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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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at jhttp : //books . qooqle . com/ 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



Ui] 

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Bonbon 

HENRY FROWDE 

Oxford University Press Warehousk 
Amen Corner, E.C. 




MACMILLAN & CO., 66 FIFTH AVENUE. 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MOLLER 



VOL. XLI 




®jrforti 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1894 

[//// rights reserved} 

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PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

»Y HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



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THE 



SATAPATHA-BRAHMANA 



ACCORDING TO THE TEXT OF THE 



MADHYANDINA school 



TRANSLATED BY 



JULIUS EGGELING 



PART III 



BOOKS V, VI, AND VII 




AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1894 

[All rights reserved '] 

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CIS 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction 



PACK 

xi 



FIFTH KAMOA. 



Sacri 



A. The Vi^apeya 

The Cups (graha) of Soma . 

The Cups of Sur& 

Animal Victims .... 

Consecration 

Chariot-race .... 

Apti and K/zpti-formulas 

The Mounting of the Sacrificial Post by the 

ficer and his Wife . 
The Seating on the Throne-seat . 
Va^a-prasavaniya-oblations 
Vggiti (victory)-formulas 

B. The RS^asuya, or Inauguration of a King 

Preliminary offerings . 
Seasonal-offerings 
Indraturiya-oblation . 
Trishamyukta-offerings 
Ratna-haviwshi, or Jewel-offerings 
Offering to Soma and Rudra 
Offering to Mitra and Brihaspati . 
Abhisheianiya, or Consecration Ceremony 

Offerings to the Divine Quickeners (devasu), viz. 
Savitri Satyaprasava, Agni Gribapat 

Soma Vanaspati, Brihaspati Va£, Indra (?ye- 
sh/ia, Rudra Pampati 

Mitra Satya, Varuna Dharmapati 
Preparation of the Consecration Water 
Partha-oblations .... 



i 

5 
8 
ii 
>7 
i7 
29 

3i 
35 
37 
40 
42 
42 

47 
50 
54 
58 

65 
66 
68 

69 

70 
7i 
73 
81 



1 * 



i ~*> *j 



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V1U CONTENTS. 



PACE 



Investing of the King with the Consecration 
Garments, the Bow and Arrows . . .85 

Avid-formulas 89 

Ascending of the Quarters 91 

) Stepping on the Tiger-skin 92 

> The Sprinkling (Abhisheka) .... 94 

The Cow-raid 98 

Rathavimo£aniya-oblations . .101 

Game of Dice 106 

The Passing Round of the Sacrificial Sword no 

Darapeya 114 

Sawsr/p-oblations 115 

Pad£abila-oblations . . . . .120 

Prayu^aw ha vfwshi (Oblations to the Teams) 123 

K&ravapaniya 126 

Sautrimani 129 

SIXTH KAM>A. 

Agni-£ayana, or Building of the Fire-altar . . 143 

Creation of the Universe 143 

Animal Sacrifices 165 

Layers and Bricks of the Altar . . . (86 

S&vitra Libations 190 

The Search for Agni (the Lump of Clay) 197 

The Digging 203 

The Making of the Fire-pan (ukhi) .229 

DikshS, or Initiation 246 

The Raising and Carrying of the Ukhya Agni 265 

The Fashioning of the Embryonic Agni . -273 

The Vish»u-strides 275 

Vitsapra 283 

The Driving-about of the Ukhya Agni . . .289 

SEVENTH KAiVZ>A. 

Agni-£ayana (continued). 

Garhapatya-hearth 298 

Pouring thereon of the Ukhya Agni .310 
Altar of Nirrrti 319 



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CONTENTS. IX 



FAOK 



Preparation of the (Ahavanfya) Fire-altar . . 325 

Ploughing, Watering, and Sowing of Ground . 326 

Bricks of the First Layer 355 

Lotus-leaf 363 

Gold Plate 354 

Gold Man 36 ' 

Svayam-itr»»»a Brick 377 

DurvS Plant 380 

Dviya^us Bricks 381 

RetaAsi£ Bricks 383 

Virva^yotis Brick ...... 384 

Xi\a.vy& Bricks 386 

Ashbdte Brick 387 

Tortoise 389 

Mortar and Pesde 393 

Fire-pan 396 

Victims' Heads 400 

Apasya Bricks 413 

jOandasya Bricks 414 

Corrections 418 

Plan of Fire-altar 419 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East . .421 



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INTRODUCTION. 

The first of the three K&nda.s contained in the present 
volume continues the dogmatic discussion of the different 
forms of Soma-sacrifice, in connection with which two 
important ceremonies, the Va^-apeya and Ra^-asuya, are 
considered. From a ritualistic point of view, there is 
a radical difference between these two ceremonies. The 
R &ga. s u y a, or ' inauguration of a king,' strictly speaking, is 
not a Soma-sacrifice, but rather a complex religious cere- 
mony which includes, amongst other rites, the performance 
of a number of Soma-sacrifices of different kinds. The 
Va^apeya, or 'drink of strength' (or, perhaps, 'the race- 
cup'), on the other hand, is recognised as one of the 
different forms (sawstha) which a single Soma-sacrifice may 
take. As a matter of fact, however, this form hardly ever 
occurs, as most of the others constantly do, in connection 
with, and as a constituent element of, other ceremonies, 
but is almost exclusively performed as an independent 
sacrifice. The reason why this sacrifice has received 
a special treatment in the Brahmawa, between the Agni- 
sh/oma and the Ra^asuya, doubtless is that, unlike the other 
forms of Soma-sacrifice, it has some striking features of 
its own which stamp it, like the Ra^asuya, as a political 
ceremony. According to certain ritualistic authorities 1 , 
indeed, the performance of the Va/apeya should be 
arranged in much the same way as that of the Ra^asuya ; 
that is, just as the central ceremony of the Ra^asuya, viz. 
the Abhishe£anlya or consecration, is preceded and followed 
by certain other Soma-days, so the Va^apeya should be 
preceded and followed by exactly corresponding cere- 
monies. 

1 See KSty. St. XIV, I, 7 ; l&ty. Sr. VIII, 1 1, 7-11. 

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xii satapatha-brAhmajva. 

The preceding KaWa was chiefly taken up with a 
detailed discussion of the simplest form of a complete 
Soma-sacrifice, the Agnish/oma, serving as the model 
for all other kinds of one-day (ekaha) Soma-sacrifices ; 
and it also adverted incidentally to some of the special 
features of such of the remaining fundamental forms of 
Soma-sacrifice as are required for the performance of sacri- 
ficial periods of from two to twelve pressing-days — the so- 
called ahtna-sacrifices — as well as for the performance of 
the sacrificial sessions (sattra) lasting from twelve days 
upwards. As the discussion of the Va^apeya presupposes 
a knowledge of several of those fundamental forms of 
Soma-sacrifice, it may not be out of place here briefly to 
recapitulate their characteristic features. 

The ekaha, or 'one-day' sacrifices, are those Soma- 
sacrifices which have a single pressing-day, consisting of 
three services (or pressings, savana) — the morning, midday, 
and third (or evening) services — at each of which certain 
cups of Soma-liquor are drawn, destined to be ultimately 
consumed by the priests and sacrificer, after libations to the 
respective deities have been duly made therefrom. At 
certain stated times during the performance, hymns (stotra) 
are chanted by the Udgatrts ; each of which is followed 
by an appropriate recitation (jastra) of Vedic hymns or 
detached verses, by the Hotri priest or one of his assistants. 
An integral part of each Soma-sacrifice, moreover, is the 
animal sacrifice (par ubandhu) ; the number of victims vary- 
ing according to the particular form of sacrifice adopted. 
In the exposition of the Agnish/oma, the animal offering 
actually described (part ii, p. 163 seq.) is that of a he-goat 
to Agni and Soma, intended to serve as the model for all 
other animal sacrifices. This description is inserted in 
the Brahmawa among the ceremonies of the day preceding 
the Soma-day ; whilst, in the actual performance, the 
slaughtering of the victim, or victims, takes place during 
the morning service, and the meat-oblations are made 
during the evening service, of the pressing-day. The 
ritualistic works enumerate a considerable number of ' one- 
day' sacrifices, all of them with special features of their 



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INTRODUCTION. Xlll 



own ; most of these sacrifices are, however, merely modifica- 
tions of one or other of the fundamental forms of ekahas. 
Of such forms or sawsthas — literally, ' completions,' being 
so called because the final chants or ceremonies are their 
most characteristic features — the ritual system recognises 
seven, viz. the Agnish/oma, Atyagnishfoma, Ukthya, 
Shorfarin, Va^apeya \ Atiratra, and Aptoryama. 

The Agnish/oma, the simplest and most common form 
of Soma-sacrifice, requires the immolation of a single 
victim, a he-goat to Agni ; and the chanting of twelve 
stotras, viz. the Bahish-pavamana and four A^ya-stotras 
at the morning service ; the Madhyandina-pavamana and 
four Pn'sh/Aa-stotras at the midday service ; and the 
Trj'tJya (or Arbhava)-pavamana and the Agnishfoma-saman 
at the evening service. It is this last-named chant, then, 
that gives its name to this sacrifice which, indeed, is often 
explained as the 'Agnish/oma-sawsthaA kratuA 2 ,' or the 
sacrifice concluding with ' Agni's praise.' The term ' saman,' 
in its narrow technical sense, means a choral melody, a hymn- 
tune, without reference to the words set thereto. Not 
unfrequently, however, it has to be taken in the wider sense 
of a chanted verse or hymn (triplet), a chorale ; but, though 
the distinction is evidently of some importance for the 
ritual, it is not always easy to determine the particular 
sense in which the term is meant to be applied, viz. whether 
a specified saman is intended to include the original text 
set to the respective tune, or whether some other verses to 
which that tune has been adapted are intended. In the 
case of the Agnish/oma-saman, however, the word ' saman ' 
cannot be taken in its narrow acceptation, but the term has 
to be understood in the sense of ' a hymn chanted in praise 
of Agni.' The words commonly used for this chant, are 
the first two verses of Rig-veda S. VI, 48, a hymn indeed 

1 In this enumeration the Vfi^apeya is often placed between the Atiratra and 
Aptoryama ; e.g. LS/jr. V, 4, 14. 

* Thus on 5at. Br. V, 1, 3, 1 Agneyam agnish/bma alabhate, Sayana re- 
marks, 'agni* stuyatessminn ity agnishrbrao nama sama, tasmin vishayabhQta 
agneyam alabhate, etena parana*smin va^apeyeignishrbmagamstham kratum 
ev&nushMitavan bhavati.' In IV, 2, 4, 9 seq., also, the term 'agnish/oma' 
-would seem to apply to the final chant rather than to the whole sacrifice. 



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XIV SATAPATHA-BRAHMA/VA. 

admirably adapted for the purpose of singing Agni's praises. 
For the first verse, beginning * yagnk-yaghk vo agnaye,' the 
chief tune-book, the Gramageya-gana, has preserved four 
different tunes, all of which are ascribed to the i?»shi 
Bharadva^a. : one of them has, however, come to be gene- 
rally accepted as the Ya^wiya^wiya-tune kilt l£oxnv, and 
has been made use of for this and numerous other triplets * ; 
whilst the other tunes seem to have met with little favour, 
not one of them being represented in the triplets arranged 
for chanting in stotras, as given in the Oha and Uhya-ganas. 
Neither the Ya^aya^wiya-tune, nor its original text, is 
however a fixed item in the chanting of the Agnish/Oma- 
saman. Thus, for the first two verses of Rig-veda VI, 48, 
the Va^apeya-sacrifice a substitutes verses nine and ten of 
the same hymn, and these are chanted, not to the Yagnk- 
yagnlya., but to the Varavantiya-tune, originally composed 
for, and named after, Rig-veda I, 27, 1 (S. V. I, 17 ; ed. 
Calc. I, p. lai) 'asvam na tva varavantam.' 

The Ukthya-sacrifice requires the slaughtering of 
a second victim, a he-goat to Indra and Agni ; and to 
the twelve chants of the Agnish/oma it adds three more, 
the so-called Uktha-stotras, each of which is again followed 
by an Uktha-rastra recited by one of the Hotrakas, or 
assistants of the HoW. As the evening service of the 
Agnish/oma had only two xastras, both recited by the 
Hotr*, the addition of the three jastras of the Hotrakas 
would, in this respect, equalize the evening to the morning 
and midday savanas. The word ' uktha ' is explained by 
later lexicographers either as a synonym of ' saman,' or as 
a kind of saman 8 ; but it is not unlikely that that meaning 
of the word was directly derived from this, the most 
common, use of the word in the term ' uktha-stotra.' The 
etymology of the word *, at all events, would point to the 

1 Each S&man-tune is usually chanted thrice, either each time on a special 
verse of its own, or so that, by certain repetitions of words, two verses are 
made to suffice for the thrice-repeated tune. 

' So also does the Agnish/ut ekiha, cf. Tindya. Br. XVII, 5, 7. 

» Sayana, to .Sat. Br. IV, 3, 3, 2, explains it by ' stotra ; ' but see IV, 1, 3, 
6-9 where it undoubtedly refers to the recited verses (rii), not to the saman. 

• Viz. from root 'va*' to speak. I cannot see the necessity for taking 



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INTRODUCTION. XV 



meaning 'verse, hymn,' rather than to that of 'tune' or 
' chant ; ' but, be that as it may, the word is certainly used 
in the former sense in the term ' mahad-uktha,' the name of 
the ' great recitation ' of a thousand br*'hatl verses x , being 
the HotWs sastra. in response to the Mahavrata-stotra at 
the last but one day of the Gavam-ayana. And, besides, 
at the Agnish/oma a special ' ukthya ' cup of Soma-juice is 
drawn both at the morning and midday pressings, but not 
at the evening savana. This cup, which is eventually shared 
by the three principal Hotrakas between them, is evidently 
intended as their reward for the recitation of their ' ukthas.' 
At the Ukthya-sacrifice, as might have been expected, the 
same cup is likewise drawn at the evening service. Though 
it may be taken for granted, therefore, that ' uktha ' was an 
older term for ' jastra,' it still seems somewhat strange that 
this term should have been applied specially to the additional 
.rastras and stotras of the Ukthya-sacrifice. Could it be 
that the name of the additional Ukthya-cup, as a distinctive 
feature of this sacrifice, suggested the name for the .rastras 
and stotras with which that cup was connected, or have we 
rather to look for some such reason as Ait. Br. VI, 13 might 
seem to indicate ? This passage contains a discussion re- 
garding the different status of the Hotrakas who have ukthas 
of their own, and those who have not ; and it then proceeds 
to consider the difference that exists between the two first 
and the third savanas of the Agnish/oma in respect of the 
Hotrakas* ukthas. It is clear that here also, the term 
' uktha ' can hardly be taken otherwise than as referring to 

' bn'had vaias' in Rig-veda VII, 96, 1 in the technical sense of BWhat-tune, as 
is done by Prof. Hillebrandt, in his interesting essay, ' Die Sonnwendfeste in 
Alt-Indien,' p. ao, merely because it is used there in connection with Indra ; 
whilst he himself is doubtful as to whether it should be taken in the same sense 
in III, 10, 5 where it occurs in connection with Agni. Though the BWhat- 
saman is no doubt frequently referred to Indra, and the Ratbantara to Agni, the 
couplets ordinarily chanted to them (Rig-veda VI, 46, i-a and VII, 3a, a a, 33) 
are both of them addressed to Indra. Both tunes are, however, applied to verses 
addressed to all manner of deities. 

1 See Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS. of the India Office, No. 434. In Kaush. 
Br. XI, 8, ' sadasy ukthani rasyante,' also, the word has undoubtedly the sense 
of jastra, or (recited) hymn. In part i, p. 346, note 3 of this translation read 
' great recitation or rastra,' instead of ' great chant.' 



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XVI SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

the jastras — though, no doubt, the stotra is sometimes said 
to belong to the priest who recites the jastra in response 
to it — and this paragraph of the Brahmawa reads almost 
like the echo of an old discussion as to whether or not there 
should be recitations for the Hotrakas at the evening service 
of a complete Soma-sacrifice. If, in this way, the question 
of ' uktha or no uktha ' had become a sort of catchword for 
ritualistic controversy, one could understand how the term 
came ultimately to be applied to the three additional 
stotras and jastras. 

Not unfrequently, the Ukthya is treated merely as a 
redundant Agnish/oma, as an ' Agnish/oma^ sokthaA,' or 
Agnish/oma with the Ukthas '. Considering, however, that 
the term Agnish/oma, properly speaking, belongs only to 
a Soma-sacrifice which ends with the Agnish/oma (siman), 
and that the addition of the Uktha-stotras also involves 
considerable modifications in the form of most of the pre- 
ceding chants, a new term such as Ukthya, based on the 
completing and characteristic chants of this form of sacri- 
fice, was decidedly more convenient. In regard to the 
composition of the preceding stotras, with the exception of 
the Madhyandina-pavamana and the Agnish/oma-saman, 
the Ukthya, indeed, may be said to constitute a parallel 
form of Sacrifice beside the Agnish/oma 2 , the succeeding 
sawsth&s following the model of either the one or the other 
of these two parallel forms. 

The Shorfajin-sacrifice requires, as a third victim, the 

1 See, for instance, T&ndya Br. XX, i, I. 

* Perhaps the most characteristic point of difference between these two forms 
in which the fundamental stotras are chanted is the first (or Hotrfs) PrahMa- 
stotra at the midday service. Whilst the Agnish/oma here requires the Ra- 
thantara-tune chanted on the text, Sama-veda S. II, 30, 31 ; the Ukthya, on 
the other hand, requires the text, S. V. II, 159, 160, chanted to the BnTiat-tune. 
Professor Hillebrandt, 1. c, p. 22, has, indeed, tried to show that these two 
tunes play an important part in early India in connection with the celebration of 
the solstices. A similar alternation of s&mans to that of the HotrTs PriibMa- 
stotra obtains at the third, or BrShman&hMamsin's Pre'shMa-stotra ; the Nau- 
dhasa-sfiman (II, 3$, 36) being used at the Agnish/oma, and the •Syaita-siman 
at the Ukthya-sacrifice. As regards the second (or Maitr&varuna's) and fourth 
(or AAMavaka's) Pnsh/Aa-stotras, on the other hand, the same saman — viz. the 
V4madevya (II, 32-34) and K&leya (II, 37, 38) respectively — is used both at 
the Agnish/oma and Ukthya. ' 



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INTRODUCTION. XVU 



immolation of a ram to Indra ; and one additional chant, 
the shoz/ari-stotra, with its attendant rastra and Soma-cup. 
The most natural explanation of the name is the one 
supplied, in the first place, by Ait. Br. IV, i (as interpreted 
by Sayawa) — viz. the sacrifice which has sixteen, or a six- 
teenth, stotra \ But, as the name applies not only to the 
, sacrifice but also to the stotra and rastra, the Brahmawa 
further justifies the name by the peculiar composition of 
the shcu/ari-rastra in which the number sixteen prevails 2 . 
Very probably, however, the name may have belonged to 
the sacrifice long before the jastra, for symbolic reasons, 
had assumed the peculiar form it now presents. 

In this summary of the characteristic features of the 
forms of Soma-sacrifice presupposed by the Va^apeya, no 
mention has yet been made of the Atyagnish/oma, or 
redundant Agnishfoma, which usually occupies the second 
place in the list of sawsthas. This form of sacrifice is 
indeed very little used, and there can be little doubt that 
it was introduced into the system, as Professor Weber 
suggests, merely for the sake of bringing up the Soma- 
samsthas to the sacred number of seven. This sacrifice is 
obtained by the addition of the shorfaji-stotra to the twelve 
chants of the Agnish/oma, as well as of the special Soma- 
cup and sacrificial victim for Indra, connected with that 
chant. It may thus be considered as a short form of the 
ShcM&rin-sacrifice (though without the full complement of 
stotras implied in that name), which might have suited the 
views of such ritualists as held the jastras of the Hotrakas 
at the evening service to be superfluous 8 . 

The distinctive feature of the Atiratra-sacrifice, as the 
name itself indicates, is an 'overnight* performance of 
chants and recitations, consisting of three rounds of four 
stotras and xastras each. At the end of each round 



1 This is also the explanation of the term given by Sayana in his commentary 
on TaiWya Br. XII, 13, 1. 

* See this translation, part ii, p. 40a, note J. 

' See part ii, p. 40a, note a, where it is stated that the tenth and last day of 
the Dararatra is an Atyagnishroma day, called Aviv&kya, i. e. one on which 
there should be no dispute or quarrel. 

[41] b 



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xviii satapatha-brAhmajva. 

(paryaya) libations are offered, followed by the inevitable 
potations of Soma-liquor. That the performance, indeed, 
partook largely of the character of a regular nocturnal 
carousal, may be gathered from the fact, specially mentioned 
in the Aitareya Brahmawa, that each of the Hotrz"s offering- 
formulas is to contain the three words — 'andhas,' Soma- 
plant (or liquor), ' pa,' to drink, and ' mada,' intoxication. 
Accordingly, one of the formulas used is Rig-veda II, 19, i 
apayy asya.ndhaso madaya, 'there has been drunk (by 
Indra, or by us) of this juice for intoxication.' The twelve 
stotras, each of which is chanted to a different tune, are 
followed up, at daybreak, by the Sandhi-stotra, or twilight- 
chant, consisting of six verses (Sama-veda S. II, 99-104) 
chanted to the Rathantara-tune. This chant is succeeded 
by the HoWs recitation of the A-rvina-jastra, a modification 
of the ordinary * pratar-anuvaka,' or morning-litany, by 
which the pressing-day of a Soma-sacrince is ushered in '. 
The Atiratra also requires a special victim, viz. a he-goat 
offered to Sarasvati, the goddess of speech. As regards 
the ceremonies preceding the night-performance, there is 
again a difference of opinion among ritualists as to whether 
the sho</ari-stotra, with its attendant rites, is, or is not, 
a necessary element of the Atiratra 2 . Some authorities s , 
accordingly, distinctly recognise two different kinds of 
Atiratra, — one with, and the other without, the shodas'm. 
In Katyayana's Sutra, there is no allusion to any difference 
of opinion on this point, but, in specifying the victims 
required at the different Soma-sacrifices, he merely remarks 
(IX, 8, 5) that, ' At the Atiratra there is a fourth victim to 
Sarasvati.' This would certainly seem to imply that there 
are also to be the three preceding victims, including the 
one to Indra peculiar to the Sho/arin. Arvalayana (V, 11, 
1 ) also refers incidentally to the shodarin as part of the 

1 See part ii, p. 326 seq. On the present occasion the Pratar-anuvaka is, how- 
ever, to consist of as many verses as, counting their syllables, wonld make np 
a thousand bnhati-verses (of thirty-six syllables each). The three sections of 
the ordinary morning-litany from the body of the Arvina-xastra which concludes, 
after sunrise, with verses addressed to Surya, the sun. 

* Cf. Lfiry. St. VIII, I, 16 ; IX, 5, 33 with commentary. 

' Notably Titu/ya. Br. XX, 1, I seq. 



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INTRODUCTION. XIX 



Atiratra, though it is not quite clear from the text of the 
sutra whether it is meant to be a necessary or only an 
optional feature of that sacrifice. The Aitareya Brahmawa 
(IV, 6), on the other hand, in treating of the Atiratra, 
enters on a discussion with the view of showing that the 
night-performance of that sacrifice is in every respect equal 
to the preceding day-performance ; and accordingly, as the 
three services of the day-performance include fifteen chants 
and recitations (viz. the twelve of the Agnish/oma, and the 
three Ukthas), so, during the night, the three rounds of 
in all twelve stotras, together with the sandhi-stotra, here 
counted as three stotras (triplets), make up the requisite 
fifteen chants. This Brahmawa, then, does not recognise 
the shcxfajin as part of the Atiratra, and, indeed, the 
manuals of the Atiratra chants which I have consulted 
make no mention of the sho/ari-stotra, though it is dis- 
tinctly mentioned there among the chants of the Va^apeya 
and the Aptoryama. The passage in the Aitareya, just 
referred to, also seems to raise the question as to whether 
the Atiratra is really an ekaha, or whether it is not rather 
an ahina-sacrifice. On this point also the authorities seem 
to differ; whilst most writers take the Atiratra, and the 
analogous Aptoryama, to be ' one-day ' sacrifices, the 
TaWya Brahmawa (XX) and lAty. IX, 5, 6 class them 
along with the Ahinas 1 ; and they may indeed be regarded 
as intermediate links between the two classes of Soma- 
sacrifice, inasmuch as, in a continued sacrificial performance, 
the final recitations of these sacrifices take the place of the 
opening ceremony of the next day's performance. Such, 
for instance, is the case in the performance of the Atiratra 
as the opening day of the Dvadaraha, or twelve days' 
period of sacrifice ; whilst in the performance of the twelfth 
and concluding day, which is likewise an Atiratra, the 
concluding ceremonies of the latter might be considered in 

' The Aitareya Brabmaxa (VI, 18) in discussing tbe so-called sampata hymns 
inserted in continued performances, with tbe view of establishing a symbolic 
connection between the several days, curiously explains the term ' ahtna,' not 
from ' abas ' day, but as meaning ' not defective, where nothing is left out ' 
(a-htna). 

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XX SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

a manner superabundant It is probably in this sense that 
La/y. (IX, 5, 4) calls the overnight performance of the 
last day of an ahina (e. g. the Dvadaraha) the yagn&pukkfa, 
or tail of the sacrifice, which is to fall beyond the month 
for which, from the time of the initiation, the ahina is 
to last. 

The Aptoryama-sacrifice represents an amplified form 
of the Atiratra. It requires the shorfari-stotra and the 
ceremonies connected with it as a necessary element of its 
performance ; whilst its distinctive feature consists in four 
additional (atirikta-) stotras and jastras, chanted and 
recited after the Arvina-jastra, the concluding recitation 
of the Atiratra. These four chants are arranged in such 
a manner that each successive stotra is chanted to a 
different tune, and in a more advanced form of composition, 
from the trivrrt (nine-versed) up to the ekaviwja (twenty- 
one-versed) stoma. In the liturgical manuals, the Aptor- 
yama, moreover, performs the function of serving as the 
model for a sacrificial performance with all the 'prj'sh/Aas 1 .' 
Though this mode of chanting has been repeatedly referred 
to in the translation and notes, a few additional remarks 
on this subject may not be out of place here. When 
performed in its ' prisht/ta ' form, the stotra is so arranged 
that a certain saman (or chanted triplet) is enclosed, as 
the 'garbha' (embryo), within some other saman which, 
as its ' prishtha. ' (i. e. back, or flanks), is chanted a number 
of times before and after the verses of the central saman. 
The tunes most commonly used for forming the enclosing 
samans of a Prish/Aa-stotra are the Rathantara and 
Bri hat ; and along with these, four others are singled out 
to make up the six Pr/'sh/Aa-samans kot' tfaxrjp, viz. the 
Vairupa (with the text Sama-veda II, 212-13), Vaira^-a 
(II, 277-9), -SAkvara* (chanted on the Mahanamni verses, 

1 From Afvalayana's rule (IX, 1 1, 4), 'If they chant in forming the garbha 
(i. e. in the ' pmh/Aa ' form), let him (the Hotri or Hotraka) recite in the same 
way the stotriyas and anurfipas,' it seems, however, clear that the Aptoryama 
may also be performed without the PrishMas. 

1 The original text of the -Stkvara-saman is stated (by Sayana on Aitar. Br. 
IV, 13 j Mahtdhara on Va^. S. X, 14, &c.) to be Sama-veda II, 1151-3, 'pro 
shv asmai puroratham,' but the Sama-veda Ganas do not seem to give the tune 



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INTRODUCTION. XXI 



Aitar. Ar. IV), and Raivata 1 samans. These six samans 
are employed during the six days' sacrificial period called 
Pr/sh/j&ya-sharfaha, in such a way that one of them, in the 
order in which they are here enumerated, is used for the 
first, or Hotrts, Pr*sh*Aa-stotra on the successive days of 
that period. In that case, however, these stotras are not 
performed in the proper ' prishtka. ' form 2 , i. e. they have 
no other saman inserted within them, but they are treated 
like any other triplet according to the particular stoma, 
or mode of composition, prescribed for them. But, on the 
other hand, in the Aptoryama, when performed ' with all 
the Trisht/tas,' not only are a number of stotras chanted in 
the proper 'prtshtAa.' form, but the 'pr/sh/Aa' element 
asserts itself in yet another way, viz. by the appearance 
of all the six ' Pr/sh/Aa-samans ' in the course of the 
performance of the different stotras, in this way : — the 
Rathantara-tune forms the middlemost of the seven 
triplets of which the Madhyandina-pavamana is composed ; 



with that text, bnt with the Mah&n&mn! verses (ed. Bibl. Ind. II, p. 371). 
The Tintfya Br. XIII, 4 (and comm.), gives minute directions as to the par- 
ticular padas of the first three Mahanamnl triplets which are singled out as of 
a jakvara (potent) nature, and are supposed to form the three stotriya verses of 
the jikvara-saman, consisting of seven, six, and five padas respectively. The 
ajakvara padas are, however, likewise chanted in their respective places, as is also 
the additional tenth verse, the five padas of which are treated as mere supple- 
mentary (or ' filling in ') matter. 

1 That is, the Varavanttya-tune adapted to the ' Revatt ' verses. The Vara- 
vanttya-tune is named after its original text, Rig-veda I, 27, 1, ' arvaw na tva 
v&ravantam' (Sanaa- veda, ed. Bibl. Ind. I, p. 1 21). When used as one of the 
PrjshMa-samans it is not, however, this, its original text, that is chanted to it, 
but the verses Rig-veda I, 30, 13-15, 'revattr naA sadhamada' (Sama-veda II, 
434-4, ed. vol. iv, p. 56), whence the tune, as adapted to this triplet, is usually 
called Raivata. The Raivata-saman, thus, is a signal instance of the use of 
the term 'saman ' in the sense of a chanted verse or triplet. 

* The statement, in part ii, p. 403 note (and repeated in the present part, p. 6, 
note a), that, while the PrjshMa-stotras of the Abhiplava-sharfaha are performed 
in the ordinary (Agnish/oma) way, the Pro'shMya-sharfaha requires their per- 
formance in the proper PrsshMa form, is not correct In both kinds of 
shWaha, the PrtshAia-stotras are performed in the ordinary way (viz. in the 
Agnish/bma or Ukthya way, see p. 4 note) ; but whilst, in the Abhiplava, 
the Rathantara and Brthat samans are used for the Hotrf s PrtshMa-stotra on 
alternate days, the PmhMya-sbatraha requires a different PmhMa-s&man on 
each of the six days. The two kinds of sharfahas also differ entirely in regard 
to the sequence of stomas prescribed for the performance of the stotras. 

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XX11 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

the Br*hat forms the 'garbha,' or enclosed saman, of the 
Agnishfoma-saman l ; the Vairupa the 'garbha' of the 
third, the Vaira^-a that of the first, the .Sakvara that of 
the second, and the Raivata that of the fourth, Prisht/ta.- 
stotra. It is doubtless this feature which gives to certain 
Soma-days the name of ' sarvapr*'sh£4a,' or one performed 
with all the (six) Pmh/Aas. Then, as regards the par- 
ticular stotras that are chanted in the proper 'przsh///a' 
form, these include not only the four so-called Prtshl&a- 
stotras of the midday service, but also the four A§ya- 
stotras of the morning service, as well as the Agnishfoma- 
saman and the three Uktha-stotras of the evening service, — 
in short, all the first fifteen stotras with the exception of 
the three Pavamana-stotras. Of the stotras which succeed 
the Ukthas, on the other hand — viz. the Shorfarin, the 
twelve chants of the three night-rounds, the Sandhi-stotra, 
and the four Atirikta-stotras — not one is performed in the 
' prisht/ta. ' form. How often the several verses of the 
' pmh^a-saman,' and those of the 'garbha' are to be 
chanted, of course depends, in each case, not only on the 
particular stoma which has to be performed, but .also on 
the particular mode (vishftiti) prescribed, or selected, for 
the stoma. Thus, while all the four Agya-stotras are 
chanted in the paȣadara, or fifteen-versed-stoma ; the 
four Przsh/#a-stotras are to be performed in the ekaviwwa 
(of twenty-one verses), the £aturviwwa (of twenty-four 
verses), the ^atu^atviriwwa (of forty-four verses), and the 
ash/a£atvari*tt.ra (of forty-eight verses) respectively. Now 
whenever, as in the case of the pa«£adara and the ekaviwwa- 
stomas, the number of verses is divisible by three, one third 
of the total number of verses is usually assigned to each of 
the three parts of the stotra, and distributed over the 
respective (three or sometimes four) verses of that saman 2 . 

1 Either the Rathantara or the Brthat also forms the ' prisht/ta,' or enclosing 
saman, of the first PmhMa-stotra. 

8 Whenever the stotra is not performed in the ' prtshMa ' form, bat consists 
of a single saman or triplet, the repetitions required to make np the number of 
verses implied in the respective stoma, are distributed over the three verses of 
the saman in such a way that the whole saman is chanted thrice, each time 
with various repetitions of the single verses. The usual form in which the 



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INTRODUCTION. XX1U 



To illustrate this tripartite composition, the Hotri's 
PrishMa-stotra, performed in the twenty-one-versed stoma, 
may be taken as an example. For the 'prishtAa,' the 
manuals give the Brmat-saman, on its original text (Sama- 
veda II, 159, 160, ' tvam id dhi havamahe,' arranged so as to 
form three verses), though the Rathantara may be used 
instead 1 . For the 'garbha,' or enclosed saman, on the 
other hand, the Vaira^a-saman (with its original text, 
S. V. II, 277-9, 'piba somam indra mandatu tva') is to 
be used, a most elaborate tune 2 , with long sets of stobhas, 
or musical ejaculations, inserted in the text. Of the 
twenty-one verses, of which the stoma consists, seven 
verses would thus fall to the share of the 'garbha,' and 
seven verses to that of the ' prishtAa,' as chanted before 
and after the ' garbha.' Thus, in accordance with the for- 
mula set forth in p. xxii, note 2, the three verses (a, b, c) of 
the Br*hat would be chanted in the form aaa-bbb-c ; then 
the verses of the Vaira^a-saman (as ' garbha ') in the form 
a-bbb-ccc ; and finally again the Br&at in the form 
aaa-b-ccc. Stotras, the total number of verses of which 
is not divisible by three, of course require a slightly 
different distribution. Thus, of the third Pr/sh/Aa-stotra, 
the stoma of which consists of forty-four verses, the two 
parts of the ' prishtAa. ' obtain fifteen verses each, whilst 
the ' garbha ' has only fourteen verses for its share. 

The Va^-apeya, the last of the seven forms of a com- 
plete Soma-sacrifice, occupies an independent position 
beside the Atiratra and Aptoryama, whose special features 
it does not share. Like them, it starts from the Shorf&rin, 
to the characteristic (sixteenth) chant (and recitation) of 
which it adds one more stotra, the Va^apeya-saman, chanted 
to the Brmat-tune, in the Saptadara (seventeen-versed) 
stoma, and followed by the recitation of the Va^apeya- 
jastra. The Saptadara-stoma, indeed, is so characteristic 
of this sacrifice that — as has been set forth at p. 8 note 

ekaviwua is performed may be represented by the formula aaa-bbb-c ; a-bbb- 
ccc ; aaa-b-ccc, making together twenty-one verses. 

1 Ajval. Si. IX, 3, 4-5. 

' It is given somewhat imperfectly in the ed. BibL Ind. V, p. 391. 



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XXIV SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

below — all the preceding chants, from the Bahishpavamana 
onward, are remodelled in accordance with it. Besides, 
over and above the three victims of the Shodarin-sacrifice, 
the Va^peya requires, not only a fourth one, sacred to 
Sarasvati, the goddess of speech, but also a set of seventeen 
victims for Pra^apati, the god of creatures and procreation. 
As regards other rites peculiar to the Va^apeya, the most 
interesting, doubtless, is the chariot-race in which the sacri- 
ficer, who must be either of the royal or of the priestly order, 
is allowed to carry off the palm, and from which this sacri- 
fice perhaps derives its name. Professor Hillebrandt \ 
indeed, would claim for this feature of the sacrifice the cha- 
racter of a relic of an old national festival, a kind of Indian 
Olympic games; and though there is perhaps hardly 
sufficient evidence to bear out this conjecture, it cannot 
at least be denied that this feature has a certain popular 
look about it. 

Somewhat peculiar are the relations between the Va^a- 
peya and the Ra.gasuya on the one hand, and between the 
Vclg-apeya and the Brzhaspatisava on the other. In the 
first chapter of the fifth book, the author of this part of our 
Brahmawa is at some pains to impress the fact that the 
Vctg-apeya is a ceremony of superior value and import to 
the Ra^asuya ; and hence Katyayana (XV, i, 1-2) has two 
rules to the effect that the Ra^asuya may be performed by 
a king who has not yet performed the Va^apeya. These 
authorities would thus seem to consider the drinking of the 
Va^apeya-cup a more than sufficient equivalent for the 
Ra^asuya, or inauguration of a king ; they do not, how- 
ever, say that the Ra^asuya must be performed prior to the 
Va^apeya, but only maintain that the Va^apeya cannot be 
performed after the Ra^usuya. The Ra^asuya, according 
to the Brahmawa, confers on the sacrificer royal dignity 
(ra^ya), and the Va^apeya paramount sovereignty (sam- 
ra^ya). It might almost seem as if the relatively loose posi- 
tions here assigned to the Ra^asuya were entirely owing to 
the fact that it is a purely Kshatriya ceremony to which the 

1 Vedische Mythologie, p. 247. 

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INTRODUCTION. XXV 



Brlhmawa has no right, whilst the Va^apeya may be per- 
formed by Brahmawas as well as Kshatriyas. But on what- 
ever grounds this appreciation of the two ceremonies may 
be based, it certainly goes right in the face of the rule laid 
down by Arvalayana (IX, 9, 19) that, ' after performing the 
Va^apeya, a king may perform the Ra^asuya, and a Brah- 
ma»a the Brzhaspatisava.' With this rule would seem to 
accord the relative value assigned to the two ceremonies in 
the Taittiriya Sazwhita (V, 6, 2, 1) and Brahmawa (II, 7, 6, i), 
according to which the Va^apeya is a ' samrafcava,' or con- 
secration to the dignity of a paramount sovereign, while the 
Ra^asuya is called a 'varunasava,' i.e., according to S4ya«a, 
a consecration to the universal sway wielded by Varuwa l . 
In much the same sense we have doubtless to understand 
the rule in which Lafyayana defines the object of the 
Va^apeya (VIII, 11, 1), viz. 'Whomsoever the Brahma«as 
and kings (or nobles) may place at their head, let him per- 
form the Va^apeya.' All these authorities, with the excep- 
tion of the .Satapatha-Brahmana and Katyayana, are thus 
agreed in making the Va^apeya a preliminary ceremony, 
performed by a Brahmawa who is raised to the dignity of a 
Purohita, or head-priest (so to speak, a minister of worship, 
and court-priest), or by a king who is elected paramount 
sovereign by a number of petty ra^as ; this sacrifice being 
in due time followed by the respective installation and 
consecration ceremony, viz. the Brmaspatisava, in the case 
of the Purohita ; and the Ra^asuya, in that of the king. 
In regard to the Bnhaspatisava, which these authorities 
place on an equality with the Ra^asuya, our Brahmawa 
finds itself in a somewhat awkward position, and it gets 
out of its difficulty (V, 2, 1, 19) by simply identifying 
the Brzhaspatisava with the Va^apeya, and making the 
Va^apeya itself to be ' the consecration of Brihaspati ; ' 
and Katyayana (XIV, 1, 2) compromises matters by com- 
bining the two ceremonies in this way that he who performs 
the Va^fapeya is to perform the Brzhaspatisava for a fort- 
night before and after the Va^apeya. 

1 Cf. .Sibkh. St. XV, 13, 4, ' for it is Varana whom they consecrate.' 

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XXVI SATAPATHA-BRAHMA2VA. 

The Ra^asuya, or inauguration of a king, is a complex 
ceremony which, according to the .Srauta-sutras, consists of 
a long succession of sacrificial performances, spread over a 
period of upwards of two years. It includes seven distinct 
Soma-sacrifices, viz. i.the Pavitra,an Agnish/bma serving 
as the opening sacrifice, and followed, after an interval of a 
year (during which the seasonal sacrifices have to be per- 
formed), by 2, the Abhishe£anJya, an Ukthya-sacrifice, 
being the consecration (or anointing) ceremony. Then follows 
3, the Da^apeya, or 'drink of ten/ an Agnishfoma, so- 
called because ten priests take part in drinking the Soma- 
liquor contained in each of the ten cups. After another 
year's interval 1 , during which monthly ' offerings to the 
beams (i.e. the months)' are made, takes place 4, the K«a- 
vapaniya, or hair-cutting ceremony, an Atiratra-sacrifice ; 
followed, after a month or fortnight, by 5, and 6, the 
Vyush/i-dviratra, or two nights' ceremony of the 
dawning, consisting of an Agnish/bma and an Atiritra ; 
and finally 7, the Kshatra-dhr*'ti, or 'the wielding of 
the (royal) power,' an Agnish/bma performed a month later. 
The round of ceremonies concludes with the Sautrama«i, 
an ishri the object of which is to make amends for any 
excess committed in the consumption of Soma-liquor. 

The fifth book completes the dogmatic discussion of the 
ordinary circle of sacrifices, some less common, or altogether 
obsolete, ceremonies, such as the A^vamedha (horse- 
sacrifice), Purushamedha (human sacrifice), Sarvamedha 
(sacrifice for universal rule), being dealt with, by way of 
supplement, in the thirteenth book. 

With the sixth Kawrfa, we enter on the detailed ex- 
planation of the Agni^ayana, or building of the fire-altar, 
a very solemn ceremony which would seem originally to 
have stood apart from, if not in actual opposition to, 
the ordinary sacrificial system, but which, in the end, 
apparently by some ecclesiastical compromise, was added 



1 The Brahmarca (V, 5, 2, 2), however, would rather seem to dispense with 
this interval by combining the twelve oblations so as to form two sets of six 
each. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXV11 



on to the Soma ritual as an important, though not in- 
dispensable, element of it. The avowed object of this 
ceremony is the super-exaltation of Agni, the Fire, who, 
in the elaborate cosmogenic legend with which this section 
begins, is identified with Pra^-apati, the lord of Generation, 
and the source of life in the world. As the present volume 
contains, however, only a portion of the Agni£ayana 
ritual, any further remarks on this subject may be reserved 
for a future occasion. 

Since the time when this volume went to press, the 
literature of the Soma myth has been enriched by the 
appearance of an important book, the first volume of 
Professor A. Hillebrandt's Vedische Mythologie, dealing 
with Soma and cognate gods. As it is impossible for me 
here to enter into a detailed discussion of the numerous 
points raised in the work, I must content myself for the 
present with the remark that I believe Professor Hillebrandt 
to have fully established the main point of his position, 
viz. the identity of Soma with the Moon in early Vedic 
mythology. 



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SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

FIFTH KAjVZ?A. 




A. THE VAGAPEI 
First Adhyaya. First BrAhmaya. 

i. Once upon a time the gods and the Asuras, 
both of them sprung from Pra^apati, strove together. 
And the Asuras, even through arrogance, thinking, 
' Unto whom, forsooth, should we make offering?' 
went on offering into their own mouths. They 
came to naught, even through arrogance : where- 
fore let no one be arrogant, for verily arrogance is 
the cause a of ruin. 

2. But the gods went on making offerings unto 
one another. Pra^apati gave himself up to them : 
thus the sacrifice 2 became theirs ; and indeed the 
sacrifice is the food of the gods 3 . 

3. They then spake, ' To which of us shall this 4 
belong?' They did not agree together, saying, 

1 Lit 'the mouth,' i.e. the opening or beginning, of ruin. The 
St. Petersburg Diet, compares Prov. xvi. 18 : 'Pride goeth before 
destruction, and an haughty spirit before a fall.' 

* Praj&pati (the lord of creatures or generation) is both the 
sacrifice and the year (time); see III, 3, 2, 4. 

s See II, 4, 2, 1. To them (the gods) he (Pra^-apati) said, 
'The sacrifice (shall be) your food, immortality your sustenance 
(fag), and the sun your light 1 ' 

* For the neuter idam — hardly here 'this universe,' or 'va- 

* [40 B 



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SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 



'To me! to me!' Not being agreed, they said, 
' Let us run a race for it : whichever of us shall win, 
to him it shall belong ! ' — ' So be it ! ' so they ran 
a race for it. 

4. Then Brzhaspati hasted up to Savitr* for his 
impulsion \ — Savitr* being the impeller (prasavitrz) 
among the gods — saying, ' Impel this for me, (so 
that) impelled by thee, I may win this!' Then 
SavitW, as the impeller, impelled it for him, and 
impelled by Savitrz, he won : he became everything 
here, he won everything here ; for he won Pra^i- 
pati, and Prafapati (the lord of creatures and pro- 
creation) indeed is everything here. By offering 
therewith he (Brz'haspati) ascended to that upper 
region. Therefore who so knoweth, and who so 
knoweth not, — they say, ' That upper region be- 
longeth to Brzhaspati.' 

5. Thus they who of old used to offer the Va^a- 
peya, ascended to that upper region. From there 
Aupavi (Jana^ruteya descended again : thence- 
forward (all men) descend again. 

^apeyam,' but rather 'this thing, it' — the Kawva text reads ay am 
' he,' i.e. Pra^ipati, or the sacrifice (ya^fla, masc.) ; cf. note on V, 

1. 4. IS- 

1 For want of a simpler and more homely set of terms for the 
derivatives of the verb su ' to animate ' here used, those used in the 
preceding volumes are here generally adhered to, though, as there, 
somewhat reluctantly. The simple * to bless, blessing, &c.' might 
sometimes fit quite well, though no doubt they imply an idea 
altogether foreign to the etymological meaning of this verb, and 
could not possibly be used, as is the case here, of the animating 
influence of the sun. Sometimes 'to speed' has been chosen, 
where the etymological connection with Savitr* is not insisted 
upon ; while in other passages ' to consecrate, consecration, &c.' 
might probably come nearer to the meaning of the original. Cp. 
Delbrttck, Altindische Syntax, p. 256. 



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v kAjvda, i adhyAya, i brAhmajva, ii. 3 

6. Indra offered that (Vi^apeya), — he became 
everything here, he won everything here ; for he 
won Pra^apati, and Pra^apati is everything here: 
by offering therewith he ascended to that upper 
region. 

7. Thus they who of old used to offer the Va^a- 
peya, ascended to that upper region. From there 
Aupavi (Janamiteya descended again : thencefor- 
ward (all men) descend again. 

8. And whosoever offers the Va^apeya, he be- 
comes everything here, he wins everything here ; 
for he wins Pra^apati, and Pragapati indeed is 
everything here. 

9. Here now they say, ' One must not offer the 
Va^apeya ; for he who offers the Va^apeya wins 
everything here, — for he wins Prafapati, and Pra^a- 
pati is everything here, — he leaves nothing remain- 
ing here : his people (or offspring) is like to become 
worse (off).' 

10. Let him none the less sacrifice : whatever 
(priests) thus know that sacrifice properly, in respect 
of the Rik, the Yagms, and the Saman, and such as 
are proficient, let them assist him in offering it ; for 
verily this is the perfection of that sacrifice, when 
wise (priests) assist him in offering it : let him there- 
fore sacrifice by all means. 

11. Now truly this (the Va^apeya) is the Brah- 
masa's own sacrifice, inasmuch as Brzhaspati (the 
lord of prayer and devotion) performed it ; for Brt- 
haspati is the Brahman (priesthood, or priestly 
dignity), and the Brahma»a is the Brahman. And 
it is also that of the R&f anya, inasmuch as Indra 
performed it ; for Indra is the Kshatra (nobility, or 
ruling power), and the Ra^anya is the Kshatra. 

B 2 



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SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 



12. To the king (r^an) doubtless belongs the 
Ra^asuya ; for by offering the Ra^asuya he becomes 
king; and unsuited for kingship is the Brahmana. 
And, moreover, the Ra^asuya is the lower, and the 
Va^apeya the higher (sacrifice). 

13. For by offering the Ra^asuya 1 he becomes 
king, and by the Va^apeya (he becomes) emperor 
(samra^) ; and the office of king is the lower, and 
that of emperor the higher : a king might indeed 
wish to become emperor, for the office of king is 
the lower, and that of emperor the higher ; but the 
emperor would not wish to become king, for the 
office of king is the lower, and that of emperor the 
higher. 

14. Thus that (king) who, by performing the 
Va^apeya, becomes emperor, possesses himself of 
everything here. Previously to each performance 
(of an ish/i 2 ) he offers that oblation to Savitr? 
(the sun), with the text, ' O divine Savit^z, impel 
(prosper) the sacrifice, impel Pra^apati for his 
portion ! ' 



1 Katy. St. XV, 1, 1-2, lays down the ruie that the RS^asuya is 
to be performed by a king who has not yet performed the Va^apeya. 
Afval. St. IX, 9, 19, on the other hand, rules : 'After performing it 
(the Va^apeya) let a king perform the RS^asuya, a Brahmawa the 
Br/haspati-sava ' (cf. V, 2, 1, 19). See also Katy. XIV, 1, 2 seq. 
Cf. La/y. .St. VIII, n, 1 seq. 

* During the bright fortnights (of the waxing moon) preceding 
and following the Va^apeya ceremony proper, the sacrificer has 
to perform a number of so-called pariya^fla ('surrounding or 
enclosing sacrifices') consisting of ^ne-day Soma-sacrifices of 
different kinds, each of which is preceded by a special dikshi, or 
initiation ceremony (cf. Ill, i, 2, 1 seq. ; La/y. St. VIII, n, 2). It 
is to the ish/is (dikshawfyesh/i, prayamyesh/i) of these pariya^flas 
that the above injunction regarding the performance of the Savitrt 
ahuti refers. 



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v kXnda, i adhyAya, 2 brahmajva, i. 5 

15. And even as then Brzhaspati hasted up to 
SavitW for his impulsion — Savitr? being the im- 
peller among the gods — saying, ' Impel this for me, 
(so that) impelled by thee I may win it ! ' and Savitrt, 
as the impeller, impelled it for him ; and impelled 
by Savitfz he won it ; even so does this (sacrificing 
king) now haste up to Savitrz for his impulsion — 
Savitr/ being the impeller among the gods ; — saying, 
' Impel this for me : may I win it, impelled by thee ! ' 
and Savitre, as the impeller, impels it for him, and 
he wins it impelled by Savitr*. 

16. Wherefore he says (Va^. S. IX, 1), ' God 
Savitrt, speed the sacrifice, speed the lord of 
sacrifice unto his portion ! May the heavenly, 
thought-cleansing Gandharva cleanse our 
thought ! May the Lord of Speech render our 
meat palatable, hail !' For the Lord of Speech 
is Pra^apati, and meat means food: 'May Pra^a- 
pati this day make palatable this our food!' thus 
he thereby says. This same oblation he offers till 
the day before the Soma-feast, for thus that per- 
formance of his has been commenced ; and he 
(SavitW, the Sun) becomes serene during that 
sacrifice 

Second Brahma^a. 

1. He draws the Amsn 1 (graha), just for com- 
pleteness' sake, for it is therefore that he draws 

1 Regarding this cup, u. libation (consisting, it would seem, of 
imperfectly pressed Soma-plants in water), see part ii, p. 424, note 1. 
Here, and in the sequel, the author only refers to those points of 
ceremonial in which the performance differs from that of the 
ordinary Agnish/oma sacrifice, as described in part ii. 



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satapatha-bRahmawa. 



the Amsu. After that he draws those recognised 
Agnish/oma cups 1 up to the Agraya»a. 

2. He then draws the Prish/Ayas 2 : and what- 
ever the gods (Agni, Indra, and Surya) won by 
them, even that he wins by them. 

3. He then draws the Shoa^a^in: and whatever 
Indra won thereby, even that he (the sacrificer) wins 
thereby. 

4. He then draws those five Va^apeya cups (for 
Indra; the first) with the text (V. S. IX, 2), ' Thee, 
the firm-seated, the man-seated, the mind- 
seated! Thou art taken with a support 8 : 
I take thee, agreeable to Indra! This is thy 
womb 8 (i. e. thy home) : thee, most agreeable 
to Indra!' therewith he deposits it; for of these 



1 Viz. the Upiwju and Antaryama; the Aindrav&yava, 
Maitr&varuwa and Ajvina; the •S'ukra and Manthin; and the 
Agrayawa. Part ii, pp. 256 seq. 

* That is, the three Atigrahyas (part ii, p. 402, note 2), required 
for the Prj'sh/fe-stotras at the midday feast, when performed in 
their proper ' prish/Aa ' form, as they are at the Pr»'sh/4ya sha</aha, 
and at a VLrva^it-ekaha with all the Prtsh/ftas. See IV, 5, 4, 14. 
The authorities of the Black Ya^-us adopt a somewhat different 
arrangement. The Vi^apeya cups are likewise called by them 
Atigrahyas (Taitt. S. I, 7, 12; T. B. I, 3, 9), and these are 
apparently drawn by them immediately after the second of the 
ordinary three AtigrShyas, the one belonging to Indra (T. S. vol. i, 
p. 996, — but see ib. p. 1055, where it is stated that they are drawn 
immediately after the Agraya»a, — that is, probably, if the ordinary 
Atigrahyas are not required). Then follows (the third ordinary 
Atigrihya?), then the Shorfajin, and thereupon the seventeen 
cups for Pra^Spati. — S&yana remarks on our passage, — tesham 
(atigrahy£»am) prakr/tigatS tritvasamkhyaiva *akhantaravat sam- 
khySntarinupadeiSt. MS. I. O. 657. 

3 For an explanation of these notions, see part ii, p. 260, notes 
1 and 2. 



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v kXnda, i adhyAya, 2 brAhmaata, 8. 7 

worlds this one, to wit the earth, is the firm one : 
this same world he thereby wins. 

5. [The second with,] 'Thee, the water-seated, 
the ghee-seated, the ether-seated! Thou art 
taken with a support: I take thee, agreeable 
to I ndra ! This is thy womb : thee most agree- 
able to I ndra!' therewith he deposits it; for among 
these worlds that ether (mentioned in the formula) 
is this air : he thereby wins this air-world. 

6. [The third with,] 'Thee, the earth-seated, 
the air-seated, the sky-seated, the god-seated, 
the heaven-seated! Thou art taken with a 
support: I take thee, agreeable to Indra! 
This is thy womb: thee, most agreeable to 
Indra!' therewith he deposits it; for god-seated, 
heaven-seated indeed is yonder world of the gods : 
the world of the gods he thereby wins. 

7. [The fourth with V. S. IX, 3,] ' The waters' 
invigorating essence, being contained in the 
sun, — that which is the essence of the waters' 
essence, that, the most excellent, I take for 
you! Thou art taken with a support: I take 
thee, agreeable to I ndra ! This is thy womb : 
thee, most agreeable to Indra!' therewith he 
deposits it ; for the waters' essence is he that blows 
(or purifies) yonder (the wind), and he is contained 
in the sun, he blows from the sun : that same essence 
he thereby wins. 

8. [The fifth with IX, 4,] ' Ye cups, of strength- 
ening libations, inspiring the sage with 
thought, — I have gathered together the pith 
and sap of you, the handleless! Thou art 
taken with a support : thee, agreeable to I ndra ! 
This is thy womb: thee, most agreeable to 



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8 satapatha-brahmajva. 

Indra!' therewith he deposits it; — pith means 
essence : it is the essence he thereby wins. 

9. These, then, are five Vi^apeya cups he draws; 
for he who offers the Va^apeya wins Pra^apati ; and 
Pra^apati is the year, and there are five seasons in 
the year, — he thus wins Prafapati : therefore he 
draws five Va/apeya cups. 

10. He (the Adhvaryu) then draws seventeen 
(other) cups of Soma, and (the Nesh/rz) seventeen 
cups of Sura (spirituous liquor), for to Pra^apati 
belong these two (saps of) plants, to wit the Soma 
and the Sura ; — and of these two the Soma is truth, 
prosperity, light; and the Sura untruth, misery, 
darkness : both these (saps of) plants he thereby 
wins ; for he who offers the Va^apeya wins every- 
thing here, since he wins Pragapati, and Pra^apati 
indeed is everything here. 

11. Now as to why he draws seventeen cups of 
Soma ; — Pra^apati is seven teenfold, Pra^apati is the 
sacrifice ' : as great as the sacrifice is, as great as is 

1 See I, 5, 2, 17, where the principal formulas used in making 
oblations are computed as consisting together of seventeen syllables. 
Pa#£. Br. 18, 6 insists especially on the symbolic identity of Pra^i- 
pati and the Va^apeya on the double ground that the Va^apeya 
consists of seventeen stotras, and has for its characteristic mode of 
chanting the Saptadaxa-stoma, or seventeen-versed hymn. That 
this is indeed so will appear from a glance at the chief chants. The 
Bahishpavamana-stotra, which in the ordinary Agnish/oma is 
chanted in the trivrzt-stoma, consisting of three triplets, or nine 
verses (see part ii, p. 310), is at the Va^apeya made to consist of 
seventeen verses, by the insertion of eight verses (S.V. II, 180-82 ; 
186-90) between the second and third triplets. Again, the 
Madhyandina-pavamana, ordinarily chanted in fifteen verses 
(part ii, p. 333), here consists of seventeen, viz. II, 105-7 (sung 
twice in two tunes = six verses); II, 663 (one verse); II, 663-4 (sung 
as triplet, in two tunes=six verses); II, 665 (one verse); II, 821-23 



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V kAjvDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 1 5. 9 

its measure, with that much he thus wins its truth, 
its prosperity, its light. 

12. And why he draws seventeen cups of Sura ; — 
Pra/apati is seventeenfold, Pra^apati is the sacrifice : 
as great as the sacrifice is, as great as is its measure, 
with that much he thus wins its untruth, its misery, 
its darkness. 

1 3. These two amount to thirty-four cups ; for 
there are thirty-three gods, and Pra^apati is the 
thirty-fourth : he thus wins Pra^apati. 

14. Now when he buys the king (Soma), he at 
the same time buys for a piece of lead the Parisrut 
(immature spirituous liquor) from a long-haired man 
near by towards the south. For a long-haired man 
is neither man nor woman ; for, being a male, he is 
not a woman ; and being long-haired (a eunuch), he 
is not a man. And that lead is neither iron nor 
gold ; and the Parisrut-liquor is neither Soma nor 
Sura * : this is why he buys the Parisrut for a piece 
of lead from a long-haired man. 

1 5. And on the preceding day they prepare two 

(three verses) — making together seventeen verses. Similarly, the 
Arbhava-pavamana (chanted at the Agnish/oma also in the 
Saptadata-stoma, cf. part ii, p. 315; but here with modifications) 
consists of II, 165-7 ( sun £ twice in two tunes = six verses) ; II, 
42, 44 (two verses); II, 47-9 (in two tunes=six verses) ; II, 720-23 
(three verses) — making together seventeen verses. For the similarly 
constructed Va^apeya hymn see page n, note 1. See also La/y. 
Sir. VIII, 11,15 seq., where the number of officiating priests, as well 
as that of the various sacrificial fees, is fixed at seventeen. 
Similarly, A_rv. Sr. IX, 9, 2-3 says that there are either to be 
seventeen dikshas, or the whole ceremony is to be performed in 
seventeen days. 

1 According to S&yana, the difference between suri and parisrut 
would seem to be that the former beverage is prepared from mature 
shoots (of rice, &c), and the latter from such as are not quite ripe. 



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IO SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

earth-mounds 1 , the one in front of the axle, and the 
other behind the axle : ' Lest we should deposit 
together the cups of Soma, and the cups of Sura,' — 
this is why, on the preceding day, they prepare two 
mounds, one in front, and the other behind the axle. 

1 6. Now, when they take the Vasatlvarl water 2 (into 
the havirdhana shed) by the front door, the Nesh/r« 
takes in the Parisrut-liquor by the back door. From 
the south they bring in the drinking vessels. The 
Adhvaryu, seated in front of the axle, with his face 
towards the west, draws the cups of Soma ; and the 
Nesh/r/, seated behind the axle, with his face towards 
the east, draws the cups of Sura. The Adhvaryu 
draws a cup of Soma, the Neshtri a cup of Sura ; 
the Adhvaryu draws a cup of Soma, the Nesh/« 
a cup of Surd : in this way they draw them 
alternately. 

17. Neither does the Adhvaryu hold the Soma- 
cup beyond the axle towards the back, nor the 
Nesh/r* the Sura-cup beyond the axle towards the 
front, thinking, ' Lest we should confound light and 
darkness ! ' 

18. The Adhvaryu holds the Soma-cup just over 
the axle, and the Nesh/^' the Sura-cup just below 

1 The mounds (khara) thrown up in the havirdhina caii-shed, 
are used for placing the cups of Soma (and SurS) after they are 
drawn, until they are used for the libations. See the plan of the 
sacrificial ground at the end of part ii ; only that on the present 
occasion there is to be a second mound, for the placing of the Sura- 
cups, under or just behind the axle of the southern Soma-cart (in the 
place where the Nara\rawsa cups to the Fathers were temporarily 
deposited at the Agnish/oma; see III, 6, 2, 25 with note). On 
this occasion a small door is also made in the southern wall of the 
cart-shed, by breaking through the hurdle. 

1 Part ii, p. 222 seq. 



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v kXnda, i adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, i. i i 

the axle, with (V. S. IX, 4), 'United ye are: 
unite me with happiness!' Thinking, ' Lest we 
should say "evil",' they withdraw them again, with, 
'Disunited ye are: disunite me from evil!' 
Even as one might tear a single reed from a clump 
of reed-grass, so do they thereby tear him from out 
of all evil : there is not in him so much sin as the 
point of a grass-blade. They deposit the two (cups 
each time on the mounds). 

19. Thereupon the Adhvaryu draws the Madhu- 
graha (honey-cup) in a golden vessel, and deposits 
it in the middle of the Soma-grahas. He then draws 
the Ukthya, then the Dhruva. And when, at the 
last chant (of the evening press feast'), he has 
poured those Soma-grahas one by one into the cups 
of the officiating priests, they make offering and 
drink them. At the midday-pressing it is told 
regarding the honey-cup, and the cups of Sura : 
thereof then 2 . 

Third BrAhmana. 

1. At the Agnish/oma (Saman 8 ) he seizes a 
(victim) for Agni, for the Agnish/oma (i. e. 'Agni's 

1 The last chant (at the evening feast) of the Va<fapeya sacrifice 
is the so-called Va^apeya-siman, or Brihat-stotra (SSmav. 
II, 975-7), chanted, to the Bn'hat tune, in the Saptadara-stoma ; 
the three verses being, by repetitions, raised to the number of 
seventeen. — 'When he has poured . . . they offer it:' this is 
apparently a case of the absolute construction of the gerund in 
'-ya,' cf. Delbrtlck, Altindische Syntax, p. 108. 

1 On these cups, or libations, see V, 1, 5, 28. 

* Of the seven fundamental forms (samstha) of Soma-sacrifice, 
each higher, or more complex, form is obtained by some additional 
ceremony, or ceremonies, being added on to one of the simpler 
forms of sacrifice. In the present paragraph, the author briefly 
reviews the lower forms of Soma-sacrifice, contained in the VS^a- 



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I 2 DATAPATH A-BRAHMA^A. 

praise 1 ') is Agni : he thereby wins Agni. For 
the Ukthas 2 he seizes one for Indra and Agni ; 
for the hymns (uktha) relate to Indra and Agni s : 
the hymns he thereby wins. For the Sho^a^in 
he seizes one for Indra; for the Shodarin is Indra : 
the Shoafarin (Indra) he thereby wins. 

2. For the seventeenth (or seventeenfold) stotra 4 
he seizes one for Sarasvatl : thereby, while there 
is no over-night performance ', it is yet made like 
the night (performance) ; for he who offers the Va^a- 

peya, with the view of enumerating the victims to be slaughtered 
at its performance; viz. the Agnish/oma with twelve chants and 
one victim ; the Ukthya with fifteen stotras and two victims; and 
the Shorfa^in with sixteen chants and three victims. For further 
particulars, see part ii, p. 397, note 2. 

1 The Agnish/oma-sarnan, the last (twelfth) and distinctive 
stotra of the Agnish/oma sacrifice, is in praise of Agni (see part ii, 
p. 368, note 2). At the Va^apeya the ordinary (yagH&yagifiya.) 
hymn is not chanted, but S.V. II, 973-4, sung to the Varavantiya 
tune (Calc. ed, vol. v, p. 144), takes its place. PaSi. Br. 18, 6, 16. 

* The three Uktha stotras (chants) and rastras (recitations) 
constitute the distinctive element of the Ukthya sacrifice; as the 
Sho<fcui-stotra and xastra (part ii, p. 401, note 3 ; p. 402, note 1) 
constitute that of the Shorfajin sacrifice. 

* On the important place assigned to these two deities in the 
traditional arrangement of the Rigveda-samhM, see the introduction 
to part i, p. xvi. 

* That is the VS^apeya-saman, see note 1, p. n. 

* The author here alludes to another form of Soma-sacrifice, not 
contained in the Va^apeya, viz. the Atiratra, which is obtained by 
following up the Shorfarin (with its sixteen chants) with the so-called 
ratri-paryaySA, or night-rounds, consisting of three rounds of 
four chants each, or together twelve chants. These are succeeded, at 
day-break, by the San dhi -stotra (or twilight chants), consisting of 
three chants. Although this night performance does not take place 
on the present occasion — the V%apeya-saman taking its place — the 
author claims for this form of sacrifice also the moral benefits which 
would accrue to the sacrificer from the Atiratra, for the reason that 
the same victim (a he-goat for Sarasvatl) is offered on both occasions. 



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V KAJVDA, I ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 4. I 3 

peya wins Pra^apati, and Pra/apati is the year : by 
that (victim) for Sarasvatf he now wins the night : 
hence, while there is no night performance, it is made 
like the night 

3. Thereupon he seizes a spotted sterile cow for 
the Victorious Maruts ; for the spotted sterile 
cow is this (earth) : whatever food, rooted and root- 
less, is here established on her, thereby she is a 
spotted cow. Now, he who offers the Va^apeya 
wins food, for va^a-peya 1 doubtless means the same 
as anna-peya (food and drink) ; and the Maruts are 
the peasants, and the peasants are food (for the 
noble). ' To the Victorious (Maruts) ! ' he says, even 
for the sake of victory. It is difficult to obtain an 
invitatory and offering prayer containing the word 
' victorious : ' if he should be unable to obtain such 
as contain the word 'victorious,' any other two 
verses to the Maruts will do. Difficult to obtain 
also is a spotted sterile cow : if he cannot obtain 
a spotted sterile cow, any other sterile cow will do. 

4. The course of procedure thereof (is as follows). 
When the Hotri recites after the Mahendra libation, 
then let them proceed with (the offering of) her 
omentum, for that, the Mahendra 2 , is Indra's special 
(nishkevalya) libation ; and his also are the Nish- 
kevalya-stotra and Nishkevalya-rastra. Now the 
sacrificer is Indra: thus he thereby puts strength 
into the sacrificer in the very middle (of the sacri- 

1 In Taitt. Br. I, 3, 2, 3, on the other hand, vS^-apeya (which 
doubtless means ' drink of strength ') is explained first by va^pya, 
' that through which the gods wished to obtain (aipsan) strength 
(va#am),' and then by 'drink of strength,' i.e. Soma 'by drinking 
(pftva) which one becomes strong (v&gin).' 

* For this libation, and the accompanying Nishkevalya-xastra, 
at the midday Soma-feast, see part ii, pp. 338, 339, note 2. 



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14 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

fice) : that is why they should proceed with her 
omentum at that particular time. 

5. They cook the portions 1 in two lots. Of the 
one lot thereof, after making an 'under-layer' of 
ghee (clarified butter) in the ^uhu spoon, he makes 
two cuttings from each (portion), bastes them once, 
and replenishes with ghee (the empty places of) the 
cuttings. Thereupon he makes one cutting from 
each into the upabhrzt spoon, bastes them twice, 
but does not replenish (the places of) the cuttings. 
Now, when of the one lot (of portions) he makes 
two cuttings from each, thereby that (sterile cow) 
becomes whole ; and when he proceeds with those 
(portions), thereby he wins the divine race. He 
then presents the (other) half to the human kind : 
and thereby he wins the human kind (people, vis). 

6. But let him not do it in this wise ; for verily 
he who departs from the path of the sacrifice, 
stumbles ; and he who does it in this wise certainly 
departs from the path of the sacrifice. Hence when 
they proceed with the omenta of the other victims, 
only then let them proceed with the omentum of 
that (cow). They cook the portions in one lot, and 
do not present any to the human kind. 

7. He then seizes seventeen victims for Pra^i- 
pati. They are all hornless, all dark-grey 2 , all 
(uncastrated) males; for he who offers the Va^a- 
peya, wins Pra^apati ; but Pra^apati is food, and 
the victim (cattle) is food : he thus wins Prafapati. 
And Pra^apati is Soma, and the victim is the visible 

1 For particulars regarding the meat portions, see part ii, p. 204 
seq. 

* Or, black and white («ikla-k«'sh»a-var«a), as ' jyama ' is ex- 
plained by Sayawa. 



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V KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 12. I 5 

Soma : he thus wins the visible Pra^apati. There 
are seventeen (victims), because Prafapati is seven- 
teenfold : he thus wins Prafapati. 

8. Now, they are all hornless ; — for man is nearest 
to Pra^apati, and he is hornless, unhorned ; and 
Pra^apati also is hornless, unhorned ; and these 
(victims) belong to Pra^apati : therefore they are 
all hornless. 

9. They are all dark-grey. Now, the dark-grey 
has two forms, the light hair and the black ; and a 
couple means a productive pair, and Pra^apati (the 
lord of generation) represents productiveness, and 
those (victims) belong to Pra^apati : therefore they 
are all dark-grey. 

10. They are all males; — for the male means 
productiveness, and Pra^apati represents productive- 
ness : hence they are all males. Difficult to obtain 
are victims with these perfections : if he cannot 
obtain them (all) with these perfections, even some 
with these perfections will do ; for verily Pragapati 
is everything here. 

11. Now, some seize the last (victim) for Vai 
(Speech), thinking, ' If there be anything beyond 
Pra^apati, that is Speech : we thus win Speech.' 
But let him not do it in this wise ; for Pra^apati is 
everything here, — these worlds and everything there 
is ; — whatever speech speaks in these worlds, that 
speech he wins : therefore he need not heed this. 

12. The course of procedure regarding these 
(victims is as follows). When the Maitravaruwa 
recites after the Vamadevya 1 , let them then proceed 



1 The Vamadevya-saman (Simav. II, 32-34) is the second 
Prish/Aa-stotra, after the chanting of which, at the midday feast, 



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1 6 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

with their omenta ; for the Vamadevya means pro- 
ductiveness, and Pra^apati means productiveness, 
and these (victims) belong to Pra^apati : therefore 
let them proceed with their omenta at that time. 

13. And (when) the after-offerings have been per- 
formed, and the spoons have not yet been shifted 
(separated) 1 , then they proceed with the (chief) obla- 
tions of those (victims). That (point in the per- 
formance) is the end, and Pra^apati is the end : 
thus he wins Pra^apati at the very end. But were 
he to proceed therewith sooner, it would be just as 
if a man had already gone the way he still intends 
to go, — and where would he be after that * ? — there- 

the first assistant of the Hotrz', the Maitravaru«a, has to recite his 
(the second) Nishkevalya-rastra ; see part ii, p. 325, note 2; p. 339, 
note 2. — As regards the Hotri's Pr*'sh/Aa-stotra, the Rathantara- 
saman (S. V. II, 30, 31) is used for it; while the Abhfvarta tune 
(S. V. ed. Bibl. Ind. Ill, p. 93) is employed in the chanting of the 
Brahma-saman (S. V. II, 35, 36 ; see part ii, p. 434, note 1) instead 
of the ordinary Naudhasa tune. TaXA. Br. 18, 6, 11-14. 

1 On this ceremony with which the concluding rites of the ish/i 
commence, see I, 8, 3, 1 seq. 

* Or possibly, what would then become of him ? The author's 
reasoning seems to be that, if the sacrificer were to offer any of the 
chief oblations at an earlier point in the performance, he would 
thereby anticipate the results he wants to obtain from the whole 
performance, — or, so to speak, he would then already reach the 
goal for the attainment of which the subsequent oblations are 
likewise intended. For the same reason the offering of the omentum 
of the sterile cow, previously to and independently of the omenta of 
the other victims, was discountenanced in paragraph 6. Our present 
passage is interpreted rather differently by Professor Delbrflck in his 
Altindische Syntax, p. 550 : — Wenn er vorher damit vorginge, so 
ware das so, als ob er, nach Betretung des Pfades, den er zu betreten 
beabsichtigt, wo? ware (d. h. in's Unglflck geriethe): 'Were he 
to proceed therewith sooner, it would be just as if, after entering on 
the path he intends to enter upon, he would be where? (i.e. would 
get into trouble).' 



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v kLnda, i adhyAya, 4 brahmaata, 2. 17 

fore they proceed with their (chief) oblations at 
that time. 

14. But let him not do it in this wise ; for he who 
departs from the path of the sacrifice stumbles ; and 
he who does it in this wise certainly departs from 
the path of the sacrifice. Hence whenever they 
proceed with the omenta of the other victims, let 
them at the same time proceed with the omenta of 
these ; and whenever they proceed with the (chief) 
oblations of the other victims, let them at the same 
time proceed with the oblations of these. There is 
but one invitatory prayer, and one offering prayer ; 
for (these offerings) belong to one deity. He says 
(to the Maitravaru*a), ' To Pra^apati ' — saying this 
(name) in a low voice — ' recite the invitatory prayer 
for the offering of the bucks ! ' — ' To Pra^apati ' — 
saying this in a low voice — ' urge the ready-standing 
offering of the bucks ! ' and as the Vasha/ is uttered, 
he makes the offering. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

1 . At the midday Soma-feast he consecrates (the 
Sacrificer) by sprinkling ; and at the midday Soma- 
feast they run a race ; for, verily, Pra^apati is 
that sacrifice 1 which is here performed, and from 
which these creatures have been produced, — and 
indeed, they are even now produced after this 
one : thus he thereby wins Pra^apati in the very 
centre (of the sacrifice). 

2. The Mahendra cup being not yet drawn, — for 

1 In the original, ' pra^apatiA ' is the predicate, not the subject, 
of the sentence ; but considerations of construction seem to render 
the change desirable in English. 
[41] C 



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1 8 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

that, the Mahendra, is Indra's special (nishkevalya) 
cup, and so also are his that Nishkevalya-stotra and 
Nishkevalya-.ra.stra ; and the Sacrificer is Indra : 
thus he consecrates him at his own dwelling-place. 
Hence, the Mahendra cup being not yet drawn, — 

3. He takes down the chariot 1 , with (Vdf. S. IX, 5), 
'Thou art Indra's thunderbolt;' for the chariot 
is indeed a thunderbolt, and the sacrificer is Indra : 
therefore he says, 'Thou art Indra's thunderbolt ;' — 
' a winner of wealth,' for the chariot is indeed a 
winner of wealth ; — ' May this one win wealth 
by thee ! ' — wealth means food : ' may this one gain 
food by thee,' is what he thereby says. 

4. That chariot, seized by the pole, he turns 
(from left to right) so as to make it stand inside the 
vedi 2 , with, 'In the winning of wealth, the 
great Mother' — wealth means food; 'in the 
winning of food, the great Mother.' — is what he 
thereby says; — 'Aditi by name, we praise with 
speech ; ' now Aditi is this earth : therefore he says, 
'Aditi by name, we praise with speech,' — ' whereon 
all this being hath settled;' for indeed thereon 
all being here is settled; — 'thereon may the 
divine SavitW prosper our stay!' whereby he 
means to say, 'thereon may the divine Savitr? 
prosper our Sacrificer ! ' 

5. He then sprinkles the horses with water, either 
when being led down to be watered, or when brought 

1 The Adhvaryu takes it down from the v&hana, or car-stand. 

* It is to be placed in the north-eastern part of the vedi, so as 
to be ready to start on the race northwards along the space between 
the Aitvala (or pit) and the utkara (heap of rubbish); the horses 
thus being close to where the Brahman will have to mount a cart- 
wheel put up on the utkara (V, 1, 5, 2). 



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V KXNDA, I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAtfA, 8. 1 9 

up after being watered. Now in the beginning the 
horse was produced from the water; while being 
produced from the water, it was produced incom- 
plete, for it was indeed produced incomplete : hence 
it does not stand on all its feet, but it stands lifting 
one foot on each side. Thus what then was left 
behind of it in the water, therewith he now com- 
pletes it, and makes it whole ; therefore he sprinkles 
the horses with water, either when being led down 
to be watered, or when brought up after being 
watered. 

6. He sprinkles them, with (Va^f. S. IX, 6), 
'Within the waters is ambrosia, in the waters 
is medicine: at the praises of the waters may 
ye wax strong, ye horses ! ' And with this also, 
' O divine waters, what rushing, high-peaked,- 
wealth-winning wave ye have, therewith may 
this one win wealth!' wealth is food: he thus 
says, ' May he thereby gain food ! ' 

7. He then yokes (the team of) the chariot. The 
right horse he yokes (puts to) first ; for in human 
(practice) they indeed put to the left horse first, but 
with the gods in this way. 

8. He yokes it, with (Vif. S. IX, 7), ' Either the 
wind, or thought — ' for there is nothing swifter 
than the wind, and nothing swifter than thought : 
therefore he says, ' Either the wind, or thought ; ' 
— '(or) the seven and twenty Gandharvas 1 , 

1 Professor Weber (in his essay on the Nakshatras, II, 278; 
Abhandl. of Berlin Academy, 1861) takes this passage (=Taitt. S. 
I, 7, 7, 2 ; Ka/4aka 13, 14; Maitr. S. I, n, 1) to contain the first 
allusion to the system of Nakshatras, or lunar mansions marking 
the daily stations occupied by the moon (masc.) during his circuit 
round the heavens. — In the ritual of the Black Ya^us (Taitt. S. 

C 2 



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20 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAtfA. 

they yoked the horse at first;' for the Gan- 
dharvas indeed yoked the horse at first : ' May they 
who yoked the horse at first yoke thee ! ' this he 
thereby says; — 'they laid speed into him,' — he 
thereby says, ' May they who laid speed into it, lay 
speed into thee ! ' 

9. He then yokes the left horse, with (Vi^ - . S. IX, 
8), 'Become thou swift as the wind, O courser, 
being yoked ! ' — thereby he says, ' Become quick as 
the wind, O courser, being yoked;' — 'be thou as 
Indra's right (steed) in beauty! ' — he thereby says, 
' Even as Indra's right (steed) for beauty, so be thou 
that of the sacrificer for beauty!' — 'May the all- 
knowing Maruts yoke thee!' he thereby says, 
'may gods yoke thee!' — 'May Tvash/r* lay 
speed into thy feet!' in this there is nothing 
obscure. He then yokes the right side-horse; for 
in human (practice) they indeed yoke the left side- 
horse first, but with the gods in this way. 

10. He yokes it, with (V4f. S. IX, 9), 'What speed 
hath been secretly laid into thee, O courser, 
and what (speed), bestowed on the eagle, went 
along in the wind ; ' — he thereby says, ' what speed 
of thine, O courser, is hidden away even elsewhere, 
therewith win this our sacrifice, Pra^ipati!' — 'with 
that strength be thou strong and wealth-win- 
ning for us, O courser, and victorious at the 
gath er ing ! ' — wealth means food : he thus means to 
say, ' And be thou a food-winner for us at this our 

I* 7. 7» 2) this formula runs thus : ' Either Vayu, or Manu, or 
the Gandharvas, the twenty-seven, harnessed the horse at first, laid 
speed into him,' — which SSyana, however, interprets as meaning, 
' V£yu, and Manu, and the (twenty-five) Gandharvas, — these seven 
and twenty &c.' 



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V KAiVDA, I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 1 4. 21 

sacrifice, at the gathering of the gods win thou this 
sacrifice, Pra^ipati ! ' 

11. Now only those three (horses) are yoked, for 
what is threefold belongs to the gods, and this 
(sacrifice is) with the gods. Alongside the yoke (laid) 
on the side-horse * goes a fourth (horse), for that one 
is human. When he is about to give that (chariot to 
the Adhvaryu), he gives it after yoking the fourth 
(horse) thereto. Hence also at any other sacrifice 
only those three (horses) are yoked; for what is 
threefold belongs to the gods, and this (sacrifice is) 
with the gods. Alongside the yoke of the side-horse 
goes a fourth (horse), for that one is human. When 
he is about to give that (chariot) away, he gives it 
after yoking the fourth (horse) thereto. 

12. He now takes out material for a wild-rice pap 
of seventeen plates for Brzhaspati ; for he who 
offers the Va^apeya wins food, — va^a-peya being 
doubtless the same as anna-peya (food and drink) : 
thus whatever food he has thereby won, that he now 
prepares for him. 

13. And as to why it belongs to BWhaspati : — 
Brihaspati won it in the beginning, therefore it 
belongs to Brzhaspati. 

14. And why it is prepared of wild rice : — Bri has- 
pati is the Brahman (priesthood), and those wild-rice 
grains are cooked with the Brahman (prayer), — there- 
fore it is of wild rice. It is one of seventeen plates, 



1 Or, of the leader, as would appear from Sayawa to Taitt. S. 
1, 7, 8 (p. 1024), — ' Between the right-hand and the left-hand horee 
he allows the shafts to project, and between them he puts the horse 
called " sapti" (in the text).' No fourth horse is, however, apparently 
mentioned in the ritual of the Black Ya^us. 



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22 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

because Pra^apati is seven teenfold : he thus wins 
Pra^apati. 

15. He makes the horses smell it, with 'Ye 
coursers — ;' for horses are coursers (va^in) : there- 
fore he says, 'Ye coursers/ — 'wealth-winners,' — 
wealth is food : ' food-winners ' he thereby says ; — 
'starting upon the course;' for they are about to 
run a race; — 'smell ye Brzhaspati's portion!' 
for this indeed is B^?haspati's portion : therefore he 
says, ' smell ye B^Tiaspati's portion ! ' And why he 
makes the horses smell it : he thinks, ' may I win 
Him 1 ! ' therefore he makes the horses smell it. 

Fifth BrAhmajva. 

1. Now when they run a race, he thereby wins this 
same (terrestrial) world. And when the Brahman 
sings a Saman on the cart-wheel set up on (a post) 
reaching to his navel, he thereby wins the air-world. 
And when he erects the sacrificial post, he thereby 
wins the world of the gods. Hence that threefold 
performance. 

2. The Brahman mounts a cart-wheel, set up on 
(a post) as high as his navel 2 , with (V&f. S. IX, 10), 

1 That is, Brthaspati; unless 'lokam' has to be supplied to 
' imam ' (' this world '), as might appear probable from the next 
paragraph. See also V. I, 5, 27-28. 

* According to the Taittirfya ritualists, as quoted by Saya«a 
(Taitt. S. I, 7, 8), the wheel after being mounted by the Brahman is 
to be turned round thrice in a sunwise motion ; — the (pointed) end of 
the post being apparently inserted in the navel of the wheel, lying 
horizontally upon it. The turning wheel is there compared with 
the Va^ra, or disk-shaped thunderbolt. While the wheel is turning 
round its axle, the Brahman sings the Saman. Cf. also La/y. St. 
V, 1 2, 9 seq., according to which authority, however, the Brahman 



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V KkNDA, t ADHYAyA, 5 BRAhmAYA, 6. 2% 

'At the impulse (sava) of the god Savitrs, of 
true impulsion, may I ascend unto the highest 
heaven of B Whaspati ! ' thus, if a Brahmawa sacri- 
fices ; for BWhaspati is the Brahman (priesthood, or 
sanctity), and the Brahma#a is the Brahman. 

3. And if a Ra^anya sacrifices, (he does so) with, 
'At the impulse of the divine SavitW, of true 
impulsion, may I ascend unto the highest 
heaven of Indra!' for Indra is the Kshatra (no- 
bility, or power), and the Rifanya is the Kshatra* 

4. Thrice he sings the Saman 1 . Having thrice 
sung it, he descends with, 'At the impulse of the 
divine SavitW, of true impulsion, I have as- 
cended unto the highest heaven of Brzhaspati!' 
— thus, if a Brahma#a sacrifices, for Brzhaspati is the 
Brahman, and the Brahma«a is the Brahman. 

5. And if a Ra^anya sacrifices, — with, 'At the 
impulse of the divine Savitrs, of true impul- 
sion, I have ascended unto the highest heaven 
of Indra !' for Indra is the Kshatra, and the Ra- 
^anya is the Kshatra. 

6. They put up seventeen drums along the edge 
of the altar, from the Agnidhra backwards (towards 

would seem only to put his arms on the wheel, and turn it round, 
while singing. 

1 Viz. the' va^ina/H saman' (Taw</y. Br. 18, 7, 12), Samav. I, 435, 
'avir maryS a va^am va^ino agman,' &c. ' The fiery steeds have 
gathered fiery mettle, the impulse of the god Savitr* ; win ye the 
heaven, O coursers!' Liiy. St. V, 12, 14. This singing of the 
Saman takes place while the race lasts, the Brahman remaining all 
the time on the cart-wheel put up on a short post on (or near) the 
utkara, or heap of rubbish. — The author then anticipates in this 
and the next two paragraphs what the Brahman is to do when he 
descends from the wheel after the race is over. The placing of 
the drums next referred to must also be imagined as taking place 
whilst the Brahman is mounting the wheel. 



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24 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAtfA. 

the west) ; for he who offers the Va^-apeya wins Pra- 
^apati ; but Pra^apati is speech, and that doubtless is 
the supreme speech which is (the outcome) of seven- 
teen drums : he thus wins the supreme speech, the 
supreme Prafapati. Seventeen there are, because 
Praf apati is seventeenfold : he thus wins Praf apati. 

7. One of these drums he (the Brahman) beats 
(while praying) with a sacrificial formula : thereby 
all of them become beaten with a sacrificial formula. 

8. He beats it with {V$g. S. IX, 11), ' O Brzhas- 
pati, win the race! lift ye up your voice unto 
BWhaspati : make ye Brz'haspati win the 
race ! ' thus, if a Brahma»a sacrifices ; for Br/haspati 
is the Brahman, and the Brahma»a is the Brahman. 

9. And if a Ra/anya sacrifices, (he does so) with, 
' O Indra, win the race! lift ye up your voice 
unto Indra: make ye Indra win the race!' for 
Indra is the Kshatra, and the Ra^anya is the 
Kshatra. 

10. And when those race-running chariots 1 have 
come up again, he takes down one of those drums 
with a sacrificial formula ; whereby they all become 
taken down with a formula. 

1 1. He takes it down, with (V&f. S. IX, 12), ' This 
hath been your true concord whereby ye(drums) 
have caused Brz'haspati to win the race ; — Brt- 
haspati ye have caused to win the race: be 
released, ye wood-lords!' thus, if a Brahma»a 

1 Besides the Sacrificer's chariot inside the vedi, sixteen others, 
each drawn by four horses, have been got ready, outside the vedi, 
for the race to the udumbara branch, as its goal and turning-point. 
In paragraphs 10-12 the author again anticipates what is to be 
done with the drums after the race has taken place, just in order to 
deal with that item of the ceremonial as a whole. 



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V K.ANDA, I ADHYAVA, 5 BRAHMAWA, 1 5. 2$ 

sacrifices ; for B^haspati is the Brahman, and the 
Brahmawa is the Brahman. 

12. And if a Ra^anya sacrifices, with, ' This hath 
been your true concord whereby ye have 
caused Indra to win the race; — Indra ye have 
caused to win the race: be released, ye wood- 
lords!' for Indra is the Kshatra, and the Ra^anya 
is the Kshatra. 

1 3. A R4fanya then * shoots seventeen arrow's 
ranges northwards from the edge of the altar ; for 
as much as is one arrow's range, so much is Pra^apati 
crosswise; and as much as are seventeen arrow's 
ranges, so much is Pra^apati lengthwise. 

14. And as to why a Ra^anya shoots, — he, the 
Ra^anya is most manifestly of Pra^apati (the lord of 
creatures) : hence, while being one, he rules over 
many; and because ' pra^apati' has four syllables, 
and ' ra^anya 2 ' also has four syllables, therefore a 
Ra^anya shoots. He shoots seventeen arrow's 
ranges, because Prafapati is seventeenfold : he 
thereby wins Pra^apati. 

1 5. And whichever (horse) he yokes with a formula, 
up to that the Sacrificer now steps s , with (Va^f. S. 
IX, 13), 'At the impulse of the divine Savitrf, 



1 That is, after (or at the same time when) the drums are put 
up. He is to shoot northwards through the space between the 
utkara and ^atvdla. At the end of the seventeenth arrow's range 
he plants an udumbara branch in the ground to serve as the goal 
round which the chariots are to turn sunwise on their way back to 
the sacrificial ground. 

* Pronounce ' li-^-nf-a.' 

8 In the Taittiriya ritual (Taitt. S. I, 7, 7, 2 ; Taitt. Br. I, 
3, 5, 4) the Sacrificer steps up to the chariot with the three Vish»u- 
strides, with appropriate formulas. 



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26 SATAPATHA-BUAHMAtfA. 

of true impulsion, may I win the race of the 
race-winning Brzhaspati !' 

1 6. And even as then Br/haspati hasted up to 
Savitri for his impulsion, — SavitW being the inv 
peller among the gods — saying, ' Impel this for me : 
impelled by thee, may I win this ! ' and SavitW, as 
the impeller, impelled it for him, and impelled by 
Savitrz, he won ; in like manner does he thereby 
haste up to Savitr? for his impulsion, — Savitr* being 
the impeller among the gods, — saying, ' Impel this 
for me : impelled by thee, may I win ! ' and Savitrz, 
as the impeller, impels it for him, and impelled by 
Savitrz he wins. 

17. And if a pupil of the Adhvaryu's or some 
(other) theological student were to know that prayer, 
stepping up he makes (the Sacrificer) say, ' O 
coursers!' — for horses are indeed coursers: there- 
fore he says, 'O coursers' — 'wealth-winners!' for 
wealth is food : ' food-winners ' he thereby says ; — 
' keeping the roads,' for they indeed run keeping 
(within) the roads ; — 'measuring the stages;' for 
measuring the stages they run over the course; — 
'go ye to the winning-post!' In order that the 
evil-doers, the Rakshas, may not hurt them mid- 
ways, he thus says this. — They run the race, they 
beat the drums, and he (the Brahman) sings the 
Saman. 

1 8. He (the Adhvaryu) then 1 either offers or 
addresses (the horses) with those two ^agatl-verses : 
whether he offers, or whether he addresses (the 



1 That is, he does so whilst the cars are running; the offer- 
ing or prayers being intended to make the Sacrificer's car win 
the race. 



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V KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAA'A, 24. 2"J 

horses), the significance (of the performance) is the 
same. 

19. He offers, with (Va^. S. IX, 14; Rik S. IV, 
40, 4), 'That courser speedeth after the whip, 
fettered at the neck and shoulder and mouth : 
may Dadhikra win according to his power; 
may he run along the windings of the roads, 
hail!' 

20. \Vig. S. IX, 15 ; Rik S. IV, 40, 3], ' And of 
him, the running, speeding, there fanneth like 
the wing of the eager bird, — as of the gliding 
eagle, — about the breast of Dadhikravan pass- 
ing along with might, hail !' 

2i. He then either offers or addresses (the horses) 
with the following tristich : this is twofold, because 
he either offers or addresses. Whether he offers, or 
addresses (the horses), the significance is the same : 
he thereby speeds those running horses, imbues them 
with energy. There are here three earths, namely 
this one, and two beyond it : these he thereby wins. 

22. He addresses (the horses, with V&g. S. IX, 16 ; 
Rik S. VII, 38, 7), 'Auspicious be the coursers 
unto us at the invocations in the divine ser- 
vice, running their measured course, with 
beautiful song; swallowing the dragon, the 
wolf, the evil spirits : may they ever keep away 
from us affliction !' 

23. [Va^. S. IX, 17; Rik S. X, 64, 6], 'Those 
racers, wont to hear the calls, may they all hear 
our call, the coursers running their measured 
course: they, the winners of thousands, eager 
to win at the winning of oblations, who have 
carried off great gain in the contests.' 

24. [Va^. S. IX, 18; Rik S.VII, 38, 8J 'In 



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28 SATAPATHA-BkAHMAtfA. 

every race, help us, ye racers, at the prizes, ye 
wise, immortal knowers of the divine law: 
drink of this mead, be gladdened, and satisfied 
walk ye on the paths trodden by the gods ! ' 

25. He then 1 steps over against (the horses) with 
the Barhaspatya pap, and touches it; for he who 
offers the Vi^apeya wins food, since ' vifa-peya ' is 
the same as ' anna-peya : ' whatever food he has thus 
gained that he now, having reached that goal, brings 
in contact with himself, puts within himself. 

26. He touches it, with (Va^ - . S. IX, 19), 'May 
gain of wealth come to me!' wealth means food : 
he thus says, ' May gain of food come (accrue) to me ; ' 
— 'May these two, Heaven and Earth, the all- 
shaped, come to me!' for Pra^apati is Heaven and 
Earth; — ' May father and mother come to me!' 
for Pra^apati is both father and mother; — 'May 
Soma come to me with immortality!' for Pra^t- 
pati is Soma. 

27. He makes the horses smell it, with, 'Ye 
coursers!' for horses are coursers: therefore he 
says, 'Ye coursers!' — 'wealth-winners!' wealth is 
food: 'food-winners' he thereby says; — 'having 
run the course — ' for 'starting (upon the course) ' 
he said before, as then they were indeed starting ; 
but now he says, ' having run,' for they indeed have 
run (the race) : therefore he says, ' having run ; ' — 
'smell ye Brzhaspati's portion — ' for this is Bn- 
haspati's portion : therefore he says, ' Smell ye 
Brz'haspati's portion;' — 'taking (it) in!' whereby 
he imbues the Sacrificer with energy. And as to why 

1 That is, after the cars have come back, that of the Sacrificer 
keeping ahead of the others. 



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/ • ' 

< V 
V KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I JBRAHMAiVA, l/ 2Q 

he makes the horses smell, — he made them smell 
before, thinking, ' May I win this (world) ; ' and now 
(he does so) thinking, ' I have won this (world) : ' 
that is why he makes the horses smell. 

28. Now on one of those race-running (rival) 
chariots there has been standing either a Vai^ya, or a 
Rafanya ; he now sits down on the northern hip of 
the altar. Thereupon the Adhvaryu and Sacrificer, 
taking the honey-cup, step out by the front door (of 
the cart-shed), and place it in the Vaisya's, or Ra- 
^anya's, hand. And the Nesh/f?', taking the cups of 
Sura, steps out by the back door. He walks round 
by the back of the hall, and placing one (of the cups) 
in the Valrya's, or Ra^anya's, hand, he says, ' With 
this I buy Him of thee ! ' For the Soma is truth, 
prosperity, light; and the Sura is untruth, misery, 
darkness : he thus imbues the Sacrificer with truth, 
prosperity, and light ; and smites the Vawya with 
untruth, misery, and darkness ; — whatever benefit (or 
enjoyment) he desires, he obtains for himself by 
those (cups of Sura). But that cup of honey he 
presents to the Brahman, together with the golden 
vessel. In presenting it to the Brahman, he imbues 
himself with immortal life ; for gold is immortal 
life ; — and whatsoever benefit he desires that he 
thereby obtains for himself. 

Second AdhyAya. First BrAhma^a. 

1. Thereupon, taking the dipping-spoon (sruva) 
and the pot for melting butter, he goes to the 
Ahavaniya fire. He either offers those twelve 
apt is 1 , or makes (the Sacrificer) pronounce (the 

1 The term ipti, literally ' obtainment, gain,' is technically used 

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30 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

formulas). Whether he offers, or makes him pro- 
nounce (the formulas), the significance is the same. 

2. He offers, with (V&f. S. IX, 20), 'To the ally, 
hail! — To the good ally, hail! — To the after- 
born, hail! — To the purpose, hail! — To the 
Vasu, hail! — To the Lord of day, hail! — To 
the failing day, hail! — To the failing one, 
sprung from the evanescent, hail! — To the 
evanescent one, sprung from the terminal, 
hail! — To the terminal descendant of being, 
hail! — To the Lord of being, hail! — To the 
over-lord, hail!' These twelve aptis (obtain- 
ments) he offers, because there are twelve months in 
the year, and Pra^apati is the year, and the sacrifice 
is Pra/apati : hence whatever obtainment, whatever 
accomplishment there is for him 1 , that he thereby 
wins, that he makes his own. 

3. He then either offers six k/z'ptis 2 , or makes 
(the Sacrificer) pronounce them. Whether he offers, 
or makes him pronounce them, the significance is 
the same. 

4. He makes him pronounce (Va^ - . S. IX, 21), 
'May the life prosper through sacrifice! — 
May the breath prosper through sacrifice! — 
May the eye prosper through sacrifice! — May 
the ear prosper through sacrifice! — May the 
back prosper through sacrifice! — May the sa- 
fer the twelve formulas, given in the next paragraph, as well as for 
the oblations made therewith. The first of these formulas is ' apaye 
svahS.,' whence the above term is probably derived. 

1 Or perhaps, ' there is of (belongs to) that (sacrifice).' 
* This term, literally 'success, accomplishment,' is technically 
used to denote the succeeding formulas containing the verb 'k/i'p,' 
to succeed, prosper, as well as the oblations made therewith. 



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V KAtfDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 8. 3 1 

crifice prosper through sacrifice!' These six 
k/zptis he makes him pronounce, because there are 
six seasons in the year, and Pra^apati is the year, 
and the sacrifice is Pra^apati : thus whatever success, 
whatever accomplishment there is for him, that he 
thereby wins, that he makes his own. 

5. The sacrificial post is eight-cornered ; for the 
Giyatrl metre has eight syllables, and the Gayatrl 
is Agni's metre : he thereby wins the world of the 
gods. The post is either wrapt up, or bound up, in 
seventeen cloths ; for Praf apati is seventeenfold ; 
he thus wins Pra^apati. 

6. There is a wheaten head-piece ' on it ; for man 
is nearest to Pra^apati, and he is skinless 2 . And 
among plants wheat comes nearest to man, (for) it 
has no skin : thus he thereby wins the world of men. 

7. The post has a hollow (at the top), and is not 
pointed at the end ; for the hollow is sacred to the 
Fathers : he thus gains the world of the Fathers. 
It is seventeen cubits long, for Pra^apati is seventeen^ 
fold : he thus wins Pra^apati. 

8. Thereupon the Nesh/rz, being about to lead up 
the (Sacrificer's) wife, makes her wrap round herself, 
over the garment of consecration, a cloth, or skirt, 
made of Kusa grass 3 ; for she, the wife, is the hind 



1 For the ordinary mortar-shaped top-piece fixed on the post, 
see part ii, p. 168, note 1. On the present occasion it is to be 
made of wheaten dough. 

s According to a legend given at III, 1, 2, 13 seq., man had 
originally a (hairy) skin, or hide ; but the gods having flayed him, 
put his skin on the cow. 

* In the ceremonial of the Black Ya^gTis (Taitt. Br. I, 3, 7, 1) the 
Sacrificer himself has to put on a ' tarpya ' garment, for which see 
note on V, 2, 5, 20. 



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32 satapatha-brAhma#a. 

part of the sacrifice 1 ; and he wishes her, thus 
coming forward, to propitiate the sacrifice. But 
impure is that part of woman which is below the 
navel, and pure are the plants of (Kusa) grass : thus 
having, by means of those plants of (Ku^a) grass, 
made pure whatever part of her is impure, he causes 
her to propitiate the sacrifice, while coming forward. 
This is why the Neshtri, being about to lead up 
the wife, makes her wrap round herself, over the 
garment of consecration, a cloth, or skirt, made of 
Kura grass. 

9. He then leans a ladder (against the post). He 
may ascend either from the south northwards, or 
from the north southwards ; but let him rather ascend 
from the south northwards (udak), for thus it goes 
upwards (udak). 

10. Being about to ascend, he (the Sacrificer) 
addresses his wife, 'Come, wife, ascend we the 
sky!' — 'Ascend we!' says the wife. Now as to 
why he addresses his wife: she, the wife, in sooth 
is one half of his own self; hence, as long as he 
does not obtain her, so long he is not regenerated, 
for so long he is incomplete. But as soon as he 
obtains her he is regenerated, for then he is complete. 
' Complete I want to go to that supreme goal,' thus 
(he thinks) and therefore he addresses his wife. 

1 1. He ascends, with, 'We have become Pra,f a- 
pati's children;' for he who offers the Vd^apeya^ 
indeed becomes Pra^apati's child. 

12. He then touches the wheat (top-piece)*, with, 

1 Viz. because her ordinary seat is at the back, or west, end of 
the altar. 

* According to the ritual of the Black Ya^-us (Sly. on Taitt. S. 
I> 7> 9» vol. i, p. 1039), the Sacrificer, having ascended, lifts up his 



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V KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, I J. 33 

'We have gone to the light, O ye gods!' for 
he who offers the Va^apeya, indeed goes to the 
light. 

1 3. And as to why he touches the wheat : wheat is 
food, and he who offers the Vi^apeya, wins food, for 
va^a-peya is the same as anna-peya (food and drink): 
thus whatever food he has thereby won, therewith 
now that he has gone to that supreme goal, he puts 
himself in contact, and possesses himself of it, — 
therefore he touches the wheat (top-piece). 

14. He then rises by (the measure of) his head 
over the post, with, ' We have become immortal!' 
whereby he wins the world of the gods. 

1 5. Thereupon, while looking in the different direc- 
tions, he mutters (Va^*. S. IX, 22), 'Ours be your 
power, ours your manhood and intelligence, 
ours be your energies!' For he who offers the 
V4?apeya wins everything here, winning as he does 
Prafapati, and Pra^apati being everything here; — 
having appropriated to himself the glory, the power, 
and the strength of this All, he now lays them 
within himself, makes them his own : that is why he 
mutters, while looking in the different directions. 

16. They throw up to him bags of salt; for salt 
means cattle, and cattle is food ; and he who offers 
the Va^apeya wins food, for va^a-peya is the same 
as anna-peya : thus whatever food he thereby has 
gained, therewith now that he has gone to the 
supreme goal, he puts himself in contact, and makes 
it his own, — therefore they throw bags of salt up 
to him. 

1 7. They (the pieces of salt) are done up in asvattha 

arms to heaven, praying, ' We have gone to the light, to the gods, 
we have become immortal ; we have become Pra^ipati's children ! ' 



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34 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

(ficus religiosa) leaves : because Indra on that 
(former) occasion called upon the Maruts staying 
on the Asvattha tree 1 , therefore they are done up 
in ayvattha leaves. Peasants (vis) throw them up to 
him, for the Maruts are the peasants, and the peasants 
are food (for the nobleman) : hence peasants throw 
them up. There are seventeen (bags), for Pra^apati 
is seventeenfold : he thus wins Pra/apati. 

1 8. Thereupon, while looking down upon this 
(earth), he mutters, 'Homage be to the mother 
Earth! homage be to the mother Earth!' For 
when Brzhaspati had been consecrated, the Earth 
was afraid of him, thinking, ' Something great surely 
has he become now that he has been consecrated : 
I fear lest he may rend me asunder 8 !' And 
IWhaspati also was afraid of the Earth, thinking, 
'I fear lest she may shake me off!' Hence by 
that (formula) he entered into a friendly relation 
with her ; for a mother does not hurt her son, nor 
does a son hurt his mother. 

19. Now the Brehaspati Soma-feast 3 is the 
same as the Va^apeya ; and the earth in truth is 
afraid of that (Sacrificer), thinking, ' Something great 

1 See part ii, p. 334, with note 2. On the ' arvattha devasadana ' 
cp. also Ath.-veda V, 4, 3; Rig-veda I, 164, 20-22; A. Kuhn, 
Herabkunft des Feuers und des Gottertranks, p. 126 seq. (Mythol. 
Stud. i. p. 112 seq.). 

* Or, ' I hope he will not rend me asunder.' For this construc- 
tion — exactly corresponding to the German 'dass (or, wenn) er 
mich nur nicht aufreisst I ' (cf. also the colloquial use of the French 
'pourvu,' — ' pourvu qu'il ne me de"chire pas!') — see part ii, p. 31, 
note 1. 

' The Brjliaspatisava is performed by a Brahmana with a view 
to obtaining the office of Purohita (royal chaplain, or family priest). 
For Afvaliyana's rule, which places it on a level with the Ra^asuya 
sacrifice of a king, see p. 4, note 1. 



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V KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 24. 35 

surely has he become now that he has been conse- 
crated : I fear lest he may rend me asunder ! ' And 
he himself is afraid of her, thinking, ' I fear lest she 
may shake me off!' Hence he thereby enters into 
a friendly relation with her, for a mother does not 
hurt her son ; neither does a son hurt his mother. 

20. He then descends (and treads) upon a piece of 
gold ; — gold is immortal life : he thus takes his stand 
on life immortal. 

21. Now (in the first place) he (the Adhvaryu) 
spreads out the skin of a he-goat, and lays a (small) 
gold plate thereon : upon that — or indeed upon this 
(earth) itself — he (the Sacrificer) steps. 

22. They then bring a throne-seat for him; for 
truly he who gains a seat in the air \ gains a seat 
above (others) : thus these subjects of his sit below 
him who is seated above, — this is why they bring 
him a throne-seat. 

23. It is made of udumbara wood, — the Udumbara 
tree being sustenance, (that is) food, — for his obtain- 
ment of sustenance, food : therefore it is made of 
udumbara wood. They set it down in front of the 
Havirdhana (cart-shed), behind the Ahavaniya (fire). 

24. He then spreads the goat-skin thereon; for 
truly the he-goat is no other than Pra^apati, for they, 
the goats, are most clearly of Pra^apati (the lord of 
generation or creatures); — whence, bringing forth 
thrice in a year, they produce two or three 2 : thus 
he thereby makes him (the Sacrificer) to be Pra^apati 
himself, — this is whyhe spreads the goat-skin thereon. 

1 The Sacrificer is supposed to have done so by the symbolical 
act of raising his head above the sacrificial post; see paragraph 14 
above. 

* See IV, 5, 5, 6 ; part ii, p. 407, note 3. 

D 2 



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36 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

25. He spreads it, with, 'This is thy kingship 1 !' 
whereby he endows him with royal power. He then 
makes him sit down, with, 'Thou art the ruler, 
the ruling lord!' whereby he makes him the ruler, 
ruling over those subjects of his ; — ' Thou art firm, 
and stedfast!' whereby he makes him firm and 
stedfast in this world; — 'Thee for the tilling! — 
Thee for peaceful dwelling! — Thee for wealth ! 
— Thee for thrift!' whereby he means to say, 
' (here I seat) thee for the welfare (of the people).' 

Second BrAhma^a. 

1. He now proceeds with the Barhaspatya pap. 
Its svish/akr/t remains yet unoffered, when he (the 
Adhvaryu) brings 2 him (the Sacrificer) some food ; 
for he who offers the Va^apeya wins food, va^a- 
peya being the same as anna-peya : thus whatever 
food he (the Sacrificer) has thereby gained, that 
he (the Adhvaryu) now brings to him. 

2. In a vessel of udumbara wood — the Udumbara 
tree being sustenance, (that is) food — for the obtain- 
ment of sustenance, food : therefore it is in a vessel 
of udumbara wood. He first brings water, then milk, 
then (other) kinds of food, as they occur to him. 

3. Now some bring seventeen kinds of food, 

1 Thus the formula 'iyam te ra/' is interpreted by Mahidhara 
(who, however, takes it to be addressed to the throne-seat, and not, 
as would seem preferable, to the king), and apparently also by our 
author. The word ' r&g ' would indeed seem to mean here some- 
thing like the energy (jakti), or the symbol, of the king. The St. 
Petersburg dictionary, however, takes it here as the name of a 
female deity. 

* He collects (sambharati), or provides food for him ; this cere- 
mony corresponding to that of equipping or provisioning the sacred 
fire with the so-called sambharas, at the Agny-adhana; see II, 
1, 1, 1 seq. ; part i, p. 276, note 1. 



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V KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 4. 37 

saying, ' Seventeenfold is Pra^apati.' But let him 
not do so : surely all the food is not appropriated to 
Pra^apati \ and, compared to him, what is man that 
he should appropriate to himself all food ? Hence, 
while bringing every kind of food that occurs to him, 
let him not bring of some one (particular) kind of 
food. 

4. And whatever food he does not bring to him, 
let him (the Sacrificer) forswear 2 that, and not eat of 
it as long as he lives : thus he does not go to the 
end, thus he lives long. Of all that food brought 
together he offers the (seven) Va/a-prasavanlya 3 
oblations, cutting out (pieces) with the dipping-spoon. 
Thus to whatever deities he is now offering, they 
give an impulse to him, and impelled by them he 

1 Or 'from Pra^apati;' or perhaps, 'surely not all Pra^&pati's 
food is appropriated.' The Ka«va recension reads thus, VI, 2, 3, 3. 
He first brings water, then milk, then, as they occur to him (other) 
kinds of food. ' Let him bring those seventeen kinds of food,' they 
say, * for Pra^dpati is seventeenfold.' Nevertheless (tadu) let him 
bring whatever kinds of food he can either think of or obtain. 4. Of 
this his food that has been brought together, let him set aside (ud- 
dharet) one (particular kind of) food : let him forswear that (tad 
udbruvtta), and not eat of it as long as he lives (y&va^- ^ivet). By 
that much also (or, even so long, tavad api vai prigapateA sarvam 
annam anavaruddham) all the food of Pra^apati is not appropriated ; 
and who is man (compared) to him, that he should appropriate to 
himself all food ? Thus he does not go to the end, thus he lives 
long : that (food) is here left over for his offspring (or people). 

* Sayawa explains ' tasya udbruvtta ' by, — one ought to proclaim 
it, saying aloud 'such and such food has not been brought;' — na 
sambhri'tam ity U/Wais tann&ma brfiyat. 

* That is, oblations calculated to promote or quicken (pra-su) 
the strength (food, — va^a) by their prayers, the first three of which 
begin with ' va^asya . . . prasava^.' See p. 2, note 1. In the Black 
Ya^us ritual these oblations are called 'AnnahomaA' or 'food- 
oblations.' Taitt. Br. I, 3, 8, 1. The Sutras seem, however, like- 
wise to use the term ' Va^aprasavaniya' (or Va^-aprasaviya). 



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38 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

wins : therefore he offers the Va^aprasavaniya 
oblations. 

5. He offers with (Vif. S. IX, 23-29), 'The im- 
pulse of strength impelled of old that king 
Soma in the plants, in the waters: may they be 
rich in honey for us! may we be wakeful in the 
kingdom, placed in the front, hail ! ' 

6. 'Theimpulseof strength spread overthis 
sky, and over all these worlds, as the all-ruler; 
knowing he causeth him to give gifts who 
wisheth not to give: may he bestow upon us 
wealth with the full muster of heroes, hail!' 

7. 'Yea, the impulse of strength prevailed 
over all these worlds, on every side; from days 
of yore the king goeth about knowing, increas- 
ing the people, and the well-being amongst us, 
hail!' 

8. ' To ' king Soma, to Agni we cling 1 for 
help, to the Adityas, to Vish»u, to Surya, to the 
Brahman Brz'haspati, hail!' 

9. ' Urge thou Aryaman, Brzhaspati, Indra to 
the giving of gifts, Va£ 2 , Vish«u, Sarasvat!, and 
the vigorous Savitrz", hail!' 

10. ' O Agni, speak to us here, be thou gracious 
unto us! bestow blessings upon us, O winner of 
thousands, for thou art the giver of wealth, hail ! ' 

11. 'May Aryaman bestow blessings upon 
us, and Pushan, and Brzhaspati ! may the divine 
Va£ give us gifts, hail ! ' 

12. With the remaining (offering material) he 
sprinkles him (the Sacrificer) ; he thereby sprinkles 

1 Rig-veda X, 141, 3 reads, — King Soma, Agni we invoke with 
our voices, the Adityas, &c. 

• Rig-veda X, 141, 5 has Vita (Wind) instead of Va£ (Speech). 



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v kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaata, i 5. 39 

him with food, bestows food upon him : for this 
reason he sprinkles him with the remaining 
(material) '. 

13. He sprinkles with (Va£\ S. IX, 30), 'At the 
impulse of the divine Savitrz, (I sprinkle) thee, 
by the arms of the A^vins, by the hands of 
Pushan!' he thus sprinkles (consecrates) him by 
the hands of gods ; — ' I place thee in the leading 
of Sarasvatl Vkk, the leader;' for Sarasvatl is 
Vi/£ (speech) : he thus places him in the leading of 
Vai, the leader. 

14. Here now some say, ' I place thee in the 
leading of the leader of all the gods ; ' for all the 
gods are the All : he thus places him in the leading 
of the leader of the All. But let him not say so ; 
let him rather say, ' I place thee in the leading of 
Sarasvatl Vai ; ' for Sarasvatl is Va£ : he thus places 
him in the leading of Va£. — ' I consecrate thee, 
N. N., with the supreme rulership of Brz'has- 
pati !' therewith he mentions the (Sacrificer's) name : 
he thus makes him attain to the fellowship of Br*- 
haspati, and to co-existence in his world. 

15. He then says, ' All-ruler is he, N. N. ! All- 
ruler is he, N.N. ! ' Him, thus indicated, he thereby 
indicates to the gods : ' Of mighty power is he who 
has been consecrated ; he has become one of yours ; 
protect him ! ' thus he thereby says. Thrice he says 
it, for threefold is the sacrifice. 

1 According to the Taittiriyas (Taitt. S., vol. i, p. 1049), the Sacri- 
ficer is made to sit on the black antelope skin, with his face to the 
east, with a small gold and silver plate placed on either side of him; 
and he is then sprinkled in front, on the head, so that the liquid 
runs down to his mouth, thus symbolizing the entering of food and 
strength into him. 



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40 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

1 6. He then either offers, or makes him pronounce 
(the formulas of) the U^f iti oblations \ Whether 
he offers or makes him pronounce (the formulas), the 
significance is the same. 

17. He makes him say (V&f. S. IX, 31-34), 
'With the (word of) one syllable Agni won the 

breath: may I win that! 2 With the (metre 

of) seventeen syllables Pra^apati won the 
seventeenfold stoma: may I win that!' whatever 
those deities won by means of those (formulas), that 
he now wins by them. There are seventeen (for- 
mulas), for Prafapati is seventeenfold : he thus wins 
Pra^apati. 

18. Thereupon he says, 'Recite (the invitatory 
formula) to Agni Svish/akrzt!' Now, as to why 
this rite is performed between two oblations. Pra^a- 
pati, truly, is that sacrifice which is here performed, 
and from which these creatures have been produced, 
— and, indeed, they are even now produced after this 
one : he thus wins Pra^apati in the very middle : 
therefore that rite is performed between two obla- 
tions. Having made (the Agntdhra) utter the 

1 That is, oblations of ' victory,' with the formulas used there- 
with, containing each two forms of the verb ud-^i, 'to conquer.' 

2 The intervening formulas here understood, and given in the 
Vig. Sawhita, are to the effect that the Arvins, by two syllables, 
gained the two-footed men; Vishmi, by three, the three worlds; 
Soma, by four, the four-footed cattle; Pushan, by five, the five 
regions (the four quarters and the upper region) ; Savitn", by six, 
the six seasons ; the Maruts, by seven, the seven kinds of domestic 
animals ; BnTiaspati, by eight, the Gayatri metre ; Mitra, by nine, 
the Trivrrt stoma (hymn-tune) ; Varuwa, by ten, the Yir&g metre ; 
Indra, by eleven, the Trish/ubh metre ; the All-gods, by twelve, the 
(ragati metre ; the Vasus, by thirteen, the thirteenfold stoma ; the 
Rudras, by fourteen, the fourteenfold stoma ; the Adityas, by fifteen, 
the fifieenfold stoma ; Aditi, by sixteen, the sixteenfold stoma. 



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V KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAATA, 21. 4 1 

*Srausha/, he says, ' Pronounce the offering- 
prayer to Agni Svish/akm!' and offers as the 
Vasha/ is uttered. 

19. He then puts the Ida on (the idapatri). The 
Ida having been invoked \ he, having touched water, 
draws the Mahendra cup. Having drawn the Ma- 
hendra cup, he sets the chant agoing 2 . He urges 
him (the Sacrificer) forward to the chant: he gets 
down (from the throne-seat) ; he is in attendance at 
the Stotra, in attendance at the 6astra. 

20. Here now some, having performed that, per- 
form that 8 ; but let him not do it thus ; for the Stotra 
is his (the Sacrificer's) own self, and the ^Sastra is his 
people (or offering) : thereby then he ruins the Sacri- 
ficer; he goes astray, he stumbles; — hence having 
performed that, let him perform that : — 

21. He puts the Ida on (the dish). The Ida 
having been invoked, he, having touched water, draws 
the Mahendra cup. Having drawn the Mahendra 
cup, he sets the (PWshMa-) Stotra agoing. He urges 
him (the Sacrificer) forward to the chant : he gets 
down (from the throne-seat) ; he is in attendance at 
the chant (stotra), in attendance at the recitation 
(sastra). 

1 See I, 8, 1, 18 seq. 

* That is, the (first or Hotr»"s) Prish/Aa-stotra, for which see 
above, p. 15, note 1 ; part ii, p. 339, note 2. Its chanting is 
followed by the Nishkevalya-jastra, recited by the Hotrj'. 

5 That is to say, according to Sayasa, — they make the Svish/a- 
kr/'t, and the rising of the Sacrificer from the throne-seat, take place 
after the pronunciation of the 'uggiti' formulas, the drawing of 
the Mahendra cup, and the performance of the Stotra and .Sastra. 



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42 SATAPATHA-BRAHMANA. 



B. THE RAGASUYA, OR INAUGURATION OF 
A KING. 

Second AdhyAya. Third BrAhmajva. 

i. He offers a full-offering * ; for the full means the 
All : ' May I be consecrated after encompassing the 
All ! ' thus he thinks. At this (offering) he bestows 
a boon ; for a boon means all : ' Having encompassed 
the All (the universe), may I be consecrated ! ' thus 
he thinks. He may perform this offering, if he 
chooses ; or, if he chooses, he may disregard it. 

2. And on the following day he prepares a cake 
on eight potsherds, as sacrificial food for Anumati 2 . 
And whatever portion of (the grains) being ground, 
— either flour or rice-grains, — falls down behind the 
pin, that he throws together into the dipping-spoon 



1 On the pflr« ahuti, or libation of a spoonful of ghee, see part i, 
p. 302 note. According to Katy. St. XV, 1, 4 seq., Afv. St. IX, 
3, 2, and other authorities, this full-offering is preceded by the 
Pavitra (purificatory ceremony), a Soma-sacrifice with four diksh&s 
or initiation days (? commencing on the first day of the bright 
fortnight of Philguna), serving as the ordinary opening offering 
(anvarambha»iyesh/i). That it formed part of the ceremonial at 
the time of the composition of the Brahma»a there can be little 
doubt (cf. Pad£av. Br. 18, 8, 1), but as it is an ordinary Agnish/bma, 
the author had no reason to refer to it. 

* I. e. the approval or favour of the deities, personified. — Accord- 
ing to Ya^wka Deva (to Katy. St. XV, 1, 8), the ceremonies now 
beginning would commence on the 10th day of the bright half of 
Phalgunt ; the fifth day's ceremony from this day, viz. the first of 
the four seasonal offerings, having to be performed on the Full- 
moon of that month ; see p. 47, note 1. 



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v kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 3. 43 

(sruva) 1 . They take a firebrand from the Anvahar- 
yapa>£ana (or southern) fire, and therewith go south- 
ward. And where he finds a self-produced hollow 2 
or cleft, — 

3. Having there made up a fire, he offers with 
(V a< f. S. IX, 35), ' This, O Nirr/ti, is thy portion : 
accept it graciously, hail!' For Nirmi is this 
(Earth) ; whomsoever she seizes upon with evil, him 
she seizes upon with destruction (nirmi) : hence 
whatever part of this (Earth) is of the Nirmi nature, 
that he thereby propitiates ; and thus Nirmi does 
not seize upon him, while being consecrated. And 
the reason why he offers in a self-produced hollow or 

1 The authorities of the Black Ya^us prepare therewith a cake 
on one kapala. Taitt. S. I, 8, 1. 

* Saya«a, perhaps rightly, takes 'iri»a' here (and on Taitt. S. 
vol ii, p. 6) in the sense of ' ushara,' a spot of barren (or saline) 
soil. Cf. VII, 2, 1, 8 : ' In whatever part of this (earth) there is 
produced (of itself) a cleft, or in whatever part of it plants are not 
produced, verily that part of it Nirr/ti seizes upon.' — Kaurika-sutra 
XIII, 28 (A. Weber, Omina und Portenta, p. 386) recommends the 
following propitiatory rites in case of a sudden cleft in the ground : 
' If in the village, or house, or fire-house, or meeting-place, (the 
ground) should burst open, four cows are got ready, a white, a 
black, a red, and a one-coloured one. For twelve days he puts 
down the butter, milked together from these. In the morning of 
the twelfth, having made up a fire north of where there was that 
cleft, having swept and sprinkled it, and strewn sacrificial grass 
around it ; and having mixed (the butter) with ghee from the white 
(cow), and addressed it (the spot) with the three verses, Ath.-veda 
XII, i, 19-21 ("Agni is in the earth, in the plants, the waters carry 
Agni, Agni is in the flints, Agni is within men ; in cows, in horses 
are Agnis," &c), and touched it, let him then offer. In the same 
way on the south side; in the same way on the western side. 
Having concluded on the north side, let him offer with the (formu- 
las addressed) to Vastoshpati (the tutelary genius of the dwelling). 
Having poured the refuse in the cleft, and completed the oblations, 
he sprinkles the cleft with lustral water.' 



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44 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

cleft, is that that much of this (earth) is possessed 
with N-irmi. 

4. They then return (to the sacrificial ground) 
without looking backward. He now proceeds with 
the cake on eight potsherds for Anumati. For 
Anumati is this (Earth) ; and whosoever knows to 
do that work which he intends to do, for him indeed 
she approves (anu-man) thereof: hence it is her he 
thereby pleases, thinking ' May I be consecrated, 
approved by that (genius of) approval ! ' 

5. And as to why it is a (cake) on eight pot- 
sherds, — the Gayatri consists of eight syllables, and 
this earth is Gayatri. And as to why he offers of 
the same sacrificial food 1 both (oblations) : thereby, 
indeed, both of it comes to be this latter one (viz. 
Anumati, or approval). A garment is the sacrificial 
fee for this (offering) : for even as one clad in a gar- 
ment does not venture into the forest, but having 
deposited that garment (somewhere) escapes (robbers), 
in like manner no assault befalls him while being 
consecrated. 

6. And on the following day he prepares a cake 
on eleven potsherds for Agni and Vish»u, and 
offers it in the same way as the (regular) ish/i : this 
indeed is just what that approved initiation-offering 
to Agni and Vishwu is there 2 . Now Agni is all the 
deities, since in Agni one offers to all deities ; and 
Agni forsooth is the lower end, and Vishwu is the 
upper end : ' May I be consecrated, after thus en- 
compassing all the deities, and after encompassing 

1 Though he has offered twice (to Niirrii and Anumati), he has 
only once taken out rice for oblation. 

* Viz. at the ordinary Soma-sacrifice ; fortheDfkshantyesh/i, 
see part ii, p. 1 2. 



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V KAtfflA, 2 ADHYAyA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 8. 45 

the whole sacrifice ! ' thus he thinks, and hence there 
is a cake on eleven potsherds to Agni and Vishmi. 
Gold is the sacrificial fee for this (offering) ; for to 
Agni belongs this sacrifice, and gold is Agni's seed. 
As to Vish»u, he is the sacrifice, and Agni forsooth 
is the sacrifice: nevertheless this is Agni's alone, 
therefore gold is the fee. 

7. And on the following day he prepares a cake 
on eleven potsherds for Agni and Soma, and offers 
it in the same way as an (ordinary) ish/i, for it was 
thereby Indra slew VWtra, and thereby he gained 
that universal conquest which now is his. And in 
like manner does this (king, the Sacrificer) thereby 
slay his wicked, hateful enemy, and in like manner 
does he gain the victory. ' May I be consecrated, 
when safety and security from evil-doers have been 
gained ! ' thus he thinks : hence there is a cake on 
eleven potsherds for Agni and Soma. For this 
(offering) a bull set at liberty is the sacrificial fee; 
for yonder moon 1 they slay while setting him at 
liberty 2 : to wit, by the full-moon offering they slay 
him, and by the new-moon offering they set him at 
liberty ; — therefore a bull set at liberty is the fee. 

8. And on the following day he prepares a cake 
on twelve potsherds for Indra and Agni, and offers 
it in the same way as an (ordinary) ish/i. Now when 

1 On the identification of Vr/'tra with the moon (and Soma), see 
I. 6j 3> * 7- O n tne moon serving as food to the gods, see part ii, 
Introduction, p. xiii. According to a later conception, one kali 
(or sixteenth part of the moon's disc) was taken off each day during 
the period of the waning, and again added to it during the period 
of the waxing moon. 

* Utsar^-am . . . ghnanti ; perhaps the former has to be taken 
here as infinitive (in order to set him at liberty) rather than as 
gerund. 



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46 satapatha-brAhmawa. 

Indra slew VWtra, that vigour and energy of his went 
out of him, being frightened : by this offering he 
again possessed himself of that vigour and energy. 
And in like manner does this (Sacrificer) by this 
offering possess himself of vigour and energy ; for 
Agni is fiery spirit, and Indra is vigour and energy : 
' May I be consecrated, having embraced both these 
energies ! ' thus he thinks : hence there is a cake on 
twelve potsherds for Indra and Agni. A bull is the 
fee for this (offering), for by his shoulder he is of 
Agni's nature \ and by his testicles he is of Indra's 
nature : therefore a bull is the fee for it 

9. Thereupon he performs the offering of first- 
fruits 2 ; for verily he who performs the Ra^asuya 
secures for himself (the benefits of) all sacrificial 
rites, all ish/is, even the spoon-offerings ; and insti- 
tuted by the gods, in truth, is that ish/i, the Agra- 
ya«esh/i : ' May this also be offered by me ! May I be 
consecrated by this (offering) also ! ' thus he thinks, 
and therefore he performs the offering of first-fruits. 
Moreover, it is for the plants that he who is conse- 
crated, is consecrated ; therefore he now makes the 
plants healthy and faultless, thinking, 'May I be 
consecrated for (the obtainment of) healthy, faultless 
plants "(crops) ! ' A cow is the fee for this (offering). 

10. Thereupon he performs the Seasonal offer- 
ings s ; for verily he who performs the Ri^asuya 
secures for himself (the benefits of) all sacrificial 



1 Cp. I,i, 2, 9, '(Like) fire, verily, is the yoke of that cart: 
hence the shoulder of those (oxen) that draw it becomes as if 
burnt by fire.' 

* For the Agraya»esh/i, see part i, p. 369 seq. 

8 For the four ATaturmasy a (enumerated in the next chapter), 
see part i, p. 383 seq. 



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V KAJVDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 2. 47 

rites, all ish/is, even the spoon-offerings ; and insti- 
tuted by the gods, in truth, is that sacrificial rite, the 
Seasonal offerings : ' May these also be offered by 
me ! May I be consecrated by these (offerings) also !' 
thus he thinks, and therefore he performs the 
Seasonal offerings. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

1. He offers the Vai-rvadeva 1 (All-gods' offer- 
ing) ; for by means of the Vawvadeva, Pra^apati 
created abundance (of food) and creatures, thinking, 
* May I be consecrated, after creating abundance and 
creatures ! ' And in like manner does this (Sacrificer) 
now, by the Valrvadeva, create abundance and crea- 
tures, thinking, ' May I be consecrated, after creating 
abundance and creatures ! ' 

2. He then offers the Varu»apraghasa^ 8 ; for 
by means of the Varu#apraghasa^ Pra^apati delivered 
the creatures from Varuwa's noose, and those crea- 
tures of his were produced healthy and faultless : 
'May I be consecrated for healthy, faultless crea- 

1 This, the first of the Seasonal offerings, is to be performed on 
the full-moon of Phalgunf, the other three then following after 
intervals of four months each. During these intervals the ordinary 
fortnightly sacrifices are to be performed from day to day in this 
way that either the Full-moon and New-moon sacrifice are per- 
formed on alternate days, or the former on each day of the bright 
fortnights, and the latter on each day of the dark fortnights. 
Thus, according to Asv. St. IX, 3, 6 ; while Katy. XV, 1,18 allows 
only the latter mode. The final Seasonal offering, or .SunSsirya, 
which ordinarily is performed a twelvemonth after the Vawvadeva, 
or on the full-moon of PhSlguna, is on the present occasion to be 
performed just a year after the opening sacrifice, or Pavitra (p. 42, 
note 1), i. e. on the first day of the bright fortnight of Phalguna, 
being immediately followed by the PaSfovatiya. 

*' See part i, p. 391 seq. 



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48 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiVA. 

tures ! ' he thought. And in like manner does this 
(Sacrificer) now, by the VarimapraghasiA, deliver the 
creatures from Varu»a's noose, and those creatures 
of his are produced healthy and faultless : ' May I be 
consecrated for healthy, faultless creatures ! ' so he 
thinks. 

3. He then performs the Sakamedha^ 1 ; for by 
the Sakamedha^ the gods slew VWtra, and gained 
that universal conquest which now is theirs. And 
in like manner does this (Sacrificer) thereby now slay 
his wicked, hateful enemy ; and in like manner does 
he gain the victory, thinking, ' May I be conse- 
crated, when safety and security are gained ! ' 

4. He then performs the .Sunasirya 2 , thinking, 
' May I be consecrated, having encompassed both 
essences!' Thereupon the Paw^avattya 3 (obla- 
tion to the five winds). Having poked the Ahava- 
niya fire asunder into five parts, he offers, cutting 
out butter with the dipping-spoon. 

5. He offers in the forepart (of the fire), with (Vi^ - . 
S. IX, 35), 'To the Agni-eyed gods, the east- 
seated, hail ! ' He then offers in the southern part 



1 See part i, p. 408 seq. 

1 See part i, p. 444 seq., where the word is fancifully explained 
as composed of juna (prosperity) and stra (=sara, sap), — the two 
essences here referred to. Siyawa, following Yaska (and .Sat. Br. II, 
6> 3» <* - 8 ?), identifies the two component elements with Vayu, the 
wind, and Aditya, the sun; see part i, p. 445, note 3. 

8 The authorities of the Black Ya^us (Taitt. Br. I, 7, 1, 5) call 
this oblation PaflMvattiya, i.e. 'consisting of fivefold cut (or 
ladled)' ghee, which is offered without disturbing the fire. Prior 
to this oblation, Apastamba (Taitt. S., vol. ii, p. 93), however, pre- 
scribes a so-called Pa/Wtedhmiya, i.e. an oblation 'on five fire- 
brands,' the fire being, as here, poked about so as to form separate 
heaps in the four quarters and in the centre. 



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V KAJVBA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BrAhMAATA, "J. 49 

with, 'To the Yama-eyed 1 gods, the south- 
seated, hail!' He then offers in the hind part 
with, 'To the Visvadeva-eyed gods, the west- 
seated, hail ! ' He then offers in the northern part 
with either, ' To the Mitravaru#a-eyed gods, — 
or, To the Marut-eyed gods, — the north-seated, 
hail ! ' He then offers in the centre with, ' To the 
Soma-eyed gods, the above-seated, the vener- 
able, hail!' 

6. Having then poked (the fire) together, he offers 
with (Va^. S. IX, 36), ' The gods that are Agni- 
eyed, east-seated, to them hail! — The gods 
that are Yama-eyed, south-seated, to them 
hail! — The gods that are Vuvadeva-eyed, 
west-seated, to them hail! — The gods that 
areMitravaru»a-eyed — or,Marut-eyed — north- 
seated, to them hail ! — Thegods that are Soma- 
eyed, above-seated, venerable, to them hail!' 
Now as to why he thus offers. 

7. Now when, by means of the Sakamedha^, the 
gods were gaining that universal conquest, which 
now is theirs, they said, ' Verily the fiends, the 
Rakshas, suck out these (creatures) in the (four) 
quarters : come, let us throw the thunderbolt at 
them ! ' Now the ghee is a thunderbolt : with that 
thunderbolt, the ghee, they smote the fiends, the 
Rakshas, in the (four) quarters, and gained that uni- 
versal conquest which now is theirs. And in like 
manner does this (Sacrificer) smite the fiends, the 
Rakshas, in the quarters, by that thunderbolt, the 
ghee ; and thus he gains the victory, thinking, ' May 

1 Yama is the ruler of the departed ancestors, residing in the 
southern quarter. 

[Hi] E 



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50 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA. 

I be consecrated, when safety and security have 
been gained 1' 

8. And as to why he offers those five latter obla- 
tions. Now when they poke the Ahavanlya asunder 
into five parts, thereby they wound and tear some of 
the fire ; and hereby now he heals it : therefore he 
offers those five latter oblations. 

9. For this (offering) a carriage and pair, with 
a side horse, is the priest's fee. Three horses, 
the warrior, and the charioteer, — these are five 
breaths, and the breath is the same as the wind: 
and because that is the fee for this sacrifice, there- 
fore it is called Pa»/6avatlya (belonging to the five 
winds). 

10. He may also heal (some disease ') with this 
(offering) : For yonder blower (or purifier, the wind) 
is this breath; and the breath is the same as the 
vital energy. Now he (the wind) blows as one only, 
but on entering into man, he is divided tenfold ; and 
ten are those oblations he offers : thus he (the 
priest) endows him with the ten vital airs, with the 
whole, entire vital energy ; and were he now even 
as one whose vital spirit has departed, verily by this 
(offering) he (the priest) brings him round again. 

11. Thereupon the Indraturiya 2 . — There is a 
cake on eight potsherds for Agni, a barley pap for 
Varuwa, a pap of gavedhuka seed (coix barbata) for 
Rudra; and a mess of sour curds from a yoke- 

1 Tenapy etena vish/avra^e (v. 1. vish/abra^e) bhisha^yet. 
Ka«va rec. 

* That is, the ceremony in which the fourth oblation belongs to 
Indra. While the Madhyandinas perform this ceremony on the 
same day (the pratipad of the bright fortnight of Phalgunt), the 
Kanvas do so on the following day; the Apdmargahoma being 
then likewise shifted on another day. 



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V KAttDA, 2 ADHYAVA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 1 3. 5 I 

trained cow for Indra: this Indraturlya he offers. 
Now Indra and Agni on that occasion consulted 
with each other: 'Verily the fiends, the Rakshas, 
suck out these (creatures) in the (four) quarters : 
come, let us throw the thunderbolt at them ! ' 

1 2. Agni then spake, ' Let there be three shares 
for me, one for thee ! ' — ' So be it ! ' — By that offer- 
ing those two smote the fiends, the Rakshas, in the 
(four) quarters, and gained that universal conquest 
which now is theirs. And in like manner does this 
(Sacrificer) by that offering smite the fiends, the 
Rakshas, in the quarters ; and gain the victory, 
thinking, ' May I be consecrated, when safety and 
security have been gained ! ' 

13. Now what cake on eight potsherds there is 
for Agni, that is one of Agni's shares; and what 
barley pap there is for Varu«a — Varu»a being the 
same as Agni — that is Agni's second share; and 
what pap of gavedhuka seed there is for Rudra — 
Rudra being the same as Agni — that is Agni's third 
share. And as to why it is prepared of gavedhuka 
seed : that god surely is (the recipient) of refuse 
(remains of offering) \ and gavedhuka grass is refuse, 
— hence it is prepared of gavedhuka seed. And what 
mess of sour curds there is from a yoke-trained cow 
for Indra, that is the fourth share (being that) of 
Indra — turlya being the same as ^aturtha (fourth) — 
hence the name Indraturlya. That same yoke-trained 
cow is the fee for this (offering) ; for by her shoulder 
she is of Agni's nature, since her shoulder is, as it 
were, fire-burnt; and in that, being a female, she 
improperly draws (the cart), that is her Varu»ic 



1 On Rudra's epithet vastavya, see I, 7, 3, 1. 8. 
E 2 



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52 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

nature ; and in that she is a cow, she is of Rudra's 
nature 1 ; and in that Indra's sour curds (come) from 
her, thereby she is of Indra's nature. Indeed that 
(cow) commands all that : therefore that same yoke- 
trained cow is the fee. 

14. Thereupon he performs the Apamargahoma; 
for by means of apamarga plants (achyranthes 
aspera) the gods wiped away (apa-marf) the fiends, 
the Rakshas, in the quarters, and gained that uni- 
versal conquest which now is theirs. And in like 
manner does this (Sacrificer) now by means of 
apamarga plants wipe away the fiends, the Rakshas, 
in the quarters ; and in like manner does he gain 
the victory, thinking, ' May I be consecrated, when 
safety and security have been gained ! ' 

15. He takes apamarga grains in a dipping-spoon 
of either pala-ra (butea frondosa) or vikankata 
(flacourtia sapida) wood. They take a firebrand 
from the Anvaharyapaiana (southern) fire ; and pro- 
ceed therewith eastward or northward ; and there 
having made up a fire he offers. 

16. He takes the firebrand with (V&f. S. IX, 
37; JZik S. Ill, 24, 1), 'Encounter the arrays, 
Agni!' — arrays means battles: 'encounter the 
battles!' he thereby says; — 'Repel the evil- 
wisher!' — the evil-wisher is the enemy: 'beat off 
the enemy! 'he thereby says; — 'Unconquerable, 
conquering the evil-doers!' — unconquerable he 
is indeed, by the Rakshas, the fiends ; and conquer- 
ing the evil-doers, for he conquers every evil : 

1 Rudra rules over the beasts (III, 6, 2, 20), whence he is also 
called the lord of beasts (pajflnSm pati, I, 7, 3, 8; Parupati V, 
3, 3, 7). Pushan, the genius of thrift and prosperity, is also (like 
the Greek Pan) regarded as the protector of cattle ; see V, 2, 5, 8. 



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v kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 20. 53 

therefore he says, ' conquering the evil-doers ; ' — 
4 Bestow glory upon the offerer of sacrifice ! ' — 
' bestowing blessing on the Sacrificer,' is what he 
thereby says. 

1 7. Thereupon making up the fire he offers with 
(Va^. S. IX, 38), *At the impulse of the God 
Savitrz I offer with the arms of the Asvins, 
with the hands of Pushan, with the strength of 
the U p&msu ! ' for the Upa»«u 1 (cup of Soma) is the 
mouth (or opening) of the sacrifice : thus he slays the 
fiends, the Rakshas, by the mouth of the sacrifice ; — 
'Slain is the Rakshas, hail! 'thus he slays the 
fiends, the Rakshas. 

18. If the dipping-spoon is of pallfa wood, — the 
pallra being the Brahman — it is with the Brahman 
that he slays the fiends, the Rakshas ; and if it is of 
vikankata wood, — the vikankata being the thunder- 
bolt — it is with the thunderbolt that he slays the 
fiends, the Rakshas: 'For the slaughter of the 
Rakshas (I take) thee!' therewith he slays the 
fiends, the Rakshas. 

19. If he offers after going eastward, he throws 
the spoon towards the east ; and if he offers after 
going northward, he throws the spoon towards the 
north, with, 'We have slain the Rakshas!' thus 
he slays the fiends, the Rakshas. 

20. Thereupon they return (to the sacrificial ground) 
without looking back. Now by this (ceremony) also 
he may make for himself a counter-charm 2 . In 
whatever direction from there (his evil-wisher) is, 

1 See part ii, p. 248. 

' Viz. an amulet consisting of a band running back into itself. 
The Ka«va text has, — Tena h£py etena vish/avra^e pratisara»/ 
kurvfta. 



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54 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

looking back thither he offers ; for the Apamarga is 
of a backward effect : whosoever does anything to 
him there, him indeed he thereby pitches backward. 
Let him indicate the name of that one, saying, ' We 
have slain so and so ! So and so is slain ! ' thus he 
slays the fiends, the Rakshas. 

Fifth BrAhmaya. 

i. He prepares a cake on eleven potsherds for 
Agni and Vish#u, a pap for Indra and Vishwu, 
and either a cake on three potsherds, or a pap, 
for Vish#u. He performs that Trishaw/yukta l 
offering. Therewith the gods came by men, and in 
like manner does this (king) now thereby come by 
men. 

2. Now as to why there is that cake on eleven 
potsherds for Agni and Vishmi ; — Agni is the giver, 
and men are Vishmi's : thus Agni, the giver, gives 
him (the king) men. 

3. And as to why there is a pap for Indra and 
Vish#u ; — Indra is the Sacrificer, and men are 
Vishmi's : thus Agni, the giver, gives him (the 

1 That is, ' the triply connected,' the ceremony being made up of 
three rounds, each of which consists of three separate oblations, 
viz. : — 

1. AgnSvaishnava cake, Aindravaish«ava pap, Vaishnava pap; 

2. Agnapaushna cake, Aindrapaushna pap, Paushwa pap ; 

3. Agnfshomiya cake, Aindrasaumya pap, Saumya pap. 

In this way one of the three divinities for whom the offering is in- 
tended, — viz. Vish»u, Pushan, and Soma, — is each time connected 
with the two head-gods, Agni and Indra. — In the Black Ya^ur- 
veda, this set of offerings (not, however, called there by this name), 
is preceded by another ceremony consisting of five oblations to 
Dhatr/', Anumati, Rika, SinMli, and Kuhu. Taitt. S. 1, 8, 8. Cf. 
Sat. Br. IX, 5, 1, 38. 



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V KkNDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAWA, 8. 55 

Sacrificer) men ; he now puts himself in contact with 
them, makes them his own. 

4. And as to why there is either a cake on three 
potsherds, or a pap, for Vish/m ; — whatever men 
Agni, the giver, gives him, among them he thereby 
finally establishes him (the king) ; and whatever work 
he wishes to do with his men, that he is able to do. 
Thus he thereby approaches the men, thinking, 
' May I be consecrated, and possessed of men ! ' A 
dwarfish bull is the sacrificial fee for this (offering), 
for the dwarf belongs to Vishmi '. 

5. He then performs another Trishawyukta 
offering. He prepares a cake on eleven potsherds 
for Agni and Pushan, a pap for Indra and Pushan, 
and a pap for Pushan : this Trishawyukta he offers. 
Thereby the gods obtained cattle ; and in like manner 
does this (king) thereby obtain cattle. 

6. Now as to why there is that cake on eleven 
potsherds for Agni and Pushan ; — Agni is the giver, 
and the cattle are Pushan's : thus Agni, the giver, 
gives him cattle. 

7. And as to why there is a pap for Indra and 
Pushan ; — Indra is the Sacrificer, and the cattle are 
Pushan's: whatever cattle Agni, the giver, gives 
him, therewith he now puts himself in contact, those 
he makes his own. 

8. And why there is a pap for Pushan ; — whatever 
cattle Agni, the giver, gives him, therewith he 
thereby finally establishes him, and whatever work 
he wishes to do with his cattle, that he is able 

1 See the legend, I, 2, 5, 1 seq., which represents Vishmi as a 
dwarf, who obtained from the Asuras as much ground for the gods, 
as he lay upon. — 'Tad dhi pamshu vaish»ava»* rupaw yad v£- 
manasya goA.' Kinva rec. 



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56 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

to do : thus he comes by cattle, thinking, ' May I be 
consecrated, possessed of cattle ! ' A dark-grey l 
bull is the fee for this (offering), for such a dark-grey 
one is of Pushan's nature : there are two forms of 
the dark-grey, the white hair and the black ; and ' two 
and two ' means a productive pair, and Pushan repre- 
sents productiveness, for Pushan is cattle, and cattle 
means productiveness : thus a productive pair is ob- 
tained, — hence a dark-grey bull is the sacrificial fee. 

9. He then performs another Trishawyukta 
offering. He prepares a cake on eleven potsherds 
for Agni and Soma, a pap for Indra and Soma, 
and a pap for Soma: this Trishawyukta (triply 
connected) he offers : — Thereby the gods attained 
glory ; and in like manner does this (king) thereby 
attain glory. 

10. Now as to why there is that cake on eleven 
potsherds for Agni and Soma ; — Agni is the giver, 
and Soma is glory : thus Agni, the giver, gives him 
glory. 

11. And as to why there is a pap for Indra and 
Soma ; — Indra is the Sacrificer, and Soma is glory : 
whatever glory Agni, the giver, gives him, therewith 
he now puts himself in contact, that he makes his 
own. 

12. And why there is a pap for Soma ; — whatever 
glory, Agni, the giver, gives him, therein he now 
finally establishes him ; and whatever work he, the 
glorious, wishes to do, that he is able to do. Thus 
he thereby attains glory, — thinking, ' May I be con- 
secrated, endowed with glory ! ' for the inglorious 
one has no concern with success. A brown bull is 

' See V, 1, 3, 9. 

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v kAjvda, 2 adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, i 6. 57 

the fee for this (offering) ; for such a brown one is of 
Soma's nature. 

13. And on the following day he prepares a cake 
on twelve potsherds for (Agni) Vaisvinara, and a 
barley pap for Varu»a. These two offerings he 
performs either on days following one another, or 
so as to use the same barhis 1 . 

14. And as to why there is that (cake) for Vabva- 
nara ; — VaLrvanara (' belonging to all men ') truly is 
the year, and Pra^apati is the year; and Pra^apati 
indeed thereby created abundance and creatures, 
thinking, 'May I be consecrated, having created 
abundance and creatures ! ' And in like manner does 
that (king) thereby create abundance and creatures, 
thinking, ' May I be consecrated, having created 
abundance and creatures!' 

15. And why it is one on twelve potsherds; — 
twelve months there are in the year, and Vauvanara 
is the year : this is why it is one on twelve pot- 
sherds. 

16. And as to why there is a barley pap for 
Varu«a ; he thereby frees the creatures from every 
snare of Varu»a, from all that comes from Varu»a 2 ; 

1 That is to say, he is either to perform the VaLrvanara on one, 
and the Vanwa one on the next — in which case a different barhis, 
or altar-covering of sacrificial grass, would be needed — or he may 
perform them both on one and the same day, with the same barhis 
serving for both. 

* See III, 8, 5, 10 where I translated, ' from all (guilt) against 
Varu»a;' varuwya, doubtless, implies both the guilt incurred by 
the infringement of Varuna's sacred laws, and the punishment in- 
flicted by him. As regards the 'swearing by Varu«a(?)' there 
referred to, see Hik S. X, 97, 16 where the conjurer mutters: 
' May they (the plants) free me from the (evil) resulting from the 
curse and from Varu«a ;' — muAfctntu ma japathyad atho vanwyad 
uta. 



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58 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

and those creatures of his are produced sound and 
faultless : ' May I be consecrated for sound and 
faultless creatures (or subjects) ! ' he thinks. 

1 7. A bull is the fee for the Vai^vdnara (oblation); 
for Vauvanara is the year, and Pra^apati is the year ; 
and the bull is the Pra^apati (lord of creatures or 
generation) among cows : therefore a bull is the fee 
for the Vai^vinara. A black cloth for the V4ru«a 
(oblation), for what is black belongs to Varu«a. If 
he cannot obtain a black one, any kind of cloth will 
do: it is by its knots that the cloth belongs to 
Vanma, for the knot is sacred to Vanma. 

Third Adhyaya. First Brahmaata. 

1. Having taken up both (the Garhapatya and 
Ahavaniya) fires on the two kindling-sticks 1 , he 
goes to the house of the Commander of the 
army, and prepares a cake on eight potsherds for 
Agni Anlkavat ; for Agni is the head (anika) of the 
gods, and the commander is the head of the army : 
hence for Agni Anikavat. And he, the commander, 
assuredly is one of his (the king's) jewels 2 : it is for 

1 Each of the two ' arawis ' is held for a moment to one of the two 
fires, which are thereby supposed to become inherent in them till 
they are 'churned out' again for the new offering fire required. 
For this ' mounting ' of the fire see part i, p. 396. 

* Ratna, jewel, precious thing; whence the eleven offerings 
described in this section are called ratna-havis, or ratniniw 
havtmshi ; the recipients of these sacrificial honours, on the part of 
the newly-consecrated king, being called ratninaA, 'possessed of 
the Jewel (offering).'— In the ritual of the Black Ya^us (Taitt S. 
I, 8, 9 ; Taitt. Br. I, 7, 3) the order of the RatninaA, at whose 
houses these oblations are performed on successive days, is as 
follows: — 1. Brahman priest (a pap to Brthaspati); 2. Ra^anya 
(a cake of eleven kapSlas to Indra); 3. Consecrated Queen (pap to 



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V KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMA2VA, 3. 59 

him that he is thereby consecrated (or quickened), 
and him he makes his own faithful (follower). The 
sacrificial fee for this (jewel-offering) consists in 
gold ; for Agni's is that sacrifice, and gold is Agni's 
seed : therefore the sacrificial fee consists in gold. 

2. And on the following day, he goes to the house 
of the Purohita (the king's court chaplain), and 
prepares a pap for BWhaspati; for Brzhaspati is 
the Purohita of the gods, and that (court chaplain) is 
the Purohita (' praepositus ') of that (king) : hence it 
is for Brzhaspati. And he, the Purohita, assuredly 
is one of his (the king's) jewels : it is for him that he 
is thereby consecrated, and him he makes his own 
faithful follower. The sacrificial fee for this is a white- 
backed bullock ; for to BWhaspati belongs that upper 
region, and there above lies that path of Aryaman 
(the sun) 1 : therefore the fee for the Barhaspatya 
(oblation) is a white-backed (bullock). 

3. And on the following day he prepares a cake 
on eleven potsherds for I ndra at the dwelling of him 
who is being consecrated (the king); for Indra is the 
Kshatra (ruling power), and he who is consecrated is 



Aditi) ; 4. The king's favourite wife (pap to Bhaga) ; 5. A discarded 
wife (pap to Nim'ti) ; 6. Commander of the army (cake of eight 
kap. to Agni); 7. Suta (charioteer, Say. — cake often kap. to Vanwa); 
8. Grdmawi (cake of seven kap. to Maruts) ; 9. Kshattrt (chamber- 
lain, or superintendent of seraglio, Say. — cake of twelve kap. to 
Savitn); 10. Sawgrahftr* (treasurer, Say. — cake of two kap. to 
Arvins) ; 1 1. BMgadugha (collector of taxes, Say. — pap to Pu- 
shan); 12. Akshdvapa (dyutakara, superintendent of gambling, 
S&y. — gavidhuka pap to Rudra). — Finally the king offers in his 
own house two cake-oblations (of eleven kapilas) to Indra Sutr&- 
man (the good protector) and Indra Amhomxik (the deliverer from 
trouble). 

1 Whence the back of that upper region is white, or bright. 



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60 satapatha-brahmawA. 

the Kshatra : hence it is for Indra. The sacrificial 
fee for this is a bull, for the bull is India's own 
(animal). 

4. And on the following day, he goes to the dwell- 
ing of the Queen, and prepares a pap for Aditi ; for 
Aditi is this Earth, and she is the wife of the gods ; 
and that (queen) is the wife of that (king) : hence it 
is for Aditi. And she, the Queen, assuredly is one 
of his (the king's) jewels: it is for her that he is 
thereby consecrated, and he makes her his own 
faithful (wife). The sacrificial fee, on her part, is a 
milch cow; for this (earth) is, as it were, a milch 
cow: she yields to men all their desires; and the 
milch cow is a mother, and this (earth) is, as it were, 
a mother: she bears (or sustains) men. Hence the 
fee is a milch cow. 

5. And on the following day, he goes to the house 
of the Suta (court-minstrel and chronicler), and 
prepares a barley pap for Varurca ; for the Suta is 
a spiriter (sava), and Varu»a is the spiriter of the 
gods : therefore it is for Varu«a. And he, the Suta, 
assuredly is one of his (the king's) jewels : it is for 
him that he is thereby consecrated ; and him he makes 
his own faithful (follower). The sacrificial fee for 
this one is a horse, for the horse is Varuwa's own. 

6. And on the following day, he goes to the house 
of the Headman (Gramawt 1 ), and prepares a cake 



1 The exact function of this officer is not clearly defined. Though 
the term is also used of an ordinary village headman (Patel, Adhi- 
karin, Adigar), this could hardly apply here. Saya»a, on one pas- 
sage, indeed explains the term by ' Gramam nayati/ but elsewhere 
he explains it by 'Graman&n neta;' and some such meaning it 
may perhaps have here, — the head of commu^ administration, 
either for a district (like one of Manu's lords of a hundred, or a 



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v KfotDA, 3 adhyAya, i brAhmawa, 8. 6 1 

on seven potsherds for the Maruts ; for the Maruts 
are the peasants, and the headman is a peasant ; 
therefore it is for the Maruts. And he, the head- 
man, assuredly is one of his (the king's) jewels : it is 
for him that he is thereby consecrated, and him he 
makes his own faithful follower. The sacrificial fee 
for this (jewel) is a spotted bullock, for in such a 
spotted bullock there is abundance of colours ; and 
the Maruts are the clans (or peasants), and the clan 
means abundance ; therefore the sacrificial fee is a 
spotted bullock. 

7. And on the following day he goes to the house 
of the Chamberlain (ksliattW), and prepares a cake 
on either twelve, or eight, potsherds for Savitr? ; for 
Savitr* is the impeller (prasavitr*) of the gods, and 
the chamberlain is an impeller: hence it is for 
Savitrz. And he, the chamberlain, assuredly is one 
of his (the king's) jewels : it is for him that he thereby 
is consecrated, and him he makes his own faithful 
(follower). The sacrificial fee for this (jewel) is a 
reddish-white draught-bullock ; for SavitW is he that 
burns yonder, and he (the sun) indeed moves along ; 
and the draught-bullock also moves along, when 
yoked. And as to why it is a reddish-white one ; — 
reddish-white indeed is he (the sun) both in rising 
and in setting: therefore the sacrificial fee is a 
reddish-white draught-bullock. 

8. And on the following day he goes to the house 

thousand villages), or for the whole country. If, however, the head- 
man of a single village be intended (as the coupling of the office 
with the Maruts might lead one to suppose), he would probably be 
a hereditary territorial proprietor residing near the place where the 
inauguration ceremony takes place. Cf. V, 4, 4, 18 ; and Zimmer, 
Altindisches Lcben, p. 171. 



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62 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

of the Charioteer (samgrahitri), and prepares a 
cake on two potsherds for the A^vins ; for the two 
A.rvins are of the same womb ; and so are the chariot 
fighter 1 and the driver (sarathi) of the same womb 
(standing-place), since they stand on one and the same 
chariot : hence it is for the A^vins. And he, the 
charioteer, assuredly is one of his (the king's) jewels : 
it is for him that he is thereby consecrated, and him 
he makes his own faithful follower. The sacrificial 
fee for this (jewel) is a pair of twin bullocks, for such 
twin bullocks are of the same womb. If he cannot 
obtain twins, two bullocks produced by successive 
births (of the same cow) may also form the sacrificial 
fee, for such also are of the same womb. 

9. And on the following day he goes to the house 

1 Savyash/Ari (otherwise savyesh/&7, savyesh/fe; — savyastha, 
Kawva rec.) is explained by the commentaries as a synonym of 
sarathi, charioteer (with which it is compounded in savyesh/Aa- 
sarathf, Taitt. Br. I, 7, 9, 1, where Siyawa makes them the two 
charioteers standing on the left and right side of the warrior), but it 
seems more probable that the former terms refer to the warrior (im/w- 
ficmjs) himself (as savyashMa, Atharva-veda VIII, 8, 23, undoubtedly 
does), who stands on the left side of the driver (sarathi, qWoxot) ; 
the change of meaning being perhaps due to caste scruples about 
so close an association between the Kshatriya warrior and his Sudra 
servant, as is implied in this and other passages. (Cf. V, 3, 2, 2 
with note.) — On Taitt. S.I, 8, 9, Saya»a explains samgrahftrs as 
the treasurer (dhanasawgrahakarti koradhyaksha^), but on I, 8, 16 
optionally as treasurer or charioteer; while the Sflta is I, 8, 9 
identified by him with the charioteer (sarathi). It is more probable, 
however, that at the time of the Brahmana the Sflta occupied much 
the same position as that assigned to him in the epics, viz. that of 
court-bard and chronicler. The connection of the sawgrahf tri with 
the Ajvins can also scarcely be said to favour the interpretation of 
the term proposed by Siyana (who, moreover, is himself compelled, 
on Taitt. S. I, 8, 15; Taitt Br. I, 7, io, 6, to take it in the sense 
of charioteer). 



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v kAnda, 3 adhyaya, i brAhmajnta, io. 63 

of the Carver (bhagadugha 1 ), and prepares a pap 
for Push an, for Pushan is carver to the gods; and 
that (officer) is carver to that (king) : therefore it is 
for Pushan. And he, the carver, assuredly is one of 
his (the king's) jewels : it is for him that he is thereby 
consecrated, and him he makes his own faithful 
follower. The sacrificial fee for this (jewel) is a 
dark-grey bullock : the significance of such a one 
being the same as at the Trishawyukta 2 . 

10. And on the following day, having brought 
together gavedhuka (seeds) from the houses of the 
Keeper of the dice (akshavapa 3 ) and the Hunts- 
man (govikartana *), he prepares a gavedhuka pap 
for Rudra at the house of him who is consecrated. 
These two, while being two jewels (of the king), he 
makes one for the purpose of completeness. And as 
to why he performs. this offering, — Rudra is hanker- 
ing after that (cow) which is killed here in this hall ; 

1 The meaning ' tax-gatherer, collector of tithes (or rather, of 
the sixth part of produce)' assigned to the term by Saya«a, both 
here, and on Taitt. S. I, 8, 9, might seem the more natural one, 
considering the etymology of the term. See, however, the expla- 
nation given of it in our Brahmana 1, 1, 2, 17 : — ' Pushan is bhS~ 
gadugha (distributor of portions) to the gods, who places with his 
hands the food before them.' This clearly is Homer's 6airp6t, — 
Od. 1, 1 4 1-2 : 

datrpbt it Kpttm mvaxat irape6r\Ktv atipat 
iraiToi'w, irapit it <npi riBti ^pwrem KvntXka. 

* See V, 2, 5, 8. 

* 'The thrower, or keeper, of the dice,' according to Sayawa. 
At V, 4, 4, 6 the verb a-vap is used of the throwing the dice into 
the hand of the player ; and it is perhaps that function of the keeper 
of the dice which is meant to be expressed by the term ('der 
Zuwerfer der Wtlrfel '). 

4 Literally, the cutter up of cows, the (beef-) butcher. But 
according to Sayawa, this official was the constant companion of 
his master in the chase. 



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64 satapatha-brAhma^a. 

now Rudra is Agni (fire), and the gaming-board 
being fire, and the dice being its coals, it is him 
(Rudra) he thereby pleases. And verily whosoever, 
that knows this thus, performs the Ri^asuya, in his 
house that approved (cow) is killed. And he, the 
keeper of dice, and the huntsman, are (each of them) 
assuredly one of his (the king's) jewels : it is for 
these two that he is thereby consecrated, and these 
two he makes his own faithful followers. The sacri- 
ficial fee for this (jewel) is a bicoloured bullock — 
either one with white fore-feet, or a white-tailed one, 
— a claw-shaped knife, and a dice-board 1 with a horse- 
hair band 2 ; for that is what belongs to those two s . 

ii. And on the following day he goes to the 
house of the Courier, and having taken ghee in four 
ladlings, he offers the ghee to the way, with, 'May the 
way graciously accept of the ghee, hail !' For 
the courier is to be dispatched, and when dispatched 
goes on his way: therefore he offers the ghee to the 
way. And he, the courier, assuredly is one of his 
(the king's) jewels : it is for him that he is thereby 
consecrated, and him he makes his own faithful fol- 
lower. The sacrificial fee for this (jewel) consists 
in a skin-covered bow, leathern quivers, and a red 
turban, for that is what belongs to him. 

12. These are the eleven jewels (ratna) he com- 
pletes; for of eleven syllables consists the Trish- 
Aibh, and the Trish/ubh is vigour ; it is for the sake 

1 Or, a dice-box, as ' akshlvapanam ' is explained by some com- 
mentaries, — akshi upyante »sminn ity akshlvapanam aksha(?aksha- 
dyuta-)sthin4vapanap&tram, Say. 

* Or, fastened with a hair-chain (romasra^a prabaddham, Say.). 

* That is to say, the knife and the dice-board are the objects 
those two officials have chiefly to do with. 



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v kXnda, 3 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaata, 2. 65 

of vigour that he completes the (eleven) jewels. 
Then as to why he performs the oblations of the 
Ratnins : it is their king he becomes ; it is for 
them that he thereby is consecrated, and it is them 
he makes his own faithful followers. 

13. And on the following day he goes to the 
house of a discarded (wife), and prepares a pap for 
Nirrz'ti; — a discarded wife is one who has no son. 
He cooks the pap for Nirmi of black rice, after 
splitting the grains with his nails. He offers it with 
(V&g. S. IX, 35), 'This, O Nirrzti, is thy share: 
accept it graciously, hail!' For a wife that is 
without a son, is possessed with Nirrzti (destruction, 
calamity) ; and whatever of NirWti's nature there is in 
her, that he thereby propitiates, and thus Nim'ti does 
not take possession of him while he is consecrated. 
The fee for this (oblation) consists of a black, de- 
crepit, diseased cow ; for such a one also is possessed 
with Nirrrti. He says to her (the wife), ' Let her 
not dwell this day in my dominion l ! ' thus he re- 
moves evil from himself. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

1. After the 'jewels' he offers (a pap) to Soma 
and Rudra. It is cooked in milk from a white (cow) 
which has a white calf. And as to why, after the 
' jewels,' he offers (a pap) to Soma and Rudra. 

2. Now, once upon a time, Svarbhanu, the 
Asura, struck the sun with darkness, and stricken 
with darkness he did not shine 2 . Soma and Rudra 

1 According to the commentary on Katy. St. XV, 3, 35 she has 
to betake herself to a Brahman's house, where the king has no 
power. 

s According to Rig-veda V, 40, 5-9 (cf. Sat. Br. IV, 3, 4, 23 

C41] r 



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66 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

removed that darkness of his ; and freed from evil he 
burns yonder. And in like manner does that (king) 
thereby enter darkness, — or darkness enters him, — 
when he puts those unworthy of sacrifice 1 in con- 
tact with the sacrifice ; and he does indeed now put 
those unworthy of sacrifice — either .Sudras or whom- 
ever else — in contact with the sacrifice. It is Soma 
and Rudra who remove that darkness of his ; and 
freed from evil he becomes consecrated. And as to 
why it is cooked in milk from a white (cow) which 
has a white calf, — darkness is black : that darkness 
he removes. The sacrificial fee for this (oblation) is 
a white (cow) which has a white calf. 

3. Even he who, while being qualified for fame, 
is not yet famous, may perform that offering. Now 
he who is learned (in the Veda), while being quali- 
fied for fame, is not famous ; and he who is not 
famous, is covered with darkness : that darkness of 
his Soma and Rudra thereby remove; and freed 
from evil he becomes a very light by his prosperity 
and renown. 

4. Thereupon he prepares a pap for Mitra and 
Brz'haspati 2 . For verily he who departs from the 

with note) it was Atri who restored the light of the sun. Pro- 
fessor Ludwig (Bohemian Academy of Sciences, Sitzungsber., May, 
1885) has tried to prove that solar eclipses (partly available for 
chronological purposes) are referred to in this and some other 
passages of the hymns. Compare also Professor Whitney's re- 
marks thereon, Proceedings of Am. Or. Soc, Oct 1885, p. xvii. 

1 That is, some of those officials of his to whom the ratna- 
havis were offered; Saya»a specifying 'the Commander of the 
army and others ' as .Sudras ; and the ' Huntsman and others ' as 
of whatsoever (low) caste. 

" According to the Taittirfya ritualists this double oblation forms 
part of the dtksha, or initiation ceremony (V, 3, 3, 1). See Taitt. S., 
vol. ii, p. 1 08. 



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V KANDA, 3 ADHYAVA, 2 BRAHMAVA, 7. 67 

path of the sacrifice stumbles ; and he does indeed 
depart from the path of the sacrifice, when he puts 
those unworthy of sacrifice in contact with the sacri- 
fice, and he does indeed now put those unworthy of 
sacrifice — either .Sudras or whomever else — in con- 
tact with the sacrifice. And the path of the sacrifice 
is Mitra and Br?'haspati ; for Mitra is the Brahman, 
and the Brahman is the sacrifice ; and Brzhaspati is 
the Brahman, and the Brahman is the sacrifice. 
Thus he returns again to the path of the sacrifice ; 
and as soon as he has returned to the path of the 
sacrifice he is consecrated : therefore he prepares a 
pap for Mitra and Brzhaspati. 

5. The course of this (is as follows). Any ayvat- 
tha branch broken off by itself, either on the eastern 
or on the northern side (of the tree), from that he 
makes a vessel (to hold the pap) for Mitra; for 
that which is hewn by the axe belongs to Varuwa ; 
but that which is broken off by itself belongs to 
Mitra : therefore he makes the vessel for Mitra from 
a branch broken off by itself. 

6. Thereupon having curdled the (milk into) 
curds, and poured it into a leathern bag ; and 
having put (the horses) to the cart, and fastened 
(the bag on the cart), he tells it to ' fly away.' This 
is that (kind of) fresh butter which is self-pro- 
duced 1 ; for that which is churned belongs to 
Varu»a, and that which is self-produced belongs to 
Mitra : therefore it is self-produced butter. 

7. They divide the rice-grains into two parts : 
the smaller and broken ones belong to Brzhaspati, 

1 That is, produced in the leathern bottle without further direct 
human agency, and by the mere motion of the cart. 

F 2 



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68 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

and the larger and unbroken ones to Mitra. For 
Mitra injures no one, nor does any one injure Mitra ; 
neither a kusa stalk nor a thorn pricks him, nor has 
he any scar ; for Mitra is every one's friend (mitram). 
8. He then puts the pap for Br/haspati on (the 
fire), covers it with the vessel for Mitra's (pap), pours 
the butter (into the latter), and throws in the (larger) 
rice-grains. It is cooked merely by the hot steam 1 ; 
for what is cooked by fire belongs to Varuna, and 
what is cooked by hot steam belongs to Mitra: 
therefore it is cooked by hot steam. Making cut- 
tings from both these sacrificial dishes, he says, 
' Pronounce the invitatory prayer to Mitra and 
EWhaspati ! ' Having called for the .Srausha/, he 
says, ' Pronounce the offering-prayer to Mitra and 
BWhaspati ! ' and offers as the Vasha/ is uttered. 

THE ABHISHEA*AN1YA*, or CONSECRATION 
CEREMONY. 

Third BrAhmaata. 

i. He performs the initiation ceremony. On the 
day of preparation he seizes the victim for Agni 

1 That is, by the steam rising from the Bnhaspati pap in the 
bottom vessel. 

1 The Abhishe£anfya (or Abhisheka, literally 'the sprink- 
ling'), the Consecration ceremony (corresponding to the Anoint- 
ment of modern times), requires for its performance five days, viz. 
one diksha (initiation ceremony), three upasads, and one sutya or 
Soma-day, the particular form of Soma-sacrifice being the Ukthya 
(part ii, p. 325, note 2). The Diksha is performed immediately 
after the expiration of the dark fortnight following the full-moon 
of Phalgunt, that is to say, on the first day of A'aitra (about 
the middle of March). — According to Kitty. XV, 3, 47 both the 
Abhishe£aniya and Darapeya require special offering-places, the 
latter being north of the former. Cf. note on V, 4, 5, 13. — As regards 



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v kAnda, 3 adhyAya, 3 brahmajva, 3. 69 

and Soma. Having performed the offering of the 
omentum thereof, he prepares a cake on eleven 
potsherds for Agni and Soma 1 . Thereupon the 
offerings of the Divine Quickeners (Devasu) are 
prepared. 

2. For Savitr* Satyaprasava (of true impulse) 
he prepares a cake from fast-grown (pl&ruka) rice 2 , 
on either twelve, or eight, potsherds ; for Savitr* is 
the impeller (prasavit??) of the gods : ' May I be 
quickened 8 , impelled by Savitr* ! ' thus (he thinks). 
And as to (its being) of fast-grown rice : ' May they 
quickly impel me ! ' he thinks. 

3. For Agni Grzhapati (the house-lord) he then 
prepares a cake on eight potsherds from quick-grown 
(clru) rice * ; for the house-lord's position means pros- 
perity : as much as he (the king) rules over, over 

the chants (stotra) of the Consecration ceremony, the Pavamana- 
stotras are chanted in the thirty-twofold, the A^ya-stotras in the 
fifteenfold, the Pn'sh/^a-stotras in the seventeenfold, and the Agnish- 
/oma-saman and Uktha-stotras in the twenty-onefold mode of 
chanting (stoma). Pa#£. Br. 18, 10, 9. The Bahishpavamana 
is specially constructed so as to consist of the following parts, — 
Sama-veda II, 978-80; further six so-called sambhSryi verses; 
further II, 125-27; H, 4-6; II, 431-3J H, 128-30; II, 555-59; 
II, 7-9; II, 981-83; see Pa#*. Br. 18, 8, 7 seq.— The Taittirfya 
ritual (Taitt. Br. I, 8, 7 seq.), on the other hand, prescribes for the 
Pavamana-stotras, the thirty-four-versed stoma, commencing the 
Bahishpavamana by II, 920; II, 431, &c. 

1 This is the ordinary Para-purodlra, or cake of animal (offer- 
ing). See part ii, p. 199, note 2 (where read Agni and Soma, 
instead of Indra and Agni). 

* That is, according to Sayawa, rice which has sprung up again 
and ripens very rapidly. Taitt. S. I, 8, 10 has 'Ira' instead, for 
which see next paragraph. 

* Or, consecrated (sfl). 

4 That is, according to Sayawa, rice ripening in sixty days. The 
Taitt. S. prescribes a cake of black rice for Agni. 



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70 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

that Agni, the house-lord, leads him to hold the 
position of a master of the house. And as to its 
being of quick-grown rice : ' May they quickly lead 
me ! ' so he thinks. 

4. For Soma Vanaspati (the wood-lord or tree) 
he then prepares a pap of jyamaka millet : thereby 
Soma, the wood-lord, quickens him for the plants. 
And as to its being prepared of syam&ka, — they, the 
syamakas among plants doubtless are most mani- 
festly Soma's own : therefore it is prepared of 
.yyamaka grain. 

5. For Brzhaspati Vkk 1 (speech) he then pre- 
pares a pap of wild rice: thereby BWhaspati 
quickens him for speech. And as to its being pre- 
pared of wild rice, — BWhaspati is the Brahman, and 
they, the wild rice-plants, are ripened by the Brah- 
man 2 : hence it is prepared of wild rice. 

6. For Indra CPyeshMa (the most excellent) he 
then prepares a pap of red rice-grains (hayana) s : 
thereby Indra, the most excellent, leads him to ex- 
cellence (or, lordship). And as to its being pre- 
pared of red rice : outstanding doubtless are those 
plants, the red rice, and outstanding is Indra : there- 
fore it is prepared of red rice. 

7. For Rudra Pasupati (lord of beasts) he then 
prepares a Raudra pap of gavedhuka seeds (coix 
barbata) : thereby Rudra, the lord of beasts, quickens 

1 Bnhaspati Vakpati (lord of speech), according to the Black 
Ya^us, where the order of the 'Divine Quickeners' is moreover 
somewhat different. 

* ? Or cooked by the Brahman, that is by Brahmans, when living 
the life of hermits or ascetics. 

' The Taitt. S. prescribes a cake prepared of large rice (maha- 
vrfhi). 



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V KAYDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 12. 7 1 

him for cattle. And as to its being prepared of 
gavedhuka seed ; — that God is (the recipient of) re- 
fuse (remains of offering), and gavedhuka seeds are 
refuse : therefore it is (prepared) of gavedhuka seed. 

8. For Mitra Satya (the True) he then prepares 
a pap of Namba 1 seed: thereby Mitra the True 
quickens him for the Brahman. And as to its being 
prepared of Namba seed, — to Varu»a, no doubt, 
belong those plants which grow in ploughed ground ; 
but those, the Namba plants, belong to Mitra : 
therefore it is (prepared) of Namba seed, 

9. For Varuwa Dharmapati (the lord of the law) 
he then prepares a Varu«a pap of barley : thereby 
Varu«a, the lord of the law, makes him lord of the 
law ; and that truly is the supreme state, when one is 
lord of the law; for whosoever attains to the supreme 
state, to him they come in (matters of) law : there- 
fore to Varu«a Dharmapati. 

10. He then proceeds with the cake for Agni- 
Soma. The Svish/ak/'rt of that (oblation) remains 
yet unoffered, when he proceeds with those (other) 
oblations. 

1 1. Thereupon, taking hold of him (the Sacrificer) 
by the right arm, he mutters (V4f. S. IX, 39, 40), 
'May Savitr* quicken thee for (powers of) 
quickening (ruling) 2 , Agni for householders, 
Soma for trees, BWhaspati for speech, Indra 
for lordship, Rudra for cattle, Mitra for truth, 
Varu»a for the lord of the law.' 

12. ' Quicken him, O gods, to be unrivalled!' 



1 The Taitt. S. and Br. read ' amba' instead, ' a kind of grain,' 
according to Saya/ra. 

* Or, perhaps, ' on the part of the quickeners (rulers, savanam).' 



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72 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

— he thereby says, ' Quicken him, O gods, so as to 
be without an enemy;' — 'for great chiefdom, for 
great lordship!' in this there is nothing obscure ; — 
' for man-rule ! ' 'for the ruling of men,' he thereby 
says; — 'for I ndra's energy! ' 'for vigour ' he means 
to say when he says, 'for Indra's energy;' — 'him, 
the son of such and such (a man), the son of 
such and such (a woman),' — whatever be his 
parentage, with reference to that he says this ; — ' of 
such and such a people,' that is to say, of the 
people whose king he is; — 'this man, O ye 
(people) 1 , is your king, Soma is the king of us 
Brahmans!' He thereby causes everything here 
to be food for him (the king) ; the Brahman alone 
he excepts : therefore the Brahman is not to be fed 
upon, for he has Soma for his king. 

13. Now those gods have the power of quicken- 
ing, whence their name 'devasu' (Divine Quickeners). 
It is those gods who now quicken him thus, and 
quickened (consecrated) by them he will be con- 
secrated on the morrow. 

14. They are double-named, for a coupling means 
strength : ' May the strong quicken (him),' thus he 
thinks, and therefore they are double-named. 

1 5. He now says, ' Pronounce the invitatory prayer 
to Agni SvishfokWt.' And as to why that ceremony 
is performed here between two offerings 2 , — verily 
Pra^elpati is that sacrifice which is here performed, 
and from which all these creatures were produced, — 

1 Here the name of the people, e. g. ' O ye Kurus, O ye PaS- 
Jalas !' is inserted. The Taitt. S. reads, ' O ye BbaratlA.' 

* That is to say, the oblations to the ' Divine Quickeners,' which 
were inserted between the chief oblation of the (Agnishomfya) 
parupurodlra and the Svish/akn't of it ; see above, parag. 10. 



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V KAtfiJA, 3 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 3. 73 

and so they are even now produced after this one. 
Thus he places him (the Sacrificer) in the very 
middle of that Pra^apati, and quickens him in the 
middle : this is why that ceremony is performed be- 
tween two offerings. Having called for the 6rausha/, 
he says, ' Urge for Agni Svish/akm ! ' and offers as 
the Vasha/ is pronounced. 

Fourth Brahmaya. 

1. He collects (various kinds of) water. The 
reason why he collects water, is that — water being 
vigour — he thereby collects vigour, the essence of 
the waters. 

2. In a vessel of udumbara wood, — the udumbara 
(ficus glomerata) being sustenance, (that is) food — 
for the obtainment of sustenance, food : hence in an 
udumbara vessel (he mixes the different liquids). 

3. He first takes (water) 1 from the (river) Saras- 
vatl, with (Vi^-. S. X, i), ' The gods took honey- 
sweet water,' — whereby he says, 'the gods took 
water full of essence;' — ' sapful, deemed king- 
quickening,' — by 'sapful ' he means to say, 'full of 
essence ; ' and by ' deemed king-quickening ' he 
means to say, ' (water) which is recognised as king- 
quickening;' — 'wherewith they anointed Mitra 
and Varu«a,' for therewith they did anoint (sprin- 
kle) Mitra and Varu»a ; — ' wherewith they guided 

1 This water gathered from an adjacent river and pond, with 
some admixture of genuine water from the sacred river Sarasvati — 
whence the whole water is also called ' sarasvat ya apaA ' — is to be 
used partly in the place of the ordinary Vasattvari water, and partly 
for the consecration or anointment (sprinkling) of the king. The 
different kinds of water or liquids are first taken in separate vessels 
of pallra (butea frondosa) wood, and then poured together into the 
udumbara vessel. 



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74 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

Indra past his enemies,' for therewith they indeed 
guided Indra past the fiends, the Rakshas. There- 
with he sprinkles him, — Sarasvati being (the goddess 
of) Speech : it is with speech he thereby sprinkles 
him. This is one kind of water : it is that he now 
brings. 

4. Thereupon the Adhvaryu, having taken ghee in 
four ladlings, steps down into the water, and takes 
the two waves which flow away (in different direc- 
tions) after an animal or a man has stept (or plunged) 
into it. 

5. The one which rises in front of him he catches 
up with (Va^ - . S. X, 2), ' Thou art the male's wave, 
a bestower of kingship: bestow kingship on 
me, hail! — Thou art the male's wave, a be- 
stower of kingship: bestow kingship on 
N. N.!' 

6. He then catches up that (wave) which rises up 
behind him with, ' Thou art the lord of a host of 
males, a bestower of kingship: bestow king- 
ship on me, hail ! — Thou art the lord of a host 
of males, a bestower of kingship : bestow king- 
ship on N.N.!' With that (water) he sprinkles; 
for indeed that is the vigour of the water which 
rises when either beast or man plunges into it : it 
is with vigour he thus sprinkles him. This is one 
kind of water : it is that he now brings. 

7. He then takes flowing (water) with (Vif. S. X, 
3), 'Task-plying ye are, bestowers of kingship: 
bestow ye kingship on me, hail ! — Task-plying 
ye are, bestowers of kingship: bestow ye 
kingship on N.N.!' With that (water) he 
sprinkles ; for with vigour these (waters) flow, 
whence nothing stops them flowing along : it is 



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V KAJVDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAATA, IO. 75 

with vigour he thus sprinkles him. This is one 
kind of water : it is that he now brings. 

8. He then takes such (water) as flows against 
the stream of the flowing water with, ' Powerful 
ye are, bestowers of kingship: bestow ye 
kingship on me, hail! — Powerful ye are, be- 
stowers of kingship: bestow ye kingship on 
N.N.!' With that (water) he sprinkles, for with 
vigour indeed those (waters) flow against the 
stream of the flowing ones : it is with vigour he 
thus sprinkles him. This is one kind of water : it 
is that he now brings. 

9. He then takes (water) that flows off (the main 
current) with, 'Overflowing waters ye are, 
bestowers of kingship: bestow ye kingship 
on me, hail ! — Overflowing waters ye are, 
bestowers of kingship: bestow ye kingship 
on N. N. !' With that (water) he sprinkles. Now 
that (flow of water), after separating itself from that 
(main current), comes to be that again l ; and so there 
is in his kingdom even one belonging to some other 
kingdom, and even that man from another kingdom 
he absorbs: thus he (the Adhvaryu) bestows 
abundance upon him (the king), and it is with 
abundance that he thus consecrates him. This is 
one kind of water : it is that he now brings. 

10. He then takes the lord of rivers (sea-water) 
with, ' Thou art the lord of waters, a bestower 
of kingship: bestow thou kingship on me, 
hail! — Thou art the lord of waters, a bestower 
of kingship: bestow thou kingship on N.N.!' 



1 That is to say, it ultimately flows back and mingles again with 
the main current. 



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j6 jatapatha-brAhmava. 

With that (water) he sprinkles him ; and that lord 
of rivers (the ocean) being the same as the lord of 
waters, he thereby makes him (the king) the lord of 
the people. This is one kind of water : it is that 
he now brings. 

11. He then takes (water from) a whirlpool with, 
'Thou art the offspring of the waters, a be- 
stower of kingship: bestow thou kingship on 
me, hail! — Thou art the offspring of the 
waters, a bestower of kingship: -bestow thou 
kingship on N. N.!' With that (water) he sprinkles. 
Now the waters enclose the offspring (embryo) : he 
thus makes him the offspring of the people. This 
is one kind of water : it is that he now brings. 

12. Then what standing pool of flowing water 
there is in a sunny spot, that (water) he takes with 
(V&£". S. X, 4), 'Sun-skinned ye are, bestowers 
of kingship: bestow ye kingship on me, hail! 
— Sun-skinned ye are, bestowers of kingship : 
bestow ye kingship on N.N.!' With that 
(water) he sprinkles : it is with lustre he thereby 
sprinkles him, and makes him sun-skinned. Now 
it is to Varu«a that those waters belong which, 
(whilst being part) of flowing water, do not flow; 
and Varu#a's quickening (sava) is that Rifasuya : 
therefore he sprinkles him therewith. This is one 
kind of water : it is that he now brings. 

13. He then catches such (water) as it rains while 
the sun shines, with, ' Lustrous as the sun ye are, 
bestowers of kingship: bestow ye kingship 
on me, hail ! — Lustrous as the sun ye are, 
bestowers of kingship: bestow ye kingship 
on N.N.!' With this (water) he sprinkles: it is 
with lustre he thereby sprinkles him, and lustrous 



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v kAyda, 3 adhyAya, 4 brAhmava, 16. 77 

as the sun he thereby makes him. And pure indeed 
is such water as it rains while the sun shines, for 
before it has reached this (earth), he catches it : he 
thus makes him pure thereby. This is one kind of 
water : it is that he now brings. 

14. He then takes (water) from a pond with, 
'Pleasing ye are, bestowers of kingship: be- 
stow ye kingship on me! — Pleasing ye are, 
bestowers of kingship: bestow ye kingship 
on N. N. ! ' With that (water) he sprinkles : he 
thereby makes the people steady and faithful to 
him. This is one kind of water : it is that he now 
brings. 

15. He then draws (water) from a well with, 
' Fold-dwellers ye are, bestowers of kingship : 
bestow ye kingship on me, hail! — Fold- 
dwellers ye are, bestowers of kingship : bestow 
ye kingship on N. N.!' With this (water) he 
sprinkles. He thereby brings (some of) the water 
which is beyond this (earth), and also (he does so) 
for the completeness of the waters, this is why he 
sprinkles him therewith. This is one kind of water : 
it is that he now brings. 

16. He then takes dew-drops 1 with, ' Devoted* 

1 Sayawa explains ' prushva' by ' niharSA ' (mist water), the com- 
mentators on Kity. XV, 4, 38, by ' hoar-frost.' 

1 It is difficult to see in what sense the author takes vaja. While 
Mahidhara (Va^. S. X, 4) explains it by 'pleasing' or 'desirable' 
(ujyante ganaiA k£myante»nnanishpattihetutvat); Saya»a leaves a 
choice between that meaning (sarvaiA kamyamdna) and that of 
' obedient, submissive' (yadva varya stha, niharo hi nadipravahavan 
manushyadigatim na pratibadhnati, ato v&ryatvam prushvanam an- 
nadyatmakatvam upapadayati; MS. I. O. 657). The St. Peters- 
burg dictionary gives the meaning 'submissive/ but leaves it 
doubtful whether it may not be derived from vara, ' fat, grease.' 



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78 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

ye are, bestowers of kingship: bestow ye king- 
ship on me, hail! — Devoted ye are, bestowers 
of kingship: bestow ye kingship on N. N. ! ' 
With that (water) he sprinkles : it is with food he 
thereby consecrates him, and food he thereby 
bestows upon him. For even as this fire burns up 
(the wood) so does that sun yonder, even in rising, 
burn up the plants, the food. But those waters 
coming down, quench that (heat), for if those waters 
were not to come down, there would be no food left 
remaining here: it is with food he thus sprinkles 
him. This is one kind of water : it is that he now 
brings. 

17. He then takes honey with, 'Most powerful 
ye are, bestowers of kingship: bestow ye 
kingship on me, hail! — Most powerful ye are, 
bestowers of kingship : bestow ye kingship 
on N. N. ! ' With this (water) he sprinkles, and it 
is by the essence of the waters and plants that he 
thereby sprinkles him. This is one kind of water : 
it is that he now brings. 

18. He then takes embryonic (waters) of a calving 
cow with, 'Mighty ye are, bestowers of king- 
ship : bestow ye kingship on me, hail ! — Mighty 
ye are, bestowers of kingship: bestow ye 
kingship on N. N. !' With that (water) he 
sprinkles : it is with cattle he thereby consecrates 
him. This is one kind of water : it is that he now 
brings. 

19. He then takes milk with, ' Man-supporting 
ye are, bestowers of kingship: bestow ye 
kingship on me, hail! — Man-supporting ye 
are, bestowers of kingship: bestow ye king- 
ship on N.N.!' With that (water) he sprinkles: 



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V KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMANA, 24. 79 

it is with cattle he thereby consecrates him. This 
is one kind of water : it is that he now brings. 

20. He then takes clarified butter with, 'All- 
supporting ye are, bestowers of kingship: 
bestow ye kingship on me, hail! — All-support- 
ing ye are, bestowers of kingship: bestow ye 
kingship on N.N.!' With that (water) he 
sprinkles : it is with the essence of cattle he thereby 
consecrates him. This is one kind of water : it is 
that he now brings. 

21. Having then caught up (moist) sun-motes 
with the hollow of his hands, he mixes them 
(with the other kinds of water), with, 'Self-ruling 
waters ye are, bestowers of kingship: bestow 
ye kingship on N. N. ! ' For those sun-motes are 
indeed self-ruling waters, since they are flowing, as 
it were, and, not yielding to one another's superiority, 
keep being now higher now lower : he thus thereby 
bestows self-ruling power upon him. This is one 
kind of water : it is that he now brings. 

22. These then are seventeen (kinds of) water he 
brings together, for Pra^apati is seventeenfold, and 
Preifapati is the sacrifice : that is why he brings 
together seventeen kinds of water. 

23. Now sixteen kinds of water are those he offers 
upon ; and he offers sixteen oblations : that makes 
thirty-two. On two of them he does not offer, viz. 
on the water from the Sarasvati and on the sun- 
motes : that makes thirty-four. For three and 
thirty are the gods, and Pra^apati is the thirty- 
fourth : he thus makes him to be Pra^apati (the 
lord of creatures). 

24. And as to why he takes (water) each time 
after offering, — the ghee, to be sure, is a thunder- 



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80 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

bolt : having won them, one by one, by means of that 
thunderbolt, the ghee, and made them his own, he 
takes them. 

25. And as to why he does not offer on the 
(water) from the Sarasvati, — Sarasvati, to be sure, 
is (the goddess of) Speech, and the ghee is a thunder- 
bolt : ' Lest I should injure (the goddess of) Speech ! ' 
thus (he thinks, and) therefore he does not offer 
on the water from the Sarasvatt. 

26. And as to why he does not offer on the sun- 
motes : ' Lest I should offer that oblation in a 
doubtful way x ! ' thus (he thinks, and) therefore 
he does not offer on the sun-motes. 

27. He pours them together into an udumbara 
vessel with, ' Let the honey-sweet mix with the 
honey-sweet!' — 'Let those full of essence mix 
with those full of essence ! ' he thereby says ; — 
'Winning great power (kshatra) for the Ksha- 
triya ! ' in saying this he prays in a covert way for 
power to the Sacrificer. 

28. He deposits them in front of the Maitra- 
vanwa's hearth, with, ' Unimpaired rest ye, the 
strengthful !' — 'unimpaired by the Rakshas rest 
ye ! ' he thereby says ; and by ' strengthful ' he 
means to say 'powerful;' 'bestowing great 
power on the Kshatriya;' — in saying this he 
prays in an overt way for power to the Sacrificer. 

Fifth Brahmajva. 

1. He consecrates him at the midday Soma-feast. 
Now Pra^apati is that sacrifice which is here per- 
formed, and whence these creatures have been 

1 On account of the doubtful nature of the watery sun-motes. 

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v KkffDA, 3 adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, 5. 81 

produced, — and so they are even now produced after 
this one : he thus places him in the very middle of 
that Pra^apati, and consecrates him in the middle. 

2. Before the Mahendra (cup) has been drawn, — 
for that Mahendra cup is Indra's special (nishke- 
valya) cup, and so is that Nishkevalya Stotra 
(hymn) and Nishkevalya .Sastra (recitation) ; and 
the Sacrificer is Indra : he thus consecrates him in 
his own resting-place. Hence before the Mahendra 
(cup) has been drawn, — 

3. He spreads a tiger-skin in front of the Maitra- 
varu»a's hearth 1 , with (V£Lf. S. X, 5), 'Thou art 
Soma's beauty.' For because when Soma flowed 
through Indra he (Indra) thereupon became a tiger, 
therefore he is Soma's beauty : this is why he says, 
'Thou art Soma's splendour;' — 'may my beauty 
become like unto thine!' He thus bestows the 
tiger's beauty on him : therefore he says, ' May my 
beauty become like unto thine ! ' 

4. He then offers the Partha oblations. Now 
Przthin Vainya was consecrated first of men. He 
desired that he might appropriate to himself all 
food. They offered up for him those (oblations), 
and he appropriated to himself all the food here on 
earth. They would even call forest beasts to him, 
saying, ' Come hither thou (beast) so and so, the 
king wants to cook thee ! ' Thus he appropriated all 
food here on earth ; and verily he appropriates to 
himself all food for whom that knows this those 
(oblations) are offered. 

5. There are twelve of them, — for there are 

1 Viz. before the 'waters' deposited there, according to V, 3, 
4,28. 

[4i] G 



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82 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

twelve months in the year: therefore there are 
twelve of them. 

6. Six he offers before, and six after, the consecra- 
tion : he thereby places him in the very middle of 
that Pra^apati, and consecrates him in the middle. 

7. Now of those which he offers before the 
consecration, Brzhaspati is the last (recipient), and 
of those which he offers after the consecration, 
Indra is the first ; — but B^shaspati is priestly dignity 
(brahma), and Indra is might, vigour: with these two 
kinds of vigour he thus encloses him on both sides. 

8. Those which he offers before the consecration, 
he offers (resp.) with, 'To Agni hail!' — Agni is 
brightness (tegas) : with brightness he thus sprinkles 
(endows) him ; — 'To Soma hail !' — Soma is princely 
power (kshatra) : with princely power he thus 
sprinkles him ; — ' To Savitr* hail ! ' — Savitr* is the 
impeller of the gods : impelled by Savitri he thus 
consecrates him ; — ' To Sarasvati hail !' — Sarasvatl 
is Speech : he thus sprinkles him with Speech ; — ' To 
Pushan hail!' — Pushan is cattle: with cattle he 
thus sprinkles him ; — ' To BWhaspati hail ! ' — Brt- 
haspati is priestly dignity : with priestly dignity he 
thus sprinkles him. These he offers before the 
consecration : these are called the Agni-named ones. 

9. Those which he offers after the consecration, 
he offers (resp.) with, 'To Indra hail!' — Indra is 
vigour : with vigour he thus sprinkles him ; — ' To 
the roar hail 1 ' — roar means vigour: with vigour 
he thus sprinkles him; — 'To the noise hail!' — 
noise means vigour : with vigour he thus sprinkles 
him; — 'To Amsa. hail!' — Amsa. is vigour: with 
vigour he thus sprinkles him ; — 'To Bhaga hail ! ' — 
Bhaga is vigour : with vigour he thus sprinkles 



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v k&nda, 3 adhyAya, 5 brAhmaata, 13. 83 

him; — 'To Aryaman hail!' — he thus makes him 
the friend (aryaman) of everything here. These he 
offers after the consecration : these are called the 
Aditya-named * ones. 

10. In front of the Maitravaru»a's hearth are the 
(four) consecration vessels in which that consecration 
water is contained 2 . 

11. There is a palara. (butea frondosa) one : with 
(the water of) that (vessel) a Brahman sprinkles; 
— the Palara. tree is priestly dignity (brahman) : it is 
with priestly dignity that he sprinkles (endows) him. 

12. There is an udumbara (ficus glomerata) one : 
therewith one of his own (kinsmen, or brothers) 
sprinkles. The udumbara tree means sustenance, 
(that is) food, and the ' own ' means sustenance, for as 
far as a man's own goes, so far he does not hunger : 
thereby his ' own ' is sustenance, and therefore one 
of his own (kinsmen) sprinkles with an udumbara 
(vessel). 

13. There is one made of the foot (stem) of the 
nyagrodha (ficus indica) : therewith a friendly 
(mitrya) Ra/anya sprinkles : for by its feet 8 the 

1 Viz. because three of the recipients of these libations — Amsa, 
Bhaga and Aryaman — belong to the deities called Adityas, or sons 
of Aditi. 

* The water in the Udumbara vessel is now distributed into these 
four (smaller) vessels. 

' That is, by its pendant branches. It is well known that the 
ficus indica, or banyan-tree, as it is ordinarily called, has the 
habit of bending its branches down to the ground, which then 
strike root and develop new secondary trunks, so that a single 
tree may in course of time form a large grove. Hence the name 
here used for the tree (nyag-rodha, the downward-growing one). 
' A family tends to multiply families around it, till it becomes the 
centre of a tribe, just as the banyan tends to surround itself with a 
forest of its own offspring.' Maclennan, Primitive Marriage, p. 269. 

G 2 



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84 satapatha-brAhma;va. 

nyagrodha tree is supported, and by the friend (mitra) 
the Ra^anya (nobleman or king) is supported: 
therefore a friendly Ra/anya sprinkles with (the 
water of a vessel) made of the foot of a nyagrodha. 

14. There is an arvattha (ficus religiosa) one : 
therewith a Vai^ya sprinkles. Because Indra on 
that (former) occasion called upon the Maruts 
staying on the Asvattha tree 1 , therefore a Vaijya 
sprinkles with an arvattha (vessel). These are the 
consecration vessels. 

15. He then prepares two strainers (pavitra), 
with (V£f. S. X, 6), 'Purifiers ye are, Vishnu's 
own ; ' — the significance is the same (as before 2 ). 
He weaves gold (threads) into them. With them 
he purifies those consecration waters. As to why 
he weaves gold (threads) in ; — gold is immortal life : 
that immortal life he lays into these (waters), and 
hence he weaves gold (threads) in. 

16. He purifies with, ' By the impulse of 
SavitW I purify you with a flawless purifier, 
with the rays of the sun.' The significance 
is the same (as before 3 ). ' Not downfallen thou 
art, the friend of Speech, born of heat,' — 
' unimpaired by the Rakshas ' he means to say when 
he says, ' not downfallen ; ' — ' the friend of Speech ' 
— as long as there is water in the vital airs, so long 
(man) speaks with speech : therefore he says, ' the 
friend of Speech.' 



1 See above, p. 34, note 1. The Maruts are constantly identi- 
fied with the Vu, or people (peasants, &c.) generally, whilst Indra 
is taken as the divine representative of the ruling class (the king 
and nobleman). 

1 See 1, 1, 3, 1 (part i, p. 19). 

' Seel, 1, 3, 6 (parti, p. 21). 



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v kAnda, 3 adhvAya, 5 brahmawa, 20. 85 

1 7. ' Born of heat ' he says, for from fire springs 
smoke, from smoke the cloud, from the cloud rain, — 
it is from fire that these are produced : hence he 
says, ' born of heat.' 

18. 'Soma's portion thou art;' for when they 
consecrate him with those (waters), then there is an 
oblation : therefore he says ' Soma's portion thou 
art;' — 'Hail, spiriters of kings!' — it is with 
4 Hail ' that he thus purifies them. 

19. He distributes them over those (consecration) 
vessels, with (Va^ - . S. X, 7), ' Playmates are these 
glorious waters;' — 'not overbearing' he means 
to say, when he says ' playmates ; ' and by ' these 
glorious waters ' he means to say ' the powerful 
ones;' — 'unimpaired, active, enveloping,' he 
thereby means to say ' ye are unimpaired by the 
Rakshas;' — 'In the habitations Varu»a hath 
made a home;' — the habitations are the people 
(clans) : ' in the people Varu«a has made a support ' 
he thereby says; — 'he, the child of the waters, 
in the best of mothers;' — for he who performs 
the R&^asuya is indeed the child of the waters : 
therefore he says, 'the child of the waters, in the 
best of mothers.' 

20. He then makes him (the king) put on garments. 
There is that one called tarpya l ; therein are 

1 This is variously explained, by Katyayana and Sayawa, as a 
linen one, or simply one soaked in ghee, or a tripana one — i. e. 
one made of triparwa plants, or a thrice saturated one (with ghee) — 
or one woven out of materials derived from the tr*pa plant. It is 
quite evident that they did not exactly know what to make of it. 
Indeed, it would almost seem as if the author of the lirahmawa 
himself was already doubtful as to the meaning of the term. 
Goldstticker (s.v. abhishe£anfya) perhaps rightly takes it to mean 
a silk under-garment. 



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86 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

wrought 1 all forms of sacrifice : that he makes him 
put on, with (Va^*. S. X, 8), ' Thou art the inner 
caul of knighthood (kshatra)!' He thus causes 
him to be born from out of what is the inner caul 
(amnion) of knighthood. 

21. He then makes him put on one of undyed 
wool, with, 'Thou art the outer caul of knight- 
hood!' He thus causes him to be born from what 
is the outer caul (chorion) of knighthood. 

22. He then throws over the mantle, with, 'Thou 
art the womb of knighthood!' He thus causes 
him to be born from what is the womb of knight- 
hood. 

23. He then draws the head-band together, and 
conceals it (tucks it under) in front 2 , with, 'Thou 
art the navel of knighthood!' He thus places 
him in what is the navel of knighthood. 

24. Now some wind it quite round about (the 
navel) saying, 'that (band) is his navel, and this 
navel goes all round.' But let him not do this, but 
let him merely tuck it under in front, for this navel 
is in front And as to why he makes him put on 
the garments ; — he thereby causes him to be born 8 , 

1 According to the commentators, figures of sacrificial spoons, 
cups, &c, are sewn in by means of a needle. 

* The commentators do not seem to be quite in accord in regard 
to this particular item of the ceremonial. The most natural expla- 
nation, however, seems to be this : the head-band (turban, ushnisha) 
is wound (? once) round the head and tied behind ; the ends being 
then drawn over the shoulders so as to hang down from the neck 
in the manner of a brahmanical cord (or like the ribbon of an order); 
and being finally tucked in under the mantle somewhere near the 
navel. 

* Viz. inasmuch as the garments are intended to symbolically 
represent the vestures of the embryo and stages of birth. 



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v kXnda, 3 adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, 27. 87 

thinking, ' I will anoint him when born : ' that is 
why he makes him put on the garments. 

25. Now some put off those garments 1 , and 
make him put on again the garment of initiation. 
But let him not do this ; for, the limbs a being his 
natural vestments, they deprive him of his limbs, of 
his native bodily form. The garment of initiation 
belongs to Varu#a. Let him put on one of those 
same garments : he (the priest) thereby causes him 
to be furnished with his limbs, his native bodily form. 
The garment of initiation belongs to Varu*a : he thus 
saves him from the Varu»ic garment of initiation. 

26. And when he enters the bath 3 they throw it 
into (the water). This is a congruous 4 performance. 
After putting on one of those same garments he 
comes out (of the bath). Let him give away those 
(garments) either when the omentum of the barren 
cow has been offered 6 , or at the completing oblation*. 

27. He (the Adhvaryu) then strings the bow, with, 
'Thou art Indra's VWtra-killer ;' for the bow 

1 This change of garments takes place optionally when the Ma- 
hendra libation is about to be offered. Katy. XV, 5, 16 ; 7, 23-26. 

* That is, according to Sayana, the skin, &c. 

* That is, at the end of the Ri^asuya. In case of the change of 
garments before the Mihendra libation, the king keeps on the 
initiation garment in entering and coming out of the bath. This 
paragraph is of course put in here by anticipation, merely in order 
to state all that relates to the garments. 

* Viz. inasmuch as it is in accordance with what is done at an 
ordinary Soma-sacrifice, at the end of which the Sacrificer and his 
wife enter the bath and come forth with fresh garments. See part 
>■> P- 385- In the present case the king is to enter the bath clothed 
in one of those three garments, and in coming out he is to put 
on another of them. 

* See part ii, pp. 391-2. 

* For the Udavasaniya-ish/i, see ib. p. 389. 



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88 SATAPATHA-BRAhMAJVA. 

is indeed a VWtra-killer, and the Sacrificer is Indra, 
— he is Indra in a twofold way, both as a Kshatriya, 
and as Sacrificer : therefore he says, ' Thou art 
Indra's VWtra-killer.' 

28. He then strokes the two arms *, with, ' Mitra's 
thou art, — Varuwa's thou art;' for the bow is 
within the two arms, and by his two arms the 
Ra^anya pertains to Mitra and Varuwa : therefore 
he says, ' Mitra's thou art, Varu»a's thou art.' He 
hands it to him, with, ' May he slay Vr/'tra by 
thee ! ' whereby he means to say, ' May he slay by 
thee his spiteful enemy ! ' 

29. He then hands him three arrows. That first 
one by which he pierces on shooting 2 , that is one, 
that one is this earth, that one is called 'drz'ba.' 
And the one by which (the enemy) being pierced 
lies either living or dead, that is the second, that is 
this air, that is called ' rufa.' And the one with 
which he misses (his aim) 3 , that is the third, that is 
yonder sky, that is called ' kshuma.' For these are 
the three (kinds of) arrows : therefore he hands him 
three arrows. 

30. These he hands to him with, ' Protect ye 
him in front*! — Protect ye him from behind! 
— Protect ye him from the side! — Protect ye 

1 Viz. the arms of the king, as it would seem, according to 
Sayana ; but the arms (or ends) of the bow, according to Karka 
and Mahidhara. 

* Literally, on fixing (the arrow on the string) ; or perhaps, on 
hitting (the enemy). 

* SSya»a takes apa-rddhnoti in the sense of ' he hurts (or hits)' 
the enemy. In the Ki»va text (Graniha MS.) the three arrows are 
called ru#a, dn'va, and kshupa' resp. 

* Or perhaps, — whilst (he is) moving forward, — whilst moving 
backward, — whilst moving sideways. 



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V K&NDA, 3 ADHYAYA, ^WkAHMAJV^JS. 89 



him from (all) quarters !' Thus he makes all the 
quarters safe from arrows for him. And as to why 
he hands the bow to him ; — this, the bow, truly is 
the nobleman's strength : it is because he thinks, 
' I will consecrate him when endowed with strength ! ' 
that he hands the weapon to him '. 

31. Thereupon he makes him pronounce the avid 
formulas * (Va^ - . S. X, 9), ' In sight, ye mortals ! ' 
This is mysterious, for mysterious is Pra^apati : he 
thus announces him to Pra^apati, and this one 
approves of his consecration ; and approved by him 
he is consecrated. 

32. ' Present is Agni, the house-lord;' — Agni 
is the priesthood (brahman) ; he thus announces him 
to the priesthood ; and it approves of his consecra- 
tion, and approved by it he is consecrated. 

33. 'Present is Indra, the far-famed;' — Indra 
is the nobility : he thus announces him to the 
nobility; and it approves of his consecration, and 
approved by it he is consecrated. 

34. 'Present are Mitra andVaru«a, the up- 
holders of the law;' — Mitra and Varu«a are the 
out-breathing and in-breathing : he thus announces 
him to the out-breathing and in-breathing, and they 
approve of his consecration, and approved by them 
he is consecrated. 

35. ' Present is Pushan, the all-possessing ; ' 

1 For a sham fight with arrows forming part of the ceremony in 
the Black Ya^us ritual, see p. ioo, note 1. 

* That is, as would seem, the formulas of information (or per- 
haps of announcement, introduction) ; the first of these formulas 
beginning with avis (in sight), the others with the participle avitta, 
i.e. 'obtained, present;' Sayawa and Mahidhara, however, taking 
it in the sense of ' informed,' — a meaning which, indeed, the word 
may perhaps have been intended to convey in these formulas. 



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90 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

Pushan is (the lord of) cattle : he thus announces 
him to the cattle, and they approve of his consecra- 
tion ; and approved by them he is consecrated. 

36. ' Present are Heaven and Earth, the all- 
propitious;' — he thus announces him to those 
two, the heaven and the earth, and they approve 
of his consecration ; and approved by them he is 
consecrated. 

37. ' Present is Aditi, of wide shelter ;' — Aditi 
is this earth : he thus announces him to this earth, 
and she approves of his consecration, and approved 
by her he is consecrated. Thus to whatever deities 
he announces him, they approve of his consecration, 
and approved by them he is consecrated. 

Fourth AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. He puts a piece of copper 1 into the mouth of 
a long-haired man, with (Va.f. S. X, 10), ' Removed 
by sacrifice are the mordacious.' For verily 
he who performs the Ri^asuya escapes all kinds of 
death, all murderous blows, and old age alone is his 
death : hence whatever kind of death, whatever 
murderous blow there is, past that he now guides 
him, as past the mordacious ones. 

2. And as to why it is of a long-haired man, — such 
a long-haired man is neither woman nor man ; for 
being a male, he is not a woman, and being long- 
haired (a eunuch), he is not a man. And copper 
(or bronze) is neither iron nor gold ; and those 
mordacious ones (snakes) are neither worms nor 
non-worms. And as to its being copper, — reddish 

1 Loh&yasa, literally, ' red metal,' apparently either copper, or an 
alloy of copper and some other metal. — The eunuch is sitting in 
the Sadas. 



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V KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 9. 9 1 

to be sure are mordacious ones : therefore (he 
throws it in the face) of a long-haired man. 

3. He then makes him ascend the regions, with 
(V4f. S. X, 10-14), 'Ascend thou the East! 
May the Gayatri (metre) protect thee, the 
Rathantara-saman, the threefold stoma, the 
spring season, the Priesthood, that precious 
treasure!' 

4. 'Ascend thou the South! May the Tri- 
sh/ubh protect thee, the BWhat-siman, the 
fifteenfold stoma, the summer season, the 
Knighthood, that precious treasure!' 

5. ' Ascend thou the West! May the <7agatt 
protect thee, the Vairupa-saman, the seven- 
teenfold stoma, the rainy season, the Peasan- 
try, that precious treasure!' 

6. 'Ascend thou the North! May the Anu- 
sh/ubh protect thee, the Vaira.fa-saman, the 
twenty-onefold stoma, the autumn season, 
fruit, that precious treasure!' 

7. 'Ascend thou the upper region! May the 
Pankti protect thee, the^Sakvara and Raivata- 
samans, the thrice-ninefold and the three and 
thirtyfold stomas, the winter and dewy season, 
spiritual lustre, that precious treasure! ' 

8. And as to why he makes him ascend the 
quarters, — that is a form of the seasons : it is the 
seasons, the year, that he thereby makes him ascend ; 
and having ascended the seasons, the year, he is 
high, high above everything here, and everything 
here is below him. 

9. On the hind part of the tiger's skin 1 a piece of 

1 This was spread out in front of the MaitrSvanwa's hearth, see 
V, 3» 5. 3- 



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Q2 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

lead is laid down. He kicks it off with his foot, 
with (V&f. S. X, 14), 'Kicked off is Namuii's 
head ! ' Now there was once an Asura, Namuii by 
name. Indra knocked him down, and trod with his 
foot upon him. And in that he, thus trodden upon, 
bulged out, that (is the origin of) a rupture. He 
tore off his head with his foot, and therefrom sprang 
a goblin (Rakshas). That one kept calling out to 
him, ' Whither art thou going ? Where wilt thou 
rid thyself of me ? ' 

10. He beat it off with (a disk of) lead : hence 
lead is soft; for it has lost its spring, as it beat off 
(the goblin) with all its might Hence also, while 
being like gold, it is not worth anything ; for it has 
lost its spring, as it beat off (the goblin) with all its 
might. And so, indeed, he (Indra) thereby beat off 
the fiends, the Rakshas ; and in like manner this 
one (the king) thereby beats off the fiends, the 
Rakshas. 

11. He then makes him step upon the tiger's 
skin, with (V&g: S. X, 15), 'Thou art Soma's 
beauty ; ' — For because when Soma flowed through 
Indra, he (Indra) thereupon became a tiger, and 
therefore he is Soma's beauty : this is why he says, 
' Thou art Soma's beauty ;' — ' May my beauty be 
like unto thine!' — The tiger's beauty he thereby 
bestows upon him : therefore he says, ' May my 
beauty be like unto thine ! ' 

12. Below (the king's foot) he throws a (small) 
gold plate, with, ' Save (him) from death ! ' — Gold 
is immortal life : he thus takes his stand on immortal 
life. 

13. Then there is (another) gold plate, perforated 
either with a hundred, or with nine, holes. If with 



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v kanda, 4 adhyAya, i brAhmava, i 6. 93 

a hundred holes, — man here lives up to a hundred 
(years), and has a hundred energies, a hundred 
powers; therefore it is perforated with a hundred 
holes. And if with nine holes, — there are in man 
those nine vital airs : therefore it is perforated with 
nine holes. 

14. That (gold plate) he lays upon his head, with, 
' Might thou art, victory thou art, immortality 
thou art!' Gold being immortal life, he thus lays 
immortal life into him. And as to why there are 
gold plates on both sides, — gold being immortal 
life, — he thus encloses him on both sides with 
immortal life : this is why there are gold plates on 
both sides. 

15. He then lifts up his arms, with (V&g. S. X, 
16 1 ), 'Golden-bodied, ye two lords rise like 
the sun: mount ye the chariot, O Mitra and 
Varu#a, and thence behold Aditi and Ditil' 
Mitra and Varu«a verily are the two arms, and the 
chariot (-seat) is the man : therefore he says, ' Mount 
ye the chariot, O Mitra and Varu«a ! ' — ' thence be- 
hold Aditi and Diti!' By this he means to say, 
' See ye your own (property) and that of others ! ' 

16. Let him not lift up (the king's arms) with 
that one, but let him rather lift them up with, 
'Thou art Mitra, thou art Varu«a;' for Mitra- 
Varu«a are the two arms, and by his arms the 
Ra^anya belongs to Mitra and Varuwa : let him 
therefore lift up his arms with, ' Thou art Mitra, 
thou art.Vanwa.' 

1 In Hik S. V, 62, 8 the verse runs as follows : — At the glow 
of the dawn, at the rising of the sun, ye, O Mitra and Varuwa, mount 
your golden-formed, iron-pillared chariot ; thence ye behold Aditi 
and Diti (? the boundless space and the bounded). 



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94 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

i 7. And as to why he anoints him (standing) with 
upstretched arms; — those arms in truth are the 
Ra^anya's power, and power also is that collected 
essence of the waters wherewith he now anoints 
him : ' Lest that power, the collected essence of the 
waters, weigh down (paralyze) this power of mine, 
the arms,' thus he thinks, and therefore he anoints 
him (standing) with upstretched arms. 

Second BrAhma^a. 

1. He (the king) is anointed (sprinkled) whilst 
standing with his face turned towards the east A 
Brahman — either the Adhvaryu, or he who is his 
(the king's) court chaplain — sprinkles him in front, 
from behind ; — 

2. With (Va^-. S. X, 17), 'With Soma's glory 
I sprinkle thee,' — 'with vigour' he thereby says ; — 
' With Agni's glow. . .V — 'with vigour' he thereby 
says; — 'With Surya's splendour . . . ,' — 'with 
vigour' he thereby says; — 'With Indra's energy 
. . . ,' — 'with vigour ' he thereby says ; — ' Be thou 
the chieftain of chiefs!' — 'be thou the supreme 
king of kings' he thereby says; — 'Guard (him) 2 
against darts!' — darts meaning arrows, it is past 
murder by arrows that he thus guides him : there- 
fore he says, ' guard him against darts ! ' 

3. [V$g. S. X, 18] ' Quicken him, O gods, to 

1 While the preceding formula is used by the priest, the present 
and two succeeding ones (each with the words ' . . . I sprinkle 
thee; guard him against darts!') are pronounced by the other 
three persons specified in V, 3, 5, 12-14, each sprinkling the king 
with the water in his respective vessel. 

5 Mahidhara explains : ' O Soma, protect him, the Sacrifice^ in 
overcoming the enemy's missiles.' 



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v kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhma^a, 4. 95 

be unrivalled ! ' — he thereby says, ' Quicken him, O 
gods, so as to be without an enemy ; ' — ' For great 
chiefdom, for great lordship!' — in this there is 
nothing obscure; — 'For man-rule!' — 'for the 
ruling of men' he thereby says; — 'For Indra's 
lordly sway! ' — ' for power' he means to say, when 
he says, 'for Indra's lordly sway!' — 'Him, the 
son of such and such (a man), the son of such 
and such (a woman),' — whatever be his parentage 
regarding that he says this ; — ' of such and such 
a people ' — that is to say, of the people whose king 
he is; — ' This man, O ye (people), is your king, 
Soma is the king of us Brahmans ! ' — he thereby 
causes everything here to be food for him (the 
king) ; the Brahman alone he excepts : therefore 
the Brahman is not to be fed upon, for he has Soma 
for his king *. 

4. He (the king) then rubs the sprinkled water 



1 Either at this juncture, or after the game at dice, the Hotr/ 
recites the legend of Sunataepha, as given Ait. Br. VII, 13-18. — 
' King Haiir£andra, of the race of Ikshvaku, being childless, made 
a vow that if he obtained a son he would sacrifice him to Varuna. 
A son was born, who received the name of Rohita, but the father 
postponed, under various pretexts, the fulfilment of his vow. When 
at length he resolved to perform the sacrifice, Rohita refused to be 
the victim, and went out into the forest, where he lived for six 
years. He then met a poor Brahman Jiishi called A^igarta, who 
had three sons, and Rohita purchased from A^igarta, for a hundred 
cows, the second son, named .Sunafaepha, to be the substitute for 
himself in the sacrifice. Variwia approved of the substitute, and 
the sacrifice was' about to be performed, the father receiving 
another hundred cows for binding his son to the sacrificial post, 
and a third hundred for agreeing to slaughter him. .Suna&repha, 
however, saved himself by reciting verses in honour of different 
deities, and was received into the family of VLrvimitra, who was 
one of the officiating priests.' Dowson, Diet, of Hindu Mythology. 



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96 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

over himself with the horn of a black antelope ; for 
that collected essence of the waters wherewith he 
now anoints him means vigour : ' May this vigour of 
mine spread through my whole self/ thus he thinks, 
and therefore he rubs it all over himself. 

5. He rubs it over himself, with (Va^\ S. X, 19), 
' Forth from the back of the mountain, of the 
bull,' — even as the mountain stands out here, even 
as the bull stands out beyond the cattle, so does he 
who performs the Rifasuya stand out beyond every- 
thing here, and everything here is below him : 
therefore he says, ' Forth from the back of the 
mountain, of the bull,' — ' The ships keep moving, 
the self-pouring; they, the upwards bent, have 
turned back downwards, flowing after the 
'dragon of the deep 1 .' 

6. He then makes him step the (three) Vishnu- 
steps within (the extent of) the tiger's skin, with, 
'Vishnu's outstepping thou art! Vishnu's 
outstep thou art! Vishnu's step thou art!' 
Now Vishnu's outstepping (vikramana), Vishnu's 
outstep (vikranta), and Vishnu's step (kranta) 2 are 
these (three) worlds : thus having ascended these 
worlds, he is high above everything here, and every- 
thing here is below him. 

7. He then pours the remainders (of the water) 
together into the Brahman's vessel : he thereby 
makes the Brahman an object of respect after the 
king, whence the Brahman is an object of respect 
after the king. 

1 Ahi Budhnya, the nWo»» &£« of Hellenic mythology (St. Peters- 
burg diet). 

* In the Black Ya^us ritual the three steps are called ' krama, 
kranta, and vikranta.' 



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V KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAtfA, IO. 97 

8. And to him who is his (the king's) dearest son, 
he hands that vessel, thinking, ' May this son of 
mine perpetuate this vigour of mine ! ' 

9. He then returns to the Garhapatya fire, (his 
son) holding on to him behind, and offers, with 
(Vdf. S. X, 20), 'O Pra/apati, than thee none 
other hath encompassed all these forms: for 
whatsoever object we sacrifice, let that accrue 
unto us! — This one is the father of N.N.!' — 
him who is the son, he makes the father, and him 
who is the father, he makes the son * : he thereby 
links together the vigour of both of them. — ' N. N. 
is the father of this one !' him who is the father, 
he makes the father, and him who is the son, he 
makes the son : after linking together the vigour of 
these two, he puts it again in the proper way, — 
'May we be the lords of riches, hail!' — this is 
the blessing of that ceremony : a blessing he thereby 
invokes. 

10. And any residue that is left over, he offers in 
the Agnidhriya ; for redundant is that residue, and 
redundant also is the Agnidhriya, — in the Garha- 
patya they cook the oblations, and in the Ahavaniya 
they offer, but that one is redundant : thus he puts 
the redundant to the redundant He offers it on the 
north part (of the hearth), for that is the region of 
that god (Rudra) : hence he offers it on the north 

1 By way of illustration, Mahfdhara explains what would have 
happened at the inauguration of king Dar aratha (of AyodhyS), the 
father of R&ma; viz. in that case the first formula would run, — 
' Rama is the father of Dararatha ;' and the second — ' Da^aratha 
is the father of Rama.' According to the ceremonial of the Black 
Ya^us the offering of the residue takes place at the house (first of 
the favourite son, according to Apastamba, and then) of the queen. 
Taitt. S., vol. ii, p. 154. 

[413 u 



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98 SATArATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

part. He offers with, 'O Rudra, whatever 
potent 1 , highest name is thine, therein thou 
art an offering, thou art a home-offering, hail!' 

Third BrAhmajva. 

i. North of the Ahavaniya he places a hundred, 
or more than a hundred, cows of that relative of his. 
The reason why he does so is this : 

2. When Varu»a was consecrated, his energy, his 
vigour departed from him. Probably 2 that collected 
essence (life-sap) of the waters wherewith they were 
sprinkling him, drove out his energy, his vigour. 
He found it in the cattle, and because he found it in 
them, therefore cattle are an object of respect. And 
having found it in the cattle, he again took to him- 
self his energy, his vigour. And in like manner this 
one ; — that energy does not indeed depart from him, 
but he does it (thinking), ' This Ra^usuya is Variwa's 
consecration, and Varuwa did so.' 

3. He takes down the chariot (from the stand s ) ; 
for whatever turns away from the warrior (r&fanya) 
that he overtakes with his chariot : for this reason 
he takes down the chariot. 

4. He takes it down with (V&f. S. X, 21), ' Thou 
art Indra's thunderbolt!' The chariot is indeed 
a thunderbolt ; and the Sacrificer is Indra ; — he is 
Indra for a twofold reason, namely because he is a 

1 The meaning of krivi (krayi, Taitt. S.) is doubtful. Mahi- 
dhara derives it from ' kar ' (to make or injure), in the sense of 
either ' efficacious,' or ' destructive.' — A Grantha MS. of the Ka«va 
text reads kavi, 'wise.' 

* I am now inclined to think that some such meaning as ' prob- 
ably, perhaps ' (more nearly, German ' wohl '), fits all the passages 
(in the Brahmawas at all events) where jajrvat occurs. 

* See above, V, 1, 4, 3 seq. 



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V KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 8. 99 

Kshatriya, and because he is a Sacrificer : therefore 
he says, ' Indra's thunderbolt thou art.' 

5. Having turned it (so as to stand) inside the 
Vedi, he yokes it with, ' I yoke thee by the direc- 
tion of Mitra and Varu«a, the directors*;' 
for Mitra and Varu»a are the two arms, and by his 
arms the Ra^anya belongs to Mitra and Varuwa : 
that is why he says, ' I yoke thee by direction of 
Mitra and Vanma, the directors.' 

6. He yokes it with four (horses). He passes 
along by the same way as that on which the 
dakshi«4s 2 go, — behind the Sadas, and in front of 
the hall. He stops it behind the /£atvala, and in 
front of the Agnidhra. 

7. He mounts it with, 'For unfeebleness (I 
mount) thee, for svadha 3 (I mount) thee!' — by 
' for unfeebleness thee ' he means to say, ' for a state 
free from afflictions (I mount) thee ; ' by ' for svadha 
thee' he means to say, 'for life-sap (I mount) 
thee ; ' — ' I, the unharmed Ar^una ! ' Now Indra 
is called Arfuna, which is his mystic name ; and this 
(king) is Indra for a twofold reason, namely because 
he is a Kshatriya, and because he is a Sacrificer : 
therefore he says, ' the unharmed Ar^una.' 

8. He then goads on the right yoke-horse, with, 
' Conquer thou by the impulse of the Maruts!-' 
For the Maruts are the clansmen, and it is by his 

1 Pnw&str*, ' the director,' is also another name for the MaitrS- 
varuna priest. 

* That is, the cows given to priests as sacrificial fee. For par- 
ticulars regarding the passage by which they are driven to their 
destination, see part ii, p. 344, note 1. 

* Probably here ' for well-being;' the author, however, evidently 
takes it here in the sense of ' invigorating potion,' the drink offered 
to the deceased ancestors. 

H 2 



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IOO A'ATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 



clan that the chieftain wins what he desires to win : 
therefore he says, ' Conquer thou by the impulse of 
the Maruts ! ' 

9. He then stops (the chariot) in the midst of the 
cows 1 , with, 'May we obtain by the mind I' For 
it is by the mind that everything here (that is ob- 
tained) is obtained ; and by the mind therefore he 
now obtains everything : therefore he says, ' May 
we obtain by the mind ! ' 

10. He then touches a cow with the end of the 
bow, with, 'Together with energy!' — energy 
means vigour, kine : it is energy, vigour, he thereby 
takes to himself. And he adds, ' I overpower them, 
I seize them ! ' 

11. Now as to why he stops amidst the cows of 
his relative, — whatever is tending away from a man, 
be it either fame, or anything else, that passes over 
to his relative foremost of all; — that energy, or 
vigour, he now takes again from his relative to 
himself: that is why he stops amidst the cows of 
his relative. 

12. In return he presents to him just as many 
(cows) 2 , or more. For assuredly he, the Sacrificer, 



1 In the ceremonial of the Black Ya^us a sham-fight takes place 
here. East or north of the sacrificial ground a Ra^anya has posted 
himself with bow in hand. The king discharges the arrows at him, 
with, 'Obtained is the mind!' and having thus, as it were, over- 
powered the enemy, he wheels round in a sunwise direction, with, 
' I (have become endowed) with energy, with vigour ! ' He then 
puts on shoes of boar's skin, with, ' Thou art the mettle of catde,' 
gets down from the chariot, and puts on ornaments of silver, copper 
(as Sayawa here interprets audumbara), and gold (afterwards to 
be given to the Brahman). Then follow the oblations relating to 
the unyoking of the chariot. Taitt. S. I, 8, 15, with commentary. 

8 Viz. as many as he has taken from him, a hundred or more. 



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v kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmawa, 15. 101 

is not capable of a cruel deed ; but cruelly indeed 
he acts when he says, ' I overpower them, I seize 
them ; ' and thus that is done by him without 
cruelty: this is why, in return, he presents to him 
just as many (cows) or more. 

1 3. He then pulls the right-side (horses, or reins). 
He passes along on the same way as that on which 
the dakshiwa (cows) go, — in front of the sacrificial 
post, and along the south of the Vedi. Behind the 
Sadas, and in front of the hall, he stops that (car). 

14. [Vdf. S. X, 22], 'Lest, O Indra, over- 
powerer of the mighty, we be wanting thee, 
heedless through ungodliness, — mount thou, 
O divine wielder of the thunderbolt, the 
chariot which thou restrainest (as well as its) 
well-horsed reins 1 .' With this (verse) he stops 
(the chariot) ; — reins (raymi *) means bridle (abhfru) : 
therefore he says, ' Thou restrainest the well-horsed 
reins.' Thereupon he offers the (four oblations) 
relating to the unyoking of the chariot. 'Well- 
pleased the chariot shall be when unyoked,' he thinks, 
and therefore he offers the (oblations) relating to 
the unyoking of the chariot 

15. He offers with (Va^-. S. X, 23), 'To Agni, 
the House-lord, hail!' He thereby pleases the 
part of the chariot relating to Agni ; and it is the 
shoulder-pieces of the chariot that relate to Agni : 
it is the shoulder-pieces (of the yoke) he thereby 
pleases. And the house-lord's position means 
prosperity : as much as he (the king) rules over, for 

1 For a different version of this somewhat awkwardly constructed 
verse, see JRtk S. V, 33, 3. 

* The explanation is given because the word has also the mean- 
ing ' ray.' 



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102 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

the prosperity, the house-lordship, of that his king- 
ship is thereby rendered free (unopposed). 

16. 'To Soma, the wood-lord (tree), hail!' 
There are two kinds of (objects) coming from trees, 
the wheels of chariots and waggons, for both of these 
he thereby ensures safety. And the wood-lord 
(tree) being Soma, — whatever part of the chariot 
comes from the tree, that he thereby pleases. Now 
the parts of the chariot coming from trees are the 
wooden pieces of the chariot : hence it is the wooden 
pieces he thereby pleases. And Soma being the 
nobility, it is over the nobility that his kingship is 
thereby rendered free. 

17. 'To the strength of the Maruts, hail!' 
He thereby pleases the part of the chariot belonging 
to the Maruts, — there are four horses, the chariot the 
fifth, and the warrior (chariot-fighter) and charioteer 
two — these are seven, and the host of the Maruts 
consists of (troops of) seven each : he thereby pleases 
the whole chariot ; and the Maruts being the peasants, 
it is over the peasantry that his kingship is thereby 
rendered free; 

18. 'To Indra's energy, hail!' He thereby 
pleases the part of the chariot that belongs to 
Iridra. Now the warrior relates to Indra, and it 
is the warrior he thereby pleases. And Indra's 
energy (indriya) means the vigour in Indra 1 : it 
is in regard to energy, vigour, that his kingship is 
thereby rendered free. 

19. He then puts on shoes of boar's skin. Now 
the gods once put a pot of ghee on the fire. There- 
from a boar was produced : hence the boar is fat, 

1 ? Or, means vigour, Indra. 

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V KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAWA, 22. IO3 

for it was produced from ghee. Hence also cows 
readily take to a boar : it is indeed their own essence 
(life-sap, blood) they are readily taking to. Thus he 
firmly establishes himself in the essence of the 
cattle : therefore he puts on shoes of boar's skin. 

20. Looking down on this (earth) he then mutters, 
' O mother Earth, injure me not, nor I thee!' 
For the Earth was once afraid of Varuwa, when he 
had been consecrated, thinking, ' Something great 
surely has he become now that he has been 
consecrated : I fear lest he may rend me asunder I ' 
And Varu«a also was afraid of the Earth, thinking, 
'I fear lest she may shake me off! Hence by 
that (formula) he entered into a friendly relation 
with her ; for a mother does not injure her son, nor 
does a son injure his mother. 

21. Now this Ra^asuya is Varuwa's consecration; 
and the Earth is afraid of him, thinking, ' Something 
great surely has he become now that he has been 
consecrated : I fear lest he may rend me asunder ! ' 
And he also is afraid of her, thinking, ' I fear lest 
she may shake me off.' Hence he thereby enters 
into a friendly relation with her ; for a mother does 
not injure her son, nor does a son injure his mother : 
therefore he mutters thus. 

22. He steps down (from the chariot), muttering 
this ati&6andas verse (y&g. S. X, 24; RiV. S. IV, 40, 5), 
'The swan dwelling in the light, the Vasu 
dwelling in the air, the priest seated on the 
altar, the guest dwelling in the retreat (house), 
— the man-dwelling, the space-dwelling 1 , the 
law-dwelling, the sphere-dwelling, the water- 

1 Or perhaps, ' in the best place (vara).' See VI, 7, 3, 1 1. 

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104 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

born, cow-born, law-born, rock-born (is) the 
great truth.' For that atii^andas (or excessive 
metre) comprises all the metres: thus evil does not 
descend along with him. 

23. Let not the charioteer get down along with (or, 
after) him, lest he should descend on the same world 
on which the anointed (king) has just descended. 
They put him up, along with the chariot, on the car- 
stand. Thence he leaps down : thus he does not 
descend on the same world on which the anointed 
has just descended \ 

24. North of the Ahavaniya is the original fire, taken 
up (from the hearth 2 ). Behind the right hind-wheel 
of the cart-stand he fastens two round satamanas 3 . 

25. He then hides an udumbara (ficus glomerata) 
branch (in the wheel-track). He touches one of 
those two (plates), with (Va^ - . S. X, 25), 'So great 
thou art, life thou art: bestow life upon me! 
A yoke-mate thou art, lustre thou art : bestow 
lustre upon me!' He thereby takes life and 
lustre to himself. 

26. He then touches the udumbara branch, with, 
'Sustenance thou art : bestow sustenance upon 
me ! ' He thereby takes sustenance (strength) to 
himself. Those same two round Jatam&nas are 
the fee for this ceremony. He gives them to the 

1 According to Taitt. Br. I, 7, 9, 6, the king, on returning to the 
Vedi, is supposed to have ascended to the heavenly world (suvarga- 
loka), from which the charioteer is to be excluded by this ex- 
pedient. 

* The Ahavanfya of the hall (the so-called ' hall-door fire ') has 
been lifted and placed on a cart. 

* Or, two round (gold) plates, weighing a hundred mana (or 
berries of GuHgi., or Abrus Precatorius, the average weight of 
which is stated to be i r ^ grains Troy). . 



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V K&NDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAhMAYA, 3. I05 

Brahman priest, for the Brahman protects the 
sacrifice from the south : therefore he gives them 
to the Brahman. 

27. In front of the Maitravaru«a's hearth the 
dish of curds for Mitra and Varuwa has been 
deposited. He draws down to it his (the Sacrificer's) 
two arms 1 , with, ' I draw you down, the arms of 
Indra, the doer of mighty deeds.' Now curds 
are the essence of cattle : hence it is to the essence 
of cattle that he thereby brings down his (the 
Sacrificer's) arms. And as to its being for Mitra- 
Varu«a, it is because Mitra and Varu«a are the 
two arms. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

1. He proceeds with the curds for Mitra- Varuwa. 
Whilst the Svish/akm of it remains yet unoffered, 
they bring a throne-seat for him (the king) ; for 
truly he who gains a seat in the air, gains a seat 
above (others) : thus these subjects of his sit below 
him who is seated above, — that is why they bring 
him a throne-seat. It is of khadira (acacia catechu) 
wood, and perforated, and bound with thongs as 
that of the Bharatas. 

2. He places it (on the tiger's skin), in front of 
the Maitravaruwa's hearth, with (Va^\ S. X, 26), 
'Thou art pleasant, thou art soft-seated!' — he 
thereby renders it kindly and auspicious. 

3. He then spreads a mantle over it, with, ' Thou 
art the womb (seat) of knighthood!' — he thus 

1 Whilst this is done, the king stands on the tiger's skin, and 
the Adhvaryu hands him his bow and arrows. Thereupon the 
dish of curds is taken to the uttaravedi to be proceeded with. 
Katy. Sr. XV, 6, 34-35. 



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106 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

makes it (the king's throne) the very womb of 
knighthood. 

4. He then makes him sit down on it, with, ' Seat 
thee on the pleasant one! seat thee on the 
soft-seated!' — whereby he says, 'Seat thyself on 
the kindly and auspicious (seat)!' — 'Seat thee in 
the womb of knighthood ! ' — thus he places him 
in what is the very womb of knighthood. 

5. Having touched him on the chest, he then 
mutters (Vkg; S. X, 27; Rik S. I, 25, 10), ' He hath 
sat down, the upholder of the sacred law,' — 
the king indeed is the upholder of the sacred law, 
for he is not capable of all and every speech, nor of 
all and every deed ; but that he should speak only 
what is right, and do what is right, of that he, as 
well as the .Srotrtya (the Brahman versed in sacred 
writ), is capable ; for these two are the upholders of 
the sacred law among men : therefore he says, ' He 
hath sat down, the upholder of the sacred law ; ' — 
' Varu#a, in the home-steads,' — the home-steads 
are the peasants (clans, people) : * among the 
peasants' he means to say; — 'for supreme rule, 
he the wise!' — 'for kingship' he means to say 
when he says, ' for supreme rule, he the wise.' 

6. He then throws the five dice 1 into his hand, 

1 The allusions to the game of dice in the early literature are 
not sufficiently definite to enable us to form a clear idea as to the 
manner in which the game was played. Sayana, on our passage 
(as on Taitt. S. I, 8, 16), remarks that the dice here used consisted 
either of gold cowries (shells) or of gold (dice shaped like) Vibhi- 
taka nuts. That the (brown) fruit of the Vibhitaka tree (Terrai- 
nalia Bellerica) — being of about the size of a nutmeg, nearly round, 
with five slightly flattened sides — was commonly used for this pur- 
pose in early times, we know from the Rig-veda ; but we do not 
know in what manner the dice were marked in those days. Accord- 



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V KXNDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 6. IO7 

with (V5g. S. X, 28), 'Dominant thou art: may 
these five regions of thine prosper ! ' — now that 

ing to the commentators, the game is played with five dice, four of 
which are called kr»ta, whilst the fifth is called kali; and if all the 
dice fall uniformly (ekarupa) — i. e. with the marked sides either 
upwards or downwards — then the player wins, and in that case the 
kali is said to overrule the other dice. In this case the kali would 
seem to represent the king. Katy. St. XV, 7,18-19, however, admits 
of another mode of playing, by which the kali represents the sa^ata 
(tribesman), whilst the king and those that come after him (in the 
enumeration in paragraphs 15-20) play the kr*ta, &c. To under- 
stand this mode, we have probably to turn to .A'Aandog. Up. IV, 1, 4, 
where it is said of the saint Raikva, that everything good fell to 
him, just as the lower dice (or casts) submit to the conquering krt'ta. 
Here the commentators assign the names kr/ta, treta, dvapara, and 
kali to different sides of the die, marked respectively with 4, 3, 2, 
and 1 marks (anka). — In Taitt. Br. I, 7, 10 the game at dice, at 
the Ra^asuya, is referred to as follows : — With, 'This king has over- 
come the regions,' he hands (to the king) five dice ; for these are all 
the dice : he thereby renders him invincible. They engage (to play) 
for a dish of rice (odana), for that is (a symbol of) the chief: he thus 
makes him obtain every prosperity. He addresses them (with the 
epithets of) ' far-famed, most prosperous, true king.' The Commentary 
and Sutras then supply the following explanations : — The keeper of 
the dice (akshavapa), having (marked off and) raised the gambling- 
ground (by means of the wooden sword), and sprinkled it, throws 
down more than a hundred— or more than a thousand — gold dice. 
From them he takes five dice and hands them to the king : these, as 
representing the five regions, are taken to include all those dice. 
These explanations, so far from clearing up the doubtful points, 
seem rather to add to them. It may be noted, however, that in the 
well-known hymn, Hik S. X, 34, in which the gambler's state of 
mind is pictured in very expressive language, the dice of the game 
are apparendy spoken of as tripa#£Lra vrata, or ' the troop of fifty- 
three' (or thrice five, according to Ludwig's rather improbable con- 
jecture). For other particulars see R. Roth, Zeitsch. d. deutsch. 
morg. Ges. II, p. 122 ; A. Weber, Ind. Stud. I, p. 284. According 
to GoldstUcker (s.v. abhishelanfya) this game of dice is intended 
to symbolize the victory of the present age, or kali-yuga, over the 
former ages ; but the commentator rather takes it as symbolizing 
the king's dig-v^aya, or victorious sway in every quarter. 



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108 satapatha-brahma#a. 

one, the Kali, is indeed dominant over the (other) 
dice, for that one dominates over all the dice : there- 
fore he says, ' Dominant thou art : may these five 
regions of thine prosper ! ' for there are indeed five 
regions, and all the regions he thereby causes to 
prosper for him. 

7. They (the Adhvaryu and his assistants) then 
silently strike him with sticks on the back ; — by 
beating him with sticks (dawak) they guide him 
safely over judicial punishment (daftdabadha) : 
whence the king is exempt from punishment 
(ada#dya), because they guide him safely over 
judicial punishment. 

8. Thereupon he chooses a boon ; and, verily, 
whatsoever boon he who has been anointed chooses, 
that is completely fulfilled for him : therefore he 
chooses a boon. 

9. ' O Brahman!' thus he addresses (the priest) 
the first time *, thinking, ' I will first utter the (word) 

1 If it were not for the clear and unmistakable interpretation of 
the commentators on the Brahmana and K&tyayana, one might feel 
inclined to translate, ' thus he addresses the first — the second,' Ac, 
so as to bring it into accord with the practice of the Black Ya^us. 
This practice is as follows (Taitt. S. I, 8, 16, with commentary). — 
The priest moves the previously uplifted arms of the Sacrificer 
down to the Vawvadeva dish of curds (cf. above, V, 4, 3, 27), with, 
' Thou art Mitra 1 — thou art Varu»a ! ' He then places the khadira 
throne-seat on the vedi, covers it with a leathern (or fur) cover, 
with, ' Thou art the navel of the Kshatra, the womb of the Kshatra,' 
and makes the king sit down with, ' Seat thee on the pleasant one, 
seat thee on the soft-seated I' The king sits down, with, ' May it 
not injure thee I may it not injure me !' The priest then addresses 
him, with, ' He hath sat down, the upholder of the sacred law, 
Varuwa in the home-steads, for supreme rule, he the wise I' The 
priests and Ratnins (see V, 3, 1, 1 seq.) then sit down in a circle 
round the king in order to do homage to him, — the Adhvaryu being 
seated towards the east, the Brahman towards the south, the Hotrz 



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V KAYZ>A, 4 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAWA, 12. IO9 

Brahman, I will speak speech sped by the Brahman : ' 
this is why he first addresses him with ' O Brahman ! ' 
The other answers, ' Thou art Brahman ! Thou 
art Savitrz* of true impulsion ! ' — he thereby lays 
vigour into him, and causes Savitrt to be of true 
impulsion. 

10. 'O Brahman!' thus he addresses him the 
second time. The other answers, ' Thou art 
Brahman! Thou art Varuwa of true power!' — 
he thereby lays vigour into him, and causes Varu«a 
to be of true power. 

11. 'O Brahman!' thus he addresses him the 
third time. The other answers, 'Thou art Brah- 
man! Thou art Indra, mighty through the 
people 1 !' — he thereby lays vigour into him, and 
causes Indra to be mighty through the people. 

12. 'O Brahman!' thus he addresses him the 



towards the west, the Udg&W towards the north. The king then 
addresses the Adhvaryu, with, 'O Brahman, (Om)l' That priest 
replies, ' Thou, O king, art Brahman, thou art Savitr/ of true im- 
pulsion.' In the same way the king addresses the Brahman, ' O 
Brahman I' and that priest replies, 'Thou, O king, art Brahman, 
thou art Indra, of true energy 1' Then the Hotr«', who replies, 
' . . . thou art Mitra, the most kindly I' — the Udgttn': ' . . . thou 
art Varu«a, of true laws!' Thereupon the Brahman hands the 
sacrificial sword to the king, with, 'Indra's thunderbolt thou art!' 
He then hands to him five dice, with, ' This king has overcome the 
regions!' see next note. — The charioteer, treasurer, and chamber- 
lain are invited by the king (to the game f ) by auspicious epithets 
(' far-famed one,' ' most prosperous one,' ' true king '). Thereupon 
the Hotn" recites the story of .SunaArepa, whereupon follows the 
offering of the svish/aknt of the cake of the Maruts, and the dish 
of curds to the VLr ve DevSA. 

1 Or, he whose strength is the people (vis, visa), — that is, the 
Maruts, in the case of Indra, and the subjects or peasantry in that 
of the king. Say. 



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TIO SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

fourth time. The other answers, 'Thou art Brah- 
man! Thou art Rudra, the most kindly!' — 
he thereby lays into him (the king) those former 
energies, and he appeases him (Rudra) ; and he, 
Rudra, therefore, is gracious to every one, because 
he (the priest) appeases him. 

13. 'O Brahman!' thus he addresses him the 
fifth time. The other answers (undefinedly), ' Thou 
art Brahman!' — undefined means unlimited : thus 
heretofore he laid limited vigour into him ; but now 
he answers undefinedly ; and undefined meaning un- 
limited, he thereby lays complete, unlimited vigour 
into him : therefore he answers here undefinedly. 

14. He then hails him as one bearing auspicious 
names, — 'Much-worker, better-worker, more- 
worker 1 !' Whoever bears such names speaks 
auspiciously even with a human voice. 

15. A Brahmawa then hands to him the sacri- 
ficial (wooden) sword, — either the Adhvaryu, or he 
who is his (the king's) domestic chaplain — with, 
'Indra's thunderbolt thou art: therewith 
serve me ! ' — the sacrificial sword being a thunder- 
bolt, that Brahma#a, by means of that thunderbolt, 
makes the king to be weaker than himself; for 
indeed the king who is weaker than a Brahma#a, is 
stronger than his enemies : thus he thereby makes 
him stronger than his enemies. 

16. The king hands it to the king's brother, with, 
'Indra's thunderbolt thou art: therewith 
serve me!' Thereby the king makes his brother 
to be weaker than himself. 

17. The king's brother hands it either to the 

1 That is, increaser of the prosperity of himself and his people. 

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V KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAVA, 21. Ill 

Suta (minstrel and chronicler), or to the Governor, 
with, ' Indra's thunderbolt thou art : therewith 
serve me!' Thereby the king's brother makes the 
Suta, or the Governor, to be weaker than himself. 

18. The Suta, or the Governor, hands it to the 
Grama«t (village-headman '), with, 'Indra's thun- 
derbolt thou art : therewith serve me ! ' There- 
by the Suta, or the Governor, makes the headman 
to be weaker than himself. 

19. The Grama«t hands it to a tribesman 2 , with, 
'Indra's thunderbolt thou art: therewith 
serve me ! ' Thereby the headman makes the 
tribesman to be weaker than himself. And as to 
why they mutually hand it on in this way, they do 
so lest there should be a confusion of classes, and 
in order that (society) may be in the proper order. 

20. Thereupon the tribesman and the Prati- 
prasthatW 3 , with that sacrificial sword, prepare the 
gaming-ground, (close) by the original fire 4 , with the 
purorai verse of the *Sukra 6 . The .Sukra is the 
eater : he thereby makes (him) the eater. 

21. With the puroru^ verse of the Manthin 6 they 
then put up a shed (vimita). The Manthin cup is 



1 See p. 6o, note. 

J The sa^ata would seem to be one of the peasant proprietors 
or ' sharers ' constituting the village ' brotherhood ' ruled over by 
the headman, and often actually belonging to the same family as 
the latter (Gaugenosse, clansman). 

* The first assistant of the Adhvaryu. 

* That is, north of the Ahavantya fire, where the cart stands, 
containing the original (hall-door) fire. 

• For this verse (V&g. S. VII, 12; J?»'k S. V, 44, 1), preceding 
the ordinary formula with which the Soma-cups are drawn, see 
IV, 2, 1, 9 (part ii, p. 280). 

• VSg. S. VII, 16; Xik S. X, 123, 1 ; see IV, 2, 1, 10. 



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1 1 2 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

he that is to be eaten, — thus having first made (him) 
the feeder, they now make for him one to be fed 
upon : that is why they put up a shed with the 
puroru/f' verse of the Manthin cup. 

22. The Adhvauyu then takes clarified butter in 
four ladlings, places a piece of gold on the gaming- 
ground, and offers with (Va,f. S. X, 29), 'May 
ample Agni, the lord of rites, delighted, — may 
ample Agni, the lord of rites, accept of the 
butter, hail!' 

23. He (the Adhvaryu) throws down the dice, 
with, 'Hallowed by Svahi, strive ye with 
Surya's rays for the middlemost place among 
brethren!' For that gaming-ground is the same 
as ' ample Agni,' and those dice are his coals, thus 
it is him (Agni) he thereby pleases ; and assuredly 
in the house of him who offers the Ra^asuya, or 
who so knows this, the striking 1 of that cow is 
approved of. On those dice he says, ' Play for the 
cow ! ' The two draught oxen of the original 
(hall-door) fire are the sacrificial fee. 

24. He then says, ' Pronounce the invitatory 
prayer to Agni Svish/akm ! ' And as to why that 
ceremony is performed between two oblations, — 
verily, Pra^apati is that sacrifice which is here 
performed, and from which these creatures have 
been produced, — and, indeed, they are even now 
produced after this one ; — thus he places him (the 
Sacrificer) in the very middle of that Pra^apati, and 
consecrates him in the very middle : that is why 
that ceremony is performed between two oblations. 

1 Thus (not the slaying) according to the commentary on KSty. 
St. XV, 7, 20, hantu £ahananamatro na mara*artha£. — The cow is 
the one staked by the tribesman (sa^ata). 



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v kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 5 brAhmaya, 2. 113 

Having called for the -Srausha/, he says, ' Pronounce 
the offering-formula to Agni Svish/akrzt,' and offers 
as the Vasha/ is uttered. 

25. He then puts the \dk on (the fire). After the 
invocation of Idfa, he touches water and draws the 
Mahendra cup. Having drawn the Mahendra cup, 
he sets the chant agoing. He urges him (the 
Sacrificer) forward to the chant : he gets down (from 
the throne-seat) ; he is in attendance at the chant 
(stotra), in attendance at the recitation (.yastra). 



THE DASAPEYA. 

Fifth BrAhma^a. 

*i. Now when Varu«a was consecrated, his lustre 
departed from him, — lustre means vigour : that 
Vishmi, the Sacrifice, it was he that departed from 
him, — probably that collected essence of the waters 
wherewith he is anointed on that occasion, drove out 
his lustre. 

2. He stole after it with those deities 1 , — with, 
Savitrz, the impeller (prasavitW) ; with SarasvatI, 
speech ; with Tvash/W, the forms of being ; with 
Pushan, cattle ; with Indra, on the part of him a (the 
Sacrificer) ; with B^zhaspati, holiness ; with Varu»a, 
might ; with Agni, fiery spirit ; with Soma, the King ; 

' In the Black Ya^us ritual the order of deities to whom the 
' samsrt'p&m haviwishi ' are offered is as follows, — Agni, Sarasvatf, 
Savitri', Pushan, Brihaspati, Indra, Varuwa, Soma, Tvash/r«, Vishmi. 
Cf. Taitt. S. I, 8, 17 ; Taitt Br. I, 8, 1. 

* Or, with Indra, for (the lost vigour) itself. Hardly, ' for us.' 
The Kfi«va text has ' indrewSsmai,' and so Siya«a (MS. I. O. 
657): asmai apasrMya vlryaya tadadhtnakara«Srtham indrena; 
yad vi vibhaktivyatyayaA, anena vfryewa viryavatS indre«a. 

[40 I 



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I 14 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA. 

— but only through Vish»u \ the tenth deity, he 
found it. 

3. And because he there stole after (anu-sam-sr/p) 
with those deities, hence the name SamsripaA. 
And because he becomes consecrated on the tenth 
day, therefore (this ceremony is called) Da^apeya 2 . 
And because each time ten (men) steal along 3 after 
each cup, therefore also it is called Darapeya. 

4. Here now they say, — ' Let him steal forth after 
enumerating ten Soma-drinking grandfathers * : it 
is thus that he obtains for himself the Soma- 
draught of this (Dayapeya), for it is a " drinking of 
ten." ' But that is an overburdening 6 , for people (will 

1 It seems rather strange that Vanwa and Vish«u should be 
included amongst the deities, with whose help Varuwa sought to 
recover his vigour, or Vish«u the sacrifice ; but — 'Twere to con- 
sider too curiously, to consider so. 

! That is, dara (ten) and peya (drink, beverage). 

* For an explanation of the noiseless mode of moving with bent 
bodies, called sarpanam, 'creeping,' see part ii, pp. 299, 450. It 
is in this way they are to move when they betake themselves to the 
respective fire-places for performing the samsrip oblations ; as they 
also do when betaking themselves to the Sadas to drink the cups of 
Soma at the Soma-feast on the next day. When libations of Soma- 
juice are made from the ten cups (iamasa, see part ii, p. 287), each 
cup is to be followed by ten Brahmans who then take part in con- 
suming the liquor in the Sadas — there being thus altogether one 
hundred Brahmans taking part in these potations. The contents 
of the Sacrificer's cup, on the other hand, may be drunk by ten 
Rl^anyas (i. e. himself and nine others). See Katy. XV, 8, 18-20 ; 
Taitt. S., vol. ii, p. 179. 

* Sayana takes this literally as meaning that he is to call out the 
name of the Sacrificer's grandfather, then the grandfather of that 
one and so on. The commentary on Katy. XV, 8, 16, on the other 
hand, apparently takes it to mean ten forefathers of the Sacrificer 
who have performed Soma-sacrifices, from the grandfather upwards. 

5 That is, an excessive demand, or, a weighing down, or crush- 
ing of the Sacrificer, making it impossible for him to perform the 
ceremony at all. 



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v kXnda, 4 adhvAya, 5 brAhma-va, 8. 115 

be able to) obtain only two or three Soma-drinking 
grandfathers : hence kt him steal forth after enu- 
merating those same deities l . 

5. For, surely, it was by those same deities that 
Varu»a obtained the Soma-draught of that (Conse- 
cration-ceremony) ; and in like manner does this one 
now obtain the Soma-draught of that (ceremony) : 
let him therefore steal forth after enumerating those 
same deities. Now as soon as the completing 
oblation 2 of that Consecration-ceremony comes to 
an end, — 

6. He prepares those (samsrtp) oblations, — a 
cake on twelve, or eight, potsherds for Savitr?'; 
for Savitri is the impeller of the gods : impelled by 
Savitf /, Varu«a on that occasion stole along ; and in 
like manner does this one now steal along impelled 
by Savitri. At this (oblation) he presents one lotus- 
flower 3 . 

7. He then prepares a (rice) pap for Sarasvatl, — 
for Sarasvatl is speech, and it was with speech that 
Varu«a on that occasion stole along; and in like 
manner does this one now steal along with speech. 
At this (oblation) he presents one lotus-flower. 

8. He then prepares a cake on ten potsherds for 
Tvash/rz, — for Tvash/W (the fashioner, creator) 
rules over living forms, and with Tvash^?, the living 
forms, Varu#a on that occasion stole along ; and in 

1 That is to say, after pronouncing the mantra, Va^-. S. X, 30, 
agreeing partly with paragraph 2 above, viz. beginning, ' By Savitr*, 
the impeller; by Sarasvatt, speech/ . . . and ending, 'by Vishnu, 
the tenth deity, impelled I steal forth.' 

* For the Udavasiniya' ish/i, see part ii, p. 389. 

' The lotus-flowers presented on this occasion are gold ones, 
according to S$ya«a, or optionally ordinary white or gold ones, 
according to Klty. XV, 8, 5-6. 

1 2 



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u6 satapatha-brahmana. 

like manner does this one now steal along with 
Tvash/r?, the living forms. At this (oblation) he 
presents one lotus-flower. 

9. He then prepares a pap for Pushan; — for 
Pushan is cattle, and with cattle Varu»a on that 
occasion stole along ; and in like manner does this 
one now steal along with cattle. At this (oblation) 
he presents one lotus-flower. 

10. He then prepares a cake on eleven potsherds 
for Indra; — for Indriya means energy, vigour, and 
with vigour Varu»a on that occasion stole along; 
and in like manner does this one now steal along 
with energy, with vigour. At this (oblation) he 
presents one lotus-flower. 

11. He then prepares a pap for Brzhaspati; — 
for Brzhaspati means holiness, and with holiness 
Varu«a on that occasion stole along; and in like 
manner does this one now steal along with holiness. 
At this (oblation) he presents one lotus-flower. 

12. He then prepares a barley pap for Varu«a ; — 
with what vehemence Varu»a seized the creatures, 
with that vehemence Varu»a on that occasion stole 
along ; and in like manner does this one now steal 
along with vehemence. At this (oblation) he pre- 
sents one lotus-flower. 

13. The deities of the Upasad are the (eighth, 
ninth, and) tenth 1 . At these (oblations) he presents 



1 For the Upasad, or preliminary oblations of ghee to Agni, 
Soma, and Vishwu, to be performed twice daily for (usually) three 
days preceding an ordinary Soma-sacrifice, see part ii, p. 104. At 
the Darapeya, the ten Samsr/'p-oblations take as it were the place 
of the ordinary Upasads, the latter being performed on the last 
three preliminary days along with, and to the same deities as, the 
last three Sawsnp-oblations ; or, according to some authorities, 



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V KAATOA, 4 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAJVA, 1 5. 1 1 7 

five lotus-flowers. That wreath of twelve lotus- 
flowers he puts on himself; that is the initiation : 
by that initiation he initiates himself. 

14. And as to why there are twelve (flowers), — 
there being twelve months in the year, and the year 
being All, it is by the All that he thus initiates him : 
what flowers there are of the lotus, they are a form 
(an image) of the sky, they are a form of the stars ; 
and what seed-stalks there are, they are a form of 
the air ; and what suckers there are, they are a form 
of this (earth) : thus he initiates him (to rule) over 
these worlds. 

15. And having bought the King (Soma) 1 , and 

being substituted for them. There seems also some difference of 
opinion as to the exact time when the other preliminary ceremonies 
— the procession and entrance of king Soma, the guest-meal, &c. — 
are to take place, see paragraph 15. — According to Katy. XV, 8, 14, 
these ceremonies are to take place on the seventh day (which the 
commentator, however, takes to mean the seventh day of the light 
fortnight of ^aitra; the first seven Sawsr/p-oblations being, according 
to him, performed on the day before). The K£»vas, however, per- 
form these offerings on separate days. — The Taittiriya authorities 
seem also to be at variance with each other as to the exact relation 
of the Upasads and the last three Sa«isr»p-oblations, the deities of 
the two being, according to their scheme, only partly identical. 
According to Apastamba (and Taitt. Br.) the first seven Sawsrips 
are performed on so many days and, moreover, one Diksha on the 
seventh day. Then on the last three days the Samsn'ps and Upa- 
sads are combined in this way, that the eighth day's Samsrsp is 
performed previous to, the ninth between, the tenth after the two 
daily Upasad-performances. — Each of the ten oblations also requires 
a special set of fires for its performance, the first being laid down 
immediately north of the one used for the Abhishe^aniya ceremony, 
the second immediately north of the first, &c; the last Sa«sr«p- 
oblation being performed in the fire-shed (jala) of the Darapeya 
proper. Katy. XV, 8, 2-3; cf. Taitt. S., vol. ii, p. 176. 

1 Namely, at the beginning of the Abhishetentya, or Consecra- 
tion-ceremony when Soma-plants are purchased sufficient to last 



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i j 8 satapatha-brahmaya. 

tied him up in two parts, they drive him around. 
Having then placed one-half on the throne-seat, he 
proceeds therewith. Having then placed on the 
throne-seat that portion which was deposited in the 
Brahman's house, he proceeds with the guest-meal. 
Whilst he is proceeding with the guest-meal, he 
performs the Upasads. Whilst he is performing 
the Upasads, — 

1 6. He prepares those (three) oblations, — a cake 
on eight potsherds for Agni ; a pap for Soma ; and 
a cake on three potsherds, or a pap, for Vish«u. 
Thus he performs the sacrifice in this way, if it 
pleases him. 

1 7. But let him not do it in this way ; for he who 
departs from the path of the sacrifice stumbles, and 
he who departs from the path of the Upasads cer- 
tainly departs from the path of the sacrifice : let him 
therefore not depart from the path of the Upasads. 

18. Now when he offers to Agni, he steals along 
with Agni, with fiery spirit ; and when he offers to 
Soma, he steals along with Soma, the King; and 
when he offers to Vish»u, — Vish«u being the sacri- 
fice, — he visibly obtains the sacrifice, and having 
visibly obtained it, he makes it his own (or, takes 
it in). 

19. This same (Da^apeya) is an Agnish/oma sacri- 
fice (performed) with the seventeenfold (stoma) 1 ; 
for Pra^apati is seventeenfold, and Prafapati is the 



for both that ceremony and the succeeding D&rapeya; the portion 
destined for the latter ceremony being meanwhile deposited in the 
Brahman's house. 

1 All the chants (stotra) of the Dsurapeya are to be executed in 
the seventeenfold mode of chanting, or Saptadara-stoma ; for an 
example of which see part ii, p. 315, note 1. 



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V KAffDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAJVA, 23. 119 

sacrifice 1 : thus he visibly obtains the sacrifice, and 
having visibly obtained it, he makes it his own. 

20. Twelve heifers with first calf are the sacrificial 
fee for this (sacrifice) ; for twelve months there are 
in the year, and the year is Pra^apati, and Pra^apati 
is the sacrifice : thus he visibly obtains the sacrifice, 
and having visibly obtained it, he makes it his own. 

21. These (heifers) have twelve embryo calves, — 
that makes twenty-four ; for twenty-four half-moons 
there are in the year, and the year is Pra^apati, and 
Pra^apati is the sacrifice : thus he visibly obtains 
the sacrifice, and having visibly obtained it, he makes 
it his own. 

22. He gives them to the Brahman, for the Brah- 
man guards the sacrifice from the south : therefore 
he gives them to the Brahman. To the Udgatr* 
(chanter) he gives the gold wreath, to the Hotrt the 
gold plate, to the two Adhvaryus two golden mirrors, 
to the Prastotr? (precentor) a horse, to the Maitra- 
varu«a a sterile cow, to the Brahma»aMa*»sin a 
bull, to the NeshZ/'z and Potri two garments, to the 
AiAavaka (a cart) laden with barley, and yoked 
(with an ox) on one side, to the Agnidh an ox 2 . 

23. Now there are here either twelve or thirteen 3 
presents, — for either twelve or thirteen are there 
months in the year, and the year is Pra^apati, and 
Pra^apati is the sacrifice : thus he visibly obtains 
the sacrifice, and having visibly obtained it he makes 
it his own. 

1 See p. 8, note. 

* The text has ' g£m agnfdhe,' i. e. either ' a bull/ or ' a cow.' 
So also KSty. XV. 8, 27. Sayaaa, however, refers to another 
authority, — anarfvaham agnidha iti sutritam, . . . vahnir vS ana<Mn 
iti hi taittirfyakam. 

' That is, according to Siyawa, counting the unbom calves. 



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I 20 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

Fifth AdhyAya. First Brahmaata. 

i. There is a cake on eight potsherds for Agni : 
this he places on the eastern part (of the Vedi). 
There is either a cake on eleven potsherds for 
Indra, or a rice-pap for Soma: this he places on 
the southern part There is a pap for the Vi^ve 
Deva^ (All-gods) : this he places on the western 
part. There is a dish of curds for Mitra-Varu«a : 
this he places on the north part. There is a pap 
for Brzhaspati : this he places in the middle. This 
is the five-holed pap 1 ; — what five sacrificial dishes 
(havis) there are, for them there are five holes : 
hence the name ' five-holed pap.' 

2. And as to why the performer of the Ra^asuya 
should perform this offering: because he (the priest) 
makes him ascend the regions, the seasons, the 
hymns and metres, he now redeems him therefrom 
by this (offering). But were the performer of the 
Ra^asuya not to perform this offering, then verily 
he would become intoxicated (with pride) 2 and would 
fall down headlong : that is why the performer of 
the Ra^asuya performs this offering. 

3. And why he proceeds with the cake on eight 

1 According to Saya/ia (MS. I. O. 657) the term 'PaSJabila' 
is derived from the circumstance that the vessel (patri) on which 
the five sacrificial dishes are placed when taken about to be 'de- 
posited ' on the vedi, contains five holes or openings for the dishes 
to be taken out. The Pa££abila oblations are to be performed 
during the light fortnight succeeding the performance of the Dara- 
peya, — that is to say, during the fortnight commencing with the 
new moon of Vaixakha, or in the latter part of April. The Tait- 
tiriya ceremonial calls these oblations the ' DLram avesh/ayaA,' i. e. 
' Sacrifices performed for the appeasement of the regions.' 

* Or, would become giddy (in flying through space), cf. Taitt. 
Br. I, 8, 3, 1. 



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V KAJVDA, 5 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAYA, 8. 121 

potsherds for Agni, — because he makes him ascend 
the eastern region, the seasons, the hymns and 
metres, he now redeems him therefrom by this 
(oblation). The remains of it he pours on the 
Brzhaspati pap. 

4. And why he proceeds with the cake on eleven 
potsherds for Indra, or with the pap for Soma, — 
because he makes him ascend the southern region, 
the seasons, the hymns and metres, he now redeems 
him therefrom by this (oblation). The remains he 
pours on the Brzhaspati pap. 

5. And why he proceeds with the pap to the All- 
gods, — because he makes him ascend the eastern 
region, the seasons, the hymns and metres, he now 
redeems him therefrom by this (oblation). The 
remains he pours on the BWhaspati pap. 

6. And why he proceeds with the dish of curds 
for Mitra-Varuwa, — because he makes him ascend 
the northern region, the seasons, the hymns and 
metres, he now redeems him therefrom by this 
(oblation). The remains he pours on the BWhaspati 
pap. And in that he pours those remains on the 
Brzhaspati pap, he thereby bestows food upon him x 
(the Sacrificer); and hence food is brought to the 
king from every quarter. 

7. And why he proceeds with the Br/haspati pap, 
— because he makes him ascend the upper region, 
the seasons, the hymns and metres, he now redeems 
him therefrom by this (oblation). 

8. And what cake on eight potsherds there is for 
Agni, the priest's fee for that is gold ; for that 
offering is for Agni, and gold is Agni's seed : there- 

1 Or, puts food into him. 

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122 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

fore the fee is gold. He gives it to the Agnidh ; 
for he, the Agnldhra, is really the same as Agni : 
therefore he gives it to the Agnidh. 

9. And what cake on eleven potsherds there is 
for Indra, the fee for that is a bull, for the bull is 
Indra. And if there be a pap for Soma, then the 
fee for that is a brown ox, for the brown one is 
sacred to Soma. He gives it to the Brahman, for 
the Brahman guards the sacrifice from the south : 
therefore he gives it to the Brahman. 

10. And what pap there is for the All-gods, the 
fee for that is a piebald bullock ; for abundance of 
forms (marks) there is in such a piebald bullock, and 
the Visve Deva-4 are the clans, and the clans mean 
abundance : therefore a piebald bullock is the fee. 
He gives it to the Hotrt, for the Hotrt means abun- 
dance : therefore he gives it to the Hotrt. 

11. And what dish of curds there is for Mitra- 
Varuwa, the fee for that is a sterile cow, for that 
one is sacred to Mitra-Varuwa. If he cannot 
procure a sterile cow, any unimpregnated one will 
do ; for every sterile cow is indeed unimpregnated. 
He gives it to the two Adhvaryus; for the Adhvaryus 
are the out-breathing and the in-breathing, and the 
out-breathing and in-breathing are Mitra-Varu»a : 
therefore he gives it to the two Adhvaryus. 

12. And what pap there is for Brzhaspati, the 
fee for that is a white-backed bullock ; for to Bri- 
haspati belongs that upper region \ and above that 
there is that path of Aryaman 2 : therefore a white- 
backed (bullock) is the fee for the Brzhaspati (pap). 
He gives it to the Brahman, for Brzhaspati is the 

1 Or rather, that upward direction. 

s That is, the region of light, of the sun. See V, 3, 1, 2 with note. 



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V KAJVDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMANA, 2. 1 23 

Brahman of the gods, and this one is his (the 
Sacrificer's) Brahman : therefore he gives it to the 
Brahman. Even a vish/^avra/in 1 who is desirous 
of food may perform this offering : he (the priest) 
thereby bestows food upon him from all quarters, 
and verily he becomes an eater of food. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

1 . He performs the oblations of teams (p r a y u f 4 m 
havlwshi). The reason why he performs the obla- 
tions of teams, is that the anointed thereby yokes 
the seasons, and thus yoked those seasons draw 
him along, and he follows the seasons thus yoked : 
therefore he performs the oblations of teams. 

2. There are twelve of these (oblations), for there 
are twelve months in the year: that is why there 
are twelve. ' Let him make offering month by 
month,' they say. Who knows about (the life of) 
man 2 ? Let him therefore not make offering month 
by month. Moving eastward he offers six of them 
each at the distance of the yoke-pin's throw from 
the other 3 ; and then turning backward he offers 
six, each at a yoke-pin's throw from the other. 

1 The meaning of this compound is unknown. Sayawa explains 
it as meaning ' one who does not move from one spot, one who 
always remains in one and the same place.' Hence the St. Peters- 
burg dictionary conjectures : 'One whose herd (or cattle-pen, vra^a, 
vra^a) is stationary.' Similarly, Prof. Weber, in Bohtlingk's Dic- 
tionary. See, however, the Ka«va reading above, p. 50, note 1, 
according to which the word would seem to mean one afflicted 
with a certain malady (? cholera or dysentery). The ' Pa#£abila' 
offering may be performed as a special ish/i, independently of the 
Rag-asuya. 

* ' But who (knows if he) will live a year ?' Taitt. Br. I, 8, 4, 3. 

9 In that case, he could offer them as distinct ish/is, each with 
its special barhis, and moving eastwards from the Ahavanfya fire. 



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1 24 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMANA. 

3. But let him not do it thus. He prepares those 
first six so as to have a common barhis \ after the 
manner of those deities (of the first six oblations) ; 
even as in early spring they * would yoke their team 
and go onward until the rainy season, so does he 
now yoke the six seasons, and thus yoked the six 
seasons draw him forward and he follows the six 
seasons thus yoked until the rainy season. Two of 
the (oxen) drawing the original (hall-door) fire are 
the sacrificial fee. 

4. He prepares the last six oblations so as to 
have a common barhis, after the manner of those (six) 
deities. Even as they would return again towards 
the rainy season, so does he yoke the six seasons, 
and thus yoked the six seasons draw him towards 
the rainy season, and he follows the six seasons 
thus yoked, in the rainy season. Two of the (oxen) 
drawing the original fire are the sacrificial fee. And 
as to why the (oxen) drawing the original fire are 
the sacrificial fee, — the consecrated (king) now yokes 
the seasons, and it being oxen that (actually) draw 
(and thus represent the seasons), therefore the (oxen) 
drawing the original fire are the sacrificial fee. 

5. Now as to this the Kurupa&fcalas used formerly 
to say, ' It is the seasons that, being yoked, draw us, 
and we follow the seasons thus yoked.' It was 
because their kings were performers of the Ra^asuya 
that they spake thus. 

1 That is to say, the first six oblations are to be combined and 
performed together as a single offering, without changing the 
covering of sacrificial grass on the altar. 

* Saya»a supplies ' kings,' and refers to Taitt. Br. 1, 8, 4, 1, where 
the KurupaS&la (kings) are said to issue forth in the dewy season 
(on a raid over the eastern country), and to return with their booty 
at the end of the hot season. See paragraph 5. 



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V K.H.NDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAWA, 9. 1 25 

6. There is a cake on eight potsherds for Agni, 
a pap for Soma, a cake on twelve or eight potsherds 
for Savit*-«, a pap for Brzhaspati, a cake on ten 
potsherds for Tvash /*-*', and one on twelve pot- 
sherds for (Agni) Vaisvanara — these are the first 
six oblations. 

7. The six last are paps, — a pap for Sarasvatt, 
a pap for Pushan, a pap for Mitra, a pap for 
Kshetrapati (the Landlord or Lord of the manor), 
a pap for Varu»a, and a pap for Aditi, — these are 
the last six paps. 

8. Thereupon they seize * a reddish-white (cow) 
which is clearly with calf, (as a victim) for Ad i t i. The 
mode of procedure regarding her is the same as 
that of the eight-footed barren cow 2 . Now, Aditi 
being this earth, it is her embryo (child) he thereby 
causes him (the king) to be. The sacrificial fee for 
this (cow-offering) is just such a reddish-white cow 
that is clearly with calf. 

9. They then seize a dappled one, which is clearly 
with calf, (as a victim) for the Maruts. The mode 
of procedure regarding this one is the same. The 
Maruts being the clans, he thereby makes him the 
embryo 3 of the clans. The sacrificial fee for this 
(cow-offering) is just such a dappled (cow) that is 
clearly with calf. 



1 In the Taittirfya ceremonial this animal sacrifice precedes the 
'prayu£&i» havimshi;' being itself succeeded in the first place by 
the ' s£tyadMn&m haviwshi.' 

1 On the course of procedure regarding the ' ash/apadt,' or (sup- 
posed) barren cow, found ultimately to be impregnated, see part ii, 
p. 391 seq. 

8 That is, he causes him to spring forth from the midst of the 
people, and be protected by them on all sides. 



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126 . SATAPATHA-BRAHMAA'A. 

10. These two animal victims, whilst being such, 
are seized (by some) in a different way. The one 
that is seized for Aditi, (some) seize for the Adityas, 
— the Adityas being the All, he (the priest) thereby 
makes him the embryo of the All (universe). And 
the one that is seized for the Maruts, (some) seize for 
the All-gods, — the All-gods being the All, he thereby 
makes him the embryo of the All. 

THE KESAVAPANlYA. 

Third Brahmaata. 

i. When he has performed the Consecration- 
ceremony (Abhisheianlya), he does not shave his 
hair. The reason why he does not shave his hair 
(is this) : — that collected essence of the waters where- 
with he is then sprinkled (anointed) is vigour, and it 
is the hair (of his head) that it reaches first when he 
is sprinkled ; hence were he to shave his hair, he 
would cause that glory to fall off from him, and 
would sweep it away : therefore he does not shave 
his hair. 

2. He does not shave his hair for a year 1 , — 
religious observance is of equal measure with the 
year, hence he does not shave for a year : the 
Kesavapaniya 2 , namely, is a (day of) praise- 

1 He is, however, allowed to shave his beard. According to 
LS/y. St. IX, 2, 20 seq., he is to pass his nights during the year in 
the fire-house on a tiger's skin ; he is never to enter the village, 
and is constantly to keep up the fire. Nor is any one in his king- 
dom, except a Brahman, to get his hair cut, and even the horses 
are to remain undipped. 

9 The Ke^avapanfya, or ' hair-cutting ' (sacrifice), the fourth 
of the seven Soma-sacrifices enjoined for the inauguration of a 
king, is to be performed on the full-moon of Gyesh/>4a (about 



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v kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 3 brAhmawa, 4. 127 

singing (stoma) with the view of the termination of 
the religious performance. 

3. Twenty-onefold is (each stotra of) its Morning- 
service, seventeenfold (of) the Midday-service, fifteen- 
fold (of) the Evening-service, together with the 
Uktha (stotras), the Shodfasin, and (the twelve 
stotras of) the Night-service. 

4. The Twilight (hymn) ' is (performed in the) 
Trivrzt (stoma), and with the Rathantara (tune). 
For the twenty-onefold (stoma) is he that burns 
yonder (the sun) ; from that twenty-onefold one he 
(the Sacrificer) parts, and descends again to the 
seventeenfold one ; from the seventeenfold one to the 

May 1), a twelvemonth after the Abhishe£aniya, and is to take the 
form of the Atiratra-<?yotish/oma. As usual, the author only 
alludes to any special, peculiarities from the ordinary performance. 
The ordinary ascending scale of stomas — viz. the Trivr/t-stoma 
for the Bahishpavamana-stotra, the Pa#£adara for the A^ya-stotras 
and the Madhyandina-pavamana ; the Saptadara for the Pr/sh/fta- 
stotras, and the TWtiya-pavamana ; and the Ekavi»wa-stoma for 
the Agnish/oma-saman — prescribed for the twelve stotras of the 
Agnish/oma (part i, p. 310 seq.), is to be reversed on the present 
occasion, and the scale of stomas is to be a descending one. The 
succeeding stotras — viz. (13-15) the three Uktha-stotras; (16) the 
Sho</arin; and (17-28) the three rounds of the night service re- 
quiring four stotras each — are likewise to be performed in the 
Padladara (or fifteen-versed) stoma, employed for the hymns of 
the evening pressing. 

1 The Sandhi-stotra, or Twilight hymn, Sama-veda II, 99-104, is 
the final stotra of the Atiratra (part ii, p. 398). Each of the three 
couplets is, as usual, sung as a triplet, the three thus producing the 
nine verses of the Trivrit-stoma. The Rathantara tune, to which 
the couplets are to be sung, is given in the Uhyagana (Sama-veda, 
vol. v, p. 381), but with different verses, viz. Sama-veda I, 30, 31 
(abhi tva xura nonumo), the verses most commonly sung to that 
famous tune. The chanters' manuals of the Atiratra (e. g. Ind. Off. 
MS. 1748) accordingly adapt the lune to the verses here required 
(ena vo agniw namaso). 



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128 satapatha-brAhmam. 

fifteenfold one ; and from the fifteenfold one he plants 
his foot on this firm footing, the Trivrzt (stoma). 

5. The Rathantara is the PfYsh/^a (stotra) 1 of 
this (sacrifice) ; for the Rathantara is this (earth) : 
it is on her, as on a firm footing, he thereby plants 
his feet. It is an Atiratra (sacrifice), — the Atiratra 
is a firm footing : therefore it is an Atiratra. 

6. He only cuts down his hair, but does not shave 
it; for that collected essence of the waters with 
which he is sprinkled is vigour, and it ii the hair 
that it reaches first when he is sprinkled. Thus 
were he to shave off his hair he would cause that 
glory to fall off from him, and would sweep it away. 
But when he cuts it down, he attaches that glory to 
his own self: therefore he only cuts down his hair, 
but does not shave it. This is for him a religious 
observance : as long as he lives he does not stand 
on this (earth with bare feet '). 

7. From the throne-seat he slips into the shoes ; 
and on shoes (he stands), whatever his vehicle may 
be, whether a chariot or anything else. For verily he 
who performs the Ra^asuya is high above everything 
here, and everything here is beneath him ; — there- 
fore this is for him a religious observance : as long 

1 The first (or Hotrfs) Pnsh/Aa-stotra at the midday-service is 
either the Rathantara, Sama-veda II, 30, 31 (as for instance at the 
Agnish/oma), or Brthat-saman II, 159-160 (as at the Ukthya 
sacrifice). The Bn'hat is also ordinarily chanted at the Atiratra, 
but on the present occasion the Rathantara is to be substituted 
for it. 

1 Sayawa interprets this passage so as to imply two separate 
injunctions : — ' For as long as he lives this (cutting down of his 
hair) is a religious observance for him ; and he does not stand on 
the ground (without shoes).' The repetition in the next paragraph, 
however, renders this interpretation very improbable. 



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V KAJVDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAYA, I. 129 

as he lives he does not stand on the earth (with 
bare feet). 

THE SAUTRAMAAtf. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

1. There is a reddish-white (he-goat as the victim) 
for the A-yvins 1 , for the A^vins are reddish-white. 
There is an ewe with teats in the dewlap 2 for 
Sarasvatt; and a bull he seizes for Indra Sutra- 
man (the good protector) 3 . Difficult to obtain are 
beasts with such perfections ; if he cannot obtain any 

1 The last three Soma-sacrifices of the Inauguration-ceremony 
are not even alluded to by the author, their performance involving 
no features different from those of the normal Soma-sacrifice. The 
Vyush/i-dviratra, or 'two nights' ceremony of the dawn,' con- 
sists of an Agnish/oma and an Atiratra Soma-sacrifice, to be per- 
formed a month after the Keravapaniya (or, according to Taitt. Br. 
1, 8, 10, a fortnight after, viz. on the new-moon, and the first day of 
the light fortnight respectively). Finally, the Kshatra-dhrtti, or 
'wielding of the ruling-power,' an Agnish/oma, is performed a 
month later, or on the full-moon of ..Sravawa (about 1 August). Some 
authorities, however, allow the Soma-sacrifices of the Inauguration- 
ceremony to conclude with the Kes avapaniya Atiratra (Kity. St. XV, 
9, 26), perhaps for the very reason that no mention is made in the 
Brihmawa of the remaining three Soma-days. The final Soma- 
sacrifice is followed, in the succeeding fortnight of the waxing 
moon, by the performance of the Sautramawi, some peculiar 
features of which the author now proceeds to consider. This 
ceremony (one of the objects of which is the expiation of any 
excess committed in the consumption of Soma-juice) is considered 
in the sacrificial system as the last of the seven forms of Havir- 
yagfia. ; being a combination of the ish/i with the animal sacrifice. 
As this ceremony is also performed after the Agniiayana, or con- 
struction of the fire-altar, it is more fully dealt with by the author 
later on (K£m& XII, 7 seq.). 

* Prof. R. Wallace's ' India in 1887 ' (plate 39) contains a photo- 
graphic representation of an Indian goat with pendicles like teats. 

9 In the case of the ' somatipavita,' not the ' somavamin,' the 
Taittiriyas slaughter a fourth victim to Brthaspati. 

[41] K 



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1 30 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

with such perfections, they may slaughter only goats, 
for they are easier to cook. And if they seize only 
goats, that for the Asvins is a red one. Then as to 
why he performs this sacrifice. 

2. Now Tvash/W had a three-headed, six-eyed 
son 1 . He had three mouths ; and because he was 
thus shapen, he was called Visvarupa ('All-shape'). 

3. One of his mouths was Soma-drinking, one 
spirit-drinking, and one for other food. . Indra hated 
him, and cut off those heads of his. 

4. And from the one which was Soma-drinking, a 
hazel-cock sprang forth ; whence the latter is of 
brownish colour, for king Soma is brown. 

5. And from the one which was spirit-drinking, a 
sparrow sprang ; whence the latter talks like one 
who is joyful, for when one has drunk spirits, one 
talks as one who enjoys himself. 

6. And from the one which was for other (kinds 
of) food, a partridge sprang ; whence the latter is 
exceedingly variegated : ghee drops indeed have, as 
it were, dropped on his wings in one place, and 
honey-drops, as it were, in another ; for suchlike was 
the food he consumed with that (mouth). 

7. Tvash/rz was furious: ' Has he really slain my 
son ? ' He brought Soma-juice withheld from Indra 2 ; 
and as that Soma-juice was, when produced, even so 
it remained withheld from Indra. 



' This portion of the legend is but a repetition from I, 6, 3, 1 seq. 
A few alterations are, however, made here in the translation. 

* Or, ' Soma from which Indra was excluded ' (apendra), as 
formerly translated; a closer rendering of the succeeding clause 
making this change desirable ; — even as Indra was excluded from 
the Soma-juice when produced, so he remained excluded from it 
(when it was offered up). 



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V KANDA, 5 ADHYAVA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 12. I31 

8. Indra thought within himself : ' There now, 
they are excluding me from Soma ! ' and even 
uninvited he consumed what pure (Soma) there was 
in the tub, as the stronger (would consume the food) 
of the weaker. But it hurt him : it flowed in all 
directions from (the openings of) his vital airs ; only 
from his mouth it did not flow. Hence there was 
an atonement ; but had it flown also from his mouth, 
then indeed there would have been no atonement. 

9. For there are four castes, the Brahma#a, the 
Ra^anya, the Vawya, and the 3"udra ; but there is 
not one of them that vomits Soma ; but were there 
any one of them, then indeed there would be atone- 
ment. 

10. From what flowed from the nose a lion sprang; 
and from what flowed from the ears a wolf sprang ; 
and from what flowed from the lower opening wild 
beasts sprang, with the tiger as their foremost ; and 
what flowed from the upper opening that was the 
foaming spirit (parisrut). And thrice he spit out : 
thence were produced the (fruits called) ' kuvala, kar- 
kandhu, or badara 1 .' He (Indra) became emptied 
out of everything, for Soma is everything. 

1 1. Being thus purged by Soma, he walked about 
as one tottering. The Asvins cured him by this 
(offering), and caused him to be supplied with every- 
thing, for Soma is everything. By offering he 
indeed became better. 

1 2. The gods spake, ' Aha ! these two have saved 
him 2 , the well-saved (sutrata) : ' hence the name 
Sautrimawl. 

1 The berries of three different species of the Zizyphus jujuba, 
or jujube-tree. 
* The MS. of Sayana's commentary reads ' atr£satam.' 

K 2 



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132 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAWA. 

13. Let him also cure by this (ceremony) one 
purged by Soma ; — he whom Soma purges is indeed 
emptied out of everything, for Soma is everything. 
He now causes him to be supplied with everything, 
for Soma is everything ; and by offering he indeed 
becomes better : let him therefore cure thereby also 
one purged by Soma. 

14. And as to why the performer of the 
Ra^asuya performs this offering. He who performs 
the Ra^asuya assuredly gains for himself all sacri- 
ficial rites, all offerings, even the spoonful-oblations ; 
and instituted by the gods indeed is this offering, 
the Sautramattt : ' May offering be made by me 
with this one also ! may I be consecrated by this 
one also ! ' thus (he thinks, and) therefore the per- 
former of the Ri^asuya performs this offering. 

15. And as to why there is (a victim) for the 
A^vins, — it was the A^vins who cured him ; and in 
like manner does he (the priest) now cure him 
through those same Asvins : that is why there is 
(a victim) for the A^vins. 

1 6. And why there is one for Sarasvati, — Sarasvatl 
assuredly is speech, and it was by speech that the 
Asvins cured him ; and in like manner does he now 
cure him by speech : that is why there is one for 
Sarasvatl. 

17. And why there is one for Indra, — Indra 
assuredly is the deity of the sacrifice, and it is by this 
(offering) that he now heals him : this is why there 
is one for Indra. 

18. On (the meat-portions of) those victims he 
throws hairs of a lion, hairs of a wolf, and hairs of 
a tiger, for that was what sprang therefrom, when 
Soma flowed right through him. He now supplies 



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v kAvda, 5 adhyAya, 4 brAhma/va, 22. 133 

him therewith, and makes him whole : therefore he 
throws those (hairs) thereon. 

1 9. But let him not do it so ; for he who throws 
them on the (portions of) the victims, urges the 
animals on from behind with a clawed (prickly) 
fire-brand. Let him therefore rather throw them 
into the fermented liquor (parisrut 1 ), — thus he does 
not urge on the animals from behind with a clawed 
fire-brand ; and thus alone he supplies him there- 
with, and makes him whole : let him therefore throw 
it rather into the spirituous liquor. 

20. Now on the day before, he mixes the spirituous 
liquor (while muttering, Vfif. S. X, 31), 'Getdone 
for the A^vins! get done for Sarasvatl! get 
done for Indra, the good protector!' When 
that liquor is (done) he proceeds with that (offering). 

21. They take up two fires; on the northern 
altar 2 (they lay down) the northern (fire), and on a 
raised (mound) the southern one, thinking, ' Lest we 
should offer together the Soma-libations, and the 
Sura (liquor) -libations : ' therefore they take up two 
fires, and on the northern altar (they lay down) the 
northern (fire), and on a raised (mound) the southern 
one. And when he proceeds with the omenta, then 
he proceeds with that spirituous liquor. 

22. He purifies it with stalks of Darbha-grass, 
thinking, 'Let it be pure,' — with (Va^ - . S. X, 31), 
'The inviting 8 Soma, purified by the purify- 

1 On the preparation of the parisrut or sura, see XII, 7; 
Weber, Ind. Studien, X, p. 349. 

* The two new fireplaces, to the east of the Ahavaniya, are to 
be constructed on the model of those of the VaruwapraghasaA, see 
part i, p. 39a. 

* This doubtful interpretation of ' vayu' is adopted from the St. 



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1 34 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

ing (strainer), has overflown backwards, Indra's 
mated friend.' He then pours in flour of 'kuvala, 
karkandhu, and badara ' berries, for when he (Indra) 
spit out thrice, that was what was produced there- 
from : therewith he now supplies him and makes 
him whole, — therefore he pours in that (flour). 

23. He then draws either one or three cups \ — 
but only one should be drawn, for there is one 
purorui-formula, one invitatory prayer, and one 
offering prayer ; therefore only one (cup) should be 
drawn. 

24. He draws it with (Vif. S. X, 32), ' Yea, 
even as the owners of barley cut their barley, 
spreading it asunder in due order, so hither, 
hither, bring thou the nourishments of them 
that offer up the devotional invocation of the 
Barhis 2 ! — Thou art taken with a support — 
thee for the Asvins, thee for Sarasvati, thee 
for Indra, the good protector!' And if he draw 
three (cups), let him draw them with that same 
(verse) ; but let him in that case draw them with 
separate 'supports 3 .' He then says, 'Recite the 

Petersburg dictionary, where, however, it is only applied to two 
passages of the Rig-veda. Saya«a here explains it by ' patrawi ga£- 
Man vayuva£ /Wigragdmf vd bhutva pratyah adhovarti patrabhimu- 
VhaA san.' In the Taitt. S. this verse is preceded by another 
(/Zik S. IX, 1, 6), 'May Surya's daughter purify thy foaming 
(parisrut) Soma with the never-failing horse-tail (strainer).' 

1 According to the ritual of the Taittirtyas, three cups of Surd 
are drawn. 

* Rib S. X, 131, 2, and Taitt. S. I, 8, 21 read— ' hither, hither 
bring the nourishments of them that have not gone to the de- 
votional up-pulling (cutting) of the barhis-grass ' (but differently 
Saya»a, — ' that have not gone to the neglect of the devotion of the 
barhis '). 

* That is to say, he is to repeat the formula, ' Thou art taken 



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V K&NDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAYA, 28. 1 35 

invitatory prayer to the A^vins, to Sarasvati, and to 
Indra Sutraman ! ' 

25. He recites (Va/. S. X, 33 ; Rik S. X, 131, 4 ), 
'Ye, O Asvins, lords of splendour, having 
quaffed the cheering (Soma) together with 
Namu^i, the Asura, helped Indra in his deeds ! ' 
Having called for the .Sraushat, he says, ' Pronounce 
the offering prayer to the A^vins, to Sarasvati, and 
to Indra Sutraman 1 ' 

26. He prays (VfLf. S. X, 34; Rtk S. X, 131, 5), 
'As the parents (stand by) their son, so the 
two Ajvins have stood by thee, O Indra, with 
wise plans and wonderful deeds; when thou 
quaffedst the cheering (Soma), Sarasvati cured 
thee, O Lord, by her services.' Twice the Yiotri 
utters the Vasha/, twice the Adhvaryu offers and 
fetches drink. And if he draw three (cups of 
liquor), then after the offering of that one the other 
two are offered. 

27. Now there is a pitcher perforated either with 
a hundred, or with nine, holes. If it is one with a 
hundred holes, — man lives up to a hundred (years), 
and has a hundred energies, and a hundred powers : 
therefore it is perforated with a hundred holes. 
And if with nine holes, — there are in man those 
nine vital airs : therefore it is perforated with nine 
holes. 

28. This (pitcher), hung up by a sling, they hold 
just over the Ahavanlya 1 . He pours into it what 
spirituous liquor has been left over, and whilst it is 

with a support,' each time followed by a special dedication, ' thee 
for the Afvinsl' &c. 

1 That is, over the southern one of the two new fires, the one 
laid down on a raised mound. 



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1 36 satapatha-brAhmazv-a. 

trickling through, he stands by worshipping with 
the three verses 1 of the Pitara^ Somavanta^ (the 
Fathers accompanied by Soma), with three verses 
of the Pitaro BarishadaA (the Fathers seated on 
the barhis), and with three verses of the Pitaro 
Agnishvatta^ (the Fathers consumed by the fire). 
And as to why he thus stands by worshipping, — 
when Soma flowed through Indra, what part of it 
then went to the Fathers — there being three kinds 
of Fathers — therewith he now supplies him and 
makes him whole : therefore he thus stands by 
worshipping. 

29. He then prepares those oblations 2 , — a cake 
on twelve or eight potsherds for Savitrz, a barley 
pap for Varu#a, and a cake on eleven potsherds 
for Indra. 

30. And why there is one for SavitW, — Savitri is 
the impeller of the gods, and impelled by Savitr* he 
now heals 8 : therefore there is one for Savitrz. 



1 These triplets to the Fathers are given Vig. S. XIX, 49-51 ; 
55—57 ; 58-60. — The Taitt. ritual here has a curious variation. 
After the remainder of the (pure) liquor has been offered to the 
Fathers, a Brahman is to be bought over to drink the dregs ; and 
if such an one cannot be found (willing to do it), they are to be 
poured away on an ant-hill. This is to be done for the sake of 
atonement. 

1 That is, according to Katyiyana (XV, 10, 19) and Sayana, the 
pai u-purot&ra, or cakes of the animal offering. The performance 
of these is irregular, inasmuch as their deities are not the same as 
those of the animal sacrifice (the Ajvins, Sarasvati, and Indra 
Sutraman). Taitt, Br. I, 8, 6, 1, however, explains that in this case 
the animal sacrifices are without ' animal cakes,' the libations of 
liquor, which indeed are offered to the same deities, being in lieu 
of them. 

9 The object of the Sautramawf offering is to heal or 'make 
whole ' the Sacrificer. 



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V KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 35. 1 37 

31. And why there is one for Varu»a, — Varu»a is 
the injurer, and he thus heals him even by him who 
is the injurer : therefore there is one for Varuwa. 

32. And why there is one for Indra, — Indra is the 
deity of the sacrifice, and he thus heals him by him 
who is the deity of the sacrifice : therefore there is 
one for Indra. 

33. And if by that (Sautrama»l-offering) he would 
heal one purged by Soma \ then — (after) the after- 
offering (of the animal sacrifice) has been performed, 
and the two spoons separated — he proceeds with 
those (three) oblations 2 . For it is towards the 
back part that Soma flows through, and at the back 
part (of the sacrifice) he thus closes him up by that 
sacrificial essence. Let him in that case prepare a 
cake on two potsherds for the A^vins ; and when he 
proceeds with the offering of the omenta, then he 
also proceeds with that two-kapala cake for the 
A-rvins. 

34. Let him, however, not do it in this way ; for 
verily whosoever departs from the path of the sacri- 
fice stumbles, and he who does this indeed departs 
from the path of the sacrifice. Hence at the very 
time when they proceed with the omenta of those 
victims, let them then proceed also with those 
(three) oblations, and let him not then prepare a 
two-kapala cake for the Asvins. 

35. A castrated bull is the sacrificial fee for this 

1 That is to say, if it is performed, independently of the RS^a- 
sfiya, as a special offering with a view to expiating any excess 
committed at a Soma-sacrifice. 

* A glance at the list of contents prefixed to part ii will show 
how this shifting of the Para-punx/aja would alter the regular 
order of procedure. 



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138 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

(sacrifice) ; — the castrated bull is neither female nor 
male ; for being a male it is not a female, and being 
a female (unmanned) it is not a male : therefore a 
castrated bull is the fee. Or a draught-mare ; — the 
draught-mare is neither male nor female ; for in that 
it pulls the cart it is not a female; and being a 
female, it is not a male : therefore a draught-mare 
(may be) the fee. 

Fifth BrAhmaya. 

1. He prepares a cake on twelve potsherds for 
Indra and Vish«u. Now as to why he makes this 
offering. Of old, everything here was within VWtra, 
to wit, the Rik, the Yafus, and the Saman. Indra 
wished to hurl the thunderbolt at him. 

2. He said to Vish#u, ' I will hurl the thunderbolt 
at VWtra, stand thou by me ! ' — ' So be it ! ' said 
Vish»u, 'I will stand by thee: hurl it!' Indra 
aimed the thunderbolt at him. VWtra was afraid 
of the raised thunderbolt. 

3. He said, ' There is here a (source of) strength : 
I will give that up to thee ; but do not smite me ! ' 
and gave up to him the Ya^us-formulas. He (Indra) 
aimed at him a second time. 

4. He said, ' There is here a (source of) strength: 
I will give that up to thee ; but do not smite me ! ' 
and gave up to him the Rik- verses. He aimed at 
him a third time. 

5. ' There is here a (source of) strength : I will 
give that up to thee ; but do not smite me ! ' and 
gave up to him the Saman-hymns (or tunes). There- 
fore they spread the sacrifice even to this day in the 
same way with those (three) Vedas, first with the 



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V KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, $ BRAHMAJVA, IO. 1 39 

Ya^us-formulas, then with the J?ik-verses, and then 
with the Saman-hymns ; for thus he (VWtra) at that 
time gave them up to him. 

6. And that which had been his (Vntra's) seat, 
his retreat, that he shattered, grasping it and tearing 
it out J : it became this offering. And because the 
science (the Veda) that lay in that retreat was, as it 
were, a threefold (tridhatu) one, therefore this is 
called the Traidhatavt (ish/i). 

7. And as to why the oblation is one for Indra 
and Vish»u, it is because Indra raised the thunder- 
bolt, and Vishmi stood by him. 

8. And why it is (a cake) on twelve potsherds, — 
there are twelve months in the year, and the offering 
is of equal measure with the year: therefore it is 
one of twelve potsherds. 

9. He prepares it of both rice and barley. He 
first puts on (the fire) a ball of rice, that being a 
form (symbol) of the Ya^us-formulas ; then one of 
barley, that being a form of the ./?zk-verses ; then 
one of rice, that being a form of the Saman-hymns. 
Thus this is made to be a form of the triple science: 
and this same (offering) becomes the Udavasanlya- 
ish/i (completing oblation) for the performer of the 
Ra^asuya. 

10. For, verily, he who performs the Ra^asuya 
gains for himself (the benefit of) all sacrificial rites, 
all offerings, even the spoonful-oblations; for him 
the sacrifice becomes as it were exhausted, and he, 
as it were, turns away from it. Now the whole 
sacrifice is just as great as that triple Veda ; and 
this (offering) now is made a form of that (Veda, or 

1 Cf. Ill, 2, 1, 28. 

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I40 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

sacrifice) ; this is its womb, its seat : thus he com- 
mences once more the sacrifice by means of that 
triple Veda ; and thus his sacrifice is not exhausted, 
and he does not turn away from it. 

11. And, verily, he who performs the Ra^asuya 
gains for himself all sacrificial rites, all offerings, 
even the spoonful-oblations; and this offering, the 
Traidhatavl (ish/i), is instituted by the gods : ' May 
this offering also be performed by me, may I be 
consecrated by this one also ! ' thus he thinks, and 
therefore this is the completing offering for him who 
performs the Ra^asuya. 

12. And also for him who would give (to the 
priests) a thousand (cows) or more 1 , let this be the 
completing offering. For he who gives a thousand 
or more becomes as it were emptied out ; and that 
triple Veda is the thousandfold progeny of V4£ 
(speech) : him who was emptied out he thus fills up 
again with a thousand ; and therefore let it be for 
him also the completing offering. 

13. And also for those who would sit through 
(perform) a long sacrificial session 8 , for a year or 
more, let this be the completing offering. For by 
those who sit through a long sacrificial session, 
for a year or more, everything is obtained, every- 
thing conquered ; but this (offering) is everything : 
let it therefore be for them also the completing 
offering. 

14. And indeed one may also practise magic by 
this (offering); for it was thereby that Ara»i be- 



1 For a (three days') Soma-sacrifice with a sacrificial fee of a 
thousand cows, the Triritra Sahasradakshina, see part ii, p. 414. 
* See part ii, pp. 426, 440 seq. 



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v kAnda, 5 adhyAya, 5 brAhmam, 16. 141 

A 

witched Bhadrasena A^atasatrava 1 : 'Quick, 
then, spread (the barhis)!' thus Ya^wavalkya used 
to say. And by this (offering) indeed Indra also 
shattered VWtra's retreat ; and, verily, he who there- 
with practises magic shatters thereby the retreat 
(of his enemy) : therefore one may also practise 
magic with this (offering). 

1 5. And, indeed, one may also heal thereby ; for, 
verily, whomsoever one would heal by a single rik, 
by a single ya^us, by a single saman, him he would 
indeed render free from disease ; how much more 
so by the triple Veda ! Therefore one may also 
heal by this (offering). 

16. Three gold pieces of a hundred manas 2 each 
are the sacrificial fee for this (offering). He pre- 
sents them to the Brahman ; for the Brahman neither 
performs (like the Adhvaryu), nor chants (like the 
UdgatW), nor recites (like the Hotr?), and yet he 
is an object of respect. And with gold they do 
nothing 3 , and yet it is an object of respect : therefore 
he presents to the Brahman three gold pieces of a 
hundred manas each. 

1 Apparently the son of A^Stajatru, king of Klrf, who is men- 
tioned as having been very proficient in speculative theology, and 
jealous, in this respect, of king Ganaka of Videha. 

* According to Sayawa, these '.ratamanas' are similar to the 
round plate worn by the king during the Consecration-ceremony ; 
see p. 104, note 2. These plates (as the ' rukmas' generally, VI, 7, 
1, 1 seq.) were apparently used for ornament only, not as coins. 

* Saya«a explains this to mean that gold is not used for actual 
consumption, but only indirectly, as for vessels on which food is 
served, or in traffic, as a medium of barter ; — the gold thus never 
losing its appearance, its ' glory.' See II, 1, 1, 5, ' Hence also one 
does not cleanse oneself with it (?), nor does one do anything else 
with it.' 



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142 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

17. Three milch cows (he gives) to the Hotrt; — 
for three milch cows mean abundance, and the Hotrt 
means abundance : therefore (he gives) three milch 
cows to the Hotrt. 

18. Three garments (he gives) to the Adhvaryu; — 
for the Adhvaryu 'spreads' the sacrifice, and the 
garments spread themselves (over the body) 1 : there- 
fore (he gives) three garments to the Adhvaryu. 
A bullock (he gives) to the Agnldh 2 . 

1 9. Now there are here either twelve, or thirteen 
gifts 3 , and there are either twelve or thirteen months 
in the year ; — the offering thus is of equal measure 
with the year : that is why there are either twelve 
or thirteen sacrificial gifts. 

1 Or, people spread the clothes (either in weaving them, or in 
putting them on). ' To spread the sacrifice ' is the regular term 
for the ceremonial practice of spreading the sacrificial fire from the 
Garhapatya (or household fire) over the other two hearths, and 
thus for the performance of the sacrifice generally. 

* See p. 119, note 2. 

8 That is, taking the calves of the three milch cows into account ; 
and optionally counting the gift to the Agnfdhra. 



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VI KANDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 2. 1 43 



SIXTH KANDA. 



THE AGNLflTAYANA, OR BUILDING OF THE 
FIRE-ALTAR. 



CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE. 
First AdhyAya. First Brahmawa. 

1. Verily, in the beginning there was here the 
non-existent \ As to this they say, ' What was that 
non-existent ? ' The i??shis, assuredly, — it is they 
that were the non-existent 2 . As to this they say, 

' Who were those ./foshis ? ' The ifoshis, doubtless, / 
were the vital airs: inasmuch as before (the exist- 
ence of) this universe, they, desiring it, wore them- 
selves out (rish) with toil and austerity, therefore 
(they are called) .tfzshis. 

2. This same vital air in the midst doubtless is 
Indra. He, by his power (indriya), kindled those 
(other) vital airs from the midst ; and inasmuch as 
he kindled (indh), he is the kindler (indha) : the 
kindler 3 indeed, — him they call 'Indra' mystically 

1 Or, perhaps, In the beginning this (universe) was indeed non- 
existent. Thus J. Muir, Or. S. T. IV, p. 22, of which translation 
of this cosmogonic myth considerable use has been made here. 
It need scarcely be remarked that ' idam ' is constantly used in an 
adverbial sense in the Brahmana. 

2 In the original, ' the non-existent ' is the subject of the clause, 
not the predicate as would appear from the translation. A similar 
transposition seems often advisable in English, for the sake of 
emphasis, and on other grounds. Muir's rendering, ' The Rishis 
say that in the beginning there was non-existence,' is a mistake. 

* The nominative here is striking, and vivid, cf. paragraph 1 1 
below. In corresponding passages of the preceding books, the 
accusative would stand here; e.g. II, 1, 2, 4, saptarshfn u ha sma 
vai purarksM ity &£akshate; similarly III, 1, 2, 3. 



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144 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

(esoterically), for the gods love the mystic. They 
(the vital airs), being kindled, created seven separate 
persons 1 (purusha). 

3. They said, 'Surely, being thus, we shall not 
be able to generate : let us make these seven 
persons one Person!' They made those seven 
persons one Person : they compressed two of 
them* (into) what is above the navel, and two of 
them (into) what is below the navel ; (one) person 
was (one) wing (or side), (one) person was (the 
other) wing, and one person was the base (i.e. 
the feet). 

4. And what excellence, what life-sap (rasa) there 
was in those seven persons, that they concentrated 
above, that became his head. And because (in it) 
they concentrated the excellence (sri), therefore it is 
(called) the head (riras). It was thereto that the 
breaths resorted (sri) : therefore also it is the head 
(jiras). And because the breaths did so resort (^ri) 
thereto, therefore also the breaths (vital airs, and 
their* organs) are elements of excellence (sri). And 
because they resorted to the whole (system) there- 
fore (this is called) body (sarira). 

5. That same Person became Pra^apati (lord 
of generation). And that Person which became 
Pra^apati is this very Agni (fire-altar), who is now 
(to be) built. 

6. He verily is composed of seven persons, for 
this Person (Agni) is composed of seven persons 8 , 

1 That is, living beings or souls, individualities, which, in their 
combined form, are here imagined to take the shape of a bird. 
Muir's rendering, ' males,' can scarcely commend itself. 

* Literally, ' those two.' 

3 The fire-altar is usually constructed so as to measure seven 



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VI KXNDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 9. 1 45 

to wit, the body (trunk) of four, and the wings and 
tail of three; for the body of that (first) Person 
(was composed of) four, and the wings and tail of 
three. And inasmuch as he makes the body larger 
by one person, by that force the body raises the 
wings and tail. 

7. And as to the fire, which is deposited on the 
built (altar), — whatever excellence, whatever life- 
sap there was in those seven persons, that they 
now concentrate above, that is his. (Pra^apati's) 
head. On that same (head) all the gods are 
dependent (^rita), for it is there that offering is 
made to all the gods : therefore also it is the head 
(riras). 

8. Now this Person Prafapati desired, 'May I 
be more (than one), may I be reproduced!' He 
toiled, he practised austerity. Being worn out with 
toil and austerity, he created first of all the Brah- 
man (neut), the triple science. It became to him a 
foundation : hence they say, ' the Brahman (Veda) is 
the foundation of everything here.' Wherefore, 
having studied (the Veda) one rests on a foundation ; 
for this, to wit, the Veda, is his foundation. Resting 
on that foundation, he (again) practised austerity. 

9. He created the waters out of Va£ (speech, that 
is) the world ; for speech belonged to it ' : that was 

man's lengths square ; the particular length being that of the Sacrt- 
ficer. This, however, is the smallest size allowed for an altar, there 
being altogether ninety-five different sizes specified, varying be- 
tween Seven and 101 man's lengths square. 

1 Or, perhaps, to him (Pra^Spati). Styawa merely says, — vSg 
evSsya sSsrj^yata, v&k sahakari rasanam abhavat, tad asrigyatety 
artha^ ; sa" vak sahak&ri rasanam prS^Spatya(w) srishfam sad ida»» 
sarvam ipnot. — On the part which Vik (the personification of the 
Brahman or Veda) takes by the side of Pra^apati in the creation 

[4i] L 

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\ 



146 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

created (set free). It pervaded everything here; 
and because it pervaded (ap) whatsoever there was 
here, therefore (it is called) water (apaA) ; and 
because it covered (var), therefore also it (is called) 
water (var). 

10. He desired, 'May I be reproduced from these 
waters!' He entered the waters with that triple 
science. Thence an egg arose. He touched it 
f Let it exist ! let it exist and multiply ! ' so he said. 
From it the Brahman (neut) was first created, the 
triple science. Hence they say, ' The Brahman (n.) 
is the first-born of this All.' For even before that 
Person the Brahman was created 1 : it was created 
as his mouth. Hence they say of him who has 
studied the Veda, that ' he is like Agni ; ' for it, the 
Brahman (Veda), is Agni's mouth. 

11. Now the embryo which was inside was 
created as the foremost (agri) : inasmuch as it was 
created foremost (agram) of this All, therefore (it is 
called) Agri : Agri, indeed, is he whom they mys- 
tically call 2 Agni; for the gods love the mystic. 
And the tear (asm, n.) which had formed itself 8 
become the ' ami ' (m.) ; ' ami ' indeed is what they 
mystically call ' a.rva' (horse), for the gods love the 



of the universe, and the parallelism between V&i and \Ayor, see 
Weber, Ind. Stud. IX, p. 473 seq.; Muir, Or. S. T. V, p. 391. 
Thus TaM. Br. XX, 14, 2, ' Pra^ipati alone existed here. He had 
V££ indeed as his own, as a second to him.' 

1 Muir takes this differently, — Further, (as) the Veda was first 
created from that Male, therefore it was created his mouth. This 
translation, however, takes no account of the particle ' hi.' 

* For the construction, see above, paragraph 2, with note. 

* Literally, which had flowed together. It is explained as the 
embryonic liquid in the amnion, or innermost membrane envelop- 
ing the foetus. 



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vi kXnda, i adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 15. 147 

mystic. And that which, as it were, cried 1 (ras), 
became the ass (rasabha). And the juice which 
was adhering to the shell (of the egg) became the 
he-goat (a^a 2 ). And that which was the shell 
became the earth. 

1 2. He desired, ' May I generate this (earth) 
from these waters!' He compressed it 3 and threw 
it into the water. The juice which flowed from 
it became a tortoise; and that which was spirted 
upwards (became) what is produced above here over 
the waters. This whole (earth) dissolved itself all 
over the water : all this (universe) appeared as one 
form only, namely, water. 

13. He desired, ' May it become more than one, 
may it reproduce itself!' He toiled and practised 
austerity ; and worn out with toil and austerity, he 
created foam, He was aware that ' this indeed 
looks different, it is becoming more (than one) ; I 
must toil, indeed ! ' Worn out with toil and 
austerity, he created clay, mud, saline soil and sand, 
gravel (pebble), rock, ore, gold, plants and trees : 
therewith he clothed this earth. 

14. This (earth), then, was created as (consisting 
of) these same nine creations. Hence they say, 
' Threefold (three times three) is Agni ; ' for Agni 
is this (earth), since thereof the whole Agni (fire- 
altar) is constructed. 

15. 'This (earth) has indeed become (bhu) a 
foundation ! ' (he thought) : hence it became the 
earth (bhumi). He spread it out (prath), and it 

1 ? Or, that part (of the egg) which made a noise (in cracking). 
* The word ' aga. ' is apparently fancifully taken here in the sense 
of ' unborn (a-#a).' 
' That is, the earth when as yet in the form of the egg-shelL 

L 2 



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148 satapatha-brAhma^a. 

became the broad one (or earth, prrthivi). And she 
(the earth), thinking herself quite perfect 1 , sang; 
and inasmuch as she sang (ga), therefore she is 
Gayatrl. But they also say, ' It was Agni, indeed, 
on her (the earth's) back, who thinking himself quite 
perfect, sang ; and inasmuch as he sang (ga), there- 
fore Agni is Gayatra.' And hence whosoever 
thinks himself quite perfect, either sings or delights 
in song a . 

Second BrAhmana. 

1. That Pra^lpati desired, ' May it multiply, may 
it be reproduced I ' By means (or, in the form) of 
Agni he entered into union with the Earth : thence 
an egg arose. He touched it : ' May it grow ! May 
it grow and multiply ! ' he said. 

2. And the embryo which was inside was created 
as Vayu (the wind). And the tear which had formed 
itself became those birds. And the juice which 
was adhering to the shell became those sun-motes. 
And that which was the shell became the air. 

3. He desired, 'May it multiply, may it reproduce 
itself!' By means of Vayu he entered into union 
with the Air: thence an egg arose. He touched it, 
saying, ' Bear thou glory ! ' From it yonder sun 

, was created, for he indeed is glorious. And the 
tear which (asm) formed itself became that varie- 
gated pebble (ajman) ; for ' a^ru ' indeed is what 

1 AbhimaninistrivigrahS yasm&d agayad tasmdd iya*n Gayatrl, 
Say. — 'Because, like a haughty woman, she (the earth) sang, 
therefore she is Giyatrt.' 

* On this illustration, which might either be taken as applying to 
men in easy circumstances, not troubled with cares ; — or, perhaps, 
to a new-born child which cries out lustily, and likes to be sung 
to, — Sayawa only remarks, — tasmSd u haitad iti svabMvanuvada^, 
karyadharmewa karawadharmanupadanaya. 



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VI KkNDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 8. 1 49 

they mystically call ' a^man,' for the gods love the 
mystic. And the juice which was adhering to the 
shell became those sunbeams. And that which was 
the shell became the sky. 

4. He desired, ' May it multiply, may it reproduce 
itself! ' By means of the Sun he entered into union I 
with the Sky : thence an egg arose. He touched it, 
saying, ' Bear thou seed ! ' From it the moon was 
created, for he (the moon) is seed. And the tear 
which formed itself became those stars. And the 
juice which was adhering to the shell became those 
intermediate quarters ; and that which was the shell 
became those (chief) quarters (points of the com- 
pass). 

5. Having created these worlds, he desired, ' May 
I create such creatures as shall be mine in these 
worlds ! ' 

6. By his Mind (manas) he entered into union 
with Speech (va£) : he became pregnant with eight 
drops. They were created as those eight Vasus 2 : 
he placed them on this (earth). 

7. By his Mind he entered into union with Speech : 
he became pregnant with eleven drops. They were 
created as those eleven Rudras 2 : he placed them in 
the air. 

8. By his Mind he entered into union with Speech : 
he became pregnant with twelve drops. They were 
created as the twelve Adityas 8 ; he placed them in 
the sky. 

1 As here, this class of deities— whose sphere of action are the 
terrestrial regions — was associated with Agni, the guardian of the 
earth, at III, 4, 2, 1. 

s Another class of (storm) deities, here associated with Vdyu, 
the wind, the guardian of the air-region. 

* This class of deities (of light) are here associated with the 



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1 50 tf atapatha-brAhmaata. 

9. By his'Mind he entered into union with Speech : 
he became pregnant. He created the All-gods : he 
placed them in the quarters. 

10. And so they say, ' After Agni having been 
created, the Vasus were created : he placed them on 
this (earth); — after Vayu, the Rudras: (he placed) 
them in the air ; — after the sun, the Adityas : (he 
placed) them in the sky; — after the moon, the 
All-gods 1 : he placed them in the quarters.' 

11. And so they say, ' Pra^apati, having created 
these worlds, was firmly established on the earth. 
For him these plants were ripened 2 into food : that 
he ate. He became pregnant From the upper 
vital airs he created the gods, and from the lower 
vital airs the mortal creatures.' In whatever way he 
created thereafter, so he created ; but indeed it was 
Pra^apati who created everything here, whatsoever 
exists. 

12. Having created creatures he, having run the 
whole race, became relaxed 3 ; and therefore even 
now he who runs the whole race becomes indeed 



Sun, who indeed is called the Aditya in paragraphs 4 and 10 
(instead of Surya). 

1 Professor Weber (Ind. Stud. XIII, p. 268) has drawn attention 
to the discrepancy between this passage and III, 4, 2, 1, where the 
Virve T>ev&h (with Bnhaspati) are denied the privilege of forming 
a special class of deities, — this being one of many points of differ- 
ence, doctrinal as well as linguistic, between Books 1-5 and 6-10. 

* Professor Delbruck, Altind. Synt. p. 147, reads 'apa/fcinta,' — 
the plants matured fruit. 

* Literally, he fell asunder, or to pieces, became disjointed. 
Hence, when the gods ' restored ' Pra^dpati (the lord of generation, 
identified with the sacrifice, and with Agni, the fire), the verb used 
is xa«askr», ' to put together;' and this putting together, or restora- 
tion, of Praj&pati is symbolically identified with the building up of 
the fire-altar. 



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VI KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAYA, 1 6. 151 

relaxed. From him being thus relaxed, the vital 
air went out from within. When it had gone out of 
him the gods left him. 

1 3. He said to Agni, ' Restore me ! ' — ' What will 
then accrue to me ? ' said he. — ' They shall call me 
after thee ; for whichever of the sons succeeds (in 
life), after him they call the father, grandfather, son, 
and grandson : they shall call me after thee, — restore 
me, then ! ' — ' So be it ! ' so (saying) Agni restored \ 
him: therefore, while being Pra^apati, they call 
him Agni ; and verily, whosoever knows this, after 
him they call his father, grandfather, son, and 
grandson. 

14. He said, 'Whereon shall we set thee up 1 ?' — 
' On the hita (set, or suitable, good) ! ' he said : the 
vital air is indeed something good, for the vital air 
is good for all beings. And inasmuch as he set him 
up on the hita, therefore one says, ' I shall set up, 
I am setting up, I have set up *.' 

15. As to this they say, 'What is hita, and what 
is upahita ?' The vital air, forsooth, is the ' hita,' 
and speech is the ' upahita,' for it is on the vital air 
that this speech is based (upa-hita). The vital 
air, again, is the ' hita,' and the limbs are the ' upa- 
hita,' for on the vital air these limbs are indeed 
based. 

16. This, then, was his (Pra^apati's) '/fcitya ' (Agni [ 
to be set up on an altar-pile) ; for he had to be built 
up (k\) by him, and therefore was his ' iitya.' And 

1 Upa-cM. Paragraphs 14 and 15 involve a double meaning 
of the word hita, the past participle of dM, to put, — viz. put, set, 
or suitable, beneficial. 

* Or, ' I shall put on,' &c, upa-dhi, the verb used of the putting 
on of bricks in building up the altar. Cf. II, i, 2, 15. 



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152 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

so indeed he now is the Sacrificer's ' £itya ; ' for he 
is to be built up by him, and therefore is his ' iitya.' 

1 7. Now it was those five bodily parts (tanu) of his 
(Pra^apati's) that became relaxed, — hair, skin, flesh, 
bone, and marrow, — they are these five layers (of the 
fire-altar) ; and when he builds up the five layers, 
thereby he builds him up by those bodily parts; 
and inasmuch as he builds up (k\), therefore they are 
layers (/£iti). 

18. And that Pra^apati who became relaxed is 
the year ; and those five bodily parts of his which 
became relaxed are the seasons; for there are five 
seasons, and five are those layers : when he builds 
up the five layers, he thereby builds him up with 
the seasons ; and inasmuch as he builds up (lays 
down), therefore they are layers. 

19. And that Pra^apati, the year, who became 
relaxed, is that very Vayu (wind) who blows yonder. 
And those five bodily parts of his, the seasons, 
which became relaxed, are the regions (or quarters) 1 ; 
for five in number are the regions, and five those 
layers : when he builds up the five layers, he builds 
him up with the regions ; and inasmuch as he builds 
up, therefore they are layers. 

20. And the Fire that is laid down on the built 
(altar), that is yonder Sun ; — that same Agni is 
indeed (raised) on the altar, and that just because 
Agni had restored him (Pra^apati). 

21. But they say, — Prafapati, when relaxed, said 
to the gods, ' Restore me ! ' The gods said to Agni, 
' In thee we will heal this our father Pra^apati.' — 

1 That is, the four quarters, or cardinal points of the compass ; 
and the upper region, or rather the upward (or perpendicular) 
direction. 



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VI KAJVTJA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAWA, 26. 1 53 

' Then I will enter into him, when whole,' he said. — 
'So be it ! ' they said. Hence, while being Prafa- 
pati, they yet call him Agni. 

22. In the fire the gods healed him by means of 
oblations ; and whatever oblation they offered that 
became a baked brick and passed into him. And 
because they were produced from what was offered 
(ish/a), therefore they are bricks (ish/aka). And 
hence they bake the bricks by means of the fire, for 
it is oblations they thus make. 

23. He spake, ' Even as much as ye offer, even 
so much is my happiness : ' and inasmuch as for 
htm there was happiness (ka) in what was offered 
(ish/a), therefore also they are bricks (ish/aka). 

24. Here now Aktakshya used to say, ' Only he 
who knows abundant bricks possessed of (special) 
prayers, should build up the fire (altar) : abundantly 
indeed he then heals Father Pra^apati.' 

25. But Tawrfya used to say, 'Surely the bricks 
possessed of prayers are the nobility, and the space- 
fillers * are the peasants ; and the noble is the feeder, 
and the peasantry the food ; and where there is 
abundant food for the feeder, that realm is indeed 
prosperous and thrives : let him therefore pile up 
abundant space-fillers ! ' Such then was the speech 
of those two, but the settled practice is different 
therefrom. 

26. Now that father (Pra^apati) is (also) the son : 

1 In contradistinction to the ya^ushmati (prayerful) bricks, 
which bear special names, and have special formulas attached to 
them; lokam-pr;'«£ (space-filling ones) is the technical term for 
those bricks which have no special prayers belonging to them, but 
are piled up with a common formula (Vig . S. XII, 54 ; Sat. Br. VIII, 
7, 2, 1 seq.), beginning 'lokam pn'«a kMdram prim,' ' fill the space, 
fill the gap 1' 



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1 54 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

inasmuch as he created Agni, thereby he is Agni's 
father ; and inasmuch as Agni restored him, thereby 
Agni is his (Pra^apati's) father ; and inasmuch as he 
created the gods, thereby he is the father of the 
gods ; and inasmuch as the gods restored him, thereby 
the gods are his fathers. 

27. Twofold verily is this, — father and son, Prafa- 
pati and Agni, Agni and Pra^apati, Pra^apati and 
the gods, the gods and Pra^&pati — (for) whosoever 
knows this. 

28. He builds up with 1 , 'By that deity' — that 
deity, doubtless, is V4/£ (speech), — ' Angir as-like ,' — 
Angiras, doubtless, is the breath; — 'lie thou steady!' 
— that is, ' lie thou firm ; ' or ' lie thou firmly estab- 
lished.' It is both with speech and with breath that 
he builds ; for Agni is speech, and Indra is the 
breath ; and the fire (agni) relates to Indra and Agni : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by 
so much he thus builds him up. And again, Indra 
and Agni are all the gods, (for) Agni belongs to all 
deities : thus as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, by so much he thus builds him up. 

29. Here now they say, ' Wherefore is Agni (the fire- 
altar) built of this (earth) ? ' But, surely, when that 
deity (Prafapati) became relaxed (fell asunder), he 
flowed along this (earth) in the shape of his life-sap; 
and when the gods restored him (put him together), 
they gathered him up from this earth : this earth 
then is that one brick 2 , for Agni is this earth, since 

1 This is the formula (Va^. S. XII, 53) with which the so-called 
' sadanam' or 'settling' of the bricks is performed. See VII, 
l» »> 3°- 

* That is, the first brick which the wife of the Sacrificer herself 
forms, and which is called Ashid/ia. See VI, 3, i, 1; 5, 3, 1. 



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VI KANDA, 1 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAYA, 3 1. 1 55 

it is thereof 1 that the whole Agni is built up. Now 
this earth is four-cornered, for the quarters are her 
corners : hence the bricks are four-cornered ; for all 
the bricks are after the manner of this earth. 

30. As to this they say, ' But if he (Agni) thus 
consists of one brick, how then (comes he to be) a five- 
bricked 2 one ? ' Now surely the first brick of clay 
is this earth, — whatever made of clay he places 
on that (altar) that is that one brick. And when he 
puts thereon the heads of the animal victims s , that 
is the animal-brick. And when he puts on the gold 
plate and man 4 , when he scatters gold shavings 
thereon, that is the golden brick. And when he 
puts on two spoonfuls (of ghee) 6 , when he puts 
on the mortar and pestle 6 , and fire-sticks, that is 
the wood-brick. And when he puts on a lotus-leaf 
(petal), a tortoise 7 , sour curds, honey, ghee, and 
whatever other food he puts on, that is the fifth 
brick, the food. Thus, then, it is a five-bricked 
(Agni). 

31. As to this they say, 'On which side is the 
head of the brick ? ' — ' Where he touches it and 
says a prayer,' so say some, 'on one end of the 
naturally perforated (brick) 8 alone indeed should he 

1 Viz. by means of the clay bricks, and the loose soil put between 
the layers. 

■ Saya»a only refers here to the fact that the sacrifice (ya^fla) 
is called ' pankta,' ' the fivefold.' 

* See VII, 5, 2, 1 seq. 4 See VII, 4, 1, 15 seq. 

* See VII, 4, 1, 32 seq. • See VII, 5, 1, 12 seq. 
T See VII, 5, 1, 1 seq. 

* Apparently some kind of porous stone. Three such per- 
forated stones or * bricks ' are used in the construction of the fire- 
altar ; viz. one which is laid on the gold man in the centre of the 
bottom layer (a saman relating to bhus, the earth, being pronounced 



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156 satapatha-brAhma^a. 

say a prayer while touching it, but thus all those 
(bricks) of his are turned towards the naturally 
perforated one.' Let him not do so, for those 
bricks doubtless are his (Agni's) limbs, his joints ; 
and it would be just as if he were to put a head 
on each limb, on each joint. But indeed, the fire 
which is deposited on the pile, that is the head of 
all those (bricks). 

32. Here they say, ' How many animal victims 
are laid upon the fire (altar) ? ' — Let him say ' Five,' 
for he does lay thereon those five victims. 

33. Or, ' One,' he may say; ' a ewe ;' for a ewe 
(avi) is this earth, since she favours (av) all these 
creatures. And the fire (altar) also is this earth, 
for the whole fire (altar) is built up thereof : hence 
he may say, ' One.' 

34. Or, ' Two,' he may say, ' two sheep ; ' for 
sheep, indeed, are both this (earth) and that (sky), 
since these two favour all these creatures ; — what 
clay (there is in the brick) that is this earth ; and 
what water there is that is that sky ; and the bricks 
consist of clay and water: therefore he may say, 
' Two.' 

35. Or he may say, ' A cow (or bullock, go) ; ' — 
the cow forsooth means these worlds, for whatever 
walks (gam) that walks in these worlds 1 ; and that 

on it while touching it) ; the second in the centre of the third layer ; 
and the third one being laid upon the centre of the completed fifth 
layer. They are meant to represent the three worlds, the holes 
being intended to afford to the Sacrificer (represented by the gold 
man) a passage to the highest regions. See VI, 2, 3, 1 seq. 

1 It is not quite clear whether the author indulges in etymo- 
logical trifling (go — gu). The Bombay MS. of Siyawa reads, — 
imamstallokan gaWAaifti kavana(?gavana)karmasadhanam gorab* 
dam darjayati. 



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VI KAJVDA, I ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAYA, 4. 1 57 

fire also is these worlds : therefore he may say, 
* A cow.' 

36. As to this they say, ' For what object is this 
fire (altar) built ? ' — ' Having become a bird, he 
( Agni) shall bear me to the sky ! ' so say some ; but 
let him not think so ; for by assuming that form, 
the vital airs became Pra^apati * ; by assuming that 
form, Pra^apati created the gods 2 ; by assuming 
that form, the gods became immortal : and what 
thereby the vital airs, and Pra^apati, and the gods 
became, that indeed he (the Sacrificer) thereby 
becomes. 

Third BrAhmaata. 

1. Verily, Pragapati alone was here in the begin- 
ning. He desired, ' May I exist, may I reproduce 
myself!' He toiled, he practised austerity (or, 
became heated). From him, worn out and heated, 
the waters were created : from that heated Person 
the wateis_are born. 

2. The waters said, ' What is to become of us ? ' — 
' Ye shall be heated,' he said. They were heated ; 
they created foam : hence foam is produced in 
heated water. 

3. The foam (m.) said, ' What is to become of 
me?' — 'Thou shalt be heated!' he said. It was 
heated, and produced clay ; for indeed the foam is 
heated, when it floats on the water, covering it ; and 
when one beats upon it, it indeed becomes clay. 

4. The clay (f.) said, 'What is to become of me ?' — 
'Thou shalt be heated!' he said. It was heated, 

1 See VI, 1, 1, 2 seq., where the seven vital airs are represented 
as assuming the form of a bird — the Purusha Pra^apati. 
* See paragraphs 7-1 1. 



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158 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

and produced sand-4- for this clay becomes indeed 
heated when they plough it; and if only they 
plough very fine then it becomes, as it were, sandy. 
So much, then, as to that 'What is to become of 
me ? what is to become of me 1 ?' 

5. From the sand he created the p ebble : whence 
sand finally indeed becomes a pebble; — from the 
pebble the stone : whence the pebble finally indeed 
becomes a stone; — from the stone metal ore : whence 
from stone they smelt ore ; — from ore gold : whence 
ore much smelted comes, as it were, to have the 
appearance of gold. 

6. Now that which was created was flowing ; and 
inasmuch as it was flowing (aksharat), a syllable 
(akshara) resulted therefrom; and inasmuch as it 
flowed eight times, that octosyllabic Gayatrt was 
produced. 

7. 'This has indeed become (bhu) a foundation 
(resting-place),' so he thought: whence it became 
the earth (bhumi). He spread it out (prath) : it 
became the broad (earth, pmhivi). On this earth, 
as on a foundation, the beings, and the lord of 
beings, consecrated themselves for a year : the lord 
of beings was the master of the house 2 , and Ushas 
(the Dawn) was the mistress. 

8. Now, those beings are the seasons; and that 
lord of beings is the year; and that Ushas, the 
mistress, is the Dawn. And these same creatures, 
as well as the lord of beings, the year, laid seed 



1 He means to say that he will leave this to be supplied in the 
enumeration of the subsequent creations. 

* At sacrificial sessions the Sacrificer is called Gr/hapati. On 
this, see IV, 6, 8, 3-5. 



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vi kXnda, i adhyAya, 3 brAhmaya, 13. 159 

into Ushas 1 . There a boy (kumara) was born 
in a year : he cried. 

9. Prafapati said to him, ' My boy, why criest 
thou, when thou art born out of labour and trouble?' 
He said, ' Nay, but I am not freed from (guarded 
against) evil ; I have no name given me ; give me 
a name ! ' Hence one should give a name to the 
boy that is born, for thereby one frees him from 
evil; — even a second, even a third (name), for 
thereby one frees him from evil time after time. 

10. He said to him, 'Thou art Rudra 2 .' And 
because he gave him that name, Agni became such- 
like (or, that form), for Rudra is Agni : because he 
cried (rud) therefore he is Rudra. He said, ' Surely, 
I am mightier than that : give me yet a name ! ' 

ii. He said to him, 'Thou art Sarva.' And 
because he gave him that name, the waters became 
suchlike, for Sarva is the waters, inasmuch as from 
the water everything (sarva) here is produced. He 
said, ' Surely, I am mightier than that : give me yet 
a name ! ' 

12. He said to him, ' Thou art Pasupati.' And 
because he gave him that name, the plants became 
suchlike, for Pasupati is the plants : hence when 
cattle (pam) get plants, then they play the master 3 
(patly). He said, ' Surely, I am mightier than that : 
give me yet a name ! ' 

13. He said to him, 'Thou art Ugra.' And 

1 On the legend regarding Pra^ipati and his daughter Ushas, 
see I, 7, 4, 1 seq. 

* On this and several of the other names, see part i, p. 201. 

* As, when a horse gets much corn, it becomes spirited, ' master- 
ful.' The St. Petersburg dictionary suggests the meaning, ' they 
become strong.' It might also mean, ' they lord it (over the plants).' 



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160 jatapatha-brAhmaya. 

because he gave him that name, Vayu (the wind) 
became suchlike, for Ugra is Vayu : hence when 
it blows strongly, they say ' Ugra is blowing.' He 
said, ' Surely, I am mightier than that : give me yet 
a name ! ' 

14. He said to him, ' Thou art A^ani.' And 
because he gave him that name, the lightning 
became suchlike, for Asani is the lightning : hence 
they say of him whom the lightning strikes, ' Asani 
has smitten him.' He said, ' Surely, I am mightier 
than that : give me yet a name ! ' 

15. He said to him, 'Thou art Bhava.' And 
because he gave him that name, Paiganya (the 
rain-god) became suchlike ; for Bhava is Par^anya, 
since everything here comes (bhavati) from the rain- 
cloud. He said, ' Surely, I am mightier than that : 
give me yet a name ! ' 

16. He said to him, 'Thou art Mahan DevaA 
(the Great God).' And because he gave him that 
name, the moon became suchlike, for the moon is 
Pra^apati, and Pra^apati is the Great God. He 
said, ' Surely, I am mightier than that : give me 
yet a name ! ' 

17. He said to him, ' Thou art Isana (the Ruler).' 
And because he gave him that name, the Sun became 
suchlike, for Isana is the Sun, since the Sun rules 
over this All. He said, ' So great indeed I am : 
give me no other name after that ! ' 

18. These then are the eight forms of Agni. 
Kumara (the boy) is the ninth: that is Agni's 
threefold state 1 . 

1 9. And because there are eight forms of Agni — 

1 That is, his state of being trivrrt, or three times three. 

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vi kXnda, 2 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, I. 161 

the Gayatrl consisting of eight syllables — therefore 
they say, ' Agni is Gayatra.' That boy entered into 
the forms one after another; for one never sees 
him as a mere boy (kumara), but one sees those 
forms of his l , for he assumed those forms one after 
another. 

20. One ought to build him (Agni, the fire-altar) 
up in (the space of) a year, and recite for a year. 
' For two (years),' however, say some ; ' for in one 
year they laid the seed, and in one year that boy 
was born, therefore let him build for two (years), and 
recite for two (years).' Let him, however, build for 
a year only, and recite for a year ; for the same seed 
which is laid is brought forth ; it then lies changing 
and growing : hence let him build for a year only, 
and recite for a year. To him (Agni) when built up 
(iita) he gives a name : whereby he keeps away evil 
from him. He calls him by a bright (£itra) name 2 , 
saying, * Thou art bright ; ' for Agni is all bright 
things. 

THE ANIMAL SACRIFICE'. 

Second AdhyAya. First BrAhmaya. 

1. Pra^apati set his mind upon Agni's forms. He 
searched for that boy (Kumara) who had entered 

1 Tatar ka. tatprabhr/ti tarn Agnim kum4rarupam na kvalana 
paxyanti kustv et&ny eta^gvalan&dini rupSwy apurushavidhani par- 
yanti, SSy. 

* Or, he calls him by the name of ATitra (bright), that being the 
name by which he is actually to address the fire on the altar at the 
end of the performance. Katy. XVIII, 6, 23. 

' This is the so-called ish/aki-paju, or animal sacrifice per- 
formed with regard to the bricks ; the heads of the victims being 
used in building up the altar, whilst some of the blood is mixed 
with the clay of which the bricks are made. 
[41] M 



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1 6 2 DATAPATH A-BRAHMA1VA. 

into the (different) forms. Agni became aware of it, 
— ' Surely, Father Pra^apati is searching for me : well 
then, let me be suchlike that he knows me not.' 

2. He saw those five animals, — the Purusha (man), 
the horse, the bull, the ram, and the he-goat. Inas- 
much as he saw (pa.r) them, they are (called) cattle 
(payu). 

/ 3. He entered into those five animals; he became 
I those five animals. But Pra^apati still searched for 
I him. 

4. He saw those five animals. Because he saw 
(pa^) them, therefore they are animals (payu) ; or 
rather, because he saw him (Agni) in them, therefore 
they are animals. 

5. He considered, ' They are Agni : I will fit them 
unto mine own self 1 . Even as Agni, when kindled, 
glares, so their eye glares ; even as Agni's smoke 
rises upwards, so vapour rises from them ; even as 
Agni consumes what is put in him, so they devour ; 
even as Agni's ashes fall down, so do their faeces : 
they are indeed Agni ; I will fit them unto mine own 
self.' He meant to slaughter them for different 
deities: the Purusha (man) for Visvakarman, 
the horse for Varuwa, the bull for Indra, the ram 
for Tvash/r*, the he-goat for Agni. 

6. He considered, ' For different deities, indeed, I 
mean to slaughter now; but I myself desire (kam) 

1 Or, I will make them part of mine own self. — Similarly St. 
Petersburg dictionary, ' I will change them into myself.' But dif- 
ferently Professor Delbrflck, Altind. Synt., p. 239, 'I will make myself 
to be these, change myself into these.' This is on account of the 
middle form of the verb, which, however, is quite justified also in 
the former interpretation. Cf.VI, 8, 2, 1, where there is no ques- 
tion of changing the whole sacrifice into a heap of ashes, but of 
taking over the ashes, or some of it, to form part of the sacrifice. 



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vi kAnda, 2 adhyAya, i brAhmawa, 8. 163 

Agni's forms : well then, I will slaughter them for 
the Agnis, as for the (object of my) desire.' He 
slaughtered them for the Agnis, as for (his) desire, 
— to wit, 'for the Agnis,' because many were the 
forms of Agni he had set his mind upon ; and ' for 
the desire,' because it was with a desire that he 
slaughtered them. Having appeased them and car- 
ried the fire round them, he led them northwards 
and slew them. 

7. He considered, ' Those glories (signs of excel- * 
lence *) upon which I have set my mind are contained 
in the heads : well then, I will only put on the heads V 
He cut off the heads and put them on (himself, or 
the altar). The remaining trunks he then let float 
on the water s , and brought the sacrifice to its com- 
pletion by means of (the offering of) a he-goat, 
thinking, ' Lest my sacrifice be pulled to pieces.' 
After performing that animal sacrifice, Pra^apati saw 
that he had not yet reached the end of Agni (the 
fire-altar). 

8. He considered, ' I must search for that body 4 
which I let float on the water.' He searched for it ; 
and what (part) of those (bodies) cast into the water 
had settled therein, that water he gathered; and 
what (had settled) in this earth, that clay (he 
gathered) 6 . And having gathered both that clay 

1 See VI, 1, 1, 4. 

* That is, on the fire-altar, or (which is the same thing) on him- 
self, Pra^apati, the sacrifice. The heads of the five victims are 
placed in (a dish introduced into) the bottom layer of the altar so 
as to impart stability to it. See VII, 5, 2, 1 seq. 

' Or, he washed them, cleaned them, in water. 

4 Literally, that self, i.e. that part of mine own self, the sacrifice (?). 

5 It seemed desirable here to leave the construction of the original 
text unchanged. 

M 2 



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164 satapatha-brAhmana. 

and water, he made a brick : hence a brick consists 
of these two, clay and water. 

9. He considered, ' Surely, if I fit 1 this (matter) 
such as it is unto mine own self, I shall become a 
mortal carcase, not freed from evil : well then, I will 
bake it by means of the fire.' So saying, he baked it 
by means of the fire, and thereby made it immortal ; 
for the sacrificial food which is baked by fire is 
indeed immortal (or, ambrosia). Hence they bake 
the bricks with fire : they thereby make them 
immortal. 

10. And inasmuch as he saw them after offering 
(ish/va) the animal, therefore they are bricks (ish/aka). 
Hence one must make the bricks only after per- 
forming an animal sacrifice ; for those which are 
made before (or, without) an animal sacrifice are 
' anish/aki V And, moreover, there is this other 
(consideration). 

11. As to those glories, they are these same heads 
of the victims ; and those (headless) trunks are these 
five layers (of the fire-altar) : thus when he builds 
up the layers after putting on the heads of the victims, 
he thereby unites those trunks with those heads. 

1 2. And because Agni is all those animal victims, 
therefore animals delight (being) near the fire 8 , — 

1 S£ya«a explains ' abhisawskarishye ' by ' idhiya^flike jarlra 
upadhisyimi,' ' if I were to put this (clay and water) on the sacri- 
ficial body.' 

* A play on the word which may mean either ' non-bricks,' or 
'being without oblation (ish/a).' 

* Sayana seems to take this to mean, that animals (cattle) delight, 
or sport, when the sacrificial fire is established ; that is to say, they 
feel at home and increase wherever a new household is estab- 
lished (?); — tasmad agnav ahite pa^avo ramante, dtmany eva sa 
pritir ity abhiprSyaA. Adhuna»gneA parashv Stmabhuteshu pritiw 



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vi kXnda, 2 adhyAya, i brAhmawa, i 6. 165 

there animals sport with animals. Hence the (sacri- 
ficial) fire is set up with him who possesses cattle ; 
for inasmuch as Agni (was) the same as cattle, there- 
fore Prafapati (the lord of creatures or generation) 
became Agni. 

13. Here now some say, ' It is at this (point of 
the performance) that he should offer up all those 
(five) victims ; for had Prafapati then offered up all 
of them, he would certainly have reached the end of 
the fire (altar) : hence were he (the Sacrificer) now to 
offer up all those (victims) he would certainly reach 
the end of the fire (altar).' Let him not do so: he 
thus would stray from where the gods have gone, 
he would stray from the path ; — and what would he 
then gather J ? For those same bodies, those layers, 
he gathers : let him therefore not do so. 

14. Now when he slaughters those animals, he 
prepares a home for Agni ; for nowhere but in 
his home does one enjoy himself. But the home 
means food: it is that he lays down in front, and 
when Agni sees that, he turns unto him. 

15. There are a man, a horse, a bull, a ram, and 
a he-goat; for such are all the animals (used for 
sacrifice). Animals are food : he thus lays down in 
front whatever food there is ; and seeing that, Agni 
turns unto him. 

16. There are five ; for there are those five Agnis, 



damyann £ha, yasmid agnir esha yat pwavas tasmid yasya manu- 
shyasya paxavo bhavanti tasminn etad agnir idhiyate, tatra hi sa 
atmabhfltaiA pirubht ramate n&nyatra; evam yad agny&tmMA 
pajavas tatas tarn agnim Stma*bhisawskrz'tya pra^apatir agnir 
abhavat. 

1 That is, what ' sambhlras ' or equipments of the fire should he 
then collect ? Cf. part i, p. 276. 



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1 66 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

to wit, the five layers (of the fire-altar) : for them he 
thus lays down five homes ; and seeing that, Agni 
turns unto him. 

17. And when (he offers) 'to the Agnis,' — it is 
because there are here many Agnis, to wit, those 
layers ; and when (he offers) ' to the desire,' it is in 
order that the Sacrificer may obtain the object for 
which he performs that ceremony. 

18. A man (purusha) he slaughters first, for man 
is the first of animals ; then a horse, for the horse 
comes after man ; then a bull, for the bull (or cow) 
comes after the horse ; then a ram, for the sheep 
comes after the cow ; then a he-goat, for the goat 
comes after the sheep: thus he slaughters them 
according to their form, according to their excellence. 

19. Their ropes may be unequal ; that of the man 
being the longest, then shorter and shorter : thus he 
makes the ropes according to the form of the animals, 
to avoid confusion between good and bad. But let 
them be all alike, all similar ; for all these victims 
are alike, all similar, for they are (all) called Agnis, 
they are called food: hence they are alike and 
similar. 

20. Here now they say, ' How is that complete 
five-bricked fire of his gained in the animals ? ' — 
Well, in the kapalas of the sacrificial cakes that 
first brick, the earthen one, is obtained ; and when 
he slaughters the animal, thereby the animal brick is 
obtained, and when two gold chips are (placed) on 
both sides of the omentum, thereby the gold brick 
is obtained ; and what firewood, stake, and enclosing 
sticks there are, thereby the wooden brick is ob- 
tained; and what ghee, sprinkling-water, and cake 
there are, thereby the fifth brick, the food, is 



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VI KkNDA., 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 24. 1 67 

obtained : thus then that complete five-bricked fire 
of his is gained in the animals. 

21. For these (victims) there are twenty-four 
kindling-verses * ; for the year consists of twenty- 
four half-moons, and Agni is the year : as great 
as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by so much / 
he thus kindles him. 

22. And, again, why there are twenty-four, — the ' 
Gayatrt consists of twenty-four syllables, and Agni 
is Gayatra 2 : as great as Agni is, as great as is j 
his measure, by so much he thus kindles him. 

23. And, again, why there are twenty-four, — man '• 
(purusha) doubtless is twenty-fourfold : ten fingers 
of the hands, ten toes, and four limbs ; and Prafi- 
pati is the Purusha, and Pra.fapati is Agni : as 
great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by 
so much he thus kindles him. 

24. He recites both gayatrt and trish/ubh verses ; 
for the gayatrl metre is the vital air, and the trish- 
/ubh is the body (self) : by the gayatrl verses he 
thus kindles his vital air, and by the trish/ubh ones 
the body. The trish/ubh verses are in the middle, 
and the gayatrt verses on both sides thereof; for 
this body is in the middle, and the (organs of) the 
vital airs are on the sides thereof. He pronounces 
more gayatrl verses before, and fewer after (the 

1 For the eleven giyatri verses, used as samidhenis at an 
ordinary ish/i — and raised to the number of fifteen by repetitions of 
the first and last verses — see part i, p. 102. The present animal 
sacrifice (ish/aki-para) adds to these verses nine trish/ubh verses 
(Va£. S. XXVII, 1-9), which (according to Katy. XVI, 1, 11) are 
to be inserted between the two verses containing the words ' samidh- 
yamana' (being kindled) and 'samiddha' (kindled) respectively, — 
that is, between the ninth and tenth of the normal or gayatrt kind- 
ling-verses (cf. I, 4, 1, 38). * See VI, i, i, 15 ; 3, 19. 



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1 68 satapatha-brAhma#a. 

trish/ubh verses) ; for there are more (organs of 
the) vital airs in front, and fewer behind. 

25. He recites (Va^. S. XXVII, 1), 'May the 
months 1 , O Agni, may the seasons make thee 
grow ! ' When Agni restored the relaxed Pra^a- 
pati, he (Prafipati) said to him, ' What kindling- 
verses there are equal to me (in measure), with 
them kindle me ! ' 

26. He (Agni) saw these (verses), ' May the 
months, O Agni, may the seasons make thee grow ! ' 
that is, 'May both the months, O Agni, and the 
seasons make thee grow!' — 'The years, the Rish is, 
whatsoever truths' that is, 'May the years, and 
the Jtishis, and the truths make thee grow ! ' — ' W ith 
heavenly brightness do thou shine!' — the 
heavenly brightness doubtless is yonder sun : thus 
' together with that do thou shine!' — 'lighten up 
the whole four regions!' that is, 'lighten up all 
the four regions ! ' 

27. These (verses) have one and the same expla- 
nation regarding him (Agni-Pntf&pati) : how one 
would make him complete, how he would restore and 
produce him. They relate to Agni and Pra^apati : 
to Agni, inasmuch as Agni saw (them) ; to Prafi- 
pati, inasmuch as he (Agni) kindled Prafapati. 

1 This is the meaning assigned here to ' sam&A ' by Mahtdhara, 
a doubtful meaning indeed. Besides the ordinary meaning ' year,' 
the St. Petersburg dictionary also allows to ' sama ' that of ' half- 
year ' in some passages of the Atharva-veda. In the present pas- 
sage, the dictionary refers ' samaA ' to the adjective ' sama,' hence 
' the equal seasons.' This cannot, however, have been the mean- 
ing assigned to the word by the author of this part of the Brahmawa, 
whatever it may originally have been in this verse of the Sawhitas. 
Sayawa, Taitt. S. IV, 1, 7, takes 'samaA' in the sense of 'the 
years,' but remarks that ' the months and half-months ' have to be 
understood by it in this verse. 



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VI KkNDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 32. 1 69 

28. Twelve Aprf (propitiatory) verses l there are, 
— twelve months are a year, and the year is Agni : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with 
so much he thus propitiates (or gratifies) him. 

29. And, again, why there are twelve, — of twelve 
syllables consists the £agatl, and the 6agatl is this 
earth, for on her there is everything that moves 
(^agat) here. And Agni also is this earth, for it is 
out of her that the whole fire (altar) is built up : as 
great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by so 
much he thus propitiates him. 

30. And, again, why there are twelve, — of twelve 
syllables consists the <7agatt, and the Gagatt is all 
the metres, and all the metres are Pra^apati (the 
sacrifice), and Pra^apati is Agni : as great as Agni 
is, as great as is his measure, by so much he thus 
propitiates him. 

31. Those 'kindling-sticks of his (Agni) are 
upright.' When Agni restored the relaxed Pra^- 
pati, he said to him, ' What Aprl-verses there are 
equal to me, with them propitiate me ! ' 

32. He saw these (verses) 2 : — ' Upright are his 
kindling-sticks,' for upright indeed are the kind- 
ling-sticks of him when kindled; — 'upwards tend- 
ing the bright flashes of Agni,' for tending 
upwards are his bright flashes, his flames; — 'they, 
the most brilliant,' that is 'the most powerful;' 
— ' of the fair-looking son,' for fair-looking indeed 
Agni is on all sides ; and inasmuch as he (the 
Sacrificer) produces him thereby he (Agni) is his son. 

1 For the purport of these verses which form the offering-prayers 
at the fore-offerings of the animal sacrifice, see part ii, p. 185, 
note 1. 

* Va^.S. XXVII, 11 seq. 



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1 70 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

33. These (verses) have one and the same expla- 
nation regarding him (Agni-Pra^apati) : how one 
would make him complete, how he would restore and 
produce him. They relate to Agni and Pra^apati, 
— to Agni, inasmuch as Agni saw (them) ; to Pra^L- 
pati, inasmuch as he (Agni) propitiated Pra^ipati. 

34. They are unequal, and consist of unequal 
feet, and unequal syllables; for the metres are 
unequal : whatever unequal limbs there are at his 
(Agni's) body, those (limbs) of his he propitiates by 
these (verses). 

35. The animal cake belongs to (Agni) Vaij- 
vanara — VaLrvanara being all the fires — for the 
obtainment of all the fires. 

36. As to why it belongs to Vaisvanara; — those 
layers (of the altar) no doubt are the seasons, for 
the seasons are the fires ; and the seasons are the 
year, and the year is Vaisvanara (belonging to all 
men). Were it (offered) to Agni (Vaixvanara), he 
would cause it (the formula) to be redundant. It is 
one on twelve potsherds : twelve months are a year, 
and the year is Vai.rvanara. The offering and 
invitatory formulas relate to Agni, for the obtain- 
ment of Agni's forms. They contain the word 
' kama ' (desire), for the obtainment of his desires. 

37. Now some, having in that way 1 obtained 
those heads, put them on (the fire-altar), thinking, 
' Either way 2 are they animals.' But they (who do 
this) become mortal carcases, for unpropitiated are 

1 That is, according to Saya«a, somehow or other, in some 
worldly manner, as by buying or begging them, without performing 
the animal sacrifice. 

' That is to say, whether they are consecrated or unconsecrated, 
in either case they are 'pajavaA' or animal (victims). Say. 



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VI KANDA, 2 ADHYAyA, 2 BRAhmAWA, 2. 171 

those (heads) of theirs. In this way, indeed, they did 
put them on for Asha^i Sausromateya 1 ; but 
quickly indeed he died after that. 

38. Some, however, make gold ones, saying, 
* They are immortal bricks (anvztesh/aka).' But 
indeed those are false bricks (anmesh/aka), those 
are no heads of victims. 

39. Some, again, make earthen ones, thinking, 
' Passed away, forsooth, are these animals, and this 
earth is the shelter of all that has passed away : thus 
whither those animals have gone, from thence we 
collect them.' Let him not do so, for whoso knows 
not both the practice and theory of these (victims), 
for him let them be passed away. Let him slaughter 
those very five victims, as far as he may be able 
to do so ; for it was these Pra^apati was the first 
to slaughter, and 3yapar»a Sayakayana the last; 
and in the interval also people used to slaughter 
them. But nowadays only these two are slaughtered, 
the one for Pra/apati, and the one for Vayu. The 
theory of these two is now (to be) told. 

Second BrAhmana. 

1. The Aarakas slaughter (a he-goat) for Pra^a- 
pati, saying, ' Prafapati, having built up the fire- 
altar (agni), became Agni. When he slaughters 
that one, then indeed he reaches the end of Agni 
(the fire-altar).' 

2. It is a dark grey one ; for the grey has two 
kinds of hair, the white and the black; and two 
make a productive pair : that is its Pra^apati- 
characteristic. It is a hornless one, for Pra^apati 
is hornless. 

1 The son of AshidAz and Sarcomata, according to Sayana. 

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1 72 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

3. For this (animal sacrifice) there are twenty-one 
kindling-verses 1 ; — twelve months, five seasons, these 
three worlds, and yonder sun, — that is the twenty- 
onefold Pra^apati; and Pra^apati is Agni: as great 
as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by so much 
he thus kindles him. 

4. And, again, why there are twenty-one ; — man 
(purusha) doubtless is twenty-onefold, ten fingers of 
the hand, ten toes, and the body (make) the twenty- 
onefold man Pragapati ; and Pra^apati is Agni : as 
great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by so 
much he thus kindles him. 

5. He recites both gayatrt and trish/ubh verses : 
their significance has been told ; and* (what applies 

1 to) the order of the verses has been told. The 
• libation of ghee 2 he makes with the verse contain- 
i ing (the name) Hira»yagarbha 8 ; for Hirawyagarbha 

1 Viz. the eleven ordinary giyatrf verses raised, by repetitions, 
to the number of fifteen ; with six special trish/ubh inserted (p. 167, 
note 1). Katy. XVI, 1, 34. 

2 On the two libations of ghee, see part i, p. 124 note; p. 128, 
n. 2. It is doubtful which of the two libations is intended here ; 
whether the first which in any case belongs to Pra^Spati, but is 
usually made with a different formula from the one prescribed here, 
or the second. The later ritualists themselves seem to have been 
doubtful on this point; but Katyayana (XVI, r, 35-37) leans to 
the opinion, that the second libation must be intended ; both liba- 
tions thus being made to Pra^Spati on this occasion. SSyawa 
remarks, — hirawyavatya rik& ' hirawyagarbhaA samavartatety ' ata 
uttaram samaprakam (? samaprakaram) agharam agharayati ; pra£&- 
patir vai hira»yagarbha£ sa &gnis tarn evam tarpayitvapnotity 
abhipriya^. 

3 That is, Vfy. S. XXV, 10 (XIII, 4 ; Xik S. X, 1 2 1, 1, ' Hira»- 
yagarbhaA samavartatagre), 'Hira»yagarbha (the golden child) came 
first into existence ; he was born as the only lord of all being ; he 
sustained this earth and sky: what god (or the god Ka) shall we 
serve with offering.' 



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VI KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAWA, 6. 1 73 

is Pra^apati, and Pra^apati is Agni. There are I 
twelve Apri-verses : their significance has been 
told ; and (what applies to) the order of the verses 
has been told. The animal cake belongs to Pra^a- 
pati, for the relation of the victim is also that of the 
animal cake 1 . It is one on twelve potsherds : 
twelve months are a year, and the year is Pra^apati. 
The offering and invitatory formulas contain the 
word ' Ka,' for Pra^apati is Ka 2 . 

6. He then slaughters for Vayu Niyutvat (the! 
wind, driving a team of horses) that white, bearded \ 
(he-goat). When Pra^apati had produced living 
beings, he looked about him, and from exceeding 
delight his seed fell : it became that white, hornless, 
bearded he-goat (aga, ' unborn ') ; for seed is life- 
sap, and as far as there is life-sap, so far extends 
the self. And when he slaughters that one, then 
indeed he reaches the end of Agni (the fire-altar). 
It is a white one, because seed is white. It is 
hornless, because seed is hornless. It belongs to 
Vayu, because Vayu (the wind) is the out-breathing ; 
and to Niyutvat, because the teams (niyut 3 ) are the 
in-breathing : the out-breathing and in-breathing he 
thus lays into him. 

1 See III, 8, 3, i seq. 

* See I, i, i, 13 with note. — The above verse, Htk S. X, 121, r, 
and following five verses, — each of which ends with, ' what god (or 
the god Ka) shall we serve with offering,' — are used with the 
omentum, the animal cake (parupuro^ba), and the animal oblations 
respectively ; viz. the first three verses as invitatory formulas (anu- 
vakaya) and the last three as offering formulas (ya£ya). Asv. St. 
Ill, 8, 1. — Va^. S. XXV, 10-13, on 'y tne first four verses are 
given together; whilst Sayawa, in accordance with Ajvalayana, 
remarks, — vapa puro</ajaparuna»? ' hira«yagarbhaA samavartatagra ' 
ity adayaA syuA. 

3 Probably ' niyutaA ' here with allusion to ' niyuta,' shut in. 



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1 74 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

7. And, again, why he slaughters that white, 
hornless (he-goat) ; — when the gods restored the 
relaxed Pra^apati, they, by means of this victim, 
put into him that out-breathing which had gone 
out of him ; and in like manner this one now puts 
it into him. It belongs to Vayu, because Vayu is 
the out-breathing; and to Niyutvat, because the 
teams are the in-breathing: he thus puts the out- 
breathing and in-breathing into him. It is white, 
because Vayu (the wind) is white ; and it is hornless, 
because Vayu is hornless. 

8. For this (animal sacrifice) there are seventeen 
kindling-verses 1 ; for the year is seventeenfold — 
there are twelve months and five seasons — Praflpati 
is the year, and Pra^apati is Agni : as great as Agni 
is, as great as is his measure, by so much he thus 
kindles him. 

9. And, again, why there are seventeen, — man is 
seventeenfold, — there are ten vital airs, four limbs, 
the body the fifteenth, the neck-joints the sixteenth, 
and the head the seventeenth, — Pra^apati is the 
Person (or man, purusha), and Pra^apati is Agni : as 
great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by so 
much he thus kindles him. 

10. He recites both gayatrt and trish/ubh verses : 
their significance has been told ; and (what applies 
to) the order of the verses has been told. There 
are twelve Apri-verses : their significance has been 
told ; and (what applies to) the order of the verses 
has been told. The animal cake belongs to Prafa- 
pati: 'Therein then that wish was obtained,' 



1 That is, only two additional trish/ubh verses are to be inserted 
between the n (or 15) gSyatrt ones. 



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VI KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAYA, 12. 1 75 

Mahitthi once said, — 'which the Aarakas say is in 
the victim to Pra^apati.' 

11. And as to why the victim belongs to Vayu, 
and the animal cake to Pra^apati ; — one half of 
Pra^apati doubtless is Vayu, and one half is Pra^a- 
pati : thus, were they both to belong to Vayu, or 
both to Pra^apati, then only one half of him 
(Prafipati) would be made up, and one half would 
not (be made up). But in that the victim belongs 
to Vayu, and the animal cake to Pra^apati, thereby 
he puts together (restores) him, Pra^apati, wholly 
and entirely. 

12. And, again, why the victim belongs to Vayu, 
and the animal cake to Pra^apati ; — when the gods 
restored the relaxed Pra^apati, they, by means of 
this victim, put into him that out-breathing which 
had gone out of him ; and by means of this cake 
they restored that body (trunk) of his. And as to 
why it belongs to Pra.f&pati, it is because the body 
(self) is Prafapati; and (why it is) one on twelve 
potsherds, — twelve months are a year, and Prafapati 
is the year. One of the offering prayers and one 
of the invitatory prayers * contain (the word) ' ka,' 
for Pra^apati is Ka. 

1 The three chief oblations of the Animal Sacrifice, requiring 
each an invitatory prayer (anuvakya) and an offering prayer 
(ya^yi), are the omentum-oblation (vapa), the animal cake (para- 
puro<&ra), and the meat oblations (paru-havis). This is the order 
on the present occasion, whilst usually the cake-oblation succeeds 
the offering of meat portions. Now the first of the three invitatory 
prayers (that of the omentum), viz. V&g. S. XXVII, 26 (Rik S. X, 
121,8), and the last of the three offering prayers (that of the meat 
portions), viz. VS^. S. XXVII, 25 (Itik S. X, 121, 7), end with the 
refrain, ' what god (or, the god Ka) should we serve with offering.' 
Thus, then, the first and the last of the six formulas would be 



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1 76 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

13. Now when in the first place he offers the 
omentum, he thereby puts into him (Pra^apati) that 
vital air which is here in front. And when they 
proceed with that (cake) in the middle, it is because 
this trunk is in the middle. And when they proceed 
thereafter with the (meat) oblation, he thereby puts 
into him that vital air which is behind. The (re- 
maining) offering and invitatory prayers should 
contain the word 'bright,' with the view of the 
obtainment of bright forms ; and the word ' niyut ' 
(team), for the obtainment of that form which has 
a team K 



addressed to Praf&pati ; and to him is also exceptionally offered 
the animal cake, which is here assigned the central position, and 
which, in the normal sacrificial order, would belong to the recipient 
of the animal sacrifice itself, or in the present case, to Vdyu Niyut- 
vat. Saya«a, on the other hand, makes the above two verses, con- 
taining the word Ka, the invitatory and offering prayers of the 
cake-offering, as the MS. makes him say, — kadvatyau ya^yanuvakye 
purod&rasya, 'apo ha yad bnhatir' (Rik S. X, 121, 7), 'yaskid 
Spo' (X, 121, 8) ity ete. This, indeed, would also seem to be the 
opinion of Katy&yana, whose rules (XVI, 1, 39-43) are, — 39. To. 
Pra^apati belongs the animal cake at both (animal sacrifices) ; 40. 
The offering and invitatory formulas of the Pra^apatya (animal 
sacrifice) contain the word ' Ka;' 41. Those of the Viyavya con- 
tain the word 'bright;' 42. Optionally so, those of the omentum 
(but not at the meat portion, commentary); 43. The remainder 
is equal in all (three views). — Now it would indeed be the most 
natural, that the formulas of the cake-offering, here exceptionally 
assigned to Pra^apati, should be made to correspond to that deity ; 
but the order in which the formulas are given in the V&g. S. XXVII, 
23-28 (cf. Ajval. Ill, 8, 1), as well as paragraph 13 above, seems 
to favour the first view; though the next paragraph shows that 
there were differences of opinion on this point. Cf. next note. 

1 The form of Pra^-apati which has a team of horses is Viyu, 
the god of wind ; while his bright forms are represented by Agni, 
the fire (VI, 1, 3, 20, 'Agni is all bright things ').— Va^. S. XXVII, 
29-34 gives six verses for use as invitatory and offering formulas 



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vi kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 2 brAhmawa, 15. 177 

14. As to this they say, ' It is rather the two 
(prayers) of the Omentum that should contain (the 
word) " bright," for so far as the two (prayers) of the 
omentum containing (the word) " bright " extend, 
extends what is bright in the animal (sacrifice) ; and 
the two (prayers) of the (meat) oblation should con- 
tain (the word) " team," for the obtainment of that 
form of him (Pra^apati) which has a team.' 

15. And, again, why he slaughters this animal ; — f 
in this animal doubtless the form of all (the five kinds . 
of) animals is (contained) : inasmuch as it is hornless 
and bearded, that is the form of man, for man is 
hornless and bearded ; inasmuch as it is hornless and 
furnished with a mane, that is the form of the horse, 
for the horse is hornless and furnished with a mane ; 
inasmuch as it is eight-hoofed, that is the bull's form, 
for the bull is eight-hoofed; inasmuch as its hoofs 
are like those of the sheep, that is the form of the 

at the ish/akap&ra to Vayu. Five of these contain the word 'niyut,' 
team, but only the first two contain the word ' jukra' (bright): these 
two are presumably to be used on the present occasion ; though I am 
at a loss to see what other two verses containing the word ' bright ' 
are to be used ; unless indeed ' juklavatyaA ' in the text means 
'verses containing some word for bright,' in which case the 
ordinary verses used at an animal offering to Vayu Niyutvat, viz. 
V£g. S. XXVII, 23 and 24 (Jlik S.VII, 9 1, 3; 90, 3) which contain the 
word ' jveta ' (white, light), might be used. The MS. of S£ya»a's 
commentary is unfortunately very corrupt in this place ; it alludes 
to the latter two verses, but whether to recommend them, or set 
them aside, for the present occasion, is not clear. He does, 
however, specially except the formulas of the animal cake from 
being included in the above specification. In the view put forth 
in paragraph 14, the above-mentioned two verses would apparently 
have to be used for the omentum-oblation, the two verses contain- 
ing ' Ka ' for the cake-oblation, and (any) two verses containing 
the word 'team' (either the ordinary ones, Hik S. VII, 92, 5; 
VI, 49, 4 ; or some of the special ones) for the meat-oblation. 
[41] N 



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1 78 satapatha-brAhma^ A. 

sheep ; and inasmuch as it is a he-goat, that is that 
of the goat. Thus when he slaughters this one, 
thereby indeed all those (five) animals are slaughtered 
for him. Whichever of these may suit him — either 
those five animals, or that (he-goat) for Pra^apati, 
or that one for (Vayu) Niyutvat l — 

16. Let him slaughter it at full moon. ' Let him 
slaughter at new moon,' so say some, ' for Pra^apati 
is yonder moon : during that night (of new moon) 
he dwells here (on earth) 2 , and it would be just as 
if he slaughtered him while staying near.' 

17. But, indeed, this (takes place) at full moon, 
for the victim is yonder moon, and him the gods 
slaughter at full moon 3 : ' I will slaughter him at 
the time when the gods slaughter him,' thus he 
thinks, and therefore (he does so) at full moon. 
And, again, why at full moon; — the full moon no 



1 S&yana here supplies ' let him perform that,' — esham karma- 
Haw madhye yat karmasya sampadyeta tat kuryad iti reshaA ; but 
he then adds, that the pronoun ' it ' (tarn) at the beginning of the 
next paragraph is caused by proximity of the Niyutvatiya. 

* See I, 6, 4, 5. ' Now this king Soma, the food of the gods, is 
no other than the moon. When he (the moon, masc.) is not seen 
that night either in the east or in the west, then he visits this 
world, and here he enters into the waters (f.) and plants (f.).' Thus 
Pra^apati is here identified with Soma, the moon, and food. 

* Cp. I, 6, 4, 12-13. 'The full-moon oblation, assuredly, be- 
longs to the Vn'tra-slayer, for by means of it Indra slew Vr/tra ; 
and this new-moon oblation also represents the slaying of Vn'tra, 
since they prepared that invigorating draught for him who had 
slain Vrz'tra. An offering in honour of the VWira-slayer, then, 
is the full-moon sacrifice. VrAra, assuredly, is no other than the 
moon ; and when during that night (of new moon) he is not seen 
either in the east or in the west, then he (Indra) finishes in destroy- 
ing him by means of that (new-moon sacrifice), and leaves nothing 
remaining of him." 



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VI KAXDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 22. I 79 

doubt was the first to shine forth, hence also (the 
sacrifice takes place) at full moon. 

18. And furthermore, at the Phalguna (full moon), 
for that full moon of Phalguna, that is, the second 
(Phalguna) \ is the first night of the year ; and that 
first (Phalguna) is the last (night of the year) : he 
thus begins the year at the very mouth (beginning). 

19. Now, as soon as he has performed the full- 
moon offering, let him slaughter the victim. For 
Indra, having driven away Vmra, evil, by means of 
the full-moon offering, thus freed from evil entered 
upon this sacrificial performance; and in like manner 
the Sacrificer, having driven away VWtra, evil, by 
means of the full-moon offering, thus freed from evil 
now enters on this (sacred) performance. 

20. This is (performed) in a low voice, for by 
means of these victims Pra,fapati sought to obtain 
this (sacred) work 2 ; but that (work) was then, as it 
were, uncertain, indistinct : hence in a low voice. 

21. And, again, why in a low voice; — this per- 
formance assuredly belongs to Pra^apati, for it is 
Pra/apati he enters upon by this performance ; and 
Pra^ipati is undefined. 

22. And, again, why in a low voice ; — there is seed 
here in the sacrifice, and seed is cast silently — the 

1 In the older division of the year the first or spring season (vasanta) 
begins with the month of Phalguna, that is the month when the 
moon is in conjunction with the nakshatra of the Uttare Phalguni, 
whence that full moon, in the Kaush. Br. 5, 1, is called the mouth, 
and that of the first Phalguni the tail, of the year. See A. Weber, 
Nachrichten von den Naxatra, II, p. 329. In the above, some- 
what bold figure, we are, Sayawa reminds us, to understand the 
fifteenth or last day (of the dark fortnight) of the first Phalguni, 
and the pratipad, or first day of the second Phalguni. 

2 That is, the construction of the fire-altar. 

K 2 



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180 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

omentum, the animal cake, and the chief oblation, 
for of that much consists the animal sacrifice. 

23. On the eighth day (after full moon) he collects 
(the materials for) the fire-pan ; for sacred to Pra^a- 
pati is that day, the eighth (after full moon), and 
sacred to Pra/apati is this (sacred) piece of work, 
the fire-pan : on a day sacred to Pra^apati he thus 
performs the work sacred to Pra^apati. 

24. And as to why (it is performed) on the eighth 
day ; — that eighth day no doubt is a joint of the year, 
and that fire-pan is a joint of Agni (the fire-altar) : 
he thus makes joint upon joint. 

25. And, again, why on the eighth day ; — eightfold 
doubtless is the pan 1 — the bottom part, the two side- 
parts, the horizontal belt (or rim), that makes four ; 
and four upright (bands), that makes eight : he thus 
makes the eightfold on the eightfold (or eighth). 

26. He performs the initiation on the day of new 
moon ; for from out of the new moon the sacrifice is 
spread : ' Whence the sacrifice is spread, thence will 
I generate the sacrifice,' so he thinks. 

27. And, again, why he (does so) at new moon; — 
when he performs the initiation, he verily pours out 
his own self, as seed, into the fire-pan, the womb ; 
and when he becomes initiated, he makes for it (his 
self) that world (or place) beforehand 2 , and he is 



1 For the construction of the fire-pan, in which the sacred fire 
has to be kept up for a year, during which the initiation-ceremony 
is repeated day after day, see VI, 5, 2, 1 seq. 

* There is kept up in these paragraphs a play on the word ' loka,' 
meaning both ' space' and ' world (or place of living),' — and apply- 
ing both to the space occupied by a brick, in building up the altar; 
and to the place which the Sacrificer, by this performance, gains for 
himself in another world. The initiation period is here represented 



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vi kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaya, 29. 181 

born into the world made by him : hence they say, 
' Man is born into the world made (by him) V 

28. Now, were he to be initiated during less than 
a year, he would build up bricks without space (for 
them) 2 : the bricks would exceed the spaces. And if, 
after making more spaces 3 , he were not to fill up 
bricks in accordance therewith, the spaces would 
exceed the bricks. And when, after initiating him- 
self at new moon, he buys (Soma) at new moon 4 , 
he piles up as many bricks as he (during the 
interval) makes space for ; and when his (Agni's 
second) wing is covered (with loose soil), the whole 
Agni is built up. 

29. As to this they say, ' If at the time of the 
buying (of Soma) the days and nights (of the initia- 
tion-period) amount to just as many as there are 
bricks of that fire-altar, why then are not those 

as the time during which the Sacrificer prepares both the requisite 
space for the altar (as it were, adding day by day so many brick- 
spaces, thus becoming available for the altar-pile at the time of 
construction), and an adequate place for himself in the celestial 
regions. 

1 That is, man receives, in a future existence, the reward or 
punishment for his deeds during this life. 

* The author argues in support of the orthodox initiation-period 
of just one year, as just the amount of time required for preparing 
the exact amount of space (or brick-spaces) requisite for an altar 
of proper size. If the initiation were to last less than a year, he 
would not have had sufficient time to prepare the necessary amount 
of space, or rather, number of spaces required for the bricks ; and, 
by implication, he would not acquire for himself an adequate place 
hereafter. 

5 That is to say, if he were to make the initiation-period last 
longer than a year, thus providing for more space than his supply 
of bricks would suffice to fill up. 

* That is, after the expiration of the period of initiation, or just 
a year after the commencement of the latter. 



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l82 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAJVA. 

spaces of his filled up (which are prepared) during 
the days there are after the buying (of Soma) l ? 
Well, when he buys (Soma) at new moon, after 
becoming initiated at new moon (a year previously), 
then he piles up just as many bricks as (during that 
interval) he makes space for ; and what days there 
then are after the buying (of Soma), during that 
interval the Adhvaryu builds up the fire-altar. But 
when should he build up, if there were not that 
interval ? As many as there are days and nights in 
the year, so many are the bricks of that fire-altar. 
Thereto (comes) a thirteenth month, for there is 
that thirteenth month ; — thus during the days there 
are after the buying (of Soma), those spaces of it 
(the altar) are filled up afterwards with those bricks 
of the thirteenth month : thus the spaces and the 
bricks become equal. 

30. Thus, then, what first full moon there is (in 
the year) on that he slaughters the victim; and 
what first eighth-day there is, on that he prepares 
the fire-pan ; and what first new moon there is, on 
that he becomes initiated : thus whatever first days 
there are in the year, of those he thereby takes 
possession for him (Agni, the altar), those he thereby 
gains. Now then as to the total amount (of the 
fire-altar) 2 . 

1 That is, during the days from the commencement to the com- 
pletion of the altar. These are the upasad-days (part ii, p. 104 
seq.), the number of which varies from three days up to three years. 
During this period the Upasads have to be performed twice daily, 
and in the interval between the two performances the building of 
the altar takes place, a certain number of bricks being added each 
day. 

* Or, rather, the correspondence, in toto, of the sacrificial per- 
formance with the object to be attained, viz. Agni, the fire-altar. 



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VI K&NDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 34. . 1 83 

31. Here now they say, 'How does that sacrificial 
performance of his (the animal sacrifice) gain the 
year, Agni ? how does it correspond 1 with the year, 
with Agni ? ' Well, for those five victims there are 
twenty-five kindling-verses, twelve Apri-verses, — that 
makes thirty-six ; — eleven after-offerings, eleven by- 
offerings 2 , — that makes fifty-eight. 

32. Now what forty-eight there are (in these 
fifty-eight), they are the Gagati (metre) consist- 
ing of forty-eight syllables ; — the Gagati doubtless 
is this earth, for it is thereon that everything is 
that moves (^agat) ; and Agni also is this earth, for 
it is thereof that the whole Agni is built up : as 
great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, so great 
does this become 8 . 

33. And, again, why there are forty-eight ; — of 
forty-eight syllables consists the Gagati ; the Gagati 
(comprises) all the metres ; all the metres are 
Pra^apati (the sacrifice 4 ) ; and Pra^apati is Agni : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, so 
great does this become. 

34. And what (remaining) ten there are (in those 
fifty-eight), they are the Vir&f, consisting of ten 
syllables ; and the Virif is Agni, — there are ten 
regions, and the regions are Agni ; ten vital airs, 
and the vital airs are Agni : as great as Agni is, 

1 Or, come up to, tally with, — katha»? sawvatsare«a sampadyate 
sa#zga££^atexvayavas&myena, Say. 

* For these supplementary oblations at the animal sacrifice, see 
III, 8, 4, io seq. 

* That is, the animal sacrifice that has been performed is thus 
made out to be equal to Agni, or to the object for which it was 
performed. 

4 That is, because all the metres are employed in the chants and 
recitations during the sacrifice. 



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1 84 satapatha-brahmaata. 

as great as is his measure, so great does this 
become. 

35. The omentum and the animal cake, that 
makes sixty; — sixty are the days and nights of a 
month : thus he gains the month ; the month gained 
gains the season ; and the season (gains) the year : 
he thus gains the year, Agni, and the wishes which 
are contained in the year, and what other food than 
that there is in the year, all that (he gains). 

36. And for that (victim) of Pra^apati there are 
twenty-one kindling-verses, and twelve Aprl-verses, 
that makes thirty-three ; — eleven after-offerings, 
eleven by-offerings, that makes fifty-five; — omen- 
tum, animal cake, and chief oblation, that makes 
fifty-eight : whatever wish is contained in the fifty- 
eight, that he gains even here 1 ; — two libations of 
ghee, that makes sixty : whatever wish is con- 
tained in the sixty, that he gains even here ; and 
what other food than that there is in the year, all 
that (he gains). 

37. And for that (victim) of (Vayu) Niyutvat, 
there are seventeen kindling-verses, and twelve Aprl- 
verses, that makes twenty-nine ; — eleven after-offer- 
ings, and eleven by-offerings, that makes fifty-one; — 
omentum, animal cake, and chief oblation, that 
makes fifty-four ; — two libations of ghee, two (obla- 
tions to Agni) Svish/akrzt, that makes fifty-eight : 
whatever wish is contained in the fifty-eight, that he 
gains even here ; — the wood-lord 2 (tree) and the obla- 
tion of gravy, that makes sixty: whatever wish is con- 

1 ?That is, also in this calculation, or in the parts of the sacrifice 
here enumerated. 

* For the oblation to Vanaspati, see part ii, p. 208; for the 
vasahoma, ib. 205. 



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VI KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAYA, 39. 1 85 

tained in the sixty, that he gains even here, and 
what other food than that there is in the year, all 
that (he gains) ; and thus that sacrificial performance 
gains for him the year, Agni ; thus it (the animal 
sacrifice) corresponds with the year, with Agni! 

38. As to this they say, ' Of that animal he 
should offer no Samish/aya^iis, nor should he go 
down with the heart-spit to the purificatory bath 1 ; 
for that animal (sacrifice) is the commencement of 
Agni; the Samish/aya^us are the gracious dismissal 
of the deities 2 ; and the purificatory bath is the 
completion ; — lest he should at the very commence- 
ment dismiss the deities, and complete the sacrifice.' 
Let him nevertheless complete (the sacrifice) : \ 
Pragapati, having offered that animal, saw that he ^ 
had not reached the end of him, Agni, — let him 
therefore complete (the sacrifice). And, again, why 
he completes it ; — that animal sacrifice is his vital 
air, and if anything were to cut him off from that, 

it would cut him off from the vital air; and if 
anything were to cut him off from the vital air, he 
would thus die: let him therefore complete (the 
sacrifice). Now, then, as to the vows (rites of 
abstinence). 

39. Here now they say, ' After he has performed 
that animal offering, he must not sleep upon (a 
couch), nor eat flesh, nor hold carnal intercourse ; 
for that animal sacrifice is the first Dlkshi, and 
improper surely it would be, were the initiated to 
sleep upon (a couch), or were he to eat flesh, or 
hold carnal intercourse.' But in no way is this a 
Dlkshi, for there is neither a girdle, nor a black 

1 See III, 8, 5, 8 seq. * See I, 9, a, 26-27. 

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1 86 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

antelope skin J ; but he makes this the first brick 2 : 
let him therefore, if he like, sleep upon (a couch) ; 
and whatever food animals here eat, all that is here 
obtained and taken possession of by him ; and 
whatever kinds of food there are other than honey, 
of all those he may eat at pleasure, if he can get 
them. Carnal intercourse, however, he may not 
hold prior to the (offering of) clotted curds to Mitra 
and Varu»a 8 : the purport of this (will be explained) 
hereafter. 

40. Here now they say, 'At this sacrifice he 
should give a Dakshi#a (sacrificial gift) ; thinking, 
" Lest my sacrifice should be without a dakshi«a ! " 
let him give to the Brahman the prescribed dak- 
shi«a, for the Brahman is the entire sacrifice : thus 
the entire sacrifice of his becomes healed.' Let 
him not do so ; for he makes this a brick, and it 
would be just as if he were to give a present with 
each brick : only at that (proper) time 4 let him 
therefore give what it befits him (to give). 

Third BrAhmajva. 

1. Now, the gods said, ' Meditate ye ! ' — whereby, 
no doubt, they meant to say, ' Seek ye a layer • 
(for the fire-altar) ! ' Whilst they were meditating, 

1 For the antelope skin used at the initiation-ceremony, see III, 
2, 1, 1 ; for the girdle, ib. 10. 

* See above, VI, 2, 1, 20. 

* This is the concluding oblation of the Soma-sacrifice, per- 
formed at the close of the Agni&iyana ; see IX, 5, 1, 54. 

4 Viz. at the proper time when the priests receive their fees, 
after the mid-day Soma-service, see part ii, p. 340. 

5 The author here connects the causal verb ' £etay ' (to reflect) 
with 'Hi,' to pile, to build; or rather with '£itim ish,' to desire 
building (an altar). 



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vi kAjvda, 2 adhyAya, 3 brAhmava, 3. 187 

Pra^apati saw this earth, as a first naturally-perfor- 
ated * layer : hence it is by means of Pra^pati that 
he lays on that (brick) 2 . 

2. Agni said to him (Pra^apati), 'I will step 
nigh!'—' Wherewith ?'— ' With cattle ! '—' So be it!' 
He thereby doubtless meant to say, 'with the cattle- 
brick ; ' for that cattle-brick is the same as the durva- 
brick 8 : hence the durva-brick is laid so as not to be 
separated from the first naturally-perforated one ; 
hence also not separated from this earth are the 
plants, the cattle, the fire, — for not separated (from 
the earth) * he (Agni) stepped nigh with this (brick). 

3. They said, ' Meditate ye yet ! ' whereby no 
doubt they meant to say, ' Seek ye a layer ! seek ye 
(to build) from hence upwards ! ' Whilst they were 

1 See p. 155, note 8. 

* Or, that (layer), the three naturally-perforated bricks occupying 
the centre of the first, third, and fifth layers of the altar, these 
bricks are, as it were, the representatives of the respective layers. 
This first svayam-atr/Vi/ta brick is laid down with the formula, 'May 
Pra^apati settle thee 1 ' See VII, 4, 2, 6. 

* A stalk of Durva (Dub) grass — Panicum (or Cynodon) dacty- 
lon, or Agrostis linearis — is laid upon the first naturally-perforated 
brick (which again lies on the man of gold) in such a way that the 
root lies upon it and the tops hanging down to the ground. ' Its 
flowers in the perfect state are among the loveliest objects in the 
vegetable world, and appear through a lens like minute rubies and 
emeralds in constant motion from the least breath of air. It is the 
sweetest and most nutritious pasture for cattle, and its usefulness, 
added to its beauty, induced the Hindus in the earliest ages to 
believe it was the mansion of a benevolent nymph.' Sir W. Jones, 
Works, vol. v, p. 78. Professor R. Wallace, in his 'India in 1887,' 
gives an excellent illustration of this famous grass. He remarks 
(p. 282) that 'it has a wonderful power of remaining green, being 
the grass of all Indian grasses which retains its succulence through- 
out the extreme heat of summer.' 

* That is to say, immediately after (the earth-brick had been 
laid on). 



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l88 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

meditating, Indra and Agni, and Visvakarman saw 
the air, as a second naturally-perforated layer : 
hence he lays on that (brick 1 ) by means of Indra 
and Agni, and Visvakarman. 

4. Vayu said to them, ' I will step nigh ! ' — 
' Wherewith!'— 'With the regions!'—' So be it !' He 
thereby doubtless meant to say, ' with the regional 
(bricks 2 ) : ' hence on the second naturally-perforated 
one the regional ones are laid, without being sepa- 
rated from it 3 ; and hence not separated from the air 
are the regions, the wind ; for not separated there- 
from he (Vayu) stepped nigh with this (brick). 

5. They said, 'Meditate ye yet!' — whereby no 
doubt they said, ' Seek ye a layer ! seek ye (to build) 
from hence upwards ! ' Whilst they were meditating, 
Paramesh/^in saw the sky, as a third naturally-per- 
forated layer : whence it is by ParameshMin (the 
most high) he lays on that (brick 4 ). 

1 This second naturally-perforated brick, representing the air, 
forms the centre of the third layer of the altar. See VIII, 3, 
1, 1 seq. 

* That is, the bricks marking the regions, or quarters (diryS) ; 
five of these are laid down immediately after the self-perforated 
one, in the four directions from it, two of them being laid on the 
south. See VIII, 3, 1, 11. 

8 Viz. without being separated from the layer which the second 
svayam-atr»w»a represents. They would seem to lie about a foot 
away from the central brick; but as no other special brick lies 
between them, they may on that account be considered as not 
separated from it. 

* The third svayam-atr/»»S, though considered as forming part 
of the fifth layer, is really laid on the top of it or rather on the 
' punar&ti ' — an additional pile of eight bricks laid over the 
central, garhapatya-like, portion of the fifth layer (cf. VI, 6, 1, 14, 
with note). It is laid down with the formula ' May the Most 
High settle thee 1 ' — and on it the fire is subsequently placed. See 
VIII, 7, 3, 13 seq. 



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VI KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAA'A, 8. 1 89 

6. Yonder Sun said to him, ' I will step nigh ! ' — 
' Wherewith ? '— ' With a space-filling (brick »).'-— « So 
be it ! ' — Now he (the sun) indeed is the space-filler : 
' by (mine own} self,' he thus means to say. Hence 
the third naturally-perforated one is laid on so as 
not to be separated from the space-filling one 2 ; and 
hence yonder sun is not separated from the sky, for 
not separated therefrom did he step nigh with this 
(brick). 

7. These six deities forsooth became all this 
(universe), whatsoever exists here. The gods and 
the .tfzshis said, ' Those six deities forsooth have 
become all this (universe) : bethink ye yourselves 
how we also may share therein ! ' They said, ' Medi- 
tate ye ! ' whereby doubtless they meant to say, ' Seek 
ye a layer ! seek ye how we also may share in this 3 ! ' 
Whilst they were meditating, the gods saw a second, 
the -fa'shis a fourth, layer *. 

8. They said, 'We will step nigh!' — 'Where- 
with ? ' — ' With what is over and above these 
worlds!' — 'So be it!' Now what there is above 
the earth on this side of the air, therewith the gods 
stepped nigh, that is this second layer ; and what there 

1 See p. 153, note. 

* The laying down of the last svayam-&tr/»«a' (together with the 
likewise perforated ' vikarm') is immediately preceded by the 
filling up of the fifth layer with the 'space-filling' bricks, only one of 
which has the common formula pronounced over it. See VIII, 7, 
2, 1 seq. 

8 Viz. in this universe, and, as a representation thereof, in this 
fire-altar. 

* In the foregoing 1-5 paragraphs only those three layers, 
which have a 'naturally-perforated' brick in the centre, viz. the 
first, third, and fifth layers, were mentioned. The author now 
remarks on the two other layers, representing as it were the 
space between the three worlds. 



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190 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

is above the air on this side of the sky, therewith 
the 7?/shis stepped nigh, that is this fourth layer. 

9. Now when they said, ' Meditate ye (ietaya- 
dhvam) ! ' they doubtless meant to say, ' Seek ye a 
layer (iitim i^^ata) ! ' and inasmuch as meditating 
(£etay) they saw them, therefore they are ' layers ' 
(^itaya^). 

10. Pra^apati saw the first layer : Pra^apati 
assuredly is its (spiritual) ancestry. The gods saw 
the second layer: the gods assuredly are its an- 
cestry. Indra and Agni, and VLrvakarman saw the 
third layer : they assuredly are its ancestry. The 
^i'shis saw the fourth layer : the Htsbis assuredly 
are its ancestry. Paramesh/^in saw the fifth layer : 
Paramesh/^in assuredly is its ancestry. And, verily, 
whosoever so knows that (spiritual) ancestry of the 
structures (layers of the fire-altar), his structures are 
indeed possessed of an ancestry, possessed of rela- 
tions (or, of mystic significance, bandhu). 

THE SAVITRA LIBATIONS. 

Third AdhyAya. First BrAhmaata. 

1. The gods then said, ' Meditate ye! 'whereby 
doubtless they meant to say, 'Seek ye a layer!' 
Whilst they were meditating, Savitr* saw those 
Savitra (formulas) ; and inasmuch as Savitr? saw 
them, they are called Savitra. He offered that 
eightfold-taken libation ; and when he had offered it, 
he saw this eightfold-appointed Ashi^a \ which had 
been created aforetime. 

1 That is, the ' invincible ' brick, being the first brick which is 
made, and that by the Sacrificer's chief wife (mahisht) herself. See 
VI, 5, 3, 1 seq. — SSya»a remarks, — tam ahutira hutvsl imam 
pmhivim Sdhiya^flikim ash/adh&vihitim mrrtsikatSbhiA prrthivya- 
vairiyaw (? pr/thivyahgair imim) asb/avihititmikam asharf^dm ish/a- 



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VI KAJVDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAWA, 6. igi 

2. Now when they said, ' Meditate ye !' they doubt- 
less meant to say, ' Seek ye a layer ! ' and inasmuch 
as they saw it whilst meditating (ietay), therefore it 
is a layer (iiti). And the libation is a sacrifice ; and 
inasmuch as he saw it after sacrificing (ish/va), it is 
a brick (ish/aka). 

3. Now that same (libation of ghee), while being a 
single one, he offers as an eightfold one * with eight 
formulas: whence this ('invincible' brick), while 
being a single one, is eightfold appointed. 

4. He offers while raising upwards (the spoon) ; — 
he thereby raises this earth upwards by means of its 
forms 2 : whence this earth is raised (above the 
water) by its forms. 

5. He offers it continuously ; — for at that time the 
gods were afraid lest the Rakshas, the fiends, should 
come thither after them ! They saw that continuous 
libation for preventing the Rakshas, the fiends, from 
coming after them : hence he offers it continuously. 

6. And, again, why he offers that libation ; — this 
Agni is Savitrz, and him he gratifies at the outset 
by this libation ; and having sacrificed to, and grati- 
fied, him (Agni), he then puts him together. And 
inasmuch as by this (libation) he gratifies Savitr?', 
they (the formulas are called) Savitra : that is why 
he offers this libation. 

kSm apa^yat ; puraiva lokapavarga kala (? kale or kalat) sn'shiim satim. 
Though in the cosmogonic account, VI, 1, 1, 13 seq., the earth 
is rather said to consist of nine different elements, the ' invincible ' 
brick is commonly identified with the earth. See VI, 5, 3, 1. 
For the (eightfold) compositions of the clay used for the fire-pan 
and bricks, see VI, 5, 1, 1 seq. 

1 That is to say, the offering-spoon is filled by eight dippings 
with the dipping-spoon. 

* That is, by means of its constituent elements; — prethivtra 
urdhvira rupair mr/dtdibhir udgamayati, Say. 



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192 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

7. And, again, why he offers this libation ; — this 
Agni is Savitrz, and him he pours out as seed at the 
outset by this libation ; and whatlike seed is poured 
into the womb suchlike (offspring) is born. And 
inasmuch as by this (libation) he pours out Savitr? 
as seed, they (the offering-formulas are called) 
Sivitra : that is why he offers this libation. 

8. Both an offering-spoon (sru£) and a dipping- 
spoon (sruva) are used thereat ; for the offering-spoon 
is speech, and the dipping-spoon is breath ; and with 
speech and breath the gods sought this sacred rite 
at the beginning : hence there are an offering-spoon 
and a dipping-spoon. 

9. And, again, why there are an offering-spoon and 
a dipping-spoon, — what Prafapati was, that indeed 
is this dipping-spoon, for the dipping-spoon is the 
breath, and the breath is Praf ipati. And what Va£ 
(speech) was, that is this offering-spoon ; for V&k is 
a female, and the offering-spoon (sru£, f.) is a female ; 
and those waters which went forth from the world of 
Vai (speech) 1 , they are this (ghee) which he offers 
(in) this libation. 

10. He offers it continuously, for those waters 
flowed continuously. And inasmuch as that Pra^a- 
pati entered the waters with the threefold science 2 , 
that is these prayers (ya^us) with which this (priest) 
now offers. 

11. The first three which there are, are these 
(three) worlds ; and what fourth prayer there is that 

1 See VI, 1, 1, 9. 

s VI, 1, 1, 10. — The construction of the text is somewhat 
peculiar, — what the author means to say seems to be, — the three- 
fold science (the Veda) with which Pra^-dpati entered the waters is 
the same as the prayers now offered up. 



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VI KANDA, 3 ADHYAVA, I BRAHMAtfA, 1 5. I93 

is the threefold science, that is the £agatt, — the 
<7agatt being all the metres, and all the metres 
(making up) the threefold science; and what last 
four (prayers) there are, they are the quarters : now 
PrafApati indeed is those worlds and the quarters ; 
and that (^agati verse in the middle) is the threefold 
science. 

12. He offers with (Va£\ S. XI, i), ' Harnessing 
first the mind,' — Pra^apati, assuredly, is he that 
harnesses, he harnessed the mind for that holy work ; 
and because he harnessed the mind for that holy 
work, therefore he is the harnessing one. 

13. 'Savitr*, stretching out the thoughts/ — 
for Savitrz is the mind, and the thoughts are the 
vital airs; — 'gazing reverently at Agni's light,' 
— that is, having seen Agni's light ; — ' bore up 
from the earth;' for upwards from the earth he 
indeed bears this (offering). 

14. [Vag: S. XI, 2] 'With harnessed mind we,' 
— he thereby harnesses the mind for this work, for 
with unharnessed mind one cannot now do anything ; 
— 'at the impulse of the god Sa.vitri,' — that is 
impelled (sped) by the god Savitrz, — 'with power 
(we strive) for the heavenly;' — 'that by this holy 
work he may go to the heavenly world,' he thereby 
means to say ; ' with power,' he says, for by power 
(energy) one goes to the heavenly world. 

15. \y$g. S. XI, 3] ' Savitr*, having harnessed 
the gods,' — SaviW is the mind, and the gods are 
the vital airs; — 'going by thought to the light, to 
heaven,' — for as such as are going to the heavenly 
world by thought (devotion) he has harnessed them 
for this holy work ; — 'going to produce a mighty 
light,' — the mighty light assuredly is yonder sun, and 

[41] o 



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194 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

he is this Agni, and him they axe indeed going to 
fit together (or, restore); — 'may Savitr* speed 
them!' — that is, 'may they perform this holy work, 
sped by Szvitru' 

16. [Va\f. S. XI, 4] 'They harness the mind, 
and they harness the thoughts,' — for both the 
mind and the vital airs he harnesses for this holy 
work; — 'the priests of the priest,' — the priest is 
Pra^apati, and the priests are the gods; — 'of the 
great inspirer of devotion,' — the great inspirer 
of devotion 1 is Pra^apati; — 'he hath assigned 
the priestly offices,' — now when he (Agni-Pra^a- 
pati) is built up, then he assigns the priestly offices, 
for the priestly offices are assigned over the built-up 
(fire-altar); — 'the finder of rites,' — for he indeed 
found this rite ; — ' he alone,' for he alone found this 
whole holy rite; — 'mighty is the praise of the 
god Savitr*',' — that is, 'great is the praise of the 
god Savitrt.' 

17. [Va/. S. XI, 5; Rt\ S. X, 13, 1] 'By 
devotions I harness your old inspiration,' — 
the old inspiration (brahman) doubtless is the vital 
air, and devotion is food, and that food is this obla- 
tion : by means of this oblation, by means of this 
food, he harnesses the vital airs for this holy work, — 
'May the praise spread abroad on the lord's 
path,' — this he says in order that there may be for 
the Sacrificer the praise of fame among both gods 
and men; — 'may all sons of the immortal 
hear!' — the immortal one doubtless is Pra^apati, 
and his sons are all the gods; — 'who have resorted 



1 See III, 5, 3, 12, where 'br*hat vipax&t' (in the same formula) 
is explained as referring to the sacrifice. 



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vi kAm>a, 3 adhyAya, i brAhmawa, 20. 195 

to the heavenly abodes ;' — the heavenly abodes 
are these worlds : the gods that are in these worlds, 
with regard to them he says this. 

18. \VSg. S. XI, 6; Rik S. V, 81, 3] 'Whose 
course the others have followed,' — for Pra^a- 
pati first performed this rite, whereupon the gods 
performed it; — 'the gods with vigour, the 
god's greatness,' — the greatness is the sacrifice, 
thus: 'the gods with vigour (followed) the god's 
sacrifice, his energy;' — 'that dappled steed who 
hath measured the terrestrial (regions),' — what- 
soever is on this earth that is terrestrial, all that he 
measures out ; for with his rays he reaches down to 
it; — 'the regions, he the god Savitr? by his 
greatness,' — the regions are these worlds, and the 
god SavitW is yonder sun : he measures them by 
his greatness. 

19. [V&f. S. XI, 7] ' God Savitrs, speed the 
sacrifice, speed the lord of sacrifice unto his 
share!' — the god SavitW is yonder sun, and 
his share is the sacrifice, that he means to say 
when he says ' speed the sacrifice, speed the lord of 
sacrifice!' — 'May the heavenly, thought-cleans- 
ing Gandharva cleanse our thought!' — the 
heavenly Gandharva is yonder sun, and thought is 
(sacrificial) food ; thus, ' May the food-cleanser 
cleanse our food!' — 'May the lord of speech 
render agreeable our speech !' — this sacred rite 
is speech, and the lord of speech is the breath : 
thus, 'May the breath render agreeable this rite 
of ours ! ' 

20. \Wig. S. XI, 8] 'Further, O god Savitr*, 
this our sacrifice!' — the god SavitW is yonder 
sun, and whatever sacrificial rite he furthers, that 

o 2 



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196 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

reaches its end safely and auspiciously; — 'as one 
pleasant to the gods,' — that is, as one which shall 
please the gods ; — 'friend-gaining, ever-winning, 
wealth-winning, heaven-winning/ — that is, one 
that may gain all this; — 'Make the hymn-tune 
successful with the rik (verse), the Rathantara 
with the Gayatra (metre), and the Brz'hat, 
moving in Gayatra measures!' — thus the sa- 
mans (hymns); — 'Hail!' thus the sacrificial formu- 
las : this threefold science is first produced, even as 
it was there and then produced. And the Agni 
who was produced, he is this Agni (fire-altar) who 
is built up from hence upwards. 

21. These then are the eight Savitra (formulas 1 ) ; — 
the Gayatrt has eight syllables, and Agni is Gayatra : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by 
just so much he pours him out as seed. There 
are nine of them, the call of 'Hail' (being) the ninth, — 
there are nine regions, and Agni is the regions ; 
nine vital airs, and Agni is the vital airs : as great 
as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by so much 
he pours him out as seed. There are ten of them, 
the libation (being) the tenth, — the Virif has ten 
syllables, and Agni is Virif (the widely shining 2 ) ; 
there are ten regions, and Agni is the regions ; ten 
vital airs, and Agni is the vital airs: as great as 
Agni is, as great as is his measure, so great does 
this become. 

22. This libation having been offered, Agni went 
away from the gods. The gods said, ' Agni is the 



1 Or, the single oblations, as distinguished from the whole con- 
tinued libation. 

* Dtptya" vira^amSnaA, Say. 



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vi kAnda, 3 adhyAya, i brahmana, 25. 197 

cattle (or, an animal), let us search for him by 
means of the (different kinds of) cattle : he will be- 
come manifest unto his own form.' They searched 
for him by means of the cattle, and he became mani- 
fest to his own form: and hence even to this day the 
animal becomes manifest to its own form (kind) 1 , 
cow to cow, horse to horse, and man to man. 

23. They said, ' Surely, if we search with all of 
them, they will become used up and affording no 
livelihood ; and if not with all, we shall get him 
(Agni) incomplete.' They saw one animal (as a 
substitute) for two animals 2 , namely, the ass (as a 
substitute) for the cow and the sheep ; and because 
they saw that one beast (would do) for two beasts, 
therefore that one (the he-ass), whilst being one, 
doubly impregnates 3 . 

24. The sham-man 4 (they saw to be a substitute) 
for man, — a sham-man doubtless is he who pleases 
neither the gods, nor the fathers, nor men. Thus 
they searched by means of all the beasts, and yet 
they (the beasts) did not come to be used up and 
affording no livelihood. 

25. With three he searches, — Agni is threefold: 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with 
so much he thus searches for him. They are five 

1 That is to say, it shows itself openly, appears fearlessly before 
others of its kind; — Sv&ya rup&yeti tadarthye £aturtht; iviA 
prakijo bhavati, tadanukare«ed£nfm api pajU/4 sv&ya rupaya 
sam&nagitty&ya' praklto bhavati, Say. 

J That is to say, they saw that one animal might do for two, — 
pawtfamt pratinidhau, S£y. (Pa». II, 3, 11.) 

* Viz. the she-ass and the mare. 

4 Anaddhi-purusham alika-purusham purushSt pratyapajyan 
purushasthlne kalitavantas, Say. Thus probably a counterfeit of 
a man, a doll or human effigy. 



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198 satapatha-brahmana. 

by way of (mystic) correspondence 1 , — Agni (the 
fire-altar) has five layers ; five seasons are a year, 
and the year is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great 
as is his measure, so great does this become. 

26. They are fastened with halters of reed-grass 
to guard (Agni) against injury a ; — Agni went away 
from the gods ; he entered into a reed, whence it is 
hollow, and whence inside it is, as it were, smoke- 
tinged : (thus) that, the reed, is Agni's womb, and 
Agni is these cattle ; and the womb does not injure 
the child. For 8 it is from a womb that he who is 
born is born : ' from the womb he (Agni) shall be 
born when he is born,' thus he thinks. 

27. They (the halters) are triple (strings), for Agni 
is threefold. They are made like a horse's halter, 
for the horse's halter lies all round the mouth, and 
the womb lies all round the child : thus it is made 
like the womb. 

28. They (the animals) stand facing the east, first 
the horse, then the ass, then the he-goat; for this 

1 That is, in order that this item of the sacrificial performance 
should correspond with the nature of Agni. The number of five 
is obtained by the three beasts actually led forward, — a horse, 
an ass, and a he-goat — and the two beasts for which the ass 
was stated to be a substitute, viz. the cow (or bullock) and the 
sheep. — Sayana, whose comment is very corrupt in this place, 
remarks, — nanaddhapurusho*tra ga«yate. 

* In the text the dative of purpose ('ahunsayai') is as usual 
shifted right to the end of the train of reasoning explaining the 
raison d'etre of this item of the performance. 

' This final clause with 'vai' supplies the reason why Agni 
entered the womb, viz. because otherwise he could not be born ; — 
just as the preceding clause with ' vai ' (the womb does not injure 
the child) supplies the reason why reed grass is used ; whilst the 
preceding clauses explain how the reed comes to be the womb 
whence Agni sprung. 



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vi kXnda, 3 adhyaya, i brahmaata, 31. 199 

is their proper order. For that horse (asva) is the 
tear (asm) which there (at the creation) formed itself; 
and that ass (rasabha) is that which, as it were, cried 
(ras) ; and that he-goat (a^a, unborn) is the juice 
which adhered to the shell ; and that clay which they 
are about to fetch is nothing else than the shell (of 
the egg) : for it was from these forms that he was 
created at first 1 , and from them he thus produces 
him. 

29. They stand on the south side ; — for the gods 
at that time were afraid, lest the Rakshas, the 
fiends, should smite their sacrifice from the south. 
They saw that thunderbolt, yonder sun ; for this 
horse is indeed yonder sun ; and by means of that 
thunderbolt they drove off the Rakshas, the fiends, 
from the south, and spread this sacrifice in a place 
free from danger and devilry. And in like manner 
does the Sacrificer now by this thunderbolt drive off 
the Rakshas, the fiends, from the south, and spread 
this sacrifice in a place free from danger and devilry. 

30. On the right (south) side is the Ahavaniya 
fire, and on the left (north) lies that spade ; for the 
Ahavaniya (m.) is a male, and the spade (abhri, f.) 
a female, and the male lies on the right side of 
the female 2 . [It lies] at a cubit's distance, for at a 
cubit's distance the male lies by the female. 

31. It should be made of bamboo. Agni went 
away from the gods. He entered into a bamboo- 
stem ; whence that is hollow. On both sides he 
made himself those fences, the knots, so as not 



1 See VI, 1, 1, 11. 

* Dakshiwato vai vnsha yosham upatete ;— compare : uttarato 
hi stri pumawmm uparete, I, 1, 1, 20; II, 5, a, 17. 



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200 .SATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA. 

to be found out ; and wherever he burnt through, 
those spots came to be. 

32. It (the spade) should be spotted, for such a 
one is of Agni's nature. If he cannot procure a 
spotted one, it may be unspotted, but hollow it must 
be, to guard (Agni) from injury l ; — (for) such a one 
alone is of Agni's nature ; that, the bamboo, is 
Agni's womb ; and this (lump of) clay is Agni ; and 
the womb does not injure the child. For it is 
from a womb that he who is born is born : ' from 
the womb he (Agni) shall be born when he is born,' 
so he thinks. 

33. It may be a span long, for the voice here 
speaks but as far as a span's distance 2 . It is, 
however, a cubit long, for the cubit is the arm, and 
strength is exerted by the arm : it thus becomes 
equal to his strength. 

34. It may be sharp on one side only, for on one 
of the two sides is there a keen edge to this speech 
of ours 3 . But indeed it is one that is sharp on both 
sides, for on both sides is there a keen edge to this 
speech of ours, inasmuch as it speaks both what is 
divine and what is human 4 , and both truth and un- 
truth : therefore it is one that is sharp on both sides. 

1 For the construction, see p. 198, note 2. 

s Pradcramatraw hidaat mukham abhi vig vadati, mukham abhi 
varwatmika vag vadati vaktastis (?) tasyitr £a praderamatratvam 
adhyatmavadharitam ato»trSpi prdderam&tri . . . yukta, Say. 

8 According to SSyawa the tip of the tongue is indicated (as 
VII, a, 3, 3; 2, 4, 14, 'va£' means 'mouth'); but perhaps it is 
rather sharp, vituperative speech addressed to another person that 
is intended here. 

4 Sayana identifies the divine speech with Samskrrt, and the 
human speech with the Apabhrawjas, or low dialects (?manushsu» 
*apauwam, MS.). 



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VI KAJV0A, 3 ADHYAYA, I BrAhMAJVA, 38. 201 

35. And, again, why it is sharp on both sides, — 
the strength of the spade doubtless is on that side 
on which there is its sharp edge : he thus lays 
strength into it on both sides. 

36. And, again, why it is sharp on both sides, — 
when the gods had there discovered him (Agni), 
they dug him out from these worlds ; and in like 
manner does he now, after discovering him, dig him 
out from these worlds. 

37. When it digs thus (downwards), then it digs 
him out from this world ; and when it moves up- 
wards, then from yonder world; and when it moves 
about between the two, then from the air-world : it 
thus digs him out from all these worlds. 

38. He takes it up, with (Va^. S. XI, 9), ' At the 
impulse of the god Savitrz, I take thee by the 
arms of the A-rvins, by the hands of Pushan, 
by the Gayatri metre, Angiras-like!' By 
means of those deities he thus takes it up, impelled 
by Savitrz ; by the Gayatri metre : he thus imparts 
the Gayatri metre to it. ' From the Earth's seat, 
Angiras-like, bring thou Agni Purlshya 1 !' — 

1 Mahidhara says, Agni is called ' purlshya,' because loose soil 
(purisha) is put in the fire-pan (ukha), on which the fire is then 
placed. It also doubtless refers to the loose soil which is spread 
over the different layers of the altar, thus serving as mortar to the 
bricks. In this epithet of Agni, ' purisha ' seems, however, to be 
taken in yet another, more subtle sense, the author apparently 
connecting with it its etymological meaning of ' that which fills, 
fillings, Germ. Ftlllung, Fttllsel ; ' whilst the reference to cattle 
might also seem to point to the later ordinary meaning, ' faeces, 
manure.' Mahidhara, on the force of the symbolical identification 
' paravo vai purlsham,' seems straightway to take ' purisha' as a 
synonym of ' paru,' when he says, — purlshebhyaA pambhyo hitaA 
purlshyaA. Sayawa's comment here is corrupt, — paravo vai 
purlsham pura«amuhi(?) kiryam paravaA purayanti. 



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202 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA. 

now soil means cattle : thus, ' from the earth's lap 
bring thou Agni, favourable to cattle, as Agni 
(did)!' — 'by the Trish/ubh metre, Angiras- 
like ! ' he thereby takes it with the Trish/ubh 
metre and thus lays into it the Trish/ubh metre. 

39- [Vaf. S. XI, 10] 'A spade thou art,' — for a 
spade it is : he thus takes it by means of the truth ; — 
4 A woman thou art ! ' — the spade is a thunderbolt, 
and the woman is a female, and a female injures no 
one : he thus appeases it so as not to do any injury. 
'By thee may we be able to dig out Agni in 
the seat! ' the seat no doubt is this (spot): thus, 
' By thee may we be able to dig out Agni in this seat 
(place).' — 'By the Gagatl metre, Angiras-like!' 
he thus takes it up by means of the Gagatt metre, 
and lays the Gagatl metre into it. 

40. With three (formulas) he takes it up, — three- 
fold is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, by so much he thus takes it Having; 
taken it up with three (formulas), he addresses it 
with a fourth; for the gods having thus taken it 
with three (formulas), then laid vigour into it by 
means of a fourth ; and in like manner does he now, 
after taking it up with three (formulas), lay strength 
into it with the fourth. 

41. [V£f. S. XI, 11] 'Having taken into his 
hand, Savitr*,' — for it has indeed been taken into 
his (the Adhvaryu's) hand, — ' bearing the spade,' — 
for he indeed bears it, — ' the golden,' — for golden 
indeed is the one that consists of the metres (the 
Veda); — 'beholding Agni's light,' — that is, see- 
ing Agni's light, — ' lifted it up from the earth,' — 
for he indeed lifts it up from the earth ; — 'by the 
Anush^ubh metre, Angiras-like ;' — he thus takes 



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vi kXnda, 3 adhyAya, 2 brAhma^a, i. 203 

it up by means of the Anush/ubh metre, and lays 
the Anush/ubh metre into it : for his undertaking 
that spade of bamboo is thus made to be those 
metres. 

42. Some, indeed, make it of gold, saying, ' It is 
spoken of as golden.' Let him not do so : in that it 
is the metres, thereby that (spade) is gold, immortal 
gold, the immortal metres. 

43. He takes it up with four (formulas), for all 
speech consists of four syllables : ' vak ' (speech) is 
one syllable, and 'aksharam' (syllable) consists of 
three syllables. Now that monosyllable ' vak ' is the 
same as this last one, the Anush/ubh; and that 
trisyllable ' aksharam ' is the same as those former 
formulas : he thus digs up Agni by the whole 
speech, and equips it with the whole speech, — hence 
with four (formulas). 

44. And, again, why with four (formulas) ; — there 
are four quarters : he thus lays speech into the four 
quarters, whence speech speaks in the four quarters. 
He takes it up both by metres and by formulas, 
that makes eight — there are four quarters, and four 
intermediate quarters : he thus lays speech into all 
the quarters, whence speech speaks in all the 
quarters. 

THE SEARCH AND DIGGING FOR AGNI 
(THE LUMP OF CLAY). 

Second BrAhmajva. 

1. The spade is still in his hand, when he addresses 
the beasts. For when the gods at that time were 
about to search (for Agni) in these (animals) they 
placed their vigour in front ; and in like manner does 



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204 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

this one, now that he is about to search in these 
(animals), place his vigour in front. 

2. He addresses the horse, with (Va^ - . S. XI, 12), 
' Most speedily 1 , O courser, run hither,' — what 
is swift, that is speedy, and what is swifter than 
swift, that is most speedy; — 'along the widest 
range,' — the widest range doubtless is this (earth) : 
thus, ' along this wide range ; ' — ' in the sky is thy 
highest home, in the air thy navel, upon earth 
thy womb : ' he thus makes it to be those deities, 
Agni, Vayu, and Aditya (the sun), and thus lays 
vigour into the horse. 

3. Then the ass, with (V&f. S. XI, 13), 'Yoke ye 
two the ass,' he says this to the Adhvaryu and the 
Sacrificer; — 'upon this course, ye showerers 
of wealth!' — that is, 'upon this performance, ye 
showerers of wealth ; ' — ' him, bearing Agni, and 
helpful 2 unto us;' — that is, 'him, bearing Agni, 
and urged forward by us : ' he thereby lays vigour 
into the ass. 

4. Then the he-goat, with (Va^-. S. XI, 14), 'At 
every yoking, at every race, we call him, the 
most powerful,' — race 3 means food: thus, 'in every 
performance, in respect of every food we call him, 
the most powerful;' — ' Indra to our help, we his 
friends ! ' — that is, ' him, the strong (indriyavat), to 
our help : ' he thereby lays vigour into the he-goat. 

5. With three (formulas) he addresses (the vic- 
tims), — threefold is Agni : as great as Agni is, as 

1 Praturtam, ' sped forward, speeding forward.' 

3 Asmayu, ' tending towards us, favourable to us,' is explained 
differently by the author of the Br&hmawa. 

* The author here, as elsewhere, rather takes 'va^a' in the 
sense of ' strength, sustenance.' 



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VI KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAtfA, IO. 205 

great as is his measure, by so much he thus lays 
vigour into them. 

6. He then makes them walk forward to the east : 
he thus searches for him (Agni) by means of these 
animals. He does not touch (them) lest he, Agni, 
should injure him ; for Agni is the same as the 
animals 1 . 

7. He makes the horse walk on, with (Va/. S. XI, 
15), 'Forth-speeding, come treading down the 
curses ! ' — curse means evil : thus, ' running come, 
treading down the evil!' — 'come, delighting, into 
Rudra's chieftainship ! ' — beasts belong to Rudra : 
thus, 'come thou, delighting, into the chieftainship 
of him who is thy deity ! ' he thus searches for him 
by means of the horse. 

8. Then the ass with, 'Traverse the wide air, 
thou possessed of prosperous pastures and 
affording safety ! ' — as the text, so its meaning; — 
'with Pushan as thy mate ;' — Pushan, doubtless, 
is this earth ; thus, ' together with her as thy mate : ' 
he thus searches for him by means of the ass. 

9. Then the he-goat, with (V4f. S. XI, 16), 
'From the Earth's seat, Angiras-like, bring 
thou Agni Purlshya ! ' — that is, 'from the Earth's 
lap bring thou Agni, favourable to cattle, as Agni 
(did) ! ' he thus searches for him (Agni) by means 
of the he-goat. 

10. With three (animals) he searches, — threefold 
is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, with so much he thus searches for him. 



1 The text here has the ordinary Sanskrit construction, running 
literally thus : — he does not touch — Agni (being) the same as the 
animals — ' lest he, Agni, should injure me 1 ' 



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206 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

By three (formulas) he first addresses (the beasts) ; 
that makes six, — six seasons are a year, and the 
year is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, so great does this become. 

Third BrAhmaya. 

i. Those fires have been kindled (afresh) ; and 
they (the priests and sacrificer) betake themselves to 
the lump of clay 1 ; — those fires doubtless are these 
worlds : when they are kindled, then they are these 
worlds. For formerly the gods were seeking this 
sacred rite outside of these worlds ; and when he 
fetches the lump of clay after passing by those fires, 
he is seeking him (Agni) outside of these worlds. 

2. They go eastwards; for the east is Agni's 
region : he thus seeks him in his own region, finds 
him in his own region. 

3. They go forward, with, 'Angiras-like, we go 
to Agni Purlshya;' — that is, 'like Agni, we are 
going to Agni, favourable to cattle.' 

4. He then looks at the sham-man, with, ' Ang- 
iras-like, we shall carry Agni Purlshya;' — that 
is, ' Like Agni, we shall carry Agni, favourable to 
cattle : ' he thus searches for him by means of the 
sham-man. 

5. Thereupon a hollow ant-hill is laid down mid- 
ways (between the lump of clay and the Ahavanlya 
fire). He looks along it 2 ; for the ant-hill is this 

1 The lump of clay which is to be used for the making of 
the fire-pan has been placed in a square hole east of the 
Ahavanfya fire. 

* That is to say, he looks at the lump of clay through the 
hollow part of the ant-hill, whilst muttering the formula given in 
the next paragraph. 



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vi kKnda, 3 adhyAya, 3 brahmaya, 9. 207 

earth, and this earth is these worlds. For the gods 
searched for him (Agni) in these worlds part by 
part ; and in like manner does this one now search 
for him in these worlds part by part 

6. [V£f. S. XI, 17] 'Agni hath looked along 
the crest of the Dawns,' — thereby they sought 
him in the dawns; — 'along the days, he, the 
first knower of beings,' — thereby they sought 
him in the days; — 'and oftentimes along the 
rays of the sun,' — thereby they sought him in the 
rays of the sun ; — 'along the sky and the earth 
hast thou spread;' — therewith they sought him in 
the sky and the earth, and found him ; and in like 
manner does this one thereby find him (Agni). 
When he sees him from afar, he throws down that 
(ant-hill) ; and they go up to the lump of clay. 

7. He then addresses the horse ; for the gods then 
said, ' Let us drive away his evil ! ' Now evil is 
weariness : thus, ' Let us drive away his weariness, 
the evil ! ' They drove away his weariness, the 
evil ; and in like manner does this one now drive 
away his weariness, the evil. 

8. [Va/ - . S. XI, 18] 'The courser, having 
started on his way,' — for his way has indeed been 
started upon; — 'shaketh off all assaults,' — 
assaults mean evils: thus, 'shakes off all evils;' 
and hence, indeed, the horse, whilst running, shakes 
itself; — 'Agni he seeks to descry with his eye 
on th e great seat; ' — the great seat doubtless is this 
sacrificial (place) : thus, ' Agni he wishes to see with 
his eye on this great seat' 

9. He then makes it (the horse) step on (the 
lump of clay with the left fore-foot) ; for having dis- 
covered him (Agni), it (the horse) then indicated 



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208 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAA'A. 

him to the gods, as if (it meant to say) l , ' Just here 
he is!' 

10. And, again, why he makes it step thereon ; — 
the gods then were afraid, thinking, ' We hope the 
Rakshas, the fiends, will not slay here this our 
(Agni) ! ' They placed that thunderbolt upon him 
as a protector, to wit, yonder sun ; for that horse is 
indeed yonder sun ; and in like manner does this 
(Sacrificer, or priest) now place upon him that thun- 
derbolt as a protector. 

ii. \y&g. S. XI, 19] 'Having come upon the 
earth, O courser, seek thou Agni by thy light!' 
— the light is the eye : thus, ' Having come to the 
earth, thou, O courser, seek Agni with thy eye ! ' — 
'by pawing 2 the ground tell us where we may 
dig him out ! ' — that is, ' by pointing out that (spot) 
of the ground tell us where we may dig him out.' 

12. He then pulls it up 3 ; for the gods now endowed 
it with vigour (for) having indicated (Agni) to them ; 
and in like manner does this one now endow it with 
vigour (for) having indicated (Agni) to him. He 
does so, with [Va^. S. XI, 20], 'The sky is thy 
back, the earth thy resting-place, the air thy 
body, the sea thy womb;' — whereby he says, 'Such 

1 Or, as if one were to say, — yathtyam iha-stMna Sstha(?) iti 
kaj£id brfty&d evam proktav&n, Sty. 

* Or, by covering ; — it is not easy to see what the author makes 
of ' vr/Uv&ya,' for which the St. Petersburg dictionary suggests 
' vrrtv&ya.' Mahldhara derives it from ' vart,' in the sense of ' to 
touch.' Perhaps, however, ' bhumer ' depends on ' yatas ; ' hence 
' moving about, tell us from what spot of the ground we may dig 
him out.' 

' That is, he pulls up its head (?) ; 'he rouses it, shakes it up,' 
St. Petersb. Diet. — Slyawa, on the other hand, in accordance with 
Klty. XVI, 2, 18, interprets 'unmmati' by *he holds his hand 
over its back,' — pr»'sh/4asyopari pibriw dhSrayati. 



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vi kXnda, 3 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 14. 209 

thou art, such thou art;' — 'Looking about with 
thine eye, tread down the assailers!' — that is, 
'Looking about with thy eye, tread down all evil- 
doers ! ' He does not touch it, lest this thunderbolt 
should injure him, for the horse is a thunderbolt \ 

13. He then makes it step off (the lump of clay) ; 
— for the gods now said, ' What shall we cause it to 
obtain 2 ?' — 'Great beauty 8 !' — They caused it to 
obtain great beauty ; and in like manner does this 
one now cause it to obtain great beauty, — with 
(V&g: S. XI, 21), 'Go thou unto great beauty!' 
— that is, ' Go to thy great beauty ! ' and therefore, 
indeed, the horse is the most highly-favoured of 
animals; — 'from this standing-place,' — that is, 
•where thou now standest;' — 'wealth-giver!' — 
for wealth it does give them; — 'Courser!' — for 
this is a courser; — 'May we be in the Earth's 
favour, whilst Agni we dig in her lap!' — that 
is, ' May we be in the favour of this earth, whilst 
digging (for) Agni in her lap ! ' 

14, When it has stepped off he addresses it; — > 
for as one would extol him who has given a gift, so 
the gods now praised and magnified it (for) having 
indicated (Agni) ; and in like manner does this one 
now praise and magnify it, with (Va^*. S. XI, 22), 
'He hath come down,' — for it has indeed come 
down, — 'the wealth-giver,' — for wealth, indeed, 
is given them; — 'the racing courser,' — for it is 
indeed a racer and a courser; — 'hath made good, 
well-made room on earth,' — that is, ' thou madest 
good, well-made room on earth;' — 'thence let us 

1 For the construction, see on paragraph 6, p. 205, note. 

* Literally, to step off to. 

' Saubhaga, ' the state of being well-endowed, well-favoured.' 

[4i] P 



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2 IO DATAPATH A-BRAHMAivA. 

dig out the fair-looking Agni,' — 'fair-looking,' 
he says, for Agni is indeed fair-looking on every 
side; — 'ascending the heaven, unto the highest 
sky,' — the sky is the heavenly world : thus, ' mount- 
ing the heavenly world, unto the highest sky.' He 
makes it come up on the right side (of the lump) to 
where the two other beasts are : they stand on the 
right side, facing the east. The significance of the 
right-hand (southern) position here is the same as it 
was on that former occasion. 

1 5. Sitting down he now offers upon the lump of 
clay ; — for the gods then said, ' Meditate ye (£etay),' 
whereby, doubtless, they meant to say, ' Seek ye a 
layer (iiti) ! ' Whilst meditating they saw this liba- 
tion, and offered it : after offering it, they saw the 
fire-pan (representing) these worlds. 

16. They said, ' Meditate ye !' whereby, doubtless, 
they meant to say, ' Seek ye a layer ! ' Whilst 
meditating they saw this second libation, and offered 
it: after offering it, they saw the Virva/yotis (all- 
light bricks), that is, those deities Agni, Vayu, 
and Aditya; for these deities are indeed all the 
light And in like manner does the Sacrificer 
now, after offering those two libations, see the fire- 
pan, these worlds; and those all-light deities. He 
offers with two interlinked (verses) 1 : he thereby 
interlinks these worlds, and those deities. 

1 7. And, again, why he offers these two libations ; 
— he thereby gratifies both the clay and the water ; 
and having offered to, and gratified, these two, he 
then brings them together. With two interlinked 

1 The two halves of the two verses (Va\g-. S. XI, 23, 24) are 
uttered in the order 1 a, 2 b, 2 a, 1 b. 



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vi kAnda, 3 adhyAya, 3 brAhma^a, 21. 211 

(verses) he offers : he thereby interlinks (combines 
thoroughly) the clay and the water. 

18. He offers with ghee ; for the ghee is a thunder- 
bolt: he thus makes the thunderbolt its (or his, 
Agni's) protector. The ghee, moreover, is seed : he 
thus pours forth seed, — with the sruva-spoon; for the 
sruva (m.) is a male, and the male pours forth seed, — 
with ' Svaha (hail !),' for the Svahakara (m.) is a male, 
and the male pours forth seed. 

19. [Va^-. S. XI, 23 *] 'Upon thee I sprinkle 
with thought, with ghee,' — that is, 'upon thee 
I offer with thought and ghee;' — 'that dwellest 
near all beings,' — for he (Agni) indeed comes to 
dwelt near every being; — 'thee, large and great 
with side-spent force,' — for large he is, and 
directed sideways, and great with force, with smoke ; 
— 'most ample through food, and fierce to 
look at,' — that is, 'capacious with food, a consumer 
of food, and flaming.' 

20. [Va^f. S. XI, 24] ' From all sides I sprinkle 
the hitherward looking,' — that is, 'from every 
side I offer upon the hitherward looking;' — 'with 
spiteless mind let him relish this,' — that is, 
'with unchafing mind may he relish this;' — 'Agni, 
glorious as a wooer, and of pleasing colour,' — 
for Agni is indeed glorious as a wooer', and of 
pleasing colour; — 'not to be touched, while 
raging with his body,' — for not to be touched is 
he, whilst flaming with his body. 

21. With two (verses) he offers ; for the Sacrificer 

1 j?ik S. II, 10, 4, beginning, however, ' I sprinkle Agni with a 
ghee-oblation.' 

* Mahfdhara and Sayawa (Ri\n S. II, 10, 5) take 'maryanri' in 
the sense of ' resorted to, or worshipped, by men.' 

P 2 



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212 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

is two-footed, and the Sacrificer is Agni : as great 
as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by so much 
he thus pours him forth as seed ; — with two (verses) 
relating to Agni : it is Agni he thereby pours forth 
as seed. Inasmuch as they relate to Agni, they are 
Agni ; and inasmuch as they are TrishAibhs, they 
are Indra; and Agni (the fire) belongs to Indra and 
Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, 
by so much he thus pours him forth as seed. More- 
over, Indra and Agni are all the gods, and Agni 
(thus) contains all deities : as great as Agni is, as 
great as is his measure, by so much he thus pours 
him forth as seed. 

22. He offers on the horse's footprint ; — the horse 
is the same as that Agni, and so, indeed, these two 
libations come to be offered over Agni. 

23. He draws lines around it (the lump, with the 
spade) : he thereby puts a measure to it (or, to him, 
Agni), as if saying, ' So great thou art ! ' 

24. And, again, why he draws a line around it ; — 
the gods now were afraid, thinking, ' We hope the 
Rakshas, the fiends, will not smite here this (Agni) 
of ours ! ' They drew that rampart round it ; and in 
like manner does this one now draw that rampart 
round it, — with the spade, for the spade is the 
thunderbolt, and he thus makes the thunderbolt its 
(or his, Agni's) protector. He draws it all round : 
on every side he thus makes that thunderbolt to be 
its (or his) protector 1 . Three times he draws a 
line : that threefold thunderbolt- he thus makes to 
be a protector for him. 

25. [Va^. S. XI, 25-27] 'Around the wise lord 

' Or, he makes that protecting thunderbolt for it (or him). 

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vi kAxda, 3 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 26. 213 

of strength — V 'Around (us) we (place) thee, O 
Agni, as a rampart — V 'With the days, thou 
Agni — ',' in thus praising Agni he makes a fence 
for him by means of (verses) containing the word 
' pari ' (around), for all round, as it were, (run) the 
ramparts ; — (he does so by verses) relating to Agni : 
a stronghold of fire he thus makes for him, and this 
stronghold of fire keeps blazing ; — (he does so) by 
three (verses) : a threefold stronghold he thus makes 
for him ; and hence that threefold stronghold is the 
highest form of strongholds. Each following 
(circular) line he makes wider, and with a larger 
metre : hence each following line of strongholds is 
wider, for strongholds (ramparts) are lines. 

26. He then digs for him (Agni) * in this earth. 
For the gods then were afraid, thinking, ' We hope 
the Rakshas, the fiends, will not smite him here 1 1 
For the sake of protection they made this earth to 
be a self (body, atman) for him, thinking, * His own 
self will protect his own-self/ It (the lump of clay) 
should be as large as the hole : thus this earth (or 
clay) becomes his (Agni's) self. And as to its (being) 
as large as the hole, — this earth is the womb, and 
this (clay) is seed ; and whatever part of the seed 

1 Va£. S. XI, 25 ; Rik S. IV, 15, 3, 'Around the offering, Agni, 
the wise lord of strength, hath come, bestowing precious gifts upon 
the worshipper.' 

* V&g. S. XI, 26 ; Rik S. X, 87, 22, 'Around we place thee, the 
priest, as a rampart, O mighty Agni, the bold-raced slayer of the 
wily day by day.' 

' v4- S. XI, 27 ; Rik S. II, 1, 1, ' With the days, O Agni, 
thou, longing to shine hither, art born forth from the waters, out 
of the shore, from the woods, from the herbs, thou the bright, 
O man-lord of men.' 

* Or he digs out that (lump of clay). 



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214 satapatha-brAhmava. 

exceeds the womb, becomes useless ; and what is 
deficient, is unsuccessful ; but that part of the seed 
which is within the hole is successful. Four-cornered 
is this hole, for there are four quarters : from all the 
(four) quarters he thus digs him. 

Fourth AdhyAva. First BrAhmajta. 

i. He now digs it (the lump of clay) * up from 
that (hole) ; — for the gods, having found him (Agni), 
then dug him up ; and in like manner this one, after 
finding him, now digs him up, — with (Va^. S. XI, 28), 
'At the impulse of the god Savitrz, by the arms 
of the Asvins, by the hands of Pushan, I dig 
thee, the Agni Purlshya, from the lap of the 
earth, Arigiras-like;' — impelled by Savitr*, he 
thus, by means of those deities, digs him up, the 
Agni favourable to cattle, as Agni (did). 

2. 'Thee, O Agni, the bright, the fair- 
faced,' — for this Agni is indeed bright and fair- 
faced; — 'glowing with perpetual sheen,' — that 
is, 'shining with perpetual light;' — 'thee, kind 
to creatures, and never harming, the Agni 
Purlshya we dig up from the lap of the 
earth, Angiras-like;' — that is, 'thee, kind to 
creatures, and never harming, the cattle-loving Agni 
we dig up from the lap of the earth, as Agni (did).' 

3. With two (formulas) he digs, — two-footed is 
the Sacrificer, and the Sacrificer is Agni : as great 
as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with so much 
he thus digs him up. And twofold also is that form 
of his, (consisting as it does of) clay and water. 

4. He digs, with, ' I dig,' — ' we dig ; ' for with, ' I 

1 Or him, Agni ; the identity of the two being kept up through- 
out. 



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vi kXnda, 4 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 8. 215 

dig,' Pra^apati dug for him (Agni) ; and with, ' we 
dig,' the gods dug for him, therefore (he digs), with, 
•I dig,'— 'we dig.' 

5. Now while digging with the spade, he says 
with speech ' I dig,' ' we dig,' for the spade is speech. 
It is for his undertaking that this bamboo (spade) is 
made ; and with speech for a spade, the gods dug him 
up ; and in like manner does this one now dig him up 
with speech for a spade (or, with the speech-spade). 

6. He then deposits it upon the black antelope 
skin, for the black antelope skin is the sacrifice x : in 
the sacrifice he thus deposits it (or him, Agni) ; — on 
the hair (side) ; for the hair is the metres : he thus 
deposits him on the metres. That (skin) he spreads 
silently ; for the black antelope skin is the sacrifice ; 
and the sacrifice is Pra^apati, and undefined is 
Pra^apati. North (of the hole he spreads it), — the 
meaning of this (will be explained) hereafter ; — on 
(the skin spread) with the neck-part in front, for thus 
(it is turned) towards the gods. 

7. And he deposits it on a lotus-leaf (placed on the 
skin) ; for the lotus-leaf is the womb, and into the 
womb he pours that seed; and the seed which is 
poured into the womb, becomes generative. He 
spreads that (leaf) with a formula ; for the formula 
is speech, and the lotus-leaf is speech 2 . 

8. [Va^-. S. XI, 29] 'Thou art the waters' 



1 Regarding the skin of the black antelope, considered as a symbol 
of Brahmanical worship and civilisation, see part i, p. 23, note 2. 
As to the white and black hair of it representing the hymn-verses 
(rii) and tunes (siman), and those of undecided colour the Ya^us- 
formulas, see I, 1, 4, 2. 

1 Viz. because from speech the waters were produced (VI, i, i, 9). 
and from them the lotus-leaf has sprung. Say. 



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2 1 6 jtatapatha-brAhmajva. 

back, Agni's womb,' for this is indeed the back of 
the waters, and the womb of Agni; — 'around the 
swelling sea,' — for the sea indeed swells around 
it; — 'thou, growing mighty upon the lotus,' — 
that is, 'growing, prosper thou on the lotus.' — ' With 
the measure of the sky, extend thou in width!' — 
with this he strokes along it (so as to lie even on the 
skin); for that Agni is yonder sun; and him assuredly 
none other than the width of the sky can contain : 
' having become the sky, contain him !' this is what 
he thereby says. 

9. He spreads it over the black antelope skin; 
for the black antelope skin is the sacrifice ; and the 
black antelope skin is this earth, and the sacrifice is 
this earth, for on this earth the sacrifice is spread. 
And the lotus-leaf is the sky; for the sky is the 
waters, and the lotus-leaf is the waters ; and yonder 
sky is above this earth. 

10. He touches both of them — he thereby brings 
about concord between them — with (V&f. S. XI, 30), 
' A shelter ye are, a shield ye are ! ' — for both a 
shelter and a shield these two indeed are; — 'un- 
injured both, and ample,' — for uninjured and 
ample both these indeed are ; — ' capacious, guard 
ye,' — that is, 'spacious, guard ye!' — 'bear ye 
Agni Purlshya!' — that is, 'bear ye Agni, favour- 
able to cattle 1 !' 

11. [V&f. S. XI, 31] 'Guard ye, light-finders, 
uniting with each other, with the breast, with 
the self,' — that is, 'guard him, ye light-finders, 
uniting with each other, both with your breast and 
your self;' — 'bearing within the brilliant, the 

1 See p. 201, note 1. 

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;y I 

VI kAnDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 2 BRtoUtAJEA^-Sf' 217 

everlasting;' — this Agni indeed is yonder sun, 
and he is the brilliant, the everlasting one; and 
him these two bear between (them) : hence he says, 
' the brilliant, the everlasting.' 

12. He touches them with two (verses); — two- 
footed is the Sacrificer, and the Sacrificer is Agni : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by 
so much he thus brings about concord between these 
two. And, again, (he does so) because that form of 
theirs is twofold, (there being) a black antelope skin 
and a lotus-leaf. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

i. He then touches the lump of clay, with (V^f. 
S. XI, 32), 'Thou art the Purlshya 1 ,' — that is, 
'Thou art favourable to cattle;' — 'all-support- 
ing,' — for he (Agni) indeed supports everything 
here; — 'Atharvan was the first that kindled 
thee, O Agni!' — Atharvan doubtless is the breath, 
and the breath indeed churned him out (produced 
him) at first : ' Thou art that Agni who was produced 
at first,' this he means to say ; and that same (Agni) 
he thus makes it (the lump) to be. 

2. He then takes hold of it with the (right) hand 
and spade on the right side; and with the (left) 
hand on the left side, with, ' From the lotus 
Atharvan churned thee forth,' — the lotus doubt- 
less means the waters, and Atharvan is the breath ; 
and the breath indeed churned him (Agni, the fire) 
out of the waters at first; — 'from the head of 
every offerer 1 ,' — that is, 'from the head of this 
All (universe).' 

1 See p. 201, note 1. 

' ? Or, of every priest (vuvasya v&ghata^). There is nothing to 



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2 1 8 s atapatha-brahmajva. 

3. [Va^. S. XI, 33; Rik S. VI, 16, 14] 'Also 
the sage Dadhyaȣ, the son of Atharvan, 
kindled thee;' — Dadhya»i, the Atharvana, doubt- 
less is speech ; and he did kindle him therefrom ; — 
'as the VWtra-slayer, the breaker of strong- 
holds,' — Vritxa. is evil, thus : ' as the slayer of evil, 
the breaker of strongholds.' 

4. [Va^. S. XI, 34; Rt\ S. VI, 16, 15] 'Also 
Pathya, the bull, kindled thee, as the greatest 
slayer of enemies,' — Pathya, the bull, doubtless is 
the Mind, and he did kindle him therefrom; — 'as a 
winner of wealth in every battle,' — as the text, 
so its meaning. 

5. With Gayatrl verses (he performs), — the 
Gayatrl is the vital air : he thus lays vital air into 
him. With three (verses); — there are three vital 
airs, the out-breathing, the in-breathing, and the 
through-breathing: these he thus lays into him. 
These (verses) consist of nine feet, for there are 
nine vital airs, seven in the head, and two downward 
ones : these he thus lays into him. 

6. And these two following ones are Trish/ubhs, — 
(Va^. S. XI, 35. 36; JWk S. Ill, 29, 8; II, 9, 0- 
Now, the TrishAibh is the body (self) : it is his 
(Agni's) body he makes up by means of these two 

show how the author of this part of the Brihtnana interprets 
' vSghat.' Cf. VI, 4, 3, 10.— Professor Ludwig (Ri\ S. VI, 16, 13) 
translates, ' from the head of the priest Vuva.' Mabidhara offers 
several interpretations, according to which 'vaghataA' may either be 
taken as nom. plur., the verb being again supplied in the plural, — 
'the priests churned thee out from the head of the universe,' or 'the 
priests of the universe (or all priests) churned thee out,' — or 
'vSghataA ' may be ablative sing., like ' murdhnaA,' qualifying ' push- 
karit,' — from the lotus, the head, the leader (or, starter, vihak&t) of 
the universe. 



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vi kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 8. 219 

(verses). 'Seat thee, O Hotrt, in thine own 
place, thou, the mindful,' — the Hotrt, doubtless, 
is Agni ; and this, the black antelope skin, is indeed 
his own place ; ' the mindful,' that is, ' the wise one ; ' — 
' establish the sacrifice in the seat of the good 
work ! ' — the seat of the good work doubtless is the 
black antelope skin ; — 'god-gladdening, thou shalt 
worship the gods with offering ! ' — that is, ' being 
a god, gratifying the gods, thou shalt worship (them) 
with offering;' — 'Bestow, O Agni, great vigour 
upon the Sacrificer!' — thereby he implores a 
blessing upon the Sacrificer. 

7. 'The Hotrt, in the HotWs seat, the know- 
ing,' — the Hotrt, doubtless, is Agni ; the HotWs 
seat is the black antelope skin ; and the knowing * 
means the wise one; — 'the impetuous and glow- 
ing one, of great power, hath sat down,' — that 
Is, the impetuous and shining one, of great power, 
has sat down; — 'the guardian of undisturbed 
rites, the most wealthy,' — for he indeed is the 
guardian of undisturbed rites, and the most 
wealthy; — 'the bearer of thousands, the bril- 
liant-tongued Agni,' — a thousand means all, thus, 
'the all-bearer, the brilliant-tongued Agni.' With 
two TrishAibh (verses) relating to Agni (he per- 
forms) : the meaning of this has been told. 

8. Then there is this last Brihatt verse, for this 
(fire-altar) when completely built up becomes like 
the Brihatl (the great) metre : whatlike seed is 
infused into the womb, suchlike is (the child) born ; 
and because he now makes this verse a Brzhatl, 



1 Thus the author evidently interprets 'vfdanaA,' instead of 
' being found,' ' se trouvant,' as is its real meaning. 



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220 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

therefore this (altar) when completely built up 
becomes like the B*-*hatt. 

9. [V4f. S. XI, 37; Jtik S. I, 36, 9] 'Seat thee, 
thou art great,' — he now causes the infused seed 
to establish itself, whence the seed infused into the 
womb establishes itself; — 'burn thou, best glad- 
dener of the gods!' — that is, 'shine thou, best 
gladdener of the gods;' — 'send forth, O Agni, 
worthy partaker of the offering, thy showy, 
ruddy smoke ! ' for when he (Agni) is kindled, he 
sends forth his ruddy smoke, — the showy, for it, as 
it were, shows itself. 

10. These (verses) amount to six, — six seasons 
are a year, and Agni is the year : as great as Agni is, 
as great as is his measure, so great does this become. 
And what comes to be like the year, comes to be 
like the Brihatl ; for the year is the Bnhatt, — twelve 
full moons, twelve eighth days 1 (of the fortnight of 
waning moon), twelve new moons, that makes thirty- 
six, and the Brrhatt consists of thirty-six syllables. 
He takes it (the lump of clay) from the right (south) 
to the left (north) side (of the hole), for from the 
right side seed is infused into the womb ; and this 
(hole) now is his (Agni's) womb. He takes it thither 
without stopping, so as not to stop the seed. 

Third BrAhmarta. 

1. He then pours water into it (the hole), for 
whatever is injured or torn in this earth that is 
healed by water : by means of the water he thus 
joins together and heals what is injured and torn 
in her. 

1 See VI, 2, 2, 23. 

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vi kAnda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhma^a, 5. 221 

2. [V&f. S. XI, 38] 'Let flow the divine 
waters, the honey-sweet, for health, for pro- 
geny ! ' — honey means sap (essence) : thus, * the 
sapful, for health, for progeny ; ' — ' from their seed 
let plants spring forth, full-berried!' for full- 
berried plants indeed spring forth from the seat of 
the waters. 

3. He then heals her with air , ; for whatever is 
injured and torn in this earth that is healed by the 
air: by means of air he thus joins together and 
heals what is injured and torn in her. 

4. [Va^. S. XI, 39] 'May Vayu M&tarbvan 
heal,' — Vayu Matarisvan, doubtless, is he (the 
wind) that blows yonder; — 'the broken heart of 
thee stretched out with upward look! ' for this 
(hole) is the broken heart of this earth stretched out 
with upward look; — 'thou who goest along by 
the breath of the gods,' — for he (the wind) indeed 
goes along by means of the breath of all the gods ; — 
'to thee, Ka, be vasha* (success), O god!'— Ka 
(' Who ?' ) doubtless is Pra^apati, for him he makes 
this earth to be the Vasha/, for there is so far no 
other oblation than that. 

5. He then heals her by means of the quarters, 
for whatever is injured and torn in this earth, that is 
healed by the quarters : by means of the quarters 
he thus draws and joins together what is injured 
and torn in her. He joins together this and this 
quarter 2 , whence these two quarters are joined 

1 Viz. by fanning air into the hole with the hand. 

* With his 'nameless' (or little) finger, he pushes some of the 
loose soil into the hole, first from the front (east) and back (west) 
sides, and then from the right (south) and left (north) sides. 
Thus, according to Katy. XVI, 3, 4, the sunwise movement is 



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222 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

together ; then this one and this one, whence these 
two also are joined together : first thus, then thus ; 
then thus, then thus. This is moving (from left) to 
right, for so (it goes) to the gods: with this and this 
one a means of healing is prepared ; with this and 
this one he heals. 

6. He then takes up together the black antelope 
skin and the lotus-leaf; for the lotus-leaf is the 
womb, and with the womb he takes up that infused 
seed : whence the infused seed is taken up by the 
womb. [He does so, with, V4f. S. XI, 40] 'Well- 
born with splendour, the refuge and shelter, 
hath he settled down in the light ; ' for well-born 
he is, and he settles down in the refuge, and shelter, 
and light. 

7. He then ties it (the lump) up: he thereby 
keeps the seed within the womb ; whence the seed 
kept within the womb does not escape. With a 
string (he ties it), for with the string they yoke the 
draught beast ; — with a triple one of reed grass : 
the significance of this has been told *. 

8. He lays it round (the skin), with, 'Invest thy- 
self, O lustrous Agni, in the many-coloured 
garment 1' In the sacrifice the cord is Varu»ic ; hav- 
ing thereby made it non-Varu«ic, he makes him put 
on (the skin) as one would make a garment be put on. 

9. He then takes it and rises ; — that Agni being 
yonder sun, he thus causes yonder sun to rise ; — with 
(V4f. S. XI, 41) 2 , 'Rise, thou of good rites,'— the 
sacrifice doubtless is a rite : thus, ' rise thou, well 

obtained by the hand moving from east (along the south) to west, 
and then from south (along the west) to north. 

1 See VI, 3, 1, 27. 

* See Hik S. VIII, 23, 5, differing considerably. 



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VI KAJVDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAtfA, IO. 22$ 

worthy of sacrifice ;' — ' Guard us with godly wis- 
dom ! ' — that is, 'whatever divine wisdom is thine, 
therewith guard us! ' — 'Most brilliant to see with 
great light,' — that is, 'in order to be seen most 
brilliant with great light ; ' — ' hith er, OAgni.come 
thou with praises! ' — the praises 1 are the steeds : 
thus, ' hither, Agni, come with the steeds.' 

10. He then lifts it upwards from there towards 
the east ; for this Agni is yonder sun : he thus 
places yonder sun upwards from here in the east, and 
hence yonder sun is placed upwards from here in the 
east. [He does so, with, V&g. S. XI, 42 ; Rik S. 
I> 3°. 1 Z\ ' Upright for our protection, stand 
thou like the god Savitr?!' — as the text, so its 
meaning; — 'upright, asabestower* of strength,' 
— for standing upright he (the sun) indeed bestows 2 
strength, food; — 'when we utter our call with the 
shining offerers ' — the shining offerers 8 , doubtless, 
are his (the sun's) rays : it is these he means. He 
lifts it up beyond the reach of his arms, for beyond 
the reach of his arms is that (sun) from here. He 
then lowers it; and having lowered it, he holds it 
above the navel : the meaning of this (will be ex- 
plained) hereafter 4 . 

1 The author might seem to connect 'jasti' (in surasti) with ' s&a,' 
to rule, control, instead of with ' jams,' to praise ; Sayawa, however, 
takes ' surasti ' as a bahuvrihi, ' with the praiseworthy,' i. e. with the 
steeds deserving praise, because they draw well (jobhanS .rastir eshdm 
. . . sadhu vahanty arv&A). It is indeed not improbable that this 
was the author's intention. 

* Or, a winner — wins. 

* Aftgzyo v&ghataA. See p. 217, note a. 

* See VI, 7, 1, 8 seq. 



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224 datapath a-brahmajva. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

i. That (lump of clay representing Agni) is still in 
his hand when he addresses the animals; for the 
gods, being about to equip 1 (Agni), now first laid 
vigour into them ; and in like manner does this 
(Sacrificer, or priest) now, being about to equip 
(Agni), first lay vigour into these (cattle). 

2. He addresses the horse, with (V4f. S. XI, 43 ; 
JZtk S. X, 1, 2), 'Thus born, art thou the child 
of the two worlds;' — the two worlds, doubtless, are 
these two, heaven and earth ; and he (Agni) thus 
born, is the child of these two ; — ' O Agni, the 
lovely (child), distributed among the plants,' — 
for he, the lovely one, is indeed distributed among 
all the plants 8 ; — 'a brilliant child, through 
gloomand nigh t,'— for as a brilliant child, he (Agni) 
indeed shines beyond gloom and night; — 'crying 
aloud thou didst go forth from the mothers;' — 
his mothers, doubtless, are the plants, and from them 
he comes forth crying aloud. He thereby lays vigour 
into the horse. 

3. Then (he addresses) the ass, with (Va^ - . S. XI, 
44), 'Steadfast be thou, firm-limbed, and a 
swift racer be thou, O steed ! ' — that is, 'be thou 
steadfast, and firm-limbed, and swift, and a racer, O 
steed!' — 'Ample be thou, and well to sit upon, 
thou, the bearer of Agni's supply!' — that is/be 

1 For the ceremony of 'equipping' Agni, see part i, p. 276, 
note 1. 

* Viz. inasmuch as fire may be elicited from dry wood. See also 
I. 6, 4, 5, where Soma, frequently identified with Agni (see VI, 5, 
1, 1), is said at new moon to come down to the earth, and enter 
the waters and plants in order to be born anew from them. 



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VI K&NDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 7. 225 

thou ample (broad), well to rest upon, thou, Agni's pro- 
vender-bearer 1 !' He thereby lays vigour into the ass. 

4. Then the he-goat, with (V$g. S. XI, 45), ' Be 
thou propitious unto human creatures, O 
Angiras!' — for Agni is Angiras, and the he-goat is 
sacred to Agni : he thus appeases him with a view 
to his doing no injury ; — ' Scorch not heaven and 
earth, nor the air, nor the trees!' — that is, 'do 
not injure anything ! ' He thereby lays vigour into 
the he-goat. 

5. With three (verses) he addresses (the animals), 
for threefold is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great 
as is his measure, with so much he thus lays vigour 
into them, 

6. He then holds it (Agni, the lump of clay) over 
these animals, whereby he equips him (Agni) with 
these cattle. He does not touch them, lest he should 
injure that seed by the thunderbolt, for cattle are a 
thunderbolt, and this (clay) is seed ; or lest that Agni 
should injure those cattle, for that (lump of clay) is 
Agni, and these (animals) are cattle. 

7. In the first place he holds it over the horse, with 
(Va^. S. XI, 46), 'Let the racer start forth 
neighing lustily,' — that is, ' Let the racer start 
forth neighing repeatedly;' — 'the running ass, cry- 
ing aloud!' He thus mentions the ass in the 
formula of the horse, and thereby imbues the ass 
with sorrow 8 ; — 'bearing Agni Purlshya, may he 

1 Literally, Agni's bearer of what is suitable for the cattle, or 
perhaps, be thou, for Agni, the bearer of (himself) favourable to 
cattle; — 'patavya' being here as elsewhere used (see p. 201, note) 
to explain 'purisha,' that which fills, the mould or soil used as 
mortar for the layers of bricks, in building up the fire-altar. 

* On account of his being compared with the horse, Say. The 
author probably alludes to the dejected, spiritless look of the ass, as 

[40 Q 



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226 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAYA. 

not perish before his full measure of time!' — 
that is, 'bearing Agni favourable to cattle, may he (the 
horse) not perish before (the completion of) this sacred 
work.' He thereby equips him (Agni) with the horse. 

8. Then (over) the ass, with, 'The male carrying 
Agni, the male,' — for Agni is a male, and the he- 
ass is a male: that male carries the male; — 'the 
sea-born child of the waters,' — for he (Agni) is 
the sea-born child of the waters. He thereby equips 
him with the ass. 

9. He then takes it off, with, ' O Agni, come 
hither to the feast!' — that is, ' in order to rejoice.' 
By means of the brahman, the ya^ns (formula), he 
thus removes him (Agni) from the .Sudra caste. 

10. Then (he holds it over) the he-goat, with (Vif. 
S. XI, 47), ' The law — the truth, the law — the 
truth!' — the (divine) law doubtless is this Agni; 
and the truth is yonder sun ; or, rather, the law is 
yonder (sun), and the truth is this (Agni) ; but, 
indeed, this Agni is both the- one and the other: 
hence he says, ' the law — the truth, the law — the 
truth.' He thereby equips him with the he-goat. 

1 1. With three (beasts) he equips (Agni), — three- 
fold is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, with so much he thus equips him. With 
three (verses) he previously addresses (the beasts), — 
that makes six : the significance of this (number) has 
been explained. 

12. They then make the beasts return (to the 
Ahavanlya) : the he-goat goes first of them, then the 
ass, then the horse. Now, in going away from this 



compared with that of the horse. The word ' suk ' might, however, 
perhaps also be taken in the sense of ' fervour, fire.' 



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vi kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 16. 227 

(Ahavantya x ), the horse goes first, then the ass, 
then the he-goat, — for the horse corresponds to the 
Kshatra (nobility), the ass to the Vawya and .Sudra, 
the he-goat to the Brahma#a. 

13. And inasmuch as, in going from here, the 
horse goes first, therefore the Kshatriya, going first, 
is followed by the three other castes ; and inasmuch 
as, in returning from there, the he-goat goes first, 
therefore the Brihma»a, going first, is followed by 
the three other castes. And inasmuch as the ass 
does not go first, either in going from here, or in 
coming back from there, therefore the Brahma#a and 
Kshatriya never go behind the Vaiyya and .Sudra : 
hence they walk thus in order to avoid a confusion 
between good and bad. And, moreover, he thus 
encloses those two castes (the Vaiyya and .Sudra) on 
both sides by the priesthood and the nobility, and 
makes them submissive. 

14. He then looks at the sham-man, with, ' Agni 
Purlshya we bear, Angiras-like;' — that is, 'Agni, 
favourable to cattle, we bear, like Agni.' He thereby 
equips him with the sham-man. 

15. He (the Adhvaryu) arrives (near the fire) while 
holding (the lump of clay) over the he-goat ; for the 
he-goat is sacred to Agni : he thus equips him 
(Agni) with his own self, with his own godhead. 
And, moreover, the he-goat is the Brahman (priest- 
hood) : with the Brahman he thus equips him. 

16. He then takes it down, with, ' O plants, wel- 
come ye with joy this propitious Agni coming 
hitherwards !' for the plants are afraid lest he 
(Agni) should injure them : it is for them that he 

1 See VI, 3, 2, 6 seq. 
Q2 



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228 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

now appeases him, saying, 'Welcome ye him with 
joy, propitious he comes to you ; he will not injure 
you!' — 'Removing all infirmities, afflictions; 
settling down, drive off from us evil inten- 
tion!' that is, 'removing all infirmities and afflic- 
tions, settling down, drive off from us all evil ! ' 

17. [V&f. S. XI, 48] 'O plants, receive him joy- 
fully, ye blossoming, full-berried ones ! ' for that 
is their perfect form when they are blossoming and 
full-berried : thus, ' Being perfect, receive ye him 
joyfully!' — 'this timely child of yours hath 
settled down in his old seat;' that is, 'this 
seasonable child of yours has settled down in his 
eternal seat.' 

18. With two (verses) he takes it down, — two- 
footed is the Sacrificer, and the Sacrificer is Agni : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with 
so much he thus takes it down. He takes it down 
from the right (south) to the left (north) side : the 
significance of this has been explained. Raised and 
sprinkled is (the place) where he takes it down, for 
on a (mound), raised and sprinkled, the (sacrificial) 
fire is laid down. Gravel is strewed thereon : the 
significance of this (will be explained) hereafter 1 . 

19. It is enclosed on all sides 2 ; for at that time 
the gods were afraid, thinking, ' We hope the Ra- 
kshas, the fiends, will not smite here this (Agni) of 
ours!' They enclosed him with this stronghold; 
and in like manner does this one now enclose him 
with this stronghold. And, again, this is a womb ; 

1 See VII, 1, 1, 9. 

* The lump of clay is deposited on a raised mound (or perhaps 
rather on a cut-out piece of ground, uddhata), in an enclosed shed, 
(with a door on the east side) north of the Ahavanfya. 



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VI KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, I. 229 

and this (clay) is seed ; and in secret, as it were, the 
seed is infused into the womb ; it is thus made of the 
form of the womb ; and hence it is only in secret that 
one would have intercourse even with his own wife. 

20. He then unties it (the lump of clay) : what- 
ever part of his (body) pains him (Agni) when tied 
up, that pain he now puts outside of him; and, 
moreover, he causes him to be born from that 
womb (the antelope skin). 

21. [He unties it, with Va^ - . S. XI, 49 ; J??kS. Ill, 
15, 1] 'Blazing forth with wide glare,' — that is, 
'Shining brightly with wide glare;' — 'chase away 
the terrors of the hating demons!' — that is, 
'chase away all evils!' — 'May I be in the protec- 
tion of the great, the good protector, in the 
guidance of Agni, ready to our call!' thereby 
he invokes a blessing. 

22. He then cuts off some goat's hair, and lets 
loose the animals towards the north-east ; for this, 
the north-east, is the region of both gods and men : 
he thus bestows cattle on that region, and hence 
both gods and men subsist on cattle. 

THE MAKING OF THE FIRE-PAN (UKHA). 

Fifth AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. That water (used for working the clay) has 
been boiled by means of resin of the pallia tree 
(butea frondosa), just for the sake of firmness. 
And as to why (it is done) by palara resin ; — the 
pallra tree doubtless is Soma 1 , and Soma is the 
moon, and that (moon) indeed is one of Agni's 

1 See part i, p. 183. 

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23O SATAPATHA-BRAHMANA. 

forms : it is for the obtainment of that form of Agni 
(that pallra resin is used). 

2. He pours it on (the clay), with (Va^. S. XI, 
50-52; ^'k S. X, 9, 1-3), 'Refreshing ye are, 
O waters 1 ! ' To whatever deity a ^?«k-verse, and 
to whatever deity a Ya^us formula applies, that 
/??k-verse is that very deity, and that Yafus formula 
is that very deity: hence this triplet (XI, 50-52) is 
these waters, and they are those very waters which 
appeared as one form 2 : that form he now makes it. 

3. He then produces foam and puts it thereto : 
the second form which was created (in the shape of) 
foam s , that form he thus makes it. And the clay 
he now mixes is that very clay which was created as 
the third form. It was from these forms that he 
(Agni) was created at the beginning, and from them 
he now produces him. 

4. He then mixes it with the goat's hair, just for 
the sake of firmness. And as to why with goat's 
hair, — the gods then collected him (Agni) from out 
of the cattle, and in like manner does this one now 
collect him from out of the cattle. And as to why 
with goat's hair, it is because in the he-goat (is 
contained) the form of all cattle ; and as to its being 
hair, form is hair*. 

5. [V£f. S. XI, 53] 'Mitra having mixed the 
earth and ground with light,' — Mitra doubtless 

1 The whole triplet runs thus : ' Refreshing ye are, O waters ; 
lead us to strength, to see great joy ! — whatever is your most benign 
sap, therein let us share, like loving mothers ! — For you we will 
readily go to him, to whose abode ye urge us, O waters, and 
quicken us.' 

» See VI, x , j, Ia . • VI, 1, 1, 13. 

* That is, the hair of cattle is the most obvious characteristic of 
their outward appearance. 



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VI KAYDA, 5 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAYA, 9. 23I 

is the breath, and the breath first did this sacred 
work; — 'I mix (fashion) thee, the well-born 
knower of beings, for health to creatures,' — as 
the text, so its meaning. 

6. Then there are these three kinds of powder (dust) 
— (sand of) gravel, stone, and iron-rust — therewith he 
mixes (the clay), just for firmness. And as to why (it 
is mixed) therewith, it is because thereof this (earth) 
consisted when it was created in the beginning : thus 
whatlike this (earth) was created in the beginning, 
such he now makes it (the earth, or fire-pan). 

7. [Va^-. S. XI, 54] 'The Rudras, having 
mixed the earth, kindled the great light;' — for 
this Agni is yonder sun: thus it is that great light 
which the Rudras, having mixed the earth, did 
kindle; — 'yea, never-failing and brilliant, their 
light shineth among the gods; ' — for that never- 
failing and brilliant light of theirs does indeed shine 
among the gods. 

8. With two (verses) he mixes (the clay), — two- 
footed is the Sacrificer, and the Sacrificer is Agni : as 
great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, so great 
he thus mixes (fashions) him. 

9. He then kneads it,with(V4f. S. XI,55), 'Mixed 
by the Vasus, the Rudras,' — for this (clay) has 
indeed been mixed both by the Vasus and the 
Rudras : by the Vasus, because by Mitra ; and by 
the Rudras, because by the Rudras ; — ' by the wise, 
the clay suitable for the work ;' — for wise those 
(gods) are, and suitable for the (sacred) work is 
this clay; — 'making it soft with her hands, may 
Sin! vail fashion it!' — Sintvall doubtless is speech : 
thus, ' May she, having made it soft with her hands, 
fashion it ! ' 



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232 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAtfA. 

10. [Va/. S. XI, 56] ' Sinivall, the fair-knotted, 
fair-braided, fair-locked,' — for Sinivall is a 
woman, and that is indeed the perfect form of 
woman, to wit, the fair-knotted, fair-braided, fair- 
locked : he thus makes her perfect; — 'may she 
place the fire-pan into thy hands, O great 
Aditi!' — the great Aditi doubtless is this earth: 
it is to this earth that he says this. 

11. [V4f. S. XI, 57] 'Let Aditi fashion the 
fire-pan, by her skill, her arms, her wisdom!' 
— for by her skill, by her arms, and by her wisdom 
she does indeed fashion it ; — ' may she bear Agni 
in her womb, even as a mother (bears) her son in 
her lap ! ' — that is, ' as a mother would bear her son 
in her lap, so may she (Aditi) bear Agni in her 
womb ! ' 

12. With three (formulas) he kneads (the clay), — 
threefold is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as 
is his measure, with so much he thus kneads him. 
With two (verses) he mixes, — that makes five ; — of 
five layers consists the fire-altar (Agni) ; five seasons 
are a year, and the year is Agni : as great as Agni 
is, as great as is his measure, so great does this 
become. With three (formulas) he pours water 
thereto, — that makes eight ;— K>f eight syllables the 
Gayatri metre consists, and Agni is Gayatra : as 
great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, so great 
does this become. And, moreover, as one of eight 
syllables 1 this (earth) was created in the beginning : 
thus as great as this (earth) was created in the 
beginning, so great he thus makes this (fire-pan 
representing the earth). 

1 See VI, 1, 2, 6-7. 

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vi kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhma^a, 4. 233 

Second BrAhmawa. 

1. He then takes a lump of clay, as much as he 
thinks sufficient for the bottom part, with, 'Makha's 
head thou art!' — Makha, doubtless, is the sacrifice, 
and this is its head ; for the Ahavantya fire is the 
head of the sacrifice, and that Ahavantya (fire-altar) 
he is now about to build : hence he says, ' Makha's 
head thou art ! ' 

2. And, again, as to why he says, ' Makha's head 
thou art ! ' — when he (Agni) is built up, then he is 
born, and it is by the head (issuing first), by the 
top, that he who is born is born : ' when he is born, 
may he be born by the head, by the top ! ' so he 
thinks. 

3. He spreads it out, with (V&f. S. XI, 58), 
' May the Vasus, Angiras-like, fashion thee by 
the Gayatrl metre!' — for the bottom part is this 
(terrestrial) world, and this the Vasus fashioned by 
means of the Gayatrl metre; and in like manner does 
this one now fashion it by means of the Gayatrl metre ; 
— ' Angiras-like,' he says, for Arigiras is the breath. 
'Thou art steadfast!' — that is, ' thou art firm,' or, 
' thou art fixed ; ' — ' Thou art the earth ! ' — for this 
bottom part is indeed the earth; — 'Establish in 
me offspring, increase of wealth, lordship of 
cattle, manhood, clansmen for the Sacrificed ' 
For the Vasus, having fashioned this (terrestrial) 
world, invoked this blessing thereon; and in like 
manner does the Sacrificer, having fashioned this 
world, now invoke this blessing thereon. Having 
made it of the measure of a span (in each direction), 
he then turns up its edge on each side. 

4. He then lays thereon the first (lower) side-part, 



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234 satapatha-brAhmawa. 

with, 'May the Rudras, Angiras-like, fashion 
thee by the Trish/ubh metre!' — for this side- 
part is the air, and this the Rudras fashioned 
by means of the Trish/ubh metre; and in like 
manner does this one now fashion it by means of 
the Trish/ubh metre; — 'Angiras-like,' he says, for 
Aftgiras is the breath; — 'Thou art steadfast!' — 
that is, ' thou art firm,' or ' thou art fixed ; ' — ' Thou 
art the air!' for this side-part is indeed the air; — 
' Establish in me offspring, increase of wealth, 
lordship of cattle, manhood, clansmen for the 
Sacrificer ! ' For the Rudras, having fashioned the 
air, invoked this blessing thereon ; and in like manner 
does this Sacrificer, having fashioned the air, now 
invoke this blessing thereon. Having stroked and 
smoothed it all over — 

5. He lays on the upper side-part, with, 'May 
the Adityas, Angiras-like, fashion thee by 
the ^agatl metre ! ' for this side-part is yonder 
sky, and this the Adityas fashioned by means of the 
(9agati metre ; and in like manner does this one now 
fashion it by means of the CPagati metre ; — ' Angiras- 
like,' he says, for Angiras is the breath ; — ' Thou 
art steadfast!' — that is, 'thou art firm,' or 'thou 
art fixed ; ' — ' Thou art the sky ! ' for that side-part 
is indeed the sky; — 'Establish in me offspring, 
increase of wealth, lordship of cattle, man- 
hood, clansmen for the Sacrificer!' For the 
Adityas, having fashioned the sky, invoked this 
blessing thereon ; and in like manner the Sacrificer, 
having fashioned the sky, now invokes this blessing 
thereon. 

6. He then makes it (complete), with this fourth 
prayer, 'May the All-gods, the friends of all 



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vi kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaata, 9. 235 

men, fashion thee, Angiras-like, by the Anu- 
sh/ubh metre!' — this prayer, doubtless, is the (four) 
quarters, and the All-gods, the friends of all men, 
did then, by means of this prayer, put the quarters 
into these worlds, (that is) into the fire-pan ; and in 
like manner does the Sacrificer, by means of this 
prayer, now put the quarters into these worlds, 
into the fire-pan ; — ' Angiras-like,' he says, because 
Angiras is the breath; — 'Thou art steadfast!' 
— that is, ' thou art firm,' or ' thou art fixed ; ' — 
'Thou art the quarters!' for this prayer indeed 
is the quarters; — 'Establish in me offspring, 
increase of wealth, lordship of cattle, manhood, 
clansmen for the Sacrificer ! ' For the All-gods, 
the friends of all men, having fashioned the quarters, 
invoked this blessing on them ; and in like manner 
the Sacrificer, having fashioned the quarters, now 
invokes this blessing on them. 

7. With that same formula he fashions it both 
inside and outside, whence the quarters are both 
inside and outside these worlds. He therewith 
fashions it without restriction (to any part of the 
pan), for unrestricted are the quarters. 

8. He makes it just a span high, and a span side- 
ways ; for Vishmt, when an embryo, was a span long, 
and this (fire-pan) is the womb : he thus makes the 
womb of equal size with the embryo \ 

9. Were it larger than a span, he would make it 
smaller by that prayer; and were it smaller, (he 
would make it) larger thereby 2 . 

1 Vishnu is identical with Agni, inasmuch as both are the 
sacrifice. 

' That is to say, if the pan, thus fashioned, is not quite of the 
exact measure, the formula is supposed to set this right. . 



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236 satapatha-brAhmava. 

10. If there be one victim, let him make it (the 
pan) one span wide ; and if there be five victims, 
let him make it five spans wide, or an arrow's 
width ; for the arrow means strength : he thus makes 
it to be composed of strength. But, indeed, an 
arrow formerly used to be five spans long \ 

11. He then lays round the horizontal belt (or 
rim) ; — that is the quarters ; for the gods, having 
made these worlds, the fire-pan, strengthened and 
encircled them by the quarters ; and in like manner 
the Sacrificer, having made these worlds, the fire- 
pan, thus strengthens and encircles them by the 
quarters. 

1 2. He lays this (rim) on the upper third (of the 
side), for it is there the ends of these worlds meet, 
and he thus makes them firm thereby. 

13. [He does so, with V&f. S. XI, 59] 'Thou art 
Aditi's girdle!' — in the sacrifice the string relates 
to Varuwa: he thus lays this belt round after 
(expressly) making it one not relating to Varu«a. 

14. He then silently makes four upright (bands), 
for these are the quarters ; — for the gods, having 
made these worlds, the fire-pan, made them firm on 
all sides by means of the quarters 2 ; and in like 
manner the Sacrificer, having made these worlds, the 
fire-pan, now makes them firm on all sides by means 
of the quarters. 

15. These (vertical bands) run up to (the rim of) 
it, for they did then support it, and so do they now 
support it : thus that upper part of it becomes firm 

1 Yasmin Idle dhanurved&nusire/ta dharmata£ kshatriyi yudh- 
yante tasmin kale paAiapr&dereshur aslt, adhund tv iyam aniyata- 
parimand vartante, Say. 

9 Viz. by means of the mountains, according to Saya»a. 



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VI kAjvDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 21. 237 

by means of the horizontal belt, and that lower part 
of it by means of these (vertical bands). 

1 6. At their tops they form nipples ; for the gods, 
having made these worlds, the fire-pan, drew forth 
for themselves from these nipples all (objects of) 
their desires; and in like manner the Sacrificer, 
having made these worlds, the fire-pan, draws forth 
from these nipples all his desires. 

1 7. This (fire-pan) indeed is a cow, for the fire-pan 
is these worlds, and these worlds are a cow : that 
horizontal belt is its udder ; it is in the (upper) third 
of it, for the udder is in one-third of the cow. 

18. He forms nipples to it, whereby he forms the 
nipples of the udder : it has four nipples, for the 
cow has four nipples. 

19. Some, indeed, make it with two nipples, or 
also with eight nipples ; but let him not do so, for 
those cattle which have fewer nipples than a cow, 
and those which have more nipples, are less fit to 
yield him a livelihood : hence they make this (fire- 
pan) less fit to yield a livelihood ; and, indeed, they 
do not make it (like) a cow, but (like) a bitch, or a 
ewe, or a mare ; hence let him not do so. 

20. He then takes hold of its bowl, with, 'May 
Aditi seize thy bowl ! ' Aditi, doubtless, is Speech ; 
and the gods, having then fashioned it, perfected it 
by means of Aditi, speech ; and in like manner this 
one, having fashioned it, now perfects it by means of 
Aditi, speech. 

21. Having grasped it with both hands, he sets it 
down, with, 'She, having fashioned the great 
(mahim) fire-pan,' — that is, ' she, having fashioned 
the great (mahatlm) fire-pan;' — 'the earthen 
womb for Agni;'- — for this is indeed Agni's 



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238 satapatha-brAhma^a. 

earthen womb; — ' Aditi offered it unto her sons, 
thinking, They shall bake it ! ' — for Aditi, indeed, 
having fashioned it, offered it to the gods, her sons, 
to bake it ; and in like manner does this one now, 
after fashioning it, offer it to the gods to bake it. 

22. Now some make three (fire-pans), saying, 
'Three (in number) are these worlds, and the fire-pans 
are these worlds ; ' and also for mutual expiation, 
thinking, ' If the one will break, we shall carry (Agni) 
in the other, and if the other (breaks), then in the 
other (or third).' Let him not do so ; for that first 
bottom part is this world ; and that first (lower) side- 
part is the air ; and the upper one is the sky ; and 
that fourth, the prayer, doubtless is the quarters; 
and just as much as these worlds and the quarters 
are, so much is this whole (universe). But were he 
to add anything thereto, he would make it to be 
redundant, and whatever redundant (act) is done in 
the sacrifice is left over for the Sacrificer's spiteful 
rival. And as to the expiation in case of the 
(fire-pan being) broken, that (will be told) in a subse- 
quent chapter l . 

Third BrAhmaya. 

1. Of that same (clay) she (the queen) forms the 
first, the ' invincible ' (brick) ; for the invincible one 
(Ashaa^a) is this earth, and this earth was created 
first of these worlds. She forms it of that same clay, 
for this earth is (one) of these worlds. The (Sacri- 
ficer's) consecrated consort (mahisht) forms it; for 
this earth is a ' mahishl ' (female buffalo, a cow). She 
who is first taken to wife is the consecrated consort. 

1 VI, 6, 4, 8. 

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VI KAJVDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAhMAYA, 5. 239 

2. It measures a foot (in length and breadth), for 
the foot is a foundation, and this earth also is a 
foundation. It is marked with three lines, for this ^ 
earth is threefold \ 

3. Now he (the Sacrificer) makes the fire-pan : he 
thereby makes these worlds. He then makes the 
(three) ' all-light ' (bricks), that is these deities, Agni, 
Vayu, Aditya, for those deities indeed are all the 
light. He makes them from that same clay (as the 
fire-pan) : he thus produces these gods from these 
worlds. The Sacrificer makes them. They are 
marked with three lines, for threefold are these 
gods 2 . Thus as regards the deities. 

4. Now as regards the self (or body) : the fire-pan, 
indeed, is the self (of Agni). The 'invincible' 
(brick) is speech : that she (the wife) makes first, for 
this speech is foremost in the body. She makes it 
from that same clay, for this speech is of the body. 
The (Sacrificer's) consecrated consort makes it, for 
speech is a ' mahishi.' It is marked with three 
lines, for speech is divided into three kinds, JZik- 
verses, Ya^us-formulas, and Saman-tunes ; and be- 
cause of this threefold form of speech, low-voiced, 
half-loud, and loud. 

5. He makes the fire-pan: thereby he makes 
( Agni's) self. He then makes the ' all-light ' (bricks), 
— the 'all-light' (brick) is offspring, for offspring 
indeed is all the light : he thus causes generation to 
take place. He makes them of the same clay (as 
the fire-pan) : he thus produces offspring from the 
self. The Sacrificer makes them : the Sacrificer thus 

1 See VI, 1, 1, 14. 

• Viz. those of the sky, the air, and the earth. See VI, 
1, 2, 10. 



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240 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

produces offspring from his own self. He makes 
them without interruption : he thus produces un- 
interrupted offspring from his own self. He makes 
them subsequently (to the fire-pan) : he thus pro- 
duces the offspring subsequently to his own self. 
They are marked with three lines, for generation is 
threefold, father, mother, and son ; or, the embryo, 
and the inner and outer membrane. 

6. He makes these from (clay) prepared with 
prayer, the others from (clay) prepared without 
prayer ; for these are defined, the others undefined ; 
these are limited (in number), the others unlimited. 

7. That Agni is Pra^apati ; but Pra^apati is both 
of this, defined and undefined, limited and unlimited : 
thus when he makes (bricks) from (clay) prepared 
with prayer, he thereby makes up that form of his 
(Pra^apati's) which is defined and limited ; and when 
he makes them from (clay) prepared without prayer, 
he thereby makes up that form of his which is un- 
defined and unlimited. Verily, then, whosoever 
knowing this does it on this wise, makes up the 
whole and complete Agni. From the (clay) lying 
ready prepared, he leaves over a lump for expia- 
tions \ 

8. He (the Adhvaryu) now fumigates it (the fire- 
pan) — just for the sake of strength, or to (mark) the 
progress of the work. And, again, as to why he 
fumigates, — that fire-pan is the head of the sacrifice, 
and the smoke its breath : he thus puts breath into 
the head. 

9. He fumigates it with horse-dung, to insure it 
against injury ; for the horse is sacred to Pra/apati, 

1 That is, in case the fire-pan were to break. See VI, 6, 4, 8 seq. 

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vi kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 4 brAhma^a, i. 241 

and Pra^apati is Agni, and one does not injure one's 
own self. And with dung (he does it) because that is 
what was eaten (by the horse) and is useless ; and thus 
he does not injure the horse itself, nor the other cattle. 

10. [Vif. S. XI, 60] 'May the Vasus make 
thee fragrantby the Gayatrl measure, Angiras- 
like ! — May the Rudras make thee fragrant by 
the Trish/ubh metre, Angiras-like! — May the 
Adityas make thee fragrant by the £agatl 
metre, Angiras-like! — May the All-gods, the 
friends of all men, make thee fragrant by the 
Anush/ubh metre, Angiras-like! — May Indra 
make thee fragrant ! — May Varuwa make thee 
fragrant! — MayVish»u make thee fragrant!' 
— he thus fumigates it by means of the deities. 

11. Seven balls of horse-dung are (used), and 
seven formulas: those deities are sevenfold 1 , and 
seven vital airs there are in the head. But also 
what is many times, seven times seven, is (expressed 
by) seven 2 : he thus puts the seven vital airs into 
the head. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

1. He now digs that (hole) 3 in the earth; for the 
gods now were afraid, thinking, 'We hope the 
Rakshas, the fiends, will not smite here this (Agni) of 

1 ? Or, divided into groups of seven each, as, for instance, the 
Maruts, see II, 5, 1, 13. 

* Comp. the Germ, 'seine sieben Sachen (or, Siebensachen) 
packen,' to pack one's traps. 

* One might take ' athainam asya/w khanati ' to mean, ' he now 
digs for him (Agni) in the earth,' or ' digs him into the earth.' 
Cf. VI, 4, 1, 1, 'athainam ataA khanati.' Sayawa, however (in 
accordance with the formula in paragraph 3), supplies 'ava/am,' 
' a hole.' 

[41] R 



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242 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

ours ! ' They made this (earth) to be his self (body), 
for protection, thinking, ' The self will protect itself.' 

2. He digs him out with (the help of) Aditi, in 
order to guard him from injury ; for Aditi is this 
earth, and one does not injure one's own self; but 
were he to dig with (the help of) another deity, he 
surely would injure him (Agni). 

3. [Va^-. S. XI, 61] 'May the divine Aditi, dear 
to all the gods, dig thee, Ahgiras-like, Ohole, 
in the lap of the earth!' — for this hole (is dug) 
among the gods. That bamboo spade now dis- 
appears. This hole is four-cornered, for there are 
four quarters : he thus digs it from all the quarters'. 
Having then laid down fuel in it, he silently puts the 
' invincible ' (brick) thereon, for that is made first 

4. He then sets down the fire-pan (with the bottom 
part upwards), with, 'May the divine wives of the 
gods, dear to all the gods, place thee, Angiras- 
like, O fire-pan, in the lap of the earth!' for 
of old the divine wives of the gods, dear to all the 
gods, indeed, like Angiras, placed that (fire-pan) into 
the lap of the earth, and by (the help of) them he 
now places it. But, surely, these are the plants, — the 
wives of the gods are indeed the plants ; for by the 
plants everything here is supported : by means of 
the plants he thus supports this (fire-pan). He then 
lays down silently the ' all-light' (bricks). Having 
then placed fuel thereon he kindles it. 

5. 'May the divine Dhisha»as, dear to all 
the gods, kindle thee, Angiras-like, O fire-pan, 
in the lap of the earth!' for of old the divine 



1 Sarvabhyo digbhya enam ava/ara khanati tarn ka. sarvasu dikshu 
nash/ra na hiwsanti, Say. 



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vi kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 8. 243 

Dhisha#as, dear to all the gods, indeed kindled it, 
like Angiras, in the lap of the earth, and with their 
help he now kindles it. But, surely, this is Vai 
(speech), — the Dhishawas are indeed speech 1 , for by 
speech everything is kindled here : by means of 
speech he thus kindles this (fire-pan). Whilst look- 
ing at it, he then mutters these three formulas : 

6. ' May the divine protectresses, dear to all 
the gods, heat thee, O fire-pan, Angiras-like, 
in the lap of the earth ! ' for of old the divine pro- 
tectresses, dear to all the gods, indeed, like Angiras, 
heated it in the lap of the earth ; and by them he now 
heats it. But, surely, these are the days and nights, 
— the protectresses are indeed the days and nights ; 
for by days and nights everything is covered here : 
by means of the days and nights he thus heats it 

7. 'May the divine iadies, dear to all the 
gods, bake thee, Angiras-like, O fire-pan, in the 
lap of the earth ! ' for of old the divine ladies, dear 
to all the gods, did, like Angiras, bake it in the lap 
of the earth, and with their help he now bakes it. 
But, surely, these are the metres, — the ladies (gna) 
are indeed the metres (scripture texts), for by means 
of these men go (gam) to the celestial world : by 
means of the metres he thus bakes it. 

8. 'May the divine women, with undipped 
wings, dear to all the gods, bake thee, Angiras- 
like, O fire-pan, in the lap of the earth !' for 

1 Whether ' Dhishatfa' (the name of certain female divinities 
who have the power of bestowing prosperity and granting wishes) 
is here connected with 'dhish«ya,' fire-hearth; or whether it is 
taken by the author in some such primary sense as ' intelligence ' 
or 'inspiration,' it were difficult to decide. S&yawa connects it 
with 'dh!,' — vig vai dhishani, si hi dhiya/n karma ^»avasani(?) 
sambha^ate. 

R 2 



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244 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

of old the divine women, with undipped wings, dear 
to all the gods, did bake it, like Angiras, in the lap 
of the earth ; and with their help he now bakes it. 
But, surely, these are the stars, — the women C?ani) 
are indeed the stars, for these are the lights of those 
righteous men (,£ana) who go to the celestial world : 
it is by means of the stars that he thus bakes it. 

9. Now he digs with one (formula), he sets down 
(the fire-pan) with one, he kindles with one, he heats 
with one, he bakes (pa^) with two, whence twice in 
the year food is ripened (pai) ; these amount to six, 
— six seasons are a year, and Agni is the year : as 
great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, so great 
does this become. 

10. And as often as he attends to (the fire by 
adding fresh fuel) 1 he attends to it with the prayer 
relating to Mitra, '[The protection] of Mitra, the 
preserver of men 2 . . .;' for a friend (mitra) does 
not injure any one, nor does any one injure his 
friend ; and in like manner does this one not injure 
that (fire-pan), nor does it (injure) him. By day he 
should put (fuel) on it, by day he should clear it (of 
the ashes). 

1 1. He clears it (of the ashes) with a prayer relat- 
ing to Savit^z, — for Savitr* is the impeller : impelled 

1 The St. Petersburg dictionary seems to take 'yavat kiyai 
£opanya£arati ' in the sense of ' as much (or, as deep) as he enters 
(into the pan).' But see III, 2, 2, 19, where 'yavat kiya&ka . . . 
upasprwet ' has likewise the meaning ' as often as he touches.' Cf. 
also Katy. St. XVI, 4, 15, He keeps up (the fire by adding fuel), 
with 'Mitrasya. . .;' 16, [He repeats the formula] as often (or 
long) as he keeps it up (or, adds fuel). 

* Va£\ S. XI, 62 ; Aik S. Ill, 59, 6, 'The gainful protection of 
the God Mitra, the preserver of men, is glorious and of most 
wonderful renown.' 



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vi kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 16. 245 

by Savltrt, he thus clears it — [Vif. S. XI, 63] 
' May the divine SavitW, the well-handed, 
well-fingered, and well-armed, clear thee by 
his might ! ' — for Savh>« is all that. 

12. He then turns it (the fire-pan) round, with, 
' Not tottering upon the earth, fill the regions, 
the quarters ! ' — that is, ' not tottering, fill thou 
with sap the regions and quarters on earth ! ' 

13. He then takes it up, with [V&f. S. XI, 64], 
'Having risen, do thou become great,' — for these 
worlds, having risen, are great; — 'and stand up 
steadfast ! ' that is, 'stand thou up firm and fixed ! ' 

14. Having taken it in both hands, he sets it down, 
with, ' O Mitra, unto thee I consign this fire- 
pan for safety : may it not break ! ' for Mitra is 
that wind which blows yonder : it is to him he thus 
consigns it for protection ; for these worlds are pro- 
tected by Mitra (or by a friend), whence nothing 
whatever is harmed in these worlds. ■ 

1 5. He then pours (milk) into it, — just for strength, 
or to (mark) the progress of the work. And, again, 
why he pours (milk) into it, — that fire-pan is the 
head of the sacrifice, and milk is breath : he thus lays 
breath into the head. Moreover, the fire-pan (ukha, f.) 
is a female : he thus lays milk into the female, whence 
there is milk in the female. 

16. He pours goat's milk into it to avoid injury 1 ; 
for the goat sprang from Pra^&pati's head, and Pra- 
^apati is Agni ; and one does not injure one's own 
self. And as to why it is goat's (milk), — the goat 
eats all (kinds of) herbs : he thus pours into it (the 
pan) the sap of all (kinds of) herbs. 

1 The construction of this, and similar previous passages, is the 
same as that referred to in part ii, p. 15, note 3. 



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246 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

17. [Va/. S. XI, 65] ' May the Vasus fill thee 
with the Gayatrl metre, Angiras-like! — May 
theRudras fill thee with theTrish/ubh metre, 
Angiras-like ! — May the Adityas fill thee with 
the Cagati metre, Angiras-like! — May the All- 
gods, dear to all men, fill thee with the Anush- 
/ubh metre, Angiras-like!' — by these deities he 
thus moistens it : by whatever deities he fashions it, 
by them he fumigates it, and by them he moistens 
it. For he who performs a work, knows the practice 
of it : hence by whatever deities he fashions it, by 
them he fumigates and moistens it. 

THE DlKSHA, or INITIATION. 

Sixth AdhyAya. First BrAhmaya. 

1. Many 1 are the oblations, in the building of the 
fire-altar, as well as at any other (special ceremony) 
than the building of the fire-altar. For there are 
supernumerary rites, — supernumerary are those 
which are (performed) over and above another rite : 
of these 2 are the building of the altar ( Agni&tya), 
the Ra^astiya, the Vi^apeya, and the A^vamedha ; 
and because they are over and above the other 
(normal) rites, therefore they are supernumerary. 

1 Or rather, too many, more (than are required at one of the 
normal Soma-sacrifices), — Sdhvarikebhyo bahutarSni, Say. 

1 That is, as would seem from SSyawa, of such ceremonies as 
have supernumerary, or additional, oblations to the normal ones 
connected with them. This discussion seems to be introduced 
here on account of the additional oblation (that to VawvSnara) 
offered at the initiation ceremony. As an ' additional ' or special, 
oblation at the Va^apeya, Sayawa refers to the pap of wild rice 
(V, 1, 4, 12); whilst at the RS^asuya the one to Anumati (V, 2, 
3, 4) is said to belong to the same category. 



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vi kajvda, 6 adhyAya, i brahmaya, 5. 247 

2. A cake 1 on eleven potsherds to Agni and 
Vish#u, — that is the initiation (offering) of the 
(Soma) sacrifice ; — one on twelve potsherds to 
Vauvanara, and a pap to the Adityas, — these two 
belong to Agni. 

3. Now were he to prepare only the one for Agni 
and Vish#u, and not the other two oblations, then 
only the initiation (offering) of the (Soma) sacrifice 
would be performed, and not those of Agni (the 
fire-altar) ; and were he to prepare only the other 
two oblations, and not the one to Agni and Vish»u, 
only the initiation (offering) of Agni would be per- 
formed, and not that of the sacrifice. 

4. He prepares both that of the sacrifice, and 
those of Agni, for this rite is both a rite of sacrifice, 
and a rite of fire : first (comes) that of the sacrifice, 
and then that of the fire, for the rite of the fire is an 
accessory rite. 

5. Now as regards that (cake) for Agni and 
Vish»u, its mystic import is the same as what is 
(implied) in a preparatory ceremony. And the 
(cake) on twelve potsherds for Vawvanara is for 

1 These and the subsequent offerings form part of the Diksha, 
or initiation ceremony, for the Soma-sacrifice to be performed after 
the completion of the fire-altar. This initiation ceremony com- 
mences on the day of new moon, a week after the preparation of 
the ukha, or fire-pan. An integral part of (the first day of) this 
ceremony is the kindling of a fire in the ukha — the 'Ukhya 
Agni' — which ultimately serves to supply the fires for the brick 
altars built on the completion of the period of initiation. The 
Dikshd is, as a rule, to be performed daily for a year, during which 
time the fire has to be kept up in the ukha, and carried about by 
the Sacrificer for a time each day. While the cake to Agni- 
Vishflu here mentioned is the ordinary cake-offering prescribed 
for the Diksha of the normal Soma-sacrifice (see III, 1, 3, 1), the 
Vaijrvanara cake is peculiar to the Agniiayana. 



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248 satapatha-brAhmawa. 

the obtainment of all the fires, Vai-svinara being all 
the fires ; — it is one of twelve potsherds, for twelve 
months are a year, and VaLrvanara is the year. 

6. And, again, as to why he prepares one for 
Vaisvanara, — it is because he is about to produce 
Agni as Vaisvanara (belonging, or dear to, all men) : 
in the initiation offering he first pours him forth as 
seed, and whatlike the seed is that is poured into 
the womb, suchlike is (the child) born therefrom; 
and inasmuch as he now pours forth that (Agni) 
Vauvanara as seed, therefore he is born hereafter 
as VaLrvanara. 

7. And why he prepares those two (other) obla- 
tions, — Vairvanara is the ruling power, and that 
Aditya pap is the people : he thus makes both the 
ruling power and the people. The Vairvanara 
(cake) he prepares first, and having thereby made 
the ruling power, he makes the people. 

8. That (Vairvanara cake) is one single (oblation), 
having one single deity: he thus makes the ruling 
power to be concentrated in one (person), and ex- 
cellence to be concentrated in one. The other, the 
pap, has many deities, for the pap is a multiplicity 
of rice-grains, and those Adityas are a multiplicity of 
gods : he thus bestows multiplicity on the people. 
Thus much as to the deities. 

9. Now as regards the self (or body of Agni). 
The Vairvinara (cake) is the head, and that Aditya 
pap is the body: he thus makes both the head and 
the body. The Vaisvinara (cake) he prepares first ; 
and having thereby made the head, he then makes 
the body. 

10. That (Vairvanara cake) is one single (obla- 
tion), for the head is, as it were, one only ; and the 



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vi kXnda, 6 adhyAya, i brahmajva, 14. 249 

other, the pap, has many deities, for that pap is a 
multiplicity of rice-grains, and this body is a multi- 
plicity of limbs: he thus bestows on the body a 
multiplicity of limbs. 

11. That (pap) is (prepared) on ghee, for the 
Adityas are consumers of ghee : he thus gratifies 
them, each by his own share, by his own liquor. 
These offerings are (made) silently, for here in the 
sacrifice there is seed, and silently seed is infused. 

1 2. He then offers the Au dgrabha»a (libations) 1 , 
for by the Audgrabha«as (elevatory libations) the 
gods raised themselves from this world to the 
heavenly world : and inasmuch as (thereby) they 
raised themselves (ud-grabh), they are called ' aud- 
grabha«a ;' — and in like manner does the Sacrificer, 
by means of the Audgrabha»as, now raise himself 
from this world to the heavenly world. 

1 3. There are many of these, in the building of the 
fire-altar as well as at any other (special ceremony) : 
the significance of this has been told. They are of 
both kinds : (the significance) of this has been told ; — 
first those of the sacrifice, and then those of the fire : 
(the significance) of this also has been told. 

14. He offers five of the sacrifice 2 , — the sacrifice 
is fivefold : as great as the sacrifice is, as great as is 
its measure, by so much he thus pours it forth as seed. 
Seven (libations) of the fire, — the fire(-altar) consists 
of seven layers 3 ; seven seasons are a year, and 

1 See III, 1, 4, 1. 

8 Viz. the five Audgrabhawa libations of the ordinary Soma- 
sacrifice offered in the manner there described. See part ii, 
p. 20, note. 

8 Though Agni, or the fire-altar, is commonly called the five- 
layered one (paAfctiitika), consisting as it does of five complete 



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250 satapatha-brAhmava. 

Agni is the year : as great as Agni is, as great as is 
his measure, by so much he thus pours him forth as 
seed. Those two kinds (of libations) amount to 
twelve, — twelve months are a year, and Agni is 
the year : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, so great does this become. 

15. He offers 1 , with (V$g. S. XI, 66-67), 'The 
Purpose, Agni, the Impulse, hail!' — from pur- 
pose, indeed, this sacred rite originated at first, and 
he now impels (yokes, uses) it for this rite. 

16. 'Mind, Wisdom, Agni, the Impulse, hail!' 
— from the mind indeed this sacred rite originated 
at first, and he now impels it for this rite. 

17. 'Thought, knowledge, Agni, the Im- 
pulse, hail ! ' — from thought, indeed, this sacred rite 
originated at first, and he now impels it for this rite. 

18. 'The distinction of Speech, Agni, the 
Impulse, hail!' — from speech, indeed, this sacred 
rite originated at first, and he now impels it for 
this rite. 

19. 'To Pra^-apati, to Manu, hail!' — Manu, 
forsooth, is Pra^apati, for he thought out (man) all 
this (universe) ; and Pra^apati, indeed, of old per- 
formed this rite, and he now . makes use of him for 
this rite. 

20. 'To Agni Vabvanara, hail!' — Agni Vau- 
vanara, doubtless, is the year ; and the year, indeed, 

layers of bricks, on the top of these there is a small additional pile 
of two layers, the lower one (punaj/Kti) in the form of the G&rha- 
patya hearth (VII, 1, 1, 1 seq.), and the upper one, consisting of 
two bricks, on which the fire is ultimately laid down. See p. 188, 
note 4. Hence Agni is also called * sapta/Ktika.' 

1 Viz. the seven special Audgrabhana libations of the Agni- 
feyana. 



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vi kAnda, 6 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 23. 251 

of old performed this rite ; and he now makes use 
thereof for this rite. 

21. He then offers the one to Savitrz, for SaviW, 
indeed, of old performed this rite, and he now makes 
use of him for this rite, — (Vif. S. XI, 67; RiV. S. 
V, 50, 1), 'Every mortal would choose the 
friendship of the divine Guide; every one 
craves riches, and would have glory for him 
to prosper, hail!' He who chooses the friend- 
ship of the god Savitrz, chooses both glory and 
prosperity; and he who performs this rite, indeed 
chooses his friendship. 

22. Now some offer these Audgrabha»a libations 
into the fire-pan itself, saying, 'These, surely, are 
offered for (special) objects of desire, and that fire- 
pan is the Sacrificer's self: we thus secure for the 
Sacrificer's self all his objects of desire.' Let him 
not do so ; for the fire which is kindled (in the fire- 
pan) is the essence of the completed sacrifice and of 
those libations, and when he puts the fire-pan on the 
fire, after the sacrifice has been completed and the 
Audgrabha»as offered, then the sacrifice mounts it 
(the pan), and it bears the sacrifice : let him, there- 
fore, put the fire-pan on the fire only after the sacri- 
fice is complete, and the Audgrabha«as have been 
offered. 

23. It is covered with a layer of Mu«fa grass, 
just for the purpose that it may blaze up. And as 
to why it is with a layer of Mu»/a grass, (it is done) 
to avoid injury, for that Mu%a grass is a womb, 
and the womb does not injure the child ; for he who 
is born, is born from a womb: 'May he (Agni), 
when he is born, be born from the womb,' thus he 
thinks. 



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252 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

24. Inside 1 there is a layer of hemp, just for the 
purpose that it may blaze up. And as to its being 
a layer of hemp, — the inner membrane (amnion) of 
the womb from which Pra^apati was born consists 
of flax, and the outer membrane (chorion) of hemp : 
hence the latter is foul-smelling, for it is the outer 
membrane of the embryo. [It is so used] to avoid 
injury, for the outer membrane does not injure the 
embryo ; and it is from the outer membrane of the 
embryo that he who is born is born : ' May he ( Agni), 
when he is born, be born from the outer membrane 
of the embryo ! ' thus he thinks. 

Second Br^hmawa. 

1. Standing he puts it (the pan) on the fire, for the 
fire-pan is these worlds, and these worlds stand, as 
it were. And, moreover, whilst standing one is 
strongest. 

2. Standing (with his face) towards north-east, 
for standing towards north-east Pra^apati created 
creatures. 

3. And, again, why (he does so) standing towards 
north-east; — that (quarter), the north-east, is the 
quarter of both gods and men. 

4. And, again, why standing towards north-east, — 
in that quarter is the gate of the world of heaven, 
hence it is standing with his face towards north- 
east that one offers libations, and standing towards 
north-east that one leads up the dakshiwas : it is 
by the gate that he thus makes him enter into the 
world of heaven. 

1 That is, underneath the layer of mu%a. Both the reed-grass 
and the hemp are to be crushed and reduced to the condition of 
powder previously to their being strewed into the fire-pan. 



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vi kXnda, 6 adhyAya, 2 brahmajva, 7. 253 

5. [Va^. S. XI, 68] 'Break not! Suffer not 
injury!' — as the text, so its meaning; — 'O 
mother, bear up bravely!' — for the fire-pan 
(ukha, f.) is a woman ; and ' O mother ' is a term for 
addressing a woman: 'bear up well, indeed!' — 
'(Thou) and Agni will do this (work)!' — for 
(the fire-pan) and Agni will indeed be doing this 
(sacred work). 

6. [Vif. S. XI, 69] 'Stand firm, divine Earth, 
for our well-being ! ' as the text, so its meaning ; — 
'A divine (asura) contrivance thou art made in 
the wonted manner;' — the vital spirit (asu) is the 
breath, and this (fire-pan) has indeed been made its 
contrivance in the wonted manner ; — ' May this 
offering be agreeable to the gods!' he thereby 
means those libations which he intends to offer in 
that fire ; and moreover, that (fire-pan) itself is an 
offering; — 'unharmed rise thou in this sacri- 
fice!' this he says with the view that it may rise 
unharmed, uninjured, in this sacrifice. 

7. With two (verses) he heats it on the fire, — the 
Sacrificer is two-footed, and the Sacrificer is Agni : as 
great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by so 
much he thus heats it (the pan). [He does so] with 
a gayatrl and a trish/ubh verse, — the Gayatrl is the 
vital air, and the Trish/ubh the body; and the 
animal is as much as the vital air and the body : 
thus by as much as the animal (consists of) he puts 
that (pan) on the fire. And, again, the Gayatrl is 
Agni, and the Trish/ubh is Indra ; and the fire re- 
lates to Indra and Agni : as great as the fire is, as 
great as is its measure, by so much he thus heats it. 
These two (verses) have seven feet (viz. three and 
four respectively), — the fire-altar consists of seven 



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254 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

layers " ; seven seasons are a year, and Agni is the 
year : as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, 
so great does this become. 

8. When the fire heats it, then the flame mounts 
up to it ; for the fire-pan is a female, and the fire is 
a male : hence when the male heats the female, he 
infuses seed into her. 

9. Now, if the flame is too long in mounting up, 
some throw coals on (the pan), thinking, ' There is 
fire now on both sides.' But let him not do so ; for 
the animal is indeed born with bones 2 ; but it is not 
forced in with bones, as it were, at first ; but it is 
introduced only as seed. Now that flame is bone- 
less seed : hence the flame alone should mount up 
to it. 

10. When the flame mounts up to it, he places a 
kindling-stick thereon : thereby the seed enters it 
(the fire-pan), and that fire imparts growth to that 
seed (in the shape of) this (kindling-stick). 

11. It should be one of krnnuka wood. Now, 
the gods and the Asuras, both of them sprung from 
Pra^apati, strove together. The gods, having placed 
Agni in front, went up to the Asuras. The Asuras 
cut oft* the point of that flame held forward. It set- 
tled down on this earth, and became that krz'muka 
tree : hence it is sweet, for there is vital essence (in 
it). Hence also it is red, for it is a flame, that kri- 

1 See p. 249, note 3. 

* The fire ultimately to be placed on the new G&rhapatya hearth 
(VII, 1,1,1 seq.) — whence the Ahavantya on the great fire-altar has 
to be kindled — is to be produced in the ukhS, or pan, as it were 
in its womb; but the material (grass and hemp) which has already 
been put in the pan, is only to be kindled by the blaze of the fire 
on which the pan has been placed, without any burning coals being 
applied to the fuel within the pan. 



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VI KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAA'A, 1 5. 255 

muka tree being the same as this Agni : it is (in 
the shape of) fire that he imparts growth to it. 

12. It (the kindling-stick) is a span long, for 
Vishmi, as an embryo, was a span long: he thus 
imparts to it growth equal to his body. 

13. It is soaked in ghee; — the inner membrane 
of the womb from which Agni was produced con- 
sisted of ghee : hence he now blazes up towards it, 
for it (the stick) is his self (body) ; and hence it (the 
kmnuka) has no ashes : (Agni) himself now enters 
into his own self, — to avoid injury 1 , for the inner 
membrane does not injure the embryo; and it is 
from the inner membrane that he who is born is 
born : ' When he (Agni) is born, may he be born 
from the inner membrane ! ' thus he thinks. 

14. He puts it (the kindling-stick) on, with (Va^ - . 
S. XI, 60; Rik S. II, 7, 6), 'The wood-eating, 
ghee-drinking,' — that is, he who has wood for his 
food, and ghee for his drink, — 'the primeval, 
desirable HotW,' — that is, 'the old, desirable 
• HotW;' — 'the wonderful son of power,' — power 
is strength : thus, ' the wonderful son of strength.' 
Standing he puts it on with the ' Svaha : ' the mean- 
ing of this (will be explained) hereafter 8 . 

15. Now the fire-pan is the body, the reed-grass 
(fuel) the womb, the hemp the inner membrane 3 , 

1 The dative ' ahiws&yai ' again doubtless belongs to the first 
sentence of the paragraph (' it is soaked in ghee '), the intervening 
clauses being inserted for explanation. For a similar construction, 
see above, p. 198, note 2. 

* See VI, 7, 2, 1. 

' The inverted order of the words 'san& ^arSyu' is peculiar. 
It seems to have been resorted to with the view of keeping 
together the two pairs of subjects, ' mvJig&A-sati&A ' and '^ardyu- 
ulbam.' 



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256 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

the ghee the outer membrane, and the kindling-stick 
the embryo. 

16. The pan is outside, and the reed-grass (fuel) 
is inside ; for the body is outside, and the womb 
inside. The reed-grass is outside, and the hemp 
inside ; for the womb is outside, and the outer mem- 
brane is inside. The hemp is outside, and the ghee 
is inside ; for the outer membrane is outside, and the 
inner membrane is inside. The ghee is outside, and 
the kindling-stick is inside ; for the inner membrane 
is outside, and the embryo is inside. It is from 
these that he who is born is born, and from them he 
thus causes him (Agni) to be born. 

Third BrAhmawa. 

1. He then puts on a vikankata (flacourtia sapida) 
one. When Pra^ipati performed the first offering, 
a vikankata tree sprang forth from that place where, 
after offering, he cleansed (his hands). That vi- 
kankata, then, is that first offering ; it is that he now 
offers on this (fire), and he therewith gratifies him 
(Agni). rVa^-. S. XI, 71; Rik S. VIII, 75, 15] 
'From the far region come thou over to the 
near one : do thou protect that wherein I am!' 
as the text, so its meaning. 

2. He then puts on an udumbara (ficus glomerata) 
one. The gods and the Asuras, both of them sprung 
from Pra^apati, strove together. Now all the trees 
sided with the Asuras, but the udumbara tree alone 
did not forsake the gods. The gods, having con- 
quered the Asuras, took possession of their trees. 

3. They said, ' Come, let us lay into the udumbara 
tree whatever pith, whatever vital sap there is in 
these trees : were they then to desert us, they would 



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vi K&NDA, 6 adhyAya, 3 brAhmawa, 6. 257 

desert us worn out, like a milked-out cow, or like an 
ox that has been (tired out by) drawing (the cart).' 
Accordingly they laid into the udumbara tree what 
pith and essence there was in those trees; and 
on account of that pith it matures (fruit) equal to 
all the (other) trees 1 :. hence that (tree) is always 
moist, always full of milky sap, — that udumbara 
tree, indeed, (being) all the trees, is all food : he 
thus gratifies him (Agni) by every kind of food, and 
kindles him by all trees (kinds of wood). 

4. [Va^. S. XI, 72] ' From the farthest dis- 
tance,' — that is, ' (from) what farthest distance there 
is;' — 'O red-steeded, come hither!' for red, in- 
deed, is Agni's horse; — 'Purishya, much-loved,' 
* — that is, ' favourable to cattle, dear to many ; ' — ' O 
Agni, overcome thou the scorners!' that is, 
' O Agni, overcome all evil-doers ! ' 

5. He then puts on one not cut by an axe, — that 
(Agni) is born when he is built up : it is for all 
(kinds of) food that he is born. Now that (wood) 
not cut by an axe is one kind of food (for the fire) : 
it is thereby that he now gratifies him. [V&f. S. 
XI, 73; Rik S.VIII, 102, 20] 'Whatsoever wood 
we lay upon thee, O Agni, let all that be ghee 
unto thee, do thou relish that, O youngest!' 
as the text, so its meaning : whatever (wood there 
is) not cut by the axe, that he makes palatable to 
him ; and having made it food for him, he sets it 
before him. 

6. He then puts on one that has lain on the 
ground, — he (Agni) is born when he is built up : it 
is for all (kinds of) food that he is born. Now that 

1 According to Ait. Br. V, 24, its fruits ripen three times a year. 



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258 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

(wood) which has lain on the ground is one kind of 
food (for the fire): it is thereby he now gratifies 
him. [Va^. S. XI, 74; Rik S. VIII, 102, 21] 
'What the red ant eats, what the white ant 
crawls over,' — for either the red ant eats it, or the 
white ant crawls over it; — 'let all that be ghee 
for thee, do thou relish that, O youngest!' as 
the text, so its meaning : whatever (wood) has lain 
on the ground, that he makes palatable for him ; 
and having made it food for him, he sets it before 
him. 

7. The remaining (kindling-sticks) are of palcLra. 
wood (butea frondosa) ; — the Pallra. tree is the Brah- 
man, it is by the Brahman he thus kindles him 
(Agni). And, again, why they are palasa ones ; — 
the PalcLsa tree is Soma, and he, Soma, doubtless is 
the supreme offering : it is that he now offers on 
this (fire), and by that he gratifies him (Agni). 

8. [He puts them on, with Vif. S. XI, 75-82] 
'Day by day bearing unremittingly,' — that is, 
' Day by day bringing not unmindful ; ' — ' food to 
him like unto a standing horse,' — that is, ' food 
as to a standing (resting) horse;' — 'we, rejoicing 
in wealth-thrift and sap,' — that is, 'rejoicing in 
wealth, and thrift, and sap ; ' — ' O Agni, let not us, 
thy associates, suffer injury!' this he says with 
a view that his (Agni's) associate (the Sacrificer) may 
not suffer injury. 

9. 'While Agni is kindling on the earth's 
navel,' — that (place) where he is now being kindled 
is indeed the navel of the earth; — 'we call for 
great wealth-thrift,' — that is, 'we call for wealth 
and great thrift;' — 'Unto him, the draught- 
delighted,' — for he is indeed delighted (or, in- 



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VI KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 1 3. 259 

ebriated) by the draught, — 'of high praise,' — for 
he is indeed highly praised; — 'the adorable* — 
that is, 'worthy of adoration;' — 'Agni, the con- 
queror, overpowering in battles;' — for Agni is 
indeed a conqueror, and overpowering in battles. 

10. 'Whatever aggressive armies there are, 
onrushing with drawn-up lines; whatever 
thieves and robbers, those I cast into thy 
mouth, O Agni.' — 'Devour thou in a lump the 
waylayers with thy two tusks, the thieves 
with thy teeth, and the robbers with thy jaws, 

holy one!' — 'What waylayers there are 
among men, what thieves and robbers in the 
wood, what miscreants in the lurking-places, 

1 throw them into thy jaws.' — 'Whatever man 
may plot against us, and whosoever may hate 
us, or abuse and seek to hurt us, every one of 
them burn thou to ashes!' 

11. For the gods then made food of whosoever 
hated them, and of whomsoever they hated, and 
gave them up to him (Agni), and thereby gratified 
him ; and this, then, became his food, and he burnt 
up the evil of the gods ; and in like manner does 
the Sacrificer now make food of whosoever hates 
him, and of whomsoever he hates, and give them up 
to him (Agni), and thereby gratify him ; and this, 
then, becomes his food, and he burns up the Sacri- 
ficer's evil. 

1 2. These eleven (kindling-sticks) he puts on for 
one who is not either a noble, or a domestic chaplain 
(purohita) ; for incomplete are those eleven, and 
incomplete is he who is not either a noble, or a 
domestic priest. 

1 3. Twelve (he puts on) for a noble or a domestic 

s 2 



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260 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

chaplain ; for those twelve are a complete whole (or 
everything), and he who is either a noble or a 
domestic chaplain is everything. 

14. In the case of a Purohita, he puts it on, with 
(Va^ - . S. XI, 81), ' Perfected is my sanctity (brah- 
man), perfected the vigour, the strength, per- 
fected the victorious power (kshatra) whose 
Purohita I am !' — he thus perfects both his sanctity 
and power \ 

15. And in the case of a nobleman, with (Vif. S. 
XI, 82), ' I have raised their arms, their lustre 
and strength : by the spiritual power I destroy 
the enemies, and elevate mine own (relatives)!' 
this he says with the view that he may destroy his 
enemies, and elevate his own relatives. Let him 
put on both these (kindling-sticks); for both the 
Brahman and the Kshatra are this Agni ; and it is 
this Agni he thus kindles by those two, by the 
Brahman and the Kshatra. 

16. These (kindling-sticks) amount to thirteen ; — 
thirteen months are a year, and Agni is the year : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by 
so much food he thus gratifies him. 

17. They are a span long, for Vish«u, as an 
embryo, was a span long ; and this is (Agni's or 
Vish«u's) food : he thus gratifies him with food pro- 
portionate to his own body. But the food which is 
proportionate to one's body satisfies, and does no 
injury ; but what is too much that does injury, and 
what is too little that does not satisfy. Standing he 
puts them on — the significance of this (will be ex- 



1 Or, his spiritual and political power, his priesthood and 
nobility. 



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vi kAnda, 6 adhyAya, 4 brAhmaya, 2. 261 

plained) further on ; — and with the Svaha (' hail ! ') ; 
for seed is infused here (in the sacrifice, — to wit,) 
this Agni ; and were he to put on the logs unconse- 
crated by Svaha, he would injure him (Agni). Now 
inasmuch as they are kindling-sticks, they are not 
oblations ; but inasmuch as (they are put on) with 
the Svaha, they are food, for the Svaha is food ; and 
thus he does not injure him (Agni). 

Fourth BrAhmawa. 

1. Having then stridden the Vishmi strides, and 
reverentially stood by (the fire) with the Vatsapra l 
(hymn), after the sun has set, he in the first place 
throws out the ashes (from the fire-pan). For at 
that (former) time he regales him (Agni) with that 
food, those kindling-sticks ; and the foul part of that 
eaten food sinks to the bottom as ashes. He now 
clears him thereof, and infuses speech into him 2 , 
thus freed from foulness. Having infused speech, 
he puts on a kindling-stick, — and thereby regales 
him with food for the night, — with, ' Night for night 
bearing unremittingly 3 ' — the meaning of this has 
been told : he prays for that same security and well- 
being for the night ; and whatsoever he puts on 
thereafter by night, that he puts on as a libation 
offered to him *. 

2. And in the morning, when the sun has risen, he 
in the first place throws out the ashes. For at that 
(former) time he regales him with that food, that 
kindling-stick ; and the foul part of that eaten food 
which he puts on during the night sinks to the 

1 See VI, 7, 4, 1 seq. * Or, sets free the speech in him. 

* See above, VI, 6, 3, 8. * Lit. ' made into a libation for him.' 



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262 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

bottom as ashes. He now clears him thereof, and 
infuses speech into him thus freed from foulness. 
Having infused speech, he puts on a kindling-stick, 
— and thereby regales him with food for the day — 
with, ' Day by day bearing unremittingly ; ' — the 
meaning of this has been told : he prays for that 
same security and well-being for the day ; and what- 
soever he puts on thereafter by day, that he puts on 
as a libation offered to him. 

3. Verily, day and night passing on come up to a 
year, and the year is everything here : he prays for 
that security and well-being for a succession of days. 

4. And when they give him (the Sacrificer) the 
fast-milk, he puts on a kindling-stick, after dipping it 
into the fast-milk. Some, however, say, ' Let him 
not dip it into the fast-milk : he would be offering a 
libation, and it would be improper were one who is 
initiated to offer a libation.' 

5. Let him nevertheless dip it in, for that (Aha- 
vanlya fire) is his (the Sacrificer's) divine body, and 
this (real body of his) is his human one. Now were 
he not to dip it in, he would not be satisfying that 
divine body of his ; but when he dips it in, he does 
so satisfy that divine body. And in that it is a 
kindling-stick, it is not a libation ; and in that it is 
dipped into the fast-milk, it is food, for the fast-milk 
is food. 

6. And having put on the kindling-stick, he drinks 
the fast-milk ; for that (fire) is his divine body, and 
this (body of his) is the human one ; and the gods 
(come) first, and then men : hence he drinks the 
fast-milk after putting the kindling-stick on (the 
fire). 

7. [He puts it on, with V&g. S. XI, 83] 'O 



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vi kA-yda, 6 adhyAya, 4 brAhmawa, 10. 263 

Lord of food, give us of thy food ! ' — that is, ' O 
Lord of viands, give us of thy viands!' — 'of the pain- 
allaying, strengthening ' — that is, ' of the hunger- 
allaying, strengthening (food),' — ' Onward, onward 
lead thou the giver!' — the giver, doubtless, is the 
Sacrificer : thus, ' Onward lead thou the Sacrificer ! ' 
— 'Give us sustenance for the two-footed and 
the four-footed ! ' — he thereby asks a blessing. 
Now as to the expiation in case of (the fire-pan being) 
broken which, he said, would be explained ' in a sub- 
sequent chapter 1 .' 

8. If the fire-pan were to break, let him pour 
that (fire in the pan) into any such unbroken, new 
pot with a wide mouth as there may be ; for the 
pan which is broken indeed suffers injury, but un- 
injured is this deity (Agni) : ' Uninjured I will bear 
him in the uninjured ! ' so he thinks. Into that (pot) 
he first throws a potsherd of the (broken) pan, and 
thus he (Agni) is not deprived of that womb of his. 

9. He then takes the (remaining*) clay, and having 
pounded both the (broken) pan and that remainder, 
and mixed it, he makes a (new) pan in the very same 
way, without using any formula, quite silently. Hav- 
ing baked it, he pours (the fire) over. The expiation 
in this case is one of performance only. Having 
again thrown that potsherd into the (new) pan, and 
pounded both the (temporary) pan and the remaining 
clay, and mixed it, he lays it aside for expiation. 

10. And if the fire in the pan (Ukhya Agni) were 
to go out, it is doubtless to the Garhapatya that it goes, 
for from the Garhapatya it has been taken. Having 
then taken it out of the Garhapatya eastwards (to the 
place of the Ahavanlya), and put fuel on it, let him 

1 See VI, 5, 3, 22. * See VI, 5, 3. 7- 

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264 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAAA. 

put the fire-pan on it in the same way (as before), 
without using any formula, quite silently. When the 
fire rises up to it, — 

11. He performs two expiations. For it is for (the 
obtainment of) all his wishes that he makes up that 
(fire) ; and whatever part of his wishes is here cut off 
when the fire goes out, that he thereby joins together 
and heals. He performs both expiations, that of the 
(Soma) sacrifice and that of the fire-altar, — first that 
of the sacrifice, then that of the fire-altar : the signifi- 
cance of this has been explained 1 . 

1 2. Having cut out with a kindling-stick some of 
the butter, he offers sitting a libation, with (V&f. S. 
XII, 43), ' To Vuvakarman, hail!' Then step- 
ping near he puts the kindling-stick on the fire, with 
(Vif. S. XII, 44), 'Again the Adityas, the 
Rudras, the Vasus may kindle thee, again the 
Brahmans with sacrifices, O bringer of good 
things ! ' — that is, 'May those deities again kindle 
thee ! ' — ' With ghee make thou grow thy body, 
let the wishes of the Sacrificer be true ! ' — that 
is, ' With ghee indeed make thou grow thy body, and 
for whatever wishes the Sacrificer makes up a fire, 
may they all come true ! ' 

1 3. And if the Garhapatya fire were to go out, it 
is doubtless to the churning-sticks that it goes, for 
from the churning-sticks it has been taken. Having 
churned it out with the churning-sticks, and put fuel 
on it, he performs two expiations. 

14. And if the Ahavantya fire were to go out 
whilst the pressing (of Soma) proceeds, it is doubtless 
to the Garhapatya that it goes, for from the Garha- 
patya it has been taken. Having taken it straight- 

1 See VI, 6, 1, 3 seq. 

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vi kXnda, 7 adhyAya, i brAhmam, 2. 265 

way eastward from the Garhapatya, and put fuel on 
it, he performs two expiations : whatever (kind of 
Soma) sacrifice may be (performed) at the time, the 
expiation of that sacrifice he should perform ; and of 
like kind is the expiation of the fire-altar. 

1 5. And if the Agnidhrlya fire were to go out, it 
is doubtless to the Garhapatya that it goes, for from 
the Garhapatya it has been taken. Having taken it 
from the Garhapatya eastward along the north of 
the Sadas, and put fuel on it, he performs two expia- 
tions. And if the Garhapatya were to go out, the 
meaning (procedure) of that has been explained. 

Seventh AdhyAya. First BrAhmawa. 

1. He hangs a gold plate (round his neck), and 
wears it ; for that gold plate is the truth, and the 
truth is able to sustain that (fire *) : by means of the 
truth the gods carried it, and by means of the truth 
does he now carry it 

2. Now that truth is the same as yonder sun. It is 
a gold (plate), for gold is light, and he (the sun) is the 
light; gold is immortality, and he is immortality. It 
(the plate) is round, for he (the sun) is round. It 
has twenty-one knobs, for he is the twenty-first 2 . He 
wears it with the knobs outside, for the knobs are 
his (the sun's) rays, and his rays are outside. 

1 That is, the Ukhya Agni, or fire in the pan, which the Sacrificer 
will have to carry about during his time of initiation ; and which, 
moreover, is here taken to be the Sacrificer's divine body (VI, 6, 
4, 5)- 

1 See I, 3, 5, 12, — twelve months of the year, five seasons, 
and three worlds : this makes twenty ; and he that burns yonder 
is the twenty-first. See also Ait. Br. IV, 18, where the sun is 
identified with the Ekavizwa or Vishuvat day, the central day 
of the year, by which the gods raised the sun up to the heavens. 



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266 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

3. And as to why he puts on and wears the gold 
plate ; — that plate is yonder sun, and man, in his 
human form, is unable to sustain that fire : it is 
only in this (solar or divine) form that he bears that 
(divine) form. 

4. And, again, why he puts on and wears the gold 
plate ; — this fire is seed poured out here ; and the 
gold plate means vital energy (or brilliance) and 
vigour : he thus lays vital energy and vigour into 
that seed. 

5. And, again, why he puts on and wears the gold 
plate ; — the gods now were afraid lest the Rakshas, 
the fiends, should destroy here that (Agni) of theirs. 
They made that (plate), yonder sun, to be his (Agni's) 
protector (standing) by his side, for the gold plate is 
yonder sun : and in like manner does this (Sacrificer) 
now make that (plate) to be his (Agni's) protector by 
his side. 

6. It is sown up in a black antelope's skin ; for the 
black antelope skin is the sacrifice, and the sacrifice is 
able to sustain that (Agni) : by means of the sacrifice 
the gods carried him, and by means of the sacrifice 
he now carries him ; — with the hair (inside), for the 
hair are the metres, and the metres are indeed able 
to sustain him : by the metres the gods carried him, 
and by the metres he now carries him. 

7. It is sown into the white and black hair, for 
these two are forms of the rik (hymn-verse) and the 
saman (hymn-tune), and the rik and saman are 
indeed able to sustain him (Agni) : by the rik and 
saman the gods carried him, and by the rik and 
saman he now carries him. The hempen sling of 
the gold plate is a triple (cord) : the significance of 
this has been explained. 



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vi kXnda, 7 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 13. 267 

8. He wears it over the navel; for that gold 
plate is yonder sun, and he (stands) over the navel 
(of the earth or sky). 

9. And, again, why over the navel, — below the 
navel is the seed, the power of procreation, and the 
gold plate represents vital energy and vigour : (he 
does so, thinking,) ' Lest the gold plate burn up my 
seed, my power of procreation, my vital energy and 
vigour.' 

10. And, again, why over the navel ; — sacrificially 
purer is that part of the animal (victim) which is 
above the navel, and more in contact with ordure is 
that which is below the navel: he thus carries it 
(the plate) by means of that part of the animal 
which is sacrificially purer. 

11. And, again, why over the navel, — that part 
of the vital air which is immortal is above the navel, 
and streams out by upward breathings ; but that 
which is mortal passes by and away from the navel : 
he thus makes him (the Sacrificer) obtain the part 
of the vital air which is immortal, and by that he 
then carries it (the fire). 

12. Now, he carries that (fire in the pan) on a 
seat; — the seat (asandt) doubtless is this earth, for 
on her everything here is settled (asanna) ; and she 
indeed is able to sustain him (Agni) : it was thereby 
that the gods carried him, and thereby he now 
carries him. 

13. It is made of udumbara wood (ficus glomerata), 
for the Udumbara tree is sustenance (sustaining 
strength), life-sap : by means of sustenance, life-sap, 
he thus carries him. Moreover, that Udumbara 
represents all the trees here (on earth), and all the 
trees (together) are capable of sustaining that (fire) : 



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268 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

by means of all the trees the gods bore (or, main- 
tained) it, and by means of all the trees does he now 
bear it. 

14. It (the seat) is a span high ; for Vish#u, as 
an embryo, was a span high : he thus makes the 
womb equal in size to the embryo. It is a cubit 
across ; for the cubit is (the length of) the (fore-) 
arm, and strength is exerted by the arm. It thus is 
made equal to strength, and strength is indeed 
capable of sustaining him (Agni): by means of 
strength the gods did bear him, and by means of 
strength does he now bear him. 

1 5. The feet and boards * are four-cornered ; for 
there are four regions, and the regions are able to 
sustain him : by means of the regions the gods 
bore him, and by the regions does he now bear 
him. It is interwoven with cords of reed-grass, 
triple ones, — the significance of this has been 
explained; — and smeared over with clay, — (the 
significance) of this also has been explained ; but it 
also serves to keep them from taking fire 2 . 

16. Now he carries him (Agni, the fire) by means 
of a netting 3 , — he, Agni, is these worlds, and the 
netting is the regions, for by means of the regions 
these worlds are able to stand ; and inasmuch as 
they are so able (yak), it is called a netting (.rikya) : 
he thus carries him by means of the regions. It 
is furnished with six strings,— for there are six 

1 That is, the boards forming the seat itself, and being a cubit long. 

2 Lit. ' from (the fire in the pan) burning over (or through the 
clay) ; ' or ' from (their) being burnt over.' 

8 Apparently a round netted mat, on which the fire-pan is to 
be placed, and which is fastened to a cord by means of six strings, 
thus somewhat resembling the scale of a balance. 



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vi kA^da, 7 adhyAya, i brAhma^a, 19. 269 

regions; — made of reed-grass, triply wound — the 
significance of this has been explained ; — and smeared 
with clay — (the significance) of this also has been 
explained; but it also serves to keep them from 
taking fire. 

17. The waters are his (Agni's) foundation, for 
on the waters these worlds are founded. The sun 
is the connecting link 1 , for to the sun these worlds 
are linked by means of the quarters : whosoever 
thus knows this, carries suchlike a one by suchlike 
a one 2 . 

18. And, again, why he carries him by means of 
a netting, — he, Agni, is the year, and the netting is 
the seasons ; for by means of the seasons the year 
is able to exist, and inasmuch as it is so able (.yak), 
therefore (the netting is called) ' .rikya : ' he thus 
carries him by the seasons. It is furnished with six 
strings, for there are six seasons. 

19. Day and night are his foundation, for on day 
and night this year is founded. The moon is the 
connecting link, for to the moon this year is linked 
by means of the seasons : whosoever thus knows 
this, carries suchlike a one by suchlike a one. And 
verily by him who so knows this, he (Agni) is carried 
for a year ; and by him who does not so know it, he 
is attended to for a year s . Thus as to the deities, — 

1 Or, the central point, the hinge or hook, to which the worlds 
are attached. 

* Lit. carries that form by that form, — that is to say, he sus- 
tains, by means of the sun, the whole world in the form of Agni. 

' That is to say, he who desires to derive the full benefit 
from the initiation ceremony, and the Agni^ayana generally, must 
not only keep up the Ukhya Agni (or pan-fire) during the year of 
the initiation, but must also carry him at least for a time every day 
during that period. 



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27O SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

20. Now as to the self (or body of Agni). Agni 
doubtless is the self, and the netting is the vital airs, 
for by means of the vital airs that self is able to 
exist ; and inasmuch as it is so able (rak) therefore 
(the netting is called) ' sikya : ' he thus carries 
(sustains) him by means of the vital airs ; and it is 
furnished with six strings, because there are six 
vital airs. 

21. The mind is his foundation, for on the mind 
this body is founded, — and food is the connecting 
link, for to food this body is linked by means of the 
vital airs : whosoever thus knows this, carries such- 
like (Agni) by suchlike means. 

22. Now he carries him by means of the fire- 
pan ; for the pan is these worlds, and these worlds 
are indeed able to hold him : by means of these 
worlds the gods carried him, and by means of them 
he (the Sacrificer) now carries him. 

23. And as to why it is called ' Ukha ; ' — by means 
of this sacred performance and this process the gods 
at that time dug out these worlds ; and inasmuch as 
they so dug out (ut-khan), it (the pan representing 
the worlds) is called ' utkha,' — ' utkha' being what they 
mysteriously (esoterically) call ' ukha,' for the gods 
love the mysterious. 

24. Now ' ukha ' (consists of) two syllables, — the 
Sacrificer is two-footed, and the Sacrificer is Agni : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by 
so much he thus carries him. And that same (pan) 
is a pot (kumbhl), it is a cauldron (sthall) 1 ; this 

1 These words, according to S£ya»a, are merely intended as 
synonymous (paryiya) for 'ukhS,' or fire-pan, not as different 
vessels (such as the pot used temporarily when the pan is broken) 
as one might suppose. 



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VI KANDA, 7 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 2J. 27 1 

makes six (syllables), — six seasons are a year, and 
the year is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is 
his measure, so great does this become. 

25. He now takes hold of him (Agni *) by means 
of two (straw) pads 2 ; for he, Agni, is yonder sun, 
and the two pads are day and night : he thus takes 
hold of yonder sun by means of the day and the 
night, and hence that (sun) 8 is encompassed by day 
and night. 

26. And, again, why he takes hold of him by 
means of two pads, — he, Agni, is yonder sun, and 
the two pads are these two worlds : he thus encom- 
passes yonder sun by these two worlds, and hence 
he is encompassed by these two worlds. They 
are round, for these two worlds are round ; of reed- 
grass, triply wound, — the significance of this has 
been told ; — and smeared with clay, — (the signifi- 
cance) of this also has been told, but it also serves 
to keep them from taking fire. 

27. Now then the (mystic) correspondence (of 
the number of objects to the nature of Agni), — the 
seat, the fire-pan, the sling of the gold plate, the 
fire, and the gold plate, — these amount to six ; — six 
seasons are a year, and the year is Agni : as great 
as Agni is, as great as is his measure, so great does 
this become. Two pads, that makes eight, — the 
Gayatri has eight syllables, and Agni is Gayatra : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, so 
great does this become. 

1 That is, of the pan containing the fire. 

* Sayawa (on VII, 2, 1, 15) explains them as two balls of straw. 
The comparison in 26 rather points to their being round mats. 

* Thus Sayawa. If, on the other hand, Agni be intended here, 
this might be taken as an illusion to the regular worship of the fire 
at the morning and evening twilights (cf. VI, 7, 2, 3). 



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272 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

28. Now the total correspondence, — four feet and 
four boards (of the seat), the netting, and the sling 
of the gold plate, or any other corded netting ; after 
that the pan and fire, and the gold plate, — that 
makes thirteen ; — thirteen months are a year, and 
the year is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is 
his measure, so great does this become. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

1. Standing he puts on that (gold plate) 1 , — for 
that gold plate is yonder sun, and yonder sun stands, 
as it were; and moreover, while standing one is 
stronger. [He does so] standing with his face 
towards north-east : the significance of this has 
been explained. 

2. [Vty. S. XII, 1 ; Ri\ S. X, 45, 8] 'Looking 
like 2 a golden disk he hath shone far and 
wide,' — for that gold plate, being seen, indeed 
shines far and wide; — 'flashing forth unquench- 
able 8 life for glory,' — for not easily dying is his 
(Agni's) life (vital power); and for glory he does 
shine; — 'Agni became immortal by his powers, 
when Dyaus bore him — ,' for Dyaus (the sky) 
did bear him; — 'she that hath good seed — ,' for 
good seed indeed she has whose seed he (Agni) is. 

3. He then takes hold of him by means of the 
two pads, with (Va/-. S. XII, 2*), 'Night and Dawn, 

1 The author now proceeds to give further particulars regarding 
the ceremonial details treated of in the preceding chapter (VI, 7, 1, 
1 scq.). 

* Literally, ' seen ' or ' appearing (like).' 

* Rather ' irresistible, difficult to bear (against) ; ' but the author 
connects ' durmarsha ' with ' mar,' to die. 

4 Hik S. I, 96, 5, slightly different 



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VI KANDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 5. 273 

of one mind, unlike in form,' — night and dawn, 
doubtless, are day and night, (and they are) of one 
mind 1 , and unlike in form; — 'nourish one child, 
combining together,' — whatever belongs to the 
day and the night, therewith they, combining to- 
gether, indeed nourish him (Agni) ; — 'a golden 
disk, he shineth between heaven and earth,' — • 
whilst taking it (the fire), he mutters this prayer; 
for heaven and earth are those two, the sky and the 
earth ; and moving between these two he shines : 
that is why, in taking it, he mutters this prayer; — 
'the wealth-giving gods kept Agni;' — there- 
with, having taken hold of it in both hands, he 
sets it down ; for the wealth-giving gods are the 
vital airs, and they indeed kept up Agni at first : by 
means of them he now keeps him up. 

4. He then puts round his (neck) the sling of the 
netting, with (Va^. S. XII, 3; Rt\ S. V, 8i, 2), 
'The wise putteth on all forms,' — the wise one, 
doubtless, is yonder sun, and the netting is all 
forms; — 'he hath brought forth what is good 
for the two-footed and four-footed,' — for in 
rising he does bring forth what is good for the two- 
footed and four-footed; — 'the adorable Szv'itri 
hath glanced over the firmament,' — the firma- 
ment, doubtless, is the heaven, and even in rising he 
looks along it ; — ' he flasheth forth after the 
starting 2 of the Dawn,' — for the Dawn shines 
forth first, and after her shining forth he (the sun) 
follows, flashing forth. 

5. By means of the fashioning (formula) he then 
fashions him out of that (matter) : he thereby 

1 That is to say, they are allied. 

* Or, perhaps, after the precedence (example) of the Dawn. 

[40 T 



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274 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA2VA. 

fashions that infused seed, whence the seed infused 
into the womb is fashioned. 

6. \Yag. S. XII, 4] 'A well-winged bird thou 
art ! ' — the well-winged bird means vigour : he thus 
forms him so as to be (endowed with) vigour; — 
'the Trivrit is thy head,' — he thus makes the 
Trivrzt stoma (nine- versed hymn) his head; — 'the 
Gayatra thine eye,' — he thus makes the Giyatrl 
metre his eye; — 'the Brihat and Rathantara 
thy wings,' — he thus makes the Brihat and 
Rathantara (hymn-tunes) his wings; — 'the hymn 
is the self,' — the Yankavimsa stoma (twenty-five- 
versed hymn) he makes the self (soul, or body) ; — 
' the metres the limbs,' — for the metres are indeed 
his (Agni's) limbs; — 'the prayers his name,' — 
the prayers (ya^us) are his name 'Agni' by which 
they call him, — 'the Vamadevya saman is thy 
body,' — the body, doubtless, is the self: thus 'the 
Vamadevya (hymn-tune) is thy body, thy self ; ' — 
'the Yagiiayagniya thy tail,' — he thus makes 
the Yagiiayagniya 1 his tail; — 'the hearths thy 
hoofs,' — by means of the hearths he (Agni) is indeed 
established in this world ; — ' thou art a well- 
winged bird: go to the heaven! fly to the 
light!' — thus having made him a well-winged 
bird 2 , he says, ' Go to the gods ! fly to the heavenly 
world ! ' 

7. He fashions him here (in the pan or womb) 
into (a bird) with wings and tail ; for whatlike the 
seed is fashioned in the womb, suchlike it is born ; 
and because he here fashions him as (a bird) with 

1 The ordinary hymn-tune of the Agnish/oma-s&man, the last and 
characteristic stotra of the simplest, or Agnish/oma Soma-sacrifice. 
' Or, the bird (or eagle, suparwa) Garutmat. 



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VI KXNDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAYA, IO. 275 

wings and tail, therefore he is hereafter born with 
wings and tail. 

8. Now some, after addressing him by that 
fashioning (formula), build a different altar (than 
of an eagle's shape), either one constructed in the 
form of a trough 1 , or like a chariot-wheel, or like 
a kite, or like the front part of a thill, or like a 
thill on both sides, or one consisting of a heap of 
loose soil 2 . Let him not do so, (but) in such wise 
as one might carve a young one with wings and 
tail : let him therefore build it (the fire-altar) in the 
form of an eagle. 

9. With that fashioning (formula) he holds him 
high up from thence towards east s ; for he, Agni, is 
yonder sun : he thus places yonder sun high up 
from here in the east ; and hence yonder sun is 
placed high up from here in the east. He holds 
him up so as to be beyond the reach of the arms, 
for he (the sun) is beyond the reach of the arms 
from here. He then lowers him, and, having 
lowered him, he holds him above the navel : the 
significance of this has been explained 4 . 

10. He then strides the Vishmi-strides 6 . For the 
gods, in the form of Vish«u (the sun), then strode 
through these worlds ; and inasmuch as, in the form 
of Vish«u, they thus strode, they are called the 
Vish»u-strides : in like manner does the Sacrificer, 

1 Saya«a seems to make this a round vessel, — dronnh pari- 
man/M&n&mA-Q lamina) rQpaw drowam iva /tiyate dronaiit. 

1 Samuhya samuhya purtshawz tenaiva kevalena £fyata iti samu- 
hyapurishaA, Say. 

* As in the case of the lump of clay, VI, 4, 3, 10. 
4 VI, 7, 1, 8 seq. 

• Or the Vishwu-steps, as the term, for a special reason, was 
translated at V, 4, 2, 6. 

T 2 



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2 76 satapatha-brAhma^ A. 

in the form of Vishmi, now stride through these 
worlds. 

ii. Now he who is Vishmi is this sacrifice; and 
he who is this sacrifice is that same Agni in the 
ukha (fire-pan) ; into that same (Agni) the gods 
changed themselves, and strode through these 
worlds ; and in like manner the Sacrificer, having 
changed himself into that same (Agni), strides 
through these worlds. 

12. Standing with his face towards north-east (he 
strides) ; for standing towards north-east Pra^apati 
created offspring by means of the Vishmi-strides : 
in like manner does the Sacrificer now, standing 
towards north-east, create offspring by means of the 
Vishmi-strides. 

13. [V&g: S. XII, 5] 'Thou art Vish*u's 
stride,' — for in the form of Vishmi he strides; — ■ 
' the slayer of foes ; ' — for he now slays his foes ; — 
'mount thou the G&yatri metre,' — the Gayatrl 
metre he does mount, — 'stride along the earth!' 
— along the earth he indeed strides. He stretches 
forward his (right) foot and strides : he raises the 
fire upwards, for upwards he ascends. 

14. 'Thou art Vish«u's stride,' — for in the 
form of Vishmi he strides; — 'the slayer of 
plotters,' — for he now does slay the plotters; — 
'mount thou the Trish/ubh metre!' — the Tri- 
shAibh metre he does mount; — 'stride along the 
air ! ' — along the air he indeed strides. He stretches 
forward his foot and strides : he raises the fire (yet 
further) upwards, for upwards he ascends. 

15. 'Thou art Vish»u's stride,' — for in the 
form of Vishmi he strides; — 'the slayer of the 
evil-minded,' — for he now does slay the evil- 



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vi kXnda, 7 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 2. 277 

minded; — 'Mount the £agatl metre!' — for the 
Gagati metre he does mount; — 'stride along the 
sky ! ' — along the sky he indeed strides. He 
stretches his foot forward and strides : he raises 
the fire (yet further) upwards, for upwards he 
ascends. 

16. 'Thou art Vish»u's stride,' — for in the 
form of Vishmi he strides; — 'the slayer of the 
hostile,' — for he now does slay the hostile ; — 
'mount thou the Anush/ubh metre!' — the 
Anush/ubh metre he does mount; — 'stride along 
the quarters ! ' — he looks along the (four) quarters ; 
he does not stretch forward his foot, thinking, ' Lest 
I lose these worlds!' — He raises the fire right up, 
for he ascends completely (to the top). 

Third BrAhmana. 

1. He then holds it (the fire in the pan) up thus 
(towards north-east). Now the gods at that time 
were desiring, ' May we be like Parfanya (the rain- 
god) ! ' By that body (of his ') they became like 
Par^anya, and in like manner does the Sacrificer by 
that body (of his) become like Par^anya. 

2. [VAf. S. XII, 6; Rik S. X, 45, 4] 'Agni 
roared like the thundering sky,' — for he (Agni) 
indeed roars like the thundering Par^anya ; — ' again 
and again licking the ground, stroking 2 the 
plants,' — for Par^-anya, whilst licking again and 

1 Viz. by the Agni who is now being held up, and of whom 
Paiyanya is said to be another form, at VI, 1, 3, 15. It is pro- 
bably the smoke rising from the fire-pan that suggests the idea of 
the Jupiter pluvius sending forth his flashes of light from the dark 
cloud. 

* Literally, anointing (? either furbishing, or impregnating). 



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278 *atapatha-brAhmawa. 

again the ground, does stroke the plants; — 'scarce 
born, the kindled shone forth,' — for scarce born 
he indeed lights up everything here; — 'with his 
light he shineth between the two worlds,' — 
the two worlds, doubtless, are the heaven and the 
earth, and these two he indeed illumes by his light. 
He holds it (the fire in the pan) up so as to be 
beyond the reach of his arms, for Par^anya is 
beyond the reach of (our) arms. 

3. He then lowers it; for whatever sap, what- 
ever sustenance there is in this world, that rises 
upwards with it through these worlds, for Agni is 
the sap, Agni is the substance in this world : thus 
were that always to be so \ then there would be no 
sap, no sustenance in this world ; but when he lowers 
(the fire), he bestows sap and sustenance on this 
world. 

4. And, again, why he lowers it, — he then indeed 
rises upwards from here through these worlds : that 
is, as it were, a rising away from here. But this 
earth is the resting-place ; and were that always to 
be so, the Sacrificer would be removed from this 
world. But when he lowers (the fire), he thereby 
comes back to this resting-place, and stands firmly 
on this resting-place. 

5. And, again, why he lowers it, — there, indeed, 
in rising upwards, he conquers these worlds from 
here : that is, as it were, a conquering in a forward 
direction. Now the conquest of him who conquers 
only in a forward direction is completed by others ; 
but for him who conquers both ways there is free 
scope : thus, when he lowers (the fire) he conquers 

1 Literally, were that to be so much only (i.e. were the fire 
always to be held up there). 



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vi kXnda, 7 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 8. 279 

these worlds both from here upwards and from 
thence backwards. 

6. [Vaf. S. XII, 7-10] 'Ever returning Agni, 
turn thou back unto me, with life, with vigour, 
with offspring, with riches ; with gain, with 
wisdom, with wealth, with prosperity! — O 
Agni, Angiras! may thine be a hundred 
courses, and a thousand returns : with in- 
crease of increase bring back what was lost 
by us, and bring us again riches! — Return 
again with sustenance, again, O Agni, with 
food and life, guard us again from trouble! — 
With wealth return, O Agni, overflow with 
the all-feeding stream on every side!' — that is, 
' with all this return thou to me ! ' Four times he 
lowers (the fire further and further), for four times it 
rises upwards : thus as often as it rises upwards, so 
often he lowers it ; and having lowered it (com- 
pletely), he holds it above his navel : the significance 
of this has been explained '. 

7. He then addresses him (Agni) ; for Agni is 
vital power: he thus lays vital power into his self: 
[Vaf. S. XII, 11] 'Hither have I brought thee,' 
— for they do indeed bring him hither; — 'thou 
hast entered,' — he then lays vital power into his 
self; — 'stand thou firm, never staggering!' — he 
thus lays the vital power firmly into his self; — 
'may all the people long for thee!' — the people 
are food : thus, ' may all food long for thee ! ' — ' may 
thy rule not fall away from thee!' — rule means 
glory : thus, ' may thy glory not fall away from thee !' 

8. He then unties the sling of the netting, and 
the sling of the gold plate ; for the sling belongs to 

1 VI, 7, 1, 8 seq. 

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*8o satapatha-brAhma#a. 

Varu#a : he thus frees himself from Varu»a's noose. 
He does so with a verse to Varu»a : he thus frees 
himself from Varu#a's noose by its own self, by its 
own deity. [Vdf. S. XII, 12; Rik S. I, 24, 15] 
'Take off from us, O Varu»a, the uppermost 
cord, down (take) the lowest, away the middle 
one!' — as the text, so the meaning; — 'and so, 
O Aditya, may we be sinless in thy service for 
safety (Aditi) ! ' — Aditi is this earth : thus, ' Sinless 
may we belong to thee and to her (the earth) ! ' 

9. He then holds him (Agni) up thus (towards 
south-east) ; for on that former occasion he raises 
him upwards from here towards the east with the 
fashioning formula 1 ; and he then holds him up 
thus (towards north-east 2 ). Now were that alone 
to take place, he (the sun), surely, would stop even 
there (in the north) ; but inasmuch as he now holds 
him up thus (towards south-east), he (the sun) having 
gone th u s (in a northerly direction), then comes back 
again thus (in a southerly direction). 

10. [Va^. S. XII, 13; RikS. X, 1, 1] 'The great 
hath stood up erect before the Dawns,' — for 
before the dawn the great one (Agni) indeed stands 
up erect; — 'emerged from the gloom he hath 
come with light,' — for emerged from the gloom, 
the night, he indeed comes with light, with the 
day; — ' well-shapen with white light,' — for he, 
Agni, is indeed well-shapen with white light ; — 
'when born, he hath filled all homesteads;' — 
all homesteads, doubtless, means these worlds, and 
these he indeed fills, when born. He holds him up 
so as to be beyond the reach of the arms, for he (the 

1 VI, 7, 2, 9. » VI, 7, 3, 1. 

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vi kAnda, 7 adhyAya, 3 brahmajva, 12. 281 

sun) is beyond the reach of arms from here. He then 
lowers him : he thereby comes back to this resting- 
place, and stands firmly on this resting-place. [He 
does so] with a .gagatl verse *, for the (Jagatl gains 
these worlds from above hitherwards. 

n. [Va^-. S. XII, 14; Ri\l S. IV, 40, 5] 'The 
swan dwelling in the light,' — the swan dwelling 
in the light, doubtless, is yonder sun ; — ' the Vasu 
dwelling in the air,' — the Vasu dwelling in the 
air, doubtless, is the wind; — 'the priest seated 
on the altar,' — the priest seated on the altar, 
doubtless, is Agni ; — ' the guest,' — for he (Agni) is 
indeed the guest of all beings; — 'dwelling in the 
retreat 2 ,' — that is, 'dwelling in rugged places;' — 
' the man-dwelling,' — the man-dwelling, doubtless, 
is the vital air ; and men are human beings : he 
thus means that vital air, that fire, which (burns) in 
human beings ; — ' the space-dwelling,' — for he 
(Agni) indeed is seated in all spaces; — 'the law- 
seated,' — that is, ' the truth-seated ;' — 'the sphere- 
dwelling,' — for he is indeed seated in all spheres ; — 
'the water-born, cow-born' — for he is indeed both 
water-born and cow-born; — 'law-born,' — that is, 
'truth-born;' — 'rock -born,' — for he is born from 
the rock; — 'the law,'— that is, ' the truth.' With 
'the Great ! ' he deposits it (the fire); for he (Agni) 
is indeed the great (truth) : he thus deposits him (on 
the seat) after making him what he is. 

1 2. [He does so] with two syllables (' br z'hat'), — 
the Sacrificer is two-footed, and the Sacrificer is 

1 It is rather a trish/ubh verse. 

" Rather, (the guest) dwelling in the house (duro«a-sad), but the 
author evidently derives ' durowa ' from ' dus ' (bad), making it a 
synonym of ' durga.' 



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282 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his mea- 
sure, with so much he thus deposits him. 

13. He then stands worshipping by him; for he 
makes, as it were, light of him, when he strides with 
him through these worlds both thus (upwards), and 
thus (downwards) : he now makes amends to him, 
so that he (Agni) may not hurt him. 

14. And, again, why he stands by him ; — the gods 
at that time were afraid, lest he should injure these 
worlds of theirs from anigh : they thereby appeased 
him towards these worlds ; and in like manner does 
he (the Sacrificer) now appease him towards these 
worlds. 

15. [V£f S. XII, 15-17] ' Seat thee in this thy 
mother's lap, thou, O Agni, knowing all ordi- 
nances! burn her not with thy heat, thy flame! 
shine in her with a brilliant light! — Glowing 
with light and heat within thine own seat, be 
thou gracious unto this Ukha, O knower of 
beings! — Being gracious unto me, O Agni, 
now seat thee graciously! seat thee here in 
thine own seat, having made happy all the 
regions!' — by saying 'Gracious — Gracious,' he 
appeases him, so that he may not injure any one, 
and thus he, being appeased, does not injure these 
worlds. 

16. With three (verses) he stands by worship- 
ping ; — three in number are these worlds, and three- 
fold is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, with so much he thereby makes amends to 
him, and with so much does he thereby appease him 
towards these worlds. 



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vi kanda, 7 adhyaya, 4 brahmana, 3. 283 

Fourth BrAhma^a. 

1. He then stands by him worshipping with the 
Vatsapra rite 1 . For Pra^pati, having by means 
of the Vish«u-strides produced creatures, created 
vital power for them by means of the Vatsapra rite ; 
and in like manner the Sacrificer, having, by means 
of the Vish»u-strides, produced creatures (or, sub- 
jects), creates vital power for them by means of the 
Vatsapra rite. 

2. Now the Vatsapra rite, doubtless, is he, the 
golden-handed 2 (Agni) ; — hence whomsoever that is 
born one may wish to obtain the full (measure of) 
life, let him touch that one with the Vatsapra rite, 
and he thereby creates vital power for that new- 
born one ; and accordingly that one obtains the full 
(measure of) life. And whomsoever one may wish 
to be vigorous, let him first address that one with 
the Vikrzti (fashioning) formula 8 , and that one 
accordingly becomes vigorous. 

3. [V&f. S. XII, 18-20] 'From the sky Agni 
was first born ; ' — the sky, doubtless, is the breath, 
and from the breath he (Agni) was indeed first 
born, — 'from us the second time, the knower 
of beings,' — inasmuch as he, manlike, on that 
occasion generated him a second time 4 ; — 'the 

1 That is, the recitation of Va^. S. XII, 18-28 or 29 (Rik S. X, 
45), ascribed to the poet Vatsapr! Bhalandana. The Brahmawa, 
however, comments only on the first three verses, and perhaps 
these alone were used for the purpose at the time when the Brahmana 
was composed. 

* This is a somewhat doubtful meaning of ' d£ksh£ya»a-hasta.' 
The synonyms (if correct), hira»yap£»i and hirawyahasta, always 
refer to Savitn', the sun. 

» See VI, 7, 2, 5-6. 

4 ? Or, as a second ; see above, VI, 1, 1, 1 1. 



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284 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

third time in the waters,' — inasmuch as he there 
did generate him a third time from the waters ; — 
' he, the manly-minded, (kindling him) the im- 
perishable,' — the manly-minded, doubtless, is 
Pra^apati ; and the imperishable, Agni 1 ; — ' kindling 
him the mindful praises (^ar) him,' — for he who 
kindles him generates him, mindful. 

4. 'We know, O Agni, thy threefold three,' 
— Agni, Vayu (wind), Aditya (sun), these are his 
three in three forms; — 'We know thy manifold 
scattered sites,' — inasmuch as he (Agni) is here 
distributed manyways; — 'we know thy highest 
name which is in secret,' — 'the youngest,' that 
indeed is his highest name in secret; — 'we know 
that source whence thou art come;' — the source, 
doubtless, is the (heavenly) waters, for from the 
waters he first came. 

5. 'In the sea the manly-minded (kindled) 
thee, in the waters,' — the manly-minded is Pra^a- 
pati : thus, ' In the waters Pra^apati (kindled) thee ; ' 
— ' the man-watcher hath kindled thee, O 
Agni, in the udder of the sky,' — the man-watcher, 
doubtless, is Pra^apati, and the udder of the sky 
is the waters; — 'thee, whilst standing in the 
third region,' — the third region, doubtless, is the 
sky; — 'the buffaloes made (thee) grow in the 
lap of the waters ;' — the buffaloes, doubtless, are 

1 The construction of the text here favoured by the author is 
very doubtful. It has probably to be construed, — ' the third time 
(he, Agni, was born) in the waters, he, the manly-minded (or, friendly 
to men). Kindling him, the imperishable (Agni), the heedful ( ? or 
pious) one praises him,' — or perhaps, 'While kindling him, the 
considerate one praises him unceasingly.' A point which favours 
the author's construction is that, in verse 3, ' nrtmaaaas ' certainly 
refers not to Agni, but to him who generated him. 



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• vi kXnda, 7 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajta, 6. 285 

the vital airs : thus, ' the vital airs made thee grow 
in the sky.' 

6. These (three verses *) have one and the same 
explanation regarding him (Agni) : they are Tri- 
sh/ubh verses relating to Agni. Inasmuch as they 
relate to Agni, they are Agni ; and inasmuch as 
they are TrishAibhs, and eleven (syllables), they are 
Indra; — but Agni consists of Indra and Agni : as 
great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with so 
much he thus stands worshipping by him. And 
Indra and Agni are all the gods, and Agni includes 
(or belongs to) all the deities : as great as Agni is, as 

1 The remaining verses (XII, 21-29) are as follows : — 

1. Agni roared like the thundering sky, &c. (see VI, 7, 3, 2). 

2. The upraiser of glories, the upholder of riches, the inspirer of 
thoughts, the guardian of Soma ; the excellent son of power, shines 
forth as king in the waters, kindled before the dawns. 

3. A beacon unto all that is, the child of the world filled the two 
spheres even when born; even the hard rock he broke going 
thither when the five peoples worshipped Agni. 

4. An eager cleanser, a wise messenger, the immortal Agni has 
been set up among the mortals ; flickering (?) he sends forth the red 
smoke, striving with his bright flame to reach the sky. 

5. Looking like a golden disk, &c (see VI, 7, 2). 

6. Whoso maketh for thee this day a ghee-baked cake, O divine 
Agni of auspicious flame, lead him onwards to bliss, unto god- 
allotted glory, O youngest I 

7. Make him share in the songs of triumph, make him share in 
every hymn that is sung 1 Dear be he unto Surya, dear unto Agni ; 
let him prevail with the living one and with them that are to be 
born I 

8. They that worship thee day by day, O Agni, win all desirable 
boons ; ardently wishing for wealth, they have opened with thee the 
stable filled with cows 1 

9. Agni VaijvSnara has been celebrated by the i?»'shis, the 
guardian of Soma, most gracious unto men : let us invoke heaven 
and earth who are free from hatred ! grant us wealth, ye gods, with 
abundance of men I 



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286 DATAPATH A-BR.AHMAWA. 

great as is his measure, with so much he thus stands 
worshipping by him. 

7. And, again, why the Vish»u-strides and the 
VAtsapra rite are (performed) ; — by the Vish»u- 
strides PrafApati created this world, and by the 
Vatsapra the fire (Agni) ; by the Vish#u-strides 
Pra^Apati created the air, and by the Vatsapra the 
wind (VAyu) ; by the Vish»u-strides Pra^Apati created 
the sky, and by the Vatsapra the sun (Aditya) ; by 
the Vish#u-strides Pra^Apati created the regions, 
and by the Vatsapra the moon ; by the Vish»u- 
strides PrafApati created that which has been, and 
by the Vatsapra that which shall be ; by the Vishmi- 
strides Pra^Apati created possession (wealth), and by 
the Vatsapra hope ; by the Vishmi-strides Pra^Apati 
created the day, and by the VAtsapra the night ; by 
the Vish«u-strides Prafapati created the former 
(bright) fortnights, and by the Vatsapra the latter 
(dark) fortnights ; by the Vish/m-strides Pra^Apati 
created the half-months, and by the VAtsapra the 
months ; by the Vishwu-strides PrafApati created 
the seasons, and by the VAtsapra the year : thus the 
reason why the Vish»u-strides and VAtsapra are 
(performed) is that he thereby even now creates 
everything. 

8. And, again, why the Vishnu-strides and the 
VAtsapra rite are (performed). By the Vish»u- 
strides Pra^Apati drove up to heaven. He saw that 
unyoking-place, the VAtsapra, and unyoked thereat 
to prevent chafing; for when the yoked (beast) is 
not unloosed, it is chafed. In like manner the 
Sacrificer drives up to heaven by the Vishmi-strides ; 
and unyokes by means of the VAtsapra. 

9. Having stridden the Vishwu-strides, he then 



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VI KAJVDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAWA, 12. 287 

forthwith stands by the fire worshipping it with the 
Vatsapra, just as one who has journeyed would 
forthwith unyoke. Men (proceed) after the manner 
of the gods : hence even now, when a troop of men 
have journeyed they forthwith unyoke. 

10. Now, the Vish»u-strides indeed are the day 
and the night, and the Vatsapra is the day and the 
night : he thus journeys for a day and a night, and 
takes rest for a day and a night : and hence even 
now when a troop of men have journeyed for a day 
and a night they take rest for a day and a night. 

11. Only for one half of the year he strides the 
Vishmi-strides, and for one half he worships the fire 
with the Vatsapra ; for the world of heaven is in the 
midst of the year : thus were he to stride for less 
than half (a year), he would not reach that world of 
heaven ; and were he to do so for more than half (a 
year), he would pass beyond that world of heaven 
and lose it ; but when he strides for one half, and 
worships the fire for one half, he unyokes forthwith 
after reaching the world of heaven. 

12. He proceeds with these two alternately 1 , even 
as one would accomplish a long way by (repeatedly) 
unyoking. Both before and after (the Diksha), he 
combines both, the Vish«u-strides and the Vatsapra ; 
for the Vish»u-strides are the day, and the Vatsapra 
the night ; and Prafapati, both when he was about to 
generate and when he had generated this universe, 
enclosed it on both sides by day and night : in like 

1 That is, whilst on the first day of the Diksht, as well as on the 
day after its completion, both the Vishnu-strides and the Vatsapra 
are performed, during the intermediate period of one year they are 
performed on alternate days, — the Vish»u-strides on even, and the 
Vatsapra on uneven days. 



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288 satapatha-brAhmajta. 

manner the Sacrificer now, both when he is about to 
generate and when he has generated this universe, 
encloses it on both sides by day and night. 

13. As to this they say, ' If the Vishwu-strides are 
the day, and the Vatsapra the night, and both of 
them are (performed) during the day, not during the 
night, how then are they both performed for (or by) 
him also during the night ? ' Well, on that (first) 
occasion, when he is being initiated, he, at the 
outset, combines both (performances) in the after- 
noon ; for the afternoon is the same thing as the 
night. Then throwing them thus together, he at 
the end combines them both in the forenoon ; for 
the forenoon is the same thing as the day ; and in 
this way they are both performed during the day, 
and both during the night. 

14. Now early on the day on which he may intend 
to combine them, when the sun has risen, he first 
throws out the ashes (from the pan) ; having thrown 
out the ashes, he releases his speech ; having released 
his speech, he puts on a kindling-stick ; having put 
on a kindling-stick, he takes the ashes down to (and 
throws them into) the water. In the same way as he 
takes them down he returns after taking some of the 
ashes ; and having thrown it into the pan he stands 
reverentially by the fire. He then performs two 
expiations. 

1 5. And if the day should be one for the Vish«u- 
strides, let him, after striding the Vishrcu-strides, 
worship the fire with the Vatsapra ; and if it be one 
for the Vatsapra, let him, after worshipping with the 
Vatsapra, and striding the Vishwu-strides, finally per- 
form the Vatsapra. Let him not conclude by per- 
forming the Vishmi-strides, for that would be as if 



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vi kAnda, 8 adhyAya, i brAhmaata, 3. 289 

after going for a drive he were not to unyoke ; but 
when he concludes by performing the Vatsapra — the 
Vatsapra being a halting-place — (it is) as if he made 
a halt and unloosed (the team) : let him therefore 
conclude by performing the Vatsapra. 

Eighth AdhyAya. First BrAhma^a. 

1 . ' Let him drive Agni about while keeping him up,' 
so they say. The gods and the Asuras, both of them 
sprung from Pri^apati, were contending. The gods 
drove about on wheels (cars), and the Asuras stayed 
at home. The gods, while driving about on wheels, 
saw 1 this rite (sacrificial performance), for it was 
indeed in driving about on wheels that they saw this 
rite : hence it is to the cart that the formulas relate 
at the (performance with) sacrificial cakes 2 , and to 
the cart in the building of the fire-altar 8 . 

2. Now he who drives Agni about goes to the 
gods by the sacred performance, for divine is the 
rite performed by him ;' but he who does not drive 
him about goes to the Asuras by the sacred perform- 
ance, for demoniac is the rite performed by him. 

3. Here now some say, ' It is by himself that he 
(Agni) is driven about ; for by the Vish«u-strides he 
drives forward, and by the Vatsapra he unyokes.' Let 
him not think this to be so ; for divine (to the gods) 
is that progress of his, to wit, the Vislwra-strides ; 
and divine the unyoking, to wit, the Vatsapra. But 
human would be that progress of his, which he makes 
in this manner, and human the unyoking he makes. 

1 Siyawa says, ' vfrasiddheA,' ' by the heroes' success.* 

* See I, 1, 2, 5. 

* Saya«a refers to Va#. S. XII, 31, ' upwards may the All-gods 
bear thee . . . ' (paragraph 9 below), as a passage in point 

[4i] V 



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290 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

4. This Agni is Pra^apati ; and Pra^&pati is both 
the gods and men. Now when the Vish«u-strides 
and the Vatsapra are (performed), he thereby makes 
up that form of his which is divine ; and when he 
drives him about he thereby makes up that form of 
his which is human. Verily, then, he who, knowing 
this, drives him about, makes up that whole and 
entire Pra^apati: let him therefore by all means 
drive him (Agni) about 

5. Now on any day on which he may intend to 
drive, he gets the chariot placed north of the fire 
(with the pole) to the east; and puts a kindling-stick 
on it (the fire) ; for at that time the gods first regaled 
him (Agni) with food, with that kindling-stick, when 
he was about to start : and in like manner does this 
one now first regale him with food, with that kindling- 
stick, when he is about to start 

6. [Va^. S. XII, 30; Rik S. VIII, 44, 1] 'With 
fuel serve ye Agni!' — that is, 'with fuel worship 
ye Agni!' — 'with draughts of ghee awake ye 
the guest, offer ye libations unto him ! ' — that is, 
' with (draughts of) ghee do ye awake the guest, and 
offer libations unto him ! ' — with a (verse) containing 
(the verb) ' awake ' he awakens him for the starting. 

7. He then lifts him (the fire) up, with (V&g. S. 
XII, 31), 'Upwards may the All-gods bear thee, 
O Agni, by their thoughts!' — at the beginning 
all the gods did indeed bear him upwards by their 
thoughts, for that (or, he) was then their thought : in 
like manner does this (Sacrificer) now bear him up- 
wards by his thoughts, for this now is his thought ; 
— 'be thou gracious unto us, of fair look, and 
rich splendour!' — as the text, so its meaning. 
From the south he places him (Agni) northwards 



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vi kXnda, 8 adhyAya, i brAhmawa, ii. 291 

on (the chariot) — the significance of this has been 
explained. Having put the Garhapatya into a pot, 
he places it on (the chariot) behind (the Ahavantya, 
or Ukhya Agni). If he choose, he himself may mount 
up beside him (Agni), or he may walk by the side (of 
the chariot). 

8. He then yokes two oxen, first the right one, 
then the left one : so (it is done) with the gods, 
otherwise in human (practice). And in whatever 
direction he may intend to drive, let him first drive 
east, for the east is Agni's region : he (Agni) thus 
proceeds towards his own region. 

9. [Whilst driving thither, he mutters, V&g. S. 
XII, 32] 'Go forth, O Agni, brilliant thou with 
propitious flames!' — that is, 'Brilliant, O Agni, 
go thou forth with propitious, shining flames!' — 
'Beaming with great beams injure not my 
people with thy body!' — that is, 'With great 
shining flames do not injure my people by thyself! ' 

10. Whenever the axle creaks, let him mutter 
that prayer (V^f. S. XII, 33); for demoniacal is 
that voice which is in the axle : he thereby appeases 
that (voice) and makes it as of the gods. 

11. And, again, why he mutters that prayer; — 
with whomsoever, mounted (on a chariot), the axle 
creaks, this is his own voice : hence when the axle 
creaks while Agni is mounted, this is the voice of 
Agni himself. It was Agni indeed whom the gods 
thereby praised and magnified ; and in like manner 
does this (Sacrificer) thereby praise and magnify 
him: 'Agni roared like the thundering sky,' — 
the meaning of this has been explained *. 

1 See above, VI, 7, 3, 2. 
U 2 



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292 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA2VA. 

12. If he unyokes before (reaching) his dwelling, 
let the fire remain on the chariot itself; but when he 
unyokes for (staying at) his dwelling, he stops the 
chariot (with the pole) to the east ; and north of it 
he raises and sprinkles (a place) where he takes it 
(the fire) down. He takes it down from south to 
north : the meaning of this has been explained. 

13. He then puts a kindling-stick thereon ; for on 
that occasion the gods regaled him (Agni) with food, 
with that kindling-stick, after he had travelled : in 
like manner does this (Sacrificer) now regale him, 
after he has travelled, with food, with that kindling- 
stick. 

14. [He puts it on, with V&g. S. XII, 34 ; Rik S. 
VII, 8, 4] ' Far, far famed is this Agni of the 
Bharata (tribe),' — the Bharata 1 , doubtless, is Pra^a- 
pati, for he sustains (bhar) this entire (universe) ; — 
'that his great light shineth brightly, as the sun,' 
— that is, ' that, like the sun, his great light shines 
brightly;' — 'he who overthrew Puru in battles,' 
— Puru, by name, was an Asura-Rakshas : him Agni 
overthrew (abhi-stha) in battles ; — 'blazed up hath 
the divine guest, gracious unto us;' — that is, 
' being kindled, the divine guest is gracious to us.' 
With a (verse) containing (the verb) ' stha ' (he per- 
forms), for he thereby makes him stop (stha) for 
(staying at) his home. 

15. Now, then, the (symbolic) correspondence, — 
with the first (formula) he puts on a kindling-stick, 
with one he lifts him up, with one he starts, with one 
he addresses the axle, with the fifth he puts on a 

1 Mahfdhara, in accordance with Nigh. Ill, 18 (priest), explains 
' bharata ' as the one who brings (bhar) offerings ; and, with Sajana, 
identifies the Bharata with the Sacrificer. 



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vi kAnda, 8 adhyAya, 2 brAhma^a, 3. 293 

kindling-stick, that makes five, — of five layers consists 
the fire-altar, five seasons are a year, and the year is 
Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, 
so great does this become. 

Second BrAhmana. 

1. Now, then, as to the taking down of the ashes 
(to the water *). Now, the gods at that time threw out 
the ashes (from the pan). They said, ' If we make 
this, such as it is, part of our own self, we shall become 
mortal carcases, not freed from sin j and if we cast it 
away, we shall put outside of Agni what therein is 
of Agni's nature : find ye out in what manner we 
shall do this ! ' — They said, ' Meditate ye (iit) ! ' 
whereby, indeed, they said, 'Seek ye a layer (or 
altar, £iti). Seek ye }n what manner we shall do 
this!' 

2. While meditating, they saw this, — ' Let us take 
it down to the water ; for the water is the foundation 
of this universe : having settled it on that wherein 
is the foundation of this universe, we shall reproduce 
from out of the water what there is of Agni's nature 
in this (heap of ashes)/ They then took it down 
to (and threw it into) the water ; and in like manner 
does this (Sacrificer) now take it down to the water. 

3. [Va^". S. XII, 35] ' O divine waters, receive 
ye these ashes, and put them in a soft and 
fragrant place ! ' — that, being consumed (matter), 
has run its course (is useless) : regarding that he 
says, ' Put it in the most fragrant place ! ' — ' May 

1 The ashes removed from the ' ukha ' or fire-pan are put in a bag 
made of leaves of some sacred tree, and are then thrown into the 
water in two portions. As they are floating on the water, a small por- 
tion is taken from them again with the little finger and put in the pan. 



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294 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

the wives, wedded to a good lord, bow down to 
him/ — the wives, doubtless, are the waters, for from 
the waters this universe is produced ; and in Agni 
the waters have indeed a good lord; — 'bear it on 
the waters, even as a mother (bears) her son ! ' 
— that is, ' as a mother would bear her son on her 
lap, so bear ye this ! ' 

4. [Va^-. S. XII, 36; Kik S. VIII, 43, 9] ' In the 
waters, O Agni, is thy seat,' — that is, 'in the 
waters, O Agni, is thy womb;' — 'as such thou 
clingest to the plants,' — for he does indeed cling 
to (love) the plants, — 'being in (their) womb thou 
art born again,' — when he is in the womb he is 
indeed born again. — [Va/ - . S. XII, 37] 'Thou art 
the child of the herbs, the child of the trees, 
the child of all that is, O Agni, thou art the 
child of the waters ;' — he thus makes him (Agni) 
the child of this entire (universe). 

5. With three (verses) he throws (the ashes into 
the water), — threefold is Agni : as great as Agni is, 
as great as is his measure, by so much he thus throws 
them down. First with one (prayer), and then with 
two ; or first with two, and then with one, — but at two 
separate times he throws them down : he thus throws 
them down by means of the two-footed animals. 

6. He then takes some (of the ashes) therefrom : 
he thereby reproduces from the waters what there is 
of Agni's nature in that (heap of ashes). [He takes 
it] with that (nameless or little finger), for with that 
(finger) medicine is prepared : it is with that one he 
thus puts him (Agni) together. [V^f. S. XII, 
38-41] 'Having settled 1 in the womb, as 

1 ' Pra-sad ' (=pra-Sp, Mahidhara) seems here really to have the 

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vi KkyDA, 8 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 8. 295 

ashes, in the waters, and the earth, O Agni,' — 
by his ashes he is, indeed, settled in the womb, that 
is, both in the waters and in the earth; — 'having 
united with the mothers, thou hast again, 
brightly shining, seated thee;' — that is, ' Having 
joined thy mothers, thou, the shining one, hast again 
seated thyself (in thy home).' — 'Having again 
seated thee in thy seat, the waters and the 
earth, O Agni, thou liest in her (the earth, 
or pan) most happy, as in a mother's lap.' 
— 'Return again with sustenance, again, O 
Agni, with food and life; guard us again from 
trouble! — With wealth return, O Agni, over- 
flow with the all-feeding stream on every 
side ! ' — that is, ' With all this return thou to me ! ' 

7. With four (verses) he takes (some of the 
ashes) ; — he thereby supplies him (Agni) with four- 
footed animals ; and animals being food, it is with 
food he thus supplies him. With three (verses) he 
takes (the ashes) down (to the water), — that makes 
seven, for of seven layers consists the fire-altar 1 , 
seven seasons are a year, and the year is Agni : as 
great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, so great 
does this become. 

8. Having taken some of the ashes, and returned, 
he throws it into the fire-pan, and stands by (the fire) 
worshipping it ; for when he throws Agni into the 
water he does what is improper; he now makes 
amends to him so that he may not injure him. 
With two (verses) relating to Agni (he worships), — 
for it is to Agni that he makes amends, — and with such 

meaning of 'abhiprasad' or ' anuprasad,' as the accusative can 
scarcely be taken along with ' asada/4.' 
1 See p. 249, note 3. 



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296 satapatha-brahmaya. 

as contain (the verb) ' budh ' (to attend to, awake), in 
order that Agni may attend to this speech of his. 

9. [Va^. S. XII, 42-3 ; **k S. I, 147, 2 ; II, 6, 4] 
' Attend thou to this word of mine, O youngest!' 
— that is, ' attend to this word of mine, O young- 
est!' — 'put forth most plentifully, O faithful 
one!' — that is, 'put forth most abundantly, O faith- 
ful one!' — 'this one revileth thee, and that one 
singeth thy praises,' — that is, 'one (man) reviles 
thee, and another sings thy praises;' — 'reverently 
I revere thy body, O Agni!' — that is, 'I, thy 
reverer, revere thy body, O Agni!' — 'Be thou 
a munificent patron of offerings, O lord of 
wealth, the bestower of wealth, keep off from 
us the haters!' this he says in order that he may 
keep off haters from him. With two (verses) he 
worships the fire, a Gayatrl and a Trish/ubh verse : 
the significance of this has been explained. 

10. These make nine (verses), — there are nine 
regions \ and Agni is the regions ; nine vital airs, 
and Agni is the vital airs : as great as Agni is, as 
great as is his measure, so great does this become. 

11. He then performs two expiations ; for it is for 
(the obtainment of) all his desires that he sets up 
that (fire) ; — thus whatever part of his desires is here 
cut off when the fire is thrown into the water, that 
he thereby joins together and restores. H e performs 
both expiations which (are performed) when the fire 
has gone out 2 : the significance of this has been 
explained. 

1 Viz. the four cardinal points, and the four intermediate points, 
of the compass, and the upper region. To these paragraph ia 
adds, as a tenth, the lower region. 

* VI, 6, 4, 10 seq. 



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vi kAnda, 8 adhyaya, 2 brAhmava, 12. 297 

12. This makes ten (performances), — the Vira^ - 
consists often syllables, and Agni is the Vira^ -1 ; there 
are ten regions, and Agni is the regions ; ten vital 
airs, and Agni is the vital airs : as great as Agni is, 
as great as is his measure, so great does this be- 
come. 

1 That is, the wide-shining, or wide-ruling one. 



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298 jatapatha-brXhmajva. 



SEVENTH KkNDA. 



THE GARHAPATYA HEARTH. 

First AdhyAya. First BrAhma^a. 

1. Being about to build the Garhapatya (fire-place), 
he sweeps (its site) with a Pallia (butea frondosa) 
branch. For when he builds the Garhapatya 1 he 
settles on that place; and whatsoever builders of 
fire-altars (there have been), they are indeed settled 
on this earth ; and when he sweeps (that place) he 
thereby sweeps away those settled (there before 
him), thinking, ' Lest I should settle on those already 
settled (here).' 

2. [He sweeps, with V^f. S. XII, 45] « Off with 
you ! away with you! crawl away from here* !' — 
that is, ' Go off, go away, and crawl away from here ! ' 
he says this to those that crawl on their belly ; — 'Ye 
that are here of old and of late 1 ' that is, ' both ye 
who were here of yore, and ye of the present day.' 

3. 'Yama hath given the settlement on 
earth (to this Sacrificer) ; ' — for Yama indeed rules 
over the settling on this earth, and it is he who 
grants to this (Sacrificer) a settlement on this earth. 

1 That is, ' the householder's fire,' which represents the Sacri- 
fice's domestic hearth. 

* This first pSda is taken from JRik S. X, 14, 9. The four 
p&das of the verse are muttered by the Adhvaryu while sweeping 
the four sides of the site respectively, beginning in the east and 
ending in the north. On this place when swept the circular site 
of the Garhapatya is then marked off by saline soil being scattered 
over it (cf. Taitt. S. V, a, 3, 2-3). 



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VII KAJVDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, J. 299 

4. 'The Fathers have prepared this place 
for him !' for Yama is the Kshatra (nobility, or 
ruling power), and the Fathers (deceased ancestors) 
are the clansmen; and to whomsoever the chief 
(kshatriya), with the approval of the clan, grants a 
setdement, that (settlement) is properly given : and 
in like manner does Yama, the ruling power, with 
the consent of the Fathers, the clan, now grant to 
this (Sacrificer) a settlement on this earth. 

5. With a pala&i branch he sweeps; for the 
Pallra tree is the Brahman * : it is by the Brahman 
he thus sweeps away those already settled ; — with a 
prayer (he does so), for the prayer is the Brahman : 
it is by the Brahman he thus sweeps away those 
already setded. He throws it (the branch) out 
towards the north a . 

6. He then scatters saline soil (over the hearth- 
site) ; for the Garhapatya is this world, and salt 
means cattle : he thus bestows cattle on this world, — 
hence those cattle here in this world. 

7. And again why he scatters saline soil. Pra^a- 
pati created creatures ; he created them with different 
kinds of amnions : they did not agree together. He 
desired, ' May they agree together ! ' He made 
them to be of the same (kind of) amnion : hence 
even to this day, being of equal amnions, they agree 
together. And he who offers, offers thinking, ' May 
I be (born) with the same (kind of) amnion as the 
gods ! ' and when he scatters saline salt (in the hearth- 
site) he thereby becomes of equal amnion with the 
gods. 

1 For the identification of the Pallra with the Brahman (sacred 
writ, or the holy spirit embodied therein), see part i, p. 90, note t. 
* ' He throws it upwards,' DelbrQck, Synt. F. V, 79. 



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300 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

8. [He does so, with V^. S. XII, 46] ' Concord 
thou art ! ' for thereby they agreed together 1 ; — 'ful- 
filment of desire ; ' for salt is cattle, and fulfilment 
of desire means cattle ; — ' In me may there be the 
fulfilment of thy desire!' that is, ' May there be 
on me cattle for thee ! ' — He covers with it the whole 
(circular) Garhapatya; for the Garhapatya altar is 
the womb, and the saline soil is the amnion : he thus 
covers the whole womb with the amnion. 

9. He then scatters sand to keep (the saline soil, 
or amnion) from being scorched * ; — for sand is 
nothing else than the ashes of Agni Valrvinara, and 
him, Agni Vairvanara, he is indeed about to build 
up ; and Agni does not scorch his own self. 

10. And again why he scatters sand, — sand is 
nothing else than the seed of Agni Vawvanara 3 , and 
him, Agni Vatrvanara, he is about to build up ; but 
nothing is fashioned from out of the seedless : ' May 
he (Agni) be fashioned from out of this seed ! ' so he 
thinks. 

1 1. [He scatters it, with V$g. S. XII, 46] ' Agni's 
ashes thou art ! Agni's soil thou art! ' for Agni's 
ashes are useless, and the sand is not useless : he 
thus makes it (the Garhapatya hearth) to be useful. 
He covers with it the whole Garhapatya; for the 



1 Saya»a, on Taitt. S. IV, 2, 4, takes ' samgfta.na.vn. ' in the sense 
of 'knowledge, recognition;' explaining it from the fact that 
cattle by their smell recognise the places of saline soil and lick 
them. 

* Or, to keep (the fire) from burning over (or through the sand, 
and injuring the saline soil or amnion). For the construction, see 
p. 198, note 2. 

* This notion is apparently based on the supposed etymological 
connection of ' sikata,' sand, with the root ' sii.' 



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vii kajvda, i adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 14. 301 

Garhapatya altar is the womb, and the sand is seed : 
he thus fills the whole womb with seed. 

12. He then encloses it with enclosing-stones; for 
the enclosing-stones are the womb : he thus encloses 
the seed here cast in the womb ; and hence the seed 
which is cast is enclosed in the womb. 

13. And, again, why he encloses it with enclosing- 
stones ; — the Garhapatya hearth is this (terrestrial) 
world, and the enclosing-stones are the waters : he 
thus surrounds this world with water, — it is with the 
ocean that he thus surrounds it on all sides, and 
hence the ocean flows round this world on all sides. 
(He puts up the stones) by turning to the right 
(or south) 1 , whence the ocean flows round this world 
(from the east) southwards ; — by means of a dug out 
(hole, or moat) 2 , whence the ocean flows round this 
world in a moat 

14. [Va^ - . S. XII, 46] 'Ranging ye are!' for he 
does range them ; — ' ranging around ye are! ' for 
he does range them all round ; — ' upwards ranging 
get ye fixed ! ' thus he says, placing them upright : 
hence the ocean surges upwards; but were he to 
place them sideways, the ocean surely would all at 
once overflow all this (earth). He does not settle 
them, for unsettled are the waters ; nor does he 
pronounce the Sudadohas (verse) on them 8 . 



1 That is, from east to south, &c, following the course of the 
son. 

' ?That is, by digging in each stone, the circle consisting of 
altogether twenty-one stones. 

8 The two ceremonies here referred to, viz. the 'sadana' (settling, 
setting, steadying, viz. by means of the formula, XII, 53, ' with the 
help of that deity lie thou steady, like Angiras,' see VII, 1, 1, 30) and 
the muttering of the Sudadohas verse (Va#. S. XII, 55, for which 



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302 



satapatha-brAhmajva. 



15. For the enclosing-stones are the bones, and 
the Sudadohas is the breath ; and there is no breath 
in the bones. With one and the same formula he 
lays down many bricks \ for of one and the same 
form are the waters ; and as to there being many 
enclosing-stones, it is because there are many waters. 

16. The enclosing-stones, then, are the womb; 
the saline earth is the amnion, and the sand is the 
seed. The enclosing-stones are outside, and the 
saline earth is inside ; for the womb is outside, and 
the amnion inside. The saline earth is outside, and 
the sand inside ; for the amnion is outside, and the 
seed inside. He who is born is born from these : it 
is from them that he thus causes him (Agni) to be 
born. 

1 7. Thereon he now builds it (the hearth) : he 




Garhapatya Hearth. 

thereby fashions that infused seed ; and hence the 
infused seed is fashioned in the womb. 

see note to paragraph 31), are the so-called 'necessary' rites, 
because they have as a rule to be performed on each (special) 
brick, when it has been laid down in building up the fire-altar. 

1 Viz. the so-called ' lokampr/«£ ' (or space-filling bricks), for 
which see p. 153, note. 



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VII KANDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAATA, 21. 303 

18. He puts on (the circular site) four (bricks) 
running eastwards * ; two behind running crosswise 
(from south to north), and two (such) in front Now 
the four which he puts on running eastwards are the 
body; and as to there being four of these, it is 
because this body (of ours) consists of four parts 2 . 
The two at the back then are the thighs ; and the 
two in front the arms ; and where the body is that 
(includes) the head. 

19. Now he here fashions him (Agni) with wings 
and tail ; for whatlike the seed is fashioned in the 
womb suchlike (offspring) is born : thus inasmuch as 
he now fashions him with wings and tail, he is born 
hereafter 8 with wings and tail. 

20. While being indeed furnished with wings and 
tail, people do not see him as one having wings and 
tail 4 : hence one does not see the child in the womb 
in its proper shape ; but hereafter they (will) see him 
as one having wings and tail, and hence one sees the 
child after it is born in its proper shape. 

21. Four (bricks) he puts on first, for of him that 

1 That is, with the lines by which they are marked running from 
west to east Whilst these four bricks are oblong ones, measuring 
two feet by one, the four placed at the back and in front of them 
measure each a foot square, as do also those placed in the corners 
of the square pile, except the south-east corner, where two bricks 
are to be placed measuring one foot by half a foot each. 

* See VI, 1, 1, 3-6. 

* Or 'yonder/ that is, as the great fire-altar, soon to be built, 
which is ultimately to receive the Ahavaniya fire, taken from the 
Garhapatya. 

* While in the form of the Garhapatya the wings and tail are 
not represented at all, these appendages form an important part 
of the great altar of the Ahavaniya fire. In the Garhapatya hearth, 
Agni would seem represented rather as a man lying on his back 
with the head towards the east. 



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304 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAAA. 

is being produced it is the body (trunk) that is pro- 
duced first. Sitting south (of the hearth-site) with 
his face to the north he puts on first one (brick) of 
the upper (north) part 1 (of the trunk) ; and in this 
manner that Agni of his comes to be built up towards 
(or for the Sacrificer) himself. 

22. [He puts it on, with V&f. S. XII, 47 ; Rik S. 
Ill, 22, 1, &o] 'This is the Agni wherein Indra 
taketh theSoma-juice,' for the G&rhapatya hearth 
is this (terrestrial) world, and the Soma-juice is the 
waters : Indra thus took up the waters in this world ; 
— 'into his belly, craving it,' — for the belly is the 
centre; — 'thousandfold strength, like a swift 
racer,' — the thousandfold strength, doubtless, is the 
waters, — 'thou, having gained, art exalted, O 
knower of beings ! ' that is, ' thou, being built, art 
built 2 , O knower of beings ! ' 

23. [The second brick, with V4f. S. XII, 48] ' O 
Agni, what splendour is thine in the heaven,' 
— his splendour in the heaven doubtless is the sun ; — 
*on earth,' that on earth is this fire; — 'and that 
which is in the plants, in the waters, O holy 
one !' he thereby means the fire that is both in the 
plants, and in the waters ; — 'wherewith thou hast 
overspread the wide air,' — that is, the wind; — 
'brilliant is that light, surging, man-viewing;' 
that is, ' great is that light, surging, man-viewing.' 

24. [The third, with Va^. S. XII, 49] ' O Agni, 

1 In laying down the bricks he again follows the course of the 
sun, that is, he lays down the four large or central ones from north 
to south, then the two back ones from south to north, and finally 
the two front ones from north to south. 

* PThat is, Thou, being built (as the G&rhapatya), art built (once 
more as the Ahavanrya), 



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vii kXnda, i adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 27. 305 

thou goest up to the flood of the heaven;' 
the flood of that heaven doubtless is the waters 
(of the atmosphere) : to them he goes by his smoke ; 
— 'hither callest thou the divine inspirers,' — 
the divine inspirers doubtless are the vital airs, 
for these inspire all thoughts; — 'the waters ap- 
proach (thee), they that are beyond the lumi- 
nous sphere of the sun, and they that are 
below here;' — the luminous sphere doubtless is 
that world yonder where that (sun) is burning : he 
thereby means both the waters which are beyond, 
and those which are below that (sun). 

25. [The fourth one, with Va^. S. XII, 50] * The 
Agnis Purishyas,' — that is, the Agnis favourable 
to cattle; — 'together with those of the streams 
(prava«a) ; ' this is a form of starting x (praya«a), 
for the Garhapatya is indeed a starting of the fire ; — 
'may they, benevolent, accept the sacrifice, 
the copious, salutary draughts!' that is, 'may 
they benevolently accept the sacrifice, the copious, 
innocuous draughts ! ' 

26. He puts them down separately : what different 
desires there are, those he thereby lays into the 
self. He 'settles' them once: he thereby makes 
the self one. He pronounces the Sudadohas 2 verse 
on them; for the Sudadohas is the vital air: by 
means of the vital air he thus makes him (Agni) 
continuous, joins him together. 

27. Thereupon going round behind, he sits down 
on the north side with his face to the south, and 
puts on first the southern one of the two behind, 

1 Viz. inasmuch as ' pravawa ' begins with the preposition ' pra/ 
forward, Say. 

* See p. 307, note 2. 

[4i] X 



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306 satapatha-brAhma^a. 

with (V4f. S. XII, 51), 'Potent nourishment, O 
Agni, the possession of kine,' — nourishment 
means cattle : he thus invokes for him the blessing 
of cattle; — 'Grant thou perpetually unto him 
that calleth!' — he that calls doubtless is the 
Sacrificer ; — ' May there be to us a son, the 
perpetuator of the race,' — a son means off- 
spring; — 'let that, O Agni, be thy good-will 
unto us ! ' he therewith invokes a blessing. 

28. Then the northern one, with (Va^ - . S. XII, 
52; RiV. S. Ill, 29, 10), 'This is thy natural 
womb, whence born thou shonest forth,' — that 
is, ' this (householder's hearth) is thy primeval, 
perennial womb (birth-place), whence born thou 
wert enkindled;' — 'knowing it, ascend, O Agni, 
and increase our substance!' as the text, so its 
meaning. 

29. These two are his (Agni's) thighs, — separately 
he puts them on, separately he ' settles ' them, 
separately he pronounces the Sudadohas verse upon 
them, for separate are these two thighs. There are 
two of them, for there are two thighs. Behind he 
puts them on, for behind are those thighs. At their 
upper ends they are joined (to the central ones '), 
for so are these thighs joined (to the body) at their 
upper ends. 

30. Thereupon, going round again by the same 
way, he sits down on the south side, with his face to 
the north, and puts on first the northern one of the 
two (bricks) in front, with (Vif. S. XII, 53), 



1 They are joined to each other, according to SSyawa, but this 
can hardly be the meaning intended, as the stones lie close to 
each other also at the lower (western) end. 



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VII KANDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, $2. 307 

'Ranging thou art: by that deity, Angiras- 
like, lie thou steady 1 !' Then the southern one, 
with, ' Ranging round thou art: by that deity, 
Ahgiras-like, lie thou steady 1 !' 

31. These two are his (Agni's) arms, — separately 
he puts them on, separately he 'settles' them, 
separately he pronounces the Sudadohas 2 verse on 
them ; for separate are these two arms. There are 
two of them, for there are two arms. He puts them 
on in the forepart, for these arms are here in front. 
At their upper ends they are joined (to the central 
ones), for so are these two arms joined (to the body) 
at the upper ends. Those two (arms) he puts on 
thus (from north to south), and those two (thighs) 
thus (from south to north): that is (from east to) 
southward 3 , for thus it is with the gods 4 . 

32. Eight bricks he puts on (the hearth-site), — 
the Gayatri consists of eight syllables, and Agni is 
Gayatra 6 : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, so great he thus builds him. Five times 
he ' settles ' (the bricks) — the fire-altar consists of 
five layers ; five seasons are a year, and Agni is the 
year : as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, 

1 This common portion of the two formulas forms the so-called 
•settling' (or 'setting') formula (sadana); K&ly. Sr. XVI, 7, 14; 
cf. VI, r, 2, 28, and p. 301, note 3. ' Angiras-like ' apparently 
means, ' as (thou didst) in the case of, or with, Angiras.' 

s Vig. S. XII, 55 ; M S. VIII, 69; 3. ' At his birth the well- 
like milking, speckled ones mix the Soma (draught), the clans of the 
gods in the three spheres of the heavens.' This difficult verse has 
been differently translated by different translators. The Brahmawa 
itself also gives a very different, doubtless quite fanciful, interpreta- 
tion of it at VIII, 7, 3, 21. 

* That is, in accordance with the course of the sun. 

4 Or, 'thus (it goes, — or, Agni, as a bird, flies) to the gods.' 

• See VI, 1, 1, 15. 

X 2 



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308 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

so great he thus builds him. Eight bricks he 
'settles' five times, that makes thirteen, — thirteen 
months are a year, and there are thirteen layers of 
earth in the fire-altar : as great as Agni is, as great 
as is his measure, so great does this become. 

33. He then puts on a space-filling one: the 
significance of that one (will be explained) further 
on 1 . Three there are in front 2 , — threefold is Agni : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, so 
great he thus builds him ; — and ten those that 
follow 3 , — the significance of these (will be explained) 
further on. Or first two, then ten, and then one, 
for in this way they build up the pile, — these amount 
to thirteen : the significance of this has been told. 

34. Both these kinds (of bricks) amount to twenty- 
one ; — there are twelve months, five seasons, these 
three worlds, and yonder sun as the twenty-first : 
that sun he thus establishes in this fire-altar. 

35. Moreover, there are twenty-one enclosing- 
stones, — twelve months, five seasons, these three 
worlds, and that Agni from yonder (sun) 4 as the 
twenty-first : this Agni he thus establishes in yonder 
sun. And inasmuch as he puts on those (bricks) in 
this way, he thereby establishes those two (the sun 
and the fire) in each other, and (accordingly) those 
two are established in each other ; for both of them 
he now makes out to be the twenty-first, and both 

1 VIII, 7, 2, 1 seq. 

* Viz. one in the north-east, and two (of half the size) in the 
south-east corner. 

' Viz. one in the south-west, and one in the north-west corner ; 
and further, eight more filling up the four segments of the circle. 
See the outline of the Garhapatya altar at p. 302. 

4 Or, perhaps that Agni on yonder sky (or fire-altar?). In any 
case it is the sun that is referred to. 4 



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VII KANDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 37. 309 



of them are then here 1 , as the Ahavanlya and the 
Garhapatya. 

36. He. then throws thereon a layer of earth, — the 
significance of this (will be told) further on \ He 
takes it from the edge of the pit (A'itvala) ; for the 
A'atvala is the same as Agni 3 , and in this way does 
that which is of Agni's nature become his. It (the 
Garhapatya altar) should be even with the mouth 
(of the fire-pan) : the significance of this has been 
told «. 

37. It (the Garhapatya hearth) measures a fathom 
(in diameter 8 ), for man is a fathom high, and man is 
Pra^apati (the lord of generation), and Pra^apati is 
Agni : he thus makes the womb of equal size to his 
(Agni's) body. It is circular, for the womb is 
circular ; and moreover the Garhapatya is this 
(terrestrial) world, and this world doubtless is 
circular. 

1 That is to say, they will be here after the completion of the 
two altars, — the Garhapatya fire being the Agni proper, and the 
Ahavanfya fire the sun. 

* For this, and the formula (V&g. S. XII, 56) used therewith, 
see VIII, 7, 3, 1 seq. 

8 See part ii, p. 116, note 3, 'The earth taken from the pit 
being used for constructing the high altar, both are of the same 
size or cubic extent.' 

4 See VI, 3, 3, 26. 

5 Or rather, it is a circle corresponding in area to a square 
of one fathom; which gives a diameter somewhat exceeding in 
length a fathom (that is, the space between the tips of the middle 
fingers when the arms are extended). The measurement is (at least 
theoretically) a relative one, being adapted to the Sacrificer's size; 
but practically the fathom (vyama, or purusha, man) may be taken 
to be of about 6 feet, the vyama being equal to 4 aratnis (cubits) 
of 2 pradwas (spans of some 18 inches each). This allows for a 
central square of 4 feet, and about 1 foot (in reality somewhat less) 
for each of the two bisectors of the segments. 



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3IO tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

38. He then pours those two (fires) together 1 , — 
he thereby establishes concord between them — with 
(Va^\ S. XII, 57-60), • Unite ye two, and get ye 
on together, loving, radiant, well-disposed, 
dwelling together for food and drink! — To- 
gether have I brought your minds, together 
your rites, together your thoughts: O Agni 
Purishya 2 , be thou the overlord, and bestow 
thou food and drink upon our Sacrificer! — O 
Agni, thou art the Purishya, wealthy, pros- 
perous: having made happy all the regions, 
seat thee here in thine own seat! — Be ye two 
unto us of one mind, of one thought, without 
guile! Injure ye not the sacrifice, nor the 
lord of the sacrifice, and be ye propitious 
unto us this day, ye knowers of beings! ' He 
therewith pacifies them for (mutual) safety, so that 
they shall do no injury to one another. 

39. With four (verses) he pours them together, — 
he thereby establishes concord between them by 
whatever four-footed cattle there are; and cattle 
being food, it is by means of food that he establishes 
concord between them. 

40. Let him not look at that (pan) while empty : 
' I must not look at the empty one ! ' so he thinks. 
Were he to look at the empty (pan), it would cer- 
tainly devour him. 

41. He then pours sand into it 8 , for sand (sikati) is 

1 That is, he pours the fire of the pan (ukhyagni) on the 
Garhapatya (hearth). 

* ' Purishya ' seems here to have the sense of ' rich, plentiful.' 
See p. 20 1, note. 

8 ' Ukha,' the pan, is feminine, and represents the womb from 
which Agni is born. 



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vii kXnda, i adhyAya, i brAhmaya, 44. 311 

the seed of Agni VaLrvanara : he thus pours (sic) 
Agni Vai^vanara as seed into it. It should be even 
with the brim : the significance of this has been 
explained. 

42. He then unlooses it, to keep it from chafing ; 
for if that which is yoked is not unloosed it is 
chafed. Now when yoked there, it (the fire-pan) 
bore this Agni within it as seed, and him it has now 
brought forth. It now conceives a second time ; for 
the ' Ukha ' is a female, and hence when a female 
has brought forth the seed the first time, it conceives 
a second time. 

43. [He unlooses it from the netting, with Wig. 
S. XII, 61] ' Even as a mother her son, so hath 
the Earth borne Agni Purishya,' — that is, Agni, 
favourable to cattle ; — ' she, the Ukha, in her own 
womb;' that is, the Ukha has borne Agni in her 
own womb ; — ' May Pra^apati, the all-former, 
release her, in concert with the All-gods, the 
seasons !' the All-gods doubtless are the seasons : 
thus Pra/apati, the all-former, releases it, in concert 
with the All-gods, the seasons. He deposits it north 
of the fire, at a cubit's distance : the significance of 
this has been explained l . 

44. He then pours milk into it, — it first receives 
seed, and now it receives milk ; for the fire-pan is a 
female : hence when a female receives seed, then it 
receives milk. The sand is below, and the milk 
above, for the seed is below, and the milk above. He 
pours it into the middle, so that thereon he may 
place the human head \ 

1 VI, 3, i, 30. » See VII, 5, 2, 14. 

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312 satapatha-brahmajva. 

Second Brahmawa. 

i. Pra^apati produced creatures. Having pro- 
duced creatures, and run the whole race, he became 
relaxed 1 . From him, when relaxed, the vital air went 
out from within : then his vigour went out of him. 
That having gone out, he fell down. From him, 
thus fallen, food flowed forth : it was from that eye 
on which he lay that his food flowed. And, verily, 
there was then no firm foundation whatever here. 

2. The gods spake, 'Verily, there is no other 
foundation than this : let us restore even him, our 
father Pra^apati ; he shall be our foundation.' 

3. They said unto Agni, 'Verily, there is no 
foundation other than this : in thee we will restore 
this our father Pra,£upati ; he shall be our founda- 
tion.' — ' What will then be my reward ? ' said he. 

4. They spake, ' This Pra£4pati is food : with thee 
for our mouth we will eat that food, and he (Pra^a- 
pati) shall be the food of us, having thee for our 
mouth.' He said, ' So be it ! ' Therefore the gods 
eat food with Agni as their mouth ; for to whatsoever 
deity men offer, it is into Agni that they offer, since 
it is with Agni for their mouth that the gods thus 
took in the food. 

5. Now the vital air which went out from within 
him is no other than the wind that blows yonder; 
and the vigour which went out of him is yonder sun ; 
and the food which flowed from him is all the food 
which there is within the year. 

6. The gods heated him in the fire ; and when the 

1 Literally, fallen asunder, i.e. broken to pieces, or disjointed 
(' opened,' DelbrttckT Synt. F. V, p. 385). 



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VII KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMA^A, IO. 313 

fire rose over him thus heated, that same vital air 
which had gone out from within him came back to 
him, and they put it into him ; and the vigour which 
had gone out of him they put into him ; and the 
food which had flowed from him they put into him. 
Having made him up entire and complete, they 
raised him (so as to stand) upright; and inasmuch as 
they thus raised him upright he is these worlds. 

7. This (terrestrial) world truly is his foundation ; 
and what fire there is in this world that is his (Pra- 
^apati's) downward vital air. And the air is his body, 
and what wind there is in the air, that is that vital 
air of his in the body. And the sky is his head ; the 
sun and the moon are his eyes. The eye on which 
he lay is the moon : whence that one is much closed 
up, for the food flowed therefrom. 

8. Now that same foundation which the gods thus 
restored is the foundation here even to this day, and 
will be so even hereafter. 

9. And the Pra^apati who became relaxed is this 
same Agni who is now being built up. And when 
that fire-pan lies there empty before being heated, it 
is just like Pra^apati, as he lay there with the vital 
air and the vigour gone out of him, and the food 
having flowed out. 

10. He heats it on the fire, even as the gods then 
heated him (Pra^apati). And when the fire rises 
over it thus heated, then that same vital air which 
went out from within him comes back to him, and he 
puts it into him. And when, putting on the gold 
plate, he wears it, he puts into him that very vigour 
which had gone out of him. And when he puts on 
kindling-sticks, he puts into him that very food which 
had flowed from him. 



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314 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

ii. He puts them on in the evening and morning, 
for the food both of the day and the night was flow- 
ing out. These same (ceremonies) should be (per- 
formed) during a whole year, for that Pra^apati 
whence those (substances) went out is the year : into 
that whole (Prafapati) he thus puts all that (which 
belongs to him). And in whatever part of this (year) 
he should therefore 1 not do so, into that part of him 
(Pra^apati) he would not put that (which belongs 
therein). ' One must not even be a looker-on at the 
(building up of a fire) not carried about for a year,' 
VamakakshAyawa was wont to say, 'lest he should 
see this our father Pra^apati being torn to pieces 2 .' 
He restores him so as to be whole and complete, 
and raises him to stand upright, even as the gods 
then raised him. 

12. This (terrestrial) world in truth is his (Pra^a- 
pati's) Garhapatya (hearth).; and what fire there is in 
this world that to him is the fire on the Garhapatya. 
And what space there is between the Ahavanlya and 
the Garhapatya, that is the air 8 ; and that wind in 

1 Or, in whatever part of this (year) from henceforward he should 
not do so. 

* It is very doubtful whether this second clause of the oratio 
directa is really meant to belong to V&makaksh&yawa's argument, or 
whether it is the author's own, in which case it has to be taken 
with what follows. ' Lest he should . . . pieces, he (first) restores 
him,' &c. That is, he is not to place him (Pra^apati) in an 
upright position, until he has been completely restored. The par- 
ticular form of the participle qualifying Pra^ipati (vtf Aidyam&na) 
might seem to favour the former alternative ; see, however, para- 
graph 23, antayoA sa»»skriyamS«ayor, 'after the two ends have 
been perfected.' 

' In this and the following paragraphs the ordinary position of 
subject and predicate seems often reversed: in the present case 
one would expect — that air is to him the space between the two fires. 



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VII KkNDA, I ADHVAYA, 2 BRAHMAtfA, 1 5. 315 

the air is for him the fire on the Agnidhrlya. The 
sky is his Ahavanlya (hearth), and those two, the sun 
and the moon, are the fire on the Ahavanlya. This 
then is indeed his own self K 

13. The Ahavanlya truly is his head ; and the fire 
which is on the Ahavanlya is that vital air of his in 
the head. And as to why it (the Ahavanlya) has 
wings and tail, it is becaase that vital air in the head 
has wings and tail 2 ; — the eye is its head, the right 
ear its right wing, the left ear its left wing, the vital 
air its central body s , and the voice is the tail (and) 
the foundation (the feet) : inasmuch as the vital airs 
subsist by eating food with speech (voice)*, the voice 
is the tail, the foundation. 

14. And what space there is between the Ahava- 
nlya and Garhapatya, that is the body (trunk); and 
the fire on the Agnidhrlya is to him that vital air 
inside the body. The Garhapatya is his founda- 
tion ; and the fire on the Garhapatya is his downward 
vital air. 

15. Now some build it (the Garhapatya) in three 
layers, saying, ' There are here three downward vital 
airs.' Let him not do so : they who do so do what 
is excessive, — one amounting to twenty-one, one 
amounting to the AnushAibh, and one amounting to 
the Bnhatl ; for this (altar) is of one single form — a 

1 Viz. the sacrificial ground thus becomes identical with the 
universe, i. e. with Pra^Spati. 

* That is, it is (like) a bird. The word ' prfi»a ' might almost be 
rendered here by ' the living being.' 

3 In the text this is reversed, the head is the eye, the right wing 
the right ear, the left wing the left ear, the central body the vital 
air, which can scarcely be the construction intended by the author. 

* Or, with the mouth. In VIII, 5, 4, 1 ; X, 5, 2, 15, 'vW is 
identified with the tongue. 



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316 satapatha-brahmava. 

womb. And as to those downward vital airs, they 
are indeed a bringing forth, for even the urine and 
faeces he voids are ' brought forth.' 

1 6. Now then the (mystic) correspondence, — 
twenty-one bricks, nine formulas \ that makes thirty ; 
— and the 'settling' and Sudadohas verse, that makes 

i thirty-two, — the anush/ubh verse consists of thirty- 
two syllables : this is an anush/ubh 2 . 

17. And, again, there are twenty-one enclosing- 
stones ; the formula the twenty-second ; the formula 
for the sweeping, the saline earth and its formula, 
the sand and its formula, the ' filling ' (soil) and its 
formula ; with four (formulas) he pours (the two 
fires) together ; with a fifth he unties (the pan) ; 
then this (Nirrz'ti) with three 3 , — the anush/ubh verse 
consists of thirty-two syllables : this then is an 
anush/ubh. 

18. Then there are these two formulas 4 , and they 
are indeed an anush/ubh — the Anush/ubh is speech : 
thus what twofold form of speech there is, the divine 
and the human, loud and low, that is those two. 

19. The Garhapatya pile thus is those three 



1 Viz. XII, 47-54 (XII, 53, consisting of two formulas). 

1 That is to say, these thirty-two items form, as it were, an 
Anush/ubh verse consisting of thirty-two syllables. 

8 See VII, 2, 1, 1 seq. 

* I do not see what other formulas can be intended here except 
those addressed to the enclosing stones, concluding with the 
' sadana,' or ' settling ' formula, viz. V&g. S. XII, 53 ; see above, 
VII, 1, 1, 30; though these do not exactly yield thirty-two 
syllables, but thirty-four (see, however, paragraph 22). Our avail- 
able MSS. of the commentary are unfortunately defective at this 
place. — On the artificial manipulation of making up imaginary 
metres by the mere number of syllables, irrespective of their real 
prosodic value, see Professor Weber, Ind. Stud., VIII, p. 23 seq. 



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VII KXNDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAJVA, 21. 317 

anush/ubh verses. And as to why they make up 
three anush/ubhs in this (Garhapatya), it is because 
all these (three) worlds then come to be (contained) 
therein. From it they take one of the two (first) 
anush/ubhs of thirty- two syllables (to be) the 
Ahavanlya, — that Ahavanlya is that sky, that head 
(of Pra/apati). Then one of the two (anush/ubhs) 
is left here (to be) this Garhapatya, this foundation, 
this very (terrestrial) world. 

20. And as to those two formulas, they are that 
space between the Ahavanlya and the Garhapatya, 
that air (-world), that body (of Prafapati). And 
because there are two of them (making up one 
anush/ubh), therefore that space (and hearth) between 
the Ahavanlya and the Garhapatya (viz. the Agnl- 
dhrfya hearth *) is smaller ; and therefore the air- 
world is the smallest of these worlds. 

21. That same Anush/ubh, speech, is threefold. 
That fire, taking the form of the vital air, goes along 
with it (speech), — the fire which is on the Ahavanlya 
(altar) is the out-breathing, and yonder sun ; and the 
fire which is on the Agnldhrlya is the through- 
breathing, and the wind which blows yonder; and 
the fire which is on the Garhapatya is the in-breath- 
ing, and what fire there is here in this (earth-) world. 
And verily he who knows this makes up for himself 
the whole Va£ (speech), the whole vital air, the whole 
body (of Pra^apati). 

1 Or, the Dhishwya hearths (see paragraph 23), which are more 
properly situated between the Garhapatya and the Ahavanlya fire- 
places. See the plan of the sacrificial ground in part ii ; where, 
however, the Ahavanlya of the Prd#nava»wa (hall), or the so-called 
jalddvirya (hall-door fire), would represent the Garhapatya for the 
Ahavanlya of the Mahavedi. 



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3l8 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

22. Then that Brzhatl (metre), — the two (verses) 
of thirty-two syllables : that makes thirty-two ; then 
those two formulas : that makes thirty-four ; Agni 
the thirty-fifth ; — a metre does not vanish by a 
syllable (too much or too little), neither by one nor 
by two * ; — moreover, that (Agni) consists of two 
syllables : that makes thirty-six. The BWhati con- 
sists of thirty-six syllables, — it is the Brzhatl that 
that (Ahavanlya) pile thus amounts to ; for whatlike 
the seed which is infused into the womb, suchlike 
(offspring) is born therefrom : thus in that he makes 
up that Brzhatl (metre) in this (Garhapatya hearth), 
thereby that (Ahavanlya) fire-altar amounts to the 
Brz'hati. 

23. As to this they say, ' As the Garhapatya is 
this (terrestrial) world, the Dhish»ya hearths the 
air, and the Ahavanlya the sky, and the air-world is 
not separated from this (earth-) world, why then, 
after building the Garhapatya, does he build the 
Ahavanlya, and (only) then the Dhish«yas ? ' Well, 
at first these two worlds (heaven and earth) were 
together ; and when they parted asunder, the space 
which was between (antar) them became that air 
(antariksha) ; for ' Iksha * ' indeed it was theretofore, 
and 'Now this "Iksha" has come between (antara),' 
they said, whence ' antariksha ' (air). And as to 
why, after building the Girhapatya, he builds the 
Ahavanlya, it is because these two worlds were 
created first. Then, going back, he throws up the 
Dhishwya hearths, just to prevent discontinuity of 



1 The same latitude in the computation of the number of 
syllables constituting a metre is conceded, Ait. Br. I, 6. 
* ? That is, ' visible,' or, ' capable of being seen through.' 



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VII KAJVDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 5. 319 

the sacred work; and thus indeed the middle is 
completed, after the two ends have been completed. 

THE ALTAR OF NIRi?7TI. 

Second AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. They now take the Nirriti (bricks) from there. 
For, having built the Garhapatya, the gods then 
ascended it, — the Garhapatya being this (earth-) 
world, it is this world they ascended after completing 
it. They saw nothing but darkness not to be seen 
through. 

2. They said, ' Think ye upon this, how we may 
dispel that darkness, evil ! ' They said, ' Meditate 
ye (ietay) ! ' — whereby indeed they said, ' Seek ye 
to build an altar (£itim) ! ' — ' Seek ye so that we may 
dispel that darkness, evil ! ' 

3. Whilst meditating, they saw those Nim'ti bricks ; 
they piled them up, and by them dispelled that dark- 
ness, evil ; for Nirati (corruption, or destruction) is 
evil ; and inasmuch as by them they dispelled NirWti, 
evil, these are Nirmi's (bricks). 

4. Now that same thing which the gods did, is 
done here : even now that darkness, that evil, has 
indeed been dispelled by the gods themselves ; but 
when he now does this, it is because he thinks, 
' I must do what the gods did.' And, besides, he 
removes, by means of these (bricks), whatever evil, 
whatever corruption there is; and because he 
removes by them evil, corruption (nirriti), therefore 
these are Nimti's (bricks). 

5. And, again, why they take these (bricks) of 
Nirati ; — when the gods restored the relaxed Pra^a- 
pati, they cast him as seed into the fire-pan, the 



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320 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

womb ; the fire-pan being indeed a womb. In the 
course of a year they prepared for him this founda- 
tion, even this (terrestrial) world; the Garhapatya 
(hearth) being jthis world: therein they generated 
him. And whatever evil there was in him, whatever 
mucus, whatever inner and outer membrane, that 
they removed from him by means of these (bricks) ; 
and inasmuch as thereby they removed his evil, his 
corruption, these are Nimti's (bricks). 

6. In like manner the Sacrificer now casts his 
own self 1 , as seed, into the fire-pan, the womb ; the 
fire-pan being indeed a womb. In the course of a 
year he prepares for that (self of his) this foundation, 
even this (terrestrial) world ; the Garhapatya being 
this world : therein he generates it. And whatever 
evil there is of it, whatever mucus, whatever inner 
and outer membrane, that he removes therefrom 
by these (bricks) ; and inasmuch as he thereby 
removes its evil, its corruption, these are Nirrzti's 
(bricks). 

7. They measure a foot (square) : he thus treads 
evil, corruption, under foot. They are unmarked ; 
for whatever is not, that is unmarked (by charac- 
teristics) : he thus makes evil, corruption to be 
non-existent They get baked by (rice) husks, for 
husks belong to Nimti : by Nimti's own (objects) 
he thus performs NirWti's rite. They are black, for 
black was that darkness; and black in truth is 
Nimti (corruption). 

8. With them they proceed towards that (south- 
western) quarter, for that is Nirmi's quarter: he 
thus places Nimti (corruption) in Nimti's quarter. 

1 Or (Pra^pati's), Agni's self, or body. 

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vii kXnda, 2 adhyAya, i brAhmawa, io. 321 

And anywhere where there is a self-produced hollow * 
or cleft in the ground, he lays down those (bricks) ; 
for on whatever part of this (earth) there is a cleav- 
ing, or in whatever part of it plants are not produced, 
verily that part of it Nirmi seizes upon : he thus 
places corruption in a (part) of the earth set aside 
for Nimti. Having put them in their places in a 
direction away from himself 2 , he lays them down 3 . 

9. [He lays them down, with V&g. S. XII, 62-64] 
'Seek thou him that offereth not Soma, nor 
other offering!' him who neither presses Soma 
nor makes offering Nirmi indeed visits; — 'Of the 
thief do thou follow the way, of the robber!' 
that is, ' follow the way both of the thief and the 
robber, and even as a thief or a robber remains 
concealed, so do thou remain concealed!' — 'Seek 
thou some one other than us : this is thy way ; ' 
that is, ' seek him who is ignorant of this (sacred 
work);' — 'Homage be to thee, O divine Nir- 
ritiV he thus turns Nirrzti aside by rendering 
homage to her. 

10. ' Homage be unto thee full well, O sharp- 
edged Nirrzti! ' for Niirzti is indeed sharp-edged : 
to her he thereby renders homage; — 'loose thou 

1 Or probably, a barren spot, see p. 43, note 2. 

* That is, whilst himself remaining north of the place, and 
facing the south, he puts them down in the direction from north 
to south. 

' That is, he performs the formal ceremony of 'laying down 
(upadhana) ' whilst muttering the respective verses. In the present 
case the ' laying down ' of the bricks is to be performed by him 
whilst muttering the formulas, but without touching the bricks 
themselves. The direction that the bricks are to be deposited in 
a direction ' away' from him ' perhaps refers to the ' laying down ' 
instead of to the actual placing them. 

[41] Y 



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32 2 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

this iron bond!' for it is indeed with an iron 
bond that Nirmi binds him whom she binds ; — 
•being of one mind with Yama and Yarn!,' — 
Yama doubtless is Agni, and Yaml is this (earth), 
and by these two everything here is kept in check : 
thus, 'being of one mind with those two,' — 'raise 
him unto the highest firmament ! ' the firmament 
is the heavenly world : thus, ' raise the Sacrificer up 
to the heavenly world ! ' 

ii. 'Thee, O awful (goddess), into whose mouth 
I offer — ' Nirmi is indeed awful, and into her 
mouth he now offers when he performs this divine 
rite; — 'for the unloosing of these bonds;' 
that is, of those bonds with which he has been 
bound; — 'Thee whom people rejoice in calling 
Earth,' — the Earth is this (world), and he who 
exists, exists thereon, — 'but I know thee to be 
Nirrzti everywhere!' that is, in every respect I 
know that thou art Nirmi. Now Nirmi is this 
earth, and this earth makes him decay who becomes 
corrupted : in speaking thus, it is as if he were to 
say, ' Thou art So and So, the son of So and So, I 
know thee, do not injure me ! ' for in no wise does 
he who is known injure one when spoken to. 

12. He does not touch (the bricks), — Nirriti being 
evil, — lest he put himself in contact with evil. He 
does not ' settle ' them, — settlement being a firm 
footing — lest he give a firm footing to evil. He 
does not pronounce the Sudadohas verse upon them, 
— the Sudadohas being the vital air, — lest he should 
join Nirriti (corruption) together, and restore her. 

13. Now some lay (the bricks) down from the 
farther end towards themselves, — Nim'ti (corruption) 
being evil, — lest they themselves should go the way 



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VII KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAWA, l6. 323 

to corruption. Let him not do so, but let him lay 
them down in the direction away from him : he thus 
drives evil, corruption, away from him. 

14. Three bricks he lays down, — threefold is 
Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, by so much he thus repels evil, corruption. 

15. The seat, the netting, the sling of the gold 
plate, and the two pads he throws down on the 
farther side (of the bricks), — the sling 1 is sacred to 
Nirrzti : from NirWti's sling he is thus freed. [He 
throws them down, with V£f. S. XII, 65] 'The 
indissoluble bond which the divine Nirriti 
hath fastened upon thy neck,' — indissoluble in- 
deed for him who does not know this ; — ' that 
(bond) of thine I unloose, as from the middle 
of Ay us,' — Ayus * doubtless is Agni, and his middle 
(body) is that Garhapatya which has been built ; — 
not yet built is the Ahavanlya : hence whether a 
youth builds the altar, or an old man, he says ' as 
from the middle of Ayus ; ' — ' now, being urged 
forward, eat thou this nourishment!' nourish- 
ment means food : thus, ' now, set free, eat thou this 
food.' With Trish/ubh verses (he performs this 
rite), for the Trish/ubh is a thunderbolt : it is thus 
with a thunderbolt that he repels evil, corruption. 

16. There are three bricks, the seat, the netting, 
the sling of the gold plate, and the two pads ; that 
makes eight ; — the Gayatrl consists of eight syllables, 

1 According to Sayawa the sling of the gold plate is here singled 
out, because the other objects have necessarily been damaged by 
the hot fire-pan and are consequently thrown away as a matter 
of course. 

' See III, 4, 1, 22. In the formula 'ayus' may rather have 
to be taken in the sense of 'life,' or 'vital power.' Mahtdhara 
takes ' na ' in the sense of * now (samprati),' instead of ' as.' 

Y 2 



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324 satapatha-brAhmajta. 

and Agni is Gayatra : as great as Agni is, as great 
as is his measure, by so much he thus repels evil, 
corruption. 

1 7. On the space between (the Sacrificer and the 
bricks) he pours out a jarful of water, — water is a 
thunderbolt : with a thunderbolt he thus separates 
from himself evil, corruption. With ' Homage to 
(the goddess of) Prosperity who hath done this ! ' 
they rise, for it was with a view to prosperity that 
the gods at first performed this rite, and to that 
(goddess) they then rendered homage ; and for 
prosperity indeed this (Sacrificer) now performs this 
rite, and to that (goddess) he now renders homage. 
They go back (to the sacrificial ground) without 
looking back : they thus abandon evil, corruption, 
even without looking back to it 

18. Having returned, he stands worshipping by 
the fire ; for when he goes into that (south-western) 
direction whilst Agni is only half built up, he does 
what is improper : he now makes amends to him to 
prevent his doing any harm. 

19. And again, why he stands by (the fire). The 
Garhapatya (hearth) is this (terrestrial) world ; for 
the Garhapatya is a foundation, and the foundation 
doubtless is this (earth). Now when he goes into 
that direction, he goes where there is no path ; and 
when he stands by (the fire), he thereby returns to 
this (earth), the foundation, and establishes himself 
upon this foundation. 

20. [He worships, with Vbg. S. XII, 66] ' The 
harbourer and gatherer of riches,' for a har- 
bourer this world indeed is, a gatherer of riches ; — 
'all form he watches over with his favours,' — 
that is, ' all forms (of being) he watches over with 



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VII kAydA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 2. 325 

his favours;' — 'like the god SavitW, like Indra, 
he of true covenant stood at the meeting of 
ways 1 ; ' as the text, so its meaning. 

PREPARATION OF THE SITE OF THE GREAT 
(AHAVANlYA) ALTAR. 

Second BrAhmawa. 

1. He then prepares the Praya#lya 2 (opening 
sacrifice). With the Havishkrzt of that (oblation) 
he releases (the Sacrificer's) speech 3 . Having 
released his speech, he throws away the grass-bush 
(stambaya^ais 4 ). Having thrown away the grass- 
bush, and drawn the first line of enclosure 6 , and the 
lines (across the maha-vedi), he says, ' Throw thrice ! ', 
and the Agnldhra throws thrice (the wooden sword) 6 .' 

2. Having returned (to the offering, or hall-door 

1 Mahidhara takes ' samare pathinam ' in the sense of ' in the 
battle of (i. e. with) the waylayers (paripanthibhii saha).' 

• See part ii, p. 47 seq. 

• Viz. by calling out three times ' Havishkr/'t, come hither,' 
whereby the Adhvaryu summons one of the priests, or maid- 
servants, to assist in preparing the material for offering. See 
part i, p. 27 seq. 

4 Part i, p. 55 seq. 
8 Part i, p. 59 seq. 

• See part i, p. 55. It must, however, be borne in mind that the 
passage here referred to relates to the construction of the Vedi 
of an ordinary ish/i, whilst in the present instance we have to do 
with a Mahavedi, as prescribed for Soma-sacrifices (cf. part ii, 
p. 1 1 1 seq., where, however, only a few distinctive points are ad- 
verted to). The plan of the Mahivedi, given at the end of 
part ii, shows at the eastern end a square mound, the so-called 
uttara-vedi, or higher, upper altar, on which the Ahavaniya, or 
offering, fire is maintained. On a similar earth mound, but raised 
in the centre of the square site (see VII, 3, 1, 27), the Agni&iyana 
requires the erection of the large brick fire-altar, the preparation of 
the site of which is explained from the next paragraph. 



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326 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAWA. 

fire) he proceeds with the opening sacrifice. Having 
performed the opening sacrifice, he yokes a plough. 
For the gods at that time, being about to heal him 
(Agni-Pra^apati), first supplied him with food, and 
in like manner does this (Sacrificer) now that he is 
about to heal him, first supply him with food. It 
(the food) is the plough (sira), for ' slra ' is the same 
as ' sera * : ' he thus puts food into him. 

3. It is made of udumbara (ficus glomerata) 
wood, — the Udumbara tree being sustenance, life- 
sap : he thus supplies him with sustenance, with 
life-sap. The cordage of the plough consists of 
munga. grass, triply twisted : the significance of 
this has been explained. 

4. Standing behind the right (southern) hip of 
Agni (the site of the fire-altar) he (the Prati- 
prasthatr*) addresses it (the plough) while being 
yoked (by the Adhvaryu) in front of the left (northern) 
shoulder, with (Va^. S. XII, 67, 68 ; Rik S. X, 101, 
4, 3), 'The skilful yoke 2 the ploughs, and 
stretch across the yokes/ — the skilful are those 
who know, and they do yoke the plough and stretch 
the yokes across ; — 'the wise, with mind devoted 
to the gods,' — devotion means sacrifice: thus, 'the 
wise, performing sacrifice to the gods.' 

5. ' Yoke ye the ploughs, and stretch across 
the yokes ! ' — they indeed yoke the plough, and 
stretch the yokes across; — 'into the ready womb 
here cast ye the seed!' it is for the seed that 
that womb, the furrow, is made; and if one casts 

1 That is 'sa+ira,' with draught or food. 

* Or rather, put (the oxen) to the ploughs. Professor Ludwig 
takes 'sir4' in the sense of 'straps, traces,' — the skilful fasten the 
traces. 



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vii kAjvda, 2 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaata, 9. 327 

(seed) into unploughed (ground), it is just as if one 
were to shed seed elsewhere than into the womb. 
'And plentiful yield 1 be there through our 
song! ' — the song is speech, and yield means food ; — 
'and let the ripe crop go anigh the sickle!' 
for when food gets ripe, people approach it with the 
sickle. With two (verses) he yokes, a Gayatri and 
a Trish/ubh one : the significance of this has been 
explained. 

6. He yokes the right (ox) first, then the left one : 
thus it is (done) with the gods, differently in human 
(practice). It is a team of six oxen, or one of twelve 
oxen, or one of twenty-four oxen : it is the year (he 
obtains) as the consummation. 

7. He then ploughs through it, — ploughing means 
food; and the gods at that time when they were 
about to heal him (Agni-Pra^apati) first put food into 
him ; and in like manner does this (Sacrificer) now 
when he is about to heal him, first put food into him. 

8. Only the body (of the altar-site) he ploughs 
through, not the wings and tail : he thus puts food 
into the body. And, indeed, the food which is put 
into the body benefits the body as well as the wings 
and tail ; but that which (is put) into the wings and 
tail does not benefit either the body or the wings 
and tail. 

9. On the right (south) side of the fire-altar, he 
ploughs first a furrow eastwards* inside the enclosing- 
stones, with (V4f. S. XII, 69; Ri\ S. IV, 57, 8), 
'Right luckily may the plough-shares plough 
up the ground, luckily the tillers ply with their 

1 Or, concession (Erhorung). 

* That is, from the right thigh to the right shoulder (south-west 
to south-east). 



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328 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

oxen ! ' — ' luckily — luckily,' he says, ' for what is suc- 
cessful that is lucky : ' he thus makes it (the furrow) 
successful. 

10. Then on the hindpart (he ploughs a furrow) 
northwards 1 , with (V&g: S. XII, 70), 'With sweet 
ghee let the furrow be saturated,' — as the text 
so its meaning; — 'approved of by the All-gods, 
by the Maruts ! ' for both the All-gods and the 
Maruts have power over the rain; — 'sapful, and 
teeming with milk,' — milk means life-sap: thus, 
'teeming with life-sap and food;' — 'with milk, O 
furrow, turn thou unto us ! ' that is, 'with life-sap, 
O furrow, turn thou unto us ! ' 

11. Then on the left (north) side (he ploughs a 
furrow) eastwards 2 , with (V^f. S. XII, 71), 'The 
share-shod s plough,' — that is, 'the plough abound- 
ing in wealth,' — 'propitious, offering prospect for 
the Soma-cup * ' — for Soma is food ; — ' it throweth 
up the cow, the sheep, the lusty wife, the swift - 

1 That is, from the right thigh to the left thigh (south-west to 
north-west). Whilst the first furrow was ploughed from the south- 
west to the south-east corner, the present and two following furrows 
are ploughed 'sunwise' from south-west to north-west, north-west 
to north-east, and north-east to south-east respectively. We are not' 
told in what manner the plough is to be got back from the south- 
east to the south-west corner after the ploughing of the first furrow, 
whether it is to be carried there, or to be pulled back outside the 
enclosed square. 

* That is, from the left thigh to the left shoulder (north-west to 
north-east). 

* Or, the metal-shod. The author's reason for interpreting 
' pavtravat ' by ' rayimat ' is not clear. 

4 According to the St. Petersburg dictionary, ' somapitsaru ' is 
probably a corrupt form, like the various readings ' somasatsaru ' 
(Ath. S. Ill, 17, 3) and ' sumatitsaru' (Taitt, S. IV, 2, 5, 6 = ' moving 
up and down,' Saya«a). Cf. Vasish/fa Dharmajastra (Btihler's 
translation, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xiv, p. 13), where ' soma- 



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VII KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAWA, 1 3. 329 

wheeled waggon,' for all this the furrow throws up 
(yields). 

12. Then on the forepart (he ploughs a furrow) 
southwards 1 , with (V&f. S. XII, 72), ' Milk out, O 
cow of plenty, their desire to Mitra, and to 
Varu»a, to Indra, to the A^vins, to Pushan, to 
creatures and plants ! ' husbandry is (beneficial) to 
all deities : thus, ' Milk out for these deities all their 
desires!' — He first ploughs thus (south-west to south- 
east), then thus (south-west to north-west), then thus 
(north-west to north-east), then thus (north-east to 
south-east) : that is (sunwise), for thus it is with the 
gods 2 . 

1 3. Four furrows he ploughs with prayer : he 
thereby puts into him (Prafapati-Agni) what food 
there is in the four quarters ; and that with prayer, — 
true is the prayer, and true (manifest) are those 
quarters. 

pitsaru ' is explained in the text as meaning ' provided with a handle 
(tsaru) for the Soma-drinker ' (somapi). Also Indische Studien, 
XVII, p. 259, where Professor Weber proposes to divide the word 
' somasatsaru ' into ' soma(n),' with thongs, and ' sa-tsaru,' with 
handle. If ' somapi-tsaru ' really represent the constituent elements, 
' tsaru,' handle, may indeed be intended as having special reference 
to the handle of the Soma-cup (iamasa) ; though ' somapi ' could 
only be taken in the sense of ' Soma-drinker,' and not in that of 
' Soma-cup,' optionally suggested by Mahidhara. 

1 That is, from the left to the right shoulder (north-east to south- 
east). 

* Or, perhaps, thus it goes to the gods; this tends godward. 
Whilst the last three furrows are indeed ploughed ' sunwise ' (east 
to south, &c), the first furrow was ploughed in the opposite 
direction (south-west to south-east). The reason for this is that 
the whole performance is to take place in an easterly direction, 
so as to tend towards the gods. Were he to start at the south-east 
corner, and then plough right round, he would be moving away 
from the gods, who are supposed to reside in the east. 



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33° SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

14. He then ploughs (again) through the body: 
he thereby puts into him what food there is in the 
year. Silently (he does so), for what is silent is un- 
determined, and the undetermined is everything : by 
means of everything he thus puts food into him. He 
first ploughs thus (through the middle from south to 
north), then thus (south-west to north-east), then thus 
(east to west), then thus (north-west to south-east), 
— that is sunwise ', for thus it is with the gods. 

1 5. Three furrows he ploughs each time, — three- 
fold is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, with so much he thus puts food into him. 

16. Twelve furrows he ploughs silently, — the 
year (consists of) twelve months, and the year is 
Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, by so much he thus puts food into him. 

1 7. Both kinds (of furrows) amount to sixteen, — 
of sixteen parts Pra^apati consists, and Pra^ apati is 
Agni : he thus puts into him food proportionate to 
his body. And, indeed, the food which is propor- 
tionate to the body, satisfies, and does no harm ; but 
that which is too much, does harm, and that which 
is too little, does not satisfy. 



1 Here, again, the sunwise motion of the plough only applies 
to the three last furrows (or sets of furrows), which always move 
from left to right, — south-west to north-east, east to west, north- 
west to south-east. The first set of furrows — drawn from south to 
north, or along the ' cross-spine ' (as distinguished from the real, 
or easterly spine running from west to east) — are apparently drawn 
in this way, in order to avoid the southerly direction, as that would 
imply speedy death to the Sacrificer, — his going to the Fathers, or 
deceased ancestors, who are supposed to reside in the south. In 
drawing the furrows in the way they do, the priests not only avoid 
that region, but at the very outset move away from it, and thereby 
assure long life to the Sacrificer. 



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VII KAJVDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 21. 33 1 

1 8. And, again, why he ploughs through him, — 
the gods being about to put him (Pra^apati) together, 
thereby in the first place put the vital airs into him ; 
and in like manner does this (Sacrificer), being about 
to put him together, thereby in the first place put 
the vital airs into him. They (the furrows) are lines, 
for these vital airs (move) in lines (channels). 

19. Four furrows he ploughs with prayer: he 
thereby puts into him those four well-defined vital 
airs which are in the head ; and this (he does) with 
prayer, — true is the prayer, and true (manifest, real) 
are these vital airs in the head. 

20. And as to why he ploughs through the body : 
he thereby puts into him those vital airs which are 
inside the body. Silently (he does so), for who 
knows how many vital airs there are inside the body ? 

21. Having gained the object for which he yokes 
those (oxen), he now unyokes them, with (Va^. S. 
XII, 73), 'Be ye unyoked, ye inviolable (oxen)!' 
for inviolable 1 they indeed are with the gods ; — 'Ye 
godward-striding ! ' for with them he performs the 
divine work; — 'We have come to the end of this 
gloom;' — gloom doubtless means famine: thus, 
' we have come to the end of this famine ; ' — ' we 
have attained the light!' for he who attains the 
gods, the sacrifice, indeed attains the light. He then 
lets them loose towards north-east — the significance 
of this has been explained 2 . He gives them to the 
Adhvaryu, for it is he that does the work with them : 
let him assign them (to him) at the time of (the pre- 
sentation of) the Dakshiwas. 

1 See part ii, p. 216, note 2, where 'aghnyS' was used of cows. 
1 See VI, 4, 4, 22. The plough is put aside on the utkara 
(heap of rubbish). 



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332 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

Third BrAhmajva. 

i. He then places a bunch of darbha (kura) grass 
(poa cynosuroides) on (the middle of the altar-site) ; 
for the gods then placed plants thereon, and in like 
manner does the Sacrificer now place plants thereon. 

2. And, again, why he places a bunch of grass 
thereon ; — when he (Agni) is built up, he is born, 
and he is born here for all (kinds of) food ; but these 
darbha plants (contain) both kinds of food, for they 
are both water and plants. Now the waters which, 
loathing VWtra, rose up on the dry land forming 
bushes, became those grasses 1 , — inasmuch as they 
rose forming bushes (drz'bh), they are (called) darbha- 
grasses. These darbha-grasses, then, are the water 
(which remained) pure, and meet for sacrifice, when 
Vn'tra flowed towards it ; and inasmuch as they are 
darbha-grasses, they are plants : by both kinds of 
food he thus gratifies him (Agni). 

3. [He places it] at the meeting of the furrows, 
for the meeting of furrows is speech (the mouth) 2 , 
and the furrows (channels) are the vital airs ; and 
this is their place of meeting ; and in the mouth 
food is put for the vital airs. In the middle (he 
places the bunch), whereby he puts it into the very 

1 The author here alludes to the legend given at I, 1, 3, 4-5, — 
VWtra lay enveloping all that space which extends between heaven 
and earth, and because he lay enveloping (vrt) all that, he is called 
VWtra. Him Indra slew. Being slain, he flowed stinking in all 
directions towards the water ; for in every direction lies the ocean. 
Now some of the water loathed him, it rose higher and higher and 
flowed over : hence (sprang) these kura grasses, — they are indeed 
the water which was not putrified ; but with the other water some 
(matter) has indeed become mixed when the putrid VWtra flowed 
into it. 

* See p. 200, note 3. 



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VII KAJVflA, 2 ADHVAVA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 6. 333 

middle of him ; silently (he does so), for what is 
silent is undefined, and the undefined is everything : 
with everything he thus puts food into him. 

4. He then offers thereon, — when he (Agni) is 
built, he is born, and he is born here for all (kinds 
of) food ; but that ghee is the life-sap (essence) of 
this universe, for it is the life-sap of both the waters 
and plants : he thus gratifies him by the life-sap of 
this universe. And as far as the life-sap extends, so 
far extends the body : he thus gratifies him by this 
universe. With (ghee) taken in five (ladlings, he 
offers), — the fire-altar consists of five layers, five 
seasons are a year, and the year is Agni : as great 
as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with so much 
food he thus gratifies him. 

5. And, again, why he offers thereon; — when in 
the beginning the i?z'shis, the vital airs 1 , put together 
this Agni, they gained for themselves that fore-share 2 
in him : hence they are the fore-sharers. Thus when 
he offers on (the grass-bush) he thereby gratifies those 
.^zshis, the vital airs, who gained for themselves the 
fore-share in him (Agni). With fivefold-taken ghee 
(he offers) : the significance of this has been ex- 
plained. 

6. And, again, why he offers thereon; — what- 
ever forms, whatever modes of chanting, whatever 
przshMa (stotras), whatever metres he is now going 
to bestow on Agni, for them he prepares this fore- 
share, and it is them he thereby gratifies. With 

1 See VI, 1, 1, 1. 

* Literally, a share in front, in the first place, i. e. a preferential 
share, or fore-taste. Being accented separately, 'purastSt' here, 
however, forms no compound with 'bhaga;' though it does in 
• purasddbhSga/ fore-sharer. Cf. Taitt. S. V, 6, 4, 2. 



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334 ^ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

fivefold-taken ghee (he offers): the significance of 
this has been explained. 

7. And, again, why he offers thereon ; — at that 
time the gods were afraid, thinking, ' Long indeed 
is this performance : we hope the Rakshas, the 
fiends, will not smite here this (Agni) of ours ! ' 
They saw this preliminary conclusion 1 of this per- 
formance, and brought that whole (Agni) to com- 
pletion even at that (point), and built him up then ; 
and in like manner this (Sacrificer) brings that whole 
(Agni) to completion even at this (point), and builds 
him now. 

8. \Vig. S. XII, 74] 'The year,' this is a layer 
(of bricks); — 'together with the dark half- 
months,' this is a layer of earth; — 'the Dawn,' 
this is a layer (of bricks); — 'together with the 
ruddy (cows),' this is a layer of earth; — 'the two 
Asvins,' this is a layer (of bricks) ; ' together with 
their wonderful deeds,' this is a layer of earth ; — 
' the Sun,' this is a layer (of bricks) ; — ' together 
with the dappled horse,' this is a layer of earth ; — 
' (Agni) Vauvanara,' this is a layer (of bricks) ; — 
'together with Idt,' this is a layer of earth; — 
'with ghee,' this is a layer (of bricks); — 'Sva-,' 
this is a layer of earth ; — ' ha ! ' this is a layer (of 
bricks). 

9. There are thirteen utterings, — thirteen months 
are a year ; thirteen in number are the layers of 
bricks and earth of the fire-altar : as great as Agni 
is, as great as is his measure, so great he thus builds 
him up. With butter he sacrifices, — butter is the 

1 Literally, a conclusion previously, or at the beginning of the 
performance. 



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vii kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 4 brAhmava, 4. 335 

same as Agni : it is Agni he thus builds up. With 
fivefold-taken (butter he offers), — the altar consists 
of five layers, — five seasons are a year, and the year 
is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his mea- 
sure, so great he thus builds him up. He offers 
raising (the spoon) upwards : he thus builds Agni 
upwards by means of the layers (of the altar). 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

1. He then pours out jarfuls of water, — for the 
gods then said, ' Meditate ye (^etay) ! ' whereby they 
doubtless meant to say, ' Seek ye a layer (iitim) ! ' 
Whilst meditating they saw the rain to be a (suitable) 
layer, and put it on that (altar-site); and in like 
manner does this (Sacrificer) now put it thereon. 

2. Jarfuls of water are (poured out) ; for rain is 
water : it is rain he thereby bestows on it. With 
an udumbara jar (he pours them on) : the signifi- 
cance of this has been told ; — with a four-cornered 
one ; — four quarters there are : from all quarters he 
thus bestows rain thereon. 

3. Three jarfuls he pours out each time \ — three- 
fold is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is 
his measure, with so much he thus bestows rain 
thereon. 

4. Twelve jarfuls of water he pours on the 
ploughed ground, — twelve months are a year, and 
the year is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as 
is his measure, by so much he thus bestows rain 
thereon. 

1 On every four of the sixteen furrows, in the order in which 
they have been ploughed, he is to empty three jarfuls of water, 
making altogether twelve jars of water. 



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336 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiVA. 

5. On the ploughed ground he pours (water), 
whence it rains for (the benefit of) the ploughed 
land. Now were he only to pour it on the ploughed 
ground, and not on the unploughed, it would only 
rain for the ploughed land, not for the unploughed. 
And were he only to pour it on the unploughed 
ground, and not on the ploughed, it would only rain 
for the unploughed land, and not for the ploughed. He 
pours it both on the ploughed, and the unploughed, 
ground ; whence it rains both for the ploughed, and 
the unploughed, ground. 

6. Three (jarfuls) 1 he pours both on the ploughed, 
and on the unploughed, ground ; — threefold is Agni : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with 
so much he thus bestows rain thereon. 

7. And, again, why he pours out jarfuls of water ; 
— at that time the gods, being about to put him 
(Agni-Pra^apati) together, in the first place put 
water into him ; and in like manner does this one 
now, being about to put him together, in the first 
place put water into him. 

8. Three jarfuls he pours out each time, — three- 
fold is Agni : as large as Agni is, as large as is his 
measure, by so much he thus puts water into him. 

9. Twelve jarfuls he pours on the ploughed 
ground, — twelve months are a year, and the year is 
Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, 
by so much he thus puts water into him. 

10. On the ploughed ground he pours it: he 
thereby puts water into the vital airs. But were he 
to pour (water) only on the ploughed ground, and 



1 These are additional three jarfuls poured over the whole 
Agnikshetra, or site of the altar. 



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VII KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAhMAATA, 1 4. 337 

not on the unploughed, there would be water only 
in (the channels of) the vital airs, and not in the 
other (parts of the) body. And were he to pour 
(water) only on the unploughed ground, and not on 
the ploughed, there would be water only in (the 
other parts of) the body, and not in the vital airs. 
He pours it both on the ploughed, and the un- 
ploughed, ground, whence there is water here both 
in (the channels of) the vital airs and in the body. 

1 1. Three (jarfuls) he pours both on the ploughed, 
and on the unploughed, ground ; — threefold is Agni : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with 
so much he thus puts water into him. 

12. Fifteen jarfuls of water he pours out, — fifteen- 
fold is the thunderbolt : by that fifteenfold thunder- 
bolt of his he thus drives away all evil. 

13. He then sows all (kinds of) herb (-seed) ; — for 
the gods then said, ' Meditate ye ! ' whereby doubt- 
less they meant to say, 'Seek ye a layer!' whilst 
meditating, they saw food to be a (suitable) layer, 
and put that on (or, into) him (Agni) ; and in like 
manner does this one now put it into him. 

14. It is (seed) of all herbs, — all herbs means all 
food ; he thus puts all (kinds of) food into him. Let 
him omit one of those kinds of food, and not eat 
thereof as long as he lives. By means of the udum- 
bara jar (he sows the seed) : the significance of this 
has been explained ; — with a four-cornered one, — 
there are four quarters : from all quarters he thus 
puts food into him (Agni). He sows it with anu- 
sh/ubh (verses), — the Anush/ubh (metre) is speech, 
and by means of speech (the mouth ') food is eaten. 

1 See p. 200, note 3. 
[41] Z 



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338 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

1 5. With three verses he sows each time \ — three- 
fold is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, with so much he thus puts food into him. 

16. With twelve verses he sows on the ploughed 
ground, — twelve months are a year, and the year is 
Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his mea- 
sure, with so much he thus puts food into him. 

17. On the ploughed ground he sows, whence 
food ripens on ploughed ground. Were he to sow 
only on the ploughed ground, and not on the 
unploughed, food would only ripen on ploughed 
ground, not on unploughed; and were he to sow 
only on unploughed ground, and not on ploughed 
ground, food would only ripen on unploughed 
ground, and not on ploughed ground. He sows on 
both the ploughed, and the unploughed, ground : 
hence food ripens both on ploughed, and on un- 
ploughed, ground. 

18. With three (verses) he sows both on the 
ploughed, and on the unploughed, ground, — three- 
fold is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, by so much he thus puts food into him. 

19. And, again, why he sows all (kinds of) herb 
(-seed), — the gods at that time, being about to put 
him (Agni-Pra^apati) together, in the first place 
healed him by healing medicine ; and in like manner 
does this one now, being about to put him together, 
first heal him with healing medicine. 

20. It is (seed) of all herbs ; — all herbs is the 

1 The sowing of the seed is done after the manner of the water- 
ing of the site, viz. so as to finish the sowing of every four furrows 
with the completion of the muttering of three verses (V$g. S. XII, 
75-86); whereupon the remaining seed is scattered over the whole 
site with additional three verses (87-89). 



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vii kXnda, 2 adhyAva, 4 brAhmajva, 26. 339 

same as all (kinds of) medicine: by all (kinds of) 
healing medicine he thus heals him. 

21. With three verses he sows each time, — three- 
fold is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, with so much he thus heals him. 

22. With twelve verses he sows on the ploughed 
ground, — twelve months are a year, and the year is 
Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his mea- 
sure, with so much he thus heals him. 

23. On the ploughed ground he sows : he thereby 
heals the vital airs. And were he to sow only on 
the ploughed ground, and not on the unploughed, 
he would only heal the vital airs, and not the other 
(parts of the) body ; and were he to sow only on the 
unploughed, and not on the ploughed, ground, he 
would only heal the body, and not the vital airs : he 
sows both on the ploughed, and on the unploughed, 
ground ; and thus he heals both the vital airs and 
the body. 

24. With three (verses) he sows both on the 
ploughed, and on the unploughed, ground, — three- 
fold is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, with so much he thus heals him. 

25. Fifteen jarfuls of water he pours out, and 
with fifteen verses he sows, — that makes thirty, — 
the Vira/ (metre) consists of thirty syllables, and 
the Vira^ - (the far-shining, or far-ruling) is the whole 
food : the whole food he thus puts into him. 

26. [He sows, with Va^ - . S. XII, 75 seq.; Rik S. X, 
97] ' The herbs first grown three ages before 
the gods 1 ,' — the gods doubtless are the seasons, 



1 Thus the St. Petersburg dictionary; while Professor Ludwig 
construes ' triyugam purit ' together, — ' the herbs first come from 

Z 2 



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340 SATAPATHA-BRAKMAVA. 

and from them those (herbs) used to grow thrice, in 
spring, in the rainy season, and in the autumn ; — 
'of the brown ones will I ponder,' — the brown 
one, doubdess, is Soma, and the herbs are related to 
Soma, and the Purusha (Pra^apati) is related to 
herbs 1 ; — ' the hundred powers,' — inasmuch as he 
here lives a hundred (years), and has a hundred 
merits, and a hundred energies, there are in him 
those hundred powers ; — ' and seven,' — -he thereby 
speaks of those seven vital airs in the head. 

27. ' Yours, O Mother, are a hundred powers, 
and yours a thousand growths,' — inasmuch as 
(the plants) here are shooting out a hundredfold, 
and a thousandfold ; — ' Ye of a hundred virtues, 
render ye free from sickness this one of 
mine ! ' that is, him whom I am now healing. 

28. These (verses) 2 have one and the same ex- 



the gods before the three ages ; ' — but is there any other example of 
* purl ' with the accusative ? The author of the BrShmawa, on the 
other hand, takes ' triyugam pura ' as adverbs independent of each 
other, — ' formerly at three periods.' 

1 Or, consists of herbs. 

' That is, the two verses just explained, as well as the remaining 
thirteen verses (Va^-. S. XII, 77 seq.; Ri\ S. X, 97, 3 seq.), viz.: — 

3. Rejoice ye at the plants, the fall-budded, abounding in 
shoots: like victorious mares, the herbs are eager to win (or, 
to save). 

4. As plants, O divine mothers, I call upon you: horse, and 
cow, and raiment would I win, and thine own self, O Purusha 1 

5. On the Ajvattha tree is your abode, on the Par«a dwelling 
is made for you : possessed of cattle shall ye be, when ye save the 
Purusha. 

6. Wherein the herbs have met together, even as the nobles in 
the assembly, that priest is called physician, demon-killer, pain- 
remover. 

7. The (herb) rich in horses, the one rich in Soma, the 



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VII KklfDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAtfA, 30. 34 1 

planation with regard to this (Agni-Prafapati), — 
how he may heal him, and preserve him. They are 
anushAibh verses, — the Anush/ubh is speech, and 
speech is all healing medicine : by means of all 
healing medicine he thus heals him. 

29. Now, then, regarding the defined and the un- 
defined (ceremonies) ; — with prayer he yokes two 
oxen, silently the others ; with prayer he ploughs 
four furrows, silently the others ; silently he puts on 
the grass-bush, with prayer he makes a libation 
thereon ; silently he pours out the jarfuls of water, 
with prayer he sows. 

30. This Agni is Pra^apati, and Pra^lpati is both 
the defined and the undefined, the limited and the 

strengthening, most powerful, — all herbs have I found for health- 
fulness to him (the Purusha). 

8. Forth rush the energies of the plants, like kine from the 
stable, eager to win wealth, eager to win wealth, O Purusha 1 

9. Strength-giving (ishkr/'ti) is the name of your mother, hence 
ye are healing powers (nishkr/ti): winged furrows ye are; what ye 
make sick, ye heal. 

10. All obstacles have they overcome, even as the thief the cow- 
pen; the herbs have expelled whatever defect of the body there was. 

11. When, to give strength, I take these herbs in my hand, the 
self of Yakshman (consumption) perishes, as from the clutches of 
the living (? i. e. from death, Ludw.). 

12. Whose every limb, whose every joint ye, O herbs, flow 
through, from him ye chase away (the demon) Yakshman, — mighty 
(he is) and, as it were, abiding in the core. 

13. Fly forth, O Yakshman; together with the garrulous jay; 
vanish with the gliding of the wind, with the whirlwind (?) 1 

14. May one of you help the other, may ye lend help to one 
another 1 Of one mind, help ye forward this word of mine ! 

15. Those bearing fruit, and those without fruit, the flowerless 
and the flowering, urged forward by Br/haspati, may they preserve 
us from trouble 1 

The V&g. S. also gives the remaining verses of the hymn, which 
are not, however, required on the present occasion. 



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34 2 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

unlimited. Now whatever he does with prayer 
thereby he restores that form of his which is defined, 
limited ; and whatever he does silently, thereby he 
restores that form of his which is undefined, un- 
limited, — verily, whosoever, knowing this, performs 
thus, restores this whole and complete Pra^apati. 
The outer forms are defined, and the inner ones are 
undefined ; and Agni is the same as an animal : 
hence the outer forms of the animal are defined, and 
the inner ones undefined. 

Third AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

i. Built is the Garhapatya, unbuilt the Ahavantya ; 
he then buys the king (Soma) : the Garhapatya 
being this (terrestrial) world, the Ahavanlya the sky, 
and Soma he that blows yonder, he thus places him 
(Vayu, the wind) between these two worlds ; and 
hence be blows between these two worlds. 

2. And as to why he buys the king when the 
Garhapatya is built, and the Ahavantya unbuilt, — 
Agni is the body, and Soma the vital air : he thus 
places the vital air in the middle of the body, and 
hence that vital air is in the middle of the body. 

3. And, again, why he buys the king when the 
Garhapatya is built, and the Ahavantya unbuilt, — 
Agni is the body, and Soma is the life-sap : he thus 
supplies the body with life-sap, and hence this body 
(of ours) is supplied with life-sap from end to end. 

4. Having bought the king, and driven him about, 
he then takes out the material for the guest-meal. 
With the Havishkrzt of that (ceremony) he releases 
speech. And in this way 1 he interlinks the per- 

1 That is, in performing the various rites of the Soma-sacrifice, 

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VII VLANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAWA, 9. 343 

formance of the (Soma) sacrifice and the perform- 
ance of the fire (altar) for the purpose of unity of 
performance, thinking, ' Uniform shall be this per- 
formance ! ' 

5. And, again, why he interlinks them, — Agni (the 
fire-altar) is the body, and the (Soma) sacrifice is the 
vital air : he thus places the vital air in the midst of 
the body, and hence that vital air is in the middle 
of the body. 

6. And, again, why he interlinks them, — Agni is 
the body, and the (Soma) sacrifice is the vital sap : 
he thus supplies the body with vital sap, and hence 
this body is supplied with vital sap from end to end. 
He then returns to the site of the Ahavaniya. 

7. Now some sweep with the palara branch on 
both occasions ', saying, ' Surely, on both occasions 
he builds (an altar).' Let him, however, not do so ; 
for by (building) the Garhapatya he settles, and by 
the Ahavaniya he rises upwards : therefore let him 
not do so. 

8. And only on the Garhapatya (site) he throws 
saline soil, not on the Ahavaniya ; for the Garha- 
patya is this (terrestrial) world, and saline soil means 
cattle : he thus bestows cattle on this world, whence 
there are cattle in this world. 

9. And only on the Ahavaniya (site) he places a 
lotus leaf, not on the Garhapatya ; for the lotus leaf 
means water, and the Ahavaniya the sky: he thus 
places the waters (vapours) in the sky. On both he 

and at the same time doing all that is necessary for the building 
of the fire-altar, on which the Soma-offering itself is ultimately to 
be performed. 

1 Viz. in consecrating the site of the Ahavaniya, as well as that 
of the G&rhapatya altar (see VII, 1, 1, 1). 



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344 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

scatters sand ; for sand means seed, and in both 
(fire-altars) fashioning (of Agni) takes place : ' May 
he be fashioned from out of that seed ! ' thus he 
thinks. 

10. He scatters it with two different formulas; 
for the Garhapatya is the world of men, and the 
Ahavaniya is the world of the gods, and different 
indeed are the divine and the human. With the 
longer formula he scatters it on the Ahavaniya, and 
with the shorter one on the Garhapatya, for longer 
is the life of the gods, and shorter the life of men. 
On the Garhapatya he scatters the sand before (the 
setting up of) the enclosing-stones ; for sand is seed : 
' May these be fashioned from out of that seed !' thus 
he thinks. 

ii. As to this they say, ' If the enclosing-stones 
are the womb, and the sand is seed, and the sand is 
strown on the Garhapatya before (the setting up of) 
the enclosing-stones, how, then, is that seed of his not 
shed aside, (but) is received (by the womb) ? ' Well, 
the saline soil is the amnion, and inasmuch as he 
strews first the saline soil, that seed of his is not shed 
aside, but is received by that amnion. He now 
addresses the enclosing-stones on the Ahavaniya : 
the meaning of this has been explained K He then 
scatters sand : sand being seed, that seed of his is not 
shed aside, but is received also by that womb. 

1 2. And only on the Ahavaniya he strokes it 
(even) with two (verses) containing (the verb) 'to 
grow V not on the Garhapatya ; for the Garhapatya 
is this (terrestrial) world, and the Ahavaniya is the 
heavenly world ; and this Sacrificer, being indeed 

1 VII, i, i, 14. * See paragraphs 45, 46. 

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VII KAiVDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, I 7. 345 

born in this world, is really intended to be born in 
the heavenly world : when he strokes (the sand) 
even on the Ahavanlya with two (verses) containing 
(the verb) ' to grow,' and not on the Garhapatya, 
he causes him to be born in the heavenly world. 

13. He now puts clod-bricks thereon 1 , — that fire- 
altar is these worlds, and the clod-bricks are the 
regions : he thus places the regions into these 
worlds; whence there are those regions in these 
worlds. 

14. He takes them from outside the (site of the) 
fire-altar - % for those regions which are in these 
worlds are already possessed by him (Agni) ; and he 
now bestows on him those regions which are beyond 
these worlds. 

15. From outside the Vedi (he takes them) ; — the 
Vedi being this (earth), and those regions which are 
on this (earth) being already possessed by him, he 
now bestows on him those regions which are beyond 
this (earth). 

16. And, again, why he puts clod-bricks thereon, — 
when Pra^ipati was disjointed, his vital sap flowed 
over all the regions (or, in all directions) ; and when 
the gods restored him 2 they, by means of these clod- 
bricks, put into him that vital sap ; and in like 
manner does this one now put that vital sap into 
him. 

17. He takes them from outside (the site of) the 
fire-altar ; for the vital sap which is in these worlds 
is already possessed by him (Agni), and he now puts 

1 He places a clod of earth on each end of the two ' spines,' 
that is to say, in the middle of each of the four sides of the square 
constituting the ' body ' of the altar-site. 

* Or, when they put him together (by building the fire-altar). 



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346 satapatha-brAhmana.. 

into him that vital sap which flowed away beyond 
these worlds 1 . 

1 8. From outside the Vedi (he takes them), — the 
Vedi being this (earth), and that vital sap which is in 
this (terrestrial) world being already possessed by 
him, he now puts into him the vital sap which flowed 
beyond this (earth). 

19. He takes them with the sacrificial (wooden) 
sword, — the sword is a thunderbolt, and the thunder- 
bolt means force, and this (earth) means wealth : by 
force he thus obtains wealth. 

20. From the front side he brings one, with (Va^ - . 
S. XII, 102), ' May he not injure me who is the 
begetter of the Earth!' — the begetter of the 
Earth doubtless is Pra^apati (the lord of creatures 
and generation) : thus, ' May Prafapati not injure 
me ! ' — 'Or he of true ordinances who hath per- 
vaded the sky,' that is, ' Or he of true ordinances 
who has created the sky;' — 'Or he who first 
begat the shining waters,' — the shining waters 
doubtless are the men : thus, ' he who first created 
men;' — 'To the god Ka (who?) let us do 
homage by offering ! ' Ka doubtless is Pra^apati, 
thus, ' To him let us do homage by offering ! ' Having 
brought it he puts it on the body (of the altar-site) 
inside the enclosing-stones : he thereby puts into 
him (Agni) what vital sap had flowed away from him 
in the eastern direction, and also the eastern region 
itself he bestows upon him. 

21. Then (he fetches a clod) from the south, with 
(VV- S. XII, 103), 'Turn hither, O Earth, with 



1 Viz. when these worlds were plunged into the water, see VI, 1, 
i, 1 2. 



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vii kXnda, 3 adhyAya, i brAhmaya, 23. 347 

sacrifice, with milk ! ' as the text, so the meaning ; 
— 'Agni, sent forth, hath mounted thy skin;' 
whatsoever is on this (earth) that is her skin; 
and that (skin) Agni mounts, when sent forth, 
when blazing forth. Having brought it he puts it 
on the body (of the altar) inside the junction of 
the (right) wing (and the body): he thereby puts 
into him (Agni) what vital sap had flowed from 
him in the southern direction, and also the southern 
region itself he bestows upon him. 

22. Then from behind (he fetches one, with Vdf. 
S. XII, 104), 'O Agni, what in thee is pure, 
what brilliant, what clean, what meet for sacri- 
fice,' — Agni doubtless is this (earth) : of her he says 
this; — 'that do we bring to the gods,' that is, 
* that we bring for this divine work.' Having brought 
it he puts it on the body (of the altar) inside the 
junction of the tail (and the body) : he thereby puts 
into him what vital sap had flowed away from him 
in the western direction, and also the western region 
itself he bestows upon him. Let him not take it 
exactly from the back (west) lest he should take the 
vital sap from the path of the sacrifice : he takes it 
from about there 1 . 

23. Then from the north, with (V&f. S. XII, 105), 
'Sap and strength have I taken from here 2 ,' — 
that is, ' Sap and strength I take from here ; ' — ' the 
womb of sacred law,' the sacred law doubtless is 
the truth: thus, 'the womb of the truth;' — 'the 
stream of the mighty,' the mighty (buffalo, or 

1 Viz. from some place towards north-west from the middle of 
the western side of the body of the altar. 

* Mahfdhara takes ' adam ' here as the regular imperfect of ' ad,' 
I ate. 



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348 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

mahisha) doubtless is Agni, for he, being born here 
great (mahat), animated everything; — 'May it 
accrue to me in the cows, in the bodies,' — the 
body is the self : thus, ' May it accrue to me both in 
the cows and in (my own) self;' — ' I leave behind 
decline, weakness, sickness!' therewith he spreads 
the sand (by stroking) : he thereby consigns to 
that (northern) region whatever decline, weakness, 
and sickness there is ; whence hungry people (live) 
in that region. Having brought that (clod), he puts 
it on the body (of the altar) on the middle of the 
junction of the (left) wing (and the body) : he thereby 
puts into him (Agni) what vital sap flowed away in 
the northerly direction ; and also the northern region 
itself he bestows upon him. 

24. These same (clods) are the regions ; he places 
them on all sides : he thus places the regions on all 
sides ; whence the regions are on every side. [He 
places the clods so] as to face each other from every 
side : he thereby places the regions to face each 
other from every side, and hence the regions face 
each other from every side. He places them separ- 
ately, ' settles 1 ' them separately, and separately 
pronounces the Sudadohas upon them ; for separate 
from each other are the regions. Standing he places 
them, for the regions, as it were, stand ; and stronger, 
indeed, one is whilst standing. 

25. These same (clods) are bricks having special 
prayers (ya^ishmatt 2 ) : on the body (of the altar) 
he places them, not on the wings and tail ; for bricks 
having special prayers are placed on the body, not 
on the wings or tail. 

1 See p. 301, note 3. * See p. 153, note 1. 

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vii kXnda, 3 adhyAya, i brAhmawa, 29. 349 

26. As to this they say, 'How do these (clod- 
bricks) come to be put on as baked, as heated (burnt) 
ones ? ' Well, these (clods) are vital sap, and the 
vital sap (blood) is naturally-heated ; and, moreover, 
whatever comes in contact with Agni Vaixvanara, 
even thereby comes to be put on as baked, as 
heated. 

27. He then throws up the Uttara-vedi 1 (high- 
altar), — the Vedi is this (earth), the Uttara-vedi the 
sky, and the clod-bricks are the regions : thus when 
he puts on the clod-bricks between (the preparation 
of) the Vedi and (that of) the Uttara-vedi, he there- 
by places the regions between these two worlds; 
whence the regions are between these two worlds. 
He makes it either a yoke long on each side, or 
forty feet, — whichever way he pleases. He then 
throws sand thereon : the meaning of this has been 
explained. 

28. He throws it on the Uttara-vedi ; — the Uttara- 
vedi is the womb : he thus infuses seed into the 
womb ; and the seed which is infused into the womb 
becomes generative. He covers the whole body (of 
the altar) with that (sand) : he thus puts seed into 
the whole body 2 ; whence the seed is produced 
from the whole body. 

29. [He throws it on the high-altar, with Va^*. S. 
XII, 106-111; XikS. X, 140] 'Thine, O Agni, 
is glory and vigour,' — his glory (rravas) and vigour 
doubtless is the smoke, for that announces (wavaya) 
him in yonder world, — 'mighty shine forth the 

1 See p. 325, note 6. 

* That is to say, he first throws down sand on the Uttara-vedi, 
and then covers with it the whole of the body of the altar, so as to 
make it even with the Uttara-vedi. 



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350 .SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

flames, O rich-beamed one! ' that is, ' the flames 
of (thee), the mighty one, shine forth, O thou, abound- 
ing in wealth!' — 'With might, O wide-rayed 
one (thou bestowest) strength, worthy of song,' 
might is power : thus, ' By (thy) power, O wide-rayed 
one, (thou givest) food worthy of song;' — 'bestowest 
thou upon the worship, O sage ! ' worship doubt- 
less is the Sacrificer : thus, ' Upon the worship thou 
bestowest, O sage ! ' 

30. ' Pure-flamed, bright-flamed,' for pure- 
flamed and bright-flamed he (Agni) is; ' full-flamed, 
didst thou burst forth with light,' that is, 'full- 
flamed shonest thou forth with light;' — 'running 
about as their son thou helpest the two 
mothers,' for as their son he does help the two 
mothers; — 'thou fillest both spheres,' the two 
spheres doubtless are these two, heaven and earth, 
and these two he indeed fills, — with smoke yonder 
(sky), with rain this (earth). 

31. ' Child of strength, knower of beings, in 
benedictions,' that is, 'child of strength, knower of 
beings, in praises,' — ' delight thou, kindly in 
thoughts,' that is, ' shine thou, kindly in thoughts ;' 
— ' in thee have they brought together multi- 
form nourishments,' that is, 'in thee have they 
brought together many-formed nourishments ; ' — ' of 
wondrous help are the fair-born,' as the text, so 
the meaning. 

32. ' Ruling, O Agni, spread thou by beings' 
— the beings are men : thus, 'Shining, O Agni, 
spread thyself by men ! ' — ' riches amongst us, 
O immortal ! ' that is, ' bestowing wealth upon us, O 
immortal!' — 'Of beautiful form, shinest thou' — 
for he indeed shines, of beautiful form ; — ' thou 



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VII KAJfDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 36. 35 1 

fillest (us with) profitable 1 wisdom;' that is, 
' thou fillest (us with) perennial wisdom.' 

33. 'Him, the wise arranger of the cult,' — 
the cult is the sacrifice : thus, ' him, the wise pre- 
parer of the sacrifice;' — 'ruling over great 
wealth,' that is, 'ruling in great wealth;' — 'the 
bestowal of good things, — prosperous, mighty 
(mah) nourishment,' — that is, 'the bestowal of good 
things ; prosperous, ample (mahat) nourishment,' — 
'givest thou, and profitable substance,' that 
is, 'givest thou, and perennial substance.' 

34. '[Thee,] the righteous,' that is, 'the truth- 
ful ; ' — ' the mighty,' the mighty (or buffalo) doubt- 
less is Agni; — ' the all-remarkable,' for he (Agni) 
is indeed remarkable to all; — '(thee), Agni, men 
have placed foremost for happiness,' happiness 
doubtless is the sacrifice, and for the sacrifice they 
indeed place him foremost ; — ' thee, the hearer, the 
far-ruling, divine one, with song the human 
tribes ; ' that is, ' thee who hearest, thee, the far- 
ruling god, we men invoke.' 

35. Now this hymn of six verses is that same 
Agni Vai-rvanara ; and it is in order to make a 
beginning (in the building of the altar) that that 
sand is scattered, — he thereby pours into it Agni 
Vaisvanara as seed ; — (he does so) with a six-versed 
hymn : six seasons are a year and the year is 
Vawvanara (belonging to all men). 

36. As to this they say, ' If the seed is said to be 
seed what is its seed characteristic ? ' — Let him say, 
' white ; ' for seed is white ; — or ' speckled,' for seed 
is, as it were, speckled. 

1 The author connects ' s&nasi ' with ' sanatana ' (old, perpetual). 

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352 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

$]. As to this they say, ' As seed is moist, and 
he scatters dry sand, how does it become moist for 
him, after the manner of seed ? ' Well, the metres 
are vital sap, and vital sap is moist ; and inasmuch 
as he scatters that (sand) with metres, it is thus that 
it becomes moist for him, after the manner of seed. 

38. As to this they say, ' How does it come to be 
put on for him by means of the day and the night ? ' 
Well, day and night are two, and there are two 
(kinds of) seed, the white and the black : as black 
and white it is thus put on for him by means of the 
day and the night. 

39. As to this they say, ' How does that (sand), 
put on by the days and nights, become complete 
(or perfect) for him, neither deficient, nor super- 
abundant ? ' Well, endless are the days and nights, 
and endless is the sand : it is thus that, put on 
by the days and nights, it becomes complete for 
him, neither deficient, nor superabundant ' And 
wherefrom (is obtained) the oceanic (Samudriya 1 ) 
metre ? ' The ocean is endless, and the sand is 
endless : that is the oceanic metre. 

40. As to this they say, ' How is that (sand) of 
his put on separately with different prayers ? ' Well, 
prayer is thought ; this thought, prayer, comes to be 
equal to the whole sand 2 : and thus that (sand) of his 
comes to be put on separately with different prayers. 

41. As to this they say, ' How does that (sand) 
of his come to be put on by all the metres ? ' — 
Inasmuch as he scatters it with that hymn of six 
verses ; for as many syllables as there are in the 

1 The exact purport of this term is not clear. 
* SikataA, sand, is plural, consisting as it does of a multiplicity 
of sand-grains. 

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vn kAjvda, 3 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 44. 353 

seven metres, so many syllables there are in that 
hymn of six verses ' : thus that (sand) of his comes 
to be put on by all the metres. 

42. And as to why he scatters sand, — that Agni 
(fire-altar) is Pra^apati, and Pra^apati is the whole 
Brahman. Now that sand is (put) in (the place of) 
the lost part of the Brahman ; and that part of it 
which has not been lost is this fire-altar which is now 
being built : thus when he scatters sand he restores 
to him that lost part of the Brahman. That (sand 
which) he scatters is unnumbered, unlimited; for 
who knows how great is that lost part of the Brah- 
man ? And verily he who, knowing this, scatters 
sand, restores the whole, complete Pra^apati. 

43. As to this they say, ' What is the number of 
these unnumbered sand grains ? ' Let him say, 
' Two ; ' for there are two kinds of sand, the white 
and the black ; or let him say, ' Seven hundred and 
twenty,' for so many days and nights there are in 
the year ; or ' Two hundred and fifty-two,' for so 
many syllables there are in that hymn of six verses ; 
or ' Twenty-five,' for seed is twenty-fivefold 2 . 

44. This same (sand represents) bricks with special 
prayers : he places it on the body (of the altar), not 

1 This is a somewhat loose calculation. As a matter of fact, 
the seven principal metres, viz. Gayatri (24), Ush«ih (28), Anu- 
sh/ubh (32), BnTiatt (36),Pankti (40), Trish/ubh (44), Gagatf (48), 
contain together 252 syllables. The hymn recited in scattering 
the sand, on the other hand, consists of one Vish/arapankti (40), 
three Satobr/hatfs (3 x 40), the Uparish/a^gyotis (? 40), and one 
Trish/ubh (44), or together of 244 syllables. On similar cases of 
looseness in computing the syllables of metres, see p. 318, note 1. 

* Viz. inasmuch as it emanates from the body (paragraph 28), 
and the body consists of twenty-five parts — the trunk, the four 
limbs, and twenty fingers and toes. Cf. VI, 2, 1, 23, where, how- 
ever, the trunk is not taken into account. 
[41] A a 



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354 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

on the wings and tail ; for bricks with special prayers 
are placed on the body, not on the wings and tail. 
He does not ' settle ' it, lest he should stop the seed, 
and generation. 

45. He then strokes it (the sand) even by means 
of two verses containing the verb ' to grow : ' he 
thereby causes that infused seed to grow, whence 
the seed infused into the womb grows; — with two 
(verses) relating to Soma (he strokes the sand) ; for 
Soma is breath : he thus puts breath into the seed ; 
whence the infused seed becomes possessed of breath. 
But, indeed, were it to come forth without breath 
it would become putrid ; and this indeed is the 
Sudadohas x in this case ; for Soma is breath, and 
the Sudadohas is breath. 

46. [Va^. S. XII, 112, 113; Xik S. I, 91, 16, 18] 
'Grow thou! let manly power gather in thee 
from all sides, O Soma ! ' manly power doubtless 
is seed : thus, ' Grow thou ! let seed gather in thee 
from every side, O Soma!' — 'Be thou in the 
gathering of strength!' in food doubtless is 
strength : thus, ' be thou in the gathering of food ! ' — 
' Let the drinks, let the forces gather in thee ! ' 
— drink doubtless means vital sap, and in food are 
forces : thus, ' let vital sap, let food gather itself 
in thee!' — 'and manly powers in thee, the 
overcomer of enemies;' that is, 'and seed in 
thee, the overcomer of evil ; ' — ' growing, O Soma, 
for the sake of immortality,' he thereby lays 
immortality into the generative power, whence 
generative power is immortal; — 'gain thou the 
highest glory in the heavens!' his highest glory 

1 See p. 301, note 3. 

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vn kAjvda, 3 adhyAya, 2 brAhmamv, i. 355 

in the heavens doubtless is the moon, for that one 
causes him to be celebrated in yonder world 1 . 
With two (verses) he makes him grow, a gayatrt 
and a trish/ubh one, — the significance of this has 
been explained. 

47. Now then the (mystic) correspondence, — four 
clod-bricks he puts on ; with a six-versed (hymn) he 
scatters (the sand) ; with two (verses) he makes (the 
seed) grow ; that makes twelve, — twelve months are 
a year, and the year is Agni : as great as Agni is, 
as great as is his measure, so great does this become. 

Second BrAhmajva. 
1. Having smoothed (the sand) down with the 
two verses containing (the verb) 'to grow,' and 
returned (to the hall) he proceeds with the guest 
offering. Having performed the guest offering, he 
proceeds with the Pravargya and the Upasad 2 . 
Having performed the Pravargya and the Upasad, 
they appease that (first) layer on the (red ox-)skin. 
And as to why on a skin : for the obtainment of the 
forms, the skin being outward form ; — on the hairy 
side : for the obtainment of the forms, hair being 
outward form ; — on a ruddy (skin) : for the obtain- 
ment of all forms, all forms (colours being contained) 
in the ruddy ; — on (the skin) of an ox : for the obtain- 
ment of Agni's forms, the ox being the same as Agni ; 
— on (the skin spread) with the neck towards the 
east, for that (tends) godward. 

1 Saya»a remarks, — The high glory, in the heaven, of Soma 
growing in the form of a creeper is said to be the moon: in 
yonder heavenly world that moon indeed, when being drunk (by 
the gods) in the form (?) of ambrosia, causes him, Soma, to be 
celebrated. 

* See part ii, p. 104. 

A a 2 



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356 satapatha-brAhmava. 

2. He spreads it in front of the Garhapatya, on 
the Vedi, with the hairy side upwards, and the neck 
towards the east : thereon they appease that layer. 
Now he sprinkles (the bricks) ; — when he sprinkles, 
he thereby makes it pure, sacrificially clean ; — with 
clarified butter (he sprinkles), for that is pure, 
sacrificially clean; and also with the view of its 
being unsurpassed 1 , for no other sacrificial food is 
sprinkled with ghee ; — silently (he sprinkles), for 
what is (done) silently is undefined, and the un- 
defined is everything : by means of everything he 
thus makes it pure, and sacrificially clean ; and also 
with the view of its being unsurpassed, for no other 
sacrificial food is sprinkled silently. 

3. And, again, why he sprinkles, — this (layer of 
bricks) is sacrificial food, and as such he bastes it * ; 
for whatever sacrificial food is buttered, and basted, 
that is palatable and sacrificially clean. With ghee 
(he bastes it), for sacrificial food is basted with ghee ; 
silently (he does so), for silently sacrificial food is 
basted ; — by means of stalks of Kara, grass, for these 
are pure, and sacrificially clean ; — by means of the 
tops, for the top is sacred to the gods. 

4. As to this they say, ' When he sprinkles only 
the first layer, how does that whole fire-altar of his 
come to be sprinkled, how does it come to be led 
forward on the skin, and how led forward by the 
horse 3 ?' Inasmuch as in this (layer) he (symbo- 
lically) 4 sprinkles the bricks of all the layers ; and 

1 Literally, for not surmounting. 

* See part i, p. 192, note 1. 

8 On the leading forward of the fire, and laying it down on the 
foot-print of a horse, see II, 1, 4, 23 seq. 

* According to Katy. XVII, 3, 18-19 some ritualists would seem 
to put the (ya^ushmatf) bricks of all the layers on the skin. But 



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VII KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAtfA, J. X$J 

thus indeed that whole fire-altar of his comes to be 
sprinkled, and led forward on the skin, and led 
forward by the horse. They lift up this (first) 
layer \ 

5. He (the Adhvaryu) then says (to the Hotri), 
' Recite to the fires being led forward ! ' For at 
that time when the gods were setting out to spread 
the sacrifice, the Rakshas, the fiends, sought to smite 
them, saying, ' Ye shall not sacrifice ! ye shall not 
spread the sacrifice!' Having made those fires, 
those bricks, to be sharp-edged thunderbolts, they 
hurled these at them, and laid them low thereby ; 
and having laid them low, they spread that sacrifice 
in a place free from danger and devilry. 

6. Now, what the gods did is done here, — even 
now those Rakshas are indeed smitten by the gods 
themselves ; and when he nevertheless does this, it 
is because he thinks, ' I must do what the gods did.' 
And so, having made those fires, those bricks, to be 
sharp-edged thunderbolts, he hurls them at whatever 
Rakshas, whatever evildoers there may be, and lays 
them low thereby; and having laid them low, he 
spreads the sacrifice in a place free from danger and 
devilry. 

7. And as to why (he recites) to the fires, — it is 
because there are here many fires, to wit, those 
layers ; and as to (his reciting) to them being led 
forward (pra-har), it is because he hurls (pra-har) 
them forward (as thunderbolts). 

perhaps this is merely a wrong interpretation of this passage of 
the Br&hmana ; though the three ' naturally-perforated ' bricks are 
probably placed together. 

1 The Adhvaryu's attendants take up the ox-skin with the bricks 
for the first layer lying on it. 



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358 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

8. Now some recite (Vif. S. XII, 50), 'The 
Agnis Purlshyas, together with those of the 
streams,' — a form of starting 1 . Let him not do 
so ; let him recite gayatrl verses addressed to Agni, 
and relating to (objects of) desire: (V4f. S. XII, 
115; Rik S. VIII, 11, 7), 'Hither may Vatsa lead 
thy mind even from the highest seat, O Agni, 
with the song desirous of thee !' — (V&f. S. XII, 
ii6;^"kS.VIII, 43, 18), ' To thee, O Agni, best 
of Angiras, all good homesteads have laid 
themselves out for (the obtainment of) their de- 
sire.' — (Va^-. S. XII, 117), 'Agni, the one all- 
ruler, shineth in the beloved homes, the (object 
of) desire of all that is and shall be.' 

9. Verses addressed to Agni he recites for the 
obtainment of Agni's forms ; — and such as relate to 
desire, for the obtainment of his desires ; — Giyatri 
ones, — Agni is Gayatra : as great as Agni is, as 
great as is his measure, with so much he thus pours 
him forth as seed; — with three (verses), — Agni is 
threefold : as great as Agni is, as great as is his mea- 
sure, with so much he thus pours him forth as seed. 
These (three), with the (first and last verses) recited 
thrice, amount to seven, — of seven layers consists the 
fire-altar 2 , seven seasons are a year, and the year is 
Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his mea- 
sure, so great does this become. He recites in a 
low voice, for here in the sacrifice seed is (cast), and 
seed is cast silently. He (the Wotri) marches reciting 
behind (the bricks carried by the attendants); he 
thus marches, defending the sacrifice by the metres 
from behind. 



1 See VII, 1, 1, 25. » See p. 249, note 3. 

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vii kAnda, 3 adhyaya, 2 brAhmajva, 12. 359 

10. And in front they lead a white horse. For at 
that time the gods were afraid lest the Rakshas, the 
fiends, should smite them here. They saw that 
thunderbolt,, even yonder sun; for that horse is 
yonder sun : having driven off the Rakshas, the 
fiends, in front, by that thunderbolt, they obtained 
well-being in a place free from danger and devilry. 
They arrive at the (site of) the fire-altar ; south of 
the tail (of the altar) they set down the layer (of 
bricks) ; from the north they make the horse step 
(on the site of the altar). 

11. They lead it eastward on the left (north) 
side of the altar, inside the enclosing-stones, whereby 
they ward off evil from the eastern region ; then 
southward, whereby they ward off evil from the 
south ; then westward, whereby they ward off evil 
from the western region ; then northward, whereby 
they ward off evil from the northern region. Having 
thus warded off the Rakshas, the fiends, from all the 
regions, he sets it (the horse) free towards north- 
east : the significance of this has been explained. 

12. Whilst it goes westward he makes it smell 
(kiss) that layer (of bricks); — that horse is yonder 
sun, and those bricks are the same as all these crea- 
tures (on earth) : thus even as he makes (the horse) 
smell, so yon sun kisses these creatures ' . And hence, 
by Pragapati's power, every one now thinks, ' I am ! ' 
And as to why he makes it smell while going west- 
ward, it is because, whilst going (from east) to west, 
that (sun) kisses all these creatures. 

1 According to S£ya»a, it is by his rays (identified with the vital 
airs of living beings) that the sun kisses (or puts himself in contact 
with) the creatures (and animates them) ; so that every one feels that 
he is ' labdhitmaka/ or has obtained ' a self/ or life and being. 



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•?6o satapatha-brAhmajta. 

13. And, again, why he makes it smell;— that 
horse is yonder sun, and those naturally-perforated 
(bricks) are these worlds ; and even as he makes it 
smell, so yonder sun strings these worlds to himself 
on a thread *. And as to that thread, the significance 
of that (will be explained) further on. 

14. And, again, why he makes it smell ; — Agni 
went away from the gods ; he entered the water. 
The gods said to Pra^apati, ' Go thou in search of 
him : to thee, his own father, he will reveal himself.' 
He became a white horse, and went in search of 
him. He found him on a lotus leaf, having crept 
forth from the water. He eyed him, and he (Agni) 
scorched him : hence the white horse has, as it 
were, a scorched mouth 2 , and indeed is apt to 
become weak-eyed. He (Agni) thought he had hit 
and hurt him, and said to him, ' I grant thee a boon ! ' 

15. He (Pra^apati) said, 'Whoever shall seek 
thee in that form (of a white horse), shall find thee ! ' 
And, accordingly, he who seeks him (Agni) in that 
form, finds him ; and having found him, he then 
builds him up. 

16. It should be a white (horse), for that is a 
form of him (the sun) who burns yonder. If he 
cannot obtain a white one, one that is not white 
might do ; but a horse it should be. If he cannot 
obtain a horse, even an ox might do, for the ox is 
of Agni's nature, and Agni is the repeller of all 
evils. 

1 That is, he passes a thread through them (as through pearls), 
fastened to himself. Regarding this Thread, or spiritual bond, 
holding together all sentient existences of the universe, see XIV, 
6, 7, a seq. 

* That is, according to Sayawa, a reddish mouth. 



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vii kAnda, 3 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaya, 19. 361 

1 7. Now, then, as to the mounting l (of the altar). 
Now some mount it from the front (east) towards 
the back, or from the back towards the front : let 
him not do so ; for that Agni (the fire-altar) is an 
animal ; and if one mounts an animal (ox) from the 
front towards the back, it strikes him with its horns ; 
and if he mounts it from the back towards the front, 
it does so with its feet. Let him mount it only by 
the middle body 2 ; for the animal which people 
mount by the (middle) body, carries them forward, 
and does not hurt them. From the left (north) side 
(he should mount it), for any animal which people 
mount they mount from the left side. By mounting 
the (body of the) altar from the left side, and per- 
forming the work connected with the Uttara-vedi, 
he takes hold of Agni in the (middle) body (or, into 
himself) ; and having taken Agni into his own self, 
he sings the * true hymn.' He puts a lotus-leaf on 
(the altar): thereof further on. 

18. Now that horse they lead about when even- 
ing is closing in ; for at that time the gods were 
afraid lest the Rakshas, the fiends, should there 
smite that (Agni, or altar) of theirs. They made that 
thunderbolt, to wit, yonder sun, his protector, for 
that horse is yonder sun ; and in like manner does 
this one now make that thunderbolt his (Agni's) 
protector. 

19. He leads it about towards the setting of the 
sun ; for he (the sun) is manifestly his protector by 
day; and the Rakshas are the associates of the 

1 That is, as to the way in which the priests and sacrificer are to 
step on the body of the altar-site, when coming from outside. 

1 That is to say, from sideways as in getting on the saddle of 
a horse. 



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362 satapatha-brahmaya. 

night : for the night he thus makes that thunderbolt 
his protector. He leads it about on every side : on 
every side he thus makes that thunderbolt his pro- 
tector. Thrice he leads it about : he thus makes 
that thunderbolt his (Agni's) threefold protector. He 
then lets it loose towards north-west : the purport of 
this has been explained. It afterwards returns (to 
the sacrificial ground) : the purport of this (will be 
explained) further on. 

THE BUILDING OF THE ALTAR. 
THE FIRST LAYER. 

Fourth Adhyaya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. Being about to build Agni (the fire-altar), he 
takes him up into his own self; for from out of his 
own self he causes him to be born, and wherefrom 
one is born, suchlike he becomes. Now were he to 
build up Agni without taking him up into his own 
self, he would beget man from man, mortal from 
mortal, one not freed from sin from one not freed ; 
from sin ; but when he builds up Agni after taking 
him up into his own self, he causes Agni to be born 
from Agni, the immortal from the immortal, the 
sinless from the sinless. 

2. He takes him in (by muttering, V&£\ S. XIII, 
1), 'Within me I first take Agni,' he thereby first 
takes Agni into his own self; — 'for increase of 
wealth, for healthy progeny, for vigorous man- 
hood!' and hereby he takes all blessings to him- 
self; — 'and may the deities stand by me!' and 
hereby he takes all the gods to himself; and thus 
he takes into his own self all that he is about to 
generate from his own self. Having taken Agni 



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VII KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 7. 363 

into his own self whilst standing, he builds him up 
sitting ; — Agni is an animal : hence the animal, 
having received the foetus standing, gives birth 
after lying down. 

3. He now sings the Satya Saman 1 (true hymnX 
For the gods then said, ' Let us make the truth 
(satya) his mouth (or beginning) : thus we shall be- 
come the truth, truth will turn unto us, and true will 
become that wish of ours for which we are about to 
perform this rite ! ' 

4. They sang that ' true hymn ' at the outset, and 
thus made the truth his ( Agni's) mouth ; and they 
became the truth ; the truth turned unto them, and 
true became that wish of theirs for which they per- 
formed this rite. 

5. And in like manner when the Sacrificer now, at 
the outset, sings the ' true hymn,' he thereby makes 
the truth his (Agni's) mouth ; and he (himself) be- 
comes the truth ; and truth turns unto him ; and true 
becomes that wish of his for which he performs this 
rite. 

6. Now that truth is the same as the waters, for the 
waters are the truth. Hence they say, 'Whereby 2 
the waters flow, that is a form of the truth.' It is the 
waters indeed that were made first of this universe : 
hence when the waters (rains) flow, then everything 
whatsoever exists is produced here. 

7. He then puts down a lotus-leaf (in the centre of 

1 Probably SSma-v. S. I, 99 (Jtik S. I, 69, 4), 'O Agni, lord of 
bovine food, child of strength, grant unto us, O knower of beings, 
great gloryl' See Weber, Ind. Stud. XII, p. 148, note 2. 

* ?Or, in that (or because, yena) the waters flow, — that is to 
say, the flowing of the waters (rain, &c.) is a manifestation of 
eternal truth. 



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364 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

the altar-site); — the lotus-leaf is a womb: he hereby 
puts a womb to it (for Agni to be born from). 

8. And, again, why he puts down a lotus-leaf; — 
the lotus means the waters, and this earth is a leaf 
thereof : even as the lotus-leaf here lies spread on 
the water, so this earth lies spread on the waters. 
Now this same earth is Agni's womb, for Agni (the 
fire-altar) is this earth, since thereof the whole Agni 
is built up: it is this earth he thus lays down. He 
lays it down so as not to be separated from the 
truth : he thereby establishes this earth on the truth ; 
— hence this earth is established on the truth ; and 
hence the truth is this earth, for this earth is the 
most certain of these worlds. 

9. [He lays it down, with Va^. S. XIII, 2] ' The 
waters' back thou art, the womb of Agni,' for 
this earth is indeed the back of the waters, and the 
womb of Agni; — 'around the swelling ocean,' 
for the ocean indeed swells around this earth ; — 
'growing great on the lotus,' that is, ' growing, 
flourish thou on the lotus;' — 'spread out with 
the extent, with the breadth, of the sky ! ' with 
this he strokes along (the leaf), — for this Agni is 
yonder sun, and no other extent but that of the sky 
is able to contain him : he thus says (to the leaf), 
' Having become the sky, contain him 1 ' He lays it 
down with a Svarif verse, for self-rule (svara^ya) 
belongs to the waters. Having ' settled ' it, he pro- 
nounces the Sudadohas l upon it : the significance of 
this has been explained. 

10. He then puts the gold plate * thereon. Now 

1 See p. 301, note 3. 

1 Viz. the one the Sacrificer wore round his neck during the 
initiation period. See VI, 7, 1, 1 seq. 



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VII KAjVDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAJVA, 1 4. 365 

this gold plate is yonder sun, for he shines over all 
the creatures here on earth ; and ' roias ' (shine) they 
mystically call ' rukma ' (gold plate), for the gods 
love the mystic: he thus lays down yonder sun 
(on the altar). It is golden, and round, with one 
and twenty knobs, — the significance of this has been > 
explained. He puts it down with the knobs pointing 
downward ; for the knobs are his (the sun's) rays v 
and his rays (shine) downwards. 

1 1. He puts it down on the lotus-leaf; — the lotus- 
leaf is a womb : in the womb he thus places him 
(Agni). 

1 2. And, again, why he puts it on the lotus-leaf; — 
the lotus-leaf is a foundation, for the lotus-leaf is 
this earth, and this earth is the foundation : he who 
is not settled on this earth, is unsettled even as one 
who is far away. Now by means of his rays that 
(sun) is settled on this earth : he thus settles him 
(Agni) on this earth, as his foundation. 

1 3. And, again, why he puts it on the lotus-leaf. 
When Indra had smitten VWtra, he, thinking that 
he had not laid him low, entered the waters. He 
said to them, ' I am afraid : make ye a stronghold for 
me ! ' Now what essence of the waters there was that 
they gathered upwards (on the surface), and made 
it a stronghold for him ; and because they made (kar) 
a stronghold (pu^) for him, therefore it is ' pushkara ; ' 
' pushkara ' being what is mystically called ' push- 
kara ' (lotus-leaf), for the gods love the mystic. Now 
when he puts it (the gold plate) on the lotus-leaf, he 
then establishes him (Agni) in that essence which the 
waters gathered together for him (Indra), and in that 
stronghold which they made for him. 

14. [He puts it down, with V&f. S. XIII, 3] 



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2,66 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAivA. 

'The Brahman first born in front ; ' the Brahman 
doubtless is yonder sun, and he is born day by day 
in front (in the east); — 'from the summjj} 1 he, 
the longing, overspread the shining,' the sum- 
mit doubtless is the middle, the shining ones are 
these worlds, and the longing one is yonder sun, — 
he is the longing one inasmuch as he longed to be 
born ; and in rising he overspreads 2 these (worlds) 
from the summit, from the middle ; — ' he (over- 
spread) the nighest extents of the deep,' his 
nighest extents of the' deep doubtless are the regions, 
for he (the sun) does extend nigh to them; — 'the 
womb of the existent and of the non-existent 
did he overspread !' the womb of the existent and 
of the non-existent doubtless are these worlds ; for 
both what exists and what does not exist is born from 
these worlds. He puts it on with a trish^ubh verse, 
for yonder (sun) is related to the Trish/ubh 3 . Hav- 
ing ' settled ' it, he pronounces the Sudadohas* verse 
upon it : the significance of this has been explained. 
15. He then lays the (gold) man thereon, — he is 
Pra^apati, he is Agni, he is the Sacrificer. He is 
made of gold, for gold is light, and fire is light ; 
gold is immortality, and fire is immortality. It is a 
man (purusha), for Pra^apati is the Man. 

1 'SfmataA' would rather seem to mean 'from the boundary 
line,' but the author here takes 'sf man' in the sense of (simanta) 
' hair-line, parting of the hair, crown of the head (Scheitel).' 

a In the Sanskrit participial (or gerundial) construction, the 
relation between the primary and secondary notions is usually the 
reverse of ours, — thus ' he rises in overspreading.' 

* It is usually with Indra that the Trish/ubh metre is connected — 
see part i, introduction, p. xviii ; .Sat. Br. IX, 4, 3, 7 (cf. VIII, 5, 1, 10) 
— the Trish/ubh being also the emblem of the nobility (III, 4, 1, 10). 

* See p. 301, note 3. 



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vii kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, i brahmajva, i 8. 367 

1 6. And, again, why he lays down the man. When 
Pra^apati was relaxed, his pleasing form went out 
from within ; when it had gone out_o£_hjm, the gods 
left him. When the gods restored him, they put 
that pleasing form into him, and the gods were 
pleased with that (form) of his; and inasmuch as the 
gods were pleased (ram) with that pleasing (ramya) 
form of his, it is called ' hiramya ; ' ' hiramya ' being 
what is mystically called 'hirawya' (gold), for the 
gods love the mystic. And in like manner does this 
(Sacrificer) now put that pleasing form into him 
(Agni), and the gods are pleased with that (form) of 
his. "But that pleasing form of his is the vital air : it 
is that vital air he thus puts into him. 

17. He lays him on the gold plate, for the gold 
plate is yondersun : that same man who is in that 
(sun's) disk, it is him he now lays down (on the 
altar). 

18. He lays him down on his back 1 ; — for the 
gods at that time said, ' If we lay down these two 2 
both looking hitherwards, they will burn up every- 
thing here ; and if (we lay) both so as to be turned 
away from here, they will give warmth only in the 
opposite direction ; and if facing each other, then 
there will be light only between those two, and they 
will injure each other.' They laid down the one so 
as to look hitherwards, and the other so as to look 
away from here : that one (the sun), the gold disk, 
looking downwards, gives warmth by his rays, and 

1 Professor Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, p. 249, takes ' uttanam ' in 
the sense of ' standing erect,' with his face towards the east ; but 
this surely must be a mistake. 

1 Viz. both the gold plate (the sun), which was laid down with 
the embossed or front side downwards, and the gold man. 



i'j ,, ,. 



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368 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

that man (tends) upward by his vital airs '. He 
lays him down (with the head) towards the east, for 
(with the head) towards the east this Agni (the fire- 
altar) is built up. 

19. [He lays him down, with Vfif. S. XIII, 4; 
Rt\a S. X, 121, 1] ' Hira#yagarbha came first 
into existence,' for that golden child did come first 
into existence; — 'born he was the one lord of 
being ; ' for he indeed was born as the one lord of all 
this being; — 'he upholdeth this earth and the 
sky,' for he (the sun) does uphold both the sky and 
the earth ; — ' to the god Ka let us do homage 
by offering! ' Ka (Who ?) is Prafapati : thus, 'let 
us do homage to Him by offering ! ' 

20. \y$g. S. XIII, 5; Rik S. X, 17, 11] 'The 
drop leaped along the earth and sky ; ' the drop 
is yonder sun, and he leaps both to the sky and to 
the earth — thus (in rising) to that (sky), and thus 
(in setting) to this (earth) ; — 'along this seat, and 
that which was afore ;' that is, to this world, and 
to that one ; or this (Ahavaniya altar) which is now 
being built, and that (Garhapatya altar) which yonder 
was built before; — '(the drop) moving along the 
common seat ; ' for he (the sun) moves along that 
common seat; — 'the drop I offer along the seven 
hotras;' the drop is yonder sun; and the seven 
hotras are the regions : he thus establishes yonder 
sun in the regions. 

21. With two (verses) he lays him down; — two- 
footed is the Sacrificer, and the Sacrificer is Agni : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with 
so much he thus lays him down ; — with two trish/ubh 

1 Cf. VI, 7, 1, ii, where it is said that the immortal part of the 
vital air of man streams out by upward breathings. Cf.p. 359, n. 1. 



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vii kAnda, 4 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 26. 369 

verses, for he (the sun) is related to the Trish/ubh. 
Having ' settled ' him, he pronounces the Sudadohas 
on him : the significance of this has been explained. 

22. He then sings a Saman. For the gods, having 
laid down that man, then saw him (looking) even 
suchlike as yonder dry plank. 

23. They said, ' Think ye upon this, how we may 
put vigour into this man ! ' They said, ' Meditate ye 
(^etay)!' whereby, doubtless, they meant to say, 
' Seek ye to build up (£itim ish) ! seek ye how we 
shall put vigour into this man ! ' 

24. Whilst meditating, they saw this Saman; and 
sang it, and thereby put vigour into him ; and in like 
manner does this (Sacrificer) thereby put it into him : 
he sings on the man, he puts vigour into the man ; — 
he sings on the bright one \ for Agni is all bright 
things. After he has laid him down, let him not walk 
round him in front, lest that Agni should injure him. 

25. He (the Sacrificer) then stands by (the gold 
man) worshipping him with the Sarpanama (serpent- 
named) formulas. The serpents doubtless are these 
worlds, for these glide along (sarp) with everything 
here whatsoever there is ; and Agni is no other than 
the self (body) of all the gods. They, the gods, 
having laid down (on the altar) that self of theirs, 
were afraid lest these worlds should glide away with 
that self of theirs. 

26. They saw those Sarpanama and worshipped 
with them ; by these (verses) they stopped these 
worlds for him, and caused them to bend themselves ; 
and because they caused them to bend (nam) them- 

1 That is, he sings the Altra-saman, S4ma-v. I, 169 (V&g. S. 
XXVII, 39), 'With what favour will the bright one, the ever- 
growing friend, be with us ; with what mightiest host ? ' 
[41] B b 



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370 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAAA. 

selves, therefore (the formulas are called) Sarpanima. 
And in like manner does the Sacrificer, when he 
stands by worshipping with the Sarpanima formulas, 
stop these worlds for him, and cause these worlds to 
bend themselves ; and so they do not glide away with 
that self of his. 

27. And, again, why he stands by worshipping 
with the Sarpanima formulas; — the serpents are 
these worlds, for whatever creeps (sarp), creeps in 
these worlds. Now when he worships with the Sar- 
panima formulas— whatever fiend there is in these 
worlds, whatever devourer, whatever ogress, — all 
that he thereby appeases. 

28. [Va^-.S. XIII, 6-8] 'Homage be to the ser- 
pents, whichever are on earth, and they that 
are in the air, and they that are in the sky, to 
those serpents be homage!' whatever serpents 
there are in these three worlds to them he thereby 
does homage. 

29. ' They that are the darts of demons,' for 
some (of the serpents), sent by demons, bite; — 
'and those on the trees, and those which lie in 
holes, to those serpents be homage!' he thereby 
does homage to the serpents that lie both in trees, 
and in holes. 

30. 'Or those that are in the luminous 
sphere of the sky; or those in the rays of the 
sun ; those by which abode is made in the 
waters, to those serpents be homage!' he 
hereby does homage to them wheresoever they are. 
He does so by ' homage, homage,' for homage is 
sacrifice (worship) : by sacrifice, by homage, he thus 
worships them. Let him therefore not say ' homage 
be to thee,' to one not worthy of sacrifice, for it 



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vii KAiVDA, 4 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 33. 371 

would be just as if he said ' sacrifice (or, worship) be 
to thee ! ' 

31. With three (formulas) he worships, — three are 
these worlds, and threefold, also, is Agni : as great 
as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by so much 
he thus stops these worlds (from moving) ; and by 
so much does he appease everything here. Stand- 
ing he worships, for these worlds stand, as it were ; 
and besides, while standing one is stronger. 

32. Thereupon, having sat down he offers on (the 
gold man) with fivefold-taken ghee, — the significance 
of this has been explained. On each side (of the 
fire he offers), moving round : he thus gratifies him 
(Agni) with food from all quarters. 

33. And, again, why he offers thereon. The gods, 
having laid down that body of theirs, now were 
afraid lest the Rakshas, the fiends, should smite that 
(body) of theirs. They saw those Rakshas-killing 
counter-charms 1 , — (Va^ - . S. XIII, 9-13; Htk S. IV, 

1 See p. 53, note 2. In the present instance, the sacrificial 
formulas themselves constitute these charms. The five verses, 
only the first pada of the first of which is given in the text, are 
as follows : — 

1. Put forth thy power as (if it were) a broad host (or, net) ; go 
forth, like a mighty king with his following, following up the swift 
host 1 An archer thou art : pierce the Rakshas with thy fieriest 
(darts). 

2. Swiftly fly thy whirling (darts) : fiercely burning attack thou 
boldly! Unfettered, O Agni, with thy tongue pour forth on all sides 
winged flames and firebrands. 

3. Thou, the most rapid, send forth thy spies : be thou an un- 
daunted protector to this people (from him) who planneth evil 
against us from afar or from near by; O Agni, let none dare to 
attack us without thy cognizance. 

4. Rise, O Agni, spread thyself out, and burn down the foes, 
O sharp-darted : whosoever hath done us injury, burn him down, 
O flaming one, like dry brushwood. 

B b 2 



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372 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

4, 1-5), 'Put forth thy power, like a broad 
army! ' slayers of Rakshas are the counter-charms : 
having, by means of these counter-charms, repelled 
the Rakshas, the fiends, in every quarter, they (the 
gods) restored that body in a place free from danger 
and devilry; and in like manner this Sacrificer, 
having, by means of these counter-charms, repelled 
the Rakshas, the fiends, in every quarter, now re- 
stores that body (of Agni) in a place free from 
danger and devilry. 

34. He offers with ghee ; for the ghee is a thunder- 
bolt : by the thunderbolt he thus repels the Rakshas, 
the fiends; — with fivefold-taken (ghee), — of five 
layers consists the fire-altar ; five seasons are a year, 
and the year is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great 
as is his measure, with so much he thus repels the 
Rakshas, the fiends; — with (five) verses addressed 
to Agni, for the Rakshas-killing light is Agni : by 
Agni he thus repels the Rakshas, the fiends ; — with 
trish/ubh verses, — the TrishAxbh is a thunderbolt : 
by the thunderbolt he thus repels the Rakshas, the 
fiends. On each side (he offers) moving round : 
in every quarter he thus repels the Rakshas, the 
fiends. 

35. Behind the altar (he offers) while seated with 
his face towards the east ; then on the left (north) 
side (looking) to the south ; then in front (looking) 
to the west ; then going round behind, (he offers) on 
the right (south) side while sitting with his face to- 
wards the north. Thus (he moves) to the right, for 



5. Stand up, O Agni ; strike out for our sake, and manifest thy 
divine powers I unstring the strong (arrows, or bows) of the goblins : 
crush the enemies, be they kindred or strangers ! 



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VII KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 38. 373 

that (leads) to the gods. Thereupon, going back, 
(he offers) while sitting behind, with his face towards 
the east ; and in this way that performance of his 
takes place towards the east x . 

36. He then lays down two offering-spoons, — the 
offering-spoons are arms 2 : it is his arms he thus 
restores to him (Agni). And as to why offering- 
spoons (are laid down), it is because the arms are 
offering-spoons, — that bowl and the handle are two, 
for there are two of these arms. He lays them down 
at the (left and right) sides, for these arms (of ours) 
are at the sides. 

37. On the right (south) side he lays down one of 
karshmarya (gmelina arborea) wood. For at that 
time the gods were afraid lest the Rakshas, the 
fiends, should destroy their sacrifice from the south. 
They saw that Rakshas-killing tree, the Karshmarya : 
having by that tree repelled the Rakshas, the fiends, 
on the south, they spread that sacrifice in a place 
free from danger and devilry. And in like manner 
the Sacrificer, having by that tree repelled the Ra- 
kshas, the fiends, on the south, now spreads that 
sacrifice in a place free from danger and devilry. It 
(the spoon) is filled with ghee ; — the ghee is a 
thunderbolt : it is by the thunderbolt he thus repels 
the Rakshas, the fiends, on the south. 

38. On the left (north) side he then lays down 
one of udumbara (ficus glomerata) wood; for the 
Udumbara means strength, life-sap : strength, life- 
sap he thus puts into him. It is filled with sour 

1 The order in which he offers would thus be, — west, north, 
east, (then going back along the north and west sides) south, west. 

* They are indeed of an arm's length, with bowls of the shape 
and size of the hand, see part i, p. 67, note 2. 



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374 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

curds, — sour curds are life-sap : it is life-sap he thus 
puts into him. 

39. And, again, why he lays down two offering- 
spoons. When Pra^apati was relaxed, Agni took 
his (Pra^apati's) fiery spirit, and carried it off to the 
south, and there stopped ; and because after carrying 
(karsh) it off he stopped (ud-ram), therefore the Kar- 
shmarya (sprang up). And Indra took his (Pra^a- 
pati's) vigour and went away to the north : it became 
the Udumbara tree. 

40. He (Pra^apati) said to those two, ' Come ye 
to me, and put back into me that (substance) of mine 
wherewith ye have gone off ! ' — ' Well then, bestow 
thou all food here on us two ! ' they said. — ' Well 
then, join me, becoming these two arms of mine ! ' — 
•So be it!' He bestowed all food on them, and 
they joined him, becoming those two arms of his : 
hence it is by the arms that food is made, and by 
means of the arms that it is eaten, for he (Pra^a- 
pati) bestowed all food on the two arms. 

41. The karshmarya one he lays down on the 
right side, with (Va^. S. XIII, 13), 'By Agni's 
fiery spirit'I settle thee!' — that fiery spirit of his 
(Pra^apati's) which Agni then took and carried off to 
the south, he now puts back into him. — 'Agni, the 
head, the summit of the sky, he, the lord of the 
earth, animates the seeds of the waters,' for 
Agni indeed is this (spoon). With a Gayatrl verse 
(he performs), — Agni is Gayatra : as great as Agni 
is, as great as is his measure, with so much he thus 
lays down that (spoon). It is filled with ghee, for 
ghee belongs to Agni : with his own share, with his 
own life-sap he thus gratifies him. 

42. He then lays down the udumbara one on the 



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VII KAiVDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 43. 375 

left (north) side, with QJ$g. S. XIII.I4), 'By Indra's 
vigour I settle thee!' that vigour of his (Pra^a- 
pati's) which India then took and went away to the 
north, he now puts back into him. — (Va^. S. XIII, 
15; Rik S. X, 8, 6), 'Thou hast become the 
leader of the sacrifice, and of the sphere to 
which thou tendest with propitious teams; 
the light-giving head hast thou lifted to the 
sky; thy tongue, O Agni, hast thou made the 
bearer of the offering;' — Indra indeed is this 
(spoon). And as to its being a verse addressed to 
Agni, it is because it is the performance of Agni 
(the fire-altar) ; — and a trish/ubh one, because Indra 
is connected with the Trish/ubh ; and Agni includes 
Indra and Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is 
his measure, with so much he thus lays it down. 
Moreover, all the gods are Indra and Agni, and 
Agni belongs to all the deities: as great as Agni 
is, as great as is his measure, with so much he 
thus lays it down. It is filled with sour curds, for 
sour curds belong to Indra : with his own share, 
with his own life-sap he thus gratifies him. 

43. Indra and Agni indeed are those two arms of 
his (Prafapati's) : they join him with fiery spirit and 
vigour. Where he (the Sacrificer) touches (the 
ground with his arms), whilst viewing intently the 
gold man with his breast close to him 1 , there he 

1 There seems to be considerable difference of opinion between 
Kityayana and S£ya«a regarding this point of the ceremonial. The 
gold man lies stretched out on his back with his head towards the 
east. According to K&tyayana, XVII, 4, io, he (the Sacrificer) is 
to lie down so as to cover the gold man, but without actually 
touching him with his breast, and at the extreme end of where the 
arms touch (the ground) he is to make two marks, where the spoons 
are then to be laid down with the bowl towards the east. Sayawa, 



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376 satapatha-brAhmava. 

(the Adhvaryu) makes a mark and lays down those 
(spoons) ; for that is the place of those two (arms). 

44. Now some lay them down sideways (from 
south to north), saying, 'Sideways run these two arms 
(of ours).' Let him not do so, but let him lay them 
with the bowl towards the front (east), for this Agni 
(altar) is built with the head towards the front ; and, 
besides, in this way the arms are stronger. Sepa- 
rately he lays them down, separately he 'settles' 
them, and separately he pronounces the Sudadohas 
verse on them ; for separate are these two arms. 

45. As to this they say, ' Let him make no arms 
to this (gold) man 1 , lest he should cause him to be 
redundant ; for these two spoons are (in lieu of) his 
arms.' Let him nevertheless make (him with arms), 
for those two spoons are (merely) after the manner 
of the two arms. Moreover, those two (arms of 
Agni) are wings ; and whatever forms, whatever 
stomas, whatever prz'shMas, whatever metres he will 
be applying to that fire-altar, that will be the perfec- 
tion, that will be the growth of those two : let him 
therefore make arms to that (gold) man. 

on the other hand, explains — ' Let the Adhvaryu lay down the two 
spoons close to the breast of the laid-down gold man. Having 
beheld (i.e. recognised) — or, whilst beholding (?) — that man, where- 
ever the laid-down pair of spoons reaches his breast there, having 
made a mark, let him lay down the two spoons : that part of the 
breast doubtless is the place of those two (spoons, or gods?) 
extolled as the arms.' Perhaps the text of this comment is some- 
what corrupt The ceremony is apparently intended to symbolise 
the identification of the Sacrificer with the sacrificial man, or the 
sacrifice itself. The Sacrificer lies down so as to rest on his fore- 
arms ; the spoons being afterwards laid down on the marks left by 
the fore-arms (and naturally running in an easterly direction). — For 
Professor Weber's view, see p. 367, note 1. 

1 That is to say, Let it be a gold statuette without arms. 



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vii kanda, 4 adhyaya, 2 brahmawa, 4. 377 

Second BrAhmawa. 

1. He puts a Svayam-atW##a (naturally-perfor- 
ated brick) on (the gold man) ; — the (first) naturally- 
perforated one being this earth, he thus puts this 
earth thereon. He puts it on so as not to be separ- 
ate from the man ; for the naturally-perforated one 
means food, and the naturally-perforated one means 
this earth, and this earth is food, since it is on her 
that all food ripens : he thus places food close to him 
(the man, Agni). Upon (the man he puts it) : he 
thus places the food upon him \ 

2. And, again, why he puts on a naturally- 
perforated one ; — the naturally-perforated (brick) is 
the breath (or vital air), for the breath thus bores it- 
self (svayam atraitte) through the body : it is breath 
he thus bestows on it. He puts it so as not to be 
separate from the man ; for the naturally-perforated 
one is the breath, and the naturally-perforated one is 
this earth, and this earth is the breath, since this 
earth bears everything that breathes : he thus puts 
the breath so as not to be separate from him. 
Upon (the man he places the brick) : he thus puts 
the breath upon him 1 . 

3. And, again, why he puts thereon the naturally- 
perforated one. The deities, taking up the disjointed 
Pra^apati, separated ; and, having obtained a resting- 
place in them, thus separated, he settled down. 

4. Now that Prafapati who became disjointed is 
this very Agni (fire-altar) that is now being built up ; 
and that resting-place (or, foundation) is this first 

? Viz. inasmuch as the food is introduced into the body from 
above. It might also mean, he makes the food superior to the 
body, inasmuch as the body cannot exist without it. Similarly as 
regards the breath in the next paragraph. 



./ 



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378 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

naturally-perforated (brick) ; — thus when he now puts 
it on, he thereby puts upon this (altar-site) that (foun- 
dation 1 ) which there was for his body : that is why 
he now puts it on. 

5. He puts it on by means of Pra^apati, for Pra^a- 
pati thereby took back to himself (that foundation) of 
his body. [V$g. S. XIII, 16] 'Steady thou art/ 
that is, ' Firm thou art, or established thou art ; '— 
'supporting,' for that which supports is a founda- 
tion; — 'laid down by Virvakarman; ' Visvakar- 
man is Pra^apati, thus, ' laid down by that one ; ' — 
'May the ocean, may the bird not injure thee!' 
the ocean doubtless is the gold plate, and the bird is 
the man : thus, ' May those two not injure thee ! ' — 
' Not shaking, steady thou the earth ! ' as the 
text, so the meaning. 

6. [Vif. S. XIII, 17] 'May Pra^apati settle 
thee ' — for Prafapati saw this first layer 2 ; — ' on the 
back of the waters, on the way of the ocean,' 
the back of the waters doubtless is this earth, and 
the way of the ocean is this earth ; — ' thee, the 
wide, the broad one !' for this earth is both wide 
and broad ; — ' broaden thou : thou art the broad 
one ! ' that is, ' broaden thou, and thou art the broad 
(earth, przthivl).' 

7. [V&g. S. XIII, 18] 'Thou art the earth 
(bhu),' for this is the earth ; — ' thou art the ground 
(bhumi),' for this is the ground ; — ' Thou art Aditi,' 
— Aditi is this earth, for this earth gives (dad) 

1 The ' pratish/M ' (basis) of the bird-shaped Agni includes the 
parts on which the bird stands or sits, viz. the feet, and the hind- 
part of the body. Sayana, on the other hand, takes it to mean 
the ' puwlinga,' which seems very improbable. 

■ See VI, 2, 3, 1. 



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vii kXnda, 4 adhyaya, 2 brAhmawa, io. 379 

everything here ; — ' the all-containing,' for on this 
earth everything is contained ; — ' supporter of all 
the world,' that is, supporter of the whole world; — 
'sustain the earth, steady the earth, injure not 
the earth ! ' that is, sustain thyself, steady thyself, 
injure not thyself! 

8. [Va^. S. XIII, 19] ' For all breathing, out- 
breathing, through-breathing, and up-breath- 
ing;' for the naturally-perforated (brick) is the 
breath, and the breath serves for all that ; — ' for a 
resting-place, for a moving-place;' the natur- 
ally-perforated (bricks) are these worlds \ and these 
worlds are the resting-place, the moving-place; — 
' May Agni guard thee ' — that is, may Agni pro- 
tect thee! — 'with mighty well-being!' that is, 
with great well-being; — 'with the safest roof,' 
that is, with whatever roof (abode) is the safest. 
Having ' settled ' it 2 , he pronounces the Sudadohas 8 
on it : the meaning of this has been explained. He 
then sings a Saman : the meaning of this (will be 
explained) further on. 

9. Here now they say, ' How is it that that (gold) 
man is not held (weighed) down by the naturally- 
perforated (brick) * ? ' Well, the naturally-perforated 
(brick) is food and breath ; and man is not held down 
either by food or by his breath. 

10. He then lays the Durva-brick 6 thereon; — 
the Durva-brick being cattle ; it is with cattle he 

1 See p. 155, note 8. t 

1 That is, by adding the formula, ' By that deity, Angiras-like, 
lie thou steady 1 ' 
1 See p. 301, note 3. 

* That is to say, How will he (the Sacrificer) be able to rise 
upwards to heaven, when that brick is lying on him ? 

• See p. 187, note 3. 



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380 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

thus endows it : these are the same cattle together 
with which Agni on that former occasion approached 1 ; 
it is them he now puts thereon. He lays it down 
immediately on the naturally-perforated (brick) ; the 
naturally-perforated (brick) being this earth, he thus 
places the cattle immediately on this earth. Upon 
(the brick he places it) : upon this earth he thereby 
places cattle. 

11. And, again, why he lays down the Durva- 
brick. The hair of Pra^apati which were lying on 
the ground when he was disjointed became these 

Jierbs. The vital air then went out from within 
him, and, that having gone out, he fell down. 

12. He said, 'Verily, this (vital air) has undone 
me ! ' and because he said, ' it has undone (dhurv) 
me,' hence (the name) ' dhurva ; ' ' dhurva ' doubtless 
being what is mystically called ' durva,' for the gods 
love the mystic. That (durva grass) is the ruling 
power (Kshatra), for it is this vital sap, the breath ; 
and the other plants are the hair: in laying down 
that (durva plant) he lays down all (kinds of) plants. 

13. When the gods restored him, they put that 
life-sap, the breath, inside him ; and in like manner 
does this (Sacrificer) now put it into him. He lays 
it down immediately on the naturally-perforated 
(brick) ; the naturally-perforated one being this earth, 
he thus places the plants immediately on this earth. 
Upon (the brick he lays it) : upon this earth he 
thus places the plants. It should be with root and 
top, for completeness' sake. Let him lay it on in 
such manner that while lying on the naturally- 
perforated (brick) it touches the ground (with its 

1 See VI, 2, 3, 2. 

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vn kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 16. 381 

tops) 1 , for on this earth those (plants) spring up, and 
along her they grow. 

14. He lays it on, with (V4f. S. XIII, 20-21), 
' Growing up joint by joint, knot by knot ;' for 
joint by joint, and knot by knot that (grass) does 
grow up; — 'so do thou prolong us, O DurvA 
(plant), by a thousand, and a hundred (descend- 
ants) ! ' as the text, so its meaning. 

15. 'Thou that spreadest by a hundred, and 
branchest out by a thousand (shoots) ; ' for by a 
hundred (shoots) it spreads, and by a thousand it 
branches out ; — ' to thee, O divine brick, we will 
do homage by offering ; ' as the text, so the mean- 
ing. With two (verses) he puts it on : the meaning 
of this has been explained. Having ' settled ' it, he 
pronounces the Sudadohas upon it : the meaning of 
this has been explained. 

16. He then puts down a Dviya^us 2 (brick). 
Indra and Agni desired, ' May we go to the heavenly 
world ! ' They saw that dviyafus brick, even this 
earth, and laid it down ; and having laid it down, they 
went to the heavenly world from that foundation. In 
like manner when this Sacrificer lays down a dviya/us 
(brick), (he does so) thinking, ' I want to go to the 
heavenly world by the same means (rupa), by per- 
forming the same rite by which Indra and Agni went 
to the heavenly world ! ' And as to its being called 
' dviyafus,' it is because two deities saw it And as 
to why he lays down a dviya^us one : the dviya^us 
doubtless is the Sacrificer. 

1 The root is to lie on the brick from which (as representing the 
earth) it is supposed to have sprung ; the tops then spreading along 
the ground. 

* This brick is placed close beside the svayamitn'wwa (naturally- 
perforated one) in front (east) of it, on the ' anuka ' or spine. 



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382 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

17. Here now they say, ' If (the dviyafus) is that 
same Sacrificer who is that gold man, which then is 
that (real) form of his ? ' Well, that (gold man) is 
his divine body, and this (brick) is his human one. 
As to that gold man, that is his immortal form, his 
divine form ; gold being immortal. And as to this 
(brick) being made of clay, it is because this is his 
human form. 

18. Now were he only to lay down that (golden 
man), and not to let this dviya^fus (brick) remain \ 
the Sacrificer surely would quickly pass away from 
this world ; but now that he allows this (brick) to 
remain, he thereby leaves to him this human form 
of his ; and so he attains with this body the full 
(measure of) life. 

19. And were he not to put it on after (the gold 
man), he assuredly would not afterwards find out 
that divine body * ; but now that he puts it on there- 
after, he does so afterwards find out that divine 
body. He lays it down close to the durva-brick: 
the durva-brick being cattle, he thus establishes the 
Sacrificer in (the possession of) cattle. 

20. Here now they say, 'How do those two 
bodies of his come to be connected together by the 
breath, and not severed?' Well, the naturally- 
perforated (brick) is the breath, and the durva-brick 
is the breath, and the dviyagus (-brick) is the Sacri- 

1 The verb 'apa-rish' is taken similarly by Siyana (avajeshayet); 
whilst the St Petersburg dictionary assigns to it the meaning ' to 
omit, leave out ' (weglassen), which can hardly be correct (? misprint 
for (ibriglassen). It might, however, possibly be taken in the sense 
of 'vi-jish,' to specify, to single out 

* That is to say, — he would not, after quitting his mortal body, 
know or find out that divine body with which he wishes to invest 
himself. 



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vii kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmamv, 23. 383 

ficer : and inasmuch as he lays down the durva-brick 
close to the naturally-perforated one, he thereby 
connects and joins breath with breath ; and inasmuch 
as he lays down the dviya^us one close to the 
durva-brick — the durva-brick being the breath, and 
the dviya^us the Sacrificer — those two bodies of his 
(the human one and the divine one) thus become 
connected together by the breath, and not severed. 

21. [He lays down the dviya/us brick, with V£f. 
S. XIII, 22, 23] ' O Agni, what lights of thine 
in the sun overspread the sky by their beams, 
with all those help us to light and to people! 
— O ye gods, what lights of yours are in the 
sun, and what lights are in kine and horses, 
O Indra and Agni, with all those bestow light 
upon us, O Brz'haspati ! ' for ' light' he prays each 
time : light being immortality, it is immortality 
he thus bestows on him (Agni, and the Sacrificer). 
With two (verses) he lays it down : the significance 
of this has been explained. And, moreover, it is 
because that material form (of the brick) is a two- 
fold one, (consisting as it does of) clay and water. 
Having 'settled' it, he pronounces the Sudadohas 
upon it : the significance of this has been explained. 

22. He then lays down two Reta^si^ (seed-shed- 
ding bricks) ; — the seed-shedders doubtless are these 
two worlds, for these two worlds do shed seed ; — 
this (terrestrial world) sheds seed upwards from 
here (in the form of) smoke; it becomes rain in 
yonder world, and that rain yonder world (sheds) 
from above : hence (creatures) are born within these 
two worlds, and therefore these two worlds are 
seed-shedders. 

2Z- [He lays them down, with Va^. S. XIII, 24] 



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384 jatapatha-brAhmaata. 

' The wide-ruling one contained the light ;' the 
wide-ruling one 1 doubtless is this (terrestrial) world : it 
contains this fire, the light. — 'The self-ruling one 
contained the light/ the self-ruling 1 one doubtless 
is yonder world : it contains yonder sun, the light. 
And the wide-ruling one and the self-ruling one being 
these two worlds, he lays them down separately, for 
separate are these two worlds. He ' settles ' them 
once : he thereby makes them one and the same 
(or, joined together), whence the ends of these two 
worlds meet. 

24. And, again, why he lays down two seed- 
shedders ; the seed-shedders are the testicles, for 
only he who has testicles sheds seed. ' The wide- 
ruling one contained the light ; — the self-ruling one 
contained the light,' he says ; for the wide-ruling and 
the self-ruling ones are the testicles : they contain 
that light, the seed, Pra^apati. He lays them down 
separately, for separate are these testicles. He 
' settles' them once : he thereby makes them one and 
the same, whence they have a common connecting- 
part. He lays them down close to the dviyafus 
(brick) 2 : the dviya^xis being the Sacrificer, he thus 
puts the testicles together with the Sacrificer. 

25. He then lays down a Visvag yotis (all-light 
brick)* ; — the first 'all-light' (bricky is Agni, for Agni 



1 Or, the wide-shining . . . the self-shining one. 

4 The two RetaAsi£ bricks are laid down immediately in front 
(east) of the Dviya^us one, one on each side of the ' spine,' which 
thus coincides with their line of separation. 

' See VI, 5, 3, 3. 

* As in the case of the SvayamStr/wwas (naturally-perforated 
bricks, see pp. 155, note 8; 187, note 2), so there are three Vuva- 
^yotis or 'all-light' bricks, placed in the first, third, and fifth layers 



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vii kAnda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhma^a, 28. 385 

is all the light in this (terrestrial) world : it is Agni 
he thus lays down. He lays it down close to the 
seed-shedding ones, — the seed-shedding ones being 
these two worlds, he thus places Agni together with 
these two worlds. He lays it down between (the 
two Reta^sii 1 ), for Agni (the fire) is within these 
two worlds. 

26. And, again, why he lays down an ' all-light ' 
(brick) ; — the ' all-light ' (brick) is progeny, for pro- 
geny is all the light : he thus lays generative power 
(into Agni). He lays it down so as not to be sepa- 
rated from the seed-shedding (bricks), — the seed- 
shedders being the testicles, he thus makes the 
generative power inseparable from the testicles. 
He lays it down between (those two), for within 
the testicles progeny is produced. 

27. [He lays it down, with V£f. S. XIII, 24] 
'May Pra^apati settle thee' — for Pra^apati saw 
this first layer 2 ;— 'on the back of the earth, thee 
the brilliant one ! ' for on the back of the earth this 
brilliant Agni indeed is. 

28. 'For all breathing, out-breathing, 
through-breathing,' — the all-light (brick) is breath, 
and breath is (necessary) for this entire universe ; — 
' give all the light !' that is, ' give the whole light ;' 
— 'Agni is thine over-lord,' he thus makes Agni 
the over-lord of this earth. Having ' settled' it 8 , he 

of the altar, and representing the light (or ruling deity) of the re- 
spective world represented by the svayamatr»"»«a of the same layer. 

1 In reality the Vwva^yotis brick is not placed between the two 
Reta^siA, but in front of the line separating them from each other. 

1 He 'saw' the first naturally-perforated brick, which, as the 
central brick of the first layer, represents the latter, as well as the 
lowest of the three worlds, the earth. See VI, 2, 3, 1. 

* Viz. by adding, ' by that deity, Angiras-like, lie thou steady 1 ' 

[4.] C C 



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386 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

pronounces the Sudadohas upon it : the significance 
of this has been explained. 

29. He then lays down two Hitavya. (seasonal 
bricks) ; — the two seasonal (bricks) being the same 
as the seasons, it is the seasons he thus lays down. 
[Vif. S. XIII, 25] * Madhu and Madhava, the 
two spring seasons/ — these are the names of 
those two : it is thus by their names that he lays 
them down. There are two (such) bricks, for two 
months are a season. He 'settles' them once 1 : he 
thereby makes (the two months) one season. 

30. And as to why he now lays down these two ; 
— this Agni (fire-altar) is the year, and the year is 
these worlds ; the first layer is this (terrestrial) world 
thereof, and the spring season also is this world 
thereof; and when he now lays down those two 
(bricks), he thereby puts back into him (Agni- 
Pra/apati) what those two (the first layer and the 
spring) are to that body of his* : this is why he now 
lays down those two (bricks). 

31. And, again, why he now lays down these 
two ; : — this Agni is Pra^apati, and Pra^apati is the 
year; the first layer is his foundation, and the 
spring season also is his foundation ; — thus when he 
now lays down these two (bricks), he thereby puts 
back into him what those two are to that body of 
his : this is why he now lays down those two (bricks). 
He lays them down close to the ' all-light ' brick : 
the ' all-light ' brick being progeny, he thus lays 
progeny close together with the seasons ; whence 
progeny is produced in accordance with the seasons, 
for by seasons people compute (the age of man) 

1 That is, he pronounces the sadana-formula once only. 
* Viz. its foundation. 



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vii kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmana, 35. 387 

whilst in the state of embryo, and by seasons when 
he is born. 

32. He then lays down the Asha^a (invincible 
brick) 1 , — the 'invincible one' being this earth, it is 
this earth he thus lays down. He puts it on the 
fore-part (of the altar-site), for this earth was created 
first. 

33. And as to its being called AshaaiM. The 
gods and the Asuras, both of them sprung from 
Pra^apati, strove together. The gods saw this in- 
vincible brick, even this earth ; they put it on (the 
altar) ; and having put it on, they conquered (and 
drove) the Asuras, the enemies, the rivals, from this 
universe ; and inasmuch as (thereby) they conquered 
(asahanta), it is called Ashaa^a. In like manner 
the Sacrificer, after putting on that (brick), conquers 
(and drives) his spiteful rival from this universe (or, 
from everything here). 

34. And, again, why he lays down the Ashaa^a. 
The AshaaJfca is speech, and by speech 2 the gods 
then indeed conquered (and drove) the Asuras, the 
enemies, the rivals, from this universe ; and in like 
manner the Sacrificer, by means of speech, conquers 
(and drives) his spiteful rival from this universe : it 
was speech the gods then laid down (or bestowed on 
Agni), and in like manner the Sacrificer now lays 
down speech. 

35. This earth is the bearer of what is desirable ; 
for — the desirable being the vital airs — this earth 
bears everything that breathes, and for that reason 
this earth is the bearer of what is desirable. But 



1 See VI, 5, 3, 1-2. 
* Viz. by threats, vituperation, &c, Say. 
C C 2 



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388 satapatha-brahma#a. 

speech (the mouth) also indeed is the bearer of what 
is desirable ; for the desirable is the vital airs, and 
for the (channels of) the vital airs food is put into 
the mouth : therefore speech is the bearer of what 
is desirable. 

36. Now the Ashadlfca is the same as those vital 
airs ; he lays it down in the fore-part (of the altar) : 
he thus bestows (on Agni the organs of) the vital 
airs in front ; whence there are here (organs of) the 
vital airs in front (of the body). Let him not in this 
layer enclose this (AshaaJ^a) in front by any other 
brick which has a special prayer of its own, lest he 
close up (the organs of) the vital airs. 

37. And as to why he lays down in front five 
Apasyas 1 , — water (ap) is food, and by food (the 
organs of) the vital airs are not closed up. He lays 
down (the Ash&dte) close to the two seasonal ones : 
he thereby establishes speech in the seasons, and 
hence speech (the mouth) speaks here, firmly esta- 
blished in the seasons. 

38. Here now they say, ' If the Visva^yotis (brick) 
is progeny, and the Ashaa!4a speech, why does he 
put the two seasonal ones between them ? ' Well, 
the seasonal ones being the year, he thus separates 
speech from progeny by the year, and hence children 
utter speech at the time (or age) of a year. 

39. [He lays down the Ashaai4a, with V£Lf. S. 
XIII, 26] ' Thou art Ashaa^a, the conquering,' 
for the gods thereby conquered the Asuras, — ' con- 
quer the enemies! conquer the hostile!' as the 
text, so the meaning; — 'thou hast a thousand 
energies : do thou speed me ! ' a thousand means 

1 See VII, 5, 2, 40 seq. 



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vii kAjvda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmaya, 3. 389 

all : thus, ' thou hast all energies, do thou speed 
me ! ' When he has ' settled ' it, he pronounces the 
Sudadohas on it : the significance of this has been 
explained. 

40. Here now they say, 'Why are those other 
bricks placed in front of the naturally-perforated 
one ? ' Let him say, There are two wombs (birth- 
places) — the one being the womb of the gods, the 
other the womb of men : the gods have their birth- 
place in the east, and men in the west ; and when he 
lays down those (bricks) in front, he thereby causes 
the Sacrificer to be born from the womb of the gods. 

Fifth AdhyAya. First BrAhmaya. 

1. He then puts down a (living) tortoise; — the 
tortoise means life-sap : it is life-sap (blood) he thus » 
bestows on (Agni). This tortoise is that life-sap of 
these worlds which flowed away from them when 
plunged into the waters 1 : that (life-sap) he now 
bestows on (Agni). As far as the life-sap extends, 

so far the body extends : that (tortoise) thus is these 
worlds. 

2. That lower shell of it is this (terrestrial) world ; > 
it is, as it were, fixed ; for fixed, as it were, is this 
(earth-)world. And that upper shell of it is yonder 
sky; it has its ends, as it were, bent down; for 
yonder sky has its ends, as it were, bent down. 
And what is between (the shells) is the air; — that 
(tortoise) thus is these worlds : it is these worlds he 
thus lays down (to form part of the altar). 

3. He anoints it with sour curds, honey, and 
ghee, — sour curds doubtless are a form of this (earth-) 

1 See VI, 1, 1, 12. 

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390 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

world, ghee of the air, and honey of yonder sky : he 
thus supplies it (the tortoise) with its own form. 
Or, sour curds are the life-sap of this (earth-)world, 
ghee that of the air, and honey that of yonder sky : 
he thus supplies it with its own life-sap. 

4. [He anoints it, with Vdg. S. XIII, 27-29 ; Ri\a 
S. I, 90, 6-8] ' Honey the winds pour forth for 
the righteous, honey the rivers; full of honey 
may the plants be for us! — Honey by night 
and morn, rich in honey may the region of the 
earth be for us, honey the father Heaven! — 
rich in honey may the tree be for us, rich in 
honey the sun, full of honey the kine!' To 
whatever deity a Jiik-verse, and to whatever (deity) 
a Yajus formula applies, that very deity the verse 
is, and that very deity the sacrificial formula is 1 . 
This triplet then is honey (madhu) ; and honey being 
life-sap, it is life-sap he thus puts into him (Agni). 
With three Gayatrt verses (he performs) : the signi- 
ficance of this has been explained. 

"5. And as to its being called ' kurma' (tortoise) ; — 
Pra^apati, having assumed that form, created living 
beings. Now what he created, he made ; and inas- 
much as he made (kar), he is (called) ' kurma ; ' and 
' kurma ' being (the same as) ' karyapa ' (a tortoise), 
therefore all creatures are said to be descended from 
Karyapa. 

6. Now this tortoise is the same as yonder sun : 
it is yonder sun he thus lays down (on the altar). 
He lays it down in front with the head towards the 
back (west) : he thus places yonder sun in the east 



1 That is to say, each Vedic text is identical with the deity to 
which it is addressed. Cf. VI, 5, 1, 3. 



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vii kAjvda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmaya, 8. 391 

looking thitherwards (or moving westward) ; and 
hence yonder sun is placed in the east looking 
thitherwards. On the right (south) of the Ashaaifca 
(he places it), for the tortoise (kurma, masc.) is a 
male, and the AshidM a female, and the male lies 
on the right side of the female ; — at a cubit's dis- 
tance l , for at a cubit's distance the male lies by the 
female. That AshadJfca is the consecrated queen 
(mahish!) of all the bricks, hence being on the right 
(south) side of her, it (the tortoise) is on the right 
side of all the bricks. 

7. And, again, why he puts down a tortoise ; — the 
tortoise (kurma) is the breath, for the breath makes 
(kar) all these creatures : it is breath he thus puts 
into him (Agni). He puts it down in front looking 
towards the back : he thus puts in the breath in 
front tending towards the back ; whence the breath 
is taken in from the front backwards. [He puts it 
down so as to be] turned towards the (gold) man : 
he thus puts breath into the Sacrificer. South of 
the AshadM (he puts it), for the tortoise is breath, 
and the Ashaa^a speech; and the breath (pra«a, 
masc.) is the male, the mate, of speech (vi/£, fern.). 

8. [He sets it down, with V4f. S. XIII, 30-32] 
' Seat thee in the depth of the waters ! ' for that 
indeed is the deepest (place) of the (heavenly) 
waters where yonder (sun) burns; — 'lest the sun, 
lest Agni Vaisvanara should scorch thee!' 
that is, lest the Sun, lest Agni Vai^vanara injure 
thee ; — ' Overlook the creatures with unbroken 
wings,' that is, overlook all these uninjured, un- 
harmed creatures, that is, these bricks; — 'may 

1 While the bricks generally measure a p&da or foot square, the 
cubit measures about two feet. 



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392 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

heaven's rain favour thee ! ' this he says in order 
that the rain of heaven may favour him. 

9. He then makes it move 1 , with, 'Over the 
heaven-reaching three oceans he crept,' the 
three heaven-reaching oceans doubtless are these 
worlds, and over them he crept in the shape of a 
tortoise; — 'the lord of waters, the bull of the 
bricks,' for he (the tortoise) indeed is the lord of 
waters, and the bull of the bricks ; — 'induing the 
covering of him, the well-made, in the world,' 
the covering (purlsha) means the cattle : thus, enter- 
ing the (form of the) cattle of the well-made (Agni) 
in the world; — 'go thither whither the former 
have passed away!' that is, go thither whither 
by this performance former (tortoises) went. 

10. 'The mighty sky and the earth,' that is, 
the great sky and the earth ; — ' shall mix (prepare) 
this our sacrifice!' that is, shall favour this sacri- 
fice; — 'they shall fill us with nourishments!' 
that is, they shall nourish us with nourishments ! 
With the last (verse) relating to heaven and earth 
he puts it down, for the tortoise represents heaven 
and earth. 

11. With three (formulas) he puts it on (the 
altar); — three are these worlds, and threefold is 
Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his mea- 
sure, by so much he thus puts it on. With three 
(formulas) he anoints it ; that makes six : the signi- 
ficance of this (number) has been explained. There 
are avaka-plants 2 below and avaka-plants above (the 

1 He sets the tortoise down with three verses ; and in muttering 
the second verse he makes it move while he still holds it in his hand. 

* Blyxa octandra, a grassy plant growing in marshy land (' lotus- 
flower,' Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, p. 250). 



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vii kXnda, 5 adhyAya, I brAhmawa, 14. 393 

tortoise), — the avaka-plant means water : he thus 
places it in the midst of water. Having ' settled ' it, 
he pronounces the Sudadohas upon it : the signi- 
ficance of this has been explained. 

12. He then puts down a mortar and pestle. 
Vish/m desired, 'May I be an eater of food!' He 
saw these two bricks, the mortar and pestle. He 
placed them on (the altar) ; and by placing them 
thereon, he became an eater of food. In like man- 
ner, when the Sacrificer now places a mortar and 
pestle thereon, (he does so) thinking, ' I want to be 
an eater of food by the same means (rupa), by per- 
forming the same rite by which Vish#u became an 
eater of food.' Now the mortar and pestle mean 
all (kinds of) food ; for by the mortar and pestle 
food is prepared, and by means of them it is eaten. 

13. He puts them down at the distance of the 
two reta^si^ *, — the retafcsi^ being the ribs, and the 
ribs being the middle : he thus puts food into the 
middle of him (Agni) ; — on the north (upper) side (of 
the central brick) : he thus puts the food upon him ; 
— at the distance of a cubit, for from a cubit's dis- 
tance food is (taken by the hand and) eaten. 

14. They measure a span, for Vish»u, when an 
embryo, was a span long ; and these (mortar and 
pestle) being food, he thus puts food into him ( Agni- 
Vish»u) proportionate to his body. And indeed the 
food which is proportionate to the body satisfies, 



1 The mortar and pestle are to be placed as far north of the 
central (naturally-perforated) brick, as the two retaAstf lie in front 
(towards the east) of it. This distance is ascertained by means of 
a cord stretched across the bricks hitherto laid down (from the 
Svayamat/i'»»a to the Ash&dte), and knots made in the cord over 
the centre of the respective bricks. 



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394 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

and does no harm ; but that which is excessive does 
harm ; and that which is too little does not satisfy. 

15. They are made of Udumbara wood; — the 
Udumbara (ficus glomerata) being strength, life-sap, 
he thus puts strength, life-sap into him. And, again, 
the Udumbara being all the trees, by putting on 
those two, he puts all trees on (the altar). At the 
distance of the two reta£si£ (bricks, he places the 
mortar and pestle), — the ' seed-shedders ' being these 
two (worlds 1 ), he thus puts the trees in these two 
(worlds), and hence there are trees in these two 
(worlds). It (the mortar) is four-cornered, — there 
being four quarters, he thus places trees in all the 
quarters ; whence there are trees in all the quarters. 
It is contracted in the middle, to give it the form 
of a (real) mortar. 

1 6. And, again, why he places a mortar and pestle 
thereon. From Prafapati, when relaxed, the breath 
wanted to go out from within. He kept it back by 
means of food : hence the breath is kept back by 
food, for he who eats food, breathes. 

1 7. The breath being kept back, the food wanted 
to go out of him. He kept it back by means of the 
breath : hence food is kept back by the breath, for 
he who breathes, eats food. 

18. Those two being kept back, strength wanted 
to go out of him. He kept it back by those two : 
hence strength is kept back by those two ; for he who 
eats food, breathes ; and to him it gives strength. 

19. Strength being kept back, those two wanted 

1 I do not see what else could here be referred to than the 
heaven and the earth (cf. VII, 4, 2, 22), though in that case one 
might rather expect 'imau (lokau)' instead of 'ime.' Possibly, 
however, the earth and atmosphere may be intended. 



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VII KklfDA, 5 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 22. 395 

to go out of him. He kept them back by means of 
strength : hence those two are kept back by strength ; 
for he to whom one gives strength, breathes and eats 
food 

20. Those (energies) thus were kept back by one 
another. Having kept them back by one another, 
he (Pra^apati) caused them to enter his own self; 
and that food having entered, all the gods entered 
along with it ; for everything here lives on food. 

21. It is thereto that this verse applies, — ' Then, 
indeed, he became that breath,' — for that breath 
he then indeed became ; — ' having become the 
great Pra^apati,' — for great he indeed then be- 
came, when those gods entered him ; — ' having 
obtained the benefits, the beneficial,' — the 
benefits doubtless are the vital airs (breaths), and the 
beneficial are the food : thus, having obtained all that ; 
— 'when he breathed the breaths in the strong- 
hold ; ' — the stronghold doubtless is the self (body), 
and inasmuch as he breathed the breaths, the gods 
are the breaths ; and inasmuch as Pra^apati breathed, 
the breath also is Pra/apati ; and verily he who is 
that breath, he is that Gayatri ; — and as to that food, 
that is Vish»u, the deity ; and as to that strength, 
that is the Udumbara (tree). 

22. He said, 'Verily this one has lifted me from 
out of all evil ; ' and because he said ' he has lifted 
me out (udabharshit),' hence (the name) ' udum- 
bhara ; ' — ' udumbhara' doubtless being what is mys- 
tically called Udumbara, for the gods love the mystic. 
' Wide space (uru) shall it make (karat) for me ! ' he 
said, hence ' urukara ; ' ' urukara ' doubtless being 
what is mystically called ' ulukhala ' (the mortar) ; 
for the gods love the mystic. Now that mortar is 



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396 saTapatha-brAhmajva. 

the birth-place of all breaths ; and the birth-place of 
the breaths being the head — 

23. It (the mortar) is of the measure of a span, for 
the head is, as it were, of the measure of a span ; — 
four-cornered, for the head is, as it were, four- 
cornered ; — contracted in the middle, for the head is, 
as it were, contracted in the middle. 

24. Now when the gods restored him (Pra^apati- 
Agni), they put all that inside him — breath, food, 
strength ; and in like manner this (Sacrificer) now 
puts that into him. At the distance of the two 
reta^sii (he places it), — the reta^si^ being the ribs, 
and the ribs the middle, it is thus in the middle of 
(or, inside) him that he puts all that 

25. [He sets them down \ with Vif. S. XIII, 33 ; 
RiV. S. I, 22, 19] 'See ye the deeds of Vish«u' — 
deed doubtless means power : thus, see ye the 
powers of Vishmi ; — 'whereby he beheld the 
sacred ordinances,' — ordinance means food: thus, 
whereby he did behold the food ; — ' Indra's allied 
friend,' for he is indeed Indra's allied friend. With 
a (verse) relating to two deities he sets them down, 
for the mortar and pestle are two. Once he ' settles ' 
them : he thereby makes them one and the same ; 
for one and the same is that food. Having ' settled ' 
it, he pronounces the Sudadohas on it : the signifi- 
cance of this has been explained. 

26. He then places the fire-pan thereon, — the fire- 
pan is a womb : a womb (birth-place) he thus gives 
to him (Agni). He places it on the mortar, — the 
mortar is the air, and everything that is above this 

1 The mortar, according to the commentaries to KSty., is partly 
dug into the ground, with the open part upwards ; the pestle being 
then placed to the right (south) of it. 



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VII KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 28. 397 

earth is air ; and the air is the middle : he thus 
places the womb in the middle ; whence the womb 
of all beings, even of trees \ is in the middle. 

27. And, again, why he places the fire-pan there- 
on ; — that same Pra^apati who became disjointed 
doubtless is this same fire-pan, for the fire-pan is 
these worlds, and Pra^apati is these worlds. He 
places it on the mortar : he thereby establishes him 
(Pra^apati) in all that — breath, food, strength ; and 
thus he places him so as not to be separated from 
all that. 

28. Thereupon, having pounded the remainder 
(of the clay), and having put the fire-pan in its place, 
he throws (the pounded clay) in front of the fire-pan ; 
for this is the place of that (remainder i ), and thus 
that (remainder) is not separated therefrom 3 . 

1 Viz., according to Sayana, because they spring from the germ 
in the centre of the fruit. 

* ?Or, of it (the fire-pan). There is some uncertainty regarding 
this item of the ceremonial. K&ty&yana's rule (XVII, 5, 4) — 
'Having placed the Ukhi (pan) on the mortar, pounded the 
remainder of clay, and thrown it down in front, with the text 
"Dhruva - asi," (of) the Ukh£' — is evidently intentionally vague. 
Mahtdhara (on V&g. S. XIII, 34) gives the following interpretation 
of it, — ' Having first silently placed the Ukhi on the mortar, then 
pounded the remaining clay, and thrown it down on the ground 
in front of the Ukha, let him place the UkM thereon with two 
formulas.' According to this, the Ukha' would only temporarily be 
placed on the mortar, its proper and permanent place (loka) being 
on the powdered clay in front (to the east) of the mortar. The 
text of the Br£hma«a, as it stands, however, cannot possibly be 
construed so as to accord with Mahtdhara's interpretation. This 
would require some such reading as, — athopajayim pishA£,purast£d 
ukhiy& upanivapya lokabha^am ukham karoti. See, however, 
paragraph 38 below, which evidently applies to the permanent 
position of the pan. 

8 For the genitive 'asya' (viz. lokasya) with 'antarita,' — instead 



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398 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

29. Here now they say, ' How does that (re- 
mainder) of his come to be put on as cooked, as 
baked ? ' — In that it is prepared with a sacrificial 
formula ; and, moreover, whatever comes in contact 
with Agni Vaiyvanara even thereby comes to be 
put on as something cooked, as baked. 

30. [He sets the fire-pan down, with V&f. S. XIII, 
34-35] 'Steady thou art, supporting,' the mean- 
ing of this has been explained 1 ; — 'from here he 
was at first born, from these wombs, the 
knower of beings;' for from these wombs the 
knower of beings (Agni) was indeed born at first ; — 
'by the Gayatrt, the Trish/ubh, and the Anu- 
sh/ubh, may he, the knowing, bear the offer- 
ing to the gods!' — by means of these metres he, 
the knowing, indeed bears the offering to the gods. 

31. 'For sap, for wealth, do thou rest, for 
might in glory, for strength, for offspring!' 
that is, for all that do thou rest ! — ' all-ruling thou 
art, self-ruling thou art! ' for both all-ruling and 
self-ruling he (Agni) indeed is; — 'may the two 
Sarasvata wells cheer thee!' Saras vat (m.) is the 
Mind, and Sarasvatl (f.) Speech, — these two are the 
Sarasvata wells : thus, may these two cheer thee ! 
With two (formulas) he sets it down : the significance 
of this has been explained ; and, moreover, twofold 
is that form, (consisting as it does of) clay and water. 
Having 'settled' it, he pronounces the Sudadohas 
on it : the significance of this has been explained. 

32. He then offers upon it; — now seed was poured 
into it before, (in the shape of) sand % ; that he now 

of the more usual ablative — see VI, 2, 2, 38, 'prdwasya tad anta- 
riytt.' 
» VII, 4, 2, 5- * See VII, j, 1, 41. 



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VII KAiVDA, 5 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 35. 399 

fashions 1 , whence the seed injected into the womb 
is fashioned. He offers with the dipping-spoon, with 
'Hail!' with two Gayatri verses relating to Agni : 
the significance of this has been explained. 

33. [Vag. S. XIII, 36-37; ^'k S.VI, 16, 43; 
VIII, 75, 1] ' O Agni, harness those good steeds 
of thine : they draw equal to thy mettle ! — Like 
a chariot-fighter, harness thou the steeds, the 
best callers of the gods, O Agni ! take thy seat 
as the old Hotril' with two (verses) containing 
the (verb) 'yu^ - ' (to harness, fasten), — he thus 
settles that seed injected into the womb, whence 
the seed settled in the womb does not escape. 

34. If (the fire in the pan) has been carried about 
for a year 2 , in that case he should now offer ; for 
(the fire) which has been carried about for a year is 
everything, and that also whereon he offers is every- 
thing. But if it has not been carried about for a 
year, let him only stand by (worshipping) it ; for (the 
fire) which has not been carried about for a year is 
not everything ; and that by which he stands (wor- 
shipping) is not everything. Let him nevertheless 
offer thereon. 

35. Now that Agni is an animal, and even now 
he is (being) made up whole and complete : the 
naturally-perforated (brick) is his lower vital air, the 

1 The verb 'abhi-kr«" is here taken in the sense of ' vi-kr«" (he 
gives form to it) ; and in that sense I would now take it at II, 3, 1, 4, 
' he fashions (gives human shape to) that embryo/ instead of ' he 
benefits that embryo.' The St. Petersburg dictionary proposes 
the meaning, ' to do something with reference to (or, for the benefit 
of).' The proper German meaning would rather seem to be 
' bearbeiten.' The preposition ' abhi ' is probably used here with 
reference to the ' abhi-^uhoti.' 

* See p. 269, note 3. 



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400 satapatha-brahmaata. 

dviyafus the hip, the two reta^sii the ribs, the 
vi-sva^yotis the breast-bone, the two seasonal ones 
the back, the ashaa^a the neck, the tortoise the 
head, and the vital airs in the tortoise are those 
vital airs in the head. 

36. Now that (Agni) he builds upwards from here 
(as flying) towards the east, and that Agni being 
yonder sun, he thereby places yonder sun upwards 
from here in the east ; whence yonder sun is placed 
upwards from here in the east 

37. He then turns him towards the right 1 , — he 
thereby turns yonder sun towards the right, whence 
yonder sun moves round these worlds (from left) to 
right 

38. The fire-pan is the belly, the mortar the 
womb ; — the fire-pan is above, and the mortar be- 
low; for the belly is above, and the womb below. 
The pestle is the sisna.; it is round-like, for the 
sisna. is round-like. He places it to the right (south 
of the mortar), for the male lies on the right side 
of the female. And what food there is for the 
consecrated animal, that is the durva-brick. The 
left (north) side of that (Agni or altar) is more 
raised, — that Agni is an animal, and hence the left 
side of the belly of a well-filled beast is more raised 
(than the right side). 

Second Brahmaya. 
1. He puts the heads of the victims in (the fire- 
pan), — the heads of the victims being animals (or 
cattle), it is animals he thus puts thereon. He puts 
them in the fire-pan ; — the pan being these worlds, 
and the heads of the victims being beasts, he thus 

1 ? Viz. by filling up the vacant spaces of the altar from left to 
right. 



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VII K&NDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAtfA, 5. 4OI 

puts animals in these worlds ; whence there are 
animals in these worlds. 

2. And as to why (he puts the heads) in the fire- 
pan ; — the fire-pan being a womb, and the heads of 
the victims being animals, he thus establishes the 
animals in the womb : hence animals, though being 
eaten and cooked, do not diminish, for he establishes 
them in the womb. 

3. And, again, why he puts the heads of the 
victims therein ; — what (animal) perfections (srl) x 
there were, they are these victims' heads ; and what 
rumps there were, they are those five layers (of the 
altar). Now those five layers are these worlds, and 
these worlds are this very fire-pan : thus, when he 
puts the heads of the victims in the fire-pan, he 
thereby unites those rumps with those heads. 

4. He puts them in the fore-part, so as to look 
towards the back (west). For when, on that (for- 
mer) occasion, Pra^apati wanted to slaughter these 
animals, they, being about to be slaughtered, wanted 
to run away. He seized them by (the organs of) the 
vital airs 2 ; and having seized them by the vital airs, 
he took them into himself from the front (mouth) 
towards the back (inside). 

5. Now the same thing which the gods did is 
done here. The animals do not, indeed, want to 
run away from him ; but when he does this, it is 
because he wants to do what the gods did : having 
thus seized them by (the outlets of) the vital airs, he 
takes them into himself from the front towards the 
back. 



1 See VI, 1, 1,4; 2, 1, 7. 
1 That is, by the head, according to Sayawa. 
[41] D d 



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402 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

6. And, again, why he puts the heads of the vic- 
tims thereon. Pra^apati alone was here at first 1 . 
He desired, ' May I create food, may I be repro- 
duced ! ' He fashioned animals from his vital airs, a 
man from his soul (mind), a horse from his eye, a cow 
from his breath, a sheep from his ear, and a goat from 
his voice ; and inasmuch as he created them from 
the vital airs, people say that 'Animals are vital airs.' 
The soul is the first of the vital airs ; and inasmuch as 
he fashioned man from his soul, they say that * Man 
is the first, and strongest of animals.' The soul is 
all the vital airs, for in the soul all the vital airs are 
established. And inasmuch as he fashioned man 
from his soul, they say that ' Man is all animals,' for 
they all belong to man. 

7. Having created that food, he took it into him- 
self from the front towards the back ; and hence 
whosoever prepares for himself food, takes it into 
himself from the front towards the back (inside). 
That (animal food being put) in the fire-pan, and the 
fire-pan being the belly, he thus puts the food into 
the belly. 

8. He now (in the first place 2 ) thrusts gold chips 
into each of them, — gold is vital air, and the vital 
airs go out of these animals when slaughtered : thus, 
when he thrusts gold chips into each of them, he 
puts the vital airs into them. 

9. Seven (chips) he thrusts into each, — seven vital 
airs there are in the head : these he thereby puts 
into it And if there are five victims, let him thrust 
in- five times seven (chips) ; for those five victims 
he puts on (the fire-pan), and there are seven vital 

1 See J. Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, V, p. 391. 
1 That is, before putting the heads in the fire-pan. 



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vii kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brahmaata, 12. 403 

airs in each victim : he thus puts the vital airs into 
all of them. 

10. Now, even if there is only one victim 1 , some 
people thrust five times seven (into that one head), 
thinking, ' Those five victims he puts down (symboli- 
cally), and there are seven vital airs in each victim : 
thus we put the vital airs into all of them/ Let him 
not do so, for in this animal the form of all animals 
is contained 2 ; and when he thrusts (seven chips) 
into this one, he thereby puts the vital airs into all 
of them. 

1 1. The first (chip) he thrusts into the mouth, with 
(Va^. S. XIII, 38 ; ^'k S. IV, 58, 6, 5), ' Fitly flow 
the draughts of milk like rivers,' — draughts of 
milk are food, and that indeed flows fitly into this 
mouth; — 'purified within by the heart, by the 
mind,' — for the food is indeed purified by the heart 
and mind within him who is righteous ; — ' the 
streams of ghee I behold,' he thereby means 
the libations he is about to offer on that fire ; — 
' the golden reed (is) in the middle of Agni,' he 
thereby means that gold man. 

12. With (V4f. S. XIII, 39), ' For praise thee!' 
(he thrusts one in) here (into the right nostril); 
praise (or splendour) means breath, for with breath 
one praises; — with, 'For sheen thee!' here (into 
the left nostril) ; sheen means breath, for by breath 
one shines ; and also because everything here shines 
for breath; — with, ' For brightness thee!' here 
(into the right eye) ; — with, ' For lustre thee ! ' here 



1 Viz. a he-goat, as the animal sacrifice to either Pra£&pati, or 
(V&yu) Niyutvat; see pp. 178, 184. 
* See VI, a, a, 15. 

D d 2 



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404 jatafatha-brAhmajva. 

(into the left eye), for bright and lustrous these two 
eyes indeed are; — with, ' This hath become the 
fiery spirit of all the world, and of Agni 
Vaisvanara,' here (into the right ear) ; — with (Va^\ 
S. XIII, 40), 'Agni, bright with brightness, the 
golden disk, lustrous with lustre,' here (into the 
left ear), — thus with two (formulas) containing 'all 1 ,' 
for the ear is all. 

13. He then lifts up the human head — he thereby 
exalts it — with, ' Giver of a thousand thou art : 
for a thousand thee!' a thousand means every- 
thing : thus, ' the giver of everything, for everything 
(I bestow) thee ! ' 

14. He then puts them (the heads) in (the fire- 
pan), first (that of) the man — having taken possession 
of the man by strength he sets him up ; — the man in 
the middle ; on both sides the other victims : he thus 
sets the man, as the eater, in the midst of cattle ; 
whence man is the eater in the midst of cattle. 

1 5. The horse and ram on the left (north) side : 
he thereby puts those two (kinds of) cattle in that 
region ; whence those two (kinds of) cattle are most 
plentiful in that region. 

16. The bull and he-goat on the right (south) 
side : he thereby puts those two (kinds of) cattle in 
that region ; whence those two (kinds of) cattle are 
most plentiful in that region. 

17. The (head of the) man he places on the milk 2 , 
— milk means cattle : he thus establishes the Sacri- 
ficer among cattle, — with (V&f. S. XIII, 41), 'With 

1 Only the first of the two formulas, however, contains the word 
' vuva,' all. 

* The pan was partly filled with sand and milk, see VII, 1, 1, 
41. 44- 



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VII KAJVflA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 19. 405 

milk anoint thou Aditya, the unborn child ! ' 
that unborn child, the' man, is indeed the sun : thus, 
Him anoint thou with milk! — 'the all-shaped 
maker of a thousand,' the maker 1 of a thousand 
is man, for to him belong a thousand; — 'spare 
him with thy heat, harbour not evil thoughts 
against him!' that is, spare him with thy fire, do 
not hurt him! — 'make him live a hundred 
years, while thou art built!' he thereby makes 
man the one among animals (capable of) living a 
hundred years ; whence man, among animals, lives 
up to a hundred years. 

18. Then on the left side (he puts the head of) the 
horse, with (Va^. S. XIII, 42), 'The speed of the 
wind,' — this one, the horse, is indeed the speed of the 
wind ; — ' Varu»a's navel' — for the horse is Varu«a; 
— 'the horse, born in the midst of the flood;' 
the flood is the water, and the horse is indeed the 
water-born ; — 'the tawny, rock-founded child of 
rivers;' rock means mountain, and the waters are 
indeed founded on the mountains; — 'harm him 
not, Agni, in the highest region!' the highest 
region means these worlds : thus, do not harm him 
in these worlds ! 

1 9. Then on the right side (the head of) the bull, 
with (Va£\ S. XIII, 43), 'The imperishable, red 
drop,' the drop doubtless is Soma; and that bull is the 
same as the imperishable Soma; — 'the eager one 
(bhura»yu),' that is, the bearer (bhartrz); — 'Agni, the 
forward-striving, I glorify with homages;' for 

1 'Pratimi' is perhaps taken here by the dogmatic expositor 
in the sense of ' likeness, counterpart ; ' in which case one would 
have to translate, 'the counterpart of a thousand, the all-shaped 
one.' 



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406 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

the bull is sacred to Agni ; and 'the forward-striving,' 
he says, because forward (towards the east) they hold 
up Agni \ and towards the front 2 they attend upon 
him ; — ' duly fitting thyself by limbs,' when he is 
built up, then he does indeed duly fit himself limb 
by limb; — 'harm not the inexhaustible, wide- 
ruling cow 8 ,' the cow is indeed wide-ruling (vira^), 
and the wide-ruling is food, and accordingly the cow 
is food. 

20. Then on the left side (he puts the head of) the 
ram, with (Va^ 1 . S. XIII, 44), 'The defender of 
Tvash/rz, the navel of Varu«a,' for the ewe is 
sacred both to Varuwa and to Tvash/r* ; — ' the ewe 
born from the highest sphere;' the highest 
sphere doubtless is the ear, and the ear is the regions, 
— (thus 4 ) the highest sphere is the regions ; — ' the 
mighty, thousandfold artifice of the Asura,' 
that is, the great, thousandfold artifice of the 
Asura 8 ; — 'O Agni, harm it not in the highest 



1 See VI, 4, 3, 10. 

1 Or, ' they attend upon him (Agni, the fire-altar) who tends 
towards the front (east);' inasmuch as the altar is built in the 
shape of a bird flying eastwards. 

' Or, harm not the cow, the wide-ruling (or wide-shining) Aditi ! 

4 After the two premises (with ' vai ') the inference seems here 
to be introduced without any particle. Similarly in paragraph 24 ; 
while in paragraph 19 the particle 'u' is used to perform that 
office. Cf. however VII, 4, 2, 1, where a third parallel clause 
(which logically might have been the inference) is introduced by 
' u vai.' 

8 Saya»a refers to the legend in Taitt. S. II, 1, 2, 2, here alluded 
to : — SvarbhSnu, the Asura, struck the sun with darkness. The 
gods sought an expiation for that (darkness): the first darkness of 
his which they dispelled became a black ewe, the second a red one, 
the third a white one ; and what they cut off from the surface of 
the bone (?) that became a barren sheep, &c. 



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vii kAatda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 24. 407 

region!' the highest region are these worlds : thus, 
do not harm him (the ram) in these worlds ! 

21. Then on the right side (he puts the head of) 
the he-goat, with (V&f. S. XIII, 45), 'The Agni who 
was born from Agni,' for that Agni was indeed 
born from Agni * ; — 'from the pain of the earth or 
also of the sky ; ' for what was born from the pain 
(or heat) of Pra^apati, that was born from the pain 
of the sky and the earth ; — 'whereby Vi^vakarman 
begat living beings,' — the he-goat (or, the unborn 
one) is Va£ (Speech) *, and from Va£ VLrvakarman 3 
begat living beings; — 'him, O Agni, may thy wrath 
spare!' as the text, so the meaning. 

22. These are the victims ; separately he puts 
them down, separately he ' settles ' them, and sepa- 
rately he pronounces the Sudadohas on them ; for 
separate from one another are those animals. 

23. He then offers on the human head, — sacrifice 
is offering : he thus makes man the one among 
animals fit to sacrifice; whence man alone among 
animals performs sacrifice. 

24. And, again, why he offers thereon : — he 
thereby lays vigour into the head. He offers with 
ghee, — ghee is a thunderbolt, and the thunderbolt 
means vigour : he thus lays vigour into it. With 
' Hail' (he offers),— the 'Hail' (svahakara, m.) is a 
male, and the male means vigour : he thus lays 
vigour into it With a trish/ubh verse (he offers) ; — 
the TrishAibh is a thunderbolt, and the thunderbolt 



1 Viz. inasmuch as the fire to be ultimately deposited on the fire- 
altar was taken from the original (hall-door) fire. 

* See VI, 1, 1, 9. 

* That is, Pra^&pati, the lord of procreation; see VI, 1, 2, 6 seq. 



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408 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

means vigour ; the Trish/ubh is vigour : with vigour 
he thus lays vigour into it. 

25. Having run through 1 the (first) half- verse, he 
pronounces the Svaha ; — the rik (verse) is a bone : 
having cleft asunder that skull-bone which is here 
inside the head, he there lays vigour into it 

26. Having then run through the (second) half- 
verse, he pronounces the Svaha, — having joined 
together that skull-bone which is here on the top of 
the head, he there lays vigour into it 

27. \y$g. S. XIII, 46; Xik S. I, 115, 1] 'The 
brilliant front of the gods hath risen,' for that 
man is yonder sun, and he indeed rises as the bril- 
liant front (face) of the gods; — 'the eye of Mitra, 
Varuwa, and Agni,' for that (sun) is the eye of 
both gods and men; — 'he hath filled heaven, 
and earth, and the air,' for when he rises he in- 
deed fills these worlds; — 'Surya, the soul of the 
movable and immovable ;' for that (sun) is indeed 
the soul of everything here that moves and stands. 

28. He then stands by (the heads, revering them) 
with the Utsargas 2 . For at that time when Pra^a- 
pati wanted to slaughter the victims, they, being 
about to be slaughtered, were distressed (or pained) ; 
and by these Utsargas he drove out their distress 3 , 
their evil. In like manner does this one, by these 
Utsargas, now drive out their distress, their evil. 

29. Now some remove the distress of whichever 
(head of a) victim they put down, thinking lest they 
might put distress, evil, thereon ; but it is they that 

1 That is, having rapidly muttered it. 

* That is, (means of) deliverance or removal, a term applied to 
the next five mantras. 

* Lit their burning heat (.ru£); cf. par. 32 seq. 



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vii kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaya, 32. 409 

put distress, evil, thereon ; for the distress they re- 
move from the preceding one, they put on (the altar) 
with the succeeding one. 

30. And some revere (the heads) whilst moving 
round them, thinking, 'we remove distress up- 
wards ; ' but these indeed follow the distress, the 
evil, upwards ; for upwards he (the Sacrificer) goes 
by this performance 1 , and upwards they remove the 
distress. 

31. Let him remove it outside the fire (-altar); that 
fire (-altar) being these worlds, he thus puts distress 
outside these worlds ; — outside the Vedi ; the Vedi 
being this earth, he thus puts distress outside this 
earth ; — (he does so) standing with his face towards 
the north ; for in that region those animals are, and 
he thus puts distress into them in the region in 
which they are. 

32. He first removes that of the man — for him he 
puts down first — with (Vif. S. XIII, 47), 'Harm 
not this two-footed animal!' the two-footed 
animal doubtless is the same as man : thus, ' do not 
harm that one!' — '(thou) the thousand-eyed, 
being built for pith ;' — the thousand-eyed he 
(Agni) is on account of the chips of gold; 'for 
pith,' that is, ' for food.' — 'Graciously accept thou, 
O Agni, the sham-man, the victim, as pith ! ' a 
sham-man is a kim-purusha (mock-man) 2 : thus, 
' accept graciously the kim-purusha, O Agni ! ' — 
' Building up therewith thy forms, get thee 
settled!' the form is the self: thus, 'Building up 

1 The Sacrificer builds the lire-altar with a view to his securing 
for himself a place in heaven. 

2 It is doubtful what is meant here by this term, unless it be a 
monkey, or a counterfeit human head; cf. p. 197, note 4. 



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410 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

therewith, perfect thyself 1 !' — 'Let thy burning 
heat reach the sham-man! let thy burning 
heat reach him whom we hate!' he thereby lays 
burning heat into the sham-man, and into him whom 
he hates. 

33. Then that of the horse, with (V&f. S. XIII, 
48), 'Harm not this one-hoofed animal!' the 
one-hoofed animal doubtless is the same as the 
horse: thus, do not harm that one! — 'the racer 
neighing among the racers;' for neighing in- 
deed he is, and a racer among racers ; — ' The wild 
fallow (beast) do I assign unto thee,' he thereby 
assigns to him the wild fallow (beast) 2 ; — ' building 
up therewith thy forms, get thee settled!' that 
is, 'building up therewith, perfect thyself!' — 'Let 
thy burning heat reach the fallow beast! let 
thy burning heat reach him whom we hate!' 
he thereby lays burning heat into the fallow beast, 
and into him whom he hates. 

34. Then that of the bull, with (V&f. S. XIII, 49), 
'This thousandfold, hundred-streamed well — ,' 
for a thousandfold, hundred-streamed well he, the 
bull (cow), indeed is; — 'extended in the middle 
of the flood,' the flood doubtless are these worlds : 
thus, subsisted upon in these worlds; — 'the in- 
exhaustible, milking ghee for man,' — for ghee 
this inexhaustible (cow) indeed milks for man; — 



1 This paraphrase does not make it clear how the author 
construes and interprets this part of the formula; especially in 
what sense he takes ' nishida.' 

s Thus MaMdhara (gauravarwaw mr/'gam). In the St. Peters- 
burg dictionary 'gaura' is taken here in the sense- of 'buffalo, bos 
gavseus.' The parallelism in the next two formulas might indeed 
seem to point to that meaning. 



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vii kA.vda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brahmawa, 36. 411 

' harm not, O Agni, in the highest region ! ' the 
highest region doubtless are these worlds : thus, do 
not harm it in these worlds ! — 'The wild buffalo 
do I assign unto thee,' he thereby assigns to him 
the wild buffalo (gavaya) ; — 'building up there- 
with thy forms, get thee settled!' that is, 'build- 
ing up therewith, perfect thyself!' — ' Let thy burn- 
ing heat reach the buffalo! let thy burning 
heat reach him whom we hate!' he thereby lays 
burning heat into the buffalo, and into him whom he 
hates. 

35. Then that of the sheep, with (V£f. S. XIII, 
50), 'This woollen — ,' that is, ' this woolly,' — 
'navel of Varuwa,' for the sheep is sacred to 
Varu«a; — 'the skin of animals, two-footed and 
four-footed,' for that (sheep) indeed is the skin of 
both kinds of animals 1 , two-footed and four-footed ; — 
'the first birth-place of Tvash/Ws creatures,' 
for Tvash/W indeed fashioned this as the first form ; 
— 'harm not, O Agni, in the highest region!' 
the highest region is these worlds : thus, ' do not 
harm him in these worlds!' — 'The wild buffalo 
do I assign unto thee,' he thereby assigns the wild 
buffalo (ush/ra) to him; — 'building up therewith 
thy forms, get thee settled ! ' that is, ' building up 
therewith, perfect thyself!' — 'Let thy burning 
heat reach the buffalo! let thy burning heat 
reach him whom we hate!' he thereby lays 
burning heat into the buffalo, and into him whom 
he hates. 

36. Then that of the he-goat, with (\fi.g. S. XIII, 
51), 'Verily, the he-goat was produced from 
Agni's heat;' — that which was produced from 

1 Viz. inasmuch as its wool serves as a cover for man and beast. 



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412 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAVA. 

Pra^apati's heat, was indeed produced from Agni's 
heat; — 'he saw the progenitor at first,' the pro- 
genitor doubdess is Pra.fapati : thus, ' he saw Pra^a- 
pati at first;' — 'thereby, the gods at first (agre) 
went to the godhead;' the he-goat 1 doubtless is 
speech, and from speech the gods doubtless first 
went to the godhead, to the summit (agram) ; — 
'thereby they went to the height, the wise;' 
the height doubdess is the heavenly world : thus, 
' thereby they went to the heavenly world, the wise ; ' 
— 'The wild sarabha do I assign unto thee,' — 
he thereby assigns the wild ^arabha 2 to him ; — 
'building up therewith thy forms, get thee 
settled!' that is, 'building up therewith, perfect 
thyself!' — 'Let thy burning heat reach the 
sarabha! let thy burning heat reach him 
whom we hate!' he thereby lays burning heat 
into the Jarabha, and into him whom he hates. 

37. As to this they say, — The pain (heat), the 
evil of these animals, which Pra^apati drove out, 
became these five animals ; they, with their pith 
(sacrificial essence) gone out of them, are pithless, 
unfit for sacrifice ; a Brahmawa should not eat of 
them : he consigns them to that region ; whence 
Par^anya does not rain in that region where these 
are. 

38. He returns (to the offering-fire) and stands 
thereby worshipping it ; — for when he goes outside 
the Vedi, whilst Agni (the fire-altar) is only half 
built up, he does what is improper ; he now makes 
amends to him to prevent his doing injury. With 

1 ' A^-a,' he-goat, is here again taken in the sense of ' a-g&,' unborn. 
As to the gods having sprung from V£&, see VI, 1, 2, 6 seq. 

2 A fabulous animal with eight legs. 

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vii kAada, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhma^a, 41. 413 

a verse to Agni (he worships) : it is to Agni he 
thereby makes amends ; — with an undefined one ; 
the undefined means everything : by means of every- 
thing he thus makes amends to him ; — with (a verse) 
containing the word ' youngest : ' this indeed, to wit, 
the youngest, is his favourite form ; — inasmuch as 
when born he took possession (yu) of everything 
here, he is the youngest (yavish/^a). 

39. [V$g. S. XIII, 52 ; Ri\ S. VIII, 84, 3]' Shield 
thou, O youngest, the men of the liberal wor- 
shipper!' the liberal worshipper is the Sacrificer, 
and the men are the people; — 'hear thou the 
songs!' that is, hear this hymn of praise! — 'pro- 
tect thou kin and self!' the kin (race) means off- 
spring : thus, ' protect both (the Sacrificer's) offspring 
and himself.' 

40. Having stepped on the altar and walked round 
behind the naturally-perforated (brick), he lays down 
the ApasyaA (water-bricks) ; — now the Apasya^ are 
the same as water, and the water has gone out of 
these victims : he thus puts water into these victims, 
when he lays down the Apasyi^ (bricks). He lays 
them down close to the (heads of the) animals : he 
thereby puts the water together with the animals. 
He lays down five (bricks) in each quarter, for five 
are those victims. He lays them down in every 
(quarter) : everywhere he thus puts water into them. 

41. Now the first fifteen are the Apasya^, — water 
is a thunderbolt, and the thunderbolt is fifteenfold ; 
— hence wherever the waters flow, there they de- 
stroy evil ; and verily the thunderbolt destroys the 
evil of this place : hence, when it rains one should 
go about uncovered, thinking, ' May that thunder- 
bolt remove evil from me I ' 



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414 DATAPATH A-BR AH MAJVA. 

42. And the last five are the A^andasya^ (the 
metres' bricks) ; — the metres are cattle, and cattle is 
food ; or rather the flesh of cattle is food, and the 
flesh has departed from these victims : he there- 
fore puts flesh on those cattle when he lays down 
the ATi^andasyaA. He places them close to the vic- 
tims : he thereby puts the flesh close to the (bones 
of the) cattle. The Apasya^ are inside, the .Oan- 
dasya^ outside ; for the water is inside, and the 
flesh outside. 

43. As to this they say, 'If there are that water 
and that flesh, where then is the skin, and where the 
hair ? ' Well, the skin of cattle is food, and the hair 
of cattle is food ; and when he lays down the A^an- 
dasya^, that is the skin of the victims, that is their 
hair. Or, again, those goats' hair which are in the 
fire-pan 1 , they are hair. The fire-pan is outside, 
and the victims' heads are inside, for outside is the 
hair, and inside is the body. ' Whether in the one 
way, or whether in the other,' so S£ ndilya was wont 
to say, ' in any case we make up the victims wholly 
and completely.' 

44. And, again, why he lays down the Apasyi^. 
When Pra^apati was disjointed the water went from 
him ; that being gone, he sank down ; and because 
he sank down (vis), therefore there are twenty (vim- 
sati, viz. such bricks). It flowed from his fingers, — * 
the fingers being the end, it (the water) went from 
him in the end. 

45. Now the Pra^apati who became disjointed is 
this very Agni who is now being built up ; and the 
water (apa^) which went from him is these very 

1 See VI, 4, 4, 22 ; 5, 1, 4. 

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VII kAjVBA, 5 ADHyAyA, 2 BRAhMAM, 52. 415 

Apasya^ ; — hence when he lays them down, he 
thereby puts back into him that very water which 
went from him : therefore he now lays these down. 

46. \V&g: S. XIII, 43] 'In the way of the waters 
I settle thee ! ' the way of the waters is the wind ; 
for when he blows hither and thither then the 
waters flow : in the wind he ' settles ' this (first 
brick). 

47. ' In the swell of the waters I settle thee!' 
the swell of the waters is the plants, for wherever the 
waters keep swelling there plants grow: in the 
plants he settles this (brick). 

48. 'In the ashes of the waters I settle thee !' 
the ashes of the waters are the foam : in foam he 
settles this one. 

49. 'In the light of the waters I settle thee !' 
the light of the waters is the lightning : in the light- 
ning he settles this one. 

50. 'In the path of the waters I settle thee !' 
the path of the waters is this earth, for on the earth 
the waters flow : on this earth he settles this one. 
Whatever water flowed from those (five) forms of 
his, that water he now (by these five formulas) puts 
back into him ; and those forms themselves he 
thereby restores to him. 

51. 'In the flood, the seat, I settle thee!' 
the flood is the breath : in the breath he settles 
this one. 

52. 'In the ocean, the seat, I settle thee!' 
the sea is the mind; from the mind-ocean, with 
speech for a shovel, the gods dug out the triple 
science. Thereto this verse applies, — ' May the 
true god know this day where the gods placed that 
offering, they who dug it out from the ocean with 



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416 ffATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

sharp shovels ; ' — the ocean is the mind, the sharp 
shovel is speech, the offering is the triple science : 
it is thereto this verse applies. In the mind he 
settles this (brick). 

53. 'In the stream, the seat, I settle thee!' 
the stream is speech : in speech he settles this one. 

54. ' In the abode of the waters I settle thee!' 
the abode of the waters is the eye, for there water 
always abides : in the eye he settles this one. 

55. 'In the goal of the waters I settle thee!' 
the goal of the waters is the ear : in the ear he 
settles this one. Whatever water flowed from those 
(five) forms of his, that water he now (by these five 
formulas) puts back into him ; and those forms 
themselves he thereby restores to him. 

56. 'In the seat of the waters I settle thee !' 
the seat of the waters is the sky, for in the sky the 
waters are seated : in the sky he settles this one. 

57. 'In the home of the waters I settle 
thee!' the home of the waters is the air: in the 
air he settles this one. 

58. 'In the womb of the waters I settle thee !' 
the womb of the waters is the sea : in the sea he 
settles this one. 

59. ' In the sediment of the waters I settle 
thee ! ' the sediment (purlsha) of the waters is sand : 
in the sand he settles this one. 

60. 'In the resort of the waters I settle 
thee!' the resort of the waters is food: in food 
he settles this one. Whatever water flowed from 
those (five) forms of his, that water he now (by 
these five formulas) puts back into him; and those 
forms themselves he thereby restores to him. 

61. 'By the Gayatrt metre I settle thee! — 



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vii kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brahma^a, 62. 41 7 

By the Trish/ubh metre I settle thee ! — By the 
<7agatl metre I settle thee! — By the Anu- 
sh/ubh metre I settle thee! — By the Pankti 
metre I settle thee!' Whatever water flowed 
from those metres of his, that he now (by these 
formulas) puts back into him; and those metres 
themselves he thereby restores to him. 

62. These (bricks) are fingers (and toes) : he puts 
them on all sides 1 , for these fingers (and toes) are 
on all sides; he puts them at the ends, for these 
fingers (and toes) are at the ends ; in four sets he 
puts them on, for these fingers (and toes) are in 
four sets ; five he puts on each time, for there are 
five fingers (or toes) at each (limb); separately he 
puts them on, for separate are these fingers (and 
toes); only once he 'settles' each (set): he thereby 
makes (each set) one and the same, whence they 
have a common connecting-link. 

1 The four sets of bricks are placed in the middle of the four 
sides of the square ' body ' of the altar-site, or at the ends of the 
two ' spines ' intersecting each other. 



[4i] E e 

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418 satapatha-brAhmajva. 



CORRECTIONS. 

Introdnction, page xii, line 33. Read, — the day preceding the Soma-day, the 
animal offering to Agni-Soma being indeed a constant feature of that day's 
proceedings at every Soma-sacrifice J whilst the slaughter of the special 
victim, or victims, of the respective sacrifice takes place during the morn- 
ing service, &c. 

P. 5, last line of text Read,— therefor. 

P. 6, note 2, 1. 3. PrtshMya shadaha, see Introduction, p. zxi. 

P. 8, last line of notes. For 'II, 665' read 'II, 663, in a different tune again.' 

P. 9, 1. 5 of notes. Read, — II, 720-33. 

P. 34, 1. 31. Read, — Brehaspati consecration. 

P. 41, 1. 14. For 'offering' read ' offspring.' 

P. 104, 1. 3. For ' truth ' read ' law ;' (cf. VI, 7, 3, n.) 

P. 146, 1. 33. For 'become' read 'became.' 



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PLAN OF FIRE-ALTAR (AGNIKSHETRA). 419 



PLAN OF FIRE- ALTAR (AGNIKSHETRA) 



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Sacred Books of the East 

TRANSLATED BY 

VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 

AND EDITED BY 

F. MAX MULLER 

*„* This Series is published with the sanction and co-operation of the Secretary of 
State for India in Council. 

BBFORT presented to the ACADBMTB DEB INSCRIPTIONS, May 11, 
1883, by K. IUr»> REBAN. 

'M. Renan presente trois nouveaox une seconde, dont l'inter€t historique et 
volumes de la grande collection des religieux ne sera pas moindre. M. Max 
"Livres sacres de l'Orient" (Sacred Miiller a sn se procurer la collaboration 
Books of the East), one dirige a Oxford, des savans les plus eminens d'Europe et 
avec une si vaste erudition et une critique d'Asie. L'Universite' d'Oxford, que cette 
si sure, le savant associe de l'Academie grande publication honore au plus haut 
des Inscriptions, M. Max MUller. ... La degre^ doit tenir a continuer dans les plus 
premiere serie de ce beau recueil, com- larges proportions une ceuvre aussi philo- 
posee de 24 volumes, est prcsque achevee. sophiquement concne que savamment 
M. Max Miiller se propose d'en publier ex^cutee.' 

EXTRACT from the QUARTERLY REVIEW. 

' We rejoice to notice that a second great edition of the Rig- Veda, can corn- 
series of these translations has been an- pare in importance or in usefulness with 
nounced and has actually begun to appear, this English translation of the Sacred 
The stones, at least, out of which a stately Books of the East, which has been devised 
edifice may hereafter arise, are here being by his foresight, successfully brought so 
brought together. Prof. Max MUller has far by his persuasive and organising 
deserved well of scientific history. Not power, and will, we trust, by the assist- 
a few minds owe to bis enticing words ance of the distinguished scholars he has 
their first attraction to this branch of gathered round him, be carried in due 
study. But no work of his, not even the time to a happy completion.' 

Professor E. HARDY, Inaugural Lecture in the University of Freiburg, 1887. 

' Die allgemeine vergleichende Reli- mternationalcn Orientalistencongress in 
gionswissenschaft datirt von jenem gross- London der Grundstein gelegt worden 
artigen, in seiner Art einzig dastehenden war, die t)bersetzung derheiligen BUcher 
Uiiternehmen, zu welchem auf Anregnng des Ostens' {the Sacred Books of the 
Max Miillers im Jahre 1874 auf dem East). 

The Hon. ALBERT 8. ». CANNING.' Words on Existing Beliglons. 
' The recent publication of the " Sacred a great event in the annals of theological 
Works of the East" in English is surely literature.' 



©jtforo 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
LONDON: HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AMEN CORNER, E.C. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



FIRST SERIES. 

Vol. I. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max MUllkr. Part I. The JWandogya- 
upanishad, The Talavakara-upanishad, The Aitareya-4ra»yaka, 
The Kaushitaki-brahmana-upanishad, and The Va^asancyi- 
sawhila-upanishad. 8vo, cloth, xos. 6d. 

The Upanishads contain the philosophy of the Veda. They have 
become the foundation of the later Veddnta doctrines, and indirectly 
of Buddhism. Schopenhauer, speaking of the Upanishads, says : 
'In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating 
as that of the Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life, it will 
be the solace of my death! 

[See also Vol. XV.] 

Vol. II. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, V&sish/Aa, 
and Baudhayana. Translated by Georg BOhler. Part I. 
Apastamba and Gautama. 8vo, cloth, iar. 6d. 

The Sacred Laws of the Aryas contain the original treatises on 
which the Laws of Manu and other lawgivers were founded. 

[See also Vol. XIV.] 

Vol. III. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. 
Part I. The Shu King, The Religious Portions of the Shih 
King, and The Hsiao King. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

Confucius was a collector of ancient traditions, not the founder of 
a new religion. As Jie lived in the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. 
his works are of unique interest for the study of Ethology. 
[See also Vols. XVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXXIX, and XL.] 

Vol. IV. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmestkter. Part I. The VendtdSd. 
8vo, cloth, i of. 6d. 

The Zend-Avesta contains the relics of what was the religion of 
Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes, and, but for the battle of Marathon, 



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EDITED BY F. MAX MULLER. 



might have become the religion of Europe. It forms to the present 
day the sacred book of the Parsis, the so-called fire-worshippers. 
Two more volumes will complete the translation of ail that is left us 
of Zoroaster's religion. 

[See also Vols. XXIII and XXXL] 

Vol. V. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part I. The BundahLr, Bahman 
Yart, and Shayast la-sbiyast. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

The Pahlavi Texts comprise the theological literature of the revival 
of Zoroaster 's religion, beginning with the Sassanian dynasty. They 
are important for a study of Gnosticism. 

Vols. VI awd ix. The Quran. 

Parts I and II. Translated by £. H. Palmer. 8vo, cloth, 21 s. 

This translation, carried out according to his own peculiar views 
of the origin of the Qur'dn, was the last great work ofE. H. Palmer, 
be/ore he was murdered in Egypt. 

Vol. VII. The Institutes of Vish«u. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. 8vo, cloth, iox. 6d. 

A collection of legal aphorisms, closely connected with one of the 
oldest Vedic schools, the KaAias, but considerably added to in later 
time. Of importance for a critical study of the Laws of Manu. 

vol. vni. The Bhagavadgita.with The Sanatsu^ittya, 
and The Anugtta. 

Translated by Kashinath Trimbak Telang. 8vo, cloth, 
1 of. 6d. 

The earliest philosophical and religious poem of India. It has been 
paraphrased in Arnold's 'Song Celestial.' 

Vol. x. The Dhammapada, 

Translated from Pali by F. Max Muller ; and 

The Sutta-Nipata, 

Translated from Pali by V. Fausboll ; being Canonical Books 
of the Buddhists. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Dhammapada contains the quintessence of Buddhist morality. 
The Sutta-Nipdta gives the authentic teaching of Buddha on some 
of the fundamental principles of religion. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



Vol. XI. Buddhist Suttas. 

Translated from Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids, i. The Maha- 
parinibbana Suttanta; 2. The Dhamma-£akka-ppavattana 
Sutta. 3. The Tevi^a Suttanta; 4. The Akankheyya Sutta ; 
5. The /Tetokhila Sutta; 6. The Maha-sudassana Suttanta; 
7. The Sabbasava Sutta. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

A collection of the most important religious, moral, and philosophical 
discourses taken from the sacred canon of the Buddhists. 

Vol. XII. The *Satapatha-Brahma«a, according to the 
Text of the Madhyandina School. 

Translated by Julius Eggkling. Part I. Books I and II. 
8vo, cloth, 1 2X. 6d. 

A minute account of the sacrificial ceremonies of the Vedic age. 
It contains the earliest account of the Deluge in India. 
[See also Vols. XXVI, XLI.] 

Vol. xiii. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Parti. The Patimokkha. The Mahivagga, I-IV. 
8vo, cloth, 1 or. 6d. 

The Vinaya Texts give for the first time a translation of the moral 
code of the Buddhist religion as settled in the third century B. C. 
[See also Vols. XVII and XX.] 

Vol. XIV. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasish/fta, 
and Baudhiyana. Translated by Georg Buhler. Part II. 
Vasish/#a and Baudhiyana. 8vo, cldth, 10s. 6d. 

Vol. XV. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F.Max Muller. Part II. The Ka/Aa-upanishad, 
The Muw</aka-upanishad, The Taittirtyaka-upanishad, The 
Br/hadaranyaka-upanishad, The •Svetlsvatara-upanishad, The 
PraiSa-upanishad, and The Maitrayawa-brahmawa-upanishad. 
8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Vol. XVI. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Leggk. 
Part II. The Yi King. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 
[See also Vols. XXVII, XXVIII.] 

Vol. XVII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part II. The Mahavagga V-X. The Afullavagga, 
I-III. 8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 



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EDITED BY F. MAX MOLLER. 



Vol. XVIII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part II. The m^istin-i Dinik 
and The Epistles of Minu-r^lhar. 8vo, cloth, 12*. 6d. 

Vol. XIX. The Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king. 

A Life of Buddha by Axvaghosha Bodhisattva, translated from 
Sanskrit into Chinese by Dharmaraksha, a.d. 420, and from 
Chinese into English by Samuel Beal. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

This life of Buddha was translated from Sanskrit into Chinese, 
A.D. 420. // contains many legends, some of which show a certain 
similarity to the Evangelium infantiae, S[c. 

Vol. XX. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the P&li by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part III. The ^Tullavagga, IV-XII. 8vo, cloth, 
\os. 6d. 

Vol. XXI. The Saddharma-puwdfarlka ; or, The Lotus 
of the True Law. 

Translated by H. Kern. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 
' The Lotus of the true Law,' a canonical book of the Northern 
Buddhists, translated from Sanskrit. There is a Chinese transla- 
tion of this book which was finished as early as the year 286 A.D. 

Vol. XXII. (Jaina-Sutras. 

Translated from Pr&krit by Hermann Jacobi. Part I. The 
AiSrihga-Sutra and The Kalpa-Sutra. 8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 

The religion of the (?ainas was founded by a contemporary of Buddha. 
It still counts numerous adherents in India, while there are no 
Buddhists left in India proper. 
Part II, in preparation. 

Vol. xxiii. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part II. The Sirdzahs, 
Yarts, and Ny&yu. 8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 

Vol. xxiv. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part III. Dind-i MaJn6g- 
Khirarf, Sikand-gumanik Vi^ar, and Sad Dar. 8vo, cloth, 
10s. 6d. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



SECOND SERIES. 

Vol. XXV. Manu. 

Translated by Georg Buhler. 8vo, cloth, 2 is. 
This translation is founded on that of Sir William Jones, which has been 
carefully revised and corrected with the help of seven native Commentaries. 
An Appendix contains all the quotations from Manu which are found in the 
Hindu Law-books, translated for the use of the Law Courts in India. 
Another Appendix gives a synopsis of parallel passages from the six 
Dharma-sutras, the other Smrttis, the Upanishads, the Mahlbharata, &c 

Vol. XXVI. The .Satapatha-Brahmawa. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part II. Books III and IV. 
8vo, cloth, I2J. 6d. 

Vols, xxvii akd xxviii. The Sacred Books of China. 
The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. Parts 
III and IV. The Li K\, or Collection of Treatises on the Rules 
of Propriety, or Ceremonial Usages. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. each. 

vol. XXIX. The GWhya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part I. .SankMyana, Ajvalayana, Paraskara, Khadira. Trans- 
lated by Hermann Oldenberg. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

These rules of Domestic Ceremonies describe the home life of the ancient 
Aryas with a completeness and accuracy unmatched in any other literature. 
Some of these rules have been incorporated in the ancient Law-books. 

Vol. XXX. The Grzhya-Sutras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part II. Gobhila, Hirawyakejin, Apastamba. Translated by 
Hermann Oldenberg. Apastamba; Ya^tfa-paribh&sha-sutras. 
Translated by F. Max Muller. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. xxxi. The Zend-Avesta. 

Part III. The Yasna, Visparad, Afnnagan, Gihs, and 
Miscellaneous Fragments. Translated by L. H. Mills. 8vo, 
cloth, 1 2 s. 6d. 

Vol. XXXII. Vedic Hymns. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part I. 8vo, cloth, 18s. 6d. 



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EDITED BY F. MAX MtJLLER. 



Vol. XXXI II. The Minor Law-books. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. Part h NSrada, Bnhaspati. 
8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Vol. XXXIV. The Vedanta-Sutras, with the Com- 
mentary by .Sankara&trya. Part I. 

Translated by G. Thibaut. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XXXV. The Questions of King Milinda. Part I. 
Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids. 
8vo, cloth, iox. 6d. 

Vol. xxxvi. The Questions of King Milinda. Part II. 

[In the Press.] 

Vol. XXXVII. The Contents of the Nasks, as stated 
in the Eighth and Ninth Books of the Dlnkard. 
Part I. Translated by E. W. West. 8vo, cloth, 15s. 

vol. xxxvni. The Vedanta-Sutras. Part II. [In 
the Press.] 

Vols. XXXIX Aim XL. The Sacred Books of China. 
The Texts of Taoism. Translated by James Legge. 8yo, 
cloth, 21s. 

Vol. XLI. The .Satapatha-Brahma»a. Part III. Trans- 
lated by Julius Eggeling. [In the Press.] 

Vol. XLII. The Buddha-A^arita. Translated by 
E. B. Cowell. The Sukhdvati-vyfiha. Translated by F. 
Max Muller. [In the Press.] 

Vols. XLIII add XLIV. The •Satapatha-Brahmafta. 

Parts IV and V. [In preparation.] 

Vol. XIiV. The Gaina-Sutras. Part II. [In prepar- 
ation.] 

Vol. XL VI. The Vedanta-Sutras. Part III. [In 

preparation.] 

Vol. XL VII. The Contents of the Nasks. Part II. 

[In preparation!] 
Vol. XLVIII. Vedic Hymns. Part II. [In preparation!] 



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RECENT ORIENTAL WORKS. 



Slnectrota ©xomenssia. 

ARYAN SERIES. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. I. Vafra^fcfcedika ; The 
Diamond-Cutter. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A. Small 4to, 3*. 6d. 
One of the most famous metaphysical treatises of the MahaySna Buddhists. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. II. Sukhavatl-Vyftha : 
Description of Sukh&valt, the Land of Bliss. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A., and Bunyiu Nanjio. With 

two Appendices: (1) Text and Translation of Sahghavarman's 

Chinese Version of the Poetical Portions of the Sukhavatf- 

Vyfiha; (2) Sanskrit Text of the Smaller Sukhavati-Vyuha. 

Small 4to, 7-r. 6d. 

The editio princeps of the Sacred Book of one of the largest and most 

influential sects of Buddhism, numbering more than ten millions of followers 

in Japan alone. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. III. The A ncient Palm- 
Leaves containing the Pra^»a-Pararnita-Hr*'daya- 
Sfitra and the Ush«fsha-Vifaya-Dhara«!. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A., and Bunyiu Nanjio, M.A. 
With an Appendix by G. Buhler, CLE. With many Plates. 
Small 4to, \as. 
Contains facsimiles of the oldest Sanskrit MS. at present known. 

Dharma-Sawgraha, an Ancient Collection of Buddhist 
Technical Terms. 

Prepared for publication by Kenjiu Kasawara, a Buddhist 
Priest from Japan, and, after his death, edited by F. Max 
Muller and H. Wenzel. Small 4to, 7*. 6d. 

Katayana's Sarvanukramawi of the Bigveda.. 

With Extracts from Sharfgunuishya's Commentary entitled 
Vcdarthadfpika. Edited by A. A. Macdonell, M.A., Ph.D. 16s. 



Oxford 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
LONDON : HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AMEN CORNER, EX. 



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