensation (Vedana) ?' 

' The being experienced, great king, and enjoyed V 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' It is like the case of the man 8 on whom the king, 
pleased with a service he has rendered him, should 
bestow an office. He while living, through that 
appointment, in the full possession and enjoyment of 
all the pleasures of sense, would think : " Formerly I 
did the king a service. For that the king, pleased 
with me, gave me this office. It is on that account 
that I now experience such sensations." — And it is 
like the case of the man [61] who having done good 
deeds is re-born, on the dissolution of the body after 
death, .into some happy conditions of bliss in heaven. 
He, while living there in the full possession and 
enjoyment of all the pleasures of sense, would think : 
" Formerly I must have done good deeds. It is on 
that account that I now experience such sensations." 
Thus is it, great king, that the being experienced and 
enjoyed is the characteristic mark of sensation.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 

1 SammS, compare Theri GathS, 893, 911. 

* Buddhaghosa, loc. cit., only gives the first of these. 

* See for a similar illustration above, II, 2, 7, p. 76. 



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94 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, 3, ir. 

11. 'What is the distinguishing characteristic, 
Nagasena, of idea (Sa»»a) ? ' 

' Recognition, O king *. And what does he 
recognise ? — blueness and yellowness and redness 
and whiteness and brownness.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' It is like the king's treasurer, O king, who 
when he sees, on entering the treasure, objects the 
property of the king of all those colours, recognises 
(that they have such). Thus it is, great king, that 
recognition is the mark of idea.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



' What is the distinguishing characteristic, Naga- 
sena, of the conceived purpose (A'etana) ?' 

' The being conceived, O king, and the being 
prepared *.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' It is like the case of a man, O king, who should 
prepare poison, and both drink of it himself, and 
give of it to others to drink. He himself would 
suffer pain, and so would they. In the same way 
some individual, having thought out with intention 
some evil deed, on the dissolution of the body after 
death, would be reborn into some unhappy state of 
woe in purgatory, and so also would those who 
followed his advice. — And it is like the case of a 



1 So also Buddhaghosa, Sumangala, p. 63. 

* Buddhaghosa, loc. cit., gives no mark of JTetana, but he gives 
both it and 'the being prepared' as the marks of the Confections. It 
is not clear from the Milinda alone how to render the term iTetanS, 
but I follow Anguttara III, 77 (where it is placed on a level with 
aspiration), and Dhamma Samgani 5 (where it is said to be born of 
the contact of mind, perception, and exertion). 



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II, 3, 13. PERCEPTION. 95 

man, O king, who should prepare a mixture of 
ghee, butter, oil, honey and molasses, and should 
both drink thereof himself and give of it to others 
to drink. He himself would have pleasure, and so 
would they. [62] In the same way some individual, 
having thought out with intention some good deed, 
will be reborn, on the dissolution of the body after 
death, into some happy state of bliss in heaven, and 
so also would those who follow his advice. Thus is 
it, great king, that the being conceived, and the being 
prepared, are marks of the conceived purpose.' 
' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



12. 'What, Nagasena, is the distinguishing charac- 
teristic of perception ( V i n n a n a) ? ' 

' Recognition \ great king.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' It is like the case of the guardian of a city who, 
when seated at the cross roads in the middle of the 
city, could see a man coming from the East, or the 
South, or the West, or the North. In the same way, 
O king, he knows an object which he sees with his 
eye, or a sound which he hears with his ear, or an 
odour which he smells by his nose, or a taste which 
he experiences with his tongue, or a touchable thing 
which he touches with his body, or a quality that he 
recognises by his mind. Thus is it, great king, that 
knowing is the mark of perception.' 

4 Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



13. 'What is the distinguishing characteristic, 
Nagasena, of reflection (Vitakka). 

1 Vi^Snana. So also Buddhaghosa, loc. cit, and below, III, 
7. 15, P- 131- 



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Q6 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, 3, 14. 

' The effecting of an aim V 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' It is like the case of a carpenter, great king, 
who fixes in a joint a well-fashioned piece of wood. 
Thus is it that the effecting of an aim is the mark 
of reflection.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



14. 'What is the distinguishing characteristic, 
Nagasena, of investigation (Viiara) ? ' 

' Threshing out again and again 2 .' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' It is like the case of the copper vessel, which, 
when it is being beaten into shape [63], makes a 
sound again and again as it gradually gathers 
shape 3 . The beating into shape is to be regarded 
as reflection, and the sounding again and again as 
investigation. Thus is it, great king, that threshing 
out again and again is the mark of investigation.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



Here ends the Third Chapter*. 



1 AppanS, which Hlna/i-kumbure' renders pihi/ana. Buddha- 
ghosa, p. 63, gives abhiniropana as its mark, which comes to 
much the same thing. 

a Anuma^ana. So also Buddhaghosa, loc. cit. p. 63. The 
word is not in Childers, but see Morris in the Journal of the Pali 
Text Society, 1886, p. 118. 

* Anuravati anusandahati. Not in Childers. Hma/i- 
kumbure' says pasuwa anurawana kere da anuwa pihi/a da. 

* The following two sections form an appendix to this chapter 
corresponding to that formed by the last three sections of Book 
III, Chapter 7. The numbering of the sections is therefore carried 
on in both cases. 



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11,3. IS- CONDITIONS. 97 



Book II. Chapter 3. 

15. The king said : ' When those conditions 
(whose marks you have just specified) have run 
together, is it possible, by bending them apart one 
to one side and one to the other *, to make the 
distinction between them clear, so that one can say : 
" This is contact, and this sensation, and this idea, 
and this intention, and this perception, and this 
reflection, and this investigation 2 " ? ' 

' No : that cannot be done.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' Suppose, O king, the cook in the royal house- 
hold were to make a syrup or a sauce, and were to 
put into it curds, and salt, and ginger, and cummin 
seed 3 , and pepper, and other ingredients. And 
suppose the king were to say to him : " Pick out 
for me the flavour of the curds, and of the salt, 
and of the ginger, and of the cummin seed, and of 
the pepper, and of all the things you have put into 
it." Now would it be possible, great king, separating 
off one from another those flavours that had thus run 
together, to pick out each one, so that one could say : 
" Here is the sourness, and here the saltness, and 
here the pungency, and here the acidity, and here the 
astringency, and here the sweetness * " ? ' 

1 Vinibbhu^itva vinibbhu^itvd. This question is identical 
with the one asked of the Buddha at Ma^yAima Nikaya 43, p. 293. 
Compare also p. 233 and Tela Ka/aha Gaiha 59. 

* This list differs from that in II, 3, 8, by the addition of vitf#a»a. 

8 Giraka. Compare GStaka I, 244 ; II, 181, 363. Hina/i- 
kumbure' translates it by duru, and Hardy by 'onions' (p. 439). 

4 This is the same list as is found above, II, 3, 6 ; and below, 
III, 4, 2, and the items are not intended to correspond with the 
condiments in the list above. 

[35] H 



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98 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. II, 3, 16. 

' No, that would not be possible [64]. But each 
flavour would nevertheless be distinctly present by 
its characteristic sign.' 

'And just so, great king, with respect to those 
conditions we were discussing.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



1 6. The Elder said: 'Is salt, O king, recognis- 
able by the eye ? ' 

' Yes, Sir, it is.' 

' But be careful, O king.' 

' Well then, Sir, is it perceptible by the tongue ?' 

' Yes, that is right.' 

' But, Sir, is it only by the tongue that every 
kind of salt is distinguished ? ' 

' Yes, every kind.' 

' If that be so, Sir, why do bullocks bring whole 
cart-loads of it ? Is it not salt and nothing else 
that ought to be so brought ? ' 

' It is impossible to bring salt by itself. But all 
these conditions * have run together into one, and 
produced the distinctive thing called salt 8 . (For 
instance) : salt is heavy, too. But is it possible, O 
king, to weigh salt ? ' 

1 Not saltness only, but white colour, &c. &c. 

* He means the king to draw the conclusion that that 
distinct thing is only recognisable by the tongue ; so the 
senses are not interchangeable. In other words it is true that 
salt seems to be recognised by the sight, as when people load it 
into carts they do not stop to taste it. But what they see is not 
salt, what they weigh is not salt, it is whiteness and weight. And 
the fact of its being salt is an inference they draw. So, great king, 
your simile of the soul being inside the body, and using the five 
senses, as a man inside a house uses windows, does not hold good. 
See the conclusion above of II, 3, 6, p. 88. 



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n, 3, 16. conditions. 99 

' Certainly, Sir.' 

' Nay, great king, it is not the salt you weigh, it 
is the weight.' 

' You are ready, Nagasena, in argument.' 



Here ends the questioning of Nagasena by Milinda 1 . 



1 This is again most odd. One would expect, ' Here ends the 
questioning as to characteristic signs.' See the note at the end of 
last chapter. 



H 2 



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lOO THE QUESTIONS OF KING MIL1NDA. Ill, 4, I. 

BOOK III. 

vlmati-xxhedana-paatho. 
the removal of difficulties. 

Chapter 4 1 . 

1. [65] The king said: 'Are the five Ayata- 
nas, Nagasena, (eye, ear, nose, tongue, and body,) 
produced by various actions, or by one action ?' (that 
is, the result of various Karmas, or of one Karma.) 

' By various actions, not by one.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' Now, what do you think, O king ? If I were to 
sow in one field five kinds of seed, would the produce 
of those various seeds be of different kinds ?' 

' Yes, certainly.' 

'Well, just so with respect to the production of 
Ayatanas.' 

' Very good, Nagasena * ! ' 

2. The king said : ' Why is it, Nagasena, that all 
men are not alike, but some are short-lived and some 
long-lived, some sickly and some healthy, some ugly 
and some beautiful, some without influence and some 
of great power.some poor and some wealthy.some low 
born and some high born, some stupid and somewise?' 

1 The chapters go straight on because Books II and HI are 
really only parts of one Book. See above, p. 4. 

* The meaning here is not easy to follow, as the word Aya- 
tana is used either for the organs of sense, or for the objects of 
sense ; and there is nothing in the context to show which is meant. 
Probably the idea is that good sight, hearing, &c. in one birth are 
each the result of a separate Karma in the last birth. But I am 
by no means sure of this, and the Sinhalese (p. 76) is just as 
ambiguous as the Pali. 



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Ill, 4, 3. RENUNCIATION. IOI 

The Elder replied : 'Why is it that all vegetables 
are not alike, but some sour, and some salt, and some 
pungent, and some acid, and some astringent, and 
some sweet ?' 

' I fancy, Sir, it is because they come from different 
kinds of seeds.' 

' And just so, great king, are the differences you 
have mentioned among men to be explained. For 
it has been said by the Blessed One : " Beings, O 
brahmin, have each their own Karma, are inheritors 
of Karma, belong to the tribe of their Karma, are 
relatives by Karma, have each their Karma as their 
protecting overlord. It is Karma that divides them 
up into low and high and the like divisions 1 ." ' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



3. The king said : ' You told me, Nagasena, that 
your renunciation was to the end that this sorrow 
might perish away, and no further sorrow might 
spring up 2 .' 

[66] ' Yes, that is so.' 

4 But is that renunciation brought about by pre- 
vious effort, or to be striven after now, in this present 
time ?' 

The Elder replied : ' Effort is now concerned with 
what still remains to be done, former effort has 
accomplished what it had to do.' 

' Give me an illustration 8 .' 

1 Mr. Trenckner points out that this quotation is from the 
Magghima., No. 135. The doctrine is laid down frequently else- 
where also in the Pi/akas. See, for instance, Anguttara IV, 197 
(pp. 202-203 of Dr. Morris's edition for the Pali Text Society). 

3 Above, II, 1, 5, p. 50, and compare I, 38. 

• These three illustrations recur (nearly) below, III, 7, 3, pp. 
125-126. 



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102 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 111,4,3- 

' Now what do you think, O king ? Is it when 
you feel thirst that you would set to work to have a 
well or an artificial lake dug out, with the intention 
of getting some water to drink ?' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' J ust so, great king, is effort concerned now with 
what still remains to be done, former effort has 
accomplished what it had to do.' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

' Now what do you think, O king ? Is it when 
you feel hungry that you set to work to have fields 
ploughed and seed planted and crops reaped with 
the intention of getting some food to eat ?' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

'Just so, great king, is effort concerned now with 
what still remains to be done, former effort has 
accomplished what it had to do.' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

4 Now what do you think, O king ? Is it when 
the battle is set in array against you that you set 
to work to have a moat dug, and a rampart put up, 
and a watch tower built, and a stronghold formed, 
and stores of food collected ? Is it then that you 
would have yourself taught the management of ele- 
phants, or horsemanship, or the use of the chariot 
and the bow, or the art of fencing ?' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' Just so, great king, is effort concerned now with 
what still remains to be done, former effort has 
accomplished what it had to do. For it has been 
thus said, O king, by the Blessed One : 
" Betimes let each wise man work out 

That which he sees to be his weal ! 

Not with the carter's mode of thought, but firm 



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Ill, 4. 4. PURGATORY. IO3 

Let him, with resolution, step right out. 
As a carter who has left the smooth high road, 
And turned to byways rough, broods ill at ease ' — 
(Like him who hazards all at dice, and fails) — 
So the weak mind who still neglects the good, 
And follows after evil, grieves at heart, 
When fallen into the power of death, as he, 
The ruined gamester, in his hour of need V ' 
[67] ' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



4. The king said : ' You (Buddhists 3 ) say thus : 
" The fire of purgatory is very much more fierce 
than an ordinary fire. A small stone cast into an 
ordinary fire may smoke for a day without being 
destroyed ; but a rock as big as an upper chamber 
cast into the furnace of purgatory would be that 
moment destroyed." That is a statement I cannot 
believe. Now, on the other hand you say thus : 
" Whatsoever beings are there reborn, though they 

1 CrMyati. It is an odd coincidence that this word, which 
means either to burn or to meditate, according to the root from 
which it is derived, can be rendered here either ' burn ' or ' brood ' 
in English. In fact it is the second, not the first, root that is here 
intended, as is plain from such passages as Gataka III, 354, where 
the compound pa^Aayati means ' to brood over a thing.' 

' Quoted from the Sawyutta Nikaya II, 3, 2 (p. 57 in M. Feer's 
edition, published by the Pali Text Society). The readings there 
diner slightly from those of our text here, and the verses are put 
into the mouth of Khema, the god, instead of being ascribed 
to the Buddha. Hina/i-kumbur£ (p. 79) agrees with M. Leon 
Feer in reading man do for man o in the last line; and I have 
followed them in my translation. There are several stanzas in the 
Gataka book of carters lost in the desert, but there is nothing to 
identify any one of them with the story referred to. 

* ' You ' in the plural : that is, ' you Bhikkhus.' So also above, 
pp. 30. 50- 



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104 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 111,4,4. 

burn for hundreds of thousands of years in purgatory, 
yet are they not destroyed." That too is a statement 
I don't believe.' 

The Elder said : ' Now what do you think, O 
king ? Do not the females of sharks J and crocodiles 
and tortoises and peacocks and pigeons eat hard bits 
of stone and gravel ?' 
' Yes, Sir. They do.' 

' What then ? Are these hard things, when they 
have got into the stomach, into the interior of the 
abdomen, destroyed ?' 
' Yes, they are destroyed.' 

'And the embryo that may be inside the same 
animals, — is that too destroyed ?' 
' Certainly not.' 
' But why not' 

' I suppose, Sir, it escapes destruction by the 
influence of Karma.' 

'Just so, great king, it is through the influence of 
Karma that beings, though they have been for 
thousands of years in purgatory, are not destroyed. 
If they are reborn there, there do they grow up, 
and there do they die. For this, O king, has been 
declared by the Blessed One : "He does not die 
until that evil Karma is exhausted 2 ." ' 
' Give me a further illustration.' 



1 It may be noticed that the particular feminine forms chosen 
are in each case unusual, being in int instead of the simple t. The 
first animal, the Makarini, is said by Childers to be a mythical 
animal, but it is clear from Buddhaghosa on A'ullavagga V, i, 4, 
that an ordinary animal is meant, and that is so I think here, 
though the translation ' shark ' is conjectural. 

* From Ahguttara III, 35, 4 (p. 141 of Dr. Morris's edition for 
the Pali Text Society). 



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Ill, 4, 4- KARMA. IO5 

' Now what do you think, O king ? Do not the 
females of lions and tigers and panthers and dogs eat 
hard bits of bone and flesh ?' 

' Yes, they eat such things.' 

' What then ? are such hard things, [68] when 
they have got into the stomach, into the interior of 
the abdomen, destroyed ?' 

' Yes, they are destroyed ?' 

'And the embryo that may be inside the same 
animals, — is that too destroyed?' 

' Certainly not.' 

' But why not ? ' 

' I suppose, Sir, it escapes destruction by the 
influence of Karma.' 

'Just so, great king, it is by the influence of 
Karma that beings in purgatory, though they 
burn for thousands of years, are not destroyed.' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

' Now what do you think, O king ? Do not the 
tender women — wives of the Yonakas, and nobles, 
and brahmins, and householders — eat hard cakes and 
meat ?' 

' Yes, they eat such hard things.' 

' And when those hard things have got into the 
stomach, into the interior of the abdomen, are not 
they destroyed ?' 

' Yes, they are.' 

' But the children in their womb, — are they de- 
stroyed ?' 

' Certainly not.' 

' And why not ? ' 

' I suppose, Sir, they escape destruction by the 
influence of Karma ? ' 

'Just so, great king, it is through the influence 



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106 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. Ill, 4, 5. 

of Karma that beings in purgatory, though they 
burn for thousands of years, yet are they not de- 
stroyed. If they are reborn there, there do they 
grow up, and there do they die. For this, O king, 
has been declared by the Blessed One : " He does 
not die until that evil Karma is exhausted." ' 
' Very good, Nagasena !' 



5. The king said : ' Venerable Nagasena, your 
people say that the world rests on water, the water 
on air, the air on space l . This saying also I can- 
not believe.' 

Then the Elder brought water in a regulation 
water-pot 2 , and convinced king Milinda, saying : 
' As this water is supported by the atmosphere, so 
is that water supported by air.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



6. The king said : ' Is cessation Nirva«a s ? ' 

' Yes, your Majesty' [69]. 

' How is that, Nagasena ? ' 

' All foolish individuals, O king, take pleasure in 

1 This is not a distinctively Buddhist belief. It was commonly 
held at the time by other teachers. Compare ' Book of the Great 
Decease,' III, 13 (in 'Buddhist Suttas,' Sacred Books of the East, 
vol. xi, p. 45). 

* Dhamma-karakena. The passages show that this was a 
pot so made, that no water could pass from it except through a 
filtering medium. When not being actually used the water was 
no doubt kept at a certain height in it by the pressure of the 
atmosphere. I do not know of any specimen preserved in our 
modern museums or figured on ancient bas-reliefs, and the exact 
shape is unknown. It must be different from the one represented 
in plate xlviii of Cunningham's ' Bhilsa Tope.' See ATullavagga 
V, 13, 1 (note); VI, 21, 3 ; XII, 2, 1; Mahavawsa, p. 60. 

• Nirodho nibbanan ti. 



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111,4,7- nirvAjva. 107 

the senses and in the objects of jsense, find delight 
in them, continue to cleave to them 1 . Hence are 
they carried down by that flood (of human passions), 
they are not set free from birth, old age, and death, 
from grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair, — 
they are not set free, I say, from suffering. But the 
wise, O king, the disciple of the noble ones, neither 
takes pleasure in those things, nor finds delight in 
them, nor continues cleaving to them. And inas- 
much as he does not, in him craving 2 ceases, and by 
the cessation of craving grasping 2 ceases, and by 
the cessation of grasping becoming 8 ceases, and 
when becoming has ceased birth ceases, and with its 
cessation birth, old age, and death, grief, lamentation, 
pain, sorrow, and despair cease to exist. Thus is 
the cessation brought about the end of all that 
aggregation of pain. Thus is it that cessation is 
Nirvawa.' 
' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 

7. The king said : ' Venerable Nagasena, do all 
men receive Nirvawa ?' 

' Not all, O king. But he who walks righteously, 
who admits those conditions which ought to be 
admitted, perceives clearly those conditions which 
ought to be clearly perceived, abandons those con- 
ditions which ought to be abandoned, practises him- 
self in those conditions which ought to be practised, 
realises those conditions which ought to be realised — 
he receives Nirvawa.' 

' Very good, Nagasena !' 

1 AggAosaya ti/Manti. Compare Anguttara II, 4, 6, and 
Then GSthi, 794. 

* Ta»hS, UpScUna, Bhava. 



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I08 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDa/ 111,4,8. 

8. The king said : ' Venerable Nagasena, does he 
who does not receive Nirvawa know how happy a 
state Nirvana is ' ?' 

' Yes, he knows it.' 

' But how can he know that without his receiving 
Nirva#a?' 

' Now what do you think, O king ? Do those 
whose hands and feet have not been cut off know 
how sad a thing it is to have them cut off?' 

' Yes, Sir, that they know.' 

' But how do they know it ?' 

' Well, by hearing the sound of the lamentation of 
those whose hands and feet have been cut off, they 
know it.' 

[70] ' Just so, great king, it is by hearing the glad 
words of those who have seen Nirvawa, that they who 
have not received it know how happy a state it is.' 

' Very good, Nagasena !' 



Here ends the Fourth Chapter. 



1 The opposite point (whether he who has Nirva«a, knows that 
he has it) is discussed above, II, 2. 



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Ill, 5, 7. THE BUDDHA PRE-EMINENT. 109 



Book III. Chapter 5. 

i. The king said: 'Have you, Nagasena, seen 
the Buddha ?' 

' No, Sire.' 

' Then have your teachers seen the Buddha ?' 

' No, Sire.' 

' Then, venerable Nagasena, there is no Buddha ' ! ' 

' But, great king, have you seen the river Oha in 
the Himalaya mountains ?' 

' No, Sir.' 

' Or has your father seen it ? ' 

' No, Sir.' 

' Then, your Majesty, is there therefore no such 
river ? ' 

' It is there. Though neither I nor my father has 
seen it, it is nevertheless there.' 

' Just so, great king, though neither I nor my 
teachers have seen the Blessed One, nevertheless 
there was such a person.' 

' Very good, Nagasena !' 



2. The king said : ' Is the Buddha, Nagasena, 
pre-eminent ? ' 

' Yes, he is incomparable.' 

4 But how do you know of one you have never 
seen that he is pre-eminent.' 

' Now what do you think, O king ? They who 
have never seen the ocean would they know con- 

1 This dialogue is so far identical with VI, i, i. It is a kind of 
parody on Gotama's own argument about the Brahmans and 
Brahma (' Have they seen God,' &c.) in the Tevi,gya Sutta I, 1 2- 
iSi translated in my 'Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 172-174. 



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I IO THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. Ill, 5, 3. 

cerning it : " Deep, unmeasurable, unfathomable is 
the mighty ocean. Into it do the five great rivers 
flow — the Ganges, the Jumha, the A&ravat!, the 
Sarabhu, and the Mahi — and yet is there in it no 
appearance of being more empty or more full !" ?' 

' Yes, they would know that.' 

' Just so, great king, when I think of the mighty 
disciples who have passed away then do I know that 
the Buddha is incomparable.' [71] 

' Very good, Nagasena !' 



3. The king said : ' Is it possible, Nigasena, for 
others to know how incomparable the Buddha is ?' 

' Yes, they may know it.' 

' But how can they ?' 

' Long, long ago, O king, there was a master of 
writing, by name Tissa the Elder, and many are the 
years gone by since he has died. How can people 
know of him ?' 

' By his writing, Sir.' 

' Just so, great king, whosoever sees what the 
Truth * is, he sees what the Blessed One was, for 
the Truth was preached by the Blessed One.' 

' Very good, Nagasena !' 

4. The king said : ' Have you, Nagasena, seen 
what the Truth is?' 

' Have not we disciples, O king, to conduct our- 
selves our lives long as under the eye of the Buddha, 
and under his command 2 ?' 

4 Very good, Nagasena ! ' 

1 Dhammam, here nearly = Buddhism. See below, III, 5, 10. 

1 Mr. Trenckner thinks there is a lacuna here; and HJna/i- 
kumburS's version perhaps supports this. He renders the passage, 
< How can a man use a path he does not know ? And have not we 



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Ill, 5, 6. THE SOUL. I I I 

5. The king said : ' Where there is no transmi- 
gration, Nagasena, can there be rebirth ? ' 

' Yes, there can.' 

' But how can that be ? Give me an illustration.' 

'Suppose a man, O king, were to light a lamp 
from another lamp, can it be said that the one trans- 
migrates from, or to, the other?' 

' Certainly not.' 

'Just so, great king, is rebirth without transmi- 
gration.' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

' Do you recollect, great king, having learnt, when 
you were a boy, some verse or other from your 
teacher ? ' 

' Yes, I recollect that.' 

' Well then, did that verse transmigrate from your 
teacher?' 

' Certainly not.' 

'Just so, great king, is rebirth without transmi- 
gration.' 

' Very good, Nagasena !' 

6. The king said : ' Is there such a thing, Naga- 
sena, as the soul 1 ? ' 

' In the highest sense, O king, there is no such 
thing V 

our lives long to conduct ourselves according to the Vi n ay a (the rules 
of the Order), which the Buddha preached, and which are called the 
eye of the Buddha, and according to the S i k k h a p a d a (ethics) which 
he laid down, and which are called his command ? ' But there are 
other passages, no less amplified in the Sinhalese, where there is evi- 
dently no lacuna in the Pali ; and the passage may well have been 
meant as a kind of riddle, to which the Sinhalese supplies the 
solution. 

1 Vedagft. See above, II, 3, 6, p. 86 (note). 

1 Mr. Trenckner thinks there is a lacuna here. The Sinhalese 
follows the Pali word for word. 



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1 1 2 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. Ill, 5, 7. 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



7. [72] The king said : ' Is there any being, 
Nagasena, who transmigrates from this body to 
another ? ' 

' No, there is not.' 

' But if so, would it not get free from its evil deeds.' 

' Yes, if it were not reborn ; but if it were, no V 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' Suppose, O king, a man were to steal another 
man's mangoes, would the thief deserve punishment?' 

'Yes.' 

' But he would not have stolen the mangoes the 
other set in the ground. Why would he deserve 
punishment ?' 

4 Because those he stole were the result of those 
that were planted.' 

' Just so, great king, this name-and-form commits 
deeds, either pure or impure, and by that Karma 
another name-and-form is reborn. And therefore 
is it not set free from its evil deeds ?' 

'Very good, Nagasena!' 



8. The king said : ' When deeds are committed, 
Nagasena, by one name-and-form, what becomes of 
those deeds ?' 

' The deeds would follow it, O king, like a shadow 
that never leaves it V 

' Can any one point out those deeds, saying: " Here 
are those deeds, or there" ?' 

' No.' 

1 This is an exact repetition of what we had above, II, 2, 6. 
* These last words are a quotation of those that recur at Sa»- 
yutta III, 2, 10, 10, and Dhammapada, verse 2. 



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Ill, 5, 10. THE BUDDHA. 1 1 3 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' Now what do you think, O king ? Can any one 
point out the fruits which a tree has not yet pro- 
duced, saying : " Here they are, or there " ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

'Just so, great king, so long as the continuity of 
life is not cut off, it is impossible to point out the 
deeds that are done.' 

' Very good, Nagasena !' 



9. [73] The king said : ' Does he, Nagasena, who 
is about to be reborn know that he will be born ? ' 

' Yes, he knows it, O king.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' Suppose a farmer, O king, a householder, were 
to put seed in the ground, and it were to rain well, 
would he know that a crop would be produced.' 

' Yes, he would know that' 

' Just so, great king, does he who is about to be 
reborn know * that he will be born.' 

' Very good, Nagasena 2 !' 



10. The king said : ' Is there such a person as 
the Buddha, Nagasena ? ' 

' Yes.' 

' Can he then, Nagasena, be pointed out as being 
here or there ?' 

' The Blessed One, O king, has passed away by 
that kind of passing away in which nothing remains 
which could tend to the formation of another indi- 



1 That is before he is born. 

* This is all very parallel to II, 2, 2. 

[35] I 



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114 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. Ill, 5, 10. 

vidual 1 . It is not possible to point out the Blessed 
One as being here or there.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' Now what do you think, O king ? When there 
is a great body of fire blazing, is it possible to point 
out any one flame that has gone out, that it is here 
or there?' 

' No, Sir. That flame has ceased, it has vanished.' 

' Just so, great king, has the Blessed One passed 
away by that kind of passing away in which no root 
remains for the formation of another individual. 
The Blessed One has come to an end, and it cannot 
be pointed out of him, that he is here or there. But 
in the body of his doctrine he can, O king, be 
pointed out. For the doctrine 2 was preached by 
the Blessed One ?' 

' Very good, Nagasena !' 



Here ends the Fifth Chapter. 

1 AnupSdisesSya nibbanadhatuya. 
1 Dhamma. See above, III, 5, 3. 



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Ill, 6, i. THE BODY. I I 5 



Book III. Chapter 6. 

i. The king said : ' Is the body, Nagasena, dear 
to you recluses ? ' 

' No, they love not the body.' 

' Then why do you nourish it and lavish attention 
upon it ?' 

4 In all the times and places, O king, that you 
have gone down to battle, did you never get wounded 
by an arrow ?' 

' Yes, that has happened to me.' 

' In such cases, O king, [74] is not the wound 
anointed with salve, and smeared with oil, and 
bound up in a bandage.' 

' Yes, such things are done to it.' 

' What then? Is the wound dear to you that you 
treat it so tenderly, and lavish such attention upon it?' 

' No, it is not dear to me in spite of all that, which 
is only done that the flesh may grow again.' 

'Just so, great king, with the recluses and the 
body. Without cleaving to it do they bear about 
the body for the sake of righteousness of life. The 
body, O king, has been declared by the Blessed 
One to be like a wound. And therefore merely as 
a sore, and without cleaving to it, do the recluses 
bear about the body. For it has been said by the 
Blessed One : 
"Covered with clammy skin, an impure thing and foul, 

Nine-apertured, it oozes, like a sore 1 ."' 

' Well answered, Nagasena ! ' 

1 I have not been able to trace this couplet. On the sentiment 
compare the eloquent words of the young wife at vol. i, p. 200 of 
my ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' and Sutta Nipata I, 11. 

I 2 



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Il6 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IIT, 6, a. 

2. The king said : ' Did the Buddha, Nagasena, 
the omniscient one, foresee all things ? ' 

' Yes. The Blessed One was not only omniscient. 
He foresaw all things.' 

' Then why was it that he was in the habit only 
from time to time, and as occasion arose, of laying 
down rules for the members of the Order l ? ' 

' Is there any physician, O king, who knows all 
the medicinal drugs to be found on the earth ? ' 

' Yes, there may be such a man.' 

' Well, O king, does he give his decoctions to the 
patient to drink at a time when illness has already 
set in, or before that ? ' 

•When the malady has arisen.' 

'Just so, great king, the Blessed One, though he 
was omniscient and foresaw all things, laid down no 
rule at an unseasonable time, but only when need 
arose did he establish a regulation which his disciples 
were not to transgress as long as they lived.' 

' Well answered, Nagasena ! ' 



3. [75] The king said : 'Is it true, Nagasena, 
that the Buddha was endowed with the thirty-two 
bodily marks of a great man, and graced with the 
eighty subsidiary characteristics ; that he was golden 
in colour with a skin like gold, and that there spread 
around him a glorious halo of a fathom's length?' 

' Such, O king, was the Blessed One.' 

' But were his parents like that ?' 

' No, they were not.' 

' I n that case you must say that he was born so. But 
surely a son is either like his mother, or those on 

1 This is how Hina/i-kumburS understands the passage. 



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Ill, 6, 4. CONDUCT. 1 1 7 

the mother's side, or he is like his father, or those 
on the father's side ! ' 

The Elder replied : ' Is there such a thing, O 
king, as a lotus flower with a hundred petals ? ' 

* Yes, there is.' 

' Where does it grow up ?' 

' It is produced in mud, and in water it comes to 
perfection V 

' But does the lotus resemble the mud of the lake, 
whence it springs up, either in colour, or in smell, or 
in taste ?' 

'Certainly not' 

' Then does it resemble the water ?' 

' Nor that either.' 

'Just so, great king, is it that the Blessed One 
had the bodily signs and marks you have mentioned, 
though his parents had them not' 

'Well answered, Nagasena!' 



4. The king said : ' Was the Buddha, Nagasena, 
pure in conduct (was he a Brahma-^arin)?' 

' Yes, the Blessed One was pure.' 

' Then, Nagasena, it follows that he was a follower 
of Brahma ».' 



1 Asiyati. See Dr. Morris in the 'Journal of the Pali Text 
Society,' 1884, p. 72. 

* There is an untranslatable play here upon the name of the 
god, which is used in its sense of 'pure, best,' in the expression 
'pure in conduct.' The first question really amounts to: Was 
the Buddha's conduct 'Brahma,' that is, 'best,' which has come 
to have the meaning 'pure' for the same reason that our expression 
' a moral man ' has often that particular connotation ? It is quite 
true that the etymological meaning of the word is neither ' best ' 
nor ' pure ' ; but when our author wrote the secondary sense had 
completely, in Pali, driven out the etymological sense. 



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I 1 8 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. Ill, 6, 5. 

' Have you a state elephant, O king ? ' 

'Certainly.' [76] 

'Well now, does that elephant ever trumpet 
(literally " cry the heron's cry l ") ?' 

' Oh, yes.' 

' But is he, then, on that account a follower of the 
herons ? ' 

' Of course not.' 

' Now tell me, great king, has Brahma wisdom 
(Buddhi), or has he not ?' 

' He is a being with wisdom.' 

' Then (on your argument) he is surely a follower 
of Buddha 2 .' 

' Well answered, Nagasena ! ' 

5. The king said : ' Is ordination 8 a good thing ? ' 
' Yes, a good thing and a beautiful.' 
' But did the Buddha obtain it, or not ? ' 
' Great king, when the Blessed One attained omni- 
science at the foot of the tree of Knowledge, that 
was to him an ordination. There was no conferring 
of ordination upon him at the hands of others — in 
the way that the Blessed One laid down regulations 
for his disciples, never to be transgressed by them 
their lives long 4 ! ' 

' Very true, Nagasena ! ' 

1 This technical term for an elephant's trumpeting is not in- 
frequent. See, for instance, <?&taka I, 50. 

* As a matter of fact Brahma, the nearest approach in the Indian 
thought of that time to our idea of God, is always represented, in 
Buddhism, as a good Buddhist. See, for instance, 'Buddhist 
Suttas,' p. 116, and my note at p. 117. 

3 Upasampada. Admission to the higher grade in the Order. 

* Mr. Trenckner again suspects something dropped out in this 
reply. But the connection of ideas seems to me quite sufficient. 



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Ill, 6,7. PASSION. 119 

6. The king said: 'To which of these two, 
Nagasena, — the man who weeps at the death of his 
mother, and the man who weeps out of love for the 
Truth (Dhamma), — are his tears a cure ? ' 

' The tears of the one, O king, are stained and hot 
with the three fires of passion. The tears of the 
other are stainless and cool. Now there is cure in 
coolness and calm, but in heat and passion there can 
be no cure V 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



7. The king said : ' What is the distinction, Naga- 
sena, between him who is full of passion, and him 
who is void of passion ? ' 

' The one is overpowered by craving, O king, and 
the other not.' 

' But what does that mean ?' 

' The one is in want, O king, and the other not.' 

' I look at it, Sir, in this way. He who has 
passion and he who has not — both of them alike — 
desire what is good to eat, either hard or soft. And 
neither of them desires what is wrong.' 

' The lustful man, O king, in eating his food 
enjoys both the taste and the lust that arises from 
taste, [77] but the man free from lusts experiences 
the taste only, and not the lust arising therefrom.' 

' Well answered, Nagasena !' 



The Sinhalese follows the Pali, but that of course only shows that 
the text before the translator was here the same as in Mr, 
Trenckner's edition. 

1 The point of this lies in the allusion to the coolness and calm 
of Nirvana, or Arahatship, which is the dying out of the three fires 
of lust, ill-will, and delusion. The word used for coolness, Si tala, 
is one of the many epithets of Arahatship. 



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120 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 111,6,8. 

8. The king said : ' Venerable Nigasena, where 
does wisdom dwell ? ' 
' ' Nowhere, O king.' 

' Then, Sir, there is no such thing as wisdom.' 

' Where does the wind dwell, O king ? ' 

' Not anywhere, Sir.' 

' So there is no such thing as wind.' 

' Well answered, Nigasena !' 



9. The king said : ' When you speak of transmi- 
gration 1 , Nigasena, what does that mean ?' 

'A being born here, O king, dies here. Having 
died here, it springs up elsewhere. Having been 
born there, there it dies. Having died there, it 
springs up elsewhere. That is what is meant by 
transmigration.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

* It is like the case of a man who, after eating a 
mango, should set the seed in the ground. From 
that a great tree would be produced and give fruit. 
And there would be no end to the succession, in that 
way, of mango trees.' 

' Very good, Nigasena ! ' 



10. The king said : ' By what, Nigasena, does 
one recollect what is past and done long ago ? ' 

' By memory.' 

' But is it not by the mind 2 , not by the memory 2 , 
that we recollect ?' 

' Do you recollect any business, O king, that you 
have done and then forgotten ?' 

' Yes.' 

' What then ? Were you then without a mind ?' 

1 Sawsara. 2 A"ittena, no satiya. 



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Ill, 6, II. MEMORY. 121 

' No. But my memory failed me.' 
' Then why do you say that it is by the mind, not 
by the memory, that we recollect ?' 
' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



ii. The king said: 'Does memory, Nagasena, 
always arise subjectively, [78] or is it stirred up by 
suggestion from outside 1 ?' 

' Both the one and the other.' 

' But does not that amount to all memory being 
subjective in origin, and never artificial ?' 

' If, O king, there were no artificial (imparted) 
memory, then artisans would have no need of prac- 
tice, or art, or schooling, and teachers would be 
useless. But the contrary is the case.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



Here ends the Sixth Chapter. 



1 I follow Hina/i-kumburS's interpretation of the difficult words 
in the text, which Mr. Trenckner says is corrupt. Ka/umika is 
' artificial,' like the Sanskrit krs'trima. It has only been found as 
yet in our author. 



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122 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. ITT, 7, I. 



Book III. Chapter 7. 

i. The king said : ' In how many ways, Nagasena, 
does memory spring up ? ' 

'In sixteen ways, O king. That is to say: by 
personal experience *, as when the venerable Ananda, 
or the devoted woman Khu^giittara, or any others 
who had that power, called to mind their previous 
births — [79] or by outward aid *, as when others con- 
tinue to remind one who is by nature forgetful — or by 
the impression made by the greatness of some occa- 
sion 3 , as kings remember their coronation day, or as 
we remember the day of our conversion — by the im- 
pression made by joy *, as when one remembers that 
which gave him pleasure — or by the impression 
made by sorrow 8 , as when one remembers that 
which pained him — or from similarity of appearance*, 
as on seeing one like them we call to mind the 
mother or father or sister or brother, or on seeing 
a camel or an ox or an ass we call to mind others like 
them — or by difference of appearance 7 , as when we 
remember that such and such a colour, sound, smell, 
taste, or touch belong to such and such a thing — or 
by the knowledge of speech 8 , as when one who is by 
nature forgetful is reminded by others and then him- 
self remembers — or by a sign *, as when we recognise 
a draught bullock by a brand mark or some other 
sign — or from effort to recollect 10 , as when one by 

1 Abhi^anato. ' Ka/umikaya. * 0/arika-via«anato. 

* Hita-vi#danato. • Ahita-vinnanato. 

* Sabhaga-nimittato. ' Visabhaga-nimittato. 
" Kathabhi##anato. * Lakkhanato. " Saraaato. 



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Ill, 7, 2. MEMORY. 123 

nature forgetful is made to recollect by being urged 
again and again : " try and think of it " — or by cal- 
culation 11 , as when one knows by the training he 
has received in writing that such and such a letter 
ought to follow after such and such a one — or by 
arithmetic 12 , as when accountants do big sums 
by their knowledge of figures — or by learning by 
heart 1S , as the repeaters of the scriptures by their 
skill in learning by heart recollect so much — [80] or 
by meditation 14 , as when a Bhikkhu calls to mind 
his temporary states in days gone by — by reference 
to a book 15 , as when kings calling to mind a previous 
regulation, say : " Bring the book here," and remind 
themselves out of that — or by a pledge 1S , as when 
at the sight of goods deposited a man recollects (the 
circumstances under which they were pledged) — or 
by association 17 , as when one remembers a thing 
because one has seen it, or a sound because one has 
heard it, or an odour because one has smelt it, or a 
touch because one has felt it, or a concept because 
one has perceived it.' 
' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 

2. The king said : ' Your people say, Nagasena, 
that though a man should have lived a hundred 

u Mudd&to (see above, p. 6). u Gawanato. 

u Dharawato. The noun dharawaka is only found here 
(where I follow the Sinhalese interpretation) and at Gataka II, 203 
(where it means ' debtor,' as in Sanskrit). 

14 Bhavanato. For a translation of the full text, here abridged 
in the text, see 'Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 215, 216 (§ 17). 

,s Potthaka-nibandhanato. w Upanikkhepato. 

17 Anubhutato, perhaps 'experience.' There are really seven- 
teen, not sixteen, so some two must have been regarded by the 
author as forming one between them. These may be Nos. 1 and 
14, or more likely Nos. 4 and 5. 



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1 24 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. in, •}, 3. 

1 

years an evil life, yet if, at the moment of death, 
thoughts of the Buddha should enter his mind, he 
will be reborn among the gods. This I don't believe. 
And thus do they also say : " By one case of destruc- 
tion of life a man may be reborn in purgatory." 
That, too, I cannot believe.' 

' But tell me.O king. Would even a tiny stone float 
on the water without a boat ? ' 

' Certainly not' 

' Very well ; but would not a hundred cart-loads of 
stones float on the water if they were loaded in a boat ?' 

' Yes, they would float right enough.' 

' Well, good deeds are like the boat.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



3. The king said : ' Do you (recluses), Nagasena, 
strive after the removal of past sorrow ?' 

' No.' 

'What then? Is it future sorrow you strive to 
remove?' 

•No.' 

' Present sorrow, then ?' [81] 

' Not that either.' 

' Then if it be neither past, nor future, nor present 
sorrow that you strive to remove, whereunto is it 
that you strive ?' 

' What are you asking, O king ? That this sorrow 
should cease and no other sorrow should arise — that 
is what we strive after.' 

' But, Nagasena, is there (now) such a thing as 
future sorrow ?' 

• No. I grant that.' 

'Then you are mighty clever people to strive 
after the removal of that which does not exist!' 



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111,7,3- FUTURE SORROW. 1 25 

'Has it ever happened to you, O king, that rival 
kings rose up against you as enemies and opponents ? ' 

' Yes, certainly.' 

' Then you set to work, I suppose, to have moats 
dug, and ramparts thrown up, and watch towers 
erected, and strongholds built, and stores of food 
collected 1 ?' 

' Not at all. All that had been prepared before- 
hand.' 

' Or you had yourself trained in the manage- 
ment of war elephants, and in horsemanship, and in 
the use of the war chariot, and in archery and 
fencing ?' 

' Not at all. I had learnt all that before.' 

' But why ?' 

' With the object of warding off future danger.' 

' How so ? Is there such a thing (now) as future 
danger ?' 

' No. I must grant that.' 

' Then you kings are mighty clever people to 
trouble yourselves about the warding off of that 
which does not exist ! ' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

' Tell me, O king. Is it when you are athirst 
that you set to work to have wells dug, or ponds 
hollowed out, or reservoirs formed, with the object 
of getting something to drink ?' 

' Certainly not. All that has been prepared 
beforehand.' 

' But to what end?' 

' With the object of preventing future thirst' 

' How so ? Is there such a thing as fu tu r e thirst ? ' 

1 All that follows only differs by slight additions from III, 4, 3 
above, pp. 100-102. 



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126 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 111,7,4- 

' No, Sir.' 

• So you are mighty clever people, O king, [82] 
to take all that trouble to prevent the future thirst 
which all the time does not exist ! ' 

' Give me a further illustration.' 

[Then the Elder referred, as before, to the means 
people always took of warding against future hunger, 
and the king expressed his pleasure at the way in 
which the puzzle had been solved.] 



4. The king said : ' How far is it, Nagasena, 
from here to the Brahma world ' ? ' 

' Very far is it, O king. If a rock, the size of an 
upper chamber, were to fall from there, it would 
take four months to reach the earth, though it came 
down eight-and-forty thousand leagues* each day 
and night.' 

' Good, Nagasena ! Now do not your people say 
that a Bhikkhu, who has the power of Iddhi and 
the mastery over his mind s , can vanish from 
Cambu-dipa, and appear in the Brahma world, 
as quickly as a strong man could stretch forth his 
bent up arm, or bend it in again if it were stretched 
out ? That is a saying I cannot believe. How is 
it possible that he could traverse so quickly so many 
hundreds of leagues ? ' 

The Elder replied : ' In what district, O king, 
were you born ? ' 

1 One of the highest heavens. 

' Yo^ana, a league of seven miles. 

* A'etovasippatto, which HJna/i-kumbure' renders mano 
vasi prapta wu. I know of no passage in the Pi/akas where the 
phrase occurs in connection with Iddhi ; but it is often used by our 
author. See, for instance, just below, III, 7, 9. 



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111,7)5- ALASANDA. 1 27 

' There is an island called Alasanda *. It was 
there I was born.' 

' And how far is Alasanda from here ? ' 

' About two hundred leagues.' 

' Do you know for certain of any business you 
once did there and now recollect ? ' 

'Oh, yes.* 

' So quickly, great king, have you gone about two 
hundred leagues.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 

5. The king said : ' If one man, Nagasena, were 
to die here and be reborn in the Brahma world, and 
another were to die here and be reborn in Kashmir, 
which of the two would arrive first ?' 

' Both together, O king.' 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' In what town [83], O king, were you born ? ' 

' There is a village called Kalasi. It was there I 
was born.' 

' And how far is Kalasi from here ? ' 

' About two hundred leagues.' 

' How far is Kashmir from here ? ' 

' Twelve leagues.' 

' Now, great king, think of Kalasi.' 

' I have done so.' 

' And now, think of Kashmir.' 

' I have done so.' 

' Well, which did you think of quickest ? ' 

' Of each in the same time.'' 

' Just so, great king, would it take no longer to 
be reborn in the Brahma world than to be reborn 
in Kashmir. And tell me, O king. Suppose two 

1 Alexandria (in Baktria) built on an island in the Indus. 



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128 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IH, 7, 6. 

birds were flying, and one were to alight on a tall 
tree, and the other on a small shrub. If they settled 
both at the same moment, whose shadow would first 
fall to the ground ? ' 

' The two shadows would fall together.' 
' Just so, great king, in the case you put* 
' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 

6. The king said : ' Venerable Nagasena, how 
many kinds of wisdom are there ? ' 

' Seven, O king.' 

' And by how many kinds of wisdom does one 
become wise ? ' 

' By one : that is to say by the kind of wisdom 
called " the investigation of the Truth 1 ." ' 

' Then why is it said there are seven ?' 

' Tell me, O king. Suppose a sword were lying 
in its sheath and not taken in the hand, could it cut 
off anything you wanted to cut off with it ? ' 

' Certainly not.' 

' Just so, great king, by the other kinds of wisdom 
can nothing be understood without investigation of 
the Truth.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



7. The king said : ' Which, Nagasena, is there 
more of, merit or demerit ? ' 

'Merit.' [84] 

' But why ? ' 

* He who does wrong, O king, comes to feel 
remorse, and acknowledges his evil-doing. So de- 
merit does not increase. But he who does well 
feels no remorse, and feeling no remorse gladness will 

1 Dhamma-vi^aya-sambo^^angena. 



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Ill, 7, 9. PEACE. . 1 29 

spring up within him, and joy will arise to him thus 
gladdened, and so rejoicing all his frame will be at 
peace, and being thus at peace he will experience a 
blissful feeling of content, and in that bliss his heart 
will be at rest, and he whose heart is thus at rest 
knows things as they really are \ For that reason 
merit increases. A man, for example, though his 
hands and feet are cut off, if he gave to the Blessed 
One merely a handful of lotuses, would not enter 
purgatory for ninety-one Kalpas. That is why I 
said, O king, that there is more merit than demerit.' 
' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



8. The king said : ' Whose, Nagasena, is the 
greater demerit — his who sins consciously, or his 
who sins inadvertently ? ' 

1 He who sins inadvertently, O king, has the 
greater demerit.' 

' In that case, reverend Sir, we shall punish 
doubly any of our family or our court who do 
wrong unintentionally.' 

' But what do you think, O king ? If one man were 
to seize hold intentionally of a fiery mass of metal 
glowing with heat, and another were to seize hold 
of it unintentionally, which would be more burnt ? ' 

' The one who did not know what he was doing.' 

' Well, it is just the same with the man who 
does wrong.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



9. The king said : ' Is there any one, Nagasena, 

1 The above is a paragraph constantly recurring in the Pali 
Pi/akas. See, for instance, Dfgha II, 75 ; Anguttara III, 104; and 
Mahavagga VIII, 15, 13 (where I have annotated the details). 
[35] K 



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I30 .THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. Ill, 7, to. 

who can go with this bodily frame to Uttara-kuru 
or to the Brahma world, or to any other of the four 
great continents (into which the world is divided)?' 

' Yes, there are such people.' 

' But how can they ?' [85] 

' Do you recollect, O king, having ever jumped a 
foot or two feet across the ground ? ' 

' Yes, Nagasena, I can jump twelve feet.' 

♦But how?' 

' I fix my mind on the idea of alighting there, and 
at the moment of my determination my body comes 
to seem light to me.' 

'Just so, O king, can the Bhikkhu, who has the 
power of Iddhi, and has the mastery over his mind, 
when he has made his mind rise up to the occasion, 
travel through the sky by means of his mind.' 

' Very good, Nagasena !' 



10. The king said : ' Your people say there are 
bones even a hundred leagues long. Now there is 
no tree even one hundred leagues in length, how 
then can there be bones so long ? ' 

' But tell me, O king. Have you not heard of 
fishes in the sea five hundred leagues in length ?' 

' Yes. I have heard of such.' 

'If so, could they not have bones a hundred 
leagues long ? ' 

' Very good, Nagasena !' 



n. The king said: 'Your people, Nagasena, 
say that it is possible to suppress the inhaling and 
exhaling (of one's breath).' 

' Yes, that can be done.' 

' But how ?' 



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Ill, 7, 13. SNORING. 1 3 1 

' Tell me, O king. Have you ever heard of a 
man snoring ' ? ' 

* Yes.' 

'Well, would notthatsound stop if he bent his body ?' 

' Yes.* 

' Then surely if that sound would stop at the mere 
bending of the body of one who is untrained alike in 
body, in conduct, in mind, and in wisdom — why 
should it not be possible for the breathing of one 
trained in all these respects, and who has besides 
reached up to the fourth stage of the ecstatic con- 
templation 2 , to be suppressed ?' 

'Very good, Nagasena ! ' 

12. The king said: 'There is the expression 
ocean, Nagasena. Why is the water called ocean ?' 

The Elder replied [86] : ' Because there is just as 
much salt as water, O king, and just as much water 
as salt, therefore is it called ocean V 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 

13. The king said : 'Why, Nagasena, is the ocean 
all of one taste, the taste of salt ?' 

1 KakaiMamSno. See Gitaka. I, 60, 24; 160, 18. Hina/i- 
kumburS renders it 'sleeping with a snore (go ra warn in) like the 
sound of crows (kika).' * GAi.na. 

* Samudda. The answer (to give opportunity for which the 
question is invented) is a kind of punning etymology of this PSli 
word for ocean. Our author seems to take it as meaning ' equal 
water-ness,' from sama and ud(aka). The real derivation 
is very different. It is from the root ud, which is allied to our 
'wet' and the Greek itrot, and the prefix sam in the sense of 
completeness. It is difficult to reconcile the reply to this. There 
is a kind of conversation condemned in the Digha I, 1, 17, and 
elsewhere as samuddakkhayika, which is explained in the 
Sumangala, p. 91, as deriving samudda from sa, 'with,' and 
mud da, ' a seal ring.' 

K 2 



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132 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 111,7, »4- 

' Because the water in it has stood so long, there- 
fore it is all of one taste, the taste of salt V 
' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



14. The king said: 'Can even the most minute 
thing, Nagasena, be divided ?' 

' Yes, it can.' 

' And what, Sir, is the most minute of all things.' 

'Truth (D ham ma), O king, is the most minute 
and subtle. But this is not true of all qualities 
(Dhamma). Subtleness or the reverse are epithets 
of qualities. But whatever can be divided that can 
wisdom (Pa««a) divide, and there is no other quality 
which can divide wisdom.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! ' 



15. The king said : ' These three, Nagasena, — 
perception, and reason, and the soul in a being, — are 
they all different both in letter and in essence, or 
the same in essence differing only in the letter?' 

' Recognition, O king, is the mark of perception, 
and discrimination of reason a , and there is no such 
thing as a soul in beings s .' 

1 In the same way the Buddhist religion (the Dharama- 
Vinaya) is said in the Aullavagga IX, 1, 4, to be 'all of one 
taste, the taste of salvation, emancipation' (Vimutti). 

* So also above, II, 3, 12. Here the words are Vi^inana- 
lakkhanam vifW&nzm, pa^inana-lakkhana pad#&, which the 
Ceylon translator amplifies into ' As a peasant, on seeing grains of 
gold, would recognise them as valuable, so is it the characteristic 
ofvin«d«ato recognise aramunu (objects of sense) when it sees 
them. As a goldsmith, on seeing grains of gold, would not only 
know they were valuable, but also discriminate their value (as large 
or small), so is it the characteristic of pa#/Ja, not only to recognise, 
but also to discriminate between the objects of sense.' 

* See above, II, 3, 6, and II, 3, 16. Hina/i-kumbure' here renders 



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m, 7,i6. soul. 133 

' But if there be no such thing as a soul, what is 
it then which sees forms with the eye, and hears 
sounds with the ear, and smells odours with the nose, 
and tastes tastes with the tongue, and feels touch 
with the body, or perceives qualities with the mind ? ' 

The Elder replied: 'If there be a soul (distinct 
from the body) which does all this, then if the door 
of the eye were thrown down (if the eye were plucked 
out) could it stretch out its head, as it were, through 
the larger aperture and (with greater range) see 
forms much more clearly than before ? Could one 
hear sounds better if the ears were torn away, or 
smell better if the nose were cut off, or taste better 
if the tongue were pulled out, or feel touch better if 
the body were destroyed ?' 

[87] ' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' Then there can be no soul inside the body.' 

'Very good, Nagasena !' 



1 6. The Elder said : ' A hard thing there is, O 
king, which the Blessed One has done.' 

' And what is that ?' 

' The fixing of all those mental conditions which 
depend on one organ of sense, telling us that such 
is contact, and such sensation, and such idea, and 
such intention, and such thought V 

' Give me an illustration.' 

' Suppose, O king, a man were to wade down into 
the sea, and taking some water in the palm of his 
hand, were to taste it with his tongue. Would he 

^fvo by the 'life (or perhaps living principle, glviti) inside the 
forms produced out of the four elements.' 
1 Phasso, vedana, sa/Jnfa, Aetana, Aittam. 



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1 34 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. Ill, 7, 17. 

distinguish whether it were water from the Ganges, 
or from the Jumna, or from the Aiiravatl, or from 
the Sarabhu, or from the Maht ?' 

' Impossible, Sir.' 

' More difficult than that, great king, is it to have 
distinguished between the mental conditions which 
follow on the exercise of any one of the organs 
of sense ! ' 

' Very good, Nagasena !' 



Here ends the Seventh Chapter '. 



1 7. The Elder said : ' Do you know, O king, 
what time it is now ?' 

' Yes, Sir, I know. The first watch of the night 
is now passed. The middle watch is now going on. 
The torches are lit. The four banners are ordered 
to be raised, and appropriate gifts to be issued to 
you from the treasury.' 

The Yonakas said : ' Very good, great king. 
Most able is the Bhikkhu.' 

' Yes, my men. Most able is the Bhikkhu. 
Were the master like him and the pupil like me, 
[88] a clever scholar would not take long in getting 
at the truth.' 

Then the king, pleased with the explanations 
given of the questions he had put, had Nagasena 
robed in an embroidered cloak worth a hundred 
thousand 2 , and said to him : ' Venerable Nagasena, 
I hereby order that you shall be provided with your 
daily meal for eight hundred days, and give you the 

1 See the note at the end of Book II, Chapter 3, § 14. 
1 That is kahapa/ias, ' half-pennies.' 



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Ill, 7, 1 8. DEPARTURE. 1 35 

choice of anything in the palace that it is lawful for 
you to take.' And when the Elder refused, saying he 
had enough to live on, the king rejoined : ' I know, 
Sir, you have enough to live on. But you should both 
protect me and protect yourself — yourself from the 
possibility of a public rumour to the effect that you 
convinced me but received nothing from me, and 
me from the possibility of a public rumour that 
though I was convinced I would give nothing in 
acknowledgement.' 

' Let it be as you wish, great king,' was the reply.-. 
Then the king said : ' As the lion, the king of 
beasts, when put into a cage, though it were of gold, 
would turn his face longingly to the outside ; even 
so do I, though I dwell in the world, turn my 
thoughts longingly to the higher life of you recluses. 
But, Sir, if I were to give up the household life and 
renounce the world it would not be long I should 
have to live, so many are my foes.' 

Then the venerable Nagasena, having thus solved 
the questions put by Milinda the king, arose from 
his seat and departed to the hermitage. 



1 8. Not long after Nagasena had gone, Milinda 
the king thought over to himself whether he had 
propounded his questions rightly, and whether the 
replies had been properly made. And he came to 
the conclusion that to questions well put replies had 
been well given. And Nagasena likewise, when he 
reached the hermitage, thought the matter over to 
himself, and concluded that to questions well put 
right replies had been given. 

Now Nagasena robed himself early in the morn- 
ing, and went with his bowl in his hand to the palace, 



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I36 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. in, 7, 18. 

and sat down on the seat prepared for him. And 
Milinda saluted the venerable Nagasena, [89] and 
sat down respectfully at his side, and said to him : 
4 Pray do not think, Sir, that I was kept awake all 
the rest of the night exulting in the thought of hav- 
ing questioned you. I was debating with myself as 
to whether I had asked aright, and had been rightly 
answered. And I concluded that I had.' 

And the Elder on his part said : ' Pray do not 
suppose, great king, that I passed the rest of the 
night rejoicing at having answered all you asked. 
I too was thinking over what had been said by us 
both. And I came to the result that you had ques- 
tioned well, and that I had rightly answered.' 

Thus did these two great men congratulate each 
the other on what he had spoken well. 



Here ends the answering of the problems of 
the questions of Milinda. 



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IV, r, I. DILEMMAS. T37 



BOOK IV. 

Mendaka-tanho. 

the solving of dilemmas. 

Chapter 1. [90] 

i. Master of words and sophistry, clever and wise 
Milinda tried to test great Nagasena's skill. 
Leaving him not \ again and yet again, 
He questioned and cross-questioned him, until 
His own skill was proved foolishness. 
Then he became a student of the Holy Writ. 
All night, in secrecy, he pondered o'er 
The ninefold Scriptures, and therein he found 
Dilemmas hard to solve, and full of snares. 
And thus he thought: 'The conquering Buddha's 

words 
Are many-sided, some explanatory, 
Some spoken as occasion rose to speak, 
Some dealing fully with essential points. 
Through ignorance of what, each time, was meant 
There will be strife hereafter as to what 
The King of Righteousness has thus laid down 
In these diverse and subtle utterances. 
Let me now gain great Nagasena's ear, 
And putting to him that which seems so strange 
And hard — yea contradictory — get him 
To solve it. So in future times, when men 
Begin to doubt, the light of his solutions 
Shall guid.e them, too, along the path of Truth.' 

1 Vasanto tassa khiy &y a, literally 'abiding under his shadow.' 
Compare Gataka I, 91. 



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I38 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 1,2. 

2. Now Milinda the king, when the night was 
turning into day, and the sun had risen, bathed, and 
with hands clasped and raised to his forehead, called 
to mind the Buddhas of the past, the present, and 
the future, and solemnly undertook the observance 
of the eightfold vow, saying to himself : ' For seven 
days from now will I do penance by taking upon 
myself the observance of the eight rules, and when 
my vow is accomplished will I go to the teacher and 
put to him, as questions, these dilemmas.' So Milinda 
the king laid aside his usual dress, and put off his 
ornaments ; and clad in yellow robes, with only a 
recluse's turban 1 on his head, in appearance like a 
hermit, did he carry out the eightfold abstinence, 
keeping in mind the vow — ' For this seven days I 
am to decide no case at law. I am to harbour no 
lustful thought, no thought of ill-will, no thought 
tending to delusion. Towards all slaves, servants, 
and dependents I am to show a meek and lowly 
disposition. [91] I am to watch carefully over every 
bodily act, and over my six organs of sense. And 
I am to fill my heart with thoughts of love towards 
all beings.' Keeping this eightfold vow, establishing 
his heart in this eightfold moral law, for seven days 
he went not forth. But as the night was passing 
into day, at sunrise of the eighth day, he took his 
breakfast early, and then with downcast eyes and 
measured words, gentle in manner, collected in 
thought, glad and pleased and rejoicing in heart, 
did he go to Nagasena. And bowing down at his 
feet, he stood respectfully on one side, and said : 

3. 'There is a certain matter, venerable Nagasena, 

1 Pa/isfsaka«. See Gataka II, 197. 



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IV, I, 4. SECRET DOCTRINE. 1 39 

that I desire to talk over with you alone. I wish 
no third person to be present. In some deserted 
spot, some secluded place in the forest, fit in all the 
eight respects for a recluse, there should this point 
of mine be put. And therein let there be nothing 
hid from me, nothing kept secret. I am now in a 
fit state to hear secret things when we are deep 
in consultation. And the meaning of what I say can 
be made clear by illustration. As it is to the broad 
earth, O Nagasena, that it is right to entrust treasure 
when occasion arises for laying treasure by, so is it 
to me that it is right to entrust secret things when 
we are deep in consultation.' 

4. Then having gone with the master to a secluded 
spot he further said : 'There are eight kinds of places, 
Nagasena, which ought to be altogether avoided by 
a man who wants to consult. No wise man will talk 
a matter over in such places, or the matter falls to 
the ground and is brought to no conclusion. And 
what are the eight ? Uneven ground, spots unsafe 
by fear of men, windy places, hiding spots, sacred 
places, high roads, light bambu bridges, and public 
bathing places.' 

The Elder asked : ' What is the objection to each 
of these ? ' 

The king replied : 'On uneven ground, Nagasena, 
[82] the matter discussed becomes jerky, verbose, 
and diffuse, and comes to nothing. In unsafe places 
the mind is disturbed, and being disturbed does not 
follow the point clearly. In windy spots the voice 
is indistinct. In hiding places there are eaves- 
droppers. In sacred places the question discussed 
is apt to be diverted to the serious surroundings. 
On a high road it is apt to become frivolous, on a 



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I40 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, I, 5. 

bridge unsteady and wavering, at a public bathing 
place the discussion would be matter of common 
talk. Therefore is it said 1 : 
" Uneven ground, unsafe and windy spots, 
And hiding places, and god-haunted shrines, 
High roads, and bridges, and all bathing ghats — 
These eight avoid when talking of high things." ' 



5. ' There are eight kinds of people, Nagasena, 
who when talking a matter over, spoil the discussion. 
And who are the eight ? He who walks in lust, he 
who walks in ill-will, he who walks in delusion, he 
who walks in pride, the greedy man, the sluggard, 
the man of one idea, and the fool.' 

' What is the objection to each of these ? ' asked 
the Elder. 

' The first spoils the discussion by his lust, the 
next by his ill-will, the third by his delusions, the 
fourth by his pride, the fifth by his greed, the sixth 
by his sloth, the seventh by his narrowness, and the 
last by his folly. Therefore is it said : 

" The lustful, angry, or bewildered man, 
The proud, the greedy, or the slothful man, 
The man of one idea, and the poor fool — 
These eight are spoilers of high argument." ' 



6. ' There are nine kinds of people, Nagasena, 
who let out a secret that has been talked over with 
them, and treasure it not up in their hearts. And 
who are the nine ? The lustful man reveals it in 
obedience to some lust, the ill-tempered man in con- 

1 It is not known where the verses here (or the others quoted in 
these two pages) are taken from. 



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IV, 1, 8. THE RIPENING OF INSIGHT. 141 

sequence of some ill-will, the deluded man under 
some mistake. [93] The timid man reveals it 
through fear, and the man greedy for gain to get 
something out of it. A woman reveals it through 
infirmity, a drunkard in his eagerness for drink, a 
eunuch because of his imperfection, and a child 
through fickleness. Therefore is it said : 
" The lustful, angry, or bewildered man, 
The timid man, and he who seeks for gain, 
A woman, drunkard, eunuch, or a child — 
These nine are fickle, wavering, and mean. 
When secret things are talked over to them 
They straightway become public property." ' 



7. ' There are eight causes, Nagasena, of the 
advance, the -ripening of insight. And what are 
the eight ? The advance of years, the growth of 
reputation, frequent questioning, association with 
teachers, one's own reflection, converse with the 
wise, cultivation of the loveable, and dwelling in 
a pleasant land. Therefore is it said : 
" By growth in reputation, and in years, 
By questioning, and by the master's aid, 
By thoughtfulness, and converse with the wise, 
By intercourse with men worthy of love, 
By residence within a pleasant spot — 
By these nine is one's insight purified. 
They who have these, their wisdom grows 1 ." ' 



8. 'This spot, Nagasena, is free from the objections 
to talking matters over. And I am a model com- 
panion for any one desiring to do so. I can keep a 

1 Pabhij^ati in the text appears not to be an old error. The 
Sinhalese repeats it, but leaves it untranslated. 



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142 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, i, 8. 

secret, and will keep yours as long as I live. In all 
the eight ways just described my insight has grown 
ripe. It would be hard to find such a pupil as you 
may have in me. 

[94] ' Now towards a pupil who conducts himself 
thus aright the teacher ought to conduct himself in 
accordance with the twenty-five virtues of a teacher. 
And what are the twenty-five ? He must always 
and without fail keep guard over his pupil. He must 
let him know what to cultivate, and what to avoid ; 
about what he should be earnest, and what he may 
neglect. He must instruct him as to sleep, and as 
to keeping himself in health, and as to what food he 
may take, and what reject. He should teach him 
discrimination 1 (in food), and share with him all 
that is put, as alms, into his own bowl. He should 
encourage him, saying : "Be not afraid. You will 
gain advantage (from what is here taught you)." 
He should advise him as to the people whose 
company he should keep, and as to the villages 
and Viharas he should frequent. He should never 
indulge in (foolish) talk 2 with him. When he sees 
any defect in him he should easily pardon it. 
He should be zealous, he should teach nothing 
partially, keep nothing secret, and hold nothing 
back 3 . He should look upon him in his heart as a 
son, saying to himself : " I have begotten him in 



1 Viseso. It does not say in what, and the Sinhalese simply 
repeats the word. 

2 Sallapo na katabbo. The Siwhalese merely repeats the 
word, which is often used without any bad connotation. See, for 
instance, Gataka I, 112. 

* So that, in the author's opinion, there is no 'Esoteric Doctrine' 
in true Buddhism. See the note, below, on IV, 4, 8. 



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IV, I, 9. THE MODEL TEACHER. 1 43 

learning 1 ." He should strive to bring him forward, 
saying to himself: "How can I keep him from going 
back ? " He should determine in himself to make him 
strong in knowledge, saying to himself: " I will make 
him mighty." He should love him, never desert 
him in necessity, never neglect him in anything he 
ought to do for him, always befriend him — so far 
as he can rightly do so 2 — when he does wrong. 
These, Sir, are the twenty-five good qualities in a 
teacher. Treat me altogether in accordance there- 
with. Doubt, Lord, has overcome me. There are 
apparent contradictions in the word of the Conqueror. 
About them strife will hereafter arise; and in future 
times it will be hard to find a teacher with insight 
such as yours. Throw light for me on these dilem- 
mas, to the downfall of the adversaries.' 

9. Then the Elder agreed to what he had said, 
and in his turn set out the ten good qualities which 
ought to be found in a lay disciple : ' These ten, O 
king, are the virtues of a lay disciple. He suffers 
like pain and feels like joy as the Order does. He 
takes the Doctrine (D ham ma) as his master. He 
delights in giving so far as he is able to give. 
On seeing the religion (Dhamma) of the Conqueror 
decay, he does his best to revive it. He holds right 
views. Having no passion for excitement 3 , he runs 

1 So also in the Vinaya (Mahavagga I, 25, 6). 

* In the well-known passage in the Vinaya in which the mutual 
duties of pupils and teachers are set out in full (Mahavagga I, 
25, 26, translated in the 'Vinaya Texts/ vol. i, pp. 154 and foil.) 
there is a similar injunction (25, 22 = 26, 10) which throws light on 
the meaning ofdhammena here. 

* Apagata-ko/uhala-mahgaliko. 'Laying aside the erro- 
neous views and discipline called ko/uhala and mangalika/ 
says the Sinhalese. 



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144 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, I, 10. 

not after any other teacher his life long. He keeps 
guard over himself in thought and deed. He 
delights in peace, is a lover of peace. He feels 
no jealousy, [95] and walks not in religion in a 
quarrelsome spirit. He takes his refuge in the 
Buddha, he takes his refuge in the Doctrine, he 
takes his refuge in the Order. These, great king, 
are the ten good qualities of a lay disciple. They 
exist all of them in you. Hence is it fit, and right, 
and becoming in you that, seeing the decay of the 
religion of the Conqueror, you desire its prosperity. 
I give you leave. Ask of me whatever you will.' 

[Here ends the introduction to the solving of 
dilemmas.] 



THE DILEMMAS. 
[ON HONOURS PAID TO THE BUDDHA.] 

10. Then Milinda the king, having thus been 
granted leave, fell at the feet of the teacher, and 
raising his clasped hands to his forehead, said : 
' Venerable Nagasena, these leaders of other sects 
say thus : " If the Buddha accepts gifts he cannot 
have passed entirely away. He must be still in 
union with the world, having his being somewhere 
in it, in the world, a shareholder in the things of the 
world ; and therefore any honour paid to him be- 
comes empty and vain \ On the other hand if he 

1 ' Because honours should be paid, in the way of worship, to 
those who have so passed away, and to them only,' is the implied 
suggestion, as if it were common ground to the Buddhists and their 
opponents. But there is no such doctrine in the Pali Pi/akas, and 
could not be. The whole discussion breathes the spirit of a later 
time. 



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TV, I, 10. GIFTS. I45 

be entirely passed away (from life), unattached to 
the world, escaped from all existence, then honours 
would not be offered to him. For he who is en- 
tirely set free accepts no honour, and any act done 
to him who accepts it not becomes empty and vain." 
This is a dilemma which has two horns. It is not a 
matter within the scope of those who have no mind \ 
it is a question fit for the great. Tear asunder this 
net of heresy, put it on one side. To you has this 
puzzle been put. Give to the future sons of the 
Conqueror eyes wherewith to see the riddle to the 
confusion of their adversaries.' 

' The Blessed One, O king,' replied the Elder, ' is 
entirely set free. And the Blessed One accepts no 
gift. Even at the foot of the Tree of Wisdom he 
abandoned all accepting of gifts, how much more 
then now when he has passed entirely away by that 
kind of passing away which leaves no root over (for 
the formation of a new existence). For this, O king, 
has been said by Sariputta, the commander of the 
faith * : 

"Though worshipped, these Unequalled Ones, alike 
By gods and men, unlike them all they heed 
Neither a gift nor worship. They accept 
It not, neither refuse it. Through the ages 
All Buddhas were so, so wil ever be s !" ' 



1 Apatta-manasanam. 'Of those who have not attained to 
the insight of the Arahats,' says the Si halese by way of gloss. 

? This verse is not found in our printed texts. The Thera 
Gatha (981-1017) has preserved thirty-seven of the verses attributed 
to Sariputta, but this is not one of them. 

• Hina/i-kumbjirS, who quotes the Pali verses, reads pu^a- 
yanta, and sadiyanti. 

[35] L 



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I46 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, I, II. 

11. The king said: 'Venerable Nagasena, a 
father may speak in praise of his son, or a son of 
his father. But that is no ground for putting the 
adversaries to shame. It is only an expression of 
their own belief. Come now ! Explain this matter 
to me fully to the establishing of your own doc- 
trine, [96] and to the unravelling of the net of the 
heretics.' 

The Elder replied : ' The Blessed One, O king, 
is entirely set free (from life). And the Blessed One 
accepts no gift. If gods or men put up a building 
to contain the jewel treasure of the relics of a 
Tathagata who does not accept their gift, still by 
that homage paid to the attainment of the supreme 
good under the form of the jewel treasure of his 
wisdom do they themselves attain to one or other of 
the three glorious states 1 . Suppose, O king, that 
though a great and glorious fire had been kindled, 
it should die out, would it then again accept any 
supply of dried grass or sticks ?' 

' Even as it burned, Sir, it could not be said to 
accept fuel, how much less when it had died away, 
and ceased to burn, could it, an unconscious thing, 
accept it?' 

' And when that one mighty fire had ceased, and 
gone out, would the world be bereft of fire ?' 

' Certainly not. Dry wood is the seat, the basis 
of fire, and any men who want fire can, by the exer- 
tion of their own strength and power, such as resides 
in individual men, once more, by twirling the fire- 
stick, produce fire, and with that fire do any work 
for which fire is required.' 

1 Tisso sampattiyo. That is, to another life as a man, or as 
a god, or to Arahatship here, on earth, in this birth. 



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IV, I, 12. HONOURS PAID TO THE BUDDHA. 1 47 

' Then that saying of the sectarians that " an act 
done to him who accepts it not is empty and vain " 
turns out to be false. As that great and glorious 
fire was set alight, even so, great king, was the 
Blessed One set alight in the glory of his Buddha- 
hood over the ten thousand world systems. As it 
went out, so has he passed away into that kind of 
passing away in which no root remains. As the fire, 
when gone out, accepted no supply of fuel, just so, 
and for the good of. the world, has his accepting of 
gifts ceased and determined. As men, when the fire 
is out, and has no further means of burning, then by 
their own strength and effort, such as resides in 
individual men, twirl the fire-stick and produce fire, 
and do any work for which fire is required — so do 
gods and men, though a Tathagata has passed 
away and no longer accepts their gifts, yet put up a 
house for the jewel treasure of his relics, and doing 
homage to the attainment of supreme good under 
the form of the jewel treasure of his wisdom, they 
attain to one or other of the three glorious states. 
[97] Therefore is it, great king, that acts done to 
the Tathagata, notwithstanding his having passed 
away and not accepting them, are nevertheless of 
value and bear fruit.' 

1 2. ' Now hear, too, another reason for the same 
thing. Suppose, O king, there were to arise a 
great and mighty wind, and that then it were to die 
away. Would that wind acquiesce in being pro- 
duced again ?' 

' A wind that has died away can have no thought 
or idea of being reproduced. And why ? Because 
the element wind is an unconscious thing.' 

'Or even, O king, would the word "wind" be 

l 2 



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I48 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, I, I*. 

still applicable to that wind, when it had so died 
away ?' 

' Certainly not, Sir. But fans and punkahs are 
means for the production of wind. Any men who 
are oppressed by heat, or tormented by fever, can 
by means of fans and punkahs, and by the exertion of 
their own strength and power, such as resides in 
individual men, produce a breeze, and by that wind 
allay their heat, or assuage their fever.' 

' Then that saying of the sectarians that " an act 
done to him who accepts it not is empty and vain " 
turns out to be false. As the great and mighty wind 
which blew, even so, great king, has the Blessed One 
blown over the ten thousand world systems with the 
wind of his love, so cool, so sweet, so calm, so 
delicate. As it first blew, and then died away, so 
has the Blessed One, who once blew with the wind 
so cool, so sweet, so calm, so delicate, of his love, 
now passed away with that kind of passing away in 
which no root remains. As those men were op- 
pressed by heat and tormented with fever, even so 
are gods and men tormented and oppressed with 
threefold fire and heat '. As fans and punkahs are 
means of producing wind, so the relics and the jewel 
treasure of the wisdom of a Tathagata are means of 
producing the threefold attainment. [98] And as 
men oppressed by heat and tormented by fever can 
by fans and punkahs produce a breeze, and thus 
allay the heat and assuage the fever, so can gods 
and men by offering reverence to the relics, and the 



1 That is, the three fires of lust, ill-will, and delusion, the going 
out of which is the state called, par excellence, ' the going out ' 
(Nirvi«a). 



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IV, 1,13; HONOURS PAID TO THE BUDDHA. 1 49 

jewel treasure of the wisdom of a Tathagata, though 
he has died away and accepts it not, cause goodness 
to arise within them, and by that goodness can 
assuage and can allay the fever and the torment of 
the threefold fire. Therefore is it, great king, that 
acts done to the Tathagata, notwithstanding his 
having passed away and not accepting them, are 
nevertheless of value and bear fruit.' 

13. ' Now hear another reason for the same thing. 
Suppose, O king, a man were to make a drum sound, 
and then that sound were to die away. Would that 
sound acquiesce in being produced again ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir. The sound has vanished. It 
can have no thought or idea of being reproduced. 
The sound of a drum when it has once been pro- 
duced and died away, is altogether cut off. But, Sir, 
a drum is a means of producing sound. And any 
man, as need arises, can by the effort of power re- 
siding in himself, beat on that drum, and so produce 
a sound.' 

' Just so, great king, has the Blessed One — except 
the teacher and the instruction he has left in his 
doctrine and discipline, and the jewel treasure of his 
relics whose value is derived from his righteousness, 
and contemplation, and wisdom, and emancipation, and 
insight given by the knowledge of emancipation — just 
so has he passed away by that kind of passing away 
in which no root remains. But the possibility of re- 
ceiving the three attainments is not cut off because the 
Blessed One has passed away. Beings oppressed by . 
the sorrow of becoming can, when they desire the 
attainments, still receive them by means of the jewel 
treasure of his relics and of his doctrine and disci- 
pline and teaching. Therefore is it, great king, that 



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15O THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 1, 14. 

all acts done to the Tathagata, notwithstanding his 
having passed away and not accepting, are never- 
theless of value and bear fruit. And this future 
possibility, great king, has been foreseen by the 
Blessed One, and spoken of, and declared, and made 
known, when he said : " It may be, Ananda, that 
in some of you the thought may arise : [99] 
' The word of the Master is ended. We have no 
Teacher more!' But it is not thus, Ananda, that 
you should regard it. The Truth which I have 
preached to you, the Rules which I have laid down 
for the Order, let them, when I am gone, be the 
Teacher to you 1 ." So that because the Tathagata 
has passed away and consents not thereto, that there- 
fore any act done to him is empty and vain — this 
saying of the enemy is proved false. It is untrue, 
unjust, not according to fact, wrong, and perverse. 
It is the cause of sorrow, has sorrow as its fruit, 
and leads down the road to perdition ! ' 

14. ' Now hear another reason for the same thing. 
Does the broad earth acquiesce, O king, in all kinds 
of seeds being planted all over it ?' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

'Then how is it those seeds, planted without 
the earth's consent, do yet stand fast and firmly 
rooted, and expand into trees with great trunks 
and sap and branches, and bearing fruits and 
flowers ?' 

' Though the earth, Sir, gives no consent, yet it 
acts as a site for those seeds, as a means of their 
development. Planted on that site they grow, by 



1 Book of the Great Decease, VI, 1, translated in ' Buddhist 
Suttas,' p. 112. 



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IV, i, IS. TREES. 1 5 1 

its means, into such great trees with branches, 
flowers, and fruit.' 

' Then, great king, the sectaries are destroyed, 
defeated, proved wrong by their own words when 
they say that " an act done to him who accepts it not 
is empty and vain." As the broad earth, O king, is 
the Tathagata, the Arahat, the Buddha supreme. 
Like it he accepts nothing. Like the seeds which 
through it attain to such developments are the gods 
and men who, through the jewel treasures of the 
relics and the wisdom of the Tathagata — though he 
have passed away and consent not to it — being 
firmly rooted by the roots of merit, become like 
unto trees casting a goodly shade by means of 
the trunk of contemplation, the sap of true doctrine, 
and the branches of righteousness, and bearing the 
flowers of emancipation, and the fruits of Sama«a- 
ship. [100] Therefore is it, great king, that acts 
done to the Tathagata, notwithstanding his having 
passed away and not accepting them, are still of 
value and bear fruit' 

1 5. ' Now hear another and further reason for the 
same thing. Do camels, buffaloes, asses, goats, 
oxen, or men acquiesce in the birth of worms in- 
side them?' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' Then how is it then, that without their consent 
worms are so born, and spread by rapid reproduction 
of sons and grandsons ? ' 

' By the power of evil Karma, Sir.' 

' Just so, great king, is it by the power of the relics 
and the wisdom of the Tathagata, who has passed 
away and acquiesces in nothing, that an act done to 
him is of value and bears fruit.' 



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152 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, I, 16. 

1 6. ' Now hear another and further reason for 
the same thing. Do men consent, O king, that the 
ninety-eight diseases should be produced in their 
bodies ?' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 
' Then how is it the diseases come ?' 
' By evil deeds done in former births.' 
' But, great king, if evil deeds done in a former 
birth have to be suffered here and now, then both 
good and evil done here or done before has weight 
and bears fruit. Therefore is it that acts done to 
the Tathagata, notwithstanding his having passed 
away and not consenting, are nevertheless of value 
and bear fruit' 

1 7. ' Now hear another and further reason for 
the same thing. Did you ever hear, O king, of 
the ogre named Nandaka, who, having laid hands 
upon the Elder Sariputta, was swallowed up by the 
earth ?' 

' Yes, Sir, that is matter of common talk among 
men.' 

' Well, did Sariputta acquiesce in that ?' 
[101] ' Though the world of gods and men, Sir, 
were to be destroyed, though the sun and moon 
were to fall upon the earth, though Sineru the king 
of mountains were to be dissolved, yet would not 
Sariputta the Elder have consented to any pain 
being inflicted on a fellow creature. And why not ? 
Because every condition of heart which could cause 
him to be angry or offended has been in him destroyed 
and rooted out. And as all cause thereof had thus 
been removed, Sir, therefore could not Sariputta 
be angered even with those who sought to deprive 
him of his life.' 



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IV, i, 18. SARIPUTTA. 153 

' But if Sariputta, O king, did not consent to it, 
how was it that Nandaka was so swallowed up ?' 

' By the power of his evil deeds.' 

' Then if so, great king, an act done to him who 
consents not is still of power and bears fruit. And 
if this is so of an evil deed, how much more of a 
good one ? Therefore is it, O king, that acts done 
to the Tathigata, notwithstanding his having passed 
away and not accepting them, are nevertheless of 
value and bear fruit.' 

18. ' Now how many, O king, are those men who, 
in this life, have been swallowed up by the earth ? 
Have you heard anything on that point ?' 

* Yes, Sir, I have heard how many there are.' 

* Then tell me.' 

' Kinkz. the Brahmin woman, and Suppabuddha 
the Sakyan, and Devadatta the Elder, and Nandaka 
the ogre, and Nanda the Brahman — these are the 
five people who were swallowed up by the earth.' 

' And whom, O king, had they wronged ?' 

' The Blessed One and his disciples.' 

' Then did the Blessed One or his disciples consent 
to their being so swallowed up ?' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

* Therefore is it, O king, that an act done to the 
Tathagata, notwithstanding his having passed away 
and not consenting thereto, is nevertheless of value 
and bears fruit.' 

' Well has this deep question been explained by 
you, venerable Nagasena, and made clear. You have 
made the secret thing [102] plain, you have loosed 
the knot, you have made in the jungle an open space, 
the adversaries are overthrown, the wrong opinion 
has been proved false, the sectaries have been covered 



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1 54 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, I, 19. 

with darkness when they met you, O best of all the 
leaders of schools ! ' 



[Here ends the question as to not consenting to 
honours paid '.] 



[THE OMNISCIENCE OF THE BUDDHA.] 

19. 'Venerable Nagasena, was the Buddha om- 
niscient ?' 

' Yes, O king, he was. But the insight of know- 
ledge was not always and continually (consciously) 
present with him. The omniscience of the Blessed 
One was dependent on reflection.' But if he did 
reflect he knew whatever he wanted to know 2 . 

'Then, Sir, the Buddha cannot have been omni- 
scient, if his all-embracing knowledge was reached 
through investigation.' 

'[If so, great king, our Buddha's knowledge must 
have been less in degree of fineness than that of the 
other Buddhas. And that is a conclusion hard to 
draw. But let me explain a little further.] Suppose, 
O king, you had a hundred cart-loads of rice in the 
husk, and each cart-load was of seven amma»as s 
and a half. Would a man without consideration be 
able to tell you in a moment how many laks of grains 
there were in the whole 4 ?' 

1 This title and the subsequent ones to the various questions are 
added from the Sinhalese. They are probably the same tides 
as those referred to by Mr. Trenckner in his preface as being in his 
Burmese MS. 

' So again below, §27. 

' An ammawa is about four bushels. 

* Mr. Trenckner has marked this passage as corrupt, and I do 
not pretend to understand it either. The Sinhalese is also very 



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IV, i, 31. THE GIANT BAMBft. 1 55 

20. ' Now there are these seven classes of minds. 
Those, great king, who are full of lust, ill-will, delu- 
sion, or wrong doing, who are untrained in the 
management of their body, or in conduct, or in 
thought, or in wisdom, — their thinking powers are 
brought into play with difficulty, and act slowly. 
And why is it so ? Because of the untrained con- 
dition of their minds. It is like the slow and heavy 
movements of a giant bambu — when it is being 
dragged along with its wide-spreading, extensive, 
overgrown, and interlaced vegetation, and with its 
branches intricately entangled one with the other. 
So slow and heavy are the movements of the minds 
of those men, O king. And why ? Because of the 
intricate entanglements of wrong dispositions. This 
is the first class of minds.' 

2 1. ' From it the second class is to be distinguished. 
Those, O king, who have been converted, for whom 
the gates of purgatory are closed, who have attained 
to right views, who have grasped the doctrine of the 
Master — their thinking powers, so far as the three 
lower stages x are concerned, are brought quickly 



involved and confused. I have added the words in brackets from 
the Sinhalese, and translated the rest according to the general 
sense of the Sinhalese and the figures of the Pali. Hardy gives his 
'version' at p. 386 of the 'Manual of Buddhism.' It says, ' In one 
load of rice there are 63,660,000 grains. Each of these grains can 
be separately considered by Buddha in a moment of time. In that 
moment the seven-times gifted mind exercises this power.' The 
last sentence is a misunderstanding of the opening words of our 
next section (IV, 1, 20). 

1 That is, of the Excellent Way. They are the three Fetters — 
Delusion of self, Doubt, and Dependence on rites and ceremonies 
and outward morality — which the Sotapanno has conquered, 
broken. 



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I56 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 1, 22* 

into play, [103] and act with ease. But as regards 
the higher regions they are brought into play with 
difficulty, and act slowly. And why is this so ? Be- 
cause of their minds having been made clear as 
regards those three stages, and because of the fail- 
ings (to be vanquished in the higher stages) still 
existing within them. It is like the movement of 
a giant bambu which has a clean trunk as far as the 
third knot, but above that has its branches intricately 
entangled. So far as regards the smooth trunk it 
would travel easily when dragged along, but it would 
stick obstinately as regards its upper branches. This 
is the second class of minds.' 

22. ' From these the third class is to be distin- 
guished. Those.O king, who are Sakad Agamins \ 
in whom lust, ill-will, and delusion are reduced to a 
minimum, — their thinking powers, so far as the five 
lower stages are concerned, are brought quickly into 
play, and act with ease. But as regards the higher 
regions they are brought into play with difficulty, 
and act slowly. And why is this so ? Because of 
their minds having been made clear as regards those 
five stages, and because of the failings (to be van- 
quished in the higher stages) still existing within 
them. It is like the movement of a giant bambu 
which has a clean trunk as far as the fifth knot, but 
above that has its branches intricately entangled. 
So far as regards the smooth trunk it would travel 
easily when dragged along, but it would be moved 
with difficulty as far as its upper branches are con- 
cerned. This is the third class of minds.' 



1 Disciples who will return only once to this world, there attain 
Arahatship, and therefore pass away. 



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IV, i, a 4 . THINKING POWERS. 157 

23. 'From these the fourth class is to be distin- 
guished. Those, O king, who are Anagamins', 
who have completely got rid of the five lower fetters, 
—their thinking powers, so far as the ten stages 2 are 
concerned, are brought quickly into play, and act 
with ease. [104] But as regards the higher regions 
they are brought into play with difficulty, and act 
slowly. And why is this so ? Because of their 
minds having been made clear as regards those ten 
stages, and because of the failings (to be vanquished 
in the higher stages) still existing within them. It is 
like the movement of a giant bambu which has a 
smooth trunk as far as the tenth knot, but above 
that has its branches intricately entangled. This is 
the fourth class of minds.' 

24. ' From these the fifth class is to be distin- 
guished. Those, O king, who are Arahats, in 
whom the four Great Evils 8 have ceased, whose 
stains have been washed away, whose predispositions 
to evil 4 have been put aside, who have lived the 
life, and accomplished the task, and laid aside every 
burden, and reached up to that which is good, for 
whom the Fetter of the craving after any kind of 
future life has been broken to pieces 8 , who have 
reached the higher insight 4 , who are purified as 
regards all those conditions of heart in which a 



1 Who will not return even once to this world, but attain Arahat- 
ship in heaven. 

' This is noteworthy, for their mind is not yet quite clear as 
regards the higher five stages. But it is on all fours with the last 
section. 

* Lust, becoming, delusion, and ignorance. * Kilesa. 

* Parikkina-bhava-samyo^anS. 

* Patta-pa/isambhida. 



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158 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 1, 25. 

hearer can be pure, — their thinking powers, as re- 
gards all that a disciple can be or do, are brought 
quickly into play, and act with ease. But as to those 
things which are within the reach of the Pa^ieka- 
Buddhas (of those who are Buddhas, but for them- 
selves alone) they are brought into play with difficulty, 
and act slowly. And why is this so ? Because of 
their having been made pure as regards all within 
the province of a hearer, but not as regards that 
within the reach of those who are Buddhas (though 
for themselves alone). It is like the movement of a 
giant bambu which has been pruned of the branches 
arising out of all its knots — and which, therefore, 
when dragged along moves quickly and with ease, 
because of its smoothness all along, and because of 
its being unencumbered with the jungly growth of 
vegetation. This is the fifth class of minds.' 

25. [105] ' From these the sixth class is to be 
distinguished. Those, O king, who are Pa£>£eka- 
Buddhas, dependent on themselves alone, wanting 
no teacher, dwellers alone like the solitary horn of 
the rhinoceros, who so far as their own higher life is 
concerned, have pure hearts free from stain, — their 
thinking powers, so far as their own province is con- 
cerned, are brought quickly into play, and act with 
ease. But as regards all that is specially within the 
province of a perfect Buddha (one who is not only 
Buddha, that is enlightened, himself, but can lead 
others to the light) they are brought with difficulty 
into play, and move slowly. And why is this so ? 
Because of their purity as regards all within their 
own province, and because of the immensity of the 
province of the omniscient Buddhas. It is like a 
man, O king, who would fearlessly cross, and at will, 



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IV, I, 26. THE BUDDHAS. 1 59 

by day or night, a shallow brook on his own pro- 
perty. But when he comes in sight of the. mighty 
ocean, deep and wide and ever-moving, and sees no 
further shore to it, then would he stand hesitating 
and afraid, and make no effort even to get over it. 
And why ? Because of his familiarity with his own, 
and because of the immensity of the sea. This is 
the sixth class of minds.' 

26. ' From these the seventh class is to be distin- 
guished. Those, O king, who are complete Buddhas 1 , 
having all knowledge, bearing about in themselves 
the tenfold power (of the ten kinds of insight), con- 
fident in the four modes of just self-confidence, 
endowed with the eighteen characteristics of a Bud- 
dha, whose mastery knows no limit, from whose 
grasp nothing is hid, — their thinking powers are on 
every point brought quickly into play, and act with 
ease. Suppose, O king, a dart well burnished, free 
from rust, perfectly smooth, with a fine edge, straight, 
without a crook or a flaw in it, were to be set on a 
powerful crossbow. Would there be any clumsiness 
in its action, any retarding in its movement, if it 
were discharged by a powerful man against a 
piece of fine linen, or cotton stuff, or delicate 
woolwork?' 

' Certainly not, Sir. And why ? Because the 
stuff is so fine, and the dart so highly tempered, 
and the discharge so powerful.' 

[106] ' And just in the same way, great king, 
are the thinking powers of the Buddhas I have de- 
scribed brought quickly into play, and act with ease. 

1 That is as distinguished from the last — not only themselves 
enlightened, but able to teach, leaders of men. 



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l60 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, I, 27. 

And why ? Because of their being purified in every 
respect. This is the seventh class of minds.' 

27. 'Now of these, O king, the last — the 
thinking powers of the omniscient Buddhas — alto- 
gether outclasses the other six, and is clear and 
active in its high quality that is beyond our ken. 
It is because the mind of the Blessed One is 
so clear and active that the Blessed One, great 
king, displays the double miracle. From that we 
may get to know, O king, how clear and active 
His mental powers are. And for those wonders 
there is no further reason that can be alleged. 
(Yet) those wonders, O king, [caused by means of 
the mind (alone) of the omniscient Buddhas '] cannot 
be counted, or calculated, or divided, or separated, 
(For) the knowledge of the Blessed One, O king, 
is dependent upon reflection 2 , and it is on reflec- 
tion that he knows whatever he wishes to know. 
(But) it is as when a man passes something he 
already has in one hand to the other, or utters 
a sound when his mouth is open, or swallows 
some food that he has already in his mouth, or 
opens his eyes when they are shut, or shuts them 
when open, or stretches forth his arm when it is 
bent in, or bends it in when stretched but- 
more rapid than that, great king, and more easy 
in its action, is the all-embracing knowledge of the 
Blessed One, more rapid than that his reflection. 
And although it is by reflection that they know 
whatever they want to know, yet even when they 



1 There is surely something wrong here ; either in the Pali, or 
in my interpretation of it, which follows the Sinhalese (p. 130). 
* Here the opening argument of § 17 is again taken up. 



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IV, I, 21 . REFLECTION. l6l 

are not reflecting the Blessed Buddhas are not, even 
then, anything other than omniscient' 

' But, venerable Nagasena, reflection is carried on 
for the purpose of seeking (that which is not clear 
when the reflection begins). Come now. Convince 
me in this matter by some reason.' 

'Suppose, O king, there were a rich man, great 
in wealth and property — one who had stores of 
gold and silver and valuables, and stores of all 
kinds of wheat, one who had rice, and paddy, and 
barley, and dry grain, and oilseed, and beans, and peas, 
and every other edible seed, who had ghee, and oil, 
and butter, and milk, and curds, and honey, and sugar, 
and molasses, [107] all put away in store-rooms 
in jars, and pots, and pans, and every sort of vessel. 
Now if a traveller were to arrive, one worthy of 
hospitality, and expecting to be entertained ; and all 
the prepared food in the house had been finished, 
and they were to get out of the jar some rice ready 
for cooking, and prepare a meal for him. Would that 
wealthy man merely by reason of the deficiency in 
eatable stuff at that unusual time be rightly called 
poor or needy ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir. Even in the palace of a 
mighty king of kings there might be no food 
ready out of time, how much less in the house of 
an ordinary man.' 

' Just so, great king, with the all-embracing know- 
ledge of a Tathagata when reflection only is 
wanting; but which on reflection grasps whatever 
he wants. Now suppose, O king, there were a tree 
in full fruit, with its branches bending this way and 
that by the weight of the burden of the bunches of 
its fruit, but no single fruit had fallen from it. 
[35] M 



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l62 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, I, a8. 

Could that tree rightly, under the circumstances 
of the case, be called barren, merely because of 
the want of a fallen fruit?' 

' No, Sir. For though the falling of the fruit is 
a condition precedent to its enjoyment, yet when 
it has fallen one can take as much as one likes.' 

' Just so, great king, though reflection is a neces- 
sary condition of the knowledge of the Tathagata, 
yet on reflection it perceives whatever he wants to 
know.' 

' Does that happen always, Nagasena, at the 
moment of reflection ? ' 

' Yes, O king. Just as when the mighty king of 
kings (the A'akkavatti) calling to mind his glorious 
wheel of victory wishes it to appear, and no sooner 
is it thought of than it appears — so does the know- 
ledge of the Tathagata follow continually on reflec- 
tion.' 

' Strong is the reason you give, Nagasena, for the 
omniscience of the Buddha. I am convinced that 
that is so.' 



[Here ends the question as to the omniscience of 
the Buddha being dependent on reflection \] 



[why devadatta was admitted to the order.] 

28. 'Venerable Nagasena, who was it that ad- 
mitted Devadatta 2 to the Order ?' 



1 At III, 6, 2 there is another problem raised as to the om- 
niscience of the Buddha. 

* He is the Judas of the Buddhist story, who tried to have the 
Buddha killed, and to seduce his disciples from him. 



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IV, i, a8. DEVADATTA. 1 63 

' Those six young nobles, O king, Bhaddiya and 
Anuruddha and Ananda and Bhagu and Kimbila 
and Devadatta, [108] together with Upali the 
barber as a seventh — they all, when the Master had 
attained to Buddhahood, left the SAkya home out 
of the delight they felt in him, and following the 
Blessed One renounced the world '. So the Blessed 
One admitted them all to the Order.' 

' But was it not Devadatta who, after he had 
entered the Order, raised up a schism within it ? ' 

'Yes. No layman can create a schism, nor a 
sister of the Order, nor one under preparatory in- 
struction, nor a novice of either sex. It must be a 
Bhikkhu, under no disability, who is in full com- 
munion, and a co-resident *.' 

'And what Karma does a schismatical person 
gain? 

' A Karma that continues to act for a Kalpa (a 
very long period of time).' 

' What then, Nagasena ! Was the Buddha aware 
that Devadatta after being admitted to the Order 
would raise up a schism, and having done so would 
suffer torment in purgatory for a Kalpa ? ' 

' Yes, the Tathagata knew that' 

' But, Nagasena, if that be so, then the statement 
that the Buddha was kind and pitiful, that he sought 
after the good of others, that he was the remover of 
that which works harm, the provider of that which 
works well to all beings— that statement must be 
wrong. If it be not so — if he knew not that Deva- 

1 Htna/i-kumbure' takes kula as an ablative. 

* These are all termini technici in Buddhist canon law. 
The meaning is that other divisions in the Order do not amount 
technically to schism. See the Aullavagga VII, i, 27, &c. 

M 2 



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1 64 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 1, 29. 

datta after he had been admitted to the Order would 
stir up a schism — then he cannot have been omni- 
scient. This other double-pointed dilemma is put 
to you. Unravel this tough skein, break up the 
argument of the adversaries. In future times it will 
be hard to find Bhikkhus like to you in wisdom. 
Herein then show your skill ! ' 

29. ' The Blessed One, O king, was both full of 
mercy and had all knowledge. It was when the 
Blessed One in his mercy and wisdom considered 
the life history of Devadatta that he perceived how, 
having heaped up Karma on Karma, he would pass 
for an endless series of Kalpas from torment to 
torment, and from perdition to perdition. And the 
Blessed One knew also that the infinite Karma of 
that man would, because he had entered the Order, 
become finite, and the sorrow caused by the pre- 
vious Karma would also therefore become limited. 
[109] But that if that foolish person were not to 
enter the Order then he would continue to heap up 
Karma which would endure for a Kalpa. And it 
was because he knew that that, in his mercy, he 
admitted him to the Order.' 

' Then, Nagasena, the Buddha first wounds a man 
and then pours oil on the wound, first throws a man 
down a precipice and then reaches out to him an 
assisting hand, first kills him and then seeks to give 
him life, first gives pain and then adds a subsequent 
joy to the pain he gave.' 

' The Tathagata, O king, wounds people but to 
their good, he casts people down but to their profit, 
he kills people but to their advantage. Just as 
mothers and fathers, O king, hurt their children and 
even knock them down, thinking the while of their 



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IV, t, 30. DEVADATTA. 1 65 

good ; so by whatsoever method an increase in the 
virtue of living things can be brought about, by that 
method does he contribute to their good. If Deva- 
datta, O king, had not entered the Order, then as a 
layman he would have laid up much Karma leading 
to states of woe, and so passing for hundreds of thou- 
sands of Kalpas from torment to misery, and from 
one state of perdition to another, he would have 
suffered constant pain. It was knowing that, that in 
his mercy, the Blessed One admitted Devadatta to 
the Order. It was at the thought that by renounc- 
ing the world according to His doctrine Devadatta's 
sorrow would become finite that, in his mercy, he 
adopted that means of making his heavy sorrow light. 
30. ' As a man of influence, O king, by the power 
of his wealth or reputation or prosperity or birth, 
when a grievous penalty has been imposed by the 
king on some friend or relative of his, would get 
it made light by the ability arising from the trust 
reposed in him ; [110] just so did the Blessed One, 
by admitting him to the Order, and by the efficacy 
of the influence of righteousness and meditation and 
wisdom and emancipation of heart, make light the 
heavy sorrow of Devadatta, who would have had to 
suffer many hundreds of thousands of Kalpas. As a 
clever physician and surgeon, O king, would make 
a grievous sickness light by the aid of a powerful 
medicinal drug, just so did the Blessed One, in his 
knowledge of the right means to an end, admit 
Devadatta to the Order and thus make his grievous 
pain light by the aid of the medicine of the Dhamma, 
strong by the power of mercy 1 . Was then, O king, 

' KaruMabalopatthaddha. Compare Gataka, vol. i, verse 
267, and Sutta Vibhanga I, 10, 7. 



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1 66 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 1, 31. 

the Blessed One guilty of any wrong in that he 
turned Devadatta from being a man of much sorrow 
into being a man of less sorrow ? ' 

' No indeed, Sir. He committed no wrong, not 
even in the smallest degree V 

* Then accept this, great king, to the full as the 
reason for which the Blessed One admitted Deva- 
datta to the Order.' 

31. ' Hear another and further reason, O king, for 
the Blessed One's having admitted Devadatta. Sup- 
pose men were to seize and hurry before the king 
some wicked robber, saying : " This is the wicked 
robber, your Majesty. Inflict upon him such punish- 
ment as you think fit ! " And thereupon the king were 
to say to them : " Take this robber then, my men, 
outside the town, and there on the place of execu- 
tion cut off his head." And they in obedience to his 
orders were to take that man accordingly towards the 
place of execution. And some man who was high 
in office near the king, and of great reputation and 
wealth and property, whose word was held of weight*, 
and whose influence was great, should see him. 
And he were to have pity on him, and were to say to 
those men : " Stay, good fellows. What good will 
cutting off his head do to you ? Save him alive, 
and cut off only a hand or a foot. I will speak on 
his behalf to the king." And they at the word of 
that influential person were to do so. Now would 
the officer who had acted so towards him have been 
a benefactor to that robber ?' 



' Gaddflhanam pi. It is the Sanskrit dadrflghna. 
* Adeyya-va^ano. See my note, A'ullavagga VI, 4, 8, and 
also Puggala Pa##atti III, 12, and Paflfo Gad Dipana, 98. 



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IV, I, 32. DEVADATTA. 1 67 

' He would have saved his life, Sir. And having 
done that, what would he not have done ? ' 

' But would he have done no wrong on account of 
the pain the man suffered [111] when his hand or foot 
was cut off ? ' 

' The pain the thief suffered, Sir, was his own 
fault. But the man who saved his life did him no 
harm.' 

'Just so, great king, was it in his mercy that the 
Blessed One admitted Devadatta, with the know- 
ledge that by that his sorrow would be mitigated.' 

32. ' And Devadatta's sorrow, O king, was miti- 
gated. For Devadatta at the moment of his death 
took refuge in Him for the rest of his existences 
when he said : 

"In him, who of the best is far the best 1 , 
The god of gods, the guide of gods and men, 
Who see'th all, and bears the hundred marks 
Of goodness, — 'tis in him I refuge take 
Through all the lives that I may have to live." 

2 ' If you divide this Kalpa, O king, into six parts, 
it was at the end of the first part that Devadatta 
created schism in the Order. After he has suffered 
the other five in purgatory he will be released, and 
will become a Pa^^eka-Buddha 8 under the name 
of A/Missara.' 

'Great is the gift bestowed, Nagasena, by the 
Blessed One on Devadatta. In that the Tathagata 

1 Literally, ' is the best of these eight ' — the eight being those 
walking in the Excellent Way, the four magga-samangino and 
the four phala-samahgino. See Puggala Pantfatti VIII, 1. 

* The Sinhalese inserts a paragraph here not found in Mr. 
Trenckner's text 

' See above, p. 158. 



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1 68 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 1, 33. 

has caused him to attain to the state of a Pa^ieka- 
Buddha, what has he not done for him ? ' 

' But inasmuch as Devadatta, O king, having 
made a schism in the Order, suffers pain in purgatory, 
has not therefore the Blessed One done him wrong?' 

' No, Sir. That is Devadatta's own fault ; and 
the Blessed One who mitigated his suffering has 
done him no harm.' 

'Then accept this, O king, to the full as the 
reason for the Blessed One admitting Devadatta to 
the Order. 

33. ' Hear another and further reason, O king, 
for his having done so. [112] Suppose in treating a 
wound full of matter and blood, in whose grievous 
hollow the weapon which caused it remained, which 
stank of putrid flesh, and was made worse by the pain 
that varied with constantly changing symptoms, by 
variations in temperature, and by the union of the 
three humours, — windy, bilious, and phlegmatic *, — 
an able physician and surgeon were to anoint it with 
a rough, sharp, bitter, stinging ointment, to the end 
that the inflammation should be allayed. And when 
the inflammation had gone down, and the wound 
had become sweet, suppose he were then to cut into 
it with a lancet, and burn it with caustic. And when 
he had cauterised it, suppose he were to prescribe 
an alkaline wash, and anoint it with some drug to 
the end that the wound might heal up, and the sick 
man recover his health — now tell me, O king, would 
it be out of cruelty that the surgeon thus smeared 
with ointment, and cut with the lancet, and cauterised 

c 

1 The interpretation of some of the medical terms in this para- 
graph is very uncertain. See pp. 134, 252, 304 of the text. 



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IV.1,34^ DEVADATTA. 1 69 

with the stick of caustic, and administered a salty 
wash ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir ; it would be with kindness in 
his heart, and intent on the man's weal, that he 
would do all those things.' 

' And the feelings of pain produced by his efforts 
to heal — would not the surgeon be guilty of any 
wrong in respect of them ?' 

' How so ? Acting with kind intent and for the 
man's weal, how could he therein incur a wrong ? 
It is of heavenly bliss rather that that kindly surgeon 
would be worthy.' 

'Just so, great king, was it in his mercy that the 
Blessed One admitted Devadatta, to the end to 
release him from, pain.' 

34. ' Hear another and further reason, O king, 
why the Blessed One did so. Suppose a man had 
been pierced by a thorn. And another man with 
kindly intent and for his good were to cut round the 
place with another sharp thorn or with a lancet, and 
the blood flowing the while, were to extract that 
thorn. Now would it be out of cruelty that he 
acted so ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir. For he acted with kindly 
intent, and for the man's good. And if he had not 
done so the man might have died, or might have 
suffered such pain that he would have been nigh 
to death.' 

' Just even so, great king, was it of his mercy that 
the Tathagata admitted Devadatta, to the end to 
release him of his pain. If he had not done so 
[113] Devadatta would have suffered torment in 
purgatory through a succession of existences, through 
hundreds of thousands of Kalpas.' 



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1 70 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 1, 35. 

' Yes, Nagasena, the Tathagata turned Devadatta, 
who was being carried down with the flood, with his 
head against the stream ; he again pointed out the 
road to Devadatta when he was lost in the jungle ; 
he gave a firm foothold to Devadatta when he was 
falling down the precipice: he restored Devadatta 
to peace when he was swallowed up of desolation. 
But the reason and the meaning of these things could 
no one have pointed out, Nagasena, unless he were 
wise as you ! ' 

[Here ends the dilemma about Devadatta.] 



[vessantara's earthquake.] 

35. 'Venerable Nagasena, the Blessed One said 
thus : " There are these eight causes, O Bhikkhus, 
proximate or remote, for a mighty earthquake 1 ." 
This is an inclusive statement, a statement which 
leaves no room for anything to be supplemented, a 
statement to which no gloss can be added. There 
can be no ninth reason for an earthquake. If there 
were, the Blessed One would have mentioned it. It 
is because there is no other, that he left it unnoticed. 
But we find another, and a ninth reason, when we are 
told that on Vessantara's giving his mighty largesse 
the earth shook seven times 2 . If, Nagasena, there 
are eight causes for an earthquake, then what we hear 
of the earthquake at Vessantara's largesse is false. 
And if that is true, then the statement as to the eight 



1 From the Book of the Great Decease, III, 13, translated at p. 45 
of my ' Buddhist Suttas,' vol. xi in this series. 
' See the Vessantara Gataka, and compare Gitaka I, p. 74. 



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IV, 1,36. VESSANTARA. I7I 

causes of earthquakes is false. This double-headed 
question, too, is subtle, hard to unravel, dark, and 
profound. It is now put to you. [114] No one of 
less knowledge can solve it, only one wise as you.' 

36. 'The Blessed One made the statement you 
refer to, O king, and yet the earth shook seven 
times at Vessantara's largesse. But that was out of 
season, it was an isolated occurrence, it was not 
included in the eight usual causes, and was not 
therefore reckoned as one of them. Just, O king, 
as there are three kinds of well-known rains reckoned 
in the world — that of the rainy season, that of the 
winter months, and that of the two months AsaMa 
and Savana. If, besides these, any other rain falls, 
that is not reckoned among the usual rains, but is 
called " a rain out of season." And again, O king, 
just as there are five hundred rivers which flow down 
from the Himalayas, but of these ten only are 
reckoned in enumerations of rivers — the Ganges, 
the Jumna, the Aiiravati, the Sarabhu, the Mahi, 
the Indus, the Sarasvatl, the Vetravat!, the Vita/»sa, 
and the Aandabhaga — the others not being included 
in the catalogue because of their intermittent flow 
of water. And again, O king, just as there are a 
hundred or two of officers under the king, but only 
six of them are reckoned as officers of state — the 
commander-in-chief, the prime minister, and the chief 
judge, and the high treasurer, and the bearer of the 
sunshade of state, and the state sword-bearer. And 
why ? Because of their royal prerogatives. The 
rest are not reckoned, they are all called simply 
officers. [115] Just as in all these cases, great 
king, the seven times repeated earthquake at the 
largesse of Vessantara was, as an isolated and extra- 



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172 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 1, 37. 

ordinary occurrence, and distinct from the eight usual 
ones, not reckoned among those eight causes.' 

37. ' Now have you heard, O king, in the history 
of our faith of any act of devotion being done so as 
to receive its recompense even in this present life, 
the fame of which has reached up to the gods ? ' 

' Yes, Lord, I have heard of such. There are seven 
cases of such actions.' 

' Who were the people who did those things ?' 

' Sumana the garland maker, and Eka-safeka the 
brahman, and Pu»«a the hired servant, and Mallika 
the queen, and the queen known as the mother of 
Gopala, and Suppiya the devoted woman, and Pu««a 
the slave-girl. It was these seven who did acts of 
devotion which bare fruit even in this life, and the 
fame of which reached even to the gods.' 

' And have you heard of others, O king, who, even 
in their human body, mounted up to the blessed 
abode of the great Thirty-three ?' 

' Yes, I have heard, too, of them.' 

• And who were they ?' 

' Guttila the musician, and Sadhina the king, and 
king Nimi, and king Mandhata — these four. Long 
ago was it done, this glorious deed and difficult.' 

' But have you ever heard, O king, of the earth 
shaking, either now or in the past, and either once 
or twice or thrice, when a gift had been given ?' 

' No, Sir, that I have not heard of.' 

'And I too, O king — though I have received the 
traditions, and been devoted to study, and to hearing 
the law, and to learning by heart, and to the acquire- 
ments of discipleship, and though I have been ready 
to learn, and to ask and to answer questions, and to 
sit at the feet of teachers-^-I too have never heard 



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IV, i, 37. VESSANTARA. 1 73 

of such a thing, except only in the case of the splendid 
gift of Vessantara the glorious king. And between 
the times of Kassapa the Blessed One, and of 
the Blessed One the Sakya sage, there have rolled 
by hundreds of thousands of years, but in all that 
period I have heard of no such case. [116] It is at no 
common effort, O king, at no ordinary struggle, that 
the great earth is moved. It is when overborne by 
the weight of righteousness, overpowered by the 
burden of the goodness of acts which testify of 
absolute purity, that, unable to support it, the broad 
earth quakes and trembles and is moved. Then it 
is as when a wagon is overladen with a too heavy 
weight, and the nave and the spokes are split, and 
the axletree is broken in twain. Then it is as when 
the heavens, overspread with the waters of the 
tempest driven by the wind, and overweighted with 
the burden of the heaped-up rain-clouds, roar and 
creak and rage at the onset of the whirlwind. 
Thus was it, great king, that the broad earth, unable 
to support the unwonted burden of the heaped-up 
and wide-reaching force of king Vessantara's lar- 
gesse, quaked and trembled and was moved. For 
the heart of king Vessantara was not turned in the 
way of lust, nor of ill-will, nor of dullness, nor of 
pride, nor of delusion, nor of sin, nor of disputation, 
nor of discontent, but it was turned mightily to 
generosity. And thinking : " Let all those who 
want, and who have not yet come, now arrive ! Let 
all who come receive whate'er they want, and be 
filled with satisfaction ! " it was on giving, ever and 
without end, that his mind was set And on these 
ten conditions of heart, O king, was his mind too 
fixed — on self-control, and on inward calm, and on 



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174 TH E QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, r, 38. 

long-suffering, and on self-restraint, and on temper- 
ance, and on voluntary subjugation to meritorious 
vows, and on freedom from all forms of wrath and 
cruelty, and on truthfulness, and on purity of heart. 
He had abandoned, O king, all seeking after the 
satisfaction of his animal lusts, he had overcome all 
craving after a future life, his strenuous effort was 
set only towards the higher life. He had given up, 
O king, the caring for himself, and devoted himself 
thenceforth to caring for others alone. His mind 
was fixed immovably on the thought : " How can I 
make all beings to be at peace, healthy, and wealthy, 
and long lived ?" [117] And when, O king, he 
was giving things away, he gave not for the sake of 
rebirth in any glorious state, he gave not for the 
sake of wealth, nor of receiving gifts in return, nor 
of flattery, nor of long life for himself, nor of high 
birth, nor of happiness, nor of power, nor of fame, nor 
of offspring either of daughters or of sons — but it was 
for the sake of supreme wisdom and of the treasure 
thereof that he gave gifts so immense, so immeasur- 
able, so unsurpassed. It was when he had attained 
to that supreme wisdom that he uttered the verse : 

"G^li, my son, and the Black Antelope, 
My daughter, and my queen, my wife, Maddl, 
I gave them all away without a thought — 
And 'twas for Buddhahood I did this thing 1 .'" 

38. ' The angry man, O king, did the great king 
Vessantara conquer by mildness, and the wicked 
man by goodness, and the covetous by generosity, 



1 From the JTariyS Pi/aka I, ix, 52. See Dr. Morris's edition 
for the Pali Text Society, p. 81. 



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IV, I, 38. VESSANTARA. 1 75 

and the speaker of falsehood by truth, and all evil 
did he overcome by righteousness *. When he was 
thus giving away — he who was seeking after right- 
eousness, who had made righteousness his aim — 
then were the great winds, on which the earth rests 
below, agitated by the full force of the power of the 
influence that resulted from his generosity, and little 
by little, one by one, the great winds began to blow 
confusedly, and up and down and towards each side 
the earth swayed, and the mighty trees rooted in 
the soil * began to totter, and masses of cloud were 
heaped together in the sky, and terrible winds arose 
laden with dust, and the heavens rushed together, 
and hurricanes blew with violent blasts, and a great 
and terrible mighty noise was given forth. And at 
the raging of those winds, the waters little by little 
began to move, and at the movement of the waters 
the great fish and the scaly creatures were disturbed, 
and the waves began to roll in double breakers, and 
the beings that dwell in the waters were seized with 
fear and as the breakers rushed together in pairs 
the roar of the ocean grew loud, and the spray was 
lashed into fury, and garlands of foam arose, and 
the great ocean opened to its depths, and the waters 
rushed hither and thither, the furious crests of their 
waves meeting this way and that ; and the Asuras, 
and Garu/as, and Yakkhas, and Nagas 3 shook with 
fear, and thought in their alarm : " What now ! How 
now ! is the great ocean being turned upside down ? " 

1 On this sentiment Mr. Trenckner calls attention to the 
analogous phrases at Dhammapada, verse 223. 

* Sinapatta: which the Sinhalese renders po/o talehi kal 
gewf patra wce/fma/a pceminiyawu wr/'kshayo. 

' Fabulous beings supposed to occupy these fabulous waters. 



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I76 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 1, 39. 

and sought, with terrified hearts, for a way of escape. 
And as the water on which it rests l was troubled 
and agitated, then the broad earth began to shake, 
and with it the mountain ranges and the ocean 
depths, [118] and Sineru began to revolve, and 
its rocky mountain crest became twisted. And at 
the trembling of the earth, the serpents, and mun- 
gooses, and cats, and jackals, and boars, and deer, 
and birds became greatly distressed, and the Yakkhas 
of inferior power wept, while those of greater power 
were merry.' 

39. 'Just, O king, as when a huge and mighty 
cauldron 2 is placed in an oven full of water, and 
crowded with grains of rice, then the fire burning 
beneath heats first of all the cauldron, and when 
that has become hot the water begins to boil, and 
as the water boils the grains of rice are heated and 
dive hither and thither in the water, and a mass of 
bubbles arises, and a garland of foam is formed — ■ 
just so, O king, king Vessantara gave away what-> 
soever is in the world considered most difficult to 
bestow, and by reason of the nature of his generosity 
the great winds beneath were unable to refrain from 
being agitated throughout, and on the great winds 
being thrown into confusion the waters were shaken, 
and on the waters being disturbed the broad earth 
trembled, and so then the winds and the waters 
and the earth became all three, as it were, of one 
accord by the immense and powerful influence that 

1 This conception of the earth resting on water and the water on 
air is Indian, and forms no part of distinctively Buddhist teaching. 

* Mahati-mahS-pariyogo; not in Childers nor in the San- 
skrit Petersburg Dictionary. Hina/i-kumbur£ renders it itd mahat 
wu mahd bhS^anayak, 



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IV, 1 , 40. VESSANTARA. I 7 f 

resulted from that mighty giving. And there was 
never another giving, O king, which had such 
power as that generosity of the great king 
Vessantara. 

40. 'And just, O king, as there are many gems of 
value found in the earth — the sapphire, and the great 
sapphire, and the wish-conferring gem, and the cat's 
eye, and the flax gem \ and the Acacia gem 2 , and 
the entrancing gem, and the favourite of the sun 3 , 
and the favourite of the moon *, and the crystal, and 
the ka^opakkamaka 5 , and the topaz, and the 
ruby, and the Ma sir a stone* — but the glorious gem 
of the king of kings is acknowledged to be the chief 
of all these and surpassing all, for the sheen of that 
jewel, O king, spreads round about for a league on 
every side 7 — just so, O king, of all the gifts that 

1 Ummd-puppha; rendered diya-me»<rtri-pushpa in the 
Sinhalese. Gough gives diyameneri as a plant 'commelina 
cucullata.' 

* Sirisa-puppha ; rendered mara-pushpa in the Sinhalese, 
mara being the seed of the 'adenanthera pavonia.' 

* Suriya-kanto, which the Sinhalese merely repeats. 

4 iiTanda-kanta; and so also in the Sinhalese. These are mythic 
gems, supposed to be formed out of the rays of the sun and moon 
respectively, and visible only when they shine. 

6 The Sinhalese has ka^opakramaya, which is not in 
Clough. 

' Masira-galla, which the Sinhalese renders by masara- 
galya, which Bohtlingk-Roth think is sapphire or smaragd, and 
Clough renders ' emerald,' and the commentary on the Abhidhana 
Padlpiki, quoted by Childers, says is a stone produced in the hill 
of Masira (otherwise unknown). 

On similar lists of gems elsewhere see the Aullavagga IX, 1, 3, 
and my note at pp. 249, 250 of the ' Buddhist Suttas ' (vol. xi of 
the ' Sacred Books of the East '). 

7 So also in the Maha-Sudassana Sutta I, 32, translated in the 
' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 256. Compare above, p. 35 of the text. 

[35] N 



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178 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, r, 4?. 

have ever been given upon earth, even the greatest 
and the most unsurpassed, that giving of the good 
king Vessantara is acknowledged to surpass them 
all. And it was on the giving of that gift, O king, 
that the broad earth shook seven times V 

41. 'A marvellous thing is it, Nagasena, of the 
Buddhas, and a most wonderful, that the Tathagata 
even when a Bodisat (in the course of becoming a 
Buddha) [119] was so unequalled in the world, so 
mild, so kind, and held before him aims so high, 
and endeavours so grand. You have made evident, 
Nagasena, the might of the Bodisats, a most clear 
light have you cast upon the perfection of the Con- 
querors, you have shown how, in the whole world of 
gods and men, a Tathagata, as he continues the 
practice of his noble life, is the highest and the best. 
Well spoken, venerable Nagasena. The doctrine of 
the Conqueror has been exalted, the perfection of 
the Conqueror has been glorified, the knot of the 
arguments of the adversaries has been unravelled, 
the jar of the theories of the opponents has been 
broken in pieces, the dilemma so profound has been 
made clear, the jungle has been turned into open 
country, the children of the Conqueror have received 
the desire of their hearts 2 . It is so, as you say, O 
best of the leaders of schools, and I accept that 
which you have said ! ' 



[Here ends the dilemma as to the earthquake at 
Vessantara's gift.] 

1 There is here a long paragraph in the Sinhalese omitted in 
the Pali. 
* Nibbahana; rendered abhiwarddhiya in the Sinhalese. 



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IV, i, 4a. KING SIVI. I 79 



[KING SIVI 1 .] 

42. ' Venerable Nagasena, your people say thus : 
" King Sivi gave his eyes to the man who begged 
them of him, and when he had thus become blind, 
new eyes were given to him from heaven 2 ." This 
statement is unpalatable 3 , it lays its speaker open 
to rebuke, it is faulty. For it is said in the Sutta : 
" When the cause has been utterly destroyed, when 
there is no longer any cause, any basis left, then the 
divine eye cannot arise *." So if he gave his eyes 
away, the statement that he received new (divine) 
ones must be false : and if divine eyes arose to him, 
then the statement that he gave his eyes away must 
be false. This dilemma too is a double-pointed 
one, more knotty than a knot, more piercing than an 
arrow, more confusing than a jungle. It is now put 
to you. Rouse up in yourself the desire to accom- 
plish the task that is set to you, to the refutation of 
the adversaries ! ' 

1 The story is given at length in the Sivi Gataka, No. 499 (vol. 
iv, pp. 401-412 of Professor Fausboll's edition). 

* There is nothing in the text of the (Jataka (p. 410) of the new 
eyes being ' divine ' or ' from heaven.' There new, ordinary eyes 
arose to him as the result of his virtue. 

* Sa-kasa/a«. Kasa/a cannot mean simply 'insipid' as 
Dr. Edward Mailer suggests at p. 43 of his ' Pali Grammar,' for it 
is opposed to dullness, insipidity (manda) at Anguttara II, 5, 5. 
It must mean there ' wrong, not only by omission, but by com- 
mission.' Compare its use in the Dhammapada Commentary, 
p. 275; G&taka I, 108, II, 97; and in the commentary on the 
Puggala IV, 24. Mr. Trenckner points out in his note that it is 
often written saka/a, and is no doubt the same as the Sanskrit 
word so spelt, and given by Wilson. (It is not in Bohtlingk-Roth.) 

4 I don't know which Sutta is referred to. 

N 2 



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l8o THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 1, 43, 

' King Sivi gave his eyes away, O king. Harbour 
no doubt on that point. And in stead thereof divine 
eyes were produced for him. Neither on that point 
should you harbour doubt.' 

' But then, Nagasena, can the divine eye arise 
when the cause of it has been utterly destroyed, 
when no cause for it, no basis, remains ?' 

' Certainly not, O king.' 

' What then is the reason [120] by which in this 
case it arose, notwithstanding that its cause had been 
utterly destroyed, and no cause for it, no basis, re- 
mained. Come now. Convince me of the reason of 
this thing.' 

43. 'What then, O king? Is there in the 
world such a thing as Truth, by the asseveration 
of which true believers can perform the Act of 
Truth 1 ?' 

'Yes, Lord, there is. And by it true believers 
make the rain to fall, and fire to go out *, and ward 
off the effects of poison, and accomplish many other 
things they want to do.' 

' Then, great king, that fits the case, that meets 
it on all fours. It was by the power of Truth that 
those divine eyes were produced for Sivi the king. 
By the power of the Truth the divine eye arose 
when no other cause was present, for the Truth itself 
was, in that case, the cause of its production. Sup- 



1 This paragraph is very different in the Sinhalese, and much 
longer than the P51i. 

* See the beautiful story of the Holy Quail (translated in my 
'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 302), where even so weak a creature as a 
baby quail is able, by such a mystic Act of Truth, to drive back the 
great and powerful Agni, the god of fire, whom the Brahmans so 
much feared and worshipped. 



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IV, I, 45- KING SIVI. l8l 



pose, O king, any Siddha (accomplished one 1 ) on 
intoning a charm 2 , and saying : " Let a mighty rain 
now fall ! " were to bring about a heavy rainfall by 
the intoning of his charm — would there in that case 
be any cause for rain accumulated in the sky by 
which the rain could be brought about ?' 

' No, Sir. The charm itself would be the cause.' 
'Just so, great king, in the case put. There would 
be no ordinary cause. The Truth itself would be 
sufficient reason for the growth of the divine eye ! ' 

44. ' Now suppose, O king, a Siddha were to 
intone a charm, and say : " Now let the mighty 
blazing, raging mass of fire go back ! " and the 
moment the charm were repeated it were to retreat 
— would there be any cause laid by which would 
work that result ?' 

' No, Sir. The charm itself would be the cause.' 
'Just so, great king, would there in our case be no 

ordinary cause. The power of the Truth would be 

sufficient cause in itself!' 

45. ' Now suppose, O king, one of those Siddhas 
were to intone a charm, [121] and were then to say : 
" Let this malignant poison become as a healing 
drug ! " and the moment the charm were repeated 
that would be so — would there be any cause in 
reserve for that effect to be produced ?' 

' Certainly not, Sir. The charm itself would cause 
the warding off of that malignant poison.' 

' Just so, great king, without any ordinary cause 
the Truth itself was, in king Sivi's case, a sufficient 
reason for the reproduction of his eyes.' 

1 ' One who knows a powerful charm (or perhaps Vedic verse, 
» mantra),' says Hfna/i-kumbure\ 

* Sa**a, literally truth. (Satya-gayana in the Sinhalese.) 



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1 82 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, I, 46. 

46. ' Now there is no other cause, O king, for the 
attainment of the four Noble Truths. It is only by 
means of an Act of Truth that they are attained. In 
the land of China, O king, there is a king of China, 
who when he wants to charm the great ocean, per- 
forms at intervals of four months a solemn Act of 
Truth, and then on his royal chariot drawn by lions, 
he enters a league's distance into the great ocean. 
Then in front of the head of his chariot the mighty 
waves roll back, and when he returns they flow once 
more over the spot. But could the ocean be so 
drawn back by the ordinary bodily power of all gods 
and men combined ? ' 

' Sir, even the water in a small tank could not be 
so made to retire, how much less the waters of the 
great ocean ! ' 

' By this know then the force of Truth. There is 
no place to which it does not reach.' 

47. ' When Asoka the righteous ruler, O king, as 
he stood one day at the city of Pa7aliputta in the 
midst of the townsfolk and the country people, of his 
officers and his servants, and his ministers of state, 
beheld the Ganges river as it rolled along filled up 
by freshets from the hills, full to the brim and over- 
flowing — that mighty stream five hundred leagues 
in length, and a league in breadth — he said to his 
officers : " Is there any one, my good friends, who 
is able to make this great Ganges flow backwards 
and up stream ? " 

' " Nay, Sire, impossible," said they. 

' Now a certain courtesan, Bindumati by name, was 
in the crowd there at the river side, [122] and she 
heard people repeat the question that the king had 
asked. Then she said to herself: " Here am I, a 



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IV, I, 47- KING SIVI. 183 

harlot, in this city of Pa/aliputta, by the sale of my 
body do I gain my livelihood, I follow the meanest 
of vocations. Let the king behold the power of an 
Act of Truth performed even by such as I." And she 
performed an Act of Truth '. And that moment 
the mighty Ganges, roaring and raging, rolled back, 
up stream, in the sight of all the people ! 

' Then when the king heard the din and the noise 
of the movement of the waves of the whirlpools of 
the mighty Ganges, amazed, and struck with awe 
and wonder, he said to his officers : " How is this, 
that the great Ganges is flowing backwards ? " 

' And they told him what had happened. Then 
filled with emotion the king went himself in haste 
and asked the courtesan : " Is it true what they say, 
that it is by your Act of Truth that this Ganges has 
been forced to flow backwards ? " 

' " Yes, Sire," said she. 

' And the king asked : " How have you such 
power in the matter ? Or who is it who takes 
your words to heart (and carries them out)? By 
what authority is it that you, insignificant as you 
are 2 , have been able to make this mighty river 
flow backwards ? " 

' And she replied : " It is by the power of Truth, 
great king." 

' But the king said : " How can that power be 
in you — you, a woman of wicked and loose life, 



1 That is to say, in the words of the Quail story (loc. cit. p. 305), 
she ' called to mind the attributes of the Buddhas who had passed 
away, and made a solemn asseveration of the faith' that she had in 
the truth they had taught. 

4 Anummatto, which the Sinhalese translates as a feminine. 



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1 84 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, I, 48. 



devoid of virtue, under no restraint \ sinful, who 
have overstepped all limits, and are full of transgres- 
sion, and live on the plunder of fools ? " 

' " It is true, O king, what you say. That is just 
the kind of creature I am. But even in such a one 
as I so great is the power of the Act of Truth that I 
could turn the whole world of gods and men upside 
down by it." 

' Then the king said : " What is this Act of Truth ? 
Come now, let me hear about it." 

' " Whosoever, O king, gives me gold — be he a 
noble or a brahman or a tradesman or a servant — I 
regard them all alike. When I see he is a noble 
I make no distinction in his favour. If I know him 
to be a slave I despise him not Free alike from 
fawning and from dislike do I do service to him who 
has bought me. This, your Majesty, is the basis of 
the Act of Truth by the force of which I turned the 
Ganges back." ' 

48. ' Thus, O king, is it that there is nothing 
which those who are stedfast to the truth may not 
enjoy. And so king Sivi gave his eyes away to 
him who begged them of him, [123] and he received 
eyes from heaven, and that happened by his Act of 
Truth. But what is said in the Sutta that when the 
eye of flesh is destroyed, and the cause of it, the 
basis of it, is removed, then can no divine eye arise, 
that is only said of the eye, the insight, that arises 
out of contemplation. And thus, O king, should 
you take it.' 

' Well said, Nagasena ! You have admirably 

1 A'AinnikSya. Compare GStaka II, 114, and the Sutta 
Vibhanga on Pa&ttiya 26. 



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IV, 1,55- DURATION OF THE FAITH. 1 85 

solved the dilemma I put to you ; you have rightly 
explained the point in which I tried to prove you 
wrong; you have thoroughly overcome the adver- 
sary. The thing is so, and I accept it thus V 



[Here ends the dilemma as to king Sivi's Act 
of Truth.] 



[the dilemma as to conception. 
49. This dilemma goes into details which can be 
best consulted in the Pali.} 



[the duration of the faith.] 

55. ' Venerable Nagasena, it has been said by the 
Blessed One : " But now the good law, Ananda, will 
only stand fast for five hundred years \" But on 
the other hand the Blessed One declared, just before 

1 This idea of the power of an Act of Truth which N&gasena 
here relies on is most interesting and curious. The exact time at 
which it was introduced into Buddhism is as yet unknown. It has 
not been found in the Pi/akas themselves, and is probably an incor- 
poration of an older, pre-Buddhistic, belief. The person carrying 
it out is supposed to have some goodness, to call that virtue (and 
perhaps, as in the case of the quail, the goodness of the Buddhas 
also) to mind, and then to wish something, and that thing, however 
difficult, and provided there is nothing cruel in it, then comes to 
pass. It is analogous to the mystic power supposed to reside in 
names. Childers very properly points out that we have a very 
remarkable instance of an Act of Truth (though a very un-Buddhistic 
one) in the Hebrew book of the Kings II. i. 10 : 'And Elijah 
answered and said to the captain of fifty : " If I be a man of God, 
then let fire come down from heaven, and consume thee and thy 
fifty ! " And there came down fire from heaven, and consumed 
him and his fifty.' A great point, both in this legend and in the 
story of the quail, is that the power of nature to be overcome is one 
looked upon by the Brahmans as divine. 

* .Xullavagga X, 1, 6, translated in 'Vinaya Texts,' vol. iii,p. 325. 



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1 86 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, I, 56. 

his death, in response to the question put by Su- 
bhadda the recluse : " But if in this system the 
brethren live the perfect life, then the world would 
not be bereft of Arahats 1 ." This last phrase is 
absolute, inclusive ; it cannot be explained away. 
If the first of these statements be correct, the second 
is misleading, if the second be right the first must be 
false. [131] This too is a double-pointed question, 
more confused than the jungle, more powerful than 
a strong man, more knotty than a knot. It is now 
put to you. Show the extent of the power of your 
knowledge, like a leviathan in the midst of the sea.' 

56. ' The Blessed One, O king, did make both 
those statements you have quoted. But they are 
different one from the other both in the spirit and 
in the letter. The one deals with the limit of the 
duration of the doctrine 2 , the other with the prac- 
tice of a religious life — two things widely distinct, as 
far removed one from the other as the zenith is from 
the surface of the earth, as heaven is from purga- 
tory, as good is from evil, and as pleasure is from 
pain. But though that be so, yet lest your enquiry 
should be vain, I will expound the matter further in 
its essential connection.' 

57. 'When the Blessed One said that the good 
law 3 would only endure for five hundred years, he 
said so declaring the time of its destruction, limiting 
the remainder of its existence. For he said : " The 
good law, Ananda, would endure for a thousand 
years if no women had been admitted to the 



1 Book of the Great Decease, V, 6a, translated in 'Buddhist 
Suttas,' p. 108. 
* Sasana. * Saddhammo. 



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IV, i, 58. DURATION OF THE FAITH. 187 

Order. But now, Ananda, it will only last five 
hundred years." But in so saying, O king, did the 
Blessed One either foretell the disappearance of 
the good law, or throw blame on the clear under- 
standing thereof?' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' Just so. It was a declaration of injury done, an 
announcement of the limit of what remained. As 
when a man whose income had been diminished 
might announce publicly, making sure of what re- 
mained : " So much property have I lost ; so much 
is still left" — [132] so did the Blessed One make 
known to gods and men what remained when he 
announced what had been lost by saying: "The 
good law will now, Ananda, endure for five hun- 
dred years." In so saying he was fixing a limit 
to religion. But when in speaking to Subhadda, 
and by way of proclaiming who were the true 
Sama»as, he said: "But if, in this system, the 
brethren live the perfect life, then the world would 
not be bereft of Arahats " — in so saying he was 
declaring in what religion consisted. You have 
confounded the limitation of a thing with the state- 
ment of what it is. But if you like I will tell you 
what the real connection between the two is. Listen 
carefully, and attend trustfully to what I say.' 

58. ' Suppose, O king, there were a reservoir quite 
full of fresh cool water, overflowing at the brim, but 
limited in size and with an embankment running all 
round it. Now if, when the water had not abated 
in that tank, a mighty cloud were to rain down rain 
continually, and in addition, on to the water already 
in it, would the amount of water in the tank decrease 
or come to an end ?' 



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1 88 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, I, 59. 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' But why not, O king ?' 

' Because of the continual downpour of the rain.' 

'Just so, O king, is the glorious reservoir of the 
good law of the teaching of the Conqueror ever full 
of the clear fresh cool water of the practice of duty 
and virtue and morality and purity of life, and con- 
tinues overflowing all limits even to the very highest 
heaven of heavens. And if the children of the 
Buddha rain down into it continuously, and in 
addition, the rainfall of still further practice of duty 
and virtue and morality and purity of life, then will 
it endure for long, and the world will not be bereft 
of Arahats. This was the meaning of the Master's 
words when he said : " But if, Subhadda, in this 
system the brethren continue in perfectness of life, 
then will the world not be bereft of Arahats." ' 

59. ' Now suppose again, O king, that people were 
to continually supply a mighty fiery furnace with 
dried cow-dung, and dry sticks, and dry leaves — 
would that fire go out ?' 

[133] ' No indeed, Sir. Rather would it blaze 
more fiercely, and burn more brightly.' 

'Just so, O king, does the glorious teaching of 
the Conqueror blaze and shine over the ten thousand 
world systems by the practice of duty and virtue and 
morality and purity of life. And if, O king, in addi- 
tion to that, the children of the Buddha, devoting 
themselves to the five 1 kinds of spiritual exertion, con- 
tinue zealous in effort — if cultivating a longing for the 
threefold discipline, they train themselves therein — 

1 Pa#£a-padhanangani. This is curious. In the Pi/akas 
there are four kinds only. 



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IV, 1, 60. DURATION OF THE FAITH. 1 89 

if without ceasing they carry out to the full the 
conduct that is right, and absolutely avoid all that 
is wrong, and practise righteousness of life — then 
will this glorious doctrine of the Conqueror stand 
more and more stedfast as the years roll on, and 
the world will not be bereft of Arahats. It was 
in reference to this, O king, that the Master spake 
when he said : " But if, Subhadda, in this system the 
brethren continue in perfectness of life, then will the 
world not be bereft of Arahats." ' 

60. ' Again, O king, suppose people were to con- 
tinually polish with fine soft red powder a stainless 
mirror that was already bright and shining, well 
polished, smooth, and glossy, would dirt and dust 
and mud arise on its surface ?' 

' No indeed, Sir. Rather would it become to a 
certainty even more stainless than before.' 

'Just so, O king, is the glorious doctrine of the 
Conqueror stainless by nature, and altogether free 
from the dust and dirt of evil. And if the children 
of the Buddha cleanse it by the virtue arising from 
the shaking off, the eradication of evil, from the 
practice of duty and virtue and morality and purity 
of life, then will this glorious doctrine endure for 
long, and the world will not be bereft of Arahats. It 
was in reference to this that the Blessed One spake 
when he said : " But if, Subhadda, in this system 
the brethren continue in righteousness of life, then 
will not the world be bereft of Arahats." For the 
teaching of the Master, O king, has its root in con- 
duct, has conduct as its essence, and stands fast so 
long as conduct does not decline V 

1 There is a paragraph here in the Sinhalese not found in the 
Pali. 



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I90 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, I, 61. 

61. 'Venerable Nagasena, when you speak of the 
disappearance of the good law, what do you mean 
by its disappearance ?' 

' There are three modes of the disappearance, O 
king, of a system of doctrine. And what are the 
three ? The decline of attainment to an intellectual 
grasp of it, the decline of conduct in accordance with 
it, and the decline of its outward form *. [134] When 
the attainment of it ceases, then even the man who 
conducts himself aright in it has no clear under- 
standing of it. By the decline of conduct the promul- 
gation of the rules of discipline ceases, only the out- 
ward form of the religion remains. When the outward 
form has ceased, the succession of the tradition is 
cut off. These are the three forms of the disap- 
pearance of a system of doctrine.' 

' You have well explained, venerable Nagasena, 
this dilemma so profound, and have made it plain. 
You have loosed the knot ; you have destroyed the 
arguments of the adversary, broken them in pieces, 
proved them wrong — you, O best of the leaders of 
schools !•' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the duration of 
the faith.] 



[the buddha's sinlessness.] 

62. ' Venerable Nagasena, had the Blessed One, 
when he became a Buddha, burnt out all evil in 
himself, or was there still some evil remaining in 
him ?' 

1 Ling a, possibly 'uniform.' Either the Order or the yellow 
robe, for instance, if the system were Buddhism. See below, IV, 
3.2- 



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IV, 1,62. KARMA. 191 

'He had burnt out all evil. There was none left.' 

' But how, Sir ? Did not the Tathagata get hurt 
in his body ? ' 

'Yes, O king. At Ri^agaha a splinter of rock 
pierced his foot \ and once he suffered from dysen- 
tery 2 , and once when the humours of his body were 
disturbed a purge was administered to him s , and once 
when he was troubled with wind the Elder who waited 
on him (that is Ananda) gave him hot water *.' 

' Then, Sir, if the Tathagata, on his becoming a 
Buddha, has destroyed all evil in himself — this other 
statement that his foot was pierced by a splinter, 
that he had dysentery, and so on, must be false. 
But if they are true, then he cannot have been free 
from evil, for there is no pain without Karma. All 
pain has its root in Karma, it is on account of 
Karma that suffering arises 6 . This double-headed 
dilemma is put to you, and you have to solve it.' 

63. ' No, O king. It is not all suffering that has 
its root in Karma. There are eight causes by which 
sufferings arise, by which many beings suffer pain. 
And what are the eight ? Superabundance of wind, 
[135] and of bile, and of phlegm, the union of these 
humours, variations in temperature, the avoiding of 



1 See ATullavagga VII, 3, 9. 

2 See Mahaparinibbana Sutta IV, 21. 
* Mahavagga VIII, 1, 30-33. 

4 This is, no doubt, the occurrence recounted in the Mahavagga 
VI, 17, 1-4. Childers translates vatabadha by 'rheumatism,' 
but I adhere here to the translation adopted there. It is said in 
the Mahavagga that Ananda gave him, not hot water, but gruel. 
But the two are very similar, and in theTheri Githa 185, referring 
to the same event, it is hot water that is mentioned. 

8 That is, there can be no suffering without sin. Compare the 
discussion in St. John's Gospel, ch. ix. 



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192 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, i, 63. 

dissimilarities, external agency, and Karma. From 
each of these there are some sufferings that arise, 
and these are the eight causes by which many beings 
suffer pain. And therein whosoever maintains that 
it is Karma that injures beings, and besides it there 
is no other reason for pain, his proposition is false.' 

' But, Sir, all the other seven kinds of pain have 
each of them also Karma as its origin, for they are 
all produced by Karma.' 

' If, O king, all diseases were really derived from 
Karma then there would be no characteristic marks 
by which they could be distinguished one from the 
other. When the wind is disturbed, it is so in one 
or other of ten ways — by cold, or by heat, or by 
hunger, or by thirst, or by over eating, or by standing 
too long, or by over exertion, or by walking too fast, 
or by medical treatment, or as the result of Karma, 
Of these ten, nine do not act in a past life or in a 
future life, but in one's present existence. There- 
fore it is not right to say that all pain is due to 
Karma. When the bile, O king, is deranged it is 
so in one or other of three ways — by cold, or by heat, 
or by improper food. When the phlegm is dis- 
turbed it is so by cold, or by heat, or by food and 
drink. When either of these three humours are 
disturbed or mixed, it brings about its own special, 
distinctive pain. Then there are the special pains 
arising from variations in temperature, avoidance of 
dissimilarities, and external agency \ And there is 
the act that has Karma as its fruit, and the pain so 
brought about arising from the act done. So what 

1 As was pointed out above, IV, 1, 33, many of these medical 
terms are very doubtful. 



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IV, I, 6S- KARMA. 193 

arises as the fruit of Karma is much less than that 
which arises from other causes. And the ignorant 
go too far [136] when they say that every pain is 
produced as the fruit of Karma. No one without a 
Buddha's insight can fix the extent of the action of 
Karma.' 

64. * Now when the Blessed One's foot was torn 
by a splinter of rock, the pain that followed was not 
produced by any other of the eight causes I have 
mentioned, but only by external agency. For De- 
vadatta, O king, had harboured hatred against the 
Tathagata during a succession of hundreds of thou- 
sands of births 1 . It was in his hatred that he 
seized hold of a mighty mass of rock, and pushed 
it over with the hope that it would fall upon his 
head. But two other rocks came together, and 
intercepted it before it had reached the Tathagata ; 
and by the force of their impact a splinter was torn 
off, and fell upon the Blessed One's foot, and made 
it bleed. Now this pain must have been produced 
in the Blessed One either as the result of his own 
Karma, or of some one else's act. For beyond 
these two there can be no other kind of pain. It is 
as when a seed does not germinate — that must be 
due either to the badness of the soil, or to a defect 
in the seed. Or it is as when food is not digested — 
that must be due either to a defect in the stomach, 
or to the badness of the food.' 

65. ' But although the Blessed One never suffered 
pain which was the result of his own Karma, or 
brought about the avoidance of dissimilarity 2 , yet 

1 So below, IV, 3, 28. 

* Visama-parihara-fa both in the Sinhalese and the Pali. 

[35] O 



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194 TH E QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 1, 66. 

he suffered pain from each of the other six causes. 
And by the pain he could suffer it was not possible 
to deprive him of life. There come to this body of 
ours, O king, compounded of the four elements 1 , 
sensations desirable and the reverse, pleasant and 
unpleasant. Suppose, O king, a clod of earth were 
to be thrown into the air, and to fall again on to the 
ground. Would it be in consequence of any act 
it had previously done that it would so fall ? ' 

' No, Sir. There is no reason in the broad earth 
by which it could experience the result of an act 
either good or eviL It would be by reason of a 
present cause [137] independent of Karma that the 
clod would fall to earth again.' 

' Well, O king, the Tathagata should be regarded 
as the broad earth. And as the clod would fall on 
it irrespective of any act done by it, so also was 
it irrespective of any act done by him that that 
splinter of rock fell upon his foot' 

66. ' Again, O king, men tear up and plough the 
earth. But is that a result of any act previously 
done ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

'Just so with the falling of that splinter. And 
the dysentery which attacked him was in the same 
way the result of no previous act, it arose from the 
union of the three humours. And whatsoever 
bodily disease fell upon him, that had its origin, 
not in Karma, but in one or other of the six causes 
referred to. For it has been said, O king, by the 
Blessed One, by him who is above all gods, in the 
glorious collection called the Sa/«yutta Nikaya in 

1 Water, fire, air, and earth (Spo, te^o, vayo, pa/Aavi). 



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IV, i, 66. KARMA. 1 95 

the prose Sutta, called after Moliya Sivaka : " There 
are certain pains which arise in the world, Sivaka, 
from bilious humour. And you ought to know 
for a certainty which those are, for it is a matter of 
common knowledge in the world which they are. 
But those Samaras and Brahmans, Sivaka, who are 
of the opinion and proclaim the view that what- 
soever pleasure, or pain, or indifferent sensation, 
any man experiences, is always due to a previous 
act — they go beyond certainty, they go beyond 
knowledge, and therein do I say they are wrong. 
And so also of those pains which arise from the 
phlegmatic humour, or from the windy humour, or 
from the union of the three, or from variation in 
temperature, or from avoidance of dissimilarity, [138] 
or from external action, or as the result of Karma. I n 
each case you should know for a certainty which those 
are, for it is a matter of common knowledge which 
they are. But those Samawas or Brahmans who are 
of the opinion or the view that whatsoever pleasure, 
or pain, or indifferent sensation, any man may expe- 
rience, that is always due to a previous act — they 
go beyond certainty, they go beyond common know- 
ledge. And therein do I say they are wrong." So, 
O king, it is not all pain that is the result of Karma. 
And you should accept as a fact that when the 
Blessed One became a Buddha he had burnt out all 
evil from within him.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! It is so ; and I accept it 
as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the Buddha's 
sinlessness ] 



o 2 



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1 96 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, I, 67. 

[ON THE ADVANTAGES OF MEDITATION 1 .] 

67. 'Venerable Nagasena, your people say that 
everything which a Tathagata has to accomplish 
that had the Blessed One already carried out when 
he sat at the foot of the Tree of Wisdom 2 . There 
was then nothing that he had yet to do, nothing 
that he had to add to what he had already done. 
But then there is also talk of his having immediately 
afterwards remained plunged for three months in 
ecstatic contemplation 3 . If the first statement be 
correct, then the second must be false. And if the 
second be right, then the first must be wrong. 
There is no need of any contemplation to him who 
has already accomplished his task. It is the man 
who still has something left to do, who has to think 
about it. [139] It is the sick man who has need 

, of medicine, not the healthy ; the hungry man who 
\ has need of food, not the man whose hunger is 
\ quenched. This too is a double-headed dilemma, 
and you have to solve it ! ' 

68. ' Both statements, O king, are true. Con- 

1 Pa/isallS»a (not samadhi), rendered throughout in the 
Sinhalese by wiweka. 

* I have not been able to find this statement in any of the 
Pi/aka texts. 

5 Here again our author seems to be referring to a tradition 
later than the Pi/akas. In the Mahavagga (see our version in the 
' Vinaya Texts,' vol. i, pp. 74-81) there is mention only of four 
periods of seven days, and even during these not of pa/isallS«a, 
but of samadhi. The former of these two terms only occurs at 
the conclusion of the twenty-eight days (MahSvagga I, 5, 2). Even 
in the later orthodox literature the period of meditation is still not 
three months, but only seven times seven days. See the passages 
quoted in Professor Oldenberg's note at p. 75 of the ' Vinaya 
Texts,' vol. i. 



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IV, 1,69. MEDITATION. I97 

templation has many virtues. All the Tathagatas 
attained, in contemplation, to Buddhahood, and 
practised it in the recollection of its good qualities. 
And they did so in the same way as a man who 
had received high office from a king would, in the 
recollection of its advantages, of the prosperity he 
enjoyed by means of it, remain constantly in attend- 
ance on that king — in the same way as a man who, 
having been afflicted and pained with a dire disease, 
and having recovered his health by the use of 
medicine, would use the same medicine again and 
again, calling to mind its virtue.' 

69. ' And there are, O king, these twenty and 
eight good qualities of meditation in the perception 
of which the Tathagatas devoted themselves to it. 
And which are they ? Meditation preserves him 
who meditates, it gives him long life, and endows 
him with power, it cleanses him from faults, it re- 
moves from him any bad reputation giving him a 
good name, it destroys discontent in him filling him 
with content, it releases him from all fear endowing 
him with confidence, it removes sloth far from him 
filling him with zeal, it takes away lust and ill-will 
and dullness, it puts an end to pride, it breaks down 
all doubt, it makes his heart to be at peace, it 
softens his mind, [140] it makes him glad, it makes 
him grave, it gains him much advantage, it makes 
him worthy of reverence, it fills him with joy, it fills 
him with delight, it shows him the transitory nature 
of all compounded things, it puts an end to rebirth, 
it obtains for him all the benefits of renunciation. 
These, O king, are the twenty and eight virtues of 
meditation on the perception of which the Tatha- 
gatas devote themselves to it. But it is because 



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I98 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, x, 70. 

the Tathagatas, O king, long for the enjoyment of 
the bliss of attainment, of the joy of the tranquil state 
of Nirva«a, that they devote themselves to medita- 
tion, with their minds fixed on the end they aim at. 

70. ' And there are four reasons for which the 
Tathagatas, O king, devote themselves to medi- 
tation. And what are the four? That they may 
dwell at ease, O king — and on account of the abun- 
dance of the advantages of meditation, advantages 
without drawback — and on account of its being the 
road to all noble things without exception — and 
because it has been praised and lauded and exalted 
and magnified by all the Buddhas. These are the 
reasons for which the Tathagatas devote themselves 
to it. So it is not, great king, because they have 
anything left to do, or anything to add to what they 
have already accomplished, but because they have 
perceived how diversified are the advantages it pos- 
sesses, that they devote themselves to meditation.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to meditation.] 



[THE LIMIT OF THREE MONTHS.] 

71. 'Venerable Nagasena, it has been said by the 
Blessed One : " The Tathagata, Ananda, has thought 
out and thoroughly practised, developed, accumulated, 
and ascended to the very height of the four paths to 
saintship \ and so mastered them as to be able to 
use them as a means of mental advancement, and as 
a basis for edification — and he therefore, Ananda, 

1 ./TattSro iddhi-pSdl 



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IV, 1, 72. THE THREE MONTHS. 199 

should he desire it, might remain alive for a Kalpa, 
or for that portion of a Kalpa which has yet to run 1 ." 
And again he said : " At the end of three months 
from this time the Tathagata will die 2 ." If the first 
of these statements were true, then the limit of three 
months must have been false. If the second were 
true, [141] then the first must have been false. For 
the Tathagatas boast not without an occasion, the 
Blessed Buddhas speak no misleading words, but 
they utter truth, and speak sincerely. This too is a 
double-headed dilemma, profound, subtle, hard to 
expound. It is now put to you. Tear in sunder 
this net of heresy, put it on one side, break in pieces 
the arguments of the adversary ! ' 

72. ' Both these statements, O king, were made 
by the Blessed One. But Kalpa in that connection 
means the duration of a man's life. And the Blessed 
One, O king, was not exalting his own power when 
he said so, but he was exalting the power of saint- 
ship. It was as if a king were possessed of a horse 
most swift of foot, who could run like the wind. And 
in order to exalt the power of his speed the king were 
to say in the presence of all his court — townsfolk and 
country folk, hired servants and men of war, brah- 
mins, nobles, and officers : " If he wished it this noble 
steed of mine could cross the earth to its ocean 
boundary, and be back here again, in a moment s ! " 

1 Mahaparinibbina Sutta III, 60, translated in my 'Buddhist 
Suttas,' pp. 57, 58. 

* Ibid. Ill, 63, translated loc. cit. p. 59. 

* So it is said of the ' Horse-treasure ' of the Great King of 
Glory in the Mahlsudassana Sutta I, 29 (translated in my ' Buddhist 
Suttas,' p. 256), that ' it passed over along the broad earth to its 
very ocean boundary, and then returned again, in time for the 



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200 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, r, 72. 

Now though he did not try to test the horse's speed 
in the presence of the court, yet it had that speed, 
and was really able to go along over the earth to 
its ocean boundary in a moment. Just so, O king, 
the Blessed One spake as he did in praise of the 
power of saintship, and so spake seated in the midst 
of gods and men, and of the men of the threefold 
wisdom and the sixfold insight — the Arahats pure 
and free from stain — when he said : " The Tatha- 
gata, Ananda, has thought out and practised, deve- 
loped, accumulated, and ascended to the very height 
of the four powers of saintship, and so mastered 
them as to be able to use them as a means of 
mental advancement, as a basis for edification. And 
he therefore, Ananda, should he desire it, might 
remain alive for a Kalpa, or the part of a Kalpa 
that has yet to run." And there was that power, 
O king, in the Tathagata, he could have remained 
alive for that time : and yet he did not show that 
power in the midst [142] of that assembly. The 
Blessed One, O king, is free from desire as respects 
all conditions of future life, and has condemned them 
all. For it has been said, O king, by the Blessed 
One : " Just, O Bhikkhus, as a very small quantity 
of excrement is of evil smell, so do I find no beauty 
in the very smallest degree of future life, not even 
in such for the time of the snapping of the fingers 1 ." 
Now would the Blessed One, O king, who thus 
looked upon all sorts and conditions of future life 



morning meal, to the royal city of Kusavati.' It is, of course, the 
sun horse which is meant. 

1 I have not traced this quotation in the Pi/akas, but it is prob- 
ably there. 



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IV, i, 72. THE THREE MONTHS. 201 

as dung have nevertheless, simply because of his 
power of Iddhi, harboured a craving desire for 
future life ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' Then it must have been to exalt the power of 
Iddhi that he gave utterance to such a boast' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! It is so, and I accept it 
as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the three months.] 



Here ends the First Chapter. 



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202 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 2, j. 

Book IV. Chapter 2. 

[THE ABOLITION OF REGULATIONS.] 

1. 'Venerable Nagasena, it has been said by the 
Blessed One : " It is by insight, O Bhikkhus, that 
I preach the law, not without insight 1 ." On the 
other hand he said of the regulations of the Vinaya : 
" When I am gone, Ananda, let the Order, if it 
should so wish, abolish all the lesser and minor 
precepts 2 ." Were then these lesser and minor pre- 
cepts wrongly laid down, or established in ignorance 
and without due cause, that the Blessed One 
allowed them to be revoked after his death ? If the 
first statement had been true, the second would 
have been wrong. If the second statement were 
really made, [143] then the first was false. This 
too is a double-headed problem, fine, subtle, abstruse, 
deep, profound, and hard to expound. It is now 
put to you, and you have to solve it' 

2. ' In both cases, O king, the Blessed One said 
as you have declared. But in the second case it 
was to test the Bhikkhus that he said it, to try 
whether, if leave were granted them, they would, 
after his death, revoke the lesser and minor regu- 
lations, or still adhere to them. It runs as if a 

1 Not traced as yet. 

* MahSparinibbana Sutta VI, 3 (translated in my ' Buddhist 
Suttas,' p. 112). The incident is referred to in the Aullavagga 
XI, 1, 9, 10, and in his commentary on that passage Buddhaghosa 
mentions the discussion between Milinda and Nagasena, and quotes 
it as an authority in support of his interpretation. 



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IV, 2, 3. ABOLITION OF REGULATIONS. 203 

king of kings were to say to his sons : " This great 
country, my children, reaches to the sea on every 
side. It is a hard thing to maintain it with the 
forces we have at our disposal. So when I am gone 
you had better, my children, abandon the outlying 
districts along the border." Now would the princes, 
O king, on the death of their father, give up those 
outlying districts, provinces already in their power ? ' 

' No indeed, Sir. Kings are grasping. The 
princes might, in the lust of power, subjugate an 
extent of country twice or thrice the size of what 
they had, but they would never give up what they 
already possessed.' 

'Just so was it, O king, that the Tathagata to 
test the Bhikkhus said : " When I am gone, Ananda, 
let the Order, if it should so wish, abolish all the 
lesser and minor precepts." But the sons of the 
Buddha, O king, in their lust after the law, and for 
emancipation from sorrow, might keep two hundred 
and fifty regulations l , but would never give up any 
one that had been laid down in ordinary course.' 

3. ' Venerable Nagasena, when the Blessed One 
referred to " lesser and minor precepts," this people 
might therein [144] be bewildered, and fall into 
doubt, and find matter for discussion, and be lost in 
hesitation, as to which were the lesser, and which 
the minor precepts.' 

' The lesser errors in conduct 2 , O king, are the 
lesser precepts, and the lesser errors in speech 3 are 
the minor precepts : and these two together make 
up therefore " the lesser and minor precepts." The 

1 The regulations in the Paiimokkha, which include all the most 
important ones, are only 220 in number. 

9 Dukka/am. * Dubbhasitam. 



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204 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 2, 4. 



leading Elders too of old, O king, were in doubt 
about this matter, and they were not unanimous on 
the point at the Council held for the fixing of the 
text of the Scriptures 1 . And the Blessed One fore- 
saw that this problem would arise.' 

' Then this dark saying of the Conquerors, Naga- 
sena, which has lain hid so long, has been now 
to-day uncovered in the face of the world, and made 
clear to all.' 

[Here ends the problem as to the revocation 
of rules.] 



[esoteric teaching.] 

4. ' Venerable Nagasena, it was said by the 
Blessed One : "In respect of the truths, Ananda, 
the Tathagata has no such thing as the closed fist 
of a teacher who keeps something back *." But 
on the other hand he made no reply to the question 
put by the son of the Malunkya woman 3 . This 
problem, Nagasena, will be one of two ends, on one 
of which it must rest, for he must have refrained 
from answering either out of ignorance, or out of 
wish to conceal something. If the first statement 
be true it must have been out of ignorance. But 

1 In the JTullavagga XI, 1, 10, it is one of the faults laid to 
Ananda's charge, at the Council of Ra^agaha, that he had not 
asked for a definition of these terms. 

* Mahaparinibbana Sutta II, 32 (another passage from the same 
speech is quoted below, IV, 2, 29). 

9 See the two Malunkya Suttantas in the Ma^yAima Nikaya 
(vol. i, pp. 426-437 of Mr. Trenckner's edition for the Pali Text 
Society). With regard to the spelling of the name, which is 
doubtful, it may be noticed that Hma/i-kumbure' has Malunka 
throughout 



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IV, 2, S« ESOTERIC TEACHING. 205 

if he knew, and still did not reply, then the first 
statement must be false. This too is a double- 
pointed dilemma. It is now put to you, and you 
have to solve it.' 

5. ' The Blessed One, O king, made that first 
statement to Ananda, and he did not reply to 
Malunkyi-putta's question. But that was neither 
out of ignorance, nor for the sake of concealing 
anything. There are four kinds of ways in which 
a problem may be explained. And which are the 
four ? There is the problem to which an explan- 
ation can be given that shall be direct and final. 
There is the problem which can be answered by 
going into details. There is the problem which can 
be answered by asking another. And there is the 
problem which can be put on one side. 

' And which, O king, is the problem to which a 
direct and final solution can be given ? It is such 
as this — " Is form impermanent ? " [145] " Is sen- 
sation impermanent?" "Is idea impermanent?" 
" Are the Confections impermanent ? " " Is con- 
sciousness impermanent ? " 

' And which is the problem which can be answered 
by going into details ? It is such as this — " Is form 
thus impermanent ? " and so on. 

'And which is the problem which can be an- 
swered by asking another ? It is such as this — 
"What then? Can the eye perceive all things?" 

' And which is the problem which can be put on 
one side ? It is such as this — " Is the universe 
everlasting?" "Is it not everlasting?" "Has it 
an end ? " " Has it no end ? " " Is it both endless 
and unending ? " " Is it neither the one nor the 
other ? " " Are the soul and the body the same 



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206 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 2, 6. 

thing ? " " Is the soul distinct from the body ? " 
" Does a Tathagata exist after death ? " " Does he 
not exist after death ? " " Does he both exist and 
not exist after death ? " " Does he neither exist 
nor not exist after death ? " 

' Now it was to such a question, one that ought 
to be put on one side, that the Blessed One gave 
no reply to Malunkya-putta. And why ought such 
a question to be put on one side ? Because there is 
no reason or object for answering it. That is why 
it should be put aside. For the Blessed Buddhas 
lift not up their voice without a reason and without 
an object.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! Thus it is, and I accept 
it as you say ? ' 

[ Here ends the dilemma as to keeping some 
things back *.] 



[death.] 

6. ' Venerable Nagasena, this too was said by the 
Blessed One : " All men tremble at punishment, all 
are afraid of death V But again he said : " The 
Arahat has passed beyond all fear 3 ." How then, 
Nagasena ? does the Arahat tremble with the fear of 
punishment ? [146] Or are the beings in purgatory, 
when they are being burnt and boiled and scorched 
and tormented, afraid of that death which would 
release them from the burning fiery pit of that awful 
place of woe 4 ? If the Blessed One, Nagasena, 

1 See my note below on IV, 4, 8. * Dhammapada 129. 

' Not traced in these words, but identical in meaning with 
Dhammapada 39. 

4 Maha-niraya £avamana, 'when they are on the point of 
passing away from it.' For in Buddhism the time comes to each 



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IV, 3,7' THE FEAR 0F DEATH. 207 

really said that all men tremble at punishment, and 
all are afraid of death, then the statement that the 
Arahat has passed beyond fear must be false. But 
if that last statement is really by him, then the other 
must be false. This double-headed problem is now 
put to you, and you have to solve it.' 

7. ' It was not with regard to Arahats, O king, 
that the Blessed One spake when he said : " All men 
tremble at punishment, all are afraid of death." The 
Arahat is an exception to that statement, for all 
cause for fear has been removed from the Arahat '. 
He spoke of those beings in whom evil still existed, 
who are still infatuated with the delusion of self, who 
are still lifted up and cast down by pleasures and 
pains. To the Arahat, O king, rebirth in every 
state has been cut off, all the four kinds of future 
existence have been destroyed, every re-incarnation 
has been put an end to, the rafters 2 of the house of 
life have broken, and the whole house completely 
pulled^ down, the Confections have altogether lost 
their roots, good and evil have ceased, ignorance has 
been demolished, consciousness has no longer any 
seed (from which it could be renewed), all sin has 
been burnt away s , and all worldly conditions have 
been overcome 4 . Therefore is it that the Arahat is 
not made to tremble by any fear.' 

being in Niraya (often translated ' bell ') when he will pass away 
from it. 

1 That is from him who attained Nirvana in this life. Compare 
1 John iv. 18. 

' Phasfi for Phasuka. Compare Dhammapada 154, Manu 
VI, 79-81, and Sumahgala, p. 16. 

* Hina/i-kumbure' adds ' by the fire of t a pas.' 

4 Eight are meant — gain, loss, fame, dishonour, praise, blame, 
pleasures, pains. 



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208 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 2, 8. 

8. 'Suppose, O king, a king had four chief 
ministers, faithful, famous, trustworthy, placed in 
high positions of authority. And the king, on some 
emergency arising, were to issue to them an order 
touching all the people in his realm, saying : " Let 
all now pay up a tax, and do you, as my four 
officers, carry out what is necessary in this emer- 
gency." Now tell me, O king, would the tremor 
which comes from fear of taxation arise in the 
hearts of those ministers ? ' 

' No, Sir, it would not.' 

' But why not ? ' 

' They have been appointed by the king to high 
office. Taxation does not affect them, they are be- 
yond taxation. It was the rest that the king referred 
to when he gave the order : [147] " Let all pay tax." ' 

'Just so, O king, is it with the statement that all 
men tremble at punishment, all are afraid of death. 
In that way is it that the Arahat is removed from 
every fear.' 

9. ' But, Nagasena, the word " all " is inclusive, 
none are left out when it is used. Give me a 
further reason to establish the point' 

' Suppose, O king, that in some village the lord of 
the village were to order the crier, saying : " Go, 
crier, bring all the villagers quickly together before 
me." And he in obedience to that order were to 
stand in the midst of the village and were thrice to 
call out : " Let all the villagers assemble at once in 
the presence of the lord !" And they should assemble 
in haste, and have an announcement made to the 
lord, saying : " All the villagers, Sire, have assembled. 
Do now whatsoever you require." Now when the 
lord, O king, is thus summoning all the heads of 



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IV, a, 10. THE FEAR OF DEATH. 2O0. 

houses, he issues his order to all the villagers, but it 
is not they who assemble in obedience to the order ; 
it is the heads of houses. And the lord is satisfied 
therewith, knowing that such is the number of his 
villagers. There are many others who do not 
come — women and men, slave girls and slaves, 
hired workmen, servants, peasantry, sick people, 
oxen, buffaloes, sheep, and goats, and dogs — but all 
those do not count. It was with reference to the 
heads of houses that the order was issued in the 
words : " Let all assemble." J ust so, O king, it is 
not of Arahats that it was said that all are afraid of 
death. [148] The Arahat is not included in that 
statement, for the Arahat is one in whom there 
is no longer any cause that could give rise to fear.' 

10. ' There is the non-inclusive expression, O king, 
whose meaning is non-inclusive, and the non-inclusive 
expression whose meaning is inclusive ; there is the 
inclusive expression whose meaning is non-inclusive, 
and the inclusive expression whose meaning is 
inclusive. And the meaning, in each case, should 
be accepted accordingly. And there are five ways 
in which the meaning should be ascertained — by the 
connection, and by taste, and by the tradition of the 
teachers, and by the meaning, and by abundance 
of reasons. And herein " connection " means the 
meaning as seen in the Sutta itself, " taste " means 
that it is in accordance with other Suttas, " the 
tradition of the teachers" means what they hold, 
" the meaning " means what they think, and " abun- 
dance of reasons " means all these four combined 1 .' 

r 1 •— " - — ■■ ■ — ...—--—-■-- 

1 This is much more obscure in Pali than in English. In the 
Pali the names of each of the five methods are ambiguous. ' Con- 
nection,' for instance, is in Pili aha££a-pada, which is only 

[35] ? 



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2IO THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, a, it. 

ii. 'Very well, Nagasena ! I accept it as you 
say. The Arahat is an exception in this phrase, and 
it is the rest of beings who are full of fear. But 
those beings in purgatory, of whom I spoke, who are 
suffering painful, sharp, and severe agonies, who are 
tormented with burnings all over their bodies and 
limbs, whose mouths are full of lamentation, and 
cries for pity, and cries of weeping and wailing and 
woe, who are overcome with pains too sharp to be 
borne, who find no refuge nor protection nor help, 
who are afflicted beyond measure, who in the worst 
and lowest of conditions are still destined to a cer- 
tainty to further pain, who are being burnt with 
hot, sharp, fierce, and cruel flames, who are giving 
utterance to mighty shouts and groans born of horror 
and fear, who are embraced by the garlands of flame 
which intertwine around them from all the six direc- 
tions, and flash in fiery speed through a hundred 
leagues on every side — can those poor burning 
wretches be afraid of death ?' 

4 Yes, they can.' 

' But, venerable Nagasena, is not purgatory a 
place of certain pain ? And, if so, why should the 
beings in it be afraid of death, which would release 
them from that certain pain ? What ! Are they fond 
of purgatory ? ' 

' No, indeed. They like it not. They long to be 
released from it. It is the power of death of which 
they are afraid.' 

1 Now this, Nagasena, I cannot believe, that they, 
who want to be released, should be afraid of rebirth. 

found elsewhere (see .ATuIlavagga VI, 4, 3, and my note there) as 
the name of a kind of chair. And there is similar ambiguity in the 
other words. 



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IV, a, 13. THE FEAR OF DEATH. 211 

[149] They must surely, Nagasena, rejoice at the 
prospect of the very condition that they long for. 
Convince me by some further reason V 

12. ' Death, great king, is a condition which those 
who have not seen the truth 2 are afraid of. About 
it this people is anxious and full of dread. Whoso- 
ever is afraid of a black snake, or an elephant or 
lion or tiger or leopard or bear or hyena or wild 
buffalo or gayal, or of fire or water, or of thorns or 
spikes or arrows, it is in each case of death that he 
is really in dread, and therefore afraid of them. 
This, O king, is the majesty of the essential nature 
of death. And all being not free from sin are in 
dread and quake before its majesty. In this sense 
it is that even the beings in purgatory, who long to 
be released from it, are afraid of death.' 

1 3. ' Suppose, O king, a boil were to arise, full of 
matter, on a man's body, and he, in pain from that 
disease, and wanting to escape from the danger of 
it, were to call in a physician and surgeon. And the 
surgeon, accepting the call, were to make ready some 
means or other for the removal of his disease — were 
to have a lancet sharpened, or to have sticks put 
into the fire to be used as cauterisers, or to have 
something ground on a grindstone to be mixed in a 
salt lotion. Now would the patient begin to be in 
dread of the cutting of the sharp lancet, or of the 
burning of the pair of caustic sticks, or of the 
application of the stinging lotion?' 

' Yes, he would.' 



1 Karawcna, perhaps he means ' by an example.' 
1 Adi/Ma-sa££anaa>. It may also mean 'who have not per- 
ceived the (Four Noble) Truths/ 

P 2 



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2 T 2 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MTLINDA. IV, a, 14. 

' But if the sick man, who wants to be free from 
his ailment, can fall into dread by the fear of pain, 
just so can the beings in purgatory, though they long 
to be released from it, fall into dread by the fear of 
death.' 

14. 'And suppose, O king, a man who had com- 
mitted an offence against the crown, when bound 
with a chain, and cast into a dungeon, were to long 
for release. And the ruler, wishing to release him, 
were to send for him. Now would not that man, 
who had thus offended, and knew it, be in dread 
[150] of the interview with the king ?' 

' Yes, Sir.' 

' But if so, then can also the beings in purgatory, 
though they long to be released from it, yet be afraid 
of death.' 

' Give me another illustration by which I may be 
able to harmonise l (this apparent discrepancy).' 

' Suppose, O king, a man bitten by a poisonous 
snake should be afraid, and by the action of the 
poison should fall and struggle, and roll this way and 
that. And then that another man, by the repetition 
of a powerful charm, should compel that poisonous 
snake to approach to suck the poison back again 2 . 
Now when the bitten man saw the poisonous snake 
coming to him, though for the object of curing him, 
would he not still be in dread of it ?' 

« Yes, Sir.' 

' Well, it is just so with the beings in purgatory. 

1 Okappeyyaw. See the Old Commentary at Pi&ttiya 1, a, 6. 

* On this belief the 69th (ritaka is founded. See Fausboll, 
vol. i, pp. 310, 311 (where, as Mr. Trenckner points out, we 
must read in the verse the same word pa££&£am as we have 
here). 



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IV, 2, ig. PIRIT. 2 1 3 

Death is a thing disliked by all beings. And there- 
fore are they in dread of it though they want to be 
released from purgatory.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the fear of death.] 



[PIRIT.] 

15. 'Venerable Nagasena, it was said by the 
Blessed One : 
" Not in the sky, not in the ocean's midst, 
Not in the most secluded mountain cleft, 
Not in the whole wide world is found the spot 
Where standing one could 'scape the snare of 
death V 
But on the other hand the Pirit service was promul- 
gated by the Blessed One 2 — that is to say, the 
Ratana Sutta and the Khanda-paritta and the Mora- 
paritta and the Dha^agga-paritti [151] and the 
A/ana/iya-paritta and the Anguli-mala-paritta. If, 
Nagasena, a man can escape death's snare neither 
by going to heaven, nor by going into the midst of 
the sea, nor by going to the summits of lofty palaces, 

1 Either Dhammapada 127, which is the same except the last 
word (there ' an evil deed'), or Dhammapada 128, except the last 
line (which is there ' where standing death would not overtake one '). 

1 This is a service used for the sick. Its use so far as the 
Pi/akas are known has been nowhere laid down by the Buddha, or 
by words placed in his mouth. This is the oldest text in which 
the use of the service is referred to. But the word Paritti (Pirit) is 
used in jfullavagga V, 6, of an asseveration of love for snakes, to 
be used as what is practically a charm against snake bite, and that 
is attributed to the Buddha. The particular Suttas and passages 
hejre referred to are all in the Pi/akas. 



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214 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, a, 16. 

nor to the caves or grottoes or declivities or clefts 
or holes in the mountains, then is the Pirit ceremony 
useless. But if by it there is a way of escape from 
death, then the statement in the verse I quoted is 
false. This too is a double-headed problem, more 
knotty than a knot. It is now put to you, and you 
have to solve it.' 

16. ' The Blessed One, O king, said the verse you 
have quoted, and he sanctioned Pirit 1 . But that is only 
meant for those who have some portion of their life 
yet to run, who are of full age, and restrain themselves 
from the evils of Karma. And there is no ceremony 
or artificial means 2 for prolonging the life of onewhose 
allotted span of existence has come to an end. Just, 
O king, as with a dry and dead log of wood, dull s , 
and sapless, out of which all life has departed, which 
has reached the end of its allotted period of life, — 
you might have thousands of pots of water poured 
over it, but it would never become fresh again or 
put forth sprouts or leaves. Just so there is no 
ceremony or artificial means, no medicine and no 
Pirit, which can prolong the life of one whose allotted 
period has come to an end. All the medicines in 
the world are useless, O king, to such a one, but 
Pirit is a protection and assistance to those who 
have a period yet to live, who are full of life, and 
restrain themselves from the evil of Karma. And 
it is for that use that Pirit was appointed by the 

1 See last note. Hina/i-kumbure' renders ' preached Pirit,' which 
is quite in accordance with the Pi/akas, as the Suttas of which it is 
composed are placed in his mouth. 

* Upakkamo. Compare the use of the word at Aullavagga 
VII, 3, 10; Sumangala 69, 71. Utpatti-kramayek says the 
Sinhalese. 

3 Ko/Spa. See Gataka III, 495, and the commentary there. 



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IV, a, 17. PIRIT. 215 

Blessed One. Just, O king, as a husbandman guards 
the grain when it is ripe and dead and ready for 
harvesting from the influx of water, but makes it 
grow by giving it water when it is young, and dark 
in colour like a cloud, and full of life — just so, 
O king, should the Pirit ceremony be put aside and 
neglected in the case of one who has reached his 
allotted term of life, [152] but for those who have a 
period yet to run and are full of vigour, for them 
the medicine of Pirit may be repeated, and they will 
profit by its use.' 

1 7. ' But, Nagasena, if he who has a term of life 
yet to run will live, and he who has none will die, 
then medicine and Pirit are alike useless.' 

' Have you ever seen, O king, a case of a disease 
being turned back by medicine ? ' 

' Yes, several hundred times.' 

' Then, O king, your statement as to the ineffi- 
ciency of Pirit and medicine must be wrong.' 

' I have seen, Nagasena, doctors administer medi- 
cines by way of draughts or outward applications, 
and by that means the disease has been assuaged.' 

'And when, O king, the voice of those who are 
repeating Pirit is heard, the tongue may be dried 
up, and the heart beat but faintly, and the throat be 
hoarse, but by that repetition all diseases are allayed, 
all calamities depart. Again, have you ever seen, O 
king, a man who has been bitten by a snake having 
the poison resorbed under a spell (by the snake who 
gave the bite 1 ) or destroyed (by an antidote) or 
having a lotion applied above or below the spot 2 ?' 

1 See above, IV, 2, 14. 

* All this sentence is doubtful. Dr. Morris has a learned note 
on the difficult words used (which only occur here) in the ' Journal 



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2l6 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, a, 18. 

'Yes, that is common custom to this day in the 
world' 

' Then what you said that Pirit and medicine are 
alike useless is wrong. And when Pirit has been 
said over a man, a snake, ready to bite, will not bite 
him, but close his jaws — the club which robbers hold 
aloft to strike him with will never strike ; they will 
let it drop, and treat him kindly — the enraged 
elephant rushing at him will suddenly stop — the 
burning fiery conflagration surging towards him will 
die out — the malignant poison he has eaten will 
become harmless, and turn to food — assassins who 
have come to slay him will become as the slaves 
who wait upon him — and the trap into which he 
has trodden will hold him not. 

1 8. ' Again, have you never heard, O king, of that 
hunter who during seven hundred years failed to 
throw his net over the peacock who had taken Pirit, 
but snared him the very day [153] he omitted to 
do so 1 ?' 

' Yes, I have heard of it. The fame of it has gone 
through all the world.' 

'Then what you said about Pirit and medicine 
being alike useless must be wrong. And have you 
never heard of the Danava 2 who, to guard his wife, 

of the Pali Text Society' for 1884, p. 87. Htna/i-kumbure\ 
p. 191, translates as follows: Maha ra^aneni, wisha winasa 
karannawfi mantra padayakin wishaya baswana laddawfi, 
wisha sanhinduwana laddawO, tirddhadho bhagayehi 
awushadha ^alayen temana ladd&wu, nayaku wisin 
dash/a karana laddawu kisiwek topa wisin dakna. ladde 
dceyi wiMla seka. 

1 This is the Mora-GStaka, Nos. 159, 491, or (which is the same 
thing) the Mora-ParitUL 

1 An Asura, enemy of the gods, a Titan. Rakshasa says the 
Sinhalese. 



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IV, 2, 19. PIRIT. 217 

put her into a box, and swallowing it, carried her 
about in his stomach. And how a Vidyadhara ' 
entered his mouth, and played games with his wife. 
And how the Danava when he became aware of it, 
vdmited up the box, and opened it, and the moment he 
did so the Vidyadhara escaped whither he would 2 ? ' 

' Yes, I have heard that. The fame of it too has 
gone throughout the world/ 

' Well, did not the Vidyadhara escape capture by 
the power of Pirit ?' 

' Yes, that was so.' 

' Then there must be power in Pirit. And have 
you heard of that other Vidyadhara who got into 
the harem of the king of Benares, and committed 
adultery with the chief queen, and was caught, and 
then became invisible, and got away 8 ?' 

' Yes, I heard that story.' 

' Well, did not he too escape capture by the power 
of Pirit?' 

' Yes, Sir.' 

' Then, O king, there must be power in Pirit.' 

19. 'Venerable Nagasena, is Pirit a protection to 
everybody ? ' 

1 They are a kind of genii, with magical powers, who are 
attendants on the god .Siva (and therefore, of course, enemies of 
the Danavas). They are not mentioned in the Pi/akas. 

s I don't know where this story comes from. It is not in the 
Pi/akas anywhere. But Hma/i-kumburg gives the fairy tale at full 
length, and in the course of it calls the VidySdharas by name 
Wayassa-putra, ' Son of the Wind.' He quotes also a gatha" which 
he places, not in the mouth of the Bodisat, but of Buddha himself. 
I cannot find the tale either in the GStakabook, as far as published 
by Professor Fausboll, or in the Katha Sarit Sagara, though I have 
looked all through both. 

8 See last note. 



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2l8 THE. QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, a, 19. 

' To some, not to others.' 

4 Then it is not always of use ? ' 

' Does food keep all people alive ? ' 

' Only some, not others.' 

' But why not ? ' 

' Inasmuch as some, eating too much of that same 
food, die of cholera.' 

' So it does not keep all men alive ? ' 

' There are two reasons which make it destroy 
life — over-indulgence in it, and weakness of diges- 
tion. And even life-giving food may be made 
poisonous by an evil spell.' 

' Just so, O king, is Pirit a protection to some and 
not to others. And there are three reasons [164] 
for its failure — the obstruction of Karma, and of 
sin, and of unbelief. That Pirit which is a protec- 
tion to beings loses its protecting power by acts 
done by those beings themselves. Just, O king, as 
a mother lovingly nourishes the son who has entered 
her womb, and brings him forth with care '. And 
after his birth she keeps him clean from dirt and 
stains and mucus, and anoints him with the best and 
most costly perfumes, and when others abuse or 
strike him she seizes them and, full of excitement, 
drags them before the lord of the place. But when 
her son is naughty, or comes in late, she strikes him 
with rods or clubs on her knee or with her hands. 
Now, that being so, would she get seized and dragged 
along, and have to appear before the lord ? ' 

' No, Sir.' 

♦ But why not ? ' 

* UpaHrena, which the Sinhalese repeats and construes with 
poseti. 



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IV, 2,31. MARA. 219 

' Because the boy was in fault.' 

'Just in the same way, O king, will Pint which is 
a protection to beings, yet, by their own fault, turn 
against them.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! The problem has been 
solved, the jungle made clear, the darkness made 
light, the net of heresy unravelled — and by you, O 
best of the leaders of schools !' 



[Here ends the dilemma as to Pirit.] 



[mAra, the evil one.] 

20. ' Venerable Nagasena, your people say thus : 
" The Tathagata was in the constant receipt of the 
things necessary for a recluse — robes, food, lodging, 
and the requisites for the sick." And again they 
say : " When the Tathagata entered the Brahman 
village called the Five Sala trees he received nothing, 
and had to return with his bowl as clean as before." 
If the first passage is true the second is false, and if 
the second passage is true [155] the first is false. 
This too is a double-headed problem, a mighty crux 
hard to unravel. It is now put to you. It is for 
you to solve it' 

21. 'Both statements are true, but when he re- 
ceived nothing that day, that was the work of Mara, 
the evil one.' 

' Then, Nagasena, how was it that the merit laid 
up by the Blessed One through countless aeons of 
time came to end that day ? How was it that Mara, 
who had only just been produced, could overcome 
the strength and influence of that merit ? In that 
case, Nagasena, the blame must fall in one of two 



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220 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, 32. 

ways — either demerit must be more powerful than 
merit, or the power of Mara be greater than that of 
the Buddha. The root of the tree must be heavier 
than the top of it, or the sinner stronger than he who 
has heaped up virtue.' 

22. 'Great king, that is not enough to prove 
either the one or the other of your alternatives. 
Still a reason is certainly desirable in this matter. 
Suppose, O king, a man were to bring a compli- 
mentary present to a king of kings — honey or honey- 
comb or something of that kind. And the king's 
doorkeeper were to say to him : " This is the wrong 
time for visiting the king. So, my good fellow, take 
your present as quickly as ever you can, and go back 
before the king inflicts a fine upon you." And then 
that man, in dread and awe, should pick up his 
present, and return in great haste. Now would the 
king of kings, merely from the fact that the man 
brought his gift at the wrong time, be less powerful 
than the doorkeeper, or never receive a compli- 
mentary present any more ? ' 

' No, Sir. The doorkeeper turned back the giver 
of that present out of the surliness of his nature, and 
one a hundred thousand times as valuable [156] 
might be brought in by some other device.' 

' Just so, O king, it was out of the jealousy of his 
nature that Mara, the evil one, possessed the Brah- 
mans and householders at the Five Sala trees. And 
hundreds of thousands of other deities came up to 
offer the Buddha the strength-giving ambrosia from 
heaven, and stood reverencing him with clasped 
hands and thinking to themselves that they would 
thus imbue him with vigour.' 

23. ' That may be so, N&gasena. The Blessed 



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IV, a, 35. MARA. 221 

One found it easy to get the four requisites of a 
recluse — he, the best in the world — and at the 
request of gods and men he enjoyed all the re- 
quisites. But still Mara's intention to stop the 
supply of food to the Blessed One was so far car- 
ried out Herein, Sir, my doubt is not removed. 
I am still in perplexity and hesitation about this. 
My mind is not clear how the Tathagata, the 
Arahat, the supreme Buddha, the best of all the 
best in the world of gods and men, he who had so 
glorious a treasure of the merit of virtue, the un- 
equalled one, unrivalled and peerless, — how so vile, 
mean, insignificant, sinful, and ignoble a being as 
Mara could put any obstacle in the way of gifts to 
Him.' 

24. ' There are four kinds, O king, of obstacles — 
the obstacle to a gift not intended for any par- 
ticular person, to a gift set apart for some one, to 
the gift got ready, and to the enjoyment of a gift. 
And the first is when any one puts an obstacle in 
the way of the actual gift of a thing put ready to be 
given away, but not with a view to or having seen 
any particular donee, — an obstacle raised, for in- 
stance, by saying : " What is the good of giving 
it away to any one else ? " The second is when any 
one puts an obstacle in the way of the actual gift of 
food intended to be prepared to be given to a 
person specified. The third is when any one puts an 
obstacle in the way when such a gift has been got 
ready, but not yet accepted. And the fourth is 
when any one puts an obstacle in the way of the 
enjoyment of a gift already given (and so the 
property of the donee).' 

25. ' Now when Mara, the evil one, possessed the 



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222 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. TV, a, a6. 

Brahmans and householders at the Five Sala trees, 
the food in that case was neither the property of, nor 
got ready for, nor intended to be prepared specially 
for the Blessed One. [157] The obstacle was put 
in the way of some one who was yet to come, who 
had not arrived, and for whom no gift was intended. 
That was not against the Blessed One alone. But 
all who had gone out that day, and were coming to 
the village, failed to receive an alms. I know no 
one, O king, in the world of men and gods, no one 
among Maras or Brahmas, no one of the class of 
Brahmans or recluses, who could put any obstacle in 
the way of an alms intended for, or got ready for, 
or already given to the Blessed One. And if any 
one, out of jealousy, were to raise up any obstacle 
in that case, then would his head split into a 
hundred or into a thousand pieces.' 

26. 'There are four things, O king, connected 
with the Tathigatas, to which no one can do any 
harm. And what are the four ? To the alms 
intended for, and got ready for the Blessed One — 
to the halo of a fathom's length when it has once 
spread out from him — to the treasure of the know- 
ledge of his omniscience — and to his life. All these 
things, O king, are one in essence — they are free 
from defect, immovable, unassailable by other beings, 
unchangeable by other circumstances \ And Mira, 
the evil one, lay in ambush, out of sight, when he 
possessed the Brahmans and householders at the 
Five Sala trees. It was as when robbers, O king, 

1 AphusSni kiriySni, which I do not pretend to understand, 
and Mr. Trenckner says is unintelligible to him. Hinarf-kumbure' 
has : Anya kriyiwak no woedaganni bcewin apusana (sic) 
kriylyo ya. 



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IV, a, 36. MARA. 223 

hiding out of sight in the inaccessible country over 
the border, beset the highways. But if the king 
caught sight of them, do you think those robbers 
would be safe ? ' 

' No, Sir, he might have them cut into a hundred 
or a thousand pieces with an axe.' 

'Well, just so it was, hiding out of sight, that 
Mara possessed them. It was as when a married 
woman, in ambush, and out of sight, frequents the 
company of her paramour. [158] But if, O king, 
she were to carry on her intrigues in her husband's 
presence, do you think she would be safe ? ' 

' No, Sir, he might slay her, or wound her, or put 
her in bonds, or reduce her to slavery.' 

' Well. It was like that, hiding out of sight, that 
M&ra possessed them. But if, O king, he had 
raised any obstacle in the case of an alms intended 
for, got ready for, or in possession of the Blessed 
One, then his head would have split into a hundred 
or a thousand pieces.' 

' That is so, Nagasena. Mara, the evil one, 
acted after the manner of robbers, he lay in ambush, 
possessing the Brahmans and householders of the 
Five Sila trees. But if the same Mara, the evil 
one, had interfered with any alms intended for, or 
made ready for the Blessed One, or with his par- 
taking thereof, then would his head have been split 
into a hundred or a thousand pieces, or his bodily 
frame have been dissipated like a handful of chaff.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[ Here ends the dilemma as to Mira's interference 
with alms.] 



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224 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, a, 27. 

[UNCONSCIOUS CRIME.] 

27. 'Venerable Nigasena, your people say: "Who- 
soever deprives a living being of life, without 
knowing that he does so, he accumulates very 
serious demerit 1 ." But on the other hand it was 
laid down by the Blessed One in the Vinaya: 
" There is no offence to him who acts in igno- 
rance 2 ." If the first passage is correct, the other 
must be false ; and if the second is right, the first 
must be wrong. This too is a double-pointed 
problem, hard to master, hard to overcome. It is 
now put to you, and you have to solve it.' 

28. ' Both the passages you quote, O king, were 
spoken by the Blessed One. But there is a differ- 
ence between the sense of the two. And what 
is that difference ? [159] There is a kind of offence 
which is committed without the co-operation of the 
mind 3 , and there is another kind which has that 
co-operation. It was with respect to the first of the 



1 Not traced as yet, in so many words. And though there are 
several injunctions in the Vinaya against acts which might haply, 
though unknown to the doer, destroy life (such, for instance, as 
drinking water without the use of a strainer), when these are all 
subjects of special rule, and in each case there is an exception in 
favour of the Bhikkhu who acts in ignorance of there being living 
things which could be killed. (See, for instance, Paflttiya 62, on 
the drinking of water.) 

a A^-anantassa ndpatti. PivHttiya LXI, 2, 3 (in the Old 
Commentary, not ascribed to the Buddha). 

* Saflfla-vimokkhS. I am not sure of the exact meaning of 
this difficult compound, which has only been found in this passage. 
Hina/l-kumbure' (p. 199) has: MahS ra^ineni, JittSngayen 
abhawayen midena bcewin saflfla-wimoksha-namwu 
apattit atteya, &c. (mid = muA). 



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IV, 2, 30. BUDDHA AND HIS FOLLOWERS. 225 

two that the Blessed One said : " There is no 
offence to him who acts in ignorance V ' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to sins in ignorance.] 



[THE BUDDHA AND HIS FOLLOWERS.] 

29. ' Venerable Nagasena, it was said by the 
Blessed One ; " Now the Tathagata thinks not, 
Ananda, that is he who should lead the brother- 
hood, or that the Order is dependent upon him 2 ." 
But on the other hand when describing the virtues 
and the nature of Metteyya, the Blessed One, he 
said thus : "He will be the leader of a brother- 
hood several thousands in number, as I am now 
the leader of a brotherhood several hundreds in 
number 3 ." If the first statement be right, then 
the second is wrong. If the second passage is right, 
the first must be false. This too is a double-pointed 
problem now put to you, and you have to solve it' 

30. ' You quote both passages correctly, O king. 
But in the dilemma that you put the sense in the 
one passage is inclusive, in the other it is not. It 
is not the Tathagata, O king, who seeks after a 
following, but the followers who seek after him. 

1 The Sinhalese has here a further page, giving examples of the 
two kinds of offences referred to, and drawing the conclusion for 
each. 

' Book of the Great Decease, II, 32 (translated in my ' Buddhist 
Suttas,' p. 37), just after the passage quoted above, IV, 2, 4. 

8 Not in any of the published texts. Metteyya is, of course, the 
Buddha to come, the expected messiah. 

[35] Q 



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226 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 2, 30. 

[160] It is a mere commonly received opinion, O 
king, that " This is I," or " This is mine," it is not a 
transcendental truth '. Attachment is a frame of 
mind put away by the Tathagata, he has put away 
clinging, he is free from the delusion that " This is 
mine," he lives only to be a help to others 2 . Just 
as the earth, O king, is a support to the beings in 
the world, and an asylum to them, and they depend 
upon it, but the broad earth has no longing after 
them in the idea that " These belong to me " — just 
so is the Tathagata a support and an asylum to all 
beings, but has no longing after them in the idea 
that " These belong to me." And just as a mighty 
rain cloud, O king, pours out its rain, and gives 
nourishment to grass and trees, to cattle and to men, 
and maintains the lineage thereof, and all these 
creatures depend for their livelihood upon its rain, 
but the cloud has no feelings of longing in the 
idea that " These are mine " — just so does the 
Tathagata give all beings to know what are good 
qualities and maintains them in goodness, and all 
beings have their life in him, but the Tathagata has 
no feelings of longing in the idea that " These are 
mine." And why is it so ? Because of his having 
abandoned all self-regard s .' 

' Very good, N&gasena ! The problem has been 
well solved by variety of examples. The jungle 
has been made open, the darkness has been turned 



1 Sammuti . . . . na paramattho. 

* Upadaya avassayo hoti. 

' Attanudi/Miya pahinatta. See the passages quoted by 
Dr. Morris in the 'Journal of the Pali Text Society,' 1886, pp. 
113, 114. 



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IV, a, 3»- SCHISM. 22 7 

to light, the arguments of the adversaries have 
been broken down, insight has been awakened in 
the sons of the Conqueror.' 



[Here ends the dilemma as to the Buddha and 
his following.] 



[schism.] 

31. ' Venerable Nagasena, your people say : " The 
Tathagata is a person whose following can never be 
broken up." And again they say : "At one stroke 
Devadatta seduced five hundred of the brethren 1 ." 
If the first be true the second is false, but if the 
second be correct then the first is wrong. [161] 
This too is a double-pointed problem, profound, 
hard to unravel, more knotty than a knot. By it 
these people are veiled, obstructed, hindered, shut 
in, and enveloped. Herein show your skill as 
against the arguments of the adversaries.' 

32. ' Both statements, O king, are correct. But 
the latter is owing to the power of the breach maker. 
Where there is one to make the breach, a mother 
will be separated from her son, and the son will 
break with the mother, or the father with the son 
and the son with the father, or the brother from the 
sister and the sister from the brother, or friend from 
friend. A ship pieced together with timber of all 
sorts is broken up by the force of the violence of 
the waves, and a tree in full bearing and full of sap 
is broken down by the force of the violence of the 
wind, and gold of the finest sort is divided by 

1 Neither of these phrases is to be found in the published 
texts in these words. But the latter sums up the episode related in 
the A'ullavagga VII, 4, 1. 

Q 2 



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228 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 2, 32. 

bronze. But it is not the intention of the wise, it is 
not the will of the Buddhas, it is not the desire of 
those who are learned that the following of the 
Tathagata should be broken up. And there is a 
special sense in which it is said that that cannot be. 
It is an unheard-of thing, so far as I know, that his 
following could be broken up by anything done or 
taken, any unkindly word, any wrong action, any 
injustice, in all the conduct, wheresoever or what- 
soever, of the Tathagata himself. In that sense 
his following is invulnerable. And you yourself, 
do you know of any instance in all the ninefold 
word of the Buddha of anything done by a Bodisat 
which broke up the following of the Tathagata ?' 

' No, Sir. Such a thing has never been seen or 
heard in the world. It is very good, Nagasena, 
what you say : and I accept it so.' 



[Here ends the dilemma as to schism.] 



Here ends the Second Chapter. 



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IV, 3, i. THE DHARMA. 229 

Book IV. Chapter 3. 

[PRECEDENCE OF THE DHARMA.] 

I. 'Venerable Nagasena, it was said by the 
Blessed One : " For it is the Dhamma, O Vasertha, 
which is ' the best in the world V as regards both 
what we now see, and what is yet to come 2 ." But 
again (according to your people) the devout layman 
who has entered the Excellent Way, for whom the 
possibility of rebirth in any place of woe has passed 
away, who has attained to insight, and to whom the 
doctrine is known, even such a one ought to salute 
and to rise from his seat in token of respect for, and to 
revere, any member of the Order.though a novice.and 
though he be unconverted 3 . Now if the Dhamma 
be the best that rule of conduct is wrong, but if 
that be right then the first statement must be wrong. 

1 This is a quotation from a celebrated verse, which is, as it were, 
the national anthem of those who, in the struggle for religious and 
ceremonial supremacy between the Brahmans and the nobles, took 
the side of the nobles (the Khattiyas). As might be expected it 
is not seldom found in the Buddhist Suttas, and is often put in the 
mouth of the Buddha, the most distinguished of these Khattiyas 
who were transcendental rather than military. It runs: 'The 
Khattiya is the best in the world of those who observe the rules of 
exogamous marriage, but of the whole race of men and gods he 
who has wisdom and righteousness is the best.' See, for instance, 
the Amba//Aa Sutta, in the Dtgha Nikaya, and the Sumangala 
VilSsinl on that passage. By ' best in the world' is meant 'entitled 
to take precedence before all others,' not best in the moral sense. 

* From the Aggaflfla Sutta in the Digha Nikaya. 

' I cannot give any authority for this, but it is no doubt correct 
Buddhism according to the spirit of the Pi/akas. 



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23O THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, 1. 

This too is a double-pointed problem. It is now 
put to you, and you have to solve it.' [162] 

2. ' The Blessed One said what you have quoted, 
and you have rightly described the rule of conduct. 
But there is a reason for that rule, and that is this. 
There are these twenty personal qualities, making up 
the Samawaship of a Sama«a, and these two outward 
signs 1 , by reason of which the Samawa is worthy of 
salutation, and of respect, and of reverence. And 
what are they ? The best form of self-restraint, the 
highest kind of self-control*, right conduct, calm 
manners 8 , mastery over (his deeds and words 4 ), sub- 
jugation (of his senses 5 ), long-suffering 6 , sympathy 7 , 

1 Lihg£ni. See above, IV, i, 6i. 

* Aggo niyamo. Hina/i-kumbure' takes agga in the sense of 
Arahatship: ' Niwan dena pratipattiyen yukta bawa.' 
Niyama is a self-imposed vow. 

3 Vihara, which the Sinhalese glosses by: 'Sansun iriya- 
patha wiharaaayen yukta bawa,' ('because he continues in 
the practice of tranquil deportment.') 

* Sarayama. ' Kaya wak sawyamayen yukta bawa.' 

* Sawvaro. ' Indriya sawvarayen yukta bawa.' 

* Khanti, which the Sinhalese repeats. 

' SoraMaw. 'Because he is docile and pleasant of speech,' 
says the Sinhalese: 'Suwah kikaru bhawayen yukta bawa.' 
It is an abstract noun formed from surata, and does not occur in 
Sanskrit, though Bohtlingk-Roth give one authority for it (under 
sauratya) from a Buddhist work, the Vyutpatti. It is one of the 
many instances in which the Buddhist ethics has put new and 
higher meaning into current phrases, for in Sanskrit literature 
surata (literally 'high pleasure') is used frequently enough, but 
almost without exception in an obscene sense. The commentary 
on 6'ataka III, 44a only repeats the word. It is there, as here, 
and in the Vyutpatti, and at Anguttara II, 15, 3, always allied with 
khanti. My translation follows Childers (who probably follows 
BOhtlingk-Roth) ; but the Sinhalese gloss here makes me very 
doubtful as to the exact connotation which the early Buddhists 
associated with ' high pleasure.' 



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IV, 3,2- THE DHARMA. 23 1 

the practice of solitude \ love of solitude 2 , medita- 
tion 3 , modesty and fear of doing wrong 4 , zeal 6 , 
earnestness 6 , the taking upon himself of the pre- 
cepts 7 , recitation (of the Scriptures) 8 , asking ques- 
tions (of those wise in the Dhamma and Vinaya), 
rejoicing in the Stlas and other (rules of morality), 
freedom from attachment (to the things of the world), 
fulfilment of the precepts — and the wearing of the 
yellow robe, and the being shaven. [163] In the 
practice of all these things does the member of the 
Order live. By being deficient in none of them, by 
being perfect in all, accomplished in all, endowed 
with all of them does he reach forward to the con- 
dition of Arahatship, to the condition of those who 
have nothing left to learn ; he is marching towards 
the highest of all lands 9 . Thus it is because he sees 
him to be in the company of the Worthy Ones (the 
Arahats) that the layman who has already entered 
on the Excellent Way thinks it worthy in him 10 to 

1 Ekatta-£ariya='Ekaldwa hcesirimen yukta bawa.' 

* Ekatttbhirati. 

* Pa/isalla»an, not samadhi. A'ittekagrata says the Sin- 
halese. 

4 Hiri-otappan. 

4 Viriyan, 'the zeal of the fourfold effort (pradhana) towards 
the making of Arahatship,' is the Sinhalese gloss. 

* AppamSdo, 'in the search for Arahatship/ says Hina/i- 
kumbure\ 

* Sikkhd-samSdanan. ' Learning them, investigating their 
meaning, love of the virtuous law laid down in them,' expands 
Htna/i-kumbure\ 

* Uddero. There is a lacuna here in the Sinhalese. It has 
nothing more till we come to the shaven head. 

' Amn'ta maha avaka^a bhumiya/a says the Sinhalese 
(p. 205). 

10 Arahati. I have endeavoured to imitate the play upon the 
words. 



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232 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, 3. 

reverence and to show respect to the Bhikkhu, though 
be may be, as yet, unconverted It is because he 
sees him to be in the company of those in whom all 
evil has been destroyed, because he feels that he is 
not in such society 1 , that the converted layman 
thinks it worthy of him to do reverence and to show 
respect to the unconverted Bhikkhu. It is because 
he knows that he has joined the noblest brotherhood, 
and that he himself has reached no such state, that 
the converted layman holds it right to do reverence 
and to show respect to the unconverted Bhikkhu — 
because he knows that he listens to the recitation of 
the Patimokkha, while he himself can not — because 
he knows that he receives men into the Order, and 
thus extends the teaching of the Conqueror, which 
he himself is incapable of doing — because he knows 
that he carries out innumerable precepts, which he 
himself cannot observe — because he knows that he 
wears the outward signs of Samawaship, and carries out 
the intention of the Buddha, while he himself is gone 
away far from that — because he knows that he, though 
he has given up his hair and beard, and is unanointed 
and wears no ornaments, yet is anointed with the 
perfume of righteousness, while he is himself addicted 
to jewelry and fine apparel — that the converted lay- 
man thinks it right to do reverence, and to show 
respect to the unconverted Bhikkhu.' 

3. ' And moreover, O king, it is because he knows 
that not only are all these twenty personal qualities 
which go to make a Sama«a, and the two outward 
signs, found in the Bhikkhu, but that he carries them 

1 N'atthi me so samayo ti: £ s&magri labhaya ma/a 
ncetceyi siti. 



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IV, 3, 4- THE DHARMA. 233 

on, and trains others in them, that the converted 
layman, realising that he has no part in that tra- 
dition *, in that maintenance of the faith, thinks it 
right to reverence and to show respect to the con- 
verted Bhikkhu. [164] Just, O king, as a royal 
prince who learns his knowledge, and is taught the 
duties of a Khattiya, at the feet of the Brahman who 
acts as family chaplain 2 , when after a time he is 
anointed king, pays reverence and respect to his 
master in the thought of his being the teacher, and 
the carrier on of the traditions of the family, so is it 
right for the converted Bhikkhu to do reverence and 
to pay respect to the unconverted Bhikkhu.' 

4. 'And moreover, O king, you may know by 
this fact the greatness and the peerless glory of the 
condition of the Bhikkhus — that if a layman, a dis- 
ciple of the faith, who has entered upon the Excellent 
Way, should attain to the realisation of Arahatship, 
one of two results must happen to him, and there is 
no other — he must either die away on that very day, 
or take upon himself the condition of a Bhikkhu. 
For immovable, O king, is that state of renuncia- 
tion, glorious, and most exalted — I mean the con- 
dition of being a member of the Order ! ' 

' Venerable Nagasena, this subtle problem has 
been thoroughly unravelled by your powerful and 
great wisdom. No one else could solve it so unless 
he were wise as you.' 



[Here ends the problem as to the precedence of the 

Dharma.] 

1 Agamo, which the Sinhalese repeats. 

2 Purohita, which the Sinhalese repeats. 



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234 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. TV, 3, 5. 

[THE HARM OF PREACHING.] 

5. ' Venerable Nagasena, you Bhikkhus say that 
the Tathagata averts harm from all beings, and does 
them good \ And again you say that when he was 
preaching the discourse based on the simile of the 
burning fire 2 hot blood was ejected from the mouths 
of about sixty Bhikkhus. By his delivery of that 
discourse he did those Bhikkhus harm and not good. 
So if the first statement is correct, the second is false ; 
and if the second is correct, the first [165] is false. 
This too is a double-pointed problem put to you, 
which you have to solve.' 

6. ' Both are true. What happened to them was 
not the Tathagata's doing, but their own.' 

* But, Nagasena, if the Tathagata had not delivered 
that discourse, then would they have vomited up hot 
blood ?' 

' No. When they took wrongly what he said, then 
was there a burning kindled within them, and hot 
blood was ejected from their mouths.' 

' Then that must have happened, Nagasena, 
through the act of the Tathagata, it must have been 
the Tathagata who was the chief cause s to destroy 
them. Suppose a serpent, Nagasena, had crept into 
an anthill, and a man in want of earth were to break 
into the anthill, and take the earth of it away. And 
by his doing so the entrance-hole to the anthill 

1 I cannot give chapter and verse for the words, but the senti- 
ment is common enough. 

* This is not the Aditta-pariydya given in the Mahavagga I, 
21, and the Aggikkhandupama Sutta in the 7th Book of the 
Ahguttara. 

* Adhikdra. Pradhana is the Sinhalese translation. 



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IV, 3 , 8. PREACH INC. 235 

were closed up, and the snake were to die in conse- 
quence from want of air. Would not the serpent 
have been killed by that man's action ?' 

' Yes, O king.' 

' Just so, Nagasena, was the Tathagata the prime 
cause of their destruction.' 

7. ' When the Tathagata delivered a discourse, O 
king, he never did so either in flattery or in malice. 
In freedom both from the one and from the other 
did he speak. And they who received it aright were 
made wise \ but they who received it wrongly, fell. 
Just, O king, as when a man shakes a mango tree or 
a jambu tree or a mee tree *, such of the fruits on it 
as are full of sap and strongly fastened to it remain 
undisturbed, but such as have rotten stalks, and are 
loosely attached, fall to the ground — [166] so was it 
with his preaching. It was, O king, as when a hus- 
bandman, wanting to grow a crop of wheat, ploughs 
the field, but by that ploughing many hundreds and 
thousands of blades of grass are killed — or it was as 
when men, for the sake of sweetness, crush sugar- 
cane in a mill, and by their doing so such small 
creatures as pass into the mouth of the mill are 
crushed also — so was it that the Tathagata making 
wise those whose minds were prepared, preached the 
Dhamma without flattery and without malice. And 
they who received it aright were made wise, but they 
who received it wrongly, fell.' 

8. ' Then did not those Bhikkhus fall, Nagasena, 
just because of that discourse ? ' 

1 Bu^Aanti: unto Arahatship adds Hina/i-kumburS. 
* Madhuka. See Gataka IV, 434. The Sinhalese (p. 208) 
has mfgahak (Bassia Latifolia). 



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236 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, 9. 

' How, then, could a carpenter by doing nothing to 
a piece of timber, and simply laying it by \ make it 
straight and fit for use ? ' 

' No, Sir. He would have to get rid of the bends 
out of it, if he wanted it straight and ready for use* 

'Just so, O king, the Tathagata could not, by 
merely watching over his disciples, have opened the 
eyes of those who were ready to see. But by getting 
rid of those who took the word wrongly he saved 
those prepared to be saved. And it was by their 
own act and deed, O king, that the evil-minded fell ; 
just as a plantain tree, or a bambti, or a she-mule are 
destroyed by that to which they themselves give 
birth 2 . And just, O king, as it is by their own 
acts that robbers come to have their eyes plucked 
out, or to impalement, or to the scaffold, just so 
were the evil-minded destroyed by their own act, 
and fell from the teaching of the Conqueror.' 

9. ' And so [167] with those sixty Bhikkhus, they 
fell neither by the act of the Tathagata nor of any 
one else, but solely by their own deed 3 . Suppose, O 
king, a man were to give ambrosia 4 to all the people, 
and they, eating of it, were to become healthy and 
long-lived and free from every bodily ill. But one 
man, on eating it, were by his own bad digestion, to 

1 Rakkhanto, which Hina/i-kumburS expands in the sense 
adopted above. 

2 Plantains and bambus die when they flower. And it was 
popular belief in India that she-mules always died if they foaled. 
See Aullavagga VI, 4, 3; VII, 2, 5; Vimana Vatthu 43, 8; 
Sawyutta Nikaya VI, 2, 2. 

3 Hina/i-kumbure" here inserts a translation of the whole of the 
Sutta referred to. 

* Amatam, with reference, no doubt, to Arahatship, of which 
this is also an epithet. 



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IV, 3»I5- THE FOOLISH FELLOW. 237 

die. Would then, O king, the man who gave away 
the ambrosia be guilty therein of any offence ?' 

' No, Sir.' 

' Just so, O king, does the Tathagata present the 
gift of his ambrosia to the men and gods in the ten 
thousand world systems ; and those beings who are 
capable of doing so are made wise by the nectar of 
his law, while they who are not are destroyed and 
fall. Food, O king, preserves the lives of all beings. 
But some who eat of it die of cholera 1 . Is the man 
who feeds the hungry guilty therein of any offence ? ' 

'No, Sir.' 

' Just so, O king, does the Tathagata present the 
gift of his ambrosia to the men and gods in the ten 
thousand world systems ; and those beings who are 
capable of doing so are made wise by the nectar of his 
law, while they who are not are destroyed and fall.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma on the harm resulting 
from preaching.] 



[the secrets of a tathAgata.] 
11. [This dilemma treats of one of the thirty 
bodily signs of a ' great man ' (Mahipurusha) sup- 
posed to be possessed by every Tathagata, but as it 
deals with matters not usually spoken of in this 
century, it is best read in the original.] 

[the foolish fellow.] 
15. [170] 'Venerable Nagasena, it was said by the 
Elder Sariputta, the commander of the faith : " The 

1 Visfliik&ya, which Hinari-kumbure' renders: Agirna. wa 
wiwekSbSdhayen. So above, IV, 2, 18. 



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238 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, 16. 

Tathagata, brethren, is perfect in courtesy of speech. 
There is no fault of speech in the Tathagata con- 
cerning which he should have to take care that no 
one else should know it 1 ." And on the other hand 
the Tathagata, when promulgating the first Para^ika 
on the occasion of the offence of Sudinna the 
Kalanda 2 , addressed him with harsh words, calling 
him a useless fellow 3 . And that Elder, on being so 
called, terrified with the fear of his teacher*, and 
overcome with remorse, was unable to comprehend 
the Excellent Way 6 . Now if the first statement be 
correct, the allegation that the Tathagata called 
Sudinna the Kalanda a useless fellow must be false. 
But if that be true, then the first statement must be 
false. [171] This too is a double-pointed problem 
now put to you, and you have to solve it' 

16. 'What Sariputta the Elder said is true, O 
king. And the Blessed One called Sudinna a useless 
fellow on that occasion. But that was not out of 
rudeness of disposition *, it was merely pointing out 
the real nature (of his conduct) in a way that would 
do him no harm 7 . And what herein is meant by 

1 I don't know where such a phrase is put into Sariputta's mouth: 
but a similar one, as Mr. Trenckner points out, is ascribed to the 
Buddha at Anguttara VII, 6, 5. 

* Kalanda-putto, where Kalanda (or Kalandaka as some 
MSS. of the Vinaya spell it) is the name of the clan (see ParS^ika 
I, 5, 1), not of the father. 

' See the whole speech at P&ri^ika I, 5, n. 

4 Garuttasena. TSso is not in Childers, but occurs Gataka 
III, 177, 202. 

5 There is nothing in the Vinaya account of this result. 

• Du/Ma-^ittena, which Hlna/i-kumbur6 repeats. 

7 Asarambhena ySthava-lakkhawena. For ySthSva, which 
is not in Childers, see Buddhaghosa in the Sumahgala Vilasinf, 
p. 65, and Dhammapala on Theri Gatha, 387. Hina/i-kumburS 



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IV, 3, 17- THE FOOLISH FELLOW. 239 

" pointing out the real nature." If any man, O king, 
in this birth does not attain to the perception of the 
Four Truths, then is his manhood (his being born as 
a man) in vain \ but if he acts differently he will 
become different. Therefore is it that he is called 
a useless fellow 2 . And so the Blessed One addressed 
Sudinna the Kalanda with words of truth, and not 
with words apart from the facts.' 

1 7. ' But, Nagasena, though a man in abusing 
another speaks the truth, still we should inflict a 
small 3 fine upon him. For he is guilty of an offence, 
inasmuch as he, although for something real, abused 
him by the use of words that might lead to a breach 
(of the peace) V 

* Have you ever heard, O king, of a people bowing 
down before, or rising up from their seats in respect 
for, or showing honour to, or bringing the compli- 
mentary presents (usually given to officials) to a 
criminal ?' 

' No, if a man have committed a crime of whatever 
sort or kind, if he be really worthy of reproof and 
punishment, they would rather behead him, or tor- 
translates: Upadra karawa sitakin ut no wanneya, swabhawa 
lakshanayen maya ehi wadila kisiwek cet nam, £ swabhawa 
lakshanaya maya. 

1 M ogham. So at Gataka III, 24. 

* Mogha-puriso.the same word as I have translated elsewhere 
'foolish fellow,' following Childers. But I never think that the 
word means always and only 'in vain, useless.' See Gataka I, 
14; III, 24, 25 ; Sutta Nipata III, 7, 20; Mahavagga VIII, 1, 5; 
A'ullavagga V, n, 3; Aftguttara II, 5, 10; Sumaftgala Vilisini, p. 55. 

8 Literally, 'a fine of a k aha p ana,' a copper coin worth in our 
money about a penny. See my ' Ancient Coins and Measures,' p. 3. 

* Visuw voharam a^aranto. The Sinhalese (p. 224) has 
Wen wu wa^ana wu wyawahdrayekin hoesiremin. 



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24O THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, 18. 

ture him 1 , or bind him with bonds, or put him to 
death, or deprive him of his goods V 

' Did then the Blessed One, O king, act with 
justice or not ? ' 

' With justice, Sir, and in a most fit and proper 
way. And when, Nagasena, they hear of it the 
world of men and gods will be made tender of con- 
science, and afraid of falling into sin, struck with awe 
at the sight of it, and still more so when they them- 
selves associate with wrong-doers, or do wrong.' 

1 8. [172] ' Now would a physician, O king, admin- 
ister pleasant things as a medicine in a case where 
all the humours of the body were affected, and the 
whole frame was disorganised and full of disease ?' 

' No. Wishing to put an end to the disease he 
would give sharp and scarifying drugs.' 

' In the same way, O king, the Tathagata bestows 
admonition for the sake of suppressing all the 
diseases of sin. And the words of the Tathagata, 
even when stern, soften men and make them tender. 
Just as hot water, O king, softens and makes tender 
anything capable of being softened, so are the words 
of the Tathagata, even when stern, yet as full of bene- 
fit, and as full of pity as the words of a father would 
be to his children. Just, O king, as the drinking of 
evil-smelling decoctions, the swallowing of nasty 
drugs, destroys the weaknesses of men's bodies, so 
are the words of the Tathagata, even when stern, 
bringers of advantage and laden with pity. And 



1 Hananti. But himsSit kereti says the Sinhalese. 

* Gapenti. Dr. Edward Mttller thinks this a misprint for 
^ASpenti (Pili Grammar, p. 37). Dhanaya hSnayen nird- 
dhanika kereti is the Sinhalese version. 



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IV, 3, 20. THE TALKING TREE. 24 1 

just, O king, as a ball of cotton falling on a man 
raises no bruise, so do the words of the Tathagata, 
even when -stern, do no harm.' 

' Well have you made this problem clear by many 
a simile. Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I 
accept it as you say.' 



[End of the dilemma as to the Buddha's harsh words 
to Sudinna.] 



[the tree talking.] 

19. ' Venerable Nagasena, the Tathagata said : 

" Brahman ! why do you ask an unconscious thing, 
Which cannot hear you, how it does to-day ? 
Active, intelligent, and full of life, 
How can you speak to this so senseless thing — 
This wild Palasa tree 1 ?" 
[173] And on the other hand he said : 
" And thus the Aspen tree then made reply : 
' I, Bharadvifa, can speak too. Listen to me V " 
' Now if, Nagasena, a tree is an unconscious thing, 
it must be false that the Aspen tree spoke to Bharad- 
va^a. But if that is true, it must be false to say that 
a tree is unconscious. This too is a double-edged 
problem now put to you, and you have to solve it.' 

20. ' The Master said, Nagasena, that a tree is 
unconscious. And the Aspen tree conversed with 
Bharadv&fa. But that last is said, O king, by a 
common form of speech. For though a tree being 
unconscious cannot talk, yet the word " tree " is used 

1 Gataka III, 24. It is not the TathSgata, but the Bodisat, 
who speaks. 
* Gataka IV, 210, where the verses are ascribed to the Buddha. 

[35] R 



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242 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, 21. 

as a designation of the dryad who dwells therein, 
and in that sense that " the tree talks " is a well- 
known expression. Just, O king, as a waggon laden 
with corn is called a corn-waggon. But it is not 
made of corn, it is made of wood, yet because of the 
corn being heaped up in it the people use the ex- 
pression "corn-waggon." Or just, O king, as when a 
man is churning sour milk the common expression is 
that he is churning butter. But it is not butter that 
he is churning, but milk. Or just, O king, as when 
a man is making something that does not exist the 
common expression is that he is making that thing 
which all the while as yet is not, [174] but people 
talk of the work as accomplished before it is done. 
And the Tathagata, when expounding the Dhamma, 
does so by means of the phraseology which is in 
common use among the people.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the talking tree.} 



[the buddha's last illness.] 
21. 'Venerable Nagasena, it was said by the 
Elders who held the Recitation 1 : 
" When he had eaten A'unda's alms, 
The coppersmith's, — thus have I heard, — 
The Buddha felt that sickness dire, 
That sharp pain even unto death 2 ." 

1 The Council of RS^agaha is meant, at which the Pi/akas were 
recited. All the so-called Councils are exclusively 'Recitations' 
(Sawgitiyo) in Buddhist phraseology. But 'Council' is the best 
rendering of the word, as Recitation implies so much that would 
be unintelligible to the ordinary reader. 

* Book of the Great Decease, IV, 23. 



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IV, 3i22. the buddha's last illness. 243 

And afterwards the Blessed One said : " These 
two offerings of food, Ananda, equal, of equal fruit, 
and of equal result, are of much greater fruit and 
much greater result than any others 1 ." Now if 
sharp sickness fell upon the Blessed One, Nagasena, 
after he had partaken of A'unda's alms, and sharp 
pains arose within him even unto death, then that 
other statement must be wrong. But if that is 
right then the first must be wrong. How could 
that alms, Nagasena, be of great fruit when it turned 
to poison, gave rise to disease, [175] put an end to 
the period of his then existence, took away his life ? 
Explain this to me to the refutation of the adver- 
saries. The people are in bewilderment about this, 
thinking that the dysentery must have been caused 
by his eating too much, out of greediness.' 

22. 'The Blessed One said, O king, that there 
were two almsgivings equal, of equal fruit, and equal 
result, and of much greater fruit, and much greater 
result than any others, — that which, when a Tatha- 
gata has partaken of it, he attains to supreme and 
perfect Buddhahood (Enlightenment), and that when 
he has partaken of which, he passes away by that 
utter passing away in which nothing whatever re- 
mains behind 2 . For that alms is full of virtue, full 
of advantage. The gods, O king, shouted in joy 
and gladness at the thought: "This is the last 
meal the Tathagata will take," and communicated 
a divine power of nourishment to that tender 



1 Book of the Great Decease, IV, 57, but with a slightly different 
reading. 

* Book of the Great Decease, loc. cit. The Sinhalese gives the 
whole context in full. 

R 2 



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244 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, 32, 

pork \ And that was itself in good condition, light, 
pleasant, full of flavour, and good for digestion*. 
It was not because of it that any sickness fell upon 
the Blessed One, but it was because of the extreme 
weakness of his body, and because of the period of 
life he had to live having been exhausted, that the 
disease arose, and grew worse and worse — just as 
when, O king, an ordinary fire is burning, if fresh 
fuel be supplied, it will burn up still more — or [176] 
as when a stream is flowing along as usual, if a 



1 Sukara-maddava. There is great doubt as to the exact 
meaning of this name of the last dish the Buddha partook of. 
Maddati is 'to rub,' or 'to press,' or 'to trample,' and just as 
' pressed beef is ambiguous, so is ' boar-pressed ' or ' pork-tender' 
capable of various interpretations. The exegetical gloss as handed 
down in the Mahl Vihira in Anuradhapure, Ceylon, in the now 
lost body of tradition called the Mahfi A/ttakatha, has been pre- 
served by Dhammapala in his comment on Udana VIII, 5 (p. 81 
of Dr. Steinthal's edition for the Pali Text Society). It means, I 
think, ' Meat pervaded by the tenderness and niceness of boar's 
(flesh).' But that is itself ambiguous, and Dhammapala adds that 
others say the word means not pork or meat at all, but ' the tender 
top sprout of the bambu plant after it has been trampled upon 
by swine' — others again that it means a kind of mushroom that 
grows in ground trodden under foot by swine — others again that 
it means only a particular kind of flavouring, or sauce. As 
Maddana is rendered by Childers 'withered,' I have translated it 
in my ' Buddhist Suttas ' (pp. 7 1-73) ' dried boar's flesh.' But the 
fact is that the exact sense is not known. (Maddavani 
pupphlni at Dhammapada 377 is ' withered flowers,' according 
to Fausbdll. But it may be just as well ' tender flowers,' especially 
as Mardava in Sanskrit always means 'tender, pitiful,' &c. This 
is the only passage where the word is known to occur in Pali apart 
from those in which sukara-maddava is mentioned.) The 
Sinhalese here (p. 230) repeats the word and adds the gloss : E 
taruwu wu uru mamsayehi. 

* Gatharaggi-te^assa hitam. On this curious old belief in 
an internal fire see my ' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 260. 



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iv, 3, 23- THE buddha's last illness. 245 

heavy rain falls, it will become a mighty river with 
a great rush of water — or as when the body is of its 
ordinary girth, if more food be eaten, it becomes 
broader than before. So this was not, O king, the 
fault of the food that was presented, and you can 
not impute any harm to it.' 

23. ' But, venerable Nagasena, why is it that those 
two gifts of food are so specially meritorious ? ' 

' Because of the attainment of the exalted con- 
ditions which resulted from them 1 .' 

' Of what conditions, Nagasena, are you speaking?' 

' Of the attainment of the nine successive states 
which were passed through at first in one order, 
and then in the reverse order 2 .' 

' It was on two days, was it not, Nagasena, that 
the Tathagata attained to those conditions in the 
highest degree ? ' 

♦Yes, OkingV 

'It is a most wonderful thing, Nagasena, and a 
most strange, that of all the great and glorious 
gifts which were bestowed upon our Blessed One 4 
not one can be compared with these two alms- 
givings. Most marvellous is it, that even as those 

1 Dhammanuma^ana-samapatti-varena: which the Sin- 
halese merely repeats. For Anuma^anS see the text above, 
p. 62, and Sumaftgala Vilisinf, p. 65. 

* See the full description in the Book of the Great Decease, VI, 
11-13. ('Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 115, 116.) The Sinhalese is here 
greatly expanded (pp. 230-233). 

' So our author must have thought that the nine Anupubba- 
viharas occurred also after the alms given to Gotama before he 
sat under the Bo Tree, but I know of no passage in the Pi/akas 
which would support this belief. Compare the note 2 in vol. i, 
p. 74 of the ' Vinaya Texts,' and the passages there quoted. 

* Buddha-khette dinam, 'gifts which had the Buddha as 
the field in which they were bestowed, or sown.' 



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246 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, 84. 

nine successive conditions are glorious, even so are 
those gifts made, by their glory, [177] of greater 
fruit, and of greater advantage than any others. 
Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept it 
as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the Buddha's 
last illness.] 



[adoration of relics.] 

24. * Venerable Nagasena, the Tathagata said : 
" Hinder not yourselves, Ananda, by honouring the 
remains of the Tathagata 1 ." And on the other 
hand he said : 

" Honour that relic of him who is worthy of honour, 
Acting in that way you go from this world to 

heaven V 
' Now if the first injunction was right the second 
must be wrong, and if the second is right the first 
must be wrong. This too is a double-edged pro- 
blem now put to you, and you have to solve it' 

25. ' Both the passages you quote were spoken 
by the Blessed One. But it was not to all men, it 
was to the sons of the Conqueror 8 that it was said : 
" Hinder not yourselves, Ananda, by honouring the 
remains of the Tathagata *." Paying reverence is 
not the work of the sons of the Conqueror, [178] 
but rather the grasping of the true nature of all 

1 Book of the Great Decease, V, 24. 
1 Not found in any of the Pi/aka texts as yet published. 
8 Crina-putt&naffl. That is, the members of the Order. 
4 Here again Hina/i-kumbure goes into a long account of the 
attendant circumstances (pp. 233, 234). 



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IV, 3, 3<S. ADORATION OF RELICS. 247 

compounded things, the practice of thought, con- 
templation in accordance with the rules of Satipa- 
/Mana, the seizing of the real essence of all objects 
of thought, the struggle against evil, and devotion 
to their own (spiritual) good. These are things 
which the sons of the Conqueror ought to do, leaving 
to others, whether gods or men, the paying of 
reverence V 

26. ' And that is so, O king, just as it is the business 
of the princes of the earth to learn all about 
elephants, and horses, and chariots, and bows, and 
rapiers, and documents, and the law of property a , 
to carry on the traditions of the Khattiya clans, and 
to fight themselves and to lead others in war, while 
husbandry, merchandise, and the care of cattle are 
the business of other folk, ordinary Vessas and 
Suddas. — Or just as the business of Brahmins and 
their sons is concerned with the Rig-veda, the 
Ya^-ur-veda, the Sama-veda, the Atharva-veda, 
with the knowledge of lucky marks (on the body), 
of legends 8 , Pura#as, lexicography \ prosody, phono- 
logy, verses, grammar, etymology, astrology, inter- 
pretation of omens, and of dreams, and of signs, 
study of the six Vedangas, of eclipses of the sun 
and moon, of the prognostications to be drawn 
from the flight of comets, the thunderings of the 
gods, the junctions of planets, the fall of meteors, 
earthquakes, conflagrations, and signs in the heavens 
and on the earth, the study of arithmetic, of cas- 

1 This is really only an expansion and a modernisation of the 
context of the passage quoted. 
1 Lekha-muddl. See the note above on I, 1, 10. 
' Itih&sa, 'the Bh&rata and the Rdmiyana,' says the Sinhalese. 
4 ' Of names of trees and so on,' says Htna/i-kumburfi. 



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248 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, V}. 

uistry, of the interpretation of the omens to be 
drawn from dogs, and deer, and rats, and mixtures 
of liquids, and the sounds and cries of birds — while 
husbandry, merchandise, and the care of cattle are 
the business of other folk, ordinary Vessas and 
Suddas. So it was, O king, in the sense of 
"Devote not yourselves to such things as are not 
your business, but to such things as are so" that 
the Tathagata was speaking [179] when he said : 
" Hinder not yourselves, Ananda, by honouring 
the remains of the Tathagata." And if, O king, 
he had not said so, then would the Bhikkhus have 
taken his bowl and his robe, and occupied them- 
selves with paying reverence to the Buddha through 
them 1 ! ' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to reverence to relics.] 



[THE SPLINTER OF ROCK.] 

27. 'Venerable Nagasena, you Bhikkhus say 
that: "When the Blessed One walked along, 
the earth, unconscious though it is, filled up its 
deep places, and made its steep places plain 8 ." 
And on the other hand you say that a splinter of 

1 This certainly looks as if our author did not know anything of 
the worship paid to the supposed bowl of the Buddha, or of the 
feast, the Patta-maha, held in its honour. The passage may 
therefore be used as an argument for the date of the book. Fi- 
Hien saw this bowl-worship in full force at Peshawar about 400 
a. d. See Chapter xii of his travels (Dr. Legge's translation, pp. 

35-37)- 
* Not found as yet in the Pi/akas. 



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IV, 3, *9- THE SPLINTER OF ROCK. 249 

rock grazed his foot 1 . When that splinter was 
falling on his foot why did it not, then, turn aside ? 
If it be true that the unconscious earth makes its 
deep places full and its steep places plain for him, 
then it must be untrue that the splinter of rock 
hurt his foot. But if the latter statement be true, 
then the first must be false. This too is a double- 
edged problem now put to you, and you have to 
solve it.' 

28. ' Both statements, O king, are true. But 
that splinter of rock did not fall of itself 2 , it was 
cast down through the act of Devadatta. Through 
hundreds of thousands of existences, O king, had 
Devadatta borne a grudge against the Blessed 
One 8 . It was through that hatred that he seized 
hold of a mighty mass of rock, and pushed it over 
with the hope that it would fall upon the Buddha's 
head. But two other rocks came together, and 
intercepted it before it reached the Tathagata, and 
by the force of their impact a splinter was torn off, 
and fell in such a direction that it struck [180] the 
Blessed One's foot.' 

29. ' But, Nagasena, just as two rocks intercepted 
that mighty mass, so could the splinter have been 
intercepted.' 

' But a thing intercepted, O king, can escape, slip 
through, or be lost — as water does, through the 
fingers, when it is taken into the hand — or milk, or 
buttermilk, or honey, or ghee, or oil, or fish curry, 

1 ATullavagga VII, 3, 9. Compare the Samyutta Nikaya I, 4, 
8 ; IV, 2, 3 (pp. 27 and no of M. Leon Feer's edition for the PSli 
Text Society). 

1 Attaro dhammatiya. 

* So above, IV, 2, 64, and below, IV, 4, 41. 



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25O THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, 30. 

or gravy— or as fine, subtle, minute, dusty grains of 
sand do, through the fingers, if you close your fist 
on them — or as rice will escape sometimes when you 
have taken it into your fingers, and are putting it 
into your mouth.' 

30. ' Well, let that be so, Nagasena. I admit that 
the rock was intercepted. But the splinter ought at 
least to have paid as much respect to the Buddha as 
the earth did.' 

' There are these twelve kinds of persons, O king, 
who pay no respect — the lustful man in his lust, and 
the angry man in his malice, and the dull man in 
his stupidity, and the puffed-up man in his pride, and 
the bad man in his want of discrimination, and the 
obstinate man in his want of docility, and the mean 
man in his littleness, and the talkative man in his 
vanity, and the wicked man in his cruelty, and the 
wretched man in his misery, and the gambler [181] 
because he is overpowered by greed, and the busy 
man in his search after gain. But that splinter, just 
as it was broken off by the impact of the rocks, fell 
by chance * in such a direction that it struck against 
the foot of the Blessed One — just as fine, subtle, and 
minute grains of sand, when carried away by the 
force of the wind, are sprinkled down by chance in 
any direction they may happen to take. If the 
splinter, O king, had not been separated from the 
rock of which it formed a part, it too would have 
been intercepted by their meeting together. But, 
as it was, it was neither fixed on the earth, nor did 
it remain stationary in the air, but fell whithersoever 

1 Animitta-kata-disa, which the Sinhalese (p. 238) merely 
repeats. 



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IV, 3, 3'« THE SAMAtfA. 25 1 

chance directed it, and happened to strike against 
the Blessed One's foot — just as dried leaves might 
fall if caught up in a whirlwind. And the real cause 
of its so striking against his foot was the sorrow- 
working deed 1 of that ungrateful, wicked, Devadatta.' 
'Very good, Nagasena! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the splinter grazing 
the Buddha's foot] 



[the sam ana.] 

31. 'Venerable Nagasena, the Blessed One said: 
" A man becomes a Sama«a by the destruction of 
the Asavas 2 ." But on the other hand he said : 
" The man who has these dispositions four 
• Is he whom the world knows as Sama»a 3 ." 
And in that passage these are the four dispositions 
referred to — long-suffering, temperance in food, 
renunciation 4 , and the being without the attach- 
ments 6 (arising from lust, ill-will, and dulness). 
Now these four dispositions are equally found in 
those who are still defective, in whom [182] the 

1 DukkhSnubh&vana — the sorrow being Devadatta's subse- 
quent existence in purgatory. 

* That is ' of sensuality, individuality, delusion, and ignorance.' 
I don't know which is the passage referred to. 

' Also not traced as yet in the texts. 

4 Vippah&ni, not in Childers, but see Sutta Nipdta V, 14, 4, 5. 
Hfna/i-kumbure (p. 239) renders it dlaya hcertma. 

' AkinkaMa, not having the three kin^anas mentioned. 
Hina/ikumbure (p. 239) takes it to mean the practice of the 
AkidA&yatana meditation. But if so that would surely have 
been the word used. 



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252 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, 3a. 

Asavas have not yet been completely destroyed. 
So that if the first statement be correct, the second 
is wrong, and if the second be right the first must 
be wrong. This too is a double-edged problem 
now put to you, and you have to solve it.' 

32. ' Both statements, O king, were made by the 
Blessed One. But the second was said of the 
characteristics of such and such men ; the first is an 
inclusive statement — that all in whom the Asavas 
are destroyed are Sama»as. And moreover, of all 
those who are made perfect by the suppression of 
evil, if you take them in regular order one after the 
other, then the Sama«a in whom the Asavas are 
destroyed is acknowledged to be the chief— just, O 
king, as of all flowers produced in the water or on 
the land, the double jasmine * is ackowledged to be 
the chief, all other kinds of flowers of whatever 
sort are merely flowers, and taking them in order 
it is the double jasmine that people most desire and 
like. Or just, O king, as of all kinds of grain, rice 
is acknowledged to be the chief, all other kinds of 
grain, of whatever sort, [183] are useful for food and 
for the support of the body, but if you take them in 
order, rice is acknowledged as the best.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to what constitutes 
a Samawa.] 



1 Varsika (Ddbsaman mal, jasminum zambac). 



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TV, 3, 34. EXULTATION. 253 



[the buddha's exultation.] 

33. ' Venerable Nagasena, the Blessed One said : 
" If, O Bhikkhus, any one should speak in praise of 
me, or of our religion (Dhamma), or of the Order, 
you should not thereupon indulge in joy, or delight, 
or exultation of mind J ". And on the other hand 
the Tathigata was so delighted, and pleased, and 
exultant at the deserved praise bestowed on him by 
Sela the Brahman, that he still further magnified 
his own goodness in that he said : 

" A king am I, Sela, the king supreme 
Of righteousness. The royal chariot wheel 
In righteousness do I set rolling on — 
That wheel that no one can turn back again 2 ! " 
Now if the passage first quoted be right then must 
the second be wrong, but if that be right then must 
the first be wrong. This too is a double-edged 
problem now put to you, and you have to solve it.' 

34. [184] ' Both your quotations, O king, are 
correct But the first passage was spoken by the 
Blessed One with the intention of setting forth truth- 
fully, exactly, in accordance with reality, and fact, and 

1 From the Brahma-^aia Sutta in the Dfgha NMya (I, 1, 5). 

* From the Sela Sutta in the Sutta NipSta (III, 7, 7). Professor 
Fausbdll in his translation of this stanza (at vol. x, p. 102 of the 
'Sacred Books of the East') draws attention to the parallel at 
John xviii. 37. * Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was 
I born. And for this cause came I into the world that I should 
bear witness unto the truth ' — where ' truth,' if one translated the 
verse into PSIi, would be correctly rendered by Dhamma, 'right- 
eousness, religion, truth, essential quality.' Professor Fausbdll's 
version of the stanza runs : ' I am a king, O Sela, an incomparable 
religious (Dhamma-ri^a) king, with justice (Dhamma). I turn the 
wheel, a wheel that is irresistible.' 



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254 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, 35. 

sense, the real nature, and essence, and characteristic 
marks of the Dhamma. And the second passage 
was not spoken for the sake of gain or fame, nor out 
of party spirit, nor in the lust of winning over men 
to become his followers. But it was in mercy and 
love, and with the welfare of others in view, conscious 
that thereby three hundred young Brahmans would 
attain to the knowledge of the truth, that he said : 
" A king am I, Sela, the king supreme of righteous- 
ness. 

' Very good, Nigasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the problem as to exultation of mind.] 



[kindness and punishment.] 

35. 'Venerable Nigasena, the Blessed One said : 
" Doing no injury to any one 
Dwell full of love and kindness in the world 1 ." 
And on the other hand he said : " Punish him who 
deserves punishment 2 , favour him who is worthy of 
favour." [185] Now punishment, Nagasena, means 
the cutting off of hands or feet, flogging 3 , casting 
into bonds, torture 4 , execution, degradation in rank*. 

1 From the 521st Gataka. 

2 The crux lies in the ambiguity of this phrase as will be seen 
below. 

' Vadha, which is ambiguous, and means also 'killing.' The 
Sinhalese repeats the word. 

* KarawS, which Hina/i-kumbure" renders tceltmaya, ' flogging.' 

* Santati-vikopanaw, literally ' breach of continuity.' Hina/i- 
kumbure' explains it to mean ' injury to the duration of life,' and 
this may be the author's meaning, as he is fond of heaping together 
a string of words, some of which mean the same thing. But as 



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IV, 3, 36. KINDNESS AND PUNISHMENT. 255 

Such a saying is therefore not worthy of the Blessed 
One, and he ought not to have made use of it. For 
if the first injunction be right then this must be 
wrong, and if this be right then the injunction to do 
no injury to any one, but to dwell full of love and 
kindness in the world, must be wrong. This too 
is a double-edged problem now put to you, and you 
have to solve it.' 

36. ' The Blessed One, great king, gave both the 
commands you quote. As to the first, to do no 
injury to any one, but to live full of love and kind- 
ness in the world — that is a doctrine approved by 
all the Buddhas. And that verse is an injunction, 
an unfolding of the Dhamma, for the Dhamma has 
as its characteristic that it works no ill. And the 
saying is thus in thorough accord with it. But as 
to the second command you quote that is a special 
use of terms [which you have misunderstood. The 
real meaning of them is : " Subdue that which ought 
to be subdued, strive after, cultivate, favour what is 
worthy of effort, cultivation, and approval "]. The 
proud heart, great king, is to be subdued, and the 
lowly heart cultivated — the wicked heart to be sub- 
dued, and the good heart to be cultivated — careless- 
ness of thought is to be subdued, and exactness of 
thought to be cultivated — [186] he who is given over 
to wrong views is to be subdued, and he who has 
attained to right views is to be cultivated — he who 
is not noble 1 is to be subdued, and the noble one is 

santati means also 'lineage, descent/ the phrase may equally well 
refer to the sort of punishment I have ventured to put into the text. 
1 Ariyo and anariyo used technically in the sense of one 
who has not, and one who has, entered upon the Noble Eightfold 
Path. 



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256 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, 37. 

to be cultivated — the robber 1 is to be subdued, and 
the honest brother is to be cultivated.' 

37. ' Let that be so, Nagasena. But now, in that 
last word of yours, you have put yourself into my 
power, you have come round to the sense in which 
I put my question. For how, venerable Nagasena, 
is the robber to be subdued by him who sets to work 
to subdue him ? ' 

' Thus, great king — if deserving of rebuke let him 
be rebuked, if of a fine let him be fined, if of banish- 
ment let him be banished, if of death let him be put 
to death.' 

' Is then, Nigasena, the execution of robbers part' 
of the doctrine laid down by the Tathagatas ?' 

' Certainly not, O king.' 

' Then why have the Tathagatas laid down that 
the robber is to be taught better ?' 

' Whosoever, great king, may be put to death, he 
does not suffer execution by reason of the opinion 
put forth by the Tathagatas. He suffers by reason 
of what he himself has done. But notwithstanding 
that the doctrine of the Dhamma has been taught 
(by the Buddhas) 2 , would it be possible, great king, 
for a man who had done nothing wrong, and was 
walking innocently along the streets, to be seized 
and put to death by any wise person ?' 

' Certainly not.' 



1 Coro probably here used figuratively of a member of the 
Order who is unworthy of it, and injures believing laymen. So the 
word is used, for instance, in the introductory story (in the Sutta 
Vibhanga) to the fourth PSrS^ild — where four sorts of such 
religious ' robbers ' are distinguished (compare our * wolf in sheep's 
clothing '). But the king takes it literally. 

* The three words in brackets are Hina/i-kumbur6's gloss. 



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IV, 3, 38. DISMISSAL. 257 

' But why ? ' 

• Because of his innocence.' 

'Just so, great king, since the thief is not put to 
death through the word of the Tathagata, but only 
through his own act, how can any fault be rightly 
found on that account with the Teacher ? ' 
• ' It could not be, Sir.' 

'So you see the teaching of the Tathagatas is 
a righteous teaching.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the problem as to kindness and 
punishment.] 



[the dismissal of the elders.] 

38. 'Venerable Nagasena, it was said by the 
Blessed One : 

" Anger I harbour not, nor sulkiness 1 ." 
But on the other hand the Tathagata dismissed the 
Elders Sariputta and Moggallana, together with the 
brethren who formed their company of disciples 2 , 

1 From the Dhaniya Sutta in the Sutta Nipita (I, 2, 2). 

* The episode here referred to will be found in the Ma^Aima 
Nikaya, No. 67. Hina/i-kumbur6 gives it in full. The Buddha was 
staying at the Amalakt garden near the Sakya town called A"atuma. 
There the two elders with their attendant 500 disciples came to 
call upon him. The resident Bhikkhus received them with applause, 
and a great hubbub arose. The Buddha enquired what that noise 
was, like the chattering of fishermen when a net full of fishes was 
drawn to shore. Ananda told him. Thereupon the Buddha 
called the brethren together, made a discourse to them on the advan- 
tages of quiet, and ' sent away ' the visitors. They went to the 
public rest-house in the town. The town's folk enquired why, and. 

[35] S 



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258 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, 39. 

How now, Nagasena, [187] was it in anger that the 
Tathagata sent away 1 the disciples, or was it in 
pleasure ? Be so good as to explain to me how 
this was 2 . For if, Nagasena, he dismissed them in 
anger, then had the Tathagata not subdued all 
liability to anger in himself. But if it was in plea- 
sure, then he did so ignorantly, and without due 
cause. This too is a double-edged problem now 
put to you, and you have to solve it.' 

39. ' The Blessed One did say, O king : 
" Anger I harbour not, nor sulkiness." 
And he did dismiss the Elders with their disciples. 
But that was not in anger. Suppose, O king, that 
a man were to stumble against some root, or stake, 
or stone, or potsherd, or on uneven ground, and fall 
upon the broad earth. Would it be that the broad 
earth, angry with him, had made him fall ? ' 

' No, indeed, Sir. The broad earth feels neither 
anger against any man nor delight It is altogether 

when they heard the reason, went to the Buddha, and obtained his 
forgiveness for the offending brethren. The incident is the basis 
of another question below, IV, 4, 41. 

1 Pawamesi means, in the technical legal phraseology of the 
Buddhist canon law, ' formally dismissed, sent away, did not allow 
them any more to be his disciples.' On this technical meaning of 
the term, compare Mahavagga I, 2, 27, and Aullavagga XII, 2, 3. 
(Childers does not give this use of the word.) But it is difficult to 
imagine the circumstances under which the Buddha could so have 
dismissed his two principal disciples. So I think we must take the 
word in a less formal sense — such, for instance, as we find in Thera 
G4tha5ii, 557. 

* Etaw tava ^anahi imam namati. I follow Hina/i-kum- 
bure's rendering (p. 244) of this difficult phrase, according to 
which there ought to be a full stop in the text after paaimesi, 
and these words are supposed to be addressed to Nagasena by 
Milinda. But I am not at all satisfied that he is right, and the text 
may be corrupt 



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IV, 3, 39> DISMISSAL. 259 

free from ill-will, neither needs it to fawn on any one. 
It would be by reason of his own carelessness that 
that man stumbled and fell.' 

' Just so, great king, do the Tathagatas experience 
neither anger against, nor pride in any man. Alto- 
gether free are the Tathagatas, the Arahat-Buddhas, 
alike from ill-will, and from the need to fawn on any 
one. And those disciples were sent away by reason 
of what they themselves had done. So also the 
great ocean endures not association with any corpse. 
Any dead body there may be in it that does it 
promptly cast up, and leave high and dry on the 
shore l . But is it in anger that it casts it up ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir. The broad ocean feels neither 
anger against any, nor does it take delight in any. 
It seeks not in the least to please any, and is alto- 
gether free from the desire to harm.' 

'Just so, great king, do the Tathagatas feel neither 
anger against any man, nor do they place their faith 
in any man. The Tathagatas, the Arahat-Buddhas, 
are quite set free from the desire either to gain the 
goodwill of any man, or to do him harm. And it 
was by reason of what they themselves had done 
that those disciples were sent away. Just as a man, 
great king, who stumbles against the ground is made 
to fall, so is he who stumbles in the excellent teach- 
ing of the Conqueror made to go away. Just as a 
corpse in the great ocean is cast up, [188] so is he 
who stumbles in the excellent teaching of the Con- 
queror sent away. And when the Tathigata sent 
those disciples away it was for their good, and their 

1 This supposed fact is already the ground of a comparison in 
the Aullavagga IX, i, 3, 4 ('Vinaya Texts,' III, 303). 

S 2 



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260 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 3, 39. 

gain, their happiness, and their purification, and in 
order that in that way they should be delivered from 
birth, old age, disease, and death.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the problem as to the dismissal of 
the Elders.] 



Here ends the Third Chapter. 



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IV, 4, a. MURDER OF MOGGALLAnA. 261 



Book IV. Chapter 4. 
[the murder of moggallAna.] 

i. 'Venerable Nagasena, it has been said by the 
Blessed One: "This is the chief, O Bhikkhus, of 
those of my disciples in the Order who are possessed 
of the power of Iddhi, I mean Moggallana 1 ." But 
on the other hand they say his death took place by 
his being beaten to death with clubs, so that his 
skull was broken, and his bones ground to powder, 
and all his flesh and nerves bruised and pounded 
together 2 . Now, Nagasena, if the Elder, the great 
Moggallana, had really attained to supremacy in 
the magical power of Iddhi, then it cannot be true 
that he was beaten to death with clubs 3 . But if his 
death was on that wise, then the saying that he was 
chief of those possessed of Iddhi must be wrong. 
How could he who was not even able, by his power 
of Iddhi, to prevent his own murder, be worthy 
nevertheless to stand as succour to the world of 
gods and men ? This too is a double-edged pro- 
blem now put to you, and you have to solve it.' 

2. ' The Blessed One did declare, O king, that 
Moggallana was chief among the disciples in power 

1 From the Anguttara Nikaya I, xiv, i (page 23 of Dr. Morris's 
edition for the Pali Text Society). 

* Parikatto, which the Sinhalese version renders garhS 
"wemin. 

* ' By robbers,' adds Hina/i-kumbur6, so there is no question of 
martyrdom. 



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262 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 3. 

of Iddhi. And he was nevertheless beaten to death 
by clubs. But that was through his being then 
possessed by the still greater power of Karma V 

3. ' But, venerable Nagasena, [189] are not both 
of these things appurtenant to him who has the 
power of Iddhi — that is the extent of his power, and 
the result of his Karma — both alike unthinkable ? 
And cannot the unthinkable be held back by the 
unthinkable ? Just, Sir, as those who want the fruits 
will knock a wood apple 2 down with a wood apple, 
or a mango with a mango, so ought not the unthink- 
able in like manner to be subject to restraint by the 
unthinkable ? ' 

'Even among things beyond the reach of the 
imagination, great king, still one is in excess above 
the other, one more powerful than the other. Just, 
O king, as the monarchs of the world are alike in 
kind, but among them, so alike in kind, one may 
overcome the rest, and bring them under his com- 
mand — just so among things beyond the grasp of 
the imagination is the productive effect of Karma 
by far the most powerful. It is precisely the effect 
of Karma which overcomes all the rest, and has 
them under its rule ; and no other influence is of 
any avail to the man in whom Karma is working 
out its inevitable end 3 . It is as when, O king, 
any man has committed an offence against the law 4 . 

1 Kammadhigahitenapi, which the Sinhalese merely repeats. 
Compare the use of adhiganh&ti at Anguttara NikSya V, 31 
(adhigaxhati tarn tena, ' surpasses him in that'), and see below. 

* Kapittham (Feronia Elephantum), which the Sinhalese 
renders Diwul ge</i. 

8 ' No good action has an opportunity at the time when evil 
Karma is in possession of a man,' says Hina/i-kumbur& (p. 250). 

4 Pakarane apara^Aati, literally ' against the book,' the book 



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IV, 4,3. MURDER OF MOGGALLANA. 263 

Neither his mother nor his father, neither his sisters 
nor his brother, neither his friends nor his intimate 
associates can protect him then. He has fallen 
therein under the power of the king who will issue 
his command respecting him. And why is that so ? 
Because of the wrong that he has done. So is it 
precisely the effect of Karma which overcomes all 
other influences, and has them under its command, 
and no other influence can avail the man in whom 
Karma is working out its inevitable end. It is as 
when a jungle fire has arisen on the earth, then can 
not even a thousand pots of water avail to put it 
out, but the conflagration overpowers all, and brings 
it under its control. And why is that so ? Because 
of the fierceness of its heat. So is it precisely the 
effect of Karma which overcomes all other influences, 
and has them under its command ; and no other 
influence can avail the man in whom Karma is 
working out its inevitable end. That is why the 
venerable one, great king, the great Moggallana, 
when, at a time when he was possessed by Karma, 
he was being beaten to death with clubs, was yet 
unable to make use of his power of Iddhi V 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the problem as to the murder of 
Moggallana.] 

of the law being, no doubt, understood. But the Sinhalese has 
' against any one.' 

1 Iddhiyi samannaharo naho si. See the use of this word, 
which is not in Childers, at p. 123 of the Sumahgala (on Digha 
I, 3, 24). The Sinhalese goes on to much greater length than 
the PS.li, giving the full religious life history of the famous disciple 
(pp. 250, 251). 



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264 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 4. 

[on SECRET DOCTRINE.] 

4. [190] ' Venerable Nagasena, it was said by the 
Blessed One : " The Dhamma and the Vinaya 
(Doctrine and Canon Law) proclaimed by the 
Tathagata shine forth when they are displayed, and 
not when they are concealed 1 ." But on the other 
hand the recitation of the Patimokkha and the 
whole of the Vinaya Pi/aka are closed and kept 
secret 2 . So that if, Nagasena, you (members of the 
Order) carried out what is just, and right, and held 
of faith in the teaching of the Conqueror then would 
the Vinaya shine forth as an open thing. And why 
would that be so ? Because all the instruction 
therein, the discipline, the self-control, the regulations 
as to moral and virtuous conduct, are in their essence 
full of truth and righteousness, and redounding to 
emancipation of heart. But if the Blessed One 
really said that the Dhamma and Vinaya proclaimed 
by the Tathagata shine forth when displayed and 
not when kept secret, then the saying that the reci- 
tation of the Patimokkha and the whole of the 
Vinaya must be kept secret must be wrong. And 
if that be right, then the saying of the Blessed One 
must be wrong. This too is a double-edged pro- 
blem now put to you, and you have to solve it.' 

5. *It was said, O king, by the Blessed One that 
the Dhamma and Vinaya proclaimed by the Tatha- 

1 From the Aftguttara Nikaya III, 124 (vol. i, p. 283 of 
Dr. Morris's edition for the Pali Text Society). 

* In the Vinaya (MahSvagga II, 16, 8) it is laid down that the 
Patimokkha (the rules of the Order) is not to be recited before 
laymen. I know of no passage in the Pi/akas which says that it, 
or the Vinaya, is to be kept secret. 



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IV, 4,*. ESOTERIC DOCTRINE. 265 

gata shine forth when displayed, and not when kept 
secret. And on the other hand the recitation of the 
Patimokkha and the whole of the Vinaya Pi/aka are 
kept close and secret 1 . But this last is not the case 
as regards all men. They are only kept secret up 
to a certain limit. And the recitation of the Pati- 
mokkha is kept secret up to that certain limit on 
three grounds — firstly because that is the traditional 
custom 2 of previous Tathagatas, secondly out of 
respect for the Truth (Dhamma), and thirdly out of 
respect for the position of a member of the Order V 
6. ' And as to the first it was the universal custom, 
O king, of previous Tathagatas for the recitation of 
the Patimokkha to take place in the midst of the 
members of the Order only, to the exclusion of all 
others. Just, O king, as the Kshatriya secret for- 
mulas (of the nobles) are handed down among the 
nobles alone, and that this or that is so is common 
tradition among the nobles * of the world and kept 
secret from all others— [191] so was this the universal 
custom of previous Tathagatas, that the recitation 
of the Patimokkha should take place among the 

1 This is, so far as I know, the earliest mention of this being the 
case. There is nothing in the Patimokkha itself (see my transla- 
tion of this list of offences against the rules of the Order in vol. i 
of the ' Vinaya Texts ' in the S. B. E.) as to its recitation taking 
place in secret, and nothing in the Vinaya as to its being kept 
secret. But the regulations in the Vinaya as to the recitation of 
the Patimokkha forbade the actual presence of any one not a 
member of the Order, and as a matter of fact any one not such a 
member is excluded in practice during its recitation now in 
Ceylon. But it would be no offence in a layman to read the 
Vinaya, and learned laymen who have left the Order still do so. 

1 Vans a (repeated in the Sinhalese). 

3 Bhikkhu-bhumiya (also repeated in the Sinhalese, p. 252). 

* Kha//iyanan (but the Sinhalese has Sakyayangg). 



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266 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4,7. 

members of the Order only, and be kept secret from 
all others. And again, just as there are several 
classes of people, O king, known as distinct in the 
world — such as wrestlers, tumblers, jugglers, actors, 
ballet-dancers, and followers of the mystic cult of the 
sun and moon, of the goddess of fortune and other 
gods \ And the secrets of each of these sects are 
handed on in the sect itself, and kept hidden from 
all others. Just so with the universal custom of all 
the Tathagatas that the recitation of the Pati- 
mokkha should take place before the members of 
the Order only, and be kept secret from all others. 
This is why the recitation of the Patimokkha is, up 
to that extent, kept secret in accordance with the 
habit of previous Tathagatas.' 

7. 'And how is it that the PAtimokkha is kept 
secret, up to that extent, out of reverence for the 
Dhamma ? The Dhamma, great king, is venerable 
and weighty. He who has attained to proficiency 
in it may exhort another in this wise : " Let not this 
Dhamma so full of truth, so excellent, fall into the 
hands of those unversed in it, where it would be 
despised and contemned, treated shamefully, made 
a game of, and found fault with. Nor let it fall into 
the hands of the wJcked who would deal with it in 
all respects as badly as they." It is thus, O king, 
that the recitation of the Patimokkha is, up to that 

1 There are twenty classes of these people mentioned in the 
text, and the meaning of most of the names is obscure. The 
Sinhalese simply repeats them all, adding only the word 
bhaktiyo, 'believers in,' to the names of the various divinities. 
The classing together of jugglers, ballet-dancers, and followers of 
the numerous mystic cults, so numerous in India, is thoroughly 
Buddhistic, and quite in the vein of Gotama himself — as, for 
instance, in the Maha Sfla (see my ' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 196). 



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IV, 4, 8. ESOTERIC DOCTRINE. 267 

extent, kept secret out of reverence for the Dhamma. 
For if not, then it would be like the best, most 
costly, and most rare red sandal wood of the finest 
kind, which when brought to Savara (that city of 
the outcast AaWalas l ) is despised and contemned, 
treated shamefully, made game of, and found fault 
with.' 

8. [192] ' And how is it that the Patimokkha is 
kept secret, up to that extent, out of reverence for 
the position of a member of the Order ? The con- 
dition of a Bhikkhu, great king, is in glory beyond 
the reach of calculation by weight, or measure, or 
price. None can value it, weigh it, measure it And 
the recitation of the Patimokkha is carried on before 
the Bhikkhus alone, lest any one who has occupied 
that position should be brought down to a level with 
the men of the world. Just, O king, as if there be 
any priceless thing, in vesture or floor covering, in 
elephants, chargers, or chariots, in gold or silver or 
jewels or pearls or women, or in unsurpassable strong 
drink*, all such things are the appanage of kings — 
just so, O king, whatever is most priceless in the 
way of training, of the traditions of the Blessed One, 
of learning, of conduct, and of the virtues of right- 
eousness and self-control — all these are the appa- 
nages of the Order of Bhikkhus. This is why the 
recitation of the Patimokkha is, to that extent, 
kept secret V 

1 Added from the Sinhalese. 

* Ni^yita-kamma-sura, rendered in the Sinhalese (p. 254), 
^aya-grthita-kn'tya-sara-panayen. 

* It will be noticed that there is no mention here (in a con- 
nection where, if it had then existed, it would almost certainly 
have been referred to) of any Esoteric Buddhism. So above, at 



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268 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 9. 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' ' 

[Here ends the problem as to the secrecy in which 
the Vinaya is kept.] 



[the two kinds of falsehood.] 
9. ' Venerable Nagasena, it has been said by the 
Blessed One that a deliberate lie is an offence of the 
greatest kind (involving exclusion from the Order '). 

IV, i, 8, it is stated that a good Buddhist teacher should keep 
nothing secret from his pupil. And even in so old a text as the 
' Book of the Great Decease ' (Chap. II, § 32, p. 36 of my transla- 
tion in the ' Buddhist Suttas '), it is said of the Buddha himself 
that he had ' no such thing as the closed fist of a teacher who 
keeps some things back.' This passage is itself quoted above 
at IV, 2, 4, as the basis of one of Milinda's questions ; and is 
entirely accepted by NSgasena, that is, by our author. The fact is 
that there has never been any such thing as esoteric teaching in 
Buddhism, and that the modern so called esoteric Buddhism is 
neither esoteric nor Buddhism. Its tenets, so far as they are 
Indian at all, are perfectly accessible, are well known to all those 
who choose to study the books of Indian mysticism, and are Hindu, 
not Buddhist. They are, indeed, quite contradictory to Buddhism, 
of which the authors of what they ignorantly call Esoteric Buddhism 
know but very little — that little being only a portion of those 
beliefs which have been common ground to all religious teachers 
in India. If one doctrine — more than any other — is distinctive of 
Buddhism, it is the ignoring, in ethics, of the time-honoured belief 
in a soul — that is, in the old sense, in a separate creature inside 
the body, which flies out of it, like a bird out of a cage, when the 
body dies. Yet the Theosophists, who believe, I am told, in seven 
souls inside each human body (which would be worse according 
to true Buddhism than seven devils), still venture to call themselves 
Buddhists, and do not see the absurdity of their position I 

1 Sampa^ana-musavada para^iki. This is curious as ac- 
cording to the P&timokkha it is Paftttiya, not Para£ika\ Compare 
Para^ika' 4 with Paflttiya 1. ('Vinaya Texts,' S. B. E., vol. iii, 
pp. 5 and 32.) 



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IV, 4»iO. FALSEHOOD. 269 

And again he said : " By a deliberate lie a Bhikkhu 
commits a minor offence, one that ought to be the 
subject of confession made before another (member 
of the Order) 1 ." Now, venerable Nagasena, what is 
herein the distinction, what the reason, that by one 
lie a Bhikkhu is cast out of the Order, and by 
another he is guilty only of an offence that can be 
atoned for. If the first decision be right, then the 
second must be wrong ; but if the second be right, 
then the first must be wrong. This too is a double- 
edged problem now put to you, and you have to 
solve it.' 

10. [193] 2 ' Both your quotations, O king, are 
correct 8 ; But a falsehood is a light or heavy 
offence according to the subject matter. For what 
do you think, great king ? Suppose a man were to 
give another a slap with his hand, what punishment, 
would you inflict upon him ? ' 

' If the other refused to overlook the matter, then 
neither should we be able to pardon his assailant 4 , 
but should mulct him in a penny or so V 

' But on the other hand, suppose it had been you 



1 I cannot trace these identical words in the Pi/aka texts. But 
the general sense of them is exactly in agreement with the first 
Pa^ittiya rule. 

* Htna/i-kumbure' here inserts a summary of the Introductory 
Story (in the Sutta Vibhanga) to the 4th P&%ik£. All this (pp. 
254-256) stands in his version for lines 1-3 on p. 193 of the Pili 
text. 

8 The Pali repeats them word for word. As I have pointed out 
above, they are not really correct. 

* So Hina/i-kumburfc, who must have had a different reading, 
and I think a better one, before him. 

8 A kahapana. See the discussion of the value of this coin in 
my ' Ancient Coins and Measures,' pp. 3, 4. 



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27O THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4,11. 

yourself that he had given the blow to, what would 
then be the punishment ? ' 

' We should condemn him to have his hands cut 
off, and his feet cut off, and to be skinned alive ', 
and we should confiscate all the goods in his house, 
and put to death all his family to the seventh genera- 
tion on both sides.' 

' But, great king, what is the distinction ? Why 
is it that for one slap of the hand there should be 
a gentle fine of a penny, while for a slap given to 
you there should be so fearful a retribution ? ' 

' Because of the difference in the person (assaulted).' 

' Well ! just so, great king, is a falsehood a light 
or a heavy offence according to the attendant cir- 
cumstances.' 

1 Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the problem as to the degree of 
offence in falsehood.] 



[THE BODISAT'S CONSIDERATION.] 

11. 'Venerable Nagasena, it has been said by 
the Blessed One in the discourse on the essential 
conditions 2 : " Long ago have his parents been 
destined for each Bodisat, and the kind of 
tree he is to select for his Bo tree, and the 

1 Yava sisam kalira&iAeggzm Medapeyyama, which the 
Sinhalese merely repeats. It is literally ' We should have him 
" bambu-sprout-cut " up to his head.' What this technical term 
may mean is not exactly known — possibly having slits the shape of 
a bambu sprout cut all over his body. 

* Dhammata-dhamma-pariyaye. I don't know where this 
is to be found. 



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IV, 4, II. THE BODISAT. 27I 

Bhikkhus who are to be his two chief disciples, 
and the lad who is to be his son, and the 
member of the Order who is to be his special 
attendant." But on the other hand he said: 
" When yet in the condition of a god in the 
Tusita heaven the Bodisat makes the eight 
Great Investigations — he investigates the time 
(whether the right moment had come at which he 
ought to be re-born as a man), and the continent 
(in which his birth is to take place), and the 
country (where he is to be re-born), and the family 
(to which he is to belong), and the mother (who 
is to bear him), and the period (during which he 
was to remain in the womb), and the month (in 
which his birthday shall come), and his renunciation 
(when it shall be) K [194] Now, Nagasena, before 
knowledge is ripe there is no understanding, but 
when it has reached its summit there is no longer 
any need to wait for thinking a matter over 1 , for 
there is nothing outside the ken of the omniscient 
mind. Why then should the Bodisat investigate 
the time, thinking to himself : " In what moment 
shall I be born 2 ?" And for the same reason why 
should he investigate the family, thinking to him- 

1 These eight Investigations (Vilokanani) have not yet been 
found in the Pi/aka texts. But, when relating the birth of the his- 
torical Buddha, the G&taka commentary (vol. i, p. 48, of Professor 
Fausbdll's edition) mentions the first six of them (substituting 
okasa for desa), and calls them, oddly enough, the Five Great 
Investigations. In the corresponding passage in the Lalita Vistara 
only the first four are mentioned. The last two of the above eight 
seem very forced. 

1 Nimesantaram na dgameti, for which Hina/i-kumbure 
(p. 256 at the end) has nivesantara. Neither word occurs 
elsewhere. 



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272 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 12. 

self: "In what family shall I be born?" And if, 
Nagasena, it is a settled matter who shall be the 
parents of the Bodisat, then it must be false that 
he " investigated the family." But if that be true, 
then must the other saying be wrong. This too is 
a double-edged problem now put to you, and you 
have to solve it.' 

12. • It was both a settled matter, O king, who 
should be the parents of the Bodisat, and he did 
investigate into the question as to which family he 
was to be born into. But how did he do so ? He 
thought over the matter as to whether his parents 
.should be nobles or Brahmans. With respect to 
eight things, O king, should the future be inves- 
tigated before it comes to pass. A merchant, O 
king, should investigate goods before he buys 
them — an elephant should try with its trunk a path 
it has not yet trod — a cartman should try a ford he 
has not yet crossed over — a pilot should test a 
shore he has not yet arrived at, and so guide the 
ship — a physician should find out the period of life 
which his patient has lasted 1 before he treats his 
disease — a traveller should test the stability of a 
bambu bridge 2 before he mounts on to it — a Bhikkhu. 
should find out how much time has yet to run before 
sun turn before he begins to eat his meal — and 
Bodisats, before they are born, should investigate 
the question whether it would be right for them 
to be born in the family of a noble or of a Brahman. 

1 Ayum oloketva, which the Sinhalese (p. 257) repeats. This 
implied meaning is doubtful. 

* Uttara-setu, a word which does not occur elsewhere. Hfna/1- 
kumburg renders it He-da»rfa, which Clough explains as a foot- 
bridge usually made of a single tree. 



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IV, 4, M. SUICIDE. 273 

These are the eight occasions on which investi- 
gation ought to precede action.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the problem as to the Bodisat's 
consideration.] 



[on suicide.] 

13. [195] 'Venerable Nagasena, it has been said 
by the Blessed One : " A brother is not, O Bhikkhus, 
to commit suicide. Whosoever does so shall be 
dealt with according to the law 1 ." And on the 
other hand you (members of the Order) say : 
" On whatsoever subject the Blessed One was ad- 
dressing the disciples, he always, and with various 
similes, preached to them in order to bring about 
the destruction of birth, of old age, of disease, and 
of death. And whosoever overcame birth, old age, 
disease, and death, him did he honour with the 
highest praise 2 ." Now if the Blessed One forbade 
suicide that saying of yours must be wrong, but if 
not then the prohibition of suicide must be wrong. 
This too is a double-edged problem now put to 
you, and you have to solve it.' 

14. ' The regulation you quote, O king, was laid 
down by the Blessed One, and yet is our saying you 
refer to true. And there is a reason for this, a 

1 Literally ' is not to throw himself down,' and I think ' from a 
precipice ' is to be understood, especially as the nearest approach 
to the words quoted, that is the passage in the Sutta Vibhahga on 
the 3rd Para^ika (III, 5, 13), has that meaning. 

* Here again the passage referred to is not known. 

[35] T 



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2 74 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 14. 

reason for which the Blessed One both prohibited 
(the destruction of life), and also (in another sense) 
instigated us to it.' 

' What, Nagasena, may that reason be ? ' 
' The good man, O king, perfect in uprightness, is 
like a medicine to men ' in being an antidote to the 
poison of evil, he is like water to men in laying the 
dust and the impurities of evil dispositions, he is 
like a jewel treasure to men in bestowing upon them 
all attainments in righteousness, he is like a boat to 
men inasmuch as he conveys them to the further 
shore of the four flooded streams (of lust, indi- 
viduality, delusion, and ignorance) a , he is like a 
caravan owner to men in that he brings them beyond 
the sandy desert of rebirths, he is like a mighty 
rain cloud to men in that he fills their hearts with 
satisfaction, he is like a teacher to men in that he 
trains them in all good, he is like a good guide to 
men in that he points out to them the path of peace. 
It was in order that so good a man as that, one 
whose good qualities are so many, so various, so 
immeasurable, [196] in order that so great a treasure 
mine of good things, so full of benefit to all beings, 
might not be done away with, that the Blessed One, 
O king, out of his mercy towards all beings, laid 
down that injunction, when he said : " A brother is 
not, O Bhikkhus, to commit suicide. Whosoever 
does so shall be dealt with according to the law." 
This is the reason for which the Blessed One pro- 
hibited (self-slaughter). And it was said, O king, 



1 Sattinaw, in which gods are included. 
a The four oghas; also called Asavas. The former term is 
used of them objectively, the latter subjectively. 



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IV, 4, 15- SUICIDE. 275 

by the Elder Kumara Kassapa,- the eloquent, when 
he was describing to Payasi the Ra^anya the other 
world : '.' So long as Samawas and Brahmans of up- 
rightness of life, and beauty of character, continue 
to exist — however long that time may be — just so 
long do they conduct themselves to the advantage 
and happiness of the great masses of the people, to 
the good and the gain and the weal of gods and 
men 1 !'" 

15. 'And what is the reason for which the Blessed 
One instigated us (to put an end to life) ? Birth, 
O king, is full of pain, and so is old age, and disease, 
and death. Sorrow is painful, and so is lamentation, 
and pain, and grief, and despair. Association with 
the unpleasant is painful, and separation from the 
pleasant 2 . The death of a mother is painful, or of 
a father, or a brother, or a sister, or a son, or a wife, 
or of any relative. Painful is the ruin of one's 
family, and the suffering of disease, and the loss of 
wealth, and decline in goodness, and the loss of in- 

1 This Kumara Kassapa is said at Ahguttara I, xiv, 3 to have 
been the most eloquent of the early disciples. Another eloquent 
little outburst of his is preserved for us in verses 201 and 202 of 
the Thera GSthl ' O for the Buddhas, and their doctrines ! O 
for the achievements of our Master ! Thereby may the disciple 
realise the Truth. Through countless aeons of time has Selfness 
followed on Selfness. But this one is now the last. This aggrega- 
tion (of mental and material qualities which forms me now again 
into an individuality) is at last the end, the end of the coming and 
going of births and deaths. There will be no rebirth for me!' 
But where the verses are so full of allusions to the deepest 
Buddhist psychology, it is impossible to reproduce in English the 
vigour of the original P41i. Selfness (Sakkiya) is the condition 
of being a separate individual. 

* All this is from the celebrated discourse, the ' Foundation of 
the Kingdom of Righteousness ' (in ' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 148). 

T 2 



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276 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 15. 

sight. Painful is the fear produced by despots, or 
by robbers, or by enemies, or by famine, or by fire, 
or by flood, or by the tidal wave, or by earthquake, 
or by crocodiles or alligators. Painful is the fear of 
possible blame attaching to oneself, or to others, the 
fear of punishment, the fear of misfortune. Painful 
is the fear arising from shyness in the presence of 
assemblies of one's fellows, painful is anxiety as to 
one's means of livelihood, painful the foreboding of 
death. [197] Painful are (the punishments inflicted 
on criminals), such as being flogged with whips, or 
with sticks, or with split rods, having one's hands 
cut oft", or one's feet, or one's hands and feet, or one's 
ears, or ones nose, or one's ears and nose. Painful 
are (the tortures inflicted on traitors) — being sub- 
jected to the Gruel Pot (that is, having boiling gruel 
poured into one's head from the top of which the 
skull bone has been removed *) — or to the Chank 
Crown 2 (that is, having the scalp rubbed with gravel 
till it becomes smooth like a polished shell) — or to 
the Rahu's Mouth* (that is, having one's mouth held 
open by iron pins, and oil put in it, and a wick lighted 
therein) — or to the Fire Garland 4 or to the Hand 
Torch 6 (that is, being made a living torch, the whole 
body, or the arms only, being wrapped up in oily 
cloths, and set on fire) — or to the Snake Strips 4 
(that is, being skinned in strips from the neck to the 
hips, so that the skin falls in strips round the legs) — 
or to the Bark Dress 7 (that is, being skinned alive 
from the neck downwards, and having each strip of 

1 Bilanga-thSlika/w. ' Sankha-mu«</ika«. 

' Rahu-mukhaw. * Goti-maiaka«. 

5 Hattha-pa^otikaw. • Eraka-vattikaw. 
7 A'traka-vasikaw. 



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IV, 4, 15- SUICIDE. 277 

skin as soon as removed tied to the hair, so that 
these strips form a veil around one)— or to the 
Spotted Antelope * (that is, having one's knees and 
elbows tied together, and being made to squat on a 
plate of iron under which a fire is lit) — or to the 
Flesh-hooks 2 (that is, being hung up on a row of 
iron hooks) — or to the Pennies 3 (that is, having bits 
cut out of the flesh, all over the body, of the size of 
pennies) — or to the Brine Slits 4 (that is, having cuts 
made all over one's body by means of knives or 
sharp points, and then having salt and caustic liquids 
poured over the wounds) — or to the Bar Turn 5 (that 
is, being transfixed to the ground by a bar of iron 
passing through the root of the ear, and then being 
dragged round and round by the leg) — or to the 
Straw Seat 6 (that is, being so beaten with clubs that 



1 E»eyyaka/a. 

* Balisa-mamsikam (so the Sinhalese, Mr. Trenckner reads 
Ba/isa). 

3 Kahipanakam. * KharapatiMAakaw. 

B Paligha-parivattikam. 

* Palala-pi/Aakaw. I follow throughout Hfna/i-kumbures in- 
terpretation (pp. 260, 261) of these pretty names, which could be 
well matched in the West. That some Indian kings were cruel in 
the extreme is no doubt true. But it must not be supposed that 
this list gives the names of well-known punishments. It is merely a 
string of technical terms which is repeated by rote whenever tortures 
have to be specified. And ihe meaning of its terms was most likely 
unknown to the very people who so used them. For the whole list 
(which is taken by our author from the Pali Pi/akas) is explained 
by Buddhaghosa in his commentary, the Manoratha Purani, on 
Anguttara II, 1, 1, as edited by Dr. Morris at pp. 113, 114 of the 
first edition of his Anguttara for the Pali Text Society, 1884. But 
Buddhaghosa's explanations differ from Hina/i-kumbure's in several 
details; and to nearly half the names he gives alternative mean- 
ings, quite contradictory to those that he gives first. So the list 
had its origin some centuries (say 400-500) b.c, and was certainly 



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278 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 15. 

the bones are broken, and the body becomes like a 
heap of straw) — or to be anointed with boiling oil, 
or to be eaten by dogs, or to be impaled alive, or to 
be beheaded. Such and such, O king, are the mani- 
fold and various pains which a being caught in the 
whirlpool of births and rebirths has to endure. Just, 
O king, as the water rained down upon the Hima- 
laya mountain flows, in its course along the Ganges, 
through and over rocks and pebbles and gravel, 
whirlpools and eddies and rapids \ and the stumps 
and branches of trees which obstruct and oppose its 
passage, — just so has each being caught in the suc- 
cession of births and rebirths to endure such and 
such manifold and various pains. Full of pain, then, 
is the continual succession of rebirths, a joy is it 
when that succession ends. And it was in pointing 
out the advantage of that end, the disaster involved 
in that succession, that the Blessed One, great king, 
instigated us to get beyond birth, and old age, and 
disease, and death by the realisation of the final end 
of that succession of rebirths. This is the sense, O 
king, which led the Blessed One to instigate us (to 
put an end to life).' 

'Very good, Nagasena ! Well solved is the puzzle 
(I put), well set forth are the reasons (you alleged). 
That is so, and I accept it as you say.' 



[Here ends the problem as to suicide.] 

not understood in the fifth century a. d. ; and was probably there- 
fore unintelligible also, at least in part, to our author. 

1 frmika-vanka-£adika. I don't pretend to understand this 
last word. Dr. Morris, at p. 92 of the ' Pali Text Society's Journal ' 
for 1884, suggests velika. Perhaps it was simply adika after all, 
with or without m euphonic. 



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IV, 4, i6. LOVE. 279 



[a LOVING DISPOSITION.] 

1 6. [198] ' Venerable Nagasena, it has been said 
by the Blessed One : " Eleven advantages, O 
brethren, may be anticipated from practising, making 
a habit of, enlarging within one, using as a means of 
advancement, and as a basis of conduct, pursuing 
after, accumulating, and rising well up to the very 
heights of the emancipation of heart, arising from a 
feeling of love (towards all beings) 1 . And what are 
these eleven ? He who does so sleeps in peace, and 
in peace does he awake. He dreams no sinful 
dreams. He becomes dear to men, and to the 
beings who are not men 2 . The gods watch over 
him. Neither fire, nor poison, nor sword works any 
harm to him. Quickly and easily does he become 
tranquillised. The aspect of his countenance is calm. 
Undismayed does he meet death, and should he not 
press through to the Supreme Condition (of Arahat- 
ship), then is he sure of rebirth in the Brahma 
world 3 ." But on the other hand you (members of 

1 This same string of words, except the first, is used of the 
Iddhi-padas in the Book of the Great Decease, III, 3 (p. 40 of 
vol. xi of the S. B. E.). The words ' towards all beings ' are not 
in the text. But this is the meaning of the phrase used, and not 
love to men only, as would be understood if they were not inserted 
in the translation. 

8 Amanussa. This means, not the gods, but the various spirits 
on the earth, nayads, dryads, fairies, &c. &c. As here, so again 
below, IV, 4, 41, the amanussi are opposed to the devati, men- 
tioned in the next clause here. In older texts the devatS include 
the amanussS. 

* From the Ahguttara NikSya, Ekadasa Nipata ; quoted in full, 
with the context, in the Introductory Story to the 169th G&taka 
(vol. ii, pp. 60, 61 of Professor Fausboll's edition). 



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280 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 16. 

the Order) say that " Sama the Prince, while dwel- 
ling in the cultivation of a loving disposition toward 
all beings, and when he was (in consequence thereof) 
wandering in the forest followed by a herd of deer, 
was hit by a poisoned arrow shot by Piliyakkha the 
king, and there, on the spot, fainted and fell 1 ." 
Now, venerable Nagasena, if the passage I have 
quoted from the words of the Blessed One be right, 
then this statement of yours must be wrong. But 
if the story of Prince Sama be right, then it cannot 
be true that neither fire, nor poison, nor sword can 
work harm to him who cultivates the habit of love 
to all beings. This too is a double-edged problem, 
so subtle, so abstruse, so delicate, and so profound, 
that the thought of having to solve it might well 
bring out sweat over the body even of the most 
subtle-minded of mortals. This problem is now put 
to you. Unravel this mighty knot 2 . Throw light 
upon this matter 3 to the accomplishment of the 
desire of those sons of the Conqueror who shall 
arise hereafter 4 .' 

' The Blessed One spake, O king, as you have 
quoted. And Prince Sama dwelling in the cultiva- 
tion of love, and thus followed by a herd of deer 
when he was wandering in the forest, was hit by the 
poisoned arrow shot by king Piliyakkha, and then 
and there fainted and fell. But there is a reason 
for that. [199] And what is the reason ? Simply 
that those virtues (said in the passage you quoted 

1 Mr. Trenckner points out that this story is given in the 540th 
Gataka. 

2 See p. 105 of the text. 

. * A"akkhum dehi. So also p. 95 of the text. 

4 Nibbihana; not in Childers, but see p. 119 of the text. 



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IV, 4, i6- LOVE. 28 1 

to be in the habit of love) are virtues not attached 
to the personality of the one who loves, but to the 
actual presence of the love that he has called up in 
his heart \ And when Prince Sama was upsetting 
the water-pot, that moment he lapsed from the 
actual feeling of love. At the moment, O king, in 
which an individual has realised the sense of love, 
that moment neither fire, nor poison, nor sword can 
do him harm. If any men bent on doing him an 
injury come up, they will not see him, neither will 
they have a chance of hurting him. But these 
virtues, O king, are not inherent in the individual, 
they are in the actual felt presence of the love that 
he is calling up in his heart.' 

' Suppose, O king, a man were to take into his 
hand a Vanishing Root of supernatural power ; and 
that, so long as it was actually in his hand, no other 
ordinary person would be able to see him. The 
virtue, then, would not be in the man. It would be 
in the root that such virtue would reside that an 
object in the very line of sight of ordinary mortals 
could, nevertheless, not be seen. Just so, O king, 
is it with the virtue inherent in the felt presence of 
love that a man has called up in his heart.' 

'Or itis like the case of a man [200]who has entered 
into a well-formed mighty cave. No storm of rain, 
however mightily it might pour down, would be able 
to wet him. But that would be by no virtue inherent 



1 Bh&nana is really more than ' cultivation.' It is the actual, 
present, felt sense of the particular moral state that is being 
cultivated (in this case, of love). I have elsewhere rendered it 
' meditation ' : but as the ethical doctrine, and practice, are alike 
unknown to us, we have no word that exactly reproduces the con- 
notation of the Pali phrase. 



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282 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 16. 

in the man. It would be a virtue inherent in the 
cave that so mighty a downpour of rain could not 
wet the man. And just so, O king, is it with the 
virtue inherent in the felt presence of love that a 
man has called up in his heart V 

1 This is no quibble. The early Buddhists did believe in the 
power of a subjective love over external circumstances. It is true 
that the best known instances in which this power is represented as 
having been actually exercised, are instances of the power of love 
over the hearts of other beings, and hence, indirectly, over their 
actions. Thus when Devadatta had had the fierce, manslaying 
elephant Nalagiri let loose against the Buddha (ATullavagga VII, 3, 
11, 12), Gotama is said to have permeated him with his love, 
and the elephant then went up to him only to salute him, and 
allowed himself to be stroked, and did no harm. And when the 
five disciples had intended, when he went to Benares, to show him 
no respect, the Buddha, in like manner, is said to have ' concen- 
trated that feeling of his love which was able to pervade generally 
all beings in earth and heaven,' and to have ' directed it specially 
towards them.' Then ' the sense of his love diffused itself through 
their hearts. And as he came nearer and nearer, unable any 
longer to adhere to their resolve, they rose from their seats, and 
bowed down before him, and welcomed him with every mark of 
reverence and of respect ' (' Buddhist Birth Stories,' vol. i, p. 11 2). 

And when he wished to convert Ro^a the Mallian, the Buddha 
is said, in like manner, to have ' suffused him with the feeling of 
his love.' And then Ro^a, ' overcome by the Blessed One by the 
sense of his love— just as a young calf follows the kine, so did he 
go from apartment to apartment ' seeking the Blessed One (Maha- 
vagga VI, 36, 4). 

And again, when the Bhikkhus told the Buddha of a brother 
having been killed by a snake-bite, he is represented (in the A!ulla- 
vagga V, 6) to have said : ' Now surely that brother had not let 
his love flow out over the four royal kinds of serpents. Had he 
done so, he would not have died of the bite of a snake.' And then 
he is said to have enjoined the use of a poem of love to snakes (set 
out in the text quoted) as a safeguard against snake-bite. This 
goes really much further than the other instances, but no case is 
given of that safeguard having been actually used successfully. 
And I know of no case in the Pali Pi/akas of the felt presence 



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IV, 4. i7« DEVADATTA. 283 

' Most wonderful is it, Nagasena, and most strange 
how the felt presence of love has the power of 
warding off all evil states of mind V 

' Yes ! The practice of love is productive of all 
virtuous conditions of mind both in good (beings) 
and in evil ones. To all beings whatsoever, who 
are in the bonds of conscious existence 2 , is this 
practice of love of great advantage, and therefore 
ought it to be sedulously cultivated.' 



[Here ends the problem as to the power of love.] 



[devadatta.] 



1 7. ' Venerable Nagasena, is the consequence the 
same to him who does good and to him who does 
evil, or is there any difference in the two cases ? ' 

' There is a difference, O king, between good and 
evil. Good works have a happy result, and lead to 
Sagga s , and evil works have an unhappy result, and 
lead to Niraya V 



of the feeling of love being said to have actually counteracted 
either fire, or poison, or sword. 

It is noteworthy that the Sinhalese inserts here six pages 
(265-271) of matter not found in the Pali. But as it gives at 
length the story of Prince Sama, it is taken, I presume, from the 
Gataka book. 

1 This is something quite different from what was said before. 

* Ye viflflana-baddha, sabbesam, which the Sinhalese takes 
as a gloss on ' good and evil ones/ and renders viddina prati 
wu da. But I prefer Mr. Trenckner's punctuation. 

* That is to a temporary life in heaven. 

4 That is to life in a temporary hell (or purgatory). 



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284 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. TV, 4, 18. 

4 But, venerable Nagasena, your people say that 
Devadatta was altogether wicked, full of wicked 
dispositions, and that the Bodisat 1 was altogether 
pure, full of pure dispositions*. And yet Devadatta, 
through successive existences 3 , was not only quite 
equal to the Bodisat, but even sometimes superior 
to him, both in reputation and in the number of his 
adherents. 

1 8. ' Thus, Nagasena, when Devadatta became 
the Purohita (family Brahman, royal chaplain) of 
Brahmadatta, the king, in the city of Benares, then 
the Bodisat was a wretched A'a«</ala (outcast) 4 who 
knew by heart a magic spell. And by repeating his 
spell he produced mango fruits out of season 5 . This 



1 Bodhi-satto (Wisdom-Child). The individual who (through 
virtue practised in successive lives) was becoming the Buddha. 

* 'Wicked' and 'pure' are in the Pali ka»he and sukka, 
literally, ' dark ' and ' light.' The only other passage I recollect 
where these names of colours are used in an ethical sense is the 
87th verse of the Dhammapada. Professor Max Milller there 
renders : ' A wise man should leave the dark state (of ordinary life), 
and follow the bright state (of the Bhikshu),' (S. B.E., vol. x, p. 26.) 
But the words should certainly be translated : ' A wise man should 
put away wicked dispositions, and cultivate purity of heart.' 
Bhavetha could never refer to adopting or following any outward 
profession. It is exclusively used of the practice, cultivation, of 
inward feelings. And the commentary, which is quoted by Pro- 
fessor Fausboll, takes the passage in the Dhammapada in that 
sense, just as Hina/i-kumbure (p. 271) does here. 

* Bhave bhave, which would be more accurately rendered 'in 
the course of his gradual becoming.' 

4 A'avaka-^a«(/ala. The' Jfand&hs are a well-known caste 
still existing in India — if indeed that can rightly be called a caste 
which is beneath all others. A^avaka is not in Childers, but is 
applied below (p. 256 of our text) to Mara, the Buddhist Satan. 
See also the next note. 

* This is not a summary of the 309th Gataka, for it differs from 
that story as published by Professor Fausboll (vol. iii, pp. 



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IV, 4, 20. DEVADATTA. 285 

is one case in which the Bodisat was inferior to 
Devadatta in birth, [201] inferior to him in repu- 
tation.' 

19. 'And again, when Devadatta became a king, 
a mighty monarch of the earth 1 , living in the enjoy- 
ment of all the pleasures of sense, then the Bodisat 
was an elephant, decked with all manner of orna- 
ments that the king might make use of them. And 
the king, being put out of temper at the sight of his 
graceful and pleasant style of pace and motion, said 
to the elephant trainer with the hope of bringing 
about the death of the elephant : " Trainer, this ele- 
phant has not been properly trained, make him 
perform the trick called ' Sky walking.' " In that 
case too the Bodisat was inferior to Devadatta, — 
was a mere foolish animal V 

20. 'And again, when Devadatta became a man 
who gained his living by winnowing grain 3 , then 

217-30), and also from the older and shorter version contained 
in the Old Commentary on the Patimokkha (on the 69th Sakhiya, 
Vinaya IV, pp. 203, 204). [The name of that story in Professor 
Fausboll's edition is .A'Aavaka-Crataka, but throughout the story 
itself the word A'awrfala is used in the passages corresponding to 
those in which Professor FausbSll has A'Aapaka (sic), — a coin- 
cidence which throws light on our author, A"/4avaka-*a»</31a.] 
The story here referred to is the Amba Gataka (No. 474) in which 
the word A^avaka does not occur. 

1 ' Of Magadha,' says Hina/i-kumbure' (p. 272). 

' This is the 122nd Gataka, there called the Dummedha (Tataka. 
The king has the elephant taken to the top of the Vepulla moun- 
tain outside Ra^agaha. Then having made him stand first on 
three feet, then on two, then on one, he demands of the trainer to 
make him stand in the air. Then the elephant flies away to 
Benares ! 

' Pavane na/Mayiko. But as Htna/i-kumbure' renders all 
this : ' a farmer in Benares who gained his living by husbandry,' 
I would suggest pavanena /Miyiko as the right reading. 



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286 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 21. 

the Bodisat was a monkey called " the broad earth." 
Here again we have the difference between an 
animal and a man, and the Bodisat was inferior in 
birth to Devadatta V 

21. 'And again, when Devadatta became a man, 
by name So»uttara, a Nesada (one of an outcast 
tribe of aborigines, who lived by hunting), and was 
of great strength and bodily power, like an elephant, 
then the Bodisat was the king of elephants under 
the name of the " Six-tusked." And in that birth, 
the hunter slew the elephant In that case too 
Devadatta was the superior 2 .' 

22. 'And again, when Devadatta became a man, 
a wanderer in the woods, without a home, then the 
Bodisat was a bird, a partridge who knew the Vedic 
hymns. And in that birth too the woodman killed 
the bird. So in that case also Devadatta was the 
superior by birth V 

23. ' And again, when Devadatta became the 
king of Benares, by name Kalabu, then the Bodisat 
was an ascetic who preached kindness to animals. 
And the king (who was fond of sport), enraged with 
the ascetic, had his hands and feet cut off like so 
many bambu sprouts 4 . In that birth, too, Deva- 

1 I cannot unfortunately trace this story among the G&takas. 

* I do not know which Gsltaka is here referred to. 

5 This must be the 438th Gataka, there called the Tittira 
Gataka. In the summary Devadatta is identified with the hypo- 
critical ascetic who killed and ate the wise partridge. 

4 This is the 313th GStaka, there called the Khanti-vadi (Pataka. 
The royal sportsman has first the skin, and then the hands and feet 
of the sage cut off, to alter his opinions. But the sage simply says 
that his love to animals is not in his skin, or in his limbs, but in his 
heart. Then the earth swallows up the cruel monarch, and the 
citizens bury the body of the sage with all honour. In the summary 
Kalabu, the king, is identified with Devadatta. 



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IV, 4, »7' DEVADATTA. 287 

datta was the superior, both in birth and in reputa- 
tion among men.' 

24. ' And again, when Devadatta became a man, 
a woodman, then the Bodisat was Nandiya the 
monkey king. And in that birth too the man killed 
the monkey, and his mother besides, and his younger 
brother. So in that case also it was Devadatta who 
was the superior in birth V 

25. * And again, when Devadatta became a man, 
a naked ascetic, by name Karambhiya, then the 
Bodisat was a snake king called " the Yellow one." 
So in that case too it was Devadatta [202] who was 
the superior in birth V 

26. 'And again, when Devadatta became a man, 
a crafty ascetic with long matted hair, then the 
Bodisat was a famous pig, by name " the Carpenter." 
So in that case too it was Devadatta who was the 
superior in birth V 

27. 'And again, when Devadatta became a king 
among the A"etas, by name Sura Pariiara *, who had 
the power of travelling through the air at a level 
above men's heads 6 , then the Bodisat was a Brah- 

1 This is the 222nd Gataka, there called the A'dla Nandiya 
Gataka. 

* This is probably the 518th Gataka. See Mr. Trenckner's note. 

* This must be the 492nd Gataka, the Ta^Ma-sukara Gataka, 
in which the hero is a learned pig who helps the carpenter in his 
work, and the villain of the story is a hypocrite ascetic with matted 
hair. But it should be added that though in the summary (Faus- 
b6ll, vol. iv, p. 350) Devadatta is identified with the ascetic, the 
Bodisat is identified, not with the learned pig, but with the dryad. 

4 He is called Upa^ara both in the 422nd Gataka (of which 
this is a summary) and in the Sumangala (p. 258). The Gataka 
(III, 454) also gives a third variation, Apalara. 

' Purisamatto gagane vehasangamo. The Gataka says 
simply uparilaro, which must mean about the same. 



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288 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 28. 

man named Kapila. So in that case too it was Deva- 
datta who was the superior in birth and in reputation.' 

28. ' And again, when Devadatta became a man, 
by name Sama, then the Bodisat was a king among 
the deer, by name Ruru. So in that case too it was 
Devadatta who was the superior in birth V 

29. ' And again, when Devadatta became a man, 
a hunter wandering in the woods, then the Bodisat 
was a male elephant, and that hunter seven times 
broke off and took away the teeth of the elephant 
So in that case too it was Devadatta who was the 
superior in respect of the class of beings into which 
he was born V 

30. ' And again, when Devadatta became a jackal 
who wanted to conquer the world 3 , and brought the 
kings of all the countries in India under his control, 
then the Bodisat was a wise man, by name Vidhura. 
So in that case too it was Devadatta who was the 
superior in glory.' 

31. 'And again, when Devadatta became the 

1 This must be the 482nd <7ataka. It is true that the man is 
there called Mahi Dhanaka (Fausb6ll, vol. iii, p. 255), and the 
Bodisat is not specially named Ruru, nor is he a king of the herd, 
but is only a stag of the kind of deer called Ruru, who lives 
alone. But a comparison of the poetical version of the same story 
intheA'ariya Pi/aka II, 6 (p. 87 of Dr. Morris's edition for the 
Pali Text Society) shows that the same story is here referred to. 

* This is the 72 nd Gataka, the Silava Naga Gataka. (Faus- 
b6ll, vol. i, p. 319.) 

* Khattiya-dhammo; literally, 'who had the nature of a 
Kshatriya.' This expression is not found in the Gataka referred 
to, No. 241 (vol. ii, p. 242 and foil, in Professor Fausboll's 
edition), and the Bodisat is there called purdhita not pa/jrfita, 
and his name is not given as Vidhura. The jackal also came to 
grief in his attempt to conquer Benares. But there is no doubt as 
to that story, the Sabba DS//4a Gataka being the one here quoted. 



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IV, 4, 36' DEVADATTA. 289 

elephant who destroyed the young of the Chinese 
partridge, then the Bodisat was also an elephant, 
the leader of his herd. So in that case they were 
both on a par V 

32. ' And again, when Devadatta became a yak- 
kha, by name Unrighteous, then the Bodisat too was 
a yakkha, by name Righteous. So in that case too 
they were both on a par V 

33. 'And again, when Devadatta became a sailor, 
the chief of five hundred families, then the Bodisat 
too was a sailor, the chief of five hundred families. 
So in that case too they were both on a par 3 .' 

34. 'And again, when Devadatta became a 
caravan leader, the lord of five hundred waggons, 
then the Bodisat too was a caravan leader, the lord 
of five hundred waggons. So in that case too they 
were both on a par *.' 

35. [203] ' And again, when Devadatta became a 
king of deer, by name Sakha, then the Bodisat was 
a king of deer, by name Nigrodha. So in that case 
too they were both on a par V 

36. ' And again, when Devadatta became a com- 
mander-in-chief, by name Sakha, then the Bodisat 

1 This is the 357th Gataka (Fausbfill, vol. iii, pp. 174) and 
which is one of those illustrated on the Bharhut Tope (Cunning- 
bam, Plate 109). 

' In the Gataka text (No. 457, Fausboll, vol. iv, pp. 100 and 
foil.), there are both devaputta, 'gods,' not yakkha. This is by 
no means the only instance of the term yakkha being used of gods. 

' I cannot trace this story in the printed text of the Gatakas. 

4 This is the Apamtaka Gataka (No. 1, vol. i, pp. 98 and foil, 
in Professor Fausboll's edition), translated in the ' Buddhist Birth 
Stories,' vol. i, pp. 138-145. 

* The Nigrodha Miga Gataka (No. 1 2, vol. i, pp. 145 and foil. 
in FausbOll), translated in ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' vol. i, pp. 198 
and following. 

[35] U 



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290 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 37. 

was a king, by name Nigrodha. So in that case 
too they were both on a par V 

37. 'And again, when Devadatta became a brah- 
man, by name Kha/wfehala, then the Bodisat was a 
prince, by name Aanda. So in that case that 
Khatfdahala was the superior 2 .' 

38. 'And again, when Devadatta became a king, 
by name Brahmadatta, then the Bodisat was his 
son, the prince called Maha Paduma. In that case 
the king had his son cast down seven times, from 
the precipice from which robbers were thrown down. 
And inasmuch as fathers are superior to and above 
their sons, in that case too it was Devadatta was the 
superior V 

39. ' And again, when Devadatta became a king, 
by name Maha Patapa, then the Bodisat was his 
son, Prince Dhamma-pala; and that king had the 
hands and feet and head of his son cut off. So in 
that case too Devadatta was the superior V 

40. 'And now again, in this life, they were 
in the Sakya clan, and the Bodisat became a 
Buddha, all wise, the leader, of the world, and Deva- 
datta having left the world to join the Order founded 
by Him who is above the god of gods, and having 
attained to the powers of Iddhi, was filled with lust 
to become himself the Buddha. Come now, most 
venerable Nagasena! Is not all that I have said 
true, and just, and accurate ? ' 

1 The Nigrodha ffataka (No. 445, Fausbftil, vol. iv, pp. 37 
and foil.). 

* I cannot trace this story among the published (Tatakas. 

5 This is the Mah& Paduma GStaka (No. 472, Fausbfill, vol. iv, 
pp. 187-195). It was a case of Joseph and Potiphar's wife. 

* This tragical story is No. 358 in the G&taka collection (Fausbttll, 
vol. iii, pp. 177-182). 



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IV, 4, 4i. DEVADATTA. 29 1 

41. 'All the many things which you, great king, 
have now propounded, are so, and not otherwise.' 

' Then, Nagasena, unless black and white are the 
same in kind, it follows that good and evil bear equal 
fruit' 

' Nay, not so, great king ! Good and evil have 
not the same result. Devadatta was opposed by 
everybody. No one was hostile to the Bodisat. 
And the hostility which Devadatta felt towards 
the Bodisat, that came to maturity and bore fruit in 
each successive birth. And so also as Devadatta, 
when he was established in lordship over the world, 
[204] was a protection to the poor, put up bridges 
and courts of justice and rest-houses for the people, 
and gave gifts according to his bent to Sama«as 
and Brahmans, to the poor and needy and the way- 
farers, it was by the result of that conduct that, 
from existence to existence, he came into the enjoy- 
ment of so much prosperity. For of whom, O king, 
can it be said that without generosity and self- 
restraint, without self-control and the observance of 
the Upasatha \ he can reach prosperity ? 

' And when, O king, you say that Devadatta and 
the Bodisat accompanied one another in the passage 
from birth to birth, that meeting together of theirs 
took place not only at the end of a hundred, or a 
thousand, or a hundred thousand births, but was in 
fact constantly and frequently taking place through 
an immeasurable period of time 2 . For you should 
regard that matter in the light of the comparison 
drawn by the Blessed One between the case of the 

1 The Buddhist Sabbath, on which see my ' Manual of Buddhism,' 
pp. 139-141. 

* So also above, IV, 2, 64, and IV, 3, 28. 

U 2 



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292 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 41. 

purblind tortoise and the attainment of the condi- 
tion of a human being. And it was not only with 
Devadatta that such union took place. Sariputta 
the Elder also, O king, was through thousands of 
births the father, or the grandfather, or the uncle ', 
or the brother, or the son, or the nephew, or the 
friend of the Bodisat; and the Bodisat was the 
father, or the grandfather, or the uncle, or the 
brother, or the son, or the nephew, or the friend 
of Sariputta the Elder. 

' All beings in fact, O king, who, in various forms 
as creatures, are carried down the stream of trans- 
migration, meet, as they are whirled along in it, 
both with pleasant companions and with disagreeable 
ones — just as water whirled along in a stream meets 
with pure and impure substances, with the beautiful 
and with the ugly. 

' And when, O king, Devadatta as the god, had 
been himself Unrighteous, and had led others into 
unrighteousness of life, he was burnt in purgatory 
for an immeasurable period of time *. [205] But 
the Bodisat, who, as the god, had been himself 
Righteous, and had led others into righteousness 
of life, lived in all the bliss of heaven for a like 
immeasurable period of time. And whilst in this 
life, Devadatta, who had plotted injury against the 
Buddha, and had created a schism in the Order, 
was swallowed up by the earth, the Tathagata, 

1 That is ' father's younger brother.' The Pali has no word for 
uncle generally, the whole scheme of relationship being different 
from ours, and the various sorts of uncles having, in the Pali 
scheme, different and distinct names. 

* 'Fifty-seven ko/is and sixty hundreds of thousands of years,' 
says the text, with touching accuracy. 



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IV, 4, 41. DEVADATTA. 293 

knowing all that can be known, arrived at the 
insight of Buddhahood 1 , and was completely set 
free (from the necessity of becoming) by the des- 
truction of all that leads to re-existence.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say V 

[Here ends the dilemma as to Devadatta's superi- 
ority to the Bodisat in previous births.] 

1 So Hina/i-kumburfi, who takes sabbadhamme as accusative 
to buggAitvi, and understands the phrase as above translated. 

* This discussion is very interesting, both as a specimen of 
casuistry, and as an exposition of orthodox Buddhist belief. And 
it is full of suggestion if taken as a statement of the kind of reason 
which led the Buddhist editors of the earlier folk-lore to identify 
Devadatta with the characters referred to by king Milinda. 
But the facts are that those editors, in using the old stories, and 
legends for their ethical purposes, always identified Devadatta with 
the cruel person in the story, and paid no heed to the question 
whether he was superior or not in birth or in the consideration of 
the world, to the person they identified with the Bodisat In 
searching through the four volumes of the published Gatakas, and 
the proof-sheets of the fifth volume with which Professor Fausboll 
has favoured me, for the purpose of tracing the stories referred to 
by our author, I find that Devadatta appears in sixty-four of them, 
and that in almost every one of these sixty-four he is either superior 
in birth, or equal to the character identified with the Bodisat. 
This is not surprising, for it is not unusually the superiors in birth 
who are guilty of the kind of cruelty and wickedness which the 
Buddhist editors would ascribe to Devadatta. So that our author, 
had he chosen to do so, might have adduced many other instances 
of a similar kind to those he actually quotes. I add in an 
appendix the full list of the Devadatta stories in the (r&takas. It is 
clear our author had before him a version of the G&taka book 
slightly different from our own, as will be seen from the cases 
pointed out in the notes in which, as to names or details, the story 
known to him differs from the printed text. And also that here 
(as at III, 6, 2) he would have been able to solve his own dilemma 
much better if he had known more of the history of those sacred 
books on the words of which it is based. 



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294 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. TV, 4, 42. 



[women's WILES.] 

42. ' Venerable Nagasena, it has been said by the 
Blessed One : 

" With opportunity, and secrecy, 
And the right woo'r, all women will go wrong — 
Aye, failing others, with a cripple even V 
But on the other hand it is said: "Mahosadha's 
wife, Amara, when left behind in the village while 
her husband was away on a journey, remained 
alone and in privacy, and regarding her husband 
as a man would regard his sovran lord, she refused 
to do wrong, even when tempted with a thousand 
pieces 2 ." Now if the first of these passages be 
correct, the second must be wrong ; and if the 
second be right, [206] the first must be wrong. This 
too is a double-edged problem now put to you, and 
you have to solve it.' 

43. ' It is so said, O king, as you have quoted, 
touching the conduct of Amara, Mahosadha's wife. 
But the question is would she have done wrong, on 
receipt of those thousand pieces, with the right 
man : or would she not have done so, if she had 
had the opportunity, and the certainty of secrecy, 
and a suitable wooer ? Now, on considering the 
matter, that lady Amara was not certain of any of these 

1 It is not meant that men would not. But that is too clear to 
be even worthy of mention, whereas with regard to women the 
question is worth discussion. Our author is mistaken in ascribing 
this verse to the Buddha. It is only found (as has been pointed 
out by Mr. Trenckner) in a ffStaka story, No. 536, and is a speci- 
men, not of Buddhist teaching, but of Indian folk-lore. There is 
a very similar sentiment in ffltaka, No. 62 (vol. i, p. 289). 

1 This story will be found in the Ummagga (?&taka, No. 546. 



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IV, 4, 43- WOMEN. 295 

things. Through her fear of censure in this world 
the opportunity seemed to her not fit, and through 
her fear of the sufferings of purgatory in the next 
world. And because she knew how bitter is the 
fruit of wrong-doing, and because she did not wish 
to lose her loved one, and because of the high 
esteem in which she held her husband, and because 
she honoured goodness, and despised ignobleness 
of life, and because she did not want to break with 
her customary mode of life — for all these reasons 
the opportunity seemed to her not fit. 

' And, further, she refused to do wrong because, on 
consideration, she was not sure of keeping the thing 
secret from the world. [207] For even could she 
have kept it secret from men, yet she could not have 
concealed it from spirits 1 — even could she have kept 
it secret from spirits, yet she could not have concealed 
it from those recluses who have the power of know- 
ing the thoughts of others — even could she have 
kept it secret from them, yet she could not have con- 
cealed it from those of the gods who can read the 
hearts of men — even could she have kept it secret 
from the gods, yet she could not have escaped, her- 
self, from the knowledge of her sin — even could she 
have remained ignorant of it herself, yet she could 
not have kept it secret from (the law of the result 
which follows on) unrighteousness 2 . Such were the 

1 Fairies, nayad, dryads, &c. &c. — not gods. 

1 Adhammena raho na labheyya. I am in great doubt as 
to the real meaning of these words, which Hina/i-kumbure" (p. 286) 
renders merely adharmayen rahasak no labann6\ They look 
very much like a kind of personification of Karma. The phrase 
is really very parallel to the saying in Numbers xxxii. 23, 'Be 
sure your sin will find you out ' — namely, in its results — and is as 
true ethically as it is difficult grammatically. 



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296 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 43. 

various reasons which led her to abstain from doing- 
wrong because she could not be sure of secrecy. 

' And, further, she refused to do wrong because, on 
consideration, she found no right wooer. Mahosa- 
dha the wise, O king, was endowed with the eight 
and twenty qualities. And which are those twenty- 
eight ? He was brave, O king, and full of modesty, 
and ashamed to do wrong, he had many adherents, 
and many friends, he was forgiving, he was upright 
in life, he was truthful, he was pure in word, and 
deed and heart \ he was free from malice, he was 
not puffed up, he felt no jealousy *, he was full of 
energy, he strove after all good things s , he was popu- 
lar with all men, he was generous, he was friendly *, 
he was humble in disposition, he was free from guile, 
he was free from deceit, he was full of insight, he 
was of high reputation, he had much knowledge, he 
sought after the good of those dependent on him, 
his praise was in all men's mouths, great was his 
wealth, and great his fame. Such were the twenty- 
eight qualities, O king, with which Mahosadha, the 
wise, was endowed. And it was because she found 
no wooer like unto him that she did no wrong V 

1 So£eyya-sampanno, which Hina/i-kumburfi renders suva^a 
guwayen samanwibawa: that is, 'compliant, attentive to what 
is said.' But I prefer to take the expression in the sense explained at 
length in Ahguttara III, 119. See also Cataka 1, 2 1 4 ; Milinda, p. 1 1 5. 

* Anusuyyako. See G&taka. II, 192, and Milinda, p. 94. 

* Ayuhako. Hina/i-kumbur£ (p. 286) renders this word, which 
is only found here, by Dhana piris roes kirim cetteya, 'one who 
has heaped up goods and men.' But see Milinda, p. 181, and Dr. 
Morris in the Pali Text Society's Journals for 1885 and 1886. 

4 Sakhilo, ' kindly in speech,' says the Sinhalese. 
■ This is all very well, but it does not confirm, it explains away, 
the supposed quotation from the Buddha's words. 



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IV, 4, 44- ARAHATS. 297 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the wickedness of 
women *.] 



[ON THE FEARLESSNESS OF THE ARAHATS.] 

44. 'Venerable Nagasena, it was said by the 
Blessed One : " The Arahats have laid aside all fear 
and trembling 2 ." But on the other hand when, in 
the city of R&^agaha, they saw Dhana-palaka, the 
man-slaying elephant, bearing down upon the Blessed 

1 The position of women in India, at the time when Buddhism 
arose, was, theoretically, very low. The folk tales are full of stories 
turning on the wiles of women, and the Hindoo law-books seem 
never tired of the theme of her uncleanness, her weakness, and 
her wickedness. But, except in matters of property, the bark was I 
think worse than the bite. Among the people, in the homes of the 
peasantry, the philippics of the Brahmin priests were not much 
regarded, and the women led lives as pleasant as those of their 
male relations, and shared in such mental and physical advantages 
as their male relations enjoyed. The influence of Buddhism must 
have been felt in two directions. In the first place the importance 
attached to the celibate life must have encouraged the kind of view 
taken of women among Catholics in mediaeval times (the Brahmin 
view being much akin to those that were promulgated by Luther). 
On the other hand the fact that women were admitted to the 
Order, and that the still higher aim of Arahatship was held to be 
attainable by them, must have helped to encourage a high esteem 
for women. We have many instances of women who were credited 
with the insight of Arahatship. A whole treatise in the Buddhist 
sacred books, the Theri Githa, is devoted to hymns and poems 
ascribed to them, and many of these reach a very high level of 
intelligent and spiritual emotion. 

* I do not know the exact passage referred to, but there are 
many of similar tendency in the sacred books. See, for instance, 
Dhammapada, verses 39, 188, 214, 351, and 385; and Sutta Nipata, 
verses 15, 70, 212, 621, and 965. 



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298 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 44. 

One, all the five hundred Arahats forsook the Con- 
queror and fled, one only excepted, Ananda the 
Elder \ Now how was it, Nagasena ? Did those 
Arahats run away from fear — or did they run away 
willing to let the Blessed One be destroyed, and 
thinking : " (Our conduct) will be clear (to him) from 
the way in which he himself will act '," [208] or did 
they run away with the hope of watching the 
immense and unequalled mighty power which the 
Tathagata would exhibit ? If, Nagasena, what the 



1 Here again we have a variation between our author's words 
and those of the Pi/akas. In the Aullavagga VII, 3, n, 12 (trans- 
lated in pp. 247-250 of vol. iii of the ' Vinaya Texts ' in the 
' Sacred Books of the East '), we have the oldest versions of this 
story; and there the elephant is called, not Dhana-palaka, but 
NdlSgiri, and the number of attendant disciples (who are not called 
Arahats) is not given as five hundred. The Buddha is simply said to 
have entered Ra^agaha ' with a number of Bhikkhus.' Nothing 
also is said, either of their running away, or of Ananda' s remain- 
ing behind. It is, no doubt, an easily explicable and very pretty 
alteration of the story, which exhibits Ananda, the beloved disciple, 
as acting in this way. But it is none the less an alteration. 

It should be added that N&I&giri (it should be NaVagiri) in the 
Vinaya text is a personal name of the elephant, but may be derived 
from its place of origin. (See the references to a famous elephant 
named Na/agiri in the Megha Duta and Na</£giri in the Katha 
Sarit SSgara XI, 42, XII, 10, XIII, 7, 29. But Pawini VI, 3, 117, 
gives the latter as the name of a mountain.) So while there may 
be a variation in the legend, it may also be that we have only 
two names for the same elephant, just as one might speak of the 
Shetland pony (named) Brownie. And the stanza quoted below 
(p. 410 of the Pali text) shows that the name Dhana-palaka was 
given already in older texts to the NaVagiri elephant. 

1 PaflS&yissati sakena kammena, 'It will be plain to the 
Buddha (that is, he will be able to judge of our motives) from his 
own kindness and goodness/ according to the Sinhalese (p. 287). 
But the expression is a very strange one, and perhaps, after all, 
it merely means, ' The matter will turn out according to his Karma.' 



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IV, 4, 45- ARAHATS. 299 

Blessed One said as to the Arahats being devoid of 
fear be true, then this story must be false. But if 
the story be true, then the statement that the 
Arahats have put away fear and trembling must be 
false. This too is a double-edged problem now put 
to you, and you have to solve it.' 

45. 'The Blessed One did say, O king, that 
Arahats have put away all fear and trembling, 
and five hundred Arahats, save only Ananda, did, as 
you say, run away when the elephant Dhana-palaka 
bore down upon the Tathagata that day in Ra/a- 
gaha. But that was neither out of fear, nor from 
willingness to let the Blessed One be destroyed. For 
the cause by which Arahats could be made to fear 
or tremble has been destroyed in them, and there- 
fore are they free from fear or trembling. Is the 
broad earth, O king, afraid at people digging into it, 
or breaking it up, or at having to bear the weight 
of the mighty oceans and the peaked mountain 
ranges ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

'But why not?' 

' Because there is no cause in the broad earth 
which could produce fear or trembling.' 

'Just so, O king. And neither is there any such 
cause in Arahats. And would a mountain peak be 
afraid of being split up, or broken down, or made to 
fall, or burnt with fire ?' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' But why not ?' [209] 

'The cause of fear or trembling does not exist 
within it.' 

' And just so, O king, with Arahats. If all the 
creatures of various outward form in the whole 



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300 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 45. 

universe 1 were, together, to attack one Arahat in 
order to put him to fear, yet would they bring about 
no variation in his heart. And why ? Because 
there is neither condition nor cause for fear (in him, 
whence fear could arise). Rather, O king, was it these 
considerations that arose in the minds of those Ara- 
hats : " To-day when the best of the best of men, the 
hero among conquerors, has entered into the famous 
city, Dhana-palaka the elephant will rush down the 
street. But to a certainty the brother who is his 
special attendant will not forsake him who is above 
the god of gods. But if we should not go away, 
then neither will the goodness of Ananda be made 
manifest, nor will the elephant actually approach * 
the Tathagata. Let us then withdraw. Thus will 
great masses of the people attain to emancipation 
from the bonds of evil, and the goodness of Ananda 
be made manifest" It was on the realisation of the 
fact that those advantages would arise from their 
doing so, that the Arahats withdrew to every side.' 

'Well, N&gasena, have you solved the puzzle. 
That is so. The Arahats feared not, nor did they 
tremble. But for the advantages that they foresaw 
they withdrew on every side.' 



[Here ends the problem as to the panic of the 
Arahats.] 



1 Literally, ' In the hundreds of thousands of world systems.' 
1 A/M&nam-anavak&sataya, ' Because of the absence of con- 
dition and opportunity.' 



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IV, 4, 47- OMNISCIENCE. 301 



[ON CAUSING THE OMNISCIENT ONE TO CHANGE HIS 

MIND.] 

46. 'Venerable Nagasena, your people say that 
the Tathagata is all wise '. And on the other hand 
they say : " When the company of the members of 
the Order presided over by Sariputta and Moggal- 
lana had been dismissed by the Blessed One 2 , then 
the Sakyas of Katuma and Brahma Sabanipati, by 
means of the parables of the seed and of the calf, 
gained the Buddha over, and obtained his forgive- 
ness, and made him see the thing in the right 
light 3 ." Now how was that, Nagasena ? Were 
those two parables unknown to him that he should 
be [210] appeased and gained over to their side, 
and brought to see the matter in a new light ? But 
if he did not already know them, then, Nagasena, he 
was not all-wise. If he did know them, then he must 
have dismissed those brethren rudely and violently * 
in order to try them ; and therein is his unkindness 
made manifest. This too is a double-edged problem 
now put to you, and you have to solve it.' 

47. 'The Tathagata, O king, was all-wise, and 
yet, pleased at those parables, he was gained over by 
them, he granted pardon to the brethren he had sent 

1 This question is also discussed above, III, 6, 2. 

* This episode has already been referred to above, and will be 
found set out in full in the ATatuma Sutta, No. 67, in the Maggh'ima, 
Nikaya (pp. 456-462 of Mr. Trenckner's edition for the Pali Text 
Society). 

' NiggAa.tta.rn akamsu. Compare Gataka, vol. i, p. 495. 

* Okassa pasayha, which the Si/nhalese (p. 289) renders 
akarfrf^anaya ko/a abhibhavanaya karana. See Dr. Morris 
in the 'Journal of the Pali Text Society,' 1887, p. 148. 



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302 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. IV, 4, 47. 

away, and he saw the matter in the light (in which 
the intercessors on their behalf wished him to see 
it). For the Tathagata, O king, is lord of the 
Scriptures. It was with parables that had been first 
preached by the Tathagata himself 1 that they con- 
ciliated him, pleased him, gained him over, and it 
was on being thus gained over that he signified 
his approval (of what they had said). It was, O king, 
as when a wife conciliates, and pleases, and gains 
over her husband by means of things that belong to 
the husband himself; and the husband signifies his 
approval thereof. Or it was, O king, as when the 
royal barber conciliates and pleases and gains over 
the king when he dresses the king's head with the 
golden comb 2 which belongs to the king himself, 
and the king then signifies his approval thereof. 
Or it was, O king, as when an attendant novice, 
when he serves his teacher with the food given in 
alms which his teacher has himself brought home, 
conciliates him and pleases him and gains him over, 
and the teacher then signifies his approval thereof.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the problem as to the all-wise Buddha 
being gained over by intercession 8 .] 



Here ends the Fourth Chapter. 



1 This is quite correct. They are in the fourth book of the 
Anguttara Sutta, No. 13. 

* Panaka, a word only found in this passage. Hina/i-kumburfi 
(p. 380 at the end) renders it ran panSwen. 

* Other cruxes arising out of the dogma of the Buddha's omni- 
science are discussed above, III, 6, 2. 



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APPENDIX. 
DEVADATTA IN THE GATAKAS. 



No. of 


Character filled by 


Character filled by the 


Gataka. 


Devadatta. 


Bodisat. 


i 


Merchant 


Merchant 


3. 
ii 


Deer (Ka/a) 


» 
His father 


12 


Deer (Sakha) 


Deer (Nigrodha) 


20 


Water sprite 


Monkey 


21 


Hunter 


Kurunga deer 


33 


Quail 


Quail 


51 


Minister 


King 


57 


Crocodile 


Monkey king 


58 


Monkey king 


His son 


72 


Woodman 


Elephant 


73 


King 


King 


"3 


Jackal 


Tree god 


122 


King 


Elephant 


»3* 


Piliya 


Sanzkha 


»39 


Fisherman 


Tree god 


141 


Chameleon 


Iguana 


142 


Drunkard 


Jackal 


U3 


Jackal 


Lion 


160 


Vinflaka (a crow) 


King of Videha 


168 


Hawk 


Quail 


174 


Monkey 


Brahman 


184 


Groom 


Minister 


193 


Cripple 


King Paduma 


»94 


King 


Countryman 


204 


Crow 


Crow 


206 


Hunter 


Kurunga deer 


208 


Crocodile 


Monkey 


210 


Bird 


Bird 


220 


Unjust judge 


Just judge 


221 


Hunter 


Elephant 


222 


» 


Nandiya (monkey king) 


231 


Elephant trainer 


Elephant trainer 



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304 



THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 



240 


King Pingala 


Prince 


241 


Jackal 


Minister 


»43 


Musician 


Musician 


277 


Ascetic 


Pigeon 


294 


Jackal 


Tree god 


395 


» 


11 11 


3o3 


Lion 


Bird 


313 


King Kal&bu 


KuWaka (a brahman) 


326 


Brahman 


God 


329 


KaVabShu (a woodman) 


Parrot 


335 


Jackal 


Lion 


34 a 


Crocodile 


Monkey 


353 


Pingiya (a purohit) 


Teacher 


357 


Mad elephant 


Elephant king 


358 


King Patapa 


His son 


367 


Doctor 


Hag 


389 


Crow 


Brahman 


397 


Jackal 


Lion 


404 


Monkey king 


Monkey king 


416 


King of Benares 


His son 


422 


King of JTetiya 


Brahman 


438 


Ascetic 


Partridge 


445 


Sdkha (a minister) 


Nigrodha (a king) 


448 


Hawk 


Cock 


457 


Adhamma (a god) 


Dhamma (a god) 


466 


Carpenter 


Carpenter 


472 


King of Benares 


Prince Paduma 


482 


Man 


Runt deer 


503 


Thief 


Parrot 


505 


Ascetic 


Prince Somanassa 


506 


Snake charmer 


Snake king 



64 in all. 

Professor Fausbdll has kindly allowed me to look at the advance 
sheets of his fifth volume, so that the above list is complete down 
to No. 513. There may be a few more instances in the remaining 
37 G&takas not yet printed. 



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ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 

Page xiii. •Sri-wardhana-pura. It should have been pointed out 
that this city is not (as stated by Emerson Tennant at vol. i, p. 414 
of his ' Ceylon ') the same as the modern town of Kandy, but was 
in the Kurunsegalla district, and (as pointed out by Mr. K. James 
Pohath in the 'Ceylon Orientalist,' vol. iii, p. 218) about three and 
a half miles distant from the modern Damba-deniya. 

P. 2, note 2. Mr. Trenckner in his ' PSli Miscellany' (London, 
1879) has translated and annotated the whole of Book I, that is, 
to the end of p. 39 of this translation. 

P. 6, line 1, read ' to Tissa the Elder, the son of Moggali.' 

P. 10, note t. It is strange that when it occurred to me that 
§§ 10-14 are an early interpolation I failed to notice the most 
important, and indeed almost conclusive argument for my sug- 
gestion. It is this, that the closing words of § 14 are really in 
complete contradiction to the opening words, and that they look 
very much as if they had been inserted, after the interpolation, to 
meet the objection to it which would at once arise from the ex- 
pression in § 16, that the venerable Assagutta 'heard those words 
of King Milinda.' As it originally stood the words he heard were 
those of § 10. After the interpolation these words had to be 
reinserted at the end of § 14, in spite of their being in contra- 
diction to the context. 

Pp. 14 foil., for ' Rohana' read ' Roha»a.' 

Pp. 15, 16. This whole episode as to the charge of lying is 
repeated by Buddhaghosa (in the Introduction to his Samanta 
P&s&diki, p. 296 of vol. iii of Oldenberg's Vinaya), but as having 
happened to Siggava in connection with the birth of Moggali-putta 
Tissa. A modem author would be expected to mention his 
source, but Buddhaghosa makes no reference whatever to the 
Milinda. Perhaps the episode is common stock of Buddhist 
legend, and we shall find it elsewhere. 

P. 32, line 1, add after ' Quietism ' ' and the discourse on losses 
(Parabhava Suttanta).' [See p. xxix, where the reference is sup- 
plied.] 

[35] x 



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306 THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 

P- 53- ' Virtue's the base.' It should have been pointed out 
that this is the celebrated verse given by the Ceylon scholars to 
Buddhaghosa as the theme of the test essay he was to write as a 
proof of his fitness. If he succeeded in the essay they would then 
entrust him with all their traditions for him to recast in Pali. The 
' Path of Purity,' which opens with this verse, was the result. 

P. 185, § 49. On the question discussed in this section the 
curious may compare what is said by Sir Thomas Brown in his 
'Enquiries into- Vulgar and Common Errors,' Book VII, Chapter 
xvi (p. 304 of the London edition of 1686). He gives several 
instances of supposed cases of conception without sexual connec- 
tion mentioned in western writers, and comes to the conclusion, 
apropos of the supposed generation of the magician Merlin by 
Satan, that ' generations by the devil are very improbable.' 



I had desired to dedicate this translation of the Milinda 
to Mr. Trenckner, to whose self-denying labours, spread 
over many years, we owe the edition of the Pali text on 
which the translation is based, and without which the 
translation would not have been attempted. But I am 
now informed that any dedication of a single volume in the 
series of the ' Sacred Books of the East ' is not allowable, 
as it would conflict with the dedication of the entire series. 
Had I known this when the Introduction was being written, 
a more suitable acknowledgment of the debt due to Mr. 
Trenckner than the few words on page xv, would have 
been made at the close of the Introductory remarks. I am 
permitted therefore to add here what was intended to 
appear in the dedication as an expression of the gratitude 
which all interested in historical research must feel to a 
scholar who has devoted years of labour, and of labour 
rendered valuable by the highest training and critical 
scholarship, to a field of enquiry in which the only fruit 
to be gathered is knowledge. 



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INDEX OF PROPER NAMES. 



Abhidharma Kcwa Vyakhya, quoted, 
page xxvi. 

Agathokles, king of Baktria, xxii. 

A?ita, the teacher, 8, 41. 

Akesines, the river, xliv. 

Aiiravati, the river, xliv, 171. 

A/akamanda, city of the gods, 3. 

Alasanda (Alexandria), on the Indus, 
xxiii, 127. 

Amara, Mahosadha's wife, 394. 

Amara-sekara, Mr. C. A. M., xii. 

Amara-sekara, Mr. N. M., xii. 

Ananda, the teacher, 163, 191, 257. 

Anantakaya, attendant on Menander, 
probably = Antiochos,xix,xlii,4 8. 

Anuruddha, the Sakyan, 163. 

A'pollodotus, king of Baktria, xix, xlii. 

Archebios, king of Baktria, xxii. 

Ariano-pali, legends on coins, xxi. 

Asa/£a, a month, 171. 

Asikni, the river, xliv. 

Asipasa, a caste, xlvi. 

Asoka, emperor of India, xxxvii, xlii, 
182. 

Asokarama, near Patna, xliii, 26. 

Assagutta of the Vattaniya hermi- 
tage, xxv, xliii. 

Arvagupta, not the same as last, xxv. 

A//i>issara, = Devadatta, 167. 

Avlki, purgatory, xl, 9. 

Ayupala, of the Sankheyya hermi- 
tage, a Buddhist teacher, xxv, 
xliii, 30 foil. 



Barygaza, in Gujarat, xx. 
Benares, 31. 

Benfey, Professor, quoted, xxvi. 
Bhaddasala, the general, xliii, 292. 
Bhaddi-(or Bha//i-)putta, a caste, 

xlvi. 
Bhaddiya, the Sakyan, 163. 
Bhagu. the Sakyan, 163. 
Bharukajbt/b?, men of, xliii, 331. 
Bindumati, a courtesan, xliii, 182. 
Bird, Major, quoted, xxvi. 



Brahma, the god, 118, 301. 

Brahma-world, heaven, 126. 

Buddhaghosa's ' Path of Purity,* xi, 
306 ; his quotations of the Mi- 
linda, xiv-xvii. 

Budh Gay-3, in Behar, 9. 

Burgess, Dr., quoted, xxvi. 

Burmese translations of the ' Ques- 
tions of Milinda,' xi, xvi. 

Burnouf, quoted, xxvi. 

Bu-ston, a Tibetan work, quoted, 
xxvi. 

Ceylon, xi, xiv ; its literature, xiii. 
Childers, Professor, quoted, xlv, 

185, 230, 244. 
Cunningham, General, quoted, xi. 

Dagabas, sepulchral heaps, xx. 
Danava, Titan, 216. 
Darami/ipola, a Ceylon scholar, xiii. 
Devadatta, the heresiarch, 153, 163 

foil., 193, 249, 282 foil., 303. 
Devamantiya, = Demetrios, xix, xliii, 

«, *4. 37, 47- 
Dhamma-kitti, author of the Sad- 

dhamma Sangaha, xxvii. 
Dhammakkhanda. See Madhurasa- 

to/a. 
Dhammapila, quoted, 244. 

1. Dhamma-rakkhita. See Darami/i- 

pola. 

2. Dhamma-rakkhita, one of Naga- 

sena's teachers, xxv, xliii, 16, 18. 
Dhana-phalaka, elephant, 297. 
Dinna, attendant on king Milinda, 87. 
Divylvadana, quoted, xxv. 

Ekasi/aka, a Brahman, 172. 
Elijah, his ' Act of Truth,* 185. 
Eukratides, king of Baktria, xxiii. 

F3-Hien, the traveller, 248. 
Fausboll, Professor, quoted, 244, 
*53- 



X 2 



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3 o8 



THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 



Gandhira, the country, xliii, 327, 331. 
Ganga, the Ganges river, xliv, 5, 171, 

182. 
Gardiner, Professor, quoted, xxi. 
GarWas, snake-eating birds, 38,175. 
Gopala-mata, queen, 17a. 
Gunananda. See Mohotti-watte. 
Guttila, musician, 172. 

Hardy, Rev. R. Spence, quoted, 
xxvi, 40, 61, 64, 77. 

Himalayas, mountains, 11, 171, 278. 

Hina/i-kumbure Sumangala, trans- 
lates the Milinda into Sinha- 
lese, xii, xiii. 

Hydaspes, the river Bihat, xliv. 

Hypanis (the Sutlej), xix. 

Indra, the god, 37. 
Indus, river, 171. 
Isamos (the Jumna), xix. 
Itihasas, 6, 247. 



Jains, their founder, 8. 
ali, Vessantara's son, 174. 
Jumna, river. See Isamos, YamunS. 
us tin, quoted, xix. 

K3bul, Menander's coins found there, 

xx. 
Kadphises, a coin of his referred to, 

xxii. 
Ka^ahgala, in the Terai, 14, 18. 
Kalabu, king, 286. 
Kalanda, a clan, 238. 
Kalasi, a town on an island in the 

Indus, xxiii, xliii, 83, 127. 
Kali-devata, a sect so called, xlvi. 
iTandabhaga, the river, xliv, 171. 
iTandagutta, king, xliii, 292. 
Karambhiya, ascetic, 287. 
Karisi. See Kalasi. 
Kashmir, Menander's coins found 

there, xx, xliii, 82. 
Kassapa, the Buddha, 4, 173. 
Katha Sarit Sagara, quoted, 298. 
Aatuma, a SSkyan town, 357, 301. 
Kern, Professor, quoted, xxvi. 
Ketumatf, a mansion in heaven, 11. 
Khu^g-uttara, 122. 
Kimbila, the Sakyan, 163. 
Kina, perhaps China, xliii, 121, 327, 

33'> 359- 
K\Hk\, a Brahman woman, 153. 



Ktrtti Sri Ra^a-sbnha, king of Cey- 
lon, xii, xiii. 
Kola-pattana, seaport, xliii, 359. 
Ko/umbara, its stuffs, 3. 
Kuraara Kassapa, 275. 
ATunda, the coppersmith, 242. 
Kuvera, the god, 37. 

Lassen, Professor, quoted, xliv. 
Legge, Professor, his version of Fi- 

Hien, 248. 
Liwera, Mr. A., xiii. 
Lokayatas, a sect so called, 7. 

Maddi, wife to Vessantara, 174. 
Madhura, the city, xliii, 331. 
Madhurasa-tofa, a Buddhist scholar, 

xiii. 
Maha-bharata, called an Itihasa, 

»47- 
Mahisena, a god, 1 1. 
Mahi, the river, xliv, 171. 
Mahosadha and his wile, 294. 
Makkhali (of the cowshed), 8. 
Mallika, queen, 172. 
Malunkya-putta, 204 foil. 
Manibhadda, a caste so called, xlvi, 

191. 
Mankura, attendant on Menander, 

**> *9, 30. 48. 

Mandhata, king, 172. 

Manoratha PGrani, quoted, xiv. 

Mara, the Evil One, 219. 

Masara, mountain, 177. 

Mathura, Menander's coins found 
there, xx. 

Megha Duta, quoted, 298. 

Menander-Milinda, identity of the 
names, xviii ; notices of in clas- 
sical writers, xix ; coins of, 
xx-xxii ; date and birthplace 
of, xxiii; his conversion to 
Buddhism, xxv-xxvii. 

Mendis, Mr. L., xiii. 

Milinda, the Questions of, in Ceylon, 
xii, xiii ; in Buddhaghosa, xiv- 
xvi ; MSS. of, xvii ; is a religious 
romance, xvii ; the charm of its 
style, xviii. 

Milinda Prashnaya, xii. 

Moggallana, his death, 261 foil. 

Mohotti-watte Gunananda, a Bud- 
dhist scholar, xii. 

Morris, the Rev. Dr., quoted, xiv, 
xv, 46, 65. i74» »78, 301. 



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INDEX OF PROPER NAMES. 



309 



Miiller, Prof. Ed., quoted, xliv, 179, 
240. 

NagaYpuna, founder of the Maha- 
yana school, xxv; identified 
wrongly with Nagasena, xxvi. 

Nagasena, xxv, xxvi, and passim. 

Nagesa, epithet of Pata%ali, xxvi. 

NaTSgiri, elephant and mountain, 
298. 

Nanda, the Brahman, 153. 

Nandaka, an ogre, 153. 

Nandiya, monkey king, 387. 

Nesada, outcasts, 286. 

Niga«/Aa Nita-putta, founder of the 
Jain sect, 8. 

Nikumba, the country, xliii, 327. 

Nimi, king, 172. 

Nyaya philosophy, 6. 

Pabbata, a caste so called, xlvii, 191. 

P&tittiya rules, xli. 

Pakudha K&Mayana, the teacher, 

8,42. 
Pali Text Society, xxv, xxvii, 

xl, xliv, 46, 65. 
Panini, quoted, 298. 
Papaya Sfidani, quoted, xv. 
Pilragika offences, xli. 
Pa/aliputta, the modern Patna, 26, 

182. 
Pata/fcali, not the same as Nagasena, 

xxvi. 
Patimokkha, xli. 

Patimokkha, recitation of, 264 foil. 
Payasi the Ra^anya, 275. 
Pha»in, epithet of Pata«#ali, xxvi. 
Piliyakkha, king, 280. 
Piris, Mr. K., xii. 
Plutarch, quoted, xix, xxii. 
Pra^Spati, the god, 37. 
Punni, slave girl, 172. 
Pu/ma, a servant, 172. 
PQrana Kassapa, the teacher, 8, 9, 

41. 
Purinas, 6, 247. 

Ra^agaha, 191, 298; council held at, 
242. 

Rihula, son of the Buddha, 32. 

Rakkhita-tala, in the Himalayas, 
xliii, 6, 12, 18. 

R3majana, called an Itihasa, 247. 

Ropa, the Mallian, 282. 

1. Rohana, a Buddhist teacher men- 
tioned in the Ahguttara, xxv. 



2. Rohana, Nagasena's teacher, xxv, 
xliii. 

Sabba-dinna, attendant on Menan- 
der, xix, xliii, 20, 47, 56. 

Saddhamma Samgaha, a Pali his- 
torical work, xxvii. 

Sadhina, king, 172. 

Sagala, capital of Baktria, xviii, xliii, 
a, 23. 

Saka, a country, xliii, 327, 331. 

Sakha, general, 291. 

Sakka, king of the gods, 12. 

Sakyan, member of the clan, 153. 

Sallet, Alfred von, quoted, xxi. 

Sama, prince, 280 foil., 288. 

San^aya, the teacher, 8. 

Sankheyya, a hermitage, xliii, 17, 22. 

Saitkhya philosophy, 6. 

Santushita, a god, 37. 

SarabhQ, the river, xliv, 171. 

Saranankara. See Woeliwifa. 

Sarassati, the river, xliv, 171. 

Savara, city of the ATasuftlas, 267. 

Schiefner, Prof., quoted, xxvi. 

Siamese translations, &c, of the 
' Questions of Milinda,' xi, xvi, 
xvii, xxiv. 

Sindhu, the Indus river, xliv. 

Sineru, king of mountains, 152, 176. 

Sivaka, 195. 

Sivi, king, 179. 

1. Sonuttara, a Brahman, xliii, 14. 

2. Somittara, an outcast, 286. 
Sri-wardhana-pura, a city in Ceylon, 

xiii, 305. 
SthQpas. See Dagabas. 
Strabo, quoted, xix. 
Strato, king of Baktria, xxii. 
Subhadda, recluse, 186. 
Sudinna, of the Kalanda clan, 238. 
Sumana, garland maker, 172. 
Sumangala Vilasini, quoted, xiv, xv, 

131,263. 
Suppabuddha, a Sakyan, 153. 
SuppiyS, devotee, 172. 
Santtba., Surat, xliii, 331, 359. 
Sutta Nipata, xlii. 
Suvawia-bhumt, the country, xliii, 

359. 
SuyJma, a god, 37. 
Sy-Hermaios, king of Baktria, xxii. 

Takkola, the place, xliii, xliv, 359. 
Theosophists, sect of, 268. 



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THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 



Tissa, son of Moggali, 6. 
Tissa-thera, a writer, xliii, 71. 
Trenckner, Mr., xv-xix, xxiv, xxxi, 

»5, *8, 32, 49, 80, 175, 179, 

294, 306. 
Tusita heaven, 271. 

Oha, a river, xliii, 70. 
Upali, the barber, 163. 
Uposatha Arama, in Ceylon, xiii. 
Uttarakuru, 3. 

Vaueshika philosophy, 6. 

Vanga, Bengal, xliii, 359. 

Varuna, the god, 37. 

Vattaniya, a hermitage, xliii, 10-16. 

Vedas, the four, 6, 247 ; the three, 

17, 34- 
Ve^ayanta, palace of the gods, n. 
Vessantara, the king, 170 foil. 
Vessavana, king of the fairies, 38. 
Vetravati, the river, xliv, 171. 
Vidhura, sage, 288. 
Vigamba-vatthu, a hermitage, xliii, 



Vilata, a country, xliii, 327, 331. 
Vitamsi, the river, xliv, 171. 
Vitandas, a sect so called, 7. 

Weber, Prof., quoted, xxv. 
Wenzel, Dr., quoted, xxv, xxvi. 
Wilson, H. H., quoted, xxi. 
Wceliwi/a Saranankara, a Buddhist 
scholar, xii, xiii. 

Yakkha, ogre, 38, 176. 

Yama, the god, 37. 

Yamuna, the Jumna river, xliv, 
171. 

Yavana, Baktria, xliii, 327, 331. 

Yoga philosophy, 6. 

Yonakas, the Greeks (Ionians) at- 
tendant on Menander, xix, xiii, 
1, 4, 20, 68. 

Yugandhara, a peak of the Hima- 
layas, 12. 

Zoilos, king of Baktria, xxii. 



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INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Acrobats, page 53. 

'Act of Truth,' 180 foil. 

Alkaline wash, in medicine, 168. 

Alms, customs of the Buddhist Order 
in regard to, 14-16, 20. 

Alms-halls, 2. See Rest-houses. 

Altruism, Buddhist, 174. 

Ambrosia, 35, 236. 

Animals, their reasoning powers, 51. 

Arahat, the great, is Buddha, 8 ; 
others, 1 1, 12 ; their knowledge 
of others' thoughts, 18, 23; na- 
ture of their wisdom, 29 ; does 
not fear death, 70 ; description 
of, 1 57 ; have no fear, 206 foil, 
297 foil. 

Arahatship, above ordinary morality, 
25 ; its seven conditions, 52, 58 ; 
the highest of all lands, 227. 

Architects, 2, 53. 

Arithmetic, 6, 91. 

Army, its four divisions, 7, 54, 60, 62. 

Arts and sciences, the nineteen , &c, 6. 

Aspiration of reward, on doing a 
good act, 5 ; duty of, 55. 

Association of ideas, 89-92. 

Assurance of salvation, the Arahat's 
final, 65. 

Astrologer, the royal, 31, 247. 

Astronomy, 6. 

Atonement, 14. 

Baby, is it the same as the grown 
man ? 63. 

Bambu, simile of the giant-, 155 foil. ; 
dies in reproduction, 236. 

Barber, 19, 302. 

Barley reapers, simile of, 51. 

Bathing places, public, 140. 

Becoming, 83; sorrow of, 149; free- 
dom from, 293. 

Boat, similes of, 124, 227. 

Body, the thirty-two parts of the 
human, 42 ; the love of the, r 14 ; 
bodily marks, the, 32, 117, 237; 
made of four elements, 194. 



Bones, hundred leagues long, 1 30. 

Book, 123; of the law, 262. 

Brahman, works in the fields, 15 ; 
duties of a, 247. 

Brand marks, on cattle, 122. 

Breath, no soul in the, 48. 

Bridges, 140, 272, 291. 

Brooms, 4. 

Buddha, the, is incomparable, 108; 
is not still alive, 144 foil.; gifts 
to, 144 foil.; distinction be- 
tween Pa>jteka- and Perfect- 
Buddhas, 158 ; the best of men, 
178; sinlessness of, 191. 

Burning glass, 85. 



Calf, similes of, 282, 301. 

Carpenter, simile of, 236. 

Carriages, 3, 91. 

Carter, should test a ford, 273. 

Casuists, 7 ; casuistry no branch of 
education, 17. 

Cat's eye, the gem, 177. 

Cattle, brand marks on, 122. 

Cauterising a wound, 168, 211. 

Ceremonies, observed by kings on 
visiting Samanas, 30, 31, 37, 49. 

Character, of the ideally good lay- 
man, 296. 

Chariot, simile of, 43 ; parts of, 44. 

Charms, intoning of, 181. 

City, description of a wealthy, 2 ; 
foundation of, 53; with one 
gateway, simile of, 90. 

Clocks, want of, 7. 

Clod, thrown in the air, simile of, 

'94- 
Cloth goods, 3. 
Combs for the hair, 19. 
Comets, 247. 

'Confections,' 42, 83, 305, 207. 
Contact, 92. 

Conversion, what it consists in, 25. 
Conveyancing, as an art, 6. 
Copper ware, 3, 96. 



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THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 



Cotton stuffs, 159. 

Counting. See Arithmetic ; by the 

finger-joints, 91. 
Courtesan, story of, 183 foil. 
Courts of justice, 391. 
Criminal, the condemned, similes of, 

165-6, 211. 
Crops, estimation of growing, 91. 
Cymbals, simile of, 93. 

Dacoits, 33. 

Dart, simile of the perfect, 159. 

Dead body, always cast up by the 

sea, 259. 
Death, the fear of, 206-312, 278,279. 
Death of the Buddha, the legend of, 

explained, 242 foil. 
Delusion of self, 207, 226. 
Dependents, kindness to, 138. 
Dice-playing, 103. 
Digestion, 193, 236. 
Diseases, ninety-eight kinds of, 152 ; 

caused in ten ways (one of which 

is medical treatment), 192; 

cured by Pirit, 225. 
Divination, practised by Brahmans, 

347. 
'Divine Ear,' the, 11. 
' Divine Eye,' the, 26, 179. 
Divining other people's thoughts, 

18,23. 
Dreams, interpretation of, 247. 
Drugs, five kinds of, 69. 
Drum, simile of, 149. 
Dryads, 24a. 

Ear, the divine, 11. 

Earth, the broad, similes of, 52, 150, 

194, 258, 299. 
Earthquakes, 170 foil. 
Eclipses, 247. 
Education, 17, 50, 63. 
Egoism, delusion of, 207, 226. 
Elements, the four, 194. 
Elephants, 3, 38, 126, 211, 267, 272. 
Embroidery, 134. 

Embryo, four stages of the, 63, 105. 
Esoteric teaching, none in Buddhism, 

138, 142, 267. 
Estimating growing crops, 91. 
Eunuchs, cannot keep a secret, 141. 
Evil, origin of. See Pain. Conquest 

of, by good, 174. 
Excitement, condemned, 143. 
Exorcism, 38. 



Eye, the Divine, 26. 
' Eye of the Truth,' 25. 

Fairies, 38. 

Faith, 52, 56. 

Fans, 148. 

Finger-joints, used to count with, 9 1 . 

Fire, similes of, 73, 146, 188, 334, 

»44- 

Fire-extinguishing apparatus, 68. 

Fire-stick apparatus, 85. 

Flame, simile of, 64. 

Flavours, the six, 88. 

Flood, simile of a, 56. 

Floor coverings, 267. 

Food, Indian idea of, 26. 

Fossil bones, 1 30. 

Future life, the craving after, con- 
demned, 174, 200. 

Garlands, habit of wearing, 19. 
Gayal, kind of buffalo, 211. 
Gems, various kinds of, 177. 
Generosity, the mighty power of, 

1 7 3-5- 
Gestation, period of, is ten months,i6. 
Ghee, 65, 75, 161, 249. 
Gold and silver, 3, 59, 267. 
Grammar, 17. 
Granary, 65, 161. 
Guilds of traders, 3. 

Hair, the sixteen impediments of 
wearing, 19; hair-dyeing and 
shampooing, &c, ibid. 

Head-splitting, belief as to, 223. 

Heads of houses, 209. 

Health and wealth, explained, 97. 

Hell, none in Buddhism. See Pur- 
gatory. 

Hen and eggs, similes of, 76, 77, 80. 

Highwaymen, 32, 222. 

Honey, the man in the trough of, 88 ; 
the drink of, 95 ; slips through 
the fingers, 249. 

Horripilation, 38. 

Horses, 3 ; the swift, simile of, 199. 

House-building, 57, 83 ; house of 
life, 207. 

Humours, the three, in medicine, 
168, 191. 

Husbandry, 215, 235, 247, 285. 

Iddhi, powers of, 261. 
Ideas, mark of, 94 ; association of, 
89-92. 



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INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



3*3 



Income, simile of, 187. 

Indeterminate questions, 205. 

Individuality, 40-45, 50, 64, 67. 

Indivisibility, denied, 132. 

Insight, the eight causes of its ripen- 
ing, 141, and see Conversion. 

Intoxicating drinks, 41. 

Investigation, characteristic of, 96 ; 
why the Buddha investigates, 
272. 

Invisible, story of the magician, 217; 
root to make one, 281. 

Iron, 70. 

Jasmine, the chief of flowers, 252. 
Javelins, 69. 

Karma, 3, 12, 18, 32, 41, 71, 80, 103, 

163,191, 214, 262-4. 
King of kings, the mythical, 162,177, 

199. 
Kings, their manner of discussing, 

46; their tyranny, 50; their 

greed, 203 ; they take the best 

of everything, 267. 

Lamps, 61, 64, 67, 73, no. 
Lancet, surgeon's, 168-9, "•• 
Law, of property, 247. See Peace, 

breach of, and Conveyancing, 

and Punishments, and Book. 
Laymen, includes the gods, 32. 
Learning by heart, 17, 22, 28, 34, 

123, 172. 
Letter-writing, 67. 
Leviathan, 187. 
Lexicography, 17. 
Lie, a deliberate, excludes from the 

Order, 268. 
Lions, 135, 211. 
Log, the dry, simile of, 214. 
Looking-glass, 86, 189. 
Lord of a village, 208. 
Lotions, medicinal, 211, 215. 
Lotus flower, simile of, 117. 
Love to all beings, 1 38, 279 foil. ; of 

teacher to pupil, 142; duty of, 

254. 
Lucky marks, 32, 117, 237, 247. 

Magic, 6, 181, 217. 

Mandolin and its parts, 84. 

Market places, 2, 53. 

Marks on the body, as omens of 

future greatness, 17. 
Marriage by purchase, 74. 



Medicine, 6, 191, 197, 214. See 

Physician, Surgery. 
Meditation, 13, 18, 52, 196 foil. 
Memory, 120-122. 
Merchant, should test goods, 272. 
Milk and butter, simile of, 65, 75. 
Mindfulness, 53, 58. 
Minds, seven classes of, 154. 
Ministers of state, the six, 171. 
Miracles at conception of Nagasena, 

'4- 
Money, 17, 59, 134, 267. 
Mules die in giving birth, 236. 
Music, 6. 

Muslin, of Benares, 3. 
Mutilation, of criminals, 63, 166, 

270, 276. 

Name, soul not implied in, 41. 

' Name-and-form,' 7 1 foil., 77. 

Nirvana, a state of mind to be at- 
tained in, and which ends with, 
this life, 36, 41, 78, 106. See 
Arahatship. 

Novice, the intractable, 4 ; NSga- 
sena becomes a, 20 ; his duties 
as, 24, 302. 

Ocean, taste of, 131, 133; always 
casts up a dead body, 259. 

Offences, conscious and unconscious, 
224. 

Official gratitude, 76, 93, 197. 

Ogres, 38. 

Oil, for the hair, 19. 

Ointment, for a wound, 168. 

Omens, interpretation of, 247. 

Omniscience of the Buddhas, 117, 
154-162, 271, 301 foil. 

Pain, origin of, 83, 191, 195. 

Pa/Meka-Buddhas, 158. 

Peace, breach of the, in law, 239. 

Perception, characteristic of, 95, 1 3 2. 

Perseverance, 52. 

Physician, 68, 69, 112, 165, 168, 

211, 40,272. 
Pilot, should test the shore, 272. 
Pipers, 48. 
Pirit, 213. 

Pledge, deposit of, 123. 
Poison, simile of, 94 ; antidotes to, 

215 ; love counteracts, 279. 
Pork, the Buddha's last meal of, 244 

foil. 



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THE QUESTIONS OF KING MILINDA. 



Posthumous honours, 144 foil. 
Potter and the pots, simile of, 84. 
Precepts, abolition of the minor, 

202. 
Present to a king, simile of, 220. 
Prophecy, 6, 185. 

Punishments, 63, 223, 239, 254, 269. 
Punkahs, 148. 

Pupil, his duty to his teacher, 144. 
Purgatory, 94, ioi, 125, 163, 167, 

206, 210, 283. 
Purity, the power of, 173. 
Purohita, family chaplain, 282. 



Rain, three seasons of, 171 ; pro- 
duced by charms, 181. 

Rain water, similes of, 90, 226, 245, 
274, 278. 

Rams, simile of two butting, 92. 

Reasoning contrasted with wisdom, 
50. 

Recognition, mark of perception, 
132. 

Reflection, characteristic of, 95. 

Re-incarnation, 207, and see next. 

Re-individualisation, 50, 72-75. 

Relationship, scheme of, 292. 

Relics, of the Buddha, 144 foil., 246. 

Renunciation, 31, 49, 98, 251, 271. 

Rest-houses, public, 291. 

Rhinoceros, 38. 

Rice, simile of cartload of, 154; 
simile of boiling, 176 ; is the 
chief of all grains, 252. 

Robber, figuratively, of a bad monk, 
256. 



Sandal-wood dust, 29. 

Schism, 163, 227. 

Scholars, their manner of discuss- 
ing, 46. 

Schooling, 63, and see Education. 

Season, the rainy, 7, 24. 

Secret wisdom, 139. 

Sects, 3, 7, 8, 144, 266. 

Seed-fruit-seed, succession of, 80. 

Seed, simile of, 301. 

Seeds, edible, 161. 

Sensation, results of a, 82, 83, 89, 
92 ; characteristics of, 93 ; kinds 
of, 194. 

Shadow of a man, 45 ; abiding under 
another's, 137. 

Shampooing the hair, 19. 



Ship, simile of, 227. 

Shops, 2, 3. 

Shrines, god-haunted, 1 40. 

Sins, the five, 41 ; will find you out, 

295. 
Snake-charmers, 38, 212, 215. 
Snakes, 2 it. 

Snoring, how to stop, 131. 
Snow, 70. 

Son in the faith, 142. 
Sophists, 7. 

Sorrow, 125, and see Pain. 
Soul, no such thing as, 40-45, 48, 

67, 86-89, m> 'J 2 - 
Spells, 6. 
Splinter of rock, incident of, 193 

foil., 249 foil. 
State officials, the six, 171. 
Suffering, cause of, see Pain ; various 

kinds of, 275. 
Sugar, 72 ; sugar mill, 235. 
Suggestion, as source of memory, 

121. 
Suicide, 69, 273. 
Surgery, 168. 

Swallowed up by the earth, 152. 
Syrups and sweetmeats, 3. 

Tank, simile of the full, 187. 

Taxation, 208. 

Teacher, his fees, 17, 25 ; his duties 

to his pupil, 142. 
Thought-perception, 89. 
Tidal-wave, 276. 
Time, definition of, 77 ; root of, 79 ; 

ultimate point of, 80-82. 
To pay, 177. . 

Torture, 239; various kinds of 

death with, 276, 277. 
Transmigration, 11 1, 118, 120. 
Travellers, hospitality towards, 161. 
Treasurer, the royal, 59. 
Trees, disciples compared to, 151 ; 

simile of the barren, 162; 

talking trees, dilemma of, 241. 
Trumpeters, 48. 
Truth, is the most minute of all 

things, 132 ; its power, 182. 
Turbans, 138. 
Tutor's fees, 17. 
Twirling-stick, 85, 146. 



Uncle, no word for in Pali, 292. 
Unguents, for the hair, 19. 



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INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 315 

Vanishing root, 381. Wife. See Marriage. 

Village organisation, 208-9. Wind, simile of, 147-8 ; as medical 

Vow, the eightfold, of a layman, 1 38. term, 191. 

Wisdom, distinct from reasoning, 

Waggons, 3, 27 ; parts of, 44 ; simile 50 ; mark of, 51,61; of Arahats, 

of path of, 91 ; of load of rice, 29; seven kinds of, 128. 

154 ; breaking up of, 173 ; rec- Women, put before men, 83; their 

koned among valuable things, fickleness, 141 ; in the Order, 

267. 187 ; reckoned among valuable 

Wandering teachers, 7, 34. things, 267 ; their wiles, 294 ; 

Water-clearing gem, 55. their management of their hus- 

Water, earth rests on, jo6, 175. bands, 302. See Marriage. 

Water-pot, the regular, 106. Woollen stuffs, 3, 28, 159. 

Weapons, 69. Worms in the body, 151. 

Wheel of victory, 162 ; of the king- Wound, treatment of, 168. 

dom of righteousness, 31, 253. Writing a letter, 67. 



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Clarenbon press, ©yforb. 




I. LITERATURE AND PHILOLOGY. 

8ECTION L 

DICTIONARIES, GRAMMARS, ETC. 
ANGLO-SAXON. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, based on the 

MS. Collection! of the late Joseph Boswobth, D.D., Professor of Anglo- 
Saxon, Oxford. Edited and enlarged by Prof. T. N. Tollkb, if.A. 
Parts I-IIL A— SAB. 4to. 15*. each. Part IV. In tie Preu. 

ARABIC. A Practical Arabic Grammar. Part I. Compiled 
by A. O. Gbben, Brigade Major, Royal Engineers. Second Edition, 
Enlarged. Crown 8vo. Jt. 6d. 

CELTIC. Ancient Cornish Drama. Edited and translated 

by E. N0EEI8, with a Sketch of Cornish Grammar, an Ancient Cornish 
Vocabulary, etc. 2 vols. 1859. 8vo. i{. 1*. 
The Sketch of Cornish Grammar separately, stitched, at. 6d. 

CHINESE. A Handbook of the Chinese Language. By 

James Schmerb. 1863. 8 vo. half bound, 1 1. 8*. 

ENGLISH. A New English Dictionary, on Historical Prin- 
ciples: founded mainly on the materials collected by the Philological 
Society. Vol. I. A and B. Imperial 4to. half morocco, 2 1. 121. 6a. . 
Part IV. Section II. C— CASS (beginning of Vol. II.) 5* 
Part V. CASS— CLIVY. ia». 6d. 
Part VI. In tie Preu. 
Edited by James A. H. Mvbbat, LL.D., with the assistance of many 
Scholars and men of Science. 



VoL III (E, F, and G). Part I. Edited by Henbt Bradley. In tie 
Preu. 

Oxford : Clarendon Prea. London : Hzxbt Fbowdx, Amen Conwr, E.C. 
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ENGLISH, continued. 

ENGLISH. An Etymological Dictionary of the English 
Language. By W. W. Skeat, Litt.D. Second Edition. 4to. ll. 4*. 

A Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage. By W. W. Skeat, Litt-D. Third Edition. Crown 8vo. 5*. 6d. 

A Concise Dictionary of Middle English, from a.d. 1150 

to 1580. By A. L. Mathjsw, M.A., and W. W. Skeat, Litt. D. Crown 
8vo. half roan, 7*. 6d. 

GREEK. A Greek-English Lexicon, by H. G. Liddell, D.D., 
and Robert Soott, CD. Seventh Edition, Sevited and Augmented 
throughout. Ato. il. i6>. 

An intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, abridged from 

Liddell and Scott's Seventh Edition. Small Ato. ia#. 6<l. 

A Greek-English Lexicon, abridged from Liddell and 

Scott's Ato. edition, chiefly for the use of Schools. Square 1 2mo. J$. 6d. 

A copious Greek-English Vocabulary, compiled from 

the best authorities. 1850. 34010. 3*. 

Etymologicon Magnum. Ad Codd. mss. recensuit et 

notis variorum instruxit T. Gaisfobd, S.T.P. 1848. fol. il. I2t. 
Suidae Lexicon. Ad Codd. mss. recensuit T. Gaisford, 



S.T.P. Tomi III. 1834. fol. si. a*. 

HEBREW. The Book of Hebrew Roots, by Abu 'l-Wai.1d 
Marwan ibn JanAh, otherwise called KabbJ YonAh. Now first edited, 
with an appendix, by Ad. Neubaueb. 1875. 4to. 2I. Jt. 6d. 

A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew. By 

S. B. Driver, D.D. Second Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. J*. 6d. 

ICELANDIC. An Icelandic-English Dictionary, based on the 

MS. collections of the late Richard Cleasby. Enlarged and completed 
by G. Viofusson, M.A. With an Introduction, and Life of Richard 
Cleasby, by G. Webbe Dasent, D.C.L. 4to. it. jt. 

A List of English Words the Etymology of which is 

illustrated by comparison with Icelandic. Prepared in the form of an 
Appendix to the above. By W. W. Skeat, Litt.D. stitched, a«. 

An Icelandic Primer, with Grammar, Notes, and 

Glossary. Br Henbt Sweet, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3«. 6d. 

An Icelandic Prose Reader, with Notes, Grammar and 

Glossary, by Dr. Godbrand Viofusson and F. York Powell, M.A. 
Extra fcap. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

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IiATIK. A Latin Dictionary, founded on Andrews' edition of 
Frennd's Latin Dictionary, revised, enlarged, and in great part rewritten 
by Chablton T. Lewis, Ph.D., and Chables Shobt,LL.D. 4to. it. 5*. 

A School Latin Dictionary. By Charlton T. Lewis, 

Ph.D. Small 4to. 18*. 

— — Scheller's Dictionary of the Latin Language, revised 

and translated into English by J. £. Riddle, M.A. 1835. &>"• ll - >*• 

Contributions to Latin Lexicography. By Henry 

Nettleship, M.A. 8vo. ai». 

MELANESIA^. The Melanesian Languages. By Robert 
H. Codbington, D.D., of the Melanesian Mission. 8vo. i8j. 

RUSSIAN. A Grammar of the Russian Language. By 
W. R. Mobfill, M.A. Crown 8vo. 6». 

SANSKRIT. A Practical Grammar of the Sanskrit Language, 

arranged with reference to the Classical Languages of Europe, for the use 
of English Students, by Sir M. Monier-Williams, D.C.L. Fourth 
Edition. 8vo. 15s. 

A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Etymologically and 

Philologically arranged, with special reference to Greek, Latin, German, 
Anglo-Saxon, English, and other cognate Indo-European Languages. 
By Sir M. Monies-Williams, D.C.L. Ato. 4I. 14*. 6d. 

— — Nalopakhy&nam. Story of Nala, an Episode of the 

Maha-Bharata : the Sanskrit text, with a copious Vocabulary, and an 
improved version of Dean Milman'b Translation, by Sir M. Monieb- 
Williams, D.C.L. Second Edition, Revised and Improved. 8vo. 15*. 

Sakuntala. A Sanskrit Drama, in Seven Acts. Edited 

by Sir M. Monies- Williams, D.C.L. Second Edition. 8vo. 21s. 

SYRIAC. Thesaurus Syriacus: collegerunt Quatremere, Bern- 
stein, Lorsbach, Arnoldi, Agrell, Field, Roediger: edidit R. Payne 
Smith, S.T.P. Vol. I, containing Fasc. I-V, sm. fol. 5J. 5s. 
Fasc. VI. ll. 11. Fasc. VII. ll. in. 6d. Fasc. VIII. U. i6». 

The Book of Kalilah and Dimnah. Translated from 

Arabic into Syriao. Edited by W. Weight, LL.D. 8vo. 21*. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARIES. 
Cotton's Typographical Gazetteer. 1831. 8vo. 12s. 6d. 
Typographical Gazetteer. Second Series. 1866. 8vo. 

1 a*. 6d. 

Ebert's Bibliographical Dictionary, translated from the 
German. 4 vols. 1837. 8vo. ll. xos. 

London : Hxnbt Fbowde, Aman Comer, E.O. 
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SECTION II. 

ANGLO-SAXON AND ENGLISH. 



HELPS TO THE STUDY OF THE LANGUAGE AND 
LITERATURE. 



NEW ENGLISH DICTIONARY on Historical Prin- 
ciples, founded mainly on the materials collected by the Philological 
Society. Imperial 4U). Farts I-IV, price 1 it. 6d. each. 
Vol. I (A and B), half morocco, il. lit. 6d. 
Vol. II (O and D). In the Pre**. 
Part IV, Section », O— CASS, beginning Vol. II, price 5*. 
Part V, CASS— OLTVT, price lit. 6d. 
Edited by Jakes A. H. Mubbat, LL.D., sometime President of the 
Philological Society ; with the assistance of many Scholars and Men of 
Science. . 

Vol. Ill (E, F, and O). Part I. Edited by Mr. Henry Bradley. 
In the Prett. 



Bosworth and Toller. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, based 
on the MS. collections of the late Joseph Bosworth, D.D. Edited and 
enlarged by Prof. T. N. Tollkr, M. A., Owens College, Manchester. Parts 
I-III. A— SAB, 4to. stiff covers, 1 5*. each. Part IV. In the Prtu. 

Earle. A Book for the Beginner in Anglo-Saxon. By 

John Earle, M.A Third Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 6d. 

The Philology of the English Tongue. Fourth Edition. 

Extra fcap. 8vo. Jt. 6d. 

Mayhew and Skeat. A Concise Dictionary of Middle English, 
from a.d. 1150 to 1580. By A. L. Mayhew, M.A., and W. W. Skeat, 
Iitt. D. Crown 8vo. half roan, Jt. 6d. 

Skeat. An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, 
arranged on an Historical Basis. By W. W. Skeat, Litt.l). Second 
Edition. 4to. il. 4*. 
A Supplement to the First Edition of the above. 4to. 1*. 6d. 

A Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English 

Language. Third Edition. Crown 8vo. 58. 6d. 

Principles of English Etymology. First Series. The 

Native Element. Crown 8vo. 9*. 

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Sweet. An Anglo-Saxon Primer, with Grammar, Notes and 
Glossary. By Henby Sweet, M.A. 2nd Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 6d. 

An Anglo-Saxon Reader. In Prose and Verse. With 

Grammatical Introduction, Notes, and Glossary. Sixth Edition, Recited 
and Enlarged. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. to. 

A Second Anglo-Saxon Reader. Extra fcap. 8vo. 4*. to. 

Old English Reading Primers : 

J. Selected Homilies of jElfric. Stiff covers, I*. 6d. 
II. Extracts from Alfred's Oroeius. Stiff covers, i*. 6d. 

First Middle English Primer, with Grammar and Glos- 
sary. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 

Second Middle English Primer. Extracts from Chaucer, 



with Grammar and Glossary. Extra fcap. 8vo. at. 

— History of English Sounds from the Earliest Period. 

With fall Word-Lists. 8vo. 14*. 

— A Primer of Phonetics. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 6d. 
Elementarhuch des Gesprochenen Englisch. Grammatik, 



Texte and Glossar. Second Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo., stiff covers, ac 6d. 

Tancock. An Elementary English Grammar and Exercise 
Book. By 0. W. Tancock, M. A. Second Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. is. to. 

An English Grammar and Reading Book, for Lower 

Forms in Classical Schools. Fourth Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. to. 



Saxon Chronicles. Two of the Saxon Chronicles parallel 
(787-1001 a.d.). A Revised Text. Edited, with Introduction, Critical 
Notes, and Glossary, by Chari.es Plcmmeb, M.A., on the basis of an 
Edition by John Eabli, M. A. Crown 8vo., stiff covers, 3*. 

Specimens of Early English. A New and Revised Edition. 

With Introduction, Notes, and Glossarial Index. 
Fart I. From Old English Homilies to King Horn (a.d. 1150 to a.d. 

1300). By R. Mobbis, LL.D. Ed. 2. Extra fcap. 8vo. 9*. 
Part II. From Robert of Gloucester to Gower (a.d. 1298 to a.d. 1393). 

By R. Mobbis, LL.D., and W. W. Skbat, Litt. D. Third Edition. 

Extra fcap. Svo. Jt. 6d. 

Specimens of English Literature, from the 'Ploughmans 

Crede' to the ' Shepheardes Calender' (a.d. 1394 to a.d. 1579). With 
Introduction, Notes, and Glossarial Index. By W. W. Skbat, Litt. D. 
Fourth Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. Jt. to. 

Typical Selections from the best English Writers, with 
Introductory Notices. In a vols. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 6d. each. 
Vol. I. Latimer to Berkeley. Vol. II. Pope to Macaulay. 

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A SERIES OF ENGLISH CLASSICS. 

{CHRONOLOGICALLY ARRANGED.) 

Ormulum, The, with the Notes and Glossary of Dr. R. M. 
Whits. Edited by R. Holt, M.A. 2 vols. Extra, fcap. 8vo. 1 1, it. 

CHAUCER. 

I. The Prologue, the Knightes Tale, The Nonne Preestes 
Tale; from the Canterbury Tales. Edited by R. Morbis, LL.D. A 
New Edition, with Collations and Additional Notes by W. W. Skeat, 
Litt.D. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 6d. 

II. The Prioresses Tale ; SirThopas; The Monkes Tale; 
The Clerkes Tale ; The Squieres Tale, &c. Edited by W. W. Skeat, 
Litt.D. Third Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 4». 6d. 

III. The Tale of the Man of Lawe ; The Pardoneres 
Tale; The Second Nonnei Tale; The Chanouns Yemannes Tale. 
By W. W. Skeat, Litt.D. JTew Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 4». 6d. 

IV. Minor Poems. Edited by W. W. Skbat, Litt.D. 

Crown 8vo. io«. 6d. • 

V. The Legend of Good Women. By W. W. Skeat, 

Litt.D. Crown 8vo. 6«. 

Langland, W. The Vision of William concerning Piers the 
Plowman, in three Parallel Text*; together with Richard the Rcdeless. 
By William Langland (about 1362-1399 A.D.). Edited from numerous 
Manuscripts, with Preface, Notes, and a Glossary, by W. W. Skeat, 
Litt.D. 2 vols. 8vo. ll. ii«. 6d. 

The Vision of William concerning Piers the Plowman, by 

William Langland. Edited, with Notes, by W. W. Skeat, Litt.D. 
Fourth Edition. Extra fcap. 8 vo. 4s. 6d. 

Gamelyn, the Tale of. Edited, with Notes, Glossary, &c, by 
W. W Skeat, Litt.D. Extra fcap. 8vo. Stiff covers, u. 6d. 

WYCIiIFPB. 

I. The Books of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and 
the Song of Solomon : according to the Wycliffite Version made by 
Nicholas de Hereford, about a.d. 1381, and Revised by John 
Pdbvet, about a.d. 1388. With Introduction and Glossary by 
W. W. Skeat, Litt.D. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 6d. 

II. The New Testament in English, according to the 
Version by John Wyclifpe, about a.d. 1380, and Revised by John 
Pobvet, about A.D. 1388. With Introduction and Glossary by 
W. W. Skeat, Litt.D. Extra fcap. 8vo. 6». 

Minot (Laurence). Poems. Edited, with Introduction and 
Notes, by Joseph Hall, M.A., Head Master of the Hnlme Grammar 
School, Manchester. Extra fcap. 8vo. 4*. 6rf. 

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Spenser's Faery Queene. Books I and II. Designed chiefly 

for the use of Schools. With Introduction and Notes by G. W. Kitohin , 
D.D., and Glossary by A. L. Mayhbw, MA. Extra fcap. 8vo. 2*. 6d. each. 

Hooker. Ecclesiastical Polity, Book I. Edited by R. W. 
Church, M.A. Second Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. »*. [See also p. 43.] 

OLD ENGLISH DRAMA. 

I. York Plays. — The Plays performed by the Crafts or 
Mysteries of York, on the day of Corpus Christi, in the 14th, 15th, 
and 1 6th centuries; now first printed from the unique manuscript 
in the library of Lord Ashburnham. Edited, with Introduction and 
Glossary, by Luot Toulmin Smith. 8vo. il. is. 

II. The Pilgrimage to Parnassus, with the Two Parts of 
the Return from Parnassus. Three Comedies performed in St. John's 
College, Cambridge, A.D. mdxovii-mooi. Edited from MSS. by 
W. D. M acbay, M. A., F.S.A. Medium 8vo. Bevelled Boards, Gilt 
top, 8*. td. 

III. Marlowe's Edward II. With Introduction, Notes, &c. 
ByO. W.Tancock,M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. Paper covers, a*.; cloth, 3*. 

IV. Marlowe and Greene. Marlowe's Tragical History 

of Dr. Faustus, and Greene's Honourable History of Friar Bacon and 
Friar Bungay. Edited by A. W. Wabd, Litt. D. New and enlarged 
Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 6*. 6d. 

SHAKESPEARE. Select Plays. Extra fcap. 8vo. stiff covers. 

Edited by W. G. Clark, M.A, and W. Aldis Wright, D.C.L. 
The Merchant of Venice. is. Macbeth. is. 6d. 

Richard the Second, is. 6d. Hamlet, as. 

Edited by W. Aldis Wright, D.C.L. 
The Tempest, is. 6(2. Midsummer Night's Dream, is. 6d. 

As You Like It. is. 6d. Coriolanus. 2s. 6d. 
Julius Caesar. as. Henry the Fifth. 28. 

Richard the Third. 28.6d. Twelfth Night, is. 6d. 
King Lear. is. 6d. Ring John. is. 6d. 

Shakespeare as a Dramatic Artist; a popular Illustration 
of the Principles of Scientific Criticism. By R. G. Moclton, M.A 
Second Edition, Enlarged. Crown 8vo. 6». 

Bacon. 

I. Advancement of Learning. Edited by W. Aldis 

Wbioht, D.C.L. Third Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 4s. 6d. 

II. The Essays. With Introduction and Notes. By 
S. H. Reynolds, M.A. In preparation. 

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MILTON. 

I. Areopagitica. With Introduction and Notes. By 
John W. Halbs, M.A. Third Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 

II. Poems. Edited by R. C. Browne, M.A. In two 
Volumes. Fifth Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 6e. 6d. 

Sold separately, Vol. I. 4*. ; Vol. II. 3*. 

In paper covert : 
Lycidas, yd. L' Allegro, 3d. B Penseroso, \d. Comoa, 6d. 

III. Paradise Lost. Book I. Edited by H. C. Beeching, 
B.A. Extra foap. 8to. stiff covers, i«. 6d. ; in Parchment, 3*. 6d. 

IV. Samson Agonistes. Edited, with Introduction and 
Notes, by J. Chdbton Collins, M.A. Extra foap. 8vo. stiff covers, U. 

Banyan. 

I. The Pilgrim's Progress, Grace Abounding, Relation 

of the Imprisonment of Mr. John Bontan. Edited, with Bio- 
graphical Introduction and Notes, by E. Vsnablbs, M.A. Extra 
foap. 8vo. 5*. In Parchment, 6*. 

II. Holy War, &c. In the Preu. 
Clarendon. 

I. History of the Rebellion. Book VI. Edited by T. 
Abnold, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 4*. 6d. 

II. Characters and Episodes of the Great Rebellion. 

Selections from Clarendon. Edited by 6. Both, MA, Dean of 
Salisbury. Crown 8vo., gilt top, 7*. 6a. [See also p. 44.] 

Dryden. Select Poems. (Stanzas on the Death of Oliver 

Cromwell ; Astreea Redux ; Annus Mirabilis ; Absalom and Achitophel ; 
Religio Laici ; The Hind and the Panther.) Edited by W. D. Christie, 
M.A. Second Edition. Extra foap. 8vo. 3*. 6d. 

An Essay of Dramatic Poesy. Edited, with Notes, by 

Thomas Abnold, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 6d. 

Iiocke. Conduct of the Understanding. Edited, with Intro- 
duction, Notes, 4c., by T. Fowlkb, D.D. Second Edition. Extra fcap. 
8vo. it. 

Addison. Selections from Papers in the Spectator. With 
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Steele. Selections from the Tatler, Spectator, and Guardian. 
Edited by Austin Dobson. Extra fcap. 8vo. 5*. In Parchment, Jt. 6d. 

Pope. Select Works. With Introduction and Notes. By 
Mark Pattison, B.D. 

I. Essay on Man. Extra fcap. 8vo. is. 6d. 

II. Satires and Epistles. Extra fcap. 8vo. a«. 
Farnell. The Hermit. Paper covers, ad. 

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Gray. Selected Poems. Edited by Edmund Gosse, M.A. 

Extra (cap. 8vo. In Parchment, 31. 

— — The same, together with Supplementary Notes for 
School* by Fostbb Watson, M.A. Stiff coven, is. 6d. 

Elegy, and Ode on Eton College. Paper covers, 2d. 

Goldsmith. 

I. Selected Poems. Edited with Introduction and Notes, by 
Austin Dobson. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 6d. In Parchment, 4*. 6d. 

II. The Traveller. Edited by G. Bibkbbok Hill, D.C.L. 
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HI. The Deserted Village. Paper covers, 2d. 
JOHNSON. 

I. Rasselas. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by 
G. Birkbeck Hill, D.C.L. Extra fcap. 8 vo. Bevelled boards, 3*. 6d. 
In Parchment, 4*. 6d. 

II. Rasselas; Lives of Dryden and Pope. Edited by 
Alfred Milnes, M.A. (London). Extra fcap. 8vo. 4*. 6d., or Lives 
of Dbtden and Pops only, stiff covers, u. 6d. 

III. Life of Milton. By C. H. Fibth, MA. Extra 
fcap. 8vo. cloth, at. 6d. Stiff covers, it. 6d. 

IV. Wit and Wisdom of Samuel Johnson. Edited by 
G. Birkbeck Hill, D.C.L. Crown 8vo. 7*. 6d. 

V. Vanity of Human Wishes. With Notes, by E. J. 
Payne, M.A Paper covers, +d. 

BOSWBLL. 

Boswell's Life of Johnson. With the Journal of a 

Tour to the Hebrides. Edited by G. Birkbeck Hill, D.C.L., Pem- 
broke College. 6 vols. Medium 8vo. Half bound, 3I. 3*. 

Cowper. Edited, with Life, Introductions, and Notes, by 
H. T. Griffith, B.A. 

I. The Didactic Poems of 1782, with Selections from 

the Minor Pieces, A.D. 1 779-1 783. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 

II. The Task, with Tirocinium, and Selections from the 
Minor Poems, A.D. 1 784-1 799. Second Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 

Burke. Select Works. Edited, with Introduction and 
Notes, by E. J. Payne, M.A. 

I. Thoughts on the Present Discontents; the two 

Speeches on America. Second Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 44. 6d. 

II. Reflections on the French Revolution. Second 

Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 5*. 

III. Four Letters on the Proposals for Peace with the 

Regicide Directory of France. Second Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 5*. 
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Burns. Selected Poems. Edited, with Introduction, Notes, 

and a Glossary, by J. Loci* Robertson, M.A. Crown 8vo. 6>. 

Keats. Hyperion, Book I. With Notes by W. T. Arnold, 

B.A. Paper coven, +d. 

Byron. Childe Harold. With Introduction and Notes, by 

H. F. Tozeb, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 6d. In Parchment, 5#. 

Soott. Lay of the Last Minstrel. Edited by W. Minto, M.A. 

With Map. Extra fcap. 8vo. a». Parchment, 3*. 6d. 

Lay of the Last Minstrel. Introduction and Canto I, 

with Preface and Notes, by the same Editor. 6d. 

Marmion. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by 

T. Baynb. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 6d. 

Campbell. Gertrude of Wyoming. Edited, with Introduction 
and Notes, by H. Macaulay FitzGibbon, M.A. Extra fcap. Svo. 21. 

Staairp. Aspects of Poetry; being Lectures delivered at 
Oxford, by J. C. Sbaibp, LL.D. Crown 8vo. lot. 6d. 

Palgrave. The Treasury of Sacred Song. With Notes Ex- 
planatory and Biographical. By. F. T. Palgrave, M.A. Half vellum, 
gilt top, log. 6(2. 



SECTION ni. 

EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. MEDIAEVAL AND 
MODERN. 

(1) FRENCH AND ITALIAN. 

Braohet's Etymological Dictionary of the French Language. 
Translated by G. W. Kitchin, D.D. Third Edition. Crown 8vo. 7«. 6d. 

Historical Grammar of the French Language. Trans- 
lated by G. W. Kitchin, D.D. Fourth Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 6d. 

Saintsbury. Primer of French Literature. By George 
Saintsbuby, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 2$. 

Short History of French Literature. Crown 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

Specimens of French Literature, from Villon to Hugo. 

Crown 8vo. 9*. 

Beaumarcbais' Le Barbier de Seville. Edited, with Intro- 
duction and Notes, by Austin Dobson. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 6d. 

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Corneille's Horace. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, 

by George Saintsbuby, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 6d. 

Moliere's Les Precieuses Ridicules. Edited, with Introduction 
and Notes, by Andrew Lang, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. i*. 6d. 

Musset's On ne bad ine pas avec 1' Amour, and Fantasio. Edited, 
with Prolegomena, Notes, etc., by W. H. Pollock. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 

Racine's Esther. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by 
George Saintsbuby, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 

Voltaire's Merope. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, 
by George Saintsbuby, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 2*. 

*** The above tix Playt may be had in ornamental cote, and bound 
in Imitation Parchment, price 1 it. 6d. 

MASSON'S FRENCH CLASSICS. 

Edited by Oustave Masson, B.A. 

Corneille's Cinna. With Notes, Glossary, etc. Extra fcap. 

8vo. 2t. Stiff covers, i». (td. 

Louis XIV and his Contemporaries; as described in Extracts 

from the best Memoirs of the Seventeenth Century. With English Notes, 
Genealogical Tables, Ac. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 6d. 

Mais t re, Xavier de, &c. Voyage autour de ma Chambre, 
by Xavier de Maistre. Ourika, by Madame de Ddras; Le Vieux 
Tailleur, by MM. Ebckmann-Chatbian ; La VeilWe de Vincennes, by 
Alfred de Vigny; Les Jumeaux de l'Hdtel Corneille, by Edhond 
About; Mesaventures d'an Ecolier, by Rodolphe TOpffer. Third 
Edition, Revised. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 6d. 

Voyage autour de ma Chambre. Limp. 1*. 6d. 

Moliere's Les Fourberies de Scapin, and Racine's Athalie. 

With Voltaire's Life of Moliere. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 6d. 

Les Fourberies de Scapin. With Voltaire's Life of 

Moliere. Extra fcap. 8vo. stiff covers, 1*. 6d. 

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Hephaestionis Enchiridion, Terentianus Maarus, Froclas, etc. 
Edidit T. GaisfoRD, S.T.P. Tomi II. 1855. 10*. 

Heracliti Ephesii Reliquiae. Becensuit I. Bywater, M.A. 

Appendicis loco additae sunt Diogenis Laertii Vita Heracliti, Particolae 
Hippocratei De Diaeta Lib. I., Epistolae Heracliteae. 8vo. 6i. 

HOMEE. 

A Complete Concordance to the Odyssey and Hymns of 

Homer ; to which is added a Concordance to the Parallel Passages in the 
Iliad, Odyssey, and Hymns. By Henry Dunbar, M.D. 4to. if. it. 

Seberi Index in Homerum. 1780. 8vo. 6s. 6d. 

A Grammar of the Homeric Dialect. By D. B. Monro, 

M.A. 8vo. io». 6d. 
Ilias, cum brevi Annotatione C. G. Heynii. Accedunt 

Scholia minora. Tomi II. 1834. 8vo. 15*. 

Ilias, ex rec. Guil. Dindorfii. 1856. 8vo. 5». 6d. 

Scholia Graeca in Iliadem. Edited by W. Dindorf, 

after a new collation of the Venetian mss. by D. B. Monro, M.A., 
Provost of Oriel College. 4 vols. 8to. il. lot. 

Scholia Graeca in Iliadem Townleyana. Becensuit 

Ernestos Maass. 2 vols. 8ro. il. 161. 

Odyssea, ex rec. G. Dindorfii. 1855. 8vo. 5#. 6d. 

Scholia Graeca in Odysseam. Edidit Guil. Dindorfius. 

Tomi II. 1855. 8vo. 15*. 6d. 

Odyssey. Books I-XII. Edited with English Notes, 

Appendices, etc. By W. W. Merry, D.D., and the late James Riddell, 
M.A. Second Edition. 8vo. i6«. 

Oxford : Clarendon Prow. 



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Greek: Standard Works. 23 

Oratores Attici, ex recensions Bekkeri : 

I. Antiphon, Andocides, et Lysiaa. 1813. 8vo. Js. 
II. Isocratea. 1833. 8vo. •}>. 
III. Iaaeua, Aeschinea, Lycurgua, Dinarchus, etc. 1823. 8vo. 7*. * 

Faroemiographi Graeei, quorum pars nunc primum ex 

Codd. mas. vulgatur.' Edidit T. Gaisfobd, S.T.P. 1836. 8vo. 5*. 6d. 

PLATO. 

* Apology, with a revised Text and English Notes, and 

a Digest of Platonic Idioms, by Jakes Ridoell, M.A. 8 vo. 8*. 6d. 

Fhilebus, with a revised Text and English Notes, by 

Edward Posts, M.A. i860. 8vo. "jt. 6d. 

Sophistes and Folitious, with a revised Text and Eng- 
lish Notes, by L. Campbell, M.A. 1867. 8vo. 18s. 

Theaetetus, with a revised Text and English Notes, by 

L. Campbell, MA. Second Edition. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

The Dialogues, translated into English, with Analyses 

and Introductions, by B. Jowett, M.A. 5 vola. medium 8vo. 3I. 10*. 

The Bepublic, translated into English, with Analysis and 

Introduction, by B. Jowett, MA. Medium 8vo. I as. 6d. ; half-roan, 14a. 

Index to Plato. Compiled for Prof. Jowett's Translation 

of the Dialogues. By Evelyn Abbott, M.A. 8vo. Paper covers, as. 6d. 

Plotinus. Edidit F. Creuzer. Tomi III. 1835. 4k). il.Ss. 

Polybius. Selections. Edited by J. L. Strachah-Davidson, 
M.A. With Maps. Medium 8vo. buckram, a is. 

SOPHOCLES. 

The Plays and Fragments. With English Notes and 

Introductions, by Lewis Campbell, MA. 2 vols. 
Vol. I. Oedipus Tyrannua. Oedipus Coloneus. Antigone. 8vo. i6>. 
Vol. II. Ajax. Electra. Tracbiniae. Philoctetes. Fragments. 8vo. 16s. 

Tragoediae et Fragmenta, ex recensione et cum com- 

mentariia Guil. Dindobfu. Third Edition. 1 vols. Fcap. 8vo. tl. is. 
Each Play separately, limp, as. 6d. 

The Text alone, with large margin, small 4 to. 80. 

The Text alone, square i6mo. 3*. 6d. 

Each Play separately, limp, 6d. 

Tragoediae et Fragmenta cum Annotationibus Guil. 

DiNDOBm. Tomi II. 1849. 8vo. 10s. 

The Text, Vol. I. 5s. 6d. The Notes, Vol. II. 4s. 6d. 

London : Hcxirr Faowou, Ames Comer, E.C. 



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24 /. Literature and Philology. 

Stobaei Florilegium. Ad mss. fidem emendavit et sop- 
plevit T. Gaisfobd, S.T.P. Tomi IV. i8aa. 8vo. \l. 

Eclogarum Physicarum et Ethicarum libri duo. Ac- 

eedit Hieroclis Commentarius in aurea carmina Pythagoreorum. Ad 
mss. Codd. recensait T. Gaisford, S.T.P. Tomi II. 1850. 8vo. 1 1*. 

Thucydides. Translated into English, with Introduction, 
Marginal Analysis, Notes, and Indices. By B. Jowett, M.A, Begins 
Professor of Greek. 2 vols. Medium 8vo. if. in. 

XENOPHON. Ex rec. et cum annotatt. L. Dindorfh. 

I. Historia Graeca. Second Edition. 1853. 8vo. icm. 6d. 

II. Expeditio Cyri. Second Edition. 1855. 8vo. ion. 64. 

III. Institutio Cyri. 1857. 8vo. io». M. 

IV. Memorabilia Socratis. 1862. 8vo. jt. 6d. 

V. Opuscula Politica Equestria et Venatica cum Arriani 
Libello de Venatione. 1866. 8vo. lot. 6d. 

GREEK EDUCATIONAL WORKS. 
Grammars, Exercise Books, &c. 

Chandler. The Elements of Greek Accentuation : abridged 

from his larger work by H. W. Ch andleb, M.A. Extra fcap. 8 vo. 2*. 6d. 
Liddell and Scott. An Intermediate Greek - English 

Lexicon, abridged from Liddbll and Scott's Seventh Edition. Small 4 to. 

lit. 6d. 
Liddell and Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon, abridged 

from Liddell and Scott's 4to. edition. Square inmo. 7*. 6<& 
Miller. A Greek Testament Primer. An Easy Grammar 

and Reading Book for the use of Students beginning Greek. By the 

Rev. E. Miller, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 6d. 
Moult on. The Ancient Classical Drama. A Study in Literary 

Evolution. Intended for Readers in Englixh and in the Original. By 

R. G. Moclton, M.A. Crown 8vo. 8«. 6d. 
Wordsworth. A Greek Primer, for the use of beginners in 

that Language. By the Right Rev. Charles Wordsworth, D.C.L. 

Secenth Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. is. 6d. 
Graecae Grammaticae Rudimenta in usnm Scholarum. 

Auctore Cabolo Wobdswobth, D.C.L. Nineteenth Edition. 121110.4*. 

Passages for Translation into Greek Prose. By J. Young 

Sargent, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3». 
Exemplaria Graeca. Being Selections from " Passages for 

Translation into Greek Prose." By the same author. Extra foap. 8 vo. 31. 
Models and Materials for Greek Iambic Verse. By the 

same author. Extra fcap. 8vo. 4*. 6d. 

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Greek: Educational Works. 25 



Graece Beddenda. By C. S. Jerram, M.A. Extra fcap. 

8vo. it. 6d. 

Beddenda Minora, or Easy Passages, Latin and Greek, for 
Unseen Translation. By C. S. Jerram, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. is. 6d. 

Anglice Beddenda, or Extracts, Latin and Greek, for Unseen 

Translation. By C. S. Jkbbam, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. u. 6d. 

Anglice Beddenda Second Series. By the same Author. 
Extra fcap. 8 vo. 3s. 

Golden Treasury of Ancient Greek Poetry. By R. S. 
Wbioht, M.A. Second Edition. Revised by Evelyn Abbott, M.A., 
LL.D. Extra fcap. 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

Golden Treasury of Greek Prose, being a Collection of the 

finest passages in the principal Greek Prose Writers, with Introductory 
Notices and Notes. By R. S. Wright, M.A, and J. E. L. Shadwell, 
M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 4*. 6d. 

Greek Readers. 
Easy Greek Beader. By Evelyn Abbott, M.A. In one or 

two Parts. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 

First Greek Beader. By W. G. Rushbsooke, M.L. Second 

Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 6d. 

Second Greek Beader. By A. M. Bell, M.A. Extra fcap. 
8vo. 3». 6d. 

Specimens of Greek Dialects ; being a Fourth Greek Beader. 

With Introductions, etc By W. W. Mebby, D.D. Extra fcap. 8vo. 4s. 6d. 

Selections from Homer and the Greek Dramatists ; being 

a Fifth Greek Beader. With Explanatory Notes and Introductions 
to the Study of Greek Epic and Dramatic Poetry. By Evelyn Abbott, 
M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 4s. 6d. 



Greek Classics for Schools. 

Aeschylus. In Single Plays. Extra fcap. 8vo. 

I. Agamemnon. With Introduction and Notes, by 
Abthub Sidgwick, M.A Third Edition. 3s. 

II. Choephoroi. By the same Editor. 3*. 

III. Eumenides. By the same Editor. 3*. 

IV. Prometheus Bound. With Introduction and Notes, 
by A. O. Pbickabo, M.A. Second Edition, is. 

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26 I. Literature and Philology. 

Aristophanes. In Single Plays. Edited, with English 
Notes, Introductions, 4c, by W. W. Mebbt, D.D. Extra fcap. 8vo. 

I. The Acharnians. Third Edition, 3*. 

II. The Clouds. Third Edition, 30. 

III. The Frogs. Second Edition, 3*. 

IV. The Knights. Second Edition, 3*. 

V. The Birds. 3 «. 6d. 

Cebes. Tabula, With Introduction and Notes. By C. S. 

Jerbam, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 2$. 6d. 

Demosthenes. Orations against Philip. With Introduction 
and Notes, by Evelyn Abbott, M.A., and P. E. Mathison, M.A. 

Vol. I. Philippic I. Olynthiacs I-III. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3». 

Vol. II. De Pace, Philippic II, De Chersoneso, Philippic III. Extra 
fcap. 8vo. 4*. 6d. 

Euripides. In Single Plays. Extra fcap. 8vo. 

I. Alcestis. Edited by C. S. Jebrah, M.A. as- 6d. 

II. Hecuba. Edited by C. H. Russell, M.A. 2*. 6d. 

III. Helena. Edited, with Introduction, Notes, etc., for 

Upper and Middle Forms. By C. S. Jebbam, M.A. 3*. 

IV. Heracleidae. By C. S. Jeeeam, M.A. 3*. 

V. Iphigenia in Tauris. By the same Editor. 3*. 

VI. Medea By C. B. Heberden, M.A. 2*. 

Herodotus. Book IX. Edited, with Notes, by Evelyn 
Abbott, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 

Selections. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by 

W. W. Mebbt, D.D. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 6d. 

Homer. 

I. Iliad, Books I-XII. With an Introduction and a 

brief Homeric Grammar, and Notes. By D. B. Monbo, M.A. 
Second Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 6*. 

II. Iliad, Books XIII-XXIV. With Notes. By the 

same Editor. Extra fcap. 8vo. 6*. 

III. Iliad, Book I. By D. B. Monro, M.A. Second Edition. 
Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 

IV. Iliad, Books VI and XXI. With Introduction and 
Notes. By Herbert Hailstone, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 1*. 6d. each. 

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Greek: Educational Works. 27 

Homer (continued'). 

V. Odyssey, Books I-XII. By W. W. Merry, D.D. 

Fortieth Thousand. Extra fcap. 8vo. 5*. 

Books I and II, separately, each is. 6d. 

VI. Odyssey, Books XIII-XXIV. By the same Editor. 

Extra fcap. 8vo. 5*. 

Iiuoian. Vera Historia. By C. S. Jerram, M.A. Second 
Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. u.6d. 

Lysias. Epitaphios. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, 
by F. J. Snell, B.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 

Plato. Meno. With Introduction and Notes. By St. 

George Stock, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 6d. 

The Apology. With Introduction and Notes. By St. 

Gkobge Stock, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 6d. 

Sophocles. For the use of Schools. Edited with Introduc- 
tions and English Notes. By Lewis Campbell, M.A., and Evelyn 
Abbott, M.A. New and Rented Edition, a vols. Extra fcap. 8vo. 
lot. 60!. 
Sold separately : Vol. I, Text, 41. 6d. ; Vol. II, Explanatory Notes, 6*. 

Or in single Flays : — 
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Ajax, Electra, Trachiniae, Philoctetes, 2«. each. 
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present Bishop of St. David's. Extra fcap. 8vo. limp, 1*. 6d. 

Theocritus (for Schools). With English Notes. By H. 

Kynaston, D.D. (late Snow). Third Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 4*. 6d. 

XEKTOPHON. Easy Selections (for Junior Classes). With a 
Vocabulary, Notes, and Map. By J. S. Phillpotts, B.C.I*, and C. S. 
Jerbam, M.A. Third Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. (id. 

Selections (for Schools). With Notes and Maps. By 

J. S. Phillpotts, B.C.L. Fourth Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 6d. 

Anabasis, Book I. Edited for the use of Junior Classes 

and Private Students. With Introduction, Notes, etc. By J. Marshall, 
M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. it. 6d. 

Anabasis, Book II. With Notes and Map. By C. S. 

Jebbam, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 21. 

Anabasis, Book III. With Introduction, Analysis, 

Notes, etc By J. Marshall, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. a*. 6d. 

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28 /. Literature and Philology. 

Xonophon {continued). 

Vocabulary to the Anabasis. By J. Marshall, M.A. 

Extra fcap. 8vo. U. 6d. 

Cyropaedia, Book I. With Introduction and Notes. By 

C. Bigg, D.D. Extra fcap. 8vo. »$. 

Cyropaedia, Books IV and V. With Introduction and 

Notes. By C. Bioo, D.D. Extra fcap. 8vo. at. 6d. 

Hellenica, Books I, II. With Introduction and Notes. 



By G. E. Undbrhill, M.A. Extra fcap. 8to. 3«. 
— Memorabilia. By J. Mahshall, M.A. In the Pre*». 



SECTION V. 

ORIENTAL LANGUAGES*. 

THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST. 

TRANSLATED BT TABIOCS ORIENTAL SCHOLABS, AND EDITED BT 

F. Max MClltb. 
First Series, Vols. I— XXIV. Demy 8vo. cloth. 

Vol. I. The Upanishads. Translated by F. Max Mclleb. 
Parti. \os.6d. 

Vol. II. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, as taught in the 
Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, VasishlAa, and Baudh&yana. Trans- 
lated by Prof. Geobg Buhleb. Part I. km. 6d. 

Vol. III. The Sacred Books of China. The Texts of Con- 
fucianism. Translated by James Legge. Part I. I at. 6d. 

Vol. IV. The Zend-Avesta, Part I. The Vendidad. Trans- 
lated by James Dabmestetkr. io«. 6d. 

Vol. V. The Pahlavi Texts. Translated by E. W. West. 

Parti. ia>.6d. 

Vols. VI and IX. The Qur'au. Translated by E. H. 
Palmer. 2i«. 

Vol. VII. The Institutes of Vishwu. Translated by Julius 

Jollt. IO», 6(2. 

Vol. VIII. The Bhagavadgita, with The Sanatsu^atiya, and 

The Anugtta. Translated by Kashinath Tbimbak Telano. io#. 6d. 
* See also Anecdota Oxon., Series II, III, pp. 3a, 33, below. 
Oxford : Clarendon From. 



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Sacred Books of the East. 29 

The Sacred Books of the East (continued). 

Vol. X. The Dhammapada, translated from Pali by F. Max 
Mulleb ; and The Sutta-Nipftta, translated (torn Pali by V. Facsboll ; 
being Canonical Books of the Buddhists. io». 6d. 

Vol. XI. Buddhist Suttas. Translated from Pali by T. W. 
Rhys Davids, io». 6d. 

Vol. XII. The iSatapatha-Brahmaaa, according to the Text 
of the Madhyandina School. Translated by Julius Egoklino. Part I. 
Books I and II. 1 23. 6d. 

Vol XIII. Vinaya Texts. Translated from the Pali by 
T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann Oldenbebo. Part I. io». 6d. 

Vol. XIV. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, as taught in the 
Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vusishtta and Baudhayana. Translated 
by Georo Buhlbb. Part II. 10*. 6d. 

Vol. XV. The Upanishads. Translated by F. Max Muller. 

Part II. io». 6<*. 

Vol. XVI. The Sacred Books of China. The Texts of 
Confucianism. Translated by James Leoge. Part II. 10*. 6d. 

Vol. XVII. Vinaya Texts. Translated from the Pali by 
T. W. Bars Davids and Hermann Oldenbebo. Part II. 10*. 6d. 

Vol. XVIII. Pahlavi Texts. Translated by E. W. West. 

Part II. n».6d. 

Vol. XIX. The Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king. A Life of Buddha 
by Arvaghosha Bodhisattva, translated from Sanskrit into Chinese by 
Dharmaraksha, a.d. 420, and from Chinese into English by Samuel 
Beal. lot. 6d. 

Vol. XX. Vinaya Texts. Translated from the Pali by T. W. 

Rhys Davids and Hermann Oldenbebo. Part III. rot. 6d. 

Vol. XXI. The Saddharma-piirtf/arika ; or, the Lotus of the 

True Law. Translated by H. Kebn. ij». 6d. 

Vol. XXII. Gaina-Sutras. Translated from Prakrit by 
Hermann Jaoobi. Part I. 101. 6d. 

Vol. XXIII. The Zend-Avesta. Part II. Translated by James 

Dabmxsteteb. 10*. 6d. 

Vol. XXIV. Pahlavi Texts. Translated by E. W. West. 

Part in. I0«. 6d. 

London : Hesbt Fbowdi, Amen Coiner, K.C. 



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30 I. Literature and Philology. 

THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST. (Second Series.) 

Vol. XXV. Manu. Translated by Geoeo Buhlkr. 2i#. 

Vol. XXVI. The £atapatha-Brahma«a. Translated by 
Jolids Egoelino. Fart II. \u.6d. 

Vols. XXVII and XXVIII. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by Jakes Legge. Parts III and 
IV. a 5 *. 

Vols. XXIX and XXX. The Gn'hya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 

Domestic Ceremonies. Translated by Hermann Oldenbebo. 
Part I (Vol. XXIX). 12*. 6d. 
Part II (Vol. XXX). In the Pret*. 

Vol. XXXI. The Zend-Avesta. Part III. Translated by 

L. H. Mills. 11s. 6d. 

Vol. XXXIII. Narada, and some Minor Law-boobs. 
Translated by Jolius Jolly. io>. 6d. 

Vol. XXXIV. The Vedanta-Sutras, with Ankara's Com- 
mentary. Translated by G. Thibaut. 1 2$, 6d. 

The following Volumes are in the Press : — 

Vol. XXXII. Vedic Hymns. Translated by F. Max 
MCller. Part I. 

Vol. XXXV. Milinda. Translated by T. W. Rhys Davids, 



ARABIC. A Practical Arabic Grammar. Part I. Compiled 
by A. O. Green, Brigade Major, Royal Engineers. Second Edition, 
Enlarged. Crown 8vo. J*. 6d. 

CHINESE. Catalogue of the Chinese Translation of the 

Buddhist Tripttaka, the Sacred Canon of the Buddhists in China and 
Japan. Compiled by Buntiu Nanjio. 4to.1l.1311.6d. 

Handbook of the Chinese Language. Parts I and II. 

Grammar and Chrestomathy. By James Summers. 8vo. il. St. 

CHINESE. Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms ; being an Ac- 
count by the Chinese Monk Fa-hien of his travels in India and Ceylon (a.d. 
399-414) in search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline. Translated and 
annotated, with a Corean recension of the Chinese Text, by James Leqge, 
M.A., LL.D. Crown 4to., boards, 10*. 6d. 

Oxford : Clarendon Praia. 



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Oriental Languages. 31 

CHAIiDEE. Book of Tobit. A Chaldee Text, from a 

unique MS. in the Bodleian Library ; with other Rabbinical Texts, 
English Translations, and the Itala. Edited by As. Neubaukb, M.A. 
Crown 8vo. 6*. 

COPTIC. Libri Propbetarum Majorum, cum Lamentationibus 

Jeremiae, in Dialecto Linguae Aegyptiacae Memphitica seu C'optica. 
Fdidit cum Versione Latina H. Tattam, 8.T.P. Tomill. 1853. 8vo. 17*. 

Libri duodecim Propbetarum Minorum in Ling. Aegypt. 

vnlgo Coptica. Edidit H. Tattam, A.M. 1836. 8vo. 8«. 6d. 

Novum Testamentum Coptice, cura D. Wilkins. 1716. 

4to. is*. 6d. 

HEBREW. Psalms in Hebrew (without points). Cr. 8vo. 2*. 
Driver. Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Books of 
Samuel. By S. R. Dbivkb, D.D. 8vo. 14*. Just Published. 

Treatise on the use • of the Tenses in Hebrew. 

By S. R. Dbiver, D.D. Second Edition. Extra fcap. 8vo. J*. 6<f. 

Commentary on the Book of Proverbs. Attributed 

to Abraham Ibn Ezra. Edited from a Manuscript in the Bodleian 
Library by S. R. Dbivkb, D.D. Crown 8vo. paper covers, 3*. 6d. 

Neubauer. Book of Hebrew Roots, by Abu '1-Waltd 

Marwan ibn Jan&b, otherwise called Rabbi Y6nah. Now first 
edited, with an Appendix, by Ad. Neubadeb. 4to. 2I. 7*. 6d. 

Spnrrell. Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Book of 
Genesis. By G. J. Spubbell, M.A. Crown 8vo. km. 6d. 

Wiokes. Hebrew Accentuation of Psalms, Proverbs, and 
Job. By William Wickes, D.D. 8vo. 5*. 

Hebrew Prose Accentuation. 8vo. io». 6d. 

SANSKRIT. — Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Etymologically 
and Philologically arranged, with special reference to Greek, Latin, 
German, Anglo-Saxon, English, and other cognate Indo-European 
Languages. By Sir M. Monieb- Williams, D.C.L. 4to. 4!. 14*. 6d. 

Practical Grammar of the Sanskrit Language, arranged 

with reference to the Classical Languages of Europe, by Sir M. Monieb- 
Williams, D.C.L. Fourth Edition. 8vo. 15s. 

Nalop&khyfinam. S tory of Nala, an Episode of the Maha- 

bharata : the Sanskrit Text, with a copious Vocabulary, and an im- 
proved version of Dean Milman's Translation, by Sir M. Monieb- 
Williams, D.C.L. Second Edition, Revised and Improved. 8vo. 15*. 

Sakuntala. A Sanskrit Drama, in seven Acts. Edited 

by Sib M. Monieb- Williams, D.C.L. Second Edition. 8vo. il. is. 

SYBIAC. — Thesaurus Syriacus : collegerunt Quatremere, 
Bernstein, Lorsbach, Arnoldi, Agrell, Field, Roediger : edidit R. Payne 
Smith, S.T.P. Vol. I. containing Fasc. I-V. Sm. fol. $1. 5*. 
Fasc. VI. ii. i#. Fasc. VII. ll. n«. 6d. Fasc. VIII. ll. 16*. 

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32 /. Literature and Philology. 

SYBIAC (continued.) 

The Book of KaUlah and Dimnah. Translated from 

Arabic into Syriac. Edited by W. W right, LL.D. 8vo. ll. it. 

Cyrilli Archiepiscopi Alexandrini Commentarii in Lucae 

Evangelium qaae supersunt Syriace. E MSS. apud Ma*. Britan. edidit 
R. Patne Smith, A.M. 4to. ll. u. 

Translated by R. Payne Smith, M.A. 2 vols. 8vo. 14*. 

Ephraemi Syri, Babulae Episcopi Edesseni, Balaei, etc., 

Opera Select*. E Codd. Syriacis mas. in Mtueo Britannico et Bibliotheca 
Bi.dleiana agservatin primus edidit J. J. Ovesbeck. 8vo. il. 1$. 

John, Bishop of Ephesus. The Third Part of his Eccle- 
siastical History. [In Syriac.] Now first edited by William Curetos, 
M.A. 4to. ll. 1 as. 

Translated by R. Patne Smith, M.A. 8to. io». 

SECTION VI. 

ANECDOTA OXONIENSIA. 

(Crown 4to., stiff oovors.) 
I. CLASSICAL BEBIEB. 

I. The English Manuscripts of the Nicomachean Ethics. 

By J. A. Stewart, M.A. 3*. 6d. 

II. Nonius Marcellus, de Compendiosa Doctrina, Harleian 

MS. 3719. Collated by J. H. Onions, M.A. 3*. to. 

III. Aristotle's Physics. Book VII. With Introduction by 

B. Shdte, M.A. as. 

IV. Bentley's Plautine Emendations. • From his copy of 

Gronovios. By E. A. Sonnenschein, M.A. a*. 6d. 

V. Harleian MS. 2610 ; Ovid's Metamorphoses I, II, III. 

1-633 ; XXTV Latin Epigrams from Bodleian or other MSS. ; Latin 
Glosses on Apollinaris Sidonias from MS. Digby 17a. Collated and 
Edited by Robinson Ellis, M.A., LL.D. 4*. 

II. SEMITIC 8EBIE8. 

I. Commentary on Ezra and Nehemiah. By Rabbi 

Saadiah. Edited by H. J. Mathews, M.A. 3s. 6d. 

II. The Book of the Bee. Edited by Ernest A. Wallis 

Budge, M.A. ai*. 

III. A Commentary on the Book of Daniel. By Japhet lbn 

Ali. Edited and Translated by D. S. Mabooliouth, M.A. 31*. 

IV. Mediaeval Jewish Chronicles and Chronological Notes. 

Edited by Ad. Neubaukr, M.A. 14*. 

Oxford : Clarendon Press. 



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The Holy Scriptures, etc. 33 . 

ANECDOTA OXONIEJSTSIA (continued). 

IH. ASTAN SERIES. 

I. Buddhist Texts from Japan. 1. Vayr&fc/Medika. Edited 

by F. Max Mulleb.. 3*. 6d. 

II. Buddhist Texts from Japan. 2. Sukhavatt Vyuha. 

Edited by F. Max Mulleb, M.A., and Bcnyiu Nahjio. j*. 6d. 

III. Buddhist Texts from Japan. 3. The Ancient Palm- 

leavee containing the Pra^ia-Paramita-Hridaya-Satra and the 
UsholBha-Vigaya-Dharani, edited by F. Max Mclleb, M.A., and 
Bontiu Nanjio, M.A. With an Appendix by G. Buhlkb. 10*. 

IV. K&tyayana's Sarvanukramani of the Z&gveda. With 

Extracts from Shadgurunahya's Commentary entitled VedArthadlpika. 
Edited by A. A. Macdonell, MA., Ph.D. i6». 

V. The Dharma Samgraha. Edited by Kenjiu Kasawara, 

F. Max Mulleb, and H. Wenzel. 7*. 6d. 

IV. MEDIAEVAL AND KOBEBN SERIES. 

I. Sinonoma Bartholomei. Edited by J. L. G. Mowat, 

MA. 3«. 6d. 

II. Alphita. Edited by J. L. G. Mowat, M.A. I2#. 6d. 

III. The Saltair Na Rann. Edited from a MS. in the 

Bodleian Library, by Whitlky Stokes, D.C.L. 7*. 6d. 

IV. The Cath Finntraga, or Battle of Ventry. Edited by 

Komo Meter, Ph.D., M.A. 6*. 

V. Lives of Saints, from the Book of Lismore. Edited, 

with Translation, by Whitley Stokes, D.C.L. it. in. 6d. J ml 
Published. 



II. THEOLOGY. 

A. THE HOLY SCRIPTURES, ETC. 
COPTIC. Libri Prophetarum Majorum, cum Lamentationibus 

Jeremiae, in Dialecto Linguae Aegyptiacae Memphitica seu Coptica. 
Edidit com Veraione Latina H. Tattam, S.T.P. Tomi II. 185a. 8vo. 17*. 

Libri duodecim Prophetarum Minorum in Ling. Aegypt. 

vtdgo Coptics. Edidit H. Tattam, A.M. 1836. 8vo. 8». 6d. 

Novum Testamentum Coptice, cura D. Wilkins. 1716. 

4to. iu. 6d. 

London : Henby Fbowde, Amen Comer, B.O. 
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34 II > Theology. 



ENGLISH. The Holy Bible in the Earliest English Versions, 
made from the Latin Vulgate by John Wtcliffk and bis follower* : 
edited by Fobsball and Madden. 4 vols. 1850. Royal 4to. 3I. 3*. 
Alio reprinted from the above, with Introduction and Glossary 
by W. W. Skeat, Litt. D. 

I. The Books of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and 
the Song of Solomon. Extra foap. 8vo. 3«. 6d. 

II. The New Testament. Extra fcap. 8vo. 6». 

The Holy Bible : an exact reprint, page for page, of the 

Authorised Version published in the year 1611. Demy 4to. half 
bound, rl. it. 

The Holy Bible, Revised Version*. 

Cheap editions for School Use. 

Revised Bible. Fear) i6mo., cloth boards, 1*. 6d. 
Revised New Testament. Nonpareil 32mo., 6d. ; Brevier i6mo., I*. ; 
Long Primer 8vo., 1*. 6d. 

The Oxford Bible for Teachers, containing supple- 
mentary. Helps to the Stodt or the Bible, including summaries of the 
several Books, with copious explanatory notes ; and Tables illustrative of 
Scripture History and the characteristics of Bible Lands with a complete 
Index of Subjects, a Concordance, a Dictionary of Proper Names, and a 
series of Maps. Prices in various sizes and bindings from 3*. to %l. 5s. 

Helps to the Study of the Bible, taken from the 

Oxford Bible fob Teachers. Crown 8vo., 3*. 6rf. 

The Psalter, or Psalms of David, and certain Canticles, 

with a Translation and Exposition in English, by Richabd Rolls of Ham- 
pole. Edited by H. R. Bbamlbt, M.A., Fellow of S. M. Magdalen College, 
Oxford. With an Introduction and Glossary. Demy 8vo. 1 1, is. 

Studia Biblioa. Essays in Biblical Archaeology and 

Criticism, and kindred subjects. By Members of the University of Oxford. 
8vo. lot. 6d. 



— Lectures on the Book of Job. Delivered in Westminster 

Abbey by the Very Rev. G. G. Bradley, D.D. Crown 8vo. J: 6d. 

— Lectures on Eoolesiastes. By the same Author. Cr. 8 vo. 

— The Book of Wisdom : the Greek Text, the Latin Vul- 
gate, and the Authorised English Version ; with an Introduction, Critical 
Apparatus, and a Commentary. By W. J. Drank, M.A. 4to. I is. 6d. 

— The Five Books of Maccabees, in English, with Notes 
and Illustrations by Hbnbt Cotton, D.C.L. 1832. 8vo. 10*. M. 

* Tht Retired Vertion it the joint property of ike Universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge. 

Oxford: Clarendon Prea. 



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The Holy Scriptures, etc. 35 



ENGLISH {continued). 

List of Editions of the Bible in English. By Henry 

Cottok, D.C.L. Second Edition. 1852. 8vo. 8s. 6tf. 

Bhemes and Doway. An attempt to shew what has 

been done by Roman Catholics for the diffusion of the Holy Scriptures in 
English. By Henby Cotton, D.C.L. 1855. 8vo. 9* 

GOTHIC. Evangeliorum Versio Gothics, cum Interpr. et 

Annott. E. Bbnzelii. Edidit E. Lye, A.M. 4to. nt.6d. 

The Gospel of St. Mark in Gothic, according- to the 

translation made by Wdlfila in the Fourth Century. Edited by 
W. W. SKEAT.Litt. D. Extra fcap. 8vo. 4*. 

GREEK. Old Testament. Vetus Testaraentum ex Versione 

Septuaginta Interpretum secundum exemplar Vaticanum Bomae editum. 
Aocedit potior varietas Codicis Alexandrini. Toini III. i8mo. i8#. 

Vetus Testamentum Graece cum Variis Lectionibus. 

Editionem a B. Holmes, S.T.F. inchoatam continuavit J. Parsons, S.T.B. 
Tomi V. 1798-1827. folio, jl. 

Origenis Hexaplorum quae supersunt ; sive, Veterum 

Interpretum Graecorum in totum Vetus Testamentum Fragments. Edidit 
Fbidebiocs Field, A.M. 2 vols. 1875. 4to. 5L 5*. 

Essays in Biblical Greek. By Edwin Hatch, M.A., D.D. 

8vo. io«. 6d. 

New Testament. Novum Testamentum Graece. Anti- 

quissimorum Codicum Textus in ordine parallelo dispoaiti. Edidit 
E H. Hanskll, S.T.B. Tomi III. 8vo. 34*. 

Novum Testamentum Graece. Accedunt parallels 

8. Scripturae loca, etc. Edidit Cabolus Lloyd, S.T.P.E. i8mo. 3*. 
On writing paper, with wide margin, 10*. 6d. 

Critical Appendices to the above, by W. Sanday, M.A. 

Extra fcap. 8vo. cloth, 3s. 6d. 

Novum Testamentum Graece juxta Exemplar Millianum. 

1 8mo. 2*. 6d. On writing paper, with wide margin, 9*. 

Evangelia Sacra Graece. Fcap. 8vo. limp, i». 6d. 

The Greek Testament, with the Readings adopted by 

the Revisers of the Authorised Version : — 

(1) Pica type, with Marginal References. Demy 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

(2) Long Primer type. Fcap. 8vo. 4*. 6d. 

(3) The same, on writing paper, with wide margin, 15*. 

The New Testament in Greek and English. Edited by 

E. Cabdwell, D.D. 2 vols. 1837. Crown 8vo. 6*. 

London : Hsarr Fbowds, Amen Comer, K.C. 
D 3 



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36 II. Theology. 



GREEK (continued). 

The Parallel New Testament, Greek and English ; 

being the Authorised Vercion, 1611; the Revised Version, 1881 ; and 
the Greek Text followed in the Revised Version. 8vo. 12s. 6rf. 

Diatessaron ; sive Historia Jesu Christi ex ipsis Evan- 

gelistarum verbis apte dispositis confecta. Ed. J. Whim. 3*. 6d. 



Outlines of Textual Criticism applied to the New 

Testament. By C. E. Hammond, M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 6d. 
A Greek Testament Primer. An Easy Grammar and 

Reading Book for the use of Students beginning Greek. By E. MlLLEB, 
M.A. Extra fcap. 8vo. 3*. 6d. 

Canon Muratorianus: the earliest Catalogue of the Books 

of the New Testament. Edited with Notes and a Facsimile of the 
MS. in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, by S. P. Trjsgellks, LL.D. 
1867. 4 to. lew. 6d. 

HEBREW, etc. Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Book of 
Genesis. By G. J. Spubrell, M.A. Crown 8vo. 10*. 6<l. 

Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Books of Samuel. 

By S. R. Dbivbb, D.D. 8vo. 14*. 

The Psalms in Hebrew without points. Stiff covers, 29. 

A Commentary on the Book of Proverbs. Attributed 

to Abbaham Ibk Ezra. Edited from a MS. in the Bodleian Library 
by S. R. Driver, D.D. Crown 8vo. paper covers, 3*. 6d. 

— The Book of Tobit. A Chaldee Text, from a unique MS. 

in the B; dleian Library ; with other Rabbinical Texts, English Translations, 

and the Itala. Edited by Ad. Neubader, M.A. Crown 8vo. 6*. 
Hebrew Accentuation of Psalms, Proverbs, and Job. 

By William Wickes, D.D. 8vo. 5*. 

Hebrew Prose Accentuation. By the same. 8vo. io».6d. 

Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae, a J. Liqhtpoot. A new 

Edition, by R. Gamoell, M.A. 4 vols. 1859. 8vo. ll. it. 
LATIN. Libri Psalmornm Versio antiqua Latina, cum Para- 

phrasi Anglo-Saxonica. Edidit B. Tbobpe, F.A.S. 1835. 8vo. ion. 6d. 
Nouum Testamentum Domini Nostri Iesu Christi Latine, 

secundum Editionem Sancti Hieronymi. Ad Codicom Manuscriptorum 

fidemreoensait Iohannes Wobd8Worth,S.T.P., Episcopas Sarisburiensis ; 

in opens societatem adsumto Henrico Iuliano Write, A.M. Parti* 

Priorit Fasciculus Prima*. Euangelium Secundum Mattheum. Quarto, 

Paper covers, 12s. 6d. 

Old-Latin Biblical Texts: No. I. The Gospel ac- 
cording to St. Matthew, from the St. Germain MS. (g,). 'Edited with 
Introduction and Appendices by John Wobd8Wobth,D.D. Small 4to., 
stiff covers, 6*. 

Oxford : Clarendon Press. 



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Fathers of the Church, etc. 37 

LATIN (continued). 

Old-Latin Biblical Texts : No. II. Portions of the 

Gospels according to St. Mark and St. Matthew, from the Bobbio MS. 
(k), &o. Edited by Johx Wordsworth, D.D., W. Sanday, M.A., D.D., 
and H. J. White, M.A. Small Ato., stiff coven, ai». 

Old-Latin Biblical Texts : No. III. The Four Gospels, 

from the Munich MS. (q), now numbered Lat. 6124 in the Royal 
Library at Munich. With a Fragment from St. John in the Hof- 
Bibliothek at Vienna (Cod. Lat. 502). Edited, with the aid of 
Teschendorf s transcript (under the direction of the Bishop of Salisbury), 
by H. J. White, M.A. Small 4to. stiff covers, ia». 6d. 

OLD-FBENCH. Libri Psalmomm Versio antiqua Gallica e 
Cod. mi. in Bibl. Bodleiana adservato, una cum Versione Metrica aliig- 
que Monumentis pervetustis. Nuno primum descripsit et edidit 
Fbanciscos Michel, Phil. Doc. i860. 8vo. io«. 6rf. 

B. FATHERS OF THE CHURCH, ETC. 

St. Athanasius : Orations against the Arians. With an 
Account of his Life by William Bright, D.D. Crown 8vo. 9*. 

Historical Writings, according to the Benedictine 

Text. With an Introduction by W. Bright, D.D. Crown 8vo. 10*. 6rf. 

St. Augustine : Select Anti-Pelagian Treatises, and the Acts 
of the Second Council of Orange. With an Introduction by William 
Bright, D.D. Crown 8vo. 9s. 

Barnabas, The Editio Princeps of the Epistle of, by Arch- 
bishop Ussher, as printed at Oxford, A.D. 1642, and preserved in an 
imperfect form in the Bodleian Library. With a Dissertation on the 
Literary History of that Edition, by J. H. Backhouse, M.A. Small 4to. 
3». 6d. 

Canons of the First Four General Councils of Nicaea, Con- 
stantinople, Ephesus, and Chalcedon. Crown 8vo. it. 6d. 

Notes on the above. By Williah Bright, D.D. 

Crown 8vo. j«. 6d. 

Catenae Graecorum Fatrum in Novum Testamentum. 
Edidit J. A. Cramer, S.T.P. Tomi VIII. 8vo. il. 4*. 

dementis Alexandrini Opera, ex recensione Guil. Dindorfii. 
Tomi IV. 8vo. 3J. 

Cyrilli Archiepiscopi Alexandrini in XII Prophetas. Edidit 

P. E. Pdsrt, A.M. Tomi II. 8vo. il. u. 
in D. Joannis Evangelium. Accedunt Fragmenta Varia 

necnon Tractatus ad Tiberium Diaconnm Duo. Edidit post Aubertum 

P. E. Posit, A.M. Tomi III. 8vo. 2 1. 5*. 

Loudon : IIinrt Frowdi, Amen Comer, K.C. 



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38 II. Theology. 



Cyrilli Commentarii in Lucae Evangelium quae supersunt 
Syriaoe. E Mas. apud Mus. Briton, edidit B. Patnb Smith, A.M. 4to. 
ll. it. 

Translated by R. Payne Smith, M.A. 2 vols. 8vo. 



I4». 

Dowling (J. G.). Notitia Scriptorum SS. Patram aliorumque 

vet. Eocles. Mod. quae in Collectionibus Anecdotorum post annum Christi 
mocc. in luoem editis continentur. 8to. 4*. 6d. 

Ephraemi Syri, Babulae Episcopi Edesseni, Balaei, aliorumqne 
Opera Select*. E Codd. Syriacis mas. in Museo Britannico et Bibliotheca 
Bodleiana asservatis primus edidit J. J. Otebbkck. 8to. ll. 1: 

Eusebii Pamphili Evangelicae Praeparationis Libri XV. Ad 
Codd. mas. recensuit T. Gaisfobd, S.T.P. Tomi IV. 8vo. 1 1, lot. 

Evangel icae Demonstrationis Libri X. Recensuit T. 

Gaisfobd, S.T.P. Tomi II. 8vo. 15*. 

contra Hieroclem et Marcellum Libri. Recensuit T. 



Gaisfobd, S.T.P. 8vo. jt. 

Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History, according to the text of 
Boston, with an Introduction by W. Bbiobt, D.D. Crown 8vo. &t. 6rf. 

Annotationes Variorum. Tomi II. 8vo. 1 J*. 

Evagrii Historia Ecclesiastica, ex recensione II. Valesii. 
1844. 8to. 4*. 

Irenaeus : The Third Book of St. Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons, 
against Heresies. With short Notes and a Glossary by H. Dkane, B.D. 
Crown 8vo. 5*. 6d. 

Origenis Philosophumena ; sive omnium Haeresium Refutatio. 
E Codice Parisino nunc primum edidit Emmanuel Milleb. 1851. 8vo. 

IM. 

Fatrum Apostolicorum, S. Clementis Romani, S. Ignatii, 
8. Polycarpi, quae supersunt. Edidit Guil. Jaoobson, S.T.P.B. Tomi 
II. Fourth Edition. 8vo. ll. it. 

Reliquiae Sacrae secundi tertiique saeculi. Recensuit M. J. 
Booth, S.T.P. Tomi V. Second Edition. 8vo. il. 5*. 

Scriptorum Ecolesiasticorum Opuscula. Recensuit M. J. 
Bouth, S.T.P. Tomi II. Third Edition. 8vo. io». 

Sooratis Scholastici Historia Ecclesiastica. Gr. et Lat. Edidit 
E. Hussey, S.T.B. Tomi III. 1853. 8vo. 15s. 

Socrates' Ecclesiastical History, according to the Text of 
Hussey, with an Introduction by William Bright, CD. Crown 8vo. 
7«. 6d. 

Oxford : Clarendon Prow. 



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Ecclesiastical History, etc. 39 

Sozomoni Historia Ecclcsiastica. Edidit R. Hussey, S.T.B. 
Tomi III. i860. 8to. 15*. 

Tertulliani Apologeticus adversus Gentes pro Christianis. 
Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by T. Hebbebt Bindley, M.A. 
Crown 8vo. 6». 

Theodoreti Ecclesiasticae Historiae Libri V. Recensuit 
T. Gaisfobd, S.T.P. 1854. 8to. 7*. 6d. 

Graecarum Affectionum Curatio. Ad Codices mss. re- 
censuit T. Gaisfobd, S.T.P. 1839. 8vo. jt. 6d. 

C. ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY, ETC. 

Baedae Historia Ecclesiastica. Edited, with English Notes, 
by G. H. Mobbblt, M.A. Crown 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

Bigg. The Christian Platonists of Alexandria; being the 
Bampton Lectures for 1886. By Charles BlQG, D.D. 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

Bingham's Antiquities of the Christian Church, and other 

Works. 10 vols. 8vo. 3 I. 3*. 

Bright. Chapters of Early English Church History. By 
W. Bright, D.D. Second Edition. 8vo. u*. 

Burnet's History of the Reformation of the Church of England. 
A new Edition. Carefully revised, and the Records collated with the 
originals, by N. Pooook, M.A. 7 vols. 8vo. \l. lot. 

Cardwell's Documentary Annals of the Reformed Church of 

England ; being a Collection of Injunctions, Declarations, Orders, Articles 
of Inquiry, &c. from 1546 to 1716. a vols. 8vo. 18s. 

Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents relating to Great 
Britain and Ireland. Edited, after Spelman and Wilkins, by A. W. 
Haddan, B.D., and W. Stbbbs, D.D. Vols. I and III. Medium 
8vo. each il. it. 
Vol. II, Part I. Medium 8vo. 10s. 6d. 

Vol. II, Part II. Church of Ireland; Memorials of St. Patrick. 
Stiff covers, 3*. 6d. 

Formularies of Faith set forth by the King's authority during 

the Reign of Henry VIII. 8vo. 7#. 
Puller's Church History of Britain. Edited by J. S. Brewer, 

M.A. 6 vols. 8vo. 1 1. 19*. 

Gibson's Synodus Anglicana. Edited by E. Cardwell, D.D. 

8vo. 6t. 
Hamilton's (Archbishop John) Catechism, 1552. Edited, with 

Introduction and Glossary, by Thomas Gbavbs Law, Librarian of the 
Signet Library, Edinburgh. With a Preface by the Right Hon. W. E. 
Gladstone. Demy 8vo. lit. 6d. 

London : HlMBY Fbowos, Amen Corner, B.C. 



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40 II. Theology. 



Hussey. Rise of the Papal Power, traced in three Lectures. 
By Bobebt HcssET, B.D. Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 4*. 6d. 

Inett'a Origines Anglicanae (in continuation of Stillingfleet). 
Edited by J. Griffiths, M.A. 3 vols. 8vo. 15*. 

John, Bishop of Ephesus. The Third Part of his Ecclesias- 
tical History. [In Syriac.] Now first edited by William Cukktojt, 
M.A. 4to. 1 J. 111. 

The same, translated by R. Payne Smith, M.A. 8vo. 10*. 

Le Neve's Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae. Corrected and con- 
tinued from 1 7 15 to 1853 by T. DuffdsHabdy. 3 vols. 8 to. 1l.1t. 

Noelli (A.) Catechismns sivc prima institutio disciplinaqne 
Pietatis Christiana* Latine ezplicata. Editio nova cura Gcil. Jacobsob, 
A.M.. 8to. 5*. 6d. 

Frideaux's Connection of Sacred and Profane History. 2 vols. 

8to. 10*. 

Primers put forth in the Reign of Henry VIII. 8vo. 5*. 

Records of the Reformation. The Divorce, 1527-1533. 
Mostly now for the first time printed from MSS. in the British Museum 
and other Libraries. Collected and arranged by N. Fooock, M.A. 1 vols. 
8vo. \l. 16*. 

Reformatio Legnm Ecclesiasticarum. The Reformation of 

Ecclesiastical Laws, as attempted in the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward 
VI, and Elizabeth. Edited by E. Cabdwell, D.D. 8to. 6>. 6d. 

Shirley. Some Account of the Church in the Apostolic Age. 
By W. W. Shirley, D.D. Second Edition. Fcap. 8to. 3*. 6d. 

Shuokford's Sacred and Profane History connected (in con- 
tinuation of Frideanx). a vols. 8to. 10*. 

Stillingfleet's Origines Britannicae, with Lloyd's Historical 

Account of Church Government. Edited by T. F. Pastin, M.A. a vols. 
8to. io#. 

Stubbs. Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum. An attempt to 
exhibit the course of Episcopal Succession in England. By W. Stubbs, 
D.D. Small Ato. 8*. 6d. 

Strype's Memorials of Cranmer. a vols. 8vo. 11*. 
Life of Aylmer. 8vo. $s. 6d. 
Life of Whitgift. 3 vols. 8vo. 16*. 6d. 
General Index. 2 vols. 8vo. II*. 

Sylloge Confessionum sub tempus Reformandae Ecclesiae edi- 
tarum. Subjiciuntur Catechismus Heidelbergensis et Canones Synodi 
Dordrechtanae. 8vo. 8*. 

Oxford: Clarendon Proaa. 



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English Theology. 41 



D. LITURGIOLOGY. 
Cardwell's Two Books of Common Prayer, set forth by 

authority in the Reign of Bang Edward VT, compared with each other. 
Third Edition. 8to. 7*. 

History of Conferences on the Book of Common Prayer 

from 1 55 1 to 1690. Third Edition. 8vo. 7*. 6d. 

Hammond. Liturgies, Eastern and Western. Edited, with 
Introduction, Notes, and a Liturgical Glossary, by C. E. Hammond, M.A. 
Crown 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

An Appendix to the above, crown 8vo. paper covers, 1*. 6d. 

Loofirio Missal, The, as used in the Cathedral of Exeter during 

the Episcopate of its first Bishop, a.d. 1 050-1072 ; together with some 
Account of the Bed Book of Derby, the Missal of Robert of Jumieges, 
and a few other early MS. Service Books of the English Church. 
Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by F. E. Wabben, B.D., F S.A. 
4 to. half morocco, ll. 15*. 

Maskell. Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England, according 

to the uses of Sarum, York, Hereford, and Bangor, and the Roman Liturgy 
arranged in parallel columns, with preface and notes. By W. Maskell, 
M.A. Third Edition. 8vo. 15*. 

Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesiae Anglicanae. The occa- 
sional Offices of the Church of England according to the old use of 
Salisbury, the Prymer in English, and other prayers and forms, with 
dissertations and notes. Second Edition. 3 vols. 8vo. tl. 10*. 

Warren. The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church. By 
F. E. Wabbbn, B.D. 8vo. 14*. 



E. ENGLISH THEOLOGY. 

Beveridge's Discourse upon the xxxix Articles. 8vo. 8*. 

Bisooe's Boyle Lectures on the Acts of the Apostles. 8 vo. 9*. 6d. 

Bradley. Lectures on the Book of Job. By George 
Granville Bradley, D.D., Dean of Westminster. Crown 8vo. 7*. 6d. 

Bradley. Lectures on Ecclesiastes. By G. G. Bradley, D.D., 

Dean of Westminster. Crown 8vo. 4s. 6rf. 

Bull's Works, with Nelson's Life. Edited by E. Burton, 

D.D. 8 vols. 8vo. 2I. 9*. 

London : Henry Fbowds, Amen Comer, B.C. 



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42 II. Theology. 



Burnet's Exposition of the xxxix Articles. 8vo. 7*. 

Burton's (Edward) Testimonies of the Ante-Nicene Fathers 
to the Divinity of Christ. 1829. 8vo. 7*. 

Testimonies of the Ante-Nicene Fathers to the Doctrine 

of the Trinity and of the Divinity of the Holy Ghost. 1831. 8vo. 3«. 6d. 

Butler's Works. 2 vols. 8vo. 1 1*. 

Sermons. 5*. 6d. Analogy of Religion. 5*. 6d. 

Chandler's Critical History of the Life of David. 8vo. St. 6d. 
Chillingworth's Works. 3 vols. 8vo. il. 1*. 6d. 
Clergyman's Instructor. Sixth Edition. 8vo. 61. 6d. 

Comber's Companion to the Temple ; or a Help to Devotion 

in the use of the Common Prayer. 7 vols. 8vo. il. lit. 6d. 

Cranmer's Works. Collected and arranged hy H. Jenkyns, 
M.A., Fellow of Oriel College. 4 vols. 8vo. il. io». 

Enchiridion Theologicum Anti-Bomanum. 

Vol. I. Jeremy Tatlob's Dissuasive from Popery, and Treatise on 
the Real Presence. 8vo. 8*. { 

Vol. II. B arrow on the Supremacy of the Pope, with his Discourse 
on the Unity of the Church. 8vo. 7*. 6d. 

Vol. III. Tracts selected from Wake, Patrick, Stillingflmt, Claoett, 
and others. 8vo. I is. 

[Fell's] Paraphrase, etc. on the Epistles of St. Paul. 8vo. 7*. 
Oreswell's Harmonia Evangelica. Fifth Edition. 8vo. 9*. 6d. 

Prolegomena ad Harmoniam Evangelicam. 8vo. 9*. 6d. 

Dissertations on the Principles and Arrangement of a 



Harmony of the Gospels. ' 5 vols. 8vo. 3J. 3*. 

Hall's Works. Edited by P. Wyntee, D.D. 10 vols. 8 vo. 3/. 3*. 

Hammond's Paraphrase on the Book of Psalms. 2 vols. 8vo. 10*. 

Paraphrase etc. on the New Testament. 4 vols. 8vo. il. 

Heurtley. Harmonia Symbolica : Creeds of the Western 
Church. By C. Heurtley, D.D. 8vo. 6*. 6<i. 

Homilies appointed to be read in Churches. Edited by J. 
Griffiths, M.A. 8vo. 7«. 6rf. 

Oxford : Clarendon Frew. 



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English Theology. 43 

HOOKER'S WORKS, with his Life hy Walton, arranged by 

John Ruble, M.A. Seventh Edition. Revised by R. W. Chubch. M.A., 
Dean of St. Paul's, and F. Paget, D.D. 3 Tola, medium 8vo. ll. i6». 

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Jewel's Works. Edited by R.W.Jelf.D.D. 8 vols.8vo.1J.10*. 

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A. HISTORY, BIOGRAPHY, CHRONOLOGY, ETC. 

Baker's Chronicle. Chronicon Galfridi le Baker de Swyne- 
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Bluntschli. The Theory of the State. By J. K. Bluntschxi. 

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9*. 6d. 

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Carte's Life of James Duke of Ormond. A new Edition, care- 
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Casauboni Ephemerides, cum praefatione et notis J. Russell, 
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History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England. 

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History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England. 

Also his Life, written by himself, in which is included a Continuation 
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Clarendon's Life, including a Continuation of his History. 

a vols. 1857- medium 8vo. \l. a*. 

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Fasti Bomani. The Civil and Literary Chronology of 

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Cramer's Geographical and Historical Description of Asia 

Minor, a vols. 8vo. us. 

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Earle. Handbook to the Land-Charters, and other Saxonic 
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Finlay. A History of Greece from its Conquest by the 

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7 vols. 8vo. 3!. lot. 

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Freeman. History of the Norman Conquest of England ; its 

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5/. 9». 6d. 

The Beign of William Bufus and the Accession of Henry 

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Gardiner. The Constitutional Documents of the Puritan 
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Small 4 to. I ex. 6d. 

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George. Genealogical Tables illustrative of Modern History. 
By H. B. Giobqe, M.A. Third Edition. Small 4to. lit. 

Oreenwell. British Barrows, a Record of the Examination of 

Sepulchral Mounds in various parts of England. By W. Greknwklx, 
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Hodgkin. Italy and her Invaders. With Plates and Maps. 
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The Dynasty of Theodosius ; or, Seventy Years' Struggle 

with the Barbarians. By the same Author. Crown 8vo. 6*. 

Hume. Letters of David Hume to William Strahan. Edited 
with Notes, Index, etc., by G. Btrkbeck Hill, D.C.L. 8vo. 12s. 6rf. 

Jackson. Dalmatia, the Quarnero, and Istria ; with Cettigne 

in Montenegro and the Island of Grado. By T. G. Jackson, M.A. 
3 vols. With many Plates and Illustrations. 8vo. half-bound, ll. 1*. 

Kitchin. A History of France. With numerous Maps, 
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Vol. I. to 1453. Vol. II. 1453-1634. Vol. III. 1614-1793. 

Knight's Life of Dean Colet. 1823. 8vo. 7*. 6d. 

Lucas. Introduction to a Historical Geography of the British 
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Historical Geography of the Colonies. Vol. I. By the 

same Author. With Eleven Maps. Crown 8vo. 5». 

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Magna Carta, a careful Reprint. Edited by W. Sttjbbs, D.D., 
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OXFORD, University of. 

Oxford University Calendar for the Year 1890. Crown 
8vo. 6s. 

The Historical Register of the University of Oxford. 

Being a Supplement to the Oxford University Calendar, with an Alpha- 
betical Record of University Honours and Distinctions, completed to the 
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Student's Handbook to the University and Colleges 

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The Examination Statutes ; together with the present 
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Council. 8vo. Paper covers, it. 6d. 

Statutes of the University of Oxford, codified in the 

year 1636 under the Authority of Archbishop Ladd, Chancellor of the 
University. Edited by the late John Griffiths, D.D. With an Intro- 
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B.C.L. 4to. ll. it. 

Enactments in Parliament, specially concerning the 
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J. Griffiths, D.D. 1869. 8vo. i». 

Catalogue of Oxford Graduates from 1659 to 1850. 
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Index to Wills proved in the Court of the Chancellor of 
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Manuscript Materials relating to the History of Oxford ; 
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Fattison. Essays by the late Mark Pattison, sometime 
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Ranke. A History of England, principally in the Seven- 
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8vo. ll. 3s. 

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Bawlinflon. A Manual of Ancient History. By George 

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Bioardo. Letters of David Ricardo to T. R. Malthas 

(1810-1823). Edited by James Bonab, M.A. 8vo. io#. 6d. 
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Sprigg's England's Recovery; being the History of the Army 

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The Constitutional History of England, in its Origin 

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Seventeen Lectures on the Study of Medieval and 

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Tozer. The Islands of the Aegean. By H. Fanshawe 
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Wellington. A Selection from the Despatches, Treaties, and 
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Whitelock's Memorials of English Affairs from 1625 to 1660. 
4 vols. 8vo. il. io«. 

B. ENGLISH AND ROMAN LAW. 

Anson. Principles of the English Law of Contract, and of 
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Fifth Edition. 8vo. lo«. 6d. 

Law and Custom of the Constitution. Part I. Parlia- 
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Bentham. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and 
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Digby. An Introduction to the History of the Law of Real 
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Grueber. Lex Aquilia. The Roman Law of Damage to Pro- 
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Hall. International Law. By W. E. Hall, M.A. Third 

Edition. 8vo. 22s. 6rf. 

Holland. Elements of Jurisprudence. By T. E. Holland, 
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The European Concert in the Eastern Question, a Col- 
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Raleigh. The English Law of Property. By Thos. Raleigh, 

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Stokes. The Anglo-Indian Codes. By Whitley Stokes, 

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Supplement to the above, 1887, 1888. a*. 6d. 

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Smith's Wealth of Nations. A new Edition, with Notes, 
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Bacon. Novum Organum. Edited, with Introduction, Notes, 
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Novum Organum. Edited, with English Notes, by 

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Novum Organum. Translated by G. W. Kitchin, D.D. 

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Berkeley. The works of George Berkeley, D.D., formerly 

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M.A. Crown 8vo. it. 6d. 

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I. Memoirs on the Physiology of Nerve, of Muscle, and 
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II. The Anatomy of the Prog. By Dr. Alexander 

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History of Botany (i 530-1860). By Julius von Sachs. 

Authorised Translation, by H. E. F. Gabnsey, M.A. Revised by 
Isaac Bayley Balfour, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. Crown 8vo. lot. 
Comparative Anatomy of the Vegetative Organs of the 
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Ph.D., F.L.S. Royal 8vo., half morocco, ll. 21. 6d. 

Outlines of Classification and Special Morphology of 
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Lectures on the Physiology of Plants. By Julius vox 
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Comparative Morphology and Biology of Fungi, Myce- 
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Gabksey, M.A., Revised by Isaac Bayley Balfour, M.A, M.D., 
F.R.S. Royal 8vo., half morocco, 1 1. 2t. 6<1. 

Lectures on Bacteria. By Dr. A. De Bary. Second 
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Introduction to Fossil Botany. By Count H. von 
Solms-Laubach. Authorised English Translation, by H. E. F. 
Gabnsey, M.A. Edited by Isaac Bayley Balfour, M.A., M.D., 
F.R.S. In the Prett. 

Annals of Botany. Edited by Isaac Bayley Balfour, M.A., 
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Vol. I. Royal 8vo., half morocco, gilt top, ll. 16*. 

Bradley's Miscellaneous Works and Correspondence. With 

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Chambers. A Handbook of Descriptive Astronomy. By 

G. F. Chambers, F.B.A.S. Fourth Edition. 
Vol. I. The Sun, Planets, and Comets. 8vo. 2 it. 
Vol. II. Instruments and Practical Astronomy. Immediately. 

Clarke. Geodesy. By Col. A. R. Clarke, C.B., R.E. 8vo. 

1 it. 6d. 

Cremona. Elements of Projective Geometry. By Luigi 

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Graphical Statics. Two Treatises on the Graphical 

Calculus and Reciprocal Figures in Graphical Statics. By the same 
Author. Translated by T. Hudson Bbabe. Demy 8vo. 8«. 6d. 

Daubeny s Introduction to the Atomic Theory. i6mo. 6s. 

Donkin. Acoustics. By W. F. Donkin, M.A., F.R.S. Second 

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Fisher. Class-Book of Chemistry. By W. W. Fisher, M.A., 

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Gralton. The Construction of Healthy Dwellings. By 
Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S. 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

Hamilton and Ball. Book-keeping. New and enlarged 
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Haroourt and Madan. Exercises in Practical Chemistry. 
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Madan. Tables of Qualitative Analysis. By H. G. 
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Bigsud's Correspondence of Scientific Men of the 17th 

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