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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



[37] 

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JtonboK 
HENRY FROWDE 




Oxford University Press Warehouse 
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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MttLLER 



VOL. XXXVII 




AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
189a 

[ All rights reserved ] 

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PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

*T HOKACB HAXT, JRINTBR TO TH> VHIVBRSITY 



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PAHLAVI TEXTS 



TRANSLATED BY 



E. W. WEST 



PART IV 



CONTENTS OF THE NASKS 




AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1892 

\AU rights reserved] 



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CONTENTS. 

PACK 

Introduction . . xxix 

Abbreviations used in this volume xlix 

CONTENTS OF THE NASKS. 
DInkajjd, Book VIII. 

CH4P. 

i. Classification, names, and divisions of the Nasks 3 

2. Su</kar Nask 10 

3. Varrtmansar Nask 12 

4. Bak6 Nask 13 

5. Damdit/Nask 13 

6. NSrfarNask: only the Avesta extant . . . .15 

7. Pa#ag Nask : meat-offering, preparations, and priests for 

season-festivals; (§ 10) periods of day and year, fra- 
vart/fkan days; gathering herbs, chastisement of sinners, 
33 chieftainships, apostasy ; (§ 20) almsgiving, summer 
and winter, calamity of a century, months . . 15 

8. Rarf&-d&/-aitag Nask 19 

9. Bark Nask: good and evil; advantages and disadvan- 

tages of the period 20 

10. Kadrfsrdbd Nask 23 

11. VLrtAsp-sast6 Nask: particulars about Kai-Vutasp, visit 

of the archangels to him, and his war with Ar^Ssp . 23 

12. VartagNask: not extant 25 

13. ATitradarf Nask: races and monarchs from Gay6marrf to 

Zaraturt; (§ 17) the Sasanians and some leaders of 
religion 25 

14. Spend Nask: birth and life of Zaratuxt, his vision of the 

past, future, and other world ; (§ 12) his posthumous 
sons, the future apostles 31 

15. Bakan-yart Nask: worship of the sacred beings and 

duties of the worshippers 34 



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V1U CONTENTS. 



1 6. Patkir-r&fistan section of the Nik&/um Nask: misery 

from sin and assault, kinds of assault and magisterial 
enquiry; (§ 13) punishment without enquiry, counter- 
assault 35 

17. Zatamistan section of the same: assault and its conse- 

quences, begging and beneficence, perversion, using 
weapons ; conflict through assault, tumult, false-teach- 
ing, starving, spells, and threats, by men, women, and 
children ; ill-treatment of slaves, compensation the only 
atonement, responsibility of fathers for crimes of chil- 
dren 39 

18. RSshist&n section of the same: kinds of wounds, scourg- 

ing, 76 members of the body, effects of assaults, modes 
of assaulting, description of a wound and the weapon, 
curing wounds 41 

19. Ham&malistan section of the same: various accusations, 

true and false, and retribution for the offences ; pollu- 
tion, a young woman well taught, slander, care of a 
pregnant woman, a householder neglecting his family, 
opinions of quiet and unquiet people ; (§10) cowardice, 
impenitence, sin of priests, retribution, authority of 
priests, punishment of judges, illegal action of plaintiff, 
seizing purity of foreigners, those worthy of death, 
confession; (§ 21) assault with a weapon, curing a 
wounded person who afterwards dies, security taken 
from defendant, procrastination by plaintiff, mediation, 
assaults furious and harmless, punishment of a child 
for sin, interpretation, signs of approval by the dying ; 
(§ 31) undefined assault, killing a foreigner, great 
hinderers, indiscriminate assault, a frontier governor, 
striking the living and dead, timber and firewood, 
atonement and ordeals, physicians, mutilating a horse ; 
(§ 41) a wound as evidence of crime, modes of using 
a weapon, assault and retribution, incarceration, pulling 
a steed's tail, threats and spells, various plaints and 
plaintiffs, pleadings inconsistent with accusations; 
(§ 50) master unfriendly to disciple, arresting and 
prosecuting a thief, the good to be treated like oneself, 
when carrying off property becomes theft, native and 
foreign thieves, why the foreigner is unfettered, assail- 



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CONTENTS. IX 



CHAP. PAGE 

ants to be restrained, renunciation of sin, avoiding one 
worthy of death ; (§ 60) informing about a righteous 
man, giving weapons to generals and governors, execu- 
tion and reprieve of one worthy of death, witchcraft . 43 
20. Fifth section of the same : an armed man riding to attack 
another, overhearing talk of murder or robbery, how to 
act when a companion murders, saving one worthy of 
death for medical purposes, legal argument unnecessary 
only when the judge is a supreme priest, unauthorised 
combatants, travellers' supplies, penalties; (§ 10) power 
and good works of the worthy, weakness and sin of the 
unworthy, how to conduct legal proceedings, a wife 
can do so for her husband, particulars about ordeals, 
measures of distance ; (§ 20) litigation as to a costly 
article, annulling decisions by appeal or ordeal, litigation 
of three claimants, selling another's property, disputing, 
litigation of Iranians with foreigners or slaves, a noisy 
plaintiff, a high-priest, a wife unfit for evidence ; (§ 30) 
a pledge, property of partners, or held without evidence 
of ownership, ordeal of excessive eating, dispute as to 
a stolen female, property of any one given by another 
to a third party without dispute, a master teaching his 
disciple not to litigate, dispute about alms, a successful 
triple ordeal, spells and threats ; (§ 40) ordeals, a thief 
liberated to attend a ceremonial, a priest's personal 
property and its inheritance, residuary wealth of fathers, 
penalty for stealing cattle, three plaintiffs, three claim- 
ants, and three thieves; (§ 50) imprisoning a native 
for theft; duration, order, hardship, and stratagems of 
legal proceedings; ordeals, benedictions on decisions, 
evidence, ownership; (§ 60) certainty of statements, 
incrimination, treatment of apostates, origins of virtue 
and vice, harm of unatoned sin, Tandpuhar sin, atone- 
ment and ordeal, witnessing a theft, decisions according 
to scripture or precedent; (§ 70) when men and beasts 
can be sold with a warranty, an exceptional decision, 
appointment and qualification of judges, legal pro- 
ceedings producing injustice, litigating thieves con- 
victed, offences as to property, isolation ; (§ 80) dispute 
about property resigned by a third party, disputing 



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CONTENTS. 



fathers' debts, when women and children can be con- 
demned for spells, lowest and highest values, stealing 
one's own property, false and true investigation, litiga- 
tion of man and wife, who gives away the daughter of 
a dead father ; (§ 90) estranging a wife from her hus- 
band, bartering girl for girl, consequent injury to one's 
own wife, overpayment for wife recoverable, sin of 
keeping a marriageable daughter unmarried, a wife can 
be given only to a Ma«</a-worshipper, mortal sin of 
giving no food, chastising a wizard, longest and 
shortest days and parasangs; (§ 101) work and food 
of an injured beast, manslaughter by a sheep, period 
from certainty to doubt, useless witnesses and unjust 
judges, harm of gifts to the unworthy, gifts and 
righteous gifts; (§ no) crime of not maintaining 
families under one's control, punishment and atone- 
ment for sin and assault, all prosperity given to Zaraturt 
and his disciples, an isolated creature, keeping and 
breaking promises; sin and punishment of strife, in- 
sincerity, and slander; hostages and ransom; (§ 121) sin 
of a governor, ransom of thieves, stolen article tied to 
the thief s neck, no atonement for theft without con- 
fession, stolen property to be recovered by authorities, 
sin of giving a woman to one when engaged to an- 
other, cheating an ignorant man, interceding for him, 
fitness for sovereignty; (§ 130) indisputable ordi- 
nances, enquiry after confession, squandering alms, 
delay of legal proceedings, a woman without a guar- 
dian, written statements in law, sin of frightening away, 
restoring what was extorted, minor decisions obvious 
from greater ones, benefit of a family; (§ 140) sin of 
wealth from unnatural intercourse, a decree of three 
kinds, a stolen tree, a sin aggravated by deceit, defile- 
ment, stopping a combat, counter-assaults, no property 
for one worthy of death, abettors of sin ; (§ 150) harm 
of an incompetent president, sin of deciding by origin 
of claimant, sin of delivering an Iranian to a foreigner; 
gifts of the righteous, controversy with apostates, ne- 
cessity for maintaining the truth, sin of occasioning 
schism, injustice produced by the evil spirit, complaint 



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CONTENTS. XI 



of aristocrats condemned for taking bribes, the just 
judge ; (§ 1 60) possibility of reaching heaven, true and 
false justice, learning the Gathas, Harfdkht, and Vartag; 
greatness of the law, kinds of property not to be taken 
as security, ten friends differing, and much other ad- 
judication 53 

21. First section of the Ganaba-sar-ni^a*/ Nask : the thief, his 

arrest, sin, punishment, and ransom, pinioning and 
fettering, imprisonment at expense of privileged 
accusers; kinds of theft, theft with plunder, injury, 
and in confederacy ; shares in theft, assisting a thief, 
theft by women and children, property to be pre- 
served from thieves; (§ 10) testimony of thieves, 
rewards, difference of .theft and plunder, property to 
be restored to its owners, protectors of thieves . -74 

22. Second section of the same is miscellaneous: authority 

for enquiry into sin of a relative, teaching and sin of 
children, not killing in war, property of a slain soldier, 
weapons not for women, children, or foreigners; a 
woman's treatment of two men, supplies found by 
a warrior, property inexpedient, delays of a judge; 
(§ 10) improper decisions, duties of judges; (§21) fit- 
ness of women and children for judgeship, aiding a 
disciple, supremacy of Rashnu, property in trust, con- 
sistency of actions, congregational actions, misuse of 
the law 77 

23. Pas(k-haurvastan section of the same: selection and 

efficiency of the shepherd's dog, preparations for him, 
his duties; (§ 12) characteristics of sheep, way to the 
village, when starved the dog may kill a sheep, stray 
sheep and dogs; treatment, punishment, instruction, 
and peculiarities of the dog 81 

24. Stdrist&n section of the same: sin of injuring cattle, 

beasts, and sheep; branding, making a dog dumb, 
plucking birds, spoiling fish, beating cattle, leathern 
and woollen clothing, sin of burning it, good works 
lead to heaven, and sin to hell . . . . ..84 

25. Argist&n section of the same: value of property, animate 

and inanimate, and of preserving the righteous; 
damaging the sacred fire .... 86 



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Xll CONTENTS. 



CJIAFl PACK 

26. Arat&rtaristan section of the same: destroying wolves, 

two-legged and four-legged; supplies, equipments, 
and horses for warriors ; training of horses, efficacy, 
of warriors, sin of a warrior's village on account of 
a battle, armour, officers and troopers, number of 
troopers; (§ 10) supplies for two warriors, medicinal 
herbs and accoutrements, feeding warriors on day of 
battle, wealth of the enemy, friendship and devotion 
of warriors, the general and his strategy, requisite 
horses to be seized, sentinels; (§ 20) demonstrations, 
altercation with enemy, speech to troops, conciliating 
and encouraging them, religious rites before the battle, 
reserves who keep the stores and prisoners, refreshment 
and return of stores after the battle . . . .86 

27. A miscellaneous section of the same: a warm bath, 

exertion of a horse, precautions with regard to fire 
when cooking and travelling, picketing a horse, food 
of men, fire, and cattle; hospitality, clothes, a street- 
keeper; (§ 10) providing in summer for the winter, 
reaping, union for good purposes, produce of plants 
and animals, property of nobles and the multitude, 
envy among animals and people . . . .90 

28. Aerpatistan section of the Husparam Nask: providing 

fir a priestly assembly, the priest and his disciple, 
di&rict priest to be appointed, five dispositions of 
priests, enquiry into concealed parentage of a priest, 
his accountability for sin, worry in forming a priestly 
assembly, relative superiority of priests . . .92 

29. Nirangistan section of the same : ritual and priests for 

the ceremonial, the sacred cake, abstaining from wine, 
recitation of A vesta, the ceremonial when the priest is a 
TanSpuhar sinner, priestship of a woman or child, he 
who is cursed, season- festivals and periods of the day ; 
(§11) sacrifice of a sheep, stations of the priests, the 
perfect ceremonial, sacred shirt and girdle, sacred 
twigs, firewood, ceremonials of various grades, celebra- 
tions of the ceremonies; (§21) cleanliness of the cele- 
brator, place, and apparatus; ceremony of the waters, 
and other particulars; families of Zaratfift, Hvov, and 
Vut&sp 94 



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CONTENTS. Xlll 



30. GdharfkistSn section of the same: superiority; selling 

property of another, cattle, slaves, and without war- 
ranty; (§ 9) houses and clothing used during con- 
tagious sickness, fatal or otherwise, family alliance 
with foreigners, sheep of good breed . . . -97 

31. A miscellaneous section of the same: stealing, religious 

instruction, oppression and deceit, reducing liberality, 
limit of a wife's liberality, a bride going to her husband's 
house, quarrels in wedlock, menstruation, foreigners 
seeking wives ; (§ 9) birth and care of a son, injurious 
things that must be kept, those who must not punish, 
rejoicing and gifts at a birth, naming the child, breed- 
ing sheep and dogs; (§ 20) fees for priestly duties, 
guardianship of a child, sickness from evil eye or 
touching a menstruous woman, fearfulness, supplies, 
produce of property, duties of judges ; (§ 30) creation 
and production of corn, excitement due to blood, 
ownership, land-grabbing, supplies sold in distress, 
supremacy of sin, atonement for various sins; (§ 43) 
the oppressor, greed, the weak man should be good . 99 

32. Another section of the same : about an ordeal . . 105 

33. Another section of the same : mad animals and their 

care ......... 105 

34. A miscellaneous section of the same : amassing property, 

arranging marriages for one's children, portioning 
daughters, righteous gifts, an Iranian vainly asking 
reward for assisting foreigners in batde, offering up 
of water; (§ 10) best and worst actions, heinous sins, 
various sins, assisting foreigners, destroying plants, 
digging a grave, clothing a corpse ; defiling lire, water, 
or people; about water, damage by water or fire; 
preventing misery and adversity .... 106 

35. Another section of the same : seeking and begetting a 

son, conception, tokens of sex, development of fetus ; 
period of gestation and birth, period of determination 
of sex, childbirth and care of child; (§ 10) periods of 
gestation in various animals, spiritual perceptions of 
the child, habits tending to beauty, evils of unnatural 
intercourse and adultery; increased and diminished 
vigour of the female and male, respectively . . .109 



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XIV CONTENTS. 

CHAT. fAC.E 

36. Another section of the same : ownership and litigation 

about property; earnings, family guardianship and 
income ; about wives, adoption, partnership of 
brothers, inheritance, and giving in marriage . .112 

37. Another section of the same : daily food of men, women, 

children, and dogs ; religious conversion, association 
of various kinds, sins of falsehood and extortion, 
atonement for deprival of food, necessary debt ; 
(§ 14) physicians, medical treatment and fees; (§ 30) 
suitability for trust, unauthorised dwellings, boun- 
daries, testimony of the orthodox and heterodox, 
priestly dwellings, abode of fires, water oozing and 
flowing, works on a frontier; (§ 40) sheep trespassing, 
animals' food, distance of house from river, grazing 
sheep, felling trees, slaughtering, defensive clothing, 
migration during war, waters reverenced by a tra- 
veller, obedience of disciple to priest ; (§ 50) frontier 
war, various advantages 114 

38. One of the first 30 sections of the Sak&fum Nask: 

future reward and punishment, necessity of seeking 
the good law and scrutinizing actions, noticing a fire, 
intentional injury, extent of the fire's light, size of its 
sanctuary door, care and food of a new-born child, 
keeping a cooking-pot pure ; (§11) proper bed-places, 
curing defective sight, workmen and women, giving 
no food thrice and four times, care of anything pointed 
and of all utensils, injury by a ddor, washing the head 
and shaving; (§21) custodians and rules of a market, 
giving forth pointed things and victuals lawfully and 
unlawfully, horse-courses and manoeuvres, admitting 
listeners, making and tying the sacred girdle, scratch- 
ing with the nails, care of fire when travelling ; (§ 29) 
panic at night among warriors, marching in fear or 
fearlessly, demanding a share, care of firewood, 
warming bull's urine, selecting pasture, farm-houses, 
interference with the seizure of cattle, hanging things 
up, stabling horses; (§ 40) cutting trees, washing 
clothes, walking in, passing through water, canals 
and fords; (§ 52) two warriors marching, sin of 
eating on the road, remedies for cattle, their breeding, 



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CONTENTS. XV 



removing an ox that steals hay, danger from ill- 
omened speaking, a father's sin owing to his child's 
misbehaviour ; (§ 60) gathering medicinal herbs, feast- 
ing with idolaters, atonement for starving, ordeals, 
religious secrets, evil-speaking to others' wives, extent 
of communities, habits of Frashdf tar and G&m&sp . 121 

39. //aitaakanist&n section of the same: sequestration of 

property, sheep, horses, cattle, and their young, milk, 
and wool; their shelter and ill-treatment; (§ n) 
handing over sheep to the sequestrator and his re- 
sponsibility, a free sheep among those seized, the 
killing of a seized sheep, particulars of a seized 
animal to be stated when it is kept with others, care 
of a man wounded in slaughtering, gain of a seques- 
trator of animals in various circumstances; (§ 17) 
treasure found in various places and at various depths 
of earth and water; (§ 24) nourishing a seized sheep, 
disputes as to its identity, keeping it in the mountains, 
and other details 131 

40. Ziyinakist&n section of the same : duty of protecting 

animate and inanimate existences, and sin of injuring 
them ; a damaged gift or animal, inanimate property 
and its increase, merit of not rejecting a damaged 
article 136 

41. Vakhshistan, one of the last 22 sections of the same: 

atonement, compensation, active and existent increase, 
increase upon increases, righteous gifts, interest simple 
and compound, how loans are treated on the death 
of lender or debtor; (§ 10) retribution, penalty for 
inefficient breeding of animals, animals' milk and 
hair, males preferable to females, an injured camel, 
improved dog or pig, buying up supplies too much ; 
(§ 20) giving away necessary clothing, penalty for 
deprival of food, litigation about debts, unauthorised 
supplies, multiplication of sheep and other details, 
loans and repayment by instalments, seizure of slaves 
to work off a debt ; (§ 30) seizure of a cloak or a 
water-skin, increase of grains and sheep, seizure of 
clothes and implements, produce of land and orna- 
ments 138 



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XVI CONTENTS. 



42. Varistan section of the same : trial and execution of a 

wizard, trial by ordeal, and particulars about ordeals . 144 

43. A miscellaneous section of the same : assistants, wealth 

causing imprisonment, confession, disciple and master, 
penalties, sins owing to the wrathful, an unjust judge 
and one of long experience ; (§ 10) a daughter con- 
trolled by parents and one without a guardian, be- 
queathing property, sin of declining adoption, property 
of a liberal man and of a damsel, a damsel taken by 
an idolator and offered to a Maarfa-worshipper, a 
mother being guardian of her son's father, providing 
a high-priest ; (§ 20) sin of not providing a husband 
for an adult daughter, inadvertent sin, worst demon- 
service and sins, furtherances and destroyers of the 
world, truth that is wicked, driving spiritual benefit 
from the world, three kinds of righteous men, sin of 
defiling water and fire; merit of removing dead 
matter of men, dogs, and reptiles from water ; rep- 
tiles may be killed in water, but must be removed 
to gratify the earth-spirit and vex the demons ; (§ 30) 
a well-managed drinking-party, the sin of him who 
leaves it uproariously, animals produced from the 
sole-created ox, offerings to the sacred beings; 
injury to the world by fiends, idolators, and wolves ; 
the necessity of destroying them, advice not to rever- 
ence the evil spirits, nor to chatter unseasonably, the 
advantage of the ceremonial of the sacred beings . 145 

44. Vendldarf Nask: corresponding with the contents of 

fargan/s I-XI, XIII-XXII 152 

45. H&d&kht Nask : recital of Ahunavair, high-priests, 

21 chieftainships, duties at periods of the day, 
season-festivals, superiors, membership of the com- 
munity, prayers at eating, recitations, invocation, 
devotion; (§ 10) good attributes and qualities, dili- 
gence, righteousness, the chief resource of the 
creatures, sayings full of humility . . . .166 

46. St6rf-yart Nask 169 



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CONTENTS. XVU 



DInkakd, Book IX. 

CHAP. rAGE 

i. Introductory 172 

2. Su</kar Nask, fargarrf 1. Use of various repetitions of 

the Ahunavair, and the division of the Nasks accord- 
ing to its lines 172 

3. Same, farganf 2. The Ashem-vohu 175 

4. Same, fargarcf 3. Formation, decline, and death of 

human beings; illiberal opulence . . . .175 

5. Same, fargarrf 4. The utilisers and misusers of life, 

the latter being the defects of Dahak; the vices 
driven away by Yim, what is to be avoided, the dis- 
tresser and the distressed, and the mode of relieving 
the latter . 177 

6. Same, fargarcf 5. Forgetfulness of kinsfolk and un- 

forgetfulness of the Gathic spirit, complaint and 
power of that spirit 178 

7. Same, fargarrf 6. The five excellences, distribution and 

acquirement of fortune, grief of an old man, things 
to be amassed in youth, storeholders of excellence, 
how one should drink and eat . . . .179 

8. Same, fargan/ 7. The four periods in Zarardrt's mil- 

lenium 180 

9. Same, farganf 8. Abstinence from sins due to rever- 

ence for the arch-demons, chattering while eating, 
prayer and purity at meals, loss of merit from want 
of a priest, proper times for the ceremonials of 
various sacred beings 181 

10. Same, fargarrf 9. Heinous sinfulness of sodomy . . 185 

11. Same, fargarrf 10. Complaint of fire against seven 

kinds of people who injure it; (§ 10) proper and 
improper fire, its wish to leave the world resisted, 
attention to it is the best worship, the righteous are 
to be pleased and not vexed 186 

12. Same, fargau/ 11. Petition of fire for removal to the 

sky or to Atr&n-v^, the propitious fire Gum-as/; 
reward of the promoters of fire, and sin of its in- 
jurers; (§ 10) evil of maintaining fire by extortion, 
and of neglecting it; all food to be consecrated, 
opposition of fb% fiend to worship, three grades of 

[37] ' ' b 



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XVU1 CONTENTS. 



CHAf. "OE 

ceremonial, sin of not reciting the Gathas, coming 
of the demon of death, disbelief of the wicked; 
(§ 20) mourning for the dead prohibited, different 
desires of body and soul, self-injury of a liar, sin 
of employing or being an improper Zdti, controllers 
of sin ; (§ 30) wounders to be brought before four 
priests, promises not to be broken . . . .189 

1 3. Same, fargarrf 12. Advantage of satisfying water, impure 

recitation, impurity of greed, birds kill snakes, effec- 
tual invocation, goodness of archangels and Zaratftrt, 
gifts to his disciples 195 

14. Same, fargarrf 13. The spirit of the sacred cake attacks 

demons when the cake is consecrated, men who pray 
are righteous if not deceitful, a heinous sin no ob- 
literator of other sin 196 

15. Same, fargarrf 14. The torment of Keresasp's soul, 

notwithstanding his heroic deeds, owing to smiting 
the fire which opposes his soul, though befriended by 
G6\?-aurvan, until Zaraturt intercedes . . 197 

16. Same, fargarrf 15. Proceedings of the demon of death, 

the soul alone sees the events of the spiritual state, 
treatment of the corpse and misery of its conscious- 
ness ; (§ 9) worldly happiness seldom lasts a century, 
ordainable supplies, the seven immortal rulers in 
Khvanfras 199 

17. Same, fargarrf 16. Bridge-judgment of sinners, merit 

of certain good works, punishment of certain sinners, 
Gathas for an ordeal 204 

18. Same, fargarrf 17. Where seven particular classes of 

sinners have to go 206 

19. Same, fargarrf 18. Pregnancy of the fiend due to certain 

sins ; the soul blesses the body when righteous, and 
curses it when wicked; proper times for reciting the 
Ahunavair and Ashem, the corruption of the wicked . 206 

20. Same, fargarrf 19. The souls praise a virtuous high- 

priest, miseries of hell, the Jfinvarf bridge, promises 
not to be broken, not even those to a courtezan, in 
which case the penalty is childlessness in hell . . 209 

21. Same, fargarrf 20. Dahak's oppressiveness, the people's 

reproaches contrasting him with Yim, Fre<Mn's smiting 



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CONTENTS. XIX 



and binding him ; (§ 1 1) gradual submission of most 
of the regions, war with the M&zendar&ns; (§ 22) 
their defeat and slaughter by Fr&ran, since which 
time none of them have entered Khvantras, except 
two men who came to consult Frashdrtar . .212 

22. Same, fargart/ 21. The four best prayers ; the D&hm£n 

Afrin making a good man infinitely more splendid 
than the finest woman, horse, ox, or sheep, and a bad 
man infinitely worse. The reign of K&t-frs, his 
success and ruin ; (§10) his flight followed by the 
spirit of Kal-Khusr61 and the angel NSrydsang . 219 

23. Same, fargar<? 22. Kat-Khusr6f riding upon V&l in the 

form of a camel, his finding Haowt, Tus, and Kat- 
.<4piveh, his meeting Sdshans, who praises him for his 
exploits; Keresisp, exhorted by Tus, adopts the - 
religion, and so all the producers of the renovation 
are united 223 

24. Varjtmdnsar Nask, fargarrf 1. ZaratfLrt relates the 

incidents of his birth to MaW6k-mSh ; his first three 
utterances that routed the demons; (§ 12) his pro- 
fession of the religion, Auharma&f s advice and its 
acceptance, grumbling of the evil spirit, creation by 
Auharma0</, reverencing fire, water, and a spirit . 226 

25. Same, farganf 2. Worthiness of a ruler and high-priest 231 

26. Same, fargan? 3. In praise of righteousness . .232 

27. Same, farganf 4. Worship of Auharmaa<f and the arch- 

angels 233 

28. Same, fargan? 5. Worthiness of Zarat&rt and obeisance 

to the sacred beings, the supreme heaven, praise of 
Zaratuxt and Frashdrtar, assisting others, good works, 
wisdom of Zaratujt 234 

29. Same, fargarrf 6. Complaint and petition of G&f-aurvan, 

the reason of her creation, her colloquy with Auhar- 
m&zd; (§ 9) nourishment of cattle, punishment of 
their oppressor, wisdom of Auharmasrf, benefit of 
the liturgy, goodness of Zaratftrt . . . -237 

30. Same, farganf 7. Benefits of worship, advice to man, 

falsehood of the demon Aresh about the origin 
of Auharmaz(? and Aharman, their difference of 
motive and action, the demons' want of discrimina- 

b2 



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XX CONTENTS. 



tion, their deception of man; (§ 10) monarchy and 
religion provided for the creatures who triumph in 
the end, the producers of the renovation and future 
existence, the doers of good, advice to man . .241 

31. Same, fa.rga.rd 8. Reciting revelation, benefit owing to 

Auharma&f and misery to Aharman, the actions of 
both spirits; (§ 6) colloquy of the demon Aresh and 
Zaraturt, power of the liturgy, creation by Auhar- 
mozd, benefits from Vohuman, merit of benefiting 
cattle, hypocrisy, work of the creator; (§ 17) complete 
mindfulness, liberality, the worst ruler, judges and 
guardians, conflict of good and evil, apostates; (§ 24) 
the three nights, KhurdW and Amurda<f, the good 
ruler 245 

32. Same, fargan/ 9. Three deceitful demons and their 

colloquy with Auharmasrf; (§ 8) arrival of demons 
in the world, their evil doings and those of their 
followers, evil of burying a corpse, its impurity; 
(§ '7) evildoers of the ninth and tenth centuries, 
their evil deeds; (§ 25) the final punishment in 
melted metal, at the renovation, is the end of evil . 252 

33. Same, fargarrf 10. The renovation and SdshSns, merit 

of a good priest, avoidance of oppressors, the Auivarf 
bridge ; Zaratu* t, taught by Auharmazrf, is Z6ti of the 
world at the renovation; the names of his assistant 
priests 260 

34. Same, fargarrf 11. Vohuman reports to Aftharmazrf thrice 

a day, the demons trying to seduce man are vexed by 
his resistance, Armat and Tardkmat, opposition to the 
demons, advantage of religion and its reward • .263 

35. Same, fargarrf 12. Benefits of religion; mutual service 

of men, cattle, and the sacred beings; evil deeds 
prohibited, worship by the righteous is the best, 
begging for life; (§ n) duties to fire, Zarattat's 
seeing the future existence, benefits of worship; 
(§ 1 7) colloquy of Aflharmaarf and ZaratUf t . .265 

36. Same, fargan/ 13. Reward and tokens of righteousness 269 

37. Same, fargarrf 14. Auharmaarf's creativeness, threat of 

the evil spirit, praise of religion, the wicked in hell, 

the demons 270 



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CONTENTS. XXI 



38. Same, fargan/ 15. The seven perfections of religious 

advice, power and contempt for the demons given to 

the creatures, praise of Zaraturt . . . -273 

39. Same, fargaro? 16. Worship not to be neglected on any 

account, want of spirituality in men, liberality of the 
archangels, promises for the future, praise of the reno- 
vators ; (§ 13) characteristics of the heretic Manih, 
attracters to the religion, the last millenniums, dis- 
turbers of religion ; (§ 20) praise of the Fryanaks, 
liberality for the archangels, praise ofVUtisp, advice to 
the Spit&mas, four marvels in the other world, advice 
to Zaraturt 276 

40. Same, fargare? 17. Praise of truth, cattle, good works, 

ordeals 282 

41. Same, fargart/ 18. Evidence of the future existence, 

four triumphs of the sacred beings over the demons, 
enquiring about religion, avoiding apostates; (§ 12) 
mankind attaining wisdom, care for cattle, oppression 
by wrath and envy; (§21) progress of righteousness, 
the renovation, next-of-kin marriage, girdling . . 284 

42. Same, fargarrf 19. Protection at the renovation, belief 

necessary for being convinced, evil of a wicked judge 
and vicious people; praise of Zarat&rt, Frash&rtar, 
and Gamasp ; punishment of the wicked . . 289 

43. Same, fargarrf 20. Assistance by the archangels, reward 

given to the righteous in the other world when un- 
attainable here, cattle for warriors, advancement of 
religion by force, assisters of the dead righteous, 
reason for certain movements of the Z6ti, worship 
of archangels, merit of ZaratfLrt, reward of good 
works 291 

44. Same, fargan/ 21. Desire for a good ruler; where the 

best wealth, prayer, and sovereignty exist ; favours 
from the sacred beings, memory and discrimination, 
attraction of spiritual mercy and leadership in heaven, 
good works and wealth, submission to the priesthood 
meritorious, creations for the benefit of the creatures, 
comfort for the spirit of the liturgy ; (§ 10) the wicked 
deceiver, man prepared for future existence by fire, 
the supreme heaven for the righteous only, enmity 



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XX11 CONTENTS. 



of Akht the heretic, Kat and Karap excluded from 
virtue ; praise of Vut&sp, Frashdrtar, Hv6b6, GimSsp, 
Mat<f6k-mah, and Zaratflrt 294 

45. Same, fargarrf 22. Perfection of prayers, glory of the 

Spftamas, praise of P6ru£ast and Hutos, character- 
istics of the preparers and disturbers of the end, the 
apostle and follower of the demons is to be smitten by 
the righteous ruler 298 

46. Same, fargar<f 23. Benefits of the Atnnan supplication 302 

47. Bak5 Nask, fargarrf 1. The Ahunavair produced before 

the creation ; its divisions, goodness, and use ; benefit 
of its proper recital and sin of imperfect recital ; (§12) 
it was the first creature and teaches submission to the 
king, the reward of Vohuman, dominion given to 
Aftharmaa</, assistance to the poor, entrance of the 
destroyer ; use of this saying by the degrees, classes, 
and chieftainships ; the summing up of liberality . 303 

48. Same, fargarrf 2. Excellence is producing suitably, 

reward of good works 308 

49. Same, fargar</ 3. Worship of Auharmazrf and the arch- 

angels, particulars regarding worship . . . 309 

50. Same, fargarrf 4. Praise of Zarat&rt, giving joy to 

Auharma&f, good work of reverence, wisdom of 
Vohuman, benefit of cattle and the worthy, prosperity 
of the worthy, (§ 10) reverence of the good, sup- 
plicants should be contented, the way to heaven, 
reverence, acquaintance with religion, teaching right- 
eousness, seeing the throne of Auharmaarf, welcoming 
him, recommending to rulers for benefit, the way of 
prosperity ; (§ 20) a suitable sovereign solicited, the 
praiser, religion made progressive, zealousness for 
good works, the man praised above others, assister 
of the ignorant, wisdom for Auharmasrf; the past, 
present, and future periods 311 

51. Same, fargar*/ 5. Complaint of G&r-afirvan, care of 

cattle, the cattle-master, keeping animals properly, 
admitting the male, not slaughtering the young, 
he whose power is most useful, power for worship, 
reward stimulates perseverance; (§ 10) a virtuous 
mouth, religious duty developes knowledge, teaching 



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CONTENTS. XX111 



the good, obtaining a throne in heaven, preventing 
damage from want of resources, recommending the 
righteous to rulers, what is taught by true service for 
the king 318 

52. Same, fargarrf 6. Enlarging the priestly assembly, glori- 

fication of Auharmaarf, worship of Vohuman, the 
ceremonial becomes greater through virtue, the ex- 
tender of religion, discrimination as to duty, giving 
to the needy, granting the leadership, selecting the 
better of two ways; (§ 10) the discriminator of 
sagacity, thinking of eternity, preventing reverence 
of demons, practising liberality, persistence in virtue 
and attachment to the sacred beings for sake of 
reward, advantage of the righteous . . .32* 

53. Same, fargarrf 7. The world freed from destruction, 

apostates forced to make the religion progressive, 
triumph of the priests, miraculousness of Auharmaftf, 
decision of acquittal or conviction, rite of ordeal, 
appointing a priest, reciter of revelation ; (§ 10) 
teaching employers their responsibility, thinking of 
religion, teaching the nature of the sacred beings, 
giving a sheep to the diligent and moderate, develop- 
ment of the world and sheep, inward prayer, keeping 
animals and men as property, giving predominance 
to those of Gaydman/ s nature, telling rulers the 
truth ; (§ 20) keeping sovereignty within Auhar- 
ma2</s will, illustrating the information due to re- 
ligion, the virtuous course of the liturgy, he whose 
Vohuman is Auharmaz</s progeny, the good creation 
is Auharma&f s, a ruler as to actions, giving Spen- 
darmarf to Auharma*/, wisdom that arises through 
care of cattle, admitting the male; (§ 30) the way to 
heaven, assistance to the renovation, a heart and 
mind for not being misled, he who sees his sin 
mingled with good works, giving a loan, non-injury 
of the innocent, he who makes AuharmaW ruler in 
himself, a decider informs others, a proper nurturer 
is an indicator for others, the demeanour for virtuous 
statements; (§ 40) indicating the acquitted and con- 
victed, immortal and complete progress, making the 



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XXIV CONTENTS. 



soul immortal, persisting in good works, maintaining 
predominance as high-priest, growth and increase 
owing to Vohuman, welcoming Aflharmazrf in one- 
self, evidence of the well-informed . . . -327 

54. Same, fargarrf 8. Not being deceived by an apostate, 

making SpendaraW an archangel, wisdom teaches 
not to destroy, teaching how to learn, strengthening 
the archangels and the good, loving Vohuman, giving 
thought to religion, keeping wealth in Zaratfirt's 
control, destiny controlled by self, good works be- 
coming one's own 340 

55. Same, fargarrf 9. The Gothic lore, priestly-controlled 

action, command of the liturgy, personal assistance 
to the creatures, reverence, causing progress for one's 
own, benefit for a cultivator through cattle, making 
righteousness one's own, three things promoted by 
submission, pleasure of energy . . . -342 

56. Same, fargarrf 10. Advantage of doing good works, 

injuring an apostate, he who is eager for knowledge, 
slaying an apostate, development by Vohumanic rule, 
the ceremonial a great ordinance, a ceremonial of 
the needy, the way of righteousness, reward of a 
teacher of professionals 345 

57. Same, fargarrf 11. All good works belong to him who 

teaches virtue, doing the best for one's own, he whose 
work is good work, he for whom the best occurs in 
both existences, the worship of Afihannazrf, a leader 
in religion, a server of religion, the authoriser of a 
wish for life; (§ ro) giving acceptance, hints, and 
words to A&harmazd, teaching the words of Auhar- 
maarf, providing care for fire, teaching the religion 
with joyfulness, obeisance, strengthening fire for its 
greatest work, being informed as to religion, sagacity 
of teaching words and actions, praising the per- 
fection of Auharmaafs body, all excellence is both 
root and fruit; (§ 20) invoking Aflharmaa/ as lord, 
invoking by name, benefit for one race is felt by all, 
he who is the sacred beings' own, and when his own 
is in their guardianship, giving life to mankind, ob- 
tainer of Auharmaa/s friendship, causing righteous- 



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CONTENTS. XXV 



ness and the propitiousness of AQ.harma.zd, his per- 
petual guardianship 348 

58. Same, farganf 12. Benefits, pleasing superiors, the best 

for one's own in every mode, teaching virtue to all, 
one whose spirit is connected with Auharmaaf, 
whose words are through Vohuman, who produces 
long-continued joy, who teaches the proper way to 
man, who gives heat to fire ; (§ 10) assistants of the 
renovation, the progeny of Ahbarmazd, defeating the 
bad and accepting the good, transformation of 
the creatures, teaching religion like a priest, wisdom 
of Auharmasrf, complete mindfulness that is not de- 
ceived, maintaining the destinies of the body, con- 
veying to the rulers for benefit; (§ 20) benefit of 
sovereignty for that which arises, liberality to fire, 
thinking of righteousness, interrogating religion, pro- 
gress of religion, pleasure given to a friend, gratifica- 
tion from Auharmazcf, indication of intellect in a 
vigorous-minded man, the spirit of Auharmasrf, 
reward taught in the publicity of the sun . . 353 

59. Same, fargan/ 13. Obeisance to the archangels, seven 

kinds of men, Vohumanic attainment to religion, per- 
fection of the first of existences, nourisher of good 
works; (§ 10) development in virtue, words and 
actions through complete mindfulness, exposition of 
the renovation, deciding about duty and opinion, 
propagation and progressiveness of the religion, pro- 
tection from the annoying spirit, exploits of the 
archangels, people shall become supplicant, in- 
terested liberality 360 

60. Same, fargarrf 14. Instruction to be heard, perfection 

of the first next-of-kin marriage, the teaching of it, 
daughterhood of SpendarnW, this is taught by him 
who is completely mindful, attraction to good works, 
reverence for Vohuman, ceremonial taught with com- 
plete mindfulness 364 

61. Same, fargarf 15. To what lands one should step, 

diligence in good works, teaching religion, even in 
an exhausted province, protection of fire, giving one- 
self in discipleship, he who so gives men and women, 



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XXVI CONTENTS. 



goodness taught to the good by him whose Kirwad 
passage teaches them to step forth ; (§ 10) the world 
produces abundance through complete mindfulness, 
the wicked man becomes unprivileged, as in the case 
of Ar^isp, contentment of the archangels, he who 
thinks of Zaratfirt 367 

62. Same, fargarrf 16. The wise, practising the deeds of 

complete mindfulness, nourishing good works and 
the creatures with propriety, giving pasture, he who 
becomes a benefit to the good, sentence according 
to declaration of acquittal or conviction, a strong 
foundation for learning 370 

63. Same, fargan/ 17. Maintaining the benedictions of re- 

ligion, making known the Kmvzd passage, causing a 
change from evil to good, generosity to tillers, de- 
veloping the world, formation of creatures and devas- 
tation by Vohuman caused by him whose rule is for 
Auharmasrf, he who increases virtue in a province, 
he who loves Vohuman, virtuous deeds set going . 371 

64. Same, fargare/ 18. He who makes people intelligent 

through his complete mindfulness, how this occurs, 
discriminating through wisdom, teaching joyfulness 
in righteousness to Frashdjtar, and ardour in good 
works, supplying guardianship, a master of all com- 
mands, Vohuman's guarding the creatures of Auhar- 
ma*</, the arrival of the wicked in the fiend's abode, 
(§ 10) reverence coming to assistance through invoca- 
tion, the supplicant for what is coveted from Auhar- 
ra&zd; Auharma&fs statement about one's own, 
confederate, and serf 373 

65. Same, fargarrf 19. Sheep-nature, mankind nourished, 

he who produces joyfulness and provides the cere- 
monial, displaying wisdom, instructing the tongue, 
teaching preparation and the virtuous way; (§ 10) 
obeisance for the archangels, taking assistance, 
within the day till dawn made as a signal, complete 
mindfulness among the existences .... 376 

66. Same, fargarrf 20. Auharmaz<f s command about smiting 

the deceiver and giving sovereignty to him who is 
good, providing complete mindfulness, the coveted 



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CONTENTS. 



XXV11 



thing expedient for sovereignty to give away, words 
of Vohuman, innocence from discontinued good 
works, causing goodness, way of righteousness not 
concealed, repletion unnecessary for cattle, house- 
wifery, loving religion through knowledge, gratifica- 
tion of Afiharmaatf 379 

67. Same, fargan/ 21. Performing the ceremonial, spirits 

lodging in the body, teaching the religion, diligence 
in good works, loving the beneficial way, giving a 
daughter in daughterhood, authority of Vohuman, 
a daughter given to a father for womanly service, 
reverence of a wife for her husband, producing origin 
and effect, dominion in the house . . . . 381 

68. Same, fargarrf 22. Giving delight to him who is a right- 

living poor man 383 

69. A selection from the whole Yart referring to the de- 

veloper : containing many unidentified statements by 
Auharma2</, Zaraturt, S6sh£ns, Vohuman, and Spend- 
armzd; and concluding with a long series of short 
quotations, from the Pahlavi Gathas, concerning 
what every one shall do, or know, in the future 
existence 384 



Details of the Nasks from other sources 
From the Selections of Za</-sparam 
„ Dinkar<f, Book III . 
„ Book IV . 
„ Rivayat of Bahman Pun^yah 
„ „ Kimah Bahrah 

„ „ NarSm&n Hdshang 

„ „ Barzu Qiyimu-d-din 

„ Dfn-vi^irgard .... 
Nask-fragments that are still extant 

Index 

Errata 



399 
401 
406 
410 
418 
419 
428 

433 
438 

449 
489 

501 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 
Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . 



503 



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INTRODUCTION. 

Attentive readers of the Sacred Books of the East 
have had ample opportunities of becoming acquainted 
with the Zoroastrian scriptures, so far as these have been 
preserved by the Parsis. In vols, iv, xxiii, and xxxi they 
have translations of all the texts extant in the original 
language of the Avesta, excepting a few fragments which 
are not yet collected. And in vols, v, xviii, and xxiv they 
have translations of later Pahlavi texts, showing how faith- 
fully the old doctrines and legends were handed down by 
the priests of Sasanian times to their immediate successors. 
But they will also have noticed that the translators of 
these texts are well aware of the fact that the texts them- 
selves are mere fragments of the religious writings of the 
Zoroastrians, which owe their preservation to the circum- 
stance that they were those portions most usually com- 
mitted to memory by the priesthood, such as the liturgy, 
sacred myths, and ceremonial laws. The object of the 
present volume is to add to those fragments all the 
accessible information, that can be collected from Iranian 
sources, regarding the contents of the whole Zoroastrian 
literature in Sasanian times. 

It has been long known that this literature was contained 
in twenty-one Nasks, or treatises, named either from the 
nature of their contents, or from their initial words, and 
each having one of the twenty-one words of the Ahunavair 
attached to it as a kind of artificial reminder of their 
proper order and number while enumerating them. Very 
brief statements of the contents of each Nask have also 
been accessible in manuscripts of the Persian Rivlyats, 
such as those translated in pp. 419-438 of this volume. 
And the existence of a much longer account of the Nasks 
in the Dlakard was ascertained by Haug, who published 



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XXX PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



some extracts from it in 1870, when describing several of 
the Nasks in the Index to the Pahlavi-Pazand Glossary. 
He was unable to do more, on account of the defective 
state of all modern manuscripts of the Dtnkard, in which 
a large portion of the text of the description of the Nasks, 
in the eighth and ninth books, is missing in various places 
without any hint of the omissions. These defects were 
owing to the abstraction of 52 folios of this part of the 
Iranian manuscript of the Dinkan/, after it was brought 
to India and before any copy of it had been written ; and, 
even now, two of these folios are still missing, as stated in 
pp. 262, 270. The importance of recovering these 52 
missing folios was due to the fact that they contain the 
text of Dk. VIII, Chaps. VII, 5-XIX, 36, XXXI, 31- 
XXXVIII, 19, XLIV, 34-XLVI, 5, and Dk. IX, Chaps. I, 
i-XI, 11, XII, 15-XLVII, 17, or nearly half the text of 
the two books. 

Regarding the early history of the Dinkar*/ there exists 
a detailed statement in the last chapter of its third book, 
which can now be translated with greater precision than 
was possible in 1867, when Haug published its Pahlavi 
text, with an English translation, in his introduction to 
the Farhang-i Oim-aevak, or Zand-Pahlavi Glossary. In 
this historical statement it is evident that §§ 1-8 refer 
to the traditional history of the Zoroastrian scriptures 
generally, considered as the original source of the infor- 
mation contained in the Dinkan/; but §§9-13 may be 
accepted as the actual history of the compilation of the 
work itself, the facts of which may, very possibly, have 
all been within the personal knowledge of the writer of 
the statement. The Pahlavi text of this statement, as pre- 
served in the manuscripts B and K (see pp. xxxv-xxxviii 
and 2), may be translated as follows : — 

' 1. About the Dinkan/ scripture (nipfk), from the Exposition 
of the Good Religion, there is this: — The Dfnkarrf scripture is 
a work which is adorned with all wisdom, and a publication of 
the Ma«<fo-worshipping religion. 2. And, first, the work — which 
was derived from the good religion of those of the primitive faith, 
and which was the knowledge revealing the good religion of the 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXI 



prophet (vakhshvar) Spitaman Zaraturt, whose guardian spirit 
is reverenced, and his first disciple through asking and hearing 
the same reverenced guardian spirit — is information which is a 
similitude of enlightenment on every subject from the original 
light. 3. And those original questions and the decision of the 
exalted ruler Kai-VLrtasp to have them written were its origin, 
and he ordered them to deliver the original to the treasury of 
Shapigan ', and to distribute copies provided. 4. And, after that, 
he sends a copy to the fortress of documents, to keep the in- 
formation also there. 

' 5. And during the ruin that happened to the country of Iran, 
and in the monarchy, owing to the evil-destined villain Alexander, 
that which was in the fortress of documents came to be burnt, and 
that in the treasury of Shapigan * into the hands of the Arumans, 
and was translated by him even into the Greek language, as in- 
formation which was connected with the ancients (min peV f nigan 
parfvastako). 

'6. And that Artakhshatar, king of kings, who was son of 
Papak, came for the restoration of the monarchy of Iran, and the 
same scripture was brought from a scattered state to one place. 

7. The righteous T6sar of the primitive faith, who was the priest 
of priests *, appeared with an exposition recovered from the Avesta, 
and was ordered to complete the scripture from that exposition. 

8. He did so accordingly (ham-gflnak5), to preserve a simili- 
tude of the splendour of the original enlightenment in the treasury 
of Shapigan 4 , and was ordered to distribute copies of the infor- 
mation provided. 

'9. And after, the ruin and devastation that came from the 
Arabs, even to the archives (divan) and treasures of the realm, the 
saintly " Atur-farnbag, son of Farukh6-za<f, who became the leader 
of the orthodox, brought those copies, which were scattered on all 
sides, and new resources, back from dispersion into union with 
the archives of his residence ; and, through observance and con- 
sideration for the Avesta and Zand of the good religion, he made 
the sayings of those of the primitive faith again a similitude of the 
illumination (firdko) from that splendour. 



1 Both MSS. have Shas/tgan here, bat see p. 413, n. 4. 
5 So in K, or perhaps Sh/ztgdn ; B has Shas/ig&n. 
3 So in K. * So in K ; B has Shapan. 

9 B has A t &ry&d inserted here by mistake. 



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XXX11 PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



' 10. Through the awful displeasure {or defect) and ruin (or 
injury) that happened to ZaratiLrt, son of Atur-farnbag, who 
became the leader of the orthodox, even those archives came to 
devastation, that scripture to dilapidation and dispersion, and the 
statements (v<f£fh) also to obsoleteness, perversion, and cor- 
ruption. 

'ii. And, after that, I, Aturparf, son of Heme</ and leader of 
the orthodox, have likewise written, from their fragments (subara- 
gano), a new means of giving assistance to the Ma«<fa-worshipping 
religion, with much prayer, investigation, and trouble. 12. From 
whatever was recovered from those dilapidated (visandako), de- 
cayed, worn out, and dust-mingled (khak-ameg) archives — and 
these, too, brought back by taking away, carrying off, and seizing 
— it is selected, owing to ' the assistance of the counselling wisdom 
of the mighty spirit, for the rediffusion of the words and deeds of 
the ancients, and of the evidence of the Avesta, for those of the 
primitive faith. 13. And the increase of knowledge from the good 
religion, arranged and prescribed in its chapters, is a lustre from 
encountering that splendour from the enlightenment of the original 
light primarily composed for the exposition of the good religion, 
and this which is named is a resemblance by adoption of the 
thousand chapters of that great original Dinkan/ 2 . 14. It is 
perfected by the sacred beings, and transmits the powerful effect 
which has come upon even that which is the perfect religion of 
the sufferers* in this age, and also the coming of the assistance 
of the soul to the knowledge * of the orthodox ; and even reunion 
with 6 the rest of Iran is acquaintance with the exposition of the 
Maz</a-worshipping religion, and the reproviding of more resources 
of a like origin, which will be also due to those whom the Supreme 
has provided, the disciples of Aush&fer*, son of Zaratfut, for 
asking again a declaration of 7 the good religion from Aush6</ar.' 

From this statement it appears that the compilation 
of the Dinkan/ was commenced by Atur-farnbag, son of 
Farukho-z&f, one of the leaders or supreme high-priests 
of the Mas</a-worshippers, and was revised and completed 

* Assuming that m stands for min. 

• Both MSS. have zak rabS b<ln Dgn6-kar</6. 

* K has den6-t buri/aran. * B has 'arising.' 
' B has ' and the reunited selection for.' 

• See Dk. VIII, Chap. XIV, 13. ' B omits 'a declaration of.' 



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INTRODUCTION. XXX111 



by Atbrp&d, son of H6m&/, one of his successors. From 
the Maafigan-1 gu^astak AbalLr we learn that Atur-farnbag 
had a religious disputation with AbalLr in the presence 
of the Khaltfah Al-Mamun, who reigned A.D. 813-833 ; he 
must therefore have been compiling the Divkard during 
the first half of the ninth century. In the 5ikand-gum- 
anik V|gar, IV, 107, IX, 3, X, 55, he is also mentioned as a 
compiler of the Dtnkard, but the details there quoted must 
have been taken from its first two books which are still 
missing. It is likewise stated at the beginning of both its 
fourth and fifth books that their contents are derived from 
his statements, and a similar acknowledgement is made with 
regard to some of the contents of Chap. CXLII of the 
third book ; so that the evidence of his authorship is very 
complete. With regard to Aturpa</, the completer of the 
Dinkar<tf, we may safely identify him with the Aturparf, 
son of Ham&aT, mentioned in Bd. XXXIII, 11 as a con- 
temporary of Za^-sparam, who flourished at the latter end 
of the ninth century (see S. B. E., vol. xviii, p. xiv). We 
have, therefore, every reason to be satisfied that the whole 
of the Dinkard? was compiled during the ninth century. 

The history of the transmission of the text of its last 
seven books, through the last thousand years, down to the 
present manuscripts, is equally satisfactory, owing to the 
preservation of a series of colophons appended to the text, 
of which the first and most important may be translated 
as follows : — 

' Completed in great joy and full of gratification this last portion 
of the manuscript of the incomparable, priceless, and unequalled 
Df nkar</, at the place where it was found and happily disinterred l 
by us in Asuristan, within the happily prosperous, odoriferous, 
precious, well-thriving, and glorious Bakda<f of Good Recti- 
tude*; from a copy which, as regards the religion, is just as the 
leaders of the saintly and orthodox, who were of the family of 
the saintly Atflrparf, son of Maraspend, (who re-explained know- 
ledge, by five or six well-destined ones, from the pure revelation 

1 KhQ.f-kand might be the name of a place here, but cannot be so in the 
next paragraph. 
' The angel Ahaitrvang (Av. ashi.r vangahi). 

[37] C 



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XXXIV PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



which is the all-embellished learning of learnings) and the suc- 
cessive leaders of the orthodox {who again provided at different 
times [ahamvar] for its restoration, through manuscripts at 
various places, to maintain reading and investigation therein) had 
written. 

' I, Mah-vindarf, son of Naremahan, son of Vahram, son of 
Mitr6-<Span, like an adopted son for his own possession, who wrote 
it, am letting it forth on the day D£n of the month Tir, the victor, 
of the year 369 after the year 20 of that Yaacfakartf, king of kings, 
who was son of Shatr6-ayar [2nd July, 1020]'; in reliance on the 
pure good religion of the Mazrfa-worshippers, as regards remem- 
brance of Zaratfot, the Spitaman with the righteous guardian 
spirit, and of the genuine achievement of Aturparf, son of Mara- 
spend; and as regards remembrance of the righteous utterance of 
blessings for the whole embodied existence by the desirers of right- 
eousness, who are thinkers of good thoughts, speakers of good 
words, and doers of good deeds ; in the worldly existence, through 
completely-wishful kind regard of the practices of righteousness, 
they shall unite with the union of the renovation of the universe, 
and spiritually their pure souls and guardian spirits attain to the 
supremely great position and eminence, and complete acquire- 
ment of recompense, which are in the light that is endless, con- 
stantly beneficial, and full of glory, which they shall obtain. This 
is especially for those saintly and supremely learned men, Alur- 
farnbag, son of Farukho-zarf, and Aturparf, son of HSmeV, by 
whom this priceless * Dinkarrf scripture was selected so learnedly 
and (with a pure perception of the spiritual lord, in seizing the 
cream of the fortunate commentary of* the good religion) so truly 
amicably, and fully affectionately for the good creatures and 
religion, with great advantage for us moderns, and concealed for 
me who, through eagerness for righteousness, like an adopted 
son, have happily disinterred this scripture; and even he who 
reads, and shall make use of it, is reliant and free from doubt 
about it ; and him who shall take a copy from it, and preserves 
;'/ with propriety, they shall appropriately connect with it.' 



1 The remainder of this colophon, so far as it is here translated, is also quoted 
in the second colophon. 

* Here written ar'^o, but it is an-ar'^o in the second colophon. 

5 Reading den farukhS zand shtr-h<f£o-i, bat this is doubtful. From 
this point the whole of the rest of this colophon, including the aphorisms, is 
also found in K. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXV 



(This is followed by a long succession of aphorisms, and 
the colophon winds up with some threats against those 
who shall misuse the manuscript.) 

As this colophon mentions only the ' last portion ' of the 
Dinkard, and is appended to the text of Dk. III-IX, it is 
probable that the first portion of the work, Dk. I, II, had 
already become separated from the rest within 150 years 
of its revision and completion. And if Mah-vindarf did 
not copy from the original manuscript of Aturparf, he must 
certainly have done so from a very early transcript. 

The second colophon was written by Shatr6-ayar, son 
of Er^shir, son oiAxrtk, son of Rustam, son of AXrik, son of 
Kuba</, son of Alran-shah, who completed his copy on the 
day Auharma^ of the month Spendarmarf in the year 
865 after the aoth year of YazdaVard [3rd October, 1516], 
having transcribed it from a copy written by Mar'^apan, 
son of Spend-da*/, son of Mar'^apan, son of 'Mitrd-dp&n, 
son of Spend-darf, son of Mitrd-«fpan, son of Mar'^apdn, 
son of Dahun-aiyyar, son of RQf-vfih, son of Shah-maraL 
The date of Mar'.srapan's copy may be approximately fixed 
by observing that his father's first cousin wrote a copy of 
AV. and Gf., mentioned in Kao, in the year 690 of 
Yazdakard, while his great great granduncle wrote a similar 
copy, mentioned in MH6, in the Parsi year 618. If this 
Parsi year be reckoned from the era of the 2Cth year of 
Yazdakard, as seems probable 1 , these dates give 52 years 
for three generations ; and Mar'sapan, living one genera- 
tion later than the writer of A.Y. 690, may perhaps have 
written his copy of the Dinkard about A.Y. 707 [a. d. 
1338] ; so that there was probably another copyist, inter- 
mediate between him and Mah-vinda*/-i Naremahan, of 
whom no record has been preserved. Shatfd-ayar con- 
cludes his colophon by quoting a long passage from the 
first colophon, as already stated in p. xxxiv, n. 1, and by 
acknowledging his obligations to three other persons whom 
he names. This colophon is the last that now remains 
attached to the manuscript B, but it was formerly followed 

1 Observe the use of the phrase ' TSrs! year ' in the third colophon and in the 
manuscript K (see p. xxxviii). 

C 2 



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XXXVI PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



by a third colophon, written by the actual writer of B, and 
preserved in copies transcribed from B since its arrival in 
India. 

This third colophon was written by Mah-vinda</, son of 
Vahram, son of £ntfsh!r of Turkiba*/, who completed his 
copy, from that of Shatr6-ayar, on the day Avkn of the 
month Kh&rdkd in the Pars! year 1009 after the 20th year 
of Yazdakard [31st December, 1659, N. S.]. This copy, 
which constitutes the manuscript B, was afterwards ap- 
proved by Vahram, son of Mah-vindcU/, son of Rustam, 
son of An6shak-ruban, son of Rustam of Turkabarf, who 
blesses the writer of the second colophon, on the day 
Tfcrtar of the month Vohuman in the year 1038 of Yasv/a- 
kard [18th August, 1669, N. S.]. It was also finally seen 
and approved by Rustam, son of Gurtasp, son of Erdfishtr, 
who likewise blesses the writer of the second colophon ; 
and the approximate date of this approval may be guessed 
from the fact that Rustam Gfljtasp is known to have copied 
one manuscript in A. D. 1706, and another in 1741. 

Regarding this manuscript B, written in 1659, it appears 
from Mulla Flruz's Aviglh Dtn (Bombay, 1830) that 
Mulla Bahman, son of Mulla Behram, a Parsi priest of 
Yazd, brought this manuscript of the Dinkar*/ from Iran 
to Surat in 1783, and, having shown it to Aspandiarji 
Ratanji-shah, he lent it to Kausji Rustamjt, then Dastur 
of Surat, and allowed him to have it copied. Mulla 
Bahman had great difficulty in obtaining the return of 
his manuscript, and when it was returned many folios were 
missing. It was after this loss of folios that Aspandiarji 
had several other copies transcribed from the defective 
manuscript, to be sent to various persons, and all these 
copies were therefore equally defective. 

This manuscript B, thus defective, afterwards came into 
the possession of Mulla Firuz, who was high-priest of the 
Kadmi Parsis in Bombay; and, after his death in 1830, 
it descended to his successor. In 1875 it belonged to 
Dastur Sohrabji Rustamji, high-priest of the Kadmis, 
through whose courtesy, and that of Dastur Dr. Jamaspji 
Minochiharji, it was then lent to me long enough to 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXVU 



enable me to copy and collate two-thirds of Dk. Ill and 
to collate Dk. IV-IX; and Dastur Jamaspji, afterwards, 
kindly supplied me with a copy of the remainder of 
Dk. III. 

The manuscript has been bound in its defective state, 
and contains 333 folios, originally fourteen inches high and 
ten inches wide, written 20 to 33 lines to the page. When 
complete it appears to have consisted of 39a folios, all 
numbered in Persian words, but with several blunders, in- 
cluding one of fifty folios, so that the last folio was really 
numbered 44a. Of the 70 folios not bound with the rest 
of the manuscript, fourteen were lying loose in the volume ; 
forty-three belonged to Dastur Rustamji Kaikobadji of 
Nausari, with a copy of which I was kindly supplied by 
Dastur Dr. Peshotanji Behramji of Bombay, who also 
enabled me to collate it with the original folios ; and 
seven folios were lent to me by Dastur Dr. Hoshangji 
Jamaspji of Poona, for the purpose of copying. The 
remaining six folios have not been discovered ; they com- 
prise the first folio of the manuscript, containing the com- 
mencement of Dk. Ill, which was probably lost before 
the manuscript arrived in India ; also one folio in Dk. VII, 
two in Dk. IX (see pp. 362, 370 of this volume), and the 
last two folios of the manuscript, containing the third 
colophon and final approvals (see p. xxxvi). 

I am likewise much indebted to the kindness of Professor 
Kielhorn, who gave me a modern copy of Dk. IV-IX (with 
the text in its defective state) which had been prepared at 
Poona, so that it was only necessary to collate this copy 
with the original text of the manuscript B. With the aid 
of all this liberal assistance I was enabled to obtain the 
whole text of the Dtnkard, known to exist, in the course of 
a few months ; that it has since taken as much as sixteen 
years to find opportunities for translating and publishing 
rather more than one-fourth of its contents, will not surprise 
any one who is acquainted with the nature of the work 
that had to be done. 

The only known manuscript, independent of B, that 
contains any portion of the Diukard, is the old codex K 



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XXXV1U PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



brought from Persia by the late Professor Westergaard in 
1843, and now No. 43 of the Iranian manuscripts in the 
University Library at {Copenhagen. This codex contains 
about one-fifth of the text of the Dlnkard in two detached 
portions, together with other Pahlavi texts. The first 
portion occupies fols. 177-261, and comprises Dk. VI, of 
which one-eighth is missing, with Dk. Ill, Chaps. CLX 
and CCLXXXIII, and a colophon, all written in the 
district of Turkaba*/ by Mitrd-4pan, son of Andshak-ruban, 
son of Rustam, son of Shatr6-ayar, son of Mah-vindarf, son 
of Vahram, son of Gushijn-ayar, son of Mitr6-4pin, and 
completed on the day G&s of the month Mitrd in the 
Pars! year 943 after the 20th year of Yasda.ka.rd [10th 
May, 1594, N. S.]. This copyist appears to have been a 
great-uncle of the writer who approved the manuscript B 
in 1669, ten years after it was written ; and the original 
from which he copied was, no doubt, descended from 
Mah-vinda</-i Naremahan's manuscript of 1020, as he 
appends to his colophon all the latter part of Mah-vindaaPs 
colophon (see p. xxxiv, n. 3). The second portion of the 
text of the Dinkar^, contained in the manuscript K, is 
written by another hand on 42 additional folios, and com- 
prises the last two chapters of Dk. Ill, the whole of Dk. V, 
and the first three-tenths of Dk. IX (as mentioned in 
p. 172, n. 1, of this volume). This manuscript supplies 
several short passages in the Dinkard, which are omitted 
by B, especially in the first portion of the text described 
above. It has also afforded much assistance in the trans- 
lation of Dk. IX, Chaps. I, i-XXXI, 17. 

Regarding the authorship of the summary account of the 
Nasks, contained in Dk. VIII, IX, it may be reasonably 
assumed, in default of any positive information, that the 
compiler was Aturpa*/, son of Hem&/, the last editor of 
the Dinkard. And, as nothing is said about any previous 
treatise being consulted, it may be safely supposed that 
he had access to the Avesta texts and Pahlavi versions 
of all the Nasks he describes, fully three centuries after 
the Muhammadan conquest of Persia. The only Nask he 
could not obtain was the Vastag, and the Pahlavi version 



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INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 

of the NcL&r was also missing ; under which circumstances, 
the fully detailed accounts of these two Nasks, given in 
the Persian Rivayats, must be viewed with suspicion, until 
better evidence of their authenticity has been discovered 
than is at present available. 

The survival of so much of the sacred Zoroastrian litera- 
ture, during three centuries of Muhammadan rule, indicates 
that the final loss of nearly all this literature was not so 
directly attributable to the Arabs as the Parsis suppose. 
So long as a considerable number of the Persians adhered 
to their ancient religion, they were able to preserve its 
literature almost intact, even for centuries ; but when, 
through conversion and extermination, the Masrfa-wor- 
shippers had become a mere remnant, and then fell under 
the more barbarous rule of the Tartars, they rapidly lost 
all their old literature that was not in daily religious use. 
And the loss may have been as much due to their neg- 
lecting the necessary copying of manuscripts, as to any 
destructiveness on the part of their conquerors ; because 
the durability of a manuscript written on paper seldom 
exceeds five or six centuries. 

The statements of the Dtnkar*/, about the classification 
and subdivisions of the Nasks, are corroborated and sup- 
plemented by those of Zarf-sparam (see pp. 401-405). The 
division of all literature into three classes of knowledge, 
religious, worldly, and intermediate, is one that would 
naturally suggest itself to any classifier 1 , but the names 
employed (which are transcribed from the Avesta, and do 
not exactly correspond with these three meanings) must 
have originated at a period when the Avesta language was 
still spoken. That such a classification cannot be very 
strictly carried out in practice is already admitted in 
Dk. VIII, Chap. I, 13. 



1 Professor Darmesteter has suggested to me the very similar apportionment 
of the old Hebrew literature, mentioned in Jeremiah xviii. 18, thus : — ' For the 
law shall not perish from the priest, nor counsel from the wise, nor the word 
from the prophet.' And in Ezekiel vii. 26, thus : — ' Then shall they seek a 
vision of the prophet : but the law shall perish from the priest, and counsel 
from the ancients.' 



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xl PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



The further division of the literature into twenty-one 
books, seven in each of the three classes, is a much more 
artificial arrangement, and can, perhaps, be best explained 
as an attempt to make the twenty-one words of the 
Ahunavair serve the purpose of a reminder for enumerating 
the Nasks in their proper order. This arrangement was 
probably made at some period when the scattered Avesta 
literature was being collected and re-arranged, the Pahlavi 
versions being then supplied, and the present Pahlavi names 
of the Nasks appointed. This may possibly have been the 
work of ' composition and preservation ' attributed to Atur- 
p&d, son of Maraspend, in Dk. VIII, Chap. I, 22, when 
'the Nasks were enumerated' (see Dk. IV, 27, in p. 415), 
which occurred in the fourth century. 

Why the established sequence of the Nasks, detailed in 
Dk. VIII, Chap. I, 12, should differ from the successive 
sequences of their three classes, given in §§ 9-1 1, is very 
imperfectly explained ; but some of the reasons for the 
difference may perhaps be guessed. If the notation pro- 
posed in p. 7, n. 3, be adopted, the established sequence 
is G2-4 ; H1-7 ; G5 ; L6 ; G7 ; L7, 1-5 ; G6, 1 ; in which 
the only Nasks that are out of their order in the classes 
are Gi, 5-7 and L6, 7. The placing of G6, 1 next after 
L5 (that is, the Harf6kht and St6d-yast next after the 
Vendtdarf) may perhaps have been owing to the constant 
use of these three Nasks in the liturgy, in which either the 
Vendidarf, or the Harfokht \ was frequently interpolated in 
the recitation of the St6*/-yart which comprised by far the 
larger portion of the present Yasna and Visperarf. But 
this position of the Sttd-yast, at the end of the list of 
Nasks, was probably considered derogatory to its sacred 
character by most of the writers of the Persian Rivayats, 
who have, therefore, restored it to its original place at the 
head of the Gathic Nasks. Dk. VIII, Chap. I, 15, states 
that G5 was placed after H7 because the Vartag was con- 
nected with the Virtasp-sastd, probably by the nature of 
its contents. And, possibly, the sequence L6, G7, L7 of 
the KitradfLd, Spend, and Bakan-yart, between the Vartag 



So long as it was preserved. 



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INTRODUCTION. xli 



and Nikadftm, may indicate some similar resemblance of 
contents ; especially as. the contents of the A"itrad«U/ and 
Bakan-yart were so far from being strictly legal that these 
Nasks were placed in a sub-class by themselves, and the 
connection of the Spend with the Gathas appears to have 
been merely historical. The Persian Rivayats place the 
Spend next after the Vartag, thereby bringing the two 
imperfectly Gathic Nasks together, as well as the two im- 
perfectly legal ones ; but then they also transpose the 
GanabS-sar-nj^arf and the HuspAram, for which there seems 
to be no justification. 

With regard to the names of the Nasks, it is evident 
that several of the Persian names, used in the Rivayats, 
are more or less irreconcileable with the Pahlavi names in 
the Dmkarc/, and some others are improbable readings of 
the Pahlavi forms. In this translation the Pahlavi forms 
have been followed, as clearly more authentic than the 
Persian corruptions, and some few of the names have been 
read differently; while in other cases the most probable 
readings have been merely suggested in foot-notes, not on 
account of the Persian reading being justifiable, but because 
the evidence for the suggested reading is less complete than 
would be desirable. 

In dealing with this account of the Nasks it is always 
necessary to remember that the compiler of the Dinkarrf 
relies entirely upon their Pahlavi versions, as he states 
distinctly in Dk. VIII, Chap. 1, 3 ; he occasionally mentions 
the Avesta texts, as in Chaps. VI, 1, XII, 1, and it is 
abundantly evident, to the practised translator, that Avesta 
phrases often underlie the Pahlavi passages which seem to 
be quoted at length from the original Nasks, especially in 
Dk. IX ; but, for some of the details mentioned, there may 
be no older authority than a Pahlavi commentary, and this 
should ever be borne in mind by the sceptical critic in 
search of anachronisms. 

Owing to his complete reliance upon the Pahlavi versions, 
it is impossible to ascertain with certainty whether any 
particular statement, made by the compiler of the Dinkan/, 
was contained in the Avesta text; his summary, there- 



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xlii PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



fore, throws little or no satisfactory light upon the origin 
of that text. A few of the details he mentions (such as 
those contained in Dk. VIII, Chaps. XIII, 17-20, XLIII, 
24 and Dk. IX, Chaps. XXXII, 17, XXXIX, 13-16, LIII, 
3) evidently refer to Sasanian times, and may be reason- 
ably supposed to have originated in the Pahlavi versions 
of those times. But vaguer prophecies of good or evil, 
such as are common in all religions at all times, may have 
often occurred in the Avesta texts themselves. 

It is evident, however, that all the Nasks have accumu- 
lated around the Gatha centre of the St&/-yart, and that 
this Gatha centre in the earliest Sasanian times was neither 
more nor less extensive than it is at present. The age of 
Gathic composition had so long passed away in the time 
of the earliest Sasanian monarchs, that the sages whom 
they appointed to collect and re-arrange the sacred litera- 
ture, were unable to fully understand many of the stanzas 
they had to translate into Pahlavi, much less could they 
have added to their number. How far they may have been 
able to write ordinary Avesta text is more uncertain, but 
any such writing was probably confined to a few phrases 
for uniting the fragments of old Avesta which they dis- 
covered, or for interpolating opinions of their own. All 
such compositions, however, would have been hazardous, 
as forming no part of their duties, which seem to have been 
confined to the arrangement of the fragmentary Avesta 
texts, and their translation into Pahlavi with explanatory 
comments in that language. It appears from the traditional 
statements, mentioned in p. 415, that this work was com- 
pleted, and the Nasks were fully arranged, by Aturparf, 
son of Maraspend, in the reign of Shahpuhar II (A. D. 309- 
379); but the Pahlavi versions were certainly revised, and 
some further commentaries added, after the suppression of 
the heresy of Mazdak, as late as the reign of Khusrdl I 
(A. D. 531-579)- 

That the Avesta texts themselves were not written, to 
any great extent, in Sasanian times, is shown by the 
quantity of Pahlavi commentary necessary to adapt them 
to the altered circumstances of those times. The Gathic 



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INTRODUCTION. xliii 



Nasks, being strictly religious, required only some ex- 
planations, with little extended commentary ; because the 
religion had to be maintained without sensible modifica- 
tion. Of the Hadha-mathric Nasks we know but little. 
But the strictly Legal Nasks consisted chiefly of the com- 
mentary which is always necessary to adapt ancient laws 
to modern ideas. 

With regard to the mode of describing the Nasks, 
adopted in the Dinkard, it is evident that the compiler 
intended, in the first place, to give merely a very short 
account of the general contents of each Nask, to be 
followed by a detailed statement of the particular contents 
of each chapter (see Dk. VIII, Chap. I, 23, 24). But, when 
he had fully carried out this intention with respect to the 
first three Nasks, his work came to a premature conclusion, 
which has deprived us of much valuable information re- 
garding the rest of the Nasks. The descriptions of these 
other Nasks vary in extent, but may be roughly classified 
as follows: — Of the N<U/ar and Vartag there is no de- 
scription whatever. Of the Damda</, Rarfo-d&Z-aitag, 
Kajkisrdbd, Vutasp-sast6, Bakan-yart, and Std</-yart the 
description is very short, averaging 80 Pahlavi words for 
each. Of the Pa^ag, Bark, ATitradarf, Spend, and Ha</6kht 
the description is rather longer, averaging 358 Pahlavi 
words for each ; but, as such a description is still far too 
brief to be satisfactory, the compiler must have intended 
to add a detailed account of each chapter of all these 
Nasks. On coming to the strictly Legal Nasks, however, 
he adopted a different plan, by giving a much more 
voluminous statement of the contents of certain selected 
chapters ; thus the very long description of the Nikarftim, 
Ganaba-sar-n\§a</, Husparam, and Sakaafam averages 3670 
Pahlavi words for each. This change of plan is somewhat 
modified in the case of the Vendldarf, where the description 
of 127a Pahlavi words is only moderately long. While the 
first three Nasks, the SOaflcar, Varjtmansar, and Bak5, after 
a very short description averaging 65 Pahlavi words for 
each, are again described in detail, as already mentioned, 
to the average extent of 8647 Pahlavi words for each. 



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xllV PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



From these descriptions, and their connection with 
certain Avesta texts and Pahlavi writings, it is now 
possible to form a more or less adequate conception of 
the contents of Nasks I-IV, X, XIII-XIX, XXI, and 
also some idea of those of Nasks VI, XII ; but the accounts 
of the remaining six Nasks, most of which belonged to the 
Hadha-mathric or scientific class, are very unsatisfactory. 

With reference to the total extent of the Nasks, when 
they were all extant, it is obvious that the length of de- 
scriptions, drawn up on the same plan, ought to bear ap- 
proximately some definite proportion to the lengths of text 
described ; so that, if the extent of the text of one Nask 
be known, and the proportion it bears to the length of its 
description be ascertained, this proportion becomes a rough 
means of estimating the probable extent of other Nasks, 
from the length of their descriptions drawn up on the same 
plan. Three years ago an attempt was made l to estimate 
the total extent of the Nasks in this way, based upon the 
assumptions that the Nasks still extant were three in 
number, that the length of the description of the Vendidarf 
was a fair average one for estimating the extent of Pahlavi 
version in all the lost Nasks, and that the proportion of 
Avesta text to Pahlavi version in the Nirangistan was also 
a fair average for estimating the extent of their Avesta 
texts. These assumptions were carefully made, as the 
least liable to objection, and the total extent of the Nasks 
in Sasanian times, thus estimated, amounted to 133,000 
words of Avesta text and 844,000 of Pahlavi version. 

Since the completion of the translation of Dk. IX it 
has, however, become possible to estimate the probable 
extent of the first three Nasks from the proportion between 
the actual extent of the first three fargan/s of the Bako (Yas. 
XIX-XXI) and the length of their description. It has also 
been thought no longer reasonable to neglect the actual 
length of the Nirangistan as a basis for estimating the extent 
of the Pahlavi versions of the strictly Legal Nasks XV- 



1 In the Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch-pbilologischen und historiscben 
Classe der k. b. Akademie der Wisienschaiten zu Miinchen, 1888, pp. 441, 442. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



xlv 



XVIII ; and the Bakan-yart has been identified with the 
Yarts still extant 1 . These additional considerations have 
led to a new estimate of the probable extent of each Nask 
separately, based upon the best data available in each case, 
as stated in detail in the foot-notes to the names of the 
Nasks in the Extant Fragments (pp. 451-488 of this 
volume). These estimates are here collected, for the sake 
of convenient reference, as follows : 









Avesta. 




Pahlavi. 


G2: 


Nask 1. SiMkar . 


4,700 words 10,500 


»3 


.» 


2. Varrtmansar 


. 8,300 


»» 


18,500 


>. 4 


»» 


3. Bak5 


• 9.5oo 


1* 


21,200 


Hi 


.» 


4. Damdai . 


8,900 


j» 


29,300 


» 2 


■1 


5. Na<&r 


6,800 


>> 


22,200 


» 3 


». 


6. Patfag 


. 9,100 


t. 


29,800 


.- 4 


.. 


7. Rarfo-da</-attag . 


. 10,500 


.» 


34.300 


»5 


j' 


8. Barir 


4,400 


.» 


14,600 


„6 


.» 


9. Kafkisr6b6 


5.5oo 


>. 


17,900 


>. 7 


>. 


10. Vwtasp-sast6 . 


2,200 


.» 


7,200 


G 5 


j» 


11. Vartag 


8,900 


.» 


18,400 


L6 


.» 


12. JTitradarf . 


2,600 


»> 


23,400 


G7 


>i 


13. Spend 


9,900 


.» 


20,500 


L7 


» 


14. Bakan-yart 


22,000 


»» 


44,000 


„i 


». 


15. Nikadum . 


62,600 


). 


562,900 


„ a 


jt 


16. Ganaba-sar-ni^-arf 


28,000 


.. 


251,500 


.. 3 


ji 


17. Husparam 


44,900 


.. 


403,600 


» 4 


» 


18. Sakarf&m . 


53.ooo 


.» 


476,600 


»5 


» 


19. Vendtd&/. 


23,000 


11 


48,000 


G6 


11 


20. Harfdkht . 


8,400 


!) 


17,400 


.. i 


u 


21. Sldd-yast . 


12,500 


» 


22,400 






Total extent of 2 1 Nasks . 


345.7oo 


2 


,094,200 



This total is about i\ times as great as that of the 
former estimate, but, as nearly the whole of this increase 
is in the four strictly Legal Nasks, whose length is well 
attested by that of the extant Nlrangistan, there is little 
probability that further investigation will lead to any re- 

1 This had been done, long ago, in a Persian Rivayat, quoted in B39, fol. 
164, which states that the following sixteen Yarts were in the Bayan-yart Nask, 
namely, the H&rmezd, Abin, Man, Ttr, G&s, Mihir, Srdsh, Rashn, Fravardin, 
Bahirara, Ram, Din, Ashasang, Artarf, ZamyaV/, and Khursherf Yarts. 



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xlvi PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



duction of this estimate. No probable alteration of the 
estimate of the extent of the Hadha-mathric Nasks, which 
is the most uncertain, would materially affect the total. 

Another matter of interest to the readers of translations 
from the Pahlavi, especially to those who are aware of the 
ambiguities of the original text, is the degree of confidence 
they can place in the correctness of the translation. In 
the case of the Dtnkard it is fortunately possible to consult 
manuscripts written in Persia, and descended through only 
four or five intermediate copies from the work of the 
original writer, so that the text is remarkably free from 
copyists' errors. The eighth and ninth books also contain 
very few of those involved sentences, with long paren- 
thetical clauses, which, owing to the habitual absence or 
misplacement of stops, are very perplexing to a translator. 
The chief difficulties* of the text arise from its synoptical 
character, and the consequent want of connection between 
its sentences ; there being often too little context to define 
the meaning of a doubtful word. The number of words of 
doubtful meaning in Pahlavi is, however, fast diminishing, 
in proportion to the advancing study of the texts ; and the 
certainty of a translator, as to the correctness of his work, 
is increasing in a like proportion. At any rate, the reader 
may safely rely upon the general accuracy of these trans- 
lations, even if a few errors should hereafter be discovered. 

As an instance of such possible errors I will here correct 
one that exists in my translation of the Epistles of Manu- 
skihar, which was pointed out to me by Mdbad Tehmuras 
Dinshawji Ankalesaria, in a letter dated 28th October, 1 887. 
In Ep. II, ii, 9-1 1, there occurs an illustration of what 
should be done when commentators differ, derived from 
the use that can be made of different observations of the 
stars, and containing three names that were difficult to 
identify. These names were doubtfully read as corruptions 
of the names of three of the lunar mansions, but it now 
appears that they were the names of three sets of astro- 
nomical tables (ztk); so that Shatro-ayaran, Hinduk, and 
Ptolem66s should be read, instead of Satvaharan, Avenak, 
and Parframgds ; both sets of readings expressing the same 



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INTRODUCTION. xlvii 



Pahlavi letters. With these alterations the passage may be 
translated as follows : — 

Ep. II, ii, 9. 'And there may be a position of the stars, settled 
even by computers of the stars, when they would take that of the 
sun and moon from the tables of Shatro-ayar, that of Saturn from 
the Hindu tables, and that of Mars from the tables of Ptolemy, and 
the position comes out very good, and they are able to speak 9/" the 
maturity of strength undoubtedly brought on. 10. That this is to 
be seen as an occurrence is a conjunction which is not possible ; 
because, if the tables of Shatro-ayar be exact, yet, since its Saturn 
and Mars are not from the tables, the effect is not a good con- 
figuration; if the Hindu tables be correct, yet, since its sun, moon, 
and Mars are not from those tables, the effect is not good ; and 
if the tables of Ptolemy be correct, yet, since its sun, moon, and 
Saturn are not from those tables, the effect is not good ; on account 
of which the conjunction is not correct in any way ; they believe it 
possible, however, for a firm mind to accomplish this auspicious 
labour, n. But they say the just and wise are making the 
decision that this would be a very good position, because that 
which is in the tables of Shatro-ay&r is truly issuing from him, 
the great Shatro-ayar; and that of Shatro-ayar, being better 
through the tables of Ptolemy, remains that employed.' 

In conclusion, it is desirable to make some remarks upon 
the transliteration of Pahlavi, because it is necessary to 
express not only the various sounds of the letters of a very 
deficient alphabet, but also the mode of writing several 
abbreviated compounds which are quite as essential to the 
correct orthography of Pahlavi as the forms of the separate 
letters themselves. For this purpose italics are used to 
indicate not only a few differences of sound from the usual 
English pronunciation of consonants, but also different 
letters having the same sound, and letters abbreviated in 
the writing of compounds. When the abbreviated letter 
is already italicised, the preceding short vowel (which is 
not expressed in Pahlavi writing) is also italicised to 
indicate the abbreviation, or an apostrophe is introduced 
between the two consonants when no short vowel sound 
intervenes. Hyphens are used both to connect the com- 
ponents of compound words, which are often written 



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xlviii PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



separately, and also to separate words that are written 
together in Pahlavi. The application of these rules will 
be best understood by reference to the following list of 
transliterations which have been found necessary : — 

Alphabet. 

j» a {initial), a, h, kh, zd. &or*Qs,A + S. 

_y a, a {privative), at, di ^ s , sh, A + *», g-a. 

{final), h {final). i^g h - 

_J b. 5 k . 

V d > *• ) /, n, 6, 8, r, u, v. 

\g, k, z. ^ /, r . 

V' r * d,e,g, £■,£**, i, y. 

Irregular Compounds. 

•»0> ayl. 

0» (-" + 4), or *» + (2) aik, at, ag, ap, av, az, di, &g, dk, dp, 

dv, dz, hat, haJt, //ap, k&s, khti, kh&k, khz. 
*an. 

^JT 3, sJ, SJ {final), 6A {final). 
Wf adin, dldQ {better #du). 
j} \p, rag, xaz, rg, xp, r'z. 
€25 di/, dip, gi/, s^g", s«£, sa/, s/^, si/, s/. 
£XJ Ji, ydi, ydv. 
-£nW. 

O dag, d-k, eg, ik, gag, gak, gug, tk, tv, iz, yaz, yez. 
H3 den {better ten), yen. 



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ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS VOLUME. 

A.D. for Anno Domini ; AC for AfrtngSn ; Ar. for Arabic ; AV. 
for AniS-Vtraf namak, ed. Hoshangji and Haug, 1872; Av. for 
Avesta ; A.Y. for Anno YasHfakanfi ; B for Bombay MS. of 
Dmkarrf, written in Iran, a.d. 1659, see pp. xxxv-xxxvii; B29 
for MS. No. 29 in the University Library at Bombay; Bd. for 
Bundahu, as translated in vol. v of this series; Bk. for Book; 
B.P. for Bahman Pun^yah, see p. 418, n. 3; Byt. for Bahman 
Yart, as translated in vol. v of this series; Ch. or Chald. for 
Chaldee ; Chap, for chapter ; Dd. for D&nstan-f Dinik, as trans- 
lated in vol. xviii of this series; Dk. for Dmkanf; Dv. for Dtn- 
vi^irgard ; ed. for edited by or edition ; Ep. for Epistles of 
MSnuuHhar, as translated in vol. xviii of this series ; Farh. Oim. 
for Farhang-i Oim-afivak, or Zand-Pahlavi Glossary, ed. Hoshangji 
and Haug, 1867 ; fol. for folio; G for gSthic ; Gah. for Gahanbar 
or GShanbSr ; Gen. for Genesis ; gen. for genitive ; Gesch. der 
Sas. for Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden, 
1879; Gf. for tale of Gdrt-l Fry£n6, ed. West and Haug, 1872; 
Gld. for Geldner ; H for hadha-m5thric ; Haug's Essays for Essays 
on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of the Parsis, by 
M. Haug, 2nd ed.; Hn. for Ha</6kht Nask, ed. Haug, 1872 ; 
Ibid, for ibidem ; J2 for Jamaspji's Yasna MS. with Pahlavi, now 
in the Bodleian Library, by the same copyist as K5 ; K for Kopen- 
hagenMS. No. 43, written a.d. 1594, see pp. xxxvii-viii; Ki, K5, 
K20, K35 for Iranian MSS. Nos. 1, 5, 20, 35 in the University 
Library at Kopenhagen ; L for legal ; 1. for line ; 11. for lines ; 
Mf4 for the MuM Firuz Library's Yasna MS. with Pahlavi, de- 
scended from an ancestor of K5; MH6, MH10 for MSS. Nos. 6, 
10 of Haug's Collection in the State Library at Munich; Mkh. for 
DlnS-t Matndg-t Khimd, as translated in vol. xxiv of this series ; 
MS. for manuscript ; n. for foot-note ; N.S. for new style ; Ny. for 
Nyayir; O225 for MS. No. 225 of Ouseley's Collection in the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford; OM for Olshausen and Mohl's 
Fragmens relatifs a la religion de Zoroastre; p. for page; Pahl. 

[37] d 



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1 PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



for Pahlavi ; Paz. for Pazand ; Pers. for Persian ; pp. for pages ; 
Pt4 for Peshotanji's Yasna MS. with Pahlavi, similar to Mf4 ; Riv. 
for Rivayat; S.B.E. for Sacred Books of the East; Sd. and Sg. for 
Sad-dar and 5ikand-gumtnfk Vi^ar, as translated in vol. xxiv of 
this series ; Sfr. for Sirdzah ; Sis. for ShSyast-la-shayast, as trans- 
lated in vol. v of this series; Sp. for Spiegel; Vend, for Vendldarf ; 
V\g. for Vi^irkarrf-i Dfnfk, ed. Peshotan, Bombay, 1848; Vtsp. for 
VfspSrarf; vol. for volume; W. or Westerg. for Westergaard; Yas. 
for Yasna; Yt. for Yart; ZA. for Zend Avesta; Zs. for Selections 
of Za</-sparam, as translated in vol. v of this series. 



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CONTENTS OF THE NASKS 



AS STATED IN 



THE EIGHTH AND NINTH BOOKS 



OF THE 



DlNKA/?£>. 



[37] B 

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OBSERVATIONS. 

r. For all divisions into chapters and sections the translator is 
chiefly responsible, as the stops found in the manuscripts are not 
used systematically. 

2. Italics are used for any English words which are not ex- 
pressed, or fully understood, in the original text, but are added to 
complete the sense of the translation. 

3. Italics occurring in Oriental words, or names, represent 
certain peculiar Oriental letters (see the * Transliteration of Oriental 
Alphabets ' at the end of this volume), or certain abbreviated modes 
of writing Pahlavi letters, for which see the remarks on Pahlavi 
transliteration near the end of the Introduction. Italic a, d, d, e, /, 
h, t, (, kh, I, p, r, sh, u, v, zd indicate no change of pronunciation ; 
but g should be sounded like j, hv like wh, k like ch in ' church,' s 
like sh, and A vesta z like French j. 

4. In the translation words in parentheses are merely explanatory 
of those that precede them. 

5. For the meaning of the abbreviations, used in the notes, see 
the explanatory list after the Introduction. 

6. The manuscripts used, being the only two independent 
authorities for the text of the Dinka/vf known to exist, are : — 

B (written a.d. 1659), a nearly-complete MS. of Books III-IX, 
brought from Iran to Surat in 1783, and now divided between 
three, or more, owners in Bombay, NawsSri, and Poona. Of the 
Books here translated two folios are missing, which contained 
portions of Bk. IX, Chaps. XXXIII, XXXIV, XXXVI, XXXVII. 

K (written a.d. 1594 and later), No. 43 in the University Library 
at Kopenhagen, a miscellaneous MS. containing several fragments 
of Books III, V, VI, IX. Of the Books here translated it contains 
the text of Bk. IX, Chaps. I, i-XXXI, 17. 



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CONTENTS OF THE NASKS. 



DlNKA/?Z>.— BOOK VI 




Chapter I. 

i. Praise for Atiharmazd, and obeisance to the 
Masda-worshipping religion which is the ordinance 
of Auharmasrd opposed to the demo s. 

2. The eighth book is the present (latamman) 
memorandum about a summary of what is in the 
Nasks of the Mazda-worshipping religion, each 
separately. 3. That which is within the compass 
(shad-aurvan) of this book, about the account of 
the good religion, is a writing for the information of 
the many, and an announcement from the com- 
mentary (zand) — that which is in explanation of 
revelation (d6n6) — which, for this simple (padram) 
high-priest, is in itself the writing of the voice of 
revelation \ 

4. But, before that, is a writing 2 of the usage 
about the divisions (ban^ i*n6) of the reckoning of 
the Mazda-worshipping revelation, also the parts 
(bahar) of its divisions, and the sections (burinakS) 
of the parts ; and the exposition of the account — 

1 The author means that he derives his information about the 
contents of the Nasks entirely from their Pahlavi versions which, so 
far as he is concerned, are of equal authority with the Avesta text. 

* This introductory chapter. 

B 2 



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d!nkaiu>, BOOK VIII. 



which, though very condensed, is in its division — 
is also condensed in the parts of its division, and 
more diffuse in the sections of the parts. 5. The 
divisions of the reckoning of the Mazafa-worshipping 
revelation are three : — Gathas which are the higher 
spiritual knowledge and spiritual duty; Law which 
is lower 1 worldly knowledge and worldly duty; and 
the Hadha-mSthric which are mostly information 
and matters about what is between these two 2 . 

1 Or ' mostly,' if we read <rc>irtar, instead of aztrtar, as is done in 
the next clause of this sentence. 

J The three Pahlavi terms are gSsino, did, and haVak-man- 
sarik. Of these did evidendy means 'law,' because the D&dik 
Nasks are chiefly devoted to legal matters (see Chaps. XVI-XLIV) ; 
and gSsino appears to mean ' gSthas' rather than 'verses,' because 
the first G&sanfk Nask contained the G&tha texts (see Chap. XLVI), 
the next three were commentaries upon the Gathas (see Chaps. 
II-IV and Bk. IX, Chaps. II-LXVIII), and the remaining three, 
so far as we are informed, were devoted to religious matters, but 
we have no reason to suppose that any of them were metrical, 
except the Gathas themselves. The exact meaning of ha<?ak~ 
m&nsarik is less clear; it is derived from Av. hadha-mSthra, 
' provided with spells, or inspired words,' a term applied to Zara- 
tujt in Visp. XIII, 1 and also to the M5thra-spe»ta, or liturgy, in a 
phrase (see Westerg. Z. A., p. 485) which is appointed to be used 
in certain parts of the liturgy whenever the Vwt&sp Yart (a rem- 
nant of the last Hadha-mathric Nask) is recited ; just as another 
phrase, referring to the Law, is appointed to be used in the same 
places whenever the Vendfd&/ (one of the D&dik Nasks) is recited. 
In what sense the Hadha-m5thric Nasks can be said to be ' pro- 
vided with spells' is not clear from the details given in Chaps. 
V-XI, but, practically, the meaning of the term must be something 
like ' semi-religious,' being applied to philosophy and science which 
are neither strictly religious nor strictly secular. 

The same three terms were applied to the three classes of man- 
kind, probably the priests, philosophers, and laity ; a classification 
analogous to that of the three professions, the priests, warriors, and 
husbandmen, but not quite identical with it, as may be gathered 
from a passage in the sixth book of the Dinkarrf. This book is 



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CHAPTER I, 5-7. 



6. And the reason of the triple division of the 
reckoning of revelation is the exposition of all know- 
ledge and duty, and the kinds of knowledge and 
action in the same revelation are these three that 
have been written. 7. Also in the Ahunavair 1 , which 



' about an epitome, composed and preserved by those of the primi- 
tive faith, concerning the statements of the religion of Mazrfa- 
worship;' and its statements are introduced by the following 
words : — ' Those of the primitive faith, who were the sages of the 
ancients, considered thus, &c* Near the middle of the book the 
following passage occurs : — ' And this, too, was considered by them 
thus, that these are the three species of mankind: — One is the 
Gathic, one the Hadha-mathric, and one the DSrffk. The asso- 
ciation (hamih) of him who is Gathic is with the sacred beings, 
and his severance (v/£f-aitagih)from the demons and fiends; the 
extent of his wealth is due to members of the community and 
religious feasts (dahm va-sur), and the punishment for the sin 
which he may commit is shame and is invisible. The association 
of him who is Hadha-mathric is with the righteous, and his sever- 
ance from the wicked ; also the extent of his wealth is that which 
may be produced virtuously, and the punishment for the sin he 
shall commit is the goad, or scourge (see Chap. XLIV, 65 n) ; also 
noxious creatures /or the body, and compensating the destitute. 
And the association of him who is Darfik is with Iranians, and his 
severance from foreigners ; also the extent of his wealth is due to 
affairs that it is possible to accomplish lawfully, and the punishment 
for the sin which he shall commit is for the Wztime of a fowl 
(kuk), the day of a demon.' 

1 This information seems to be taken from the first fargar</ of 
the Su</kar Nask (see Bk. IX, Chap. II, 19). The Ahunavair 
(Av. ahuna vairya) is the name of the most sacred formula of 
the Parsis, derived from its second and third words; it is also 
called the Yathi-ahu-vairyd, from its first phrase, and is a declara- 
tory statement in metre, consisting 'of one stanza of three lines, 
containing twenty-one Avesta words, as follows : — 
Yatha ahu vairyd, atha ratm zsh&d-ktd ha£&, 
Vanglwur dazda mananghd .rAyaothananam anghmr mazdai, 
Khshathremia ahurai i, yim drigubyd dzdad vastarem. 
The usual Pahlavi version of this formula explains it as follows: — 



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dInKA/ID, BOOK VIII. 



is the basis of the reckoning of revelation, are three 
metrical lines (gas) ; the first chiefly indicates the 
Gathic lore, the second the Hadha-mSthric lore, and 
the third the Law. 

8. And there have been twenty-one parts 1 of its 
divisions, which are called Nasks : — (9) Seven are 
Gathic, because they are composed for the Gathas, 

' As is the will of the spiritual lord (as is the will of Auharmaarf) so 
should be the priestly master (so virtuous should he be) owing to 
whatsoever are the duties and good works of righteousness (the 
duties and good works should be as virtuous as the will of Auhar- 
mazrf). Whose is the gift of good thought (that is, the reward and 
recompense that good thought gives, it gives also unto him) which, 
among spiritual lords, is the work of Auharmazif (that is, he would 
do that which Auharmaz</ requires) : [there are some who would 
say thus : Whose gift is for good thought (that is, the reward and 
recompense which they give for good thought, they give also unto 
him) ; and there are some who would say thus : Whose gift is 
through good thought (that is, the reward and recompense which 
they give up through good thought, they would also give even 
him); AturpSrf, son of Zaratfirt, said thus: Owing to the gift of 
good thought, among spiritual lords, they recognise a doer of 
deeds]. The dominion for Auharmas^ is his (that is, his dominion 
exists through the advantage that Auharmasa' has maintained) who 
gives allotments (vayagano) to the poor (that is, he would make 
intercession for them).' 

The Avesta text may be translated, according to Haug, as 
follows : — ' As a spiritual lord is desirable, so is a priestly master, 
for the sake of every righteousness, to be a giver of good thoughts 
as to the actions of life towards Mazda ; and the dominion is for 
the lord whom he (Mazda) has given as a protector for the poor.' 

According to Geldner the first two lines refer to Zaratujt, and, 
if we assume that yim is a contraction of yt fm, the Avesta text 
may be translated somewhat as follows : — ' As he is the desirable 
spiritual lord, so is he the priestly master with every right, the pro- 
ducer of the actions of the good thoughts of life towards Mazda. 
The dominion, however, is for Ahura who has given him as a pro- 
tector for the poor.' 

1 See §§ 18, 19. 



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CHAPTER I, 8-I3. 



and their names 1 are that of the ritual of the Gathic 
worship, which is the St6d?-yart, with the Surfkar, 
Varrtmansar, Bako, Vartag, Hadokht, and that which 
has made them Gathic 2 , the Spend. 10. And the 
names of the seven Hadha-mSthric are Dam- 
da^, Naaar, Pa^ag, Rado-diaf-aitag, Bark, Ka^ki- 
srdbd, and Vi.rtasp-sastd. 11. And seven are 
Legal, because they are composed for the lawyer 
(daaflk), and their names are those of the legal, and 
those are the Nlka^um, Ganaba-sar-ni^aaf, Huspa- 
ram, Sakaafum, and Vendldaaf, and those which are 
composed for the law with separate dedications, the 
Kitxad&d and Bakan-y&rt. 12. And the sequence 
is SuaHcar, Vant-mansar, Bak6, Damda^, Naafer, 
Pa^ag, Rado-da^-aitag, Barw, Karidsr6bd, Vi-rtasp- 
sasto, Vartag, Altradaaf, Spend, Bakin-yast, Niki- 
dbm, Ganaba-sar-n^aaf, Husparam, Sakaa?um, Ven- 
dlda< Haaftkht, and StcW-yaJt 3 . 

13. In all three divisions all three are/ound; in 
the Gathic are the Hadha-mSthric and Legal, in 
the Hadha-mSthric are the Gathic and Legal, and 
in the Legal are the Gathic and Hadha-mSthric. 

1 For variants of these names, in the order stated in § 12, see 
the notes to the first sections of Chaps. II-XVI, XXI, XXVIII, 
XXXVIII, XLIV-XLVI, which begin the summary description of 
each of the twenty-one Nasks. 

* Referring probably to ' the bestowal of the other Nasks ' men- 
tioned in Chap. XIV, 5. 

* This is the order in which the twenty-one words of the Ahu- 
navair are applied to the twenty-one Nasks, as hinted in § 19 ; 
and, therefore, the order in which they ought to be enumerated. 
Representing the three divisions of the Nasks by G, H, L, re- 
spectively, and the seven Nasks in each division by the ciphers 
i-1, the order of enumeration is as follows: — G 2-4; H 1-7; 
G 5 ; L 6 ; G l; L 7, 1-5 ; G 6, 1. More or less fanciful reasons 
for this dislocation of the divisions are given in §§ 15-17. 



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8 dinkAkd, book viii. 

14. In each separately that which is essentially and 
specially itself is included, and that which is partly 
another and introduced is included ; and the reason 
of it is that in spiritual and worldly existences, and in 
worldly and spiritual existences, and in that which is 
between the two, there are both existences. 

15. The occurrence 3^ the joining of the Vastag 
part of the Gathas on to the last of the Hadha- 
mSthric 1 is because it is written in connection with 
the VLstasp-sastd, the last of the Hadha-mathric. 
16. The reason of the Haafl&kht and Yart being in 
succession to the Vendidaaf, the last of the Law 2 , and 
' the production of the worldly creation 3 ' being between 
the Hadha-mSthric and those spiritual Gathas, is be- 
cause the spiritual existence likewise, which is spiritual 
life (ahv6), is the beginning; and the worldly existence 
is purposed and caused, and a part is preserved (nd^i- 
altS), important for the purpose and intended for 
the spiritual life, the part at the beginning. 1 7. And 
the rejoining of the. end of the Law, which is about 
the Hdm 4 , to the Gathas, which are the beginning, 

1 That is, the placing of G 5 after H 7. 

* That is, the placing of G 6, 1 after L 5. The Vendidirf 
appears to be the last of the truly legal Nasks, as the contents 
of the JTilnAid (see Chap. XIII) appear to have been chiefly 
historical, and those of the Baldn-yart (see Chap. XV) chiefly 
religious. These two Nasks are also placed in a sub-class in § n. 

' This Dahi.rn5~t-sti/f-da<f6 is evidently another name for 
the DamdiW, or ' the creatures produced,' which is placed between 
G 2-4 and H 2-7. 

4 Written Him in Pazand, for Hum; and referring to the white 
H6m, mentioned in Pahl. Vend. XX, 17, 21, and its healing pro- 
perties. It is not absolutely necessary to understand from the 
text that the twentieth farganf was literally the end of the Vendf- 
did in Sasanian times, because Chap. XLIV, 81 is quite as de- 
scriptive of the twenty-second as of the twentieth fargarrf. 



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CHAPTER I, 14-21. 



is a symbol of the existence of the pure influence of 
the Gathic lore upon the first spiritual state — that 
which exists likewise at last — and of the rejunction 
of the worldly existence to the spiritual, because it 
came down from the spiritual to exist at present. 

18. And the reason of the twenty-one-fold partition 
of the three divisions of the reckoning of revelation 
is in the distinction which is evident from their com- 
position; also in the three metrical lines of the 
Ahunavair, which is the basis of the reckoning of 
revelation, there are twenty-one words (mar Ik). 19. 
As the three metrical lines of the Ahunavair, which 
is the basis of the reckoning of revelation, are an 
emblem of the triple division of the reckoning of 
revelation; so the twenty-one words of the three 
lines indicate the twenty-one-fold partition of these 
three divisions ; as it is declared that ' He who is 
the omniscient creator produced a discourse from 
every single word.' 

20. As to the sections of the parts, such as the 
Has and Fargarafe 1 in the Nasks, it is known there 
were one thousand 2 , from the testimony and know- 
ledge of the religion owing to the teaching of Zara- 
turt — whose guardian spirit is reverenced — in the 
country of Iran. 21. And after the devastation 
occurred, owing to the evil-destined and raging 
villain Alexander, there was not so much of them 



1 The term Hi (hS</, Av. haiti) is applied to the chapters of 
the Yasna, and the term Farganf (Av. fra+kereta) to the 
chapters of the Vendfdarf and most of the other Nasks. 

* Combining the information given in the Persian Rivayats with 
that in the Dinkar*/ we find only 905 chapters enumerated, of 
which 180 are said to have been lost, from the philosophical Nasks, 
daring the Greek rule. 



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io vInylard, BOOK VIII. 

recovered as would be possible for a high-priest to 
preserve 1 . 22. And that which the saintly (hu- 
fravan/o) Atur-pa^/ 2 , son of Maraspend, achieved 
through their composition and preservation, is known 
so far as the decrees (iako) in the treatises (maafi- 
gan) of the country of Iran are preserved as 
teaching and admonition (pandanS). 

23. After writing of each separate Nask, that is, 
as to what it speaks about more particularly 3 , each 
Nask is accounted for separately, and what is in its 
various Has and Fargarafe comes to be realized* ; 
for in these particulars (maafigan) any ruggedness 
of the auspicious 6 and desirable collection is ex- 
plained. 24. But, first, the class of writing of the 
various Nasks — that is, about what they speak — is 
here written ; the extent of attainment not being 
adapted to their peculiarity of wonderfulness. 



Chapter II. 

1. Homage to the glory of the good religion of 
Mazafe-worship ! 

2. The Suaflcar 6 contains particulars about the 

1 Probably meaning not more than a high-priest could retain in 
his memory. 

8 A supreme high-priest who was prime minister of king Shah- 
puhar II (a.d. 309-3 79). 

* In this eighth book of the Dtnkan/. 

4 In the more detailed statements in the ninth book. 

5 Reading hftjukungun, but it may be khujkunfnS, 'benefi- 
cent,' or ana^ikdn-gun, ' unconfusing.' 

' Corresponding to the first word, yatha, in the Ahunavair, ac- 
cording to the Persian Rivayat of Bahman Pun^yah, which adopts 
the sequence detailed in Chap. I, 1 2. All other Persian Rivayats 
and also the Dint-vi^irkard adopt the sequence G 1-4 ; H 1-7 ; 



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CHAPTER I, 2 2-II, 5. II 

power of the pure glorifying of the first utterance of 
Auharmas*/ 1 , through thinking, speaking, and acting; 
and about abstaining from the law of very evil and 
very disturbing people 2 . 3. Glorifying the obser- 
vances (hunarino) and good works of the good 
religion and of a like nature, as well as their effec- 
tualness ; and condemning the faults and sin of him 
of very evil religion, when all kinds of neglect of the 
spiritual ceremony and of care for the archangel of 
the worldly existence are owing to him 8 ; also much 
information about spiritual matters. 4. It has be- 
come old (kahuni':), and is a witness whose state- 
ment extends even unto the renovation of the 
universe*. 

5. Righteousness is perfect excellence 5 . 

G 5, 7; L6, 7, 1, 3, a, 4, 5; G 6. Like most of the names of the 
Nasks, Sfl</kar is an adjective, meaning ' causing benefit, or act- 
ing beneficially;' it is corrupted into Studgar, or Istudgar, in the 
Rivayats and Dv. For a detailed account of the contents of each 
of its twenty-two fargan/s see Bk. IX, Chaps. II-XXIII. 

1 The Ahunavair, or Yatha ahu vairy6, which Aflharmazrf 
recited before the creation in order to confound Aharman (see Bd. 
I, 3i, 33). This clause refers chiefly to the first fargarrf of the 
SCWkar (see Bk. IX, Chap. II). 

* Referring to Bk. IX, Chaps. V, IX, X, &c. 

* See Bk. IX, Chap. IX. * See Bk. IX, Chap. XXIII, 7. 

* The text is aharayih ds&dih pahlum ait6, the Pahl. equiva- 
lent of the Av. ashem vohu vahutem astl, 'righteousness is the 
best good/ the first metrical line of the Ashem-vohu formula, with 
which it is usual to conclude forms of prayer and religious writings. 
It is here used to conclude the account of each of the twenty-one 
Nasks, and twice over at the end of the last one, so that it occurs 
twenty-two times in this eighth Book. In the ninth Book it con- 
cludes the account of each fargarrf of the three Nasks detailed, and 
is written twice at the end of the second Nask, and twice at the end 
of the Book; so that it occurs in three series of 23, 34, and 34 
repetitions, respectively, in the ninth Book. As the formula, 



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12 dInkard, BOOK VIII. 



Chapter III. 

i. The Varstminsar 1 contains particulars about 
the birth of Zaraturt, his attaining the religion 2 , and 
whatever is on the same subject 3 . 2. A notice 
(numla?) of the priestliness, discipleship, spiritual 
lordship, priestly authority, and steadfastness which 
are in his original more concise words of the Gathas 4 . 
3. The explanation (zand) of the statements about 
everything and also the good arrangement (khu.y- 
raafako) are such as that which one speaks of thus : 
— ' It is the Varctmansar which has given forth an 
exposition upon everything.' 4. So that, in the 
Vanrtmansar, something is said about everything that 
is mentioned in the Gathas. 

5. Of righteousness the excellence is perfect. 

which is thus repeated, consists of four words, it is capable of 
1x2x3x4 = 24 permutations in the order of its words ; and it 
appears as if the author intended that each of the four series of 
repetitions of the formula, contained in the two Books, should give 
all these permutations successively; and, with the exception of a 
few deviations (chiefly in the first two series, and probably due to 
the errors of copyists), he has maintained this fancjful peculiarity 
throughout. The English translations of the formula have been 
varied, so as to preserve this peculiarity to some extent, but it has 
not been found possible to differentiate the whole of the twenty- 
four permutations. 

1 Corresponding to the second word, ah ft, in the Ahunavair, 
according to B. P. Riv. ; but it is the third Nask in other Riviyats. 
Varjlminsar means 'used as spells, or employed as liturgy,' and 
is often corrupted into Vahut-minthrah in the Riviyats. For a 
detailed account of the contents of each of its twenty-three fargarrfs 
see Bk. IX, Chaps. XXIV-XLVI. 

* See Bk. IX, Chap. XXIV. 

9 This final phrase is often used for unspecified details, and may 
be considered as equivalent to el caetera. 

* See Bk. IX, Chap. XXV. 



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CHAPTER III, I-V, I. 13 

Chapter IV. 

i. The BakS 1 contains particulars about the divi- 
sion of the recital of the first saying of revelation 2 , 
the first creature 8 in that saying, the first occurrence 
of it, the adaptation of the creature, and the greatness 
of that saying which is incorporating the creature, 
owing thereto ; also, especially, the intermingling 
of thought (m&d)* with it. 2. Very comprehensive 
knowledge about everything, each separately its 
own offspring, and many an appendage as much 
connected with it as that which is said concerning 
the Bako 5 , that 'the Bako of the community (dah- 
man) is heard where it is spoken for the community,' 
that is, whoever shall do this good work, for him 
this good work will be done. 

3. Righteousness is perfect excellence. 



Chapter V. 
1. Amid the Damda*/ 6 are particulars about the 
maintenance of action and the production of the 

1 Corresponding to the third word, vairyd, in the Ahunavair, 
according to B. P. Riv. ; but it is the fourth Nask in other Riva- 
yats. BakS means 'subdivision, or apportionment,' and is written 
Bagb, or Bagh-ast, in the Rivayats. For a detailed account of the 
contents of each of its twenty-two farganfs see Bk. IX, Chaps. 
XLVII-LXVIII. 

* The Ahunavair (see Chap. II, 2 and Bk. IX, Chap. XLVII, 3). 

* The Ahfl, or ' spiritual lord,' who is the first creature mentioned 
in the Ahunavair (see Bk. IX, Chap. XLVII, 4). 

* Av. maiti, P4z. mit in Bk. IX, Chap. XLVII, 5,' the Av. 
manas of Yas. XIX, 29 (Sp.). 

° This section is an extreme condensation of the contents of 
Bk. IX, Chaps. XLVIII-LXVIII. 

* Corresponding to the fourth word, athi, in the Ahunavair, 



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14 DiUKARJ), BOOK VIII. 

beneficial creatures. 2. First, as to the spiritual 
existence, and how much and how is the mainten- 
ance in the spiritual existence ; and the production of 
the worldly existence therefrom, qualified and con- 
structed for descending (fit6afan6) into the combat 
with the destroyer, and accomplishing the associated 
necessity for the end and circumvention (garang) 
of destructiveness. 

3. The manner and species of the creation of the 
creatures ; also their material existence, aid the char- 
acter and use of the races and species ; and whatever 
is on the same subject. 4. The reason for their 
creation, and for their perfection at last. 5. About 
the adversity, injury, and misery of those creatures, 
and their secret (nihdnQ) resources and means 
of attacking and annihilating them; with the pre- 
servation or disablement (ap^fcarlnlafanS) of the 
creatures thereby 1 . 

6. Of righteousness the excellence is perfect ex- 
cellence. 



according to B. P. Riv. ; but it is the fifth Nask in other Rivayats. 
Dimdarf means 'the creatures produced,' and it is called Dvaz- 
dah-hamast (or hum&st) in the Rivayats, which also state that it 
contained thirty-two kardah, or subdivisions. No further particulars 
of this and the subsequent Nasks are given by the Dfnkan/, 
beyond the contents of this eighth Book. 

1 So far as this brief account of the Damdarf goes, it corresponds 
very well with much of the contents of the Bundahi*. Za</-sparam, 
in his Selections, IX, 1, 16, also quotes the Damda</ as the 
authority for certain details contained in the Bundahish, which 
work must therefore be considered as derived from this Nask. It 
is very probable, however, that the Nask contained much more 
information than is here hinted, because the author's usual plan, in 
these brief summaries, is evidently to confine his remarks to a few 
of the details near the beginning of each Nask. 



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CHAPTER V, 2-VII, 2. 



Chapter VI. 

i. On account of the Zand of the Ni^ar 1 not 
reaching us, the Avesta is retained, for teaching, 
recital, and ceremony, because it has come unto us 
with authority. 

2. Of righteousness the excellence is perfect ex- 
cellence. 

Chapter VII. 

i. The P&^ag 2 contains particulars about law- 
fully slaughtering a sheep, for the ceremonial of 
fires, waters, and hdly-water, in aid of a season- 
festival 3 of the Masafa-worshippers ; besides this, 
namely, in what are the skill, and the means for 
selection, of a man for such work, and the for- 
mula (nirang) of the ceremony. 2. And this, 
namely, from which limb of the sheep species is the 

1 Corresponding to the fifth word, ratuj, in the Ahunavair, 
according to B. P. Riv. ; but it is the sixth Nask in other Rivayats. 
Owing to its Zand, or Pahlavi version, having been lost, the author 
does not undertake to describe its contents ; but the Rivayats state 
that it consisted of thirty -five jurat, or compilations, about astronomy 
and astrology. The traditional name Na</ar, or Na<rur, is pro- 
bably a misreading; as Vakhtar (for Vakhttar), 'more destined,' 
and Vakhtvar, ' fate-bringing,' would be more intelligible readings 
of the same letters. 

* Corresponding to the sixth word, asha</, in the Ahunavair, 
according to B. P. Riv.; but it is the seventh Nask in other 
Rivayats. Pa^ag probably means ' cooking,' with reference to the 
preparations for the sacred feasts ; it is called Pa^am, Pa£am, or 
Pazun in the Rivayats, which also state that it contained twenty- 
two kardah, or subdivisions. 

* The six Gihanbars or season-festivals are held on the five days 
ending, respectively, with the 45th, 105th, 180th, 210th, 290th, and 
365th days of the Parsi year (see Sis. XVIII, 3 n). 



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1 6 viNKARD, BOOK VIII. 

share of the fires and waters to be taken 1 , and how 
is the preparation which is to be carried on, and with 
what Avesta. 3. And whatever is about a season- 
festival; where the appointed place is, when one 
celebrates it, and when it has fully elapsed ; the 
assembly of the season-festival, and the donation for 
the feast ; where and when the celebration is possible, 
in what proportion the provisions are to be given 
out, and when to be prepared and divided ; where its 
advantage is, and what benefit there is from it to the 
good creations both spiritually and materially. 

4. And this, namely, what skill is more suitable 
for the sacerdotal (rad-pisa.g) leadership and other 
priestly authority (ra^lh) each separately. 5. About 
the business of the sacerdotal leadership, where it is 
owing to having appointed the place and having 
gone forth to the assembly of the Mastffa-worshippers, 
and when they are to be made aware that that 
assembly is more particularly for the arrangement of 
renunciation of vice and retribution for sin ; the 
needful supply of things for the feast ; the selection 
of the men for the Z6ti duty and Rasp! duty before 
the day 2 ; the Z6tis, Raspts, and others who put in 
action the work for the preparation and giving of the 
portions; and the cleansing of the body-clothing. 
6. As to the selection tf/"the president (pex-gas) of 
the feast there is this, namely, what ability is re- 
quisite for that presidentship. 7. The allotment of 
the portions, and giving them sooner to those who 
are sooner in need of them. 8. Scoffing before 

1 The heart for the fires, and the fore-legs for the waters, accord- 
ing to Sis. XI, 4. 

1 The Zoti is the chief officiating priest in the ceremonial, and 
the Raspi is the assistant priest. 



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CHAPTER VII, 3-12. 17 

priestly authorities, who are great and good, and 
when they do not give a portion to the authorities 
are cases when the season-festivals are not to be con- 
sidered as celebrated. 9. This, too, that the Z6tis 
and Raspls are for the Zdti duty and Rasp! duty, 
and the other priestly authorities for the control of 
sin and computation (i»ar) of the portions ; and 
more on the same subject. 

10. About the rotation of the day-watches (gas), 
days, months, and seasons of the year — which are 
when it is summer and winter — and the appearances 
(sahljno) therein which are owing to the motion of 
the constellations 1 . 11. Where the coming of the 
righteous guardian spirits (fravahar) into the 
worldly existence occurs, in those ten days which 
are the end of the winter and termination of the 
year, because the five Gathic days 2 , among them, 
are for that purpose; the cessation of that same, as 
well as its continuance. 1 2. The great needfulness 
of the guardian spirits of the righteous in the cere- 
monial and obeisance of those ten days, and their 
abundant gratification therefrom; their vexation from 

1 That is, the apparent motions of the akhtaran, or signs of the 
zodiac. 

* The five supplementary days, named after the five Gathas, which 
are added to the twelfth month of thirty days to complete the 365 days 
of the year. They are also called fra var<?ikan, or ' those devoted 
to the Fravan/s,' or Fravashis, the guardian spirits, or prototypes, 
of created beings, who are supposed to revisit their old haunts on 
earth during those days. The last five days of the twelfth month 
are also considered a part of the same festival of ten days, which 
would have terminated at the vernal equinox, as indicated in the 
text, about a. d. 1000 if the ordinary receding calendar of the 
Iranian Parsis were used ; but it seems probable, from Bd. XXV, 
that the calendar in those times was fixed for the new year to begin 
at the vernal equinox. 

[37] C 



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1 8 DiNKARD, BOOK VIII. 

want of welcome and want of obeisance ; and their 
ascent from the worldly existences. 1 3. The extreme 
importance (fr£z>Sanikih) of liberality and bounty 
at that season ; and the proper duty of the priestly 
authority of a district (shatrd) in assisting and in- 
terceding for the poor, for the sake of teaching, 
from the days devoted to the guardian spirits, /red- 
actions among those having guardian spirits. 

14. About the period for taking medicinal plants, 
and whatever is on the same subject. 15. About 
where there is a household, village, communal, or 
provincial petitioning for the royal chastisement of 
sins affecting the soul, each separately; and for 
whom is the atonement. 16. About the advantage 
owing to disposal of sin and infliction of chastise- 
ment, and the harm owing to not disposing of sin 
and neglecting the chastisement inflicted. 

17. About the first thirty-three chieftainships 
(radfth), around and concealed ; that is, which and 
how many are spiritual, and how many worldly; and 
which is the second, and which the third, of the 
spiritual and worldly existences. 18. About the ad- 
mirableness and great meritoriousness of public ob- 
servances, and the awfulness and grievous sinfulness 
of apostasy. 19. And also this, that is, when any 
one is doubtful, through apostasy, which is the law 
from the sacred beings in elucidation, and which of 
the sacred beings is to be entreated for assistance. 
20. About this, namely, for which of the women 
the bringing of a handful of anything, from the pro- 
perty of her husband, to be given away is allowable, 
in what proportion, and how, and for whom ; and 
for whom, when she gives it away, it is allowable 
for the husband to bring it back. 



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CHAPTER VII, 13-VIII, I. 19 

21. About this, namely, when summer comes on, 
where does winter run to ; and when winter comes 
on, where does summer go to ? 22. About the 
amount of disaster * that has passed by in one cen- 
tury, and the duration of its passing; everything 
which is connected with the disaster, and whatever 
is on the same subject 23. Where and how many 
months are of such a kind 2 , and how many of such 
a kind 2 ; as well as the religious names of the twelve 
months, and the reason of the name of each one of 
them, that is, to which of the sacred beings, in the 
ceremonial, each one of these twelve months is pre- 
dominantly appertaining ; so also of the thirty days 
which are in every month, and so also of the five 
Gathas in every year — that is, the five Gathic days 
at the end of the year 3 — all the sacred beings to 
whom they are appertaining, and when the righteous 
guardian spirits (ardfat ira.va.rd6) are reverenced. 

24. Righteousness is perfect excellence. 



Chapter VIII. 

1. The Raafo-da^-altag 4 contains particulars about 
the religious and important customs and laws to be 

1 Paz. v6ighn. 

1 Reading h am g An in both places; but the two words may be 
hamlnd, 'summer,' and k ham in 6, 'wet weather.' 

' The five supplementary days mentioned in § 11. 

4 Corresponding to the seventh word, k\d, in the Ahunavair, 
according to B. P. Riv. ; but it is the eighth Nask in other Riva- 
yats. Ra<ro-da</-aitag means ' concerning the habits of a priestly 
master,' which is a fair description of the contents of this Nask, but 
it is misread Ratiutai, or Raturtaid, in the Rivayats, which also 
state that it contained originally fifty kardah, or subdivisions, of 
which only thirteen were recovered after the time of Alexander. 

C 2 



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20 dInkard, BOOK VIII. 

enforced. 2. The reason of the worthiness and 
superexcellence in a sacerdotal leader, and his pos- 
session of a portion of the other authority (patlh) 
of 'a ruler also ; that is, how worthiness is to be dis- 
tinguished from unworthiness, and superexcellence 
from unworthiness, in him, namely, in the priestly 
chieftainship (raafth) of Khvaniras 1 and the other 
regions, each separately, the first which stood aloof 
from the Mazda-worshippers. 

3. About the demonstration and notification of the 
sitting together of the archangels, the ritual and 
appliances in the ceremonial of the sacred beings, 
the position and business of the Zdtis and Raspis 2 
in a ceremonial, and also all the business of the 
leaders in their duty, each separately and originally 3 . 
4. The greatness of the helpfulness (vigid&.r- 
dahi^nlh) in good works, the kinds of helpfulness, 
and the proximity of Auharmazaf to the thoughts, 
words, and deeds of the embodied existence. 

5. The excellence of righteousness is perfect. 



Chapter IX. 



1. The Bar is* contains particulars about the in- 
vigorating power, truth, and generosity of the many 

1 Av. Zfoaniratha, the central region of the earth, containing 
the countries best known to the Iranians, around which the other 
six smaller regions were supposed to be arranged. 

4 See Chap. VII, 5. » Or « fundamentally ' (va/ bun). 

* Corresponding to the eighth word, haH, in the Ahunavair, 
according to B. P. Riv. ; but it is the ninth Nask in other Rivayats. 
Barix, or Bartr, means 'splendid, sublime;' and the Rivayats 
state that it contained originally sixty kardah, or subdivisions, of 
which only twelve were recovered after the time of Alexander. 



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CHAPTER VIII, 2-IX, 8. 21 

capabilities of instinctive and acquired wisdom. 2. 
And also the ill-advisedness of falsity, stinginess 1 , 
and ignorance ; and the many defects which are 
fraternizing with the opponent of capabilities. 3. 
The blessing and cursing, the good will and ill-will 
of the good ritual and evil ritual, the good state- 
ments and evil statements of Vohuman, Spendarma^, 
Srdsh, Ahartrvang 2 , and many other sacred beings, 
and of evil thought, lust, wrath, unrighteousness 3 , 
and many other demons ; and whatever is on the 
same subject. 

4. The destiny, nature, desire, religion, habit, 
learning, business, and diligence of the period, and 
whatever is on the same subject, as regards sove- 
reignty, government, priestly authority, justice, and 
mediation. 5. The union, peace, and promise-keep- 
ing, and whatever is on the same subject. 6. The 
law and custom, good works and sin, good repute 
and evil repute, righteousness and wickedness, and 
whatever is on the same subject. 7. The modesty 
and pomp, glory and penance (srdshlklh)*, and 
whatever is on the same subject. 8. The connec- 

1 Pux, the demon of misers in Bd. XXVIII, 28. 

* These four angels are personifications of Av. vohu man 6, 
'good thought,' spenta armaiti;, 'bountiful devotion,' sraoshd, 
'the obedient one,' and ashi* vanguhi, 'good rectitude.' 

' These four demoniacal propensities are here mentioned as the 
opponents of the foregoing four angels. Akdman6 and Aeshm, 
the first and third, are the recognised opponents of Vohuman and 
Srdsh, respectively (see Bd. XXX, 29). Varend, the second, is 
considered a demon (see Bd. XXVIII, 25), and is mentioned in the 
Dinkarrf, book VI, as opposing the angel Arrf or Ahartrvang (see 
Dd. XCIV, 2) ; here he evidently opposes another female angel, 
Spendarmarf, while Ahartrvang or Ashi is opposed by her simple 
negation, Anahar. 

4 Av. sraoshya, see Pahl. Vend. XIII, 9. 



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22 D1NKAKD, BOOK VIII. 

tion through ownership, subordination, service, and 
religion, and whatever is on the same subject. 9. 
The suitability and unsuitability, friendship and 
enmity, and whatever is on the same subject. 10. 
The handsomeness and ugliness, youth and decrepi- 
tude, opulence and destitution, happiness and misery, 
and whatever is on the same subject. 11. The 
strength in races and species ^/"things, and whatever 
is on the same subject 12. The learning, solving 
of questions, complete virtue, and whatever is on the 
same subject. 13. The hunger 1 and thirst, and 
their remedy, and whatever is on the same subject. 
14. The delirium and death, and their expediency, 
and whatever is on the same subject. 15. The 
primitive state and tendency of things, precedence 
and sequence, and whatever is on the same subject. 
16. The acceptableness and unacceptableness, grati- 
fication and afiflictiveness 8 , and whatever is on the 
same subject. 1 7. The mightiness (taklklh), loqua- 
city, sociality, and whatever is on the same subject 
18. The understanding and mind ; the body and 
soul ; the heaven, hell, and future existence ; and 
whatever is on the same subject 19. The omnis- 
cience of the creator Auharmastff, and all goodness 
of like motive, the life and glory of a righteous man, 
and whatever is on the same subject 8 . 

20. And many other arrangements of the creator, 
through propagation of statements, preparation of 
sovereignty, maintenance of the body, and preserva- 

1 Supposing that suko stands for sud. 

* Reading bSshint</£rfh which is more probable than the 
bSsrufst nf d&\\ h, ' curativeness,' of the MS. 

* All the details in §§ 5-19 are to be read in connection with 
' the period' mentioned in § 4. 



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CHAPTER IX, 9-XI, I. 23 

tion of the soul ; a statement adapted to that which 
one mentions thus : ' Truly-spoken statements are 
the Bark, Karklsr6bd, and Vi*tasp-sast6.' 

21. The excellence 0/" righteousness is perfect. 



Chapter X. 



1. The Ka^klsrdbd 1 contains particulars about 
the explanation of the ceremonial and ritual of the 
sacred beings, through what arises its conversion 
into demon-worship, and information as to cleanness 
and uncleanness. 2. The preparations and precau- 
tions for the Yarts 2 ; the tokens and signs of the 
overflowing and evil owing to the demons at various 
times, and the cause of their exhaustion and the 
final victory of the sacred beings. 3. Then the 
exalting chants of every kind, which Auharmas*/ 
taught to Zaraturt, are called the teaching (sastd) of 
the spirits. 

4. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness. 



Chapter XL 
1. The Vi$t4sp-sast6 s is about particulars of 

1 Corresponding to the ninth word, vangh<;uj, in the Ahunavair, 
according to B. P. Riv. ; but it is the tenth Nask in other Rivayats. 
Ka.rkisr6bd may perhaps mean 'with happy, or comfortable, 
statements,' and is corrupted into Kajsr6b, K&rkasfrah, or Kaf- 
kantz, in the Rivayats, which also state that it contained originally 
sixty kardah, or subdivisions, of which only fifteen were recovered 
after the time of Alexander. 

* The minor ceremonies. 

5 Corresponding to the tenth word, dazda, in the Ahunavair, 
according to B. P. Riv.; but it is the eleventh Nask in other Rivd- 



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24 DiiiKARD, BOOK VIII. 

every kind relating to Kal -Virtasp 1 ; the temper, 
character, demeanour, knowledge, learning, and law 
for sovereignty; the government of the creatures, 
and the advancement of the will of the sacred beings 
requisite for it. 

2. The creator Auharmazaf sends the archangels 2 
on to Kai-Virtasp as evidence about Auharma^, 
and a reminder of Spttaman Zaraturt, of the pure 
goodness of the Mazafa-worshipping religion, and of 
the command for the ruler Virtasp, as to its triumph, 
on accepting the religion from Zaraturt. 3. The 
visible coming of the archangels to the metropolis, 
and, secondly, their domestication (handyman! h) at 
the residence of Virtasp and his companions ; the 
envoys' explanation of AuharmasaPs message to 
VLrtasp, and the accepting of the Mazafa-worshipping 
religion by the obedient king Virtasp. 

4. The outpouring (sartnf*/an&) of Aiyasp the 
Khy6n 3 , by the demon of wrath, for war with Virtasp 

yats. Vijtasp-sast6 means 'the instruction of Vlrt&sp,' and is 
corrupted into VLrtasp-shah, VLrtaspad, or Vwtisp, in the Rivayats, 
which also state that it contained originally sixty kardah, or jurat, 
of which only ten, or eight, were recovered after the time of 
Alexander. The last number refers, no doubt, to the eight far- 
garrfs still extant under the corrupt name VLrtasp Yart, which 
probably consist of fragments of the Avesta text of this Nask ; but 
in comparing that text with this description it must be remembered 
that the author is describing the contents of the Pahlavi version 
which would contain much commentary. 

1 The king of Iran in the time of Zaratdrt, who accepted the 
Ma»<fa- worshipping religion; the last king of the old history 
derived from the Avesta (see Chap. XIII, 15, 16). 

* Compare Vwt&sp Yt. 40. 

" The * deadly Hvyzom Ar<#arf-aspa ' of Yt. IX, 30, XVII, 50, 
whom Kavi Vfatispa prayed to be delivered from. According to 
the Yarfkdr-i Zarirdn, Ar^isp, king of the Khydns, made war upon 



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CHAPTER XI, 2-XIII, I. 25 

and disturbance of ZaratUrt ; the arrangements and 
movements of king Virtisp for that war, and what- 
ever is on the same subject. 

5. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness. 



Chapter XII. 

1. The Avesta and commentary of the Vastag 1 
have not reached us through any high-priest. 

2. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness. 



Chapter XIII. 



1. The A'itradiaf 2 contains particulars about the 
race of mankind ; how the formation of the first 

VirtSsp on account of the tatter's conversion to Mazda-worship, 
and was defeated with great difficulty in a most desperate battle 
which is also described in the Sh&hn&mah. Whether the Khy6ns 
were the Chionitae of later times is uncertain. 

1 Corresponding to the eleventh word, mananghd, in the 
Ahunavair, according to B. P. Riv. ; but it is the twelfth Nask in 
other Rivayats. The name of this Nask is very uncertain ; in five 
occurrences of the word the first letter is omitted once and may 
once be the conjunction ' and,' and the last syllable is also omitted 
once ; the B. P. Riv. calls it Did, by omitting the first and last 
letters and varying the reading of the rest, and the other Rivayats 
call it "//art or 'Hart. They also state that it contained twenty- 
two kardah, or fargarrfs, in six divisions treating of various religious 
and worldly duties, as detailed in the translations in the latter part 
of this volume. 

* Corresponding to the twelfth word, jAyaothananSm, in the 
Ahunavair, according to B. P. Riv. ; but it is the fourteenth Nask 
in other Rivayats. A'itradaV means ' the races produced,' a name 
of the same form as Damda*/, but it is read ATidrart, Alrart, or 
Girart in the Rivayats, which also state that it contained twenty- 
two kardah, or subdivisions. 



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26 dInkakd, book vnr. 

man, Gaydmaraf 1 , by Abharmazd was for the mani- 
festation of the bodily form (kerpih) ; and in what 
manner the first couple, Mashya and Mashy6! 2 , 
arose. 2. About their progeny and lineage during 
the entire progress of mankind in the central region 
of Khvanlras 3 , and the distribution from them into 
the six* regions which are around Khvaniras. 3. 
The various races, which are specially enumerated, 
were ordered to disperse by the attracting or banish- 
ing command of the creator, to each separate race, 
as to the place where It went to ; and whose life and 
soul (n is man) are appointed from yonder world. 
4. Also the original description of their descent 
into the various regions, of those, too, who are 
on the frontiers of Khvantras, and those who also 
made their habitation in the intermediate places ; 
and the customs of each one of the species of 
mankind which was produced among the original 
races. 

5. The original establishment of law and custom ; 
that of village superintendence (dihankinth) 8 , for 
the cultivation and nourishment of the world, based 
upon the traditional early law (vasarld? p&sd&dd) ; 
and that of monarchy, for the protection and govern- 

1 The original human being who was created as the source 
whence mankind were to spring, in the same way as ' the sole- 
created ox ' was to be the origin of all other animals (see Bd. Ill, 
14. 17, 19-23. IV. *> XV, 1,31). 

a Literally ' man and woman,' here written masy6 va-masya6i. 
The mode of their origin from Gay6mar</ and the development of 
man upon the earth are detailed in Bd. XV. 

' See Chap. VIII, 2. 

* The MS. has ' seven ' by mistake. 

8 A more probable reading than gehanak&nfhin the sense of 
' colonization/ 



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CHAPTER XIII, 2-8. 2"] 

ment0/ r the creatures, upon Hdshang the Pe\sdadTian 1 . 

6. A report of the lineage of Hdshang, who was the 
first, and Takhm6-rup6 2 who was the second ruler 
of the seven regions ; and an enumeration of reports 
of lineage from the original creation even unto Yim s . 

7. A report of the lineage of Yim, the third ruler of 
the seven regions ; information as to his period, and 
the progress (sa£i.yn6) of time from the original 
creation till the end of the reign of Yim. 

8. A report of the ill-informed evil ruler of the 
seven regions, Dahik 4 ; his lineage back to Tdz 6 , the 
brother of Hdshang and father of the T^dks 
{A rods) ; information as to him and his period, the 
progress of time from the end of the good reign of 
Yim till the end of the evil reign of Dahik, and the 
lineage from Yim as far as Fredftm 8 . 

1 This 'H6shang of the early law,' Av. Haoshyangh6 para- 
dhat6, is considered to have been the great-grandson of Mashya 
and first monarch of the world, being the founder of the P& darfian 
dynasty (see Bd. XV, 28, XXXI, 1, XXXIV, 3, 4). 

9 Here written Takhm6-rfpd, Av. Takhmd-urupa; the great- 
grandson and successor of Hdshang (see Bd. XXXI, 2, 3, XXXIV, 4). 

* Av. Yim6 khshaStd, the GamshSd of the Shahnamah; the 
brother and successor of Takhm6-rup6 (see Bd. XXXI, 3-5, 
XXXIV, 4). 

* Also called Az-i Dahik, Av. aim dahakd, 'destructive ser- 
pent,' a name applied to a foreign dynasty, considered as a single 
king who conquered Yim and succeeded him, being traditionally 
his third cousin once removed (see Bd. XXXI, 5, 6, XXXIV, 5). 
Further details are given in Bk. IX, Chap. XXI, 1-13. Dahak was 
the last ruler of all the seven regions, excepting Kat-t)s. 

8 See Bd. XV, 26-28. 

* Av. ThraStaond, son of Ath wy6, and, traditionally, the ninth 
in descent from Yim (see Bd. XXXI, 7, 8) ; nine generations being 
assumed necessary to allow for the thousand years' reign of the 
Dahak dynasty which he put an end to. His rule was confined to 
the central region of Khvanfras. 



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28 dIukard, BOOK VIII. 

9. A report of Freafun, the ruler of Khvanlras ; 
as to the smiting of Dahak, the conquering of the 
country of Mizendaran 1 , and the allotment of 
Khvanlras among his three sons, Salm, Ttig, and 
AtrLfc 2 ; their union with the daughters of P4t-sr6bd s , 
king of the Arabs and descendant of Tds, and the 
lineage and report of them, each separately. 10. 
The reign of Manuj^ihar of Iran, descendant (nap 8) 
of Airl& 11. The expiating* monarch Fr&slydv of 
Turin, and Auzdbd 6 the Tumaspian, monarch of 
Iran. 

12. The descendant of Manuafthar, Kavl-Kava^, 
who was progenitor of the Kayans and ruler of 
Iran; and the expiating ruler Keresasp*. 13. Kal- 
Us, grandson' of Kzv&d, ruler and maintainer of 
royalty (kat-dano) in the seven regions. 14. Kai- 
Khusr61 who was son of Slyivakhsh 8 and ruler of 



1 The land on the southern coast of the Caspian belonging to 
the M&zainya daSva (demons, or idolators) of the Avesta. 

2 The last of whom was slain by his brothers, and was avenged 
by his descendant ManuivWhar (see Bd. XXXI, 9-12). 

* Possibly the celebrated individual of that name who is men- 
tioned, in Pahl. Vend. XX, 4, as an instance of opulence. The 
Shahnamah speaks only of the three daughters of the king of 
Yam an. 

4 Or 'plundering;' but Tu^-h6m6nd here, and Tu^avand in 
§ 12, may perhaps mean 'descended from Tu^,' as Frasiy<fo was 
the sixth in descent from T&g (see Bd. XXXI, 14). 

8 Said to have been a great-grandson of ManujJthar (see Bd. 
XXXI, 23). 

* Probably the hero who was sixth in descent from Tu^, and 
third cousin of Frasfy<fo (see Bk. IX, Chap. XV; Bd. XXXI, 14, 
26, 27); though placed by Firdausf as a king Garshasp preceding 
Kal-Qubad. 

7 As appears from Bd. XXXI, 25. 

* The son of Kaf-tTs, who did not become king. 



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CHAPTER XIII, 9-18. 29 

Khvanlras. 15. And a special report of many par- 
ticulars of the races of Iran, Turin, and Salman 1 , 
even unto the ruler Kal - Ldharasp 2 and the 
monarch Kai-Vfotasp 3 . 16. The prophet (vakh- 
shvar) of the Mazda-worshipping religion, Zaraturt 
the Spitaman, and the progress of time from the 
beginning of the reign of Fr&/un till the coming of 
Zarat&rt to conference with Aiiharmazd*. 

17. And many races and statements, onwards 
from that time, are enumerated in the same Nask as 
having existed, and are characterized by it for exist- 
ence, such as the Sasanians — whom it reckons as 
the well-created — and their sovereignty. 18. In the 
race of ManH&£ihar, Nddar 6 , Y6^k6 Fryan6 8 , and 



1 The people of the Airya, Tuirya, and Sairima provinces, men- 
tioned in Yt. XIII, 143. 

* Fifth in descent from Kavf-Kava</, and third cousin once re- 
moved of his predecessor Kaf-Khusr6t (see Bd. XXXI, 25, 28). 

5 Son of Kai-Ldharasp (see Bd. XXXI, 29). 

* The historical legends contained in the Avesta end with the 
sons of king Virtasp, and other contemporaries of Zaratujt ; not a 
word being said of any succeeding monarch. Similarly, Bd. XXXI 
and this historical Nask fail to carry on the details of the royal line 
beyond Virtisp ; ignoring the Achsemenians, Alexander, and the 
Ajkanians, they leap over an evident gap in history (very in- 
sufficiently bridged in the more modern chapter, Bd. XXXIV) to 
the Sasanians. This gap, between Avesta legends and the later 
undoubted Persian history, is a very weak point in the continuity 
of the two periods. And as the mode of bridging over this gap in 
Bd. XXXIV occurs in a chapter ' on the computation of years of 
the Arabs ' (see S. B. E. vol. v, p. xxxvii) it must be considered as 
more of an Arab than a Persian contribution to history. 

' Av. Naotara; a son of MSnuj^ihar (see Bd. XXXI, 13, 23, 
XXXIII, 5). 

' Doubtful ; if the second name be a patronymic, the combina- 
tion suggests the Y6i*t6 yd FrySnanSm of Yt. V, 81, XIII, 120, 
regarding whom the tale of Y6.rt-t Fryano is told. No son of 



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30 DiNKAKD, BOOK VIII. 

Namun, son of Spend-she*/ 1 , is included the father 
of Avarethrabau 2 , At&r-p&d son of Maraspend ; 
and its existence, even then, remains for the future. 
19. Also about the many qualities of capability and 
glory of the selfsame sovereignty, which are pro- 
moting the renovation of the universe destined for 
the races ; and its fortune and splendour which are 
shed upon the race, and are not severed from it till 
the renovation 8 . 

20. About the original knowledge of the profes- 
sions, care, and industry of the period ; the great 
acquaintance of mankind with the putting aside of 
injury from the adversary, the preservation of the 
body, and the deliverance of the soul ; the govern- 

N6</ar with a corresponding name is known, so that we are not 
dealing with a complete pedigree. 

1 Probably intended for Spend-da</, and we should perhaps read 
' Vohuman6, son of Spend-da</,' whose reign is celebrated as the 
silver age in Byt. II, 17 (see also Bd. XXXI, 29, XXXIV, 8). 

* This name, or surname, is given in Pazand, and is also to be 
found in Yt. XIII, 106, as follows: 'we reverence the guardian 
spirit of the righteous Avarethrabou, son of Rlrtare-vagha»/.' If 
the latter epithet were a surname of AxUr-pkd, the famous prime 
minister of Shahpuhar II, as the text intimates, we must conclude 
that the former epithet was a surname of his only son, Zaratujt, 
mentioned in his Pandnamak. These surnames, and others of 
their time, might have been easily interpolated in the long list of 
uncouth names included in the Fravarrfin Yart, when the Avesta 
books were revised during the reign of Shahpuhar II, and the 
Nasks were ' reckoned,' as stated in the fourth book of the Dinkarrf 
(see Haug's Essay on Pahlavi, pp. 146, 152). 

' §§ I 7 _I 9 re f er to tex * which must have been written either in 
the time of Shahpuhar II, or at some later period during Sasanian 
rule. Whereas §§ 1-16 are descriptive of an older record which, 
though consistent with the extant Avesta texts, could not have been 
compiled from them alone. And § 20 describes text that might 
have been written at any time. 



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CHAPTER XIIT, ig-XIV, 3. 3 1 

merit necessary for the world, even before the coming 
of Zaratu.rt by order of the creator ; the bringing 
of the word 1 from the sacred beings, and all occur- 
rences to the leaders of religion at various times ; 
and whatever is on the same subjects. 
21. Perfect righteousness is excellence. 



Chapter XIV, 



1. The Spend 2 contains particulars about the 
origin and combination of the material existence, 
guardian spirit, and soul (nisman) of Zaratujt ; how 
the creation of each one occurred in the spiritual 
existence, and in what mode it was produced for the 
worldly existence; how their connection with the 
parents arose, the coming of the parents together, 
the combination in the mother, and the birth from 
the mother ; and whatever is on the same subject. 
2. Also about the arrival of both spirits, the good 
one for developing, and the evil one for destroying ; 
the victory of the good spirit, and the rearing of 
Zaratujt 

3. His attainment on maturity, at thirty years of 
age, to a conference with Auhanna?^; and the 



1 Reading vakhsh in the same Avesta sense as in vakhshvar, 
' a prophet ; ' it may, however, mean ' gain, fortune, gifts.' A simi- 
larly-written word, v£y£, 'air, breath,' is used in Sg. XIII, 7 to 
translate the « Spirit ' of God in Gen. i. 2. 

* Corresponding to the thirteenth word, angh*uj, in the Ahun- 
avair, according to B. P. Riv. ; and it is the thirteenth Nask in all 
Rivtyats. Spend means 'beneficent, or bounteous,' and is written 
Sfend, or Spentah, in the Rivayats, which also state that it con- 
tained sixty kardah, or subdivisions. 



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32 dInkarjd, BOOK VIII. 

occurrence of seven conferences in ten years. 4. 
Many marvels, owing to him, are published therein, 
just as there are some which, collected and selected, 
are noticed by the Dlnkaraf manuscript \ 

5. In seven sections (burinS), such as are called 
Spend, are the seven enquiries, in each instance a 
single enquiry; and the bestowal of the other Nasks, 
in these seven enquiries, was through speaking out 
in each one of the places of conference. 6. About 
the various enquiries, the period of the sitting and 
rising on each occasion, the nature of the sitting of 
the archangels, the coming forward of Zaraturt to 
that domestic conclave (hand£man!h), his position 
in that place, what there was to say to him, and 
what there was to exhibit to him. 

7. The conferring of the wisdom of omniscience 
upon Zarat&rt, and what was seen by Zaratust of the 
past and future, and the perpetual amount of dura- 
tion therein, through that wisdom 2 . 8. The exist- 
ence of that wisdom, and what that is which, after 
having subsisted in it, is again well recognised ; 
such as, owing to it, are the highest and best of 
places, heaven and the various grades of position 
and reward of the righteous, according to their 
worthiness through the practice of good works ; the 
most downward and worst of places, hell and the 
place of punishment of the wicked, according to 
their sin; and, between the two, the place of the 
ever-stationary, those having equal good works and 

1 In its seventh book which contains a full account of the birth 
and much of the life of ZarattYrt, with a narrative of future events, 
all derived, no doubt, from the Spend Nask. Particulars connected 
with his birth will also be found in Bk. IX, Chap. XXIV. 

* See Byt II, 5-9. 



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CHAPTER XIV, 4-12. 33 

sin ; the Kinvad bridge 1 , at which is the account as 
to good works and sin ; and the future existence, in 
which is the consummation of every one, righteous 
and wicked, and the preservation of all good crea- 
tions from every evil occurs. 

9. Information also as to many other things which 
are marvellous, and as to a summary of the state- 
ments of these seven enquiries, which is derived 
from knowledge of every kind. 10. Likewise, about 
the communication of Zaraturt's knowledge of the 
Ma&fe-worshipping religion to the world, his attract- 
ing mankind to the religion, and the ages, after 
Zaratfct, until the renovation of the universe. 1 1 . 
And about the nature of the advancement of the 
people of the period, the separation of centuries and 
millenniums, and the signs, wonders, and perplexity 
which are manifested in the world at the end of each 
millennium in the world. 

12. Also as to the birth and arrival of Aushedar 2 , 
son of Zaratust, at the end of the first millennium 3 , 
and a report of him and his time, and of the many 
destroyers of the organizers of the period between 
Zaraturt's millennium and the coming of Aushedkr*. 

1 Av. £invatd peretuf, the route to the other world (see Bk. 
IX, Chap. XX, 3). 

* Commonly written Hush£</ar, but i is a corruption of Av. 
Ukhsbya</-ereta. He is the first of the three posthumous sons 
of Zaratftjt, who were expected to restore his religion and make it 
triumphant by three successive efforts, each preceded by a period 
of anarchy (see Bd. XXXII, 8, 9, Byt. Ill, 13, 43-50). 

* The millennium of Zaratujt, which, according to the chro- 
nology of the Bundahi.f, must have ended during the period 

a-d- 593-635 (see Byt- 1U > * 1 n). 

* The occurrence of such an interval between the first millennium 
and the coming of Ausherfar seems inconsistent with the previous 

[37] D 



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34 dInkakj), book viii. 

i 3. The arrival of Aush&rfar-mah 1 , son of Zaraturt, 
at the end of the second millennium ; information 
about him and his time, and the destroyers of the 
organizers who were within the millennium of 
Aushe^ar. 1 4. The coming and arrival of Sdshans 2 , 
son of Zaraturt, at the end of the third millennium, 
the destroyers of the organizers who were within the 
millennium of Aush&tfar-mah, the arrival of S6sh4ns, 
and information about Sdshans and his time. 15. 
Also, as to the renovation of the universe and the 
future existence, it is declared that they arise in his 
time. 

16. Perfect is the excellence <?/" righteousness. 



Chapter XV. 
1. The Bakan-yast 3 contains particulars, first, 
about the worship of Auharmasaf, the highest of 
divinities (bakan), and, secondly, of the worship of 
the angels of other invisible and visible worldly 
existences, out of whom are likewise the names of 

statement as to his arrival at the end of that millennium, but, from 
Byt. Ill, 44, it appears probable that he was expected to come in 
the 600th year of the next millennium (a.d. i 193-1235). 

1 Commonly written Hush6<£ar-m£h, but it is a corruption of 
Av. Ukhshyarf-nemangh. He is the second of the expected 
posthumous sons (see Byt. Ill, 52, 53). 

2 Av. Saoshyas; the last of the posthumous sons, who is 
expected to complete the triumph of the religion, and prepare for 
the renovation of the universe (see Bd. XXX, 4, 7, 25, 27, Byt. 
Ill, 62). 

' Corresponding to the fourteenth word, mazdai, in the Ahun- 
avair, according to B. P. Riv. ; but it is the fifteenth Nask in other 
Riv&yats. Bak&n-yajt means 'worship of the divinities,' and is 
written Bagh&n-yart, or Bay&n-yart, in the Riviyats, which also 
state that it contained seventeen kardah, or subdivisions. 



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CHAPTER XIV, I3-XVI, 2. 35 

the days 1 ; also their glory, power, triumph, and 
marvellousness. 2. Besides, also, many angels who 
are invoked by name in their worship, and the atten- 
tion and obeisance due to them. 

3. The worthiness and dispensation of favour for 
worshippers, and the duty of their many separate 
recitations unto the angels. 4. The duty of un- 
limited acquaintance with knowledge about the pos- 
sessions and arrangements of the period, over which 
the creator Auharmas*/ has appointed them, and 
they remain to cause industry. 

5. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness. 



Chapter XVI. 
1. The beginning of the law is the Nika^um 2 of 
thirty fargarctfs 3 . 2. The section Patkar-ra^istin 
(' magistrate code ') * is about this, that the ruin and 
misery (aydyakih) from the destroyer, for mankind 
and animals, occurring really apart from the spiritual 
existence, have arisen through the sinfulness even of 

1 Each of the days of the Parsi month being named after some 
particular angel, or spirit. From this description it appears 
probable that the Yarts formed a part of this Nask ; but, if so, it 
ought to have contained at least thirty chapters. 

9 Corresponding to the fifteenth word, khshathremH, in the 
Ahunavair, according to B. P. Riv. ; but it is the sixteenth Nask in 
other RivSyats. This name should probably be Vtk-a/t-tum, 
meaning ' the most separate concerns,' as the Nask refers chiefly 
to public law; but it is called Niyaram, or Niyadam, in the 
Rivayats. 

* The RivSyats say fifty-four kardah, which number may have 
been obtained by adding the ' twenty-four particulars,' mentioned 
in Chap. XX, 1, to the thirty fargards stated here. 

* The patkir-rarf, or settler of disputes, appears to have held a 
position somewhere between an arbitrator and a judge, and which 
may be approximately defined as that of a magistrate. 

D 2 



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36 dIukars, book viii. 

mankind ; and the progress of ruin and misery in 
the world is owing to unauthorisedly assaulting one 
another. 3. Advice to mankind about abstaining 
therefrom, with an estimate of an authorised assault, 
and, again, for a slight assault and no assault. 4. 
To stand magisterially, even opposed to the un- 
magisterial, with freedom from hurt and loss to one- 
self ; and to abstain altogether, likewise, from the 
most innocuous (anakhrugundtum) assault even 
upon an unmagisterial person. 

5. In all magisterial investigation (patkar-raafth) 
— of which, when the custom that exists is estab- 
lished judicially, the substance is two statements, 
which are verbal and demonstrable, that subsist in 
different combinations — there are four species : the 
verbal and demonstrable, the verbal which is not 
demonstrable, the demonstrable which is not verbal, 
and that which is neither verbal nor yet demon- 
strable. 6. In the arguments (saman) which are 
allotted as verbal are four species, the dispute 
having different arguments and different assertions 
which are for unmagisterial investigation, for one's 
own priestly authority (raafo), for another good man 
— three of such being requisite 1 — and also for other 
evidence 2 . 7. And in those which are allotted as 
demonstrable are six species, and for an unmagis- 
terial person the assertions, like the previous species 
which are on the same subject, are twelve 3 . 8. Of 

1 Evidently referring to arbitrators with an umpire. 

a Reading hano g6k£yih, but hano is an unusual form. Per- 
haps agdkayih, 'want of evidence,' would be more suitable to the 
context. 

3 So the MS., but ' four ' would suit the context better, and the 
two Pahlavi ciphers do not differ much in shape. 



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CHAPTER XVI, 3~I I. 37 



all unmagisterial proceedings — which, though it be 
a custom, is to proceed unauthorisedly — the species 
are five 1 , which consist in having demonstrated, 
getting upon, striking 2 , having caused a wound, and 
having slain. 

9. Of those subject to the magistrate (patkar- 
ra^6-h6m6nd) the twelve species are divided into 
four sections of three each. 10. One section are 
the hearing who are seeing, they to whom a dispute 
which is verbal [is demonstrable ; the hearing who 
are not seeing, they to whom a dispute which is 
verbal 3 ] is not demonstrable ; and the seeing who 
are not hearing, they to whom even a dispute which 
is demonstrable is not verbal. 11. And with these 
three, who are in one section, there is magisterial 
investigation; and the magistrate, unless (ba^a 
hat) 4 risk for the body be certain, is then irresistible ; 
which is as though it be said that to restrain by 

1 These five grades of unauthorised retribution are analogous to 
the five grades of personal outrage mentioned in Vend. IV, 1 7. 

* Pahl. zatam, 'a blow, assault, striking,' is used throughout, 
instead of zakham (Pers. za'^m), which latter word does not occur 
in these two books of the Dinkzrd, except in the form zakhami- 
hastano in Bk. IX, Chap. VIII, 6. The Farhang-i Oim-aSvak 
also uses zatom in the same sense, in its oldest MSS. ; and Dd. 
V, 1 has zatam. Darmesteter suggests that zatam and zakham 
are both traceable to an original zathma, or zathema. 

s The words in brackets are omitted by mistake in the MS. 

* The ambiguity, mentioned in the latter clause of this section, 
appears to lie in these words, which mean either 'but if or 'only 
if.' Such ambiguity must have existed in the original Pahlavi text 
of the Nask, and probably indicates that the earlier part of this 
section is a summary of the Pahlavi version of the original Avesta 
text, while the latter part is a summary of the Pahlavi commentary 
upon that version. As the same ambiguity occurs, without com- 
ment, in § 12, where the meaning seems tolerably certain, it is 
doubtful if the commentator's opinion can be adopted. 



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38 dIukard, book viii. 

wounding (resh) is not justifiable, but the decision 
therein is this, that, when they do not change 
through lawful litigation, and they cannot hold back 
without wounding, it is justifiable to keep them back 
even by wounding. 12. One section are the not 
hearing who are also not seeing, the women, and 
the children ; and with these three, who are in one 
section, there is no magisterial investigation; and 
the decision as to the bodies thereof is this, that, 
unless risk for the body be certain from their com- 
plete change, they are then to be completely changed 
(bara va.rdisn6). 1 3. One section are the foreigner 
and him worthy of death, certain of thereby pro- 
ducing a sentence for being executed from the 
judges ; also the highwayman, when he stays on the 
highway and his destruction is proclaimed, but it is 
not possible to effect it. 14. With these three, like- 
wise, who are in one section, there is no magisterial 
investigation, but the decision about them is even 
this, that when one is utterly destroying their life, 
one is thereby possessing merit. 15. One section 
are they who are walking, or coming upon one, un- 
seasonably, or retreating confused into a rugged 
place, and, when people ask them to speak, they are 
giving no answer, and they are not suspicious as 
foreigners. 16. With these three, likewise, who are 
in one section, there is no magisterial investigation, 
and the decision about them is this, that when one 
kills them outright, one does not become sinful 
thereby. 

17. As to whatever is on the same subject it 
introduces many opinions, and also this, that a 
counter-assault {av dz-za.ta.rn) is that which becomes 
a blow and wound, and is to be so committed when it 



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CHAPTER XVI, I2-XVII, 4. 39 

is possible to produce them again exactly in every 
single particular. 



Chapter XVII. 

Ntkd<Mm Nask. 
1. The second section is the Za tarn is tan (' as- 
sault code'), particulars about assault (zatam) and 
the annoyances (veshigano) from assault, such as 
pain, blood, and unconsciousness ; also the sin * that 
a man may commit in a state of unconsciousness. 
2. About the seven kinds of symptoms of uncon- 
sciousness, and separate decisions about assaults 
that adults may commit among those who are chil- 
dren ; also as regards an assault which proceeds to 
pain and blood, and as regards that in which the 
duration of the disposition of wrath abates the pain 
and blood. 

3. About begging (khvahlsnS) and beneficence 
(hu-dahl-ynS) 2 , such as those of which one says in 
particular there are four species : when stinginess 
(pu^lh) benefits pride (plk6), when pride benefits 
stinginess, when stinginess benefits stinginess, and 
when pride benefits pride ; and there are three other 
species that originate from these last two, in consul- 
tation together, when stinginess and pride benefit 
stinginess and pride, when stinginess and pride 
benefit stinginess, and when stinginess and pride 
benefit pride, all which, together, constitute the seven 
primary species ; many others, too, are traced back 
to these. 4. Also about seeing the depravity (khang 

1 Involuntary violations of the ceremonial law. 

2 The terms used in this section are not quite certain. 



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40 littiKARD, BOOK VIII. 

diafano) of a perverting member of the community 
(k astir dahm) and of the perverter of a member 
of the community, and whatever is on the same 
subject. 

5. About a weapon seizable, and a weapon one 
brings, there is this, namely, what is the thing which 
is imperfect (anas/6rlk) as a weapon, what is that 
which is not, and what is that which is welcome as a 
weapon ; what is that which, when any one forces it 
back at any one as a weapon, is itself something 
annoying to him ; what is his natural annoyance and 
what his imparted ; and the penalty in property and 
difference of sentence on a man who is carrying a 
weapon, due to any weapon he has to carry away. 

6. About the six modes of engaging in conflict : 
through assault, tumult (khva.ri.rn 6) \ false teach- 
ing (mlt6k-sast6) 2 , giving no food (atapd4af6) 3 , 
speaking with wizard's spells 4 , and speaking with 
threats of danger 6 ; and, where there is an engaging 



1 Pers. 'has Is. Farh. Otm, p. 34, 11. 6-8, has ' Av. vaiti=.PaA/. 
kh va.ri.rn6 is that when one runs behind any one for offensiveness.' 

8 Farh. Oim, p. 35, 11. 1-4, has ' Av. mithdsast and its ex- 
planation " false teaching " are that when one teaches a false way to 
any one ; even when he unaccustomedly shows ;'/ rightly to any one, 
it is a committal of Mithdsast by him.' 

3 Compare Pers. tabah, t6, t6f. Farh. Otm, p. 38, 11. 2-4, has 
' Ataftdarf is that when one keeps back food and drink, whereby 
there is hunger and thirst.' It is worthy of death (see Chap. 
XX, 97). 

4 Farh. Oim, p. 34, 11. 3-5, has 'Av. yatukhta, through wizard's 
spells (yatuk-g6buniha), is that when one shall speak thus: "I 
will destroy thee through witchcraft; " when one says " through the 
spirits' lack of good religion " it is of the same kind.' 

8 Farh. Oim, p. 34, 11. 5, 6, has ' Av. dudhuwi buzda, threats 
of danger (saham-numayi^nih), is that when one speaks thus: 
"I will strike with worldly weapons.'" 



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CHAPTER XVII, 5-XVIII, I. 41 

in conflict, it then occurs when one has stood up for 
beginning it and the assault is committed, on one by 
the other, and not before. 7. And this, too, that 
engaging in conflict occurs as regards adult with 
adult, childless women with childless women, preg- 
nant women with pregnant women, and children of 
seven years with children of seven years — but, as 
regards children of seven years in sight of their 
fathers, it becomes an engaging in conflict of the 
fathers — and the decision about it is this, that the 
atonement for every sin which may be committed 
through engaging in conflict goes to the priestly 
authorities. 

8. About the affliction of a pure lord who sees 
anyone who has been useless (a bun) unto his slave, 
though the slave is beseeching, and does not contend 
for his ownership. 9. About sin affecting accusers 1 
not being atoned for by any other good work, ex- 
cept unto the accuser himself ; also about the slaying 
of a servant together with his lord, and whatever is 
on the same subject. 

10. About slaying by untaught children of seven 
years, or even of eight years in sight of their 
fathers ; and the criminality of the fathers therein, 
when it is possible for them to hinder it and they do 
not hinder it, and when it is not possible for them 
to hinder it. 

Chapter XVIII. 
Nikd&um Nask. 
1. The third section is the Rdshistan (' wound 
code'), particulars about cutting, tearing, cleaving, 

1 A sin which injures another person, or any good creation, who 
must be satisfied by compensation before the sin can be remitted. 



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42 BiiiKARD, BOOK VIII. 

disembowelling, stabbing, gnawing 1 , rupturing, hack- 
ing, mutilating, and withering 2 ; such as are all called 
wounds. 2. The upheaving circular movement of a 
certain serpent-scourge 8 , the throwing down of the 
person, and the flow of blood from the bodies of the 
people. 

3. How the various members are divided into 
seventy-six that are more particularly called prin- 
cipal, which are comprised in two classes ; two of 
these, which are clothed and different, one from the 
other, are female, and some out of the surrounding 
parts (girvdganlh), which are apart from eight of 
the principal, that are comprised in the members of 
the two classes and among those seventy-six — and 
which, in like manner, are different one from the 
other — are female, and are of different purpose and 
different design, one from the other. 

4. These, too, namely, when any one, through an 
assault, produces, for any other, stupefaction, swell- 
ing, or leanness, blackness 4 , or paleness, shortness, 
or tallness, want of intelligence, much eating, little 
eating, or moderate eating, indolence, or diligence, 
or dulness of hearing ; or he wishes to speak some 
words, and they strike him in return ; or one alto- 
gether diminishes any one's speech, sight, or hearing, 



1 Or, perhaps, khvSyunS (compare Pers. 'Aayidan) may mean 
' biting.' 

* The last four terms are, in Pahlavi: jk6nuno, khur</5 
kar</ano, tashirfano, and khujfni</ano. 

* The mar-gand (Av. khrafstraghna), we are told in Pahl. 
Vend. XVIII, 6, ' may be made of anything, but a leathern one is 
good' (see also Bd. XXVIII, 22). Intended as a snake-killer, it 
was misused as a scourge for human beings. 

* Assuming that \ts\h, 'excess,' is a miswriting of siyahih. 



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CHAPTER XVIII, 2-X1X, I. 43 

wisdom, strength, or semen, milk, or pregnancy; or 
when one destroys the spleen (s^ur) or milk of 
females, or, in revenge (gt/ar), kills his son out- 
right ; or when they would inflict a wound upon a 
wound, and one's blood goes streaming forth. 

5. Also about an assault with one, two, or three 
weapons, or more, in conjunction ; or they may com- 
mit it on the spot, or in confederacy, or as a first 
offence 1 . 6. About the measure of a wound when a 
two-edged sword (d6barak6) plunges down, the 
area (sarai), walls, and surroundings, and the shape 
which is plunged ; that which is hacked, or cleft, or 
mutilated, or a torrent of blood streaming ; the afflic- 
tion (vamang) of the furious serpent-scourge (mar- 
van6) 2 , and the length, glitter, and weight of the 
weapon. 

7. The ritual for the departure of a wound and 
the departure of pain, watching over it for the dura- 
tion of three nights or a year, its greater wretched- 
ness or less wretchedness, its cure (s/6rlklh) or 
incurableness, and whatever is on the same subject. 
8. Trivial enumerations, and decisions upon each 
separately. 

Chapter XIX. 

Ntkd&Cim Nask. 

1. The fourth section, which is also called the law 

of the Ham&malistan (' accuser's code'), contains 

particulars about accusation, and about the false 

1 These three modes are expressed by Paz. ithrihj hidhih, and 
apavaravarjtih, which stand evidently for the original Avesta 
words ithra, had ha, and apaurvavarf ta (see Chap. XXI, 6). 

% See § 2. 



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44 dInkaw), book viii. 

accusation by any one, regarding any other, as to 
witchcraft, destroying a righteous man 1 , theft, 
plunder, injuring the existence, minor injury* as 
regards several particular things, taking up a 
weapon, threatening with it 8 , assault, tumult 4 , incar- 
cerating 5 , false teaching, fettering, making dejected 
(nigunS), giving no food, falsehood, speaking with 
wizard's spells, or with threats of danger, abstracting 

1 Pahl. aharub&kih (=Av. ashavagha) must not be con- 
founded with aharubofh, 'righteousness,' for which aharSyih is 
more commonly used. 

* These two kinds of injury, usually written b&\6d6k-z&do and 
kiitySk-^arfS in the Dfnkan/, are mentioned in Farh. Otm, pp. 
32, 1. 8-34, 1. 2, as follows : — 'Av. baodha^arf=PaM. bbdb-zhd 
and Av. baodh6-varftah6=i , aM. bd</6k-varft are as it were 
" observantly assaulted," and one mentions them most about the 
assault and injury of anything which is noticeable. Through 
falsehood other noticeable sin is small, and is subdued through 
being devoid of an injurer, as the assault and injury of anything 
through wear is a small sin. K&Uyd-ged is a sin for mankind, 
which is a degree of B6d6k-z&d, but less; so also the decree (d as- 
tin ak) is different from B6rf6k-vawt. The principal Bdd6k-z&d, 
that of animals with observance, the B6d&k-z&d through wear, and 
the K4ity6k-z8</ sin towards people are sins which are ham8- 
malan ("affecting accusers"). The dissipating weapon for sin 
dissipates the sinfulness of the other sin, which is called rubanfk 
(" affecting the soul").' 

8 These two terms are agSrepto and av6imtS (Av. igerep- 
tem and avaoirif tem) which are thus described in Farh. Otm, 
p. 36, 11. 4-6 : ' agerept, " seized," is that when they shall take up 
a weapon for smiting an innocent person; avoirift, " turning," is 
that when one turns the weapon upon an innocent person.' 

4 See Chap. XVII, 6, for some of these terms. 

* Pahl. handerSto which is thus described in Farh. Ofm, pp. 
34, 1. 8-35, 1. 1: 'Av. ha»dereiti, Pahl. handeret5, is that 
when, owing to negligence, one keeps any one exhausted ; when one 
would make him fallen who is of the ruined, or him who is a 
master of arms, and has imprisoned him, the causing of much 
anguish thereby is the committal of incarceration.' See also § 44. 



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CHAPTER XIX, I — 1 1. 45 

the increase of labourers' wages, wishing to cut 
(vurldfano) and squeeze (pashkhadfenS) anything 
from any one, and seizing (m a^i^ano) it for fire and 
water, and whatever is on the same subject 2. 
Also about the limitation of the accusation of sin 
therein, the retribution for it, and the dust, or ashes, 
or flour, for the eyes and the rest of the bodies of 
human beings, it now 1 speaks henceforth for thirty 
successive heads*. 

3. About the sin of making people eat bodily 
refuse 3 , and bringing it unlawfully to their persons 
or clothes ; and of going to a menstruous woman, or 
a wizard. 4. About a juvenile and well-behaved 
woman who comes out from a house of those of the 
good religion, and is considered as well taught. 5. 
About falsehood and slander, small and great, and 
whatever is on the same subject. 6. About the 
care of a pregnant woman in lawful reclining 
(khapak), feasting (g ash no), and work. 

7. About a householder who does not teach his 
own household, in order to teach the household of 
another ; and whatever is on the same subject. 8. 
About a quiet and an unquiet person with equal 
opinionativeness, and the opinion which they have to 
form before beginning. 9. About the expediency or 
inexpediency of the opinion which is announced, 
and the reason of both. 10. About the man who, 
for fear of a counter-assault, runs away. 

11. Also about not renouncing sin, neglecting 
complaints, and whatever is on the same subject. 

1 Paz. knfn (=knun). 
* Of which the details are not mentioned. 
5 Pahl. hikhar (Av. hikhra) is any refuse or dirt from the 
living body, or any liquid exudation from a corpse. 



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46 DtNKAKD, BOOK VIII. 

1 2. The difference of sin in priests from that in any 
one else, as regards its renunciation. 13. About the 
expediency of retribution, and the measure of the 
expediency. 14. About and to what extent is the 
authority of one's own priestly master, for allowing 
the sin which any other person may commit as 
regards a disciple of that same, and that, too, of his 
disciple affecting the soul. 

15. About the chastisement of a judge who is 
releasing sinners, and whatever is on the same sub- 
ject. 16. About the justifiableness of a plaintiff in 
committing illegality. 1 7. About seizing the purity 
produced for foreigners, and whatever is on the 
same subject. 18. About one worthy of death 
making supplication (lavakS), co-operation with 
one worthy of death, and whatever is on the same 
subject. 19. About confession as regards anything, 
the object of confession, and whatever is on the 
same subject. 20. About exhibiting a liking for sin 
worthy of death. 

21. About a blow with a weapon, which is incom- 
plete or not incomplete, when adults or children 
shall inflict it, or when children with mutual assist- 
ance. 22. About a wounded person whose anguish 
was allayed by medicine, the arising of the anguish 
again from disease, when he died, and whatever is 
on the same subject. 

23. About taking security (gar6bo) from the 
defendant after the decree of the judges. 24. About 
the legal proceedings as to an offence when, owing 
to the incapability of the plaintiff, adjournment has 
always occurred, and a man would occasion an ac- 
celeration of the statement of law (d&df6 vtk) and of 
the procedure of the plaintiff. 25. About appointing 



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CHAPTER XIX, 12-34. 47 

a mediator (daafak-g6b6), and the object of media- 
tion. 

26. About an assault (zatam) which is altogether 
of furious (pur-tak) origin. 27. And about a harm- 
less (dzad) assault and striking back fairly to test a 
weapon, and, when it is not possible fairly, turning 
it into execution of duty, or giving of scars (puan^- 
das), or punishment ; a statement of the change, 
and whatever is on the same subject. 28. About 
the limit of the punishment of a child for the sin it 
may commit. 29. About seeking an interpretation 
(p4a?5-khan), the limit of interpreting, and whatever 
is on the same subject. 30. As regards a signal of 
approving the words of any one, on passing away, 
are these : — About giving up anything, making a 
will about it, and renunciation of sin. 

31. About committing an assault upon an un- 
known person at an indefinite time, and whatever is 
on the same subject. 32. About giving a weapon 
and telling some one to kill a foreigner who is taken 
for judicial investigation, and whatever is on the 
same subject. 33. About the great hinderers 1 who 
are slain by a righteous man, who the great hin- 
derers are, and unto whom it occurs ; when one has 
to command it as assistance for one or many, or they 
shall commit the assault in advance or afterwards, 
and whatever is on the same subject. 34. About 
the weapon they shall seize it is stated thus : ' I see 
a man and a sheep, I strike upon this and upon that, 
and it is gone : ' and whatever is upon the same 
subject. 

1 Doubtful: the word can be read freh-gasJgdn on its first 
occurrence, and freh-gajig£n5 on its last; but both reading and 
meaning are very uncertain. 



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48 dJnkard, BOOK VIII. 

35. About petitioning, and the going of a frontier 
governor (mar'span) to the feet of tyrants (sasta- 
r£n6) to speak of regulations, and whatever is on 
the same subject 36. Where and when one strikes 
a living person he vexes him, and the living person 
he strikes vexes him when dead ; but he who strikes 
a dead person is vexed alive, and the dead person he 
strikes vexes him when dead ; and whatever is on 
the same subject. 

37. As to wood and useless pith (dll), that which 
is for keeping is as far as a dimension that is men- 
tioned, and one, therefore, passes it by not to burn ; 
concerning also that wood which is only for the blast 
of a furnace (gurlh ziga) as firewood, the burning 
and dimensions and blast of the furnace are stated, 
and whatever is on the same subject. 38. About 
the sin through which a man attains from atonement 
to the sacred-twig ordeal (baresm6k-varlh), and 
from the sacred-twig ordeal to the heat ordeal 
(garem6k-varlh) which has maintained the worthi- 
ness of an assault that is an actual inexcusability 
(tfiarih) 1 to reasoning thought ; and whatever is on 
the same subject. 

39. About the excellence of physicians, their merit 
from doing good, and sin from not doing good ; the 
quality that exists as regards medicines, seeking a 
physician for animals also, and whatever is on the 
same subject. 40. About a horse, which is new to 
the saddle (k6fak), being made tailless (kap£) and 
not feeding (akhavano), how it is done, the sin 
owing to doing it unlawfully and heedlessly, the 

1 It might be 'inevitability,' but this would render the ordeal 
unnecessary. 



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CHAPTER XIX, 35-46. 49 

wound and damage that' arise from it, and whatever 
is on the same subject. 

41. About several persons, when anything that is 
imperfect, or even not imperfect, as a weapon is con- 
venient to them, and a wound occurs, and it is not 
evident which, or who, threw the weapon, it is not 
necessary to know its imperfection or lack of imper- 
fection 1 ; and whatever is on the same subject. 42. 
About the three modes for thrusting a weapon are 
these details, that is, so much of it when one thrusts 
it on ground that is hard, or soft, or full of 
ruggednesses (^ariganakd) ; when one shall bear 
it up aloft, and the amount of the height ; and when 
one impels it again with a sweep, or has to draw up 
its centre at the time of a sweep ; and whatever is 
on the same subject. 43. About an assault and the 
most hurtful occasion when, for the same reason, 
they would celebrate a religious rite; the retribu- 
tion on the spot, and the sentence upon the fourth 
occasion 2 . 

44. About incarcerating (handerdtS) in a fright- 
ful and inaccessible (aviafarg) place, and among 
noxious creatures ; the quantity of noxious creatures, 
and whatever is on the same subject. 45. About 
grasping the tail of an ox, or a horse, on which 
another sits, to hold it back, and whatever is on 
the same subject. 46. About threatening danger, 

1 The fact of the wound being sufficient to prove the unlawful- 
ness of using the weapon. 

* According to Vend. IV, 35, if a man wounds another so that 
the blood comes, and does this for the fourth time, he becomes an 
outcast and receives the maximum punishment. Also, when a 
person walks without the sacred girdle or shirt (Vend. XVIII, 59), 
it is at the fourth step that the demons possess him. 

[37] E 



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50 DtliKARD, BOOK VIII. 

wizard's spells 1 , and whatever is on the same sub- 
ject. 

47. About plaints as to the value of a lamb 2 , or a 
sheep 3 , or a beast of burden (st6r), or a human 
being (vir6k) 4 ; either when the plaintiffs are one, 
or two, or three, or four, or many; how one has to 
summon the defendant, and how much time there is. 
48. About when the controversy (han-bdshinfh) is 
as to theft (du^ 6), and the confession as to plunder 
(avor) ; or the controversy is as to plunder, and the 
confession as to theft ; and when the controversy is 
as to injuring the existence 8 , and the confession as 
to minor injury; or the controversy is as to minor 
injury, and the confession as to injuring the exist- 
ence ; and when the controversy is as to theft and 
plunder, and the confession as to injuring the exist- 
ence and minor injury; or the controversy is as to 
injuring the existence and minor injury, and the 
confession as to theft and plunder. 49. And when 
the controversy is about so much, and the confession 
about so much of a different kind ; when the con- 
troversy is about so much, and the confession about 
more of a different kind ; when the controversy is 
about so much, and the confession about less of 3. 
different kind; when the controversy is about so 
much, and the confession as to more of the same 
kind ; and whatever is on the same subject. 



1 See Chap. XVII, 6. 

* Pahl. Av. as/eren6 (=Pahl. anas/6rlk) 'imperfect, imma- 
ture;' an epithet for a lamb or kid. 

* Pahl. anumdye" (Av. anumaya), probably 'bleater/ an epithet 
for a sheep or goat. 

* These four grades of value are mentioned in Vend. IV, 48. 

* See § 1. 



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CHAPTER XIX, 47-56. 51 

50. About the sin of unfriendliness of a. master 
towards a disciple, and whatever is on the same 
subject. 5 1 . About taking a thief of any one's goods 
(al.rlg&nS), conducting him to the judges, and what- 
ever is on the same subject. 52. This, too, that 
when affliction has come upon a good man, the 
effort of every one, for removing that affliction, 
should continue just as though it happened to him- 
self. 53. And when a good man is beaten through 
malice, the effort of every one, in demanding com- 
pensation for him from the smiter, should continue 
just as though it happened to himself. 54. And 
this, too, that, when there is no danger for one, the 
power of affording assistance is thus assistance ^"the 
innocent ; and, as to the property which may be 
carried away from him, and of which they shall 
make no restitution, after as much as a Hisar 1 the 
carrier ^"becomes guilty and liable to penalty. 

55. About the distinction of indigenous and foreign 
(air va-an-alr) thieves as to cold and the clothing 
given, and as to sickness and undergoing remedies. 
56. About the hands of a foreigner being unfettered 
for no other reason but care of water and fire, to 



1 A Hisar (A v. hithra) is a measure of distance, as well as of 
time. This is stated in Farh. Oim, pp. 41, 1. n-42, 1. 3, thus : — 
' Of the Hisar there are also several kinds that express measure- 
ment. A medium Hisar on the ground, which they call also a 
Parasang, is a thousand steps of two feet which have to walk. 
With the lapse of time of a medium Hisar the day and night are 
computed.' Again, p. 43, 11. 1-3 state that ' of twelve Hisars is the 
longest day ; that day and night in which is the longest day are 
twelve of the longest Hisars, eighteen of the medium, and twenty- 
four of the least.' From this it appears that an average Hisar of 
distance is a thousand paces, or Roman mile; and an average 
Hisar of time is one hour and twenty minutes. 

E 2 



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52 DtNKAJU), BOOK VIII. 

preserve them from blood, filth, and injury (4sip6). 
57. About the sin of not restraining him who is the 
first assailant of two combatants, as soon as his 
attack is seen. 58. About teaching the peace of 
renunciation of sin, the bond of worthiness of him 
of great power even when proffering union in renun- 
ciation with him of little power, and whatever is on 
the same subject 

59. On the nature of responding about the keep- 
ing away from one worthy of death which arises 
through great judiciousness, the reason of keeping, 
how to keep, and whatever is on the same subject. 

60. And on the nature of responding when they 
ask in malice about a righteous man, when one 
knows his whereabouts, and when one does not know. 

61. About how one is to give a weapon to generals 
(h6n-gd-padfanS) and august frontier governors. 

62. About authorisedly shooting an arrow at one 
worthy of death, which is given again for killing 
him to any one unto whom the person worthy of 
death is consigned and becomes supplicating (lanak6) 
and goes to the middle of the distance, and they 
shall afford him assistance and enervate him for it, 
when, through the three words 1 which he utters, 
they do not deliver him up again. 63. About one 
worthy of death who is preserved with great 
judiciousness when the evidence, which they give 
before that about him, is through another one 
worthy of death, and whatever is on the same sub- 
ject. 64. About evidence as to witchcraft and 
destroying a righteous man, that is, in what propor- 

1 Possibly humat, hukht, huvarjt, 'good thoughts, good 
words, and good deeds,' which would be accepted as a sign of 
repentance. 



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CHAPTER XIX, 57-XX, $. 53 

tion it is certain or doubtful. 65. About causing the 
execution of one worthy of death for entertaining 
fondness for witchcraft and laughing at witchcraft, 
and whatever is on the same subject. 



Chapter XX. 
Ntk&Mm Nask. 

1. In the fifth section are twenty-four particulars 1 
about the standing up and going forth of a man 
with a weapon and angry thoughts towards another 
man; and also when he takes a beast of burden, 
saddles it, and sits upon it, takes the rein 2 (ay6kham) 
in hand and walks away; this, too, that, when he 
arrives there, he smites that man, or some one else ; 
and whatever is on the same subject 2. About 
what one has to do when the conversation of two 
men is of the destruction of a righteous man, of high- 
way robbery, and of the cursing owing thereto ; and 
whatever is on the same subject. 3. About what 
one has to do when, of two men who are on the same 
road, one slays a righteous man ; and about the 
other when he is fearless, and when he is fearful. 
4. About preserving one worthy of death when it 
is requisite for medical purposes (besashkih), 
though the plaintiff is of a different opinion ; and 
whatever is on the same subject. 

5. About the needlessness of plaintiffs and defen- 
dants speaking as to the substance (min tanu) of 

1 It is not clear whether these twenty-four particulars are to be 
sought in the details of § 1, or in the whole chapter, or some por- 
tion of it 

* Merely a guess. 



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54 dInka/u), book viii. 

the law, when the witness and judge is the supreme 
priest ; the confidence which they may place in the 
decision of the supreme priest, due to his own know- 
ledge and evidence, when, moreover, they have not 
to atone in the body; and the want of confidence in 
another judge when, moreover, they have to atone in 
the body, and the needfulness of plaintiffs and defen- 
dants speaking on the substance (va/ tanu) of the 
law, even when the judge is aware of the law. 6. 
About unauthorised combatants, become mutually 
sinful, when, to dissipate (sikhtano) a wound of 
the one, he would make the other one worthy of 
death. 7. About supplies (pishdn) 1 in travelling 
together, and their renewal ; and whatever is on the 
same subject. 

8. About inflicting penalties by magistrates, the 
assistance of the unmagisterial given to magistrates, 
the assistance of the magistrates, and the exemption 
of these latter from atonement to those former; 
likewise about conversation as to an assault, and 
whatever is on the same subject. 9. About the 
evasion of penalty by men at the time when a sin 
may be committed, and the arrest of their nearest 
relations being important, in whatever measure im- 
plicated therein and impossible to consider innocent ; 
how to confine and make them really coerced to 
seek a remedy, and whatever is on the same subject. 
10. About the powerfulness which comforts in sin 
where there is any special worthiness, and the reason 

1 Compare Pers. bifin^, Av. fshaoni. In some cases it might 
perhaps be read pikhvd, and be traced to Av. pithwa. The word 
often occurs, as in § 11, Chaps. XXIII, 3, 15, XXVI, 10, XXVII, 
4, 6, XXXI, 25, 36, XXXVII, 5, 7, 22, XLI, 19, 23, XLIII, 19, 
and its meaning, ' provision, or nourishment,' is well ascertained. 



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CHAPTER XJ(, 6-I3. 55 

of any worthiness ; the want of power where there is 
special unworthiness, and the reason of any un- 
worthiness ; the production of the good works of 
one towards another of the powerful, and of the sin 
of one of those lacking power ; and whatever is on 
the same subject. 

1 1. About the plaint which otie has to argue, and 
for the defendant to dispute ; the time for making 
the statement (g6b6) when the defendant does not 
come, or comes not to conduct the business ; the 
several peculiarities of plaintiff and defendant, the 
time for conducting being on the day before yester- 
day, the firm one and the powerless, the incrimination 
therein, the death-blow on the exhaustion of the 
possessions of the plaintiff, and provisions for con- 
ducting the legal proceedings ; a privileged wife l 
shall be capable of making a plaint for her husband, 
and of informing the husband of the plaint ; when 
her property is anything whatever, and nothing is 
manifest as to that wealth, she is to be admitted for 
evidence ; and whatever is on the same subject. 

12. About the ordeal of those who have atoned, 
of those undergoing the sacred-twig ordeal, and of 
those undergoing the heat ordeal, who are pure ; the 
freedom from falsehood of which, each separately, 
which they, every one of them, request when the 
ordeal is not that for their own station, but that for 
the station of others ; and whatever is on the same 
subject. 13. About the object of any evidence, and, 
on account of the reason of its propriety, the impro- 
priety of any one being without evidence ; and what- 

1 One married to her husband with the parents' consent, and 
never betrothed to another, so that she and her children belong to 
him in both worlds (see Bd. XXXII, 6 n). 



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56 dInkakd, book viii. 

ever is on the same subject. 14. About the reality 
of a statement due to an ordeal, and so many having 
gone to the ordeal place for the sake of watching the 
first-comer and after-comer; the time of perform- 
ance, the statement, the ceremonial and the invul- 
nerableness due to it ; the kinds of incrimination, 
how to protect the limbs by which the ordeal is 
accomplished, and each one of the formulas (ntrang) 
of protection ; the superintendence for observing the 
ceremonial, and the decision about the acquitted or 
convicted one. 15. This, too, that is, whose going 
to the ordeal place is first, second, third, fourth, fifth, 
sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth ; and by whom 
is the command to be given. 16. About the business 
of the ordeal attendants (var austlganS). 1 7. About 
incrimination through confession, or some other rea- 
son, the reliance restored thereby, and whatever is 
on the same subject. 18. About a thief destroying 
life and escaping, the suspicion owing thereto, about 
any one, as to assisting the thief, and whatever is on 
the same subject. 19. About there being no ordeal 
for those confessing, and so also as regards those of 
good repute ; accusation as to the existence of a 
limit to the good repute, even that which is for the 
extent of a Yu^yist, a Dashmest, an Agoy6st, a 
Taiar, and a Hasar 1 at the least. 



1 The relative lengths of these five measures of distance are 
stated in Farh. Ofm, p. 41, 11. 9-1 1, as follows: — 'So much as 
two DashmSst (Av. dakhshmaiti) is as much as a Yu^yast (Av. 
yu^yasti); so much as two Agoydhast is'as much as a DashmSst; 
so much as two Talar is as much as an Agoydhast ; and so much 
as two Hasar (Av. hithra) is as much as a Ta&ir (Av. ta£ara).' 
As the average Hasar is a Roman mile (see Chap. XIX, 54 n), the 
Ta£ar (' run ? ') is two, the Agoydst or Agoy6hast (' cattle-run ? ' 



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/ 
CHAPTER XX, 14-26. i " 57 

20. About litigation as to a costly article, when a 
witness of *& possession by the one party is combined 
with non-possession by the other one with no witness, 
or with its possession by the other one with a single 
witness ; or the witness of one is with the sacred 
beings, and its possession by the other one is like- 
wise not manifest ; when both parties are related 
(khidyahlk), or both are unrelated (anazdlhlk) ; 
and what kind of possession they say is most real. 
21. About annulling the decision of a judge, and the 
time it is done at the court of 'a chief judge, and also 
owing to an ordeal for certainty; and whatever is on 
the same subject. 22. About the litigation of three 
persons as to property it is declared, so much is 
given to one on the day Auharma^ to the day 
Vohuman 1 , to another one on the day Arda.vah.ist, 
and possession is not made over to the third one 
at all. 

23. About selling property which is not one's own, 
and whatever is on the same subject. 24. About 
controversy as to anything which ought not to occur. 
25. About any essential dispute that any one has, 
when agreeing thus : ' I do not have it as my own, 
but owing to the other person ; ' and whatever is on 
the same subject. 26. About the litigation of an 
Iranian with a foreigner, or with foreigners, of a 

Av. gaoyaoiti ?) is four, the Dashmfist (' distance-mark? ') is eight, 
and the YQgySst (' stage ? ') is sixteen miles. This series of dis- 
tances is analogous to the Sanskrit series, but more elaborate ; the 
H&sar is best compared with the Kroja as the commonest unit of 
moderate distance, though less than half its usual length; the 
Agoy6st is nearly the same as the Gavyuta ; and the Yftgyast is 
analogous to the Yqg-ana, though nearly double its length. 

1 That is, on the first or second day of the Parsi month ; and to 
the other on the third day. 



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58 d!nkarz>, book viii. 

foreigner with an Iranian, or a slave with a man of 
the country, as to a costly article ; and whatever is 
on the same subject 2 7. About a much-clamouring 
plaintiff having summoned defendants to the judges 
regarding a decision, and about the perverted wordi- 
ness and mixed verbiage in the legal proceedings ; 
and whatever is on the same subject. 

28. About the time for a high-priest of property 
and possessions, what is the specific necessity for a 
high-priest, and whatever is on the same subject. 
29. About the fitness of a woman for evidence and 
judgeship when guardian over herself, and the unfit- 
ness of a privileged wife 1 who is a foreigner and 
worthy of death for only a single offence, even with 
the authority of her husband ; and whatever is on 
the same subject. 30. About the owner of a pledge 
not depositing the pledge beforehand, and whatever 
is on the same subject. 31. About giving up the 
property of partners, and whatever is on the same 
subject. 32. About the property that any one pos- 
sesses, and is without any witness as to his owner- 
ship and possession of it. 33. About the ordeal of 
excessive eating (pauru-khuran6) for escaping 
distress (must-kar .sth) by plaintiffs and defendants 
before driving each other into legal proceedings, and 
whatever is on the same subject. 

34. About the legal proceedings as to a female * 
they steal from some one, and she becomes a sup- 
pliant of a thief; some one takes her by sequestra- 
tion (haklda.kth) 3 , and they steal her also from him ; 



1 See § ii n. * A slave no doubt. 

* This is the technical term for legal seizure, or sequestration 
(see Chap. XXXIX). 



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CHAPTER XX, 27-43. 59 

the original possessor (bun) sees his own, not know- 
ing she is back alive, when they become disputing 
about her ; and whatever is on the same subject. 
35. About property which is in the possession of 
any one, when some one gives it up to some one else 
in his sight, and he does not dispute it. 36. About 
a master teaching a disciple not to go back to legal 
proceedings, and whatever is on the same subject. 
37. About controversy, with any one, as to special 
property in righteous gifts, and whatever is on the 
same subject 

38. About legal proceedings in which one accom- 
plishes an ordeal three times, and it comes off in one 
way; and whatever is on the same subject. 39. About 
the existence of the many kinds of speaking with 
wizard's spells 1 , and those with threats of danger ; 
and about the usage in witchcraft as to the moderate 
and justifiable production of mutual afflictiveness 
thereby. 40. About which is the ordeal for one 
worthy of death, the greatness and littleness of an 
ordeal, and also this, that is, which are the blessed 
among twentyof those undergoing ordeals. 41. About 
the proportion of firewood, and from which tree it 
ought to be good; and again, too, the several ap- 
pliances and formulas that are necessary in accom- 
plishing the ordeal. 42. And this, too, that when 
the man is aware of his own truth, even though he 
be aware of it, the fire speaks in the words of men 
thus : ' Walk not on to me ! for I chastise during 
one's progress.' 43. About one still mediating in 
legal proceedings as to a thief who has acted 
faithfully about quitting confinement and fetters to 

1 See Chap. XVII, 6. 



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60 dInkakc, book viii. 

cause a ceremonial 1 , and whatever is on the same 
subject. 

44. About the wealth of a priest who is not keep- 
ing his property in edifices (auzdestklh) or domains 
(mata), but goes on with his occupation ; and when 
he passes away, to whom and how it has to come. 
45. About litigation as to property from the residuary 
wealth of fathers, about keeping it together (vi- 
ham-dar), and whatever is on the same subject. 

46. About the amount of retribution, in confine- 
ment, fettering, and punishment, for a lamb 2 , a 
sheep, or a beast of burden, which is stolen ; and 
whatever is on the same subject. 47. About a de- 
fendant regarding whom three plaintiffs complain, all 
three as comrades, one as to a lamb, one as to a 
sheep, and one as to a beast of burden ,- and whose 
answer is first given. 48. About the litigation of 
three persons as to a costly article which remains 
apart from them, he who deposited it being a strong 
person, and the ownership of not even one of them 
being certain. 49. About the coming of retribution 
to three persons who, all three as comrades, have 
stolen a lamb from one, a sheep from anotfier one, 
and a beast of burden from a third one. 

50. About the reason of the justifiableness, and 
that also of the unjustifiableness, of confining a 
y"*//W-countryman for his own theft, and whatever 
is on the same subject. 51. Abont the extent of 
continuance in hearing a defendant, and this, too, as 
to a plaintiff ; also about the time appointed for 
speaking, and its extent. 52. And about this, 

' Or it may be * to provide supplies.' 
• See Cbap. XIX, 47. 



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CHAPTER XX, 44-60. 6l 

namely, when any one has made an accusation about 
any other, and goes back at the time appointed, and, 
before a reply is given, he shall make out another 
accusation about the same man, to which of the two 
accusations a reply is to be first given. 53. About 
the reason of the hardship of legal proceedings ; 
about what man it is whose statement is second, 
third, fourth, and last in conducting legal proceed- 
ings; and about the twenty-two stratagems in con- 
ducting legal proceedings. 

54. About the cancelling (pidfyaranth) of an 
ordeal, even that which is accomplished with three 
selected witnesses. 55. About the season of the hot 
ordeal, and also that of the cold ; and whatever is 
on the same subject. 56. About one, in a procedure, 
demanding an ordeal, the other one having appointed 
the time for the supreme priest, and whatever is on 
the same subject 57. About the benediction of the 
supreme priest on making, or changing, a decision ; 
also this, namely, which are the blessings for chang- 
ing, through their nature, a decision which is made. 

58. About evidence of walking upon a water-skin 
(khlk) and putting something inside it, ^"assault and 
wounds, ^"wealth which they squander (nikizend) 
and a righteous gift, of a damaged and sequestrated 
thing; and grubbing up (p4flf6-mali^n6) and buy- 
ing it strengthened *, and at a price. 59. On litiga- 
tion about the ownership of a wife, cattle, trees, and 
land; and whatever is on the same subject. 60. 
About the certainty of the statement of several 
leaders of an affair, as to that on which their affair 

1 Plz. adganghen for Av. aoganghem=ao£ , anghem (see 
also Chap. XLI, 17, 18). 



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62 D$NKAJU>, BOOK VIII. 

depends, and of the supreme priest, or three wit- 
nesses, in every legal proceeding. 61. About in- 
crimination (alrikhtaklh) of several kinds as to 
statements in legal proceedings, and whatever is on 
the same subject. 62. About the modes of action 
for eradicating the deceptions (fr£»6ano-fitar) of 
apostates, and whatever is on the same subject 

63. About cases where the virtuousness of the 
thoughts, words, and deeds of mankind is all derived 
from the virtuousness of the beneficent spirit, and 
mankind themselves shall render it their own, and, 
in that way, its reward reaches them; and their 
viciousness is all derived from the viciousness of the 
evil spirit, and mankind themselves shall render it 
their own, and, in that way, its bridge penalty 1 
reaches them. 

64. About the injuriousness due to unrenounced 
sinfulness, that is, what is injured by the first, 
second, third, fourth, or fifth unrenounced Aredto 
sin a . 65. About where and which is the speaking 
with threats of danger 3 , and which is the taking up 
of a weapon (age'reptS), not the turning it down, 
that becomes aTanapuhar sin*; also the. sin which 
is owing to such sin. 

1 The decision announced at the ATnvarf bridge (see Chap. 
XIV, 8), as to the fate of the soul until the renovation of the 
universe, after the account of its good works and sins has been 
accurately balanced. 

8 Farh. Olm, p. 36, 11. 6, 7, has ' when through sinfulness one 
lays a weapon upon a sinner, the name is Areduj.' 

8 See Chaps. XVII, 6, XIX, 1. 

* Whereby a person becomes an outcast and worthy of death. 
According to Vend. IV, 67-72, 75-78, 81-84, this occurs on the 
eighth committal of an Ag6rept6, on the seventh of an AvdfrwtS, 
and on the sixth of an Areduj- ; or on the first committal of any of 
the three, if the criminal refuses to atone for it. 



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CHAPTER XX, 61-73. 63 

66. About the case where one has to atone, and 
who does it; he who undergoes the sacred-twig 
ordeal has atoned best ; and which is the least heat 
ordeal. 67. About two men having seized pro- 
perty together, and having together, at the time, 
demanded a judge and ordeal about it ; and when 
one seizes the property some time earlier, and the 
other one demands the judge and ordeal earlier ; and 
whatever is on the same subject 68. About some 
one carrying offxhz. property of a person from the 
custody of another person in sight of the same, and 
he who kept it before, is, within a Hasar 1 , a witness 
before the judge as to its custody or possession ; 
and also when the witness of it has not come 
within the Hasar ; and whatever is on the same 
subject. 

69. About cases where the decision of the judge 
is to be made from the Avesta and Zand 2 , or from 
the common consent of the good s , and whatever is 
on the same subject. 70. About the justifiable 
selling of a man, a sheep, or a beast of burden, as 
free from defect when its defect is not obvious ; also 
about the symptoms of their defects. 71. About 
the case where and how far a decision, about which 
one is in dispute, is a solitary statement, or more. 

72. About the object of the appointment of a 
judge, the eminence of an appointed judge, and 
whatever is on the same subject. 73. About the 
reasonableness of the severity and want of severity 

1 Eighty minutes on the average (see Chap. XIX, 54 n), but 
varying from one hour to two, according to the duration of day- 
light 

* That is, from the scriptural law and its commentary. 

* That is, according to precedents recorded by the priesthood. 



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64 dInkard, book viii. 

of judges. 74. And this, too, that the judgeship is 
to be given to him who is acquainted with the law 
(akas-darf) 1 ; and the object of acquaintance with the 
law. 75. About the case where there are a supreme 
judge of the law, a plaint, a defence, an arrangement 
of legal proceedings, and an award ; and through 
what sin it becomes injustice. 76. And this, too, 
that the justice of him who may therein commit 
falsehood, as regards so many essential decisions, is 
injustice. 

77. About the many who may seize wealth, which 
is the property of some one, with their own hands ; 
and, when they litigate about it, he says it is his 
own property, whereby they are convicted. 78. 
About incrimination of five kinds as to whatever 
property is on the spot, or at a distance (pavan 
hasar) ; and whatever is on the same subject. 79. 
About putting apart, keeping apart 2 , and two apart 
before being put away; also about litigation as to 
keeping apart, and whatever is on the same subject 
80. And when some one has to deliver property 
which is a person's own to some one else, in the 

1 This term is explained in an extract from some Nask (com- 
pare Chap. XLIII, 9) quoted in Farh. Oim, pp. 17, 1. 9-18, 1. 5, as 
follows: — 'Av. kd asti rfkaSshd vivifdatd, which is the judge 
who is acquainted with the law? Av. yd a€ta pairi arethra 
frazanaiti, he who thoroughly understands the adjudication from 
the statements [even though he does not easily understand many of 
the statements, and though it be not easy as regards the statements 
which are not numerous, is an official who is acquainted with the 
law (karrf&r-i ak&s-d£rf); and he who does not thoroughly under- 
stand the adjudication from the statements, even though the state- 
ments are not numerous, and it be not easy for him as regards 
them, is to be still considered as unacquainted with the law 
(anakas-da</)].' 

* Compare § 115. 



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CHAPTER XX, 74-88. 65 



sight of him whose own it is, and he who is seizing 
upon it disputes about it as his own property; and 
whatever is on the same subject. 

81. About disputing the debts of fathers when 
one of their associates is confessing them, and the 
rest have come, and it is possible for them to dis- 
pute them, but they do not dispute. 82. And about 
the progress of a dispute of one of the associates as 
to the whole debt of one's fathers. 83. About the 
possibility of children being worthy of death, for 
wizard's spells, when with their guardian ; and of a 
woman being so when guardian of herself. 84. 
About a case where the amount of a lamb (mldat-I 
as/eren6) is the lowest, and the amount of a human 
being (vlrok mozd) is the highest 1 . 85. About 
theft and plunder as regards one's own property, 
when one brings it away from the possession of some 
one without dispute. 86. About the triumph of 
him who, falsely investigating, may act judicially by 
illegally-issued incentives, when he institutes legal 
proceedings for the sake of appearances 8 ; as distin- 
guished from him who is truly seeking and truly 
investigating. 

87. About the statements of a litigation of man 
and wife, which is justifiably brought on 3 . 88. 
And also this, namely, when she sees herself in- 
jured, or defence is possible by means of that which 

1 The minimum and maximum grades of value mentioned in 
Chap. XIX, 47. Here it is evident that mfdat and mozd are 
synonyms, the former being, no doubt, the Zvarij, or Semitic, 
equivalent of the latter, compare Chald. rno. 

* Pahl. khakunfha, literally 'through making a dust.' 

* Or it may be ' of a man and a woman who is domineeringly 
plundered.' 

[37] F 



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66 DtNKAUD, BOOK VIII. 

is discharged by two fingers \ it is justifiable when 
they shall institute no litigation but seizing. 89. 
About the person who has become privileged to give 
away a daughter to a husband, her father having 
passed away. 90. About the sin of making a 
damsel (kanlk) weary of her husband. 91. About 
the sin as regards property in this action, either pro- 
duced where the action for this purpose is really 
devoid of illiberality (adahunlh), or to commit in 
order that they shall give me a wife even when they 
do not give her on that account 92. About the sin 
of giving a girl (kanlk) for a girl, or other living 
thing, or of speaking thus : ' Do thou go in unto my 
sister, or daughter, while I, too, will go in unto 
thine.' 93. And the sin as regards the person of 
my wife, too, which is owing to that sin. 94. About 
one obtaining back the value which he gives away 
for a girl, when the girl is not that value in wedlock. 
95. About a girl who, after fifteen years of age, is not 
given to a husband ; and her father, to satisfy her 
menstrual excitement(dashtan-meyah vi^ar^anS), 
and to sustain it, becomes sinful and harbours a 
paramour ; and whatever is on the same subject. 

96. About having given food, and anything except 
a wife, to any one who praises the Maa^a-worshippers' 
religion of another, even though it be through fear ; 
also this, that it is only he, when he has thereby 
become quite of the same tenets with the religion of 
the Mazda-worshippers, to whom the gift of a wife 
worthy of a man (vlr masat) is then to be pre- 



1 That is, in some very easy way. The intention was probably 
to discourage petty disputes between man and wife, by not inter- 
fering with the stronger party when aggrieved. 



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CHAPTER XX, 89-IO5. 67 

sented. 97. About committing the sin of giving no 
food \ which is one of those worthy of death. 98. 
About the duty imposed of chastising a wizard for 
the Tanapuhar sin 2 of assisting a demon 3 , so that 
one's duty is manifold, and to be accomplished during 
several years. 

99. About the day and night which are longest, 
medium, and shortest; that is, how many Hasars* 
they are, each separately; and, as to their occurrence, 
in what control is the appointed time which is really 
theirs, each one, as to period. 100. About the Para- 
sang 6 which is the longest, medium, and shortest ; 
and whatever is owing to their subdivision. 

101. About the work and fodder (vasan) 8 of an 
injured beast of burden, by day and night. 102. 
About a sheep which kills a person, and whether its 
owner be innocent, or sinful, through not putting a 
tether (band) upon it; and the reason of the sinful- 
ness and innocence therein. 103. About the period 
that extends from certainty to dubiousness, even 
though it be for the supreme priest, or one provides 
three witnesses; and how long it is. 104. About 
the multitude of witnesses who give no evidence, 
together with the judge who is unjustly deciding. 

105. About the injuriousness (<2,srarlkth), for the 



1 See Chap. XVII, 6. « See § 65. 

8 Reading de" v-vi^in which is miswritten ta^jxj. 
4 See Chap. XIX, 54 n. 

* A distance of four H&sars (Bd. XVI, 7), or as far as a far-seeing 
man can distinguish a black ox from a white one (Bd. XXVI, 2). 
It is usually from 3I to 4 English miles, but in Pahlavi texts it 
often stands for a Hasar, or Roman mile, both being measures for 
long distances. 

• Or ' rations' (viyag&n). 

F 2 



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68 d!nka/u>, book viii. 

priestly authorities, of anything that is given to the 
unworthy. 106. About what kind of gift, that is 
given, was accepted ; that is, how, when given by- 
one when another claims it, it returns to him ; how, 
and in what proportion, when the other does not 
claim it, its expediency does not arise ; and whatever 
is on the same subject. 107. About a case where 
there is property of several kinds which a man has 
given away as a righteous gift, and it is allowable. 
108. About the case where whatever is given and 
reaches some one, when he gives it and does not say 
how /'/ was given, it becomes a righteous gift. 109. 
And about its not having become a gift, through fear 
of whatever is its danger. 

1 10. About the theft and extortion of him who 
does not maintain the wives and children of persons 
in his control, to preserve and nourish them, through 
fear. m. About the allotment of punishment for 
the limbs of sinners, and upon which limbs is the 
allotment. 112. About the atonement for sin where 
it is most irksome. 113. About the amount of 
retribution for an assault (zatam) which may be 
committed upon one worthy of death who is preserved 
through great judiciousness. 

114. About Atiharmazd having given all pros- 
perity to Zaraturt and the disciples of Zarattot ; the 
theft and extortion which have arisen in a man when 
he has not given to a worthy person any of the 
prosperity that has befallen him; and whatever is 
on the same subject 1 1 5. About how an animate 
being is situated who is in a place apart (aham), and 
when he dies in innocence and keeping apart l , his 

1 Compare § 79. 



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CHAPTER XX, I06-122. 69 

wound being also through duty; and whatever is on 
the same subject. 116. About the advantage and 
pleasure of keeping a promise (mitro-darih), and 
the gravity, harm, and vexation owing to various 
degrees of promise-breaking (mitr6k-dr(i£lh) ; also 
how a promise is kept. 117. About the grievous 
sinfulness of strife, insincerity (a vakhih), and slander, 
and the harm that proceeds therefrom; also the 
frost (pazd) and punishment provided for them ', 
and whatever is on the same subject. 

118. About having given frontier people 2 as 
hostages (gardbS) to foreigners who have demanded 
a ransom (naz/i.?nS). 119. About taking up (lala 
g£refstano) anything whatever that is precious to 
a foreigner, and has become of exceeding value, 
when they give it up as a ransom 8 to Iran ; the 
extreme value of a youth (tigil) when they shall 
carry him off as a hostage from the foreigners, in 
place of ransom ; and how they are to keep both. 
1 20. About the grievous sinfulness of a man stealing 
back his ransom from foreigners, though it be his 
own son. 121. About the sinfulness of the governor 
(sard a r) of a province through any harm that 
occurs in the province owing to his elevation and 
evil commands. 

122. About the existence of so many thieves 
assisting a thief with special ransom, and what kind 
of reward (na&i^no) one is to use with thieves, to 

'.In hell (compare AV. XL, 7). 

* Pahl. mar'sanan, which might be supposed to be a defective 
writing of margar'^inan, ' those worthy of death ' (the two letters 
equivalent to rga being omitted), but see Chap. XXI, 13. 

* The MS. pak is evidently a defective writing for nawak which 
is written correctly in the next clause of this section. 



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70 DiNKA/U), BOOK VIII. 

deceive with great judiciousness. 123. About at- 
taching to the neck of a thief the thing which was 
stolen by him, for his personal identification, and 
conducting him to the judges. 124. About the non- 
atonement of thieves, by any amount of anything 
whatever, without confession as regards their own 
sin. 125. About the assistance to possession which 
is claimed by any one from the authorities (paafan), 
when his property is stolen or extorted. 

126. About the grievous sinfulness and deceitful- 
ness of many kinds which occur when a woman who 
is given away with her concurrence, and her accept- 
ance is announced, is given to another man ; and 
whatever is on the same subject. 127. About the 
unjustifiableness of the wisdom of a man, through 
which he took away property in dispute, from him 
who was ignorant, before there was certainty about 
it. 128. About making intercession in a dispute, for 
him who is ignorant, with the judge and other 
authorities and chiefs, even including the king of 
kings 1 , when there is no intercessor for him. 1 29. 
About the reason of the fitness of a. man for sove- 
reignty, and the lodgment of Atiharmazd upon the 
limited (tang) person of him who is a good ruler. 

130. About the five special ordinances (diafistan) 
that are certain ; these are without ordeal, because 
they are to be considered as certain, and the penalties 
thereof are to be fully inflicted. 131. About investi- 
gation after confession. 132. About squandering 
(nikizand) wealth of which the custom (dast6bar) 
of maintaining is begging for it. 133. About the 
progress (sa^i^nS) of legal proceedings not having 

1 The Persian monarch. 



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CHAPTER XX, I23-I43. 71 

occurred, which is not demanded on account of the 
existence of want of power, and the number of kinds 
of that want of power. 1 34. About a woman with- 
out a guardian, when she takes a paramour, and 
whatever is on the same subject. 

135. About bringing a written statement into 
judicial proceedings, and whatever is on the same 
subject. 1 36. About the sin of frightening any one 
from his place, when he shall move on account of 
that fright, and the amount of movement- and harm 
which will come upon him therefrom. 137. The 
delivery back of that which is extorted from ones 
hands or keeping ; that is, how it is to be considered 
as delivered. 

138. About the obviousness of a minor adjudication 
from that which is greater. 139. About the ex- 
treme benefit and peace, even in this world, through 
a wife and children and grandchildren, and also the 
prosperity, as regards produce and even wealth 
thereby, taking away the disputes that arise. 140. 
About the grievous sinfulness of wealth acquired 
through unnatural intercourse 1 , the annihilation of 
the spiritual faculties (maln6gan5). 141. About a 
decree in which the decision is of three descriptions, 
about three persons. 142. About a tree which, 
when stolen away, is the death-blow (mat) of a 
hundred pure birds (va£), and a thousand birds 
arise. 

143. About a sin which, owing to deceiving pre- 
viously, has to increase ((rdz mastan6) its extent, 
and to fully taste the extremest crime of a dagger 

1 VSmkunth, compare Pers. bdmun. It cannot be 'making 
loans, or money-lending,' because that would be spelt dv&m- 
kunfh. 



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fi d{nka*d, book viii. 

(dahrakS) of several of the smallest finger- 'readths. 

144. About the sin of defiling four-footed females. 

145. About keeping back one of the combatants 
from fighting, and whatever is on the same subject 

146. About counter-assaults of eight kinds, assault 
when an infidel shall commit it upon one of the good 
religion, and whatever is on the same subject. 147. 
About a counter-assault of a heretic (du,y-d6nd) 
when an arch-heretic (saritar-d6no) is slain. 

148. About not leaving any property in the keep- 
ing of one worthy of death. 149. About such 
numbers of abettors of sin being with the sinner, 
and whatever is on the same subjects. 150. About 
the injury of a plaint and defence, and the dwelling, 
property, and feast of the good, by that person who 
extols the presidentship which is given him, but who 
is not fit for the presidentship. 151. About the 
sinfulness of a judge when he shall make a decision 
for anyone according to his origin. 152. About the 
grievous sinfulness of delivering the person of an 
Iranian to a foreigner, and whatever is on the same 
subject 

153. About the greatness of the gift of a righteous 
man, as compared with (min) the gift of another, 
for Rashnu 1 , the just, to proclaim among the crea- 
tures and to accept. 154. This, too, that, when 
they encounter an apostate and it is necessary to 
hold a controversy, though there be danger for the 
hands or feet, or though even for the head, there is 
to be no refraining from asserting that which is true. 



1 The angel of justice who weighs the good works of the de- 
parted soul against its sins, in order to decide its fate till the end of 
time. 



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CHAPTER XX, I44-162. 73 

155. This, too, that he who does not assert, on 
account of fondness for wealth, or dislike for his 
own people, vexes water and fire and the righteous 
man, and disturbs even the reposing archangels from 
their thrones. 

1 56. About the grievous sinfulness of making the 
righteous dissevered (a u^kaftak 6). 157. About the 
bad properties produced by the evil spirit, adjudica- 
tion attentive to lying evidence and false, in opposi- 
tion to Rashnu, the just, and through discontent at 
the advantage due to Rashnu, owing to the impossi- 
bility of the occurrence of those mischiefs being 
produced at Rashnu's judgment seat, there where 
they do not give decisions for the wretched for the 
sake of the aristocratic multitude (dsiLd havandth 
rai). 158. And about the aristocratic multitude 
which comes to Rashnu owing to taking bribes, and 
went with a complaint to Auharma,^, and whatever 
is on the same subject 159. About a just judge 
who is appointed one of an assembly for the opposi- 
tion of thieves, oppressors, and destroyers of the 
righteous. 

160. About the possibility of the coming of every 
one, through diligence, to the best existence. 161. 
About the superiority (maslh) of true justice over 
(min) other good works, and the grievous sinfulness 
owing to false justice, and when they shall not 
deliver a sentence with a full understanding of the 
true from the false. 

162. About solemnizing and learning by heart 
(narm karrfanS) the Gathas, the Hadbkht 1 , and 

1 Here written H&/6it6; the name of the twentieth Nask (see 
Chap. XLV). 



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74 dInkard, book viii. 

the Vartag 1 , through knowing the foundations 
(payakan) thereof; the sin owing to not knowing 
them, and whatever proceeds therefrom. 163. About 
the greatness of the law through decrees and judg- 
ments from other discourses (srdban). 

164. About property of seven kinds, of which one 
says that it is not allowable to take it as security 
for other property. 165. About ten friends with 
different assertions on the same subject. 

166. And about the apportionment of this dis- 
course there are complete decisions of several other 
kinds, and into those, too, it advances and thereby 
introduces much adjudication which takes heed, in 
every one, of words and deeds of many kinds, and 
is specifically and also intelligibly apportioned. 

167. Perfect excellence is righteousness. 



Chapter XXI. 



1. The first of eighteen sections of the Ganaba- 
sar-ni^"arf 2 contains particulars about the thief, with 
his arrest as the special thief of that which is seized 
(tereft6) by him; the premeditated sin, the im- 
prisonment and fettering, the punishment appointed 
for atonement of the sin, the execution of the duty, 

1 The name of the eleventh Nask (see Chap. XII). 

1 Corresponding to the sixteenth word, ahurai, in the Ahun- 
avair, according to B. P. Riv. ; but it is the eighteenth Nask in 
other Rivayats. Ganabi-sar-ni^arf means ' the thiefs head 
downstricken ; ' but it is misread Dv4sr%ad, Dvasrun^ad, Dvasru- 
gid, or Dvisrdb, in the Riv&yats, which also state that it contained 
sixty-five kardah, or subdivisions, which agree with the numbers of 
sections mentioned in Chaps. XXI, XXIII, XXIV. This Nask is 
evidently named from the contents of its first section, and possibly 
from its initial words. 



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CHAPTER XX, 163-XXJ, 6. 75 

and the amount of the reward (navisn) ; the amount 
of speciality in the ransom (na&ak) of every one, 
each separately; the act and place of punishment, 
what is the person who is strangling and the mode, 
how those who are therein strangling are drawn 
forth (na,z!-aitS) successively, and which is set to 
work first 

2. About a person whose offending limbs are 
bound, the degree of tightness of the binding and 
fettering, and the formula (nlrang) of being bound 
for the sin of theft 3. About imprisonment, and 
the imprisonment which accusers have to provide, at 
their own expense, if they are those who are privi- 
leged; and whatever is on the same subject. 4. 
The number of places for fetters, and those which 
the thief, whoever he is, possesses, each separately. 
5. How far, how, and for what putting on of fetters 
(garov-dalmnth) those accusers have to provide a 
thief s fetters, too, at their own expense, if they are 
those who are privileged ; the place for the requisite 
privileged putting on of fetters, the sin owing to 
putting on more fetters of a different kind, and that 
which is owing to neglecting the putting on of the 
fetters which they have to provide; the limit as 
regards the deserving of more fettering, the number 
of grades of theft beyond the limit of deserving 
fettering, and those which are below the limit of 
deserving fettering. 

6. About the kinds of theft, and the excessive 
sinfulness of a thief through cutting 1 and wounding 
the body ; the undiscoverableness which is specially 
as regards a thief at a distance (pavan hasar), he 

1 Assuming that g(Wan5 stands for khftrfano. 



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76 TilllKAlW, BOOK VIII. 

who is on the spot being he who is within one step ; 
theft, with plunder, injuring the existence 1 , minor 
injury, and other sins, may be in confederacy* before- 
hand or afterwards. 7. About the thievish design 
of a theft which is not abetted (la ham), a theft 
with equal shares, and a theft with different shares. 

8. About the sin of assisting a thief (du^ - alyyi- 
rak), of making investigation and releasing, of a 
sentence of acquittal, and <?/"a listener to a thief; he 
who is a giver of assistance to a thief is carried off 
for theft ; also decisions about theft by a child, by a 
childless woman, and by her who is pregnant ; like- 
wise their maintenance and earnings (vindi^n6) in 
retributive work, and the work of a pregnant thief. 

9. About the accumulated property of the in- 
numerable which they would keep away from thieves, 
both the thief by means of his hands, and him who is 
a thief not by means of his hands. 10. About the 
testimony of a thief, that is, for what it is admissible 
when 3 he advances as a thief; how at the //»a?when 
it is necessary to seize and bind him, and how at the 
time when it is necessary to flatter (ni vakhtano) and 
deceive him until one attains to absolute power 
(kam-karih) thereby. 1 1. Aboutrewards (na»i^n5) 
with thieves. 1 2. About the difference of theft from 
plunder. 

1 3. About property which any one, carrying it off, 

1 See Chap. XIX, 1. 

* PSz. hidhih, probably for a Pahl. adjective harfak from Av. 
hadha, and referring to accomplices before and after the fact 
(see Chap. XVIII, 5). 

* Assuming that mun stands for amat, their Iranian equivalents 
being nearly alike, and the latter word being used in the succeed- 
ing clauses. 



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CHAPTER XXI, 7-XXII, 3. 77 

has to bring back to its owners ; such as that which 
the frontier people may take away from foreigners, 
that which the judge may take away from thieves, 
and the share which he may take away from any one 
not interfering 1 with thieves. 14. And about pro- 
tectors and defenders of a thief, and also many other 
legal decisions as regards theft. 



Chapter XXII. 
Ganabd-sar-nigad Nask. 

1. The second section is miscellaneous (ham- 
daafak5): about the authority for the enquiry 
(khvast-radfaklh) of a father into the sin of a 
grown-up son, when unaware of the sin of his son at 
the time it is committed ; that ofz. son into that of a 
father, and pothers grown-up, as to one another, 
when they are not abettors of the sin ; and that of a 
husband into the sin of a wife, when not and when * 
co-operating and unrestraining. 2. About arrival at 
the period for the teaching of children by a guardian 
or father, and the mode of his teaching ; the period 
at which the sin of a child has reached a beginning, 
the extent of the sin of childhood, the retribution in 
childhood, and that also at maturity; the sin due to 
not teaching a child who is to be taught, and what- 
ever is on the same subject. 

3. About the freedom from slaughter which is to 

1 Av. asterethwln. The share being a bribe for purchasing 
non-interference. In each case the property is to be restored to its 
original owner who had been robbed by the foreigners or thieves. 

* Perhaps the repetition of the word a mat, 'and when' is a 
blunder of the copyist. 



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78 dInkakd, book viii. 

keep away the destruction of the world ; and what 
is the mode of distributing the property of a man of 
the valiant after his slaughter. 4. About the sin of 
having given implements of slaughter to a woman, a 
child, or a foreigner. 5. About a woman who, as 
regards two men worthy of death, demands the 
head of the one, and is seeking a son in the other 
one. 

6. About a warrior, without provisions (atu^ak5), 
who, on the march, has come upon pasture, corn, 
and sheep whose shepherd 1 is a stranger to h.im, and 
whatever is on the same subject. 7. About con- 
sidering property inexpedient, and the decision 
thereon. 

8. About the amount of delay of a judge on 
becoming aware that the plaintiff is falsely petitioning 
and the defendant is falsely confessing. 9. About 
the amount of delay of the judge, and in the court 
of justice (d&d gas); and whatever is on the same 

1 The Pahlavi word is written -0-00 twenty-four times, and 
-•0-00 once, in this Book, but its reading is not quite certain. It 
means 'shepherd' throughout Chaps. XXIII, XXXIX, and in 
XXXI, 17, 31, XL, 3; but is used for 'herdsman' in XXXIX, 3, 
and for ' follower ' in XXXI, 2. This last meaning is strongly in 
favour of the reading paslg, for pasik, 'following,' an adjectival 
form derived from pas, 'after,' which, when used as a noun, would 
imply ' one who follows,' as drovers and shepherds are accustomed 
to do, with a few local exceptions. The Pahlavi spelling of the 
word is uniformly inconsistent with the reading pas, ' guard, pro- 
tector ; ' and it seems hazardous to trace it to a possible A vesta 
adjective pasvya, from pasu, 'a sheep,' because the latter word 
becomes pah in Pahlavi. The word also occurs in Pahl. Vend. 
XV, 116; it is a transcript of Av. fshmghf and fsh^nghyd in 
Yas. XXXI, 10 b, XL1X, 9 a, and of fsh€ in Vend. XIII, 10, n; 
so that it may perhaps be read fsheg, or fsh§, as a mere transcript 
from the A vesta. 



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CHAPTER XXII, 4-18. 79 

subject. 10. About a decision regarding a judge 
who explained a doubtful opinion as a certainty, 
and that which is certain as a doubtful decision, and 
would make an undecided matter decided. 11. 
About the opinion as to certainty and that as to 
doubtfulness, making a decision, and whatever is on 
the same subject. 

12. About the business ^commissioned judges, 
from him who is lowest to him who is highest, one 
above the other one. 13. Decisions about adjudica- 
tion ; that which is legal when two judges are 
together, that which is legal with either one judge or 
two judges together, and whatever is on the same 
subject. 14. About the statements of a decision 
regarding interpretations (paafS-khananS) 1 , and 
whatever is on the same subject. 15. About the 
proportion of the time of judges for decision, that 
for summoning witnesses to the judges, and that for 
the proceedings (sa&isnb). 16. About the judge 
who is doubly satisfied 2 , and him who is not doubly 
satisfied; also the time from a judge's not being 
doubly satisfied till his being doubly satisfied. 17. 
About a judge of four customs, and his decision 
thereon ; one who knows the decree and would act 
to effect it, and one who knows it and would not 
act. 18. About the supremacy of a judge as to 
adjudication so far as there is a false decision therein ; 
how it is when he is at a distance (pavan hasar), 
and how it is when he is on the spot ; he who is at a 

1 Pahl. parf6-khan = Pers. paTAvan. 

* Paz. vaydzuit, Av. vay6zujt6=dvay6zujt6. Farh. Oim, 
p. 43, 11. 10-12, has 'the Vaydzurtd, who is a judge, explains this, 
so that the petitioner who is doubtful is a hearer of certainty ; it is, 
as one says, deliberately weighed.' 



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80 DtNKA-RD, BOOK VIII. 

distance becomes a superior therein, when he comes 
back to the place of justice before the end of a 
Hasar 1 . 19. About other false teaching of a judge 
which is manifest therefrom, and the retribution for 
the false teaching ; the false summoning, false in- 
vestigation, and false evidence of the complainant 
(must-hdmdnd) having been his own, and a separate 
atonement unto the afflicted one has to atone for the 
affair ; it having been mitigated by no good work. 
20. About the trouble of adjudication to the priestly 
authorities (radfan). 21. About the proficiency of a. 
woman or child who is acquainted with the law 2 , for 
a judgeship, being above that of a full-grown man 
unacquainted with the law. 

22. About assisting the want of one's own disciple 
for a master for the recited law, and the sin due to 
not assisting, such as that when, wanting assistance, 
// is allowable for the afflicted one to beg an assistant 
from foreigners, and according to his petition is the 
bringing of a foreigner for assistance ; and whatever 
is on the same subject. 23. About the supremacy 
of Rashnu 3 the righteous. 

24. About several persons who are engaged in 
legal proceedings about the keeping and non-division 
of property not their own, and the decision as regards 
for whom one has in keeping that property which is 
not his own. 25. About actions which are not in- 
consistent and those which are inconsistent. 26. 
About the decision of a judge of congregational 
actions. 

27. About the offence which accusers would com- 
mit, as regards the law, by means of the law, it being 

1 See Chap. XX, 68. * See Chap. XX, 74. 

* See Chap. XX, 153. 



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CHAPTER XXII, 19-XXIII, 5. 8l 

not allowable to commit it with their own hands ; 
also as regards anyone's property, about which there 
is a dispute, even though with a certainty as to its 
ownership. 



Chapter XXIII. 
Ganaid-sar-nigad Nask. 

1. One section of the next twelve is the Pasuj- 
haurvastan {^ shepherd s-dog code'), about the shep- 
herd who is selecting a shepherd's dog for the sheep, 
and the shepherd with various shepherd's dogs ; 
about the shepherd's comprehension of their service- 
ableness, one with the other, and whatever is on the 
same subject. 2. The extent of authorised efficiency 
(^allt-garikih) accomplished by the shepherd's-dog 
nature of a shepherd's dog, after his being appointed 
by the shepherd. 

3. About the shepherd's preparing the means of 
bedding * for the shepherd's dog, giving the amount 
of the price of the daily food of a shepherd's dog, 
provisions for the dog in the winter, and the pre- 
paration of a fire beforehand which it is necessary to 
make in the sheepfold (pah-hastS). 4. About the 
mode of preparing the appointed f replace of the 
sheepfold, the position of the shepherd's dog and the 
dog's fire, the means of lodging and provisioning 
the shepherd's dog in the sheepfold, the sin owing to 
the occasions when one proceeds to provide another 
mode, and whatever is on the same subject. 

5. About the diligence of the shepherd's dog, and 
about his being guardian of the sheep asleep at night 

1 Or 'covering,' j-AmakS. 
[37] G 



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82 DiNK ARD, BOOK VIII. 

in flocks * dreading distress ; the dog, their protec- 
tion, is not provided with bedding, nor with pillow, 
and they are happy; every night he has to come out, 
through the whole flock, three times, besides when 
one of the guards (paafino), who is apprehensive, 
counts them, who, every day at dawn, has to walk 
out among the sheep, with good words, to inspect 
them, to apply remedies properly to the sheep that 
are sick, wounded, bruised, or defective, and to be 
their guardian ; also the sin owing to worrying them, 
and whatever is on the same subject. 6. About 
that which is to be done by him as regards the 
breeding of the sheep, and likewise for the sake of 
the young ones ; and the sin when he does not do it, 
or shall act otherwise. 7. About his fully under- 
standing where and which is the sheep for each 
young one. 8. About his habit and means of keep- 
ing away the thief and the wolf from the sheep, and 
the preservation of the sheep thereby when an awful 
cloud and wind and rain arise, or when the position 
of those distressed ones, at the fords of rivers, 
comes opposite a locality (nisi^no) of bad footing; 
when it is not possible for him to save all, he has to 
save the greater in value, or the more in number. 

9. About his having guarded a sheep from the 
pasture ^/"others and the retribution for the sin of 
not having guarded as to the eating and damaging 
of the corn and pasture of others by the sheep. 10. 
About the extent of preservation by the shepherd's 
dog's driving the sheep from the corn and pasture of 
others of various species, such as that which one 
calls the very stupid (gdltar) pig; there is, more- 

1 Paz. pastvln for pasfivSn (pi. of pasu). 



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CHAPTER XXIII, 6-l8. 83 

over, the specified pasture as regards those sheep, 
but the pig, which feeds upon its own predecessors, 
is also that which may commit another sin, for it 
feeds upon even its progeny at birth. 

11. About the indication of an assembly place 
(garang) for the sheep, in a warm or cool locality, 
by the shepherd's dog. 1 2. About the characteristics 
of sheep from one to four years of age. 13. About 
the village (vis) of the shepherd, where the shep- 
herd's dog is known when he arrives ; how it is 
when a sheep has to be kept out of the sheepfold by 
the shepherd's dog, and how it is when it has to be 
driven by him to the village of the heedful shepherd. 
14. About the coming of the shepherd unto a sheep, 
and the path from the village which the shepherd 
has provided for * the flock. 

15. About a shepherd when he withholds the 
daily food of a shepherd's dog, and the exhaustion 
of life thereby; after the fourth deprival of food 
(atapak-daaf5) 2 it is allowable for the shepherd's 
dog to kill a sheep for nourishment. 16. About a 
sheep, which comes astray into the flock to be 
slaughtered, being the perquisite of the butcher 
(bahar-i ku.yt&r), and that of the shepherd's dog 
being its dog 8 and the appointed number of one 
sheep. 17. About their extent of movement, and 
their pregnancy and growing old (bar va-khasan). 
18. About the sin of the shepherd, as regards the 
shepherd's dog, through injustice as to work, 

1 Assuming that valman stands for va/. 

* See Chap. XVII, 6. 

* The dog who allowed the sheep to stray being thus punished, 
by becoming the prey of the dog into whose flock the sheep strayed, 
who also receives a sheep as his share of the butchering. 

G 2 



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84 DiNKAW), BOOK VIII. 

reward, and chastisement ; and of the shepherd's 
dog, as regards the shepherd, through improperly 
tending a sheep, or worrying it by exertion; also 
his chastisement, and the payment that occurs for 
the incompetence and unworthiness therein ; besides 
adjudications between the shepherd and shepherd's 
dog. 

19. About the instruction which the shepherd 
gives to the shepherd's dog, through reminders 
(pavan ayadftha), to control a sheep, when, the 
shepherd's dog having heard some musical notes 
(sruaft) gasan6), the instruction took place in the 
form of words ; and, when the notes were not heard, 
even by a blow (za tarn), the means of that instructor 
being a blow. 20. About the peculiarity of the 
shepherd's dog as regards its employment (r6f kar). 
at the periods of satisfying menstrual excitement, 
solemnizing the season-festivals, and other important 
good works. 



Chapter XXIV. 
Ganabd-sar-nigad Nask. 

1. The first section of the last thirty-five is the 
Stdristan ^ beast-of -burden code'), particulars about 
the sin, affecting the soul, due to unlawfully striking 
and wounding as regards beasts of burden and 
cattle ; and the retribution and compensation for it 
to one's own cattle, that in case of a beast of burden 
and that in case of a sheep (anum<2£), during life. 
2. That which arises when one smites them with a 
brand (dakhshak); that when one smites them on 
the flank, and that when it is in front of them ; that 



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CHAPTER XXIII, 19-XXlV, IO. 85 

when their flanks are so smitten is complete smiting. 
3. Of the smiting, too, of other members, the 
smiting in front, though the smiting be such as when 
one so smites for smiting on the flank, is not com- 
plete smiting. 4. And that which amounts to as 
much as a complete smiting, when one so smites as 
for smiting on the flank, is such as that when one 
casts off the skin, and that when one casts off the 
flesh, thereby, that when one is cutting it, or that 
when wounds (khtman) or serpent-6courging (mar- 
van 6) 2 are upon it. 

5. It is also about making the dog which drives 
the sheep (pasuj-haurv6) dumb. 6. About bruis- 
ing the limbs and plucking the feathers of birds, 
such as the case when it is complete smiting, and 
such as that when it is not complete smiting. 7. 
And unlawfully destroying as regards fish, such as 
when it would make their flesh uneatable. 8. An 
account as to noticeably and worryingly beating cattle, 
about decrees of whatever kinds as to each separate 
beating worryingly that is to be considered as notice- 
able beating, and many decrees as to whatever is 
on the same subject. 9. About the retribution for 
making clothing of skins and woven wool (tad? ak 8), 
and the sin of any one owing to kindling a fire 
therewith, or roasting flesh which is stolen or 
plundered. 

10. About the good work of all that is wise 
activity, and the reward of the happy place 2 ; the 
sin of everything that is ignorant activity, and the 



1 See Chap. XVIII, 2,6; or it may be muharvand, 'cauter- 
izing.' 
* Heaven. 



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86 dInkakd, book viii. 

bridge penalty of the evil place 1 ; connected there- 
with, to make him who is righteous develope in 
wisdom, and to make him who is wicked diminish in 
ignorance, is the world. 



Chapter XXV. 
Ganabd-sar-nigad Nask. 
i. The second section is the Ar'^istan Rvalue 
code '), particulars about the value of small consump- 
tion of animate, and also that of inanimate, property; 
with the desirableness of information thereon, each 
separately. 2. The value of not destroying a 
righteous man even for a decree and justice, and of 
atonement for injuring the existence* of the fire of 
Varahran 3 . 

Chapter XXVI. 
Ganabd-sar-nigad. Nask. 

1. The third section is the Arat£$taristan 
^warrior code'), particulars about the worthiness of 
destroying a wolf ; and, among wolves, the greater 
need of destroying (zanijntarih) those with two 
legs than those with four legs. 

2. About selecting the daily supplies of warriors, 
the beasts of burden, clothing, and equipment of 
warriors, and other appurtenances (a^artganakih) 
which are to be given to them ; also selecting a 
horse and accoutrements (z6nS-#fzar) preach one. 

1 Falling into hell owing to the narrowness of the Alnvarf bridge 
to the other world, occasioned by an excess of sin over good works 
(see Dd. XXI, 5-7). 

* See Chap. XIX, 1. * The sacred Bahiram fire. 



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CHAPTER XXV, I -XXVI, 12. 87 

3. About having a man's horse trained before one 
sends him to smite enemies. 4. About the efficacy 
of the resources and care of a warrior in the destruc- 
tion which enemies occasion ; also the army and the 
slaughter of war. 5. About the sin of the village 
and abode of the warriors on the occurrence of a 
battle, and what is the retribution for wounds and 
damage ; what is that which is disfiguring (aplrayak) 
therein, and what is that which is worthy of death 
therein. 

6. About the characteristics of the wearing of ar- 
mour (zdnavandlh) and not wearing of armour by 
warriors. 7. About the rank of the general (sipah- 
paafo), and other officers (padfan) over the troops, as 
to daily supplies, pay, and dignity; also their subordi- 
nates (asfrag), and the number of troopers (gurd) to 
each one of the officers. 8. About the anxieties of a 
trooper for the protection of person and family. 9. 
About the number of troopers when the king of 
kings goes to battle. 10. About the proportion of 
daily provision for two warriors, the meat and milk 
and bread thereof, which are for the sake of provid- 
ing guidance and causing contests of the warriors 
in that good eating ; also the reason of certifying 
(g6va!k) its distribution and weighing, the beast of 
burden of the original village (bun kdklh) 1 , and its 
means of being sent unto the troops. 11. About 
cutting the herbs for the veterinary surgeon (stdr 
beaashkfi), the store of accoutrements, and other 
things which are necessary with an army. 12. 
About the feeding of warriors on the day of battle, 
the meat and whatsoever are their eatables ; even so 
the food of the horses. 

1 Whence the supplies come. 



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88 d1nka*z>, book viii. 

1 3. About the wealth which foreigners bring away, 
and this which is declared thereof, that is, 'I, too, 
am assisting even the wolf.' 14. About the display 
of esteem by warriors together, the union of friend- 
ship one with the other, obedient unto their com- 
mander of the troops, and mindfully resigning 
themsz\\zs to death, there being seen a spiritual 
reward, without doubt, in the future existence. 

15. About the choice of a commander over the 
troops ; also as to his coming and understanding 
the habits of his troops, each separately, through 
the capability of skill which is theirs. 16. About 
estimating the strength and resources of the troops, 
with those of their enemies ; that is, how the battle 
is to be engaged in, or how the case is when it is to 
be avoided. 17. About the provision of anything 
requisite * which warriors shall leave for safety when 
there is danger in the neighbourhood from a distant 
stronghold, or danger to a neighbouring stronghold 
from afar. 18. About the case where, when it is 
necessary to engage in battle, the horse of a warrior 
has not arrived, and it is allowable to seize upon 
several horses from a herd of horses. 19. About 
the watchful sentinel (nigahakft pispano), and of 
what kind is the information from which this is 
manifest, to the army and commander of the troops, 
that the enemy is well dead, or fled. 

20. About a demonstration whereby they produce 
terror and apprehension in the enemy. 21. About 
an altercation of the commander of the troops with 
foreigners before a battle ; altercation also through 
an envoy, and calling them into subjection to the 

1 Or 'of value;' khvastako having both meanings. 



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CHAPTER XXVI, 1 3-26. 89 

king of kings and the religion of the sacred beings. 
22. About admonition to the troops, and declaring 
the share and arrangement of special duty of each 
one in the fight; announcing to the troops the 
recompense of the active, telling and informing the 
troops of the reason of being worthy of death, of 
the worthiness of destroying foreigners, of the com- 
mand of the sacred beings as to their destruction 
when they shall not accept the Iranian nationality 
(Alrih), and the equally great reward and recom- 
pense for their destruction announced by revelation, 
the legal code (da^istaniklh) of Iran. 

23. About not uttering words of irritation on the 
day of battle, and not mentioning, among the troops, 
any intelligence which gives the troops apprehension, 
but only that which is agreeable and pleasing, 
through giving heartiness and increasing the 
strength. 24. About the sacred ceremonial on the 
day of battle and evil deeds of war ; — a twig of the 
sacred twigs of that ceremonial, and the Avesta as 
regards fighting, being the first arrow well delivered 
into the mark shot at; — the consecration of the 
water which is nearest to the place of battle, even 
by bringing holy-water; and the sequence of the 
fight, that is, with which arms and appliances it is 
first to be fought, and successively unto those which 
are the last. 

25. About the proportion of those who keep the 
arms (za£) for the combatants, and, after a victory 
over foreigners, are taking away the hostages and 
captives, out of the foreigners, from the combatants ; 
also their return from them. 26. At what degree of 
distance from them they have to carry the arms and 
appliances and the restoratives for the unfatigued 



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90 dInKARD, book viii. 

and the fatigued ; and, the accoutrements being 
deposited, a warm bath prepared, and relaxation of 
the body effected, the reward of merit is given. 27. 
One has to search offenders, to bring restoratives for 
the unfatigued and the fatigued, to deliver the 
accoutrements back to the arsenal (gangd), to allot 
the share of the hostage brought back to his own 
people, and also much else on the same subject. 



Chapter XXVII. 
GanaM-sar-nigad Nask. 
1. The fourth section is miscellaneous : about a 
warm bath being in a house of what kind, the posi- 
tion of security of the fireplace, the watchfulness to 
be upheld there, and whatever is on the same sub- 
ject. 2. About the strength that a horse has to 
exert for the sake of the earth, and that which is to 
be exerted in that mode for the sake of fire. 3. 
About food and other matters which may be pre- 
pared with fire, and the security of the fire in like 
manner. 4. About fire which, even on the road, is 
free from throwing away, bodily refuse 1 , and dead 
matter 8 , and from the injury and harm owing 
thereto ; the various safeguards of fire from being 
given to an infidel (ag-d£n6) or a child ; the dis- 
tance of the fire from a rivulet s ; the penalty for 
throwing it away, or other sin as regards it ; and the 

1 See Chap. XIX, 3. 

s Any solid portion of a corpse, or carcase, of a human being, 
dog, or other animal. 

' Which might extinguish it and, thereby, render the person who 
had charge of the fire grievously sinful. 



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CHAPTER XXVI, 27-XXVII, 12. 9 1 

proportion of nourishment and preparation for the 
fire in summer, and also in winter. 

5. About picketing (bara nixastanS) a horse, 
that is> how it is justifiable when it is in water and 
dust, how it is so when really in very distressing 
bodily refuse, and how it is so when even in bodily 
refuse that is tolerable. 6. About the proportion of 
nourishment for mankind, fire, and cattle. 7. About 
receiving a guest, the praise of liberality, and the 
grandeur of the liberal, the contempt for stinginess, 
and the want of the wanderer. 

8. About the mode of wearing garments in a 
dwelling of Mazda-worshippers, even so far as a 
bandage of four rags for protection 1 ; the care of 
them each separately, the wages of the makers and 
ornamenters of each one, and whatever is on the 
same subject. 9. About having procured a street- 
keeper (kugpanfi) for the Mazda-worshippers, the 
business of the street-keeper thereof, and whatever 
is on the same subject. 

10. About preparing in the summer a store for 
the winter. 11. About reaping a field of corn, the 
Avesta 2 for the first reaping, and having consecrated 
the first sheaf with the dedication (shnuman) to 
Auharmasd the lord. 12. About the union of those 
of the good religion together, both in removing 
want and in union even with infidels in that which 



1 Reading vad-i£ vand-i-f 4 ldto-1 panakfh, and taking 16to 
as equivalent to Pers. la tab. We might suppose that the phrase 
meant 'a belt of the four strings (ru</6) of protection,' but the 
number would not correspond to the three times the sacred thread- 
girdle passes round the waist, nor would the material of rutfo, 
' catgut,' be appropriate for the girdle. 

1 The scriptural formula to be recited in its original language. 



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9 2 niKKARD, 600K VIII. 

is not detrimental to the religion, and whatever is 
on the same subject. 13. About duty as regards 
the produce of plants and animals ; first, suitable 
eating ; and secondly, moderate eating and avoidance 
of profusion. 

14. About possessions which belong to the nobles, 
and those which belong to the multitude ; in what 
manner that which belongs to the multitude has to 
come into the possession of the nobles ; and what- 
ever is on the same subject. 1 5. About the envious- 
ness (zigurih) of the beast of burden, ax., and sheep, 
and also of people ; that is, in how many of the 
multitudes, each separately, it is produced ; and 
whatever is on the same subject. 16. And also 
much other adjudication and information on similar 
intelligence. 

1 7. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness. 



Chapter XXVIII. 
1. One section of fas. first thirty of the Huspa- 
ram * is the A6rpatistan 2 ({priest code '), particulars 
about a case where one has to provide for a priestly 
assembly (a£rpatistan), which is a birth ; how the 
case is when it is important to go, how it is when one 

1 Corresponding to the seventeenth word, &, in the Ahunavair, 
according to B. P. Riv. ; and it is the seventeenth Nask in all 
RivSyats. This name should probably be Avisp-kharam, mean- 
ing ' free from all defect ; ' but it is called Huspiram, Aspdram, or 
Aspdrum in the Rivdyats, which also state that it contained sixty- 
four, or sixty, kardah or subdivisions. The former number agrees 
with the total of the sections mentioned in Chaps. XXVIII, 
XXXII, XXXVI. 

* A considerable portion of this section is still extant, combined 
with a larger portion of the next section, the Nirangistdn, whose 
name is applied to the whole text 



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CHAPTER XXVII, 13-XXVIlI, 8. 93 

stays at his own house, and how it is when it is not 
allowable to go ; also deciding about the chief priest 
(a6rpat6), and the proportion of priests (asruko) 
who are superior, of those who are intermediate, 
and of those who are inferior in the estimation of 
the wisdom of the righteous. 2. About the priest 
whom one is sending, and the wayfaring garments 
and appliances which are to be given to him. 

3. About the disciple, as reverent towards the 
chief priest ; the labour in receiving the sacred words 
and teaching them to the disciple ; the advice of the 
chief priest to the priests ; and the muttered phrases 
at the time of contamination by dead matter. 4. 
About what priest — on the arrival of a priest back 
at the district from which one sends him — is to be 
appointed, as priest for the district from which he 
came, by the district governor and those of the 
district, for teaching and instruction in the district. 

5. About which are those reckoned as the five 
dispositions l of a priest that are the glorification of 
the priest's statements of the \a,vr,from the first of 
his statements in succession unto the last, and what- 
ever is on the same subject. 

6. About the subjects regarding which a priest of 
concealed parentage is to be asked, with the prelude 
and sequel of the same subject. 7. About the 
bridge penalty* of a priest through sinfulness, in a 
separate fa.rga.rd 3 , 8. About a priest they may 
carry away from a district, owing to anxiety for 
forming a priestly assembly, who becomes worried 
in forming it. 



1 See Bd. XIX, 36 n. » See Chap. XX, 63. 

' See Chap. I, 20. 



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94 d!nkaw>, book viii. 

9. About the superiority of priests in means of 
knowledge, one as regards another ; the extent of 
superiority through which the greater suitability for 
authority, of one as regards another J , arises ; and 
whatever is on the same subject. 



Chapter XXIX. 

HUspdram Nask. 
i. One section is the Nfrangistan (f ritual code'), 
particulars about the ritual of the ceremonial of the 
sacred beings, that which is important and goes to 
the bridge of judgment 2 ; the exceeding meritorious- 
ness owing to an ample number of Raspis 3 in the cere- 
monial ; and, as to the A vesta, the Z6ti and Raspt 
are both for various phrases, those which are for 
the speaking of the one are for the hearing of the 
other. 2. About the sacred cake *, and whatever 
is on the same subject. 3. About abstaining from 
the drinking of wines at the same time as the 
ceremonial. 4. About the quality (saman) of the 
voice in reciting the Avesta in a ceremonial, and the 

1 Reading sa^iktarih-t aSvako min tan£ pavan patth, but 
there are only faint traces of the third, fourth, and fifth words, as 
the decayed folio of the manuscript has been patched, and the 
repairer forgot to record the missing words at the time he did his 
work. His marginal note refers to a defect in the next line of the 
manuscript. 

* The At nvarf bridge, at which the departed soul is believed to 
give a full account of its actions during life (see Chap. XIV, 8). 

5 See Chap. VII, 5. 

* The dr6n, or sacred cake, is a small pancake which is con- 
secrated in the ceremonies, and dedicated to some particular spirit 
by means of a shnuman, or propitiatory dedication (see Sis. Ill, 
32). It is tasted by the priests and by the participators in certain 
ceremonies (see Haug's Essays, pp. 396, 404, 408). 



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CHAPTER XXVIII, 9-XXIX, 1 4. 95 

Avesta which is twice recited and thrice or four 
times recited. 5. About the ceremonial, and the 
conducting of that ceremonial whose Z6ti, or Raspt, 
is a Tanapuhar sinner 1 . 6. About the Zdti duty of 
a woman 2 or child. 7. About a decision as re- 
gards him who is cursed by the Masofe-worshipping 
religion. 

8. About the sin of him who does not solemnize 
a season-festival 3 , and how the case is when it is 
solemnized by him. 9. About the limits of the five 
periods 4 of the day and night, and the ceremonies of 
the same periods. 10. About the kinds of pecu- 
liarity of the things for the season-festivals and 
other good works produced authorisedly. 

1 1. About the quantity of holy-water which is due 
to one sheep 6 , the inspection and consideration in 
providing the sheep, the freedom from sickness due 
to contamination and other defects even in a lawful 
place, and the exemption from the appliances and 
attacks of noxious creatures ; the ritual for making 
zV, and deciding about the maker, producer, and 
carrier, the taster and the giver to him. 12. The 
reason of the slaughter, and whatever is on the same 
subject. 

13. About the position and duty of the Z6ti and 
Raspts in the ceremonial. 14. About the perfect 
ceremonial, the gift to a righteous man who has 



1 See Chap. XX, 65. » See Sis. X, 35. 

• See Chap. VII, 1. 

4 These periods, or watches, are from dawn till noon, noon till 
3 p.m., 3 P.M. till dusk, dusk till midnight, and midnight till dawn. 

8 When slaughtered to provide the necessary meat-offerings 
(see Sis. XI, 4-6). 

• The holy-water apparently. 



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96 dJnkakd, book viii. 

become a teacher and examiner of the wisdom of the 
righteous, and whatever is on the same subjects. 

15. About the sacred shirt and thread-girdle, that 
is, from what it is proper to make them, and whatever 
is on the same subjects. 16. About gathering and 
tying the sacred twigs, and on the same subject. 
17. About the proportion of firewood in various 
parts of the ceremonial, and the mode of bringing it 
forward ; that for the household fire, and the priestly 
fire of Bahiram (Varahran). 

18. About a ceremonial amid great opulence, that 
which is amid medium opulence, that which is amid 
little opulence, and a decision as regards want of 
opulence. 19. About always celebrating the cere- 
monies of the sacred beings for that which has 
occurred, and not neglecting them in any way. 20. 
About the cases where mankind observantly, and 
also unobservantly, celebrate the ceremonies of the 
sacred beings ; that is, which is he who observantly 
and he who unobservantly does so; with advice about 
observantly celebrating the ceremonies of the sacred 
beings. 

2 1 . About the cleanliness of the body and clothing 
of the celebrator of the ceremony, the assurance 
of his mind from sin, the ablution of the apparatus 
of the place of the exalted (vulandanih), the clean- 
liness of the place of the ceremonial, the distance 
therefrom for any degree of manifest pollution and 
stench, and whatever is on the same subject 

22. About the ceremonial of the waters and their 
creatures, the vigour 1 of healthfulness, the posses- 
sion of the brilliancy of heaven, the bountifulness of 

1 Or it may be ' holy- water.' 



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CHAPTER XXIX, 15-XXX, 2. 97 

the spirit of the waters, and whatever is on the same 
subject. 23. About the celebration of a ceremonial, 
which is an ordinance of duties for the sake of a 
happy state of gladness (khupparkanlh) and happy 
consequences ; and also many other statements on 
the same subject 24. About the ceremonial as pro- 
per and improper, beneficial and not beneficial. 

25. About the families of Zarattot, Hvdv 1 , and 
Virtasp, as regards the account (aushmurun6) and 
ceremonial of the religion and their nature. 



Chapter XXX. 
H&sp&ram Nask. 
1. One section is the GOharikistan ({quality 
code'), particulars about natural superiority; not the 
modified (ga.rtakS), but the lawful, approved 2 , and 
specific state of superiority; not acquired by the 
slender power 8 of the world, but by seeking virtuous 
living through causing the prosperity of every per- 
son ; also the authorisation of superiority, and the 
proportion of advantage therein. 2. About a 
superiority unimpoverished (anyuruzd), with one 
unimpoverished with a nature unspent (a n-auruzd), 
with one unspent with an impoverished (nyuruzd), 
and one impoverished with an impoverished; also 
the extent of impoverishment and non-impoverish- 
ment, that is, with whom it is not customarily of much 

1 An ancestor of several persons mentioned in the Avesta, in- 
cluding the two brothers, GamSsp the prime minister of king 
Virtasp, and Frash6\r tar the father-in-law of Zarattot. 

1 Assuming that pa^andak stands for pasandak; otherwise, 
we may read pishonik, 'provided.' 

* Reading tang-karih, but it may be tund-karih, 'the severe 
labour/ 

[37] H 



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98 dInkard, book viii. 

consequence (pavan freh-ar'^8), with whom it is so 
customarily, and with whom, owing to an exception, it 
is not customarily of much consequence on account of 
its much consequence for an uninformed person, that 
is, with whom it is as it were proper with a servant 
of sin. 3. And superiority is a furtherance of living 
beings, and pervades the natural extent thereof. 

4. About him who would sell property not his 
own, and him who would buy it. 5. About selling 
a sheep frequenting the house, and one not fre- 
quenting the house. 6. About various precautions 
as to samples of various things. 7. About selling 
beasts of burden, cattle, slaves, servants, and other 
property, of the nature of whose species one is aware 
through speaking about the nature of different 
species ; and the retribution for the sin of whatever 
is on the same subject. 8. That which is an obvious 
agreement for selling with defects 1 , when it is de- 
clared of beasts of burden ; and that which is ever 
defective on selling. 

9. About a house in which a person, or dog, has 
passed away through contagious sickness, and the 
clothing which the man wore owing to that sickness ; 
that is, how it is when spoiled for selling for three 
years, how it is when it is so for two years, and how it 
is when it is so for one year. 10. About a house in 
which a person, or dog, has reposed in a contagious 
sickness, and not passed away after his descent there- 
from ; and the clothing which the man wore in that 
sickness ; that is, how it is when spoiled for selling 
for two years, how it is when it is so for one year, 
and how it is when it is so for thirty nights ; and 
whatever is on the same subject. 

1 That is, without a warranty. 



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CHAPTER XXX, 3-XXXI, 5. 99 

11. About forming a family (gdhartk ka.rda.no) 
with foreigners, that is, how it is when allowable. 
12. About a sheep of good breed for the three 
nights 1 , and its slaughter after the three nights ; 
likewise many other decisions as regards superiority 
and sheep of a good breed. 



Chapter XXXI. 
H&sp&ram Nask. m 

1. A miscellaneous section is about taking any- 
thing which is not one's own at the time when he 
does not think that they see him and they do see 
him, at the time when he thinks that they see him 
and they do not see him, and at the time when he 
thinks that they see him and they do see him. 2. 
About giving righteous instruction, that is, what 
happens, and how, at the time when the follower 2 
asks again. 3. About the sin of imprisoning the 
needy, exalting falsehood, and approving deceit. 

4. About the action and command which diminish, 
or alter, a liberal gift to any one- 5. About the 
limit of the open-handedness of a wife who should be 
privileged, and who is reverent towards her husband, 
out of anything that has not reached the husband ; 
how it is when the husband is foolish, how it is when 
it is legally, how when derived from what is legally 
property, and how about that which is unspent 
savings (anyuruzd £abun) ; also the limit of the 
reverence of a wife for a husband, and whatever is 
on the same subject. 

1 The three nights after a death ; the sheep is to be slaughtered 
on the fourth day, including the day of death (see Sis. XVII, 2-5). 
* See Chap. XXII, 6 n. 

II 2 



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ioo dInkard, BOOK VIII. 

6. About causing the conveyance of a maiden 
from the house of her fathers, or guardians, to the 
village of her husband, to hold the position of house- 
mistress of the husband; of the wife when she 
becomes reverent and propitiatory towards him, and 
admonishing her when she speaks thus : ' I am thy 
wife, but I will not perform a wife's duties for thee ; ' 
also the quarrelling of a husband with his wife, and 
carrying it on to the bridge of judgment. 

7. About the blood on a woman who wants wash- 
ing, and the bridge penalty upon him who has 
sexual intercourse with a woman who wants washing, 
with her who is a foreigner, or any other of those 
not authorisedly for intercourse ; the confusion of 
germs by the woman who grants intercourse to 
foreigners, and other sin which they may commit 
about like matters. 8. About a wife claimed from 
foreigners ; that is, how it is when allowable. 

9. About the preparation of a wife for the control 
of a son, the period for it and for suckling, and the 
wish for a son which is present with a husband. 10. 
About the sin of a man owing to rejecting the con- 
trolling of his son by a sister or grown-up daughter. 

11. About three things through which mankind 
become sinful and injuring their own property, and 
the possession of them is not to be taken away. 

1 2. About those who may not inflict lawful chastise- 
ment with oppressive demeanour. 

13. About that which a man is to be made to 
provide in feasting and gifts, for his store of good 
works, on his wife bringing forth. 14. How it is 
when he is a man of wisdom, aw^how it is when he 
is a disciple ; how it is when it is a male birth, and 
how it is when it is a female. 15. The advantage 



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CHAPTER XXXI, 6-22. IOI 

and benefit therefrom ; the religious announcement 
of a name for the new-born, should it be a male, or 
should it be a female ; the good work owing to the 
decision of a religious appointment of a name for 
the progeny, [and the sin] l owing to giving again 
to it a name of the idolators (devtyastan). 

1 6. About the ritual and usage in admitting the 
male to a sheep, owing to which the male is a 
gratifier of the impregnated female nature, and a 
protection of the female nature ; and the want of 
training and freedom from defect of the progeny; a 
proper condition of the flock, too, arises likewise 
through worshipping the sacred beings and provid- 
ing the sacred feast ; also about the shepherd's dog 
and the blessing for him. 1 7. About the regard of 
the shepherd for the breeding of the sheep. 18. 
About the work of the ceremonial and of providing 
the sacred feast, and the advantage for the sheep 
from the same cause. 19. About the Mazda- wor- 
shipping district-breeding of the dogs in a district, 
through providing careful nurture for the dogs, 
which is a good work owing to the same cause. 

20. About the object of payment for teaching the 
Z6ti duty, for the guardianship of the fire, for the 
publication and watching of worship, and for other 
labour, and whatever is on the same subject. 

21. About the lawful guardianship of a child, the 
child who is lamp-light and the father who is the 
fire, and whatever is on the same subject. 22. 
About sickness owing to the look of an evil eye, or 
the vicinity of a mengtruous woman, because those 

1 Here, again, the repairer of the manuscript has forgotten to 
note the words in brackets which he had cut out of the folio before 
patching it. 



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102 vtiiKARD, BOOK VIII. 

with an evil eye, or menstruous, are thereby harm- 
ful. 23. About what is the kind of watching for the 
admitters of fear ; the fearful and whatever is on 
the same subject. 24. And that in case of descend- 
ing from a house on the outside. 

25. About lawful arrangements for supplies, in 
union and assistance one towards the other ; about 
payment for the labour in the lawful arrangement ; 
and whatever is on the same subject. 26. About 
the produce of property for the multitude, and that 
also for one's own association ; that is, how it is 
when taking it authorisedly, and how it is when not 
doing so; and whatever is on the same subject. 

27. The special generosity of judges in conveying 
property back to its owners ; the advantage from 
just judges, and the harm from unjust sentencing 
and false decisions. 28. So, also, the advantage 
from truly demanding, truly answering, and assisting 
the just ; the enmity and harm from falsely demand- 
ing, falsely investigating, and assisting a false de- 
mander and false investigation ; but not the enmity 
and secret harm of a complaint of the wretched. 
29. Advice to judges about just decision and ab- 
stinence from false decision ; and, secondly, the 
reward of their just decision, and the awful bridge 
judgment of false decision ; the accountability in the 
spiritual existence in the case of judges, the praise of 
truth and contempt of falsity, the gratification of the 
sacred beings and vexation of the demons from just 
judgment and turning away from false decision, and 
whatever is on the same subject. 

30. About what place the appointment by Auhar- 
mazd in the original creation brought the corn to 1 , 

1 According to Bd. X, 1, XIV, 1, XXVII, 2, fifty-five species of 

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CHAPTER XXXI, 23-39. IO3 

which arrived for use in the nourishment and assist- 
ance of mankind and animals ; the sowing of corn 
from the bodies of Mashya and Mashy6! ' ; and 
whatever is on the same subject. 31. About the 
labour in sowing and cultivating corn, and whatever 
is in the business of agriculturists ; perseverance in 
agriculture, and the limit of its allotment, owing to 
suitable participation and inevitable participation in 
agriculture; whatever is about the shepherd and 
whatever is about the agriculturist, and the adjudi- 
cation between them. 32. About the corn which is 
sown, that which is reaped, that which is for an 
increase (pavan nad-ae), and that which is for 
other things. 

33. About the excitement of any one, owing to his 
blood. 34. About those kinds of ownership of land 
and other things that are best. 35. About him who 
sees some one conducting water for cultivation, when 
the person unauthorisedly sows the land of the 
observer who does not dispute about it with fearless- 
ness and effectual resistance. 36. About the selling 
of supplies granted, which may be done in hunger, 
nakedness, and fear ; and whatever is on the same 
subject. 

37. About the supremacy of sin, both that which 
arises on the spot, and that at a distance (pavan 
hisar); and whatever is on the same subject 38. 
About the atonableness of every sin, and the bridge 
judgment for destroying a righteous man, for witch- 
craft, and for carrying evil (aglh) to fire and water. 
39. About atonement for the sin of Yat, Bdz&t, 

grain sprang up originally where the primeval ox passed away; a 
statement which does not agree with that hinted at in this section. 
1 See Chap. XIII, 1. 



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104 DiNKAJU), BOOK VIII. 

Kh6r, Ared&r, Av6irirt, Ag^rept 1 , and giving no 
food, through giving of scars (pi^an^-das) 2 , labour, 
and punishment ; the kinds of horse-whip and 
scourge, and how the penitential effect of both arises. 

40. When a sinner dies outright on account of the 
penalty of giving of scars, or the performance of the 
labour, or the exertion of effecting the penance of 
punishment, and when a man has died penitent, but 
incapable of a desire 8 for the retribution of sin, and 
has not atoned in the worldly existence, what the 
nature of his soul's helplessness is, owing to sin. 

41. About those for whom there is no retribution 
for sin. 

1 These six names are applied to the various grades of assault 
and wounding, for which a special scale of punishment is appointed 
(see Sis. I, 1, 2, XI, 1, 2, XVI, 1, 5). Here the list begins at the 
most heinous end of the scale, and the last three names, which refer 
to the lightest offences, have been already explained in Chaps. 
XIX, 1 n, XX, 64 n. The first three names are explained in Farh. 
Oim, pp. 36, 1. 7-37, 1. 2, as follows : — ' For whatever reaches the 
source of life the name is Kh6r ; one explains B<Mt as " smiting," 
and Y£t as " going to," though it be possibley&r the soul of man to 
be withstanding; and a counterstroke is the penalty for a Yat 
when it has been so much away from the abode of life.' These 
six gradations of crime, therefore, range from the infliction of the 
nearest possible approximation to a fatal wound, down to the merely 
constructive assault of seizing a weapon. All authorities agree in 
estimating the relative heinousness of the first four crimes by the 
following numbers: 180, 90, 60, and 30; but regarding the 
amounts for the two lighter offences there is much difference of 
statement. In the old law of the VendtdS<f there are seven grada- 
tions of such crime, the lowest four corresponding in name with the 
lowest four here, and all punishable by lashes, with a horse-whip, 
or scourge, varying from five to two hundred in number, according 
to the heinousness of the offence and the number of limes it has 
been committed. 

2 By scourging, as prescribed in the Vendtd&<f. 

8 Owing to sickness, or any other disabling cause. 



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CHAPTER XXXI, 4O-XXXIII, I. IO5 

42. About what is the kind of contest of a poor 
man, plundered of his property; first, as regards the 
oppressor who was the plunderer, and, afterwards, 
having petitioned for criminal proceedings, through 
the judges, as regards his oppressor, until their repay- 
ment of the property. 43. About being delivered 
into distress and disaster 1 , and the decision thereon. 
44. About the oppressiveness of the much pollution 
of greediness (dz6) which is owing to all its fiendish- 
ness, and the arrangement of the creator about it for 
restraining the same fiend 2 from destroying the whole 
worldly creation. 45. About the great judiciousness 
of a man in want of power being good, for preserving 
his own life and making it nurturable. 



Chapter XXXII. 
H&spdram Nask. 
1. One section of the next twenty contains par- 
ticulars about the rite of an ordeal accomplished, 
also the modes of one's preservation or incrimination 
therein, and whatever is on the same subject. 



Chapter XXXIII. 
HUspdram Nask. 
1. One section is about the mode and object of 
confinement as regards a beast of burden, sheep, and 
dog that are mad (ddvinakS), and the operation 
of the affliction (vakhsi^no) ; also to what extent is 
their restoration ; and when not restored, but come 
for slaughter, the care of them even in confinement, 

1 P&z. v6ighn. * The fiend of greediness, Azb. 



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106 VIUKARD, BOOK VIII. 

and whatever is on the same subject. 2. About the 
harm (vinis) which the beast of burden, sheep, and 
dog shall commit. 3. About the sin which killed 
one who is no offender 1 . 4. About the care and 
remedy for a sick dog, and whatever is on the same 
subject. 

Chapter XXXIV. 
H&sp&ram Nask. 

1. One section is miscellaneous : about the object 
of amassing property lawfully produced, or derived 
from (fr6df<5 min) what is legally property; the 
production authorisedly of what is derived from that 
which is legally property, and the production un- 
authorisedly of that which is legally property thereby 
become one, at first, as regards the very virtuous 
or vicious legal proceedings therein. 

2. About the lawful time for giving up a maiden 
to her husband, the completion of her possessions, 
and whatever is on the same subject. 3. About the 
impoverishment owing to the completion of the pos- 
sessions given, and whatever is on the same subject. 
4. About a father who has sons, and for which of 
them a wife is to be earlier sought 5. Also about 
which of his daughters is to be given away to a 
husband, and whatever is on the same subject. 

6. About the progressive meritoriousness of a 
righteous gift for a woman, and the grievous sinful- 
ness owing to its being dissipated. 7. About wealth 
through a righteous gift, the announcement of its 
manifest acceptance, and the acknowledgment of its 
acceptance in words, as a completed act that is so far 
exhausted. 

1 Whether the sick animal, or a man attacked by it, is uncertain. 



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CHAPTER XXXIII, 2-XXXIV, II. IO7 

8. About a foreigner when an Iranian asks him 
for a reward for assistance in battle with his fellow- 
tribesmen, and the foreigner does not become 
generous, though the recompense is for the gene- 
rosity of the Iranians. 

9. About the offering up (madam dahi^n6) of 
water; that which is an appointed indicator (numu- 
d&r), and that which is no indicator; that which is 
an indicator of complete presentation, and that of 
partial presentation ; that water which is continually 
producing the offering up (usdahlnak), in like 
manner, of something of the things of a righteous 
gift, through the moistened peculiarity and distinc- 
tion 1 of an offering-producing gift of a male from that 
of a female ; and that which is an indicator both 
male and female, and a voice producing offerings, is 
animate, or inanimate, or derived from the inanimate ; 
that which is an indicator is a germ (t6khmakS-l), 
that which is in a germ is of one species, that which 
is in a species is of one form, and the proportion 
that is appointed is completed, though the purpose 
for which it is appointed has not arisen ; and what- 
ever is on the same subject. 

10. About the five best and five worst actions, 
the seven 2 heinous sins, and the three sins that are 
very ill-atoned for. n. About the sin of staining 
with bodily refuse, injuring the existence s , and of a 

1 The Pahl. text is pavan mamanfh va-karfamih-i namirfo. 
Possibly namf dh, ' moistened,' may stand for numu db, 'indicated; ' 
but the whole sentence is more or less obscure. 
. 9 Written 4 + 2 (= six) in the MS., but this is a most unusual 
way of writing ' six ; ' it is more probable that we ought to read 
4+3, the usual mode of writing ' seven.' ' Seven evil-doers of sin 
of a heinous kind ' are detailed in Dd. LXXII, 2-9. 

8 Pahl. ba$6</6k-zeV6, see Chap. XIX, in. 



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108 dJnk ard, book viii. 

death-producing formation as to clothing. 12. 
About the sin owing to idleness when, moreover, 
that which they might do is good. 13. About a 
decision as to the justifiableness of clothing, arms, 
equipments, and other things being given to 
foreigners, besides promoting their service and 
business, and giving them any assistance whatever, 
or listening to that which relates to assistance ; like- 
wise listening to drunkards. 14. About unlawfully 
destroying and cutting plants, with a decision 
about it. 

1 5. About the sin of digging a grave 1 for burying 
a corpse, whether of the idolaters (d£vlyast4n) or 
non-idolators, and of supplying clothing for the 
corpse of a dead one of the idolaters. 16. About 
him who threw bodily refuse 2 on to fire or water, or 
any place or garment on which it is not authorisedly 
cast, to make Maa/a-worshippers polluted ; and 
whatever is on the same subject. 

1 7. An account of water as regards the description 
and extent of moisture of the land. 18. About the 
sin owing to rendering anything useless through 
water or fire. 19. About carrying off two-thirds of 
the misery from the world, by eradicating it from the 
creatures through all the illumination of fires ; and 
carrying off all adversity from the period of the 
creatures, through the freedom from malice of man- 
kind, one as regards the other, and through their 
perfect sympathy together. 

1 Assuming that gobar £Ae£iruntan6 stands for g6bar (Pers. 
g6r) Mefruntan6. 
s See Chap. XIX, 3. 



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CHAPTER XXXIV, I2-XXXV, 5. IO9 

Chapter XXXV. 
H&spdram Nask. 

1. One section contains particulars about the 
science (danuno) of seeking a son, advice about it 
from revelation (den 6), the advantage of offspring 
for the admonitory explanation of revelation within 
one's self, and the harm owing to neglecting the 
advice of the same. 

2. About what happens in the begetting of a son ; 
the first sexual excitement it should produce for the 
female, the second, third, fourth, and fifth ; the aris- 
ing of a son in the world, and also the milk, owing 
to her impregnation. 3. And, when it is so that it 
amounts to a son, which of the two, male or female, 
is sooner emitting the germs at the time ^"occur- 
rence ; and how and how long both have remained, 
at. the time, in semination, how long in connection, 
and how long in bleeding. 4. When and wherefrom 
various expectations are produced to contend about, 
and when and by what signs the male sex, or female 
sex, of the offspring has become manifest. 

5. When the localization 1 regarding// is arranged, 
and, as to the members, which is the first member 
therein, and their being produced, each consecutively, 
till the bodily form is complete ; which, and in what 
position, is the localization of the members after the 
complete production of the form of the body, and 
the purpose as regards the position and localization 
of the members after the complete production of the 

1 Assuming that g£si-hastano stands for gast-hastan5 in all 
three occurrences of the word. This is rather doubtful, because 
the noun gas, ' position,' occurs twice in close connection with the 
uncertain word, and is correcdy spelt. 



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no dInvlard, BOOK VIII. 

form of the body. 6. The effect upon the offspring 
which is furnished with subjection to the male, so far 
as the complete effecting of it is within the limit for 
its authorisation l ; the time (vidanaanag 2 ) of the 
offspring with the female, the period of its turning 
downwards for birth, and the occurrence of birth at 
the same time. 

7. About the growth of life, too, with the bodily- 
organs (tanugan); and which is the first bone be- 
come possessed of marrow, apart from the other 
bones, as it is reported. 8. About the admissibility of 
the elaboration of the male sex, or female sex, within 
it, by the guardian spirit of the righteous, at the fifth 
month ; and the ceremony for the guardian spirit of 
the righteous for the sake of the arrival of a male child. 

9. About the act of childbirth by a pregnant 
woman before recourse to midwifery (daiganlh), 
except that relating to the navel string of the child ; 
also its first and second food, and when the mid- 
wifery is that of her mother; what is the kind of 
milk, and the care of the child at the time, its 
bandaging, sleeping, nourishment, and protection ; 
and the sin owing to acting unlawfully in such 
matters. 10. About how many months is the bearing 
of the offspring in the womb of the camel, horse, ass, 

1 The Pahl. text is as follows : — ' Kir-t madam zak5-i levatman 
d£n kujn s^ar, vad s/>6r kSrth zyaj d£n samSn parfaj ra</akih.' 

1 This unusual hybrid word is evidently intended as a Zvam 
equivalent of the Iranian zamanah, and is composed of vidana 
(=Ch. Nrvy, which is the usual Zvirif for zam&n) + £nag 
(=&nah, the final syllables of zamSnah). The central syllable 
of zamanah is, therefore, twice represented in the Zvarif vida- 
naSnag. The hybrid occurs again, in Bk. IX, Chap. XVII, 3, in 
a phrase where it can only mean ' time, period.' If it were not for 
this after-occurrence, the word here might be read va-d6-ahug, 
« and the dual existence,' with some degree of probability. 



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CHAPTER XXXV, 6-1 3. Ill 

cow, and woman ; and whatever is on the same sub- 
ject, n. About the spiritual perception of a. new- 
born child, and its coming into the boundaries of 
worldly comprehension on the same subjects. 

12. About the habits through which multitudes of 
mankind attain to the acme of beautiful form : that 
of desire for women, that of swiftness which is owing 
to the strength of the leg, and that of powerfulness 
which is owing to the vigour of the body, that of 
desire for wealth, that of speaking in an assembly, 
and that of speaking at a distance, that through 
which any one uncontrolled comes to a downfall, that 
through which there is more knowledge of obedience, 
and that through which a counteraction of the afflic- 
tion of the race arises. 

13. About the vicious desire of the performer 
and permitter of unnatural intercourse; also their 
violent lustfulness, heinous practice, and corrupt, 
polluted bodies, blighted in destiny; great through 
their destruction of life in the things which they 
see, and every greatness inevitably provides them a 
merited death ; as great in sinfulness as Az-i Dahak 1 
in oppression, as the serpent Sr6bar 2 in witchcraft, 
as Tur-1 Braafr6-r£sh s , the Karap *, in destroying the 

1 See Chap. XIII, 8 n, and compare the account of the seven 
special evil-doers in Dd. LXXII, 3-9. 

s The Av. asi srvara of Yas. IX, 11 (W.), Yt. XIX, 40; a 
terrible serpent slain by Keresaspa the Saman, as mentioned again 
in Bk. IX, Chap. XV, 2. 

* Also written Bra</r6k-r6sh ; he was one of the Turanian priest- 
hood who persecuted Zaraturt in his youth, and probably the same 
as Pers. Bartarush (the Bra</ar-vakhsh of Sd. IX, 5) who is said 
to have killed Zaraturt in the end. But, as he was one of five 
brothers, three of whose names were much alike (see Byt. II, 3 n), 
bis identification is rather uncertain. 

4 Av. karapan. In Dk. Bk. VII the Karaps are often men- 



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ii2 dInkakd, BOOK VIII. 

righteous, and as a deceiving apostate in falsehood. 
14. About the grievous sinfulness of a woman, just 
delivered and giving milk, whose progeny is the off- 
spring from intercourse with divers males, and what- 
ever is on the same subject 

15. About the increasing vigour of the female 
from the mounting of the male, and the diminished 
vigour of the male from mounting on to the female. 



Chapter XXXVI. 
Hilsp&ram Nask. 
1. Six * Fargards of one section of the last fourteen 
contain particulars about the enumeration of species 
of ownership, their precedence one over the other, 
and their good report in conducting legal proceed- 
ings. 2. About property that is brought up to the 
judges, which, owing to an accuser, becomes a source 
of litigation for a judge. 3. About a decree as to 
restoring possession, or as to keeping possession, of 
whatever is among such matters. 4. About property 

tioned as enemies of Zarat&rt, both before and after his birth. Some 
are named, such as Dur&srdb, BHu/r6k-r£sh, VaSdvdwt, and Gfish- 
mak. The Karap of the district where the mother of Zaratujt was 
born banishes her for witchcraft, and must, therefore, have been the 
official head of the district. Dur&srfib, the Karap, travels some- 
times with a disciple (hSvift), so his title was probably a priestly 
one. The Karap is also often mentioned with the Kai, or Kik 
(Av. kavan or kavi), the title of an equally obnoxious class ; both 
Kfks and Karaps being termed ' demon-worshippers,' or idolators ; 
and the Pahlavi translators of the Avesta speak of them, meta- 
phorically, as ' blind and deaf to the sacred beings. 

1 These are called 'five Fargards' in Dd. LXI, 3 which appears 
to refer to §§ 7, 13. Or it may be 'seven,' if we consider the 
' seven ' of the next chapter as completing the last fourteen sections 
of this Nask. 



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CHAPTER XXXV, I4-XXXVI, I 7. II3 

which is, or is brought, out of the possession of a 
defendant, and property which is extorted from a 
man by worrying, or by a noticeable crime upon 
him ; with a statement about it. 

5. About the earnings (vindisno) of fellow-com- 
batants and fellow-subordinates, with a statement 
about them. 6. About the coming of land, pro- 
perty, or anything, held by foreigners, into the 
princely possession of one from Iran. 

7. About the guardianship of a family (du^ako) ; 
likewise the varieties of it, and the fitness of a man 
for it. 8. About one's own family, and whatever is 
on the same subject. 9. About the income (vin- 
di^no) of wife and child. 

10. About the trouble o/the business 0/" obtaining 
(vindunfl) a wife, and also her marriage, owing to 
the urgency of the husband, after the trouble. 1 1. 
About her guardian and paramour, and whatever 
is on the same subject. 12. About the proportion 
who have to keep a wife to seek for offspring, 
and the proportion who have to satisfy menstrual 
excitement. 

1 3. About adoption ; likewise the varieties of it, 
and fitness for it ; the violation of adoption, the sin 
of the son who is accepted, and whatever is on the 
same subject. 14. About the partnership of brothers 
that has existed, is formed, or is designed ; its 
abandonment (a-bukhttklh), the surplus property, 
the wealth that becomes quite sacrificed (za</ak5), 
and whatever is on the same subject. 15. About 
property that comes to next of kin through relation- 
ship, and that through adoption. 16. About the 
residue that lapses into ways of righteousness. 

1 7. About where and in whom, after the father, is 
[37] I 



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ii4 dInkaud, book viii. 

the prerogative as to a daughter being given away 
to a husband. 



Chapter XXXVII. 
HUspdram Nask. 

i. One section of the seven 1 at the end contains 
particulars about the daily food of a grown-up man, 
a pregnant woman, her who is childless, and a child, 
as provided by law ; also that of a shepherd's dog, a 
village dog, and a blood-hound ; and the character- 
istics of these three kinds of dog. 

2. About the sign of a person's conversion to the 
religion. 3. About association of several kinds, and 
one of them is that of the keepers (paa&n) with the 
flocks (raman), and the flocks in connection with the 
keepers ; and of what kind is the meritoriousness of 
the keepers of those flocks, as to guardianship of 
every description; the happy effects of the flock, 
and those of the keeper, of every description ; the 
advantage from this association, and whatever is on 
the same subject. 4. One is the association of 
priestly instructor (ra^o) and pupil 2 , and their 
meritoriousness together ; the fame of the priesdy 
instructor for priestly instruction, and that of the 
disciple (havut6) for every kind of learning derived 
from the priestly instructor, and every kind that the 
priestly instructor imparts to the pupil; and the 
happy effects of the priestly instructor, of every 
kind, in similar matters. 5. One is the association 

1 It is doubtful whether seven sections are meant, or whether we 
should read ' the seven Fargards at the end of one section.' See, 
however, Chap. XXXVI, 1 n. 

* Pahl. ra</un£ (Av. ratunaya). 



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CHAPTER XXXVII, I-I2. II5 

of ceremonial priests (ra</-pl.yakano), the worthiness 
of a man for the sacerdotal leadership, supplies for 
the whole of the ceremonial priests, and whatever is 
on the same subject 6. About the highest of all 
associations 1 , and about the lawful and virtuous 
existence of this same association, when there are 
two men in a case where he who is opulent is always 
necessary for him who is in innocence, and has given 
him the wealth that he asks for ; or where, when the 
one shall commit sin, wealth is an affliction to the 
other ; or the ownership, as to that which the one 
obtains, is as much even that of the other ; or, on the 
passing away of the one, it is mingled with the wealth 
of the other ; and whatever is on the same subject. 

7. About the punishment of the sin of him for 
whom one lies 2 to him by whom provision is made, 
by thought or by word, and given to him who is 
worthy. 8. About a father's making a child aware 
of the sin at the time of the sin. 9. About the sin 
of taking the course of a false guide and exalting 
falsehood, and whatever is on the same subject. 
10. The sin of extorting supplies for a beast of 
burden from a lonely labouring person. 

11. About important gifts to the worthy, atone- 
ment for deprival of food (atapda^o-vi^arunih)*, 
and disbursements (auruzd&n) of that which is 
legally, and also of that which is derived from what 
is legally, property among impoverished (nyuruzd) 
supplicants. 12. The depriver of food is he who is 
for early atonement, and they who severally exist, 

1 That of disinterested and devoted friendship, as appears from 
the examples given. 

* By falsely recommending him as a worthy object of charity. 
» See Chap. XVII, 6 n. 

I 2 



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n6 vInkard, book viii. 

through grazing 1 and bringing forth, are they who 
severally are also in loss of vitality, through deprival 
of the food of strength and intellect; even a powerful 
man is prostrated thereby ; the food which is suitable 
as atonement for deprival of food, and that which is 
not suitable. 

13. About that through which the indispensable 
creation of a debt arises, and whatever is on the 
same subject. 14. Where it is the healing of the 
sick, the spiritual debt is unto the archangel Ashava- 
hist 2 , and that which is worldly unto the physician's 
anteroom (dalanako). 

1 5. About the worthiness of a good physician for 
every benefit, and the unworthiness of ■a. bad physician 
for any benefit. 16. About each one of the plants 
being produced by Auharmas*/ for the subjugation of 
one disease at least 1 7. About the protectiveness 
and preciousness of the profession of medicine ; the 
advantage and reasoning thought of a physician due 
to the carrying on of his medical practice ; the 
pleasant food, the handsome clothing, and the swift 
steed for a physician ; and his wealth being as much 
as that of an average man in a house, village, com- 
munity, or province. 18. About the diligently 

1 Reading k&x\$ n5, but part of the first letter has been cut off 
by the repairer of the MS. The semi-starvation of cattle is being 
referred to. 

8 The personification of 'perfect righteousness' (Av. ashava- 
bi fta) whose special duty is stated to be the care of fire (see Sis. 
XV, 5, 12, 13), and whose name, often written Ar</avahirt or Ar</- 
avahut in Pahlavi, is applied to the second month and third day of 
the month in the Parsi year (see Chap. XX, 22). He is here con- 
nected with the healing of the sick, because of his association with 
Airyaman, the smiter of diseases (see Vend. XXII, Yt. Ill, Sir. I, 

n, 3). 



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CHAPTER XXXVII, 1 3-25. II7 

remedial hand of the physician for the sick, oppor- 
tunely mindful, yet without chastisement 

19. About the sin of a physician through handling 
(sUdfoklh) and having spread a disease by walking 
up to the sick, because that is when he would have 
been innocent through not having gone. 20. About 
a great pestilence (s#£"6), and that which is trivial. 

21. About the fee 1 of a physician for curing a 
sick person of disease of the whole body, and of 
each one of the members ; even of him who has 
cured chieftains, both those of the lower grades and 
him who is the supreme king of kings, and so also 
various destitute people. 22. About the mode and 
extent of delivering up fees to a physician, after the 
declaration of the sick person being well ; that is, 
from whom comes the physician's fee which is an- 
nounced for the cure, and also that which is not 
announced ; from whom that only which is announced 
for it, from whom a meal (pish6n-l), and from 
whom nothing whatever of worldly reward comes. 

2 3. About the physician whom one hears 2 and asks 
for medical treatment. 24. About a test as to the 
competency of a physician ; that is, how it is to be 
made, how it is when it is possible to test it, and 
how it is when it is not possible to test it. 25. 

1 In Vend. VII, 36-44 (W.) we have some of the old Avesta 
laws regarding medical men and their fees. How far the Avesta 
text of this section of the Huspdram Nask corresponded with that 
of the Vendfdad on the same subject it is impossible to determine, 
because we have always to recollect that this summary of the con- 
tents of the Nasks was compiled from their Pahlavi versions (see 
Chap. I, 3) which included extensive commentaries, adapting the 
original Avesta statements to the altered circumstances of Sasanian 
times. 

* Or ' satisfies' (shnSyfifft). 



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n8 dInkaiu), book viii. 

About the sin of a physician who is not tested, and 
also of him whom it is not possible to test, when he 
shall undertake the medical treatment of others, 
and, as regards a limb of any one, there is not any- 
thing which is another's test of him, nor even that 
which is not another's test of him, nor that which is 
a trial of him. 

26. About how long is the duration of having 
sought a physician in Iran whereafter *'/ is allowable, 
through not obtaining one, to seek him even from 
foreigners. 27. The sin of having sought one from 
foreigners, when one can obtain a physician in Iran. 
28. About the fee for a foreign physician, and much 
else on the same subject. 29. The medical treat- 
ment of mankind, and also about the medical treat- 
ment of beasts of burden and cattle. 

30. About the sin owing to intrusting him who is 
unfit for a duty. 31. About the greater suitability 
of a priest than of a. disciple for duty and position ; a 
trusty person is also obtaining the important rather 
than obtaining a desire for the important, and even so 
far as being a potter rather than an astrologer, and 
being careful rather than a potter ; and the reason 
of it. 

32. About preparing an unauthorised (#-dast6bar) 
dwelling in the locality of other persons, and what- 
ever is on the same subject. 33. About boundaries 
where there is a place of residence for people, and 
whatever is on the same subject. 34. About what 
description of testimony of one of the good religion 
is received as evidence regarding an infidel, and of 
an infidel as regards one of the good religion. 

35. About the greatness of eminence of the abode 
of priestly authorities (raafand), both for procedure 



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CHAPTER XXXVII, 26-43. 1J 9 

and for petitions * ; the openness of the doors of a 
priestly authority; the want of eminence of any one 
through every kind of offence to others, which is 
owing to his closed doors and evil eminence in every 
mode ; and whatever is on the same subject 36. 
About the extent of splendour (liyano) and pomp- 
diffusing (vafsh-^fganft) tokens from the abode of 
fires, and the arrangement as regards him who casts 
the allotted twigs and charcoal (khar akhgar) into 
them. 37. About conveying prosperity (pa^lkhulh) * 
to the abode of fires appropriately to the capability 
of every one. 

38. About the quality (saman) of water oozing 
out (atrldfo) and that which is flowing in a channel 
(na6v-tak). 39. About the characteristics of speci- 
fied works which are contiguous in a place between 
two frontiers (mar's 6). 

40. About a decision as to a sheep free from 
unlawful influence — and so also as to one under un- 
lawful influence — which goes to the pasture of others 
with thievish intention, neglecting its own ; and as to 
that which does so not with thievish intention. 41. 
About the quantity which one has to provide, in the 
duration of a day and night, on admitting to pasture 
and corn, in the case of an ox without defect (ana- 
gin 6), or 0/" another kind, or a horse, or a sheep, or 
a goat, or a pig, or an animal of any other kind. 

42. About the distance of a residence of mankind 
from a river flowing in a channel. 43. About the 
period for letting a sheep graze at pleasure in a 
pasture, and that for restraining it; the time for not 

1 These six words should, perhaps, be appended to the next 
clause of the sentence. 
1 By providing fuel and other necessaries. 



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120 dJnkaijd, BOOK VIII. 

cutting trees, and that for little slaughter of sheep. 
44. About an article of clothing which is associated 
with defence, for fear of enemies, and becomes quite 
a good omen (sukun) among mankind, being im- 
perceptible and appropriate. 45. About a tree with 
stem uprooted, where and how it is allowable. 

46. About a leader's causing a march of whatever 
kind, the people being in motion through fear, and 
they drive the sheep which are with the army on 
account of molestation; also making the sheep 
decide as to the pasture near to the road within 
reach, the pasturing of the first of the species of 
sheep, and letting them forth to pasture in succession 
unto the last, and the reason of it. 

47. About a person who is of note 1 on account 
of wealth, and whatever is on the same subject 

48. About this intermixture of with-the-stream and 
against-the-stream, with banks and without banks, 
and waters running and down-pouring (nty^pan), on 
the road ; that is, which of the waters, running or 
down-pouring, is to be earlier reverenced by him who 
is returning from the road, and the reason of it. 

49. About the subordination of the disciple unto the 
priest, as to eating, drinking, and plenty, goodness 
and preciousness ; and whatever is on the same 
subject 

50.. About that which occurs when foreigners 
come to the frontier of Iran, and shall do damage to 
Iran ; and the frontier governors and fellow-cham- 
pions have to repel the foreigners by fighting, to 
save the Iranian people and property which were 

1 Reading mun sakhunag. Another guess would be min 
nf^dn-f (for nuan-i), in which case the translation would be 'a 
person/*r« from indications relating to wealth.' 



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CHAPTER XXXVII, ^-XXXVHJy-^— — 121 



to be made foreign ; and whatever is on the same 
subject. 

51. About the advantage of punishing a violent 
thief by the members of the assembly, that owing to 
reliance upon the actions and convictions of the 
ancients, that owing to forming many priestly as- 
semblies, that owing to providing a disciple for a 
priest, that through passing away after being high- 
priest, that through doing so without being high- 
priest, and that of much information on similar 
statements prior to any other resources. 

52. Perfect is the excellence ^righteousness. 



Chapter XXXVIII. 

1. One section of thejirst thirty of the Saka</fj'm 1 
contains particulars about reward by command of the 
religion, the bridge judgment of the destroyers of 
the well-commanding, and the provision for their 
destruction. 2. About the importance of a man, 
after fifteen years of age and when he has heard 
that there is a law 2 which is good, having sought 
that law z by having enquired about it. 3. About a 
man's scrutinizing an action before doing it, when he 
does not know whether it be a sin or a good work, 

1 Corresponding to the eighteenth word, yim, in the Ahunavair, 
according to B. P. Riv. ; but it is the nineteenth Nask in other 
Rivayats. This name, which is here written like Zakf-hat-min, 
should probably be Zik-aft-tum, meaning ' the most intimate con- 
cerns,' as the Nask refers chiefly to personal and family law ; but it 
is called Askaram, or Sakadam, in the Rivayats, which also state 
that it contained fifty-two kardah, fargar</s, or veV ast ; thus agreeing 
with the total of the sections mentioned in Chaps. XXXVIII, XLI. 

* It is possible to read yfcdatd, 'sacred being,' instead of darfS, 
' law.' 



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122 d!nka/u>, BOOK VIII. 

and when it is possible for him to set it aside and 
not to do it. 

4. About advice as to having entered into a house 
in the night by the light of a. fire, or when one has 
noticed it in this place, though he goes elsewhere; 
also the watchful destruction of an injured person, 
or animal, or garment, and the retribution for the 
injury. 5. About the extent of any glitter of the 
sparks (zakhsh-1-1 parkin), and the width and 
height of the doors of the constructed work of that 
appointed place of the fire. 

6. About a new-born child, as to how one has to 
provide its place, connected lawfully with illumina- 
tion 1 , more particularly for the first three nights. 
7. About bringing a fire to drive away the over- 
powering fiend, and making the child taste first the 
H6m-juice, so far as collected within its precincts 
(varan), and, secondly, the butter of MaW6k-zarem 2 
which is to be brought forward for it ; also the 
watchfulness of the father and mother over the 
child, and the extent of their retiring (nazastano) 
from the two sides of the new-horn. 8. About law- 
fully-made places of several kinds for the child, the 
limits and manner of the mother's giving milk to the 
child, and whatever is on the same subject. 

9. About carrying forth holy-water, or even a 
cooking-pot, to a fire, where the hands are purified 
and thoroughly washed ; and the sin owing to an un- 

1 To protect it from the demons who are supposed to be specially 
dangerous during the first three nights. 

* Equivalent to 'mid-spring butter,' the Av. maidhyd-zare- 
xnaya, ' mid-verdure,' being the season corresponding to the middle 
of the second Parsi month, which was early in May when the year 
commenced at the vernal equinox (see Bd. XXV, 6, 4i). 



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CHAPTER XXXVIII, 4-I3. 1 23 

purified hand, not thoroughly washed, carrying them 
forth. 10. About the preservation of the cooking- 
pot, and the rest . of one's operations with the fire, 
from defilement; but when, through want of care, 
defilement occurs, by the inexperience of any one 
bringing it to the fire, he who is careless is thereby 
contaminated, and the cooking-pot is properly placed 
in its position. 

11. Arranging about properly-made bed-places 
(gasvarakS) in a house, those for children and 
those for adults ; also a decision about a case when a 
carpenter (durgar) shall make a bed-place properly 
which one's own judgment considers improperly made, 
and when both consider it improperly, or when both 
consider it properly made ; and more of whatever is 
on the same subject. 

12. About what is the mode <?/" producing seeing 
properly; and, when not seeing properly, the oculist 
(di^p&n) to intrust with it is he who informs people, 
who wish for it, how to extract the defect of sight ; 
if not, the people go on and hurt ; also the penalty 
for hurting, and whatever is on the same subject. 

13. About the insubordination of those accus- 
tomed to work (kar-khugaran) to women and 
children ; also that of a grown-up man who has been 
giving no food l three times in succession ; he, too, it 
is who advanced the fourth time 2 , because, owing to 
giving no food a fourth time, the man is he who has 
to accomplish work unrestrictedly; and whatever is 
on the same subject. 

1 See Chap. XVII, 6. 

* This passage appears to refer to that quoted in Farh. Oim, 
p. 38, 11. 8, 9; though the latter part of Chap. XLI, 19 is more 
applicable to 11. 4-8 of the same page. 



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124 DiNKA/U), BOOK VIII. 

14. About the care of a pointed thing, that is, 
how it is to be carried to a dwelling in the world, 
how it is to be deposited, and the sin owing to 
keeping and depositing it otherwise. 15. And 
about every garment 1 and utensil, even including 
such as a scum-pot, an hour-glass, and a dining-tray; 
that is, how they are to be deposited in the dwelling, 
and the sin owing to variously 2 placing and taking 
care of them. 16. About a door which is properly 
made ; how it is when it falls down, and a wound 
arises from it, the carpenter being innocent regarding 
it ; and how it is when he is guilty. 

1 7. About washing the head, the care of the water 
and the religious ritual therein, and whatever is on 
the same subject. 18. About the period for arrang- 
ing the hair, in which they shave the hair. 19. 
About the shaving of a child the first time, and the 
ritual which is taught for it; the performance of 
shaving by an instructed barber and with a sharp 
razor, which is the appointed practice as regards the 
razor of adults, and that also for children with the 
children's razor, because it is settled healthfulness ; 
his whetstone (j6n), and also the care of the razor. 
20. About the number of the positions of a man, in 
which a barber can perform shaving, and that of the 
positions of the barber; and whatever is on the 
same subject. 

21. About each one of those who are custodians 
(ktruk-karan6), and the rules of the market ; also 
their abstaining from wounding each other with a 
pike (t£kh), or other implement, with which they 

1 Or^amak may mean ' a cup.' 

2 Reading min gunagfha. 



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CHAPTER XXXVIII, 14-29. 1 25 

shall perform their duty; likewise the sin owing to 
heedlessness. 22. About giving forth a pointed 
thing lawfully, and a wound owing to not giving it 
forth lawfully; lawfully taking and giving away a 
plate of broken victuals (paaflchur), and a wound 
owing to doing it unlawfully; and whatever is on the 
same subject. 23. About the appointed place (d&d- 
gah) of a horse-course and its distance from the 
middle of a town, the nature of the horse-course, 
the training (farhang) and masters of manoeuvres 
(pa</an-i farhingand) when in it, the shooting of 
arrows on the horse-course, and the wound which 
occurs to man or animal, how it is when culpable, 
and how it is when not culpable. 24. About admit- 
ting a listener ; where, why, and how he is to be 
admitted ; and the guilt or innocence as regards a 
wound owing to him. 

25. About the mode of making a sacred thread- 
girdle ', and the harm from an unusual formation of 
it 26. About lawfully tying it, without the culpa- 
bility (va-sagih) 0/" unauthorised action; a/w when 
they do not tie it lawfully, but the girdling is knotted 
(viragl-ait5) and twisted owing to culpability 
(vasaganih) ; and whatever is on the same subject. 

27. About lawfully scratching with the nails, and 
the harm from unlawfully scratching. 28. About 
lawfully attending to a fire on the road ; and, when 
one arrives at a ford through water, the sin which 
arises, as to fire, from not lawfully caring about the 
fire. 

29. About warriors who mingle together in panic 
(mazangih) and darkness ; injury happens to one 

1 See Dd. XXXIX, 1 n. 



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126 dInka^B, BOOK VIII. 

from the other, and the statement of the account 
published is that there was a state of terror ; also 
whatever is on the same subject. 30. About the 
march of an army which is in fear, and that which is 
in a state of fearlessness which is the distinction of 
the army of Iran from those of foreigners. 31. 
About lawfully and habitually requiring a share, 
and the harm from unlawfully and unhabitually 
requiring it. 

32. About carrying firewood, brought away from 
the hills, into the house ; depositing it at first by the 
tongs (dast-panak&) ; watching, turning, and in- 
specting it, and carrying it away to the fire ; that is, 
how to do it lawfully, the sin owing to unlawfully 
performing it, and whatever is on the same subject. 
33. About lawfully warming bull's urine * by the fire, 
and the sin when it is not lawfully done. 

34. About selecting a pasture, one ranked above 
the others ; that is, how to do it lawfully, the sin 
when one shall do it otherwise, and, owing to that, 
he is really injured, or occasions injury. 35. About 
what is the mode of construction of a lawfully- 
formed farm-house (da.yt-ka</ak&), the dwelling of 
the people, and the place of the beasts of burden and 
cattle ; also the sin when one shall construct it other- 
wise, and, owing to that, he is really injured, or 
occasions injury. 

36. A decision about a case when one person has 
lawfully to force away a beast of burden from a con- 
trol unlawfully exercised, and another person intrudes 
unauthorisedly, and vexes the district authorities 
(pa</-dihanan). 37. Also when being done un- 

1 Intended for ceremonial purification. 



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CHAPTER XXXVIII, 3O-47. 1 27 

- ' - ■ ■ m 

lawfully, and the beast being away from its control 
unlawfully exercised, the other person intrudes law- 
fully; and when both persons act unlawfully, or when 
both act lawfully. 38. About lawfully tying, whereby 
things are hung up ; and the sin when, through an 
unlawfully-tied fastening, anything is injured, or 
occasions injury. 39. About unlawfully keeping 
horses in a stable (akhur), and the sin owing to the 
unlawfulness. 40. And, as regards the cutting of 
trees and shrubs, where and how it is lawfully done, 
and the harm and sin owing to not lawfully cutting. 
41. About the mode of washing clothing, and the sin 
owing to different modes. 42. About the mode 
of walking in, and the sin owing to unusual 
walking in. 43. About the custom of a man of 
the sagacious (danakvaran) on passing through 
water, and the harm and sin owing to acting 
otherwise. 

44. About the kinds of canals (nai) 1 and fords, 
from those for two men passing, up to those for 
many; the dimensions of those which are large, and 
how much they are each separately sunk into the 
ground, without collecting water, when the ground 
is hard, and how much when it is soft. 45. The 
extent of their outer 2 banks, and the inspection as 
to the banks when the water is brackish, warm, and 
flowing; how far when outside of the water, and 
how far when in the water. 46. When it is brackish, 
cold, and flowing; or brackish, warm, and stagnant; 
or sweet, warm, and flowing ; how far when in the 
water, and how far when outside. 47. And, when 



1 For irrigation. 

' Reading vf rfinag, but the word is miswritten ntrang-f. 



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128 tAnkard, BOOK VIII. 

brackish, cold, and stagnant ; or sweet, cold, and 
flowing; or sweet, warm, and stagnant; how far 
when in the water, and how far when outside of the 
water. 48. What is the customary operation as 
regards the inspection of the banks ; how is the 
stagnation (astlnl*/anS) within a pool dammed up 
(zar£h-stano-a£), and the stone-work inside, from 
the canal which is for ten men passing, up to that 
for many; and how is the damming up inside of the 
canal, the stagnation within the pool dammed up, or 
the reedy jungle (v£.yakS) when distributed and it 
becomes tall. 

49. What are the mode and means of maintaining 
the supervision of a canal ; which is that which one 
should maintain over the water of the canal when 
half is distributed, or, when not, one-third ; and 
which is that when one-third is distributed, or, 
when not, one-fourth ; a supervision which is animate 
or inanimate, and after those which are inanimate 
means are provided 1 , the former animate ones are 
then at rest ; and the harm and sin when they shall 
act otherwise. 50. And, as regards the same, what 
is the mode of passage of animals of various species, 
by swimming across the water ; and the sin, owing 
to acting otherwise, when harm occurs. 51. About 
the trampling down at a ford through water, when 
one is newly completing it, and when the water is 
brackish and flowing, when it is brackish and stag- 
nant, when it is sweet and flowing, and when it is 
sweet and stagnant ; the reason of passing through 
on it, and such and such ways for proceeding at 



1 In the shape of sluices for regulating the supply of water for 
irrigation. 



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CHAPTER XXXVIII, 48-59. 1 29 

will thereon ; so, also, observation as to the water 
which has remained behind for flowing, and the 
harm and sin when one does not properly observe it, 
but walks on. 

52. About two of the warriors who meet together 
on the road, which of them was busy about the pro- 
tection of his horse, and which about the preparation 
of food ; also the usage and other things in similar 
matters. 53. The sin of having eaten food for 
refreshment on the road, that is, how the custom is 
a sin when they can act otherwise. 

54. About the remedies for sheep and beasts of 
burden which reinfuse fresh life ; and the extent of. 
keeping the sheep, goat, cow, mare, ass, pig 1 , and 
woman with the male. 55. About beasts of burden, 
sheep (anumaanS), and women, for whom, on ac- 
count of contraction of orifice, there is a use of means 
for making it not painful (atutakS). 56. About the 
extent of the distance of a male beast from the 
female when it is necessary to be watchful. 57. 
About the distance that a man has to remove an ox 
that has destroyed some concealed hay (barkasag 
giyah) which is the hay of others, when they quarrel 
with him ; how it is when it is allowable to bring the 
ox back to his home ; and whatever is on the same 
subject. 

58. About the security of a man from the death 
(adsh) of his fathers, and danger having arisen for 
him from a mouth of bad omen. 59. About the sin 
of a father owing to a child, when, being given by 
him to an ill-behaved person 2 , he calls it and, when 

1 Instead of khar va-khazura, the MS. has khor va-zak-i 
ras. 

1 Assuming that min6namako-l stands for apgnamako-1; 

[37] K 



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130 dInkaw), book viii. 

it comes, there may occur the sin of unlawfully 
terrifying sheep, and the beast of burden is beaten ; 
and whatever is on the same subject. 60. About 
bringing 1 a plant which is a medicinal herb, and 
whatever is on the same subject. 

61. About a sociable feast (ham-myazdlh) with 
idolaters, that is, how it is when held authorisedly, 
and how it is when it is not ; and, when one gives 
the sociable feast, how it is when they are to be con- 
sidered unhonoured, and how it is when they are to 
be considered more honoured even than the Iranians. 
62. And about the broken victuals which the idolators 
have eaten and drunk therein. 

63. About the proportion of meat with the bread 
in atonement for deprival of food ". 64. About an 
ordeal which is severe, and one which is not severe ; 
and the evidence of acquittal from the achievement 
thereof. 65. About the secrets of the religion, and 
the sin owing to their being disclosed (gushuftS). 
66. About the sin of speaking evil words to the 
wives of others. 67. About the extent of the most 
inferior house, village, community, and province ; and 
that of the most superior. 68. And about what was 
the mode of residence of Frash6.rtar and G&masp s 
in a plundering (lal^kar) army, and their habits. 

the copyist having mistaken <zp for az, and substituted the Zvaiir 
equivalent min for the latter which he supposed was a separate 
word. 

1 Or ' abstracting.' 

• See Chaps. XVII, 6, XXXVII, 11. 

' Two brothers who were contemporaries of Zaratuxt. Fra- 
shdftar was his father-in-law, and <?amasp was prime minister of 
king Vbtasp. 



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CHAPTER XXXVIII, 60-XXXIX, 5. 131 



Chapter XXXIX. 
SakdAAm Nask. 

1. One section is the .fla/fctrfakanistan ('code of 
sequestrations'"), particulars about a statement of 
seized property, the retention thereof, and how was 
the confinement of that which was animate ; how it 
is when one keeps it in a shepherd's-dog's care, and 
how it is when in the sequestrator's care (h^kid^Vh- 
darlh). 2. And when it is a seized horse of the 
warriors, how to keep it when it is not possible to 
retain it in confinement of any kind, and the damage 
which has arisen therefrom ; what is the danger to 
occasion by it, how it is when the shelter (srayuno) * 
is on all sides, and how it is when on one side ; while 
the trust, when there is shelter, is in the extent of the 
shelter, how much and of what kind is the shelter. 
3. When it is a seized beast of burden, after its 
coming into the possession of the sequestrator (h&kS.- 
flfak-dar), for how long he has to order work for the 
reasoning thought of the herdsman, and how is that 
of the sequestrator, in like manner, before he quite 
attains to his share ; even through his own reasoning 
thought the work is authorisedly ordered, and how 
and in what manner is the ordering of his work. 4. 
And when the seized animal has offspring, in what 
mode he has to milk it, as well as the nourishment of 
the young, and whatever is on the same subject; 
also the sin owing to doing it unlawfully. 

5. About the sequestrator when the beast of 
burden seized comes into his possession, how it is 

1 Av. thri. 
K 2 



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132 dInkakd, book vm. 

when its special reputation is altered, and how it is 
when it comes with utility and advantage for him. 
6. About the seizer's keeping a sheep, which is seized, 
in his flock; that is, how the custom is produced, 
owing to its milk being for the sacred feast, and the 
notification of the feasts is owing to the seized 1 
sheep ; when, too, it is not possible to keep it in the 
flock, what is the mode of confining it ; and when it 
is not possible to keep it in confinement, what he has 
to do with it 7. About the wool of a sheep which 
is seized; that is, how it is when the shearing is 
even before the various times specified, and the sin 
of shearing when it is before the time specified, or 
one shears when there is no reason for shearing. 8. 
About the lambing (guru.rl^S) of the sheep seized, 
and the sin owing to its not lambing. 

9. About sheltering (sru*/an6) 2 the seized animal 
in the most public place in a house, village, com- 
munity, or province. 10. About the sin of the shep- 
herd when, without saving it for the sequestrator, 
and through the guilelessness of the sequestrator, 
he shall carry away a female ; and the sin which is 
owing to the offence as regards unlawfully beating 
and wounding it, before it is seized for the buyers of 
meat (khur-kharanS), and other offences regarding 
it. 11. About the time appointed, between the 
shepherd and the sequestrator, for leading and bring- 
ing the female, belonging to the sequestrator, to the 
place for which the time is appointed ; in the case 
when the shepherd arrives and the sequestrator does 



1 Instead of Aa£i</ak5, 'seized,' the MS. has the very similarly 
written word avtzikh, 'pure.' 
1 Compare srayuno in § 2, and srurfan in § 11. 



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CHAPTER XXXIX, 6-I5. I33 

not, how that which belongs to the sequestrator is to 
come into the possession of the sequestrator, and 
when ; when it is the sheep or beast of burden of a 
sequestrator 1 , how it is to come into the possession of 
that sequestrator ; when the sheep or beast of burden 
which is seized dies in the possession of the seques- 
trator, how and how long he has to shelter (sruafan) 
the young ones (guruj) and wool of the same several 
sheep ; and the sin when he does not shelter them, 
or does it otherwise. 

1 2. About a sheep * which is mingled among the 
flock of any one that is in sequestration, how it is 
when the shepherd, and how it is when the shepherd's 
dog, is its own ; and when it is mingled among any 
flock owing to sequestration, how it is when the 
shepherd, and how it is when the shepherd's dog, 
[who is its own] 8 goes to another flock ; how it is 
when the first flock-owner, and how it is when the 
second, is its own. 1 3. About the killing of a seized 
sheep by a shepherd's dog for necessary provisions ; 
that is, how it is allowable, and in what mode it is 
to be done. 

14. About him unto whom the sheep or beast of 
burden which is seized is delivered when it comes 
into a district ; and the sequestrator's informing the 
governor of the district, in whose herd the sheep or 
beast of burden which is seized remains, as to the 
species, colour, and form of it *. 1 5. Watching over 

1 Perhaps another sequestrator is meant. 

* The first case seems to be that of an unseized sheep in a seized 
flock, and the second that of a seized sheep in an unseized flock. 

9 The words in brackets are supplied by guess, to fill up a blank 
space left by the repairer of the MS. on one of his patches. 

* Reading va-darand-i denman. 



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134 dInka/u), book viii. 

a man with sheep, who is in a disabled state of ill- 
ness owing to a wound received in his duty as regards 
slaughtering ; the case when he is concealed from a 
passer-by (amat nth an min virfar) and there is 
protection, when he is an eater and there is no pro- 
tection, when he is not eating and there is protec- 
tion, and when he is not eating and there is no 
protection. 

1 6. About the distraction 1 of a sequestrator as 
regards a sheep or beast of burden which is seized, 
when it is one out of four varieties 2 , and when one 
out of three ; when he nourishes it for half a year, 
and when for the duration of a year ; when that 
which he obtains is a young one, and when that 
which he obtains is large, where and what is a 
shelter for it, and, as to the care of it, how it is 
when in a grain vault (<6igarakS-l), and when it is 
under a tree ; how it is when in a damaged cellar 
(varkho-1-1 kujtakd), and how it is when in a cage 
(panfar-1) which is not incomplete, but is broken, 
or is not incomplete and is sound, or is complete 
and sound. 

1 7. About treasure which they find in the sur- 
roundings of a dwelling, and that which they find 
within the limits of the dwelling of any one. 1 8. About 
buried treasure when it is found by the side of a 

1 Reading hrfaako, but it is possibly a contracted fonn of 
ay<foako, 'gain.' 

8 If it were allowable to omit this word, ayuinako, 'variety,' 
and to substitute * gain ' for ' distraction,' the sentence would stand 
as follows : — « About the gain of a sequestrator as regards a sheep 
or beast of burden which is seized, when he nourishes it for one- 
fourth, when for one-third, when/br half a year, and when for the 
duration of a whole year.' This seems more intelligible than the 
text as it stands in the MS. 



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CHAPTER XXXIX, 1 6-2 3. I35 

road, and the ground is hard, how it is when it is 
one finger-breadth below, and how it is when it is 
two finger-breadths ; as well as (ham-gun) when the 
ground is soft, how it is when it is two finger- 
breadths below, and how it is when it is three finger- 
breadtks. 19. When it is found within the road, and 
the ground is hard, how it is when it is two finger- 
breadlhs below, and how it is when it is three finger- 
breadths; and when the ground is soft, how it is 
when it is three finger-breadths below, and how it is 
when it is four finger-breadths. 20. When it is in 
an ascent or descent, there where one turns out from 
the road, and the ground is hard, how it is when it 
is below up to the instep \ and how it is when it is 
up to the middle of the leg (patistan) 2 ; and i/soft, 
how it is when it is below up to the middle of the 
leg, and how it is when it is up to the knee. 2 1 . When 
it is in a stream of water, and the ground is hard, 
how it is when it is below up to the knee, and how 
it is when it is up to mid-thigh ; and when the 
ground is soft, how it is when it is below up to mid- 
thigh, and how it is when it is up to the testicles. 
22. When it is in a ford through the water, and the 
ground is hard, how it is when it is below up to the 
testicles, and how it is when it is up to the navel ; 
and when the ground is soft, how it is when it is 
below up to the navel, and how it is when it is up to 
the mouth. 23. And when it is in a kitchen (a^- 
khanS), the middle of a garden (van), or a sheep- 
fold (pah -hast 6); that is, how it is when it is not 
a permanent residence (afr^2-mani.s , n6) of any- 



1 Supposing that Paz. aavarf is intended for afraparf. 
1 That is, up to the shin. 



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1 36 dIxkard, book vih. 

body, and how it Is when it is a permanent resi- 
dence \ 

24. About him who nourishes a sheep which is 
seized ; that is, how it is when it is out of his store, 
and how it is when he nourishes it as it arrives. 

25. About a dispute as regards a sheep that is seized, 
when one person says it was born of the colour of the 
mother, and another one says it was of her form *, 
both being true ; or one person mentions a single 
characteristic truly, and another one mentions many 
characteristics of it untruly ; the cases when they 
mention its peculiarities otherwise, and in what 
manner; and whatever is on the same subject. 

26. About a sheep 3 seized, which has to pass on 
through the loftiest places in which there is lawfully 
shelter ; and how there are three years, three exist- 
ences (ahv6n), three places, nine occasions, and also 
many other regulations on the same subject 



Chapter XL. 

SaMditm Nask. 



1. One section is the Zlyanakistan ('code of the 
injured"), about anything which is animate — and 
that which is inanimate — injured through lawfully 
living, giving, receiving, or delivering back ; the duty 
of protection and care for both kinds ; the nourish- 

1 The utility of these minute details was probably to determine 
how long the treasure had been buried, and for what purpose, 
and whether there was any possibility of the rightful owner being 
still alive. 

8 Reading darand-f denman. 

* Supposing that p6s stands for p&h. 



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CHAPTER XXXIX, 24-XL, 5. 1 37 

ment, extension, sustentation, stimulation, establish- 
ment, consolation, and also gratification of an animate 
being ; and the retribution for sin due to unlawful- 
ness as regards the same matters. 

2. About an example of a damaged gift, in the 
case when one gives the thing to a poor (ga^ik) 
person at an appointed time, and when at one unap- 
pointed ; and in the case when one gives him an 
increase, where and what is the increase. 3. A de- 
cision about a shepherd when they shall bring him 
back an animal 1 , when damaged, before its subdi- 
vision ; what he obtains for the damaged animal 
when not delivered back at the time of subdivision ; 
when the duty about it is dictated by a religious 
man, and when he keeps it in his own possession. 

4. About property which is inanimate, whose sub- 
divisions, each separately, when one keeps them in 
use 2 , and when in reserve (arm£.ft6), are greater 
and less in value ; that is, through so much effecting 
of penance (az/akan^unS) worthily, or through so 
much bringing of interest; and the capital is the 
same in value, the increase being the growth of 
dividends. 

5. About the reason why the sin of an injured 
person becomes innocent through not delivering back 
a damaged article z ; and many opinions, on the 
same subject, are provided for our benefit. 

1 Probably one sold by him to a butcher. 

* For trading, or pious purposes. 

' Suffering wrongs without complaint being meritorious. 



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138 dInkard, BOOK VIII. 

Chapter XLI. 
SaMddm Nask. 

1. One section of the last twenty-two is the 
Vakhshistan {{increase code'), particulars about 
the progress of increase. 2. About atonement, 
surrender, and compensation for anything, through 
dispelling it by compensating, atoning, and surrender- 
ing to him whose own it is; the period thereof not 
being appointed. 3. When he, whose origination of 
compensation, atonement, and surrender is his own, 
has appointed the period thereof, the growing of the 
sin actively, after the appointed time, is increase. 

4. About increase 1 which is active (karafakS), 
and that which is existent (zlstakS) ; how it is when 
the existent becomes quite active, and how it is 
when both are suppressed (arm£.ytl-ait). 5. About 
the extraction of increase upon increases which they 
may occasion up to an equality ; where and which it 
is. 6. About a righteous gift; that is, how it is 
when overwhelmed by impoverishment, and how it 
is when its increase still proceeds. 

7. About the progress of interest (vakhsh) 
upon effective wealth, when there is interest for it, 
and the interest thereon accumulates ; also that 
which does not progress ; how it is when the debtor 
(^z>am-h6mdnd), even on bringing back the wealth, 
is opulent, and the lender (Avkm nafrman) is opu- 
lent on asking for it; how it is when each is not 
opulent, and the debtor was not opulent on asking 
for it; and how it is when the lender (az/am khv£s) 

1 As this word is written vakhs(=nas) it is doubtful whether 
vakhsh, 'increase,' or vinas, 'sin,' is intended; and the context 
is insufficient to solve the doubt. 



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CHAPTER XLI, I-I4. 1 39 

is opulent on asking for it, and the debtor is not 
opulent through the wealth. 

8. About where and when the life (zistanS) of 
the lender has once passed away, how it is when the 
loan is to be issued anew at the end of the issue 
(zihljnS), and how it is when it has existed in force, 
through the one issue by the deceased, and the in- 
terest accrues. 9. When the debtor passes away, 
how it is when he puts the interest into the property 
of any one through adoption, and how it is when it is 
the interest of the possessor of the wealth in both 
worlds. 

10. About the peculiarity of retribution, the self- 
retribution of one liable to retribution for others, and 
the limit of one's own retribution. 1 1 . About the 
penalty (tavan) of him who, purchasing animals for 
impregnation, gives each a bad male ; when they are 
not pregnant, and when they may produce ; and 
whatever is on the same subject. 12. About the 
time of allowing the admission of the male to the 
beast 0/" burden, sheep, and camel, and the time of 
consignment to each separate male for whom recep- 
tion remains ; the case when it is the time for ad- 
mission of the male (gusn-hillh), and the case when 
it is such a consignment as when the period, which 
is really originating with the admission of the male, 
has continued. 13. When, on account of no consign- 
ment to the male at the proper time, the female goes 
on unimpregnated, and there is no pregnancy of the 
cow, mare, camel, sheep, goat, or pig, each separately, 
how much the penalty is ; also the sin they commit. 

14. About the camel, mare, cow, or sheep, unto 
whom there is damaged milk, void of butter (akarag), 
owing to the appointed time one postpones ; also the 



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I4O DtNKAiU), BOOK VIII. 

average and least milk of the mare, cow, goat, and 
sheep, that is, the measure of their one milking, 
each separately. 15. About the camel, that is, how 
much is its production of hair in a year, and the 
extent that the camel is surpassing therein among 
cattle ; of them is also the ass that they allow to be 
seized upon for as much value as that of the oxen, 
and the mode of beating them up. 16. Where and 
how it is when the females of the camel and horse are 
a multiplying {a fzun 6) tending to dissatisfaction; the 
increase even of increases of the ox, sheep, and goat 
progresses, and of them how much less is the multi- 
plying of the female — which is an increase of in- 
creases tending to dissatisfaction, where it is extending 
over them — to be produced than that of the male. 

17. The camel which is injured on the road, 
beyond the end of the appointed time, when they 
keep it at work unlawfully and the road is bad, 
when at work unlawfully and the road is good, and 
when comfortable at pasture, where seizing upon it 
becomes tending to dissatisfaction in several ways, 
and they are severally buying it when really invigo- 
rated \ or at a price. 

18. For how much increase of increases he stands 
up who is buying also an invigorated dog, or pig, at 
a price ; and when it is that the increase and increase 
of increases remain undeveloped in them, as it does 
whenever property, on which the interest of the 
residue and income accumulates, is still for the chil- 
dren of the well-destined. 



1 Paz. afisanghen, both here and in § 18, no doubt for Av. 
aoganghem, as in Chap. XX, 58, the Av. * g and * s being 
much alike. 



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CHAPTER XLI, 1 5-26. I4I 

19. About hint whose supplies some one is silently 
(ag6p6) buying up, and the seller and important 
holder is quite bereaved, so that the bereaver has 
plenty for one deprived of food on a summer's day, 
and plenty for him who is so also on a winter's day 
(dim-i/£ik) ; also the supplying of mankind and fire 
lawfully, in the beginning, for a summer's day and 
night, and that for a winter's one 1 . 20. About 
clothing when it is that which one strips off for dona- 
tion. 21. About the penalty for a first deprival of 
food, and the sin of it ; also the penalty of the 
second and third, up to the tenth. 

22. About a plaint and defence as regards a debt 
and its interest, and the decision thereon ; also how 
it is when, for keeping up the repayment, debts 
upon debts are cancelled so far as the continuance 
of interest ; and whatever is on the same subject. 
23. About the uselessness of supplies which are not 
authorised by the religion. 24. About buying a 
slaughtered a sheep when the seller is bereaved by 
the delivery ; also to how many sheep, in the two 
previous years, the increase and increase of increases 
thereof had specially to attain. 25. About where and 
what is that which would not conduce to increase, 
and what is that which would. 26. About the 
special sin and offence, the use of the milk, heart s , 
and wool, the spreading about which tends to dis- 
satisfaction, the increase of increases, and the good 



1 See Farh. Oim, p. 38, 11. 4-8, and compare Chap. XXXVIII, 
13. 

* Reading bara-zegtalunt ako, which word has been corrupted 
by the repairer of the MS. 

' Reading dtl, but the word can also be read sar, 'head.' 



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142 DtNKA/U), book VIII. 

figure of any one sheep, and the regulation of 
every one. 

27. About how the debtor has to announce the 
nature of the loan, which the lender, through irrita- 
tion, does not approve ; and, when the debtor has 
provided for a triple issue, when for a double issue, 
and even when he has for a single issue, the first 
year is free from begging his own time. 28. About 
the debtor and what l he repays, when each year is 
announced and he does not assent ; and how it 
happens, as regards the debtor, through many repay- 
ments, and all the postponements of the lender 2 . 

29. About causing the confiscation (paaftrangarih) 
of a human being (gerpih) 3 , and its cessation * owing 
to worldly work, where it is for one month, or, thence 
onwards, for a second, a third, a sixth, a ninth, or 
a year at worldly work, and where it is regarding 
several human beings ; the production of gain which 
accrues upon that single human being ; and what- 
ever is on the same subject. 30. About the confis- 
cation of a cloak (gudad) in the winter, and of a 
skin-bag for holding water (ma^k6-l <Sz>danS) in 
the summer ; about whom they are appertaining to, 
on the passing by of the first ten nights, where it is 
after the bringing out of the cloak at the beginning 
of winter, and of the water-skin at the beginning of 
summer ; or prior to the length of a month previous, 



1 Supposing that madam stands for maman; the two words 
being sometimes confounded. 

1 Who allows the debtor a longer time for repayment. 

8 Literally ' bodily form.' The seizure of a slave of the debtor 
to work off the amount of the debt is evidently meant. 

* Reading va.-saiisnb instead of the very similarly-written 
nikfsisnb, 'explanation,' of the MS. 



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CHAPTER XLI, 27-34. 143 

severally, to the end of the winter as regards the 
cloak, and to the end of the summer as regards the 
water-skin ; that is, for how much gain upon that 
one cloak, or water-skin, is the retribution of the 
confiscator to whom it is appertaining * ; and what- 
ever is on the same subject. 

31. About the increase of grains, and that of 
sheep with the progeny, milk, and wool that they 
may severally produce. 32. About the confiscation of 
clothes and implements by delivering them back to 
him who specially reckons many as his own 2 ; that 
is, how the produce (vakhsh) increases when he 
orders their use imperfectly, how it does when he 
does so not imperfectly, and how it does when he 
keeps them in inactivity. 33. About the produce of 
land on which grain is cast, and of that on which it 
is not cast (va-zak-1 an-madam ramltunt6) 8 , 
when by delivery thereof it is self-exhausted. 
34. And so also the produce of ornaments of gold 
and silver, and of red-coloured things, with many 
regulations on the same subject and what is con- 
nected therewith. 

* This seems the more probable meaning if we are to understand 
that the confiscation has been actually carried out at an improper 
season; but, if we suppose that it is avoided on account of the 
season, it would be better to translate as follows : — 'For how much 
gain upon that one cloak, or water-skin, is the confiscator, to whom 
it is appertaining, to be compensated.' 

* Possibly referring to the seizure of articles sold by a dealer, but 
not paid for/ 

* The form an of the negative prefix is here used because the 
Zvaro an-madam is replaced by the Paz. an-o»ar in pronun- 
ciation. 



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144 T>lHKARD, BOOK VIII. 



Chapter XLII. 
SaMddm Nask. 

i. One section, the Varistan {'ordeal code'), 
contains particulars of that which, when it becomes 
manifest in any one, is indicative as to witchcraft ; 
the bringing of remedies for the person who is ren- 
dered sickly by a wizard ; the execution of the 
wizard, what the religious rite is in the legal pro- 
ceedings, and the case when there is a religious rite 
in the legal proceedings. 2. About the case when, 
for want of legal proceedings, "he is executed without 
the religious rite; and what it is when 1 he dies 
through his own destruction of some one. 

3. About the accomplishment of an ordeal by 
which, through the power of the spirit, there arises 
a manifestation of acquittal or incrimination of those 
maintaining inconsistencies as to witchcraft, de- 
stroying a righteous man, or other concealed insti- 
gations of sin 2 ; the time of its performance, and the 
place of hurtfulness of its continuance. 4. About 
the place of accomplishment; in what manner is the 
selection (fragar^anS), limitation, and preparation , 
of the abode in which the ordeal is performed ; that 
which is to be carried forth to that abode, and that 
of which the carrying thereto is to be avoided ; who 
is to be admitted to that abode, and who is not to 
be admitted ; and that which, when it occurs there, 

1 We should probably read ' and about the case when,' supposing 
that ma man stands for madam, the reverse of what occurs in 
Chap. XLI, 28. 

' That is, when there is no evidence of the crime beyond the 
suspicions, real or assumed, of the accusers. 



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CHAPTER XLII, I-XLIII, 4. 1 45 

is a disturbance of the work, they separate (vang end) 
therefrom. 

5. About those belonging to the place of ordeal 
(varistanikan) and other officials there, the rites 
and customs therein, the ceremonial to be celebrated 
in the abode, and the invocation of the sacred beings 
for assistance. 6. What is the mode of performing 
the hot and cold ordeal ; how is the leading forth of 
the accomplishers thereto, and of what Avesta is 
their uplifted recitation ; how is the accomplishment 
of the hot and cold ordeal, and the manifestation of 
the acquitted and incriminated thereby; and many 
statements (gdkan) on the same subject. 



Chapter XLII I. 
Sakd&dm Nask. 
i. One section is miscellaneous: about having 
sought an assistant who is brought, that is, in what 
mode it is proper ; and the payment of an assistant 
who is a member of the community (dahm) 1 , and 
also that of a foreigner (an -Air), in the same affair. 
2. About how the coming of a man to confinement 
and fettering is through his own wealth, and what- 
ever is on the same subject. 3. About confession 
through one, two, and three statements ; and what- 
ever is about it. 4. About the contempt of a 
disciple for a priestly master, which is an annoyance 
to him ; the property belonging to the master, and 
the squandering that occurs in it. 

1 The contradistinction here indicated between dahm and an- 
Atr is an important confirmation of Geldner's definition of Av. 
dahma as ' Vollbflrger oder Mitglieder' (see Studien zum Avesta, 
1882, p. 14). 

[37] L 



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146 dInkaju), BOOK VIII. 

5. The sin that is its own penalty through being 
liable to penalty, and the transgressor whose penalty 
is owing thereto ; when they would unlawfully bring 
a penalty upon one liable to penalty, or one thereby 
inflicts a penalty upon him, of which one is aware 
that he is not capable (patuk6); and the time which 
one liable to penalty has for the payment of that 
penalty of his is until his attaining to opulence, 
when, after the appointment about the penalty, he 
becomes capable of an atonement. 6. About the 
accumulation (gan^lh) of sin through the expedients 
of the wrathful (garmakin), which are connected 
with much destruction of the righteous. 7. About 
the sin owing to which, among those that are wrath- 
ful, he who has drunk from a well on a road, or 
path, conceals the water for the sake of conceal- 
ment. 

8. About the sin of a judge who pronounces the 
sinner to be in innocence, and the innocent to be in 
some sinfulness. 9. About a judge acquainted with 
the law 1 for ten years, him who is for eleven, him 
who is for twelve, him who is for thirteen, him who 
is for fourteen, and him who is for fifteen ; that is, 
their decisions, each separately, on several specially 
prominent objects of acquaintance with the law, as 
regards decision and judgment 

10. About a daughter whose religious control, 
during the life of her father, resides in her mother 
for the joint life of the mother, but for 2 the author- 
ised giving her away there is the father. 11. About 
a daughter who is unprovided with a husband, and 

1 See Chaps. XX, 74, XXII, 21. 
* Reading rat instead of \&, 'not.' 



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CHAPTER XLIII, 5-15- 1 47 

who has no father and no mother, nor yet any of the 
brothers of the departed parents, and it is not even 
allowable to give herself away into guardianship by 
a husband. 

12. About property which is bequeathed by will 
on passing away; that is, how it is when given, 
and how it is when it does not exist. 13. About 
the privilege of a father in giving property to his 
children according to his wish, and a son who is 
irreverent towards his father, so that l some of the 
property of the father goes to the worthy mother ; 
also when they would make irreverence towards the 
father the imputed characteristic (bakht nisanS), 
where a decree about the property of the father is 
decided upon ; and whatever is on the same subject, 
as regards the extent of irreverence of the son 
towards the father, and the sin of it. 

14. About the sin of a son 2 who is accepted, 
when he recoils from that acceptance ; the accepter 
of a living, or even a departed, father is so because 
it is the will of the people, and also for the worldly 
fame of a soul of the departed ; and the ceremonial 
and obeisance are, moreover, for those of them 
within their own dwelling, owing to letting forth 
their generosity, and they shall provide them. 

15. About the production and arising of even 
that property which a liberal person has not seen, 
if there be any one who s has not lived liberally. 

1 As a€gh also means 'where,' it is rather uncertain whether the 
irreverence is supposed to be the cause, or the effect, of the special 
provision for the mother which afterwards becomes a source of 
litigation. 

* An adopted son must be meant. 

* Supposing that min stands for mun. 

L 2 



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148 DbiKARD, BOOK VIII, 

16. About the production and arising of something 
of the property of a damsel, even when she gives it 
by design only to him who is worthy. 

17. About a damsel whom an idolator (d£vtyast) 
carries off from her own master, and would give to a 
Masda-worshipper ; that is, how it is justifiable for 
the Masak-worshipper, having had that damsel in 
his possession, to seek a son by her, so long as the 
guardianship of the woman is with that man. 18. 
About a mother being guardian over a living father, 
owing to their having a son. 19. About the proper 
completion of a provision — that was for the decision 
of the supreme judge, on various statements, and 
was never otherwise — which is the provision of him 
who is a high-priest of the religion. 

20. About the sin of a father through not satisfy- 
ing the menstrual excitement of a daughter who has 
attained the capability of having a son (berman 
raafih) ; what it is when, through not satisfying the 
menstrual excitement of the daughter, he is sinful ; 
and how it is when the daughter herself is sinful ; 
also the symptoms of attaining the capability of 
having a son. 

21. About where and which is that sin on the 
committal of which inadvertently one attains to 
deliverance thus, when it comes to his knowledge it 
is through a determined renunciation it goes away 
from its source ; also which is that committal inad- 
vertently which does not occur through him who is 
intelligent. 22. Aboutthe four more heinous forms 
of demon-service (j^da-ya^aklh), and the three 
worst sins wherein they shall perform them ; the ten 
existences that are furtherances, and the nine that are 
destroyers, of the world. 



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CHAPTER XLIII, 1 6-2 7. 1 49 

23. About a true statement through which, when 
one utters it, he is wicked and worthy of death. 24. 
About driving the bestowable benefit of the spiritual 
existence away from the world, when he who is 
destroying a righteous man walks openly in the 
world ; how one section of the spirit's earth is that 
of a people * destroying the righteous man, and the 
complaint of the spirits of fire, water, and plants, 
owing thereto ; also how the bestowal of the allot- 
ment of a leading man is upon his inferiors. 25. 
About the three kinds of righteous men ; one that 
is greater than water and earth, animals and plants, 
one that is equal to them, and one that is less ; and 
what is the arrangement of — as it were — the con- 
joined formation of those who are somewhat outside 
of the three kinds. 

26. About the grievous bridge-j'udg-ment for carry- 
ing forth dead matter to water, or to fire, with which 
there is evidence ; and the heaviness of the spirit due 
to dead matter in the water. 27. The good work 
of him who brings the dead matter 2 of man or dog, 

1 Some neighbouring nation of unbelievers is probably meant, 
such as the Byzantines ; as we must always recollect that the com- 
piler is summarizing the contents of the Pahlavi commentary 
written in Sasanian times (see Chap. I, 3). 

* See Chap. XXVII, 4. It appears from this section that the 
dead matter of an evil creature, such as a snake or frog, was con- 
sidered to pollute the water as much as that of a good creature. 
§ 28, however, admits the expediency of killing noxious creatures in 
the water when it is impossible to take them out beforehand ; and 
this is in accordance with Vend. V, 35-38 (W.) which teaches that 
an apostate defiles no one when dead (any more than a dried-up 
frog that has been dead a year), because he defiles while living. 
This rule was evidently intended to remove all scruples as to killing 
such creatures, but it applies to them only when recently killed ; 
hence the necessity of removing them, from any place liable to 



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150 DfNKAJU), BOOK VIII. 

or that of the serpent or frog, out of the water. 28. 
About the destruction of the serpent and frog, and 
other aquatic noxious creatures, in the water when it 
is only thus possible, and carrying them out from it 
when it is possible. 29. About the gratification of 
the spirit of the world, and the vexation of the 
demons, owing to the destruction of them. 

30. Where and what are the tokens of the good 1 
management and well-operating drinking-party (td.y- 
tih) of a neighbour not of the same district (aham- 
shatr6 nazd). 31. About the sin of him who, after 
joining a drinking-party from sunset (hu-frishmdk- 
d&dd), pulverizes the road (rah tekhnuneafo), 
keeps the door opened, and would unlawfully make 
an uproar. 

32. About Atiharmazd having produced the 
bodies and members of animals — through having 
created the body of the sole-created ox with satisfac- 
tion, as assistance for mankind — because they are 
repeated for protection, and also for the ceremonial 
for sacred beings specially declared. 33. About 
the reason of making offerings (austdfrlafo) to 
the sacred beings, for the increase of power of the 
allotters of destiny in the allotment of destiny ; the 
connection of that acknowledgement (pa^lri^no) 
and of the benefit and advantage of the recompense 
thereof; the proper maintenance of that acknow- 
ledgement, through the means and efficacy of the 
spiritual bridge-judgment of sin, and the fear of 
worldly disaster and harm from not properly main- 
taining the perpetual acknowledgement in force 

pollution, as soon as possible after death, common sense being 
preferable to logical consistency. 

1 Supposing that vup stands for khup. 



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CHAPTER XLIH, 28-36. 151 

(d£n patukih), and from the setting up even of 
ruin thereby ; the reasonable control of the offering 
to each one of the sacred beings therein is for the 
skilful member of the community (hunar Ik dahm) 
of whatever kind, and is not produced by intrusting 
the consecration to the violent, more particularly to 
those whom one specially enumerates ; the sin and 
retribution owing to having given it to those who 
are of that class ; and more upon the same subject. 

34. About the damage and injury of the world 
owing to greed (dz6) and its fellow-miscreations, and 
him who is their supporter and abettor, the idolator 
(de'vtyastd), also the wolf of many kinds and 
noxious creatures of various species ; because the 
occurrence of their fiendishness is due to the original 
fiend, and the means for strengthening their fiendish- 
ness are derived from the destruction of all mankind 
and the other primary worldly creations which are 
aiding mankind. 35. Advice to mankind about 
smiting and destroying the evil domination (dus- 
khshasarintafano) of the world by those injur ers, 
and the merit manifest for themselves therein; the 
object and spiritual reward for smiting and killing 
each one of the wolves and noxious creatures, and, 
as regards the same reward, the perfection of that 
for destroying a two-legged wolf 1 ; and whatever is 
on the same subject. 

36. About advice as to not reverencing the evil 
spirit and demons, whereby the observing (var'26) 
of the several ceremonies and gratifications of the 
sacred beings would be more particularly irregular 
in any manner whatever, and the damage and 

1 A term applied to an idolator. 



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152 dInkard, BOOK VIII. 

harm owing to those who are irregular and ill- 
observant, through being inclined for that irregu- 
larity and ill-observance, would become an oppressive 
presidence (paafgahth) of the demons over the 
creatures ; also the vice of clamorous talking (dra- 
yan g6g!h) 1 and the damage owing thereto, and 
the pleasure of the demons due to the same and 
other things which are irregular. 37. Advice about 
the reason, habit, and primitive practice of not 
chattering, and other good customs, during eating 
and drinking ; the gratification of the sacred beings 
owing to that primitive practice of good customs by 
mankind, and the unself-devoting (a-khves-dak) is 
he who is not maintaining it. 

38. Through the ceremonial of which sacred 
being is the greater welcome (mahmanStarih) of a 
high-priest and of any good work of each one of the 
five periods of the day and night ; the reward and 
advantage owing to celebrating the ceremony of 
each of them separately in its own period, and also 
other means and regulations in the same statement 

39. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence. 



Chapter XLIV. 

1. The Vendlda^ 2 contains particulars of Auhar- 
mzizd having produced the pleasure of mankind by 

1 Whereby the devotions are disturbed, or rendered ineffectual 
8 Corresponding to the nineteenth word, drigubyd, in the 
Ahunavair, according to B. P. Riv. ; but it is the twentieth Nask in 
other Riv&yats. In the Dtnkarrf its name is semi-Zvtrij, either 
GvW-sh6da-dS</ or Vik-shSda-darf, the Av. data vidae'va, Maw 
opposed to the demons.' In the Rivayats it is called <7ud-d£v- 
did, Vendidid, or Vtndad, and is stated to consist of twenty-two 
kardah, or fargarrfs, the number it still contains. It is generally 
considered that the Vendtdarf now extant is a collection of frag- 



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CHAPTER XLIII, 37-XLIV, 7. 1 53 

that place where they specially make a residence, 
and the advantage from the same production \ 2. 
About the formation of sixteen perfect places 
specially enumerated, and also the adversity which 
has happened to each separately 2 . 

3. About Auharma^^s disclosing the religion first 
among mankind to Yim 3 ; its non-acceptance by 
Yim owing to attachment (asrunSih) to the reli- 
gion of the ancients ; and the acceptance of other 
things to develope, extend, and improve the world 
thereby 4 . 4. About the reason of the needfulness 
0/" making the enclosure that Yim made (var-t Yim 
kard), the command and instruction by Auharmasa? 
to Yim, the making by Yim just as Atiharmzzd com- 
manded and instructed, and whatever is on the same 
subject 6 . 

5. About what the comfort of the spirit of the 
earth is most owing to, what its discomfort is more 
particularly owing to, and from what its greatest 
gratification has arisen 6 . 

6. About the sin of pollution owing to carrying a 
corpse by a single person, relating, however, to that 
which a dog has not seen 7 . 7. About the food, 

ments, but it is evident, from the close correspondence between the 
author's description and the present contents, that this fragmentary 
state of the text existed in his time ; and there is every probability 
that any mutilation that exists in the text occurred before Sasa- 
nian times. The author, however, sometimes omits to mention 
subjects that are repeated, so it is just possible that some of these 
repetitions are of later date. He also makes no allusion to the 
twelfth fargarrf (see § 51 n). 

1 Vend. I, i, 2 (W.). « Vend. I, 3-20. 

• See Chap. XIII, 6-8. * Vend. II, 1-19. 

5 Vend. II, 22-43. " Vend. Ill, 1-13, 22, 23, 34. 

7 Vend. HI, 14 ; the latter clause referring to the commentary on 
Pahl. Vend. Ill, 48 (Sp.). 



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154 d!nkaju>, book viii. 

clothing, and place of him who becomes polluted and 
worthy of death through a corpse, on account of 
carrying it alone (a£vak5-barth ril) l . 8. About 
how the several precautions of mankind and other 
pure creatures are taken, as regards a corpse * which 
has become polluted by another corpse 3 . 

9. About the pleasure of the spirit of the earth 
owing to sowing and tilling, and its vexation owing 
to not sowing and not tilling ; the blessing upon 
the sowers, and the advantage and merit owing to 
sowing, on account of particulars about the nourish- 
ment and protection of the religion thereby 4 . 10. 
About the destruction of the demons which arises 
from the sprouting, growing, and ripening of corn ; 
and the good success of mankind from the eating 
of it 6 . 

11. About the sin of burying a corpse through 
sinfulness, and for how much time is the uselessness 
of the ground in which the burial may be performed 8 . 
12. About the power of the good religion for wiping 
away sin from human beings 7 . 

13. About the sin of deceiving by an avaricious 
person (pajt6) as regards what he has consumed and 
given, and the grievousness of other breaches of 
promise ; the danger, even in the worldly existence, 
from maintaining him, and the retribution it is im- 
portant for him to make 8 . 

1 Vend. Ill, 15-19. 

• The person polluted in this manner being considered as un- 
clean as the corpse itself. 

' Vend. Ill, 20, 21 and perhaps some commentary on Pahl. 
Vend. Ill, 71 (Sp.) now lost. 

4 Vend. Ill, 23-31. • Vend. Ill, 32, 33. 

• Vend. Ill, 36-40. 7 Vend. Ill, 41, 42. 

• Vend. IV, 1-16. 



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CHAPTER XLIV, 8- 1 8. 1 55 

14. About where there is steadfastness in the reli- 
gion there is also a manifestation of this : when one 
becomes liberal — as to every benefit that exists for 
him — towards those of the same religion who come 
forward with a request 1 . 15. About the extent of 
sleeping in the day and night, and other matters as 
to occupation which occurs daily 2 . 

16. About the grievous sinfulness of having taken 
a false oath, so that, apart even from the testifying 
retribution of the property, the oath taken thereon 
has also an efficacy very much for the accusers, 
which, on account of Mitr6 3 , Sr6sh, and Rashnu, is 
an awful destroyer and adversary for one's own 
person, wife, child, and property ; also the grievous 
bridge-judgment which is an appendage to one's own 
soul *. 

17. About the sin of bringing firewood, with 
which dead matter s is mingled, to a fire ; and this 
too, that is, how and when one is innocent therein *. 
18. About a ditch (f6i), which is not always a stream 
(n^z/6), when the water has to pass through it, and 
also that which is always a stream, when one wants 
to increase the water therein, how often and how one 



1 Vend. IV, 44. s Vend. IV, 45. 

s Av. Mithr6, the angel of the sun's light, friendly to man, and, 
hence, insisting upon the fulfilment of every promise (mithr6). 
He is supposed to keep an account of all breaches of promise (see 
Dd. XIV, 3), and to mediate between the departed soul and its 
accusers (see Mkh. II, 118), in doing which he co-operates with 
the angels of obedience (Srosh, see Chap. IX, 3 n) and justice 
(Rashnu, see Chap. XX, 153 n) who estimate and weigh its good 
works and sins, and decide upon its fate at the bridge of judgment. 

4 Vend. IV, 46, 50-55. » See Chap. XXVII, 4 n. 

• Vend. V, 1-4. 



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156 viNKMID, BOOK VIII. 

has to inspect them for fear of dead matter having 
been there \ 

19. About death which is by reason of water or 
fire, and does not occur through the supremacy of 
water or fire, but is owing to the demons 2 . 20. 
About the great advantage owing to rain, and con- 
nected with raining on dead matter and the bodily 
refuse 8 of depositories for the dead*. 21. About 
the greatness and goodness of ' the law opposed to 
the demons' 6 for cleansing, as compared with other 
utterances 6 . 

22. About pollution owing to bodily contact (ham- 
ker/aklh) with a corpse, and to bodily contact with 
him who is in bodily contact with a corpse 7 . 23. 
About the wicked villain who is an unrighteous 
apostate alive, and abstaining from association 
(av akih) with him 8 . 24. About how long is the 
time of pollution of a. house in which a dog or human 
being passes away, the carrying away theretofore of 
anything going thereto, and the avoidance of it; 
the place into which any one goes out, the feeding, 
and other things in that house within three steps, 
and whatever is on the same subject 9 . 25. About 
a woman whose child dies in the womb, and which 
becomes dead matter ; and whatever is on the same 
subject 10 . 

1 Vend. V, 5-7 ; but the last clause refers to a Pahlavi com- 
mentary found only in the manuscripts. 
4 Vend. V, 8, 9. » See Chap. XIX, 3. 

4 Vend. V, 15-20. • The Vendidarf itself, see § 1 n. 

• Vend. V, 22-25. 7 Vend. V, 27-34. 

• Vend. V, 35-38. 

• Vend. V, 39-44 (W.), and commentary on Pahl. Vend. V, 
134 (Sp.). 

10 Vend. V, 45-56. 



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CHAPTER XLIV, I9-3I. 157 

26. About useless and polluted clothing, that which 
is cleansed for six months \ 27. About the grievous 
sinfulness of irregularly letting forth clothing, as 
much as a single double hem 2 , upon a corpse 8 . 

28. About how long is the time of the unculti- 
vated state of the land— -free from admitting water 
and being sown — on which a human being or a dog 
passes away ; the inspection of the whole land on 
account of the risk of dead matter having been 
there, and afterwards admitting water upon it; the 
sin when, through not exploring, dead matter is in 
that place, and the water comes on to it ; and 
whatever is on the same subject *. 

29. About how to bring a corpse out of the water, 
the extent of the pollution of the water around the 
corpse, the purity after bringing away the corpse from 
it, and whatever is on the same subject 6 . 30. About 
where the bodies and bones of the departed are 
deposited, and whatever is on the same subject e . 

31. About how soon is the rushing of the fiend of 
corruption (nasu^ dru^6) upon a human being or 
dog that has passed away at the appointed time, 
and upon one who has done so before the appointed 
time through the defectiveness (ahugaglh) of the 
worldly existence ; where the clothing of this one is 
which is useless, and which and how is the washing 

1 Av. khshvaj maunghd ; Vend. V, 57-59 (W.), and com- 
mentary on Pahl. Vend. V, 167 (Sp.). 

* Paz. dhdvana which is here assumed to be equivalent to Pers. 
dd bun. It is probably a reading of the Pahlavi word r? or Ifl* in 
Pahl. Vend. V, 169, 172, which has been variously read as ghga.n, 
' a dirham,' duko, ' a spindle,' or yuko, ' a rag ; ' the last of which 
would best suit the context here. 

' Vend. V, 60-62. * Vend. VI, 1-9. 

• Vend. VI, 26-41. " Vend. VI, 44-51. 



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158 dink arc, book viit. 

of that which is for washing 1 . 32. About the 
heinous pollution and grievous sinfulness of de- 
vouring dead matter, or of bringing it to fire or 
water through sinfulness 2 . 33. About the winter, 
the demon-produced terror, the spider and locust s , 
sickness of many kinds, and much other evil, which 
become threatening in the world owing to the for- 
mation of dead matter*. 34. About how to cleanse 
wood, corn, and fodder from the dead matter which 
comes upon it 6 . 

35. About medical treatment with spells, the 
knife, and herbs; how to test a medical man, the 
fee for curing, and whatever is on the same sub- 



1 Vend. VII, 1-5, 10-16. Nothing is said about VII, 6-9, 
17-22 (which passages are merely a repetition of V, 27-30, 57-62), 
but this omission may be owing to the fact that these passages are 
so abbreviated in the MSS. as to be easily overlooked, especially 
by a reader of the Pahlavi version only. 

* Vend. VII, 23-26. 

* Pahl. tanand va-mak (=m6g), evidently equivalent to the 
Av. sun6 madhakhayaus^a of Vend. VII, 26, which are ren- 
dered by tun m6go-i in the Pahlavi version. The identity of Av. 
madhakha with Pahl. madag, or m8g, Pers. maig, mala*A 
'a locust,' has long been recognised (see Darmesteter's fitudes 
Iranniennes, II, p. 199). But the meaning of Av. sun = Paz. tun 
has been merely guessed to be 'a mosquito;' the Avesta word 
having been transcribed as sfn, or sin, in the prose Sad-dar, 
LXXII, 2, and explained by the Persian gloss paxah, 'a gnat or 
fly,' by some copyists, while others have read san (for sin) and 
have substituted its synonym sal, 'a year,' or have read bis, 'a 
poisonous herb,' instead of pas ah. With regard to the word 
3»f* tanand, 'spider,' in our text, it may be observed that it has 
descended from a much older copy of the Pahlavi VendfdSrf than 
any that could have been consulted by the author of the Sad-dar, 
and it is easy to see how an original Pahl. Jiipo could have been 
read .'?f* in Pazand by later copyists of the Vendida*/. 

* Vend. VII, 26, 27. » Vend. VII, 28-35. 



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CHAPTER XLIV, 32-43. 1 59 

ject 1 . 36. About the place on which a corpse is 
fettered (garovl-a!t6), and also that in which' it is 
buried through sinfulness ; and in how much time it 
becomes pure, in each case separately 2 . 37. About 
the much lodgment of the demons there where a 
corpse is buried (nikan), and the merit of laying 
open (askarlnidfanS) the place ^/"burial (nikanlh) 
of a corpse 3 . 

38. About the duration of not drinking by a 
woman who has miscarried (visistako); also her 
not feeding on the liquid of that which is watery 
food 4 . 39. About the washing of a metallic, stony, 
or any other cup-like article, upon which dead matter 
has come, and which is not pronounced useless 6 . 
40. About the animal (go spend) that has eaten 
dead matter, and the plant with which dead matter 
is mingled 6 . 41. About the sin of holy water being 
brought to water which is tainted with dead matter 7 . 

42. About the house (khan&) in which a dog or 
a human being passes away 8 . 43. About how large 
and how one has to make the vault (ka^ako) for 
the sake of a corpse in a dwelling (man), carrying 
the corpse to it, when the time comes to expose and 
avoid it, and whatever is on the same subject 9 . 



1 Vend. VII, 36-44. a Vend. VII, 45-50. 

' Vend. VII, 51, 52, 55-59, which refers to tombs and mauso- 
leums (uzda&za uzdixta) and not to the legal dakhmas, or 
depositories for the dead. §§ 51, 52 are described after the others. 

* Vend. VII, 60, 67-71. The contents of VII, 61-66 are not 
mentioned, being abbreviated in the MSS. as a repetition of V, 
46-51. 

* Vend. VII, 73-75. 

* Vend. VII, 76, 77, where, however, plants are not mentioned. 
7 Vend. VII, 78, 79. • Vend. VIII, 1-3. 

» Vend. VIII, 4-25. 



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160 dInkaw), book viii. 

44. About the baseness (garax) 1 and grievous 
sinfulness of the decree (vi^lrlh) 1 of death, un- 
natural intercourse 2 . 45. About a dry corpse which 
has been dead throughout a year 8 . 46. About the 
merit of having brought unto purity a corpse-burning 
fire, a fire burning bodily refuse, or of an encamp- 
ment (saray-f^o) 4 ; also those which artificers, each 
separately, keep in use one has to secure, when the 
work is done, for the appointed ^replace (da^-gis) 8 . 

47. About washing the polluted who have been in 
bodily contact with a corpse, or moving it ; divers 
preferences as to the purifier, the rite of washing, 
and the reward of purifiers, worldly and also spi- 
ritual 6 . 48. About the shining of the sun, moon, 
and stars alike discontentedly upon the polluted 7 . 
49. About the gratification of all the creatures of 
Auhannazdf by the purifier, when he produces puri- 
fication for the polluted and suchlike beings (anguni- 
aitSan) ; also his reward 8 . 50. About the strength 
and aid which are given to the fiend of corruption 
(nasux drhgd) by him who does not understand 
purifying, and yet would accomplish it; also the sin 
thereof at the bridge of judgment*. 51. About the 
triumph of the Yatha-ahu-vairy6 10 in smiting the 
fiend and in healing ". 

I Both these words are blotted and doubtful in the original MS. 
• Vend. VIII, 31, 32. ' Vend. VIII, 33, 34. 

4 Or it may be sar as/ 6, 'a troop of horse.' 
» Vend. VIII, 73-96. • Vend. VIII, 35-72, 97-107, IX, 1-39. 
7 Vend. IX, 41. • Vend. IX, 42-44. * Vend. IX, 47-57- 
10 The Ahunavair formula is so called from its first three words 
(see Chap. I, 7 n). 

II Vend. IX, 45, 46, X, 1-20, XI, 1-20 may probably be all 
alluded to in these few words ; but nothing is said about the twelfth 
fargarrf. This omission is singularly in accordance with the fact 



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CHAPTER XLIV, 44-58. l6l 

52. About the species of dogs; the worthiness of 
the shepherd's dog, the village dog, and others also ; 
how to maintain and nourish (srayinidtanS) them 
with nourishment, and the sin owing to killing or 
even improperly maintaining them, each separately ; 
and whatever is on the same subject 1 . 53. And 
this, too, when a dog becomes useless (ab6n) or 
hurtful, what is to be done with it, and how it is to 
be kept 2 . 54. About authorisedly killing the dog- 
wolf 8 . 55. About the thirty-one dispositions among 
dogs, which are just as among the three special pro- 
fessions and divers others of five descriptions 4 . 
56. About the grievous sinfulness of killing a water 
beaver, and statements (g6kan) of the penalty 6 . 

57. About the sin which gave an Iranian to 
foreigners (an-Alrano) 6 . 58. About the sin for 
those three 7 males who have debauched a woman 

that the same fargarrf is omitted in all very old copies of the 
Vendidarf with Pahlavi version, in which, although the fargan/s are 
numbered, the thirteenth immediately follows the eleventh. The 
Kopenhagen MS. No. 2, in which the twelfth fargar</ occurs with 
a Pahlavi version, is said to be a revision of the Vendidarf text 
compiled in the last century, and other copies of the Pahlavi twelfth 
fargarrf have been derived from this revised text. The omission of 
this fargarrf in all the old MSS. cannot be satisfactorily attributed to 
the loss of some folios in an older copy, because no fargarrf is likely 
to fill exactly a certain number of folios ; the loss must also have 
occurred very shortly after the last revision of the Pahlavi text, to 
account for the author of the Dinkar</ not finding the Pahlavi 
of this fargart/ in the ninth century. 
1 Vend. XIII, 1-28. " Vend. XIII, 29-38. 

* Vend. XIII, 41-43. 

* Vend. XIII, 44-48 which detail the thirty-one particulars in 
which dogs resemble people of eight avocations, three of which are 
the professions of priests, warriors, and husbandmen. 

* Vend. XIII, 50-56, XIV, 1-18. « Vend. XV, 2. 

7 Reading va/ zak 3, but it may be va/ zak-aS, 'for the other.' 
[37] M 



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1 62 DiNKA/tD, BOOK VIII. 

who is pregnant, or the wife with a child at the 
breast, or a daughter of others ; and the sin owing 
to similar sin 1 . 59. About the guardianship and 
nourishment which it is important to provide for 
a child that is seen to be improperly protected, or for 
a dog when it is born without a guardian ; and 
whatever is on the same subject 2 . 

60. About menstruation, the heinousness of its 
pollution, and how much one has to abstain from it 8 . 
61. The cleansing from the menses, the time of the 
cleansing, and the nature of the cleansing of any 
person or thing polluted by the menses, or that 
which becomes inefficient thereby ; and whatever is 
on the same subject 4 . 62. And about the grievous 
sinfulness of having sexual intercourse with a men- 
struous woman 6 . 

63. About the deadly bridge penalty of those who 
have not sustained the judges 8 . 64. About the care of 
the hair and nails, and the sin owing to want of care 7 . 

65. About the apostasy of him who is bringing a 
mouth-veil 8 , a vermin-killer 9 , various sacred twigs 10 , 

1 Vend. XV, 8-16. 

* Vend. XV, 17-45, though the last clause may include the 
remainder of this fargart/. 

» Vend. XVI, 1-7, 13-16, also XV, 7. * Vend. XVI, 7-12. 

6 Vend. XVI, 17. • Vend. XVI, 18 = XVII, 11. 

7 Vend. XVII, 1-10. 

8 Pahl. padam (Av. paitidSna, Paz. pendm). It 'consists of 
two pieces of white cotton cloth, hanging loosely from the bridge 
of the nose to at least two inches below the mouth, and tied with 
two strings at the back of the head. It must be worn by a priest 
whenever he approaches the sacred fire, so as to prevent his breath 
from contaminating the fire.' (Haug's Essays, p. 243, note 1.) 

* Av. khrafstraghna, an implement for killing snakes and 
other noxious creatures ; it may be made of any material, but a 
leathern whip is recommended. 

10 Av. baresman, a bundle of slender rods, formerly twigs of 



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CHAPTER XLIV, 59-70. 1 63 

or a goad or scourge 1 which is exceptional, and 
maintains that it is that which is necessary 2 . 
66. About the disapproved one, and the bridge- 
judgment upon him, who sleeps on through the 
whole night, so as not to accomplish his proper 
duty 8 . 67. And the approval and reward of him 
who does not sleep over religious observances, so as 
to accomplish his proper duty*. 68. About the 
progress of secretly-advancing ruin (se^o) through 
that exhibitor of evil religion who wears no sacred 
thread-girdle, and his not wearing it as it were 
by law *. 

69. About the proper duty and great value of the 
Par6darsh 6 bird, and the great good work that gives 
it a morsel of meat which is the size of its body, the 
liberalization of the primitive temperament 7 through 
righteousness for the righteous man 8 . 70. About 
the hurry of the fire for kindling for the untroubled 
watching of the night, and the merit owing to law- 
particular trees, but now thin metal wires, usually from five to 
thirty-three in number according to the nature of the ceremony. 
These rods are tied together by a central girdle, passing three 
times round them and knotted just like the sacred thread-girdle 
round the waist of a Parsi ; but this girdle is formed of six thread- 
like ribbons split out of a leaflet of the date-palm and twisted 
together. The bundle, when properly purified, is laid upon the 
crescent-shaped tops of two adjacent metal stands, whence it is 
taken up by the officiating priest, to hold in his left hand during 
certain recitations. 

1 Av. ajtra and sraosha-iarana, implements for scourging 
and punishing sinners and criminals. 

» Vend. XVIII, 1-4. » Vend. XVIII, 5. 

4 Vend. XVIII, 6. • Vend. XVIII, 8-10. 

• ' The foreseer' of the dawn, an epithet of the domestic cock. 
7 Pahl. rSrfint(/ano-t munak-f kadmon. 

• Vend. XVIII, 13-17, 23-26, 28, 29. 

M 2 



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1 64 vInkard, book viii. 

fully kindling it; also the blessing of the fire on 
mankind, when pleased and untroubled l . 

71. About the four special sins by which the 
fiend 2 receives vigorous pregnancy, and the atone- 
ment for each separately 3 . 72. About the grievous 
sinfulness, trouble, lamentation (na^lklh), and harm 
that proceed from a courtezan; also the advan- 
tageousness of her destruction*. 73. About the 
retribution for the sin of having sexual intercourse 
with a menstruous woman *. 

74. About the combat (kushi^nS) of the evil 
spirit with Zaraturt, the victory of Zaraturt therein, 
and whatever is on the same subject 9 . 75. About 
Zaraturt having enquired of Auharma^ how, and 
by what means, one has to confound the evil spirit 
and other demons, and his reply 7 . 76. About the 
gratification of Vohuman, the archangel, owing to 
the washing and bringing back to use of polluted 
clothing; also praise unto Auharmaaraf for his nar- 
rating the care of the clothing 8 . 

77. About the reward which they give up to a 
human soul for the sake of kindness, and whereto 
and how is the attainment to exaltation of him who 
is given it 9 . 78. About the going of Vohuman to 
meet the souls of the righteous, the notification of 
their position, tlieir announcement for reward, and 
the contented progress of the souls of the righteous 
to their [home] 10 , to the throne of Auharmas*/ and 

1 Vend. XVIII, 18-22, 26, 27. 

s The Av. dru^ is feminine. ' Vend. XVIII, 30-59. 

4 Vend. XVIII, 60-65. » Vend. XVIII, 66-76. 

« Vend. XIX, 1-10. 7 Vend. XIX, n-14. 

8 Vend. XIX, 20-25. * Vend. XIX, 27-30. 

10 This word, mShan (Av. maSthana), has been omitted by the 



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CHAPTER XLIV, 71-81. 165 

the archangels, which is made of gold 1 . 79. About 
the terror of the demons owing to the scent of the 
righteous, and the fear that arose among- them owing 
to the birth of Zaraturt 2 . 

80. About the great powerfulness of plants of a 
poisonous character s for the forcible * keeping away 
of much adversity; the production of entire species 
(pur saradfako) of plants by Auha^mae^ for the 
curing of the creatures from disease (aydyaklh) ; 
the success of the G6keren6 s plant — which is the 
white H6m — in curing, as compared with other 
plants ; and the diligence of Airman 9 in the medical 
treatment of the world 7 . 

81. Information about the ritual (nlrang) through 
which the violence of the fiend was minimized at 
the original creation ; and the great powerfulness of 
the Airman supplication 8 , the Ahunavair », and other 

repairer of the manuscript, when noting, on his patch, the words he 
had cut out. 

1 Vend. XIX, 31, 32. 

• Vend. XIX, 33, 43-47 ; no notice being taken of the invoca- 
tory passage 34-42. 

• Pahl. btj'jJihar, Av. vijJithra. 

4 Reading nfrugfk which suits the context better than ntran- 
gik, 'ritualistic' 

8 Av. gaokerena, a mythical tree, or plant, supposed to grow 
in the ocean, where it is guarded by ten enormous fish, and, at the 
time of the renovation of the universe, the elixir of immortality is 
expected to be prepared from its twigs mingled with the fat of a 
mythical ox (see Bd. IX, 6, XVII , 1-6, XXVII, 4, XXX, 25). 

• Av. Airyaman, a spirit whose powers of healing, chiefly by 
spells, are celebrated in Vend. XXII ; and who is invoked in Yas. 
LIV, a spell that concludes the recitation of the Gathas. 

7 Vend. XX, 1-12. 

• The Airyama-ij^yd (Yas. LIV), or invocation of Airyaman, 
quoted in Vend. XX, n, XXI, 20, XXII, 23. 

• See Chap. I, 7 n. 



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1 66 ntXKARD, BOOK VIII. 

G&thic Avesta 1 , for restraining the demons from 
destroying the world of righteousness 2 . 

82. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence. 
It is the excellence (^righteousness that is perfect. 



Chapter XLV. 

1. Of the three divisions of the H1^6kht 3 , as it 
exists in its 133 sections, the first is <?/" thirteen 4 
sections, and contains particulars about the nature of 
the recital of the Ahunavair », which is the spiritual 
benefit from chanting it aloud, and whatever is on 
the same subject 6 . 2. Advice about selecting and 

1 Yas. XL VI, 7 and XLIV, 16 b-e which are quoted after the 
other spells in each of the last three fargan/s of the Vendidarf. 

2 Vend. XXII, 1-25, XX, 13-15, XXI, 18-23, and probably 
the rest of XXI. 

* Corresponding to the twentieth word, dada</, in the Ahuna- 
vair, according to B. P. Riv. ; • but it is the twenty-first, and last, 
Nask in other Rivayats. Its name occurs in the Avesta, in the 
form hadhaokhta, and it is called Hadukht in the Rivayats, which 
also state that it contained thirty kardah, or fargan/s, which differs 
considerably from the number stated in this chapter. Yts. XXI, 
XXII are traditionally supposed to belong to the Harf6kht, but 
there is hardly a trace of either of them in this chapter. Yt XI is 
also distinguished by the same title. 

4 As the total of the 13+ 102 + 19 sections (mentioned in §§ 1, 
11, 13) is 134, instead of 133, there must be an error in one of the 
four numbers given in the MS. This clerical error can hardly 
have been made in writing 19, and is unlikely in 102; but 133 
may possibly stand for an original 134, though the writing of 13 
instead of 12 is more probable. The Rivayats give no assistance 
in settling this question, as they all divide this Nask into 30 
kardah. On the whole, it will be safest to read 'twelve,' instead 
of ' thirteen,' until some better authority becomes available. 

* Compare Yt. XI, 3. 

* It is just possible that this may refer to Yt. XXI which, though 
specially alluding to the recitation of the Ashem-vohu, or praise of 



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CHAPTER XLIV, 82-XLV, 7. 167 

keeping a spiritual and worldly high-priest, perform- 
ing every duty as to the high-priest, and maintaining 
even those of various high-priests. 

3. About the twenty-one chieftainships, spiritually 
through Auharmasa? and materially through Zara- 
ttot, through which the ceremonial of the sacred 
beings and the government of the members of the 
community (dahman6 rayinlafarlh) exist. 4. 
About the duties in the five periods * of the day 
and night, each separately, and the hndgt-judgmenl 
of him who shouts out 2 in the ceremony of a season- 
festival 3 ; likewise of him who does not provide the 
preparations for the feast of a season-festival, and 
who also becomes worried (slWak6) in other cere- 
monials of the sacred beings. 

5. About how to consider and what to do with a 
sacerdotal leader and a man of the superior classes 
(pi-rakikanS), him who atones for unimportant sin, 
and him who does not atone even for that which is 
important; and whatever is on the same subject. 
6. About the means through which membership of 
the community (dahmlh) is prepared. 7. About 
the manifestation of virtuous manhood, and the 
merit and advantage from well uttering the words 
of blessing at eating and drinking food and drink, 
and from despising the inward talk of the demons. 



righteousness, also mentions that of the Ahunavair in its § 4. With 
regard, however, to Yt XXII, there seems no possibility of identi- 
fying its text with any portion of the Hi</6kht Nask as described in 
this chapter. 

1 See Chap. XXIX, 9. 

1 Reading bard driyeVo, but it may be bard giriyeVS, 'is 
zealous.' 

' See Chap. VII, 1. 



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1 68 IitNKARD, BOOK VIII. 

8. About the recitations at the five periods of the 
day, the ceremonial invocation by name of many 
angels in each separately, and great information on 
the same subject. 

9. The worthiness of a man restrained (van dak) 
by authority, the devotion of life and body to the 
sacred beings, the good rulers, and their examination 
and satisfaction ; also the blessing and winning 
words which are most successful in carrying off. the 
affliction that is owing to the fiend. 10. About all- 
pleasing creativeness and omniscience, every pre- 
cedence \ leadership, foresight 2 , worthy liberality, 
perspicacity (v£nakih), and all proper cause and 
effect of righteousness ; the individuality (kh<Wih) 
of righteousness, the opposition to the demons of 
AuharmazdTs law, and also much other information 
in the same section. 

1 1. The middle division is of 102 sections contain- 
ing particulars about spiritual and worldly diligence, 
the leadership of the diligent and their mighty 
means, all the former deeds of righteousness. 1 2. 
Righteousness kindling the resolution is the reward 
of merit, each for each, and is provided by it for 
that which one mentions thus : — ' // is the Haafokht 
which is the maintenance of righteousness, so that it 
may make righteousness more abiding in the body of 
a man.' 

13. The last division is 0/" nineteen sections con- 
taining a trusty remedy, that is, a remedy whose 
utterance aloud by the faithful is a chief resource 
(afzartum) for the creatures of the sacred beings. 



1 Assuming that pcr&gth stands for pgjagfh. 

2 Assuming that pe* v6nikfh stands for pS* vfcn&kfh. 



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CHAPTER XLV, 8-XLVI, I. 1 69 

14. Also the nature of sayings full of humility (pur- 
pastih), well-favoured, most select, and adapted for 
that which one mentions thus : — ' I reverence that 
chief, the beneficent and eminent Haafokht, out of 
which is the sustainment of the strength of every 
word of Zaraturt they trust in.' 

1 5. It is perfect excellence that is righteousness. 



Chapter XLVI. 

1. The Gathas of the Ya^t 1 , as the first off- 
spring of the Ahunavair, are a recitation of the 
source of sources of the religion, and in the compass 
(parvastarih) 2 of the Githas, every word (marlk) 

1 Corresponding to the twenty-first word, vastarem, in the 
Ahunavair, according to B. P. Riv. ; but it is the first Nask in other 
Rivayats. In Chap. I, 9, 12 it is called St&d-y&sl, 'praise-ritual,' 
(Av. staota y£snya); and Stud-yajt, or Yart, in the Rivayats, 
which also state that it contains thirty-three kardah, or jurat. In 
Sis. XIII, 1 we are told that Vtsai \v-amesha-spe»ta (Yas. XIV, 1) 
is the beginning of the Stdtan-yasnd ; and, if we look for its end, 
we find Yas. LVIII, LIX both ending with special reverence of 
'the whole collection of the Stdt&n-yasnan.' We may therefore 
conclude that Yas. XIV-LIX, with its supplementary passages in 
Vtsp. V-XXIV, contains the whole of the Stdrf-yart. But from 
this we must deduct Yas. XIX-XXI which are the first three 
fargan/s of the Bak6 Nask, Yas. LII which is an interpolation, and 
Yas. LVI, LVII which are the Sr6sh Yajts, lesser and greater; 
we must also consider the Yasna Haptanghaiti as a single section, 
in accordanoe with its treatment in Bk. IX, Chaps. XII, XXXV, 
LVII ; and much of the VfspeTarf may not belong to the primitive 
text mentioned in § 3. Making these necessary deductions we 
have exactly thirty-three has of the Yasna left for the Stdrf-ya* t, as 
stated in the Rivayats. 

* This word can also be read fravistarth (Av. fra+vid), 
'interpretation,' or frdstarfh, 'handing down.' 



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170 DiNKAKD, BOOK VIII. 

in it is the origin of a word. 2. The word ahu 1 of 
the beginning 2 is of a like kind with ahya 3 , the 
beginning of the Gathas ; the end word, which is 
vastarem 4 , is of a like kind -with vahy6 6 , the end 
of the Gathas; and the whole — which, though its 
nature is of one kind, is distributed (vakhto) in 
what is selected therefrom — is stored up (at/ar- 
gudfo) in this compendium 6 of all parts of the 
MasaJa-worshipping religion. 

3. Likewise the purport (a&ori-hastan) 7 of its 
verse (gah), and the particulars of the primitive 
Vispera*/ 8 are to procure homage and praise, obla- 
tion and invocation ; and the blessing 9 , which is 
regulated by the sagacity of the creator, is adapted 
for the spiritual illustration of the lodgment of the 
ceremonial of the sacred beings therein. 4. All 

1 The Ahunavair begins with the words yathi ahft vairyd. 
The word ahft, in the MS., is written ahi as usual in Iran. 

2 Assuming that bara stands for bun. 

9 The first Gatha, or sacred hymn, begins with the words ahy& 
yisi nemanghi (Yas. XXVIII, 1 a). There is, of course, no 
connection but that of sound between ahu, 'a spiritual lord,' and 
ahya, 'of this;' nor is there any other between the concluding 
words vSstareni, 'a protector,' and vahyd, 'better,' though the 
phrases in which these latter occur are of a very similar character, 
which fully justifies the comparison made in the text. 

4 The Ahunavair ends with the words yim drigubyd dadarf 
vastarem. 

• The last Gatha ends with the words yd erezhe^ydi d£h? 
drigaove" vahyd (Yas. LIII, 9d). 

• The Githas apparently. 

7 Or av ar-g&st in, 'disseminations.' 

• The Vispfirarf service consists of the Yasna ritual with certain 
additional passages intermixed, which passages are called the 
VtspSrarf because the earlier ones invoke 'all the chiefs' (vtsp6 
ratavd, Visp. II, 3) of creation. 

• Possibly Yas. LV. 



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CHAPTER XLVI, 2-5. 171 

three are provisions -for the first and last presenta- 
tions l which one utters by means of the Stdd^ Yart. 

5. It is perfect is the excellence of righteousness ; 
it is perfect excellence that is righteousness ; with 
the copy revised (raytnlafo). 

1 Probably referring to Yas. XIV and LVIII. 



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DtNKARD.— BOOK IX. 



Chapter I \ 



i. Satisfaction (shndkhar) to the creator A (mar- 
inas*/, a«d obeisance to the Mazda-worshipping 
religion. 

2. The ninth book (baba) is about the Has a«d 
Fargards 2 of the various Nasks ; the object of pro- 
curing the division of those portions which exist 
being owing to the quantity of what is in each one of 
the Nasks ; also an explanation of a suitable selec- 
tion 3 therefrom, such as is an epitome (nisangag-1) 
of the abundant detail therein. 



Chapter II. 
SilAkar Nask. 



i. Glorification for the Mazda-worshipping reli- 
gion which is the ordinance of Auharmazd opposed 
to the demons. 

2. Of the Sudflcar * there are twenty-two fargards, 

1 From this point to Chap. XXXI, 1 7 the text is also found in a 
second MS. (K) which is independent of the MS. B brought to 
Surat in a.d. 1783, the original of all the Bombay copies. 

* See Bk. VIII, Chap. I, 20, 23. The contents of these are 
detailed below, in Chaps. II-LXVIII, so far as the first three Nasks 
are concerned. 

5 Referring to Chap. LXIX. 

4 The first of the Nasks and second of the G£thic division (see 
Bk. VIII, Chap. I, 9, 1 2). As the St6rf-yart (the first of the G&thic 



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CHAPTER I, I -II, 9. 173 

and the first fargaraf is the Yatha-ahu-vairyd 1 , 
just as the Yatha-ahu-vairy6 formula is as it were 
the beginning (bunlh) of the religion, and from it is 
the formation of the Nasks which, though about the 
first six sciences (dani^nS), have also demonstrated 
the existence of the highest of other sciences in its 
own place. 

3. And here it speaks about the power and 
success owing to uttering the Yatha-ahu-vairyd 
formula* at the beginning of actions. 4. One 
utterance when one wishes to say anything to any 
one; one when he wishes to beg of any one; and 
one when he goes to work. 5. Two when he wishes 
to confer his blessing. 6. Four when it is for the 
homage of the chiefs of creation (rarfo-franamunlh), 
or the ceremony of a season-festival. 7. Five when 
it is for carrying off the fiend. 8. Six when it is 
for power; and six when it is for the success of a 
battle. 9. Seven when it is for the ceremonial of 

division, but the last of the general list of Nasks) contained the 
text of the Gathas, so the next three of the Gathic division con- 
tained commentaries, or homilies, upon that text, written with 
different objects in view. The purpose of the Surfkar was appa- 
rently (as its name imports) to extract useful instruction from the 
text, and to illustrate it with legends and remarks. A separate 
fargarrf is devoted to each hi of the Gathas, beginning with the 
three sacred formulas, and including the united Yasna Haptang- 
haiti and the Afryaman. The connection between the com- 
mentary and text, though usually traceable, is not always very 
clear ; but that is a common characteristic of homilies in general. 

1 The Ahunavair (see Bk. VIII, Chap. I, 7). This fargarrf 
explains the use made of this formula, and the benefits derived 
from it. 

! As a spell, or appeal for success. The text of §§ 4-15 has 
been independently handed down by tradition, with a few variations, 
in Sis. XIX and the Persian Rivayat of Bahman Pun^yah. 



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174 d!nkaju>, book ix. 

the archangels, or when one wishes to perform the 
ceremonial of the archangels. 10. Eight when it 
is for the ceremonial of a guardian spirit of the 
righteous, n. Nine when one wishes to cast seed 
into his land. 12. Ten when one wishes to allow 
procreation. 1 3. Eleven when one goes to ask for 
a wife. 14. Twelve when one expects to go up on 
a mountain. 15. Thirteen when one wishes to go to 
an inhabited district (ruafostak-1) ; twelve 1 when 
he goes out pathless ; and one s when he wishes to 
proceed by a ford through the water. 

16. About the place where one has to utter the 
first Yatha-ahu-vairy6 for smiting the demons. 1 7. 
About the good results (dahi^nan) of a suitable 
recital of the words of the Ahunavair, the summary 
of everything for Zaratutt to utter. 18. And about 
the fact that, through chanting forth every single 
word of the Ahunavair with a virtuous intention, a 
demon is disabled, and there is protection of person 
and property from the adversary. 

19. About the division of the twenty-one Nasks, 
likewise, according to the first, second, and third 
lines (gis) of the Ahunavair 3 . 20. About the 
increase of the creatures owing to the liberal 
thought, word, and deed of a righteous person; 
owing to the priests having become numerous, and 
the reverence of 'him who is making them numerous ; 
and owing to the perpetual meditation of righteous- 
ness and the existence of its recompense. 

21. Righteousness is perfect excellence. 

1 Sis. XIX, 14 has * thirteen.' 

* So in both MSS., but WT ay6*>, ' or,' is more probable than 
i^V a£vak6, ' and one.' 
8 See Bk. VIII, Chap. I, 7. 



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CHAPTER II, IO-IV, I. 175 

Chapter III 1 . 
Sd&kar Nask. 

1. The second fa.rga.rd, Ashem-vohu 2 , is about 
the praise of righteousness which is the reward of 
the religion, and the want of praise at the bridge of 

judgment owing to enmity (patyanih) to righteous- 
ness. 

2. Of righteousness perfect is the excellence. 



Chapter IV. 
Sfi&kar Nask. 
1. The third fargarrf, Y^NhS-hatSm 8 , is about 

1 This chapter is omitted in K by mistake. 
a This second sacred formula is recited by the Parsis even 
oftener than the Ahunavair, and consists of twelve Avesta words, as 
follows : — 

Ashem vohu vahwtem astt, 
u.rta asti; urta ahmai 
hya</ ashai vahirtai ashem. 
This may be translated as follows : — ' Righteousness is the best 
good, a blessing it is ; a blessing be to that which is righteousness 
to perfect rectitude.' 

But the Pahlavi version explains it as follows : — ' Righteousness 
is perfect excellence [righteousness of any excellence is good]. 
Happy is that righteousness and happy also that virtuous man who 
is a causer of righteousness, the righteousness that is perfect [that 
is, he shall accomplish duty and good works].' 

* This third formula is chiefly recited at the end of most of the 
has in the Yasna.and consists of fifteen Avesta words, as follows : — 
YSuhe* hatam aa</, ySsn€ paiti, vanghd 
mazdou ahurd vaStha, asha</ ha£a, 
yaunghamH, tas& tousia yazamaidS. 
This may be translated as follows: — 'Of whatever male of the 



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176 d!nkajiz>, BOOK IX. 

the formation of mankind by slow increase, and, 
when they live on for fifty 1 years, their slowly 
becoming dust; the coming of death even to him 
who is very pleasantly living, as regards mankind, at 
the climax (bartnS) of his life; and the happiness 
of the worldly existence is given only to the worthy, 
on account of their love of righteousness ; the rest 
are passed by 2 . 2. And also this, that he who is 
produced by the demons, or is proceeding to the 

existences, therefore, Ahuramazda was better cognizant, through 
righteousness in worship, and of whatever females, both those males 
and those females we reverence.' 

The Pahlavi version explains it as follows : — ' Whoever of those 
existing is thus in worship as regards a good being [that is, shall 
celebrate a ceremonial for that good being who is Auharmas<f the 
lord], Auharma«</ is aware of it, owing to the accompaniment of 
righteousness [and being acquainted with the reward and recom- 
pense of whatever are, severally, the duty and good works that 
any one has performed, he grants them]. I reverence those of the 
assembly, males and females [the archangels ; because the male of 
them are good, and the female of them].' 

The Pahlavi translator evidently read vanghd in the first line of 
the text, as printed above, and not in the second, as in the present 
MSS. 

1 So in K, but B has ' seventy.' The text seems to allude to the 
beginning of old age, of which three grades are mentioned in the 
Avesta (Vend. Ill, 19,20): the hand, zaururd, and pairifta- 
khshudr6. The Pahlavi version defines the age of each grade, 
but the ciphers given are corrupted in the MSS. extant. The Far. 
Oim, p. 5, 11. 9, 10, gives fifty years as the age of the zarman 
(Av. zaururd), seventy years as that of the han (Av. hand), and 
ninety years as that of the pa</iran5-shusar (Av. paimta- 
khshudrd); but whether this arrangement of the ages is com- 
patible with the different order of these epithets in the Avesta is 
doubtful, though it shows that old age was considered to begin at 
the age of fifty years. 

* Reading sa£i-a!t6 according to K, though the word can also 
be read se^i-ait6, 'are ruined;' in B it can be read gadaigi- 
ait&, ' are impoverished.' 



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CHAPTER IV, 2-V, 6. 177 

demons, or has committed falsehood, is the opulent 
person who gives nothing to a worthy supplicant. 
3. Righteousness is perfect excellence. 



Chapter V. 
Sd&kar Nask. 

1. The fourth fargan/, Yantm-mand 1 , is about 
where a gradual development (d£r-zah tenth) of 
that which is for the future existence is best ; and, 
secondly, that which occurs now when the wisdom, 
instructed eloquence, diligence, and energetic effort, 
which are the utilizers of life, are with one, and 
these five misusers of it — greediness, want of energy, 
indolence, defilement, and illicit intercourse — are not 
with one. 2. This, too, that these five defects 
existed in Dahak 2 , and owing to that, moreover, 
Fr&/un 2 is irritated with him, and smites him in 
revenge for Yim 3 . 

3. About the heinousness of these four vices, 
which are drunkenness, knavish companionship, 
apostasy, and selfishness, and the grievous results 
therefrom. 4. And this, too, that Yim drove away 
these four vices from the world, and then was able 
to prepare immortality. 5. About avoidance of him 
who, through any statement, is producing a thief as 
an orator (akhun), and ^"acquiescence with a hasty 
unoratorical statement of a companion. 6. And 
this, too, that he who propagates very evil com- 
mands in the world gives stout-heartedness to the 
fiend. 

1 The first two words of the introduction to the first G&tha (Yas. 
XXVIII, o), here written y£nfmandk6 in Pahlavi. 
* See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 8. » Ibid. § 6. 

[37] N 



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178 DtNKAJU), BOOK IX. 

7. About the clamour of a poor distressed one 
for a perfect remedy, and the repelling derangement 
(lakhvar-pafshiri^nlh), unacceptableness, unbles- 
sedness, and want of Gatha lore of the distresser 
arisen from the clamour of the distressed one. 8. 
About the connection of satisfying distress on true 
and reasonable complaint, and the reasonable com- 
plaining of true complainers, by him who has been 
an inferior judge, and gradually up to the highest 
adjudicator who is Auharmazrf. 

9. The excellence 0/" righteousness is perfect. 



Chapter VI. 

Siidkar Nask. 

1. The fifth fargan/, Khshmaibya \ is about the 
forgetfulness of a father for a son, a son for a father, 
a brother for a brother, a friend for a friend, a 
husband (manpatS) for a wife (narik), and a wife 
for a husband in a measurable time, through excess 
and festivity (khang) ; and the unforgetfulness of 
the spirit of the Gathas for so many reciters and 
chanters of the Gathas. 2. About the complaint of 
the spirit of the Gathas when a high-priest, although 
priest of the country-folk (dehtganS), passes away 
in an out-district 2 , and the body of that man does 
not come back to his own land ; whatever is relating 
to that, and, besides that, what is to be born in that 

1 The first word of the second hi of the first Gatha (Yas. 
XXIX, 1), here written khshm&aibe 1 (B) and khshmaibe" (K) in 
Pahlavi. 

* Reading auzd6hikth (from Av. uzdaApyu); in Sis. IX, 2, 3, 
where this passage is evidently referred to, this word has been 
erroneously read auadiyakih and translated 'idolatry.' 



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CHAPTER V, 7-VII, 5. 179 



land, and the oppressiveness of apostates which 
arises. 3. About the superior power of the spirit 
of the G&thas, and also that of liberality, in preserv- 
ing the soul from hell. 

4. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness. 



Chapter VII. 
Sti&kar Nask. 



1. The sixth fargaraf, A^-ta-vakhshyi 1 , is 
about the perfection of the five excellences : the 
first through righteousness, the second through 
virtuous offspring, the third through land producing 
vegetation, the fourth through flocks of sheep, and 
the fifth through training in industry. 2. About 
the distribution of fortune to the diligent ; and of 
destitution to the indolent. 3. About the acquire- 
ment of fortune singly sitting, two-fold even walk- 
ing, three-fold hastening, four-fold even running, 
five-fold even carrying on a horse, six-fold even 
driving on a road, seven-fold by understanding legal 
proceedings, eight-fold by good protection even of 
wealth, nine-fold by intelligence and diligence in the 
cultivation of land, and ten-fold by providing the 
teaching of the bounteous texts 2 . 

4. About the grievous sorrow of an aged man, 
owing to the indolence of any one in youth. 5. About 
the four things through which, when a man has 

1 The first three words of the third hi of the first G&tha 
(Yas. XXX, 1), here written ato-t&-vakhshiyi (B) and atS- 
vakhsha (K) in Pahlavi. 

* The liturgy (mansar-s/end). 

N 2 



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l80 DtNKAJlD, BOOK IX. 

amassed them in his youth, he becomes very pleased 
in old age : first, virtuous learning ; second, produc- 
tive wealth ; third, a good wife ; and fourth, a 
prosperous dwelling. 6. About the five store- 
holders * of perfect excellence : industry, diligence, 
contentment, guileless understanding (nlrikht- 
hushlh), and provision of means. 

7. About abstaining from sitting with drunkards. 
8. And this, too, that he does not drink varieties of 
wine (ma£-gunagan6) with the approval of the 
sacred beings, who becomes a viciously-disposed 
assailant and annoyer of others, and a disturber 
k#plnl</ar) of duties, through drinking varieties of 
wine. 9. And this, too, that thou shouldst eat that 
which is your food where there is a suitable place. 
10. And where it is eaten by thee it should be 
lightly, it should not be heavily, so that, when it is 
eaten by thee, a good work is performed, and there 
is abstinence from sin. 11. And, so that what thou 
eatest shall be immortally joyful to thee, where 
there are poor, provide them a share, and the poor 
will bless thee ; and, as to a poor man who is 
righteous, the opinion is that his blessing is best. 

1 2. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness. 



Chapter VIII. 
Sii&kar Nask. 
1. The seventh fargara?, Ta-v^-urvata 2 , is about 

1 Reading gan^-dan6; or it may be duzagano, 'seals,' 
though this is less likely, as a plural form is rarely used with a 
numeral. 

* The first three words of the fourth h£ of the first Gatha (Yas. 
XXXI, 1), here written ta-va-rat6 in Pahlavi in both MSS. 



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CHAPTER VII, 6-IX, I. l8l 

the exhibition to Zaratu.yt of the nature of the four 
periods in the millennium of Zaraturt l . 2. First, the 
golden, that in which A&harrmzd displayed the 
religion to Zaraturt. 3. Second, the silver, that in 
which VLrtasp 2 received the religion from Zaraturt. 
4. Third, the steel, the period within which the 
organizer .of righteousness, At&rp&d* son of Mara- 
spend, was born. 5. Fourth, the period mingled 
with iron is this, in which is much propagation of 
the authority of the apostate and other villains, as 
regards the destruction of the reign of religion, the 
weakening of every kind of goodness and virtue, and 
the disappearance of honour and wisdom from the 
countries of Iran. 6. In the same period is an 
account of the many perplexities and torments 
(zakha mi-has tan 6) of the period for that desire of 
the life of the good which subsists in seemliness. 
7. Perfect righteousness is excellence. 



Chapter IX. 
Sdd&ar Nask. 



1. The eighth fargan/, //z/aetumaiti 4 , is about 
the abstinence of mankind, for special propitiation, 
from being unreliant upon religion, on account of 
reverence for the evil spirit 8 ; that from the habit of 

1 Compare Yas. XXXI, 14 ; Byt. 1, 1-5. 

« See Bk. VIII, Chap. XI, 1-3. 

' See Bk. VIII, Chap. 1,22. 

4 The appellation of the fifth hi of the first G4tha (Yas. XXXII) 
which begins with the words ahvy&ki Avz&lixs; it is here written 
khvatamaito in Pahlavi in both MSS. 

8 Compare Yas. XXXII, 3. 



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1 82 DiNKAJU), BOOK IX. 

being ungirdled, on account of reverence for Andar 1 
and that for ^Sovar * ; that from walking with one 
boot 8 , on account of reverence for Taur&o and 
ZarL£S 4 ; that from being harmfully inquisitorial, on 
account of reverence for Akatish 6 ; and that from 
the habit of being without a serpent-scourge, on 
account of reverence for all the demons 6 . 

2. About the hungry intention (gu.ynak5- 
mlnunth) of him who eats 7 and drinks chattering; 
the delight of the demons on that account; and 
advice as regards not speaking a word during eat- 
ing and drinking. 3. As to the praise and gratifica- 
tion of the sacred beings before eating and drinking, 

' Av. Andra, orladra; one of the arch-demons produced by 
the evil spirit, and the special opponent of the archangel Asha- 
vahut ; he seduces from virtue and opposes the use of the sacred 
shirt and girdle (see Bd. I, 27, XXVIII, 8, 10, XXX, 29 ; Ep. I, x, 9; 
Pahl.Yas.XLVH, 1). 

* Av. Sauru ; another of the arch-demons and the special oppo- 
nent of the archangel Shatvaird; he encourages anarchy and 
drunkenness, and opposes the use of the sacred shirt and girdle (see 
Bd. I, 27, XXVIII, 9, 10, XXX, 29 ; Ep. I, x, 9). 

' Probably equivalent to ' walking in stockings,' though some 
think it means ' walking barefoot' It is sinful on account of the 
risk of pollution from stepping on impurities. 

* Av. Tauru and Zairi^a; two more of the arch-demons and 
the special opponents of the archangels Khftrdarf and Amurdarf; 
they produce and diffuse poison, and are propitiated by walking 
with one boot (see Bd. I, 27, XXVIII, n, 13, XXX, 29; Ep. I, 
x, 9). 

5 Av. Akatasha; 'the fiend of inquisitiveness, who makes the 
creatures look away from proper things' (Bd. XXVIII, 20), and 
appears to be closely connected with the demon Aeshm, ' wrath.' 

* See Bd. XXVIII, 21, 22, and Bk. VIII, Chap. XVIII, 2. 

7 B omits 'eats.' Talking during eating is sinful because the 
eater has muttered an inward prayer, as a protective spell, the good 
effect of which would be destroyed by speaking aloud (compare 
Bk. VIII, Chap. XLIII, 37). 



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CHAPTER IX, 2-7. 183 

and also on finishing ; and the purity 1 of the mouth 
owing to its praise of righteousness 2 . 4. About 
him whose ownership of any good work, that they 3 
may perform, does not attain to the best existence, 
on account of not possessing a high-priest by habit. 
5. About the period of the ceremonial of Srdsh 4 , 
the righteous, being mostly on the passing away of 
the first half of the night, and the announcement 6 of 
him who is the celebrator (yastar) is for his protec- 
tion from the fiend spirit. 6. The period of the 
ceremonial of Rashnu* and Artaa? 7 is mostly after 
that, in the jurisdiction (radfth) of the Aushahln 8 , 
and the announcement of him who is the celebrator 
is abundance of grain. 7. The period of the cere- 
monial of Mit*-6 9 of the wide cattle-pastures, and of 
the spirit of the pleasure of eating 10 , is mostly in the 

1 K has ' protection.' 

* That is, its muttering the Ashem-vohfl formula which is recited 
thjrice, as a conclusion of the inward prayer (see Dd. LXXIX, 1 n). 

* Or it may be ' he,' as the optative 3rd plural is often used for the 
singular ; but it is a doctrine of the religion that a person who 
causes good works to be done by others, as he does when he 
employs a priest to perform ceremonies, is as much the owner of 
the good works as the actual performer is (see Sis. X, 22, 23 for 
cases of less direct agency). 

* See Bk. VIII, Chaps. IX, 3, XLIV, 16, and Pahl. Yas. I, 22. 

As an offering, referring to the verb nivaSdhaySmi, ' I an- 
nounce or invite,' with which most of the clauses of Yas. I. com- 
mence. 

* See Bk. VIII, Chap. XX, 153, and Pahl. Yas. I, 23. 

7 Av. Ats tarf, ' rectitude,' a female angel who assists the soul on 
its way to the other world (see AV. V, 3). 

8 The period from midnight till dawn (see Bk. VIII, Chap. 
XXIX, 9). 

* See Bk. VIII, Chap. XLIV, 16. 

10 Av. rama Av&streva, Pahl. ramifnfi khvardm, who co- 
operates with Mitrd (see Pahl. Yas. I, 9). 



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1 84 DtNKAiiD, BOOK IX. 

jurisdiction of the Havan 1 , and the announcement 
of him who is the celebrator is a flock of sheep. 
8. The period of the ceremonial of AshavahLyt 2 , and 
also of the fire of Auharma^, is mostly in the juris- 
diction of the Rapithwin 8 , and the announcement of 
him who is the celebrator is an assemblage of right- 
eousness. 9. The period of the ceremonial of the 
lofty lord of females, the descendant of waters 4 , and 
also of\he water created by Auhannasw?, is mostly 
in the jurisdiction of the Auzaerin s , and the 
announcement of him who is the celebrator is a 
troop of heroes (vlran ramakS). 10. And the 
period of the ceremonial of the guardian spirits of 
the righteous, of the females with troops of heroes 
and years of pleasant dwelling, of the might which 
is well-formed and handsome, as well as victorious 
and created by Auharmas^, and of the fighting 
which is in the ascendant 6 , is mostly in the jurisdic- 
tion of the Aiwisruthrim 7 , and the announcement of 
him who is the celebrator is the origin of all excel- 



1 The period from dawn till noon, and in winter it extends into 
the afternoon (see Bd. XXV, 9-14). 

s See Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVII, 14, and Pahl. Yas. 1, 12. 

* The afternoon till 3 p.m. during summer (see Bd. XXV, 9-14). 
Here written Rapisz>ag. 

* Av. berezatd ahurahg nafedhrd apam, Pahl. bur'sand 
khu</af nekedan-f dv&nb nap6 (see Pahl. Yas. 1, 15). 

8 The evening from the middle of the afternoon till dusk (see 
Bd. XXV, 9 ; Sis. XXI, 4-7). 

6 See Pahl. Yas. 1, 18, 19. 

7 The period from dusk till midnight; here written ayf»fk- 
sruksrim. It will be noticed that the periods for the cere- 
monials of the beings here detailed correspond with those with 
which their names are connected in Yas. I, 3-7, II, 3-7, III, 5-9, 
IV, 8-12, VI, 2-6, VII, 5-9 (W.). 



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CHAPTER IX, 8-X, 3. 185 

lence, and the produce of all manifestation of right- 
eousness. 

11. Righteousness is perfect excellence. 



Chapter X. 
Sd&kar Nask. 



1. The ninth fargaraf, Yathai-y 1 , is about the 
devilry, the blighted destiny, the complete pollution, 
the grievous stench, the heinous sinfulness, and the 
annoyance to all spiritual and worldly virtue of the 
sodomite. 2. The atonement for grievous sinfulness 
and the appropriation of great good works by him 
who is a molester, and the awful sinfulness of him 
who is a propitiator, of that sinner. 3. Of the seven 
one mentions as evil, who are accounted equal to the 
evil spirit in vileness — such as Az-i Dahak 2 in 
witchcraft, the serpent Srdbar in violence, Va<tfak 8 
in producing evil progeny 4 , Tur-I Bra^ar-vakhsh in 
destroying a righteous man, and an apostate 6 in 
grievous sinfulness — the permitter and performer of 

1 The first word of the sixth ha of the first Gatha (Yas. XXXIII, 
1), here written yasaif in Pahlavi in both MSS. 

» See Bk.VIII, Chaps. XIII, 8, XXXV, 13, and Dd. LXXII, 
2-9, which last chapter contains further details regarding these 
seven heinous sinners, probably derived from the actual text of this 
ninth fargarrf of the Su</kar Nask. 

3 The mother of Dahak (Dd. LXXII, 5), the same as Udai in 
Bd. XXXI, 6 ; for her viciousness see Dd. LXXVIII, 2. 

* Paid, sarya hund-dahakih, which last word indicates an 
original Av. hunujta (see Pahl. Yas. L, 10 b). 

8 Both MSS. have Aharmano, but this differs only in its last 
letter from aharmdk, 'an apostate,' which is the reading of Dd. 
LXXII, 9 and more suitable to the context. 



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1 86 viNKARD, BOOK IX. 



unnatural intercourse are unique in heinous sinful- 
ness. 

4. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness. 



Chapter XI. 

Sddhar Nask. 

1. The tenth farganj?, Ya-s^yaothana 1 , is about 
the complaint of the spirit of fires to Auharma^ 
owing to seven descriptions of people. 2. First, 
owing to domestics considering it as contemptible 
and in an unresisting state (a^angih), molesting it 
immoderately, and making use of it with unwashed 
hands ; also the damsel who has introduced fire into 
the sole of her foot, and the bursting of the blister 
(ivilag) ; and a weapon brought out into its splen- 
dour. 3. Second, the complaint owing to the 
carriers of fire from that abode [where the provision 
of care for fire is as a law to them, to that abode] 2 
where the provision of care for fire is not as a law to 
them. 4. And there, owing to the arrival and pre- 
paration of the demons, it lay stupefied, like a 
powerful youth who is feverish and in a languid 
state; and its cure from that sickness (ay6yakih) 
was by bringing forward to it their pure sandal- 
wood, or benzoin, or aloe-wood, or pomegranate s , or 

' The first two words of the seventh, and last, ha of the first 
Gatha(Yas. XXXIV, 1), here written ya-shya6sn8 in Pahlavi in 
both MSS. This fargar</ may perhaps be considered as a homily 
upon Yas. XXXIV, 4. 

* The words in brackets are omitted in B by mistake. 

' The traditional equivalents of the four sweet-scented vegetable 
substances, Av.urvasna,vohu~gaona, vohu-kereti, andhadha- 
naSpata, which are mentioned in Vend. VIII, 2, 79, IX, 32, XIV, 3, 



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CHAPTER X, 4~XI, IO. 187 

whatever there was of the most odoriferous of plants. 
5. Third, the complaint owing to the hussy * unto 
whom it happens, through menstruation, that the 
stench and filth owing to the menstruation is brought 
to it {the fire) ; and its sickness and stupefaction 
owing thereto are as written above. 6. Fourth, the 
complaint owing to the hussy who, dropping her 
knee on to the fire-stand, arranged her curls ; the 
falling of damp and moisture from her head, with 
the hair and filth therefrom, into the fire ; the con- 
sumption of it discontentedly, and the sickness and 
stupefaction owing thereto. 7. Fifth, the complaint 
owing to the father, or guardian, of a child for not 
keeping the child away from the fire ; and the bodily 
refuse and other unlawfulness that come upon it 
from such children. 8. Sixth, the complaint owing 
to the adversity which the unpurified infidel 
(agd&n6) may bring upon it, by blowing the breath 
of his mouth upon it in directing its use, and it 
becomes incalculable. 9. Seventh, the complaint — 
which, one says, is more awful and more grievous — 
owing to those who use it as an ordeal for a false- 
hood, and, when it is made evident thereby as to the 
acquitted and convicted, they become of a different 
opinion about it. 

10. At the place of complaint that which is 
polluted is put forward together with that which is 
pure, and the increase of it {the fire) is through 
lawful and unlawful operation; its burning alone 

XVIII, 7 1 as acceptable fuel for the sacred fire, or scent for fumi- 
gation; their Pahlavi names are merely corruptions of these Avesta 
words. 

1 The word geh, ' courtezan,' is used here and in § 6 merely as 
a general opprobrious term for a woman. 



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1 88 d!nkakd, book ix. 

and increasing are such as when both would be as a 
necessity for it, and undesired and rapid burning and 
increasing * are those which are polluted by burning 
and insatiably consuming ; and in that which is an 
operation unlawfully — the burning alone and in- 
creasing being [such as when] * both would be as a 
necessity [for it] — the increase is troubled. 

II. This, too, he 8 says : ' I am not of the world 
here, and from here I will extricate myself, from the 
earth up to the sky ; I am also thy son 4 , more to 
thee s than any of the other creatures.' 1 2. And 
Auharmazaf spoke to him thus : ' So thou shouldst 
stand over the fire, in thy proper duty as [a spirit •], 
carrying that club ; [it is a substantial means, be- 
cause I produce it, through which] thou turnest off 
[the whole bodily existence], some to the endless 
light, and some to the endless darkness.' 

1 3. This, too, that he who shall provide care for 
fire has paid the greatest reverence unto Atiharmazd. 
14. The propitiation of the righteous is the best 
thing, and their vexation is the worst ; when pleased 
they favour one, and it is the law of the sacred beings 
that they promote ; [when vexed they wound, and it 
is the demon that they restrict. 

1 5. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence.] 6 

1 As in the case of a destructive conflagration. 

* The words in brackets are supplied by gue6s, to fill up a blank 
space left by the repairer of B on one of his patches. In K the 
passage is shorter, and stands as follows : — 'and in that which is 
unlawful operation it is troubled by the increase.' 

s The spirit of fires mentioned in § 1. This dialogue seems to 
be a quotation from the original Pahlavi version of the Nask. 

4 Fire being called ' the son of Auharmaarf.' 

5 Both MSS. have ' me ' by mistake. 

• The passages in brackets are omitted in B, evidently by mistake. 



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CHAPTER XI, 1 1 -XII, 3. 189 

Chapter XII. 

Sfi&kar Nask. 

1. The eleventh fargaraf, the Yasna 1 , is about 
the assembly of the angels of the spiritual existences 
on account of the complaint of fire ; and the com- 
plaint of fire in the assembly, with its statement of 
this, too 2 : ' I am not of the world here, and from 
here I will extricate myself, from the earth up to the 
sky, and there I will shine on to the earth of seven 
regions, like the moon and sun and even the divinely- 
produced stars when they shine with their own 
light.' 2. The words of Auharmasaf about the just 
complaining of fire as regards the contamination 3 of 
the creatures, the impossibility of keeping the fire 
undisturbed, and satisfying the fire concerning the 
creation of the creatures for the worldly existence, 
along with the disturbed condition of fire, too, owing 
to the impossibility of maintaining * the uncreated 
state which, with the freedom from disturbance of 
fire also, was better ; likewise proclaiming the care of 
it. 3. And the speech of the fire was thus : 'If 
there be not that one mode whereby I may thus 
shine, owing to those that have acted according to 
my request 6 , thou art aware, O AuharmasaM there 

1 The Yasna of seven chapters, Av. yasna haptanghaiti 
(Yas. XXXV, 3-XLI, 6), here written asn6 (for ySsnd) in 
both MSS. 

* The spirit of fires, after repeating to the heavenly council the 
complaint he had already made to AuharmaW alone, concludes 
with the same threat as in Chap. XI, 11. 

8 B gum&khtakih (K gum/sakth) implies deterioration by an 
' intermingling ' of evil. 

4 K omits these last four words by mistake. 

e That is, if he cannot desert the world, owing to the necessity 
of stopping with those who act properly. 



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IQO DiNKA/U), BOOK IX. 



are some among the creatures that I cannot grant so 
much to i therefore carry me away, O AuharmasaM 
then give me away there ! and be thou carrying me 
away into the midst of Airan-v^f 1 ! ' 

4. The propitious 2 fire is from the creator Au- 
harmazd, and it is produced by him in a dwelling, 
without being handled (bara sudfako) 3 , by aid of 
bringing together *. 5. And so he spoke in words 
thus : ' Such is thine own growth, thou who art my 
fire ! in every dwelling where thou comest, and in 
every village, every community, and every province ; 
and as exalted as thou are the water and plants, and 
he, too, who is a guardian spirit of the righteous, 
when they shall bring forward holy-water for de- 
livering up to thee 6 ; and, when they shall bring 
forward to thee firewood which is dry, a person — 
through the light which he observes — has spoken of 
it thus : " This is the Gfon-as^ • fire." ' 

6. About so much reward of the hewer and 
inspector and kindler of the firewood — when all 
three shall do it for the sake of affection — as they 

1 The primeval home of Mas<fa-worship, the abode of Yim, and 
the scene of Zaratfixt's first promulgation of the religion, the Airy- 
anem vae^d of the Avesta (see Vend. 1, 1, 3, II, 21 ; Bd. XX, 32, 
XXXII, 3). 

1 Pahl. afzfinik; the sp^nuta (' most bounteous ') fire of Yas. 
XVII, 11, XXXVI, 3. According to Pahl. Yas. XVII, 67 it 
' stands in heaven before Auharmaz<f in a spiritual state.' 

' Or it may mean ' being rubbed out,' that is, ' by friction;' but 
compare the use of the word surfaklh in Bk. VIII, Chap. 
XXXVII, 19. 

* Referring probably to the establishment of a sacred fire by 
bringing together every possible variety of fire that can be obtained. 

8 Merely as a formal offering, or for purifying the fire-stand, not 
for mingling with the fire itself. 

' One of the three original sacred fires, which is said to have 



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CHAPTER XII, 4- 1 1 . 191 

are possessing righteousness. 7. About the char- 
acter and reward of the washer (as n 6 tar) and the 
producer of the purity and cleansing of that which 
the fire has dropped 1 , of the introducer of the fire- 
wood and the washer upwards 2 , of the stirrer of the 
fire and the carrier-away of the firewood, who are 
strictly directed ; the lawful work done with a 
cooking-pot and such-like, and the sin of him who is 
a disturber of it. 8. About the destroyer of that 
which the fire has dropped, and the introducer of 
damp firewood into it. 9. About the blessing of 
fire for people by whom it is satisfied. 

10. About advice as regards not bringing to the 
fire that which is due to theft, or the power of ex- 
tortion, and the grievous bridge-judgment 8 of him 
who is bringing it ; also the defilement (alu^an) and 
hurting of the fire from that which occurs when he 
likewise consecrates his hoard (hanbarisno), owing 
to the corruption by the demons* thus arisen. 11. 
This, too, that it is owing to want of attention to 
fire when it is not at every menstrual excitement 
they produce, in a woman assisted by a propensity 

been established, in the time of king Kai-Khusrd, upon the Asna- 
vand mountain in Atur-patakan, not far from Lake K&k&st (see Bd. 
XVII, 7 ; Zs. XI, 8-10). 

1 B srakht6, K srakhtd, both here and in § 8 ; compare Av. 
sras£. 

* Pahl. Irdz asnStdr must mean one who washes in the mode 
defined by the Av. frasnaiti, as distinguished from upasnaiti, in 
Vend. VIII, 98, 99, Ep. II, iii, 2 ; this mode is explained as lalaik, 
'upwards,' and distinguished from the fr6<fgfino, 'downward 
mode,' in Ep. II, iv, 2. 

* B inserts ' thus arisen through the demons,' the same phrase as 
concludes the section. 

4 K has ' owing to a single word of the demons,' by substituting 
aSvak g6bun5 for ahukinuno. 



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192 DiNKAUD, BOOK IX. 

for a son (pus radfth), that the progeny is a son. 
12. And about the penalty for 1 the progress of 
other impropriety which occurs to fire ; also about 
the person who has attained to the guardianship of 
fire and does not lawfully control it. 

1 3. About an admonition to Zaratu-rt as to conse- 
crating to the sacred beings anything whatever which 
one eats, and not eating what is unconsecrated. 14. 
About the wish of the evil spirit that no one shall 
be performing (vadtdunan-aafo) worship and obei- 
sance to the sacred beings, and that the people shall 
possess no ruler and high-priest, so that no desire of 
theirs shall arise for any virtuousness. 15. About 
an admonition as to indispensably worshipping the 
sacred beings with the best ceremonial, that of a 
priest (asruk6) without sin ; or with an average 
one, that of a priest whose sin is not more than one 
Aredus 2 without a basis (a-bun) ; or with the lowest 
one, that of a priest whose sin is not more than one 
Kh6r s on a basis (pavan bun). 16. Whoever, in a 
village of MasaJa-worshippers, has not chanted the 
sacred hymns after fifteen years of age, through sin- 
fulness, is as a dog they have thrown provisions to, 
and it has occurred for a basis of the sin of unseason- 
able chattering * ; also the inadmissibility of his soul 
by Mansarspend *. 

1 Assuming that pa stands for pavan. 

8 See Bk. VIII, Chaps. XX, -64, XXXI, 39. 

' A sin twice as great as an Aredflj (see Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXI, 
39> 

* The sin of talking while eating, praying, or any other occasion 
when a prayer (v&g) has been taken inwardly, as a spell, and is 
not yet spoken out. 

8 A personification of the liturgy, Av. mstthra spewta, 'the 
bounteous text.' 



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CHAPTER XII, 12-23. 193 

17. About the coming of Ast-vicUu/ 1 , at all times, 
to mortals whom death has reached a , and also whom 
it has not 18. About the ideas of the wicked, that 
the best existence does not exist, that the production 
of the renovation of the universe does not occur, that 
there are no dead whom they raise up thereby, and 
it is not that change one attains. 1 9. This, too, that is 
false, for the same reason they observe, being wicked ; 
because the best existence exists, there occurs a 
production of the renovation which is good, they 
raise up the dead thereby, and thus one attains that 
change. 

20. About an admonition as to not making 
lamentation and weeping over those passed away ; 
and, after the passing away of every righteous one 
of the religion to the spirits, one is not to augment 
the distress of the very spirit of life by making 
lamentation and weeping over the departed. 21. 
And this, too, that the guardian spirits of the 
righteous claim no lamentation and weeping after 
their own ceremonial and the blessing of righteous 
men. 22. This, too, that the body of every one is 
not of like will with the soul ; food is the desire of 
the body, and also a store of wealth; righteous 
action is the desire of the soul, and also the gifts 
which they give away. 

23. About an enquiry of the righteous ZaratuJt 
as to who it is who has banished (iparlntafo) all 
goodness and perfection from his own self, but 
thinks them not banished, and does not complain of 



1 Av. Astd-vidhdtu, one of the demons of death (see Bd. 
XXVIII, 35; Dd. XXXVII, 44). 
3 Those who have attained old age, the natural time of death. 

[37] O 



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194 VIVKARD, BOOK IX. 

that loss 1 . 24. And the reply of Abharmasd, that it 
is he who is deceived a by his own tongue through 
the utterance of words, so that, through speaking 
falsely, he has become worthy of death. 25. This, 
too, that for him it is the weapon of the evil spirit ; 
even so complete mindfulness is the reign of Spendar- 
nW 3 , and thus a liar is more a power for the religion 
when a man, on account of dulness of thought, gives 
no reply, so that he may not speak falsely through 
dulness of thought. 

26. This, too, that he worships the demons with 
thousand-fold holy-water, who establishes him who is 
not a member of the community * in the Z6ti duty 5 , 
sooner than him who is a wise Z6ti. 27. And this, 
too, that thou shouldst fetch him who is a member 
of the community for the Z6ti duty, not him who is 
not a member of the community, for thus thy advance 
is to the supreme heaven (gar6^man6). 28. Also 
this, that a bad Z6ti is worse from the Z6ti duty. 

29. This, too, that that which is the earliest con- 
troller (ayukhtar)of sin is thought which is subdued 6 , 
then forgiveness, then shame, and then listening; 
and, afterwards, through the sinfulness of the fiend 7 , 

1 B has ' and there is no complaint of the loss.' 
8 K zlvfnfrfo. 

* The female archangel who has special charge of the earth and 
virtuous women (see Sis. XV, 20-24) > she is a personification of 
Av. spenta armaiti, 'bountiful devotion/ of which phrase the 
latter word is translated by Pahl. bundak-mtnifnih, ' complete 
mindfulness.' See also Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3, and S. B. E., vol. 
xviii, pp. 393, 396. 

* K adahm ; B has khfishm, ' wrath,' here, but not so in § 27. 

* See Bk. VIII, Chap. VII, 5, 9. 

' B has ' he who is a controller of sin is Vohuman, owing to 
thinking of the spirits, which is subdued.' 
' K has only ' through sinfulness.' 



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CHAPTER XII, 24-XIII, 3. 195 

one becomes a promise-breaker. 30. This, too, that 
they shall bring every man who is a wounder before 
the convocation composed of any priest who is a con- 
troller of recitation (srayund ayukht&r), any priest 
who is of the district (ad eh Ik), any priest who is of 
an out-district (au-sdehik), and any priest who is the 
maris own kinsman. 

31. ' Thus say I unto thee, O Spltaman ! let there 
be no breach of promise ; neither when the conversa- 
tion, that they would make a support, was with the 
wicked, and there is no great judiciousness in it ; nor 
when it was with those of thine own religion, the 
righteous, as to anything of great judiciousness ; 
because both of them are promises, both with the 
wicked and the righteous V 

32. It is the excellence of righteousness that is 
perfect. 

Chapter XIII. 

Sd&kar Nask. 

1. The twelfth fargantf, U^tavaiti 2 , is about the 
exaltation of Zaratust through the satisfaction of 
water, and the hope of all creatures for him. 2. 
And about the impure recitation of a text, when 3 the 
text is not uttered by a high-priest. 3. This, too, 
that the text which a man who is corrupted may 

1 This admonition occurs repeatedly (see Chap. XX, 5 ; Yt. X, 
2 ; AV. LII, 7). 

1 The appellation of the first h£ of the second Gatha (Yas. 
XLIII) which begins with the words u.rta ahmii yahmdi ujta ; it 
is here written au^tavaito in Pahlavi. 

3 Assuming that mun, 'which/ stands for amat; the Pazand 
of both words being practically the same. Or, it may be, ' also him 
who does not utter the text through a high-priest.' 

O 2 



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196 dInkard, BOOK IX. 



offer is an impropriety (adtnalh) for that which is 
an uncorrupted place. 4. This, too, is declared, 
that a greedy man whose belly is filled by accumula- 
tion — and the end of every sin is, to him, only for 
the gratification of the body — one considers just like 
a gallows to which there is a foundation (rlpo) of 
every impurity. 5. This, too, that a bird (v&d) 
practises that habit (.ran) even that it kills those 
outright which have become large in our midst, 
which are the serpents produced by the demons. 6. 
This, too, that for invocation (azbayi.yn6) of the 
sacred beings thinking with speaking, speaking with 
acting, and acting without deceitfulness are effectual. 

7. About the pure goodness of the archangels, 
and the union of their thoughts, words, and deeds 
together ; their bountifulness, nurturing, and protec- 
tion are the cause 1 of the prosperity of the world. 
8. About the production of Zaratujt by Atih&rmazd 
with a goodness like his own. 9. This, too, that 
whoever gives anything to the disciples of Zaraturt, 
his reward and recompense are just as though the 
thing had been given by him to Zaratfot 2 . 

10. It is perfect excellence that is righteousness. 



Chapter XIV. 
SMkar Nask. 
1. The thirteenth fargan/, Ta^-thwa-peresa 3 , 

1 B omits jan, ' the cause of.' 

* Compare : — ' Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the 
least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me.' (Matthew 
xxv. 40.) 

8 The first three words of the second h& of the second Gatha 
(Yas. XLIV, 1), here written ta<f-sp£-pfires in Pahlavi. 



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CHAPTER XIII, 4-XV, I. 1 97 

is about the strength and mightiness of the spirit of 
the sacred cake ] . 2. This, too, that every night the 
demons rush from hell * into the world, to injure and 
cause the death of the creatures ; and, when people 
consecrate a sacred cake, that spirit descends to 
attack and keep back the demons, and to engage in 
combat with the demons ninety-nine times during 
every night ; he also smites and stupefies them, and 
keeps them back from destroying the world. 

3. This, too, that any one whatever of those men 
who utter these words 3 in prayer becomes righteous, 
except those men who shall contentedly, or wish- 
fully, carry out a command for evil deeds, and they 
deceive (suft£nd), or make others deceive, by state- 
ments proposed to them ; and whose evil thoughts 
are thus more than their good thoughts, their evil 
words more than their good words, and their evil 
deeds more than their good deeds. 4. About 
carrying off the reliance produceable that a sin worthy 
of death is the obliteration (irdz mushtano) of 
other sin, like an awful and mighty wind when it 
sweeps swiftly over the plain *. 

5. Of righteousness the excellence is perfect. 



Chapter XV. 
Siidiar Nask. 
1. The fourteenth fargard?, Adf-fravakhshya 6 , is 

1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XXIX, a. 

2 K omits ' from hell,' and B omits ' night.' 

3 Meaning probably Yas. XLIV. 

4 A favorite metaphor derived from the Avesta text (see Pahl. 
Vend. Ill, 149 ; Mkh. LII, 19). 

* The first two words of the third hi of the second Gatha (Yas. 
XLV, 1), here written a<?-fravakhshg (B) and a<?-fravakhsha 



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198 BtuKARD, BOOK IX. 



about Auhanmaaraf s showing to Zaratu-rt the terrible 
condition of the soul of Keresasp x ; the dismay of 
Zaraturt owing to that terrible condition; the 
sorrowful speaking of Keresasp as regards the slay- 
ing of multitudes, for which mankind extol him, 
whereby abstentions from sin occurred; and the 
recognition of him by the creator, Auharma^, as 
smiting his fire. 2. The supplication of Keresasp 
for the best existence from Atiharmazd for those 
exploits when the serpent Sr6bar 2 was slain by him, 
and the violence of that adversary ; when Gandarep * 
with the golden heels was smitten by him, and the 
marvellousness of that fiend ; when the Vesk5 
progeny 4 who were descendants of Nlvlk and 
D&rtanlk were slain by him, and the grievous harm 
and disaster owing to them ; and when the mighty 
wind * was appeased by him, and brought back from 
damaging the world to benefiting the creatures; 
and for that which happens when owing to confine- 
ment', Dahak becomes eager, rushes on for the 

(K) in Pahlavi. This chapter has been already translated in 
S. B.E., vol. xviii, pp. 370-372. 

1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 12 ; S. B. E., vol. xviii, pp. 369-382. 

* See Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXV, 13. 

• Av. Ga«dare\va of Yt. V, 38, XV, 28, XIX, 41 ; the ' watery 
demon ' of Mkh. XXVII, 50. 

* Reading hun Vcrko, the Av. hunav6 VaSskaya of Yt. V, 
54. 57. wno wer e enemies of the warrior Tusa; but the hunav6 
of Nivika and of the Dis tayani were slain by Keresaspa (see 
Yt. XIX, 41). It is also possible to read khun6-dako, 'blood- 
producing.' 

• When it becomes a storm-demon, the vat6-da£va of Vend. 
X, 14, instead of being the angel of useful wind. 

' In the volcano, Mount Dimavand, where he was confined by 
FreWun in olden times, and whence he is expected to break loose 
hereafter (see Bd. XII, 31, XXIX, 9 ; Byt. Ill, 55-61). 



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CHAPTER XV, 2 -XVI, I. 1 99 

destruction of the world, and attempts (giray£<#>) 
the annihilation of the creatures ; when he (Kere- 
sdsp) is roused to smite him, and to tame that 
powerful fiend for the world and creatures. 

3. The enmity of fire to Keresasp, through the 
distress which he occasioned to it, and the keeping 
of him away 1 [from heaven ; also the friendship of 
G6.y-aurvan 2 for him, through the prosperity which 
he occasioned to it, and the protection of him] from 
hell. 4. The petition of Zaraturt to the fire to have 
compassion upon what was owing to Keresdsp's sin ; 
the compliance (han^aftanS) of the fire with that 
petition, and the departure of the soul of Keresasp 
to the ever-stationary existence 3 . 

5. Of righteousness perfect is the excellence. 



Chapter XVI. 
SA&kar Nask. 
1. The fifteenth fargan£ Kamnama£za 4 , is 

1 The words in brackets occur only in K ; their meaning is, 
however, given in the Pahlavi Rivayat accompanying Dd. and 
quoted in S. B. E., vol. xviii, pp. 379, 380. The enmity of the 
fire to Keresasp was owing to its having been extinguished (when 
kindled upon the serpent Srdbar) by the upsetting of Keresasp's 
caldron, as described in Yas. IX, 11, and Yt. XIX, 40. 

* Av. geus urva, 'the soul of the ox,' the spirit which departed 
from the primeval ox when the evil spirit attacked it ; she is sup- 
posed to be the heavenly protector of all animals, and is also called 
Drvaspa (see Yt IX, 1 ; Bd. HI, 14, 18, IV, 2-5 ; Sis. XXII, 14). 

8 A locality intermediate between heaven and hell, where the 
souls of those whose sins and good works exactly balance remain 
in a passive and immovable state till the resurrection (see Sis. VI, 
2 ; Mkh. VII, 18, XII, 14 ; Dd. XX, 3). 

4 The appellation of the fourth, and last, ha of the second 



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2oo dInkaijd, BOOK IX. 



about the arrival of Ast-vldaaT 1 upon the spot, and 
the insecurity of any one from him ; also the non- 
continuance of the mortal body and decaying 
(f arsavand) wealth of any one of the mortals sum- 
moned is death 2 . 2. And this, too, that Ast-vldaaf 
shall carry off all mortals by that awful and pro- 
claimed marvel, and they are not saved from him 3 ; 
each one, indeed, saves only that which is the soul. 
3. This, too, that the soul alone sees the reward 
and bridge 4 of the spiritual existence, and embodied 
it does not see such things ; if, when embodied, it 
could have seen like that, then it would not have 
committed the sin really originating with it, even 
for anything whatever of the ease and comfort of 
the worldly existence, nor shrunk (man^iafo) from 
the first good work. 

4. About the hideousness and frightfulness of the 
body of man after death, and only that which is 
considered by every one the most precious of desir- 
able things is undecaying (afarsak). 5. As regards 
the casting away of the dust, and also living people, 
that which is more nearly connected therewith is 

Gatha (Yas. XL VI), which begins with the words k&m nemdi 
z2m; it is here written kamnam^zo in Pahlavi. 

1 See Chap. XII, 17. The connection of the demon of death 
with Yas. XLVI is that the first few words of that hd are supposed 
to be repeated by the wicked soul in despair after death (see Yt. 
XXII, 20, W.; Mkh. II, 159 ; AV. XVII, 7). 

* K has marrfum, ' human (?).' 

* B has the whole of this first clause thus : — ' And the uncon- 
sumed (apakhshfno) property of him who is surprised by the in- 
visible marvel that he shall endure, they have not saved from him.' 
This marvel is probably the supposed casting of a noose by Ast- 
vtdiV, around the neck of the dead to drag him to hell, which only 
the righteous are able to cast off. 

* See Bk.VIII, Chaps. XIV, 8, XXIV, 10. 



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CHAPTER XVI, 2-IO. 201 

uninhabitableness ' and its duration. 6. And when, 
too, this way, the consciousness is in the vicinity of 
the body 2 , and the dog and bird go forth for the 
dismemberment of the body, the frightening of the 
consciousness by them is like that of a sheep by a 
wolf ; also its disputing with the dog and bird about 
the dismemberment of the body, the reciting 
(mar</an&) of words spiritually at first repelling 
them, thinking the body is alive. 7. And, after- 
wards, when the body is dismembered by them, the 
hastening of the consciousness to the vicinity of the 
dismembered body, just like a female (d£nu</ako) 
sheep when it hastens on to its young ones ; and its 
noticing — with grievous unhappiness 3 for the body — 
and recounting where the features (d£magano) of 
that body were in happiness, and to what misery it 
has now come. 8. And, when that body became 
sinful in its lifetime, about its not accepting, during 
that lifetime, that which the consciousness repeat- 
edly well-endeavoured to promote for that body, as 
regards abstaining from sin and practising good 
works. 

9. This, too, that thy time of worldly happiness 
has occurred, and that of misery is long. 10. This, 
too, that the people who live on, in the worldly 
existence, a hundred years are less than those who 
do not live a hundred years ; the progress of a life- 
time, little by little, and the rushing ono/a lifetime ; 
wife and property and the rest of worldly things all 



1 Corpses are to be deposited in an uninhabited place (see Vend. 
VI, 44-51, VII, 45-50; Dd. XVIII). 
1 Compare Dd. XVI, 7. 
3 Pahl. asha<fih in K, but B has aya<fakih, 'remembrance.' 



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202 DiNKARD, BOOK IX. 

leaving you at once, and coming to another person. 
ii. And this, too, that — when mankind mostly keep 
up any statement (nisang-i^) or register (a^var'^o) 
which they have drawn out (na-si-hend) 1 about 
ordainable supplies in a friendly or inimical (patyan- 
mdnd) way, which is more particularly expedient for 
them — a supply, suitable for the discreet, of the rest 
of that which is constantly desirable, is to be ex- 
tracted therefrom, and one is to keep up its prepara- 
tion with his own. 

12. About the seven immortal rulers who are 
produced in the region of Khvanlras 2 , and also 
about the ordaining of their glory and the goodness, 
too, of their assistants living and privileged in both 
existences. 1 3. The tree opposed to harm 8 is on 
Alran-v^f *, in the place of most excavations (freh- 
niganan gas). 14. G6k-pat6 6 is in foreign 8 coun- 



1 Or 'they offer up (uzdah&nd).' 

* See Bk. VIII, Chap. VIII, 2. And, regarding these seven rulers, 
compare Bd. XXIX, 5, 6 ; Dd. XC. 

' The many-seeded tree in the wide-formed ocean, whence the 
seeds of all wild plants are brought by the rain (see Yt. XII, 17 ; 
Bd. XXVII, 2, 3 ; Mkh. LXII, 37-42). 

♦ See Chap. XII, 3. 

• Gdpatshah in Bd. XXIX, 5, XXXI, 20, 22 ; Byt. II, 1 ; Dd. 
XC, 3,4; G6pait6shah in Mkh. LXII, 8, 31 ; and G6paft6 in 
Mkh. XLIV, 35. All these forms of the name imply that he was 
a king, or master, of oxen ; and Mkh. describes him as a Mazrfa- 
worshipping minotaur on the sea-shore, probably the Caspian, or 
the river Oxus, as Bd. makes him a brother, or nephew, of Fri- 
siyap the Turanian. His country is called Saukavastan in Bd., and 
G6pat5 in Dd. 

* Pahl. an-AfrSn which corresponds with the position of S<m- 
kavastan being between Turkistan and iSTtnistan, as stated in Bd. 
XXIX, 13, and that of G6pato being coterminous with Atran-v^, 
as in Dd. XC, 4. But K, by omitting the negative prefix, places it 



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CHAPTER XVI, H-19. 203 

tries. 1 5 . P£hsh6tanu \ son of Vistasp, is in Kangd^ 2 
the hundred-moated (sa^-gandak), wherein there 
are a myriad spears (drafsh), those of the exalted 
who wear black marten fur, who are righteous 
listeners of the religion 8 , out of the retinue (akharlh) 
of P£hsh6tanu, son of Virtasp. 16. FradakhshtS, 
son of the mortal Khumbiks *, who is predominant 
on the waters flowing in channels. 17. Ashavazd, 
son of P6nWakhsht6 6 , who is predominant over the 
most manifest among uplands, the plain of Pe^inas *. 
18. Barazak 7 the causer of strife. 19. 'And the 
eighth Kayan 8 who was renowned, O Vistasp ! it is 

' within the countries of Irin;' and Mkh. makes Gopaito a chief of 
Airin-v^. 

1 Av. Peshdtanu, commonly written PSshydtanu in Pahlavi. 

* A fortified settlement, to the east of Iran (see Bd. XXIX, 10), 
formed by Siydvakhsh (see Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 14) who was first 
cousin of VirtSsp's great-grandfather (see Bd. XXXI, 25, 28, 29). 

* Who are expected to be led into Mn by P6hsh6tanu in future 
times, when he is summoned by the angels to restore religion to 
the world after the conflict of the nations (see Byt. Ill, 25-42). 

4 K has ' Fradakhshto, son of Khumbtk the son of H6sMng.' 
He was evidently the Fradhikhrti KhuBbya of Yt. XIII, 138, 
who might have been considered as a descendant of the Haoshy- 
angha mentioned before him in Yt. XIII. 

* Av. Ashavazdangh PourudhSkhftayana of Yt. V, 72, 
XIII, 112. 

6 Said to be in K&vulistin where S&ma KeresSspa lies asleep till 
summoned to lull Dahak in the latter times (see Bd. XXIX, 7, 1 1 ; 
Byt. Ill, 59-61). It may be connected with the vairi Pisanangh 
of Yt. V, 37, where Keresispa offered sacrifice, and with the Puin 
valley south-east of Qandahtr ; but Chap. XXI, 20 seems to place 
it between Mazendaran and Mn, and Mkh. LXII, 20 also describes 
it as near Mount Dimdvand. Its name is variously written P& ina\r , 
Per&nsih, P&y&nsat, PMndas, Pe^infgas, &c. 

7 Possibly A v. Vardza of Yt. XIII, 101. 

* Kavi Haosravangh (Kai-Khusrdi) is the eighth and last in the 
list of Kavis, or Kayins, in Yt. XIII, 132 ; and was celebrated for 



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204 dInkard, BOOK IX. 

he whom one calls Kat-Khusrol, who produces even 
an advance of thy religion of the Mazda-worshippers, 
and also understands about it; who gives my good 
practices further blessings, so that the world * main- 
tains my doings with benedictions.' 

20. Righteousness is perfect excellence. 



Chapter XVII. 
S&dkar Nask. 



1. The sixteenth fargaraf, Spe#ta-mainyu 2 , is 
about effecting the bridge-judgment of sinners, as 
declared by revelation. 2. About performing the 
ceremony (ya^t6) for a man and a woman, and it is 
ordered for the woman before the man ; the fitness 
for the supreme heaven (gar6d?mantklh) arisen 
through the liturgy (ya^to) to be recited itself, or 
through purchasing heaven in the worldly existence*. 

3. About the immunity of the soul from hell 
through the righteousness of having respectfully 
given a horse of a good race, the land of a cultivated 
field, or a virtuous woman, to a righteous man ; and 
also the woman who gives herself in marriage to 

his opposition to idolatry (see Yt V, 49, 50 ; Bd. XVII, 7). This 
section appears to be an actual quotation from the Pahlavi version 
of the Nask, professing to give the words of Zaratfat 
1 K has d&hik, ' a provincial.' 

* The first two words of the first hi of the third GStha (Yas. 
XLVII, 1), which are converted into the Pahlavi appellation 
S/endmaito. 

* By providing for the performance of the proper ceremonies for 
the benefit of one's own soul. 



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CHAPTER XVI, 20- XVII, 9. 205 

the righteous man; and that liberal good work 
increases from time to time \ and from day to day. 

4. About the bridge penalty of him who is a 
mourner (navinlrfir) and *?^"-wounder in the three 
nights after a death, and how it is as though they 
who are living should again pour melted ore on a 
human being. 5. About the punishment for a 
woman who gives herself in marriage to a righteous 
man, and comes away 2 from him ; such as when a 
hedgehog 8 should be constantly going in and coming 
out by her sexual organ ; and the cutting off of her 
way from the best existence. 6. About the non- 
deliverance of a soul of the wicked from hell till the 
future existence. 7. About the punishment of the 
wicked there is this, too, it is as though a sheep 
which is alive should be remaining tied by the legs, 
head downwards, and there should be a specific exu- 
dation of its toes through running at the nose 4 . 

8. About the Gathas for an ordeal 6 of the spiritual 
existence, which is concealed in every mode, being 
without a footing (ap^-p4stak6), as it were, for him 
who is a righteous chanter of the Gathas. . 

9. The excellence of righteousness is perfect. 



1 Pahl. vidanadnag vidanainag, £ hybrid equivalent of 
zamanak zaminak (see Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXV, 6 n). 

* B has 'relapses.' 

' Compare AV. LXX. 

4 Pahl, afar angustd zahih-1-i mayagantk pavan vmtk-ta^ ai. 
For miyagintk, 'specific' (which occurs, however, in Bk. VIII, 
Chap. XX, 1 66), we can read m£s£nfk, 'tumerous or coagulating,' 
or we may consider it equivalent to muyijntk, 'lamentable.' 

* Compare the reference to the ordeal by fire in Pahl. Yas. 
XLVI, 6; the earlier part of the chapter is also somewhat of a 
homily upon the references to the wicked and righteous in the 
same h&. 



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206 DtNKAJtD, BOOK IX. 

Chapter XVIII. 
Sd&kar Nask. 

i. The seventeenth fargaraf, Yezi 1 , is about where 
he is who shall commit any of these five sins 2 , and, 
thereby perverted from the religion, has diminished 
his own life and destiny 3 : — A human being when 
he contentedly reverences a demon in spiritual lord- 
ship (ahuih) and priestly authority (raafih), one 
steadfast in religion when he so reverences one un- 
steadfast in religion, a teacher when he so reverences 
one who is no teacher and ignorant, one acquainted 
with the Gathas when he so reverences one unac- 
quainted with the Gathas and unintelligent 
(anashnas) *, and a helpful one when he so reverences 
an unhelpful and unwise one. 

2. This, too, where also they are who unlawfully 
slaughter a sheep, or beast of burden, which diminishes 
their life and destiny. 3. And so, too, those also 
who think scornfully of Auharmasrf, O pure and 
righteous Spltaman ! and their own religion, the 
strength of the righteous and thy disciples. 

4. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness. 



Chapter XIX. 
SHAkar Nask. 
1. The eighteenth fargaraf, A*/-ma-yava e , is 

1 The first word of the second ha of the third Gatha (Yas. 
XLVIII, 1), here written yeztk in Pahlavi. 

2 B omits ' sins.' 3 Or ' glory.' 

* So in K, but both MSS. give this clause imperfectly. 

* The first three words of the third ha of the third Gatha (Yas. 
XLIX, 1), here written a<f-ma-iyubo in Pahlavi. 



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CHAPTER XVIII, I-XIX, 3. 207 

about the pregnancy of the demon from him who 
has eaten and chattered in sinfulness towards Kh&r- 
da.d and Amurda^ 1 , or who makes water when 
standing 2 , or who heedlessly sees his semen. 2. 
And the hussy 3 who spills (ghy&db) anything after 

sunset (huk-frashmdk-darf), or wno scatters a 
morsel (danar) of food to the north, at night, with- 
out a recitation of the Ahunavair *. 

3. This, too, that only the soul is constantly 
desirable for the body, even through this alone, 
that this perishable body 5 [is a worldly state of 
righteousness, and, by rousing up(lala-payamunih) 6 
when thou wouldst sleep on, the righteousness] is on 
the advance when thou wouldst have retreated ; and 



1 Av. haurvatat, ' completeness, or health,' and ameretat, 
'immortality;' the archangels who have special charge of water 
and plants, respectively (see Sis. XV, 25-29), and are said to be 
injured by the sin of talking while eating and drinking those things 
(see Chap. IX, 2). 

* Thereby polluting more ground than is necessary (see Sis. 
X,5> 

' See Chap. XI, 5 n. 

4 K does not mention the latter sinful action. The reason of 
the sin of such actions is that they may be considered as offerings 
to the demons (who are supposed to come from the north and to 
be powerful at night) unless protected by the Ahunavair (see Bk. 
VIII, Chap. I, 7) used as an exorcism (see Sd. XXX, 1, 2 ; Sis. X, 
7, XII, 18). 

5 B has ' even through the assertion that this is corporeal and 
perishable.' The passage in brackets occurs only in K. 

* This appears to be the most probable reading of the word 
which occurs again in § 5, where it is written lal£-upayanmnih 
in K, which form is also found in Hn. I, 23, where it translates Av. 
ustryamnd. For the latter member of this compound see also 
Chap. XX, 6, 7. For the syllable yam we might substitute gam 
or ga.m without much alteration of meaning, or even dam if we 
translate by ' fanning up, exciting.' 



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208 DtNKARD, BOOK IX. 

the righteousness, in arising, is like thee in every 
coming and departure ; through fetching and de- 
livering the breath it shall become good reward, 
abundant reward, and the reward of righteousness. 
4. When the body shall act so, the soul is rejoiced 
and shall utter a blessing for the body thus : ' Happy 
may it ho. for thee, O perishable body! whom I have 
made tall, and whom I have brought near to the 
best existence.' 5. And when the body shall not 
accept the progress (afras) of the soul, and says it is 
evil progress on rousing up, evil progress on advanc- 
ing, [and evil progress upwards, the soul is a demon] 1 
and shall offer [lamentable] 1 words thus : ' Evil art 
thou, O perishable body ! whom I made dwarfish 
(ga$uk), and whom I have brought near to the 
worst existence.' 

6. About where there are unaccustomed (a v£sa k 6), 
imperfect, and secret signs of short life, and the 
healthfulness guttering the Ahunavair 2 and Ashem 8 
for it. 7. This, too, that, when thou wouldst squat 
for making water, thou recitest the Ahunavair, and 
the Ashem, afterwards, when thou wouldst stand 
up ; so that any demon, or fiend, shall least injure 
thee. 8. And when thou wouldst go in unto thy 
wife (narlk), thou recitest first the Ahunavair, and 
the Ashem, afterwards, when thou wouldst be coming 
together*; for so thou wouldst be making that, too, 
which arises — which is thy son — more righteous and 

1 The words in brackets are omitted in K. 

■ See Bk.VIII, Chap. 1,7. 

* See Chap. Ill, 1 ; here, and in §§ 7, 8, it is expressed by Pahl. 
aharayih, 'righteousness,' being an abbreviation of its usual 
appellation, 'praise of righteousness,' in Pahlavi. 

4 Pahl. ' amat andarg hakhtd vadfdfinafi a/.' 



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CHAPTER XIX, 4~XX, 2. 209 

more successful through the Ashem. 9. This, too, 
that, when thou wouldst go into a house, thou shouldst 
be offering homage, and do thou utter the Ahuna- 
vair, for the spirit of the house and for everything 
of the material existence of the righteous which is 
and was and will be in that dwelling. 

10. Also about the corruption (tavastano) of the 
wicked, and the calamity (sur) which is unjustly 
distributed by them in the realm 1 . 

1 1. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness. 



Chapter XX. 
SAdkar Nask. 

1. The nineteenth fargan/, Kaaf-m6i-urva 2 , is 
about where the souls, when they come together, 
extol the soul of him who was a virtuous high-priest, 
a friend of the soul, because he did not injure it, and 
guarded it from hell. 

2. About the darkness, the intensity (bur'^vo- 
h6mand!h) and far-reaching bottomlessness of the 
blackness, and the absence of goodness in hell ; and 
the proximity to stenches, close concealment 3 , sleet- 
pelted clambering (pisnakS-ballnih), frozen ad- 

1 Like Yas. XLIX this fargaitf begins with special references to 
the wicked, and returns to them towards the end. 

' The first three words of the fourth, and last, hS of the third 
Gatha (Yas. L, 1), here written ka</-m6k-ravak6 in Pahlavi. 

8 Compare AV. LIV, 5-8 : — 'As close as (tang -i^) from the ear 
to the eye, and as many as the hairs a horse has in his mane, so 
many in number the souls of the wicked stand, but they do not see, 
nor do they hear a sound, one from the other, and every one, there- 
fore, thinks that he is alone.' For a description of hell see also 
Dd. XXVII. 

[37] P 



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2IO DiNKA/U), BOOK IX. 

vancing, painful condition, distressed state, and 
awful fear of those in hell. 3. This, too, that is 
thrown open (lakhvar ramitunaQ over it, from the 
Daitl peak 1 , which is in Alran-v^f, to Albur's 2 , and 
below the middle of which is the gate of hell, is the 
Kinvad bridge 8 which is the route {vidar) of every 
one, righteous or wicked ; the width across the route 
of the righteous is a breadth of nine spears, each 
one the length of three reeds, but the route for the 
wicked becomes like the edge of a razor. 

4. ' Thus say I * unto thee, O Spltaman ! that the 
man of truth steps forward over the Jfinvad pass, 
even the far-famed happy bridge; for Astad 6 , the 
good promoter of the world, and Mitr6 ■ of the vast 
cattle-pastures save only the man possessing truth 
from that distress, as though they were a regiment 
(sz'p&h) a thousand strong. 5. So I say unto thee, 
O Spttaman ! that thou shouldst not become a liar 
unto Mitr6, neither when thou wouldst converse 
with the wicked, nor when thou wouldst with those 
of thine own religion who are righteous ; for both 
of those are promises, both with the wicked and the 
righteous ; there is a promise, O Zaratust ! even of 
a wolf with young animals, but that which is a 

1 Or A"aka</-t Daftf (see Pahl. Vend. XIX, 101 ; Bd. XII, 7). 

• Av. hara berezaiti, the range of lofty mountains supposed to 
surround the world (see Bd. V, 3-5). 

• Here called A'inakS-puhal, and K\s-v\d%T% in § 4; for a 
fuller description of it see Dd. XXI, 2-7. Allusion is made to it in 
Yas. L, 7. 

• Auharmazrf, speaking to Zaratujt. The whole of this para- 
graph appears to be quoted verbatim from the original Pahlavi text 
of the Nask. 

• See Chap. IX, 6. 

• See Bk. VIII, Chap. XLIV, 16. 



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CHAPTER XX, 3-IO. 211 

lascivious (g ehik) promise is more awful, O Sptta- 
man ! 6. So I say unto thee, O Spitaman ! that 
thou shouldst not seize a wanton (^fihik) for use — 
that is, do not make her thy wife — and with com- 
pulsion (upayanmnlh) tf/'her 1 — that is, do not let 
thyself lie with her. 7. And if thou shouldst seize 
a courtezan for use, and with compulsion of her, 
thou mayst not dismiss her afterwards, neither in 
adversity, nor in prosperity, neither on account of 
fondness for self, nor for life ; because he who seizes 
a courtezan for use, and with compulsion, and shall 
dismiss her on account of fondness for self, or for 
life, becomes thereby a breaker of promises to the 
house, village, community, or province, that gives 
her life (valman zlvln&d6), and to the soul t/tat 
animates her V 

8. So breaking the promise comes upon the chil- 
dren that are theirs, through evil teaching ; and he 
who is wicked is lying down without children at the 
bottom of hell. 9. That is, there is nothing what- 
ever of* happiness for the wicked, that happiness 
which is produced abundantly by him who is Au- 
harmazd. 

10. Perfect righteousness is excellence. 

1 Or, perhaps, ' with approach to her ' (see Chap. XIX, 3 n). 
If upadamifnih were read, it might mean 'aspiration, or attach- 
ment ' for her. 

2 This implies that the woman, being a notorious sinner, cannot 
reasonably complain of bodily injury on being dismissed ; but her 
soul and the community are grievously injured by her being thus 
driven into further sin, and for this injury the man's soul will be 
made responsible. 

' K has ' none even of this.' 



P 2 



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212 dInKAKD, BOOK IX. 

Chapter XXI. 
SMkar Nask. 

i. The twentieth fargaraf, Vohu-khshathrem 1 , 
is about the oppressive actions of the sovereignty 
which Dahak 2 exercised over the earth of seven 
regions, and the forward progress of his commands 
owing to a surrounding of terrors. 

2. About Dahak's enquiry of the members of the 
assembly, regarding the reason of the affliction of 
the collected people, after the cutting up of Yim 8 
and the accession (khuafayth) of Dahak; and the 
people's saying, in reply to Dahak, that Yim had 
kept away want and destitution, hunger and thirst, 
decay and death, lamentation and weeping from the 
world, besides the cold and heat of the immoderate 
mingling of the demon with mankind. 3. And this, 
too, that 4 'a giver of comfort was Yim — that is, 
those things were produced by him which are the 
comfort of mankind — and he was a giver of desire 
for them, so that his happiness was through the 
gratification produced — that is, mankind gratified 
him through virtue. 4. And AiWak 5 , who made 

1 The first two words of the fourth Githa (Yas. LI, 1), here 
written vohuk-khshatar (B) and vdhuk-khshatar (K) in 
Pahlavi. 

s See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 8. 

5 As mentioned in Yt. XIX, 46 ; Bd. XVII, 5 (' when Yim was 
cut up by them the fire Fr6bak saves the glory of Yim from the 
hand of Dahak') and XXXI, 5. Regarding Yim see Bk. VIII, 
Chap. XIII, 6-8. 

4 What follows, as far as the end of § 7, appears to be quoted 
verbatim from the original Pahlavi text of the Nask. 

5 The demon Uda who tries to make people talk when they 
ought to be silent (Bd. XX VIII, 19), and who seems to be identified 



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CHAPTER XXI, 1-6. 2 1.3 

Yim the splendid and rich in flocks — who was struck 
down by you through violent assault — unauthor- 
isedly desirous (varak 1 ) and eager for the world, 
produced want and destitution, distress and greed, 
hunger and thirst, and the sanctifier 2 of Wrath the 
wounding assailant, Want without pastures, Terror, 
Destruction the secret-moving, Decay the decrepit 3 , 
and the seven arch-demons V 5. And this, too, that 
' those who \oo\a for a son are made devoid of preg- 
nancy by thee; evil-destined is the monster (ylpist) 
self-made, the uncompleted demon that it is impos- 
sible to seek a remedy for, who does not extend (la 
val£rf) from himself, that is, no lineage proceeds 
from him. 6. And thou art a sheep that is a wide- 
traveller, and keeps the dog away from mankind ; 
thou hast snatched away from us the bright radiance 
of Yim the splendid and rich in flocks, who came 
out on every evil contingency, at the approach of 

(in Pahl. Vend. XVIII, 70) with the fiend who confesses her amours 
to Sr6sh, and is said (in Bd. XXXI, 6) to have been the mother of 
Dahak, there named Uda? or Aurf, but more commonly called 
Vaaak (see Chap. X, 3; Dd. LXXII, 5, LXXVIII, 2), whence 
possibly the matronymic Vaa*ak£n (Mkh. LVH, 25, the Av. 
vadhaghana of Vend. XIX, 6) of that monarch. The text here 
appears to allude to an amour with Yim. 

1 Av. vara; or it may be a miswriting of varafak, ' astray' (A v. 
vareta). 

* Pahl. a/ , zi,fn-h6m6nd, 'one holding ceremonies,' alluding to 
Dah&k himself as the progeny of Au</ak. 

* These five demons are Aeshm, Hiydz, Saham, Sfg, and Zarman 
in Pahlavi, who, with the exception of Saham, ' terror,' are described 
in Bd. XXVIII, 15-17, 23, 26. 

' The seven arcA-demons are the six mentioned in Bd. I, 27, 
XXVIII, 7-13, XXX, 29, whose Avesta names are Akem-manfi, 
I»dra, Sauru, Naunghaithya, Tauru, and Zairi£a (see Vend. X, 
9, 10, XIX, 43), together with either Mithaokhta or Angramainyu 
himself (see Bd. I, 24). 



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214 DiNKAKD, BOOK IX. 

every winter, or scorched by extreme heat, so as to 
act for the benefit of his place 1 . 7. Thou art intel- 
ligent, O B6varasp 2 ! do thou even tell how this 
opinion is so, that a bad ruler is a thing which is so 
bad ; he who is a good ruler is our desire, we will 
give the revenue of taxation (bahar-i madam- 
dedruni^nih) to him, and anything which is neces- 
sary for good government when he shall achieve it! 

8. About the smiting by Fr&tf&n 3 , for the sake of 
killing Dahak ; the striking of his club upon the 
nape of the neck 4 (pillk), the heart, and even the 
skull ; and Dahik's not dying from that beating. 
9. Then smiting him with a sword, and the forma- 
tion (vastano) of noxious creatures of many kinds, 
from the body of Dahak, at the first, second, and 
third blow. 10. The exclamation of the creator 
Atiharmazd to FreWun thus : ' Thou shouldst not 
cut him who is Dahak, because, if thou shouldst cut 
him, Dahak would be making this earth full of ser- 
pents, toads (khan-galak), scorpions, lizards, tor- 
toises, and frogs ; ' with the mode of binding him 
with awful fetters, in the most grievous punishment 
of confinement 6 . 

11. This, too, that when AzA Dahak was bound, 
the report of the same proceeded thus through all 
the regions, which are seven, that down-stricken is 
Az-\ Dahik, but he who smote him is FreWun the 
Aspikan ", the exalted and mighty. 1 2. And in the 

1 K has only 'who came out at every place to act for its benefit.' 

2 ' With a myriad of horses,' a title of Dahak. 

3 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 8, 9. 

4 Or, perhaps, ' the reins.' 

8 In Mount Dimavand (see Chap. XV, 2 n). 

6 Av. AthwySna, a patronymic derived from Athwya who, 



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CHAPTER XXI, 7-15. 215 

tenth winter those particulars were believed, and 
thus they spoke, that it was owing to 1 Yim that 
Az-i Dahak is now smitten by them, because the 
tidings which are good are not yet gathered unto all 
the regions, which are seven, and those which are 
evil do not mention Az, nor demand the virtuous 
maiden (/fcaratik) with importunity, nor even coveted 
wealth 2 . 13. This, too, that, when information 
came to him of women, or property, that seemed to 
him desirable to possess, they were then admitted by 
him into a golden cage 3 , and that, which was com- 
pletely impregnable (airl^tO), came on through im- 
material space (maln6g-dlvaklh) to the den 
(gr&stako) of Az-i Dahak. 

14. This, too, that, though* he who smote him 
were his brother, or descendant, or kinsman, or any 
one whatever of his nearest relations, it did not seem 
to them as that which is grievous, and it was not 
thought of in their minds, so that it did not occasion 
them even a reminiscence again ; and thus they 
talked, that if a. householder be he that smote, he is 
one for whom all the fires of the religion are suit- 
able, but that householder being a monarch, he that 
smote is one who is every way their ruler. 1 5. This, 

according to Yas. IX, 7, was the father of Thra&aona (Fr&fun); 
but Bd. XXXI, 4, 7, 8, XXXII, 1 n, make it a family name for 
many preceding generations. 

1 Or min may mean 'apart from.' 

* Demands often made by Dah&k, as stated in § 13. 

8 Pahl. sulak-h6mand, 'something having apertures ;' compare 
the sul&k-hdmand which translates Av. sufrSm and suwraya 
in Vend. II, 7, 18, 30, and has sometimes been understood as a 
' signet-ring.' Also compare § 19 below. 

4 Assuming that mun, * who,' stands for am at, as in Chap. 
XIII, 2. 



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2l6 DINKAJtD, BOOK IX. 

too, that at every place where he came on, and upon 
which his horse's hoofs (saf6) fell, the dense fire 
from them was for the protection of the horse's 
body. 1 6. This, too, that through his confused 
(gum^srakS) practising Osgood deeds arose even the 
evil deeds of AzA. Dahak. 

17. About those of the Mazendaran 1 country 
having consulted, after the smiting of Dahak, as to 
turning (gastan 6) to Khvanlras 2 , and driving out 
Fr&jfan therefrom, and as to the residence offered 
by the same place through the great number fallen ; 
also, on account of their tallness, there are parts of 
the wide-formed ocean 8 that come up to their mid- 
thigh, there are others that are up to the navel, and 
the deeper places are up to the mouth. 18. And, 
when they have come to this region, their producing 
grievous harm and destruction to the poor 4 , and 
the coming of the people with complaints to Fr^^un, 
and their speaking thus : ' Why didst thou smite 
AzA. Dahak, who was a good ruler as to preroga- 
tive, so that danger was kept away by him, and an 
inquisitor {y'xgbyidkr) from him protected this 
region from those of the Mazendaran country ? ' 
19. And they also said this, about the vileness of the 
Mazendarans, and the wretched state of the people 
of this region as regards them, that is, they then 
speak thus : ' Since their habits are thus, since they 

1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 9. 

3 See Bk. VIII, Chap. VIII, 2. Mazendaran was considered to 
be outside of Khvantras because it is separated from Iran by lofty 
mountains. 

* The Caspian is probably meant here, being considered a por- 
tion of the circumambient ocean. 

* K omits ' to the poor.' 



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CHAPTER XXI, l6-22. 217 

are filthy (dd.y-h6mdnd) — that is, dirt (karak) is 
theirs — possessing holes 1 (sulak-h6mdnd) — that is, 
holes are theirs — and having appellations (kaHtu- 
ni.yn6-h6mdnd) — that is, they call to one another — 
we men (vlr) think, and consider upon this, that 
they also are human beings.' 

20. About the encountering of Fr&tfttn with those 
of the Mazendaran country on the plain of Pe\y£- 
nlgas 2 , and disputing with them thus : ' You are of 
the Mazendar country, and I (anman&) have de- 
stroyed Az-\ Dahak by the swiftest ruin, him who 
was a grievous sovereign of every one, demons and 
men ; for that smiting of him I am produced by 
Atiharmazd more overpowering than his limbs made 
paralyzed by his own enmity, and then you destroy 
this country of mine, you who are of the Mazendar 
country.' 

21. And the Mazendarans thought slightingly 
(s«puk6) of Freaiun, and spoke in a tone of derision 
thus : ' Should it be so, that thou destroyedst Az-\ 
Dahak by the swiftest ruin, him who was a good 
sovereign of both demons and men, and thou art 
produced by Auharmar^, for that smiting of him, 
more overpowering than his limbs, even then we 
will settle in this place and will stay in this place ; 
and it is not thou that art exalted, who art an over- 
grown (kabed-ar6yi.ynS) huge sheep with the 
speech of a hero among other peop\G, k and we would 
not admit thee here.' 

22. This, too, that ' nevertheless they afterwards 
fled, and the victorious Fr£rfun pursued them to the 

1 Burrows, caves, and similar underground habitations are pro- 
bably meant. 

2 See Chap. XVI, 17. 



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218 vInkard, BOOK IX. 

foremost upland, and his nostrils flamed upon it so 
that they split it through ; from his right nostril is 
the cutting and sharp scorching of the ice that has 
fallen and of all the cold of winter ; and from his 
left nostril is the cutting and sharp scorching of the 
rock that has fallen, which is similarly burning to 
a fire the size of a house, carrying the dust from the 
feet of the male ox, Barmayun 1 , of the obstructed 
victor, the mighty Fr£afun. 23. And he made it 
rush up on the ascent, whereby they are made 
figures of stone, and they who are of the Mazendar 
country are destroyed by him through the smiting 
of fifties, the smiting of hundreds, the smiting of 
thousands 2 , the smiting of myriads, and the smiting 
of multitudes innumerable V 

24. ' Thus there are destroyed by him, the victo- 
rious and mighty Fr&dfon, two-thirds of those of the 
Mazendar country, and one-third came out beaten 
and sick ; and never afterwards, Spltaman Zara- 
tu^t ! have they who are of the Mazendar country 
marched upon this region of Khvanlras, and it has 
not been imagined by them, even in thinking about 
it, that they 4 should go there, except those 5 whose 
names were thus, S/ttiy6.r, son of S/ansnay6.r 6 , and 
Arezras/ah, son of S/ansnayds 7 , who have wan- 

1 This appears to have also been the name of a brother of Fr&flm 
(see Bd. XXXI, 8). 
1 B omits ' the smiting of thousands.' 
8 Compare Yt. V, 54, 58, 117; Pahl. Vend. VII, 137, 139. 
4 Literally ' we.' 

6 K has ' the two.' 

' These first two names are only in K, because B repeats here 
a previous phrase by mistake. The second name is written 
Sansnayd* here, but is spelt correctly on its next occurrence. 

7 These two sons of S/ansnay6x were the spiritual chiefs, or 



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CHAPTER XXI, 23-XXII, I. 219 

dered (ta^lafo) in search of wisdom and have pro- 
ceeded unto Frash6rtar x of the H vdbas V 
25. Perfect excellence is righteousness. 



Chapter XXII. 
S&dkar Nask. 



1. The twenty-first fargar^, Vahbtdi sii 8 , is about 
where the best prayers 4 of the good religion are : 
unto Mitr6 6 once every night for dismissing and 
lessening Wrath in the whole world, and a second 
time for doing so with Lethargy ; a third unto Srdsh • 
the righteous, and the fourth is the Dahman Airin 1 
for further gifts and increasing gifts ; and the most 

supreme high-priests, of the two northern regions, Frada</afsh and 
Vida</afsh. They are named Spit6i</-i Ausposinan and AeV&risp-i 
Ausp6sinan in Bd. XXIX, 1; and the statement that they came 
from Mazendaran, made in the text here, identifies that country 
with the two northern regions. The names of these two high-priests 
are evidently derived from the Avesta genitives Spitdu Usp3- 
snao.r and Erezr&spahe 1 UspSsnao* in Yt. XIII, 121, persons 
concerning whom it is only stated that their fravashis, or guardian 
spirits, are to be reverenced. 

1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68. 

1 Av. Hv6va, the family name of Frashdftar, G&masp, and 
several other ancient personages (see Bk. VIII, Chap. XXIX, 25). 

* The appellation of the fifth Gatha (Yas. LIU) which begins 
with the words vahutd istis ; it is here written vahutdk-i*to in 
Pahlavi. 

4 The Pahlavi explanation of Av. vahifti Ulis. 

8 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XLIV, 16. 

« See Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3. 

7 ' The blessing of members of the community.' The Dahman 
Afrfnagan consists of Yas. LX, 2-7 with Af. I, 14-18; but the 
^4frtn is another formula, otherwise called ' the .4frin of the seven 
Ameshaspends,' and it is uncertain which of the two is meant here. 



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220 dInKAAD, BOOK IX. 

preservative of them was the Dahman Afrin. 2. And 
this, too, that the most admirable of shapes of 
women was Humal 1 of the noble family of Virtasp, 
of horses the splendid horse of Vwtasp, of oxen the 
male ox Barmayun 2 , of sheep the very much cele- 
brated s sheep that is fat, white-jawed, and star- 
spotted, with its upper half in a manufacture (pa- 
.?akhtak6) embroidered with gold and the topmost 
part yellow ; and yet not one of them attains an 
equality to even a single thousandth part of the 
glory of a righteous man, a member of the commu- 
nity, by whom the Dahman Afrln of the good is 
uttered. 3. And this, too, as much as its goodness 
for the man and his wife is its evil for a villain and 
his paramour *. 

4. About the exercise of sovereignty by Kat-Us 6 , 
with triumph, over the earth of seven regions ; the 
advancement of his commands, by the people of the 
creation*, more swiftly than a wave of the hands ; 
the construction of his seven dwellings (man) T in 
the midst of Albur'2 8 , one of gold, two of silver, two 

1 Av. (gen.) Humayau of Yt. XIII, 139. 

s See Chap. XXI, 22. 

' Reading fr£h-dkhtar (for fr£h-6khttar), as Bd. XXIV, 3 
states that 'the black sheep which is fat and white-jawed is the chief 
of sheep.' It might be ' the sheep of Frashdkhtar,' and this name 
might be a mis writing of Frashdjtar, but we have no record of any 
such sheep of his. 

* It is easy to trace a connection between §§1,2 and Yas. LIII, 
1, and between § 3 and the Pahl. version of Yas. LIII, 6 a. 

* Av. Kava Usa (see Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 13). 

* K has ' by demons and men.' 

7 Probably the origin of the legends of the seven halting-places 
of Rustam and Isfendiyar in the Sh&hnamah. 

* Here meaning the mountain-range south of the Caspian (see 
Chap. XX, 3). 



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CHAPTER XXII, 2-7. 221 

of steel, and two of crystal (^glnaklnS) ; the re- 
straining of the many Mazonik demons ' who are the 
ruin of the world, and confining them to their own 
duty ; the arrival at those dwellings of his, and the 
swift winding (vaftntdfano) around those dwellings, 
of a person whose strength is overpowered by de- 
crepitude, and the approach of whose life to departure 
from the body has taken place; the reduction (khu- 
sant-hastano) of the decrepitude thereby, and the 
return of his strength and manhood, that is, a com- 
mand is given by him thus : ' Keep no people away 
at the door!' and he might make a domestic of 
fifteen years of age. 

5. Afterwards, the consultation of the demons 
about the death of Kai-Us, and the coming of 
Aeshm * to Kat-Os, approving his death, and, there- 
fore, making him wretched in his mind about the 
great sovereignty which was possessed by him over 
the seven lands, and causing him to long for the 
sovereignty of the heavenly region (isamano gas) 
of the archangels 3 . 6. And, owing to the seduc- 
tiveness of Aeshm, and the other demons who 
remained his co-operators for that undoing, Kal-tJs 
was even engaged in opposing and molesting the 
sacred beings. 7. Also his not returning across 
Albur'-sr, but rushing upwards, with many demons 
and wicked people, unto the outer edge of darkness 4 ; 

1 Av. M&zainya dafcva, the idolators of Mazendaran. 

s The demon of wrath (see Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3 n). 

* §§ 5-9 are evidently a summary of the original form of the 
legend of K&vus's attempt to reach the sky, otherwise described in 
the Shahnamah. 

4 Where the endless light commences. Reading par-i torn ; or 
it might be 'to the utmost,' if we read fr6tum as equivalent to 
frehtum. 



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222 DINKA/U3, BOOK IX. 

and the reason of the glory of the Kayans l be- 
coming a figure of clay on that border. 8. The 
previous separation (madam re^l-hastanS) of 
Kai-Os from the troops, and his not turning from 
that ill-advisedness even on renewed strife aloft* 
with the supreme sacred beings. 9. Afterwards, the 
creator's calling back the glory of the Kayans to 
himself, the falling of the troops of Kai-t)s to the 
earth from that height, and the flying of Kai-t)s to 
the wide-formed ocean 3 . 

10. This, too, it says, that, besides him, some 
one * flew behind him, thus associated with him ; 
and after him flew N£ry6sang 6 , the promoter (fre" h- 
da</4r) ^"the world, for diverting that person from 
him. 11. And the cry of him, the unborn Khusr6i, 
who was thus associated with him, like that of a 
regiment (sz'pah) a thousand strong, was thus : 
4 Thou shouldst not smite him, O N6ry6sang, pro- 
moter of the world ! for if thou shouldst smite this 
man, O Nery6sang, promoter of the world ! there 
will not be afterwards obtained, for acquirement, a 



1 K omits ' of the Kay&ns.' It is the royal glory of Yt. XIX, 
which descended from heaven and accompanies the faithful rulers 
and champions of the religion, successively (see Chap. XXIV, 3). 

8 B has 'pitying strife;' khvd'parik being written instead of 
ararfk. 

8 Meaning the Caspian, as in Chap. XXI, 17. 

4 It will be seen, from what follows, that this was the fravashi, or 
guardian spirit, of his future grandson, Kai-Khusr6i. Every being 
and object belonging to Auharmaz</'s creation is supposed to have 
its spiritual representative, created before the universe and per- 
petually existing (see Bd. I, 8 ; Mkh. XLIX, 23). 

6 Av. Nairydsangha, an angel who is supposed to be the usual 
messenger of Auharmasrf to mankind (see Byt. Ill, 25, 26, 59, 60). 
K has only ' besides him and behind him flew Neryosang.' 



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CHAPTER XXII, 8-XXIII, I. 22 3 

thorough destroyer of the high-priest of Turan ' ; 
because owing to this man will be born him whose 
name is Slyavakhsh 2 , and owing to Siyavakhsh 
I shall be born, who am the Khusrdi who will entice 
the most heroic 3 one of Turan — who is mostly the 
destruction of champions and troops — to the nu- 
merous heroes of the religion, so that I may accom- 
plish the destruction of his champions and troops, 
when* I would occasion a distant flight of the 
sovereign of Turan.' 12. Through these words the 
guardian spirit of Khusr6l delighted Nerydsang, the 
promoter of the world ; and, on these words, the 
latter was releasing him and that Kat-Os who 
thereby became discreet. 

1 3. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness. 



Chapter XXI II. 
Sddhar Nash. 



1. The twenty-second fa.rga.td, Airyaman 8 , is 
about the meeting of Kal-Khusr61 6 and Vae, the 
long-continuing lord 7 next to the renovation of the 

1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 15. 

• See Bk. VIII, Chap. Xllt, 14. 

• A single particular hero appears to be meant, although this is 
not quite certain. 

4 Assuming that mun, 'who,' stands for amat, as in Chap. 
XIII, 2. 

• The appellation of Yas. LIV which begins with the words 
a airy*ma ishyd; it is here written air&mano (B) and atre- 
man5 (K) in Pahlavi. 

• See Bk. VIIl, Chap. XIII, 14. 

7 Pahl. vaS-i d£rang-khu</ai= Av. vaya daregh6A»adhata 
who is mentioned as a good spirit in Ny. I, 1. There are, how- 



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224 dJnkajid, BOOK IX. 

universe ; and Kal-Khusr61's asking Va6, the long- 
continuing lord, about his smiting so many of the 
ancients who have been the highest of mankind in 
splendour and glory. 2. The reply of Va£, the 
long-continuing lord, about his smiting them ; and, 
upon that answer, Kal-Khusr6i's taking Va£, the 
long-continuing lord, and transforming him into the 
shape of a camel, mounting him, and going, with 
the Iranian levies (han^amandikan), to the place 
where the immortal HaoLrt, son of Geurva 1 , lies in 
strength 2 , and his letting him lie ; also his going 
beyond (kid mo n) him to the place where Tus 3 , 
the banisher of strife, lay in strength, and his letting 
him also lie ; and his going beyond him to the place 
where Kaf-^4p!veh 4 lies, and his letting him also lie. 

ever, two Va£s (see Dd. XXX, 4 ; Mkh. II, 115), the good V&t 
who assists the departed soul, and the bad Va£ who opposes it ; the 
former is closely connected with the angel Rim in Yt. XV, o, 58, 
and the latter with Ast6-vfdh6tu, the demon of death, in Vend. V, 
8, 9; Bd. XXVIII, 35. They appear to be personifications of the 
upper and lower air, respectively; the former being considered 
pure through its connection with the sacred beings, and the latter 
impure through contamination by the demons. Possibly the legend 
about Va6 in our text may have been suggested by the words 
vayu-beredubyd and vayoi in Yas. LIH, 6, 7 ; in which case, 
this fargarrf must be considered, to some extent, as a continuation 
of the preceding one. According to Dd. XXXVI, 3 Kai-Khusrof 
was made to pass away by Va£. 

1 Compare Av. Yftrta Gaurvayana of Yt. XIII, 118. But 
Y6ijta Fryana, of Yt. XIII, 120, is one of the immortals men- 
tioned in Byt. II, 1 ; Dd. XC, 3. 

8 Reading hang, which can also mean 'a cave;' but we can 
likewise read hug, 'spiritual life.' 

3 Av. Tusa of Yt. V, 53, 58 ; he is one of the immortals men- 
tioned in Bd. XXIX, 6 ; Dd. XXXVI, 3. 

4 Av. Kavi Aipivanghu of Yt. XIII, 132, XIX, 71. He was 
son of Kaf-Kavarf, brother of Kai-tJs, and great-grandfather of 
Virtasp's grandfather (see Bd. XXXI, 25, 28, 31, 34). 



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CHAPTER XXIII, 2-7. 225 

3. His proceeding beyond them, and meeting on 
the road with that beneficial victor S6shans 1 , and 
being asked by that beneficial victor thus : ' What 
man art thou who sittest aloft on Va£, the long- 
continuing lord, so that thou makest Vae fly, the 
long-continuing lord transformed into the shape of 
a camel ? ' 4. The speaking of Kal-Khusr6i, in 
reply to Sdshdns, thus ; ' I am Kai-Khusr6i.' 
5. The extolling of Kai-Khusr6i, by S6shans, as 
regards his having extirpated the idol-temples on 
the shore of Lake /ife^ast 2 , and his smiting the 
wizard Frasiyiz/ s . 

6. The glorifying of the Masrdfo-worshipping re- 
ligion by Kal-Khusr6i ; the coming of the powerful 
being Keresasp *, club in hand, advancing towards 
them at the dwelling of that wizard Ges 6 ; the 
standing up of Tus, the bahisher of strife, and his 
calling to Keresasp for reliance upon the G&tha 
lore and for union with them ; and the praising of 
righteousness 6 by Keresasp, and his throwing away 
the arm-breaker. 

7. As to these, too, it says that so those men 
come together for producing the renovation of the 
universe w/w are mentioned in this fargan/, and also 
in other places, and are all experienced and eminent 



1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIV, 14. 

* Apparently the present Lake Urumiyah (see Bd. XVII, 7, 
XXII, 2 ; Mkh. II, 95). 

s See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 11. 

4 See Chap. XV. 

6 Written V, but the reading is uncertain ; possibly the name 
may be connected with ' the Vefko progeny ' in Chap. XV, 2. 

' Reciting the Ashem-vohu formula, as a token of adhesion to 
the religion. 

[37] Q 



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226 dJnkaud, BOOK IX. 

doers, and all powerful and brave; and they shall 
produce the renovation through a desire for an 
existence undecaying, immortal, hungerless, and 
thirstless for ever and everlasting. 

8. It is perfect excellence that is righteousness. 



Chapter XXIV. 



i. Of the Varstmansar 1 there are twenty-three 
fargan/s, and the. first is the A£thrapaiti5 2 , on the 
asking of Zaraturt, by Maiafok-mah s , about the nature 
of the birth of Zaraturt, and his coming to the religion. 
2. And the reply of Zaraturt about the combative 
coming together of the life-causing and death-causing 
spirits at his birth 4 . 3. This, too, that when the 
fellow- villagers 6 of her who bore him saw his head 6 

1 The second of the Nasks and third of the Gathic division (see 
Bk. VIII, Chap. I, 9, 12). It is a second commentary on the 
GSthas, devoting a fargarrf to each hi of the G&thas and to each 
GSthic formula, as in the Sui/kar Nask, but beginning with an extra 
fargan/ about the birth and calling of Zarattut. Its chief object 
appears to be the quotation of texts, both from the Gathas and 
from sources no longer known. 

* Here written asrapiitd* (B) and asrapSitij (K) in Pahlavi, 
which, no doubt, stand for Av. aSthrapaiti-r, Pers. hSrbad, 
' a Zoroastrian priest.' This name may either refer to the general 
subject of the fargarrf, or have been the first word of its Avesta text ; 
as it seems not intended to quote any section of the Yasna, although 
the guardian spirits of the priests are reverenced in Yas. XXVI, 7, 8, 
before commencing the recitation of the Githas. 

* Av. Maidhyo-maungha; he was first cousin of Zaraturt, and 
also his first disciple (see Bd. XXXII, 2, 3 ; Zs. XI, 10 n). 

* B has ' at the birth of his life.' 

° B has ham-visagih, K ham-disagih. 

* Assuming that vag&no stands for va.gda.nb, which word 
occurs in § 4, according to K. 



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chapter xxiii, 8-xxrv, 6. 227 

they considered it the shoulder of 1 Arekdvlksur 2 , 
and his chest and back those of Aharlrvang 3 , and 
when they saw his full * bosom they considered it 
that of the spirit of liberality 6 ; and by his side was 
the Kayan glory 6 to rub (mu.rtan&) his bosom. 

4. The speaking of Zaraturt spiritually, on the 
grievous bringing forth of his head 7 , thus : ' As a 
spiritual lord is my desire, do thou who art the Z6ti 
speak forth to me 8 ;' and the reply from Auhar- 
majid thus : ' So shouldst thou be the priestly master 
as regards whatever righteousness I speak forth 
with righteous intelligence ; thou art of very much 
value, thou art very righteous, thou art most intel- 
ligent, and thou wilt state the religion of the Mazda- 
worshippers to creatures of every kind.' 5. Through 
that saying an arrow reaches spiritually unto the 
demons, just as from a mighty chief warrior of Kaf- 
VLrtasp 9 , like him in a mountain dwelling (g a ran 6 
man) who has shot an arrow for an attack (patko- 
pi^n6) opposing those in coats of mail. 6. The 
evil spirit grumbled (dandl^S) to the demons thus : 
' Evil has it become for you who are demons, but 

1 B omits ' the shoulder 0/.' 

• Av. Aredvi sftra of Yt. V, a title of Anahita, the female angel 
of the waters. 

3 See Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3. 

4 Pahl. aflruks/ar=Av. uruthware. 

• Av. Rata, who is associated with the archangel Speflta- 
Armaiti in Yt. II, 3, 8 ; Sir. I, II, 5, and with Ashi Vanguhi in 
Yt. XXIV, 8. 

• Av. kavaem ^»aren6 (see Chap. XXII, 7). 
7 B has ' whenever his birth occurred.' 

• This, with the first clause of the response, is the Pahlavi version 
of the concluding formula of Yas. XXVI, 11, without the extra 
Pahlavi glosses. 

• See Bk. VIII, Chaps. XI, 1-4, XIII, 15. 

Q 2 



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228 dInkakd, BOOK IX. 

you are unobservant/ 7. Even so Zaraturt pro- 
claimed life free from the control of the demons, 
when this same saying was uttered by him, thus : 
' As a spiritual lord is my desire ;' and, at the falling 
of the demons upon Zaraturt for his destruction, an 
incarnation (tanu) of its spiritual existence stood 
opposed to them, in that weapon proceeding from 
Zaratust, to keep them back. 

8. And he spoke again thus : * The religion of the 
benefiters progresses there in him who, through good 
actions, has joyfulness owing to his righteousness 1 ;' 
and, through that saying, an arrow reaches spiritually 
unto the demons, equal to ten of that which was 
first spoken, and, at the falling of the demons upon 
Zaraturt for his destruction, it stood spiritually 
opposed to them, and that weapon proceeding from 
Zaraturt kept them back. 

9. The third utterance of Zaratust, on the bringing 
forth of his arms, was thus : ' That which the first 
existence produced is to be so practised, with atten- 
tion, through actions to be concealed by him who is 
a priestly authority (r a</6) 2 ;' and through that saying 
an arrow reaches spiritually unto the demons, equal 
to one hundred of that which was first spoken, and, 
at the falling of a demon upon Zaratust for his death, 
its spirit, as a sacred being, kept the demon away 
from Zaratust. 

10. And, when the whole body of Zaratu.st was 
brought forth, trouble (a si po) fell among the demons, 
and the demons rushed back to hell in haste ; light 

1 This is the Pahlavi version of Yas. XXXIV, 13 b, without the 



* This is the Pahlavi version of Yas. XXXIII, 1 a, b, without the 
glosses and incomplete. 



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CHAPTER XXIV, 7— 15. 229 

increased among the creatures, and every creature of 
the beneficent sacred being is pleased and talked of 
virtuous conduct. 1 1. And Atiharmazd took away 
Zaraturt with joyfulness to provide security for him, 
and Arekdvtksur, Aharlrvang, and the primitive and 
Kayan glory in the body of Zaratust spoke to Zara- 
tu.st of its production by Auharma^ thus : ' Thou 
shouldst think of him who is wise.' 1 2. Thereupon 
Zaraturt spoke spiritually, in reply, thus : ' I am a 
Masrafe-worshipper, I profess the Ma^a-worship of 
Zaraturt ' ; and this means that I am an apostle of 
Adharmzzd, and am sent by Auha^masflf.' 

13. And Auharmasuf spoke to Zaratust thus: 'As 
to the sacred beings of the worldly existence, do thou 
beg companionship from them ; but as to the demons, 
do thou long for (d6sh) 2 separation from every one 
of them ; practise good thoughts, good words, and 
good deeds, and abstain from evil thoughts, evil 
words, and evil deeds.' 14. Also about vigilantly 
reverencing the sacred beings, and the reward 
thereof; not strengthening the vile, nor weakening 3 
the good ; expounding for the disturber of religion 
(d£n6-parfr£sh), and producing liberality for the 
accepters of religion; and not turning away from 
the religion on account of fondness for body and 
life. 

15. The accepting of such advice spiritually by 
Zaratfot, and his glorifying Atiharmazd, for crea- 

1 This is the Pahlavi version of part of Yas. XII, 7, 8 (XIII, 
25 Sp.) without the glosses. 

* B has 'hope for* (nyfish). 

8 Assuming that nizdrfntrfanfc (K) stands for niz&rfnfrfan6; 
B has z6rtnt</ano, which is synonymous with the previous niru- 
kint</an6, ' strengthening.' 



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230 dInkard, BOOK IX. 

tiveness, sovereignty, and all goodness, and the 
primary archangels and other good creations, each 
separately, for their own special glory 1 . 16. And, 
afterwards, the grumbling of the evil spirit mali- 
ciously, at that vexation, thus : ' I have produced, 
for the annoyance 2 of any upholder of that religion 
of thine, 99,999 wizards, 99,999 wolf-worshippers 3 , 
and 99,999 apostates.' 

17. Auharma-sd? spoke to Zarat&rt thus: 'Main- 
tain this religion steadfastly, for through the assist- 
ance of this religion I, who am Auharma?^, will be 
with thee, and the omniscient wisdom becomes thine, 
and extends to thy disciples, MaW6k-mah 4 , Parsha*/- 
gavd 6 , SSnd 6 , Kai-Vi-rtasp, Frashd^tar, and Gamasp 7 , 
the teacher of public observance and will to the 
righteous, besides many of the people who are dili- 
gent and even those who are idle, and their good 
works and praise will be owned by thee.' 18. Like- 



1 Or it may be ' in his own particular soul (nisman).' 

* Pahl. reshfrfar? h, which B omits. 

' This term, gurg-yaaako (=Av. vehrkayaza), does not 
occur in the extant Avesta. 
4 See § 1. 

* Av. Parsharf-gau of Yt. XIII, 96 (compare Paz. Parjadga 
of Bd. XXIX, 5). This name can also be read Fradi</ayano 
and be compared with Av. Fradhidaya of Yt. XIII, 97. 

* Av. Saena of Yt. XIII, 97, who is said to have ' first set forth 
upon this earth with a hundred disciples.' Further details about 
him are given in Chap. XXXIII, 5. In the third and seventh books 
of the Dinkarrf his name is written .Sen6v (for S6n6k or SSnoS) 
which has been read Dayfln by Peshotan (Dk. pp. 308-314 of 
English translation), as pointed out by Darmesteter in his Textes 
Pthlvis relatifs au Judaisme, p. 3, n. 2. In Dk. VII he is said to 
have been a high-priest who was born in the 100th year of the 
religion, and died in its 200th year. 

7 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68. 



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CHAPTER XXIV, 16-XXV, I. 23 1 

wise about the worldly display of the religion to 
Zaratu-rt by Auharmaza?, the accepting of the religion 
by Zaratdrt through recitation and faith, and the 
reverence of the Ahunavair v by Zaratujt. 

19. Also about Auharma.^ having created the 
creatures in the spiritual existence, and their allotment 
out to the worldly existence, the superiority of the 
righteous man as compared with other creatures, 
and, among mankind, of him who is relying on the 
provisions of the law and its unchangeableness from 
goodness, and who is a teacher and provider of 
teaching as to the pre-eminent existence of the good 
religion of the sacred beings. 

20. And a summary about the bringing together 
of that fire which is the residue of a fire in a house, 
for the reverence of that water which is nearest to 
the dwelling, and of any spirit of a kinsman ; and as 
to him who leaves that fire, water, and spirit, and, 
on account of a similar desire, reverences another 
fire, water, and spirit, but none of them can accept 
that ceremonial, and the acceptance of that man's 
ceremonial by the others will have occurred just 
when the former three are reverenced by him. 

21. Righteousness is perfect excellence. 



Chapter XXV. 

Varstmdnsar Nask. 

1. The second fargaraf, Yatha-ahu-vairyo 2 , is 

about the worthiness, as to worldly and spiritual 

virtue, in a ruler and in the production of a high- 

1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. I, 7. 

' The Ahunavair (see Bk. VIII, Chap. I, 7) upon which this 
fargan/ is a commentary quoting some text on the subject in § 2. 



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232 niliKARD, BOOK IX. 

priest's efficiency ; and they have been suitable for 
leadership and priestly authority with whom there is 
an existence of it ; also other talent through which 
sovereignty and priestly authority are appropriated, 
and which the ruler or high-priest himself possesses. 
2. 'My wish (d6sh), O Zaratfot! is that thou be 
in spiritual lordship and priestly authority, because 
thou art, O Zaraturt ! provided with a spiritual lord 
and possessing priestly instruction — that is, they 
consider thee, too, as high-priest — and it is because 
thine is the accomplishment of rites, that thou art 
quite preserved when there is an encounter of the 
demons with thee — that is, a dispute of apostates 
with thee.' 3. It is non-possession of a ruler and 
high-priest, or non-possession of a ruler 1 , that be- 
came the nature and law of the demons ; and the 
maintenance of Auharmazaf and the archangels, as 
ruler and high-priest, and the dominion of Auha^- 
rr&zd are combined with beneficence. 

4. This, too, that through righteousness a priestly 
instructor (rad<$) is a ruler at will, a sage and bene- 
factor, a cherisher and cleanser (asnl^ir) of the 
poor ; also the fitness for the supreme heaven 
(garodfmanlkih) of all those who are accepting the 
religion which proceeds from Zaraturt. 

5. Of righteousness the excellence is perfect. 



Chapter XXVI. 

Varstmdnsar Nasi. 

1. The third fa.rga.rd, Ashem^vohu 2 , is about 

1 K omits these five words, and B has a blank space for the 
letters khurfin khflrfaf, 'ruler.' 
* See Chap. Ill, 1 n. 



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CHAPTER XXV, 2-XXVII, 2. 233 

admonition as to the praising of righteousness, 
which is itself the production of true awe of Auhar- 
mazd, the perfection of existences, the better state 
of prayers 1 , and the greatest assemblage of righte- 
ousness, good breeding, humility (avopatagth), 
awe of the spiritual existence, extreme joyfulness, 
and comfort and enlightenment of soul. 2. Also 
the equipment (pa</mukih) of him who is prac- 
tising as a high-priest is righteousness and the main- 
tenance of the worship and obeisance for the spirit 
of righteousness. 

3. Of righteousness perfect is the excellence. 



Chapter XXVII. 
Varstmdnsar Nasi. 



1. The fourth fargan/, Y£Nh£-hatam 2 , slates 
that Auharmaa*/ spoke to Zaraturt the Spltaman 
thus : ' Utter the words of the ceremonial and 
obeisance for us who are Adharmazd and 3 the 
archangels, because they are, O Zaratust ! thy 
ritual for water 4 , ritual for plants, ritual for a 
guardian spirit of the righteous, and ritual for an 
angel of a spiritual existence, or who is even ap- 
pointed for a worldly existence! 

2. And Zarattot spoke thus : ' I will utter the 
words of Atiharmazd, which are opposed to harm 

1 K omits ' of prayers.' 

* See Chap. IV, 1 n. The texts quoted in this fargarrf appear 
to be no longer extant. 
s B omits ' Auharmasrf and.' 
4 K omits ' ritual/or water.' 



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234 dInkard, book ix. 

and are the ordinance of Auharma^, those of the 
ceremonial and obeisance for you who are arch- 
angels.' 

3. Of righteousness perfect is the excellence. 



Chapter XXVIII. 
Varstmdnsar Nask. 



1. The fifth fargan/, Yantm-mand 1 , is about 
the beneficence and worthiness of Zaratfct, through 
the virtuousness of his thoughts, words, and deeds 2 ; 
the priority of Auharma^ 8 , and the first possession 
of obeisance (ntyayisno) to him; the mindful per- 
formance of obeisance to the sacred beings, and all 
the merit of obeisance to the sacred beings ; the 
excellence of receiving a righteous man, of bringing 
fire together, and of maintaining the good religion ; 
the elementary (kham) wisdom * of the creator, and 
the consideration of every duty towards his will and 
creation ; the outward indication as to propitious 
discrimination and of what is done by those who are 
propitious ; and the existence of every kind of self- 
attraction by Zaraturt towards the religion, from 
first to last, through the complete reasoning thought 
that arose solely through obeisance to the sacred 
beings. 

2. This, too, that ' thou art come to the supreme 
heaven (gar6dfman) s , O righteous Zaratust! thou 



1 See Chap. V, 1 n. 

2 See Pahl. Yas. XXVIII, o. 

8 Ibid. 1 b. 4 Ibid. 1 c. e Ibid. 4 a. 



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CHAPTER XXVII, 3-XXVIII, 4. 235 

art aware of the deeds, Zarattlrt ! which were 
practised by those in the bodily existence, and 
which still they practise, and the sacred beings have 
placed upon mankind acquiring the power of good 
works.' 3. And about the wonderfulness of the 
supreme heaven there is this, too, that whoever is in 
that abode is not any one that passes away after his 
birth ; at the time of the renovation of the universe 
the supreme heaven is lowered down to the star 
station \ the earth being up to there, and Vohuman 2 
is summoned for every purpose to the conference, 
and, when they call him, Mitr6's 3 investigation as 
regards the existence of righteousness is on the 
spot ; through the coming of that archangel * of true 
statements for assistance, and through the co-opera- 
tion of the other archangels and Sr6sh 2 the righteous, 
is the overpowering of the vexing of distressers 6 ; 
and the assistance of the archangels for Zarat&st 
was when he went forth for disabling the vicious law 
of Iran. 4. Concerning Zaratu-st there is this, too, 
in the words of Auha.rma.zd, that is : ' Thou art our 
own, O Zaratti-rt ! and this liberality to thee is ours ; 
anything one gives to thee is given by him to us;' 
also the announcement to Zaratu^t, and the bringing 
of him to Vistasp 6 for his assistance and likewise 
the strength 7 of his sovereignty for him. 

1 The lowest grade of heaven (see Sis. VI, 3 n). 

8 See Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3 for both angels. 

8 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XLIV, 16. 

4 Vohuman. » See Pahl. Yas. XXVIII, 6 c. 

• See Bk. VIII, Chap. XI, 1; and compare Pahl. Yas. XXVIII, 
6 b, 7 b, c. 

1 So in K, but B has ' also his announcement on being brought 
to Vutasp, and ZaratfLrt was an assistance to him and the 
strength, &c.' 



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[■- 



X 



236 dJnkard, BOOK IX. 

5. The discipleship and veneration of Frashdrtar 1 
also, and the laudation of Frash6^tar for making the 
religion progressive and for its true transmission in 
the words of Atiharmaa^; also the whole righteous- 
ness of those whom Frashdrtar attracted to the 
religion. 

6. About the laudation of Zaratfot there is this, 
too, that is : ' Thou art not astray from us, neither in 
life, nor in enquiry, nor in openly announcing, even 
when demonstrating 2 the religion to others, nor in 
anything whatever, O Spitiman ! from us who are 
archangels ; and the donation of benefit to suppli- 
cants is the food, and the clothing for us, who are 
in the ceremonial of the sacred beings, is unworn 
(asu</akd)V 

7. About guarding a friend, managing an un- 
friendly person, and affording a person shelter for 
the sake of protection, justice, and rectitude 4 ; also 
the unworthy condition of that man who, requiring 
to perform those duties and good works that are 
important, shall perform those that are trivial. 8. 
And this, too, that is : ' Thou art likewise aware, 
and thou also understandest it, O righteous Zarattot! 
through the sagacity of my wisdom, which was the 
first among existences 6 , and which is also so unto 
the last existence.' 

9. Righteousness is excellence that is perfect. 



1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68, and compare Pahl. Yas. 
XXVIII, 8 b, c. 
1 K has ' when thou wouldst demonstrate.' 
8 See Pahl. Yas. XXVIII, 10 c. 
4 Ibid. 1 1 a. 8 Ibid. 1 1 c. 



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CHAPTER XXVIII, 5~XXIX, 2. 237 



Chapter XXIX. 

Varstmdnsar Nask. 

1. The sixth fargan/, Khshmaibya 1 , is about 
the complaint of Gds-aurvan 2 to Auharma^, when 
she sat at the creation in the assembly of the arch- 
angels, as regards the abundant disease and misery 
which she saw spiritually would come upon her in a 
bodily existence, through beating, slaughtering, and 
wounding, stealing, plundering, and presenting, by 
him of vicious actions and worse desires, as a bribe 
to him who is an evil-ruling villain (mar), and the 
operation thereof: the bad ownership, wrongful 
investigation, false evidence, and making captive 
(van/ak&), by him who is wrathful and oppressive 
through greed and envy, from the warm cowshed 
and the effective and diligent guardianship of the 
herd's dog (pasu^-haurv6), to that which is a cold 
and hastily-constructed place; or by him who is 
seeking meat with a merciless hand through making 
her distantly separated from her young. 2. Also 
their explanation and extenuation (kastanS) 3 , and 
the causing of misery of many kinds thereby, ' which 
is no affliction to them when the wind that is cold 4 , 
or even that which is hot, comes upon me ; which is 
no affliction to them when, the untimely offspring of 



1 See Chap. VI, in; it is here written khshmaibt (B) and 
khshmatbe 1 (K) in Pahlavi. 

• See Chap. XV, 3 ; Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 1. 

8 Or it may be ' fining and beating,' as K has kustano. 

* B has ' when same of that which is cold,' writing a! to for va</5 
in this first clause, and amat min for amatam in the first and 
third clauses. 



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238 dJnkard, BOOK IX. 

my womb being cast away, they slaughter me ; and 
is no affliction to them when the serpent, the leech 
(khun-garal) ', or even the foulest of noxious crea- 
tures gnaws me.' 3. And the petition of Gd^-aOrvan 
was thus : ' Do not appoint me to a worldly existence 
and that awful misery, or, if thou appointest me to a 
worldly existence, produce it for me without life (au- 
zujtinlha), so that I may be without feeling and 
may want that distressing 2 pain ; it is created for the 
mighty, through whose assistance there is a capability 
of affording protection to me, even though the Kaf 
and Karap s exist.' 

4. And, together with the just complaint of G6*- 
aurvan, and the compassion of the archangels as to 
that complaint, there is then the creation of the crea- 
tures, among whom the greatest and best* is mankind, 
for fighting and subduing the destroyer, even though 
joined together with a complaint of wounding and 
affliction Mkethat ofG6s-a.&rvan,and Gds-aurvan arose 
with greater judiciousness than an absence of creation 
even with freedom from disturbance by the Kats 8 ; 
on account of the necessity of preparing for the 
living of mankind through the assistance of cattle, 
G6$-aurvan was produced for the material bodily 
existence and assistance of mankind. 5. And, on 
account of little feeling for her worldly misery, the 
breeding (maylntdfano) of cattle was the arraying 

1 Doubtful. " K has ' ill-passing.' 

8 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXV, 13 n. 

4 B has ' of whom the best.' 

8 The obnoxious tribe, or class, mentioned in § 3. After the word 
'affliction' K completes the clause to this point as follows: — 'just 
as G6*-aurvan arose with greater judiciousness than an absence of 
creation even with an adversity of the primitive tendency.' 



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CHAPTER XXIX, 3-9. 239 

of strife ; the advancement of the Mazaia-worshipping 
religion of Zaraturt in the world by Gdj-aurvan, on 
the production of Zaratust for the assistance of 
cattle; and the preservation of cattle and other 
good creations through complete satisfaction at the 
progress of the religion. 

6. This, too, was said to Gd*-aurvan, that is : ' I 
assert unto thee the passing away of devastation, 
that is, the existence of a remedy for the misery 
owing to the evil spirit 1 , for which no creature 
would be produced by me — me who am Auharma^ — 
when a remedy for the misery owing to him had not 
been known to me.' 7. This, too, that the wish of 
the evil spirit was thus : ' Thou shouldst never pro- 
duce a creature, O AuharmazflH and there should be 
here no spiritual lordship, no priestly authority, and 
no desire for perfect righteousness, or necessity for 
duty and good works.' 8. The enquiry of G65- 
aurvan, thus : ' For whom am 1 appointed and 
formed ? 2 ' and the reply to her, thus : ' For him 
who is diligent and moderate *.' 

9. Also the friend and nourishment (srS.yi.yn6) 
begged for cattle by G6^-aurvan, the righteous man 
produced for the assistance of cattle by Auharmasdf, 
and the sweetness in water and plants for the 
nourishment of cattle, so that he is privileged to 
feed and keep cattle who gives them pasture in 
reality, and is also diligent in the production of 
cattle, that is, he gives them pasture, and is thereby 
proclaimed a cattle-guardian (pasus-haurvo) for 
them who makes the cattle fully develope * ; and also 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 6 a. a Ibid. 1 a. 

« Ibid. 6 c. * Ibid. 2 b. 



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24O TiiiiKARD, BOOK IX. 

he who gives the wicked Wrath, the foreigner, a 
beating, so that he may make him stupefied l . 
10. The development of cattle by Auharmasrf, advice 
to mankind as to moderate eating \ and the grievous 
bridge judgment of him who has unlawfully produced 
distress for the cattle whom Gds-aurvan is kindly 
regarding, with loving eyes », in the spiritual exist- 
ence, in bodily contact with (ham-kerp6-l) the arch- 
angels and in bodily contact with the light of the 
sun, so that her hands are more powerful ; she who 
replies to the sacred beings, and the sacred beings 
reply to her *. 

11. About the statements of Atiharmazd there is 
this, too, that is : * I am a calculator of those words s 
by which they assert that the existence of worldly 
beings is for the sake of that of both existences ; I 
am aware of the actions which are practised by those 
in the material existence, both demons and men ; of 
whatever they practise • I am the decider and lord, 
and it is such as my will requires 7 , even for the last 
change of existence ; and I look upon all that with 
that wisdom and sagacity of mine which was, which 
is, and which ever will be.' 

1 2. The formation of a reward for worldly beings 
by Auharmasaf, through the propitious liturgy 
(mansars/end) 8 which has become the precursor 
of the benefiters ; that is, their high-priest, who has 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 2 c. » Ibid. 7 b. 

5 Pahl. kamak6-ddisar = Av. vouru-d6ithra, an epithet of 
Rata, 'liberality' (see Chap. XXIV, 3), and Saoka, ' prosperity;' 
but here applied to G6.r-aurvan. 

4 Some words in § 10 occur also in Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 3. 

8 See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 4 a. « Ibid. 4 b. 

' Ibid. 4 c. ' Ibid. 7 a. 



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CHAPTER XXIX, IO-XXX, 4. 24 1 

a propitiousness and intelligence that are all-bene- 
ficial, is he with the liturgy. 13. And about the 
uniqueness and incomparableness of Zaratust among 
mankind, through his desire for righteousness and 
his understanding the means of defeating the 
destroyer * and teaching the creatures. 
14. Righteousness is perfect excellence. 



Chapter XXX. 
Varslmdnsar Nask. 



1. The seventh fargar*/, A^-td-vakhshya 2 , is 
regarding the maintenance of the worship and obeis- 
ance of the religion and the spirit of the liturgy ; and 
this, too, that the spirit of the ceremonial of him 
who is a right-thinking, intelligent, and wise 3 man 
is quickly mixed up with the light of the sun, and 
connected with the accomplishment of the wishes 
and the joy of the archangels. 

2. About the choice of will by mankind, and the 
existence of a way to reward through their decision. 
3. About advice to mankind as to seeking that 
position in which it is possible to remain long with 
fondness, and as to reciting and teaching 4 the revela- 
tion of the sacred beings. 

4. And, from the statement of Zaraturt, about 
the shouting of the demon Aresh ■'• to mankind, thus: 

1 SeePahl.Yas. XXIX, 8 c. 

* See Chap. VII, in; it is here written at-tag-vakhshe' in 
Pahlavi in both MSS. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 1 a, c. 4 Ibid. 2 c. 

' See Chap. XXXI, 6 ; the demon of envy, or malice, called 
Ar&shk, or Arashk, in Bd. XV, 18, XXVIII, 16. 

[37] R 



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242 dInkarz), BOOK IX. 

' Auharmazdf and Aharman have been two brothers 
in one womb 1 , and out of them the archangel 2 liked 
that which is evil 8 , through what occurs when the 
understanders of it have mentioned the worship of 
the demons and this, that, after it, you should pre- 
sent cattle to the planetary bodies and the demons.' 
5. About the falsity of the demon Aresh, the sepa- 
rate origin of light and darkness, the goodness of 
the material existence of light for determining what 
is done, and the evil of that of darkness. 

6. The grumbling of the evil spirit thus : ' I am 
he whose thoughts are evil, O beneficent spirit ! he 
whose words are evil, and he whose deeds are evil 4 ; 
what is dark is my garment which is very thick, 
with lower corners where, so far as many go, it is 
still darker 6 ; evil thoughts, evil words, and evil 
deeds are my food, and I love those of them who 
are in that place through evil thoughts, evil words, 
and evil deeds.' 7. And the speaking of Auhar- 
m&zd thus : ' I am he whose thoughts are good, 
O evil spirit! he whose words are good, and he 
whose deeds are good 6 ; the sky is my garment, 
which was first produced from that substance of the 
worldly existences which is created as the stone above 
all stones 7 , that is, every jewel is set in it ; good 
thoughts, good words, and good deeds are my food, 
and I love those of them who are in that place 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 3 a. This materialization of the Gathic 
text, here reported as the utterance of a malicious demon, corre- 
sponds very closely with the statement of the Armenian Eznik 
quoted in Haug's Essays, p. 13. 

s That is, the arch-demon who was archangel of the demons. 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 5 a. 4 Ibid. 3 b. • Referring to hell. 

« See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 3 b. ' Ibid. 5 b. 



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CHAPTER XXX, 5— 1 1. 243 

through good thoughts, good words, and good 
deeds.' 

8. This, too, that true discrimination is not for 
them, the demons 1 astute in evil ; and they never 
truly discriminate whose will is that of Akdman 2 . 
9. And about the sickening (vimarinidfanS) of the 
patron spirits of mankind, by the demons 3 , through 
the deceit of man towards man owing to the deceit 
of the demons ; and the approach of mankind to 
evil proceedings on the part of the spiritual lordship, 
through those patron spirits *. 

10. Also the sending of monarchy and the wisdom 
of religion, by Auharmasraf, for the preservation of 
the creatures ; the recurrence of the mission 6 
whereby there are injury and affliction for the 
demons and sovereignty again for Atihzrmazd, and 
they possess the reward of Vohuman 6 and what is 
required by the sacred beings; and the predominance 
of man over demon, in the end, the good over the 
evil, and the righteous over the wicked ; also about 
the nature of those who are producing the renova- 
tion of the universe. n. This, too, that is a 
declaration : ' They are those, O Zaraturt the Splta- 
man ! who shall produce the renovation, they have 
escaped (girekhto) among the existences, they are 

1 SeePahl.Yas. XXX, 6 a. 

* Evil thought (see Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3). 
8 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 6 c. 

4 The ahu, or patron spirit, having become diseased and in- 
capable of true ahvdlh, or spiritual lordship, through the action of 
the demons. 

" Reading lakhvar petami-hastano (or petam gistano) 
which probably refers to the later missions of Aush6*/ar, Aush§<far- 
mah, and S6shans (see Bk. VIII, Chap. XIV, 12-14). 

• See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 8 b. 

K 2 



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244 dInkard, book ix. 



vigilant 1 in seeking righteousness, and gentle-voiced; 
and, as regards righteousness in thought, they con- 
vert into righteousness anything virtuous which 
belongs to them.' 1 2. About the statement of those 
praised it is recited that it is thus mentioned in the 
Gdthas : ' So we are with those who are thine — that 
is, we are thine own — by us this renovation is to be 
produced in the existences V 1 3. About the per- 
petual convocation held by the archangel regarding 
the production of the future existence 3 . 

14. This, too, that he is an extender of the days 
of those who defeat the army of the fiend * and 
clothe themselves with deeds of shining light, and 
also those of a virtuous body, who are these : the 
priest, the warrior, the husbandman, and the man 
who is a ruler ; with whom are Aharlsvang * and 
the spirit of liberality (rSaflh)*; they meditate with 
good thoughts (hu-mtni.ynth) 7 and joy, and, with 
pleasure to themselves, they give the world into the 
guardianship of Auharmasr*/, and also 0/Ashavahi.rt*, 
when they possess the religion of Auhar vazzd as a 
ruler. 15. This, too, that he, whose thoughts are 
through a high-priest who possesses a patron spirit, 
always thinks that which is virtuous, and his sagacity 
increases *. 

16. And about advice to mankind as to three 
things, through which the renovation and happy 
progress of the creatures arise, namely, seeking the 

1 Pahl. z6n-h£vand=Av. zafinangha. 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 9 a. s Ibid. 9 b. * Ibid. 10 a. 

8 The female angel of perfect rectitude (see Bk.VIII, Chap. IX, 3). 

4 See Chap. XXIV, 3. ' See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 10 b. 

8 Ibid, ioc and Bk.VIII, Chap. XXXVII, 14. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 9 c. 



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CHAPTER XXX, 1 2-XXXI, 3. 245 

true religion, abstaining from injuring the creatures, 
and striving for the benefit of mankind. 

1 7. The excellence of righteousness is perfect. 



Chapter XXXI. 
Varstmdnsar Nask. 

1. The eighth fargan/, Ta-v^-urvata 1 , is about 
advice as to reciting 2 the revelation, the information 
therefrom for the faithful, about which they have to 
report to the unfaithful, by mentioning conspicuous 
specimens and explanatory knowledge, and by think- 
ing of anything whatever which they have to accept, 
or even which they have not to accept 3 ; also, for one 
called to the religion, the advantage owing to the 
attraction of mankind to the numerous actual disciple- 
hood of the religion, and the increasing greatness 
materially, and further reward spiritually, owing to 
the numerous disciplehood ; and the progress of the 
religion of Auharmazdf even among the irreligious 
(ad£ndan) * and actual apostates 8 . 

2. This, too, that the life of the creatures of 
Auharmaswf and also all other benefit are owing to 
Auhannas*/ 6 and the inclination (kamvar*'/£ak6) 
of Auharmas'af thereto ; moreover, reward and re- 
compense come from Auharm&SM?. 3. And the 
creatures of Aharman proceed from Aharman, all 
misery is owing to Aharman, and Aharman becomes 
worse and more oppressive and a further producer 
of misery when they worship him. 

1 See Chap. VIII, in; it is here written tig- va-rat6 in Pahlavi 
in both MSS. 

* See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 1 a. * B omits these last eight words. 
4 K has akdfinOan, 'infidels.' 

• See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 1 c. • Ibid, z c. 



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246 DtNKA/U), BOOK IX. 

4. About the continuance and arranging of both 
spirits as to their own creations (sti) and the self- 
acting of their own appliances ; the achievement of 
each one through his own natural resources and 
through the trifling (gaafaganlk) operation of the 
other ; the spiritual lordship and priestly authority, 
true confession and the progress of the good religion, 
being from Auharmazdf, and, through enmity to the 
creatures of Auh.arma.stff, Aharman is contesting 
these. 5. Auharmazrf, for setting aside that con- 
tester, is the producer of true intelligence, and gave 
language and also the ritual of ordeal x ; the invoca- 
tion of the sacred beings 2 for assistance, and the 
arrival of an angel for the assistance of the invokers; 
the overcoming of their affliction, the production of 
their immunity and even righteousness, and also of 
that good ruler 3 who is a reminder of AuhannaW, 
and the restoration of bodies, which is the hope of 
all good creations, are through the sacred beings 
being invoked for assistance and their arrival where 
the diffusion * is that of virtuous knowledge through 
Vohuman 8 , the good religion which is whatever may 
be the knowledge • of all those who are, and were, 
and will be. 

6. About the shouting of the demon Aresh 7 to 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 3 b, c. * Ibid. 4 a, b. s Ibid. 4 c. 

* K has ' ceremonial.' » See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 5 b. 

« K has hu-danakth, ' sagacity.' 

7 The demon of envy, as in Chap. XXX, 4. The occurrence 
of his dialogue with Zaratikt in this place explains the word "tH*ir 
which is found twice in Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 5 b, and has been read 
hft-virih, ' good judgment,' or hu- vaharth, ' good fortune.' In 
the MSS. called Pt4 and Mf4, in Geldner's edition of the Avesta, 
this Pahlavi word is both times separated into two thus : J 6" "" 
which may be read av8 Aresh, 'to Aresh,' and the whole 



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CHAPTER XXXI, 4-II. 247 

Zaratust and the reply of Zaratust as to the advice 
of Auharmasaf and whatever is on the same subject, 
just as revelation (d£nd) states it, that the demon 
Aresh spoke to him thus : ' Then the Franamam \ 
O Zaratujt ! is applicable to the assembly of demons 
who sit in the same place three nights and four days 
on account of thee.' 7. Zaraturt enquired of him 
thus : ' Aresh, thou most deceitful to me ! what 
recompense would there be for it to me, if I should 
worship you in words ?' 8. And Aresh, the most 
deceitful of demons, spoke to him thus : ' Thou 
wouldst become predominant among mankind, 
through producing at will among the existences just 
as is requisite for thyself; and thou wouldst become 
immortal, Spltiman ! ' 9. Zaraturt also enquired 
of him thus : ' O Aresh, most deceitful of demons ! 
as to the people by whom you are worshipped, 
whether for the birth of a son, or even for a concu- 
bine sought for enjoyment, so that the favour is 
considered by them as your property, how can any 
one of them be immortal ?' 10. And Aresh, the 
most deceitful of demons, could not tell him who had 
the more intelligence, w. So Zaratun spoke thus : 
' I am for that being and I like him, that is, I am his 

§ 5 b may be translated as follows : — ' The gift of understanding 
through Good Thought is that which thou shouldst give unto me 
(that is, that wisdom thou shouldst proclaim to me as virtuousness), 
which is to me (through what pertains to it) that which is for Aresh 
(that is, through that wisdom which is virtuousness it shall become 
possible for me to give a reply to Aresh).' The reply here men- 
tioned appears to be that given in § 1 1 of our text ; and the name 
Aresh explains the word ereshi in the original Avesta text as 
meaning 'envy' and being equivalent to araska. 

1 The Max/a-worshipper's profession of faith, beginning with 
the word Av. fravarane (Yas. I, 2 3) = Paul, franimam. 



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248 d!nkakd, BOOK IX. 

own and would transact his affairs, and I will recite 
the law and the benedictions of the sagacious 
A&harmazd, the gratifier of desires.' 

12. About the deliverance of all creatures through 
the liturgy \ and, so long as it is continued by them, 
it is for the power through which the immortality of 
the separate creations is prepared in the renovation 
of the universe ; the increase of the good creatures 
through the complete continuance of the liturgy, and 
the existence of purity and development of goodness 
in the world when he who is a good ruler arrives. 

13. The arising of the spiritual creation, the first 
thought of Auharma2*/ ; and, as to the creatures of 
Auha^maa/, first the spiritual achievement, and then 
the material formation and the mingling of spirit 
with matter; [the advancement of the creatures 
thereby, through his wisdom and the righteousness 
of Vohuman being lodged 2 in the creatures,] and all 
good creatures being goaded (zakhaml-hastan6) 
thereby into purity and joyfulness. 14. This, too, 
that a complete understanding of things arises 
through Vohuman having made a home in ones 
reason (var6m). 

15. About the great reward of him who shall 
produce benefit for cattle 8 ; also the deceitfully and 
seductively assuming of religion and colouring of 
thought, talking of righteousness and adopting evil 
practices, through the recitation of righteousness 
even hypocritically (davanslha-i) ; and an instance 
of the reward of an undutiful (avar'sl^ar) apos- 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 6 b. 

* Ibid. 6 c. The passage in brackets occurs only in K. 

3 Ibid. 10 a, b. 



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CHAPTER XXXI, 1 2-1 8. 249 

tate l . 16. About the work of the creator ; and, for 
the completion thereof, the most eminent is under- 
stood to be when the world and religion were formed 2 
by him, when life was given by him to those pos- 
sessing bodies 8 , and 4 he provides instruction and em- 
ployment* for it, and when spiritual life (hukS) 6 was 
given by him to the wishful man, so that he may 
more fully appropriate a share of the worldly and 
spiritual existences. 

1 7. He who makes complete mindfulness 7 lodge 
in his body consults complete mindfulness, and*, 
through the much investigation of his spiritual life 
(ahv6) and mind into the attraction of both spirits — 
that which is good and also that which is evil — each 
separately for its own appliances, and into the duties 
of the religion of Auharmagwf, is explaining the in- 
efficiency of mankind, as regards the dissipation of 
their sin, because Auharmas^ is aware of all they 
practise, that which is public and that, too, which is 
concealed 9 . 18. The great reward of him who is 
liberal of gifts (dasar) from his own property to a 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 10 c. * Ibid. 1 1 a. * Ibid. 1 1 b. 
4 So originally in B, but altered into ' when,' by the repairer of 
the MS., so as to agree with K. 
6 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 11c. 

• B has k&mak, 'desire,' with 'the wishful' in the plural, and 
this might agree better with Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 1 1 c, but not with 
the next clause in the sentence here, where both nominative and 
verb are in the singular. 

' See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 12 c. This term is the Pahl. equivalent 
of Av. Srmaiti which is usually personified as the female arch- 
angel Spendarmarf. 

• The MS. K is left unfinished at this point, merely adding the 
words expressed by 'into the attraction of,' in this translation. 
For the remainder of Bk. IX the only known MS. authority is B. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 13 a. 



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250 dJnkard, BOOK IX. 



righteous man l ; and this, too, that whoever gives 
him who is wicked 2 a gift, for the sake of improper 
expectations, assists darkness and not light. 

19. This, too, that the worst ruler is he of evil 
religion and evil deeds, who even for a bribe 8 would 
not occasion happiness ; he who is a destroyer of an 
innocent man; also the grievous state of punish- 
ment of that person, in hell, who shall make that 
wicked one a ruler 4 . 20. And advice to mankind as 
to providing a judge and guardian over every dwell- 
ing, the probation of a man for appointment to that 
important duty, and the development of all creations 
in the world when its ruler is sagacious *. 

21. Also causing the disturbance (va-^iklinl- 
afanS) of the evil spirit for satisfying a man who is 
rightly thinking, rightly speaking, and rightly acting ; 
the opposition to a righteous man of a wicked one 
belonging to the evil spirit, who is an evil-reciting 
and improperly-disputing apostate ; the enticement 
(lusinlafanS) of mankind to devious ways (avarlha), 
by an apostate, being more than that which attracts 
to the true way for a righteous man; and afterwards 
also, in the end, the defeat of the army of the fiend 
by him who is beneficial to mankind. 22. Advice to 
mankind about abstaining from the suite of him who 
is an apostate, not hearing and not solemnizing the 
Avesta and Zand of the sacred beings from him*; 
also the evil behaviour (duj-bari^nih), slander, 
strife, death, and fear in the world owing to apos- 
tates 7 . 23. Advice to upholders of the religion 
about the means of thoroughly understanding apos- 



• See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 14 b. * Ibid. 14 c. ' Ibid. 15 b. 

* Ibid. 15 a. » Ibid. 16 a. « Ibid. 18 a. * Ibid. 18 b. 



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CHAPTER XXXI, I9-28. 25 1 

tates, and preparing and keeping a weapon for them l , 
so that he who is authorised and fearless may be 
more eager for truthful speaking ; and, when the 
religion of Auharmas^ is liked by him, his truthful 
speaking and other righteousness have then allured 
(kamakinirfo) 2 . 

24. Also what happens in the three nights 8 , for 
the assistance and preservation of the righteous, 
through what is accomplished by the propitious fire 4 ; 
and the progress of his lamentation who deceives 
and vexes a righteous man 5 , and is leading the 
wicked by their own befitting deeds to hell*. 25. 
This, too, that the complete worthiness which exists 
in Khurda^ and Amurdaaf 7 arises in him who main- 
tains the prerogative which is his 8 through virtuous- 
ness, who must become such a friend of whatever is 
his own spirit, through his actions *, as the creator is 
of his own creatures. 26. This, too, that whatever 
is thus in the world is perfect, when every one 
thinks, speaks, and shall act just like his spiritual 
lord and high-priest 10 ; so that a good ruler is he 
with whom virtuous speaking arises, as well as 
proper action 11 . 27. And this, too, that the lodg- 
ment of Abharmazd in the worldly existence is most 
in the person of that ruler 12 , and that lodgment 
in him is manifest. 

28. The excellence of righteousness is perfect. 

1 Pahl.Yas. XXXI, 18 c. » Ibid. 19 b. » After death. 

* See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 19 c and Chap. XII, 4. 

* Ibid. 20 a. • Ibid. 20 c. 

7 Ibid. 21 a and Chap. XIX, 1. ' Ibid. 21b. 

* Ibid. 2ic. I0 Ibid. 22 a. 
" Ibid. 22 b. " Ibid. 22 c. 



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252 DiNKAAD, BOOK IX. 



Chapter XXXII. 
Varstmdnsar Nask. 

1. The ninth fargarof, //&a£tumaiti ', is about 
the coming of three deceitful demons, and their 
making supplication (la^ak-karih) to Auharma^ 2 , 
so that he should consider and reward those ag- 
grieved by him, and it would amount to strength for 
them in destroying the creatures. 2. The disgorg- 
ing (akhvarafano) of supplication by those demons 
clamorously upwards from an abyss, and the state- 
ment of one that he is s the kindred that is undeceit- 
ful, of another one that he is the serfdom that is 
undeceitful, and of the third one that he is the con- 
federacy that is undeceitful, was in these words, 
namely : * We are those spirits when the kinsman, 
confederate, and serf* do not break promises, one 
with the other ; we are not really these that are no 
implements of thine, but our religion and law are 
thine, and we do thy will ; we become assistants of 
him who is thy friend, and injurers of him who is thy 
enemy 4 ; and from thee we beg a position in the 
existence that is best, the reward that is a reward of 
the worthy.' 

3. The reply of Auharma^ to them was thus : 
' You rush out, astute in evil, to the extremity (bun) 
of that horrible gloom'; so you are all from the 
demon, your race is really from Evil Thought, that 



1 See Chap. IX, 1 n. 

4 See Pahl. Yas. XXXII, 1 a. » Literally ' I am.' 

4 See Pahl Yas. XXXII, ic. 

1 Compare Pahl. Vend. XIX, 147. 



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CHAPTER XXXII, I-5. 253 

is, your race is from there where Evil Thought l , as 
well as Lust the destroyer and also Greed the well- 
accumulating, resides, and where, moreover, Indar 
the fighter is the spirit of the religion of apostasy 
and further deceives the worldly existence of man- 
kind, as to proper living and immortal progress 2 , 
and first confines their thoughts. 4. He shall first do 
this, so that he may restrain the thoughts of men 
from virtuous things s , and their further words and 
perverted further deeds from the ceremonial of us 
who are archangels; they further lose their wisdom 4 , 
and further consider even as perfect righteousness 
that which is loved by the demons ; they utter the 
false words and consecrate with the worse deeds of 
mankind ; and with the holy-water which one conse- 
crates most to you, more falsely and more arrogant- 
ly 5 than that falsity and arrogance, do they enhance 
the greatest ceremonial, so that they shall make 
more of the most. 5. Owing to discord, through 
that love of you who are demons, they smite with 
destruction him who shall not be a satisfaction to 
you in the presidency; and the leader they take 
(girend) becomes a destroyer, so in the sequel, too, 
there is some one that smites him; even though they 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXII, 3 a. For the demons here mentioned, 
Akdman6, Varend, and Azb, see Bk.VIII, Chaps. IX, 3, XXXI, 
44 ; Indar is the same as Andar (in Chap. IX, 1), the arch-demon 
who perverts from virtue and despises the sacred shirt and girdle 
(Bd. I, 27, XXVIII, 8). With reference to the good old schism- 
hypothesis, that identified the Av. daSva I«dra, or Andra, with the 
Sans, deva Indra, it is worthy of note that he is here represented 
as the pervading spirit of an apostate religion, and is termed the 
kushlrf&r, ' fighter, slayer.' 

* See Pahl. Yas. XXXII, 5 a. » See Bd. XXVIII, 8. 

* See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 4 c. B Ibid. 3 b. 



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254 dJnkaw), book ix. 

consider him as your follower, they shall occasion his 
destruction. 6. You are evil demons for a congre- 
gation when they speak of avoiding you, and worse 
for the ceremonial, or obeisance, when it occurs ; 
that which becomes all clearness to the utterer of 
righteousness, in this existence, you utterly destroy ; 
and the lodgment of complete mindfulness in the 
body is for admonition to human beings about ab- 
staining from the demons.' 

7. This, too, is stated, namely : ' Evil are you who 
are wicked and worship the demons with good holy- 
water and with words ; through them the holy-water 
obtains evil recompense, even the hell that is hor- 
rible.' 8. This, too, he spoke, namely : ' Concerning 
those malicious demons 1 I will first mention intel- 
ligibly to thee when they have come to the world, 
that is, first when they have rushed in, how their 
jurisdiction arose. 9. For thirty centuries 2 those of 
my world were immortal and undecaying, O Zara- 
tu-st ! but when the thirtieth century was accom- 
plished 3 , O Spitaman! the sweat (khvae) produced 
by the demons then came on to my Gaydmarrf 4 , for 
his affliction, so long a time as a man speaks forth 
these words of the Yatha-ahu-vairyo s , relating to the 
spiritual lord and priestly master. 10. And when 
he issued from that sweat he was shadowless, that 
is, darkness had entered*; and the words of the 
formula (4yin) relating to the spiritual lord and 
priestly master were spoken forth by me, and when 

' See Pahl. Yas. XXXII, 7 a, 8 a. 

J See Bd. I, 20, 21. But from § 10 it appears more probable 
that these are the three millenniums mentioned in Bd. I, 8. 
5 Bd. Ill, 3. 4 Ibid. 19. 

8 See Bk. VIII, Chap. I, 7 n. • Bd. Ill, 20. 



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CHAPTER XXXII, 6-1 3. 255 

vastarem 1 was uttered by me the demons then fell 2 
into the gloom.' 

1 1. About the harm owing to the demons this, 
too, he spoke, namely : ' The destructiveness of the 
evil spirit is his evil teaching by statements 3 to my 
creatures ; and my riches (tst6) plundered by him 
are the proportion of the production and possession 
of wealth for which a desire exists through Good 
Thought; that is, when they possess it with pro- 
priety it is desirable 4 . 1 2. And mankind were 
gratified by that son of Vlvanghau who was Yim 6 , 
and cattle were gratified by him, producing thus the 
phrase " you are mankind " in words, O Zaratust ! 
when he spoke to mankind thus : "You are the man- 
kind for cattle, that is, you who are mankind eat 
meat of your own subdivision, and through sub- 
division by you there is a superabundant occurrence 
of meat 6 ; you are mankind, neither for Greed (dz6), 
nor for Envy (ar6shk6) 7 , do thou throw away the 
warm entrails (taftog rhdik), nor do thou throw 
them away warm on account of custom (pi^akd), now 
you slay for slaughtering, so that thus it may be 
beneficial for you and your servant." ' 

1 3. This, too, is stated, namely : ' Even that man 

1 The last word of the formula. In Bd. I, 21, 22 this utterance 
seems to be placed before the attack upon Gayomarrf, but until the 
complete text of the Iranian Bundahu has been examined, some 
doubt as to the exact sequence of its statements may be entertained. 

* Pahl. ziflunW, for ytflunfrf, formed from the aorist of Ch. 
??3 ; instead of the usual neflunast, formed from the preterit. 

8 See Pahl. Yas. XXXII, 9 a. 

* Ibid. 9b. Instead of avbxdh, 'plundered,' B has the mis- 
writing sftdrdb, 'consigned.' 

8 Ibid. 8 a and Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 6. • Ibid. 8 b. 

7 Alluding, perhaps, to the legend detailed in Bd. XV, 18, 19. 



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256 DfNKARD, BOOK IX. 

is produced for the destruction of mine ', who is 
possessed by the wicked evil spirit ; the want of dis- 
cernment of that man is a tedious life, in which the 
utterance of the praise of righteousness is the want 
of ceremonial of which a righteous man spoke thus : 
" At the place where their pasture is you are the 
mankind, the all-producer that fully developes them, 
and the all-collector that would thoroughly set them 
moving ; in their pasture you are the mankind, and 
they all remain 2 ; with hospitality for the body they 
remain on account of their pasture, and in fighting 
they strike their heads together ; you are the man- 
kind of their pasture, it is expedient and you deprive 
*'/ of moisture 3 through fire ; as to other things, it 
was also you that made one altogether believe that 
untrue statement which is a lie — the possession of 
material existence by life — owing to external seduction 
by the fiend who has come chiefly to you." ' 

14. About the harm owing to the demons this, 
too, is stated, namely : ' Their accomplishment of 
arrogance over these creatures of mine, and also the 
unfitness for heaven (avahi^tih-i^) of a righteous 
man, and that, too, of a valiant one, are due to the 
burial of a corpse.' 15. This, too, namely: 'They 
who drag away a corpse * are most hurtful for men, 
as regards the wealth of the religion in this world, 
and as regards sheep and beasts of burden! 16. 
This, too, namely: 'As to the people, assisted by 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXII, 10 a. 

* Or, perhaps, 'and they remain astonished,' (va-sfp6 m&nSnd). 

* Pahl. v\ydvin\nkd which, with vSstar, 'pasture,' occurs in 
Pahl. Yas. XXXII, 10 c. 

4 They who carry a corpse alone, like the irist6-kasha of 
Vend. Ill, 15. 



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CHAPTER XXXII, 14-18. 257 

one living in terrible difficulty, who deliver the 
corpse of a dead person, on a sheep or beast of 
burden, at a village where they shall convey it, they 
distress the fire and also the water flowing from the 
hills 1 , likewise those liquids of the body which are 
ten 2 , and those saps (a e van 6) of plants which are 
fourfold in thousands, that is, they come out a 
thousand at one time.' 

17. 'They are giving more assistance when 8 
it is the corpse of a wicked person; concerning 
them, too, I tell thee, O Zaratfot the Spitaman! 
that they shall arrive in the ninth and tenth cen- 
turies 4 who are the spawn of the fiend (dru^d 
hunSyako) and the cesspool (rlkhdar) of the evil 
spirit ; even one of them is more to be destroyed 
than ten idolators (d£viyast6) by him they shall 
make pure, that is, the people shall make him quite 
void of wealth who is a priest without recitation 
and commendation. 18. And they, who will be full 

1 Pahl. gSran-ta^uno = Av. hcfbvaiwti in Yas. XXXVIII, 3 
and Av. thraotd-sta</ in Yas. LXVIII, 6, &c. It is the second 
species of liquid in Bd. XXI, 1. 

1 Only nine are mentioned in Bd. XXI, 1, namely : semen, urine, 
sweat, skin-fluid, tears, blood, oil, saliva, and milk. 

8 Assuming that mun stands for amat as in Bk. VIII, Chap. 
XXI, 10. 

* If these centuries are dated from ' the coming of the religion,' 
according to the incorrect Arabian chronology of die Bundahu, 
they extended from a.d. 393 or 435 to 593 or 635 (see Byt III, 
11 n). In the ninth century lived king Yasrfakar*/ (a.d. 399-420), 
surnamed 'the sinner' by the priesthood because he tolerated 
other religions, and the heretic Mazdak who was put to death in 
a.d. 528. In the tenth century the Muhammadan religion arose, 
and the Sasanian dynasty tottered to its fall. If it were not for 
the manifest errors in the Bundahu chronology, this passage in 
our text might be important for fixing the age of the Pahlavi ver- 
sion of this Nask. 

[37] s 



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258 T>tHK.ARD, BOOK IX. 

many in the future, shall bring prostration upon 
him who is an innocent person, the husbandman 
who watches the frog of the ditch (zak-1 gtlug8 
vazagh) so that he may keep it away from man- 
kind; and they execute ill -contrived commands. 
1 9. They also produce destruction for these of mine, 
and speak of the living state, to these of my religion, 
thus : " When living is an expediency it is in our 
way ; " they are wicked, they dwindle through great- 
ness and even terror, that is, they shall commit sin 
through leadership and vassalage 1 who are smiting 
thee, and they speak folly who are smiting this pure 
religion of thine, O Spitaman ! ' 

20. 'They, too, who recite this thy revelation 
of the Masda-worshippers, say that the distinction 
(nl^6n) of those others from those who are thine, 
even those whom they hurt, is this, that they 
plunder, they also think scornfully of this thy 
ceremonial, and think scornfully of the obeisances 
(nlyayunS) and of both those blessings from me, 
the A vesta and Zand which I, who am the most 
propitious of spirits, spoke forth to thee. 21. They 
also injure the ceremonial of him who is perfectly 
righteous 2 , even the obeisance arisen from a disciple 
of Zaraturt the Spitaman ; and they chant that which 
is a settled effusion (bara-hankhetuntd reglh) 
that is very evil, as a perfect deed for mankind 3 , 
which those of very evil deeds call joy *.' 

' See Pahl. Yas. XXXII, 1 1 a. * Ibid. 1 1 c. 

s Ibid. 12 a, which has corrupted r&gfh into rfcsh; the former, 
corresponding better with the original Av. raunghayen, can be 
compared with Pers. rihidan, rgzfdan; or it might mean 'im- 
posture/ compare Pers. rigan. 

« Ibid. 12 b. 



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CHAPTER XXXTI, 1 9-25. 259 

22. ' They seek sovereignty as a devouring (greh- 
mako), that is, they seek privilege for a bribe, and 
in their abode is he who is very evil in thought, 
that is, they seek with this design, that, for the 
hundred which another gives up, they may take 
two hundred away from the other x ; they destroy 
the best existence 2 , they destroy their own souls, 
and they destroy the world of material beings. 
23. Then they who are privileged shall convey that 
sovereignty of the Klk and Karap 3 , even those 
that are the worst-ruling who are in the country, 
unto him who is best-ruling in house, village, com- 
munity, and province ; and then both shall keep up 
an uproar, he who is well-ruling and also he who is 
ill-ruling, and he who is ill-ruling is beaten, and he 
is delivered up to the best-ruling ruler. 24. And 
then, among them, he who seeks for a devouring 
(grehmako) of all that which is animate, as well as 
that which is inanimate, is he who is desirous of 
assault and complaint ; and he who fears him who is 
a righteous man of mine allots him comfort, and is 
he who watches those who are an exposition of 
righteousness 4 , and who would be wizards or witches, 
so that the authorities shall inflict punishment upon 
them.' 

25. And this, too, is stated, namely : ' The malice 
of many malicious ones demands that they shall 
inflict punishment on sinners 5 when they put (paaf- 
m^nd) life into the body, that is, they give life 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXII, 13 a; the exact meaning of grehmakfi 
(Av. ger^hma) is uncertain, and the last verb is literally 'I may take.' 

* Ibid. 13 b. 

8 Ibid. 14 a, 15 a, and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXV, 13 n. 

* Ibid. 13 c. • Ibid. 16 c. 

S 2 



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260 BiNKARD, BOOK IX. 



back to the body ; but for that purpose the metal, 
melted forth, arises full upon th« earth, which does 
not wreak vengeance on him who is righteous, and 
does wreak vengeance on him who is wicked, when 
I, who am Auharma^, produce the renovation 
among the existences \ 26. Thus, too, that which 
becomes a healthful world — a healthful one that is 
thus mine — never first becomes that further sick one 
which, apart from me, is even now the immortal 
and manifest place where vengeance exists 2 ; and 
they become also aware, through that sovereignty 
of mine, that, apart from me, even now immortal is 
the material world of righteousness.' 

27. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness. 



Chapter XXXIII. 
Varstmdnsar Nask. 



1. The tenth fargantf, Yathai^ 8 , is about the 
renovation of the universe in the words of Auhar- 
maeaf to Zaraturt, thus : ' I have produced the 
effecter of the renovation, the causer of righteous- 
ness, Sdshans, of whom mankind say that he does 
not come ; and yet he will come, for the righteous, 
with that glory which becomes all-brilliance.' 

2. About the scrutiny and consideration for 
moderation in a high-priest's performance of every 

1 At the resurrection all men are said to be purified in melted 
metal which hurts only those who have been wicked (see Bd. XXX, 
19, 20). 

' That is, the earth never becomes hell. 

' See Chap. X, 1 n; it is here written yasSStj in Pahlavi. 



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CHAPTER XXXII, 26-XXXIII, 5. 26 1 

duty there is this, too, that the desire of that non- 
assailant, who is a producer of benefit among 
kinsmen, among confederates, and among serfs 1 , 
as regards anything whatever, is accomplishing the 
will, and is a friend, of Auhannasdf,- and the spirit 
lodging in him is not deceived by him. 3. And 
advice about distance from him in whom similarity 
of disposition to the fiend and arrogance are op- 
pressive, and who is scorning kinsmen, a sharp liar 
with serfs 2 , giving offence (v^shln-dahunft) to 
confederates, careless of cattle 3 , and unfriendly to 
the wretched. 

4. About the bridge on which there is access to 
Abharmazd*, and he who reaches the best existence 
is visibly, or invisibly, proceeding while offering up 
(ausdahan-sagltun). 5. And the teaching of the 
primitive faith to Zaratu^t by Atiharmazd, who 
remained embodying the Ahunavair (ahunavair- 
tanu) as the Z6ti 6 of the world; and zX. the time of 
the renovation Zarattlst, who was from the sons of 
A£zemnd, is in the position of Zdti a of the whole 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIII, 3 a, b. * Ibid. 4 b. 

* Ibid. 4 c. * Ibid. 5 c. 

1 Ibid. 6 a. It is said, in Bd. XXX, 30, that Auharma&f comes 
to the world as Zdti, or chief officiating priest, with Srdsh as assistant 
priest, just before the renovation. Here it is not absolutely certain 
whether Auharmazcf, or Zaratux/, is meant as Z6ti on this first 
occurrence of the word. 

6 Reading min AS-zemnd&n pavan z6t gis; Ayazem being 
an ancestor of Zaraturt, eleven generations back, the grandfather 
of Spitama, and the name being variously written Aiazemn, Ayazem, 
NaySzem, and Aizim in different MSS. Another reading is min 
3 zamdn khup5 zdt gSs, 'from three-fold procreation, has the 
happy position of Zdti,' referring to the legendary account of 
Zarat&rt's origin, as detailed in the seventh book of the Dtnkan/. 
The position of the Zdti is at the north end of the ceremonial area. 



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262 dJnkard, BOOK IX. 

world ; VohuvastS, son of Sn66 1 , from the countries 
of those of the religion, in the post of Havanan 2 ; 
Isvand, son of Vaxdz, from the countries of Turin, 
in the post of Atarevakhsh ; Sen6, son of Humstuv, 
from the countries of the S£nan 3 , in the post of 
Fraban/ar ; and Virtasp, who was from the sons of 
Ndakr*, in the post of Srdshavar'sr. 6. About the 
power and triumph which that ceremonial becomes, 
even through the all-brilliance of the immortal re- 
novation of the whole creation in that existence. 
7. This, too, that the evil spirit 6 . 



1 This and the two following persons are the Vohvasti son of 
Snaoya, Isvarf son of Varaza, and Safina son of Ahum-sturf, of 
Yt. XIII, 96, 97. 

* In the great ceremonies of ancient times the Havanan appears 
to have been the priest who attended to the H6m-mortar, and his 
position was near the north-west corner of the ceremonial area ; 
the Atarevakhsh was the priest who fed the fire, and his position 
was near the south-west corner; the Frabar<&r was the priest who 
brought the necessary utensils, and his position was near the north- 
east corner; and the Srdshavar'g was the priest who kept general 
order, his position being at the south end, facing the Z6ti at the 
north end. Besides these five priests, mentioned in our text, there 
were three others enumerated in Vfsp. Ill, 1 ; Vend. V, 58, VII, 
17, 18, the water-bringer near the south-east comer, the washer on 
the west side, and the cleanser on the east side. In modern times 
the Zdti retains his ancient duties of chief priest, while the Raspf 
(Bk.VIII, Chap. VII, 5, 9) combines the duties of the seven others, 
being called by the Z6ti (in Vfsp. Ill, 1) to take the place of each 
of them in succession. 

1 Av. Saininam of Yt. XIII, 144, probably the people about 
Samarkand (see Bd. XII, 13 n, XV, 29). 

4 See Yt. V, 98. 

6 One folio of B is here lost, containing the end of this chapter 
and the beginning of the next The passage missing was equiva- 
lent to about 100 lines of this translation, of which perhaps one- 
fourth belonged to this chapter and three-fourths to the next.. 



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chapter xxxni, 6-xxxiv, p. 263 

Chapter XXXIV. 
Varastmdnsar Nask. 

it is possible to come through 
virtuous deeds and through virtuous thoughts.' 
«. And this, too, he spoke, namely : ' That Good 
Thought l of mine proceeds and notices the thoughts 
of the embodied existence, and of the good words 
and the deeds he reports again those referring to 
me, as often as three times in the same day, both 
of those who are liberal to thee 1 , O Spitamin ! and 
of those who are illiberal to thee.' 

0. The struggling of the demons a , for the putting 
down of all benefit from mankind, has not produced 
the obtainment of their capability for that benefit 
which arises for mankind through the future exist- 
ence ; so that that one evil is more grievous than every 
evil which the demons imagine for mankind, when 
the latter are frightened by them from the way of 
the sacred beings, and are wicked ; and harder for 
them are the praisers of righteousness among the 
apostates and the rest of the creation, through their 
praise of righteousness, even when very many 
praise it. 

p. About the progress of Armat 3 and Tardkmat 
perpetually among the creatures, the disclosure of 
Armat to mankind, and ^righteousness to Tar6k- 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIV, 7 a. 

1 Ibid. ioc. 

* Ibid. 9a, 10b, 11b. Av. armaiti, ' devotion,' the female arch- 
angel Spendarmarf, entitled ' complete mindfulness ' in §§ q, s. 
Tardkmat (Av. tardmaiti), the arch-demon of contempt and dis- 
obedience (Bd. XXVIII, 14), is her special opponent. 



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264 dInkaiu), BOOK IX. 

mat ; the listening of that vile Tardkmat to falsehood, 
and the distance * of righteousness from him who is 
vile is like that of a sheep fled (si .yd) 2 from mankind. 
q. And this, too, that the evil spirit is beaten 8 by 
complete mindfulness, in the struggle of those 
having mighty ones, just as a powerful man beats 
him who is a reverent creation (nlyayln dahisnS) 4 ; 
and the pure Zaraturt is produced by Auharmasa?, 
as well as the power of Khurdadf and Amurdarf 5 , 
which acts forcibly for giving value (farf) and 
preparing the creatures. 

r. About the opposition of Auharmazdf to the 
demons 6 , and the valuation of the deeds of mankind 
which exist for greater jurisdiction 7 and more 
advantage of the primitive good creation; and in 
any doubtfulness one is to perform the ceremonial 
of the sacred beings, s. About cases where the 
good-will of the spirit of complete mindfulness 
makes mankind attain to the good religion; and 
their spiritual joy 8 arises from the purification of 
their own religion through virtuous exercise of will. 

t. About the desire for a reward for anything 
whatever, and the great advantage owing to a 
reward of the desires of mankind; also the ap- 
propriation of the reward through the operation 
of the sacred beings : — ' Even through the ruler 
(pad) of that dominion of yours do I produce the 
renovation of the existences by my will ', I who am 
Auharma?^.' 

u. Excellence is righteousness that is perfect. 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIV, 8 c. * Ibid. 9 c. 

» Ibid. 10 c. 4 Ibid. 8b. 

• Ibid. 11a and Chap. XIX, 1. • Ibid. 11 c. 

7 Ibid. 12 a. ' Ibid. 13 b. • Ibid. 15 c 



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CHAPTER XXXIV, ^-XXXV, 5. 265 

Chapter XXXV. 
Varsimdnsar Nask. 

1. The twelfth fargan/, the Yasna 1 , is about the 
manifestation of good thoughts, good words, and 
good deeds by the religion 2 ; the lodgment of the 
religion in good thoughts, good words, and good 
deeds ; and whoever possesses good thoughts, who- 
ever has good words, and whoever has good deeds, 
by him righteousness and the reward of the righteous 
are possessed. 2. This, too, that neither is he, who 
is not to be born/<?r Zaratujt, an issue from parents 
who are not righteous, nor yet is he, for him, who is 
a manifestation of the righteous. 

3. This, too, is said, namely: 'Thou shouldst 
give a glad-thinking desire for a spiritual lord, and 
an easy-bodied constitution, to their minds, the 
religion which I spoke forth to thee ; so that the 
greatest, best, and most beneficial of existences 3 , 
that are those which cattle are wanting from men, 
are water, pasture, and freedom from danger 4 ; and 
those which men are wanting from cattle are also 
food and clothing.' 4. This, too, that that which 
mankind ought to give to the sacred beings is 
a power for completeness of control ; and that which 
the sacred beings ought to give to men is ever that 
which is good for them. 5. And this, too, that 
thou who art Auhanmsw? also suppliest it from 
those sacred beings, and thou who art Zaraturt 
also teachest it thoroughly to that best-ruling 
sovereignty 6 and authority. 

1 See Chap. XII, in; it is here written yast in Pahlavi. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XXXV, 4-6. s Ibid. 9. 

* Ibid. 11. • Ibid. 13. 



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266 vttJKARD, BOOK IX. 

6. This, too, is said, namely : ' Let no one practise 
ill-perpetrated deeds, even though in a wilderness 
when far from publicity, nor in distress, O Sptta- 
man ! because Atharmausd, the observer of every- 
thing, is aware of them ; and the rule is that just as 
any one whatever of the embodied existence thinks, 
speaks, and practises, so great is his punishment' 
7. And this, too, that the best ceremonial and 
obeisance 1 are the ceremonial and obeisance of 
a righteous man. 

8. About begging for life and receiving it, there is 
this, that it is customarily due to two methods 
(baba) : one, through leadership of righteousness *, 
is that through which it is evident that it is owing 
to virtuousness ; and one, through service of right- 
eousness 2 , is that which is not an evidence that it 
is owing to viciousness. 9. About the case where 
virtuousness is producing authority over truth, and 
truth over the tongue, so that thou speakest words 
through the will of Auharmas*/. 10. And this, too, 
is said, namely : ' I am the propitious spirit who 
was at first and ever will be, and am not really 
deceived by anything.' 

11. About fire being given by Auharmaaraf for 
shelter and assistance by the protection of mankind ; 
its maintenance and assistance by mankind ; and 
the openheartedness of the spirit of fire for him 
who shall perform obeisance to it, and for him who 
is to perform obeisance to it 8 . 12. The work which 
is the greatest that exists, and is accomplished in the 
future existence*, whereby the creatures become pure, 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXV, 19. » Ibid. 22. 

8 See Pahl. Yas. XXXVI, 4, 5. * Ibid. 6. 



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CHAPTER XXXV, 6-1 7. 267 

occurs through fire ; and one prays for it for the 
sake of the requirements which mankind acquired 
from the sacred beings. 13. This, too, is said, 
namely : ' Since thou art thus, O Zaraturt ! most 
propitiatory, that is, able to perform most for our 
pleasure, we are more promptly coming than Manu- 
skftmc was able to come, when thou beggest of us 
who are archangels, O Zaraturt 1 ! ' 

14. About Auharmaa^'s exhibiting the creatures 
in the future existence to Zaratfot. 15. And this, 
too, namely, the all-brilliance of the earth, the all- 
brilliance of the cattle, the all-brilliance of the plants, 
and the all-brilliance of every excellence 2 which is 
a manifestation of righteousness. 16. About the 
worshipping of Auharmasr^ by worshippers, through 
advancing 3 in the religion of AuhannazaTs covenant 
(paafmanS), which gave the world his righteousness ; 
also the good protectiveness of his rule, and of the 
greatness therein, is owing to it*, and the name of 
the ruler is Wisdom 6 ; likewise his ceremonial — 
performed while the creations owing to him live, 
when possessing bodies and possessing life* — is 
a benefit to all the worldly and spiritual existences. 

1 7. And this, too, is said, namely : ' Thou art 
our own 7 , and also our confederate, O Spitaman ! 
likewise unto us thou comest with the reverence 
that is good * ; thine, O Zaratust ! are the greatness 
and completeness in performance 9 , so that they 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXVI, 9-14. For Mantotfhar see Bk. VIII, 
Chap. XIII, 10, 12, 1 8. 

* See Pahl. Yas. XXXVII (=V), 1, 2. J Ibid. 4. 
« Ibid 3. » Ibid. 6. • Ibid. 7. 
7 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIX, 13. . • Ibid. 14. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XL, 1. 



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268 dInKAUD, BOOK IX. 

become thy greatness and completeness, that is, they 
are thine, O Zaraturt! and are boundless onwards 
from the middle, that is, we give thee a reward x so 
enormous that, when thou shouldst stand in the 
middle of it, thou wouldst not see to its limits, the 
width of the earth, the length of a river, and the 
height of the sun V 

1 8. Zaraturt begged of Auharmasr^ thus: 'Give 
unto me him who becomes a disciple of men 8 of the 
mighty through meditation for the religion, of them 
who shall produce the actual progress of this my 
religion of the Maarafa-worshippers, and who will also 
explain the good practices to this one of mine, even 
the blessings set forth by me in the benedictions they 
possess.' 19. And Auhannastf? spoke thus : ' I will 
give unto thee him who becomes a disciple of other 
men of the mighty; they are thy kinsmen and those 
confederates of theirs, and thine are their com- 
panions and their serfs *, who produce the progress 
of this thy religion of the Ma^a-worshippers. 20. 
Mostly thine, O Zaraturt! are their worship and 
their homage; and, through their ceremonial and 
obeisance, the liberality of him who is worshipped 
is given to thee, and righteousness for the soul is 
with thee; also thy life exists owing to us, and 
likewise thy body 6 , O Zaraturt! 21. Forth to thee 
will I, who am the creator Atiharmazd, come in 
both existences 6 , as assistance; thou becomest 
worthy, O Zaraturt ! through Khdrdad and Amur- 
daaf 7 , both of them, and through the gratification of 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XL, 3. 

* This expression for boundless extent occurs in Yas. LX, 4, 
Yt. XIII, 32. • See Pahl. Yas. XL, 7. * Ibid. 10. 

» See Pahl Yas. XLI, 7. « Ibid. 8. T See Chap. XIX, 1. 



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CHAPTER XXXV, 18-XXXVI, 3. 269 

me, who am A&hzrmzzd, by those sayings and 
deeds which I, who am the most propitious of 
spirits, proclaimed unto thee.' 

22. Zaraturt spoke thus: 'They have become 
applicants on him who is powerful with thee 1 .' 

23. And PiAhz.rm.zzd spoke thus: ' Thou becomest 
an applicant and powerful in the embodied existence.' 

24. Zarat&rt spoke thus : ' Be thou a gratification to 
us in the slow progress of life, thou most beneficent 
(hu-dahaktum) of existences ! that is, thou shouldst 
give to us 2 .' 25. And kti\\zrvcizzd spoke thus: 'I 
will gratify thee, O righteous Zaraturt ! in that best 
existence 8 .' 

26. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness. 



Chapter XXXVI. 
Varstmdnsar Nask. 



1. The thirteenth fargara?, Ustavaiti 4 , is about 
the great reward of him who, through virtuous 
procedure, may occasion the benefit of a man 6 and 
of the religion of righteousness also. 2. This, too, 
that the maintenance of righteousness 6 is through 
the practice of it. 

3. About the tokens of a righteous man — that is, 
the evidence of him — and his reverence for duty 
and good works ; also his imperceptible perversion 
(kastarth) — that is, not a single sin is manifest 

1 SeePahl.Yas.XLI, 10. 

* Ibid. 11. » Ibid. 15. 
4 See Chap. XIII, 1 n. 

• See PahL Yas. XLII, 1 a. • Ibid. 1 d. 



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NJ 



<o^ 270 DtNKAW), BOOK IX. 
v 






in him — and he is an accomplisher of the stipulations 
of Vohuman \ good thoughts, good words, and good 
deeds, and a comprisal of every goodness in the 
propitiation of the righteous. 4. About 2 



Chapter XXXVII. 
Varstmdnsar Nask. 



' produced the dawn and noon- 
tide (aush r#pis/) 8 . e. I fashioned sovereignty 
and the desired complete mindfulness together 4 , 
and produced, for more advantageous disclosure, 
a son (bermanar-a£) for a father 6 ; the disclosure 
that discloses a male and the impregnation of a 
female, and in that disclosure a son was produced 
by me for the father, O Zaraturt ! ' f. So the evil 
spirit observed, and he called upwards from the 
abyss thus : ' O beneficent spirit ! thou art the 
creator of all creatures, but I will make all thy 
creatures old, O beneficent spirit! 

1 SeePahl.Yas.XLII, 2d. 

1 Another folio of B is here lost, containing the end of this 
chapter and the beginning of the next. The passage missing was 
equivalent to about 100 lines of this translation, of which perhaps 
three-fourths belonged to this chapter and one-fourth to the next 

8 See Pahl. Yas. XLIII, $d: aushahlnS va-raplspfn5 = Av. 
ushau arim-pithwa. 

4 Ibid. 1 b. 

5 Ibid. 7 c. The verbal causative stem vindtn, ' cause to find, 
or obtain, disclose,' is twice spelt without its first letter, out of four 
occurrences ; and bermanar is hybrid ZvarLr for pusar, in which 
berman=pus. 



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CHAPTER XXXVI, 4-XXXVII, J. 27 1 

g. About the religion becoming progressive 1 in 
every one, through its renovation of the universe and 
its future existence, there is this, too, namely : ' This 
thy religion of Zaraturt is the width of the world, 
and righteousness is the best of religions ; this thy 
religion of Zarattot is the improvement of the world, 
which is first supplied by righteousness and complete 
mindfulness in the reason (vir6m) of those who 
recite this thy revelation (d£n6) 2 of the Mazda-wor- 
shippers, O Zaraturt ! this thy good religion is the 
best which it is possible to provide with righteous- 
ness for one's own. h. Thou shouldst proclaim this 
to kinsmen and confederates, to priests and him who 
is most active in the country ; as to those who will 
dispute 8 this thy religion of the Mazda-worshippers, 
thou shouldst proclaim this over the earth of seven 
regions, unto that which is the furthest of houses, 
villages, communities, and provinces : " Do thou 
openly curse * these who are heretical towards me, 
thou united Mazda-worship of Zarattot, opposed to 
the demons, which is the ordinance of Auhar- 
rnasd 8 !"' 

i. Auharmazd spoke thus : ' I will exalt this 
which is beloved by thee, the religion of the Mazda- 
worship ^"Zaraturt, opposed to the demons, which is 
the ordinance of Auharmazd. j. If this which is 
thine had not been further loved by me, the Mazda- 
worship of Zaraturt, that is opposed to the demons 
and is the ordinance of Auharmazd, would have 
lapsed into disaster (vinasisn5) 6 , so that the pro- 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIII, 8 c. » Ibid. 1 1 d. 8 Ibid. 13 c. 

* Assuming that naf6rin5 stands for nafrinS. 

• See Pahl. Yas. I, 65. 

6 See Pahl. Yas. XLIII, 19& 



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272 DtNKA/U>, BOOK IX. 

fession of the religion of the Mazda-worshippers 
would be destroyed, that is, the religion would not 
have become progressive, and no one would be after 
the benefiters. k. But, owing to that love, O Zara- 
turt ! the religion of the Mazda-worshippers becomes 
progressive * even then up to the production of the 
renovation of the universe, even then until the per- 
petual life of the existences, even then till the raising 
up of the dead, and even then up to the full atone- 
ment of the spirits.' 

/. About being despised in hell ; the wicked are 
scornful to a wicked one, and to the spirits apart 
from the wicked ; and it is the creator who, even 
after saving the others from hell, and the three 
nights stewing in hell 2 , is to cause the preservation 
of them also — after those three nights — from that 
misery, and every one attains to happiness, m. This, 
too, that Zarattot enquired of Auharmasrd thus : 
' How have the ignorant demons, O Auharmazd! 
ever been good rulers 3 ? How do they think of 
them in the world thus, that their happiness arose 
from them ? ' n. And Auharmazd spoke thus : 
' They have been demons, O Zaraturt ! and evil- 
ruling; not well-ruling, even for a reward, do they 
produce the work of righteousness *.' 

0. Perfect righteousness is excellence. 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIII, isd, 17c!. 

* The three nights' final punishment of those worthy of death, to 
be inflicted at the time of the resurrection (see Bd. XXX, 13, 16). 
' See Pahl. Yas. XLIII, 20 a. * Ibid. 20 e. 



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CHAPTER XXXVII, i-XXXVIII, 5. 273 

Chapter XXXVIII. 

Varstmdnsar Nask. 

1. The fifteenth fargana?, Adf-fravakhshya 1 , is 
about the seven 2 perfections of the admonitions of 
the religion. 2. First, association with the beneficent 
spirit of the creator, through hearing s , learning, and 
practising his religion ; and this, too, that thereby 
arises the preservation of the good creation when 
the destroyer is separated (vangld). 3. Second, 
about separation from the destructive evil spirit *, 
and the contempt which is due to his arrogance and 
falsehood, the chief of all his vice. 4. Third, 
governing the temper s by good thoughts, good 
words, and good deeds ; and this, that, whoever of 
you does not so use this liturgy as thought and word 9 , 
they will not allot him light, they will not allot hi m 
the best existence, and he is miserable up to the 
last 7 . 5. Fourth, about the perfection of the nature 
of next-of-kin marriage 8 , which is when it is a giving 
of one's own (khudfth-dalmnih) ; and the decision 

1 See Chap. XV, in; it is here written a</-fravakhsh£ in 
Pahlavi. 

* Only six are numbered in our text, but the seventh seems to 
be detailed in § 9. 

* See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 1 a. * Ibid. 1 d, e. 

" Ibid. 3 a. ' Ibid. 3 c, d. T Ibid. 3 e. 

* Ibid. 4 a. There is nothing whatever about next-of-kin mar- 
riage in the original Avesta text of this Gatha, but the Pahlavi 
translators (in order to interpolate authority for such marriages) 
took advantage of the Avesta speaking metaphorically of Masi/a 
as being father of Good Thought (Voh&man), and of Bountiful 
Devotion (Spendarma*/) as being Mas</a's daughter ; while they 
ignored the old tradition that Vohuman was created be/ore Spen- 
darmarf (see Bd. I, 23, 26). A translation of the Pahlavi version 
of this Gatha passage is given in S. B. E., vol. xviii, pp. 392, 393. 

[37] T 



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274 d!nka*z>, book ix. 

given about it, which is the goodness of one's own 
progeny for the manifestation of progeny ; also the 
relationship, sturdiness, effectiveness, advantageous- 
ness, ownership, and giving in next-of-kin marriage. 
6. Its first accomplishment was by the creator 
AOha.rma.zd in the fatherhood of Vohuman 1 who 
was the first progeny, and from that arising of the 
practice (varVyehevunth) came the progress of the 
spiritual and worldly creatures and much connected 
therewith, such as the arising of splendour from 
light, radiance from splendour, and lustrousness 
from radiance, and the fully progressive diffusion 
and succession of mankind till the renovation of the 
universe; also, through spiritual and worldly passing 
on in the spiritual and worldly existences, Spendar- 
madTs* acceptance of the motherly glory was an 
ennoblement. 7. Fifth, about providing and main- 
taining the high-priests s who are provided with a 
spiritual lord and possessing priestly instruction; 
the listening of his authorities of every kind to 
Auharma^, and the reward of the beneficent good 
works 4 of the high-priesthood, are authority for 
Auharma^; and the reward of the good works of 
the high-priesthood is their relation to the best 
existence. 8. Sixth, about the praise, obeisance, 
and ceremonial * for the creator AuhannagraT; and 
this, too, that further conference with Vohuman • 
arises, and wisdom and advantage 7 are taught by 

1 See Pahl.Yas. XLIV, 4 c. * Ibid. 4 d. » Ibid. 5 a. 

4 Rather doubtful, as the repairer of the MS. has omitted the 
first two Pahlavi letters of kirfako, 'good works,' when writing 
the word on a patch. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 6 a, b, d. 

'Ibid. 6 d. T Ibid. 6e, 7 a. 



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CHAPTER XXXVIII, 6-12. 275 

him thus : ' Thou shouldst be a supplicant for the 
immortal progress of the soul \ O Zaraturt ! so that 
Auharma^ may be lord of the creatures *, and the 
practice of propitiation by mankind may be that for 
him, also a proportion of the ordering of obeisance 3 .' 
9. About the sovereignty of Auharmas^ 4 — even 
through the reward given at the bridge of judgment 
— which is in his good assemblies 6 , those of the 
restorer of the world, the destroyer of the evil one, 
and the benefiter. 

10. This, too, is said, namely : ' Thou becomest, 
through complete mindfulness, O Spltaman ! a per- 
petual adopter (giriftar) of this ceremonial of mine 6 .' 

11. About Auharmasw? having given power 7 to 
the creatures, the preparation 8 of the power, and the 
contempt 9 for the evil spirit and his appliances ; 
Atiharmazd and the creations gave that contempt 
back to the evil spirit and the primary (kadmon) 
demons who are those produced by the demons. 

12. About the glorification of Zaraturt there is 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 7 c. 5 Ibid. 7 e. » Ibid. 8 a. 

4 Ibid. 9c. This appears to be the seventh 'perfection' men- 
tioned in § 1. 

' Assuming that hu-hambamihi stands for hu-hanglmfha\ 
just as hanbam is a common variant of hangam. It might also 
mean ' good times,' but it seems to represent the incorrect word 
amSvandih in Pahl. Yas. XLIV, ge, which each of the four MS. 
authorities spells differently. MT4 has hu-dandih which, no 
doubt, stands for an original hu-zandfh, 'good community/ 
a fair translation of Av. haozathwa, and well expressed by ' good 
assemblies.' 

« See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 10 a. 

7 Ibid. 10 e, in which zako-t ought to be z6r-i according to 
Pt4, Mf4, with which J 2 partly agrees. 

* Assuming that nf v&runo stands for ntv£r</ano. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 1 ib. 

T 2 



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276 DiNKAlU), BOOK IX. 

this, too, namely : ' Thou art beneficial, thou art 
high-priest and master, and through thee exists the 
religion which is propitious * ; thou art brother and 
companion of all the benefiters, and thus thy friend* 
is Vohuman.' 

1 3. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness. 



Chapter XXXIX. 

Varsttndnsar Nask. 

1. In the sixteenth fargar*/, Kamnama6za 8 , 
about departure to any land whatever *, in renewed 
search of fortune, there is also this, namely : ' Do 
not stay away discontentedly from this thy cere- 
monial and obeisance, O Zaraturt ! through love of 
us, when they do not satisfy thee — neither thy own, 
nor the confederate, nor the companion, nor the serf, 
nor the wicked tyrant 6 — by whom those who are 
demons are wont to be worshipped. 2. And where 
and when thou art far from us, even then do not 
stand aloof from our affairs ; and also when the 
affairs of the worldly existence shall not stand well 
for thee, even then thou shouldst reverence us and 
shouldst pay us homage.' 3. So also this, that the 
wish of the evil spirit is thus : ' Thou shouldst not 
reverence and shouldst not pay homage to the arch- 
angels ; and here 6 the people shall possess neither 
lordship, nor priestly instruction — that is, ruler and 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLI V, 1 1 d. * Ibid. 1 1 e. 

* See Chap. XVI, in; it is here written kamnam/zo in PahlavL 
4 See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 1 a. • Ibid. 1 b, c, d. 

* In this world. 



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CHAPTER XXXVIII, 13-XXXIX, 9. 277 

high-priest — and their desire is not for perfect right- 
eousness.' 

4. And this, too, is said, namely : ' Of the con- 
tracted * spirituality and deficient wealth 2 , owing to 
the little progress of men who are self-gratifiers, thou 
art aware, O Zaraturt ! thou who art no seeker of 
this — that is, this want of opulence of thine — because 
thou dost not know it 9 ; but I perceive those words 
of complaint of thine, of which I demand an account 
from thee *.' 5. And this, too, namely : ' Thou art 
aware of the gratification of desire 6 by us who are 
archangels, and which we give for the gratification 
that thou bringest forth (zihi^) ; we also give thee 
the liberty which a friend gives to him who is a 
friend*.' 

6. About what occurs in future ages • : the ex- 
perienced (ar van din) who are beneficial through 
teaching and practising wisdom 7 , and the thirst of 
youths is increased by them ; by the assistance 
of complete mindfulness they improve the world of 
righteousness and produce distress for the fiend ; 
and the advantage due to virtue extends to them 8 . 
7. And this, too, that he who is evilly oppressive 
has died off through his own deeds 9 . 8. About 
always opposing villains with as much strength as 
exists, so that he who is a good ruler 10 , whose high- 
priest is the bounteous liturgy (Mansars/end), 
may become predominant " over Wrath. 

9. About the praise of the renovators there is this, 



' Assuming that tak stands for tang. 










» SeePahl.Yas.XLV, 


2 b. • Ibid. 


2 a. 


« 


Ibid. 


2 c. 


• Ibid. 2 d. 


• Ibid. 3 a. 




7 Ibid. 


3c. 




• Ibid. 3 d. 


• Ibid. 4 c. 




10 Ibid. 


4 d. 




11 Ibid. 5 a. 













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278 dJnKARjD, BOOK IX. 

too, namely : ' Blessings on good understanding and 
also on Mitf6, whose punishment of sinners they 
shall inflict for this consideration, that he is intelli- 
gent and friendly (mitr6-pan) V 10. And, about 
adjudication as to a kinsman (naff man) of any one 
whatever, there is this, too, namely : ' Through a 
revival of Rashnu, whoever is righteous and also 
whoever is wicked — that is, every one — is to be kept 
for judicial investigation*/ 11. This, too, namely: 
' A kinsman is to be considered as virtuous 3 , by 
whom his own soul is preserved from wickedness *.' 
12. And this, too, namely: 'So thy high-priest is 
he whose own religion is pure 8 .' 

13. About the characteristics of the fiend, the 
broken-down (khas tak6) Manih*,and the destruction 
of the wicked who were listening to him, that which 
came from him who was monarch. 14. And this, 
too, namely : ' The wicked one, who gives my world 
to that which the malicious 7 Aharman has established 
as supremacy (lalaih), is he who is a self-wounding 8 
demon that is set going for the death of the world 
of righteousness which he praises. 15. The cere- 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 5 b. For Mitrd see Bk. VIII, Chap. 
XLIV, 16 n. 

• Ibid. 5 c. For Rashnu see Bk. VIII, Chap. XX, 153 n. 
s Ibid. 5 d. 4 Ibid. 5 e. » Ibid. 7 e. 

• The arch-heretic who was born in a.d. 215-6, first preached 
his doctrines on the coronation day of king Shahpur I (20th March, 
242), and was put to death by order of BahrSm I in a.d. 276-7 
(see Ndldeke's Gesch. der Sas. pp. 47, 412, 415). From the mode 
in which he and his followers are mentioned in §§ 13-16, it would 
seem that the original Pahlavi version of this Nask must have been 
made at a time when this heresy was still fresh in men's memories, 
as it would have been in the first half of the fourth century, when 
Aturpa<W Maraspendan was collecting and revising the sacred books. 

7 See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 8 a. « Ibid. 8 b. 



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CHAPTER XXXIX, IO-I9. 279 

monial of righteousness is not such as that he 
praises, O Zaraturt ! the priestly authority of the 
worldly settlements (g£hanan) that he mentions 
thus : " In priestly authority and high-priestship I 
am better (yaplr) and am better suitable ;" and not 
so, O Zaratust ! is that excretion (mutri^n6) 1 he 
stirs up for mankind ; that which he mentions to 
them becomes a perpetual effusion from him, and 
they who stirred up the excretion afterwards think 
it theirs, and that which is a perfect ceremonial of 
the demons occurs. 16. Through the opposing 
arrival of Srdsh 2 , the righteous, the ruler is in vexa- 
tion with that person ; that ruler who is a protection of 
these others through good emanation s — not through 
evil living — and at every time a distresser of the 
wicked *.' 

1 7. About the peculiarity of attracters to the re- 
ligion, and the good works of those attracted e . 
18. About the signs of the last times, which are the 
millenniums of the sons of Zaratust. 

19. This, too, that they cause disturbance (aara- 
m£nd) unto the sovereignty, and they who are Kais 
and Karaps •, those even who are the most evil- 
ruling in the country — who by villanous deeds are 
those who destroy the existence of mankind through 
statements, and destroy their own souls 7 — also 
destroy the material world which, confused by them, 

1 Compare Pahl. Yas. XL VII, io b. 
1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3 n. 

' See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 8 c, d. This last word (hu-zahijnfh) 
ought certainly to be hu-zivijnth, 'good living.' 

* Ibid. 8 e. • Ibid. 10 d, e. 

• Ibid. 1 1 a ; also see Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXV, 13 n. . 
T Ibid, r 1 b, c. 



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280 DiNKAKD, BOOK IX. 

is more beloved than righteousness ; even the 
sovereignty is a scanty shelter, among the existences, 
from those whose command is villanous, when they 
produce that which is vicious and deliver their pupils 
(amukhtaganS) to that which is their end (afdum), 
to the fiendish abode '. 

20. And here, too, about the praise of the family 
of the Fryanaks 2 it speaks thus : ' Righteousness 
comes up, O Spltaman ! from the descendants and 
posterity of Turin ; when extracted by the Fryanaks 
it is stated s just as though it were by Turin ; through 
the assistance of complete mindfulness they develope 
the world * of righteousness and produce distress for 
the fiend ; they likewise think about it with Good 
Thought, O Zaraturt ! and thou shouldst bring 
forth (zay£.y) their gratification * from us, who are 
archangels, by words, that is, do thou demand *'/.' 

21. This, too, is said, namely: 'This liberality 
which is for thee is for us who are archangels ; by 
him who shall provide liberality for thee 4 , it is 
provided for us.' 22. About the praise of VLrtasp 
there is this, too, namely : ' Kat-Vistasp 7 has pro- 
pitiated thee, among the existences, by liberal 
giving ; that Vistasp, whose coming forth to thee in 
distress is through the reign of Vohuman, has de- 
veloped the material world of righteousness ; thou 

1 SeePahl.Yas.XLV, ne. 

* A Turtnian family of Maafe-worshippers, of whom Ydirta is 
specially mentioned in the Avesta (see Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 18 n) ; 
and it appears from Dd. XC, 3 that Ashem-yahmai-urta of Yt. XIII, 
1 20 was another member of the same family. 

» See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 12 b. 

4 Ibid. 12 c, and compare § 6. 

8 Ibid. 1 2d, e. • Ibid. 13a. 

7 See Bk.VIII, Chaps. XI, 1, XIII, 15. 



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CHAPTER XXXIX, 2O-27. 28 1 

shouldst think of him, the good companion, O Zara- 
turt ! the pure friend who is Kat-Vistasp ' ; such is 
that Kai-Vi^tasp, the active, who, when he praises 
the religion, is attracting fellow-dwellers and converts 
them, that is, he brings them on to the religion V 

23. About attracting the Spltamas to the religion 
there is this, too, namely: 'Thou shouldst speak 
thus to the Spltamas : " Praise righteousness with 
much homage about it mentally ; and a concession 
is to be discriminated by you, as well as whatever is 
no concession ; even for those deeds of yours right- 
eousness is the reward given unto you, that reward 
which is much given by Auhanna2wf s ." ' 24. About 
the place of the four marvels produced by Auhar- 
m&zd in yonder world: there where is the reign of 
Vohuman *, there where is the hospitality of Auhar- 
mazd s , there where religion is along with complete 
mindfulness e , and there where are the souls of the 
liberal 7 . 

25. About advice to Zaraturt as to speech, made 
for mankind, which is proportionate — abandoning 
want of proportion — which is an appropriation of 
liberality with humility and a wise proportion 8 for 
good works. 26. This, too, namely : ' To him who 
gives himself mentally up to thee in discipleship, 
thou also shouldst give up the best which thou hast 
to give of thine own ; and thou shouldst give wealth 
to him who shall give wealth to thee 9 , because so 
thy soul would be perfect, O righteous Zaraturt ! 
when it shall act thus.' 27. This, too : ' Thou 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 13c * Ibid. 1 4 c, d. » Ibid. 1 5 b, c, d. 

4 Ibid. 16 d. • Ibid. 16 e. « Ibid. 16 c. 

7 Ibid. 16 a. ' Ibid. 1 7 a, b, c, e. * Ibid. 18 a, b, c. 



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28 2 dJnkajjd, BOOK IX. 

shouldst select this religion of mine with wisdom and 
also with thought V 28. This, too, that as to him 
who has to act with the freedom from effort (ap£si- 
tunaglh) of righteousness 2 and owing to it, for the 
good works done by him the gift is good. 29. This, 
too, that whoever seeks by good works, and seeks 
good works by innocence, obtains freedom from 
harm (a-naslh) ; and whoever is liberal to the 
sacred beings 8 is free from destruction (a-nasln isn6), 
owing to the liberality of the sacred beings. 30. A nd 
this, too, namely : ' These are the rewards I am 
aware of 4 , which have been, which still are, and 
which ever will be.' 

31. Perfect excellence is righteousness. 



Chapter XL. 
Varstmdnsar Nask. 



1. The seventeenth fargan/, Spe#ta-mainyu 8 , is 
about this, that Auharmas*/ produced the creatures 
through wisdom, and maintains them in truth. 2. 
This, too, that the best thing " for every one is 
thought in a high-priest who is the tongue of a 
spiritual lord 7 ; in a high-priest, who has to maintain 
thought, no appliances of the body are to lie unto 
the spiritual lord on account of affection for the 

1 SeePahl.Yas. XLV,i8e. 

' Ibid. 19 a. All but the last syllable of ap&situnagih is 
written by the repairer of the MS. on one of his patches, but the 
word is a strange equivalent for Av. haithim. 

* Ibid. 19 d. 4 Ibid. 19 c 

• See Chap. XVII, 1 nj it is here written s^end-mato in Pahlavi, 
and is called the 18th fargar</ by mistake. 

« See Pahl. Yas. XLVI, 2 a. T Ibid. 2 b. 



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CHAPTER XXXIX, 28-XL, II. 283 

worldly existence. 3. Also that the spiritual lord is 
always true ; of the tongue — when he (the priest) 
speaks falsehood with the tongue — are those words 
which he does not believe through the spiritual 
lord, and it is owing to this, too, when, of all the 
body, the tongue first dies. 4. ' I say unto thee, O 
Spltaman ! that thou shouldst speak with the tongue 
just as thou thinkest with the mind, and thou 
shouldst accomplish work with both hands in com- 
plete mindfulness V 5. And this, too, that he who 
shall act thus is sagacious, and he is the father . of 
righteousness through wisdom 2 ; and whoever would 
do that which has happened, thoroughly observes it 
on account of that which has not happened. 6. Also 
this, that in the person of him who shall do that 
which he understands, and asks again about that 
which he does not understand, the propitious spirit 
of wisdom is lodging. 

7. About cattle being produced for the assistance 
of mankind, and the pastures of pleasure for the 
assistance of catde 8 . 8. This, too, that the arch- 
angels injure the evil demon and wicked people, but 
they do not injure righteous people 4 and the sage. 

9. This, too, is said, namely : ' In scanty opulence 
do not murmur (a/ mang) owing to good works 6 , 
and thus in great opulence much good work arises.' 

10. This, too, that beneficence gives all to the good, 
and it is no further the villain whom the sacred 
beings maintain '. 

11. About the tongue of a true speaker being 
given for the satisfying (vi^ari-mS) of disputants, 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XL VI, 2 c. * Ibid. 2 d. » Ibid. 3 c. 

4 Ibid. 4 a, b. • Ibid. 4 c. • Ibid. 5 b, c. 



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284 BitiKARD, BOOK IX. 

and for declaring who is acquitted or incriminated ; 
and the ordeal that is a demonstrator, to acquit or 
convict, which he whose tongue is truthful has 
accepted — and it shall make his statement current — 
has developed its jurisdiction in the world, and 
diminished distress. 12. And this, too, is said, that 
he gives out fire for disputes, so that it may make 
manifest the acquitted and incriminated, when he in 
whom are his immense complete mindfulness, and 
also righteousness, is guardian of the ordeal ; and, 
when many inspect it, that which is the ritual of the 
ordeal believes them wicked \ 

1 3. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness. 



Chapter XLI. 
Varslm&nsar Nask. 



1. The eighteenth fargan/, Y£zi 2 , is about the 
existence of certain and doubtful evidence and in- 
dication as to the future existence 8 arising. 2. About 
the great dignity of the spirit of good works, and 
that also of the person doing good works through 
the lodgment of that spirit in him. 3. This, too, 
that they praise, recount, and practise the religion 
of Ma^aia-worship at the time of the renovation of 
the universe, that of which the demons through 
deceitfulness, and then also wicked mankind deceived 
by those who are demons, have said that it does not 
occur 4 . 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVI, 6 b, c, d. 

* See Chap. XVIII, in; it is here called the 19th fargar</ by 
mistake in the MS. 
' See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 1 a. * Ibid. 1 b. 



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CHAPTER XL, I2-XLI, IO. 285 

4. About the triumph of the sacred beings over 
the demons at the end of various periods. 5. First, 
that which occurs when, on account of the preserva- 
tion of mankind from hell, they praise the religion 
of Mastffa-worship ; and that which occurs when 
Zarat&rt the Spttaman, whose guardian spirit is 
reverenced, came to the obedient king Kal-Vistasp 1 . 
6. Second, when the power and triumph of renewed 
sovereignty are again connected with the religion, 
and mankind, on that account, return to the good 
religion ; and this occurs on the near approach of 
Aushedfar 2 , son of Zaratust, when the righteous 
Altrag-miyan 3 arrives. 7. Third, when mankind 
contentedly praise the religion of the Maz<afe-wor- 
shippers, and this occurs as Aushedar-mah 4 , son of 
Zaraturt, arrives. 8. And fourth, that which occurs 
when every one shall practise the religion of Masaa- 
worship with eagerness; at that time arrives the 
beneficial and triumphant producer of the renova- 
tion, Sdshans 8 , son of Zaraturt; and this becomes 
the consummation (sar-hdmdndth) and supreme 
triumph of the sacred beings. 

9. About enquiring of him who is acquainted 
with religion and a wise priest concerning the reli- 
gion, and hearing of it from him 6 ; also well under- 
standing it through wisdom. 10. About abstaining 



• See Bk. VIII, Chaps. XI, 1, XIII, 15. 

• See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIV, 12. 

3 A title of P6shy6tanu, son of king Vixtlsp, who remains im- 
mortal as chief high-priest of Kangdea, whence he is expected to 
come to restore the religious rites in Ir&n and the rest of the world 
(see Bd. XXIX, 5, Byt. Ill, 25-32, 36-38, 41, 42, 51, 52). 

4 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIV, 13. • Ibid. 1 4. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 3 a, b. 



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286 dInkakj), book ix. 

from the secret proceedings (nihan-hdmdndth) of 
a deceitful and seductive apostate 1 . n. This, too, 
is said, namely : ' Thou shouldst also not fall into 
the downcast imprisonment (nikun alaklh) through 
the teaching they deceive, where they thus mislead 
thee to the downcast imprisonment which is hell.' 

1 2. About mankind attaining to the wisdom of an 
angel (ye'datd dandglh) 2 through the grades of 
intellect, ability, and religion. 1 3. This, too, is said, 
namely: '// is for that way when mankind cause 
the disturbance (.yiklindnd) of that which is a vile 
religion for want of a way, when even this is pro- 
duced from among the creatures, in which is the 
opening of a passage/^* mankind to him, where the 
evil spirit is. dwelling and making thee surrender, and 
on account of the stupefying Ak6mandV 14. This, 
too, that, through the sovereignty of sagacity, every 
one at last arrives at that way. 1 5. And this, too, 
that by him, who shall persistently perform good 
works or sin with fearlessness, it is to be hereupon 
considered that his performance is mindful 4 , and 
that the best thing for mankind, after birth, is puri- 
fication from sin *. 

16. This, too, that the food and maintenance of 
the priests depend upon the husbandmen •. 1 7. This, 
too, that coveted is now the pleasure and strength 
of mankind due to the cattle of Khurdaaf and 

' SeePahl.Yas. XLVII, 3 c. 

* The use of 6 for a sometimes occurs in MSS. from Iran. The 
word can also be read shavandagth, ' existence,' but this mean- 
ing is less likely. 

» See Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3 a 

* See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 4 c. • Ibid. 5 c. 

* Ibid. 5 d. 



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CHAPTER XLI, 1 1 -2 3. 287 

Ambrdad 1 , 18. About the oppressiveness of Wrath 
and Envy, and the destruction of both through 
complete mindfulness and possession of Good 
Thought 2 . 19. And this is said, namely : ' I made 
the religion of righteousness a combining desire 
(vdyak-i ham-dahi.yn6 3 ), and all mankind's own 
selves are to be forced into that desire ; also its in- 
voluntary seeking of immortality is the reign of the 
will of all mankind, and advantage always arises 
from it V 20. This, too, that the care of cattle is 
reverence of Auharma^ 5 . 

21. About the progress 6 of righteousness there is 
this, too, that that greatness c is generated therefrom, 
and its seekers — who are human beings — have de- 
manded the supreme predominance in the best 
existence. 22. About the praise of the period of 
the renovation of the universe there is this, too, that, 
at that time, those who are doubtful about it are all 
disclosed to publicity 7 ; also the last reward and 
bridge judgment of the worthy. 23. About the 
lawfulness of that which occurs through the destruc- 
tion by Vohtiman 8 , who is himself the spiritual lord 
of the arrangement, there is this, too, that the wicked, 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 6 a, b; also Chap. XIX, 1. 

* Ibid. 7 a, b. 

' Ibid. 7 c, where, however, this last word can be read as ami - 
nuno, ' unalarming ' (asahamfnuno in Pt4, Mf.4), and the cor- 
responding word in Pahl, Yas. XXXIV, 10b can be read asamijno, 
1 intrepid ;' but, as these meanings are difficult to reconcile with 
those of the original Av. hithacr, hit ham, it seems more probable 
that the first syllables asam or asaham, should be read hisam or 
hisam, a mere transcript of Av. hitham. 

* Ibid. 8 a. % ' Ibid. 8 b. 

* Perhaps these two words, rubakfh, 'progress,' and rabSfh, 
' greatness,' should be alike, but it is doubtful which is correct. 

T See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 9 b. • Ibid. 9 c. 



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288 dInkard, book ix. 

at that time, become aware of their own wickedness, 
when their bodies are dissipated. 24. About the 
destruction of the good works of the wicked, also 
that of their own souls, that of their spiritual exist- 
ences, and that of their material bodies 1 . 25. And 
this, too, that at the time of the renovation of the 
universe occurs the approach of the wisdom of our 
sovereignty to that of the best of mankind, and that 
glory is put on by it through which the destruction 
of the bad and the development of the good arise ; 
also the sagacity which exists in Vohuman extends 
to those who are its friends 2 . 

26. This, too, that there are those who are ex- 
tenders of the days, and they are beneficial in the 
country 8 ; and their custom, where they have arisen, 
is an opponent of him who is a wrathful person 4 . 
27. And this, too, that they shall thereupon excite 
(lala vadldunand) a brother and sister with 
mutual desire, so that they shall form a next-of-kin 
marriage with unanimity; and before midday they 
generate a sublime radiance, centred in the face, and 
trembling passion 6 , and they make the radiance grow 
up, openly manifest, to an altitude of the height of 
three spears of the length of three reeds each*; and 

1 SeePahl.Yas. XLVII.uc. 

1 Ibid. 1 id. * Ibid. 12 a. * Ibid. 12 d. 

8 Reading as follows : — lala zerkhund rdshand pavan mfyan r6d 
buland navendako khros, but some of the words can be read 
otherwise, as in S. B. E., vol. xviii, p. 395, or with further variations ; 
and it is doubtful if the verb is to be construed with the words 
that follow it, contrary to the usual Pahlavi rule, as there is 
no other trace of Avesta construction in this section. Neither the 
Avesta, nor the Pahlavi, version of thi* chapter of the GSthas 
makes any allusion to the subjects mentioned in §§ 27, 28. 

* It appears from Dd. XLIII, 5 that this total of nine reeds 
would be about forty-eight human feet of fourteen finger-breadths 



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CHAPTER XLI, 24-XLII, 3. 289 

after midday they have learnt expulsion (ranakih) *, 
and shall remove the fiend who was before a de- 
stroyer. 28. About those who girdle themselves 
where they shall perform their proper duty, and are 
thus all-beneficent for being seen. 

29. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness. 



Chapter XLI I. 
Varsimdnsar Nask. 



1. The nineteenth fargaraf, Ad ma-yava 2 , is 
about the protection by a protector for the protection 
of the distressed ones of the renovation of the uni- 
verse*. 2. About the impossibility of convincing 
those who have not attained to the fundamental 
reason (bun k'\m) of belief, before making them 
comprehensibly reliant upon the existence of the 
creator, which is the fundamental reason of belief. 

3. A.bout the grievous suffering (vimarih) of the 
religion owing to him who is a wicked judge, whose 
effusions (r#2!afano) on the judgment seat are inju- 
dicious, malevolent, and enemies, of wisdom ; also 
his wounding is owing to truth *, and his annoyance 
owing to the truthful, and the evil spirit is lodging 
in him ; likewise the advantage to the religion and 
the great reward of just judges, and the introduction 



(see Farh. Oim, p. 41, 1. 1), or 10 J inches, each; so that the 
height here mentioned would be about forty-two English feet. 
' The capability of expelling fiends. 

* See Chap. XIX, in; it is here written arf-mSg-yuv in 
Pahlavi. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 1 a. * Ibid. 2 a, b. 

[37] U 



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29O DiNKAAD, BOOK IX. 

(madam-bari^nth) of a desire for leadership in 
virtuousness 1 . 4. About separation from the friend- 
ship of a wicked, ill-judging, unintelligent, and idle 
person, in whom wrath and envy are coiled up (avar- 
piko) 2 . 5. About the good government of securers 
of their own necks (iavarman) from viciousness, 
and the bad government of those repeatedly culpable 
(lakhvar-ahugin) owing to viciousness. 6. And 
this, too, that the wicked themselves are wicked to 
their own and make them fit for hell, even as to 
those who 3 are precious to them and more beloved 
than righteousness ; and their reign, too, is a scanty 
protection (ga-yukS srayi^nS). 

7. About the praise of Zaratu^t there is this, too, 
namely : ' Thy sweetness and mildness are shown to 
the worldly existences, thy leadership of the religion 
is through Vohuman, and thou art well conversant 
with righteousness *.' 8. About the praise of Fra- 
sh6^tar's ardour in the leadership of good works, in 
virtuousness 6 , listening to instruction, and truthful 
speaking, and in pasturing (fshegih), cultivating 
the world, achieving benefit (s(W6 tashidfarih), and 
not giving leadership to villains*. 9. About the 
praise also of the energy and high-priestship of 
£amasp T . 10. About the protection of the good 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 3 b, c. s Ibid. 4 a. 

8 Assuming that a mat stands for mun, their Iranian equivalents 
being much alike. 

* See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 5 a, b, c. 

6 Ibid. 8 a, b, c and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68 n. 

• Ibid. 9 a, b, in which Pt4, Mf4 have tashtrfar instead of the 
khvSstir of K5, J2 ; regarding fshegth (=Av. fsh«ng'hy6) 
see Bk.VIII, Chap. XXII, 6n. 

7 Ibid. 9 d and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68 n. 



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CHAPTER XLII, 4-XLIII, 2. 291 

creations by Vohuman, and that, too, of the souls of 
the righteous by Spendarma*/ also 1 . 

11. About the punishment of the wicked ruler 
who is seizing anything unlawfully in his realm. 
12. Also about the grievous punishment of the 
wicked, evil- thinking, evil -speaking, evil-doing, 
heretical (du$-d6n6), evil ruler in hell*. 13. About 
the reply of the archangels to Zaratujt, as to the re- 
ward begged by him, to make him satisfied about it s . 

14. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence. 



Chapter XLIII. 
Varstntdnsar Nask. 



1. The twentieth fargan/, Kaaf-m6i-urva 4 , is 
about anything whatever being begged as provision 
for the soul 6 , and as to the speaking of Shatraver 6 
to Zaratust thus : ' Thou shouldst think thus, O 
Spttaman ! that Auharmasaf assists thee.' 2. This, 
too, is said, that the creatures of Auha^ma^ live 
through Khurdaaf T , are immortal through Amurdaaf 7 , 
possess complete mindfulness of Auharma^ through 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 10 a, b, c and Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 311. 

1 Ibid. 1 1 a, b. 

' Ibid. 12 b, d. In Pt4, Mf.4, § b is as follows : ' Mfin Zaratflj/8 
Jigfln lak Vohflman;' being correctly limited according to the 
Avesta text. 

4 See Chap. XX, in; it is here written ka</-m6g-ravako in 
Pahlavl. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XLIX, ia. 

* An archangel who is a personification of the Avesta phrase 
khshathra-vairya, ' desirable dominion.' 

7 For these three archangels see Chaps. XII, 25 n, XIX, 1 n, 
and Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3. 

U 2 



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292 dInkard, BOOK IX. 

Spendarmaaf 1 , and possess him as ruler through Sha- 
traver. 

3. About wealth being begged owing to virtuous- 
ness there is this, too, that, to him who, owing to 
virtuousness, begs that which is not allowed to him 
owing to the oppressiveness of the vile, or on account 
of some other opposition, they then give essentially 
that reward, in the spiritual existence which is greater 
and better than that wealth. 4. About the cattle 
suitable for that warrior who possesses virtuous 
habits and strength 2 , through the assistance of the 
will of the sacred beings and for the benefit of Iran 
and the defeat of the diminishing foreign force 
(kastarth-i an-Airan6). 

5. About the seizure s of mankind for the advance- 
ment of the admonition and command of the sacred 
beings, so far as force is an assistant to them in 
knowledge due to the sacred beings*; and their 
appropriation of the best existence through the 
advancement of that admonition and command. 
6. About the assistance of the righteous, on the 
passage to the best existence, by the spirit of the 
wisdom of sovereignty, liberality, and truth, Aharte- 
vang 6 and the angel H6m 6 . 

7. About the reason of the three steps walked 
forward by the Z6ti from the place of the Zdti, while 
uttering the Avesta (««'istak6-g6bi sntha), after the 

1 See note 7, preceding page. 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIX, 3 a, c. ' Ibid. 7 d. 

4 This proviso implies some faint perception of the absurdity of 
trying to assist almighty beings by human force. 

8 See Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3 n. 

• A personification of the Av. Haoma plant, an infusion of the 
dried twigs of which is used in the religious ceremonial. Yas. IX 
and X are devoted to his praise. 



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CHAPTER XLIII, 3-8. 293 

end of the ritual for the fire, on delivering (parva- 
zisno) the offering of holy-water to the water 1 , being 
the leading up of the archangels, always at the end 
of an assembly of conference with Zaratfirt, by three 
steps from the earth to the sun station, through the 
places ^good thoughts, good words, and good deeds 2 . 
8. Advice to Zarattot also as to the nature of the 
archangels ; likewise a reminder to worship on their 

1 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIX, 8 a. This refers to the proceedings of 
the chief officiating priest in the ceremonial, after the conclusion of 
the Atar Nyayif (Yas. LXII) and just before the beginning of the 
Aban Nyayw (Yas. LXV), during the recital of Yas. LXIV which 
chiefly consists of a repetition of §§ 6-1 1 of this Gathic ha (Yas. 
L=XLIX of the Pahlavi version). These proceedings are detailed 
in the rubrics, partially in J2 and more fully in Pt4, MI4, as 
follows: — After reciting Av. Yas. L, 7 d 'the Barsdm (A v. b ares- 
man, see Bk. VIII, Chap. XLIV, 65 n) is to be taken up from 
the Mah-ru,' or crescent-topped Barsdm-stand, 'and one step is 
to be set forth in the direction of the Frabanfar ' (the imaginary 
assistant priest whose station is near the north-east corner of the 
ceremonial area, or to the left of the Z6ti, see Chap. XXXIII, 5 n), 
' at this place of taking up the Barsdm from the Barsdm-stand, 
and of going on to the position of the Frabardar, a beginning of 
Yas. L, 8 a is to be made in walking towards the beginning of the 
fire place, until Yas. L, 11 d is to be uttered,' in the following 
manner: — After 'marf vau one step is to be set forth, and 
homage to be offered to the holy-water; ' after ' padaij one step, 
and homage to be offered to the holy-water ; ' after ' y a f rasruta 
faayau one step is to be set forth, and he is to go on to the 
position of the Aban?' (the imaginary assistant priest whose 
station is near the south-east corner, so that the progress of the 
Z6ti towards the fire is along the left-hand side of the ceremonial 
area), and, after reciting the rest of the Gathic text to the end of 
Yas. L, 1 1 d, ' homage is to be offered to the fire, and he is to go 
away to the position of the Zdti.' 

* The three lower grades of heaven, intermediate between the 
earth and the best existence or supreme heaven (Garo</man), and 
situated in the stations of the stars, moon, and sun, respectively (see 
AV. VII-X, Mkh. VII, 9-12). 



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294 dIukard, book ix. 

account after separation from the sight of them. 
9. And this, too, is said, that there arises therefrom 
a conception (ham-giriftdrih), by him whose dis- 
position and character are sagacious \ also as to the 
adaptation of his own deeds to that nature of his. 10. 
And about the good affinity of Zaraturt, even for 
abundance of good works, there is this, too, namely : 
' So, for all those deeds which thou hast to accomplish, 
and which are also accomplished, there is reward for 
thee through their righteousness, O Zaraturt ! ' 

1 1. And about the advice to Zaratust there is this, 
too, namely : ' Thou hast to become reverent to them 2 , 
so that mankind may become reverent to thee.' 
12. About considering the time of the days and 
nights as all for good accumulation in good works 
there is this, too, that whoever is diligent and always 
doing good works, and that whoever shall perform 
as many good works as is possible for him, is given 
as much reward 3 as is his desire. 

13. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence. 



Chapter XL1V. 
Varstmdnsar Nask. 



1. In the twenty-first fargan/, Vohu-khshath- 
rem *, it is said by Auharmazaf thus : ' I produced, 
O Zaratu-rt ! the desire for a good ruler 6 ; ' and 
this, too, is said, that, when there is a desire for a 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIX, 9 d. * Ibid. 10 d. 

» Ibid. 1 id. 

4 See Chap. XXI, in; it is here written vohu-khshatar in 
Pahlavi, and is called the 22nd fargars? by mistake. 

5 See Pahl. Yas. L, 1 a. 



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CHAPTER XUII, 9-XLIV, 7. 295 

good ruler suitable for a share of the world, whoever 
is suitable for a share of the world [is a development 
of that character also, owing to the share which is 
given him, and by him who is himself also develop- 
ing the character, by giving him a share] 1 , giving 
the share is producing a helper (vi^l^ar), production 
of a helper is a perfect action 2 , and superiority of 
action is owing to thought and speech. 

2. About the place where the best wealth is the 
produce of water, earth, and plants ; also its best 
supplication is lamentation for the religion, and the 
sovereignty is liberality. 3. About favours being 
begged from the sacred beings, even with words 
controverting the response of the sacred beings; 
the favours for the worthy are to be contended for 
worthily. 4. About the connection of the power of 
intelligent remembrance and wise discrimination, 
one with the other. 5. About the attraction of the 
mercy of the spirit and leadership 8 , together, into 
the supreme heaven (gar dayman 6), for observation 
regarding the good creatures. 

6. About the begging and teaching of that intelli- 
gence which is with the increase of good works ; 
also the imperceptible acquirement * of wealth occurs 
thereby. 7. This, too, that whoever gives himself 
up, with humility and reverence, to him who is a 
high-priest of the true religion, is proficient (far'- 
2anakl-att6) in the religion 6 ; and the benefit pro- 
duced by him, for him who is good, is the liberality 

1 The passage in brackets was at first omitted in the MS. by 
mistake, and subsequently interlined and written in the margin 
with a different ink. 

* SeePahLYas. L, 1 c. 

5 Ibid. 4 a. * Ibid. 5 a. * Ibid. 5 c. 



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296 dInkard, BOOK IX. 

which is provided for the sacred beings \ 8. About 
Atiharmazd having created water, plants, animals 2 , 
and the law of the primitive religion for the nourish- 
ment, arrangement, and succession of the creatures. 
9. About the comfort of the spirit of the liturgy of 
the religion when he who is a man of credible 
wisdom and superior disposition utters it s . 

10. This, too, that the wicked one who does not 
believe the deception that he teaches to others, 
which is his through his own spiritual lord, yet, 
when he teaches multitudes (kabedan), is con- 
vinced by it, attains — as the end of that teaching — 
eminence (pat/gahfh) for bare-faced deceit (barah- 
nak5 frad^plh), public falsehood, and disjointed 
belief. 

11. And about mankind being bodily prepared 
also for the future existence by fire and melted 
ore 4 ; in the worldly existence the acquitted and 
incriminated, as regards the law, have become 
thereby manifest 6 , and, in the future existence, 
the torment of the wicked and the gratification of 
the righteous 9 . 1 2. About Vohuman and Ashava- 
hist being invoked 7 for assistance also in danger 
from the wicked, and about appropriating the best 
existence through righteousness alone. 13. And 
this, too, that a happy coming of men to the supreme 
heaven exists for the righteous, but no * coming of 
any one from the wicked. 



1 See Pahl. Yas. L, 6 a. * Ibid. 7 a. 

* Ibid. 8 c; nSvagtSr is written by mistake for nfivagtar, 
' superior,' in the MS. 

4 Ibid. 9 b and Chap. XXXII, 25. • Ibid. 9 a. 

6 Ibid. 9 c. 7 Ibid. 10 c. 

* Assuming that rai stands for la\ 



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UK." -■ • ■ ) 
CHAPTER XLIV, 8-18?** 297 

14. About the enmity of the Kai 1 sodomite 
(va£p6) 2 Akht, the heretic of the dark existence 3 , 
to Zaratuit; and the causing of disturbance (rikli- 
nla?an6), by him and the wicked of similar kinds to 
him, among those who follow Zaratu^t is extreme, 
and the primeval hellish existence is for them*. 
15. About the closing of the abode of the Kat and 
Karap from virtuousness s ; and this, too, that they 
do not develope the worldly existences, nor attend 
to the spirit, but they contract the world and dissi- 
pate the spirit •. 

16. About the worthiness of the sovereignty of 
Kat-Virtasp 7 , on account of great ability and activity, 
apart even from superintending. 17. About the 
praise of Frash6.rtar 8 for his having given Hv6b6 9 
in marriage to Zaratust, the praise of Hv6b5 for 
her complete reverence of Zaratfot, and admonition 
to Zaraturt as to making Hv6b6 privileged for the 
post of house-mistress 10 . 18. About the praise of 
G&masp 11 for begging fortune and for wisdom in 
appropriating the excellence of the primitive right- 
eousness ; also his affection for the sovereignty and 
for the recitation of revelation, in which there is 
assistance of ZaratUrt through command of Vohu- 

1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXV, 13 n. 

• See Pahl. Yas. L, 12 a. 

' Akhtyd dusdau temanguhau of Yt. V, 82; the wizard 
Akht of the tale of Ydxt-t FryamS. 

4 See Pahl. Yas. L, 14 c. » Ibid. 14 a. 

• Ibid. 14 b. 7 Ibid. 16 a and Bk. VIII, Chap. XI, 1. 
» Ibid. 17 a and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68. 

• Ibid. 17 b. Av. Hvdvi of Yt. XIII, 139, XVI, 15 ; she was 
daughter of Frashdrtar and wife of Zarat&rt. 

,e Ibid. 17 c. 

u Ibid. 18 a and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68. 



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298 DiNKAUD, BOOK IX. 

man 1 . 19. About the praise of Matofok-mah * for 
his accepting and exercising — and on account of his 
exercising — the upholding and propagation of the 
religion ; also the yelling, united assault, evil food, 
and other affliction owing to the wicked in the 
earlier half of the night, which is that which Zara- 
tust had, for a like reason, to bear ; and the reciting 
of the law of Auharmasr^ 3 , for the joy of the sacred 
beings, and his appropriation of the best existence. 

20. About the abounding of Zaraturt in complete 
mindfulness of the origin of learning, and its de- 
velopment by him 4 ; both the object and the ad- 
vantage of knowledge — which is the reigning of 
Vohuman in the body — being the means of develop- 
ing the world in righteousness 6 . 21. About the 
perfection of the ceremonial* and obeisance of 
Zaratujt, and the superiority 7 of his recompense 8 ; 
also advice to him as to worshipping Auharmastf? 
pre-eminently, and the primeval angels by their 
own names 9 according to their greatness. 

22. It is the excellence ^righteousness that is 
perfect. 

Chapter XLV. 
Varstmdnsar Nask. 
1. The twenty-second fargantf, Vahi.yt6i.rti 10 , is 
about the perfection of the prayers 11 of the good 
religion, and information thereon. 

1 See Pahl. Yas. L, 18 b. 

* Ibid. 19 a and Chap. XXIV, 1. « Ibid. 19 c. 

4 Ibid. 21 a. " Ibid. 21b. * Ibid. 22 a. 

7 Assuming that asartih stands for anartarih. 

» See Pahl. Yas. L, 22 b. • Ibid. 22 c. 

10 See Chap. XXII, 1 n. ll See Pahl. Yas. LII, 1 a. 



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CHAPTER XLIV, 19-XLV, 4. 299 

2. About the glory of a family of some houses 
that has come to the Spltamas \ even before the 
coming of Zaraturt; the knowledge and habit of 
organization and priestly authority of those arising 
from that family ; the existence therein of houses, 
villages, communities, and districts; its attracting 
and exalting mankind, from vice to virtue, by pro- 
priety of words and actions ; and it convinces those 
of the world even till the arrival of the good reli- 
gion. 3. And this, too, that the existence of Kal- 
Vistasp — that desire of Zaratfot 2 — and <?/"Frash6rtar 
of the Hv6bas 3 , is owing to it. 

4. About the praise of P6ru£ast 4 , daughter of 
Zaratfot, for loving the good religion with wisdom 
and acting by the advice of the religion, having 
given herszM contentedly in womanly service (za- 
noih) to Zaratust 6 ; her complete accomplishment 



1 The family from which Zarattat, MaMok-mah, and PdruiSst 
were descended. Its name originated with Spitima, an ancestor of 
Zarattat nine generations back. Compare Chap. XXXIX, 23. 

2 Perhaps we ought to read ' the Spitama Zaratujt,' substituting 
Spitdmak for kamak, ' desire,' which latter word is written on 
a patch by the repairer of the MS. who must have found the 
original word defective. See Pahl. Yas. LII, 2 c. 

» See Chap. XXI, 24. 

* See Pahl. Yas. LII, 3 a. Av. Pouru^ista who became the 
wife of Gamasp, prime minister of king Vut&sp. 

6 Ibid. 4a. It seems unlikely that zan&th means 'marriage' 
here (the term being applied to her relation both to Zaratuft and 
G&m&sp), unless we were to suppose that she married G&m&sp 
after her father's death, which the phrase akhar min Zaratuxt, 
'after Zaratujt,' might possibly imply. And if zan&th means 
merely 'womanly service' here, its Zvdrw equivalent n6smanfh, 
applied to the seven sisters of Axdk ViraT in AV. II, 10, may also 
not imply marriage, which is a view already suggested in S. B. E., 
vol. xviii, p. 398 n. 



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3<X> DtNKAKD, BOOK IX. 

of duty and reverence for him, and, after Zaratust, 
her also performing womanly service (zanlh) and 
reverence for (Jamasp 1 ; likewise her great reward 
from Auha^ma^ for religiousness and self-devotion 
(khv£.?ih) to the sacred beings. 5. About the 
praise of Hutds 2 for the arising of the progress of 
the MasaJa-worshipping religion through her, by the 
growth of righteousness and smiting of the primeval 
fiend; also the good works and advantage which 
have arisen in the world from her great possessions, 
and her equal praise and grand position here and in 
yonder world. 

6. About the characteristics of those who are 
preparing the end of time and arranging its period 
there is this, too, namely : ' They are a manifesta- 
tion of those, O Spttaman Zaratu^t ! who shall cause 
this renovation in the existences ; they are ob- 
servant, little afflictive in tormenting, and fully 
mindful, so that, when milk reaches them, they 
thoroughly digest it; they have no fear and ac- 
coutrements (afzar), nor yet do they mention false 
and irreverent (anastS) statements concerning those 
who are righteous through imploring righteousness.' 
7. About the characteristics of those disturbing the 
end of time and opposing its period there is this, 
too, namely : ' They are a manifestation of those, 
O Spttaman Zaratust ! who are destroying the ex- 
istences 3 ; they are swiftly remedied, that is, they 
become very quickly devoured (khai^o) and are in 



1 See Pahl. Yas. LII, 4 b. 

• Ibid. 5 a. Av. Hutaosa, the wife of king Vwt&sp, see Yt. IX, 
*6, XV, 35. 
' See Pahl. Yas. LII, 6 e. 



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CHAPTER XLV, 5~IO. 3OI 

the torment of the vicious and grievous abode ; they 
are not fully mindful, so that it is not possible for 
them to digest milk, their fear is inevitable (a£ar), 
and they mention even false and irreverent state- 
ments concerning those who are righteous through 
imploring righteousness. 

8. About the craving for the fiend, the assistance 
of the fiend, and the gratification of the fiend by him 
who is an apostle of the demons, and his rendering 
the creatures of Abharmazd helpless * even through 
the want of progress (anasa£isn6) which they 
lament; also the confusion owing to his speaking 
deceitfully in the world, and the connection with 
him of an awful and swift death 2 , and the most 
grievous and hellish punishment. 9. About that 
wicked follower and assistant of theirs in defeating 
righteousness, and also in destroying the greater 
religiousness (fr£h-d£n6ih) of the world and making 
the soul wicked in the end. 

10. About the occurrence of the dissipation of 
the glory of him who is a well-ruling man, and the 
pacification (asu</ano) of the creatures of the world 
by the sacred beings, it says this, too, namely : 
'The persuader to evil 8 and the organizer of dis- 
tress (veshi.m6) — where they shall make pain and 
distress current in the world — are the weakener 
(nerefstniafar) and corrupter (ilayl^ar) for the 



1 Or it may be ' maintaining the affliction of the creatures,' if we 
read tfz&rdirf h instead of a£&rg&rih. 

* SeePahl.Yas. LII, 8 d. 

' Ibid. 9a. B has avShth v8renakfnt<fdr, but avShih, 'want 
of goodness,' ought to be duxth, 'evil,' which it resembles even 
more in appearance than in meaning, in Pahlavi letters. 



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302 dInkard, BOOK IX. 



righteous ; it is the ruler that is righteous who smites 
them and opposes them — that is, restrains them 
from sin — and causes hatred for them through his 
will * ; that, O Auha^maarrf! is this dominion of thine 
by which you give benefits (v eh! gin 8) to him who 
is justly living and poor V 

ii. It is perfect excellence that is righteousness. 



Chapter XLVI. 
Varstmdnsar Nask. 



i. The twenty-third fargan/, Airyaman 8 , is the 
Airman supplication * : — ' That is the greatest, I tell 
thee, O Spitaman ! of the pure sayings of every 
kind, in so much Avesta lore, this is the best, be- 
cause it is given forth by him who is a very eminent 
producer (madam-kartar) of sayings of every kind. 
2. Which Airman supplication they should recite 
who are beneficial*, and the benefiter 6 , through 
the recital of it aloud, O Spitaman ! becomes pre- 
dominant. 3. The evil spirit, who is heretical (du^- 
d£n6), O Zaratust! with his own creatures, O Spi- 
taman ! becomes buried in the earth ; the evil spirit 
is among those buried in the earth — who are the 
demons — where their bodily form (kalpuafo) is com- 

1 See Pahl. Yas. LII, 9 c. 

* Ibid. 9 d. Compare Chap. XL VII, 17. 

* See Chap. XXIII, in; it is here written Aireman5 in 
Pahlavi. 

* See Pahl. Yas. LIII, 1 and Bk. VIII, Chap. XLIV, 81. 

" Pahl. su</-h6mdnd=Av. saoshyas, referring to the future 
restorer of religion to the world, just before the renovation of the 
universe. 



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CHAPTER XLV, I I-XLVII, 2. 303 

pletely shattered. 4. And up the dead are arrayed 
by it ; through its assistance they give life back 
unto the body, and the embodied life they then pos- 
sess is such that they do not die.' 

5. It is perfect is the excellence of righteousness ; 
it is perfect excellence that is righteousness. 



Chapter XLVII. 
Bako Nask. 



1. Propitiation for the creator Auharma^ and all 
angels. 

2. The first of the twenty-two farganafe of the 
Bako 1 is the Ahunavair 2 of the Bakan 3 , about 
the production by Auhanna^, before every creation 
apart from the archangel *, and on the solicitation of 



1 The third of the Nasks and fourth of the Gathic division (see 
Bk. VIII, Chap. I, 9, 12). It is an analytical commentary upon 
the Gathas and the texts associated with them in the two preceding 
Nasks, devoting a separate fargarrf to each ha, and selecting very 
short phrases, or portions (A v. bagha), for explanation and 
comment ; so short that it is usually difficult to identify them in 
their Pahlavi disguise. The first three fargan/s are still extant in 
Yas. XIX-XXI, and a translation of their Pahlavi versions will be 
found in the Nask Fragments at the end of this volume; but 
whether the Pahlavi versions, consulted by the writer of the 
Dinkartf, were identical with those in the present Yasna is un- 
certain. 

8 The name of the Yath£-ahu-vairyd formula (see Bk. VIII, 
Chap. I, 7). This farganf is still extant in Yas. XIX. 

8 That is, ' of the apportionments,' or ' of those analyzed.' 

4 Possibly the archangel Vohuman, the first of the creatures, 
may be meant ; although the Bundahij places his creation after the 
recitation of the Ahunavair (see Bd. I, 21-23). That it was 



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304 viNKARD, BOOK IX. 

the archangel, of the form of words (rastakS mi- 
/aya) which is the innermost and most comprehen- 
sive encompassment (parvand) and best-congre- 
gated embodiment (v£h-ramaktum kerp6) of the 
intelligent omniscience of the religion \ 

3. The divisions of this germ of germs, and the 
origin of the other primitive sayings of the good 
religion, are the divisibility of the portions (bak6) 
of the Ahunavair. 4. The Ahu of the Ahu-vairy6 
of the Ahunavair is the first creature 2 which, as 
regards the first, is specially that creature which is 
really derived from the creator AHharmazd, and its 
adaptation is owing to mankind. 5. The thought 
(mit) s that exists with the first is with the word 
that is Vairy6, his 'will,' which is in the second 
created existence (damih), which, as regards the 
first, is specially the primitive secondary state (daafi- 
garlh) of those who are specially characterised by 
it, who exist as it were with that character, and 
have become, in that way, in association with the 
second creature. 6. The conjunction of the first 
creature — whose origin (yehevuni^no), which is 
the liturgy, is a co-existence whose origin had oc- 
curred — is the source for the saying; and the dis- 
tribution of the portions thereof is the whole saying 
of a liturgical kind; also its name is Yatha-ahu- 
vairyd, the spirit through which it is set going is the 
lore of the religion, needful among the creatures, 
the creations arose through wisdom for that purpose, 
and they, too, were produced on the solicitation of 

recited before the other creations is clearly stated in Pahl. Yas. 
XIX, 2-5, 17-20. 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XIX, 24-27. 

* Ibid. 29. * Ibid. P&z. mit=Av. maiti=manas. 



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CHAPTER XLVII, 3-IO. 305 

the archangel 1 ; besides this, that archangels are 
wise in speaking, and through wisdom are they 
archangels. 

7. And this, too, about the same words, that the 
statement is the best-worded which is spoken, or 
to be spoken 2 ; and the obscurity is not about the 
sound of the word-elements, but about the manifold 
nature of the actual meaning (kabedih-i sang-1^6), 
which is the character of the statement, in the words 
of the epitome. 8. This, too, that mankind guard 
the soul from hell by learning, reciting, and prac- 
tising it, and the body from death 3 by likewise per- 
petually persevering therein. 

9. This, too, that, as to the first apportionment 
of the Ahunavair, whose name is the Bakan Ahu- 
navair, when, thoroughly accomplishing it (ava- 
viafar) unanxiously (asu^akiha), one chants it in 
a ceremonial, the good work is as when one 
chants a hundred authorities (raafth) of the Gathas, 
thoroughly accomplishing them unanxiously*; and 
when, accomplishing it (vidfar) anxiously, one chants 
it, such a ceremonial amounts to' as much as ten 
with any other authority 6 . 10. This, too, that, 
through the same apportionment, while one solem- 
nizes the summing up of the first completion 6 , 
which is the StdaT-yart, as it becomes the rite of 
one newly initiated (navak-n^par) 7 , on that day 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XIX, 20. J Ibid. 24. s Ibid. 25, 26. 

4 Ibid. 6, -j. The MS. has fa instead of -#:> ' ioo,' by 
mistake. 

8 Ibid. 8. The MS. has ' unanxiously ' by mistake. 

• Possibly Yas. LIX, 32-34. 

7 Commonly called Ndnabar (see Sis. X, 2, XIII, 2 ; Dd. 
LXXIX, 4, 11, 12). 

[37] X 



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306 d!nka/u>, book ix. 

they make the soul of the solemnizer pass three 
times into the supreme heaven 1 . 

ii. About the grievous sinfulness of imperfectly 
accomplishing (aviafar) the Bakan Ahunavair 2 . 

1 2. This, too, that it is made by him in subjection 
to AuharmasaT, as the first creature made, who gives 
the body in service to him who is the ruler, and 
in discipleship to him who is the high-priest of the 
religion 3 ; for this reason, because they are suitable 
for lordship and mastership in the worldly existence. 
13. He who is the highest lord and master is the 
creator Atiharmazd, and, owing to the same reason, 
when it made their subjection that to the creator 
Atiharmazd, he has made it as the first creature 
made. 

14. This, too, that it is taught by it to keep the 
body in the service of the king of kings 4 , whose 
origin Auhanma2*/ keeps in his possession ; for this 
reason, because, when . his origin is kept in the 
possession of Atiharmaxd, Atiharmazd is over his 
own if a good ruler is made ; him who is thus pre- 
pared, when also the worldly existence is necessary 
for Auharmasa?, he maintains as ruler when the 
creation is instructed. 

15. This, too, that the reward of Vohuman is 
appropriated (khv6sinla?6) by him who indicates 
anything which is virtuous, who also utters virtuous 
recitation, and who likewise teaches perfect absti- 
nence from sin to mankind 6 . 16. For this reason, 
because the indication of anything virtuous, the 
utterance of recitation wisely, and abstinence from 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XIX, 9-1 1. 2 Ibid. 12-15. 

' Ibid. 28, 29. 4 Ibid. 30. * Ibid. 31, 32. 



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CHAPTER XLVII, 1 1-20. 307 

sin are, as it were, a lodgment materially in good 
people owing spiritually to the archangels, Vohu- 
man being more particularly the instigator therein ; 
and, owing to the same reason, he in whom there is 
a like proficiency is of like good works with Vohu- 
man, and adapted to the good works arises the like 
reward. 

17. This, too, that the dominion is given to 
Auhafmasr^ by him who may perform those works, 
is manifest from the phrase Tarf mazda tava 
khshathrem, &c. and its meaning, which is this: 
' That, O AuhannasoM is this dominion of thine, by 
which benefits (vehagan6) are given to him who is 
justly living and poor 1 .' 18. Which is a deliverance 
for this reason, because Auhannas*/ created no do- 
minion for the more particular preservation of the 
poor and the creatures of the worldly existence from 
the destroyer ; but, for the purpose of control over 
the dominion of him whose strength of rule is the 
cause of preservation for the poor — which is con- 
tinually the wish of AuharmasraJ — the dominion is 
given to Auharmaswf. 

19. And this, too, that, through preservation 
from the adversary, he has assisted his poor who 
have preserved friendship for the Spitaman 2 ; the 
adversity of the creatures is the advancement of 
religion, by supporting the religion ; and a friend of 
the Spitaman becomes an assistant of the supporters 
of religion. 20. About the entrance (den ya tun- 
da kih) of the destroyer of the creatures from with- 
out 3 , and the helplessness of the beneficent spirit 
owing thereto. 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XIX, 35, Yas. LIII, 9 d, and Chap. XLV, 10. 
a Ibid. 36. 8 Ibid. 39. 

X 2 



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308 dIkkajw, book ix. 



21. About the girding on of this saying of the 
religion of Auharmastf by the three degrees (paaf- 
man), which are good thoughts, good words, and 
good deeds; by the four classes, which are priest- 
hood, warriorship, husbandry, and artisanship ; and 
by the five chieftainships, which are house-rule, 
village-rule, tribe-rule, province-rule, and the su- 
preme Zaratu-rtship ; and the one summing up 
(hangeraftkih) which is the liberality of the good 
ruler 1 . 

22. Righteousness is perfect excellence. 



Chapter XLVIII. 
Baktf Nask. 



i. The second fargard? is the Ash em 2 of the 
Bakan 3 ; it is by it that perfect excellence is pro- 
duced for every one who produces for any one else 
that which is suitable for him 4 ; for this reason, 
because, for the sake of perfect production, there is 
much unprofitable production, but profitable pro- 
duction is suitably producing. 2. This, too, that 
the reward of every good work is given by it to 
mankind, which keeps mankind in diligence when 
it instructs 6 ; because, as the business of all good 
works is that which instructs and keeps mankind 
in diligence, the reward of good works which man- 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XIX, 44-55. 

2 See Chap. Ill, in; it is here expressed by its Pahlavi 
equivalent ahar&yih. This fargarrf is still extant in Yas. XX. 

8 See Chap. XLVII, 2. « See Pahl. Yas. XX, 1. 

8 Ibid. 2. 



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CHAPTER XLVII, 2I-XLIX, 4. 309 

kind can appropriate by diligence is appropriated 
by it. 3. And this, too, that advancement is given 
by it to every good work l . 

4. He who is understanding good works, and yet 
a suppliant, has thereby made the learned foolish 
{dzka akhantdftnWd) ; whoever possesses authority 
through virtuousness 2 is more particularly for re- 
warding the doers of good works ; whoever, too, 
can make true decision 3 and adjudication is more 
particularly for causing the bridge judgment of a 
criminal, and for thrusting him aside owing to the 
exhaustion of his good works ; and whoever, too, 
can exercise mediation and wisdom is more par- 
ticularly for the good government of the world. 

5. Of righteousness the excellence is perfect. 



Chapter XLIX. 
Bak8 Nask. 



1. The third fargaraf is the YeNhe-hatSm 4 : 
there is here taught by it the worship of Auhar- 
mas*/, which is the law of Atiharmazd, that is, its 
law is virtuous 5 . 2. This, too, that the worship 
of Atiharmazd is occasioned by it, which is the 
asking for life for beings 6y mankind 8 . 3. And 
this, too, that the ritual of the males and females 
of the righteous occurs through it, which is the 
obeisance for the archangels 6 . 4. And the atone- 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XX, 3. * Ibid. 4. » Ibid. 5. 

4 See Chap. IV, in; it is here written Ydnhfi-hitam in 
Pahlavi. This fargaitf is still extant in Yas. XXI. 
6 See Pahl. Yas. XXI, 1. « Ibid. 2, 3. 



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310 bInkard, book ix. 

mentor crimes (va^aginS), because it is a grati- 
fication, is all for Ahha.rmazd personally therefrom ; 
and in connection therewith it amounts to a gratifi- 
cation for Abha.rmazd. 

5. Here one mentions three particulars x which are 
in one's worship of Auharmaaa? of every description. 

6. One is when the design (di^o) of the person is 
virtuous, because it is restrained by some virtuous- 
ness of thought; this is that which amounts to 
worship and obeisance for Aixharmazd personally. 

7. One is when it teaches an asking for life for man- 
kind, and its ordinance is the protection, nourish- 
ment, and other assistance and gratification of man- 
kind ; a friend of the primitive worldly creation of 
mankind produced it, and it comes into connection 
with the bridge judgment of mankind, for the wor- 
ship and gratification of Auharmasr*/. 8. And one 
is when one would celebrate the obeisance for the 
archangels, which is for the sake of strengthening 
the archangels, each separately, in their control of 
the business of preparing and managing the world ; 
because it is declared by revelation that to worship 
is this, that the ceremonial may reach this bridge 2 
in company with one (pa^vand), for the worship 
and gratification of Auharmasof; the archangel who 
is to be strengthened by the ceremonial is one, and 
mankind are developed by the strength of the 
archangel. 

9. Of righteousness perfect is the excellence. 



• SeePahl.Yas. XXI, 3. 

• The K\vmA bridge (see Chap. XX, 3). 



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CHAPTER XLIX, 5-L, 5. 311 

Chapter L. 
BakX Nask. 

1. Propitiation for the creator Auharma^, and 
a scornful dole /or the evil spirit. 

2. The fourth fargan/ is the Yanlm-mand 1 of 
the Bako, about the praise of Zaraturt, that is, his 
jurisdiction, invocation of blessing (yan6) 2 , and 
speaking in reply were such as are declared by the 
sacred text. 3. This, too, that that jurisdiction of 
his arose before the blessing, that is, this one de- 
cision is made by him about his own, that his own 
person is first made deserving by him through virtue, 
and then virtue is prayed for by him 3 . 

4. This, too, that he has attributed the source 
and result to Auharmas*/, who gives joy to Auhaf- 
mzzd; for the source and result ^various advan- 
tages and various joys are desirable for joy itself, as 
joy is the acme (r6£jman) of every happiness of 
him whose joy has made an offering (aust6fri</6) 
to Atiharmazd, because his decision is this, that by 
him whose joy arises from that thing which is the 
will of Atiharmazd, its source and result are attri- 
buted to Auharmas^. 5. This, too, that the good 
work, which is a gratification by lawful gratifiers 4 , 
becomes appropriated by him who shall perform 
that which is truly reverent ; even for this reason, 
because he who is a lawful gratifier of others, through 
true reverence, has intended to gratify through the 
practice of his reverence, and, when thus the grati- 
fier of those persons, the good work of gratification 

1 See Chap. V, 1 n. » See PahL Yas. XXVIII, o. • Ibid. 1 a. 
* Ibid. 2 c. 



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312 dInkard, BOOK IX. 

by lawful gratifiers becomes appropriated. 6. This, 
too, that the wisdom of Vohuman 1 is advanced by 
him who utters a discourse through Vohuman ; for 
this reason, because the wisdom of Vohuman and its 
advancement are mostly through discourse. 7. This, 
too, that the plentifulness and satisfaction of cattle l 
are taught by him who properly maintains the cattle 
which are in his possession ; even for this reason, 
owing to the multitudes thus belonging to him who 
properly maintains the cattle which are in his pos- 
session, he gains his profit and pleasure therefrom, 
and others, who see that gain, are instructed, even 
as much as he, about the proper maintenance of 
cattle for their own profit and pleasure. 

8. This, too, that benefit 2 being given for the 
benefit of the worthy man is taught by him who 
keeps the benefit that is his as the property of the 
sacred beings ; even for this reason, because he 
gives the benefit that is his unto the worthy man for 
the purpose of keeping it for the advantage of the 
sacred beings, and others are instructed about it. 

9. This, too, that prosperity 8 being given, in both 
existences 2 , to him who is generous and worthy is 
taught by him who gives benefit to a worthy man 
possessing body and life; even for this reason, 
because a worldly existence and a spiritual one are 
both his, also his worldly existence is in this exist- 
ence, and the spiritual one in that existence where- 
from satisfaction for the giving of benefit arrives. 

10. This, too, that by him who shall cause reverence 4 
of the good, even this is taught, that the sacred 

» See Pahl. Yas. XXVIII, 1 c, where Pt4 and Mf* have 
Vohflman instead of valman. 
* Ibid. 2 b. s Ibid. 2 c. « Ibid. 4 b. 



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CHAPTER L, 6-14. 313 

beings gratify him who is practising their will ; even 
for this reason, because good for him, by whom the 
reverence is practised, becomes the reply of satisfac- 
tion, and the throne of the sacred beings is certain. 

1 1. This, too, that he who was at first has taught 
even this to mankind, that supplicants 1 for the 
favour of the sacred beings gratify the sacred beings 
by being contented (■pa.dvdz) ; even for this reason, 
because the welcome of a sacred being, supplied by 
command from the religion, is a virtuousness in the 
world distinct from that, and the production of a 
course of generosity, from the sacred beings to man- 
kind, arises really through the contentment of the 
favoured ; and mankind thereby become freer from 
doubt, and believe more in the sacred beings. 
1 2. This, too, that his soul is delivered, or will be 
delivered, into the supreme heaven 2 , who has given 
something to him who praises the sacred beings and 
the good ; even for this reason, because even through 
liberality as to wealth, and the production of a way 
to the supreme heaven, it is manifest that anything 
given to the praisers of the sacred beings and the 
good is a greater liberality. 1 3. This, too, that the 
reverence 3 of those needing reverence is occasioned 
by him who teaches the sacred word (viiak6) to 
the good ; even for this reason, because he who is 
a good teacher of revelation (d6n6) can bring it into 
use for the reverence, advantage, and joy of the 
sacred beings and the good. 

14. This, too, that acquaintance with the religion 
of Auhafmazdf s is disclosed to his own by him who 
loves Vohuman ; even for this reason, because true 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXVIII, 4 c. • Ibid. 4 a. ' Ibid. 4 b. 

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314 dJnka*d, book ix. 



knowledge arises from the discrimination of pure 
wisdom, and the pure attainment of the most dis- 
criminative spiritual lord (ah v6) to the mind, through 
the purity that constitutes the way within the mind 
of a spiritual lord, the purity which becomes that 
way through the lodgment of Vohuman there. 
1 5. This, too, that righteousness is taught * by him 
who keeps his mind connected with righteousness ; 
even for this reason, because his mind attains to an 
effort for authority, and, ridden by the effort, attains 
to its acquisition. 16. This, too, that by him who 
gives commands about the progress of the concerns 
of Auharmastf?, this is also taught to mankind, namely, 
when one sees the throne of Auharmas^ 2 ; even for 
this reason, because it is possible to see that throne 
through the complete progress of the will of Auhar- 
msusd in the world ; and whoever gives commands 
about the progress of the concerns of Auharmazrf, 
the will of Auharmas*/ is necessary in him, the pro- 
gressive share of those concerns for the people of 
the world being shown, which is seen even through 
that foundation of completeness that becomes the 
throne of A&harmazd for mankind. 

1 7. This, too, that by him who welcomes Auhar- 
mzzd in himsztt 8 , matters only known by even a high- 
priest are then taught to mankind ; even for this 
reason, because instruction and knowledge are mostly 
those through a high-priest, and by him who wel- 
comes Auharmasaf in himsetf, a spiritual lord is then 
prayed for, who becomes glorious and praised for 
that which is to be taught, and mankind are taught 
by him. 18. This, too, that by any one good, who 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXVIII, 4 c. ' Ibid. 5 b. s Ibid. 6 a. 



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CHAPTER L, 15-22. 315 

is a servant and pleaser of a good ruler, a good 
person may be brought forward, to him who is the 
ruler, for benefit 1 ; even for this reason, because a 
good man associates other good people with him in 
the benefit that happens to him, and his character, 
temper, and disposition are thus due to that; but 
when bringing himself forward to rulers, through 
reverence and gratification of the rulers, other good 
people may also be brought forward by him for that 
benefit. 19. This, too, that by him who shall vir- 
tuously make an accumulation, the way of pros- 
perity 2 from the sacred beings is disclosed to his 
own ; even for this reason, because virtuous accumu- 
lation is provided through unnumbered (apenavaafo) 
grants of a decider, and, when it is so, he becomes 
the treasurer of the sacred beings. 

20. This, too, that by him who produces ad- 
vantage for the archangels, the gift of him who is 
suitable for the sovereignty 3 of the immature (kham) 
world is solicited ; even for this reason, because the 
advantage which is produced for the ' archangels 
being for the sake of his own, the advantage of the 
immature creation solicited — the supreme advantage 
of the primitive good creations — becomes a virtuous 
ruler. 21. This, too, that by him who is a praiser 3 
^an archangel, the good religion is praised ; even 
for this reason, because the good religion is praise of 
the archangels, and the praise of the archangels is 
the good religion. 22. This, too, that the religion 
of the sacred beings is made progressive 3 by him 
who shall make an offering (austdfrlafo) to the 



1 See PahLYas. XXVIII, 6 b. * Ibid. 7 a. 

8 Ibid. 7 c. 



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3l6 vtNKARD, BOOK IX. 



sacred beings ; even for this reason, because making 
an offering to the sacred beings strengthens the up- 
holders of religion, and the progress of religion 
occurs through upholders of religion. 

23. This, too, that by him who shall make man- 
kind quite zealous (garem6k&) for doing good works, 
the reward of the good works is also made liberal 
for mankind ; even for this reason, because the pro- 
ducer of the origin is also the producer of the result. 
24. This, too, that above the multitude is the praise 
of the man who is assisting those of virtuous will, 
who is also the nourishment of the creatures through 
virtuousness, and whose accumulation is also owing 
to virtuousness ; even for this reason, because who- 
ever is assisting those of virtuous will is an increaser 
of virtuousness in the world, whoever is the nourish- 
ment of the creatures through virtuousness is a pro- 
ducer of the paternity of creatures, and he whose 
accumulation is owing to virtuousness becomes an 
improver of the world. 25. This, too, that by him 
who assists him who is ignorant (khast), is given 
and taught to supplicants that which is suitable for 
them. 26. To assist him who is ignorant is this, 
such as forming the province, district, domain, and 
family ; maintaining the abode and house of a fol- 
lower of Virtisp (Vistas/ano), the fortress and 
stronghold, and the homestead (khan) of the agri- 
cultural peasant ; repairing a rugged road ; building 
bridges over rivers ; managing a river, aqueduct, or 
brook ; populating desolate places ; and doing other 
things, owing to which any retention (glrift-a£) of 
the comfort and advantage of mankind in the world 
occurs. 27. And by him who shall do these things, 
the assistance even of him who is born afterwards, 



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CHAPTER L, 23-3O. 317 

the making of that which is a very advantageous 
thing suitable for mankind, and also the doing of 
this for others, are taught. 

28. This, too, that it is revealed (/§asht6) of the 
spiritual existence that that which is wisdom is for 
Atih&rmazd, for him who is wisdom — that is, it 
teaches that acquired wisdom is for him whose in- 
nate wisdom is good — even for this reason, because 
the spirit, this that has come into his possession, 
which is acquired wisdom, is given by it to the 
progeny of Auharmazaf, which is innate wisdom, to 
increase it; and Ahharmazd is gratified thereby. 

29. Of a summary about the continuance that 
was, the progress of the material existence, and the 
continuance that will be 1 , there is also this : — about 
the continuance that was, which is the beginning, 
there are the essential thought and beneficent pro- 
duction of the good and evil material existence of its 
good goodness, and that of its evil vileness ; about 
the progress of the material existence, which is inter- 
mediate, there are the dutiful doing of good works, 
righteousness, and having reward, the committal of 
crime, wickedness, and having the bridge penalty ; 
and about the continuance that will be, which is the 
last, there are the government, with wisdom, of that 
supremely good one who is the origin of all the 
multitudinous creatures (vaslkan), the triumph of 
goodness over vileness, the admissibility of the 
good, the inadmissibility of the bad, and the purity 
of the restoration of the good creatures. 

30. Of righteousness perfect is the excellence. 

1 The three periods of the universe : — the past eternity, the pre- 
sent existence, and the future eternity. 



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318 dInkard, book ix. 

Chapter LI. 

Bako Nask. 

i. The fifth fargan/, Khshmaibya 1 , is about 
this, that complaint is made by G6j-aurvan 8 that 
there did not exist any one who properly keeps the 
cattle that are in his possession; even for this 
reason, because cattle are increased by such, and 
others, through design (ahang) and a desire for that 
increase, act by his example and keep cattle pro- 
perly ; but the complaint of G6^-aurvan is that he 
does not exist. 2. This, too, that by him who gives 
orders about the advancement of the concerns of the 
sacred beings, the care of cattle is produced, and his 
soul attains to the sacred beings ; even for this reason, 
because the care of cattle is a principal thing in the 
advancement of the concerns of the sacred beings, 
and also for the preservation of the soul. 3. This, too, 
that by him who keeps cattle with a controller (das- 
t6bar) who is a cattle-master 3 , even a friend of him 
who is the creator of cattle is taught to the cattle — the 
cattle-master and he who is wise in the nourishment, 
protection, and multiplication of cattle — even for this 
reason, because when his cattle are kept with a con- 
troller who is a nourisher, protector, and multiplier 
of cattle, the friendship of a nourisher for the 
nourished, of a protector for the protected, and of 
a multiplier for the multipliable is also exhibited by 
him ; and the design of the creator for the creation, 
through affection, is that of a nourisher for the 
nourished, of a protector for the protected, and of 
a multiplier for the multipliable. 

1 See Chap. VI, 1 n; it is here written khshmaib&in Pahlavi. 
• See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 1. ' Ibid. 2 a. 



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CHAPTER LI, 1-8. 319 



4. This, too, that by him who maintains an animal 
with propriety, it is presented to the sacred beings ; 
even for this reason, because when it is maintained 
by him with propriety, the will of the sacred beings 
drives him on, and when the will of the sacred beings 
drives him on, it is presented by him to the sacred 
beings. 5. This, too, that when one shall admit the 
male of animals at the proper time, the mastery 
(sardarlnl^an6) of the animal is also taught by 
him; even for this reason, because the admission 
of the male of the animals is the essential business 
in the multiplication of cattle, and he who is a multi- 
plier has also taught the mastery of the animals. 
6. This, too, that by him who does not slaughter 
an animal until it attains to full growth, the forma- 
tion of a store for cattle is also taught; even for 
this reason, because, from the increasing cattle pro- 
duced, the profit of mankind arises, and on account 
of the liking of mankind for profit, they persevere 
more fully in cultivating cattle, and provide a store 
for them. 

7. This, too, that it is he who is the more powerful 
of beings — that is, strength is what is more in use by 
him 1 — whose proceeding is for him who is his own, 
so that he supplies that which it is necessary to 
supply ; even for this reason, because needful bounti- 
fulness to one's own needy ones arises through law- 
ful thoughts, lawful thoughts are provided by ex- 
pelling greed, lust, wrath, disgrace, envy, and other 
fiends from the body, and a man expelling a fiend 
from his body becomes of efficient strength. 8. This, 
too, that he is a very powerful person, for invoca- 
tion 1 , supplication, and attaining to good works, 



1 SeePahLYas. XXIX, 3 c. 



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320 d!nkakd, BOOK IX. 



who possesses wealth for the high-priest of the 
priests, who shall also procure decisions and judg- 
ment always justly, and who likewise becomes 
humble and reverent to the good ; even for this 
reason, because the wealth of multitudes of man- 
kind is for maintaining the desires and pleasure of 
the body, for procuring decisions and judgment 
whereto their wishes tend, and for others becoming 
humble and reverent to them even when their de- 
sign is vicious ; but he who possesses wealth for 
invocation and connection with the wisdom of the 
religion, through the high-priest of the religion, 
and shall procure just decisions and judgment, and 
becomes humble and reverent to the good, is a putter 
away of that design and one who, through the put- 
ting away of that design, becomes a capable and 
very powerful person. 

9. This, too, that every one is made to persevere 
at his proper duty, as to any excellent thing, by him 
who holds the reward of the diligent, as the sacred 
beings are proceeding with a pure needy one; for 
this reason, because the toiling of the body of a 
person at his proper duty is induced by a desire of 
reward. 10. This, too, that by him whose mouth 
(ydng) 1 and its appliances are for virtue, the posses- 
sion ofVohuman is then explained, through this mode, 
because the maintenance of the mouth and its appli- 
ances as virtuous becomes so, when, through protec- 
tion and assistance of the good, and defeat and smiting 
of the vile, the reformation of the world occurs ; and 
this, too, is so, when there is an existence of pre- 
paration of the friend of the good and the enemy 



1 SeePahLYas. XXIX, 70 



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CHAPTER LI, 9-I4. 321 

of the vile, and of friendship of the good and enmity 
of the vile, through understanding good and evil ; 
and the understanding of good and evil is through 
possession of Vohuman, and that possession of Vo- 
human becomes also an explainer of Vohuman. 

11. This, too/that by him who gives commands 
about the progress of the concerns of the sacred 
beings, his own knowledge of every kind is also 
developed ; even for this reason, because the com- 
mand being necessary for the personal duty of the 
good, they also develope the knowledge of every 
kind for which that commanding of duty and its 
auspiciousness are suitable. 12. This, too, that by 
him who teaches the good, the good work is then 
appropriated which is also an assistance of Zaratujt 
through speaking of the religion ; even for this 
reason, because, on account of those of the religion 
of Zaratujt who really constitute the renovation of 
the universe, the speaking connected with ZaratUrt — 
through the teaching of the good and teachers not 
of the same religion — and the assistance through 
speaking of the religion become the good work 
appropriated. 

13. This, too, that by him who gives anything 
to that person who praises the sacred beings and 
the good, a throne is appropriated in yonder world 1 , 
even on the mention of it. 14. This, too, that by 
him who is teaching that which is for the propitious, 
the damage that is owing to want of resources * in 
religion is shut out of the world ; even for this 
reason, because, owing to that, he increases the 
resources of religion of every kind, and the ad- 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 8 c. • Ibid. 9 b. 

[373 Y 



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322 niliKARD, BOOK IX. 

vantage therefrom, in the world. 15. This, too, 
that by him who is bringing him who is righteous 
forth to the rulers, for beneficence, the utmost 
assistance is then afforded; even for this reason, 
because an expectation of the utmost beneficence is 
further attached by him to the place of obtainment \ 

16. This, too, that by him who gives himself in 
service unto him who is the supreme king of kings, 
the way of good thinking*, of the assistance of 
pleasure, and of the production of sovereignty by 
Auharma^rf is disclosed to his own ; even for this 
reason, because the original reason of virtue is the 
worthiness of mankind owing to the creator and 
their service unto the creator, and, therefore, as he 
who is a well-ruling monarch is a creator in the 
worldly existence, and z. recompensing (paafS-dahak) 
leader of the creatures who steadfastly give Ihem- 
selves in service to him, it is then given by him to 
the creator also ; and I teach, besides, that the origin 
of the virtue of worthiness, which is attached by the 
creator to his own, is the way that is stated above, 
and other virtue is also disclosed to his own thereby. 

1 7. Righteousness is excellence that is perfect. 



Chapter LI I. 
Bako Nask. 



1. The sixth fargan/, A^-ti-vakhshyi 3 , is this, 
that by him who is a wise upholder of the dignity 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 10 c. 

4 Ibid. 10 b; we should probably read hu-mdnunfrh,' pleasant 
dwelling,' instead of hu-mtnijnih. 
8 See Chap. VII, 1 n; it is here written at-takhshS in Pahlavi. 



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CHAPTER LI, I5-LII, 5. 323 

of a priest's leadership, the priestly assembly 1 wanted 
for performing religious rites (d£n6) is enlarged ; 
for this reason, because the nature of the person, 
whose resources are bounty for the needy, eagerly 
becomes a causer of exertion for the teaching 
(amuk6) of accomplishments. 2. This, too, that by 
him whose habits are virtuous the glorification of 
Auhannas*/ 2 is accomplished and taught ; even on 
this account, for the sake of whatever advantage 
and pleasure are due to virtue, they, indeed, whose 
habits are virtuous, glorify him, moreover, who is the 
creator of those virtuous habits, who is Auharmara? 
himself. 3. This, too, that by him who speaks 
virtuous words the performance even of the worship 
of Vohuman 2 is also taught ; even on this account, 
because of the comeliness and desirableness of virtue, 
the good make it an example and speak virtuous 
words, and virtuous speaking is the worship of 
Vohuman. 4. This, too, that the ceremonial which 
he whose way is virtuous shall accomplish becomes 
greater 3 thereby; even for this reason, because the 
sacred beings come more particularly to the cere- 
monial of those of pure dispositions and virtuous 
ways, and accept it. 

5. This, too, that he who is a producer of benefit 
for promoters of good works becomes an extender * 
of the teaching of religion ; even for this reason, be- 
cause from producing benefit for promoters of good 
works arises an increase of good works, from an 
increase of good works arises further progress of the 
will of the sacred beings, from further progress of 
the will of the sacred beings arises more progress 

• See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 1 a. s Ibid. 1 b. 

5 Ibid. 1 c. * Ibid. 2 a. 

Y 2 



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324 bInkard, BOOK IX. 

of the good religion, and from more progress of the 
good religion arises an extension of the teaching of 
the good religion in the world. 6. This, too, that 
by him who possesses authority through virtue, dis- 
crimination 1 as to the regulation of duties is taught 
to mankind ; even for this reason, because the pos- 
sessor of authority through virtue is a man who 
becomes a decider and ruler, and mankind learn 
and practise to exercise the disposition, habits, and 
custom of rulers. 

7. This, too, that he who is a giver of the needful 
to his own needy ones has given himself to Zarattist ; 
even for this reason, because the needful being given 
to one's own needy ones is the existence of true 
liberality, which is a compendium of the religion of 
Zaratu-st; by him who is thereby ennobled (vis/ti- 
harakanl-aitd) the religion of Zarattist is then put 
on, and whoever has put on the religion of Zaratfot 
[has given himself to Zaratust. 8. This, too, that 
by him who] 2 gives the leadership [to him who is 
suitable for the leadership] 2 even the wisdom of 
that man is increased ; for this reason, because even 
the wisdom of the suitable, through which they ac- 
complish that leadership, when the leadership comes 
to them, grows further with the glory of that duty. 

9. This, too, that he who has to select the better 
of two ways, which are good and bad s , is assisted 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 2 b. 

* The words in brackets are the translation of a passage that 
was inserted in the MS. at the time the folios were patched. The 
original copyist of the MS. has evidently omitted a passage, but 
whether the repairer has made the insertion merely by guessing 
from the context (which is quite possible), or by referring to some 
other MS., is uncertain. 

3 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 3 b. 



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CHAPTER LII, 6-12. 325 

to do so by the benefiters' ordeal of fire and ore ; 
even for this reason, because that is discrimination 
by the eye of wisdom, which is the way of good 
intention, and the benefiters are decisive declarers 
of acquittal and incrimination through fire and metal, 
the two good discriminators ; and when the business 
is of a. different kind, even then both are associates 
in discriminating, and are powerful connections of 
one another. 10. This, too, that he who shall do 
that thing from which advantage of the sacred beings 
arises, is empowered to discriminate truly that which 
is sagacious 1 in thought, word, and deed ; even for 
this reason, because from doing anything for the 
advantage of the sacred beings arises the reign of 
the will of the sacred beings in the world, from the 
reign of the will of the sacred beings in the world 
arises the freedom from danger of the temporal 
existence of the world, and the freedom from danger 
of the temporal existence of the world contributes 
also to the power of him who is sagacious in dis- 
criminating truly as to thought, word, and deed. 

11. This, too, that by him who thinks of the 
affairs of Atiharmzzd the eternity (hamayikih) of 
Auharmasd? 2 and also the consideration of his own 
eternity by Auhamiaz^ are thought of; even on 
this account, because mankind mind and serve 
Auharma^ for the sake of even the hope 2 of 
eternal benefit from him ; and they who think of 
him, through the eternal benefit due to him, are 
themselves increasing that benefit which is eternal, 
and it is thought eternal by him that thinks of that 
eternal thing his own eternity. 12. This, too, that 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 3 c. 2 Ibid. 4 c. 



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326 DiNKA/U), BOOK IX. 

he who restrains a person from reverence of the 
demons, has diverted him from making the world 
sickly; even for this reason, because whoever has 
restrained a person from reverence of the demons, 
has diverted a demon from making the world anar- 
chical and from making the world sickly. 1 3. This, 
too, that by him who shall practise liberality benefit 
for the sun is caused, and by him who shall cause 
benefit for the sun benefit is caused also for the 
nature of the body of mankind; even for this 
reason, because it is declared that the sun has 
progressed through the radiance and glory of the 
liberal, and the nature of the body of mankind is 
preserved by the sun. 

14. This, too, that by him whose desire is for any- 
thing virtuous, and who possesses authority through 
virtue, mankind are controlled to persist (manint- 
rfano) in virtue for receiving a reward * ; even for this 
reason, because he whose desire is virtuous seeks hap- 
piness for every one — a pre-eminent desire for the 
happiness of human existence being the desire of 
mankind for virtue — and by him who requires that, 
and strives for it fully, so far as possible for him, any 
one whatever is brought to persist in virtue and to 
constrain the spirit for reward; and by him who 
possesses authority through virtue the continuance 
of mankind in authority and their persistence and 
instruction in virtue are attached to good works 
and are brought to reward. 15. This, too, that by 
him who possesses happiness through appropriation 
of the sacred beings mankind are attached to the 
sacred beings for receiving a reward 2 ; even for this 
reason, because, on account of the possession of 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 10 b. ' Ibid. 10 c. 



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CHAPTER LII, I3-LIII, I. 327 

happiness through appropriation of the sacred beings, 
he possesses it through the assistance and gratifica- 
tion of the good, and mankind shall therefore make 
him an example ; it also becomes a good work for 
them, and they adhere to the sacred beings for re- 
ceiving a reward. 

16. This, too, that by him who produces the 
benediction of him that is a conductor of investi- 
gation and a righteous judge, and who shall also 
occasion the reverence of the good, the teaching of 
the advantage of the righteous 1 is likewise per- 
formed ; even for this reason, because the essentials 
(maaftg&n) of the advantage of the world are two — 
one owing to justice, and one owing to generosity 
— and it is declared that the advantage of him who 
possesses the blessings of the judges is owing to 
the justice of the judges, and the advantage of him 
who is reverent to the good is owing to the gene- 
rosity of the good in developing the world, and 
the righteous teach about it. 

1 7. Righteousness is perfect excellence. 



Chapter LI 1 1. 
BakS Nask. 

1. The seventh fargarrf, Ta-v^-urvata 2 , is that 
by him who possesses advantage through virtue, 
the world of righteousness is freed from 8 destruc- 
tion 4 ; even for this reason, because the possession 
of advantage through virtue arises through the non- 
participation of the demons and the vile therein, 
and the participation of the sacred beings and the 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 11 c. * See Chap. VIII, 1 n. 

8 Assuming that mun, 'which,' stands for min. 
* See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 1 b. 



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328 vlxKARD, BOOK IX. 

good; and, when one shall act so, the advantage 
of spiritual origin becomes more powerful through 
guarding the advantage from the destroyers. 2. 
This, too, that, by him who welcomes Auharmasraf 
in his person, apostates are likewise forced to make 
the religion of Auharmaza? progressive 1 ; even for 
this reason, because owing to* the apostasy of 
apostates being a religion produced by Aharman, 
they are only able to make the religion progressive 
through the appellation of Auharmar^; apostasy 
and priesthood, and the apostates and priests, are 
fraternal opponents, and whenever the priesthood 
and multitudes of the priesthood are triumphant, 
multitudes of the apostates of apostasy perish 
(aosh£nd), and when the multitudes of the apos- 
tates of apostasy are bold, the priests of the priest- 
hood are weak; and the priests are superior in 
power and success when their priesthood is properly 
limited, and their properly-limited priesthood, too — 
which can arise through mankind— consists in the 
welcome precedence of Auharmasaf. 

3. About the completeness (s/6riklh) of the 
priesthood in that quality now, when the priests of 
the multitude are the habitation (m£h6no) of Auhaf- 
vcazd, and the power of the priests of the priesthood 
has increased, the valour of the apostates of apos- 
tasy is smitten, and the apostates are defeated by 
the abundant splendour of the priests, also their 
power as regards making the religion of Aharman 
progressive through the appellation of Auharmasraf 
is fettered, and they keep apostasy concealed 3 . 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 1 c. 

1 Assuming that IS, ' not,' stands for rat. 

5 The passage in the Pahlavi commentary on this Nask, which 



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CHAPTER LIII, 2-7. 329 

4. And then also they, with the appellation of 
priests, truly speak and teach the religion of 
Auhanmasraf, and make it progressive, just as it is 
solemnized and made easy by them, even though 
the will of the sacred beings be unheard and un- 
desired through apostasy. 

5. This, too, that he proclaims the miraculousness 
of Ahharmazd 1 , who shall appoint for ordeal that 
which is certainly a doubt; even for this reason, 
because, through accomplishing an ordeal, that which 
is doubtful is forcibly rendered visible (v^ndvda.- 
haki-att6) to the eyes, as certain clearness, through 
the power of the spirit, which is itself a miracle of 
Auharmaz^. 6. This, too, that by him who shall 
make a public decision thereon, as to the acquitted 
and convicted 2 , gratification is afforded to him 
whose maintenance of the dispute 2 is righteous ; 
even for this reason, because the needful is de- 
livered by him to its own requirer who thereby 
becomes even renowned. 7. This, too, that even 
the rite of ordeal [is produced] 8 by him [who is an 
advantage to the righteous ; for this reason, because 
the rite of ordeal is for the advancement of the 
ordeal, and the religious ordeal] proceeds through 
sovereignty; these righteous are those of the good 
religion, and their advantage is that belonging to 
the multitude, which is the sovereignty now, and 
every one who is given for that advantage, to the 

is here described, must evidently have been written shortly after 
some great triumph of the priesthood over some heresy, probably 
either that of Mint, or that of Mazdak. 

1 See Pahl.Yas. XXXI, a b. » Ibid. 3 a. 

8 Ibid. 3 b. The words in brackets translate a passage inserted 
in the MS. at the time the folios were patched, like that in 
Chap. LII, 7, 8. 



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33° d!nkard, book ix. 

righteous of those of the good religion, becomes the 
performer of any rite of ordeal really produced, 
because the origin of that giving of advantage is 
even the rite of ordeal. 8. This, too, that by him 
who gives a priest and righteous man for propa- 
gating the religion, the rite of ordeal is also pro- 
claimed; even for this reason, because the teacher 
and one rightly merciful (hu-amur'slafar) give 1 the 
sacred text by which even the rite of ordeal is 
declared. 

9. This, too, that he who recites the revelation of 
Adha.rma.zd, and who shall do it with exceeding 
goodness, becomes an increaser of wisdom ; even for 
this reason, because the wisdom of a man increases 
in these two ways, either he speaks and teaches 
himself, or he exemplifies the excellence of a portion 
to the wise who become speakers and teachers of 
wisdom. 10. This, too, that his homage is for 
Auharmazdf, who thoroughly teaches a righteous 
employer of animals and human beings (klra va- 
vir) that he considers him as their controller (da- 
st6bar) ; because, since the productiveness of the 
completion of the creatures is produced through the 
nourishment of the creatures by Auharma^ through 
his fulfilling his own productiveness, that righteous 
employer in the world is intended for the nourish- 
ment of his creatures, owing to that outward sub- 
jection and propitiation of theirs, and the righteous 
employer is connected with their subjection and pro- 
pitiation for the creator. 

1 1 . This, too, that by him who gives thought to 
the religion of Zaratfot, the soul is given to Zara- 

1 Assuming that yehevund, ' they are/ stands for yehabund. 



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CHAPTER LIU, 8-1 5. 33! 

tfot; even for this reason, because with a man's 
having given thought to the religion of Zaratu^t is 
connected the receiving of his soul by Zaratust for 
preservation from hell. 12. This, too, that by him 
who teaches the nature of the sacred beings to man- 
kind, consultation with Auharmazaf is also further 
taught ; even for this reason, because the nature of 
the sacred beings is consulting a spiritual lord, and 
becomes also the consulting of Auha^ma^. 

1 3. This, too, that by him who keeps the produce 
of sheep as the property of Auharmas^, a sheep is 
given to him who is diligent and moderate * ; even 
for this reason, because produce kept as the property 
of Auharmaz^ is for being given for good works, 
being given for good works is being truly kept as a 
beginning for the possession of produce, and a be- 
ginning truly kept is kept even through a sheep, as a 
beginning of excellence, in the control (dast6barlh) 
of him who is a diligent and moderate shepherd 2 . 
14. This, too, that by him who is liberal to the 
liberal the increase owing to developers is brought 
into the world; even for this reason, because a 
liberal man, on account of even that gift given back 
to the worthy, becomes even for us — through the 
development of the world — him who is first praised 
therein with the sacred beings. 15. This, too, that 
whoever shall form a store for sheep, becomes an 
agent even in the development of sheep by the 
creator ; because, on account of the increase of 
sheep through the existence of nourishment for 
them having arisen, whoever has arranged nourish- 
ment for sheep, becomes an agent even in the de- 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 10 a. 2 Ibid. 10 b. 



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332 dInkajid, BOOK IX. 

velopment of sheep by the creator. 1 6. This, too, 
that by him who teaches inward prayer (v<$£ak5) 
to the good, it is also taught to eaters ; even for this 
reason, because, everything connected with eating 
being declared by the religion, when the religion is 
taught by any one to the good, in which even that 
information is proclaimed, even eaters are taught 
about it. 17. This, too, that whoever maintains a 
sheep, or human being, as our property, is taught 
to maintain it through the high-priest of Zaraturt ; 
even for this reason, because it is so maintained as 
the property of the sacred beings, when he main- 
tains it as the property of Zaraturt. 

18. This, too, that by him who gave predomi- 
nance to those of the nature of Gaydman/ 1 , the 
sovereignty also of those of the religion of Zaraturt 
is desired ; even for this reason, because the religion 
of Zaratust is the nature of Gay6mara?, and the 
nature of Gay6manjf is the religion of Zaraturt. 
19. This, too, that when one is alone among rulers 
a way of speaking to the rulers such words as are 
really true is thereby provided ; even for this 
reason, because the utterance of blessings by a soli- 
tary person is for advantage. 20. This, too, that by 
him who keeps the sovereignty which is his within 
the will of Auhafmas*/, the best thing is done unto 
Auharmaswf; even for this reason, because a sove- 
reignty is so kept within the will of Auharma^ when 
he who is the ruler gives to Auharmaa/ the indi- 
viduality in which is the sovereignty, and when its 
proximity and closeness have given to Auharma^ 
that thing which is best and supreme. 

21. This, too, that when one teaches the sayings 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 11 b, and Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 1. 



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CHAPTER LIU, 1 6-2 5. 333 

(vdhako) of the benefiters, the information which is 
owing to the religion is illustrated 1 by him to his 
own ; even for this reason, because the knowledge 
of religion, which is in its causing liberality by him, 
is increased even by the repeated enquiry of dis- 
ciples. 22. This, too, that by him who teaches an 
applicant the virtuous way and doctrine (pand) the 
liturgy is then taught ; even for this reason, because 
knowledge arises through the virtuous course of the 
liturgy 2 . 23. This, too, that by him who thinks of 
the affairs of virtue, the liturgy is maintained and 
taught with virtuousness 2 ; even for this reason, 
because the maintenance of the liturgy with vir- 
tuousness arises through virtuous thinking. 

24. This, too, that whoever shall provide the 
nourishment of creatures with propriety, his Vohu- 
man {good thought) is Auharniazafs progeny s ; and 
whoever properly maintains those which are in his 
keeping, his position becomes AuhannazaPs father- 
hood of Vohuman 4 ; even for this reason, because 
every proper nourishing is that in which the 
nourished becomes an offspring such as Vohuman 
unto Auharmasaf; and every proper protection of 
the creatures, over those which are protected by it, 
is a fatherhood such as that of Auharmasrf over 
Vohuman. 25. This, too, that by him who shall 
provide nourishment with propriety for the creation 
which is good, it is taught that the good creation 
was produced by Auharmas^; even for this reason, 
because from the nourishment of the creation with 
propriety, together with the discriminating action of 
the nourisher, the goodness of the nourished is also 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 6 a. ■ Ibid. 6 b. 

3 Ibid. 8 a. 4 Ibid. 8 b. 



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334 d!nkaju>, book ix. 



evident, from the goodness of the nourished creation 
the goodness of him who is its creator is evident, 
and the creator of the good creation is Auharmas^ 
himself. 

26. This, too, that whoever shall spiritually make 
Auharmas^ the ruler over his own person becomes 
a ruler as to actions l ; even for this reason, because 
whoever is making Auharma^ ruler over his person 
is a leader of wisdom, a leader of wisdom is a 
decider taking account of sin and good works, 
taking account of sin and good works is abstaining 
from sin and practising good works, and owing to 
abstinence from sin and practising good works one 
becomes a ruler over actions. 27. This, too, that 
Spendarmad? 2 is given to Auharmasu? by him who 
is as reverent unto Auharma^ as a daughter unto 
a father ; even for this reason, because the Spen- 
darmadic nature (S/enda^ma^lh) is provided by 
him for Ahha.rmazd. 

28. This, too, that for him who thinks of the care 
of cattle there arises that wisdom 3 which the control 
(patih) of cattle gives ; even for this reason, because 
the nature of the wisdom for a production of cattle 
is provided in mankind, and, when mankind apply 
their thoughts to seeking that wisdom, they obtain 
it. 29. This, too, that by him who is admitting the 
male to cattle at the proper time, the care of cattle 
is also thought of; even for this reason, because 
the admittance of the male becomes productiveness, 
and whoever 4 would cause productiveness thinks 
also of nourishment. 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 8 c. 

J Ibid. 9 a, and Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3. » Ibid. 9 a. 

* Assuming that min, ' from,' stands for mun. 



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CHAPTER LIII, 26-33. 335 

30. This, too, that by him who has prepared 
himself for the priests the way to yonder 1 world is 
taught ; even for this reason, because the way to 
yonder world is declared by the religion, and its 
indicator is the priest; therefore, by him who is 
prepared for the priests, through discipleship, that 
way is known and is made known. 31. This, too, 
that in him who shall do that which is something 
that is an assistance to the renovation of the universe, 
thoughts of the bounty (dahlh) of the creator arise ; 
even for this reason, because creativeness is through 
thinking of the renovation, thinking of the renova- 
tion arises through the renovation, the renovation 
arises through anything which is done that is an 
assistance of the renovation, the doing of anything 
that is an assistance of the renovation is through 
thinking of sagacity, and thinking of sagacity be- 
comes thoughts of the bounty of the creator. 

32. This, too, that by him who loves the affairs 
of the archangels a heart and mind 2 , for not being 
misled from the way of the sacred beings, are 
recommended to mankind ; even for this reason, 
because from the religion of the sacred beings being 
loved arises increasing power of the sacred beings, 
from the increasing power of the sacred beings 
arises their greater authority among mankind, and 
from the greater authority of the sacred beings 
among mankind arises the resistance of heart and 
mind of mankind, even in their not being misled by 
the very demons. 33. This, too, that whoever shall 
act with reverence to Vohuman sees the sin which 
is concealed in him mingled with good works there- 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 9 b. * Ibid. 12 b. 



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336 DiNKARi), BOOK IX. 

by ' ; even for this reason, because reverence for 
Vohuman becomes submission (herih) in virtuous- 
ness, with virtuous submission are connected free- 
dom from Kikship and from Karapship 2 , and with 
freedom from Kikship and from Karapship is con- 
nected one sound of life and eye, whereby he is an 
observant decider, and atonement for sin arises 
from good works. 

34. This, too, that by him who shall provide 
liberality for the liberal, the giving of a loan 3 to 
mankind is also taught ; even for this reason, be- 
cause liberal giving by any one is accounting for 
his own debt, and he endeavours to repay it fully 
observantly and with complete gratification ; besides 
that, the power of liberality becomes extendible 
among mankind, and through loans and other gifts 3 
of generosity (dahisnikih) they become ardent. 
35. This, too, that by him who pays homage (fra- 
n4m£af6) to the affairs of Atiharmazd, as much as 
he is able, the non-injury of the innocent is also 
taught ; even for this reason, because to intertwine 
further (fr6 vd( tan 6) with the affairs of Auharmas^, 
as much as possible, is first to commit no sin and 
to perform as many good works as possible, and 
abstaining from the essentials of sin is non-injury 
of the innocent. 36. This, too, that by him who 
possesses a ruler and high-priest Atiharmazd is 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 13 c, where, after homaniA, Ja, Pt4, 
and Mf4 insert the following words: vin&s d6n avo kirfako 
gumtkhto yekavlmun&fl), madam aharayih a^ sardar h6manM. 

2 Pahl. akikth va-akarapth; see Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXV, 
13 n for the two idolatrous priestly tribes here alluded to. On its 
second occurrence the first word is corrupted into akas which 
closely resembles akigih in Pahlavi letters. 

8 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 14 b. 



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CHAPTER LIII, 34-39. 337 

spiritually made ruler over his person * ; even for 
this reason, because, through the requirement of 
Auharma?^, the angels are lord and master of the 
worldly existence of that man. 

37. This, too, that whoever decides duty and 
opinion becomes also an informer of others ; even 
for this reason, because it informs others that he is 
possessing wisdom, and this is what is said, that 
' the wisdom of a man is evident from his deciding 
as to affairs.' 38. This, too, that whoever shall 
provide nurture with propriety becomes also an in- 
dicator (dakhshaklniafar) 2 for others; even for 
this reason, because the happiness of the nurturer 
becomes also a happy indicator even for thee ; and 
this, too, is what one says, that ' always good, happy, 
and free from serfs 3 is he who is not a master of 
vagabonds (pa do-S. puan).' 

39. This, too, that by him who is a ruler who, 
by a command given, appoints him who is liturgical 
(mansarik), and gives anything to him which it is 
desirable to give, the necessary demeanour for 
true and virtuous statements* is taught; even for 
this reason, because the uttering of true and vir- 
tuous statements, in fearlessness 4 of rulers, is owing 
to a well-established sovereignty, and their well- 
established sovereignty is more particularly through 
these two things, good commanding and helpfulness ; 
when they establish that liturgical one by a command 
given it is good commanding, and when they give 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 16 a. " Ibid. 17 c. 

5 Pahl. avaruno; but, as freedom from servants is not exactly 
an Oriental idea of happiness, the word may also be read anS16n5, 
a possible variant of an aid no, ' unlamenting.' 

4 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 19 b. 

[37] Z 



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338 DiNKAJU), BOOK IX. 

anything to him which it is desirable to give the 
helpfulness is provided; also, owing to their good 
commanding, the helpfulness is a good establish- 
ment of the sovereignty, owing to a well-established 
sovereignty there is fearlessness also in uttering true 
and virtuous statements, and, owing to freedom 
from concealment in uttering true and virtuous 
statements, the necessary demeanour for true and 
virtuous statements arises. 40. This, too, that he 
who gives personal service unto the king of kings, 
and who considers the product (bar) as the property 
of Auharmas*/, is empowered for indicating the 
acquitted and convicted 1 by the spirits, his indi- 
cators of the acquitted and convicted ; even for this 
reason, because the person being given in service to 
the king of kings is the preparation (nlvari$n6) of 
subjection, and the product being considered as the 
property of AuhamiazaT is to consider the innocence 
of its origin (bun) and to make the product well- 
selecting (hu-ilnako) through virtuousness ; owing 
to the progress of these two, the virtuousness in the 
world becomes great and increasing productiveness 
for all the good spiritual and worldly existences which 
are in it, even those who are angels indicating the 
acquitted and convicted. 

41. This, too, that by him who becomes immortal 
progress 2 for him who is immortally progressive, 
complete progress 2 is given to him who is com- 
pletely progressive; and its routine (daaftstan), too, 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 19 c. 

'Ibid. 21 a; amarg-rubunih and hamak-rflbi.rnJh are 
Pahlavi translations of Av. ameretarf and haurvatat/, as may be 
seen in Ibid. 6 b. 



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CHAPTER Lin, 4O-46. 339 

is even this, that by him who wishes 1 to make that 
which is his own soul immortal, and would afford it 
assistance, every benefit is given to him who is a 
supplicant for every benefit and becomes a giver of 
every benefit which he begs, which becomes an assist- 
ance to him whom he asks in attaining thereto, 
42. This, too, that whoever gratifies that which is 
enjoyment renders his soul immortal ; even for this 
reason, because the soul subsists through good works, 
and good works are all those which gratify enjoy- 
ment. 43. This, too, that whoever keeps himself 
always in good works 2 has produced perfection and 
happiness by any goodness and worthiness of his ; 
even for this reason, because keeping oneself always 
in good works becomes perfect diligence in industry, 
within perfect diligence in industry is also comprised 
opposition to any harm whatever, and it is opposi- 
tion to harm and perfect goodness that are worthy 
of every happiness. 

44. This, too, that by him who possesses wealth 
as high-priest of the priests, predominance as their 
high-priest is maintained 8 and taught; even for this 
reason, because the provision of sovereignty and its 
progress are really through wealth. 45. This, too, 
that by him who would act for the pleasure of others, 
owing to virtue, the growth and increase owing to 
Vohuman 4 are produced; even for this reason, 
because that which has given virtuous pleasure is 
the nourishment of the creatures by the producer of 
increase and growth. 

46. This, too, that by him who welcomes Auhar- 

1 Written yetibunSrf with mfl above it as a partial correction 
into yezbemlln&d which is evidently the proper word. 
» See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 21a. 5 Ibid. 21b. * Ibid. 21 c. 

Z 2 



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340 DiNKAliD, BOOK IX. 

majzd in himself 1 , and teaches good works to man- 
kind, every virtuous instruction is taught ; even for 
this reason, because the welcoming of Auharma^ 
in oneself is the non-committal of sin, and the teaching 
of good works to mankind is more particularly the 
performance of good works oneself; innocence and 
the practising of good works are the end of every 
instruction, and he in whom they exist becomes a 
teacher of every goodness. 47. This, too, that by 
him who shall occasion benefit through him who is 
a propagator of good works, the evidence of him 
who is well-informed 2 is taught through one well- 
informed ; even for this reason, because the chief 
evidence as to sagacity is to occasion benefit for the 
good. 48. This, too, that by him who gives com- 
mands as to the affairs of Auharmas*/, Auhannasaf 
is made welcome in his person 1 ; even for this reason, 
because the throne of Auharmas^ in the worldly 
existence is more particularly in a ruler of well- 
commanding person. 

49. The excellence of righteousness is perfect. 



Chapter LIV. 
Bako Nask. 



1. The eighth fargantf, Hv aStumaiti 3 , is that by 
him who teaches wisdom to others the not being 
deceived by an apostate into confusing a righteous 
one (aharubS-barljlh) is also taught 4 ; even for 
this reason, because he who has taught is not 
deceived. 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 22 c. » Ibid. 22 a. 

* See Chap. IX, 1 n; it is here written khvamatto in Pahlavi. 
4 See Pahl. Yas. XXXII, 1-4. 



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CHAPTER LIII, 47-LlV, 6. 341 

2. This, too, that by him who is as reverent unto 
Auharmasaf as a daughter unto a father, and who is 
also a gratifier of virtuous doers, Spendarma*/ 1 is 
made one of the archangels, and one is also made to 
love her; even for this reason, because through that 
Spendarmaafic one being reverent unto Atiharm&zd, 
and the gratification of the good by him, the arch- 
angels love and preserve her Spendarmaafic nature 
(S/endarma^!gih). 3. This, too, that he who is 
loving Vohuman is taught by his wisdom not to 
destroy (nasanlnlafonS) 2 the religion of Auhar- 
mazd; even for this reason, because wisdom main- 
tains the religion in virtue, and others are taught 
about it. 

4. This, too, that by him who gives himself in 
discipleship unto the priests, and who asks again that 
which he does not understand, learning (amuk&) is 
taught ; even for this reason, because the asking/or 

"knowledge again by him who has given himself in 
discipleship to a wise priest, increases knowledge ; 
and the friends of knowledge, therefore, make him 
an example, and shall practise asking again, that 
which they do not understand, from the disciples of 
the priests. 

5. This, too, that whoever is in accordance with 
Zaratujt, through pure affection, becomes, in like 
manner, him who is giving strength to the will of the 
archangels and the commands of the good ; even for 
this reason, because these two capabilities are of the 
special nature of Zaratujt. 6. This, too, that through 
the discrimination of him who loves 8 Vohuman Au- 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXII, 2 c, and Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3. 

* Ibid. 4 c. 

' Ibid. 8 c It is possible to read the verbal stem gdsh, ' hear,' 



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342 d{nkajjd, BOOK IX. 

harmazd is gratified ; even for this reason, because 
one loving Vohuman is loving wisdom and has 
taught wisdom, wisdom taught is discrimination, and 
the discriminator becomes a gratifier of Auharmaz*/. 

7. This, too, that whoever gives thought to the 
religion of Zaratust is taught wisdom ; even for this 
reason, because all the wisdom of the good religion 
is taught to him by giving thought. 8. This, too, 
that whoever has kept wealth in the control 1 of 
Zaratust becomes taught, and is one who is reverent 
to the benefiters ; even for this reason, because who- 
ever is reverent to the supporters of religion keeps 
wealth in the control of the supporters of religion, 
and, when kept by him in their control, it is kept by 
him in that of Zarattot. 

9. This, too, that his destiny is connected with 
himself who practises industry. 10. This, too, that 
his good works for arranging the creation become 
his own who has fully prepared his own person. 

1 1 . The excellence of righteousness is perfect. 



Chapter LV. 

Bako Nask. 

1. The ninth fargar<£ Yathaij 2 , is that by him 
who praises Auharmas*/ his work in the Gathic lore 3 
is taught ; even for this reason, because the reason 
of the praise even of Auharmazaf is for his works, 
and by him who extols any work the performance 

instead of d6sh (Av. zush) ; but this is hardly possible in § 2, and 
gdsht</and is not the usual Pahlavi for 'to hear.' 
1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXII, 9 b. 

* See Chap. X, 1 n; it is here written yataytf in Pahlavi. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XXXIH, 1 a. 



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CHAPTER LIV, 7~LV, 5. 343 

of that work is also taught ; moreover the work of 
Auharmasaf, which is the Gathic lore, is pure good- 
ness. 2. This, too, that by him who increases the 
propagators of good works priestly-controlled action 
(raaftk-kuni.rnlh) 1 is taught; even for this reason, 
because the advancement of merit and the action of 
priestly chieftainship are the two maxims (vaiako) 
of one who, when there is reason, exalts progressive 
merit when he increases the propagators of good 
works; and when progressive merit is exalted priestly- 
controlled action is praised and also taught. 

3. This, too, that what is worthy, and what is 
coveted for every worthy man, is produced by him 
for whom the command of the liturgy is the reckon- 
ing for him who is habitually sagacious ; and this 
statement also indicates the explanation of rulers 
and all who are needing those of the world for one 
combined effort, who, in the immature world, have to 
trust a command that is at one time sagacious. 
4. This, too, that personal assistance is liberally 
given (raaftnldfo) to the creatures of the good beings 
by him whose deeds are an assistance of the renova- 
tion of the universe; and this statement, too, also 
indicates the great power of a.ny good work what- 
ever, because every good work, being an assistance 
of the renovation, becomes liberality to the immature 
(kham) creation. 

5. This, too, that whoever teaches to a son rever- 
ence unto his father has also appropriated the reward 
for reverence unto the creator for teaching that 
person ; even for this reason, because express rever- 
ence unto parents and service to them are connected 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIII, 1 b. 



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344 d1nka*b, book ix. 

with reverence unto the creator and service to him. 
6. This, too, that whoever is personally progress for 
him who is his own 1 — that is, for any one whatever 
among those who are needing him — becomes the 
happiness of the creator who is the maker of the 
original good creations ; and this statement also 
indicates as to whom it is, when, through him whose 
decision is progress — which arises through that which 
occurs when the decision is given that becomes for 
every one that which is needful for him — there is 
happiness that is concentrated. 7. This, too, that 
by him who is causing benefit for him who is a cul- 
tivator cattle 2 are multiplied ; even for this reason, 
because a gratifier of the performers of tillage is 
multiplying tillage, and cattle are the chief tillage of 
the world. 

8. This, too, that the religion which is the way of 
righteousness is made his own 3 by him who is a 
good thinker about the religion of righteousness ; 
and this statement, too, also indicates the limit of 
reliance (a stun 6) upon the good religion; because 
whoever is not a good thinker about the good re- 
ligion, even though he be a reciter of revelation, 
becomes really an apostate; whoever is a good 
thinker, but not about the good religion, becomes 
really an infidel ; and whoever thinks truly becomes 
a good thinker about religious righteousness and the 
statements in the good religion. 9. And about 
three statements, the bringer forward for all man- 
kind is your submission to the sacred beings ; one is 
of the produce (bar), one of the origin (bun), and 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIII, 3 a. 

1 Ibid. 3 b, c. . ' Ibid. 5 c. 



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CHAPTER LV, 6-LVI, 2. 345 

one of the body and life ; that of the produce is the 
exertion from which there is produce, that of the 
origin is the advantage for which the origin is requi- 
site, and that of the body and life is the thought of 
the proposer (raytntrfar), which considered both as 
submission to the sacred beings. 10. This, too, that 
connected with the sitting-place of the sage is the 
excessiveness of the pleasure 1 for those causing 
pleasure, for the upper classes (aparlgano) of Iran, 
and for the energy (patuklh) 1 of the diligent. 
1 1. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness. 



Chapter LVI. 
Bako Nash. 



i. The tenth fargantf, Ya-j^yaothana 2 , is that, 
for him who is practising good works s as much as // 
is possible for him to do, an efficacious reason for 
the renovation of the universe is afforded assistance ; 
even for this reason, when every good work is an 
assistance to the renovation, then — according to the 
declaration that whoever does much more good work 
is more assisting the renovation — by him who is 
practising good works as much as it is possible for 
him to do, an efficacious reason for the renovation is 
afforded assistance. 2. This, too, that the apostate 4 , 
who is the seduction of mankind, is injured by him 
who devotes himself to Auharmas^ ; even for this 
reason, because he is dislodged and is elucidated 

' See Pahl. Yas. XXXIII, 13 a. 

* See Chap. XI, in; it is here written yi-shaotno in 
Pahlavi. 
8 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIV, 1 a. « Ibid. 8 a. 



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346 dInkard, book ix. 

(adlvagl-alt6 r6shanl-altS), and there arises a 
class of mankind who see the admission (parva- 
naklh) of the apostate into hell, and he is disabled 
when it is seen by them. 

3. This, too, that by him who is eager 1 for know- 
ledge, knowledge is grasped and taught ; even for 
this reason, because knowledge is taught through 
that which is the instruction of every science and the 
original desire for it, and mankind shall extol his 
knowledge ; it is also coveted by them for being 
taught, and they mount and grasp it. 4. This, too, 
that to slay 2 an apostate is taught by the good one 
who is united (ha mi-alt) with a good man; even 
for this reason, because the destruction (adsh) of 
Aharman arises from the union of the good. 5. This, 
too, that by him who is a disturber (vishuftar) as 
to Vohuman the production of development through 
Vohumanic rule s is taught ; sinners lawfully sub- 
jected to the bridge judgment (puhallnt^S) for 
Vohumanic disturbance, and the command for it by 
rulers and high-priests, being a preparation for the 
development of the world. 

6. This, too, that a great ordinance 4 is taught by 
him whose ceremonial 6 is for A&harmazd ; even for 
this reason, because a comprehension of Auharmasd? 
and serving him are the foundation of joy (parkin 
bun), and the ownership and concentration (han- 
geraftklh) of all good works are themselves the 
great ordinance of the faithful whose preparation is 
through the ownership, and their welcome is more 
particularly in the ceremonial ; owing to the same 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIV, 9 a. * Ibid. 10 c. 

3 Ibid. 11 b. * Ibid. 12 a, b. * Ibid. 12 a. 



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CHAPTER LVI, 3-IO. 347 

reason, the original possession of the great ordi- 
nance of the ceremonial which is Atiha.rmazd's own, 
and of other good works — even though relating to 
the ceremonial of Auharmasraf of every kind owing 
thereto — is necessary for the manifestation of the 
great ordinance, and is incorporated (ham-tanu) 
with it when it becomes manifest as a great ordi- 
nance, or as more than a great ordinance ; even then 
its extent (viluno) is over this joy. 7. This, too, 
that the performance (sakhtarih) of a ceremonial 1 
of the needy is a gift to the worthy of the creation, 
and a gift to the worthy of the creation is the attrac- 
tion (hakhtarlh) of a ceremonial of the needy. 

8. This, too, that the way of righteousness 2 , also 
that through which that way is seen, and likewise 
the reward of those lonely-labouring (a£var 'slkan) 
therein are taught by him whose deeds are an ad- 
vantage to the sacred beings ; even for this reason, 
because the advantage of the sacred beings is the 
advantage of the multitude, and the advantage of 
the multitude, which is itself the religion of the 
sacred beings that is a guide, is the way of righteous- 
ness and also that through which is the reward of 
those lonely-labouring. 9. This, too, that even the 
reward of a teacher of professionals, which is the 
profit of the profession, is liberally given and appro- 
priated for the professionals taught ; even for this 
reason, because the business of the sacred beings has 
profited by the instruction (amuk6). 

10. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness. 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIV, 12 a. * Ibid. 12 c. 



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348 dInkard, book ix. 

Chapter LVII. 

Bako Nask. 

i. The eleventh fargaraf, the Yasna 1 , is that the 
whole of the good works which are to accomplish, 
and those, too, which are accomplished 2 , are appro- 
priated by the righteous man who teaches virtue 3 to 
the righteous; even for this reason, of the good 
works which one accomplishes, and those, too, which 
are accomplished, there is all one store (anbar), from 
the work (var'26) of the original good creation even 
to the renovation of the universe, and ever afresh the 
teaching of virtue by those who are righteous comes 
to the accumulation of the righteous and the accom- 
plishment of that store, and they, too, are in posses- 
sion of that store, in partnership with the other 
righteous. 2. This, too, that it is because he would 
do the best for his own 4 , whose meditation of the 
liturgy is for those who are archangels, and who 
also maintains, for the assistance of the good, the 
strength which is his for the existences. 3. And 
this statement indicates the great participation of 
any one in that store, because when that store is 
really an accumulation of work on the way, for the 
partners in that store who have done more, and also 
those who have accomplished less, and remains, more- 
over, in the possession of them all, then, as to those 
accomplishing more of it, through the original pos- 
session of most of that work, and also through that 
which occurs when the accomplishers have attained 
to that plenty more particularly owing to their more 
labour, and likewise through the property, liberally, 

1 See Chap. XII, in; it is here written yast6 in Pahlavi. 
* See Pahl. Yas. XXXV, 5. » Ibid. 4. « Ibid. 6. 



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CHAPTER LVH, 1-8. 349 

largely, and lordlily, of those accomplishing more, 
and the indigence, unafflictedly \ scantily, and sub- 
ordinately, of those accomplishing less, it is reason- 
able to speak of that store as in their possession, and 
of their superiority as greatly over those accom- 
plishing less. 4. This, too, that his work is good 
work whose liberality is for the archangels ; even 
for this reason, because through a little labour for 
the sacred beings, which is itself that liberality, he 
contributes duty and good works. 

5. This, too, that it becomes best for him, in 
both existences 2 , who teaches a wishing for living 
in diligence to mankind; even for this reason, 
because he is a preserver of them through the 
wishing for living, and his soul, through the dili- 
gence owing to him, attains perfection, here from 
mankind and in yonder world from the sacred 
beings. 6. This, too, that the ceremonial and obei- 
sance of Auharmasflf 3 are performed by him who is 
in the way of like thinking and like praising of the 
law of Auharmasaf with all the worshippers of 
Auharmasaf. 7. This, too, that he is in the leader- 
ship of his religion 4 who makes the knowledge of 
religion ever afresh ; even for this reason, because 
every item of knowledge which he provides increases 
some greatness of it. 8. This, too, that he is in the 
service of his religion * who demands the knowledge 
of religion ever afresh ; even for this reason, be- 
cause so long as he demands more, he becomes 
nearer to a knowledge of religion. 



1 Pahl. abfcshtha, but it should perhaps be avgjfha, 'unabun- 
dantly.' 
* See Pahl. Yas. XXXV, 9. ' Ibid. 19. . 4 Ibid. 22. 



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350 DiNKAlU), BOOK IX. 

9. This, too, that mankind's wishing for life is 
authorised (dastovarlni^S) by him who authorises 
the production of anything for mankind ; even for 
this reason, because authority (dastdbarih) over 
the production of anything is conjoined with that 
which is for the wishing for life ; so that whosever 
production of anything is authorisedly, their life is 
free from any discomfort ; and whosever wishing 
for life is authorisedly, his production of anything 
is also authorisedly. 10. This, too, that acceptance, 
hints, and words are given J to Auharmastf? by him 
who asks again, that which he does not understand 
of the religion, from him who does understand; 
even for this reason, because knowledge is com- 
pleted through these three things: obtainment, 
hints, and speaking, and all three are asked again 
by him who does not understand. 11. This, too, 
that the words of Auharniasra? 2 are taught by him 
who teaches the acceptance, remembrance, and 
speaking of the religion; even for this reason, 
because this is the recital of' that compendium 
(hangerrfikih). 

12. This, too, that the care 3 and reverence of 
fire are provided by him who is liberal to a fire as 
regards anything he supplies for the care and 
reverence which others shall provide for the fire, and 
he becomes equally rewarded for it. 13. This, too, 
that by him who teaches the religion of Auharmasa? 
with joyfulness *, the care and reverence of fire are 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXV, 25. * Ibid. 27. 

* See Pahl. Yas. XXXVI, 1. This section implies that the 
attendant who feeds a fire with fuel supplied by others, obtains an 
equal share of merit with them. 

4 Ibid. 4, 5' , 



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CHAPTER LVII, 9-I9. 35 1 

provided as declared by the religion ; even for this 
reason, because even that which is taught by him 
combines with the action due to that teaching. 

14. This, too, that the obeisance 1 to those requiring 
obeisance is arranged by him who loves Vohuman. 

15. This, too, that fire is strengthened — for that 
work, achieved in the future existence, which is the 
greatest 2 that exists — by him who invokes fire with 
the title of fire; even for this reason, because the 
title is put by him upon a nature that is laudable, 
and when invoked by him with that title the praised 
one is then strengthened by him. 

1 6. This, too, that he becomes informed as to the 
religion of Auharma?^ 3 , who teaches the religion 
of A&harmazd with pleasure ; even for this reason, 
because every knowledge is exercised and increased 
by teaching. 17. This, too, that Atiharmazd is 
propitiated by the excellent sagacity of him who 
teaches virtuous words and actions * ; even for this 
reason, because sagacity has two parts, the speak- 
able and the workable. 18. This, too, that the 
bodily form (kerp6) of Auharmas*/ is praised as 
perfection (nevakdtumlh) 6 by him who elevates 
(balisttnerfo) his own soul 6 to the station of the 
sun 7 ; even for this reason, because that bodily 
form of Auharmas^ exists, and becomes the loftiest 
and most perfect in the station of the sun. 

19. This, too, that all excellence is purely pro- 
duced for Auharmaza? by him who has root in the 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXVI, 5. * Ibid. 6. 

« Ibid. 7. * Ibid. 11. 

6 Ibid. 14. • Ibid. 15. 

7 Ibid. 16 ; the highest grade of heaven below the supreme 
heaven, which latter is called Gar6<ftnan (see Sis. VI, 3 n). 



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352 dInkaad, book ix. 

possession of Auharma*?^ ; even for this reason, 
because, when a root is given to him, fruit is also 
produced by him, and all excellence is both root and 
fruit 1 . 20. This, too, that Atiharmazd is invoked 
with the title ' lord 2 ' by him whom A&harmazd 
calls ; even for this reason, because the interpreta- 
tion of ' Auharmazaf ' is really with the words ' greatly 
wise lord' (mas danak khu-/ai). 21. This, too, 
that the names of the sacred beings which are in- 
voked 3 are the praise glorified by any one, and by 
him who glorifies them they are named ; even for 
this reason, because the names of the sacred beings 
are the glorification due to their names of praise. 
22. This, too, that among those of the same class 
(ham-g6haran), when he shall do it for one race 4 , 
benefit is produced by him for other races within 
that class; among those of the same races (ham- 
tdkhmakanan), when he shall produce benefit for 
one species, it is done by him also for other species 
within that race ; and among the same species 
(ham saraafako), when he shall produce benefit for 
one individual (kerp6), it is done by him for other 
individuals within that species. 

23. This, too, that his personality (khudfth) is 
the sacred beings' own 6 , who maintains the rites 6 
with the assistance of the righteous. 24. This, too, 
that his own is in the guardianship 7 of the sacred 
beings, whose vehemence is through Good Thought ; 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXVII (=V), 2. * Ibid. 6. 

8 See Pahl. Yas. XXXVIII, 10-12. * Ibid. 13-15. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XXXIX, 13. 

* Assuming that rtc atan stands for ho* ayinan, as mun atan 
is ungrammatical. 

' See Pahl. Yas. XXXIX, 15. 



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CHAPTER LVII, 20-LVIII, I. 353 

even for this reason, because his bravery is for the 
law. 25. This, too, that life is given to mankind 
by him who shall do that which is able to remain 
good for them. 26. This, too, that the friendship 
of Auharmasaf is appropriated by him who has 
Auharmaza? as a guardian, and perpetual guardian- 
ship is appropriated by him who teaches to man- 
kind that thing which becomes their perpetual 
guardianship in yonder world. 

27. This, too, that he causes righteousness 1 who 
thinks of anything which is virtuous. 28. This, too, 
that he has caused the good commands and pro- 
pitiousness 2 of Auharmastff, who gives his body and 
life 8 to the sacred beings ; and body and life are 
given to the sacred beings by him who affords 
friendship to the religion of Zaraturt. 29. And 
this, too, that to him who affords friendship to 
Auharmaa^ it occurs owing to the guardianship of 
Auharmas^; and that guardianship is perpetually* 
connected with him who teaches to others that 
thing which always constitutes their companionship 
with the sacred beings. 

30. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness. 



Chapter LVII I. 

Bakcf Nash. 

1. The twelfth fargaraf, U^tavaiti 5 , is that the 
benefit of him who is reverent to the benefiters is 
the benefit of any one whatever 6 ; even for this 

1 SeePahl.Yas. XL, 7. 

' See Pahl. Yas. XLI, 6. ' Ibid. 7. * Ibid. 17. 

B See Chap. XIII, 1 n ; it is here written ads t&t to in Pahlavi. 
♦ See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 1 a. 

[37] A a 



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354 DiNKJUU), BOOK IX. 

reason, because the benefit of the immature creation 
is owing to carrying out the commands of a bene- 
fiting spiritual lord. 2. This, too, that whoever 
pleases superiors by submission, is pleased by in- 
feriors. 3. This, too, that by him who gives thought 
to the religion of Zarattot, that which is best for his 
own in every mode 1 is produced, because he has 
attained to the religion who is listening best 4. This, 
too, that virtue is taught by him to all the creatures 
of the beneficent spirit, to the righteous whose 
stepping forth (fravinmno) is for the righteous ; 
even for this reason, because the creatures of the 
beneficent spirit are all of one nature, and the 
stepping forth (fragami^n6) and hastening of the 
limbs of one body become those of the whole of 
that body. 5. This, too, that his spirit is connected 
with Auharmas^ 2 , and his knowledge is accepted, 
who loves Vohuman ; even for this reason, because 
the spirit who is the original spiritual lord of know- 
ledge is Vohuman. 6. This, too, that just giving is 
taught by him whose words are through Vohuman 8 ; 
even for this reason, because the speaking of vir- 
tuous words becomes the teaching of knowledge in 
which there is also just giving. 

7. This, too, that joy which is of long duration is 
produced 4 for his own by him who brings forth 
strength through virtue, and who also assists him 
who is unborn ; even for this reason, because joy 
which is perpetual increases by both. 8. This, too, 
that by him who is an assistance of those in the 
proper way, the proper way is taught to mankind 6 ; 



' See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 2 a. J Ibid. 2 c. 

s Ibid. 2 d. « Ibid. 2 e. • Ibid. 3 b. 



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CHAPTER LVIII, 2-1 1. 355 

even for this reason, because he is making mankind 
long for that way. 9. This, too, that heat is given 
to fire 1 by him who tells truth to the invokers ; even 
for this reason, because the adversary — owing to 
the heat of the fire achieved by the indicator of 
truth — is more particularly subdued by the strength 
of that just one. 

10. This, too, that the assistants for the renova- 
tion of the universe are the decrees of Vistasp * — 
which are through Vohuman — of S6shans 3 and Kat- 
Khusr6i * ; even for this reason, because the frag- 
ments are possessing a renewer which is their own 
completion *, and the completion — which is through 
the assistance of the renovation by Vi$tasp — is 
through what occurs when the religion is set going 
by him, through which the renovation arises ; and 
the triumph of the completion, which is through an 
ordinance by S6shans, is through what occurs when 
through the ordinance there is thus a decree which 
sets aside all distress from the creatures, and gives 
the ordinance to the whole material existence, that 
which is living and also that which is dead. 1 1 . This, 
too, that whoever intrusts it with a command given — 
which command given intrusts him who supplies the 
command from revelation — and it worships what is 



1 See Pahl.Yas. XLII, 4 d. 

• See Bk.VIII, Chaps. XI, 1, XIII, 15. 

' See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 4 e, and Bk. VIII, Chap. XIV, 14. 

4 In the MS. the letters sr6 are omitted from this name which 
might, therefore, be read Kay Snag; but Kai-Khusr6t (see Chap. 
XXIII) is considered as one of the assistants of the renovation (Dd. 
XXXVI, 3), probably on account of his opposition to idolatry 
(Bd. XVII, 7). 

6 Pahl. maman baharanS kashtar-h6m6nd-t nafrman spdrikih. 
A a 2 



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356 dInkakd, book ix. 



necessary to worship, is thereby displayed among 
the existences as the progeny of AuharmazdH. 

1 2. This, too, that the defeat of the bad and the 
acceptance of the good 2 are taught by him who shall 
provide a righteous gift for the worthy; because 
both are therein. 1 3. This, too, that ability for even 
the transformation of the creatures 3 of Auhar rc&zd 
is taught by him who loves Vohuman ; even for this 
reason, because the forward-dragging, and also the 
backward-dragging, power — which is in mankind — is 
qualified, through changeableness of will, for even 
the actions of the Vohumanic nature. 14. This, 
too, that power is taught, to that spirit through 
whom the creatures are changed, by him whose 
wisdom is for that which is wisdom ; even for this 
reason, because that spirit is wisdom, and increases 
in mankind through instruction. 15. This, too, that 
by him who praises the religion like a disciple, and 
who also teaches it like a priest *, it is shown that 
S6shans * really comes ; even for this reason, because 
the religion, from the first praiser and teacher down 
to the last praiser and teacher, is connected by dis- 
cipleship and priesthood, and S6shans becomes a 
disciple in the end, and the last priest. 

16. This, too, that the wisdom of Auharma&jf 8 is 
taught by him who shall supply decisions and adju- 
dication from the religion; even for this reason, 
because the decision of religion is the wisdom of 
Auharma^. 17. This, too, that complete mindful- 
ness, so that they are not deceived 6 , is taught 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 5 b. * Ibid. 5 d. 

* Ibid. 5 e; assuming that d am -var'sunih, 'accomplishment 
of the creatures/ stands for d&m-vartfixnlh. 
' Ibid. 6 d. 8 Ibid. 6 e. 



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CHAPTER LVIII, 12-20. 357 

through wisdom by him who is as reverent to Auhar- 
m&zd as a daughter to a father ; even for this reason, 
because the reverence of a daughter unto a father 
arises mostly through natural sympathy (ahang-1 
iitrlk), and through the intellectual complete mind- 
fulness of the daughter. 

18. This, too, that maintaining the destinies 
(vakhtan) of the body through the command of 
the creator is taught by him who teaches the 
righteous man and the wicked one that thing which 
becomes comfort to them, to the righteous man as 
to his body, and to the wicked one as to his soul ; 
even for this reason, because he becomes a friend of 
the creatures, a friend of the creatures is also a 
friend of creativeness, and a friend of the creator 
maintains body and wealth through the command of 
the creator, and others are taught by him. 19. This, 
too, that joy owing to him who is powerful is taught 
him who is righteous only by him — that is, he is 
conveying him to the rulers for benefit 1 — who is an 
assistance of him who is righteous through capa- 
bility, that is, he shall do it through exertion of 
power ; even for this reason, because, when he has 
provided as much assistance as it is possible for him 
to do, his praise arises through that benefit which is 
pre-eminent through his exertion. 20. This, too, 
that the benefit of sovereignty for that which arises 2 
is taught only by him who always thoroughly teaches 
authority (patih) up to dictatorship (vispd-far- 
minlh); that is, he teaches to others that thing 
which always arises for them up to dictatorial autho- 
rity ; this is where it is connected by them with the 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 8 c. * Ibid. 8 d. 



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358 d!nkajjz>, book ix. 

renovation of the universe through the control which 
is in the tree of germs '. 

2 1 . This, too, that he becomes liberal to fire 2 who 
shall perform work for fire that is its protection, and 
so it is taught about it through the obeisance by him 
whose liberality — that is his through the obeisance — 
becomes liberal, and whose declaration, that arises 
as to Vohuman, possesses wealth through virtue. 
22. This, too, that this thinking as to righteousness 3 
is taught only by him — that is, he thinks — whose 
petition for righteousness is ever afresh. 23. This, 
too, that the religion is interrogated* by him who 
is submissive to superiors and similarly situated 
(ham-^ak) to inferiors. 

24. This, too, that the state of the present world 
(latammanih) for the Masafa-worshipping religion 
is thoroughly taught where whatever becomes a pro- 
gress * of the religion is whatever is purification for 
mankind ; even for this reason, because the want 
of progress of the religion is owing to the want of 
purification of mankind as to the fiend, and when 
a human being is purified from the fiend, the pro- 
gress of the religion becomes different. 25. This, 
too, that pleasure is taught to him who is a friend G 

1 Evidently the many-seeded tree of all germs, opposed to harm 
and called the proper-curing, energetic-curing, and all-curing ; it is 
renowned in Atran-v^ and grows in the wide-formed ocean near 
the G61ceren6, or white-H6m plant, which latter is one of the 
ingredients of the elixir producing immortality in the future existence 
(see Bd. IX, 5, 6, XVIII, 9, XXVII, 2, XXIX, 5). 

a See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 9 d which Pt4 and Mf4 supply as 
follows :— A6rfftn6 av6 han&-i lak ata* ra<ff> hdmdnam pavan nty£- 
yixno. 

•Ibid. 9 e. ' Ibid. 10 c. • Ibid. 11 d. 

' Ibid. 14 a. 



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CHAPTER LVIII, 2I-2<). 359 

only by him — that is, he gives it — who is a pleasure 
to him who is a friend ; and its routine is really 
this, that by him who causes pleasure to friends, his 
having caused pleasure is taught also to them. 
26. This, too, that, owing to him whom Auharm&s*/ 
teaches joy, it is taught that gratification 1 comes 
from Auharmas*/; even for this reason, because he 
is exalted, even in the worldly existence, through that 
joy which is supreme, and mankind are thereby 
taught. 

27. This, too, that the augmentation of indica- 
tions as to intellect is taught to him who is a 
vigorous-minded (tu.ft6-mini.yn6) man 2 , by him 
whose own progress is that towards his own sacred 
beings ; even for this reason, because he fully con- 
siders, and delivers the decision, of his own powers, 
of those, too, of his contemporaries (ham-bu<aft- 
k£no), and likewise of the chivalry (ilrlh) of the 
age ; and others are taught about it by him. 28 . This, 
too, that the spirit of Auhannasraf 3 is expounded 
only by him — that is, he loves it — whose close 
exposition is of Auharma^ ; even for this reason, be- 
cause he becomes similarly loved with Auharma^, 
so that * . . . 29. And this, too, that the reward is 
taught in the publicity of the sun 6 by him whose 
friendship is for the Spitam&n, which also increases 
in the day — that is, it is necessary to perform duty 
and good works in the day — but he does not put it 
aside the second day ; even for this reason, because 
friendship for the religion is through kind regard ; 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 14 b. a Ibid. 15 c. 

' Ibid. 16 a. * Some clause appears to be omitted here. 

6 See Pahl. Yas. XLII, 16 d. 



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36O vltiKARD, BOOK IX. 

and duty in one day, only to put it aside for the 
second day, becomes affliction (v6sh) at the bridge 
of judgment ; also the sun is the most kindly- 
regarding and swiftest of those visible. 

30. Excellence that is perfect is righteousness. 



Chapter LIX. 
Boko Nask. 



1. The thirteenth fargan/, Ta</-thwa-peresa\ 
is that the obeisance 2 of the archangels is performed 
by him who is educated in the recitation for the 
archangels of one learned in the religion, which is 
when he has to understand the recitation and to 
maintain the recitation of revelation with propriety, 
which is when an enumeration, or form (ainakS), as 
to the qualities of the archangels exists, which is the 
obeisance for the sacred beings. 2. For, on this 
subject, one mentions seven kinds of men 3 , educated, 
or well-educated, or ill-educated, who are connected 
with it in statements by those of the world ; the 
merely educated man, particularly also the physician, 
explains this which is not mentioned and does not 
occur, that it is well, or ill, disposed * ; the merely 
well-educated man, particularly also the physician, 
explains this which is mentioned and occurs, that 
it is well-disposed ; the merely ill-educated man, and 

1 See Chap. XIV, 1 n; it is here written tarf-s/ag-peres in 
Pahlavi. 

* SeePahLYas. XLIII, 1 b. 

8 These appear to be the four kinds of ordinary men, and the 
three kinds of physicians, detailed in the following clauses. 

4 Khu (Paz.) ay6» dftffm. 



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CHAPTER LVIII, 30-LIX, 7. 36 1 

also the physician, explains this which is mentioned 
and occurs, that it is ill-disposed ; and the merely 
uneducated man explains anything whatever that is 
really life \ 3. One educated in the recitation for 
the sacred beings, who when — on account of the 
necessity of speaking evil about a learned man — he 
is mischievous (a nig), so that he keeps in vicious- 
ness, and has remained in the obeisance for the 
sacred beings, is called not ransomed (14 takhtlk). 
4. One ill-educated in the recitation for the sacred 
beings, which is when it happens that he keeps in 
viciousness, becomes even an apostate who is ac- 
quainted with the religion. 5. One uneducated in 
what pertains to the sacred beings is of two kinds, 
either good 2 and void of learning, or an evil one 
who is void of knowledge ; the good and void of 
learning worships the sacred beings unobservantly 
with the proper rites, and the evil one who is void of 
knowledge thinks to worship the sacred beings un- 
observantly with improper rites, and has no means 
of trustworthy reliance upon the religion of the 
sacred beings and their obeisance. 6. And one 
well-educated in what pertains to the sacred beings, 
through the three words of the connected series 
(ham-pafl?vandijnih) which is good (khu) and 
learned 3 , and through what pertains to the sacred 
beings, expounds faithfully the object of the 
obeisance for the sacred beings. 

7. This, too, that, by him who teaches to man- 
kind tfcat thing which becomes their hope of eter- 
nity, mankind are taught to come to the religion of 

1 Apparently khaya-A badly written in B. 

* Paz. khu. 

' Probably ' good thoughts, good words, and good deeds.' 



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362 jylnKARD, BOOK IX. 



the sacred beings ; even for this reason, because the 
Vohumanic attainment 1 to the religion of the sacred 
beings is to be required wisely for them, its require- 
ment wisely for them is a benefit for the steadfast 
and becomes a consideration (mlnlh) for them, and 
the consideration of the benefit of the steadfast is 
through hope of the eternity which is provided for 
the benefit, on account of which the hope of eternity 
— which is the basis — is the reason even of the 
acceptance of the religion. 

8. This, too, that the perfection of the first among 
the existences * is taught by him who has retentively 
remembered his words ; even for this reason, because 
remembrance is the acme of every perfection. 
9. This, too, that he becomes a nourisher of good 
works who shall perform good works publicly; even 
for this reason, because others are taught thereby, 
and good works increase in the world. 10. This, 
too, that by him who has fruit in the possession of 
Atiharmasd the development of the world in virtue * 
is taught ; even for this reason, because a lawful 
preserver and a producer of liberality arise through 
the fruit, they enlarge the root of the power of the 
angel of liberality, and pluck its fruit ; the world is 
improved thereby, and mankind are taught about it. 
1 1 . This, too, that, through complete mindfulness, 
words and actions * are truly taught by him whose 
ceremonial is for complete mindfulness; even for 
this reason, because there are both words and actions 
in the ceremonial. 

1 2. This, too, that the sagacious creativeness (far'- 
sanak dahih) of hixhzrmzzd is taught, which is 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIII, 1 e. * Ibid. 2 b. * Ibid. 2 d. 
* Ibid. 6 c. 



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CHAPTER LIX, 8-1 6. 363 

the exposition, to Adiharmsusd 1 , of the production of 
the renovation ; even for this reason, because the 
advantage of the sagacity of A&harmazd is the con- 
sequence of its beginning, and its middle is through 
the power of the goodness and knowledge of him 
himself, and because it is destiny as regards the 
creations ; and whoever possesses that power for 
the assistance of the renovation, is extolled for that 
sagacity, and people are taught thereby. 13. This, 
too, that the reward of Zaraturt is appropriated by 
him who decides about duty and opinion * ; even for 
this reason, because, through that discrimination, he 
is similar to Zaraturt. 

14. This, too, that the recitation of revelation is 
performed for mankind by him who extends the 
propagation of the religion 3 ; even for this reason, 
because, owing to the gratification of virtuous prac- 
tises, virtue increases. 15. This, too, that the 
religion of Auharmas*/ is made progressive * by him 
who shall perform the ceremonial of Abhartmusd ; 
even for this reason, because through that perform- 
ance of his occurs the blessing of the provider of the 
rite (ntranginl^/ar). 16. This, too, that that per- 
fectly righteous man of just judgment is protected 
from the annoying spirit* by him who possesses the 
resemblance (angunaglh) unto Vohuman that they 
behold and resources through virtue ; even for this 
reason, because the vexation which is partaken by 
him {the spirit), owing to the just judgment among 
those of the nature (iiharlkan) of mankind, is re- 
doubled (ddkanl-ait6) by their pleasure owing to 
the Vohumanic resemblance, and the annoying spirit 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIII, 8 b. » Ibid. 17 c. 

' Ibid. 15 d, 17 c. * Ibid. 11 e. 



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364 viliKARD, BOOK IX. 



is disabled (akarl-h£nd) x by that accumulated 
vexation which occurs for his annoyance. 

1 7. This, too, that the exploits of the archangels 
are taught by him who is really capable in what 
pertains to the archangels ; even for this reason, 
because they become the hope of a consoling 
(v6</var) end, and are also indicative of the renova- 
tion of the universe, the hope of a virtuous end. 

18. This, too, that the words of him who is Zaraturt, 
that 'people shall become supplicant,' are taught by 
him who is for the benefiters ; even for this reason, 
because they who are benefiters, on account of an 
inclination for the religion, make others eager for 
the religion, and make them mount for prayer. 

19. And this, too, that by him who gives anything 
to a righteous man, this is also done that some one 
else may give even to him who is vile ; even for this 
reason, because a foundation of liberality is thereby 
prepared for him 2 . 

20. Perfect righteousness is excellence. 



Chapter LX. 
Boko Nask. 



1. The fourteenth fargar^, Arf-fravakhshya 3 , 
is that whatever is instruction is to be listened to * 
here as much as is possible, and he who is not to be 

1 The Plz. equivalent ofakarih-h6mand. 

* Implying that he is himself vile who gives to the righteous 
merely to induce others to give to himself. 

* See Chap. XV, in; it is here written arf-fravakhshS in 
Pahlavi. 

4 SeePahLYas. XLIV, 1 a. 



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CHAPTER LIX, I 7~LX, 4. 365 

taught is allowed an opportunity for listening by 
ZaratuJt. 

2. This, too, that by him who would be a causer 
of procreation for performers of labour, the perfect 
nature of the performance of the first next-of-kin 
marriage * is praised ; because causing the procrea- 
tion of performers of labour is the fatherhood of 
mankind, the proper fatherhood of mankind is 
through the proper production of progeny, the 
proper progeny of the producer is through the 
accomplishment of progeny among his own, accord- 
ing to the disposition of the first creatures, and 
the accomplishment of progeny among one's own 
is next-of-kin marriage ; and that which occurs, 
when a causer of the procreation of performers 
of labour praises the fatherhood of mankind, is 
that next-of-kin marriage is also praised by him. 
3. This, too, that by him whose creatures are in 
virtue, owing to his virtuous nourishment of the 
creatures, the performance of next-of-kin marriage 8 
is taught, and the virtue is his virtue ; even on this 
account, because, for the sake of keeping the crea- 
tures in virtue, he allows (anddz&d6) for the vir- 
tuous disposition pertaining to the multitude, and 
that which is born he produces (dah6^6) as lineage 
from the next-of-kin marriage pertaining to the mul- 
titude. 

4. This, too, that Spendarmaaf is in daughterhood 3 
to Auharmaza? is taught by him whose wisdom is 
through complete mindfulness ; even for this reason, 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 4 a. 

8 Ibid. 4 c. §§ 2-5 have been already translated, somewhat 
differently, in S. B. E., vol. xviii, pp. 395, 396. 

• Ibid. 4 d. For Spendarmarf see Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3. 



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366 DiNKAM), BOOK IX. 

because his wisdom and complete mindfulness are 
within limits which are Auhar vcazd and Spendarma^, 
the wisdom being that of Auharmasflf, the complete 
mindfulness that of Spendar mad, and the complete 
mindfulness being the offspring of the wisdom just 
as Spendarma*/ is of Auharmasa?; and, owing to 
this, the assertion is reasonable that, by him whose 
complete mindfulness is connected with wisdom, it 
is taught that Spendarmaaf is in daughterhood to 
Auhamnasaf. 5. This, too, that thus the exercise 
of that daughterhood is taught by him whose right- 
eousness is through complete mindfulness, and whose 
ceremonial is also through complete mindfulness ; 
that is, he shall perform the ceremonial and other 
good works fully mindfully. 

6. This, too, that mankind are attracted to re- 
ligious good deeds by him who shall provide benefit 
for the people through actions and words ; even for 
this reason, because those actions are religious good 
deeds, and, when instituted by him, others are also 
taught by him. 7. This, too, that reverence for 
Vohuman 1 is taught by him who shall make that 
which is contaminated obvious to the eye, so that 
what is dark becomes light; even for this reason, 
because the display of the work of Vohuman thereby 
has also taught the offer of reverence for Vohuman. 
8. And this, too, that the ceremonial is taught with 
complete mindfulness 2 only by him who teaches 
words and actions with complete mindfulness. 

9. Perfect righteousness is excellence. 

1 See Pah!. Yas. XLIV, 9 e. » Ibid. 10 a. 



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CHAPTER LX, 5-LXI, 4. 367 



Chapter LXI. 
Baktf Nask. 

1. The fifteenth fargan/, Kamnama^za 1 , is about 
the reply of Auharma?^ to Zaratu-rt, as to that which 
was asked by him thus : ' To which lands do I step 2 ?' 
and it is thus: 'Do thou march (sagltun) there 
where the man, in whose person righteousness is 
connected with complete mindfulness, is welcome ; 
this, too, is where happy is he from whom there is 
no complaint.' 

2. This, too, that mankind are made diligent in 
good works by him who produces progress for good 
works ; even for this reason, because mankind attain 
progress in manifest duty who engage more par- 
ticularly in good works. 3. This, too, that the 
teaching of religion is the public action which is 
prescribed by him who would produce exertion for 
the righteous, that is, benefit for those of the good 
religion ; even for this reason, because the multitude 
(kabedan) approach the religion, and are taught 
and practise it, on account of a desire for benefit. 
4. This, too, that it is in a province of even ex- 
hausted production 3 that it is taught by him who 
appoints a virtuous governor over the province ; 
even for this reason, because a virtuous governor of 
a province becomes a teacher of ability and good 
works to those of the province. 

1 See Chap. XVI, in; it is here written kSmnam/sS in 
Pahlavi. 

* See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 1 a; reading va/ ka</&r damikan 
vamam (=gamam, see Chap. LVIII, 4). 

' Ibid. 4 b. 



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368 DtNKARD, BOOK IX. 

5. This, too, that the good protection of fire 1 is 
taught by him whose words are through Vohuman, 
and who also would provide a time for the ordeal 
of that which is doubtful ; even for this reason, 
because he whose words are utterable through Vo- 
human, and who would provide a time for the 
ordeal of that which is doubtful, teaches the pro- 
vision of care for the operative fire, owing to that 
which occurs when what is accomplished, about one 
acquitted or convicted by the fire, is declared, and 
mankind shall provide more particularly for the 
brilliancy of the fire, and the wicked more for assist- 
ance and protection from it 

6. This, too, that whoever shall provide about 
him who liberally gives himself in discipleship * unto 
the priests, has thereby taught even by the mention 
of the high-priest ; even for this reason, because the 
person being given in discipleship unto the priests, 
the religion practised by the high-priest arises also 
for mention, and whoever shall provide generosity 
for that person, has increased and also taught that 
action, which is religion, even by the mention made. 
7. This, too, that men and women 8 are taught as 
being given in discipleship * to Zaratust by him" who 
keeps his own males and females in the control of 
Zaraturt. 8. This, too, that goodness is taught by 
him to those (valman) who are good, so that they 
produce it who give to that righteous one the worthi- 
ness which is through that wealth ; the righteous 
one who is worthy is one of the good religion for 
whose production of the worthiness which is through 
that wealth it is sought, and that wealth which is 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 7 c. % Ibid. 9 d. 

8 Ibid. 10 a. 4 Ibid. 10 b. 



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CHAPTER LXI, 5— 13. 369 

coveted is wealth of little trouble and much ad- 
vantage, through the goodness and idea of virtue 
of the giver to the account of him who is the ac- 
cepter of the good worthiness. 9. This, too, that 
through his Afinva^ passage (Kis-vida.rg) it is 
taught that they shall step forth (frdvamand) 1 ; 
and by him who goes on through anything {k\s) 
openly, when he has proceeded publicly on the right 
path, one passed away on the JZinvad passage is 
taught. 

10. This, too, that by him whose ceremonial is 
through complete mindfulness it is taught that the 
world produces abundance through complete mind- 
fulness 2 ; even for this reason, because it is taught 
by him, through that disposition of his for the 
sacred beings (pavan zak-1 valman ya.zd&nb 
khlm), Jhat the developed world is shown to be 
theirs; and here below it is fully taught by him, 
that KhUrdad and Amurdaa? 8 — that is, the sacred 
beings — produce it for the benefiters. 11. This, 
too, that thus he who is wicked, even he who is 
privileged, becomes unprivileged at that time when 
every one understands, that is, when righteousness 
is aloft. 12. This, too, that when he who is pri- 
vileged is Vistasp *, likewise he who is privileged is 
the righteous Zaratust 6 , and so he who is the wicked 
Aigasp 6 is unprivileged. 

1 3. This, too, that creation is taught by him to 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 10 e, and Bk. VIII, Chap. XIV, 8. 

* Ibid. 12 c. • See Chap. XIX, 1. 
4 See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 13 e. 

8 Ibid. 14a, which is supplied by Pt4, RW4, thus: — Zaratufto 
mun lak aharubo dosto. 

• See Bk. VIII, Chap. XI, 4. 

[37] B b 



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370 vhiKARO, BOOK IX. 

Atiha.rma2d, so that he creates, and this, too, that 
the archangels are taught by his will, whose con- 
tentment * is through that of the archangels, so that 
he observes the conclusion in the affairs of the 
archangels. 14. And this, too, that wisdom is 
taught to him who is Zaratfot — so that it becomes 
his — by him whose thoughts are for Zarattot 2 and 
for the religion of Zaratust. 

15. Perfect is the excellence ^righteousness. 



Chapter LXII. 
BakffNask. 

1. The sixteenth fargarrf, Spe»ti-mainyu s , is that 
the religion is lodging in him who is himself wise, or 
becomes a hearer of the wise. 2. This, too, that the 
deeds of complete mindfulness are practised* and 
taught by him who becomes himself completely 
mindful. 3. This, too, that whoever shall openly 
perform good works becomes a nourisher of good 
works. 

4. This, too, that the spirit of fatherhood be- 
comes lodging in him who nourishes the creatures 
with propriety 8 . 5. This, too, that pasture is given 8 
to cattle is taught by him who shall provide care/or 
cattle, because the giving of pasture to them with 
care is advantageous. 

6. This, too, that all for his good who becomes a 
benefit to him who is good 7 — through that which 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 19 e. • Ibid. 19 b. 

8 See Chap. XVII, in; it is here written s/endmat5 in 
Pahlavi. 
4 See Pahl. Yas. XLVI, 2 c. e Ibid. 2 d. 

« Ibid. 3 c. 7 Ibid. 5 b. 



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CHAPTER LXI, I4-LXTII, 2. 37 1 

has come to him — is every benefit which occurs to 
him who is good ; all for his good every benefit is 
given to every one good by way of similarity in race, 
species, and nature, and every benefit is given in the 
way of complete giving which is possible for it. 

7. This, too, that whoever shall justly inflict 
sentence and judgment, really according to the de- 
claration regarding one acquitted or convicted l , be- 
comes praiseworthy; even for this reason, because 
the origin of the judgment is the ritual of the 
ordeal. 8. And this, too, that by him who gives to 
him who is wise that which is needful for him, an 
immense 2 and strong foundation for learning is 
produced, and the knowledge in the world is aug- 
mented. 

9. Perfect excellence is righteousness. 



Chapter LXIII. 
Bakd ' Nask. 

1. The seventeenth fargana?, Y£zl 8 , is that who- 
ever maintains the benedictions of the religion 4 , and 
shall uphold its commands, has thereby made even 
others learn it ; even for this reason, because through 
this it is much more possible for him to attract others 
to the religion ; and, as to the origin and means of 
attraction, the attraction is this, that he himself 
maintains the benedictions of the religion, and the 
means of attraction are this, that he is an upholder 
of the commands of the religion. 

2. This, too, that by him who shall perform the 
ritual of an ordeal which is accomplished, the K\n- 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVI, 6 b. * Ibid. 6 c. 

9 See Chap. XVIII, 1 n. * See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 1 d. 

B b 2 



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372 dJnka^d, book ix. 

vatd passage 1 is made known ; even for this reason, 
because those even who have accomplished what is 
a work of the spirit become witnesses, one about 
the other, as to the facts. 3. This, too, that by him 
who shall perform that thing whereby a change 
occurs from evil to good 2 , even that change which 
is the renovation of the universe is made known, by 
means even of the evidence of a partial change as 
regards a perpetual change. 

4. This, too, that by him who shall produce gene- 
rosity for the tillers 8 of the world it is then de- 
veloped ; even for this reason, because they become 
more diligent in tilling the world. 5. This, too, 
that by him who shall produce benefit for the poor, 
a development * of the world is produced for them ; 
even for this reason, because through that reason 
they increase more. 

6. This, too, that the creature-forming (damih) 
of Auharmasfl? 6 is occasioned by him whose rule 6 is 
for Auharmasd?; even for this reason, because he 
becomes a holder and attendant of good works. 
7. This, too, that the devastation by Vohuman 7 is 
taught by him whose rule is for Atiharmazd; even 
for this reason, because he smites sinners and de- 
stroys among villains. 

8. This, too, that virtuous people are increased 
in a province 8 by him who appoints a virtuous 
governor of the province. 9. This, too, that vir- 
tuous instruction is provided and explained by him 
who loves Vohuman 9 . 10. And this, too, that vir- 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 2 b. g Ibid. 4 a. ' Ibid. 5 d. 

4 Ibid. 6 c. 8 Ibid. 7 d. • Ibid. 8 a. 

7 Ibid. 9 c. * Ibid. 12 a, and compare Chap. LXI, 4. 

• Ibid. 12 b. 



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CHAPTER LXIII, 3-LXIV, 3. 373 



tuous deeds 1 are set going by him who teaches 
learned sayings and virtuous deeds to him who is 
good; even for this reason, because the reception 
of the progressive supply of virtue by the learned 
becomes more complete. 

1 1. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness. 



Chapter LXIV. 
Bako Nask. 



i. The eighteenth fa.rga.rd, Aaf-ma-yava 2 , is that, 
through his complete mindfulness 3 , the teaching of 
mankind in virtue is by him, and they become pro- 
perly intelligent 3 through him, whose actions are 
those which are more daughterly, that is, as reverent 
unto Auha/"masrrf as a daughter unto a father ; even 
for this reason, because his display of the complete 
mindfulness which is instinctive (asnik) is through 
action, and that action, acquired (srutlk) for the 
thoughts of mankind, is kindled by him and has be- 
come properly intelligent. 2. This, too, that proper 
intelligence of things arises for one completely mind- 
ful 3 , even for a daughter to a father, through that 
complete mindfulness which is instinctive, whereby 
that lust is excluded which is most violently re- 
verenced by the male (kusno), and, devoid of that, 
the reverence is assimilated (angunihlnidfo) most 
strongly to one's reverence unto the creator. 

3. This, too, that discrimination of the affairs of 
the sacred beings through wisdom * is taught by him 

1 SeePahLYas. XLVII, 12 c. 

* See Chap. XIX, in; it is here written arf-ma-yuv in Pahlavi. 

9 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 5 c. • Ibid. 6 b. 



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374 DtNKAKD, BOOK IX. 

whose learning is in the affairs of the sacred beings ; 
even for this reason, because discrimination of the 
affairs of the sacred beings is specially that which is 
advantageous in the end, and the advantageousness 
in the end is seen through learning; and, apart from 
that, he who is learned in the affairs of the sacred 
beings has taught discrimination of the affairs of the 
sacred beings through his wisdom \ 

4. This, too, that the joyfulness in righteousness 
is taught to Frash6rtar by him — that is, he would 
make him ardent in the performance of duty and 
good works 2 — who has thoroughly expounded Khur- 
6sd and Amurdarf to Frash6^tar 8 , that is, he main- 
tains him as his high-priest. 5. This, too, that he 
who shall perform good works ever afresh, has 
taught him to become ardent in duty and good 
works 2 . 6. This, too, that Auharma^^ supplies 
guardianship 4 to him who gives pleasure to Auhar- 
xazzd ; even for this reason, because a giver of plea- 
sure to Auharmasd? is any one who is a true ser- 
vant of Auharmastf?, and Auharmazaf becomes the 
guardian of a true servant. 

7. This, too, that they ever amount to a master 
of all commands 8 for him who is a benefit and 
sovereignty for that which arises; even owing to 
this reason, because, in establishing and arranging 
that which is an absurd (askun) or a virtuous law, the 
command issued, which is another and further ob- 
servation of the advantage of the creatures, prepares 

1 Assuming that ar'^5, 'value,' stands for khira<?o, which is 
very similarly written in Pahlavi letters. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 8 a. 

• See Chap. XIX, 1, and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68. 

4 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 8 b. * Ibid. 8 d. 



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CHAPTER LXIV, 4-IO. 375 

that which is ever an attainable benefit among the 
creatures, by means of which, even after symptoms 
of the life of one's body, it is governed through 
setting going the usage of that law, and is connected 
with his mastery of command and his sovereignty. 
8. This, too, that Vohuman's having guarded the 
creature-forming (damih) of Auharmaswf 1 is taught 
by him whose rule is for Auharmaea?; on this 
account, because he whose rule is for hxHcarvazzd 
has taught the inclination for (padftsal) being 
guarded, on this account, because the inclination of 
the creatures of that ruler for being guarded by the 
power of goodness, and the creatures being guarded 
by the power of goodness have published the power 
of goodness, which is Vohuman, to the multitude. 

9. Here is about the reply to Zaraturt concerning 
the wicked, thus : ' Upon arrival in the fiend's 
abode 2 , through an immature (kham) death, they 
are unprivileged, so that every misery is theirs, and 
it is not possible for them to seek a remedy.' 

10. This, too, that the spirit of reverence comes 
through invocation to the assistance 3 of him who is 
reverent unto the benefiters; even for this reason, 
because the spirits respond more particularly to that 
invoker who becomes their worshipper preponder- 
antly (vas/uharakanlha) ; and for each one of the 
spirits there is preponderantly a form of worship, as 
the spirit of liberality is more particularly worshipped 
through helpfulness (vifldfar-dahisnih), the spirit 
of truth through exact truth (hu-rastih), the spirit 
of a promise through true promising (hu-mitr6ih), 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 10 a, b, and Chap. LXIII, 6. 
' Ibid. 1 1 d. * Ibid. 12 a. 



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376 DtNKAKD, BOOK IX. 

and the spirit of sovereignty through good sover- 
eignty; and, even so, the worship of the spirit of 
reverence consists preponderantly in reverence unto 
the benefiters. n. This, too, that he whose rule is 
for Auharmasa? becomes a supplicant for that which 
is coveted (tstd) from Auharmaga? 1 ; even for this 
reason, because what is wisely begged from the 
sacred beings and rulers, for rendering one's own 
self worthy, occurs as a benefit owing to the sacred 
beings and rulers. 

1 2. About the reply of Auharmas^ to Zaraturt, 
when asked by him about his own, his confederate *, 
and his serf, thus : ' He is thine own, he thy con- 
federate, and he thy serf, even when and where he is 
a righteous offspring who produces the progress of 
this thy religion of Mazda-worship, and recites it 
openly even unto him he knows, who provides the 
public benedictions, this good practice of thine, that 
is, he maintains what is provided by thee as bene- 
dictions V 

1 3. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness. 



Chapter LXV. 
Bako Nask. 



1. The nineteenth fargan/, Ka«f-m6i-urva* is 
that the sheep-nature (pahlh) 8 is taught to him who 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 12 d. * Ibid. 7 c. 8 Ibid. 7 d. 

4 See Chap. XX, in; it is here written ka<?-mdk-rav5 in 
Pahlavi. 

• See Pahl, Yas. XLIX, 1 b. The distinction made in the 
Pahlavi text, here and in § 3, by using the scriptural term pah and 
the general word gdspend for the sheep, might perhaps be imi- 
tated in English by using the word « flock ' for p£h, but this would 
not express the meaning exactly. 



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chapter lxtv, i i-lxv, 8. 377 

is a sheep (g6 spend), even for this reason, because 
the sheep is still among sheep (pah-i£ d6n). 2. 
This, too, that by him who provides pasture for 
sheep, mankind are nourished (srayintafo) 1 through 
the sheep ; even for this reason, because the nourish- 
ment of mankind is through the sheep, and that of 
the sheep through pasture. 3. This, too, that the 
sheep of the present worldly state is expounded to 
him who is a sheep (pah) to Zaraturt, that is, he 
has Zaratu-rt as a high-priest ; even for this reason, 
because still a sheep (pah-ii) is a sheep. 

4. This, too, that strength in virtue is increased 
and taught by him who produces joyfulness 2 through 
seeking gradual development, so that he would do 
that thing which gives him joyfulness, that is, he 
would do that thing which becomes his long-con- 
tinued joy; even for this reason, because increase of 
strength arises more particularly from pleasure, the 
pleasure that one is gradually attaining (d6r-padfal). 
5. This, too, that by him who shall provide the 
ceremonial of the sacred beings, the joyfulness 2 
owing to the sacred beings is then connected with 
his own ; even for this reason, because the coming 
of the sacred beings to it occurs. 

6. This, too, that the wisdom 3 of Zaratu^t is 
taught and displayed by him who gives thought to 
the religion of Zaraturt. 7. This, too, that the 
tongue 3 is instructed (farhan£inta?8) in speech by 
him who becomes discriminating through wisdom. 
8. And this, too, that preparation 4 is taught to them 
who are benefiters of Zarattot, or who are so of the 
religion; even for this reason, because, owing to 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIX, 1 b. 

"Ibid. 5 b. 'Ibid. 6 c. * Ibid. 6d. 



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378 dInkard, book ix. 

that action, disposition, and attraction which are now 
theirs, they prepare mankind for the religion of 
Zaratust 9. This, too, that whoever teaches the 
virtuous way to others, they become his through 
the knowledge of being instructed; even for this 
reason, because through the enlightenment of that 
way, they see and act, and are thereby instructed. 

10. This, too, that the obeisance 1 for the arch- 
angels is performed by him who is a praiser of the 
archangels. 11. This, too, that assistance is taken 2 
from the sacred beings by him who gives to him 
who is a supplicant that which is dear to him, 
because he himself is made worthy by his assistance, 
and, when made worthy by it, it is then taken by 
him ; and the supplicant is he who is not a suppli- 
cant through his mouth, but through worthiness, and 
what is dear is that which is good about him. 

12. This, too, that its being within the day till 
dawn (va/ aush) 3 is taught by him — that is, he 
would make it as a signal (dakhshakS) 3 — who is 
in obeisance, so that he may not neglect till another 
day the duty and good works which it is requisite 
for him to perform within the day; even for this 
reason, because to cause the preservation of the 
dawn from debased incompatibility (h£rhanb£shth) 
of duties, it is made exalted by him over the duties. 
13. This, too, that complete mindfulness is taught 
among the existences* by him whose thought among 
the existences is that he shall perform that thing 
which is possible to remain good in the world, such 
as the provision of good sovereignty, orthodoxy, the 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XLIX, 7 b. ■ Ibid. 7 d. 

• Ibid. ioc. 4 Ibid. 11 c. 



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CHAPTER LXV, 9-LXVI, 3. 379 

law of virtuous usage, and others, through which the 
dwelling, preparation, and living of mankind in the 
world arise, and the appropriation of any complete 
mindfulness of that performer is the exaltation which 
is his owing to that great performance. 

14. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence. 



Chapter LXVI. 
Bako Nask. 



1. In the twentieth fargantf, Vohu-khshathrem 1 , 
it is also stated by Auharmaa^ to Zaratu^t the 
Spitaman thus : ' They who are now in sovereignty 
are privileged, the human being who is a wicked 
lying tyrant being not now in sovereignty; more- 
over, thou shouldst cause some one to thoroughly 
smite (bara vanln-#£) him who is causing decep- 
tion in the embodied world by lamentation (rivan), 
and they cause the preservation of death, ruin, and 
falsehood because they would cause the preservation 
of his effects (tnamana; var ae b6^1n^nd).' 2. 
And this, too, namely: 'When the sovereignty 
should be given by them unto him who is good 2 , 
they would be preserved through that sovereignty of 
his; moreover, thou shouldst cause some one to 
thoroughly smite him who is made deceitful by 
lamentation, and so also death, ruin, and falsehood.' 

3. This, too, that by him who shall provide com- 
plete mindfulness 3 for his own, righteousness is 
produced ; even for this reason, because, through 

1 See Chap. XXI, in; it is here written v6hu-khshatar in 
Pahlavi. 
* See Pahl. Yas. L, 1 a. » Ibid. 2 b. 



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380 dInkard, BOOK IX. 

complete mindfulness, the discerning eye of life, 
which is righteousness, is enlightened. 4. This, too, 
that the coveted thing (l^t6) which it is expedient 
for sovereignty to give away x is taught by him who 
shall provide sovereignty for him who is all-pro- 
gressive (hamak-rutmno); even for this reason, 
because the observation, consideration, and action 
of him who is an all-progressive ruler are about that 
which is coveted by the multitude and is an ad- 
vantage for the sovereignty which it is expedient to 
produce. 

5. This, too, that what is produced by the words 
of Vohuman 2 is taught by him who shall perform the 
ceremonial of the sacred beings with the thoughts of 
Vohuman ; even for this reason, because, the mind 
being with the thoughts of Vohuman, the tongues of 
the faithful are habituated (khukintd?ak6) in the 
statements of Vohuman. 6. This, too, that inno- 
cence from discontinued (am and) good works is 
taught by him who remains in virtue ; even for this 
reason, because they are atoned for by him even 
among important good works. 

7. This, too, that the original causer of goodness 
is assisted in causing goodness by him whose funda- 
mental gift (bun dahi^no) among the existences is 
that he supplies that which it is requisite for him to 
give ; even for this reason, because in a work, upon 
which one remains with a thousand men, when one 
man is bringing his own strength to the labour 
therein, the 999 other men are assisted by him in 
that work. 

8. This, too, that the way of righteousness 8 is 

1 See Pahl. Yas. L, 2 b. * Ibid. 3 b. » Ibid. 13 c. 

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CHAPTER LXVI, 4-LXVII, I. 38 1 

not concealed, but taught, by him who is a good 
considerer as to righteousness ; even for this reason, 
because the sap and root of his righteousness are 
owing to undiverted thought. 9. This, too, that 
its being unnecessary to provide repletion for those 
who are cattle 1 is taught by him who keeps cattle 
as a controller for benefiters ; even for this reason, 
because they teach and command him. 

10. This, too, that housewifery 2 being performed 
is taught by that wife who shall joyfully pay rever- 
ence to her husband ; even for this reason, because 
her housewifery is for the satisfaction of the hus- 
band, the satisfaction is through her reverence, and 
the reverence arises through joy. 11. This, too, 
that to love the religion through knowledge 3 is 
taught by him who is peaceful (padfmanik) and 
Vohumanic to it; even for this reason, because 
Vohumanic peacefulness is understood as religion. 
12. And this, too, that the gratification of Auhar- 
masflf* is caused by him who teaches for Auhar- 
ma.zd. 

13. It is righteousness that is perfect excellence. 



Chapter LXVI I. 
BakS Nask. 



1. In the twenty-first fargantf, Vahi.ft6i.Jti 6 , it is 
proclaimed by the righteous Zaraturt, that the cere- 
monial is performed by him owing to whom our 

1 See Pahl. Yas. L, 14 b. * Ibid. 17 c. 

» Ibid. 1 8 b. * Ibid. 20 c. 

5 See Chap. XXII, 1 n. 



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382 dInk^wj, BOOK IX. 

worship is good thinking. 2. This, too, that Vo- 
human and the liturgy are lodging in the body of 
him in whose body the religion is lodging ; and so 
is the spirit of goodness, which is peace (paafman). 
3. This, too, that the good religion is taught in 
word and deed by him who shall achieve the giving 
of thought (mlni^n-dahlh) A> Vohuman in the cere- 
monial. 4. This, too, that the archangels become 
lodging in the body of him who loves Vohuman; 
even for this reason, because their lodging is in 
light, purity, and perfume, and the body is illu- 
minated, purified, and perfumed by Vohuman. 

5. This, too, that mankind are made diligent in 
the performance of good works by him who shall 
provide gifts for the doers of good works. 6. This, 
too, that by him who loves the beneficial way 1 , 
even others are put in the same way and taught 
7. This, too, that he gives his daughter in daughter- 
hood to his fatherhood 2 , who teaches to the daughter 
reverence towards her father ; even for this reason, 
because she is made steadfast in daughterhood by 
him, 8. This, too, that the authority of Vohuman 
is taught by him who keeps the talent which is his 
for virtue; even for this reason, because from the 
authority of goodness arise the advantage and free- 
dom from strife of the sciences (hunarano). 

9. This, too, that a daughter is given to a father 
for womanly service (n6jmanih 2 ), and so also a wife 
to another man, by him who teaches reverence, 
towards father and husband, to the daughter and 
the other woman ; and so, too, by him who instructs 

1 See Pahl. Yas. LII, 2 d. 

* Ibid. 4 a. In § 9 (as in Chap. XLV, 4) there appears to be no 
confinement of the meaning to matrimony. 



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CHAPTER LXVII, 2-LXVIII, I. 383 

the wife of a man in housewifery ; because the ad- 
vantageous womanly service of a woman/ora man 
arises through reverence towards her husband and 
good training in housewifery. 10. This, too, that 
even the reverence of a wife towards a husband is 
produced by him who gives a woman unto a man ; 
because the giver of possession (khuaflh) becomes 
praiseworthy even by the act of having given that 
possession. 

n. This, too, that origin and effect (bun va-bar) 
are produced for Auharmasra? by him who gives 
what is necessary unto Auharma^ and teaches 
perpetual preservation ; what is properly necessary 
being the origin of the preservation which is the 
effect of what is properly necessary. 1 2. This, too, 
that dominion is acquired for the house of him who 
keeps the door of the house an opening for the 
wise ; the house being the body, and the door of the 
house being the ear, eye, and mouth. 

13. It is the excellence of righteousness that is 
perfect. 

Chapter LXVII I. 

BakS Nash. 

1. The beginning of the twenty-second fargan/, 
the Airyaman 1 , is the last question (frasno) be- 
yond the five Gathas ; it is taught for the dominion 
of Auhannasa? only by him — that is, it is making 
him ruler of himself — who shall do that which is 
declared by the passage: — Ya ercse^ydi dahl 



1 See Chap. XXIII, in; it is here written airemanfi in 
Pahlavi. 



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384 d!nkaju>, BOOK IX. 

drigaove' vahy6 * : who gives delights (vayaganfi) 
to him who is a right-living poor man 2 — preserva- 
tion from the destroyer, and the consummation of 
every happiness. 

2. It is perfect excellence that is righteousness. 



Chapter LXIX. 

1. About a selection from the whole Yart s refer- 
ring to the developer (vakhshfnl^4r-h6m6nd). 

2. Those are beneficial who increase for the de- 
veloper, that is, they shall occasion benefit (n£- 
vaklh) for him who would occasion that benefit 
which is for others 4 . 3. Thus the righteous man 
who produces perfect thought is he who comes upon 
it through Vohuman 6 , and the benefit of him who 
is an open annoyer 6 — the righteous man who is a 
smiter of the wicked, and who developes as to what 
is Auharma&jTs and as to what is Zaraturt's — is that 
he slays in moderation. 

4. Regarding him who is an oppressive man who 
is righteous, the reply spoken is thus : ' The reward 
of the smiter and developer — that man of whom one 

1 See Yas. LIII, 9 d. 

* See Pahl. Yas. LII, 9 d, and Chaps. XLV, 10, XLVII, 17. 

* The twenty-first Nask, or original Yasna (see Bk. VIII, Chap. 
XLVI, 1). It is not very clear, from this chapter and from what is 
stated about it in Chap. I, 2, whether this selection was compiled 
by the author of the Dinkar<f, or by some earlier writer. So far as 
its statements have yet been traced, nearly all of them originate in 
the Gathas, or in the Yasna Haptanghaiti ; but § 45 quotes a 
passage from the BakS Nask (Yas. XIX). 

* Compare Pahl. Yas. XLII, 1 a. 

* Compare Pahl. Yas. XXVIII, 2 a, where J2, Pt4, Mf4 have 
bard yehamtunane 4 pavan Vohuman. 

« Compare Pahl. Yas. XLII, 8 b. 



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CHAPTER LXVIII, 2-LXIX, 9. 385 

knows the smiting and developing — is the very evil 
reward of him who is wicked ; just as his smiting, 
as an evil reward for him from those two spirits, is 
that very evil practice loved by him who is wicked ; 
even for this reason every righteous individual is 
Gathic 1 , because, when privileged (paofdkhshai), 
he who is wicked is thus he who is righteous, and 
also he who is privileged is unprivileged V 

5. Zarat&rt proceeded with the smiting at the 
wicked, and as to that proceeding Auharmasfl? spoke 
thus : ' Thou shouldst thus proceed with smiting at 
the wicked by ordinance (daaftstan), because thus 
they have thee and the righteous of every kind as 
ruler. 6. Also through my decree (pavan-i^ man 
vi,fir) one produces the ritual of ordeal, which 
realizes that which is real, so that one may make 
that which is dark fully light. 7. Thine, too, is so 
much the sovereignty of Auharmas^, thus through 
worship, that its requisite (khvastakd) privilege is 
thus maintained through virtue, because thou, who 
art thus, art more unconfined (anak6.ylafar) to the 
world through the furtherance and development of 
righteousness; great, indeed, is he who trusts the 
righteous man for righteousness, and great is he 
who trusts the wicked man for wickedness.' 

8. As to that utterance (farmayixnd) Zaraturt 
spoke thus : ' An open annoyer is the righteous 
man — the benefiter disclosed by Atiharmazd — that 
loves the embodied world of righteousness, and 
demands its reverence (tarsakayih) for the pro- 
portion of righteousness therein, that is, he knows 
the proportion of duty and good works.' 9. Re- 

1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. I, 5 n. ■ See Chap. LXI, 11. 

[37] CC 



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386 DtNKAKD, BOOK IX. 

garding the worldly existence, the reply spoken is 
thus : ' That which is again contaminated (gumikht- 
&d) by the demons becomes abundant so long as 
that which is proper is again contaminated with the 
demons ; and, so long as there is a developer, they 
subsist for their own substances, so that it is pos- 
sible for them to seek benefit for their own, and 
they are smiters of the righteous.' 

10. Regarding him who is a wise smiter, Sdshans 1 
spoke in reply thus : ' It arises through his way 
when it is again contaminated.' 

ii. As to that mischief (dru.fi.rnS) Auharmas^ 
spoke thus : ' Happy is he from whom there is no 
mischief 12. Regarding 2 him who has come, the 
Yim of splendour s , he spoke thus : ' He attains his 
reward who is no smiter and no developer, not privi- 
leged and not unprivileged.' 

13. As to that disclosure (hd&isn6) Vohuman 4 
spoke thus : 'I aggrandize that spiritual lord and 
that priestly master who is my righteousness in 
person.' 

14. As to that utterance Spendarma^* spoke 
thus: 'So do thou perfect (bar A vadldun) him 
whose information subsists — a man that becomes 
wise — who is as an emblem of my religion ; because 
he has worshipped that which is ours, so that he has 
retained property in our possession, through whose 
words tliere is a furtherance of the world of right- 
eousness. 15. That is my arrangement, and that 
my wish — that is, what is necessary for me — and I 

1 See Bk. VIII, Chap. XIV, 14. 

* Assuming that It, ' not,' stands for r&f. 

« Av. Yim6 khshaStd (see Bk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 6, 7), 

4 See Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3. 



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CHAPTER LXIX, 10-20. 387 

love that which thou fully understandest, that is, 
that arrangement which is righteousness ; also what- 
ever discourse and perfect performance, thou askest 
of us, O Zaraturt ! in complete mindfulness, I now 
practise by the work of each hand; observe tho- 
roughly that which I am performing, and thou, too, 
art accomplishing. 16. In worship thou, O Zara- 
t&rt ! art liberal, who art liberal in ceremonial ; for 
thee, whose body believes, controversy is not lavish 
(raa?) for the sake of the wealth bestowed; the 
reward of Zaraturt the developer is for developing, 
the reward of Zaraturt the smiter is for smiting, and 
the reward of Zaratust the smiter and developer is 
for smiting and developing. 17. At the bridge 
judgment of him whose name the fire calls for parti- 
cipation, as when they repeatedly pour the melted 
ore upon him in the throat, thou shouldst pray near 
him alive — him whose love is for virtue — so that he 
may perform duty and good works with fearlessness ; 
with his desire, too, it is expedient to know that it is 
done by him on account of necessity.' 

18. As to that utterance Ahha.rma.zd spoke thus : 
'Such is the upward attraction (lala-han^i^nih) of 
Shatraver 1 for him who is ours.' 19. As to that 
question (frashno) Auharmasr^ spoke thus: 'Such 
has happened to him who is ours through Vohuman ; 
he ought to come to our religion through virtue. 
20. Truly he, O Zaraturt! is privileged for the 
sovereignty, who confines his ears to this religion, 
that he may make it fully progressive ; who is given 
immortality through this, and kind regard for the 
will of him who is the best of that religion of mine, 

1 See Chap. XLIII, 1. It is here written Shatrdver. 
C C 2 



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388 vInkard, book ix. 

O Zaraturt ! and who assists the furtherance of this 
world of mine in righteousness.' 

21. As to those of that other one 1 Auharmasdf 
spoke thus: 'As regards that which is great evi- 
dence, when wicked they consider it as unattested 
for him who is wicked himself; and the thoughts 8 
of him, whose deeds are those of that other one, are 
due to Ak6man6 8 . 22. Owing also to this, when 
both Kh&rdad and Amurda^ 4 are given to thee, */ 
is in that way — when thou art of the propitious 
spirit and the best thought — that what thou under- 
standest thou shouldst be accomplishing, and what 
thou dost not understand thou askest again.' 

23. Of him whose wisdom exists (alt 6) — of Au- 
harmajsd — he whose wisdom arises (yehevun^rf) — 
Zaratust — enquired concerning him who is unreal 
(an-alt6) and who does not subsist (yehevun£rf) 
hereafter, who has thus never become a material 
existence for those on the side of virtue, and does 
not subsist for them henceforth. 

24. As to that reverse description (paaffrakfi- 
nisani.fnlh) Atiharmazd spoke thus: 'Among men 
of every kind say unto the righteous who are smiting 
the wicked, that we improve the measure of any 
milk they propitiate, even by the holy-water which 
is the sustenance (barixno) of milk, in order to 
cause much happiness of life.' 

25. As to that utterance Auharniasa? spoke thus : 
' Happy is he from whom there is no complaint, 
and a life which is like this the text Gerez6i . . . 



1 The followers of Aharman. 

* Assuming that mSnunS, ' dwelling,' stands for minunS. 

• See Bk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3 n. * See Chap. XIX, 1. 



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CHAPTER LXIX, 2\-2"J. 389 

akhsd . . . J implores. 26. To thee, O Zaraturt! 
my protection is given in the reply of the K^m-na 2 
which, before the companionship of Kat-VLrtasp 8 — 
that righteous friend of mine* — was a published 
thing of those which are used, and of those such as 
it is requisite to use. 27. The talk of a man which 
is immoderate is false, everything immoderate is so 
for this reason, everything is not that which the 
good man possesses, because, when privileged, the 
wicked one is he who is righteous, and he who is 
privileged becomes unprivileged; he who is right- 
eous is thus he who is wicked, and becomes him 
who is privileged and unprivileged, so that he is 
fully incriminated, and they shall carry off his pos- 
sessions.' 

1 Yas. XLVI, 2 c-e ; its Pahlavi version (Pahl. Yas. XLV, 2 c-e) 
may be translated as follows : — ' I complain to thee, behold it and 
this one, O Auharmas</I (that is, seek a remedy for me) ; that plea- 
sure is my desire, which a friend gives to his friend ; through the 
instruction of Vohuman (when I am instructed in virtue) is the 
coveted thing of righteousness (thou shouldst give me).' The words 
in parentheses have no equivalents in the A vesta text 

* Yas. XLVI, 7 ; its Pahlavi version (Pahl. Yas. XLV, 7 a-«) 
may be translated as follows : — ' Who is given to me (and mine, 
my disciples) as protector by thee, O Auharma*</I when that 
wicked (Aharman) retains malice for me in possession (that is, 
maintains malice with me? Who shall provide me protection), 
other than thy fire and Vohuman? (Because I know that they 
would provide me protection for your sake) when I nourish right- 
eousness through deeds for them, Auharmazrf ! (that is, should I 
perform duty and good works, who shall provide me protection ?) 
Thou shouldst proclaim to me that high-priest of the religion; 
(this thou shouldst state thus: "Maintain the religion as high- 
priest").' 

r See PahL Yas. XLV, 13 e, and Bk. VIII, Chaps. XI, 1, 
XIII, 15. 

4 Compare Ibid. 14a which is given in Pt4, Mf4, as follows: — 
Zaratuxto mun lak aharubo ddsto. 



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390 dInkard, book ix. 

28. Regarding the benefiters the reply spoken is 
thus : ' They are owing to the reward of the smiter 
and developer ; those are beneficial whose smiting 
and developing are those of the developer Auhar- 
ma&d, who understands smiting and development.' 

29. When through smiting by Auharmasaf, on 
account of the wicked, a question (frashnS) about 
it arose, the reply spoken, as to the smiting of the 
present world by means of him who is ruler, was : 
' The reward which the judgment that is perfect 
teaches is thus, that he who is the smiter and 
developer, Sdshans \ shall make the decision.' 30. 
Zaraturt spoke in reply thus : ' He gives a reward.' 
31. And that wise smiter, Sdshans, spoke in reply 
thus : ' He shall inflict punishment.' 

32. Even he who is an ox of many cattle has 
openly and publicly wailed this complaint 2 on ac- 
count of the righteous one : ' How long is it till the 
time when a developer arises, even he who is an 
irresolute ruler (akamakokhiWat)? How long is 
the time till he arises, until the wicked one who is a 
smiter and privileged corrupter is he who is un- 
privileged ? ' 33. Because, for the sake of producing 
resolution (kamak-dahlh), he complains that, until 
the developer shall arise, even he who is irresolute 
is ruler, that is, until he who is the developer shall 
become privileged. 

34. As to that complaint of his Auharmaa/ spoke 
thus : ' Not so as by this complaint is the obtainment 
of spiritual lordship (ahulkih), for this reason, when 
they do not consider the ruler as a ruler, and there 
is no giving of priestly authority (raafolh) by any 

1 See § 10. 2 Compare Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 1, 9. 



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CHAPTER LXIX, 28-40. 391 

righteousness whatever 1 , it is requisite, on account 
of the many righteous, to speak henceforth, until the 
time when the developer arises, even of\i\m who is 
an irresolute ruler.' 

35. On account of the many statements of the 
spirits, even as to thought, word, and deed, it is 
requisite to say that they shall always render an 
account until even some obtainment of a. smiter and 
developer, privileged or unprivileged. 36. Some 
arise of whom it is requisite to ask this question 
(frashn&) a while he who is righteous and he who is 
wicked are two witnesses, and they make the right- 
eous one manifest by his evidence, or they molest 
him who is righteous by smiting. 37. Some arise 
when it is requisite to speak this reply 3 during the 
smiting of the maintainer of strife and of the kins- 
man. 38. And some arise while that individual 4 is 
loved, though a righteous one and a developer arise, 
and it is requisite to produce a provider of benefit 
on account of the many, both wicked and righteous, 
so long as a wicked one of the smiting which is 
maintaining strife is privileged. 

39. Because, regarding the production of resolu- 
tion, it is proclaimed that it is so that they shall 
fully understand that Atiharmasd discriminates truly, 
and Aharman does not discriminate truly. 40. And 
that it is so that they shall fully understand that the 
punishment of the wicked is for teaching them that 
they will attain to the existence of darkness, that 
even to him who belongs to the ever-stationary they 
may give his rewawi, that they are for smiting the 
wicked one, that they are very powerful to give, that 

1 See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 6 b. * That in § 32. 

* That in § 34. 4 The irresolute ruler. 



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392 dIukard, book ix. 

they should kill the apostate, that one has to be con- 
verted from vileness to goodness, that he who 
would be wicked is made to believe by the tongue, 
that for the sake of proper nurture of the creatures 
next-of-kin marriage is provided, that the demons 
are despised, that thus he who is evil-ruling is 
wicked, and that they are approaching the place 
where Auharma^ shall provide for the account of 
sin and good works. 

41. They shall become more diligent in the per- 
formance of duty and good works, and abstain more 
from sin, always until one attains even to some 
acquirement for those in life and those ip a lifeless 
state \ 42. And they shall not inflict their punish- 
ment completely in the embodied state, and the 
fiend does not pity the worldly existence; every 
individual is counted up, and every one is fully 
completed for the affairs of Auharmasa?, but the 
fiend is not smitten, and they shall not fully inflict 
the punishment. 

43. No one thinks thou shouldst remain for the 
propitious Auharmas^, and no one completely pre- 
sents himself; they attack through the fiend, and 
arise for the foolish one. 44. No one arises for the 
goodness of him who is good, but for the vileness of 
the fiend they destroy what is good, and do not 
understand evil and good ; they recite the revelation 
for a wicked one, they do not bestow friendship for 
labour, but are for the evil-doer. 

45. And the righteous one, who is the best of 
spiritual and worldly existences, becomes a privileged 



1 By accumulating more good works than are necessary to 
balance one's own sins. 



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CHAPTER LXIX, 4I-47. 393 

developer, even he who is an irresolute ruler 1 ; and 
so he who is wicked, even he who is privileged, be- 
comes unprivileged, at that time when one gives the 
soul of every one unto the supreme heaven 2 , and 
when thou shouldst, every one, know that the afflic- 
tion of the annoyers arises 8 , so that when, owing 
thereto, they beseech the sacred beings, it is only 
hell that they supply. 

46. When every one shall provide the ceremonial 
of the archangels unworriedly, and when every one 
knows that Gdj-aurvan complained 4 — so that he 
who is the fashioner of cattle enquired thus : ' Whose 
is the guardianship of cattle 8 ?' and' Not without 
annoyance' was the reply of Ashavahi-st, 'that is, 
they shall inflict his punishment 6 ' — every one also 
knows that in their light is joyfulness for the sight 7 . 

47. When every individual (ko/a ats-l) becomes 
aware of the priestly authority of Auharmasof ; and 
when every individual knows that his remedy for 
the devastation owing to the evil spirit is compre- 
hensibly stated 8 ; when every individual knows 
that Auharmasra? fashioned the propitiousness in the 
liturgy 9 ; and when every one knows that the priest 
is perfect, that Auharmaz^ enhances both of them 
in spirituality 10 , that Vohuman is the offspring of 
Auharmastf 11 , that Spendarmaa? is Auharmas^'s 
own 12 , that all three of them are the life of him who 



I See Pahl. Yas. XIX, 58, XX, 10. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XXVIII, 4 a. » Ibid. 6 c. 
4 See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 1 a, and Chap. XV, 3. • Ibid. 2 a. 

• Ibid. 3 a, and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVII, 14. 

7 See Pahl. Yas. XXX, 1 c. * 8 See Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 6 a. 

• Ibid. 7 a. "See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 7 c " Ibid. 8 a. 

II Ibid. 9 a. 



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394 DtNKAUD, BOOK IX. 

has wandered forth 1 — that is, life is given by the 
thought and wisdom 2 which are his own — and that 
the sacred beings are they who are supporting it. 

48. When every one of this existence must act 
for the sake of that other existence, and knows how 
to act ; when every one is a friend, through deeds, 
of the spirit which is his own 8 ; and when every one 
becomes a person supporting Auhannaatf 4 . 49. 
When every individual knows that they give no 
reward to him in whose body a demon is lodging 
who is not listening 6 ; when every one shall make 
his own soul immortal 6 ; and when every one has 
advantage through possession of Auha^masaf 7 . 

50. When every one becomes a Z6ti unsullied in 
righteousness * ; when every one gives a sacred cake 
to the archangels 9 ; when every one knows that 
co-operation is due to him who is their servant ; and 
when they are together in soul 10 . 51. When every 
individual gives his body 11 ; when every one proceeds 
to their ceremonial and glorification 12 ; when every 
individual knows that 'other than they' is meant by 
na££fm t*m any^m 13 ; and when every one knows 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XXXI, 10 a. » Ibid. 1 1 b, c. 

8 Ibid. 21 c. * Ibid. 22 c. 

• Compare Pahl. Yas. XXXIII, 4 a, XLIII, 13 c. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XXXIV, 1 a. 7 Ibid. 3 a. 
8 See Pahl. Yas. XXXIII, 6 a, and Bk. VIII, Chap. VII, 5. 

• Ibid. 8 c. w Ibid. 9 c. u Ibid. 10 c. 
» See Pahl. Yas. XXXIV, 6 c. 

u Yas. XXXIV, 7 c, the Pahlavi version of which may be trans- 
lated as follows : — ' I am aware of no one (above), other than you 
(that is, I know no one from whom my benefit is such as from you, 
and when they shall cause) righteousness (that is, they shall perform 
duty and good works, it) thus produces shelter for us.' The MS. 
has na6£f<£ 



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CHAPTER LXIX, 48-54. 395 

that, through that sovereignty of his, the renovation 
of the universe is produced by his will among the 
existences 1 . 

52. When every one knows the elucidation (rd- 
shanS) of the religion; when every one considers 
the religion as governor and serf 2 ; when every one 
knows that the manifestation of this ought to arise 
in him ; when every one thinks Auharmasaf auspi- 
cious 8 ; and when every one knows that, when it 
occurs, benefit is produced, through resolute sove- 
reignty 4 , where and when it gives him a reward for 
the performance of the duty and good works they 
should call for. 53. When every one gives 6 the 
sacred beings and the good a sheep; when every 
one knows that, for him whose righteousness is in 
action, immense and complete mindfulness arises * ; 
when every one thinks of much assistance from 
Auharmaswf T ; when every one speaks to restore his 
temper 8 ; when every one speaks to provide the 
ceremonial 9 ; and when every one produces that 
advantage by liberal giving 10 . 54. When every one 
knows that one grants him the obeisance which is 
due to him when in a condition for the supreme 
heaven (amat d£n garddfrnanikth) 11 ; when every 
one knows that it is done by those in the realm of 
Auharmas*/ 12 ; and when every individual knows 



» See Pahl. Yas. XXXIV, 15 c. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XXXV, 22. 

' See Pahl. Yas. XL1I, 7 a. 4 Ibid. 8 d. 

8 Assuming that yehevunfirf, 'becomes,' stands for yeha- 
buneV. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XLIII, 6 c. 7 Ibid. 7 d. 

• See Pahl. Yas. XLIV, 3 a. » Ibid. 6 a. 
10 Ibid. 7 a. " Ibid. 8 e. la Ibid. 9 c. 



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396 DtNKA/U), BOOK IX. 

that, so long as the religion of the first creation * 
shall exist (ae), this characteristic is to be considered 
thus: Hv6 zi dregv<zu, &c. 2 

55. When every individual keeps no wealth for a 
high-priest of the apostates 3 ; when every one knows 
that, when above, there is righteousness * ; when 
they shall make intercession * for every individual, 
and when every individual becomes aware 6 of it ; 
when every individual sees that he is a father of 
righteousness 7 ; and when every individual knows 
that the propitious spirit is in him 8 . 56. When 
every one knows that, when a supplicant, he is more 
a smiter of the wicked • ; when every individual 
utters the salutation (nlyayisnS) of Auharmasra? 10 ; 
when every individual knows that that is our com- 
fort u , and that it is AuharmasaPs own creature 12 ; 
and when every individual is taught ,3 , and every 
individual joins in the perfect religion M . 

57. When every individual knows that Vohuman 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 6 e. 

8 Yas. XLVI, 6 c-e ; its Pahlavi version (Pahl. Yas. XLV, 6 c-e) 
may be translated as follows : — ' For he is wicked whose best nature 
is for the wicked, and he is righteous whose homage (fran&mijn6 
in Pt4, Mf4) is for the righteous (in any doubtfulness, whoever 
gives anything to the wicked is to be considered as wicked, and 
whoever gives to the righteous is to be considered as righteous) so 
long as the religion of the first creation, O Auharmasrf I (until the 
time when Soshins arrives one is ever to be considered in this 
way).' 

3 See Pahl. Yas. XLV, 8 a. The MS. has ' the righteous' by 
mistake. 

4 Ibid. 12 a. • Compare Pahl. Yas. XLVm, 6 a. 
« Compare Pahl. Yas. XLV, 17c 

T See Pahl. Yas. XLVI, 2 d. • Ibid. 3 a. » Ibid. 4 d. 

19 See Pahl. Yas. XLVII, 1 d. » Ibid. 6 a. u Ibid. 7 d. 
» Ibid. 1 2 c " See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 9 c 



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CHAPTER LXIX, 55~60. 397 

guards the creatures x ; when every individual be- 
comes privileged by will 2 for the reward; when 
every individual knows that gain is through giving 
away 3 ; when every individual transacts, or shall 
transact, the affairs of the archangels 4 ; and when 
every individual knows that when he who is intelli- 
gent speaks to him *, it becomes a possession for the 
benefit of righteousness 8 . 

58. When, for equal meritoriousness, it is neces- 
sary to give sooner to Magian men 7 — so that on 
account even of the Magianship of Kai-VLrtasp he 
was suitable for the sovereignty 8 , that Zaratust was 
given a wife by Frash6rtar 9 , that it was the learned 
GSmasp 10 that Auharmasa? gave — and that every 
individual shall provide the ceremonial of Auhar- 
masa? 11 . 59. And when every individual knows that 
they are the best prayers which are the words of 
Zaratust 12 , and, even so, his is a wise reward for 
those which are yours I8 . 

60. It is perfect is the excellence of righteousness ; 
it is perfect excellence that is righteousness. 



1 See Pahl. Yas. XLVIII, 10 a, b. 

* See Pahl. Yas. XLIX, 9 c. 

s See Pahl. Yas. L, 1 b. The MS. has bun, instead of barS, 
by mistake. 

* Ibid. 3 c. 5 Ibid. 8 a. " Ibid. 8 b. 
7 Ibid. 15 a. » Ibid. 16 a, and Bk. VIII, Chap. XI, 1. 

* Ibid. 17 a, and Bk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68. 

10 Ibid. 18 a. » Ibid. 20 c. u See Pahl. Yas. LII, 1 a. 
M Ibid. 7 a. 



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DETAILS OF THE NASKS 



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OBSERVATIONS. 

1-5. (The same as on page 2.) 

6. The manuscripts mentioned are : — 

B (written a.d. 1659), see page 2. 

B29 (written a.d. 1679), a Persian Rivayat, No. 29 in the 
University Library at Bombay. 

DH (written a.d. 181 3), a Din-vigirgard in the library of Dastur 
H6shangji Jamaspji at Foona. 

K35 (probably written a.d. 1572), a D&fistan-i Dinik, No. 35 
in the University Library at Kopenhagen. 

Mf4, Pt4 (written about a.d. 1780), in the Mulla Firuz Library 
and in that of Dastur Peshotanji Behramji in Bombay, respectively, 
both copied from a Yasna with Pahlavi, written in Iran and brought 
to India about a.d. 1478, which was a descendant of an ancestor 
of J2 and K5, and independent of those two authorities. 

MH10 (about 150 years old), a Persian Rivayat, No. io of 
Haug's Collection in the State Library at Munich. 

O225, a Persian Rivayat in No. 225 of Ouseley's Collection in 
the Bodleian Library at Oxford. 



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FROM THE SELECTIONS 

OF 

ZAZ>-SPARAM\ 



i. About the three divisions of revelation there is 
a condensed medium, beneficial and small, of whose 
subdivision one category (ra^istako) is collection 
together ; that is, the Ahunavair 2 itself is a symbol 
of the Nasks. 

2. First, the Ahunavair is apportioned into its 
three degrees (paafman), as shown in another 
chapter; and by a like system (ra^istak) the 
Gathas 8 , too, are into three, which are the three- 
lined, four- lined, and five-lined * ; even so the Nasks 

1 Who was high-priest of Sirkan, in the south of Persia, towards 
the end of the ninth century, being contemporary with the last 
reviser of the Dinkartf (see S. B. E., vol. xviii, p. xxvii). This extract 
from his Selections constitutes the 'particulars about the Gathas 
and the connection of the Ahunavair with the Nasks,' mentioned 
in the final footnote to Zs. XI, 10. For the Pahlavi text the trans- 
lator is dependent upon a single MS., copied from K35 when this 
latter MS. was complete, and said to be now in the library of 
Dastur Jdmaspji Minochiharji in Bombay. 

" See Dk. VIII, Chap. I, 7. 

s The word g&sinS is usually written like dahun5 in the MS. 

* The three-lined stanzas of the Gathas are 100 in the Ahuna- 
vaiti (Yas. XXVIII-XXXIV), 40 in the Yasna of seven has (Yas. 
XXXV-XLI), and 22 in the Vohu-khshathra (Yas. LI), altogether 
162 three-lined stanzas; the four-lined are one in the Urtavaiti 
(Yas. XLVI, 15), 41 in the Spe«Ut-mainyu (Yas. XLVII-L), and 
nine in the Vahwt6Lrti (Yas. LIII), altogether 51 four-lined stanzas; 

[37] D d 



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402 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

are denominated Gathic, Hadha-mSthric, and Law. 
3. Then the Ahunavair is apportioned into six 
which they call half-lines (n£m-gas); so, too, the 
Gathas are into six, which are called the Ahunavaiti 
Gatha, the Yasna, the Ustavaiti * Gatha, the Spe»ti- 
mainyu (S/etamat6) Gatha, the Vohu-khshathra 
Gatha, and the Vahi.rt6i.yti Gatha ; even so the 
Nasks are into six, as the Gathas are into two, 
which are called one the Githic creation — which is 
the Yait 2 — and one the rest of the Gathic ; also 
the Hadha-mathric into two, one the Mathra of the 
arranger — which is the P^lno and Radft>-da*/6-ait5 3 
— and one the MSthra full of good tokens, which is 
the rest of the Hadha-mathra ; and also the Law 
into two, one the law against the demons — which is 
the Vendtdaa? 4 — and one the law of Zaratu^t, which 
is the rest of the Law. 4. Then it is apportioned 
into twenty-one, such as the twenty-one words 
(marlk) of the Ahunavair; also the Gathas are into 
twenty-one, which are the Ahunavair, the praise of 
righteousness, the performance of the good, and 
from Yanim-man6 unto Airyaman 5 which, being 



and the five-lined stanzas are the remaining 65 in the Urtavaiti 
(Yas. XLIII-XLVI) ; making the total of 278 stanzas mentioned 
in § 5. Yas. XLII is a later supplement to the Yasna of seven 
Ms, and, in the MSS. Pt4, Mf4, it is headed as follows: — Amx 
vaharako-f haft hiao Yastd yasunfk bun, ' the beginning of wor- 
shipping as regards the portions of the Yasna of seven h&s.' 

1 The MS. corrupts these two names into the one word asna- 
vato by omitting the syllables aujta. 

* The St6<f-yart, or first of the Gathic Nasks (see Dk. VIII, 
Chap. I, 9). 

* The third and fourth of the Hadha-mathric Nasks (ibid. 10). 

4 The fifth of the Legal Nasks (ibid. 11). 

5 The three sacred formulas, Yatha-ahu-vairy6, Ashem-vohfl, 



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SELECTIONS OF ZAD-SPARAM. 403 

accomplished (akarafo), are twenty-one; and the 
Nasks are twenty-one. 

5. Then the Gathas are apportioned into 278 x 
stanzas (v£>£6sto); and the Nasks also into 278 
categories, every single category having borne a 
form like a single verse 2 , as regards how much and 
how anything good is indicated, such as the Patkar- 
raafistan 3 , in which what is legally disputable is 
reported (p£afak6) ; the Zakhmistan 4 , by which the 
penalty of assault (zakhm) is reported ; the St6ris- 
tan s , by which the sin and amount of penalty for 
a wound, as regard beasts of burden and cattle, are 
reported; the Arate^taristan e , by which battle is 
reported; the Pasuj-haurvastan 7 , by which the 
customary keeping of sheep in control is reported ; 
the (Jun&t-zaritunistin (' corn-sowing code ') 8 , by 
which agriculture is reported; the Varistan 9 , by 
which an ordeal being accomplished is reported ; and 
others of a like description. 



and YeNhS-hitam, with the seventeen Ms of the five real GSthas, 
and either the Yasna of seven his, counted as a single item, or 
the Airyaman, will make up the twenty-one divisions (compare the 
names applied to each fargarrf of the SuJkar, Vajjtmansar, and 
Bak8 Nasks in Dk. IX). 

1 See § 2 n; here the MS. has 288, by miswriting, in both 
occurrences of the ciphers. 

" Doubtful ; the text appears to be as follows : — ko/il ragistako-afi 
burtio fan min&k ak gah. 

* See Dk. VIII, Chap. XVI. 

* Equivalent to ZatamistSn (ibid. Chap. XVII), see Darmesteter's 
suggestion (ibid. Chap. XVI, 8 n). 

' Ibid. Chap. XXIV; here spelt Stdritdn by mistake. 

• Ibid. Chap. XXVI. 

7 Ibid. Chap. XXIII ; here written Pajdr-hauristan. 

8 Ibid. Chap. XXXI, 30-32. 

• Ibid. Chap. XLII ; here written Vartstdn. 

D d 2 



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404 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

6. Then the Gathas are apportioned into 1016 1 
metrical lines (gas), and the Nasks into 1000 Has 
and Fargarafe 2 , and, since the Haafokht 3 is the 
priestly master (raaftS) of the Nasks, and the remedy 4 
(darm6n) which is a perfect statement about the 
master of the resurrection, the existence of its far- 
gards about the other fargan/s is therefore 1000 
remedies fully combined, being the corn and fodder 
that are shut up (bastako) when, over that thousand, 
they supply one that is great, which in every way 
protects them from hail and rain, from the wind 
which is hot and that which is cold. 

7. Then the Gathas are apportioned into 6666 
words (marlk) 5 , and as to the Nasks, too, their own 
6666 ordinances (daafistanS) are therein severed. 
8. And the 6666 words, which are in the Gathas, are 

1 See Sis. XIII, 50 ; that this number is correct may be seen 
from the details given in § 2 n. 

* See Dk. VIII, Chap. I, 20; here the MS. has Syuino instead 
of hato, by miswriting. 

3 The sixth of the Gathic Nasks (see Dk. VIII, Chap. I, 9). 

* See Dk. VIII, Chap. XLV, 13, where the word used is 
b£sh<fz5. 

6 According to Sis. XIII, 50 the six Gathas (including the Yasna 
of seven his) contain 5567 va^ak, 9999 marik, and 16,554 khur- 
</ak; which enumeration makes the meaning of mirik doubtful. 
In our present text, however, it must have its usual meaning of 
' word,' as the number of 6666 words in the six Gathas can be 
obtained by including the customary repetition of the first stanza 
of each Ha of the five real Gathas, with the text of the Airyaman 
and of the introductions to Yas. XXVIII, XXXV, and probably 
the homage formula prefixed to each Gatha ; also by considering 
each component of a compound as a separate word, and all verbal 
prefixes as separable; and by counting all enclitics except -/fa, 
in accordance with the different modes of treating -kid and -M in 
counting the words of the Ahunavair. If the three sacred formulas 
were included, and the Airyaman and five homage formulas were 
omitted, the total would be nearly the same. 



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SELECTIONS OF zAfl-SPARAM. 405 

an indicator of the period from the adversary having 
come to the creatures, as far as unto the end of the six 
millenniums * — each millennium being ten centuries 
— which amount to 60 single centuries — a century 
being ten tens 2 — and up to the time when its 3 cold 
and distress arrive, which become awful ; the 600, 
including the excess as far as one ten *, are years of 
the 6000 years which are the words of the six 
Gathas that are the first indicator of the six 
millenniums ; therefore of the 60 centuries are then 
the 600 and those which are added to them (zak-f 
gha/). 

9. And after those 6000, which are the 6000 
years, are the Airyaman 6 of AshavahLyt and the 
accompanying sayings (ham-v^<6S) which are at the 
end of the Gathas; those are the 57 years of S6shans«, 
and for the sake of them, too, are the Airyaman and 
from the praise of righteousness at its end to the 
consecration of the Airyaman, originally 57 words 
(marik), because the praise of righteousness for the 
Airyaman is 12, and the consecration of the Airya- 
man is 21, of the original 57 7 . 

1 The three millenniums during which Auharmazrf and Aharman 
had nearly equal influence, and the last three millenniums during 
which the power of Aharman diminishes (see Bd. I, 20). 

8 Assuming that _A_^> stands for _5 _5. 

' Assuming that muna-r, ' whose,' stands for amata-r. 

* As the cipher for 'one ' precedes that for ' ten,' it may possibly 
mean ' one less than ten,' as in the Roman IX. At any rate, 6609 
years with the 57 accounted for in § 9 make up the requisite total 
of 6666 ; but the mode of making this number correspond with 
the six millenniums is not very clear. 

8 Yas. LIV, 1. 

• See Dk. VIII, Chap. XIV, 14; Bd. XXX, 7. 

7 The Airyaman contains 24 words, its Ashem-vohu 12, and its 
consecration (Yas. LIV, 2)21 words, making altogether 57 words. 



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406 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 



DlNKA^Z?.— BOOK III. 



Chapter VII 1 . 
The ninth question. 

i. Another apostate enquired thus: 'When there 
is Mathra that is said to be all in the words of 
Auharma^to Zaratu.rt, whether it be in the words of 
Frashdrtar and (Jamasp 2 , or be in the words of Vohu- 
man 3 and the sacred beings, or be in words of theirs 
published before the time of Zaratujt, or even after 
that of S£nd *, is it to be considered by us, as to that 
which is relating to us, that what is the utterance of 
Auhannas^ to ZaratuJt is only the Gathic, and the 
rest is composed by Zaraturt and his disciples from 
the world, even statements due to a good inclination 
for conversion (vastaklh) ?' 

2. The reply is that the other Mathra which is 
separate from the G&thas, if it be apart from the 
Gathas, is still owing to the composition of the 
Yatha-ahu-vairy6 6 ; and the same separate Mathra, 
which is from a witness about it, is the evidence 
with Auha^mazaf himself in vigorous omniscience 
and composition, and not owing to the knowledge of 
mankind, which shall not attain even to an atom of 
the atoms thereof. 3. The arising of the Mathra, 
through the speaking of many voices, is not all the 
speaking of Auharma&Z to Zaratu.rt through those 

1 According to Peshotan's notation ; the text followed is that of 
the MS. B, written a.d. 1659. 
4 See Dk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 68. 

3 This seems a more likely reading than ' H6m ' for the im- 
perfect word ^'l"'. 

4 See Chap. CXCVII, 6 n. » See Dk. VIII, Chap. I, 7 n. 



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dInkard, book hi. 407 

voices, but the speaking of several separately, through 
which the speaking of the voice would be evidently 
that of Atiharmazd ; that is this Mathra. 4. And 
just as the speaking forth of Zaraturt and other 
good men, as well as evil ones, likewise of those who 
are demons, even as far as the evil spirit, is stated 
by Auharmas^ in public, that statement would 
become even that of the evil spirit and demons, and 
the MSthra and Law against the demons would 
likewise become spoken by the demons. 5. And the 
MSthra is all confided by A {manual to Zaratust 
through many voices, being an avowal of Auharmazrf 
to Zaraturt, and an existence which is not incon- 
sistent (han-b£shin) ; just as the Gathas, which 
even you admit to be, as a whole, confided by 
Atiiharmazd to Zaraturt, are spoken through the 
voice of Zaraturt, be they through the voices of the 
archangels, be they through the voice of Gos-aurvan 1 , 
or be they through the voices of other sacred beings, 
to all they are spoken by Auharma^ to Zaratu.st, 
and are not inconsistent. 6. But owing to the dis- 
position of an apostate there is a longing scrutiny 
about his own statements, and evil-thinking scrutiny 
about the statements protecting the spiritual lord. 



Chapter CLXI. 

1. About one supremely 2 acquainted with the 
three 3 codes (dad6) of the Ma^a-worshipping 
religion there is this: — One supremely acquainted 



1 See Dk. IX, Chap. XV, 3. 

2 Perhaps we should read a^irtar, ' more particularly,' instead 
of aoartar. 

3 B has ' four ' by mistake here, but not afterwards. 



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408 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

with the three codes of the Masafe-worshipping 
religion is he of the primitive faith whose insight 
into the good religion is even such that he knows 
how to discriminate and announce the statements 
(vdkzkb) of the Hadha-mathric and Gathic from 
those of the Law, those of the Legal and Gathic from 
those of the Hadha-mathric, and those of the Hadha- 
mSthric and Legal from those of the Gathas. 2. Also 
to the statements (v<2>£ak6) in the Law — which is 
superior * knowledge about the worldly existences — is 
allotted (vakhtd) the worldliness of the Hadha- 
mSthric and also of the Gathic ; to those in the Gathas 
— which are superior knowledge about the spiritual 
existences — is allotted the spirituality of the Hadha- 
mSthric and even that of the Law; and to those in 
the Hadha-mSthra — which is superior knowledge 
about things intermediate between the spiritual and 
worldly existences — is allotted the intermediate matter 
(mlyanlklh) of the Gathic and also of the Legal 2 . 



Chapter CLXV. 

1. About the purport of the evidence of the three 
codes of the Masafo-worshipping religion, one as 
regards the other, there is verbal evidence of the 
Gathic from the Hadha-mSthric and the Law, and 
about the Hadha-mSthric and the Law from the 
Gathas. 2. The purport, too, of the statement that 
occurs is this of a ruler putting aside the commands 
of an enemy — which are declared, in many passages 
(divak) of the Hadha-mSthric and even of the 
Legal, to be worthiness of death — the purport being 
in the words of a Gathic phrase (nisang) that is 

1 See p. 497, n. 2. * Compare Dk. VIII, Chap. I, 13, 14. 



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dJnkard, book hi. 409 

even this : — ' He who is a good ruler is a desire and 
bringing on of fortune for me (va/am) 1 .' 3. All 
rulers also for the world have arisen for their own, 
and for maintaining him who is high-priest ; they 
are submissive, and any one accomplishing their 
commands — which are putting aside the commands 
of their enemy — is, owing to their submissiveness, 
authorisedly maintaining his own person and wealth 
in the world thereby, and in the world there is no 
place, nor yet a share of anything therefrom, on 
account of which he becomes offended by the world. 

4. The evidence of the Hadha-mathric and of the 
Legal about a Gathic statement is the purport of 
these words in a Gathic phrase, that ' not for him 
who is rightly proceeding is there further ruin 2 ;' and 
the evidence from the Hadha-mSthric is even this 
which states that 'rectitude assists a man like a 
regiment a thousand strong V also for the proportion 
of rectitude in his possession there is no disturbance 
whatever, and from the hurtful (vinaslganS) from 
without he is thus protected, because fully-worship- 
ping (pur-yasan) performance is freedom from 
danger from the want of freedom from wickedness 
(«-adarvandlh) of the enemy, as regards benefit, 
through the doing of injury by him. 

5. And on account of the superior knowledge 
of the spiritual existence, moreover, for the Gathas, 
above the intermediate Hadha-mathric and the lower 
knowledge of the Law, the purpose of the Gathic 
was for the statements of the Legal and the Hadha- 
mSthric, and the provision of the Hadha-mSthric 



1 Pahl. Yas. L, 1 a. s Pahl. Yas. XXIX, 5 c. 

3 Dk. IX, Chap. XX, 4. 



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4IO OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

and the Legal was evidently for the statements 
of the Gathas. 



Chapter CXCVII. 



6. One ' is that, on account of him who gave the 
Legal, and is also the protector of a priestly master 
who is given over to the Hadha-mSthric, and the 
Gathic, through which the purity of the good crea- 
tions arises, one is more steadfastly to aggrandise 
and develope them. . . .... 



DtNKA^Z?.— BOOK IV 2 . 

i. Obeisance to the Ma.zda-worshipping religion 
which is opposed to the demons and is the ordinance 
of Auharma^. 



1 This is the fourth of ' the ten admonitions of the righteous 
56n6v about the law of the Masrfa-worshipping religion.' In the 
seventh book of the Dinkarrf it is stated that ' as regards the high- 
priests this, too, is said on the subject of .S£n6v, that one hundred 
years of the religion elapse when S&n&v is born, and two hundred 
years when he passes away; he was also the first Maarfa-worshipper 
with a life of a hundred years (i oo khayS), and who walks forth 
upon this earth with a hundred disciples.' This last clause clearly 
identifies him with the 'Sa&ia, son of Ahum-sturf, who first 
appeared upon this earth with a hundred pupils,' as stated in 
Yt. XIII, 97 (see Darmesteter, Textes pehlvis relatifs au Judaisme, 
premiere partie, p. 3, n. 2). 

* This book commences with an account of the seven arch- 
angels, and, illustrative of the ' desirable dominion ' personified in 
Shatraver, the fourth of them, a statement is made of the legendary 
history of the efforts made by the good rulers, from Viftasp to 
Khusrdi An6sharavan, for the preservation of Avesta and Pahlavi 



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bIhkard, book iv. 411 

2. The fourth book is matter for instruction from 
the statements selected, from the instruction of 
the good religion, by the saintly (hu-fravar^6) 
Atur-farnbag 1 , son of Farukh6-za^ and leader of 
those of the good religion. 

3. From the Selection of Customary Instruction 2 
there is this: — Number one is the actual original 
evolution 3 , resembling only himself and not de- 
signed (iimlk). 4. Number two, the duplication of 
the first among those akin (khv£jlgan) owing to 
the consciousness of creation — which is the first — is 
Vohuman ; but it is his origin, concealed from the 
destroyer, which is the reason of the creation. 

10. Number three is the original creature Asha- 
vahist 4 — due to development among those akin, one 
out of another — who possesses the third place among 
the archangels, for the reverence of the first. 

1 2. Number four, the perfect sovereignty among 

literature. Most of this statement has been already translated at 
the end of Haug's Essay on Pahlavi, from a less perfect MS. than 
B, but, as some of the accompanying text is obscure, it has now 
been necessary to translate the whole of it to ascertain its con- 
nection clearly, although only so much of this translation is here 
given as will indicate this connection in a general way. 

1 Who held a religious disputation with the accursed Abalij in 
the presence of the Khalifah Al-Mamun (a.d. 813-833), as stated 
in the Ma</igin-i Gu^astak Ab&lw. He appears to have been the 
first compiler of the Dtnkarrf, especially of its first two Books 
which are still undiscovered (see Dk. Ill, Chap, last, 9, in Introduc- 
tion; Sg. IV, 107, IX, 3, X, 55). Dk. IV, V are taken from his 
statements, as well as a portion of Dk. Ill, Chap. CXLII. 

2 Ayufno SmukS vi^tno, evidently the name of a treatise com- 
piled by Atur-farnbag. 

8 That is, Auharmazrf. 4 See Dk. VIII, Chap. XXXVII, 14. 



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412 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

those akin, is named Shatraver 1 , the necessity of 
the stored-up (az»ar-gudf6) nature of a spiritual 
lord arisen from the reverence of the perfectly 
just doer Ashavahist, who is the third in arising 
from him who is the second, Vohuman, who is the 

first creature 19. So, too, 

the sovereignty of the religion is ever specially good 
sovereignty and triumphant, and the true religion is 
confident ; the will of the sacred beings in the world 
is progress, and the comprisal of every knowledge 
is in the Masda-worshipping religion; the correct 
attainment of its good sovereignty and their joint 
statement are together really on account of their 
concealed good protection and progressive produc- 
tion, one for the other. 20. They strive for the 
powerful maintenance of the religious good monarchy 
of rulers, trusty in religion through practising Masda- 
worship ; the law of the rulers is custom, and their 
custom is religious. 

21. Vijtasp 2 , the king when he became relieved 
(pardakhto) from the war with Ar'^asp*, sent to 
the chief rulers about the acceptance of the religion, 
' and the writings* of the Masdfa-worshipping religion, 
which are studded with all knowledge through re- 
sources and learning of many kinds, and also the 
tongue of a. Magian man (Mag6!-gabra), arisen in 
the very same instructed duty, it is expedient you 
should send (,jedrune^8) therewith.' 22. Now 



1 See Dk. IX, Chap. XLIII, 1. 

1 See Dk. VIII, Chaps. XI, 1, XIII, 15. » Ibid. XI, 4. 

4 Haug's MS. omits this passage: va/ sar-khMtyan madam 
paaf5r6ftano-t d£nd firtstako, va-nipiklha-t ; and, even when it is 
supplied from B, a few more words appear to be still wanting. 



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dJnkard, book rv. 413 

Arasrras/d 1 , and others from outside of Khvaniras 2 , 
came to Frashdrtar for religious enquiry, with com- 
plete intelligence for the most who did so. 

23. Darai 3 , son of Daral, ordered the preservation 
of two written copies of the whole Avesta and Zand, 
according to the receiving of it by Zaratust from 
Auharmasd? ; one in the treasury of Shapigan *, and 
one in the fortress of written documents. 

24. Valkhar 6 , descendant of A-ykan, in each district, 
just as he had come forth, ordered the careful preser- 
vation, and making of memoranda for the royal city 
(shatr6 shahag), of the Avesta and Zand as it 
had purely come unto them, and also of whatever 
instruction (amuk6->£), due to it, had remained 
written about, as well as deliverable by the tongue 
through a high-priest, in a scattered state in the 
country of Iran, owing to the ravages and devas- 
tation of Alexander and the cavalry and infantry of 
the Arumans 6 . 

1 Evidently the same person as Arezras/ah (Dk. IX, Chap. XXI, 
24), the supreme high-priest of the northern region Vfdarfafsh 
(Bd. XXIX, 1). In Dk. VII it is also stated that Sp\ib\s and 
Aresras/6 came to Frashdftar, seeking information about the 
religion, 57 years after it had been received by Zaraturt who 
appears to have departed to the best existence ten years before. 

* See Dk. VIII, Chap. VIII, 2. 

* According to Bd. XXXIV, 8 and the Persian Rivayats, which 
teach a chronology of their own, this Daraf was the predecessor of 
Alexander and reigned fourteen years ; his father reigning twelve 
years. 

* It is hazardous to read 'the royal (shayag&n) treasury' be- 
cause the name, which occurs seven times in the Dinkanf, is five 
times spelt Shapfgan, and twice Shas/tgan. 

* Probably Vologeses I, who was a contemporary of Nero and 
appears to have been a Ma«<fa-worshipper (see S. B. E., vol. iv, 
p. xxxiv). 

* The older Greeks were so called by the Persians in Sasanian 



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4H OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

25. That (valman-1-i) Anakhshatar 1 , king of 
kings, who was son of Papak, summoned T6sar, 
and also all that scattered instruction (amuk6), as 
true authority, to the capital ; T6sar having arrived, 
him alone he approved, and, dismissing the rest of 
the high-priests, he also gave this command, namely : 
' For us every other exposition of the Masr</a-wor- 
shipping religion becomes removed, because even 
now there is no information or knowledge of it 
below.' 

26. Shahpuhar 2 , king of kings and son of Artakh- 
shatar, again brought together also the writings 
which were distinct from religion, about the in- 
vestigation of medicine and astronomy, time, place, 
and quality, creation (dalmnS), existence, and de- 
struction (vinasi^nS), the submission of a wild 
beast 3 , evidence, and other records and resources 
that were scattered among the Hindus, and in 
Arfim* and other lands; and he ordered their 
collocation again with the Avesta, and the pre- 
sentation of a correct copy of each to the treasury 
of Shaptgin 6 ; and the settlement (as tint ate n6) of 
all the erring upon the Mastffa-worshipping religion, 
for proper consideration, was effected. 

27. Shahpuhar', king of kings and son of Auhar- 
mastff, instituted a tribunal (dvtn ahank& kara?6) 
for the controversy of the inhabitants of all regions, 

times, because they came from the same quarter as the later armies 
of the eastern empire of the Romans. 

1 The first Sasanian king, who reigned a. d. 226-240. 

* The second Sasanian king, who reigned a.d. 240-271. 

9 Doubtful ; but it is difficult to find a more probable meaning 
for da</ako hgrlh. 
4 The eastern empire of the Romans. • See § 23. 

• The ninth Sasanian king, who reigned a. d. 309-379. 



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vInkard, book iv. 415 

and brought all statements to proper consideration 
and investigation; and after the preservation of 
Aturpadf 1 , through the statement which he main- 
tained (pasakhto) with all those of different sects, 
and the Nasks were enumerated, he also spoke this 
even to those who were heterodox, namely : ' Now, 
when the religion is recognised by us in the worldly 
existence, we do most diligently endeavour that they 
shall not allow the infidelity (agd£n6!h) of any one 
whatever ; ' and he acted accordingly. 

28. This (le-denman-1-i 2 ) Khusr6t 3 , king of 
kings who is son of Kavaaf, as apostasy and tyranny 
were fully antagonistically smitten by him *, and 
information and redoubled proper consideration were 
abundantly augmented — through a declaration from 
the religion unto every apostasy of the four classes 
(ptsako) — also spoke even this as to winning the 
sacred beings (ya^dfan kharldfth), namely : ' The 
truth of the Masa&t-worshipping religion is fully 
understood, and the intelligent are steadfastly capable 
through proper consideration ; but recognition by the 
worldly existence has mostly become exceedingly 
scattered, and the particulars are not possible through 
proper consideration, but through purity of thought, 

1 See Dk. VIII, Chap. I, 22. 

* Literally ' this one who is,' which, applied to a person near at 
hand, is a phrase analogous to valman-1-t, 'that one who is,' 
applied in § 25 to a person more remote. The oblique case 
le-denman of the demonstrative pronoun, which occurs very 
rarely, is analogous to the oblique cases li, lanman, lak, lekum 
of the personal pronouns, which occur constantly. 

* The twentieth Sasanian king, who reigned a.d. 531-579; he 
was surnamed An6sharavan, ' immortal-soulled.' 

4 Referring to his extirpation of the heresy of Mazdak, ad. 528, 
before he came to the throne. 



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41 6 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

word, and deed, and the statements of the good 
spirit, the liturgical ceremonial of the sacred beings 
with purity. 

29. 'We also call, each of those called by us, 
a priest of Ahharmazd, whose perception of the 
spiritual existence is manifested unto us; and our 
wide resources, the perception of the spiritual exist- 
ence and the example of the worldly one, are likewise 
indications of both natures that are complete. 30. 
And we invite (bavihun6m) those invited 1 , even 
with that excellence and efficiency which are due to 
them, on account of which the sacred beings are 
predominantly over Iran ; the country of Iran having 
proceeded onwards through instruction from the 
Mas*/a-worshipping religion which the ancients cele- 
brated. 31. The knowledge of the sociable cere- 
monial (ham-ya.si.ynlh) — for which, indeed, those 
of the intelligent of disunited Khvaniras are not in 
a dispute of antagonism — is, in that way, mostly the 
sonorous (a£vi.sik) A vesta, in the pure statement of 
the writing adornable by memoranda of particulars ; 
and even the simple wordless (avi^ik) mode is 
maintained in the announcement of the statement. 

32. ' Even then all the domestic (khanik) know- 
ledge of the Masafa-worshipping religion is really on 
this account, which is understood by us, that, when 
all are intellectual (vir-h6m6nd), and the proper 
consideration of a stranger (blganakfi) is owing to 
the world of the Masafo-worshipping religion, they 
arrive at this place. 33. But through the new 
possession and proper consideration of the stranger, 
owing to the Ma^a-worshipping religion, they are 

1 As in Yas. II. 



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dInkard, book iv. 417 

not capable of bringing about so much acquirement 
and manifestation of knowledge, for the advantage 
and open duty of the worldly existence, as is in the 
recitation of a priestly master through much investi- 
gation, and is abundantly well-considered. 34. And 
if we command, with the utmost solicitude, the 
proper consideration of the Avesta and Zand of the 
primitive Magian statements (Magol-gobi^n6), 
which are more humbly observant, better disposed, 
good, and ever renewed uneffacedly, as well as an 
increase of acquirement worthily therefrom, for 
the knowledge of those of the world, there is no 
necessity of first acquiring the quality of creation 
from the creator, by those who are worldly existences, 
for understanding the creator and the marvellous- 
ness of the spiritual existences ; or all necessity of 
acquiring is said to be longing through scanty 
knowledge. 

35. 'They who are a counterpart (a£dfun61h) of 
manifestation from the religion — and even through 
the resemblance there is a possibility of the exist- 
ence of understanding — are mentioned as effecting 
proper consideration -(hu-sikal-gar) ; and he who 
has to exhibit enlightenment (r6shan6) through 
knowledge, has to maintain acquaintance with the 
religion. 36. And since the origin of every know- 
ledge is the religion, alike through spiritual power, 
and alike through worldly manifestation l , that which 
any one has wisely spoken — even though not con- 
sidered by him as similarly beheld (ha.m-6.ido) by 
any Avesta declaration — is still then accounted as 
a manifestation from the religion, whose business is 

1 Assuming that p&^akfh-inWarih stands for pe</akini</arih. 
[37] E e 



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4l8 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

bringing forth offspring for the sacred beings through 
instruction.' 

37 1 



FROM PERSIAN RIVAYATS 2 . 

I. From the Rivayat of Bahman POngyah 8 . 

The names of the twenty-one Nasks, from the 
Yatha-ahu-vairy6 :— Yatha, the Studkar; ah u, the 
Varrtah-manthrah ; vairyd, the Bagh; atha, the 
Damdad ; ratus, the Nadur ; asha^, the Pazun ; 
kid, the Raturtayid; ha^a, the Barij; vangh<?u.r, 
the Karer6b; dazda, the VLrtispad ; manangh6, 
the Did; y^yaothananSm, the ATldrart ; angh^u^, 
the Spentah; mazdii, the Bayin-yast; khsha- 
threm>§a, the Niyadam; ahurai, the Unv&saxtgid \ 
a, the Husparim ; yim, the Sakadam; drigubyd, 
the <7ud-dev-d£d * ; dada^, the Hadokht of the 
Dv&zdah-hamaspah ; vastarem, the Yart 6 . 

1 Then follows a briefer account of the remaining three arch- 
angels. 

* These extracts from the Persian Rivayats are taken from MS. 
29 belonging to the Bombay University Library, which is a copy, 
made a. d. 1679, from a long Riv&yat said to have been compiled 
by Barzu K&mdin. The same extracts are to be found in many 
other MSS. 

* Bahman Punkah of Surat, a layman whose father's name 
appears to have been Isfendyir, returned from Persia a. d. 1627, 
with letters and MSS. from priests in Ir&n in reply to letters from 
priests in India. 

* The VendidU 

* The order in which the Nasks are here arranged is the same 
as that employed in Dk.VIII, Chap. 1, 12, and was in general 



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PERSIAN RIVAYATS. 419 

II. From the Rivayat of Kamah Bahrah 1 . 

1. The name of the first of these books is St6d- 
yast*, and this is a book of thirty-three compila- 
tions (j drat), that is, of thirty-three subdivisions 
(kardah). The sending down of this book was for 
the description of the Lord 8 and his angels ; and he 
made it an indispensable duty for the whole world 
that they learn this book by heart, and for this pur- 
pose they form an assembly. Of this total of 
twenty-one Nasks it is one Nask of the Avesta, 
and in that mode they recite this. 

2. The name of the second is Studgar 4 , and this 
is of twenty-two subdivisions, which God, the praise- 
use 600 years ago, as we find that Rustam Mitr6-<fpan (the 
writer of the original from which Ki was copied a.d. 1324) con- 
sidered the Vendida^ as the nineteenth Nask, corresponding to 
the Avesta word drigubyd in the Ahunavair. In Olshausen and 
Mohl's Fragmens relalifs a la religion de Zoroastre, a similar list 
of the Nasks is extracted from Anquetil's Great Rivayat, in which 
the order and orthography of the names of the Nasks are the same 
as those adopted by the later writers of the Persian Rivayats, be- 
ginning with the Std</-yart and ending with the Hadokht (which 
makes the Vendfda<f the twentieth Nask), and reversing the order 
of the KldxzsX and Spentah, as well as that of the Duvasar6^i</ and 
Husparam. 

1 This writer is often quoted in the Rivayats, but no particulars 
about him have been noticed. Another copy of this text occurs 
in MS. 225 of Ouseley's Collection (O225, fols. 15-19) in the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford; Olshausen and Mohl (OM) combine 
the information given in II and III; and MS. 10 of Haug's Col- 
lection in the State Library at Munich (MH10, fols. 55-57) com- 
bines II and IV. 

3 See Dk. VIII, Chap. XLVI. 

* Assuming that 'Av£s, 'his own/ stands for 'Audaf, as in Riv. 
IV, 2. 

4 See Dk. VIII, Chap. II, and IX, Chaps. II-XXIII. 

E e 2 



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420 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

worthy and exalted, sent down for prayer and virtue, 
authority and intercession, and giving union to 
kindred. 

3. The name of the third is Valmt-manthrah \ 
and that is of twenty-two subdivisions, which God, 
the praiseworthy and exalted, sent down for faith 
and heedfulness in religion. One is reminded, in 
this book, about the intention and character of 
Zaraturt ; also the goodness of the creation, and the 
good actions before Zaratu-rt ; and the narrative 
of this book extends in this manner up to the 
resurrection. 

4. The name of the fourth is Bagh 2 ; this book 
is of twenty-one parts (parah) or subdivisions, and 
its explanation is about whatever is in the religion ; 
also a declaration of God, the praiseworthy and 
exalted, and ^/"whatever the Lord has made incum- 
bent on mankind as to devotion and heedfulness, as 
to justice and virtue, and as to good actions, closing 
the path of Satan to oneself, and approaching the 
last abode, that is, the other world. 

5. The name of the fifth is Dvazdah-himast 3 , 
and the commentary of this book is for assistance *. 
This book is of thirty-two subdivisions, which God, 
the praiseworthy and exalted, sent down in remem- 
brance of the beginning of the creatures of the upper 
world and lower world. Also a description of the 
whole of them, and of whatever the Most Just, the 
praiseworthy and exalted, has made mention in the 

1 See Dk. VIII, Chap. Ill, and IX, Chaps. XXIV-XLVI. 
* Ibid. Chap. IV and Chaps. XLVII^LXVIII. 
8 Ibid. Chap. V. 

4 Written dar-imdad; but, omitting the letter r, we should 
have ' the DSmdad.' 



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PERSIAN RIVAYATS. 42 1 

sky and the earth, water, plants, and fire, mankind 
and quadrupeds, grazing animals and birds, and 
whatever is created for the advantage and equip- 
ment of them. And like this, moreover, the resur- 
rection, that is, the raising of the dead, their path, 
assembling, and dispersion, and the nature and cir- 
cumstances of the resurrection, as to good doers and 
evildoers, through the gravity of every action which 
they perform as good or bad. 

6. The name of the sixth is Nadar 1 , and that is 
of thirty-five compilations which are sent down about 
the stars and the aspect and life of the sky. Also 
a description of the constellations, which are auspi- 
cious and which inauspicious, the method of these 
sciences and the operation of each one ; whatever 
they say in sublime words, and whatever remains in 
this. They separate this from a book whose name 
in Arabic is Bavaf/al 2 and is about the knowledge 
of the stars ; and in Persian the name of that book 
is Favamt^asan s , and they have made much more 
mention of the meaning of that, and of instruction 
of this kind for the moderns. 

7. The name of the seventh is Pa^am 4 , and this 
is a book of twenty-two subdivisions, which God, 
the praiseworthy and exalted, sent down about 
quadrupeds and how it is necessary to render them 

1 See Dk. VIII, Chap. VI. Singularly enough, the writers in the 
Riv&yats profess to know very much about this and their twelfth 
Nask, of neither of which the Dtnkan/ knows anything. 

* In the different MSS. consulted, this name is four times 
written JU»ijj and once JUai^j. 

* Variously written tf l - *~*^j, (jl*-*-*^, ^L^y, ^L-jtt-*^, 

4 See Dk. VIII, Chap. VII. 



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422 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

lawful, which is lawful and which unlawful, and how 
they slaughter them; which it is and how it is 
necessary to slaughter it for the sake of a season- 
festival, and whatever is about a season-festival ; 
how it is necessary to celebrate it, and the person 
who takes the things 1 ; the expense of a season- 
festival and how much the reward is; how it is 
necessary to give to the priests, controllers (radan), 
and high-priests, and to any persons who are without 
doubts, who in speech, action, and intention are vir- 
tuous, and any persons who recite the season-festival 
liturgy. And everything wise is in this book ; and 
this is incumbent on all people that they learn this, 
and it is the same for all till the days of the guardian 
spirits ; and every one who possesses knowledge 
seeks for this, and causes intercession by mankind, 
for the sake of the worthy, such as clothing for 
a righteous gift, so that one obtains recompense in 
the end from heaven ; and it is necessary to give 
this clothing for a righteous gift to relations and 
the worthy. 

8. The name of the eighth is Ratu^tayl 2 , and 
this is of fifty subdivisions, but when, after the time 
of Alexander, they held an enquiry, they found no 
more than thirteen subdivisions. And these are 
about the affairs of the king and obedience, judges 
and whatever becomes important in holding en- 
quiries, philosophers and devotees; about the edi- 
fices of cities, constructed and made magnificent, 
birds and species of animals, fish and whatever is 



1 O225 has £izh£, the others only hd; but compare Dk. VIII, 
Chap. VII, 5. 
8 See Dk. VIII, Chap. VIII. 



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PERSIAN RIVAYATS. 42 3 

Ormazd's, the fowls of Ormazd besides the creatures 
of Aharman ; likewise mountains, rivers, and land, 
and the like of these. 

9. The name of the ninth is Bari s 1 , and this is 
a book of sixty subdivisions, but after the time of 
Alexander they found again no more than twelve 
subdivisions. And these are about descriptions of 
kings and judges, and an investigation of their 
authority and their sufficiency; also the relations 
of a peasant with peasants, of a king with the 
kingdom, of judges with a judge, and whatever 
remains therein. Any actions that are for every 
nation, how they are ordered, and the option as to 
their species and nature ; also whatever the people 
know, and the advantage that arises therefrom ; 
besides the sins of people, deceit, telling lies, and 
whatever remains therein. 

10. The name of the tenth is Kaskasirah 2 , and 
this is a book of sixty subdivisions, but after the 
calamity of Alexander they found again no more 
than fifteen. Its explanation is about the distinc- 
tion (fajl) of natural wisdom and knowledge 3 from 
acquired knowledge, that is, the knowledge born 
from the mother, and the knowledge and instruction 
they learn ; one learned in purity and truthful 
speaking, and anything that has brought mankind 
with virtue out of evil, and with purity out of defile- 
ment, and this keeps the doctrine praised and great, 
and whoever is in the vicinity of a king, and is 
a peasant, becomes greater in honour and dignity ; 
and, in like manner, any things from which advan- 



1 See Dk. VIII, Chap. IX. s Ibid. Chap. X. 

8 So in OM, MH10; but O225, B29 are corrupted. 



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424 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

tage arises for mankind ; and, as to those who tell 
lies, how it occurs in the vicinity of kings and 
peasants. 

ii, The eleventh is the Vist&sp-shah 1 , and 
that is of sixty compilations, but after the calamity 
of Alexander they found again no more than ten 
subdivisions. It is about Gurtasp's acceptance of 
the sovereignty, and as. to the religion of Zaraturt — 
who was skilful in reciting the religion, and main- 
taining it and making it current in the world — he 
chose the religion of Zaraturt. 

12. The name of the twelfth is'/Zast 2 , and this 
is of twenty-two subdivisions, which are sent down 
in six portions (^uzu). The first is about knowing 
the Lord, may he be honoured and glorified! and 
faith on account of Zaraturt. The second portion 
is about the obedience- of kings, the truth of the 
religion, complying with commands and resisting 
them, and restraining ones hand from bad actions. 
The third portion is about the promise to benefac- 
tors and their recompense, evildoers and punishment, 
and escaping hell. The fourth portion is about the 
mansions of the world, agriculture, trimming trees, 
such as the date tree, and whatever remains thereof; 
the trouble and power of mankind and quadrupeds 
therefrom, and the obedience they exercise ; they 
are the people to whom heedfulness is attributed, 
and whatever remains thereof ; and the high-priests 
perform their duty by the law of the religion. The 
fifth portion is about the ranks of mankind, and 

1 See Dk. VIII, Chap. XI. In Riv. IV the surviving subdivisions 
are said to be only eight, so as to correspond with the sections of 
the extant Vwtasp Yart. 

8 Ibid. Chap. XII. O225 has 'Haft. 



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PERSIAN RIVAYATS. 425 

those are four ranks : the first is to maintain the 
king grandly, and, next, the judges and the learned 
in religion ; the second rank is to keep watch over 
the cities, and to annihilate the enemy ; of the third 
rank are writers and, secondarily, cultivators and the 
society of cities ; of the fourth rank are the people 
of trade, artizans, market-dealers, and tax-gatherers, 
in war they appear excited, and it is requisite to give 
a tithe to the high-priests and king ; they keep on 
foot the obeisances and good works of which we 
have spoken, and, when they act thus, they obtain 
great rewards in the end \ 

13. The name of the thirteenth is Sfend 2 , and 
that is of sixty subdivisions which are sent down 
for the information of people who are in want of it, 
and for the knowledge of those persons who become 
covetous 6f virtuous actions, and act after the pro- 
ceedings of the learned and people of religion, and 
receive advantage therefrom ; also as reminders that 
there is advantage from the daily practice of them. 
And this book is our reminder about the accounts 
of the apostle Zaratust by religious people, and 
whatever is the allotment of God, the exalted ; 
about the false speaking of the people of the world, 
and about the goodness of the condition of the 
people of the world. Also whatever becomes mani- 
fest in ten years, about the miracles of Zaratmt, by 
the seven reports that they recite. 

14. The name of the fourteenth is £ira.yt 8 , and 
this is of twenty-two subdivisions sent down for the 

1 Nothing is said of the sixth portion, either in the Rivayats or 
the Dtn-vjgirgard. 
■ See Dk. VIII, Chap. XIV. 
8 Ibid. Chap. XIII. MH10 has JTinut. 



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426 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

understanding of the causes of mankind, which have 
made people manifest in the mother's womb, and 
afterwards those who come out of the womb, 
some of whom are apostles, some kings, and some 
peasants ; and whatever remains therein. 

15. The name of the fifteenth is Baghan-yast 1 , 
and it is of seventeen subdivisions in praise of the 
creations of God, the praiseworthy and exalted, and 
the angels admitted to him; also thanksgiving for 
his favours, and that which he makes expedient in 
the religion, augments the thanksgiving for his 
favour, until one obtains it back in the end ; likewise 
the appearance of the angels, and this is noble. 
Praise be to the sacred being, the exalted ! 

16. The name of the sixteenth is Niyaram 2 , 
and that is of fifty-four subdivisions, about decrees 
as to riches, introducing inmates among outsiders, 
and whatever is made lawful by the exalted Lord ; 
obtaining deliverance from hell, performing service, 
slavery, and the nature of wayfarers, and every one 
who performs service and produces remembrance for 
mankind ; whatever is in the thoughts of mankind, 
and whatever is in the bodies of mankind. 

17. The seventeenth is Asparam 3 , and this is of 
sixty-four subdivisions, which are sent down about 
rituals, those which are in the book of the people of 
the religion, and an examination of the people's 
expense they know of, for the safety and punish- 
ment they order in the world until they obtain 
deliverance in the end ; and whatever they do 
lawfully and do unlawfully they know ; also decrees 



1 See Dk. VIII, Chap. XV. « Ibid. Chaps. XVI-XX. 

8 Ibid. Chaps. XXVIII-XXXVII. 



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PERSIAN RIVAYATS. 427 



as to inheritances and the limits of faith, about 
anything which they sow and whatever they grow, 
and about regulating nativity ; whatever one makes 
incumbent on memory, and whatever one makes 
incumbent on memoranda prepared ; also how it is 
necessary to produce whatever tokens there are at 
the time of childbirth. 

18. The name of the eighteenth is DuvAsardni- 
^•ad l , and it is of sixty-five subdivisions ; robbers of 
human beings and quadrupeds, whatever one makes 
incumbent that they shall give, and an enumeration 
of what one makes incumbent on each one of them, 
owing to theft and terror, obstructing the roads, the 
dread of the wayfarers, and the disturbance of 
prisons; and whatever remains therein. 

19. The name of the nineteenth is Ask&ram 2 , 
and it is of fifty-two subdivisions, about judges and 
philosophers, the method of examining decrees, 
the knowledge of definitions, and an opinion of 
those in other matters. 

20. The name of the twentieth is Vendtdad 3 , 
and that is of twenty-two subdivisions, for causing 
the abstinence of mankind from bad actions, from 
the devil and disgrace, foreign magicians and those 
who act after their proceedings and become com- 
mitters of crime; and we are told of their crime 
among the whole of the goodness and purity, and 
the whole of the wickedness and defilement, and 
the explanation of them. 



1 See Dk. VIII, Chaps. XXI-XXVII. MH10 has DuvSsr6b, 
and OM DuvSsard^ad; duv& standing for dub$, or zflba, the 
traditional reading of the Zvam ganabS, ' a thief.' 

4 Ibid. Chaps. XXXVIII-XLIII. » Ibid. Chap. XLIV. 



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428 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

21. The name of the twenty-first is Hadokht 1 , 
and this is a book of thirty subdivisions, about the 
manner of bringing together and the abundance of 
miracles, also the excellence and connections of 
them. And the accursed devil goes far from every 
one who recites this book together with the Ya^t 2 , 
and this person is near to the rank (paig&h) of a 
sacred being, and his sins become pure ; also in this 
book the accursed devil becomes cursed, and God 
knows it. 



III. From the RivAyat of NaremAn H6shang 3 . 

1. Again, that which is in Pahlavi characters is 
clear in that manner, that in the Yatha-ahu-vairyd 
there are twenty-one vocables, that is, twenty-one 
words, and beneath each word there is an equivalent 
meaning ; it is also known to the devout that there 
are twenty-one Nasks of the Avesta. 

2. The first Nask is of thirty-three subdivisions, 
that is, it is of thirty-three compilations, and its 
name is St6d-yajt, that is, 'producing the praise 
of the sacred beings;' and the words of the book 
have come down for the majesty of the sacred beings 
and angels, and they recite them in that manner; 
and in the presence of every high-priest of the pure 
ritual, who rightly understands its Avesta and Zand, 

1 See Dk. VIII, Chap. XLV. O225 has Had6kht. 

» The Yasna, or St6d-yart of § 1. 

5 Nar6m4n Hoshang of Bhardi returned from Persia, a.d. 1478, 
with letters from priests in Ir£n in reply to those from priests in 
India. His account of the Nasks is more abbreviated than the 
others, and appears to be derived from a Pahlavi original. 



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PERSIAN RIVAYATS. 429 

as he recites them correctly on three occasions, the 
angels come down ; of this there is no doubt. 

3. The name of the second is Istudgar, and it is 
of twenty-two subdivisions ; its statements are for 
the admonition of the people. 

4. The name of the third Nask is Vahut- 
manthrah, and it is of twenty-two subdivisions; 
its purport is to bring confirmation of the religion. 

5. The name of the fourth is Bagh, and this 
is of twenty-one subdivisions; its explanation is 
about heedfulness. 

6. The name of the fifth is Dvazdah-hamast, 
and it is of thirty-two subdivisions; its explanation 
is in remembrance of the upper world, and about 
the lower world. 

7. The name of the sixth is Nadar, and that 
is of thirty-five compilations; its explanation is 
about the interpretation of the world of the stars, 
the planets and constellations, and understanding 
the arrangement of the sky. 

8. The seventh is the Pa^am; this Nask is of 
twenty-two subdivisions, and its explanation is with 
regard to lawful and unlawful animals, whenever 
they slaughter them for the sake of solemnizing a 
season-festival ; and, again, whatever is manifold 
reward and good work ; also about the reason of the 
five days of the guardian spirits, which they call the 
select, and wherefore they are appointed. 

9. The name of the eighth is Ratustayi, and it 
is of fifty subdivisions, of which, after the time of 
Alexander, they preserved and found no more than 
thirteen subdivisions ; its explanation is about main- 
taining devotion, and of obedience to kings, high- 
priests, and governors. 



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430 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

10. The name of the ninth is Barb, and this 
Nask was of sixty subdivisions, but after the time of 
Alexander they found no more than twelve sub- 
divisions ; its explanation is of those who are kings 
and high-priests, leaders and princes, judges and 
messengers, what is the nature of the authority of 
peasants and princes, and what kind of towns they 
possess. 

ii. The name of the tenth is Ka^srdb, and this 
Nask has been of sixty subdivisions, but after the 
time of Alexander they found again no more than 
fifteen subdivisions; its explanation is about the 
distinction of natural wisdom and knowledge from 
acquired knowledge; that which makes mankind 
pure from defilement, and the usage that maintains 
the proceedings of mankind. 

12. The eleventh is the Nask of Vutasp-shah, 
and it has been of sixty subdivisions, but after the 
time of Alexander they found again no more than 
ten subdivisions, and their statements are with re- 
gard to king Gu.Jtasp making the religion current. 

13. The name of the twelfth is'Hast, and it is of 
twenty-two subdivisions ; its explanation is about 
enquiry of wisdom, maintaining devotion in the 
world, and the punishment for every sin suck as 
they supply it. 

14. The name of the thirteenth is Sfend, and it 
is of sixty subdivisions ; its explanation is of that 
which they demonstrate as miracles from this Nask, 
that every requirement comes to pass which every 
high-priest — who shall recite this Nask for several 
days with sevenfo/d voice, according to that which 
has been written — shall solicit for the world. 

15. The name of the fourteenth is Girast, and 



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PERSIAN RIVAYATS. 43I 



this is of twenty-two subdivisions, its explanation is 
about the creation of the people of mankind in 
the day of the Eternal, until the last day of the 
resurrection occurs ; their becoming manifest in the 
mother's womb, and why some die in the womb 
and some are born, some are kings and some are 
peasants. 

16. The name of the fifteenth is Baghan-ya^t, 
and this is of seventeen subdivisions ; its explanation 
is about the praise of the angels admitted, and, as to 
the servants of the Most Glorious, at what period 
they each become manifest, and what duty they 
perform, till the resurrection. 

17. The name of the sixteenth is Niyaram, and 
this is of fifty-four subdivisions ; its explanation is 
about decrees as to traders, covenants and decisions, 
that is, awards with regard to the creatures and how 
they act. 

18. The name of the seventeenth is Asparam, 
and this is of sixty-four subdivisions ; its explanation 
in these is well-directed and a good thing ; and 
whatever remains therein. 

19. The eighteenth is the Duvasar6,fad, and it 
is of sixty-five subdivisions ; its explanation is that 
which is a statement on the subject of Kh£dy6dath, 
that is, forming a union with each other by relations 
and those next one another. 

20. The name of the nineteenth is A ska ram, 
and it is of fifty-two subdivisions ; its explanation is 
about the occurrence of the production of the re- 
novation of the universe, up to the resurrection and 
future existence which are the converting of the 
dead alive, Aharman and the demons becoming 
extinct, and the circumstances of those events. 



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432 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

21. The name of the twentieth is £11 d-d 6 v- dad 1 , 
and that is of twenty-two subdivisions ; its explan- 
ation is of causing the abstinence of mankind from 
pollution, that is, from defilement, and the assault 
of evil peculiarly owing to the great ; from the sight 
of a menstruous woman, and the like of these, when- 
ever harm and injury happen to the creation. 

22. The name of the twenty-first is Hadokht, 
and this is a book of thirty subdivisions ; its explan- 
ation is such that the accursed devil goes far from 
every one who shall recite this book together with 
the Yart, and this person becomes near unto the 
sacred being, the praiseworthy and exalted, and in 
such manner as he.' is near the sacred being in like 
manner he obtains rank. 

23. And the purpose of this being written is so, 
that it is known to these humble individuals 2 in this 
manner, that these books are of those tendencies, 
and it has been written by those devout ones 3 in 
such manner that ' among us no one is able to read 
the Pahlavi characters, and the interpretation of these 
Nasks is in Pahlavi ; any one who does not know 
the Pahlavi characters is high-priest and is not able 
to demonstrate the miracles of the religion, nor that 
which was written with regard to the commentary of 
these Nasks.' 

1 Paz. ^ud is a translation of Av. vi which is merely trans- 
literated by vik in Vtk-dSv-d&d, the original form of Vendidid. 

2 The priests in Iran who supplied this information to NarSman. 
* The priests in India who had applied for the information, 

using the words about to be quoted. 



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PERSIAN RIVAYATS. 433 

IV. From the RivAyat of DastOr Barz# 
QiyAmu-d-dJn \ 

1. The reply about the Nasks of the Avesta. 
The Yatha-ahu-vairy6 is of twenty-one words, and 
the Avesta is similarly of twenty-one Nasks. 

2. The name of the first Nask is Stdd-yaJt, and 
that book is of thirty-three compilations, that is, it 
is of thirty-three subdivisions, and the description 
of the Lord and the angels is in it 

3. The name of the second Nask is Studgar, 
and that is of twenty-two subdivisions ; its descrip- 
tion is about prayer, virtuous authority, and inter- 
cession. 

4. The third Nask is the Vahist-manthrah, and 
that is of twenty-two subdivisions about faith and 
heedfulness; and one is reminded \&c, very nearly 
the same as in II, 3} 

5. The fourth Nask is the Bagh, and that is of 
twenty-one subdivisions ; its explanation is about 
the religion and its intention, and whatever the Lord 
has made incumbent on mankind as to devotion and 
heedfulness ; also about closing the path of Satan to 
oneself, and approaching the last abode. 

6. The name of the fifth book is Dvazdah- 
hamast, and that is of thirty-two subdivisions in 
remembrance of the beginning \&c, very nearly the 
same as in II, 5]. 

7. The name of the sixth Nask is Nadar, and 
that is of thirty-five compilations about the stars 

1 This Dastur appears to have been one of several residing at 
Nausiri a.d. 16 14-1646 ; his father's name is more usually written 
Qavamu-d-dtn, and his account of the Nasks closely resembles that 
of Kamah Bahrah. 

[37] F f 



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434 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

and the disposition and life of the sky. \&c, very 
nearly the same as in II, 6 to] Bavafral, and in 
Persian the name of that book is Favamsa'han, that 
is, instruction arises therefrom for the moderns. 

8. The name of the seventh Nask is P4f am, and 
that is of twenty-two subdivisions ; its description is 
about quadrupeds and how they are made lawful, 
which is lawful \&c, as in II, J, to] for the sake of 
a season-festival, and how it is necessary to perform 
whatever is in a season-festival ; the expense of a 
season-festival \&c, as in II, 7, to] high-priests, and 
a description of the clothing for a righteous gift, 
so that they may obtain recompense in the end from 
heaven. 

9. The eighth Nask is the Raturtay!, and that 
is of fifty subdivisions; its purport is about the 
affairs of the king and obedience, cities constructed 
and made magnificent, birds, animals, and fish, and 
whatever is Ormazd's, besides the creatures of 
Aharman ; \&c, as in II, 8]. 

10. The name of the ninth book is Bam, and 
that is of sixty subdivisions, and about descriptions 
of kings and judges, and an investigation of their 
authority ; also the relations of a peasant \&c, as in 
II, 9, to] deceit, and telling lies. 

11. The name of the tenth book is Kaskaniz, 
and that is of sixty subdivisions, about the advan- 
tage (fajl) of natural wisdom and knowledge as 
distinguished from acquired knowledge, that is, the 
knowledge born from the mother, and the knowledge 
which they learn by instruction ; doctrine about 
purity and truth, and anything \&c, as in II, 10, to] 
how it occurs. 

12. The name of the eleventh Nask is Vutasp, 



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PERSIAN RIVAYATS. 435 

and that is of sixty compilations, but after the 
calamity of Alexander, when they sought them 
again, they found no more than eight subdivisions, 
and those are about Gustasp's acceptance \&c., as 
in II, 1 1]. 

13. The name of the twelfth book is 'Hast, and 
that is of twenty-two fargards in six portions. The 
first portion is about knowing the Lord, may he be 
honoured and glorified ! and faith in the mission of 
Zaratu-rt and any duties which are ordered in a 
book of the religion. The second portion is about 
the obedience of kings, the truth of the religion, 
and complying with commands. The third portion 
is about the promise to benefactors and their recom- 
pense, the punishment of evildoers, and escaping 
from hell. The fourth portion is about the mansions 
of the world, agriculture and trimming trees, the 
power of mankind and quadrupeds arisen therefrom, 
the obedience they exercise, and whatever duty they 
perform for the high-priests of the religion. The 
fifth portion [&c, as in II, 12, to] the obeisances, so 
that they obtain great rewards in the end. 

14. The name of the thirteenth book is Sfend, 
and that is of sixty subdivisions, for the information 
of people who are in want of it, and for their know- 
ledge ; also for any persons who become covetous as 
to virtuous actions, and proceed after the footsteps 
of the learned and people of religion, and receive 
advantage therefrom ; and as reminders of the 
celestial sphere that there is advantage from the 
daily practice of them. Also about the accounts of 
the evil of mankind, by the apostle Zaratuyt, about 
the false speaking [&c, as in II, 13]. 

15. The fourteenth Nask is the Girast, and that 

f f 2 



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436 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

is of twenty-two subdivisions, for the understanding 
of the causes of mankind [&c, as in II, 14]. 

16. The name of the fifteenth book is Baghan- 
yast, and that is of seventeen subdivisions, in praise 
of the Lord, the praiseworthy and exalted, and the 
admitted angels ; also thanksgiving for the favours 
due to that which he makes expedient in the religion, 
and the thanksgiving for his favour lasts until one 
obtains it back in the end ; likewise the appearance 
of the angels, and these are nobles for the praise of 
the sacred being. 

17. The name of the sixteenth book is Niyaram, 
and that is of fifty-four subdivisions, about decrees 
as to riches, bringing abroad, and whatever is made 
lawful ; obtaining deliverance from hell, performing 
service, slavery, and the nature of wayfarers ; what- 
ever is in the thoughts of mankind, and whatever is 
in the bodies of mankind. 

18. The name of the seventeenth book is Asp&ram, 
and that is of sixty subdivisions about rituals \&c, 
very nearly the same as in II, 1 7]. 

19. The name of the eighteenth Nask is Duva- 
srdb, and that is of sixty-five subdivisions, about 
robbers (duvayan ?) of human beings \&c, very 
nearly the same as in II, 18]. 

20. The name of the nineteenth Nask is Askaram, 
and that is of fifty-two fargards \&c, very nearly the 
same as in II, 1 9]. 

21. The name of the twentieth Nask is Vindad, 
and that is of twenty-two subdivisions \&c, very 
nearly the same as in II, 20]. And as to this book 
Vindad, which is the twentieth book of the Nasks, 
out of the twenty-one Nasks of the A vesta, we and 
you are now using it in the ceremonial, and when, 



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PERSIAN RIVAYATS. 437 

after the calamity of Alexander, they sought for the 
books again, they found a portion of each Nask, but 
did not find any Nask in completeness except the 
Vindad which they found complete. 

22. The name of the twenty-first Nask is Hadokht, 
and that is of thirty subdivisions, about the manner 
of bringing together and the many miracles, and 
their excellences and connections ; and in this book 
the accursed devil becomes cursed and becomes an- 
nihilated. 

23. At present, since the Nasks have not remained 
perfect in the midst of us, it is not possible to 
solemnize them, because Alexander the Ruman 1 
carried off a rough draft, in Ruman characters, of 
those of the twenty-one Nasks of the Avesta which 
were about the stars and medicine, and repeatedly 
burnt the books of the Avesta, so that the soul of 
Alexander burns in hell ; and after his calamity, 
every one of the high-priests, in council together, 
preserved something of the Avesta in his mind, 
and the aggregate has disclosed the books of the 
Yasna (yast), Vlsperad, Vendidad, Fravash, Khur- 
dah Avesta, Darun, Afrlngan, Kldah Vafarkardan, 
and BundahLf, which they wrote correctly; as to the 
remainder (tatammah) which they did not write, it 
was on this account, that they did not preserve 
it correctly in their minds. And the expectation, 
descended from the midst of them in the court of 
Ormazd and the archangels, is thus, that Var^avand, 
Peshdtan, and Hush£dar 2 mil arrive in haste for 
the manifestation of the religion, and the goodness 

1 See Dk. Bk. IV, 24 n. 

* The three chief producers of the future and final triumph of 
the religion (see Byt. Ill, 13-52). 



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438 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

of the religion again assumes splendour from a new 
head; the good and those of the good religion 
become cheerful and happy, and the bad and wicked 
become extinct and disappearing. Amen. 



FROM THE DlN-VIGIRGARD 1 . 

In the name and for the propitiation of the 
creator Auhanna^ these several commentaries 
(zand) are published from revelation (d£n6). 

The names of the twenty-one Nasks. 

i. One is this that is Yathi, that is, the Stdd- 
yast, and the subdivisions of this Stdd-yast are 
thirty-three. In that Nask are the blessing and 
propitiation of Auharmasr^ and the archangels, and 
they are for the utterance of praise. Auharmasaf 
sends this Nask into the world, which is suitable for 
every one, and whoever has committed this Nask to 
memory recites it. And to every one who, being 
a high-priest, becomes a reciter of both the Avesta 
and Zand, and shall recite that Nask three times 
with correctness, the archangels will come near ; as 
to this they know it without doubt. 

2. The second Nask is that which is Ahu, the 
Stu^gar, and the subdivisions of that Nask are 

1 A Rivayat in Pahlavi writing, but its language is more Persian 
than Pahlavi ; it commences with this account of the Nasks, com- 
bining most of the information contained in the four preceding 
extracts from the Persian Rivayats. For this text the translator is 
indebted to a MS. written a. d. 1813 and belonging to Dastur 
Hoshangji Jdmispji of Poona ; a previous translation, in Haug's 
Essays, was from a transliteration of the same text prepared by 
Haug some 25 years ago. 



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dIn-vigirgard. 439 



twenty-two. In it are the giving of advice to 
mankind, the performance of prayer and virtue, the 
doing of good actions, intercession, producing union 
among relations, and such-like topics. 

3. The third is Vairyd, the Vahi st-mansar, and 
• the subdivisions of this Nask are twenty-two. In 

this is the topic of those who are becoming without 
doubt as to the religion of Masaa-worship, causing 
heedfulness, and thinking about the religion ; also 
the production of the benediction and attributes 
(sz'fat) of the blessedness of Zaratfot, every action 
which was declared virtuous before Zarattot, and all 
actions which have to occur after Zaraturt until the 
future existence; the benefit of his world, and 
such-like topics. 

4. The fourth Nask is this which is Atha, the 
Bagh, and the subdivisions of that Nask are 
twenty-one. In this the topic is this which is the 
purpose of the religion of Ma2*/a-worship, and the 
ideas which Auhannaswf caused to be taught unto 
mankind ; the exercise of reverence, heedfulness, 
adjudication, and justice ; the performance of the 
proper duty of decision, doing good actions (kir-1 
khvalr), closing "the way of Aharman into oneself, 
attaining unto the spiritual existence for oneself, and 
such as are like these. 

5. The fifth Nask is Ratu.y, the Dvazdak- 
h6mast, and the subdivisions of that Nask are 
thirty-two. In that Nask are all the topics of the 
spiritual existence and the heavenly state, virtue and 
vileness, the material existence of this worldly state, 
about the sky and about the earth, and everything 
which Auharmasfl? produced and which exists in 
the water, fire, and plants; human beings and 



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440 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

quadrupeds, grazing animals and birds, and every- 
thing which is similarly produced from any (aik) of 
them, and the characteristics of all things. Secondly, 
that which is the production of the resurrection and 
future existence, and the coming together and 
separation at the Kmvzd pass; the recompense 
for the doers of good works and the punishment 
for sinners occur through the future existence, and 
such-like topics as these are. 

6. The sixth Nask is Ashaaf, the Naattr, and 
the subdivisions of that are thirty-five. In this 
Nask are the purposes of the stars (nufftm), the 
zodiac, and the planets, the goodness and evil of 
each constellation, and the movement of all the 
planets in the signs of the zodiac (bur^) and lunar 
mansions (mahlgan nu^dm). They have trans- 
lated it into Arabic and Persian, and the name 
they have adopted for this book is Butal, and in 
Persian the name which is appointed for it is 
Kapam^f&n. 

7. The seventh is this which is Kid, and is the 
Pi^am, and its subdivisions are twenty-two. In 
this Vdg^m Nask is the topic of the slaughtering 
of quadrupeds and sheep, how they are to be 
slaughtered, of which among the quadrupeds the 
command is that it is allowable to eat, and of which 
kind the eating is not allowable ; how he who 
slaughters shall strike at the time of the expiring of 
the sheep. The more expenditure (saraf) one 
makes upon a season-festival, so much the more is 
the reward ; how much it is expedient to bestow 
upon the Dasturs, M6bads, and H£rbads, and upon 
the unwavering practisers of good works in the 
good religion; what merit accrues to every one 



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DtN-VIGIRGARD. X ' ./44I 



who celebrates a season-festival and consecrates 
clothing for a soul, and who, for that reason, is in 
the supreme heaven in the last times; and it is 
necessary to give clothing to relations and the 
righteous as a righteous gift, and to exercise .media- 
tion on the part of the righteous ; the five greater 
and lesser days of the guardian spirits, and the 
practice of good works on these ten days is enjoined 
in this Nask. It is requisite for all people that they 
shall read this book with good and wise under- 
standing, that all may become aware of its topics. 

8. The eighth Nask is that which is Ha£a, the 
Raturtaih, and the subdivisions of that Nask were 
fifty when the accursed Alexander had the Nasks 
burnt up, but after that, as they sought out this 
Nask, only thirteen of those subdivisions came to 
hand, and no more remained of those previously 
existing. In this Nask are the reasons of per- 
forming service, giving orders, and remaining at 
the command of kings and at the command of 
high-priests and judges ; the adornment-preserving 1 
purpose of cities is declared, the command of re- 
ligion, and things made magnificently (a^^slhi), 
grazing animals, birds, cattle, and fish ; everything 
which is a production of Auharmas*/ or Aharman ; 
all the purposes of all the seas, mountains, and lands ; 
and matters similar to such as are mentioned. 

9. The ninth Nask is this which is Vangh^u*, 
and is the Barb; the subdivisions of that Nask 
were first sixty, but after the accursed Alexander 
only twelve remained. As to the information in 
this Nask, just as there is the sovereignty for those 

1 Assuming that fW»vanik, which might mean 'important,' 
stands for parda«anik. 



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442 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

who are kings, so there is the usage which it is 
necessary for them to practise, and the command of 
the sentence of judges of the religion such as is 
necessary to be executed ; the custody and pro- 
tection for the world, and making each new city 
flourishing; also the reasons of people, who are 
false-speaking, sinners, and such-like, are mentioned 
in this Nask. 

10. The tenth Nask is that which is Dazdi, 
the Kassrdb, and the subdivisions of that Nask 
were formerly sixty, but after the accursed Alexander 
only fifteen subdivisions remained. In that Nask 
the topic is that which is wisdom and knowledge, 
the reason of its being brought forth from the 
mother, and the teaching of wisdom by demon- 
stration, the performance of purification and the 
speaking of truth; bringing people from vileness 
unto virtue, and bringing them from defilement and 
pollution unto purity; greatness and good progeny 
arise for people near kings, and how the habit of 
people telling lies, to others and to kings, arises; 
and such-like as these. 

ii. The eleventh Nask was Manangh6, the 
Vl.rtaspa</, and the subdivisions of that Nask were 
sixty, but after the accursed Alexander only ten 
remained. In this Nask is the topic of the 
sovereignty of Gustasp, and Zaratust the Spitaman, 
having brought the religion from Auharmazd!, king 
Gurtasp accepted it, and made it current in the 
world ; and such-like as these. 

12. The twelfth is .S^yaothananSm, the Khust, 
and the subdivisions of that Nask were first twenty- 
two, but after the accursed Alexander only six 
remained. Among those six, which are the first 



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DiN-VICIRGARD. 443 



portions (zizp = Ar. ^fizb), the topics in one portion 
are the attributes (si fit) of the creator Auha^ma^, 
and the understanding of them ; also being without 
doubt about the religion of Zaratust, the Spitaman, 
all the duty and good works which are prescribed in 
the religion, and such-like. In the second portion is 
the reason of service for kings, the truth of the 
religion, submission to all its commands, and with- 
holding ones hand from evil actions, so that it has 
become far from mischief. In the third portion is 
that which is the debt for performers of virtuous 
position, the advantage of good works, the final 
release from hell, and such-like. The fourth is the 
reason of the creation of the world, the practice of 
agriculture, the cultivation of trees, the date-tree 
and every fruit-tree ; whence arises most strength 
for people and animals; being under the command 
of the practisers of good works and the virtuous, 
and being under the command of the high-priests, 
and such-like as they are. In the fifth portion all 
the specimens of mankind are mentioned : they who 
are of great knowledge, who are kings, judges, and 
the sages of the religion ; in the second specimen 
are they that have to keep watch over all the cities, 
and to make the enemy confounded ; in the third 
specimen are these whose object one mentions in 
the term 'husbandmen;' the fourth specimen which 
one mentions are these who are the greatly-skilled 
and sitters in the market, grandiloquent to repel 
loss, giving one-tenth to the high-priest and king, 
and offering praise on hardened knees, the last 
reward of which is that one obtains in the spiritual 
existence. 

13. The thirteenth Nask is that which is kng\ieus, 



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444 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

the Spend; its subdivisions are sixty which are 
precious unto people of pedigrees (mayagan) and 
those who possess much avidity for virtuous actions 
and have to proceed in the f otsteps (pal-rapih) of 
the great and religious ; also accounts of Zaraturt, 
who is born from the womb of Dughd#&5, till ten 
years of age. Every Dastur and Mobad shall recite 
this Nask in purity, and with ease and the proper 
words, for several days, and shall obtain every 
desire of his own, or any wish which he claims on 
account of (bara rai-1) others. 

14. The fourteenth Nask is that which is 
Mazdai; the name Zira-ft is appointed for it, and 
the subdivisions of that Nask are twenty-two. In 
like manner this Nask is sent by Auharmasa?, which 
is to make manifest to the people what is the 
purpose of that science through which mankind are 
born from the womb of a mother, how many in- 
dividuals among them will die away from the womb, 
and how many individuals will live ; how many 
persons and people among them become kings, and 
how many, meanwhile (fima), exercise apostleship, 
that is, the high-priesthood ; how many are the 
grandest of people, and how many are the meanest 
of mankind, and in what mode this occurs ; from 
first to last, the time people are born and all those 
topics are in this Nask. 

15. The fifteenth is Khshathremia, and the 
name of that Nask is Baghan-yast, and its sub- 
divisions are seventeen. In it are the topics of 
Auhannasa? the lord and the archangels, the know- 
ledge of their attributes, and the service and sub- 
limity of Abharmazd ; at what time every Gah 
occurs until the future existence, and what duty is 



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d!n-vigirgard. 445 



performed ; offering praise for every benefit front 
Auhannaswf, and obtaining benefit from him; the 
appearance of the archangels, and knowing what is 
such-and-such an appearance of such-and-such an 
archangel in the future existence. This Nask used 
in the service of Auharma^ and the archangels is 
very excellent. 

1 6. The sixteenth is Ahurai, and they have 
appointed it the name Niyiram; the subdivisions 
of that Nask are fifty-four, about the reason of 
preserving wealth and placing it out, agreement and 
measure by the cubit and handful ; everything the 
creator Auharmasrrf has ordained as uncontaminated, 
release from hell, and how to walk in the path of 
reverence and worship ; what is in the mind of man, 
and what is everything in the body of man ; and 
such-like as these that are mentioned. 

1 7. The seventeenth Nask is that which is A, and 
the name they have appointed for it is Asparum ; 
one mentions sixty-five subdivisions of it, and in this 
Nask is every religious topic which all persons well 
understand, and the punishment suffered by sinners, 
which they receive in their last career ; everything 
which is uncontaminated is allowable, and what is 
not uncontaminated is not allowable; the stars 
preside over the destiny of mankind ; and such-like 
as these. 

18. The eighteenth Nask is that which is Yim, 
that has the name Duvasardzad appointed for it, 
and the subdivisions of it are likewise sixty-five. In 
this Nask are the reasons of next-of-kin marriage, 
forming connections among relations, and such-like 
as these. 

19. The nineteenth Nask is Driguby6, the name 



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446 OTHER DETAILS OF NASKS. 

of which is Askaram, and is of fifty-two stanzas 
(v^astiha), about the giving of orders, exercise of 
authority, and practising wisdom in everything ; 
producing the resurrection, by which every person 
passed away is made living again, and the mal- 
formations of Aharman and the demons are withered 
away ; and such-like. 

20. The twentieth Nask is that which is Dadaaf, 
that they call by its name of Vendidaa?, where the 
meaning of this is ' the law against the demons,' 
which is of twenty-two farganfe. The topic of it is 
what preserves mankind from evil and pollution, 
and will restrain them from the menstruous, dead 
matter, pestilence, and running sores. Of all the 
twenty-one Nasks the Nask of ' the law against the 
demons ' has alone remained entire ; while several 
remain scattered by the wickedness (sumlh) of the 
accursed Alexander, this Nask of the Vendidarf 
remained in hand, and owing to its elucidation the 
religion of Masdfa-worship exists now. 

21. The twenty-first Nask is Vista rem, whose 
name one calls H4d?6kht, and its fargan/s are said 
to be thirty. In it are much excellence and many 
miracles, and the vile Aharman becomes far from 
every one who recites this Harf6kht, and it makes 
him extinct, and the reciter comes near unto Auhar- 
mazd and becomes purified from sin. 

22. Now, alas! if all these Nasks do not remain, 
so that one is not able to solemnize them, that is 
for this reason, that the accursed Alexander, the 
Aruman, took several transcripts — in the Aruman 
language and characters (hurufS) — of any among 
those twenty-one Nasks which were about the stars 
and medicine, and burnt up the other Nasks; and 



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d!n-vigirgard. 447 



the soul of the accursed Alexander, the Ruman, 
will remain wretched and burnt in gloomy hell till 
the resurrection, owing to his own vileness which 
injured the religion of Zaraturt. 

23. After the villany of Alexander, an assemblage 
of several high-priests, who were sages of the 
religion, brought the Avesta of all of them from 
various places, and made a collection of so much 
Avesta and Zand as the sacred (ya^t6) Yasna, 
Visperad, Vendidad, An&-fravan/, and other scraps 
of the Avesta, the Darun, ^4£rtngan, and the 
Commands of the religion ; all these were written, 
and the Bundahw book was correctly written ; and 
all such, among them, as were not written, which did 
not come into the thoughts of the sages, departed, on 
that account, from the midst of the many topics of 
revelation. 

24. Just as it is said that there were twenty-one 
Nasks, there are first, in seven Nasks, the topics 
of the religion of Mazda-worship, in the second 
seven Nasks are the topics of medical practice, and 
in the third seven Nasks the topics and capabilities 
of the stars are mentioned. 



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NASK-FRAGMENTS 



THAT ARE 



STILL EXTANT. 



[37] G g 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS 1 . 



I. Sfa>KAR NaSK*. 

Dk. IX, Chap. II, 3-15, referring to the useful 
effect of reciting the Yatha-ahfi-vairyd as a spell, on 
various occasions, is quoted in Sis. XIX, 1-14, and 
also in the Persian Rivayat of Bah man Pun^yah 3 , 
with some slight variations. 

Dk. IX, Chap. VI, 2, refers to the passage thus 
mentioned in Sis. IX, 2, 3: — 'The priest who 
passes away in an out-district (auzdehlkih) thou 
hast considered as desolate (viran) ; and there is a 
high-priest who is of a different opinion, there is one 
who says it is as a non-Iranian (anairan) country. 
// is declared that, when a supreme high-priest 
(zaratd-ytrotum) passes away in an out-district, an 
apostate will be born in that dwelling, and this 
calamity is only (ae'va^) mentioned as to the 
supreme high-priest*.' 

Dk. IX, Chap. VIII, i-6, refers to Zaraturt's 

1 Only the Pahlavi versions of these fragments are extant, unless 
it be otherwise stated. 

* The detailed account of this Nask, in Dk. IX, contains about 
5,400 Pahlavi words, and, if these represent the same proportion 
of original text as those in the accounts of the first three farganfs 
of the Bako Nask do, they would indicate about 4,700 words of 
Avesta text and 10,500 of Pahlavi version as the original extent 
of this Nask. 

* See p. 418, n. 3. 

* This translation has been corrected in accordance with p. 178, 
n. 2. 

Gg2 



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452 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

prophetic vision of the golden, silver, steel, and 
mingled-iron periods of his millennium, quoted at 
length in Byt. I, 1-5, with variations indicative of 
the date of the Bahman Ya.st being later than that 
of this Nask. 

Dk. IX, Chap. X, 3, refers to the detailed account 
of the seven most heinous evil-doers, quoted in 
Dd. LXXII, 3-9. 

Dk. IX, Chap. XV, refers to the supplication of 
the soul of Keresasp for admittance into heaven, on 
account of his heroic deeds, quoted at length in the 
DaaTistan Pahlavi Rivayat and the Persian Sad-dar- 
band-i Hush (see S. B.E., vol. xviii, pp. 373-381). 

Dk. IX, Chap. XVIII, 2, refers to the passage 
thus quoted in Sis. X, 8 : — ' For in the St<Wgar it 
is said, concerning those who have unlawfully 
slaughtered animals, the punishment is such that 
each hair of those animals becomes like a sharp 
dagger (t£kh), and he who is unlawfully a 
slaughterer is slain.' 

No allusion has been noticed in Dk. IX to 
another passage which is thus quoted in Sis. XII, 
32 : — ' In the Studgar it says thus : " What prepares 
sneezing ? that is, through what process (kar) does 
it come ?" And Auharmaa^ spoke thus : " Hungry 
living, O Zarattot! moreover, the remedy for its 
existence is the Ahunavair, O Zaraturt! and the 
Ashem (aharayth)."' 



II. VarstmAnsar Nask 1 . 

No quotation from this Nask has yet been 
noticed. 

1 The detailed account of this Nask, in Dk. IX, contains about 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 453 

III. Bak6 Nask 1 . 

Dk. IX, Chaps. XLVII— XLIX, describe the 
contents of the first three fargan/s of this Nask, 
which are still extant in the Avesta text of 
Yas. XIX — XXI, whose Pahlavi version may be 
translated as follows : — 

Pahl. Yas. XIX = BakS I. 

The beginning of the Ahunavair of the Bakan 2 . 

1. ZaratUJt enquired of Aflharmasraf thus: 'O 
A unarm a?*/, 3 propitious spirit, creator of the world 
of embodied existences, and righteous * ! (2) which 
were those words, O AuharmasdH that were spoken 
by thee for me, (3) before the sky, before the water, 
before the earth, before the (well-yielding) cattle, 
before the plants, before the fire which is Auhar- 

9,600 Pahlavi words, and, if these represent the same proportion 
of original text as those in the accounts of the first three fargawfe 
of the Bako Nask do, they would indicate about 8,300 words of 
Avesta text and 1 8,500 of Pahlavi version as the original extent 
of this Nask. 

1 As the detailed account of the first three fargar</s of this Nask, 
in Dk. IX, contains about 840 Pahlavi words, and represents about 
730 words of the original Avesta text in Yas. XIX-XXI,with 1630 
in its Pahlavi version, it may be assumed that the detailed account 
of the whole Nask, extending to nearly 11,000 words, indicates 
about 9,500 words of Avesta text and 21,200 of Pahlavi version 
as the total extent of this Nask. 

s The heading of this first ha" is given in J2, Pt4, Mf4 which 
have been consulted by the translator in addition to Spiegel's text 
representing K5. The division into sections is that adopted by 
Spiegel, and the passages in parentheses have no equivalents in 
the Avesta text. 

8 Sp., J2 insert ' good and' 

* J 2 adds '(this is, Auharmazrf the creator is righteous; the rest 
is through the praise which says the creator is righteous) ; ' compare 
Pahl. Vend. II, 1. 



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454 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

maztfs son, before the righteous man (Gaydmara?), 
before the demons, (who remain) noxious creatures \ 
and mankind, before all embodied existence (the 
creation of sovereignty), and before all the excellence 
created by Auharma^, (which is owing to) the 
manifestation of righteousness ? ' 

4. And Auharmaza? spoke thus : ' They were the 
apportionment of the Ahunavair, O Spltaman Zara- 
tust! (that spirit who would make the religion 
current, who has formed that religion from the 
Ahunavair) which was spoken out by me for thee ; 
(5) (that is,) before the sky, (<&c., as in § 3). 

6. ' Whoever chants that apportionment of the 
Ahunavair, O Spltaman Zaraturt! without talking 
(that is, he does not speak out in the middle of any 
of its difficult Avesta 2 ) and not without anxiety 
(that he may slumber), (7) it is like a hundred above 
any other authority of those of the Gathas, when 
one chants them without talking, or not without 
anxiety * ; (thus it becomes fit for the ceremonial). 
8. Whoever chants it while talking, or without 
anxiety, (thus it becomes fit for the ceremonial,) it is 
like ten above any other authority of those of the 
Gathas. 

9. ' Whoever in that embodied existence of mine, 
O Spltaman Zaratu^t ! recalls the apportionment of 

1 Assuming that the khrafstarrfo, or khr<zf6star<?5, of Pt4, 
Mf4, stands for khrafstaran5, as required by the Avesta text. 
Sp., J 2 have ' who were confounded by wisdom.' 

2 So in Pt4, Mf4 ; but Sp., J2 may mean ' he strictly does not 
speak out in the middle of its Avesta.' 

* All the MSS. have 'while talking, or without anxiety,' as in 
§ 8; but this does not correspond with the Avesta text. The 
repetition of the parenthetical clause, about the ceremonial, which 
also occurs in § 8, is likewise suspicious. 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 455 

the Ahunavair, (that is, seeks for it) and, further, 
mutters that which he recalls, (that is, shall accom- 
plish it easily,) and, further, chants that which he 
mutters, (that is, fully understands its ritual,) and, 
further, reverences that which is chanted, (that is, 
shall celebrate the ceremony,) (10) his soul I pass 
on to the best existence, three times over the 
Kvsmzd bridge, I who am Adha.rma.zd, (that is, on 
that day in which he shall faithfully 1 provide the 
ceremony, it shall 2 lead his soul three times unto the 
world yonder, and shall 2 cause its happiness therein,) 
(n) to the best existence, the best righteousness, 
and the best light. 12. Also whoever in that em- 
bodied existence of mine, O Spltaman Zarat&rt! 
mutters the apportionment of the Ahunavair, (that 
is, shall accomplish it easily,) and drops 3 , (that is, 
cuts off*,) (13) either 6 as much as a half, or as much 
as a third, or as much as a fourth, or as much as a 
fifth, (at a fifth the foundation of the sin is laid, at 
a half it becomes quite complete, and when he shall 
cut off the whole it is a Taiufpuhar 9 sin,) (14) I 
twirl T away the soul of him, I who am Auharmas^, 
from the best existence, (that is, I would put it out ;) 
(15) to such an extent and width is the twirling away 
as that of this earth, and even so the extent of this 
earth is as much as its width.' 

16. This saying is proclaimed (a revelation) pos- 



1 Pt4, Mf4 vlvar; Sp., J2 have va-a6var, 'and certainly.' 

2 So in Pt4, Mf4 ; Sp., Ja have ' I would,' which may be right. 

5 Pt4, Mf4 aparddfngrf; Sp., J2 have bar£ 4pahlukln6rf, 
' puts quite aside.' 

4 Pahl. bara" yangfirf (Pers. yan^ad). 

5 Only in J2. 'See Dk. VIII, Chap. XX, 65. 
7 Pahl. tandm (Pers. tanam). 



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456 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

sessing an Ahu and possessing a Ratu, (from which 
this is manifest, namely, the possession of a ruler 
and high-priest. 1 7. This, too, is said, that it was) 
before that sky was created, before the water, before 
the earth, before the plants, (18) before the creation 
of the four-legged ox (which was the sole-created 
ox), (19) before the creation of the two-legged 
righteous man (who was Giydmarrf), (20) and before 
that sun of definite form (the body of the sun) was 
created as an acquirement of the archangels. 21. It 
was (likewise) proclaimed to me by the spirituality 
of propitiousness, (it likewise became possible for 
the spirituality of propitiousness to say (22) what 
was said 1 to Zaratu-rt,) concerning the whole material 
existence of the righteous who are, who have been, 
and who will arise, (23) as to the progress of work, 
(that is, while they shall perform for it that which 
is specified by it, and good works shall arise through 
them,) that this work, among the living, is for 
Auharmaswf, (that is, that which they may perform, 
suitable for Auhannasw?, they shall so perform as is 
declared by this farganaf). 

24. This, too, is the most expressive (most in 
effect) of those statements which were ever spoken 
forth (till now), or which one speaks forth (at pre- 
sent) 2 , or shall speak forth 3 (even henceforth) ; 

(25) for it is through such a statement (such in 
effect) as that, if the whole embodied existence 

(26) learnt it and, having learnt * (that is, they shall 
accomplish it easily,) they retain it, (that is, they 

1 J 2 omits gfiftS, ' what was said.' 
8 Pahl. av6 kevan in Pt4< 

3 ' Or is spoken forth ' in Pt4, Mf.4. 

4 ' Have learnt that which they should have learnt ' in Pt4, Mf4. 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 457 

should rely upon it,) abstinence from passing away 
would be quite masterful, (that is, they become 
immortal). 27. This, too, is our saying spoken 
forth, (preserved 1 among the revelation mentioned 
in this * fargarrf,) which is learnt, (that is, they shall 
accomplish it easily,) and one recites, (that is, he 
utters it in a ceremonial,) thus for any one whatever 
of the beings whose righteousness is best, (that is, 
should he do it for a ceremonial, he becomes fit for 
it ; it is when he utters this in a ceremonial that his 
soul becomes immortal). 

28. As it is here spoken forth, (that a ruler and 
high-priest are to be maintained ; as these things 
are so spoken, and as this law is so,) (29) even when 
it gives him an Ahu and a Ratu, (that is, it gives up 
his person to the priestly assembly,) so it is thereby 
taught to him that the thought of Aflharmasrdf is the 
creature with the first thinking, (that is, the Gathic 
lore is set going by him ;) (30) whatever teaches 3 
this (is the person of him who is king of kings, who) 
is the greatest (of men) of every description *, (that 
is, it possesses 8 a person in the king of kings ;) and 
so it is taught that the creatures 6 are for him, (where 
the Gathic lore is set going by him). 

31. Whatever is a good emanation for 3 Auhar- 
mzzd, (that is, has an origin in his personality,) is 
through the wordv3L\igh.e\is, (which in the division 
becomes the beginning of) the third assertion here, 
whose recital is ' he gives through Vohuman,' (that 
is, the recitation which he utters properly is accom- 
plished by him,) and, besides, here is that which 

1 J 2 has 'given.' * Pt4, Mf4 insert 'very.' 

• So in J 2, R4, Mf4. 

4 Pt4, Mf4, 'the greatest of all men.' • See p. 458, n. 3. 



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458 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

Vohuman has taught, (that is, the reward and recom- 
pense which they give Vohuman, they attribute also 
to him;) (32) whatever 1 is a further indication by 
Vohuman, (that is, anything which he may accom- 
plish * properly as a token, and is performed by him,) 
became so through this summing up (that is, its end 
occurred) in J^yaothananSm; (33) here among the 
existences was the summing up 2 , (that is, it was 
its end). 

34. What it teaches to the creatures s of him who 
is Auharmastff, is thus : he who is like him is he 
who is his own creature 8 , (that is, even these people 
it tells something so, and thus 1 they attain again, 
through purity, to the possession of Auharmastf?, 
just as Auhannasflf produced them through purity). 
35. By 'the dominion is for AuharmasMT it has 
taught, that he has made Auharmasa^ his ruler 4 , 
over his own person, (who shall perform that which 
is revealed by the Avesta ;) and this is taught, that 
through him is the ministration of the poor, (that is, 
happiness is thereby caused by him,) (36) which is 
friendship for the Spitaman ; (and the religion of 
the Spitaman became) these five assertions, (that is, 
the decrees in it were five,) (37) which were the 



1 So in J2, Pt4, Mf4. 

8 Sp., J 2 add 'of the sacred beings.' 

' Only here, and in § 30, d&hm, 'a member of the com- 
munity,' is substituted for the usual dam, 'a creature.' Either 
meaning might suit the context, but the Avesta text clearly has 
'creature,' and would require more alteration, to suit it to the 
Pahlavi version, than vice versa. Dk. IX, Chap. XL VII, affords 
no assistance, as it does not allude to this passage. 

4 The Pahlavi version of the Av. tarf mazdi ta va khshathrem 
quoted in Dk. IX, Chap. XLVII, 17. 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 459 

whole enunciation of the saying, and the whole 
saying was that of Auharniasraf 1 . 

38. For the sake of development Auharmas^, 
(for cherishing the creatures,) pronounced the Ahuna- 
vair, and in its development there was a summing 
up, (that is, its end occurred). 39. Quickly, when 8 
destruction arose, (that is 3 , the destroyer,) and 
rushed in, even among the wicked he uttered (as 
resistance) (40) this interdict: — (41) 'Neither our 
thoughts, nor s teachings, (as I have not taught that 
which thou hast taught,) nor wisdoms, (for I consider 
wisdom as virtuousness, and thou considerest it 
as viciousness,) (42) nor wills, (for my will is a 
virtuous wish, and thine a vicious one,) nor words, 
(for I speak that which is virtuous, and thou 
speakest that which is vicious,) nor actions, (for my 
actions are virtuous, and thine are vicious,) (43) nor 
religions, (for my religion is the Gathic lore, and 
thine is witchcraft,) nor souls are themselves in 
unison, (for as to those who rely upon my things, 
and those who rely upon thy things, their souls 
are not in one place ; ' he who said this, that even 
their souls exist, must thus say that they are not 
souls in unison with ours). 

44. Also this saying, which Auharmasa? uttered, has 
the three degrees, the four classes, (priest, warrior, 
husbandman, and artisan,) the five chieftainships, 
(house-ruler, village-ruler, tribe-ruler, province-ruler, 

1 As the Pahlavi text of the foregoing interpretation is a com- 
mentary upon an Avesta commentary on an obscure Avesta text, 
it must be expected to be difficult to translate with certainty. 

* Pt4, Mf4 omit 'when;' but the speaker of the interdict is 
Auharma«</ in Pahl. Yas. XLIV, a c-e. 

' So in J2, R4, Mf4. 



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46O EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

and supreme Zaratust,) and its summing up is with 
liberality, (thus it is possible to make it completely 
for their own, when they deliver themselves up to 
the priests). 45. Which are the degrees of it? 
Good thoughts, good words, and good deeds ; (they 
are 1 , indeed, virtuous among the degrees of religion). 
46. Which are the classes ? The priest, warrior, 
husbandman, and artisan, (47) who are the whole 
day and night with a righteous man, who are 
thinking rightly, speaking rightly, and acting rightly, 
(48) who have recognised a priestly authority, (that 
is, possess a high-priest,) who have taught the re- 
ligion, (that is, have provided a ceremony,) (49) and 
who, through their actions, are a furtherance of the 
world of righteousness, (owing to the work they 
accomplish). 50. Which are the chiefs ? The 
house-ruler, village-ruler, tribe-ruler, province-ruler, 
and the Zaratust is the fifth (51) in those provinces 
which are other than the Ragha 2 of Zaraturt ; with 
four chieftainships is the Ragha of Zaraturt. 52. 
Which are the chiefs of that? The house-ruler, 
village-ruler, tribe-ruler, and the Zaraturt is the 
fourth ; (that is, when he was in his own province, 
he also produced its period of prosperity, who arises 
fourth). 

53. How was it when through good thought, (that 
is, the religion remained in the degree of good 
thought) ? When it arose first in a righteous 
thinker, (it arose in Gay6mantf, and he thought for 
it). 54. How, when through good words ? When 
it was the bounteous text, (doing good). 55. How, 



1 J2, Pt4, Mf* indicate h6mant (=att). 

* The ancient city of Ral which stood not far from Teher&n. 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 46 1 

when through good deeds ? When it was the praise 
even of righteousness by the first creature, (that is, 
they shall perform the ceremonial, and also other 
good works, through the Gatha lore). 

56. Auharmaara? proclaimed; for what was it pro- 
claimed by him ? For the righteous spiritual and 
worldly existence, (for the benefit of the spiritual and 
worldly existence). 57. Owing to what desire (owing 
to what necessity) was the said announcement pro- 
claimed 1 by him ? (So that he shall become) the 
privileged developer, (he who is a resolute ruler). 
58. For how many righteous (is it requisite to utter 
it) ? (So that one may become) a developer, (even 
he who may be) an irresolute ruler 2 , (to whom they 
reveal these words. So that the glory of the Kayans, 
such as it is with good rulers, should be even so 
with evil rulers ; with good rulers for this purpose, 
that so they shall produce more benefit ; and with 
evil rulers for this purpose, that so they shall produce 
less harm) 8 . 

Pahl. Yas. XX = BakS II. 

The beginning of the second subdivision *. 

1. It was a proclamation of Ktiharmzzd, the 
Ashem vohu valmtem astl 8 ; besides perfect ex- 
cellence is taught by it to him, (that is, benefit is 



1 R4, Mf4 have irdz guftS, as in Pahl. Yas. XX, 9. 

* Quoted in Dk. IX, Chap. LXIX, 45. 

* §§ 56-58 are repeated at the end of Pahl. Yas. XX, with re- 
ference to the Ashem. 

4 So in Pt4, Mf4. 

8 This Avesta is quoted as part of the Pahlavi version, and is 
translated, in Pt4, Mf4, by the usual Pahlavi for 'righteousness 
is perfect excellence.' 



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462 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

produced by it for him,) who shall make self-progress 
his own, (that is, shall produce that which is neces- 
sary to produce,) through vohu valmtem astl 1 , 
thus become the summing up of the assertion, (that 
is, it became its end). 2. Ust& asti, u.rta ahmai 2 
has, besides, taught the righteous of every kind the 
happy progress which is necessary to arise for the 
righteous of every kind, (so that 3 happiness may be 
caused thereby) ; whatever endurance of man (or 
diligence) it is necessary for the righteous of every 
kind to occasion is, besides, taught to the righteous 
of* every kind, (so that one's happiness may be 
caused thereby). 3. Hyaafashai vahistai ashem 2 
has, besides, taught that all (the duty and good 
works which are revealed in the text are the whole 
text (for him whose Avesta and Zand are easy, so 
that, through its Avesta and Zand, he can make 
manifest all the duty and good works of that whole 
text,) (4) which teaches 6 that the dominion is for 
righteousness e , (so that, one may exercise authority 
through virtuousness, that is, it should be the opinion 
that it teaches a dominion through virtuousness, so 
that one may possess authority through virtuousness ;) 
(5) which also teaches the truth to that righteous 
invoker, (so that he may make a true decision ;) (6) 
and which also teaches the truth to you that are 

1 So in Pt4, Mf4; J2 has 'through one vohu vahiftem; and 
vahijtem astt.' 

! This phrase of the Ashem, which begins the Avesta of this 
section, must also be understood as beginning its Pahlavi version. 

9 Only Sp. adds ' one's ' here. 

4 Only Sp. has ' the righteous of,' but it is in the Avesta text. 

» So in Pt4, Mf4. 

* Just as the Ahunavair states that ' the dominion is for Auhar- 
mvad' (see Pahl. Yas. XIX, 35). 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 463 

fraught with advantage, (so that it may produce true 
judgment). These were the three assertions, (that 
is, three decrees were in it,) (7) and the whole saying 
was a proclamation, the whole saying was that of 
Atoharmzzd. 

8. Auharmasflf proclaimed ; (&c, as in Pakl. Yas. 
XIX, 56-58). 

Pahl. Yas. XXI = Bak6 III. 
The beginning of the third subdivision \ 

1. A saying of the righteous Zaraturt, to be 
reverenced, was : ' Whoever of those existing is 
thus in worship as regards the good*' Here what is 
taught by it is the worship of Auharmasfl?', (that it is 
that which one should provide for,) which is the law 
of Auharmasrf, (that is, his virtuous law,) whereby 
the reverence of existence is taught, (that is, that 
which he would most occasion, which is the ever- 
asking for progeny by mankind ; and he mentions 
that thing to them,) through which it is possible for 
them to live well. 2. Here, besides, the reverence 
of those males and females of the righteous, through 
complete devotion 8 who was the first, is taught by 
it, (3) which is the obeisance for the archangels, (that 
is, it would occasion the propitiation of the arch- 
angels). These were the three assertions, (that is, 
three decrees were in it,) and it was in every way a 
saying to be reverenced. Unto whom was the re- 
verence ? Unto the archangels in that worship. 

4. And AbharmsLsd spoke thus : ' Happy is he 

1 So in Pt4, Mf4. 

* The beginning of the YeNhe-hStam (see Dk. IX, Chap. IV, 
1 n). a 

8 The archangel Armaiti, or SpendarnW. 



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464 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

whose happiness is the happiness of any one what- 
ever, (5) and may Auharmas^ grant it, through pre- 
dominance of will, (through his requirement) 1 .' 6. 
What reply did he speak through that utterance of 
words, (what was the thing he spoke about *) ? 7. 
He spoke the reply of happy progress, the happy 
progress of the righteous of every kind, who are, 
who have been, and who will arise. 8. The de- 
veloper told (that man, as) the development, in 
reply; and (the reward as) the development that 
Auharmaswf mentioned in reply was: 'That de- 
velopment 3 (I call) righteous, (which) is a develop- 
ment for the righteous.' 

Dk. IX, Chap. XLVII, 11, refers to Pahl. Yas. 
XIX, 12-15, which is thus quoted in Sis. X, 26, in 
a shorter and altered form : — ' As it says in the Bak 
thus : " Whoever shall mutter, O Zaratust ! my ap- 
portionment of the Ahunavair, (that is, shall softly 
take it inwardly?) and shall let it escape 4 again, (that 
is, shall utter it aloud) so much as a half, or a third, 
or a fourth, or a fifth, his soul will I shield 5 , I who 
am Auharmaatf, from the best existence, (that is, I 
will keep it away,) by such an extent as the width 
of this earth." ' 

1 Quoted from Pahl. Yas. XLII, 1 a, b. 

1 Pt4, Mf4 have madam in place of maman. 

' So in Pt4, Mf*. 

4 Pahl. rah6fnfi</, or r£ntnS<f, ' reject.' It is the alteration in 
this verb that changes the meaning of the original text ; as the pre- 
ceding and following verbs, vakhdune<£ and gdy6</, do not differ 
in Pahlavi writing from the vadidungrfand yangS</ of Pahl. Yas. 
XIX, 13. 

5 Pahl. netrunam. 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 465 



IV. DAmdAxj Nask 1 . 

From the very short account of this Nask, given 
in Dk. VIII, Chap. V, it appears that its contents 
were very similar to those of the original Bundalm, 
so far as we find them in the imperfect Indian Bd. 
I-XXX. And this connection between the two 
works is further testified by Zs. IX, i, 16-23, which 
attributes to the Damdaa? many statements, regard- 
ing plants and animals, which are detailed in Bd. 
XIV, 1, 2, 14-18, 21-24. 

Owing to the brief character of the account in 
Dk. VIII, Chap. V, it is impossible to trace any 
allusion to two passages quoted from the Damdaaf 
as follows : — 

In Sis. X, 22, XII, 15, it is said that 'in the 
Dimdaa? it is revealed thus : " Likewise, too, the 
good works, in like measure (or manner), which come 
into the father's possession (or to the father as his 
own)."' 

In Sis. XII, 5, it is said that ' in the DamdSa? it is 
revealed that when they sever the consciousness of 
men it goes out to the nearest fire, then out to the 
stars, then out to the moon, and then out to the sun ; 



1 The very short account of this Nask, in Dk.VIII, contains 75 
Pahlavi words, and, if these represent the same proportion of 
original text as those in the very short accounts of Nasks I, II, 
III, XXI in the same book, they would indicate about 8,900 words 
of Avesta text. But, as this is a Hadha-mathric Nask, the pro- 
portion of its Pahlavi text is best ascertained from that of Nask X, 
belonging to the same division, which indicates about 29,300 words 
for the Pahlavi version. The actual original extent of the Iranian 
BundahU (which may be considered as a descendant of the 
D&mdsu/) appears to have been about 28,000 Pahlavi words. 

[37] H h 



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466 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

and it is needful that the nearest fire, that to which 
it has come out, should become stronger.' 



V. NAdar Nask \ 

No quotation from this Nask has yet been 
noticed. 

VI. PAgag Nask 2 . 

Dk. VIII, Chap. VII, 4, or 5, probably refers to 
the passage which contained the statement thus 
quoted in Sis. IX, 9, 10: — ' In a passage of the fifth 
fargarrf of the P&f6n it is declared that one mentions 
these characteristics of four kinds of worship of the 
sacred beings : — one is that whose Avesta is correct, 
but the man is bad ; the second is that whose Avesta 
is faulty, but the man is good ; the third is that whose 
Avesta is correct, and the man is good ; and the 
fourth is that whose Avesta is faulty, and the man 
is bad. That whose Avesta is correct, but the man 
bad, the archangels will approach and will listen to, 

1 As there is no account of this Nask in Dk. VIII, we can only 
guess that its extent was about the average length of the other 
Hadha-mathric Nasks, or about 6,800 words of Avesta text and 
22,200 of Pahlavi version. 

* The account of this Nask in Dk. VIII (like those of Nasks 
VIII, XII, XIII, XX), though four or five times as long as the 
very short accounts, is still short, and the data for estimating the 
original extent of these five Nasks are very inadequate. We may, 
perhaps, guess that the two Nasks VI, VIII were together equal to 
half the length of the four other Hadha-mathric Nasks IV, VII, IX, 
X, and then proceed to apportion the extent, thus guessed, between 
the two in proportion to the number of Pahlavi words in the short 
account of each. In this way we shall find that the 505 Pahlavi 
words in the short account of the Pa^ag may indicate about 9,100 
words of Avesta text and 29,800 of Pahlavi version. 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 467 

but do not accept ; that whose Avesta is faulty, but 
the man good, the archangels and sacred being will 
approach, but do not listen to, and will accept ; that 
whose Avesta is correct, and the man good, the 
archangels and sacred being will- approach, will come 
to, will listen to, and will accept; and that whose 
Avesta is faulty, and the man bad, they do not 
approach, do not listen to, and do not accept.' 



VII. Rado-dAd-aJtag Nask 1 . 
Dk. VIII, Chap. VIII, 4, probably refers to the 
passage containing the statement thus mentioned in 
Sis. X, 29 : — ' In the Raafo-darf-altth many harsh 
things are said about the severe punishment of the 
unhelpful 0«« (a vlf ldfar-dahi.rnanS) 2 in the spiritual 
existence! 

VIII, IX. Bark 3 and Kask!sr6b6 4 Nasks. 

No quotation from these Nasks has yet been 
noticed. 

1 The very short account of this Nask, in Dk. VIII, contains 
88 Pahlavi words, from which the extent of its original text may 
be estimated (in the same way as in the case of Nask IV) at about 
10,500 Avesta and 34,300 Pahlavi words. 

* Otherwise read han^i</&r-dahf.rnan6, 'producers of irrita- 
tion,' in S. B. E., vol. v, p. 330. 

* The short account of this Nask, in Dk. VIII, contains 248 
Pahlavi words, from which the extent of its original text may be 
guessed (in the same way as in the case of Nask VI) at about 
4,400 Avesta and 1 4,600 Pahlavi words. 

4 The very short account of this Nask, in Dk. VIII, contains 
46 Pahlavi words, from which the extent of its original text may 
be estimated (in the same way as in the case of Nask IV) at about 
5,500 Avesta and 17,900 Pahlavi words. 

H h 2 



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468 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

X. VwtAsp-sast6 Nask >. 

The first half of this Nask (as described in Dk. 
VIII, Chap. XI, I, 2) appears to be still extant in 
the VLrtasp Vast, 1-44 ; but the remainder of that 
Y&rt does not correspond with the description of the 
latter half of the Nask. 



XI. Vastag Nask 2 . 
No quotation from this Nask has yet been 
noticed. 



XII. AttradAb Nask 8 . 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XIII, 10, probably refers to the 
passage that contained the statement thus quoted in 
Sis. X, 28 : — ' Even so it is revealed in the ATitradadf 
that Spendarmaa? spoke to Manfo'Miar thus : " Even 
the swiftest horse requires the whip, the sharpest 

1 As half this Nask consists of the Vwtasp Yt. 1-44, which 
contains about 1,100 Avesta and 3,600 Pahlavi words, the contents 
of the whole Nask may be estimated at about 2,200 Avesta and 
7,200 Pahlavi words. 

8 As there is no account of this Nask in Dk. VIII, we can only 
guess that its extent was about the average length of the other 
Gathic Nasks, or about 8,900 words of Avesta text and 1 8,400 
of Pahlavi version. 

8 The short account of this Nask, in Dk. VIII, contains 396 
Pahlavi words, which may be guessed to represent the same pro- 
portion of Pahlavi version as in Nasks VI, VIII, the accounts of 
which are also short. And, as this is a Legal Nask, it may be 
assumed that the proportion of Avesta text to Pahlavi version 
would be the same as in the other Legal Nasks, which is the 
proportion still extant in the Nirangistan section of Nask XVII. 
Based upon these assumptions, the probable extent of the Aitradarf 
would be about 2,600 words of Avesta text and 23,400 of Pahlavi 
version. 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 469 

steel knife requires the whetstone, and the wisest 
man requires counsel.'" 



XIII. Spend Nask 1 . 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XIV, i, probably refers to the 
passage that contained the statement thus quoted in 
Sis. X, 4, XII, 11 : — '// is revealed in the Spend 
that towards Dukdav, the mother of Zaratu-rt, when 
she was pregnant with Zaraturt, every night for 
three nights a leader with a hundred and fifty 
demons rushed (or came) for the destruction of 
Zaraturt, yet, owing to the existence of the fire in 
the dwelling, they knew no means of accomplishing it! 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XIV, 8, probably refers to the 
passage that contained the statement alluded to in 
A V. XXXII and thus quoted in Sis. XII, 29:— 
' As in the Spend it was shown to Zaraturt about 
one man, that all his limbs were in torment, but one 
foot was outside ; and Zaratu^t enquired of Auhar- 
mAzd about the cause of it; and Auharma&Z said 
that he was a man, Davans 2 by name; he was a 
ruler over thirty-three districts, and no good work 
was ever practised by him, except one time when 
fodder was conveyed by him to a sheep with that 
one foot.' 

1 The short account of this Nask, in Dk. VIII, contains 347 
Pahlavi words, which would represent about 20,500 words of 
Pahlavi version, according to the proportion guessed in the case 
of Nask XII. But, this being a Gathic Nask, the proportion of 
Avesta to Pahlavi ought to be that calculated for the Gathic Nasks 
I, II, III, XXI, which would give about 9,900 words of Avesta 
text for this Nask. The seventh book of the Dtnkanf, whose 
contents are very similar to those attributed to the Spend Nask, 
contains about 16,000 Pahlavi words. 

* A personification of the Av. davSs of Yas. XXXI, 10 c. 



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470 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 



No allusion to the following two passages, quoted 
from the Spend, has been noticed in Dk. VIII, 
Chap. XIV:— 

In Sis. XII, 3, it is said that ' in the Spend it is 
revealed that a fire, when they shall make it quite 
clean from its chilled charcoal, has as much comfort 
as a man whose clothing they shall make clean.' 

In Sis. XII, 15, it is said that ' in the Spend and 
Nihadfam the high -priests have taught that the duty 
and good works which a son performs become as 
much the father's as though they had been done by 
his own hand.' 



XIV. Bakan-yast Nask 1 . 

No allusion to the following three passages, quoted 
from this Nask, could be expected in the very short 
account of it, given in Dk. VIII, Chap. XV; and 
they can hardly be traced, with any certainty, in the 
Avesta texts of the Yarts themselves : — 

It is just possible that a commentary on Yt. I, 17 
may have contained the Av.-Pahl. passage thus 
quoted in Vif. 2 pp. 160, 161 : — 'By the Avesta of 

1 The account of this Nask in Dk. VIII, though very short, is 
a fair description of the extant Yajts I-XX, and their general 
character is also indicated by the name of the Nask, which means 
' the worship of the divinities.' The extent of these Yatts may be 
estimated at about 22,000 words of Avesta text, and, from the 
Pahlavi versions of the few Yarts that still possess one, it may be 
calculated that about 44,000 words of Pahlavi version would have 
been required for the whole collection. 

* Vi^irkard-i Dinik, ed. Peshotan, Bombay, 1848; printed in 
Pahlavi type from a copy, transcribed in 1754, from an Irinian 
MS. written in 1240, which the transcriber found in the Modt 
library at Surat. The Avesta quotations are here transliterated 
without any attempt at amendment. 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 47 I 



the Baghan-yayt it is declared : Yad aete yd mazda- 
yasn6 aperenayukd avi he hapta saredha fra^asaiti, 
stehr-pa£sangh6 aiwyaunghand paitijr he maidhyai 
bu£yaman6, avi he nara pas&iiti nemanghe«ti : Who- 
ever of those Mazda-worshippers is a child who 
attains unto the age of seven years, and ties the 
fAread-girdle on his waist, upon that man there is 
thenceforth the maintenance of the obeisances.' 

A Pahlavi commentary on Yt. VI, 2 may have 
formerly contained the passage thus mentioned in 
Sis. XII, 17 : — ' As in the Bag-yasn6 notice is given 
about the uncleanness of well-water at night.' 

Perhaps one of the five Yarts, XI, XII, XIII, 
XV, XVIII, respectively dedicated to Srdsh, Rashnu, 
the guardian spirits, the good Vae, and Astad — the 
sacred beings specially propitiated by the ceremonies 
after a death — may have included a commentary 
containing the passage thus quoted in Vi^. pp. 157- 
158, about the necessity of appointing some one to 
provide such ceremonies for a man who dies without 
a son, and to administer his estate : — ' By the Avesta 
of the Bagan-yast it is declared : Yezi nar6 pa#£ada- 
sanghd saredhd irlraithyad avi he urvanem bu^yanem 
thrayd ayara uzayarana rathw6 haȣumanem fra^a- 
sdid, aad he aputhra anghad puthra fradadhaiti 
yatha^a nara irista vtspanSm avaretanam shaetavai- 
tanam avi he frazamtim fra^asdid, pasiaiti nemangu- 
haiti baoidhyeitafca urvasnayau.' 



XV. NIkAdOm Nask 1 . 
Dk. VIII, Chap. XVIII, 3, refers to the passage 
which, no doubt, contained the statement thus quoted 

1 The very long account of this Nask, in Dk. VIII, contains 



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472 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

in Farh. Olm, pp. 6, 1. 11-7, 1. 13 : — ' A6dha is the 
skin of the head, and there is part of it which is 
large and part which is small, as it says in the 
Niha^um: — "Kaya hewti masyanghd a£dha, 
which are those parts with the larger skin ? Y6 
aparaya paiti mastraghnaya, whatever is behind 
the skull ; (Ahrg l said, from the ear backwards). 
Kaya kasyanghd, which are those with the smaller? 
Y6 paouruya paiti mastraghnaya, whatever is 
before the skull*. Vaghdhanem is the head, and 
one says narj vaghdhanem, &c, this is : Sinful are 
they who penetrate (sumb£nd) a man's head, 
astern a£v6 mastravanSm, or one bone of the 
skull ; vlspa^a yd mastraghnSm amSsta, all those 
are to be smitten who have penetrated into the skull, 
and to be given up as outcast 3 ; ^z/ar6-<6ithan3m * 
a6t*£ anye 1 iikayat6, the penalties of a Kh6r 6 sin 
chastise those who hurt other parts, (such as the 
brain which is in the skull of the head, and the 
marrow of the other members that are to be men- 
tioned, just as it mentions this : — Sinful are they who 
strike through the bone, or flesh, or marrow of a leg, 
and every one of those is to be smitten who strikes 

4,876 Pahlavi words, from which the extent of its original text 
may be estimated (in the same way as in the case of Nask XVII) 
at about 62,600 Avesta and 562,900 Pahlavi words. 

1 One of the old commentators whose statements are frequently 
quoted in the Pahlavi versions of the Avesta. The reading of his 
name and the age in which he lived are alike uncertain, but he 
appears to have been one of the earliest commentators whose 
opinions now survive. 

* Perhaps the quotation ends at this point ; but Dk. VIII, Chap. 
XVIII, 3, is equally applicable to what follows. 

* Tanrfpuhar, see Dk. VIII, Chap. XX, 65. 

* So in K20. B See Dk. VIII, Chap. XXXI, 39. 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 473 

through the bone of one fleshy part, and he is to be 
given up as outcast ; while the penalties of a Kh6r 
sin 1 chastise those who hurt other parti)!' ' 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XX, 116, probably refers to the 
passage which contained the statement thus quoted 
in Pahl. Vend. IV, 35 : — ' That is, this is the account 
of the number of years, according to that which is in 
the Husparum as regards the account of the number ; 
and according to that which is in the Niha^um it is 
the account of the number of men.' 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XX, 124, possibly refers to the 
passage which contained the statement thus quoted 
in Sis. X, 3 : — ' In the exposition of the Niha^um 
Nask it says that a man is going to commit robbery, 
and a wall falls in upon him, it is his destroyer ; 
when a man strikes at him he is his adversary, and 
both are in sinfulness ; when he is going to perform 
the ceremonial of the sacred beings both are in inno- 
cence towards him.' 

No allusion to the following six passages, quoted 
from this Nask, has been noticed in Dk. VIII, 
Chaps. XVI-XX :— 

In Sis. X, 22, XII, 15, it is said as in the last 
fragment of the Spend Nask, already quoted. 

In Sis. X, 23, XII, 16, it is said that 'in the 
Niha^um the high-priests have taught thus: — "A 
man gives a hungry one bread, and it is too much, 
yet (or when a man gives bread to a man, even 
though that man has too much bread) all the good 
works, which he shall perform through that super- 



1 MH6 has va-a&vak kerp after mazjr, and both K20 and 
MH6 have valman barS yehabftnixnj kh6r td^ixnihi after 
tantfpfthar. 



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474 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

abundance, become as much his who gave it as 
though they had been done by his own hand." ' 

In Pahl. Vend. V, 73, it is said 'like unto this 
earth and that (sky) which would also cover over it 
(ever in all places; there is some one who says this is 
as to dead matter, that in the Nihaafam says it is as 
to decision and judgment, and that in the Huspirum 
says it is as to the ritual of the ceremonial).' 

In V\g. p. 1 36, it is said that ' it is declared by 
the Avesta of the Nih&/um thus : — "Aad yad draond 
Vana»td stard mazdadhdtd frayazyaaf, iathward dra- 
ond frakere#te«ti aiwi-^z>are#ti, yad aesh6 na y6 
yao^dathryd : — So when he, who is that man who 
is a purifier, shall consecrate the sacred cake of 
Vanand 1 , the star produced by Ab\iarma.zd, they 
cut up and shall eat up four sacred cakes." ' 

In Vif . pp. 1 80, 1 8 1 , it is said that ' in the Nihi^um it 
is stated : — Aa^aokhta Ahurd Mazdau : " Yaa?a$t£ yd 
mazdayasna astern srirem vastrem stehr-pa£sanghem 
hv3m tanum badha paoirtm vanghanem^a hadha 
varano paitanem^a, pasiaiti aiwyaunghand ava h6 
maidhyanem bu^yamand." Astern zt srirem vastrem 
mainyutclytem haia mainyavanSm damanSm avi m£ 
fradadhaW Ahur6 Mazdau ashava. " Yatha hd 
varand paitanem asti manayen hvare-khshaetahd, 
adheL/ hadha h£ vastranSm yao^dathranSm frdyaza 
va nizbaya va Ahurai Mazdai ameshanSm spewtanSm, 
Spitama Zarathuytra ! " — Thus spoke Auharmasaf: 
" When for him, of those who are Mazafe-worshippers, 
there is this beneficial, star-spangled (that is, wrought) 
garment 2 , always (after seven years of age, that is, 

1 The southern leader of the stars, probably Fomalhaut (see Bd. 
H, 7.V, 1). 
* The sacred shirt. 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 475 



after seven years of age) first he covers up (that is, 
clothes) his own body in it, and with (that he is 
properly) a preserver of faith (that is, a preserver of 
attachment, and) he afterwards ties 1 (that) girdle (over 
that starry garment) at the waist (as a waist-belt)." 
That, even this well-looking garment, spiritually 
formed by the creatures of the spirits, is really (that 
which) the righteous Auharmas*/ granted me (who 
am Zaratu-rt). "Since it is his preserver of faith, 
(that is, preserver of attachment), he is like (him 
who is as) the sun, (a preserver of beneficial faith, an 
implorer of the splendid heaven, and is one who is 
an accepter of the religion) ; therefore, with that 
garment, which is purified (that is, pure), do thou 
worship, or practise invocation, as regards Auhar- 
m&zd and as regards the archangels, O Spttaman 
Zaraturt ! " ' 

In Vig. pp. 184, 185, it is said that 'it is declared 
by the Avesta of the Nihaafam thus: — kzd aetahS 
pa#/£a ayara hamaspathmaidhem paid ratum spew- 
tayau armat6i.y maungh6 nbid frasravay6i«f : — So one 
does not chant forth (that is, does not invoke) the 
month of (the completely mindful) Spendarmaaf* 
(that is, the Spendarmaa? month) in the reign of 
those five Hamaspadm£d£m days 3 ; (for if one invokes 
it, owing to forgetful ness, the Avesta is not accepted).' 

1 This appears to be the reverse of the meaning of Av. bu^-ya- 
mano in Yt. I, 17, but see the first fragment of Nask XIV, quoted 
in Y\g. pp. 160, 161. 

' The last month of the Parsi year, named after the archangel 
Spendarmarf (see Dk. VIII, Chap. IX, 3). 

5 The five intercalary days that follow the last month, in order 
to make the twelve months, of thirty days each, correspond with 
a year of 365 days. They coincide with the Hamaspa</m6d6m 
season-festival, originally intended to celebrate the vernal equinox. 



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476 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

XVI. GanabA-sar-nigao Nask 1 . 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XXII, 2, probably refers to the 
passage which contained the statement thus quoted 
in Sis. X, 1 3 : — '// is revealed in the Ganaba-sar- 
n\g&d, where a day in the year is indicated, that the 
sacred thread-girdle of every one who shall be one 
day more than fourteen years and three months old 2 
is to be tied on — it is better so than when he 
remains unto fifteen years, and then ties on the 
girdle — who is more cared for, that way, than those 
of five (or nine) months in the womb of the mother, 
on whom they should put it! 



XVII. HCspAram Nask 3 . 

A small portion of this Nask is still preserved and 
known by the name of Nirangistan. The last seven- 
eighths of this text corresponds with the description 
of the Nirangistan section of the Husparam, given 
in Dk. VIII, Chap. XXIX, 1-17, although a few 
folios of its commencement are probably lost And 

1 The very long account of this Nask, in Dk. VIII, contains 
2,179 Pahlavi words, from which the extent of its original text 
may be estimated (in the same way as in the case of Nask XVII) 
at about 28,000 Avesta and 251,500 Pahlavi words. 

3 So as to include the nine months' existence, before birth, in 
the prescribed fifteen years. 

' As the 212 Pahlavi words in Dk. VIII, Chap. XXIX, 1-17, 
represent about 2,722 words of the original Avesta text of this 
Nask, with 24,472 of its Pahlavi version, it may be fairly assumed 
that the 3,496 Pahlavi words of the whole account of the Nask 
in Chaps. XXVIII-XXXVII, must represent about 44,900 Avesta 
and 403,600 Pahlavi words of original text. And the same pro- 
portion probably holds good with regard to the other Legal Nasks, 
XV, XVI, XVIII, of which very long accounts are given. 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 477 

the earlier portion of the text begins with a fragment 
of a passage ; which appears to correspond with part 
of the description of the AeYpatistan section, given 
in Chap. XXVIII, i ; but also contains passages 
that are difficult to trace in any part of that de- 
scription. The Nirangistan portion of this text is 
divided into three fargarafe, and Dd. LXVI, i 
mentions ' five fargan/s of the Avesta of the correct 
law of the Ntrangistan, which are easy through 
the Zand;' so that the missing portion of this 
section of the Nask, described in Chap. XXIX, 
18-25, must have contained two fargarafe. With 
regard to the unidentified passages, preceding the 
Nirangistin portion of the extant text, it may be 
remarked that they include several of the statements 
about 'unseasonable chatter' contained in Sis. V, 3-6, 
where they are differently arranged. 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XXIX, 2, refers to a passage 
which may have contained the statement thus men- 
tioned in Sis. XII, 1 : — ' Of the merit of a threefold 
consecration of the sacred cake the high-priests have 
specially taught in the Husparam that it is as much 
as that of a. lesser form of worship.' 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XXIX, 8, refers to the passage 
which probably contained the statement thus quoted 
in Sis. XII, 31 : — 'Of the ceremonies which go to 
the bridge as sin it says this in the Husparam, that 
they are the non-celebration of the rites of the 
season-festivals, the Rapltfin, the three nights after 
a death, the days of the guardian spirits, and the sun 
and moon.' 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XXXII, 1, refers to the passage 
which must have contained the statement thus 
mentioned in Sis. XIII, 17: — 'The six hot ordeals 



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47^ EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

which, in the Husparam, are effected by iathrayaim 
athraiSm 1 .' 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XXXIII, 4, refers to the passage 
which must have contained the statement thus men- 
tioned in Pahl. Vend. XV, 67: — 'What is as to the 
sick dog in the Husparam is, "when several doors are 
together, it is just if the. nourishment at each one be 
Only for three nights, and then, when opulence is 
manifest, the delivery be unto that opulent one, and 
when not, the delivery be unto him who is good." ' 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XXXV, 2, probably refers to 
the passage which contained the statement thus 
mentioned in Sis. XII, 7: — 'In the twentieth 2 of 
the Husparam it is shown that over the soul of him 
who works in the dark there is more predominance 
of the evil spirit' 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XXXVI, 7, or 13, probably 
refers to the passage thus mentioned in Dd. LXI, 3 : 
— ' Nearer details of the family guardianship which 
is proper and which is not proper for an adopted 
son's duty, of the child of the good religion with 
whose business it is connected, and of the fathers for 
whom a family guardian is to be appointed, are in 
the recital of five fargarafe 8 of the Husparam.' 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XXXVI, 8-12, probably refers 
to the passage which contained the statement thus 
quoted in Sis. X, 21, XII, 14: — ' In the fourteenth 4 

1 This corrupt Avesta means probably ' fourfold fire.' 

* The first section mentioned of these twenty is that described in 
Chap. XXXII. 

' See Dk. VIII, Chap. XXXVI, 1 n. 

* That is, in one of the last fourteen sections of the Nask. If 
it were not for this number, and the fact that the passage is under- 
stood to apply to the children of a concubine, it might be connected 
with Chap. XXXIV, 4, 5. 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 479 

of the Hftsparam Nask the high-priests have taught 
thus : " My son is suitable even as thy son, but my 
daughter is not suitable even as thy daughter." ' 

No allusion has been noticed in Dk. VIII, Chaps. 
XXVIII-XXXVII, to the two passages in Pahl. 
Vend. IV, 35, V, 73, referring to this Nask, which 
have been already quoted as also referring to 
Nask XV. 

XVIII. SakAdOm Nask 1 . 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 1, 2, refer to pas- 
sages, one of which may possibly have contained 
the statement thus quoted in Sis. XII, 2 : — ' It says 
in the Sakaafam that no one of them, that is an 
inattentive man who has no high-priest, attains to 
the best existence, not though his recitation should 
be so much that it has made his duty and good 
works as much as the verdure of the plants when it 
shoots forth in spring, the verdure which is given 
abundantly by Auharma^.' 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 3, refers to a passage 
which is thus quoted in Sis. X, 25: — 'When an 
action or an opinion comes forward, and one does 
not know whether it be a sin or a good work, when 
possible it is to be abandoned and not carried out 
by him, as it says in the Sakadfom that Zaratuit has 
not provided about anything whatever as regards 
everything, but three times it has been done by 
Zaratdrt about this duty, that is, so that the Avesta 

1 The very long account of this Nask, in Dk. VIII, contains 
4,129 Pahlavi words, from which the extent of its original text 
may be estimated (in the same way as in the case of Nask XVII) 
at about 53,000 Avesta and 476,600 Pahlavi words. 



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480 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

and Zand, when made quite easy by any one, are 
for recitation, but are not to be mumbled, for, in 
mumbling, the portions of the Ahunavair are more 
chattering.' 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 6, refers to the 
passage thus mentioned in Sis. XII, 12: — 'Where 
a child is born, during three days, for protection 
from demons, wizards, and witches, a fire is to be 
made at night until daylight, and is to be maintained 
there by day, and pure incense is to be put upon it, 
as is revealed in the thirtieth 1 of the Sakaafom.' 

Dk. VIII, Chaps. XXXVIII, 13, XLI, 19, refer 
to passages which seem both to be partially quoted 
in Farh. Oim, p. 38, 11. 4-10, thus : — ' The period is 
eagerly proclaimed in another place, as it says in the 
Sakaafam thus : — " Thripithw6 zi asti atar.y Ahurah£ 
Mazdau hama, bipithwd aiwi-gam£, atha nard asha- 
vand : — For thrice-supplied is the fire of Auharmaaro? 
in summer 2 , twice in winter; so is the righteous 
man. (Whoever has become a depriver of food 
(atapdaaf) four times, which are successive, should 
be in doubtfulness as to unrestricted (aband) 
maintenance vl^ithremiiaf: without any publicity; 
as much as it is possible to see being the original 
minimum of any other)." ' 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XXXVIII, 33, refers to the 
passage which contained the statements thus quoted 
in Ep. I, viii, 1, 7; — l It is declared in the Sakar/um, 
that the consecrated bull's urine, when it becomes 

1 That is, in one of the first thirty sections (see Dk. VIII, Chap. 
XXXVIII, 1). 

* Both K20 and MH6 have am at, 'though,' instead of pavan 
hamln. This first sentence corresponds with part of Chap. XLI, 
19, and the following sentence with part of Chap. XXXVIII, 13. 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 48 1 

fetid, is to be stirred up \ and they should not carry 
it forth so to the fire, so that the stench extends to 
the fire ; because, if that stench extends to the fire, 
on account of the moisture and through carrying 
bodily refuse over and forth to the fire, it overwhelms 
it. And that which the Sakadum has declared is, 
specially, that one of the high-priests has individually 
said : " That stench is mentioned with reference to 
the occasion when a stench reaches it of a different 
kind from that which exists naturally in it." ' 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XLIII, 33, refers to the passage 
which contained the statements thus mentioned in 
Sis. XII, 10, XIII, 30: — 'In the twenty-two 2 sections 
of the Sakadfum grievous things are shown about 
those who do not make offerings unto the sacred 
beings.' And, again, ' while those nineteen {stanzas 
of Yas. XL VI) are our offering, which it says in 
the Sakadfam should be my own, the strength and 
power of the sacred beings shall become more 
considerable, and the destroyer more perishable.' 



XIX. VendJdAz) Nask 8 . 



The whole of this Nask (as described in Dk. VIII, 
Chap. XLIV) is still extant, and is considered by 
the writers of the Persian Rivayats to be a complete 
work. Its fragmentary character, which is obvious 
enough to European scholars, must, therefore, be 

1 This statement is again mentioned in § 6. 

• The last twenty-two (see Dk. VIII, Chap. XLI, 1). 

* The extent of this Nask appears to be the same now as it was 
in Sasanian times, and may be estimated at about 23,000 A vesta 
and 48,000 Pahlavi words. The moderately long account of it in 
Dk. VIII, contains 1,272 Pahlavi words. 

[37] I i 



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482 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

attributed, in all probability, to losses it sustained 
before the revival of Masafe-worship by the Sasanian 
dynasty. It is remarkable that the compiler of the 
account in the Dlnkard makes no allusion to the 
twelfth fargara? of the Vendidaa?, which is also 
omitted in all old MSS. of the Vendldidf with 
Pahlavi that have been examined, although the 
copyists appear to have been aware of the existence 
of a twelfth fargaraf. 



XX. HAd6kht Nask 1 . 

It is doubtful how much of this Nask is still 
extant. Traditionally, the two fragments published 
by Westergaard as Yt. XXI, XXII (excepting 
XXII, 37-42), and by Haug as Hn. I, II, III, are 
said to belong to this Nask ; but no allusion to 
Hn. II, III can be found in the account given in 
Dk. VIII, Chap. XLV, and Hn. I can be traced in 
that account only by assuming that the Ahunavair 
is therein mentioned (in § 1) instead of its accom- 
panying Ashem-vohu, as it appears to be in Hn. 1, 4. 
In Yt. XI we also appear to have a form of the 
Sr6sh Yast derived from the Haddkht Nask, or 
used in the liturgy when that Nask was recited, and 
this Yart likewise refers (in § 3) to the Ahunavair in 
similar terms to those used in Hn. I, 4. 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XLV, 1, refers to the passage 
which contained the statement about the Ahunavair 
already mentioned and also thus quoted in Sis. 

1 The short account of this Nask, in Dk. VIII, contains 295 
Pahlavi words which, according to the proportions adopted in the 
case of Nask XIII, would represent about 8,400 Avesta and 1 7,400 
Pahlavi words of original text. 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 483 

XII, 19: — 'It says in the Haafokht that of the 
sayings which are spoken out the Ahunavair is that 
which is most triumphant.' 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XLV, 4, refers to the passage 
which probably contained the statements thus quoted 
in the Afrln-i Gahanbar, 14-19 (Sp.), concerning the 
righteous gifts to be given away, for the sake of the 
soul, at each of the six season-festivals : — ' There is 
an Avesta witness manifest in the Hadokht from 
the passage (in the case of the Maidhyd-zaremaya 
festival) : " Hazangrem mae'shinSm da£nun5m paiti- 
puthranSm narSm ashaonam ashaya vanghuya urunfi 
para-daithyad 1 , aevahe hatam iinmanahe yzd ashahe" 
vahi.rtahe\" ' During the other five festivals the 
gifts, instead of ewes, are to be cows, mares, camels, 
and all kinds of herds and seeds, respectively, as 
appears from the corresponding passages. All six 
passages, mingled with further Avesta text, occur in 
several MSS. of the Afringan-i Gahanbar (see the 
earlier part of each section of Af. Gah. 7-12, ed. 
Geldner). 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XLV, 9, probably refers to the 
passage which contained the statement thus quoted 
in Sd. XL, 4 : — ' In the commentary of the Hadokht 
it says : — " Ma azaray6i.r, Zarathustra I ma Pouru- 
shaspem, ma DughdhovSm 1 , ma a^thrapaitw : — It 
is not desirable that thou, O Zarattat! shouldst 
distress thy father, or mother, or priest." ' 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XLV, 10, may possibly refer td 

1 The orthography of these three Avesta names has been 
amended in accordance with the Persian version accompanying 
them, but all the four MSS. consulted have the first two in the 
genitive, and one MS. uses a masculine genitive form also for the 
third name. 

I i 2 



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484 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

the passage which contained a statement that is 
often partially quoted in Pahlavi colophons, and the 
Avesta text of which constitutes Yas. LXXII, 11 
(Gld.) ; the first part of the statement, with a trans- 
lation of its Pahlavi version, is here quoted from 
Mhrd-dp&ris colophon to a volume of miscellaneous 
Pahlavi texts, usually called the Vi-rtasp-shahnamak 
from the subject of its first text, and written a. d. 1322, 
in which the writer mentions the source from which 
he quotes; and the second part is taken from the 
same writer's colophon to the Yasna MS. K5, 
written thirteen months later, which is the only 
known authority for this part of the text: — 'In 
one passage of the H£a?6kht it is declared that 
Auharmasaf spoke to Zaratust thus : — " A£v6 pa#tau 
yd ashahe" vlspe" anyaesham apa«t3m : — one only is 
the way of righteousness, all those are no ways : — 
angrah£ maxayeus naslrtSm 1 daenam daevayasnanam 
para^ltim mar^yanSm 2 frakereittm : — which the evil 
spirit of the heretical demon-worshippers, the wizard, 
has forced on to mankind." ' 

Dk. VIII, Chap. XLV, 13, must refer to the 
passage which contained the statement thus men- 
tioned in Sis. XIII, 10: — 'The fifteen stanzas of 
Ya-j^yaothana 3 are for this reason, because it is 
given for the destruction of those fifteen fiends who 
are declared in the medical part of the H&afdkht.' 

No allusion to the following seven passages, 
quoted from this Nask, has been noticed in Dk. VIII, 
Chap. XLV:— 

In Sis. XII, 30, it is stated that 'in the Haafokht 



1 Only the first and last letters of this word are clearly legible. 
* The first syllable is illegible. s Yas. XXXIV. 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 485 

it says that a woman who shall be reverent is to be 
considered as much as she who is suitable.' 

In Sis. XIII, 6, it is said that 'the twenty-two 
stanzas of Ta-v^-urvata * are the twenty-two judg- 
ments of which it speaks in the Haatokht thus : 
" Anaom6 manangh£ daya vispai kva, kva par6 ? — 
Lodging in the judge, that while he has twenty-two 
judgments he may be more just." ' 

In Sd. XXII, 3, 4, it is stated that 'in the 
commentary of the Haafokht it says, that every one 
who performs intercession, and extracts anything 
from a person on their account, and conveys it to 
them is as much without dishonesty towards them, 
as he who may have given to them out of his own 
property. And in the spiritual existence they take 
account of that profit for him, and just as they make 
out the account of the good work of that person who 
may have given it, even so much is his good work.' 

In Wig. p. 1 2, it is said, with reference to Aharman, 
'that he is a creature of Auharma^ is manifest 
from the Avesta of the Haafokht : " Data, Ahura 
spewta ! Mazdau." ' 

In Vif. pp. 23-25, it is said that, 'if any one 
passes away from the bodily existence, as much of 
his wealth comes to his son, wife, and daughter as is 
declared by the Avesta of the Haafokht 2 :— "Aad 
yezi avi he anguh£ astvaiwti, Spitama Zarathustra! — 
So if in that bodily existence, O Spttaman Zaraturt ! 
— naram va nairinSm va para-irithyaaf, — of males or 



» Yas. XXXI. 

1 It is perhaps necessary to repeat that no attempt is made to 
correct the Avesta orthography, except in the case of a few obvious 
misprints. 



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486 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

females one expires, — £va</a£ta6shSm yaunghuyanSm 
avaretanSm ma£thanan3miavastranSm paiti-ra&£y4^, 
— however much of their wealth and things, houses 
and clothing he abandons (that is, he leaves such in 
this world) — avatha he" hvatd puthrem anghaa?, a£vd- 
baghem haia avaretanSm nisrinuya*/; iady^zi hvSm 
nairika bavaiti, a£v6-baghem paiti-nidadhaiti ; y£zi 
dughdhrgm he#ti, na&nem baghem fra^asa^: — in 
such a case, should there be a son of his, himself, 
one delivers up to him one share of the property; if 
the wife herself (that is, his privileged wife) exists, 
one gives up to her one share in it; if there are 
daughters, a half-share comes on to each of them. — 
k&d y£ziXa he nard irista hva hizva ukhdhem va- 
/•em nazdas£a nard danghrem paiti-dyaeti, vfspanSm 
vaiam ukhdhanam^a avi yam astvaitim gaethSm 
harethrem frabara^; — So also, if that dead man 
gives over a verbal statement by his own tongue 
to the nearest wise man (that is, speaks his own 
will), all his words and statements, when in control 
of his bodily existence, one carries out (that is, one 
shall confer authority on his words); — y£zi ndid 
harethrem baraiti anaperetha ha£a x^yaothana : — if 
one shall not confer the authority, he becomes an 
unpardonable sinner (owing to doing this deed ; that 
is, the person who, when there is a will, does not 
carry it out). — Avad yaaf h£ nar6 irista aputhrai 
anghaai', upa he puthrem fradadhaaf, Spitama Zara- 
thustra ! yahmaaf ha>£a puthr6 haom urvanem K\nvz.d 
peretum vidharya^: — So when that dead man is 
without a son (that is, there is no son of his), one 
gives forth the share over to the son, O Spitaman 
Zaratu$t! by whom, as a son (that is, an adopted 
son), they pass on the mans own soul from that 



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EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 487 

K'mvdid bridge (that is, it departs by the passage of 
the bridge)."' 

In V\g. p. 83, it is said that ' hair from an ox or 
a horse is suitable, as it is declared by the Hadokht: 
" Geus va aspahe" va varesa." ' 

In Wig. pp. 144, 145, it is said, with reference to 
announcing the name of the deceased during the 
celebration of the Srdsh Yast after a death, that 
'it is declared by the Avesta of the Hadfdkht: — 
"Y6zi nar6 mazdayasnd haia ga^thabyd para- 
irithyeiti, aaaf he" n3ma hadha pitd frag^urvayi^; 
yezi nairika para-irithy&ti, aaa? ya*/ he" nama hadha 
pathand uzgoirvayaa?, Spitama Zarathustra ! astern 
va^em nl a«tare mazdayasnanam frasastayaaf: — 
If a man who is a Ma2</a-worshipper passes away 
from the worldly existence, in such a case one holds 
out his name with that of his father ; and if it be 
a woman who passes away, in such a case one 
upholds whatever is her name with that of her 
husband, O Spltaman Zaraturt! otie shall further 
bless this statement (that is, its being reverenced is 
important) among the Masak-worshippers, (do thou 
proclaim and further bless this statement)." ' 



XXI. St6z>-yast Nask 1 . 
It has been already shown, in Dk. VIII, Chap. 
XLVI, 1 n, that the whole of this Nask is probably 
still extant in the Yasna and VlspSradl About half 
of the present Yasna appears to consist of five-sixths 
of this St6^-yaJt, to which have been added three 

' The actual extent of those portions of the Yasna and Vfspgrarf 
which appear to have constituted this Nask, may be estimated at 
about 12,500 Avesta and 22,400 Pahlavi words. 



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488 EXTANT FRAGMENTS. 

fargarafe of the BakS (Nask III), with the H6m and 
Srosh Yarts, extracted probably from the Bakan- 
yart: (Nask XIV), and the greater part of the Atas 
and Aban Nyaywes ; the whole collection being 
provided with an introductory and concluding ritual, 
compiled from other sources, to form the complete 
ceremonial liturgy of the present Yasna. 

There appears to be no sufficient evidence, either 
internal or external, for ascribing this collection of 
the liturgy to so late a date as the end of the ninth 
century, when the compilation of the Dinkard was 
completed. It is therefore safer, for the present, to 
assume that the St6d-yast existed for a long period 
as a separate Nask (the form described by the 
Dinkard), even after the greater part of its text had 
been incorporated with others to form the collected 
liturgy now known as the Yasna. 



Besides the fragments which are specially at- 
tributed to particular Nasks, there are also a few 
writings which closely resemble the Nasks, or their 
fragments, in general character, >ut which can hardly 
be traced to their actual source by means of the 
accounts given in the DlnkaraT. Thus, the Aogema- 
dae\£a might perhaps be supposed to have been 
extracted from the Baris (see Dk. VIII, Chap. IX, 
1 8), if it did not contain a few Avesta quotations 
from the Yasna, Vendlda^, and Yarts. While the 
quotations from the Ashem-staota, given in V\g: 
pp. 89, 90, 125-129, 177, 178, are difficult to trace, 
owing to the name of their source. 



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INDEX. 



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OBSERVATIONS. 

The references are to the pages of the introduction and extant fragments, 
and to the books, chapters, and sections of the translations ; the chapters being 
denoted by the larger ciphers. The letters ch. stand for chapter, com. for 
commentator, Dk. for Dinkan/, Dv. for Din-vigirgard, Fr. for Fragments, 
Int. for Introduction, lun. man. for lunar mansion, m. for mountain, meas. 
for measure, n for foot-note, Riv. for RivSyat, and Zs. for Selections of ZaJ- 
sparam. 



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INDEX. 



Abilu, man, Int. 33 ; Dk. IV, 2 n. 
Abannyayi.r,Dk.IX,48,7n; Fr.488. 
Achzmenians, Dk.VIII, 13, 16 n. 
A/Z-fravakhshyi ch., Dk. IX, 15, 1 ; 

38, 1 ; 60, 1. 
A^-ma~yava ch., Dk. IX, 19, 1 ; 42, 

1; 64,i. 
A</-ta-vakhshya ch., Dk. IX, 7, 1 ; 

30, 1 ; 52, 1. 
ASrpatistan ch., Dk.VIII, 28, 1 ; Fr. 

477- 
Aeshm, demon, Dk. VIII, 9, 3 n; 

IX, 9, in; 21, 4 n; 22,5,6; 

29, 9 ; 39, 8 ; 41, 18. 
Aethrapaitu ch., Dk. IX, 24, f. 
Aezemnd, man, Dk. IX, 33, 5. 
vffarg, com., Fr. 47a. 
Afringan, Riv. IV, 23 ; Dv. 23 ; Fr. 

. 483- 

Afrin-i Gahanbar, Fr. 483. 
AgSrept sin, Dk. VIII, 20, 65 n ; 

81, 39. 
Agoydst, meas., Dk. VIII, 20, 19. 
Aharirvang, angel, Int. 33 n; Dk. 

VIII, 9, 3; IX, 24, 3, 11; 30, 
14; 43, 6. 

Aharman, Dk. IX, 30, 4 ; 31, 3, 4 ; 
89, 14; 53, 2, 3; 56, 4; 69, 
26 n, 39 ; Zs. 8 n ; Dv. 4, 8, 19, 
21 ; Fr. 485. 

Ahu, Fr. 456, 457. 

Ahfim-stfU/, man, Dk. Ill, 197, 6 n. 

Ahunavair, Int. 29, 40; Dk. VIII, 

1, 7, 18, 19; 2,2 n; 4,1 n; 44, 
51 n, 81; 45, 1 ; 46, i, 2 n; 

IX, 2, 2 n, 17-19 ; 3, 1 n ; 19, 

2, 6-9 ; 24, 18 ; 25, 1 n ; 83, 
5! 47,2-4,9, 11; Zs. 1-4,7 n; 

Fr- 453-455. 459, 4<*» n. 4*4. 

482, 483. 
Ahunavaiti gatha, Zs. 2 n, 3. 
Airin-shah, man, Int. 35. 
AMn-veg, land, Dk. IX, 12, 3 ; 16, 

13, 14 n ; 20, 3 ; 58, 20 n. 
AiTii, man, Int. 35 ; prince, Dk. 

VIII, 13, 9, 10. 



Airman, angel, Dk. VIII, 44, 80. 
Airman supplication, Dk. VIII, 44, 

81 ; IX, 46, 1, 2. 
Airya, tribe, Dk. VIII, 18, 15 n. 
Airyaman ch., Dk. I X, 28, 1 ; 46, 

1 ; 68, 1 ; Zs. 4, 7 n, 9. 
Aiwisruthrim gah, Dk. IX, 9, 10. 
A k at ash, demon, Dk. IX, 9, 1. 
Akht, man, Dk. IX, 44, 14. 
Akomand, demon, Dk.VIII, 9, 3 n ; 

IX, 21, 4 n; 30, 8; 32, 3 n; 

41, 13; 69, 21. 
Albur'* m., Dk. I X, 20, 3 ; 22, 4, 7- 
Alexander the Great, Int. 31 ; Dk. 

VIII, 1,21 ; 8, in; 9,i n; 10, 

1 n ; 11, 1 n ; 13, 16 n ; IV, 23 

n; Riv. II, 8-1 1 ; III, 9-12; 

IV, 12, 21, 23; Dv. 8-12, 20, 

22,23. 
Al-MamQn, khalifah, Int. 33 ; Dk. 

IV, 2 n. 
AmQrdat/, angel, Dk. IX, 9, 1 n; 

19, 1 ; 81, 25 ; 84, q ; 86, 21 ; 

41, 17; 48, 2; 61, 10; 64, 4; 

69, 22. 
Anahar, demon, Dk. VIII, 9, 3 n. 
Anahita, angel, Dk. IX, 24, 3 n. 
Andar, demon, Dk. IX, 9, 1 ; 32, 3 

n. See tndar. 
Angra-mainyu, Dk. IX, 21, 4 n. 
Anoshak-rOban, man, Int. 36, 38. 
Aogemada§£a, book, Fr. 488. 
Arabs, Int. 31, 39; Dk.VIII, 18, 

16 n. 
Arat&taristin ch., Dk. VIII, 26, 1 ; 

Zs. 5. 
krd, angel, Dk. VIII, 9, 3 n. 
Ar*&-fravar</, book, Dv. 23. 
Arc/avahi\rt, day, Dk. VIII, 20, 22. 
Ar<& Vtrif, man, Dk. IX, 45, 4 n. 
Aredfij sin, Dk. VIII, 20, 64, 65 n ; 

81,39 5 IX, 12, 15. 
Arekdviksflr, angel, Dk. IX, 24, 3, 

11. 
Aresh, demon, Dk. IX, 80, 4, 5; 

31, 6-io. 



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492 



PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



Arezrasaah, priest, Dk. IX, 21, 24 ; 

IV, 22. 
Ar-^asp, king, Dk. VIII, 11, 4 ; IX, 

61, 12; IV, si. 
Austin ch., Dk. VIII, 25, 1. 
Armaiti, angel, Fr. 463 n. 
Armat, angel, Dk. IX, 84, />. 
Artakhshatar, king, Int 31 ; Dk. IV, 

25, 26. 
Arflin, land, Dk. IV, 26. 
Arfiman, Dv. 22. 
Arfimans, Int. 31 ; Dk. IV, 24. 
Ashavahut, angel, Dk. VIII, 37, 14 ; 

IX, 9, 1 n, 8 ; 30, 14 ; 44, 12 ; 

69, 46 ; Zs. 9 ; Dk. IV, 10, 12. 
Ashavazd, man, Dk. IX, 16, 17. 
Ashem, Fr. 45a. 
Ashem-staota, book, Fr. 488. 
Ashem- vohG ch., Dk. IX, 8, 1; 26, 

1 ; 48, 1 ; formula, Dk. VIII, 

2, 5 n ; 46, 1 n ; IX, 9, 3 n ; 

19, 6-8 ; 23, 6 n ; Zs. 9 n ; Fr. 

482. 
Ashem-yahmai-usta, man, Dk. IX, 

89, 20 n. 
Ashi, angel, Dk. VIII, 9, 3 n. 
Ajkan, Dk. IV, 24. 
Ajkanians, Dk. VIII, 18, 16 n. 
Askaram nask, Dk. VIII, 38, 1 n ; 

Riv. II, 19; III, 20; IV, 20; 

Dv. 19. 
Asnavand m., Dk. IX, 12, 5 n. 
Aspandiarji, priest, Int. 36. 
Asparam nask, Dk. VIII, 28, t n; 

Riv. II, 17; III, 18; IV, 18; 

Dv. 17. 
Aspikin, Dk. IX, 21, 1 1. 
ArtiU, angel, Dk. IX, 9, 6 ; 20, 4 i 

Fr. 471. 
Ast-vtdS*/, demon, Dk. IX, 12, 17 ; 

16, 1, 2; 23, 1 n. 
AsQristln, land, Int. 33. 
Atarevakhsh, priest, Dk. IX, 33, 5. 
Atar-nyayu, Dk. IX, 48, 7 n ; Fr. 

488. 
Athwy8, man, Dk. VIII, 18, 8 n. 
AtuV-farnbag, priest, Int. 31-34 ; 

Dk. IV, 2. 
AturpaV-i H€m&6n, Int. 32-35, 38. 

— i Maraspendan, Int. 33, 34, 40, 

42; Dk. VIII, 1, 22; 13, 18; 
IX, 8, 4; 89, 13 n; IV, 27. 

— ! ZaratOrtan, Dk. VIII, 1, 7 n. 
Atur-patakan, land, Dk. IX, 12, 

5n. 
AtUak, woman, Dk. IX, 21, 4. 



Afiharmaaa/, Dk. VIII, 1, 1, 7 n ; 2, 
2 ; 8, 4 ; 10, 3 ; 11, 3 ; 18, 16 ; 
14, 3 ; 15, 1; 20, 114, 129, 158; 
&c. ; creator, Dk. VIII, 9, 19 ; 
11, 2; 18, 1 ; 16, 4 ; 87, 16; 

43, 32; IX, l,i; 9,9,io; 12, 
4; 18, 8; 21, 20, 21; 24, 19; 
29,9,12; 81,4,13; 84, ? ;36, 
21 ; 88, 6, 8 ; 43, 2 ; 44, 8 ; 45, 
8; 47,1,4, xj; 50, 1 ; 68, 10, 
25; 68,13; 61, 13; 68, 6; 64, 
8 ; 69, 56 ; false account of 
origin, Dk. IX, 30, 4; lord, 
Dk. VIII, 27, 11 ; speaks, Dk. 
IX, 11,12; 12,2,24; 20,4n; 
24,4,13, 17; 27,i; 28,4,5; 
29, 6, 11; 80, 7; 32, 3, 25; 
33, 1; 84, t; 86, 19, 23, 25; 
87, 1, a; 44, 1 ; 61, 1 ; 64, 12 ; 
66, 1; 69,5,n, 18,21,24,25, 
34; 111,7, 1,3-5- 

A&harmaxd day, Int 35 ; Dk. VIII, 

20, 22. 
— king, Dk. IV, 27. 
Aushahin gah, Dk. IX, 9, 6. 
Aflsh&fcr, apostle, I nt. 3 2 ; Dk. VI 1 1 , 

14, 12,13; IX, 80, ion; 41, 6. 
AQsheVar-mah, apostle; Dk. VIII, 

14, 13, 14; IX, 30, ion; 41, 

7- 
AGzaeYingah, Dk. IX, 9, 9. 
Auz6b8, king, Dk. VIII, 13, 11. 
Ai&n day, Int. 36. 
A varethrabau, priest, Dk. VIII, 13, 

18. 
Avenak, lun. man., Int. 46. 
Avesta, Int. 31, 32, 38-42, 44; Dk. 

VIII, 7,2; 16, 11 n; 26,24; 

27, 11; 29, 1,4, 25 n; 42,6; 

44, 81 ; IX, 14, 4 n ; 24, 1 n, 
16 n; 48, 7; IV, 26, 31, 36; 
Riv. II, 1; III, 1; IV, 1, 21, 
23 ; Dv. 23 ; Fr. 454, 458, 466, 

467, 474, 475, 477, 483-485, 
487, 488 ; — and Zand, Int. 31 ; 
Dk. VIII, 6,1; 12,i; 20,69; 
IX, 81, 22; 32,2o; IV,23, 24, 
34; Riv. 111,2; Dv.1,23; Fr. 
462,479 ; — legends, Dk. VIII, 
18, 16 n ; — lore, Dk. IX, 46, 
1 ; — quoted, Dk. VIII, 1, 7 n ; 
17, 6 n ; 18, 5 n ; 19, 1 n ; 20, 
7n, 19 n, 74 n; 22, 16 n; 86, 
13 n ; 44, 65 n, 80 n ; IX, 8, 
1 n ; 4, 1 n ; 12, 3 n ; 68, 1 ; 
69, 25, 51, 54 ; Fr. 461, 462, 



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INDEX. 



493 



471, 473, 474, 475, 478, 480, 

483-487. 
Avfreh-din, book, Int. 36. 
Av6irut sin, Dk. VIII, 20, 65 n ; 

81, 39. 
Ayazem, man, Dk. IX, 83, 5 n. 
AxA Dahak, king, Dk. VIII, 86, 13 ; 

IX, 10, 3; 21, n-13, 16, 18, 

ao, ai. 
Avt>, demon, Dk. IX, 82, 3 n. 



Bagh nask, Dk. VIII, 4, 1 n ; Riv. 

I; 11,4! HI,5; IV, 5; Dv. 4 . 
Bagban-yajt nask, Dk. VIII, 15, 1 n; 

Riv. II, 15; III, 16; IV, 16; 

Dv. 1 5. 
Bahman Pfinryah, man, Dk.VIII, 2, 

a n; IX, 2, 3 n; Riv. I; Fr. 

45'- 
Bahman Ya/t, Fr. 452. 
Bahram I, king, Dk. IX, 39, 13 n. 
Bakan, Dk. I X, 47, a, 9, 1 1 ; 48, 1 ; 

Fr. 453. 
Bakan-yast nask, Int. 40, 41, 43, 45 ; 

Dk. VIII, 1, 11, u, 16 n; 15, 

1 ; Fr. 470, 471, 488. 
Bakdarf, Int 33- 
Bako nask, Int. 43-45 ; Dk. VIII, 1, 

9, 12; 4, 1, 2; 46, 1 n; IX, 
47, 2 ; 50, 2 ; 88, 1 n ; Zs. 4 n ; 
Fr. 451 n, 453, 461, 4*3, 4<*4- 

Barazak, man, Dk. IX, 16, 18. 
Baru nask, Int. 43, 45 ; Dk. VIII, 1, 

10, 12 ; 8, 1, 20; Riv. I ; II, 
9; III.io; IV, 10; Dv. 9; Fr. 
467, 488. 

BarmayQn, ox, Dk. IX, 21, 22 ; 22, 

2. 
Barsdm, Dk. IX, 48, 7 n. 
BartarOsh, man, Dk. VIII, 36, 13 n. 
Barzfl Kamdtn, priest, Riv. o n. 
— Qiyamu-d-din, priest, Riv. IV, 

o. 
BavaMI, book, Riv. II, 6 ; IV, 7. 
Bayan-yajt nask, Int. 45 n ; Dk. 

VIII, 16, 1 n ; Riv. I. 
B<fea? sin, Dk. VIII, 81, 39. 
Bgvarasp, title, Dk. IX, 21, 7. 
B8</ak-var.»t sin, Dk. VIII, 19, 1 n. 
B3<ffik-ze^ sin, Dk. VIII, 19, in; 

• 84, 11 n. 
Bombay, Int. 36, 37. 
Bra</r6k-rSsh, man, Dk. VIII, 86, 

13 n. 
Bundahu, book, Dk. VIII, 5, 5 n; 



IX, 82, ion; 47, an; Riv. IV, 
23; Dv. 33; Fr. 465. 
Bfital, book, Dv. 6. 

Caspian sea, Dk. VIII, 18, 9 n ; IX, 

16, 14 n ; 22, 4 n, 9 n. 
Ch in Oriental words is printed K. 

DL/nask, Dk. VIII, 12, 1 n ; Riv. I. 
Da^ikmen, Dk. VIII, 1,5 n. 
Dahak, king, Dk. VIII, 18, 8, 9 ; 

IX, 6, a ; 15, a ; 18, 17 n; 21, 

1, a, 8-10. 
Dahi/n-atyySr, man, Int 35. 
Dahman afrin, Dk. IX, 22, 1, 2. 
Datti peak, Dk. IX, 20, 3. 
DamdIWnask, Int. 43, 45; Dk. VIII, 

1, 10, 12, 16 n; 5, 1, 5 n; Riv. 

I ; Fr. 465. 
Darat, king, Dk. IV, a 3. 
Darmesteter, Prof., Int. 39 n ; Dk. 

VIII, 16, 8n; 44, 33 n ; IX, 

24, 17 n; Zs. 5 n; Dk. Ill, 

197, 6 n. 
Darfin, book, Riv. IV, 23 ; Dv. 23. 
Dashmest, meas., Dk. VIII, 20, 19. 
Dajtanlk, man, Dk. IX, 15, a. 
Davans, man, Fr. 469. 
Dayun, priest, Dk. IX, 24, 17 n. 
Day-watches, Dk. VIII, 7, 10 ; 29, 

9; 48, 38; 46,4,8; IX, 9,6 

n-ion. 
D#n day, Int. 34. 
Dimavand m., Dk. IX, 16, a n ; 18, 

17 n ; 21, ion. 
Dfnkan/, book, Int. 29, 30, 33-39, 

41, 43, 46; Dk. VIII, 1, 5 n, 

ao n; 13, 18 n; 14, 4; 44, 

51 n; IX, 47, a n; 69, 1 n; 

Zs.on;Dk. 111,197, 6 n; IV, 

a n. 
Din-vi^irgard, book, Dk. VIII, 2, a 

n ; Dv. o n. 
Drvaspa, angel, Dk. I X, 15, 3 n. 
Dfighdafd, woman, Dv. 13 ; Fr. 

469, 483. 
D0rasr8b, man, Dk. VIII, 85, 13 n. 
Duvasai%a</ nask, Dk. VIII, 21, 1 

n ; Riv. I, III, 19. 
DuvisaromgW nask, Dk. VIII, 21, 

1 n; Riv. II, 18. 
Duvisarfizad nask, Dv. 18. 
Duvasrfib nask, Dk. VIII, 21, 1 n ; 

Riv. IV, 19. 
Dvazdah-hamast nask, Dk. VIII, 5, 



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494 



PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



i n; Riv. II, 5; 111,6; IV, 6; 
Dv. 5. 

Enfishtr, man, Int 35, 36. 
Ezekiel, book, Int. 39 n. 
Eznik, Dk. IX, 80, 4 n. 

Fargan/, ch., Dk. VIII, 1, 20, 23 ; 

28,7 5 IX, 1,2; 28,7! Zs.6. 
Farhang-i Oim-aevak, book, Int. 30 ; 

Dk. VIII, 16, 8 n; 17, 6 n; 

18, 1 n, 54 n; 20, 19 n, 64 

n, 74 n; 22, 16 n; 81, 39 n; 

88, 13 n; 41, 19 n; Fr. 472, 

480. 
Farukh6-za</, priest, Int. 31, 32, 34 ; 

Dk. IV, 2. 
Favlmt^-asan, book, Riv. II, 6. 
Favamsa'han, book, Riv. IV, 7. 
Firdausi, man, Dk. VIII, 13, 12 n. 
Fomalhaut, star, Fr. 474 n. 
Frabanfir, priest, Dk. IX, 38, 5 ; 

48, 7 n. 
Frada^afsh, region, Dk. I X, 21, 24 n. 
Fra</akhshto, man, Dk. IX, 16, 16. 
Franamam, creed, Dk. IX, 31, 6. 
Frash&rtar, man, Dk. VIII, 29, 25 

n; 38,68; IX, 21, 34; 22,2 

n; 24,17; 28, 5; 42,8; 44, 

17; 45,3; 64,4; 68,58; III, 

7 i- - IV 22. 
Frasiyai;, king, Dk. VIII, 18, 11, 12 

n; IX, 16, 14 n; 28,5. 
Fravasb, book, Riv. IV, 23. 
Fravashi, see Guardian spirits. 
FreVOn, king, Dk. VIII, 18, 8, 9 ; 

IX, 5, 2; 15, 2 n; 21, 8, 10, 11, 

17, 18, 20-22, 24. 
Fryanaks, family, Dk. IX, 89, 20. 

Gahanbar, see Season-festival. 

Ganaba-sar-ni^a^ nask, Int. 41, 43, 
45; Dk. VIII, 1, ii, 12; 21, 
1 ; Fr. 476. 

Gandarep, monster, Dk. IX, 16, 2. 

Garshasp, king, Dk. VIII, 13, 12 n. 

Gathas, hymns, Dk. VIII, 8, 2, 4; 
20, 162; 44, 81; 46, 1, 2; 
IX, 6, i-3;17, 8; 18, 1 ; 80, 
12; 41, 27 n; 48, 7 n; 47, 2 n, 
9 ; 68, 1 ; 69, 1 n ; Zs. o n, 
2-9; Dk. Ill, 7, 2, 5; Fr.454. 

Gathic days, Dk. VIII, 7, 11, 23. 

— lore, Dk. VIII, 1, 7, 17; IX, 
6, 7 ; 28, 6 ; 65, 1 ; Fr. 457, 
459. 461. 



Gathic men, Dk. VIII, 1, 5 n; IX, 

69, 4. 
— nasks, Int 40-4* i Dk. VIII, 

1,5,9, '3, 15-17; IX, 2,2 n; 

24, 1 n ; 47, 2 n ; Zs. 2, 3 ; Dk. 

111,7, 1; 161, 1, 2; 165, 1, 2, 

4, 5 ; 197, 6. 
Gay8man/, man, Dk. VIII, 18, 1 ; 

IX, 82, 9, 10 n; 68, 18; Fr. 

454, 456, 4 6 °- 
Geldner, Prof., Dk. VIII, 1, 7 n; 

43, 1 n; IX, 81, 6 n. 
Ges, man, Dk. IX, 28, 6. 
Geurva, man, Dk. IX, 28, 2. 
G6hartkistan ch., Dk. VIII, 30, 1. 
G6keren6 plant, Dk. VIII, 44, 80 ; 

IX, 58, 20 n. 
G6k-pat8, chief, Dk. IX, 16, 14. 
Go* day, Int. 38. 
G6j-afirvan, atagel, Dk. IX, 15, 3; 

29, 1, 3-6, 8-10; 51, 1; 69, 

46; 111,7,5- 
Greek language, Int. 31. 
Greeks, Dk. IV, 24 n. 
Guardian spirits, Dk. VI II, 7, 1 1-1 3, 

23; IX, 12, 21; 22, ion; Riv. 

11,7 5 111,8; Dv. 7 . 
Gfishun-ayar, man, Int 38. 
Gujn-asp fire, Dk. IX, 12, 5. 
Gdrtasp, king, Riv. II, 11 ; III, 12 ; 

IV, 12; Dv.11 ; — man, Int. 36. 

Gamasp, priest, Dk. VIII, 29, 25 n; 
88, 68 ; IX, 21, 24 n ; 24, 17 ; 

42,9- 
GamsheV, king, Dk. VIII, 13, 6 n. 
GSshmak, man, Dk. VIII, 86, 13 n. 
Girart nask, Dk. VIII, 18, 1 n ; Riv. 

ii.m; 111,15; IV, 15. 

Gud-dgv-dad nask, Dk. VI 1 1, 44, 1 n ; 

Riv. I ; III, 21. 
G<ln£!-zaritunistan ch., Zs. 5. 

Ha, ch., Dk. VIII, 1, 20, 23 ; IX, 1, 
2 ; 2, 2 n ; Zs. 6, 7 n. 

Hadha-mathric lore, Dk. VIII, 1, 7. 

men, Dk. VIII, 1, 5 n. 

nasks, Int. 43, 44, 46 ; Dk. 

VIII, 1,5, 10, 13, 15, 16; Zs.2, 
3; Dk. Ill, 161,i,2; 165,1, 
J, 4, 5 ; 197, 6. 

HaVdkht nask, Int 40, 43, 45; Dk. 
VIII, 1,9, 12, 16; 20, 162; 46, 
1, 12, 14; Zs. 6 ; Riv. I ; II, 
21 ; III, 22 ; IV, 22 ; Dv. 21 ; 
Fr. 482-487. 



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INDEX. 



495 



Jft*Wakanistan ch., Dk. VIII, 88, i. 

Hamaspa^mSdem gah, Fr. 475. 

HamSmaUistan ch., Dk. VIII, 19, 1. 

Haoijt, man, Dk. IX, 28, 2. 

Hisar of distance, Dk. VIII, 20, 19, 
78, 100 n ; 22, 18 ; — of time, 
Dk. VIII, 19, 54 J 30, 68, 99 ; 

'//art nask.Dk. VIII, 12, 1 n ; Riv. 

11,12; 111,13; IV, 13. 

Haug, Prof., Int. 29, 30 ; Dk. VIII, 

1, 7 n ; Fr. 482. 
Hlvan gin, Dk. IX, 9, 7. 
Havanan, priest, Dk. IX, 88, 5. 
Hindfik, Int. 46. 
Hindfls, Dk. IV, 26. 
Holy-water, Dk. VIII, 7, 1 ; 26, 

24; 29, 11; 88, 9; 44, 41; 

IX, 82, 4, 7; 69,2 4 . 
Horn, angel, Dk. IX, 48, 6 ; III, 7, 

1 n. 

— juice, Dk. VIII, 88, 7. 

— plant, Dk. VIII.44, 80 ; IX, 58, 

20 n. 

— ysut, Fr. 488. 

Hdshang, king, Dk.VIII, 18, 5, 6, 8. 

— man, Dk. IX, 16, 16 n. 
H6shangji Jamaspji, Dastflr, Int. 37. 
Hfimai, queen, Dk. IX, 22, 2. 
Hflmstflv, man, Dk. IX, 33, 5. 
Hushedar, apostle, Riv. IV, 23. See 

Afish&Var. 
HQsparam nask, Int. 41, 43, 45 ; Dk. 
VIII, 1,11,12; 28, 1; Riv. I; 

Fr- 473, 474, 476-479- 
HQtds, queen, Dk. IX, 45, 5. 
JfoaStumaiti ch., Dk. IX, 9, 1 ; 82, 

1 ; 54, i. 
Hv8bas, Dk. IX, 21, 24; 45, 3. 
Hv8bd, Dk. IX, 44, 17. 
Hvdv, Dk. VI II,29,2 S . 



Indar, demon, Dk. IX, 21, 4 n; 82, 

3. See Andar. 
Ir3n, Int. 31, 32, 36; Dk. VIII, 1, 

20, 22 ; 11, 1 n ; 18, 10-12, 15 ; 

20, 119; 26, 22; 87,26,50; 

88, 30; IX, 8, 5; 16, 15 n, 

17 n; 21, 17 n; 28, 3; 41, 

6 n ; 43, 4 ; IV, 24, 30. 
Irlnians, Dk. VIII, 1, 5 n ; 8, 2 n ; 

20, 26, 152; 34, 8; 87, 50; 

88, 61 ; 44, 57 ; IX, 28, 2. 
Isfendiyar, man, Riv. I n; prince, 

Dk. IX, 22, 4 n. 



IstOdgar nask, Dk. VIII, 2, 2 n ; 

Riv. Ill, 3. 
Isvand, priest, Dk. IX, 38, 5. 

J in Oriental words is printed G. 
Jamispji Minochiharji, Dastfir, Int. 

36. 
Jeremiah, book, Int. 39 n. 

Kadmis, Int 36. 

Ka^-mei-urvS ch., Dk. IX, 20, 1 ; 

43, 1 ; 65, 1. 
Kat,Dk.IX,29,3,4; 89, 19; 44, 

14, 15. See Klk. 
Kai-^ptv§h, prince, Dk. IX, 28, 2. 
Kai-KaviV, king, Dk. IX, 23, 2 n. 

— Khfisrol, king, Dk. VIII, 18, 14, 

I5n; IX,12,5n; 16,19; 22, 
ion, n, 12; 23, 1,2,4-6; 58, 
10. 

— Lfiharasp.king, Dk.VIII, 18, 15. 

— Qubld, king, Dk. VIII, 18, 12 n. 
Katty6k-zeV sin, Dk. VIII, 19, 1 n. 
KM-Os, king, Dk. VIII, 13, 8 n, 13, 

14 n; IX, 22, 4-6, 8, 9, 12; 
23, 2 n. 
Kat-Vlitasp, king, Int. 31 ; Dk. VIII, 

11, 1, 2; 18, 15; IX, 24, 5, 17; 

39,22; 41,5! 44, 16; 69,26, 

58. See Virtiisp. 
Kamah Bahrah, man, Riv. II, o. 
Kamnamaeza ch., Dk. IX, 16, t; 

89, 1 ; 61, 1. 
Kangd«, land, Dk. IX, 16, 15 ; 41, 

6n. 
Kaplmqgin, book, Dv. 6. 
Karap, Dk. VIII, 86, 13 ; IX, 29, 

3; 82, 23; 89, 19; 44, 15; 

58. 33. 
Kajkantz nask, Dk. VIII, 10, 1 n ; 

Riv. IV, 11. 
K&vkasfrah nask, Dk. VIII, 10, 1 n ; 

Riv. II, 10. 
Kasktsrobo nask, Int. 43, 45; Dk. 

VIII, 1, 10, 12; 9, 20; 10, 1 ; 

Fr. 467. 
Kajsr6b nask, Dk. VIII, 10, 1 n ; 

Riv. 1 ; III, 11 ; Dv. 10. 
Kausji Rustamji, Dastflr, Int. 36. 
Kavi-Kavarf, king, Dk. VIII, 18, 12, 

13, 15 n- 
KavulistSn, land, Dk. IX, 16, 17 n. 
Kayans, Dk. VIII, 18, 12 ; IX, 16, 

19; 22, 7, 9; 24, 3, 11; Fr. 

461. 



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496 



PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



Keresasp, man, Dk. VIII, 13, u ; 

86, i j n; IX, 15, 1-4 ; 16, 17 

n; 23, 6; Fr. 453. 
Kh8rsin,Dk.VIII,31,39; IX, 12, 

15; Fr. 472, 473- 
Khshmaibya cb., Dk. IX, 6, 1 ; 29, 

1 ; 51, 1. 
KhOmbik, Dk. IX, 16, 16. 
Khflrda//, angel, Dk. IX, 9, 1 n ; 

19, 1 ; 81, 25 ; 34, q ; 35, 31; 

41,17; 43, a; 61, 10; 64, 4 ; 

69, 33 ; month, Int. 36. 
Khfirdah Avesta, Riv. IV, 23. 
KhQsrdi-t KavjUIn, king, Int. 42 ; 

Dk. IV, o n, 28. 
KhQst nask, Dv. 12. 
Khvaniras, region, Dk. VIII, 8, 2 ; 

13, 2,4,8 n, 9, 14; IX, 16, 12; 

21, 17, 24; IV, 22, 31. 
Khyon, Dk. VIII, 11, 4. 
Kielhorn, Prof., Int. 37. 
Klk, Dk. VIII, 35, 13 n; IX, 32, 

23 ; 58, 33. 
Kubii/, man, Int. 35. 

AT&fast lake, Dk. IX, 12, 5 n ; 23, 5. 
£idahVa£arkardan,book, Riv.IV,33. 
tfdnut nask, Dk. VIII, 18, 1 n; 

Riv. I. 
Kmistan, land, Dk. IX, 16, 14 n. 
KinvaJ bridge, Dk. VIII, 14, 8 ; 24, 

10 n ; 26, 1 n ; IX, 16, 3 ; 20, 

3,4; 46. 8n; 61, 9; 68, 2; 

Dv. 5 ; Fr. 455, 487- 
ATitradjU nask, Int. 40, 41, 43, 45 ; 

Dk.VIII, 1, 11, 12, 16 n; 18, 

1 ; Fr. 468. 
ATitrag-miyin, prince, Dk. IX, 41, 6. 

Law, Dk. VIII, 1, 5, 7, 16, 17 ; Zs. 

2, 3; Dk. 111,7,4 5 161, i ( «; 

165, 1, 5. 
Legal nasks, Int. 43-45; Dk. VIII, 

1, 11, 13 ; 111,161, 1, 2; 165, 

a, 4, 5 ; 197, 6. 

MfUlg&n-i gurastak Abalij, book, 

Int. 33 ; Dk. IV, 2 n. 
Magian men, Dk. IX, 69, 58 ; IV, 

31. 

Magianship, Dk. IX, 69, 58. 
Magian statements, Dk. IV, 34. 
Mah-rO, Dk. IX,48, 7". 
Mah-vinda</, man, Int. 34-36, 38. 
MaWok-mah, man, Dk. IX, 24, 1, 
17 ; 44, 19 ; 46, 2 n. 



MaW6k-zarem, season, Dk. VIII, 38, 

A 7- 
Manih, heretic, Dk. IX, 39, 13 ; 63, 

Mansarspend, angel, Dk. IX, 12, 16 ; 

39,8. 
Manu^tihar, king, Dk. VIII, 18, 10, 

11 n, 12, 18; IX, 36, 13; Fr. 

468. 
Mar'zapln, man, Int. 35. 
Mashya, man, Dk. VIII, 13, 1 ; 81, 30. 
Mashydt, woman, Dk. VIII, 18, 1 ; 

81, 30. 
Mathra, Zs. 3 ; Dk. Ill, 7, 1-5. 
Mathra-spe/rta, Dk. VIII, 1, 5 n. 
Mazdak, heretic, Int 42 ; Dk. IX, 

32, 17 n; 53, 3 n; IV, 28 n. 
Mazendaran, land, Dk. VIII, 13, 9 ; 

IX, 16, 17 n; 21,17-21,33,24; 

22, 4 n. 
Mazdntk demons, Dk. IX, 22, 4. 
Mithaokhta, demon, Dk. I X, 21, 4 n. 
MitW), angel, Dk. VIII, 44, 16; IX, 

9, 7 ; 20, 4, 5 5 22, 1 ; 28, 3 ; 

89, 9 ; month, Int. 38. 
Mitrd-apan, man, Int. 34, 35, 38; 

Fr. 484. 
Mod! library, Fr. 470 n. 
Mouth-veil, Dk. VIII, 44, 65. 
Muhammadan, Int. 38, 39 ; Dk. IX, 

32, 17 n. 
Mulla Bahman, Int. 36. 

— Behram, Int. 36. 

— Ftrflz, Int. 36. 

NiUar nask, Int. 39, 43, 45 ; Dk. 
VIII, 1, 10, 13; 6, 1; Riv. II, 
6; 111,7; IV, 7; Fr.466. 

NarfQr nask, Dk. VIII, 6, 1 n; Riv. 
I ; Dv. 6. 

Naremihin, man, Int 34, 35, 38. 

Naremin H6shang, man, Riv. Ill, o. 

Nounghaithya, demon, Dk. IX, 21, 

Nausari, town, Int. 37. 
Nero, emperor, Dk. IV, 34 n. 
N@ry6sang, angel, Dk. IX, 22, 10- 

13. 

NikaVOm nask, Int. 41, 43, 45 ; Dk. 
VIII, 1, 11, 13; 16, 1; Fr. 

470-475. 
Nirangistan ch., Int. 44, 45 ; Dk. 

VIII, 29, 1 ; Fr. 468, 476, 477. 
NtvSk, man, Dk. IX, 15, 3. 
Niyadam nask, Dk. VIII, 16, 1 n; 

Riv. I. 



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INDEX. 



497 



Niyaram nask, Dk. VIII, 18, i n j 
Riv. II, 16; III, 17; IV, 17; 
Dv. 16. 

Nfy<fe, demon, Dk. IX, 21, 4 n. 

Ndrfar, man, Dk. VIII, 18, 18 ; IX, 
88,5. 

Ordeal, Dk. VIII, 19, 38; 20, 13, 
M-16, '9, 33. 38, 40-43, 54-5<5, 
66, 67, 130; 82, 1; 88, 64; 
42, 3-6; IX, 17, 8; 40, 11, 
ia ; 58,5-8; Zs. 5 ; Fr. 477- 

Oxus, river, Dk. IX, 18, 14 n. 

Pa*/ramg8s, Iun. roan., Int. 46. 
Pa^ag nask, Int. 43, 45 ; Dk. VIII, 

1, 10, u; 7, 1 ; Fr. 466. 
Pa>am nask, Dk. VIII, 7, 1 n ; Riv. 

11,7; 111,8; IV, 8; Dv. 7. 
Pa>6n nask, Fr. 466. 
PiHno nask, Zs. 3. 
P&pak, man, Int. 31 ; Dk. IV, 35. 
Parasang, meas., Dk. VIII, 20, 100. 
Parddarsh bird, Dk. VIII, 44, 69. 
Parsha</-g!v8, chief, Dk. IX, 24, 17. 
Parsi year, Int. 35, 36, 38. 
Pasfij-hatirvastari ch., Dk. VIII, 28, 

1 ; Zs. s. 
Patkar-rsufistSn ch., Dk. VIII, 16, 3 ; 

Zs.5. 
Pit-sr3b6, king, Dk. VIII, 13, 9. 
Plzfln nask, Dk. VIII, 7, 1 n ; Riv. I. 
Pehsh6tanfi, prince, Dk. IX, 16, 15 ; 

41, 6 n; Riv. IV, 23. 
P&indas, Per3nsih, or Pe\ry;Lnsai, 

land, Dk. IX, 16, 17 n. 
Pgjlntgas, land, Dk. IX, 21, 20. 
PeVdaVian, Dk. VIII, 13, 5. 
Peshotanji Behrarnji, DastOr, Int 

37 ; Fr. 470 n. 
Pejinas, land, Dk. IX, 16, 17. 
Pwin valley, Dk. IX, 16, 17 n. 
Poona, town, Int. 37. 
P8ruVakhsht5, man, Dk. IX, 16, 17. 
P6rfMast, woman, Dk. IX, 45, 2 n, 4. 
Pourushaspa, man, Fr. 483. 
PtolemSds, Int. 46. 

Qandahir, city, Dk. IX, 16, 17 n. 

Ra<&-daV-aitag nask, Int 43, 45; 

Dk. VIII, l,io,ia; 8,1; Zs. 

3 ; Fr. 467. 
Ragha, city, Fr. 460. 
Ram, angel, Dk. IX, 23, 1 n. 



[37] 



Kk 



Rapithwin gSh, Dk. IX, 9, 8 ; Fr 
477. 

Rashnfi, angel, Dk. VIII, 20, 153, 
157,158; 22, 33; 44, 16; IX, 
9, 6 ; 39, 10 ; Fr. 471. 

Raspt, priest, Dk. VIII, 7, 5, 9 ; 8, 

„ 3 5 88,1,5,13. 
Ratanji-shah, man, Int. 36. 
Ratu, Fr. 456, 457. 
RatiutSyt nask, Dk. VIII, 8, 1 n ; 

Riv. I ; II, 8 ; III, 9 ; IV, 9 ; 

Dv. 8. 
Rfehistan ch., Dk. VIII, 18, 1. 
Ro^-vSh, man, Int 35. 
Romans, Dk. IV, 34 n, 26 n. 
RQman, Riv. IV, 23 ; Dv. 2a. 
Rustam, hero, Dk. IX, 22, 4 n. 
RflstSm, man, Int. 35, 36, 38. 
Rustamji Kaikobldji, Dastflr, Int. 

37- 

Sacerdotal leadership, Dk. VIII, 7, 
4, 5 5 8, a ; 87, 5 ; 46, 5. 

Sacred cake, Dk. VIII, 29, 3 ; IX, 
14, 1, 3 ; Fr. 474. 

— feast, Dk. VIII, 89, 6. 

— shirt, Dk. VIII, 29, 15 ; Fr. 474. 

— thread-girdle, Dk. VIII, 29, 15 ; 

88, 25 ; Fr. 475, 476. 

— twigs, Dk. VIII, 19, 38 ; 20, is, 

66; 26,34; 29, 16; 44,65. 
Sad-dar, book, Dk. VIII, 44, 33 n. 
Sad-darband-i Hflsh, book, Fr. 45a. 
Saham, demon, Dk. IX, 21, 4 n. 
Sairima, land, Dk. VIII, 18, 15 n. 
SakaVfim nask, Int 43, 45 ; Dk. 

VIII, l,n, 12; 88, 1; Riv. I; 

Fr. 479-481. 
Salm, prince, Dk. VIII, 13, 9. 
Salmin, land, Dk. VIII, 13, 15. 
Samarkand, land, Dk. IX, 88, 5 n. 
Sasanians, Int 29, 4a, 44 ; Dk.VIII, 

13, 16 n, 17 ; 43, 34 n ; 44, 

in; IX, 82, 17 n; IV, 34 n; 

Fr. 483. 
Saukavastan, land, Dk. IX, 16, 14 n. 
Season-festival, Dk.VIII, 7, 1, 3, 8 ; 

29,8, 10; 46, 4; IX, 2, 6; 

Riv. II, 7; 111,8; IV, 8; Dv. 

7. 
Seg, demon, Dk. IX, 21, 4 n. 
SenSn, tribe, Dk. IX, 88, 5. 
SSnfi, priest, Dk. IX, 24, 17; 88, 

5. See Send. 
Sfend nask, Dk. VIII, 14, 1 n ; Riv. 

II,i3; IH,i 4 ; IV, 14. 



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498 



PAULA VI TEXTS. 



Shah-mar//, man, Int. 35. 
Shahn5mah,book, Dk. VIII, 11,4 "; 

13, 6 n, 9 n ; IX, 22, 4 n, 5 n. 
Shahpflhar I, king, Dk. IX, 89, 13 

n ; IV, 26. 
Shahpflhar II, king, Int. 43; Dk. 

VIII, 1, 22 n; 18, 18 n; IV, 
27. 

Shapigan, Int. 31 ; Dk. IV, 23, 26. 
Shatraver, angel, Dk. IX, 48, 1, 2 ; 

69, 18; IV, o n, 12. 
Shatr8-ayar, man, Int. 34-36, 38, 47. 
Shatro-ayaran ephemeris, Int. 46. 
ShatvairS, angel, Dk. IX, 9, 1 n. 
Sirkin, town, Zs. o n. 
Siyavakhsh, prince, Dk. VIII, 18, 

14; IX, 16, 15 n; 22, n. 
Snte.man, Dk. IX, 88,5. 
Sohrabji Rustamji, Dastflr, Int. 36. 
Soshans, apostle, Dk. VIII, 14, 14 ; 

IX, 28, 3-5; SO, ion; S3, 1; 
41, 8 ; 68, 10, 15 ; 69, 10, 29, 
31; Zs.9. 

S/>ansnayoj, man, Dk. I X, 21, 24. 
Spend nask, Int. 40, 41, 43, 45; Dk. 

VIII, 1, 9, 12; 14, 1, 5; Dv. 
13; Fr.469. 

Spendarmarf, angel, Dk. VIII, 9, 3 ; 

IX, 12,25; 24,3 n; 81, i7n; 
88, 5 n, 6 ; 42, 10 ; 43, a ; 53, 
27; 64,2; 60, 4; 69, 14,47; 
Fr. 463 n, 468 ; month, Int. 35 ; 
Fr. 475. 

Spend-dlW, man, Int. 35 ; prince, 

Dk.VIII, 18, 18 n. 
Spentah nask, Dk. VIII, 14, 1 n ; 

Riv. I. 
Spenta-mainyfl ch., Dk. IX, 17, t ; 

40, 1 ; 62, 1 ; gatha, Zs. 2 n, 3. 
Spiegel, Prof., Fr. 453 n. 
Spitaman, Int. 34 ; Dk. IX, 12, 31 ; 

18, 3 ; 20, 4-6 ! 28, 6 ; 81, 8 ; 

82, 9, 19; 34, n; 85, 6, 17 ; 

88, 10 ; 39, 20 ; 40, 4 ; 48, 1 ; 

46, 1-3; 47, 19; 68,29; Fr. 

458. 
Spitaman Zaratdit, Int 31; Dk. 

VIII, 11, 2; IX, 21, 24; 45, 
6, 7 ; Fr. 454, 455. 

Spitamas, Dk. IX, 89, 23 ; 45, 2. 
S^itfy&j, priest, Dk. IX, 21, 24. 
S^itSu, priest, Dk. IV, 22 n. 
Srdbar, snake, Dk. VIII, 86, 13; 

IX, 10, 3; 16, 2, 3 n. 

SrOsh, angel, Dk. VIII, 9, 3 ; 44, 
16; IX.9, 5; 21, 4 n; 22, 1; 



28, 3 ; 88, 5 n; 39, 16; Fr. 

47i. 
Sr6sh ysut, Dk. VIII, 46, 1 n ; Fr. 

482, 487, 488. 
Sr6shavar'«, priest, Dk. IX, 88, 5. 
St&rf-yajt nask, Int. 40, 42, 43, 45 ; 

Dk. VIII, 1, 9, 12 ; 46, 1 n, 4 ; 

IX, 2, 2 n ; 47, 10 ; Zs. 3 n ; 

Riv. II, 1; III, 2; IV, 2; Dv. 

1 ; Fr. 487, 488. See Yajt. 
Stdristan ch., Dk. VIII, 24, 1 ; Zs. 

5- 
StfWgar nask, Dk. VIII, 2, 2 n ; 

Riv. I; II, 2; IV, 3; Dv. 2; 

Fr. 452. 
StWkar nask, Int. 43, 45 ; Dk. VIII, 

l,7n, 9,12; 2,2; IX, 2,2; Zs. 

4i; Fr. 451. 
Surat, town, Int 36 ; Fr. 470 n. 

Satvlharan, lun. man., Int 46. 
SSn8, priest, Dk. Ill, 7, 1 ; 197, 6 n. 

See Send. 
Sikand-gflmanik Vyjar, book, Int. 33. 
58var, demon, Dk. IX, 9, 1 ; 21, 4 n. 

Ta^-thwa-peresa ch., Dk. IX, 14, 

1; 87,-; 58,i. 
Ta>tar, meas., Dk. VIII, 20, 19. 
Takhm6-rup8, king, Dk. VI II, 18, 6. 
Tanapflhar sin, Dk. VIII, 20, 65, 

98 ; 29, 5 ; Fr. 455, 472 n. 
Tar6kmat, demon, Dk. IX, 34,/. 
Tartars, Int. 39. 
Tafipwi, demon, Dk. IX, 9, 1 ; 21, 

4 n. 
Ti-vf-urvati ch., Dk. IX, 8, 1 ; 81, 

1 ; 53, 1. 
Tdz, man, Dk. VIII, 18, 8, 9. 
Taatks, tribe, Dk. VIII, 18, 8. 
Tehmuras Dinshawji, priest, Int 46. 
Thra§taon6, king, Dk. VIII, 13, 8 n. 
Three nights after death, Dk. VIII, 

30, 12. 
Ttr, month, Int. 34. 
Tutar, day, Int 36. 
Tfisar, or Tanasar, priest, Int 31 ; 

Dk. IV, 25. 
T%, prince, Dk. VIII, 18, 9. 
TuTrya, tribe, Dk. VIII, 13, 15 n. 
Tumaspian, title, Dk.VIII, 18, 11. 
Tflran, land, Dk.VIII, 18, 11, 15; 

86, 13 n; IX, 22, 11; S3, 5; 

89, 20. 
Tflr-t BriUar-vakhsh, man, Dk. IX, 

10,3- 



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INDEX. 



499 



Tfir-t Bra^r6-resh, man, Dk. VIII, 

86,13. 
TfirkabjU, town, Int. 36, 38. 
Tfirkistan, land, Dk. IX, 16, 14 n. 
TQs, hero, Dk. IX, 16, 2 n ; 28, 2, 

6. 

Uda, fiend, Dk. IX, 10, 3 n; 21, 

4i>. 
Urumiyah lake, Dk. IX, 28, 5 n. 
Ujtavaiti ch., Dk. IX, 18, 1 ; 36, 1 ; 

68, 1 ; gatha, Zs. 2 n, 3. 

Va<fak, woman, Dk. IX, 10, 3 ; 21, 

4 n. 
Vae, spirit, Dk. IX, 23, 1-3 ; Fr. 

47i. 
Vaedvout. man, Dk. VIII, 86, 13 n. 
Vahut-minthrah nask, Dk. VIII, 8, 

in; Riv.11,3; 111,4; IV, 4 ; 

Dv. 3. 
Vahut6uti ch., Dk. IX, 22, 1 ; 45, 

1 ; 67, 1 ; gatha, Zs. 2 n, 3. 
Vahrim, man, Int. 34, 36, 38. 
Vakhshistan ch., Dk. VIII, 41, 1. 
Valkhaj, king, Dk. IV, 24. 
Vanand, star, Fr. 474. 
Varahran fire, Dk.VI 1 1 , 26, 2 ; 29, 1 7. 
Vara*, man, Dk. IX, 88, 5. 
Varen6, demon, Dk. VIII, 0, 3 n; 

IX, 82, 3 n. 
Var,pavand, title, Riv. IV, 23. 
Varistanch., Dk. VIII, 42, 1; Zs. 5. 
Varrtah-manthrah nask, Riv. I. 
Varrtminsar nask, Int. 43, 45 ; Dk. 

VIII, 1, 9, 12; 8, t, 3, 4; IX, 

24, 1 ; Zs. 4 n ; Fr. 452. 
Va^tag nask, Int 38, 40, 41, 43, 45 ; 

Dk. VIII, 1, 9, 12, 15; 12, 1; 

20, 162 ; Fr. 468. 
VendJdjU nask, Int. 40, 43-45 ; Dk. 

VIII, 1, 5 n, 11, 12, 16, 17 n; 
44, 1 ; Zs. 3; Riv. II, 20; IV, 
23 ; Dv. 20, 23 ; Fr. 481, 488. 

VeA6, tribe, Dk. IX, 15, 2 ; 28, 6 n. 
Vida^afeh, region, Dk. IX, 21, 24 n ; 

IV, 22 n. 
Vigirkard-i Dinik, book, Fr. 470 n. 
Vmdad nask, Dk. VIII, 44, 1 n ; 

Riv. IV, 21. 
VispeW, book, Int. 40; Dk. VIII, 

46, 1 n, 3; Riv. IV, 23 ; Dv. 

23; Fr. 487. 
Vutasp, king, Dk. VIII, 11, 2-4 ; 

13, 16 n; 26, 25 ; 38, 68 n; 

IX, 8,3; 16, 15, 19; 22, 2; 

Kk 



23,2n; 28, 4 ; 88,5; 88,22; 

41, 6 n ; 50, 26 ; 68, 10 ; 61, 

12 ; IV, o n, 21. 
Vutasp nask, Dk. VIII, 11, 1 n ; 

Riv. IV, 12. 
Vbtaspad nask, Dk. VIII, 11, 1 n ; 

Riv. I; Dv. 11. 
Vijtisp-sast3 nask, Int. 40, 43, 45 ; 

Dk. VIII, 1, 10, 12, 15 ; 9, 20 ; 

11, 1 ; Fr. 468. 
Vijtasp-shah nask, Dk.VIII, 11, 1 n ; 

Riv. II, 11 ; III, 12. 
VutSsp-shahnamak, book, Fr. 484. 
Vutasp yart, Dk. VIII, 1, 5 n. 
Vivanghau, man, Dk. IX, 82, 12. 
Vohfl-khshathra gatha, Zs. 2 n, 3. 
Vohfl-khshathrem ch., Dk. I X, 21, i ; 

44, 1 ; 66, 1. 
Vohfiman, angel, Dk. VIII, 9, 3 ; 

44, 76, 78 ; IX, 12, 29 n ; 28, 

3; 80, 10; 81, 5,13, '4! 82, 

1 1 ; 84, n ; 86, 3 ; 88, 5 n, 6, 

8, 12 ; 39, 20, 22, 24 ; 41, 18, 

23, 25; 42, 7, 10; 44, 12, 18, 

20 ; 47, 2 n, 15, 16 ; 50, 6, 14 ; 

51, 10; 52,3 5 63,24,33,45; 

54, 3, 6; 56, 5; 67, 14, 24; 

58,5,6, 10, 13,21; 69,7, 16; 

60,7 5 81,5 5 68,7,9; 64,8; 

66, 5, xi; 67, 2-4, 8; 69, 3, 
13, 19, 25 n, 26 n, 47, 57; III, 
7, 1; IV, 4, 12; Fr. 457, 458; 
day, Dk. VIII, 20, 22 ; month, 
Int. 36. 

Vohfiman6, king, Dk. VIII, 18, 18 n. 
Voh0vast8, priest, Dk. IX, S3, 5. 
Vologeses I, king, Dk. IV, 24 n. 

Westergaard, Prof., Int. 38 ; Fr. 

482. 

YaAir-i Zarnin, book, Dk. VIII, 

11, 4 n. 
Yaman, land, Dk. VIII, 13, 9 n. 
Yanim-mand ch., Dk. IX, 6, 1 ; 28, 

1 ; 60, 2 ; Zs. 4. 
Ya-j*yaothana ch., Dk. IX, 11, 1 ; 

84, - ; 56, 1. 
Yasna, book, Int. 40 ; Dk. VIII, 46, 

1 n, 3 n ; IX, 4, 1 n ; Riv. IV, 

23; Dv. 23; Fr. 487,488. 
Yasna haptanghliti, Dk.VIII, 46, 1 

n ; IX, 2, 2 n ; 12, 1 ; 86, 1 ; 

67, 1 ; 69, 1 n ; Zs. 2 n, 3, 4 n, 
7n. 



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5oo 



PAHLAVI TEXTS. 



Yart (yasna), Dk. IX, 69, i ; Riv. 

11,31 ; 111,32. 

— nask, Dk. VIII, 1, 16; 46, i ; 

Zs. 3 ; Riv. I. See St6V-yart. 
Yasts, Int. 45 ; Dk. VIII, 10, 2 ; Fr. 

470, 471, 488. 
Ylt sin, Dk. VIII, 81, 39. 
Yatha-ahfi-vairy6 ch., Dk. IX, 2, 2; 

26, 1 ; formula, Dk. VIII, 1, 7 

n; 2,an; 44,5i; IX, 2, 2, 3, 

16 ; 82, 9 ; 47, 2 n, 6 ; Zs. 4 n ; 

Dk. Ill, 7, 2 ; Riv. I ; III, 1 ; 

IV, 1 ; Fr. 45 i. 
Yathiu ch., Dk. IX, 10, 1 ; 88, 1; 

55, 1. 
Yazd, town, Int 36. 
Yazdakard, king, Int. 34-36, 38. 
Ytohe-hatam ch., Dk. IX, 4, 1 ; 

27, 1 ; 48, 1 ; formula, Zs. 4 n ; 

Fr. 463 n. 
YSzi ch., Dk. IX, 18, 1 ; 41, 1 ; 68, 

Yim, king, Dk. VIII, 18, 6-8 ; 44, 
3,4; JX,5, 2, 4; 12, 3 n; 21, 
2-4, 6, 12; 82, 12; 69, 12; 
Dv. 18. 

Y8/t-t FryanS, Dk. VIII, 18, 18 n ; 
IX, 23, 2 n; 39, ion. 

Yi^ast, meas., Dk. VIII, 20, 19. 



Zarf-sparam, priest, Int. 33, 39; Dk. 

VIII, 6, 5 n. 
Zakhmistan ch., Zs. 5. 
Zand, commentary, Dk. VIII, 1, 3 ; 

3, 3 ; Fr. 477. See Avesta and 

Zand. 
Zaratfljt, apostle, Int. 32 ; Dk. VIII, 

1,20; 10,3; 11,2,4; 20,114; 

88,68n; 45, 3, 14 ; IX,2,i7; 

12, 3 n ; 18, 1, 8, 9 ; 15, 1, 4 ; 
16,i 9 n; 20,5; 26, 4 ; 28,3; 
29,5,13! 30, 4 ; 88,5; 84, q; 
35,2,5; 48,7; 44,14,17-21; 
45,2-4; 68,17; 54,5,8; 69, 

13, 18; 80, 1; 61,7,12; 65, 



3 ; 67, 1 ; 69, 3,23, 59 ; accepts 
religion, Dk. IX, 24, 18 ; IV, 
22 n, 23 ; advised, Dk. IX, 12, 
13; 24,15,17; 25,2; 27,i; 
39, 25 ; 48, 8, 11 ; birth, Dk. 

VIII, 8, 1; 14,i,2; 44, 79? 

IX, 24, 1, 2, 4, 7-13 ; coming, 
Dk. VIII, 18, 16, 20; conflict 
with demons, Dk. VII 1, 44, 74, 
75; his family, Dk. VIII, 29, 
25; his successors, Dk. VIII, 
14,12-14; IX,39,i8;41,6-8; 
killed, Dk. VIII, 36, 13 n ; law 
of, Zs. 3 ; life and actions, Dk. 

VIII, 14, 3-10 ; praise of, Dk. 

IX, 28, 1, 6; 42, 7; 50, 2; 
religion of, Dk. I X , 87, g-j ; 51, 
12; 52,7; 53, 11, 18; 64,7! 
67, 28 ; 68, 3 ; 61, 14 ; speaks, 
Dk. IX, 12, 23; 27, 2; 31, 7, 
9, 11; 86, 18, 22, 24; 37, m; 
69, 8, 30 ; I II, 7, 4 ; spoken to, 
Dk. IX, 28, 2, 4, 8; 81,6; 82, 
9, 12; 88, 1 ; 86, 13, 17, 20, 
",*5 5 87, <r, i, n; 88,1,4,15, 
20, 22, 26; 42, 13; 48, 10; 
44,i; 46,3; 61,i ; 64,9,12; 
66,6,8; 69,5, 15,16,20.26; 
III, 7, i, 3, 5 ; vision of the 
future, Dk. IX, 8, 1-3 ; 86, 14. 

ZaratOrt the Spitiman, Int. 34 ; Dk. 

VIII, 13, 16 ; IX, 27, 1 ; 80, 

n; 82, 17,21; 41,5! 66, 1. 
Zaratdrt, priest, Int. 32. 
Zaratflvt-i Aturpa<an, Dk. VIII, 13, 

18 n. 
Zarftf, demon, Dk. IX, 9, 1 ; 21, 

4U. 
Zarman, demon, Dk. IX, 21, 4 n. 
Zatamistan ch., Dk. VIII, 17, 1. 
Zirast nask, Dv. 14. 
Ztyanakistan ch., Dk. VIII, 40, 1. 
Z6ti, priest, Dk. VIII, 7, 5, 9 ; 8, 3 ; 

29,i, 5, 13; 81, 20; IX, 12, 

26-28 ; 24, 4 ; 88, 5 ; 48, 7 ; 

69, 50. 



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50i 



ERRATA. 

P. 89, 11. 9, 10, for 'the Iranian nationality (Atrih)' read 'subjection (bSrih)' 
P. 186, II. 19, 20, for 'preparation' read 'bespattering ' 

In several places it would be better to read amuk6, ' teaching,' instead of 
hamfi-kun, 'every kind (or mode),' so as to obtain the following amended 
passages : — 
P. 23, 11. 14-16. Then the exalting chanted teaching of A0harma*</ for 

Zaratfljt is called, &c. 
P. 24, 1. 1, the teaching for KaWutisp ; &c. 
P. 114, 11. 15-18, the meritoriousness in the guardianship and teaching by 

the keepers of those flocks; the happy effect of the flock and that 

of the keeper's teaching ; &c. 
„ II. 23-28, that of the disciple through the teaching by the priestly 

instructor ; the teaching of the priestly instructor for the pupil, and 

the happy effect of the priestly instructor's teaching in similar 

matters. 
P. 119, 11. 2-5, the want of eminence of any one through a teaching that 

is an offence to others, which is owing to his closed doors and evil 

eminence in teaching ; &c. 
Professor Darmesteter has suggested the following correction : — 
P. 26, II. 22, 23, for 'based upon the traditional early law (vasarW 

p£jda</6)' read ' dependent upon VaegereW the PetdL/ian ; ' [who 

was the twin brother of Hdshang; see Sachau's AlbiiOni's 

Chronology of Ancient Nations, pp. 206, 211]. 



Kk 



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TRANSLITERATION OF ORIENTAL ALPHABETS. 



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Sacred Books of the East 

TRANSLATED BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 
AND EDITED BY 

THE RIGHT HON. F. MAX MOLLER. 

%* This Series is published with the sanction and co-operation of the Secretary of 
State for India in Council. 

BSFOBT presented to the AOADBMXS DBS IB8CBIPTXOVS, Kay 11, 
1883, by if. SBBBST BBBAB. 

' M. Renan presente trois nouveaux une seconde, dont l'interet historique et 
volumes de la grande collection des religienx ne sera pas moindre. M. Max 
"Livres sacres de V Orient" (Sacred Miiller a sn se procurer la collaboration 
Books of the East), que dirige a Oxford, des savans les plus Eminent d'Europe et 
avec une si Taste erudition et une critique d'Asie. L'Universiti d'Oxford, que cette 
si sure, le savant associe de l'Academie grande publication honore an plus hant 
des Inscriptions, M. Max Miiller. ... La degre^ doit tenir a continuer dans les plus 



premiere sene de ce beau recueil, com- larges proportions une oeuvre aussi philo- 
posee de 34 volumes, est presque achevee. 
M. Max Miiller se propose d'en publier 



posee de 34 volumes, est presque achevee. sophiquement con9ne que savamment 
e a'en publier executee.' 



BZTBAOT from the QTJABTBBLY BBTZBW. 

< We rejoice to notice that a second great edition of the Rig- Veda, can corn- 
series of these translations has been an- pare in importance or in usefulness with 
nounced and has actually begun to appear, this English translation of the Sacred 
The stones, at least, out of which a stately Books of the East, which has been devised 
edifice may hereafter arise, are here being by his foresight, successfully brought so 
brought together. Prof. Max Miiller has far by his persuasive and organising 
deserved well of scientific history. Not power, and will, we trust, by the assist- 
a few minds owe to his enticing words ance of the distinguished scholars he has 
their first attraction to this branch of gathered round him, be carried in due 
study. But no work of his, not even the time to a happy completion.' 

Professor B. E1SDT , Inaugural Lecture In the University of Freiburg, 1887 . 

' Die allgemeine vergleichende Reli- internationalen Orientalistencongress in 
gionswissenschaft datirt von jenem gross- London der Grundstein gelegt worden 
artigen, in seiner Art emzig dastehenden war, die Obersetzung derheiligen Biicher 
Unternehmeu, zu welchem auf Anregung des Ostens ' {the Sacred Books of the 
Max Miillers im Jahre 1874 auf dem East). 

The Bon. ALBEBT S. O. OABBIBO, 'Words on Bxlstlng- Beliglons.' 

' The recent publication of the " Sacred a great event in the annals of theological 
Books of the East" in English is surely literature.' 

Oxford 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
LONDON: HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AMEN CORNER, EX. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



FIRST SERIES. 

Vol. I. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max MUllkr. Part I. The JRSndogya- 
upanishad, The Talavakara-upanishad, The Aitareya-arawyaka, 
The Kaushitaki-brahmawa-upanishad, and The Va^asaneyi- 
sawhila-upanishad. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Upanishads contain the philosophy of the Veda. They have 
become the foundation of the later Veddnta doctrines, and indirectly 
of Buddhism. Schopenhauer, speaking of the Upanishads, says : 
'In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating 
as that of the Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life, it will 
be the solace of my death.' 

[See also Vol. XV.] 

Vol. II. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasish/Aa, 
and Baudhayana. Translated by Georg BOhlxr. Part I. 
Apastamba and Gautama. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Sacred Laws of the Aryas contain the original treatises on 
which the Laws of Manu and other lawgivers were founded. 

[See also Vol. XIV.] 

Vol. III. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Lf.ggk. 
Part I. The Shu King, The Religious Portions of the Shih 
King, and The Hsiao King. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, i %s. 6d. 

Confucius was a collector of ancient traditions, not the founder of 
a new religion. As he lived in the sixth and fifth centuries B. C. 
his works are of unique interest for the study of Ethology. 
[See also Vols. XVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXXIX, and XL.] 

Vol. IV. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmestkter. Part I. The Vendidad. 
Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, \^s. 

The Zend-Avesta contains the relics of what was the religion of 
Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes, and, but for the battle of Marathon, 



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EDITED BY F. MAX MiJLLER. 



might have become the religion of Europe. It forms to the present 
day the sacred book of the Parsis, the so-called fire-worshippers. 
[S«e also Vols. XXIII and XXXI.] " 

Vol. V. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part I. The Bundahu, Bahman 
Yajt, and Sh&yast la-shayast. 8vo, cloth, 12J. 6d. 

The Pahlavi Texts comprise the theological literature of the revival 
of Zoroaster's religion, beginning with the Sassanian dynasty. They 
are important for a study of Gnosticism. 

[See also Vols. XVIII, XXIV, XXXVII, and XLVIL] 

Vols. VI and ix. The Qur'an. 

Parts I and II. Translated by E. H. Palmer. Second Edition. 
8vo, doth, a i j. 

This translation, carried out according to his own peculiar views 
of the origin of the Qur'dn, was the last great work ofE. H. Palmer, 
before he was murdered in Egypt. 

Vol. VII. The Institutes of Vish«u. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. 8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

A collection of legal aphorisms, closely connected with one of the 
oldest Vedic schools, the Ka/^as, but considerably added to in later 
time. Of importance for a critical study of the Laws ofManu. 

vol. VIII. The Bhagavadgita.with The Sanatsufatiya, 
and The Anugita. 

Translated by Kashinath Trihbak Telang. Second Edition. 
8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

The earliest philosophical and religious poem of India. It has been 
paraphrased in Arnold's 'Song Celestial.' 

Vol. X. The Dhammapada, 

Translated from Pali by F. Max Muller ; and 

The Sutta-Nipita, 
Translated from Pali by V. FausbSll ; being Canonical Books 
of the Buddhists. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, iar. 6d. ■ 

The Dhammapada contains the quintessence of Buddhist morality. 
The Sutta-Nipdta gives the authentic teaching of Buddha on some 
of the fundamental principles of religion. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST i 



vol. XI. Buddhist Suttas. 

Translated from Pali by T. \V. Rhys Davids, i. The Maha- 
parinibbana Suttanla ; 2. The Dhamma-lakka-ppavattana 
Sutta. 3. The Tevi^a Sultanta ; 4. The Akaftkheyya Sutla ; 
5. The Aletokhila Sutta; 6. The MaM-sudassana Suttanta; 
7. The Sabb&sava Sutla. 8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

A collection of the most important religious, moral, and philosophical 
discourses taken from the sacred canon of the Buddhists. 

Vol. XII. The .5atapatha-Brahma«a, according to the 
Text of the Madhyandina School. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part I. Books I and II. 
8vo, cloth, 12J. 6d. 

A minute account of the sacrificial ceremonies of the Vedic age. 
It contains the earliest account of the Deluge in India. 
[See also Vols. XXVI, XLI, XL11I, and XLIV.] 

Vol. XIII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the PSIi by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 

Oldenberg. Part I. The Patimokkha. The MahSvagga, I-IV. 

8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Vinaya Texts give for the first lime a translation of the moral 

code of the Buddhist religion as settled in the third century B. C. 

[See also Vols. XVII and XX.] 

Vol. XIV. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, VasishMa, 
and Baudhayana. Translated by Georg BVhler. Part II. 
V&sish/fta and Baudhayana. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Vol. XV. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max MOller. Part II. The Ka/>5a-upanishad, 
The MiWaka-upanishad, The Taittiriyaka-upanishad, The 
Br/had4ra»yaka-upanishad, The ivetlrvatara-upanishad, The 
Prarfla-upanishad, and The Maitr&ya»a-brahma»a-upanishad. 
Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

vol. xvi. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. 
Part II. The YJ King. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 
[See also Vols. XXVII, XXVIII.] 

Vol. XVII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part II. The Mahdvagga, V-X. The ATullavagga, 
I— III. 8vo, cloth, tot. 6d. 



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EDITED BY F. MAX MULLER. 



Vol. XVIII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part II. The DMstan-i Dinik 
and The Epistles of M&nta /Mhar. 8vo, cloth, 1 2 s. 6d. 

Vol. XIX. The Fo-sho-hing-tsan-ktng. 

A Life of Buddha by Ajvaghosha Bodhisaltva, translated from 
Sanskrit into Chinese by Dharmaraksha, a.d. 420, and from 
Chinese into English by Samuel Beal. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

This life of Buddha was translated from Sanskrit into Chinese, 
A.D. 420. It contains many legends, some of which show a certain 
similarity to the Evangelium infantiae, Sfc. 

Vol. XX. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the P&li by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldknberg. Part III. The JTullavagga, IV-XII. 8v0, cloth, 
1 os. 6d. 

Vol. XXI. The Saddharma-pu«darika ; or, The Lotus 
of the True Law. 

Translated by H. Kern. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s . 6d. 

' The Lotus of the True Law,' a canonical book of the Northern 
Buddhists, translated from Sanskrit. There is a Chinese transla- 
tion of this book which was finished as early as the year 286 A.D. 

Vol. XXII. (^aina-Sutras. 

Translated from Prakrit by Hermann Jacobi. Part I. The 
A^iranga-Sutra and The Kalpa- Sutra. 8vo, cloth, iar. 6d. 

The religion of the Gainas was founded by a contemporary of Buddha. 
It still counts numerous adherents in India, while there are no 
Buddhists left in India proper. 

[See Vol. XLV.J 

Vol. XXIII. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part II. The Sirdzahs, 
Yarts, and Nylyu. 8vo, cloth, ior. 6d. 

Vol. XXIV. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part III. DM-t Maindg- 
KhiiW, .Sikand-gumantk Vigir, and Sad Dar. 8vo, cloth, 
10s. 6d. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST : 



SECOND SERIES. 

Vol. xxv. Manu. 

Translated by Georg Buhler. 8vo, cloth, 2 if. 
This translation is founded on that of Sir William Jones, which 
has been carefully revised and corrected with the help of seven native 
Commettlaries. An Appendix contains all the guolalionsfrom Manu 
which are found in the Hindu Law-books, translated for the use of 
the Law Courts in India. Another Appendix gives a synopsis of 
parallel passages from the six Dharma-sdlras, the other Smnlis, 
the Upanishads, the Mahdbhdrala, §c. 

Vol. XXVI. The 6atapatha-Brahma«a. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part II. Books III and IV. 
8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vols. XXVii and XXVIII. The Sacred Books of China. 
The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. Parts 
III and IV. The Li K\, or Collection of Treatises on the Rules 
of Propriety, or Ceremonial Usages. 8vo, cloth, 25*. 

Vol. xxix. The Grzhya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part I. .Sankhayana, Aavalayana, Paraskara, Khadira. Trans- 
lated by Hermann Oldenberg. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XXX. The Grzhya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part II. Gobhila, Hirawyakejin, Apastarnba. Translated by 
Hermann Oldenberg. Apastarnba, Ya^fta-paribhasha-sutras. 
Translated by F. Max Muller. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 
These rules of Domestic Ceremonies describe the home life of the 
ancient Aryas with a completeness and accuracy unmatched in any 
other literature. Some of these rules have been incorporated in the 
ancient Law-books. 

Vol. XXXI . The Zend-Avesta. 

Part III. The Yasna, Visparad, Afrinagan, Gahs, and 
Miscellaneous Fragments. Translated by L. H. Mills. 8vo, 
cloth, 12s. 6d. 

vol. XXXII. Vedic Hymns. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part I. 8vo, cloth, i8j. 6d. 
[See also Vol. XLVI.] 

Vol. XXXI II The Minor Law-books. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. Part I. Narada, Bnhaspati. 
8vo, cloth, jos. 6d. 



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EDITED BY F. MAX MILLER. 



vol. xxxiv. The Vedanta-Sutras, \Vith the Com- 
mentary by 6ankara£arya. Part I. 

Translated by G. Thibaut. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s . 6d. 
[See also Vol. XXXVIII.] 

Vols, xxxv and XXXVI. The Questions of King 
Milinda. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids. 
Parti. 8vo, cloth, ios. 6d. Part II. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XXXVII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part IV. The Contents of the 
Nasks, as stated in the Eighth and Ninth Books of the 
Dinkard. 15*. 

Vol. xxxvni. The Vedanta-Sutras. Part II. 8vo, 
cloth, with full Index to both Parts, 1 2s. 6d. 

vols, xxxix and XL. The Sacred Books of China. 
The Texts of Taoism. Translated by James Lkgge. 8vo, 
cloth, 2 if. 

Vol. XLI. The .Satapatha - Brahma«a. Part III. 
Translated by Julius Eggeling. 8vo, cloth, 1 2 s. 6d. 

Vol. XLii. Hymns of the Atharva-veda. 
Translated by M. Bloomfield. 8vo, cloth, 21s. 

VOL. XLIII. The 6atapatha-Brahma«a. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part IV. Books VIII, 
IX, and X. 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XLIV. The .Satapatha- Brahmawa. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part V, Books XI, XII, 
XIII, and XIV. i8j. 6d. 

Vol. XLV. The (Saina-Sutras. 

Translated from Prakrit, by Hermann Jacobi. Part II. The 
Uttaradhyayana Sutra, The Sutrakntanga Sutra. 8vo, cloth, 
12s. 6d. 

Vol. XL VI. Vedic Hymns. Part II. 8vo, cloth, 14$. 

Vol. XLVTI. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part V. Marvels of Zoroas- 
trianism. 8s. dd. 

Vol. XLVin. The Vedanta-Sutras, with Ramanu^a's 
.Srlbhashya. 

Translated by G. Thibaut. [In the Press.] 

Vol. XLIX. Buddhist Mahayana Texts. Buddha- 
tarita, translated by E. B. Cowell. Sukhavatf-vyuhajVa^raiMe- 
dika, &c, translated by F. Max Muller. Amitlyur-Dhyana- 
Sutra, translated by J. Takakusu. 8vo, cloth, 12*, 6d. 



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RECENT ORIENTAL WORKS. 



&nectrota ©.ton tens ta. 

ARYAN SERIES. 
Buddhist Texts from Japan. I. Vafra^^edikd ; The 
Diamond-Cutter. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A. Small 4to, 3^. 6d. 
One of the most famous metaphysical treatises of the Mahayana Buddhists. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. II. Sukhavatt-Vyfiha : 
Description of Sukhdvati, the Land of Bliss. 

Edited by F. Max Miller, M.A., and Bunyiu Nanjio. With 

two Appendices : (1) Text and Translation of Sanghavarman's 

Chinese Version of the Poetical Portions of the Sukhavatf- 

Vyuha ; (2) Sanskrit Text of the Smaller Sukhavati-Vyftha. 

Small 4to, "js. 6d. 

The editio princeps of the Sacred Book of one of the largest and most 

influential secis of Buddhism, numbering more than ten millions of followers 

in Japan alone. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. III. The A ncient Palm- 
Leaves containing the Pra^«a-Paramita-Hr*daya- 
Sutra and the Ush«isha-Vi£aya-Dhara«i. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A., and Bunyiu Nanjio, M.A. 
With an Appendix by G. Buhi.er, CLE. With many Plates. 
Small 410, ioj. 
Contains facsimiles of the oldest Sanskrit MS. at present known. 

Dharma-Sawgraha, an Ancient Collection of Buddhist 
Technical Terms. 

Prepared for publication by Kenjiu Kasawara, a Buddhist 
Priest from Japan, and, after his death, edited by F, Max 
Muller and H. Wenzel. Small 410, 7*. 6d. 

Katyayana's Sarvanukrama«l of the Bigveda.. 

With Extracts from Sha</gunuishya's Commentary entitled 
Vedarthadtpika. Edited by A. A. Macdonei.l, M.A., Ph.D. 16s. 

The Buddha-A'arita of Asvaghosha. 

Edited, from three MSS., by E B. Cowell, M.A. 12s. 6d. 

The Mantrapatha, or the Prayer Book of the Apa- 
stambins. 

Edited, together with the Commentary of Haradatta, and 
translated by M. Winternitz, Ph.D. First Pari. Introduc- 
tion, Sanskrit Text, Varietas Lectionis, and Appendices. 
Small quarto, \os. (id. ' 

Oxford 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
LONDON : HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AMEN CORNER, E.C. 



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