(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Advanced Microdevices Manuals | Linear Circuits Manuals | Supertex Manuals | Sundry Manuals | Echelon Manuals | RCA Manuals | National Semiconductor Manuals | Hewlett Packard Manuals | Signetics Manuals | Fluke Manuals | Datel Manuals | Intersil Manuals | Zilog Manuals | Maxim Manuals | Dallas Semiconductor Manuals | Temperature Manuals | SGS Manuals | Quantum Electronics Manuals | STDBus Manuals | Texas Instruments Manuals | IBM Microsoft Manuals | Grammar Analysis | Harris Manuals | Arrow Manuals | Monolithic Memories Manuals | Intel Manuals | Fault Tolerance Manuals | Johns Hopkins University Commencement | PHOIBLE Online | International Rectifier Manuals | Rectifiers scrs Triacs Manuals | Standard Microsystems Manuals | Additional Collections | Control PID Fuzzy Logic Manuals | Densitron Manuals | Philips Manuals | The Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly Debates | Linear Technologies Manuals | Cermetek Manuals | Miscellaneous Manuals | Hitachi Manuals | The Video Box | Communication Manuals | Scenix Manuals | Motorola Manuals | Agilent Manuals
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at jhttp : //books . qooqle . com/ 



tflfr-flLF 




B 3 oaa 010 



■ 



j 



i ■ 



I 



I 






■ 




Digitized by 



Google 



THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



HENRY FROWDE, M.A. 

PUBl.ISHKR TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 




LONDON, EDINBURGH, AND NEW YORK 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MOLLER 



VOL. XXXVI 



UN". •TV ^ 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1894 

[All rights reserved] 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



©xforb 

PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

BY HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



Digitized by 



Google 



THE QUESTIONS 



OF 



KING MILINDA 



TRANSLATED FROM THE PALI 



BY 



T. W. RHYS DAVIDS 



PART II 




AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1894 

[ All rights reserved] 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



3$ 



Digitized by 



Google 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction. 

Chinese books on Nagasena . 

The Buddhist canon .... 

Vasubandhu's reference to Nigasena 

Kshemendra's reference to Milinda 

The Mahavamsa on Assagutta and Vattaniya 

The Kathd Vatthu .... 

Milinda and other authorities on the soul theory 

The Milinda later than the KatM Vatthu 



XI 

xv 
xvii 
xvii 
xviii 

xx 

xxi 

xxvi 



Translation of the Text. 
Book IV. The Solving of Dilemmas. 

41st Dilemma. Why should houses (Wiharas) be built 

for the houseless ones ? 1 

42nd Dilemma. Was not the Buddha immoderate in 

food? 4 

43rd Dilemma. Wad not Bakkula said to be superior 

(in health) to the Buddha? 8 

44th Dilemma. Why is the Buddha's teaching called 

both new and old ? 13 

45th Dilemma. Did not the Bodisat once kill animals 

in sacrifice? 16 

46th Dilemma. Did not the Bodisat once abuse the 

Buddha? 20 

47th Dilemma. Was not Kassapa the Buddha less 

powerful than the potter ? 23 

48th Dilemma. Why is the Buddha called both Brahman 

and king ? . . 25 

49th Dilemma. Did not the Buddha teach for hire ? . 31 
50th Dilemma, Did not the Buddha once doubt ? (See 

No. 34.) ..38 



. > 



Digitized by 



Google 



Vlll CONTENTS. 



FACE 



51st Dilemma. Was not the Buddha taught by others? 43 
52nd Dilemma. Why can there be only one Buddha at 

a time ? .47 

53rd Dilemma. Did not the Buddha put the Order 

above himself? 51 

54th Dilemma. As a layman can reach Arahatship, why 

enter the Order ? 56 

55th Dilemma. Did not the Buddha, having tried and 

abandoned asceticism, nevertheless still insist on it ? 60 
56th Dilemma. Men sometimes throw off the robes. 

Why not test candidates before initiation ? . -63 
57th Dilemma. How is it that Arahats suffer bodily 

pain? 75 

58th Dilemma. Why cannot an offender, who is not 

aware of his offence, enter the Path ... 78 
59th Dilemma. How can a guilty Sama»a purify gifts ? 82 
60th Dilemma. The ' soul ' in water . . . .85 
61st Dilemma. Why does the Order trouble itself about 

learning, and about buildings and gifts ? . . 92 
62nd Dilemma. Why cannot a layman, who can become 

an Arahat, continue as one ? . . .96 

63rd Dilemma. How is it that an Arahat can do wrong? 98 
64th Dilemma. What is there that is, but not in the 

world? 101 

65th Dilemma. What is there that is without a cause? . 103 
66th Dilemma. Karma-born, cause-born, and season- 
born 107 

67th Dilemma. What becomes of dead devils ? . . 108 
68th Dilemma. Why did not the Buddha promulgate 

all the Rules of the Order at once ? . .109 

69th Dilemma. How does the sun get cool ? . .111 
70th Dilemma. Why is the sun hotter in winter? . .112 
71st Dilemma. How can Vessantara's giving away of 

his children be approved ? 114 

72nd Dilemma. Why did the Bodisat undergo penance? 132 
73rd Dilemma. Which is stronger, virtue or vice ? . 144 
74th Dilemma. Do the dead derive advantage from gifts 

given here? 151 

75th Dilemma. Dreams and sleep . . . 157 

76th Dilemma. Is death ever premature? . . .162 



Digitized by 



Google 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



77th Dilemma. How can there be wonders at the graves 

of Arahats? . 174 

78th Dilemma. Cannot all men be converted ? . .176 
79th Dilemma. Is Nirvana all bliss, or partly pain? . 181 
80th Dilemma. The form, figure, duration, &c, of Nir- 
vana 186 

8 1 st Dilemma. The realisation of Nirvana . . .195 
82nd Dilemma. The place of Nirvana ... 202 

Book V. The Problem of Inference. 

§ 1. How can you know that the Buddha ever lived? . 206 

4. The ordinary city, and its architect, shops, and 

inhabitants 208 

5. The City of Righteousness, and its architect 211 

6. The flower bazaar therein 212 

7. The perfume bazaar therein . .214 

8. The fruit bazaar therein 215 

10. The antidote bazaar therein . . .217 

11. The medicine bazaar therein . . .218 

12. The ambrosia bazaar therein . . . .219 
13-20. The jewel bazaar therein, and the seven Jewels 

of the Truth 220 

21. The general store bazaar therein . . .229 

22. The inhabitants of the City of Righteousness . 231 

23. The generals in the City of Righteousness . 234 
The chaplains in the City of Righteousness . .234 
The lamplighters in the City of Righteousness . 235 
The peace-officers in the City of Righteousness . 236 
The shop-keepers in the City of Righteousness . 237 
The drunkards (1) in the City of Righteousness . 238 
The watchmen in the City of Righteousness . 238 
The lawyers and judges in the City of Righteous- 
ness 238 

The bankers in the City of Righteousness . .239 

24. The conclusion drawn by inference . . . 240 

Book VI. The Voluntary Extra Vows. 

§1. Can laymen attain Nirvana ? . . 244 

6. The twenty-eight advantages of the vows . .251 

7. The eighteen good qualities that come from keep- 

ing them 252 



Digitized by 



Google 



CONTENTS. 



FACE 

254 
255 
261 
264 
268 
270 
271 
273 



§ 10. No Arahatship without having kept them 

12-15. Similes 

16. He who, being unworthy, takes the vows 

18. He who, being worthy, takes the vows 
20. Details of the thirteen extra vows 

24. The example of Upasena . 

25. The thirty graces of the true recluse . 

26. The example of Sariputta . 

Book VII. Similes of Arahatship. 

§ 1. Detailed list of these similes, sixty-seven being still 

preserved, and thirty-eight being now lost . 275 

19. Wonders at the conclusion of Nagasena's solution 

of the three hundred and four puzzles . -373 

20. Conversion of Milinda the king .... 373 

21. Milinda enters the Order, and becomes an Arahat 374 

Additions and Corrections 377 

Index of Proper Names 379 

Index of Subjects 381 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . . 385 



Digitized by 



Google 



INTRODUCTION. 

I have first to notice a few points as to the history of 
the Milinda book which have either come to light since the 
former Introduction was written, or which I then omitted 
to notice. 

Mr. Bunyiu Nanjio in his Catalogue of Chinese Buddhist 
Books * mentions a Chinese book called Na-sien Pi£Aiu Kin 
(that is ' The Book of the Bhikshu Nagasena ' SCltra) s . I have 
been so fortunate as to receive detailed information about 
this book both from Dr. Serge d'Oldenbourg in St. Peters- 
burg and from M. Sylvain LeVi in Paris. Professor Serge 
d'Oldenbourg forwarded to me, in the spring of 189a, 
a translation into English (which he himself had been kind 
enough to make) from a translation into Russian by 
Mr. Ivanovsky, of the Chinese Introduction, and of various 
episodes in the Chinese which seemed to differ from the 
Pali. This very valuable aid to the interpretation of 
the Milinda, which the unselfish courtesy of these two 
Russian scholars intended thus to place at my disposal, 
was most unfortunately lost in the post ; and I have only 
been able to gather from a personal interview with Professor 
d'Oldenbourg that the Introduction was a sort of Gd.ta.ka 
story in which the Buddha appeared as a white elephant s . 

By a curious coincidence this regrettable loss has been 

1 Called on the title-page 'Catalogue of the Chinese Translation of the 
Buddhist Tripi/aka.' But this must surely be a mistake. It includes a number 
of works which are not translations at all, and translations of a large number of 
others which do not belong to the Pi/akas. 

' No. 1358 in the Catalogue. Translated under the Eastern Tsin Dynasty, 
317-410. 

1 As there is nothing about this curious Introduction in either of M. Specht's 
papers to be mentioned immediately, it seems possible that there are really 
three Chinese books on the same subject. 



Digitized by 



Google 



XII QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES OF MILINDA THE KING. 

since made good by the work of two French scholars. 
Mons. Sylvain Levi forwarded to the Ninth International 
Congress of Orientalists, held in London in the autumn of 
1892, a careful study on the subject by M. Edouard Specht, 
preceded by an introductory essay by himself. 

It appears from this paper, which excited much interest 
when it was read, that there are, not one, but two separate 
and distinct works extant in China under the name of 
Na-sien Pi£^iu ATin, the one inserted in the Korean collec- 
tion made in that country in 1010 A.D., and the other 
printed in the collection of Buddhist books published 
under the Sung in 1239. Neither the date nor the author 
of either version seems to be known, but Mr. Bunyiu 
Nanjio states of his work, which is probably one of the 
two, that it was composed between 317 and 420 A. D. 1 
The Korean book gives much less of the matter con- 
tained in our books II and III than the later work in 
the Sung collection, the former containing only 13,752 
characters while the latter has 22,657. In the matter of 
the order of the questions also the later of the two Chinese 
books follows much more closely the order found in the 
present translation than does the work found in the Korean 
collection. 

This paper has since been published in the Proceedings 
of the Congress 2 , and it gives translations of several 
episodes on questions in which the Chinese is said to throw 
light on the Pali. Both M. Specht and M. Sylvain Levi 
seem to think that the two Chinese books were transla- 
tions of older recensions of the work than the one preserved 
in Pali. This argument does not seem to me, as at 
present advised, at all certain. It by no means follows 
that a shorter recension, merely because it is shorter, must 
necessarily be older than a longer one. It is quite as 
possible that the longer one gave rise to the shorter ones. 



1 It would be very interesting to have this point decided ; namely, whether 
the volume in the India Office Library is identical with either of the two very 
different books in Paris. If not, we have, then, still another Chinese book on 
Milinda. 

J Vol. i. pp. 520-519. 



Digitized by 



Google 



INTRODUCTION. XU1 



The story of a discussion between Nagasena and Milinda 
is no doubt, if the arguments in the Introduction to Part I 
are of any avail, an historical romance with an ethical 
tendency. In constant repetition, after it had become 
popular, it is precisely those parts which do not appeal so 
easily to the popular ear (because they deal, not with 
ordinary puzzles, but with dilemmas or with the higher 
mysteries of Arahatship), that would be naturally omitted. 
I do not go so far as to say that it must have been so. 
But I venture to think that for a critical judgment 
as to the comparative dates of the three works on the 
same subject, now known to exist, we must wait till 
translations of the whole of the two independent Chinese 
versions are before us. And further that the arguments 
must then turn on quite other considerations than the very 
ambiguous conclusions to be drawn merely from the length 
or shortness of the different treatment in each case. It is 
very much to be hoped therefore that M. Specht will soon 
give us complete versions of the two Chinese works in 
question. 

At present it can only be said that we have a very 

pretty puzzle propounded to us, a puzzle much more 

difficult to solve than those which king Milinda put to 

Nagasena the sage. If the shorter version (or rather 

paraphrase, for it does not seem to be a version at all in 

our modern sense) — that from the Korea — be really the 

original, how comes it that the other Chinese book, 

included in a collection made two centuries later, should 

happen to differ from it in the precise parts in which it, 

the supposed original, differs from the Pali ? Surely the 

only probable hypothesis would be that of the Chinese 

books, both working on the same original, the later is more 

exact than the earlier : and that we simply have here one 

more instance of an already well-known characteristic of 

Chinese reproductions of Indian books — namely, that the 

later version is more accurate than the older one. The 

later a Chinese 'translation' the better, in the few cases 

where comparison is possible, it has proved to be (that is, 

the nearer to our idea of what a translation should be); 



Digitized by 



Google 



XIV QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES OF MILINDA THE KING. 

and Tibetan versions are better, as a rule, than the best of 
the Chinese. 

Since the publication of this very interesting paper, 
M. Sylvain LeVi has had the great kindness to send me an 
advance proof of a more complete paper, to be published in 
Paris, in which M. Specht and himself have made a detailed 
analysis of the three versions, setting out over against the 
English translation of each question (as contained in the 
first volume of the present work) the translations of it as 
they appear in each of the Chinese versions. I have not 
been able by a study of this analysis to add anything to 
the admirable summary of the conclusions as to the 
relations of these two books to one another and to the Pali 
which are given by M. Specht in his article in the Proceed- 
ings of the Ninth Congress. The later version is through- 
out much nearer to the Pali ; but neither of the two give 
more than a small portion of it, the earlier does not seem 
to go much further than our Volume I, page 99 (just where 
the Pali has the remark, ' Here end the questions of king 
Milinda '), and the later, though it goes beyond this point, 
apparently stops at Volume I, page 114. 

These details are of importance for the decision of the 
critical question of the history of the Milinda. The book 
starts with an elaborate and very skilful introduction, 
giving first an account of the way in which Nagasena and 
Milinda had met in a previous birth, then the life history, 
in order, of each of them in this birth, then the account of 
how they met. Throughout the whole story the attention 
is constantly directed to the very great ability of the two 
disputants, and to the fact that they had been specially 
prepared through their whole existence for this great en- 
counter, which was to be of the first importance for religion 
and for the world. This introductory story occupies in my 
translation thirty-nine pages. Is it likely that so stately 
an entrance hall should have really been built to lead only 
into one or two small rooms? — to two chapters occupy- 
ing only sixty pages more ? Is it not more probable that 
the original architect had a better sense of proportion? 
As an Introduction to the book as we have it in these 



Digitized by 



Google 



INTRODUCTION. XV 



volumes the story told in those thirty-nine pages is very 
much in place ; as an Introduction to the first two chapters 
only, or to the first two and a portion of the third, it is 
quite incongruous. And accordingly we find in the very 
beginning of the Introduction a kind of table of contents in 
which the shape of the whole book, as we have it here, is 
foreshadowed in detail, and in due proportion. This will 
have to be taken into account when, with full translations 
of the two Chinese books before us, we shall have to con- 
sider whether they are really copies of the original statue, 
or whether they are interesting fragments. 

I ought not to close this reference to the labours of 
MM. LeVi and Specht without calling attention to a slip 
of the pen in one expression used by M. Sylvain Levi 
regarding the Milinda 1 . He says, ' La science ne connaissait 
jusqu'ici de cet ouvrage qu'un texte ^crit en Pali et incorpore" 
dans le canon Singhalais?' Now there is, accurately 
speaking, no such thing as a Sinhalese canon of the 
Buddhist Scriptures, any more than there is a French or an 
English canon of the Christian Scriptures. The canon of 
the three Pi/akas, settled in the valley of the Ganges 
(probably at Patna in the time of Asoka), has been adhered 
to, it is true, in Ceylon, Burma, and Siatn. But it cannot 
properly be called either a Ceylonese or a Burmese or 
a Siamese canon. In that canon the Milinda was never 
incorporated. And not only so, but the expression used 
clearly implies that there is some other canon. Now there 
has never been any other canon of the Buddhist Scriptures 
besides this one of the three Pi/akas. Many Buddhist 
books, not incorporated in the canon, have been composed 
in different languages — Pali, Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan, 
Japanese, Sinhalese, Burmese, Siamese, &c. — but no new 
canon, in the European meaning of the phrase, has ever 
been formed. 

One meets occasionally, no doubt, in European books 
on Buddhism allusions or references to a later canon 



1 ' Transactions of the Ninth International Congress of Orientalists,' vol. i, 
p. 518. 



Digitized by 



Google 



XVI QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES OF MILINDA THE KING. 

supposed to have been settled at the Council of Kanishka. 
The blunder originated, I believe, with Mr. Beal. But in 
the only account of that Council which we possess, that of 
Yuan Thsang 1 , there is no mention at all of any new canon 
having been settled. The account is long and detailed. 
An occurrence of so extreme an importance would scarcely 
have escaped the notice of the Chinese writer. But 
throughout the account the canonicity of the three Pi/akas 
is simply taken for granted. The members of the Council 
were chosen exclusively from those who knew the three 
Pi/akas, and the work they performed was the composition 
of three books — the Upadera, the Vinaya Vibhasha, and 
the Abhidharma Vibhasha. The words which follow in the 
Chinese have been differently interpreted by the European 
translators. Julien says : 

' They (the members of the Council) thoroughly explained 
the three Pi/akas, and thus placed them above all the 
books of antiquity V 

Beal, on the other hand, renders : 
'Which (namely, which three books) thoroughly ex- 
plained the three Pi/akas. There was no work of antiquity 
to be compared with (placed above) their productions 8 .' 

It is immaterial which version best conveys the meaning 
of the original. They both clearly show that, in the view 
of Yuan Thsang, the Council of Kanishka did not establish 
any new canon. Since that time the rulers of China, 
Japan, and Tibet have from time to time published collec- 
tions of Buddhist books. But none of these collections 
even purports to be a canon of the Scriptures. They 
contain works of very various, and some quite modern, ages 
and authors : and can no more be regarded as a canon of the 
Buddhist Scriptures than Migne's voluminous collection of 
Christian books can be called a new canon of the Christian 
Scriptures. 



1 Julien's translation, vol. i, pp. 1 73-178, and Mr. Beat's own translation, 
i, 147-157. There are two or three incidental references to the Council in 
other works. See my ' Buddhism,' p. 239. 

a St. Julien, 'Voyages des Pelerins Bouddhistes,' vol. i, pp. 177, 178. 

* Beal, ' Buddhist Records of the Western World,' vol. i, p. 155. 



Digitized by 



Google 



INTRODUCTION. XV11 



This was already pointed out in my little manual, ' Bud- 
dhism,' published in 1877, and it is a pity that references in 
subsequent books to a supposed canon settled at Kanishka's 
Council have still perpetuated the blunder. M. Sylvain 
LeVi, for whose genius and scholarship I have the pro- 
foundest respect, does not actually say that there was such 
a canon ; but his words must lead readers, ignorant of the 
facts, to imply that there was one. 

I have also to add that M. Barth has called attention l 
to the fact that M. Sylvain Levi has added another service 
to those already mentioned as rendered by him to the in- 
terpretation of the Milinda, by a discussion of the reference 
to our book in the Abhidharma-koja-vyakhya, referred to 
in my previous Introduction, p. xxvi. This discussion was 
published in a periodical I have not seen 3 . But it seems 
that M. LeVi, with the help of two Chinese translations, has 
been able to show that the citation is not only in the 
commentary, but also in the text, of Vasubandhu's work. 
M. L6on Feer has been kind enough to send me the actual 
words of the reference, and they will be found published in 
the 'Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society' for 1891, p. 476. 

Professor Serge d'Oldenbourg has also been good enough 
to point out to me that the two Cambridge MSS. of Kshe- 
mendra's Bodhisattvavadana-kalpalata read Milinda (not 
Millinda as given by Rajendra Lai Mitra 3 ) as the name 
of the king referred to in the 57th Avadana, the StGpava- 
dana. I had not noticed this reference to the character in 
our historical romance. It comes in quite incidentally, the 
Buddha prophesying to Indra that a king Milinda would 
erect a stupa at Pa/aligrama. There is no allusion to our 
book, and the passage is only interesting as showing that 
the memory of king Milinda still survived in India at the 
time when Kshemendra wrote in the eleventh century A. D. 

Another reference to one of the characters in the Milinda 

1 In the ' Revue de l'Histoire des Religions ' for 1893 (which has only just 
reached me), p. 358. 

* The 'Comptes rendns des Seances de 1'Academie des Inscriptions et 
Belles-lettres,' 1893, p. 33a. 

* ' Nepalese Buddhist Literature,' p. 6o. 

[36] b 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



XV111 QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES OF MILINDA THE KING. 

which has come to notice since the publication of part i, 
is in the closing words of the Attha-Salint-Atthayo^ana 
(a /ika on Buddhaghosa's first work, his commentary on 
the Dhamma Sangani), which was written in Siam after the 
twelfth century by jVanakitti, and edited in 1 890 at Galle, 
by Pa««asekhara Unnanse. On page 265 we read : 

Vattaniya-senasane ti Via^M/aviyaw* Vattaniya-sena- 
sane. Tena vuttam Mahavawse: 

Assagutta-mahathero pabhinna-Parisambhido 
Sa///*i-bhikkhu sahassani Viw^atfaviyam adiya 
Vattaniya-senasana nabhasa tattha-m-otariti. 

' The words Vattaniya-senasane mean, " in the Vattaniya 
Hermitage in the Vindhya Desert." Therefore it is said 
in the Mahavamsa: 

'"The great Thera Assagutta, who knew so well the 
Pa/isambhida, bringing sixty thousand brethren from the 
Vattaniya Hermitage in the Vindhya Desert through the sky, 
descended there." ' 

This quotation is very interesting. It follows that in the 
original text of the Attha Salini there is something about 
the Vattaniya Hermitage. And also that the author of 
this Zika must have had before him some text of our 
Mahavawsa differing from ours, or perhaps some other 
Mahavawsa. For the lines quoted do not occur in our 
text. The nearest approach to them is one line in the 
description of the assembly that came together at the con- 
secration of the Maha Thupa at Anuradhapura in the year 
157 B.C. It runs 1 : 

Vi«£-Aa/avi-Vattaniya-senasana 2 tu Uttaro 
Thero sa/A&i-sahassani bhikkhu adiya agama. 

'The thera Uttara came up bringing with him sixty 
thousand Bhikshus from the Vattaniya Hermitage [not 
Uttania Temple as Tumour translates] in the Vindhya 
Desert.' 

The resemblance of the passages is striking. But all 

1 Chapter XXIX, p. 171, of Tumour's edition. 
* Tumour has Vattaniya-senasanu. 



Digitized by 



Google 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 



that can be concluded is that the author of our Mahavamsa, 
Mahanama, who wrote in the middle of the fifth century, 
knew of the Vattaniya Hermitage; and that the author 
of the text quoted by #anakitti (in a passage probably 
describing the same event) mentions an Assagutta as having 
come to the festival from his hermitage at Vattaniya. 

Both these references are entirely legendary. In order 
to magnify the importance of the great festival held in 
Ceylon on the occasion referred to, it is related that certain 
famous members of the Buddhist order came, attended 
by many followers, through the sky, to take part in the 
ceremony. A comparison of this list with the previous 
list, also given in the Mahavawzsa \ of the missionaries sent 
out nearly a hundred years before, by Asoka, will show 
that the names in the second list are in great part an echo 
of those in the first. But in selecting well-known names, 
Mahanama in his second, fabulous, list has, according to 
the published text, also included that of the Vattaniya 
Hermitage, and, according to the new verse in the other 
text, has associated with that place the name of Assagutta, 
not found elsewhere except in the Milinda. In that book 
the residence of Assagutta is not specified — it is his friend 
Rohawa who lives at the Vattaniya, and the locality of the 
Vattaniya is not specified — it would seem from the state- 
ment at I, 25 (part i, p. 20 of this translation) that it was 
a day's journey from ' the Guarded Slope,' that is, in the 
Himalayas. But geographical allusions are apt to be 
misleading when the talk is of Bhikshus who could fly 
through the air. And it seems the most probable explana- 
tion that the authors of these verses, in adopting these 
names, had the Milinda story in their mind. 

[Tumour's reading of the name as Uttara, and not 
Assagutta, is confirmed by the Dipavawzsa, chap. XIX, 
verses 4-6, where all the fourteen names of the visitors 
from India are given (without any details as to the districts 
whence they came), and the corresponding name is also 
Uttara there.] 



1 Turnonr, pp. 71-73. 
D2 



Digitized by 



Google 



XX QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES OF MILINDA THE KING. 

The above sets out all the new information I have been 
able to glean about the Milinda since the publication of 
the Introduction to the first volume of this translation. 
I had hoped in this Introduction to discuss the doctrines, 
as apart from the historical and geographical allusions, of 
our author — comparing his standpoint with that of the 
earliest Buddhists, set out in the four great Nikayas, with 
that of later books contained in the Pi/akas, and with that 
of still later works not included in the canon at all. I have 
to express my regret that a long and serious illness, cul- 
minating in a serious accident that was very nearly a fatal 
one, has deprived me altogether of the power of work, and 
not only prevented me from carrying out this perhaps too 
ambitious design, but has so long delayed the writing of 
this Introduction. 

Only one of the preliminary labours to the intended 
Introduction was completed. I read through the Katha 
Vatthu, which has not yet been edited, with a view of 
ascertaining whether, at the time when that book was 
written, that is, in the time of Asoka, the kind of questions 
agitating the Buddhist community bore any relation to the 
kind of questions discussed by the author of our Milinda. 
As is well known, the Katha Vatthu sets out a number of 
points on which the orthodox school, that of the Thera- 
vadins, differed in Asoka's time from the other seventeen 
schools (afterwards called collectively the Hinayana) which 
had sprung up among the Buddhists between the time of 
the Buddha and that of Asoka. I published in the ' Journal 
of the Royal Asiatic Society' for 189a a statement, both in 
the original Pali and in English, of all the points thus 
discussed by the author of the Katha Vatthu, Moggali- 
putta TissaThera, giving (from the commentary) the names 
of the various schools against whom, in each instance, his 
remarks were directed. 

It is now possible to judge from this analysis of the 
questions proposed, what were the subjects on which 
differences obtained among the early Buddhists. There 
are a number of points raised in Tissa's discussions which 
are also discussed by the author of the Milinda. In every 



Digitized by 



Google 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 



instance the two authors agree in their views, Nagasena 
in the Milinda always advocating the Opinion which Tissa 
puts forward as that of the Thera-vadins. This is especially 
the case with those points which Moggali-putta Tissa thinks 
of so much importance that he discusses them at much 
greater length than the others. 

His first chapter, for instance, by far the longest in his 
book, is on the question whether, in the high and truest 
sense of the word, there can be said to be a ' soul ' *. It is 
precisely this question which forms also the subject of the 
very first discussion between Milinda and Nagasena, the 
conversation leading up to the celebrated simile of the 
chariot by which Nagasena apparently convinces Milinda 
of the truth of the orthodox Buddhist view that there is 
really no such thing as a 'soul' in the ordinary sense 2 . 
On leaving the sage, the king returns to his palace, and 
the next day the officer who escorts Nagasena there to 
renew the discussion, occupies the time to raise again the 
same question, and is answered by the simile of the 
musicians 3 . Not content with these two expositions of 
this important doctrine, the author of the Milinda returns 
again soon afterwards to the same point, which he illustrates 
by the simile of the palace *, and further on in the book he 
takes occasion to discuss and refute the commonly held 
opinion that there is a soul in inanimate things, such as 
water 6 . 

It cannot be doubted that the authors of the Kathi 
Vatthu and the Milinda were perfectly justified in putting 
this crucial question in the very forefront of their discussion 
— just as the Buddha himself, as is well known, made it 
the subject of the very first discourse he addressed to his 
earliest converted followers, the Anatta-lakkhawa Sutta, 
included both in the Vinaya and in the Anguttara 
Nikaya 6 . 

The history of ideas about the 'soul* has yet to be 

1 KathS Vatthu I, I. » Milinda, i, pp. 40-41. 

' Milinda, i, p. 48. * Milinda, i, pp. 86-89. 

* Milinda, ii, pp. 85-87. 

• Vinaya Texti (S. B. E. XIII), part i, pp. 100, 101, and Anguttara Nikaya. 



Digitized by 



Google 



XXU QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES OF MILINDA THE KING. 

written. But the outlines of it are pretty well established, 
and there is nothing to show that the Indian notions on the 
subject, apart perhaps from the subsidiary beliefs in Karma 
and transmigration, were materially different from those 
obtaining elsewhere. Already in prehistoric times the 
ancestors of the Indian peoples, whether Aryan by race 
or not, had come to believe, probably through the influence 
of dreams, in the existence inside each man of a subtle 
image of the man himself. This weird and intangible 
form left the body during sleep, and at death it continued 
in some way to live. It was a crude hypothesis found 
useful to explain the phenomena of dreams, of motion, 
and of life. And it was applied very indiscriminately to 
the allied phenomena in external things — the apparent 
life and motion, not only of animals, but also of plants 
and rivers, of winds and celestial bodies, being explained 
by the hypothesis of a soul within them. The varying 
conditions and appearances of the external world gave 
rise to the various powers and qualities ascribed to these 
external souls, and hence to whole systems of polytheism 
and mythology. And just as the gods, which never had 
any existence except in the ideas of their worshippers, 
were born and grew and changed and passed away with 
those ideas, so also the hypothesis of internal souls had, no 
less in India than elsewhere, a continual change, a continual 
development— and this not only as to ideas on the nature 
and origin of the internal human souls, but as to their 
relation to the external souls or gods. And when specula- 
tion, which loved to busy itself with these mysterious 
and fanciful hypotheses, had learnt to conjecture a unity 
behind the variety of external spirits, the relation of men's 
souls to the one great first cause, to God, became the 
subject of endless discussions, of varying views invented to 
harmonise with varying preconceived conceptions. 

When Buddhism arose these hypotheses as to 'souls/ 
internal and external, formed the basis of all the widely 
differing, and very living and earnest, religious and philo- 
sophical speculations in the valley of the Ganges, where 
there then obtained that marvellous freedom of thought 



Digitized by 



Google 



INTRODUCTION. XX111 



on all such subjects which has been throughout its history 
a distinguishing characteristic of the Indian people. Now 
there is one work, of more importance than any other in 
Buddhism, the collection of the Dialogues of Gotama the 
Buddha, brought together in the Digha and MagfAima 
Nikayas. It contains the views of the Buddha set out, as 
they appeared to his very earliest disciples, in a series of 
185 conversational discourses, which will some day come 
to hold a place, in the history of human thought, akin to 
that held by the Dialogues of Plato. Is it a mere chance, 
or is it the actual result of the necessities of the case, that 
this question of ' souls ' is put into the forefront of this 
collection, just as it is the point treated, first and at the 
greatest length in the Katha Vatthu, and put first also in 
the Milinda ? 

The first of these 185 dialogues is the Brahma^ala 
Suttanta, the discourse called the Perfect Net, the net 
whose meshes are so fine that no folly of superstition, 
however subtle, can slip through — the clearing away of the 
rubbish before the foundations are laid for the new palace 
of good sense. In it are set out sixty-two varieties of 
existing hypotheses, and after each and all of them has 
been rejected, the doctrine of Arahatship is put forward 
as the right solution. The sixty-two heresies are as 
follows : 

1-4. Sassata-vAdA. People who, either from medita- 
tion of three degrees, or fourthly through logic 
and reasoning, have come to believe that both 
the external world as a whole, and individual 
souls, are eternal. 
5-8. Eka^ata-SASSATIkA. People who, in four ways, 
hold that some souls are eternal, while others 
are not. 

a. Those who hold that God is eternal, but not the 

individual souls. 

b. Those who hold that all the gods are eternal, but 

not the individual souls. 

c. Those who hold that certain illustrious gods are 

eternal, but not the human souls. 



Digitized by 



Google 



XXIV QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES OF MILINDA THE KING. 

d. Those who hold that while the bodily forms are 
not eternal, there is a subtle something, called 
Heart or Mind, or Consciousness, which is. 
9-1 2. AntAntikA. People who chop logic about finity 
and infinity. 

a. Those who hold the world to be finite. 

b. Those who hold it to be infinite. 

c. Those who hold it to be both. 

d. Those who hold it to be neither. 

13-16. Amara-vikkhepikA. People who equivocate about 
virtue and vice — 

a. From the fear that if they express a decided opinion 

grief at possible mistake will injure them. 

b. That they may form attachments which will injure 

them. 

c. That they may be unable to answer skilful dis- 

putants. 

d. From dullness and stupidity. 

17,18. Adhia'A'a-samuppanikA. People who think that 
the origin of things can be explained without 
a cause. 

19-50. Uddhama-AghatanikA. People who believe in 
the future existence of human souls. 

a. Sixteen different phases of the hypothesis of a 

conscious existence after death. 

b. Eight different phases of the hypothesis of an 

unconscious existence after death. 

c. Eight different phases of the hypothesis of an 

existence between consciousness and unconscious- 
ness after death. 

51-57. Ukkheda-vAdA. People who teach the doctrine 
that there is a soul, but that it will cease to exist 
on the death of the body here, or at the end of 
a next life, or of further lives in higher and ever 
higher states of being. 

58-62. DI777ZA-dhammika-nibbAna-vAdA. People who 
hold that there is a soul, and that it can attain to 
perfect bliss in this present world, or in whatever 
world it happens to be — 



Digitized by 



Google 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 



a. By a full, complete, and perfect enjoyment of the 

five senses. 

b. By an enquiring mental abstraction (the First 

Dhyana). 

c. By undisturbed mental bliss, untarnished by enquiry 

(the Second Dhyana). 

d. By mental peace, free alike from joy and pain and 

enquiry (the Third Dhyana). 

e. By this mental peace plus a sense of purity (the 

Fourth Dhyana). 

Professor Garbe, in his just published 'Sankhya Philo- 
sophic 1 ,' holds that the first persons attacked in this list 
are the followers of the Sankhya. The double view of the 
Sassata-vada is no doubt the basis of the Sankhya system. 
But the system contains much more, and it would be safer 
to say that we have here a warning against the philosophical 
view which afterwards developed into the Sankhya, or 
rather which became afterwards a fundamental part of the 
Sankhya. The Vedanta, in either of its forms, is not, it 
will be noticed, referred to in any one of the sixty-two 
divisions; but philosophical views forming part of the 
Vedanta may be traced in Nos. 5, 8, 10, 20, &c. The 
scheme is not intended as a refutation of the views, as 
a whole, held by any special school or individual, but 
as a statement of erroneous views on two special points, 
namely, the soul and the world. However this may be, 
we find an ample justification in this comprehensive and 
systematic condemnation of all current or possible forms 
of the soul-theory for the prominence which the author of 
the Milinda gives to the subject. 

The other points on which the Milinda may be compared 
with the Katha Vatthu will need less comment. The 
discussion in the Milinda as to the manner in which the 
Divine Eye can arise in a man 2 , is a reminiscence of the 
question raised in the Katha Vatthu III, 7 as to whether 
the eye of flesh can, through strength of dhamma, grow 
into the Divine Eye. The discussion in the Milinda as to 

1 Introduction, p. 57. ' Milinda, i, pp. 179-185. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



XXVI QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES OF MILINDA THE KING. 

how a layman, who is a layman after becoming an Arahat, 
can enter the Order 1 , is entirely in accord with the opinion 
maintained, as against the Uttarapathaka, in the Katha 
Vatthu IV, i. Our Milinda ascribes the verses, 

' Exert yourselves, be strong, and to the faith,' &c, 
to the Buddha 2 . In the note on that passage I had 
pointed out that they are ascribed, not to the Buddha, but 
to Abhibhu in certain Pi/aka texts, and to the Buddha 
himself only in late Sanskrit works. In the exposition of 
Katha Vatthu II, 3 the verses are also ascribed to the 
Buddha. The proposition in the Katha Vatthu II, 8 that 
the Buddha, in the ordinary affairs of life, was not 
transcendental, agrees with Nagasena's argument in the 
Milinda, part ii, pp. 8-1 z. The discussion in the Milinda 
as to whether an Arahat can be thoughtless or guilty of 
an offence 3 is foreshadowed by the similar points raised in 
the Kath4 Vatthu I, a ; II, 1, 2, and VIII, 1 1. And the two 
dilemmas, Nos. 65 and 66, especially as to the cause of 
space, may be compared with the discussion in Katha 
Vatthu VI, 6, as to whether space is self-existent. 

The general result of a comparison between these two 
very interesting books of controversial apologetics seems 
to me to be that the differences between them are just 
such as one might expect (<*) from the difference of date, 
and (6) from the fact that the controversy in the older 
book is carried on against members of the same communion, 
whereas in the Milinda we have a defence of Buddhism as 
against the outsider. The Katha Vatthu takes almost the 
whole of the conclusions reached in the Milinda for granted, 
and goes on to discuss further questions on points of detail. 
It does not give a description of Arahatship in glowing 
terms, but discusses minor points as to whether the realisa- 
tion of Arahatship includes the Fruits of the three lower 
paths 4 , or whether a 1 1 the qualities of an Arahat are free 
from the Asavas 6 , or whether the knowledge of his 



1 Milinda, ii, pp. 96-98 (compare 57-59). 

* Milinda, ii, p. 60. > Milinda, ii, pp. 98 foil. 

* Katha Vatthu IV, 9. » Katha Vatlhu IV, 3. 



Digitized by 



Google 



INTRODUCTION. XXV11 



emancipation alone makes a man an Arahat 1 , or whether 
the breaking of the Fetters constitutes Arahatship, and 
whether the insight into Arahatship suffices to break all 
the Fetters 2 , and so on. 

The discussion of these details gives no opportunity for 
the enthusiastic eloquence of the author of our Milinda, 
and the very fact of his eloquence argues a later date. 
But there can be no doubt as to the superiority of his 
style. And I still adhere to the opinions expressed in the 
former Introduction that the work, as it stands in the Pali, 
is of its kind (that is, as a book of apologetic controversy) 
the best in point of style that had then been written in any 
country ; and that it is the masterpiece of Indian prose. 

T. W. RHYS DAVIDS. 
Temple, 

May, 1894. 



1 Katha Vatthu V, 1. ' Katha Vatthu V, 10, and X, 1. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 




THE QUESTIONS 

OF 

KING MILINDA. 

<t 

BOOK IV. \ 
The Solving of Dilemmas. 

Chapter 5. 

[dilemma the forty-first. 

on dwelling-places.] 

i. [211] 'Venerable Nagasena, the Blessed One 
said: 

" In friendship of the world anxiety is born, 
In household life distraction's dust springs up, 
The state set free from home and friendship's ties, 
That, and that only, is the recluse's aim 1 ." 

1 This is the opening verse of the Muni Sutta (in the Sutta 
Nipata I, 12). It is quoted again below, p. 385 of the Pali text. 
The second line is, in the original, enigmatically terse, and runs 
simply, ' From a home dust arises.' This Fausbdll renders (in the 
S. B. E., vol. x, part ii, p. 33), 'From household life arises 
defilement,' the word for dust (ra^o) being often used figuratively in 
the sense of something that disfigures, is out of place in the higher 
life. It is the distracting effect of household cares that the recluse 
has to fear. 

[36] B 

r C. 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 2. 

' But on the other hand he said : 
" Let therefore the wise man, 
Regarding his own weal, 
Have pleasant dwelling-places built, 
And lodge there learned men 1 ." 
' Now, venerable Nagasena, if the former of these 
two passages was really spoken by the Tathagata, 
then the second must be wrong. But if the Tatha- 
gata really said : " Have pleasant dwelling-places 
built," then the former statement must be wrong.. 
This too is a double-edged problem, now put to you, 
which you have to solve.' 

2. [212] ' Both the passages you have quoted, 
O king, were spoken by the Tathagata. And the 
former is a statement as to the nature of things, 
an inclusive statement, a statement which leaves no 
room for anything to be supplemented to it, or to 
be added to it in the way of gloss 2 , as to what is 
seemly and appropriate and proper for a recluse, 
and as to the mode of life which a recluse should 
adopt, the path he should walk along, and the 
practice he should follow. For just, O king, as 
a deer in the forest, wandering in the woods, sleeps 
wherever he desires, having no home and no 

1 This is a very famous verse, found first in the Vinaya (A'ulla- 
vagga VI, 1, 5), and quoted in the Introduction to the Gatakas 
(Fausboll, vol. i, p. 93; compare vol. iv, p. 354), translated in my 
'Buddhist Birth Stories/ vol. i, p. 132. Hfna/i-kumbure' adds the 
context : 

' Then shall they preach to him the Truth, 
The Truth dispelling every grief, 
Which Truth when here a man perceives, 
He's freed from stains, and dies away.' 
1 On these expressions compare above, p. 170 (p. 113 of the 
text). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV.5.3- OF MILINDA THE KING. 3 

dwelling-place, so also should the recluse be of 
opinion that 

" In friendship of the world anxiety is born, 
In household life distraction's dust springs up." 

3. ' But when the Blessed One said : 

" Have pleasant dwelling-places built, 
And lodge there learned men," 

that was said with respect to two matters only. 
And what are those two ? The gift of a dwelling- 
place (Wihara) has been praised and approved, 
esteemed and highly spoken of, by all the Buddhas. 
And those who have made such a gift shall be de- 
livered from rebirth, old age, and death. This is 
the first of the advantages in the gift of a dwelling- 
place. And again, if there be a common dwelling- 
place (a Wihara) the sisters of the Order will have 
a clearly ascertained place of rendezvous, and those 
who wish to visit (the brethren of the Order) 1 will 
find it an easy matter to do so. Whereas if there 
were no homes for the members of the Order it 
would be difficult to visit them. This is the second 
of the advantages in the gift of a dwelling-place 
(a Wihara). It was with reference to these two 
matters only that it was said by the Blessed One : 

" Have pleasant dwelling-places built, 
And lodge there learned men." 

[213] ' And it does not follow from that that the 
sons of the Buddha * should harbour longings after 
the household life.' 



1 The words in brackets are added from Hma/i-kumburS. 
* That is, the members of the Order. 

B 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



4 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 4. 

' Very good, Nagasena I That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to dwelling-places.] 



[dilemma the forty-second, 
moderation in food.] 

4. ' Venerable Nagasena, the Blessed One said : 

" Be not remiss as to (the rules to be observed) 
when standing up (to beg for food). Be restrained 
in (matters relating to) the stomach V 

' But on the other hand he said : 

" Now there were several days, Udiyin, on which 
I ate out of this bowl when it was full to the brim, 
and ate even more *." 

' Now if the first rule be true, then the second 
statement must be false. But if the statement be 
true, then the rule first quoted must be wrong. 

1 This verse has not yet been traced. The first half of it occurs 
in a different connection at Dhammapada, verse 168, which I have 
rendered (at 'Buddhism,' p. 65), 'Rise up and loiter notl'with- 
out any reference at all to food. This was in accordance with the 
view taken of the passage, both by Prof. Fausboll, who renders it 
(p. 31 of his edition of the Pali), ' Surgat, ne sit socors,' and by 
Prof. Max Mailer, who renders it (S. B. E., vol. x, part i, p. 47), 
' Rouse thyself, do not be idle I ' And I still think (especially 
noting such passages as Dhammapada, verses 231, 232, and the 
verse quoted in the Commentary, p. 126 of Fausb611, from G&taka. 
IV, 496, &c.) that this was the original meaning in that connec- 
tion. But here the words must clearly be taken as referring to 
food,* and it is very remarkable that the commentator on the 
Dhammapada (see p. 335 of FausbSll's edition) takes them in that 
sense also even in the other connection. It is a striking instance 
of the way in which commentators impart a purely technical sense 
into a general ethical precept. 

* From the Mahi Udayi Sutta (Maxima Nikaya, No. 77). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5,5- OF MILINDA THE KING. 5 

This too is a double-edged problem, now put to you, 
which you have to solve.' 

5. ' Both the passages you have quoted, O king, 
were spoken by the Blessed One. But the former 
passage [214] is a statement as to the nature of 
things, an inclusive statement, a statement which 
leaves no room for anything to be supplemented to 
it, or added to it in the way of gloss, a statement of 
what is true and real and in accordance with the 
facts, and that cannot be proved wrong, a declara- 
tion made by the prophets, and sages, and teachers, 
and Arahats, and by the Buddhas who are wise for 
themselves alone (Pa&£eka-Buddhas), a declaration 
made by the Conquerors, and by the All-wise Ones, 
a declaration made too by the Tathagata, the Arahat, 
the Supreme Buddha himself. He who has no self- 
control as regards the stomach, O king, will destroy 
living creatures, will take possession of what has not 
been given to him, will be unchaste, will speak lies, 
will drink strong drink, will put his mother or his 
father to death, will slay an Arahat, will create a 
schism in the Order, will even with malice afore- 
thought wound a Tathagata. Was it not, O king, 
when without restraint as to his stomach, that Deva- 
datta by breaking up the Order, heaped up for him- 
self karma that would endure for a kalpa 1 ? It was 
on calling to mind this, O king, and many other 
things of the same kind, that the Blessed One 
declared : 

" Be not remiss as to (the rules to be observed) 

1 See above, p. 164 (p. 109 of the Pali text). These passages 
show that Dr. Morris's note in the ' Journal of the Pali Text Society,' 
1885, requires modification. See also below, IV, 8, 88, and the 
passages quoted by him in the ' Journal ' for 1886. 



Digitized by 



Google 



6 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 6. 

when standing up (to beg for food). Be restrained 
in (matters relating to) the stomach." 

6. 'And he who has self-control as regards the 
stomach gains a clear insight into the Four Truths, 
realises the Four Fruits of the life of renunciation ', 
and attains to mastery over the Four Discrimina- 
tions 2 , the Eight Attainments 8 , and the Six Modes 
of Higher Knowledge *, and fulfils all that goes to 
constitute the life of the recluse. Did not the parrot 
fledgling, O king, by self-restraint as to his stomach, 
cause the very heaven of the great Thirty-Three to 
shake, and bring down Sakka, the king of the gods, 
to wait upon him 6 ? It was on calling to mind this, 
O king, and many other things of a similar kind, 
that the Blessed One declared : 

" Be not remiss as to (the rules to be observed) 
when standing up (to beg for food). Be restrained 
in (matters relating to) the stomach." 

7. ' But when, O king, the Blessed One said : 
" Now there were several days, Udiyi, on which I 
ate out of this bowl when it was full to the brim, 
and ate even more," that was said by him who had 
completed his task, who had finished all that he had 
to do, who had accomplished the end he set before 
him, who had overcome every obstruction, by the 
self-dependent 8 Tathagata himself about himself. 

1 SamaMa. J Pa/isambhida\ * SamSpatti. «Abhi«»a. 

' This story will be found in the two Suka Gatakas (Nos. 429 
and 430 in Fausbdll). I had not succeeded in tracing it when the list 
at vol. i, p. xxvi, was drawn up ; it should therefore be added there. 

• Sayambhuni, ' whose knowledge is not derived from any one 
else.' (Sayambhu-M«a-wu says Hina/i-kumbur6.) Burnouf's 
proposition (' Lotus,' p. 336) to take it in the sense of ' who has no 
other substratum or raison d'etre than himself cannot be accepted, 
in spite of Childers's approbation. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5, 7- OF MILINDA THE KING. 7 

Just, O king, as it is desirable that a sick man to 
whom an emetic, or a purge, or a clyster has been 
administered, should be treated with a tonic ; [215] 
just so, O king, should the man who is full of evil, 
and who has not perceived the Four Truths, adopt 
the practice of restraint in the matter of eating. 
But just, O king, as there is no necessity of polishing, 
and rubbing down \ and purifying a diamond gem 
of great brilliancy, of the finest water, and of natural 
purity; just so, O king, is there no restraint as to 
what actions he should perform, on the Tathagata, 
on him who hath attained to perfection in all that 
lies within the scope of a Buddha a .' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to restraint in 
eating.] 



1 Nighawsana. Compare the use of nighawsati at Aulla- 
vagga V, 27, 2. 

* This is much more than a mere injunction not to gild refined 
gold. It comes very near to the enunciation of the dangerous 
doctrine that the holy man is above the law, and that nothing he 
does can be wrong. It is curious how frequently one finds this 
proposition cropping up in the most unexpected places, and the 
history of religious belief is full of instances of its pernicious effect 
on the most promising movements. When one considers the great 
influence of our author's work, it becomes especially interesting to 
note how the doctrine has never, among the orthodox Buddhists, 
who read the Pali Scriptures, been extended from the Buddha 
himself to his followers, and from moderation in food to matters of 
more vital import in the life of a church. And this is the more 
remarkable as the Tantra works of the corrupt Buddhism of Nepal 
and Tibet show how fatal has been the result of the doctrine 
among those Buddhists who had lost the guiding support of the 
older Scriptures. 



Digitized by 



Google 



8 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 8. 

[dilemma THE FORTY-THIRD. 
BAKKULA'S SUPERIORITY TO THE BUDDHA.] 

8. 'Venerable Nagasena, it was said by the 
Blessed One : 

" A Brahman am I, O brethren, devoted to self- 
sacrifice 1 , pure-handed at every time ; this body that 
I bear with me is my last, I am the supreme Healer 
and Physician 2 ." 

' But on the other hand the Blessed One said : 

" The chief, O brethren, among those who are 
disciples of mine, in the matter of bodily health, is 
Bakkula 8 ." 

' Now it is well known that diseases arose several 
times in the body of the Blessed One. So that if, 
Nagasena, the Tathagata was supreme, then the 
statement he made about Bakkula's bodily health 
must be wrong. But if the Elder named Bakkula 
was really chief among those who were healthy, 
then that statement which I first quoted must be 

1 YaJayogo. See Sutta Nipata III, 5, 1 ; Ahguttara Nikaya 
111, 79, 2 ; and below, p. 225 (of the Pali text). 

2 This passage has not yet been traced in the Pi/akas, and the 
context is therefore unknown. But the word Brahman must of 
course be applied to the Buddha here in the sense, not of one 
belonging to the Brahman caste, but of Arahat. Hina/i-kumbure' 
adds, as a gloss, bahita~papa-brahma»ayek, 'brahman be- 
cause he has suppressed evil in himself.' On this explanation see 
my note to the forty-eighth dilemma, which is devoted to the 
discussion of this difficulty. 

On the Buddha as the Great Physician see Sutta Nipata III, 7, 
13; Ma^Aima Nikaya I, 429; Sumahgala Vilisini, 67, 255; and 
Milinda, pp. no, 169 (of the Pali text). 

* Ahguttara Nikaya I, 14, 4. The reading adopted by our 
author agrees with that of the Sinhalese MSS. put by Dr. Morris 
into the text. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV. 5, 9' OF MILINDA THE KING. 9 

wrong. This too is a double-edged problem, now 
put to you, which you have to solve.' 

9. ' Both the quotations you have made, O king, 
are correct 1 . But what the Blessed One said about 
Bakkula was said of those disciples who had learnt 
by heart the sacred words, and studied them, and 
handed down the tradition, which in reference to 
the characteristics (each of them in some one point) 
had in addition to those which were found in him him- 
self 2 . [216] For there were certain of the disciples 
of the Blessed One, O king, who were " meditators 
on foot," spending a whole day and night in walking 
up and down in meditation. But the Blessed One 
was in the habit of spending the day and night in 
meditation, not only walking up and down but also 
sitting and lying down. So such, O king, of the 
disciples as were "meditators on foot 3 " surpassed 
him in that particular. And there were certain of 
the disciples of the Blessed One, O king, who were 
" eaters at one sitting," who would not, even to save 
their lives, take more than one meal a day. But the 

1 Here, as always, they are repeated in full in the text. 

* This passage is very ambiguous. Hinan-kumburg renders it : 
' with reference to what was found in himself, and besides that (with 

reference) to the disciples who had learnt &c tradition.' He 

translates agamanam and the two following words, as relative 
compounds, by agama-dh&ri-wu, &c, and in this I have 
followed him. But he supplies an ' and ' after the last, thus taking 
them as accusatives in dependence onsandh&ya, and that cannot 
be right. It seems forced to separate b&hirdnaw so much from 
the other genitives with which it stands in the text, and yet it is so 
impossible to make sense of the passage in any other way, that 
one would like to know the readings of all the MSS. 

s 'ifakkhupala and others' adds Hina/i-kumburfi. (For the 
story of A'akkhupala, see the commentary on the Dhammapada, 
verse 1.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



IO THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 10. 

Blessed One was in the habit of taking a second, or 
even a third. So such, O king, of the disciples as 
were " eaters at one sitting " surpassed him in that 
particular. And in a similar way, O king, a number 
of different things have been told, each one of one 
or other of the disciples. But the Blessed One, O 
king, surpassed them all in respect of uprightness, 
and of power of meditation, and of wisdom, and of 
emancipation, and of that insight which arises out 
of the knowledge of emancipation, and in all that lies 
within the scope of a Buddha. It was with reference 
to that, O king, that he said : 

" A Brahman am I, O brethren, devoted to self- 
sacrifice, pure-handed at every time ; this body that 
I bear with me is my last, I am the supreme Healer 
and Physician." 

io. ' Now one man, O king, may be of good birth, 
and another may be wealthy, and another full of 
wisdom, and another well educated, and another 
brave, and another adroit ; but a king, surpassing all 
these, is reckoned supreme. Just in that way, O king, 
is the Blessed One the highest, the most worthy of 
respect, the best of all beings. And in so far as the 
venerable Bakkula was healthy in body, that was by 
reason of an aspiration (he had formed in a pre- 
vious birth) l . For, O king, when Anoma-dassl, the 
Blessed One, was afflicted with a disease, with wind 
in his stomach, and again when Vipasst, the Blessed 
One, and sixty-eight thousand of his disciples, were 
afflicted with a disease, with greenness of blood 2 , he, 

1 See, for other instances of such aspirations, above, vol. i, p. 5. 

* Tiwa-pupphaka-roga. There is a flower called ti»a- 
puppha, and this may be a skin disease named after it. But 
pupphaka at GStaka III, 541, means blood, and the disease may 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, S,i i. OF MILINDA THE KING. II 



being at those times an ascetic, had cured that 
disease with various medicines, and attained (there- 
by) to such healthiness of body (in this life) that it 
was said of him : 

" The chief, O brethren, among those who are 
disciples of mine, in the matter of bodily health, is 
Bakkula." 

ii.' But the Blessed One, O king, whether he be 
suffering, or not suffering, from disease ; whether he 
have taken, or not taken, upon himself the observance 

be so called because the blood was turned by it to the colour of 
grass (tiwa). Htna/i-kumbure' (who gives these legends of the 
previous births of Bakkula at much greater length, adding others 
from the time of the Buddhas Padumuttara and Kassapa, and 
giving the story also of his present birth) says that the disease 
arose from contact with wind which had been poisoned through 
blowing over a Upas tree (p. 296 of the Sinhalese version). But 
he does not explain the name of the disease, which occurs only 
here. 

In his present birth Bakkula is said to have been born at 
Kos&mbt, in a wealthy family. His mother, understanding that to 
bathe a new-born child in the Jumna would ensure him a long life, 
took him down to the river. Whilst he was there being bathed, a 
huge fish swallowed him. But the fish, caught at Benares, was 
sold to a wealthy but childless man there, and on being cut open, 
the babe was found in it unhurt. 

The mother hearing the news of this marvel, went in great state and 
with haste to Benares and claimed the child. Thereupon an inter- 
esting lawsuit arose, and the king of Benares, thinking it unjust to 
deprive the purchaser of a fish of anything inside it, and also unjust 
to deprive a mother of her child, decided that the child belonged 
equally to both. So he became the heir of both families, and was 
therefore called Bak-kula, ' the two-family-one' (Bak=B&=Dv4). 
On the real derivation of Bakkula, see Dr. Morris in the ' Journal 
of the Pali Text Society,' 1886, pp. 94-99. We need not quarrel 
with a false etymology which shows us so clearly the origin of the 
legend. Then Bakkula enjoys great prosperity in the orthodox 
three palaces, and at eighty years of age, being still in vigorous 
health, enters the Order. 



Digitized by 



Google 



12 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, n. 

of special vows x , — there is no being like unto the 
Blessed One. [217] For this, O king, has been said 
by the Blessed One, the god of gods, in the most 
excellent Sawyutta Nikaya 2 : 

" Whatsoever beings, O brethren, there may be — 
whether without feet, or bipeds, or four-footed things, 
whether with a body, or without a body, whether 
conscious or unconscious, or neither conscious nor 
not — the Tathagata is acknowledged to be the 
chief of all, the Arahat, the Buddha Supreme." ' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept it 
as you say V 

[Here ends the problem as to the superiority of 
Bakkula to the Buddha.] 



1 The Dhutangas, enumerated below, p. 351 (of the Pali 
text). 

* Sawyutta Nikaya XLIV, 103. 

8 This piece of casuistry is not so entirely at variance with 
the context of the second passage (quoted from the Anguttara 
I, 14) as would seem at first sight. The answer practically 
amounts to this, that though each of many disciples may be 
superior to the Buddha in certain bodily qualities, or even in 
the special vows known as Dhutangas, yet he surpasses them in 
the 'weightier matters of the law.' It is true that one of the 
instances given, that of the /Mna-£ankamika, is not included 
in the list of Dhutangas, and in the long enumeration in the Angut- 
tara of those of the disciples who were ' chief in any way, ' weightier 
matters of the law' are not overlooked. But 'meditation on foot' 
is of the same nature as the acknowledged Dhutangas, and none of 
the five special points in which Nagasena places especially the 
superiority of the Buddha (uprightness, &c), is mentioned in the 
Anguttara. Nevertheless the logical reply to the problem proposed 
would have been that in the Anguttara the superiority spoken of is 
over other disciples, and not over the Buddha. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5. I3» OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 3 

[dilemma THE FORTY-FOURTH. 
THE ORIGINALITY OF THE BUDDHA'S TEACHING.] 

12. ' Venerable Nagasena, it has been said by the 
Blessed One : 

"The Tathagata, O brethren, the Arahat, the 
Buddha supreme 1 , is the discoverer of a way that 
was unknown *." 

' But on the other hand he said : 

" Now I perceived, O brethren, the ancient way, 
the ancient path, along which the previous Buddhas 
walked 2 ." 

'If, Nagasena, the Tathagata be the discoverer 
of a way not previously found out, then it must be 
wrong that it was an ancient way that he perceived, 
an ancient path along which previous Buddhas 
walked. But if the way he perceived were an ancient 
way, then the statement that it was unknown must 
be wrong. This too is a double-edged problem, now 
put to you, which you have to solve.' 

13. ' Both the quotations you make, O king, are 
accurate. And both the statements so made are 
correct. When the previous Tathagatas, O king, 
had disappeared, then, there being no teacher left, 
their way too disappeared. And it was that way — 
though then broken up, crumbled away, gone to 
ruin, closed in, no longer passable, quite lost to 
view — [218] that the Tathagata, having gained a 

' Supreme, that is, in comparison with the Pa^Aeka Buddhas, 
' Buddhas for themselves alone : ' whereas the ' altogether Buddha ' 
can not only see the truth for himself, but also persuade others 
of it. 

s These two quotations are from the Sawyutta Nikaya XXI, 58 
and X, 2, 65, says Mr. Trenckner, but I cannot trace them in 
M. Feer's edition. 



Digitized by 



Google 



14 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 14. 

thorough knowledge of it, saw by the eye of his 
wisdom 1 , (and knew it) as the way that previous 
Buddhas trod. And therefore is it that he said : 

" Now I perceived, O brethren, the ancient way, 
the ancient path along which previous Buddhas 
walked." 

' And it was a way which — there being, through 
the disappearance of previous Tathagatas, no teacher 
left — was a way then broken up, crumbled away, 
gone to ruin, closed in, and lost to view, that the 
Tathagata made now passable again. And therefore 
is it that he said : 

"The Tathagata, O brethren, the Arahat, the 
Buddha supreme, is the discoverer of a way that 
was unknown." 

14. ' Suppose, O king, that on the disappearance 
of a sovran overlord, the mystic Gem of Sovranty 
lay concealed in a cleft on the mountain peak, and 
that on another sovran overlord arriving at his 
supreme dignity, it should appear to him. Would 
you then say, O king, that the Gem was produced 
by him*?' 

' Certainly not, Sir ! The Gem would be in its 
original condition. But it has received, as it were, a 
new birth through him.' 

'Just so, O king, is it that the Blessed One, 
gaining a thorough knowledge of it by the eye of 

1 * The wisdom arising from the perception of the Four Noble 
Truths ' is Hfna/i-kumbur6's gloss. 

* The wondrous Gem-treasure of the king of kings (the Ve/uriya, 
etymologically the same as beryl, but probably meaning cat's-eye) is 
supposed, like the other mystic treasures, to come to him of its own 
accord, on his becoming sovran overlord. See my 'Buddhist 
Suttas,' p. 256 (S.B.E., vol. xi). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5. »5- 0F MILINDA THE KING. I 5 

his wisdom, brought back to life and made passable 
again the most excellent eightfold way in its original 
condition as when it was walked along by the 
previous Tathagatas, — though that way, when there 
was no teacher more, had become broken up, had 
crumbled away, had gone to ruin, was closed in, and 
lost to view. And therefore is it that he said : 

"The Tathagata, O brethren, the Arahat, the 
Buddha supreme, is the discoverer of a way that 
was unknown." 

15. 'It is, O king, as when a mother brings forth 
from her womb the child that is already there, and 
the saying is that the mother has given birth to the 
child. Just so, O king, did the Tathagata, having 
gained a thorough knowledge of it by the eye of his 
wisdom, bring into life, and make passable again, 
a way that was already there, though then broken 
up, crumbled away, gone to ruin, closed in, and lost 
to view. 

' It is as when some man or other finds a thing 
that has been lost, and the people use the phrase : 
" He has brought it back to life." [219] And it is 
as when a man clears away the jungle, and sets 
free 1 a piece of land, and the people use the phrase : 
" That is his land." But that land is not made by 
him. It is because he has brought the land into use 
that he is called the owner of the land. Just so, 
O king, did the Tathagata, having gained a thorough 
knowledge of it by the eye of his wisdom, bring 
back to life, and make passable again, a way that 
was already there, though then broken up, crumbled 



1 Niharati. Avarawaya kara ganneya says Htna/i- 
kumburS. 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 6 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, g, 16. 

away, gone to ruin, closed in, no longer passable, 
and lost to view. And therefore is it that he said : 

"The Tathagata, O brethren, the Arahat, the 
Buddha supreme, is the discoverer of a way that was 
unknown." ' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the way of 
Nirva#a.] 



[dilemma the forty-fifth, 
the buddha's kindness.] 

i 6. ' Venerable Nagasena, it was said by the 
Blessed One : 

" Already in former births when I was a man had 
I acquired the habit of inflicting no hurt on living 
beings V 

' But on the other hand it is said 2 : 

" When he was Lomasa Kassapa, the Rishi, he 
had hundreds of living creatures slain and offered 
the great sacrifice, the ' Drink of Triumph s .' " ' 

1 This passage has not yet been traced in the Pi/akas. 

* The identical words are not found, but they are a summary of 
the Lomasa Kassapa ffdtaka (No. 433 in Prof. FausboITs edition, 
and see especially vol. iii, p. 517, line 25). 

5 VS^apeyya, which Professor Fausbbll (loc. cit., p. 518) spells 
v$£apeyya, and a Burmese MS. he quotes spells v&dhapeyya 
(characteristically enough, — the scribe not understanding the word, 
and thinking it must have been derived from vadha, makes what he 
thinks must be a correction). The Sanskrit form of the word is 
v&/fcapSya, the drink or draught of battle or victory, name of that 
one of the seven Soma sacrifices which a king offered when 
desirous of attaining to sovran overlordship. In the allied legend 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5, 17- OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 7 

' Now, Nagasena, if it is true what the Buddha 
said, that, in his former births as a man, he inflicted 
no hurt on living beings, then the saying that, as 
Lomasa Kassapa, he had hundreds of living creatures 
slain must be false. But if he had, then the saying 
that he inflicted no hurt on living beings must be 
false. This too is a double-edged problem, now put 
to you, which you have to solve.' 

17. 'The Blessed One did say, O king, that already 
in former births, when he was a man, he had acquired 
the habit of inflicting no hurt on living beings. And 
Lomasa Kassapa, the Rishi, did have hundreds of 
living creatures slain, and offered the great sacrifice, 
the " Drink of Triumph." [220] But that was done 
when he was out of his mind through lust, and not 
when he was conscious of what he was doing.' 

' There are these eight classes of men, Nagasena, 
who kill living beings — the lustful man through his 
lust, and the cruel man through his anger, and the 
dull man through his stupidity, and the proud man 
through his pride, and the avaricious man through 
his greed, and the needy man for the sake of a 
livelihood, and the fool in joke, and the king in the 
way of punishment. These, Nagasena, are the eight 
classes of men who kill living beings. The Bodisat, 
venerable Nagasena, must have been acting in accord- 
ance with his natural disposition when he did so.' 

' No, it was not, O king, an act natural to him that 
the Bodisat did then. If the Bodisat had been led, 
by natural inclination, to offer the great sacrifice, he 
would not have uttered the verse : 



of king Lomapdda's sacrifice (Ramayawa I, 8, 1 1 foil.) it is the 
arva-medha, the horse sacrifice, which is offered. 

[36] c 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 8 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 18. 

" Not the whole world, Sayha, the ocean girt, 
With all the seas and hills that girdle it, 
Would I, desire to have, along with shame 1 ." 

' But though, O king, the Bodisat had said that, 
yet at the very sight of Aandavatt (Moon-face), 
the princess 2 , he went out of his mind and lost 
command of himself through love. And it was 
when thus out of his mind, confused and agitated, 
that he, with his thoughts all perplexed, scattered 
and wandering, thus offered the great sacrifice, the 
" Drink of Triumph," — and mighty was the outpour 
of blood from the necks of the slaughtered beasts ! 

' Just, O king, as a madman, when out of his senses, 
will step into a fiery furnace, and take hold of an 
infuriated venomous snake, and go up to a rogue 
elephant, and plunge forwards into great waters, the 
further shore of which he cannot see, and trample 
through dirty pools and muddy places 8 , and rush 
into thorny brakes, and fall down precipices, and feed 
himself on filth, and go naked through the streets, 
and do many other things improper to be done — 
just so was it, O king, that at the very sight of 
Aandavatt, the princess, the Bodisat went out of his 
mind, and then only acted as I have said 4 . 

18. [221] 'Now an evil act done, O king, by one 
out of his mind, is even in this present world not 
considered as a grievous offence, nor is it so in 

1 This verse is found not only in the 433rd (Fataka (loc. cit.), 
but also in the Sayha (Jataka, No. 310, a shorter recension of the 
same story. 

* Hina/i-kumbure" here summarises the whole story. 

* Aandaniki and o/igalla. See Anguttara III, 57, 1 ; Ma^- 
g/nma. 1, 1 1, 448 ; Thera Gath& 567 ; A'ullavagga V, 1 7, 1. Hina/i- 
kumbure" spells the second word with an ordinary 1. 

4 The text repeats the last paragraph. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, g, 18. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 9 

respect of the fruit that it brings about in a future 
life. Suppose, O king, that a madman had been 
guilty of a capital offence, what punishment would 
you inflict upon him ?' 

' What punishment is due to a madman ? We 
should order him to be beaten and set free. That 
is all the punishment he would have.' 

' So then, O king, there is no punishment accord- 
ing to the offence of a madman. It follows that 
there is no sin in the act done by a madman, it is 
a pardonable act. And just so, O king, is it with 
respect to Lomasa Kassapa, the Rishi, who at the 
mere sight of Aandavati, the princess, went out of his 
mind, and lost command of himself through love. It 
was when thus out of his mind, confused and agitated, 
that he, with his thoughts all perplexed, scattered 
and wandering, thus offered the great sacrifice, the 
" Drink of Triumph," — and mighty was the outpour 
of blood from the necks of the slaughtered beasts ! 
But when he returned again to his natural state, and 
recovered his presence of mind, then did he again 
renounce the world, and having regained the five 
powers of insight, became assured of rebirth in the 
Brahma world.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma about Lomasa Kassapa '.] 

1 It is very instructive to notice the way in which our author 
looks upon the historical Buddha and the various heroes of the 
Gataka Stories as so absolutely identical that he feels obliged to 
defend the conduct of all the ' types ' as earnestly as he would that 
of the Buddha himself. There is no such conception in the 
Pi/akas, and the whole tone of our author's argument reveals the 
lateness of his date as compared with the Pi/akas. 

C 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



20 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 19. 

[dilemma THE FORTY-SIXTH. 
THE MOCKING OF THE BUDDHA.] 

19. 'Venerable Nagasena, it was said by the 
Blessed One of Six-tusks, the elephant king, 
" When he sought to slay him, and had reached him 
with his trunk, 
He perceived the yellow robe, the badge of a 

recluse, 
Then, though smarting with the pain, the thought 
possessed his heart, — 
' He who wears the outward garb the Arahats wear 
Must be scatheless held, and sacred, by the good 1 .' " 

' But on the other hand it is said : 

" When he was (Jotipala, the young Brahman, he 
reviled and abused Kassapa the Blessed One, the 
Arahat, the Buddha supreme, with vile and bitter 
words, calling him a shaveling and a good-for- 
nothing monk*." 

' Now if, Nagasena, the Bodisat, even when he 
was an animal, respected the yellow robe, [222] then 
the statement that as (7otipala, a Brahman, he reviled 
and abused the Blessed One of that time, must be 
false. But if as a Brahman, he reviled and abused 
the Blessed One, the statement that when he was 
Six-tusks, the elephant king, he respected the 
yellow robe, must be false. If when the Bodisat 
was an animal, though he was suffering severe and 
cruel and bitter pain, he respected the yellow robe 

1 From the ,Oaddanta ffataka, No. 514 (Fausboll, vol. v, 
p. 49); with which compare the Kasava G&taka, No. 221 (vol. ii, 
p. 196). 

* This has not been found in these words, but Mr. Trenckner 
refers to Magghima. Nikaya, No. 81. Compare also Gataka I, 43. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5,21. OF MILINDA THE KING. 21 

which the hunter had put on, how was it that when 
he was a man, a man arrived at discretion, with all 
his knowledge mature, he did not pay reverence, on 
seeing him, to Kassapa the Blessed One, the Arahat, 
the Buddha supreme, one endowed with the ten 
powers, the leader of the world, the highest of the 
high, round whom effulgence spread a fathom on 
every side, and who was clad in most excellent and 
precious and delicate Benares cloth made into yellow 
robes ? This too is a double-edged problem, now 
put to you, which you have to solve.' 

20. 'The verse you have quoted, O king, was 
spoken by the Blessed One. And Kassapa the 
Blessed One, the Arahat, the Buddha supreme, was 
abused and reviled by GotipSAa. the young Brahman 
with vile and bitter words, with the epithets of 
shaveling and good-for-nothing monk. But that 
was owing to his birth and family surroundings. 
For (7otipala, O king, was descended from a family 
of unbelievers, men void of faith. His mother and 
father, his sisters and brothers, the bondswomen and 
bondsmen, the hired servants and dependents in the 
house, were worshippers of Brahma, reverers of 
Brahma; and harbouring the idea that Brahmans were 
the highest and most honourable among men, they 
reviled and loathed those others who had renounced 
the world. It was through hearing what they said 
that (Potipala, when invited by Gha/ikara the potter 
to visit the teacher, replied : " What's the good to 
you of visiting that shaveling, that good-for-nothing 
monk ?" 

[223] 21. 'Just, O king, as even nectar when 
mixed with poison will turn sour, just as the coolest 
water in contact with fire will become warm, so was 



Digitized by 



Google 



22 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV. 5, 21. 

it that GV)tipala, the young Brahman, having been 
born and brought up in a family of unbelievers, men 
void of faith, thus reviled and abused the Tathagata 
after the manner of his kind. And just, O king, as 
a flaming and burning mighty fire, if, even when at 
the height of its glory, it should come into contact 
with water, would cool down, with its splendour 
and glory spoilt, and turn to cinders, black as rotten 
blighted * fruits — just so, O king, Gbtipala, full as he 
was of merit and faith, mighty as was the glory of 
his knowledge, yet when reborn into a family of 
unbelievers, of men void of faith, he became, as it 
were, blind, and reviled and abused the Tathagata. 
But when he had gone to him, and had come to 
know the virtues of the Buddhas which he had, then 
did he become as his hired servant ; and having re- 
nounced the world and entered the Order under the 
system of the Conqueror, he gained the fivefold 
power of insight, and the eightfold power of ecstatic 
meditation, and became assured of rebirth into the 
Brahma heaven.' 

' Very good, N&gasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 



[Here ends the dilemma about (7otipala.] 



1 Niggun</i, which Hina/i-kumbure merely repeats. See Gataka 

III, 348 ; IV, 456 ; Dhammapada Commentary, p. 209 ; Anguttara 

IV, 199 ; and Dr. Morris's restoration of Dipavawsa XII, 32, in the 
Introduction to vol. ii of his Anguttara. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5.23- OF MILINDA THE KING. 23 

[dilemma THE FORTY-SEVENTH. 
THE HELPLESSNESS OF A BUDDHA.] 

22. 'Venerable Nagasena, this too has been said 
by the Blessed One : 

"Gha/ikara the potter's dwelling-place remained, 
the whole of it, for three months open to the sky, 
and no rain fell upon it 1 ." 

' But on the other hand it is said : 

" Rain fell on the hut of Kassapa the Tatha- 
gata '." 

' How was it, venerable Nagasena, that the hut 
of a Tathigata, the roots of whose merits were so 
widely spread 2 , got wet? One would think that 
a Tathagata should have the power to prevent that 
If, Nagasena, Gha/ikara the potter's dwelling was 
kept dry when it was open to the sky, it cannot 
be true that a Tathagata's hut got wet. But if 
it did, then it must be false that the potter's dwelling 
was kept dry. This too is a double-edged problem, 
now put to you, which you have to solve.' 

23. ' Both the quotations you have made, O king, 
are correct. [224] Gha/ikara the potter was a 
good man, beautiful in character, deeply rooted in 
merit, who supported his old and blind mother and 
father. And when he was absent, the people, with- 
out so much as asking his leave, took away the 
thatch from his dwelling to roof in with it the hut 
of the Tathagata. Then, unmoved and unshaken 
at his thatch being thus removed, but filled rather 



1 Both these quotations are from the Ma^Aima Nik&ya, No. 31 
(the Gha/ikara Suttanta). 
* Ussanna-kusala-mula. See ffataka I, 145. 



Digitized by 



Google 



24 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 34. 

with a well-grounded and great joy the like of which 
cannot be found, an immeasurable bliss sprang up in 
his heart at the thought : " May the Blessed One, 
the chief of the world, have full confidence in me." 
And thereby did he obtain merit which brought 
forth its good result even in this present life. 

24. 'And the Tathagata, O king, was not dis- 
turbed by that temporary inconvenience (of the 
falling rain). Just, O king, as Sineru, the king of 
the mountains, moves not, neither is shaken, by the 
onslaught of innumerable gales 1 — just as the mighty 
ocean, the home of the great waters, is not filled up, 
neither is disturbed at all, by the inflow of innumer- 
able great rivers — just so, O king, is a Tathagata 
unmoved at temporary inconvenience. 

'And that the rain fell upon the Tathagata's hut 
happened out of consideration for the great masses 
of the people. For there are two circumstances, 
O king, which prevent the Tathagatas from them- 
selves supplying (by creative power) any requisite 
of which they may be in need a . And what are the 
two ? Men and gods, by supplying the requisites 
of a Buddha on the ground that he is a teacher 
worthy of gifts, will thereby be set free from rebirth 
in states of woe. And lest others should find fault, 
saying: " They seek their livelihood by the working 
of miracles." If, O king, Sakka had kept that hut 
dry, or even Brahma himself, even then that action 
would have been faulty, wrong, and worthy of censure. 
For people might then say : " These Buddhas by 

1 Aneka-sata-sahassa-vata-sampaharena. Perhaps 'by 
the. battle (raging round it) of innumerable gales/ the onslaught of 
the winds being not against it, but against one another. 

* Literally ' from receiving any self-created requisite.' 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5. ag- OF MILINDA THE KING. 25 

their dexterity 1 befool and lord it over the world." 
That is the reason why such action would have been 
better left undone. The Tathagatas, O king, do 
not ask for any advantage ; and it is because they 
ask for nothing that they are held blameless.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma about Gha/lkara the 
potter.] 



[dilemma the forty-eighth, 
why gotama claimed to be a brahman.] 

[225] 25. 'Venerable Nagasena, this too was said 
by the Blessed One : 

"A Brahman am I, O brethren, devoted to self- 
sacrifice 2 ." 

' But on the other hand he declared : 

"A king am I, Sela 8 ." 

' If, Nagasena, the Blessed One were a Brahman, 
then he must have spoken falsely when he said he 
was a king. But if he were a king, then he must 
have spoken falsely when he said he was a Brahman. 
He must have been either a Khattiya or a Brahman. 
For he could not have belonged, in the same birth, 
to two castes. This too is a double-edged problem, 
now put to you, which you have to solve.' 

1 Vibhusam katvl. Daksha-kriya ko/a says Hma/i-kum- 
bur&. The expression has not been found elsewhere. 

2 This passage has already been quoted above (IV, 4, 55). It 
has not been traced in the Pi/akas. 

• These words from the Sela Sutta (Sutta Nipfita III, 7, 7) have 
also been already discussed above (IV, 3, 33, 34). 



Digitized by 



Google 



26 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 36. 

26. ' Both the quotations you have made, O king, 
are correct But there is good reason why the 
Tathagata should have been both Brahman and 
also king.' 

' Pray what, Nagasena, can be that reason ? ' 
' Because all evil qualities, not productive of merit, 
are in the Tathagata suppressed, abandoned, put 
away, dispelled, rooted out, destroyed, come to an 
end, gone out, and ceased, therefore is it that the 
Tathagata is called a Brahman l . A Brahman 2 , O 
king, means one who has passed beyond hesitation, 
perplexity, and doubt. And it is because the 
Tathagata has done all this, that therefore also is 
he called a Brahman. A Brahman, O king, means 
one who has escaped from every sort and class of 
becoming, who is entirely set free from evil and 
from stain, who is dependent on himself 3 , and it is 
because the Tathagata is all of these things, that 
therefore also is he called a Brahman. A Brahman, 
O king, means one who cultivates within himself 
the highest and best of the excellent and supreme 



1 This argument is based on the false etymology that brah- 
ma«o=b&hita-p4po (' he in whom evil is suppressed'), adopted 
by Hlna/Ukumbure' above at IV, 4, 55. Buddhaghosa, in the 
Sumangala, p. 244, has another derivation: Brahmam awatiti 
brahmano. As Brahma/8 has not been found elsewhere except 
as the accusative of Brahma the name of the god, and as an at i 
only occurs in this passage, it might be contended that Buddha- 
ghosa means an ' invoker of BrahmaV But I think he is correct 
in his etymology, and intends to interpret the word Brahman as 
' intoner of prayer.' 

1 The Arahat-Brahman says H!na/i-kumbure\ 

* Asah&yo, literally ' has no friend.' I am not sure that I have 
rightly understood this term, which I have not found elsewhere 
applied to the Arahat. Hina/i-kumburS merely repeats the word. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5. a<5- OF MILINDA THE KING. 2"] 

conditions of heart \ And it is because the Tatha- 
gata does this that therefore also is he called a 
Brahman. A Brahman, O king, means one who 
carries on the line of the tradition of the ancient 
instructions concerning the learning and the teaching 
of sacred writ, concerning the acceptance of gifts, 
concerning subjugation of the senses, self-control 
in conduct, and performance of duty. And it is 
because the Tathagata carries on the line of the 
tradition of the ancient rules enjoined by the Con- 
querors 2 regarding all these things, that therefore 
also is he called a Brahman. [226] A Brahman, 

king, means one who enjoys the supreme bliss of 
the ecstatic meditation. And it is because the 
Tathagata does this, that therefore also is he called 
a Brahman. A Brahman, O king, means one who 
knows the course and revolution of births in all 
forms of existence. And it is because the Tathagata 
knows this, that therefore also is he called a Brahman. 
The appellation " Brahman," O king, was not given 
to the Blessed One by his mother, nor his father, 
not by his brother, nor his sister, not by his friends, 
nor his relations, not by spiritual teachers of any 
sort, no, not by the gods. It is by reason of their 
emancipation that this is the name of the Buddhas, 
the Blessed Ones. From the moment when, under 
the Tree of Wisdom, they had overthrown the 
armies of the Evil One, had suppressed in them- 
selves all evil qualities not productive of merit, and 
had attained to the knowledge of the Omniscient 

1 Dibba-vihSro; rendered divya-viharana by Hma/i-kum- 
bur@. It cannot mean here 'state of being a deva in the kama- 

1 oka* as rendered by Childers. 

* That is, of course, the previous Buddhas. 



Digitized by 



Google 



28 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 37. 

Ones, it was from the acquisition of this insight, the 
appearance in them of this enlightenment, that this 
true designation became applied to them, — the name 
of " Brahman." And that is the reason why the 
Tathagata is called a Brahman V 

27. ' Then what is the reason why the Tathagata 
is called a king ? ' 

4 A king means, O king, one who rules and guides the 
world, and the Blessed One rules in righteousness over 
the ten thousand world systems, he guides the whole 
world with its men and gods, its evil spirits and its 
good ones 2 , and its teachers, whether Sama»as or 
Brahmans. That is the reason why the Tathagata 
is called a king. A king means, O king, one who, 
exalted above all ordinary men, making those related 
to him rejoice, and those opposed to him mourn; 
raises aloft the Sunshade of Sovranty, of pure and 
stainless white, with its handle of firm hard wood s , 
and its many hundred ribs 4 , — the symbol of his 
mighty fame and glory. And the Blessed One, O 
king, making the army of the Evil One, those given 
over to false doctrine, mourn; filling the hearts of 
those, among gods or men, devoted to sound doc- 
trine, with joy ; [227] raises aloft over the ten thou- 
sand world systems the Sunshade of his Sovranty, 
pure and stainless in the whiteness of emancipation, 

1 This is a striking instance of argument in a circle. The word 
Brahman is first interpreted in its technical Buddhist sense of 
Arahat, and then the Buddha, as Arahat, is called a Brahman. 
The only paragraph based on the real transition of meaning in 
the term is that referring to the holding up of tradition. 

8 Samaraka/B sabrahmakam, 'with its M&ras and Brahmas.' 

8 Ara/u, says HJna/i-kumbure' ; that is wood from the heart 
of the tree. 

4 Salaka, which Hina/i-kumbure" repeats, adding * of the highest 
wisdom.' 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5, 27- 0F MILINDA THE KING. 29 

with its hundreds of ribs fashioned out of the highest 
wisdom, with its handle firm and strong through long 
suffering, — the symbol of his mighty fame and glory. 
That too is the reason why the Tathagata is called 
a king. A king is one who is held worthy of homage 
by the multitudes who approach him, who come into 
his presence. And the Blessed One, O king, is held 
worthy of homage by multitudes of beings, whether 
gods or men, who approach him, who come into his 
presence. That too is the reason why the Tathagata 
is called a king. A king is one who, when pleased 
with a strenuous servant, gladdens his heart by 
bestowing upon him, at his own good pleasure, any 
costly gift the officer may choose 1 . And the Blessed 
One, O king, when pleased with any one who has 
been strenuous in word or deed or thought, gladdens 
his heart by bestowing upon him, as a selected gift, 
the supreme deliverance from all sorrow, — far beyond 
all material gifts 2 . That too is the reason why the 
Tathagata is called a king. A king is one who 
censures, fines 3 , or executes the man who trans- 

1 Varitaw varam. 'A gift appropriate to the service approved 
of says Hina/i-kumbure\ And the word is not in Childers. But 
compare the use of varam varati at Gdtaka III, 493. 

8 Asesa-k&ma-varena, for which Hina/i-kumbure has asesa- 
kamava^arayew. Mr. Trenckner adds a Aa, which, as being 
entirely superfluous, he puts in brackets. There can be but little 
doubt that the corrected reading is asesa-kamava£arena, and 
that the literal rendering would be ' gladdens him by that which has 
left in it nothing connected with (life in) the world of sense ; to wit, 
deliverance from all sorrow' (that is deliverance from sawsara). 

Parimutti, which I have not found in the Pi/akas, and which 
is not in Childers, occurs above (p. na of the P&li text) in the 
same connection. 

* Gapeti. See my notes above on vol. i, p. 240, and below on 
VII, 5, 10. The Sinhalese has here dhana-danaya karanneya, 
where dinaya must be ^Sni. 



Digitized by 



Google 



30 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 27. 

gresses the royal commands. And so, O king, 
the man who, in shamelessness or discontent, trans- 
gresses the command of the Blessed One, as laid 
down in the rules of his Order, that man, despised, 
disgraced and censured, is expelled from the religion 
of the Conqueror. That too is the reason why the 
Tathagata is called a king. A king is one who in 
his turn proclaiming laws and regulations according 
to the instructions laid down in succession by the 
righteous kings of ancient times, and thus carrying 
on his rule in righteousness, becomes beloved and 
dear to the people, desired in the world, and by the 
force of his righteousness establishes his dynasty long 
in the land. And the Blessed One, O king, pro- 
claiming in his turn laws and regulations according 
to the instructions laid down in succession by the 
Buddhas of ancient times, and thus in righteousness 
being teacher of the world, — he too is beloved and 
dear to both gods and men, desired by them, and by 
the force of his righteousness he makes his religion 
last long in the land. That too is the reason why 
the Tathagata is called a king. 

' Thus, O king, so many are the reasons why the 
Tathagata should be both Brahman and also king, 
that the ablest of the brethren could scarcely in 
an aeon enumerate them all. Why then should I 
dilate any further ? Accept what I have said only 
in brief.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the Buddha 
belonging to two castes.] 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5,28. OF MILINDA THE KING. 3 1 

[dilemma THE FORTY-NINTH. 
GIFTS TO THE BUDDHA.] 

[228] 28. ' Venerable Nagasena, it has been said 
by the Blessed One : 

" Gifts chaunted for in sacred hymns 
Are gifts I must not take. 
All those who see into the Truth 

Do this their practice make. 
The Buddhas all refused to chaunt for wage ; 

This was their conduct still 

Whene'er the Truth prevailed 

Through every age 1 ." 

' But on the other hand the Blessed One, when 

preaching the Truth, or talking of it, was in the 

habit of beginning with the so-called " preliminary 

discourse," in which giving has the first place, and 

goodness only the second*. So that when gods and 

men heard this discourse of the Blessed One, the 

lord of the whole world, they prepared and gave 

gifts, and the disciples partook of the alms thus 

brought about. Now if, Nagasena, it be true what 

the Blessed One said, that he accepted no gifts 

earned by the chaunting of sacred words, then it 

was wrong that the Blessed One put giving thus 

1 This stanza occurs no less than five times in those portions 
of the Pi/akas already published. See Sutta Nipata I, 4, 6 and 
III, 4, 27, and Sawyutta Nikaya VII, 1, 8, VII, 1, 9, and VII, 2, 1. 
The rhythm of the Pali is strikingly beautiful, and is quite spoilt 
in the rendering. 

* See, for instance, Dfgha Nikaya V, 28 ; MahSvagga I, 7, 5 
and 10; V, 1, 9; VI, 26, 8; and JTullavagga VI, 4, 5. As there 
is a doubt about the spelling, Fausboll at G&taka. I, 8, and I, 30, 
and our MSS. of the Digha reading dnupubbi-katha, whereas 
Childers and Oldenberg read anupubbi-kathi, it is perhaps worth 
mentioning that the Sinhalese has the short a. 



Digitized by 



Google 



32 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 19. 

into the foreground. But if he did rightly in so 
emphasizing the giving of gifts, then it is not true 
that he accepted no gifts earned by the utterance of 
sacred words. And why so ? Because if any one 
worthy of offerings should praise to the laity the 
good results to them of the bestowal of alms, 
they, hearing that discourse, and pleased with it, 
will proceed to give alms again and again. And 
then, whosoever enjoy that gift, they are really en- 
joying that which has been earned by the utterance 
of sacred words. This too is a double-edged problem, 
now put to you, which you have to solve.' 

29. ' The stanza you quote, O king, was spoken 
by the Blessed One. And yet he used to put the 
giving of alms into the forefront of his discourse. 
But this is the custom of all the Tathagatas — first 
by discourse on almsgiving to make the hearts of 
hearers inclined towards it, and then afterwards to 
urge them to righteousness. This is as when men, 
O king, give first of all to young children things to 
play with — [229] such as toy ploughs \ tip-cat sticks *, 
toy wind-mills 8 , measures made of leaves*, toy carts, 

1 All these articles are mentioned in the Digha Nikaya I, i, 14. 
Buddhaghosa explains the first word (vahkakaw) as toy ploughs. 
Hoops the Indian children do not have, probably for want of 
suitable roads. 

* Gha/ikam, which is, according to Buddhaghosa, a game 
played by striking a short stick with a long one ; and according 
to Hina/i-kumburS the game called in Sinhalese kalli. Clough 
has this word, but simply explains it as a game so called. 

* JTingulakam, which is, according to Buddhaghosa, a little 
wheel made of cocoa-nut leaves, which is set turning by the impact 
of the wind. Hina/i-kumburg says 'an cembaruwa (twirling 
thing) made of cocoa-nut leaves.' 

4 PattaMakam. Buddhaghosa and the Sinhalese agree in 
rendering this ' toy measures.' 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5i 30- OF MILINDA THE KING. 33 

and bows and arrows — and afterwards appoint to each 
his separate task. Or it is as when a physician 
first causes his patients to drink oil for four or five 
days in order to strengthen them, and to soften their 
bodies ; and then afterwards administers a purge. 
The supporters of the faith, O king, the lordly 
givers, have their hearts thus softened, made tender, 
affected. Thereby do they cross over to the further 
shore of the ocean of transmigration by the aid of 
the boat of their gifts, by the support of the cause- 
way of their gifts. And (the Buddha), by this (me- 
thod in his teaching), is not guilty of "intimation 1 ." ' 

30. 'Venerable Nagasena, when you say "intima- 
tion " what are these intimations ? ' 

' There are two sorts, O king, of intimation — 
bodily and verbal. And there is one bodily intima- 
tion which is wrong, and one that is not ; and there 
is one verbal intimation which is wrong, and one 
that is not. Which is the bodily intimation which 
is wrong ? Suppose any member of the Order, in 
going his rounds for alms, should, when choosing a 
spot to stand on, stand where there is no room 2 , that 
is a bodily intimation which is wrong. The true 
members of the Order will not accept any alms so 
asked for, and the individual who thus acts is 
despised, looked down upon, not respected, held 
blameworthy, disregarded, not well thought of, in 
the religion of the Noble Ones ; he is reckoned as 

1 Vi##atti. It is a breach of rules for a member of the Order 
to ask, in words, for an alms. For a Buddha to lay stress, in a 
discourse, on the advantages of almsgiving does not, Nagasena 
means, make him guilty of this offence. 

* And thus cause an obstruction, and attract attention to the 
fact that he is there. I do not know of any such prohibition in 
the Vinaya. 

[36] D 



Digitized by 



Google 



34 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 31. 

one of those who have broken their (vows as to) 
means of livelihood. And again, O king, suppose 
any member of the Order, in going his round for 
alms, should stand where there is no room, and 
stretch out his neck like a peacock on the gaze, in 
the hope : " Thus will the folk see me " — that too 
is a bodily intimation which is wrong. True brethren 
will not accept an alms so asked for, and he who 
thus acts is regarded like the last And again, O 
king, suppose any member of the Order should 
make a sign with his jaw, or with his eyebrow, or 
with his finger — [230] that too is a bodily intima- 
tion which is wrong. True brethren will not accept 
an alms so asked for, and he who thus acts is 
regarded the same way. 

31. 'And which is the bodily intimation which is 
not wrong ? If a brother, on going his round for 
alms, be self-possessed, tranquil, conscious of his 
acts ; if he stand, wherever he may go, in the kind 
of spot that is lawful ; if he stand still where there 
are people desirous to give, and where they are not 
so desirous, if he pass on * ; — that is a bodily intima- 
tion which is not wrong. Of an alms so stood for 
the true members of the Order will partake ; and 
the individual who thus asks is, in the religion of 
the Noble Ones, praised, thought highly of, es- 
teemed, and reckoned among those whose behaviour 
is without guile, whose mode of livelihood is pure. 
For thus has it been said by the Blessed One, the 
god over all gods : 

"The truly wise beg not, for Arahats scorn to 
beg. 

1 The author has iftillavagga VIII, 5, 2 in his mind, where the 
signs (of their being willing or not) are specified. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5, 3 3 ' 0F MILINDA THE KING. 35 

The good stand for their alms, thus only do 
they beg 1 ." 

32. 'Which is the Verbal intimation which is 
wrong? In case, O king, a brother intimate his 
wish for a number of things, requisites of a member 
of the Order — robes and bowls and bedding and 
medicine for the sick — that is a verbal intimation 
which is wrong. Things so asked for the true 
members of the Order (Ariya) will not accept ; and 
in the religion of the Noble Ones the individual 
who acts thus is despised, looked down upon, not 
respected, held blameworthy, disregarded, not well 
thought of — reckoned rather as one who has broken 
his (vows as to) means of livelihood. And- again, 
O king, in case a brother should, in the hearing of 
others, speak thus : " I am in want of such and such 
a thing ; " and in consequence of that saying being 
heard by the others he should then get that thing — 
that too is a verbal intimation which is wrong. 
True members of the Order will not use a thing so 
obtained, and he who acts thus is regarded like the 
last. And again, O king, in case a brother, dilating 
in his talk 2 , give the people about him to understand : 
" Thus and thus should gifts be given to the Bhik- 

1 From Cataka III, 354. The words are there ascribed, not to 
the Buddha, but to the Bodisat in the story. 

The word translated Arahats is Ariya, which is taken here, as 
elsewhere, as a dissyllable, and pronounced Ary&. It is the same 
as our word Aryans, and is rendered above Noble Ones. I do not 
think that it is applied exclusively to Arahats. 

* Va^t-vipphdrena. The expression has not been found 
elsewhere, nor is it in Childers. The Sinhalese has : ' dilating on 
the words obtaining in this religion.' I presume it means, that 
not content with praising almsgiving in general, he particularises. 
Compare Mah&vagga VI, 37. 

D 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



36 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5,33. 

khus," and in case they, on hearing that saying, 
should bring forth from their store anything so 
referred to — that too is a verbal intimation which 
is wrong. True members of the Order will not use 
a thing so obtained, and he who acts thus is regarded 
like the last. [231] For when Sariputta, the Elder, 
O king, being ill in the night-time, after the sun had 
set, and being questioned by Moggallana, the Elder, 
as to what medicine would do him good, broke 
silence ; and through that breach of silence obtained 
the medicine — did not Sariputta then, saying to him- 
self : " This medicine has come through breach of 
silence; let not my (adherence to the rules re- 
garding) livelihood be broken," reject that medi- 
cine, and use it not l ? So that too is a verbal 
intimation which is wrong. True members of the 
Order will not use a thing so obtained, and he who 
acts thus is regarded like the last. 

33. ' And what is the verbal intimation which is 
right ? Suppose a brother, O king, when there is 
necessity for it, should intimate among families 
either related to him, or which had invited him to 
spend the season of Was with him *, that he is in 
want of medicines — this is a verbal intimation which 
is not wrong. True members of the Order will 
partake of things so asked for; and the individual 
who acts thus is, in the religion of the Noble Ones, 
praised, thought highly of, esteemed, reckoned 
among those whose mode of livelihood is pure, 



1 This story has not yet been traced; but the Sinhalese (p. 317) 
gives it at great length. 

■ iVati-pavSritesu kulesu. Compare P&Mltiya. 39 ('Vinaya 
Texts,' vol. i, p. 39). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5, 34- OF MILINDA THE KING. 37 

approved of the Tathagatas, the Arahats, the 
Supreme Buddhas. And the alms that the Tatha- 
gata, O king, refused to accept of Kasl-Bharadvifa, 
the Brahman \ that was presented for the sake of 
testing him with an intricate puzzle which he would 
have to unwind 2 , for the sake of pulling him away, 
of convicting him of error, of making him acknow- 
ledge himself in the wrong. Therefore was it that 
the Tathagata refused that alms, and would not 
partake thereof.' 

34. ' Nagasena, was it always, whenever the 
Tathagata was eating, that the gods infused the 
Sap of Life from heaven into the contents of his 
bowl, or was it only into those two dishes — the 
tender boar's flesh, and the rice porridge boiled in 
milk — that they infused it 3 ? ' 

' Whenever he was eating, O king, and into each 
morsel of food as he picked it up — just as the royal 
cook takes the sauce and pours it over each morsel 
in the dish while the king is partaking of it *. [232] 
And so at Vera#fa, when the Tathagata was eating 
the cakes 6 made of dried barley, the gods moistened 
each one with the Sap of Life, as they placed it 

1 See Sutta Nipata I, 4. The Sinhalese always has a long i in 
KasL 

* AveMana. Compare the use of all these terms above, II, 
1, 3 (vol. i, p. 46). 

* There is nothing about this infusion of the Sap of Life (dibbam 
ogam) in the published texts of the Pi/akas. But it is mentioned 
in the account in the GStaka Commentary of the second meal 
referred to ('Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 92). The other is, of 
course, the Buddha's last meal, ' Book of the Great Decease,' IV, 
14-23 (in my 'Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 71-73). 

4 Hina/i-kumbure gives here a great deal of additional matter 

(pp. 314-324)- 

* Pulake ; which the Sinhalese renders peti. 



Digitized by 



Google 



38 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5,35. 

near him 1 . And thus was the body of the Tathagata 
fully refreshed.' 

4 Great indeed was the good fortune, Nagasena, 
of those gods that they were ever and always so 
zealous in their care for the body of the Tathagata ! 
Very good, Nagasena! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the problem as to the Buddha's 
mode of livelihood.] 



[dilemma the fiftieth, 
on the buddha's after-doubt*.] 

35. 'Venerable Nagasena, your people say: 

"The Tathagata gradually, through millions of 
years, through aeon after aeon 8 , brought his omni- 
scient wisdom to perfection for the sake of the 
salvation of the great masses of the people 4 ." 

' But on the other hand (they say) 8 : 

"Just after he had attained to omniscience his 



1 I am not sure what meal is here referred to. The Buddha is 
twice said to have taken meals at Vera^a (in the Sutta Vibhahga, 
pp. 6, 1 1 ; Para^ika I, 2 and I, 4). In neither case is there any 
mention of these cakes. But the former of the two may be the 
one referred to, as it took place in a time of drought. 

1 Compare my manual ' Buddhism,' p. 4 1. 

3 Literally ' through four Asahkheyyas and a lak of Kappas.' 

4 This passage has not yet been traced in the Pi/akas, and the 
word samuddharana (rendered 'salvation') does not occur else- 
where in published texts. It means literally 'bringing safe to 
shore.' Compare samuddha/a at Saddhammopayana 143 in the 
'Journal of the Pali Text Society' for 1887, p. 44. 

" See 'Vinaya Texts,' vol. i, p. 85, and Samyutla Nikaya VI, 1. 
The words are very slighdy different. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5, 35- 0F MILINDA THE KING. 39 

heart inclined, not to the proclamation of the Truth, 
but to rest in peace." 

' So that, Nagasena, just as if an archer, or an 
archer's pupil, who had practised archery for many 
days with the object of fighting, should, when the 
day of the great battle had come, draw back — just 
so did the Tathagata, who through countless ages 
had gradually matured his omniscience for the sake 
of bringing safe to the shore (of salvation) the great 
masses of the people, turn back, on the day when 
that omniscience had been reached, from proclaiming 
the Truth. Just as if a wrestler who through many 
days had practised wrestling should, when the day 
of the wrestling match x had come, draw back — just 
so did the Tathagata, who through countless ages 
had gradually matured his omniscience for the sake 
of bringing safe to the shore (of salvation) the great 
masses of the people, turn back, on the day when 
that omniscience had been reached, from proclaiming 
the Truth. 

' Now was it from fear, Nagasena, that the 
Tathagata drew back, or was it from inability to 
preach 2 , or was it from weakness, or was it because 
he had not, after all, attained to omniscience ? [233] 
What was the reason of this ? Tell me, I pray, the 
reason, that my doubts may be removed. For if 
for so long a time he had perfected his wisdom with 
the object of saving the people, then the statement 
that he hesitated to announce the Truth must be 
wrong. But if that be true, then the other statement 
must be false. This too is a double-edged problem, 

1 Compare Sumangala Vilasini, p. 85. 

* Apaka/ataya, not found elsewhere. I follow the Sinhalese, 
which has boena kiya»/a no doenena bcewin. 



Digitized by 



Google 



40 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 36. 

now put to you, — a problem profound, a knot hard 
to unravel, — which you have to solve.' 

36. 'The statements in both the passages you 
quote, O king, are correct. But that his heart 
inclined, not to the preaching of the truth, but to 
inaction, was because he saw, on the one hand, 
how profound and abstruse was the Doctrine \ how 
hard to grasp and understand, how subtle, how 
difficult to penetrate into ; and, on the other, how 
devoted beings are to the satisfaction of their 
lusts, how firmly possessed by false notions of 
Individualism 2 . And so (he wavered) at the thought : 
"Whom shall I teach ? And how can I teach him?" 
— his mind being directed to the idea of the powers 
of penetration which beings possessed. 

' Just, O king, as an able physician, when called in 
to a patient suffering from a complication of diseases, 
might reflect: "What can be the treatment, what the 
drug, by which this man's sickness can be allayed ?" 
— just so, O king, when the Tathagata called to 
mind how afflicted were the people by all the kinds 
of malady which arise from sin, and how profound 
and abstruse was the Doctrine, how subtle, and how 
difficult to grasp, then at the thought : " Whom can 
I teach ? And how shall I teach him ?" did his 
heart incline rather to inaction than to preaching — 
[234] his mind being directed to the powers of 
penetration which beings possessed. 

' And just, O king, as a king, of royal blood, an 
anointed monarch, when he calls to mind the many 

1 ' Of Arahatship ' is Hina/Ukumburfi's gloss. 

1 Sakkay a-di/Mi. The belief in being, instead of in becoming; 
the belief in the permanence of individuality. See my ' Hibbert 
Lectures,' pp. 21 1-2 14. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 5, 37- OF MILINDA THE KING. 4 1 

people who gain their livelihood in dependence on 
the king — the sentries and the body-guard, the 
retinue of courtiers, the trading folk, the soldiers 
and the royal messengers, the ministers and the 
nobles 1 — might be exercised at the thought : " How 
now, in what way, shall I be able to conciliate th- m 
all?" — just so when the Tathagata called to mind 
how profound and abstruse was the Doctrine, 1m . 
subtle, and how difficult to grasp, and how de\otcd 
beings were to the satisfaction of their lusts, Imv 
firmly possessed by false notions of Individurdnnt. 
then at the thought : " Whom shall I teach ? And 
how shall I teach him?" did his heart inJun: 
rather to inaction than to preaching — his mind b.-ir^ 
directed to the powers of penetration which i.ciys 
possessed. 

37. 'And this, too, is an inherent necessity in ail 
Tathagatas that it should be on the requ> st <»f 
Brahma that they should proclaim the Dhannna. 
And what is the reason for that ? All men in those 
times, with the ascetics and the monks, the wander- 
ing teachers and the Brahmans, were worshippers of 
Brahma, reverers of Brahma, placed their reliance 
on Brahma. And therefore, at the thought: " When 
so powerful and glorious, so famous and renowned, 
so high and mighty a one has shown himself in- 
clined (to the Dhamma), then will the whole world 
of gods and men become inclined to it, hold it fitting, 
have faith in it" — on this ground, O king, the 
Tathagatas preached the Dhamma when requested 
to do so by Brahma. For just, O king, as what 
a sovran or a minister of state shows homage to, 
or offers worship to, that will the rest of mankind, on 

1 On this list see below, IV, 6, 11. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



42 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 5, 37. 

the ground of the homage of so powerful a per- 
sonage, show homage to and worship — just so, O 
king, when Brahma had paid homage to the Tatha- 
gatas, so would the whole world of gods and men. 
For the world, O king, is a reverer of what is 
revered. And that is why Brahma asks of all 
Tathagatas that they should make known the 
Doctrine, and why, on so being asked, they make it 
known V 

'Very good, Nagasena! The puzzle has been 
well unravelled, most able has been your exposition. 
That is so, and I accept it as you say.' 



[Here ends the problem as to the Buddha's hesitation 
to make the Doctrine known.] 



Here ends the Fifth Chapter. 



1 Hfna/i-kutnburg here gives a page of description — not found 
in the Pali — of the episode of Brahma's request to the Buddha. 
The oldest account of this episode has been already translated in 
vol. xiii of the ' Sacred Books of the East,' in 'Vinaya Texts,' 
part i, pp. 84-88. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6, I. OF MILINDA THE KING. 43 



Book IV. Chapter 6. 

[dilemma the fifty-first, 
contradictory statements as to the buddha's 

TEACHER.] 

i. [235] 'Venerable Nagasena, this too has been 
said by the Blessed One : 

" I have no teacher, and the man 
Equal to me does not exist. 
No rival to me can be found 
In the whole world of gods and men'." 

' But on the other hand he said : 

" Thus then, O brethren, A/ira Kalama, when he 
was my teacher and I was his pupil, placed me on 
an equality with himself, and honoured me with 
exceeding great honour V 

1 This verse is found three times in the Pi/akas — in the Mahi- 
vagga I, 6, 8, in the Ariya-pariyesana Sutta (MaggAima, Nik&ya I, 
171), and in the Ahgulimala Sutta (MaggAima. Nik&ya, No. 86). 
It occurs with other stanzas of a similar tendency, and many of the 
lines in those stanzas are repeated, but with variations and in a 
different order, by the author of the Lalita Vistara (pp. 526, 527 of 
Ra^-endra 111 Mitra's edition). One verse is found there in two 
detached lines which run thus in the Sanskrit : — 

A^aryyo na hi me kar£it, sadr/io me na vidyate 
and 

Sadevasuragandharvvo nasti me pratipudgalaA. 

Hina/i-kumbure' renders pa/ipuggalo, not by 'rival,' but by 
' superior.' 

* Mr. Trenckner has pointed out that this quotation is found in 
two Suttas, Nos. 85 and 100 in the MaggAivaa, Nik&ya. 



Digitized by 



Google 



« 

44 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 2. 

' Now if the former of these statements be right, 
then the second must be wrong. But if the second 
be right, then the first must be wrong. This too is 
a double-edged problem, now put to you, which you 
have to solve.' 

2. ' Both the quotations you have made, O king, 
are accurate. But when he spoke of A/ara Kalama 
as his teacher, that was a statement made with refer- 
ence to the fact of his having been his teacher while 
he (Gotama) was still a Bodisat and before he had at- 
tained to insight and to Buddhahood ; and there were 
five such teachers, O king, under whose tuition the 
Bodisat spent his time in various places — his teachers 
when he was still a Bodisat, before he had attained 
to insight and to Buddhahood. And who were 
these five ? 

3. ' Those eight Brahmans who, just after the 
birth of the Bodisat, took note of the marks on his 
body — [236] Rama, and Dha^a, and Lakkhawa, 
and Manti 1 , and Ya»»a*, and Suyama, and Su- 
bhq^a 8 , and Sudatta* — they who then made known 
his future glory, and marked him out as one to be 
carefully guarded — these were first his teachers ». 



1 Hina/i-kumburS reads G&timanti. It may be noted that 
Hardy (Manual of Buddhism, p. 149), who omits Yatftfa, gives 
Giti and Manta as two separate names, and spells the last two 
names Bhqga Sudanta. 

2 So also the Sinhalese, p. 329. But the Gataka Commentary 
(verse 270 at vol. i, p. 50) has kondaMa. 

8 The Gataka Introduction (loc. cit.) has Bho^a. The Sinhalese 
has Subhqgu. 

* Htna/i-kumbure' agrees here with Hardy in reading Sudanta. 

• This episode has not been traced in the Pi/akas. The Sin- 
halese here gives also the detail of the one and two fingers, found 
in the Gataka, and translated in my 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 72. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6, 3. OF MILINDA THE KING. 45 

' And again, O king, the Brahman Sabbamitta of 
distinguished descent, who was of high lineage in 
the land of Udi^ia \ a philologist and grammarian, 
well read in the six Vedangas 2 , whom Suddhodana 
the king, the Bodisat's father, sent for, and having 
poured out the water of dedication from a golden 
vase, handed over the boy to his charge, to be 
taught — this was his second teacher s . 

* And again, O king, the god who raised the 
agitation in the Bodisat's heart, at the sound of whose 
speech the Bodisat, moved and anxious, that very 
moment went out from the world in his Great 
Renunciation — this was his third teacher 4 . 



1 In the North-West. See Gataka I, 140, &c. 

* -Oa/aftgavanta/n. These are phonetics, prosody, grammar, 
exegesis, astronomy, and ritual. I was wrong in taking Childers's 
interpretation of this word at 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. 72. 

3 This episode is also not in the Pi/akas. On o»o^eti see 
Mahavagga I, 22, 18. Sabbamitra is given in the Thera Gatha, 
I, 150, as the name of a Thera, and in the Divyavadana, p. 420, 
as the name of Asoka's herald or court crier. 

* There is nothing about any such devata in the Pi/akas. 
Hina/i-kumbure' takes it to mean the god who took the outward 
appearance of the four visions — an old man, a sick man, a dead 
man, and a recluse. But in that story — which is not related in 
the Pi/akas of the Buddha, though it is referred to in connection 
with him at Buddhavamsa XXVI, p. 16— the god does not speak. 
The only god whose words are said, in any of the later Pali legends, 
to have agitated the Bodisat's heart at that moment, was the Evil 
One himself; and that only in one version of the legend, the Pali 
authority for which I cannot give. It is in Hardy's 'Manual,' 
P- !57i where the speech of the Evil One, placed at Gataka I, 63 
at a later time, is said to have been made at the moment of the 
Renunciation. Even if it be not a mere blunder of Hardy's to 
put it at that time, still it cannot be the speech referred to by our 
author. For the startling doctrine that the Evil One himself was 
one of the Bodisat's teachers would never have been smuggled in, 
as it were, by concealing the identity of the spirit referred to under 



Digitized by 



Google 



46 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 3. 

' And again, O king, A/ara Kalama — he was his 
fourth teacher. 

' And again, O king, Uddaka the son of Rama — 
he was his fifth teacher. 

' These, O king, are the five who were his teachers 
when he was still a Bodisat, before he had attained 
to insight and to Buddhahood. But they were teach- 
ers in worldly wisdom. And in this Doctrine that is 
transcendental, in the penetrating into the wisdom of 
the omniscient ones — in that there is no one who is 
above the Tathagata to teach him. Self-dependent 
for his knowledge is the Tathagata, without a master, 
and that is why it was said by the Tathagata : 

" I have no teacher, and the man 
Equal to me does not exist 
No rival to me can be found 
In the whole world of gods and men." ' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the Buddha's 
teachers.] 



the generic term of devatS. Now in the Fo-pan-hin-tsi-£in 
(Nanjio, No. 680), a Chinese work of the beginning of the seventh 
century a. d., we find in the sixteenth kwuen or chapter (if one may 
trust the abstract given in Beat's ' Romantic Legend,' p. 131) that 
a Devaputra named Tsao-ping is said to have spoken to the 
Bodisat at the moment of the Renunciation. It is scarcely open 
to doubt that our author had in his mind an earlier form of that 
episode. But if so it is the only proved case of his having 
Sanskrit, and not Pali works, as his authority. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, <5,4- OF MILINDA THE KING. 47 

[dilemma THE FIFTY-SECOND. 

WHY MUST THERE BE ONLY ONE BUDDHA 
AT A TIME ?] 

4. * Venerable Nagasena, this too was said by the 
Blessed One : 

" This is an impossibility, an occurrence for which 
there can be no cause, that in one world two Arahat 
Buddhas supreme should arise at one and the same 
time [237] — such a thing can in nb wise be 1 ." 

' But, Nagasena, when they are preaching, all the 
Tathagatas preach (the Doctrine as to) the thirty- 
seven constituent elements of insight * ; when they 
are talking, it is of the Four Noble Truths that they 
talk; when they are instructing, it is in the three 
Trainings 8 that they instruct ; when they are teach- 
ing, it is the practice of zeal 4 that they teach. If, 
Nagasena, the preaching of all the Tathagatas is 
one, and their talk of the same thing, and their train- 
ing the same, and their teaching one, why then 
should not two Tathagatas arise at the same time ? 
Already by the appearance of one Buddha has this 
world become flooded with light. If there should be 
a second Buddha the world would be still more 
illuminated by the glory of them both. When they 
were exhorting two Tathagatas would exhort at 
ease; when they were instructing two Tathagatas 
would instruct at ease. Tell me the reason of this, 
that I may put away my doubt.' 

1 Anguttara Nikaya I, 15, 10. 

* These divisions of the seven 'Jewels of the Law* of Arahatship 
are set out in my ' Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 62-63. 
8 Adhisila, adhi/Htta, and adhipaftda. 
4 Appamada. 



Digitized by 



Google 



48 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 5- 

5. ' This world system, O king, is a one- Buddha- 
supporting world ; that is, it can bear the virtue of 
only a single Tathagata. If a second Tathagata 
were to arise the world could not bear him, it would 
shake and tremble, it would bend, this way and that, 
it would disperse, scatter into pieces, dissolve, be 
utterly destroyed. Just as a boat, O king, might be 
able to carry one passenger across. Then, when one 
man had got on board, it would be well trimmed 
and able to bear his weight 1 . But if a second man 
were to come like to the first in age and caste and 
strength and size and stoutness of body and build of 
frame, and he too should get on board the boat — 
would that boat be able, O king, to carry them 
both ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir ! it would shake and tremble ; 
it would bend, this way and that ; it would break 
into pieces, be shattered, dissolved, and utterly 
destroyed; it would sink into the waves.' 

' Just so, O king, with this world, if a second 
Tathagata were to appear. Or suppose, O king, 
that a man [238] had eaten as much food as he 
wanted, even so that he had filled himself with 
nourishment up to the throat, and he — thus satiated 2 , 
regaled, filled with good cheer, with no room left for 
more, drowsy and stiff as a stick one cannot bend — 
were again to eat as much food as he had eaten before 
— would such a man, O king, then be at ease ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir ! If he were to eat again, but 
once more, he would die.' 

1 Samupadika, for which the Sinhalese has sama bara wan- 
niya, usulana sulu wannfya. 

* Dhato; not in Childers, but see Gataka II, 247, Mahavagga 
VI, 25, 1, and below, IV, 6, 29. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6, 1. OF MILINDA THE KING. 49 

'Well, no more could this world bear a second 
Tathagata, than that man could bear a second meal.' 

6. * But how is that, Nagasena ? Would the earth 
tremble at a too great weight of goodness ? ' 

' Suppose, O king, there were two carts quite filled 
with precious things up to the top 1 , and people were 
to take the things from the one cart and pile them 
up on the other, would that one be able to carry the 
weight of both ? ' 

'Certainly not, Sir! The nave of its wheels 
would split, and the spokes would break, and the cir- 
cumference would fall to pieces, and the axle-tree 
would break in twain 2 .' 

' But how is that, O king ? Would the cart come 
to pieces owing to the too great weight of goods ? ' 

' Yes, it would.' 

7. ' Well, just so, O king, would the earth tremble 
owing to the too great weight of goodness. But 
that argument has been adduced to make the power 
of the Buddhas known 8 . Hear another fitting reason 
why two Buddhas could not appear at the same 

1 Literally ' mouth.' I presume a small uncovered bullock cart 
is meant, like that figured in Plate 57 in Cunningham's ' Bharhut 
Tope.' The chariot on the other hand is of the shape given in 
Plates 3, 34, 35 of Fergusson's ' Tree and Serpent Worship.' The 
usual form of the bullock cart has also a hood, or cover, as clearly 
shown in Fergusson's Plate No. 65, and Cunningham's Plate No. 
34. But the one here referred to cannot have had the cover over 
it, for then the supposition that more goods were piled on to it, 
when full, would be an impossible one. I know of no other 
passage where the mukha, literally 'mouth,' of a cart is men- 
tioned, and I may possibly be wrong in rendering it ' top.' 

1 This simile has already been used in the Vessantara Dilemma 
above, I, 173. 

* Our author himself here confesses that his thoughts are more 
on edification than on logic. 

[36] E 



Digitized by 



Google 



50 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 8, 

time. If, O king, two Buddhas were to arise 
together, then would disputes arise between their 
followers, and at the words ; " Your Buddha, our 
Buddha," they would divide off into two parties — 
just as would the followers of two rival powerful 
ministers of state. This is the other [239] reason, 
O king, why two Buddhas could not appear at the 
same time. 

8. 'Hear a further reason, O king, why two 
Buddhas could not appear at the same time. If that 
were so, then the passage (of Scripture) that the 
Buddha is the chief would become false, and the 
passage that the Buddha takes precedence of all 
would become false, and the passage that the 
Buddha is the best of all would become false. And 
so all those passages where the Buddha is said to be 
the most excellent, the most exalted, the highest of 
all, the peerless one, without an equal, the matchless 
one, who hath neither counterpart nor rival — all 
would be proved false. Accept this reason too as in 
truth a reason why two Buddhas cannot arise at once. 

9. ' But besides that, O king, this is a natural 
characteristic of the Buddhas, the Blessed Ones, that 
one Buddha only should arise in the world. And 
why ? By reason of the greatness of the virtue of 
the all-knowing Buddhas. Of other things also, 
whatever is mighty in the world is singular. The 
broad earth is great, O king, and it is only one. 
The ocean is mighty, and it is only one. Sineru, 
the king of the mountains, is great ; and it is only 
one. Space is mighty, and it is only one. Sakka 
(the king of the gods) is great, and he is only one. 
Mara (the Evil One, Death) is great, and he is only 
one. Maha-Brahma is mighty, and he is only one. 



Digitized by 



Google 



TV, 6, io. OF MILINDA THE KING. 5 1 

A Tathagata, an Arahat Buddha supreme, is great ; 
and he is alone in the world. Wherever any one of 
these spring up, then there is no room for a second. 
And therefore, O king, is it that only one Tathagata, 
an Arahat Buddha supreme, can appear at one time 
in the world.' 

' Well has the puzzle, Nagasena, been discussed 
by simile adduced and reason given. Even an un- 
intelligent man on hearing this would be satisfied; 
how much rather one great in wisdom as myself. 
Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept it 
as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to why there should 
be only one Buddha at a time in the world.] 



[dilemma the fifty-third. 

why should gifts be given to the order rather 

than to the buddha?] 

[240] 10. ' Venerable Nagasena, the Blessed One 
said to his mother's sister 1 , Maha-Pa^apatl the 
Gotaml, when she was about to give him a cloth 
wrapper for use in the rainy season 2 : 

" Give it, O Gotama, to the Order. If the Order 
is presented by you with it, then will you have paid 
homage thereby alike to the Order and to me s ." 

* But what, Nagasena ? Is not the Tathagata of 

1 There is no general word in Pali for aunt or uncle. There 
are separate expressions for each of the degrees of relationship 
expressed by those words in English — mother's brother, father's 
sister, &c. 

* Vassika-sa/ika. See the note at 'Vinaya Texts,' vol. ii, 
p. 225 (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xvii). 

* From the Ganta Sutta (Ma^gviima Nikaya, No. 142). See 
Mr. Trenckner's note, 

E 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



52 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, II. 

greater weight and importance, and more worthy of 
gifts than even the jewel treasure of the Order, that 
the Tathagata should have told his aunt, when about 
to present him with a wrapper for the rainy season 
which she herself had carded and pressed and 
beaten and cut and woven 1 > to give it to the Order ! 
If, Nagasena, the Tathagata were really higher and 
greater and more excellent than the Order, then he 
would have known that a gift given to him would be 
most meritorious, and therefore would not have told 
her to give it to the Order. But inasmuch as the 
Tath&gata, Nagasena, puts himself not in the way 
of gifts to himself, gives no occasion for such gifts, 
you see that he then told his aunt to give that 
wrapper rather to the Order.' 

ii.' The quotation you make, O king, is correct, 
and the Blessed One did so direct his aunt's 
gifts 2 . But that was not because an act of rever- 
ence paid to himself would bear no fruit, or because 
he was unworthy to receive gifts, but it was out 
of kindness and mercy that he, thinking : " Thus 
will the Order in times to come, when I am gone, be 
highly thought of;" magnified the excellence which 
the Order really had, in that he said : " Give it, O 
Gotaml, to the Order. If you present the Order 
with it, thus will you have paid homage alike to the 
Order and to me." Just as a father, O king, while 
he is yet alive, exalts in the midst of the assembly 
of ministers, soldiers, and royal messengers, of 

1 The translation of these five technical terms of cloth-making 
is doubtful. The Sinhalese (p. 335) has pifl^ana, sindina, 
pothita, ka/ina, wiyana. 

* The Sinhalese (p. 335) here gives at length the story of 
Pa^ipatt's gift, at the time when Gotama returned, as the Buddha, 
to Kapilavatthu. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6,13. 0F MILTNDA THE KING. 53 

sentries, body guards, and courtiers 1 — yea, in the 
presence of the king himself — the virtues which his 
son really possesses, thinking : " If established here 
he will be honoured of the people in times to come ; " 
so was it out of mercy and kindness that the Tatha- 
gata, thinking : " Thus will the Order, in times to 
come, when I am gone, be highly thought of," 
magnified the excellence which the Order really had, 
in that he said : " Give it, O Gotami, to the Order. 
If you present the Order with it, thus will you have 
paid homage alike to the Order and to me." 

12. [241] ' And by the mere gift of a wrapper for 
the rainy season, the Order, O king, did not become 
greater than, or superior to, the Tathagata. Just, 
O king, as when parents anoint their children with 
perfumes, rub them, bathe them, or shampoo them 2 , 
does the son by that mere service of theirs become 
greater than, or superior to, his parents ?' 

' Certainly not, sir ! Parents deal with their 
children as they will, whether the children like it or 
not 3 . And therefore do they anoint them with 
perfumes, shampoo, or bathe them.' 

' And just so, O king, the Order did not become 
greater than, or superior to, the Tathagata merely 
by the fact of that gift ; and although the Tathagata, 
whether the Order liked it or not, told his aunt to 
give the wrapper to the Order. 

13. 'Or suppose, O king, some man should bring a 
complimentary present to a king, and the king should 
present that gift to some one else — to a soldier or a 

1 On this list see above, p. 234 of the Pali text (IV, 5, 36). 
3 On these words compare Anguttara Nikaya II, 4, 2. 
* Akamakaraniya. Compare Vimana Vatthu X, 6 and Digha 
Nikaya II, 46. 



Digitized by 



Google 



54 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 14. 

messenger, to a general or a chaplain, — would that 
man become greater than, or superior to, the king, 
merely by the fact that it was he who got the 
present * ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir ! That man receives his wage 
from the king, from the king he gains his livelihood ; 
it was the king who, having placed him in that 
office, gave him the present/ 

' And just so, O king, the Order did not become 
greater than, or superior to, the Tathagata merely 
by the fact of that gift. The Order is, as it were, 
the hired servant of the Tathagata, and gains its 
livelihood through the Tathagata. And it was the 
Tathagata who, having placed it in that position, 
caused the gift to be given it. 

14. 'And further the Tathagata, O king, thought 
thus : " The Order is by its very nature worthy of 
gifts. I will therefore have this thing, my property 
though it be, presented to it," and so he had the 
wrapper given to the Order. For the Tathagata, O 
king, magnifies not the offering of gifts to himself, 
but rather to whomsoever in the world is worthy of 
having gifts presented to him. For this was said, 
O king, by the Blessed One, the god over all 
gods, in the most excellent Mag^Aima. Nikaya, [242] 
in the religious discourse entitled Dhamma-dayada, 
when he was exalting the attainment of being con- 
tent with little : 

" He would become the first of my Bhikkhus, the 
most worthy of presents and of praise 2 ." 

1 5. ' And there is not, O king, in the three worlds 

1 The same simile has already occurred, vol. i, p. 220 (IV, 2, 22). 
1 M^agghixoa. Nikdya, vol. i, p. 13 (in "Mr. Trenckner's edition 
for the Pali Text Society). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6, 15. OF MILINDA THE KING. 55 

any being whatever more worthy of gifts, greater or 
more exalted or better, than the Tathagata. It is 
the Tathagata who was greatest and highest and 
best As it was said, O king, by Ma»ava-gamika 
the god, in the most excellent Sawyutta Nikaya, as 
he stood before the Blessed One in the midst of the 
assembly of gods and men : 

" Of all the Ri^agaha hills Mount Vipula's acknow- 
ledged chief, 

Of the Himalayas Mount White, of planetary orbs 
the sun, 

The ocean of all waters, of constellations bright 
the moon l — 

In all the world of gods and men the Buddha's 
the acknowledged Lord 2 !" 

'And those verses of Ma#ava the god, O king, 
were well sung, not wrongly sung, well spoken, not 
wrongly spoken, and approved by the Blessed One 3 . 
And was it not said by Sariputta, the Commander 
of the faith : 

" There is but one Confession, one true Faith, 
One Adoration of clasped hands stretched forth 
— That paid to Him who routs the Evil One, 
And helps us cross the ocean of our ills * ! " 

1 This must have been composed after the moon god had become 
established in belief as the husband, or lord, of the Nakshatras, 
or lunar mansions. For it cannot, of course, be intended that 
the moon is itself a constellation. 

* Sawyutta Nikaya III, 2, 10 (vol. i, p. 67 of the Pali Text 
Society's edition). 

' These phrases of approval are commonly used in the Pi/akas 
of words uttered by any one whose sayings would not, of them- 
selves, carry weight So in the Digha III, 1, 38 and in the 
Maxima I, 385. 

* This verse has not yet been traced in the Pi/akas. In 



Digitized by 



Google 



£6 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 16. 

'And it was said by the Blessed One himself, 
the god over all gods : 

"There is one being, O brethren, who is born 
into the world for the good and for the weal of the 
great multitudes, out of mercy to the world, for the 
advantage and the good and the weal of gods and 
men. And what is that being ? A Tathagata, an 
Arahat Buddha supreme l ." ' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the precedence of 
the Order over the Buddha.] 



[dilemma the fifty-fourth. 

IS IT MORE advantageous to be a layman, or to 
enter the order?] 

i 6. 'Venerable Nagasena, it was said by the 
Blessed One : 

" I would magnify, O brethren, the Supreme 
Attainment 2 either in a layman or in a recluse. 
Whether he be a layman, O brethren, or a recluse, 
the man who has reached the Supreme Attainment 

the Thera G&tha we have a collection of verses ascribed to Siri- 
putta, but this is not one of them. The literal translation is: 
' There is but one feeling of faith, but one taking of refuge, but 
one stretching forth of the hands (with joined palms, in adoration 
— that paid) to the Buddha, who puts to rout the armies of the 
Evil One, and is able to make (us) cross (the ocean of continual 
becomings).' The taking of refuge meant is the confession, the 
repetition of which characterises a man as a Buddhist — ' I take my 
refuge in the Buddha, &c.' 

1 Aftguttara Nikaya I, 13, 1. 

2 That is, of insight and of the practice of right conduct. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6, i6. OF MILINDA THE KING. 57 

shall overcome all the difficulties inherent therein, 
shall win his way even to the excellent condition of 
Arahatship 1 ." [243] 

* Now, Nagasena, if a layman, clad in white robes, 
enjoying the pleasures of sense, dwelling in a 
habitation encumbered with wife and children 2 , 
making constant use of the sandal wood of Benares 8 , 
of garlands and perfumes and unguents, accepting 
gold and silver, wearing a turban inlaid with jewels 
and gold, can, having reached the Supreme Attain- 
ment, win his way to the excellent condition of 
Arahatship — and if a recluse, with his shaven head 
and yellow robes, dependent for his livelihood on 
the alms of other men, perfectly fulfilling the four- 
fold code of morality 4 , taking upon himself and 
carrying out the hundred and fifty precepts 8 , con- 

1 Sawyutta Nikaya XLIV, 24, says Mr. Trenckner. The pas- 
sage has not yet been reached in M. Leon Feer's edition for the 
Pali Text Society. Hina/i-kumburg (p. 341) renders My a by 
nirwana. 

* Literally ' a bed encumbered, Sec' See below, p. 348 of the 
Pali text, where the question, as here, is whether such a layman 
can attain to the Nirviaa of Arahatship. 

* So the Buddha says of himself (Aftguttara Nikaya III, 38), 
that, in the days when he was a layman, he never used any sandal 
wood except that from Benares. 

4 I don't know what these four Stlakkhandhas are. Morality is 
described in the Pi/akas as threefold, fivefold, or tenfold, according 
as the Silas, in three divisions (as translated in my 'Buddhist Suttas,' 
vol. xi of the ' Sacred Books of the East,' pp. 189-200), are re- 
ferred to ; or the first five, or the whole ten, of the moral precepts 
(the Buddhist Ten Commandments) set out in my 'Buddhism,' 
p. 160. This reference to four divisions of the moral code is 
foreign to the Pi/akas, at least as we yet know them. 

* The Diyadd/iesu sikkhapada-satesu. It is clear from the 
Anguttara Nikaya III, 83 that the precepts referred to are those 
of the Patimokkha (translated by me at the beginning of ' Vinaya 



Digitized by 



Google 



58 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 17. 

ducting himself according to the thirteen extra 
vows x without omitting any one of them, can also, 
having reached the Supreme Attainment, win his 
way to the excellent condition of Arahatship — then, 
Sir, what is the distinction between the layman and 
the recluse ? Your austerity is without effect, your 
renunciation is useless, your observance of the pre- 
cepts is barren, your taking of the extra vows is 
vain. What is the good of your therein heaping up 
woes to yourselves, if thus in comfort the condition 
of bliss can be reached ?' 

1 7. ' The words you ascribe to the Blessed One, 
O king, are rightly quoted. And that is even so. 
It is the man who has reached to the Supreme 
Attainment who bears the palm. If the recluse, O 
king, because he knows that he is a recluse, should 
neglect the Attainments, then is he far from the 
fruits of renunciation, far from Arahatship — how 
much more if a layman, still wearing the habit of 
the world, should do so ! But whether he be a lay- 
man, O king, or a recluse, he who attains to the 
supreme insight, to the supreme conduct of life, he 
too will win his way to the excellent condition of 
Arahatship. 

18. 'But nevertheless, O king, it is the recluse 
who is the lord and master of the fruit of renun- 
ciation. And renunciation of the world, O king, is 
full of gain, many and immeasurable are its advan- 
tages, its profit can no man calculate. Just, O king, 
as no man can put a measure, in wealth, on the 

Texts,' vol. xvii of the * Sacred Books of the East '), notwithstanding 
the fact that the actual number of these rules is 227. 

1 The Dhutangas: see above, IV, 5, 10, and the enumeration 
below at the translation of p. 351 of the Pali text. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6, 19- OF MILINDA THE KING. 59 

value of a wish-conferring gem, [244] saying : " Such 
and such is the price of the gem" — just so, O 
king, is the renunciation of the world full of gain, 
many and immeasurable are its advantages, its 
profit can no man calculate — no more, O king, than 
he could count the number of the waves in the great 
ocean, and say : " So and so many are the waves in 
the sea ! " 

19. 'Whatsoever the recluse, O king, may have 
yet to do, all that doth he accomplish straightway, 
without delay. And why is that ? The recluse, O 
king, is content with little, joyful in heart, detached 
from the world, apart from society, earnest in • zeal, 
without a home, without a dwelling-place, righteous 
in conduct, in action without guile, skilled in duty 
and in the attainments — that is why whatsoever may 
lie before him yet to do, that can he accomplish 
straightway, without delay — just as the flight of 
your javelin 1 , O king, is rapid because it is of pure 
metal, smooth, and burnished, and straight, and 
without a stain.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the recluse having 
no advantages over the layman.] 



1 N£ra£a. As Childers expresses a doubt as to the character 
of this weapon, I would refer to the MaggAima. I, 429, G&taka III, 
322, and Milinda, pp. 105, 418 (of Mr. Trenckner's text). 



Digitized by 



Google 



60 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 20. 

[dilemma THE FIFTY-FIFTH. 
ASCETICISM.] 

20. ' Venerable Nagasena, when the Bodisat was 
practising austerity 1 , then there was found no other 
exertion the like of his, no such power, no such 
battling against evil, no such putting to rout of 
the armies of the Evil One, no such abstinence in 
food, no such austerity of life. But finding no 
satisfaction in strife like that, he abandoned that 
idea, saying: 

" Not even by this cruel asceticism am I reaching 
the peculiar faculty, beyond the power of man, arising 
from insight into the knowledge of that which is fit 
and noble 2 . May there not be now some other way 
to wisdom 3 ?" 

' But then, when weary of that path he had by 
another way attained to omniscience, he, on the 
other hand, thus again exhorted and instructed his 
disciple in that path (he had left, saying) : 

[245] " Exert yourselves, be strong, and to the faith 

The Buddhas taught devote yourselves with zeal. 

As a strong elephant a house of reeds, 

Shake down the armies of the Evil One *." 

1 See 'Buddhist Birth Stories,' pp. 90, 91; and MaggMma. 
Nikaya I, 240-246. 

* Alamariya-dassana-fl&«a-visesa»*. I am not sure of the 
exact meaning of this compound. For alamariya the Sinhalese 
has here (p. 343) sarva^flatS, and renders the whole ' do I arrive 
at a superhuman condition, at the distinctive faculty which is able 
to see into omniscience,' and on IV, 8, 2 1 it gives a slightly different 
but practically identical rendering, 'I shall not reach that super- 
human condition which can distinguish or which suffices for insight 
into the supreme omniscience.' 

8 That is the wisdom of Buddhahood. The passage is from the 
Ma^Aima Nikiya I, 246 (quoted also below, IV, 8, 21). 

* This is a very famous stanza. It is put into the mouth of 



Digitized by 



Google 




IV, 6, 22. OF MILINDA THE 1K§G. S 6 1 



' Now what, Nagasena, is the reason that the 
Tathagata exhorted and led his disciples to that 
path which he had himself abandoned, which he 
loathed ? ' 

2i. ' Both then also, O king, and now too, that is 
still the only path. And it is along that path that 
the Bodisat attained to Buddhahood. Although the 
Bodisat, O king, exerting himself strenuously, re- 
duced the food he took till he had decreased it to 
nothing at all 1 , and by that disuse of food he became 
weak in mind, yet when he returned little by little to 
the use of solid food, it was by that path that before 
long he attained to Buddhahood. And that only has 
been the path along which all the Tathagatas 
reached to the attainment of the insight of om- 
niscience. Just as food is the support of all beings, 
as it is in dependence on food that all beings live at 
ease, just so is that the path of all the Tathagatas to 
the attainment of the insight of omniscience. The 
fault was not, O king, in the exertion, was not in the 
power, not in the battle waged against evil, that the 
Tathagata did not then, at once, attain to Buddha- 
hood. But the fault was in the disuse of food, and 
the path itself (of austerity) was always ready for use. 

22. ' Suppose, O king, that a man should follow a 
path in great haste, and by that haste his sides 

Abhibhu at Thera GatM, verse 256, and in the Sawyutta Nik&ya 
VI, 2, 4, §§ 18 and 23; and also, in its Sanskrit form, into the 
mouth of the Buddha at the Divy&vadana, p. 300, and into the 
mouth of the gods at ibid. p. 569. It is possibly another instance 
of our author having Sanskrit, and not Pali, authorities in his 
mind, that he ascribes it here to the Buddha, and not to Abhibhu, 
the Elder. 

1 The Sinhalese has here six pages of description of the austeri- 
ties not found in the Pali text 



Digitized by 



Google 



62 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 23. 

should give way l , or he should fall a cripple on the 
ground, unable to move, would there then be any 
fault, O king, in the broad earth that that man's 
sides had given way ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir 1 The great earth is always 
ready. How should it be in fault ? The fault was 
in the man's own zeal which made him fail.' 

' And just even so, O king, the fault was not in 
the exertion, not in the power, not in the battle 
waged against evil, that the Tath&gata did not then, 
at once, attain to Buddhahood. But the fault was in 
the disuse of food, and the path itself was always 
ready — [246] just as if a man should wear a robe, 
and never have it washed, the fault would not be in 
the water, which would always be ready for use, but 
in the man himself. That is why the Tath&gata 
exhorted and led his disciples along that very path. 
For that path, O king, is always ready, always 
right.' 

'Very good, Nagasena! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the path.] 



1 Pakkha-hato: 'should become like one whose two hands 
are ruined' says the Sinhalese here (p. 349), but at p. 411 (on 
p. 276 of the Pali) it translates the same term, 'whose hands and 
feet are broken.' It is literally 'should become side-destroyed,' 
and may mean paralysed. 



Digitized by 



Google 



iv, 6, 24. of milinda the king. 63 

[dilemma the fifty-sixth, 
the backsliders.] 

23. ' Venerable Nagasena, this doctrine of the 
Tathagatas is mighty, essentially true, precious, ex- 
cellent, noble, peerless, pure and stainless, clear and 
faultless. It is not right to admit a layman who is 
merely a disciple 1 into the Order. He should be 
instructed as a layman still, till he have attained to 
the Fruit of the First Path 8 , and then be admitted. 
And why is this ? When these men, still being evil, 
have been admitted into a religion so pure, they give 
it up, and return again to the lower state 8 , and by 
their backsliding the people is led to think : " Vain 
must be this religion of the Sama»a Gotama, which 
these men have given up." This is the reason for 
what I say.' 

24. ' Suppose, O king, there were a bathing tank 4 , 
full of pure clear cold water. And some man, dirty, 
covered with stains and mud, should come there, and 
without bathing in it should turn back again, still 
dirty as before. Now in that matter whom would 
the people blame, the dirty man, or the bathing 
tank?' •' 

' The dirty man, Sir, would the people blame, 

1 Ta va/akawz. I take this word, in the sense of ' mere,' as an 
accusative in agreement with gihim (see the use of the word at 
pp. 107, 115, 241 of the Pali text), and not as an accusative of 
motion, ' into so great as&sanaw.' 

* That is till he be converted, till he has ' entered the stream.' 
See 'Buddhism,' p. 101. 

* That is, of a layman. 

4 Ta/aka, which Childers wrongly renders 'pond, pool, lake.' 
It is always an artificial tank, reservoir. See JTullavagga X, 1, 6 ; 
Gataka I, 239 ; Milinda, pp. 66, 81, 296. 



Digitized by 



Google 



64 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 25. 

saying : " This fellow came to the bathing tank, 
and has gone back as dirty as before. How 
could the bathing tank, of itself, cleanse a man 
who did not care to bathe ? What fault is there 
in the tank?'" 

' Just so, O king, [247] has the Tathagata con- 
structed a bathing tank full of the excellent waters 
of emancipation \ — the bath of the good law. Who- 
soever of conscious discerning beings are polluted 
with the stains of sin, they, bathing in it, can wash 
away all their sins. And if any one, having gone to 
that bathing tank of the good law, should not bathe in 
it, but turn back polluted as before, and return again to 
the lower state, it is him the people would blame, and 
say: "This man entered religion according to the 
doctrine of the Conquerors, and finding no resting- 
place within it, has returned again to the lower 
state. How could the religion of the Conquerors, of 
itself, cleanse him who would not regulate his life in 
accordance with it? What fault is there in the 
system ? " 

25. ' Or suppose, O king, that a man afflicted 
with dire disease should visit a physician skilled 
in diagnosis 2 , knowing an efficacious and lasting 
method of cure, and that that man should then not 
let himself be treated, but go back again as ill as 
before. Now therein whom would the people 
blame, the sick man or the doctor ? ' 

' It is the sick man, Sir, they would blame, say- 

1 ' Vimutti: of the nectar of the Nirvawa which is the highest 
fruit of Arahatship ' is Hina/i-kumbur£'s gloss. 

* Roguppatti-kusalaw : 'skilled in the threefold origin of 
disease' says the Sinhalese (p. 351). See also pp. 248, 272 of the 
Pali text. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6, 26. OF MILINDA THE KING. 65 

ing : "How could the physician, of himself, cure 
this man, who would not let himself be treated ? 
What fault is there in the doctor ? " ' 

' Just so, O king, has the Tathagata deposited in 
the casket of his religion the ambrosial medicine (of 
Nirvawa) which is able to entirely suppress all the 
sickness of sin, thinking : " May all those of con- 
scious sentient beings who are afflicted with the 
sickness of sin drink of this ambrosia, and so allay 
all their disease." And if any one, without drinking 
the ambrosia, should turn back again with the evil 
still within him, and return once more to the lower 
state, it is he whom the people will blame, saying : 
"This man entered religion according to the doc- 
trine of the Conquerors, and finding no resting-place 
within it, has returned again to the lower state. 
How could the religion of the Conquerors, of 
itself, cure him who would not regulate his life in 
accordance with it ? What fault is there in the 
system ?" 

1 26. ' Or suppose, O king, a starving man were to 
attend at a place where a mighty largesse of food 2 
given for charity was being distributed, and then 
should go away again, still starving, without eating 
anything. Whom then would the people blame, the 
starving man, or the feast of piety ? ' 

' It is the starving man, Sir, they would blame, 
saying : [248] " This fellow, though tormented with 
hunger, still when the feast of piety was provided 
for him, partook of nothing, and went back as 
hungry as before. How could the meal, of which he 

1 The Sinhalese (p. 352) inserts here ' Give me, Sir, I pray you, 
another simile,' and then goes on ' Then suppose, O king, &c.' 
* Bhatta, perhaps rice, as the food par excellence. 

[36] F 



Digitized by 



Google 



66 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 27, 

would not eat, enter, of itself, into his mouth ? What 
fault is there in the food ? " ' 

' Just so, O king, has the Tathagata placed the 
most excellent, good, auspicious, delicate ambrosial 
food, surpassing sweet, of the realisation of the 
impermanency of all things 1 , into the casket of his 
religion, thinking : " May all those of conscious 
sentient beings who feel within them the torment 
of sin*, whose hearts are deadened by cravings, 
feeding upon this food, allay every longing that they 
have for future life in any form, in any world." And 
if any one, without enjoying this food, should turn 
back, still dominated by his cravings, and return once 
more to the lower state, it is he whom the people 
will blame, saying : " This man entered religion 
according to the doctrine of the Conquerors, and 
finding no resting-place within it, has returned again 
to the lower state. How could the religion of the 
Conquerors, of itself, purify him who would not 
regulate his life in accordance with it ? What fault 
is there in the system ? " ' 

27. 'If the Tathagata, O king, had let a house- 
holder be received into the Order only after he had 
been trained in the first stage of the Excellent Way, 
then would renunciation of the world no longer 
indeed be said to avail for the putting away of evil 
qualities, for purification of heart — then would there 
be no longer any use in renunciation. It would be 
as if a man were to have a bathing tank excavated 



1 KaySgata-sati: literally ' intentness of mind on (the truth 
relating to) bodies.' 

* Kilesa-kilant-a^^atta. Compare kA£laggha.tt&m, G&-> 
taka I, 345. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6, 28. OF MILINDA THE KING. 6 J 



by the labour of hundreds (of workpeople 1 ), and 
were then to have a public announcement made : 
" Let no one who is dirty go down into this tank ! 
Let only those whose dust and dirt have been 
washed away, who are purified and stainless, go 
down into this tank ! " Now would that bath, O 
king, be of any use to those thus purified and 
stainless ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir ! The advantage they would 
have sought in going into the bath they would have 
already gained elsewhere. Of what use would the 
bath be to them then ? ' 

' Just so, O king, had the Tathagata ordained that 
only laymen who had already entered the first stage 
of the Excellent Way should be received into the 
Order, then would the advantage they seek in it 
have been already gained. Of what use would the 
renunciation be to them then ? 

28. ' Or suppose, O king, that a physician, a true 
follower of the sages of old 2 , one who carries (in his 
memory) the ancient traditions and verses 3 , a prac- 
tical man *, skilled in diagnosis, and master of an 
efficacious and lasting system of treatment, who had 
collected (from medicinal herbs) a medicine able to 
cure every disease, were to have it announced : [249] 
" Let none, Sirs, who are ill come to visit me ! Let the 

1 Stonemasons and sculptors are implied as well as navvies. 
Compare my note at ' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 262. 

* Sabhava-isi-bhattiko. Compare Siva-bhattiko (Saivite) 
at Mahavawsa, chapter 93, line 17. In ra^a-bhattiko (above, 
p. 142 of the Pali text) the connotation is different. The Sinhalese 
(p. 353) repeats the phrase. 

3 Suta-manta-dharo, which the Sinhalese repeats. 

4 Atakkiko: 'without the theories (vitarka) resorted to by 
those ignorant of the practice of medicine ' says Hina/i-kumbure\ 

F 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



68 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, (J, 29. 

healthy and the strong visit me!" Now, would then, 
O king, those men free from illness and disease, 
healthy and jubilant, get what they wanted from 
that physician ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir ! What men want from a 
physician, that would they have already obtained 
otherwise. What use would the physician be to 
them ? ' 

' Just so, O king, had the Tathagata ordained that 
only those laymen who had already entered the first 
stage of the Excellent Way should be received into 
the Order, then would the advantages they seek 
in it have been already gained elsewhere. Of what 
use would the renunciation be to them then ? 

29. 'Or suppose, O king, that some had had many 
hundreds of dishes of boiled milk-rice prepared 1 , and 
were to have it announced to those about him : 
' Let not, Sirs, any hungry man approach to this 
feast of charity. Let those who have well fed, the 
satisfied, refreshed, and satiated 2 , those who have 
regaled themselves, and are filled with good cheer, 
— let them come to the feast." Now would any ad- 
vantage, O king, be derived from the feast by those 
men thus well fed, satisfied, refreshed, satiated, 
regaled, and filled with good cheer ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir ! The very advantage they 
would seek in going to the feast, that would they 
have already attained elsewhere. What good would 
the feast be to them ?' 

' Just so, O king, had the Tathagata ordained that 



1 As A^itasattu is said to have done for Devadatta at Gataka I, 
186. 
* See above, IV, 6, 5. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6, 3*- OF MILINDA THE KING. 69 

only those laymen who had already entered the first 
stage of the Excellent Way should be received into 
the Order, thus would the advantages they seek in it 
have been already gained elsewhere. Of what use 
would the renunciation be to them ? 

30. ' But notwithstanding that, O king, they who 
return to the lower state manifest thereby five im- 
measurably good qualities in the religion of the 
Conquerors. And what are the five ? They show 
how glorious is the state (which those have reached 
who have entered the Order), how purified it is from 
every stain, how impossible it is for the sinful to 
dwell within it together (with the good), how difficult 
it is to realise (its glory), how many are the restraints 
to be observed within it. 

31. 'And how do they show the mighty glory of 
that state ? Just, O king, as if a man, poor, and of 
low birth, without distinction 1 , deficient in wisdom, 
were to come into possession of a great and mighty 
kingdom, it would not be long before he would be 
overthrown, utterly destroyed 2 , and deprived of his 
glory. For he would be unable to support his 
dignity. [250] And why so ? Because of the great- 
ness thereof. Just so is it, O king, that whosoever 
are without distinction, have acquired no merit, and 
are devoid of wisdom, when they renounce the world 
according to the religion of the Conquerors, then, 
unable to bear that most excellent renunciation, 
overthrown, fallen, and deprived of their glory, they 
return to the lower state. For they are unable to 



1 Nibbisesa, not in Childers; but see, for instance, ffataka 
II, 3*. 
* Paridhawsati. Compare below, IV, 7, 8 {p. 265 of the Pali). 



Digitized by 



Google 



70 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 3*. 

carry out the doctrine of the Conquerors. And 
why so ? Because of the exalted nature of the con- 
dition which that doctrine brings about. Thus is it, 
O king, that they show forth the mighty glory of 
that state. 

32. ' And how do they show how purified that 
state is from every stain ? Just, O king, as water, 
when it has fallen upon a lotus, flows away, disperses, 
scatters, disappears, adheres not to it. And why so ? 
Because of the lotus being pure from any spot. Just 
so, O king, when whosoever are deceitful, tricky, 
crafty, treacherous, holders of lawless opinions, have 
been admitted into the religion of the Conquerors, 
it is not long before they disperse, and scatter, and 
fall from that pure and stainless, clear and faultless 1 , 
most high and excellent religion, and finding no 
standing-place in it, adhering no longer to it, they 
return to the lower state. And why so ? Because 
the religion of the Conquerors has been purified 
from every stain. Thus is it, O king, that they 
show forth the purity of that state from every stain. 

33. ' And how do they show how impossible it is 
for the sinful to dwell within it together with the 
good ? Just, O king, as the great ocean does not 
tolerate the continuance in it of a dead corpse 2 , 
but whatever corpse may be in the sea, that does it 
bring quickly to the shore, and cast it out on to the 
dry land. And why so ? Because the ocean is 

1 Nikka»/aka-pa»<fara: literally 'thornless and yellow-white.' 
The second of these epithets of the religion (sisana) is applied to 
it above, IV, 6, 23 (p. 250 of the Pali). The Sinhalese merely 
repeats them. 

* On this curious belief see the note above on IV, 3, 39 (p. 187 
of the Pali). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6,34' OF MILINDA THE KING. 7 1 

the abode of mighty creatures. Just so, O king, 
when whosoever are sinful, foolish, with their zeal 
evaporated, distressed, impure, and bad, have been 
admitted into the religion of the Conquerors, it is 
not long before they abandon that religion, and 
dwelling no longer in it — the abode of the mighty, 
the Arahats, purified, and free from the Great Evils * 
— they return to the lower state. And why so ? Be- 
cause it is impossible for the wicked to dwell in the 
religion of the Conquerors. Thus is it, O king, 
that they show forth the impossibility of the sinful 
to abide within it together with the good. 

34. ' And how do they show how difficult a state 
it is to grasp ? Just, O king, as archers who are 
clumsy, untrained, ignorant, and bereft of skill, are 
incapable of high feats of archery, such as hair- 
splitting 2 , but miss the object, and shoot beyond the 
mark. And why so ? Because of the fineness and 
minuteness of the horse-hair. [251] Just so, O king, 
when foolish, stupid, imbecile 3 , dull, slow-minded 

1 They are lust, dulness, delusion, and ignorance. 

* Valaggavedhaw, 'hair-splitting;' which is also used in the 
Pi/akas in the secondary sense we too have given to it. 

' E/amuga, supposed to mean literally 'deaf and dumb; ' but 
often (if not always) used in this secondary sense. See Gataka I, 
247, 248 (where both MSS. read elamuga), and Magg^ima 
Nikaya I, 20 (where Mr. Trenckner has an interesting note). 
In both places the fifth century commentators explain the word 
by lala-mukha, 'drivelling,' supposing it to be derived from ela, 
' saliva,' and mukha, ' mouth.' This is certainly wrong, for the last 
part of the compound is muka, 'dumb.' The fact is that the 
word was a puzzle, even then. The meaning assigned to it by 
both Pali and Sanskrit lexicographers of ' deaf and dumb ' has not 
yet been confirmed by a single passage either in Pali or Sanskrit. 
And as e</a, 'sheep,' is common in both, in its longer form of 
erfaka, e/aka, the compound probably meant originally 'as dumb 



Digitized by 



Google 



72 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV. 6, 35. 

fellows renounce the world according to the doctrine 
of the Conquerors, then they, unable to grasp 
the exquisitely fine and subtle distinctions of the 
Four Truths, missing them, going beyond them, 
turn back before long to the lower state. And why 
so ? Because it is so difficult to penetrate into the 
finenesses and subtleties of the Truths. This is 
how they show forth the difficulty of its realisation. 
35. 'And how do they show how many are the 
restraints to be observed within it? Just, O king, 
as a man who had gone to a place where a mighty 
battle was going on, when, surrounded on all sides 
by the forces of the enemy, he sees the armed 
hosts crowding in upon him, will give way, turn 
back, and take to flight. And why so ? Out of 
fear lest he should not be saved in the midst of so 
hot a fight. Just so, O king, when whosoever are 
wicked 1 , unrestrained, shameless, foolish, full of ill- 
will, fickle, unsteady, mean and stupid, renounce the 
world under the system of the Conquerors, then 
they, unable to carry out the manifold precepts, give 
way, turn back, and take to flight, and so before 
long return to the lower state. And why so ? 
Because of the multiform nature of the restraints 
to be observed in the religion of the Conquerors. 
Thus is it, O king, that they show forth the mani- 
foldness of the restraints to be observed. 

as a sheep,' which would be a quite satisfactory basis for the 
secondary sense of ' imbecile/ in which alone it can be traced in 
Pali. For the Sanskrit form erfamuka Bohtlingk-Roth give only 
lexicographers as authority. So elS, 'saliva,' is in Pali only a 
lexicographer's word, and may have been invented to explain 
e/amuga, and ane/agala vaka, as at Sumahgala, p. 282. 

1 Pakata. Hina/i-kumburfi says (p. 356) papakalawu, which 
suggests a different reading. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6, 37. OF MILINDA THE KING. 73 



36. ' As on that best of flowering shrubs, O king, 
the double jasmine J , there may be flowers that have 
been pierced by insects, and their tender stalks 
being cut to pieces, they may occasionally fall down. 
But by their having fallen is not the jasmine bush 
disgraced. For the flowers that still remain upon it 
pervade every direction with their exquisite perfume. 
Just so, O king, whosoever having renounced the 
world under the system of the Conquerors, return 
again to the lower state, are, like jasmine flowers 
bitten by the insects and deprived of their colour 
and their smell, colourless as it were in their 
behaviour, and incapable of development. But 
by their backsliding is not the religion of the Con- 
querors put to shame. For the members of the 
Order who remain in the religion pervade the world 
of gods and men with the exquisite perfume of their 
right conduct. 

37. ' Among rice plants that are healthy [252] and 
ruddy there may spring up a kind of rice plant called 
Karumbhaka 2 , and that may occasionally fade. 
But by its fading are not the red rice plants dis- 
graced. For those that remain become the food of 
kings. Just so, O king, whosoever having renounced 
the world under the system of the Conquerors re- 
turn again to the lower state, they, like Karumbhaka 
plants among the red rice, may grow not, nor attain 
development, and may even occasionally relapse 
into the lower state. But by their backsliding is 
not the religion of the Conquerors put to shame, 

1 Vassikd. So also above, IV, 3, 32 (p. 183 of the Pali). 

* 'A yellowish white kawalu sort' says H!na/i-kumbur§, and 
Clough renders k&walu by 'a species of panic grass' (panicum 
glaucurn). The word has only been found in this passage. 



Digitized by 



Google 



74 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 38. 

for the brethren that remain stedfast become fitted 
even for Arahatship. 

38. ' On one side, O king, of a wish conferring 
gem a roughness ' may arise. But by the appear- 
ance of that roughness is not the gem disgraced. 
For the purity that remains in the gem fills the 
people with gladness. And just so, O king, who- 
soever having renounced the world under the system 
of the Conquerors return again to the lower state, 
they may be rough ones and fallen ones in the 
religion. But by their backsliding is not the religion 
of the Conquerors put to shame, for the brethren 
who remain stedfast are the cause of joy springing 
up in the hearts of gods and men. 

39. 'Even red sandal wood of the purest sort, 
O king, may become in some portion of it rotten 
and scentless. But thereby is not the sandal wood 
disgraced. For that portion which remains whole- 
some and sweet scatters and diffuses its perfume all 
around. And just so, O king, whosoever having 
renounced the world under the system of the Con- 
querors return again to the lower state, they, like 
the rotten part of the sandal wood, may be as it 
were thrown away in the religion. But by their 
backsliding is not the religion of the Conquerors 
put to shame. For the brethren who remain sted- 
fast pervade, with the sandal wood perfume of their 
right conduct, the world of gods and men.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! By one appropriate 
simile after another, by one correct analogy after 
another have you most excellently made clear the 



1 Kakkasara. The Sinhalese (p. 357) has left out this clause, 
evidently by mistake only. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6,4i« OF MILINDA THE KING. 75 

faultlessness of the system of the Conquerors, and 
shown it free from blame. And even those who 
have lapsed make evident how excellent that 
system is.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to those who 
have lapsed.] 



[dilemma the fifty-seventh, 
why have arahats no power over their bodies?] 

40. ' Venerable Nagasena, your (members of the 
Order) say : [253] 

" There is one kind of pain only which an Arahat 
suffers, bodily pain, that is, and not mental 1 ." 

' How is this, Nagasena ? The Arahat keeps his 
mind going by means of the body. Has the Arahat 
no lordship, no mastery, no power over the body ? ' 

' No, he has not, O king.' 

'That, Sir, is not right that over the body, by 
which he keeps his mind going, he should have 
neither lordship, nor mastery, nor power. Even a 
bird, Sir, is lord and master and ruler over the nest 
in which he dwells.' 

41. 'There are these ten qualities, O king, in- 
herent in the body, which run after it, as it were, 
and accompany it from existence to existence a . And 
what are the ten ? Cold and heat, hunger and thirst, 



1 This passage has not yet been traced in the Pi/akas. An 
almost identical phrase has already been quoted, as said by the 
Buddha himself, at II, 1, 4 (p. 44 of the Pdli). 

* Bhave bhave anuparivattanti. See IV, 4, 41 (p. 204 of 
the PSIi). 



Digitized by 



Google 



76 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 42. 

the necessity of voiding excreta, fatigue and sleepi- 
ness, old age, disease, and death. And in respect 
thereof, the Arahat is without lordship, without 
mastery, without power.' 

' Venerable Nagasena, what is the reason why the 
commands of the Arahat have no power over his 
body, neither has he any mastery over it? Tell 
me that. 

' Just, O king, as whatever beings are dependent 
on the land, they all walk, and dwell, and carry on 
their business in dependence upon it. But do their 
commands have force, does their mastery extend 
over it ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir ! ' 

' Just so, O king, the Arahat keeps his mind going 
through the body. And yet his commands have no 
authority over it, nor power.' 

42. ' Venerable Nagasena, why is it that the 
ordinary man suffers both bodily and mental pain ? ' 

' By reason, O king, of the untrained state of his 
mind. Just, O king, as an ox when trembling with 
starvation might be tied up with a weak and fragile 
and tiny rope of grass or creeper. But if the ox 
were excited ' then would he escape, dragging the 
fastening with him. Just so, O king, when pain 
comes upon him whose mind is untrained, then is 
his mind excited, and the mind so excited bends his 
body this way and that and makes it grovel on the 
ground, [254] and he, being thus untrained in 
mind, trembles 2 and cries, and gives forth terrible 



1 Parikupati, not in Childers; but see above, IV, i, 38 (p. 118 
oftheP&li). 

* Tasati. Mr. Trenckner points out (p. 431) that two MSS. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6,44- OF MILINDA THE KING. 77 

groans. This is why the ordinary man, O king, 
suffers pain as well in body as in mind.' 

43. ' Then why, Sir, does the Arahat only suffer 
one kind of pain — bodily, that is, and not mental ? ' 

' The mind of the Arahat, O king, is trained, well 
practised, tamed, brought into subjection, and 
obedient, and it hearkens to his word. When 
affected with feelings of pain, he grasps firmly 
the idea of the impermanence of all things, so ties 
his mind as it were to the post of contemplation, and 
his mind, bound to the post of contemplation, re- 
mains unmoved, unshaken, becomes stedfast, wanders 
not — though his body the while may bend this way 
and that and roll in agony by the disturbing influence 
of the pain. This is why it is only one kind of pain 
that the Arahat suffers — bodily pain, that is, and 
not mental.' 

44. 'Venerable Nagasena, that verily is a most 
marvellous thing that when the body is trembling 
the mind should not be shaken. Give me a reason 
for that.' 

' Suppose, O king, there were a noble tree, mighty 
in trunk and branches and leaves. And when 
agitated by the force of the wind its branches should 
wave. Would the trunk also move ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir ! ' 

' Well, O king, the mind of the Arahat is as the 
trunk of that noble tree.'* 

' } Most wonderful, Nagasena, and most strange ! 



read rasati and one sarati. The Sinhalese rendering (p. 359), 
bhaya wanneya, confirms the reading he has adopted. 

1 The Sinhalese (p. 360) has four lines here that are not in 
the Pali. 



Digitized by 



Google 



78 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 45. 

Never before have I seen a lamp of the law that 
burned thus brightly through all time.' 



[Here ends the dilemma as to the Arahat's 
power over his body.] 



[dilemma the fifty-eighth, 
the layman's sin.] 

45. [255] ' Venerable Nagasena, suppose a layman 
had been guilty of a Para^ika offence \ and some 
time after should enter the Order. And neither he 
himself should be aware that when still a layman 
he had so been guilty, nor should any one else inform 
him, saying : " When a layman you were guilty of 
such an offence." Now if he were to devote himself 
to the attainment of Arahatship 2 , would he be able so 
to comprehend the Truth as to succeed in entering 
upon the Excellent Way ? ' 

' No, O king, he would not.' 

' But why not, Sir ? ' 

' That, in him, which might have been the cause 
of his grasping the Truth has been, in him, destroyed. 
No comprehension can therefore take place.' 

46. ' Venerable Nagasena, your people say : 

" To him who is aware (of an offence) there comes 

1 This, for a member of the Order, would be either unchastily, 
theft, murder, or putting forward false claims to extraordinary 
holiness. See 'Vinaya Texts,' part i, pp. 3-5. But Hfna/i- 
kumbure° takes the word PSrS^ika here in the sense of matricide, 
parricide, injuring a Bo Tree, murder of an Arahat, wounding a 
Tathagata, or rape of a nun. 

' Tathattiya. Rahat phala pi«isa pilipadane \vt nam, 
says the Sinhalese (p. 361). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6, 48. OF MILINDA THE KING. 79 

remorse. When remorse has arisen there is an 
obstruction in the heart. To him whose heart is 
obstructed there is no comprehension of the Truth 1 ." 
' Why should there then be no such comprehension 
to one not aware of his offence, feeling no remorse, 
remaining with a quiet heart. This dilemma touches 
on two irreconcilable statements. Think well before 
you solve it.' 

47. 'Would selected seed 2 , O king, successfully 
sown in a well-ploughed, well-watered, fertile soil, 
come to maturity ? ' 

' Certainly, Sir ! ' 

' But would the same seed grow on the surface 
of a thick slab of rock ? ' 

' Of course not' 

' Why then should the same seed grow in the 
mud, and not on the rock ? ' 

' Because on the rock the cause for its growth 
does not exist. Seeds cannot grow without a cause.' 

' Just so, O king, the cause by reason of which 
his comprehension of the Truth (his conversion) 
might have been brought about, has been rooted 
out in him. Conversion cannot take place without 
a cause.' 

48. ' [Give me, Sir, another simile V] 

' Well, O king, will sticks and clods and cudgels * 



1 This passage has not yet been traced in the Pi/akas. 

* Sdradaw bi^am. 'Seed which will give sSra.' It has 
nothing to do with sdradaw, 'autumn.' See Sawyutta Nik&ya 
XXII, 24. 

8 Added from the Sinhalese (p. 362). It is not in the PSH. 

4 Laku/a, not in Childers. But see below (p. 301 of the P&li 
text). It is probably the same Dravidian word as appears in the 
Sanskrit dictionaries as lagu</a. 



Digitized by 



Google 



80 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 49. 

and clubs find a resting-place in the air, in the same 
way as they do on the ground ? ' 

1 No, Sir.' 

' But what is the reason why they come to rest 
on the earth, when they will not stand in the air ? ' 

' There is no cause in the air for their stability, 
and without a cause they will [256] not stand.' 

' Just so, O king, by that fault of his the cause for 
his conversion has been removed. And without a 
cause there can be no conversion. Now will fire, 
O king, burn in water in the same way as it will 
on land ? ' 

' No, Sir.* 

' But why not ? ' 

' Because in water the conditions precedent for 
burning do not exist. And there can be no burn- 
ing without them.' 

' Just so, O king, are the conditions precedent to 
conversion destroyed in him by that offence of his. 
And when the conditions which would bring it about 
are destroyed there can be no conversion.' 

'49. ' Venerable Nagasena, think over this matter 
once more. I am not yet convinced about it. Per- 
suade me by some reason how such obstruction can 
occur in the case of one not aware of his offence, and 
feeling therefore no remorse.' 

' Would the Halahala 1 poison, O king, if eaten by 



1 There is a curious confusion about this word. It is found in 
post-Buddhistic Sanskrit in the sense of a particular sort of strong 
poison, and in this sense it occurs also in the Gataka Commentary 
I, 271; III, 103; and in the Tela-ka/aha-gatha, verse 82. In 
none of these passages is the nature of the poison at all explained ; 
it is taken for granted as a well-known powerful poison. But 
above (p. 122 of the Pali), and at G&taka I, 47, 48, it is used in 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6, 49- OF MILINDA THE KING. 8 1 

a man who did not know he had eaten it, take away 
his life ? ' 

' Yes, Sir.' 

' Just so, O king, is there an obstruction to his 
comprehension of the Truth, who, without being 
aware of it, has committed a sin. And would fire, 
O king, burn a man who walked into it unawares?' 

' Yes, Sir.' 

• Well, just so in the case you put. Or would a 
venomous snake, if it bit a man without his knowing 
it, kill him?' 

•Yes, Sir.' 

4 Well, just so in the case you put. And is it not 
true that Samawa Kola»»a, the king of Kalinga, 
— when surrounded by the seven treasures of a 
sovereign overlord he went mounted on his state 
elephant to pay a visit to his relatives, — was not able 
to pass the Tree of Wisdom, though he was not 
aware that it was there * ? Well, of the same kind 
is the reason why one who has committed an offence, 
even though he know it not, is nevertheless incapable 
of rising to the knowledge of the Truth.' 

' Verily, Nagasena, this must be the word of the 
Conqueror. To find any fault with it were vain. 
And this (explanation of yours) must be the meaning 
of it. I accept it as you say.' 



[Here ends the dilemma of the layman's sin.] 

the sense of kolahala, 'noise' (compare the Sanskrit halahala, 
used as a cry or call). In this sense it is probably a mere imitation 
of the supposed sound. In the sense of poison its derivation is 
doubtful. 

1 This must be the incident referred to at Gataka IV, 232, 
though the name of the king is given (on the previous page) simply 
as Kalingo and not as Sama*a-kola#£o. 
[36] G 



Digitized by 



Google 



82 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 50. 

[dilemma THE FIFTY-NINTH. 
THE GUILTY RECLUSE.] 

50. [257] ' Venerable Nagasena, what is the dis- 
tinction, what the difference, between a layman who 
has done wrong, and a Sama«a (member of the 
Order) who has done wrong ? Will they both be 
reborn in like condition? Will the like retribution 
happen to both ? Or is there any difference ?' 

* There are, O king, ten qualities which abound in 
the guilty Sama»a, distinguishing him from the 
guilty layman. And besides that, in ten ways 
does the Sama»a purify the gifts that may be 
given him. 

51. 'And what are the ten qualities which abound 
in the guilty Sama«a, distinguishing him from the 
guilty layman ? The guilty Sama»a, O king, is 
full of reverence for the Buddha, for the Law, for the 
Order, and for his fellow-disciples; he exerts himself 
in putting questions about, and in recitation of (the 
sacred texts) ; he is devoted to learning, though he has 
done wrong. Then, O king, the guilty one entering 
the assembly, enters it decently clad, he guards him- 
self alike in body and mind through fear of rebuke, 
his mind is set upon exerting himself (towards the 
attainment of Arahatship), he is of the companion- 
ship of the brethren. And even, O king, if he does 
wrong he lives discreetly. Just, O king, as a 
married woman sins only in secret and in privacy, 
so does the guilty Samawa walk discreetly in his 
wrongdoing. These are the ten qualities, O king, 
found in the guilty Sama»a, distinguishing him 
from the guilty layman. 

52. 'And what are the ten ways in which, besides, 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6,53« OF MILINDA THE KING. 83 

he purifies a gift given to him? He purifies it in 
that he wears an invulnerable coat of mail 1 ; in that 
he is shorn in the fashion of the characteristic mark 
of renunciation used by the seers of old 2 ; in that 
he is one who is included in the multitude of the 
brethren; in that he has taken his refuge in the 
Buddha, the Law, and the Order ; in that he dwells 
in a lonely spot suitable for the exertion (after 
Arahatship) ; in that he seeks after the treasure of 
the teaching of the Conquerors ; in that he preaches 
the most excellent law (D ham ma) ; in that his final 
destiny is to be reborn in the island of truth s ; in 
that he is possessed of an honest belief that the 
Buddha is the chief of all beings ; in that he has 
taken upon himself the keeping of the Uposatha 
day. These, O king, are the ten ways in which, 
besides, he purifies a gift given to him. 

53. [258] ' Even, O king, when thoroughly fallen, a 
guilty Sama»a yet sanctifies the gifts of the supporters 
of the faith — just as water, however thick, will wash 
away slush and mud and dirt and stains — just as 
hot, and even boiling water will put a mighty blazing 
fire out — just as food, however nasty, will allay the 
faintness of hunger. For thus, O king, hath it been 
said by the god over all gods in the most excellent 
Ma^Aima Nikaya in the chapter " On gifts. 4 :" 

1 ' The threefold robes, the Arahad-dha^a, for the suppression 
of all evil, worn by all the Buddhas ' adds the Sinhalese (p. 364). 
Compare above, vol. i, p. 190. 

* The Rishis; 'who were gaining the Swarga-moksha' adds 
the Sinhalese. (It was before the days of Arahatship.) 

* Dhamma-dipa, that is to reach Arahatship, Nirvawa. Com- 
pare the Gataka stanza, IV, 121, verse 3. 

4 The Dakkhiwa Vibhahga, No. 12 in the Vibhahga Vagga, 
No. 142 in the whole Nikaya. 

G 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



84 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 53. 

" Whene'er a good man, with believing heart, 
Presents what he hath earned in righteousness 
To th' unrighteous, — in full confidence 
On the great fruit to follow the good act — 
Such gift is, by the giver, sanctified." ' 

'Most wonderful, Nagasena, and most strange! 
We asked you a mere ordinary question, and you, 
expounding it with reasons and with similes, 
have filled, as it were, the hearer with the sweet 
taste of the nectar (of Nirva#a *). Just as a cook, 
or a cook's apprentice, taking a piece of ordinary 
nutmeg, will, treating it with various ingredients, 
prepare a dish for a king — so, Nagasena, when 
we asked you an ordinary question, have you, 
expounding it with reasons and similes, filled the 
hearer with the sweet taste of the nectar of Nirva»a.' 



[Here ends the dilemma as to the guilty recluse.] 

1 Amata-madhuraw savanfipagaw akasi. Hfna/i-kum- 
bur& (p. 365) understands this differently, and has apparently read 
amatara madhuraw. For he translates 'filled the hearer with 
the taste of Nirv£»a, and adorned the least of the people with the 
ear-ring of Arahatship.' It is difficult to see where he finds ' the 
least of the people,' and there is no authority for rendering 
savanupagam by ' ear-ring.' Amata as an epithet of the state 
of mind called by Western writers Nirva»a (which is only one of 
many names applied in the Buddhist books themselves to Arahat- 
ship) has nothing to do with immortality. As this wrong notion 
of the use of the word has led to much confusion, I have considered 
in an appendix all the passages in which the epithet occurs. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6, 56- OF MILINDA THE KING. 85 

[dilemma THE SIXTIETH. 
THE SOUL IN WATER.] 

54. 'Venerable Nagasena, this water when boiling 
over the fire gives forth many a sound, hissing 
and simmering 1 . Is then, Nagasena, the water 
alive ? Is it shouting at play ? [259] or is it crying 
out at the torment inflicted on it ?' 

' It is not alive, O king, there is no soul or being 
in water. It is by reason of the greatness of the 
shock of the heat of the fire that it gives forth 
sounds, hissing and simmering.' 

' Now, venerable Nagasena, there are false teachers 
who on the ground that the water is alive reject the 
use of cold water, and warming the water feed them- 
selves on tepid foods of various kinds 2 . 

' These men find fault with you and revile you, 
saying: "The Sakyaputtiya Samawas do injury to 
the souls of one function s ." Dispel, remove, get rid 
of this their censure and blame.' 

55. 'The water is not alive, O king. Neither is 
there therein either soul or being. And it is the 

1 ATi££i/&yati £i/i£i/£yati. The English words entirely fail 
in representing the sound of these striking words (in which the k 
is pronounced as ch). They recur Mahavagga VI, 26, 7 and 
Puggala Paflflatti 3, 14. 

* Veka/ika-veka/ikam. Hma/i-kumburS renders this by 
huffu-hunuyem, and hunu is the Pali uwha. But the expres- 
sion may be compared with vika/a, 'filth' (used for food), at 
MahSvagga VI, 14, 6. On the belief of the (Tains in the 'water- 
life,' see the Ayaranga Sutta I, 1, 3 (in vol. xxii of the S.B.E., 

P-5)- 

8 Ekindriyaw gtv&m. The belief in such a soul is to be 
understood as held by the teachers referred to, not by Buddhists. 
Hma/i-kumburfi's translation implies that the one function meant 
is pra»a. Compare the heretical opinions described in the Dtgha 
II, 20, and 26. 



Digitized by 



Google 



86 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 56. 

great shock of the heat of the fire that makes it 
sound, hissing and simmering. It is like the water in 
holes in the ground, in ponds and pools and lakes, in 
reservoirs, in crevices and chasms, in wells, in low- 
lying places, and in lotus-tanks 1 , which before the 
mighty onset of the hot winds 2 is so deeply affected 
that it vanishes away. But does the water in that 
case, O king, give forth many a sound, hissing and 
simmering?' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' But, if it were alive, the water would then also 
make some sound. Know therefore, O king, that 
there is no soul, neither being, in water ; and that it 
is the greatness of the shock of the heat of the water 
that makes it give forth sounds. 

56. 'And hear another reason, O king, for the same 
thing. If water, O king, with grains of rice in it, is 
put in a vessel and covered up, but not placed over 
the fireplace, would it then give forth sound ?' 

' No, Sir. It would remain quiet and unmoved.' 

' But if you were to put the same water, just as it 
is in the vessel, over a fireplace 8 , and then light up the 
fire, would the water remain quiet and motionless ?' 

1 This list recurs in almost identical terms below, p. 296 (of the 
Pili text). See also above, II, 1, 10 (vol. 1, p. 55). 

1 VatStapa, not 'heat and wind' as Bohtlingk-Roth understand 
it in their rendering of v&t&tapika. See ' Vinaya Texts,' III, 159 
and Sawyutta XXII, 12. 

8 Uddhane. This word is always rendered 'oven' in the dic- 
tionaries. But I doubt whether there were ovens at all, in our 
sense, in those times, and in any case, the word certainly means 
a fireplace made of bits of brick between which the wood for the 
fire is laid. We must imagine the bricks to be laid, as a general 
rale, in a triangle. I have often seen both Sinhalese peasants, and 
Tamils from the Madras Presidency, boiling their rice in the open 
over such extemporised fireplaces in pots either placed on the 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6, 5^- OF MILINDA THE KING. 87 

' Certainly not, Sir. It would move and be agitated, 
become perturbed and all in commotion, waves 
would arise in it, it would rush up and down 
and in every direction [260], it would roll up and 
boil over 1 , and a garland of foam would be formed 
above it' 

bricks, or more usually suspended from three sticks meeting above 
the centre of the space between the bricks. That this, and this 
only, is the sense in which the word is used in Pali is clear from 
a comparison of the passages in which it is used, though of course 
in huts the fireplace, though of the same kind, would be a more 
permanent structure. I have not traced the word in the Pi/akas. 
In the £$taka Commentary I, 68 we find that smoke usually rises 
uddhanato. This it would not do from an oven. At (Jataka I, 
33 and Dhammapada Commentary 176 uddhane aropetva must 
mean ' lifted up on to ' not ' put into.' At ffataka 1, 346 the speaker 
says he will take the uddhana-kapallani, and the rice with in- 
gredients for the curry, up on to the flat roof of the house, and there 
cook and eat them. These are the bits of brick to make, not an 
oven, but a fireplace of. At Gitaka. II, 133 the husband wrings 
the neck of the parrot (the parrot of the Arabian Nights, chap, a, 
I may add) and throws it uddhanantaresu 'into the space 
(between the bricks) of the fireplace.' At Gataka III, 178 and 
Dhammapada Commentary 263 we hear of meat boiled on the 
uddhana. In the Rasavahini (quoted in the 'Journal of the Pali 
Text Society,' 1884, p. 53) the context shows that a fireplace or 
hearth, not an oven, is meant. Finally above (p. 118 of the Pali) 
we hear of a cauldron being mounted on to an uddhana, and the 
fire being lighted under it. 

The derivation is uncertain. The Sanskrit lexicographers give 
various forms of the word — always with the meaning ' oven ' — 
uddhana, udvana, uddhmana (this last probably influenced by 
a supposition that the word was connected with dham). The 
Sinhalese is uduna, and though 'fireplace' is better than 'oven,' 
we have really no corresponding word in English. The gypsies, 
who are Indian in origin, should have a name for it But I only 
find in their vocabularies yogongo-tan, which means simply 
aggi/Mna. 

1 Uttarati patarati. 'Itirenneya pcetirenneya' says the 
Sinhalese. 



Digitized by 



Google 



88 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 57. 

' But why so, O king, when water in its ordinary 
state remains quiet and motionless?' 

' It is because of the powerful impulse of the heat 
of the fire that the water, usually so still, gives forth 
many a sound, bubbling and hissing.' 

' Then thereby know, O king, that there is no 
soul in water, neither being; and that it is the 
strong heat of the fire that causes it to make 
sounds. 

57. 'And hear another reason, O king, for the 
same thing. Is there not water to be found in 
every house put into water-pots with their mouths 
closed up ? ' 

•Yes, Sir.' 

' Well, does that water move, is it agitated, per- 
turbed, in commotion, does it form into waves, does 
it rush up and down and in every direction, does it 
roll up and roll over 1 , is it covered with foam?' 

' No ! That water is in its ordinary state. It 
remains still and quiet/ 

' But have you ever heard that all this is true of 
the water in the great ocean ? and that rearing up 2 
it breaks against the strand with a mighty roar ?' 

1 Yes, I have both heard of it, and have seen it 
myself — how the water in the great ocean lifts 
itself up a hundred, two hundred, cubits high, towards 
the sky.' 

' But why, whereas water in its ordinary state 
remains motionless and still, does the water in the 
ocean both move and roar ? ' 

' That is by reason of the mighty force of the 

1 Uttarati patarati, the second of which the Sinhalese (p. 368) 
omits here. See p. 117 of the Pali. 
* Ussakkitvi, 'continually pumping up,' says the Sinhalese. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 6, 59' OF MILINDA THE KING. 89 

onset of the wind, whereas the water in the water- 
jars neither moves nor makes any noise, because 
nothing shakes it.' 

' Well, the sounds given forth by boiling water are 
the result, in a similar way, [261] of the great heat 
of the fire.' 

58. ' Do not people cover over the dried-up mouth 
of a drum 1 with dried cow-leather ? ' 

• Yes, they do.' 

' Well, is there any soul or being, O king, in a 
drum ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' Then how is it that a drum makes sounds ? ' 
' By the action or effort of a woman or a man.' 
' Well, just as that is why the drum sounds, so 
is it by the effect of the heat of the fire that the 
water sounds. And for this reason also you might 
know, O king, that there is no soul, neither being, 
in water; and that it is the heat of the fire which 
causes it to make sounds 2 . 

59. ' And I, too, O king, have something yet 
further to ask of you — thus shall this puzzle be 
thoroughly threshed out How is it ? Is it true 
of every kind of vessel that water heated in it 
makes noises, or only of some kinds of vessels ? ' 

' Not of all, Sir. Only of some.' 

' But then you have yourself, O king, abandoned 
the position you took up. You have come over to 
my side — that there is no soul, neither being, in 
water. For only if it made noises in whatever 



1 Bheri-pokkharam, which the Sinhalese renders bheri- 
mukha. Compare Vimdna Vatthu 18, 10, where pokkhara is a 
sort of drum. 

* A similar analogy has been used above, vol. i, p. 48. 



Digitized by 



Google 



90 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 6, 59. 

vessel it were heated could it be right to say that 
it had a soul. There cannot be two kinds of water 
— that which speaks, as it were, which is alive, and 
that which does not speak, and does not live. If 
all water were alive, then that which the great 
elephants, when they are in rut, suck up in their 
trunks, and pour out over their towering frames, or 
putting into their mouths take right into their 
stomachs — that water, too, when crushed flat be- 
tween their teeth, would make a sound. And great 
ships, a hundred cubits long, heavily laden, full 
of hundreds of packages of goods, pass over the 
sea — the water crushed by them, too, would make 
sounds. [262] And mighty fish, leviathans with 
bodies hundreds of leagues long 1 , since they dwell 
in the great ocean, immersed in the depths of it, 
must, so living in it, be constantly taking into their 
mouths and spouting out the ocean — and that water, 
too, crushed between their gills or in their stomach, 
would make sounds. But as, even when tormented 
with the grinding and crushing of all such mighty 
things, the water gives no sound, therefore, O king, 
you may take it that there is no soul, neither being, 
in water.' 

'Very good, Nagasena! With fitting discrimina- 
tion has the puzzle put to you 2 been solved. Just, 
Nagasena, as a gem of inestimable value which had 
come into the hands of an able master goldsmith, 
clever and well trained, would meet with due appre- 
ciation, estimation, and praise — just as a rare pearl 

1 Their names are given. On this belief see above, III, 7, 10 
(vol. i, p. 130) and iPullavagga IX, 1, 3. 

* Desagato, 'based on the teaching of the Omniscient One,' 
says Hfna/i-kumburS, who therefore apparently read desan&gato. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV,6,59. OF MILINDA THE KING. 9 1 

at the hands of a dealer in pearls, a fine piece of 
woven stuff at the hands of a cloth merchant 1 , or 
red sandal wood at the hands of a perfumer — just 
so in that way has this puzzle put to you been solved 
with the discrimination it deserved.' 



[Here ends the dilemma as to the water-life.] 



Here ends the Sixth Chapter 8 . 



1 Dussika, a word only found, so far as I know, here and 
below at V, 4 (p. 331 of the Pali), where see the note. 

1 Sakala-j'ana mano-mandaniyya-wu srt-saddharma- 
dasayehi sha/wana vargaya nimiyeya, says the Sinhalese. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Q2 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 7, I. 



Book IV. Chapter 7. 

[dilemma the sixty-first, 
the obstacles.] 

i. ' Venerable Nagasena, the Blessed One said : 
" Live, O brethren, devoted to and taking de- 
light in that which has no Papaȣas (none of those 
states of mind which delay or obstruct a man in his 
spiritual growth , )." 

' What is that which has no Papa#£as?' 
' The fruit of Conversion has no Papa«£as, O 
king, the fruit of that stage of the Path in which 
those live who will be only once, or not all reborn, 
the fruit of Arahatship has no Papa»ias.' 

' But if that be so, Nagasena, [263] then why do 
the brethren concern themselves with recitation of, 
with asking questions about the discourses, and the 
pieces in mixed prose and verse, and the expositions, 
and the poems, and the outbursts of emotion, and 
the passages beginning " Thus he said," and the 
birth-stories, and the tales of wonder, and the 
extended treatises 2 ? Why do they trouble them- 
selves about new buildings 8 , about gifts and offer- 
ings to the Order?' 



1 This passage has not yet been traced in the Pi/akas. 

* These are the well-known navangani, the nine divisions into 
which the Scriptures are divided. See Magg^ima Nikaya I, 133 ; 
Ahguttara Nikaya IV, 6, &c. 

* Navakammena palibu^f^anti. The Sinhalese adds 
kha»</a-phulla-pa/isafflkhara»ayen, 'repairing dilapidations.' 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 7, 4- OF MILINDA THE KING. 93 

2. 'They who do all these things, O king, are 
working towards attainment of freedom from the 
Papayas, (that is of Arahatship J ). For whereas, 
O king, all those of the brethren who are pure by 
nature, those upon whose hearts an impression has 
been left by good deeds done in a former birth 2 , 
can (get rid of the Papayas, can) become Ara- 
hats, in a moment — those on the other hand whose 
minds are much darkened by evil 8 can only become 
Arahats by such means as these. 

3. ' Just, O king, as while one man who has sown 
a field and got the seed to grow can, by the exertion 
of his own power, and without any rampart or fence, 
reap the crop — whereas another man when he has 
got the seed to grow must go into the woods, and 
cut down sticks and branches and make a fence of 
them, and thus only reap the crop — in the same 
way those who are pure by nature, upon whose 
hearts an impression has been left by good deeds done 
in a former birth, can, in a moment, become Arahats, 
like the man who gathers the crop without a fence. 
But those, on the other hand, whose minds are 
darkened by the evil they have done can only be- 
come Arahats by such means as these — like the 
man who can only reap his crop if he builds the 
fence. 

4. ' Or just, O king, as there might be a bunch of 
fruits on the summit of a lofty mango tree. Then 



1 This is (very properly) added in the Sinhalese, for the two are 
practically identical. Hereafter it throughout renders nippapaȣo 
hoti by ' become an Arahat.' 

* Vasita-v&sana. See above, vol. i, p. 18. 

* Mahara^akkha, ' evil done both in this and in former births ' 
is here to be understood. 



Digitized by 



Google 



94 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 7, 5. 

whoever possesses the power of Iddhi could take 
those fruits 1 , but whoever had not, he would have 
first to cut sticks and creepers and construct a 
ladder, and by its means climb up the tree and so 
get at the fruit. In the same way those who are by 
nature pure, and upon whose hearts an impression 
has been left by good deeds done in a former birth, 
may attain, in a moment, to Arahatship, like the 
man getting the fruit by the power of Iddhi. 
But those, on the other hand, whose minds are 
darkened by the evil they have done can only 
become Arahats by such means as these, like the 
man who only gets the fruit by means of the ladder 
he has made. 

5. [264] ' Or just, O king, as while one man who 
is clever in business will go alone to his lord 
and conclude any business he has to do, another 
man, rich though he may be, must by his riches 
bring others to his service, and by their help get the 
business done — and it is for the business' sake that 
he has to seek after them. In the same way those 
who are by nature pure, upon whose hearts an im- 
pression has been left by good deeds done in a 
former birth, may reach, in a moment, to the attain- 
ment of the Six Transcendent Qualities 2 , like the 
man who does the business alone by himself. 
Whereas those brethren whose minds are darkened 
by the evil they have done can only by such means 
as these realise the gains of renunciation, like the 
man who through others' help brings his business to 
the desired end. 

1 By the simple process of going through the air to the top of 
the tree. 
* Chasu abhi##asu vastbhavam papunanti. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 7,6. OF MILINDA THE KING. 95 

6. ' For recitation is of great good, O king, and 
asking questions, and superintending building work, 
and seeing to gifts and offerings is of great good — 
each of them to one or other of the spiritual objects 
which the brethren seek to obtain. Just, O king, as 
there might be some one of the ministers or soldiers 
or messengers or sentries or body-guards or attend- 
ants who was especially serviceable and useful to the 
king, but when he had any business given him to do 
they would all help him — just so are all these things 
of assistance when those objects have to be attained. 
When all men, O king, shall have become by nature 
pure, then will there be nothing left for a teacher 1 
to accomplish. But so long as there is still need of 
discipleship 2 , so long will even such a man, O king, 
as the Elder Sariputta himself (though he had at- 
tained to the summit of wisdom by reason of his 
having been, through countless ages, deeply rooted 
in merit), yet find it impossible, without discipleship, 
to attain to Arahatship 8 . Therefore is it, O king, 
that hearing (the Scriptures) is of use, and recitation 
of them, and asking questions about them. And 
therefore is it that those also who are addicted to 



1 'Who is a Buddha' adds Hfna/i-kumbure' (p. 372). 

* Savanena, literally 'bearing.' 

* Asavakkhaya/w, literally 'to the destruction of the Asavas;' 
that is, of the Great Evils, which are lust, dulness, becoming, and 
ignorance. Mr. Trenckner marks this passage as corrupt, but 
Hfna/i-kumbure" seems to have had the same reading before him 
as Mr. Trenckner has selected from his MSS., except that he has 
not had any mark of punctuation after the word hoti. 

The particular occasion on which Sdriputta became finally free 
from the Asavas is related in the Dfgha-nakha Suttanta, No. 74 
in the Ma&fAima Nikaya (vol. i, p. 50 of Mr. Trenckner's edition 
for the Pali Text Society). 



Digitized by 



Google 



96 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 7, 7. 

these things, becoming free from the obstacles 
thereto, attain to Arahatship V 

' Right well have you made me understand this 
puzzle, Nagasena. That is so, and I accept it as 
you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the obstacles.] 



[DILEMMA THE SIXTY-SECOND. 
THE LAY ARAHAT.] 

7. ' Venerable Nagasena, your people say : 

" Whosoever has attained, as a layman, to Arahat- 
ship, one of two conditions are possible to him, and 
no other — either that very day he enters the Order, 
or he dies away, for beyond that day he cannot 
last 2 ." 

[265] ' Now if, Nagasena, he could not, on that 
day, procure a teacher or preceptor, or a bowl and 
set of robes 3 , would he then, being an Arahat, 
admit himself, or would he live over the day, or 
would some other Arahat suddenly appear by the 
power of Iddhi and admit him, or would he die 
away?' 

' He could not, O king, because he is an Arahat, 
admit himself. For any one admitting himself to 

1 Literally ' therefore is it that recitation, &c, is a condition free 
from the obstacles, and unmade ' (the Unmade being also one of 
the many epithets of Arahatship). 

* This passage has not yet been traced in the Pi/akas. 

* All these are necessary to one who is a candidate for admission 
to the Order — the teacher and preceptor being, as it were, his 
proposer and seconder; and no one being admitted who is not 
already provided with a bowl and a set of robes. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 7,8. OF MILINDA THE KING. 97 

the Order is guilty of theft 1 . And he could not 
last beyond that day. Whether another Arahat 
should happen, or not, to arrive, on that very day 
would he die away.' 

'Then, Nagasena, by whatever means attained, 
the holy condition of Arahatship is thereby also 
lost, for destruction of life is involved in it.' 

8. ' It is the condition of laymanship which is at 
fault, O king. In that faulty condition, and by 
reason of the weakness of the condition itself, the 
layman who, as such, has attained to Arahatship 
must either, that very day, enter the Order or die 
away. That is not the fault of Arahatship, O king. 
It is laymanship that is at fault, through not being 
strong enough. 

'Just, O king, as food, that guards the growth 
and protects the life of all beings, will, through 
indigestion, take away the life of one whose stomach 
is unequal to it, whose internal fire is low and weak 
— just so if a layman attains Arahatship when in 
that condition unequal to it, then by reason of the 
weakness of the condition he must, that very day, 
either enter the Order or die away. 

' Or just, O king, as a tiny blade of grass when a 
heavy rock is placed upon it will, through its weak- 
ness, break off" and give way — just so when a layman 
attains Arahatship, then, unable to support Arahat- 
ship in that condition, he must, that very day, either 
enter the Order or die away, 

'Or just, O king, as a poor weak fellow of low 
birth and little ability, if he came into possession of 

1 ' Inasmuch as he would be taking a dress to which he was not 
entitled ' is Hlna/1-kumburS's gloss. 

[ 3 6] H 



Digitized by 



Google 



98 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 7,9. 

a great and mighty kingdom, would be unable to 
support the dignity of it 1 — just so if a layman attains 
to Arahatship, then is he unable, in that condition, to 
support it. [266] And that is the reason why he 
must, on that very day, either enter the Order or 
die away.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the lay Arahat] 



[dilemma the sixty-third, 
the faults of the arahat.] 

9. 'Venerable Nagasena, can an Arahat be 
thoughtless 2 ?' 

' The Arahats, O king, have put thoughtlessness 
far from them. They are never inadvertent.' 

' But can an Arahat be guilty of an offence ?' 

'Yes, O king.' 

' In what respect ? ' 

'In the construction of his cell 3 , or in his inter- 
course (with the other sex) 4 , or in imagining the 
wrong time (for the midday meal) to be the right 



1 We have had the same simile above, IV, 6, 30. 

* Compare the note on JTullavagga V, 9, 5. 

8 Which must not exceed certain dimensions, &c. See the 6th 
Samghtdisesa ('Vinaya Texts,' I, pp. 8, 9). 

* SaMaritte. Perhaps only the 5th Sawghddisesa (loc. cit.) 
is here referred to, but Htna/i-kumburg (p. 375) takes it in a much 
more extended sense, as referring to all the restrictions, as to time 
and place, &c, laid down for the guidance of the brethren in their 
relations with women. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 7, io. OF MILINDA THE KING. 99 

time 1 , or when he has been invited (to a meal 2 ) 
forgetting the invitation, or in taking to be "left 
over 8 " food which has not been left over.' 

' But, venerable Nagasena, your people say : 

" Those who commit offences do so from one 
of two reasons, either out of carelessness or out of 
ignorance *." 

' Now, is the Arahat careless that he commits 
offences ?' 

« No, O king.* 

' Then if the Arahat commits offences, and yet is 
not careless, he must be capable of thoughtlessness.' 

' He is not capable of thoughtlessness, and yet the 
Arahat may be guilty of offences.' 

' Convince me then by a reason. What is the 
reason of this?' 

io. ' There are two kinds of sins, O king — those 
which are a breach of the ordinary moral law, and 
those which are a breach of the Rules (of the 
Order). And what is a breach of the ordinary moral 
law ? The ten modes of evil action 6 (killing, theft, 

1 It is curious that the well-known rule as to not eating solid 
food after sunturn at noon is not expressly stated in the Pati- 
mokkha, or indeed anywhere in the Vinaya. But it is often 
implied. See, for instance, the 37th Pi&ttiya Rule; Mahavagga 
VI, 19, 2 ; VI, 33, 2 ; VI, 40, 3 ; A'ullavagga V, 25, Ac. 

* See the Pa£ittiya Rules, Nos. 32 and 46. 

* A Bhikkhu may not, except for certain special reasons, such 
as sickness, either keep or eat food which has been left over after 
the principal meal. See the 35th PsUittiya Rule. Hfna/i-kumburfi 
(PP- 374~376) goes at great length into the full meaning of these 
five technical terms of the Buddhist Canon Law, giving examples 
under each. 

* Not traced as yet. ' Ignorance of the Sikshapadas ' says the 
Sinhalese (p. 376). 

* Dasa akusala-kamma-patha. See Childers sub voce. 

H 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



IOO THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 7, 10. 

unchastity, lying, slander, harsh language, frivolous 
talk, covetousness, malice, and false doctrine). These 
things are against the moral law. And what is a 
breach of the Rules ? Whatever is held in the 
world as unfitting and improper for Samawas, but is 
not wrong for laymen — things concerning which the 
Blessed One laid down rules for his disciples, not to 
be transgressed by them their lives long. Eating 
after sunturn, O king, is not wrong to those in the 
world, but is wrong to those in the religion (the 
Order) of the Conquerors. Doing injury to trees 
and shrubs is no offence in the eyes of the world, 
but it is wrong in the religion. The habit of 
sporting in the water is no offence to a layman, but 
it is wrong in the religion. And many other things 
of a similar kind, O king, are right in the world, but 
wrong in the religion of the Conquerors. This is 
what I mean by a breach of the Rules. Now the 
Arahat (he in whom the Great Evils are destroyed) 
is incapable of sinning against whatever is moral 
law, but he may unawares be guilty of an offence 
against the rules of the Order. [267] It is not 
within the province of every Arahat to know 
everything, % nor indeed in his power. He may be 
ignorant of the personal or family name of some 
woman or some man. He may be ignorant of 
some road over the earth. But every Arahat would 
know about emancipation, and the Arahat gifted 
with the six modes of transcendental knowledge 1 
would know what lies within their scope, and 
an omniscient Tathagata, O king, would know all 
things.' 

1 Cha/abhi»#o — which every Arahat is not. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



IV, 7, it. OF MILINDA THE KING. IOI 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the faults 
of the Arahat.] 



[dilemma the sixty-fourth, 
what is, but not in the world.] 

ii. 'Venerable Nagasena, there are to be seen 
in the world Buddhas, and Pai/£eka-Buddhas, and 
disciples of the Tath&gatas, and sovran overlords, 
and kings over one country, and gods and men ; — 
we find rich and poor, happy and miserable ; — we 
find men who have become women, and women who 
have become men — there are good deeds and evil, 
and beings experiencing the result of their virtue or 
their vice ; — we find creatures born from eggs, and in 
the water, and in sediment, or springing into life 
by the mere apparitional birth ; creatures without 
feet, bipeds and quadrupeds, and creatures with many 
feet ; — we find Yakkhas and Rakkhasas, and Kum- 
bhawdas, and Asuras, and Danavas, and Gandhabbas, 
and Petas and Pisaias, and Kinnaras, and Mahora- 
gas, and Nagas and Supa««as \ and magicians and 
sorcerers ; — there are elephants, and horses, and 
cattle, and buffaloes, and camels, and asses, and 
goats, and sheep, and deer, and swine, and lions, and 
tigers, and leopards, and bears, and wolves, and 
hyenas, and dogs, and jackals, and many kinds of 
birds ; — there is gold and silver, and the pearl, and 



1 Fairies and goblins of various degrees and powers, most of 
them not mentioned in the Pi/akas. 



Digitized by 



Google 



102 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 7, u. 

the diamond, and the chauk, and rock, and coral, and 
the ruby, and the Masara stone, and the cat's-eye, 
and crystal, and quartz, and iron ore \ and copper, 
and brass 2 , and bronze ; — there is flax, and silk, and 
cotton, and hemp 3 , and wool; — there is rice, and 
paddy, and barley, and millet, and kudrusa grain, 
and beans 4 , and wheat, and oilseed, and vetches; — 
there are perfumes prepared from roots, and sap, 
and pith, and bark, and [268] leaves, and flowers, 
and fruit, and of all other sorts ; — we find grass, and 
creepers, and shrubs, and trees, and medicinal 
herbs, and forests, and rivers, and mountains, and 
seas, and fish, and tortoises, — all is in the world. 
Tell me, Sir, what there is, then, which is not in 
the world.' 

1 2. ' There are three things, O king, which you 
cannot find in the world. And what are the three ? 
That which, whether conscious or unconscious, is 
not subject to decay and death — that you will not 
find. That quality of anything, (organic or in- 
organic), which is not impermanent — that you will 
not find. And in the highest sense there is no such 
thing as being possessed of being 8 .' 



1 Kd/a-loha, ' black metal ' (not found in the Pi/akas). 

* Va//a-loha, 'round metal.' I can only guess what this is. 
The Sinhalese has simply wa/aloha, which is equally unin- 
telligible. The word occurs again below (p. 331 of the Pali), and 
Hina/i-kumbur8 there renders it toe/i, which is a particular kind of 
brazen vessel. 

* Two kinds are mentioned, s&»a and bhafiga. I don't know 
the difference between them. The Sinhalese has sana and ban- 
kalpe. 

4 Three kinds of Phaseoli are mentioned, Varaka, Mugga, and 
Masa. 

* Paramatthena sattupaladdhi natthi. It is very curious 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 7, 13- OF MILINDA THE KING. IO3 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the puzzle as to what is not 
in the world.] 



[dilemma the sixty-fifth, 
things without a cause.] 

1 3. ' Venerable Nagasena, there are found beings 
in the world who have come into existence through 
Karma, and others who are the result of a cause, 
and others produced by the seasons \ Tell me — is 
there any thing that does not fall under any one of 
these three heads ? ' 

4 There are two such things, O king. And what 
are the two ? Space, O king, and Nirva«a.' 

' Now do not spoil the word of the Conquerors, 
Nagasena, nor answer a question without knowing 
what you say !' 

'What, pray, is it I have said, O king, that you 
should address me thus ?' 

' Venerable Nagasena, that is right what you said 
in respect of space. But with hundreds of reasons 

that both here, and in the analogous phrase at III, 5, 6 (p. 71 of 
the Pili), Hlna/i-kumbure' should merely repeat the words in the 
text. Both of these curt summaries of the deepest Buddhist doc- 
trine were probably as ambiguous to him as they are to us. The 
literal translation of the phrase here would be, ' In the highest sense 
there is no acquisition of a being.' As in Buddhism being cannot 
strictly be predicated of any thing, or of any god or animal or 
man, — each is really only becoming — the sense probably meant 
must be very nearly as I have ventured to render. 

1 Utu-nibbatta; which the Sinhalese repeats. See the next 
dilemma on ' Karma-born, cause-born, and season-born.' 



Digitized by 



Google 



104 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 7, 14. 

did the Blessed One proclaim to his disciples the 
way to the realisation of Nirva#a. And yet you 
say that Nirvawa is not the result of any cause ! ' 

' No doubt, O king, the Blessed One gave hun- 
dreds of reasons for our entering on the way to the 
realisation of Nirva«a. But he never told us of a 
cause out of which Nirva»a could be said to be 
produced.' 

14. ' Now in this, Nagasena, we have passed from 
darkness into greater darkness, [269] from a jungle 
into a denser jungle, from a thicket into a deeper 
thicket — inasmuch as you say there is a cause for 
the realisation of Nirva«a, but no cause from which 
it can arise. If, Nagasena, there be a cause of the 
realisation of Nirva»a, then we must expect to find 
a cause of the origin of Nirva»a. Just, Nagasena, 
as because the son has a father, therefore we ought 
to expect that that father had a father — or because 
the pupil has a teacher, therefore we ought to expect 
that the teacher had a teacher — or because the 
plant came from a seed, therefore we ought to 
expect that the seed too had come from a seed 1 — 
so, Nagasena, if there be a reason for the realisation 
of Nirva«a, we ought to expect that there is a 
reason too for its origin, — just as if we saw the top 
of a tree, or of a creeper, we should conclude that it 
had a middle part, and a root.' 

' Nirvawa, O king, is unproduceable, and no cause 
for its origin has been declared.' 

' Come now, Nagasena, give me a reason for this. 
Convince me by argument, so that I may know how 



1 Compare the argument based above, II, 3, 2, on this and 
similar series. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 7, i6- OF MILINDA THE KING. IO5 

it is that while there is a cause that will bring about 
the realisation of Nirvana, there is no cause that 
will bring about Nirvawa itself.' 

1 5. ' Then, O king, give ear attentively, and listen 
well, and I will tell you what the reason is. Could a 
man, O king, by his ordinary power, go up from 
hence to the Himalaya, the king of mountains?' 

' Yes, Sir, he could.' 

' But could a man, by his ordinary power, bring 
the Himalaya mountains here ?' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' Well ! therefore is it that while a cause for the 
realisation of Nirva#a can be declared, the cause of 
its origin can not And could a man, O king, by his 
ordinary power cross over the great ocean in a ship, 
and so go to the further shore of it ? ' 

' Yes, Sir, he could.' 

'But could a man [270] by his ordinary power 
bring the further shore of the ocean here ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' Well ! so is it that while a cause for the realisa- 
tion of Nirva«a can be declared, the cause of its 
origin can not. And why not ? Because Nirvawa 
is not put together of any qualities.' 

1 6. 'What, Sir ! is it not put together?' 

' No, O king. It is uncompounded, not made of 
anything. Of Nirva»a, O king, it cannot be said 
that it has been produced, or not been produced, or 
that it can be produced ', that it is past or future or 
present, that it is perceptible by the eye or the ear 
or the nose or the tongue, or by the sense of touch.' 

' But if so, Nagasena, then you are only showing 

1 The Sinhalese is here (p. 381) expanded. 



Digitized by 



Google 



106 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 7, 17. 

us how Nirva#a is a condition that does not exist \ 
There can be no such thing as Nirvawa.' 

' Nirva»a exists, O king. And it is perceptible to 
the mind. By means of his pure heart, refined and 
straight, free from the obstacles 2 , free from low 
cravings, that disciple of the Noble Ones who has 
fully attained can see Nirva»a.' 

1 7. ' Then what, Sir, is Nirvawa ? Such a Nirva«a 
(I mean) as can be explained by similes 8 . Con- 
vince me by argument how far the fact of its exist- 
ence can be explained by similes.' 

' Is there such a thing, O king, as wind ? ' 

' Yes, of course.' 

' Show it me then, I pray you, O king — whether 
by its colour, or its form, whether as thin or thick, or 
short or long ! ' 

' But wind, Nigasena, cannot be pointed out in 
that way \ It is not of such a nature that it can be 
taken into the hand or squeezed. But it exists all 
the same.' 

' If you can't show me the wind, then there can't 
be such a thing.' 

' But I know there is, Nigasena. That wind 



1 Natthidhammaw nibbanam upadisatha. Compare the 
use of atthi-dhammam nibbanam, at p. 316 (of the P&li). I 
take the compound to mean either ' has the quality (or condition) of 
not existing,' or 'is a condition that is not.' And the latter is 
more in harmony with the analogous phrase atthisatti dev& 
(p. 317 of the Pah') since that can only mean 'gods, which are 
beings that are.' 

* Lust, malice, pride, sloth, and doubt 

* Hina/i-kumbure" puts the stop, not after nibbanaw as Mr. 
Trenckner does, but after opammehi. 

4 On the connotation of upadassayituw, see pp. 316, 347, of 
the Pali. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 7, 18. OF MILINDA THE KING. 107 

exists I am convinced \ [271] though I cannot show 
it you.' 

' Well ! just so, O king, does Nirva«a exist, though 
it cannot be shown to you in colour or in form V 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to Nirvawa.] 



[dilemma the sixty-sixth, 
modes of production.] 

i 8. ' Venerable Nagasena, what are they who are 
said, in this connection, to be " Karma-born," and 
" cause-born," and " season-born " ? And what is it 
that is none of these ? ' 

' All beings, O king, who are conscious, are Karma- 
born (spring into existence as the result of Karma). 
Fire, and all things growing out of seeds, are cause- 
born (the result of a pre-existing material cause). 
The earth, and the hills, water, and wind — all 
these are season-born (depend for their existence on 
reasons connected with weather). Space and Nir- 
va«a exist independently alike of Karma, and cause, 

1 Me hadaye anupavi/Maw, literally 'has entered into my 
heart.' But HJna/i-kumburS takes vito atthtti as dependent on 
^dnami, and renders these three words by 'it (the wind) has 
entered into my heart,' and then adds, by way of gloss, ' and has 
struck against my body, and travels through the sky.' In another 
passage below, IV, 8, 65 (p. 317 of the Pili), this same word 
anupavi/Maw recurs in a clause the sense of which is doubtful; 
and there Hina/f-kumbure' explains it quite differently. It looks 
very much as if we had here an idiom peculiar to our author ; but 
one cannot of course be sure on any such point till the Pi/akas are 
all published. 

* The same simile is used below, p. 317 (of the P&li). 



Digitized by 



Google 



108 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 7, 19. 

and seasons. Of Nirvana, O king, it cannot be said 
that it is Karma-born or cause-born or season-born ; 
that it has been, or has not been, or can be produced, 
that it is past or future or present, that it is perceptible 
by the eye or the nose or the ear or the tongue or 
by the sense of touch. But it is perceptible, O king, 
by the mind. By means of his pure heart, refined 
and straight, free from the obstacles, free from low 
cravings, that disciple of the Noble Ones who has 
fully attained can see Nirvawa.' 

' Well has this delightful puzzle, venerable Naga- 
sena, been examined into, cleared of doubt, brought 
into certitude. My perplexity has been put an end 
to as soon as I consulted you, O best of the best of 
the leaders of schools ! ' 



[Here ends the dilemma as to modes of 
production.] 



[dilemma the sixty-seventh, 
dead demons.] 

19. ' Venerable Nagasena, are there such things as 
demons (Yakkha) in the world ?' 

' Yes, O king.' 

' Do they ever leave that condition ' (fall out of 
that phase of existence) ? 

' Yes, they do.' 

' But, if so, why is it that the remains of those 
dead Yakkhas are never found, nor any odour of 
their corpses smelt ? ' 

' [272] Their remains are found, O king, and an 
odour does arise from their dead bodies. The re- 
mains of bad Yakkhas can be seen in the form of 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 7, 30. OF MILINDA THE KING. IO9 

worms and beetles and ants and moths and snakes 
and scorpions and centipedes, and birds and wild 
beasts.' 

' Who else, O Nagasena, could have solved this 
puzzle except one as wise as you ! ' 



[Here ends the dilemma as to dead demons.] 



[dilemma the sixty-eighth, 
the method of promulgating the rules.] 

20. 'Venerable Nagasena, those who were teachers 
of the doctors in times gone by — Narada 1 , and 
Dhammantari 2 ,' and Anglrasa 3 , and Kapila*, and 
Ka«^araggisama, and Atula, and Pubba Kai^ayana s 
— all these teachers knowing thoroughly, and of them- 
selves, and without any omission, the rise of disease 
and its cause and nature and progress and cure and 
treatment and management 6 , — each of them com- 
posed his treatise en bloc, taking time by the forelock, 
and pointing out that in such and such a body such 
and such a disease would arise. Now no one of these 



1 No doubt the celebrated Dev&rshi is meant, though it is odd 
to find him in a list of physicians. 

* In Sanskrit Dhanvantarf, the physician of the gods. He is 
mentioned in the G&taka IV, 496, with Bho^a and Vetarant, as 
a well-known physician of old famous for the cure of snake-bite. 

8 The connection of Ahgtrasa with the physicians is due to 
the charms against disease to be found in the Atharva-veda. 

4 Kapila is known in the Brahman literature as a teacher of 
philosophy rather than of medicine. 

5 Probably ' the Eastern Kaiidyana,' but nothing is known of 
these last three names. Hina/i-kumbure" calls all seven ' Rishis.' 

' Siddhdsiddham, for which Hina/i-kumbure' (p. 385), who 
merely repeats all the other terms, has s&dhy&s&dhya. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IIO THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, •j, ai. 

was omniscient. Why then did not the Tathagata, 
who was omniscient, and who knew by his insight of a 
Buddha what would happen in the future, determin- 
ing in advance that for such and such an occasion 
such and such a rule would be required, lay down 
the whole code of rules at once ; instead of laying 
them down to his disciples from time to time as each 
occasion arose, when the disgrace (of the wrong act) 
had been already noised abroad, when the evil was 
already wide spread and grown great, when the 
people were already filled with indignation * ? ' 

21. ' The Tathagata, O king, knew very well that 
in fulness of time the whole of the hundred and 
fifty Rules 2 would have to be laid down to those 
men. But the Tathagata, O king, thought thus: 
" If I were to lay down the whole of the hundred 
and fifty Rules at once the people would be filled 
with fear [273], those of them who were willing to 
enter the Order would refrain from doing so, saying, 
' How much is there here to be observed ! how 
difficult a thing is it to enter religion according to 
the system of the Samawa Gotama ' — they would not 
trust my words, and through their want of faith they 
would be liable to rebirth in states of woe. As 
occasion arises therefore, illustrating it with a reli- 
gious discourse, will I lay down, when the evil has 
become manifest, each Rule." ' 

' A wonderful thing is it in the Buddhas, Nagasena, 
and a most marvellous that the omniscience of the 
Tathagata should be so great That is just so, 

1 This question has already been discussed above, III, 6, 2 

(I,ii6). 

* The rules of the Patimokkha are 337 in number, but without 
the Sekhiyas they are 152. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 7. *3- 0F MIL1NDA THE KING. Ill 

venerable Nagasena. This matter was well under- 
stood by the Tathagata — how that hearing that so 
much was to be observed, men * would have been so 
filled with fear that not a single one would have 
entered religion according to the system of the Con- 
querors. That is so, and I accept it as you say V 



[Here ends the dilemma as to the method in which 
the Rules were laid down.] 



[dilemma the sixty-ninth, 
the heat of the sun.] 

22. 'Venerable Nagasena, does this sun always 
burn fiercely, or are there times when it shines with 
diminished heat ? ' 

' It always burns fiercely, O king, never gently.' 
' But if that be so, how is it that the heat of the 
sun is sometimes fierce, and sometimes not 8 ? ' 

23. 'There are four derangements 4 , O king, 
which happen to the sun, and affected by one or 
other of these its heat is allayed. And what are 
the four? The clouds, O king, and fog 6 , and N 

1 Satti, literally 'beings,' but that means human beings, men 
and women, as no others (gods, N&gas, animals, &c.) were ad- 
mitted to the Order. See Mahavagga I, 63 ; I, 76, 1 ; JTulla- 
vagga X, 17, 1. 

9 In the Introductory Stories to the Rules it is often stated, how, 
when a Bhikkhu had done some act, the people were indignant, 
the brethren heard that and reported the matter to the Blessed One, 
who then, and then only, laid down the Rule prohibiting that act. 
But these Introductory Stories are really later than the Rules. 

8 Here Hina/i-kumbure' (pp. 386-7) goes into great details, 
giving instances, and quoting verses. 

* Roga, literally 'diseases.' 

* Mahika. Childers gives frost as the only meaning of this word. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



I 1 2 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 7, 24. 

smoke 1 , and eclipses 2 — these are the four derange- 
ments which happen to the sun, and it is when 
affected by one or other of these that its heat is 
allayed.' 

' Most wonderful, Nagasena, and most strange 
[274] that even the sun, so transcendent in glory, 
should suffer from derangement — how much more 
then other, lesser, creatures. No one else could have 
made this explanation except one wise like you ! ' 



[Here ends the dilemma as to the heat 
of the sun.] 



[DILEMMA THE SEVENTIETH. 
THE SEASONS.] 

24. ' Venerable Nagasena, why is it that the heat 
of the sun is more fierce in winter than in summer?' 

'In the hot season, O king, dust is blown up 8 
into clouds, and pollen* agitated by the winds 
rises up into the sky, and clouds multiply in the 
heavens, and gales blow with exceeding force. All 
these crowded and heaped together shut off the 
rays of the sun, and so in the hot season the heat of 
the sun is diminished. But in the cold season, O 
king, the earth below is at rest, the rains above are 

1 Megho, literally ' rain-cloud.' But clouds of smoke are meant, 
as is clear from the parallel passage loc. cit. which has dhuma- 
ra^o, but see Aullavagga XII, 1, 3 (from which the whole section 
IV, 7, 23 is derived). 

■ Rahu. 

* Anupahata**. Compare Dr. Morris's note in the 'Journal 
of the Pali Text Society,' 1884, p. 75, on TherS Gdthl 625. 

4 Renu. Perhaps this should again be rendered dust. See the 
verse at Gataka I, 117 (which is nearly the same as DivySvadSna, 
P- 490« 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 7, 34. OF MILINDA THE KING. II3 

in reserve 1 , the dust is quiet, the pollen wanders 
gently through the air, the sky is free from clouds, 
and very gently do the breezes blow. Since all 
these have ceased to act the rays of the sun 
become clear, and freed from every obstruction the 
sun's heat glows and burns. This, O king, is the 
reason why the heat of the sun is more fierce in 
winter than in summer. 

' So it is when set free from the obstacles besetting 
it that the sun burns fiercely, which it cannot do when 
the rains and so on are present with it.' 

[' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say *.'] 

[Here ends the dilemma of the seasons 8 .] 

Here ends the Seventh Chapter 4 . 

1 Maha-megho upa/Mito hoti, which is very ambiguous. 
The Sinhalese (p. 389) has maha meghaya pa/an-ganna-lada 
wanneya. 

' Inserted from Htna/i-kumburg. 

* There is great uncertainty at present as to the views held, first 
in the Pi/akas and later in the Commentaries, regarding the calcu- 
lation of time and the division of years into months and seasons. 
Our author here seems to regard the year as divided into two 
seasons only, Hemanta and Gimha. But Hemanta is usually 
supposed to last only from the 1st November (that is the middle 
of Kattika) to the beginning of March (that is the middle of 
Phagguni), Gimhana for the next four months (March ist- 
June 30th), and Vassana the remaining four (July-October) — the 
year being thus divided into three equal cold, hot, and rainy 
seasons. At Mahavagga VIII, 24, 3 there is a division of the 
year into unequal dry and wet seasons (utu and vassana), and at 
Gataka I, 86 it is said that vasanta-samayo begins when he- 
manta ends at the full moon of Phagguni. As our author places 
the characteristic events of the rainy season in the hot season, he 
cannot have had the division into three seasons in his mind. 

* 'Of the excellent Saddharmadasa' says the Sinhalese. 



Digitized by 



Google 



114 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 1. 



Book IV. Chapter 8. 

[dilemma the seventy-first, 
vessantara's giving 1 .] 

i. 'Venerable Nagasena, do all the Bodisats 
give away their wives and children, or was it only 
Vessantara the king who did so?' 

' All of them do so, not Vessantara only.' 

[275] ' Do they then give them away with their 
own consent?' 

' The wife, O king, was a consenting party. But 
the children, by reason of their tender age, lamented. 
Had they thoroughly understood, they too would 
have approved.' 

'A hard thing, Nagasena, was it that the Bodisat 
carried out, in that he gave away his own children, 
his only ones, dearly beloved, into slavery to the 
Brahman. And this second action was harder still, 
that he bound his own children, his only ones, and 
dearly beloved, young and tender though they were, 
with the jungle rope, and then, when he saw them 
being dragged along 2 by the Brahman, — their hands 

1 We have seen above, IV, i, 41 (I, 178), how Hina/i-kumbure 
expanded the story of Vessantara, which had aroused also in our 
author a greater enthusiasm than any of the many other subjects 
that he treats. Here too the Sinhalese translator fairly runs riot 
over the ' mighty giving of the glorious king,' and expands the ten 
pages of the Pali into thirty-three pages of his version (pp. 389-42 1), 
whereas usually one page of the Sinhalese covers very nearly a 
page of the Pali. 

* Anuma^iyante. See Mr. Trenckner's note. But the 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8,3. OF MILINDA THE KING. II5 

bruised by the creeper, — yet could look on at the 
sight. And this third action was even harder still, 
that when his boy ran back to him, after loosing the 
bonds by his own exertion, then he bound him 
again with the jungle rope and again gave him 
away. And this fourth action was even harder 
still, that when the children, weeping, cried: "Father 
dear, this ogre is leading us away to eat us!" he 
should have appeased them by saying : " Don't 
be afraid." And this fifth action was even harder 
still, that when the prince, GSli, fell weeping at his 
feet, and besought him, saying : " Be satisfied, father 
dear, only keep Ka»hagina (his little sister). I will 
go away with the ogre. Let him eat me!" — that 
even then he would not yield. And this sixth action 
was even harder still, that when the boy Gali, 
lamenting, exclaimed : " Have you a heart of stone 
then, father, that you can look upon us, miserable, 
being led away by the ogre into the dense and 
haunted jungle, and not call us back ? " — that he 
still had no pity. And this seventh action was 
even harder still, that when his children were thus 
led away to nameless horrors until they passed 
gradually to their bitter fate 1 , out of sight — that 
then his heart did not break, utterly break ! What, 
pray, has the man who seeks to gain merit to do 
with bringing sorrow on others ! Should he not 
rather give himself away ? ' 

2. ' It is because what he did, O king, was so 



Sinhalese (p. 390) has at mardanaya ko/a welannawun 
doeka. 

1 Ru/arfl/assa bbfmabhfmassa. The Sinhalese (p. 390) 
omits these words, giving other details in place of them, and as 
they occur only here I am not sure of their meaning. 

I 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



Il6 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 3. 

difficult, that the sound of the fame of the Bodisat 
was spread abroad among gods and men through 
the ten thousand world systems — [276] that the gods 
exalt him in heaven ; and the Titans in the Titan- 
world, and the Garuafes in their abodes, and the 
Nagas in the Naga-world, and the Yakshas where 
they dwell — that through the ages the reputation of 
this his glory has been handed down by successive 
tradition — till now, to-day, it has reached to this 
meeting of ours, at which we sitting are, forsooth, 
disparaging and casting a slur on that gift 1 , debating 
whether it were well given or ill! But that high 
praise, O king, shows forth the ten great qualities of 
the intelligent, and wise, and able, and subtle-minded 
Bodisats. And what are the ten ? Freedom from 
greed, the not clinging (to any worldly aim), self- 
sacrifice, renunciation, the never turning back again 
(to the lower state), the equal delicacy and great- 
ness, the incomprehensibility, the rarity, and the 
peerlessness of Buddhahood. In all these respects 
is it that the fame of that giving shows forth the 
great qualities of the Bodisats.' 

3. ' What, venerable Nagasena ? he who gives 
gifts in such a way as to bring sorrow upon others — 
does that giving of his bring forth fruit in happiness, 
does it lead to rebirth in states of bliss ? ' 

'Yes, O king. What can be said (to the 
contrary) ? ' 

' I pray you, Nagasena, give me a reason for. this.' 

'Suppose, O king, there were some virtuous 
Samara or Brahman, of high character, and he were 

1 Vikittenta vikopentd. Hfna/i-kumbure' (p. 410) has 'angrily 
finding fault with.' Compare above, vikopanl, at p. 266 (of the 
Pali). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8,4. OF MILINDA THE KING. 117 

paralysed, or a cripple 1 , or suffering from some 
disease or other, and some man desirous of merit 
were to have him put into a carriage, and taken to 
the place he wished to go to. Would happiness 
accrue to that man by reason thereof, would that be 
an act leading to rebirth in states of bliss?' 

' Yes, Sir. What can be said (to the contrary) ? 
That man would thereby acquire a trained elephant, 
or a riding-horse, or a bullock-carriage, on land a 
land-vehicle and on water a water-vehicle, in heaven 
a vehicle of the gods * and on earth one that men 
could use, — from birth to birth there would accrue to 
him that which in each would be appropriate and 
fit, — and joys appropriate would come to him, and 
he would pass from state to state of bliss, and by 
the efficacy of that act mounting on the vehicle of 
Iddhi he would arrive at the longed-for goal, the 
city of Nirvawa itself.' 

' But then, O king, a gift given in such a way as 
to bring sorrow upon others does bring forth fruit in 
happiness, does lead to rebirth in states of bliss [277], 
— inasmuch as that man by putting the cart-bullocks 
to pain would attain such bliss. 

4. 'And hear another reason, O king, for the 
same thing. Suppose some monarch were to raise 
from his subjects a righteous tax, and then by the 
issue of a command were to bestow thereout a gift, 
would that monarch, O king, enjoy any happiness on 
that account, would that be a gift leading to rebirth 
in states of bliss ? ' 

1 Pakkha-hato v£ piMa-sappi vl See the note above 
on IV, 6, 22. 

* Devayina, on which compare Sutta Nip&ta, verse 139 (Vasala 
Sutta 24). 



Digitized by 



Google 



Il8 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 5. 

'Certainly, Sir. What can be said against it? 
On that account the monarch would receive a 
hundred thousandfold, he might become a king of 
kings, a god above the gods, or Brahma lord of 
the Brahma gods, or a chief among the Sama«as, or 
a leader of the Brahmans, or the most excellent 
among the Arahats.' 

' Then, O king, a gift given in such a way as 
to bring sorrow upon others does bring forth fruit 
in happiness, does lead to rebirth in states of 
bliss — inasmuch as that monarch by giving as a 
gift what was gained by harassing his people with 
taxation would enjoy such exceeding fame and 
glory.' 

5. ' But, venerable Nagasena, what was given by 
Vessantara the king was an excessive gift ; in that 
he gave his own wife as wife to another man, and 
his own children, his only ones, into slavery to a 
Brahman. And excessive giving is by the wise in 
the world held worthy of censure and of blame. 
Just, Nagasena, as under too much weight the axle- 
tree of a cart would break, or a ship would sink, 
as his food would disagree with him who ate too 
much, or the crops would be ruined by too heavy 
rain, or bankruptcy would follow too lavish 
generosity, or fever would come from too much 
heat, or a man would go mad from excessive lust, or 
become guilty of an offence through excessive anger, 
or fall into sin through excessive stupidity, or into 
the power of robbers through too much avarice, or 
be ruined by needless fear, or as a river would over- 
flow through excessive inflow, or a thunderbolt fall 
through too much wind, or porridge boil over 
through too hot a fire, or a man who wandered 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV,8,<S. OF MILINDA THE KING. 119 

about too much 1 would not live long — just so, 
Nagasena, is excessive giving held by the wise in 
the world as worthy of censure and of blame. And 
as king Vessantara's gift was excessive [278] no 
good result could be expected from it.' 

6. ' Giving exceedingly 2 , O king, is praised, 
applauded, and approved by the wise in the world ; 
and they who give away anything as a gift just as it 
may occur to them 3 , acquire fame in the world as 
very generous givers. Just, O king, as when a man 
has taken hold of a wild root which by its extra- 
ordinary virtues is divine, that moment he becomes 
invisible even to those standing within arm's 
length — just as a medicinal herb by the exceeding 
power of its nature will utterly kill pain, and put an 
end to disease — just as fire burns by its exceeding 
heat, and water puts that fire out by its exceeding 
cold — just as by its exceeding purity a lotus remains 
undefiled by water or by mud — just as a (magic) 
gem by the extraordinary virtue inherent in it pro- 
cures the granting of every wish — just as lightning 
by its marvellous quick sharpness cleaves asunder 
even the diamonds, pearls, and crystals — just as the 
earth by its exceeding size can support men, and 
snakes, and wild beasts, and birds, and the waters, 

1 AtisaflMrena, which the Sinhalese merely repeats. The 
meaning is doubtful. The use of sa#££ra at <?ataka II, 112 has 
suggested the above rendering. 

* The whole of this answer turns on the ambiguity of the prefix 
ati, which may mean either 'very much ' or ' too much.' 

* Y&disam kidisaw. The meaning of this idiom cannot be 
controlled by parallel passages, as I know of none. Hina/i-kum- 
bure' (pp. 4 1 2-4 1 3) construes yidisaw as an accusative dependent 
on atidinadayi; 'Those who give away anything as a gift, ac- 
quire fame in the world as exceeding givers of that.' 



Digitized by 



Google 



120 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 7. 

and rocks, and hills, and trees — just as the ocean by 
its exceeding greatness can never be quite filled — 
just as Sineru by its mighty weight remains immove- 
able, and space by the greatness of its wide extent 
is infinite, and the sun by its mighty glory dissipates 
the darkness — just as the lion in the greatness of its 
lineage is free from fear — just as a wrestler in the 
greatness of his might easily lifts up his foe — just as 
a king by the excellence of his justice becomes 
overlord, and a Bhikkhu by reason of his very 
righteousness becomes an object of reverence to 
N&gas, and Yakshas, and men, and Maras — just 
as a Buddha by the excellence of his supremacy is 
peerless — just so, O king, is exceeding generosity 
praised, applauded, and approved by the wise in the 
world ; and they who give away anything as a gift, 
just as it may occur to them, acquire in the world 
the fame of being nobly generous. And by his 
mighty giving Vessantara the king, O king, was 
praised, and lauded, and exalted, and magnified, and 
famous throughout the ten thousand world systems, 
and by reason, too, of that mighty giving is it that 
he, the king Vessantara, has, now in our days, become 
the Buddha, the chief of gods and men. 

7. ' And now, O king, tell me — is there anything 
in the world which should be withheld as a gift, 
and not bestowed, when one worthy of a gift, one to 
whom it is one's duty to give l , is there ?' 



1 Dakkhineyya. We have no word in English to express the 
full meaning of this word. It was an idea that was common 
ground to our Buddhist apologist, and to the Brahman opponents 
whom he always has in view, that there were certain people to 
whom gifts ought to be given, and the being worthy was one of 
the conditions precedent to belonging to this class. Of course the 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 7- OF MILINDA THE KING. 121 

'There are ten sorts of gifts, N&gasena, in the 
world that are commonly disapproved of as gifts. 
And what are the ten ? Strong drink, Naga- 
sena, and festivals in high places 1 , and women, 
and buffaloes, and suggestive [279] paintings 2 , and 
weapons, and poison, and chains, and fowls, and 
swine, and false weights and measures. All these, 
Nagasena, are disapproved of in the world as gifts, 
and those who give such presents become liable 
to rebirth in states of woe.' 

' I did not ask you, O king, what kinds of gifts 
are not approved of. But this, O king, I asked : 
" Is there anything in the world which ought to be 
withheld, and not bestowed as a gift, if one worthy 
of a gift were present ?" ' 

' No, Sir. When faith arises in their hearts some 
give food to those worthy of gifts, and some give 
clothes, and some give bedding, and some give 
dwellings, and some give mats or robes, and some 
give slave girls or slaves, and some give fields or 
premises, and some give bipeds or quadrupeds, and 

Brahmans held that to be a Brahman was another condition, but 
the Buddhist, who inherited the idea from them, had discarded 
this part of the conception. See, for the Brahman view, Eggeling's 
5atapatha-Brahma»a II, 114, 344. 

1 Sa.magg a-ddnaw. Childers under samara gives only the 
meaning 'assembly,' but it is clear from A'ullavagga V, 26; VI, 
2, 7 ; the Sutta Vibhanga II, 267, and Sumangala I, 84, that the 
word, at least as a masculine (which it is here), has the technical 
sense of one of those orgies in high places which were common 
in so many parts of the world in very early times, and were due 
in India to Kolarian influences. The 'giving' (dan a) of such a 
samara would doubtless mean the providing of the necessary 
food, seats, cushions, Sec. 

1 A'itta-kammam. See my note on Pa/ibhana-Aittam at 
'Vinaya Texts,' III, 172. 



Digitized by 



Google 



122 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8,7. 

some give a hundred 1 or a thousand or a hundred 
thousand, and some give the kingdom itself, and 
some give away even their own life.' 

' But then, O king, if some give away even their 
own lives, why do you so violently attack 2 Vessan- 
tara, that king of givers, for the virtuous bestowal of 
his child and wife ? Is there not a general practice 
in the world, an acknowledged custom, according to 
which it is allowable for a father who has fallen into 
debt, or lost his livelihood, to deposit 3 his son in 
pledge, or sell him ?' 

' Yes, that is so.' 

' Well, in accordance therewith was it that Vessan- 
tara, O king, in suffering and distress at not having 
obtained the insight of the Omniscient Ones, pledged 
and sold his wife and children for that spiritual 
treasure. So that he gave away what other people 
had given away, he did what other people had done. 
Why then do you, O king, so violently attack him, 
the king of givers ?' 



1 I. e. pieces of money, which it would be against the rules for 
a member of the Buddhist Order to accept But the donees in all 
these cases are not necessarily Buddhists. 

1 Paripatesi, not in Childers; but see Gataka II, 208; and 
below, p. 367 (of the Pali text). Hfna/i-kumburS has here ninda 
karanne, and just below apasSdanaya karanne. 

* Avapituw, not in Childers. Dr. Morris, in the 'Journal of 
the Pali Text Society' for 1886, p. 157, compares the Sanskrit 
root vyap, but this does not help us much. Hina/i-kumbure" 
(p. 414) has 'an tceneka cepaye hinduwanna/a,' which means, 
I think, ' to deposit as a pledge in some place or other.' At all 
events cepa, the ordinary word now in use in Ceylon courts for 
'bail,' may very well be actually derived from vapa. And the 
passage at Gataka I, 331 is an exact parallel to our phrase here, 
for there the Bodisat, when an elephant, gives away his teeth and 
tusks as vapana for the insight of the Omniscient Ones. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 9« OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 23 

8. 'Venerable Nagasena, I don't blame him for 
giving, but for not having made a barter 1 with the 
beggar, and given away himself rather, instead of 
his wife and children.' 

[280] ' That, O king, would be an act of a wrong 
doer, to give himself when he was asked for his wife 
and children. For the thing asked for, whatever it 
is, is that which ought to be given. And such is the 
practice of the good. Suppose, O king, a man were 
to ask that water should be brought, would any one 
who then brought him food have done what he 
wanted ?' 

' No, Sir. The man who should have given what 
he first asked to be brought would have done what 
he wanted.' 

' Just so, O king, when the Brahman asked 
Vessantara the king for his wife and children, it was 
his wife and children that he gave. If the Brahman, 
O king, had asked for Vessantara's body, then would 
Vessantara have not saved his body, he would 
neither have trembled nor been stained (by the love 
of self), but would have given away and abandoned 
his own body. If, O king, any one had come up to 
Vessantara the king, and asked of him, saying : 
" Become my slave," then would he have given 
away and abandoned his own self, and in so giving 
would he have felt no pain. 

9. ' Now the life of king Vessantara, O king, was 
a good thing shared in by many — just as meats 
when cooked are shared in by many, or as a tree 
covered with fruit is shared in by many flocks of 

1 NiminitvS, also not in Childers; but see Gataka III, 63, 
221. 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 24 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 10. 

birds. And why so ? Because he had said to him- 
self: "Thus acting may I attain to Buddhahood." 
As a man in need, O king, who is wandering about 
in his search after wealth, will have to pass along 
goat-tracks, and through jungles full of stakes and 
sticks 1 , and doing merchandise by sea and land, will 
devote his actions, words, and thoughts to the attain- 
ment of wealth — just so, O king, did Vessantara, the 
king of givers, who was longing for the treasure of 
Buddhahood, for the attainment of the insight of 
the Omniscient Ones, by offering up to any one who 
begged of him his property and his corn, his slave 
girls and his slaves, his riding animals and carriages, 
all that he possessed, his wife and children and him- 
self, seek after the Supreme Enlightenment. Just, 
O king, as an official who is anxious for the seal 2 , 
and for the office of the custody thereof [281], 
will exert himself to the attainment of the seal by 
sacrificing everything in his house — property and 
corn, gold and silver, everything — just so, O king, 
did Vessantara, the king of givers, by giving away 
all that he had, inside his house and out s , by giving 
even his life for others, seek after the Supreme 
Enlightenment. 

10. ' And further, O king, Vessantara, the king of 
givers, thought thus : " It is by giving to him 
precisely what he asks for, that I shall be of service 

1 A^apatha/H sahkupatham vettapathaw gakkh&ti. Hfn- 
a/i-kumbur€, at p. 416, repeats the words with a gloss on the two 
last words, which I have followed. 

* Mudda-kamo; mudra-nam ganam perekkuwa, says 
Htna/i-kumbure, p. 416. 

* Bahirabbhantaram dhanam datva. I am not sure that I 
have rightly understood this phrase, which the Sinhalese merely 
repeats. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, io. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 25 

to the Brahman :" and therefore did he bestow 
upon him his wife and children. It was not, king, 
out of dislike to them that he gave them away, not 
because he did not care to see them more, not 
because he considered them an encumbrance or 
thought he could no longer support them, not (in an- 
noyance) with the wish of being relieved of what was 
not pleasant to him — but because the jewel treasure 
of omniscience was dear to him, for the sake of the 
insight of the Omniscient Ones, did he bestow that 
glorious gift, — immeasurable, magnificent, unsur- 
passed — of what was near and dear to him, greatly 
beloved, cherished as his own life, his own children 
and his wife ! For it has been said, O king, by the 
Blessed One, the god of gods, in the Aariya 
Pi/aka 1 : 

" 'Twas not through hatred * of my children sweet, 
'Twas not through hatred of my queen, Maddl, 
Thraller of hearts 8 — not that I loved them less — 
But Buddhahood more, that I renounced them all." 

1 .ATariyi Pi/aka I, 9, 53. 

* Dessa, that is dreshya, from dvish. Compare diso, 'an 
enemy.' It occurs also at A*ariy& Pi/aka I, 4, 7; 5, 3; 8, 16 
(quoted Gataka IV, 406) ; II, 4, 1 1 ; III, 1, 6 (quoted Gdtaka I, 
46); III, a, 16; 3, 10; 6, 18. The effect of the use of this rare 
poetical word is lost in the English version. 

9 Maddi and Ka«ha^ina, the names of Vessantara's wife and 
daughter, mean respectively ' enthraller (of men's minds),' and ' the 
dark conquerors (of hearts).' As Vessantara is used in the 
Ma£$4ima (I, 386, line 5) as an adjective, not a name, and is 
applied to the Buddha, it too must have a special meaning. But 
it can scarcely be connected with Vauya, while we have a very 
famous epithet invaijrvanara, so often applied to the sacred fire 
as 'common good to all men.' The insertion of the t would 
explain the shortening of the Si, and though there seems to be no 
sufficient reason for any alteration at all of the older term, this is 



Digitized by 



Google 



126 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, u. 

ii.' Now at that time, O king, Vessantara, when 
he had given away his wife and children, entered the 
leaf hut, and sat down there. And heavy grief fell . 
upon him distressed by his exceeding love for them, 
and his very heart * became hot, and hot breath, too 
much to find its way through the nose, came and 
went through his mouth, and tears rolled in drops of 
blood from his eyes. Such was the grief, O king, 
with which Vessantara gave to the Brahman his 
wife and children in the thought that his practice 
of giving should not be broken in upon. But there 
were two reasons, O king, why he thus gave them 
away. What are those two ? That his practice of 
giving should not be interrupted was one ; the other 
was that as a result of his so doing his children, 
distressed by living with him only on wild roots and 
fruits, should eventually be set free by their new 
master. [282] For Vessantara knew, O king : " No 
one is capable of keeping my children as slaves. 
Their grandfather will ransom the children, and so 
they will come back to me." These are the two 
reasons why he gave his children away to the 
Brahman. 

12. 'And further, O king, Vessantara knew: 
" This Brahman is worn out, aged, well stricken in 
years, weak and broken, leaning on a stick, he has 
drawn near the end of his days, his merit is small, 
he will not be capable of keeping my children as 



probably the real derivation of Vessantara. And the whole legend 
may well be due to previous stories of the world-wide beneficence 
of Agni Vairvanara, or of the sun as Vauv&nara. 

1 Hadaya-vatthu, 'like a broth-pot foaming over,' is Hfna/i- 
kumburS's explanation of this phrase (pena ncegena mas soeliyak 
men hr/daya wastuwa, p. 417). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, is. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 27 

slaves." Would a man be able, O king, by his 
ordinary power, to seize the moon and the sun 1 , 



1 JTandima-suriye. We should say 'the sun and the moon,' 
and I cannot think the difference of phraseology is entirely without 
significance. While the Brahmans put their own caste and order 
first, the Buddhist texts talk of ' Sama»as and Brahmans,' ' Khat- 
tiyas and Brahmans.' This has, and no doubt rightly, been held 
significant of the opinion of the authors. Why should the fact of 
their always referring, in similar compounds, to the moon before the 
sun, and to women before men, be less so ? Now it is almost always 
taken for granted that the Buddhists were reformers, as opposed 
to the Brahmans, who wanted to run still in the ancient grooves. 
But there is another side of the question that has been entirely 
overlooked. There is ample evidence in their literature that (at 
least in certain directions, more especially of religious thought) 
the Brahmans had been constantly progressive, and their Br4h- 
ma«as are really the result of reform following on reform. To use 
a parallel drawn from modern politics, Buddhists are to Brahmans 
much more like Socialists to Liberals than like Liberals to Con- 
servatives. The Brahmans had worked out in their minds no new 
complete system, and when they reformed they left the roots of the 
old order of things in the ground. But in the momentous change 
from matriarchate to patriarchate they threw all their power and 
influence on the side of the newer conception. And when, like 
Kronos to Jupiter, the old gods gave place to the new, it was they 
who worked out the newer set of ideas — more especially heaven 
or sun-worship as against moon-worship and all that it involved. 
We must not forget that a change of dynasty, or of precedence, 
among the gods was of more importance to men in those times 
than a change of dynasty among earthly kings. And though the 
Buddhists it is true, as we ourselves now, cared for none of these 
things, and were busied with other discussions than the precedence 
of the sun and moon, they quite quietly and naturally, when they 
had to choose, adopted the form of words which did not imply 
an acceptance of the Brahman position, whose system in other 
matters they were trying, if not to storm, at least to turn. 

We are here in the midst of questions too vast to be discussed 
with profit in a note. But Buddhism certainly arose among those 
sections of the community least influenced by the reforms the 
Brahmans supported. And there is evidence, in the precedence the 



Digitized by 



Google 



128 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 13. 

mighty and powerful as they are, keeping them in a 
basket or a box, to use them, deprived of their 
light, as plates?' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' Neither, O king, could any one whatever keep 
in use, as his slaves, the children of Vessantara, who 
were to the world like the moon and the sun in 
glory. 

13. 'And hear another reason, O king, for the 
same thing 1 . That wondrous gem, O king, of a 
sovran overlord, bright and beautiful, with its eight 
facets so well cut, four cubits in thickness, and in 
circumference 2 as the nave of a cart-wheel, could no 
man, wrapping it up in a cloth and putting it into a 
basket, keep and use as a hone 8 to grind his scissors 4 
upon. And neither, O king, could any one soever 
keep in use, as his slaves, the children of Vessantara, 
like to the jewels of the lord of the world in glory. 

14. 'And hear, O king, another reason. Just as 
the elephant king Uposatha 6 , gentle and handsome, 
eight cubits in height and nine in girth and length, 
showing the signs of rut in three places on his body, 
all white, sevenfold firm •, could never by any one 

Buddhists gave to women and to the moon, that the older ideas 
had not, even then, died out. 

1 These words are repeated before each of the following similes. 

* Pari«aha, which Childers is wrong in rendering 'breadth,' 
when not qualified by aySma (wa/a cettSwu, says the Sinhalese, 
p. 418). 

3 Nisana; karagal, says Hina/i-kumbure\ 

4 Satthaka, see Aullavagga V, 11, 1. 

* The mythic fairy elephant of the JSTakkavatti (not a snake king 
as Prof. E. MOller has it, 'Journal of the Pali Text Society,' 1888, 
p. 16). See my note at ' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 254. 

' Sattappati/Mito. The Sinhalese merely repeats this am- 
biguous word (compare IV, 8, 57). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 16. OF MILINDA Tlfe.XING. . ^ 12$ 

be covered up with a saucer ' or a winnowing fan \ 
could never be put into a cowpen like a calf, or 
made use of as one [283]; just so could no one 
whatever keep in use, as his slaves, the children 
of Vessantara, who were, in the world, like Uposatha 
the elephant king. 

15. 'And hear, O king, another reason. Just, O 
king, as the mighty ocean is great in length and 
breadth, and deep, not to be measured, and hard 
to cross, impossible to fathom or to cover up, and 
no one could close it in and make use of it as a 
single ferry, just so could no one whatever keep in 
use, as his slaves, the children of Vessantara, as 
esteemed in the world as the mighty ocean. 

16. 'And hear another reason, O king. Just as 
the Himalaya, the king of the mountains, five 
leagues high, and three thousand leagues in extent 
at the circumference, with its ranges of eight and 
forty thousand peaks, the source of five hundred 
rivers, the dwelling-place of multitudes of mighty 
creatures 2 , the producer of manifold perfumes, 
enriched with hundreds of magical drugs, is seen 
to rise aloft, like a cloud, in the centre (of the earth) ; 
like it, O king, could no one whatever keep in use, 
as his slaves, the children of Vessantara, as esteemed 
in the world as Himalaya, the mountain king. 

'And hear another reason, O king. Just as a 

1 Suppena va" saravena vi. Hina/i-kumbure' renders the first 
of these words by kullaka, which is a winnowing-basket ; and the 
second by maldwaka, which I do not understand. But the use 
of sar&va at G&taka I, 8, 14 and Sumangala I, 298 seems to me 
to confirm Childers's rendering. 

'Mahabhuta: 'Yakshas' says Hina/i-kumburg, p. 419. 
Compare above, p. 250 (of the P&li). 
[36] K 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 30 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 16. 

mighty bonfire burning on a mountain top would 
be visible afar off in the darkness and the gloom of 
night, so was Vessantara the king well known among 
men, and therefore could no one whatever keep in 
use, as his slaves, the children of so distinguished a 
man — for just as at the time of the flowering of the 
Naga trees 1 in the Himalaya mountains, when the 
soft winds (of spring) 2 are blowing, the perfume of 
the flowers is wafted for ten leagues, or for twelve 
[284], so was the sound of the fame of king Vessan- 
tara noised abroad, and the sweet perfume of his 
righteousness wafted along for thousands of leagues, 
even up to the abodes of the Akani#>fca, (the highest 
of all) gods, passing on its way the dwelling places of 
the gods and A suras, of the Garudfes and Gan- 
dhabbas, of the Yakshas and Rakshasas, of the 
Mahoragas and Kinnaras, and of Indra the 
monarch of the gods 8 ! Therefore is it that no 
one could keep his children as slaves. 

1 N&ga-puppha-samaye. Hina/i-kumburS says, ' at the time 
when the NS trees bloom.' The N& or NSga is the Mesua 
fere a, whose lovely flowers, like those of the Champak, are still 
in special request for laying before the images of the Buddha in 
Buddhist temples. I am told that these so-called flowers are not 
flowers at all, botanically speaking, but young shoots. But it is 
one of the most beautiful sights in a Ceylon landscape to see this 
splendid forest tree, lofty and wide-spreading as it is, one mass 
of what look like red blossoms from crown to root. For at the 
'bloom time' it casts all its green leaves, and has the appear- 
ance of a scarlet bell. No wonder that this was thought super- 
natural, and that the tree should be called the Naga tree. Its 
timber is so valuable that in Anglo-Indian the tree is called the 
'Iron-wood' tree. But it may be regretted that the commercial 
spirit of the European has substituted this hard name for the ' Fairy 
tree ' of the native languages. 

* U^-u-vdta, which the Sinhalese repeats. 

* Compare vol/i, pp. 38, 175. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 17- OF MILINDA THE KING. 131 

17. 'And the young prince Gali, O king, was 
instructed by his father, Vessantara, in these words : 
" When your grandfather, my child, shall ransom you 
with wealth that he gives to the Brahman, let him 
buy you back for a thousand ounces of gold 1 , and 
when he ransoms your sister Kawhdfina let him buy 
her back for a hundred slaves and a hundred slave 
girls and a hundred elephants and a hundred horses 
and a hundred cows and a hundred buffaloes and a 
hundred ounces of gold. And if, my child, your 
grandfather should take you out of the hands of the 
Brahman by word of command, or by force, paying 
nothing, then obey not the words of your grand- 
father, but remain still in subjection 2 to the Brah- 
man." Such was his instruction as he sent him 
away. And young (7ali went accordingly, and when 
asked by his grandfather, said : 

" As worth a thousand ounces, Sir, 
My father gave me to this man; 
As worth a hundred elephants, 
He gave the girl Ka«ha£ina." ' 

' Well has this puzzle, Nagasena, been unravelled, 
well has the net of heresy been torn to pieces, well 
has the argument of the adversaries been overcome 
and your own doctrine been made evident, well has 
the letter (of the Scriptures) been maintained while 



1 Nikkha-sahassaa*. See my ' Ancient Coins and Measures,' 
pp. 6, 14; Sawyutta Nikiya II, 3, 9, 9 (G&taka I, 375, IV, 97; 
Anguttara III, 73, 3). 

8 Anuyayino. Not found elsewhere, and not in Childers. 
But anuyayati occurs below (p. 391 of the text) and an dnu- 
ySyin at Sutta Nipata V, 7, 3, 4 and Tela-ka/aha-githi 25 (com- 
pare 41). Hina/i-kumburg (p. 470) has anuwa hcesirew. 

K 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



132 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 18. 

you have thus explained its spirit ! That is so, and 
I accept it as you say.' 



[Here ends the dilemma as to Vessantara's gift 
of his wife and children.] 



[dilemma the seventy-second. 

PENANCE.] 

1 8. ' Venerable Nagasena, did all the Bodisats go 
through a period of penance, or only Gotama?' 

' Not all, O king, but Gotama did.' 

' Venerable Nagasena, if that be so, it is not right 
that there should be a difference between Bodisat 
and Bodisat.' 

[285] ' There are four matters, O king, in which 
there is such difference. And what are the four? 
There is a difference as to the kind of family 
(in which they are born '), there is a difference 
as to their place in the period (which has elapsed 
since the succession of Buddhas began *), there 

1 Kula-vemattata. Those Bodisats who are to become 
Buddhas in their then lives may be born eiJier in a Brahman 
or in a Kshatriya family, but in no other. 

1 Addhina-vemattatt, which is ambiguous, as 'period- 
difference ' may mean different things according to the interpre- 
tation given to ' period.' Now the Bodisat theory has never been 
thoroughly worked out in detail. It is clear from the statements 
given in pp. 38-58 of my ' Buddhist Birth Stories' that the Bodisat 
who became Gotama the Buddha was held to have been in exist- 
ence throughout the whole period in which the former twenty-four 
Buddhas appeared, and this is probably the 'period' intended. 
Hina/i-kumburS's version (p. 421) is as ambiguous as the Pali. 
Spence Hardy gives at p. 87 of his 'Manual of Buddhism' what 
purports to be a translation of our passage. But it is only a loose 
paraphrase, and he interprets this 'period-difference' as simply 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 18. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 33 

is a difference as to the length of their indi- 
vidual lives 1 , there is a difference as to their 
individual size 2 . In these four respects, O king, 
there is a difference between Bodisat and Bodisat. 
But there is no difference between any of the 
Buddhas, who are alike in bodily beauty 3 , in good- 
ness of character, in power of contemplation 
and of reasoning, in emancipation, in the insight 
arising from the knowledge of emancipation, in 



identical with the next one in the list, the ' length-of-life-difference ' 
— which must be wrong. 

It must be remembered that the Bodisats referred to throughout 
this dilemma are exclusively men — not those mentioned in the 
Gatakas (who are all Bodisats of the historical Buddha), but only 
those Bodisats who became Buddhas in the same life — that is, the 
Buddhas themselves before they reached Buddhahood. 

1 Ayu-vemattata. This may be due to either of two causes — 
in the first place they may be born as creatures whose allotted 
period of life varies. Thus the Bodisat was twenty times Sakka, 
the king of the gods ; and his life would then have lasted hundreds 
of thousands of years. But he was 106 times an animal of some 
kind, and then his life would have been of course much shorter. 
Again, in his births as a man (more than 350 times, see the table 
in my ' Buddhist Birth Stories,' p. ci), the average duration of men's 
lives will have varied, according to Buddhist theory, from many 
centuries down to only a few years. It is in this second sense 
only that (with Hina/i-kumbur€) we must suppose the phrase ayu- 
vemattata to be used — thus excluding all the Bodisats except 
such as were men. But in the Gataka stories the average age of 
man is (with one or two exceptions) normal. 

9 Pamawa-vemattata, which we must also understand to refer 
only to the varying average size of mankind, which, according to 
Buddhist theory, is very great at the commencement, and very small 
at the close, of a Kalpa. For it is only the men-Bodisats, and 
only in each series the last man-Bodisat (just before he became 
' Buddha '), concerning whom this question of penance could arise. 

' Rupe, which the Sinhalese repeats (p. 422), and which 
cannot here mean bodily form only. 



Digitized by 



Google 



I 34 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 18 

the four bases of confidence 1 , in the ten powers 
of a Tath&gata 2 , in the sixfold special know- 

1 A'atu-vesara^e. They are the confidence that no one — 
Samarca or Brahman, God or Mara — can reprove him by saying: 
(i) 'The qualities which you maintain to be those of a Buddha 
have not been attained by you ; ' or (2) ' The Great Evils which 
you maintain to have ceased in an Arahat have not ceased in you ; ' 
or (3) ' The qualities which you say are dangerous (in the higher 
life) are not really dangerous to one who practises them;' or 
(4) 'The aim which you held before others in preaching your 
Dhamma will not lead him who follows it to the destruction of 
sorrow.' The list will be found in the Aftguttara Nikiya IV, 8 
(where it is probably a quotation from one of the conversational 
Suttas). But the punctuation in Dr. Morris's edition should be 
corrected by putting full stops after each viharami. Childers 
gives a different explanation under vesara^a, but his interpreta- 
tion must be altered to that here given, which is the only correct 
one. 

2 These have not been found in any Pi/aka text, but Burnouf 
gives them in a note to the 'Lotus de la Bonne Loi' (p. 781) 
from the Ginalankara. He says the expression dasabalo is found 
as applied to the Buddha ' a chaque instant dans les textes,' but 
this is not the case, so far at least as the older texts are concerned. 
In one of the old verses preserved at the Mahivagga I, 22, 13, 
and quoted in the G&taka (vol. i, p. 84), dasabalo occurs as an 
epithet of the Buddha, but among the numerous epithets applied 
in the Buddhavawsa to the various Buddhas the term does not 
occur, nor have I been able to find it in the published portions 
of any of the great Nikdyas. (Ten NSga-balas are ascribed to 
the Buddha in Buddhavamsa, p. 39, but these seem to be different.) 
Buddha-rakkhita, the author of the <?inalankara, probably lived at 
about the eleventh or twelfth century a.d., and Hardy's paraphrase 
of his interpretations (in the ' Manual of Buddhism,' pp. 380, 381) 
is throughout inaccurate. As therefore it is precisely the growth 
of ideas about the Buddha that is of prime importance in the 
history of Buddhism, I give here Buddha-rakkhita's explanation, 
adding the Sanskrit names as given in the Mah£vyutpatti, § 8 : — 

1. 7Xani//4ana-#a«a-bala»t . Sthanasthana-##ana-balam . (1) 

2. Sabbatha-gaminl-patipadd Karma-vipaka (5) 

3. Aneka-dhatu-nana-dhatu . Nanldhimukti (4) 

4. Sattanam nanadhimuttikata Nanadhatu (3) 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 19. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 35 

ledge 1 , in the fourteenfold knowledge of Buddha 2 , 
in the eighteen characteristics of a Buddha 3 — in 
a word, in all the qualities of a Buddha. For all 
the Buddhas are exactly alike in all the Buddha- 
qualities.' 

' But if, Nagasena, that be so, what is the reason 
that it was only the Gotama Bodisat who carried 
out the penance?' 

'Gotama the Bodisat had gone forth from the 
world, O king, when his knowledge * was immature, 
and his wisdom was immature. And it was when 
he was bringing that immature knowledge to ma- 
turity that he carried out the penance.' 

19. 'Why then, Nagasena, was it that he thus 
went forth with knowledge and with wisdom im- 
matured ? Why did he not first mature his 
knowledge, and then, with his knowledge matured, 
renounce the world?' 

' When the Bodisat, O king, saw the women of 
his harem all in disorder 8 , then did he become dis- 



5. Vipika-vemattadt . . . Indriya-parSpara .... (7) 

6. Samkilesa-voddna-vatthu . Sarvatra-gSmint-pratipad . . (2) 

7. Indriya-paropariya . . . Samkilesa-vyavad&na-vyu/Mana (6) 

8. Pubbe-nivas&nussate . . Purva-nivasanusmrrii ... (8) 

9. Dibba-£akkhu .... Ajut-utpatti (9) 

10. Asava-kkhaya Asrava-kshaya (10) 

Some of these terms are found in the Dharma-sahgraha, 
Anecdota Oxoniensia, vol. i, part 5, pp. 16, 51. 

1 A'Aa-asadhara«a-#a/»a, not yet found elsewhere. 

* Possibly the above ten with four others. 

' The details of these eighteen are given by Spence Hardy in 
the 'Manual of Buddhism,' p. 381, but he does not mention his 
authority. Hina/i-kumburS (p. 422) merely repeats the Pali. 

4 ' Of the four Truths ' is Hina/i-kumburS's gloss. 

1 See G&taka I, 61. But the whole episode is told in the 
Pi/akas, not of the Bodisat, but of Yasa (Mahavagga I, 7). 



Digitized by 



Google 



I36 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 19* 

gusted, and in him thus disgusted discontent sprang 
up. And on perceiving that his heart was filled 
with discontent, a certain god of those that wait on 
Death (Mara) thought : " This now is the time to 
dispel that discontent of his heart," and standing in 
the air he gave utterance to these words : " O 
honourable one ! O fortunate one ! Be not thou 
distressed. On the seventh day from this the 
heavenly treasure of the Wheel shall appear to 
thee, with its thousand spokes, its tire, and its 
nave, complete and perfect; and the other trea- 
sures, those that walk on earth and those that 
travel through the sky, shall come to thee of their 
own accord ; and the words of command of thy 
mouth shall bear sway over the four great con- 
tinents and the two thousand dependent isles ; and 
thou shalt have above a thousand sons, heroes 
mighty in strength to the crushing out of the armies 
of the foe ; and with those sons surrounding thee 
thou, master of the Seven Treasures, shalt rule 
the world ! " [286] But even as if a bar of iron, 
heated the livelong day and glowing throughout, 
had entered the orifice of his ear, so was it that 
those words, O king, entered the ear of the Bodisat 
And to the natural distress he already felt there was 
added, by that utterance of the god, a further emo- 
tion, anxiety, and fear. Just as a mighty fiery fur- 
nace, were fresh fuel thrown on it, would the more 
furiously burn — just as the broad earth, by nature 
moist, and already swampy through the water drip- 
ping on it from the vegetation and the grass that 
have arisen on it, would become more muddy still 
when a great rain cloud had poured out rain upon 
it — so to the distress that he already felt there was 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 20. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 37 

added, by that utterance of the god, a further 
emotion, anxiety, and fear.' 

20. ' But tell me, Nagasena, if the heavenly 
Wheel-treasure had, on the seventh day, appeared 
to the Bodisat, would he, the Wheel having ap- 
peared, have been turned back from his purpose ? ' 

' No Wheel-treasure appeared, O king, on the 
seventh day to the Bodisat. For rather that was 
a lie that was told by that god with the object of 
tempting him. And even had it appeared, yet 
would not the Bodisat have turned aside. And 
why not? Because the Bodisat, O king, had firmly 
grasped (the facts of) the im permanence (of all 
things, of) the suffering (inherent in existence 
as an individual, of) the absence of a soul (in 
any being made up of the five Skandhas), and 
had thus arrived at the destruction of the attach- 
ment (to individuality which arises from lust, or 
from heresy, or from dependence upon outward acts, 
or from delusions as to the possession of a per- 
manent soul) K The water, O king, which flows 
into the river Ganges from the Anottata lake, and 
from the Ganges river into the great ocean, and 
from the great ocean into the openings into the 

1 Up&d£nakkhaya«n patto. Childers says that the destruc- 
tion of these upid&nas 'constitutes Arahatship.' I know of no 
authority for this, and it is incompatible with the Buddhist theory 
of Arahatship that any Arahat should go through such a period 
of penance as our author supposes the Bodisat to have done after 
he had reached this ' destruction of the upSdinas.' The perception 
of the first of the above facts, the impermanence of all things and 
beings (ani££am), constitute indeed the 'entrance upon the path' 
(see above, p. 25), and of course the up&dsinas are destroyed in 
every Arahat, but that is very different from Childers's conclusion, 
which would make the terms convertible. 



Digitized by 



Google 



I38 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, ao. 

1 

regions under the earth 1 — would that water, after it 
had once entered that opening, turn back and flow 
again into the great ocean, and from the great ocean 
into the Ganges river, and from the Ganges river 
into the Anottata lake?' 

[287] ' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' In the same way, O king, it was for the sake of 
that last existence of his that the Bodisat had ma- 
tured merit through the immeasurable aeons of 
the past. He had now reached that last birth, 
the knowledge of the Buddhas had grown mature 
in him, in six years he would become a Buddha, 
all-knowing, the highest being in the world. Would 
then the Bodisat, for the sake of the Wheel- 
treasure, turn back ?' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' No ! Though the great earth, O king, with all its 
peaks and mountain ranges, should turn back, yet 
the Bodisat would not before he had attained to 
Buddhahood. Though the water of the Ganges 
should flow backwards up the stream, yet the 
Bodisat would not turn back before he had attained 
to Buddhahood. Though the mighty ocean with 
its immeasurable waters 2 should dry up like the 
water in the footprint of a cow 3 , yet would not the 
Bodisat turn back before he had attained to Bud- 
dhahood. Though Sineru, the king of the moun- 

1 Pitala-mukhaw, which the Sinhalese repeats. There is a 
similar sequence in the Sawyutta I, 5, 4. 

* Aparimita-^ala-dharo. Htna/i-kumburd, p. 424, has 
dhari, which may either be the same in meaning as dharo, or 
refer to the dhari, the streams of water. 

* Gopade; not in Childers, but compare Gopadaka, 'puddle,' 
in a similar connection at Sumangala Vilasinf I, 147 (where one 
MS. reads Gopade). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 23. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 39 

tains, should split up into a hundred or a thousand 
fragments, yet would not the Bodisat turn back 
before he had attained to Buddhahood. Though 
the sun and moon with all the stars should fall, like 
a clod, upon the ground, yet would not the Bodisat 
turn back before he had attained to Buddhahood. 
Though the expanse of heaven should be rolled up 
like a mat, yet would not the Bodisat turn back 
before he had attained to Buddhahood ! And why 
not ? Because he had torn asunder every bond.' 

21. 'Venerable Nagasena, how many bonds are 
there in the world ?' 

' There are these ten bonds in the world, O king, 
bound by which men renounce not the world, or 
turn back again to it. And what are the ten ? A 
mother, O king, is often a bond, and a father, and a 
wife, and children, and relations, and friends, and 
wealth, and easy income, [288] and sovranty, and the 
five pleasures of sense. These are the ten bonds 
common in the world, bonds bound by which men 
renounce not the world or turn back to it. And all 
these bonds had the Bodisat, O king, burst through. 
And therefore could he not, O king, turn back.' 

22. 'Venerable Nagasena, if the Bodisat, on dis- 
content arising in his heart at the words of the god, 
though his knowledge (of the four Truths) was yet 
imperfect, and his insight of a Buddha not mature, 
did nevertheless go forth into renunciation of the 
world, of what advantage was penance to him then ? 
Ought he not rather, awaiting the maturity of his 
knowledge, to have lived in the enjoyment of all 
(suitable) foods ? ' 

' There are, O king, these ten sorts of individuals 
who are despised and contemned in the world, 



Digitized by 



Google 



I40 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 23. 

thought shameful, looked down upon, held blame- 
worthy, treated with contumely, not loved. And what 
are the ten ? A woman without a husband, O king, 
and a weak creature, and one without friends or 
relatives, and a glutton, and one dwelling in a dis- 
reputable family, and the friend of sinners, and he 
whose wealth has been dissipated, and he who has 
no character, and he who has no occupation 1 , and 
he who has no means. These are the ten despised 
and contemned in the world, thought shameful, 
looked down upon, held blameworthy, treated with 
contumely, not loved 2 . It was on calling these con- 
ditions to mind, O king, that this idea occurred to 
the Bodisat : " Let me not incur blame among gods 
and men as being without occupation or without 
means! Let me as a master in action, held in 
respect by reason of action, one having the supre- 
macy which arises from action, one whose conduct 
is based upon action, one who carries action (into 
every concern of life) 3 , one who has his dwelling in 
action, be constant in earnestness 4 ." That was the 
spirit, O king, in which the Bodisat, when he was 
bringing his knowledge to maturity, undertook the 
practice of penance.' 

23. 'Venerable Nagasena, the Bodisat, when he 
was undergoing penance, said thus to himself: 

1 Kamma is here explained by Hlna/i-kumburfi by karminta 
(' such as husbandry or merchandise '). 
s On this list of epithets compare above, p. 229 (of the Pali). 

* Kamma-dhoreyyo. The latter word is not in Childers. 
Hina/i-kumbure' (p. 427) has karmayama usulanna wu. It is 
the Sanskrit dhaureya, and the whole might be rendered 'like a 
beast of burden whose load is action.' 

* Appam&do — that constant theme of praise and exhortation 
in the early Buddhist books. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 33. OF MILINDA THE KING. I4E 

[289] " But it is not by this penance severe that- 
I shall reach the peculiar faculty of the insight arising 
from the knowledge of that which is fit and noble — 
that insight beyond the powers of ordinary men. 
May there not be now some other way to the 
wisdom (of Buddhahood) 1 ?" 

' Was then the Bodisat, at that time, confused in 
his mind about the way 2 ?' 

' There are twenty-five qualities, O king, which are 
causes of weakness of mind, weakened by which the 
mind cannot successfully be devoted to the destruc- 
tion of the Asavas (the Great Evils — lust, becoming, 
delusion, and ignorance) 3 . And what are the twenty- 
five? Anger, O king, and enmity, and hypocrisy 4 , 
and conceit 6 , and envy, and avarice, and deceit 6 , 

1 These words, already quoted above, IV, 6, 20 (p. 244 of the 
Pali), are put into the mouth of the Bodisat, after the conclusion 
of the ' penance,' in the Maha Sa££aka Sutta (M. I, 246), which 
is the chief Pi/aka text on the penance (the Dukkha-karika). 
The Sinhalese version here (p. 427) has already been given in the 
note on the former passage. 

' The way to Buddhahood (not the way to Arahatship). This is 
Hina/i-kumbure's explanation, which agrees with the context. 

8 It will be noticed that (the destruction of the Asavas being 
Arahatship, not Buddhahood) this is really no reply. 

* Makkho, 'depreciation of the good qualities of others,' says 
Hina/i-kumbure, pp. 427, 564. But the use of the word at Gataka 
1.3 8 5; Mahavagga I, 15, 4 ; tfullavagga III, 34, 2 ; Maxima 
Nikaya I, 15, shows that concealing one's own faults is rather the 
meaning. 

* Palaso; not in Childers. But see Anguttara Nikaya II, 6, 
12; Puggala Paddatti II, 2; Maxima Nik£ya I, 15, &c. This 
and the last are usually mentioned together (see for instance below, 
VII, 2, 18), and the contrast is ' concealing the faults one has, and 
laying claim to virtues one has not.' 

* Maya. It is noteworthy that this famous word, which plays 
so great a part in the later philosophies, and which is often sup- 



Digitized by 



Google 



142 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 33. 

and treachery, and obstinacy 1 , and perverseness 2 , 
and pride, and vainglory, and the intoxication (of 
exalted ideas about birth or health or wealth), and 
negligence in (well-doing), and intellectual inertness 
or bodily sloth 3 , and drowsiness 4 , and idleness, and 
friendship with sinners, and forms, and sounds, and 
odours, and tastes, and sensations of touch, and 
hunger, and thirst 6 , and discontent 6 . These are the 

posed to express a fundamental conception of the Buddhists, has 
not yet been traced, and will probably never be found, in the 
Pi/akas, in any other than this subordinate and purely ethical sense. 
So when Mr. Gough in his ' Philosophy of the Upanishads ' says, 
p. 186, that 'pessimism, metempsychosis, and miyS (the primitive 
world fiction) are retained in Buddhism' he is as wrong about 
may£ as he is about metempsychosis. He is evidently still under 
the delusion that Buddhism teaches the transmigration of souls, 
and that it has inherited from such schoolmen as .SankardMrya the 
theory of the maya. This is as funny as the astounding blindness 
which makes him say (pp. 267, 268) 'there is no quest of verity, 
of an active law of righteousness (in Buddhism), but only a yearning 
after a lapse into the void ' (!). The converse proposition would be 
nearer to the actual fact, and the Buddhist Aviggi is quite dif- 
ferent from the Miyi of the later Vedantists. How absolutely 
different is the world in which the thoughts of a Buddhist would 
move is shown by Hina/i-kumbur6's gloss : ' The miya 4 of con- 
cealing faults one has* (tamage ceti aguna samgawana maya). 

1 Thambho (not ' stupor,' as Childers has it). ' That obstinacy 
of mind (drzWAawu sit ceti bawa) which will not bend to the 
exhortation of the great,' says the Sinhalese. 

8 Sirambho; not merely ' clamour, angry talk,' as Childers has 
it. See the commentary on the word sarambht at G$taka III, 
259, with which Hina/i-kumbur6 here agrees. ' Contrariness ' would 
be perhaps a better rendering. 

3 Thtnamiddham; so Hlna/i-kumbure (but he takes them as 
two). 

* Tandf, as Hina/i-kumbure" reads (for Mr. Trenckner's nandf). 
8 Khudi pipisS, which must be taken separately to make up 

the twenty-five. The Sinhalese takes them as two. 

* Arati, which the Sinhalese (taking thina and middha 
separately) omits. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 33* OF MILINDA THE KING. I43 

twenty-five qualities, O king, which are causes of 
weakness of mind, weakened by which the mind 
cannot successfully be devoted to the destruction of 
the Asavas. (And of these it was) hunger and thirst, 
O king, which had then seized hold of the body 1 
of the Bodisat. And his body being thus, as it 
were, " possessed," his mind was not rightly devoted 
to the destruction of the Asavas. Now the Bodisat, 
O king, through the immeasurable aons of the past, 
had followed after the perception of the Four Noble 
Truths through all of his successive births. Is 
it then possible that in his last existence, in the 
birth in which that perception was to arise, there 
should be any confusion in his mind as to the 
way? But nevertheless there arose, O king, in 
the Bodisat's mind the thought: "May there not now 
be some other way to the wisdom (of a Buddha) ? " 
And already before that, O king, when he was only 
one month old, when his father the Sakya was at 
work (ploughing), the Bodisat, placed in his sacred 
cot for coolness under the shade of the 6ambu tree, 
sat up crosslegged, and putting away passion, free 
from all evil conditions of heart, he entered into and 
remained in the first Gh&m. — a state of joy and 
ease, born of seclusion, full of reflection, full of 
investigation, [290] and so into the second, and so 
into the third, and so into the fourth £^anaV 

1 Pariyadiyimsu; literally 'were suffused as to the body of 
(Hina/i-kumbure has jartrayehi vySpta wu). The passive 
forms of this verb are always difficult to translate. See above, 
p. 254, and below, pp. 296, 297 (of the Pali), and ATulIavagga VI, 
2, 6; VII, 2, 1. 

8 This passage follows in the Maha Sa££aka Sutta immediately 
after the passage quoted above (Ma^Aima Nikaya I, 246), and the 



Digitized by 



Google 



144 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 24. 



' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say. It was whilst he was bringing his 
knowledge to maturity that the Bodisat underwent 
the penance.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the penance 
undergone by the Bodisat.] 



[dilemma the seventy-third, 
virtue stronger than vice.] 

24. ' Venerable Nagasena, which is the more 
powerful, virtue or vice ? ' 

'Virtue, O king V 

' That is a saying, Nagasena, which I cannot 
believe — that virtue is more powerful than vice. 
For there are to be seen here (in the world) men 
who destroy living creatures, who take to them- 
selves what has not been given, who walk in evil in 
their lusts, who speak lies, who commit gang rob- 
beries on whole villages, who are highwaymen, 
sharpers, and swindlers, and these all according to 
their crime suffer the cutting off of their hands, or 
their feet, or their hands and feet, or their ears, or 

incident is also related at Gataka I, 57. But in both these books 
there is reference only to the first — not to the second, third, and 
fourth Guanas. As this is therefore only another instance of the 
difference between the Pi/akas and the more advanced views of 
our author, I have not translated the remaining Guanas. As will 
be seen from the version of them in my ' Buddhist Suttas from 
the Pali' (S.B. E., vol. xi, p. 272), the idea that a mere baby could 
have practised these higher meditations would only become possible 
after the Buddha theory had been much more developed than it 
is in the Pi/akas. 

1 Kusala/H. So it has been already laid down at III, 7, 7 
(pp. 83, 84 of the Pali), that merit (puHHam) is more than demerit. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, as- OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 45 

their nose, or their ears and nose, or the Gruel Pot, 
or the Chank Crown, or the Rahu's Mouth, or the 
Fire Garland, or the Hand Torch, or the Snake 
Strips, or the Bark Dress, or the Spotted Antelope, 
or the Flesh Hooks, or the Penny Cuts, or the 
Brine Slits, or the Bar Turn, or the Straw Seat, or 
they are anointed with boiling oil, or eaten by dogs, 
or are impaled alive, or are beheaded with a sword 1 . 
Some of them sin one night and that night expe- 
rience the fruit of their sin, some sinning by night 
experience the next day, some sinning one day ex- 
perience that day, some sinning by day experience 
that night, some experience when two days or three 
have elapsed. But all experience in this present 
visible world the result of their iniquity. And is 
there any one, Nagasena, who from having pro- 
vided a meal with all its accessories 2 for one, or 
two, or three, or four, or five, or ten, or a hundred, 
or a thousand (members of the Order), has enjoyed 
in this present visible world wealth or fame or hap- 
piness — (is there any one who) from righteousness 
of life, or from observance of the Uposatha, (has 
received bliss even in this life 8 )?' 

25. ' There are [291], O king, four men who by 
giving gifts, and by the practice of uprightness, and 
by the keeping of Uposatha, even in their earthly 
bodies attained to glory in Tidasapura (the city of 
the gods).' 

1 This is a repetition of the list given above (I, 276-278), where 
the technical terms are explained. Compare Mr. William Andrews's 
book, ' Punishments in the Olden Time.' 

' Saparivaram dana/w. Pirikara-sahita-wu maha dan 
dl, says the Sinhalese, p. 430. 

' The words in brackets are supplied from Hina/i-kumburS. 

[36] L 



Digitized by 



Google 



I46 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 25. 

'And who, Sir, were they 1 ?' 

4 Mandhata the king, and Nimi the king, and 
Sadhina the king, and Guttila the musician 2 .' 

'Venerable Nagasena, this happened thousands 
of births ago, and is beyond the ken of either of 
us two. Give me, if you can, some examples from 
that period (of the world) which is now elapsing in 
which the Blessed One has been alive.' 

' In this present period, O king, the slave 
Pu»«aka, on giving a meal to Sariputta the Elder, 
attained that day to the dignity of a treasurer 
(Se//^i), and he is now generally known as Pu»- 
«aka the Sztlki. The queen, the mother of Gopala, 
who (being the daughter of poor peasant folk) sold 
her hair for eight pennies, and therewith gave a 
meal to Mahi Ka^iayana the Elder and his seven 
companions, became that very day the chief queen 
of king Udena. Suppiyi, the believing woman, 
cut flesh from her own thigh to provide broth 8 for 
a sick Bhikkhu, and on the very next day the wound 
closed up, and the place became cured, with skin 
grown over it. Mallika, the queen who (when a 
poor flower girl) gave the last night's gruel (she had 
reserved for her own dinner) to the Blessed One, 
became that very day the chief queen of the king of 
Kosala 4 . Sumana, the garland maker, when he had 

1 The king himself has already mentioned them, in reverse 
order, above, I, 172. 

1 The legends will be found in full in the Gataka stories num- 
bered respectively, in Professor Fausboll's edition, 258, 533, 494, 
and 243. 

* Pa/i££Mdaniyam. See the note on Mah&vagga VI, 23, 
where this curious story is given in full. 

4 See G&taka III, 495, 496 for this story. Abhidosikaw is 
not in Childers, but see the Sutta Vibhanga, PSri^ika I, 5, 6. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8,26. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 47 

presented to the Blessed One eight bunches of 
jessamine flowers, came that very day into great 
prosperity. Eka-sa/aka the Brahman, who gave to 
the Blessed One his only garment, received that 
very day the office of Sabba/Maka (Minister in 
general) 1 . All these, O king, came into the enjoy- 
ment of wealth and glory in their then existing 
lives.' 

'So then, Nigasena, with all your searching and 
enquiry you have only found six cases 2 ?' 

' That is so, O king.' 

26. 'Then it is vice, Nagasena, and not virtue 
which is the more powerful. For on one day alone 
I have seen ten men expiating their crimes by being 
impaled alive, and thirty even, and forty, and fifty, 
[292], and a hundred, and a thousand. And further, 
there was Bhaddasala, the soldier in the service of 
the royal family of Nanda 3 , and he waged war 
against king .A'andagutta*. Now in that war, Naga- 
sena, there were eighty Corpse Dances. For they 
say that when one great Head Holocaust has 
taken place (by which is meant the slaughter of ten 
thousand elephants, and a lac of horses, and five 
thousand charioteers, and a hundred ko/is of soldiers 
on foot), then the headless corpses arise and dance 
in frenzy over the battle-field. And all the men 



1 'Received from the king the great honour (sammSna) called 
sabba///5aka,' says Hina/t-kurnburS, p. 431. But we find a par- 
ticular office so called at Gataka II, 57. (It is true the reading 
there is sabbatthaka, but Mr. Trenckner's reading is doubtless 
preferable.) 

* All these cases have already been referred to above, I, 172. 

* ' Nandagutta of the Brahman caste,' says the Sinhalese, p. 431. 
4 ' Descended from the .S&kya race,' adds Hina/i~kumbure\ 

L 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



I48 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 37. 

thus slain came to destruction through the fruit of 
the Karma of their evil deeds 1 . And therefore, 
too, do I say, Nagasena, that vice is more powerful 
than virtue. And have you heard, Nagasena, that 
in all this dispensation (since the time of Gotama 
the Buddha) the giving by the Kosala king has 
been unequalled?' 

' Yes, I have heard so, O king.' 

' But did he, Nagasena, on account of his having 
given gifts so unequalled, receive in this present life 
wealth, or glory, or happiness ? ' 

' No, O king, he did not.' 

'Then, in that case, surely, Nagasena, vice is 
more powerful than virtue ? ' 

27. ' Vice, O king, by reason of its meanness, dies 
quickly away. But virtue, by reason of its grandeur, 
takes a long time to die. And this can be further 
examined into by a metaphor. Just, O king, as in 
the West Country 2 the kind of corn called Kumuda- 
bhandikH, ripening quickly and being garnered in 
a month, is called Masalu (got in a month) s , but the 
rices only come to perfection in six months or five. 
What then is the difference, what the distinction 
herein between Kumuda-bha«a?ika and rice ? 

'The one is a mean plant, O king, the other a 
grand one. The rices are worthy of kings, meet for 

1 The Pali being otherwise unintelligible, the above version has 
been expanded in accordance with the Sinhalese interpretation. 
Kavandha as a living headless trunk occurs already in the Sutta 
Vibhanga, Para^ika IV, 9, 3. 

1 Aparante. This may mean merely the western country (as 
at Gataka I, 98), or may be a specific place name as Aparantika 
is in the ' Indian Antiquary,' VII, 263. 

* So the Sinhalese, which seems to follow a slightly different 
reading. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 28. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 49 

the king's table ; the other is the food of servants 
and of slaves. 

[293] 'Just so, O king, it is by reason of its 
meanness that vice dies quickly away. But virtue, 
by its grandeur, takes a long time to die.' 

28. ' But, Nagasena, it is just those things which 
come most quickly to their end which are in the 
world considered the most powerful. And so still 
vice must be the more powerful, not virtue. Just, 
Nagasena, as the strong man who, when he enters 
into a terrible battle, is able the most quickly to get 
hold of his enemies' heads under his armpit 1 , and 
dragging them along to bring them prisoners to his 
lord, that is the champion who is regarded, in the 
world, as the ablest hero — just as that surgeon who 
is able the most quickly to extract the dart, and allay 
the disease, is considered the most clever — just as 
the accountant who is able with the greatest speed 
to make his calculations, and with most rapidity to 
show the result, is considered the cleverest counter 
— just as the wrestler who is able the most quickly 
to lift his opponent up, and make him fall flat on his 
back, is considered the ablest hero — just so, Naga- 
sena, it is that one of these two things — virtue and 
vice — which most quickly reaches its end that is, 
in the world, the more powerful of the two.' 

'The Karma of both the two, O king, will be 
made evident in future births ; but vice besides that 
will by reason of its guilt be made evident at once, 
and in this present life. The rulers (Kshatriyas) 

1 Upaka/JMake. The word is not in the Pali dictionaries, 
but I follow Hfna/i-kumbur§, p. 432, who renders it Kisilla, and 
the context at the parallel passage, Gataka I, 63 (see also Gataka I, 
158, and the Sutta Vibhaftga II, 260). 



Digitized by 



Google 



ISO THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 28. 

of old, O king, established this decree : " Whosoever 
takes life shall be subject to a fine, and whosoever 
takes to himself what has not been given, and who- 
soever commits adultery, and whosoever speaks lies, 
and whosoever is a dacoit, and whosoever is a high- 
wayman, and whosoever cheats and swindles. Such 
men shall be liable to be fined or beaten or muti- 
lated or broken l or executed." And in pursuance 
thereof they held repeated enquiry, and then ad- 
judged one or other punishment accordingly. But, 
O king, has there ever been by any one a decree 
promulgated : " Whosoever gives gifts, or observes 
a virtuous life, or keeps Uposatha, to him shall 
wealth be given, or honours ? " And do they make 
continued enquiry, and bestow wealth or honours 
accordingly, as they do stripes or bonds upon a 
thief?' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' Well, if they did so then would virtue too be made 
evident even in this life. [294] But as they neither 
make such enquiry concerning givers, nor bestow 
wealth and honours upon them, therefore is virtue 
not manifested now. And this is the reason, O 
king, why vice is made known in this life, whereas 
he (the giver) receives the more abundantly in the 
lives to come. And therefore it is virtue which, 
through the destructions brought about by Karma, 
is by far the more powerful of the two 2 .' 

'Very good, Nagasena! Only by one wise as 
you could this puzzle have been so well solved. 



1 Bhettabbo, * have their arms or legs broken.' 
1 In this sentence the translation follows Hina/i-kumbur3, who 
has apparently had a different, and fuller, reading before him. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 29. OF MILINDA THE KING. 151 

The problem put by me in worldly sense have you 
in transcendental sense made clear.' 



[Here ends the dilemma as to virtue and vice.] 



[dilemma the seventy-fourth, 
offerings to the dead.] 

29. ' Venerable Nagasena, these givers when they 
bestow their offerings, devote them specifically to 
former (relatives) now departed \ saying t " May 
this gift benefit such and such." Now do they (the 
dead) derive any benefit therefrom ? ' 

' Some do, O king, and some do not.' 

'Which then are they that do, and which do 
not?' 

' Those who have been reborn in purgatory, O 
king, do not; nor those reborn in heaven; nor 
those reborn as animals. And of those reborn as 
Pretas three kinds do not — the Vantasika (who 
feed on vomit), the Khuppipasino (who hunger 
and thirst), the Njgg^ama-ta»hika (who are con- 
sumed by thirst). But the Paradattupa^lvino 
(who live on the gifts of others) they do derive profit, 
and those who bear them in remembrance do so 
too.' 

'Then, Nagasena, offerings given by the givers 
have run to waste 2 , and are fruitless, since those 

1 Peta; which are not ghosts, disembodied 'souls,' but new 
beings whose link of connection with the departed is, ' not soul,' 
but Karma. 

1 Vissotam, from sru. The Sinhalese, p. 434, has asthana 
gata wanneya (for asthana). 



Digitized by 



Google 



152 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 30. 

for whose benefit they are given derive no profit 
therefrom.' 

1 No, O king. They run not to waste, neither 
are fruitless. The givers themselves derive profit 
from them.' 

' Then convince me of this by a simile.' 

' Suppose, O king, people were to get ready fish 
and meat and strong drinks and rice and cakes, and 
make a visit on a family related to them. If their 
relatives should not accept their complimentary 
present, would that present be wasted or fruitless?' 

' No, Sir, it would go to the owners of it.' 

' Well, just so the givers themselves derive the 
profit. Or just, O king, [295] as if a man were to 
enter an inner chamber, and there were no exit in 
front of him, how would he get out ? ' 

' By the way he entered.' 

'Well, just so the givers themselves derive the 
profit.' 

30. ' Let that pass, Nagasena. That is so, and I 
accept it as you say. We will not dispute your 
argument. But, venerable Nagasena, if the offerings 
made by such givers do advantage certain of the 
departed, and they do reap the result of the gifts, 
then if a man who destroys living creatures and 
drinks blood and is of cruel heart, were after com- 
mitting murder or any other dreadful act, to dedicate 
it to the departed, saying : " May the result of this 
act of mine accrue to the departed " — would it then 
be transferred to them ? ' 

* No, O king' 

' But what is the reason, what is the cause, that 
a good deed can accrue to them, and not an evil 
one?' 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 30. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 53 

' This is really not a question you should ask, O 
king. Ask me no foolish question, O king, in the 
idea that an answer will be forthcoming. You will 
be asking me next why space is boundless, why the 
Ganges does not flow up stream, why men and birds 
are bipeds, and the animals quadrupeds ! ' 

' It is not to annoy you that I ask this question, 
Nagasena, but for the sake of resolving a doubt. 
There are many people in the world who are left- 
handed or squint 1 . I put that question to you, 
thinking : " Why should not also these unlucky ones 
have a chance 2 of bettering themselves ? " ' 

'An evil deed, O king, cannot be shared with 
one who has not done it, and has not consented to 
it. People convey water long distances by an aque- 
duct. But could they in the same way remove a 
great mountain of solid rock ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

'Well, just in that way can a good deed be 
shared, but a bad one cannot. And one can light 
a lamp with oil, but could one in the same way, 
O king, light it with water ? ' 

[296] ' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' Well, so is it that a good deed can be shared, but 
not an evil one. And husbandmen take water from 
a reservoir to bring their crops to maturity, but 
could they for the same purpose, O king, take 
water from the sea ? ' 



1 Vamagahino vi£akkhuki. Neither of these words are in 
the dictionaries. Hfna/i-kumburg, p. 436, says, ' who spoil what 
they take hold of, and whose eyes have lost their cunning.' 

8 Otira, which the Sinhalese renders awak&xaya; and in that 
sense the word is used at Maggkima, Nikaya I, 334. 



Digitized by 



Google 



154 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 31. 

'Certainly not, Sir.' 

' So again is it that though a good deed can be 
shared, an evil one cannot.' 

31. 'But, venerable Nagasena, why is that? 
Convince me of this by a reason. I am not blind, 
or unobservant. I shall understand when I have 
heard.' 

' Vice, O king, is a mean thing, virtue is great 
and grand. By its meanness vice affects l only the 
doer, but virtue by its grandeur overspreads the 
whole world of gods and men.' 

' Show me this by a metaphor.' 

' Were a tiny drop of water to fall on the ground, 
O king, would it flow on over ten leagues or 
twelve ? ' 

' Certainly not. It would only have effect 2 on 
that very spot of ground on which it fell.' 

' But why so ? ' 

' Because of its minuteness.' 

' Just so, O king, is vice minute. And by reason 
of its littleness it affects the doer only, and cannot 
possibly be shared. But if a mighty rain cloud were 
to pour out rain satisfying the surface of the earth, 
would that water spread round about ? ' 

' Certainly, Sir. That thunderstorm would fill 
up the depressions in the ground and the pools and 
ponds, and the gullies and crevices and chasms, and 
the lakes and reservoirs and wells and lotus-tanks, 
and the water would spread abroad for ten leagues 
or for twelve V 

' Pariy&diyati. See the note above at IV, 8, 23. 
■ A similar metaphor is used below, IV, 8, 55 (p. 311 of the 
Pali). 
1 This long list is made up of the two given above at pp. 35, 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 31. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 55 

' But why so, O king ? ' 

' Because of the greatness of the storm.' 

' Just so, O king, is virtue great. And by reason 
of its abundance it can be shared by gods and 
men.' 

' Venerable Nagasena, why is it that vice is 
so limited, [297] and virtue so much more wide- 
reaching ? ' 

' Whosoever, O king, in this world gives gifts, and 
lives in righteousness, and keeps Uposatha \ he, 
glad, right glad, joyful, cheerful, happy, becomes 
filled with a sweet sense of trust and bliss, and bliss 
ruling in his heart his goodness grows still more and 
more abundantly. Like a deep pool of clear water, 
O king, and into which on one side the spring pours, 
while on the other the water flows away; so as it 
flows away it comes again, and there can be no 
failure there — so, O king, does his goodness grow 
more and more abundantly. If even through a 
hundred years, O king, a man were to keep on 
transferring 2 to others (the merit of) any good he 

259 of the Pali (Paragraphs II, 1, 10 and IV, 6, 55 of the trans- 
lation). 

1 The Buddhist Sabbath. See ' Buddhism,' pp. 140, 141. 

* Avaggeya., which the Sinhalese, p. 437, merely repeats, is 
ambiguous (literally 'cause to bend towards'). Compare <7ataka 
I, 74, 89, 108, 171 ; II, 243. In most places the meaning ' bend 
back or towards ' comes to have the secondary sense of ' re-flect.' 
But throughout this discussion there is an underlying reference 
to a very beautiful Buddhist conception that a man can transfer to 
others the merit of any good deed he has done. Thus at the end 
of a palm-leaf manuscript the copyist often adds the pious wish : 
' May the merit of my having made this copy redound to the ad- 
vantage of all men,' or words to that effect. And the preceding 
metaphor would seem to show that this must be the secondary 
sense here attached to 'causing to bend towards;' — the more he 



Digitized by 



Google 



J56 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 33. 

had done, the more he gave it away the more would 
his goodness grow, and he would still be able to 
share it with whomsoever he would. This, O king, 
is the reason why virtue is so much the greater of 
the two. 

32. ' But on doing evil, O king, a man becomes 
filled with remorse 1 , and the heart of him who feels 
remorse cannot get away (from the thought of the 
evil he has done), it is forcibly bent back on it, 
thrown back on it, obtains no peace 2 ; miserable, 
burning, abandoned of hope, he wastes away, and 
gaining no relief from depression s , he is, as it were, 
possessed with his woe ! Just, O king, as a drop of 
water, falling on a dry river bed with its mighty 
sandbanks rising and falling in undulations along its 
crooked and shifty course, gains not in volume, but 
is swallowed up on the very spot where it fell, 
just so, O king, is a man, when he has done wrong, 
overcome with remorse, and the heart of him who 
feels remorse cannot get away from the thought of 
the evil he has done, it is forcibly bent back on it, 
thrown back on it, obtains no peace ; miserable, 
burning, abandoned of hope, he wastes away, and 
gaining no release from his depression, he is, as it 

spends (as it were) his virtue, the more remains, just as however 
much the water flows away from the spring, still quite as much 
remains, and he can still share with others that which is left. The 
doctrine of imputed righteousness is not confined to Buddhists, but 
the Buddhist theory is really quite different from the corresponding 
Western ideas, even from the Catholic doctrine of the transference 
of the righteousness of saints. 

1 So already above, III, 7, 7 (I, 128). 

3 Patilfyati patiku/ati pativa//ati na sampasiriyati. 
None of these words are in the dictionaries. 

* Na pariva</<Mate; literally ' is not dilated.' 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 33- OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 57 

were, swallowed up of his woe. This is the reason, 
O king, why vice is so mean.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the problem as to virtue and vice.] 



[dilemma the seventy-fifth. 

DREAMS.] 

33. 'Venerable Nagasena, men and women in 
this world see dreams pleasant and evil, things they 
have seen before and things they have not, things 
they have done before and things they have not, 
[208] dreams peaceful and terrible, dreams of 
matters near to them and distant from them, full of 
many shapes and innumerable colours. What is 
this that men call a dream, and who is it who 
dreams it?' 

' It is a suggestion 1 , O king, coming across the 
path of the mind which is what is called a dream. 
And there are six kinds of people who see dreams — 
the man who is of a windy humour 2 , or of a bilious 
one, or of a phlegmatic one, the man who dreams 
dreams by the influence of a god, the man who does 
so by the influence of his own habits, and the man 
who does so in the way of prognostication 8 . And 



1 Nimittam, aramunuwa in the Sinhalese, p. 438. 

* Vatiko, which Childers renders wrongly rheumatic. Wit a 
prakn'ti wu, says the Sinhalese, p. 438. 

* The Sinhalese gives the different kinds of dreams seen by 
each of these six— the first dreams of journeys through space, the 
second of fire and conflagrations, the third of water, the fourth 



Digitized by 



Google 



I58 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 34. 

of these, O king, only the last kind of dreams is 
true ; all the rest are false.' 

34. ' Venerable Nagasena, when a man dreams 
a dream that is a prognostication, how is it ? Does 
his own mind set out itself to seek the omen, or 
does the prognostication come of its own accord into 
the path of his mind, or does some one else come 
and tell him of it ? ' 

1 His own mind does not itself seek the omen, 
neither does any one else come and tell him of it 
The prognostication comes of its own accord into 
his mind. It is like the case of a looking-glass, 
which does not go anywhere to seek for the reflec- 
tion ; neither does any one else come and put the 
reflection on to the looking-glass. But the object 
reflected comes from somewhere or other across 
the sphere over which the reflecting power of the 
looking-glass extends.' 

35. 'Venerable Nagasena, does the same mind 
which sees the dream also know : " Such and such 
a result, auspicious or terrible, will follow ? " ' 

' No, that is not so, O king. After the omen has 
occurred he tells others, and then they explain the 
meaning of it.' 

' Come, now, Nagasena, give me a simile to 
explain this.' 

' It is like the marks, O king, and pimples, and 
cutaneous eruptions which arise on a man's body to 
his profit or loss, to his fame or dishonour, to his 
praise or blame, to his happiness or woe. [299] Do 

of good or bad things according as the god is kindly or malignant, 
the fifth of what he has himself seen or heard, and the last of his 
future gain or loss. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 3<>. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 59 

in that case the pimples come because they know : 
" Such and such is the event which we shall bring 
about?"' 

1 Certainly not, Sir. But according to the place 
on which the pimples have arisen, the fortune-tellers, 
making their observations, give decision, saying : 
" Such and such will be the result." ' 

• Well, in the same way, O king, it is not the same 
mind which dreams the dream which also knows : 
" Such and such a result, conspicuous or terrible, will 
follow." But after the omen has occurred he tells 
others, and they then explain the meaning of it' 

36. 'Venerable Nigasena, when a man dreams 
a dream, is he awake or asleep ?' 

' Neither the one, O king, nor yet the other. But 
when his sleep has become light \ and he is not yet 
fully conscious 2 , in that interval it is that dreams 
are dreamt. When a man is in deep sleep, O king, 
his mind has returned home (has entered again into 
the Bhavanga) 3 , and a mind thus shut in does not 
act, and a mind hindered in its action knows not the 
evil and the good, and he who knows not * has no 
dreams. It is when the mind is active that dreams 
are dreamt. Just, O king, as in the darkness and 
gloom, where no light is, no shadow will fall even on 
the most burnished mirror, so when a man is in 
deep sleep his mind has returned into itself, and 

1 Okkante middhe ; ' like a monkey's sleep,' says Hina/i- 
kumburS. 
1 On bhavanga compare Abhidhammattha Sangaha III, 8. 

* ' Like a bird that has re-entered its nest ' is Hfna/i-kumbur£'s 
gloss. 

4 Appa/ivi^inantassa, 'does not know the distinctions be- 
tween bliss and woe (sukha dukkha vibh&ga),' says the Sin- 
halese, p. 440. 



Digitized by 



Google 



l6o THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 37. 

a mind shut in does not act, and a mind inactive 
knows not the evil and the good, and he who knows 
not does not dream. For it is when the mind is 
active that dreams are dreamt As the mirror, O 
king, are you to regard the body, as the darkness 
sleep, as the light the mind. Or again, O king, just 
as the glory of a sun veiled in fog is imperceptible, 
as its rays, though they do exist, are unable to pierce 
through, and as when its rays act not there is no 
light, so when a man is in deep sleep his mind has 
returned into itself, and a mind shut in does not act, 
and a mind inactive knows not the evil and the good, 
and he who knows not does not dream. For it is 
when the mind is active that dreams are dreamt 
As the sun, O king, are you to regard the body, as 
the veil of fog sleep, [300] as the rays the mind. 

37. ' Under two conditions, O king, is the mind 

(inactive though the body is there — when a man 

1 being in deep sleep the mind has returned into itself, 

and when the man has fallen into a trance *. The 

1 mind of a man who is awake, O king, is excited, 

\open, clear, untrammelled, and no prognostication 

occurs to one whose mind is so. Just, O king, as men 

seeking concealment avoid the man who is open, 

candid, unoccupied, and unreserved, — just so is it 

that the divine intention is not manifested to the 

wakeful man, and the man who is awake therefore 

sees no dream. Or again, O king, just as the qualities 

which lead to wisdom are found not in that brother 

whose mode of livelihood and conduct are wrong, 

who is the friend of sinners, wicked, insolent, devoid 



1 Nirodha, which the Sinhalese repeats. Probably the fourth 
Gtena, is here referred to. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 38. OF MILINDA THE KING. l6l 

of zeal, — just so is it that the divine intention is not 
manifested to the wakeful man, and the man who is 
awake, therefore, sees no dream.' 

38. ' Venerable Nagasena, is there a beginning, a 
middle, and an end in sleep ?' 

' Yes, O king, there is.' 

'Which then is the beginning, which the middle, 
and which the end ? ' 

4 The feeling of oppression and inability 1 in the 
body, O king, of weakness, slackness, inertness — that 
is the beginning of sleep. The light " monkey's sleep" 
in which a man still guards his scattered thoughts 2 — 
that is the middle of sleep. When the mind has 
entered into itself — that is the end of sleep. And 
it is in the middle stage, O king, in the "monkey's 
sleep " that dreams are dreamt. J ust, O king, as when 
a man self-restrained with collected thoughts, sted- 
fast in the faith, unshaken in wisdom, plunges deep 
into the woods far from the sound of strife, and 
thinks over some subtle matter, he there, tranquil 
and at peace, will master the meaning of it — just so 
a man still watchful, not fallen into sleep, but dozing 
in a " monkey's sleep," will dream a dream. [301] As 
the sound of strife, so, O king, are you to regard 
wakefulness, and as the lonely wood the " monkey's 
sleep." And as that man avoiding the sound of 
strife, keeping out of sleep, remaining in the middle 
stage, will master the meaning of that subtle matter, 
so the still watchful man, not fallen into sleep, but 
dozing in a " monkey's sleep," will dream a dream.' 

1 Onaho pariyonaho, 'obstruction, covering.' See the Tevjgga 
Sutta, § 58. 

* Voki»«aka»uaggati. « Destroys sleep by scattered thoughts,' 
says the Sinhalese, p. 441. 

[3«] M 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 62 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 39. 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to dreams 1 .] 



[DILEMMA THE SEVENTY-SIXTH. 
PREMATURE DEATH.] 

39. 'Venerable Nagasena, when beings die, do 
they all die in fullness of time, or do some die out 
of due season ? ' 

' There is such a thing, O king, as death at the 
due time, and such a thing as premature death.' 

' Then who are they whose decease is at the due 
time, and who are they whose decease is premature ?' 

' Have you ever noticed, O king, in the case of 
mango trees or 6ambu trees or other fruit-bearing 
trees, that their fruits fall both when they are ripe 
and when they are not ripe ? ' 

' Yes, I have.' 

' Well, those fallen fruits, do they all fall at the 
due time, or do some fall prematurely ? ' 

' Such of those fruits, Nagasena, as are ripe and 
mature 2 when they fall, fall in fullness of time. But 
of the rest some fall because they are bored into by 
worms, some because they are knocked down by a 

1 It is not known whether the whole of this theory of dreams 
is taken from the Pi/akas, or whether it is an expansion of views 
there suggested. But the germs of the theory are certainly in 
the Pi/akas. Thus the Buddha is made at Magghima. Nikiya I, 
249, 250 to say of himself that in his midday sleep he was neither 
stupefied nor the contrary (neither sammulho nor asammulho), 
which comes very near to the ' monkey's sleep ' referred to through- 
out this dilemma. 

* Vilinani, wilikun wu says Hina/i-kumbure' (p. 442). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 40. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 63 

long stick, some because they are blown down by 
the wind, some because they have become rotten — 
and all these fall out of due season 1 .' 

' Just so, O king, those men who die of the effect 
of old age, they die in fullness of time. But of the 
rest some die of the dire effect of the Karma (of 
evil deeds), some of excessive journeying 2 , some of 
excessive activity.' 

40. 'Venerable Nagasena, those who die of Karma, 
or of journeying, or of activity, or of old age, they 
all die in fullness of time : and even he who dies in 
the womb, that is his appointed time, so that he too 
dies in fullness of time ; and so of him who dies in 
the birth chamber [302], or when he is a month old, 
or at any age up to a hundred years. It is always 
his appointed time, and it is in the fullness of time 
that he dies. So, Nagasena, there is no such thing 
as death out of due season. For all who die, die at 
the appointed time.' 

' There are seven kinds of persons, O king, who, 
there being still a portion of their appointed age to 
run, die out of time. And which are the seven? 
The starving man, O king, who can get no food, 
whose inwards are consumed 3 — and the thirsty man 
who can get no water, whose heart is dried up — and 
the man bitten by a snake, who, when consumed by 
the fierce energy of poison, can find no cure — and 
he who has taken poison, and when all his limbs are 

1 This simile has already been used above, IV, 3, 7 (I, 235). 

2 Gati-patiba/M, gamana bahulyatawen says the Sin- 
halese. 

* Upahat-abbhantaro, 'whose interior is burnt by the fierce- 
ness of the stomach fire' (^aMarSgni-gahawi), says Hlna/i-kum- 
burS, p. 443. 

M 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 64 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, S, 41. 

burning, is unable to procure medicine — and one 
fallen into fire, who when he is aflame, can find no 
means of putting out the fire — and he who having 
fallen into water can find no firm ground to stand 
on — and the man wounded by a dart, who in his 
illness can find no surgeon — all these seven, there 
being still a portion of their appointed time to run, 
die out of due season. And herein (in all these 
seven cases) I declare that they are all of one nature 1 . 
In eight ways, O king, does the death of mortals 
take place — through excess of windy humour, or of 
bilious humour, or of phlegmatic humour, through 
the adverse union of these three, through variations 
in temperature, through inequality in protection, 
through (medical) treatment, and through the work- 
ing of Karma *. And of these, O king, it is only 
death by the working of Karma that is death at the 
due season, all the rest are cases of death out of due 
season. For it is said : 

" By hunger, thirst, by poison, and by bites, 
Burnt, drowned, or slain, men out of time do die ; 
By the three humours, and by three combined, 
By heats, by inequalities, by aids, 
By all these seven men die out of time 3 ." 

41. [303] ' But there are some men, O king, who 
die through the working of some evil deed or other 
they have committed in a former birth. And of 



1 Hfna/i-kumburS had apparently a different reading (perhaps 
ekawzse na vadami). For he translates, p. 444, 'In this death 
I do not say that there is one cause.' 

' As was noticed above on p. 112 (of the Pali), some of these 
medical terms are very uncertain, and the Sinhalese gives no help. 

' Not traced in the Pi/akas. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV,8,4r. OF MILINDA THE KING. 165 

these, O king, whosoever has starved others to 
death, after having been himself through many 
hundreds of thousands of years tormented by hunger, 
famished, exhausted, emaciated, and withered of 
heart, dried up, wasted away, heated, and all on fire 
within, will, either as youth or man or old man, die 
of hunger too. And that death will be to him a 
death at the appointed time *. Whosoever has put 
others to death by thirst, after having through many 
hundreds of thousands of years become a Preta 
consumed by thirst, thin and miserable, will himself 
too, either as youth or man or old man, die of thirst. 
And that death will be to him a death at the 
appointed time. Whosoever has put others to 
death by having them bitten by snakes, will, after 
wandering through many hundreds of thousands of 
years from existence to existence, in which he is 
constantly bitten by boa constrictors and black 
snakes, himself too, either as youth or man or old 
man, die of snake bite. And that will be to him 
a death at the appointed time. Whosoever has 
put others to death by poison will, after existing for 
many hundreds of thousands of years with burning 
limbs and broken body, and exhaling the odour of 
a corpse, himself too, either as youth or man or old 
man, die of poison. And that will be to him a death 
at the appointed time. Whosoever has put others 
to death by fire, he having wandered from purgatory 2 
to purgatory, from one mass of burning charcoal to 



1 SamSyiko, 'timely,' but Childers says 'temporary,' and we 
have had the word above (p. 3 2 of the Pali) in the sense of ' re- 
ligious.' The Sinhalese, p. 445, repeats the word. 

* Yama-visay a, ' abode of the god of death.' 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 66 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 42. 

another, with burning and tortured limbs, for many 
hundreds of thousands of years, will himself too, 
either as youth or man or old man, be burnt to 
death. And that will be to him a death at the 
appointed time. Whosoever has put others to death 
by drowning, he having suffered many hundreds of 
thousands of years as a being disabled, ruined, 
broken, weak in limb, and anxious in heart, will 
himself too, either as youth or man or old man, die 
by drowning. And that will be to him a death at 
the appointed time. Whosoever has put others to 
death by the sword, [304] he having suffered for 
many hundreds of thousands of years (in repeated 
births as an animal) from cuts and wounds and 
blows and bruises, or (when born as a man) ever 
destroyed by weapons 1 , will himself too, either 
as youth or man or old man, perish by the sword. 
And that will be to him a death at the appointed 
time.' 

42. ' Venerable Nagasena, the death out of due 
time that you also speak of — come now, tell me the 
reason for that.' 

• As a great and mighty fire, O king, on to which 
dry grass and sticks and branches and leaves have 
been heaped, will nevertheless, when this its food 
has been consumed, die out by the exhaustion of the 
fuel. Yet such a fire is said to have gone out in 
fullness of time, without any calamity or accident 
(having happened to it). Just so, O king, the man 
who, when he has lived many thousands of days, 
when he is old and stricken in years, dies at last of 

1 Sarnahato. Compare above, pp. 181, 254 of the Pali, and 
Maxima Nikaya I, 337. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8,43* OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 6f 

old age, without any calamity or accident having 
happened to him, is said to have reached death in 
the fullness of time. But if there were a great 
and mighty fire, O king, on to which dry grass 
and sticks and branches and leaves had been 
heaped, then if a mighty rain cloud were to pour 
out rain upon it, and it were thus to be put out, 
even before the fuel was consumed, could it be 
said, O king, that that great fire had gone out in 
fullness of time ? ' 

' No, Sir, it could not' 

' But wherein would the second fire differ, in its 
nature, from the first ? ' 

' The second one, Sir, which suffered from the 
onset of the rain — that fire would have gone out 
before its time.' 

'Just so, O king, whosoever dies before his time 
does so in consequence of suffering from the attack 
of some disease, — from excess of windy humour, or 
of bilious humour, or of phlegmatic humour, or from 
the union of the three, or from variations in tem- 
perature, or from inequality in protection, or from 
treatment, or from hunger, or from thirst, or from 
fire, or from water, or from the sword. This, O 
king, is the reason why there is such a thing as 
dying before one's time. 

43. ' Or again, O king, it is like a mighty storm cloud 
which, rising up into the heavens, should pour out 
rain, filling the valleys and the plains. That cloud 
would be said to have rained without calamity or 
accident. Just so, O king, the man who after having 
lived long, dies at last, when he is old and well 
stricken in years, without any calamity or accident 
having happened to him, of old age, is said to have 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 68 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 44. 

reached death in the fullness of time. [305] But if, 
O king, a mighty storm cloud were to rise up into 
the heavens, and as it did so were to be dissipated 
by a mighty wind, could it be said, O king, that that 
cloud had perished in due time ? ' 

' No, Sir, it could not.' 

' But wherein would the second cloud differ, in its 
nature, from the first ? ' 

' The second one, Sir, which suffered from the 
onset of the whirlwind, would have been dissipated 
before its time.' 

' Just so, O king, whosoever dies before his time 
does so in consequence of suffering from the attack 
of some disease, — from excess of windy humour, or 
of bilious humour, or of phlegmatic humour, or from 
the union of the three, or from variations in tem- 
perature, or from inequality in protection, or from 
treatment, or from hunger, or from thirst, or from 
fire, or from water, or from the sword. This, O 
king, is the reason why there is such a thing as 
dying before one's time. 

44. ' Or again, O king, it is like a powerful and 
deadly snake, which being angered should bite a 
man, and to him that poison, no impediment and 
no accident happening to it, should bring death. That 
poison would be said, without impediment or acci- 
dent, to have reached its aim. Just so, O king, the 
man who, having lived long, dies at last, when he is 
old and well stricken in years, without any calamity 
or accident having happened to him, of old age, he 
is said to have reached, unimpeded and uninter- 
rupted, to the goal of his life, to have died in the 
fullness of time. But if a snake charmer were to 
give a drug to the man while he was suffering from 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 45» OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 69 

the bite, and thus get rid of the poison, could it be 
said that the poison was removed in the fullness 
of time?' 

' No, Sir, it could not.' 

' But wherein, O king, would the second poison 
differ, in its nature, from the first ? ' 

' The second one, Sir, which was acted upon by 
the introduction of the drug, would have been 
removed before its end was attained.' 

' Just so, O king, whosoever dies before his time 
does so in consequence of suffering from the attack 
of some disease, — from excess of windy humour, or 
of bilious humour, or of phlegmatic humour, or from 
the union of the three, or from variations in tem- 
perature, or from inequality in protection, or from 
treatment, or from hunger, or from thirst, or from 
fire, or from water, or from the sword. This, O 
king, is the reason why there is such a thing as 
dying before one's time. 

45. ' Or again, O king, it is like the arrow dis- 
charged by an archer. [306] If that arrow should 
go to the very end of the line of the path along 
which it was natural for it to go, then it would 
be said to have reached that aim, without let or 
hindrance. Just so, O king, the man who, having 
lived long, dies at last, when he is old and well 
stricken in years, without any calamity or accident 
having happened to him, of old age, is said to have 
reached death, unimpeded and uninterrupted, in 
the fullness of time. But if, at the moment when 
the archer was discharging the arrow, some one 
should catch hold of it, could that arrow be said to 
have reached the end of the line of the path along 
which it was shot ? ' 



Digitized by 



Google 



17O THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 46. 

' No, Sir, it could not' 

' But wherein, O king, would the second arrow 
differ, in its nature, from the first ? ' 

' By the seizure which intervened, Sir, the course 
of the second arrow was arrested.' 

' Just so, O king, whosoever dies before his time 
does so in consequence of suffering from the attack 
of some disease, — from excess of windy humour, or 
of bilious humour, or of phlegmatic humour, or from 
the union of the three, or from variations in tem- 
perature, or from inequality in protection, or from 
treatment, or from hunger, or from thirst, or from 
fire, or from water, or from the sword. This, O 
king, is the reason why there is such a thing as 
dying before one's time. 

46. ' Or again, O king, it is like the brazen vessel 
which a man should strike. And by his striking 
thereof a note should be produced, and sound to the 
very end of the line of the path along which it was 
its nature to sound. It would then be said to have 
reached that aim without let or hindrance. Just so, 
O king, the man who, having lived long, dies at last, 
when he is old and well stricken in years, without 
any calamity or accident having happened to him, 
of old age, is said to have reached death, without let 
or hindrance, in the fullness of time. But if a man 
were to strike a brazen vessel, and by his striking 
thereof a note should be produced, but some one, 
before it had reached any distance, were to touch 
the vessel, and at his touching thereof the sound 
should cease, could then that sound be said to have 
reached the end of the line of the path along which 
it was its nature to sound ?' 

' No, Sir, it could not.' 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 47' OF MILINDA THE KING. 17I 

' But wherein, O king, would the second sound 
differ, in its nature, from the first ? ' 

'By the touching which intervened, Sir, that 
sound was suppressed 1 .' 

[307] ' Just so, O king, whosoever dies before his 
time does so in consequence of suffering from the 
attack of some disease, — from excess of windy humour, 
or of bilious humour, or of phlegmatic humour, or 
from the union of the three, or from variations in 
temperature, or from inequality in protection, or 
from treatment, or from hunger, or from thirst, or 
from fire, or from water, or from the sword. This, 
O king, is the reason why there is such a thing 
as dying before one's time. 

47. 'Or again, O king, it is like the corn seed 
which had sprung up well in the field, and by means 
of a plentiful downpour of rain had become well 
laden far and wide 2 with many seeds, and had sur- 
vived in safety to the time of standing crops, that 
corn would be said to have reached, without let or 
hindrance, to its due season. Just so, O king, the 
man who, having lived long, dies at last, when he is 
old and well stricken in years, without any calamity 
or accident having happened to him, of old age, is 
said to have reached death, without let or hindrance, 
in the fullness of time. But if that corn, after it 
had sprung up well in the field, should, deprived of 
water, die, could it be said to have reached its due 
season ? ' 



1 Uparato, for which Hina/i-kumbur&, p. 449, has upahata 
wtyceyi. 

* Otaka-vitaka-4ki»»a. Ghawayawft pata/awft akir«»a- 
wft says the Sinhalese. 



Digitized by 



Google 



172 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 48. 

' No, Sir, it could not' 

' But wherein, O king, would the second crop 
differ, in its nature, from the first ? ' 

' Oppressed by the heat which intervened, that 
crop, Sir, perished.' 

'Just so, O king, whosoever dies before his time 
does so in consequence of suffering from the attack 
of some disease, — from excess of windy humour, or 
of bilious humour, or of phlegmatic humour, or from 
the union of the three, or from variations in tem- 
perature, or from inequality in protection, or from 
treatment, or from hunger, or from thirst, or from 
fire, or from water, or from the sword. This, O 
king, is the reason why there is such a thing as 
dying before one's time. 

48. ' And have you ever heard, O king, of a 
young crop that, after it had come to ear, worms 
sprung up and destroyed down to the roots ? ' 

' We have both heard of such a thing, Sir, and 
have seen it, too.' 

' Well, O king, was that crop destroyed in season, 
or out of season ? ' 

' Out of season, Sir. For surely if worms had 
not destroyed the crop it would have survived to 
harvest time.' 

' What then, O king ! on a disaster intervening 
the crop is lost, but if no injury is done it, it survives 
to the harvest ? ' 

' That is so, Sir.' 

[308] ' Just so, O king, whosoever dies before his 
time does so in consequence of suffering from the 
attack of some disease, — from excess of windy humoui , 
or of bilious humour, or of phlegmatic humour, or 
from the union of the three, or from variations in 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 49- 0F MILINDA THE KING. 1 73 

temperature, or from inequality in protection, or 
from treatment, or from hunger, or from thirst, or 
from fire, or from water, or from the sword. This, 
O king, is the reason why there is such a thing 
as dying before one's time. 

49. ' And have you ever heard, O king, of a crop 
that had grown, and was bent down by the weight 
of the grains of corn, the ears having duly formed \ 
when a so-called Karaka rain (hail-storm) 2 falling 
on it, destroyed it ? ' 

' We have both heard of such a thing, Sir, and 
have seen it, too.' 

' Well, O king ! would you say the crop was 
destroyed in season or out of season ? ' 

' Out of season, Sir. For if the hail-storm had 
not come the crop would have lasted to harvest time.' 

' What then, O king ! on a disaster intervening 
the crop is lost, but if no injury is done it, it 
survives to the harvest ? ' 

' That is so, Sir.' 

' Just so, O king, whosoever dies before his time 
does so in consequence of suffering from the attack 
of some disease, — from excess of windy humour, or 
of bilious humour, or of phlegmatic humour, or from 
the union of the three, or from variations in tem- 
perature, or from inequality in protection, or from 
treatment, or from hunger, or from thirst, or from 
fire, or from water, or from the sword. This, O 



1 MaS^arita-patte, which the Sinhalese renders karal patra 
cettawu. 

* Karaka-vassaw is pSfina-warsha in the Sinhalese. If 
karaka originally meant 'hard shell,' it could have reached its 
ordinary meaning of ' water-pot,' from the fact that an empty half 
of a cocoa-nut shell is the most common form of cup. 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 74 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 50. 

king, is the reason why there is such a thing as 
dying before one's time.' 

50. ' Most wonderful, Nigasena, most strange ! 
Right well have you explained, by reason and by 
simile, how it is that people die before their time. 
That there is such a thing as premature death have 
you made clear and plain and evident 1 . A thoughtless 
man even, Nigasena, a puzzle-headed fellow, could 
by any one of your comparisons have come to the 
conclusion that premature deaths do occur ; — [309] 
how much more an able man ! I was convinced 
already, Sir, by the first of your similes, that such 
deaths happen, but nevertheless, out of the wish to 
hear still further and further solutions, I would not 
give in.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to premature 
deaths.] 



[dilemma the seventh-seventh, 
wonders at the grave.] 

51. 'Venerable Nagasena, are there wonders at 
the ATetiyas (the mounds raised over the ashes) 
of all who have passed entirely away (of all the 
Arahats deceased) 2 ? ' 

' Of some, O king, but not of others.' 
' But of which, Sir, is this the case, and of which 
not?' 



1 Vibhutaw kataw is rendered prasiddha karana laddeya 
in the Sinhalese, p. 451. 

* Parinibbutanam. The words in brackets are Hina/i-kum- 
burg's gloss. ' Of all who have been entirely set free ' is an alter- 
native, and perhaps a better, rendering. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 5»- OF MILINDA THE KING. I 75 

' It is by the stedfast resolve, O king, of three 
kinds of people, that wonders take place at the 
Aetiya of some person deceased who has been 
entirely set free. And who are the three ? In the 
first place, O king, an Arahat, when still alive, may, 
out of pity for gods and men, make the resolve : 
" Let there be such and such wonders at my 
Aetiya 1 ." Then, by reason of his resolve, wonders 
happen there. Thus is it that wonders occur by 
the resolve of an Arahat at the Aetiya of one 
entirely set free. 

' And again, O king, the gods, out of pity for 
men, show wonders at the Aetiya of one who has 
been entirely set free, thinking : " By this wonder 
may the true faith remain always established on 
the earth, and may mankind, believing, grow in 
grace!" Thus is it that wonders occur by the 
resolve of a god at the Aetiya of one entirely 
set free. 

'And again, O king, some woman or some man 
of believing heart, able, intelligent, wise, endowed 
with insight, may deliberately take perfumes, or 
a garland, or a cloth, and place it on the Aetiya, 
making the resolve : " May such and such a wonder 
take place ! " Thus is it that wonders occur by 
the resolve of human beings at the Aetiya of 
one entirely set free. 

52. ' These, O king, are the three kinds of people 
by whose stedfast resolve wonders take place at 
the Aetiyas of Arahats deceased. And if there has 
been no such resolve, O king, by one of these, then 



1 Mr. Trenckner prints evam-nama as qualifying JSTetiya. The 
Sinhalese, p. 451, takes it as I have rendered. 



Digitized by 



Google 



176 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 53. 

is there no wonder at the A'etiya even of one whose 
asavas had been destroyed, who had attained to the 
sixfold insight, who was master of himself. And if 
there be no such wonder, then, O king, [310] one 
should call to mind the purity of conduct one has 
seen 1 , and draw in trusting faith the conclusion : 
" Verily, this child of the Buddhas has been entirely 
set free!"' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to wonders 
at the grave.] 



[dilemma the seventy-eighth, 
conversion and conduct.] 

53. ' Venerable Nagasena, those who regulate 
their lives aright — do they all attain to insight 
into the Truth, or are there some of them who 
do not?' 

'Some do, O king, and some do not.' 
' Then which do, Sir, and which do not ? ' 
' He who is born as an animal, O king, even 
though he regulate his life aright, will not attain 
to insight into the Truth, nor he who is born in 

1 These words are very ambiguous, and unfortunately the Sin- 
halese (p. 452), though much expanded, is equally so. The kind 
of wonder referred to throughout the dilemma is also doubtful. 
The only one of the kind mentioned, so far as I know, in the 
Pi/akas is that referred to in the ' Book of the Great Decease,' V, 
26, where the placing of garlands on a JPetiya produces calm in 
the heart. But it is difficult to believe that our author had merely 
a spiritual experience of this kind in his thoughts. The whole dis- 
cussion points rather to the late date at which he wrote. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 54. OF MILINDA THE KING. I 77 

the Preta world, nor he who holds wrong views, 
nor the deceitful man (> nor he who has slain his 
mother, or his father, or an Arahat, nor he who has 
raised up a schism in the Order, nor he who has shed 
a Buddha's blood, nor he who has furtively attached 
himself to the Order 1 , nor he who has become a 
pervert 2 , nor he who has violated a sister of the 
Order, nor he who, having been guilty of one or other 
of the thirteen grievous offences 8 , has not been 
rehabilitated, nor a eunuch, nor an hermaphrodite — 
and whosoever is a human child under seven years 
of age, even though he regulate his life aright, will 
not attain to insight into the Truth. To these 
sixteen individuals there is no attainment of in- 
sight, O king, even though they regulate their life 
aright.' 

54. ' Venerable Nagasena, there may or may not 
be a possibility of insight to the fifteen you have 
first singled out for opposition 4 . But what is the 
reason why an infant, one under seven years of age, 
should not, even though he regulate his life aright, 
attain to insight ? Therein there is still a puzzle 
left. For is it not admitted that in a child there 
is not passion, neither malice, nor dullness, nor 
pride, nor heresy, nor discontent, nor lustful 
thoughts ? Being undefiled by sin, that which we 
call an infant is fit and ready (to the attainment 

1 Theyya-sawvasaka. See Mahavagga I, 69, 4. 

* Titthiya-pakkantaka, 'gone over to the Titthiyas.' 

* Garukapatti, which Hina/i-kumburS takes to be equivalent 
to the Saraghadisesa offences. This is doubtless correct, and the 
use of the phrase in that sense is a sign of our author's later date. 

4 Viruddha, 'placed in a class' (wcedcerum wu), says the 
Sinhalese, p. 453. It is literally 'opposed,' and the idiom is 
curious. 

[36] N 



Digitized by 



Google 



178 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 54. 

even of Arahatship — how much more) 1 .is he 
worthy to penetrate at a glance into the four 
truths!' 

' The following is the reason, O king, for my 
saying [311] that an infant, even though he regulate 
his life aright, cannot attain to insight. If, O king, 
one under seven years of age could feel passion 
about things exciting to passion, could go wrong in 
things leading to iniquity, could be befooled in 
matters that mislead, could be maddened as to 
things that infatuate, could understand a heresy, could 
distinguish between content and discontent, could 
think out virtue and vice, then might insight be 
possible to him. But the mind of one under seven 
years of age, O king, is powerless and weak, 
mean, small, slight, obscure, and dull, whereas the 
essential principle of Nirva#a is transcendental, im- 
portant, weighty, wide - reaching, and extensive. 
Therefore is it, O king, that the infant, with so im- 
perfect a mind, is unable to grasp an idea so great. 
It is like the case of Sineru, O king, the king of the 
mountains, heavy and ponderous, wide-reaching and 
mighty as it is, — could now a man, by his ordinary 
strength and power and energy, root that mountain 
up*?* 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' But why not ? ' 

' Because of the weakness of the man, and 
because of the mightiness of Sineru, the mountain 
king.' 



1 The words in brackets are added from the Sinhalese. 
* Similar metaphors have already been used in the 71st Dilemma 
(p. 283 of the Pali) and in the 74th Dilemma (p. 295 of the Pali). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 56. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 79 

'Just so, O king, is the relation of the infant's 
mind to Nirvana 1 . 

55. ' And again, it is like the broad earth, O king, 
long and wide, great in expanse and extension, large 
and mighty — would now a tiny drop of water be 
able to wet and turn to mud that broad earth 2 ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' But why not, O king ? ' 

' Because of the minuteness of the drop of 
water, and because of the greatness of the broad 
earth.' 

'Just so, O king, is the relation of the infant's 
mind to Nirvana. 

[312] 56. ' Or again, O king, suppose there were 
weak and powerless, minute, tiny, limited, and dull 
fire — would it be possible, with so insignificant a 
fire, to overcome darkness and make light appear 
over the whole world of gods and men ?' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

'But why not, O king?' 

' Because of the dullness of the fire, and because 
of the greatness of the world.' 

' Just so, O king, the mind of one under seven 
years of age is powerless and weak, limited, insig- 
nificant, obscure, and dull ; it is veiled, moreover, 
with the thick darkness of ignorance. Hard would 
it be, therefore, for it to shine forth with the light of 
knowledge. And that is the reason, O king, why to 
an infant, to one under seven years of age, even 
though he order his conduct aright, there can be no 
attainment of insight into the Truth. 

1 In the text the whole comparison is repeated. 
* For a similar metaphor see above, IV, 8, 31 (p. 206 of the 
Pali). 

N 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



l8o THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 57. 

57. 'Or again, O king, suppose there were a 
Silaka 1 , minute in the measure of its body, and 
rendered lean by disease, and it on seeing an elephant 
king, which showed the signs of rut in three places, 
and was nine cubits in length, and three in breadth, 
and ten in girth, and seven in height 2 , coming to its 
lair, were to begin to drag the elephant towards it 
with the view of swallowing it — now would the 
Silaka, O king, be able to do so 3 ? ' 

' Certainly not, Sir.' 

' But why not, O king ? ' 

' Because of the minuteness of the Salaka's 
body, and because of the magnitude of the elephant 
king.' 

' Just so, O king, the mind of one under seven 
years of age is powerless and weak, limited, insig- 
nificant, obscure, and dull. Grand and tran- 
scendental is the ambrosial essence of Nirva»a 4 . 
With that mind so powerless and weak, so limited, 
insignificant, obscure, and dull, he cannot penetrate 
into the grand and transcendental essence of Nir- 

1 It is unknown what this kimi (insect, vermin, small creature) 
is, and it is not mentioned elsewhere. Surruta mentions a fari- 
kamukha insect, and as in one rare word at least, which the Pali 
translator did not sufficiently understand to restore to the ordinary 
Pali form (kalasi for karisi, see above, I, xxiii), we find la stood 
in our author's dialect for ri, there may be some connection be- 
tween the two. It would be particularly interesting to be able to 
determine the species and habitat of this creature, as it might throw 
some light on the district in which our author flourished. 

* These measurements differ slightly from those given above, 
IV, 8, 14 (p. 282 of the Pali), for a fine elephant. 

. * Compare the tale of the frog who wanted to swallow the bull 
in JSsop's fables (not yet traced in the (Tatakas). Is the Silaka 
a kind of frog, much smaller than ours ? 

* So Hinari-kumburS, p. 455. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 58. OF MILINDA THE KING. l8l 

va#a. And that is the reason, O king, why to an 
infant, one under seven years of age, even though 
he order his conduct aright, there can be no attain- 
ment to insight of the Truth.' 

'Very good, Nagasena! That is so, and I 
accept it as you say.' 



[Here ends the dilemma on conversion and 
conduct.] 



[dilemma the seventy-ninth. 

the pain of nirvana 1 .] 

[313] 58. 'Venerable Nagasena, how is it? Is 
Nirv&wa all bliss, or is it partly pain 2 ? ' 

1 The following pages will seem only so much verbiage, and 
will convey no idea to a European reader, unless he realises that 
the Nirvana discussed is of course not a salvation to be enjoyed 
by a 'soul' after death, and in some other world; but a state of 
mind to be realised and enjoyed by a man here, on this 
earth, in this life, and in this life only. 

Though I had pointed this out already in 1876 the animistic 
interpretation of Nirva«a is still the prevalent one, and still con- 
tinues to lead to endless confusion. Why is it then, the reader 
may ask, that our author does not contradict the Christian inter- 
pretation of the Buddhist summum bonum in so many words? 
Simply because it never occurred to him as possible. It was 
probably even as inconceivable to him as the Buddhist interpre- 
tation of it seems to be to most Western writers. 

* This dilemma and the next have been translated into French 
in the 'Revue de l'histoire des Religions' for 1885 (vol.xi, pp. 336 
and following). The author's name being given as Mr. Lewis da 
Sylva, of Colombo, the article as it stands is presumably a trans- 
lation into French, made in Paris, of Mr. da Sylva's version in 
English from the Sinhalese, which may account for the fact that 
there is scarcely a sentence which is not misleading. 



Digitized by 



Google 



l82 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 58. 

' Nirva«a is all bliss, O king. There is no inter- 
mingling of pain in it' 

' That, Sir, is a saying we cannot believe — 
that Nirva»a is all bliss. On this point, Nagasena, 
we maintain that Nirvana must be alloyed with pain. 
And there is a reason for our adopting that view. 
What is that reason ? Those, Nagasena, who seek 
after Nirva«a are seen to practise exertion and 
application both of body and of mind, restraint in 
standing, walking, sitting, lying, and eating, sup- 
pression of sleep, subjugation of the organs of sense, 
renunciation of wealth and corn, of dear relatives 
and friends. But all those who are joyful and 
happy in the world take delight in, are devoted to, 
the five pleasures of sense — they practise and 
delight their eyes in many kinds of pleasurable 
forms, such as at any time they like the best — they 
practise and delight their ears in many kinds of 
pleasurable sounds of revelry and song, such as at 
any time they like the best — they practise and 
delight their sense of smell with many kinds of 
perfumes of flowers, and fruits, and leaves, and bark, 
and roots, and sap, such as at any time they like the 
best — they practise and delight their tongue with 
many kinds of pleasurable tastes of hard foods and 
of soft, of syrups, drinks, and beverages, such as at 
any time they like the best — they practise and 
delight their sense of touch with many kinds of 
pleasurable feelings, tender and delicate, exquisite 
and soft, such as at any time they like the best — 
they practise and delight their minds with many sorts 
of conceptions and ideas, pure and impure, good 
and bad, such as at any time they like the best. 
You, on the other hand, put a stop to and destroy, 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 59- OF MILINDA THE KING. 183 

maim and mangle, put a drag on and restrain the 
development of your eye, and ear, and nose, and 
tongue, and body, and mind. Therefore is your 
body afflicted and your mind afflicted too, and your 
body being afflicted you feel bodily discomfort and 
pain, and your minds being afflicted you feel mental 
discomfort too and pain. Did not even Magandiya, 
the ascetic, find fault with the Blessed One, and 
say 1 : [314] " The Sama#a Gotama is a destroyer 
of increase 2 ?'" 

59. ' Nirva#a, O king, has no pain in it It is 
bliss unalloyed. When you, O king, maintain that 
Nirva#a is painful, that which you call " painful " is 
not Nirvawa. It is the preliminary stage to the 
realisation of Nirva»a, it is the process of seeking 
after Nirv4»a. Nirva»a itself is bliss pure and 
simple, there is no pain mixed with it. And I will 
give you an explanation of this. Is there such a 
thing, O king, as the bliss of sovranty which kings 
enjoy ? ' 

' Most certainly.' 

' And is there no pain, O king, mingled with that 
bliss?' 

' No, Sir.' 

'But surely then, O king, why is it that when 
their frontier provinces have broken out in revolt, the 
kings, to the end that they may bring the inhabitants 
of those provinces into subjection again, leave their 
homes, attended by their ministers and chiefs, their 

1 In the Magandiya Sutta, No. 75 in the Ma^yAima Nikaya, 
where the speech will be found at I, 502. 

1 Bhutahai/te. See Mr. Trenckner's valuable note. Hfna/i- 
kumbure, p. 456, quotes the Pali, reading Bhutahu, and rendering 
it 'anabhiwr*'ddhi-kara«ayek. 



Digitized by 



Google 



184 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 60. 

soldiers and their guards, and marching over ground 
even and uneven, tormented the while by gnats and 
mosquitoes and hot winds, engage in fierce fights, 
and suffer the presentiment of death ? ' 

' That, venerable Nagasena, is not what is called 
the bliss of sovranty. It is only the preliminary 
stage in the pursuit of that bliss. It is after 
they have thus, in pain, sought after sovranty, 
that they enjoy the bliss thereof. And thus that 
bliss, Nagasena, is itself unmixed with pain, for 
the bliss of sovranty is one thing, and the pain 
another.' 

'Just so, O king, is Nirva«a all bliss, and there is 
no pain mingled with it. Those who are in quest 
of Nirvawa afflict their minds and bodies it is true, 
restrain themselves in standing, walking, sitting, 
lying, and in food, suppress their sleep, keep their 
senses in subjection, abandon their very body and 
their life. But it is after they have thus, in pain, 
sought after Nirva»a, that they enjoy the Nirva»a 
which is bliss unalloyed — as kings do the bliss of 
sovranty after their foes have been put down. 
Thus is it, O king, that Nirvawa is all bliss, and 
there is no pain mingled with it. For Nirva«a is 
one thing, and the pain another. 

[315] 60. 'And hear another explanation, O king, 
of the same thing. Is there such a thing, O king, 
as the bliss of knowledge which those teachers have 
who have passed through their course ?' 

' Yes, Sir, there is.' 

'Well, is that bliss of knowledge alloyed with 
pain ? ' 

'No.' 

' What then, O king, is the good of their afflicting 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8,6o. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 85 

themselves by bowing down before and standing up 
in the presence of their teachers ; by drawing water, 
and sweeping out the cell, and placing tooth-sticks 
and washing-water ready; by living upon scraps left 
over ; by doing service in shampooing, and bathing, 
and washing of the feet ; by suppressing their own 
will, and acting according to the will of others ; by 
sleeping in discomfort, and feeding on distasteful 
food?' 

' That, Nagasena, is not the bliss of knowledge, it 
is a preliminary stage in the pursuit thereof. It is 
after the teachers have, in pain, sought after know- 
ledge, that they enjoy its bliss. Thus is it, Nagasena, 
that the bliss of knowledge is unalloyed with pain. 
For that bliss of knowledge is one thing, and the 
pain another.' 

4 Just so, O king, is Nirva«a all bliss, and there is 
no pain mingled with it. Those who are in quest of 
Nirva#a afflict their minds and bodies it is true, 
restrain themselves in standing, walking, sitting 
lying, and in food, suppress their sleep, keep their 
senses in subjection, abandon their very body and 
their life. But it is after they have thus, in pain, 
sought after Nirvawa, that they enjoy the Nir- 
vana which is bliss unalloyed — as teachers do the 
bliss of knowledge. Thus is it, O king, that 
Nirva«a is all bliss, and there is no pain mingled 
with it. For Nirvana is one thing, and the pain 
another.' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the dilemma as to the pain of 
Nirva«a.] 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 86 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV,8,6l. 

[dilemma THE EIGHTIETH. 
THE OUTWARD FORM OF NIRVAiVA.] 

61. 'Venerable Nagasena, this Nirva«a that you 
are always talking of — can you make clear by meta- 
phor, or explanation, or reason, or argument, the 
form, or figure, or duration 1 , or measure of it ? ' 

[316] ' Nirva«a, O king, has nothing similar to 
it. By no metaphor, or explanation, or reason, or 
argument can its form, or figure, or duration, or 
measure be made clear.' 

'That I cannot believe, Nagasena, — that of 
Nirva«a, which really after all is a condition that 
exists *, it should be so impossible in any way to 
make us understand either the form, or figure, or 
duration, or measure! Give me some explanation 
of this.' 

62. 'Very well, O king, I will do so. Is there 
such a thing, O king, as the great ocean ? ' 

' Yes, the ocean exists.' 

' Well, suppose some one were to ask you, saying : 
" How much water is there, your majesty, in the sea, 
and how many are the creatures that dwell therein ?" 
When that question had been put, how would you 
answer him ? ' 

' I should reply thus to such a question : " My 
good fellow ! this is an unaskable thing that you 
ask me. No one ought to ask such a question. It 

1 So the Pfili (vayam). But the Sinhalese has wisaya, 'dwell- 
ing-place/ throughout §§56 and 57. 

9 Atthi-dhammassa nibbdnassa. The Sinhalese, p. 459, 
translates 'the form, &c, of the quality (dharma) of Nirvana' — 
as if the Pali were nibbina-dhammassa. But see next page, 
note 2. 



Digitized by 



Google 




JV,8, 64. OF MILINDA THE !ONe^-_____-^" 1 87 



is a point that should be left alone. The physicists x 
have never examined into the ocean in that way. 
And no one can measure the water there, or count 
the creatures who dwell therein." Thus, Sir, should 
I make reply.' 

63. ' But why, O king, would you make such a 
reply about the ocean which, after all, is really an 
existing condition of things 2 . Ought you not rather 
to count and tell him, saying : " So and so much is 
the water in the sea, and so and so many are the 
creatures that dwell therein?" ' 

' That would be impossible, Sir. The question is 
beyond one's power.' 

' As impossible as it is, O king, to tell the measure 
of the water in the sea, or the number of the crea- 
tures dwelling therein, though after all the sea exists, 
so impossible is it in any of the ways you suggest 
to tell the form, or figure, or duration, or measure of 
Nirva#a, though after all it is a condition that does 
exist. [817] And even, O king, if one of magical 
powers, master over mind, were to be able to count 
the water and the creatures in the sea, even he could 
not tell the form or the figure, the duration or the 
measure of Nirvawa. 

64. ' And hear another explanation of the same 
thing, O king. Are there, O king, among the gods 
certain of them called " The Formless Ones 8 ? " ' 

1 Lokakkhfiyika, 'those who have in former days enquired 
into and described the world,' says the Sinhalese. 

* Atthidhammassa again, which Hina/i-kumbure 1 now renders 
oeti swabhawawd. ' Pourquoi rdponds-tu ainsi au sujet de l'&at 
naturel du grand oce'an,' says the French. (Compare above, p. 270 
of the Pali.) 

8 Arupakayika. It is very odd that Htna/i-kumburS takes the 
word here, and in the answer, as a feminine singular, and still 



Digitized by 



Google 



1 88 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 65. 

' Yes, Sir. I have heard there are such.' 

' Well, O king, can you make clear by metaphor, 
or explanation, or reason, or argument the form, or 
figure, or duration 1 , or size of these gods, the "Form- 
less Ones ? " ' 

' No, I cannot.' 

' Then, O king, there are none.' 

' The Formless Ones, Sir, do exist ; and yet it is 
impossible in any of the ways you suggest to explain 
either their form or figure, either their duration or 
their size.' 

' As impossible as it is, O king, to tell the form 
or figure, the duration or the size of the gods called 
" Formless Ones," though they after all are beings 
that exist 2 , so impossible is it in any of the ways 
you suggest to explain the form or the figure, the 
duration or the measure of Nirvana, though after all 
it is a condition that does exist.' 

65. 'Venerable Nagasena, I will grant you that 
Nirva«a is bliss unalloyed, and yet that is impos- 
sible to make clear, either by simile or explanation, 
by reason or by argument, either its form or its 
figure, either its duration or its size. But is there 
no quality of Nirva#a which is inherent also in other 

more so that the French translation takes it throughout as a mas- 
culine singular. But the Sinhalese throughout the sequel treats 
it properly as a plural nominative; and there can be little doubt 
that the inhabitants, or some of the inhabitants, of the ' Formless 
Realm,' the Arup&va^ara or Arupa-brahma-loka, are referred 
to. But this name is different from those given to any of these 
gods in Childers, and I cannot trace it in the Pi/akas as applied 
to any of them. 

1 I follow the Pali, which still has vayaw. The Sinhalese has 
here and below wi nif ay a. 

* Atthisattanaw yeva, which the Sinhalese, p. 460, repre- 
sents merely by cettawu. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 66. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 89 

things \ and is such that it can be made evident by 
metaphor 2 ?' 

' Though there is nothing as to its form which 
can be so explained, there is something, O king, as 
to its qualities which can.' 

[318] ' O happy word, Nagasena ! Speak then, 
quickly, that I may have an explanation of even one 
point in the characteristics of Nirva«a. Appease 
the fever of my heart. Allay it by the cool sweet 
breezes of your words ! ' 

' There is one quality of the lotus, O king, inherent 
in Nirvawa, and two qualities of water, and three of 
medicine, and four of the ocean, and five of food, 
and ten of space, and three of the wish-conferring 
gem, and three of red sandal wood, and three of the 
froth of ghee, and five of a mountain peak.' 

66. ' Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
lotus which you said was inherent in Nirva#a, — 
which is that ?' 

'As the lotus, O king, is untarnished by the 
water s , so is Nirva»a untarnished by any evil dispo- 
sitions. This is the one quality of the lotus inherent 
in Nirva»a.' 

1 Aflflehi anupavi/Mam ; 'not previously explained by others,' 
says Hina/i-kumbure\ Neither rendering is altogether satisfactory. 
Perhaps ' of which you have been convinced by others,' in agree- 
ment with the use of the word above, p. 270 of the Pali. 

1 In the French of Mr. da Sylva this sentence runs (p. 342): 
' Mais ve'ne'rable, n'y a-t-il pas une vertu du Nirvina dont on puisse 
percevoir quelque ressemblance.' 

* That is, no drop of water adheres to the lotus, though it is 
surrounded by water and water may fall on it. For instances of 
the frequent similes drawn from this fact see below, V, 14; and 
Dhammapada 401 ; Sutta Nipata II, 14, 17 ; III, 9, 32 ; IV, 6, 9. 
The French translation is : ' de meme que le lotus £leve fierement 
sa t&e au-dessus de 1'eau ' (!). 



Digitized by 



Google 



190 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 67. 

67. ' Venerable Nagasena, those two qualities of 
water which you said were inherent in Nirvana, — 
which are they ?' 

' As water, O king, is cool and assuages heat, so 
also is Nirva«a cool, and assuages the fever arising 
from all evil dispositions. This is the first quality of 
water inherent in Nirva»a. And again, O king, as 
water allays the thirst of men and beasts when they 
are exhausted and anxious, craving for drink, and 
tormented by thirst, so does Nirva»a allay the thirst 
of the craving after lusts, the craving after future 
life, and the craving after worldly prosperity K This 
is the second quality of water inherent in Nirvawa.' 

68. ' Venerable Nagasena, those three qualities of 
medicine, which you said were inherent in Nirva«a, 
— which are they ? ' 

[319] 'As medicine, O king, is the refuge of 
beings tormented by poison, so is Nirva#a the 
refuge of beings tormented with the poison of evil 
dispositions. This is the first quality of medicine 
inherent in Nirvawa. And again, O king, as medi- 
cine puts an end to diseases, so does Nirvawa put 
an end to griefs. This is the second quality of 
medicine inherent in Nirva»a. And again, O 
king, as medicine is ambrosia 2 , so also is Nirva»a 
ambrosia. This is the third quality of medicine 
inherent in Nirvawa.' 

1 On these fundamental conceptions see my notes in ' Buddhist 
Suttas,' pp. 148, 149, where it is shown that the three 'cravings' 
which end in Nirvana are pretty much the same as the lust of 
the flesh, theism, and materialism. 

* Am at a, the translation of which word by 'immortality' has 
given rise to so much confusion. So the French here says 'la 
me*decine a le pouvoir de combattre la mort,' which is nearly as 
bad. See the Appendix. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV,8,69. OF MILINDA THE KING. 191 

69. ' Venerable Nagasena, those four qualities of 
the ocean which you said were inherent in Nirv&«a, 
— which are they ? ' 

'As the ocean, O king, is free from (empty of) 
corpses 1 , so also is Nirvawa free from (empty of) 
the dead bodies of all evil dispositions 8 . This, 
O king, is the first quality of the ocean inherent in 
Nirva#a. And again, O king, as the ocean is 
mighty and boundless, and fills not with all the 
rivers that flow in to it ; so is Nirvaaa mighty and 
boundless, and fills not with all beings (who enter 
in to it). This is the second quality of the ocean 
inherent in Nirva»a. And again, O king, as the 
ocean is the abode of mighty creatures, so is Nir- 
va#a the abode of great men — Arahats, in whom 
the Great Evils and all stains have been destroyed, 
endowed with power, masters of themselves. This 
is the third quality of the ocean inherent in Nirva«a. 
And again, O king, as the ocean is all in blossom *, 
as it were, with the innumerable and various and 
fine flowers of the ripple of its waves, so is Nirva»a 
all in blossom, as it were, with the innumerable and 

1 See on this belief above, IV, 3, 39 (I, 259). 

* The word used here for free, empty (sufltfa), has again given 
rise to the most odd misconceptions. As Nirvana is hence 
called Sunyatd, 'emptiness,' Christian writers (taking Nirviwa as 
a name for some kind of future life) have very naturally thought, 
in trying to fasten some meaning upon emptiness in a future life, 
that it must mean 'annihilation of a soul,' and have labelled 
Buddhism as Nihilism 1 The real meaning is really very simple, 
and entirely ethical (not metaphysical or animistic) : 
'Men may rise on stepping stones 
Of their dead selves to higher things.' 
See below, IV, 8, 78, for a metaphor founded on a similar idea. 

' Sawkusumito, only found here. Compare 'garlands, vitvam,' 
I, 175. i? 6 - 



Digitized by 



Google 



192 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 70. 

various and fine flowers of purity, of knowledge, 
and of emancipation. This is the fourth quality of 
the ocean inherent in Nirva#a.' 

[320] 70. ' Venerable Nagasena, those five quali- 
ties of food which you said were inherent in Nirva«a, 
— which are they ? ' 

'As food, O king, is the support of the life of all 
beings, so is Nirva»a, when it has been realised, the 
support of life, for it puts an end to old age and 
death. This is the first quality of food inherent in 
Nirva«a. And again, O king, as food increases the 
strength of all beings, so does Nirva»a, when it has 
been realised, increase the power of Iddhi of all 
beings. This is the second quality of food inherent 
in Nirva«a. And again, O king, as food is the 
source of the beauty of all beings, so is Nirv&wa, 
when it has been realised, the source to all beings 
of the beauty of holiness. This is the third quality 
of food inherent in Nirva#a. And again, O king, 
as food puts a stop to suffering in all beings, so does 
Nirvawa, when it has been realised, put a stop in 
all beings to the suffering arising from every evil 
disposition. This is the fourth quality of food 
inherent in Nirv4«a. And again, O king, as food 
overcomes in all beings the weakness of hunger, so 
does Nirvawa, when it has been realised, overcome 
in all beings the weakness which arises from hunger 
and every sort of pain. This is the fifth quality of 
food inherent in Nirvana.' 

71. 'Venerable Nagasena, those ten qualities of 
space which you said were inherent in Nirvi»a, — 
which are they ? ' 

'As space, O king, neither is born nor grows old, 
neither dies nor passes away nor is reborn (has 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 73* OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 93 

a future life to spring up into), as it is incompressible, 
cannot be carried off by thieves, rests on nothing, is 
the sphere in which birds fly, is unobstructed, and is 
infinite ; [321] so, O king, Nirva#a is not born, neither 
does it grow old, it dies not, it passes not away, it 
has no rebirth (no future life to spring up into), it 
is unconquerable, thieves carry it not off, it is not 
attached to anything 1 , it is the sphere in which 
Arahats move, nothing can obstruct it, and it is 
infinite. These are the ten qualities of space in- 
herent in NirvS«a.' 

72. 'Venerable Nagasena, those three qualities 
of the wish-conferring gem which you said were 
inherent in Nirva#a, — which are they?' 

'As the wishing-gem, O king, satisfies every desire, 
so also does Nirvi»a. This is the first quality of 
the wishing-gem inherent in Nirviwa. And again, 
O king, as the wishing-gem causes delight, so also 
does Nirviwa. This is the second quality of the 
wishing-gem inherent in Nirviwa. And again, 
O king, as the wishing-gem is full of lustre, so also 
is Nirv&#a. This is the third quality of the wishing- 
gem inherent in Nirv4»a.' 

73. 'Venerable Nagasena, those three qualities 
of red sandal wood which you said were inherent in 
Nirvawa, — which are they ? ' 



1 AnissitazK, so below, p. 351 of the Pali, the dhutahgam 
is said to be anissitam. The translation is difficult. In our 
passage here Hrna/i-kumbure' (p. 464) renders it, as applied both to 
space and to Nirvawa, by 'having no a^rawa.' Below, as applied 
to the vows (dhutahgas), he renders it (p. 512) by 'unconnected 
with craving' (trtsh»anifrita). ' Self-dependent ' or 'untarnished 
(by reliance on external things ') would suit the context in all three 
passages. 

[36] o 



Digitized by 



Google 



194 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 74. 

'As red sandal wood, O king, is hard to get, so is 
Nirva#a hard to attain to. This is the first quality 
of red sandal wood inherent in Nirva«a. And 
again, O king, as red sandal wood is unequalled in 
the beauty of its perfume, so is Nirva*a. This is 
the second quality of red sandal wood inherent in 
Nirvana. And again, O king, as red sandal wood 
is praised by all the good, so is Nirva#a praised by 
all the Noble Ones. This is the third quality of 
red sandal wood inherent in Nirva«a.' 

74. [322] 'Venerable Nagasena, those three 
qualities of the skimmings of ghee 1 which you said 
were inherent in Nirva#a, — which are they?' 

'As ghee is beautiful in colour, O king, so also is 
Nirvawa beautiful in righteousness. This is the 
first quality of the ghee inherent in Nirvawa. And 
again, O king, as ghee has a pleasant perfume, so 
also has Nirvawa the pleasant perfume of righteous- 
ness. This is the second quality of ghee inherent 
in Nirvawa. And again, O king, as ghee has a 
pleasant taste, so also has Nirvana. This is the 
third quality of ghee inherent in Nirva»a.' 

75. ' Venerable Nagasena, those five qualities of 
a mountain peak which you said were inherent in 
Nirva»a, — which are they ?' 

'As a mountain peak is very lofty, so also is 
Nirva»a very exalted. This is the first quality of 
a mountain peak inherent in Nirvana. And again, 
O king, as a mountain peak is immoveable, so also 
is Nirva»a. This is the second quality of a moun- 
tain peak inherent in Nirva»a. And again, O king, 



1 This is butter made of buffaloes' milk, and is highly esteemed 
in India. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 76. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 95 

as a mountain peak is inaccessible, so also is Nirvana 
inaccessible to all evil dispositions. This is the third 
quality of a mountain peak inherent in Nirvana. 
And again, O king, as a mountain peak is a place 
where no plants can grow, so also is Nirvana a 
condition in which no evil dispositions can grow. 
This is the fourth quality of a mountain peak 
inherent in Nirvana. And again, O king, as a 
mountain peak is free alike from desire to please 
and from resentment, so also is Nirvana. This is 
the fifth quality of a mountain peak inherent in 
Nirvana.' 

[828] ' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I 
accept it as you say.' 

[Here ends the problem as to the form of Nirvana.] 



[dilemma the eighty-first, 
the time of nirvana.] 

76. ' Venerable Nagasena, your people say 1 : 

" Nirvana is not past, nor future, nor present, 
nor produced, nor not produced, nor producible 2 ." 

'In that case, Nagasena, does the man who, 
having ordered his life aright, realises Nirvana, 
realise something already produced, or does he 
himself produce it first, and then realise it ? ' 

'Neither the one, O king, nor the other. And 
nevertheless, O king, that principle of Nirvana 
(nibbina-dhatu) which he, so ordering his life 
aright, realises — that exists.' 

1 Not yet traced in the Pi/akas. 

* 'By the action of Karma as a pre-existing cause' is to be 
understood. 

O 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



I96 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 77. 

' Do not, venerable Nagasena, clear up this puzzle 
by making it dark! Make it open and plain as 
you elucidate it. With a will, strenuous in en- 
deavour, pour out upon it all that has been taught 
you. It is a point on which this people is bewildered, 
plunged into perplexity, lost in doubt. Dissipate 
this guilty uncertainty ; it pierces like a dart 1 ! ' 

77. * That principle of Nirva#a, O king, so peace- 
ful, so blissful, so delicate, exists. And it is that 
which he who orders his life aright, grasping the 
idea of all things (of the Confections, Sawkhiras) 
according to the teachings of the Conquerors, realises 
by his wisdom — even as a pupil, by his knowledge, 
makes himself, according to the instruction of his 
teacher, master of an art. 

' And if you ask : " How is Nirviwa to be known 2 ?" 
it is by freedom from distress and danger, by con- 
fidence, by peace, by calm, by bliss, by happiness, 
by delicacy, by purity, by freshness 3 . 

78. 'Just, O king, as a man being burnt in a 
blazing fiery furnace heaped up with many faggots 
of dry sticks, when he has freed himself from it by 

1 Bhind' etam anto-dosa-sallaw ; 'break and take away 
the dart of the guilt (dosa) of that doubt which has arisen in my 
inmost being (satana),' says Hina/i-kumburg. It is literally 
' break this dart of guilt within.' The meaning is clear enough 
(except as to whether the guilt is the speaker's or ' this people's '). 
To break a dart in a wound would be no kindness, and that 
cannot have been the author's idea. To bring out the meaning 
one must amplify a little, and I should have followed the Sin- 
halese had it not seemed preferable to leave the personality of the 
guilty one as ambiguous in the translation as in the text. 

* Htna/i-kumburS, p. 467, does actually put these words into 
Nagasena's mouth. 

3 Sttalato, literally 'by cold.' See the note above on III, 6, 
6(1,119). 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 8o. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 97 

a violent effort, and escaped into a cool place, [324] 
would experience supreme bliss — just so whosoever 
orders his life aright, he by his careful thinking will 
realise the supreme bliss of Nirvawa, in which the 
burning heat of the threefold fire (of lust, malice, 
and delusion) 1 has all gone out. As the furnace, 
O king, so should you regard this threefold fire, as 
the man fallen into the fire the man who is ordering 
his life aright, as the cool place Nirv4«a. 

79. ' Or again, O king, as a man fallen into a pit 
full of the dead bodies of snakes and dogs and men, 
of ordure, and of refuse, when, finding himself in the 
midst of it entangled in the hair of the corpses, he 
had by a violent effort escaped into a place where 
no dead bodies were, would experience supreme 
bliss — just so whosoever orders his life aright, he 
by his careful thinking will realise the supreme bliss 
of Nirvana, from which the corpses of all evil 
dispositions have been removed 2 . As a corpse, 
O king, so should you regard the four pleasures of 
sense, as the man fallen among corpses the man 
who is ordering his life aright, as the place free 
from corpses Nirvana. 

80. ' Or again, O king, as a man (fallen among 
enemies with drawn swords in their hands) 3 , quaking 
with fear and terror, agitated and upset in mind, 
when with a violent effort he has freed himself from 
them, and escaped into a strong refuge, a firm place 
of security, experiences supreme bliss — just so who- 
soever orders his life aright, he by his careful 
thinking will realise the supreme bliss of Nirva»a, 

1 Riga, dosa, moha. 

8 Compare above, IV, 8, 69, and the note there. 

3 The words in brackets are added from the Sinhalese, p. 467. 



Digitized by 



Google 



198 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8,81. 

in which fear and terror have been put away. As the 
terror, O king, so should you regard the anxiety 
which arises again and again on account of birth, 
old age, disease, and death, as the terrified man the 
man who is ordering his life aright, as the place of 
refuge Nirva«a. 

81. 'Or again, O king, as a man fallen on a spot 
filthy with dirt, and slime, and mud, when with a 
violent effort he has got rid of the mud, and escaped 
to a clean and spotless place, would experience 
supreme bliss — just so whosoever orders his life 
aright, he by his careful thinking will realise the 
supreme bliss of Nirvi#a, from which the stains and 
mud of evil dispositions have been removed. As 
the mud, O king, [325] so should you regard income, 
and honour, and praise \ as the man fallen into the 
mud the man who is ordering his life aright, as the 
clean and spotless place Nirvana* 

82. ' And if again you should ask : " How does 
he who orders his life aright realise that Nirva«a ? " 
(I should reply), He, O king, who orders his life 
aright grasps the truth as to the development of all 
things 2 , and when he is doing so he perceives therein 
birth, he perceives old age, he perceives disease, he 
perceives death. But he perceives not therein either 
happiness or bliss, he perceives not therein, whether 
in the beginning, or the middle, or the end, any- 
thing worthy of being laid hold of (as lasting 
satisfaction) 8 . As a man, O king, if a mass of iron 



1 So also at G&lakz IV, 222 (verse 48). 

* Samkharanam parattam sammasati. Compare Dharma- 
pada, verse 374. 

9 Gayhflpagam; so the Sinhalese. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 84. OF MILINDA THE KING. 1 99 

had been heated the livelong day 1 , and were all 
glowing, scorching, and red hot, would find no spot 
on it, whether at one end or in the middle or at the 
other end, fit to be taken hold of— just so, O king, 
he who orders his life aright grasps the truth of the 
development of things, and in doing so he perceives 
therein birth, he perceives old age, he perceives 
disease, he perceives death. But he perceives not 
therein either happiness or bliss, he perceives not 
therein, whether in the beginning, or in the middle, 
or in the end, anything fit to be taken hold of (as a 
lasting satisfaction). 

83. 'And discontent arises in his mind when he 
thus finds nothing fit to be relied on as a lasting 
satisfaction, and a fever takes possession of his 
body s , and without a refuge or protection, hopeless, 
he becomes weary of repeated lives 3 . As if a man 
had fallen into a burning and blazing mighty fiery 
furnace, and saw no refuge from it, no way of 
escape, he would, hopeless, be weary of the fire — 
just so, O king, discontent arises in his mind when 
he thus finds nothing fit to be relied on as a lasting 
satisfaction, and a fever takes possession of his 
body, and without a refuge or protection, hopeless, 
he becomes weary of repeated births. 

84. ' And in the mind of him who thus perceives 



1 Divasa-santatta. So Hina/i-kumbur6, and compare Ma^- 
ghima. Nikaya I, 453, and Gataka IV, 118 (where the reading is 
diva-santatta). See also above, p. 46 of the Pali. 

* For diho okkamati, Hina/i-kumbur6 may have had a 
different reading. He renders <fahadiya selawenneya, 'sweat 
shapes ' (sic for ' forms '). 

* Bhavesu; literally 'of becomings' ('in any of the three 
worlds,' adds the Sinhalese). 



Digitized by 



Google 



200 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 84. 

the insecurity of transitory life, (of starting afresh 
in innumerable births) 1 the thought arises: " All on 
fire is this endless becoming, burning, and blazing ! 
Full of pain is it, of despair! If only one could 
reach a state in which there were no becoming, there 
would there be calm, that would be sweet — the 
cessation of all these conditions 2 , the getting rid of 
all these defects 3 (of lusts, of evil, and of Karma), the 
end of cravings, the absence of passion, peace, 
Nirvana ! " And therewith does his mind leap 
forward into that state in which there is no becoming, 
and then has he found peace, [326] then does he 
exult and rejoice * at the thought : " A refuge have 
I gained at last!" Just, O king, as a man who, 
venturing into a strange land, has lost his way, on 
becoming aware of a path, free from jungle, that will 
lead him home, bounds forward along it, contented 
in mind, exulting and rejoicing at the thought : " I 
have found the way at last I " — just so in him who 
thus perceives the insecurity of transitory births 
there arises the thought : " All on fire is this endless 
becoming, burning, and blazing ! Full of pain is it, 
and despair ! If only one could reach a state in 
which there were no becoming, there would there 
be calm, that would be sweet — the cessation of all 
these conditions, the getting rid of all these defects, 
the end of cravings, the absence of passion, peace, 
Nirva»a ! " And therewith does his mind leap for- 
ward into that state in which there is no becoming, 

1 Pavatte. I have included Htna/i-kumbur&'s explanation of 
this word, for which there is no equivalent in English. 

* Sawkhara, sawkh&ra-dharmayangS says the Sinhalese. 
8 Upadhi; the Sinhalese (p. 470) has simply klejayan. 
4 PahawsJyati kuhuyati, both words only found here. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 84. OF MILINDA THE KING. 20t 

and then has he found peace, then does he exult 
and rejoice at the thought : " A refuge have I found 
at last!" And he strives with might and main 
along that path, searches it out, accustoms himself 
thoroughly to it, to that end does he make firm his 
self-possession, to that end does he hold fast in 
effort, to that end does he remain stedfast in love 
(toward all beings in all the worlds), and still to that 
does he direct his mind again and again, until gone 
far beyond the transitory, he gains the Real, the 
highest fruit (of Arahatship) 1 . And when he has 
gained that, O king, the man who has ordered his 
life aright has realised, (seen face to face,) Nir- 
va«a 2 !' 

' Very good, Nagasena ! That is so, and I accept 
it as you say.' 

[Here ends the problem as to the time 
of Nirva»a 3 .] 

1 Appavattam okkamati, Aprawn'ttiya yayi kiyana lada 
Arhat-phalaya/a pcemiwenneya, says Hina/i-kumbure\ 

2 This paragraph is an excellent example of the difficulty of doing 
anything like justice in translations to the most instructive and 
valuable passages in our Buddhist texts. It is in the Pali full 
of eloquence, and even in the Sinhalese, though there too much 
expanded, it is powerful and striking. To a Buddhist it must 
have been inspiring and touching to the last degree, carefully led 
up to, as it is, with masterly skill, by our author. But it is so full 
of terms untranslateable into English, and with difficulty even 
comprehensible to minds saturated with Western ideas, that every 
translation must be inadequate, and any attempt to reproduce the 
real beauty of its style must be a failure. 

8 How almost impossible it is for a reader with pre-conceived 
delusions to grasp the plain sense of such passages may be seen 
from the strange note which the French translator has added at 
the end of this clear and eloquent description. He says, ' La con- 
clusion de ce Jataka (sic !) paratt 6tre que le de*vot bouddhiste peut 



Digitized by 



Google 



202 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 85. 

[dilemma THE EIGHTY-SECOND. 
THE PLACE OF NIRVAiVA.] 

85. 'Venerable Nagasena, does there exist the 
spot — either in the direction of the East, or of the 
South, or of the West, or of the North, either above, 
or below, or on the horizon — where Nirvi»a is 
stored up 1 ? ' 

• There is no spot, O king, — either in the East, or 
the South, or in the West, or the North, either 
above, or below, or on the horizon — where Nir- 
va«a is.' 

4 But if so, Nagasena, then neither can Nirva*a 
exist, and those who realise it, their realisation is 
vain. And I will give you an explanation of this. 
Just, Sir, as there are on the earth fields in which 
crops can be grown, flowers from which perfumes 
come, bushes on which flowers can grow, trees 
on which fruits can ripen, mines from which gems 
can be dug, so that whosoever desires any of these 
things can go there and get it — just so, Nagasena, 
if [327] Nirvawa exists one must expect there to be 
some place, where it is produced ». But since there 
is not, therefore I declare that there can be no 
Nirva«a, and those who realise it, their realisation 
is vain.' 

86. ' There is no spot, O king, where Nirvana is 

atteindre Nirvana dans cette vie memc. II est facheux que l'auteur 
ne se soil pas explique* plus categoriquement sur cette question 
interessante'(l). 

1 Sannihitaw perhaps 'is situate.' Hfnari-kumburS has pihi- 
/iye, ' can be got' 

* I£££itabbo. See above, p. 269 of the Pali. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 88. OF MILINDA THE KING. 203 

situate, and yet Nirvawa is, and he who orders his 
life right will, by careful attention, realise Nirva«a. 
Just as fire exists, and yet there is no place where 
fire (by itself) is stored up. But if a man rubs two 
sticks together the fire comes; — just so, O king, 
Nirvana exists, though there is no spot where it is 
stored up. And he who orders his life aright will, 
by careful attention, realise Nirva»a. 

87. ' Or again, O king, just as there are the seven 
treasures of the king of kings — the treasure of the 
wheel, and the treasure of the elephant, and the 
treasure of the horse, and the treasure of the gem, 
and the treasure of the woman, and the treasure of 
the finance minister, and the treasure of the adviser. 
But there is no spot where these treasures are laid 
up. When a sovran conducts himself aright they 
appear to him of their own accord 1 — just so, O king, 
Nirvawa exists, though there is no place where it is 
stored up. And he who orders his life aright will, 
by careful attention, realise Nirvana.' 

88. 'Venerable Nigasena, let it be granted that 
there is no place where Nirva»a is stored up. But 
is there any place on which a man may stand and, 
ordering his life aright, realise Nirva»a ? ' 

' Yes, O king, there is such a place.' 
4 Which then, Nagasena, is that place ? ' 
' Virtue, O king, is the place. For if grounded in 
virtue, and careful in attention — whether in the land 
of the Scythians 2 or the Greeks, whether in China or 

1 This is stated in regard to each of the seven in the standard 
passage on these seven treasures, translated in my 'Buddhist 
Suttas,' pp. 251-259. 

* Saki Hina/i-kumbure' has sadly blundered over this, to him, 
strange word. He actually translates it * one's own.' 



Digitized by 



Google 



204 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES IV, 8, 88. 

Tartary 1 , whether in Alexandria 2 or in Nikumba, 
whether in Benares or in Kosala, whether in Kash- 
mir or in Gandhira s , whether on a mountain top * 
or in the highest heavens' — wheresoever he may 
be, the man who orders his life aright will realise 
Nirva»a. [328] Just, O king, as the man who 
has eyes wherever he may be — in the land of the 
Scythians or the Greeks, in China or in Tartary, 
in Alexandria, Nikumba, Benares, or Kosala, in 
Kashmir or in Gandhira, on a mountain top or in 
the highest heavens — will be able to behold the 
expanse of heaven and to see the horizon facing 
him — just so, O king, will he who orders his conduct 
aright and is careful in attention — whether in the 
land of the Scythians or the Greeks, whether in 
China or Tartary, whether in Alexandria, or Benares, 
or Kosala, or Nikumba, whether in Kashmir or in 
Gandhira, whether on a mountain top or in the 
highest heavens — wheresoever he may be, attain to 
the realisation of Nirva»a.' 

'Very good, Nagasena! You have preached to 
me of Nirvawa, and of the realisation thereof, you 
have set forth the advantages of virtue, you have 
explained the supreme attainment, you have raised 
aloft the standard of the Truth, you have established 
the eye of Truth, you have shown how right means 
adopted by those of high aims will be neither 



1 Vilata, the Sinhalese has Milata. 

3 That is Alexandria on the Indus. See the Introduction to the 
first part, p. xxiii. 

3 All these names are discussed, ibid. pp. xliii, xliv. 

4 Naga-muddham. Hfna/i-kumbure understands this as the 
top of Mount Meru, Sakka's heaven. 

* Brahma-loke. 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV, 8, 88. OF MILINDA THE KING. 205 

barren nor unfruitful. That is so, and I accept it as 
you say 1 / 



[Here ends the problem of the place of Nirva«a.] 



[Here ends the Eighth Chapter 2 .] 



1 In the Sinhalese, pp. 472, 473, this last paragraph is much 
expanded. 

2 The Sinhalese has Sakala-^ana-mano-nandaniyawu me 
Sri-saddharmadasayehi a/aweni wargaya nimiyeya. 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



206 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, i. 

BOOK V. 

THE PROBLEM OF INFERENCE. 

[329] I. Now Milinda the king went up to the 
place where Nagasena was, and bowed down before 
him, and took his seat on one side. And when 
so seated he, longing to know, to hear, and to 
remember, and longing to make the light of know- 
ledge arise and to break in pieces his ignorance, 
roused up in himself courage and zeal, and, full of 
self-possession and thoughtfulness, spake thus to 
Nagasena : 

2. ' Venerable Nagasena, tell me, have you ever 
seen the Buddha * ? ' 

' No, O king.' 

' Then have your teachers ever seen the Buddha?' 

' No, Sire.' 

' So you say, venerable Nagasena, that you have 
never seen the Buddha, and that your teachers have 
never seen the Buddha. Therefore, Nagasena, the 
Buddha did not exist. There is no clear evidence, 
in that case, of a Buddha.' 

1 But did those Kshatriyas of old exist, who were 
the founders of the line of kings from which you 
come ? ' 

' Certainly, Sir. How can there be any doubt 
about that ? ' 

' Well, O king. Have you ever seen them ? ' 

' No, Sir.' 

1 A similar question has been already asked above, III, 5, i 
(I, 109). 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, 3. OF MILINDA THE KING. 207 

'And those who instructed you — the family 
chaplains, and officers of the staff, and those who 
lay down the law, and ministers of state — have 
they ever seen those Kshatriyas of old ? ' 

' No, Sir.' 

' If then neither have you seen them, nor your 
teachers, where are they? There is no clear evi- 
dence, in that case, of those Kshatriyas of old ! ' 

3. ' But, Nagasena, the royal insignia they used 
are still to be seen — [330] the white sunshade of 
state, and the crown, and the slippers, and the fan 
with the yak's tail, and the sword of state, and the 
priceless throne — and by these can we know and 
believe that the Kshatriyas of old lived once.' 

'Just so, O king, can we know that Blessed One 
and believe in him. For there is a reason for our 
knowledge and belief that the Blessed One was. 
And what is that reason ? — The royal insignia used 
by that Blessed One, by him of knowledge and 
insight, the Arahat, the Buddha Supreme, are still 
to be seen — the four Means of keeping oneself 
ready and mindful, and the fourfold Great Struggle, 
and the four steps to Iddhi, and the five Organs of 
the moral sense, and the five moral Powers, and the 
seven forms of the wisdom of the Arahats, and the 
Noble Eightfold Path J — and by these can the whole 

1 These are the famous thirty-five constituent qualities that 
make up Arahatship (that is, that state of mind which, from 
another point of view and by another of its numerous names, is 
also called Nirvana). They formed the subject of the last dis- 
course delivered by Gotama before his death to his disciples 
('Book of the Great Decease,' III, 61), and on my translation of 
that passage (' Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 60-63) I nave added a note 
giving all the details. 

It is perhaps worthy of remark that both here and twice else- 



Digitized by 



Google 



208 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, 4. 

world of gods and men know and believe that that 
Blessed One existed once. By this reason, on this 
ground, by this argument, through this inference, 
can it be known that the Blessed One lived. 

" He who, himself set free in that bless'd state 
In which the Upadhis have ceased to be, 
— Lusts, sin, and Karma, — has brought safe ashore, 
Saved from the sea of woe, great multitudes — 
Only by inference can it be known 
That he, the best of men, existed once \" ' 

4. ' Venerable Nigasena, give me an illustration.' 
' Just, O king, as the architect of a city 2 , when he 
wants to build one, would first search out a pleasant 
spot of ground, with which no fault can be found, 
even, with no hills or gullies in it, free from rough 
ground and rocks, not open to the danger of attack. 
And then, when he has made plain any rough 
places there may still be on it, he would clear it 
thoroughly of all stumps and stakes, and would 
proceed to build there a city fine and regular, 
measured out into suitable quarters 8 , with trenches 
and ramparts thrown up around it 4 , with strong 
gateways, watch-towers, and battlements, with wide 
squares and open places and junctions (where 
two roads meet) and cross -ways (where four 

where, at pp. 37, 335 (of the PSIi), our author reverses the order 
of Nos. 4 and 5 — the five moral Powers and the five Organs (of 
the higher sense) — which are really only the same mental qualities 
looked at from two different points of view. 

1 These verses have not been traced as yet in the Pi/akas. 

* There is another parable of the architect above, p. 34 of the. 
Pali (I, 53 of the translation). 

* Bhdgaso mitam, an expression constantly recurring. 

* Ukki»»a. See Gataka. IV, 106, 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, 4. OF MILINDA THE KING. 209 

roads meet) 1 , with cleanly and even high roads 2 , with 
regular lines of open shops (bazaars), well provided 
with parks, and gardens, and lakes, and lotus-ponds, 
and wells, adorned with many kinds of temples to 
the gods, free from every fault. And then when 
the city stood there in all its glory, he would go 
away to some other land. And in course of time 
that city might become mighty and prosperous, 
filled with stores of food, [331] peaceful, glorious, 
happy, free from distress and calamity, the meeting- 
place of all sorts and conditions of men. Then 
nobles and brahmans, merchants and work-people ; 
soldiers mounted on elephants, and on horses, and 
on chariots ; infantry, and bowmen, and swordsmen ; 
standard-bearers, officers, and camp-followers 3 ; high- 
born warriors whose delight is in war, fighting 
champions, men mighty as elephants, heroes, men 
who fight in buckskin *, devoted fighting-men born 
of slaves in great houses or of the privates in 
the royal army 6 ; troops of professional wrestlers 8 ; 

1 According to the dictionaries each of those four words 
(ka££ara, latukka, sandhi, and singhdtaka) means either a 
square, or a place where four roads meet. The Sinhalese has 
&pana-£atushka-sandhi ceti, omitting the last and certainly 
inexact in its rendering of the first word. Sandhi I have only 
met with here in this sense. 

2 Ra^a-magga«; literally ' the king's highways,' which also 
only occurs here. 

• For pi«</a-d£vika HJnarf-kumbure - (who at p. 475 gives the 
Pali of all this) reads pi«rfa-dayak&. 

4 Vammino yodhino. But both Htna/i-kumbure' here, and 
the parallel passage in the Samawna Phala Sutta (D. II, 14), read 
ATamma-yodhino. 

• For Bha//i-putta Hina/i-kumburfi reads Bha/a-putti. 

• These two (Bha/i-puttd and Malla-gawi) are omitted in 
the Digha. 

[36] P 



/ 



Digitized by 



Google 



210 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, 4. 

cooks and curry makers, barbers and bathing at- 
tendants, smiths and florists, workers in gold and 
silver and lead and tin and copper and brass * 
and iron, and jewellers ; messengers ; potters, salt 
gatherers 2 , tanners, carriage builders, carvers in 
ivory 3 , rope makers, comb makers, cotton-thread 
spinners, basket makers, bow manufacturers, bow- 
string makers, arrow fletchers, painters, dye manu- 
facturers, dyers, weavers, tailors, assayers of gold *, 
cloth merchants 8 , dealers in perfumes, grass cutters, 
hewers of wood, hired servants 6 , people who live by 
gathering flowers and fruits and roots in the woods, 
hawkers of boiled rice, sellers of cakes, fishmongers, 
butchers, dealers in strong drinks, play actors, dancers, 
acrobats 7 , conjurors, professional bards 8 , wrestlers 

1 Va//ak£ra\ See the note above on IV, 7, 11 (p. 267 of the 
PSli). 

* Lo«akSra\ 'salt makers.' But Htnari-kumbure" reads loha- 
kara and translates lokuruwo, 'workers in metal.' 

' Dantakara, which in the Sinhalese is simply repeated. 
There is no such word in Clough. 

4 Heraflfliki. Childers says 'royal treasurer,' and Hfna/i- 
kumburS 'coiners of silver m&sakas ' (ran masu tanannoya), 
but Subhdti (in his Sinhalese gloss on AbhidhSna Padfpikd, verse 
343) renders it 'judgers of gold' (ran balanna) ; and that this is 
right is shown by the context in the passage of the Suraahgala 
Vilisinf (p. 315), where the probably identical word heraflflaka 
is used. 

• Dussika. Hina/i-kumbure' renders this word here by pili 
welendo, 'cloth-sellers,' but above (p. 262 of the Pali) by sSyam 
karako, 'dice manufacturers.' 

• It is instructive that men working for hire are put here among 
the lowest sort of work-people, while the slave bom in the house 
stands in the best company. 

7 Lahghaka. Pinum kirayo, 'turners of summersets' in 
the Sinhalese. See ffataka I, 431, and above, pp. 31, 191 of the 
Pali. 

* Vetalika. Vetaliyehi mangalash/aka kiyannawu in 



Digitized by 



Google 



V,5. OF MILINDA THE KING. 211 

(boxers), corpse burners, casters out of rotten flowers 1 , 
savages 2 , wild men of the woods 3 , prostitutes, swingers 
and jumpers*, and the slave girls of bullies — people of 
many countries, people from Scythia, Bactria, China, 
and Vilata ; people of U^eni, of Bharuka^Ma, of 
Benares, of Kosala, and of the border lands ; people 
from Magadha, and Saketa, and Sura//^a, and 
the West; from KoAimbara and Madhura, from 
Alexandria, Kashmir, and Gandhara 6 , — all these 
coming to take up their residence there, and finding 
the new city to be regular, faultless, perfect, and plea- 
sant, would know : "Able indeed must that architect 
have been by whom this city was built ! " 

5. 'Just so, O king, that Blessed One, peerless, 
unequalled, unapproached, incomparable, admirable 
beyond all measure by weight or calculation, of 
infinite virtue, full of virtue and perfection, boundless 
in wisdom and glory and zeal and power, who, when 
he had attained to the summit of all the perfections 

the Sinhalese (Wandi-bha//ayo according to Subhuti on Abhi- 
dhana Padipika 369). 

1 Puppha££/iadak£. A well-known low caste whose duty it 
was to remove flowers offered on the shrines of the gods after they 
had faded. At Thera Gatha, verse 620, this is called one of the 
meanest of occupations. 

* Vena. Hina/i-kumbure has 'lute makers,' but this must be 
wrong. 

* The Sinhalese says simply Weddahs (Weed das), the well- 
known interesting wild men of Ceylon. 

4 Lasika, 'those,' says the Sinhalese, 'who as if intoxicated 
with joy jump about and leap and dance.' But I think it is con- 
nected with the ancient usages to which the lascivious swinging 
of the Saivites and Vallabha£aryas owes its origin. 

5 On all these names see the Introduction to part I, pp. xliii, xliv. 
Aparantaka and P&theyyaka might there have been added, as 
well as puratthimo ^anapado (from p. 42). 

P 2 



s 



Digitized by 



Google 



212 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, 6. 

of the Buddhas, [332] overthrew Mara and all his 
hosts, — he, bursting asunder the net of heresy, and 
casting aside ignorance, and causing wisdom to 
arise, and bearing aloft the torch of Truth, reached 
forward to Buddhahood itself, and so, unconquered 
and unconquerable in the fight, built this city of 
Righteousness. And the Blessed One's City of 
Righteousness, O king, has righteousness for its 
rampart, and fear of sin for its moat, and knowledge 
for the battlement over its city gate, and zeal for the 
watch-tower above that, and faith for the pillars at 
its base, and mindfulness for the watchman at the 
gate, and wisdom for the terrace above, and the 
Suttantas for its market-place, and the Abhidhamma 
for its cross-ways, and the Vinaya (the Canon Law) 
for its judgment hall, and constant self-possession for 
its chief street And in that street, O king, these 
bazaars are open — a flower bazaar, and a fruit bazaar, 
and an antidote bazaar, and a medicine bazaar, and 
an ambrosia bazaar, and a bazaar for precious stones, 
and a bazaar for all manner of merchandise.' 

6. ' But what, venerable Nagasena, is the flower 
bazaar of the Blessed One, the Buddha ? ' 

' There are certain subjects for meditation, O king, 
that have been made known by the Blessed One, by 
him of knowledge and insight, by the Arahat, the 
Buddha Supreme. And they are these. The idea 
of the impermanence (of every thing and of every 
being), the idea of the absence of any abiding 
principle (any soul in any thing or any being), the 
idea of the impurity and the idea of the danger 
connected with the body, the idea of getting rid of 
evil dispositions, the idea of freedom from passion, 
the idea of peace, the idea of dissatisfaction with the 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, 6. OF MILINDA THE KING. 213 

things of the world, the idea of the transitory 
nature of all conditions, the idea of ecstatic trance, 
the ideas of a corpse in the various stages of 
decay, the ideas of a place of execution in all its 
various horrors, the idea of love to all beings, 
the idea of pity for all beings, the idea of sym- 
pathy with all beings, the idea of equanimity in 
all the changing circumstances of life, the idea of 
death, and the idea of the body \ These, O king, 
are the subjects for meditation prescribed by the 
Blessed One. And of these, whoever, longing to 
be delivered from old age and death, takes any one 
as the subject of his meditation, by that meditation 
does he become set free from passion, set free from 
malice, set free from dullness, set free from pride, 
set free from wrong views, by that does he cross the 
ocean of Sawsara, and stem the torrent of cravings, 
and cleanse himself of the threefold stain 2 , and 
destroy within himself all evil; and so, entering 
that glorious city, spotless and stainless, pure and 
white, [333] ageless and deathless, where all is 
security and calm and bliss — the city of Nirva/sa — 
he emancipates his mind in Arahatship ! And this, 
O king, is what is called " The Blessed One's bazaar 
of flowers." 

" Take with you Karma as the price, 
And go ye up to that bazaar, 
Buy there an object for your thought, 
Emancipate yourselves. Be free s ! " ' 

1 Hfna/S-kumbure* devotes a paragraph to each of these subjects 
for meditation. 

1 Of raga, dosa, and moha. 

3 This stanza has not yet been found in the Pi/akas. In the 
first line it does not seem quite clear at first sight why Karma, 
of all things, should be the price. That Indian word being too 



Digitized by 



Google 



214 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, 7. 

7. 'And what, venerable Nagasena, is the perfume 
bazaar of the Blessed One, the Buddha ? ' 

' There are certain categories of virtue, O king, 
that have been made known by the Blessed One, 
and anointed by the perfume of that righteousness the 
children of the Blessed One fill with the fumes of 
the fragrant incense of the perfume of goodness the 
whole world of gods and men, in every direction, 
and to windward and to leeward, continuing to 
pervade it again and yet again. And which are 
those categories ? The virtue of taking refuge \ 

full of meaning to be translateable, is necessarily retained, and 
hence the phrase 'taking Karma as the price' may convey no 
meaning at all. If so, in trying to escape Scylla the unhappy 
translator has fallen into Charybdis. But it must mean one of 
two things, either something to be abandoned, given up ; or some- 
thing good which the buyer possesses, and may exchange for the 
good he wants to buy. If our author means the first it must be 
Karma (as one of the Upadhis), as a basis for continued in- 
dividuality, and be much the same as egoism. If he means the 
other, then Karma, though standing alone, must be here used in 
the sense of kusala-kamma, good Karma, that is, the effect of 
good deeds done in a former life. Now our author never else- 
where uses kamma, without any qualifying adjective, in the sense 
of good Karma. On pp. 7, 20, 67, 108 foil., 134, 151, 189, 302 
of the Pali the unqualified word means throughout bad Karma, 
the effect of bad deeds done in a former birth. In a few passages 
it is used of former deeds in a way that apparently includes both 
good and bad. See especially pp. 3, 10, 146, 268. Now a buyer, 
in the case put, could not give up either the bad or the good deeds 
he had already done in a former life — that would be beyond his 
power. He could only offer, in exchange for the good he wanted 
to buy, good Karma (that is, in the sense of good deeds) either in 
the present, or in the immediate future. Below, V, 21 (p. 341 of the 
Pali), will be found instances given by our author himself. It is 
forced, no doubt, to call this ' a price,' but it is probably the sense 
intended, and so Htna/i-kumbure' takes it. 

1 Taking the threefold refuge in the Buddha, the Doctrine 
(Dharma), and the Order. 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, 8. OF MILINDA THE KING. 21 5 

the virtue that is fivefold and eightfold and tenfold l , 
and the virtue of self-restraint tabulated in the five 
recitations that compose the Patimokkha 2 . And 
this, O king, is what is called " The Blessed One's 
bazaar of perfumes." For it has been said, O king, 
by the Blessed One, the god over all gods : 

" No flower's scent can go against the wind, 
Not sandal wood's, nor musk's, nor jasmine 

flower's : 
But the sweet perfume of the good doth go 
Against the wind, and the good man pervades, 
On every side, the sweetness of his life 8 ." 

" Red sandal wood, musk, and the lotus, and 

jasmine — 
The perfume of goodness surpasseth them all. 
Abundant the sweet scent of musk and of sandal 

wood — 
Still stronger, the scent of the good mounts to 

heaven * ! " ' 

8. 'And what, venerable Nagasena, is the fruit 
bazaar of the Blessed One, the Buddha ? ' 

' Certain fruits have been made known, O king, 
by the Blessed One. And they are these: — The 
fruit of the first stage of the Excellent Way (con- 

1 These are respectively the first five, the first eight, and the 
whole ten, of the Precepts set out in my ' Buddhism,' p. 160. 

* The whole of this text is translated in vol. xiii of the * Sacred 
Books of the East.' The si las here enumerated are only the 
lower morality. The higher ethics come below in § ia. 

* From Aftguttara Nikaya III, 79. The verse is quoted in the 
Dhammapada, verse 54, and also in the Gataka Book, III, 291. 

* It is not known where these lines originally stood. But they 
are quoted in the Dhammapada, verses 55, 56, and also in the 
Gataka Book loc. cit., and in the Sumangala Vilasini, p. 56. 



Digitized by 



Google 



2l6 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, 9. 

version), and of the second stage, and of the third 
stage, and of the fourth (Arahatship) *, — the fruit 
of the attainment of emptiness 4 , — the fruit of the 
attainment of the absence of the three signs (of an 
unconverted life, lust, malice, and dullness) — and 
the truth of the attainment of that state in which 
no low aspirations survive. [334] And whosoever 
desires any one of these, he gives his Karma as the 
price, and buys the fruit he longs for — either con- 
version or any other. 

9. ' Just, O king, as any man who has a mango- 
tree bearing fruit all the year round, he does not 
knock down the fruits until buyers come. But 
when a buyer has come, and the fruit-grower has 
taken the price, then he says : " Come, my good 
man, this tree is always in bearing (it has therefore 
fruits in all stages of growth), take from it the 
kind of fruit you prefer, whether unripe, or decayed 3 , 
or hairy 4 , or sour, or ripe 6 ." And the buyer, for 
the price paid, takes the kind he likes the best — if 
that be unripe fruit then he takes that, if it be 
decayed fruit then that, if it be hairy fruit then that, 
if it be sour fruit then that, if it be ripe fruit then 
he takes a ripe one. Just so, O king, whosoever 
desires any one of those other fruits, he gives his 
Karma as the price, and buys the fruit he longs for — 



1 The details of these 'fruits' will be found in 'Buddhism,' 
pp. 108-110. 

* As to in respect of what, see the note above on IV, 8, 69 
(p. 219 of theP&li). 

s Dovilaw, nildta says the Sinhalese, p. 484. 

4 Kesika. Hfna/i-kurnbure' merely repeals this word. 

5 The mango is used in all stages — when ripe for eating, and 
for pickles, curries, &c, in other stages. 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, lo. OF MILINDA THE KING. 21 7 

either conversion or any other. And this, O king, 
is what is called " The Blessed One's bazaar of 
fruits." 

" Men give their Karma as the price, 
And buy the fruit ambrosia ; 
And happiness is theirs, and peace, 
Who've bought the fruit ambrosia 1 ." ' 
10. 'And what, venerable Nagasena, is the anti- 
dote bazaar of the Blessed One, the Buddha ? ' 

' Certain drugs, O king, have been made known 
by the Blessed One ; drugs by which the Blessed 
One delivers the whole world of gods and men 
from the poison of evil dispositions. And what are 
these drugs ? The four Noble Truths made known 
by the Blessed One, that is to say, the truth as to 
sorrow, and the truth as to the origin of sorrow, and 
the truth as to the cessation of sorrow, and the 
truth as to that path which leads to the cessation of 
sorrow 2 . And whosoever, longing for the highest 
insight (the insight of Arahatship) 3 , hear this 
doctrine of the four truths, they are set quite free 
from rebirth, [335] they are set quite free from old 
age, they are set quite free from death, they are set 
quite free from grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and 
despair. And this, O king, is what is called " The 
Blessed One's bazaar of antidotes." 



1 These lines have not been traced as yet in the Pi/akas, and 
are probably not meant as a quotation. ' Ambrosia ' is of course 
the ambrosia of Arahatship. 

* For the full text of these ' Truths ' see ' Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 
148-150. 

8 A*«ii The Sinhalese, p. 486, has awabodhaya. The 
word is rare, but it occurs at Gdtaka I, 140; II, 333; and at 
Dhammapada, verses 57, 96, always in this sense. 



Digitized by 



Google 



2l8 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, n. 

" Of all the drugs, in all the world, 
The antidotes of poison dire, 
Not one equals that Doctrine sweet. 
Drink that, O brethren. Drink and live M " ' 

ii. 'And what, venerable Nigasena, is the medi- 
cine bazaar of the Blessed One, the Buddha ? ' 

' Certain medicines, O king, have been made 
known by the Blessed One, medicines by which he 
cures the whole world of gods and men. And they 
are these : — " The four Means of keeping oneself 
ready and mindful, and the fourfold Great Struggle, 
and the four Steps to Iddhi, and the five Organs of 
the moral sense, and the five moral Powers, and the 
seven Forms of the Wisdom of the Arahats, and the 
Noble Eightfold Path 2 ." By these medicines the 
Blessed One purges men of wrong views, purges 
them of low aspirations, purges them of evil speak- 
ing, purges them of evil deeds, purges them of 
evil modes of livelihood, purges them of wrong 
endeavours, purges them of evil thoughts, purges 
them of erroneous meditation ; and he gives emetics 
to the vomiting up of lusts, and of malice, and of 
dullness, and of doubt, and of self-righteousness, 
and of sloth of body and inertness of mind, and 
of shamelessness and hardness of heart, and of 
all evil. And this, O king, is what is called " The 
Blessed One's bazaar of medicine." 
" Of all the medicines found in all the world, 

Many in number, various in their powers, 

Not one equals this medicine of the Truth. 

Drink that, O brethren. Drink, and drinking, live ! 

1 Not traced as yet. 

* See the note above on V, 3 (p. 330 of the Pali). 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, 12. OF MILINDA THE KING. 210. 

For having drunk that medicine of the Truth, 
Ye shall have past beyond old age and death, 
And — evil, lusts, and Karma rooted out — 
Thoughtful and seeing, ye shall be at rest * ! " ' 

1 2. ' And what, venerable Nigasena, is the am- 
brosia bazaar of the Blessed One, the Buddha ? ' 

' An ambrosia, O king, has been made known by 
the Blessed One, that ambrosia with which he be- 
sprinkles the whole world of gods and men— as men 
anoint a king on his coronation day — [336] and men 
and gods, when sprinkled with that ambrosia, are set 
free from rebirths, old age, disease, and death, from 
grief, and lamentation, and pain, and sorrow, and 
despair. And what is that ambrosia ? That medi- 
tation which consists in active attention to, and leads 
to a true grasp of, the real conditions of corporeal 
things 2 . For it has been said, O king, by the 
Blessed One, the god over all gods : 

" They, O brethren, feed on ambrosia who feed 
on active attention directed to corporeal things 3 ." 
This, O king, is what is called " The Blessed One's 
ambrosia bazaar." 

1 Nibbutd, with allusion to the freedom and calm of NirvSwa. 
The verses have not been traced as yet in the Pi/akas. 

* K4ya-gat&-sati-bhavanS, where each term really requires 
a long commentary. 

* It will be noticed that Nigasena is here really going an inch 
beyond his text. In that text (which has not been traced) amata, 
ambrosia, means no doubt as elsewhere, the ambrosia of NirvSna, 
And the text does not say that the active attention and the am- 
brosia are the same, but only that they who feed on the one feed also 
on the other. Even if we translate ' are feeding ' instead of ' feed ' 
(which is grammatically possible) a similar argument would hold 
good. But though it is impossible to say for certain, without 
knowing the context of the passage, the rendering above is more 
in accord with Pdli usage, and more likely therefore to be right. 



Digitized by 



Google 



220 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, 13. 

"He saw mankind afflicted with disease, 
He opened freely his ambrosia shop ; 
Go, then, O brethren, give your Karma for it, 
And buy, and feed on, that ambrosial food V ' 

13. 'And what, venerable Nagasena, is the jewel 
bazaar of the Blessed One, the Buddha ? ' 

' Certain jewels, O king, have been made known 
by the Blessed One, and adorned with those jewels 
the children of the Blessed One shine forth in 
splendour, illuminating the whole world of gods and 
men, brightening it in its heights, in its depths, 
from horizon to horizon, with a brilliant glory. 
And those jewels are these — the jewel of right 
conduct, and the jewel of meditation, and the jewel 
of knowledge, and the jewel of emancipation, and 
the jewel of the insight which arises from the 
assurance of emancipation, and the jewel of dis- 
crimination, and the jewel of the sevenfold wisdom 
of the Arahats 2 . 

14. 'And what, O king, is the Blessed One's 
jewel of right conduct 3 ? The right conduct which 
follows on self-restraint according to the rules of the 
Patimokkha, the right conduct which follows on 



1 Not traced as yet. All these stanzas seem to belong together, 
and will doubtless be found in the same Sutta or poem. 

1 These seven jewels (or treasures, ratanani) of the Buddha 
are intended of course to correspond to the seven treasures (also 
ratanani) of the king of kings (the £akkavattt). They are 
different from the seven 'Treasures of the Noble Ones' (Ariya- 
dhanani) which are ethical qualities, whereas these jewels are 
means to the attainment of Arahatship. 

8 Sila, a most difficult word to translate, as it includes so much 
that in English would be expressed by the varying phrases : good* 
ness, virtue, righteousness, uprightness, morality, &c. 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, 14- OF MILINDA THE KING. 22 T 

restraint of the bodily organs and the mind 1 , the 
right conduct which results from a pure means of 
livelihood, the right conduct in relation to the four 
requisites of a recluse a , the right conduct presented 
in the Short, and Middle, and Long Summonses 3 , 
the right conduct of those who are walking in the 
Path, and the right conduct of those who have 
attained each of the various fruits thereof (beginning 
at conversion and ending at Arahatship) 4 . And all 
the beings in the world, O king, gods 6 and men, 
and the Maras too (the spirits of evil), and the 
Brahmas (the very highest of the gods), and 
Sama«as and Brahmans are filled with longing and 
desire for a man who wears, as his ornament, this 
jewel of right conduct. And the Bhikkhu, O king, 
who puts it on shines forth in glory all around, 
upwards and downwards, and from side to side, 
surpassing in lustre all the jewels to be found from the 
Waveless Deep 8 below to the highest heavens above, 
excelling them all, overwhelming them all. Such, O 
king, are the jewels of right conduct set out for sale in 
the Blessed One's bazaar of gems. And this is what 
is called "TheBlessed One's jewel of righteousness." 

1 Indriya; no doubt here the six organs, that is the usual five, 
and bhavango or mano as the sixth. 

3 Clothing, food, lodging, and medicine for the sick. 
1 Translated in 'Buddhist Suttas/ pp. 189-200. 

4 What we have here are the two higher stages of the three into 
which Buddhist ethics naturally falls. The morality of laymen has 
been included above, V, 7, where it already passes over into that 
of the ordinary, unconverted member of the Order. Here we 
begin with that, starting with the last item of the previous list, 
and go on, through the silas, to the highest ethics of Arahatship. 

8 The devas, those gods dwelling in Sakka's heaven, and, 
I think, the devatas also (fairies, nyads, dryads, &c). 
• AviAi, the lowest of the purgatories. 



Digitized by 



Google 



222 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, 15. 

" Such are the virtues sold in that bazaar, 
The shop of the Enlightened One, the Blest ; 
Pay Karma as the price, O ye ill-clad ! 
Buy, and put on, these lustrous Buddha-gems!" 

[337] 1 5. ' And what, O king, is the Blessed 
One's jewel of meditation ? The meditation that 
consists of specific conceptions, and of investigation 
regarding them 1 ; — the meditation that consists of 
reflection only, specific conceptions being lost sight 
of 2 ; — the meditation that continues after specific 
conceptions and reflection on them have both 
ceased 3 ; — the meditation that is void (of lusts, evil 
dispositions, and Karma); — the meditation from 
which three signs (of an unconverted life — lust, 
malice, and dullness) are absent ; — the meditation 
in which no low aspirations remain *. And when a 
Bhikkhu, O king, has put on this jewel of meditation 
(Samadhi), then ideas of lust, and ideas of anger, 
and ideas of cruelty, and all the various bad thoughts 
that have their basis in the evil dispositions of 
pride, self-righteousness, adhesion to wrong views, 
and doubt — all these, since they come into contact 
with meditation, flow off from him, disperse, and are 
dispelled, they stay not with him, adhere not to him. 
Just, O king, as when water has fallen on a lotus 
leaf it flows off from it, is dispersed and scattered 



1 I think the first GMna (see 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 272) is 
meant. 

* Apparently the passage over from the first to the second 
GMna. 

* But insight, and the resulting bliss, remain. Compare above, 
II. 2, 3 (I, 67). 

4 Compare above, V, 8, on the last three. 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, l6. OF MILINDA THE KING. 223 

away, stays not on it, adheres not to it ! — so when 
a Bhikkhu has put on this jewel of meditation, then 
ideas of lust, and ideas of anger, and ideas of 
cruelty, and all the various bad thoughts that have 
their basis in the evil dispositions of pride, self- 
righteousness, obstinacy in wrong views, and doubt 
— these all, as soon as they come in contact with 
meditation, flow off, disperse, and are dispelled, stay 
not with him, adhere not to him. And why not ? 
Because of the exceeding purity of the habit of 
meditation. This, O king, is what is called " The 
Blessed One's jewel of meditation," and such are the 
jewels of meditation set out for sale in the Blessed 
One's bazaar of gems, 

" Bad thoughts can ne'er arise beneath the brow 
Encircled by this coronet of gems. 
It charms away perplexed and wandering thought. 
Make it your own, buy it, put on the crown !" 

1 6. 'And what, O king, is the Blessed One's 
jewel of knowledge ? That knowledge by which 
the disciple of the noble ones knows thoroughly 
what is virtue, and what is not; what is blame- 
worthy, and what is not ; what should be made a 
habit of, and what should not ; what is mean, and 
what is exalted ; [338] what is dark, and what is 
light, and what is both dark and light; — the know- 
ledge by which he truly knows what sorrow is, and 
what the origin of sorrow is, and what the cessation 
of sorrow is, and what is the path that leads thereto. 
This, O king, is what is called " The Blessed One's 
jewel of knowledge." 

1 See the note upon IV, 8, 65. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



224 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, 17. 

"He who has knowledge as his jewelled wreath, 
Will not continue long in outward form '. 
Soon will he reach Nirvawa, in rebirth 
In any world 2 no longer take delight! " 

1 7. ' And what, O king, is the Blessed One's jewel 
of emancipation ? Arahatship is called the jewel 
of emancipation, and the Bhikkhu who has reached 
Arahatship is said to have decked himself with the 
jewel of emancipation. And just as a man, O king, 
who is decorated with ornaments made of strings 
of pearls, of diamonds and gold and corals ; whose 
limbs are anointed with akalu 3 , and with frank- 
incense*, and with Talis 5 , and with red sandal 
wood ; who is adorned with a garland of Iron- 
wood blossoms, and Rottleria flowers, and flowers 
from the Sal tree, and the Sala/a 6 , and the champak, 
and yellow jasmines 7 , and Atimuttaka flowers 8 , and 

1 Bhavo here equal to pafl£a skandha, according to Hlna/i- 
kumburg, p. 491. 

2 Bhave, here tri-widha-bhawa in the Sinhalese. 

* Akalu; only found here. The Sinhalese has agaru kalu, 
and agaru according to Clough is Dalbergia. 

4 Tagara. Agil tuwarali, ' logwood frankincense.' 

8 Talisaka. Clough says the Talis tree is Flacourtia cata- 
phracta. 

' Not in the Pali dictionaries. But it is mentioned in Buddha- 
vansa II, 51 (there spelt sa/ala). This verse is quoted at Gataka 
I, 13, verse 51, and the word is there spelt sala/a. The Sinhalese 
has salala, and the Sanskrit lexicons have sarala. Clough identi- 
fies it, no doubt wrongly, with the last, the Anglo-Indian Hal tree, 
which the botanists call the Shorea robust a. 

7 Yuthika; sfnidda, says Htna/i-kumburfi, p. 492, and Clough 
thinks this is oleander. But Bdhtlingk-Roth say a sort of jasmine, 
Jasminum auriculatum. 

* Yohombu in the Sinhalese. Clough says this is a creeper 
called Borago Zeylanica. But does that grow in the North- 
West of India ? According to B6htlingk-Roth, Atimuttaka is the 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, 18. OF MIL1NDA THE KING. 225 

trumpet flowers, and lotuses, and white and Arabian 
jasmines x — just as, with all this finery of garlands 
and perfumes and jewelry, he would outshine all 
other men, overwhelming them with brilliant glory 
and splendour — just so, O king, does he who has 
attained to Arahatship, he in whom the Great Evils 
(lusts, and becoming, delusion, and ignorance) are 
rooted out, he who has put on the diadem of 
emancipation of heart, just so does he outshine all 
other Bhikkhus from the lowest in attainment up 
to those even who are themselves emancipated 2 , 
overwhelming them in brilliant glory and splendour. 
And why is that so ? Because, O king, there is one 
diadem that is the chief of all, and that is this 
diadem of emancipation of heart! And this, O 
king, is what is called " The Blessed One's jewel of 
emancipation." 

"All the people that dwell in a house look up 
To their Lord when he wears his crown of gems — 
The wide world of the gods and of men looks up 
To the wearer of Freedom's diadem ! " 

18. 'And what, O king, is the Blessed One's 
jewel of the insight that follows on the assurance 
of emancipation? The knowledge arising out of 
looking back over the course s — that knowledge by 

name of three plants, one of which is the Gaertnera Racemosa, 
much cultivated for the beauty and perfume of its flowers. 

1 The last four are the PaVali, Uppala, Vassika, and 
Malliki, all of which are well known. Our author's flora and 
fauna are so numerous that one ought, if one had the necessary 
knowledge, to be able to draw conclusions as to his own ' habitat.' 

* On the use of upaday' upadaya see above, p. 182, and 
below, p. 34 1 of the Pali. 

s Pa££avekkhana-#&/ta»>. That is, in looking back over the 

[36] Q 



Digitized by 



Google 



226 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, 19. 

which the disciple who is walking along the Excellent 
Way passes, from time to time, both the Way itself 
and the Fruits thereof up to Nirva«a in review, 
and is aware what evil dispositions he has got rid of, 
and what evil dispositions remain to be conquered — 
that is what[330] is called "The jewel of the assurance 
that follows on the knowledge of emancipation." 
" The knowledge by which the Noble Ones know 
The stages they've passed, and the road yet 

untrod ; — 
Strive, O ye sons of the Conqueror, strive 
That jewel — 'Assurance' — yourselves to obtain!" 
19. 'And what, (3 king, is the Blessed One's 
jewel of discrimination ? The discrimination of the 
sense of, and the discrimination of the deeper truths 
underlying the sense of the sacred writ, and the 
discrimination of philological peculiarities, and the 
discrimination of correct and ready exposition 1 . 
And the Bhikkhu, O king, who is adorned with 
these four jewels of discrimination, whatsoever 
company he enters into, whether of nobles, or 
brahmans, or merchants, or workpeople, enters it 
in confidence, neither put out nor shy; undaunted 
and undismayed, he enters the assembly without 
excitement or fear. Just, O king, as a warrior, 
a hero in the fight, when accoutred in all his harness 

course he has followed along the Excellent Way, he becomes 
conscious of having got beyond each of the obstacles (the Sam- 
yo^anas) that can beset him. It is the doctrine of 'final assur- 
ance' from the Buddhist point of view. Compare £&»adassana 
at Digha II, 83. 

1 Pa/isambhidd. Hina/i-kumburS merely repeats the am- 
biguous technical terms of the Pali. Childers, sub voce, gives 
the various interpretations of other authorities. Compare above, 
I, 29, 34, 36. The third and fourth seem to me to be doubtful. 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, 19- OF MILINDA THE KING. 227 

of war 1 , goes down undismayed to the battle, in the 
confident thought : " If the enemy should remain 
afar off I can knock them down with my arrows, 
should they come thence towards me I can hit them 
with my javelins, should they come yet nearer I can 
reach them with my spear, should they come right 
up I can cleave them in two with my sabre *, should 
they come to close quarters I can pierce them 
through and through with my dagger 3 " — just so, 
O king, does the Bhikkhu, when he wears the 
fourfold jewel of discernment, enter any assembly 
undismayed, in the confident thought : " Should 
any one put to me a puzzle turning on the dis- 
crimination of the sense, I shall be able to explain 
it, comparing sense with sense, explanation with 
explanation, reason with reason, argument with 
argument 4 , — and thus shall I resolve his doubts, 

1 Pa#££vudho; literally 'with the five weapons on.' The ex- 
pression is not infrequent; compare pa#££vudha-sannaddha, 
used of a hunter, at Gataka III, 467 ; IV, 283, 437 ; and san- 
naddha-pa#££vudha, used of sailors fighting, at GStakalV, 160. 
But it is quite possible that weapons different from those here 
described are there meant, as they are not suited, for instance, 
to the hunter. 

* Hina/i-kumburfi translates this weapon (ma«</alagga) simply 
by karfuwa, sword ; but ' bent blade ' must mean a sabre. 

8 A'^uriki. Cbilders has only 'knife.' The Sinhalese, p. 493, 
has kirisaya, which is not in Clough, but is doubtless the Malay 
kreese. These five weapons are not mentioned elsewhere, and as 
three of the five words are rare, are probably those in special use 
in the country where our author lived. In this respect it is note- 
worthy that the Sanskrit kshurika is only mentioned, according 
to Bohtlingk-Roth, in the Ra#a Tarangini of Kashmir, and in the 
title of a late Upanishad. We shall therefore scarcely go far wrong 
if we understand by our author's Murika the famous Afghan 
knife. 

* Arthayen arthaya ga/apa, &c, says the Sinhalese. He 

Q2 



Digitized by 



Google 



2 28 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V,ro. 

dispel his perplexity, and delight him by my expo- 
sition of the problem raised. Should any one put 
to me a puzzle turning on discrimination of the 
deeper truths, I shall be able to explain it by 
comparing truth with truth, and the various aspects 
and phases of Arahatship each with each \ [340] — 
and thus his doubts too shall I be able to resolve, 
and, dispelling his perplexity, to delight him with 
my exposition of the problem raised. Should any 
one put to me a puzzle turning on the discrimination 
of philological peculiarities, I shall be able to explain 
it by comparing derivation with derivation 2 , and word 
with word, and particle with particle, and letter with 
letter, and one modification of a letter by contact 
(sandhi) with another, and consonant with consonant, 
and vowel with vowel, and accent (intonation) with 
accent, and quantity with quantity, and rule with 
rule, and idiom with idiom ; — and thus his doubts 
too shall I be able to resolve, and, dispelling his 
perplexity, to delight him with my exposition of the 
problem raised. Should any one put to me a puzzle 
turning on the discrimination of expositions, I shall 
be able to explain it by comparing metaphor with 
metaphor, and characteristic with characteristic 3 , and 
sentiment with sentiment — and thus his doubts too 
shall I be able to resolve, and, dispelling his per- 
plexity, to delight him with my exposition of the 



will reply by adducing parallel passages, much in the style of 
modern scholarship. 

1 He gives the principal ones, as set out in his previous argu- 
ments. 

* N irutti. Hina/i-kumbure unfortunately simply repeats all these 
technical terms. 

* Lakkhawa. As for instance above, I, 51-62. 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, at. OF MILINDA THE KING. 229 

problem raised. And this, O king, is what is called 
" The Blessed One's jewel of discrimination." 
" First buy the jewel of discrimination, 
Then cut 1 it with your knowledge and your 

skill ; 
So, free from all anxiety and fear, 
Shall you illuminate both earth and heaven ! " 

20. 'And what, O king, is the Blessed One's 
jewel of the sevenfold wisdom of the Arahats ? It 
is self-possession, and investigation of the system of 
doctrine, and zeal, and joy, and tranquillity, and 
contemplation, and equanimity 2 . And the Bhikkhu, 
O king, who is adorned with this sevenfold jewel of 
the divisions of the higher wisdom 8 shines forth 
over the whole world of gods and men, brightens 
it, illuminates it, and dispersing the darkness makes 
the light arise. This, O king, is what is called 
" The Blessed One's jewel of the sevenfold wisdom." 
" The gods and men in reverence stand up 

To him who wears this wisdom-diadem. 

Show your good actions then, — that is the price, — 

And buy, and wear, this wisdom-diadem ! " ' 

[341] 21. 'And what, venerable Nagasena, is the 
bazaar for all manner of merchandise set up by the 
Blessed One, the Buddha ? ' 

' The Blessed One's bazaar for all manner of 

1 Phaseyya ; literally 'he who having bought pa/isambhida 
shall touch it with his fla»a.' The Sinhalese, p. 494, has span a- 
ko/a, which does not help us. 

* The Sinhalese again only repeats these seven technical terms, 
except the second Dhamma-vi^aya, which it renders by pT&gHi. 

* Bodhi. Childers says, 'the supreme knowledge of a Buddha.' 
But this is wrong, as is evident even from the context here. The 
whole exposition is of Arahatship, not Buddhahood. 



Digitized by 



Google 



23O THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, ai. 

merchandise, O king, is the ninefold word of the 
Buddha ; and the relics remaining of his body, 
and of the things he used ; and the sacred mounds 
(A!"etiyani, Dagabas) erected over them 1 ; and the 
jewel of his Order. And in that bazaar there are 
set out by the Blessed One the attainment (in 
a future birth) of high lineage, and of wealth, and 
of long life, and of good health, and of beauty, and 
of wisdom, and of worldly glory, and of heavenly 
glory, and of Nirvawa. And of these all they who 
desire either the one or the other, give Karma as the 
price, and so buy whichever glory they desire. And 
some buy with it a vow of right conduct, and some 
by observance of the Uposatha day, and so on 
down to the smallest Karma-price they buy the 
various glories from the greatest to the least. Just, 
O king, as in a trader's shop, oil, seed, and peas and 
beans can be either taken in barter for a small 
quantity of rice or peas or beans, or bought for 
a small price decreasing in order according to re- 
quirement — just so, O king, in the Blessed One's 
bazaar for all manner of merchandise advantages 
are to be bought for Karma according to requirement. 
And this, O king, is what is called "The Blessed One's 
bazaar of all manner of merchandise." 
" Long life, good health, beauty, rebirth in heaven, 
High birth, Nirva#a — all are found for sale — 
There to be bought for Karma, great or small — 
In the great Conqueror's world-famed bazaar. 
Come ; show your faith, O brethren, as the price, 
Buy and enjoy such goods as you prefer * ! " 

1 Htna/i-kumburS, characteristically enough for a Ceylon man, 
adds, ' and the Footprint and the Bo-tree.' 
1 The first line only of these verses is in the Samyutta III, 2, 7. 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, 22. OF MILINDA THE KING. 23 1 

22. 'And the inhabitants that dwell in the Blessed 
One's City of Righteousness, O king, are such as 
these : Masters in the Suttantas, and masters in the 
Vinaya, and masters in the Abhidhamma ; preachers 
of the faith ; repeaters of the <7atakas, and repeaters 
of the Digha, and repeaters of the Magg^ima, [342] 
and repeaters of the Sawyutta, and repeaters of the 
Aiiguttara, and repeaters of the Khuddaka Nikaya ; 
— men endowed with right conduct, men accom- 
plished in meditation, men full of knowledge, men 
taking delight in contemplation of the sevenfold 
wisdom of the Arahats, men of insight ' ; — men who 
frequent the woods for meditation, or sit at the 
roots of trees, or dwell in the open air, or sleep on 
heaps of straw, or live near cemeteries, or lie not 
down to sleep, — men who have entered the Excellent 
Way 2 , men who have attained one or more of the 
four fruits thereof, men who are still learners (have 
not yet reached Arahatship, but are close upon it), 
men enjoying the Fruits, that is, either Sotapannas, 
or Sakadagamins, or Anagamins, or Arahats ; — men 
of the threefold wisdom 8 , men of the sixfold tran- 
scendental wisdom 4 , men of the power of Iddhi, men 
who have reached perfection in knowledge, men 

1 VipassakS, not necessarily the insight of the Arahats, as 
Childers says. We have seen Vipassana" ascribed above, p. 16 
(of the Pali), to a SotSpanno. 

1 Pa/ipannaka; so the Sinhalese, p. 496 (but see otherwise 
below, V, 2 1, p. 344 of the Pali). 

' Teviggi, having the pubbe-nivasSnussati-#£«a, the £etopa- 
riya-#&»a, and the asavSnam khaya-Mna. See Digha Nikaya 
II, 91-94 and 97. 

4 These are the last three, and besides them the so-called 
Divine Eye, and Divine Ear, and also the power of Iddhi. See 
Digha Nikaya II, 87-90, 95-96. 



Digitized by 



Google 



232 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, 33. 

skilled in the maintenance of constant self-possession, 
in the Great Struggle, in the Steps to Iddhi, in the 
Organs of their moral sense, in the sevenfold wisdom, 
in the Excellent Way, in G/t&na., in Vimokkha, and 
in the attainment of the exalted and tranquil bliss 
that is independent of form or the absence of form 
— yea! like a forest full of bamboos, full of reeds, that 
City of Righteousness has been ever crowded and 
frequented by such Arahats as these ! For it is said * : 

(1) " Men devoid of passion, and of malice, and of 
dullness, men in whom the Great Evils (lust, becom- 
ing, delusion, and ignorance) are not, men who have 
neither craving thirst, nor grasping desires, — these 
are they who dwell in the City of Righteousness. 

(2) " Men whose home is the forest, men who have 
taken on themselves the extra vows, men full of joy, 
men who are wearing rough garments, men rejoicing 
in solitude, heroes — these are they who dwell in the 
City of Righteousness. 

(3) " Men who sleep sitting, or on any sleeping-place 
that comes, or spend their time standing or walking 
up and down in meditation, men who clad themselves 
in cast-off raiment — all these dwell in the City of 
Righteousness. 

(4) " Men wearing the full set of three robes, tran- 
quil, with a skin for the fourth, who rejoice in 
taking but one meal each day, the wise — these are 
they who dwell in the City of Righteousness. 

(5) " The earnest and prudent, heroes who feed 
on little and know no greed, content whether they 
receive an alms or receive it not — these are they 
who dwell in the City of Righteousness. 

1 It is not known in what text 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, 22. OF MILINDA THE KING. 233 

(6) " The meditative, delighting in Ghknz., heroes 
of tranquil minds, and stedfast, looking forward to 
Nirva»a — these are they who dwell in the City of 
Righteousness. 

(7) " Men walking in the path, and standing in the 
fruits thereof, those who have attained some fruits 
thereof but are yet learners as to the last, whose 
hope is directed to the utmost goal — these are they 
who dwell in the City of Righteousness. 

(8) " Those who have entered the stream, and 
those who, free from stains, will only be reborn 
once more on earth, those who will never return 
again, and Arahats — these are they who dwell in the 
City of Righteousness. 

(9) " Those skilled in the means of attaining 
undisturbed self-possession, and rejoicing in con- 
templation on the sevenfold wisdom, those who are 
full of insight, and bear the words of the Dharma in 
their hearts — these are they who dwell in the City 
of Righteousness. 

[343] (10) " Those skilled in the Steps to Iddhi, 
and rejoicing in the meditations of Samadhi, those 
who are devoted to the Great Struggle — these are 
they who dwell in the City of Righteousness. 

(n) "Those perfect in the sixfold wisdom of the 
Abhi##as, delighting in the sphere that is theirs by 
rightful inheritance 1 , those having the power of flying 
through the air — these are they who dwell in the City 
of Righteousness. 

(12) " Those of downcast eyes, and measured 
speech, the doors of whose senses are guarded, who 

1 Petti ke goiare rati. That is in the four Sati-pa/MSnas. 
See the passage quoted below at VII, 1, 7, p. 368 of the Pali. 



Digitized by 



Google 



234 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, 33. 

are self-restrained, who are well trained according 
to the supreme Dhamma — these are they who dwell 
in the City of Righteousness. 

(13) " Those of the threefold wisdom, and of the 
sixfold wisdom, those who have become perfect in 
Iddhi and perfect in knowledge — these are they who 
dwell in the City of Righteousness." 

23. ' And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhik- 
khus who carry in their hearts the words of the 
excellent knowledge that is immeasurable, who are 
free from bonds, whose goodness and fame and 
power and glory no man can weigh, who (in imita- 
tion of their Master) * keep the royal chariot-wheel 
of the kingdom of righteousness rolling on, who have 
reached perfection in knowledge — such Bhikkhus are 
called, O king, " The Commanders of the Faith in 
the Blessed One's City of Righteousness." 

' And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus, 
who have the power of Iddhi, who have learned the 
discriminations 2 , who are full of confidence, who 
travel through the air, who are hard to oppose, hard to 
overcome, who can move without support, who can 
shake the broad earth and the waters on which it 
rests, who can touch the sun and the moon, who are 
skilful in transforming themselves and in making 
stedfast resolutions and high aspirations, who are 
perfect in Iddhi — such Bhikkhus are called, O king, 
" The royal chaplains in the Blessed One's City of 
Righteousness." 

' And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus 
who have taken upon themselves the extra vows, 



1 AnuppavattakS. See below, p. 363 of the Pall 
* See above, V, 19. 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, 33. OF MILINDA THE KING. 235 

who desire little and are content, who would loathe 
any breach of the regulations as to the manner of 
seeking an alms \ and beg straight on from hut to 
hut, as a bee smells flower after flower 2 , and then go 
away into the loneliness of the woods, those who 
are indifferent as to their body and as to life, those 
who have attained to Arahatship, those who place the 
highest value on the virtues of the practice of the 
extra vows — such Bhikkhus are called, O king, 
"The judges in the Blessed One's City of 
Righteousness." 

' And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus 
who are pure and stainless, in whom no evil dis- 
positions are left, who, skilful in the knowledge of 
the fall and rise of beings 8 , have perfected them- 
selves in the Divine Eye — such Bhikkhus are called, 
O king, " The givers of light * in the Blessed One's 
City of Righteousness." 

' And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus 
[344] who are learned in the traditions, who hand 
on what has been handed down, the repeaters of 
the Discourses, and of the Canon Law, and of the 
tables of contents, those who are skilled in the exact 
determination of letters into surds and sonants, into 

1 Importunity, or even attracting attention in any way. See 
above, p. 229 of the Pali. 

* Compare Sigalovada Sutta, p. 365, and Dhammapada, verse 
49: 'As a bee, injuring not the flower or its colour or its scent, 
flies away, taking the nectar, so let a sage go through the 
village.' 

* That is the fall of beings from one state of existence — their 
death in that state in other words — and their rise, their rebirth, 
in another. 

* (zotaka, as a city official, is something akin to torchbearer, 
lamplighter. 



Digitized by 



Google 



236 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES 



23- 



longs and short, as to lightness and heaviness 1 , 
those who know by heart the ninefold word — such 
Bhikkhus are called, O king, " The peace officers * 
in the Blessed One's City of Righteousness." 

' And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus 
who are learned in the Vinaya (Rules of the Order, 
Canon Law), wise in the Vinaya, skilled in detecting 
the source of offences 3 , skilled in deciding whether 
any act is an offence or not, whether an offence is 
grievous or slight, whether it can be atoned for or 
not, skilled in deciding questions as to the rise, the 
acknowledgment, the absolution, or the confession 
of an offence 4 ; as to the suspension, or the restora- 
tion, or the defence of an offender *, who are perfect 
masters in the Vinaya — such Bhikkhus are called, O 
king, "The Rupa-dakshas 8 in the Blessed One's 
City of Righteousness." 

' And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus 
who wear on their brows the lotus garland of that 
noble Emancipation, who have attained to that 

1 These are six out of the ten divisions of Vyafl^ana-vuddhi, 
mentioned in the verse at Sumangala Vil&sini I, 177. Hfna/i- 
kumburS, p. 501, merely repeats the words. 

* Dhamma-rakkhi, 'dharmikawu iraksha-grahanayehi 
niyuktawu' in the Sinhalese. 

9 Nidana-paMana-kusali; 'Apatti gewa hoera doekwf- 
mehi dakshawu,' says the Sinhalese. 
4 One word, vu//Mna, is here doubtful. 
6 See Mahavagga IX, 4, 9. 10, &c. 

* Literally 'skilled in form, shape, beauty.' The Sinhalese 
repeats this ambiguous expression, adding the qualification am&- 
tyayo, 'ministers, officials.' One would think that these would 
have been the judges, but our author has already made the 
Arahats the judges in his Dhamma-nagara. This only leaves 
him some minor official post to give away to those learned in 
Canon Law, and he has chosen one as unintelligible in Ceylon as 
it is to me. 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, 23. OF MILINDA THE KING. 237 

highest and best and most exceeding excellent of 
all conditions, who are loved and longed for by 
the great multitudes — such Bhikkhus are called, O 
king, " Flower-sellers in the Blessed One's City of 
Righteousness." 

' And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus 
who have penetrated to the comprehension of the 
four Truths, and have seen them with their eyes, 
who are wise in the teaching, who have passed 
beyond doubt as to the four fruits of Sama#aship, 
who having attained to the bliss thereof, share those 
fruits with others who have entered the paths' — 
such Bhikkhus are called, O king, " Fruit-dealers in 
the Blessed One's City of Righteousness." 

' And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus 
who, being anointed with that most excellent per- 
fume of right conduct, are gifted with many and 
various virtues, and are able to dispel the bad 
odour of sin and evil dispositions — such Bhikkhus 
are called, O king, " Perfume dealers in the Blessed 
One's City of Righteousness." 

' And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus 
whose delight is in the Dhamma, and whose converse 
is pleasant, who find exceeding joy in the higher sub- 
tleties of the Dharma and the Vinaya 2 , who either 
in the forest, or at the foot of trees, or in empty 



1 Pa/ipannS, which Hi na/i-kumburd takes here to mean Arahats, 
but see the note above, V, 20 (p. 341 of the Pali). 

1 Abhidhamme abhivinaye. A phrase very instructive as to 
the correct rendering of the much misunderstood word abhi- 
dhamma. As I pointed out already in the 'Hibbert Lectures' 
for 1 88 1, it is a blunder to translate it, as is usually done, by 
'metaphysics.' The whole context is taken from the Sangtti 
Sutta. 



Digitized by 



Google 



238 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, 23. 

places, drink the sweet sap of the Dharma, who 
plunging themselves, as it were, in body, speech, 
and mind into the sweet juice 1 of the Dharma, excel 
in expounding it, in seeking and in detecting the 
deeper truths in the various doctrines, who — 
wheresoever and whensoever the discourse is of 
wishing for little, of contentment, of solitude, of 
retirement, of the exertion in zeal, of right conduct, 
of meditation, of knowledge, of emancipation, of the 
insight arising from the assurance of emancipation — 
[345] thither do they repair, and drink in the sweet 
savour of that discourse — such Bhikkhus are called, 
O king, "Thirsty and drunkards in the Blessed 
One's City of Righteousness." 

' And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus 
who are addicted to the habit of wakefulness from the 
first watch of the night to the last, who spend day 
and night in sitting, standing, or walking up and 
down in meditation, who, addicted to the habit of 
contemplation, are devoted to their own advance- 
ment by the suppressing of evil dispositions — such 
Bhikkhus are called, O king, " Watchmen in the 
Blessed One's City of Righteousness." 

' And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus 
who in the spirit and in the letter, in its arguments 
and explanations, in its reasons and examples, teach 
and repeat, utter forth and recapitulate the ninefold 
word of the Buddha — such Bhikkhus are called, O 
king, "Lawyers (dealers in Dharma *) in the Blessed 
One's City of Righteousness." 

1 'The ambrosia of the Saddharma,' says Hfna/i-kumbur&, 

p. 5°«- 

8 Dhammapamka. The Sinhalese has Dharmikapani- 
kayo. 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, 24- F MILINDA THE KING. 239 

' And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus 
who are wealthy and rich in the wealth of the treasures 
of the Doctrine, in the wealth of the traditions, and 
the text, and the learning thereof, who comprehend 
the signs, and vowels, and consonants thereof, in 
all their details, pervading all directions with their 
knowledge — such Bhikkhus are called, O king, 
" Bankers of the Dhamma 1 in the Blessed One's 
City of Righteousness." 

' And furthermore, O king, those of the Bhikkhus 
who have penetrated to the sublimer teaching, who 
understand exposition and the divisions of objects of 
meditation to be practised, who are perfect in all 
the subtler points of training 2 — such Bhikkhus are 
called, O king, " Distinguished masters of law in 
the Blessed One's City of Righteousness." 

24. * Thus well planned out, O king, is the 
Blessed One's City of Righteousness, thus well 
built, thus well appointed, thus well provisioned, 
thus well established, thus well guarded, thus well 
protected, thus impregnable by enemies or foes. 
And by this explanation, O king, by this argu- 
ment, by this reason, you may by inference know 
that the Blessed One did once exist. 
(1) "As when they see a pleasant city, well planned 
out, 
Men know, by inference, how great the founder 

was ; 
So when they see our Lord's ' City of Righteous- 
ness' 
They know, by inference, that he did once 
exist. 

1 Dhamma-se/Mino, which the Sinhalese repeats. 

* Adhistla, adhi£itta, and adhipad£&, says Hina/i-kumburS. 



Digitized by 



Google 



240 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, 34. 

[346] (2) "As men, seeing its waves, can judge, by 

inference, 
The great extent and power of the world-em- 
bracing sea ; 
So may they judge the Buddha when they see 

the waves 
That he set rolling through the world of gods 

and men — 
He who, unconquered in the fight, allays all 

griefs, 
Who rooted out, in his own heart, Craving's 

dread power, 
And set his followers free from the whirlpool 

of rebirths — 
' Far as the waves of the Good- Law extend and 

roll, 
So great, so mighty, must our Lord, the Buddha, 

be.' 

(3) "As men, seeing its mighty peaks that tower 

aloft, 
Can judge, by inference, Himalaya's wondrous 

height ; 
So when they see the Buddha's Mount-of- Right- 
eousness — 
Stedfast, unshaken by fierce passion's stormy 

blasts, 
Towering aloft in wondrous heights of calm 

and peace, 
Where lusts, evil, and Karma cannot breathe or 

live, — 
They draw the inference : ' Great as this 

mountain high 
That mighty Hero's power upon whose word 

it stands.' 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



V, 24- OF MILINDA THE KING. 24I 

(4) " As men, seeing the footprint of an elephant 

king, 
Can judge, by inference : ' How great his size 

must be ! ' 
So when they see the footprint of the elephant 

of men, 
Buddha, the wise, upon the path that men have 

trod, 
They know, by inference : ' How glorious 

Buddha was * ! ' 

(5) " As when they see all living things crouching in 

fear, 
Men know : ' 'Tis the roar of the king of the 

beasts that frightens them.' 
So, seeing other teachers break and fly in 

fear, 
They know : ' 'Tis a king of the truth hath 

uttered words sublime ! ' 

(6) " Seeing the earth smiling, well watered, green 

with grass, 
Men say : 'A great and pleasant rain hath 

fallen fast' 
So when they see this multitude rejoicing, 

peaceful, blest, 
Men may infer : ' How sweet the rain that 

stilled their hearts ! ' 

(7) " Seeing the wide earth soaked, boggy, a marsh 
of mud, 
Men say : ' Mighty the mass of waters broken 
loose.' 



1 It is perhaps such poetical figures as this that have afforded 
foundation for the legend of Buddha's footprint. 

[36] R 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



242 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES V, 25. 

So, when they see this mighty host, that once 

were dazed 
With the mud of sin, swept down in Dhamma's 

stream, and left 
In the wide sea of the Good-Law, some here, 

some there, 
All, gods and men alike, plunged in ambrosial 

waves, 
They may infer, and say : ' How great that 

Dhamma is ! ' 

(8) [347] " As when men, travelling, feel a glorious 
perfume sweet 

Pervading all the country side, and gladdening 
them, infer at once, 

'Surely, 'tis giant forest trees are flowering 
now!' 

So, conscious of this perfume sweet of righteous- 
ness 

That now pervades the earth and heavens, 
they may infer: 

'A Buddha, infinitely great, must once have 
lived!"' 

25. ' And it would be possible, O king, to show 
forth the Buddha's greatness, by a hundred or a 
thousand such examples, such reasons, such argu- 
ments, such metaphors. Just, O king, as a clever 
garland maker will, from one heap of all kinds of 
flowers, both following the instruction of his teacher, 
and also using his own individuality as a man, make 
many variegated and beautiful bouquets, — just so, 
O king, that Blessed One is, as it were, an infinite, 
immeasurable, heap of variegated flowers of virtue. 
And I now, a garland maker, as it were in the 



Digitized by 



Google 



V, as- OF MILINDA THE KING. 243 

church of the Conqueror, stringing those flowers 
together, — both following the path of our teachers 
of old, and also using such power of wisdom as in 
me is, — could show forth by inference the power of 
the Buddha in innumerable similes. But you, on 
the other hand, must show a desire to hear them '.' 
' Hard would it be, Nagasena, for any other men 
thus to have shown by inference, drawn from such 
examples, the power of the Buddha. I am filled 
with satisfaction, venerable Nagasena, at your so 
perfectly varied exposition of this problem.' 



Here ends the problem of Inference 1 



1 The Sinhalese is here much expanded. 

2 Mr. Trenckner reads 'Anum&na pa.Hha.rn,' the Sinhalese 
has 'Mahd AnumSna Prajnayayi.' 



R 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



244 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, I. 



BOOK VI. 

THE DHUTANGAS. 

[348] i . The king saw Bhikkhus in the forest, lone 
And far away from men, keeping hard vows. 
And then he saw too householders, at home, 
Eating the sweet fruits of the Noble Path \ 
Considering both of these, deep doubts he felt. 
' If laymen also realise the Truth 
Then surely vowing vows must be in vain. 
Come ! let me ask that best of teachers, wise 
In the threefold basket of the Buddha's words, 
Skilled to o'erthrow the arguments of the foe. 
He will be able to resolve my doubts ! ' 



2. Now Milinda the king went up to the place 
where Nagasena was, and bowed down before him, 
and took his seat on one side. And when so seated, 
he said to Nagasena : ' Venerable Nagasena, is 
there any layman living at home, enjoying the 
pleasures of sense, occupying a dwelling encumbered 
with wife and children, enjoying the use of sandal 
wood from Benares, and of garlands, perfumes, and 
ointments, accepting gold and silver, with an em- 
broidered head-dress on, set with diamonds and 
pearls and gold — is there any such who has seen face 
to face the calm, the supreme good, Nirvi«a ? ' 

' Not one hundred only, O king, nor two nor 

1 'Standing in the Fruit of the An&g&mins.' So they had 
already reached the third stage in the Excellent Way. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VI, a. OF MILINDA THE KINO. 245 

three nor five nor six hundred, not a thousand only, 
nor a hundred thousand, nor ten millions, nor ten 
thousand millions, not even only a billion laymen 
(have seen Nirva»a) — not to speak of twenty or 
thirty or a hundred or a thousand who have attained 
to clear understanding (of the four Truths) \ By 

1 I take this to mean, 'Not to speak of comparatively small 
numbers who have experienced Abhisamaya, an innumerable 
host of laymen have reached Nirvana — that is, have reached, and 
during their lives remained in, the third stage of the Path, and 
attained Arahatship just before they died. Abhisamaya is 
used either absolutely or in composition. Mdn&bhisamaya (A. 
IV, 38, 5=M. I, 12) certainly, and perhaps Atthibhisamaya, 
is used of Arahats, but they do not occur in our author. He uses 
occasionally Dhamm&bhisamaya (see pp. 255, 350, &c, of the 
P&li) and A'atu-sa444bhisamaya (see pp. 171, 334, &c), but 
more frequently Abhisamaya absolutely. Dhamm4bhisamaya, 
' penetration into, clear understanding of, the Dhammas or Dhamma,' 
may refer to the four Dhammas of Ahguttara IV, r (= M. P. S., 
IV, a, 3), or to the comprehension of the qualities (Dhammas) 
of things, or (what is very much the same) to the comprehension 
of the principal doctrine (Dhamma) of the impermanence of all 
things. In the last case it would be the same thing, looked at 
from a slightly different point of view, as the Dhamma-£akkhu, 
the Eye for the Truths (see Sumahgala Vildsint I, 237), or as that 
insight (Vipassana) which is the entrance to the Path. But the 
four Truths (as to sorrow, &c.) are also important Dhammas, 
and as the expression JTatu-salHbhisamaya clearly refers to 
them and them only, this may also be the meaning of dhammd- 
bhisamaya, or at any rate of abhisamaya standing above. 
So at least I take the latter here. We know that the ' Eye for the 
Dhamma,' the perception of the first only of the tf»i lakkha»Sni 
(impermanence), implies and involves the entrance into the Path. 
Oddly enough there is as yet no evidence to show whether the 
perception of the cardinal doctrine of the four Truths neces- 
sarily does so too; or can do so alone, without the Dhamma- 
lakkhu. If the latter, then there are two gates to the Path. And 
this is not only quite possible, but is the inference one might fairly 
draw from the constant phrase ' After the exposition of the Truths 
had concluded so and so attained to ' one or other of the phalani. 



Digitized by 



Google 



246 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, 3. 

what kind of exposition shall I lay before you 
evidence showing that I know this l ? ' 

' Do you yourself tell me V 

3. ' Then, O king, I will explain it. All those 
passages in the ninefold word of the Buddha that 
deal with holiness of life, [349] and attainment of 
the path, and the divisions of the excellent habit of 
living under vows, shall be brought to bear in this 
connection 3 . Just, O king, as water which has 
rained down upon a country district, with both low- 
lying and high places, level land and undulations, 
dry ground and wet, will — all of it — flow off thence 
and meet together in the ocean of great waters ; 
so will all those passages meet together, and be 
brought into connection, here. And a manifestation 
of reasons out of my experience and knowledge 
shall be also brought to bear. Thus will this 
matter be thoroughly analysed, its beauty will be 
brought out*, it will be exhausted 8 , brought home 



1 Literally ' shall I give you anuyoga,' which the Sinhalese 
renders 'opportunity for speech '(!). Above, at p. 10 of the P&li, 
the rendering is quite different, ' pa</am dfsamugeaa.' The only 
translation that fits the context in both of these places (the only 
ones in which the idiom has, so far, been found) is ' lay before you 
(proofs of my) mastery (over the subject),' or something of that 
sort It is a disappointing satisfaction to find that the phrase was 
as unintelligible in Ceylon as it is to us. In my version above 
I should now prefer to write instead of 'repeated his lesson to 
his teacher for the last time,' ' gave his teacher proofs that he had 
understood what he had taught him.' 

* Hina/i-kumburS, p. 508, puts these words into the mouth of 
Nagasena. 

* Literally ' will come into connection here.' 

4 VMitto, which the Sinhalese only repeats. 

8 Paripuwao; literally 'filled' (paripura wanneya). 



Digitized by 



Google 



VI, 4. OF MILINDA THE KING. 247 

to rest 1 . It will be, O king, as when an able 
writing-master, on exhibiting, by request, his skill 
in writing, will supplement the written signs by an 
explanation of reasons out of his experience and 
knowledge, and thus that writing of his becomes 
finished, perfect, without defect. So will I also 
bring to bear a manifestation of reasons out of 
my experience and knowledge ; and thus shall this 
matter be thoroughly analysed, its beauty shall be 
brought out, it shall be exhausted, set at rest 2 . 

4. ' In the city of Savatthi, O king, about fifty 
millions of the disciples of the Blessed One, devout 
men and devout women, were walking in the paths, 
and out of those three hundred and fifty-seven 
thousand 3 were established in the fruit of the third 
path. And all of them were laity, not members of 
the Order. And there too, at the foot of the 
Gawdamba tree, when the double miracle took 
place 4 , two hundred millions of living beings 5 
penetrated to an understanding (of the four Truths). 
And again on the delivery of the Rahulovada" 
discourse, and of the Maha Mangala 7 discourse, 
and of the Sama^itta 8 exposition, and of the 



1 Samanito, ' treated with respectful affection,' says Hlna/i- 
kumburg. 

* I cannot hope to have solved all the difficulties with which 
the last two paragraphs bristle. But I think the general sense is 
clear, and the way smoothed for future translators. 

' This curious number (like others below) must have a history 
and a meaning. 

* See Sumangala Vilasini, p. 57 ; Gataka I, 77, 78 ; IV, 263-266. 

* Mostly gods of one sort or another. 

* See the note above on I, 32 (p. 20 of the Pali). 
7 In the Sutta Nip&la II, 4. 

* See the note above, loc. cit. 



Digitized by 



Google 



248 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, 4. 

Parabhava 1 discourse, and of the Puribheda* dis- 
course, and of the Kalaha-vivada discourse, and of 
the A'ula-vyuha 1 discourse, and of the Maha-vyuha 1 
discourse, and of the Tuwa/aka 1 discourse, and of 
the Sariputta 1 discourse, an innumerable number of 
celestial beings penetrated to knowledge (of the four 
Truths). In the city of Ra^agaha three hundred and 
fifty thousand devout laymen and devout laywomen, 
disciples of the Blessed One, were walking in the 
Paths. And there again at the taming of Dhana- 
pala the great elephant 3 nine hundred million living 
beings, and again at the meeting at the Pas£«ika 
A'etiya on the occasion of the Parayana discourse 4 
one hundred and forty million living beings, and again 
at the Indasala cave eight hundred millions of gods, 
and again at Benares [350] in the deer park 
Isipatana at the first preaching of the Dhamma 5 
one hundred and eighty million Brahma gods and 
innumerable others, and again in the heaven of 
the Thirty-Three at the preaching of the Abhi- 
dhamma on the Pandu Kambala Rock 9 eight hundred 
millions of the gods, and on the descent from the 
world of the gods at the gate of the city of Sankassa 8 , 
at the miracle of the manifestation to the world ', 



1 In the A/Makavagga of the Sutta Nipata. 

* Sutta Nipata I, 6. 

5 See the note above on IV, 4, 44 (p. 207 of the Pali), also 
below, p. 410 of the Pali. 

* Sutta Nip&ta, pp. 185, 205 (of Professor Fausboll's edition for 
the PSIi Text Society). 

* See 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 154, and the note above on I, 38. 

* Gataka IV, 265. 

T Loka-vivara»a-pa/ihariye, referred to at DS/tfavarasa II, 
1 20. The exact meaning of the second word, literally ' uncovering,' 



Digitized by 



Google 



VI, 4. OF MILINDA THE KING. 249 

three hundred millions of believing men and deities 
penetrated to a knowledge (of the four Truths). 
And again at Kapila-vatthu among the Sakyas, 
at the preaching of the Buddhava/»sa 1 in the 
Nigrodha Arama, and again at the preaching of 
the Maha Samaya Suttanta 2 , gods in numbers 
that cannot be counted penetrated to a knowledge 
of the Dhamma. And again at the assemblies on 
the occasions of Sumana the garland maker 3 , and of 
Garahadinna, and of Ananda the rich man, and of 
Cambuka the naked ascetic 4 , and of Mandtika. the 
god, and of Ma//a-ku«</ali the god, and of Sulasa 
the courtesan 6 , and of Sirima the courtesan, and of 
the weaver's daughter, and of Subhadda, and of the 
spectacle of the cremation of the Brahman of Saketa, 
and of the Suniparantas, and of the problem put by 
Sakka 6 , and of the Tirokud&fe Sutta 7 , and of the 
Ratana Sutta 8 — at each of these eighty-four thousand 
penetrated to a knowledge of the Dhamma. So 
long, O king, as the Blessed One remained in the 
world, so long wheresoever in the three great divisions 

is doubtful. Alwis, in another connection, renders it ' prosperity.' 
See his quotation from Buddhaghosa's Papaȣa Sudani quoted by 
Childers sub voce. The Sinhalese has rupa-kaya-sampat 
dakwa dakwa, 'continually manifesting (to all the world) the 
glory of his outward form.' 

1 See the commentary on that work quoted by Dr. Morris in 
his edition for the Pali Text Society, pp. viii-x. 

* See the opening words of that discourse, No. 20 in the Digha, 
in Grimblot. 

* See above, pp. 115, 291 of the Pali. 

* Compare Thera Gatha 283-286. 

* Her whole story is given, Gataka III, 435 foil. 

* The account of which is in the Digha, No. 21. 

7 In the Khuddaka Pa/to. 

8 In the Sutta Nipata and Khuddaka Pa//4a. 



Digitized by 



Google 



25O THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, 5. 

(of India) 1 or in the sixteen principal countries (in 
them) 2 he stayed, there, as a usual thing, two, three, 
four, or five hundred, or a thousand, or a hundred 
thousand, both gods and men, saw face to face the 
calm, the supreme good, Nirva#a. And all of those 
who were gods, O king, were laymen. They had 
not entered the Order. So these and many other 
billions of gods, O king, — even while they were yet 
laymen, living at home, enjoying the pleasures of 
sense, — saw face to face (realised in themselves) the 
condition of Peace, the Supreme Good, Nirva#a V 

5. ' If so, venerable Nagasena, — if laymen, living 
at home and enjoying the pleasures of sense, can see 
Nirva#a, — what purpose then do these extra vows 
serve ? That being so, rather must [351] the vows 
be workers of mischief. For, Nagasena, if diseases 
would abate without medicine, what would be the 
advantage of weakening the body by emetics, by 
purges, and other like remedies ? — if one's enemies 
could be subdued with one's fists only, where would 
be the need of swords and spears, of javelins and 
bows and cross-bows, of maces and of clubs ? — if 
trees could be climbed by clambering up them 
with the aid of the knots and of the crooked and 
hollow places in them, of the thorny excrescences 
and creepers and branches growing on them, what 
would be the need of going in quest of ladders long 
and strong ? — if sleeping on the bare ground gave 

1 That is, Palfna, Avanti, and Dakkhin&patha (say the East, the 
Upper Ganges Valley, and the Dekkan). 

* The full list is given in the note at ' Viniya Texts,' II, 146. 

' This Buddhist way of looking on the gods as laymen has been 
already referred to above in the note on p. 20 of the Pali, I, 32 
of the translation. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VT,6. OF MILINDA THE KING. 25 1 

ease to the limbs \ why should one seek after fine 
large beds, soft to the touch ? — if one could cross 
the desert alone, inaccessible though it be, and full 
of danger and fear, why need one wait for a grand 
caravan, well armed and well equipped ? — if a man 
were able by his own arms to cross a flowing river, 
what need he care for firm dykes or boats ? — if he 
could provide board and lodging for himself out of 
his own property, why should he trouble to do 
service to others, to flatter with sweet words, to 
run to and fro ? — when he can get water from 
a natural pool, why should he dig wells and tanks 
and artificial ponds ? And just so, venerable Naga- 
sena, if laymen, living at home and enjoying the 
pleasures of sense, can realise in themselves the 
condition of Peace, the Supreme Good, Nirvawa, 
what is the need of taking upon oneself these vows ?' 
6. 'There are, O king, these twenty-eight good 
qualities in the vows, virtues really inherent in 
them ; and on account of these all the Buddhas 
alike have longed for them and held them dear. 
And what are the twenty-eight ? The keeping of 
the vows, O king, implies a mode of livelihood 
without evil, it has a blissful calm as its fruit, it 
avoids blame, it works no harm to others, it is 
free from danger, it brings no trouble on others, 
it is certain to bring with it growth in goodness, 
it wastes not away, it deludes not, it is in itself 
a protection 2 , it works the satisfaction of desires 
and the taming of all beings, it is good for self- 

1 Dhatu-samatl, for which Hina/i-kumbure' (p. 511) has 
Dhatu-samanaya. 

* Hina/i-kumburg, p. 512, takes arakkhd-patthitadadawi as 
one compound. 



Digitized by 



Google 



252 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, 7. 

control, it is appropriate l , (he who keeps the vows) 
is self-dependent 2 , is emancipated 3 , the keeping of 
them is the destruction of lust, and of malice, and of 
dullness ; it is the pulling away of pride, the cutting 
off of evil thoughts, the removal of doubts, the 
suppression of sloth, the putting away of discontent ; 
it is long-suffering, its merit is beyond weight, and 
its virtue beyond measure, and it is the path that 
leads to the end of every grief. These, O king, 
are the twenty-eight good qualities in the vows; 
[352] and it is on account of these that all the 
Buddhas alike have longed for them and held them 
dear. 

7. 'And whosoever, O king, thoroughly carry out 
the vows, they become completely endowed with 
eighteen good qualities. What are these eighteen ? 
Their walk is pure, their path is accomplished, well 
guarded are they in deed and word, altogether pure 
are they in manners and in mind, their zeal flags not, 
all their fears are allayed, all delusions (as to the 
permanence and as to the degree) of their indi- 
viduality have been put away, anger has died away 
while love (to all beings) * has arisen in their hearts, 
in taking nourishment they eat it with the three 
right views regarding food 6 , they are honoured of 

1 Pa/irupam, probably 'to the life of a recluse,' but the Sin- 
halese takes it to mean ' to the doctrine ' (s as an a). 

' Anissitaw. See the note above on the translation of p. 321 
of the Pali. 'Independent of craving' (tr/'shwa), says the Siw- 
halese. 

* Vippamuttaw. Of tr»'sh»a, says the Sinhalese again. 

* Metta, which always has the connotation. Hina/i-kumbure* 
accordingly renders it sakala-satwayan kerehi maitreya. 

* Aharo pariafnato. The three right views are, 1 as to its 
nature, 2 as to its impurity, 3 as to the lust of taste. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VI, 9- OF MILINDA THE KING. 253 

all men, they are temperate in eating, they are full 
of watchfulness, they need no home, wheresoever is 
a pleasant spot there do they dwell, they loathe to 
do ill, they take delight in solitude, they are in 
earnest always. These, O king, are the good 
qualities with which they who carry out the vows 
are completely endowed. 

8. 'And these ten, O king, are the individuals 
worthy of those advantages inherent in the vows — 
the man full of faith, ashamed to do wrong, full of 
courage, void of hypocrisy, master of himself, not 
unstable', desirous to learn, glad to undertake the 
task that is hard, not easy to take offence, of a loving 
heart. These, O king, are the ten individuals worthy 
of those advantages inherent in the vows. 

9. ' And all they, O king, who as laymen, living 
at home and in the enjoyment of the pleasures of 
sense, realise in themselves the condition of Peace, 
the Supreme Good, Nirva#a, — all they had in former 
births accomplished their training, laid the founda- 
tion, in the practice of the thirteen vows, had purified 
their walk and conduct by means of them ; and so 
now, even as laymen, living at home and in the 
enjoyment of the pleasures of sense, do they realise 
in themselves the condition of Peace, the Supreme 
Good, Nirva«a. Just, O king, as a clever archer first 
in regular succession teaches his pupils at the training 
ground the different kinds of bows, the manner 
of holding the bow up, and of keeping it in a firm 
grasp, and of bending the fingers, and of planting the 
feet, and of taking up the arrow, and of placing it on 



1 Alolo, 'not greedy after the four requisites of a recluse,' 
says the Sinhalese, p. 514. 



Digitized by 



Google 



254 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, 10. 

the string, and of drawing it back, and of restraining 
it, and of aiming at the mark, and thus of hitting 1 a 
man of straw, or targets made of the A^a»aka plant 2 , 
or of grass, or of straw, or of masses of clay, or of 
shields 8 — and after that, introducing them to the 
service of the king, he gains the reward of high-bred 
chargers and chariots and elephants and horses and 
money and corn and red gold and slave girls and 
slaves and wives and lands. [353] Just so, O king, 
all they who as laymen, living at home in the enjoy- 
ment of the pleasures of sense, realise in themselves 
the condition of Peace, the Supreme Good, Nirva»a, 
— all they had in former births accomplished their 
training, laid the foundation, in the practice of the 
thirteen vows, had purified their walk and conduct 
by means of them ; and so now, even as laymen, 
and living at home in the enjoyment of the pleasures 
of sense, do they realise in themselves the condition 
of Peace, the Supreme Good, Nirvawa. 

10. 'And there is no realisation of Arahatship, O 
king, in one single life, without a previous keeping 
of the vows. Only on the utmost zeal and the most 
devoted practice of righteousness, and with the aid 
of a suitable teacher, is the realisation of Arahatship 
attained. Just, O king, as a doctor or surgeon first 
procures for himself a teacher, either by the payment 
of a fee or by the performance of service, and then 

1 Vedhe. I follow Mr. Trenckner, but the Sinhalese translation 
is based on the reading Vede. 

* The Sinhalese takes this word in composition with the 
following ti»a and spells it Ganakaya. Compare Aanaka, 'a 
chick pea.' 

* Phalaka. But Hina/i-kumburfi, p. 514, takes it in the 
technical sense of a kind of rough roller, made of the wood apple 
tree (dimbul poru), and used for levelling rice-fields. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VI, is. OF MILINDA THE KING. 255 

thoroughly trains himself in holding the lancet, in 
cutting, marking, or piercing with it, in extracting 
darts, in cleansing wounds, in causing them to dry 
up, in the application of ointments, in the adminis- 
tration of emetics and purges and oily enemas, and 
only when he has thus gone through training, served 
his apprenticeship, made himself skilful, does he visit 
the sick to heal them. Just so, O king, all they who 
as laymen, living at home in the enjoyment of the 
pleasures of sense, realise in themselves the con- 
dition of Peace, the Supreme Good, Nirva»a, — all 
they had in former births accomplished their training, 
laid the foundation, in the practice of the thirteen 
vows, had purified their walk and conduct by means 
of them ; and so now, even as laymen, and living at 
home in the enjoyment of the pleasures of sense, do 
they realise in themselves the condition of Peace, the 
Supreme Good, NirvS«a. 

11. 'And there is no perception of the truth to 
those who are not purified by the virtues that depend 
on the keeping of the vows. Just as without water 
no seed will grow, so can there be no perception of 
the truth to those not purified by the practice of the 
vows. Just as there is no rebirth in bliss to those 
who have done no meritorious actions, no beautiful 
deeds, so is there no perception of the truth for those 
not purified by the practice of the vows. 

1 2. ' Like the broad earth, O king, is the character 
resulting from the keeping of the vows, to serve as a 
basis to those who desire to be pure l . Like water 
is it, O king, to wash away the stain of all things 



'Visuddhi-kdmSnam, which Htna/i-kumbure' characteristically 
renders, 'who desire to attain to Nirva«a' (p. 516). 



Digitized by 



Google 



256 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, ia. 

evil in those who desire to be pure. Like the fire is 
it, O king, to burn out the lust of all evil in those 
who desire to be pure [354]. Like the wind is it, O 
king, to carry away the dust of all evil in those de- 
siring to be pure. Like medicine is it, O king, to 
allay the disease of evil in those desiring to be pure. 
Like ambrosia is it, O king, to act as an antidote to 
the poison of evil in those desiring to be pure. Like 
arable land is it, O king, on which to grow the crop 
of all the virtues of renunciation to those desiring 
to be pure. Like a wishing-gem * is it, O king, for 
conferring all the high attainments they long and 
crave for upon those who desire to be pure. Like 
a boat is it, O king, for carrying to the further shore 
of the mighty ocean of transmigration all those who 
desire to be pure. Like a place of refuge is it, O 
king, where those who desire to be pure can be safe 
from the fear of old age and death. Like a mother 
is it, O king, to comfort those who desire to be pure 
when afflicted with the sorrows of sin. Like a father 
is it, O king, to raise up in those who desire to be pure 
and to increase in goodness all the good qualities of 
those who have renounced the world. Like a friend 
is it, O king, in not disappointing those who desire 
to be pure in their search after the good qualities of 
those who have renounced the world. Like a lotus 
flower, O king, is it, in not being tarnished by the 
stain of evil. Like costly perfume (of saffron and 
of jasmine and the Turkish incense and the Greek) 2 

1 Manoharo. Childers does not give this meaning to the 
word, but it is confirmed by the passages above and below, pp. 
"Hi 358 of the Pali, and by the Sinhalese. 

* jSTatu-^itiya-gandho. The two last are Yavana and 
Tarukkha. Bohtlingk-Roth explain both as Olibanum. Our 



Digitized by 



Google 



VI, I a. OF MILTNDA THE KING. 257 

is it, O king, for counteracting the bad odour of evil 
for those who desire to be pure. Like a lofty moun- 
tain range is it, O king, for protecting those who 
desire to be pure from the onslaught of the winds 
of the eight conditions to which men are subject in 
this world (gain and loss, and fame and dishonour, 
and praise and blame, and happiness and woe) l . 
Like the space of heaven is it, O king, in the freedom 
from all obstruction, in the magnitude, in the great 
expanse and breadth it gives to those who desire to 
be pure. Like a stream is it, O king, in washing 
away for those who desire to be pure the stain of all 
evil. Like a guide is it, O king, in bringing safe 
out of the desert of rebirths, out of the jungle of 
lusts and sins, those who desire to be pure. Like a 
mighty caravan is it, O king, for bringing those who 
desire to be pure safe into that most blessed city of 
Nirva»a, peaceful and calm, where no fear dwells. 
[355] Like a well-polished spotless mirror is it, O 
king, for showing to those who desire to be pure the 
true nature of the constituent elements of all beings. 
Like a shield is it, O king, for warding off from those 
who desire to be pure the clubs and the arrows and 
the swords of evil dispositions. Like a sunshade is 
it, O king, for warding off from those who desire to 
be pure the scorching heat of the threefold fire 2 . Like 

author does not give the details, but it is unlikely that he meant 
other perfumes than those usually comprised in the term ' perfume 
of four kinds/ The expression is not found in the Pi/akas, though 
it occurs in Buddhaghosa; and its use by our author may help to 
setde his date when we know its history, and the exact composition 
of the two foreign perfumes it includes. 

1 The eight Loka-dhammas. 

* That is, of lust, malice, and dullness — that fire the ' going out ' 
of which (in one's heart) is NirvSwa. 

[36] s 



Digitized by 



Google 



258 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, 13. 

the moon is it, O king, as being longed and hoped 
for by those who desire to be pure. Like the sun 
is it, O king, as dispelling the blackness of the dark- 
ness of ignorance for those who desire to be pure. 
Like the ocean is it, O king, as causing to arise in 
those desiring to be pure the costly treasures of the 
virtues of those who have renounced the world, and 
by reason too of its immensity, of its being beyond 
measure and beyond count. 

13. ' Thus is it, O king, of great service to those 
desiring to be pure, a remover of all sorrow and 
lamentation, an antidote to discontent ; it puts an 
end to fear, and individuality, and imperviousness of 
mind ; to evil, and to grief, and to pain, and to lust, 
and to malice, and to dullness, and to pride, and to 
heresy, and to all wrong dispositions ; it brings with 
it honour and advantage and bliss ; it fills them with 
ease and with love and with peace of mind ; it is free 
from blame ; it has happiness here as its fruit ; it is 
a mine and treasure of goodness that is beyond 
measure and beyond count, costly above all things, 
and precious. 

14. 'Just, O king, as men for nourishment seek 
after food, for health medicine, for assistance a friend, 
for crossing water a boat, for pleasant odours a per- 
fume, for security a place of refuge, for support the 
earth, for instruction a teacher, for honours a king, 
and for whatever they desire a wishing-gem — just 
so, O king, do the Arahats seek after the virtues of 
the keeping of the vows for the attainment of all 
the advantages of renunciation of the world. 

15. ' And what water is for the growth of seeds, 
[356] what fire is for burning, what food is for giving 
strength, what a creeper is for tying things up, what: 



Digitized by 



Google 



VI, 15. OF MILINDA THE KING. 259 

a sword is for cutting, what water is for allaying 
thirst, what a treasure is for giving confidence, what 
a boat is for crossing to the further shore, what 
medicine is for allaying disease, what a carriage is 
for journeying at ease, what a place of refuge is for 
appeasing fear, what a king is for protection, what a 
shield is for warding off the blows of sticks and 
stakes, of clubs, of arrows, and of darts, what a 
teacher is for instruction, what a mother is for 
nourishing, what a mirror is for seeing, what a jewel 
is for ornament, what a dress is for clothing, what a 
ladder is for mounting up, what a pair of scales is 
for comparison x , what a charm is for repetition, what 
a weapon is for warding off scorn, what a lamp is for 
dissipating darkness, what a breeze is for allaying 
fever, what knowledge of an art is for the accom* 
plishment of business, what medicinal drugs are for 
the preservation of life, what a mine is for the 
production of jewels, what a gem is for ornament, 
what a command is for preventing transgression, 
what sovranty is for dominion — all that, O king, is 
the character-that-comes-of-keeping-the-vows for the 
good growth of the seed of renunciation, for the 
burning out of the stains of evil, for giving the strength 
of Iddhi, for tying up one's self in self-control and 
presence of mind, for the complete cutting off of 
doubt and mistrust, for allaying the thirst of craving, 
for giving confidence as to perception of the truth, 
for crossing to the further shore of the fourfold 
stream (of sensuality, individuality, delusion, and 
ignorance), for allaying the disease of evil dis- 

1 Nikkhepana; not in Childers, but compare Sawyutta Nikaya 
XX, 22, 6, 

S i 



Digitized by 



Google 



260 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, 15. 

positions, for attaining to the bliss of Nirva«a, for 
appeasing the fears that arise from birth, old age, 
decay and death, grief, pain, lamentation, woe, and 
despair, for being protected in the possession of the 
advantages of renunciation, for warding off discon- 
tent and evil thoughts, for instruction in all the good 
involved in the life of those who have renounced the 
world, for nourishment therein, for explaining to men 
quietude and insight, and the path and the fruits 
thereof and Nirva#a, for bestowing upon men a costly 
ornament high in the praise and admiration of the 
world, for closing the doors of all evil states, for 
mounting up to the peaks of the mountain heights 
of renunciation, for distinguishing crooked and cun- 
ning and evil intentions in others, for the proper 
recitation of those qualities which ought to be 
practised and those which ought not, for warding off 
as one's enemies all evil dispositions, for dissipating 
the darkness of ignorance, for allaying the fever 
arising from the scorching of the threefold fire, for the 
accomplishment of the attainment of the Condition 
of Peace — so gentle and so subtle, — for the protection 
of the virtues of the life of a recluse, for the produc- 
tion of the precious jewels of the Sevenfold wisdom — 
self-possession, investigation of the truth, energy, joy, 
calm contemplation, and serenity, — for the adornment 
of the recluses, for the prevention of any transgres- 
sion against that blameless, , abstruse, delicate bliss 
[357] that comes of peace, for dominion over all the 
qualities that recluses and Arahats affect. Thus, O 
king, is it that keeping the vows is one and the same 
thing as attaining to all these qualities. And the 
advantage thereof, O king, cannot be weighed, 
neither measured ; it has no equal, no rival, no 



Digitized by 



Google 



VI, 16. OF MILINDA THE KING. 26 1 

superior, great is it and glorious, extensive and 
abundant, deep and broad, and large and wide, full 
of weight and worth and might. 

1 6. ' And whosoever, O king, having evil cravings 
in his heart, being hypocritical, greedy, a slave to 
his stomach \ seeking after material gain or worldly 
fame and glory, unfit (for the outward signs of 
Arahatship), not having reached the attainments, 
whose conduct is inconsistent (with membership in 
the Order), unworthy of it, inappropriate to it — who- 
soever being such shall take upon himself the vows, 
he shall incur a twofold punishment, suffering the 
loss of the good that may be in him. For in this 
world he shall receive disgrace, and scorn 2 , and 
blame, and ridicule, and suspension, and excommu- 
nication 8 , and expulsion, and he shall be outcast, 
rejected, dismissed ; and in his next life he shall 
suffer torment in the great Avi/6i purgatory that is 
a hundred leagues in depth, and covered, as with a 
garland, with hot and scorching, fierce and fiery 
blazing flames; therein shall he rise and fall for 
myriads of years, upwards and downwards and 
across, — a foam-bubble, as it were, cast up and 
thrown from side to side in a boiling sea*. And, 
when released from thence, then as a mighty Preta 
(ghost), in the outward form of a monk, but with 

1 Odarika; not in Childers, and only found as yet at this 
passage and at the Thera Gatha, verse ioi. It is the Sanskrit 
audarika. 'Who enters the Order for the sake of his stomach' 
says the Sinhalese, p. 521. 

8 Khi/anaw. Compare khf/ito above, pp. 229, 288 of the 
Pali. 

' Compare the rules at ATullavagga I, 25, 1, &c. 

4 On Phe«-uddehaka« compare G&taka III, 46; on sam- 
parivattakaw above, p. 253 of the Pali. 



Digitized by 



Google 



262 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, 17. 

body and limbs lean and rugged and dark, with head 
swollen \ bloated, and full of holes, hungry and 
thirsty, odd and dreadful in colour and form, his ears 
all torn, and his eyes ever winking, his limbs a mass 
of mortifying sores*, his whole body the prey of 
maggots, his stomach all scorching and hot like a 
fiery furnace blazing in the breeze, yet with a mouth 
no larger than a needle so that his thirst can never 
cease, with no place of refuge to fly to, no protector 
to help him, groaning and weeping and crying out 
for mercy, shall he wander wailing o'er the earth ! 

17. 'Just, O king, as whosoever, being unfit for 
royalty, without having properly attained to it, being 
inappropriate to it, unworthy of it, unsuitable for it, 
a low-born man and base in lineage, should receive 
the consecration of a king, he would suffer mutila- 
tion, having his hands or his feet, or his hands and 
feet cut off, or his ears or his nose, or his ears and 
nose cut off, [358] or he would be tortured, being 
subjected to the Gruel Pot, or to the Chank Crown, 
or to the Rahu's Mouth, or to the Fire Garland, or 
to the Hand Torch, or to the Snake Strips, or to the 
Bark Dress, or to the Spotted Antelope, or to the 
Flesh Hooks, or to the Pennies, or to the Brine 
Slits, or to the Bar Turn, or to the Straw Seat 3 , or 
he would be anointed with boiling oil, or be eaten 
by dogs, or be impaled alive, or be beheaded, or be 
subjected to punishments of various kinds. And 
why ? Because he being unfit for it, without having 
properly attained to it, being inappropriate to it, 
unworthy of it, unsuitable for it, a low-born man 

1 Suna (for juna). See Aullavagga X, i, 2, 3. 

* Aru-gatto pakka-gatto. See Ma^g^ima Nikaya I, 506. 

' On all these see the notes above, I, 276, 277. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VI, 17. OF MILINDA THE KING. 563 

and base in lineage, he had placed himself in the 
seat of sovranty, and thus transgressed beyond his 
right limits. Just so, O king, whosoever having 
evil cravings in his heart, being hypocritical, greedy, 
a slave to his stomach, seeking after material gain 
or worldly fame and glory, unfit (for the outward 
signs of Arahatship), not having reached the attain- 
ments, whose conduct is inconsistent (with member- 
ship in the Order), unworthy of it, inappropriate to 
it — whosoever being such shall take upon himself 
the vows, he shall incur a twofold punishment, suf- 
fering the loss of the good that may be in him. For 
in this world he shall receive disgrace, and scorn, 
and blame, and ridicule, and suspension, and excom- 
munication, and expulsion, and he shall be outcast, 
rejected, dismissed ; and in his next life he shall 
suffer torment in the great Avl^i purgatory that is 
a hundred leagues in depth, and covered, as with a 
garland, with hot and scorching, fierce and fiery 
blazing flames; therein shall he rise and fall for 
myriads of years, upwards and downwards and 
across, — a foam-bubble, as it were, cast up and 
thrown from side to side in a boiling sea. And, 
when released from thence, then as a mighty 
Preta (ghost), in the outward form of a monk, but 
with body and limbs lean and rugged and dark, 
with head swollen, bloated, and full of holes, hungry 
and thirsty, odd and dreadful in colour and form, 
his ears all torn, and his eyes ever winking, his 
limbs a mass of mortifying sores, his whole body 
the prey of maggots, his stomach all scorching and 
hot like a fiery furnace blazing in the breeze, yet 
with a mouth no larger than a needle so that his 
thirst can never cease, with no place of refuge to fly 



Digitized by 



Google 



264 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, 18. 

to, no protector to help him, groaning and weeping 
and crying out for mercy, shall he wander wailing 
o'er the earth ! 

18. ' But whosoever, O king, is fit, who has reached 
the attainments, whose conduct is consistent with 
membership in the Order, who is worthy of it, appro- 
priate to it, who desires little and is content, given to 
seclusion, not fond of society, alert in zeal, resolute of 
heart, without guile, without deceit, not a slave to his 
stomach, seeking neither material gain nor worldly 
fame or glory, full of faith, who has entered the Order 
from belief (in the doctrine, and not from worldly 
motives), and is full of desire for release from old age 
and death — whosoever being such shall take upon 
himself the vows with the idea of upholding the faith, 
he is deserving of twofold honour. For he is near 
and dear to, loved and longed for by both gods and 
men, dear as rare jasmine flowers to the man bathed 
and anointed, as sweet food to the hungry, as cool, 
clear, fragrant water to the thirsty, as a healing drug 
to a poisoned man, as a costly chariot drawn by 
high-bred steeds to the hurrying traveller, as a 
wishing-gem to the greedy for gain, as the pure 
white sunshade of sovranty to one ambitious for a 
throne, as the blessed attainment of the fruits of 
Arahatship to the seeker after holiness. It is he 
who attains to the fullest mastery over the four 
Earnest Meditations, the fourfold Great Struggle, 
the four Roads to Saintship, the five Organs of the 
moral sense, the five moral Powers, the seven 
forms of Wisdom, and the Noble Eightfold Path \ 
quietude and insight reign in his heart, attainment 

1 For the details of these constituent elements of Arahatship, see 
my note in ' Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 60-63. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VI, 19- OF MILINDA THE KING. 265 

through study becomes easy to him, and the four 
fruits of the life of a recluse 1 , [359] the four kinds of 
Discrimination 2 , the threefold Knowledge 3 , the six- 
fold higher Wisdom *, in a word, the whole religion 
of the recluses becomes his very own, an anointed 
king is he, and over him is borne the pure white 
sunshade of emancipation ! 

19. ' Just, O king, as all the citizens and country 
folk in the land, the soldiers and the peons (royal 
messengers), wait in service upon a Kshatriya king, 
born to the purple, and on both sides of lineage 
high, when he has been consecrated with the in- 
auguration ceremonies of the Kshatriyas 8 ; the 
thirty-eight divisions of the royal retinue, and the 
dancing men, and acrobats, and the soothsayers 6 , 



1 These are the four stages of the path to Arahalship. 

* Pa/isambhida — in worldly things, and in religion, in intuitive 
knowledge, and in exposition. 

5 Tisso Viggi. One explanation of this term is the knowledge 
of the three limitations of individuality, — its impermanence, the 
pain involved in the struggle to maintain it, and the absence of 
any permanent principle (any soul) in any individual. But it is 
also explained in the Anguttara Nikaya III, 58, as meaning the 
knowledge firstly of one's own former births, secondly of other 
people's former births, and thirdly of the nature, the origin, and 
the right method of subduing sorrow and the asavas (that is, lust, 
individuality, delusion, and ignorance). The first triplet is identical 
with the three lakkhanas, the second with the last three of the 
Dasabalas, the ten powers of a Buddha. So in the Sutta Vibhahga 
(Para^ika I, 1-8) the last of these three is called tatiyi viggz. 
Compare also 'Buddhist Suttas/ p. 162. 

* The AbhuWSas. 

* Some details of this are given in the Sinhalese, p. 524. 

* Mukha-mangalika, which the Sinhalese repeats, and which 
apparently means 'panegyrists.' The exact connotation of both 
these terms has yet to be settled. So/Mi va£aka may correspond 
with the people who throw rice after a- departing wedding pair ; 



Digitized by 



Google 



266 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, 19. 

and the heralds \ and Sama#as and Brahmans, and 
the followers of every sect, frequent his court, and he 
becomes the lord of every seaport, and treasure-mine, 
and town, and custom-house 2 — giving instructions as 
to the fate of every foreigner and criminal s — just so, 
O king, whoever is fit, who has reached the attain- 
ments, whose conduct is consistent with membership 
in the Order, who is worthy of it, appropriate to it, 
who desires little and is content, given to seclusion, not 
fond of society, alert in zeal, resolute of heart, with- 
out guile, without deceit, not a slave to his stomach, 
seeking neither material gain nor worldly fame or 
glory, full of faith, who has entered the Order from 
belief (in the doctrine, and not from worldly motives), 
and is full of desire for release from old age and 

and Mukha-maftgalikS may be those who prophesy the lucky 
days on which a thing is to be commenced. But this is the only 
passage in which the phrases occur in Pdli, and in Sanskrit we 
have only much later authorities. See the Commentary on Sakun- 
talS, quoted in the note on p. 15a of Sir M. Monier- Williams's 
edition, and Wilson's explanation in his Sanskrit Dictionary of 
swasti-vaMna. 

1 So/Mi-va£ak£, 'utterers of blessing.' The Sinhalese has 
sdbhana-vd£anikayo (perhaps ' augurs'). 

1 Sunka//Mna, 'taxing-place.' But the Sinhalese, p. 524, has 
Only samasthana. 

' I can only guess at the meaning of this enigmatical phrase, 
which the Sinhalese again merely repeats, but a precisely similar 
passage occurs in the Sumahgala Vilasini, p. 246 ; and though 
the exact course of proceedings in the ancient law courts of India 
is still, in many details, uncertain, it is yet clear that the actual 
apportionment of punishment (as well as the execution of it) was 
always held to be the sole prerogative of the king. This was more 
especially the case where mutilation or a death sentence was con- 
cerned. Minor punishments the judges could, no doubt, order 
without reference to the king. See Jolly, ' Beitrage zur indischen 
Rechts-geschichte,' in the ' Zeitschrift der deutschen morg. Gesell- 
schaft,' 1890, pp. 344 foil. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VI, 30. OF MILINDA THE KING. 267 

death — whosoever being such shall take upon him- 
self the vows with the idea of upholding the faith, 
he is deserving of twofold honour. For he is near 
and dear to, loved and longed for by both gods and 
men, dear as rare jasmine flowers to the man bathed 
and anointed, as sweet food to the hungry, as cool, 
clear, fragrant water to the thirsty, as a healing drug 
to a poisoned man, as a costly chariot drawn by 
high-bred steeds to the hurrying traveller, as a 
wishing-gem to the greedy for gain, as the pure 
white sunshade of sovranty to one ambitious for a 
throne, as the blessed attainment of the fruits of 
Arahatship to the seeker after holiness. It is he 
who attains to the fullest mastery over the four 
Earnest Meditations, the fourfold Great Struggle, 
the four Roads to Saintship, the five Organs of the 
moral sense, the five moral Powers, the seven 
forms of Wisdom, and the Noble Eightfold Path, 
quietude and insight reign in his heart, attainment 
through study becomes easy to him, and the four 
fruits of the life of a recluse, the four kinds of 
Discrimination, the threefold Knowledge, the sixfold 
higher Wisdom, in a word, the whole religion of the 
recluses becomes his very own, an anointed king is 
he, and over him is borne the pure white sunshade 
of emancipation ! 

20. ' Such, O king, are the thirteen vows purified 
by which a man shall bathe in the mighty waters of 
Nirva«a, and there indulge himself, as one sporting 
in the waves, with the manifold delights of religion, 
he shall addict himself to the eight modes of tran- 
scendental ecstacy, he shall acquire the powers of 
Iddhi, distant sounds, human and divine, shall greet 
his ear, he shall divine the thoughts of others, he 



Digitized by 



Google 



268 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, ao. 

shall be able to call to mind his own previous births, 
and to watch the rise and fall from birth to birth of 
others, and he shall perceive the real nature and 
the origin of, he shall perceive the means of escape 
from sorrow, and from lust, individuality, delusion, 
and ignorance, the stains of life ! 

' And what are these thirteen ? Wearing raiment 
made up of pieces taken from a dust-heap — Wearing 
three robes, and three robes only — Living on food 
received by begging — Begging straight on from 
house to house — Eating only once a day, at one 
sitting — Eating from one vessel only — Refusing 
food in excess of the regulations — Dwelling in the 
woods — Dwelling at the root of a tree — Dwelling in 
the open air — Dwelling in or near a cemetery — Not 
altering the mat or bed when it has once been 
spread out to sleep on — and sleeping in a sitting 
posture. It is he, O king, who, in former births, 
has undertaken and practised, followed and carried 
out, observed, framed his conduct according to, and 
fulfilled these thirteen vows, who acquires all the 
results of the life of a recluse, and all its ecstacy of 
peace and bliss becomes his very own 1 . 

1 The Sinhalese, pp. 525-531, goes at great length into the 
details of all these vows, each of which it divides into stages of 
greater or less severity, specifying the practice to be followed in 
each stage. As a matter of fact the members of the Buddhist 
Order have not observed them in any completeness. Like the 
Buddha himself, the majority have undertaken only the second of 
the thirteen — the wearing of three robes ; and the others have only 
been occasionally practised, and then usually only one or more at 
a time, by isolated members. It is true that the (Tataka Com- 
mentary (Fausbdll, vol. ii, p. 449) says that Upasena Vanganta- 
putta kept the whole thirteen of the Dhutahgas. But this is at 
variance with the older text (in the Vinaya, Nissaggiya, No. XV) 
giving that account of the same episode on which the story in the 



Digitized by 



Google 



VI, 32. OF MILINDA THE KING. 269 

21. 'Just, O king, as a shipowner who has 
become wealthy by constantly levying freight in 
some seaport town, will be able to traverse the high 
seas, and go to Vanga, or Takkola, or China, or 
Sovira, or Surat, or Alexandria, or the Koromandel 
coast, or Further India, or any other place where 
ships do congregate — just so, O king, [360] it is he 
who in former births has undertaken and practised, 
followed and carried out, observed, framed his con- 
duct according to, and fulfilled these thirteen vows, 
who acquires all the results of the life of a recluse, 
and all its ecstacy of peace and bliss becomes his 
very own. 

22. ' And just, O king, as a husbandman will first 
remove the defects in the soil — weeds, and thorns, 
and stones — and then by ploughing, and sowing, 

Gitaka Commentary is based. The thirteen vows are not referred 
to at all in the rules of the Order, as translated in the three 
volumes of the Vinaya Texts, nor are they mentioned as a whole 
in any Pi/aka text yet published. But the thirteen names are 
given together in a different order in a passage twice repeated in 
the Pariv&ra, a late book, probably written in Ceylon (pp. 131, 
193). It is there declared of each of the thirteen vows that 
five sorts of people undertake them — those who do so from 
stupidity, those who do so from vain desire, those who are mad, 
those who do so because the vows have been exalted by the 
Buddhas and their followers, those who do so from high motives. 
It is clear therefore that our author's doctrine of the thirteen 
Dhutangas is at variance with primitive Buddhism. It would 
require, however, a separate note on each of the thirteen to show 
the exact degree of this variance. The basis on which each of 
these observances rests can be found in the older teaching, and 
nearly all of them have been praised or followed, in a greater 
or less degree, from very early times, — not indeed as general rules 
binding on all members of the Order, but as supplementary or 
extra vows, conducive, but subsidiary to the ethical self-culture of 
the Arahat 



Digitized by 



Google 



27O THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, 23. 

and irrigating, and fencing, and watching, and reap- 
ing, and grinding, will become the owner of much 
flour, and so the lord of whosoever are poor and 
needy, reduced to beggary and misery — just so, O 
king, it is he who in former births has undertaken 
and practised, followed and carried out, observed, 
framed his conduct according to, and fulfilled these 
thirteen vows, who acquires all the results of the 
life of a recluse, and all its ecstacy of peace and 
bliss becomes his very own. 

23, ' And again, O king, just as an anointed 
monarch is master over the treatment of outlaws, is 
an independent ruler and lord, and does whatsoever 
he desires, and all the broad earth is subject to him 
— just so, O king, is he who has undertaken, practised, 
and fulfilled in former births these vows, master, 
ruler, and lord in the religion of the Conquerors, 
and all the virtues of the Sama«as are his. 

24. 'And was not Upasena, the Elder, he of the 
sons of the Vangantas ', from his having thoroughly 
practised all the purifying merits of the vows, able 
to neglect the agreement arrived at by the members 
of the Order resident at Savatthi, and to visit with 
his attendant brethren the Subduer of men, then 
retired into solitude, and when he had bowed down 
before him, to take his seat respectfully aside ? 
And when the Blessed One saw how well trained 
his retinue was, then, delighted and glad and 
exalted in heart, he greeted them with courteous 
words, and said in his unbroken beautiful voice : 

" Most pleasant, Upasena, is the deportment of 

1 According to the Sinhalese this was a Brahman clan. But 
the derivation suggests the borders of Bengal, where it is some* 
what strangeto^find Brahmans so early. 



Digitized by 



Google 



YI, 25. OF MILINDA THE KING. 271 

these brethren waiting upon you. How have you 
managed thus to train your followers ? " 

'And he, when so questioned by the omniscient 
Buddha, the god over all gods, spake thus to the 
Blessed One as to the real reason for the goodness 
of their nature : " Whosoever, Lord, may come to 
me to ask for admission to the Order or to become 
my disciple, to him do I say [361] : ' I, Sir, am 
a frequenter of the woods, who gain my food by 
begging, and wear but this robe pieced together 
from cast-off rags. If you will be the same, I 
can admit you to the Order and make you my 
disciple.' Then, if he agree thereto with joy, and 
abase himself 1 , I thereupon admit him to the 
Order and to the company of my pupils. But 
if not, then neither do I admit him to the one 
nor to the other. Thus is it, Lord, that I train 
them V And thus is it, O king, that he who has 
taken upon himself the vows becomes master, ruler, 
and lord in the religion of the Conquerors ; and 
all its ecstacy of peace and bliss becomes his very 
own. 

• 25. 'Just, O king, as a lotus flower of glorious, 
pure, and high descent and origin is glossy, soft, 
desirable, sweet-smelling, longed for, loved, and 
praised, untarnished by the water or the mud, 
graced with tiny petals and filaments and pericarps, 
the resort of many bees, a child of the clear cold 



1 Oramati. See Crataka I, 492, where it is also used intransi- 
tively in the sense of ' abase oneself; ' and Gataka I, 498, where 
it is transitive, ' to lower ' (the water in the ocean). But Hina/1- 
kumburS, p. 533, has simply oelSda, 'and adheres thereto.' 

1 As remarked in the note, p. 268, this episode is taken from the 
introduction to the 15th Nissaggiya. 



Digitized by 



Google 



272 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, 15. 

stream — just so is that disciple of the Noble Ones 
who in former births has undertaken and practised, 
followed and carried out, observed and framed his 
conduct according to, and fulfilled these thirteen 
vows, endowed with the thirty graces. And what 
are the thirty? His heart is full of affectionate, 
soft, and tender love, evil is killed, destroyed, cast 
out from within him, pride and self-righteousness 
are put an end to and cast down, stable and strong 
and established and undeviating is his faith, he 
enters into the enjoyment of the heart's refreshment, 
the highly praised and desirable peace and bliss of 
the ecstacies of contemplation fully felt, he exhales 
the most excellent and unequalled sweet savour of 
righteousness of life, near is he and dear to gods 
and men alike, exalted by the best of beings the 
Arahat Noble Ones themselves, gods and men 
delight to honour him, the enlightened, wise, and 
learned approve, esteem, appreciate, and praise him, 
untarnished is he by the love either of this world or 
the next \ he sees the danger in the smallest tiniest 
offence, rich is he in the best of wealth — the wealth 
that is the fruit of the Path, the wealth of those who 
are seeking the highest of the attainments, — he is 
partaker of the best of the four requisites of a recluse 
that may be obtained by asking, he lives without 
a home addicted to that best austerity that is 
dependent on the meditation of the 6^4nas, [362] 
he has unravelled the whole net of evil, he has 
broken and burst through, doubled up and utterly 
destroyed both the possibility of rebirth in any of 
the five future states, and the five obstacles to the 

1 Compare ' Buddhist Suttas,' p. io, and the note there. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VI, a6. OF MILINDA THE KING. 273 

higher life in this one (lust, malice, sloth, pride, 
and doubt), unalterable in character, excellent in 
conduct 1 , transgressing none of the rules as to the 
four requisites of a recluse, he is set free from 
rebirths, he has passed beyond all perplexity, his 
mind is set upon complete emancipation, he has 
seen the truth 2 , the sure and stedfast place of 
refuge from all fear has he gained, the seven evil 
inclinations (to lust, and malice, and heresy, and 
doubt, and pride, and desire for future life, and 
ignorance) are rooted out in him, he has reached 
the end of the Great Evils (lust, individuality, 
delusion, and ignorance), he abounds in the peace 
and the bliss of the ecstacies of contemplation, 
he is endowed with all the virtues a recluse should 
have. These, O king, are the thirty graces he is 
adorned withal. 

26. 'And was not Sariputta, the Elder, O king, 
the best man in the whole ten thousand world 
systems, the Teacher of the world himself alone 
excepted ? And he who through endless ages had 
heaped up merit, and had been reborn in a Brahman 
family, relinquished all the delights of the pleasures 
of sense, and gave up boundless wealth 8 , to enter 
the Order according to the teaching of the Con- 
queror, and having restrained his actions, words, 
and thoughts by these thirteen vows, became in this 
life of such exalted virtue that he was the one who, 
after the Master, set rolling on the royal chariot- 

1 Abhinita-vaso, 'having the ten ariya-v&sas,' says the Sin- 
halese. 

* Di/Ma-dhammo, 'seen the Four Truths,' says the Sinhalese, 

P- 535- 

8 For sahkha Hina/i-kumbure" has sahassa. 

[36] T 



Digitized by 



Google 



274 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VI, 26. 

wheel of the kingdom of righteousness in the religion 
of Gotama, the Blessed One. So that this was 
said, O king, by the Blessed One, the god over all 
gods, in that most excellent collection, the Anguttara 
Nikaya J : 

" I know, O brethren, of no other man who in 
succession to me sets rolling on the glorious chariot- 
wheel of the kingdom of righteousness so well as 
Sariputta. Sariputta, O brethren, sets rolling that 
wheel the best of all." ' 

' Most excellent, Nagasena ! The whole ninefold 
word of the Buddha, the most exalted conduct, the 
highest and best of the attainments to be gained in 
the world, — all these are wrapped up together in 
the virtues that result from the keeping of the 
vows.' 

Here ends the Ninth Chapter 2 . 



Here ends the Solving of Puzzles. 



1 Anguttara I, 13, 7. 

* The ninth, because the numbering of the Vaggas is carried 
on from the last book. But according to the divisions enumerated 
at the beginning of the work (translated at p. 4 of the previous 
volume) it is one of the principal divisions of the book that is here 
closed, and the chapters ought not to run on. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, i, r. 



OF MILINDA THE KING. 



275 



BOOK VII. 

Opamma-kathA-pa^ho. 
the similes. 

Chapter 1. 

I. [363] 'Venerable Nagasena, with how many 
qualities must a member of the Order (a Bhikshu) 
be endowed to realise Arahatship ? ' 

' The brother, O king, who wishes to attain Ara- 
hatship must take : — 

1. One quality of the ass . . . VII, 1,2 



2. And five of the cock 

3. And one of the squirrel 

4. And one of the female panther 

5. And two of the male panther 

6. And five of the tortoise 

7. And one of the bamboo 

8. And one of the bow 

9. And two of the crow 

10. And two of the monkey 

11. And one of the gourd 

12. And three of the lotus 

13. And two of seed . 

14. And one of the Sal-tree 

15. And three of a ship 

16. And two of the anchor 

17. And one of the mast 

18. And three of the pilot 

19. And one of the sailor 

20. And five of the ocean 

21. And five of the earth 

t 2 



VII 



VII. 



3 
8 

9 
10 
12 

17 
18 

19 

21 

2, I 

2 

5 

7 

8 

11 

13 

14 

17 
18 

3, 1 



Digitized by 



Google 



276 



THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES 



YII, 1, 1. 



22. And five of water . 

23. And five of fire 

24. And five of wind . 

25. And five of rock . 

26. And five of space . 

27. And five of the moon 

28. And seven of the sun 

29. And three of Sakka 

30. And four of a sovran overlord 

31. And one of the white ant 

32. And two of the cat 

33. And one of the rat 

34. And one of the scorpion 

35. And one of the mungoose 

36. [364] And two of the old jackal 
37- And three of the deer . 

38. And four of the bull 

39. And two of the boar 

40. And five of the elephant 

41. And seven of the lion 

42. And three of the Afakravaka bird 

43. And two of the Pe»ahika bird 

44. And one of the house-pigeon . 

45. And two of the owl 

46. And one of the crane 

47. And two of the bat 

48. And one of the leech 

49. And three of the serpent 

50. And one of the rock-snake 

51. And one of the road spider . 

52. And one of the child at the breast 

53. And one of the land tortoise . 

54. And five of the mountain height 

55. And three of the tree . 



VII 



VII 



VII, 



VII, 



,3,6 
11 
16 
21 
26 

3i 
36 

43 
46 

4, 1 
2 

4 

5 
6 

7 

9 

12 

16 
18 

5, 1 
8 

11 
13 
14 
16 

17 
19 
20 

23 

6,i 

2 

3 
4 
9 



Digitized by 



Google 



vn, i, t. 



OF MILINDA THE KING. 



277 



56. And five of the rain-cloud 


VII, 6, 12 


57. And three of the jewel . 


• 17 


58. And four of the hunter . 


. 20 


59. And two of the fisherman 


. 24 


60. And two of the carpenter 


. 26 


61. And one of the waterpot 


• VII, 7, r 


62. And two of iron 


2 


63. And three of a sunshade 


. 4 


64. And three of a rice field . 


• 7 


65. And two of medicine 


. 10 


66. And three of food . 


. 12 


67. And four of the archer 1 . 


• »5 


And four of the king. 




And two of the doorkeeper. 




And one of a grindstone. 




And two of a lamp. 




And two of the peacock. 




And two of the steed. 




And two of the publican. 




And two of a threshold. 




And one of a balance. 




And two of a sword. 




And two of a fish. 




[365] And one of a borrower. 




And two of a sick man. 




And two of a corpse. 




And two of a river. 




And one of a buffalo. 




And two of a road. 




And one of a tax-gatherer. 




And three of a thief. 





1 The published text carries the details of these similes no 
further than this. See the remarks in the Introduction, pp. xxiv, 
xxv. 



Digitized by 



Google 



278 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 1, l. 

And one of the hawk. 

And one of the dog. 

And three of the physician. 

And two of a woman with child. 

And one of the yak cow. 

And two of the hen. 

And three of the dove. 

And two of the one-eyed man. 

And three of the husbandman. 

And one of the female jackal K 

And two of the dyers' straining-cloth 2 . 

And one of a spoon. 

And one of the negociator of a loan. 

And one of a collector. 

And two of a charioteer. 

And two of a village headman. 

And one of a tailor. 

And one of a helmsman. 

And two of a bee.' 



Here ends the Table of Contents. 



1 Gambuka-sigaiiyl In GStaka, No. 294, of Fausboll, the 
jackal is male. The reference therefore here is to a kind of jackal 
named after the Gambu fruit. 

1 JCangavSrakassa. See Ma^fAima NikSya I, 142-4, and 
Gataka V, 186, in both of which passages the Burmese MSS. read 
£anka-. The Sinhalese, p. 540, has perahan ka</&. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, I, 2. OF MILINDA THE KING. 279 



i. The Ass. 

2. ' Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
harsh-voiced ass which you say he ought to take, 
which is that ? ' 

' Just, O king, as the ass, wheresoever he may lie 
down — whether on a dust heap, or in the open space 
where four roads meet, or three x , or at the entrance 
to a village, or on a heap of straw — [366]— nowhere 
is he given to resting long ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort*, wheresoever 
he may spread out his mat for repose — whether on 
strewed grass, or leaves, or on a bed of thorns, or 
on the bare earth — nowhere should he be given to 
sloth. This is the one quality of the ass he ought 
to have. For this has been said, O king, by the 
Blessed One, the god over all gods : 
" Sleeping on pillows of chaff, my disciples, O 
brethren, 

Keep themselves earnest and ardent in strenuous 
fight 8 ." 

1 Aatukke and singha/ake. I follow Hina/i-kumburS in the 
distinction he makes between the meaning of these terms — satara 
and tun mam sandhiyehi (p. 540). 

* Yogi yogava>taro. The rendering of these words is quite 
inadequate, and has given me much trouble. Neither 'yogee' 
nor ' devotee ' can be used, for they both have acquired connota- 
tions contradictory to what was in our author's mind. He means 
the Buddhist Bhikshu belonging to that class among the Bhikshus 
(by no means the majority) who had devoted themselves to a life 
of systematic effort according to the Buddhist scheme of self- 
training. But I have found it impossible to put into any English 
phrase sufficiently short for the constant repetition of the two Pali 
words any full and accurate representation of all that they imply. 
See the note above on p. 43 of the Pali, and G&taka, vol. i, p. 303. 

5 Not traced as yet. Mr. Trcnckner prints the passage as 



Digitized by 



Google 



28o THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 1, 3. 

' And this too, O king, was said by Sariputta, the 
Elder, the Commander of the Faith : 

" If it but raineth not knee-deep on him 
When sitting in high meditations plunged — 
What cares the man on Arahatship intent for 
ease 1 !"' 



2. The Cock. 



3. ' Venerable Nagasena, those five qualities of 
the cock which you say he ought to take, what are 
they?' 

' Just, O king, as a cock goes early and betimes 
to roost ; so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, early and betimes sweep out the 
open space around the Digaba, and having got 
ready 2 the drinking-water for the day's use, and 
dressed himself 8 , and taken his bath, he should bow 



prose, but it is clearly two verses with a slight corruption in the 
first line. The point of the verses lies in the untranslateable pun 
of the words upadhana, 'pillow/ and padhana, 'strenuous fight.' 
The word etarahi seems to me suspect, and some such reading 
as ka/ingaropadhana va would restore the metre, and at the 
same time bring the play on the words more into prominence. 

1 This verse is found in the Thera Gatha, No. 985. Hina/i- 
kumbure' takes the na in the first line as a negative to abhi- 
vassad, and translates, ' So long as it does not rain knee-deep on 
him, when sitting in meditation, what cares the Bhikshu, who is 
bent on attaining Nirvana, for ease 1 '— and this is, I think, preferable 
to Mr. Trencher's division of the words. 

1 That is, 'filtered;' peraha naga taba, says the Sinhalese, 

p. 541. 

* Sartram pa/i^aggitva, 'rested a little to remove the weariness 
of his body,' says the Sinhalese here, but adds below, § 4, siwuru 
hoenda. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 1,5. OF MILINDA THE KING. 28 1 

down in reverence before the Dagaba, and then pay 
visits to the senior Bhikshus, and, on his return, enter 
in due time into the chamber of solitude. This, O 
king, is the first of the qualities of the cock he ought 
to have. 

4. ' And again, O king, as a cock rises early and 
betimes ; so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, rise early and betimes to sweep out 
the open space around the Dagaba, and get ready 
the drinking-water for the day's use, and dress him- 
self, and pay his daily reverence to the Dagaba, and 
enter into the chamber of solitude. This, O king, 
is the second of the qualities of the cock he ought 
to have. 

5. ' And again, O king, as the cock is unremitting 
in scratching the earth to pick up what he can find 
to eat; so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, practise continual self-examination 
and circumspection in taking any nourishment he 
may find to eat, reminding himself: [367] " I eat this, 
seeking not after pleasure, nor after excitement, nor 
after beauty of body, nor after elegance of form, 
but merely for the preservation of my body, to keep 
myself alive, as a means of appeasing the pain of 
hunger, and of assisting me in the practice of the 
higher life. Thus shall I put an end to all former 
sorrow, and give no cause for future sorrow to 
arise ; therein shall I be free from blame, and dwell 
at ease." This, O king, is the third of the qualities 
of the cock he ought to have. For it has been 
said, O king, by the Blessed One, the god over all 
gods: 

" Like child's flesh in the desert wild, 
Or smearing grease upon the wheel, 



Digitized by 



Google 



282 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, i, 6. 

Solely to keep himself alive, 

Does he, when feeling faint, take food \" 

6. ' And again, O king, as the cock, though it has 
eyes, is blind by night; so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, though he is 
not blind, be as one blind. Whether in the woods, 
or on his daily walk for alms in search of food, 
blind should he be and deaf and dumb to all delights 
of form, or sound, or taste, or smell, or touch, should 
not make them the objects of his thought, should 
pay no special, detailed, attention to them 2 . This, 
O king, is the fourth of the qualities of the cock he 
ought to have. For it was said, O king, by MahS. 
Ka^fcayana, the Elder : 

" Let him with eyes be as one blind, 
And he who hears be as the deaf, 

1 Not traced as yet. The verse is a riddle based on two 
parables. Of these the first is already published in the Samyutta 
Nikaya XII, 63, 5-8. It tells of a father and mother who in the 
desert (and of course only with the object of keeping themselves 
alive) ate their only child. The other is not yet published^ but 
Mr. Trenckner points out that it occurs in the 34th Sawyutta. 
Oiling wheels is done solely to keep the cart going. Compare the 
dying Buddha's comparison of himself to a worn-out cart, which 
can only with difficulty be made to move along. Like that, the 
body of the Tathagata can only with difficulty be kept a little 
longer going ('Buddhist Suttas,' p. 37). 

As to the last word, I take it, with Hina/i-kumbur£, p. 542, 
to be muii/fcito, and not amu^i/iito as is printed in the text 
That is also the reading adopted by Fausboll at Gataka II, 294, 
where the verses are quoted. 

* Na nimittam gahetabbam nanubyaft^anam gahet- 
abbam. On these common expressions compare Anguttara I, a, 
6, &c. ; Puggala Pa#flatti II, 17, IV, 24, &c; Digha II, 64, &c; 
and Buddhaghosa as quoted in ' Vinaya Texts,' II, 9. Hina/i-kum- 
bur£ only repeats the first, but explains the second by noewata 
ncewata wimasimew. 



Digitized by 



Google 



"VII, 1, 7. OF MILINDA THE KING- 283 

He who can speak be as the dumb, 
The man of strength as were he weak. 
As each new object rises to his ken, 
On the sweet couch of blest Nirvana's peace 
Let him lie down and rest 1 ." 

7. ' And again, O king, as the cock, even though 
persecuted 2 with clods and sticks and clubs 3 and cud- 
gels, will not desert his home ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, — whether 
he be engaged in robemaking or in building-work, 
or in any of his daily duties, or in teaching, or in 
receiving instruction 4 — never give up his presence 
of mind. For that, O king — his presence of mind 
— is the home in which he dwells. This, O king, is 
the fifth of the qualities of the cock he ought to 
have. [368] And this, O king, has been said by the 
Blessed One, the god over all gods 6 : 

" And which, O Bhikshus, is the Bhikshu's resort, 
the realm which is his own by right ? — it is this, the 
four modes of being mindful and thoughtful 6 ." 

1 From Thera GSthi 501. The Sinhalese supports Mr. Trenck- 
ner in reading ^ivh&v' in line three, but on the other hand 
has (twice) mana-s£yika»» for mata-s&yikaw. For the last 
line, of which a literal translation is impossible, it says, ' Let him 
make his couch on, fix his attention on, that Nirv&wa which is 
mana-s&yika-£itta.' I think mata is the right reading, and 
that very possibly a riddle or pun is intended on the two meanings 
of that word. 

1 Paripatiyanto. See above, p. 279 of the PSIi, and Gataka 
II, 208. The Sinhalese, p. 543, has he/anu labanneya. 

* Laku/a. See above, pp. 255, 301 of the Pali, and compare 
the Hindi. 

* Hina/i-kumburc' expands all these details. 

8 In the Sawyutta Nikaya XLVI, 7. See Mr. Trenckner's note. 

* The four Satipa/M&nas. Compare above, p. 343 of the 
Pall 



Digitized by 



Google 



284 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 1, 8. 

' And this too, O king, has been said by Sariputta, 
the Elder, the Commander of the Faith : 

" The elephant distinguishes good food 
From bad, he knows what gives him sustenance, 
And even when asleep he guards his trunk l — 
So let each Buddha's son, earnest in zeal, 
Never do violence to the Conqueror's word, 
Nor injury to his self-possession, best of gifts 2 .'" 



3. The Squirrel. 

8. ' Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
squirrel which you say he ought to take, which is 
that?' 

' Just as the squirrel, O king, when an enemy falls 
upon him, beats his tail on the ground till it swells, 
and then with his own tail as a cudgel drives off the 
foe ; just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, when his enemy, sin, falls upon him, 
beat the cudgel of his self-possession till it swells, 
and then by the cudgel of self-possession drive all 
evil inclinations off. This, O king, is the one quality 
of the squirrel which he ought to have. For it was 
said, O king, by A"ulla Panthaka, the Elder : 

" When sins, those fell destroyers of the gains 
Gained by the life of recluse, fall on us, 
They should be slain, again and yet again, 
By resolute self-possession as a club V ' 



1 As he does in war, according to Ma^g-^ima I, 415. 
1 Not traced as jet. It is not included in the collection of 
Sariputta's verses preserved in the Thera G&tha. 
* Not in the published texts. 



Digitized by 



Google 



vii, i, 10. of milinda the king. 285 

4. The Panther (female) 1 . 
9. ' Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
female of the panther which you say he ought to 
take, which is that ?' 

' Just, O king, as the female of the panther con- 
ceives only once, and does not resort again and again 
to the male 2 ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, — seeing how future con- 
ceptions and births involve a period of gestation 
and a fall from each state as it is reached, and 
dissolution and death and destruction, seeing the 
horrors of transmigration and of rebirths in evil states, 
the annoyance of them, the torment of them, — he 
should stedfastly resolve never to enter upon any 
future life. [369] This, O king, is the one quality of 
the female panther which he ought to have. For it 
was said, O king, by the Blessed One, the god over 
all gods, in the Sutta Nipata, in the Sutta of Dhaniya 
the cowherd : 

" Like a strong bull who's burst the bonds that 
bound him, 
Or elephant who's forced his way through jungle, 
Thus shall I never more enter the womb — 
And now, if it so please you, god, rain on s ! " ' 



5. The Panther (male). 
10. 'Venerable Nagasena, those two qualities of 
the panther which you say he ought to take, which 
are they ? ' 

1 Dipint, perhaps 'leopardess.' The Sinhalese has 'tigress,' 
which is certainly wrong. 

* Because it realises the pains and sorrows of cub-bearing, says 
the Sinhalese. 

* Sutta Nip&ta I, a, ia. 



Digitized by 



Google 



286 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, I, It. 

'Just, O king, as the panther, lying in ambush in 
wild places, behind a thicket of long grass or brush- 
wood, or among the rocks, catches the deer ; so, O 
king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
resort to solitary places in the woods, at the foot of 
a tree, on mountain heights, in caves and grottoes, in 
cemeteries, in forests, under the open sky, on beds 
of straw, in quiet, noiseless spots, free from strong 
winds, and hid from the haunts of men. For the 
strenuous Bhikshu, O king, earnest in effort, who 
frequents such solitudes, will soon become master of 
the six forms of transcendent insight. This, O king, 
is the first of the qualities of the panther he ought to 
have. For it was said, O king, by the Elders who 
collected the scriptures : 

"As the panther by lying in ambush catches the 

deer, 
So the sons of the Buddha, with insight and 

earnestness armed, 
By resorting to solitudes gain that Fruit which is 

best 1 ." 

ii. 'And again, O king, as the panther, whatever 
may be the beast he has killed, will never eat it if it 
has fallen on the left side ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, not partake 
of any food that has been procured by gifts of bam- 
boos, or palms' leaves, or flowers, or fruits, or baths 2 , 
or chunam, or tooth-sticks, [370] or water for washing ; 
or by flattery, or by gaining the laity over by sugared 



1 That is, of course, Arahatship. The lines are not to be found 
in the published texts. 

* Sinana-dinena; omitted by the Sutta Vibhanga and by 
Hina/i-kumbure' (who quotes the Pali of this passage). 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, I, I!. OF MILINDA THE KING. 287 

words (literally by pea-soup-talk), suppressing the 
truth and suggesting the false \ or by petting 
their children 2 , or by taking messages as he walks 
from house to house 8 , or by doctoring them, or 
by acting as a go-between, or as a messenger on 
matters of business or ceremony \ or by exchanging 
with them things he has received as alms, or by giving 
back again to them as bribes robes or food once given 
to him 6 , or by giving them hints as to lucky sites, or 
lucky days, or lucky signs (on their children's bodies 
at birth), or by any other of those wrong modes of 
obtaining a livelihood that have been condemned by 
the Buddha 6 — no food so procured should he eat, as 
the panther will not eat any prey that has fallen on 
its left side. This is the second of the qualities of 
the panther he ought to have. For it was said, O 
king, by Sariputta, the Elder, the Commander of the 
Faith : 

" This food, so sweet, has been procured 
Through intimation given by speech. 
Were I, then, to partake thereof, 
My mode of livelihood would be blamed. 

1 MuggasuppatS. So Htnari-kumbur6, p. 546. The Sutta 
Vibhanga omits both this word and the next. 

* Paribha/Zakatl 

* Gangha-pesaniyena. The Sutta Vibhanga 1, 185, on which 
our whole paragraph here is based, reads -pesanikena. I have 
differentiated the three sorts of messages according to the Sin- 
halese. 

4 Hfna/I-kumburS, both in his transcription of the Pali (p. 546) 
and in his translation (p. 547), reads pahfna-gamana. 

* Anuppad&na. Compare (T&taka III, 205. At SigalovSda 
Sutta, p. 307, and Milinda, p. 315, it means simply providing a 
person with things he wants. Childers's rendering, ' giving,' is in- 
adequate in all the passages. 

* Referring to the Silas. 



Digitized by 



Google 



288 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, I, la. 

Now though by hunger dire oppressed 
My stomach seem to rise, to go, 
Ne'er will I break my rule of life, 
Not though my life I sacrifice V ' 



6. The Tortoise. 

i 2. ' Venerable Nagasena, those five qualities of 
the tortoise which you say he ought to take, what 
are they ? ' 

* Just, O king, as the tortoise, which is a water 
animal, keeps to the water ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, let his heart 
go out over the whole wide world with pity and with 
love — mighty, abounding, beyond measure, free from 
every feeling of hatred or of malice — towards all 
creatures that have life 2 . This, O king, is the first 
of the qualities of the tortoise he ought to have. 

13. ' And again, O king, just as the tortoise, when, 
as he swims on the water and raises his head, he 
catches sight of any one, that moment sinks, and 
dives into the depths, lest they should see him 
again ; just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, when evil inclinations fall upon him, 
sink into the waters of meditation, dive down into 
the deeps thereof, lest those evil inclinations should 
catch sight of him again. This, O king, is the 

1 Not traced as yet. HinaA-kumbure" gives a long account of 
the circumstances under which these verses were spoken. Saii- 
putta was ill. Moggallana asked him what would be good for 
him to take. Sariputta told him. His friend then, by intervention 
of the king of the gods, procured it. But Sariputta refused to 
make use of it. 

* The Brahma-viharas (Nos. 1 and 2). See ' Buddhist Suttas,' 
p. 201. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, I, 16. OF MILINDA THE KING. 289 

second of the qualities of the tortoise he ought to 
have. 

14. [371] ' And again, O king, just as the tortoise 
gets up out of the water, and suns himself ; just so, 
O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in 
effort, when he rouses himself (withdraws his mind) 
out of meditation, — whether taken sitting, or lying 
down, or standing, or walking up and down, — sun 
his mind in the Great Struggle against evil disposi- 
tions. This, O king, is the third of the qualities of 
the tortoise he ought to have. 

15. 'And again, O king, just as the tortoise, 
digging a hole in the ground, dwells alone ; just so, 
O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in 
effort, giving up worldly gain and honour and praise, 
take up his abode alone, plunging into the solitudes 
of empty lonely places in the groves and woods and 
hills, in caves and grottoes, noiseless and quiet. This, 
O king, is the fourth of the qualities of the tortoise 
he ought to have. For it was said, O king, by 
Upasena, the Elder, of the sons of the Vangantas : 

" Lonely and quiet places, haunts 
Of the deer, and of wild beasts, 
Should the Bhikshu seek as his abode, 
For solitude's sweet sake 1 ." 

16. 'And again, O king, as the tortoise, when on 
his rounds he sees any one, draws in at once all his 
head and limbs into his shell, and hiding them there, 
keeps still in silence to save himself; just so, O 
king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
wheresoever forms, or sounds, or odours, or tastes, 

1 Thera Galha 577. 

[36] u 



Digitized by 



Google 



29O THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 1, 17. 

or feelings strike upon him, shut to the gate of 
self-restraint at the six doors of his senses, cover up 
his mind in self-control, and continue constant in 
mindfulness and thoughtfulness to save his Samara- 
ship. This, O king, is the fifth of the qualities of 
the tortoise he ought to have. For it was said, O 
king, by the Blessed One, the god over all gods, in 
the most excellent Sawyutta Nikaya, in the Sutta of 
the parable of the tortoise : 

" As the tortoise withdraws his limbs in his shell, 
Let the Bhikshu bury the thoughts of his mind, 
Himself Independent, injuring none, 
Set free himself, speaking evil of none V ' 



7. The Bamboo. 

1 7. [372] ' Venerable Nagasena, that one quality 
of the bamboo which you say he ought to take, which 
is it?' 

'Just, O king, as the bamboo, whithersoever 
the gale blows, to that quarter does it bend ac- 
cordingly, pursuing no other way of its own ; just 
so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest 
in effort, conduct himself in accordance with the 
ninefold teaching of the Master, the word of the 
Buddha, the Blessed One, and stedfastly keeping 
to all things lawful and blameless, he should seek 
after the qualities of the Sama«aship itself. This, 
O king, is the one quality of the bamboo he ought 
to have. For it was said, O king, by Rahula, the 
Elder : 

1 The parable is in the 46th Sa/wyutta. The verses are already 
published at vol. i, p. 7 of M. Feer's edition for the Pali Text 
Society. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, I, 19. OF MILINDA THE KING. 29 1 

"In accord alway with Buddha's ninefold word 
And stedfast in all lawful, blameless acts, 
I have passed beyond rebirth in evil states V ' 



8. The Bow. 

18. ' Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
bow which you say he ought to have, which is it ? ' 

' Just, O king, as a well-made and balanced bow 
bends equally from end to end, and does not resist 
stiffly, like a post; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, bend easily in 
accord with all his brethren — whether elders, juniors, 
of medium seniority, or of like standing with himself 
— and not repel them. This, O king, is the one 
quality of the bow he ought to have. For it was 
said, O king, by the Blessed One, the god over all 
gods, in the Vidhura Pu»»aka (S&taka : 

" Let the wise bend as the bow, yield as the reed, 
Not be contrary. He shall dwell in the home of 
kings V ' 

9. The Crow. 

1 9. ' Venerable Nagasena, those two qualities of 
the crow that you say he ought to take, which are 
they?* 

'Just, O king, as the crow goes about full of ap- 
prehension and suspicion, [373] always on watch 
and guard ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, go about full of appre- 
hension and suspicion, always on watch and guard, 



1 Not traced as yet Hina/i-kumburS reads samuttarim. 
* G&taka, No. 545, verse 159. 

U 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



292 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 1, 20. 

in full self-possession, with his senses under control. 
This, O king, is the first of the qualities of the crow 
he ought to have. 

20. ' And again, O king, as the crow, whatever 
food he catches sight of, eats it, sharing with his 
kind ; just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, never omit to share with virtuous 
co-religionists, and that without distinction of person 
or deliberation as to quantity \ whatever lawful gifts 
he may have lawfully received, down even to the 
contents of his begging-bowl. This, O king, is the 
second of the qualities of the crow he ought to have. 
For it was said, O king, by Sariputta, the Elder, the 
Commander of the Faith : 

" Whate'er they may present to me, austere in life, 
All that, just as it comes, do I divide 
With all, and I myself then take my food 2 ." ' 



10. The Monkey. 

21. 'Venerable Nagasena, those two qualities of 
the monkey which you say he ought to have, which 
are they ? ' 

'Just, O king, as the monkey, when about to take 
up his abode does so in some such place as a mighty 
tree, in a lonely place covered all over with branches, 
a sure place of refuge ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, choose as the 
teacher under whom to live a man modest, amiable, 
righteous, of beauty of character, learned in tradition 
and in the scriptures, lovable, venerable, worthy of 

1 So Htna/i-kumbure' understands this, his version agreeing with 
the quotation given by Mr. Trenckner from Buddhaghosa. 
* Not traced as yet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VH, i, 22. OF MILINDA THE KING. 293 

reverence, a speaker of profitable things, meek, clever 
in admonition, in instruction, and in education, able 
to arouse, to incite, to gladden 1 — such a friend should 
he choose as teacher. This, O king, is the first of 
the qualities of the monkey he ought to have. 

22. ' And again, O king, as the monkey wanders 
about, and stands and sits, always on trees, and, if 
he goes to sleep, spends the night on them ; just so, 
O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in 
effort, stand and walk up and down thinking, [374] 
and he down, and sleep, in the forest, and there enjoy 
the sense of self-possession. This, O king, is the 
second of the qualities of the monkey he ought 
to have. For it has been said, O king, by Sariputta, 
the Elder, the Commander of the Faith : 

" Walking, or standing, sitting, lying down, 
'Tis in the forest that the Bhikshu shines. 
To dwell in wildernesses far remote 
Has been exalted by the Buddhas all 2 ." ' 



Here ends the First Chapter 8 . 



* For the last six words, none of which are in Childers, see 
Ma^Aima NikSya I, 145, 6, and below, VII, 2, 20. 

* Not traced as yet. 

* The Kambojan MS, in the library of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, ends here. 



Digitized by 



Google 



294 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 2, I. 



Book VII. Chapter 2. 
the similes (continued). 

ii. The Gourd. 

i. 'Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
gourd which you say he ought to take, which is it ? ' 

' Just, O king, as the gourd, climbing up with its 
tendrils 1 on to some other plant — whether a grass, 
or a thorn, or a creeper — grows all over it; just so, 
O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in 
effort, who desires to grow up into Arahatship, do 
so by climbing up with his mind over the ideas that 
present themselves (as subjects for the Kamma/- 
Man a meditations). This, O king, is the one quality 
of the gourd which he ought to have. For it was 
said, O king, by Sariputta, the Elder, the Commander 
of the Faith : 

" As the gourd, clambering up with its tendrils, 
grows 
O'er the grass, or the thorn-bush, or creeper wide- 
spread, 
So the son of the Buddha on Ar'hatship bent, 
Climbs up o'er ideas, to perfection and peace 2 ." ' 

1 So«<fik&hi, which must mean here the tentacles or feelers 
of the gourd-creeper. The Sinhalese has simply Son dim. I have 
only found the word elsewhere in the connection Sondikk kildifigi 
at MaggMma. I, 228 and Sawyutta IV, 1, 6, 4. 

* Not traced as yet. The last line is literally, ' By climbing up 
on the irammanas should grow in the Fruit of those who have 
nothing left to learn ' (that is, in Arahatship). 



Digitized by 



Google 



vii, 2, 4. of milinda the king. 295 

12. The Lotus. 

2. 'Venerable Nagasena, those three qualities of 
the lotus which you say he ought to take, which are 
they?' 

[375] ' Just, O king, as the lotus, though it is born 
in the water, and grows up in the water, yet remains 
undented by the water (for no water adheres to it) ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earn- 
est in effort, remain undefined by the support that 
he receives, or by the following of disciples that he 
obtains, or by fame, or by honour, or by veneration, 
or by the abundance of the requisites that he enjoys. 
This, O king, is the first of the qualities of the lotus 
that he ought to have. 

3. ' And again, O king, as the lotus remains lifted 
up far above the water ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, remain far 
above all worldly things. This, O king, is the 
second of the qualities of the lotus that he ought 
to have. 

4. ' And again, O king, as the lotus trembles 
when blown upon by the slightest breeze ; just so, 
O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in 
effort, exercise self-control in respect of the least of 
the evil dispositions, perceiving the danger (in the 
least offence). This, O king, is the third of the 
qualities of the lotus he ought to have. For it was 
said, O king, by the Blessed One, the god over all 
gods : 

" Seeing danger in the least offence, he takes upon 
himself, trains himself in, the precepts V ' 

1 See Ma^g^ima NMja I, 33 ; Digha II, 42, &c. 



Digitized by 



Google 



296 the questions and puzzles vii, 2,5. 

13. The Seed. 

5. 'Venerable Nagasena, those two qualities of 
seed which you say he ought to have, which are 
they?' 

' Just, O king, as seed, tiny though it be, yet if 
sown in good soil, and if the god rains aright, will 
give abundant fruit; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, so conduct 
himself aright that the righteousness of his life 
may give abundantly of the fruits of Sama»aship. 
This, O king, is the first quality of seed which he 
ought to have. 

6. ' And again, O king, as seed planted in well- 
weeded soil comes quickly to maturity; just so, O 
king, will his mind, when well-mastered \ and well- 
purified in solitude, if it be cast by the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, into the excellent field of 
self-possession, come quickly to maturity. This, O 
king, is the second quality of seed which he ought 
to have. [376] For it was said, O king, by Anurud- 
dha, the Elder : 

"If seed be sown on a well-weeded field, 
Its fruit, abounding, will rejoice the sower. 
So the recluse's heart, in solitude made pure, 
Matures full fast in self-possession's field *. " ' 



14. The Sal-tree. 
7. ' Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
Sal-tree which you say he ought to take, which 
is it?' 

1 Supariggahttaw, which the Sinhalese, p. 553, omiis. 
1 Not in the published texts. 



Digitized by 



Google 




VII, a, 8. OF MILINDA THE KTN^S ^ ^ -^ 297 



'Just, O king, as the Sal-tree grows within the 
ground to the depth of a hundred cubits or more ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earn- 
est in effort, perfect in solitude the four Fruits of 
Sama«aship, the four Discriminations, the six forms 
of transcendental Insight, and all the qualities befit- 
ting a recluse. This, O king, is the one quality of 
the Sal-tree he ought to have. For it was said, O 
king, by Rahula, the Elder : 

" The tree that's called the Sal-tree grows above the 
earth, 
And shoots beneath, a hundred cubits deep. 
As in the fullness of time, and at its highest 

growth 
That tree shoots in one day 1 a hundred cubits 

high, 
Just so do I, O Buddha, like the Sal, 
Increase, in solitude, in inward good." ' 



15. The Ship. 

8. 'Venerable Nagasena, those three qualities of 
the ship that you say he ought to take, which are 
they?' 

' Just, O king, as a ship, by the combination of 
the quantity of the different kinds of timber of 
which it is composed, conveys many folk across ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, cross the whole world of existence, 
whether in heaven, or on earth, by the combination 
of a number of qualities arising out of good conduct, 
righteousness, virtue, and the performance of duty. 

1 Ekahaw. I follow the Sinhalese (eka divasim), but confess 
myself very doubtful as to this being the meaning intended by the 
author. 



Digitized by 



Google 



298 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, a, 9. 

This, O king, is the first of the qualities of a ship 
he ought to have. 

9. ' And again, O king, just as a ship [377] can 
bear the onslaught of various thundering waves 
and of far-reaching whirlpools ; so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, be able to 
bear the onslaught of the waves of various evil 
inclinations, and the onslaught of the waves of 
varied evils — veneration and contempt, support and 
honour, praise and exaltation, offerings and homage, 
blame and commendation in families not his own. 
This, O king, is the second of the qualities of the 
ship he ought to have. 

10. ' And again, O king, as the ship journeys 
over the great ocean, immeasurable and infinite 
though it be, without a further shore, unshaken in 
its depths, roaring with a mighty noise, and filled 
with crowds of fish and monsters and dragons of all 
sorts ; just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, make his mind journey through to 
penetration into the four Truths in their triple order, 
in their twelvefold form 1 . This, O king, is the third 
of the qualities of the ship he ought to have. For it 
was said, O king, by the Blessed One, the god over 
all gods, in the most excellent Sawyutta Nikaya, in 
the Sa/»yutta on the Truths 2 : 

"Whenever you are thinking, O Bhikkhus, you 
should think : ' Such is sorrow,' — you should think 
' Such is the origin of sorrow,' — you should think 
' Such is the end of sorrow,' — you should think 
' Such is the path that leads to the end of sorrow.' " ' 

1 See 'Buddhist Suttas,' pp. 150-152, and especially § 21, from 
which the expressions here used are taken. 
* This is the 55th Sawyutta. 



Digitized by 



Google 



vii, a, 12. of milinda the king. 299 

16. The Anchor. 

11. 'Venerable Nagasena, those two qualities of 
the anchor which you say he ought to take, which 
are they ? ' 

' Just, O king, as the anchor, even in the mighty 
sea, in the expanse of waters agitated by the crowd- 
ing of ever-varying waves, will fasten the ship, and 
keep it still, not letting the sea take it in one direction 
or another; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, keep his mind stedfast 
in the mighty struggle of thoughts, in the waters of 
the waves of lust and malice and dullness, not letting 
them divert it in one direction or another. This, O 
king, is the first quality of the anchor he ought to 
have. 

12. 'And again, O king, as the anchor floats not, 
but sinks down, and even in water a hundred cubits 
deep holds the ship fast, brings it to rest ; just so, 
O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in 
effort, when he receives support, and fame, and 
honour, and veneration, and reverence, and offerings, 
and praise, [378] be not lifted up on the summit of 
the support or the fame, but keep his mind fixed on 
the idea of merely keeping his body alive. This, 
O king, is the second quality of the anchor he 
ought to have. For it was said, O king, by Sariputta, 
the Elder, the Commander of the Faith : 

"As the anchor floats not, but sinks down beneath 
the waves, 
So be abased, not lifted up, by praise or gifts 1 ." ' 



1 Not traced as yet. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



300 the questions and puzzles vii, a, 13. 

17. The Mast. 

1 3. ' Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
mast which you say he ought to take, which is it ? ' 

'Just, O king, as the mast carries ropes and 
braces and sails 1 ; just so should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, always have mindfulness 
and self-possession — when going out or coming back, 
when looking ahead or looking round, when stretching 
forth his arm or bending it back, when wearing clothes 
or carrying his bowl, when eating or drinking or 
swallowing or tasting, when easing himself or walking 
or standing or sitting, when asleep or awake, when 
talking and when silent, never should he lose his 
mindfulness and self-possession. This, O king, is 
the one quality of the mast he ought to have 2 . For 
it was said, O king, by the Blessed One, the god 
over all gods : 

"Mindful, my brethren, should the Bhikshu re- 
main, and self-possessed. This is my instruction to 
you 8 .'" 



18. The Pilot. 

14. 'Venerable Nagasena, those three qualities of 
the pilot which you say he ought to take, which are 
they?' 

'Just, O king, as the pilot, day and night, with 

1 LakSra. Childers says ' a part of a ship,' Dr. Morris (' Journal 
of the Pali Text Society,' 1884, p. 101, note) says ' a chain attached 
to a well.' I follow the Sinhalese, p. 556, which has ruwala. 
See Gitakz II, 112, and compare IV, 21. 

* The Sinhalese has here a page of matter not found in the 
Pali. 

« Digha Nikiya XVI, 2, 12. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Vn.a, 16. OF MILINDA THE KING. 3OI 

continuous and unceasing zeal and effort, navigates 1 
his ship ; just so, O king, does the strenuous Bhik- 
shu, earnest in effort, when regulating his mind, 
continue night and day unceasingly zealous and 
earnest in regulating his mind by careful thought. 
This, O king, is the one quality of the pilot he 
ought to have. For it was said, O king, by the 
Blessed One, the god over all gods, in the Dhamma- 
pada (the Collection of scripture verses) : 
" Be full of zeal, watch over your own thoughts ; 

Raise yourselves up out of the slough of endless 
births, 

As the strong elephant engulphed in depths of 
mud V* 

[379] 15. 'And again, O king, as the pilot knows 
all that is in the sea, whether good or bad ; just so, 
O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in 
effort, know good from evil, and what is an offence 
from what is not, and what is mean from what 
is exalted, and what is dark from what is light. 
This, O king, is the second quality of the pilot 
he ought to have. 

16. 'And again, O king, as the pilot puts a seal 
on the steering apparatus 3 lest any one should 
touch it ; so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, put the seal of self-control on his 
heart, lest any evil or wrong thoughts should arise 
within it. This is the third quality of the pilot he 
ought to have. For it was said, O king, by the 



1 Sareti, 'makes go.' Not in Childers, but see Anguttara 
Nik&ya III, 35, 4, and compare Aullavagga V, 11, 3. 
' Dhammapada, verse 337. 
* Yanta, which the Sinhalese renders yantra (p. 559). 



Digitized by 



Google 



302 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, a, 17. 

Blessed One, the god over all gods, in the most 
excellent Sawyutta Nikaya : 

" Think, O Bhikshus, no evil or wrong thoughts, 
such as thoughts of lust, or of malice, or of de- 
lusion 1 ."' 



19. The Sailor 2 . 

17. 'Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
sailor which you say he ought to take, which is it ? ' 

'Just as the sailor on board ship, O king, thinks 
thus : " I am a hireling, and am working for my 
wage on board this ship. By means of this ship is 
it that I get food and clothing. I must not be lazy, 
but zealously navigate the ship ; " just so, O king, 
should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
think thus : " Gaining a thorough knowledge of 
this body of mine, put together of the four elements, 
continuously and unceasingly will I be self-possessed 
in mindfulness and thoughtfulness, and tranquil and 
peaceful will exert myself to be set free from births, 
old age, disease, and death, grief, lamentation, sorrow, 
suffering, and despair." This, O king, is the one 
quality of the sailor he ought to have. For it was 
said, O king, by Sariputta, the Elder, the Commander 
of the Faith : 

" Understand what the body is, realise that again 
and again, 

Seeing the nature of the body, put an end to 
grief 3 ."' 

1 Sawyutta LV, 7. 

3 Kammakaro. Hfna/i-kumbure' translates this 'handyman, 
artisan, ship's carpenter.' 
* Not traced as yet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



vii, 3, 19. of milinda the king. 303 

20. The Sea. 

18. [380] 'Venerable Nagasena, those five quali- 
ties of the sea you say he ought to take, which are 
they?' 

' Just, O king, as the sea brooks no contact with 
a corpse 1 ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, brook no association with 
the stains of evil — lust and malice and dullness and 
pride and delusion, concealing the faults one has and 
claiming virtues one has not 2 , envy and avarice, deceit 
and treachery and trickiness, wickedness and sinful- 
ness of life. This, O king, is the first quality of the 
sea he ought to have. 

19. 'And again, O king, just as the sea carries 
within it stores of all kinds of gems — pearls and 
diamonds and cat's-eyes, and chank shells, and 
quartz 8 , and coral, and crystal, but conceals them 
all ; just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, though he have attained to the 
various gems of character — the Path, and the Fruits 

1 This curious belief has been made use of above, I, 259 of the 
translation. See also Divyavad&na, p. 234. 

s Makkho and pS/iso, 'hypocrisy and conceit' See the 
notes above on IV, 8, 23. 

8 Sila. Mr. Trenckner prints the passage as if sankhasila" 
were to be taken together. But the use of the nominatives 
sahkho sild in the corresponding list at .ffullavagga IX, 1, 3, 4 
shows that by si \i, ' rock,' some kind of gem is meant. And that 
our author does not intend to deviate from the earlier authority 
is clear from his own work (above, p. 267 of the Pili), where he also 
gives the two nominatives in a similar, though longer, list of gems. 
What may be the particular gem referred to under the name 
'rock' is doubtful. Hraa/i-kumburl, p. 561, merely repeats the 
word sild; and Clough, besides 'rock,' gives as special meaning 
only ' arsenic' At iSfullavagga (' Vinaya Texts,' III, 304) I have 
rendered it 'rock,' but 'quartz' now seems to me preferable. 



Digitized by 



Google 



304 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, a, 30. 

thereof, and the four Gvfcanas, and the eight Vi- 
mokkhas, and Samadhi, and the five Attainments 
(forms of ecstatic contemplation and Insight), and 
the six forms of Transcendental Knowledge 1 — 
conceal them and not bring them to the light This, 
O king, is the second quality of the sea he ought 
to have. 

20. 'And again, O king, just as the sea associates 
with mighty creatures ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, associate him- 
self with a fellow-disciple who desires little and is 
contented, who is pure in speech 2 , whose conduct is 
directed to the eradication of evil, who is given to 
righteousness, modest, amiable, dignified, venerable, 
a speaker of profitable words, meek, one who will 
point out his associate's faults, and blame him when 
he does wrong, clever in admonition, in instruction, 
and in education, able to arouse, to incite, and to 
gladden — with such a man as a friend, in righteous- 
ness should he dwell. This, O king, is the third 
quality of the sea he ought to have. 

21. 'And again, O king, as the sea, though filled 
with the fresh water brought down by the Ganges, 
and the Jumna, and the A^iravat!, and the Sarabhu, 
and the Mahi, and by other rivers a hundred thou- 
sand in number, and by the rains of heaven, yet 

1 It is very characteristic of our author that his interpretation 
of the gems into ethical conceptions is quite different from that of 
the -/iTullavagga, and much more mystic. In the older passage 
they are translated into the seven constituent characteristics of 
Arahatship. (See 'Vinaya Texts,' loc. cit., p. 305.) Compare 
also Divyavadana, pp. 115, 229. 

* Dhuta-vado, not in Childers, and only found here. Perhaps 
'who inculcates the keeping of the extra vows.' Dhutanga- 
wadiwu, says Hina/i~kumbur6, p. 561. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, a, as. OF MILINDA THE KING. 305 

never overflows its shore ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, never 
consciously transgress the precepts for the sake 
of support, or fame, or praise, or salutations, or 
reverence, or honour — no ! not even for his life. 
This, O king, is the fourth of the qualities of the 
sea he ought to have. [381] For it was said, O 
king, by the Blessed One, the god over all gods * : 

" Just, O king, as the great ocean has fixity as its 
characteristic, and never overflows its shores; just 
so, O king, should my disciples never overstep the 
regulations I have laid down for them — no ! not 
even to save themselves alive *." 

22. 'And again, O king, as the sea is not filled 
even by all the rivers — the Ganges, and the Jumna, 
and the A&ravatt, and the Sarabhu, and the Mahl — 
nor by the rains from heaven ; just so, O king, should 

1 DevStidevena. It is not known when this epithet, which our 
author so constantly applies to the Buddha, first came into use. 
It is not found in the Pi/akas, and the Milinda is the oldest book 
in which it has been traced. It is given in the Mahdvyutpatti, 
page i, as a recognised epithet, but not in the corresponding Pali list 
of epithets in the Abhidhana Padvpika (though deva-deva occurs 
there). The origin of the appellation is solemnly explained in the 
Divyavadlna, p. 391. It is there said to have been first bestowed 
on the Buddha (when, as a child, he was presented in the temple), 
because all the gods bowed down before him. There is nothing 
about this in the corresponding passage of the Lalita Vistara, 
pp. 136-138. The epithet is used of the Buddha in an inscription 
of Toramana Shahi ('Epigraphia Indica' for October, 1889). It 
occurs also in a verse preserved in the commentaries on the 
Dhammapada and the Gataka (Gataka IV, i58=Dhammapada 
148) — a verse not found in the Pi/aka versions of the same episode 
— and is used in a kind of pun in the Mahava»zsa, chap, i, 
verse 56. But these three passages are all of the fifth century a.d. 

2 Not traced as yet. A similar parable is used at the passage 
already quoted from the Aullavagga IX, 1, 3, 4. 

[3<5] X 



Digitized by 



Google 



306 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, a, 22. 

the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, never be 
satisfied with receiving instruction, with asking and 
answering questions, with listening to the word, and 
learning it by heart, and examining into it, with 
hearing the Abhidhamma and the Vinaya, and the 
deep sayings of the Suttas, with analysis of forms, 
with learning the rules of right composition, con- 
junction, and grammatical construction 1 , with listening 
to the ninefold teaching of the Conqueror. This, 
O king, is the fifth quality of the sea he ought to 
have. For it was said, O king, by the Blessed One, 
the god over all gods, in the Sutasoma 6"ataka 2 : 

" Just as the fire, in burning grass and sticks, 
Is never satisfied, nor the great sea 
Filled with the waters of all streams that flow — 
So are these students wise, O king of kings, 
Listening, ne'er sated with the words of truth 3 .'" 



Here ends the Second Chapter. 



1 The translation is here doubtful. The Sinhalese apparently 
takes viggaha as qualifying pada, though it renders the whole by 
' learning the rules of resolving words into their elements, and of 
building them up into compounds, and of Sandhi, and of con- 
jugation, and of declension.' 

* Not reached as yet in Professor Fausboll's edition. Mr. 
Trenckner says the verse quoted is No. 47 in the 537th G$taka. 

' The Sinhalese reads Evaw hi me for Eva/» h' ime, and 
renders 'listening to me.' Mr. Trenckner points out that the 
GStaka MSS. read Evam pi te. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII,3,3' 0F MILINDA THE KTNG. 307 

Book VII. Chapter 3. 
the similes (continued). 

21. The Earth. 

i. [382] ' Venerable Nagasena, those five qualities 
of the earth which you say he ought to take, which 
are they ? ' 

' Just, O king, as the earth remains just the same 
whether one scatter upon it desirable things or the 
reverse — whether camphor and aloes and jasmine 
and sandal-wood and saffron, or whether bile and 
phlegm and pus and blood and sweat and fat and 
saliva and mucus and the fluid which lubricates the 
joints and urine and faeces — still it is the same ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, remain the same, unmoved at 
support or neglect, at fame or dishonour, at blame 
or praise, in happiness or in woe. This, O king, is 
the first of the qualities of the earth he ought to 
have. 

2. ' And again, O king, as the earth has no adorn- 
ment, no garlands, but is suffused with the odour of 
itself; just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, wear no finery, but rather be set 
round with the sweet savour of his own righteousness 
of life. This, O king, is the second quality of the 
earth he ought to have. 

3. 'And again, O king, as the earth is solid, without 
holes or interstices, thick, dense, and spreads itself 
out on every side ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, be endowed 
with an unbroken righteousness of life with no gaps 

x 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



308 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 3, 4. 

or cracks in it, thick, dense, and spreading itself out 
on every side. This, O king, is the third quality of 
the earth he ought to have. 

4. ' And again, O king, as the earth is never 
weary, though it bears up the villages and towns 
and cities and countries, the trees and hills and 
rivers and ponds and lakes, the wild creatures and 
birds and men, multitudes of men and women ; just 
so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in 
effort, be never weary in giving exhortation and 
admonition and instruction and education, in rousing 
and inciting and gladdening, and at the expositions 
of the faith. This, O king, is the fourth quality of 
the earth he ought to have. 

5. ' And again, O king, as the earth is free alike 
from fawning and from ill-will 1 ; just so, O king, 
should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
continue in spirit, like the earth, free alike from 
fawning upon any man, from ill-will to any man. 
This is the fifth quality of the earth he ought 
to have. [383] For it was said, O king, by the 
devoted woman, -ATulla Subhadda, when she was 
exalting the recluses of her own sect 2 : 

1 This simile has already occurred above, I, 258, 259 (of the 
translation). 

* The Sinhalese (pp. 563, 564) gives the whole story. She was 
the daughter of Anathapi»<fika (Sudatta), the famous supporter of 
the Buddha, and builder of the Getavana at Savatthi. On her 
marriage to a rich merchant at Saketa (Audh) named Kalaka, 
he invited the Brahman naked ascetics of his sect, the A^tvakas, 
and asked her to go and entertain 'the Arahats.' Hearing the 
word Arahat she went quickly and full of delight to do so ; and 
was shocked beyond measure to find a number of disorderly 
fakirs, with neither modesty in their hearts, nor decency in their 
outward behaviour. So she fled from the hall, and on her husband 
remonstrating, was indignant. He then asked her what the recluses 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 3, 8. OF MIUNDA THE KING. 309 

" Were one, enraged, to cut their one arm with an 

axe, 
Another, pleased, to anoint the other with sweet 

scent, 
No ill-will would they bear the one, nor love the 

other. 
Their hearts are like the earth, unmoved are my 

recluses 1 ." ' 

22. Water. 

6. 'Venerable Nagasena, the five qualities of 
water which you say he ought to take, which are 
they?' 

'Just, O king, as water is firmly fixed (in 
pools, wells, &c), shakes not, and (in its ordinary 
state) is not disturbed, and is pure by nature ; just 
so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in 
effort, putting away hypocrisy, and whining, and 
intimating their wants, and improper influences of 
all sorts, be fixed, unshaken, undisturbed, and pure 
in nature. This, O king, is the first quality of 
water he ought to have. 

7. ' And again, O king, as water is always of 
a refreshing nature; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, be full of pity, 
and love, and kindness to all beings, seeking the 
good of all, in mercy to all. This, O king, is the 
second quality of water he ought to have. 

8. ' And again, O king, as water makes the dirty 
clean ; just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 

of her sect were like, and she told him. Another verse from her 
description is quoted below, p. 387 of the Pali. The above story 
has been often repeated. 

1 Not traced. Hina/i-kumbure reads ekad £e bah aw (twice) 
and manaso, pamodito; and he is no doubt right. 



Digitized by 



Google 



3IO THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 3, 9. 

earnest in effort, be in all places, whether in the 
village or in the forest, free from disputes with, free 
from offence against his teachers, his masters, or 
those standing towards him like a teacher. This, 
O king, is the third quality of water he ought to 
have. 

9. ' And again, O king, as water is desired of all 
men ; just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, wishing for little, content, given to 
solitude and retirement, be always an object of 
desire to all the world. This, O king, is the fourth 
quality of water he ought to have. 

10. 'And again, O king, as water works no 
harm to any man ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, never do any 
wrong, whether in deed or word or thought, which 
would produce in others either strife, or quarrel, or 
contention, or dispute, or a feeling of emptiness, or 
anger 1 , or discontent. [384] This, O king, is the 
fifth quality of water he ought to have. For it was 
said, O king, by the Blessed One, the god over all 
gods, in the Ka»ha £ataka * : 

"If you would grant a boon to me, 
O Sakka, lord of every creature, — 
Let none, Sakka, on my account, 
Be harmed, whether in mind or body, 
At any time or place. This, Sakka, 
This would I choose as boon of boons s ."' 

1 Ritta^Mna, which Hina/i-knmburS renders siswa kipima. 

1 These words are in the original ascribed, not to the Buddha 
himself, but to Ka/iha-kumaro, the then Bodisat. 

* (rataka IV, 14. Professor Fausboll reads man kate, but the 
Sinhalese (pp. 566, 567) confirms Mr. Trenckner's reading, mam 
kana, mam aissaya, mam anattha-k&matlya. 



Digitized by 



Google 



vii, 3, »5- of milinda the king. 3 1 1 

23. Fire. 

11. 'Venerable Nagasena, those five qualities of 
fire which you say he ought to take, which are 
they?' 

'Just, O king, as fire burns grass, and sticks, and 
branches, and leaves; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, burn out in the 
fire of wisdom all evil dispositions which feed on 
objects of thought, whether subjective or objective, 
whether desirable or the reverse. This, O king, is 
the first quality of fire he ought to have. 

12. 'And again, O king, as fire has no pity, 
neither mercy ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, show no 
pity, neither mercy, to any evil dispositions. This, . 
O king, is the second quality of fire he ought 
to have. 

13. 'And again, O king, as fire destroys cold; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, lighting up in his heart the burn- 
ing fire of zeal, destroy all evil dispositions therein. 
This, O king, is the third quality of fire he ought 
to have. 

14. ' And again, O king, as fire, seeking no 
favour of any man, bearing no ill-will to any man, 
makes heat for all; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, dwell in spirit 
like the fire, fawning on none, bearing ill-will to 
none. This, O king, is the fourth quality of fire 
he ought to have. 

1 5. ' And again, O king, as fire dispels darkness, 
and makes the light appear ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, dispel the 



Digitized by 



Google 



312 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 3, 16. 

darkness of ignorance, and make the light of know- 
ledge to appear. This is the fifth quality of fire 
he ought to have. For it was said, O king, by the 
Blessed One, the god over all gods, in his exhorta- 
tion to Rahula, his son : 

[385] " Practise thyself, Rahula, in that medita- 
tion which acts like fire. Thereby shall no wrong 
dispositions, which have not yet arisen, arise within 
thee, nor shall they that have arisen bear sway over 
thy heart \" ' 



24. Wind. 

16. ' Venerable Nagasena, those five qualities of 
wind which you say he ought to take, which are 
they?' 

' Just, O king, as wind pervades the spaces in the 
woods and groves in flowering time; so, O king, 
should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
rejoice in the groves of meditation that are all in 
blossom with the sweet flowers of emancipation. 
This, O king, is the first quality of wind he 
ought to have. 

1 7. ' And again, O king, as wind sets all the trees 
that grow upon the earth in agitation, bends them 

1 Not traced as yet exactly in these words. But the passage 
at Ma^yAima Nikaya I, 424, lines 3-6, agrees with it throughout, 
except that for akusala dhamma here we have there manapa- 
manapaphassa, which comes to much the same thing. As the 
words are there addressed to Rahula, and as our passage here 
is introduced with the same formula as the quotation below (p. 388 
of the Pali) which is certainly taken from the same page of the 
Ma^yAima, I think the above (M. I, 424, lines 3-6) is most 
probably the passage our author now intended to quote. If so, 
we have here a real case of difference in reading. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 3, ao. OF MILINDA THE KING. 313 

down ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, retiring into the midst of 
the woods, there examining into the true nature of 
all existing things (all phenomena, Saz»khiras), 
beat down all evil dispositions. This, O king, is 
the second quality of wind he ought to have. 

18. 'And again, O king, as the wind wanders 
through the sky; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, accustom his 
mind to wander among transcendental things. 
This is the third quality of wind he ought to 
have. 

19. 'And again, O king, as wind carries per- 
fume along ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, carry along with him 
alway the fragrant perfume of his own righteous- 
ness of life. This, O king, is the fourth quality of 
wind he ought to have. 

20. ' And again, O king, as wind has no house, 
no home to dwell in ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, remain alway 
without a house, without a home to dwell in, not 
addicted to society, set free in mind. This, O 
king, is the fifth quality of wind he ought to have. 
For it was said, O king, by the Blessed One, the 
god over all gods, in the Sutta Nipata : 

" In friendship of the world anxiety is born, 
In household life distraction's dust lies thick ; 
The state set free from home and friendship's 

ties — 
That, and that only, is the recluse's aim 1 .'" 

1 Sutta Nipata I, 12, 1. It has been already quoted above, 
IV, 5, 1 (p. an of the Pali), where see the note. 



Digitized by 



Google 



314 the questions and puzzles vii, 3, 21. 

25. The Rock. 

21. 'Venerable Nagasena, the five qualities of the 
rock that you say he ought to have, which are they ? ' 

[386] 'Just, O king, as rock is firm, unshaken, 
immoveable; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, never be excited by allur- 
ing things — forms, or sounds, or scents, or tastes, or 
touch — by veneration or contempt, by support or by 
neglect, by reverence or its absence, by honour or 
dishonour, by praise or blame, nor should he be 
offended by things that give offence, nor bewildered 
on occasions of bewilderment, neither should he 
quake nor tremble, but like a rock should he be 
firm. This, O king, is the first quality of the rock 
he ought to have. For it was said, O king, by the 
Blessed One, the god over all gods : 

" The solid rock 's not shaken by the wind, 
Just so the wise man falters not, nor shakes, 
At praise or blame 1 ." 

22. ' And again, O king, as a rock is firm, un- 
mixed with extraneous things; just so, O king, 
should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, be 
firm and independent, given to association with 
none. This, O king, is the second quality of the 
rock he ought to have. For it was said, O king, by 
the Blessed One, the god over all gods : 

" The man who mixes not with householders, 
Nor with the homeless, but who wanders lone, 
Without a home, and touched by few desires, — 
That is the man I call a Brahma/za 2 ." 

1 Dhammapada 81. The first line recurs at Mahivagga V, 1, 27. 
* From the Sutta Nipata III, 9, 35. It is also included in the 
Dhammapada collection of Scripture verses (No. 404). 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 3, 2g. OF MILINDA THE KTNG. 31^ 

23. ' And again, O king, as on the rock no seed 
will take root ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, never permit evil dis- 
positions to take root in his mind. This, O king, 
is the third quality of rock that he ought to have. 
For it was said, O king, by Subhuti, the Elder : 

" When lustful thoughts arise within my heart, 
Examining myself, alone I beat them down. 
Thou who'rt by lust excited, who by things 
That give offence, allowest of offence, 
Feeling bewildered when strange things occur, 
Thou shouldst retire far from the lonely woods. 
For they're the dwelling-place of men made pure, 
Austere in life, free from the stains of sin. 
Defile not that pure place. Leave thou the 
woods 1 ." 

24. [387] 'And again, just as the rock rises 
aloft, just so should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest 
in effort, rise aloft through knowledge. This is 
the fourth quality of the rock he ought to have. 
For it was said, O king, by the Blessed One, the 
god over all gods : 

" When the wise man by earnestness has driven 
Vanity far away, the terraced heights 
Of wisdom doth he climb, and, free from care, 
Looks over the vain world, the careworn crowd — 
As he who standing on the mountain top 
Can watch his fellow-men still toiling on the 
plain »." 

25. ' And again, O king, just as the rock cannot 

1 Not traced as yet. 

* This verse, not traced elsewhere as yet, is included in the 
Dhammapada collection as verse 28. 



Digitized by 



Google 



3l6 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 3, 26. 

be lifted up nor bent down ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, be neither 
lifted up nor depressed. This, O king, is the fifth 
quality of the rock he ought to have. For it was 
said, O king, by the devout woman, Aulla Su- 
bhadda, when she was exalting the recluses of her 
own sect : 

" The world is lifted up by gain, depressed by 
loss. 
My Samawas remain alike in gain- or loss." ' 



26. Space. 

26. ' Venerable Nagasena, those five qualities of 
space which you say he ought to have, which are 
they?' 

'Just, O king, as space is everywhere impossible 
to grasp ; just so, O king, should it be impossible 
for the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, to be 
anywhere taken hold of by evil dispositions. This, 
O king, is the first quality of space he ought to 
have. 

27. 'And again, O king, as space is the familiar 
resort of jfo'shis, and ascetics, and gods 1 , and flocks 
of birds ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, make his mind wander 
easily over all things with the knowledge that each 
individual (Sawkhara) is impermanent, born to 
sorrow, and without any abiding principle (any 
soul). This, O king, is the second quality of space 
he ought to have. 

1 Bhuta, which the Sinhalese, p. 572, renders yaksha. I think 
it means all kinds of gods (except the highest), demigods, fairies, 
superhuman beings, &c. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 3, 3°- OF MILINDA THE KING. 317 

28. ' And again, O king, as space inspires terror ; 
just so, O king [388], should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, train his mind to be in terror of 
rebirths in any kind of existence. To seek no 
happiness therein. This, O king, is the third 
quality of space he ought to have. 

29. ' And again, O king, as space is infinite, 
boundless, immeasurable ; just so, O king, should the 
righteousness of the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in 
effort, know no limit, and his knowledge be beyond 
measure. This, O king, is the fourth quality of 
space he ought to have. 

30. 'And again, O king, as space does not hang 
on to anything, does not cling to anything, does not 
rest on anything, is not stopped by anything ; just so, 
O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in 
effort, neither in any way depend on, nor cling to, nor 
rest on, nor be hindered by either the families that 
minister to him, or the pupils who resort to him, or 
the support he receives, or the dwelling he occupies, 
or any obstacles to the religious life, or any requisites 
that he may want, or any kind of evil inclination. 
This, O king, is the fifth quality of space he ought 
to have. For it was said, O king, by the Blessed 
One, the god over all gods, in his exhortation to 
Rahula, his son : 

" Just, Rahula, as space rests nowhere on any- 
thing, so shouldst thou practise thyself in that medi- 
tation which is like space. Thereby shall neither 
pleasant nor unpleasant sensations, as they severally 
arise, bear sway over thy heart 1 ." ' 

1 MaggMma. Nikiya I, 424. See the note above on VII, 3, 15. 



Digitized by 



Google 



318 the questions and puzzles vii, 3,31. 

27. The Moon. 

31. 'Venerable Nigasena, those five qualities of 
the moon which you say he ought to have, which 
are they ? ' 

'Just, O king, as the moon, rising in the bright 
fortnight, waxes more and more; just so, O king, 
should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
grow more and more in good conduct and righteous- 
ness and virtue and the constant performance of 
duty, and in knowledge of the scriptures and study', 
and in the habit of retirement, and in self-possession, 
and in keeping the doors of his senses guarded, and 
in moderation in food, and in the practice of vigils. 
This, O king, is the first quality of the moon he 
ought to have. 

32. ' And again, O king, as the moon is a mighty 
lord 2 ; just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, be a mighty lord over his own will. 



1 Agamidhigame. These are two, not one. Agama adhi- 
gama dekhi da says the Sinhalese, p. 573. 

* U/aradhipati. Dr. Morris in the 'Journal of the Pali Text 
Society' (1880, p. 107) ingeniously proposes to read u/ur&^adhi- 
pati, 'king and lord over the u/u's, the lunar mansions.' In that 
case the u /a r a in the latter clause of the sentence would be a play 
upon words. But Mr. Trenckner's reading is confirmed by the Sin- 
halese, which has Sandra diwya-ra^a tema mahatwu sisira- 
guwayem adhipati wuyeya, 'the moon, that heavenly king, is 
a lord by reason of his great coldness.' And the reading may well 
stand, for the mention, in the latter part of the clause, of the thing 
over which the Bhikshu is to be lord does not necessarily require 
a corresponding word in the first part. We have numerous in- 
stances in these similes of the ethical interpretation of the physical 
simile being an addition, with nothing corresponding to it in 
the type discussed. The moon was a god, lord over other things 
besides the lunar mansions. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Vn»3. 35' 0F MILINDA THE KING. 319 

This, O king, is the second quality of the moon he 
ought to have. 

33. ' And again, O king, as the moon wanders at 
night ; just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, be given to solitude. [380] This, 
O king, is the third quality of the moon he ought to 
have. 

34. ' And again, O king, as the moon hoists a 
standard over his mansion 1 ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, hoist the 
standard of righteousness. This, O king, is the 
fourth quality of the moon he ought to have. 

35. ' And again, O king, as the moon rises when 
begged and prayed to do so ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, frequent for 
alms those families who have asked and invited him 
to do so 2 . This, O king, is the fifth quality of the 
moon he ought to have For it was said, O king, 
by the Blessed One, the god over all gods, in the 
most excellent Sawyutta Nikaya : 

" Like the moon, O brethren, let your visits be 
paid to the laity. Drawing back alike in outward 
demeanour and in inward spirit, be ye always, as 
strangers on their first visit, retiring in the presence 
of the laity. [As the man who looks down a deep 



1 Aando vimSna-ketu. 'Has his mansion, forty-nine yo- 
^anas in extent, as his banner/ says Hina/i-kumbure\ (A yo^ana 
is, seven miles.) Vimawa does not mean lunar mansion, but the 
palace which every deity, and therefore also the moon, is supposed 
to inhabit. 

* The Sinhalese, p. 573, has the exact opposite. 'As the moon 
rises whether begged to do so or not, so should the Bhikshu visit 
the laity whether invited to do so or not.' But the Pali must be 
right, as the subsequent quotation shows. 



Digitized by 



Google 



320 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 3, 36. 

well, or a mountain precipice, or a river in flood, 
would be abashed alike in body and in mind ; so be 
ye, O brethren, as the moon in your visits to the 
laity. Holding alike in your outward demeanour 
and your inward spirit, be ye alway, as strangers on 
their first visit, retiring in the presence of the 
laity] 1 ." ' 

28. The Sun. 

36. 'Venerable Nagasena, the seven qualities of 
the sun you say he ought to have, which are they?' 

' Just, O king, as the sun evaporates all water ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest 
in effort, cause all evil inclinations, without any ex- 
ception, to dry up within him. This, O king, is the 
first quality of the sun he ought to have. 

37. 'And again, O king, as the sun dispels the 
darkness; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, dispel all the darkness of 
lust, and of anger, and of dullness, and of pride, and 
of heresy, and of evil, and of all unrighteousness. 
This, O king, is the second quality of the sun he 
ought to have. 

38. 'And again, O king, as the sun is always in 
motion; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, be ever thoughtful. This, 

1 Sarayutta XVI, 3, 2, 3. The sentence in brackets is added 
from Hfna/i-kumburS, who gives here, p. 274, the Pali text. Apa- 
kassa, the gerund of ava-karsh, and naviya, 'new-comers,' are 
only found in this passage. In three cases M. Leon Feer has 
here gone wrong, as he has so often elsewhere done, by putting the 
readings of the Sinhalese MSS. only in the notes, and adopting the 
Burmese readings in the text. He should have read, as Hina/i- 

kumburS does, ni&kam naviya gambhtrudap&naw, 

nadi-duggaw. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 3, 4'- OF MILINDA THE KING. 32 1 

O king, is. the third quality of the sun he ought to 
have. 

39. 'And again, O king, as the sun has a halo of 
rays ; just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, have a halo of meditation. This, 
O king, is the fourth quality of the sun he ought to 
have. 

40. 'And again, O king, as the sun continually 
warms multitudes of people ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, rejoice the 
whole world of gods and men with good conduct, 
and righteousness, and virtue [300], and the perform- 
ance of duty, and with the (S7*anas, and the Vimok- 
khas, and Samadhi, and the Samapattis (various 
modes of transcendental meditation or ecstacy), and 
with the five moral powers, and the seven kinds of 
wisdom, and the four modes of being mindful and 
self-possessed, and the fourfold great struggle against 
evil, and the pursuit of the four roads to saintship. 
This, O king, is the fifth quality of the sun he ought 
to have. 

41. 'And again, O king, as the sun is terrified 
with the fear of Rahu (the demon of eclipses); just 
so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest 
in effort, seeing how beings are entangled in the 
waste wildernesses of evil life and rebirth in states 
of woe, caught in the net of the mournful results 
here of evil done in former births, or of punishment 
in purgatory, or of evil inclinations, terrify his mind 
with a great anxiety and fear. This, O king, is the 
sixth quality of the sun he ought to have. 

42. ' And again, O king, as the sun makes mani- 
fest the evil and the good ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, make mani- 

[36] y 



Digitized by 



Google 



322 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 3, 43. 

fest the moral powers, and the kinds of wisdom, and 
the modes of being mindful and self-possessed, and 
the struggle against evil, and the paths to saintship, 
and all qualities temporal and spiritual. This, O 
king, is the seventh quality of the sun he ought to 
have. For it was said, O king, by Vanglsa, the 
Elder: 

" As the rising sun makes plain to all that live 
Forms pure and impure, forms both good and bad, 
So should the Bhikshu, like the rising orb, 
Bearing the scriptures ever in his mind, 
Make manifest to men, in ignorance blind, 
The many-sided Noble Path of bliss 1 ." ' 



29. Sakka. 

43. 'Venerable Nagasena, the three qualities of 
Sakka (the king of the gods) which you say he ought 
to take, which are they ? ' 

' Just, O king, as Sakka enjoys perfect bliss ; just 
so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in 
effort, rejoice in the perfect bliss of retirement. This, 
O king, is the first quality of Sakka he ought to 
have. 

44. 'And again, O king, as when Sakka when he 
sees his gods around him keeps them in his favour, 
fills them with joy; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, keep his mind 
detached, alert, and tranquil, should make joy spring 
up within him, should rouse himself, exert himself, 
be full of zeal. [391] This, O king, is the second 
quality of Sakka he ought to have. 



1 Not traced as yet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 3.47- 0F MILINDA THE KING. 323 

45. 'And again, O king, as Sakka feels no discon- 
tent ; just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, never allow himself to become dis- 
contented with solitude. This, O king, is the third 
quality of Sakka he ought to have. For it was said, 
O king, by Subhuti, the Elder : 

" Since I, great hero, have renounced the world, 
According to the doctrine that you teach, 
I will not grant that any thought of lust 
Or craving care has risen in my breast V ' 



30. The Sovran Overlord. 

46. 'Venerable Nagasena, the four qualities of 
the sovran overlord which you say he ought to take, 
which are they ? ' 

'Just, O king, as the sovran overlord gains the 
favour of the people by the four elements of popu- 
larity (liberality, affability, justice, and impartiality) ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest 
in effort, find favour with, please, and gladden the 
hearts of the brethren and rulers of the Order and 
the laity of either sex. This, O king, is the quality 
of the sovran overlord he ought to have. 

47. 'And again, O king, as the sovran overlord 
allows no robber bands to form in his realm; just 
so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest 
in effort, never allow lustful or angry or cruel ideas 
to arise within him. This, O king, is the second 
quality of the sovran overlord he ought to have. 
For it was said, O king, by the Blessed One, the 
god over all gods : 



1 Not traced as yet. 
V 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



324 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 3,48. 

" The man who takes delight in the suppression 
Of evil thoughts, and alway self-possessed, 
Reflects on the impurity of things 
The world thinks beautiful, he will remove — 
Nay, cleave in twain, the bonds of the Evil One V 

48. 'And again, O king, as the sovran overlord 
travels through 2 the whole world even to its ocean 
boundary, examining into the evil and the good; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest 
in effort, examine himself day by day as to his acts 
and words and thoughts, saying to himself : "How 
may I pass the day blameless in these three direc- 
tions ? " This, O king, [392] is the third quality of 
the sovran overlord he ought to have. For it was 
said, O king, by the Blessed One, the god over all 
gods, in the most excellent Ekuttara Nikaya : 
" With constant care should the recluse 
Himself examine day by day — 
' As days and nights pass quickly by 
How have they found me ? and how left s ?' " 

1 This verse has not been elsewhere traced as yet, but is included 
in the Dhammapada collection, verse 350. Vitakka, which, in 
accord with the context and with Hina/i-kumbur6, is rendered 
above ' evil thoughts,' and by Professor Max Mtlller ' doubts,' really 
means simply ' thoughts,' and is sometimes used without any bad 
connotation. In the Pali the word Maru, which spoils the metre, 
may possibly be an ancient gloss introduced by mistake into the 
text. 

* Anuyayati, which is only found here, and which the Sin- 
halese, p. 577, renders anujasana karanneya. But compare 
anuy&yin at Sutta Nipata V, 7, 3-5, and Tela Ka/aha Gatha 25, 
anuyiyin above, p. 284 of the Pali, and anuyato at Tela Ka/aha 
Gatha 41. 

* Mr. Trenckner points out that this passage is taken from the 
Ahguttara X, 5, 8. Hina/i-kumburg, who gives the Pali, prints it 
as verse, and translates the context at some length. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Vn, 3,49. OF MILINDA THE KING. 325 

49. 'And again, O king, as the sovran overlord is 
completely provided with protection, both within 
and without ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, keep self-possession as 
his door-keeper for a protection against all evil, 
subjective and objective. This, O king, is the fourth 
quality of the sovran overlord he ought to have. 
For it was said, O king, by the Blessed One, the 
god over all gods : 

"With self-possession as his door-keeper, O 
brethren, the disciple of the noble ones puts away 
evil and devotes himself to goodness, puts away 
what is matter of offence and devotes himself to 
blamelessness, preserves himself in purity of life V ' 



Here ends the Third Chapter. 



1 Not traced as yet, but the same phrase from ' puts away evil ' 
to the end occurs at (Tataka I, 130, 131. 



Digitized by 



Google 



326 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 4, 1. 



Book VII. Chapter 4. 
the similes (continued). 

31. The White Ant. 

1 . ' Venerable Nagasena, that quality of the white 
ant which you say he ought to have, which is it ? ' 

'Just, O king, as the white ant goes on with his 
work only when he has made a roof over himself, 
and covered himself up ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, on his round 
for alms, cover up his mind with righteousness and 
self-restraint as a roof. For in so doing, O king, 
will he have passed beyond all fear. This, O king, 
is the one quality of the white ant he ought to have. 
[393] For it was said, O king, by Upasena Vanganta- 
putta, the Elder : 

" The devotee who covers up his mind, 
Under the sheltering roof of righteousness 
And self-control, untarnished by the world 
Remains, and is set free from every fear 1 ." ' 



32. The Cat. 

2. 'Venerable Nagasena, those two qualities of 
the cat you say he ought to have, which are they ? ' 

' Just, O king, as the cat, in frequenting caves and 
holes and the interiors of storied dwellings, does so 
only in the search after rats ; just so, O king, should 

1 Not traced as yet. But as it is doubtless an old verse it is 
interesting that it contains the word yogt. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 4.3- OF MILINDA THE KING. 327 

the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, whether he 
have gone to the village or to the woods or to the 
foot of trees or into an empty house 1 , be continually 
and always zealous in the search after that which is 
his food, namely self-possession. This is the first 
quality of the cat he ought to have. 

3. ' And again, O king, as the cat in pursuing its 
prey always crouches down 2 ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, continue 
conscious of the origin and end 3 of those five groups 
of the characteristic marks of individuality which arise 
out of clinging to existence, thinking to himself: 
" Such is form, such is its origin, such its end. Such 
is sensation, such is its origin, such its end. Such 
are ideas, such is their origin, such their end. Such 
are the mental potentialities (the Confections, Sam- 
khara), such is their origin, such their end. Such 
is self-consciousness, such is its origin, such its 
end *." This, O king, is the second quality of the 
cat he ought to have. For it was said, O king, by 
the Blessed One, the god over all gods : 

1 Hammiyantara. The Sinhalese has Pi/a baranda ceti 
u</u mahal prasada cetula/a giye da. 'Baranda,' which is 
not in Clough, I take to be simply ' verandah,' and the whole to 
mean : ' or goes into the interior of a mansion with an upper story 
to it on which is a verandah.' Buddhaghosa on ATullavagga VI, 1, 2, 
(putting only ku/agara, 'peaked chamber,' for baranda,) has the 
same explanation. Ten or twelve years is allowed in ^Tullavagga 
VI, 17, 1, for the building of such a prSsida. See also Mahl- 
vagga I, 30, 4, and VI, 33, 2. 

s Asanne is Mr. Trenckner's reading. But Hina/i-kumbure\ 
who translates deyat taba hindtme« ma, 'sitting with its fore- 
paws stretched out,' evidently read asanena. 

1 Abbaya, not in Childers, is of course avyaya. 

4 The Sinhalese expands this speech over ten pages, 580-589, 
and then omits the verse at the end. 



Digitized by 



Google 



328 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 4, 4. 

" Seek not rebirths afar in future states. 
Pray, what could heaven itself advantage you ! 
Now, in this present world, and in the state 
In which you find yourselves, be conquerors ! " ' 



33. The Rat. 

4. ' Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
rat you say he ought to take, which is it ? ' 

' Just, O king, as the rat, wandering about back- 
wards and forwards, is always smelling after food ' ; 
just so, O king, [394] should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, be ever in his wanderings to and 
fro, bent upon thought This is the quality of the 
rat he ought to have. For it was said, O king, by 
Upasena Vanganta-putta, the Elder : 
" Ever alert and calm, the man of insight, 

Esteeming wisdom as the best of all things, 

Keeps himself independent of all wants and cares 2 .'" 



34. The Scorpion. 

5. ' Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
scorpion you say he ought to take, which is it ? ' 

' Just, O king, as the scorpion, whose tail is its 
weapon, keeps its tail erect as it wanders about; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, have knowledge as his weapon, 

1 Upasimsako. Dr. Morris, in the 'Journal of the Pali Text 
Society ' (1884, p. 75), suggests upasinghako. But the Sinhalese 
in the first clause (p. 589, last line) has patamim ma, 'hoping for, 
seeking for,' and in the second (p. 590, line 2) pcetimem ma, 
which is the same thing (from prarthana, which confirms Mr. 
Trenckner's reading). 

* Not traced as yet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 4, 7- OF MILINDA THE KING. 329 

and dwell with his weapon, knowledge, always drawn. 
This, O king, is the quality of the scorpion he ought 
to have. For it was said, O king, by Upasena 
Vanganta-putta, the Elder : 

" With his sword of knowledge drawn, the man of 
insight 

Should ever be unconquerable in the fight, 

Set free from every fear V ' 



35. The Mungoose. 
6. ' Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
mungoose you say he ought to take, which is it ? ' 

'Just, O king, as the mungoose, when attacking 
a snake, only does so when he has covered his 
body with an antidote ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, when going 
into the world where anger and hatred are rife, 
which is under the sway of quarrels, strife, disputes, 
and enmities, ever keep his mind anointed with the 
antidote of love. This, O king, is the quality of 
the mungoose he ought to have. For it was said, 
O king, by Sariputta, the Elder, the Commander of 
the Faith : 
" Therefore should love be felt for one's own kin, 
And so for strangers too, and the whole wide world 
Should be pervaded with a heart of love — 
This is the doctrine of the Buddhas all." ' 



36. The Old Male Jackal. 
7. [395] ' Venerable Nagasena, the two qualities 
of the old male jackal you say he ought to take, 
which are they ? ' 

1 Not traced as yet. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



330 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 4. 8. 

'Just, O king, as the old male jackal, whatever 
kind of food he finds, feels no disgust, but eats of it 
as much as he requires ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, eat without dis- 
gust such food as he receives with the sole object of 
keeping himself alive. This, O king, is the first 
quality of the old male jackal he ought to have. 
For it was said, O king, by Maha Kassapa, the 
Elder : 

" Leaving my dwelling-place, I entered once 
Upon my round for alms, the village street. 
A leper there I saw eating his meal, 
And, as was meet, deliberately, in turn, 
I stood beside him too that he might give a gift. 
He, with his hand all leprous and diseased, 
Put in my bowl — 'twas all he had to give — 
A ball of rice ; and as he placed it there 
A finger, mortifying, broke and fell. 
Seated behind a wall, that ball of food 
I ate, and neither when I ate it, nay, 
Nor afterwards, did any loathing thought 
Arise within my breast 1 ." 

8. 'And again, O king, as the old male jackal, 
when he gets any food, does not stop to examine 
it; just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effortjiever stop to find out whether food 
given to him is bitter or sweet, well-flavoured or ill 
— just as it is should he be satisfied with it. This, 
O king, is the second quality of the old male jackal 



1 Thera Gatha 1054-1056. The reading pakkena hatthena 
seems to me to be quite correct. Compare pakka-gatto, also 
of a leper, at M. I, 506 ; and above, p. 357 of the Pali. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 4, 9« 0F MILINDA THE KING. 33 1 

he ought to have. For it was said, O king, by 

Upasena Vahganta-putta, the Elder : 
" Bitter food too should he enjoy, 
Nor long for what is sweet to taste. 
The mind disturbed by lust of taste 
Can ne'er enjoy the ecstacies 
Of meditations high. The man content 
With anything that's given — in him alone 
Is Samawaship made perfect 1 ."' 



37. The Deer. 

9. ' Venerable Nagasena, those three qualities of 
the deer you say he ought to take, which are they ? ' 

' Just, O king, as the deer frequents the forest by 
day, and spends the night in the open air ; just so, 
O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in 
effort, pass the day in the forest, and the night under 
the open sky. This, O king, is the first quality of 
the deer he ought to have. [396] For it was said, 
O king, by the Blessed One, the god over all gods, in 
the exposition called the Lomahawsana Pariyaya: 

" And I, Sariputta, when the nights are cold and 
wintry, at the time of the eights (the Ash/aka 
festivals 2 ), when the snow is falling, at such times 
did I pass the night under the open sky, and the 
day in the woods. And in the last month of the 
hot season I spent the day under the open sky, and 
the night in the woods 3 ." 

1 Thera Gatha 580. 

1 So called because they were held on the 8th day after the full 
moon in the two winter months. See the notes in ' Vinaya 
Texts,' I, p. 130, and in the MajgAima, p. 536. 

8 MaggAimz Nikaya I, p. 79. To quote this passage here as an 
authority the Bhikshu ought still to follow, is a striking instance of 



Digitized by 



Google 



332 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 4, 10. 

10. ' And again, O king, as the deer, when a javelin 
or an arrow is falling upon him, dodges it and 
escapes, not allowing his body to remain in its way ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, when evil inclinations fall upon 
him, dodge them, and escape, placing not his mind 
in their way. This, O king, is the second quality 
of the deer he ought to have. 

11. 'And again, O king, as the deer on catching 
sight of men escapes this way or that, that they may 
not see him ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, when he sees men of 
quarrelsome habits, given to contentions and strife 
and disputes, wicked men and inert, fond of society — 
then should he escape hither or thither that neither 
should they see him, nor he them \ This, O king, 
is the third quality of the deer he ought to have. 
For it was said, O king, by Sariputta, the Elder, 
the Commander of the Faith : 

" Let not the man with evil in his heart, 
Inert, bereft of zeal, of wicked life, 
Knowing but little of the sacred words — 
Let not that man, at any time or place, 
Be my companion, or associate with me 2 ." ' 

the fatal habit of quoting texts of Scripture apart from their 
context. As it stands, it seems as if it supported the proposition 
of our author. But it is really just the contrary. For it occurs in 
the description given by Gotama of what he had done before he 
arrived at insight, when he was carrying out that system of penance 
which he afterwards abandoned as useless, and indeed worse than 
useless. 

1 See WlaggMaa. NikSya I, 79, where the closing words are the 
same. 

* Thera GSthS 987 (but the last words differ). 



Digitized by 



Google 



vii, 4, 15- °f milinda the king. 333 

38. The Bull. 

12. 'Venerable Nagasena, those four qualities of 
the bull you say he ought to take, which are they ? ' 

' Just, O king, as the bull never forsakes its own 
stall ; just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, never abandon his own body on 
the ground that its nature is only the decomposition, 
the wearing away, the dissolution, the destruction of 
that which is impermanent \ This, O king, is the 
first quality of the bull he ought to have. 

1 3. ' And again, O king, as the bull, when he has 
once taken the yoke upon him, bears that yoke 
through all conditions of ease or of pain ; just so, O 
king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
[397] when he has once taken upon himself the life 
of a recluse, keep to it, in happiness or in woe, to 
the end of his life, to his latest breath. This, O 
king, is the second quality of the bull he ought to 
have. 

14. 'And again, O king, as the bull drinks water 
with never satiated desire ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, receive the 
instruction of his teachers and masters with a desire, 
love, and pleasure that is never satiated 2 . This, O 
king, is the third quality of the bull he ought to 
have. 

15. 'And again, O king, as the bull equally bears 
the yoke whoever puts it on him ; just so, O king, 
should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
accept with bowed head the admonitions and ex- 

1 See Dfgha Nikaya II, 83 ; Gataka I, 146. 
1 GMyamanena, atrtptikawa £ghra»aye*» in the Sin- 
halese. 



Digitized by 



Google 



334 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 4, 16. 

hortations of the elders, of the brethren of junior or 
of middle standing, and of the believing laity alike. 
This, O king, is the fourth quality of the bull he 
ought to have. For it was said, O king, by Sari- 
putta, the Elder, the Commander of the Faith : 

" A novice, seven years of age, a boy 
Only to-day received into our ranks, 
He too may teach me, and with bended head, 
His admonitions will I gladly bear. 
Time after time, where'er I meet him, still 
My strong approval, and my love, will I 
Lavish upon him — if he be but good, — 
And yield the honoured place of teacher to him '." ' 



39. The Boar. 

16. 'Venerable Nagasena, those two qualities of 
the boar you say he ought to take, which are they ? ' 

'Just, O king, as the boar, in the sultry and 
scorching weather of the hot season, resorts to the 
water ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, when his heart is dis- 
tracted and ready to fall, all in a whirl, inflamed by 
anger, resort to the cool, ambrosial, sweet water of 
the meditation on love. This, O king, is the first 
quality of the boar he ought to have. 

17. 'And again, O king, as the boar, resorting to 
muddy water, digs into the swamp with his snout, 
and making a trough for himself, lies down therein ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, put his body away in his mind, and 

1 Not traced as yet. Hina/i-kumburg, p. 594, takes santo in 
the sense of sat purusha gunayem yukta wfl. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 4, 30. OF MILINDA THE KING. 335 

lie down in the midst of contemplation. [398] This, 
O king, is the second quality of the boar he ought 
to have. For it was said, O king, by Pw&afola 
Bharadva^a, the Elder: 
" Alone, with no one near, the man of insight, 
Searching into and finding out the nature 
Of this body, can lay him down to rest 
On the sweet bed of contemplations deep V ' 



40. The Elephant. 

18. ' Venerable Nigasena, the five qualities of 
the elephant he ought to take, which are they ? ' 

' Just, O king, as the elephant, as he walks about, 
crushes the earth ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, mastering the 
nature of the body, crush out all evil. This, O 
king, is the first quality of the elephant he ought 
to have. 

19. 'And again, O king, as the elephant turns his 
whole body when he looks, always looking straight 
before him, not glancing round this way and that 2 ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, turn his whole body when he looks, 
always looking straight before, not glancing round 
this way and that, not looking aloft, not looking at 
his feet, but keeping his eyes fixed about a yoke's 
length in front of him. This, O king, is the second 
quality of the elephant he ought to have. 

20. ' And again, O king, as the elephant has no 
permanent lair, even in seeking his food does not 
always frequent the same spot, has no fixed place of 

1 Not traced as yet. 

1 On this curious belief, see ' Buddhist Suttas,' p. 64. 



Digitized by 



Google 



336 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 4, a I. 

abode ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, have no permanent 
resting-place, but without a home should go his 
rounds for alms. Full of insight, wherever he sees 
a pleasant suitable agreeable place 1 , whether in a 
hut or at the foot of a tree, or in a cave, or on a 
mountain side, there should he dwell, not taking up 
a fixed abode. This, O king, is the third quality of 
the elephant he ought to have. 

21. ' And again, O king, as the elephant revels in 
the water, plunging into glorious lotus ponds full of 
clear pure cool water, and covered over with lotuses 
yellow, and blue, and red, and white, sporting 
there in the games in which the mighty beast 
delights ; [399] just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, plunge into the glorious 
pond of self-possession, covered with the flowers of 
emancipation, filled with the delicious waters of the 
pure and stainless clear and limpid Truth; there 
should he by knowledge shake off and drive away 
the Sawkharas 2 , there should he revel in the 
sport that is the delight of the recluse. This, O 
king, is the fourth quality of the elephant he ought 
to have. 

22. ' And again, O king, as the elephant lifts up 
his foot with care, and puts it down with care ; just 
so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest 
in effort, be mindful and self-possessed in lifting 

1 For dese bhava/n the Sinhalese reads desa-bhaga. 

* Sawkhara is here used in the sense in which they are said at 
Dhammapada, verse 203, to be parama dukkha. The word is 
there explained by the commentator (wrongly, I think) as the five 
Skandhas. The Sinhalese, p. 596, simply has sarva sawskara 
dharmaya/n. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 4, 33. OF MILINDA THE KING. 337 

up his feet and in putting them down, in going or 
returning, in stretching his arm or drawing it back, — 
wherever he is he should be mindful and self- 
possessed. This, O king, is the fifth quality of the 
elephant he ought to have. For it was said, O 
king, by the Blessed One, the god over all gods, in 
the most excellent Sa/wyutta Nikaya : 
" Good is restraint in action, 

And good restraint in speech, 

Good is restraint in mind, 

Restraint throughout is good. 

Well guarded is he said to be 
Who is ashamed of sin, in all things self-controlled V ' 



Here ends the Fourth Chapter. 



1 From the Samyutta III, 1, 5, 6. The first four lines are also 
included in the Dhammapada collection, verse 361. 



[36] 2 

/Google 



Digitized by ' 



338 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 5, I. 

Book VII. Chapter 5. 
the similes (continued). 

[400] 41. The Lion. 

1. 'Venerable Nagasena, those seven qualities 
of the lion you say he ought to have, which are 
they?' 

' Just, O king, as the lion is of a clear, stainless, 
and pure light yellow colour ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, be clear, 
stainless, and pure light in mind, free from anger 
and moroseness. This, O king, is the first quality 
of the lion he ought to have. 

2. ' And again, O king, as the lion has four paws 
as his means of travelling, and is rapid in his gait ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, move along the four paths of saint- 
ship. This, O king, is the second quality of the lion 
he ought to have. 

3. ' And again, O king, as the lion has a beautiful 
coat of hair, pleasant to behold ; just so, O king, 
should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
have a beautiful coat of righteousness, pleasant to 
behold. This, O king, is the third quality of the 
lion he ought to have. 

4. ' And again, O king, as the lion, even were his 
life to cease, bows down before no man ; just so, O 
king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
even though he should cease to obtain all the 
requisites of a recluse — food and clothing and 
lodging and medicine for the sick — never bow down 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 5, 7- OF MILINDA THE KING. 339 

to any man \ This is the fourth quality of the lion 
he ought to have. 

5. ' And again, O king, as the lion eats regularly 
on, wheresoever his prey falls there does he eat 
whatever he requires, and seeks not out the best 
morsels of flesh ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, stand for alms 
at each hut in regular order, not seeking out the 
families where he would be given better food, not 
missing out any house upon his rounds 2 , he should 
not pick and choose in eating, wheresoever he may 
have received a mouthful of rice there should he eat 
it, seeking not for the best morsels. This, O king, 
is the fifth quality of the lion he ought to have. 

6. ' And again, O king, as the lion is not a storer 
up of what he eats, and when he has once eaten of 
his prey returns not again to it ; just so, O king, 
should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
never be a storer up of food. This is the sixth 
quality of the lion he ought to have. 

7. [401] ' And again, O king, as the lion, even if 
he gets no food, is not alarmed, and if he does 3 , 
then he eats it without craving, without faintness, 
without sinking 4 ; just so, O king, should the 

1 This is an injunction the Bhikshus still observe. Some of 
them have been known to attend a levee in Ceylon (improperly, as 
I venture to think). But as they would bow to no one, not to 
governor or prince, the levee became, so far as they were con- 
cerned, a mere march-past. 

* This is one of the Dhutangas, and is in the Sekhiyas (No. 33). 
Most Bhikshus never ' stand for alms ' at all. But if they do, they 
observe this rule. 

8 ' If he does not,' says the Sinhalese. 

4 Ana^Aapanno. The MSS. in parallel passages (Tevi^g-a 
I, 2 7 ; Anguttara II, 5, 7 ; III, 1 3 1 ; Udana VII, 3, 10 ; MaggAixaa. I, 

Z 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



34-0 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 5, 8. 

strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, be not alarmed 
even if he gets no food, and if he does then should 
he eat it without craving, without faintness, without 
sinking, conscious of the danger in the lust of taste, 
in full knowledge of the right outcome of eating 
(the maintenance of life for the pursuit of holiness) l . 
This, O king, is the seventh quality of the lion he 
ought to have. For it was said, O king, by the 
Blessed One, the god over all gods, in the most 
excellent Sawyutta Nikaya, when he was exalting 
Maha Kassapa, the Elder : 

" This Kassapa, O Bhikshus, is content with such 
food as he receives, he magnifies the being content 
with whatever food one gets, he is not guilty of 
anything improper or unbecoming for the sake of an 
alms, if he receive none, yet is he not alarmed, and 
if he does then does he eat it without craving, 
without faintness, without sinking, conscious of 
danger, with full knowledge of the right object in 
taking food V ' 

42. The ATakravaka bird. 

8. 'Venerable Nagasena, those three qualities of 
the Aakravaka bird you say he ought to take, which 
are they ? ' 

'Just, O king, as the Afakravaka bird never for- 
sakes his mate even to the close of his life ; just so, 
O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, never, even 

173; Sumangala I, 59) have usually a^Aopanno. The Sin- 
halese has ahira trishwSwehi no gcelf. 

1 Nissara»a-pa#flena. This Hina/i-kumbure' renders nis- 
sarawakhyatawu brahma£ariyanugraha pi»isa yanadiwu 
pratyaweksha fla«ayem yuktawu. 

* Sawyutta XVI, 1, 3 (vol. ii, p. 194 of M. Le'on Feer's edition 
for the Pali Text Society). 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 5, io. OF MILINDA THE KING. 34I 

to the close of his life, give up the habit of thought. 
This, O king, is the first quality of the A'akravaka 
bird he ought to have. 

9. 'And again, O king, as the .A'akravaka bird 
feeds on the Sevala and Pawaka (water-plants so 
called), and derives satisfaction therefrom, and being 
so satisfied, neither his strength nor his beauty 
grows less; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, find satisfaction in what- 
ever he receives. And if he does so find satisfaction, 
O king, then does he decrease neither in power of 
meditation, nor in wisdom, nor in emancipation, nor 
in the insight that arises from the consciousness of 
emancipation, nor in any kind of goodness. [402] 
This, O king, is the second quality of the A'akra- 
vaka bird he ought to have. 

io. 'And again, O king, as the A'akravaka bird 
does no harm to living things ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, laying aside 
the cudgel, laying aside the sword, be full of modesty 
and pity, compassionate and kind to all creatures 
that have life 1 . This, O king, is the third quality 
of the A'akravaka bird he ought to have. For it 
was said, O king, by the Blessed One, the god over 
all gods, in the A'akravaka £ataka : 
" The man who kills not, nor destroys, 

Oppresses not, nor causes other men 

To take from men that which is rightly theirs 2 — 



1 This is from the first clause in the -fiTula Sila (translated in 
•Buddhist Suttas,' p. 189). 

* Na ^indti na g&paye. Both these forms are to be derived, 
I venture to think, from GYA (or its more primitive form Gt), 
and not from Gl. It is true that Childers gives ^in&ti as third 
person singular of Gl, and that (through the influence of the 



Digitized by 



Google 



342 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 5, 11. 

And this from kindness to all things that live — 
No wrath with any man disturbs his peace V ' 



43. The Peatahika 2 bird. 

11. 'Venerable Nagasena, those two qualities of 
the Pewahika bird you say he ought to take, which 
are they ? ' 

'Just, O king, as the Pe«ahika bird, through 
jealousy of her mate, refuses to nourish her young 3 ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, be jealous of any evil dispositions 

common word Gina) there has really, perhaps, been some con- 
fusion in Pali writers between the two roots, closely allied as they 
are both in form and meaning. But whether or not that be so 
elsewhere, we have here at least another instance of the frequent 
association of a simple verb with its own causal. Gapeti, which 
occurs three times in the Milinda, and is always explained by 
Hma/i-kumburS in the same way (see my notes above on pp. 171, 
227 of the Pali; here he has artha-hani no karawa da), i 
neither for ghipeti (as Dr. Edward Mflller suggests in his 
grammar, p. 37) nor for ^apayati, but for ^yapayati. For the 
apparent confusion between Gl, ^ayati, 'conquer,' and GYA, 
^inati, (1) 'overcome, bring into subjection,' (2) 'oppress, extort,' 
see the commentary on ^ine at Dhammapada, verse 103 (quoted 
also at Gatakal, 314), which runs^initvana^ayaw ahareyya; 
and on gz.yz.rn at verse 201 (taken from Sawyutta III, 2, 4, 7), 
which is explained by ^inanto, and at verse 104 where ^itawt 
is explained by j»inati. But in Pi/aka texts I know of no 
instance where the two roots cannot be kept quite distinct ; and it 
is quite possible that the Dhammapada commentator, while inter- 
preting the one root by the other, is still conscious of the difference 
between them. <?ina (the p. p. p. of ^inati) is not given at all by 
Childers, but occurs Gataka III, 153, 223, 335; V, 99. 

1 Gataka IV, 71. One word differs, and the lines are not 
spoken by the Buddha, but by the bird. 

8 The Sinhalese (p. 600) has koendcettiya, a word not in 
Clough. 

9 Hina/i-kumburS's translation of this clause shows that he had 
a different reading in his Pali text. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 5,12. OF MILINDA THE KING. 343 

which arise within him, and putting them by his 
mindfulness into the excellent crevice of self-control, 
should dwell at the door of his mind in the constant 
practice of self-possession in all things relating to 
his body 1 . This, O king, is the first quality of the 
Pewahika bird he ought to have. 

12. 'And again, O king, as the Pe«ahika bird 
spends the day in the forest in search of food, but at 
night time resorts for protection to the flock of birds 
to which she belongs ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, who has for a 
time resorted to solitary places for the purpose of 
emancipation from the ten Fetters, and found no 
satisfaction therein, repair back to the Order for 
protection against the danger of blame, and dwell 
under the shelter of the Order 2 . This, O king, is 
the second quality of the Pe#ahika'bird he ought to 
have. For it was said, O king, by the Brahma 
Sahampati in the presence of the Blessed One : 

" Seek lodgings distant from the haunts of men, 
Live there in freedom from the bonds of sin ; 
But he who finds no peace in solitude 
May with the Order dwell, guarded in heart, 
Mindful and self-possessed 3 ." ' 

1 ' As the Pewahiki, refusing to nourish her young in the nest, 
puts them into a crevice of a tree, and watches them there,' is the 
Sinhalese interpretation. And the word susira would not have 
been used in the second clause unless something corresponding to 
it had originally stood also in the first. 

1 Here again it is probable from the Sinhalese version that 
Hina/i-kumbure' reads rattiw for rati«j. 

8 The verse occurs in the Thera Gatha 142, but is here quoted 
from the Samyutta Nikaya VI, 2, 3, 4, where the readings sa£e ka. 

nadhiga££^aye satirna must be corrected 

according to the readings here. 



Digitized by 



Google 



344 the questions and puzzles vii, 5, 13. 

44. The House-pigeon. 

13. [403] 'Venerable Nigasena, that one quality 
of the house-pigeon you say he ought to take, which 
is it?' 

'Just, O king, as the house-pigeon, while dwelling 
in the abode of others, of men, does not become 
enamoured of anything that belongs to them, but 
remains neutral, taking notice only of things per- 
taining to birds; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, while resorting 
to other people's houses, never become enamoured 
of women or of men, of beds, or chairs, or garments, 
or jewelry, or things for use or enjoyment, or various 
forms of food that are there, but remain neutral 
always, addicted only to such ideas as become a 
recluse. This, O king, is the quality of the house- 
pigeon he ought to have. For it was said, O king, 
by the Blessed One, the god over all gods, in the 
.tfulla Nanada (74taka : 

" Frequenting people's homes for food or drink, 
In food and drink alike be temperate, 
And let not beauty's form attract thy thoughts '." ' 



45. The Owl. 

14. 'Venerable Nagasena, those two qualities of 
the owl you say he ought to take, which are they ? ' 

'Just, O king, as the owl, being at enmity with 
the crows, goes at night where the flocks of crows 
are, and kills numbers of them; just so, O king, 
should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, be 

1 Grdtaka IV, 223. There is a difference of reading, making no 
difference to the sense ; and the words are put into the mouth, not 
of the Buddha, but of the old ascetic, the Bodisat of the story. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 5, l6. OF MILINDA THE KING. 345 

at enmity with ignorance ; seated alone and in secret, 
he should crush it out of existence, cut it off at the 
root. This, O king, is the first quality of the owl 
he ought to have. 

15. 'And again, O king, as the owl is a solitary- 
bird ; just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, be devoted to solitude, take delight 
in solitude. This, O king, is the second quality of 
the owl he ought to have. For it was said, O king, 
by the Blessed One, the god over all gods, in the 
most excellent Sa/wyutta Nikaya : 

" Let the Bhikshu, my brethren, be devoted to 
solitude, take delight in solitude, to the end that he 
may realise what sorrow really is, and what the 
origin of sorrow really is, [404] and what the ces- 
sation of sorrow really is, and what the path that 
leads to the cessation of sorrow really is 1 ." ' 



46. The Indian Crane 2 . 

16. 'Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
Indian crane you say he ought to take, which is it ?' 

' Just, O king, as the Indian crane by its cry 
makes known to other folk the good fortune or 
disaster that is about to happen to them ; just so, O 
king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
make known to others by his preaching of the 
Dhamma how dreadful a state is purgatory, and 
how blissful is Nirviwa. This, O king, is the quality 
of the Indian crane he ought to have. For it was 
said, O king, by Piwafola Bhara-dva^a, the elder : 

1 Not traced as yet. 

* Satapatto, literally 'the hundred-feathered one,' Sinhalese 
koeroel, quite different from the ordinary crane (bako). This one 
was a bird of ill omen. See (Jataka II, 1 53 foil. 



Digitized by 



Google 



346 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 5, 17. 

" Two matters there are that the earnest recluse 
Should ever to others be making clear — 
How fearful, how terrible, purgatory is ; 
How great and how deep is Nirvi»a's bliss 1 ." ' 



47. The Bat. 

1 7. ' Venerable N&gasena, those two qualities of 
the bat you say he ought to take, which are they ? ' 

'Just, O king, as the bat, though it enters into 
men's dwelling-places, and flies about in them, soon 
goes out from them, delays not therein ; just so, O 
king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
when he has entered the village for alms, and gone 
on his rounds in regular order, depart quickly with 
the alms he has received, and delay not therein. 
This, O king, is the first quality of the bat he ought 
to have. 

18. ' And again, O king, as the bat, while frequent- 
ing other folk's houses, does them no harm ; just so, O 
king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
when visiting the houses of the laity, never give 
them cause for vexation by persistent requests, or by 
pointing out what he wants, or by wrong demeanour, 
or by chattering, or by being indifferent to their pros- 
perity or adversity; he should never take them away 
from their chief business occupations, but desire their 
success in all things. This, O king, is the second 
quality of the bat he ought to have. For it was 
said, O king, [405] by the Blessed One, the god 
over all gods, in the Lakkha«a Suttanta : 

" ' Oh ! How may others never suffer loss 
Or diminution, whether in their faith, 



1 Not traced as yet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 5, 19- OF MILINDA THE KING. 347 

Or righteousness, or knowledge of the word, 

Or understanding, or self-sacrifice, 

Or in religion, or in all good things, 

Or in their stores of wealth, or corn, or lands, 

Or tenements, or in their sons, or wives, 

Or in their flocks and herds, or in their friends, 

And relatives, and kinsmen, or in strength, 

In beauty, and in joy* — 'tis thus he thinks — 

Longing for other men's advantage and success l ! "' 



48. The Leech. 

1 9. ' Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
leech which you say he ought to take, which is it ? ' 

'Just, O king, as the leech, wheresoever it is put 
on, there does it adhere firmly, drinking the blood ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest 
in effort, on whatsoever subject for meditation he 
may fix his mind, call that subject firmly up before 
him in respect of its colour, and shape, and position, 
and extension, and boundaries, and nature, and 
characteristic marks, drinking the delicious draught of 
the ambrosia of emancipation. This, O king, is the 
quality of the leech he ought to have. For it was 
said, O king, by Anuruddha, the Elder : 
" With heart made pure, in meditation firm, 

Drink deep of freedom's never-failing draught V ' 

1 This is from the 30th Sutta in the Digha Nikaya, where it 
occurs in the description of the Bodisat. 

1 Not traced as yet. Childers translates ase^anaby' charming,' 
&c, apparently on the authority of Subhuti's English gloss on 
Abhidhina Padtpika 597. But that meaning is rather the point 
of union between all the synonyms given in the verse, and not the 
exact meaning of each of them. The word, either in its simple 
form, or with an added -ka, occurs in Then Gatha 55 ; Ma&fAima 
Nikaya I, 114. 



Digitized by 



Google 



348 the questions and puzzles vii, 5, 20. 

49. The Serpent. 

20. ' Venerable Nagasena, those three qualities of 
the serpent you say he ought to take, which are 
they?' 

' Just, O king, as the serpent progresses by means 
of its belly; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, progress by means of his 
knowledge. For the heart of the recluse, O king, 
who progresses by knowledge, continues in percep- 
tion (of the four Truths), that which is inconsistent 
with the characteristics of a recluse 1 does he put 
away, that which is consistent with them does he 
develop in himself. This, [406] O king, is the first 
quality of the serpent he ought to have. 

21. 'And again, O king, just as the serpent as it 
moves avoids drugs 2 ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, go on his way 
avoiding unrighteousness. This, O king, is the 
second quality of the serpent he ought to have. 

22. ' And again, O king, as the serpent on catching 
sight of men is anxious, and pained, and seeks a way 
of escape 3 ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, when he finds himself 
thinking wrong thoughts, or discontent arising within 
him, be anxious and pained, and seek a way of 
escape, saying to himself: "This day must I have 
spent in carelessness, and never shall I be able to 
recover it." This, O king, is the third quality of the 

1 Vilakkha«a»*, not found elsewhere. Hina/i-kumburS, p. 604, 
renders it simply ' dullness' (moha). 

* ' Goes slanting, avoiding medicinal plants, trees, &c.,' says the 
Sinhalese. 

* A!*intayati, perhaps 'put out.' Gcelawf yanta sitanneya, 
says the Sinhalese, p. 605. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 5, 33. OF MILINDA THE KING. 349 

serpent he ought to have. For it is a saying, O king, 
of the two fairy birds in the Bhalla/iya 6&taka : 

" 'Tis one night only, hunter, that we've spent 
Away from home, and that against our will, 
And thinking all night through of one another, 
Yet that one night is it that we bemoan, 
And grieve ; for nevermore can it return * ! "' 



50. The Rock-snake 2 . 

23. 'Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
rock-snake that you say he ought to take, which 
is it?' 

'Just, O king, as the rock-snake, immense as is its 
length of body, will go many days with empty belly, 
and, wretched, get no food to fill its stomach, yet in 
spite of that it will just manage to keep itself alive ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, though he be addicted to obtaining 
his food by alms, dependent on the gifts that others 
may give, awaiting offers, abstaining from taking 
anything himself, and find it difficult to get his 
belly's-full, yet should he, if he seek after the highest 
good 3 , even though he receive not so much as four 
or five mouthfuls to eat, fill up the void by water. 
This, O king, is the quality of the rock-snake he 
ought to have. For it was said, O king, [407] by 
Sariputta, the Elder, the Commander of the Faith : 

1 Gataka IV, 439. 

* A^agara. Childers renders this 'boa-constrictor.' But 
Hfna/i-kumbure' has pimburS, which is a rock-snake, often con- 
founded with the boa-constrictor on account of the size to which it 
grows. 

9 Atthavasikena, attha being rendered Nirvana by the Sin- 
halese. 



Digitized by 



Google 



350 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 5, 23. 

" Whether it be dry food or wet he eats, 
Let him to full repletion never eat. 
The good recluse goes forth in emptiness, 
And keeps to moderation in his food. 
If but four mouthfuls or but five he get, 
Let him drink water. For what cares the man 
With mind on Arahatship fixed for ease 1 ! "' 



Here ends the Fifth Chapter. 



1 Thera Gathi 982, 983. The next verse but one has been 
already quoted above; p. 366 of the Pali; and these recur at 
Gataka II, 293, 294. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 6, a. OF MILINDA THE KING. 35 I 



Book VII. Chapter 6. 
the similes (continued). 

51. The Road Spider. 

1. 'Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
road spider you say he ought to have, which is it ? ' 

'Just, O king, as the road spider weaves the cur- 
tain of its net on the road, and whatsoever is caught 
therein, whether worm, or fly, or beetle, that does he 
catch and eat ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, spread the curtain of the 
net of self-possession over the six doors (of his six 
senses), and if any of the flies of evil are caught 
therein, there should he seize them. This, O king, 
is the quality of the road spider he ought to 
have. For it was said, O king, by Anuruddha, 
the Elder: 

" His heart should he shut in, at its six doors, 
By self-possession, best and chief of gifts, 
Should any evil thoughts be caught within, 
Them by the sword of insight should he slay V ' 



52. The Child at the Breast. 

2. ' Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
child at the breast you say he ought to take, [408] 
which is it ? ' 

' Just, O king, as the child at the breast sticks to 
its own advantage, and if it wants milk, cries for it ; 



Not traced as yet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



352 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 6, 3. 

just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, adhere to his own good, and in 
everything — in teaching, m asking and answering 
questions, in the conduct of life, in the habit of 
solitude, in association with his teachers, in the cul- 
tivation of the friendship of the good — should he act 
with knowledge of the Truth. This, O king, is the 
quality of the child at the breast he ought to have. 
For it was said, O king, by the Blessed One, the 
god over all gods, in the Digha Nik&ya, in the Sut- 
tanta of the Great Decease : 

" Be zealous, rather, I beseech you, Ananda, in 
your own behalf. Devote yourselves to your own 
good. Be earnest, all aglow, intent on your own 
good 1 !"' 

53. The Land Tortoise 2 . 

3. ' Venerable Nagasena, that one quality of the 
land tortoise which you say he ought to take, which 
is it?' 

' Just, O king, as the land tortoise, being afraid of 
the water, frequents places far from it, and by that 
habit of avoiding water its length of life is kept 
undiminished ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, seeing the danger in the 
want of earnestness, be mindful of the advantages that 
distinguish earnestness. For by that perception of 

1 Maha-parinibbana Suttanta V, 24, translated in 'Buddhist 
Suttas,' p. 91. The beginning of the exhortation has been already 
quoted above, p. 177 (of the Pali). 

* A'ittaka-dhara-kummassa, literally 'of the tortoise who 
wears the sectarian mark (on his forehead).' The Si/whalese repeats 
this phrase, which clearly distinguishes this tortoise from the other, 
the water tortoise, of VII, 1, 12. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 6, 5- OF MILINDA THE KING. 353 

danger in carelessness, his Samawaship fades not 
away, but rather does he go forward to Nirva»a 
itself. This, O king, is the quality of the land tor- 
toise he ought to have. For it was said, O king, by 
the Blessed One, the god over all gods, in the 
Dhammapada : 

" The Bhikshu who in earnestness delights, 
Who sees the danger of indifference, 
Shall fall not from his high estate away, 
But in the presence of Nirvawa dwell 1 ." ' 



54. The Mountain Height. 

4. ' Venerable Nagasena, those five qualities of the 
mountain height you say he ought to have, which 
are they ? ' 

'Just, O king, as the mountain height is a hiding- 
place for the wicked; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, keep secret the 
offences and failings of others, revealing them not. 
This, O king, is the first of the qualities of the 
mountain height he ought to have. 

5. 'And again, O king, just as the mountain height 
is void of many people ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, [409] earnest in effort, be void 
of lust, angers, follies, and pride, of the net of (wrong) 
views 2 , and of all evil dispositions. This, O king, 

1 Dhammapada, verse 32. The source from which the verse is 
taken is unknown now, and was also evidently unknown to our author. 
With the closing words nibbinass eva santike, compare verse 
372, sa ve nibbSna-santike. Santike, 'immediate, close,' is 
always used with the connotation of being in the very presence of. 
The local qualification, 'near,' is upanissaya, avidure. 

* DitiAi-g&la., the net of delusions, those relating to the per- 
[36] A a 



Digitized by 



Google 



354 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 6, 6. 

is the second quality of the mountain height he 
ought to have. 

6. ' And again, O king, just as the mountain height 
is a lonely spot, free from crowding of men ; just so, 
O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in 
effort, be given to solitude, and free from evil, 
unworthy qualities, from those that are not noble. 
This, O king, is the third quality of the mountain 
height he ought to have. 

7. ' And again, O king, just as the mountain height 
is clean and pure ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, be good and 
pure, happy, and without self-righteousness. This, 
O king, is the fourth quality of the mountain height 
he ought to have. 

8. ' And again, O king, just as the mountain height 
is the resort of the noble ones; just so, O king, 
should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, be 
sought after by the noble ones. This, O king, is 
the fifth quality of the mountain height he ought to 
have. For it was said, O king, by the Blessed One, 
the god over all gods, in the most excellent Saw- 
yutta Nikaya : 

" With solitary men, those noble ones, 
Whose minds, on Arahatship strictly bent, 
Rise easily to contemplation's heights, 
Stedfast in zeal and wise in holy writ — 
With such should he resort, with such commune 1 ." ' 

manence of any individuality, and the separateness of oneself from 
others, as well those now living as those in the future and the 
past. 

1 This is a favourite stanza. It occurs in the Samyutta XIV, 
16-18, and is included in the verses ascribed, in the Thera GathS, 
to the Arahats Somamitta and Vimala (verses 148, 266). 



Digitized by 



Google 



Vn,6, ir. OF MILINDA THE KING. 355 

55. The Tree. 

9. 'Venerable Nagasena, those three qualities of 
the tree you say he ought to take, which are they ? ' 

' Just, O king, as the tree bears fruits and flowers ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest 
in effort, bear the flowers of emancipation and the 
fruits of Sama«aship \ This, O king, is the first 
quality of the tree he ought to have. 

10. 'And again, O king, as the tree casts its 
shadow over the men who come to it, and stay 
beneath it; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, receive with kindness, both 
as regards their bodily wants and their religious 
necessities, those that wait upon him, and remain 
near by him. This, O king, is the second quality of 
the tree he ought to have. 

11.' And again, O king, just as the tree makes no 
kind of distinction in the shadow it affords ; [410] 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, make no distinctions between all 
men, but nourish an equal love to those who rob, or 
hurt, or bear enmity to him, and to those who are 
like unto himself. This, O king, is the third quality 
of the tree he ought to have For it was said, O 
king, by Sariputta, the Elder, the Commander of 
the Faith : 

" Devadatta, who tried to murder him ; 

Angulimala, highway robber chief; 

The elephant set loose to take his life ; 

And Rahula, the good, his only son — 

The sage is equal-minded to them all 2 ." ' 

1 The Sinhalese, p. 610, is here greatly expanded. 
8 This stanza has only been traced at present in commentaries, 
a a 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



35^ the questions and puzzles vii, 6, 12. 

56. The Rain. 

12. 'Venerable Nagasena, those five qualities of 
the rain you say he ought to take, which are they ? ' 

' Just, O king, as the rain lays any dust that arises ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest 
in effort, lay the dust and dirt of any evil dispositions 
that may arise within him. This, O king, is the first 
quality of the rain he ought to have. 

13. 'And again, O king, just as the rain allays 
the heat of the ground ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, soothe the 
whole world of gods and men, with the feeling of 
his love. This, O king, is the second quality of the 
rain he ought to have. 

14. 'And again, O king, as the rain makes all 
kinds of vegetation to grow ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, cause faith 
to spring up in all beings, and make that seed of faith 
grow up into the three Attainments, not only the 
lesser attainments of glorious rebirths in heaven or 
on earth, but also the attainment of the highest 
good, the bliss of Arahatship \ This, O king, is the 
third quality of the rain he ought to have. 

1 5. ' And again, O king, just as the rain-cloud, 
rising up in the hot season, affords protection to the 
grass, and trees, and creepers, and shrubs, and 
medicinal herbs, and to the monarchs of the woods 
that grow on the surface of the earth ; just so, O 
king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 

where it is quoted with some variation. See the Commentary on 
the Dhammapada, p. 147. 

1 In my note above, I, 146, I might have referred to this 
passage. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 6, 18. OF MILINDA THE KING. 357 

cultivating the habit of thoughtfulness, afford pro- 
tection by his thoughtfulness to his condition of 
Samaaaship, for in thoughtfulness is it that all good 
qualities have their root. This, O king, is the fourth 
quality of the rain he ought to have. 

16. [411] ' And again, O king, as the rain when it 
pours down fills the rivers, and reservoirs, and arti- 
ficial lakes, the caves, and chasms, and ponds, and 
holes, and wells, with water ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, pour down 
the rain of the Dhamma according to the texts 
handed down by tradition, and so fill to satisfaction 
the mind of those who are longing for instruction. 
This, O king, is the fifth quality of the rain he 
ought to have. For it was said, O king, by Sari- 
putta, the Elder, the Commander of the Faith : 

" When the Great Sage perceives a man afar, 
Were it a hundred or a thousand leagues, 
Ripe for enlightenment, straightway he goes 
And guides him gently to the path of Truth V ' 



57. The Diamond. 

1 7. ' Venerable Nagasena, those three qualities of 
the diamond you say he ought to take, which are 
they?' 

' Just, O king, as the diamond is pure throughout ; 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, be perfecdy pure in his means of 
livelihood. This, O king, is the first quality of the 
diamond he ought to have. 

18. 'And again, O king, as the diamond cannot 

1 Not traced as yet. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



358 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 6, 19. 

be alloyed with any other substance ; just so, O king, 
should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, never 
mix with wicked men as friends. This, O king, is 
the second quality of the diamond he ought to have. 
19. 'And again, O king, just as the diamond is 
set together with the most costly gems ; just so, O 
king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
associate with those of the higher excellence, with 
men who have entered the first or the second or 
the third stage of the Noble Path, with the jewel 
treasures of the Arahats, of the recluses, of the 
threefold Wisdom, or of the sixfold Insight. This, 
O king, is the third quality of the diamond he ought 
to have. For it was said, O king, by the Blessed 
One, the god over all gods, in the Sutta Nip&ta : 

" Let the pure associate with the pure, 
Ever in recollection firm ; 
Dwelling harmoniously wise 
Thus shall ye put an end to griefs 1 ." ' 



58. The Hunter. 

20. [412] ' Venerable N&gasena, those four quali- 
ties of the hunter you say he ought to have, which 
are they ? ' 

'Just, O king, as the hunter is indefatigable, so 
also, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest 
in effort, be indefatigable. This, O king, is the first 
quality of the hunter he ought to have. 

21. ' And again, O king, just as the hunter keeps 
his attention fixed on the deer ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, keep his 

1 Sutta Nip&ta II, 6, 10 (verse 282). 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



VII, 6, 33. OF MILINDA THE KING. 359 

attention fixed on the particular object which is the 
subject of his thought This, O king, is the second 
quality of the hunter he ought to have. 

22. ' And again, O king, just as the hunter knows 
the right time for his work ; just so, O king, should 
the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, know the 
right time for retirement, saying to himself: " Now 
is the right time to retire. Now is the right time to 
come out of retirement." This, O king, is the third 
quality of the hunter he ought to have. 

23. 'And again, O king, just as the hunter on 
catching sight of a deer experiences joy at the 
thought: "Him shall I get!" just so, O king, 
should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
rejoice at the sight of an object for contemplation, 
and experience joy at the thought : " Thereby shall 
I grasp the specific idea of which I am in search 1 ." 
This, O king, is the fourth quality of the hunter he 
ought to have. For it was said, O king, by Mogha- 
ra/a, the Elder: 



1 Uttariw visesara udhiga££Aissami. Hina/i-kumbur&, 
p. 614, renders this, ' shall I arrive at the advantage of the attain- 
ment of the fruits of the path.' And he may be right, as the word 
uttari/n is used. But the context seems to imply the rendering I 
have ventured to give, which preserves the usual connotation in 
this connection of the other two words of the phrase. A Bhikshu, 
for instance, on seeing a faded flower, will try to realise, to conjure 
up before his mind, the real fact of the transitoriness of all earthly 
(and of all heavenly) things. That is the specific idea of which he 
is in search, the deer he has to catch. No doubt it is only an 
intermediate step to the realisation of the fruits of the path. But 
as visesaw adhigaHAati is the technical term for success in 
such meditation, I cannot but think that the mind of our author 
was directed to the intermediate, rather than to the later stage of 
the Bhikshu's endeavour. The Sinhalese has, perhaps, been 
guided by the verse, but there the word visesam is omitted. 



Digitized by 



Google 



360 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 6, 24. 

" The recluse who, with mind on Nirva»a bent, 
Has acquired an object his thoughts to guide, 
Should be filled with exceeding joy at the hope : 
' By this my uttermost aim shall I gain V " ' 



59. The Fisherman. 

24. ' Venerable Nagasena, those two qualities of 
the fisherman you say he ought to take, which are 
they ? ' 

'Just, Oking, as the fisherman draws up the fish 
on his hook ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, draw up by his knowledge, 
and that to the uttermost, the fruits of Samawaship. 
This, O king, is the first quality of the fisherman he 
ought to have. 

25. 'And again, O king, just as the fisherman by 
the sacrifice of a very little comes to great gain 2 ; 
just so, O king, [413] should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, renounce the mean baits of worldly 
things ; then by that renunciation will he gain the 
mighty fruits of Sama«aship. This, O king, is the 
second quality of the fisherman he ought to have. 
For it was said, O king, by Rlhula, the Elder : 

" Renouncing the baits of the world he shall gain 
The state that is void of lust, anger, and sin, — 
Those conditions of sentient life — and be free, 
Free from the cravings that mortals feel, 
And the fruits of the stages of th' Excellent Way 
And the six modes of Insight shall all be his V ' 

1 Not traced as yet There are stanzas of Mogha-rS^a's both in 
the Sutia Nipita and the Thera G4tM, but this is not one of them. 
1 By putting a small fish on his hook catches a big one. 
' Not traced as yet 



Digitized by 



Google 



vii, 6, 37. of milinda the king. 36 1 

60. The Carpenter. 

26. ' Venerable Nagasena, those two qualities of 
the carpenter he ought to take, which are they ? ' 

' Just, O king, as the carpenter saws off the wood 
along the line of the blackened string (he has put 
round it to guide him) 1 ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, standing on 
righteousness as a basis, and holding in the hand of 
faith the saw of knowledge, cut off his evil disposi- 
tions according to the doctrine laid down by the 
Conquerors. This, O king, is the first quality of 
the carpenter he ought to have. 

27. 'And again, O king, just as the carpenter, 
discarding the soft parts of the wood 2 , takes the 
hard parts ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, forsaking the path of the 
discussion of useless theses, to wit : — the everlasting 
life theory — the let-us-eat-and-drink-for-tomorrow- 
we-die theory* — the theory that the soul and the 
body are one and the same — that the soul is one 
thing, the body another — that all teachings are alike 



1 KS/a-suttaw. See Dr. Morris's note in the 'Journal of the 
Pali Text Society,' 1884, pp. 76-78, where he compares Maha 
Vastu, p. 1 7, and other passages. 

' Phegguw. See above, p. 267 (of the PSli), and Ma^Aima 
Nikaya I, 198, 434, 488, from which it is clear that pheggu is a 
technical term applied to the softer portions of every tree, no doubt 
the outside portions. SSra, on the other hand, means not pith, 
but heart of a tree. The Sinhalese words are sambulu and 
ara/uwa. Compare the ebony tree, the outside of which is as soft 
and white as deal, whereas the inside is black and hard. 

s Sassatara and UAAAedam. See 'Buddhist Suttas,' p. 149. 
Htna/i-kumburg, p. 615, omits these two, and is very confused in 
his version of the others. 



Digitized by 



Google 



362 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 6, 37. 

excellent l — that what is not done is of no avail — 
that men's actions are of no importance — that holi- 
ness of life does not matter — that on the destruction 
of beings nine new sorts of beings appear — that the 
constituent elements of being are eternal 8 — that he 
who commits an act experiences the result thereof — 
that one acts and another experiences the result of 
this action — and other such theories of Karma or 
wrong views on the result of actions — forsaking, I 
say, all such theses, paths which lead to heresy, he 
should learn what is the real nature of those 
constituent elements of which each individuality is, 
for the short term of its individuality, put together, 
and so reach forward to that state which is void of 
lusts, of malice, and of dullness, in which the excite- 
ments of individuality are known no more, and 
which is therefore designated the Void Supreme*. 

1 Tad uttamaw aflflad uttamawi. The Sinhalese omits the 
second uttamam. 

1 The Sinhalese takes all the four previous phrases as qualifying 
this last one. 

8 This passage will be found of the greatest importance for the 
history of the development of early Buddhist belief. In the present 
state of our knowledge — or rather of our ignorance— of that subject, 
its obscure allusions are no doubt unintelligible. But they will not 
always remain so. And, when rightly understood, they will be 
expressly valuable inasmuch as they refer to that department of 
Buddhist belief of which we know, from other sources, the least 
The development — or degeneration, if the expression be preferred 
— of Buddhist doctrine took place along three principal lines. 
Firstly, in the doctrine as to the person of the Buddha; secondly, 
in the pushing of Arahatship into the background and the elevation, 
in its place, of Bodisatship into the ideal ; and thirdly, in the doctrine 
of the relation of man to the universe. We know a good deal of 
the growth of the legend of the Buddha, and of the change in the 
ethical standpoint. Of the evolution of the philosophic conceptions 
we know at present but little. It is on this last point that our 
author here lets us somewhat behind the scenes. The theses he 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 6, 2-j. OF MILINDA THE KING. 363 

This, O king, is the second quality of the carpenter 
he ought to have. For it was said, O king, by the 
Blessed One, the god over all gods, in the Sutta 
Nipita : 

" Get rid of filth 1 ! Put aside rubbish from you ! 
Winnow away the chaff 2 , the men who hold 
Those who are not so, as true Sama«as ! 
Get rid of those who harbour evil thoughts, 
Who follow after evil modes of life ! 
Thoughtful yourselves, and pure, with those resort, 
With those associate, who are pure themselves s ! " ' 



Here ends the Sixth Chapter. 



condemns are to some extent the same as those the discussion of 
which is condemned in the well-known passages in the Pi/akas, 
where similar lists occur. In other respects they are evidence of a 
different and later stage of thought than appears in those parts 
of the Pi/akas at present accessible. And on the positive side, in 
the closing words, though the author has evidently enough the 
old Arahatship in view, yet he chooses expressions which became 
the germ of the much later nihilism of the Madhyamika school, 
which has had so much influence in the more corrupt Buddhisms, 
more especially in China. As these later views never penetrated 
into Ceylon (or at least never had any vogue there, and were for- 
gotten when Hina/i-kumbur£ wrote), it is not surprising that the 
Sinhalese scholar should be at fault in his interpretation of this 
difficult passage. Sanskrit Buddhist texts will be here the best 
commentary. 

1 Kara»</ava«t. In Childers, ' a sort of duck,' in the Sinhalese, 
' excrement.' 

* Pal ape v&hetha. Chaff is so often used in Pali of frivolous 
talk that it is given in the dictionaries as having that meaning. 
Hman-kumburS takes it here in the sense of men of low caste, 
leprous ATamialas. 

* Not traced as yet. It is not in the Sutta Nipata. This is the 
only passage in which our author gives the name of a book as the 
source from which he takes a passage, when the passage cannot be 
found in it. See Introduction, I, xliii. 



Digitized by 



Google 



364 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 7, I. 



Book VII. Chapter 7. 

the similes (continued). 

61. The Waterpot. 

i. [414] 'Venerable Nagasena, that one quality 
of the waterpot you say he ought to take, which 
is it?' 

* Just, O king, as the waterpot when it is full 
gives forth no sound ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, even when he 
has reached the summit of Sama«aship, and knows 
all tradition and learning and interpretation, yet 
should give forth no sound, not pride himself there- 
on, not show himself puffed up, but putting away 
pride and self-righteousness, should be straight- 
forward, not garrulous of himself, neither depre- 
cating others. This, O king, is the quality of the 
waterpot he ought to have. For it was said, O 
king, by the Blessed One, the god over all gods, in 
the Sutta Nipata : 
" What is not full, that is the thing that sounds, 

That which is full is noiseless and at rest ; 

The fool is like an empty waterpot, 

The wise man like a deep pool, clear and full V ' 



62. Black Iron 8 . 
2. 'Venerable Nagasena, those two qualities of 
black iron you say he ought to take, which are they ? ' 
[415] 'Just, O king, as black iron even when 

1 Sutta Nipata III, n, 43 (verse 721). 

1 Ka/ayasa. I suppose to distinguish it from bronze. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 7, 4- OF MILINDA THE KING. 365 

beaten out * carries weight ; just so, O king, should 
the mind of the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
be able, by his habit of thoughtfulness, to carry 
heavy burdens. This, O king, is the first quality of 
black iron he ought to have. 

3. 'And again, O king, as black iron does not 
vomit up the water it has once soaked in 2 ; just so, 
O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in 
effort, never give up the faith he has once felt in the 
greatness of the Blessed One, the Supreme Buddha, 
in the perfection of his Doctrine, in the excellence of 
the Order — never give up the knowledge he has 
once acquired of the impermanence of forms, or of 
sensations, or of ideas, or of qualities, or of modes 
of consciousness. This, O king, is the second 
quality of black iron he ought to have. For it was 
said, O king, by the Blessed One, the god over all 
gods : 

" That man who is in insight purified, 
Trained in the doctrine of the Noble Ones, 
Grasping distinctions as they really are, 
What need hath he to tremble ? Not in part 
Only, but in its full extent, shall he 
To the clear heights of Arahatship attain V ' 



63. The Sunshade. 

4. ' Venerable Nagasena, those three qualities of 
the sunshade* you say he ought to take, which are 
they?' 

1 Suthito. 'Like a thin, strong creeper,' says the Sinhalese. 
* There is no explanation in the Sinhalese of this curious phrase. 
' Not traced as yet. Hina/i-kumburS (p. 618) reads visesa- 
gu«a pavedhati, and mukhabhavam eva so. 

4 AV/atta. As used by high officials, a circular sunshade sup- 



Digitized by 



Google 



366 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 7, 5. 

'Just, O king, as the sunshade goes along over 
one's head; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, be of a character above 
all evil dispositions. This, O king, is the first 
quality of the sunshade he ought to have. 

5. 'And again, O king, just as the sunshade is 
held over the head by a handle ; just so, O king, 
should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
have thoughtfulness as his handle. This, O king, 
is the second quality of the sunshade he ought to 
have. 

6. ' And again, O king, as the sunshade wards off 
winds and heat and storms of rain ; just so, O king, 
should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
ward off the empty winds of the opinions of the 
numerous Samawas and Brahmans who hold forth 
their various and divergent nostrums, ward off the 
heat of the threefold fire (of lust, malice, and dull- 
ness), and ward off the rains of evil dispositions. 
[416] This, O king, is the third quality of the sun- 
shade he ought to have. For it was said, O king, 
by Sariputta, the Elder, the Commander of the 
Faith: 

" As a broad sunshade spreading far and firm, 
Without a hole from rim to rim, wards off 
The burning heat, and the god's mighty rain ; 
So doth the Buddha's son, all pure within, 
Bearing the. sunshade brave of righteousness, 
Ward off the rain of evil tendencies, 
And the dread heat of all the threefold fire V ' 

ported, not by a short stick fixed underneath its centre, but by a 
long stick fastened to a point on its circumference; and carried, 
not by the person it shades, but by an attendant behind him. 
1 Not traced as yet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



vii, 7,9- °f" milinda the king. 367 

64. The Rice Field. 

7. ' Venerable Nagasena, those three qualities of 
the rice field you say he ought to have, which are 
they?' 

'Just, O king, as the rice field is provided with 
canals for irrigation ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, be provided 
with the lists of the various duties incumbent on 
the righteous man — the canals that bring the water 
to the rice fields of the Buddha's doctrine \ This, 
O king, is the first of the qualities of the rice field 
he ought to have. 

8. ' And again, O king, just as the rice field is 
provided with embankments whereby men keep the 
water in, and so bring the crop to maturity; just 
so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest 
in effort, be provided with the embankments of 
righteousness of life, and shame at sin, and thereby 
keep his Sama«aship intact, and gain the fruits 
thereof. This, O king, is the second quality of the 
rice field he ought to have. 

9. ' And again, O king, just as the rice field is 
fruitful, filling the heart of the farmer with joy, so 
that if the seed be little the crop is great, and if the 
seed be much the crop is greater still ; just so, O 
king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, 
be fruitful to the bearing of much good fruit, making 
the hearts of those who support him to rejoice, so 
that where little is given the result is great, and 
where much is given the result is greater still. 

1 As the pun on the two secondary meanings of matika, 'rule, 
line/ is untranslateable, I add here Hina/i-kumbur£'s gloss on the 
simile. 



Digitized by 



Google 



368 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 7, 10. 

This, O king, is the third quality of the rice field he 
ought to have. For it was said, O king, by Upali, 
the Elder, he who carried the rules of the Order in 
his head : 

" Be fruitful as a rice field, yea, be rich 
In all good works ! For that is the best field 
Which yieldeth to the sower the goodliest crop 1 .'" 



65. Medicine. 

10. [417] 'Venerable Nagasena, those two quali- 
ties of medicine you say he ought to take, which 
are they ? ' 

'Just, O king, as vermin are not produced in 
medicine; just so, O king, should no evil disposi- 
tions be allowed to arise in the mind of the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort This, O king, is the 
first of the qualities of medicine he ought to have. 

11. 'And again, O king, just as medicine is an 
antidote to whatever poison may have been 
imparted by bites or contact, by eating or by drink- 
ing in any way; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, counteract in himself the 
poison of lusts, and malice, and dullness, and pride, 
and wrong belief. This, O king, is the second 
of the qualities of medicine he ought to have. For 
it was said, O king, by the Blessed One, the god 
over all the gods : 

" The strenuous recluse who longs to see 
Into the nature, and the meaning true, 
Of the constituent elements of things, 
Must as it were an antidote become, 
To the destruction of all evil thoughts 1 ." ' 

1 Not traced as yet. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



vii, 7, is' of milinda the king. 369 

66. Food. 

1 2. ' Venerable Nagasena, those three qualities of 
food you say he ought to take, which are they ? ' 

'Just, O king, as food is the support of all beings, 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, be a handle, as it were, by which 
all beings may open the door of the noble eightfold 
path. This, O king, is the first of the qualities of 
food he ought to have. 

13. 'And again, O king, just as food increases 
people's strength ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, grow in increase 
of virtue. This, O king, is the second of the 
qualities of food he ought to have. 

14. 'And again, O king, just as food is a thing 
desired of all beings; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, be desired of 
all the world. This, O king, is the third of the 
qualities of food he ought to have. For it was 
said, O king, by Maha Moggallana, the Elder : 

" By self-restraint, training, and righteousness, 
By duty done, and by attainments reached, 
The strenuous recluse should make himself 
To all men in the world a thing desired V ' 



67. The Archer. 

15. [418] 'Venerable Nagasena, those four quali- 
ties of the archer you say he ought to take, which 
are they ? ' 

' Just, O king, as the archer, when discharging 



1 Not traced as yet. 
[36] B b 



Digitized by VjOOQlC 



370 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 7, 16. 

his arrows, plants both his feet firmly on the ground, 
keeps his knees straight, hangs his quiver against 
the narrow part of his waist, keeps his whole body 
steady, places both his hands firmly on the point of 
junction (of the arrow on the bow), closes his fists, 
leaves no openings between his fingers, stretches 
out his neck, shuts his mouth and one eye \ and 
takes aim 2 in joy at the thought : " I shall hit it 3 ; " 
just so, O king, should the strenuous Bhikshu, 
earnest in effort, plant firmly the feet of his zeal on 
the basis of righteousness, keep intact his kindness 
and tenderness of heart, fix his mind on subjuga- 
tion of the senses, keep himself steady by self- 
restraint and performance of duty, suppress excite- 
ment and sense of faintness, by continual thought- 
fulness let no openings remain in his mind, reach 
forward in zeal, shut the six doors (of the five 
senses and the mind), and continue mindful and 
thoughtful in joy at the thought : " By the javelin 
of my knowledge will I slay all my evil dispositions." 
This, O king, is the first of the qualities of the 
archer he ought to have. 

16. 4< And again, O king, as the archer carries a 
vice * for straightening out bent and crooked and 

1 Literally ' and his eyes.' 

4 Nimittaw ugum karoti. 'Keeps his mind directed,' says 
Hfna/i-kumburS, p. 621. 

* On other technical terms of archery, compare above, p. 352 (of 
the Pali). 

* From this point to the end, Mr. Trenckner's text is taken from 
a MS. brought from Siam, as explained in his Introduction, pp. v, vi, 
and in my Introduction, I, xxiv. Hina/i-kumbure' gives no indica- 
tion of any change here in the MSS. he used. 

8 A/aka, which Htna/i-kumburl, p. 622, merely repeats. But 
see Dr. Morris, in the 'Journal of the Pali Text Society,' 1886, 
p. 158. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 7, 17- O** MILINDA THE KING. 37 1 

uneven arrows ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, carry about with him, so 
long as he is in the body, the vice of mindfulness 
and thoughtfulness, wherewith he may straighten 
out any crooked and bent and shifty ideas. This, 
O king, is the second of the qualities of the archer 
he ought to have. 

17. 'And again, O king, as the archer practises 1 
at a target ; just so, O king, should the strenuous 
Bhikshu, earnest in effort, practise, so long as he is 
in the body. And how, O king, should he practise ? 
He should practise himself in the idea of the im- 
permanence of all things, of the sorrow inherent in 
individuality, in the absence in any thing or creature 
of any abiding principle (any soul) ; in the ideas of 
the diseases, sores, pains, aches, and ailments of the 
body that follow in the train of the necessary condi- 
tions of individuality ; in the ideas of its dependence 
on others 2 , and of its certain disintegration 3 ; in the 
ideas of the calamities, dangers, fears, and mis- 
fortunes to which it is subject; of its instability 
under the changing conditions of life ; of its liability 
to dissolution, its want of firmness, its being no true 
place of refuge, no cave of security, no home of 
protection, no right object of trust ; of its vanity, 
emptiness, danger, and insubstantiality [419] ; of its 
being the source of pains and subject to punish- 



1 UpSseti (only found here). Htnari-kumbur&, p. 622, has 
abhyisa karanneya. He gives the whole passage from katha/ra 

mahara^a yogina tatiyam angam gahetabbam in 

Pali, and reads throughout upSsitabbaw, without the omissions. 

* Parato, not in Childers, but see Magghima, Nikaya I, 435, 500, 
where all these expressions occur together. 

» Palokato, from ru^\ 

B b 2 



Digitized by 



Google 



372 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 7, 18. 

ments * and full of impurity, a mongrel compound of 
conditions and qualities that have no coherence; 
of its being the food alike of evil and of the Evil 
One 2 ; of its inherent liability to rebirths, old age, 
disease, and death, to griefs, lamentations, despair ; 
and of the corruption of the cravings and delusions 
that are never absent from it. This, O king, is the 
third of the qualities of the archer he ought to have. 
18. 'And again, O king, just as the archer 
practises early and late ; just so, O king, should the 
strenuous Bhikshu, earnest in effort, practise medita- 
tion early and late. For it was said, O king, by 
Sariputta, the Elder, the Commander of the Faith : 
" Early and late the true archer will practise, 
'Tis only by never neglecting his art, 
That he earns the reward and the wage of his skill. 
So the sons of the Buddha, too, practise their art. 
It is just by never neglecting in thought 
The conditions of life in this bodily frame 
That they gain the rich fruits which the Arahats 
love 8 .'" 

Here ends the fifth riddle, the riddle of 
the archer. 



Here end the two hundred and sixty-two questions 
of Milinda, as handed down in the book in its six 
parts, adorned with twenty-two chapters. Now 
those which have not been handed down are forty- 

1 Vadhakato, 'untrustworthy as the man who assassinates his 
friend,' says Hina/i-kumburS, p. 623. 

* MarSmisato, given by Hfna/i-kumbur6 both in the Pali and 
Sinhalese, but omitted by Mr. Trenckner. (Mr/tyu-mara-klexa 
maraya»/a aharaya-wu-bcewiw.) 

* Not traced as yet. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 7, 20. OF MILINDA THE KING. 373 

two 1 . Taking together all those that have been, 
and those that have not been, handed down, there 
are three hundred plus four, all of which are reckoned 
as ' Questions of Milinda V 



19. On the conclusion of this putting of puzzles 
and giving of solutions between the king and the 
Elder, this great earth, eighty-four thousand leagues 
in extent, shook six times even to its ocean boundary, 
the lightnings flashed, the gods poured down a rain- 
fall of flowers from heaven, Maha Brahma himself 
signified his applause, and there was a mighty roar 
like the crashing and thundering of a storm in the 
mighty deep. And on beholding that wonder, the 
five hundred high ministers of the king, and all the 
inhabitants of the city of Sagala who were there, 
and the women of the king's palace, bowed down 
before Nagasena, the great teacher, raising their 
clasped hands to their foreheads, and departed 
thence 3 . 

20. [420] But Milinda the king was filled with 
joy of heart, and all pride was suppressed within 
him. And he became aware of the virtue that lay 
in the religion of the Buddhas, he ceased to have 
any doubt at all in the Three Gems 4 , he tarried no 
longer in the jungle of heresy, he renounced all 
obstinacy ; and pleased beyond measure at the high 



1 There are only thirty-eight in the list at VII, 1,1. 

' Before these last sentences (Now those Milinda), 

Htna/i-kumbure' has: 'Here ends that mirror of the good law 
called, " The Questions of Milinda." ' Then he goes on as above. 

9 I here follow Hina/i-kumbur8, who has apparently had a fuller 
text before him. 

* The Buddha, his religion, and his order. 



Digitized by 



Google 



374 THE QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES VII, 7, 21. 

qualities of the Elder, at the excellence of his 
manners befitting a recluse, he become filled with 
confidence, and free from cravings, and all his pride 
and self-righteousness left his heart ; and like a cobra 
deprived of its fangs he said : ' Most excellent, most 
excellent, venerable Nagasena ! The puzzles, worthy 
of a Buddha to solve, have you made clear. There 
is none like you, amongst all the followers of the 
Buddha, in the solution of problems, save only 
Sariputta, the Elder, himself, the Commander of the 
Faith. Pardon me, venerable Nagasena, my faults. 
May the venerable Nagasena accept me as a 
supporter of the faith, as a true convert from to-day 
onwards as long as life shall last ! ' 

21. Thenceforward the king and his mighty men 
continued in paying honour to Nagasena. And the 
king had aWihara built called 'The Milinda Wihara,' 
and handed it over to Nagasena, the Elder, and 
waited upon him and all the multitude of the Arahat 
Bhikshus of whom he was the chief with the four 
requisites of the Bhikshu's life. And afterwards, 
taking delight in the wisdom of the Elder, he handed 
over his kingdom to his son, and abandoning the 
household life for the houseless state, grew great in 
insight, and himself attained to Arahatship ! There- 
fore is it said : 

' Wisdom is magnified o'er all the world, 
And preaching for the endurance of the Faith. 
When they, by wisdom, have put doubt aside 
The wise reach upward to that Tranquil State. 
That man in whom wisdom is firmly set, 
And mindful self-possession never fails, 
He is the best of those who gifts receive, 
The chief of men to whom distinction's given. 



Digitized by 



Google 



VII, 7, 21. OF MILINDA THE KING. 375 

Let therefore able men, in due regard 
To their own welfare \ honour those who're wise, — 
Worthy of honour like the sacred pile 
Beneath whose solid dome the bones of the great 
dead lie V 



Here ends the book of the puzzles and the 
solutions of Milinda and Nagasena 8 . 

1 This line is identical with the sixth line of the little poem on 
the gift of Wiharas preserved in the JiTulIavagga VI, 1, 5, and 
VI, 9, 2, and quoted as a whole in the Gataka, book I, 93, and in 
part above IV, 5, 1. This line also occurs, in a third connection, 
at <?ataka IV, 354. 

* These verses differ from those here given by Hma/i-kumbure\ 
which I have quoted in the Introduction to this volume. 

* This closing title is omitted by Hina/i-kumbur&, who gives 
instead of it a second account of how he came to write his transla- 
tion, and then adds as the closing tide to his own book : ' Here 
ends the -St! Saddharmidasaya (the Mirror of the Good Law) 
made by Stna/i-kumbure 1 Sumangala, the Elder.' [Sina/i is 
merely the Elu form of the Sinhalese word Hlna/i, which is the 
name of a plant, coryza sativa; and Hfna/i-kumbure" is the 
locative of the name of the place, Hlna/i-field, where he was born. 
Every unnanse" in Ceylon has such a local name in addition to 
his religious name. And the religious names being often identical 
(there are, for instance, many Sumangalas), the Bhikkhus are 
usually spoken of by the former, and not by the latter.] 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS. 



PART I. 

P. xxv. For ' Mah3y3na ' read ' Madhyamika.' There is a N&gasena 
mentioned in the Bharhut Tope. 

„ 6, 1. 1. Read 'to Tissa the Elder, the son of the Moggalt.' The 
whole sentence had better perhaps have been rendered: 
' And these two also were foreseen by our Buddha (just as he 
foresaw Tissa the Elder, the son of the Moggalt), in that he 
foretold, saying, &c.' 

„ 30, n. 1. The phrase isi-vdtam parivStam nagaram akamsu 
recurs at Gataka III, 142; Satnanta Pasadiki 316; Sad- 
dhamma Sawgaha 41. 

„ 32, n. 1. Compare Saddhamma Samgaha, p. 42. 

„ 60, § 13. On the first simile, compare the Samyutta NikSya XXII, 
102, 7. 

„ 76, last line. For ' yoke ' read ' yolk.' 

„ 78. It would have been better perhaps to have avoided the use of 
the words ' where ' and ' there,' and to have rendered : ' In 
the case of beings who, having died, have been reborn else- 
where, time is. In the case of beings who, having died, have 
not been reborn elsewhere, time is not. And in the case of 
beings, &c.' The three cases are those of the P u th ugg an a, 
the Arahat when dead, and the Arahat alive. My note 
refers to the third case, not to the second; and should, 
I think, be modified accordingly. See Samyutta Niklya 
III, is, 35; Maha Parinibbina Sutta IV, 3; Dhammapada, 
verse 89; Sutta Nipata II, 13, 1, 12; Maggbima. Niklya 
I, 235 ; Gitaka IV, 453; and compare Udana, p. 80. 

Hinaii-kumbure' gives only a literal translation. A similar 
question is discussed in the Katha Vatthu XV, 3. 

„ 99, n. 1. For * chapter' read 'book, p. 39.' 

„ 107, 1. 16. After ' brought about ' insert a comma. 

„ 118, § 5. I now prefer 'initiation' instead of 'ordination' as the 
translation of Upasampada. 

„ 119, n. 1. This interpretation is confirmed by part ii, p. 197. 

„ 129,1.7. The phrase, ' though his hands and feet were cut off,' 
seems, at first sight, out of place. But compare part ii, p. 147. 

,, 150, 1. 3. Read 'and not accepting them.' 



Digitized by 



Google 



378 QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES OF MILINDA THE KING. 

P. 153, § 18. Read ' KMI&:' and compare Gataka IV, 189. 

„ 164 (six lines from the bottom of the page). Read ' and then a sub- 
sequent ease to the pain he has given.' 

» >7 6 > § 39* I Q accordance with the note at part ii, pp. 86, 87, we 
must read ' a huge and mighty cauldron, full of water and 
crowded with grains of rice, is placed over a fireplace.' 

„ 179. On the problem of king Sivi and his new eyes, compare the 
question discussed in Katha Vatthu III, 7. 

„ 239, n. 1, 1. 6. For 'these' read ' those.' 

„ 239, n. 2. For ' But I never think' read ' But I now think.' 

„ 341, § 30. For 'The Master said, Nagasena,' read 'The Master 
said, O king.' 

„ 344, n. a. For 'Gatharaggi' read ' Ga/foraggi.' 

„ 378, n. 1. For'adika' read 'adika.' 

„ 388, n. 3. For 'purdhita' read 'purohita.' 

„ 390, n. 3. This story, which I could not trace, is no doubt the one 
referred to in JTariyl Pi/aka I, 7. 

„ 391, 1. 33. Read ' Uposatha.' 

PART II. 

P. 37, last line but two. Read ' kama-loka.' 

„ 29, n. 3, 1. 7. Read 'samsira.' 

„ 1 39, 1. 4. For ' sun and moon ' read ' moon and sun.' 

„ 148, two lines from the bottom. For ' O king' read ' Sir.' 

„ 150, four lines from the bottom. For 'destructions' read 'dis- 
tinctions.' 

„ 166, n. 1. Read ' samahato.' 

,,219, n. 2. Read ' bhSvana.' 

„ 252,1.4. For 'pulling 'read 'putting.' 

„ 271, n. 1. Compare the 'Journal of the Pali Text Society,' 1887, 
p. 155. 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES. 



•.flLsop's' fables, page 180. 

Aliravati, river, 304. 

A/ara Kalama, ascetic, 43, 46. 

Alexandria, 204, 211, 269. 

Angirasa. physician, 109. 

Ahgulimala, robber, 355. 

Anuruddha, quoted, 296, 347, 351. 

Arflpakayiki, gods, 188. 

Attha Salini, xviii. 

Atula, physician, 109. 

Avtti, purgatory, 261. 

Bactria, 211. 
Bakkula, 8-12. 
Barth, M., 

Benares, district, 204, 211. 
Bhaddas&la, general, 147. 
Bharadva^a, brahman, 37. 
BharukaMta, country, 211. 
Brahma, god, 24. 
Buddhaghosa, 26, 32, 282'. 
Burnouf, Eugene, 6. 

China, 204, 211, 269. 

Da Sylva, Mr. Lewis, 181 foil. 
Devadatta, 5. 
Dha^a, brahman, 44. 
Dhammantari, physician, 109. 
Dhanapala, elephant, 248. 
Dhaniya, cowherd, 285. 
Divyavadhana, quoted, 305. 
D'Oldenbourg, S., xi, xvii. 

Eka-si/aka, brahman, 147. 

Fausboll, Professor, 1, 4, 16, 31, 146. 
Feer, Leon, xvii. 

Gandhira, country, 204, 211. 
Ganges, river, 304. 
Gharfklra, potter, 21-25. 
Gopala-mitS, queen, 146. 
Gough's ' Philosophy of the Upani- 

shads,' 142. 
Greeks, 204, 256. 
Guttila, musician, 146. 



Gali, prince, 131. 
Gotipala, brahman, 20. 

Hmari-kumbur€, meaning of, 375. 

IndasSla, cave, 248. 

Jolly, Professor, 266. 
Jumna, river, 304. 

Kaliiyana, physician, 109. 
KSlinga, 81. 

KaWaraggisama, physician, 109. 
Kanha^ina, Vessantara's daughter, 

125, 131. 
Kapila, physician, 109. 
Kashmir, country, 204, 211. 
Kassapa, the Buddha, 21. 
Kathi Vatthu, xx-xxvii. 
KolaMa, king, 81. 
Koromandel, coast, 269. 
Kosala, country, 204, 211. 
Ko/umbara, place, 211. 
Kshemendra, xvii. 

ATakkhupala, 9. 
ATandagutta, king, 147. 
Aandavatt, princess, 18, 19. 

Lakkhana, brahman, 44. 
Levi, Sylvain, xii-xvii. 
Lomapada, king, 17. 
Lomasa Kassapa, rishi, 16. 

Maddt, Vessantara's queen, 125. 
Madhura, place, 211. 
Magadha, country, 211. 
Magandiya, ascetic, 183. 
Maha Ka/Mlyana, elder, 282. 
Mahl Kassapa, elder, 330. 
Maha Vamsa, xviii. 
Mahi, river, 304. 
MandhatS, king, 146. 
Manti, brahman, 44. 
Milinda WihSra, 374. 
Moggallana, thera, 36, 369. 



Digitized by 



Google 



380 QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES OF MILINDA THE KING. 



Moghara^a, the elder, 354. 
Morris, Rev. Dr., 5, 22, 122, 361. 
Mttller, Professor E., 128. 

Nanda, king, 147. 
Narada, the physician, 109. 
Nikumba, country, 204. 
Nimi, king, 146. 

Panthaka, elder, quoted, 284. 
Piwrfola Bharadva^a, 335, 345. 
Pusnaka, slave, 146. 

Rahu, demon, 321. 

Rahula, Gotama's son, 290, 297, 317, 

355. 3«J. 
Rama, brahman, 44. 

Sabbamitta, brahman, 45. 

Sadhina, king, 146. 

Sagala, town, 373. 

Siketa, place, 211. 

Sakka, god, 6, 24, 322, 323. 

Samana Kolarifla, king, 81. 

Sarabhfl, river, 304. 

Sariputta, thera, 36, 273, 280, 284, 
287, 292, 293, 294, 299, 302, 
3»9> 33»» 333. 353> 357, 3661 
37*. 

Scythians, 204, 211. 

Sela, brahman, 25. 

Sineru, mountain, 24. 

Sovira, seaport, 269. 

Specht, E., xii-xiv. 



Subhadda, quoted, 308, 316. 
Subhoga, brahman, 44. 
Subhflti, elder, 315, 323. 
Sudatta, brahman, 44. 
Suddhodana, king, 45. 
Sumana, garland-maker, 146. 
Sura/f£a (Surat), 211, 269. 
Suyama, brahman, 44. 

Takkola, seaport, 269. 
Tartary, 204. 

Tidasapura, in heaven, 145. 
Trenckner, Mr., 13, 29, 147, 175, 

183, »79, 3»7- 
Turkey, incense from, 256. 

Udayi, 6. 

Uddaka Ramuputta, ascetic, 46. 

Udena, king, 146. 

Vdiiia, country, 45. 

Vggen, country, 211. 

Upali, the elder, 368. 

Upasena Vangantaputta, 268, 269, 

289, 326, 328, 329, 331. 
Uposatha, elephant, 128. 

Vanga, seaport, 269. 
Vangisa, quoted, 322. 
Vasubandhu, xvii. 
Veranda, town, 37. 
Vessantara, 114-132, 125. 
Vilata, country, 211. 

Yafltfa, brahman, 44. 




Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Agriculture, details of, pages 269, 

370. 
Anchor, simile of, 399. 
Animals, list of, 101. 
Ant, simile of the white, 326. 
Arahats : — 
laymen may become, 57, 96, 245 ; 
suffer bodily but never mental 

pain, 75 ; 
how far they can do wrong, 98- 

100 ; or be ignorant, 100 ; 
way to Arahatship confused with 

way to Buddhahood, 141 ; 
produce wonders at their graves, 

i74i 

the thirty-seven constituent quali- 
ties of Arahatship, 207, 218, 
264; 

the seven jewels of the Arahats, 
220-229 ; 

are the judges in the City of 
Righteousness, 235 ; 

no Arahatship without the vows, 

»54; 
description of the Arahat's charac- 
ter, 272, 273. 
Archery, full details of, 353, 354, 

37°- 
Arithmetic, 149. 
Asceticism, 60-62. 
Ass, riddle of, 379. 
Assurance, final, 336. 

Backsliders, 63-75. 

Bamboo, simile of, 290. 

Bat, compared to the Arahat, 346. 

Bathing, 63. 

Begging, forbidden to the members 

of the Buddhist Order, 33 ; 

allowed, 35. 
Boar, simile of, 334. 
Body, ten characteristics of the, 75. 
Bow, simile of, 391. 
Brahmans, 31, 36-38, 41. 
Bull, simile of, 333. 



Carpenter, riddle of, 361. 
Carts, parts of, 49. 
Cat, simile of, 336. 
Champion, in battle, 149. 
Charity, public feasts, 65, 68. 
Children, no conversion of, 178. 
Chinese books on Milinda, xi-xv. 
Cloth manufacture, processes of, 53. 
Cock, simile of, 280. 
Confession, the one true, 55. 
Conversion, who cannot reach, 177. 
Corpse, the ocean does not keep a, 

70. 
'Corpse Dance,' 147. 
Counties, list of, 53. 
Crane (Indian), a bird of ill omen, 

345- 
Crow, riddle of, 291. 

Dead, offerings for the, 151. 
Death, premature, 162-174. 
Debt, deposit of son as pledge for, 

133. 

Deer, simile of, 331. 

Diamond polishing, 7 ; figuratively 
of knowledge, 339 ; has three 
qualities of the Arahat, 357. 

Diseases, 8, 10, 63 ; causes of fatal, 
164. 

Dreams, 157-163. 

' Drink of Triumph,' 16. 

Drugs, magical, 129. 

Earth, simile of, 307. 

Elephant, the mystic royal, 128; 
and frog, parable of, 180 ; which 
attacked the Buddha, 248 ; has 
five qualities of the Arahat, 

„ 335- 

Emancipation, the chief jewel of 

the Arahats, 335. 
Evil One, the, 55. 

Fairies, &c, various kinds of, 101. 
Faith, the one true, 55. 



Digitized by 



Google 



382 QUESTIONS AND PUZZLES OF MILINDA THE KING. 



Final assurance, 226. 
Fire, by attrition, 203. 
Fire, simile of, 311. 
Fireplaces, form of, 86. 
Fisherman, riddle of, 360. 
Food, moderation in, 4-7. 
Friendship of the world, 1. 
Frog and elephant, parable of, 180. 

Gem, the mystic royal, 14, 128 ; the 
wish-conferring, 59, 74, 119, 
193, 258. 

Gifts, how sanctified, 82-84. 

God, the only one, 50. 

Gourd, simile of, 294. 

Graves, wonders at, 174 foil. 

Gravitation, 80. 

Gypsies, 87. 

' Head Holocaust,' 147. 

Heredity, 21. 

Household cares, 1. 

Hunter, has four qualities of the 

Arahat, 358. 
Hyenas, 101. 

Iddhi, 94, 96, 117, 231, 234, 259, 267. 
Impermanence, law of, 102. 
Imputed righteousness, 153-156. 
Iron, 102, 364. 

Jackal, simile of, 329. 
Jasmine, the best of flowers, 73. 

Karma, 11, 22, 38, 93, 95, 103, 108, 

145-149,163,213. 214, 230. 
Kings, their courtiers, &c, 41, 265 ; 

force of their example, 42 ; 

will fail if unworthy, 69, 262 ; 

custody of their seal, 1 24 ; seven 

mystic treasures of, 203 ; six 

royal insignia of, 207 ; powers 

and perquisites of, 266, 270 ; 

king has four qualities of the 

Arahat, 323. 
Kingship of the Buddha, explained, 

26-30. 
Knowledge, Buddhist, described, 

223. 

Landowners, 15. 

Laymen, can become Arahats, 57, 
96 ; why admitted at once (be- 
fore conversion) into the Order, 
63-75, when they cannot enter 
the path, 78. 

Leech, why like the Arahat, 347. 



Lion, simile of, 338. 
Looking-glass, simile of, 158. 
Lotus, simile of, 70, 189, 222, 256, 

295. 
' Lower state,' the, 63-75. 

Madness, wrong done in, 18, 19. 
Magic. See Gem, Root, and Drugs. 
Mankind will all become by nature 

pure, 95. 
Mast, simile of, 300. 
Matriarchate, 127 note. 
Medicine (see Diseases) : — 

tonic, use of, 7 ; 

purge, preparation for, 33 ; 

diagnosis, 64, 67 ; 

medicine of Nirvana, 65, 190; of 
the vows, 256; 

a specific for all diseases, 67 ; 

the internal fire (for digestion), 97 ; 

list of old teachers of, 109 ; 

various divisions of medical know- 
ledge, 109; 

verses on, 218, 219; 

training in surgery, 255 ; 

riddle about, 368. 
Meditation, various sorts of, 212, 

213; qualities of, 222. 
Minister of State, 147, and see Seal. 
Miracles, why the Buddhas work 

none, 24. 
Monkey, simile of, 292. 
Moon, simile of, 318. 
Moon-worship, 127. 
Mungoose, simile of, 329. 

Nihilism, the explanation of Bud- 
dhist, 102 ; modern theories 
of, 142. 
Nirvana, is medicine, 65, 190 ; 

like space is without a cause, 103, 
107; 

is unproducible, 102 ; 

is not put together of any quali- 
ties, 103 ; 

has no colour or form, 107; 

what it is, 181 note ; 

has no pain involved in it, 1 81-185; 

has no form, or duration, or mea- 
sure, 186-188; 

its qualities explained by similes, 
189-195; 

how it can be known, 196 ; 

how attained to, 197-201 ; 

where attained to, 202-205. 

Offerings for the dead, 151. 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



383 



Order, the Buddhist :— 
description of true member of, 

5.9? 
the guiltymember of, purifies gifts, 

82, 83 ; 

every member of, will reach Ara- 
hatship, ibid. ; 

why they should trouble them- 
selves with study, and the busi- 
ness of the Order, 92 ; 

why the rules of, were laid down 
gradually, no; 

description at length of the ideal 
member, 271-273. 
Owl, has two qualities of the Ara- 
hat, 344. 

Panther, similes of, 285. 

Path, the ancient and the new, 

13-19- 
Patriarchal power to sell son, 122. 
Penance, 141. 
Physician, the Great, 8 ; description 

of an able, 67. 
Pigeon, how like the Arahat, 344. 
Pilot, simile of, 301. 
Pledge, 122. 
Poison, 80, 81. 
Pupils, duties of, to teachers, 185. 

Ram, why like the Arahat, 356. 
Rat, simile of, 328. 
Rebirth, 22, 83. 
Recluse. See Order. 
Relationship, terminology of, in 

Pali, different from ours, 51. 
Rice, sorts of, 73 ; riddle about, 

367. 
Righteousness, imputed, 153-156. 
Rock, simile of, 314. 
Root, with magical powers, 119. 

Sailor, simile of, 302. 
Sal-tree, simile of, 296. 



Sandal- wood, simile of, 74. 

' Sap of Life,' 37. 

Scorpion, riddle of, 328. 

Sea, simile of, 303-306. 

Seal, the great, state custody of, 124. 

Seasons, 103, 112. 

Seed, riddle of, 296. 

Ship, simile of, 297. 

Sleep, theory of, 161. 

Snakes, similes of, 348, 349. 

Sons, may be sold or pledged, 122. 

Space, simile of, 316. 

Spider, simile of, 351. 

Squirrel, simile of, 284. 

Sun, heat of, how mitigated, in; 
hotter in winter than summer, 
112 ; has seven qualities of the 
Arahat, 320. 

Sunshade, riddle of, 365. 

Sun-worship, later than moon-wor- 
ship, 127. 

Teachers, the five, of the Buddha, 
44-46 ; the Buddha has no, 6, 
43, 46. 

Tortoise, similes of, 288, 352. 

Toys, various, 32. 

' Tree of Wisdom,' 81. 

Trees, howlike the Arahat, 355. 

Wage-earners despised, 310. 
Water, simile of, 309. 
Water, Soul in, 85-91. 
Waterpots, curious form of, 86 ; 

adage of, 364. 
Weapons, the five kinds of, 227 ; 

seven kinds of, 250. 
'Weaving, processes of, 52. 
Wheel, the mystic royal, 137. 
WihSras, merit of building, 3. 
Wind, simile of, 312. 
Wonders at the graves of saints, 

174 foil. 
Writing, 9, 247. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



TRANSLITERATION OF ORIENTAL ALPHABETS. 



385 



- a 



it n •*» *t n. 



c as c s\C 



- - \JoJ\J 



k)^ 



:S 



- - \JoJ\) 



id 



W-oJ 



•\ * «>Oj 



a; 



«^>3 a>«^ 




^ 



» IP (? * 



H» «/ 



ri»lf Wlr 



[I 



*»•§>•• 



•-a 



-■a 



bo 

•a 



f «a 



1 



d 

s 



o- J! 
3 o 

s 

a S 
" s 

O 



1111 



•m Ji 
00 fe tn 

'3 » '3 



2 :c 



•a 
3 



JS 3 JJ 



g r : s - • 

'a. 

CO 

N » Ol O - N 



3 

d 

s "3 



5 .5 

a. 3 

3 y. 



CO "<H W5 CO t 1 * 



[36] 



c c 



Digitized by 



Google 



3 86 



TRANSLITERATION OF ORIENTAL ALPHABETS 



I! ' 
e 



* -3 



a -> 



E q . p- r • nj\ 



.9 D - M 



•5 : D 



*» • *° i>—3 



•^ 



'b 



- 



-> 3-3 







« 



?« «. 






init. 



?* «->» 



^ 



»o 



* P ' Wr 9 -ITICK • » 



S 



N N- 



"s3*.3 



- 4 



M 
8 J8 

3 



u 

a s 

& .2 




© 



J3 



4 J 

&, S 

a a 



.11 

a a 



►- CM 



J3 



a. 
to 

O) O h N 
ii N <M CM 



e5 



s 



5 ° 

• J g 

55 03 



O "o »H « 

B B S S3 .9 
8 8 J 



a. 
CO 



B £ 

E 

^ & 

a s 



l 



MNNNNNMnnnnnconn 



Digitized by 



Google 



FOR THE SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST. 



387 



• •••■« 

• * • - • . w 


• -g 


o.-g. .' .' 


S & • 


<M 




a '•'.'.'. r '• 




otifin 


' O .' 


• *~ 


-» •* • 'i • -> • 




: : : > : 

» • • • 


*- • 


l ^ 




-» j» • • • -> • 




3> : > : 


*_ . 


l - 






:? 


• !Ti 


>> • 


S>* 


• • • • 

# • * • 


:a- 


: * : n : 


^^ 


-* * * • 


M H K KUf • 


• «- 


tr P tr X 


i * * 


. : «r v p 


g 

• ••■••• 


1 • 






! . ! . 


— 5 T9 *§ « • *• 




. . . . e 


1. • • • 


• • s 






e.^* •§ • s M <» 



1 



I 



a 



I 






OS © 
•*»« MS 



3 a 
Si 

1-1 N eo 
■e « u 



3 



v u) <e 

<C «3 10 



I 



S.-3 

3 JS 

s a «a « 

3 t* so 

•c s s a 

c. c .= 



«5 



00 09 



Digitized by 



Google 



388 



TRANSLITERATION OF ORIENTAL ALPHABETS. 



«j «i •*- «~ 



s <j « «o ",a 



« • 5 



:3 



• •• •«• 



l"-H- 



'Mh !* 



•I -J, 



•Jb 



A 



•I ^ |« ^ 



-l'J> 



;<d 



:;J. 



— * 



— • «> 



* 3 -• "V 



£$* 



* «»v 



tKy 



.2. O 
to ^ 



1 



P £ *r*r|s ^(rff * • ViV 



*% 






-2. ,5 



© » » •»«*•- *- « a x X s <* «3.aS» 



= 1 

■o 



3 3 
3 3 



1 6 



OS 

•a 



ft t 



-a 

a. 



.5 8 e g 

■S * -s S 

■9n .o 



i fifjf ■ 



03 

bo 

In 



II 



O ft, Q 



•8 



I 

a 

I. 



•g & 

MM 



1 



MNW««lfflSOOOlOHCll(ll«ffl»N«0 



3 

o 

Oi o 



I 



o 

Oi 



1 

SO 

5 ^ 



ill 



s s 



O 



«* n <o 

N N N 



I 

•a 

Oi 



W W i 




Digitized by VjOOQlC 



Sacred Books of the East 

TRANSLATED BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 
AND EDITED BY 

THE RIGHT HON. F. MAX MOLLER. 

»*« This Series is published with the sanction and co-opeiation of the Secretary of 
State for India in Council. 

BBPOBT presented to the ACADEMIE DEB INSCRIPTIONS, May 11, 
1883, by V. EBBEST BBBAB. 

' M. Renan prcsente trois nouveaux tine seconde, dont 1'interSt historique et 
volumes de la grande collection des religieux ne sera pas moindre. M. Max 
"Livres sacres de l'Orient" (Sacred Miiller a su se procurer la collaboration 
Books of the East), que dirige a Oxford, des savans les plus eminens d'Europe et 
avec une si vaste erudition et une critique d'Asie. L'Universit£ d'Oxford, que cette 
si sure, le savant assocte de l'Academie grande publication honore au plus haut 
des Inscriptions, M. Max Miiller. ... La degre, doit tenir a continuer dans les plus 
premiere serie de ce beau recueil, com- larges proportions une oeuvre aussi philo- 
posee de 24 volumes, est presque achevee. sophiquernent con cue que savamment 
M. Max Miiller se propose d'en publier executee.' 

EXTRACT from the QUARTERLY BEVZEW. 

' We rejoice to notice that a second great edition of the Rig-Veda, can corn- 
series of these translations has been an- pare in importance or in usefulness with 
nounced and has actually begun to appear, this English translation of the Sacred 
The stones, at least, out of which a stately Books of the East, which has been devised 
edifice may hereafter arise, are here being by his foresight, successfully brought so 
brought together. Prof. Max Miiller has far by his persuasive and organising 
deserved well of scientific history. Not power, and will, we trust, by the assist- 
a few minds owe to his enticing words ance of the distinguished scholars he hat 
their first attraction to this branch of gathered round him, be carried in due 
study. But no work of his, not even the time to a happy completion.' 

Professor B. KASSY, Inaugural Lecture In the University of Freiburg:, 1887. 

' Die allgemeine vergleichende Reli- internationalen Orientalistencongress in 
gionswissenschnft datirt von jenem gross- London der Grundstein gelegt worden 
artigen, in seiner Art einzig dastehenden war, die Ubersetzung derheiligen Biicher 
Unternehmen, zu welchem auf Anregung des Oslens' (the Sacred Boohs of the 
Max Mullers im Jahre 1S74 auf dem East). 

The Kon. ALBEBT S. O. CABBING, ' Words on Existing Religion*.' 
' The recent publication of the " Sacred a great event in the annals of theological 
Books of the East" in English is surely literature.' 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

LONDON: HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AMEN CORNER, E.C. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



FIRST SERIES. 

* 

Vol. I. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max MUller. Part I. The .Oandogya- 
upanishad, The Talavakdra-upanishad, The Aitareya-&ra«yaka, 
The Kaushitaki-br£hma«a-upanishad, and The Va^asaneyi- 
sawhita-upanishad. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Upanishads contain the philosophy of the Veda. They have 
become the foundation of the later Veddnta doctrines, and indirectly 
of Buddhism. Schopenhauer, speaking of the Upanishads, says : 
'In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating 
as that of the Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life, it will 
be the solace of my death.' 

[See also Vol. XV.] 

Vol. II. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, VasishMa, 
and BaudhSyana. Translated by Georg BOhler. Part I. 
Apastamba and Gautama. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, ios.6d. 

The Sacred Laws of the Aryas contain the original treatises on 
which the Laws of Manu and other lawgivers were founded. 

[See also Vol. XIV.] 

Vol. III. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. 
Part I. The Shu King, The Religious Portions of the Shih 
King, and The Hsiao King. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, i zs. 6d. 

Confucius was a collector of ancient traditions, not the founder of 
a new religion. As he lived in the sixth and fifth centuries B. C. 
his works are of unique interest for the study of Ethology. 
[See also Vols. XVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXXIX, and XL.] 

Vol. IV. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part I. The Vendtdad. 
Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 14J. 

The Zend-Avesta contains the relics of what was the religion of 
Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes, and, but for the battle of Marathon, 



Digitized by 



Google 



EDITED BY F. MAX MULLER. 



might have become the religion of Europe. It forms to the present 
day the sacred book of the Parsis, the so-called fire-worshippers. 
[See also Vols. XXIII and XXXI.] 

Vol. V. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part I. The Bundahw, Bahman 
Yajt, and SMyast Ui-shayast. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

The Pahlavi Texts comprise the theological literature of the revival 
of Zoroaster's religion, beginning with the Sassanian dynasty. They 
are important for a study of Gnosticism. 

[See also Vols. XVIII, XXIV, XXXVII, and XLVIL] 

Vols, vi and hl The Quran. 

Parts I and II. Translated by E. H. Palmer. Second Edition. 
8vo, cloth, 2 if. 

This translation, carried out according to his own peculiar views 
of the origin of the Qur'dn, was the last great work ofE. H. Palmer, 
before he was murdered in Egypt. 

Vol. VII. The Institutes of Vish»u. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

A collection of legal aphorisms, closely connected with one of the 
oldest Vedic schools, the Ka/Aas, but considerably added to in later 
time. Of importance for a critical study of the Laws of Manu. 

vol. VIII. The Bhagavadgita.with The Sanatsu^atJya, 
and The Anugita. 

Translated by Kashinath Trimbak Telakg. Second Edition. 
8vo, cloth, 1 of. 6d. 

The earliest philosophical and religious poem of India. It has been 
paraphrased in Arnold's 'Song Celestial.' 

Vol. X. The Dhammapada, 

Translated from Pili by F. Max Muller ; and 

The Sutta-Nipata, 
Translated from Pali by V. FausbCll ; being Canonical Books 
of the Buddhists. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, tOs. 6d. 

The Dhammapada contains the quintessence of Buddhist morality. 
The Sutta-Nipdta gives the authentic leaching of Buddha on some 
of the fundamental principles of religion. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



Vol. XI. Buddhist Suttas. 

Translated from Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids, i. The Mabi- 
parinibbana Suttanta; 2. The Dhamma-£akka-ppavattana 
Sutta. 3. The Tevi^ga Suttanta; 4. The Akankheyya Sutta ; 
5. The JPetokhila Sutta; 6. The MaM-sudassana Suttanta; 
7. The Sabbasava Sutta. 8vo, cloth, iof. 6d. 
A collection of the most important religious, moral, and philosophical 
discourses taken from the sacred canon of the Buddhists. 

Vol. XII. The .Satapatha-Brahmawa, according to the 
Text of the Madhyandina School. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part I. Books I and II. 
8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

A minute account of the sacrificial ceremonies of the Vedic age. 
It contains the earliest account of the Deluge in India. 
[See also Vols. XXVI, XLI, XL1II, and XLIV.] 

Vol. xiii. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 

Oldenberg. Part I. The Pitimokkha. The Mahdvagga, I-IV. 

8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 

The Vinaya Texts give for the first time a translation of the moral 

code of the Buddhist religion as settled in the third century B. C. 

[See also Vols. XVII and XX.] 

Vol. XIV. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasish/Aa, 
and Baudhayana. Translated by Georg Buhler. Part II. 
Vasish/Aa and Baudhayana. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Vol. XV. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part II. The KaMa-upanishad, 
The Mu»</aka-upanishad, The Taittiriyaka-upanishad, The 
Br*had£ra«yaka-upanishad, The .Svetiuvatara-upanishad, The 
Prajtfa-upanishad, and The Maitraya«a-br£hma»a-upanishad. 
Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, xos. 6d. 

Vol. xvi. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. 
Part II. The Yf King. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 
[See also Vols. XXVII, XXVIII.] 

Vol. XVII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pili by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part II. The Mahavagga, V-X. The ATullavagga, 
I— III. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 



Digitized by 



Google 



EDITED BY F. MAX MULLER. 



Vol. XVIII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part II. The Da<fistan-f Dfnfk 
and The Epistles of Manflj^fhar. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XIX. The Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king. 

A Life of Buddha by Axvaghosha Bodhisattva, translated from 
Sanskrit into Chinese by Dharmaraksha, a.d. 420, and from 
Chinese into English by Samuel Beal. 8vo, cloth, ior. 6d. 

This life of Buddha was translated from Sanskrit into Chinese, 
A.D. 420. // contains many legends, some of which show a certain 
similarity to the Evangelium infanliae, $c. 

Vol. XX. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davtds and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part III. The JSTullavagga, IV-XII. 8vo, cloth, 
10s. 6d. 

Vol. xxi. The Saddharma-puwaferika ; or, The Lotus 
of the True Law. 

Translated by H. Kern. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

' The Lotus of the True Law' a canonical book of the Northern 
Buddhists, translated from Sanskrit. There is a Chinese transla- 
tion of this book which was finislud as early as the year 286 A.D. 

Vol. xxii. (^aina-Sutras. 

Translated from Prakrit by Hermann Jacobi. Part I. The 
A^SrShga-Sutra and The Kalpa-Sutra. 8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

The religion of the Cainas was founded by a contemporary of Buddha. 
Lt still counts numerous adherents in India, while there are no 
Buddhists left in India proper. 

[See Vol. XLV.] 

Vol. XXIII. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part II. The Strdzahs, 
Yafts, and Nyayij. 8vo, cloth, 10*. 6d. 

Vol. XXIV. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part III. Dfni-f Mafndg- 
Khirarf, 5ikand-gumanfk Vj^dr, and Sad Dar. 8vo, cloth, 
1 or. 6d. 



Digitized by 



Google 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



SECOND SERIES. 

Vol. XXV. Manu. 

Translated by Georg BUhler. 8vo, cloth, 21s: 
This translation is founded on thai 0/ Sir William Jones, which 
has been carefully revised and corrected with the help of seven native 
Commentaries, An Appendix contains all the quotations from Manu 
which are found in the Hindu Law-books, translated for the use of 
the Law Courts in India. Another Appendix gives a synopsis of 
parallel passages from the six Dharma-siitras, the other SmrUis, 
the Upanishads, the MaMbhdrata, <Jv. 

Vol. XXVI. The 5atapatha-Braiima«a. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part II. Books III and IV. 
8vo, cloth, \2s. 6d. 

Vols. XXVII aitd xxviii. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. Parts 
I II and IV. The Li Ki, or Collection of Treatises on the Rules 
of Propriety, or Ceremonial Usages. 8vo, cloth, 25*. 

Vol. XXIX . The Grzhya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part I. .Sankhayana, A-rvalayana, Paraskara, Khadira. Trans- 
lated by Hermann Oldenberg. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

vol. XXX. The Grzhya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part II. Gobhila, Hirawyak&rin, Apastamba. Translated by 
Hermann Oldenberg. Apastamba, Yagtfa-paribhasha-sutras. 
Translated by F. Max Muller. 8vo, cloth, 12*. 6d. 
These rules of Domestic Ceremonies describe the home life of the 
ancient Aryas with a completeness and accuracy unmatched in any 
other literature. Some of these rules have been incorporated in the 
ancient Law-books. 

Vol. XXXI. The Zend-Avesta. 

Part III. The Yasna, Visparad, Afrinagan, Gahs, and 
Miscellaneous Fragments. Translated by L. H. Mills. 8vo, 
cloth, 12X. 6d. 

vol. XXXII. Vedic Hymns. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part I. 8vo, cloth, 18s. 6d. 
[See also Vol. XLVI.] 

Vol. XXXIII. The Minor Law-books. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. Part I. Narada, B/vhaspati. 
8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 



Digitized by 



Google 



EDITED BY F. MAX M&LLER. 



Vol. xxxiv. The Vedanta-Sutras, with the Com- 
mentary by 6ankaraiarya. Part I. 

Translated by G. Thibaut. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 
[See also Vol. XXXVIII.] 

Vols. XXXV add xxxvi. The Questions of King 
Milinda. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids. 
Part I. 8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. Part II. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XXXVII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part IV. The Contents of the 
Nasks, as stated in the Eighth and Ninth Books of the 
Dlnkard. 15*. 

Vol. XXXVIII. The Vedanta-Sutras. Part II. 8vo, 

cloth, with full Index to both Parts, 1 2s . 6d. 

Vols, xxxix and XL. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Taoism. Translated by James Lkggk. 8vo, 
cloth, 2 is. 

Vol. XLI. The 6atapatha- Brahma»a. Part III. 
Translated by Julius Eggeling. 8vo, cloth, 12J. 6d. 

Vol. XIiII. Hymns of the Atharva-veda. 
Translated by M. Bloomfield. 8vo, cloth, 21s. 

VOL. Xlilll. The .Satapatha-Brahmawa. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part IV. Books VIII, 
IX, and X. 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XLIV. The .Satapatha-Brahmawa. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part V. Books XI, XII, 
XIII, and XIV. 18s. 6d. 

Vol. XLV. The (^aina-Sutras. 

Translated from Prakrrt, by Hermann Jacobi. Part II. The 
Uttaradhyayana Sutra, The Sutrakr/'tanga Sutra. 8vo, cloth, 
1 2 s. 6d. 

Vol. XL VI. Vedic Hymns. Part II. 8vo, cloth, 14s. 

Vol. XLVII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part V. Marvels of Zoroas- 
trianism. 8s. 6d. 

Vol. XLVIII. The Vedanta-Sutras, with Raminu^a's 
5ribhashya. 

Translated by G. Thibaut. [In the Press.] 

Vol. XLIX. Buddhist Mahayana Texts. Buddha- 

iarita, translated by E. B. Cowell. Sukhavatt-vyuha.Va^rai^e- 
dika, &c, translated by F. Max Muller. Amitayur-Dhyana- 
SOtra, translated by J. Takakusu. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 



Digitized by 



Google 



RECENT ORIENTAL WORKS. 



Snecfcbta ©xoniensia. 

ARYAN SERIES. 
Buddhist Texts from Japan. I. Vafra-£££edik£ ; The 
Diamond- Cutter. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A. Small 4to, 3*; 6d. 
One of the most famous metaphysical treatises of the MahaySna Buddhists. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. II. Sukhavati-VyCtha : 
Description of Sukhdvati, the Land of Bliss. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A., and Buxyiu Nanjio. With 

two Appendices : (1) Text and Translation of Sanghavarman's 

Chinese Version of the Poetical Portions of the Sukhavatl- 

Vyuha; (2) Sanskrit Text of the Smaller Sukhavati-Vyuha. 

Small 4 to, 7 f. 6d. 

The tditio pritueps of the Sacred Book of one of the largest and most 

influential sects of Buddhism, numbering more than ten millions of followers 

in Japan alone. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. III. The A ncient Palm- 
Leaves containing the Pra^«a-Paramita-Hr*daya- 
Sutra and the Ushwisha-Vifaya-Dharawi. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A., and Bunyiu Nanjio, M.A. 
With an Appendix by G. Buhler, CLE. With many Plates. 
Small 4to, 10;. 
Contains facsimiles of the oldest Sanskrit MS. at present known. 

Dharma-Sawgraha, an Ancient Collection of Buddhist 
Technical Terms. 

Prepared for publication by Kenjiu Kasawara, a Buddhist 
Priest from Japan, and, after his death, edited by F. Max 
Muller and H. Wenzel. Small 4to, 7*. 6d. 

Katyayana's Sarvanukramawl of the ifrgveda. 

With Extracts from Sharfguruxishya's Commentary entitled 
Vedarthadfpika. Edited by A. A. Macdonell, M.A., Ph.D. 16s. 

The Buddha- A^arita of Ai'vaghosha. 

Edited, from three MSS., by E B. Cowell, M.A. 1 2s . 6d. 

The Mantrapatha, or the Prayer Book of the Apa- 
stambins. 

Edited, together with the Commentary of Haradatta, and 
translated by M. Winternitz, Ph.D. First Part. Introduc- 
tion, Sanskrit Text, Varietas Lectionis, and Appendices. 
Small quarto, \os. 6d. 

OXFORD 

AT TttE CLARENDON PRESS 

LONDON : HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AMEN CORNER, E.C. 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized by 



Google