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Introduction : — 


I. The names of the Atharva-veda and their meanings xvii 

II. The position of the Atharva-veda in Hindu Litera- 

ture in general xxviii 

III. The Atharva-veda in the view of its Ritualistic 

Literature lvii 

Prefatory remarks lxxi 

Hymns, Translation and Commentary : — 
I. Charms to cure diseases and possession by demons 
of disease (bhaisha/yani). 

Book v, 22. Charm against takman (fever) and 

related diseases . . . . . i, 441 
vi, 20. Charm against takman (fever) . . 3, 468 
i, 25. Charm against takman (fever) . . 3, 270 
vii, 116. Charm against takman (fever) . 4, 565 
v, 4. Prayer to the kush/£a-plant to destroy 

takman (fever) 4, 414 

xix, 39. Prayer to the kush/Aa-plant to de- 
stroy takman (fever) and other ailments . 5, 676 
i, 12. Prayer to lightning, conceived as the 

cause of fever, headache, and cough . 7,246 
i, 22. Charm against jaundice and related 

diseases 7, 263 

vi, 14. Charm against the disease balasa . 8, 463 
vi, 105. Charm against cough . . . 8,513 
i, 2. Charm against excessive discharges from 

the body 8, 233 

ii, 3. Charm against excessive discharges 
from the body, undertaken with spring- 
water 9, 277 

1 i«S4Sl) 

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vi, 44. Charm against excessive discharges from 

the body 10, 481 

i, 3. Charm against constipation and retention of 

urine 10, 235 

vi, 90. Charm against internal pain (colic), due to 

the missiles of Rudra 11,506 

i, 10. Charm against dropsy . . . .11, 241 

vii, 83. Charm against dropsy .... 12,562 
vi, 24. Dropsy, heart-disease, and kindred maladies 

cured by flowing water . . . . 12,471 
vi, 80. An oblation to the sun, conceived as one of 

the two heavenly dogs, as a cure for paralysis 13, 500 

ii, 8. Charm against kshetriya, hereditary disease . 13, 286 

ii, 10. Charm against kshetriya, hereditary disease . 14, 292 

iii, 7. Charm against kshetriya, hereditary disease . 15, 336 

i, 23. Leprosy cured by a dark plant . . . 16, 266 
i, 24. Leprosy cured by a dark plant . . .16, 268 
vi, 83. Charm for curing scrofulous sores called 

apaXHt . . . . . 17, 503 
vii, 76. A. Charm for curing scrofulous sores called 

apaflt 17. 559 

B. Charm for curing tumours called £&y£nya 17,560 

C. Stanza sung at the mid-day pressure of 

the soma .18, 562 

vii, 74. A. Charm for curing scrofulous sores called 

apaJit 18, 557 

B. Charm to appease jealousy . . .18, 559 

C. Prayer to Agni, the lord of vows . . 18, 559 
vi, 25. Charm against scrofulous sores upon neck 

and shoulders 19, 472 

v i> 57- Urine (^ildsha) as a cure for scrofulous 

sores 19, 488 

iv, 12. Charm with the plant arundhati (lakshS) for 

the cure of fractures 19, 384 

v, 5. Charm with the plant siUbti (lakshS, arundhati) 

for the cure of wounds . . . . 20,419 

vi, 109. The pepper-corn as a cure for wounds . 21, 516 

i, 17. Charm to stop the flow of blood . . . 22,257 

ii, 31. Charm against worms .... 22,313 

ii, 32. Charm against worms in cattle . . . 23,317 

Digitized by 




v, 23. Charm against worms in children 
iv, 6. Charm against poison 
iv, 7. Charm against poison 
vi, 100. Ants as an antidote against poison 
v, 13. Charm against snake-poison 
vi, 12. Charm against snake-poison 
vii, 56. Charm against the poison of serpents, scor- 
pions, and insects 

vi, 16. Charm against ophthalmia 

vi, 21. Charm to promote the growth of hair 

vi, 136. Charm with the plant nitatnt to promote 

the growth of hair 

vi, 137. Charm to promote the growth of hair 
iv, 4. Charm to promote virility .... 
vi, in. Charm against mania .... 
• v » 37- Charm with the plant a^arraigf to drive out 

Rakshas, Apsaras, and Gandharvas 
ii, 9. Possession by demons of disease, cured by an 

amulet of ten kinds of wood .... 
iv, 36. Charm against demons (p&Ua) conceived 

as the cause of disease 

ii, 25. Charm with the plant pniniparnt against the 

demon of disease called ka»va 
vi, 32. Charm for driving away demons (Rakshas 

and PLra&is) 

ii, 4. Charm with an amulet derived from the 

#aftgirfa-tree, against diseases and demons 
xix, 34. Charm with an amulet derived from the 

gahgida-tree, against diseases and demons 
xix, 35. Charm with an amulet derived from the 

gahgida-tree, against diseases and demons 
vi, 85. Exorcism of disease by means of an amulet 

from the vara«a-tree 

vi, 127. The £ipudru-tree as a panacea 
xix, 38. The healing properties of bdellium . 
vi, 91. Barley and water as universal remedies 
viii, 7. Hymn to all magic and medicinal plants, 

used as a universal remedy .... 

vi, 96. Plants as a panacea 

ii, 33. Charm to secure perfect health . 








































38. 669 

















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ix, 8. Charm to procure immunity from all diseases 45, 600 
ii, 29. Charm for obtaining long life and prosperity 

by transmission of disease . . 47, 308 

II. Prayers for long life and health (ayushya»i). 

iii, 11. Prayer for health and long life . . . 49,341 

ii, 28. Prayer for long life pronounced over a boy . 50, 306 

iii, 31. Prayer for health and long life . . 51, 364 

vii, 53. Prayer for long life 52, 551 

viii, 1. Prayer for exemption from the dangers of 

death 53, 569 

viii, 2. Prayer for exemption from the dangers of 

death -55,573 

v, 30. Prayer for exemption from disease and death 59, 455 

iv, 9. Salve (a^g-ana) as a protector of life and limb 61, 381 
iv, 10. The pearl and its shell as an amulet bestow- 
ing long life and prosperity . . . .62, 383 

xix, 26. Gold as an amulet for long life . . 63, 668 

III. Imprecations against demons, sorcerers, and ene- 

mies (abhi^arikini and kmyapraliharanani). 

i, 7. Against sorcerers and demons . . .64, 237 
i, 8. Against sorcerers and demons . . . 65, 239 
i, 16. Charm with lead, against demons and sor- 
cerers 65, 256 

vi, 2. The soma-oblation directed against demons 

(rakshas) 66, 458 

ii, 14. Charm against a variety of female demons, 

conceived as hostile to men, cattle, and home 66, 298 
iii, 9. Against vishkandha and kabava (hostile 

demons) 67, 339 

iv, 20. Charm with a certain plant (sadawpushpa) 

which exposes demons and enemies . . 68, 398 
iv, 17. Charm with the apam&rga-plant, against 

sorcery, demons, and enemies . . .69, 393 
iv, 18. Charm with the apamarga-plant, against 

sorcery, demons, and enemies . . . 70, 396 
iv, 1 9. Mystic power of the apamarga-plant, against 

demons and sorcerers 71, 397 

Digitized by 




vii, 65. Charm with the aptm&rga-plant, against 
curses, and the consequence of sinful deeds . 

z, 1. Charm to repel sorceries or spells 

v, 31. Charm to repel sorceries or spells 

v, 14. Charm to repel sorceries or spells 

viii, 5. Prayer for protection addressed to a talis- 
man made from the wood of the sraktya-tree . 

z, 3. Praise of the virtues of an amulet derived 
from the vanwa-tree 

z, 6. Praise of the virtues of an amulet of khadira- 
wood in the shape of a ploughshare 

iv, 16. Prayer to Varuwa for protection against 
treacherous designs 

ii, 1 a. Imprecation against enemies thwarting holy 

vii, 70. Frustration of the sacrifice of an enemy . 

ii, 7. Charm against curses and hostile plots, under- 
taken with a certain plant .... 

iii, 6. The arvattha-tree as a destroyer of enemies . 

vi, 75. Oblation for the suppression of enemies 
(nairbSdhyam havW) 

vi, 37. Curse against one that practises hostile 

vii, 13. Charm to deprive enemies of their strength 

IV. Charms pertaining to women (strikarmani). 
ii, 36. Charm to obtain a husband 
vi, 60. Charm to obtain a husband 
vi, 82. Charm for obtaining a wife 
vi, 78. Blessing for a married couple . 
vii, 36. Love-charm spoken by a bridal couple 
vii, 37. Charm pronounced by the bride over the 

vi, 81. A bracelet as an amulet to ensure concep 


iii, 23. Charm for obtaining a son (pu/nsavanam) 
vi, 1 1. Charm for obtaining a son (pu/nsavanam) 
vii, 35. An incantation to make a woman sterile 
vi, 1 7. Charm to prevent miscarriage . 
i, 1 1. Charm for easy parturition 

72, 556 
72, 602 

76, 45<S 

77. 429 

79. 575 
81, 605 
84, 608 

88, 389 

89, 294 

90, 557 

91, 2 fi 5 
9>, 334 

92, 495 

93, 475 
93. 544 

94. 322 

95. 49 1 

95, 502 

96, 498 
96, 546 

96, 546 

96, 501 

97, 356 

97, 460 

98, 545 

98, 467 

99. 242 

Digitized by 




i, 34. Charm with licorice, to secure the love of a 

woman 99, 274 

ii, 30. Charm to secure the love of a woman . 100, 31 1 

vi, 8. Charm to secure the love of a woman . . 100, 459 

vi, 9. Charm to secure the love of a woman . . 101, 459 

vi, 102. Charm to secure the love of a woman . 101, 512 
iii, 25. Charm to arouse the passionate love of 

a woman 102, 358 

vi, 139. Charm to arouse the passionate love of 

a woman 102, 539 

vii, 38. Charm to secure the love of a man . . 103,546 
vi, 130. Charm to arouse the passionate love of 

a man 104, 534 

vi, 131. Charm to arouse the passionate love of 

a man . 104,535 

vi, 132. Charm to arouse the passionate love of 

a man 104, 535 

iv, 5. Charm at an assignation .... 105, 37 1 
vi, 77. Charm to cause the return of a truant 

woman 106, 496 

vi, 18. Charm to allay jealousy . . . . 106, 467 

vii, 45. Charm to allay jealousy .... 107, 547 

i, 14. A woman's incantation against her rival . 107, 252 

iii, 1 8. Charm of a woman against a rival or co-wife 107, 354 

vi, 138. Charm for depriving a man of his virility . 108, 537 
i, 18. Charm to remove evil bodily characteristics 

from a woman 109, 260 

vi, 1 10. Expiatory charm for a child born under an 

unlucky star 109, 517 

vi, 140. Expiation for the irregular appearance of 

the first pair of teeth 110,540 

V. Charms pertaining to royalty (ra^akarmdm). 

iv, 8. Prayer at the consecration of a king . . 1 1 1, 378 

iii, 3. Charm for the restoration of an exiled king . 112, 327 

iii, 4. Prayer at the election of a king . . . 113, 330 
iii, 5. Praise of an amulet derived from the parna- 

tree, designed to strengthen royal power 114, 331 

iv, 22. Charm to secure the superiority of a king . 115, 404 

i, 9. Prayer for earthly and heavenly success . 116, 239 

Digitized by 




vi, 38. Prayer for lustre and power . . . 116,477 

vi, 39. Prayer for glory (yajas) .... 117,478 

viii, 8. Battle-charm 117,582 

i, 19. Battle-charm against arrow- wounds . .120, 262 

iii, 1. Battle-charm for confusing the enemy . . 121, 325 

iii, 2. Battle-charm for confusing the enemy . . 121, 327 
vi, 97. Battle-charm of a king upon the eve of 

battle 122, 510 

vi, 99. Battle-charm of a king upon the eve of 

battle 123, 510 

xi, 9. Prayer to Arbudi and Nyarbudi for help in 

battle . . 123, 631 

xi, 10. Prayer to Trishamdhi for help in battle . 126, 637 

v, 20. Hymn to the battle -drum . . . . 130, 436 
v, a 1. Hymn to the battle-drum, the terror of the 

enemy 131, 439 

VI. Charms to secure harmony, influence in the assem- 
bly, and the like (sisraianasyani, &c). 
iii, 30. Charm to secure harmony . . . 134,361 
vi, 73. Charm to allay discord .... 135,494 
vi, 74. Charm to allay discord .... 135,495 
vii, 52. Charm against strife and bloodshed . .136, 550 
vi, 64. Charm to allay discord . . . . 136, 492 
vi, 42. Charm to appease anger .... 136, 479 
vi, 43. Charm to appease anger .... 137, 480 
ii, 27. Charm against opponents in debate, under- 
taken with the pa/a-plant .... 137, 304 
vii, 12. Charm to procure influence in the assembly 138, 543 
vi, 94. Charm to bring about submission to one's 

will 138, 508 

VH. Charms to secure prosperity in house, field, cattle, 
business, gambling, and kindred matters, 

iii, 1 2. Prayer at the building of a house . . 140,343 

vi, 142. Blessing during the sowing of seed . . 141,541 

vi, 79. Charm for procuring increase of grain . 141,499 
vi, 50. Exorcism of vermin infesting grain in the 

field 142, 485 

vii, 11. Charm to protect grain from lightning . 142,543 

Digitized by 




ii, 26. Charm for the prosperity of cattle . . 142,303 

Hi, 14. Charm for the prosperity of cattle . . 143,351 
vi, 59. Prayer to the plant arundhati for protection 

to cattle 144, 490 

vi, 70. Charm to secure the attachment of a cow 

to her calf 144. 493 

iii, 28. Formula in expiation of the birth of twin- 
calves 145, 359 

vi, 92. Charm to endow a horse with swiftness . 145, 507 
iii, 13. Charm for conducting a river into a new 

channel 146, 348 

vi, 106. Charm to ward off danger from fire. . 147, 514 
iv, 3. Shepherd's charm against wild beasts and 

robbers 147, 366 

iii, 15. A merchant's prayer .... 148, 352 

iv, 38. A. Prayer for success in gambling . . 149, 412 
B. Prayer to secure the return of calves that 

have strayed to a distance . . 150, 413 
vii, 50. Prayer for success at dice . . .150, 548 

vi, 56. Exorcism of serpents from the premises . 151, 487 
x, 4. Charm against serpents, invoking the horse 

of Pedu that slays serpents .... 152,605 
xi, 2. Prayer to Bhava and Surva. for protection 

from dangers 155, 618 

iv, 28. Prayer to Bhava and Sarva for protection 

from dangers 158, 406 

vii, 9. Charm for finding lost property . . . 159, 542 
vi, 128. Propitiation of the weather-prophet . . 160,532 
xi, 6. Prayer for deliverance from calamity, ad- 
dressed to the entire pantheon . . . 160, 628 

VIII. Charms in expiation of sin and defilement. 

vi, 45. Prayer against mental delinquency . . 163, 483 

vi, 26. Charm to avert evil ..... 163, 473 
vi, 114. Expiatory formula for imperfections in the 

sacrifice 164, 528 

vi, 115. Expiatory formulas for sins . . . 164,529 
vi, 112. Expiation for the precedence of a younger 

brother over an older . . . . .164,521 

vi, 113. Expiation for certain heinous crimes . 165, 527 

Digitized by 




vi, 1 20. Prayer for heaven after remission of sins . 165, 529 
ri, 27. Charm against pigeons regarded as ominous 

birds 166, 474 

vi, 29. Charm against ominous pigeons and owls . 166, 475 
vii, 64. Expiation when one is denied by a black 

bird of omen 167, 555 

vi, 46. Exorcism of evil dreams .... 167,485 
vii, 115. Charm for the removal of evil character- 
istics, and the acquisition of auspicious ones . 168, 564 

IX. Prayers and imprecations in the interest of the 


v, 18. Imprecation against the oppressors of Brah- 
mans 169, 430 

v, 19. Imprecation against the oppressors of Brah- 
mans 171, 433 

v, 7. Prayer to appease Arati, the demon of grudge 

and avarice 172,423 

xii, 4. The necessity of giving away sterile cows to 

the Brahmans 174, 656 

xi, 1. The preparation of the brahmaudana, the 

porridge given as a fee to the Brahmans . 179,610 

xii, 3. The preparation of the brahmaudana, the 

porridge given as a fee to the Brahmans . 185, 645 

ix, 3. Removal of a house that has been presented 

to a priest as sacrificial reward . . . 193, 595 

vi, 71. Brahmanical prayer at the receipt of gifts . 196,494 

xx, 127. A kuntapa-hymn 197,688 

X. Cosmogonic and theosophic hymns. 

xii, 1. Hymn to goddess Earth .... 199, 639 

xiii, 1. Prayer for sovereign power addressed to the 

god Rohita and his female Rohi»r . . 207, 661 

xi, 5. Glorification of the sun, or the primeval prin- 
ciple, as a Brahman disciple . . . 214,626 

xi, 4. Prawa, life or breath, personified as the 

supreme spirit 218, 622 

ix, 2. Prayer to Kama (love), personified as a pri- 
mordial power 220, 591 

Digitized by 




xix, 53. Prayer to KSla (time), personified as a pri- 
mordial principle 224, 681 

xix, 54. Prayer to Kala (time), personified as a pri- 
mordial principle 225, 687 

xi, 7. Apotheosis of the uiiAish/a., the leavings of 

the sacrifice 226, 629 

ix, 1. Hymn to the honey-lash of the Arvins . 229, 587 

Indexes : — 

I. Index of Subjects 693 

II. Index of Hymns in the order of the Atharva-veda 709 

Additions and Corrections . . . . . . 711 

Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the 

Translations of the Sacred Books of the East . 713 

Digitized by 



I. The names of the Atharva-veda and 


The fourth Veda is known in Hindu literature by an 
The com- unusually large number of appellations. Of 
pound stem these the dvandva plural atharvangirasa^ is old, 
arv ngtras. og^^ng AV. X, 7, 20 ; it is the name found at 
the head of the Atharvan MSS. themselves. The appear- 
ance of this name in a given text has not unfrequently been 
made the basis — partly or entirely — for estimating the rela- 
tive chronology of that text. But this criterion can claim 
only negative value, since the designation occurs in a text 
as late as the Auranasa-sm«ti, III, 44 1 . It is found in 
a great variety of texts of the Vedic literature, as may be 
seen in the subsequent account of the attitude of Hindu 
literature towards the fourth Veda (p. xxviii ff), but at no 
period does it positively exclude other designations. 

The locative singular of this same compound occurs in 
a passage not altogether textually certain, Mahabh. Ill, 
305, 20= 17066, where the Bombay edition has atharvangi- 
rasi jrutam, but the Calcutta, atharvarirasi jrutarn. The 
locative singular (apparently neuter) of the stem atharvangi- 
rasa occurs rarely, Ya^-»av. 1, 312 (kosalam atharvangirase). 
A specimen of a derivative adjective from the compound 
may be seen at Manu XI, 33, atharvangirasiA jrutlA; cf. 
Mahabh. VIII, 40, 33 = 1848, kWtyam atharvangirasim. 

1 See CrSvSuanda's Dhanmuistrasamgraba, vol. i, p. 514. 

[4»] b 

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The name atharvan, with a great variety of derivatives, 

is employed growingly as the designation of 

eadToflhe the Veda ; the name an^iras by itself is so 

terms atharvan rare as to arrest attention when it is met. 

and angiras. 

At TS. VII, 5, ii, % = Ka/Aaka Ajvamedha- 
grantha, V, 2, occurs the formula angirobhyaA svaha, pre- 
ceded by rigbhyaA, &c. svaha : it is, as far as is known, 
the solitary occurrence of this designation of the Atharva- 
veda in a Vedic text 1 . Quite frequently, however, the 
members of the compound atharvangirasaA are separated 
so that each is mentioned by itself, but always in more 
or less close conjunction with one another. This shows 
that the compound is not a congealed formula, but that the 
texts are conscious of the fact that each has a distinct 
individuality, and a right to separate existence. In other 
words, the AV. actually consists of atharvan and ahgiras 
matter, and the question arises what elements in the make- 
up of this Veda these terms refer to. The answer, I believe, 
may now be given with a considerable degree of certainty : 
the term atharvan refers to the auspicious practices of the 
Veda, the bhesha^ani (AV. XI, 6, 14), those parts of the 
Veda which are recognised by the Atharvan ritual and 
the orthodox Brahmanical writings, as .ranta, ' holy,' and 
paush/ika, ' conferring prosperity ; ' the term angiras refers 
to the hostile sorcery practices of the Veda, the yatu (.Sat. 
Br. X, 5, 2, 20), or abhi£ara \ which is terrible (ghora). 

In an article entitled, ' On the position of the Vaitana- 
sutra in the literature of the Atharva-veda,' Journ. Amer. 
Or. Soc. XI, 387 ff., I pointed out that the above-mentioned 
distinction is clearly made at Vait. Su. 5, 10, where two 
lists of plants are differentiated, one as atharvawyaA, the 
other as angirasya//. The same distinction is maintained 
at Gop. Br. I, 2, 1 8. The former refers to the list of plants 

1 In texts not Vedic the term angirasaA occurs occasionally as an abbreviated 
form of atharvangirasaA. Thns in the first superscription of the AV. Prati- 
jakhya, the 5aunak!ya Aaturadhyiyika, and in Pamni V, 2, 37. Cf. also 
Gop. Br. I, 1, 8. 

' For the distinction between janta and abhiHrika see Kaux. 3, 19, and note 5 
on p. II of our edition. 

Digitized by 



catalogued at Kavtr. 8, 16, and there distinctly described as 
sintSJi, ' holy ; ' the second list is stated at Vait. Su. 5, 10 
itself to be angirasa, in the obscure terms, kapurviparva- 
rodakavr*kkavatinaVanirdahantibhir angirasibhi^. These 
names are in general unknown, the text is not quite certain, 
but the designation of the last, nirdahanti, shows that the 
list is designed for unholy sorcery practices (abhi^arika) '. 
The adjective angirasa is in general in the ritualist texts of 
the AV. equivalent to abhi£arika. Thus sawbhara angi- 
rasa^, Kauj. 47, 2, means • utensils for sorcery * ; ' daw/a 
angirasa^, Kaur. 47, 12, means 'staff for sorcery;' agnir 
angirasa^, Kauj. 14, 30, means 'sorcery-fire 8 .' The fifth 
kalpa of the AV., usually known as Angirasa-kalpa, bears 
also the names AbhU-ara-kalpa, and Vidhana-kalpa, ' text- 
book of sorcery ; ' see ibid. XI, 376 ff. 

It is worth while to follow out this specific use of the 
term angirasa in non-Atharvan texts, lest it be 

angiias in suspected of being an Atharvanic refinement. 
non-Athaivan xhe Rig-vidhana IV, 6, 4, has the following 
slokn. : ' He against whom those that are 
skilled in the Angirasakalpas practice sorcery repels them 
all with the Pratyangirasakalpa V The term pratyangirasa 
is the exact equivalent of pratyabhiMrawa, ' counter-witch- 
craft 5 ' (AV. II, 11, 2), and the k/?tyapratihara»ani, Ath. 
Paiir. 32, 2 (cf. Kauj. 39, 7, note). The texts of the sort 
called atharvanapratyangirakalpam (! see Ind. Stud. I, 469) 
deal with the same theme, as does the Ya^ur-vidhana 
(Agni-purana, 259, ic) in the expression pratyangireshu 
(sc. karmasu). Cf. also the titles of works, pratyangiratatva, 
pratyangirapawMhga, and pratyangirasukta, mentioned in 
Bohtlingk's Lexicon, as probably dealing with the same 
theme. We may connect with this pejorative use of the 

1 Cf. AV. Ill, 2, 5 ; VII, 108, 2 ; IX, 2, 4; 5, 31 ; XIV, 2, 48. 
' Darila, ghoradravy&m. 

* Ktrava, angiraso • gniA HtufUligai/i. 

' yam angirasakalpais tu tadvido * bhilaranti sa pratyangirasakalpena sarvams 
tin pratibadhate. Cf- also the following jlokas, and IV, 8, 3 ; Ath. Parir. 3, 
I ; and see Rudolf Meyer's preface to his edition of the Rig-vidhana, p. xxxi. 

• Sayana, nivaryate parakWtabbi£arit£anita kri'tya anena iti pratyabhiia- 

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word atigirasa the fact that the Vish«u-pura»a (Wilson's 
translation, V, 383) and the Bhavishya-puriwa count the 
Angirasa as one of the four Vedas of the Parsis (Maga), the 
other three, Vada, Vi^vavada, and Vidut, also conveying 
thinly veiled disparagement of the religious books of an 
exotic religion ; cf. Wilson in Reinaud's M^moire sur l'lnde, 
p. 394; Ind. Stud. 1, 292, note ; Weber, Ind. Lit. 2 , p. 164, note. 
We may then regard it as certain that the words angiras 
and angirasa are reflected by the ceremonial literature in the 
sense of abhi£ara and abhi&irika. Far more important is 
the evidence of certain texts of greater antiquity, and higher 
dignity, which have occasion to mention the Atharvan inci- 
dentally, and enunciate clearly this twofold character of 
the Veda. They make the very same distinction between 
atharvan and angiras that appeared above in the ritualistic 
passage, Vait. Su. 5, 10 (Gop. Br. I, 2, 18). At Sihkh. Sr. 
XVI, 2, 1 ff., on the occasion of the horse-sacrifice, recita- 
tions are made from the ordinary Vedic classes of literature, 
the rikdJi, ya^uwshi, samani, and also the remoter literary 
categories which the Brahmawas and Sutras report, with 
great unanimity and considerable variety, as having been 
in existence in their time : the itihasa (akhyana), purawa, 
sarpavidya, &C. 1 The Atharvan figures immediately after 
the Rt\a and Saman, and that too twice, in its double 
character as Atharvan and Angiras, and, what is more im- 
portant, bhesha^am, i.e. remedial charms, are recited from 
the Atharvan; ghoram, i.e. sorcery, abhi^arikam, from 
the Angiras 2 . The commentator regards bhesha^am and 
ghoram as distinct works, bhesha^agranthasya*tharva«i- 
kanam . . . ghoram atharvano granthaA. The same subject 
is treated in almost identical terms in Arv. Sr. X, 7, 1 ff. : 
again atharvawo veda/4 and angiraso vedaA are treated indi- 
vidually, and again the former is correlated with bhesha^am, 
the latter with ghoram 8 . Once more this theme is handled 

1 Cf. Max Miiller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 40 ff. 

1 atharvavedo vedaA so » yam iti bhesha^am nigadet . . . angiraso vedo vedaA 
sos yam iti ghoram nigadet. 

' Scholiast, ghoram iti abhUaradipratipadalcam ity artha/<. Cf. RV. X, 34, 
14, mi no ghorena £arata>bh( dhn'sh«u. 

Digitized by 



by the Sat. Br. XIII, 4, 3, 3 AT. : here also atharvan and 
angiras are recognised individually; the correlation with 
bhesha^am and ghoram is wanting, but the individuality 
of the two categories is clearly implied in the behest to 
recite on the third and fourth days respectively one section 
each of the Atharvans and the Angiras, each of which are 
distinctly said to be a Veda '. 

Indirect, yet significant testimony that this double 
character of the AV. was clearly established in Brahman- 
ical times may be derived from the formation of the names 
of two apocryphal teachers. One is Bhisha,^ Atharvawa, 
Kkth. S. XVI, 3 (Ind. Stud. Ill, 4.59); the other is Ghora 
Angirasa, Kaush. Br. XXX, 6 ; Ajv. St. XII, 13, 1 ; KHnd. 
Up. Ill, 17, 6 (cf. Ind. Stud. I, 190, 293). The formation 
Bhisha£- Atharva«a is illustrated further by Pa££. Br. XII, 
9, 10, bhesha^am v& dtharvawani ; and XVI, 10, 10, bhesha- 
gzm vai devanam atharvawo bhesha^y4yai«vS»rish/yai 2 ; 
cf also the expressions samyu atharvana, personified as 
a sage, Gop. Br. I, 4, 18, and atharvabhiA s&ntzh, Kaiu. 
125, 2 3 . These names never, as far as is known, occur in 
inverted order : there is no Bhisha^* Angirasa, and no Ghora 
Atharvawa ; they reflect perfectly the individual character 
and the individual function of the two members of the 
compound atharvangirasaA. 

It seems now, further, that the texts of the Atharva- 
sattthitd mark this same distinction with no 

angiras in uncertain touch. At AV. XI, 6, 14, four 

the Atharva- Vedic mantra-categories are indicated by the 

expressions, rikzk, sSmani, bhesha^g(ni), and 

ya^umshi. The choice of the word bhesha^a' is certainly 

eclectic and one-sided. The passage appeals to the auspi- 

1 atharvano veda/i . . . atharvawam ekam parva vya&ikshiuraA ; angiraso 
ytAah . . . angirasam eka/w parva vyilfcikshawaA. Elsewhere, aside fiom the 
Atharvan texts, the component parts of the dvandva atharvangiras are drawn 
asunder, but without accessory statements; thns Tait. Br. Ill, 12, 9, t; 
NfTsunhapurvat&pant Up. 5, 9. 

1 A converse statement like bhesha^am va Sngirasani, is, if we judge the matter 
aright, a counter-sense, and unheard of anywhere in Hindu literature. 

1 So also 5anti, as the wife of Atharvan ; see Wilson's translation of the 
VUbnu-purana, I, 110, 200; Bhagavata-purana III, 24, 24. 

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cious side of the holy texts, and naturally chooses the 
auspicious aspect of the Atharvan also. Its precise com- 
plement is .Sat. Br. X, 5, 2, 20. Here, after correlating 
the adhvaryu-priests with the yaguh, the Mandoga-priests 
with the saman, the bahvr/£as with the uktha (rik), the 
author presents yatu, ' sorcery,' and the yatuvidaA, ' those 
skilled in sorcery,' as representatives of the fourth Veda. 
The bhesha^a" of the Atharvan passage, and the yatu of the 
present passage, make up together what is embraced in the 
name atharvangirasal (AV. X, 7, 20). Moreover, the Saw- 
hita exhibits a decided predilection, bordering on rigorous 
distinction, for associating the term angirasa with aggressive 
witchcraft, or the practice of spells (kr*'tya). Thus VIII, 
5, 9, krityS. aiigirasM; ; X, 1, 6, prati£iha angirasa^ . . . pra- 
ttt\A kritySi akr/ty&»mfln krity&kHto gahi; XII, 5, 52, 
adadanam angirasi brahma^yam lipa dasaya ; cf. also VI, 
45, 3=RV. X, 164, 4. In XI, 4, 16 (cf. also VIII, 7, 17) 
the distinction between Atharvanic and Angirasic plants 
appears again, not, however, in any connection which con- 
veys of necessity the contrast between 'holy' and 'witch- 
craft ' plants. But it may do so. This, it will be remem- 
bered, is made in Vait. Su. 5, 10 ; it formed the starting 
point for the present enquiry, and the chain of evidence 
extending through the Atharvanic and Brahmanical litera- 
ture seems thus to be linked. We may add finally that the 
late ParLrish/a hymns, AV. XIX, 22 and 23, which are 
repeated in the tract entitled Vedavratasya*deranavidhi, 
Ath. Parif. 46, 9 and 10, deal with and state subdivisions 
of angirasa and atharvana-texts, each separately 1 . The 
statements are but faintly applicable to the existing redac- 
tions of the Atharvan, the Saunakfya, and Paippalada- 
.sakhas 8 , but we should be slow to condemn them as wholly 
apocryphal. The Gop. Br. I, 1, 5 and 8 also narrates in its 
own style of unbridled Brahmanical fancy the separate 
creation by Brahman of the /?/shis Atharvan and Angiras, 

1 angirasinam adyaM pa«£annvakaM svaha (XIX, 2 a, i); sarvebhyo 
sftgirobhyovidagax<bhjraAsvSha(XIX, 22, 18) j atharvanSnam httuiriiibhyah 
sv*ha (XIX, 23, I). 

' Cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. IV, 433 ff. 

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the subsequent emanation from these two of twenty Athar- 
vanic and Ahgirasic descendant sages 1 , and finally, the pro- 
duction by the Atharvans of the atharvawa veda, by the 
Angiras of angirasa veda. 

In another passage, I, 3, 4, the Gop. Br. also asserts the 
separate character of the Angiras and Atharvans ; the latter 
are again associated with bhesha^am, the former is made 
the base of a foolish etymology, to wit : bhuyish/Aaw 
brahma yad bhr/gvangirasaA, ye»ngiraso ye«ngiraso sa 
rasaA, ye»tharva«o ye«tharva»as tad bheshagam. 

As regards the chronology and cause of this differentia- 
tion of atharvan and angiras the texts are 
differentiation apparently wholly silent. The association of 

of atharvan b ot n names (and later of the name bhWgu 

and angiras. ' . ° 

also) with the texts and practices of the 
fourth Veda may be sought in the character of these 
mythic beings. They are fire-priests, fire-churners 2 , and 
the Atharvanic rites, as well as the house-ceremonies in 
general, centre about the fire, the oblations are into the 
fire. Fire-priests, in distinction from soma-priests, may 
have had in their keeping these homelier practices of 
common life. But whence the terrible aspect of the An- 
giras in contrast to the auspicious Atharvans? In the 
hymn about Sarama and the Pawis, RV. X, 108, 10, Sarama 
threatens the Pawis with the terrible Angiras, angirasar kz. 
ghor£A. This statement, wholly incidental as it seems to 
be, is, of course, not to be entirely discarded. More im- 
portant is the fact that Brihaspati, the divine purodha 
(purohita), is distinctly angirasa. In Kauj. 135, 9, Brj'has- 
pati Angirasa appears distinctly as the representative, or 
the divinity of witchcraft performances. In the Mahabha- 
rata he is frequently called angirasa** srcshthaJi. In his 
function of body-priest of the gods it behoves him to 

1 Doubtless by way of allusion to the twenty books in the existing redaction 
of the .Saunaklya-jakha. The expression v\ms'mo • ngirasaA is rep ated Paw. 
V, 2, 37, as a designation of the twenty books of the .Saunakty.-i-fakha in its 
present redaction. 

* Avestan Star-, athra-van and Vedic athar-van may be derivatives from the 
root manth, math (mth) 'churn.' But the absence of the aspiration in atar- 
makes the doubtful derivation still more doubtful. 

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exercise against hostile powers those fierce qualities which 
are later in a broader sense regarded as Angirasic. Thus 
RV. X, 164, 4 = AV. VI, 45, 3 1 , certainly exhibits this 
function of the divine purohita, and the composer of AV. 
X, i, 6, when he exclaims, * Pratfcfema (" Back-hurler ") the 
descendant of Angiras, is our overseer and officiator (puro- 
hita) : do thou drive back again (pr&tiki/t) the spells, and 
slay yonder fashioners of the spells,' has also in mind the 
divine purohita 2 . The stanza foreshadows the later forma- 
tion pratyangiras, discussed above. We look in vain, how- 
ever, for statements of the reason why the word atharvan 
should be especially associated with janta and bhesha^a, 
and must assume that this was accomplished by secondarily 
contrasting it with angiras after the sense of ghora, abhi£ara 
had incrustated itself over it 3 . The uncertainty of all this 
does not endanger the result that at a comparatively early 
time the terms atharvawaA, in the sense of ' holy charms,' 
and angirasaA, in the sense of ' witchcraft charms,' joined 
the more distinctively hieratic terms rikaJt, yag&mshi, and 
samani, as characteristic types of Brahmanical literary 
performances. But this distinction was at a later period 
again abandoned; in the end the name atharvan and its 
derivatives prevail as designations of the practices and 
charms of the fourth Veda without reference to their 
strongly diversified character. 

The stem atharvan is modulated in a considerable variety 
of ways by derivative processes, the simple stem itself, or 
forms in the singular from it, being decidedly rare, and not 
at all early. I have noted Nrtsimhapurvatapan! Up. I, 4, 
rtgya^-uAsamatharvarupaA suryaA. Plural forms are less 
rare : atharva»o vedaA, Sat. Br. XIII, 4, 3, 7 ; atharvawam, 

1 yid indra brahma»as pate»bhidroham Aarimasi, praieti na Sfigiraso 
dvishatSw patv amhas&A. 

' RV. IV, 50, 7-9 prescribes that kings shall keep in honour (subhritam) 
a brthaspati, i. e. a Brahman purohita, in archaic language whose sense coincides 
completely with the later Atbarvanic notions. Barring the diction the passage 
might stand in any Atharva-ParLrish/a ; cf. below, p. Ixviii, note. 

3 A dash of popular etymology may have helped the process : a-tharvan, 
'not injuring;' cf. thurv in the sense of 'injure,' DhatupaAfa XV, 62, and 
perhaps Maitr. S. II, 10, 1 ; also the roots turv and dhurv with similar meanings. 

Digitized by 



TB. Ill, i a, 9, i ; atharvana^, Paȣ. Br. XVI, 10,10. The 
derivative neuter plural atharvanani (sc. suktani) is common, 
from AV. XIX, 23, 1 ; Pa«£. Br. XII, 9, 10 to Vr/ddhaha- 
rita-sawhita 111,45 (Ctvananda, vol. i, p. 213), and later. 
The same stem, atharvawa, is used in the masculine singular, 
atharvawar (sc. vedaA) £aturtha/<, ATAand. Up. VII, 1, 2. 4; 
2, 1 ; 7, 1 ; in the plural, mantra atharvawaA, Ram. II, 26, 21. 
The stem atharvawa (without vriddhi of derivation) is found 
Nrj'siwhapurvatapani Up. II, 1, atharva«air mantrai^; 
Mahabh. Ill, 189, 14 = 12963, atharva«aA (sc. vedaA). 
Still another derivative is atharvana, in atharva«a-vid, 
Mahabh. XII, 342, 100=13259. The name atharva-veda 
appears about as early as the corresponding names of the 
other Vedic categories (ri'gveda, &c), Sankh. Sr. XVI, 2, 
10; Par. Grth. II, 1, 7; Hir. Grth. II, 19, 6 ; Baudh. G/-*h. 
IV, 5, 1. The form employed in the Cainist Siddhanta is 
a(t)hawa»a-veda (see below, p. lvi) ; that of the" Buddhist 
scriptures is athabbana-veda (ibid.). 

In addition to the designations of the Atharvan discussed 
above there are still others, based upon different modes of 

0ther viewing this heterogeneous collection of Mantras, 
designations A single passage, .Sat. Br. XIV, 8, 14, 1-4 = 
e A ' Brih. Ar. Up. V, 13, 1-4, seems to hint at the 
fourth Veda with the word kshatram. The passage is 
engaged in pointing out the merits of Vedic compositions, 
stated in the series uktham (=r*k ; cf. Sat. Br. X, 5, 2, 20), 
vajuA, sama, kshatram. Inasmuch as the first three ob- 
viously represent the trayi vidya, it is possible to view 
kshatram as epitomising the Atharvan 1 . If so, the passage 
is of considerable interest, as it seems to view the fourth 
Veda as the Veda of the Kshatriyas. More precisely the 
passage substitutes the act of kshatra, i.e. the characteristic 
performances of the Kshatriya (through, or with the aid of 

1 Cf. also Pram* Up. II, 6, where brahma and kshatra figure. Both together 
represent in the epics the best outcome of the life of a kshatriya, ' piety ' and 
' prowess.' It is possible to conceive the appearance of kshatra alone as an 
elliptic version of both brahma and kshatra, the two together being the out- 
come of the tray! preceding, rather than a supplementary statement of additional 
Vedic types of composition ; cf. Prima Up. II, 6. For brahma alone, see below, 
p. xxxi, note. 

Digitized by 



his purohita) as Atharvanic by distinction. Recently Pro- 
fessor Weber l has emphasised the marked relation of the 
Atharvan to the royal caste. 

The text of the Sarahita abounds in ra^akarmawi, ' royal 
practices,' and Weber thinks that the name of Kaurika, the 
author of the great Atharvan Sutra, points to a Kshatriya 
connection, since Kurika is identical with Virvamitra, and 
the latter, as is well known, stands forth among the ancient 
Vedic heroes as the representative of royalty. None of 
these points can be regarded as more than possibilities 2 . 

Two other designations of the AV. differ from all the 
preceding in that they are the product of a later Athar- 
vanic literary age, neither of them being found in the 
Sawhita, and both being almost wholly restricted to the 
ritual text of the Atharvan itself. They are the terms 
bhrzgvangirasaA and brahma-veda. 

The term bhr/gvangirasaA is, as far as the evidence of 
the accessible literature goes, found only in Atharvan texts. 
Though bhn'gu takes in this compound the place of atharvan, 
the terms bhHgavaA or bhr/guveda do not occur. The 
term bhrzgvangirasaA, however, is the favourite designation 
of the Veda in the Atharvan ritual texts 3 : it makes a show, 
in fact, of crowding out the other designations. Thus the 
Kaurika does not directly mention the Atharvan composi- 
tions by any other name (see 63, 3; 94, 2-4; cf. 137, 25; 
139, 6), although vaguer allusions to this Veda and its 
adherents are made with the stem atharvan (59, 25 ; 73, 1 2 ; 

1 Epischcs im vcdischen Ritual, Proc. of the Royal Academy at Berlin, 
July 23, 1891 ; nr. xxxviii, p. 785 tt (especially 787, top); R%asuya, pp. 4, 
23, note. 

* We may note also the prominence allowed in the AV. to the kind of 
performance called sava. These are elaborate and rather pompous bestowals of 
dakshina, rising as high as the presentation of a house (riilasava, IX, 3) ; or 
a goat with five messes of porridge, five cows, five pieces of gold, and five 
garments (a^audana, IX, 4). There are twenty-two kinds of these sava, and 
the eighth book of the Kaurika is devoted to their exposition (Kerava 64-66 
presents a brief catalogue of them). Revenues of this kind are not likely to 
have been derived from lesser personages than rich Kshatriyas, or kings. 

3 In the Samhita the stem bhn'gvangiras is never employed as the name of 
the Atharvan writings ; in AV. V, 19, 1. 2 the terms bhrj'gu and angirasa occur 
as the names of typical Brahman priests. 

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125, 2.) The term also occurs in Vait. Su. i, 5 ; Gop. Br. 
1, 1, 39; 2, 18 (end); 3, 1. 2. 4, and it is common in the 
Parirish/as (see Weber, Omina und Portenta, p. 346 ff. ; 
Verzeichniss der Sanskrit und Prakrit Handschriften, II, 
89 ff.), and the Anukramawi. No valid reason appears 
why the term bhrt'gu has succeeded in encroaching so far 
upon the term atharvan. The following may, however, be 
remarked. The three words atharvan, ahgiras, and bhrigu 
are in general equivalent, or closely related mythic names 
in connection with the production or the service of fire. 
Occasionally in the mantras (RV. X, 14, 6) they are found 
all together ', or bhrz'gu is found in company with atharvan 
(RV. X, 92, 10), or with angiras (RV. VIII, 43, 13)- This 
interrelation of the three names continues in the Ya^us and 
Brahma«a-texts, but in such a way that the juxtaposition 
of bhngu and angiras becomes exceedingly frequent 2 , 
broaching in fact on complete synonymy. The latter is 
reached in Sat. Br. IV, 1, 5, 1, where the sage Ayavana is 
designated either as a Bhargava or as an Angirasa*. It 
is conceivable that the frequency of this collocation sug- 
gested to the Atharvavedins a mode of freshening up the 
more trite combination atharvangirasaA ; of any reason for 
a conscious preference of the word bhn'gu the texts show 
no trace 4 . 

The term brahma-veda whose origin is discussed below 
(p. lxv) likewise belongs to the sphere of the Atharvan 
ritual. Outside of the Atharvan there is to be noted only 
a single, but indubitable occurrence, Saftkh. Grih. I, 1 6, 3. 

1 Cf. Weber, Verzeichniss, II, 46. 

' E. g. Tait. S. I, I, 7, 2 ; Maitr. S. I, 1, 8 ; X&g. S. 1, 18 ; Tait. Br. I, 1, 4, 8 ; 
111,2,7,6; Sat. Br. I, 2, 1, 13 ; Katy. .9r.II, 4, 38 ; 1, 12, 3; 23,6; 
Yiska's Nigh.V, 5 ; Nir. XI, 18. The juxtaposition of bhrj'gu and atharvan 
is decidedly rarer in this class of texts (e.g. A past. St. IV, 12, 10); that of 
bongo and angiras continues in the Mahabharata, and later ; see Pet. Lex. s. v. 
(col. 364, top). 

' Cf. similarly Dadhy&ftl Atharvana, Tait. S. V, I, 4, 4, with Dadhya#£ 
Angirasa, PaS*. Br. XII, 8, 6. 

' A statement like that of the late Aulika Upanishad 10, that. the Bhrcgu are 
foremost among the Atharvans (atharvano bhrtguttamaA), if it is taken 
seriously at all, reflects rather the result than the cause of the substitution of the 
name bhWgn for atharvan. 

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Even in the Atharvan Upanishads the term is wanting l . 
The earliest occurrences of the word, aside from SSnkh. 
Gr*h., are Vait. Su. 1, i; Gop. Br. I, j, 16. The word is 
common in the ParLrish/as. 

We may note finally the terms paȣakalpa and panka- 
kalpin. They do not refer directly to the Sawhitas of the 
A V., but are both bahuvrihi-compounds designating 'one 
who practises with the five kalpas of the AV.,' i.e. Atharvan 
priests. Thus the words were first explained by the author, 
Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XI, 378 ; Kaorika, Introduction, 
p. lvii. Cf. also Magoun, The Asuri-kalpa, Amer. Journ. 
Phil. X, 169. They are very late : they do not occur in the 
Sutras or Brahmaaa of the AV., nor, as far as is known, 
in the literature proper of that Veda. They appear as the 
titles of scribes of Atharvan texts, see Kaorika, Introduc- 
tion, p. ix ; Weber, Verzeichniss der S-nskrit und Prakrit 
Handschriften, II, 96. But they are sufficiently attested 
outside of the Atharvan, in the expression, paȣakalpam 
atharvanam, Mahabh. XII. 343, 99 = 13258, and in the 
Mahabhashya (Ind. Stud. XIII, 455). 

II. The position of the Atharva-veda in 
Hindu Literature in general. 

In addressing oneself to the task of characterising the 
estimate which the Hindus placed upon the Atharvan 

Statement texts and practices, it is especially needful to 
of the take a broad, if possible a universal view, of 

pro em. ^ e statements of the Vedic and mediaeval 
texts bearing upon the question. The Atharvan is 

1 The word oceans in certain doubtful variants of the text of the Mum/alcR 
Up. ; see Ind. Stud. I, 301, note. In R&m I, 65, 22 brahmaveda is contrasted 
with kshatraveda, just at at MahSbh. VII, 23, 39 — 988 brShma veda with 
dhanurveda. In such cases the word brahma is not to be referred pregnantly to the 
fourth Veda, but to Brahmanic religion in general represented by the first caste, 
the science of war being in the hands of the second, or warrior-caste. Cf. below, 
p. xlii. The word brahmavid, Mahabh. Ill, 2625 (Nala 14, 18, brahmarshi), 
however, seems to mean ' skilled in sorcery,' and may contain an allusion to 
the AV. 

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a sacred text in more than one respect: aside from 
the materials which it shares with the Rig- and Ya^fur- 
vedas, many of its hymns and practices are benevolent 
(bhesba^a) and are in general well regarded, though even 
these, as we shall see, do not altogether escape the blight 
of contempt. Many hymns of the AV. are theosophic in 
character : on whatsoever ground they found shelter in the 
Atharvan collections they cannot have been otherwise than 
highly esteemed. The class of charms designed to establish 
harmony in family and village life and reconciliation of 
enemies (the so-called sawmanasyani, p. 134 ff.), and the 
royal ceremonies (ra^akarmawi), are obviously auspicious in 
their nature. Even the sorceries of the Atharvan neces- 
sarily show a double face : they are useful to oneself, harmful 
to others. According as they are employed objectively and 
aggressively, the^ are a valuable and forceful instrument 
for the benefit and aggrandisement of him that employs 
them ; according as one suffers from them subjectively and 
passively, they are dreadful and contemptible. This con- 
flict of emotions lasts throughout the history of the recorded 
Hindu thought ; the colour of the Atharvan remains change- 
able to the end, and is so described in the final orthodox 
and stereotyped view that it is used ' to appease, to bless, 
and to curse V The fact, however, is that there must have 
arisen in the long run a strong wave of popular aversion 
against the Veda, whose most salient teaching is sorcery. 
This appears from the discussions of the Hindus themselves 
as to the orthodoxy of that Veda 2 ; from the conscious 
efforts of the later Atharvan writings to vindicate its char- 
acter and value ; from the allegorical presentation of the 
Atharvan as ' a lean black man, sharp, irascible, and 
amorous 3 ; ' and many occasional statements of the Vedic 
and classical texts. The history of the relation of the 
Atharvan to the remaining Hindu literature is, however, 

1 .ritatikapaush/ileabhLiaradipratipadaka, Madhusudanasarasvatt (Ind. Stud. 
I, 16) ; Kerava to Kaor. i, l ; Deva to Katy. St. XV, 7, II, and elsewhere. 

* According to Buroell, Vanuabrahmana of the Samaveda, p. xxi, the most 
influential scholars of Southern India still deny the genuineness of the Atharvan. 

5 Rajendralalamitra in the Introduction to the Gopatha-brahmana, p. 4. 

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still unwritten, and the following pages aim to supply the 
necessary data. 

In the hymn to the Purusha, the primaeval cosmic man 
(RV. X, 90, 9), the three Vedic categories, rikzk samani 

... ya.gnh, are mentioned ; a fourth term, 

the AV. in Manda*«si, is generic, embodying the metrical 

the Rig- canons, or the metrical compositions as a 

whole, but the opportunity to mention the 
Atharvan is neglected l . The names atharvan, angiras, 
and bhn'gu, which occur frequently elsewhere in the RV., 
designate mythic personages, intimately connected with the 
production of the fire, and the soma-sacrifice ; nowhere do 
they seem to refer to any kind of literary composition. 
Even the expression brahmawi, used in connection with 
atharvan, RV. I, 80, 16, can claim no special interest, be- 
cause, as will appear later (p. lxvi), the word brahma is 
never used as a specific designation of Atharvan charms. 
No great importance is to be attached to this silence ; the 
praises to the gods in connection with the great soma- 
sacrifices, with their prevailing mythical colouring, darkened 
very often by priestly mysticism, offer but scant occasion 
for the mention of sorcery, or the plainer practices of every- 
day life. Yet sorcery and house-practices there were in 
India at all times a . The failure of the Rig-veda to mention 
any systematic redaction of charms by a collective name 
like atharvarigirasaA must be gauged by the slenderness of 
its opportunities to mention the Veda as a generic name 
(cf. VIII, 19, 5), or Vedic collections or redactions in par- 
ticular (X, 90, 9) 8 . There is no proof that even the oldest 

1 For RV. X, 71, 11, which also hints at the three Vedic types, and the 
brahma that embraces them all, see the fall discussion below, p. lxiv ff. 

* Cf. e. g., RV. I, 191 ; VII, 50, and especially VII, 104, 16. 

' The familiar mention of compositions called rik, saman, uktha, stotra, 
jastra, &c, does not, it is important to note, refer to collections at all, but to 
types of poetic productivity ; they are moreover all of them such as were dis- 
tinctly connected with the soma-sacrifice. Their presence simply accentuates 
the preoccupation of the body of the Rig-vedic collection with the great priestly 
sacrifices, and the consequent absence of the more general terms for Vedic 
classes of writings. The stem yaguA, in the sense of collection of formulas of 
the Ya^ur-veda, occurs only in the above-mentioned passage, X, 90, 9. 

Digitized by 



parts of the RV., or the most ancient Hindu tradition 
accessible historically, exclude the existence of the class 
of writings entitled to any of the names given to the 
Atharvan charms ; there is no evidence that these writings 
ever differed in form (metre) or style from those in the 
existing Atharvan redactions; and, finally, there is no 
positive evidence — barring the argumentum ex silentio — 
that the names current in other texts as designations of 
Atharvan hymns (bhesha^ani, atharvana^, angirasa^, &c.) 
were unknown at the earliest period of literary activity. 
On the other hand, the existing redactions of the AV. 
betray themselves as later than the RV. redaction by the 
character of the variants in those mantras which they share 
with the RV. 

As regards the AV., the stanza X, 7, 20 presents the 
four Vedic categories, rikah, y&guA, samani, and atharvan- 

Poshionof girasaA, the last the traditional name of the 

theAV. in .Saunakiya- version. The same tetrad is intended 
of 'he" 8 at ^1, 6, 14, where the narrower term bhesha- 

•SaunaMya- ^a(ni) takes the place of atharvangirasa^. At 
XIX, 54, 5 the mention of atharvan and 
angiras, though not directly referable to the AV., certainly 
suggests it, because stanza 3 speaks in the same strain of 
the rihJt and yaguk ; and in XIX, 22, 1 ; 23, 1 (pamish/a 
in character ; cf. above, p. xxii), the angirasani and athar- 
vaaani (sc. suktani) are mentioned separately. Otherwise 
this text also fails to present a fixed name for the type of 
literature known later as Atharvanic 1 . The Atharvan is 
very much in the same position as we shall find the Ya^us- 
texts : the three Vedas are mentioned, often in connection 
with other more specific forms and designations of prayer 
and sacerdotal acts, but the Atharvan is omitted. The 
impression left in both cases is by no means that of con- 
scious neglect or contempt, but rather of esoteric restriction 
to the sphere of the great Vedic ritual (jrauta) 2 . Thus 

1 The word brahma which is catalogued with the trayt at XI, 8, 23 ; XV. 6, 3 
(cf. also XV, 3, 7) does not refer to the Atharvan, but is the broader and higher 
term for religions activity in general. Cf. RV. X, 71, 11, and see below, p. Ixvi. 

* E.g. in the very same hymn (X, 7, 14) in which the AtharvangirasaA are 

Digitized by 



it augurs no contempt or neglect of the Atharvan, if in 
a charm constructed for the purpose of obtaining a know- 
ledge of the Vedas, AV. VII, 54 (Kauj. 4a, 9), only rik, 
saman, ya^uA, veda, and oblation (havi>&) are mentioned : 
the person who here desires Vedic learning is not in training 
for Atharvan priesthood, and therefore does not take care 
to include this specialistic learning '. And similarly a con- 
siderable number of additional Atharvan passages, IX, 6, 
1. 2; XI, 7, 5. 24; 8, 23 ; XII, 1, 38 ; XV, 3, 6-8 ; 6, 3, in 
which the Atharvan is not mentioned with the other Vedic 
compositions, betray no sign of conscious exclusion or con- 
tempt of the Atharvan. On the other hand, this very 
omission ensures the interesting result that the Sawihita 
of the AV., unlike its ritualistic adjuncts (see p. lvii ff.), 
is in no wise engaged either in self-glorification, or in 
polemics against the other Vedas. It seems altogether 
evident that the Atharvan diaskeuasts were totally uncon- 
scious of any disadvantages inherent in their text, or any 
contemptuous treatment on the part of the adherents of 
the other Vedas. 

In addition to the explicit designation of the Atharvan 
compositions as atharvangirasa^, bhesha^ani, atharva«ani, 
&c, there is to be noted in the .Saunakiya-text of the 
hymns a decided advance in the association of the names 
Atharvan, Ahgiras, and Bhrjgu with the practices and 
conditions which these hymns are aimed at. The older, 
broader, and vaguer mythic personality of all three which 
appears, e.g. in RV. VIII, 43, 13 ; X, 14, 6 (=AV. XVIII, 
1, 58) ; X, 92, 10, is still continued in the Atharvan (VI, 
1, 1 ; XI, 6, 13; XVI, 8, 11-14): Atharvan, Ahgiras, and 
Bhr*gu are at times simply semi-divine, or wholly divine 

mentioned as the fourth Veda the poet lapses into the more familiar traividya, 
in a stanza which, like st. 20, aims to state that the Vedas are derived from 
Skambba (Brahma), a monotheistic personification ; cf. Muir, Original Sanskrit 
Texts, V, 378. 

1 A similar passage in a Sutra of the RV. (ksv Grih. Ill, 3, l-j\ on the 
same occasion, namely, the study of the Veda, does not hesitate to include the 
Atharvan along with many other Vedic texts. This does not argue conscious 
preference, any more than the Atharvan passage indicates conscious exclusion ; 
cf. below, p. xliv. 

Digitized by 



beings, whose office is entirely non-Atharvanic. But on the 
other hand the Atharvans appear at IV, 37, 1 as slayers 
of the Rakshas (similarly IV, 3, 7) ; the Atharvans and 
Angiras fasten amulets, and consequently slay the Dasyus, 
at X. 6, 30 ; and the name Bhr/'gu appears at V, 19, 1 (cf. 
TS. I, 8, 18, 1 ; TB. I, 8, 2, 5) as the typical designation 
of a Brahma«a, i.e. here, of an Atharvan priest. Such 
specialisations of these names are unknown in the RV. 
Especially noteworthy is the evident beginning of the asso- 
ciation of the name angirasa with aggressive witchcraft or 
spells, and the somewhat less clear corresponding correla- 
tion of the stem atharvawa with auspicious charms (see 
above, p. xviii ff.). Altogether the impression arises that 
the names Atharvan, Angiras, and Bhrigu, connected with 
the redaction of the AV., have in the text of that Veda 
assumed, or commenced to assume, the office which the 
diaskeuast and the ritualistic texts of the Atharvan have 
definitely and permanently bestowed upon them. 

In the domain of the s ruti, exclusive of the Rig-veda, i. e. 

in the Ya^us-sawhitas, and the Brahmanas, the position 

of the Atharvan is on the whole defined with 

the av. in sufficient clearness. It depends altogether on 

the rest of t h e practical character of these texts as ex- 

the smb. '■ 

ponents of the great Vedic sacrifices, the 
jrauta-performances : these, by their very nature, exclude 
any very direct interest in the systematic charms of the 
bhesha/ani and abhi£arika«i. Such sorcery as is inter- 
woven with the jrauta-performances has acquired inde- 
pendent expression in the metrical and prose formulas 
the Ya/us-samhitas ; it figures in the form and by the 
name of sacrificial formulas (ya^uwshi) as part of the 
threefold Veda (trayl vidya). Thus the subject-matter 
of formulas like the following : ' I dig (pits) that slay the 
Rakshas, destroy the spells that belong to Vishwu ; that 
spell here which my equal or unequal has dug into (the 
ground) do I cast out ; I make subject here my equal or 
my unequal that plans hostile schemes against me ' (Tait. S. 
*» 3, 2, 1 ; VI, a, 11, 1. a ; Maitr. S. I, 2, 10. 11 ; Vdg: S. 
V, 23 ff. ; Sat. Br. Ill, 5, 4, 8 ff.), is by its very terms 
[42] C 

Digitized by 



Atharvanic, and the practices by which its recitation is 
supplemented might be described in the Kaurika-sutra. 
The formula yd asman dvdsh/i ya;« ka vayaw dvishma/*, 
' he that hates us and whom we hate ' (shall perish, or 
the like), occurs countless times in the Ya^us-texts, as well 
as in the Atharvan charms. The aims and the acts of 
the Atharvan are present at the Vedic sacrifice, as well as 
at the practices of private life ; the difference lies in the 
degree of applicability, and the degree of prominence : in 
the jruti-literature the sphere of the Atharvan is restricted 
to matters that are incidental and subsidiary, intended 
merely to pave the way for the main issue, the successful 
dispatching of the sacrifice to the gods, and the undis- 
turbed gratification of the priests (the ish/am and the pur- 
tam). Under these circumstances and at such a time 
pronounced hostility against the Atharvan would be a 
paradox, too silly even for the Ya.fus-texts and the Brah- 
mawas ; no such hostility or repugnance is in evidence: 
that is reserved for a later and more reflective age. 

In the first place then, the mythic personages Atharvan, 
Angiras, and Bhr/gu, whose proper names in the course 
of time are growingly restricted to the sphere of the 
Atharvan, continue in their pristine position of demi-gods. 
At Maitr. S. I, 6, i the Angiras are still gods, angirasaw 
tva devanara vratena * dadhe ; similarly Tait. Br. I, 1,4, 8, 
bhr*gu«a«* tva« ngirasaw* vratapate vratena *dadhami ; cf. 
also Tait. Br. Ill, 2, 7, 6 ; Maitr. S. I, 1, 8 ; Va^-. S. I, 
18 (Sat. Br. I, 2, 1, 13 ; Katy. Sr. II, 4,38); Apast. St. V, 
1 1, 7. For Atharvan, see Tait. S. V, 1, 4, 3 ; 6, 6, 3 ; Tait. 
Br. I, 1, 10, 4 ; Va^-. S. VIII, 56 ; XI, 32. And so innu- 
merable other instances. Needless to say, the descendants 
of the three divinities, conceived eponymically as the 
founders of families of .tf/shis, the Atharvawa, Angirasa, 
and Bhargava, enjoy the same rights, and hold the same 
position of honour as the other families of ./?/shis, it being 
reserved for the later Atharvan writings to extol them 
beyond measure, and to establish them as the typical 
teachers l . Thus Atharvan Daiva is the name of an ancient 

1 Cf. Weber, Omina und Portcnln, p. 347. 

Digitized by CjOOQ lC 


teacher, Sat. Br. XIV, 5, 5, 22 ; 7, 3, 28 ; Dadhya«£ 
Atharvawa, Tait. S. V, I, 4, 4 ; 6, 6, 3 ; Sat. Br. IV, 1, ,"5, 
18 ; VI, 4, 2, 3 ; the countless Angirasa, of which the RV. 
Anukramaai counts no less than 45 \ e. g. Sat. Br. IV, 1, 
5, 1 ; Kaush. Br. XXX, 6; Ait. Br. VIII, 21, 13; Apast. 
Sr. V, 11,7; and the equally frequent Bhargava, Tait. S. 
I, 8, 18, 1 ; Sat. Br. ib. ; Ait. Br. VIII, 2, I. 5 ; Kauj. Br. 
XXII, 4. Occasionally, doubtless, even the srati feels the 
connection that has been established between these names 
and the sphere of Atharvanic literary activity, as when the 
Ka/A. S. XVI, 13 mentions a Rishi Bhisha^- Atharvawa 2 
(see Weber, Ind. Stud. Ill, 459) ; the Kaush. Br. XXX, 6, 
a Rishi Ghora Angirasa ; or when the T&nk. Br. XII, 8, 6 
states that Dadhya&fc Angirasa was the chaplain (puro- 
dhaniya) of the gods. 

The manner in which the hymns of the Atharvan are 
alluded to in the jrauta-texts is as follows. Ordinarily the 
texts are preoccupied with the sacrificial literature in the 
narrower sense, and hence devote themselves to the men- 
tion and laudation of the trayi vidya, either without recount- 
ing its specific literary varieties, or by fuller citation of 
the terms rik, saman, yagub. For these are substituted not 
infrequently other terms like stoma, uktha, jastra, udgitha, 
&c, special liturgical varieties, also derived directly from 
the sphere of the jrauta-performances, and, in fact, strictly 
dependent upon these performances for their existence. 
On the other hand, whenever the jrauta-texts mention, or 
make draughts upon other literary forms like itihasa, 
pura«a, gatha, sutra, upanishad, and many others, the 
Atharvan literature is almost unfailingly included, and 
that too almost invariably in the following order : the 
traividya is mentioned first, the Atharvan holds the fourth 
place, and next follow in somewhat variable arrangement 
the types itihasa, &c. 

• Cf. Weber, Episches im vedischen Ritual, Sitzungsberichte der Kbniglich- 
Prenssischen Akadcmie d. Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1891, p. 812 (46 of the 

' The same apocryphal fiishi is reported by the Anukrair.awts as the author 
oi the oshadhistnti, ' the hymn to the plants,' RV. X, 97; VS^. S. XII, 75-89. 

c a 

Digitized by 



Thus the Taittiriya-samhita mentions rik, saman, and 

ya^uA alone at II, 4, 12, 7; 5, 7, 1 ; VI, 1, 2, 4; VII, 3, 

1,4; 12, 1 ; the same categories are alluded to , TT , . ., . . , 

the at II, 4, 1 1, 6, in the expressions samnaA, ya^u- 

T * iXt uIi' snSm > and ukthamadanam ; at III, 2, 9, 5. 6 
in the expressions udgatrzwam (with udgttha), 
uktharawsinam (with rikaJt), and adhvaryuwam ; cf. also 
ish/aya^usha^, stutastomasya, jastokthasya at I, 4, 28, 1. 
The only mention of Atharvan literature is at VII, 5, 11, 2, 
under the designation angirasaA (without atharva«aA *), and 
here the text is as follows : rigbhyaJt svaha, ya^urbhyaA 
svaha, samabhya/4 svaha, angirobhyaA svaha, vedebhyaA 
svaha, gathabhyaA svaha, naraiawsibhya/i; svaha, raibhl- 
bhyaA svaha. 

This also, in the main, is the nature of the references to 

the AV. in the Satapatha-brahmawa. Either the term 

trayl vidya is used, or rik, saman, and ya^-u^ 

the are mentioned explicitly: I, 1, 4, 2. 3 ; II, 

bEL a : 6 > *> *-7 ; IV > 6 > 7,1-*; v, 5. 5, 1. 9 ; vi, 

i, 1,8; 3,1,10.11.20; VII, 5, 2,52; VIII, 5, 
2,4; IX, 5, 2, T2; X, 4, 2, 21. 22; 5, 2, 1. 2; XI, 5, 4. 18; 
8, 3-7; XII, 3, 3, 2 ; 4, 9 ; XIV, 4,3, 12 ; 8, 15, 2.9. In all 
these cases there is no mention of the Atharvan; but neither 
is there any mention of any other literary type that has 
a distinctive standing outside of the trayi vidya. On the 
other hand, the Atharvan is mentioned in a number of cases, 
every one of which presents also a lengthy list of addi- 
tional literary forms. Thus XI, 5, 6, 4-8, rikzh, ya^-uwishi, 
samani, atharvangirasa^, anujasanani, vidya, vakovakyam, 
itihasapuranam, gatha nararamsya^ ; XIII, 4, 3, 3 ff., riko 
veda/*, ya^uwshi veda>4, atharvano vedaA, angiraso veda^, 
sarpavidya vedaA, deva^anavidya vedaA, maya vedaA, 
itihaso vedaA, pura«a;« vedaA, samani vedaA ; XIV, 5, 4, 
10; 6, 10, 6; 7, 3, 11 (=Br*h. Ar. II, 4, 10; IV, 1, 2; 
5, 11), rigvedo ya,furvedaA samavedo*tharvangirasa iti- 
hasaA pura»a*» vidya upanishada// slokk/i sutra«y anuvya- 
khyanani vyakhyanani ; X, 5, 2, 20, adhvaryavaA (ya^uA), 

1 Ct. above, p. xviii. 

Digitized by CjOOQ lC 


k/iandogaA (saman), bahvrikaJi (uktham), yatuvida^ (yatu). 
sarpavidaA . . . deva^anavidaA. Only a single Upanishad 
passage, XIV, 8, 14, 1-4 ( = Br*h. Ar. Up. V, 13, 1-4), 
seems to mention, or rather hint at, the Atharvan in con- 
nection with representatives of the trayi vidya, without 
mentioning other texts 1 . The series is uktham, yaguA, 
sama, kshatram ; the passage possibly views the fourth 
Veda as the Veda of the Kshatriyas, or, more precisely, 
substitutes the act of kshatra, i. e. the performances of the 
kshatriya as Atharvanic by distinction. See, for this, p. xxv, 

The Taittiriya-brahmawa mentions the Atharvan twice, 

once in accordance with the method described above, at 

. Ill, 12, 8, 2, riko yagdmshi samani atharva- 

the ngirasaA . . . itihasapuranam. In the other 

bih tir ' >a passage, III, 12, 9, 1, the Atharvan is men- 
tioned without the customary adjuncts, and 
that too before the Sama-veda, to wit, rikktn pra/ti 
mahati dig u£yate, dakshiwam ahur yag-usham aparam, 
atharvawam arigirasaw prati^i, samnam \xd\k\ mahati dig 
u£yate. But it is of interest to note that in the sequel, 
where sundry symbolic and mystic correlations of the 
Vedas with the sun, &c, are established, the Atharvan is 
wanting, and the operations take place with vedais tribhi^. 
Thus, rigbhiA purvahne divi deva iyate, ya.g-urvede tish/Aati 
madhye ahnah, samavedena*stamaye mahtyate, vedair 
arunyas tribhir eti suryaA. We shall not err in judging 
that the fourth Veda is mentioned in a purely formulaic 
manner, only because it is needed to fill out the scheme of 
the four principal directions of space ; the real theme at 
the heart of the author is the traividya, as, e. g. in III, 10, . 
i], 5. 6. On the other hand, it would be altogether erro- 
neous to assume either hostility, or conscious discrimina- 
tion against the Atharvan. The Taittiriya-arawyaka again 
falls into line in two passages, II, 9 and 10, presenting the 
texts in their most expansive form, rik&k, ya^uwshi. 

1 Conversely the trayJ i> catalogued with other texts (vikovakyam itiha- 
sapurawam), but without the Atharvan, at XI, 5, 7, 6 fl'. ; cf. the same list 
iahkh. Grih. I, 24, 8. 

Digitized by 



samani, atharvarigirasa//, brahma»ani, itihasan, puranani, 

kalpan, gathaA, n&rksamsiA. 

The only mention of the Atharvan as a literary type in 

Sarikhayana's Srauta-sutra is at XVI, 2, a ff., again in the 

series, riko vedaA, yafurvedaA, atharvavedaA ,. . .„...£. v.. . . , 

the remain- ( in connection with bhesha^am), angiraso vedaA 

ing nauta- (j n connection with ghoram), sarpavidya, ra- 
kshovidya, asuravidya, itihasaveda/4, pura«a- 
vedaA, samavedaA. Very similarly in Ajvalayana's Srauta- 
sutra X, 7, 1 ff., riko veda// ya^urvedaA, atharvanaA 
vedaA (with bhesha^am), angiraso vedaA (with ghoram), 
vishavidya, pua&ividya, asuravidya, purawavidya, itihaso 
veda/<, samavedaA. These passages are essentially iden- 
tical with Sat. Br. XIII, 4, 3, 3 ff., above; their chief 
interest lies in the differentiation of atharvan and angiras, 
respectively as representatives of the auspicious (bhesha^am) 
and terrible (ghoram =abhi£arikam) activities of this Veda ; 
cf. above, p. xviii ff. In the Pa«/feavi;«ja-brahma«a, XII, 9, 
10; XVI, 10, 10, the Atharvan charms are mentioned 
favourably : bhesha^am va atharvawani, and bhesha^aw* 
vai devanam atharva«o bhesha^yayai*va*rish/yai. Cf. 
also XXIII, 16, 7; Ka/A. S. XI, 5 (cf. Ind. Stud. 111,463). 

The Va^asaneyi-sawhita mentions the traividya (or rtU 
and saman without ya.gvih) frequently, IV, 1. 9 ; VIII, 12 ; 
XVIII, 9. 29. 67; XX, 12; XXXIV, 5; XXXVI, 9; the 
Atharvan is nowhere mentioned in connection with the other 
three. Once at XXX, i5=Tait. Br. Ill, 4, 1, 11, a woman 
that miscarries (avatoka) is devoted to the Atharvans ; the 
reference, in the light of AV. VI, 17 ; Kauj. 35, 12 (a 
charm to prevent miscarriage), seems to be to Atharvan 
hymns or Atharvanic practices. Otherwise the word athar- 
van occurs in connections that admit of no special, or at 
any rate obvious, reference to the fourth Veda, VIII, 56 ; 
XI, 32. Neither is there, as far as is known, any mention 
of the Atharvan in the Maitrayawi-sawmita, the Aitareya 
and Kaushitaki-brahma»as, or Katyayana's and La/ya- 
yana's Srauta-sutras. 

The position of the Atharvan in the jrauta-literature 
according to this evidence is what might be naturally 

Digitized by 



expected : there is no evidence of repugnance or exclu- 

siveness. Witchcraft is blended with every sphere of 

religious thought and activity, and the only 

the jtanta- sane attitude on the part of these texts must 

t ^fth St '\v te ^ l ^ e rec< ^ n ' t > on °f tne literary products 
which are by distinction the repositories 
of witchcraft. No one will expect rigid consistency : 
witchcraft blows hot and cold from the same mouth ; 
according as it is turned towards the inimical forces, 
human and demoniac, or is turned by others against one- 
self, it is regarded as useful, or noxious. The AV. itself 
takes the same view by implication: the hymn, II, 13, 
hurls the bitterest invective against enemies that endeavour 
to thwart one's holy work; this does not prevent one's 
own endeavour to frustrate the sacrifice of an enemy 
(VII, 70); the hymn, II, 7, ensures protection against 
curses and hostile plots, but does not prevent the existence 
of fierce imprecations and curses issued forth subjectively 
for the ruin of another (VI, 13 and 37). It is a question 
throughout of my sorcery, or thy sorcery. The flavour of 
holiness and virginal innocency is necessarily absent, and 
this want crops out in connection with the performances 
of yatu even in the RV. (VII, 104, 15. 16), where the writer 
exclaims : * may I die to-day if I am a sorcerer,' and com- 
plains against his enemy who calls him, though he is pure, 
a sorcerer, and against the real sorcerer who pretends that 
he is pure. Though ydtu (sorcery) is regarded here as 
devilish (cf. e.g. AV. I, 7 and 8), the writer at Sat. Br. X, 
5, a, 20 is, not prevented from placing the yfituvidaA, ' those 
that are skilled in sorcery,' in solemn array with the repre- 
sentatives of the holiest forms of literature, immediately 
after the bahvrikah, as the characteristic exponent of 
Atharvanic activity. And on the other hand even bhe- 
sha^am, 'cure, medicine,' the altruistic province of the 
Atharvan, though well regarded in general, does not come 
off without a sneer. The Tait. S. VI, 4, 9, 3 (cf. Maitr. S. 
IV, 6, a; Sat. Br. IV, 1, 5, 14) says, brahmawena bhesha- 
gam na karyam, * a Brahman shall not practise medicine,' 
the reason that is assigned being that the physician is 

Digitized by 



impure, that the practice entails promiscuous, unaristocratic 
mingling with men : 'men run to the physician' (MS. IV, 
6, a, p. 80, 1. 1) 1 . And we may trust that the canons of 
social standing and literary appreciation of a people that 
had produced the best that is to be found in Vedic litera- 
ture could not fail altogether, when in the proper mood, to 
estimate at its right value the wretched hocus-pocus of the 
bhesha^ini themselves, though these were the best that 
the Vedic period had produced for the relief of bodily 
ailment. Yet the Veda without witchcraft would not be 
the Veda, and the jrauta-texts are not in the position to 
throw stones against the Atharvan. Moreover it must 
not be forgotten that the Atharvan contains in its cosmo- 
gonic and theosophic sections more material that undertakes 
to present the highest brahmavidya than any other Vedic 
Sawhita (cf. below, p. lxvi) ; by whatever literary evo- 
lution this was associated with this sphere of literature and 
incorporated into the redaction, it doubtless contributed to 
the floating of the more compact body of sorcery-charms, 
and its higher valuation among the more enlightened of the 
people. At any rate, a sober survey of the position of the 
Atharvan in the traividya yields the result that this Veda, 
while not within the proper sphere of the greater concerns 
of Vedic religious life, is considered within its own sphere 
as a Veda in perfectly good standing ; the question of its 
relative importance, its authority, and its canonicity is not 
discussed, nor even suggested. 

The position of the Atharvan in the Upanishads does not 

appear to differ from that in the jruti in general. Aside 

TheAV in ^ rom *^ e Atharvan Upanishads, which are 

the Upani- naturally somewhat freer in their reference 

to the AV., and in the mention of more or 

less apocryphal Atharvan teachers, it is introduced but 

rarely, and usually in the manner prevalent elsewhere 

in the jrauta-literature, i.e. preceded by the tray!, and 

' C£ the contempt for the pitgajngAiyiA, ye pugan ya/ayanti, ' those who 
sacrifice for a crowd,' Mann III, 151 ; Mahabh. I, 2883, and the gramaya^in, 
Manu IV, 205, and gramayfi^aka, Mahabh. Ill, 13355. See also Vishnu 
LXXXII, 12; Gant.XV,i6. 

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followed by a variable list of other literary types. Thus 
the passages quoted above from Sat. Br. XIV, 5, 4, 10 ; 6, 
10,6; 7,3, 11 = Brm. Ar. Up. 11,4, 10; IV, i, 2 ; 5, 11, 
and the Tait. Ar. II, 9 and 10, are of Upanishad character, 
and the Maitr. Up. VI, 32 repeats the list of texts stated at 
Sat. Br. = Brih. Ar. Up., just cited, in precisely the same 
order. The same text, Maitr. Up. VI, 33 (=Maha Up. 2 : 
Atharvariras 4), has the list n'gya^u/fsamatharvangirasa 
itihasa^ pura«am. The K/tkad. Up. Ill, 1-4 deals with 
r*k, yzgwh, saman, atharvangirasa^, and itihasapurawani ; 
the same text at VII, 1, 2. 4 ; 2, 1 ; 7, 1, has the same list, 
. . . atharvawav £aturtha£ itihasapurawaA pa»£ama^, to 
which are added a lengthy series of additional sciences 
(vidyi). The Tait. Up. = Tait. Ar. VIII, 3, again, presents 
the Atharvan in a formulaic connection, tasya (sc. atmanaA) 
ya^ur eva s'mh, rig dakshiwaA pakshaA, samo » ttara// pa- 
kshaA, adara atma, atharvangirasaA puik/iam l . There is, 
as far as is known, no additional mention of the Atharvan 
in the non-Atharvanic Upanishads, and it is evident that 
there is no marked change in the manner in which the 
fourth Veda is handled. Very much more numerous are 
the instances in which the trayi alone appears ; see Jacob's 
Concordance to the principal Upanishads, under the words 
rjgveda, rmmaya, rik ; ya^urveda, ya^urmaya, ya^us ; 
samaveda, samamaya, saman. They show that the draughts 
upon the Atharvan and the subsequent literary forms are, 
in general, made under the excitement of formulaic solem- 
nity ; while on the other hand, needless to say, the Upani- 
shads with their eye aloft alike from hymn, sacrificial 
formula, and witchcraft charm, have no occasion to condemn 
the Atharvan, aside from that superior attitude of theirs 
which implies, and diplomatically expresses condemnation 
of the entire Veda that is not brahmavidya. 
Even in the Atharvan Upanishads there is sounded in 

1 This Upanishad belongs to a Ya^us-school ; hence the pre-eminence of the 
ya^ns. The Atharvan is here forced into a position of disadvantage, and it 
may be admitted that its mention after the fide/a (Upanishad) is intentional. 
Bat there is really no other course open to the writer. The tenor of the entire 
passage excludes the notion of disparagement of any of the texts mentioned. 

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general neither the polemic nor the apologetic note which 

characterises the ritualistic writings of the Atharvan. We 

find, to be sure, in the late Prawava Up. a spo- ' ., t ' . K . K 

the radic, if not solitary, assumption of superiority 

Atharvan on t h e par t of the AV. 1 , and an interpolated 

Upanishads. . . t» tt , 

passage in the Prama Up. V, 5 betrays the 
distinct tendency to secure at any cost the correlation 
of the Atharvan with the highest brahma 2 . The authority 
of Atharvanic teachers, Sanatkumara, Angiras, Paippalada, 
&c, is, of course, cited with especial frequency in the 
Atharvan Upanishads, helping to confer upon them an 
esoteric school character. But in general, all that may be 
said is, that the Atharvan Upanishads mention the fourth 
Veda along with the other three more frequently than the 
corresponding tracts of the other schools, that the Atharvan 
is quietly added to the trayi, whether other literary forms 
like the itihasapurawam, &c, appear in the sequel, or not. 
Even these Upanishads, however, occasionally lapse into 
the more frequent habit of the bulk of the Vedic literature, 
and fail to refer to the Atharvan, whether consciously or 
not, it seems impossible to tell. Thus the MundaVa Up. 
I, 1, 5 counts the four Vedas (Atharvan included) along 
with the Angas as the lesser science, above which towers 
the science of Brahma: ri'gvedo, ya^oirvedaA, samavedo 
*tharvaveda// .riksha, &c. But in II, 1, 6 the list is, rikafi 
sama ya^uwshi diksha yagiiaska. The Prama Up. II, H 
says of the Pra«a, 'life's breath' (personified), rishbiam 
kax'\\.am satyam atharvangirasam asi, which seemingly con- 
tains an allusion to the Atharvan writings, but in II, 6 we 
have, pia«e sarvawz pratish/yfcitam riko ya^u;«shi samani 
yaghah kshatraw brahma ka 3 . See also Mahanarayawa 
Up. 22. This betrays the usual preoccupation with the 
traividya, which is not quite effaced by the possible allusion 
to the Atharvan in II, 8. The Nr/siwhapurvatapani Up. 

1 See Ind. Stod. I, 296 ; IX, 51. 

* See Ind. Stud. I, 453, note, and cf. Eohtlingk's critical edition of the 
Prarna in the Proceedings of the Royal Saxon Academy, November, 1890. 

3 It would have been easy to substitute for the last four words, atharvan- 
giras&r in ye, or the like. Cf. also Piasna V, 5, alluded to above. 

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I, 2 has, n'gya^fuAsSmatharvawaj £atvAro vedaV* ; I, 4, rig- 
yaguAstim&thaxvarupaA stiryaA ; II, 1 (=Nr*si/whottarat4- 
pani Up. 3 ; Atharvarikh& Up. 1), rigbhiA rt'gvedaA, yagur- 
bhir ya^urvedaA, samabhi/* sdmaveda/z, atharvawair mantrair 
atharvaveda/z ; in V, 9 it falls into the broader style of 
reference, rikah, yagtiimshi, sam&ni, atharvawam, angirasam, 
s&khaA, pur&«ani, kalpan, g^thaV/, nkr&samsM, leading up 
finally to prawavam, the Om which embraces all (sarvam). 
But in V, 2 we have rigmayam ya^urmayaw samamayam 
brahmamayam amrstamayam, where brahmamayam ob- 
viously refers to the brahmavidya\ the holy science, not to 
the fourth Veda, the Brahmaveda l . And thus the Brah- 
mavidya" Up. 5 ff. recounts the merits of the traividya, 
culminating in the Om, without reference to the Atharvan. 
It seems clear that even the Atharvan Upanishads as a class 
are engaged neither in defending the Atharvan from attack, 
nor in securing for it any degree of prominence. Other 
references to the Atharvan occur in Atharvajiras 1, rig 
aham ya^ur aham sama<ham atharvdngiraso-ham ; Mu- 
ktik& Up. 12-14, n'gveda, ya/uA, saman, atharva/za ; ibid. 1, 
atharvavedagat&nam . . . upanishadam ; Maha Up. 3, gaya- 
traiw kAanda. rigvedaA, traish/ubham £/&ando ya^urvedaA, 
g&gatam khandah samaveda£, anush Aibhaw Mando«tharva- 
vedaA. Cf. also ATOlikd Up. 10, 13,14. 

On turning to the Grihya-sutras it would be natural to 
anticipate a closer degree of intimacy with the Atharvan, 

and hence a more frequent and less formulaic 

to the reference to its writings. For the subject- 

GWhya- matter of these texts is itself, broadly speak- 

ing, Atharvanic, besides being dashed strongly 
with many elements of vidhSna or sorcery-practice, i.e. 
Atharvanic features in the narrower sense and by dis- 
tinction 2 . Many verses quoted in the Gn'hya-sutras are 

* The Upanishads do not designate the fourth Veda as Brahmaveda, unless 
we trust certain doubtful variants and addenda, reported by Weber, Ind. Stud. 
I, 301, note. The earliest occurrence of Brahmaveda is at .Sankh. Gri'h. I, 16, 
13 (see above, p. xxvii). 

* Cf., e.g. the use of roots. Par. I, 13, 1 ; iahkh. I, 19, 1 ; 33, 1 ; the battle- 
charm, Asv. HI, ia (cf. p. 117 ff. of this vclume) ; the bhaisha^yani, 
< remedial charms,' Arr. Ill, 6, 3 ff.; Par. I, 16, 14 ff.; Ill, 6; Hir. II, 7; 

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identical with, or variants of those contained in the Atharva- 
samhita. But even the Grmya-rites, popular, nay vulgar, 
as they must have been in their untrammelled beginnings, 
were, so to speak, Rishified, and passed through in due 
time a process of school-treatment which estranged them 
as far as possible from the specifically Atharvanic connec- 
tions, and assimilated them, as far as possible, to the Rig- 
veda, Sama-veda, and Ya^-ur-veda, as the case may be. 
Thus the battle-charm, Asv. Ill, ia, instead of drawing 
upon the very abundant mantras of this kind, contained in 
the AV. (see p. 117 ff.), is decked out with the scattering 
material of this sort that may be extracted from the RV. 
(see the notes to Stenzler's and Oldenberg's translations). 
In general the preference for mantras of the particular 
school is nearly if not quite as great as in the Srauta- 
sutras. The anticipation of a marked degree of literary 
relationship with the Atharvan is not materialised. The 
Gr/hya-sutras of the Sama-veda (Gobhila and KhAdira), 
and Apastamba 1 , do not seem to mention the Atharvan 
at all ; A^valayana (III, 3, 1-3), on the occasion of the 
svadhyaya, the daily recitation of the Veda, recommends 
the Atharvan, but the mention of this text is that which 
we have found to be the normal one in the .Srauta-litera- 
ture, i.e. preceded by rik, yaguh, and saman; followed by 
brahmana, kalpa, gatha, nariLrawsi, itihasa, and purawa 2 . 
Similarly Hirawyakejin (II, 19, 6), in connection with a 
long list of deities, mentions in order r/gveda, ya^oirveda, 
samaveda, and itihasapurawa ; in .Sankhayana I, 24, 8 the 
Atharvan is even omitted in a similar list, which catalogues 

Apast. VII, 18 (cf. p. 1 ff.) ; the sammanasyani, 'charms to secure harmony,' 
Par. Ill, 7; Apast. Ill, 9, 4 ff.; VIII, 33, 6. 7; Hir. I, 13, 19 ff. (cf. p. 
134 ff.), &c. See in general the list of miscellaneous Grj'hya-rites in Olden- 
berg's index to the Grftya-sfttras, Sacred Books, vol. xxx, p. 306 ff. 

1 This Sutra mentions neither rik, saman, nor atharvan, a probably un- 
conscious preoccupation with the yaguA that must not be construed as intentional 
chauvinism against the other Vedas. The mantra-materials quoted and 
employed do not differ in their general physiognomy from those of the other 
Sutras, but they are always referred to as ysLgu/t. 

* The passage contains in slightly different arrangement the list of Vedic 
texts presented by the Tait. Ar. II, 9 and 10, above; cf. also -Sat Br. XI, 
t, 7> 5- 6- 

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ngveda, ya^nrveda, samaveda, vakovakyam, itihasapura- 
«am, and finally sarvan vedan (cf. the same grouping, Sat. 
Br. XI, 5, 7, 6 ff.). But in Sankh. I, 16, 3 (brahmaveda) ; 
Hir. II, 3, 9 (atharvangirasaA) ; II, 18, 3 ; 20, 9 (atharva- 
veda); Par. II, 10, 7 (atharvaveda) ; II, 10, 21 (atharvawam) 
there is a distinct advance along the line of later develop- 
ment in the familiar mention of the fourth Veda ; this is 
not balanced altogether by the restriction to the trayt, 
Sarikh. I, 22, 15 ; 24, 2; Hir. I, 5, 13; II, 13, i, or the 
restriction to two Vedas, Gobh. I, 6, 19 ; III, 2, 48 ; Asv. 
I, 7, 6= Par. 1, 6, 3 = .Sankh . I, 13. 4, because these passages 
are to a considerable extent quotations, or modifications 
of mantras derived from the jruti. The true value of this 
testimony is chronological, not sentimental : the Grthya.- 
sutras, as much as their subject-matter is akin to the 
Atharvan, are not imbued with a sense of its especial value 
and importance, any more than the Jrauta-texts. They 
handle their materials in a self-centred fashion, without 
acknowledging any dependence upon the literary collections 
of the Atharvans ; their more frequent reference to the 
fourth Veda is formulaic in every single instance, and the 
greater frequency with which it is mentioned marks the 
later chronology of the Grjhya-sutras (cf. Oldenberg, Sacred 
Books, vol. xxx, pp. i and xvii ff.). 

The construction of the Vedic literature in general is, 
as we have seen, such as to forbid any genuine discrimi- 

The AV nation there against the Atharvan. In so 
in the Uw- far as this Veda offers the means of defence 
against the ills of life (disease and posses- 
sion by demons); in so far as it presents the auspicious 
blessings pronounced at the sacramental points in the 
life of the individual, from conception to death, it is 
holy by its very terms. Even witchcraft is part of the 
religion ; it has penetrated and has become intimately 
blended with the holiest Vedic rites ; the broad current 
of popular religion and superstition has infiltrated itself 
through numberless channels into the higher religion that 
is presented by the Brahman priests, and it may be pre- 
sumed that the priests were neither able to cleanse their 

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own religious beliefs from the mass of folk-belief with which 
it was surrounded, nor is it at all likely that they found 
it in their interest to do so. But there is another field 
of literature whose roots also reach down to the Veda, in 
which judgment must be passed over the more unclean 
and sinister phases of Atharvanic activity. The broad 
arena on which men meet in daily contact is the true 
field for the golden rule. The need of doing unto others 
what one would have others do unto oneself, and leaving 
the opposite undone, is sure to be felt, and sure to gain 
expression in the proper literature. This literature is the 
legal literature (dharma), more narrowly that part of it 
which deals with the mutual rights and obligations of men, 
the vyavahlra-chapters of the legal Sutras and Sastras. 
Here also the Atharvan retains in a measure its place by 
virtue of its profound hold upon popular beliefs, because 
indispensable sciences like medicine and astrology are 
Atharvanic by distinction, and because the Atharvan per- 
forms, especially for the king, inestimable services in the 
injury and overthrow of enemies. The king's chaplain 
(purohita) was in all probability as a rule an Atharvan 
priest (cf. Ydgnav. I, 3 1 2). But incantations, sorceries, and 
love-charms do work injury, and the dharma-literature 
pronounces with no uncertain voice the judgment that the 
Atharvan, while useful and indispensable under certain 
circumstances, is on the whole inferior in character and 
position, that its practices are impure, and either stand in 
need of regulation, or must be prohibited by the proper 

The Atharvan is not mentioned very frequently either 
in the Dharma-sutras, the older metrical Dharma-jastras, 
or in the more modern legal Smr/tis. In Vishwu XXX, yj ; 
Baudh. II, 5, 9, 14 ; IV, 3, 4 ; Ya\^«av. I, 44 (cf. Manu II, 
107) ; xoi * (cf. Manu II, 85) ; Ausanasa-smr/ti III, 44 (Glvk- 
nanda, vol. i, p. 514), the Atharvan is mentioned in the 

1 In this passage, vedalharvapuranani setihasani, the Atharvan is kept 
distinct from the trayt, the veda by distinction ; cf. Weber, Indische Literatur- 
gescliichte 1 , p. 165, note. 

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normal Vedic manner, i.e. preceded by the traividya, and 
followed by other literary types, especially the itihasapu- 
ra«am. It is worthy of note that in only three of the five 
cases (Baudh. II, 5, 9, 14; Ykgnav. I, 44; A\xs. Ill, 44), 
the older name atharvangirasa^ appears; the other three 
have atharvaveda, or atharvan. But it seems altogether 
impossible to derive from this any chronological indications 
as to the date of a given legal text, since U^anas, or even 
Ya^wavalkya, is certainly later than Baudhayana and Vishwu. 
At this time the names atharvaveda, atharvan, atharvawa 
have established themselves as the equivalent of the older 
atharvangirasa/z, but the older name crops out at times in 
a purely chance way. At Ya^wav. I, 3 the fourth Veda is 
also implied as one of the fourteen foundations of know- 
ledge and law, without being mentioned by name ; cf. also 
Aujanasa-smriti V, 66 ((7ivananda, vol. i, p. 531, bottom). 
The Atharvan, however, holds also the position of the 
fourth Veda in cases where no additional literature is men- 
tioned ; at Baudh. Ill, 9, 4 burnt oblations are offered to 
the four Vedas and many divinities ; at Baudh. IV, 5, 1 the 
Sarnan, Hik, Ya^us, and Atharva-veda are mentioned in 
connection with oblations calculated to procure the special 
wishes of one's heart (kamyesh/aya//). At Vas. XXII, 9 
the Sa/whitas of all the Vedas (sarva£//andaAsaw*hita^) are 
counted among the purificatory texts : the Atharvan is 
probably intended to be included, especially as the Athar- 
variras (see below) is explicitly mentioned. In the late 
Vr/ddhaharita-sa»fhita III, 45 l the atharvawani (sc. suktani) 
are on a level with the riko ya^umshi and samani. In the 
Amanasa-smmi III, 86 (Civananda, vol. i, p. 518) the twice- 
born is recommended to read either a Veda, two Vedas, the 
Vedas, or the four Vedas, a distinction between the trayi 
vidya and the four Vedas, not explicitly stated elsewhere. 
The Atharvariras, an Upanishad connected with the AY, 
is mentioned a number of times, Gaut. XIX, 1 2 ; Vas. XXII, 
9; XXVIII, 14 ; Aaranasa-smr/ti IV, 5 ; the same text is 
mentioned under the name of 5iras at Baudh. IV, 1, 28; 

1 See Givanandavidvasagara's Dharma,sastrasa/«graha, vol. i, p. 213. 

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Vas. XXI, 6-8 ; XXV, 13 ; Vishwu LV, 9. Certain vows 
called Siras, Baudh. II, 8, 14, 2; Vas. XXVI, 12, also 
emanate from the sphere of Atharvanic practices ; so 
Govinda at Baudh. loc. cit. More pointedly, and without 
the company of the traividya, the sacred texts of the 
Atharvan and Angiras (mitir atharvangirasiA) are recom- 
mended as the true weapons with which the Brahmawa 
may slay his enemies, Manu XI, 33 ; the king must choose 
for his chaplain (purohita) one who is skilled in the Atharvan 
and Angiras (atharvangirase), Ykgnav. I, 312 1 ; and the 
same recommendation is implied at Gaut. XI, 15. 17, where 
the king is enjoined to take heed of that which astrologers 
and interpreters of omens tell him, and to cause the puro- 
hita to perform in his house-fire among other expiatory 
rites (janti), rites for prosperity (mahgala), and witchcraft 
practices (abhi£ara) against enemies 2 . Such a purohita is 
eo ipso an Atharvan priest. In the Atri-sawhiti ((7tva- 
nanda's collection, vol. i, p. 45) ^yotirvido . . . atharviwaA, 
' Atharvan priests skilled in astrology ' are recommended 
for the performance of jraddhas and sacrifices (cf. Vish«u 
III, 75 ; Ya<f«av. I, 332). The snataka must not live in 
a country without physicians, Vishwu LXXI, 66, and the 
king should consult his physicians in the morning, Ya^wav. 
I, 332. At Vishwu III, 87, the king himself is urged to 
be conversant with incantations dispelling the effects of 
poison and sickness, and at Manu VII, 217, the food of the 
king is rendered salubrious by sacred texts that destroy 
poison : these passages evidently refer to Atharvanic bhai- 
shagyani (cf. p. 25 fit), and Atharvan priests skilled in their 
use. At Baudh. II, 8, 15,4; Vishwu LXXIII, 11 ; LXXXI, 
4, the demons called yatudhana are driven out by means 
of sesame, in perfect accord with AV. I, 7, 2. 

Thus far then the dharma-literature expresses regard for 
the Atharvan, and distinct dependence upon its literature 
and its practices. But the ever dubious quality of the fourth 
Veda sounds from notes pitched in a different key. In the 

1 The king himself is urged (ib. I, 310) to devote himself to the trayt. 
* This is the stereotyped summary of the functions of the AV., jantapush/i- 
kabhUirika ; see p. xxix. 

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first place we may remark that the conspicuous omission 
of this Veda which characterises the .rrauta-literature, with- 
out pronounced disapproval of the Atharvan, is continued in 
the dharma-texts. Thus notably in the prohibition of the 
recital of the other Vedas while the sound of the Samans 
is heard, these texts mention only the rik and the ya^fuA ; 
see Gaut. XVI, 21 ; Vas. XIII, 30 ; Vishmi XXX, 26 ; 
Manu IV, 123. 124. At Baudh. IV, 5, 29 ; Manu XI, 
263-66, the recitation of the traividya is recommended as 
a most efficient means of purification and release from sin. 
In the cosmogonic account, Manu I, 23, only rik, ya.guh, 
and saman are derived from the primeval creation. In 
Baudh. II, 8, 14, 4. 5 ; Manu III, 145, the traividya and 
its adherents only appear at the funeral-offerings (jraddha), 
though the Atri-sawhitl singles out Atharvans skilled in 
astronomy on that very occasion (see above, p. xlviii). At 
Manu XII, 112 (cf. Yl^»av. I, 9) adherents of the three 
Vedas are recommended as an assembly (parishad) to decide 
points oflaw; at Ya\f»av. II, 211 punishment is declared for 
him that abuses one skilled in the three Vedas ; at Ya^wav. 
I, 310 the king is urged to devote himself to the study of 
the trayi (vidyS) ; his chaplain, on the other hand, must be 
skilled in the manipulation of the atharvdngirasam (ib. I, 
312). The inferiority of the Atharvan is stated outright 
at Apast. II, 11, 29, 10. ii, where it is said that the know- 
ledge of women and Sfidras is a supplement of the Atharva- 
veda (cf. Biihler, Sacred Books, vol. ii, p. xxix) ; and yet 
more brusquely Vish«u V, 191 counts him that recites a 
deadly incantation from the Atharva-veda as one of the 
seven kinds of assassins. 

Still more frequently, performances which imply the 
knowledge and use of the Atharvan are decried and 
punished, though the writings of the Atharvan are not 
expressly mentioned. Thus magic rites with intent to 
harm enemies, and sorceries and curses in general, cause 
impurity, and are visited with severe penances at Apast. I, 
9, 26, 7; 10, 29, 15; Baudh. II, 1, 2, 16; Gaut. XXV, 7; 
Vishwu XXXVII, 26 ; LIV, 25; Manu IX, 290; XI, 198 ; 
Ya^-wav. Ill, 289. Yet the other side of the coin is turned 
[42] d 

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up at Manu XI, 33, where the Atharvan is recommended 
as the natural weapon of the Brahma»a against his enemies 
(see above). Narada, V, 108, also betrays his hostile 
attitude towards sorcery when he remarks that the sage 
VasishMa took an oath, being accused of witchcraft 1 . 
With especial frequency and emphasis the impurity of 
physicians is insisted upon, Apast. I, 6, 18, 20; 19, 15; 
Vishmi LI, 10; LXXXII, 9; Gaut. XVII, 17; Vas. XIV, 
2. 19; Manu III, 15a. 180; IV, 212. 220; Ya^wav. I, 162 ; 
III, 240 : we gathered above (p. xxxix) that the practice of 
medicine is regarded in the same light in the Brahmawas ; 
the charge, of course, reflects upon the Atharvan. Astro- 
logy also, and fortune-telling, are impure occupations, 
Baudh. II, 1, 2, 16; Manu IX, 258; the practice of astro- 
logy is forbidden to ascetics, Vas. X, 21 ; Manu VI, 50; 
and the astrologer is excluded from the jraddha, Vish«u 
LXXXII, 7; Manu III, 162. That these practices were 
Atharvanic in character we may gather from AV. VI, 128 ; 
Kauj. 50, 15 2 . An especially pointed reflection against 
the AV. is implied in the prohibition of the mulakriya or 
mulakarma, 'practices with roots 3 :' at Vishwu XXV, 7 
wives are especially forbidden to engage in such practice ; 
at Manu IX, 290 magic rites with roots, practised by per- 
sons not related to him against whom they are directed, 
are regarded as sinful 4 ; at Manu XI, 64 practices with 
roots in general are forbidden. Such practices abound in 
the AV. and its ritual; see I, 34; III, 18 (=RV. X, 145); 
V, 31, 12 ; VI, 138. 139 ; VII, 38, &c„ and the performances 
connected with them (cf. p. 99 ff. and the commentary on 
these hymns). Though they are not wanting elsewhere, 
especially in the Grihya-sutras, the brunt of the charge is 
without doubt directed against the Atharvan. Finally, at 
Gaut. XV, 16 ; Vishwu LXXXII, 12 ; Manu III, 151 ; IV, 

1 He has in mind the asseveration of the poet, RV. VII, 104, 15, adySt 
mnrtya yadi yatudhano asmi, &c, ' may I die to-day if I am a sorcerer.' 

* Cf. ' Seven Hymns of the Atharva-veda,' Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 484 ff. 
(19 ff. of the reprint) ; the present volume, pp. 160, 53] ff. 

* Cf. the same prohibition in the Mahabharata, below, p. liv. 

4 The commentator Narada states that they are permissible, if practised 
against a husband or relative. 

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205, he who practises for a multitude (gramaya^aka) is 
pronounced impure: we may presume that this kind of 
activity was largely, if not entirely in the hands of Athar- 
van-priests ; cf. the note on p. xl. 

The position of the Atharvan in the Mahabharata may 
be characterised in the single statement that its importance 
The av in as a Veda, and its canonicity, are finally and 
theMaM- completely established ; that its practices are 
familiarly known and, in general, not sub- 
jected to any particular criticism. There is no especial 
affinity between the great Epic and the jrauta-literature, 
barring the continuance of a considerable quantity of 
the legendary materials (akhyana) which are woven into 
the descriptions of the Vedic sacrifices in the Brahmawas ; 
hence there is nothing in the Epic to induce preoccupa- 
tion with the tray! vidya. On the other hand, the great 
collection deals so largely with the interests of the 
Kshatriyas as to preclude any conscious discrimination 
against the fourth Veda, since this Veda also is to a very 
considerable extent engaged in the interest of the kings 
(ra^akarmam, Kaurika, chapters 14 to 17), and the prac- 
tices of their chaplains (purohita) are also largely Athar- 
vanic in character. It is true that the Mahabharata in 
common with all Hindu literature, the Atharvan literature 
not excluded, mentions frequently only the three Vedas by 
their distinctive names, or by the generic terms trayi vidya 
and trayo veda//. Thus in the passages assembled in 
A. Holtzmann's sufficiently exhaustive collectanea on this 
question in his work on the Epic, Das Mahabharata und 
seine Theile, vol. iv, p. 5, the prevailing Vedic habit of 
referring to the Vedas is continued. But there can be little 
question that this mode of reference has at this time, as 
doubtless in a measure also in the period of Vedic produc- 
tivity, become a stereotyped mechanical habit, continued 
from the tradition of earlier times ; cf. Buhler, Zeitschr. d. 
Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch. XL, 701, who compares the 
German expression ' die vier Erdtheile,' and the like. There 
is no indication that the mention of the Atharvan is con- 
sciously avoided. 


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The main proof of the high regard for the Atharvan 
and its unchallenged position in the canon, are the quasi- 
cosmogonic passages in which the four Vedas figure in the 
primordial transactions of the creation of the world, and 
its affinity with the personified creator. Thus, at V, 108, 
10=3770 Brahman is said to have first sung the four 
Vedas; Brahman himself is called Aaturveda, III, 203, 15 
= 13560, as similarly Vish«u at XIX, 238, 9 (Bhav.)= 
12884; at III, 189, 14=12963; VI, 67, 6=3019 Vishwu 
himself declares that the four Vedas (atharvana the fourth) 
have sprung from him. According to XIX, 14, 15 (Bhav.) 
= 11516, Brahman created first the tristich called Gayatrt, 
the mother of the Vedas, and afterwards the four Vedas ; 
according to XIX, 53, 41 (Bhav.)=i32io he carries upon 
each of his four heads one of the Vedas, or, according to 
II, 11, 32=449, the four Vedas dwell bodily in his palace. 
At XII, 347, 27 = 13476 malicious demons steal the four 
Vedas from Brahman, and Vishwu restores them. Accord- 
ingly the Brahman priest and the kings, both of whom 
owe it to themselves to be vedavid, are more specifically 
described as knowing and reciting the four Vedas, at I, 70, 
37 = 2880 ff. ; VII, 9, 29=289 ; XIX, 142, 1 (Vish.)=7993. 
where a Brahmawa is designated as £aturveda^, just as the 
divinity Brahman, above. Other instances of the mention 
of the four Vedas, with or without other literary composi- 
tions, are 1, 1, 21 ; I, 1, 264 ; II, 11, 32=450 ; III, 43, 41 = 
1661 (akhyanapa££amair vedaiA) ; III, 58, 9 = 2247 (£aturo 
vedan sarvan akhyanapa#£aman) ; III, 64, 17 = 2417 (£at- 
varo vedaA sangopangaA) ; III, 189, 14=12963; V, 44, 28 
= 1711; VII, 59, 15=2238; VII, 149, 22=6470; XII, 236, 
1 = 8613; XII, 335, 28=12723; XII, 339, 8=12872; XII, 
341, 8=13136 (Wgvede . .. ya^urvede tathai»va*tharva- 
samasu, purawe sopanishade) ; XII, 342, 97 = 13256 ff.; XII, 
347, 28=13476; XIII, 17, 91 = 1205 ff. (where the Athar- 
van appears first, atharva-drshaA samasya rcksahasramite- 
ksha«a//, ya^u^padabhu^o guhyaA); XIII, in, 46 = 5443; 
XIII, 168, 31=7736; XIX, 109, 5 (Vish.)=949i (yfratvaro 
sakhila vedaA sarahasyaA savistaraA) ; XIX, 14, 15 (Bhav.) 
= 11665. Cf. Holtzmann, 1. c, p. 6. 

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By itself the Atharvan is mentioned numerous times : as 
atharvangiras (singular), atharvaiigirasa// (plural), atharva- 
hgirasa, atharvan, atharvawa, atharvawa, and atharva-veda. 
Invariably the statements presenting these names are either 
directly laudatory, or they exhibit the Atharvan in an in- 
disputable position of usefulness. At III, 305, 20=17066 
Kunti knows mantras, atharvangirasi 1 mitam, for com- 
pelling the gods to appear; at II, 11, 19=437 the athar- 
vangirasaA, personified, are mentioned honorifically along 
with other Vedic /?t'shis ; at V, 18, 5=548 ff. Aiigiras 
praises Indra with atharvavedamantraiA, and Indra declares 
that this Veda shall henceforth have the name atharvarigi- 
rasa. At XII, 34a, 99 = 13258 ff. Pra^apati declares that 
the sages skilled in the Atharvan (vipra atharvawavidas) 
fashion him into an Atharvan priest, devoted to the practice 
of the five kalpas (paȣakalpam atharvanam). At V, 37, 
58=1391 Atharvan practitioners (atharva«aA) are spoken 
of in a friendly way : ' For him that has been wounded with 
the arrow of wit there are no physicians and no herbs, no 
sacrificial formulas, no amulets, no Atharvawas (conjurers), 
and no skilful remedies V See also I, 70, 40 = 2883; III, 
251, 24=15147; XIII, 14, 309=901 ; XIII, 94, 44=4590. 
In a number of places weapons are said to be as fierce 
and efficacious as the sorcery-practices of the Atharvan 
(kr/tyam atharvangirasim iva), VIII, 40, 33=1848; VIII, 
90, 4=4625 ; VIII, 91, 48=4795 » IX, 17, 44=9°7 5 XIII, 
98, 13=4706 : the passages imply neither praise nor blame, 
but represent Atharvan practices as familiarly established 
among the customs of the people. 

It is scarcely to be expected that the Atharvan and its 
practices, notwithstanding their establishment in the good 
graces of the epic writers, shall come off entirely without 
criticism ; there must have been persons aching under its 
supposed inflictions, and moods awake to a full sense of its 
vulgarity. In such cases the Mahabharata reflects entirely 
the spirit of the dharma-texts. Thus at XII, 36-28 =1322; 

1 In the Calcutta edition, atharvarirasi for atharvangirasi. 
' Cf. Bohtlingk, Indische Spriiche, 1497-8. 

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XIII, 90, 13=4282, physicians are declared to be impure 
(cf. above, p. 1). Practices undertaken by bad women 
with charms and roots (mantramulapara stri . . . mula- 
pra£ara) are inveighed against : the man that has a wife 
addicted to them would be afraid of her, as of a snake that 
had got into the house, III, 233, 13 = 14660 ff. ; cf. the 
identical prohibition of the dharma-texts above, p. 1) *. 
Women are said at XIII, 39, 6=2237 ff. (cf. Bohtlingk's 
Indische Spriiche 8 , 6407) to be skilled in the sorceries of the 
evil demons Namu£i, .Sambara, and Kumbhinasi. Magic 
or sorcery is in general regarded as good. Thus kr/tya is 
regarded as the divinity of witchcraft (abhi£aradevata) by 
the commentator on VII, 92, 54=3314, and kr/tya, abhi- 
£ara, and miya are in general allowable, but yet it is 
possible in the view of the Epic to bewitch right to make 
it wrong, to be a dharmabhi^arin, XII, 140, 42=5288, or 
to use foul maya, VII, 30, 15 = 1316 ff. (see above, p. xxix, 
and cf. Hopkins, Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XIII, 312 ff.). 
■ In the Ramayawa the Vedas in general are mentioned 
very frequently ; special Vedic names appear to be rare, 
the Sama-veda (samaga/i) being mentioned at IV, 27, 10, 
the Taittiriya (a^aryas taittiriyawam) at II, 32, 7 (cf. Ind. 
Stud. I, 297). The Atharvan (mantraj £a«tharva»a//) 
occurs at II, 26, 21. 

In the proverb-literature the Atharvan is scarcely men- 
tioned (cf. Mahabh. V, 37, 58= 1391 in Bohtlingk's Indische 
Spriiche 2 , 4216), but the mantras of the Athar- r . , ' . , . , , 

the later van are in the minds of the poets, though 
literature t hey usually speak of mantras in general 
without specification. Thus a comparison 
of proverbs 1497-8 with 4216 seems to call up the atmo- 
sphere of the Atharvan practices in their mention of ausha- 
dhani and mantrawi ; still more clearly rogaviyogamantra- 
mahima at 2538 refers to the bhesha^ani of the AV, and 
sakya.m varayitum . . . vyadhir bhesha^asamgrahaif ia. 
vividhamantraprayogair visham, proverb 6348, both to the 

1 The sentiment has become proverbial ; see .Sarng. Paddh., niti 76 b 
(Bohtlingk's Indische Spriiche J , 5160). 

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bhesha^ani and the charms against poison (see p. 25 ff.). 
The knowledge of sorcery, dreaded in women (see the 
prohibitions in the dharma, p. 1 above), is alluded to in 
proverbial form at 526o=Mahabh. Ill, 233, 13=14660; 
and 6407 = Mahabh. XIII, 39, 6 = 2237. 

In the Darakumara-£arita the Atharvan is employed 
twice, once in an obvious sorcery practice, atharvauikena 
vidhina (chapter iii, p. 108, 13), where priests perform sacri- 
fices preliminary to transforming a person from one shape 
to another. Another time (chapter ii, p. 94) a marriage 
is celebrated with Atharvanic ceremonies (Atharvawena 
vidhina). Cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. I, 297; Ind. Streifen, 

I, 32«- 

In the Kirataig-uniya X, 10 (cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. I, 289 ; 
Muir, Orig. Sanskrit Texts I 2 , p. 395) there is a passage 
which shows that the potency of the Atharvan had not 
then waned : anupamafamadiptitagariyan krz'tapadapanktir 
atharva»ena vedaA, ' he (Ar^f una), being through unparal- 
leled composure and fervour exceedingly powerful, as the 
Veda arranged by Atharvan V 

The Purawas always speak of the fourfold Veda " 2 , and 
present the Atharvan in the advanced position of the ritual- 
istic literature of the A V. itself ; cf. below, p. lvii ff. The 
Vish«u-pura»a, p. 276, assigns the four Vedas to the four 
priests of the jrauta-ritual, the AV. to the Brahman. 
Similarly at Prasthana-bheda, p. 16, 1. 10, there is the 
statement, paurohityaw* .rantipaush/ikani ra^wam atharva- 
vedena karayed brahmatvaw ka; cf. Max Miiller, Ancient 
Sanskrit Literature, p. 476. The Bhagavata-purawa I, 4, 
19. 20 speaks of the fourfold Veda designed for the execu- 

1 Mallinatha comments upon the passage, and cites an agama, to wit : s&maA 
jantir abhyudayakanaV dtptita ugrata abhiHrakanae atharva«a vasishMena kr/ta 
raiita padanaun panklir anupurvo yasya sa vedax £aturthaveda^, atharvanas to 
mantroddharo vasishMena krtla ity ayamaA. The passage has a twofold 
interest : it reflects the ancient Atharvanic (abhyudaya) and Angirasic (abhi- 
Hn.) components of the Veda, and it ascribes its redaction to VasishMa ; cf. 
above, p. xviii, and below, p. lxv. 

' Cf. Colebrooke, Miscellaneous Essays, vol. i, p. 10. See, e.g. Vishnu- 
puraxa I, 5 (Wilson's translation, vol. i, p. 85), where the Atharvan is said to 
be the northern mouth of Brahman. 

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tion of the sacrifice (ya^»asa«rtatyai vedam ekaw* £atur- 
vidham), mentioning them by name in the sequel. At VI, 
6, 19 figures the atharvangirasa veda. Also, the Matsya- 
purawa, as quoted by Sayawa in the introduction to the 
AV., p. 6, orders that the purohita shall compass the 
Mantras and the Brahmawa of the AV. ; and the Mar- 
ka«dfeya-pura«a claims that the king consecrated with the 
Mantras of the AV. enjoys the earth and the ocean ; see 
Saya/za, ibid. 

In the Gainist Siddhanta, fifth anga (bhagavati), I, 441 ; 

II, 246-7 ; upanga, I, 76 ; X, 3, the scope of Vedic or 

Brahmanical literature is stated as riuveda, 

the Gaina ^a^fuveda, samaveda, ahawawaveda (athav- 

andBauddha V a«a-), itih4sapa/«£ama;« . . .; see Weber, 

Verzeichniss der Sanskrit- und Pr&krit-Hand- 

schriften, II, 423-4; and Ind. Stud. XVI, pp. 238, 304, 

379, 423, 474 \ According to Weber, ibid., p. 237, the 

Siddhanta is to be placed between the second and fifth 

centuries of our era. This mode of describing the Vedic 

literature we found above to prevail from the time of the 

.Sat. Br. to the Mahabharata In the Sutrakntanga-sutra 

II, 27 (see Jacobi's translation, Sacred Books, vol. xlv, 

p. 366) the incantations of the Atharvan (atharvawi) are 

naturally spoken of in condemnatory language. 

As specimens of the view of the Buddhist writings we 
may quote the A/Makavagga 14, 13 of the Sutta-nipata 
(Fausboll's translation, Sacred Books, vol. x, part ii, p. 176), 
where the practice of the Athabba«a-veda is forbidden. To 
the condemnation of practices essentially Atharvanic in 
character is devoted the Maha Silaw, in the second chapter 
of the Tevigga-sutta ; see Rhys Davids' translation in the 
Sacred Books, vol. xi, pp. 196-200, similarly the Vinaya, 
Kullavagga V, 32, 2, ibid., vol. xx, p. 152. 

1 Cf. also Kalpa-sfltra, in Jacobi's translation, Sacred Books, voL xxii, 
p. 221. 

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III. The Atharva-veda in the view of its 
Ritualistic Literature. 

It is but natural to expect, and the expectation nowhere 
meets with disappointment, that the Atharvan texts in 
general should allude with predilection, and 
estimate of in terms of praise, to their own kind of com- 
the ^™^f positions, to the mythical sages who are 
their reputed authors, and to the priests 
devoted to the practices that went hand in hand with the 
recitation of the Atharvans and Angiras. We found above, 
(pp. xxxii, xlii), a sufficiently marked tendency on the 
part of the Samhita itself and the Atharvan Upanishads to 
do this ; there was occasion to note, too, that this tendency 
was followed out naturally and with moderation. Certainly 
there is no indication in these texts of any systematic 
attempt to make battle against the ancient threefold Veda, 
or to enter into polemics against the priests devoted to 
their respective duties while reciting or chanting its mantras. 
Similarly the ritual texts of the AV. allude preferably, 
and yet incidentally, to their own Veda, and as occasion 
offers, bring to the front the priests schooled in it. Thus 
Kauj. 139, 6 an oblation is offered to Bhr*gu and Angiras 
along with other divinities, without mention, however, of 
any specific representatives of the other Vedas. The 
expression, Kaitr. 125, 2, vedabhigupto brahmawa pariwrto 
•tharvabhiA janta^ ', illustrates this passive preference for 
the Atharvan very well ; cf. also 137, 25. Again, Kauj. 
63, 3, four priests descended from .foshis, skilled in the 
bhrtgvangirasa^, are employed very naturally, and simi- 
larly allusion is made to Atharvan priests and Atharvan 
schools, Kaiw. 59, 25 ; 73, 12 ; Vait. Su. 1, 5 ; Ath. Party. 
46, 2 ; 73, 1 ; 77, 4. In the Atharva-parLrish/as Bhrz'gu, 
Angiras, and Atharvan figure more frequently than any 

1 The passage reflects also the Atbarvanic connection of their Veda with 
Brahman and the brahma ; cf. Ath. Paris. 3, l, brahmane brabmavediya . . . 
mmaskrj'tya, and see below, p. lxii ff. 

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other names : they have become the typical teachers of 

the trivialities which these texts profess. 

But over and above this the ritual texts raise certain 

special claims regarding the position of the Atharvan 

among the Vedas, and they further make the 

especial claims demand with strident voice and obvious 

of the ritual polemic intention that certain offices shall be 
texts. r . i i 

reserved for the priests conversant with that 

Veda. The position of these texts may be stated under 

three heads. First, they are not content with the rather 

vacillating attitude of the non-Atharvanic texts which refer 

in general to a threefold Veda, reserving, as we have seen, 

the honorific mention of the fourth Veda to more or less 

well-defined occasions, especially to moods when it is felt 

desirable to call into requisition the entire range of Vedic 

literary composition in addition to the trayi vidya (e.g. 

itihasa, purawa, gatha, ike). Secondly, the office of the 

Brahman, the fourth priest at the jrauta-ceremonies, who 

oversees and corrects by means of expiatory formulas 

(praya.r£itta) the accidents and blunders of hotar, udgatar, 

and adhvaryu, is said to belong to an Atharvavedin, and 

the Vaitana-sutra in fact exhibits the bhr/gvangirovid in 

possession of that office. Thirdly, a similar claim is 

advanced in respect to the office of the purohita. Again 

and again it is stated that the purohita, guru, or brahman 

of a king, the chaplain or house-priest, shall be conversant 

with the Atharvan writings, shall be an Atharvan priest, and 

this claim, as we have seen above (p. xlvi), is supported 

to some extent by later Brahmanical treatises not derived 

from Atharvan schools. Cf. also below, p. lxvii. 

The Gopatha-brahmawa, in its opening chapters I, 1,4- 
10, describes the cosmogonic origin of the universe and 

r u .. the Vedas from the lone brahma. Unlike 


of the av. other texts, which as a rule ignore the Athar- 
in genera . yan .^ t j,ese crea ti V e accounts, the atharvan 
and the angiras texts are placed at the head ; the other 
Vedic texts (rik, yaguh, and saman, I, 1, 6), as well as the 
subsidiary compositions (the five Vedas, called sarpaveda, 
pua/fcaveda, asuraveda, itihasaveda, and purawaveda, 1, 1, 

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10), are relegated to the rear. At Vait. Su. 6, 1 the 
Atharvan is again placed at the head of the four Vedas. 
Gop. Br. I, 3, 4 lauds the Atharvan compositions as the 
greatest religious manifestation, etad vai bhuyishMaw 
brahma yad bhr/gvangirasaA, and at I, 2, 16 (cf. I, 2, 18) 
the Atharvan figures as the fourth Veda by the name of 
Brahma-veda, being here correlated with the service of the 
Brahman-priest as the overseer at the .yrauta-ceremonies '. 
At I, i, 9 there is quoted a stanza, thoroughly Upanishad 
in character, which shows that the Atharvanists correlated 
their Veda with the knowledge of brahma, the higher and 
subtler religious conception, which at all times is raised 
above any special knowledge of the constituent parts of 
the Vedic religion : ' The highest Veda was born of tapas, 
it grew in the heart of those that know the brahma 2 .' 
The Atharvan ritual texts never cite the tray! vidya in 
formulary order without including the fourth Veda 3 , differ- 
ing in this regard even from the text of the Sawhita and 
the Atharvan Upanishads (see pp. xxxii, xliii). The first 
half of the Gop. Br. (1, 5, 25) ends with the assertion that they 
who study the tray! reach, to be sure, the highest heaven 
(trivish/apam tridiva/K nakam uttamam), but yet the Athar- 
vans and Angiras go beyond to the great worlds of Brahma 
(ata uttare brahmaloka mahanta/;). 

As regards the Brahman, the overseer at the jrauta- 

performances, the Vait. Su. 1, 1 states that he must be 

conversant with the Brahma-veda, and in 1, 17. 

of Brahman '8 this priest is described as the lord of beings, 

^ 'texts Wal ' or( * °^ tne wor ^» & c - These expressions 
seem to indicate that he is the representa- 
tive at the sacrifice of the personified god Brahman. At 
ii, 2 (cf. Gop. Br. I, 2, 16) the Brahman is again ordered 
to be conversant with the atharvangirasaA, this time in 

iatasro va ime hotra, hautram ailhvaiyavam audgatra/n brahmatvam. 

1 Thus according to the version of &>&ya»a, Introduction to the AV. ( p. 5, 
flnhtfo hi vedas tapasonihi^ito brahmagflanam hridaye sawbabhflva. Ra^en- 
dnUuamitra's edition, neshMo ha vedas tapaso « dhi^ato brahmf gy&x&m kshitaye 
sambabbfiva, 'it was created for the destruction of the oppressors of Brahmans.' 

J See especially Gop. Br. II, 3, 14, where the atharvaugirasaA are added 
eray time in liturgical formnlas to the riktJt, ya^Qvishi, and samani. 

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expressed contrast with udgatar, hotar, and adhvaryu 
(samaveda, r/gveda, ya^nrveda). At Gop. Br. I, 2, 18 (end) 
the Brahman is described with the words, esha ha vai 
vidvan sarvavid brahma yad blmgvangirovid. The last 
statement is of especial interest as indicating the identifi- 
cation of the Atharvan with the sarvavidya which stands 
above the trayi vidya (cf. below, p. lxiii). Especially at 
Gop. I, 3, t. 2 the futility of the sacrifice without a Brah- 
man skilled in the bhrrgvangirasaA is described vividly: 
a cow, a horse, a mule, a chariot cannot proceed with less 
than four feet, therefore the sacrifice, in order to succeed, 
must have four feet : the four Vedas, and the four priests. 
Especially characteristic is the following: At Tait. S. Ill, 
5, 2, i, &c. (cf. Ind. Stud. X, 34), the well-known legend is 
told, according to which Vasish/Aa • saw Indra clearly, 
though the Rishis (in general) did not see him clearly.' 
Indra makes Vasish/Aa his Brahman (purohita), and con- 
fides to him moreover a mystery, the stomabhaga-verses. 
Since then men have Vasishif/m for their purohita : there- 
fore a descendant of VasishMa is to be chosen as Brahman. 
The same legend is repeated almost verbatim Gop. Br. II, 
2, 13, but the text demurs at the last clause. The Gop. Br. 
cannot say tasmad visishtAo brahma karya^s, because it has 
previously stated emphatically that a bhr/gvarigirovid is the 
only person fitted for that exalted office (I, 2, 18 ; 3, 1 ff.). 
At Vait. Su. 6, 1 the garhapatya-fire is personified as a 
steed which is prepared by the four Vedas for the Brah- 
man, and by Pra^apati for Atharvan : the equation brah- 
man = atharvan is implied. The passage, Vait. Su. 37, 2, 
a brahmodya or theological contest between the Brahman 
and the Udgatar, betrays perhaps a certain insecurity and 
touchiness on the part of the Brahman in his assumed 
superiority to the other priests: 'Not art thou superior, 
better than I, goest not before me. . . . Thou speakest 
these words that are worthy of being learned, (but) shalt 
not become equal to me.' The superiority of the Brahman 
was occasionally disputed 1 , and possibly the Atharvanic 

1 See Haug, Brahma und die Brahmanen, p. 10. 

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Brahman felt that he stood in special need of asserting his 

Even more energetic are the demands of the liturgical 
texts in the matter of the office of purohita who is 

The office of known a ' so by the name of brahman and 
pnrobita in the guru. ' The king who rules the country shall 

h « . gee j { a w j se B ranman (brahma«am). He verily 

is wise that is skilled in the bhr/gu and angiras ; for the 
bhri'gu and angiras act as a charm against all ominous 
occurrences, and protect everything ' (Kaur. 94, 2-4 ; cf. 
126, 2). The equivalence of brahman, purohita, and 
guru is guaranteed by comparing with this Ath. Parij. 
3, 1, kulinaw jrotriyaw bhr/gvaiigirovida** . . . guru#z 
vrj'wiyad bhOpati/* ; and 3, 3, tasmad bhri'gvangirovidaw* 
. . . kuryat purohitam. Cf. also 2, 2, brahma tasmad 
atharvavit. Conversely, ' The gods, the Fathers, and the 
twice-born (priests) do not receive the oblation of the 
king in whose house there is no guru that is skilled in 
the Atharvan ' (2, 3). Cf. Weber, Omina und Portenta, 
p. 346 ff. ; Ind. Stud. X, 138; Saya«a, Introduction to the 
AV., p. 6. In Kaur. 17, 48*. the king and the purohita 
(Darila: r&gfi, purodhaA) are seen in active co-operative 
practice at the consecration of the king ; and again 
(brahma ravga ka) in 140, 4 ff. at the indramahotsava- 

The Atharva-parLrish/as are not content with these strong 
recommendations of their own adherents, but they would 
have the adherents of the other Vedas, yea even of certain 
branches (jakha) of the Atharvan itself, excluded from the 
purohiti: 'The Atharvan keeps off terrible occurrences, 
and acts as a charm against portentous ones . . . not the 
adhvaryu, not the ^Aandoga, and not the bahvrika. . . . 
The bahvriksi destroys the kingdom, the adhvaryu destroys 
sons, the kAandoga. dissipates wealth ; hence the guru must 
be an Atharva»a. ... A Paippalada as guru increases hap- 
piness, sovereignty, and health, and so does a JJaunakin 
who understands the gods and the mantras. . . . The king 
whose purodha is in any way a 6'alada or a Mauda is 
deposed from his kingdom within the year' (Ath. Park. 

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2, 2-5) l . The Paippaladas, Saunakins, (Jaladas, and 
Maudas are alike representatives of Atharvan schools 
(see Kaurika, Introduction, p. xxxiii ff.): the passage 
shows how eager the scramble for the office of purohita 
had become. That the Atharvans finally succeeded in 
making heard their clamorous demand for this office (see 
below, p. lxvii) is probably due, as we shall see, to their 
superior, if not exclusive knowledge of witchcraft, which 
was doubtless regarded in the long run as the most prac- 
tical and trenchant instrument for the defence of king and 

In order to estimate at its correct value the claims of 

the Atharvanists that their own Veda is entitled to the 

name Brahma-veda, and that the so-called 

leading np to Brahman-priests and the Purohitas must be 

the exaltation adherents of the AV., we need to premise 
of the AV. ' r 

certain considerations of a more general nature. 

In the Vedic religious system, or we might say more 
cautiously religious evolution, three literary forms and 
correspondingly three liturgical methods of application of 
these forms to the sacrifice were evolved at a time prior to 
the recorded history of Hindu religious thought and action. 
They are the rika/i, samani, and ya^uwshi, known also by 
a variety of other designations, and characterised to a con- 
siderable extent by special verbs expressing the act of 
reciting or chanting them 2 . Correspondingly the priests 
who had learned one of these varieties of religious expres- 
sion and its mode of application to the sacrifice appear, 
again for aught we know from prehistoric times as indi- 
vidual actors (hotar, udgatar, adhvaryu), in no wise qualified 
each by himself to shoulder the burden of literary know- 
ledge or liturgic technique. The Hindus were at all times 
well aware that these religious forms are fragmentary and 
parts of a whole. The Rig-veda contains countless expres- 
sions indicating the insufficiency of the rikaft to fulfil alone 

1 Cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. I, 396 ; the author, Journ. Amer. Or. Soc XI, 378, 

1 See Max MUller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 489 ff. ; 
Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, p. 25 ff. 

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the scheme of religious action, and the interdependence of 
the three Vedic types. There is a Rig-veda, but no Rig- 
vedic religion, as even recent writers on the religions of 
India unfortunately tend to assume : the absence of samans 
would in principle leave Vedic religion just as much muti- 
lated as the absence of riks ; the categories are the three 
parts of a trio whose melody is carried by each in turn. 

A comprehensive vision was never wanting, though the 
search for a word for ' religion,' or religious practice, as 
a whole was at first not very successful. The Brahmawa- 
texts still struggle with the notion of the superiority of him 
that knows all the Vedas, and they consequently posit a 
sarvavidya 1 which is superior to a knowledge of each of 
the Vedas. The most successful attempt at describing 
the religious literature and action as a whole is the word 
brahma, and, correspondingly, he who knows- the religion 
as a whole is a brahman. Each of these words appears 
occasionally in the fourth place, brahma after the trayi; 
brahman in company with the priests of the trayi. In 
a sense the brahma is a fourth Veda, but it is not co-ordinate 
with the other three ; it embraces and comprehends them 
and much else besides; it is the religious expression and 
religious action as a whole, and it is the learned esoteric 
understanding of the nature of the gods and the mystery 
of the sacrifice as a whole (brahma in brahmodya and 
brahmavadin). Needless to say, this fourth Veda, if we may 
so call it, has primarily no connection with the Atharvan, 
not even in the Atharva-sawhita itself (XI, 8, 23 ; XV, 3, 7 ; 
<5, 3), nor in the Upanishads of that Veda (e.g. Nr/si/«ha- 
purvatapani Up. V, 2) : the claim that the Atharvan is the 
Brahma-veda belongs to the Atharvan ritual. In the 
Upanishads this brahma, still frequently contrasted with 
the ordinary Vedas, is taken up eagerly, extolled above all 
other knowledge, and in a way personified, so that it fur- 
nishes one of the main sources of the various conceptions 
which finally precipitate themselves in the pantheistic 

1 Tiit. Br. Ill, 10, ii, 4; Tait Ar. X, 47; cf. .Sat. Br. XIV, 6, 7, 18; 
9.4. '7- 

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Brahman-Atman. The knowledge of this brahma consti- 
tutes the brahmavidya, which is separated by the widest 
imaginable gap from the Brahma-veda in the Atharvanic 
sense ; cf. above, p. xliii. 

This broader religious knowledge exists again from 
earliest times, not only in the abstract, but centres in 
persons who grasped it in its entirety, in distinction from 
the technically qualified priests devoted to some speciality. 
What the brahma is to the trayt, that the brahman is to 
hotar, adhvaryu, &c. Thus the important stanza, RV. X, 
71, ii, depicts the activity of four priests at a jrauta-sacri- 
fice, the hotar (rik&m p6sham aste pupushva'n), the udgatar 
(gd.ya.trim gayati jakvarishu), the adhvaryu (yagnisya. 
m£tra#* vf mimite), and the brahmin. The latter is de- 
scribed in the words, brahma - vadati ^atavidya'm, ' the Brah- 
man tells (his) innate wisdom V The association of the first 
three priests with the three Vedic categories, rik, saman, 
and ya.guh, is expressed with a degree of clearness com- 
mensurate with the character of the hymn, which is in the 
nature of a brahmodya. But the brahman has no peculiar 
Veda ; certainly there is no allusion to the Atharvan. His 
knowledge is that of the entire Veda, the sarvavidya (Tait. 
Br. Ill, 10, 11, 4), religious knowledge as a whole. By 
means of this knowledge he is able to assume in the ritual 
practices the function of correcting the mistakes of the 
other priests, whose knowledge is more mechanical. The 
Brahman is as it were the stage-manager in the sacerdotal 
drama, the physician of the sacrifice when it is attacked by 
the disease of faulty execution (.Sat. Br. XIV, a, 2, 19) ; he 
is the mind of the sacrificer (.Sat. Br. XIV, 6, 1, 7)*. As 
such he is also conversant with the mystic aspects of the 
divine powers, the powers of nature, and the details of the 
sacrifice. In the expression, brahma* vddati ££tavidya'm, 
the ' own wisdom ' is the brahma (neuter), and vadati ^ata- 
vidylm foreshadows the brahmodya, ' the holy, or theo- 

• Cf. RV. I, 10, 1 ; II, 1, a; IV, aa, 1 ; VI, 38, 3. 4 ; VII, 33. Hi; 
X, 91, 10. 

* Cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 135 ff. ; Hang, Brahma and die Brahmanen, 
p. 9 ff. ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, a8 ff. 

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logical mystery, or riddle V as well as the ritualist refine- 
ments which the Brahmawa and Sutra-texts introduce times 
without end with the closely-related expression, brahma- 
vadino vadanti. In the non-Atharvanic Vedic texts it is 
never suggested that the Atharvan is the specific equip- 
ment, above all other things, which shapes the faculties 
of this all-round Vedic theologian. On the contrary, the 
Kaush. Br. VI, n raises the rather one-sided claim that 
a Rig-veda scholar is the proper Brahman 2 . Vasish/Aa was 
a celebrated Brahman and Purohita, and the qualifications 
for this office were said for a time (probably by the descen- 
dants of Vasish/Aa themselves) to be especially at home in 
this family. But the Brahma#a-texts declare explicitly that 
this is an ' uberwundener standpunkt,' an obsolete custom : 
every one properly equipped may be a Brahman ; see Weber, 
Ind. Stud. X, 34. 35. 137. There is no original connection 
between Vasish/Aa and the Atharvan s , and it is not going 
too far to assume that the distinguished abilities demanded 
by the theory of this office were rare enough to admit every 
one that had intrinsically valid claims. upon it. 

How, then, did the Atharvans come to raise the plea 
that the Brahman must be one of themselves, and that, 
consequently, the Atharva-veda was the Brahma-veda? 
Schematically this was suggested by an obvious proportion. 
As the hotar, &c, is to the Rig-veda, &c, so the Brahman 
is to the fourth Veda, and as the Atharvan is the fourth 
Veda, or rather a fourth Veda, it required no too violent 
wrench to identify it with that other comprehensive fourth 
Veda, the knowledge of the brahma. Thus the Atharvan 

1 See the author, Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XV, pp. 172, 184 ff. 

1 A broader view, yet one that ignores the Atharvan claim, is taken by 
Apastamba, in the Ya^ffa-paribhasha-sutra 19. There the Brahman is said to 
perform with all three Vedas. Only the commentator admits that the Atharvan 
may be included. See Max MUller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 470; 
Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch. IX, p. xlvii ; Sacred Books, vol. xxx, 
p. 331. Cf. also Sat. Br. XI, 5, 8, 7, and Madhusudana's statement of the final 
orthodox view, Max Mliller, ib. 445 ff. ; Ind. Stud. I, 4. 14. 

* The interesting association of VasishMa with the redaction of the Atharvan, 
reported by Mallinatha in his comment on Kirataiguntya X, 10, may be 
founded upon this very title to the office of purohita, and thus show that 
purohitas were naturally supposed to be Atharvavedins ; cf. above, p. lv. 

[42] e 

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became the Brahma-veda. The fact that there was no 
systematic sharply-defined provision for the Atharvanists 
in the scheme of the hieratic religion must have been 
galling at first, until this arrangement was completed 
to their own satisfaction. They may have, though we 
do not know that they did, gathered courage for this 
tour de force by the frequent mention in the AV. itself 
of the word brahma in the sense of charm, prayer, e.g. 
I, 10, i ; 14, 44 ; 23, 4, &c. If this was done it was a 
proceeding both arbitrary and superficial : the word has 
in the AV. the meaning of charm only in so far and 
inasmuch as the hymns of that Veda happen to be charms ; 
the RV. employs the term freely to designate its own 
suktlni (e.g. V, 85, 1 ; VII, 28, 1 ; 36, 1 ; X, 13, 1 ; 6i, 1). 
One misses, too, the plural brahma«i as the true Vedic type 
of designation for a special class of composition, on a level 
with riksJt, samani, ya^uwshi, atharvangirasa^, or athar- 
vknaA (bhesha^ani) and angirasaA (abhi£arika«i). We 
may also remember that the Atharvan of all Samhitas 
contains the largest collection of theosophic hymns which 
deal explicitly (X, 2), or implicitly (X, 7), with Brahman 
and the brahma *. This may, of course, have helped to 
suggest that the Atharvavedin was the truly superior theo- 
logian. In the Upanishads the knowledge of just such 
theosophic relations is styled the brahmavidya. Sayawa 
in the Introduction to the AV., p. 4, argues that the 
AV. is known as Brahma-veda because it was revealed to 
Brahman who is called Atharvan a . His authority, however, 
is Gop. Br. I, 4 ft"., a text that elsewhere identifies the AV. 
with that bhuyish/^am brahma which was produced by the 
tapas (cf. AV. VIII, 10, 25), pressing to an unwarranted 
degree the relationship of the Atharvan texts with the 
sphere of the Upanishads 3 ; cf. above, p. lix. 

It may be safe to assume that all these and other notions 

1 Cf. also the superabundant Upanishads, composed in Atharvanic schools. 

* atharvakhyena brahmana drtsh/atvat tannamna ayam vedo vyapadiryate. 

* Similarly the Vishwu-purawa VI, 5 (Wilson's translation, vol. v, p. aio) : 
' The AV. also states that there are two kinds of knowledge. By the one which 
is the supreme, God (akshara) is obtained ; the other is that which consists of 
JWk and other Vedas.' 

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flitted through the minds of the systematic theologians 
Relation of of *^ e Atharvan schools as they continued 
the pnrohita to insist upon the name Brahma-veda for 
their scriptures, and upon the office of Brah- 
man for their priests. A measure of substantiality may, 
however, come to their claim from another quarter at 
a comparatively early time, in this instance with the passive 
support of all Vedic schools. The matter concerns the 
office of the purohita, the spiritual and temporal aid of the 
king, his chaplain, and chancellor. One would again look 
in vain in the non-Atharvanic Sawhitas, Brahma»as, or 
Sutras for the direct declaration that the purohita either 
was, or should be, an adherent of the Atharvan. These 
texts do not mention the Atharvan in this connection any 
more than in connection with the office of the Brahman 
at the sacrifice. Yet it seems extremely unlikely that the 
knowledge of Atharvan practices should not have been 
considered a very valuable adjunct, if not a conditio sine 
qua non, of the purohiti. Purohitas, whether they are 
formal adherents of the AV. or not, are always engaging 
in Atharvanic practices, even against one another (cf. Max 
Miiller, Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 486). The interests 
of the king and his sovereignty (kshatriya and kshatram) 
are too obviously dependent upon magic rites to admit 
the likelihood that the pretensions to this office on the 
part of him that knew them should have been ignored. 
At all periods the safety of the king, the prosperity of his 
people, his ascendency over hostile neighbours, must have 
depended upon the skill of his purohita in magic. The 
description, Ait Br. VIII, 24-48, of the purohita, his func- 
tions, and his relation to the king, transfer the reader to 
the sphere and spirit of the Atharvan. The purohita 
secures for the king royalty, strength, empire, and people 
(VIII, 24, 7). The purohita is a fire with five flaming 
missiles, dangerous when not properly propitiated ; but, 
duly honoured, he embraces the king, protecting him with 
his flames as the ocean the earth (VIII, 25, 1). His people 
do not die young, his own life's breath does not leave htm 
before he has reached the full limits of his life, he lives to 

e 2 

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a good old age, if a Brahma«a, imbued with this know- 
ledge, is his purohita, the shepherd of his kingdom. The 
subjects of such a king are loyal and obedient (VIII, 35, 
a. 3). The prescriptions regarding the purohita are fol- 
lowed (VIII, 25) by a magic rite, called brahmawaA pari- 
mara, designed to kill hostile kings, which might have 
found a place in the ritual of the Atharvan 1 . In later 
texts, as a matter of fact, the rule is laid down formally 
that the purohita should be an Atharvavedin. Thus in 
Gaut. XI, 15. 17 ; Ya^-«av. 1, 31a (cf. also Manu XI, 33) ; see 
p. xlviii, above. Sayawa in the Introduction to the AV., 
pp. 5, 6, claims outright that the office of purohita belongs 
to the Atharvanists (paurohitya/» ka. atharvavidai»va ka- 
ryam), and he is able to cite in support of his claim not 
only the rather hysterical dicta of the Atharvan writings, 
but also jlokas from a number of Pura«as, the Nitijastra, 
&c. ; cf. above, p. lvi 2 . In the Da?akumara-£arita magic 
rites, as well as the marriage ceremony, are in fact per- 
formed at the court of a king with Atharvan rites, athar- 
vawena (atharvawikena) vidhina, and the statement is the 
more valuable as it is incidental ; see above, p. lv. 

I do not desire to enter here upon a discussion of the 
question of the original relation between the purohita and 
the brahman, whose identity is baldly assumed in many 
passages of the earlier Hindu literature 3 . I believe that 
they were not originally the same, but that they were 
bound together by certain specific ties. They are similar, 

1 Cf. the battle-charm, AV. Ill, 19 : the purohita figures in It as well as in 
the accompanying performances, Kau*. 14, 23-2% (Darila). And RV. IV, 50, 
7-9, perhaps earlier, shows the brihaspati (purohita) in essentially the same 
important relation to the king. 

a Cf. Deva at KSty. St. XV, 7, 11, purohito yo * tharvavedavihitanam janti- 
kapaush/ikabhiHrakarmanam karta. 

* Cf. Max Miiller, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 485 ff. ; 
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 31 ff. ; Ra^asuya, p. 13, note; Haug, Brahma und die 
Brahmanen, p. 9 ff. ; Geldner, Vedische Studien, II, 144 ff ; Oldenberg, Die 
Religion des Veda, pp. 374, 395 ff. Saya»a at RV. VII, 33, 14 equates 
purohita and brahman, and Ait. Br. VII, 16, I exhibits VasishMa, the typical 
purohita, in the office of brahman at a jrauta-rite. At RV. IV, 50, 7 ff. the 
activity of a purohita is sketched : the purohita, however, is called bWhaspati 
(■= brahman). 

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above all, in this, that they have in charge, each in his 
own way, the general interests of their noble employers, 
whereas other priests are likely ordinarily to have had 
only subordinate charges, because of the technical charac- 
ter of their knowledge and occupation. RV. X, 71, 11 
expresses clearly the existence of broader theological in- 
terests than the mere knowledge of the recitation and 
chanting of hymns and the mechanical service of the 
sacrifice (hotar, udgatar, and adhvaryu). This is the Brah- 
manship which later forks into two directions, on one side 
the general knowledge of the procedures at the sacrifice 
(the Brahman as fourth priest), and the theological specula- 
tions attaching (brahmavadin) ; on the other, the higher 
theosophy which leads ultimately to the brahmavidya of 
the Upanishads. It is natural that a divine thus qualified 
should at a very early time assume permanent and con- 
fidential relations to the noble ra^anya in all matters that 
concerned his religious and sacrificial interests. His func- 
tions are those of chaplain and high-priest. It seems 
unlikely that this Brahman was in all cases, too, competent 
to attend to those more secular and practical needs of the 
king connected with the security of his kingdom, the fealty 
of his people, and the suppression of his enemies. These 
activities, ra^akarmawi, as the Atharvan writings call them, 
must have called for different training and different talents 
— they represent rather the functions of a chancellor, or 
prime-minister, than those of a chaplain — and there is no 
warrant to assume that every Brahman possessed these 
necessary qualifications in addition to his expertness in 
systematic theology. On the other hand, conversely, there 
must have been purohitas incapable of assuming the charge 
of their employers' interests on the occasion of the more 
elaborate Vedic performances (jrauta), unless we conceive 
that in such cases the Brahman was a mere figure-head 
and his office a sinecure. 

And yet precisely here is to be found the measure of 
truth which we may suspect in the Atharvanist claim that 
the supervising Brahman shall be an adherent of the AV. 
In many cases the tribal king, or ra^a, might have had but 

e 3 

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one body-priest, well capable of attending to the kingdom's 
needs in all manner of charms and sorcery, and thus filling 
the paurohitya creditably with the entire armament of the 
Veda of charms and sorcery, himself an Atharvavedin. If 
the king had about him no systematic theologian re- 
splendent in his ^atavidya, if there was no adherent of that 
ideal fourth Veda, the sarvavidya that looms above the 
trayi vidya, the remoter applicability of the jrauta-practices 
to the weal and woe of everyday life, or confidence in the 
ability of hotar, adhvaryu, &c, to perform their duties 
correctly of themselves, would lead him to entrust the 
general supervision of the Vedic performances (in the nar- 
rower sense) to his Atharvan purohita. Thus the sweeping 
claim of the Atharvan priests may be founded at least 
upon a narrow margin of fact, and later the Atharvan 
priests are likely to have equipped themselves with a suffi- 
ciency of rather external and mechanical knowledge to 
perform the function of Brahman with a show of respecta- 
bility, witness the activity of the Brahman in the jrauta- 
rites of the Vaitana-sutra. In very late times the ability 
of Atharvan priests to practise .rrauta-rites, and the 
canonicity of their .rrauta-manual, the Vaitana-sfltra, were 
recognised by other Vedic schools, if the matter-of-fact 
references to that Sfitra on the part of the commentators 
to Katyfiyana's .Srauta-siitras may be regarded as normal ; 
see Garbe in the preface to the edition of the Vait. Su., 
p. vi. 

We may remark, however, that the entire question of 

the relation of the AV. to jrauta-practices is a very obscure 

point jn the history of Vedic literature, it 

the AV. to being assumed generally that the Atharvan 

theyrauta- nac j originally nothing to do with the larger 

Vedic ritual. The assumption in this broad 

form is at any rate erroneous, or defective. The existing 

Sawhitas of the AV. contain mantras which could have 

had no sense and purpose except in connection with jrauta- 

performances. A series of formulas, e. g. like AV. VI, 47 

and 48, has no meaning except in connection with the 

three daily pressures of soma (savana), and the Vait. Su. 

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21, 7 exhibits them, properly no doubt, as part of an ordi- 
nary jrauta-rite, the agnish/oma. It would seem then that 
the Atharvavedins possessed the knowledge of, and prac- 
tised jrauta-rites prior to the conclusion of the present 
redactions of their hymns, and thus perhaps, after all, the 
purohita, in case of his being an Atharvan, was not 
altogether unequipped for taking a hand in the broader 
Vedic rites with the three fires and the usual assortment 
of priests. Again, the AV. contains hymns which are 
evidently expiatory formulas for faults committed at the 
sacrifice. Thus AV. VI, 114 presents itself in the light of 
an ordinary prayaj^itta- formula, and there are MSS. of the 
Vaitana-sutra which add six prayadHtta chapters to the 
eight which make up the body of that text 1 . The Gop. 
Br., more frequently than other Brahma«as, refers to defects 
in the sacrifice (virish/a, una, yatayama) which are to be 
corrected (samdhana) by certain hymns, stanzas, and for- 
mulas ; see 1, 1, 13 and 22. Possibly the germs of the corre- 
lation of the Atharvan and the Brahman, in his function as 
supervisor and corrector of the sacrifice, may also turn out 
to be traceable to a period prior to the present redaction 
of the Samhitas. 

The present volume of translations comprises about one 
third of the entire material of the Atharva-veda in the text 
of the Saunaka -school. But it represents the contents and 
spirit of the fourth Veda in a far greater measure than is 
indicated by this numerical statement. The twentieth book 
of the Sawhita, with the exception of the so-called kuntapa- 
suktani (hymns 137-136*), seems to be a verbatim repeti- 
tion of mantras contained in the Rig-veda, being employed 
in the Vaitana-sutra at the jastras and stotras of the soma- 
sacrifice : it is altogether foreign to the spirit of the original 

' See Garbe, in the preface of his edition of the text, p. 5 ; Weber, Ver- 
zeichniss der Sanskrit und PrSkrit Handschriften, II, 8.; ; Kaimka, Introduction, 
p. xxxiii. 

1 One of these, hymn 07, appears in the present volume, p. 197 ff. 

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Atharvan. The nineteenth book is a late addendum \ in 
general very corrupt ; its omission (with the exception of 
hymns 26, 34, 35, 38, 39, 53, and 54) does not detract much 
from the general impression left by the body of the collec- 
tion. The seventeenth book consists of a single hymn of 
inferior interest. Again, books XV and XVI, the former 
entirely Brahmanical prose J , the latter almost entirely so, 
are of doubtful quality and chronology. Finally, books 
XIV and XVIII contain respectively the wedding and 
funeral stanzas of the Atharvan, and are largely coincident 
with corresponding mantras of the tenth book of the 
Rig-veda : they are, granted their intrinsic interest, not 
specifically Atharvanic 3 . Of the rest of the Atharvan 
(books I— XIII) there is presented here about one. halfj 
naturally that half which seemed to the translator the 
most interesting and characteristic. Since not a little of 
the collection rises scarcely above the level of mere verbiage, 
the process of exclusion has not called for any great degree 
of abstemiousness. 

These successive acts of exclusion have made it possible 
to present a fairly complete history of each of the hymns 
translated. The employment of the hymns in the Athar- 
vanic practices is in closer touch with the original purpose 
of the composition or compilation of the hymns than is 
true in the case of the other collections of Vedic hymns. 
Many times, though by no means at all times, the practices 
connected with a given hymn present the key to the correct 
interpretation of the hymn itself. In any case it is instruc- 
tive to see what the Atharvan priests did with the hymns 
of their own school, even if we must judge their performances 
to be secondary. 

I do not consider any translation of the AV. at this time 
as final. The most difficult problem, hardly as yet ripe for 
final solution, is the original function of many mantras, 

1 See Kaurika, Introduction,, p. xl ff. 

* Translated by Professor Aufrccht, Indische Studien, I, 130, 140. 

3 The fourteenth book has been rendered by Professor Weber, Indische 
Studien, V, p. 195 ff. ; the eighteenth book by the same scholar in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Prussian Academy, 1895, p. 815 ff. ; 1896, p. 153 ff. 

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after they have been stripped of certain adaptive modifica- 
tions, imparted to them to meet the immediate purpose 
of the Atharvavedin. Not infrequently a stanza has to be 
rendered in some measure of harmony with its connection, 
when, in fact, a more original meaning, not at all applicable 
to its present environment, is but scantily covered up by 
the secondary modifications of the text. This garbled 
tradition of the ancient texts partakes of the character 
of popular etymology in the course of the transmission of 
words. New meaning is read into the mantras, and any 
little stubbornness on their part is met with modifications 
of their wording. The critic encounters here a very difficult 
situation : searching investigation of the remaining Vedic 
collections is necessary before a bridge can be built from 
the more original meaning to the meaning implied and 
required by the situation in a given Atharvan hymn. Need- 
less to say the only correct and useful way to translate 
a mantra in the Atharvan, is to reproduce it with the bent 
which it has received in the Atharvan. The other Vedic 
collections are by no means free from the same taint. The 
entire Vedic tradition, the Rig-veda not excepted, presents 
rather the conclusion than the beginning of a long period 
of literary activity. Conventionality of subject-matter, 
style, form (metre), &c, betray themselves at every step : 
the ' earliest ' books of the RV. are not exempt from the 
same processes of secondary grouping and adaptation of 
their mantras, though these are less frequent and less 
obvious than is the case in the Atharva-veda. 

Obligations to previous translators : Weber, Muir, Ludwig, 
Zimmer, Grill *, Henry, &c, are acknowledged in the intro- 
duction to each hymn. I regret that the work was in the 
hands of the printer prior to the appearance of Professor 
Henry's excellent version of books X-XII 2 . The late 
lamented Professor Whitney kindly furnished me with the 

1 Grill's work, entitled, Hundert Lieder des Atharva-veda, second edition 
!i888), is cited as ' Grill V My own six series of Contributions to the Interpre- 
tation of the Veda, are cited for the sake of brevity as ' Contributions.' 

' Les livres X, XI, et XII de 1' Atharva-veda. Paris, 1896. 

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advance sheets of the late Shankar Pandurang Pandit's 
scholarly edition of the AV. with S4ya«a's commentary, 
as also with many of the readings of the Cashmir text 
(the so-called Paippalada-^akha) of the AV. Neither the 
Paippalada nor Sayawa sensibly relieves the task of its 
difficulty and responsibility. 


Johns Hopkins University, 

Baltimore : April, 1896. 

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V, 22. Charm against takman (fever) and 
related diseases. 

i. May Agni drive the takman away from here, 
may Soma, the press-stone, and Varu«a, of tried 
skill ; may the altar, the straw (upon the altar), and 
the brightly-flaming fagots (drive him away) ! Away 
to naught shall go the hateful powers ! 

2. Thou that makest all men sallow, inflaming 
them like a searing fire, even now, O takman, thou 
shalt become void of strength : do thou now go 
away down, aye, into the depths ! 

3. The takman that is spotted, covered with 
spots, like reddish sediment, him thou, (O plant) of 
unremitting potency, drive«away down below ! 

4. Having made obeisance to the takman, I cast 
him down below : let him, the champion of Sakam- 
bhara, return again to the Mahav^Vshas ! 

5. His home is with the Mu^avants, his home 
[4*] b 

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with the Mahaw/shas. From the moment of thy 
birth thou art indigenous with the Balhikas. 

6. O takman, vySla, vf gada, vyanga, hold off 
(thy missile) far! Seek the gadabout slave-girl, 
strike her with thy bolt ! 

7. O takman, go to the Mu?avants, or to the 
Balhikas farther away ! Seek the lecherous 5udra- 
female : her, O takman, give a good shaking-up ! 

8. Go away to the Mahavr/shas and the Mo- 
vants, thy kinsfolk, and consume them! Those 
(regions) do we bespeak for the takman, or these 
regions here other (than ours). 

9. (If) in other regions thou dost not abide, mayest 
thou that art powerful take pity on us! Takman, 
now, has become eager : he will go to the Balhikas. 

10. When thou, being cold, and then again de- 
liriously hot, accompanied by cough, didst cause the 
(sufferer) to shake, then, O takman, thy missiles were 
terrible : from these surely exempt us ! 

11. By no means ally thyself with balasa, cough 
and spasm ! From there do thou not return hither 
again : that, O takman, do I ask of thee ! 

12. O takman, along with thy brother balasa, 
along with thy sister cough, along with thy cousin 
paman, go to yonder foreign folk ! 

13. Destroy the takman that returns on (each) 
third day, the one that intermits (each) third day, 
the one that continues without intermission, and the 
autumnal one; destroy the cold takman, the hot, 
him that comes in summer, and him that arrives in 
the rainy season ! 

14. To the Gandharis, the Mu^avants, the Angas, 
and the Magadhas, we deliver over the takman, like 
a servant, like a treasure ! 

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VI, 20. Charm against takman (fever). 

1. As if from this Agni (fire), that burns and 
flashes, (the takman) comes. Let him then, too, 
as a babbling drunkard, pass away I Let him, the 
impious one, search out some other person, not 
ourselves! Reverence be to the takman with the 
burning weapon ! 

2. Reverence be to Rudra, reverence to the 
takman, reverence to the luminous king Varuwa ! 
Reverence to heaven, reverence to earth, reverence 
to the plants ! 

3. To thee here, that burnest through, and 
turnest all bodies yellow, to the red, to the brown, 
to the takman produced by the forest, do I render 

I, 25. Charm against takman (fever). . 

1. When Agni, having entered the waters, burned, 
where the (gods) who uphold the order (of the 
universe) rendered homage (to Agni), there, they 
say, is thy origin on high : do thou feel for us, and 
spare us, O takman ! 

2. Whether thou art flame, whether thou art 
heat, or whether from licking chips (of wood) thou 
hast arisen, Hrfo/u by name art thou, O god of 
the yellow: do thou feel for us, and spare us, 
takman ! 

3. Whether thou art burning, whether thou art 
scorching, or whether thou art the son of king 
Varu«a, Hruafa by name art thou, O god of the 
yellow: do thou feel for us, and spare us, O 
takman ! 

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4. To the cold takman, and to the deliriously 
hot, the glowing, do I render homage. To him 
that returns on the morrow, to him that returns for 
two (successive) days, to the takman that returns 
on the third day, homage shall be ! 

VII, 116. Charm against takman (fever). 

1. Homage (be) to the deliriously hot, the 
shaking, exciting, impetuous (takman) ! Homage to 
the cold (takman), to htm that in the past fulfilled 
desires ! 

2. May (the takman) that returns on the morrow, 
he that returns on two (successive) days, the impious 
one, pass into this frog ! 

V, 4. Prayer to the kush/iia-plant to destroy 
takman (fever). 

1. Thou that art born upon the mountains, as 
the most potent of plants, come hither, O kush/^a, 
destroyer of the takman, to drive out from here the 
takman ! 

2. To thee (that growest) upon the mountain, the 
brooding-place of the eagle, (and) art sprung from 
Himavant, they come with treasures, having heard 
(thy fame). For they know (thee to be) the de- 
stroyer of the takman. 

3. The arvattha-tree is the seat of the gods in 
the third heaven from here. There the gods pro- 
cured the kush/ifca, the visible manifestation of 
amrzta (ambrosia). 

4. A golden ship with golden tackle moved upon 
the heavens. There the gods procured the kush/^a, 
the flower of amrita. (ambrosia). 

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5. The paths were golden, and golden were the 
oars ; golden were the ships, upon which they car- 
ried forth the kushMa hither (to the mountain). . 

6. This person here, O kush/^a, restore for me, 
and cure him ! Render him free from sickness 
for me! 

7. Thou art born of the gods, thou art Soma's 
good friend. Be thou propitious to my in-breathing 
and my out-breathing, and to this eye of mine ! 

8. Sprung in the north from the Himavant (moun- 
tains), thou art brought to the people in the east. 
There the most superior varieties of the kushMa 
were apportioned. 

9. ' Superior,' O kush/Aa, is thy name ; ' superior ' 
is the name of thy father. Do thou drive out all 
disease, and render the takman devoid of strength ! 

10. Pain in the head, affliction in the eye, and 
ailment of the body, all that shall the kush/6a 
heal — a divinely powerful (remedy), forsooth ! 

XIX, 39. Prayer to the kushA6a-plant to destroy 
takman (fever), and other ailments. 

i. May the protecting god kush/!£a come hither 
from the Himavant: destroy thou every takman, 
and all female spooks ! 

2. Three names hast thou, O kushMa, (namely : 
kush/^a), na-gha-mara ('forsooth -no -death'), and 
na-ghi-risha (' forsooth-no-harm '). Verily no harm 
shall suffer (na gha . . . rishat) this person here, for 
whom I bespeak thee morn and eve, aye the (entire) 

3. Thy mother's name is ^lvala ('quickening'), 
thy father's name is /Ivanta ('living'). Verily no 

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harm shall suffer this person here, for whom I be- 
speak thee morn and eve, aye the entire day ! 

4. Thou art the most superior of the plants, as 
a steer among cattle, as the tiger among beasts of 
prey. Verily no harm shall suffer this person here, 
for whom I bespeak thee morn and eve, aye the 
entire day! 

5. Thrice begotten by the .Sambu Angiras, thrice 
by the Adityas, and thrice by all the gods, this 
kush/^a, a universal remedy, stands together with 
soma. Destroy thou every takman, and all female 
spooks ! 

6. The asvattha-tree is the seat of the gods in 
the third heaven from here. There came to sight 
the amrcta (ambrosia), there the kush^a-plant was 

7. A golden ship with golden tackle moved upon 
the heavens. There came to sight the amma, there 
the kush/^a-plant was born. 

8. On the spot where the ship glided down, on 
the peak of the Himavant, there came to sight the 
ambrosia, there the kush/ifca-plant was born. This 
kush/^a, a universal remedy, stands together with 
soma. Destroy thou every takman, and all female 
spooks ! 

9. (We know) thee whom Ikshviku knew of yore, 
whom the women, fond of kush/^a, knew, whom 
Vayasa and Matsya knew: therefore art thou a 
universal remedy. 

10. The takman that returns on each third day, 
the one that continues without intermission, and 
the yearly one, do thou, (O plant) of unremitting 
strength, drive away down below ! 

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1,12. Prayer to lightning, conceived as the cause 
of fever, headache, and cough. 

i. The first red bull, born of the (cloud-)womb, 
born of wind and clouds, comes on thundering with 
rain. May he, that cleaving moves straight on, spare 
our bodies; he who, a single force, has passed through 
threefold ! 

2. Bowing down to thee that fastenest thyself with 
heat upon every limb, we would reverence thee with 
oblations ; we would reverence with oblations the 
crooks and hooks of thee that hast, as a seizer, seized 
the limbs of this person. 

3. Free him from headache and also from cough, 
(produced by the lightning) that has entered his 
every joint ! May the flashing (lightning), that is 
born of the cloud, and born of the wind, strike the 
trees and the mountains ! 

4. Comfort be to my upper limb, comfort be to 
my nether ; comfort be to my four members, comfort 
to my entire body ! 

I, 22. Charm against jaundice and related 

1. Up to the sun shall go thy heart-ache and thy 
jaundice : in the colour of the red bull do we envelop 

2. We envelop thee in red tints, unto long life. 
May this person go unscathed, and be free of yellow 
colour ! 

3. The cows whose divinity is Rohi»l, they who, 
moreover, are (themselves) red (rdhiniA) — (in their) 
every form and every strength we do envelop thee. 

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4. Into the parrots, into the ropa»ikis (thrush) 
do we put thy jaundice, and, furthermore, into the 
hiridravas (yellow wagtail) do we put thy jaundice. 

VI, 14. Charm against the disease balisa. 

1. The internal disease that has set in, that 
crumbles the bones, and crumbles the joints, every 
balisa do thou drive out, that which is in the limbs, 
and in the joints ! 

2. The balisa of him that is afflicted with balisa 
do I remove, as one gelds a lusty animal. Its con- 
nection do I cut off as the root of a pumpkin. 

3. Fly forth from here, O balisa, as a swift foal 
(after the mare). And even, as the reed in every 
year, pass away without slaying men ! 

VI, 105. Charm against cough. 

1. As the soul with the soul's desires swiftly to a 
distance flies, thus do thou, O cough, fly forth along 
the soul's course of flight ! 

2. As a well-sharpened arrow swiftly to a distance 
flies, thus do thou, O cough, fly forth along the 
expanse of the earth ! 

3. As the rays of the sun swiftly to a distance fly, 
thus do thou, O cough, fly forth along the flood of 
the sea ! 

I, 2. Charm against excessive discharges from 
the body. 

1. We know the father of the arrow, Par^anya, 
who furnishes bountiful fluid, and well do we know 
his mother, PWthivl (earth), the multiform ! 

2. O bowstring, turn aside from us, turn my body 

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into stone ! Do thou firmly hold very far away the 
hostile powers and the haters ! 

3. When the bowstring, embracing the wood (of 
the bow), greets with a whiz the eager arrow, do 
thou, O Indra, ward off from us the piercing mis- 
sile ! 

4. As the point (of the arrow) stands in the way 
of heaven and earth, thus may the mu%a-grass 
unfailingly stand in the way of sickness and (exces- 
sive) discharge ! 

II, 3. Charm against excessive discharges from 
the body, undertaken with spring-water. 

1. The spring-water yonder which runs down 
upon the mountain, that do I render healing for 
thee, in order that thou mayest contain a potent 

2. Then surely, yea quite surely, of the hundred 
remedies contained in thee, thou art the most superior 
in checking discharges and removing pain. 

3. Deep down do the Asuras bury this great 
healer of wounds : that is the cure for discharges, 
and that hath removed disease. 

4. The ants bring the remedy from the sea : that 
is the cure for discharges, and that hath quieted 

5. This great healer of wounds has been gotten 
out of the earth : that is the cure for discharges, and 
that hath removed disease. 

6. May the waters afford us welfare, may the 
herbs be propitious to us ! Indra's bolt shall beat off 
the Rakshas, far (from us) shall fly the arrows cast 
by the Rakshas ! 

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VI, 44. Charm against excessive discharges from 

the body. 

1. The heavens have stood still, the earth has 
stood still, all creatures have stood still. The trees 
that sleep erect have stood still : may this disease 
of thine stand still ! 

2. Of the hundred remedies which thou hast, of 
the thousand that have been collected, this is the 
most excellent cure for discharges, the best remover 
of disease. 

3. Thou art the urine of Rudra, the navel of 
amn'ta (ambrosia). Thy name, forsooth, is vishi- 
»aka, (thou art) arisen from the foundation of the 
Fathers, a remover of diseases produced by the 
winds (of the body). 

I, 3. Charm against constipation and retention 
of urine. 

1 . We know the father of the arrow, Par^anya, of 
hundredfold power. With this (charm) may I render 
comfortable thy body : make thy outpouring upon the 
earth ; out of thee may it come with the sound bal I 

2. We know the father of the arrow, Mitra, &c. 

3. We know the father of the arrow, Varu«a, &c. 

4. We know the father of the arrow, ATandra, &c. 

5. We know the father of the arrow, Surya, &c. 

6. That which has accumulated in thy entrails, in 
thy canals, in thy bladder — thus let thy urine be 
released, out completely, with the sound bal ! 

7. I split open thy penis like the dike of a lake — 
thus let thy urine be released, out completely, with 
the sound bal ! 

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8. Relaxed is the opening of thy bladder like the 
ocean, the reservoir of water — thus let thy urine be 
released, out completely, with the sound bal ! 

9. As an arrow flies to a distance when hurled 
from the bow — thus let thy urine be released, out 
completely, with the sound bal ! 

VI, 90. Charm against internal pain (colic), due 
to the missiles of Rudra. 

1. The arrow that Rudra did cast upon thee, into 
(thy) limbs, and into thy heart, this here do we now 
draw out away from thee. 

2. From the hundred arteries which are distributed 
along thy limbs, from all of these do we exorcise 
forth the poisons. 

3. Adoration be to thee, O Rudra, as thou casteth 
(thy arrow) ; adoration to the (arrow) when it has 
been placed upon (the bow) ; adoration to it as it is 
being hurled; adoration to it when it has fallen 
down ! 

I, 10. Charm against dropsy. 

1. This Asura rules over the gods ; the com- 
mands of Varu»a, the ruler, surely come true. 
From this (trouble), from the wrath of the mighty 
(Varu«a), do I, excelling in my incantation, lead out 
this man. 

2. Reverence, O king Varu«a, be to thy wrath, 
for all falsehood, O mighty one, dost thou discover. 
A thousand others together do I make over to thee : 
this thy (man) shall live a hundred autumns ! 

3. From the untruth which thou hast spoken, the 
abundant wrong, with thy tongue — from king Varu»a 
I release thee, whose laws do not fail. 

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4. I release thee from Vai-rvanara (Agni), from the 
great flood. Our rivals, O mighty one, do thou cen- 
sure here, and give heed to our prayer ! 

VII, 83. Charm against dropsy. 

1. Thy golden chamber, king Varu»a, is built in 
the waters! Thence the king that maintains the 
laws shall loosen all shackles ! 

a. From every habitation (of thine), O king 
Varu«a, from here do thou free us ! In that we have 
said, ' ye waters, ye cows ; ' in that we have said, 
'O Varu«a,' from this (sin), O Vanma, free us! 

3. Lift from us, O Varu*a, the uppermost fetter, 
take down the nethermost, loosen the middlemost! 
Then shall we, O Aditya, in thy law, exempt from 
guilt, live in freedom ! 

4. Loosen from us, O Varu«a, all fetters, the 
uppermost, the nethermost, and those imposed by 
Varu#a ! Evil dreams, and misfortune drive away 
from us : then may we go to the world of the 
pious ! 

VI, 24. Dropsy, heart-disease, and kindred 
maladies cured by flowing water, 

1. From the Himavant (mountains) they flow 
forth, in the Sindhu (Indus), forsooth, is their as- 
sembling-place : may the waters, indeed, grant me 
that cure for heart-ache ! 

2. The pain that hurts me in the eyes, and that 
which hurts in the heels and the fore-feet, the 
waters, the most skilled of physicians, shall put all 
that to rights ! 

3. Ye rivers all, whose mistress is Sindhu, whose 

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queen is Sindhu, grant us the remedy for that : 
through this (remedy) may we derive benefit from 

VI, 80. An oblation to the sun, conceived as one of 
the two heavenly dogs, as a cure for paralysis. 

1. Through the air he flies, looking down upon 
all beings : with the majesty of the heavenly dog, 
with that oblation would we pay homage to thee ! 

2. The three kalakaw^a that are fixed upon the 
sky like gods, all these I have called for help, to 
render this person exempt from injury. 

3. In the waters is thy origin, upon the heavens 
thy home, in the middle of the sea, and upon the 
earth thy greatness. With the majesty of the 
heavenly dog, with that oblation would we pay 
homage to thee ! 

II, 8. Charm against kshetriya, hereditary 

1. Up have risen the majestic twin stars, the 
viimau (' the two looseners ') ; may they loosen the 
nethermost and the uppermost fetter of the kshetriya 
(inherited disease) ! 

2. May this night shine (the kshetriya) away, may 
she shine away the witches ; may the plant, destruc- 
tive of kshetriya, shine the kshetriya away ! 

3. With the straw of thy brown barley, endowed 
with white stalks, with the blossom of the sesame — 
may the plant, destructive of kshetriya, shine the 
kshetriya away ! 

4. Reverence be to thy ploughs, reverence to thy 

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wagon-poles and yokes ! May the plant, destructive 
of kshetriya, shine the kshetriya away ! 

5. Reverence be to those with sunken eyes (?), 
reverence to the indigenous (evils?), reverence to 
the lord of the field ! May the plant, destructive of 
kshetriya, shine the kshetriya away ! 

II, 10. Charm against kshetriya, hereditary 

1. From kshetriya (inherited disease), from Nirrrti 
(the goddess of destruction), from the curse of the 
kinswoman, from Druh (the demon of guile), from 
the fetter of Varu«a do I release thee. Guiltless 
do I render thee through my charm ; may heaven 
atod earth both be propitious to thee ! 

i. May Agni together with the waters be auspicious 
to thee, may Soma together with the plants be 
auspicious. Thus from kshetriya, from Nim'ti, from 
the curse of the kinswoman, from the Druh, from 
the fetter of Varu»a do I release thee. Guiltless 
do I render thee through my charm ; may heaven 
and earth both be propitious to thee ! 

3. May the wind in the atmosphere auspiciously 
bestow upon thee strength, may the four quarters 
of the heaven be auspicious to thee. Thus from 
kshetriya, from NirWti &c. 

4. These four goddesses, the directions of space, 
the consorts of the wind, the sun surveys. Thus 
from kshetriya, from Niroti &c. 

5. Within these (directions) I assign thee to old 
age; forth to a distance shall go NiiWti and disease! 
Thus from kshetriya, from Nirmi &c. 

6. Thou hast been released from disease, from 

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mishap, and from blame; out from the fetter of 
Druh, and from Grahi (the demon of fits) thou hast 
been released. Thus from kshetriya, from Nirmi &c. 

7. Thou didst leave behind Arati (the demon of 
grudge), didst obtain prosperity, didst enter the 
happy world of the pious. Thus from kshetriya, 
from Nirmi &c. 

8. The gods, releasing the sun and the ntam (the 
divine order of the universe) from darkness and 
from Grahi, did take them out of sin. Thus from 
kshetriya, from Nirmi &c. 

Ill, 7. Charm against kshetriya, hereditary 

1. Upon the head of the nimble antelope a remedy 
grows! He has driven the kshetriya (inherited 
disease) in all directions by means of the horn. 

2. The antelope has gone after thee with his four 
feet. O horn, loosen the kshetriya that is knitted 
into his heart ! 

3. (The horn) that glistens yonder like a roof 
with four wings (sides), with that do we drive out 
every kshetriya from thy limbs. 

4. The lovely twin stars, the viimau ('the two 
looseners') that are yonder upon the sky, shall 
loosen the nethermost and the uppermost fetter of 
the kshetriya ! 

5. The waters, verily, are healers, the waters are 
scatterers of disease, the waters cure all disease: 
may they relieve thee from the kshetriya ! 

6. The kshetriya that has entered into thee from 
the prepared (magic) concoction, for that I know the 
remedy : I drive the kshetriya out of thee. 

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7. When the constellations fade away, and when 
the dawn does fade away, (then) shall he shine away 
from us every evil and the kshetriya ! 

I, 23. Leprosy cured by a dark plant 

1. Born by night art thou, O plant, dark, black, 
sable. Do thou, that art rich in colour, stain this 
leprosy, and the gray spots ! 

2. The leprosy and the gray spots drive away 
from here — may thy native colour settle upon thee — 
the white spots cause to fly away ! 

3. Sable is thy hiding-place, sable thy dwelling- 
place, sable art thou, O plant: drive away from 
here the speckled spots ! 

4. The leprosy which has originated in the bones, 
and that which has originated in the body and upon 
the skin, the white mark begotten of corruption, 
I have destroyed with my charm. 

I, 24. Leprosy cured by a dark plant. 

1. The eagle (supar»a) that was born at first, his 
gall thou wast, O plant. The Asurl having conquered 
this (gall) gave it to the trees for their colour. 

2. The Asurl was the first to construct this remedy 
for leprosy, this destroyer of leprosy. She has 
destroyed the leprosy, has made the skin of even 

3. ' Even-colour ' is the name of thy mother ; 
' Even-colour ' is the name of thy father ; thou, O 
plant, producest even colour : render this (spot) of 
even colour ! 

4. The black (plant) that produces even colour has 
been fetched out of the earth. Do thou now, pray, 
perfect this, construct anew the colours ! 

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VI, 83. Charm for curing scrofulous sores 

called apaiit. 

1. Fly forth, ye apaiit (sores), as an eagle from 
the nest ! Surya (the sun) shall prepare a remedy, 
^andramas (the moon) shall shine you away ! 

2. One is variegated, one is white, one is black, 
and two are red : I have gotten the names of all 
of them. Go ye away without slaying men ! 

3. The apaiit, the daughter of the black one, 
without bearing offspring will fly away; the boil 
will fly away from here, the galunta (swelling) will 

4. Consume thy own (proper) oblation with grati- 
fication in thy mind, when I here offer svaha in my 

VII, 76. A. Charm for curing scrofulous 

sores called apaiit. 

1. Ye (sores) fall easily from that which falls 
easily, ye exist less than those that do not exist (at 
all) ; ye are drier than the (part of the body called) 
sehu, more moist than salt. 

2. The apaiit (sores) that are upon the neck, and 
those that are upon the shoulders ; the apaiit that 
are upon the vi/aman (some part of the body) fall 
off of themselves. 

B. Charm for curing tumours called ^ayanya. 

3. The ^ayanya that crushes the ribs, that which 
passes down to the sole of the foot, and whichever 
is fixed upon the crown of the head, I have driven 
out every one. 

[42] c 

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4. The ^ayanya, winged, flies; he settles down 
upon man. Here is the remedy both for sores not 
caused by cutting, as well as for wounds sharply 

5. We know, O ^ayanya, thy origin, whence thou 
didst spring. How canst thou slay there, in whose 
house we offer oblations ? 

C. Stanza sung at the mid-day pressure 
of the soma. 

6. Drink stoutly, O Indra, slayer of VWtra, hero, 
of the soma in the cup, at the battle for riches ! 
Drink thy fill at the mid-day pressure ! Living in 
wealth, do thou bestow wealth upon us ! 

VII, 74. A. Charm for curing scrofulous sores 
called apa£it. 

1. We have heard it said that the mother of the 
black apaiit (pustules) is red : with the root (found 
by) the divine sage do I strike all these. 

2. I strike the foremost one of them, and I strike 
also the middlemost of them; this hindmost one 
I cut off as a flake (of wool). 

B. Charm to appease jealousy. " 

3. With Tvash/ar's charm I have sobered down 
thy jealousy; also thy anger, O lord, we have 

C. Prayer to Agni, the lord of vows. 

4. Do thou, O lord of vows, adorned with vows, 
ever benevolently here shine ! May we all, adoring 
thee, when thou hast been kindled, O G&tavedas, be 
rich in offspring ! 

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VI, 25. Charm against scrofulous sores upon 
neck and shoulders. 

1. The five and fifty (sores) that gather together 
upon the nape of the neck, from here they all shall 
pass away, as the pustules of the (disease called) 
apa£it ! 

2. The seven and seventy (sores) that gather to- 
gether upon the neck, from here they all shall pass 
away, as the pustules of the (disease called) apa^it ! 

3. The nine and ninety (sores) that gather together 
upon the shoulders, from here they all shall pass. 
away, as the pustules of the (disease called) apa^it ! 

VI, 57. Urine (falasha) as a cure for 
scrofulous sores. 

1. This, verily, is a remedy, this is the remedy of 
Rudra, with which one may charm away the arrow 
that has one shaft and a hundred points ! 

2. With ^alasha (urine) do ye wash (the tumour), 
with ^-alasha do ye sprinkle it! The ^alasha is 
a potent remedy : do thou (Rudra) with it show 
mercy to us, that we may live ! 

3. Both well-being and comfort shall be ours, and 
nothing whatever shall injure us ! To the ground 
the disease (shall fall) : may every remedy be ours, 
may all remedies be ours ! 

IV, 12. Charm with the plant arundhatl 
(laksha) for the cure of fractures. 

1. Roha»l art thou, causing to heal (roha»l), the 
broken bone thou causest to heal (roha»l): cause 
this here to heal (rohaya), O arundhati ! 

c 2 

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2. That bone of thine which, injured and burst, 
exists in thy person, Dhatar shall kindly knit to- 
gether again, joint with joint! 

3. Thy marrow shall unite with marrow, and thy 
joint (unite) with joint ; the part of thy flesh that 
has fallen off, and thy bone shall grow together 
again ! 

4. Thy marrow shall be joined together with 
marrow, thy skin grow together with skin ! Thy 
blood, thy bone shall grow, thy flesh grow together 
with flesh ! 

5. Fit together hair with hair, and fit together 
skin with skin ! Thy blood, thy bone shall grow : 
what is cut join thou together, O plant ! 

6. Do thou here rise up, go forth, run forth, (as) 
a chariot with sound wheels, firm feloe, and strong 
nave ; stand upright firmly ! 

7. If he has been injured by falling into a pit, or 
if a stone was cast and hurt him, may he (Dhatar, 
the fashioner) fit him together, joint to joint, as die 
wagoner (fo'bhu) the parts of a chariot ! 

V, 5. Charm with the plant sila^i (laksha, 
arundhatl) for the cure of wounds. 

1. The night is thy mother, the cloud thy father, 
Aryaman thy grandfather. Silail, forsooth, is thy 
name, thou art the sister of the gods. 

2. He that drinks thee lives; (that) person thou 
dost preserve. For thou art the supporter of all 
successive (generations), the refuge of men. 

3. Every tree thou dost climb, like a wench 
lusting after a man. ' Victorious,' ' firmly founded,' 
' saving,' verily, is thy name. 

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4. The wound that has been inflicted by the club, 
by the arrow, or by fire, of that thou art the cure : 
do thou cure this person here ! 

5. Upon the noble plaksha-tree (ficus infectoria) 
thou growest up, upon the arvattha (ficus religiosa), 
the khadira (acacia catechu), and the dhava (grislea 
tomentosa) ; (thou growest up) upon the noble nya- 
grodha (ficus indica, banyan-tree), and the parwa 
(butea frondosa). Come thou to us, O arundhatl ! 

6. O gold-coloured, lovely, sun-coloured, most 
handsome (plant), mayest thou come to the fracture, 
cure ! ' Cure,' verily, is thy name ! 

7. O gold-coloured, lovely, fiery (plant), with hairy 
stem, thou art the sister of the waters, O laksha, the 
wind became thy very breath. 

8. Sil£/£l is thy name, O thou that art brown as 
a goat, thy father is the son of a maiden. With 
the blood of the brown horse of Yama thou hast 
verily been sprinkled. 

9. Having dropped from the blood of the horse 
she ran upon the trees, turning into a winged brook. 
Do thou come to us, O arundhati ! 

VI, 109. The pepper-corn as a cure for wounds. 

1. The pepper-corn cures the wounds that have 
been struck by missiles, it also cures the wounds 
from stabs. Anent it the gods decreed : ' Powerful 
to secure life this (plant) shall be ! ' 

2. The pepper-corns spake to one another, as 
they came out, after having been created : ' He whom 
we shall find (as yet) alive, that man shall not suffer 
harm ! ' 

3. The Asuras did dig thee into the ground, the 

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gods cast thee up again, as a cure for disease pro- 
duced by wind (in the body), moreover as a cure for 
wounds struck by missiles. 

I, 17. Charm to stop the flow of blood. 

1. The maidens that go yonder, the veins, clothed 
in red garments, like sisters without a brother, bereft 
of strength, they shall stand still ! 

2. Stand still, thou lower one, stand still, thou 
higher one ; do thou in the middle also stand still ! 
The most tiny (vein) stands still: may then the 
great artery also stand still ! 

3. Of the hundred arteries, and the thousand 
veins, those in the middle here have indeed stood 
still. At the same time the ends have ceased (to 

4. Around you has passed a great sandy dike : 
stand ye still, pray take your ease ! 

II, 31. Charm against worms. 

1. With Indra's great mill-stone, that crushes all 
vermin, do I grind to pieces the worms, as lentils 
with a mill-stone. 

2. I have crushed the visible and the invisible 
worm, and the kururu, too, I have crushed. All the 
a\ga.ndu and the saluna, the worms, we grind to 
pieces with our charm. 

3. The algawrfu do I smite with a mighty weapon : 
those that have been burned, and those that have 
not been burned, have become devoid of strength. 
Those that are left and those that are not left do I 
destroy with my song, so that not one of the worms 
be left. 

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4. The worm which is in the entrails, and he that 
is in the head, likewise the one that is in the ribs : 
avaskava and vyadhvara, the worms, do we crush 
with (this) charm. 

5. The worms that are within the mountains, 
forests, plants, cattle, and the waters, those that 
have settled in our bodies, all that brood of the 
worms do I smite. 

II, 32. Charm against worms in cattle. 

1. The rising sun shall slay the worms, the setting 
sun with his rays shall slay the worms that are 
within the cattle ! 

2. The variegated worm, the four -eyed, the 
speckled, and the white — I crush his ribs, and I tear 
off his head. 

3. Like Atri, like Ka»va, and like (Jamadagni do 
I slay you, ye worms ! With the incantation of 
Agastya do I crush the worms to pieces. 

4. Slain is the king of the worms, and their viceroy 
also is slain. Slain is the worm, with him his mother 
slain, his brother slain, his sister slain. 

5. Slain are they who are inmates with him, slain 
are his neighbours ; moreover all the quite tiny worms 
are slain. 

6. I break off thy two horns with which thou 
deliverest thy thrusts ; I cut that bag of thine which 
is the receptacle for thy poison. 

V, 23. Charm against worms in children. 

1. I have called upon heaven and earth, I have 
called upon the goddess Sarasvati, I have called 

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upon Indra and Agni : ' they shall crush the worm,' 
(I said). 

2. Slay the worms in this boy, O Indra, lord of 
treasures ! Slain are all the evil powers by my 
fierce imprecation ! 

3. Him that moves about in the eyes, that moves 
about in the nose, that gets to the middle of the 
teeth, that worm do we crush. 

4. The two of like colour, the two of different 
colour ; the two black ones, and the two red ones ; 
the brown one, and the brown-eared one ; the (one 
like a) vulture, and the (one like a) cuckoo, are 

5. The worms with white shoulders, the black 
ones with white arms, and all those that are varie- 
gated, these worms do we crush. 

6. In the east rises the sun, seen by all, slaying 
that which is not seen ; slaying the seen and the unseen 
(worms), and grinding to pieces all the worms. 

7. The yevasha and the kashkasha, the egatka, 
and the ^ipavitnuka — the seen worm shall be slain, 
moreover the unseen shall be slain ! 

8. Slain of the worms is the yevasha, slain further 
is the nadaniman; all have I crushed down like 
lentils with a mill-stone. 

9. The worm with three heads and the one with 
three skulls, the speckled, and the white — I crush 
his ribs and I tear off his head. 

10. Like Atri, like Ka»va, and like 6amadagni 
do I slay you, ye worms ! With the incantation of 
Agastya do I crush the worms to pieces. 

n. Slain is the king of the worms, and their 
viceroy also is slain. Slain is the worm, with him 
his mother slain, his brother slain, his sister slain. 

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1 2. Slain are they who are inmates with him, slain 
are his neighbours; moreover all the quite tiny 
worms are slain. 

13. Of all the male worms, and of all the female 
worms do I split the heads with the stone, I burn 
their faces with fire. 

IV, 6. Charm against poison. 

1. The Brahmaxra. was the first to be born, with 
ten heads and ten mouths. He was the first to 
drink the soma ; that did render poison powerless. 

2. As great as heaven and earth are in extent, as 
far as the seven streams did spread, so far from here 
have I proclaimed forth this charm that destroys 

3. The eagle Garutmant did, O poison, first 
devour thee. Thou didst not bewilder him, didst 
not injure him, yea, thou didst turn into food for 

4. The five-fingered hand that did hurl upon thee 
(the arrow) even from the curved bow — from the 
point of the tearing (arrow) have I charmed away 
the poison. 

5. From the point (of the arrow) have I charmed 
away the poison, from the substance that has been 
smeared upon it, and from its plume. From its 
barbed horn, and its neck, I have charmed away the 

6. Powerless, O arrow, is thy point, and powerless 
is thy poison. Moreover of powerless wood is thy 
powerless bow, O powerless (arrow) ! 

7. They that ground (the poison), they that 
daubed it on, they that hurled it, and they that let 

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it go, all these have been rendered impotent The 
mountain that grows poisonous plants has been 
rendered impotent. 

8. Impotent are they that dig thee, impotent art 
thou, O plant! Impotent is that mountain height 
whence this poison has sprung. 

IV, 7. Charm against poison. 

1. This water (vir) in the (river) Vara»4vatl shall 
ward off (varayatai) ! Amrita. (ambrosia) has been 
poured into it: with that do I ward off (varaye) 
poison from thee. 

2. Powerless is the poison from the east, power- 
less that from the north. Moreover the poison from 
the south transforms itself into a porridge. 

3. Having made thee (the poison) that comes from 
a horizontal direction into a porridge, rich in fat, and 
cheering, from sheer hunger he has eaten thee, that 
hast an evil body : do thou not cause injury ! 

4. Thy bewildering quality (madam), O (plant ?) 
that art bewildering (mad&vati), we cause to fall like 
a reed. As a boiling pot of porridge do we remove 
thee by (our) charm. 

5. (Thee, O poison) that art, as it were, heaped 
about the village, do we cause to stand still by (our) 
charm. Stand still as a tree upon its place ; do not, 
thou that hast been dug with the spade, cause 
injury ! 

6. With broom-straw (?), garments, and also 
with skins they purchased thee : a thing for barter 
art thou, O plant ! Do not, thou that hast been dug 
with the spade, cause injury ! 

7. Those of you who were of yore unequalled in 

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the deeds which they performed — may they not 
injure here our men: for this very purpose do I 
engage you ! 

VI, 100. Ants as an antidote against poison. 

1. The gods have given, the sun has given, the 
earth has given, the three Sarasvatfs, of one mind, 
have given this poison-destroying (remedy) ! 

2. That water, O ants, which the gods poured for 
you into the dry land, with this (water), sent forth 
by the gods, do ye destroy this poison ! 

3. Thou art the daughter of the Asuras, thou art 
the sister of the gods. Sprung from heaven and 
earth, thou didst render the poison devoid of 

V, 13. Charm against snake-poison. 

1. Varu»a, the sage of heaven, verily lends (power) 
to me. With mighty charms do I dissolve thy 
poison. The (poison) which has been dug, that 
which has not been dug, and that which is inherent, 
I have held fast. As a brook in the desert thy 
poison has dried up. 

2. That poison of thine which is not fluid I have 
confined within these (serpents ?). I hold fast the sap 
that is in thy middle, thy top, and in thy bottom, too. 
May (the sap) now vanish out of thee from fright ! 

3. My lusty shout (is) as the thunder with the 
cloud: then do I smite thy (sap) with my strong 
charm. With manly strength I have held fast that 
sap of his. May the sun rise as light from the 
darkness ! 

4. With my eye do I slay thy eye, with poison 

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do I slay thy poison. O serpent, die, do not live ; 
back upon thee shall thy poison turn ! 

5. O kairata, speckled one, upatrtwya (grass- 
dweller ?), brown one, listen to me ; ye black re- 
pulsive reptiles, (listen to me) ! Do not stand upon 
the ground of my friend ; cease with your poison 
and make it known (to people ?) ! 

6. I release (thee) from the fury of the black 
serpent, the taimata, the brown serpent, the poison 
that is not fluid, the all-conquering, as the bow- 
string (is loosened) from the bow, as chariots (from 

7. Both Aligl and Viligl, both father and mother, 
we know your kin everywhere. Deprived of your 
strength what will ye do ? 

8. The daughter of uruguli, the evil one born 
with the black — of all those who have run to their 
hiding-place the poison is devoid of force. 

9. The prickly porcupine, tripping down from the 
mountain, did declare this : ' Whatsoever serpents, 
living in ditches, are here, their poison is most 
deficient in force.' 

10. Tabuvam (or) not tabuvam, thou (O serpent) 
art not tabuvam. Through tabuvam thy poison is 
bereft of force. 

1 1. Tastuvam (or) not tastuvam, thou (O serpent) 
art not tastuvam. Through tastuvam thy poison is 
bereft of force. 

VI, 12. Charm against snake-poison. 

1. As the sun (goes around) the heavens I have 
surrounded the race of the serpents. As night (puts 
to rest) all animals except the hamsa. bird, (thus) do 
I with this (charm) ward off thy poison. 

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2. With (the charm) that was found of yore by 
the Brahmans, found by the ^'shis, and found by 
the gods, with (the charm) that was, will be, and is 
now present, with this do I ward off thy poison. 

3. With honey do I mix the rivers; the moun- 
tains and peaks are honey. Honey are the rivers 
Parush«l and .Slpala. Prosperity be to thy mouth, 
prosperity to thy heart ! 

VII, 56. Charm against the poison of serpents, 
scorpions, and insects. 

1. The poison infused by the serpent that is 
striped across, by the black serpent, and by the 
adder ; that poison of the kankaparvan (' with limbs 
like a comb,' scorpion) this plant has driven out. 

2. This herb, born of honey, dripping honey, 
sweet as honey, honied, is the remedy for injuries ; 
moreover it crushes insects. 

3. Wherever thou hast been bitten, wherever 
thou hast been sucked, from there do we exorcise 
for thee the poison of the small, greedily biting 
insect, (so that it be) devoid of strength. 

4. Thou (serpent) here, crooked, without joints, 
and without limbs, that twisteth thy crooked jaws — 
mayest thou, O BWhaspati, straighten them out, as 
a (bent) reed ! 

5. The poison of the Jarko/a (scorpion) that 
creeps low upon the ground, (after he) has been 
deprived of his strength, r have taken away ; more- 
over I have caused him to be crushed. 

6. There is no strength in thy arms, in thy head, 
nor in the middle (of thy body). Then why dost 
thou so wickedly carry a small (sting) in thy tail ? 

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7. The ants devour thee, pea-hens hack thee to 
pieces. Yea, every one of you shall declare the 
poison of the jarko/a powerless ! 

8. Thou (scorpion) that strikest with both, with 
mouth as well as tail, in thy mouth there is no 
poison : then what can there be in the receptacle 
in thy tail ? 

VI, 16. Charm against ophthalmia. 

1. O abayu, (and even if) thou art not abayu, 
strong is thy juice, O abayu ! We eat a gruel, 
compounded of thee. 

2. Vihalha is thy father's name, Madavatt thy 
mother's name. Thou art verily not such, as to 
have consumed thy own self. 

3. O Tauvilika, do be quiet 1 This howling one 
has become quiet. O brown one, and brown-eared 
one, go away ! Go out, O ala ! 

4. Alasala thou art first, sila»galala thou art the 
next, nilagalasala (thou art third ?) ! 

VI, 21. Charm to promote the growth of hair. 

1. Of these three earths (our) earth verily is the 
highest From the surface of these I have now 
plucked a remedy. 

2. Thou art the most excellent of remedies, the 
best of plants, as Soma (the moon) is the lord in 
the watches of the night, as Varu«a (is king) among 
the gods. 

3. O ye wealthy, irresistible (plants), ye do 
generously bestow benefits. And ye strengthen the 
hair, and, moreover, promote its increase. 

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VI, 136. Charm with the plant nitatni 
to promote the growth of hair. 

1. As a goddess upon the goddess earth thou 
wast born, O plant ! We dig thee up, O nitatni, that 
thou mayest strengthen (the growth) of the hair. 

2. Strengthen the old (hair), beget the new! 
That which has come forth render more luxurious ! 

3. That hair of thine which does drop off, and 
that which is broken root and all, upon it do 
I sprinkle here the all-healing herb. 

VI, 137. Charm to promote the growth of hair. 

1. The (plant) that Gamadagni dug up to promote 
the growth of his daughter's hair, Vltahavya has 
brought here from the dwelling of Asita. 

2. With reins they had to be measured, with out- 
stretched arms they had to be measured out May 
thy hairs grow as reeds, may they (cluster), black, 
about thy head ! 

3. Make firm their roots, draw out their ends, 
expand their middle, O herb ! May thy hairs grow 
as reeds, may they (cluster), black, about thy head ! 

IV, 4. Charm to promote virility. 

1. Thee, the plant, which the Gandharva dug up 
for Varu«a, when his virility had decayed, thee, that 
causest strength 1 , we dig up. 

2. Ushas (Aurora), Surya (the sun), and this charm 
of mine ; the bull Pra^apati (the lord of creatures) 
shall with his lusty fire arouse him ! 

1 The original, more drastically, jepaharshanim. By a few 
changes and omissions in stanzas 3, 6, and 7 the direct simplicity 
of the original has been similarly veiled. 

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3. This herb shall make thee so very full of 
lusty strength, that thou shalt, when thou art excited, 
exhale heat as a thing on fire ! 

4. The fire of the plants, and the essence of the 
bulls shall arouse him ! Do thou, O Indra, con- 
troller of bodies, place the lusty force of men into 
this person ! 

5. Thou (O herb) art the first-born sap of the 
waters and also of the plants. Moreover thou art 
the brother of Soma, and the lusty force of the 
antelope buck ! 

6. Now, O Agni, now, O Savitar, now, O goddess 
Sarasvatt, now, O Brahmawaspati, do thou stiffen 
the pasas as a bow ! 

7. I stiffen thy pasas as a. bowstring upon the 
bow. Embrace thou (women) as the antelope buck 
the gazelle with ever unfailing (strength) ! 

8. The strength of the horse, the mule, the goat 
and the ram, moreover the strength of the bull 
bestow upon him, O controller of bodies (Indra) ! 

VI, in. Charm against mania. 

1. Release for me, O Agni, this person here, 
who, bound and well-secured, loudly jabbers ! Then 
shall he have due regard for thy share (of the offer- 
ing), when he shall be free from madness ! 

2. Agni shall quiet down thy mind, if it has been 
disturbed ! Cunningly do I prepare a remedy, that 
thou shalt be freed from madness. 

3. (Whose mind) has been maddened by the sin 
of the gods, or been robbed of sense by the Rakshas, 
(for him) do I cunningly prepare a remedy, that he 
shall be free from madness. 

4. May the Apsaras restore thee, may Indra, may 

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Bhaga restore thee ; may all the gods restore thee, 
that thou mayest be freed from madness ! 

IV, 37. Charm with the plant agasriiigi to drive 
out Rakshas, Apsaras and Gandharvas. 

1. With thee, O herb, the Atharvans first slew 
the Rakshas, with thee Kasyapa slew (them), with 
thee Kawva and Agastya (slew them). 

2. With thee do we scatter the Apsaras and Gan- 
dharvas. O a^arr/ngi (odina pinnata), goad (a^a) 
the Rakshas, drive them all away with thy smell ! 

3. The Apsaras, Guggulu, Plla, Naiad!, Auksha- 
gandhi, and Pramandanl (by name), shall go to the 
river, to the ford of the waters, as if blown away ! 
Thither do ye, O Apsaras, pass away, (since) ye 
have been recognised ! 

4. Where grow the asvattha (ficus religiosa) and 
the banyan-trees, the great trees with crowns, thither 
do ye, O Apsaras, pass away, (since) ye have been 
recognised ! 

5. Where your gold and silver swings are, where 
cymbals and lutes chime together, thither do ye, 
O Apsaras, pass away, (since) ye have been recog- 

6. Hither has come the mightiest of the plants 
and herbs. May the a^usrmgi ara/akt pierce with 
her sharp horn (tikshmamngl) ! 

7. Of the crested Gandharva, the husband of the 
Apsaras, who comes dancing hither, I crush the 
two mushkas and cut off the repas. 

8. Terrible are the missiles of Indra, with a hun- 
dred points, brazen ; with these he shall pierce the 
Gandharvas, who devour oblations, and devour the 

[42] D 

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9. Terrible are the missiles of Indra, with a hun- 
dred points, golden ; with these he shall pierce the 
Gandharvas, who devour oblations, and devour the 

10. All the Plsaias that devour the avaki-reeds, 
that burn, and spread their little light in the waters, 
do thou, O herb, crush and overcome ! 

11. One is like a dog, one like an ape. As 
a youth, with luxuriant locks, pleasant to look upon, 
the Gandharva hangs about the woman. Him do 
we drive out from here with our powerful charm. 

1 2. The Apsaras, you know, are your wives ; ye, 
the Gandharvas, are their husbands. Speed away, 
ye immortals, do not go after mortals! 

II, 9. Possession by demons of disease, cured 
by an amulet of ten kinds of wood. 

1. O (amulet) of ten kinds of wood, release this 
man from the demon (rakshas) and the fit (grahi) 
which has seized upon (^agr&ha) his joints! Do 
thou, moreover, O plant, lead him forth to the world 
of the living ! 

2. He has come, he has gone forth, he has joined 
the community of the living. And he has become 
the father of sons, and the most happy of men ! 

3. This person has come to his senses, he has 
come to the cities of the living. For he (now) has 
a hundred physicians, and also a thousand herbs. 

4. The gods have found thy arrangement, (O 
amulet); the Brahmans, moreover, the plants. All 
the gods have found thy arrangement upon the earth. 

5. (The god) that has caused (disease) shall per- 
form the cure; he is himself the best physician. 

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Let him indeed, the holy one, prepare remedies for 
thee, together with the (earthly) physician ! 

IV, 36. Charm against demons (p\s&ka) conceived 
as the cause of disease. 

1. May Agni Vaixvanara, the bull of unfailing 
strength, burn up him that is evil-disposed, and 
desires to harm us, and him that plans hostile deeds 
against us ! 

2. Between the two rows of teeth of Agni 
vanara do I place him that plans to injure us, when 
we are not planning to injure him ; and him that 
plans to injure us, when we do plan to injure him. 

3. Those who hound us in our chambers, while . 
shouting goes on in the night of the new moon, and 
the other flesh-devourers who plan to injure us, all 
of them do I overcome with might. 

4. With might I overcome the P'uaias, rob them 
of their property; all evil-disposed (demons) do 
1 slay : may my device succeed ! 

5. With the gods who vie with, and measure their 
swiftness with this sun, with those that are in the 
rivers, and in the mountains, do I, along with my 
cattle, consort 

6. I plague the PwSias as the tiger the cattle- 
owners. As dogs who have seen a lion, these do 
not find a refuge. 

7. My strength does not lie with Pi^Sias, nor 
with thieves, nor with prowlers in the forest. From 
the village which I enter the Pi$4ias vanish away. 

8. From the village which my fierce power has 
entered the Pi.ya>£as vanish away ; they do not devise 

d 2 

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9. They who irritate me with their jabber, as 
(buzzing) mosquitoes the elephant, them I regard as 
wretched (creatures), as small vermin upon people. 

10. May Nir/7ti (the goddess of destruction) take 
hold of this one, as a horse with the halter ! The 
fool who is wroth with me is not freed from (her) 

II, 25. Charm with the plant pmnipar«l against 
the demon of disease, called ka«va. 

1. The goddess Pmnipar«l has prepared pros- 
perity for us, mishap for Nirrzti (the goddess of 
destruction). For she is a fierce devourer of the 
Ka»vas : her, the mighty, have I employed. 

2. The Vrt'smparnl was first begotten power- 
ful; with her do I lop off" the heads of the evil 
brood, as (the head) of a bird. 

3. The blood-sucking demon, and him that tries 
to rob (our) health, Ka»va, the devourer of our 
offspring, destroy, O Pmnipar»f, and overcome ! 

4. These Kawvas, the effacers of life, drive into 
the mountain ; go thou burning after them like fire, 

goddess Pr*Vnipar#i ! 

5. Drive far away these Ka«vas, the effacers of 
life ! Where the dark regions are, there have 

1 made these flesh-eaters go. 

VI, 32. Charm for driving away demons (Rakshas 
and Pw&ias). 

1. Do ye well offer within the fire this oblation 
with ghee, that destroys the spook! Do thou, O 
Agni, burn from afar against the Rakshas, (but) our 
houses thou shalt not consume ! 

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2. Rudra has broken your necks, ye Visibfas : 
may he also break your ribs, ye spooks ! The plant 
whose power is everywhere has united you with 
Yama (death). 

3. Exempt from danger, O Mitra and Varu»a, 
may we here be ; drive back with your flames the 
devouring demons (Atrin) ! Neither aider, nor 
support do they find ; smiting one another they go 
to death. 

II, 4. Charm with an amulet derived from the 
£angi</a tree, against diseases and demons. 

1. Unto long life and great delights, for ever 
unharmed and vigorous, do we wear the £angi<&, as 
an amulet destructive of the vishkandha. 

2. From convulsions, from tearing pain, from 
vishkandha, and from torturing pain, the ^angirta 
shall protect us on all sides — an amulet of a thousand 
virtues ! 

3. This gzhgida. conquers the vishkandha, and 
smites the Atrin (devouring demons) ; may this all- 
healing .fangida protect us from adversity ! 

4. By means of the invigorating /angina, bestowed 
by the gods as an amulet, do we conquer in battle 
the vishkandha and all the Rakshas. 

5. May the hemp and may the^angiafa protect me 
against vishkandha ! The one (^angi^a) is brought 
hither from the forest, the other (hemp) from the 
sap of the furrow. 

6. Destruction of witchcraft is this amulet, also 
destruction of hostile powers: may the powerful 
gaiigxda. therefore extend far our lives ! 

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XIX, 34. Charm with an amulet derived from the 
^angina-tree, against diseases and demons. 

1. Thou art an Angiras, O ^angiaa, a protector 
art thou, O ^ahgu/a. All two-footed and four-footed 
creatures that belong to us the^angirfa shall protect ! 

2. The sorceries fifty-three in number, and the 
hundred performers of sorcery, all these having lost 
their force, the ga.hg\da. shall render bereft of 
strength ! 

3. Bereft of strength is the gotten-up clamour, 
bereft of strength are the seven debilitating (charms). 
Do thou, O ^angidfo, hurl away from here poverty, 
as an archer an arrow ! 

4. This gangida. is a destroyer of witchcraft, and 
also a destroyer of hostile powers. May then the 
powerful ^angida extend far our lives ! 

5. May the greatness of the ^angida protect us 
about on all sides, (the greatness) with which he has 
overcome the vishkandha (and) the sawsskandha, 
(overcoming) the powerful (disease) with power! 

6. Thrice the gods begot thee that hast grown up 
upon the earth. The Brahma«as of yore knew thee 
here by the name of Angiras. 

7. Neither the plants of olden times, nor they of 
recent times, surpass thee ; a fierce slayer is the 
gangida., and a happy refuge. 

8. And when, O gahg\da of boundless virtue, thou 
didst spring up in the days of yore, O fierce (plant), 
Indra at first placed strength in thee. 

9. Fierce Indra, verily, put might into thee, O 
lord of the forest! Dispersing all diseases, slay thou 
the Rakshas, O plant ! 

10. The breaking disease and the tearing disease, 

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the balasa, and the pain in the limbs, the takman 
that comes every autumn, may the ^angi</a render 
devoid of force ! 

XIX, 35. Charm with an amulet derived from the 
gahg\da.-tree, against diseases and demons. 

1. While uttering Indra's name the seers bestowed 
(upon men) the ^angu/a, which the gods in the 
beginning had made into a remedy, destructive of 
the vishkandha. 

2. May that gaxigxda. protect us as a treasurer his 
treasures, he whom the gods and the Brihmawas 
made into a refuge that puts to naught the hostile 
powers ! 

3. The evil eye of the hostile-minded, (and) the 
evil-doer I have approached. Do thou, O thousand- 
eyed one, watchfully destroy these ! A refuge art 
thou, O^angWa. 

4. May the ^angi^a protect me from heaven, 
protect me from earth, protect (me) from the atmos- 
phere, protect me from the plants, protect me from 
the past, as well as the future ; may he protect us 
from every direction of space ! 

5. The sorceries performed by the gods, and also 
those performed by men, may the all-healing /angina 
render them all devoid of strength ! 

VI, 85. Exorcism of disease by means of an amulet 
from the vara»a-tree. 

1. This divine tree, the vara«a, shall shut out 
(varayitai). The gods, too, have shut out (avivaran) 
the disease that hath entered into this man! 

2. By Indra's command, by Mitra's and by 

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Vanma's, by the command of all the gods do we 
shut out thy disease. 

3. As VWtra did hold fast these ever-flowing 
waters, thus do I shut out (varaye) disease from 
thee with (the help of) Agni Vauvinara. 

VI, 127. The iipudru-tree as a panacea. 

1. Of the abscess, of the balasa, of flow of blood, 
O plant ; of neuralgia, O herb, thou shalt not leave 
even a speck ! 

2. Those two boils (testicles) of thine, O balasa, 
that are fixed upon the arm-pits — I know the remedy 
for that : the iipudru-tree takes care of it. 

3. The neuralgia that is in the limbs, that is in 
the ears and in the eyes — we tear them out, the 
neuralgia, the abscess, and the pain in the heart. 
That unknown disease do we drive away downward. 

XIX, 38. The healing properties of bdellium. 

1. [Neither diseases, nor yet a curse, enters this 
person, O arundhatl!] From him that is pene- 
trated by the sweet fragrance of the healing bdellium, 
diseases flee in every direction, as antelopes and as 
horses run. 

2. Whether, O bdellium, thou comest from the 
Sindhu (Indus), or whether thou art derived from the 
sea, I have seized the qualities of both, that this 
person shall be exempt from harm. 

VI, 91. Barley and water as universal remedies. 

1. This barley they did plough vigorously, with 
yokes of eight and yokes of six. With it I drive off 
to a far distance the ailment from thy body. 

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2. Downward blows the wind, downward burns 
the sun, downward the cow is milked: downward 
shall thy ailment pass ! 

3. The waters verily are healing, the waters chase 
away disease, the waters cure all (disease) : may 
they prepare a remedy for thee ! 

VIII, 7. Hymn to all magic and medicinal plants, 
used as a universal remedy. 

1. The plants that are brown, and those that are 
white; the red ones and the speckled ones; the 
sable and the black plants, all (these) do we invoke. 

2. May they protect this man from the disease 
sent by the gods, the herbs whose father is the 
sky, whose mother is the earth, whose root is the 

3. The waters and the heavenly plants are fore- 
most; they have driven out from every limb thy 
disease, consequent upon sin. 

4. The plants that spread forth, those that are 
bushy, those that have a single sheath, those that 
creep along, do I address ; I call in thy behalf the 
plants that have shoots, those that have stalks, those 
that divide their branches, those that are derived 
from all the gods, the strong (plants) that furnish 
life to man. 

5. With the might that is yours, ye mighty ones, 
with the power and strength that is yours, with that 
do ye, O plants, rescue this man from this disease ! 
I now prepare a remedy. 

6. The plants ^ivala (' quickening'), na-gha-rishi 
(' forsooth-no-harm '),/1vantl (' living '), and the arun- 
dhatl, which removes (disease), is full of blossoms, 

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and rich in honey, do I call to exempt him from 

7. Hither shall come the intelligent (plants) that 
understand my speech, that we may bring this man 
into safety out of misery ! 

8. They that are the food of Agni (the fire), the 
offspring of the waters, that grow ever renewing 
themselves, the firm (plants) that bear a thousand 
names, the healing (plants), shall be brought hither ! 

9. The plants, whose womb is the avaka (blyxa 
octandra), whose essence are the waters, shall with 
their sharp horns thrust aside evil ! 

10. The plants which release, exempt from Varu»a 
(dropsy), are strong, and destroy poison ; those, too, 
that remove (the disease) balasa, and ward off witch- 
craft shall come hither ! 

11. The plants that have been bought, that are 
right potent, and are praised, shall protect in this 
village cow, horse, man, and cattle ! 

1 2. Honied are the roots of these herbs, honied 
their tops, honied their middles, honied their leaves, 
honied their blossoms ; they share in honey, are the 
food of immortality. May they yield ghee, and 
food, and cattle chief of all ! 

13. As many in number and in kind the plants 
here are upon the earth, may they, furnished with 
a thousand leaves, release me from death and 
misery ! 

14. Tiger-like is the amulet (made of) herbs, 
a saviour, a protector against hostile schemes : may 
it drive off far away from us all diseases and the 
Rakshas ! 

15. As if at the roar of the lion they start with 
fright, as if (at the roar) of fire they tremble before 

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the (plants) that have been brought hither. The 
diseases of cattle and men have been driven out by 
the herbs : let them pass into navigable streams ! 

1 6. The plants release us from Agni VaLsvanara. 
Spreading over the earth, go ye, whose king is the 

17. The plants, descended from Angiras, that 
grow upon the mountains and in the plains, shall be 
for us rich in milk, auspicious, comforting to the 

18. The herbs which I know, and those which 
I see with my sight ; the unknown, those which we 
know, and those which we perceive to be charged 
with (power), — 

19. All plants collectively shall note my words, 
that we may bring this man into safety out of mis- 
fortune, — 

20. The arvattha (ficus religiosa), and the darbha 
among the plants; king Soma, amrzta (ambrosia) 
and the oblation ; rice and barley, the two healing, 
immortal children of heaven ! 

21. Ye arise: it is thundering and crashing, ye 
plants, since Par^anya (the god of rain) is favouring 
you, O children of Prwni (the spotted cloud), with 
(his) seed (water). 

22. The strength of this aunrtta. (ambrosia) do 
we give this man to drink. Moreover, I prepare 
a remedy, that he may live a hundred years ! 

23. The boar knows, the ichneumon knows the 
healing plant. Those that the serpents and Gan- 
dharvas know, I call hither for help. 

24. The plants, derived from the Angiras, which 
the eagles and the heavenly ragha/s (falcons) know, 
which the birds and the flamingos know, which all 

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winged (creatures) know, which all wild animals 
know, I call hither for help. 

25. As many plants as the oxen and kine, as many 
as the goats and the sheep feed upon, so many plants, 
when applied, shall furnish protection to thee ! 

26. As many (plants), as the human physicians 
know to contain a remedy, so many, endowed with 
every healing quality, do I apply to thee ! 

27. Those that have flowers, those that have 
blossoms, those that bear fruit, and those that are 
without fruit, as if from the same mother they shall 
suck sap, to exempt this man from injury ! 

28. I have saved thee from a depth of five 
fathoms, and, too, from a depth of ten fathoms ; 
moreover, from the foot-fetter of Yama, and from 
every sin against the gods. 

VI, 96. Plants as a panacea. 

1. The many plants of hundredfold aspect, whose 
king is Soma, which have been begotten by Brt- 
haspati, shall free us from calamity! 

2. May they free us from (the calamity) conse- 
quent upon curses, and also from the (toils) of 
Varu«a; moreover, from the foot-fetter of Yama, 
and every sin against the gods ! 

3. What laws we have infringed upon, with the 
eye, the mind, and speech, either while awake, or 
asleep — may Soma by his (divine) nature clear these 
(sins) away from us ! 

II, 32. Charm to secure perfect health. 

1. From thy eyes, thy nostrils, ears, and chin — 
the disease which is seated in thy head — from thy 
brain and tongue I do tear it out. 

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2. From thy neck, nape of the neck, ribs, and 
spine — the disease which is seated in thy fore-arm — 
from thy shoulders and arms I do tear it out 

3. From thy heart, thy lungs, viscera, and sides ; 
from thy kidneys, spleen, and liver we do tear out 
the disease. 

4. From thy entrails, canals, rectum, and. abdo- 
men ; from thy belly, guts, and navel I do tear out 
the disease. 

5. From thy thighs, knees, heels, and the tips of 
thy feet — from thy hips I do tear out the disease 
seated in thy buttocks, from thy bottom the disease 
seated in thy buttocks. 

6. From thy bones, marrow, sinews and arteries ; 
from thy hands, fingers, and nails I do tear out the 

7. The disease that is in thy every limb, thy 
every hair, thy every joint ; that which is seated in 
thy skin, with Kayyapa's charm, that tears out, to 
either side we do tear it out. 

IX, 8. Charm to procure immunity from all 

1. Headache and suffering in the head, pain in 
the ears and flow of blood, every disease of the 
head, do we charm forth from thee. 

2. From thy ears, from thy kankushas the ear- 
pain, and the neuralgia — every disease of the head 
do we charm forth from thee. 

3. (With the charm) through whose agency disease 
hastens forth from the ears and the mouth — every 
disease of the head do we charm forth from thee. 

4. (The disease) that renders a man deaf and 

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blind — every disease of the head do we charm forth 
from thee. 

5. Pain in the limbs, fever in the limbs, the 
neuralgia that affects every limb — every disease of 
the head do we charm forth from thee. 

6. (The disease) whose frightful aspect makes 
man tremble, the takman (fever) that comes every 
autumn, do we charm forth from thee. 

7. The disease that creeps along the thighs, and 
then enters the canals, out of thy inner parts do we 
charm forth. 

8. If from the heart, from love, or from disgust, 
it arises, from thy heart and from thy limbs the 
balasa do we charm forth. 

9. Jaundice from thy limbs, diarrhoea from within 
thy bowels, the core of disease from thy inner soul 
do we charm forth. 

10. To ashes (asa) the balasa shall turn ; what is 
diseased shall turn to urine I The poison of all 
diseases I have charmed forth from thee. 

11. Outside the opening (of the bladder) it shall 
run off; the rumbling shall pass from thy belly! 
The poison of all diseases I have charmed forth 
from thee. 

1 2. From thy belly, lungs, navel, and heart — the 
poison of all diseases I have charmed forth from thee. 

13. (The pains) that split the crown (of the 
head), pierce the head, without doing injury, with- 
out causing disease, they shall run off outside the 
opening (of the bladder) ! 

14. They that pierce the heart, creep along the 
ribs, without doing injury, without causing disease, 
they shall run off outside the opening (of the 
bladder) ! 

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15. They that pierce the sides, bore along the ribs, 
without doing injury, without causing disease, they 
shall run off outside the opening (of the bladder) ! 

16. They that pierce crosswise, burrow in thy 
abdomen, without doing injury, without causing 
disease, they shall run off outside the opening (of 
the bladder)! 

17. They that creep along the rectum, twist the 
bowels, without doing injury, without causing disease, 
they shall run off outside the opening (of the bladder) ! 

18. They that suck the marrow, and split the 
joints, without doing injury, without causing dis- 
ease, they shall run off outside the opening (of the 
bladder) ! 

19. The diseases and the injuries that paralyse 
thy limbs, the poison of all diseases I have charmed 
forth from thee. 

20. Of neuralgia, of abscesses, of inflation, or of 
inflammation of the eyes, the poison of all diseases 
I have driven forth from thee. 

2i. From thy feet, knees, thighs, and bottom; 
from thy spine, and thy neck the piercing pains, 
from thy head the ache I have removed. 

22. Firm are the bones of thy skull, and the beat 
of thy heart At thy rising, O sun, thou didst 
remove the pains of the head, quiet the pangs in 
the limbs. 

II, 29. Charm for obtaining long life and pros- 
perity by transmission of disease. 

1. In the essence of earthly bliss, O ye gods, in 
strength of body (may he live) ! May Agni, Surya, 
Brthaspati bestow upon him life's vigour ! 

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2. Give life to him, (Jatavedas, bestow in 
addition progeny upon him, O Tvash/ar; procure, 
O Savitar, increase of wealth for him ; may this one, 
who belongs to thee, live a hundred autumns ! 

3. May our prayer bestow upon us vigour, and 
possession of sound progeny ; ability and property 
do ye two, (O heaven and earth), bestow upon us ! 
May he, conquering lands with might, (live), O Indra, 
subjecting the others, his enemies! 

4. Given by Indra, instructed by Varu»a, sent by 
the Maruts, strong, he has come to us ; may he, in 
the lap of ye two, heaven and earth, not suffer from 
hunger and not from thirst ! 

5. Strength may ye two, that are rich in strength, 
bestow upon him; milk may ye two, that are rich 
in milk, bestow upon him ! Strength heaven and 
earth did bestow upon him ; strength all the gods, 
the Maruts, and the waters. 

6. With the gracious (waters) do I delight thy 
heart, mayest thou, free from disease, full of force, 
rejoice ! Clothed in the same garment do ye two 
drink this stirred drink, taking on as a magic form 
the shape of the two Asvins ! 

7. Indra, having been wounded, first created this 
vigour, and this ever fresh divine food : that same 
belongs to thee. By means of that do thou, full of 
force, live (a hundred) autumns ; may it not flow out 
of thee : physicians have prepared it for thee ! 

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Ill, ii. Prayer for health and long life. 

i. I release thee unto life by means of (my) 
oblation, from unknown decline, and from consump- 
tion. If Grahi (seizure) has caught hold (^agraha) 
of this person here, may Indra and Agni free him 
from that ! 

2. If his life has faded, even if he has passed 
away, if he has been brought to the very vicinity of 
death, I snatch him from the lap of Nirrzti (the 
goddess of destruction) : I have freed him unto a 
life of a hundred autumns. 

3. I have snatched him (from death) by means of 
an oblation which has a thousand eyes, hundredfold 
strength, and ensures a hundredfold life, in order 
that Indra may conduct him through the years across 
to the other side of every misfortune. 

4. Live thou, thriving a hundred autumns, a hun- 
dred winters, and a hundred springs ! May Indra, 
Agni, Savitar, Brzhaspati (grant) thee a hundred 
years! I have snatched him (from death) with an 
oblation that secures a life of a hundred years. 

5. Enter ye, O in-breathing and out-breathing, as 
two bulls a stable ! Away shall go the other deaths, 
of which, it is said, there are a hundred more ! 

6. Remain ye here, O in-breathing and out- 

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breathing, do not go away from here; do ye carry 
anew to old age his body and his limbs ! 

7. To old age I make thee over, into old age 
I urge thee ; may a happy old age guide thee ! 
Away shall go the other deaths, of which, it is said, 
there are a hundred more ! 

8. Upon thee (life unto) old age has been deposited, 
as a rope is tied upon a bull. That death which has 
fettered thee at thy birth with a firm rope, Brzhas- 
pati with the hands of the truth did strip off" from 


II, 28. Prayer for long life pronounced over 
a boy. 

1. For thee alone, O (death from) old age, this 
(boy) shall grow' up: the other hundred kinds of 
death shall not harm him ! Like a provident mother 
in her lap Mitra shall befriend him, shall save him 
from misfortune! 

2. May Mitra or Varuwa, the illustrious, co- 
operating, grant him death from old age ! Then 
Agni, the priest, who knows the ways, promulgates 
all the races of the gods. 

3. Thou, (O Agni), rulest over all the animals of 
the earth, those which have been born, and those 
which are to be born : may not in-breathing leave 
this one, nor yet out-breathing, may neither friends 
nor foes slay him ! 

4. May father Dyaus (sky) and mother Przthivi 
(earth), co-operating, grant thee death from old 
age, that thou mayest live in the lap of Aditi a 
hundred winters, guarded by in-breathing and out- 
breathing ! 

5. Lead this dear child to life and vigour, O Agni, 

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Varu«a, and king Mitra! As a mother afford him 
protection, O Aditi, and all ye gods, that he may 
attain to old age ! 

III, 31. Prayer for health and long life. 

1. The gods are free from decrepitude; thou, 

Agni, art removed from the demon of hostility. 

1 free thee from all evil and disease, (and) unite 
thee with life. 

2. (VSyu), the purifying (wind), shall free thee 
from misfortune, .Sakra (Indra) from evil sorcery ! 
I free thee from all evil and disease, (and) unite 
thee with life. 

3. The tame (village) animals are separate from 
the wild (forest animals); the water has flowed 
apart from thirst I free thee from all evil and 
disease, (and) unite thee with life. 

4. Heaven and earth here go apart; the paths 
go in every direction. I free thee from all evil and 
disease, (and) unite thee with life. 

5. ' Tvash/ar is preparing a wedding for his 
daughter,' thus (saying) does this whole world pass 
through. I free thee from all evil and disease, (and) 
unite thee with life. 

6. Agni unites (life's) breaths, the moon is united 
with (life's) breath. I free thee from all evil and 
disease, (and) unite thee with life. 

7. By means of (life's) breath the gods aroused 
the everywhere mighty sun. I free thee from all 
evil and disease, (and) unite thee with life. 

8. Live thou by the (life's) breath of them that 
have life, and that create life; do not die! I free 
thee from all evil and disease, (and) unite thee with 

E 2 

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9. Breathe thou with the (life's) breath of those 
that breathe ; do not die ! I free thee from all evil 
and disease, (and) unite thee with life. 

10. Do thou (rise) up with life, unite thyself with 
life, (rise) up with the sap of the plants ! I free 
thee from all evil and disease, (and) unite thee with 

1 1 . From the rain of Par^anya we have risen up, 
immortal. I free thee from all evil and disease, 
(and) unite thee with life. 

VII, 53. Prayer for long life. 

1. When, O Brzhaspati, thou didst liberate (us) 
from existence in yonder world of Yama, (and) 
from hostile schemes, then did the Asvins, the 
physicians of the gods, with might sweep death 
from us, O Agni ! 

2. O in-breathing and out-breathing, go along 
with the body, do not leave it: may they be thy 
allies here ! Live and thrive a hundred autumns ; 
Agni shall be thy most excellent shepherd and 
overseer ! 

3. Thy vital force that has been dissipated afar, 
thy in-breathing and thy out-breathing, shall come 
back again ! Agni has snatched them from the lap 
of Nirmi (the goddess of destruction), and I again 
introduce them into thy person. 

4. Let not his in-breathing desert him, nor his 
out-breathing quit him and depart! I commit him 
to the Seven ./?*shis : may they convey him in 
health to old age ! 

5. Enter, O in-breathing and out-breathing, like 
two bulls into a stable : this person shall here 
flourish, an unmolested repository for old age ! 

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6. Life's breath we do drive into thee, disease we 
do drive away from thee. May this excellent Agni 
endow us with life from every source ! 

7. Ascending from the darkness of death to the 
highest firmament, to Surya (the sun), the god 
among gods, we have reached the highest light. 

VIII, 1. Prayer for exemption from the dangers 

of death. 

1. To the ' Ender,' to Death be reverence ! May 
thy in-breathing and thy out-breathing remain here ! 
United here with (life's) spirit this man shall be, 
sharing in the sun, in the world of immortality 
(amr/ta) ! 

2. Bhaga has raised him up, Soma with his rays 
(has raised) him up, the Maruts, the gods, (have 
raised) him up, Indra and Agni (have raised) him 
up unto well-being. 

3. Here (shall be) thy (life's) spirit, here thy in- 
breathing, here thy life, here thy mind ! We rescue 
thee from the toils of Nirmi (destruction) by means 
of our divine utterance. 

4. Rise up hence, O man ! Casting off the foot- 
shackles of death, do not sink down ! Be not cut off 
from this world, from the sight of Agni and the sun ! 

5. The wind, MatarLrvan, shall blow for thee, the 
waters shall shower amn'ta (ambrosia) upon thee, 
the sun shall shine kindly for thy body! Death 
shall pity thee : do not waste away ! 

6. Thou shalt ascend and not descend, O man! 
Life and alertness do I prepare for thee. Mount, 
forsooth, this imperishable, pleasant car; then in 
old age thou shalt hold converse with thy family ! 

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7. Thy mind shall not go thither, shall not dis- 
appear! Do not become heedless of the living, do 
not follow the Fathers ! All the gods shall preserve 
thee here ! 

8. Do not long after the departed, who conduct 
(men) afar ! Ascend from the darkness, come to the 
light ! We lay hold of thy hands. 

9. The two dogs of Yama, the black and the 
brindled one, that guard the road (to heaven), that 
have been despatched, shall not (go after) thee ! 
Come hither, do not long to be away; do not tarry 
here with thy mind turned to a distance ! 

10. Do not follow this path : it is terrible ! I speak 
of that by which thou hast not hitherto gone. 
Darkness is this, O man, do not enter it ! Danger 
is beyond, security here for thee. 

11. May the fires that are within the waters 
guard thee, may (the fire) which men kindle guard 
thee, may (Jatavedas Vai-rvanara (the fire common 
to all men) guard thee ! Let not the heavenly (fire) 
together with the lightning burn thee ! 

12. Let not the flesh-devouring (fire) menace 
thee : move afar from the funeral pyre ! Heaven 
shall guard thee, the earth shall guard thee, the sun 
and moon shall guard thee, the atmosphere shall 
guard thee against the divine missile ! 

13. May the alert and the watchful divinities 
guard thee, may he that sleeps not and nods not 
guard thee, may he that protects and is vigilant 
guard thee! 

14. They shall guard thee, they shall protect 
thee. Reverence be to them. Hail be to them ! 

15. Into converse with the living Vayu, Indra, 
Dhatar, and saving Savitar shall put thee ; breath 

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and strength shall not leave thee ! Thy (life's) 
spirit do we call back to thee. 

16. Convulsions that draw the jaws together, 
darkness, shall not come upon thee, nor (the demon) 
that tears out the tongue (?) ! How shalt thou then 
waste away? The Adityas and Vasus, Indra and 
Agni shall raise thee up unto well-being I 

1 7. The heavens, the earth, Pra^apati, have 
rescued thee. The plants with Soma their king 
have delivered thee from death. 

18. Let this man remain right here, ye gods, let 
him not depart hence to yonder world ! We rescue 
him from death with (a charm) of thousandfold 

19. I have delivered thee from death. The 
(powers) that furnish strength shall breathe upon 
thee. The (mourning women) with dishevelled 
hair, they that wail lugubriously, shall not wail 
over thee! 

20. I have snatched thee (from death), I have 
obtained thee ; thou hast returned with renewed 
youth. O thou, that art (now) sound of limb, for 
thee sound sight, and sound life have I obtained. 

21. It has shone upon thee, light has arisen, 
darkness has departed from thee. We remove from 
thee death, destruction, and disease. 

VIII, 2. Prayer for exemption from the dangers 

of death. 

1. Take hold of this (charm) that subjects to 
immortality (life), may thy life unto old age not be 
cut off! I bring to thee anew breath and life: go 
not to mist and darkness, do not waste away ! 

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2. Come hither to the light of the living; I rescue 
thee unto a life of a hundred autumns ! Loosing the 
bands of death and imprecation, I bestow upon thee 
long life extended very far. 

3. From the wind thy breath I have obtained, 
from the sun thine eye ; thy soul I hold fast in thee : 
be together with thy limbs, speak articulating with 
thy tongue ! 

4. With the breath of two-footed and four-footed 
creatures I blow upon thee, as on Agni when he is 
born (as on fire when kindled). I have paid rever- 
ence, O death, to thine eye, reverence to thy breath. 

5. This (man) shall live and shall not die : we 
rouse this man (to life) ! I make for him a remedy : 

death, do not slay the man ! 

6. The plant ^tvala ('quickening'), na-gha-risha 
(' forsooth-no-harm '), and ^tvantl (' living '), a victo- 
rious, mighty saviour-plant do I invoke, that he may 
be exempt from injury. 

7. Befriend him, do not seize him, let him go, 
(O death); though he be thy very own, let him 
abide here with unimpaired strength ! O Bhava and 
.Sarva, take pity, grant protection ; misfortune drive 
away, and life bestow ! 

8. Befriend him, death, and pity him : may he from 
here arise! Unharmed, with sound limbs, hearing 
perfectly, through old age carrying a hundred years, 
let him get enjoyment by himself (unaided) ! 

9. The missile of the gods shall pass thee by ! 

1 pass thee across the mist (of death) ; from death 
I have rescued thee. Removing far the flesh- 
devouring Agni, a barrier do I set around thee, 
that thou mayest live. 

10. From thy misty road that cannot be withstood, 

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O death, from this path (of thine) we guard this 
(man), and make our charm a protection for him. 

ii. In-breathing and out-breathing do I prepare 
for thee, death in old age, long life, and prosperity. 
All the messengers of Yama, that roam about, dis- 
patched by Vivasvant's son, do I drive away. 

12. Arati (grudge), Nirmi (destruction), Grahi 
(seizure), and the flesh-devouring Pi^a^as (do we 
drive) away to a distance, and hurl all wicked 
Rakshas away into darkness as it were. 

13. I crave thy life's breath from the immortal, 
life-possessing Agni G&tavedas. That thou shalt 
not take harm, shalt be immortal in (Agni's) com- 
pany, that do I procure for thee, and that shall be 
fulfilled for thee ! 

14. May heaven and earth, the bestowers of hap- 
piness, be auspicious and harmless to thee; may 
the sun shine, and the wind blow comfort to thy 
heart ; may the heavenly waters, rich in milk, flow 
upon thee kindly! 

15. May the plants be auspicious to thee ! I have 
raised thee from the lower to the upper earth : there 
may both the Adityas, the sun and the moon, pro- 
tect thee. 

16. Whatever garment for clothing, or whatever 
girdle thou makest for thyself, agreeable to thy 
body do we render it ; not rough to thy touch shall 
it be! 

1 7. When thou, the barber, shearest with thy sharp 
well-whetted razor our hair and beard, do not, while 
cleansing our face, rob us of our life ! 

18. Rice and barley shall be auspicious to thee, 
causing no balasa, inflicting no injury! They two 
drive away disease, they two release from calamity. 

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19. Whatever thou eatest or drinkest, the grain 
of the plough-land or milk, whatever is or is not to 
be eaten, all that food do I render for thee free 
from poison. 

20. To day and to night both do we commit thee : 
from the demons that seek to devour, do ye preserve 
this (man) for me ! 

2i. A hundred years, ten thousand years, two, 
three, four ages (yuga) do we allot to thee ; Indra 
and Agni, and all the gods without anger shall 
favour thee ! 

22. To autumn thee, to winter, spring and summer, 
do we commit ; the rains in which grow the plants 
shall be pleasant to thee ! 

23. Death rules over bipeds, death rules over 
quadrupeds. From that death, the lord of cattle, 
do I rescue thee : do not fear ! 

24. Free from harm thou shalt not die ; thou 
shalt not die: do not fear! Verily, they do not 
die there, they do not go to the nethermost dark- 
ness ; — 

25. Verily, every creature lives there, the cow, 
the horse, and man, where this charm is performed, 
as the (protecting) barrier for life. 

26. May it preserve thee from sorcery, from thy 
equals and thy kin ! Undying be, immortal, exceed- 
ingly vital ; thy spirits shall not abandon thy body ! 

27. From the one and a hundred deaths, from 
the dangers that are surmountable, from that Agni 
Vafovanara (the funeral pyre ?) may the gods deliver 
thee ! 

28. Thou, the remedy called putudru, art the body 
of Agni, the deliverer, slayer of Rakshas, slayer of 
rivals, moreover thou chasest away disease. 

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V, 30. Prayer for exemption from disease and 


1. From near thy vicinity, from near thy distance 
(do I call) : remain here, do not follow ; do not 
follow the Fathers of yore ! Firmly do 1 fasten thy 
life's breath. 

2. Whatever sorcery any kinsman or stranger has 
practised against thee, both release and deliverance 
with my voice do I declare for thee. 

3. If thou hast deceived or cursed a woman or 
a man in thy folly, both release and deliverance 
with my voice do I declare for thee. 

4. If thou liest (ill) in consequence of a sin com- 
mitted by thy mother or thy father, both release 
and deliverance with my voice do I declare for 

5. Fight shy of the medicine which thy mother 
and thy father, thy sister and thy brother let out 
against thee : I shall cause thee to live unto old 

6. Remain here, O man, with thy entire soul ; do 
not follow the two messengers of Yama : come to 
the abodes of the living ! 

7. Return when called, knowing the outlet of the 
path (death), the ascent, the advance, the road of 
every living man ! 

8. Fear not, thou shalt not die: I shall cause 
thee to live unto old age! I have charmed away 
from thy limbs the disease that wastes the limbs. 

9. The disease that racks and wastes thy limbs, 
and the sickness in thy heart, has flown as an eagle 
to a far distance, overcome by my charm. 

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10. The two sages Alert and Watchful, the sleep- 
less and the vigilant, these two guardians of thy 
life's breath, are awake both day and night 

1 1. Agni here is to be revered ; the sun shall rise 
here for thee : rise thou from deep death, yea from 
black darkness ! 

1 2. Reverence be to Yama, reverence to death ; 
reverence to the Fathers and to those that lead (to 
them) [death's messengers ?] ! That Agni who knows 
the way to save do I engage for this man, that he 
be exempt from harm ! 

13. His breath shall come, his soul shall come, 
his sight shall come, and, too, his strength ! His 
body shall collect itself: then shall he stand firm 
upon his feet ! 

14. Unite him, Agni, with breath and sight, pro- 
vide him with a body and with strength! Thou 
hast a knowledge of immortality : let him not now 
depart, let him not now become a dweller in a house 
of clay ! 

15. Thy in-breathing shall not cease, thy out- 
breathing shall not vanish ; Surya (the sun), the 
supreme lord, shall raise thee from death with his 

16. This tongue (of mine), bound (in the mouth, 
yet) mobile, speaks within : with it I have charmed 
away disease, and the hundred torments of the 
takman (fever). 

17. This world is most dear to the gods, uncon- 
quered. For whatever death thou wast destined 
when thou wast born, O man, that (death) and we 
call after thee : do not die before old age ! 

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IV, 9. Salve (a%ana) as a protector of life and 


1. Come hither! Thou art the living, protecting 
eye-ointment of the mountain, given by all the gods 
as a safeguard, unto life. 

2. Thou art a protection for men, a protection 
for cattle, thou didst stand for the protection of 
horses and steeds. 

3. Thou art, O salve, both a protection that 
crushes the sorcerers, and thou hast knowledge of 
immortality (amma). Moreover, thou art food for 
the living, and thou art, too, a remedy against 

4. From him over whose every limb and every 
joint thou passest, O salve, thou dost, as a mighty 
intercepter, drive away disease. 

5. Him that bears thee, O salve, neither curse, 
nor sorcery, nor burning pain does reach ; nor does 
the vishkandha come upon him. 

6. From evil scheme, from troubled dream, from 
evil deed, and also from foulness ; from the evil eye 
of the enemy, from this protect us, O salve ! 

7. Knowing this, O salve, I shall speak the truth, 
avoid falsehood. May I obtain horses and cattle, 
and thy person, O serving-man ! 

8. Three are servants of the salve : the takman 
(fever), the balasa, and the serpent. The highest 
of the mountains, Trikakud (' Three-peaks ') by 
name, is thy father. 

9. Since the salve of Trikakud is born upon the 
Himavant, it shall demolish all the wizards and all 
the witches. 

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10. Whether thou art derived from the (mountain) 
Trikakud, or art said to come from the (river) 
Yamuna, both these names of thine are auspicious : 
with these, O salve, protect us ! 

IV, 10. The pearl and its shell as an amulet 
bestowing long life and prosperity. 

i. Born of the wind, the atmosphere, the light- 
ning, and the light, may this pearl shell, born of 
gold, protect us from straits! 

2. With the shell which was born in the sea, at 
the head of bright substances, we slay the Rakshas 
and conquer the Atrins (devouring demons). 

3. With the shell (we conquer) disease and 
poverty; with the shell, too, the Sadanvas. The 
shell is our universal remedy; the pearl shall pro- 
tect us from straits ! 

4. Born in the heavens, born in the sea, brought 
on from the river (Sindhu), this shell, born of gold, 
is our life-prolonging amulet 

5. The amulet, born from the sea, a sun, born 
from VWtra (the cloud), shall on all sides protect 
us from the missiles of the gods and the Asuras ! 

6. Thou art one of the golden substances, thou 
art born from Soma (the moon). Thou art sightly 
on the chariot, thou art brilliant on the quiver. 
[May it prolong our lives!] 

7. The bone of the gods turned into pearl ; that, 
animated, dwells in the waters. That do I fasten 
upon thee unto life, lustre, strength, longevity, unto 
a life lasting a hundred autumns. May the (amulet) 
of pearl protect thee ! 

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XIX, 26. Gold as an amulet for long life. 

1 . The gold which is born from fire, the immortal, 
they bestowed upon the mortals. He who knows 
this deserves it ; of old age dies he who wears it. 

2. The gold, (endowed by) the sun with beautiful 
colour, which the men of yore, rich in descendants, 
did desire, may it gleaming envelop thee in lustre ! 
Long-lived becomes he who wears it ! 

3. (May it envelop) thee unto (long) life, unto 
lustre, unto force, and unto strength, that thou shalt 
by the brilliancy of the gold shine forth among 
people ! 

4. (The gold) which king Varu»a knows, which 
god BWhaspati knows, which Indra, the slayer of 
VWtra, knows, may that become for thee a source 
of life, may that become for thee a source of lustre ! 

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I, 7. Against sorcerers and demons. 

1. The sorcerer (yatudhana) that vaunts himself, 
and the Kimldin do thou, O Agni, convey hither ! 
For thou, O god, when lauded, becomest the de- 
stroyer of the demon. 

2. Partake of the ghee, of the sesame-oil, O Agni 
(Jatavedas, that standest on high, conquerest by 
thyself! Make the sorcerers howl ! 

3. The sorcerers and the devouring (atrin) Kiml- 
din shall howl ! Do ye, moreover, O Agni and 
Indra, receive graciously this our oblation ! 

4. Agni shall be the first to seize them, Indra 
with his (strong) arms shall drive them away! 
Every wizard, as soon as he comes, shall proclaim 
himself, saying, ' I am he' ! 

5. We would see thy might, O G&tavedas ; dis- 
close to us the wizards, O thou that beholdest men ! 
May they all, driven forth by thy fire, disclosing 
themselves, come to this spot ! 

6. Seize hold, O G&tavedas : for our good thou 
wast born ! Become our messenger, O Agni, and 
make the sorcerers howl ! 

7. Do thou, O Agni, drag hither the sorcerers, 
bound in shackles ; then Indra with his thunderbolt 
shall cut off their heads ! 

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I, 8. Against sorcerers and demons. 

1. May this oblation carry hither the sorcerers, as 
a river (carries) foam ! The man or the woman 
whp has performed this (sorcery), that person shall 
here proclaim himself! 

2. This vaunting (sorcerer) has come hither: 
receive him with alacrity ! O BWhaspati, put him 
into subjection ; O Agni and Soma, pierce him 

3. Slay the offspring of the sorcerer, O soma- 
drinking (Indra), and subject (him) ! Make drop 
out the farther and the nearer eye of the braggart 
(demon) ! 

4. Wherever, O Agni <7atavedas, thou perceivest 
the brood of these hidden devourers (atrin), do thou, 
mightily strengthened by our charm, slay them : slay 
their (brood), O Agni, piercing them a hundredfold ! 

I, 16. Charm with lead, against demons and 

1. Against the devouring demons who, in the 
night of the full-moon, have arisen in throngs, may 
Agni, the strong, the slayer of the sorcerers, give us 
courage ! 

2. To the lead Varu«a gives blessing, to the lead 
Agni gives help. Indra gave me the lead : unfail- 
ingly it dispels sorcery. 

3. This (lead) overcomes the vishkandha, this 
smites the devouring demons (atrin) ; with this I 
have overwhelmed all the brood of the Pua^as. 

4. If thou slayest our cow, if our horse or our 

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domestic, we pierce thee with the lead, so that thou 
shalt not slay our heroes. 

VI, 2. The soma-oblation directed against 
demons (rakshas). 

i. Press the soma, ye priests, and rinse, it (for 
renewed pressing), in behalf of Indra who shall 
listen to the song of the worshipper, and to my 

2. Do thou, O doughty (Indra), whom the drops 
of soma enter as birds a tree, beat off the hostile 
brood of the Rakshas ! 

3. Press ye the soma for Indra, the soma-drinker, 
who wields the thunderbolt ! A youthful victor and 
ruler is he, praised by many men. 

II, 14. Charm against a variety of female demons, 
conceived as hostile to men, cattle, and home. 

1. Nissala, the bold, the greedy demon (?dhi- 
sha»a), and (the female demon) with long-drawn 
howl, the bloodthirsty ; all the daughters of Aawda, 
the Sadinvas do we destroy. 

2. We drive you out of the stable, out of the axle 
(of the wagon), and the body of the wagon ; we 
chase you, O ye daughters of Magundi, from the 

3. In yonder house below, there the grudging 
demons (arayl) shall exist ; there ruin shall prevail, 
and all the witches ! 

4. May (Rudra), the lord of beings, and Indra, 
drive forth from here the Sadanvas ; those that are 
seated on the foundation of the house Indra shall 
overcome with his thunderbolt ! 

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5. Whether ye belong to (the demons) of inherited 
disease, whether ye have been dispatched by men, 
or whether ye have originated from the Dasyus 
(demon-like aborigines), vanish from here, O ye 
Sadanvls ! 

6. About their dwelling-places I did swiftly 
course, as if on a race-course. I have won all 
contests with you : vanish from here, O ye Sa- 
danvas ! 

Ill, 9. Against vishkandha and kabava (hostile 

1. Of karcapha and vlsapha heaven is the father 
and earth the mother. As, ye gods, ye have 
brought on (the trouble), thus do ye again re- 
move it! 

2. Without fastening they (the protecting plants?) 
held fast, thus it has been arranged by Manu. The 
vishkandha do I render impotent, like one who 
gelds cattle. 

3. A talisman tied to a reddish thread the active 
(seers) then do fasten on : may the fastenings render 
impotent the eager, fiery kabava ! 

4. And since, O ye eager (demons), ye walk like 
gods by the wile of the Asuras, the fastening (of the 
amulet) is destructive to the kabava, as the ape to 
the dog. 

5. I revile thee, the kabava, unto misfortune, 
(and) shall work harm for thee. Accompanied with 
curses ye shall go out like swift chariots ! 

6. A hundred and one vishkandha are spread out 
along the earth; for these at the beginning they 
brought out thee, the amulet, that destroys vi- 

F 2 

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IV, 20. Charm with a certain plant (sadawpushpa) 
which exposes demons and enemies. 

1. He sees here, he sees yonder, he sees in the 
distance, he sees — the sky, the atmosphere as well 
as the earth, all that, O goddess, he sees. 

2. The three heavens, the three earths, and these 
six directions severally ; all creatures may I see 
through thee, O divine plant ! 

3. Thou art verily the eyeball of the divine 
eagle; thou didst ascend the earth as a weary 
woman a palanquin. 

4. The thousand-eyed god shall put this plant 
into my right hand : with that do I see every one, 
the .Sudra as well as the Arya. 

5. Reveal (all) forms, do not hide thy own self; 
moreover, do thou, O thousand-eyed (plant), look 
the Kimtdins in the face ! 

6. Reveal to me the wizards, and reveal the 
witches, reveal all the Pisa&is : for this purpose do 
I take hold of thee, O plant ! 

7. Thou art the eye of Kayyapa, and the eye of 
the four-eyed bitch. Like the sun, moving in the 
bright day, make thou the PisSJta. evident to me ! 

8/ I have dragged out from his retreat the sor- 
cerer and the Kimidin. Through this (charm) do I 
see every one, the .Sudra as well as the Arya. 

9. Him that flies in the air, him that moves across 
the sky, him that regards the earth as his resort, 
that Pisa&i do thou reveal (to me) ! 

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IV, 1 7. Charm with the ap£marga-plant, against 
sorcery, demons, and enemies. 

1. We take hold, O victorious one, of thee, the 
mistress of remedies. I have made thee a thing of 
thousandfold strength for every one, O plant ! 

2. Her, the unfailingly victorious one, that wards 
off curses, that is powerful and defensive ; (her and) 
all the plants have I assembled, intending that she 
shall save us from this (trouble) ! 

3. The woman who has cursed us with a curse, who 
has arranged dire misfortune (for us), who has taken 
hold of our children, to rob them of their strength — 
may she eat (her own) offspring ! 

4. The magic spell which they have put into the 
unburned vessel, that which they have put into the 
blue and red thread, that which they have put into 
raw flesh, with these slay thou those that have 
prepared the spell ! 

5. Evil dreams, troubled life, Rakshas, gruesome- 
ness, and grudging demons (arayi), all the evil- 
named, evil-speaking (powers), these do we drive 
out from us. 

6. Death from hunger, and death from thirst, 
poverty in cattle, and failure of offspring, all that, 
O apamarga, do we wipe out (apa mr^mahe) with 

7. Death from thirst, and death from hunger, 
moreover, ill-luck at dice, all that, O apamarga, do 
we wipe out with thee. 

8. The apamarga is sole ruler over all plants, 
with it do we wipe mishap from thee : do thou then 
live exempt from disease ! 

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IV, 1 8. Charm with the apamarga-plant, against 
sorcerers and demons. 

i . Night is like unto the sun, the (starry) night is 
similar to day. The truth do I engage for help: 
the enchantments shall be devoid of force ! 

2. He, O ye gods, who prepares a spell, and 
carries it to the house of one that knows not (of it), 
upon him the spell, returning, shall fasten itself like 
a suckling calf upon its mother ! 

3. The person that prepares evil at home, and 
desires with it to harm another, she is consumed by 
fire, and many stones fall upon her with a loud 

4. Bestow curses, O thou (apamarga), that hast 
a thousand homes, upon the (demons) vwikha 
(' crestless '), and vigriva (' crooked-neck ') ! Turn 
back the spell upon him that has performed it, as 
a beloved maid (is brought) to her lover ! 

5. With this plant I have put to naught all spells, 
those that they have put into thy field, thy cattle, 
and into thy domestics. 

6. He that has undertaken them has not been 
able to accomplish them : he broke his foot, his toe. 
He performed a lucky act for us, but for himself 
an injury. 

7. The apamarga-plant shall wipe out (apa 
marsh/u) inherited ills, and curses ; yea, it shall 
wipe out all witches, and all grudging demons 
(arayi) ! 

8. Having wiped out all sorcerers, and all grudg- 
ing demons, with thee, O apamarga, we wipe all 
that (evil) out. 

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IV, 19. Mystic power of the apamarga-plant, 
against demons and sorcerers. 

1 . On the one hand thou deprivest of kin, on the 
other thou now procurest kinfolk. Do thou, more- 
over, cut the offspring of him that practises spells, 
as a reed that springs up in the rain ! 

2. By a Brahma#a thou hast been blest, by 
Ka«va, the descendant of Nr/shad. Thou goest 
like a strong army ; where thou hast arrived, O 
plant, there there is no fear. 

3. Thou goest at the head of the plants, spread- 
ing lustre, as if with a light. Thou art on the one 
hand the protector of the weak, on the other the 
slayer of the Rakshas. 

4. When of yore, in the beginning, the gods drove 
out the Asuras with thee, then, O plant, thou wast 
begotten as apamarga (' wiping out '). 

5. Thou cuttest to pieces (vibhindatl), and hast 
a hundred branches; vibhindant ('cutting to pieces') 
is thy father's name. Do thou (turn) against, and 
cut to pieces (vi bhindhi) him that is hostile to- 
wards us ! 

6. Non-being arose from the earth, that goes to 
heaven, (as) a great expansion. Thence, verily, 
that, spreading vapours, shall turn against the per- 
former (of spells) ! 

7. Thou didst grow backward, thou hast fruit 
which is turned backward. Ward off from me all 
curses, ward off very far destructive weapons ! 

8. Protect me with a hundredfold, guard me with 
a thousandfold (strength)! Indra, the strong, shall 
put strength into thee, O prince of plants ! 

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VII, 65. Charm with the apamarga-plant, against 
curses, and the consequences of sinful deeds. 

1. With fruit turned backward thou verily didst 
grow, O apamarga : do thou .drive all curses quite 
far away from here ! 

2. The evil deeds and foul, or the sinful acts 
which we have committed, with thee, O apamarga, 
whose face is turned to every side, do we wipe them 
out (apa mrz^mahe). 

3. If we have sat together with one who has 
black teeth, or diseased nails, or one who is de- 
formed, with thee, O apamarga, we wipe all that 
out (apa mra^mahe). 

X, 1. Charm to repel sorceries or spells. 

1. The (spell) which they skilfully prepare, as 
a bride for the wedding, the multiform (spell), 
fashioned by hand, shall go to a distance : we drive 
it away ! 

2. The (spell) that has been brought forward by 
the fashioner of the spell, that is endowed with 
head, endowed with nose, endowed with ears, and 
multiform, shall go to a distance : we drive it away ! 

3. (The spell) that has been prepared by a .Sudra, 
prepared by a Ra^a, prepared by a woman, prepared 
by Brahmans, as a wife rejected by her husband, 
shall recoil upon her fabricator, (and) his kin ! 

4. With this herb have I destroyed all spells, that 
which they have put into thy field, into thy cattle, 
and into thy men. 

5. Evil be to him that prepares evil, the curse shall 
recoil upon him that utters curses : back do we hurl 

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it against him, that it may slay him that fashions 
the spell. 

6. Prati^lna (' Back-hurler '), the descendant of 
Angiras, is our overseer and officiator (purohita) : 
do thou drive back again (pratiil^) the spells, and 
slay yonder fashioners of the spells ! 

7. He that has said to thee (the spell) : ' go on ' ! 
upon that enemy, that antagonist do thou turn, 
O spell : do not seek out us, that are harmless ! 

8. He that has fitted together thy joints with 
skill, as the wagoner (J&bhu) the joints of a chariot, 
to him go, there is thy course : this person here 
shall remain unknown to thee ! 

9. They that have prepared thee and taken hold 
of thee, the cunning wizards — this is what cures it, 
destroys the spell, drives it back the opposite way : 
with it do we bathe thee. 

10. Since we have come upon the wretched (spell), 
as upon (a cow) with a dead calf, flooded away (by 
a river), may all evil go away from me, and may 
possessions come to me ! 

11. If (thy enemies) have made (offerings) to thy 
Fathers, or have called thy name at the sacrifice, 
may these herbs free thee from every indigenous 
evil ! 

12. From the sin of the gods, and that of the 
fathers, from mentions of (thy) name, from (evil 
schemes) concocted at home, may the herbs free 
thee with might, through (this) charm, (and these) 
stanzas, (that are) the milk of the /frshis ! 

1 3. As the wind stirs up the dust from the earth, 
and the cloud from the atmosphere, thus may all 
misfortune, driven by my charm, go away from me ! 

14. Stride away (O spell), like a loudly braying 

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she-ass, that has been loosened (from the tether) ; 
reach those that have fabricated thee, driven from 
here by (my) forceful charm ! 

15. ' This is the way, O spell,' with these words 
do we lead thee. Thee that hast been sent out 
against us do we send back again. Go this way 
like a crushing army, with heavy carts, thou that art 
multiform, and crowned by a crest (?) ! 

16. In the distance there is light for thee, hither- 
ward there is no road for thee ; away from us take 
thy course! By another road cross thou ninety 
navigable streams, hard to cross! Do not injure, 
go away ! 

17. As the wind the trees, crush down and fell 
(the enemy), leave them neither cow, nor horse, nor 
serving-man! Turn from here upon those that 
have fabricated thee, O spell, awaken them to 
childlessness ! 

1 8. The spell or the magic which they have 
buried against thee in the sacrificial straw (barhis), 
in the field, (or) in the burial-ground, or if with 
superior skill they have practised sorcery against 
thee, that art simple and innocent, in thy house- 
hold fire, — 

19. The hostile, insidious instrument which they 
have brought hither has been discovered ; that which 
has been dug in we have detected. It shall go 
whence it has been brought hither; there, like a 
horse, it shall disport itself, and slay the offspring of 
him that has fashioned the spell ! 

20. Swords of good brass are in our house : we 
know how many joints thou hast, O spell ! Be sure 
to rise, go away from hence! O stranger, what 
seekest thou here ? 

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21. I shall hew off", O spell, thy neck, and thy 
feet : run away ! May Indra and Agni, to whom 
belong the children (of men), protect us ! 

22. King Soma, who guards and pities us, and 
the lords of the beings shall take pity on us ! 

23. May Bhava and .Sarva cast the lightning, the 
divine missile, upon him that performs evil, fashions 
a spell, and does wrong ! 

24. If thou art come two-footed, (or) four-footed, 
prepared by the fashioner of the spell, multiform, 
do thou, having become eight-footed, again go away 
from here, O misfortune ! 

25. Anointed, ornamented, and well equipped, go 
away, carrying every misfortune! Know, O spell, 
thy maker, as a daughter her own father ! 

26. Go away, O spell, do not stand still, track 
(the enemy) as a wounded (animal) ! He is the 
game, thou the hunter : he is not able to put thee 

27. Him that first hurls (the arrow), the other, 
laying on in defence, slays with the arrow, and while 
the first deals the blow, the other returns the blow. 

28. Hear, verily, this speech of mine, and then 
return whence thou earnest, against the one that 
fashioned thee ! 

29. Slaughter of an innocent is heinous, O spell : 
do not slay our cow, horse, or serving-man! 
Wherever thou hast been put down, thence thee do 
we remove. Be lighter than a leaf! 

30. If ye are enveloped in darkness, covered as if 
by a net — we tear all spells out from here, send them 
back again to him that fashioned them. 

31. The offspring of them that fashion the spell, 
practise magic, or plot against us, crush thou, O spell, 

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leave none of them ! Slay those that fashion the 
spell ! 

32. As the sun is released from darkness, abandons 
the night, and the streaks of the dawn, thus every 
misery, (every) device prepared by the fashioner of 
the spell, (every) misfortune, do I leave behind, as 
an elephant the dust 

V, 31. Charm to repel sorceries or spells. 

1. The spell which they have put for thee into an 
unburned vessel, that which they have put into 
mixed grain, that which they have put into raw 
meat, that do I hurl back again. 

2. The spell which they have put for thee into 
a cock, or that which (they have put) into a goat, 
into a crested animal, that which they have put into 
a sheep, that do I hurl back again. 

3. The spell which they have put for thee into 
solipeds, into animals with teeth on both sides, that 
which they have put into an ass, that do I hurl back 

4. The magic which they have put for thee into 
moveable property, or into personal possession, the 
spell which they have put into the field, that do 
I hurl back again. 

5. The spell which evil-scheming persons have put 
for thee into the garhapatya-fire, or into the house- 
fire, that which they have put into the house, that 
do I hurl back again. 

6. The spell which they have put for thee into 
the assembly-hall, that which (they have put) into 
the gaming-place, that which they have put into the 
dice, that do I hurl back again. 

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7. The spell which they have put for thee into 
the army, that which they have put into the arrow 
and the weapon, that which they have put into the 
drum, that do I hurl back again. 

8. The spell which they have placed down for 
thee in the well, or have buried in the burial-ground, 
that which they have put into (thy) home, that do 
I hurl back again. 

9. That which they have put for thee into human 
bones, that which (they have put) into the funeral 
fire, to the consuming, burning, flesh-eating fire do 
I hurl that back again. 

10. By an unbeaten path he has brought it (the 
spell) hither, by a (beaten) path we drive it out from 
here. The fool in his folly has prepared (the spell) 
against those that are surely wise. 

11. He that has undertaken it has not been able 
to accomplish it : he broke his foot, his toe. He, 
luckless, performed an auspicious act for us, that 
are lucky. 

12. Him that fashions spells, practises magic, digs 
after roots, sends out curses, Indra shall slay with 
his mighty weapon, Agni shall pierce with his hurled 
(arrow) ! 

V, 14. Charm to repel sorceries or spells. 

1. An eagle found thee out, a boar dug thee out 
with his snout. Seek thou, O plant, to injure him 
that seeks to injure (us), strike down him that pre- 
pares spells (against us) ! 

2. Strike down the wizards, strike down him that 
prepares spells (against us) ; slay thou, moreover, 
O plant, him that seeks to injure us! 

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3. Cutting out from the skin (of the enemy) as 
if (from the skin) of an antelope, do ye, O gods, 
fasten the spell upon him that prepares it, as (one 
fastens) an ornament ! 

4. Take hold by the hand and lead away the 
spell back to him that prepares it 1 Place it in his 
very presence, so that it shall slay him that prepares 
the spell ! 

5. The spells shall take effect upon him that 
prepares the spells, the curse upon him that pro- 
nounces the curse ! As a chariot with easy-going 
wheels, the . spell shall turn back upon him that 
prepares the spell ! 

6. Whether a woman, or whether a man has pre- 
pared the spell for evil, we lead that spell to him as 
a horse with the halter. 

7. Whether thou hast been prepared by the gods, 
or hast been prepared by men, we lead thee back 
with the help of Indra as an ally. 

8. O Agni, gainer of battles, do thou gain the 
battles ! With a counter-charm do we hurl back the 
spell upon him that prepares the spell. 

9. Hold ready, (O plant,) thy weapon, and strike 
him, slay the very one that has prepared (the spell) ! 
We do not whet thee for the destruction of him that 
has not practised (spells). 

10. Go as a son to his father, bite like an adder 
that has been stepped upon. Return thou, O spell, 
to him that prepares the spell, as one who over- 
comes his fetters ! 

11. As the shy deer, the antelope, goes out to 
the mating (buck), thus the spell shall reach him that 
prepares it ! 

1 2. Straighter than an arrow may it (the spell) fly 

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against him, O ye heaven and earth ; may that spell 
take hold again of him that prepares it, as (a hunter) 
of his game ! 

13. Like fire (the spell) shall progress in the teeth 
of obstacles, like water along its course! As a 
chariot with easy-going wheels the spell shall turn 
back upon him that prepares the spell ! 

VIII, 5. Prayer for protection addressed to a talis- 
man made from wood of the sraktya-tree. 

1. This attacking talisman, (itself) a man, is 
fastened upon the man : it is full of force, slays 
enemies, makes heroes of men, furnishes shelter, 
provides good luHc. 

2. This talisman slays enemies, makes strong 
men, is powerful, lusty, victorious, strong ; as a man 
it advances against sorceries and destroys them. 

3. With this talisman Indra slew Vn'tta, with it 
he, full of device, destroyed the Asuras, with it he 
conquered both the heaven and earth, with it he 
conquered the four regions of space. 

4. This talisman of sraktya assails and attacks. 
With might controlling the enemies, it shall protect 
us on all sides ! 

5. Agni has said this, and Soma has said this ; 
Brzhaspati, Savitar, Indra (have said) this. These 
divine purohitas (chaplains) shall turn back for me 
(upon the sorcerer) the sorceries with aggressive 
amulets ! 

6. I have interposed heaven and earth, also the 
day, and also the sun. These divine purohitas 
(chaplains) shall turn back for me (upon the sorcerer) 
the sorceries with aggressive amulets ! 

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7. (For) the folk that make an armour of the 
talisman of sraktya — like the sun ascending the sky, 
it subjects and beats off the sorceries. 

8. With the amulet of sraktya, as if with a seer of 
powerful spirit, I have gained all battles, I slay the 
enemies, the Rakshas. 

9. The sorceries that come from the Ahgiras, the 
sorceries that come from the Asuras, the sorceries 
that prepare themselves, and those that are prepared 
by others, both these shall go away to a distance 
across ninety navigable streams ! 

10. As an armour upon him the gods shall tie the 
amulet, Indra, Vish»u, Savitar, Rudra, Agni, Pra^a- 
pati, Paramesh/>4in,Virif,Vaijvdnara,and the seers all. 

1 1. Thou art the most superb of plants, as if a 
steer among the cattle, as if a tiger among beasts 
of prey. (The amulet) that we did seek, that have 
we found, a guardian at our side. 

12. He that wears this talisman, verily is a tiger, 
a lion as well, and, too, a bull ; moreover a curtailer 
of enemies. 

13. Him slay not the Apsaras, nor the Gan- 
dharvas, nor mortal men ; all regions does he rule, 
that wears this talisman. 

14. Kasyapa has created thee, Kayyapa has pro- 
duced thee. Indra wore thee in human (battle) ; 
wearing thee in the close combat he conquered. 
The gods did make the talisman an armour of 
thousandfold strength. 

15. He that plans to harm thee with sorceries, 
with (unholy) consecrations and sacrifices — him beat 
thou back, O Indra, with thy thunderbolt that hath 
a hundred joints ! 

16. This talisman verily does assail, full of might, 

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victorious. Offspring and wealth it shall protect, 
provide defence, abound in luck ! 

17. Remove our enemies in the south, remove 
our enemies in the north ; remove, O Indra, our 
enemies in the west : light, O hero, place in front 
(east) of us ! 

18. An armour for me be heaven and earth, an 
armour day, an armour the sun ! An armour for me 
be Indra and Agni ; Dhatar shall bestow (dadhatu) 
an armour upon me ! 

19. The armour of Indra and Agni, that is thick 
and strong, all the gods united do not pierce. This 
great (armour) shall protect my body on all sides, 
that I may obtain long life, and reach old age ! 

20. The divine talisman has ascended upon me 
unto complete exemption from injury. Assemble 
about this post that protects the body, furnishes 
threefold defence, in order to (secure) strength ! 

21. Into it Indra shall deposit manliness: do 
ye, O gods, assemble about it for long life, for 
life lasting a hundred autumns, that he may reach 
old age. 

22. May Indra who bestows welfare, the lord of 
the people, the slayer of Vn'tra, the controller of 
enemies, he that conquereth and is unconquered, 
the soma-drinking bull that frees from danger, fasten 
the amulet upon thee : may it protect thee on each 
and every side, by day and by night ! 

X, 3. Praise of the virtues of an amulet 
derived from the vara»a-tree. 

1. Here is my vara#a-amulet, a bull that destroys 
the rivals : with it do thou close in upon thy enemies, 
crush them that desire to injure thee ! 

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2. Break them, crush them, close in upon them : 
the amulet shall be thy van-guard in front ! With 
the vara«a the Devas (gods) did ward off (avara- 
yanta) the onslaught of the Asuras (demons) day 
after day. 

3. This thousand-eyed, yellow, golden vara#a- 
amulet is a universal cure ; it shall lay low thy 
enemies : be thou the first to injure those that hate 
thee ! 

4. This vara»a will ward off (varayishyate) the 
spell that has been spread against thee; this will 
protect thee from human danger, this will protect 
thee from all evil ! 

5. This divine tree, the vara«a, shall shut out 
(varayatai) ! The gods, too, have shut out (avlvaran) 
the disease that has entered into this (man). 

6. If when asleep thou shalt behold an evil 
dream ; as often as a wild beast shall run an 
inauspicious course ; from (ominous) sneezing, and 
from the evil shriek of a bird, this vara«a-amulet 
will protect thee (varayishyate). 

7. From Arati (grudge), Nirriti (misfortune), from 
sorcery, and from danger; from death and over- 
strong weapons the vara»a will protect thee. 

8. The sin that my mother, that jny father, that 
my brothers and my sister have committed ; the sin 
that we (ourselves) have committed, from that this 
divine tree will protect us. 

9. Through the vara«a are confused my enemies 
and my (rival) kin. To untraversed gloom they have 
gone : they shall go to the nethermost darkness ! 

10. (May) I (be) unharmed, with cows unharmed, 
long-lived, with undiminished men ! This vara«a- 
amulet shall guard me in every region (of space) ! 

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11. This vara«a upon my breast, the kingly, 
divine tree, shall smite asunder my enemies, as Indra 
the Dasyus, the Asuras (demons) ! 

12. Long-lived, a hundred autumns old, do I wear 
this varawa : kingdom and rule, cattle and strength, 
this shall bestow upon me ! 

1 3. As the wind breaks with might the trees, the 
lords of the forest, thus do thou break my rivals, 
those formerly born, and the latter born ! The 
vara«a shall watch over thee ! 

14. As the wind and the fire consume the trees, 
the lords of the forest, thus do thou consume my 
rivals, those formerly born, and the latter born ! 
The varawa shall watch over thee ! 

1 5. As, ruined by the wind, the trees lie prostrate, 
thus do thou ruin and prostrate my rivals, those 
formerly born, and the latter born! The vara»a 
shall watch over thee ! 

16. Do thou cut off, O varawa, before their 
appointed time and before old age, those that aim 
to injure him in his cattle, and threaten his sove- 
reignty ! 

1 7. As the sun is resplendent, as in him brilliance 
has been deposited, thus shall the amulet of vara«a 
hold fast for me reputation and prosperity, shall 
sprinkle me with brilliance, and anoint me with 
splendour ! 

18. As splendour is in the moon, and in the sun, 
the beholder of men, thus shall the amulet of vara«a 
hold fast, &c 

19. As splendour is in the earth, as in this Gata- 
vedas (the fire), thus shall the amulet of vara#a hold 
fast, &c. 

20. As splendour is in the maiden, as in this 

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appointed chariot, thus shall the amulet of vara/ta 
hold fast, &c. 

21. As splendour is in the soma-draught, as splen- 
dour is in the honey-mixture (for guests), thus shall 
the amulet of vara»a hold fast, &c. 

22. As splendour is in the agnihotra-oblation, as 
splendour is in the call vasha/, thus shall the amulet 
of vara»a hold fast, &c. 

23. As splendour is in the (splendour) 
has been deposited in the sacrifice, thus shall the 
amulet of vara«a hold fast, &c. 

24. As splendour is in Pra^apati, as in this Para- 
meshMin (the lord on high), thus shall the amulet of 
vara»a hold fast, &c. 

25. As immortality is in the gods, as truth has 
been deposited in them, thus shall the amulet of 
vara«a hold fast, &c. 

X, 6. Praise of the virtues of amulet of khadira- 
wood in the shape of a ploughshare. 

1. The head of the hostile rival, of the enemy 
that hates me, do I cut off with might. 

2. This amulet, produced by the ploughshare, 
will prepare an armour for me : full of stirred drink 
it has come to me, together with sap and lustre. 

3. If the skilful workman has injured thee with 
his hand or with his knife, the living bright waters 
shall purify thee from that, (so that thou shalt be) 
bright ! 

4. This amulet has a golden wreath, bestows 
faith and sacrifice and might; in our house as a 
guest it shall dwell ! 

5. Before it (the amulet as a guest) ghee, sura 

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(liquor), honey, and every kind of food we place. 
The amulet having gone to the gods shall, as a 
father for his sons, plan for us growing good, more 
and more day after day ! 

6. The amulet which Brzhaspati tied, the plough- 
share dripping with ghee, the strong khadira, unto 
strength, that Agni did fasten on ; that yields him 
ghee more and more day after day : with it those 
that hate me do thou slay ! 

7. This amulet which Brzhaspati tied . . . that 
Indra did fasten on, for strength and heroism ; that 
yields him might more and more, &c. 

8. The amulet which B^zhaspati tied . . . that 
Soma did fasten on unto perfect hearing and seeing ; 
that verily yields him lustre more and more, &c. 

9. The amulet which Brzhaspati tied . . . that 
Surya did fasten on, with that he conquered these 
directions of space ; that yields him prosperity more 
and more, &c 

10. The amulet which Brzhaspati tied . . . wear- 
ing that amulet A'andramas (the moon) conquered 
the golden cities of the Asuras and the Danavas ; 
that yields him fortune more and more, &c. 

11. The amulet which Brzhaspati tied for swift 
Vata (wind), that yields him strength more and 
more, &c. 

12. The amulet which BWhaspati tied for swift 
Vata, with that amulet, O Asvins, do ye guard this 
plough-land; that yields the two physicians (the 
A^vins) might more and more, &c. 

13. The amulet which Brzhaspati tied for swift 
Vata, wearing that, Savitar through it conquered 
this light; that yields him abundance more and 
more, &c. 

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14. The amulet which Brthaspati tied for swift 
Vata, wearing that, the waters ever run undimin- 
ished ; that verily yields them ambrosia more and 
more, &c. 

15. The amulet which Brz'haspati tied for swift 
Vata, that comforting amulet king Varu»a did 
fasten on; that verily yields him truth more and 
more, &c. 

16. The amulet which Brzhaspati tied for swift 
Vata, wearing that the gods did conquer all the 
worlds in battle ; that verily yields them conquest 
more and more, &c. 

17. The amulet which Brzhaspati tied for swift 
Vata, that comforting amulet the divinities did 
fasten on ; that verily yields them all more and 
more, &c. 

18. The seasons did fasten it on; the divisions 
(of the year) did fasten it on. Since the year did 
fasten it on, it guards every being. 

19. The intermediate directions did fasten it on; 
the directions did fasten it on. The amulet created 
by Pra^apati has subjected those that hate me. 

20. The Atharvans did tie it on, the descendants 
of the Atharvans did tie it on ; with these allied, 
the Ahgiras cleft the castles of the Dasyus. With 
it those that hate me do thou slay ! 

21. That Dh&tar did fasten on : (then) he shaped 
the being. With it those that hate me do thou slay ! 

22. The amulet which Brzhaspati tied for the 
gods, destructive of the Asuras, that has come to 
me together with sap and lustre. 

23. The amulet . . . has come to me together 
with cows, goats, and sheep, together with food and 

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24. The amulet . . . has come to me together 
with rice and barley, together with might and pros- 

25. The amulet . . . has come to me with a stream 
of honey and ghee together with sweet drink. 

26. The amulet . . . has come to me together 
with nourishment and milk, together with goods and 

27. The amulet . . . has come to me together 
with brilliance and strength, together with glory and 

28. The amulet . . . has come to me together 
with all kinds of prosperity. 

29. This amulet the gods shall give me unto 
prosperity, the mighty amulet that strengthens 
sovereignty and injures the rivals! 

30. An (amulet) auspicious for me thou shalt 
fasten upon (me), together with brahma (spiritual 
exaltation) and brilliance ! Free from rivals, slaying 
rivals, it has subjected my rivals. 

31. This god-born amulet, the sap milked from 
which these three worlds revere, shall render me 
superior to him that hates me ; it shall ascend upon 
my head unto excellence ! 

32. The amulet upon which the gods, the Fathers, 
and men ever live, shall ascend upon my head unto 
excellence ! 

33. As the seed grows in the field, in the furrow 
drawn by the ploughshare, thus in me offspring, 
cattle, and every kind of food shall grow up ! 

34. Upon whom, O thou amulet that prosperest the 
sacrifice, I have fastened thee (that art) propitious, 
him, O amulet, that yieldest a hundredfold sacrificial 
reward, thou shalt inspire unto excellence ! 

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35. This fire-wood that has been laid on together 
with the oblations do thou, Agni, gladly accept : 
may we in this kindled Gatavedas (fire), through 
(this) charm, find favour, well-being, offspring, sight, 
and cattle ! 

IV, 16. Prayer to Varuwa for protection against 
treacherous designs. 

1. The great guardian among these (gods) sees 
as if from anear. He that thinketh he is moving 
stealthily — all this the gods know. 

2. If a man stands, walks, or sneaks about, if he 
goes slinking away, if he goes into his hiding-place ; 
if two persons sit together and scheme, king Varu«a 
is there as a third, and knows it. 

3. Both this earth here belongs to king Varu»a, 
and also yonder broad sky whose boundaries are far 
away. Moreover these two oceans are the loins of 
Varu»a ; yea, he is hidden in this small (drop of) 

4. He that should flee beyond the heaven far 
away would not be free from king Varu»a. His 
spies come hither (to the earth) from heaven, with 
a thousand eyes do they watch over the earth. 

5. King Varu»a sees through all that is between 
heaven and earth, and all that is beyond. He has 
counted the winkings of men's eyes. As a (winning) 
gamester puts down his dice, thus does he establish 
these (laws). 

6. May all thy fateful toils which, seven by seven, 
threefold, lie spread out, ensnare him that speaks 
falsehood: him that speaks the truth they shall 
let go ! 

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7. With a hundred snares, O Varu»a, surround 
him, let the liar not go free from thee, O thou 
that observest men ! The rogue shall sit, his belly 
hanging loose, like a cask without hoops, bursting 
all about ! 

8. With (the snare of) Varu«a which is fastened 
lengthwise, and that which (is fastened) broadwise, 
with the indigenous and the foreign, with the divine 
and the human, — 

9. With all these snares do I fetter thee, O N. N., 
descended from N. N., the son of the woman N. N. : 
all these do I design for thee. 

II, 12. Imprecation against enemies thwarting 
holy work. 

1. Heaven and earth, the broad atmosphere, the 
goddess of the field, and the wonderful, far-striding 
(Vish»u) ; moreover, the broad atmosphere guarded 
by Vita (the wind) : may these here be inflamed, 
when I am inflamed ! 

2. Hear this, O ye revered gods! Let Bharad- 
va^a recite for me songs of praise ! May he who 
injures this our plan be bound in the fetter (of 
disease) and joined to misfortune ! 

3. Hear, O soma-drinking Indra, what with 
burning heart I shout to thee ! I cleave, as one 
cleaves a tree with an axe, him that injures this 
our plan. 

4. With (the aid of) thrice eighty saman-singers, 
with (the aid of) the Adityas, Vasus, and Angiras — 
may our father's sacrifices and gifts to the priests 
aid us — do I seize this one with fateful fervour. 

5. May heaven and earth look after me, may all 
the gods support me ! O ye Angiras, O ye fathers 

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devoted to Soma, may he who does harm enter into 
misfortune ! 

6. He who perchance despises us, O ye Maruts, 
he who abuses the holy practice which is being 
performed by us, may his evil deeds be firebrands 
to him, may the heavens surround with fire the 
hater of holy practices ! 

7. Thy seven in-breathings and thy eight mar- 
rows, these do I cut for thee by means of my charm. 
Thou shalt go to the seat of Yama, fitly prepared, 
with Agni as thy guide ! 

8. I set thy footstep upon the kindled fire. May 
Agni surround thy body, may thy voice enter into 
breath ! 

VII, 70. Frustration of the sacrifice of an enemy. 

1. Whenever yonder person in his thought, and 
with his speech, offers sacrifice accompanied by 
oblations and benedictions, may Nim'ti (the goddess 
of destruction), allying herself with death, smite his 
offering before it takes effect ! 

2. May sorcerers, Nirmi, as well as Rakshas, mar 
his true work with error ! May the gods, despatched 
by Indra, scatter (churn) his sacrificial butter; may 
that which yonder person offers not succeed ! 

3. The two agile supreme rulers, like two eagles 
pouncing down, shall strike the sacrificial butter of 
the enemy, whosoever plans evil against us ! 

4. Back do I tie both thy two arms, thy mouth 
I shut. With the fury of god Agni have I destroyed 
thy oblation. 

5. I tie thy two arms, I shut thy mouth. With the 
fury of terrible Agni have I destroyed thy oblation. 

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II, 7. Charm against curses and hostile plots, 
undertaken with a certain plant. 

1. The god-begotten plant, hated by the wicked, , 
which wipes away the curses (of the enemies), like 
water a foul spot it has washed away all curses 
from me. 

2. The curse of the rival and the curse of the 
kinswoman, the curse which the Brahman shall utter 
in wrath, all that (do thou put) under our feet ! 

3. From heaven her root is suspended, from the 
earth it rises up ; with her that has a thousand 
shoots do thou protect us on all sides ! 

4. Protect me, protect my offspring, protect our 
goods; let not ill-will overcome us, let not hostile 
schemes overcome us ! 

5. The curse shall go to the curser; joint pos- 
session shall we have with the friend. Of the 
enemy who bewitches with (his) eye we hew off 
the ribs. 

Ill, 6. The arvattha-tree as a destroyer of 

1. A male has sprung from a male, the asvattha 
(ficus religiosa) from the khadira (acacia catechu). 
May this slay my enemies, those whom I hate and 
those who hate me ! 

2. Crush the enemies, as they rush on, O asvattha, 
'displacer,' allied with Indra, the slayer of VWtra, 
(allied) with Mitra and Varuwa ! 

3. As thou didst break forth, O arvattha, into the 
great flood (of the air), thus do thou break up all 
those whom I hate and those who hate me ! 

4. Thou that goest conquering as a conquering 

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bull, with thee here, O ayvattha, may we conquer 
our rivals! 

5. May NirWti (the goddess of destruction), 
O asvattha. bind in the toils of death that cannot 
be loosened those enemies of mine whom I hate 
and who hate me ! 

6. As thou climbest up the trees, O asvattha, and 
renderest them subordinate, thus do thou split in two 
the head of my enemy, and overcome him ! 

7. They (the enemies) shall float down like a 
ship cut loose from its moorings! There is no 
returning again for those that have been driven out 
by the ' displaces' 

8. I drive them out with my mind, drive them 
out with my thought, and also with my incantation. 
We drive them out with a branch of the arvattha- 

VI, 75. Oblation for the suppression of enemies 
(nairbadhyazw havi<£). 

1. Forth from his home do I drive that person 
yonder, who as a rival contends with us: through 
the oblation devoted to suppression Indra has 
broken him to pieces. 

2. Indra, the slayer of VWtra, shall drive him to 
the remotest distance, from which in all successive 
years he shall not again return ! 

3. He shall go to the three distances, he shall 
go beyond the five peoples; he shall go beyond 
the three ethers, whence he shall not again in all 
successive years return, while the sun is upon the 
heavens ! 

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VI, 37. Curse against one that practises hostile 


1. The thousand-eyed curse having yoked his 
chariot has come hither, seeking out him that curses 
me, as a wolf the house of him that owns sheep. 

2. Avoid us, O curse, as a burning fire (avoids) 
a lake ! Strike here him that curses us, as the 
lightning of heaven the tree ! 

3. He that shall curse us when we do not curse, 
and he that shall curse us when we do curse, him 
do I hurl to death as a bone to a dog upon the 

VII, 13. Charm to deprive enemies of their 

1. As the rising sun takes away the lustre of the 
stars, thus do I take away the strength of both the 
women and the men that hate me. 

2. As many enemies as ye are, looking out against 
me, as I come on — of those that hate me do I take 
away the strength, as the sun takes away the strength 
of persons asleep (while it rises). 

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II, 36. Charm to obtain a husband. 

1. May, O Agni, a suitor after our own heart 
come to us, may he come to this maiden with our 
fortune! May she, agreeable to suitors, charming 
at festivals, promptly obtain happiness through a 
husband ! 

2. Agreeable to Soma, agreeable to Brahma, 
arranged by Aryaman, with the unfailing certainty 
of god Dhitar, do I bestow upon thee good fortune, 
the acquisition of a husband. 

3. This woman shall obtain a husband, since king 
Soma makes her lovely ! May she, begetting sons, 
become a queen ; may she, going to her husband, 
shine in loveliness! 

4. As this comfortable cave, O Maghavan (Indra), 
furnishing a safe abode, hath become pleasing to ani- 
mals, thus may this woman be a favourite of fortune 
(Bhaga), beloved, not at odds with her husband ! 

5. Do thou ascend the full, inexhaustible ship of 
Bhaga (fortune) ; upon this bring hither the suitor 
who shall be agreeable (to thee) ! 

6. Bring hither by thy shouts, O lord of wealth, 
the suitor, bend his mind towards her ; turn thou the 
right side of every agreeable suitor towards (her) ! 

7. This gold and bdellium, this balsam, and 

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Bhaga (fortune), too ; these have prepared thee for 
husbands, that thou mayest obtain the one that is 

8. Hither to thee Savitar shall lead the husband 
that is agreeable ! Do thou, O herb, bestow (him) 
upon her! 

VI, 60. Charm for obtaining a husband. 

i. This Aryaman (wooer) with loosened crest 
of hair comes hither in front (of the procession), 
seeking a husband for this spinster, and a wife for 
this wifeless man. 

2. This maid, O Aryaman, has wearied of going 
to the wedding-feasts of other women. Now shall, 
without fail, O Aryaman, other women go to her 
wedding-feast ! 

3. Dhatar (the creator) supports (dadhara) this 
earth, Dhatar supports the heavens, and the sun. 
May Dhatar furnish this spinster with a husband 
after her own heart! 

VI, 82. Charm for obtaining a wife. 

1. I call the name of him that comes here, that 
hath come here, and is arriving ; I crave (the name) 
of Indra, VWtra's slayer, the Vasava of hundred- 
fold strength. 

2. The road by which the Asvins carried away 
as a bride Surya, Savitar's daughter, 'by that road,' 
Bhaga (fortune) told me, ' thou shalt bring here a 

3. With thy wealth-procuring, great, golden hook, 
O Indra, husband of Sa&l, procure a wife for me 
that desireth a wife ! 

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VI, 78. Blessing for a married couple. 

1. Through this oblation, that causes prosperity, 
may this man flourish anew ; may he excel the wife 
that they have brought to him with his sap ! 

2. May he excel in strength, excel in royalty! 
May this couple be inexhaustible in wealth that 
bestows thousandfold lustre ! 

3. Tvash/ar begot (for thee) a wife, Tvash/ar 
for her begot thee as a husband. May Tvash/ar 
bestow upon you two a thousand lives, may he 
bestow upon you long life! 

VII, 36. Love-charm spoken by a bridal couple. 

The eyes of us two shine like honey, our foreheads 
gleam like ointment. Place me within thy heart ; 
may one mind be in common to us both ! 

VII, 37. Charm pronounced by the bride over 
the bridegroom. 

I envelope thee in my garment that was produced 
by Manu (the first man), that thou shalt be mine 
alone, shalt not even discourse of other women ! 

VI, 81. A bracelet as an amulet to ensure 

1. A holder art thou, holdest both hands, drivest 
off the Rakshas. An acquirer of offspring and 
wealth this bracelet hath become ! 

2. O bracelet, open up the womb, that the embryo 
be put (into it) ! Do thou, O limit (-setting bracelet), 

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furnish a son, bring him here (a gamaya), thou that 
comest here (agame) ! 

3. The bracelet that Aditi wore, when she desired 
a son, Tvash/ar shall fasten upon this woman, intend- 
ing that she shall beget a son. 

Ill, 23. Charm for obtaining a son (pu*wsavanam). 

1. That which has caused thee to miscarry do we 
drive away from thee, that very thing do we deposit 
outside of thee, away in a far place. 

2. Into thy womb shall enter a male germ, as an 
arrow into a quiver! May a man be born there, 
a son ten months old ! 

3. A male son do thou produce, and after him 
a male shall be born ! Thou shalt be the mother 
of sons, of those who are born, and those whom 
thou shalt bear! 

4. By the effective seed which bulls put forth do 
thou obtain a son ; be a fruitful milch-cow ! 

5. Pra^apati's (the lord of creatures) work do 
I perform for thee : may the germ enter into thy 
womb ! Obtain thou, woman, a son who shall bring 
prosperity to thee, and bring thou prosperity to him! 

6. The plants whose father was the sky, whose 
mother the earth, whose root the (heavenly) ocean 
— may those divine herbs aid thee in obtaining 
a son ! 

VI, 11. Charm for obtaining a son (pu*wsavanam). 

1. The axvattha (ficus religiosa) has mounted the 
rami (mimosa suma) : then a male child was pro- 
duced. That, forsooth, is the way to obtain a son ; 
that do we bring to (our) wives. 
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2. In the male, forsooth, seed doth grow, that is 
poured into the female. That, forsooth, is the way 
to obtain a son ; that has been told by Prafapati. 

3. Pra^apati, Anumati, and Sinivall have fashioned 
him. May he (Pra^apati) elsewhere afford the birth 
of a female, but here he shall bestow a man ! 

VII, 35. An incantation to make a woman 

1. The other enemies conquer with might; beat 
back, O Gatavedas, those that are not yet born! 
Enrich this kingdom unto happiness, may all the 
gods acclaim this man ! 

2. Of these hundred entrails of thine, as well as 
of the thousand canals, of all these have I closed the 
openings with a stone. 

3. The upper part of the womb do I place below, 
there shall come to thee neither offspring nor birth ! 
I render thee sterile and devoid of offspring ; a stone 
do I make into a cover for thee. 

VI, 17. Charm to prevent miscarriage. 

1. As this great earth conceives the germs of the 
beings, thus shall thy embryo be held fast, to produce 
a child after pregnancy! 

2. As this great earth holds these trees, thus 
shall thy embryo be held fast, to produce a child 
after pregnancy ! 

3. As this great earth holds the mountains and 
the peaks, thus shall thy embryo be held fast, to 
produce a child after pregnancy ! 

4. As this great earth holds the animals scattered 

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far, thus shall thy embryo be held fast, to produce 
a child after pregnancy ! 

I, 11. Charm for easy parturition. 

i. Aryaman as active hotar-priest shall utter for 
thee the vasha/-call at this (soma-) pressing, O 
Pushan! May (this) woman, (herself) begotten in 
the proper way, be delivered, may her joints relax, 
that she shall bring forth ! 

2. Four directions has the heaven, and also four 
the earth : (from these) the gods created the embryo. 
May they open her, that she shall bring forth ! 

3. May Sushan open : her womb do we cause 
to gape. Do thou, O Sushana, loosen the womb, 
do thou, O Bishkala, let go (the embryo) ! 

4. Attached not at all to the flesh, nor to the fat, 
not at all to the marrow, may the splotched, moist, 
placenta come down to be eaten by a dog ! May 
the placenta fall down ! 

5. I split open thy vagina, thy womb, thy canals ; 
I separate the mother and the son, the child along 
with the placenta. May the placenta fall down ! 

6. As flies the wind, as flies the mind, as fly the 
winged birds, so do thou, O embryo, ten months 
old, fall along with the placenta ! May the placenta 
fall down ! 

I, 34. Charm with licorice, to secure the love 
of a woman. 

1. This plant is born of honey, with honey do we 
dig for thee. Of honey thou art begotten, do thou 
make us full of honey ! 

2. At the tip of my tongue may I have honey, at 
my tongue's root the sweetness of honey ! In my 

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power alone shalt thou then be, thou shalt come up 
to my wish ! 

3. Sweet as honey is my entrance, sweet as honey 
my departure. With my voice do I speak sweet as 
honey, may I become like honey ! 

4. I am sweeter than honey, fuller of sweetness 
than licorice. Mayest thou, without fail, long for 
me alone, (as a bee) for a branch full of honey ! 

5. I have surrounded thee with a clinging sugar- 
cane, to remove aversion, so that thou shalt not be 
averse to me ! 

II, 30. Charm to secure the love of a woman. 

1. As the wind tears this grass from the surface 
of the earth, thus do I tear thy soul, so that thou, 
woman, shalt love, shalt not be averse to me ! 

2. If ye, O two Asvins, shall unite and bring 
together the loving pair — united are the fortunes of 
both of you (lovers), united the thoughts, united the 
purposes ! 

3. When birds desire to chirp, lustily desire to 
chirp, may my call go there, as an arrow-point upon 
the shaft ! 

4. What is within shall be without, what is with- 
out shall be within! Take captive, O herb, the 
soul of the maidens endowed with every charm ! 

5. Longing for a husband this woman hath come, 
I have come longing for a wife. As a loudly neigh- 
ing horse I have attained to my good fortune ! 

VI, 8. Charm to secure the love of a woman. 

1. As the creeper embraces the tree on all sides, 
thus do thou embrace me, so that thou, woman, 

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shalt love me, so that thou shalt not be averse 
to me ! 

2. As the eagle when he flies forth presses his 
wings against the earth, thus do I fasten down thy 
mind, so that thou, woman, shalt love me, so that 
thou shalt not be averse to me. 

3. As the sun day by day goes about this heaven 
and earth, thus do I go about thy mind, so that 
thou, woman, shalt love me, so that thou shalt not 
be averse to me. 

VI, 9. Charm to secure the love of a woman. 

1. Hanker thou after my body, my feet, hanker 
after my eyes, my thighs! The eyes of thee, as 
thou lustest after me, and thy hair shall be parched 
with love! 

2. I make thee cling to my arm, cling to my 
heart, so that thou shalt be in my power, shalt come 
up to my wish ! 

3. The cows, the mothers of the ghee, who lick 
their young, in whose heart love is planted, shall 
make yonder woman bestow love upon me ! 

VI, 102. Charm to secure the love of a woman. 

1. As this draught animal, O ye Asvins, comes 
on, and proceeds, thus may thy soul come on, and 
proceed to me ! 

2. I draw to myself thy mind, as the leading 
stallion the female side-horse. As the stalk of 
grass torn by the wind, thus shall thy mind fasten 
itself upon me ! 

3. A coaxing mixture of salve, of sweet wood, of 
kush/^a, and of spikenard, do I deftly pick out with 
the hands of Bhaga (good fortune). 

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Ill, 25. Charm to arouse the passionate love 
of a woman. 

1. May (love), the disquieter, disquiet thee; do 
not hold out upon thy bed! With the terrible 
arrow of Kama (love) do I pierce thee in the heart 

2. The arrow, winged with longing, barbed with 
love, whose shaft is undeviating desire, with that, 
well-aimed, Kama shall pierce thee in the heart ! 

3. With that well-aimed arrow of Kama which 
parches the spleen, whose plume flies forward, which 
burns up, do I pierce thee in the heart 

4. Consumed by burning ardour, with parched 
mouth, do thou (woman) come to me, pliant, (thy) 
pride laid aside, mine alone, speaking sweetly and 
to me devoted ! 

5. I drive thee with a goad from thy mother and 
thy father, so that thou shalt be in my power, shalt 
come up to my wish. 

6. All her thoughts do ye, O Mitra and Varu«a, 
drive out of her ! Then, having deprived her of her 
will, put her into my power alone ! 

VI, 139. Charm to arouse the passionate love 
of a woman. 

1. Clinging to the ground thou didst grow, (O 
plant), that producest bliss for me; a hundred 
branches extend from thee, three and thirty grow 
down from thee : with this plant of a thousand 
leaves thy heart do I parch. 

2. Thy heart shall parch (with love) for me, and 
thy mouth shall parch (with love for me) ! Languish, 

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moreover, with love for me, with parched mouth 
pass thy days ! 

3. Thou that causest affection, kindlest (love), 
brown, lovely (plant), draw (us) together; draw 
together yonder woman and myself, our hearts make 
the same ! 

4. As the mouth of him that hath not drunk dries 
up, thus languish thou with love for me, with 
parched mouth pass thy days ! 

5. As the ichneumon tears the serpent, and joins 
him together again, thus, O potent (plant), join 
together what hath been torn by love ! 

VII, 38. Charm to secure the love of a man. 

1. This potent herb do I dig out: it draws toward 
me the eye, causes (love's) tears. It brings back 
him who has gone to a distance, rejoices him that 
approaches me. 

2. By (the plant) with which the Asurl allured 
Indra away from the gods, by that do I subject thee, 
that I may be well-beloved of thee ! 

3. Thy face is turned towards Soma (the moon), 
thy face is turned towards Sftrya (the sun), thy face 
is turned towards all the gods : 't is thee here that 
we do invoke. 

4. My speech, not thine, (in this matter) hath 
weight : in the assembly, forsooth, do thou speak ! 
To me alone shalt thou belong, shalt not even 
discourse of other women ! 

5. Whether thou art beyond the haunts of men, 
or whether across the river, this very herb, as if 
a captive bound, shall bring thee back to me ! 

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VI, 130. Charm to arouse the passionate love 
of a man. 

1. This yearning love comes from the Apsaras, 
the victorious, imbued with victory. Ye gods, send 
forth the yearning love: may yonder man burn 
after me ! 

2. My wish is, he shall long for me, devoted he 
shall long for me ! Ye gods, send forth the yearning 
love : may yonder man burn after me ! 

3. That yonder man shall long for me, (but) I for 
him nevermore, ye gods, send forth the yearning 
love : may yonder man burn after me ! 

4. Do ye, O Maruts, intoxicate him (with love) ; 
do thou, O mid-air, intoxicate him ; do thou, O Agni, 
intoxicate him ! May yonder man burn after me ! 

VI, 131. Charm to arouse the passionate love 
of a man. 

1. From thy head unto thy feet do I implant 
(love's) longing into thee. Ye gods, send forth the 
yearning love : may yonder man burn after me ! 

2. Favour this (plan), Anumati ; fit it together, 
Akuti ! Ye gods, send forth the yearning love : 
may yonder man burn after me ! 

3. If thou dost run three leagues away, (or even) 
five leagues, the distance coursed by a horseman, 
from there thou shalt again return, shalt be the 
father of our sons ! 

VI, 132. Charm to arouse the passionate love 
of a man. 

1. Love's consuming longing, together with yearn- 

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ing, which the gods have poured into the waters, 
that do I kindle for thee by the law of Varu»a ! 

2. Love's consuming longing, together with yearn- 
ing, which the all-gods (virve devaA) have poured 
into the waters, that do I kindle for thee by the law 
of Varu»a ! 

3. Love's consuming longing, together with yearn- 
ing, which Indrawl has poured into the waters, that 
do I kindle for thee by the law of Varu»a ! 

4. Love's consuming longing, together with yearn- 
ing, which Indra and Agni have poured into the 
waters, that do I kindle for thee by the law of 
Vanma ! 

5. Love's consuming longing, together with yearn- 
ing, which Mitra and Varu«a have poured into the 
waters, that do I kindle for thee by the law of 
Varuwa ! 

IV, 5. Charm at an assignation. 

1. The bull with a thousand horns who rose out 
of the sea, with the aid of him, the mighty one, do 
we put the folks to sleep. 

2. The wind blows not over the earth. No one 
looks on. Do thou then, befriended of Indra, put 
all women and dogs to sleep ! 

3. The women that lie upon couches and upon 
beds, and they that rest in litters, the women all 
that exhale sweet fragrance, do we put to sleep. 

4. Every moving thing I have held fast. Eye 
and breath 1 have held fast. I have held fast all 
limbs in the deep gloom of the night. 

5. Of him that sits, and him that walks, of him 
that stands and looks about, of these the eyes we do 
shut, just as these premises (are shut). 

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6. The mother shall sleep, the father shall sleep, 
the dog shall sleep, the lord of the house shall sleep ! 
All her relations shall sleep, and these people round 
about shall sleep ! 

7. O sleep, put thou to sleep all people with the 
magic that induces sleep! Put the others to sleep 
until the sun rises ; may I be awake until the dawn 
appears, like Indra, unharmed, uninjured ! 

VI, 77. Charm to cause the return of a truant 


i. The heavens have stood, the earth has stood, 
all creatures have stood. The mountains have 
stood upon their foundation, the horses in the stable 
I have caused to stand. 

2. Him that has control of departure, that has 
control of coming home, return, and turning in, that 
shepherd do I also call. 

3. O ^atavedas (Agni), cause thou to turn in; 
a hundred ways hither shall be thine, a thousand 
modes of return shall be thine : with these do thou 
restore us again ! 

VI, 18. Charm to allay jealousy. 

1. The first impulse of jealousy, moreover the 
one that comes after the first, the fire, the heart- 
burning, that do we waft away from thee. 

2. As the earth is dead in spirit, in spirit more 
dead than the dead, and as the spirit of him that 
has died, thus shall the spirit of the jealous (man) 
be dead ! 

3. Yon fluttering little spirit that has been fixed 

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into thy heart, from it the jealousy do I remove, as 
air from a water-skin. 

VII, 45. Charm to allay jealousy. 

1. From folk belonging to all kinds of people, 
from the Sindhu (Indus) thou hast been brought 
hither : from a distance, I ween, has been fetched 
the very remedy for jealousy. 

2. As if a fire is burning him, as if the forest-fire 
burns in various directions, this jealousy of his do 
thou quench, as a fire (is quenched) with water ! 

I, 14. A woman's incantation against her rival. 

1. I have taken unto myself her fortune and her 
glory, as a wreath off a tree. Like a mountain with 
broad foundation may she sit a long time with her 
parents ! 

2. This woman shall be subjected to thee as thy 
wife, O king Yama ; (till then) let her be fixed to 
the house of her mother, or her brother, or her 
father ! 

3. This woman shall be the keeper of thy house, 
O king (Yama), and her do we make over to thee ! 
May she long sit with her relatives, until (her hair) 
drops from her head ! 

4. With the incantation of Asita, of Kajyapa, and 
of Gaya do I cover up thy fortune, as women cover 
(something) within a chest. 

Ill, 18. Charm of a woman against a rival or 

1. I dig up this plant, of herbs the most potent, 
by whose power rival women are overcome, and 
husbands are obtained. 

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2. O thou (plant) with erect leaves, lovely, do 
thou, urjed on by the gods, full of might, drive 
away my rival, make my husband mine alone ! 

3. He did not, forsooth, call thy name, and thou 
shalt not delight in this husband! To the very 
farthest distance do we drive our rival. 

4. Superior am I, O superior (plant), superior, 
truly, to superior (women). Now shall my rival be 
inferior to those that are inferior ! 

5. I am overpowering, and thou, (O plant), art 
completely overpowering. Having both grown full 
of power, let us overpower my rival ! 

6. About- thee (my husband) I have placed the 
overpowering (plant), upon thee placed the very 
overpowering one. May thy mind run after me as 
a calf after the cow, as water along its course ! 

VI, 138. Charm for depriving a man of his 

1. As the best of the plants thou art reputed, 
O herb : turn this man for me to-day into a eunuch 
that wears his hair dressed ! 

2. Turn him into a eunuch that wears his hair 
dressed, and into one f hat wears a hood ! Then 
Indra with a pair of stones shall break his testicles 

3. O eunuch, into a eunuch thee I have turned ; 
O castrate, into a castrate thee I have turned ; 
O weakling, into a weakling thee I have turned ! 
A hood upon his head, and a hair-net do we place. 

4. The two canals, fashioned by the gods, in 

which man's power rests, in thy testicles 

I break them with a club. 

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5. As women break reeds for a mattress with 
a stone, thus do I break thy member . 


I, 18. Charm to remove evil bodily characteristics 
from a woman. 

1. The (foul) mark, the lalaml (with spot on the 
forehead), the Arati (grudging demon), do we drive 
out Then the (signs) that are auspicious (shall 
remain) with us ; (yet) to beget offspring do we 
bring the Arati ! 

2. May Savitar drive out uncouthness from her 
feet, may Varuwa, Mitra, and Aryaman (drive it) 
out from her hands ; may Anumati kindly drive it 
out for us ! For happiness the gods have created 
this woman. 

3. The fierceness that is in thyself, in thy body, 
or in thy look, all that do we strike away with our 
charm. May god Savitar prosper thee ! 

4. The goat-footed, the bull-toothed, her who 
scares the cattle, the snorting one, the vill^t (the 
driveling one), the lalaml (with spot on the fore- 
head), these do we drive from us. 

VI, no. Expiatory chami for a child born 
under z n unlucky star. 

1. Of yore, (O Agni), thou wast worthy of sup- 
plication at the sacrifice ; thou wast the priest in 
olden times, and now anew shalt sit (at our sacrifice) ! 
Delight, O Agni, thy own body, and, sacrificing, 
bring good fortune here to us ! 

2. Him that hath been born under the (constella- 
tion) ^yeshMaghnt (' she that slays the oldest '), or 

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under the viirrtau ('they that uproot'), save thou 
from being torn up by the root by Yama (death) ! 
May he (Agni) guide him across all misfortunes to 
long life, to a life of a hundred autumns ! 

3. On a tiger (-like) day the hero was born ; born 
under a (good) constellation he becometh a mighty 
hero. Let him not slay, when he grows up, his 
father, let him not injure the mother that hath 
begotten him! 

VI, 140. Expiation for the irregular appearance 
of the first pair of teeth. 

1. Those two teeth, the tigers, that have broken 
forth, eager to devour father and mother, do thou, 
O Brahmawaspati Catavedas, render auspicious ! 

2. Do ye eat rice, eat barley, and eat, too, beans, 
as well as sesamum ! That, O teeth, is the share 
deposited for your enrichment. Do not injure 
father and mother ! 

3. Since ye have been invoked, O teeth, be ye in 
unison kind and propitious! Elsewhere, O teeth, 
shall pass away the fierce (qualities) of your body ! 
Do not injure father and mother ! 

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IV, 8. Prayer at the consecration of a king. 

i . H imself prosperous (bhuto), he does put strength 
into the beings (bhuteshu) ; he became the chief lord 
of the beings (bhutanam). To his consecration 
death does come : may he, the king, favour this 
kingdom ! 

2. Come forth hither — do not glance away — as 
a mighty guardian, slayer of enemies ! Step hither, 
thou who prosperest thy friends : the gods shall 
bless thee ! 

3. As he did step hither all (men) did attend 
him. Clothed in grace, he moves, shining by his 
own lustre. This is the great name of the manly 
Asura ; endowed with every form (quality) he 
entered upon immortal (deeds). 

4. Thyself a tiger, do thou upon this tiger-skin 
stride (victorious) through the great regions! All 
the clans shall wish for thee, and the heavenly 
waters, rich in sap ! 

5. The heavenly waters, rich in sap, flow joyously, 
(and too) those in the sky and upon the earth : with 
the lustre of all of these do I sprinkle thee. 

6. They have sprinkled thee with their lustre, 
the heavenly waters rich in sap. May Savitar thus 
fashion thee, that thou shalt prosper thy friends ! 

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7. (The waters) thus embracing him, the tiger, 
promote him, the lion, to great good fortune. Him, 
the leopard in the midst of the waters, as though 
standing in the ocean, the beneficent (floods, or the 
vigorous priests) cleanse thoroughly ! 

Ill, 3. Charm for the restoration of an exiled 


1. (Agni) has shouted loud: may he here well 
perform his work ! Spread thyself out, O Agni, over 
the far-reaching hemispheres of the world ! The all- 
possessing Maruts shall engage thee : bring hither 
that (king) who devoutly spends the offering ! 

2. However far he be, the red (steeds) shall urge 
hither Indra, the seer, to friendship, since the gods, 
(chanting) for him the gayatri, the brihatt, and the 
arka (songs), infused courage into him with the 
sautrama#i-sacrifice ! 

3. From the waters king Varu»a shall call thee, 
Soma shall call thee from the mountains, Indra shall 
cite thee to these clans ! Turn into an eagle and fly 
to these clans ! 

4. An eagle shall bring hither from a distance 
him that is fit to be called, (yet) wanders exiled in 
a strange land ! The A.fvins shall prepare for thee 
a path, easy to travel ! Do ye, his kinfolk, gather 
close about him ! 

5. Thy opponents shall call thee ; thy friends have 
chosen thee! Indra, Agni, and all the gods have 
kept prosperity with this people. 

6. The kinsman or the stranger that opposes thy 
call, him, O Indra, drive away; then render this 
(king) accepted here! 

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III, 4. Prayer at the election of a king. 

1 . (Thy) kingdom hath come to thee : arise, en- 
dowed with lustre ! Go forth as the lord of the 
people, rule (shine) thou, a universal ruler ! All the 
regions of the compass shall call thee, O king; 
attended and revered be thou here ! 

2. Thee the clans, thee these regions, goddesses 
five, shall choose for empire ! Root thyself upon 
the height, the pinnacle of royalty : then do thou, 
mighty, distribute goods among us ! 

3. Thy kinsmen with calls shall come to thee ; 
agile Agni shall go with them as messenger ! Thy 
wives, thy sons shall be devoted to thee ; being 
a mighty (ruler) thou shalt behold rich tribute ! 

4. The A.yvins first, Mitra and Varuwa both, all 
the gods, and the Maruts, shall call thee ! Then fix 
thy mind upon the bestowal of wealth, then do thou, 
mighty, distribute wealth among us ! 

5. Hither hasten forth from the farthest distance ; 
heaven and earth, both, shall be propitious to thee ! 
Thus did this king Varu«a (as if, ' the chooser ') 
decree that ; he himself did call thee : ' come thou 

6. O Indra, Indra, come thou to the tribes of 
men, for thou hast agreed, concordant with the 
Varu»as (as if, 'the electors'). He did call thee to 
thy own domain (thinking) : 'let him revere the 
gods, and manage, too, the people ' ! 

7. The rich divinities of the roads, of manifold 
diverse forms, all coming together have given thee 
a broad domain. They shall all concordantly call 

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thee ; rule here, a mighty, benevolent (king), up to 
the tenth decade (of thy life) ! 

Ill, 5. Praise of an amulet derived from the par#a- 
tree, designed to strengthen royal power. 

1. Hither hath come this amulet of par«a-wood, 
with its might mightily crushing the enemy. (It is) 
the strength of the gods, the sap of the waters : may 
it assiduously enliven me with energy ! 

2. The power to rule thou shalt hold fast in me, 
O amulet of par«a-wood ; wealth (thou shalt hold 
fast) in me ! May I, rooted in the domain of royalty, 
become the chief! 

3. Their very own amulet which the gods de- 
posited secretly in the tree, that the gods shall give 
us to wear, together with life ! 

4. The par«a has come hither as the mighty 
strength of the soma, given by Indra, instructed by 
Varu«a. May I, shining brilliantly, wear it, unto 
long life, during a hundred autumns! 

5. The amulet of par«a-wood has ascended upon 
me unto complete exemption from injury, that I may 
rise superior (even) to friends and alliances ! 

6. The skilful builders of chariots, and the inge- 
nious workers of metal, the folk about me all, do 
thou, O par«a, make my aids ! 

7. The kings who (themselves) make kings, the 
charioteers, and leaders of hosts, the folk about me 
all, do thou, O par«a, make my aids ! 

8. Thou art the body-protecting par«a, a hero, 
brother of me, the hero. Along with the brilliancy 
of the year do I fasten thee on, O amulet ! 

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IV, 22. Charm to secure the superiority of 
a king. 

1. This warrior, O Indra, do thou strengthen for 
me, do thou install this one as sole ruler (bull) of 
the Wis (the people); emasculate all his enemies, 
subject them to him in (their) contests! 

2. To him apportion his share of villages, horses, 
and cattle ; deprive of his share the one that is his 
enemy ! May this king be the pinnacle of royalty ; 
subject to him, O Indra, every enemy! 

3. May this one be the treasure-lord of riches, may 
this king be the tribal lord of the Vis (the people) ! 
Upon this one, O Indra, bestow great lustre, devoid 
of lustre render his enemy ! 

4. For him shall ye, O heaven and earth, milk 
ample good, as two milch-cows yielding warm milk ! 
May this king be favoured of Indra, favoured of 
cows, of plants, and cattle ! 

5. I unite with thee Indra who has supremacy, 
through whom one conquers and is not (himself) 
conquered, who shall install thee as sole ruler of the 
people, and as chief of the human kings. 

6. Superior art thou, inferior are thy rivals, 
and whatsoever adversaries are thine, O king! 
Sole ruler, befriended of Indra, victorious, bring 
thou hither the supplies of those who act as thy 
enemies ! 

7. Presenting the front of a lion do thou devour 
all (their) people, presenting the front of a tiger do 
thou strike down the enemies ! Sole ruler, befriended 
of Indra, victorious, seize upon the supplies of those 
who act as thy enemies ! 

1 2 

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I, 9. Prayer for earthly and heavenly success. 

1. Upon this (person) the Vasus, Indra, Pushan, 
Varu«a, Mitra, and Agni, shall bestow goods (vasu) ! 
The Adityas, and, further, all the gods shall hold 
him in the higher light ! 

2. Light, ye gods, shall be at his bidding : Surya 
(the sun), Agni (fire), or even gold ! Inferior to us 
shall be our rivals ! Cause him to ascend to the 
highest heaven ! 

3. With that most potent charm with which, 
O CPatavedas (Agni), thou didst bring to Indra the 
(soma-) drink, with that, O Agni, do thou here 
strengthen this one ; grant him supremacy over his 
kinsmen ! 

4. Their sacrifice and their glory, their increase 
of wealth and their thoughtful plans, I have usurped, 
O Agni. Inferior to us shall be our rivals ! Cause 
him to ascend to the highest heaven ! 

VI, 38. Prayer for lustre and power. 

1. The brilliancy that is in the lion, the tiger, 
and the serpent ; in Agni, the Brahmawa, and Surya 
(shall be ours) ! May the lovely goddess that bore 
Indra come to us, endowed with lustre! 

2. (The brilliancy) that is in the elephant, panther, 
and in gold ; in the waters, cattle, and in men (shall 
be ours) ! May the lovely goddess that bore Indra 
come to us, endowed with lustre ! 

3. (The brilliancy) that is in the chariot, the dice, 
in the strength of the bull ; in the wind, Par^anya, 
and in the fire of Varu«a (shall be ours) ! May the 

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lovely goddess that bore Indra come to us, endowed 
with lustre ! 

4. (The brilliancy) that is in the man of royal 
caste, in the stretched drum, in the strength of the 
horse, in the shout of men (shall be ours) ! May the 
lovely goddess that bore Indra come to us, endowed 
with lustre ! 

VI, 39. Prayer for glory (yasas). 

1. The oblation that yields glory, sped on by 
Indra, of thousandfold strength, well offered, pre- 
pared with might, shall prosper! Cause me, that 
offers the oblation, to continue long beholding 
(light), and to rise to supremacy! 

2. (That he may come) to us, let us honour with 
obeisance glory-owning Indra, the glorious one with 
glory-yielding (oblations) ! Do thou (the oblation) 
grant us sovereignty sped on by Indra ; may we in 
thy favour be glorious ! 

3. Glorious was Indra born, glorious Agni, glorious 
Soma. Glorious, of all beings the most glorious, 
am I. 

VIII, 8. Battle-charm. 

1. May Indra churn (the enemy), he, the churner, 
.Sakra (mighty), the hero, that pierces the forts, so 
that we shall slay the armies of the enemies a 
thousandfold ! 

2. May the rotten rope, wafting itself against 
yonder army, turn it into a stench. When the 
enemies see from afar our smoke and fire, fear shall 
they lay into their hearts ! 

3. Tear asunder those (enemies), O asvattha 

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(ficus religiosa), devour (khada) them, O khadira 
(acacia catechu) in lively style! Like the ta^ad- 
bhariga (ricinus communis) they shall be broken 
(bhafyantim), may the vadhaka (a certain kind of 
tree) slay them with his weapons (vadhai^) ! 

4. May the knotty ahva-plant put knots upon 
yonder (enemies), may the vadhaka slay them with 
his weapons! Bound up in (our) great trap-net, 
they shall quickly be broken as an arrow-reed ! 

5. The atmosphere was the net, the great regions 
(of space) the (supporting) poles of the net : with 
these .Sakra (mighty Indra) did surround and scatter 
the army of the Dasyus. 

6. Great, forsooth, is the net of great .Sakra, who 
is rich in steeds : with it infold thou all the enemies, 
so that not one of them shall be released ! 

7. Great is the net of thee, great Indra, hero, that 
art equal to a thousand, and hast hundredfold might 
With that (net) .Sakra slew a hundred, thousand, 
ten thousand, a hundred million foes, having sur- 
rounded them with (his) army. 

8. This great world was the net of great .Sakra : 
with this net of Indra I infold all those (enemies) 
yonder in darkness. 

9. With great dejection, failure, and irrefragable 
misfortune; with fatigue, lassitude, and confusion, 
do I surround all those (enemies) yonder. 

10. To death do I hand them over, with the 
fetters of death they have been bound. To the evil 
messengers of death do I lead them captive. 

1 1 . Guide ye those (foes), ye messengers of death ; 
ye messengers of Yama, infold them ! Let more 
than thousands be slain ; may the club of Bhava 
crush them ! 

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12. The Sadhyas (blessed) go holding up with 
might one support of the net, the Rudras another, 
the Vasus another. (Still) another is upheld by the 

13. All the gods shall go pressing from above 
with might ; the Angiras shall go on the middle (of 
the net), slaying the mighty army ! 

14. The trees, and (growths) that are like trees, 
the plants and the herbs as well; two-footed and 
four-footed creatures do I impel, that they shall slay 
yonder army ! 

15. The Gandharvas and Apsaras, the serpents 
and the gods, holy men and (deceased) Fathers, the 
visible and invisible (beings), do I impel, that they 
shall slay yonder army ! 

16. Scattered here are the fetters of death ; when 
thou steppest upon them thou shalt not escape! 
May this hammer slay (the men) of yonder army by 
the thousand ! 

17. The gharma (sacrificial hot drink) that has 
been heated by the fire, this sacrifice (shall) slay 
thousands ! Do ye, Bhava and .Sarva, whose arms 
are mottled, slay yonder army ! 

18. Into the (snare of) death they shall fall, into 
hunger, exhaustion, slaughter, and fear ! O Indra and 
.Sarva, do ye with trap and net slay yonder army ! 

19. Conquered, O foes, do ye flee away; repelled 
by (our) charm, do ye run! Of yonder host, re- 
pulsed by Brz'haspati, not one shall be saved ! 

20. May their weapons fall from their (hands), 
may they be unable to lay the arrow on (the bow) ! 
And then (our) arrows shall smite them, badly 
frightened, in their vital members ! 

21. Heaven and earth shall shriek at them, and 

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the atmosphere, along with the divine powers ! 
Neither aider, nor support did they find; smiting 
one another they shall go to death ! 

22. The four regions are the she-mules of the 
god's chariot, the puroa&sas (sacrificial rice-cakes) 
the hoofs, the atmosphere the seat (of the wagon). 
Heaven and earth are its two sides, the seasons 
the reins, the intermediate regions the attendants, 
Wtk (speech) the road. 

23. The year is the chariot, the full year is the 
body of the chariot, Virif the pole, Agni the front 
part of the chariot Indra is the (combatant) stand- 
ing on the left of the chariot, A'andramas (the moon) 
the charioteer. 

24. Do thou win here, do thou conquer here, 
overcome, win, hail ! These here shall conquer, 
those yonder be conquered! Hail to these here, 
perdition to those yonder! Those yonder do I 
envelop in blue and red ! 

I, 19. Battle-charm against arrow-wounds. 

1. The piercing (arrows) shall not hit us, nor 
shall the striking arrows hit us! Far away from 
us, O Indra, to either side, cause the arrow-shower 
to fall! 

2. To either side of us the arrows shall fall, those 
that have been shot and shall be shot ! Ye divine 
and ye human arrows, pierce ye mine enemies ! 

3. Be he our own, or be he strange, the kinsman, 
or the foreigner, who bear enmity towards us, those 
enemies of mine Rudra shall pierce with a shower 
of arrows ! 

4. Him that rivals us, or does not rival us, him 

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that curses us with hate, may all the gods injure : 
my charm protects me from within ! 

Ill, i. Battle-charm for confusing the enemy. 

i. Agni shall skilfully march against our oppo- 
nents, burning against their schemes and hostile 
plans; G&tavedas shall confuse the army of our 
opponents and deprive them (of the use) of their 
hands ! 

2. Ye Maruts are mighty in such matters : ad- 
vance ye, crush ye, conquer ye (the enemy) ! These 
Vasus when implored did crush (them). Agni, 
verily, as their vanguard shall skilfully attack ! 

3. O Maghavan, the hostile army which contends 
against us — do ye, O Indra, VWtra's slayer, and 
Agni, burn against them ! 

4. Thy thunderbolt, O Indra, who hast been 
driven forward swiftly by thy two bay steeds, 
shall advance, crushing the enemies. Slay them 
that resist, pursue, or flee, deprive their schemes of 
fulfilment ! 

5. O Indra, confuse the army of the enemy; with 
the impact of the fire and the wind scatter them to 
either side ! 

6. Indra shall confuse the army, the Maruts shall 
slay it with might ! Agni shall rob it of its sight ; 
vanquished it shall turn about ! 

Ill, 2. Battle-charm for confusing the enemy. 

1. Agni, our skilful vanguard, shall attack, burn- 
ing against their schemes and hostile plans ! Cata- 
vedas shall bewilder the plans of the enemy, and 
deprive them (of the use) of their hands ! 

2. This fire has confused the schemes that are in 

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your mind ; it shall blow you from your home, blow 
you away from everywhere ! 

3. O Indra, bewildering their schemes, come 
hither with thy (own) plan : with the impact of the 
fire and the wind scatter them to either side ! 

4. O ye plans of theirs, fly ye away ; O ye schemes, 
be ye confused! Moreover, what now is in their 
mind, do thou drive that out of them ! 

5. Do thou, O (goddess) Apva, confusing their 
plans, go forth (to them), and seize their limbs! 
Attack them, burn with flames into their hearts ; 
strike the enemy with fits, (strike our) opponents 
with darkness! 

6. That army yonder of the enemy, that comes 
against us fighting with might, do ye, O Maruts, 
strike with planless darkness, that one of them shall 
not know the other ! 

VI, 97. Battle-charm of a king upon the eve of 


1. Superior is the sacrifice, superior Agni, superior 
Soma, superior Indra. To the end that I shall be 
superior to all hostile armies do we thus, offering 
the agnihotra, reverently present this oblation ! 

2. Hail be, ye wise Mitra and Varu«a: with 
honey swell ye our kingdom here, (so that it shall) 
abound in offspring ! Drive far to a distance mis- 
fortune, strip off from us sin, even after it has been 
committed ! 

3. With inspiration follow ye this strong hero ; 
cling close, ye friends, to Indra (the king), who 
conquers villages, conquers cattle, has the thunder- 
bolt in his arm, overcomes the host arrayed (against 
him), crushing it with might ! 

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VI, 99. Battle-charm of a king on the eve of 

1. I call upon thee, O India, from afar, upon thee 
for protection against tribulation. I call the strong 
avenger that has many names, and is of unequalled 

2. Where the hostile weapon now rises against us, 
threatening to slay, there do we place the two arms 
of Indra round about. 

3. The two arms of Indra, the protector, do we 
place round about us : let him protect us ! O god 
Savitar, and king Soma, render me of confident 
mind, that I may prosper ! 

XI, 9. Prayer to Arbudi and Nyarbudi for help 
in battle. 

1. The arms, the arrows, and the might of the 
bows; the swords, the axes, the weapons, and the 
artful scheme that is in our mind; all that, O Arbudi, 
do thou make the enemies see, and spectres also 
make them see ! 

2. Arise, and arm yourselves; friends are ye, O 
divine folk! May our friends be perceived and 
protected by you, O Arbudi (and Nyarbudi) ! 

3. Arise (ye two), and take hold ! With fetters 
and shackles surround ye the armies of the enemy, 
O Arbudi (and Nyarbudi) ! 

4. The god whose name is Arbudi, and the lord 
Nyarbudi, by whom the atmosphere and this great 
earth has been infolded, with these two companions 
of Indra do I pursue the conquered (king) with my 

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5. Arise, thou divine person, O Arbudi, together 
with thy army ! Crushing the army of the enemy, 
encompass them with thy embraces ! 

6. Thou, Arbudi, makest appear the sevenfold 
spectral brood. Do thou, when the oblation has 
been poured, rise up with all these, together with 
the army ! 

7. (The female mourner), beating herself, with 
tear-stained face, with short (mutilated ?) ears, with 
dishevelled hair, shall lament, when a man has been 
slain, pierced by thee, O Arbudi ! 

8. She curves her spine while longing in her 
heart for her son, her husband, and her kin, when 
(a man) has been pierced by thee, O Arbudi ! 

9. The aliklavas and the ^ashkamadas, the vul- 
tures, the strong-winged hawks, the crows, and the 
birds (of prey) shall obtain their fill! Let them 
make evident to the enemy, when (a man) has been 
pierced by thee, O Arbudi ! 

10. Then, too, every wild beast, insect, and worm 
shall obtain his fill on the human carcass, when 
(a man) has been pierced by thee, O Arbudi ! 

11. Seize ye, and tear out in-breathing and out- 
breathing, O Nyarbudi (and Arbudi): deep-sounding 
groans shall arise! Let them make it evident to 
the enemy, when (a man) has been pierced by thee, 
O Arbudi ! 

1 2. Scare them forth, let them tremble ; bewilder 
the enemies with fright ! With thy broad embrace, 
with the clasp of thy arms crush the enemies, O 
Nyarbudi ! 

1 3. May their arms, and the artful scheme that is 
in their mind be confused ! Not a thing shall remain 
of them, pierced by thee, O Arbudi ! 

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14. May (the mourning women) beating them- 
selves, run together, smiting their breasts and their 
thighs, not anointed, with dishevelled hair, howling, 
when a man has been slain, has been pierced by 
thee, O Arbudi ! 

1 5. The dog-like Apsaras, and also the Rupakas 
(phantoms), the plucking sprite, that eagerly licks 
within the vessel, and her that seeks out what has 
been carelessly hidden, all those do thou, O Arbudi, 
make the enemies see, and spectres also make 
them see ! 

16. (And also make them see) her that strides 
upon the mist, the mutilated one, who dwells with 
the mutilated ; the vapoury spooks that are hidden, 
and the Gandharvas and Apsaras, the serpents, and 
other brood, and the Rakshas ! 

17. (And also) the spooks with fourfold teeth, 
black teeth, testicles like a pot, bloody faces, who 
are inherently frightful, and terrifying ! 

18. Frighten thou, O Arbudi, yonder lines of the 
enemy ; the conquering and the victorious (Arbudi 
and Nyarbudi), the two comrades of Indra, shall 
conquer the enemies ! 

19. Dissolved, crushed, slain the enemy shall lie, 
O Nyarbudi ! May victorious sprites, with fiery 
tongues and smoky crests, go with (our) army ! 

20. Of the enemies repulsed by this (army), O 
Arbudi, Indra, the spouse of Sa&l, shall slay each 
picked man : not a single one of those yonder shall 
escape ! 

21. May their hearts burst, may their life's breath 
escape upward ! May dryness of the mouth over- 
take (our) enemies, but not (our) allies ! 

22. Those who are bold and those who are 

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cowardly, those who turn (in flight) and those who 
are deaf (to danger?), those who are (like) dark 
goats, and those, too, who bleat like goats, all those, 
do thou, O Arbudi, make the enemies see, and 
spectres also make them see! 

23. Arbudi and Trishawdhi shall pierce our 
enemies, so that, O Indra, slayer of VWtra, spouse 
of SaM, we may slay the enemy by thousands ! 

24. The trees, and (growths) that are like trees, 
the plants and the herbs as well, the Gandharvas 
and the Apsaras, the serpents, gods, pious men, and 
(departed) Fathers, all those, O Arbudi, do thou 
make the enemies see, and spectres also make 
them see! 

25. The Maruts, god Aditya, Brahma«aspati did 
rule over you ; Indra and Agni, Dhatar, Mitra, and 
Pra^apati did rule over you ; the seers did rule over 
you. Let them make evident to the enemies when 
(a man) has been pierced by thee, O Arbudi ! 

26. Ruling over all these, rise ye and arm your- 
selves! Ye divine folk are (our) friends: win ye 
the battle, and disperse to your various abodes ! 

XI, 10. Prayer to Trishawdhi for help in 

1 . Arise and arm yourselves, ye nebulous spectres 
together with fiery portents; ye serpents, other 
brood, and Rakshas, run ye after the enemy ! 

2. He knows how to rule your kingdom together 
with the red portents (of the heavens). The evil 
brood that is in the air and the heaven, and the 
human (powers) upon the earth, shall be obedient to 
the plans of Trisha/wdhi ! 

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3. The brazen-beaked (birds of prey), those with 
beaks pointed as a needle, and those, too, with 
thorny beaks, flesh-devouring, swift as the wind, 
shall fasten themselves upon the enemies, together 
with the Trisha*»dhi-bolt (the bolt with three 
joints) ! 

4. Make away with, O <7atavedas Aditya, many 
carcasses! This army of Trishaawdhi shall be de- 
voted to my bidding ! 

5. Arise thou divine person, O Arbudi, together 
with thy army! This tribute has been offered to 
you (Arbudi and Trishaawdhi), an offering pleasing 
to Trisha*»dhi. 

6. This white-footed, four-footed arrow shall 
fetter (?). Do thou, O magic spell, operate, together 
with the army of Trishaawdhi, against the enemies ! 

7. May (the mourning woman) with suffused eyes 
hurry on, may she that hath short (mutilated ?) ears 
shout when (a man) has been overcome by the army 
of Trishawdhi ! Red portents shall be (visible) ! 

8. May the winged birds that move in the air and 
in the sky descend ; beasts of prey and insects shall 
seize upon them ; the vultures that feed upon raw 
flesh shall hack into (their) carcasses ! 

9. By virtue of the compact which thou, O Bri- 
haspati, didst close with Indra and Brahman, by 
virtue of that agreement with Indra, do I call 
hither all the gods : on this side conquer, not over 
yonder ! 

10. Brshaspati, the* descendant of Angiras, and 
the seers, inspired by (our) song, did fix the three- 
jointed (Trishaawdhi) weapon upon the sky for the 
destruction of the Asuras. 

11. Trishawdhi, by whom both yonder Aditya 

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(the sun) and Indra are protected, the gods did 
destine for (our) might and strength. 

12. All the worlds the gods did conquer through 
this oblation, (and) by the bolt which Br/haspati, 
the descendant of Angiras, did mould into a weapon 
for the destruction of the Asuras. 

1 3. With the bolt which Brz'haspati, the descendant 
of Angiras, did mould into a weapon for the destruc- 
tion of the Asuras do I, O Bf/haspati, annihilate 
yonder army : I smite the enemies with force. 

14. All the gods that eat the oblation offered 
with the call vasha/ are coming over. Receive this 
oblation graciously ; conquer on this side, not over 
yonder ! 

1 5. May all the gods come over : the oblation 
is pleasing to Trishawdhi. Adhere to the great 
compact under which of yore the Asuras were 
conquered ! 

16. Vayu (the wind) shall bend the points of the 
enemies' bows, Indra shall break their arms, so that 
they shall be unable to lay on their arrows, Aditya 
(the sun) shall send their missiles astray, and A'an- 
dramas (the moon) shall bar the way of (the enemy) 
that has not (as yet) started ! 

17. If they have come on as citadels of the gods, 
if they have constituted an inspired charm as their 
armour, if they have gathered courage through the 
protections for the body and the bulwarks which 
they have made, render all that devoid of force ! 

1 8. Placing (our) purohita (chaplain), together with 
the flesh-devourer (Agni) and death, in thy train, do 
thou, O Trishawdhi, go forth with thy army, conquer 
the enemies, advance ! 

19. O Trisha*»dhi, envelop thou the enemies in 

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darkness ; may not a single one of those, driven 
forth by the speckled ghee, be saved ! 

20. May the white-footed (arrow ?) fly to yonder 
lines of the enemy, may yonder armies of the 
enemies be to-day put to confusion, O Nyarbudi ! 

21. The enemies have been confused, O Nyar- 
budi : slay each picked man among them, slay them 
with this army ! 

22. The enemy with coat-of-mail, he that has no 
coat-of-mail, and he that stands in the battle-throng, 
throttled by the strings of their bows, by the fasten- 
ings of their coats-of-mail, by the battle-throng, they 
shall lie ! 

23. Those with armour and those without armour, 
the enemies that are shielded by armour, all those, 
O Arbudi, after they have been slain, dogs shall 
devour upon the ground ! 

24. Those that ride on chariots, and those that 
have no chariots, those that are mounted, and those 
that are not mounted, all those, after they have 
been slain, vultures and strong-winged hawks shall 
devour ! 

25. Counting its dead by thousands, the hostile 
army, pierced and shattered in the clash of arms, 
shall lie ! 

26. Pierced in a vital spot, shrieking in concert 
with the birds of prey, wretched, crushed, prostrate, 
(the birds of prey) shall devour the enemy who 
attempts to hinder this oblation of ours directed 
against (him) ! 

27. With (the oblation) to which the gods flock, 
which is free from failure, with it Indra, the slayer 
of VWtra, shall slay, and with the Trisha*»dhi-bolt 
(the bolt with three joints) ! 

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V, 20. Hymn to the battle-drum. 

1. High sounds the voice of the drum, that acts 
the warrior, the wooden (drum), equipped with the 
skin of the cow. Whetting thy voice, subduing the 
enemy, like a lion sure of victory, do thou loudly 
thunder against them ! 

2. The wooden (instrument) with fastened (cover- 
ing) has thundered as a lion, as a bull roars to the 
cow that longs to mate. Thou art a bull, thy 
enemies are eunuchs ; thou ownest Indra's foe- 
subduing fire ! 

3. Like a bull in the herd, full of might, lusty, do 
thou, O snatcher of booty, roar against them! 
Pierce with fire the heart of the enemy ; with 
broken ranks the foe shall run and scatter ! 

4. In victorious battles raise thy roar! What 
may be captured, capture ; sound in many places ! 
Favour, O drum, (our deeds) with thy divine voice ; 
bring to (us) with strength the property of the 
enemy ! 

5. When the wife of the enemy hears the voice of 
the drum, that speaks to a far distance, may she, 
aroused by the sound, distressed, snatch her son 
to her arms, and run, frightened at the clash of 

6. Do thou, O drum, sound the first sound, ring 
brilliantly over the back of the earth ! Open wide 
thy maw at the enemies host; resound brightly, 
joyously, O drum ! 

7. Between this heaven and earth thy noise shall 
spread, thy sounds shall quickly part to every side ! 
Shout thou and thunder with swelling sound ; make 

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music at thy friend's victory, having (chosen) the 
good side ! 

8. Manipulated with care, its voice shall resound ! 
Make bristle forth the weapons of the warriors ! 
Allied to Indra do thou call hither the warriors ; 
with thy friends beat vigorously down the enemies ! 

9. A shouting herald, followed by a bold army, 
spreading news in many places, sounding through 
the village, eager for success, knowing the way, do 
thou distribute glory to many in the battle ! 

1 o. Desiring advantage, gaining booty, full mighty, 
thou hast been made keen by (my) song, and 
winnest battles. As the press-stone on the gather- 
ing skin dances upon the soma-shoots, thus do thou, 
O drum, lustily dance upon the booty ! 

11. A conqueror of enemies, overwhelming, foe- 
subduing, eager for the fray, victoriously crushing, 
as a speaker his speech do thou carry forth thy 
sound; sound forth here strength for victory in 
battle ! 

1 2. Shaking those that are unshaken, hurrying to 
the strife, a conqueror of enemies, an unconquerable 
leader, protected by Indra, attending to the hosts, 
do thou that crusheth the hearts of the enemies, 
quickly go ! 

V, 21. Hymn to the battle-drum, the terror 
of the enemy. 

1. Carry with thy voice, O drum, lack of heart, 
and failure of courage among the enemies! Dis- 
agreement, dismay, and fright, do we place into the 
enemies : beat them down, O drum ! 

2. Agitated in their minds, their sight, their 

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hearts, the enemies shall run, frightened with terror, 
when our oblation has been offered ! 

3. Made of wood, equipped with the skin of the 
cow, at home with every clan, put thou with thy 
voice terror into the enemies, when thou hast been 
anointed with ghee ! 

4. As the wild animals of the forest start in fear 
from man, thus do thou, O drum, shout against the 
enemies, frighten them away, and bewilder their 
minds ! 

5. As goats and sheep run from the wolf, badly 
frightened, thus do thou, O drum, shout against the 
enemies, frighten them away, and bewilder their 
minds ! 

6. As birds start in fear from the eagle, as by 
day and by night (they start) at the roar of the 
lion, thus do thou, O drum, shout against the 
enemies, frighten them away, and bewilder their 
minds ! 

7. With the drum and the skin of the antelope 
all the gods, that sway the battle, have scared away 
the enemies. 

8. At the noise of the beat of the feet when 
Indra disports himself, and at his shadow, our 
enemies yonder, that come in successive ranks, 
shall tremble ! 

9. The whirring of the bowstring and the drums 
shall shout at the directions where the conquered 
armies of the enemies go in successive ranks ! 

10. O sun, take away their sight; O rays, run 
after them ; clinging to their feet, fasten your- 
selves upon them, when the strength of their arms 
is gone ! 

1 1. Ye strong Maruts, Vrtsni's children, with Indra 

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as an ally, crush ye the enemies; Soma the king 
(shall crush them), Varu«a the king, Mahadeva, and 
also Mntyu (death), and Indra ! 

12. These wise armies of the gods, having the 
sun as their ensign, shall conquer our enemies! 

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Ill, 30. Charm to secure harmony. 

1. Unity of heart, and unity of mind, freedom from 
hatred, do I procure for you. Do ye take delight 
in one another, as a cow in her (new-) born calf! 

2. The son shall be devoted to his father, be of 
the same mind with his mother ; the wife shall speak 
honied, sweet, words to her husband ! 

3. The brother shall not hate the brother, and the 
sister not the sister ! Harmonious, devoted to the 
same purpose, speak ye words in kindly spirit ! 

4. That charm which causes the gods not to dis- 
agree, and not to hate one another, that do we 
prepare in your house, as a means of agreement for 
your folk. 

5. Following your leader, of (the same) mind, do 
ye not hold yourselves apart! Do ye come here, 
co-operating, going along the same wagon-pole, 
speaking agreeably to one another ! I render you 
of the same aim, of the same mind. 

6. Identical shall be your drink, in common shall 
be your share of food ! I yoke you together in the 
same traces : do ye worship Agni, joining together, 
as spokes around about the hub ! 

7. I render you of the same aim, of the same 

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mind, all paying deference to one (person) through 
my harmonising charm. Like the gods that are 
guarding the ambrosia, may he (the leader) be well- 
disposed towards you, night and day ! 

VI, 73. Charm to allay discord. 

1. Hither shall come Varu«a, Soma, Agni ; Bri- 
haspati with the Vasus shall come hither! Come 
together, O ye kinsmen all, of one mind, to the 
glory of this mighty guardian ! 

2. The fire that is within your souls, the scheme 
that hath entered your minds, do I frustrate with my 
oblation, with my ghee: delight in me shall ye take, 
O kinsmen ! 

3. Remain right here, go not away from us ; (the 
roads) at a distance Pushan shall make impassable 
for you ! Vastoshpati shall urgently call you back : 
delight in me shall ye take, O kinsmen ! 

VI, 74. Charm to allay discord. 

1. May your bodies be united, may your minds 
and your purposes (be united) ! Brahma»aspati here 
has brought you together, Bhaga has brought you 

2. Harmony of mind (I procure) for you, and also 
harmony of heart. Moreover with the aid of 
Bhaga's exertions do I cause you to agree. 

3. As the Adityas are united with the Vasus, as 
the fierce (Rudras), free from grudge, with the 
Maruts, thus, O three-named (Agni), without grudge, 
do thou render these people here of the same 
mind ! 

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VII, 52. Charm against strife and bloodshed. 

1. May we be in harmony with our kinfolk, in 
harmony with strangers ; do ye, O A^vins, establish 
here agreement among us ! 

2. May we agree in mind and thought, may we 
not struggle with one another, in a spirit displeasing 
to the gods ! May not the din of frequent battle- 
carnage arise, may the arrow not fly when the day 
of Indra has arrived ! 

VI, 64. Charm to allay discord. 

1. Do ye agree, unite yourselves, may your minds 
be in harmony, just as the gods of old in harmony 
sat down to their share ! 

2. Same be their counsel, same their assembly, 
same their aim, in common their thought! The 
' same ' oblation do I sacrifice for you : do ye enter 
upon the same plan ! 

3. Same be your intention, same your hearts ! 
Same be your mind, so that it may be perfectly in 
common to you! 

VI, 42. Charm to appease anger. 

1. As the bowstring from the/oow, thus do I take 
off thy anger from thy heart, so that, having become 
of the same mind, we shall associate like friends ! 

2. Like friends we shall associate — I take off thy 
anger. Under a stone that is heavy do we cast 
thy anger. 

3. I step upon thy anger with my heel and my 
fore-foot, so that, bereft of will, thou shalt not speak, 
shalt come up to my wish ! 

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VI, 43. Charm to appease anger. 

1. This darbha-grass removes the anger of both 
kinsman and of stranger. And this remover of 
wrath, ' appeaser of wrath ' it is called. 

2. This darbha-grass of many roots, that reaches 
down into the ocean, having risen from the earth, 
' appeaser of wrath ' it is called. 

3. Away we take the offensiveness that is in thy 
jaw, away (the offensiveness) in thy mouth, so that, 
bereft of will, thou shalt not speak, shalt come up 
to my wish ! 

II, 27. Charm against opponents in debate, 
undertaken with the pa/a-plant. 

1. May the enemy not win the debate ! Thou art 
mighty and overpowering. Overcome the debate 
of those that debate against us, render them devoid 
of force, O plant ! 

2. An eagle found thee out, a boar dug thee out 
with his snout. Overcome the debate of those 
that debate against us, render them devoid of force, 
O plant ! 

3. Indra placed thee upon his arm in order to 
overthrow the Asuras. Overcome the debate of 
those that debate against us, render them devoid 
of force, O plant ! 

4. Indra did eat the pa/a-plant, in order to over- 
throw the Asuras. Overcome the debate of those 
that debate against us, render them devoid of force, 
O plant! 

5. By means of thee I shall conquer the enemy, 

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as Indra (conquered) the Salavr/kas. Overcome 
the debate of those that debate against us, render 
them devoid of force, O plant ! 

6. O Rudra, whose remedy is the urine, with 
black crest of hair, performer of (strong) deeds — 
overcome thou the .debate of those that debate 
against us, render them devoid of force, O plant ! 

7. Overcome thou the debate of him that is 
hostile to us, O Indra ! Encourage us with thy 
might! Render me superior in debate! 

VII, 12. Charm to procure influence in the 

1 . May assembly and meeting, the two daughters 
of Pra^apati, concurrently aid me! May he with 
whom I shall meet co-operate with me ; may I, O ye 
Fathers, speak agreeably to those assembled ! 

2. We know thy name, O assembly: 'mirth,' 
verily, is thy name ; may all those that sit assem- 
bled in thee utter speech in harmony with me ! 

3. Of them that are sitting together I take to 
myself the power and the understanding: in this 
entire gathering render, O Indra, me successful ! 

4. If your mind has wandered to a distance, or 
has been enchained here or there, then do we turn 
it hither : may your mind take delight in me ! 

VI, 94. Charm to bring about submission to 
one's will. 

i. Your minds, your purposes, your plans, do we 
cause to bend. Ye persons yonder, that are devoted 
to other purposes, we cause you to comply ! 

2. With my mind do I seize your minds : do ye 

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with your thoughts follow my thought ! I place 
your hearts in my control : come ye, directing your 
way after my course! 

3. I have called upon heaven and earth, I have 
called upon the goddess Sarasvatt, I have called 
upon both Indra and Agni : may we succeed in this, 
O Sarasvatt ! 

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Ill, 12. Prayer at the building of a house. 

i. Right here do I erect a firm house : may it 
stand upon a (good) foundation, dripping with ghee ! 
Thee may we inhabit, O house, with heroes all, 
with strong heroes, with uninjured heroes ! 

2. Right here, do thou, O house, stand firmly, 
full of horses, full of cattle, full of abundance ! Full 
of sap, full of ghee, full of milk, elevate thyself unto 
great happiness ! 

3. A supporter art thou, O house, with broad 
roof, containing purified grain ! To thee may the 
calf come, to thee the child, to thee the milch-cows, 
when they return in the evening ! 

4. May Savitar, Vayu, Indra, Brzhaspati cunningly 
erect this house ! May the Maruts sprinkle it with 
moisture and with ghee; may king Bhaga let our 
ploughing take root! 

5. O mistress of dwelling, as a sheltering and 
kindly goddess thou wast erected by the gods in 
the beginning ; clothed in grass, be thou kindly dis- 
posed ; give us, moreover, wealth along with heroes ! 

6. Do thou, O cross-beam, according to regulation 
ascend the post, do thou, mightily ruling, hold off 
the enemies ! May they that approach thee rever- 

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ently, O house, not suffer injury, may we with all 
our heroes live a hundred autumns ! 

7. Hither to this (house) hath come the tender 
child, hither the calf along with (the other) domestic 
animals ; hither the vessel (full) of liquor, together 
with bowls of sour milk ! 

8. Carry forth, O woman, this full jar, a stream 
of ghee mixed with ambrosia ! Do thou these 
drinkers supply with ambrosia; the sacrifice and 
the gifts (to the Brahmans) shall it (the house) 
protect ! 

9. These waters, free from disease, destructive of 
disease, do I carry forth. The chambers do I enter 
in upon together with the immortal Agni (fire). 

VI, 142. Blessing during the sowing of seed. 

1 . Raise thyself up, grow thick by thy own might, 
O grain ! Burst every vessel ! The lightning in the 
heavens shall not destroy thee ! 

2. When we invoke thee, god grain, and thou 
dost listen, then do thou raise thyself up like the 
sky, be inexhaustible as the sea ! 

3. Inexhaustible shall be those that attend to 
thee, inexhaustible thy heaps ! They who give thee 
as a present shall be inexhaustible, they who eat 
thee shall be inexhaustible! 

VI, 79. Charm for procuring increase of grain. 

1. May this bounteous Nabhasaspati (the lord of 
the cloud) preserve for us (possessions) without 
measure in our house ! 

2. Do thou, O Nabhasaspati, keep strengthening 

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food in our house, may prosperity and goods come 
hither ! 

3. O bounteous god, thou dost command thou- 
sandfold prosperity : of that do thou bestow upon 
us, of that do thou give us, in that may we share 
with thee! 

VI, 50. Exorcism of vermin infesting grain in 
the field. 

1. Slay ye the tarda ('borer'), the samanka 
('hook'), and the mole, O A^vins; cut off their 
heads/and crush their ribs ! Shut their mouths, that 
they shall not eat the barley; free ye, moreover, 
the grain from danger ! 

2. Ho tarda (' borer '), ho locust, ho /abhya 
(' snapper'), upakvasa ! As a Brahman (eats not) an 
uncompleted sacrifice, do ye, not eating this barley, 
without working injury, get out! 

3. O husband of the tarda (-female), O husband 
of the vagha (-female), ye of the sharp teeth, listen 
to me ! The vyadvaras (' rodents ') of the forest, 
and whatever other vyadvaras (there are), all these 
we do crush. 

VII, 11. Charm to protect grain from lightning. 

With thy broad thunder, with the beacon, elevated 
by the gods that pervade this all, with the lightning 
do thou not destroy our grain, O god ; nor do thou 
destroy it with the rays of the sun ! 

II, 26. Charm for the prosperity of cattle. 

1. Hither shall come the cattle which have 
strayed to a distance, whose companionship Vayu 

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(the wind) enjoys ! (The cattle) whose structure of 
form Tvash/ar knows, Savitar shall hold in place in 
this stable! 

2. To this stable the cattle shall flow together, 
Brzhaspati skilfully shall conduct them hither! 
Sinlvall shall conduct hither their van: do thou, 
O Anumati, hold them in place after they have 
arrived ! 

3. May the cattle, may the horses, and may the 
domestics flow together ; may the increase of the 
grain flow together! I sacrifice with an oblation 
that causeth to flow together ! 

4. I pour together the milk of the cows, I pour 
together strength and sap with the ghee. Poured 
together shall be our heroes, constant shall be the 
cows with me the owner of the cows ! 

5. I bring hither the milk of the cows, I have 
brought hither the sap of the grain. Brought 
hither are our heroes, brought hither to this house 
are our wives! 

Ill, 14. Charm for the prosperity of cattle. 

1. With a firmly founded stable, with wealth, with 
well-being, with the name of that which is born on 
a lucky day do we unite you (O cattle) ! 

2. May Aryaman unite you, may Pushan, Brt- 
haspati, and Indra, the conqueror of booty, unite 
you ! Do ye prosper my possessions ! 

3. Flocking together without fear, making ordure 
in this stable, holding honey fit for soma, free from 
disease, ye shall come hither ! 

4. Right here come, ye cows, and prosper here 
like the saka-bird! And right here do ye beget 
(your young) ! May ye be in accord with me ! 

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5. May your stable be auspicious to you, prosper 
ye like the sari-birds and parrots ! And right 
here do ye beget (your young)! With us do we 
unite you. 

6. Attach yourselves, O cows, to me as your pos- 
sessor ; may this stable here cause you to prosper ! 
Upon you, growing numerous, and living, may we, 
increasing in wealth, alive, attend ! 

VI, 59. Prayer to the plant arundhati for pro- 
tection to cattle. 

1 . Thy foremost protection, O Arundhat!, do thou 
bestow upon steer and milch-kine, upon (cattle of) 
the age when weaned from their mother, upon (all) 
four-footed creatures ! 

2. May Arundhatt, the herb, bestow protection 
along with the gods, render full of sap the stable, 
free from disease our men ! 

3. The variegated, lovely, life-giving (plant) do 
I invoke. May she carry away for us, far from the 
cattle, the missile hurled by Rudra ! 

VI, 70. Charm to secure the attachment of a 
cow to her calf. 

1. As meat, and liquor, and dice (abound) at the 
gambling-place, as the heart of the lusty male 
hankers after the woman, thus shall thy heart, O 
cow, hanker after the calf! 

2. As the elephant directs his steps after the 
steps of the female, as the heart of the lusty male 
hankers after the woman, thus shall thy heart, O 
cow, hanker after the calf! 

3. As the felloe, and as the spokes, and as the 

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nave (of the wheel is joined) to the felloe, as the 
heart of the lusty male hankers after the woman, 
thus shall thy heart, O cow, hanker after the calf! 

Ill, 28. Formula in expiation of the birth of 

1. Through one creation at a time this (cow) was 
born, when the fashioners of the beings did create 
the cows of many colours. (Therefore), when a 
cow doth beget twins portentously, growling and 
cross she injureth the cattle. 

2. This (cow) doth injure our cattle : a flesh-eater, 
devourer, she hath become. Hence to a Brahman 
he shall give her; in this way she may be kindly 
and auspicious ! 

3. Auspicious be to (our) men, auspicious to (our) 
cows and horses, auspicious to this entire field, 
auspicious be to us right here ! 

4. Here be prosperity, here be sap! Be thou 
here one that especially gives a thousandfold! 
Make the cattle prosper, thou mother of twins ! 

5. Where our pious friends live joyously, having 
left behind the ailments of their bodies, to that 
world the mother of twins did attain : may she not 
injure our men and our cattle ! 

6. Where is the world of our pious friends, where 
the world of them that sacrifice with the agnihotra, 
to that world the mother of twins did attain : may 
she not injure our men and our cattle ! 

VI, 92. Charm to endow a horse with swiftness. 

1. Swift as the wind be thou, O steed, when 
joined (to the chariot) ; at Indra's urging go, fleet as 

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the mind ! The Maruts, the all-possessing, shall har- 
ness thee,Tvash/ar shall put fleetness into thy feet! 

2. With the fleetness, O runner, that has been 
deposited in thee in a secret place, (with the fleetness) 
that has been made over to the eagle, the wind, and 
moves in them, with that, O steed, strong with 
strength, do thou win the race, reaching the goal in 
the contest ! 

3. Thy body, O steed, leading (our) body, shall 
run, a pleasure to ourselves, delight to thyself! 
A god, not stumbling, for the support of the great, 
he shall, as if upon the heaven, found his own light • 

III, 13. Charm for conducting a river into a new 


1 . Because of yore, when the (cloud-) serpent was 
slain (by Indra), ye did rush forth and shout (ana- 
data), therefore is your name 'shouters' (nadyaA 
' rivers') : that is your designation, ye streams ! 

2. Because, when sent forth by Vanma, ye then 
quickly did bubble up ; then Indra met (apnot) you, 
as ye went, therefore anon . are ye ' meeters ' (ApaA 
' waters ') ! 

3. When reluctantly ye flowed, Indra, forsooth, 
did with might choose (avlvarata) you as his own, 
ye goddesses ! Therefore ' choice ' (var ' water ') has 
been given you as your name ! 

4. One god stood upon you, as ye flowed accord- 
ing to will. Up breathed (ud finish u^) they who 
are known as ' the great ' (mah!^). Therefore ' up- 
breather ' (udakam ' water ') are they called ! 

5. The waters are kindly, the waters in truth were 
ghee. These waters, truly, do support Agni and 

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Soma. May the readily flowing, strong sap of the 
honey-dripping (waters) come to me, together with 
life's breath and lustre ! 

6. Then do I see them and also do I hear them ; 
their sound, their voice doth come to me. When, 
ye golden-coloured, I have refreshed myself with 
you, then I ween, ambrosia (amrzta) am I tasting ! 

7. Here, ye waters, is your heart, here is your 
calf, ye righteous ones ! Come ye, mighty ones, by 
this way here, by which I am conducting you here ! 

VI, 106. Charm to ward off danger from fire. 

1. Where thou comest, (O fire), and where thou 
goest away, the blooming durva-plant shall grow : 
a well-spring there shall rise up, or a lotus-laden pool ! 

2. Here (shall be) the gathering place of the 
waters, here the dwelling-place of the sea! In the 
midst of a pond our house shall be : turn, (O fire), 
away thy jaws ! 

3. With a covering of coolness do we envelop 
thee, O house ; cool as a pond be thou for us ! Agni 
shall furnish the remedy ! 

IV, 3. Shepherd's charm against wild beasts and 


1. Three have gone away from here, the tiger,, 
man, and wolf. Out of sight, forsooth, go the 
rivers, out of sight (grows) the divine tree (the 
banyan-tree ?) : out of sight the enemies shall retreat ! 

2. The wolf shall tread a distant path, and the 
robber one still more distant! On a distant path 
shall move the biting rope (the serpent), on a distant 
path the plotter of evil ! 

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3. Thy eyes and thy jaw we crush, O tiger, and 
also all thy twenty claws. 

4. We crush the tiger, the foremost of animals, 
armed with teeth. Next, too, the thief, and then 
the serpent, the wizard, and also the wolf. 

5. The thief that approacheth to-day, crushed to 
pieces he goeth away. Where the paths are preci- 
pitate he shall go, Indra shall slay him with his 

6. The teeth of the wild beast are dulled, and 
broken are his ribs. Out -of thy sight the dragon 
shall go, down shall tumble the hare-hunting 

7. The (jaw, O beast,) that thou shuttest together, 
thou shalt not open up ; that which thou openest up, 
thou shalt not shut together! — Born of Indra, born 
of Soma, thou, (my charm), art Atharvan's crusher 
of tigers. 

Ill, 15. A merchant's prayer. 

1. Indra, the merchant, do I summon : may he 
come to us, may he be our van ; driving away the 
demon of grudge, the waylayers, and wild beasts, 
may he, the possessor, bestow wealth upon me ! 

2. May the many paths, the roads of the gods, 
which come together between heaven and earth, 
gladden me with milk and ghee, so that I may 
gather in wealth from my purchases ! 

3. Desirous do I, O Agni, with firewood and 
ghee offer oblations (to thee), for success and 
strength; according to ability praising (thee) with 
my prayer, do I sing this divine song, that I may 
gain a hundredfold ! 

4. (Pardon, O Agni, this sin of ours [incurred 

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upon] the far road which we have travelled !) May 
our purchases and our sales be successful for us; 
may what I get in barter render me a gainer ! May 
ye two (Indra and Agni) in accord take pleasure in 
this oblation ! May our transactions and the accru- 
ing gain be auspicious to us ! 

5. The wealth with which I go to purchase, de- 
siring, ye gods, to gain wealth through wealth, may 
that grow more, not less ! Drive away, O Agni, in 
return for the oblation, the gods who shut off gain ! 

6. The wealth with which I go to purchase, de- 
siring, ye gods, to gain wealth through wealth, may 
Indra, Pra^apati, Savitar, Soma, Agni, place lustre 
into it for me ! 

7. We praise with reverence thee, O priest (Agni) 
Vairvinara. Do thou over our children, selves, 
cattle, and life's breath watch ! 

8. Daily, never failing, shall we bring (oblations to 
thee), O G&tavedas, (as if fodder) to a horse stand- 
ing (in the stable). In growth of wealth and nutri- 
ment rejoicing, may we, O Agni, thy neighbours, 
not take harm ! 

IV, 38. A. Prayer for success in gambling. 

1. The successful, victorious, skilfully gaming 
Apsara, that Apsara who makes the winnings in the 
game of dice, do I call hither. 

2. The skilfully gaming Apsara who sweeps and 
heaps up (the stakes), that Apsara who takes the 
winnings in the game of dice, do I call hither. 

3. May she, who dances about with the dice, 
when she takes the stakes from the game of dice, 
when she desires to win for us, obtain the advantage 

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by (her) magic ! May she come to us full of abun- 
dance ! Let them not win this wealth of ours ! 

4. The (Apsaras) who rejoice in dice, who carry 
grief and wrath — that joyful and exulting Apsara, do 
I call hither. 

B. Prayer to secure the return of calves that 
have strayed to a distance. 

5. They (the cattle) who wander along the rays 
of the sun, or they who wander along the flood of 
light, they whose bull (the sun), full of strength, from 
afar protecting, with the day wanders about all the 
worlds — may he (the bull), full of strength, delight- 
ing in this offering, come to us together with the 
atmosphere ! 

6. Together with the atmosphere, O thou who 
art full of strength, protect the white (karki) calf, 
O thou swift steed (the sun) ! Here are many drops 
(of ghee) for thee ; come hither ! May this white 
calf (karki) of thine, may thy mind, be here ! 

7. Together with the atmosphere, O thou who 
art full of strength, protect the white (karki) calf, 
O thou swift steed (the sun) ! Here is the fodder, 
here the stall, here do we tie down the calf. What- 
ever (are your) names, we own you. Hail ! 

VII, 50. Prayer for success at dice. 

1. As the lightning at all times smites irresistibly 
the tree, thus would I to-day irresistibly beat the 
gamesters with my dice ! 

2. Whether they be alert, or not alert, the fortune 
of (these) folks, unresisting, shall assemble from all 
sides, the gain (collect) within my hands ! 

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3. I invoke with reverence Agni. who has his 
own riches; here attached he shall heap up gain 
for us! I procure (wealth) for myself, as if with 
chariots that win the race. May I accomplish au- 
spiciously the song of praise to the Maruts ! 

4. May we by thy aid conquer the (adversary's) 
troop ; help us (to obtain) our share in every con- 
test! Make for us, O Indra, a good and ample 
road ; crush, O Maghavan, the lusty power of our 
enemies ! 

5. I have conquered and cleaned thee out (?) ; 
I have also gained thy reserve. As the wolf plucks 
to pieces the sheep, thus do I pluck thy winnings. 

6. Even the strong hand the bold player conquers, 
as the skilled gambler heaps up his winnings at 
the proper time. Upon him that loves the game 
(the god), and does not spare his money, (the game, 
the god) verily bestows the delights of wealth. 

7. Through (the possession of) cattle we all 
would suppress (our) wretched poverty, or with 
grain our hunger, O thou oft implored (god) ! May 
we foremost among rulers, unharmed, gain wealth 
by our cunning devices ! 

8. Gain is deposited in my right hand, victory in 
my left. Let me become a conqueror of cattle, 
horses, wealth, and gold ! 

9. O dice, yield play, profitable as a cow that is 
rich in milk ! Bind me to a streak of gain, as the 
bow (is bound) with the string ! 

VI, 56. Exorcism of serpents from the premises. 

1. May the serpent, ye gods, not slay us along 
with our children and our men ! The closed (jaw) 

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shall not snap open, the open one not close ! Rever- 
ence (be) to the divine folk ! 

2. Reverence be to the black serpent, reverence 
to the one that is striped across! To the brown 
sva^a reverence ; reverence to the divine folk ! 

3. I clap thy teeth upon thy teeth, and also thy 
jaw upon thy jaw ; I press thy tongue against thy 
tongue, and close up, O serpent, thy mouth. 

X, 4. Charm against serpents, invoking the 
horse of Pedu that slays serpents. 

1. To Indra belongs the first chariot, to the gods 
the second chariot, to Varu»a, forsooth, the third. 
The serpents' chariot is the last : it shall hit a post, 
and come to grief! 

2. The young darbha-grass burns (the serpents ?), 
the tail of the horse, the tail of the shaggy one, the 
seat of the wagon (burns the serpents ?). 

3. Strike down, O white (horse), with thy fore- 
foot and thy hind-foot ! As timber floating in water, 
the poison of the serpents, the fierce fluid, is devoid 
of strength. 

4. Neighing loudly he dived down, and, again 
diving up, said : ' As timber floating in water, the 
poison of the serpents, the fierce fluid, is devoid of 

5. The horse of Pedu slays the kasar«ila, the 
horse of Pedu slays the white (serpent), and also 
the black. The horse of Pedu cleaves the head of 
the ratharvl, the adder. 

6. O horse of Pedu, go thou first : we come after 
thee! Thou shalt cast out the serpents from the 
road upon which we come ! 

7. Here the horse of Pedu was born ; from here 

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is his departure. Here are the tracks of the serpent- 
killing, powerful steed ! 

8. May the closed (serpent's jaw) not snap open, 
may the open one not close ! The two serpents in 
this field, man and wife, they are both bereft of 

9. Without strength here are the serpents, those 
that are near, and those that are far. With a club 
do I slay the vrts&ika. (scorpion), with a staff the 
serpent that has approached. 

10. Here is the remedy for both the agha-rva and 
the sva^a ! Indra (and) Pedu's horse have put to 
naught the evil-planning (aghayantam) serpent. 

11. The horse of Pedu do we remember, the 
strong, with strong footing : behind lie, staring forth, 
these adders. 

1 2. Deprived are they of life's spirit, deprived of 
poison, slain by Indra with his bolt. Indra hath 
slain them : we have slain them. 

1 3. Slain are they that are striped across, crushed 
are the adders! Slay thou the one that produces 
a hood, (slay) the white and the black in the darbha- 

14. The maiden of the Kirata- tribe, the little one 
digs up the remedy, with golden spades, on the 
mountain's back. 

15. Hither has come a youthful physician: he 
slays the speckled (serpent), is irresistible. He, 
forsooth, crushes the sva^a and the vris&ika. both. 

16. Indra did set at naught for me the serpent, 
(and so did) Mitra and Varu«a, Vita and Paiganya 

1 7. Indra did set at naught for me the serpent, 
the adder, male and female, the sva^a, (the serpent) 

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that is striped across, the kasarwila, and the 

1 8. Indra slew thy first ancestor, O serpent, and 
since they are crushed, what strength, forsooth, can 
be theirs ? 

1 9. I have gathered up their heads, as the fisher- 
man the karvara (fish). I have gone off into the 
river's midst, and washed out the serpent's poison. 

20. The poison of all serpents the rivers shall 
carry off! Slain are they that are striped across, 
crushed are the adders ! 

2i. As skilfully I cull the fibre of the plants, as 
I guide the mares, (thus), O serpent, shall thy poison 
go away ! 

22. The poison that is in the fire, in the sun, in 
the earth, and in the plants, the kinda-poison, the 
kanaknaka, thy poison shall go forth, and come ! 

23. The serpents that are sprung from the fire, 
that are sprung from the plants, that are sprung 
from the water, and originate from the lightning ; 
they from whom great brood has sprung in many 
ways, those serpents do we revere with obeisance. 

24. Thou art, (O plant), a maiden, Taudl by 
name ; Ghrit&M, forsooth, is thy name. Underfoot 
is thy place : I take in hand what destroys the 

25. From every limb make the poison start ; shut 
it out from the heart ! Now the force that is in thy 
poison shall go down below ! 

26. The poison has gone to a distance : he has 
shut it out ; he has fused the poison with poison. 
Agni has put away the poison of the serpent. Soma 
has led it out. The poison has gone back to the 
biter. The serpent is dead ! 

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XI, 2. Prayer to Bhava and 5arva for protection 
from dangers. 

1. O Bhava and .Sarva, be merciful, do not attack 
(us) ; ye lords of beings, lords of cattle, reverence be 
to you twain ! Discharge not your arrow even after 
it has been laid on (the bow), and has been drawn ! 
Destroy not our bipeds and our quadrupeds ! 

2. Prepare not our bodies for the dog, or the 
jackal ; for the aliklavas, the vultures, and the black 
birds ! Thy greedy insects, O lord of cattle (pam- 
pate), and thy birds shall not get us to devour ! 

3. Reverence we offer, O Bhava, to thy roaring, 
to thy breath, and to thy injurious qualities ; 
reverence to thee, O Rudra, thousand-eyed, im- 
mortal ! 

4. We offer reverence to thee from the east, from 
the north, and from the south ; from (every) domain, 
and from heaven. Reverence be to thy atmosphere ! 

5. To. thy face, O lord of cattle, to thy eyes, 
O Bhava, to thy skin, to thy form, thy appearance, 
(and to thy aspect) from behind, reverence be ! 

6. To thy limbs, to thy belly, to thy tongue, to 
thy mouth, to thy teeth, to thy smell (nose), 
reverence be ! 

7. May we not conflict with Rudra, the archer 
with the dark crest, the thousand-eyed, powerful one, 
the slayer of Ardhaka ! 

8. Bhava shall steer clear from us on all sides, 
Bhava shall steer clear from us, as fire from water ! 
May he not bear malice towards us : reverence be 
to him ! 

9. Four times, eight times, be reverence to Bhava, 

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ten times be reverence to thee, O lord of cattle ! 
To thy (charge) have been assigned these five 
(kinds of) cattle : cows, horses, men, goats and 

10. Thine, O strong god (ugra), are the four 
regions, thine the sky, thine the earth, and thine 
this broad atmosphere ; thine is this all that has 
a spirit and has breath upon the earth. 

1 1 . Thine is this broad, treasure-holding receptacle 
within which all worlds are contained. Do thou 
spare us, O lord of cattle : reverence be to thee ! 
Far from us shall go the jackals, evil omens, dogs ; 
far shall go (the mourning women) who bewail mis- 
fortune with dishevelled hair ! 

12. Thou, O crested (god), earnest in (thy hand), 
that smites thousands, a yellow, golden bow that slays 
hundreds ; Rudra's arrow, the missile of the gods, 
flies abroad : reverence be to it, in whatever direc- 
tion from here (it flies) ! 

1 3. The adversary who lurks and seeks to over- 
come thee, O Rudra, upon him thou dost fasten 
thyself from behind, as (the hunter) that follows the 
trail of a wounded (animal). 

14. Bhava and Rudra, united and concordant, 
both strong (ugrau), ye advance to deeds of heroism : 
reverence be to both of them, in whatever direction 
(they are) from here ! 

15. Reverence be to thee coming, reverence to 
thee going; reverence, O Rudra, be to thee standing, 
and reverence, also, to thee sitting ! 

16. Reverence in the evening, reverence in the 
morning, reverence by night, reverence by day ! I have 
offered reverence to Bhava and to .Sarva, both. 

1 7. Let us not with our tongue offend Rudra, who 

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rushes on, thousand-eyed, overseeing all, who hurls 
(his shafts) forward, who is manifoldly wise ! 

18. We approach first the (god) that has dark 
horses, is black, sable, destructive, terrible, who 
casts down the car of Kerin : reverence be to him ! 

1 9. Do not hurl at us thy club, thy divine bolt ; 
be not incensed at us, O lord of cattle ! Shake over 
some other than us the celestial branch ! 

20. Injure us not, interpose for us, spare us, be 
not angry with us ! Let us not contend with thee ! 

21. Do not covet our cattle, our men, our goats 
and sheep! Bend thy course elsewhere, O strong 
god (ugra), slay the offspring of the blasphemers ! 

22. He whose missile, fever and cough, assails 
the single (victim), as the snorting of a stallion, who 
snatches away (his victims) one by one, to him be 
reverence ! 

23. He who dwells fixed in the atmosphere, smit- 
ing the blasphemers of the god that do not sacrifice, 
to him be reverence with ten jakvari-stanzas ! 

24. For thee the wild beasts of the forest have 
been placed in the forest : flamingoes, eagles, birds 
of prey, and fowls. Thy spirit, O lord of cattle, is 
within the waters, to strengthen thee the heavenly 
waters flow. 

25. The dolphins, great serpents (boas), purlkayas 
(water-animals), sea-monsters, fishes, ra^asas, at 
which thou shootest — there exists for thee, O Bhava, 
no distance, and no barrier. At a glance thou lookest 
around the entire earth; from the eastern thou 
slayest in the northern ocean. 

26. Do not, O Rudra, contaminate us with fever, 
or with poison, or with heavenly fire : cause this 
lightning to descend elsewhere than upon us ! 

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27. Bhava rules the sky, Bhava rules the earth; 
Bhava has filled the broad atmosphere. Reverence 
be to him in whatever direction from here (he 
abides) ! 

28. O king Bhava, be merciful to thy worshipper, 
for thou art the lord of living beasts! He who 
believes the gods exist, to his quadruped and biped 
be merciful ! 

29. Slay neither our great nor our small ; neither 
those of us that are riding, nor those that shall ride ; 
neither our father, nor our mother. Cause no injury, 
O Rudra, to our own persons ! 

30. To Rudra's howling dogs, who swallow their 
food without blessing, who have wide jaws, I have 
made this obeisance. 

31. Reverence, O god, be to thy shouting hosts, 
reverence to thy long-haired, reverence to thy 
reverenced, reverence to thy devouring hosts ! May 
well-being and security be to us ! 

IV, 28. Prayer to Bhava and .Sarva for 
protection from calamities. 

i. O Bhava and .Sarva, I am devoted to you. 
Take note of that, ye under whose control is all this 
which shines (the visible universe)! Ye who rule 
all these two-footed and four-footed creatures, deliver 
us from calamity ! 

2. Ye to whom belongs all that is near by, yea, 
all that is far ; ye who are known as the most skil- 
ful archers among bowmen ; ye who rule all these 
two-footed and four-footed creatures, deliver us from 
calamity ! 

3. The thousand-eyed slayers of Vmra both do 

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I invoke. I go praising the two strong gods (ugrau) 
whose pastures extend far. Ye who rule all these 
two-footed and four-footed creatures, deliver us from 
calamity ! 

4. Ye who, united, did undertake many (deeds) of 
old, and, moreover, did visit portents upon the 
people ; ye who rule all these two-footed and four- 
footed creatures, deliver us from calamity ! 

5. Ye from whose blows no one either among 
gods or men escapes; ye who rule all these two- 
footed and four-footed creatures, deliver us from 
calamity ! 

6. The sorcerer who prepares a spell, or manipu- 
lates the roots (of plants) against us, against him, 
ye strong gods, launch your thunderbolt ! Ye who 
rule all these two-footed and four-footed creatures, 
deliver us from calamity. 

7. Ye strong gods, favour us in battles, bring into 
contact with your thunderbolt the Kimldin ! I praise 
you, O Bhava and .Sarva, call fervently upon you in 
distress : deliver us from calamity ! 

VII, 9. Charm for finding lost property. 

1. On the distant path of the paths Pushan was 
born, on the distant path of heaven, on the distant 
path of the earth. Upon the two most lovely places 
both he walks hither and away, knowing (the way). 

2. Pushan knows these regions all ; he shall lead 
us by the most dangerless (way). Bestowing well- 
being, of . radiant glow, keeping our heroes undi- 
minished, he shall, alert and skilful, go before us ! 

3. O Pushan, under thy law may we never suffer 
harm : as praisers of thee are we here ! 

4. Pushan shall from the east place his right hand 

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about us, shall bring again to us what has been 
lost : we shall come upon what has been lost ! 

VI, 128. Propitiation of the weather-prophet 

1. When the stars made Sakadhuma their king 
they bestowed good weather upon him : ' This shall 
be his dominion,' they said. 

2. Let us have good weather at noon, good 
weather at eve, good weather in the early morning, 
good weather in the night ! 

3. For day and night, for the stars, for sun and 
moon, and for us prepare good weather, O king 
.Sakadhuma ! 

4. To thee, O Sakadhuma, ruler of the stars, that 
gavest us good weather in the evening, in the night, 
and by day, let there ever be obeisance ! 

XI, 6. Prayer for deliverance from calamity, 
addressed to the entire pantheon. 

1. To Agni we speak and to the trees, to the 
plants and to the herbs; to Indra, BWhaspati, and 
Surya : they shall deliver us from calamity ! 

2. We speak to king Varu»a, to Mitra, Vish»u 
and Bhaga. To AmsB. and Vivasvant do we speak : 
they shall deliver us from calamity ! 

3. We speak to Savitar, the god, to Dhatar, and to 
Pushan ; to first-born Tvash/ar do we speak : they 
shall deliver us from calamity ! 

4. We speak to the Gandharvas and the Apsaras, 
to the A-yvins and to Brahma»aspati, to the god 
whose name is Aryaman : they shall deliver us from 
calamity ! 

5. Now do we speak to day and night, to Surya 

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(sun) and to Aandramas (moon), the twain ; to all 
the Adityas we speak: they shall deliver us from 
calamity ! 

6. We speak to Vata (wind) and Paiyanya, to the 
atmosphere and the directions of space. And to all 
the regions do we speak : they shall deliver us from 
calamity ! 

7. Day and night, and Ushas (dawn), too, shall 
deliver thee from curses ! Soma the god, whom they 
call A'andramas (moon), shall deliver me ! 

8. To the animals of the earth and those of heaven, 
to the wild beasts of the forest, to the winged birds, 
do we speak : they shall deliver us from calamity ! 

9. Now do we speak to Bhava and .Sarva, to Rudra 
and Pampati ; their arrows do we know well : these 
(arrows) shall be ever propitious to us ! 

10. We speak to the heavens, and the stars, to 
earth, the Yakshas, and the mountains ; to the seas, 
the rivers, and the lakes : they shall deliver us from 
calamity ! 

1 1. To the seven .tfzshis now do we speak, to the 
divine waters and Pra^apati. To the Fathers with 
Yama at their head : they shall deliver us from 
calamity ! 

12. The gods that dwell in heaven, and those that 
dwell in the atmosphere; the mighty (gods) that 
are fixed upon the earth, they shall deliver us from 
calamity ! 

13. The Adityas, Rudras, Vasus, the divine Athar- 
vans in heaven, and the wise Angiras : they shall 
deliver us from calamity ! 

14. We speak to the sacrifice and the sacrificer, to 
the riks, the samans, and the healing (Atharvan) 
charms ; we speak to the ya^us-formulas and the 

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invocations (to the gods) : they shall deliver us from 
calamity ! 

1 5. We speak to the five kingdoms of the plants 
with soma the most excellent among them. The 
darbha-grass, hemp, and mighty barley: they shall 
deliver us from calamity ! 

16. We speak to the Ariyas (demons of grudge), 
Rakshas, serpents, pious men, and Fathers ; to the 
one and a hundred deaths : they shall deliver us 
from calamity ! 

1 7. To the seasons we speak, to the lords of the 
seasons, and to the sections of the year ; to the half- 
years, years, and months : they shall deliver us from 
calamity ! 

18. Come, ye gods, from the south and the west ; 
ye gods in the east come forth ! From the east, from 
the north the mighty gods, all the gods assembled : 
they shall deliver us from calamity ! 

19. 20. We speak here to all the gods that hold to 
their agreements, promote the order (of the universe), 
together with all their wives : they shall deliver us 
from calamity ! 

21. We speak to being, to the lord of being, and 
also to him that controls the beings ; to the beings 
all assembled : they shall deliver us from calamity ! 

22. The five divine regions, the twelve divine 
seasons, the teeth of the year, they shall ever be 
propitious to us ! 

23. The amWta (ambrosia), bought for the price of 
a chariot, which Matall knows as a remedy, that Indra 
stored away in the waters : that, O ye waters, furnish 
ye as a remedy ! 

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VI, 45. Prayer against mental delinquency. 

1. Pass far away, O sin of the mind ! Why dost 
thou utter things not to be uttered ? Pass away, 
I love thee not ! To the trees, the forests go on ! 
With the house, the cattle, is my mind. 

2. What wrongs we have committed through 
imprecation, calumny, and false speech, either awake, 
or asleep — Agni shall put far away from us all 
offensive evil deeds! 

3. What, O Indra Brahma«aspati, we do falsely — 
may Praietas (' care-taker ') Angirasa protect us 
from misfortune, and from evil! 

VI, 26. Charm to avert evil. 

1. Let me go, O evil; being powerful, take thou 
pity on us ! Set me, O evil, unharmed, into the 
world of happiness ! 

2. If, O evil, thou dost not abandon us, then do 
we abandon thee at the fork of the road. May evil 
follow after another (man) ! 

3. Away from us may thousand-eyed, immortal 
(evil) dwell ! Him whom we hate may it strike, and 
him whom we hate do thou surely smite ! 

M 2 

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VI, 114. Expiatory formula for imperfections in 
the sacrifice. 

1. The god-angering (deed), O ye gods, that we, 
the (Brahman) gods, have committed, from that do 
ye, O Adityas, release us, by virtue of the order of 
the universe ! 

2. By virtue of the order of the universe do ye, 
O reverend Adityas, release us here, if, O ye carriers 
of the sacrifice, though desirous of accomplishing 
(the sacrifice), we did not accomplish (it) ! — 

3. (If), when sacrificing with the fat (animal), when 
offering oblations of ghee with the spoon, when 
desiring to benefit you, O all ye gods, we have 
contrary to desire, not succeeded ! 

VI, 115. Expiatory formulas for sins. 

1. From the sins which knowingly or unknowingly 
we have committed, do ye, all gods, of one accord, 
release us ! 

2. If awake, or if asleep, to sin inclined, I have 
committed a sin, may what has been, and what shall 
be, as if from a wooden post, release me ! 

3. As one released from a wooden post, as one in 
a sweat by bathing (is cleansed) of filth, as ghee is 
clarified by the sieve, may all (the gods) clear me 
from sin ! 

VI, 112. Expiation for the precedence of a 
younger brother over an older. 

1. May this (younger brother) not slay the oldest 
one of them, O Agni ; protect him that he be not 
torn out by the root! Do thou here cunningly 

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loosen the fetter of Grahi (attack of disease) ; may 
all the gods give thee leave ! 

2. Free these three, O Agni, from the three fetters 
with which they have been shackled! Do thou 
cunningly loosen the fetters of Grahi ; release them 
all, father, sons, and mother ! 

3. The fetters with which the older brother, whose 
younger brother has married before him, has been 
bound, with which he has been encumbered and 
shackled limb by limb, may they be loosened ; since 
fit for loosening they are ! Wipe off, O Pushan, the 
misdeeds upon him that practiseth abortion ! 

VI, 113. Expiation for certain heinous crimes. 

1. On Trite, the gods wiped off this sin, Trite 
wiped it off on human beings ; hence if Grahi (attack 
of disease) has seized thee, may these gods remove 
her by means of their charm ! 

2. Enter into the rays, into smoke, O sin ; go into 
the vapours, and into the fog ! Lose thyself on 
the foam of the river! Wipe off, O Pushan, the 
misdeeds upon him that practiseth abortion ! 

3. Deposited in twelve places is that which has 
been wiped off Trite, the sins belonging to humanity. 
Hence if Grahi has seized thee, may these gods 
remove her by means of their charm ! 

VI, 120. Prayer for heaven after remission of 


1. If air, or earth and heaven, if mother or father, 
we have injured, may this Agni Garhapatya (house- 
hold fire) without fail lead us out from this (crime) 
to the world of well-doing ! 

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2. The earth is our mother, Aditi (the universe) 
our kin, the air our protector from hostile schemes. 
May father sky bring prosperity to us from the world 
of the Fathers ; may I come to my (departed) kin, 
and not lose heaven ! 

3. In that bright world where our pious friends live 
in joy, having cast aside the ailments of their own 
bodies, free from lameness, not deformed in limb, 
there may we behold our parents and our children ! 

VI, 27. Charm against pigeons regarded as 
ominous birds. 

1. O ye gods, if the pigeon, despatched as the 
messenger of Nim'ti (the goddess of destruction), 
hath come here seeking (us out), we shall sing his 
praises, and prepare (our) ransom. May our two- 
footed and four-footed creatures be prosperous! 

2. Auspicious to us shall be the pigeon that has 
been despatched; harmless, ye gods, the bird shall 
be to our house ! The sage Agni shall verily take 
pleasure in our oblation ; the winged missile shall 
avoid us! 

3. The winged missile shall not do us injury: 
upon our hearth, our fireplace he (the pigeon) takes 
his steps ! Propitious he shall be to our cattle and 
our domestics ; may not, ye gods, the pigeon here 
do harm to us ! 

VI, 29. Charm against ominous pigeons and owls. 

1. Upon those persons yonder the winged missile 
shall fall ! If the owl shrieks, futile shall this be, or 
if the pigeon takes his steps upon the fire ! 

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2. To thy two messengers, O Nirr/ti, who come 
here, despatched or not despatched, to our house, to 
the pigeon and to the owl, this shall be no place to 
step upon! 

3. He shall not fly hither to slaughter (our) men ; 
to keep (our) men sound he shall settle here ! Charm 
him very far away unto a distant region, that (people) 
shall behold you (i.e. him) in Yama's house devoid of 
strength, that they shall behold you bereft of power ! 

VII, 64. Expiation when one is defiled by a 
black bird of omen. 

1. What this black bird flying forth towards (me) 
has dropped here — may the waters protect me from 
all that misfortune and evil ! 

2. What this black bird has brushed here with thy 
mouth, O Nirrzti (goddess of misfortune) — may Agni 
Garhapatya (the god of the household fire) free me 
from this sin ! 

VI, 46. Exorcism of evil dreams. 

1. Thou who art neither alive nor dead, the 
immortal child of the gods art thou, O Sleep! 
Vanmani is thy mother, Yama (death) thy father, 
Araru is thy name. 

2. We know, O Sleep, thy birth, thou art the son 
of the divine women-folk, the instrument of Yama 
(death) ! Thou art the ender, thou art death ! Thus 
do we know thee, O Sleep : do thou, O Sleep, protect 
us from evil dreams ! 

3. As one pays off a sixteenth, an eighth, or an 
(entire) debt, thus do we transfer every evil dream 
upon our enemy. 

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VII, 115. Charm for the removal of evil character- 
istics, and the acquisition of auspicious ones. 

1. Fly forth from here, O evil mark, va-tsh from 
here, fly forth to yonder place! Upon him that 
hates us do we fasten thee with a brazen hook. 

2. The unsavoury mark which flying has alighted 
upon me, as a creeper upon a tree, that mayest thou 
put away from us, away from here, O golden-handed 
(golden-rayed) Savitar (the sun), bestowing goods 
upon us ! 

3. Together with the body of the mortal, from 
his birth, one and a hundred marks are born. 
Those that are most foul do we drive away from 
here ; the auspicious ones, O 6$tavedas (Agni), do 
thou hold fast for us ! 

4. These (marks) here I have separated, as cows 
scattered upon the heather. The pure marks shall 
remain, the foul ones I have made to disappear ! 

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V, 1 8. Imprecation against the oppressors of 

i. The gods, O king, did not give to thee this 
(cow) to eat. Do not, O prince, seek to devour the 
cow of the Brihmawa, which is unfit to be eaten ! 

2. The prince, beguiled by dice, the wretched 
one who has lost as a stake his own person, he may, 
perchance, eat the cow of the Brahma»a, (thinking), 
' let me live to-day (if) not to-morrow ' ! 

3. Enveloped (is she) in her skin, as an adder 
with evil poison ; do not, O prince, (eat the cow) 
of the Brahmawa : sapless, unfit to be eaten, is 
that cow! 

4. Away does (the Brahmawa) take regal power, 
destroys vigour; like fire which has caught does 
he burn away everything. He that regards the 
Brahmawa as fit food drinks of the poison of the 

5. He who thinks him (the Brahman) mild, and 
slays him, he who reviles the gods, lusts after 
wealth, without thought, in his heart Indra kindles 
a fire; him both heaven and earth hate while he 

6. The Brahma»a must not be encroached upon, 

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any more than fire, by him that regards his own body! 
For Soma is his (the Brahma«a's) heir, Indra protects 
him from hostile plots. 

7. He swallows her (the cow), bristling with a 
hundred hooks, (but) is unable to digest her, he, 
the fool who, devouring the food of the Brahmans, 
thinks, ' I am eating a luscious (morsel).' 

8. (The Brahman's) tongue turns into a bow- 
string, his voice into the neck of an arrow ; his 
windpipe, his teeth are bedaubed with holy fire: 
with these the Brahman strikes those who revile 
the gods, by means of bows that have the strength 
to reach the heart, discharged by the gods. 

9. The Brahma«as have sharp arrows, are armed 
with missiles, the arrow which they hurl goes not 
in vain ; pursuing him with their holy fire and their 
wrath, even from afar, do they pierce him. 

10. They who ruled over a thousand, and were 
themselves ten hundred, the Vaitahavya, when they 
devoured the cow of the Brahmawa, perished. 

1 1. The cow herself, when slaughtered, came 
down upon the Vaitahavyas, who had roasted for 
themselves the last she-goat of Kesaraprabandhi. 

12. The one hundred and one persons whom the 
earth did cast off, because they had injured the 
offspring of a Brahma/za, were ruined irretrievably. 

13. As a reviler of the gods does he live among 
mortals, having swallowed poison, he becomes more 
bone (than flesh). He that injureth a Brahmawa, 
whose kin are the gods, does not reach heaven by 
the road of the Fathers. 

14. Agni is called our guide, Soma our heir, 
Indra slays those who curse (us) : that the strong 
(sages) know. 

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15. Like a poisoned arrow, O king, like an 
adder, O lord of cattle, is the terrible arrow of the 
Brahma»a : with that he smites those who revile 
(the gods). 

V, 19. Imprecation against the oppressors of 

1. Beyond measure they waxed strong, just fell 
short of touching the heavens. When they in- 
fringed upon Bhrzgu they perished, the Srzagaya 

2. The persons who pierced B??hatsaman, the 
descendant of Angiras, the Brahma«a — a ram with 
two rows of teeth, a sheep devoured their offspring. 

3. They who spat upon the Brahma#a, who desired 
tribute from him, they sit in the middle of a pool of 
blood, chewing hair. 

4. The cow of the Brahman, when roasted, as far 
as she reaches does she destroy the lustre of the 
kingdom ; no lusty hero is born (there). 

5. A cruel (sacrilegious) deed is her slaughter, 
her meat, when eaten, is sapless ; when her milk 
is drunk, that surely is accounted a crime against 
the Fathers. 

6. When the king, weening himself mighty, de- 
sires to destroy the Brahma#a, then royal power is 
dissipated, where the Brahma»a is oppressed. 

7. Becoming eight-footed, four-eyed, four-eared, 
four-jawed, two-mouthed, two-tongued, she dispels 
the rule of the oppressor of the Brahman. 

8. That (kingdom) surely she swamps, as water 
a leaking ship ; misfortune strikes that kingdom, in 
which they injure a Brahmawa. 

9. The trees chase away with the words : ' do not 

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come within our shade,' him who covets the wealth 
that belongs to a Brahma«a, O Nirada ! 

10. King Varu»a pronounced this (to be) poison, 
prepared by the gods : no one who has devoured 
the cow of a Brihma#a retains the charge of a 

ii. Those full nine and ninety whom the earth 
did cast off, because they had injured the offspring 
of a Brahma«a, were ruined irretrievably. 

12. The kudl-plant (Christ's thorn) that wipes 
away the track (of death), which they fasten to the 
dead, that very one, O oppressor of Brahmans, the 
gods did declare (to be) thy couch. 

13. The tears which have rolled from (the eyes 
of) the oppressed (Brahman), as he laments, these 
very ones, O oppressor of Brahmans, the gods did 
assign to thee as thy share of water. 

14. The water with which they bathe the dead, 
with which they moisten his beard, that very one, 
O oppressor of Brahmans, the gods did assign to 
thee as thy share of water. 

15. The rain of Mitra and Varu»a does not 
moisten the oppressor of Brahmans; the assembly 
is not complacent for him, he does not guide his 
friend according to his will. 

V, 7. Prayer to appease Arati, the demon of 
grudge and avarice. 

1. Bring (wealth) to us, do not stand in our way, 
O Arati ; do not keep from us the sacrificial reward 
as it is being taken (to us)! Adoration be to the 
power of grudge, the power of failure, adoration to 
Arati ! 

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2. To thy advising minister, whom thou, Arati, 
didst make thy agent, do we make obeisance. Do 
not bring failure to my wish ! 

3. May our wish, instilled by the gods, be fulfilled 
by day and night! We go in quest of Arati. 
Adoration be to Arati! 

4. Sarasvatl (speech), Anumati (favour), and Bhaga 
(fortune) we go to invoke. Pleasant, honied, words 
I have spoken on the occasions when the gods were 

5. Him whom I implore with Va£ Sarasvatl (the 
goddess of speech), the yoke-fellow of thought, faith 
shall find to-day, bestowed by the brown soma ! 

6. Neither our wish nor our speech do thou frus- 
trate ! May Indra and Agni both bring us wealth ! 
Do ye all who to-day desire to make gifts to us 
gain favour with Arati ! 

7. Go far away, failure ! Thy missile do we 
avert I know thee (to be) oppressive and piercing, 
O Arati ! 

8. Thou dost even transform thyself into a naked 
woman, and attach thyself to people in their sleep, 
frustrating, O Arati, the thought and intention of 

9. To her who, great, and of great dimension, 
did penetrate all the regions, to this golden-locked 
Nirr/ti (goddess of misfortune), I have rendered 

10. To the gold-corn plexioned, lovely one, who 
rests upon golden cushions, to the great one, to 
that Arati who wears golden robes, I have rendered 

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XII, 4. The necessity of giving away sterile 
cows to the Brahmans. 

1. ' I give,' he shall surely say, ' the sterile cow to 
the begging Brahmans ' — and they have noted her — 
that brings progeny and offspring ! 

2. With his offspring does he trade, of his cattle 
is he deprived, that refuses to give the cow of the 
gods to the begging descendants of the ^?/shis. 

3. Through (the gift of) a cow with broken horns 
his (cattle) breaks down, through a lame one he 
tumbles into a pit, through a mutilated one his 
house is burned, through a one-eyed one his property 
is given away. 

4. Flow of blood attacks the cattle-owner from 
the spot where her dung is deposited : this under- 
standing there is about the va^a (the sterile cow) ; 
for thou (sterile cow) art said to be very difficult to 
deceive ! 

5. From the resting-place of her feet the (disease) 
called viklindu overtakes (the owner, or the cattle). 
Without sickness breaks down (the cattle) which she 
sniffs upon with her nose. 

6. He that pierces her ears is estranged from 
the gods. He thinks : ' I am making a mark (upon 
her),' (but) he diminishes his own property. 

7. If any one for whatsoever purpose cuts her 
tail then do his colts die, and the wolf tears his 

8. If a crow has injured her hair, as long as she 
is with her owner then do his children die : decline 
overtakes them without (noticeable) sickness. 

9. If the serving-maid sweeps together her dung, 

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that bites as lye, there arises from this sin disfigure- 
ment that passeth not away. 

10. The sterile cow in her very birth is born for 
the gods and Brahma«as. Hence to the Brahmans 
she is to be given : that, they say, guarantees the 
security of one's own property. 

11. For those that come requesting her the cow 
has been created by the gods. Oppression of 
Brahmans it is called, if he keeps her for himself. 

12. He that refuses to give the cow of the gods 
to the descendants of the i?*"shis who ask for it, 
infringes upon the gods, and the wrath of the 

13. Though he derives benefit from this sterile 
cow, another (cow) then shall he seek ! When kept 
she injures (his) folk, if he refuses to give her after 
she has been asked for ! 

14. The sterile cow is as a treasure deposited for 
the Brahma/tas : they come here for her, with whom- 
soever she is born. 

15. The Brihma«as come here for their own, 
when they come for the sterile cow. The refusal of 
her is, as though he were oppressing them in other 

16. If she herds up to her third year, and no 
disease is discovered in her, and he finds her to be 
a sterile cow, O Narada, then must he look for the 

1 7. If he denies that she is sterile, a treasure de- 
posited for the gods, then Bhava and .Sarva, both, 
come upon him, and hurl their arrow upon him. 

18. Though he does not perceive upon her either 
udder, or tits, yet both yield him milk, if he has 
prevailed upon himself to give away the sterile cow. 

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19. Hard to cheat, she oppresses him, if, when 
asked for, he refuses to give her. His desires are 
not fulfilled, if he aims to accomplish them without 
giving her away. 

20. The gods did ask for the sterile cow, making 
the Brahma»a their mouthpiece. The man that 
does not give (her) enters into the wrath of all of 

21. Into the wrath of the cattle enters he that 
gives not the sterile cow to the Brahmaoas ; if he, 
the mortal, appropriates the share deposited for the 

22. Even if a hundred other Brahmaaas beg the 
owner for the sterile cow, yet the gods did say 
anent her : ' The cow belongs to him that knoweth 

23. He that refuses the sterile cow to him that 
knoweth thus, and gives her to others, difficult to 
dwell upon is for him the earth with her divinities. 

24. The gods did beg the sterile cow of him with 
whom she was born at first. That very one Nirada 
recognised and drove forth in company with the 

25. The sterile cow renders childless, and poor in 
cattle, him that yet appropriates her, when she has 
been begged for by the Brahma«as. 

26. For Agni and Soma, for Kama, for Mitra, and 
for Varu«a, for these do the Brahmawas beg her : 
upon these he infringes, if he gives her not. 

27. As long as the owner does not himself hear 
the stanzas referring to (the giving away of) her, 
she may herd among his cattle ; (only) if he has not 
heard (them) may she pass the night in his house. 

28. He that has listened to the stanzas, yet has 

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permitted her to herd among the cattle, his life" and 
prosperity the angry gods destroy. 

29. The sterile cow, even when she rambles freely, 
is a treasure deposited for the gods. Make evident 
thy true nature when thou desirest to go to thy 
(proper) stable ! 

30. She makes evident her nature when she 
desires to go to her (proper) stable. Then indeed 
the sterile cow puts it into the minds of the Brahmans 
to beg (for her). 

31. She evolves it in her mind, that (thought) 
reaches the gods. Then do the Brahmans come to 
beg for the sterile cow. 

32. The call svadha befriends him with the 
Fathers, the sacrifice with the gods. Through the 
gift of the sterile cow the man of royal caste incurs 
not the anger of (her), his mother. 

33. The sterile cow is the mother of the man of 
royal caste : thus was it from the beginning. It is 
said to be no (real) deprivation if she is given to the 

34. As if he were to rob the ghee ladled up for 
Agni (the fire) from the (very) spoon, thus, if he 
gives not the sterile cow to the Brahmans, does he 
infringe upon Agni. 

35. The sterile cow has the purodaya (sacrificial 
cake) for her calf, she yields plentiful milk, helps in 
this world, and fulfils all wishes for him that gives 
her (to the Brahmans). 

36. The sterile cow fulfils all wishes in the king- 
dom of Yama for him that gives her. But they say 
that hell falls to the lot of him that withholds her, 
when she has been begged for. 

37. The sterile cow, even if she should become 

[42] N 

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fruitful, lives in anger at her owner : ' since he did 
regard me as sterile (without giving me to the 
Brahmans), he shall be bound in the fetters of 
death ! ' 

38. He who thinks that the cow is sterile, and 
(yet) roasts her at home, even his children and 
grandchildren Brzhaspati causes to be importuned 
(for her). 

39. Fiercely does the (supposed) sterile cow burn 
when she herds with the cattle, though she be a 
(fruitful) cow. She verily, too, milks poison for the 
owner that does not present her. 

40. It pleases the cattle when she is given to the 
Brahmans; moreover, the sterile cow is pleased, 
when she is made an offering to the gods (Brahmans). 

41. From the sterile cows which the gods, re- 
turning from the sacrifice, created, Narada picked 
out as (most) terrible the vilipti. 

42. In reference to her the gods reflected: 'Is she 
a sterile cow, or not ? ' And Narada in reference to 
her said : ' Of sterile cows she is the most sterile ! ' 

43. ' How many sterile cows (are there), O Na- 
rada, which thou knowest to be born among men ? ' 
About these do I ask thee, that knowest : ' Of which 
may the non-Brahma«a not eat ? ' 

44. Of the vilipti, of her that has born a sterile 
cow, and of the sterile cow (herself), the non-Brah- 
ma«a, that hopes for prosperity, shall not eat ! 

45. Reverence be to thee, O Narada, that knowest 
thoroughly which sterile cow is the most terrible, by 
withholding which (from the Brahmans) destruction 
is incurred. 

46. The vilipti, O Brz'haspati, her that has be- 
gotten a sterile cow, and the sterile cow (herself), 

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the non-Brahma»a, that hopes for prosperity, shall 
not eat ! 

47. Three kinds, forsooth, of sterile cows are 
there : the viliptl, she that has begotten a sterile 
cow, and the sterile cow (herself). These he shall 
give to the Brahmans ; (then) does he not estrange 
himself from Pra^apati. 

48. 'This is your oblation, O Brahmawas,' thus 
shall he reflect, if he is supplicated, if they ask him 
for the sterile cow, terrible in the house of him that 
refuses to give her. 

49. The gods animadverted in reference to Bheda 
and the sterile cow, angry because he had not given 
her, in these verses — and therefore he (Bheda) 

50. Bheda did not present the sterile cow, though 
requested by Indra : for this sin the gods crushed 
him in battle. 

51. The counsellors that advise the withholding 
(of the sterile cow), they, the rogues, in their folly, 
conflict with the wrath of Indra. 

52. They who lead the owner of cattle aside, then 
say to him : ' do not give,' in their folly they run 
into the missile hurled by Rudra. 

53. And if he roasts the sterile cow at home, 
whether he makes a sacrifice of her, or not, he sins 
against the gods and Brahmawas, and as a cheat 
falls from heaven. 

XI, 1. The preparation of the brahmaudana, the 
porridge given as a fee to the Brahmans. 

1. O Agni, come into being! Aditi here in her 
throes, longing for sons, is cooking the porridge 
for the Brahmans. The seven .fo'shis, that did 

N 2 

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create the beings, shall here churn thee, along with 
progeny ! 

2. Produce the smoke, ye lusty friends ; unharmed 
by wiles go ye into the contest ! Here is the Agni 
(fire) who gains battles, and commands powerful 
warriors, with whom the gods did conquer the 

3. O Agni, to a great heroic deed thou wast 
aroused, to cook the Brahman's porridge, O <7ata- 
vedas ! The seven /frshis, that did create the beings, 
have produced thee. Grant her (the wife) wealth 
together with undiminished heroes ! 

4. Burn, O Agni, after having been kindled by 
the firewood, bring skilfully hither the gods that are 
to be revered ! Causing the oblation to cook for 
these (Brahmans), do thou raise this (sacrificer) to 
the highest firmament ! 

5. The threefold share which was of yore assigned 
to you (belongs) to the gods, the (departed) Fathers, 
and to the mortals (the priests). Know your shares ! 
I divide them for you : the (share) of the gods shall 
protect this (woman) ! 

6. O Agni, possessed of might, superior, thou 
dost without fail prevail ! Bend down to the ground 
our hateful rivals! — This measure, that is being 
measured, and has been measured, may constitute 
thy kin into (people) that render thee tribute ! 

7. Mayest thou together with thy kin be endowed 
with sap ! Elevate her (the wife) to great heroism ! 
Ascend on high to the base of the firmament, which 
they call ' the world of brightness ' ! 

8. This great goddess earth, kindly disposed, 
shall receive the (sacrificial) skin! Then may we 
go to the world of well-doing (heaven) ! 

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9. Lay these two press-stones, well coupled, upon 
the skin ; crush skilfully the (soma-) shoots for the 
sacrificer ! Crush down, (O earth), and beat down, 
those who are hostile to her (the wife); lift up high, 
and elevate her offspring ! 

10. Take into thy hands, O man, the press-stones 
that work together : the gods that are to be revered 
have come to thy sacrifice ! Whatever three wishes 
thou dost choose, I shall here procure for thee unto 

11. This, (O winnowing-basket), is thy purpose, 
and this thy nature : may Aditi, mother of heroes, 
take hold of thee! Winnow out those who are 
hostile to this (woman) ; afford her wealth and un- 
diminished heroes ! 

1 2. Do ye, (O grains), remain in the (winnowing-) 
basket, while (the wind) blows over you; be separated, 
ye who are fit for the sacrifice, from the chaff! May 
we in happiness be superior to all our equals ! I bend 
down under our feet those that hate us. 

1 3. Retire, O woman, and return promptly ! The 
stable of the waters (water- vessel) has settled upon 
thee, that thou mayest carry it : of these (the waters) 
thou shalt take such as are fit for sacrifice ; having 
intelligently divided them off, thou shalt leave the 
rest behind ! 

14. These bright women, (the waters), have come 
hither. Arise, thou woman, and gather strength ! 
To thee, that art rendered by thy husband a true 
wife, (and) by thy children rich in offspring, the 
sacrifice has come : receive the (water-) vessel ! 

15. The share of food .that belongs to you of yore 
has been set aside for you. Instructed by the .to'shis 
bring thou (woman) hither this water! May this 

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sacrifice win advancement for you, win protection, 
win offspring for you ; may it be mighty, win cattle, 
and heroes for you ! 

1 6. Agni, the sacrificial pot has settled upon 
thee: do thou shining, brightly glowing, heat it with 
thy glow ! May the divine descendants of the ^shis, 
assembled about their share (of the porridge), full of 
fervour, heat this (pot) at the proper time ! 

17. Pure and clear may these sacrificial women, 
the waters bright, flow into the pot! They have 
given us abundant offspring and cattle. May he 
that cooks the porridge go to the world of the pious 
(heaven) ! 

18. Purified by (our) prayer, and clarified by the 
ghee are the soma-shoots, (and) these sacrificial 
grains. Enter the water ; may the pot receive you ! 
When ye have cooked this (porridge) go ye to the 
world of the pious (heaven) ! 

19. Spread out far unto great extent, with a thou- 
sand surfaces, in the world of the pious ! Grand- 
fathers, fathers, children, grandchildren — I am the 
fifteenth one that did cook thee. 

20. The porridge has a thousand surfaces, a hun- 
dred streams, and is indestructible i it is the road of 
the gods, leads to heaven. Yonder (enemies) do I 
place upon thee : injure them and their offspring ; 
(but) to me that brings gifts thou shalt be merciful ! 

21. Step upon the altar (vedi) ; make this woman 
thrive in her progeny ; repel the demons ; advance 
her! May we in happiness be superior to all our 
equals ! I bend down under our feet all those that 
hate us. 

22. Turn towards her with cattle, (thou pot), 
face towards her, together with the divine powers ! 

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Neither curses nor hostile magic shall reach thee ; 
rule in thy dwelling free from disease ! 

23. Properly built, placed with care, this altar (vedi) 
has been arranged of yore for the Brahmans porridge. 
Put it, O woman, upon the purified a*»sadhrl ; place 
there the porridge for the divine (Brahma»as) ! 

24. May this sacrificial ladle (sru£), the second 
hand of Aditi, which the seven .tf/shis, the creators 
of the beings, did fashion, may this spoon, knowing 
the limbs of the porridge, heap it upon the altar ! 

25. The divine (Brahma«as) shall sit down to 
thee, the cooked sacrifice : do thou again descending 
from the fire, approach them ! Clarified by soma 
settle in the belly of the Brahma«as ; the descend- 
ants of the .tfzshis who eat thee shall not take harm ! 

26. O king Soma, infuse harmony into the good 
Brahma«as who shall sit about thee ! Eagerly do 
I invite to the porridge the -tfzshis, descended from 
.tf/shis, that are born of religious fervour, and gladly 
obey the call. 

27. These pure and clear sacrificial women (the 
waters) I put into the hands of the Brahma«as 
severally. With whatever wish I pour this upon 
you, may Indra accompanied by the Maruts grant 
this to me ! 

28. This gold is my immortal light, this ripe fruit 
of the field is my wish-granting cow. This treasure 
I present to the Brahma«as : I prepare for myself 
a road that leads to the Fathers in the heavens. 

29. Scatter the spelt into Agni £atavedas (the 
fire), sweep away to a far distance the chaff"! This 
(chaff) we have heard, is the share of the ruler of the 
house (Agni), and we know, too, what belongs to 
Nimti (destruction) as her share. 

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30. Note, (O porridge), him that takes pains, and 
cooks and presses the soma; lift him up to the 
heavenly road, upon which, after he has reached the 
fullest age, he shall ascend to the highest firmament, 
the supreme heavens ! 

31. Anoint (with ghee), O adhvaryu (priest), the 
surface of this sustaining (porridge), make skilfully 
a place for the melted butter; with ghee do thou 
anoint all its limbs ! I prepare for myself a road 
that leads to the Fathers in the heavens. 

32. O sustaining (porridge), cast destruction and 
strife among such as are sitting about thee, and are 
not Brihmawas ! (But) the descendants of the .# z'shis, 
that eat thee, being full of substance, spreading forth, 
shall not take harm ! 

33. To the descendants of the j&'shis I make thee 
over, O porridge ; those who are not descended from 
^?zshis have no share in it! May Agni as my 
guardian, may all the Maruts, and all the gods watch 
over the cooked food ! 

34. Thee (the porridge) that milkest the sacrifice, 
art evermore abundant, the male milch-cow, the seat 
of wealth, we beseech for immortality of offspring 
and long life with abundance of wealth. 

35. Thou art a lusty male, penetratest heaven : go 
thou to the ifo'shis, descended from /??shis ! Dwell 
in the world of the pious : there is a well-prepared 
(place) for us two ! 

36. Pack thyself up, go forth ! O Agni, prepare 
the roads, that lead to the gods ! By these well- 
prepared (roads) may we reach the sacrifice, standing 
upon the firmament (that shines) with seven rays ! 

37. With the light with which the gods, having 
cooked the porridge for the Brahmawas, ascended 

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to heaven, to the world of the pious, with that would 
we go to the world of the pious, ascending to the 
light, to the highest firmament ! 

XI I, 3. The preparation of the brahmaudana, the 
porridge given as a fee to the Brahmans. 

1. (Thyself) a male, step thou upon the hide of the 
male (steer) : go, call thither all that is dear to thee ! 
At whatever age ye two formerly did first unite (in 
marriage), may that age be your common lot in 
Yama's kingdom ! 

2. Your sight shall be as clear (as formerly), your 
strength as abundant, your lustre as great, your 
vitality as manifold! When Agni, the (funeral-) 
pyre, fastens himself upon the corpse, then as a pair 
ye shall rise from the (cooked) porridge ! 

3. Come ye together in this world, upon the road 
to the gods, and in Yama's realms ! By purifica- 
tions purified call ye together the offspring that has 
sprung from you ! 

4. Around the water united, sit ye down, O 
children ; around this living (father) and the waters 
that refresh the living ! Partake of these (waters), 
and of that porridge which the mother of you two 
cooks, and which is called anm'ta (ambrosia) ! 

5. The porridge which the father of you two, and 
which the mother cooks, unto freedom from defilement 
and foulness of speech, that porridge with a hundred 
streams (of ghee), leading to heaven, has penetrated 
with might both the hemispheres of the world. 

6. In that one of the two hemispheres and the 
two heavenly worlds, conquered by the pious, which 
especially abounds in light, and is rich in honey, in 

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that do ye in the fulness of time come together with 
your children ! 

7. Keep ever on in an easterly direction : this is 
the region that the faithful cling to! When your 
cooked porridge has been prepared on the fire, hold 
together, O man and wife, that ye may guard it ! 

8. When ye shall have reached the southerly 
direction, turn ye to this vessel ! In that Yama, 
associated with the fathers, shall give abundant 
protection to your cooked porridge ! 

9. This westerly direction is especially favoured : 
in it Soma is ruler and consoler. To this hold, 
attach yourselves to the pious: then as a pair ye 
shall rise from the cooked porridge ! 

10. The northerly direction shall make our realm 
the very uppermost, in offspring uppermost ! The 
purusha is the metre pankti : with all (our kin), 
endowed with all their limbs, may we be united ! 

11. This 'firm' direction (nadir) is Virijf (bril- 
liancy) : reverence be to her ; may she be kind to 
my children and to me ! Mayest thou, O goddess 
Aditi, who holdest all treasures, as an alert guardian 
guard the cooked porridge ! 

12. As a father his children do thou, (O earth), 
embrace us ; may gentle winds blow upon us here 
on earth ! Then the porridge which the two divini- 
ties (the sacrificer and his wife) are here preparing 
for us shall take note of our religious fervour and 
our truth ! 

13. Whatever the black bird, that has come 
hither stealthily, has touched of that which has 
stuck to the rim, or whatever the wet-handed slave- 
girl does pollute — may ye, O waters, purify (that) 
mortar and pestle ! 

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14. May this sturdy press-stone, with broad bot- 
tom, purified by the purifiers, beat away the Rakshas ! 
Settle upon the skin, afford firm protection; may 
man and wife not come to grief in their children ! 

15. The (pestle of) wood has come to us together 
with the gods: it drives away the Rakshas and 
Piiiias. Up it shall rise, shall let its voice resound : 
through it let us conquer all the worlds ! 

16. The cattle clothed itself in sevenfold strength, 
those among them that are sleek and those that 
are poor. The thirty-three gods attend them : 
mayest thou, (O cattle), guide us to the heavenly 
world ! 

1 7. To the bright world of heaven thou shalt lead 
us ; (there) let us be united with wife and children ! 
I take her hand, may she follow me there ; neither 
Nim'ti (destruction), nor Ariti (grudge), shall gain 
mastery over us ! 

18. May we get past the evil Grihi (seizure)! 
Casting aside darkness do thou, (O pestle), let thy 
lovely voice resound; do not, O wooden tool, when 
raised, do injury ; do not mutilate the grain devoted 
to the gods ! 

19. All-embracing, about to be covered with ghee, 
enter, (O pot), as a co-dweller this space ! — Take hold 
of the winnowing-basket, that has been grown by 
the rain : the spelt and the chaff it shall sift out ! 

20. Three regions are constructed after the 
pattern of the Brahma«a : yonder heaven, the earth, 
and the atmosphere. — Take the (soma-) shoots, and 
hoTd one another, (O man and wife) ! They (the 
shoots) shall swell (with moisture), and again go 
back into the winnowing-basket ! 

21. Of manifold variegated colours are the 

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animals, one colour hast thou, (O porridge), when 
successfully prepared. — Push these (soma-) shoots 
upon this red skin ; the press-stone shall purify 
them as the washer-man his clothes ! 

22. Thee, the (pot of) earth, I place upon the 
earth : your substance is the same, though thine, 
(O pot), is modified. Even though a blow has 
cracked or scratched thee, do not therefore burst: 
with this verse do I cover that up ! 

23. Gendy as a mother embrace the son : I unite 
thee, (pot of) earth, with the earth ! Mayest thou, 
the hollow pot, not totter upon the altar, when thou 
art pressed by the tools of sacrifice and the ghee ! 

24. May Agni who cooks thee protect thee on the 
east, Indra with the Maruts protect thee on the south! 
May Varuwa on the west support thee upon thy foun- 
dation, may Soma on the north hold thee together ! 

25. Purified by the purifiers, the (waters) flow pure 
from the clouds, they reach to the spaces of heaven, 
and of the earth. They are alive, refresh the living, 
and are firmly rooted : may Agni heat them, after 
they have been poured into the vessel ! 

26. From heaven they come, into the earth they 
penetrate ; from the earth they penetrate into the 
atmosphere. May they, now pure, yet purify them- 
selves further ; may they conduct us to the heavenly 
world ! 

27. Whether ye are over-abundant or just suffi- 
cient, ye are surely clear, pure, and immortal : cook, 
ye waters, instructed by the husband and wife, 
obliging and helpful, the porridge ! 

28. Counted drops penetrate into the earth, com- 
mensurate with the breaths of life and the plants. 
The uncounted golden (drops), that are poured into 

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(the porridge), have, (themselves) pure, established 
complete purity. 

29. The boiling waters rise and sputter, cast up 
foam and many bubbles. Unite, ye waters, with 
this grain, as a woman who beholds her husband in 
the proper season ! 

30. Stir up (the grains) as they settle at the 
bottom : let them mingle their inmost parts with 
the waters ! The water here I have measured with 
cups ; measured was the grain, so as to be according 
to these regulations. 

31. Hand over the sickle, with haste bring 
promptly (the grass for the barhis) ; without giving 
pain let them cut the plants at the joints ! They 
whose kingdom Soma rules, the plants, shall not 
harbour anger against us ! 

32. Strew a new barhis for the porridge : pleasing 
to its heart, and lovely to its sight it shall be ! Upon 
it the gods together with the goddesses shall enter ; 
settle down to this (porridge) in proper order, and 
eat it! 

33. O (instrument of) wood, settle down upon the 
strewn barhis, in keeping with the divinities and the 
agnish/oma rites ! Well shaped, as if by a carpenter 
(Tvash/ar) with his axe, is thy form. Longing for 
this (porridge) the (gods) shall be seen about the 
vessel ! 

34. In sixty autumns the treasurer (of the porridge) 
shall fetch it, by the cooked grain he shall obtain 
heaven ; the parents and the children shall live upon 
it Bring thou this (man) to heaven, into the presence 
of Agni ! 

35. (Thyself) a holder, (O pot), hold on to the 
foundation of the earth : thee, that art immoveable 

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the gods (alone) shall move ! Man and wife, alive, 
with living children, shall remove thee from the 
hearth of the fire ! 

36. Thou hast conquered and reached all worlds ; 
as many as are our wishes, thou hast satisfied them. 
Dip ye in, stirring stick and spoon ! Place it (the 
porridge) upon a single dish ! 

37. Lay (ghee) upon it, let it spread forth, anoint 
this dish with ghee ! As the lowing cow her young 
that craves the breast, ye gods shall greet with 
sounds of satisfaction this (porridge) ! 

38. With ghee thou hast covered it, hast made 
this place (for the porridge) : may it, peerless, spread 
afar to heaven! Upon it shall t est the mighty 
eagle ; gods shall offer it to the divinities ! 

39. Whatever the wife cooks aside from thee, 
(O husband), or the husband (cooks) unbeknown of 
thee, O wife, mix that together : to both of you it 
shall belong ; bring it together into a single place ! 

40. As many of her children as dwell upon the 
earth, and the sons that have been begotten by him, 
all those ye shall call up to the dish : on shall come 
the young knowing their nest ! 

41. The goodly streams, swelling with honey, 
mixed with ghee, the seats of ambrosia, all these 
does he obtain, ascends to heaven. In sixty autumns 
the treasurer (of the porridge) shall fetch it ! 

42. The treasurer shall fetch this treasure: all 
outsiders round about shall not control it! The 
heaven-directed porridge, that has been presented 
and deposited by us, in three divisions has reached 
the three heavens. 

43. May Agni burn the ungodly Rakshas; the 
flesh-devouring Pi5i/6a shall have nothing here to 

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partake of! We drive him away, hold him afar from 
us : the Adityas and Angiras shall stay near it ! 

44. To the Adityas and the Angiras do I offer 
this (food of) honey, mixed with ghee. Do ye two, 
(man and wife), with clean hands, without having 
injured a Brahma»a, performing pious deeds, go to 
that heavenly world ! 

45. I would obtain this highest part of it (the 
porridge), the place from which the highest lord 
permeates (the all). Pour butter upon it, anoint it 
with plentiful ghee : this here is our share, fit for 
the Angiras ! 

46. For the sake of truth and holy strength do 
we make over *':is porridge as a hoarded treasure 
to the gods : it shall not be lost to us in gaming or 
in the assembly; do not let it go to any other 
person before me ! 

47. I cook, and I give (to the Brahmans), and so, 
too, my wife, at my religious rite and practice. — With 
the birth of a son the world of children has arisen 
(for you) : do ye two hold on to a life that extends 
beyond (your years) ! 

48. In that place exists no guilt, and no duplicity, 
not even if he goes conspiring with his friends. 
This full dish of ours has here been deposited : the 
cooked (porridge) shall come back again to him that 
cooks it ! 

49. Kind deeds we shall perform for our friends : 
all that hate us shall go to darkness (hell)! — As 
(fruitful) cow, and (strong) steer, they (man and 
wife) shall during every successive period of their 
lives drive away man-besetting death ! 

50. The fires (all) know one another, that which 
lives in plants, and lives in the waters, and all the 

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(light-) gods that glow upon the heaven. The gold 
(here) becomes the light of him that cooks (the 

51. This (naked skin) among the hides is born 
upon man (alone), all other animals are not naked. 
Clothe yourselves, (ye Brahmans), in sheltering 
garments : (even) the face of the porridge is a home- 
spun garment ! 

52. What falsehood thou shalt speak at play 
and in the assembly, or the falsehood that thou 
shalt speak through lust for gain — put on together, 
(O man and wife), this same garment, deposit upon 
it every blemish ! 

53. Produce rain, go to the gods, let smoke arise 
from (thy) surface; all-embracing, about to be 
covered with ghee, enter as a co-dweller this 
place ! 

54. In many ways heaven assumes within itself 
a different form, according to circumstances. It (the 
heaven) has laid aside its black form, purifying itself 
to a bright (form) ; the red form do I sacrifice for 
thee into the fire. 

55. Thee here we hand over to the eastern direc- 
tion, to Agni as sovereign lord, to the black serpent 
as guardian, to Aditya as bowman : do ye guard it 
for us, until we arrive ! To the goal here he shall 
lead us, to old age ; old age shall hand us over to 
death : then shall, we be united with the cooked 
(porridge) ! 

56. Thee here we hand over to the southern 
direction, to Indra as sovereign lord, to the serpent 
that is striped across as guardian, to Yama as bow- 
man : do ye guard it for us, until we arrive ! To the 
goal here, &c. 

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57. Thee here we hand over to the western direc- 
tion, to Varu#a as sovereign lord, to the przdaku- 
serpent as guardian, to food as bowman : do ye guard 
it for us, until we arrive. To the goal here, &c. 

58. Thee here we hand over to the northern 
direction, to Soma as sovereign lord, to the sva^a- 
serpent as guardian, to the lightning as bowman : 
do ye guard it for us, until we arrive. To the goal 
here, &c. 

59. Thee here we hand over to the direction of the 
nadir, to Vishwu as sovereign lord, to the serpent 
with black-spotted neck as guardian, to the plants 
as bowmen : do ye guard it for us, until we arrive. 
To the goal here, &c. 

60. Thee here we hand over to the direction of 
the zenith, to Brzhaspati as sovereign lord, to the 
light-coloured serpent as guardian, to the rain as 
bowman: do ye guard it for us, until we arrive. 
To the goal here, &c. 

IX, 3. Removal of a house that has been presented 
to a priest as sacrificial reward. 

1. The fastenings of the buttresses, the supports, 
and also of the connecting beams of the house, that 
abounds in treasures, do we loosen. 

2. O (house) rich in all treasures ! the fetter 
which has been bound about thee, and the knot 
which has been fastened upon thee, that with my 
charm do I undo, as BWhaspati (undid) Vala. 

3. (The builder) has drawn thee together, pressed 
thee together, placed firm knots upon thee. Skil- 
fully, as the priest who butchers (the sacrificial 
animal), do we with Indra's aid disjoint thy limbs. 

[42] o 

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4. From thy beams, thy bolts, thy frame, and 
thy thatch ; from thy sides, (O house) abounding in 
treasures, do we loosen the fastenings. 

5. The fastenings of the dove-tailed (joints), of 
the reed (-covering), of the frame-work, do we loosen 
here from the ' mistress of dwelling.' 

6. The ropes which they have tied within thee 
for comfort, these do we loosen from thee ; be thou 
propitious to our persons, O mistress of dwelling, 
after thou hast (again) been erected ! 

7. A receptacle for Soma, a house for Agni, a seat 
for the mistresses (of the house), a seat (for the priests), 
a seat for the gods art thou, O goddess house ! 

8. Thy covering of wicker-work, with thousand 
eyes, stretched out upon thy crown, fastened down 
and laid on, do we loosen with (this) charm. 

9. He who receives thee as a gift, O house, 
and he by whom thou hast been built, both these, 
O mistress of dwelling, shall live attaining old age ! 

10. Return to him in the other world, firmly 
bound, ornamented, (thou house), which we loosen 
limb by limb, and joint by joint ! 

11. He who built thee, O house, brought together 
(thy) timbers, he, a Pra^apati on high, did construct 
thee, O house, for his progeny (pra^ayai). 

1 2. We render obeisance to him (the builder) ; 
obeisance to the giver, the lord of the house ; 
obeisance to Agni who serves (the sacrifice) ; and 
obeisance to thy (attendant) man ! 

13. Reverence to the cattle and the horses, and 
to that which is born in the house ! Thou that hast 
produced, art rich in offspring, thy fetters do we 

14. Thou dost shelter Agni within, (and) the 

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domestics together with the cattle. Thou that hast 
produced, art rich in offspring, thy fetters do we 

15. The expanse which is between heaven and 
earth, with that do I receive as a gift this house of 
thine ; the middle region which is stretched out 
from the sky, that do I make into a receptacle for 
treasures ; with that do I receive the house for 
this one. 

16. Full of nurture, full of milk, fixed upon the 
earth, erected, holding food for all, O house, do 
thou not injure them that receive thee as a gift ! 

17. Enveloped in grass, clothed in reeds, like 
night does the house lodge the cattle; erected 
thou dost stand upon the earth, like a she-elephant, 
firm of foot. 

18. The part of thee that was covered with 
mats unfolding do I loosen. Thee that hast been 
enfolded by Varu»a may Mitra uncover in the 
morning ! 

19. The house built with pious word, built by 
seers, erected — may Indra and Agni, the two 
immortals, protect the house, the seat of Soma ! 

20. Chest is crowded upon chest, basket upon 
basket; there mortal man is begotten from whom 
all things spring. 

21. In the house which is built with two facades, 
four facades, six facades; in the house with eight 
facades, with ten facades, in the ' mistress of dwell- 
ing,' Agni rests as if in the womb. 

22. Turning towards thee that art turned towards 
me, O house, I come to thee that injurest me not. 
For Agni and the waters, the first door to divine 
order, are within. 

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23. These waters, free from disease, destructive 
of disease, do I bring here. The chambers do 
I enter in upon in company with the immortal 
Agni (fire). 

24. Do thou not fasten a fetter upon us ; though 
a heavy load, become thou light ! As a bride do we 
carry thee, O house, wherever we please. 

25. From the easterly direction of the house 
reverence (be) to greatness, hail to the gods who 
are to be addressed with hail ! 

26. From the southerly direction of the house, &c. ! 

27. From the westerly direction of the house, &c. ! 

28. From the northerly direction of the house, &c. ! 

29. From the firm direction (nadir) of the 
house, &c. ! 

30. From the upright direction (zenith) of the 
house, &c. ! 

31. From every direction of the house reverence 
(be) to greatness, hail to the gods who are to be 
addressed with hail ! 

VI, 71. Brahmanical prayer at the receipt of 


1. The varied food which I consume in many 
places, my gold, my horses, and, too, my cows, goats, 
and sheep : everything whatsoever that I have re- 
ceived as a gift — may Agni, the priest, render that 
an auspicious offering ! 

2. The gift that has come to me by sacrifice, or 
without sacrifice, bestowed by the Fathers, granted 
by men, through which my heart, as it were, lights 
up with joy — may Agni, the priest, render that an 
auspicious offering! 

3. The food that I, O gods, improperly consume, 

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(the food) I promise, intending to give of it (to the 
Brahmans), or not to give of it, by the might of 
mighty VaLrvanara (Agni) may (that) food be for 
me auspicious and full of honey! 

XX, 127. A kuntapa-hymn. 

1. Listen, ye folks, to this: (a song) in praise of 
a hero shall be sung ! Six thousand and ninety 
(cows) did we get (when we were) with Kaurama 
among the Ru^amas, — 

2. Whose twice ten buffaloes move right along, 
together with their cows ; the height of his chariot 
just misses the heaven which recedes from its touch. 

3. This one (Kaurama) presented the seer with 
a hundred jewels, ten chaplets, three hundred steeds, 
and ten thousand cattle. 


4. Disport thyself, O chanter, disport thyself as 
a bird upon a flowering tree ; thy tongue glides 
quickly over the lips as a razor over the strop. 

5. The chanters with their pious song hurry on 
blithely as cows ; at home are their children, and at 
home the cows do they attend. 

6. Bring hither, O chanter, thy poem, that which 
earns cattle and earns good things ! Among the 
gods (kings) place thy voice as a manly archer his 
arrow ! 


7. Listen ye to the high praise of the king who 
rules over all peoples, the god who is above mortals, 
of Vauvanara Parikshit! 

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8. ' Parikshit has procured for us a secure dwell- 
ing, when he, the most excellent one, went to his 
seat.' (Thus) the husband in Kuru-land, when he 
founds his household, converses with his wife. 

9. ' What may I bring to thee, curds, stirred 
drink, or liquor ? ' (Thus) the wife asks her husband 
in the kingdom of king Parikshit. 

10. Like light the ripe barley runs over beyond 
the mouth (of the vessels). The people thrive 
merrily in the kingdom of king Parikshit. 


11. Indra has awakened the poet, saying: 'Arise, 
move about, and sing ; of me, the strong, verily, sing 
the praises ; full every pious one shall offer thee 
(sacrificial reward) ! ' 

12. Here, O cattle, ye shall be born, here, ye 
horses, here, ye domestics ! And Pushan also, who 
bestows a thousand (cows) as sacrificial reward, 
settles down here. 

13. May these cattle, O Indra, not suffer harm, 
and may their owner not suffer harm ; may the 
hostile folk, O Indra, may the thief not gain posses- 
sion of them ! 

14. We shout to the hero with hymn and song, 
we (shout) with a pleasing song. Take delight in 
our songs ; may we not ever suffer harm ! 

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XII, I. Hymn to goddess Earth. 

i. Truth, greatness, universal order (rha), strength, 
consecration, creative fervour (tapas), spiritual ex- 
altation (brahma), the sacrifice, support the earth. 
May this earth, the mistress of that which was and 
shall be, prepare for us a broad domain ! 

2. The earth that has heights, and slopes, and 
great plains, that supports the plants of manifold 
virtue, free from the pressure that comes from the 
midst of men, she shall spread out for us, and fit 
herself for us! 

3. The earth upon which the sea, and the rivers 
and the waters, upon which food and the tribes of 
men have arisen, upon which this breathing, moving 
life exists, shall afford us precedence in drinking ! 

4. The earth whose are the four regions of space, 
upon which food and the tribes of men have arisen, 
which supports the manifold breathing, moving 
things, shall afford us cattle and other possessions 
also ! 

5. The earth upon which of old the first men 
unfolded themselves, upon which the gods overcame 
the Asuras, shall procure for us (all) kinds of cattle, 
horses, and fowls, good fortune, and glory ! 

6. The earth that supports all, furnishes wealth, 

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the foundation, the golden-breasted resting-place of 
all living creatures, she that supports Agni Vai^va- 
nara (the fire), and mates with Indra, the bull, shall 
furnish us with property ! 

7. The broad earth, which the sleepless gods 
ever attentively guard, shall milk for us precious 
honey, and, moreover, besprinkle us with glory ! 

8. That earth which formerly was water upon 
the ocean (of space), which the wise (seers) found 
out by their skilful devices ; whose heart is in the 
highest heaven, immortal, surrounded by truth, shall 
bestow upon us brilliancy and strength, (and place 
us) in supreme sovereignty! 

9. That earth upon which the attendant waters 
jointly flow by day and night unceasingly, shall 
pour out milk for us in rich streams, and, moreover, 
besprinkle us with glory ! 

10. The earth which the A^vins have measured, 
upon which Vish»u has stepped out, which Indra, 
the lord of might, has made friendly to himself ; she, 
the mother, shall pour forth milk for me, the son ! 

1 1. Thy snowy mountain heights, and thy forests, 
O earth, shall be kind to us ! The brown, the black, 
the red, the multi-coloured, the firm earth, that is 
protected by Indra, I have settled upon, not sup- 
pressed, not slain, not wounded. 

12. Into thy middle set us, O earth, and into thy 
navel, into the nourishing strength that has grown 
up from thy body ; purify thyself for us ! The earth 
is the mother, and I the son of the earth ; Par^anya 
is the father ; he, too, shall save us ! 

13. The earth upon which they (the priests) in- 
close the altar (vedi), upon which they, devoted to 
all (holy) works, unfold the sacrifice, upon which 

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are set up, in front of the sacrifice, the sacrificial 
posts, erect and brilliant, that earth shall prosper us, 
herself prospering ! 

14. Him that hates us, O earth, him that battles 
against us, him that is hostile towards us with his 
mind and his weapons, do thou subject to us, 
anticipating (our wish) by deed! 

15. The mortals born of thee live on thee, thou 
supportest both bipeds and quadrupeds. Thine, 
O earth, are these five races of men, the mortals, 
upon whom the rising sun sheds undying light with 
his rays. 

1 6. These creatures all together shall yield milk for 
us ; do thou, O earth, give us the honey of speech ! 

1 7. Upon the firm, broad earth, the all-begetting 
mother of the plants, that is supported by (divine) 
law, upon her, propitious and kind, may we ever 
pass our lives ! 

18. A great gathering-place thou, great (earth), 
hast become ; great haste, commotion, and agitation 
are upon thee. Great Indra protects thee unceas- 
ingly. Do thou, O earth, cause us to brighten as if 
at the sight of gold : not any one shall hate us ! 

19. Agni (fire) is in the earth, in the plants, the 
waters hold Agni, Agni is in the stones; Agni is 
within men, Agnis (fires) are within cattle, within 

20. Agni glows from the sky, to Agni, the god, 
belongs the broad air. The mortals kindle Agni, 
the bearer of oblations, that loveth ghee. 

21. The earth, clothed in Agni, with dark knees, 
shall make me brilliant and alert ! 

22. Upon the earth men give to the gods the 
sacrifice, the prepared oblation; upon the earth 

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mortal men live pleasantly by food. May this earth 
give us breath and life, may she cause me to reach 
old age! 

23. The fragrance, O earth, that has arisen upon 
thee, which the plants and the waters hold, which 
the Gandharvas and the Apsaras have partaken 
of, with that make me fragrant : not any one shall 
hate us! 

24. That fragrance of thine which has entered 
into the lotus, that fragrance, O earth, which the 
immortals of yore gathered up at the marriage of 
Surya, with that make me fragrant: not any one 
shall hate us ! 

25. That fragrance of thine which is in men, the 
loveliness and charm that is in male and female, 
that which is in steeds and heroes, that which is in 
the wild animals, with trunks (elephants), the lustre 
that is in the maiden, O earth, with that do thou 
blend us : not any one shall hate us ! 

26. Rock, stone, dust is this earth ; this earth is 
supported, held together. To this golden-breasted 
earth I have rendered obeisance. 

27. The earth, upon whom the forest-sprung trees 
ever stand firm, the all-nourishing, compact earth, do 
we invoke. 

28. Rising or sitting, standing or walking, may 
we not stumble with our right or left foot upon the 
earth ! 

29. To the pure earth I speak, to the ground, the 
soil that has grown through the brahma (spiritual 
exaltation). Upon thee, that holdest nourishment, 
prosperity, food, and ghee, we would settle down, 
O earth ! 

30. Purified the waters shall flow for our bodies ; 

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what flows off from us that do we deposit upon him 
we dislike : with a purifier, O earth, do I purify 

31. Thy easterly regions, and thy northern, thy 
southerly (regions), O earth, and thy western, shall 
be kind to me as I walk (upon thee) ! May I that 
have been placed into the world not fall down ! 

32. Do not drive us from the west, nor from the 
east ; not from the north, and not from the south ! 
Security be thou for us, O earth : waylayers shall 
not find us, hold far away (their) murderous weapon ! 

33. As long as I look out upon thee, O earth, 
with Surya (the sun) as my companion, so long shall 
my sight not fail, as year followeth upon year ! 

34. When, as I lie, I turn upon my right or left 
side, O earth ; when stretched out we lie with our 
ribs upon thee pressing against (us), do not, O earth, 
that liest close to everything, there injure us ! 

35. What, O earth, I dig out of thee, quickly 
shall that grow again : may I not, O pure one, 
pierce thy vital spot, (and) not thy heart ! 

36. Thy summer, O earth, thy rainy season, thy 
autumn, winter, early spring, and spring; thy decreed 
yearly seasons, thy days and nights shall yield us 
milk ! 

37. The pure earth that starts in fright away 
from the serpent, upon whom were the fires that 
are within the waters, she that delivers (to destruc- 
tion) the blasphemous Dasyus, she that takes the 
side of Indra, riot of VWtra, (that earth) adheres to 
•Sakra (mighty Indra), the lusty bull. 

38. Upon whom rests the sacrificial hut (sadas) 
and the (two) vehicles that hold the soma (havir- 
dhane), in whom the sacrificial post is fixed, upon 

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whom the Brahma«as praise (the gods) with riks 
and samans, knowing (also) the ya,fur-formulas; upon 
whom the serving-priests (ritvig) are employed so 
that Indra shall drink the soma ; — 

39. Upon whom the seers of yore, that created 
the beings, brought forth with their songs the cows, 
they the seven active (priests), by means of the satra- 
offerings, the sacrifices, and (their) creative fervour 
(tapas) ;— 

40. May this earth point out to us the wealth 
that we crave ; may Bhaga (fortune) add his help, 
may Indra come here as (our) champion! 

41. The earth upon whom the noisy mortals sing 
and dance, upon whom they fight, upon whom re- 
sounds the roaring drum, shall drive forth our 
enemies, shall make us free from rivals ! 

42. To the earth upon whom are food, and rice 
and barley, upon whom live these five races of men, 
to the earth, the wife of Par^anya, that is fattened 
by rain, be reverence ! 

43. The earth upon whose ground the citadels 
constructed by the gods unfold themselves, every 
region of her that is the womb of all, Pra^apati 
shall make pleasant for us ! 

44. The earth that holds treasures manifold in 
secret places, wealth, jewels, and gold shall she give 
to me ; she that bestows wealth liberally, the kindly 
goddess, wealth shall she bestow upon us ! 

45. The earth that holds people of manifold 
varied speech, of different customs, according to 
their habitations, as a reliable milch-cow that does 
not kick, shall she milk for me a thousand streams 
of wealth ! 

46. The serpent, the scorpion with thirsty fangs, 

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that hibernating torpidly lies upon thee ; the worm, 
and whatever living thing, O earth, moves in the 
rainy season, shall, when it creeps, not creep upon 
us : with what is auspicious (on thee) be gracious 
to us! 

47.' Thy many paths upon which people go, thy 
tracks for chariots and wagons to advance, upon 
which both good and evil men proceed, this road, 
free from enemies, and free from thieves, may we 
gain : with what is auspicious (on thee) be gracious 
to us ! 

48. The earth holds the fool and holds the wise, 
endures that good and bad dwell (upon her) ; she 
keeps company with the boar, gives herself up to 
the wild hog. 

49. Thy forest animals, the wild animals homed 
in the woods, the man-eating lions, and tigers that 
roam; the ula, the wolf, mishap, injury (rzkshika), 
and demons (rakshas), O earth, drive away from us ! 

50. The Gandharvas, the Apsaras, the Ariyas 
and Kimldins; the Pisaias and all demons (rakshas), 
these, O earth, hold from us ! 

51. The earth upon whom the biped birds fly 
together, the flamingoes, eagles, birds of prey, and 
fowls; upon whom MatarLrvan, the wind, hastens, 
raising the dust, and tossing the trees — as the wind 
blows forth and back the flame bursts after ; — 

52. The earth upon whom day and night jointly, 
black and bright, have been decreed, the broad 
earth covered and enveloped with rain, shall kindly 
place us into every pleasant abode ! 

53. Heaven, and earth, and air have here given 
me expanse ; Agni, Surya, the waters, and all the 
gods together have given me wisdom. 

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54. Mighty am I, 'Superior' (uttara) by name, 
upon the earth, conquering am I, all-conquering, 
completely conquering every region. 

55. At that time, O goddess, when, spreading 
(prathamana) forth, named (pmhivl 'broad') by 
the gods, thou didst extend to greatness, then pros- 
perity did enter thee, (and) thou didst fashion the 
four regions. 

56. In the villages and in the wilderness, in the 
assembly-halls that are upon the earth; in the 
gatherings, and in the .meetings, may we hold forth 
agreeably to thee ! 

57. As dust a steed did she, as soon as she was 
born, scatter these people, that dwelt upon the 
earth, she the lovely one, the leader, the guardian 
of the world, that holds the trees and plants. 

58. The words I speak, honied do I speak them : 
the things I see they furnish me with. Brilliant 
I am and alert : the others that rush (against me) 
do I beat down. 

59. Gentle, fragrant, kindly, with the sweet drink 
(kllala) in her udder, rich in milk, the broad earth 
together with (her) milk shall give us courage ! 

60. She whom Vijvakarman (the creator of all) 
did search out by means of oblations, when she had 
entered the surging (flood of the) atmosphere, she, 
the vessel destined to nourish, deposited in a secret 
place, became visible (to the gods) and the (heavenly) 

61. Thou art the scatterer of men, the broadly 
expanding Aditi that yields milk according to wish. 
What is wanting in thee.Pra^apati, first-born of the 
divine order (Wta), shall supply for thee ! 

62. Thy laps, O earth, free from ailment, free 

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from disease, shall be produced for us ! May we 
attentively, through our long lives, be bearers of 
bali-offerings to thee ! 

63. O mother earth, kindly set me down upon 
a well-founded place! With (father) heaven co- 
operating, O thou wise one, do thou place me into 
happiness and prosperity ! 

XIII, 1. Prayer for sovereign power addressed to 
the god Rohita and his female Rohi»t. 

1. Rise up, O steed, that art within the waters, 
enter this kingdom, rich in liberal gifts ! Rohita 
(the red sun) who has begotten this all, shall keep 
thee well-supported for sovereignty ! 

2. The steed that is within the waters has risen 
up : ascend upon the clans that are sprung from 
thee ! Furnishing soma, the waters, plants, and cows, 
cause thou four-footed and two-footed creatures to 
enter here ! 

3. Do ye, strong Maruts, children of Prism (the 
cloud), allied with Indra, crush the enemies! Rohita 
shall hear you, that give abundant gifts, the thrice 
seven Maruts, who take delight in sweet (nourish- 
ment) ! 

4. Rohita has climbed the heights, he has 
ascended them, he, the embryo of women, (has 
ascended) the womb of births. Closely united with 
these women they found out the six broad (direc- 
tions); spying out a road he has brought hither 

5. Hither to thee Rohita has brought sovereignty; 
he has dispersed the enemies : freedom from danger 
has resulted for thee. To thee heaven and earth 

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together with the revati and ^akvart-stanzas shall 
yield gifts at will ! 

6. Rohita produced heaven and earth ; there 
Paramesh/^in (the lord on high) extended the thread 
(of the sacrifice). There A^a Ekapada (the one- 
footed goat, the sun) did fix himself; he made firm 
the heavens and earth with his strength. 

7. Rohita made firm heaven and earth, by him 
the (heavenly) light was established, by him the 
firmament By him the atmosphere and the spaces 
were measured out, through him the gods obtained 

8. Rohita did ponder the multiform (universe) 
while preparing (his) climbings and advances. Having 
ascended the heaven with great might, he shall 
anoint thy royalty with milk and ghee ! 

9. All thy climbings, advances, and all thy ascents 
with which thou, (Rohita, the sun), fillest the 
heavens and the atmosphere, having strengthened 
thyself with their brahma and payas (spiritual and 
physical essence) do thou keep awake (do thou 
watch over) among the people in the kingdom of 
the (earthly) Rohita (the king) ! 

10. The peoples that have originated from thy 
tapas (heat, or creative fervour), have followed here 
the calf, the gayatrt. They shall enter thee with 
kindly spirit ; the calf Rohita with its mother shall 
come on ! 

11. High on the firmament Rohita has stood, 
a youth, a sage, begetting all forms. As Agni he 
shines with piercing light, in the third space he did 
assume lovely (forms). 

12. A bull with a thousand horns, G&tavedas 
(fire), endowed with sacrifices of ghee, carrying 

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soma upon his back, rich in heroes, he shall, when 
implored, not abandon me, nor may I abandon thee : 
abundance in cattle and abundance in heroes procure 
for me ! 

13. Rohita is the generator of the sacrifice, and 
its mouth ; to Rohita I offer oblations with voice, 
ear, and mind. To Rohita the gods resort with 
glad mind : he shall cause me to rise through eleva- 
tion derived from the assembly ! 

14. Rohita arranged a sacrifice for Vi-rvakarman ; 
from it these brilliant qualities have come to me. 
Let me announce thy origin over the extent of the 
world ! 

1 5. Upon thee have ascended the brzhati and the 
parikti (metres), upon thee the kakubh with splendour, 
O <7atavedas. Upon thee the vasha/-call, whose 
syllables make an ushwiha, has ascended, upon thee 
Rohita with his seed has ascended. 

16. This one clothes himself in the womb of the 
earth, this one clothes himself in heaven, and in 
the atmosphere. This one at the station of the 
brown (sun) did attain unto the worlds of light. 

1 7. O Va^aspati (lord of speech), the earth shall 
be pleasant to us, pleasant our dwelling, agreeable 
our couches ! Right here life's breath shall be to 
our friend; thee, O ParameshMin, Agni shall 
envelop in life and lustre! 

18. O Va^aspati, the five seasons that we have, 
which have come about as the creation of Vi^va- 
karman, right here (they and) life's breath shall be 
to our friend; thee, O Paramesh/^in, Rohita shall 
envelop in life and lustre ! 

19. O Vaiaspati, good cheer and spirit, cattle in 
our stable, children in our wombs beget thou ! Right 

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here life's breath shall be to our friend; thee, O 
ParameshMin, I envelop in life and lustre. 

20. God Savitar and Agni shall envelop thee, 
Mitra and Varu»a surround thee with lustre ! Tread- 
ing down all powers of grudge come thou hither : 
thou hast made this kingdom rich in liberal gifts. 

21. Thou, O Rohita, whom the brindled cow, 
harnessed at the side, carries, goest with brilliance, 
causing the waters to flow. 

22. Devoted to Rohita is Rohi»I his mistress, 
with beautiful colour (complexion), great, and lustrous: 
through her may we conquer booty of every descrip- 
tion, through her win every battle ! 

23. This seat, Rohiwi, belongs to Rohita ; yonder 
is the path on which the brindled (female) goes! 
Her the Gandharvas and the Kasyapas lead forth, 
her the sages guard with diligence. 

24. The radiant bay steeds of the sun, the im- 
mortal, ever draw the delightful chariot. Rohita, 
the drinker of ghee, the shining god, did enter the 
variegated heavens. 

25. Rohita, the sharp-horned bull, who surpasses 
Agni and surpasses Surya, who props up the earth 
and the sky, out of him the gods frame the creations. 

^26. Rohita ascended the heaven from the great 
flood ; Rohita has climbed all heights. 

27. Create (the cow) that is rich in milk, drips 
with ghee : she is the milch-cow of the gods that 
does not refuse ! Indra shall drink the Soma, there 
shall be secure possession ; Agni shall sing praises : 
the enemies do thou drive out ! 

28. Agni kindled, spreads his flames, fortified by 
ghee, sprinkled with ghee. Victorious, all-conquering 
Agni shall slay them that are my rivals ! 

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29. He shall slay them, shall burn the enemy that 
battles against us ! With the flesh-devouring Agni 
do we burn our rivals. 

30. Smite them down, O Indra, with the thunder- 
bolt, with thy (strong) arm ! Then have I over- 
powered my rivals with Agni's brilliant strengths. 

31. O Agni, subject our rivals to us; confuse, 
O Brzhaspati, the kinsman that is puffed up ! O 
Indra and Agni, O Mitra and Varu»a, subjected they 
shall be, unable to vent their wrath against us ! 

32. Do thou, god Surya (the sun), when thou 
risest, beat down my rivals, beat them down with 
a stone : they shall go to the nethermost darkness ! 

33. The calf of Vir&f, the bull of prayers, carry- 
ing the bright (soma) upon his back, has ascended 
the atmosphere. A song accompanied by ghee they 
sing to the calf; himself brahma (spiritual exalta- 
tion) they swell him with their brahma (prayer). 

34. Ascend the heavens, ascend the earth ; 
sovereignty ascend thou, and possessions ascend 
thou ! Offspring ascend thou, and immortality ascend 
thou, unite thy body with Rohita ! 

35. The gods that hold sovereignty, who go 
about the sun, with these allied, Rohita, kindly 
disposed, shall bestow sovereignty upon thee ! 

36. The sacrifices purified by prayer lead thee 
forth ; the bay steeds that travel upon the road carry 
thee : thou shinest across the swelling ocean. 

37. In Rohita who conquers wealth, conquers 
cattle, and conquers booty, heaven and earth are 
fixed. Of thee that hast a thousand and seven 
births, let me announce the origin over the extent 
of the world ! 

38. Glorious thou goest to the intermediate direc- 

p 2 

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tions and the directions (of space), glorious (in the 
sight) of animals and the tribes of men, glorious in 
the lap of the earth, of Aditi : may I like Savitar 
be lovely ! 

39. Being yonder thou knowest (what takes place) 
here ; being here thou beholdest these things. Here 
(men) behold the inspired sun that shines upon the 

40. A god thou praisest the gods, thou movest 
within the flood. They kindle (him), a universal 
fire ; him the highest sages know. 

41. Below the superior (region), above the inferior 
(region) here, the cow has arisen supporting (her) 
calf by the foot. Whither is she turned ; to which 
half (of the universe), forsooth, has she gone away ; 
where, forsooth, does she beget ? Verily not in this 

42. One-footed, two-footed, four-footed is she; 
eight-footed, nine-footed became she, the thousand- 
syllabled (consisting of thousand elements) pankti 
(quinary stanza) of the universe : the oceans from 
her flow forth upon (the world). 

43. Ascending the heaven, immortal, receive 
kindly my song ! The sacrifices purified by prayer 
lead thee forth ; the bay steeds that travel upon the 
road carry thee. 

44. That do I know of thee, O immortal, where 
thy march is upon the sky, where thy habitation is 
in the highest heaven. 

45. Surya (the sun) surveys the sky, Surya the 
earth, Surya the waters. Surya is the single eye of 
being : he has ascended the great heavens. 

46. The broad (directions) where the fagots that 
fence in (the fire), the earth turned itself into a fire- 

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altar. There Rohita laid on for himself these two 
fires, cold and heat 

47. Laying on cold and heat, using the moun- 
tains as sacrificial posts, the two fires of Rohita who 
knows the (heavenly) light, into which (the fires) 
rain (flowed) as ghee, carried out the sacrifice. 

48. The fire of Rohita who knows the (heavenly) 
light is kindled by prayer. From it heat, from it 
cold, from it the sacrifice was produced. 

49. The two fires swelling through prayer, in- 
creased through prayer, sacrificed into With prayer ; 
the two fires of Rohita who knows the (heavenly) 
light, kindled through prayer, carried out the 

50. One is deposited in truth, the other is kindled 
in the waters. The two fires of Rohita who knows 
the (heavenly) light, kindled through prayer, carried 
out the sacrifice. 

51. The fire which the wind brightens up, and 
that which Indra and Brahmawaspati (brighten up), 
the two fires of Rohita who knows the (heavenly) 
light, kindled through prayer, carried out the 

52. Having fashioned the earth into an altar, 
having made the heavens (his) sacrificial reward, 
then having made heat into fire, Rohita created all 
that has breath through rain (serving) as ghee. 

53. Rain fashioned itself into ghee, heat into fire, 
the earth into an altar. Then Agni by (his) songs 
fashioned the high mountains. 

54. Having fashioned by means of songs the high 
(mountains), Rohita spake to the earth : In thee all 
shall be born, what is and what shall be. 

55. The sacrifice first, (and then) what is and 

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what shall be was born. From that this all was 
born, and whatever here appears, brought hither by 
the sage Rohita. 

56. He who kicks a cow with his foot, and he 
who micturates towards the sun — of thee do I tear 
out the root; thou shalt henceforth not cast a 
shadow ! 

57. Thou that passest across me, casting thy 
shadow against me, between me and the fire — of 
thee do I tear out the root ; thou shalt henceforth 
not cast a shadow ! 

58. He, O god Surya, that to-day passes between 
thee and me, upon him our evil dream, our foulness, 
and our misfortunes do we wipe off. 

59. May we not miss our way, may we not, O 
Indra, miss the sacrifice of him that presses the 
soma ; may not the powers of grudge intercept us ! 

60. The (guiding) thread stretched out among the 
gods, that accomplishes the sacrifice, that, by pour- 
ing oblations, may we attain ! 

XI, 5. Glorification of the sun, or the primeval 
principle, as a Brahman disciple. 

1. The Brahma^arin (Brahmanical disciple) moves 
inciting both hemispheres of the world ; in him the 
gods are harmonised. He holds the heavens and 
the earth, he fills the teacher with creative fervour 

2. The fathers, the divine folk, and all the gods 
severally follow the Brahmaiarin; the Gandharvas 
did go after him, six thousand three hundred and 
thirty-three. He fills all the gods with creative 

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3. When the teacher receives the Brahmaiarin 
as a disciple, he places him as a foetus inside (of 
his body). He carries him for three nights in his 
belly: when he is born the gods gather about to 
see him. 

4. This earth is (his first) piece of firewood, the 
heaven the second, and the atmosphere also he fills 
with (the third) piece of firewood. The Brahma- 
£arin fills the worlds with his firewood, his girdle, 
his asceticism, and his creative fervour. 

5. Prior to the brahma (spiritual exaltation) the 
Brahma^arin was born ; clothed in heat, by creative 
fervour he arose. From him sprung the brahmawam 
(Brahmanic life) and the highest brahma, and all the 
gods together with immortality (amrzta). 

6. The Brahmaiarin advances, kindled by the 
firewood, clothed in the skin of the black antelope, 
consecrated, with long beard. Within the day he 
passes from the eastern to the northern sea ; gather- 
ing together the worlds he repeatedly shapes them. 

7. The Brahma^arin, begetting the brahma, the 
waters, the world, Pragapati Paramesh///in (he that 
stands in the highest place), and Vir&f, having 
become an embryo in the womb of immortality, 
having, forsooth, become Indra, pierced the Asuras. 

8. The teacher fashioned these two hemispheres 
of the world, the broad and the deep, earth and 
heaven. These the BrahmaX-arin guards with his 
creative fervour (tapas) : in him the gods are har- 

9. This broad earth and the heaven the Brahma- 
&trin first brought hither as alms. Having made 
these into two sticks of firewood he reveres them ; 
upon them all beings have been founded. 

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10. One is on the hither side, the other on the 
farther side of the back of the heavens ; secretly are 
deposited the two receptacles of the brahma«am 
(Brahmanic life). These the Brahmaiarin protects 
by his tapas (creative fervour) ; understandingly he 
performs that brahma (spiritual exaltation) solely. 

ii. One on the hither side, the other away from 
the earth, do the two Agnis come together between 
these two hemispheres (of the world). To them 
adhere the rays firmly; the Brahmaiarin by his 
tapas (creative fervour) enters into the (rays). 

12. Shouting forth, thundering, red, white he 
carries a great penis along the earth. The Brahma- 
>£arin sprinkles seed upon the back of the earth ; 
through it the four directions live. 

1 3. Into fire, the sun, the moon, Matarwvan (wind), 
and the waters, the Brahmaiarin places the firewood; 
the lights from these severally go into the clouds, 
from them come sacrificial butter, the purusha 
(primeval man), rain, and water. 

14. Death is the teacher, (and) Varu»a, Soma, the 
plants, milk ; the clouds were the warriors : by these 
this light has been brought hither. 

1 5. Varu»a, having become the teacher, at home 
prepares the ghee solely. Whatever he desired 
from Pra^apati, that the Brahmaiarin furnished, as 
Mitra (a friend) from his own itman (spirit, or 

16. The Brahma^arin is the teacher, the Brahma- 
£arin Prafapati. Pra/apati rules (shines forth, vi 
ri^ati); Vira^- (heavenly power, or light) became 
Indra, the ruler. 

17. Through holy disciplehood (brahma^aryam), 
through tapas (creative fervour), the king protects 

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his kingdom. The teacher by (his own) brahma- 
/fcaryam (holy life) seeks (finds) the Brahma>£arin. 

1 8. Through holy disciplehood the maiden obtains 
a young husband, through holy disciplehood the 
steer, the horse seeks to obtain fodder. 

19. Through holy disciplehood, through creative 
fervour, the gods drove away death. I ndra, forsooth, 
by his holy disciplehood brought the light to the gods. 

20. The plants, that which was and shall be, day 
and night, the tree, the year along with the seasons, 
have sprung from the Brahmaiarin. 

21. The earthly and the heavenly animals, the 
wild and the domestic, the wingless and the winged 
(animals), have sprung from the Brahmaiarin. 

22. All the creatures of Pra^apati (the creator) 
severally carry breath in their souls. All these 
the brahma, which has been brought hither in the 
Brahmaiarin, protects. 

23. This, that was set into motion by the gods, 
that is insurmountable, that moves shining, from it 
has sprung the brahma»am (Brahmanical life), the 
highest brahma, and all the gods, together with 
immortality (amrz'ta). 

24. 25. The Brahma^arin carries the shining 
brahma : into this all the gods are woven. Pro- 
ducing in-breathing and out-breathing, as well as 
through-breathing ; speech, mind, heart, brahma, and 
wisdom, do thou furnish us with sight, hearing, glory, 
food, semen, blood, and belly ! 

26. These things the Brahmaiarin fashioned upon 
the back of the (heavenly) water. He stood in the 
sea kindled with tapas (creative fervour). He, when 
he has bathed, shines vigorously upon the earth, 
brown and ruddy. 

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XI, 4. Pra»a, life or breath, personified as the 
supreme spirit. 

1. Reverence to Pri»a, to whom all this (universe) 
is subject, who has become the lord of the all, on 
whom the all is supported ! 

2. Reverence, O Pr£«a, to thy roaring (wind), 
reverence, O Pri«a, to thy thunder, reverence, O 
Pra»a, to thy lightning, reverence, O Pra«a, to thy 
rain ! 

3. When Pra#a calls aloud to the plants with his 
thunder, they are fecundated, they conceive, and 
then are produced abundant (plants). 

4. When the season has arrived, and Pra»a calls 
aloud to the plants, then everything rejoices, what- 
soever is upon the earth. 

5. When Pr£«a has watered the great earth with 
rain, then the beasts rejoice ; (they think): 'strength, 
forsooth, we shall now obtain.' 

6. When they had been watered by Pra»a, the 
plants spake in concert : ' thou hast, forsooth, pro- 
longed our life, thou hast made us all fragrant' 

7. Reverence be, O Pri«a, to thee coming, reve- 
rence to thee going; reverence to thee standing, 
and reverence, too, to thee sitting ! 

8. Reverence be to thee, O Pra#a, when thou 
breathest in (pra«ate), reverence when thou breath- 
est out ! Reverence be to thee when thou art turned 
away, reverence to thee when thou art turned 
hither : to thee, entire, reverence be here ! 

9. Of thy dear form, O Pra«a, of thy very dear 
form, of the healing power that is thine, give unto 
us, that we may live ! 

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10. Pra«a clothes the creatures, as a father his 
dear son. Pra«a, truly, is the lord of all, of all that 
breathes, and does not breathe. 

11. Pri«a is death, Pra»a is fever. The gods 
worship Pra»a. Pra»a shall place the truth-speaker 
in the highest world ! 

1 2. Pra»a is Virif (power, lustre), Pra«a is Deshfrl 
(the divinity that guides): all worship Pra»a. Prawa 
verily is sun and moon. They call Pra»a Pra^apati. 

13. Rice and barley are in-breathing and out- 
breathing. Pra»a is called a steer. In-breathing, 
forsooth, is founded upon barley ; rice is called out- 

14. Man breathes out and breathes in when within 
the womb. When thou, O Pra»a, quickenest him, 
then is he born again. 

15. They call Pra«a Matarwvan (the wind); 
Pra«a, forsooth, is called Vata (the wind). The 
past and the future, the all, verily is supported upon 

16. The holy (atharva«a) plants, the magic (angi- 
rasa) plants, the divine plants, and those produced 
by men, spring forth, when thou, O Pra»a, quick- 
enest them. 

1 7. When Pra»a has watered the great earth with 
rain, then the plants spring forth, and also every sort 
of herb. 

18. Whoever, O Pra»a, knows this regarding 
thee, and (knows) on what thou art supported, to 
him all shall offer tribute in yonder highest world. 

19. As all these creatures, O Prawa, offer thee 
tribute, so they shall offer tribute (in yonder world) 
to him who hears thee, O far-famed one ! 

20. He moves as an embryo within the gods; 

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having arrived, and being in existence, he is born 
again. Having arisen he enters with his mights the 
present and the future, as a father (goes to) his son. 

21. When as a swan he rises from the water he 
does not withdraw his one foot. If in truth he were 
to withdraw it, there would be neither to-day, nor 
to-morrow, no night and no day, never would the 
dawn appear. 

22. With eight wheels, and one felloe he moves, 
containing a thousand sounds (elements), upward in 
the east, downward in the west. With (his) half he 
produced the whole world : what is the visible sign 
of his (other) half? 

23. He who rules over this (all) derived from 
every source, and over everything that moves — • 
reverence be to thee, O Pra#a, that wicidest a swift 
bow against others (the enemies) ! 

24. May Pri«a, who rules over this (all) derived 
from every source, and over everything that moves, 
(may he) unwearied, strong through the brahma, 
adhere to me ! 

25. Erect he watches in those that sleep, nor does 
he lie down across. No one has heard of his sleep- 
ing in those that sleep. 

26. O Pra»a, be not turned away from me, thou 
shalt not be other than myself! As the embryo of 
the waters (fire), thee, O Pri«a, do bind to me, that 
I may live. 

IX, 2. Prayer to Kama (love), personified as 
a primordial power. 

1. To the bull that slays the enemy, to Kama, do 
I render tribute with ghee, oblation, and (sacrificial) 

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melted butter. Do thou, since thou hast been ex- 
tolled, hurl down my enemies by thy great might ! 

2. The evil dream which is offensive to my mind 
and eye, which harasses and does not please me, 
that (dream) do I let loose upon my enemy. 
Having praised Kama may I prevail! 

3. Evil dreams, O Kama, and misfortune, O Kama, 
childlessness, ill-health, and trouble, do thou, a strong 
lord, let loose upon him that designs evil against us ! 

4. Drive them away, O Kama, thrust them away, 

Kama; may they that are my enemies fall into 
trouble ! When they have been driven into the 
nethermost darkness, do thou, O Agni, burn up 
their dwelling-places! 

5. That milch-cow, O Kama, whom the sages 
call Va£ Vii-af (ruling, or resplendent speech), is 
said to be thy daughter; by her drive away my 
enemies ; breath, cattle, and life shall give them 
a wide birth ! 

6. With the strength of Kama, Indra, king 
Varu»a, and Vish«u, with the impelling force (savena) 
of Savitar, with the priestly power of Agni, do 

1 drive forth the enemies, as a skilled steersman 
a boat. 

7. My sturdy guardian, strong Kama, shall pro- 
cure for me full freedom from enmity! May the 
gods collectively be my refuge, may all the gods 
respond to this, my invocation ! 

8. Taking pleasure in this (sacrificial) melted 
butter, and ghee, do ye, (O gods), of whom Kama 
is the highest, be joyful in this place, procuring for 
me full freedom from enmity ! 

9. O Indra and Agni, and Kama, having formed 
an alliance, do ye hurl down my enemies; when 

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they have fallen into the nethermost darkness, do 
thou, O Agni, burn up after them their dwelling- 
places ! 

10. Slay thou, O Kama, those that are my ene- 
mies, hurl them down into blind darkness. Devoid 
of vigour, without sap let them all be ; they shall 
not live a single day ! 

ii. Kama has slain those that are my enemies, 
a broad space has he furnished me to thrive in. 
May the four directions of space bow down to me, 
and the six broad (regions) carry ghee to me ! 

12. They (the enemies) shall float down like a 
boat cut loose from its moorings ! There is no 
returning again for those who have been struck by 
our missiles. 

13. Agni is a defence, Indra a defence, Soma a 
defence. May the gods, who by their defence ward 
off (the enemy), ward him off! 

14. With his men reduced, driven out, the hated 
(enemy) shall go, shunned by his own friends ! And 
down upon the earth do the lightnings alight ; may 
the strong god crush your enemies ! 

15. This mighty lightning supports both move- 
able and immoveable things, as well as all thunders. 
May the rising sun by his resources and his majesty 
hurl down my enemies, he the mighty one ! 

16. With that triple-armoured powerful covering 
of thine, O Kama, with the charm that has been 
made into an invulnerate armour spread (over thee), 
with that do thou drive away those who are my 
enemies; may breath, cattle, and life give them a 
wide berth ! 

17. With the weapon with which the god drove 
forth the Asuras, with which Indra led the Dasyus 

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to the nethermost darkness, with that do thou, 
O Kama, drive forth far away from this world those 
who are my enemies ! 

1 8. As the gods drove forth the Asuras, as Indra 
forced the demons into the nethermost darkness, 
thus do thou, O Kama, drive forth far away from 
this world those who are my enemies ! 

19. Kama was born at first ; him neither the gods, 
nor the Fathers, nor men have equalled. To these 
art thou superior, and ever great; to thee, O Kama, 
do I verily offer reverence. 

20. As great as are the heavens and earth in 
extent, as far as the waters have swept, as far as 
fire; to these art thou superior, &c. 

21. Great as are the directions (of space) and the 
intermediate direction on either side, great as are 
the regions and the vistas of the sky ; to these art 
thou superior, &c. 

22. As many bees, bats, kururu-worms, as many 
vaghas and tree-serpents as there are ; to these art 
thou superior, &c. 

23. Superior art thou to all that winks (lives), 
superior to all that stands still (is not alive), superior 
to the ocean art thou, O Kama, Manyu ! To these 
art thou superior, &c. 

24. Not, surely, does the wind equal Kama, not 
the fire, not the sun, and not the moon. To these 
art thou superior, &c. 

25. With those auspicious and gracious forms of 
thine, O Kama, through which what thou wilst 
becometh real, with these do thou enter into us, and 
elsewhere send the evil thoughts ! 

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XIX, 53. Prayer to Kala (time), personified as 
a primordial power. 

1. Time, the steed, runs with seven reins (rays), 
thousand-eyed, ageless, rich in seed. The seers, 
thinking holy thoughts, mount him, all the beings 
(worlds) are his wheels. 

2. With seven wheels does this Time ride, seven 
naves has he, immortality is his axle. He carries 
hither all these beings (worlds). Time, the first 
god, now hastens onward. 

3. A full jar has been placed upon Time ; him, 
verily, we see existing in many forms. He carries 
away all these beings (worlds) ; they call him Time 
in the highest heaven. 

4. He surely did bring hither all the beings 
(worlds), he surely did encompass all the beings 
(worlds). Being their father, he became their son ; 
there is, verily, no other force, higher than he. 

5. Time begot yonder heaven, Time also (begot) 
these earths. That which was, and that which shall 
be, urged forth by Time, spreads out. 

6. Time created the earth, in Time the sun burns. 
In Time are all beings, in Time the eye looks 

7. In Time mind is fixed, in Time breath (is 
fixed), in Time names (are fixed) ; when Time has 
arrived all these creatures rejoice. 

8. In Time tapas (creative fervour) is fixed ; in 
Time the highest (being is fixed) ; in Time brahma 
(spiritual exaltation) is fixed; Time is the lord of 
everything, he was the father of Pra^apati. 

9. By him this (universe) was urged forth, by him 

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it was begotten, and upon him this (universe) was 
founded. Time, truly, having become the brahma 
(spiritual exaltation), supports ParameshMin (the 
highest lord). 

10. Time created the creatures (pra^a^), and Time 
in the beginning (created) the lord of creatures 
(Pra^apati); the self-existing Kasyapa and the tapas 
(creative fervour) from Time were born. 

XIX, 54. Prayer to Kala (time), personified as 
a primordial power. 

1. From Time the waters did arise, from Time 
the brahma (spiritual exaltation), the tapas (creative 
fervour), the regions (of space did arise). Through 
Time the sun rises, in Time he goes down again. 

2. Through Time the wind blows, through Time 
(exists) the great earth ; the great sky is fixed in 
Time. In Time the son (Pntfapati) begot of yore 
that which was, and that which shall be. 

3. From Time the Riks arose, the Ya^us was 
born from Time ; Time put forth the sacrifice, the 
imperishable share of the gods. 

4. Upon Time the Gandharvas and Apsarases 
are founded, upon Time the worlds (are founded), 
in Time this Angiras and Atharvan rule over the 

5. Having conquered this world and the highest 
world, and the holy (pure) worlds (and) their holy 
divisions ; having by means of the brahma (spiritual 
exaltation) conquered all the worlds, Time, the 
highest God, forsooth, hastens onward. 

I>] Q 

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XI, 7. Apotheosis of the ui^ish/a, the leavings 
of the sacrifice. 

1. In the u£>£^ish/a are deposited name (quality) 
and form, in the uii^ish/a the world is deposited. 
Within the u£i&sh/a Indra and Agni, and the all 
are deposited. 

2. In the u£Mish/a heaven and earth, and all 
beings, are deposited ; in the u>^Mish/a are deposited 
the waters, the ocean, the moon, and the wind. 

3. In the u&&&ish/a are both being and non-being, 
death, strength (food), and Pra^apati. The (creatures) 
of the world are founded upon the uiMish/a ; (also) 
that which is confined and that which is free, and the 
grace in me. 

4. He who fastens what is firm, the strong, the 
leader, the brahma, the ten creators of the all, the 
divinities, are fixed on all sides to the u£Mish/!a. as 
the (spokes of the) wheel to the nave. 

5. Rik, Saman, and Ya^us, the singing of the 
samans, their introductions, and the stotras are in 
the ukkhishta. The sound ' him ' is in the ukkh\s\ifa, 
and the modulations and the music of the saman. 
That is in me. 

6. The prayer to Indra and Agni (aindragnam), 
the call to the soma, as it is being purified (pava- 
manam), the mahanamnt- verses, the singing of the 
mahavrata, (these) divisions of the service are in the 
uii^ish/a, as the embryo in the mother. 

7. The ceremony of the consecration of the king 
(ra^asuya), the va^apeya, the agnish/oma, and the 
cattle-sacrifice belonging to it, the arka and the 
horse-sacrifice, and the most delightful (sacrifice) for 
which fresh barhis is strewn, are in the uii^ish/a. 

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8. The preparation of the sacred fire (agnya- 
dheyam), the consecration for the soma-sacrifice 
(dlksha), the sacrifice by which (special) wishes are 
fulfilled, together with the metres, the sacrifices that 
have passed out, and the extended sacrifices (satra), 
are founded upon the uiMish/a. 

9. The agnihotra, faith, the call vasha/, vows and 
asceticism, sacrificial rewards, what is sacrificed (to 
the gods) and given (to the priests) are contained in 
the uiMish/a. 

10. The (soma-sacrifice) that lasts one night 
(ekaritra), and that which lasts two nights (dviratra), 
the (condensed soma-sacrifice called) sadya^krt, and 
(that which is called) prakri, the (songs called) ukthya, 
are woven and deposited in the u^^ish/a; (also 
the parts) of the sacrifice subtle through (higher) 

11. The soma-sacrifice that lasts four nights 
(£aturatra), five nights (pawiaratra), six nights 
(sha</ratra), and along (with them) those that last 
double the time ; the sixteenfold stotra (sho</arin), 
and the soma-sacrifice that lasts seven nights 
(saptaratra), all the sacrifices which were founded 
upon immortality (amma), were begotten of the 

12. The pratihara-passages (in the saman-songs), 
and their final syllables, the (soma-sacrifices called) 
virvagit and abhi^it, the soma-sacrifice that ends 
with the day (sahna), and that which lasts into 
the next day (atiratra), are in the ui^ish/a — the 
soma-sacrifice also that lasts twelve days. That is 
in me. 

13. Liberality, accomplishment, possession, the 
call svadha, nurture, immortality (amrz'ta), and might, 

Q 2 

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all inner desires are satisfied according to wish in 
the u/&£j&ish/a. 

1 4. The nine earths, oceans, heavens, are founded 
upon the uiMish/a. The sun shines in the u-£i^ish/a, 
and day and night also. That is in me. 

1 5. The (soma-sacrifice called) upahavya, the offer- 
ing on the middle day of a sacrifice lasting a year 
(vishuvant), and the sacrifices that are secretly pre- 
sented, U^i^ish/a, the sustainer of the universe, the 
father of the generator (Pra^apati), supports. 

16. UiMish/a, the father of the generator, the 
grandson of the spirit (asu), the primal ancestor 
(grandfather), the ruler of the universe, the lusty 
bull dwells upon the earth. 

17. Order (ma), truth (satya), creative fervour 
(tapas), sovereignty, asceticism, law and works ; 
past, future, strength, and prosperity, are in the 
u^/zish/a — force in force. 

18. Success, might, plans, dominion, sovereignty, 
the six broad (regions), the year, libation (i<&), the 
orders to the priests (praisha), the draughts of soma 
(graha), oblations (are founded) upon the u/v^ish/a. 

19. The (liturgies called) ^aturhotara^, the aprl- 
hymns, the triennial sacrifices, the (formulas called) 
nivid, the sacrifices, the priestly functions, the cattle- 
sacrifice and the soma-oblations connected with it, 
are in the u^Wish/a. 

20. The half-months and months, the divisions 
of the year together with the seasons, the resounding 
waters, thunder, the great Vedic canon (.sruti) are in 
the u^Mish/a. 

21. Pebbles, sand, stones, herbs, plants, grass, 
clouds, lightning, rain, are attached to, and are 
founded upon the u^i^ish/a. 

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22. Success, attainment, accomplishment, control, 
greatness, prosperity, supreme attainment, and well- 
being rest upon, rest in, have been deposited in the 

23. Whatever breathes with breath, and sees with 
sight, all gods in the heavens, founded upon heaven, 
were born of the u^Mish/a. 

24. The riks and the samans, the metres, the 
ancient legends (purawam) together with the ya/us, 
all gods in the heavens, founded upon heaven, were 
born of the u^/mh/a. 

25. In-breathing and out-breathing, sight, hearing, 
imperishableness and perishableness, all gods in the 
heavens, founded upon heaven, were born of the 

26. Joys, pleasures, delights, jubilation and merri- 
ment, all gods in the heavens, founded upon heaven, 
were born of the u^^ish/a. 

27. The gods, the (deceased) Fathers, men, 
Gandharvas and Apsaras, all gods in the heavens, 
founded upon heaven, were born of the u^Mish/a. 

IX, 1. Hymn to the honey-lash of the A^vins. 

1. From heaven, from earth, from the atmosphere, 
from the sea, from the fire, and from the wind, 
the honey-lash hath verily sprung. This, clothed in 
amr/ta (ambrosia), all the creatures revering, acclaim 
in their hearts. 

2. Great sap of all forms (colours) it hath — they 
call thee moreover the seed of the ocean. Where 
the honey-lash comes bestowing gifts, there life's 
breath, and there immortality has setded down. 

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3. Men severally, contemplating it profoundly, 
behold its action upon the earth : from the fire and 
from the wind the honey-lash hath verily sprung, the 
strong child of the Maruts. 

4. Mother of the Adityas, daughter of the Vasus, 
breath of life of created beings, nave of immortality, 
the honey-lash, golden-coloured, dripping ghee, as 
a great embryo, moves among mortals. 

5. The gods begot the lash of honey, from it 
came an embryo having all forms (colours). This, as 
soon as born, (while yet) young its mother nourishes; 
this, as soon as born, surveys all the worlds. 

6. Who knows it and who perceives it, the inex- 
haustible, soma-holding cup that has come from the 
heart of it (the honey-lash) ? 'Tis the wise priest : 
he shall derive inspiration from it ! 

7. He knows them, and he perceives them, the 
inexhaustible breasts of it (the honey-lash), that yield 
a thousand streams. Nourishment they pour out 
without recalcitration. 

8. The great (cow) that loudly gives forth the 
sound ' him,' that bestows strength, and goes with 
loud shouts to the holy act, bellowing with lust for 
the three (male) gharmas (fires), she lows, and drips 
with (streams) of milk. 

9. When the waters, the mighty bulls, self-sove- 
reign, wait upon (the cow), swollen with milk, (then) 
they, the waters, pour nourishment (upon her), and 
cause her to pour nourishment at will for him that 
knoweth this. 

10. The thunder is thy voice, O Pra^apati ; as 
a bull thou hurlest thy fire upon the earth. From 
the fire, and from the wind the honey-lash hath 
verily sprung, the strong child of the Maruts. 

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1 1. As the soma at the morning-pressure is dear 
to the A^vins, thus in my own person, O A.svins, 
lustre shall be sustained! 

1 2. As the soma at the second (mid-day) pressure 
is dear to Indra and Agni, thus in my own person, 
O Indra and Agni, lustre shall be sustained ! 

13. As the soma at the third pressure (evening) 
is dear to the ^zbhus, thus in my own person, 
O /?*bhus, lustre shall be sustained ! 

14. May I beget honey for myself; may I obtain 
honey for myself! Bringing milk, O Agni, I have 
come : endow me with lustre I 

15. Endow me, O Agni, with lustre, endow me 
with offspring and with life! May the gods take 
note of this (prayer) of mine; may Indra together 
with the Jtistus (take note of it) ! 

16. As bees carry together honey upon honey, 
thus in my own person, O Asvins, lustre shall be 
sustained ! 

1 7. As the bees pile this honey upon honey, thus 
in my own person, O Asvins, lustre, brilliance, 
strength, and force shall be sustained! 

18. The honey that is in the mountains, in the 
heights ; in the cows, and in the horses ; the honey 
which is in the sura (brandy) as it is being poured 
out, that shall be in me ! 

19. O A.rvins, lords of brightness, anoint me 
with the honey of the bee, that I may speak forceful 
speech among men ! 

20. The thunder is thy speech, O Pra^apati ; as 
a bull thou hurlest thy fire upon earth and heaven. 
All animals live upon it (the earth), and she with it 
(Pra^apati's fire) fills nourishment and food. 

21. The earth is the staff, the atmosphere the 

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embryo, the heaven the whip (itself?), the lightning 
the whip-cord ; of gold is the tip (of the whip ?). 

22. He that knoweth the seven honies of the whip 
becomes rich in honey ; (to wit), the Brahma«a, the 
king, the cow, the ox, rice, barley, and honey as the 

23. Rich in honey becomes he, rich in honey 
become his appurtenances, worlds rich in honey does 
he win, he that knoweth thus. 

24. When in a bright sky it thunders, then Pra^-a- 
pati manifests himself to (his) creatures (pra^a^). 
Therefore do I stand with the sacred cord suspended 
from the right shoulder (pra&nopavita), saying, 
' O Pra^apati, watch over me ! ' The creatures 
(pra^a^) watch over him, Pra^apati watches over 
him, that knoweth thus. 

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I, 2. Commentary to page 8. 

The ritual application of this hymn is a twofold one. It is 
employed as a medical charm and, again, as a battle-charm, 
owing to the belief that certain diseases are inflicted upon 
mortals by the arrows of Paiganya, a belief which intro- 
duces into the context a large number of words redolent of 
battle, as well as some designations of diseases. Cf. with 
this the double treatment, e.g., of AV. I, 12. As a battle- 
charm the present hymn figures in Kaor. 14, 7 in a lengthy 
list (gaxa) of hymns called samgramikaxi (or apara^itagawa) ; 
this list is employed in connection with warlike practices in 
the subsequent Sutras (14, 8-13, and more especially Sutra 
12). Still more secondarily, the entire list (apara^ita) is 
employed in 139, 7, along with certain other ganas, 
at the ceremonies connected with the beginning of the study 
of the Veda (upakarma) 1 . Cf. also the .Santikalpa 17 
and 18*. 

In its medicinal construction the hymn is a charm against 
diarrhoea, being followed by AV. 1 , 3, a charm against dis- 
eases of the opposite character, constipation and retention of 
urine. It is handled in this sense at Kauj. 25, 6-9, along 
with AV. II, 3, in a practice which, according to Darila, is 
directed against diarrhoea (atisara) ; Kejava and Sayawa 
construe it more broadly as against fever, diarrhoea, exces- 

' See the introduction to VI, 97. 

* Quoted erroneously by Siya«a as the Nakshatrakalpa. 

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sive urine, and even flow of blood, i.e. against excessive or 
unnatural flows from the body in general. The practices 
are as follows : 25, 6. ' While reciting the two hymns I, a 
and II, 3 the (practising priest) ties the head of a stalk of 
muw^a-reed (saccharum munja) with a cord (made from the 
same plant, as an amulet, upon the patient *). 7. Having 
ground up a natural lump of earth, and earth from an 
ant-mound 2 , he gives (a solution of this to the patient) 
to drink. 8. He smears him with ghee. 9. He blows 
upon (the rectum of the patient 3 ).' 

The hymn has been translated and analysed by Weber, 
Ind. Stud. IV, pp. 394-5 ; and the present writer, in ' Seven 
Hymns of the Atharva-veda,' Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 
pp. 467-9. Cf. also Florenz in Bezzenberger's Beitrage, 
XIV, pp. 178 ff. ; and, as a specimen of an interpretation 
which assumes that no Vedic passage has previously been 
correctly understood, Regnaud, L'Atharva-V&ia et la 
m^thode d'interpr&ation de M. Bloomneld, pp. 8-10. 

Stanza 1. 
a. Par^anya is the god of rain (hence his epithet bhflri- 
dhayas), and his outpourings upon the earth seem to be 
compared with a shower of arrows ; hence in RV. VI, 75, 
15 the arrow is said to come from the semen of Par^anya 
(par^anyaretasa fshvai). Possibly, however, the arrow is 
Paiyanya's child, because arrow-reeds (yara) grow in conse- 
quence of the rain. It seems further that the discharges 
from the body are compared with Par^anya's rain, and are 
therefore under his control ; cf. I, 3, 1 below. Hence the 

1 The passage in brackets is derived from the Commentaries. 

* For the role of the ant-mound, see the note on II, 3, 4, and 
more especially VI, 100. 

* So according to Darila, apane dhamati ; Kerava and Sayawa, 
in accordance with their more liberal construction, cause the blow- 
ing to be performed upon the particular opening in the body from 
which the excessive discharge flows (SSyawa, apanajirnana'</rvrai»a- 
mukhanam dhamanam). For apana, a euphemism for 'rectum,' 
see Kaurika, Introduction, p. lv, bottom. 

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I, 3. COMMENTARY. 235 

double construction of this hymn as a battle-charm, and as 
a remedy against excessive discharges. — For the knowledge 
which imparts power and control, cf. VII, 12, 2 ; 76, 5, and 
elsewhere. Also .Sat. Br. IX, 1, 1, 17, 'no damage comes 
from him who has been recognised and addressed.' 

b. The earth as mother of the plants yields the shafts 
for the arrows. 

Stanza 2. 

a. Weber's translation ' Bogenschnur ! schlinge dich um 
uns,' is not in accordance with the quotable uses of the 
verb pari nam. Sayana, quite correctly, asman parihWtya 
. . . mkm vihaya anyatra sa.ra.rn preraya. Cf. II, 13, 4 b ; 
Tait. S. IV, 6, 6, 4. 

c. Sayawa, who throughout this hymn identifies Par^a- 
nya and Indra (cf. Biihler, Orient und Occident, I, p. 229 ; 
Bergaigne, III, p. 25), refers v\dhh to Indra. But it refers 
to the bowstring; cf. vidd ayudha, RV. I, 39, 2; and 
similarly, RV. VI, 47, 26. 

Stanza 8. 

a. Literally, ' when the cows embracing the tree.' The 
singular or plural of the stem go for ' sinew,' and some word 
for tree in the sense of *bow,' occur also RV. VI, 47, 26 ; 
75,11; X, 27,22. 

b. Sayawa, anusphuram pratisphurawaw, sphur satnka- 
lane . . . ar£anti . . . prerayanti. 

Stanza 4. 

d. Cf. with this the tying of the amulet in the practices 
of the Sutra. Sayawa, muw^eshika-nirmita ra.ggmA. Cf. 
the introduction to I, 12. 

I, 3. Commentary to page 10. 

The Kaurika prescribes this hymn against retention of 
urine and constipation ; the stanzas themselves seem to refer 
to difficulties in micturation only, and very possibly, the 
Sutra adds the other feature. The hymn is the pendant 

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to I, 2, which aims to obviate the opposite difficulties. 
The practices in Kaur. 25, 10-19 are as follows: 10. 
'While reciting AV. 1, 3 (the practitioner) ties on (as an 
amulet upon the patient) a substance promoting mictura- 
tion 1 . 11. He gives him to drink a solution of earth 
from a molehill, of putika (a stinking plant, guilandina 
bonduc), of pulverised, dried pramanda 2 , each mixed with 
(wood-) shavings 3 . 1 2. While reciting the last two stanzas 
of the hymn, he gives him an enema. 13. He makes him 
take a ride in a vehicle. 14. He shoots off an arrow. 15. 
He opens the urethra. 16. He probes the bladder*. 17. 
Having poured twenty-one barley-grains with water into 
a milk-pail, placing an axe behind (the patient), he pours 
the water from the grain 5 (upon the suffering part). 18. 
He gives him to drink a decoction of ala *, lotus-root, and 
ula 7 . 1 9. The same treatment is prescribed for one suffer- 
ing from constipation.' The performances are in part 
therapeutic, in part symbolic (the shooting of the arrow). 
Cf. Wise, Hindu System of Medicine, pp. 364 ff. 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. IV, 
pp. 395-6. Cf. also Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel V^dique, 
p. 130. 

Stanza 1. 

Cf. I, 2, 1 above. The expression jatavr/sh«ya refers 
to the abundant semen (rain) of Par^anya ; cf. especially 

1 According to the commentators, haritakf, ' gall-nut,' and kar- 
pura, ' camphor,' are such substances. 

2 Darila, at Kaur. 8, 1 7, glosses this with induka. 

3 The sense and the construction of the long compound in this 
Sutra are not altogether clear. Cf. Kaurika, Introduction, p. lxii ff. 

* According to Sayana, in the introduction, he probes the 
bladder with a copper instrument. So also Kcrava. 

* The text, phalato: this seems to refer to the twenty-one 

* ' Apparently a kind of creeper or weed in grain-fields.' Darila, 
godhumavyadhM ; Ke*ava, yavagodhumavallf. See Kaurika, Intro- 
duction, p. xlvii. 

7 Darila, kasturik&raka, ' musk ; ' Kcrava, pavikd. 

Digitized by 


I, 7. COMMENTARY. 237 

RV. VI, 75, 15. Hence the repetition of the same expres- 
sion with four other gods is secondary and mechanical. 
The medicine man wants to make sure that he does not 
neglect and offend. Sayawa justifies the mention of Mitra 
and Varuwa by a reference to Tait. S. II, 4, 10, 2 ; of 
Sandra by saying, asya oshadhfratvat .rarasya pitr/tvena 
vyapadeja/; ; and of Surya by relying again upon Tait. S. 
II, 4, 10, 2. 

Stanza 6. 

a. Sayawa explains gavtnyor by, antrebhyo vinirgatasya 
mutrasya mutraxayapraptisadhane parjvadvayasthe ni<fyau 
gavinyau ity u£yate. The urethra and the ureter? Cf. 
the dual gavinyau in Tait. S. Ill, 3, 10, 1 ; and gavlnike, 
AV.I, 11,5; IX, 8, 7. 

b. The majority of the MSS. read saw/mitam ; but one 
of Shankar Pandit's MSS. has samsrutam. For the root 
.mi, ' flow/ see Bloomfield and Spieker, Proc. Amer. Or. Soc., 
May, 1886 (Journal, vol. xiii, p. cxx). For years I have 
had sawuritam written as a possible emendation on the 
margin of my copy of the text, and now Sayawa persis- 
tently (three times) comments upon the same reading. 

Stanza 7. 

b. The MSS. are divided between the readings vartram 
and vartam. Saya»a comments upon the latter, vartam 
vartate pravahati £alam atre»ti varto margaA, and some of 
the MSS. of Kaur. 25, 16, a Sutra coined with evident 
reference to this stanza (vartiw bibhetti, see the translation 
above), also read vartam. Darila comments, vartam mu- 
trabilam. I do not feel certain that this is not the correct 
word for the text : ' like the outlet of a lake.' For vartra, 
see Tait. S. I, 6, 8, 1 ; Maitr. S. I, 4, 10. 

I, 7. Commentary to page 64. 

This and the following hymn are directed chiefly against 
the species of beings called yatudhana, a term which oscil- 
lates between the meaning ' human sorcerer ' and ' hostile 

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demon.' The entire tradition, Sutras and Commentaries, 
give the word the latter bent, but we can see from RV. 
V, 1 2, 2 ; VII, 104, 15, 16, that men might practise yatil, 
and, therefore, be yatudhana. Both hymns are catalogued 
in a series (gana) called £atana, ' driving away (demons, &c.),' 
in Kaux. 8, 25, and the Ga»amala, Ath. Pari*. 32, 3 (kk- 
tanagawa) : for their employment, see Kaurika, Index B, 
under £atanani, and Santikalpa 16. With the subject- 
matter of these hymns cf. in general RV. VII, 104, and 
III, 30, 14 ff. Both hymns have been rendered by Weber, 
Indische Studien, IV, 398 ff. ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 
523 ; cf. also Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel Vedique, 
p. 131 ff. 

Stanza 1. 

Throughout this and the next hymn Sayawa takes the 
root stu in its ordinary holy sense of ' praise,' a mistake 
which leads to the most contorted renderings, and to an 
utter disregard of grammatical construction, excused by 
assuming interchanges of inflections (vibhaktivyatyaya). 
He seems to be shy to attach any sinister sense to the root, 
or to connect it in any way with evil beings. For kimtdin, 
see the note on IV, 20, 5. 

Stanza 2. 

o. tailasya in the vulgata is an emendation of the MS. 
reading taulasya (Sayawa, tulavat huyamana-dravyasya). 

d. vf lapaya, ' make howl,' obviously includes as a double 
entente the other possible sense of the word ' annihilate,' as 
causative from the root li. 

Stanzas 4, 6. 

A great deal of stress is laid in these hymns upon the 
confession of the yatudhana himself. Half the battle is 
won when their true nature is made apparent. Cf. I, 8, 4 
and the note on I, 2, 1. Hence the neat difference between 
the active pra bruhi in 5 b, said of Agni (cf. RV. X, 87, 8 
=AV. VIII, 3, 8), and the middle prabruva«a/i in 56, said 
of the yatudhana. Stanzas 5-7 are perhaps of a later 

Digitized by 


I, 9. COMMENTARY. 239 

hand, since the hymns of the first book ordinarily present 
only four stanzas ; cf. the introduction to 1, 12. 

I, 8. Commentary to page 65. 

For the employment of this hymn in the Atharvanic 
practices, and previous translations, see the introduction to 
the preceding hymn. 

Stanza 4. 

c. In order to obtain a trish/ubh line we may either 
resolve both taVws or tvam, or insert ^ahi after tvam. 

I, 9. Commentary to page 116. 

The hymn has been translated by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 
III, 456, and entitled ra^abhisheke, 'at the coronation of 
a king.' Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 163, renders it 
in the same spirit. The Kaujika, however, in its descrip- 
tion of the coronation (chapter 1 7), does not rubricate this 
hymn, but rather IV, 8 (cf. also Vait. Su. 36, 7), and the 
Gawamala, Ath. Parir. 32, 30, again only counts IV, 8 as 
the abhishekagawa (see Kauj. 17, 1 note). Weber, Ind. 
Stud. IV, 401, entitles it ' Segensspruch fur einen Fursten,' 
but this also seems to be too narrow : the Sutra, advisedly 
no doubt, employs it in practices designed to confer glory, 
lustre upon any one at all. 

At Kaur. 11, 19. 20, the hymn is employed along with 
I, 35 and V, 28 in a practice designed to make one success- 
ful (sawpatkarma), to wit : ' an amulet made of a pair of 
kr*sh«ala-berries (abrus precatorius linnaeus) x , which has 

1 Or the weight of two kmhnala in gold ? All the commentators 
explain yugmakr/'shnalam as 'gold.' Darila, raktike«ti (see Pet. 
Lex.) prasiddhabhidhina ayaw £a sauvar«amaniA ; K&rava, suvaraa- 
maniA, hiranyamanW (here, and at Kaar. 52, 20). Cf. the word 
hirawya in I, 9, 2 ; 35, 1 ; V, 28, 6. A very similar performance 
undertaken with the same three hymns is stated at Kaar. 52, 20. 
21, being a rite which bestows long life (ayushyakarma). See also 

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been steeped (in honey during certain three days, Kaiu. 7, 
1 9), is tied on. Then a mess of porridge, cooked in the milk 
of a cow with a calf of the same colour, is shaped in the 
figure of a man, enriched during twelve days with the 
dregs of ghee, and consumed with averted face l . 

Further, at Kaur. 16, 27. 28, the hymn is associated with 
a practice intended to restore the loyalty of a disaffected 
people * : the king is given to eat a porridge prepared from 
an after-growth of rice 3 , cooked in the milk of a cow with 
a calf of the same colour, upon a fire of kimpila-branches 
(crinum amaryllacee), which have grown out where they 
have been previously cut. A neat bit of symbolism : the 
milk of the cow with a calf of the same colour represents 
complete harmony ; the after-growth of rice and kampila 
represents the resumption of the sharply interrupted rela- 
tions between the king and his people. 

Once more the hymn is recited for obvious reasons at 
Kaur. 55, 17, along with a list of others at the investiture of 
the young 'twice-born' (cf. also the scholiast at 17, 31), 
and it figures in one of the two var£asyaga«as, * series of 
hymns which confer lustre,' in the Ganamail, Ath. Partr. 
32, 10 (see Kaiu. 13, 1 note). 

Stanza 2. 

The abrupt change of person in Pada c suggests the pos- 
sibility of emending asmat to asma't, ' inferior to him.' But 
cf. the same formula in st. 4 c. 

■Santikalpa 17 and 19 (quoted by Sayana erroneously as Naksha- 
trakalpa). Cf. also Tait. Br. I, 3, 6, 7. 

1 As the porridge-man drips with ghee, thus the real man shall 
live in abundance. 

8 rash/ravagamanam. Ddrila, ^anapadaA tasyS.vagamanakaram 
. . . anurigakaram. Sayaaa, ' a performance designed to restore 
a king, driven from his kingdom by an enemy.' Cf. the hymns 
III, 3 and 4. 

* The commentators state explicitly that rice which has grown 
anew upon the place, where it has previously been cut, is to be used. 
See Ddrila, Kexava, and Sayawa (lunapunarutthita^am odanam). 

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Stanza 3. 

Allusion seems to be made here to the rape of the soma 
in Indra's behalf by Agni, the heavenly eagle (jyena). 
According to our interpretation, in Contributions, Fifth 
Series, Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XVI, 1 ff., this Agni, the 
eagle, is the lightning. 

I, 10. Commentary to page ii. 

Varuwa punishes crime, especially falsehood (cf. AV. IV, 
16 ; Tait. Br. I, 7, 2, 6, &c), with his disease, the ' water- 
belly,' dropsy 1 . The performance of the Kaorika is 
purely symbolic : 25, 37. ' While reciting the hymn (the 
priest) sprinkles the patient over the head (with water) by 
means of twenty-one tufts of darbha-grass together with 
reeds taken from the thatch of a house.' The water in the 
body is supposed to be washed out by the water sprinkled 
upon it (attractio similium). 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. IV, 
403-4 ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 445 ; cf. also Bergaigne 
et Henry, Manuel Vedique, p. 133. 

Stanza 1. 

b. Weber regards visk as fern. sing. ; Whitney, in the 
Index Verborum, as nom. plur. masc. ; Saya*a, as neut. plur., 
vara varani. Varuwa and Asura are, of course, the same 

o. Weber, ' durch metn gebet von da herauss dich reis- 
send ; ' Ludwig, ' mit meinem brahma hervor mich tuend ; ' 
Saya«a, brahmawa mantrena . . . jajadanaA atyartham 
tlkshna/; . . . praptabalaA. 

Stanza 2. 

o, d. The passage is a reverberation from the legend of 
•Suna/wepa ; cf. Ait. Br. VII, 15. 

1 Varu»a is the lord of the waters (see the note on IV, 16, 3) : 
the dropsy is therefore conceived to be due to his infliction. 

[4*3 R 

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d. For tava»yam, cf. VIII, a, ao d. Ludwig suggests 
that the sufferer, being a kshatriya, is said to be the man 
of Varu*a, the king (kshatriya). Weber construes it as 
though it were an ethical dative, ' dieser lebe dir (i. e. durch 
deine gnade) hundert Herbste.' Sayawa, identically the 
same way, tava anugrahat. 

Stanza 4. 

a, b. Ludwig, rendering ' von dem grossen meere Vaij- 
vanara,' thinks that the lower regions are alluded to, since 
death overtakes him that has been seized by Varuwa. 
Sayawa over-ingeniously connects vauvanara with the 
digestive fire (g-a/tfaragni), i. e. in this connection, digestive 
disturbance. But AV. VIII, 2, 27 shows that nothing 
more is intended than the funeral fire. Cf. for the entire 
stanza, Vait. Su. 38, 1. 

I, 11. Commentary to page 99. 

The ceremonies connected with this hymn are described 
in Kauj. 33, 1 ff. They are in part intended to procure 
easy and natural parturition, but the attention of the sutra- 
kara seems to be engrossed even more by certain oracles 
which shall tell whether the woman is in danger, and 
whether or not she will give birth to a male child. As 
the practices, in spite of their unusual length, do not ex- 
hibit any very close connection with the hymn, we may 
only present the first six Sutras, as follows : 1. ' While 
reciting AV. I, 1 1, four portions of the dregs of ghee are 
poured into a water-pail, and four mu%a-reeds are plucked 
(and placed) eastward upon the head (of the pregnant 
woman '). 2. The sheaths (of the muw^a-reeds) are placed 
westward. 3. If (these reeds and stalks) should break, 
there is danger. 4. (The practitioner) washes her with 
warm water, beginning with the braid of hair to the right. 

1 Cf. the four directions mentioned in the second stanza of the 

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5. The joints of the house are loosened 1 . 6. On both 
sides of her a cord and a wagon-rope is fastened.' The 
remaining Sutras are not all of them clear ; they seem to 
be devoted wholly to oracles for finding out whether it is 
to be a boy or not. 

Practices similar to the above, in part built up upon 
mantra-materials of a similar character, are known in the 
Gr&ya-sutras and elsewhere by the name of soshyanti- 
karma; see Sat Br. XIV, 9, 4, 22 = Br*h. Ar. VI, 4, 23; 
Par. Grih. I, 16, 1 ff. ; 5ankh. Grih. I, 23 ; Gobh. Grih. II, 
7, 13 ff. ; Khad. - GnTi. II, 2, 28 ff. ; Hir. Grih. II, 2, 8 ff. ; 
Apast. Grih. VI, 14, 13 ff. 

The hymn has been treated by Roth, Ueber den Atharva- 
veda (Tubingen, 1856), pp. 15 ff. ; Weber, Indische Studien, 
IV, 404-5 ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 478. 

Stanza 1. 

a, b. The point of the first hemistich is the punning 
comparison of the birth (sffti) with the act of pressing the 
soma. This makes of it a sacrifice ; Aryaman, as the 
hotar-priest, utters the vasha/-call for Pushan who is, as 
it were, the adhvaryu-priest ; cf. Ind. Stud. X, 324. Lud- 
wig's surmise that Sushan is to be read for Pushan (cf. 
stanza 3) is untenable. The association of the two in 
matters connected with marriage (RV. X, 85, 36, 37) is 
well known 2 . For h6ta vedh&A, see Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 
III, pp. 223-4; vedha'A, however, is not derivable from 
the root vidh, but is equal to Avestan vazdanh (Geldner, 
Studien zum Avesta, p. 58). 

c. The Pada is very difficult. Roth emends freely, sisri- 
t&m nary ritapra^ato, ' (a child) begotten at the proper time 
shall detach itself, O woman!' He compares, for this use 
of sfsn'tam, V$g. S. VIII, 28, eva^yaw* dajamasyo asrat, 

1 Symbolic action calculated to loosen the foetus ; cf. in general 
AV. IX, 3. 

* The mantra quoted in Kauj. 33, 7 is also based upon the 
same hymn, RV. X, 85, 40 (the surya-sukta). 

K 2 

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where asrat is, however, to be derived from sra/«s, ' fall.' 
Weber regards nary ri'tapra^Ata as parenthetic, and com- 
bines sfsratdm with parvam, ' lass nachgeben — mog die frau 
richtig gebaut sein! — lass weichen die glieder!' Ludwig, 
' es lose sich die frau als eine richtig gebarende.' We have 
adhered closely to the text, but sfsratam as a third singular 
middle imperative is problematic, and perhaps Roth's emen- 
dation (sisrc'tam) is to be adopted. Possibly some deriva- 
tive of sraws stood in place of the word (sfsrasat, ' may 
she cause the child to fall ' ?). 

Stanza 2. 

d. The editio princeps reads \&m vyur«uvantu sfltave ; 
Shankar Pandit, following the minority of his MSS. and 
Sayawa, reads taw*, which was also proposed by Roth, 1. c, 
p. 15, and adopted by Weber, 1. c, p. 405. I have trans- 
lated taw, because the womb and not the foetus (cf. AV. 
IV, 2, 8) is opened at birth. 

Stanza 3. 

a. We shall, in all probability, never be able to unravel 
the tangle of mixed, punning notions which have given rise 
here to the &n. Key., the proper name Sushan. Ludwig is 
impressed with it so much as to endow the entire hymn 
with the title Sushan. In the first place it is a modification 
of Pushan, suggesting the future or desiderative of the root 
su, 'beget;' cf. sflshyanti, RV. V, 78, 5. Then, there is 
surely an allusion to usha'(A) vyurwvatf in RV. I, 92, 11, 
that is, sushi is dimly felt to be su + usha, ' beautiful Ushas ;' 
cf. Tait. S. IV, 7, 3, 2. Saya«a plainly and mechanically 
offers this as one of three explanations, jobhana ushaA 
susha. And again the words su 'well' and san 'obtain' 
may also have flitted before the eyes of the versifex, cf. 
susha«e in Pada c Saya«a offers two explanations in addi- 
tion to the above, susha savitri pra^anayitri devata, and 
suvam sanotl'ti susha. The Pada is catalectic, but scarcely 
stands in need of emendation ; cf. Oldenberg, Die Hymnen 
des Rigveda, pp. 34 ff. 

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b. Cf. RV. V, 78, 5 ; Ait. Br. V, 15, 4- 

o. Sashawe (Sir. Key. as sushi* in Pada a) may be a voca- 
tive from either sushawi or sushawa Sayawa, he sushawe, 
suvam sanoti praya&Mati . . . sukhaprasavakariwt devatl 

d. Still more problematic is bishkale. Sayawa explains 
it as either from bishka, an imitative word, and the root 
11 ' take ' or ' make,' or else from a combination of the roots 
vish 'permeate' and kal 'go!' According to the Sabda- 
kalpadruma, bishkala is the domestic sow (gramyarukaraA) 
called bahv-apatya, ' having abundant offspring,' on account 
of its prolificness. 

Stanza 4. 

Cf. Par. Grih. I, 16, 2; Hir. Grih. II, 3, 3. Sayawa, 
supported by some MS. authority, reads mawsena, as does 
Paraskara. Sayawa quotes from an unquotable Vedic text 
(nigamantaram)another form of this mantra, svavity(!) avapa- 
dyasva na mawseshu na snavasu na baddham asi ma^gasu. 

c. 5eValam is problematic. The scholiast to Paraskara 
renders it ' moist, slimy,' and the Petersburg lexicon's sus- 
picion that this is a purely etymological rendering based 
upon the name of the water-plant .raivala is fully borne out 
by Sayawa's statement, jevalam ^alasyoparisthitaraivalavat 
antaravayavasawbaddham. Roth, 1. c, p. 16, suggests 
kevalam, ' alone ; ' cf. for the interchange between s and k, 
Bloomneld and Spieker in the Proc. Amer. Or. Soc. for 
May, 1886 (Journ., vol. xiii, p. cxxi). 

Stanza 6. 

Cf. Tait. S. Ill, 3, 10, 1 ; AV. I, 3, 6. Sayawa, gavlnike 
yoneA pdrxvavartinyau nirgamanapratibandhike narfyau. 

Stanza 6. 

Cf. RV. V, 78, 7. 8; Sat. Br. XIV, 9, 4, aa; V%-- S. 
VIII, 28; Nirukta III, 15; Hir. Gnh. II, 3, i; Apast. 
Mantrabr. II, 11, 15; Bhar. Grih. I, 21; Baudh. Grih. 
Parirish/a II, 2. 

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I, 12. Commentary to page 7. 

The history of the interpretation of this hymn is of 
uncommon interest, because it illustrates forcibly the par- 
ticular closeness of relation between the hymns of the 
Atharvan and the practices reported in connection with 
them. Professor Weber, Indische Studien, IV, p. 405, 
translated the hymn under the caption 'Gegen hitziges 
fieber,' and, guided especially by the more immediate 
meaning of garkyvgiA, ' the product of the placenta, after- 
birth,' he thought that the hymn referred to puerperal 
fever, or the fever of a child. Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 
p. 343, surmised that the hymn was directed against inflam- 
mation, and Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 390, refers to 
it in connection with the word vata in the first stanza, 
which he would translate by ' wound ; ' he a>oo identifies 
vata with ' wound ' etymologically. The compound vi'ta- 
bhra^as in the first stanza, as he understands, means 
' suffering from wound-fever.' But Zimmer's theory that 
the word vata ever means ' wound ' has not sustained 
itself: vata is 'wind in the body;' vatikr/tan&ani (VI, 44, 
3 *) is ' destroyer of the disease which comes from wind 
(of the body) ;' cf. bata byidhi (vatavyadhi), 'diseases pro- 
duced by wind (in the body),' in Wise's Hindu System of 
Medicine, p. 250, and see Contributions, Fourth Series, 
Amer. Journ. Phil. XII, p. 427. 

In Seven Hymns of the Atharva-veda, 1. c, VII, pp. 
469 ff., I presented a full discussion of the hymn, and, 
aided by the indications of the Kaurika-sutra, showed that 
the hymn referred to lightning, which is regarded as pro- 
ductive of certain diseases mentioned in the context, to 
wit, fever (cf. the word jo^i'sha in st. a), headache, and 
cough. The pivotal word in the hymn is garkyugiA, and 
it is interesting to note why it is especially misleading. 
The first book of the Atharvan is a miscellaneous collec- 

1 Cf. the note there, at VI, 109, 3, and IX, 8, 20. 

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I, 12. COMMENTARY. 247 

tion of hymns containing for the most part, though not 
unfailingly, four stanzas each (cf. AV. XIX, 23, 1 ; Atharva- 
nukrama«i I, I, 13; Ath. ParLr. 48, 9 and 10; Gop. Br. I, 
1,8; Ind. Stud IV, 433 ; XVII, 178). There is no definite 
order in the arrangement of the hymns within the book, 
but there appears a marked tendency to group together 
two or even three having the same or a similar subject. 
This concerns especially hymns 1 1-13. The eleventh is 
a charm for easy delivery in childbed. The last three 
stanzas end with the refrain, ava ^arayu padyatam, ' may 
the placenta come down ; ' in addition to this the word 
^arayu occurs thrice more in the course of the last three 
verses. Now, there can be no doubt that the redactor 
placed our hymn (I, 12) after I, 11 simply because it begins 
with the word g arayu^aA l . This does not argue that he 
misunderstood the true nature of the hymn ; on the con- 
trary it itr-^uite clear that he recognised its association 
with lightning, because he has placed after it I, 13, a hymn 
which is evidently a prayer to lightning (namas te vidyiite, 
&c). He placed I, 1 2 after I, 1 1 simply because the word 
/arayu^aA offered as good a point of linkage as any other 
at hand, the fundamental difference in its value notwith- 
standing. But it is natural that European readers should 
have seized upon this erroneous suggestion, so as to be 
influenced by it in deciding the purpose of the hymn. 

The native treatment of the hymn exhibits considerable 
divergence, owing to its duplex character. It is a hymn 
to lightning ; and, on the other hand, the diseases attributed 
to lightning present even more salient and practical points, 
destined to be prominent in its designation and ritual 
application. So the Anukramaw? describes it as a yaksh- 
manlranaw* sflktam, 'a hymn which cures consumption' 
(cf. the word kasas ' from cough ' in st. 3) ; in the Gawa- 
mala, Ath. Pari*. 32, 7, it is one of the takmanlranagawa, 

1 Note the words stlnaA and stanayitniir respectively, in VII, 10 
and VII, 11, as the probable, and even more inane reason for the 
juxtaposition of the two hymns in the redaction. 

Digitized by 



'a group of hymns designed to cure takman, fever' (cf. 
Kaus. 26, 1, note). Kaurika employs it twice, presenting 
its two main characteristics. In 38, 1-7 it is used in a 
charm against thunderstorms, preceding the employment 
in a similar charm of AV. I, 13 and VII, 11, both of which 
are palpably hymns addressed to lightning. But in 26, 
1-9 it is employed further in a performance which is dis- 
tinctly described by Darila as a jirorogabhaisha^yaw, « cure 
for headache ' (cf. muȣa jfirshaktya" in st. 3 a), and by 
Kejava as,atikase jirshaktijirovedanayaw ka karmawi, 'rites 
against excessive cough and pains in the head.' 

The latter practice is as follows : 1. ' While reciting AV. 
I, 12 (the priest) lets (the patient) drink of fat 1 , honey, 
ghee, and sesame-oil. 2. (The patient), his head covered 
with a turban made of munga-grass 2 (saccharum munja 
roxburgiense), goes along carrying in his left hand parched 
grain 3 in a sieve, from which he scatters it with his left 
hand. 3. (The patient then goes on, carrying) in his left 
hand the sieve and the turban, in his right hand a bow- 
string and an axe. 4. The (patient goes) in front of the 
priest who gives the orders 4 . 5. On the spot where the 
disease seizes upon him he puts down the sieve and 
the turban. 6. And (also) the bowstring. 7. He returns 
home s . 8. (The patient) puts ghee up his nose. 9. (The 
priest) while supporting the patient's head with a staff (of 
bamboo) having five knots mutters (the hymn).' The 
sense of these practices, obscure though they are in many 

1 Ke-rava, mawsamedaA. 

* Kaus. maun^-a-pra^na ; Darila, prama ushnfsham; Ketava, 
mau^a-induka (cf. indva. in the Pet. Lex., and especially in Kaitt. 
26, 30). 

3 Kaur. pulyini ; Kex. la^an. Symbolic scattering of the fever. 

4 Kexava here is the least obscure of the commentators, vyS- 
dhitam agre krrtvS. 

* The text of the Stitra is very obscure. One MS. of the text 
reads ivra^nam ; the rest, avraj-atam. Darila has avra^ara twice 
(see notes 1 and 10 on p. 71 of the edition); this may be for the 
participle ivra^an, and has served as the basis of the translation. 

Digitized by 


I, 12. COMMENTARY. 249 

details, is clearly a symbolic act of drawing the disease 
out of the head, and depositing it where it is supposed to 
have come from ; cf. the introduction to VI, 26. One is 
tempted, at first sight, to accuse the medicine man of the 
banalite of employing mu^a-grass simply because it puns 
with mu«£a, 'release,' and this would be no more than 
Atharvanesque. Possibly, however, there is a little more 
contained in the practice. In .Sat. Br. VI, 3, 1, 26 we have 
the following legend : ' Agni went away from the gods, he 
entered the muxjga-grass. Therefore that is hollow, and 
for that very reason it is as it were disfigured by smoke. 
The mu«ga is the womb here of Agni.' In that case we 
have here the usual attractio similium. The mu%a is 
employed in drawing off the effect of lightning, because 
it is the natural home of fire (lightning). Cf. also Sat. Br. 
VI, 6, 1, 23. 

Uncanny is the rite which the Kaurika prescribes in 
connection with the hymn at 38, 1-7. It is directed against 
stormy weather, durdina, the relation of which to lightning, of 
itself obvious, is stated explicitly in the Harivawua 9609, 
tumula/w durdinaw £a>*sid vidyutstanayitnumat, 'and there 
arose a crashing storm accompanied by lightning and 
thunder.' The passage of the Sutra may be translated as 
follows : 1. ' When one goes against a storm he faces it l 
while reciting AV. I, 12. 2. Stanza by stanza (he faces 
the storm hurling) jets of water* (against it). 3. (And he 
faces it) with a sword, a firebrand, and a club 3 . 4. (And 
he faces it) naked while wiping his forehead. 5. Into 
a coal-pan which he has removed outside (of the house) 
he makes an oblation of (the leaves of) the horse-radish 

1 Kerava. durdinam abhimukham upatishMate. 

* udavagraU: the Brahmaaas have innumerable times the ex- 
pression vagro va apaA, e.g. -Sat. Br. VII, 2, 1, 17. 

' kishkuru (with variants) is unknown elsewhere, but Kerava in 
glossing it with laku/a=lagu</a is clearly well-informed. The word 
is doubtless identical with kishku, which the scholiast at Pa#£. Br. 
VI, 5, 12 glosses with dandn. 

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tree 1 and pebbles. 6. He puts on (fagots of) the kera* 
and arka (calotropis gigantea) plants. 7. Beaten by the 
rain, with dishevelled hair 3 , going thrice around a pit he 
quickly buries into it the arka-wood.' The symbolism of 
this performance is not altogether transparent ; the use 
of the arka is doubtless founded upon a double entente : 
arka is ' flash of lightning,' and its cessation is coaxed by 
burying the arka-wood in the pit. 

Stanza L 

a. For ^arayu-^a, ' born of the (cloud-)womb,' cf. abhra-^a 
in st 3, and such expressions as vidyun meghasakha, ' the 
lightning whose companion is the cloud,' in the Suparwa- 
khyana 3, 2. The more literal meaning of the word is 
' placenta-born,' an idea thoroughly Indie. Cf. Sat. Br. 
VI, 5» 3, 5, trivrid dhi pra^atiA pita mata putro*tho garbha 
ulbatn ^arayu. Cf. also VI, 6, 1, 24. Professor Kern some 
years ago was good enough to impart to me his own some- 
what different view : ' As to ^arayu^-a-, I think that is 
what the Norse skalds called a kenning, an oratorical peri- 
phrasis of vatsa, and this is a veiled expression for light- 
ning ; cf. apam vatsa as denoting the fire of lightning, and 
the .srivatsa, the lightning figure on the breast of Vishmi.' 
(Letter of May io, 1887.)— For the epithet vr&han as 
applied to lightning see now my article on jushma, Con- 
tributions, Sixth Series, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Mor- 
genlandischen Gesellschaft, XLVIII, 565 ff. The entire 
passage has a good parallel in RV. IX, 74, 3, fee y6 
vrishtir ita usriyo vr/sha apam neta" yd itautir ngmfyaA, 
where Soma is obviously compared with lightning. 

b. The edition reads v^tabhra^a(^), but the text is not 
absolutely certain, as S4ya«a comments upon vatavra^aA *. 

1 Darila, figrupatr&ni. 

* Darila, keraparm.ti yd sur&sh/re puw</arike«ti; Kerava, pa/fer- 

* praiilomakarshitas is explained in the light of kereshu karshita 
in the Mr*MAaka/ika 16, 25. 

4 Saya»a refers the entire stanza to aditya, ' the sun.' 

Digitized by 


I, 12. COMMENTARY. 25 1 

Both readings are worthless ; I have substituted in my 
article on the Seven Hymns, vata-abhra-g-aX It is 
refreshing to see for once an emendation rendered abso- 
lutely certain by a later discovery. The entire Pida 
presents the stereotyped four component parts of a storm, 
vAta, abhra, stanayitnu, and vr*sh/i ; in this way they are 
catalogued in a variety of Vedic texts ; see the article on 
.nishma just quoted, 1. c, pp. 569-70. 

c. Read tanvatgug6 with crasis of sandhi-hiatus. The 
juxtaposition of rigug6 and rujdn is of the punning order. 

d. Read trayadha *. — Cf. the statements about Vish«u, 
who himself single passes through three regions, e.g. RV. 
VI 1 1, 29, 7, trfwy eka urug£y6 vi £akrame. Resting upon 
this parallelism I have taken ekam 6gas as in apposition 
with the subject of the clause. 

Stanza 2. 

a. sokls, the salient symptom of fever, AV. I, 25, 2, 4 ; 
V, 22, 2 ; VI, 20, 3. 

e. I have translated ankd as ' crook ' and samaiika 
synonymically as 'hook.' Both translations are purely 
tentative ; ankd may mean ' hook,' and at present any ren- 
dering of samaiika is an enfant perdu. The word occurs 
once more in the Atharvan, VI, 50, 1, apparently as the 
name of some pestiferous insect, or animal which destroys 
grain. I do not know how to mediate between the two 
uses of the word. Sayawa, aiikan a«£anajrilan suryasya 
anu£arln samankan sama«£anaril&n samipe vartamdnin 
antarangan api parivdrabhutan devan. 

d. The text of the Sa»whita reads asy&, the Padapa7Aa, 
asya. If the latter is correct in its interpretation, this is 
the only instince in the Rig and Atharvan-vedas of asya 
as a masculine. Looked at purely by itself asya grabhita 
may stand for asya(/i) grabhita, and this opens out the 

1 Cf. my article, On certain irregular Vedic subjunctives or 
imperatives, Amer. Journ. Phil. V, p. 27 (la of the reprint). 

Digitized by 



possibility that the stanza stood originally in some other 
connection where a feminine was appropriate. 

Stanza 3. 

The stanza, in accordance with its context, is employed 
in Kauj. 27, 34, along with the so-called mrzgara-sOktani, 
in a more general remedial charm, designated by Darila as 
a sarvabhaisha^yam. 

a. jtrshaktf, probably for si rshasaktf with haplology ; see 
Proceedings of the American Oriental Society, 1893 
(Journal, vol. xvi), p. xxxv. The poet puns upon the 
word in Pada d with sairatam, although sakti is more likely 
to come from sa»^, rather than sa£. 

b. The masculine y6 is difficult. I have referred it to 
the lightning (usrfyo vr/sha, or sashmaJt), which involves 
a considerable ellipsis, indicated by the parenthesis in the 
translation. But it seems to me possible to refer yd to 
kasa(A) in Pada a, and to translate more simply, ' Release 
him from headache, and also from cough, which has entered 
every joint of him.' Namely kas, feminine, jostles with its 
thematic pendant kisa, masculine, in AV. V, a 2, 10 and 
li (kisa', instrumental feminine in 10; but kasam, accusa- 
tive masculine in 11). It requires no violent stretch of the 
grammatical imagination to suppose that the poet uncon- 
sciously has shifted his position from the feminine in Pada a 
to its masculine doublet kasa in Pada b. The masculine 
form prevails in the classical period. 

o. For jushmo, see the article on the word, cited above, 
where several close parallels to this passage are assembled. 

I, 14. Commentary to page 107. 

The history of the interpretation of this hymn is of 
interest. Weber, Ind. Stud. IV, 408 (cf. also V, 218); 
Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 459 ; and Zimmer, Altin- 
disches Leben, p. 314, translated and interpreted the hymn 
as a marriage-hymn. Zimmer thought that the stanzas 
were spoken at the end of the ceremony, as the bridegroom 

Digitized by 


I, 14. COMMENTARY. 253 

assumed charge of the bride. The present writer, following 
the indications of the practices connected with the hymn in 
the Kaiuika (36, 15-17), thought that it was a charm of 
a woman against a rival, and dealt with the hymn and the 
ritual in this sense in an article devoted to the subject in 
Seven Hymns of the Atharva-veda, Amer. Journ. Phil. 
VII, pp. 473-6. It is of interest to find now that Saya«a 
construes the hymn in the very same spirit. 

The proceedings in the Kauj. are somewhat as follows : 
36, 15. 'While reciting AV. I, 14, the wreath, pillow (?), 
tooth-brush, and hair (of the woman against whom the 
charm is undertaken are placed) into the skin of a cow 
slain by Rudra, or of a funeral cow, and buried in the cavity 
of a mortar under a pile of three stones 1 . 16. The hymn 
is recited while the wreath is being ground up. 17. Three 
tufts of hair are tied (each) with a black thread (and buried 
under) a pile of three stones, the stones each alternately 
above (each tuft).' Then follows in Sutra 18 a subsidiary 
rite for digging the 'fortune ' up again (Karava), saubhagya- 
karanam : ' Then one digs her fortune up with the formula, 
" That fortune of thine which they have buried into a pile 
of three stones, or four stones, that we now dig up, along 
with offspring and wealth." ' 

Throughout the hymn and the ritual the spirit of fierce 
hatred manifests itself in allusions to the burial rites. Thus 
in the ritual the anustarawi; in stanzas 1, 3, the word pitr/shu, 
translated above ' with her relatives/ may also mean (with 

1 The Sutra bristles with difficulties; nishpramanda has been 
translated by 'pillow,' because Sayana says, tadupabhuktamalya- 
kandukadantadhavanakeranam. . . (ni)khananadikarmam. But the 
word nishpramanda is none too certain ; some MSS. and Kerava 
read nipramanda, and Darila's comment on the word is unintel- 
ligible (krtaayavargS^ endukaA ; cf. pramanda=indukaA, Kau*. 8, 
17; 25, n ; 32, 29, and Kaiuika, Introduction, p. Hi). I trans- 
late kara by ' skin,' because Ke^ava says, tdmahata tasya^ formawa" 
««vesh/ya (the passage is not extracted in the edition). But cf. 
the word antaAkoram in st. 4 c. Both Darila and Kefava explain 
foanahata, ' slain by Rudra,' as=^varahata, ' killed by fever.' 

Digitized by 



double entente) ' among the Fathers or manes.' The first 
hemistich of the third stanza, considered by itself, might be 
readily interpreted as being uttered at the funeral of a 
maiden ; indeed, it seems possible that material of this 
sort has been worked over for the occasion. The secondary 
employment of stanzas, composed primarily for the burial 
service, is possibly to be assumed for stanzas 3-4 of RV. 
VII, 55 (see Aufrecht, Ind. Stud. IV, 34a), and for AV. II, 
1 a, 7-8 (q. v.). The Anukrama«i makes the following curious 
statement in regard to our hymn : namas te astu (I, 13), 
bhagam asya (I, 14), iti sukte vaidyute dve anush/ubhe, 
prathamaM vaidyutaw paraw varuwaw vo«ta yamyam va, 
prathamena vidyutam astaud, dvittyena tadarthaw yamam. 
There seems to be no reason for associating these hymns, 
nor for regarding I, 14 as having any relation to lightning 1 . 

Stanza 1. 

Padas a and o, apparently each hypermetric, may be 
restored by reading, with elision and crasis, bhagasya, and 

d. pitr/shu, ' with her relatives,' as stated more explicitly 
in st. 2. So also Saya«a. Cf. the words pitrtshad and 
ama^ur in the lexicons. But there seems to be intended, 
too, an allusion to the manes, i. e. to death ; cf. the intro- 

Stanza 2. 

a, b. Sayawa, here and in the next stanza, refers ra^an to 
Soma, supporting his hypothesis by a reference to RV. X, 
85, 40, where Soma is said to have been the first to woo 
the maiden, being followed by Gandharva, Agni, and man. 
Cf. also Vas. Dharm. XXVIII, 5. 

o, d. It depends upon circumstances whether the girl 
lives with her (widowed) mother, or her father, or, after the 
decease of her parents, with her brother ; cf. for the latter 
contingency, AV. I, 17, 1. 

1 Unless the word franahata, Kaiur. 36, 15, has misled the author 
of that very late and bungling performance. 

Digitized by 


I, 14. COMMENTARY. 255 

Stanza 3. 

a. Saya//a comments upon kulapa instead of kulapa"(^) of 
the Sawhita and PadapaMa. 

d. The MSS. unanimously have this Pada in the form 
£ jirshwa^ jam6pjat (Padap., jam 6pyat). Saya«a emends to 
samopyat, commenting, sirasaA samvapanat bhumau sampa- 
tanat, ' until her head sinks to the ground.' This coin- 
cides with the reading of the Paippalada, and is accepted 
by Shankar Pandit and Whitney ; see Festgruss an Rudolf 
von Roth, p. 90. For the interchange between s and s, see 
our article in the Proc. Amer. Or. Soc, May, 1 886 (Journal, 
vol. xiii, p. cxx). The text in this form might mean ' until 
she scatters from her head,' i. e. ' until she becomes bald.' 
Even after the authority of the Paippalada I venture to 
repeat, very hesitatingly, my suggestion (Amer. Journ. Phil. 
VII, p. 476), that & sirshnAA keram 6pyat may have been 
the original text of the -Saunakfya-jakha. ' Let her scatter 
her hair from her head,' or ' let her scatter the hair of her 
head,' either by growing bald, or as a sign of mourning (cf. 
Contributions, Second Series, Amer. Journ. Phil. XI, pp. 
336 ff.). Opya as a noun is very strange, and sam + a + 
upyat (precative) would seem to require an expressed 
object in the accusative. We are reminded, too, of the 
expression k&san pra vapanti, 'they let down their hair,' 
AV. XIX, 32, a, as a sign of mourning. 

Stanza 4. 

a, b. The juxtaposition of Karyapa and Gaya reminds 
one of Karyapa of Gaya, who plays a conspicuous part in 
the Buddha legend. Asita is another worthy in the same 
narrative. See the words in the Pet. Lex., and cf. our note 
on IV, 20, 7. 

o. g&mi, in the broader sense of the word in the later 
language, 'female relatives of the householder.' Saya»a, 
striyaA ; cf. Nirukta III, 6. 

Digitized by 



I, 16. Commentary to page 65. 

The Kau.rika, 47, 23-4, presents this hymn in the sixth 
book, devoted to the witchcraft practices (abhi£arika«i), as 
follows: 23. 'While reciting AV. 1, 16 he who performs 
the practice collects ground lead, and puts it into the food 
(of his enemy), or upon the ornaments (upon his person). 
24. With a staff, made from a decayed bamboo-reed, as 
long as an arm, and ornamented 1 , he strikes (the enemy).' 
According to the Paribhasha-sutra, Kaur. 8, 18, the word 
' lead ' in these practices is to be construed very broadly, 
including both lead itself, ' river-lead ' (i. e. according to the 
commentators, river-foam), iron-filings, and the head of 
a lizard. In Contributions, Third Series, Journ. Amer. Or. 
Soc. XV, pp. 157 ff., I have endeavoured to show that 
this class of practices is founded upon the famous legend of 
Indra and Namu£i, in which Indra slays Namu£i with the 
'foam of the waters.' The other substances seem to be 
substituted for practical reasons, being more easily obtained 
and more readily handled. They may, of course, have 
been regarded as available for this purpose for other 
reasons, that escape us. 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. IV, 
409 ; Grill 2 , pp. 1, 75. The Anukramanl describes the 
hymn as £atanam, ' charm to chase away with,' and accord- 
ingly it figures in the series called £atanaga«a in the 
Gawarnala, Ath. ParLr. 32, 3 ; see Kaur. 8, 25 note. 

Stanza 1. 

a. In Apastamba's Dharmasutra I, 11, 31, 21 we have: 
' During the day the sun protects the creatures, during the 
night the moon. Therefore let him eagerly strive to pro- 
tect himself on the night of the new-moon by purity, con- 

1 The term alamkrt'ta here seems to mean technically 'anointed 
(with ghee) ; ' see Darila at Kaur. 48, 3, and cf. Kaur. 47, 40. 44. 

Digitized by 


I, 17. COMMENTARY. 257 

tinence, and rites adapted to the season.' Cf. also A V. IV, 
36, 3 ; Tait. S. II, a, a, a ; Maitr. S. II, i, n. The accu- 
sative rStrim is not favoured by the metre, and we should 
expect r&ryam. Saya/ta, sarvasyam ratrau udasthuA uttish- 

b. Saya»a reads bhra^am for vra^am, to wit: ratriw 
raganitn bhra^uw bhra^amanam ; or again, bhra^amanam 
. . . purusham himsitum udasthuA. He repeats this read- 
ing when quoting the stanza in his comment on II, 9, 1. 
Cf. also the note on vatabhra^a-6, I, ia, i b . 

o. Sayawa takes turiya in the sense of ' fourth,' as allud- 
ing to the well-known legend of the three older brothers of 
Agni who were worn out in the sacrificial service before the 
present Agni ; see RV. X, 51 and 5a ; Sat. Br. I, a, 3, 1 ; 
Tait. S. II, 6,6; Mahabh. Ill, aaa, 7 = 14314, &c. (cf. 
Ludwig, Der Rigveda, V, 504-5). But turiya is the equiva- 
lent of turd, e. g. RV. VIII, 5a, 7. 

Stanza 2. 

For the uses of lead in the ritualistic texts, see Weber, 
1. c, p. 410, and our article on Indra and Namu£i, quoted 
above in the introduction. 

Stanza 3. 

For a full discussion of vfshkandha, either some disease, 
or, as seems to us more likely, a kind of demon, see the 
note on II, 4, 1. 

I, 17. Commentary to page aa. 

This charm against flow of blood is the only one of the 
kind in the Atharvan. Kerava specifies that it is employed 
against internal and external flow of blood and (excessive) 
menstruation, atha lohitaw vahati jarlramadhye bahir kz. 
. . . rudhiravrawe . . . str!ra^aso*tipravartane bhaisha^yaw 
rudhirapravahe ka. The Kaujika attaches to it the fol- 
lowing performances at 26, 1 0-13: 'While reciting AV. I, 
17 (the practitioner) strews dust and sand around (the 
wound) with a bamboo-staff containing five joints (accord- 
[ 4 a] S 

Digitized by 



ing to Kerava he places the staff upon the wound [cf. Kaor. 
26, 9, sawstabhya], and then strews the dust and sand "). 
11. He ties on mud from a marsh 2 . 13. He gives (the 
patient a solution of it) to drink. 13. He (also) gives (him) 
to drink a mixture of curds and ground sesame, along with 
four tips of millet-grass.' The chief point of relation be- 
tween the practices and the hymn is the application of 
a bandage or poultice of dust and sand which seems indi- 
cated in the fourth stanza with the words sfkatavati 

The first stanza of the hymn is quoted with variants in 
Yaska's Nirukta, III, 4, from an unknown source ; the 
Anukramawi designates the hymn sis yoshiddevatyam. 
Previous translations by Weber, Ind. Stud. IV, 441 ; Lud- 
wig, Der Rigveda, III, 508 ; Grill 2 , pp. 16, 76 ; cf. also 
Hillebrandt's Vedachrestomathie, p. 46. 

Stanaa 1. 

In Yaska's Nirukta, III, 4, the stanza occurs in the fol- 
lowing version : amur ya yanti^amayaA sarva lohitavasasaA : 
abhratara iva yoshas tish/^anti (Durga, tish/Aantu) hata- 
vartmana^. Durga declares this to be an Atharvan-stanza, 
and says that the women are the blood-vessels (n&dyaJt) 
which shall standstill, like brotherless maidens, debarred 

1 The word piwsusikatabhM, which I have translated as a copu- 
lative compound, 'dust and sand,' is regarded by the commen- 
tators as a descriptive. Darila, pawsuvat xlaksh«adhuliA sikata 
valuka ; Kcrava, rathyayaA pawsun. 

1 It is not quite clear whether the armakapalika is tied on as an 
amulet or as a bandage upon the wound : usually badhnati is the 
terminus technicus for the tying on of an amulet. Nor are the 
commentators agreed as to the meaning of the word ; Kcs. keda- 
ramri'ttika, and pahkamn'ttika. But the word occurs also in Tait. 
Ar. V, 2, 13 (cf. also Tait. S. V, i, 6, 2), and in the commentary 
on the Tait. Ar., p. 394, it is explained as ' potsherds deposited in 
the decayed portion of the village,' £ira«tane ^tr«agramadeje 
avasthiti bh&ndamsib. Sayana to our passage, fushkapankamrri- 
tika kedaramri'ttika va. 

Digitized by 


I, 17. COMMENTARY. 259 

from the sawtanakarma and the pi«</adana (ancestral rites) 
practised by the family of their husband. In AV. I, 14, 2 
the girl who has lost her father and mother is depicted as 
living in the house of her brother. Cf. Roth's comment, 
p. 25, and Zimmer, p. 328. The exact point of the com- 
parison is not quite clear, and Zimmer's translation of hata- 
vanfcas as ' deprived of support or protection ' seems to 
import an occidental idea not in the text. See RV. I, 1 24, 
7 » IV, 5, 5, and especially the statement, na»bhratrim 
upayaMeta, ' one may not marry a brotherless girl,' in the 
commentary on Nirukta III, 5; Manu III, 1 1 ; Ya^wavalkya 
I, 53 ; Vasish/tfa XVII, 16 ; Gautama XXVIII, ao. 

b. lohita, with double entente, ' red ' and ' blood.' 

c. Read abhra'tareva ; the Anukramawt, upon the strength 
of the apparently additional syllable, designates the stanza 
as a bhuri^f. 

Stanza 3. 

b. Ludwig rather whimsically translates sahasrasya hira'- 
«am 'von dentausend gelben.' It would seem as though 
the stanza intends to bring out a distinction between hira" and 
dhamani, the former being the smaller and the latter the 
larger blood-vessels. Accordingly, 'veins' and 'arteries.' 
And yet in VII, 35, 2 (see the note there) both hira" and 
dhamani apparently have the more general sense of ' inte- 
rior canals,' such as entrails, vaginal passage, and the like. 
Naturally, the knowledge of internal physiology is of the 
vaguest sort. For hira", see Aufrecht in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, 
III, 199 ; Weber, Omina und Portenta, p. 346. 

Stanza 4. 

Our translation of this stanza derives its main support 
from the practices above, which seem to imply that sand is 
put upon or about the wound. Sayawa gives the passage 
a totally different bent ; he takes sfkatavati dhantfr brmat? 
as the designation of one of the canals in the body which 
contains the sand that results in calculi in the bladder, 
sikata ra^amsi tadvatt akdi, 'sikata, i.e. sand, the canal 
containing that.' He says, further, that it is the canal 

S 2 

Digitized by 



(na</i) which generates calculi (araiari), and finally describes 
it more explicitly as a ' kind of canal crooked like a bow, 
and the seat of the urine,' dhanur dhanurvad vakro mutra- 
sayo n&diviseshaA. And he quotes a similar statement from 
a Smriti, mutrlrayo dhanur vakro vastir ity abhidhiyate "•. 
It would seem accordingly that he imagines the bladder, 
or some similar vessel, capable as it is of producing sand or 
calculi, a fitting agent to stop the flow of blood — an inter- 
esting conceit at any ratet Grill thinks that the entire 
stanza is a later addition. But Kaurika, at any rate, 
found it where it is, and the original diaskeuasis of the 
AV. postulates four or more stanzas for each hymn of 
the first book ; see Seven Hymns of the Atharva-veda, 
Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 470 ft*. Against this, there is only 
the deviation in the metre. 

o. The Pada is a formula ; see RV. I, 191, 6. 

I, 18. Commentary to page 109. 

Sayawa, in the introduction to the hymn, describes the 
practices associated with it at Kauj. 42, 19-21 as designed 
to remove the blemishes of a woman afflicted with the 
evil characteristics mentioned in the samudrika-treatises. 
These blemishes are supposed to be on her face, hands, 
feet, and other members, mukhahastapadadyangeshu samu- 
drikoktadurlakshawayuktayiA striyas taddoshanivnttaye. 
The samudrika-books (treatises on chiromancy) treat of 
both good and evil characteristics, for in his comment on 
st. 1 c he says, yani samudrik&fastraprasiddhani . . . sau- 
bhagyakarawi /Hhnani santi. Cf. Pet. Lex. under 2. samu- 
dra, and K&rava to Kaur. 42, 19, samudrike strilakshawaw 
vyakhyatam, and note also Kaor. 18, 38, samudra ity 
aiakshate karma. 

The practices of the Kaurika are as follows : 42, 19. 
' While reciting AV. I, 1 8, the face of the woman afflicted 

1 Cf. with these statements Sayawa's comment on vastf, I, 3, 6, 
dhanurikaro mfhrirayo vastir utyate. 

Digitized by 


I, 1 8. COMMENTARY. 26 1 

with evil characteristics is sprinkled after each verse, com- 
mencing at the braid of hair at the right, ao. Having 
made an offering of chaff from a vessel made of the wood 
of a pal«Lra-tree (butea frondosa), he pours the rest (of the 
chaff) after (the first oblation), ai. Chaff, husks, refuse of 
grain, and shavings are placed upon the heel of her left 

There are good and evil characteristics (lakshmi = lak- 
shawa, cf. AV. VII, 115), and the main point of the prac- 
tices is their removal by washing, and by placing all kinds 
of offal where it will easily drop from the person under 
treatment, and cause symbolically the removal of the bad 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. 
IV, 41 1 ff. ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 498 (cf. also 338) ; 
and Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, pp. 313 ff, where the 
charm is interpreted erroneously as directed against the 
house-cat. Cf. our brief criticism in the Journ. Am. Or. 
Soc. XV, 153, note. 

Stanza 1. 

a. Sayawa reads lakshmam for lakshmyam, commenting, 
asaubhagyakaram £ihnam. To lalamyam he remarks, 
lalame bhavaw tilakasthanagatam. 

d. The Pada is hypermetric, unless we read pra^ayaratim 
with double sandhi. Ludwig would cure the passage by 
substituting nfr for pra^ayai, but the latter word seems 
guaranteed by AV. V, 25, 8, pra^ayai tvS. (tva a") nayamasi, 
and possibly this is the original reading (cf. Geldner, 1. c, 
314). In adhering to the traditional text I have supposed 
the meaning to be that she who has the character of an 
Arati is rendered fit for marriage and child-birth by the 
charm. Very problematic this is, to be sure. Sayawa 
takes pra^ayai with Pada c, yani . . . saubhagyani £ihnani 
. . . tani . . . asmakam pra^ayai . . . bhavantu, . . . yani pur- 
va/« ni^saritani asaubhagyakarani £ihnani . . . aratiw jatrum 
. . . prapayama/* I 

Digitized by 



Stanza 2. 

a. aramm is iv. A«y., reminding us of ara«a, ' strange,' 
arawya, ' waste, forest/ and ara«ya«f (-»i), the personified 
goddess of the forest, RV. X, 146. Sayawa reads aramm, 
commenting, arama«lm alakshmiw* daurbhagyakaraw £ih- 
nam . . . yadva aramaniw sarvada parya/anakari/mn arti- 
kartw va alakshmim. Shankar Pandit retains the reading 
of the MSS., savishak (for savishat in our edition), but 
Saya«a reads savishat. Cf. the Va£\ S. in the Kawva- 
jakha X, 2, 1; XX, 1, 1 (= IX, 5; XVIII, 30 of the 
M&dhyawdina-jakha), and Weber, Ind. Stud. IV, 248, 412 ; 
XIII, 108. See also Apast. St. XIII, 7, 13. 

Stanza 4. 

Sayawa treats all these epithets as referring directly to 
a woman ; we prefer to regard them as personifications of 
evil qualities, imagined as dwelling within the person whose 
characteristics are foul. Sayawa, w*shasye»va danta yas- 
ykh sa vrtshadat! sthuladanta nari . . . gaur iva sedhati 
ga£Mati«ti gosedha stri . . . vikritaw dhamati .rabdayate 
iti vidhama, phutkaradivividharabdak4ri«i . . . lalamya;« 
lalamasthane lala/aprante bhavam . . . \\\\dhya.m vi\yeshe«a 
Wdh&m viliV/*am, \\Wdhaso, iva sthitaw kejranaw pratilo- 
myarupam. Our rendering of vilidhyam is not at all 

I, 19. Commentary to page 120. 

The hymn is one of a list of battle-charms, sawgrami- 
ka«i (sc. suktani), rubricated in Kauj. 14, 7, and associated 
with ceremonies of a general character, preparatory to 
going to battle. The Gawamala, Ath. Pam. 32, 13, has 
a similar list, somewhat more extensive, which is entitled 
apara^itagawa : see the note at Kauj. 14, 7, and cf. the 
introduction to I, 2. The hymn is also employed against 
certain portentous occurrences, as when Brahmanas carry 
arms (Kau*. 104, 3), when images of the gods dance, shake, 
laugh, sing, or indulge in other freaks (Kaur. 105, 1), or 

Digitized by 


I, 22. COMMENTARY. 263 

when a bull sucks a cow (Kauj. 113, 3). Cf. also Ath. 
Paris. 17, a. The hymn has been translated by Weber, 
Indische Studien, IV, 413 ; cf. also Bergaigne et Henry, 
Manuel Vedique, p. 134. 

Stanzas 3, 4. 

These two stanzas are an expanded version of RV. VI, 
75, 19. The latter part of that hymn contains suggestions 
which have been freely utilised in the battle-charms of the 

I, 2a. Commentary to page 7. 

The proceedings of the practitioner, Kaiu. 26, 14-2 r, 
are entirely symbolic ; the main effort is to banish the 
yellow colour to yellow creatures and objects (the sun), 
where it properly belongs, and to derive for the patient 
redness from that quarter where it is peculiarly at home, 
namely a red bull ; cf. RV. I, 62, 9, and Aufrecht in the 
introduction to his edition of the Rig-veda, vol. ii, p. xvii. 
The practices are as follows : 

26, 14. * While reciting AV. I, 22 (the priest) gives (the 
patient water) to sip, which is mixed with hair from (a red 
bull) the object mentioned in the mantra (st. x). 15. And 
having poured (water) upon the back of the bull (he lets 
the patient drink it). 16. He ties on as an amulet upon 
the (patient) sitting upon the skin of a bull (the piece of 
skin) pierced by the peg with which it is fastened (when it 
is spread out) 1 , after having steeped it in cow's milk and 
anointed it with the dregs of ghee 2 . 17. He gives (the 
patient the milk) to drink. 18. He feeds (the patient) with 

1 The words ' the piece of skin,' &c. are all of them a tentative 
rendering of jankudhanam, to which Darila, £arma»o vistaraya 
kilakabandha^ jankusthapanam. Saya«a, in the introduction to 
the hymn, raktagoformaMdramamm . . . tanmambandhanam. 
Kerava, go raktaiarmaMidramanim. Cf. also Kaiu. 27, 29, to AV. 

Ill, 7, 1. 

* Cf. Kaiw. 7, 15. 

Digitized by 



porridge made of haridra (turmeric, or curcuma, a yellow 
plant), daubs him from head to foot both with the remnants 
of the porridge and (additional porridge) from which he has 
not eaten, (places him upon a couch), ties the (three birds) 
mentioned in the mantra 1 by their left legs to the foot of 
the couch, and washes (the patient) off (upon the birds). 
19. He makes the patient step forward (after having first 
given him a stirred drink, mantha, in accordance with the 
paribhasha at Kaur. 7, 18). 20. He makes (the patient) 
address (with the hymn) the chattering (birds). 21. Having 
glued together with lac the hairs from the breast (of the 
red bull) and getting them covered with gold (the patient 
ties that on as an amulet).' 

Sayawa in his introduction defines the purpose of the 
hymn as against heart-disease and jaundice, hr/drogaka- 
miladirogop&fantaye ; Kerava advances a broader construc- 
tion, according to which it cures in addition epilepsy and 
fainting (vismaya ?), apasmara-vismaya-hrt'droga-kama- 
lakarohi«akani bhaisha^yani. Adalbert Kuhn, in Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift, XIII, 1 13 ff., has assembled from Greek, Roman, 
and Teutonic sources notions and practices analogous to 
those elaborated by Kaurika. The principle that the yellow 
disease belongs by right to yellow objects, birds, and plants, 
is there again applied practically, with a touch, here and 
there, of similia similibus curantur. In addition to 
Kuhn's translation we note Weber's, Ind. Stud. IV, 415 ff. ; 
cf. also Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 343 ; Bergaigne et Henry, 
Manuel V^dique, pp. 134-5 ; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 
p. 388 ; Wise, Hindu System of Medicine, 247 ff. (espe- 

1 The juka, ropawaka, and haridra va mentioned in st. 4. Sayawa, 
in his introduction, fukakash/A&rukagopitanakakhy&n&» pakshi- 
«am. Ddrila defines haridrav&A by haridravarwlr &/ak£A. K&rava, 
svik&A kash/>4a(mu)sukam (I) fa gopitilakam £a. They seem to 
refer respectively to the parrot, the thrush, and the yellow wagtail, 
all doubdess birds prevailingly yellow. The yellow jaundice of the 
patient, accentuated by his coat of yellow curcuma, is washed 
down upon the yellow birds, where it belongs. Cf. the notes on 
St. 4, and the introduction to VII, 1 16. 

Digitized by 


I, 22. COMMENTARY. 265 

daily 249, where turmeric still appears prominent among 
the curative agencies). Stanzas similar to I, 22 occur, 
RV. I, 50, 11-12; Tait. Br. Ill, 7, 6, 22-23; Apast. .Sr. 
IV, 15, 1. 

Stanza 1. 

b. For hriddyoti the RV., Tait. Br., and Apast. Sr. have 
lm'droga (cf. Ridraga, Wise 321); see also AV. V, 20, 12 ; 
VI, 24, 1. Still another name is hr/dayamaya, AV. V, 30, 
9 ; VI, 14, 1 ; 127, 3. For the root dyut, cf. AV. IV, 12, 
2; XII, 3, 22: hrz'd-dyota literally means 'heart-break;' 
Sayawa takes it as ' heart-burning,' hr/dayaw sawrtapayati 
(cf. Lat. splendida bilis). 

o. The Vedic Hindu is deeply impressed with the red- 
ness of the cow, which is contrasted with its white milk, 
RV. I, 6%, 9, &c. ' O sage mir wie geht es zu, gibt weisse 
milch die rothe kuh.' Perhaps we have here, too, an allu- 
sion to the divine Rohita in the thirteenth book of the 
AV. ; see Henry, Les Hymnes Rohitas, and our Contribu- 
tions, Fourth Series, Amer. Journ. Phil. XII, 429 ff. 

Stanza 2. 

The anacoluthon in Padas c, d, seems to be occasioned 
by ayam, which is a sort of vox media fit for both second 
and third persons singular. 

Stanza 3. 

a. I have followed Bergaigne and Henry, Manuel V6- 
dique, p. 135 note, in emending the unintelligible r6hi«lr 
devatya'(A) to r6hi«ldevatya(A), 'the cows whose divinity 
is Rohiwf.' I differ from these scholars in co-ordinating it 
with gaVo, rather than supplying rik&h; see the above- 
mentioned Contributions, p. 437. Rohi/ti is the female 
of Rohita, a personification of the red, ascending (ruh), 
ruling sun. The stanzas devoted to Rohiwi occur AV. 
XIII, 1, 22 ff. Saya«a's comment on Padas a, b, is, deva- 
ty&h devatasu bhavaA . . . uktavarwa (sc. roYiinlh) y§Jt ka- 
madhenvadayo g&vaA santi, uta api y&A manushyasaw- 

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bandhinyo TohiniA rohinyaJt lohitavarna gavaJ* santi tabhiA 
ubhayavidhabhir gobhiA. 

Stanza 4. 

b. ropawaM is glossed by Sayawa at RV. I, 50, 12 by 
.rarika, ' thrush ;' Sayawa on our hymn, twice, kash///axuka 
(harit pakshi : the word is not in the lexicons). Darila at 
Kaur. 26, 20. haridravaraaj kitakAk (not in the lexicons ; 
cf. £i££ika, RV. X, 146, 2). K&rava, kashMa(mu)sukam (!), 
and kash/^am(sh)ka£andana (1 a kind of sandal). The com- 
mentators seem therefore to waver between a bird and 
a plant. 

0. hlridrava is glossed by Sayawa at RV. VIII, 35, 7 
by pakshin, but the same work at I, 50, 12, as also the 
scholiast at Tait. Br. Ill, 7, 6, 22, has haritaladrumeshu 
(a kind of tree !). Sayawa on our hymn, twice, gopttana- 
kakhya haridvarca/; pakshi»a£ (gopitanaka is not in the 
lexicons, but goplta is ' wagtail ') ; Darila, ib., pttaj kitakSJt ; 
Kerava, twice, gopitilaka. 

I, 23. Commentary to page 16. 

The practices connected with this and the next hymn 
are denned by the commentators as a cure for white 
leprosy, Jvetakush/Aapanodanaya (Sayawa), JvetakushAia- 
bhaisha^yani (K&rava). They are stated at Kauj. 26, 22- 
24, as follows: 22. ' While reciting AV. I, 23 and I, 24 (the 
priest) having rubbed dung (upon the sores) until they are 
red, smears upon them the substances, mentioned in the 
mantras 1 . 23: He cuts off the white (scurf). 24. (The 
patient?), having been covered, performs the rites to 
the Maruts.' The latter, described at Kaur. 41, 1-7, are 

' K&rava and Sayawa mention bhrmgara^a (eclipta prostata; 
note the pun between nga, and ra^ani, &c. in I, 23, 1), haridra 
(yellow sandal, or yellow turmeric), indravaru«i (colocynth), and 
nflika. Darila has a somewhat different statement, too corrupt to 
be reported here. 

Digitized by 


I, 23. COMMENTARY. 267 

primarily designed to produce rain, and their employment 
here, secondarily, may be intended to put the patient into 
a sweat. The point is problematic and not cleared up by 
the scholiasts. 

The entire hymn is repeated with variants at Tait. Br. 

II, 4, 4, 1. 2. The third stanza of the next hymn is there 
added to the charm. 

Both this and the next hymn have been translated by 
Weber, Ind. Stud. IV, pp. 416 ff. ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 

III, 506,509; Grill 2 , pp. 19, 77 ff. ; cf. Wise, Hindu Sys- 
tem of Medicine, pp. 258 ff. ; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 
p. 391 ; and Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel V^dique, p. 135. 
The Anukramani designates I, 23 as vanaspatyam, and 
I, 24 as asurivanaspatidevatyam. 

Stanza 1. 

Sayana refers the adjectives dark, &c, to the plants, 
indicated by Kaurika's commentators. The word ra^ani 
(as well as all others designating night) has also the mean- 
ing ' curcuma longa.' Cf. the scholiast at Tait. Br. II, 4, 
4, 1, ra^anakshame oshadhe . . . atra haridra ra^anl*ti 
ke£it. The two meanings are blended with the idea of 
' rich in colour,' by virtue of which the word puns with 

Stanza 2. 

b. A considerable number of MSS., here as well as in 
3 d, followed by Sayawa, read pr/thak for pr/shat, which 
also makes good sense. The Tait. Br. also reads pr/shat. 

o. This seems to be addressed to the patient : his natural 
colour shall return to him. Grill takes offence at the 
parenthesis 1 and proposes to refer sva/i to the plant ; cf. 
also Ludwig, and Bergaigne et Henry, 1. c, note. But the 
plants are of a colour different from the leper's spots (hence 
their virtue), and sva/i is inappropriate. Saya«a, as in our 
translation, he rugwa . . . svakiya/* prag avasthito varwa/:. 

1 Cf. Aufrecht, Festgruss an Otto von Bohtlingk, p. 3. 

Digitized by CjOOQ lC 


And still more explicitly the scholiast at Tait. Br., dehasya 
svakiyaA purvasiddho varnaA. 

I, 24. Commentary to page 16. 

For the application of the hymn in the ritual, and 
previous translations, cf. the introduction to I, 23. Stanza 3 
is repeated at Tait. Br. II, 4, 4, 2. 

Stanza 1. 

Sayawa states the little legend (akhyiyika) as follows : 
The dark plant here in question was the gall (pitta, dosha) 
of the primordial bird suparwa (garutman). The Asuri 
(asurawaw maya ka£ana stri) engaged in battle with him 
and conquered. The gall captured in the battle she 
embodied into the form of trees (nilt, and so forth). This 
neat story would commend itself at once but for the word 
^ita", which does not mean ' she conquered ' (Say., ^itavati), 
but ' she was conquered.' The story is so pat as to tempt 
to the emendation ^tva*, or (as Ludwig suggests) ^itam. 
In general, of course, asura in the Atharvan, as elsewhere, 
stands for the hostile powers conquered by the Devas, 
e. g. AV. II, 27, 3. 4 ; IV, 19, 4 ; VI, 7, 2 ; VIII, 5, 3 i IX, 
2,17.18; X,3, u; 6,22-8; XI, 5, 7; 10,10.15; XII, 
1, 15. But a different tone prevails occasionally. In 
VI, 108, 3 the Asuras are said to know wisdom ; in 
VI, 100, 3 the ant (upa^-ika), which is employed as an 
antidote against poison, is called the daughter of the 
Asuras; in II, 3, 3; VI, 109, 3 they dig remedies into 
the ground, and finally, in VII, 38, 2, the Asurl attracts to 
herself Indra from the company of the gods, so that, 
according to Ka///. S. XIII, 5, he lives with the Asuras (cf. 
Ind. Stud. Ill, 479 ; V, 250, 453). The sense of Saya«a's 
story is therefore not irrelevant Note also that asurf itself 
is the name of a magic plant (cf. Magoun, Asurl-kalpa, 
Amer. Journ. Phil. X, 165 ff.). If, on the other hand, ^iti 
of the text is retained, it is hard to see how she possessed 
herself of the gall of the suparwa, unless by way of revenge, 

Digitized by 


I, 24. COMMENTARY. 269 

or theft. Hence we have, hesitatingly, adopted the emen- 
dation ^-itva". A later transcriber, shocked by the imputation 
that the Asurt was victorious, might easily have made the 

Weber, 1. c, p. 41 8, regards suparwa as the sun and asurf 
as the night, who, having been conquered by the sun, with- 
draws into the forest and assumes the form of trees : ' Der 
vogel, der zuerst erstand, dessen gall' du gewesen bist. 
Die Asuri im kampf besiegt machte die baum' zu ihrer 
form." But there is scarcely any occasion here for a 
mythical eagle : the eagle and the boar naturally find 
plants, the one with his eye, the other with his snout (see 
II, 27, 2 ; V, 14, 1), and the legend must in some way rest 
upon this natural fact. This translation, too, establishes no 
connection between the first and second parts of the stanza. 
Very similarly Grill. 

d. For vanaspatin the Paippalada has vanaspatin in 
accordance with the common usage of the Brahmawas, 
e. g. arvo rupam krftva, Tait. Br. IH, 8, 12, 2 ; Apast. Sx. 
V, 2, 4 ; kr«h«o rupa/w krftva, Tait. Br. Ill, 7, 4, 8. See 
Delbruck, Altindische Syntax, p. 103 ; Pet. Lex. s.v. rupa 
(column 421 ) ; Ind. Stud. XI II, 1 1 1. This makes a decidedly 
better construction : ' having assumed the form of a tree.' 
Ludwig, translating the .Saunakiya-text, '(die Asuri) hat es 
zur farbe der baume gemacht,' and similarly Saya«a,£ayena 
labdhaw tat pittam rupam £akre, oshadhyatmana sevyam 
akaram akarshit, tad eva rupam aha, vanaspatin nilyadin. 
I have followed their lead, though I am for my part 
unacquainted with any such construction of kar (with three 
accusatives ; note also the middle, £akre). 

Stanza 2. 

s, b. Sayawa treats idam as follows : idam suparcapittena 
nirmitam nilyadikam, which corresponds with his and our 
interpretation of st. 1. In the later literature asuri is 
a branch of medicine ; see the Pet. Lex. under asuri 3) and 
manusha. The metre of the two Padas is irregular : idam 
kilasan&anam seems to be a gloss. 

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Stanza 4. 

a. The European edition reads jamfi, which Ludwig puts 
forth as the title of the hymn. The Paippalada, as also 
two of Shankar Pandit's MSS., have sykmH (cf. skm&ka = 
jyamaka, Kaus. 8, 11); this is undoubtedly correct, and 
corresponds with ra^ani in I, 23, 1. 

I, 25. Commentary to page 3. 

The practice which Kaurika reports for this hymn is 
similar in character, but totally different in detail from 
those connected with AV. V, 22 and VI, 20. The practising 
priest, according to Sutra 26, 25, has an axe heated ; then 
the axe is quenched in water, and the water thus heated is 
poured upon the patient: yad agnir iti pararum jrapams 
tapayati kvathayaty avasi«£ati. Darila renders this quite 
clear, pararuna kvathayaty udakaw . . . taptenodakena 
<vasiftt£ati roginam. The heated water is supposed doubt- 
less to draw the heat of the fever out of the patient, as it 
flows from him (attractiosimilium). Kerava describes the 
performance as a ^varabhaisha^yaw, nitya^vare vela^vare 
satata^vare ekantarita^vare Hturthika^vare ka ritugvare 
ka ; cf. stanza 4 c, d. Similarly Sayawa in the introduction, 
aikahik&dLrlta^-varasawtatafvaravela^varadiyantaye. The 
hymn has been treated by Weber, Indische Studien, IV, 
419 ff. ; Grohmann, ib. IX, 384 ff. ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 
III, 511 ; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, pp. 381, 384 ; 
Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel Ve\3ique, p. 136. It is 
quoted also at Kauj. 26, 1 note, as one of the takmana- 
janagawa of the Gawamala, Ath. Park 32, 7. 

Stanza 1. 

The stanza is not quite clear. Sayana refers to the 
practices in the Sutra, which are, of course, themselves 
based upon suggestions derived from the mantra. ' When 
Agni having entered the waters burned ' refers doubtless to 
the circle of well-known legends that deal with Agni's escape 
to the waters. Two hymns of the Rig-veda, X, 51 and 

Digitized by 



52, deal with this subject, and it is one of the stock-legends, 
with protean variations, in the Brahmawas (cf. Indische 
Studien, III, 467). e.g. .Sat. Br. I, 2, 3, 1 ; 3, 3, 13-16; 
Tait. S. II, 6, 6, 1 ff. ; VI, 2, 8, 4 ff. For later forms of the 
same legend, see Adolf Holtzmann's essay, Agni nach den 
Vorstellungen des Mahabharata, p. 11, and especially 
Mahabh. Ill, I42i4ff. = 222, 7 ff. The basis of these 
legends is the plain observation that lightning comes from 
the clouds, that is, the waters (cf. Nirukta VII, 23), and 
perhaps, again, that it strikes the water upon earth, and 
disappears in it. This again connects the takman with 
lightning, which is conceived as a cause of fever, &c. See 
our introductions to V, 22, and I, 12. It is perhaps not 
going too far to suppose that the connection of fever with 
lightning is another way of saying that fever is associated 
especially with the rainy season, and that indeed seems to 
be the purport of the stanza : the period of the lightning is 
the time when the takman originates. Cf. Grohmann, 1. c, 
p. 403 ; Zimmer, l.c, p. 384. 

a. apo, the nominative for the accusative, especially in 
the AV., as conversely apa/t the accusative appears as 
nominative ; see Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar, § 393 a. 
The expression apo . . . pravfjya, as in RV. X, 51, 1, 
pravivejitha »pa^. 

b. dharma-dhr/taA with alliteration. The expression 
does not refer to pious men, as is assumed by Weber, 
Grohmann, and Zimmer; and that too, although their 
translation would seem to receive support from RV. X, 51 , 5, 
ehi manur devayur ya^wakarna//, 'come (O Agni), pious 
men desire to sacrifice.' The meaning of the first two 
Padas would according to this be as follows : When Agni 
hid himself in the waters, and men being thus deprived of 
the carrier of the sacrifice approached him humbly, with 
the purpose of inducing him to resume his functions 1 . . . But 

1 Weber, l.c, to be sure, quite differently, refers the humble 
attitude of the pious to the dread of the supposed consequence of 
Agni's action, namely, the fever. 

Digitized by 



dharma-dhr/taA cannot refer to men, and Ludwig is quite 
correct in his view, ' die erhalter der satzungen (die gotter).' 
The dharman is upheld by the gods ; so, e. g. Vishwu is 
described as dharmam dharayan in RV. I, 22, 18; Indra 
as dharma-kr/t in VIII, 98, 1 ; cf. also the epithet dhr/ta- 
vrata as applied to Varuwa at AV. VII, 83, 1. Reference 
is therefore made to the suppliant attitude of the gods, as 
they induce Agni by promises to come forth from the 
waters and attend to his business. 

c. Weber translates tatra . . . paramam ^anftraw ' dort is 
hauptsachlich dein Entstehen,' and Grohmann and Zimmer 
adopt this very pregnant rendering. Ludwig, on the other 
hand, says, 'da war deine erste geburt.' It seems to me 
that neither translation is correct. The Pada is formulaic ; 
in RV. I, 163, 4 (the hymn to the horse, ajvastuti) we have, 
yatra ta ahu/; paramam ^anftram, and Ludwig translates 
(902), ' wo man sagt, dass dein hochster geburtsort.' Cf. 
also parame" ^anftre in X, 56, 1. The expression paramaw* 
ga,a(tram, moreover, is the equivalent of parame" .fan man in 
RV. II, 9, 3, which is contrasted with avare - sadhasthe. 
The former obviously refers to Agni, the lightning, and, 
as the takman is the effect of that Agni, the same origin 
is assumed for him. Hence I have translated the expres- 
sion by ' origin on high.' 

Stanza 2. 

b. Literally, ' or whether thy origin is a splinter-seeking 
one,' a bold figure as applied to the takman. But throughout 
this hymn the parallelism between fire and the takman is 
uppermost in the mind of the poet, and the phenomenon of 
Agni's growth, as he eagerly licks the split wood, is meta- 
phorically transferred to his disease. Weber translates 
prettily, 'sei Splitterfeuer, ziingelndes, dein geburtsort.' 
Zimmer, less vividly, ' oder wenn deine geburtsstatte glim- 
mend ist.' Ludwig does not comment upon his obscure 
result, ' oder mag spitze stachel suchend (stechend) deine 
geburt sein ; ' he, at any rate, unnecessarily abandons the 
metaphor of the fire. Saya»a, -yakalyaw* dahyam kash/^a- 
samuham ikhati sa.ka.lyet agniA. 

Digitized by 


I, 25. COMMENTARY. 273 

o. I have left the word hr(Wu 1 untranslated, as I have 
not been able to discover any basis for the existing trans- 
lation, ' cramp,' which Weber, 1. c, p. 420, proposes, and 
Ludwig adopts. Weber's result is derived from etymo- 
logical considerations of insufficient cogency, and the 
recorded symptoms of the takman or the ^vara fail to 
include cramps. The word occurs only in this hymn, in 
evident alliteration with haritasya, and I should not wonder 
if the word would yet turn out to have some connection 
with 'yellow.' For haritasya deva, see the note on V, 
22, 2 a. 

Stanza 3. 

b. The takman as a son of Varuwa presents a snatch of 
that broader and deeper view of the origin of disease, 
according to which it is due to the violation of the laws 
of Varu«a, who has in his charge the order of the universe, 
and punishes the sinner by his ' fetters ' of disease, especially 
the dropsy ; see, e.g. AV. IV, 16, 6, 7 2 . In general, to be 
sure, the lower view prevails in the Atharvan : possession 
by demons, and the witchcraft of enemies, are the causes of 

Stanza 4. 

The metre is irregular : Pada a, anush/ubh ; b and c, 
trish/ubh; d.^-agati. 

b. For rura, see the note on V, 22, 10 a. 

o. y6 anyedyiir . . . abhyeti (see also VII, 116, 2) refers 
to a fever which attacks, :>r becomes highest, every twenty- 
four hours ; cf. perhaps the /ela^vara, mentioned by K&rava 

1 Some MSS., according to Weber, read hrikfii, and Whitney, 
Index Verborum, 8. v., reports also huVu, hruVru, and rff<ni. Saya»a 
reads rtodAuA (rohakaA purush&rarire utpadakaA). Shankar Pandit 
notes still other variants. 

* I prefer this view to another suggested by Grohmann, I.e., 
p. 406 ft"., according to which the malarial takman in marshy (i. e. 
watery) regions is especially pointed out. Varuwa, being the god 
of the sea (water), this variety of takman might thus be regarded as 
his son. This seems rather far-fetched. 
[4*] T 

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to Kauj. 26, 25. Such is the interpretation of all authorities 
(Grohmann, p. 387; Zimmer, p. 382), and Wise, p. 232, 
describes the Anye^yuka (Surruta's anyedyushka) as 
follows: 'If the paroxysm of fever recurs at the same 
hour daily, it is called Anye^yuka.' It is therefore equiva- 
lent to the rhythmus quotidianus. Saya«a, anye- 
dyuA anyasmin paradine yaA jita^varaA abhyeti. — y6 . . . 
ubhayadyur abhyeti, ' he who returns for two successive 
days,' i.e. with the implication that the next day (as we 
should say, the third day) is free from fever 1 . Grohmann, 
p. 388. and Zimmer, p. 382, identify this with the rhythmus 
quartanus complicatus.aformofthe disease in which the 
attacks repeat themselves on two successive days, the third 
day being exempt. This would remind us of the ekantarita 
mentioned by Kejava, 1. c. But it seems to fit also the 
£aturthaka viparyaya. Wise, 1. c, says, ' In Chaturthaka 
the paroxysms of this fever occur every fourth day. When 
the paroxysm continues for two days, the fever is that 
called Chiturthaka Bipar^yaya.' None of these construc- 
tions, however, is certain. Sayawa here says, ubhayadyuA 
ubhayasmin dvitiychani . . . ayati, and, still more ex- 
plicitly at VII, 116, 2, yas ka. ubhayedyuA (!) ubhayor 
divasayoA, atitayor iti .reshaA, abhyeti, ^aturthika^vara ity 
arthaA. This means a kind of fever that omits two days 
and returns on the third day, and would thus be identical 
with the tr/tiyaka, according to the current construction 
(see Pada d). But see the Pet. Lex. under ubhayadyii^ 
and ubhayedyuA. 

d. For trftiyaka, see the note on V, 22, 13 a. 

I, 34. Commentary to page 99. 

This hymn belongs to a quite extensive class of Atharvan 
charms, the object of which is either to generate love in 
a person of the opposite sex, or restore alienated affection. 
In general, charms of this class are rubricated in the second 

1 Cf. our not altogether certain interpretation of vitrrttya, V, 
22, 13 a. 

Digitized by 


I, 34. COMMENTARY. 275 

part of the fourth book of the Kaurika (32, 28-36, 40). 
This is designated by the commentators as strikarmam, 
' women's rites.' and presents the greatest variety of prac- 
tices connected with the life of women and their relations 
to men ; see Kaurika, Introduction, p. lxv, and cf. the fol- 
lowing hymns. Yet this particular hymn is not mentioned 
in the book in question, though it is otherwise worked up 
three times, Kauj. 38, 17 ; 76, 8. 9 ; 79, io. In the first 
of these passages, 38, 17, the hymn is employed in a simple 
practice uttered by an intending disputant before entering 
upon a debate in the sabha or parishad, the village assembly : 
• While reciting AV. I, 34 he approaches the assembly 
from the north-east, chewing licorice.' The commen- 
tators do not quite agree as to the special purpose of the 
practice. Kesava. says that it produces victory in disputa- 
tion (vivade ^ayakarmawaw vidhiA) ; Darila, more mildly, 
says that it is an expiatory performance to wipe out the 
guilt incurred in defeating an opponent (in debate), praty- 
artha^ayadosharamanam 1 prayar&ttam. Either of these 
manipulations of the hymn is reasonable if we regard 
kaminl in stanza 5 as referring to the parishad or sabha 2 , 
and there is therefore no absolute guarantee that the hymn 
had originally anything to do with sexual love. Cf. how- 
ever II, 30, 1. 

In Kauj. 76, 8. 9 the bridegroom, while reciting this 
hymn, ties to his little finger an amulet of licorice-wood 
(madugha), fastening it with thread coloured red with lac, 

1 The MSS. have pratyartha^apa-, but this does not yield good 
sense. The correction was suggested by Professor Cowell in a 
kind note. Correct accordingly our treatment of the passage in 
Seven Hymns of the Atharva-veda, Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 481 
(p. 16 of the reprint). 

1 There is, too, a bare possibility that the fifth stanza is of later 
origin, especially if we attach any weight to the tradition that the 
first book of the AV. consisted of hymns of four stanzas each ; see 
the introduction to I, 12 (p. 247). The meaning of that tradition 
seems, however, rather to be that each hymn consisted of at least 
four stanzas, or more, since many of them, in fact, consist of more. 

T 2 

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and placing it so that the amulet is on the outside of the 
finger, the knot within (the hand). In Sutra 10 he leads 
the bride forth, and the amulet is, therefore, obviously 
intended to make him attractive to the bride. This in- 
volves the construction of the hymn which we have pre- 
sented in our translation, i.e. the bridegroom, by means of 
the amulet, secures the love of the bride l . 

Once more, in Kauj. 79, 10, at the consummation of the 
marriage, a ceremony, involving this hymn, is enacted by the 
married couple. The bridegroom takes hold of the amulet 
of licorice (which he has put on previously, 76, 8. 
9), puts it into bull's grease, and while reciting the pre- 
sent hymn and AV. XIV, 2, 71. 72, they embrace one 
another. Kerava, more explicitly, states that the amulet is 
first ground up, madughamawiw pish/va aukshe % prakshipya 
abhimantrya parasparam varavadhvau samalabhete. The 
purpose of the performance is not quite clear ; it seems 
to be designed to render the affection mutual 3 . Cf. AV. 
II, 36, 7, and our discussion there. 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. IV, 
429 (cf. V, 218); Grill 2 , pp. 52, 78. The Anukrama»i 
designates it as madughamamsuktam, ' the hymn of the 
amulet of licorice.' 

1 Dr. Haas in the Indische Studien, V, 386, makes the bride- 
groom fasten the amulet upon the bride's finger. There is nothing 
to indicate this proceeding, which is contrary to the context of the 
hymn. Dr. Haas, to be sure, erroneously refers the pratika iyaw 
virudh to AV. VII, 56, 2; hence he did not see that the bridegroom 
desires to make himself lovable in the sight of the woman (see I, 
34. 5)- 

* For aukshe, see our note on II, 36, 7. 

* Professor Weber in his translation of this passage, Ind. Stud. 
V, 401, takes madughamam to mean 'hymen,' for reasons not 
apparent to me. I fancy that Kerava's pish/va removes the possi- 
bility of such a construction, and the madughamaniprayaj&tta 
quoted by the same scholar on p. 404, refers simply to the loss of 
the amulet here in question ; this is restored by making another 
amulet from the putudaru (devadaru)-tree. 

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Stanza 1. 

Honey is the symbol of personal agreeableness from 
earliest times. Cf. e. g. RV. X, 40, 6, ' From you, O 
Ajvins, the bee took honey in its mouth, as a woman 
goes (with honey in her mouth) to an assignation V The 
digging of the plant with honey is not to be taken too 
literally, as S&ya/ta does, madhurupe«a khanitradina, or 
madhurewa prakarewa, but rather, ' with the influence of the 
sweetness of honey, prompting or supporting him who digs 
after the licorice-root.' Cf. AV. VII, 56, 2. 

Stanza 3. 

The second half is a formula, being repeated almost 
literally at III, 25, 5 and VI, 9, 2 ; Pada d, at VI, 42, 3 ; 


Stanza 4. 

o, d. The passage contains an elliptic comparison, as indi- 
cated by the brackets in our translation. Without the 
ellipsis supplied there is no good sense : Weber, ' mich 
allein drum du lieben magst wie einen honigsiissen zweig ; ' 
Grill, ' so sei denn ich das liebste dir, gleich einem honig- 
siissen zweig.' But what human being regards a branch 
sweet as honey as the most precious possession ? 

Stanza 5. 

a. The clinging sugar-cane is used here metaphorically 
for sweetness and attractiveness; no practice of this cha- 
racter is indicated anywhere. 

c, d. The passage is a formula; see II, 30, 1 ; VI, 8, 1-3. 

II, 3. Commentary to page 9. 

The hymn is joined with I, 2 at Kauj. 25, 6-9, in a 
charm against excessive discharges from the body ; see the 
treatment at I, 2. The particular part of Kaurika's prac- 
tices, which is based on our hymn, is contained in Sutra 

1 A different interpretation is suggested by Bergaigne, La syntaxe 
des comparaisons vldiques (Melanges Renier, p. 89). 

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25, 7. It is founded upon the conception that ants are 
endowed with the faculty of producing water, and that, too, 
healing-water, wherever they appear, and consequently 
whenever they are applied as a remedy. Hence they are 
here given to the patient to be drunk in water. For 
fuller statements of this belief, see the introduction to VI, 
100, and Seven Hymns of the Atharva-veda, Amer. 
Journ. Phil. VII, pp. 482-4. 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. 
XIII, 138 flf. ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 507 ; Grill*, pp. 17, 
79 ff. The Anukrama«t designates it as bhaishqgyayurdha- 

Stanza 1. 

b. The difficult word here is avatka. In the Paippalada 
XIX, 8, 2 (see Bohtlingk's lexicon s.v.) occur the two 
hypermetric Padas, avatakaw mama bhesha^am avatakaw 
pariva£anam. Here the metre suggests emendation to 
avatka, but at the same time shows pretty clearly that the 
word is a derivative of avata, ' spring.' Saya//a is very mis- 
leading. Having in mind the performances of the Sutra, he 
identifies avatka with mungasim/i in Kauj. 25, 6, and the 
mountain mentioned in the stanza with the Muagavat, to 
wit : atra parvat&rabdena mu%avan nama parvato viva- 
kshitaA l . . . tasmat adaA viprakrtsh/am yat prasiddham 
avatkam vyadhipariharewa rakshakam mu%ajiraA ava- 
dhavati avaruhya bhftmau dhavati. This involves an im- 
possible rendering of avadhavati, and leaves out of sight 
the possibility that this hymn may have nothing to do with 
the mu«,fa-reed, being concerned rather with the healing 
water, procured by the ants ; see the introduction. 

0, d. The passage as it stands in the text, and our trans- 
lation, can be sustained only on the supposition that the 
water is added to some other substance, not indicated in 
the stanza. Ludwig, feeling this difficulty, emends subhe- 
sha^am to subhesha^o, ' so that you (the patient) may have 
a powerful remedy.' A simpler emendation is to change 

1 Cf. the note on V, 22, 5. 

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asasi to asati, ' that do I make into a remedy for you, so 
that it may contain goodly remedy.' But the next stanza, 
as it stands, seems also to point to a mixed remedy ; hence 
I have adhered to the text. Sayawa comments against 
sense and grammar. 

Stanza 2. 

I have adhered to the unanimous reading of the MSS.; 
the Paippalada offers no help, id anga sftatam (!) yad bhe- 
sha^ani te sahasraw va gha yani te (cf. also VI, 44, 2). The 
sense of the passage, as it stands, seems to be that all 
the remedial substances which are combined with the 
avatka are, after all, inferior in healing capacity to the 
avatka itself. This is much as Sayawa construes it, tava 
sawbandhini sa^atiyani jatam . . . yani . . . bhesha^ani 
tcshaw bhesha^anam madhye tvam uttamam utkr/sh/ata- 
mam asi. Ludwig and Grill emend te to me ' dann wird's 
doch wohl geschehen, dass von meinen hundert Arzenei'n 
du selbst die allerbeste bist ' (Grill). I am not convinced 
that this is right. 

s. &d anga", ' then surely ;' kiivid anga", ' yea, quite surely ; ' 
the latter phrase is a rhetorical question (' art thou) surely ? ' 
Cf. Yaska's Nigh. I, 3, and Nirukta IV, 15. 

Stanza 3. 

a. The Asuras, the demons, here either hide away the 
remedies by burying them deep in the ground (cf. VI, 109, 
3), or they bury them for secure keeping, so that they may 
become available on occasion (cf. I, 24, a). See in general 
the note on I, 34, 1. 

b. aru^)sra/ram is emended well by Ludwig to aru(^)- 
ST&nam, from root jra, 'cook.' The Dhatupa7-&a, 2%, 2%, 
has sra (srayati) pake, and Sayawa also avails himself 
of this root in one explanation of the word, aruA srayati 
pakvam bhavati anena ; and (under st. 5), arusho vra«asya 
pa£anam. That is ' a remedy which causes the wound to 
ripen or heal.' We seem to have here the very source for 
the root sra of the Dhatupa/Aa. For the interchange of 
the sibilants, see Bloomfield and Spieker, Proc. Amer. Or. 

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Soc, May, 1886 (Journ., vol. xiii, pp. cxvii flf.). Possibly 
the word asrava may have had something to do with the 
change of -jra«a to -srawa. 

d. Sayawa reads aslsamat for aninarat ; cf. st. 4. 

Stanza 4. 

For upa^ikaA, 'ants,' see the introduction to VI, 100. 
Sayawa, valmlkanishpadika vamryaA. 

Stanza 6. 

The stanza consists of 12 + u + u syllables ; the last 
word rakshasam, obviously a gloss, is metrically super- 
fluous. For Pada c, cf. I, 19, 1. 

II, 4. Commentary to page 37. 

The plant called ^angu/a illustrates very perfectly the 
absence of any boundary line between disease and demon- 
ology in the Atharvan. On the one hand it is employed 
against a variety of diseases, fever (takman), internal sores 
(balasa), and other minor manifestations, or symptoms, 
designated as £ambha, vuara and vfrarika, aVarlka, and 
prtshryamaya (II, 4, % ; XIX, 34, io), receiving therefore 
the epithet vuvabhesha^-a, ' all-healing,' XIX, 35, 5 ; it is 
moreover the specific against rheumatic troubles, if vf- 
shkandha and sawskandha (II, 4, 1 ff. ; XIX, 34, 1. 5 ; 35, 1) 
shall turn out ultimately to have this meaning (see the note 
on st. 1 c). On the other hand it obviates all the dangers 
arising from hostile demons and sorceries, as is expressly 
stated in all the three hymns devoted to its praise (II, 4 ; 
XIX, 34 and j > ^). The plant is not mentioned outside of 
the Atharvan which, in lieu of description, indulges in the 
customary vague rhodomontades. The gods themselves 
have thrice produced the gahg\d&, Indra has put strength 
into it, and (XIX, 34, 6) the seers of yore are said to have 
known it by the name of Angiras — a very pretty conceit, 
but for the fact that it harbours nothing more than a stolid 
pun {gzhgidis and angiras). From the Kaurika and its 
commentaries we learn at least one thing that it is a tree. 
In the Sutra, 8, 15, it occurs in a list of 'holy' (rantaA) 

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II, 4- COMMENTARY. 28 1 

trees, as is expressly stated by Kerava, atha j4ntavr*ksha 
u^yante. Darila at 8, 15 ; 42, 23 describes it as a white 
tree growing in the Dekkhan, aig-una^ a£ala iti dakshiwa- 
tyaA ; Kerava at 8, 15, and Sayawa at II, 4, 1 say that it 
is familiar in Benares, vara»asya« prasiddhaA. Sayawa, in 
the introduction to our hymn, as also to AV. XIX, 34, has 
/angWavrjksha, and in the commentary at XIX, 34, 1 he 
places the home of the tree in the north, uttaradere pra- 
siddhaA, all of which would seem to show that the tree is 
known in many parts of India. 

The following is the literature on the gahgldi : Groh- 
mann, Indische Studien, IX, 417 ff. ; Weber, ib. XIII, 141 ; 
Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 65. 

The hymn II, 4 is employed, Kauj. 42, 23, in a practice 
which, according to Darila, is destined to drive away 
demons (pi.ra£a£atana) ; according to Kerava — I state the 
text literally — it is, purushahave (cod. purusho have ; cf. 
XIX, 34, 3) akaryakarawena vighnaramanakarma ; and 
further, kr*tyadusha»arthe (cod. kritvA-) apyayati vigh- 
na.ramanarakshakara«a// vighnaA viskandhe(!) yah (the 
latter passage is not printed in my extracts from that 
authority in the edition). The practice consists in tying on 
as an amulet the substance mentioned in the hymn : dir- 
ghayutvaye*ti mantroktam badhnati. Darila says ^angi- 
r/ama«im, and Kerava more explicitly states that an amulet 
derived from the^angu/a be tied on with a thread of hemp, 
^angu/amaaim ja«asutre«a badhva sawpatya»bhimantrya 
badhnati. The hemp refers to stanza 5, and it seems to me 
quite likely that Kerava is right in thus describing the 
association of the hemp with the ^angirfa as altogether 
external. The hymn has been translated by Weber, 
Indische Studien, XIII, p. 140 ff. 

Stanza 1. 

This hymn, as many others, begins with an irregular 
stanza, two trish/ubh and two anushAibh Padas ; cf. RV. 
VII, 103; AV. IV, ia; VI, in, &c. 

b. Sayawa reads rakshamawaA for dakshamaaa^. 

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o. The meaning of vfshkandha, I regret to say, is not 
clear. Both ancients and moderns have etymologised upon 
the word, and in all instances have arrived at the conclusion 
that the word refers to some disease. But the results, 
though consistent in the one point of disease, betray their 
weakness in differing as to its special nature. The scho- 
liast atTait. S. VII, 3, 11, 1 — the only known occurrence 
of the word outside of the Atharvan literature (cf. also Gop. 
Br. I, 5, 25) — explains it by virupa(A) skandhadyavayava 
yasya tad vishkandham (sc. jartram), 'the body whose 
members, shoulders, and so forth, are deformed is vish- 
kandha.' Sayawa, at AV. I, 16, 3 (and similarly here) 
says, gatipratibandhakam rakshaApLra£adikr*tam vighna- 
^utam, ' a disease which hinders from walking, produced by 
Rakshas, Pija£as, &c, instigated by (some hostile) disturb- 
ance.' The same fatuous authority, however, at XIX, 
35< 5 says, vishkandham viriish/askandham evawnamanaw 
vatavijesha/tt maharogam, 'vishkandha, a serious disease of 
that name, caused by wind (in the body), producing dislo- 
cation of the shoulders.' Professor Weber is the author 
of the modern interpretation of the word, ' drawing the 
shoulders apart, rheumatism' (see Indische Studien, IV, 
410 ; XIII, 141 ; XVII, 215, and cf. the Pet. Lex. ; Zimmer, 
1. a, 390 ; Grill 8 , p. 75). I have been struck by the fact 
that both Darila and Kerava in their comments upon K&us. 
42, 23 ; 43, 1. 2, the Sutras which rubricate AV. II, 4 and 
111,9, the principal sources of our knowledge of the vfsh- 
kandha, omit all mention of disease of any kind. To begin 
with, these passages of the Sutra are not part of the bhai- 
sha^yani (Kauj. 25, 1-32, 27). Further, Darila speaks only 
of pua£anlranam and pua£a£atanam, Kesava of vigh- 
n&yamanam and vishkandhavighnaramano (ma«iA). Ob- 
servation has taught me that the commentators' knowledge 
of the practices is superior to their knowledge of the mean- 
ings of words— all India is in this regard an easy prey to 
its perverse etymological habits 1 — and I should think it 

1 I recommend a continuous reading of Yaska's Nirukta to any 

Digitized by CjOOQ lC 


more conservative for the present to hold that vfshkandha, 
as well as the opportunistic samskandha at AV. XIX, 34, 5, 
are designations of hostile demoniac forces. One may 
easily be convinced, by examining, with the aid of Whit- 
ney's Index Verborum, all the passages in which the word 
occurs, that the latter meaning suits as well as the former. 
Of course the boundary-line between disease and possession 
by demons is an evanescent one in all Atharvan writings. 
The formation vfshkandha, moreover, suggests vyamsa 
(RV. I, 32, 5, &c.) and vigriva (RV. VIII, 4, 24), both of 
them designations of demons (cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. IV, 
410). Thus it has seemed best to leave the word untrans- 
lated for the present. 

Stanza 2. 

a. ^ambha, ' convulsions, cramps, or colic' The transla- 
tion is reasonably certain. Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, 142, 
describes the trouble as an infantile disease, perhaps teeth- 
ing; cf. also Zimmer, 1. c, 392, and Henry, Le livre VII de 
1' Atharva-v^da, p. 53. The etymology of the word, and the 
epithet sawhanu, 'shutting the jaws,' at AV. VIII, 1, 16, 
seem to lend themselves at first sight to such an interpreta- 
tion, but it is after all too narrow. Saya«a, ^arnbhlt 
himsakat kritytkdeti, yad va £ambha iti dantavijeshasya 
akhya, rakshasadantavireshakritat khadanat. See, how- 
ever, his very different interpretation at VIII, i, 16. At 
Kaor. 32, 1 ; $5, 15 occurs the word ^-ambhagrmita. 
Darila at 32, 1 defines it as^ambho raksha^, tena grihitaA ; 
according to Kaorika and Kerava, the patient is an infant 
which is put to the mother's breast and fed with rice 
and fennel steeped in milk \ All this would still pass 
readily as a cure of diseases connected with teething. But 
in Kaar. 35, 12-15 we have the following performance: 

one who wishes to know how much grain may be found among the 
chaff. And Yaska is the high priest ; how much worse are the 
epigoni 1 

1 Kaiw. ^ambhagr/hitaya (Kes. balakaya) stanam prayaMati, 
priyahguta«</ulan abhyavadugdhan p&yayati. 

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. . . garbhadr*>«ha«ani, ^ambhagnhitaya . . . gybtn trir ud- 
grathya badhnati. losh/an anvn'faw prlrayati. jyamasi- 
katabhi^ sayanam parikirati. The scene here is child-birth, 
the passage is part of the strikarmaai, ' women's rites ' (32, 
28-36, 40), and the ^ambha has seized the baby or the 
foetus, either at the moment of birth, or prematurely. 
Hence the title of the ceremony, ' performances for steady- 
ing the womb or foetus.' According to Darila, the woman 
herself receives the treatment, being tied about with a three- 
fold bowstring (^ambhena gr*hito garbho yasya striyaA 
tasya gyknt triguwaw* krrtva badhnati), fed with lumps of 
earth (^ambhagnhitaw [!] prlrayati), and having her bed 
strewed about with black sand. Here ^ambha seems to 
refer to some irregular behaviour of the foetus ; cf. Wise, 
Hindu System of Medicine, pp. 423 (middle), and 421 
(bottom), and the introduction to VI, 1 7. The word has 
at any rate no special connection with the teeth, as may be 
seen, too, from Tait. S. IV, 5, 11, 2. 

Our translation of vuara by ' tearing pain ' (Say. 
jarlravijarawat) is of the etymologising sort. The Pet. 
Lex., more cautiously, regards it as the name of a demon. 
Cf. vkarika at XIX, 34, 10, which Sayawa glosses by 
vueshe«a hiwsakam. 

Stanza 6. 

I am quite agreed with Kcrava and Saya«a (mawiban- 
dhanasutraprakntibhuta^) in not regarding the juxtaposition 
of the hemp with the gaagidi as due to some biological 
relationship, or therapeutic virtue (cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. 
XIII, 142). The hemp represents the thread with which 
the amulet of ^angWa was tied on. A thread, or rope of 
hemp is mentioned also at Kauv. 25, 28; 72, 15. See the 
introduction to the hymn. The hemp, of course, comes 
from the sap of the furrow ; ^ahgWa, the tree, from the 

Stanza 6. 

The same stanza with variants occurs at AV. XIX, 34, 4. 
The last Pada is a formula, occurring in addition at IV, 10, 
6; XII, 2, 13; XIV, 2,67. 

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II, 7. Commentary to page 91. 

Saya«a (and similarly Kerava) define the purpose of this 
hymn as a charm to obviate curses, evil eye, and danger 
from the attack of demons : laukikavaidikakrojayor brah- 
mawasape krfira£akshu^purushadrtsh/inipate pLra/fcaya- 
kshadibhaye. According to Kauj. 26, 35 the procedure 
consists in investing the person threatened with (an amulet 
made of) the substance mentioned in the mantra. The 
commentators define this as yavamawi, ' an amulet of barley l .' 
The word yava is not mentioned in the hymn, the nearest 
approach to it is japatha-y6panl, ' wiping out curses.' As 
o and ava have almost identical phonetic values in the Veda 
(cf. our statement of the facts, Amer. Journ. Phil. V, pp. 25 flf.), 
we must suppose that yava has been read by the ritualists 
out of the syllable y6- of y6panl ; cf. too, the synonym 
jrapatha-yaVani at IV, 17, 2, and the well-known formula 
yavo»si yavaya*smad dveshaA, ' barley art thou, ward off 
hatred from us' (Tait. S. I, 3, J, 1 ; Sat. Br. Ill, 6, 1, 11 ; 
Hira«yak. Sr. IV, 2, 42, in addition to the places mentioned 
in Kau-rikasutra, index C). Upon this basis the word and 
the article yava are suggested. The pun is so familiar as 
to leave no room for doubt in the mind of the Hindu 
acquainted with this style of literature. Cf. the intro- 
duction to VI, 91 ; and the note to IX, 2, 13. 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. 
XIII, 148 ff. ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 508 ; Grill 2 , pp. 24, 
81 ff. The Anukramawl, bhaisha.gyayurvanaspatidaivat- 
yam. Cf. also Santikalpa 1 9 *. 

Stanza 1. 
At Apast. Sr. VI, 20, 2 the stanza occurs in the following 
corrupt form : atharvyush/a deva^ta \\du Mapatha^am- 
bhani/z : apo malam iva pra«J£ann asmatsu japathaft adhi. 
Cf. II, 25, 4- 5- 

1 Saya«a, however, commenting on virudh in st. 1, durvS yavo vS. 
1 Cited erroneously by Sayawa as Nakshatrakalpa. 

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Stanza 2. 

b. We may note Grill's ingenious emendation of gktnyfih 
to gkmydik, an adjective from g&mi. But no such form 
occurs. Cf. AV. II, 10, i; RV. IV, 4, 5- S&yawa, 
^•amyaA g&miJi sahottpannl bhagini. 

Stanza 3. 

A number of the attributes stated in this and the pre- 
ceding stanzas are repeated at VI, 43, 1. a ; XIX, 32, 1. 3. 7 
in connection with the holy darbha-grass. The terms are 
too general and fabulous to permit definite conclusions as 
to the plant which the poet here has in mind. 

Stanza 4. 

a. The MSS. are divided between the readings pari 
*mim (so our edition) and pdri ma'm. I have followed 
Saya«a and Shankar Pandit in adopting the latter version. 

c, d. The metre is irregular (Anukr. virarf uparish/adbrt- 
hati) : c is a catalectic Pada ; d has ten syllables, one of 
which may be suppressed by reading tarshur. 

Stanza 6. 

b. For the sentiment cf. Tait. Ar. II, 6, 1. Sayawa, yzk 
purushaA suhirt . . . tena suhralayena mitrewa saha n&h 
asmakam, sukha*» bhavatu iti jesha/«, ' we together with our 
friend shall be happy.' I am not convinced that this is 
correct. Are we to read, yih suhirt t^na vayam saha ? 

c. £akshurmantra, ' he who bewitches with his eye,' also 
in XIX, 45, 1. Saya«a separates £akshur from mantrasya, 
explaining the latter by guptaw bhashamawasya pminasya, 
' the calumniator who speaks secretly.' But cf. the ' thou- 
sand-eyed curse' at VI, 37, 1; amitra£akshus at Kims. 
39, 11 ; and ghoraw £4kshus, ' evil eye,' at IV, 9, 6 ; XIX, 
35, 3- 

II, 8. Commentary to page 13. 

The word kshetriya is interpreted by the Atharvavedins 
quite unanimously as • inherited disease.' Three hymns, 

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II, 8 and 10; III, 7 (cf. also IV, 18, 7; V, 30, 4), are 
designed to drive it out, and the Kaurika rubricates all of 
them among the medical charms (bhaisha^yani), 26,41-27, 4 ; 
27, 7-8 ; 27, 29-31. Darila at 26, 43 defines it as ' family 
disease,' kaulo vyadhiA ; Kcrava at 27, 4 1 as, pitn'paryagataA 
kshetriyarogaA kush/AakshayarogaA grahawldoshaA sarva- 
jariraspho/akaraA ; similarly Say. at II, 8, 1. The scholiast 
at Tait. Br. II, 5, 6, 3 (p. 628) has kshetraw* garbhasthanam 
tatrotpannatvat, i. e. ' disease which has arisen while in the 
womb' (rather differently at II, 5, 6, i, pp. 626-7). The 
practices connected with these hymns are obscure in detail, 
and their application is remote. 

Kaur. 26, 41-27, 4 deals with our hymn, to wit : 41. 
' While reciting AV. II, 8, 1 (the practitioner) washes the 
patient outside (of the house). 42. While reciting AV. 
II, 8, 2 (he washes him outside of the house) at dawn. 
43. While reciting AV. II, 8, 3 he pulverises the plants 
mentioned in the stanza (see the translation), as also natural 
mud, and mud from an ant-hill, sews this up into the skin 
of a living animal ' (freshly slain), and fastens it (as an 
amulet upon the patient). 27, 1. While reciting II, 8, 4 he 
places a plough with its span of cattle over the head of the 
patient s and pours water over it. 2. While reciting AV. 
II, 8, 5 he pours the dregs of ghee into (a vessel full of) 
water (placed) within an empty house. 3. He pours more 
(dregs of ghee) into an old ditch into which grass from the 
thatch of the house has been placed. 4. Placing the patient 
into this ditch he gives him of the water to drink, and rinses 
him with it.' The symbolism of these practices is not clear, 
but they seem at any rate to be built up on the derivation 
of the word kshetriya from ksh&ra in the sense of ' field,' 
rather than in the sense of ' womb.' See especially the last 

1 For ^ivakoshawi see Kau-rika, Introduction, p. 1. Other sub- 
stances derived from living animals occur at Katy. <Sr. IX, 2, 16; 
Par. Grth. Ill, 7, 2. 

* That is, he puts the patient under the plough with its span, 
vrsshabhayuktasya halasya adhastad vyadhitam avasthapya (Saya»a 
in the introduction to the hymn). 

Digitized by 



stages of the performance, Sutra 27, 1 (the plough and the 
span of cattle), and Sutras 27, 3. 4, which aim to wash off 
the illness into the very ground, whence (according to this 
conception) it has been derived. And the hymn itself is 
redolent of fields, plants, ploughing, &c, and calls upon 
(st. 5) ' the lord of the field V Thus Professor Weber was 
led repeatedly to look upon this hymn as a charm to 
counteract injuries to fields 2 ; see Ind. Stud. V, 145 note ; 
XIII, 149 ; Nakshatra II, 29a. And yet, I think, all this 
is mere play upon the two meanings of kshetra, ' field,' and 
' womb 3 ; ' the poet, thinking that the disease derives its 
name from the field, conjures with the properties of the 
field, or, perhaps, adapts secondarily stanzas constructed 
originally for practices in the field. 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. 
XIII, 149 ff. ; and Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 111,513. The 
Anukramawl describes it as vanaspatyaw yakshmanlrana- 

Stanza 1. 

The last three Padas are repeated at III, 7, 4; the 
first half in VI, 121, 3. The point in all these cases 
is the supposed etymology of the constellation vi£rftau 
(later mulabarhani, and mfila) from vi krit, 'loosen;' this 
enables the word to figure wherever there is question of 
the ' fetters ' of disease. Cf. in general, Weber, Nakshatra 
II, 292, 310, 374, 389; Zimmer, pp. 356, 392. For an 
opposite construction of the function of the vikritau, see 
the note on VI, no, 2. 

1 See, however, the note on this expression below. 

* Cf. also Pacini V, 2, 92, and commentaries ; Ind. Stud. V, 145 
note; XIII, 159 note; XVII, 208 note; Zimmer, 391 ff. 

* Note especially the passage from K&iA. S. cited by Weber, 
Ind. Stud. XIII, 1 50 note. The expression svakr/ia iriwe does not 
prove that a field is in the view of a performer. A spot where there 
is a natural rift in the ground is frequently, in witchcraft, made the 
theatre of the performance, without any such special end in view. 
Cf. the passages in the Pet. Lex., and the paribhasha to the abhi- 
Aira performances, Kaur. 49, 6. 

Digitized by 



Stanaa 2. 

a, b. I have translated apa uMatu transitively ; cf. Ill, 7, 7 ; 
RV. 1, 48, 8, &c. Weber and Ludwig, contrary to ordinary 
usage, take it intransitively : ' hinschwinden moge jetzt die 
nacht,' and ' weg geh mit ihrem liechte diese nacht.' Sayawa, 
in agreement with our version, ' the night at the time of 
dawn (usha//kalina ratri) shall chase away (vivasayatu).' In 
Pada b I read, for the same reason, with one of Shankar 
Pandit's MSS., apoMatu for apoMantu, making it govern 
abhikr/tvariA. Weber, 'die zauberspinnerinnen (mogen 
schwinden) hin ; ' Ludwig, ' weg gehn sollen die bezau- 
bernden.' Sayawa, retaining the plural, forces, it seems to 
me, the meaning of abhikf/tvariw in translating it by abhitai 
rogajantiw* kurvawaA, 'working a cessation of disease all 
about.' And recognising the futility of the first, he also, 
alternatively, takes apo/Wantu as an intransitive, . . . pLra- 
kyaA apaga&fontu I Cf. the note on III, 7, 7. 

Stanza 3. 

a, b. According to our translation the words babhr6r 
a>£Unaka»</asya qualify yavasya ; Kerava (and Sayawa who 
repeats Kerava's substance) make the two words represent an 
independent plant : aigunakash/wam yavabusaw tilapi%ikaw 
ia. ekatra trl«i baddhva. And Darila also recognises three 
plants, the first of which he describes as babhruvar«asy4 
» lgunasya tasya ka«</ajesham (! for kaw^avLresham). Ac- 
cording to these constructions the first substance is a branch 
from the tree (Sayawa in commenting on the word in our 
stanza, ar£unakhyavr;1cshavi.reshakash/Aasya) aignna (ter- 
minalia arjuna). But the construction renders this extremely 
unlikely, and we prefer to render the text philologically. 

b. The word te, ' thy,' would seem at first sight to refer 
to a field, and, as stated in the introduction, this would 
show that the poet here looks upon kshetriya as a derivative 
of kshdtra, ' field,' and that he therefore introduces the para- 
phernalia of the field in his incantation. But this cannot 
stand against the ordinary value of the word, nor is it 

[42] U 

Digitized by 



impossible to imagine the introduction of these substances 
simply on the ground of the supposed (etymological) deri- 
vation of the name of the disease. At any rate we have 
Kaurika on our side. 

Stanza 6. 

a. sanisrasaksha is Sir. key. ; sanisrasa occurs once at AV. 
V, 6, 4 as a designation of the intercalary month (cf. AV. 
XIII, 3, 8 ; Weber, Nakshatra II, p. 336 note). Our 
translation is conjectural and etymological ; the only sup- 
port I find is in srastaksha (Sujruta 1, 115, 7), ' with sunken 
eyes.' Sayawa leans with his full weight on the Kaorika's 
employment of the stanza (27, a ; see the translation of it 
above), in which an ' empty house ' figures, and he identifies 
the word with simyagrthk/i (sanisrasyamanani atuayena 
visrawsamanani vLriryamawani akshani gavakshadidvaraai 
yeshaw te sanisrasaksha//, junyagr»h4 ity artha^), i.e. in 
brief, 'the decayed doors of the empty house.' Credat 
Judaeus ! Does ' with sunken eyes ' refer to the demon of 
the disease ? 

b. The difficulty is much increased by the unintelligible 
sa/wdejyebhyaA which Saya«a, who reads sawdejebhyaA, 
again identifies with the ^aratkhata, ' the old ditch,' in the 
Sutra, 27, 3. 4: sam dLryantetya^yante tadgatanWdadanene 
»ti samdesa/t ^aradgartaA ! The word seems to refer to 
some kind of evil (papa) at AV. X, 1, 11. 12 ; in IV, 16, 8 
(where it is contrasted with viderya, ' foreign ') it refers to 
the ' fetter of Varu«a,' i. e. disease. Weber, • den auftrag' 
ausfvihrenden verneigung sei ; ' Ludwig, ' anbetung den zu 
beauftragenden (sich fiigenden).' The entire stanza is 
highly problematic ; its relation to the Sutra very obscure. 

II, 9. Commentary to page 34. 

The disease which the hymn is designed to exorcise is, 
according to Darila, possession by the kind of demons 
called Pi.ra£a. Kerava (followed by Sayawa) describes it 
as due to brahmagraha, a word hitherto not quoted from 
any text, but reported by the lexicons as equal to brah- 

Digitized by 


II, 9- COMMENTARY. 29 1 

marakshasa. The practices connected with the hymn at 
KaiLr. 27, 5. 6 are as follows: 5. 'While reciting AV. II, 9 
a talisman consisting of splinters (from ten kinds of wood is 
fastened upon the patient). 6. Ten friends (of the patient) 
while muttering the hymn rub him down.' The commen- 
tators (cf. Kauj. 13, 5 ; 26, 40) understand the word jakala 
to mean ' a talisman made of ten kinds of holy wood/ and 
these are derived from the list of holy trees catalogued at 
Kauf. 8, 15. Cf.also the splinters from the (holy) kampila- 
wood, Kauj-. »7, 7 (see the introduction to II, 10), used 
against kshetriya (hereditary disease). For similar Germanic 
uses of nine kinds of wood to allay disease, see Wuttke, Der 
Deutsche Volksaberglaube der Gegenwart, §§ 131, 538; 
Mannhardt, Baumkultus der Germanen, p. 18. 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. 
XIII, 153 ft ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 506 ; Grill 2 , pp. 8, 
8a ff. ; cf. also the author in Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 478, 
and Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel V^dique, p. 137. The 
hymn figures in the takmanlranaga«a of the Ganamala, 
Ath. Pari*. 3a, 7 (see Kauj. 26, 1 note) ; the Anukramawi 
describes it as vanaspatyaw yakshmanajanadaivatam. The 
Paippalada presents the hymn, the stanzas arranged as 
follows : 1, 5, 4, 2, 3. 

Stanza 1. 

The metre is irregular, pankti (Anukr., vira* prastara- 
pankti). The Paippalada has the first half as follows : 
daravrtksha muȣemam ahiwsro grahylr ka.. 

Stanza 8. 

a. For adhttlr the Paippalada reads adhitam. Sayawa, 
' the Vedas, which he has read formerly, or their meaning, 
which is to be remembered, he has recalled ! ' Cf. KA&nd. 
Up. VI, 7. Ludwig emends adhiter, and translates * from 
insensibleness he has come away,' but the translation con- 
flicts with the meaning of adhi ga ; cf. RV. II, 4, 8. 

o, d. The Sutra embodies the indefinite large numbers 
100 and 1000 in the amulet often kinds of wood, and the 

U 2 

Digitized by 



ten friends (Brahmans according to the scholia) who attend 
the patient. 

Stanm 4. 

The word kMm occurs only in this stanza, and is very 
problematic. The Pet. Lex. and Weber, ' sammeln ; ' 
Ludwig, ' pfliickung ; ' Sayawa, ' covering.' We are con- 
necting the word with kii\6t\ in the sense of * arrange, build 
up,' having in mind the peculiar amulet or remedy dara- 
vriksha, ' consisting of ten woods,' in st. i. The sense then 
would be that the gods have found out the magic arrange- 
ment of the woods, while the Brahmans contribute the 
practical knowledge of the woods which are endowed with 
the healing property. Cf. Grill's similar exposition. 

Stanza 6. 

I have followed Sayawa who, relying alternatively upon 
RV. II, 33, 4, and Tait. S. IV, 5, 1, a, makes irvaraA, ' lord,' 
the subject of the sentence, trvara eva he rugwa tubhyam 
idani#ztanabhishagrupe«a bhesha^ani karotu. But the text 
of Pada d is awkward, and rendered somewhat doubtful by 
the Paippalada, whose version of c, d is, sa eva tubhyam 
bhesha^aw £akara bhisha^ati £a. Upon the basis of this 
reading Grill suggests for Pada d, knWavad bhisha^ati £a. 
Ludwig suggests s&ki, Vedic accus. plur. neut. in agreement 
with bhesha^ni ; Weber, bhisha^am for bhisha^a. Sayawa 
thinks also of snkink for suk\/t. I have translated the 
unanimous text of the 6'aunakiya-school. 

II, 10. Commentary to page 14. 

The practice associated with this hymn at Kauj. vj, 7. 8 
is colourless: 7. 'While reciting AV. II, 10 (the prac- 
titioner) fastens upon the limbs (of the patient who has 
been placed) upon a cross-road 1 splinters of kampila-wood 
(crinum amaryllacee), and washes him off with (water 

1 The favourite place to divest oneself of evil influences ; see the 
note in the introduction to VI, m. 

Digitized by 



dipped out) by means of a bunch of grass. 8. (Or) he 
sprinkles (him in the same way).' Cf. the practices under 
II, 8. A closely parallel mantra-passage occurs at Tait. 
Br. II, 5, 6, 1-3 ; this the commentator on the authority of 
Baudhayana (see p. 628, bottom) connects with the cere- 
monies at the birth of a child (^atakarma). According to 
Baudh. Grih. II, 1 and 7, the child is bathed with these 
stanzas, and this prescription is borne out by Hir. Grih. 
II, 3, 10 ff., where the same stanzas are quoted. They 
occur also in Apast. Mantrabr. II, 12, 6 (cf. Apast. Grih. 
VI, 15, 4). This usage does not really conflict with the 
Atharvanic employment of the hymn, since it aims to free 
the child from diseases and troubles derived from the womb 
of the mother. The conception borders closely on that of 
original sin. That the Atharvavedins regarded the kshe- 
triyd in this hymn as a disease may be gathered from the 
.employment of the hymn among the bhaisha^yani in the 
Kaurika ; it figures also in the takmanlranagawa, ' the list 
of hymns destructive of fever,' in the Ga«amala ; see Kauj. 
26, 1 note. 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. 
XIII, 156 ff., and Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 513. 

Stanza 1. 

a. ^amwawsa is equivalent to^-amySA .rapatha/* in II, 7, a; 
the word recurs at AV. IX, 4, 15, and Tait. Br. II, 5, 6, 3 
(where it is glossed by alasyaprakhyapakat). Sayawa, 
bandhavo ^amayaA, apraptabhilashitanaw tesham jawisanat 
akrora^anitat papat. 

Stanza 8. 

The sense of this and the following two stanzas is 
interrupted by the refrain ; Pada 3 b is in catenary con- 
struction with Pada 4 a. The other version of the hymn 
(Tait. Br.) does not exhibit the refrain, and the connection 
of the passages appears undisturbed. 

a. Sayawa reads vayodhaA for vayo dha/fe, glossing it by 
vayasam pakshiwaw dhata dharayita. 

Digitized by 



Stanza 8. 

The stanza alludes to the well-known legend which 
makes the demon Svarbhanu smite with darkness (eclipse) 
the sun, who is then freed by Indra and Atri ; see RV. 
V, 40, 5-9 ; Tait. S. II, 1, 2, 1 ; K&tA. S. XII, 13 ; Sat. Br. 
V, 3, 2, 2 ; Paȣ. Br. IV, 5, 1 ; XIV, 11,14; XXIII, 16, 2 ; 
Sankh. Br. XXIV, 3. 4. The moralising cause of the sun's 
mishap, his ^nas (sin), is not expressed distinctly anywhere, 
nor is it to be taken au grand s^rieux. By comparison it 
is treated as a disease, and, like disease or misfortune in 
general, ascribed to some moral delinquency, requiring 
expiation (praya&Htti) ; cf. st. 1. 

II, 12. Commentary to page 89. 

The essays on the interpretation of this hymn form 
an interesting chapter in the history of Vedic study, and 
we have devoted to the subject an article in the second 
series of our Contributions, Amer. Journ. Phil. XI, 330 ff., 
entitled 'On the so-called fire-ordeal hymn, AV. II, 12.' 
The hymn was first interpreted in the sense of a fire-ordeal 
by Emil Schlagintweit, in an address before the Royal 
Bavarian Academy in 1866, entitled « Die Gottesurtheile 
der Indier ;' this interpretation was adhered to by Weber, 
Ind. Stud. XIII, 164 ff.; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 111,445; 
Zimmer, p. 183 ff.; cf..5»'"q Kaegi, 'Alter und Herkunft 
des germanischen Gottesurtheils,' Festschrift zur Begriis- 
sung der XXXIX. Versan'imlung deutscher Philologen und 
Schulmanner in Zurich (1887), p. 51 \ The interpretation 
which is presented here is founded upon our above-men- 
tioned article, where Kaurika's significant employment of 
the hymn was first brought forward ; in essential agree- 

1 See also Stenzler, ' Die Indischen Gottesurtheile,' Zeitschrift der 
Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, IX, 661-82. 

Digitized by 


II, 12. COMMENTARY. 295 

ment with it is the translation and exposition in Grill 8 , 
pp. 47, 85 ff. 

The hymn is employed in the sixth book of the Kaurika 
which professes to deal with abhi£ara, 'witchcraft.' At 
47, la it is designated as the bharadva^apravraska, 'the 
hewer, or cleaver of Bharadva^a ' (the reputed author ; cf. 
1 1, 1 2, a) : ' With the cleaver of Bharadva^a one cuts a staff 
for practices pertaining to witchcraft.' A staff so procured 
is then employed variously in Kauj. 47, 14. 16. 18; 48, aa. 
The direct ritual application of the hymn is indicated in 
Kauj. 47, 25-29, to wit: 25. 'While reciting the hymn 
II, 12, one cuts the foot-print of an enemy, as he runs in 
a southerly 1 direction with a leaf from a pararu-tree *. 
26. He cuts three (lines) along (the length of the foot- 
print of the running enemy), and three (lines) across (the 
same). 37. akshwaya sawsthapya 3 . 28. He ties dust 
derived from the cut foot-print into a leaf of the palira-tree 
(butea frondosa), and throws it into a frying-pan. 39. If 
the dust crackles (in the pan) then (the enemy) has been 
overthrown.' The Sutra then proceeds to prescribe still 
more elaborate and potent charms for the purpose of down- 
ing the enemy. Of any connection with the fire-ordeal the 
tradition makes no mention. There are points of contact 
between our hymn and RV. VI, 53 ; VII, 104. The Anu- 
kramawl describes the hymn as nanadevatyam, composed 
by Bharadva^a. 

Stanza 1. 

d. Schlagintweit, 'may these be burned here, if I am 
burned.' So also Weber, Luu.. g, and Zimmer. Grill 
correctly, ' die sollen gliihen jetzt, wenn ich ergliihe.' Cf. 

1 South is the region of Yama and the departed, i.e. of death. 

* Or, with the blade of an axe. At any rate symbolically. The 
commentators differ as to the meaning of para* upalarena ; see 
Kaurika, Introd. p. li, bottom. Sayawa, as usual, follows Kejava. 
See also the note on Kaur. 30, 14 in the introduction to VI, 25. 

* The text of this Sutra is not altogether secure, its meaning and 
the scholia are obscure. 

Digitized by 



RV. X, 34, 10; 95, 17 ; AV. XIX, 56, 5. Sayawa, mayi 
abhi£arake tapyamane dikshaniyamena upavasadina klirya- 
mane sati tapyantam samtapta bhavantu. That is, heaven 
and earth shall participate in the consecration (diksha) of 
the performer for the sorcery-practices against his enemy. 
The appeal to heaven and earth in Pada a, and the mis- 
interpreted fourth Pada, are really the sole cause of the 
hypothesis of a fire-ordeal. An appeal to heaven and 
earth is in occidental minds associated inseparably with 
asseverations of innocence. A similar construction of it for 
India is apparently unwarranted. 

Stanza 2. 

b. For Bharadva^a, see IV, 29, 5; XVIII, 3, 16; XIX, 
48, 6 ; and Ludwig, Der Rigveda, pp. 1 28 ff. 

d. Schlagintweit, 'der diesen (unsern) geist beschadigt 
(i. e. schwur bezweifelt).' Weber, ' wer diesen meinen sinn 
beschadigt, i. e. meinen schwur antastet, mein wort bezwei- 
felt.' Ludwig, ' der diesen meinen sinn anklagt (verlaum- 
det).' All these renderings are founded upon the theory 
of the fire-ordeal. Sayawa, purva/w sanmargapravr/'ttaw* 
manaA manasam hinasti. There is no lack of evidence 
that religious performances were at times the object of 
enmity and the butt of abuse ; cf. stanza 6 ; RV. VI, 56, 
and Ludwig, Der Rigveda, IV, 219 ff. 

Stanza 3. 

a. The first Pada is defective, but occurs in the same 
form in the Paippalada. It may be corrected by reading 
somapavan, somapayin, somapa tvam, or the like. But 
Atharvan metres are so generally capable of improvement, 
that we are in danger of singing our own, rather than 
Atharvan hymns, when we apply ourselves to the task of 
improving them. 

Stanza 4. 

a. Professor Weber, I.e., pp. 167-8, has assembled some 
interesting statements in reference to the connection of the 

Digitized by 


IT, 12. COMMENTARY. 297 

number 80 with the fire-ritual. Sayawa attaches a certain 
significance to the number three, which he connects with 
the Xrikas of the Sama-sawhitas. The number is solemn 
and formulary. 

o. A clear instance of a Vedic parenthesis ; cf. Aufrecht, 
Festgruss an Otto von Bohtlingk, pp. 2 ff. For ish/a- 
purtam, see Windisch, ib., pp. 115 ff. Cf. also RV. X, 14, 
8; AV. Ill, 12, 8. 

d. Schlagintweit supplies ' firebrand ' in the last Pada, 
and translates, ' nehme ich jenen (feuerbrand) an mich mit 
gottlicher inbrunst.' Weber, in still more direct adherence 
to the hypothesis of a fire-ordeal, supplies with amum 
' gliihendes beil,' and translates, ' mit gottlicher gluth nehme 
ich diesen an mich.' Ludwig, 'jenen (den verlaumder) 
erfasse ich mit der gottlichen glut.' Zimmer, ' halte ich 
jenen (? feuerbrand, ?axt) mit gottlichem griff.' Sayawa 
properly refers amum to the enemy, and takes haras in 
the sense of krodha (haras etymologically = 04pos ; cf. II, 

Stanza 5. 

a. didhitham for didhiyatham. Sayawa, adipte bhavatam. 

Stanza 6. 

Recurs with variants at RV. VI, 52, 2 ; the connection 
there is less pregnant. 

o. Saya«a differently, tapumshi tapakani teg&msi ayu- 
dhani va vr^andni var^akani badhakani santu, i.e. 'may 
our zealous deeds or weapons be destructive to him.' 
Perhaps this is simpler. 

Stanza 7. 

This and the following stanza seem to be adapted from 
the funeral ritual (see Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 476 ; XI, 
335' 336 ff*)' Such as they are they occur also in the same 
connection in the Paippalada; cf. RV. X, 14, 13; 16, 2. 
Stanzas of this character lend themselves naturally to 

Digitized by 



imprecation and incantation. Here the poet takes the 
offensive against the thwarting enemy. 

a. For sapta pra«an, cf. Tait. Br. I, 2, 3, 3. Shankar 
Pandit, on the basis of a considerable number of his MSS. 
(both Sawhita and PadapaMa), reads manyaA for magni/i. 
So also Saya«a, manya^ dhamanyaA ka»Magata nidfivi- 
seshSJt. The MSS. frequently write y for g, especially in 
connection with nasals (anaymi and yunaymi for ana^mi 
and yunaymi) ; cf. Maitr. S. I, 3, 35 (p. 42, note 4), and 
Ind. Stud. IV, 271 note. On general textual and exege- 
tical grounds the reading magn&A is preferable. 

Stanza 8. 

Schlagintweit translates Padas c, d, ' (entweder) soil das 
feuer in deinen leib einkehren, (oder) deine rede gehe zu 
leben.' The sense he imagines to be : ' If the word of the 
accuser is true, then he shall remain unharmed ; if not he 
shall be injured by fire.' Essentially in the same spirit are 
Weber's, Zimmer's, and Kaegi's renderings. Cf. RV. X, 
15. 14- 

II, 14. Commentary to page 66. 

It is regretable that this textually and exegetically 
difficult hymn is illumined but very little by its abundant 
employment in the practices of the Atharvavedins. In its 
more general aspects it figures as one of the £atanani (sc. 
suktani), 'hymns designed to chase away (demons and 
diseases),' at Kaur. 8, 25 ; next, it occurs in another cycle 
(ga«a) of hymns of a somewhat problematic character, 
called mrtgarasuktani or mn"gara«i, 'purificatory hymns' (?), 
at Kaur. 9, 1 (cf. 27, 34). In this sense it is employed 
twice, Kaw. 72, 4 ; 82, 14, to purify the entrance to a house, 
nissalam hi jalaniv&ranaw sawprokshya. If we could only 
trust that punning juxtaposition of -salam and .rala-, it 
would remove one of the chief cruxes in its interpretation ! 

As regards its narrower application, it is associated dis- 
tinctly with difficulty in bearing offspring: at Kauj. 34, 
3-1 1 it is employed in a charm for preventing miscarriage ; 

Digitized by 


II, 14. COMMENTARY. 299 

at 44, 1 1 ff. it forms part of an elaborate practice to obviate 
sterility in cattle. The first of these practices is as follows : 
34, 3. ' While reciting II, 14 (the practitioner) pours dregs 
of ghee into water (in tubs standing) in three huts which 
have doors to the east and doors to the west (cf. Kaujr. 24, 
3), in behalf of the woman afflicted with miscarriage, she 
being dressed in a black garment. 4. Additional (dregs of 
ghee he pours) upon lead 1 placed into (the leaf of) a pallra- 
tree (butea frondosa). 5. Placing (the woman) over the 
lead he washes her (with the above-mentioned water). 
6. Having deposited the black garment (where she has 
been washed) she goes. 7. The Brahman kindles the hut 
8. The same performances take place in the two easterly 
(huts) 2 in connection with materials brought on separately 
(for each hut). 9. He performs the practices with the 
branches, mentioned (above, SA. 1 : he pours consecrated 
water over her head as she is seated upon branches of sim~ 
japa [dalbergia sisu ; cf. Kaur. 8, 16] by the side of a body 
of water). 10. Having put down to the west of the fire 
two reeds upon a stalk (? k&nde ishike), over the two doors 
(of the huts) s , he causes firewood derived from an udum- 
bara-tree (ficus glomerata) to be put on the fire. 11. To 
the woman as she comes home last (of those returning ?), 
cakes of rice, and ornaments of pramanda (cf. Kaujika, 
Introduction, p. Hi), anointed with the dregs of ghee, are 
given (cf. Kauj. 32, 29 ; 34, 1).' 

At Kauj. 44, 1 if. there is an elaborate practice of the 
expiatory kind (prayar£itta), in which a sterile cow is sacri- 
ficed to remove the blemish of sterility from the house. 
After the cow has been slain, '(the priest) while reciting 
II, 14 carries a firebrand (around her) thrice from right to 
left without moving (the firebrand) around himself (Su. 
44, 21). Later on 'he stops her breath ' while reciting II, 

1 Cf. AV. I, 16, and the practices connected with it. 

* The practices up to this point therefore have taken place in 
that one of the three huts farthest to the west. 

* Extremely problematic; cf. dhayine, Kamika, Introduction, 
p. li, and the scholiasts. 

Digitized by 



14, 5 (Su. 44, 15). All this is too general in character, 
and fails to cast light on the real difficulties of the hymn. 
Cf. also Ath. Pam. 17, 2. The Anukrama*! classifies it as 
jalagnidevatyam uta mantroktadevatyam. For previous 
translations, see Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, 175 ff. ; Ludwig, 
Der Rigveda, III, 522 ; Grill 2 , pp. 1, 89 ff. 

Stanza 1. 

a. The Pada might have better been left untranslated : 
the text is certainly corrupt, and especially dhi.fa#a, mas- 
culine, imbedded as it is in half a dozen feminines, is open 
to suspicion. The Paippalada has nissalaw dhish«ya>« 
dhisha«am, and, since dhishnya means ' seat of the priest,' 
the suggestion arises that nis is to be separated from salam 
(= jalam, ' house ') 1 , and is to be taken with najayamaA in 
Pada d, making some such sense as the following: 'we 
drive out from the house, from the seat of the priest (dhish- 
«ya), and from the fire-place (dhishawa) V Cf. the use of 
the hymn in Kaur. 72, 4; 82, 14 above, and the Anukra- 
ma«t, jalagnidevatyam. But the construction of nir nlsa- 
yamaA with the accusative of place from which is unheard 
of, and the change of all three words to ablatives would 
amount to an independent composition. Besides, the em- 
ployment of the Kaiuika, and the statement of the Anu- 
kramani, just mentioned, may be due to a more or less 
conscious, punning perversion of the syllables salam, for 
the purpose of extracting .rala, ' house,' from them. Grill 
composes a new Pada, nfs salawtkyaw dharshawim, 'out 
(do we drive) the bold Salav;- ikV Weber, ' die dreiste, zahe, 
ausspringende (? correcting to dhishanam) ; ' Ludwig — who 
entitles the hymn, * Gegen die Sala ? ' — translates, ' die aus 
dem hause befindliche (die aus der sala holle gekommene ?) 
freche verlangende,' or, alternatively, ' hinaus die sala,' &c, 
and, once more, as a third possibility, ' aus dem haus hinaus 
die freche begerliche.' Sayawa knows nothing about it : 

1 Cf. I, 18, i ; VI, 14, 2. 

* Cf. Hillebrandt, Soma und verwandte GOtter, 175 ff., 181. 

Digitized by 



nissala" is either the name of a female demon, or sala a kind 
of a tree (vrtkshavL$eshaA, tato nirgata nissala). 

b. Saya«a to ekavadyam, ' she who gives forth a single 
sound of gruff character.' 

o. Kinda. is the name of a demon, &tt. kty. in RV. and 
AV., but frequently mentioned elsewhere, especially in 
connection with Marka; see Sat. Br. IV, 2, 1,4. 9. 10. 14. 
20. Sayawa, kruddhasya . . . papagrahasya. 

d. sadanva, ' female demon,' seems to be connected with 
danu and danava. Saya«a follows Nirukta VI, 30 in ex- 
plaining it as ' ever noisy,' sadd nonuyamana^. 

Stanza 2. 

b. Sayawa takes aksha as 'gambling-house' (akshakri- 
*/asthana, dyutarala), and upanasa either as 'granary' 
(anasaA samipam upanasam dhanyagrzham) or as 'wagon 
full of grain' (dhanyapurnam jaka/am). RV. X, 105, 4 
does not render the word clear. 

o. Nothing is known of the iir. key. magundi (Sayawa, 
ka£ana pis&kt) ; cf. Weber's combinations, 1. c, p. 177. 

Read duhitro (as in the dialects), and cf. our note on 
VII, 12, 1 ; also Ait. Br. VII, 13, 8. 

Stanza 3. 

a, b. The word adharacl, ' below,' alludes with double 
entente to hell (adhama" tamawsi). Sayawa, patalaloko*sti; 
cf. Zimmer, p. 420. This class of writings are fond of con- 
juring diseases and misfortunes upon others, strangers and 
neighbours ; cf. AV. V, 22, 4 ff. ; RV. X, 155 ; and the 
common formulary expression, anyams te asmat tapantu 
hetayaA 1 in the Ya^us-texts. 

Stanza 4. 

The stanza occurs in another connection in the Paippa- 
lada, and may not originally have stood here, since the 

1 'Heiliger Sanct Florian, 

Schfitz unser haus zttnd' andre an!' 
Cf. Amer. Journ. Phil. XI, 345 ff. 

Digitized by 



second book of the AV. in general consists of hymns of 
five stanzas. 

a. Sayawa glosses bhutapatir correctly, bhutanawt palako 
rudraA. The word bhuta here suggests more narrowly 
'evil beings.' 

d. fndro is metrically superfluous, and may be spared 
from the context. Anukramani, uparish/advirdrf br/hatl. 

Stanza 5. 

a. I have taken kshetriyawaw in the sense which it 
ordinarily has in the AV. (II, 8 and 10 ; III, 7) ; Sayawa, 
kshetrat parakshetrat rnatapitmartrad agatanam . . . roga- 
«am. Weber and Ludwig, ' coming from the field.' Grill, 
' ob ihr zum wild des Felds gehort.' 

Stanza 6. 

b. In the MSS. the Padap. reads, Inir gash/Aarn ivasaran ; 
the edition emends ga"sh^am to kash/Aim, and we, with 
most translators and Sayawa, read ivasaram. Sayawa reads 
glash/Mm, glossing, paridhavanena glanaw san yatra tish- 
/Aati sa glash/Aa (' goal,' ' resting-place ' ?). Cf. VI, 67, 1 . 

II, 25. Commentary to page $6. 

The plant prwntparw" (hemionitis cordifolia ; Sayawa, 
£itrapar«i oshadhi/*) is here employed to off-set the activity 
of demons called kawva, of varied pernicious influence, 
but especially conceived as devourers of the embryo in the 
womb. According to Surruta I, 377, 7 it serves, mixed 
with milk, as a preventive against miscarriage (garbhasrave). 
Kejava, at Kauj. 26, 36, prescribes it as a far more general 
remedy, for one overtaken by misfortune, against mis- 
carriage, still-birth, and demons of various sorts. Darila 
says it destroys the demons called pis&ka. The practice at 
Kaiu. 26, 36 consists in smearing the plant mixed with 
the .dregs of ghee upon the patient. The hymn is one of 
a list of six grouped together at Kauj. 26, ^ for all sorts 
of diseases (Sayawa in the introduction, sarvarogabhaisha- 

Digitized by 


II, 26. COMMENTARY. 303 

^yakarmawi), which the Ga»amala (Ath. Parir. 32, 24) 
describes as the ganakarmagano (1 a list for collective prac- 
tices). Kaiif. 8, 25 mentions it further among the £ata- 
nani, ' hymns with which demons are exorcised.' 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. 
XIII, 187 ff. ; Grill 2 , pp. 20, 92. The Anukramani de- 
scribes it as vanaspatyam. 

Stanza 4. 

For -y6pana in this and the next stanza, see Amer. Journ. 
Phil. XII, 414 ff. Cf. II, 7, 1. 

II, 26. Commentary to page 142. 

This is a hymn connected with a species of oblation 
(havfs) ', whose object is to concentrate (sawsravya) wealth 
and prosperity upon the sacrificer. Cf. I, 15 and XIX, 1. 
Our hymn aims at prosperity in the stable, and accord- 
ingly it is rubricated along with III, 14 ; VII, 75 ; VI, 1 1, 
3, at Kauj. 19, 14 ff. in a series of 'stable-ceremonies' 
(gosh//rakarma«i), to wit: 19, 15. 'He (the owner) drinks 
the new milk of a cow that has thrown her second calf, 
mixed with the spittle (of the calf) 2 . 16. He presents 
a cow (to the Brahman). 17. He pours out (into the 
stable) a vessel full of water. 18. Having swept together 
the (previously moistened dung), placing his left hand 
upon it, he scatters half of it with his right hand. 19. 
Having placed lumps of excrement, bdellium, and salt into 
milk from a cow with a calf of a colour identical with hers, 
he buries (the mixture) behind the fire. 20. On the fourth 
morning he eats of it. 21. If the milk has turned 3 , then 
(the performance) is a success.' 

The hymn occurs also in the Paippalada ; it has be*n 
translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, p. 26 ff. ; Ludwig, 

1 Cf. the introduction to VI, 39. 

* Saya»a, vatsalalamuritam. Cf. Khid. Grih. Ill, 1, 47. 48. 

* Cheap magic. The milk is sure to turn ! Is vikn'te to be 
emended to aviknte ? 

Digitized by 



Der Rigveda, III, 371 ; Grill 2 , pp. 64, 92 ff. Cf. also 
Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel V^dique, p. 138. The 
Anukraraawi designates it as pajavyam, the author being 

Stanza 1. 

b. Vayu, the wind, the husband of the distant regions 
(II, 10, 4), who goes in every direction, is naturally regarded 
as the companion of the cattle, when away from home — 
a truly poetic conception I Cf. Tait. Br. Ill, 2, 1, 4. 

o. rupadh^yani is taken by the Pet. Lex. as a copulative 
compound, ' form and colour.' But the analogous bhaga- 
dheya and namadhfya do not favour such a construction. 
Perhaps 'formation' is the safest rendering of the word. 
Cf. e.g. Tait. S. I, 5, 9, 1 ; Tait. Br. Ill, 8, 11, 2. 

Stanza 2. 

o, d. Sinivali, the goddess of the new-moon, and Anumati, 
the goddess of the full-moon, as representatives of the 
bright part of the month, are fit to illumine the way home. 
They also preside over the act of procreation; cf. Zimmer, 
p. 352. Saya«a, unsupported by MS. authority, comments 
upon anugate instead of anumate. 

Stanza 4. 

c. ' Poured together,' i. e. ' united, or accumulated.' The 
translation is stiffer than the original, where saw si«£ami 
and simsiktidt play upon one another. 

Stanza 5. 
For the change of verb-form, cf. the note on II, 29, 5. 

II, 27. Commentary to page 137. 

The history of the interpretation of this hymn is told 
by the translator in Seven Hymns of the Atharva-veda, 
Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 479 ff. It is of interest, because it 
marks very clearly the value and continuity of the Hindu 

Digitized by 


II, 27. COMMENTARY. 305 

tradition. It had been regarded previously by all inter- 
preters as a charm against robbers of provisions, until the 
obviously correct conception of Darila in his comment on 
Kaiu. 38, 18 ff. was presented. The translation of this 
passage, along with the bracketed commentary, is as fol- 
lows : 38, 18. ' While reciting AV. II, 27 (one approaches) 
the person against whom the debate is directed (from the 
north-east, while chewing) the root of the pa/a-plant 1 . 19. 
He addresses (with the charm his opponent). 20. He ties 
on (the pa/a-root as a talisman). 21. He wears (upon his 
head) a wreath of seven leaves (of the pa/a).' Cf. also 
5antikalpa 1 7 and 19 s . Previous translations of the hymn : 
Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, 190 ff. ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 
461 ; Grill*, pp. 23, 93 ff. The Anukramawi designates the 
hymn as vanaspatyam. 

Stanza 1. 

The Anukramani defines the purpose of this stanza cor- 
rectly by arinirqfastvam aprarthayat, ' he desired absence 
of strength in the enemy.' 

a. Sayawa, incorrectly, takes pr&s as a noun of agency, 
prash/araw vadinam s ; see, however, Kaus. 38, 24, prajam 
akhyasyan (Dar. pratipramam akhyasyan ; cf. Vait. Su. 
37, * ; 38, 6). Neither this word nor pratiprlr and prati- 
prarita (Kaor. 38, 18 ; Darila, prativadin) have any con- 
nection with root aj, ' eat,' but are derivatives from the 
root praj, ' ask.' 

o. The construction of pr&sztn pratiprlro ^ahi is not 
quite certain. Saya«a takes both as accusatives, 'the 

1 The pa/£ is, according to Saya«a at st. 4, identical with the 
later pa/Aa (clypea hernandifolia) ; cf. Kaiw. 37, 1 ; .flj'gvidhana IV, 
12, 1 (MSS. pa/4a). See Ind. Stud. XVII, 266 (the passage quoted 
from Apastamba is to be found Apast. Grih. Ill, 9, 5). The word 
pa/a is doubtless, like other words for plants (apimarga, arundhatt), 
etymologically suggestive ; cf. the root pa/, ' tear.' — For the words 
supplied by Darila, cf. Kaar. 38, 17. 

* Erroneously quoted by S&yawa as Nakshatrakalpa. 

* But in st. 7 he falls into line with pratikulapnur narupaw vakyam. 

[42] X 

Digitized by 



debater and the counter-debaters strike.' We regard prati- 
prlro as gen. sing, dependent upon prajam (cf. st. 7 a), in 
which case one should like to emend arasan in Pada d to 
arasSm (cf. Ludwig). If not, pratipraj is to be regarded 
as a collective, ' the opposition.' Possibly both are accusa- 
tives, ' overcome the debate and the debaters.' 

d. arasan, with double entente, ' without sap or moisture 
(in their throats),' and 'without force.' Sayawa, iush- 

Stanza 2. 

a, b. The same hemistich occurs at V, 14, 1 ; cf. I, 24, J. 
Sayawa, suparwaA . . . vainateyaA, i. e. Garutmant, GarWa. 
But there is no myth in all this : the eye of the eagle, and 
the nosing boar find the secret seat of the plant. 

Stanza 3. 
Saya«a, in the teeth of the Padapa/^a, comments both 
here and in the next stanza on taritave instead of starttave. 
The Samhita may be construed either way. 

Stanza 5. 

a. sakshe (Sawhita and Padapa7//a), probably for sakshye 
(Sat. Br. I, 3, 3, 13) ; cf. our note on IV, 20, 7. 

b. Sayawa glosses salavr/kan by ara«yaxvana/(, in accord- 
ance with many other scholia, assembled by Weber, 1. c, 
p. 191. Doubtless jackals, as devourers of corpses, are 


Stanza 6. 

For ^alashabhesha^a, see Contributions, Fourth Series, 
Amer. Journ. Phil. XII, 425 ft, and cf. especially AV. VI, 


Stanza 7. 

d. Saya#a, with some MSS., reads prlram for pr&sl 
(prlram prash/ara/n vadinaw mam uttaram . . . kuru). 

II, 28. Commentary to page 50. 
The hymn is counted in the Gawamala, Ath. Parij. 32, 4, 
as one of a list ' calculated to bestow long life ; ' see 
Kauj. 54, 1 1 note. It is worked up more especially in the 

Digitized by 


It, 28. COMMENTARY. 307 

godana, the ceremony of shearing the first whiskers of 
a youth. Father and mother, while reciting the hymn, hand 
the boy over thrice to one another and feed him with 
dumplings, prepared with ghee (Kaur. 54, 13. 14). Cf. 
Sankh. Grih. I, 28, 15, and Ajv. Grth. I, 4, 4, where the 
related stanzas RV. IX, 66, 19-21 are rubricated, and, in 
general, Maitr. S. II, 3, 4; Tait. S. II, 3, 10, 3 ; Tait. Ar. 
II, 5. The Anukramawi designates it as ^arimayurdevatam, 
' devoted to the divinity which bestows life unto old age ; ' 
cf. Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 341. Previous translations 
by Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, 19a ff. ; Grill 2 , pp. 48, 94 ff. 

Stanza 1. 

b. The favourite formulary number for all possible varie- 
ties of death is one hundred and one : AV. I, 30, 3 ; III, 
1 1 > 5- 7 ; VIII, 2, 27 ; XI, 6, 16. The Pada is hypermetric, 
and may be relieved by throwing out imam or anye\ 

d. The play of words in mitra enaw mitrfyat cannot be 
reproduced in English ; cf. RV. IV, 55, 5. 

Stanza 2. 

a. ns&dSi is not analysed by the Padapa/^a, being repro- 
duced by most MSS. as risSid&A, by some as rLfSda (dual, 
agreeing both with Mitra and Varuwa ? cf. Va^-. S. XXXIII, 
72). Sayawa takes it as nom. sg., hiwsakanam atta, and the 
scholiasts generally, beginning with Yaska, Nirukta VI, 14, 
though they differ in their etymological analysis, arrive at 
similar interpretations. Aufrecht, in Bohtlingk's Lexicon, 
VI, 305, and Grill, p. 95, take it to mean 'very distin- 
guished,' the latter scholar comparing it with tpinvbris. One 
would fain look for das, ' giving,' in the last part of the 
word. At Maitr. S. I, 10, 2 (p. 140, 1. 10)= Tait. S. I, 8, 
3, 1, the expression maruto ya^wavahasaA occurs as the 
version of maruto rija'dasa^ in Va^-. S. Ill, 44 ; this may 
be noted for future reference. I have surrendered the 
version of the native etymologists in favour of Aufrecht 
and Grill, though the latter has failed to convince me with 
his fascinating etymological combination. 

X 2 

Digitized by 



o, d. The relation of this hemistich to the preceding is 
obscure ; it seems to have been introduced secondarily and 
loosely. Agni purifies life (RV. IX, 66, 19) : so far he fits 
in with the preceding. But Agni also knows all the races 
of the gods (RV. IV, 2, 18 = AV. XVIII, 3, 23) : this, the 
major part of the hemistich, belongs to a different sphere of 
conceptions ; see the author in Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XVI, 
16 ff. Pada d is obviously formulary, being repeated liter- 
ally in a different connection at IV, 1, 3. For vayiinani, 
see Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 295 ff. ; Ludwig, Uber 
Methode bei Interpretation des Rigveda, pp. 31 ff. Saya«a, 
here as elsewhere, in accordance with Yaska, Nir. V, 14, &c, 
pra^wanamai * tat, iha tu samarthyat pra^-watavyani vidvan, 

Stanza 3. 

b. The edition of Roth and Whitney has ^anitvaA, which 
is the Paippalada reading. Most MSS. used by Shankar 
Pandit read ^anftra/* ; so also S4ya«a, ^anitraA ^anish- 
yamawM. But ^ani'tra is not quotable as an adjective : 
I accept the more recondite reading giaitv&A. 

Stanza 5. 
The last stanza occurs in Tait. S. II, 3, 10, 3 ; Maitr. S. 
II, 3, 4 ; Tait. Ar. II, 5, 1 (the last two with variants). 

II, 29. Commentary to page 47. 

. The tenor of the hymn is vague, and it exhibits strong 
traces of patch-work, being compiled from a variety of 
sources. In the ritual it is applied chiefly as a remedial 
charm against a disease in which thirst plays a prominent 
rdle (tr*'sh»agr*htta ; cf. st. 4). It is described at Kauj. 
27, 9-13, as follows: 9. 'While reciting II, 29 (the per- 
former) at sunrise seats (the patient and a healthy person) 
back to back. 10. Having seated upon branches the patient 
with his face to the east, and the healthy person with his 
face to the west, having churned a stirred drink in a cup 
made of vetasa-reed by means of two (vetasa-reeds, used as) 
stirrers, upon the head of the person afflicted with thirst, he 

Digitized by 



presents it to the person not suffering from thirst. 11. 
(Thus) to him he transfers the thirst. 12. (To the patient) 
he gives water (freshly) drawn to drink \ 13. While re- 
citing the second half of st. 6 he does as there stated (i.e. 
he covers them with one and the same garment, and lets 
them drink of the stirred drink).' The performance implies 
the transference (vaguely suggesting the modern trans- 
fusion) of the disease upon some friend or menial. Cf. 
Kaiya/a to Pawini V, 2, 92, as cited by Weber, Ind. Stud. 
XIII, 159 note. In the Teutonic folk-practices, transfer- 
ence of disease takes place without knowledge of the 
healthy; cf. Wuttke, Der deutsche Volksaberglaube, 
§ 492 ff. The nature of the disease which harasses the 
patient with thirst is not stated ; it is, of course, likely to 
have been febrile in character. 

The hymn figures also at Kaor. 54, 1 8 in the £u<&kara»a, 
the ceremony of tonsure. This in its character as a life- 
giving hymn (ayushya; cf. sts. 1, 2). The third stanza, 
a familiar Ya^ns-formula, is quoted at Vait. Su. 22, 16. 
Previous translations : Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, 194 ff. ; 
Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 493. 

Stanza 2. 

The special quality of Agni as a bestower of life is 
alluded to very frequently, e.g. II, 13, 1 ; 28, 1 ; cf. the 
parallels cited in the introduction to the latter hymn. 
Pada d is repeated elsewhere, e. g. I, 10, 2 d. 

Stanza 3. 

The stanza, quoted at Vait. Su. 22, 16, is repeated with 
variants in Maitr. S. IV, 12, 3 ; Ka/A. S. V, 2 ; Tait. S. Ill, 
2, 8, 5 ; Katy. Sr. X. 5, 3. The second hemistich also in 
Ka/A. S. XXXII, 2. In all these the difficult duals dhattam 
and sa£etasau are replaced by the singulars dadhatu and 
savar£asam (Ka///. suvar£asam), and all these texts under- 
stand Astr to be the nominative of the stem kslr, ' milk added 
to soma ;* see especially Vait. Su. and Katy. Sr., 1. c. (lriram 

1 Cf. stanzas 5 and 6 of the hymn. 

Digitized by CjOOQ lC 


in the text of the Sutra). This construction fails here, and 
we have, as also Sayana (alternatively), and the former 
interpreters, taken ksXh from stem Irfs, ' prayer.' The dual 
dhattam in Pada b seems to refer proleptically to dyava- 
pri'thivt in st. 4, as Sayawa assumes without hesitation. 
The entire stanza is adapted secondarily ; we must in such 
cases follow the adaptation sympathetically, not the original 
sense which is entirely out of keeping with the situation. 

o. £ayam in the MSS. (Sawhita and Padapa/Aa) seems to 
stand for ^ayan (the other versions samgayan). Saya«a 
takes g&ymn as the noun, ' victory and lands obtaining,' &c. 
This, too, is possible. 

d. For anyan sapatnan, cf. Nala, 1, 13, 14; III, 2, and 
expressions like irokiT&p k<zI t&v &KKmv £tva>v, very common 
in Greek ; see the author in Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 101. 

Stanza 5. 

The transition from the praying modal form in Padas 
a, b to the prophetic aorist in c, d, is a common one in the 
Atharvan, e. g. II, 26, 5. 

Stanza 6. 
c, d. Cf. the Sutra in the introduction above. It seems 
difficult to conceive this hemistich in any other connection 
than that indicated by the Sutra. There it fits admirably. 
The patient and the healthy person clothed in the same 
garment assume a magically deceptive identity, like that 
of the Ai-vins l , so that the disease passes from one to the 
other. And yet this may not be a sautra mantra, but an 
adaptation of materials, originally composed in a different 
connection for a different purpose I Saya«a, here as else- 
where, follows the Sutra through thick and thin. 

Stanza 7. 

a. Sayawa says that Indra was struck by the demons, 
VWtra, &c, but does not refer to any particular narrative. 

1 The Afvins, moreover, are the heavenly physicians, presumably 
conceived as being themselves free from disease. Thus both 
persons engaged in the practice are symbolically made healthy. 

Digitized by 



Cf. RV. I, 33, 13. 14 ; Tait. S. VI, 5, 5, 2. Weber suggests 
that the mention of Indra's injury indicates that the patient's 
thirst is due to fever consequent upon wounds. 

II, 30. Commentary to page ioo. 

The practices in the Kaunka (part of the strikarmam, 
32, 28-36, 40) are stated at 35, 21. They seize upon and 
embody with rather delicate symbolism the comparisons 
and metaphors which naturally appear in such poems. The 
performances are, however, not built up upon this hymn 
alone, but upon three others, VI, 8, 9, and 102, as follows : 
' While reciting the four hymns just mentioned, he places 
between two chips, taken respectively from a tree and 
a creeper which embraces it, an arrow 1 , sthakara-powder 8 , 
salve, kush/^a (costus speciosus), sweet-wood, and a stalk 
of grass which has been torn by the wind ; he mixes them 
with melted butter and anoints (the woman he loves) 3 .' 
Cf. the following stanzas of the hymns : VI, 8, 1 ; II, 30, 3 ; 
VI, 102, 3; II, 30, 1; and VI, 102, 2. The paraphernalia 
and emotions of love are concretely embodied in a mixture, 
and drastically transferred upon the woman. 

Previous translations: Weber, Ind. Stud. V, 218; XIII, 
197 ff. ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 517; Grill 2 , pp. 52, 
97 ff. The Anukrama«l, kaminimano*bhimukhikara«a- 

Stanza 1. 

b. The use of the root manth suggests the later man- 
matha, ' god of love.' 

1 This represents, of course, Kama's, the love-god's, arrow. Cf. 
Weber, Ind. Stud.V, 225; XVII, 290. 

9 No less than four forms of this word occur, sthakara, sthagara, 
tagara (-ri), and takart It is a fragrant powder; see, e. g Tait. 
Br. II, 3, 10, 1-3; Gobh. Grth. IV, 2, 29. 

* So Sayawa, striya ahgam anulimpet. Differently Kerava, 
angaw samalabhet rufyartham, i. e. ' he anoints himself so as to 
make himself attractive.' 

Digitized by 



d, e. The two Padas are formulary ; see I, 34, 5 ; VI, 8, 

Stanza 2. 

a, b. Weber, Ludwig, and Grill regard kamfna as dual, 
* the loving pair.' I have adopted this, and not followed 
Sayawa in construing it as instrumental singular. The 
sense would then be, ' if ye shall unite her with (me), her 
lover.' The two Ajvins, who woo Sflrya for Soma (RV. 
X, 85, 8. 9. 14. 15), play here the part of gods of love ; cf. 
AV. XIV, 1, 35. 36; 2, 5. 6; VI, 102, 1. The anacolu- 
thon between the two hemistichs is reproduced in the 

c. bhigaso, 'fortunes, good fortunes,' possibly with a 
double entente (bhaga = vulva) ; cf. st. 5. The Pada, 
moreover, suggests secondary adaptation; vdm seems to 
refer primarily to the Ajvins, ' your fortunes (i. e. the good 
fortune bestowed by you) have arrived.' 

Stanza 3. 

The sense seems to be that the time of the birds' amorous 
chirping, when they call to one another to mate, is the 
proper time for the lover's call to his mistress. Weber, 
Ind. Stud. V, 219, and Ludwig suggest, however, that the 
cry of the birds is regarded as a good omen. Sayawa, 
vaktum \khawo bhavanti. In speaking of the arrow-point 
and the shaft, the poet has in mind the arrow as the 
weapon of the god of love ; see III, 25, 1. 2 ; Ind. Stud. V, 
225 ; XVII, 290 ; Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch. 
XIV, 40, 269. 

Stanza 4. 

a, b. The entire mental condition of the maiden, and 
perhaps also her utterances, shall be altered : the passage 
is formulary. Sayawa, 'by this the conflict between her 
speech and her thought is removed.' 

o. Sayawa on vLrvartipdwam, ' having limbs full of fault- 
lessness, and not previously enjoyed (in sexual love).' But 
the word may mean simply ' of all sorts.' 

Digitized by 


.v \ 

Stanza 5. 

d. bhaga here seems to be used in a double meaning 
(' fortune,' and * vulva ') ; it is to be noted that Saya«a does 
not paraphrase the word. Cf. XX, 136, 5. The Anukra- 
ma«i, dampatt parasparaw manograha»am akurutam. 

II, 31. Commentary to page 22. 

The Atharvan contains three charms against worms, II, 
31 and 3a ; V, 23 \ The first of these seems to be of the 
general sort ; the second is directed against worms in 
cattle; the third is intended to cure worms in children. 
We must not, in my opinion, suppose that the assumption 
of the presence of worms was preceded by acute diagnosis. 
Professor A. Kuhn, in his admirable treatise on the con- 
nection between Teutonic and Vedic medicinal charms 
(Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende Sprachforschung. XIII, pp. 
49 ff. ; 1 13 ff.), has shown that the greatest variety of 
diseases are regarded in the naive view of folk-medicine 
as due to the presence of worms (see pp. 135 ff.) ; doubtless 
similar conceptions are at the base of the Hindu formulas. 
This accounts for 'worms in the head' (II, 31, 4); 'the 
variegated worm, the four-eyed' (II, 32, 2), and the like. 
Cf. also Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, pp. 98, 393 ; Wise, 
Hindu System of Medicine, pp. 307, 348 ff. ; and Mann- 
hardt, Der Baumkultus der Germanen, pp. 12 ff. Less 
certain is the same scholar's view that the similarity of the 
conceptions in this matter points back to proethnic charms, 
since the equal endowment of the two peoples (Hindus and 
Germans) may of itself suffice to account for the parallel 
results. But I must say that the more modern scepticism 

1 Cf. elsewhere, Tail. Ar. IV, 36; Apast. St. XV, 19, 5; Gobh. 
Grih. IV, 9, 19 ; Mantrabrahmawa of the Sama-veda II, 7; also 
Maitr. S. Ill, 14, n ; Tail. S. V, 5. 11, 1 ; V&g. S. XXIV, 30; 
and the correlated hymn, RV. I, 191. 

Digitized by 



which stoutly denies the possibility of such productions in 
Indo-European times is at the present time more dogmatic 
than is at all warranted by the evidence. It is likely 
a priori that some of these folk-notions had crystallised 
in prehistoric times ; if there was an Indo-European people 
— some will deny even that — there was also a crude Indo- 
European folk-lore. Cf. also the introduction to IV, 12. 

Kaufika implicates this hymn in a rather elaborate and 
difficult practice, 27, 14-20, as follows : 14. 'While reciting 
AV. II, 31 he makes an oblation of black lentils 1 , the kind 
of worms called alga«</u 2 and hanana, (all) mixed with ghee. 

15. The young (of worms: Darila, kr*mi«o balan 3 ) he 
winds about from right to left upon a black-spotted arrow 
(Dar., kalmashavaree jare), and then smashes (the arrows)- 

16. He roasts (the worms in the fire). 17. He then lays 
on (the worms with the arrow as firewood in the fire : Dar., 
tan balan s&raran). 18. With his left hand, his face turned 
to the south, he throws up dust and scatters it (over the 
patient, Ke-rava). 19. He (the patient) grinds up (the dust). 
20. He then lays (ordinary) firewood on the fire.' The 
unsavoury practice, introduced by Kerava with the words 
arushi-udaragawrfulaka-bhaisha^yany u£yante 4 , comports 
well with the fierce imprecation : the acts symbolise the 
destruction of the imaginary worms in the patient, and 
contain various allusions to the wording of the hymn. 

The hymn has been translated by Kuhn, I.e. 137 ; Weber, 
Indische Studien, XIII, 199 ft". ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 
323 ; Grill 2 , pp. 6, 98. The Anukramawi describes the 
divinity to which the hymn is addressed as mahidevatyam 

1 The word khalvanga, thus translated, is not altogether clear. 
It is discussed in Kaurika, Introduction, p. xlix. 

9 Thus, not alam/u ; see Kaurika, Additions and Corrections, and 
cf. the note on AV. II, 3 r, 3. 

* But Kejava very differently, gov£la(»») ^itritaw rarasamdhyam 
parivesh/ya, i. e. the hair of a cow's tail is wound about an arrow ! 
Cf. Sutra 26, and the introduction to II, 32. Cf. also Kerava's 
explanation of Kaiu. 29, 20. Sayawa follows Kejava. 

* For gawrfulaka, cf. perhaps alga»<fii, above, and in stanza 2. 

Digitized by 


II. 31. COMMENTARY. 315 

(! cf. the word mahi in st 1) uta £andram ; its author is 

Stanza 1. 

a. In RV. VII, 104, 22 = AV. VIII, 4, 22, Indra is called 
upon to crush the Rakshas as with a mill-stone : the present 
passage seems to realise the comparison, so that indirectly 
Indra's bolt (v&gra) is in the mind of the poet; cf. also 
ar man and parvata in st. 19 of the same hymn. 

d. Cf. the symbolic crushing of lentils in the practice, 
Kauj. 27, 14, where khalvanga takes the place of khalva ; 
so also in Kauj. 27, 26 (cf. Kaorika, Introduction, p. xlix). 
Kejava defines both khalvanga and khalva as kr;'sh«a£a- 
nakkA. Read here metri gratia khaluan. Cf. also V, 23, 
8 c, d. 

Stanza 2. 

a. At V, 23, 6. 7 ad/Ysh/a is an epithet of kr/mi ; adWsh/a 
by itself is used substantially in AV. VI, 52, 2 (= RV. I, 
191, 4), and 3 ; cf. also RV. I, 19T, 9 = AV. VI, 52, 1 and 
AV. V, 23, 6, where the sun is designated as the slayer, 
adrzsh/ahan, of unseen (vermin); cf. Zimmer, p. 98. In 
AV. VIII, 8, 15 both drtsh/a and adr/sh/a also occur as 
designations of vermin, and it seems quite likely that 
drish/a is an afterthought in the style of sura after asura ; 
diti after aditi, and the like. 

b. The Paippalada and Saya«a read kuriram for kurfl- 
rum; the latter defines it, kuriram g&lam tadvad antar 
avasthitaw kr/mikulam. 

c. The MSS., both of the hymn and the Sutra, hesitate 
between the two writings algaWu and alaWu, and I had 
decided in the Additions and Corrections to the Kaurika 
(p. 76, Su. 14) in favour of alga«*/u. This is the reading 
adopted by Sayawa and Shankar Pandit. In the Nagart- 
character the two forms are almost identical (lga is la as 
soon as the g-stroke is prolonged downward) ; hence the 
confusion. Saya«a, jo«itama;«sadushakan ^antun. S4ya»a 
has jalgan for .ralunan. Here, as in st. 4 c, d, krfmin is 
obviously a gloss; the Anukramawi, uncritically, defines 
the metre of the stanza as uparish/advira</brAiati. 

Digitized by 



Stanza 3. 

a, b. The mighty weapon is the charm which is called 
outright ' thunderbolt ' (va^ra) in VI, 1 34 and 135. Perhaps 
the fire of the symbolic bolt is supposed to burn them 
(dAna" aduna/*). The ritual (SGtras 16 and 17, above) em- 
bodies the idea in practice, and we are not in the position 
to say but what this particular act was associated with the 
stanza from the start — a question of principle which seems 
destined for ever to divide the doctors. Saya«a obviously 
has in mind paritapati in Su. 16 in his gloss paritapta 

o, d. To render doubly certain the complete destruction 
of the disease, even those which are prima facie already 
driven out are submitted to this phase of the charm. 

Stanza 4. 

a, b. Read anvantriam jirsha«(am atha u, &c. Cf. with 
this Mantrabrahmawa (of the Sama-veda) II, 7, 2, krimiw 
ha vaktratodinam krimim antranu£ari«am. Sayawa (with 
some MSS.) reads parsh«eyam, ' in the heel,' and Ludwig, 
rather arbitrarily, translates ; im Riicken,' as though parsh- 
tAeyam stood in the text. 

o. avaskava, like most of the names in the charm, is 
for. Xcy. Weber, I.e. 201, and Zimmer, p. 393, define it as 
' he who peels, pares off.' Saya»a, avaggamanasvabhavam. 
By the side of vyadhvara (this form twice in VI, ,50, 3) * 
we have vyadvara in Sat. Br. VII, 4, 1, 37 (defined by the 
scholiast as adanarilo dandajOkadi^:) and vyadvarl (with 
different accent) in AV. Ill, 28, 2*. One or the other is 
a folk-etymological modification: vyadhvara, 'piercing,' 
and vyadvara, ' gnawing.' The PadapaMa divides vi adh- 
vara (most futile), and Ludwig in his translation of VI, 50, 3 

1 So the vulgata. Sayana and Shankar Pandit with most of his 
MSS. vyadvara. See the note there. 

* Here SSyawa reads vyadhvart (duAkhahetur dush/amarga^ 
tadvati) ; see the note on the passage. 

Digitized by 


II, 3 2 - COMMENTARY. 317 

has arrived at the same result, ' abseits vom wege ' (Der 
Rigveda, III, 500). The same analysis in Saya«a to our 
stanza, vividhamargopetam, nanadvara»i kr/tva tatra gaJth- 
antam. — krfmin here, as in 2 c, is a gloss, misunderstood 
by the Anukramam, as above. 

Stanza 5. 
c. Sayawa reads te for ye" and tanvas for tanvam. 

II, 32. Commentary to page 23. 

This charm against worms in cattle (Kerava, gokn'mi- 
bhaisha^yani) elicits the following treatment in the Kaujika 
27, 21-26: '(The performer) chants the hymn at sunrise, 
and pronounces the name of the cow, " O thou, N. N." * 
At the end of the hymn, while exclaiming " the (worms) are 
slain," he throws darbha-grass (upon the cow). He goes 
through the same performance at noon. In the afternoon 
he (throws the darbha-grass) upon the cow, her face turned 
to the west J . Having cut off a tuft of the (cow's) tail he 
continues as in Sutra 14 (the performance in connection 
with AV. II, 31, which see).' 

Charms closely related with this are found in Tait. Ar. 
IV, 36 (cf. Apast. Sr. XV, 19, 5), where verses similar to 
stanzas 3 and 4 are employed to relieve the cow who yields 
the milk for the gharma, if she is sick with worms ; further 
in the Mantrabrahmawa of the Sama-veda II, 7 (see the 
Calcutta Journal Usha, vol. i, fasc. 7) s , and in Gobh. Gr/h. 
IV, 9, 19. 20, where the stanzas of Mantrabr. are employed 
to destroy worms both in man and cattle. 

The hymn has been translated by A. Kuhn, in Kuhn's 

1 Cf. Gobh. Grih. Ill, 8, 3 ; La7y. St. Ill, 6, 3 ; and Katy. Sr. 
XXVI, 5, 1, where Wa is mentioned as the typical name of a cow. 

* The implication is that in the preceding steps of the ceremony 
the cow's head is turned to the east; cf. Danla, p. 77, note 7. 

' The same work has also been printed in Serampore (raka 
i794=a.d. 1872). 

Digitized by 



Zeitschrift, XIII, 138 ff. ; Weber, Indische Studien, XIII, 
201 ff. ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 500 ; Grill 2 , pp. 7, 100 ; 
cf. also Hillebrandt's Vedachrestomathie, p. 47. The 
Anukramawl, adityadevatyam, aneno»ktarshir (i.e. Kawva: 
cf. the introduction to II, 31) uktakriyam akarot. 

Stanza 1. 

The removal of hantu in Pada 1 restores a good gayatrt 
stanza (read, aditfa^). The Anukramawi designates it as 
tripad bhuriggayatri. 

a. The rising sun and Ushas, the dawn, are especially 
calculated to dispel the evils associated primarily with 
night, and then, generally, misery and disease ; cf. RV. 
I, 50, 11, 13; AV. I, 33, 1 ; V, 23, 6 j IX, 2, 15; 8, 22; 
XIII, 1,32. 

Stanza 2. 

The stanza is repeated at V, 23, 9 with the variants 
tri-rirshawa/w trikakudam in Pada 1 ; these readings com- 
bined show that the poet in designating the worms has in 
mind the demon Virvarupa who is familiarly known to 
have had three heads. Cf. also Mantrabr. II, 7, 2. krimiw* 
dvirirsham aig-una/w dvisirshaw ka. £aturhanum. Professor 
Kuhn, 1. c. 147, lays especial stress upon the agreement of 
the Vedic and Teutonic charms, in that they point out the 
colours of the worms. 

a. Saya«a, vijvarupaw nanakaram; Ludwig, 'den voll- 
gestaltigen.' The epithet ' four-eyed ' is originally at home 
with the four-eyed dogs of Yama, and is due, primarily, 
to some mythological conception; cf. our note on IV, 
20, 7. But in the view of the Hindus ' four-eyed ' means 
• with spots over the eyes ; ' see Contributions, Third 
Series, Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XV, 165 note. Sayawa, 

b. The Pet. Lexs. render saranga by ' bunt, scheckig ; ' 
Weber, * schwarzlich ; ' Ludwig, ' braunlich.' The native 
explanations of the word are stated by Prof. Weber, Indische 
Studien, VIII, 275. 

o. The Pada is a catalectic anushrtibh. 

Digitized by 


II, 32. COMMENTARY. 319 

Stanza 3. 

The stanza recurs in V, 23, 10. The Tait. Ar. IV, $6, 
and Mantrabr. II, 7, 1. 2 have similar stanzas: atri«a tva 
krime hanmi kawvena ^amadagnina, vijvavasor brahma«a 
(Tait. Ar.) ; and, hatas te atriwa krimir hatas te ^amadag- 
nina, gotamena tinikrtto*trai*va tva krime brahmavadyam 
avadya. bharadva^-asya mantre»a sawtinomi krime tva 
(Mantrabr.) Reliance upon the great seers of the past is 
a common-place expression in charms and exorcisms ; cf. 
e.g. I, 14,4; IV, 20,7. 

o. Hillebrandt and Grill regard vsJt as a gloss. But it 
is written also in V, 23, 1 o, and its expulsion does not effect 
good metre, the final cadence being ^ — v. 

Stanza 4. 

Recurs in V, 23, 11. The Tait. Ar. reads at IV, 36, 
hata// krimtoam ra^a, apy esh&tn sthapatir hataA, atho 
mata*tho pita, atho sthuri atho kshudra^, atho krz'shwa 
atho svet&A, atho ajatika 1 hat&A, svetabhiA saha sarve 
hat&A ; cf. also the next stanza of our hymn. For sthapati, 
see Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, 202 ff. ; Uber den Va^apeya, 
9, 10(769, 770), Sitzungsberichte der Koniglich Preussischen 
Akademie, XXXIX (1892); Ober die Konigsweihe, p. 65 
(Transactions of the same Academy, 1 893). Sayawa, sa£i vaA. 
The scholiast at Tait. Ar. has any©* pi ra^gavyatiriktaA 
prabhuA. The etymologies suggested are unsatisfactory 
(see Pet. Lex. and Weber, 1. c.) ; it has occurred to me 
that possibly the word might be a loan-word with folk- 
etymological modification, being Avestan shoithrapaiti (cf. 
Achemenian khshatrapavan), 'satrap,' a word which later 
again finds its way into Indo-Scythian coins in the form 

1 Scholiast, agatya sity&miniA asmabhir eva badhyatnanaA. Cf, 
with this also Mantrabr. II, 7, 4. krimim indrasya blhubhyam 
av&Biam pStayamasi, hat&A krimayaA slratikSA sanllamakshikaA. 
The scholiast defines sajdtika>S by &j£tikaya (! for Mtikayd ?) saha 

Digitized by 



kshatrapa ; cf. Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, 
III, i6j ; IV, 186, aoo. 

Stanza 5. 

Repeated in V, 23, 12. The Mantrabr. II, 7, 3 presents 
a passage which concerns stanzas 4-6 of our hymn, hata£ 
kriml»a#* kshudrako hatl mata hata pita, athai'shilm 
bhinnakaA kumbho ya eshaw vishadhanakaA. 

a, b. Sayawa, without regard to the oxytone accent of 
veras (nomen agentis), renders veraso . . . parivejasaA as 
follows, niverasthanani mukhyagrzhaA . . . paritaA sthitaA 
samlpagrffiaA. Weber renders the two words by ' diener ' 
and ' umdienenden ; ' Grill by ' horige ' and ' zugehorige ; ' 
Ludwig and Hillebrandt by 'horige' and 'der horigen 

Stanza 6. 

The metre of the stanza is quite irregular ; the Anukra- 
ma»i describes it at £atushpin nivr/dushmk. The first 
and third Padas are catalectic ; in the second Pada y£bhyam 
is yabhiam, or the like; the fourth Pada may also be 
sustained as a catalectic anush/ubh by substituting tava for 
te, or resolving te into taY or taya. 

e,d. The Paippalada reads, atho bhinadmi taw kumbhaw 
yasmin te nihataw (! for nihitam ?) visham ; cf. also the 
parallel stanza RV. I, 191, 15. Sayawa substitutes shu- 
kambham for kushumbham, and he has the support of 
some MSS. His comment is avayavavuesha, ' some part 
of the body.' Ludwig translates kushumbham by 'tail,' 
but the parallel passages of the Paippalada and Mantrabr. 
obviously point to some word like ' receptacle.' This word 
as well as kujumbha and kusumbha, ' water-pitcher of 
hermits,' seem to me to be extensions of kumbha by 
popular etymology, introducing the influence of kosha, 
koi-a, ' basket,' and perhaps in the case of kurumbha the 
stem jumbha-, ' purify.' Direct etymological analysis of 
such words is difficult because they become so readily the 
play-ball of kindred notions ; cf. Weber, 1. c. 204. 

Digitized by 


II, 33- COMMENTARY. 32 1 

II, 33. Commentary to page 44. 

The commentators fitly treat this charm as a cure for all 
diseases (sarvabhaisha^yam). The practices at Kauj. 27, 
37-8 are of the simplest sort, and their symbolic relation 
to the hymn superficially obvious : 27. ' The stanzas of the 
hymn are recited over the patient while (fetters with which 
he has been bound) are being torn off. 28. He is sprinkled 
with water mixed with the dregs of ghee from a water- 
vessel.' The hymn figures also in a list designed to bestow 
long life (ayushyaga«a) in the Gawamala, Ath. Parir. 32, 4 ; 
see Kauf. 54, 1 1 note. According to Saya«a the hymn is 
also a member of the a/«holingaga«a, 'a list characterised 
by (driving away) distress,' consisting of II, 33 ; III, 11 ; 
IV, 13; V, 30; .X, 8. But the Gawamala, Ath. Parir. 32, 31, 
strings together a very different group under the same 
caption ; see Kauj. 32, 27 note. Cf. also Vait. Su. 38, 1 ; 
Ath. Park 33, 3. 

The hymn recurs with variants, RV. X, 163 ; AV. XX, 96, 
17-22 ; the first stanza at Par. Grth. Ill, 6, 2. In its Rig- 
veda form it constitutes also a part of the Apast. Mantra- 
brahmawa I, 17, 1-6, employed at Apast. Grih. Ill, 9, 10 ; 
see Winternitz, Das Altindische Hochzeitsritual, p. 99. 
The many, often perplexing designations of the parts of 
the body are paralleled in the catalogues of the parts of the 
horse's body, at the horse-sacrifice, TS. V, 7, 11 ff". (cf. also 
I, 4, 36 ; VII, 3, 16); Maitr. S. Ill, 15, 1 ff.; V&. S. 
XXV, 1 ff. Cf. also AV. X, 2 ; XI, 8. 

The hymns in question have been translated and com- 
pared with certain Teutonic charms by Adalbert Kuhn in his 
ever-charming work on ' Indische und germanische Segens- 
spriiche,' Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XII 1, 63 ff. These comparisons 
are of permanent interest for folk-psychology, even though 
the genetic relationship of the charms may be doubted. 
The Atharvan version has been rendered in addition by 
Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, 205 ff.; for RV. X, 163 see 
Ludwig's and Grassmann's translations. 

[4»] Y 

Digitized by 



Stanza 2. 

a. Saya«a here defines ushwfhabhyaA etymologically as, 
tirdhvaw snigdhabhyaA raktadina utsnatabhyo va nSJi- 
bhyaA, but at RV. snayubhyaA for n&tfbhyaA. Cf. AV. 
VI, 134, 1 ; IX, 8, 21 ; X, 10, 20, and the schol. at Pawini 
III, 2, 59. 

Stanza 3. 

b. haliksh«at is obscure: Saya«a, tatsa»fbandhad (tat 
refers to klomnd/*) ma*#sapi»</avi.reshat, ' a ball of flesh 
adjoining the lungs.' The word may possibly be related 
to hir£, ' canal, vein.' 

Stanza 5. 

o, d. The tautological use of bhasadyam and bhasadam 
is justified in the mind of the Atharvan poet, because it 
heightens the effect of the cumulative pun upon bhamsasaA. 
RV. X, 163, 4 exhibits but two of these stems. 

Stanza 7. 

d. kaxyapasya vibarhewa (sc. brahmawa). For Kasyapa, 
see the notes on I, 14, 4 ; IV, 20, 7. 

II, 36. Commentary to page 94. 

The practices associated with this hymn are part of the 
'women's rites' (Kaui. 32, 28-36, 40), and they are pre<- 
sented under the special rubric of pativedanani (Keiava, 
patilabhakarma»i), 'practices by which a husband is ob- 
tained,' Kaur. 34, 12-16 (cf. also Kaur. 75, 7), as follows: 

13. 'While reciting the hymn the maiden is given to eat 
a pudding of rice and sesame, such as is cooked for guests. 

14. Upon an altar, made out of clay from a cave inhabited 
by animals (cf. stanza 4), are placed the substances recited 
in the hymn (gold, bdellium, &c. ; cf. st. 7) ; these are 
anointed with the dregs of ghee, and given to the maiden 

Digitized by 


II, 36- COMMENTARY. 323 

at the door 1 . 15. Having sacrificed by night rice and 
barley from a copper vessel to Gkmi 2 , the maiden walks 
forth with her right side turned towards (the vessel ; cf. 
st. 6). The maiden, having been washed and cleaned to 
the west of the fire, while stanza 5 of the hymn is being 
recited, is made to do what is told in the stanza (upon 
a ship) anointed with the dregs of ghee (i. e. she is made 
to ascend the ship).' After that follow certain oracles to 
decide whether the maiden shall succeed in obtaining the 
husband or not. 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. 
V, 219 ff. ; XIII, 214 ff. ; Ludwig, Rigveda, III, 476; 
Grill 2 , pp. 55, 102 ff. ; cf. also Zimmer, p. 306. 

Stanza L 

a. Literally, ' may a suitor come to our favour,' i. e. 
a suitor who shall gain our favour. Saya«a, sobha.n&m 
buddhim a garnet . . . kalyawiw* buddhim prapya. Cf. 
5ankh. Grih. I, 6, 1 ff . ; Apast. Grih. I, 2, 16 ; 4, 1-2 ; 
Ind. Stud. V, 276, 291 ff. 

b. The suitor comes ' with our fortune,' since the betrothal 
of a daughter is regarded in that light. 

o. Saya«a, samaneshu samanamanaskeshu . . . yad va 
samana/w manyamaneshu sahrtdayeshu. 

d. Saya«a reads tisham for osham, and glosses, usham 
ushati rufati apanudati du^kha^atam iti ushawt sukha- 

Stanza 2. 

a,b. Cf. RV. X, 85, 40. 41, where Soma, Gandharva, and 
Agni are said to be the mythical first husbands of every 
maiden. Sayana has in mind the same passages, since he 
glosses brahma with gandharva, and identifies Aryaman 
with Agni, leaning upon the slender support of Asv. Grih. 

1 So that she may adorn and anoint herself with them. 
* The personified goddess of femininity, or maternity ; Darila, 
£&mika (?) matr/ka. Cf. AV. V, 1, 4, and Kaux. 34, 20. 

Y 2 

Digitized by 



I, 7, 13. Cf. AV. XIV, 1,31, which shows that sawbhWtam 
alludes consciously to sawbhala in st. 1. 

c. Dhatar, the god of divine order and creation, just as 
the three gods in the first hemistich, is especially charged 
with the arrangement of marriage ; see VI, 60, 3. 

Stanza 4. 

Sayawa, with one of Shankar Pandit's MSS., reads 
maghavan (mawhaniyaDhogyapadarthayuktaA), in agree- 
ment with akhara£ ; also abhiradhayantt, which he glosses 
byabhivardhayanti.yadva. . . putraparvadibhiA samrt'ddha 
bhavantl. For the juxtaposition of Indra and Bhaga, cf. 
VI, 8a. For Bhaga in relation to matters of love, VI, 102, 3. 

Stanza 6. 

a, b. Judging from IV, 22, 3; V, 23, 2; X, 10, 11, the 
divinity addressed as ' lord of wealth ' is Indra (Maghavan 
in st. 4). 

o, d. The sense is : Every suitor who approaches her 
shall indicate his esteem, or admiration, so that the event 
shall not fail to result auspiciously. Cf. the symbolic 
realisation of this arrangement in Kaur. 34, 15, above. 

Stanza 7. 

a. Some MSS. read gulgulu for guggulu (Saya«a, 

b. auksha, ' balsam,' according to Sayawa = pralepana- 
dravyam. It seems to be simply ' bull's grease ; ' see the 
j-loka quoted by Kcrava at Kaur. 34, 14 (repeated by 
Saya«a on our passage), as also by Darila, K&rava, and 
Ath. Paddh. at Kaur. 79, 9 (in elucidation of the word 
aukshe), and cf. our introduction to AV. I, 34. See also 
the analogous passage AV. VI, 102, 3, and aukshagandhi 
as the name of an Apsaras, IV, 37, 3. 

o. For the plural patibhya/*, see Ind. Stud. V, 205 flf., 231. 

d. pratikamaya is emended by the Pet. Lex. to prati- 
kamyaVa (cf. sts. 5, 6, 8, and VI, 60, 3) ; Saya»a, ena?« 
kanyaw kamayamanam. The Paippalada reads patikamaya, 

Digitized by 


in, I. COMMENTARY. 325 

which makes good sense, ' in order to obtain the love of 
a husband.' 

Stanza 8. 

The second nayatu seems superfluous, derived, perhaps, 
from some parallel expression in which nayatu was the last 
word. The entire stanza is loosely connected with the 
hymn ; the plant addressed seems to have no reference to 
the proceedings in hand. Cf. AV. Ill, 18. 

Ill, 1. Commentary to page 121. 

In accordance with our title for this and the following 
hymn is their designation in the ritual as mohanani (sc. 
stiktani), 'charms for causing bewilderment ; ' see Kaur. 14. 
17. With them go in the subsequent Stitras (18-21) the 
following performances : 18. ' Chaff (of rice), underlaid with 
porridge, is sacrificed from a mortar. 19. (Or) in the same 
way small grain 1 (is offered). 20. Twenty-one pebbles are 
shaken (in a winnowing-basket *) against (the enemy). 21. 
(A pot of rice) is offered to the goddess Apva.' The sym- 
bolism is obvious : the chaff or the small grain symbolises 
the dispersion of the enemy ; the pebbles shaken against 
them the destructive attack of the sacrificing king. An 
offering is made to the goddess of evacuation (from the 
body). See the note on III, 2, 5. The present hymn has 
been rendered by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 518 ; Weber, 
Ind. Stud. XVII, 180 ff. The Anukramawi, senamohanam. 

Stanza 1. 

Agni, the fire, figures largely as the typical leader of the 
vanguard of armies, e. g. in the battle-hymn, RV. X, 84, 2, 
and in Tait. S. I, 8, 9, 1 ; Tait. Br. I, 7, 3, 4. A special 
' army-fire,' senagni, is mentioned at Kauj. 60, 5, and in the 

1 Darila, kamkviklA ; Kerava, ka*ika£ ; Saya/ia, kawikikam. 

2 Cf. Darila and Kerava on the Sfltra, and emend stirye in both 
texts to xurpe. 

Digitized by 



scholion to Paraskara's GrAya-sfltra 1, 10. The preparation 
of such a fire is described at Kaur. 16, 9 flf. Professor 
Weber, 1. c, suggests that the name of the war-god Kumara 
(Skanda) is in reality one of the manifestations (murti) of 
Agni-Siva-Rudra ; cf. our introduction to XI, a. 

Stanza 2. 

Professor Aufrecht in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVII, 219, 
advances very good reasons for believing that this stanza 
is constructed awkwardly out of Rig-veda reminiscences. 
Especially noteworthy is his emendation of amimrwan to 
amimr?V/an, * they have taken pity,' in the light of RV. II, 
29, 4 ; VI, 50, 5 ; X, 34, 3. Yet we must question whether 
the Atharvan versifex did really compose that ideal stanza, 
suggested by Aufrecht, or the more uncouth performance, 
handed over to us by the redactors. I incline to the latter 
view, and have rendered the text as reported unanimously 
in the Saunakiya-tradition l , though fully conscious that 
amtmrcV/an is the better reading in the abstract The 
stanza puns upon marut and the base mrina.. 

Stanza 3. 

The anacoluthon in the two hemistichs can be removed, 
as Sayawa does, by emending tan in Pada c to tarn. Magha- 
van in Pada a, in reality goes with Indra in Pada c. 

Stanza 4. 

Repeated with variants at RV. Ill, 30, 6. Sayawa com- 
ments upon the Rig variant pra sfl ta (te), not upon prasutaA 
(Padapa/Aa). In Pada d, I have emended (independently 
from Weber) v/shvak satyam to vfshvaksatyam, literally, 
' having fulfilment away,' i. e. ' bereft of fulfilment.' 

1 The Paippalada also has amimrwan. 

Digitized by 


Ill, 2. 3. COMMENTARY. 327 

III, a. Commentary to page iai. 

For the employment of the hymn in the practices, see 
the introduction to the preceding. Previously translated 
by Weber, Indische Studien, III, 183 ff. ; cf. also Bergaigne 
et Henry, Manuel V^dique, p. 139 ff. The Anukramani, 

Stanza 5. 

Repeated with variants at RV. X, 103, ia. For the 
variants pratimohayanti and pratilobhayanti see Contri- 
butions, Fourth Series, Amer. Journ. PhiL XII, 432 ff. The 
goddess Apva (metrically apuva), ' impurity,' is a drastic 
embodiment of 'defecation from fear.' The enemy shall 
not contain themselves from fear. Cf. udarabhedi bhayam 
at Bhagavata Pura«a, III, 15, ^3, and passages like Tait. S. 
VI, a, 2, 5 ; 3, a, 3. Yaska, Nirukta IX, 33, as restored by 
Weber, clearly explains the word in this way. See in 
general Ind. Stud. IX, 48a ; XVII, 184 ; and AV. IX, 8, 9. 

Ill, 3. Commentary to page ua. 

This and the following hymn are made the basis, at 
Kaur. 16, 30-33, of a performance that ensures the restor- 
ation of a king who has been driven out from his kingdom 
by a hostile king (parara^ena, according to Darila), to wit : 
30. ' In the domain of the kingdom, from which the king 
has been driven out, a rice-cake in the form of a couch 
(jayanavidham) J is placed upon darbha-grass, and sub- 
merged in water. 31. A lump of earth taken from that 

1 This reading is not quite certain : most MSS. of the Sutra, and 
Darila read jayanavidhim. Kcrava, however, and after him Saya«a, 
read senavidham (senakaram), ' having the form of an army ; ' cf. 
for the interchange between aya and e our remarks in Amer. Journ. 
Phil. V, p. 27. Either reading makes good sense : the couch would 
symbolise permanent, peaceful possession of the kingdom; the 
army, its conquest by force of arms. 

Digitized by 



(region) is spread over the fire-place 1 , and (the king) con- 
sumes a mess of porridge, mixed with milk. 3a. The 
utensils are taken from the same place as the lump of 
earth. 34. On the morning of the fourth day (the king) 
eats the (submerged) rice-cake, and then he is called (to 
his kingdom).' Professor Weber remarks that an exiled 
potentate could scarcely expect to be restored by any more 
simple device. The symbolism of the practice is obvious : 
especially the bed and the clod of. earth from the native 
sod (' heimathsscholle ') are suggestive. Cf. Kaurika's rite 
at 16, 27. 28 in connection with AV. I, 9 (introduction). 
Stanzas 1 and 2 are rubricated at Vait. Su. 9, 2 and 30, 27. 
The hymn has been translated by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 
III, 441 ff. ; Weber, Indische Studien, XVII, 185 ; cf. also 
Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel Vedique, p. 140 ff. The 
Anukramawi, nanadevatyam uta«gneyam. 

Stanza 1. 

Agni figures here as the war-god, capable of bringing vic- 
tory to the cause of the dethroned king. Cf. Ill, 1 and 2. 
With him are united the fighting Maruts who hitch up 
Agni that he may bring (vah) the king. Sayawa, curiously, 
makes the king subject of a&kradat (cf. RV. X, 45, 4), ' the 
king calls (!) upon thee that he may again enter his king- 
dom.' In Pada d amurn is perhaps replaced by the name 
of the king, in the manner of the ritual ; cf. e. g. Va^-. S. 
IX, 40; Tait. Br. Ill, 2, 3, 7. 

Stanza 2. 

The stanza is difficult and full of double intent. The 
crucial word seems to us to be sautramawya - . This is a 
sacrifice originally devised by the gods to cure Indra from 
the effects of over-indulgence in soma ; see our Contribu- 
tions, Third Series, Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XV, 153 ff. ; 
Oldenberg, Nachrichten von der Koniglichen Gesellschaft 

1 The Sutra, ^yotirayatanam ; DSrila, ^yotisha Syatanara sthanam 
uttaravedim avakirya. 

Digitized by 


Ill, 3. COMMENTARY. 329 

der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, 1893, p. 34a ff. But 
secondarily this rite is also employed by an exiled king, 
who is also shaky, as it were (marikur iva £a£ara, like the 
somatiputa, Sat. Br. V, 4, 11, 13) \ Throughout this stanza 
Indra is both the god, and the dethroned king ; the gods 
are the heavenly physicians (the Ajvins and Sarasvati), as 
well as the Brahmans who are engaged in the restoration 
of the king. We have therefore rendered sautramawya - 
dadhmhanta by ' infuse courage with the sautramawl-sacri- 
fice.' The veiled sense of the entire passage is : ' However 
far the king (Indra) is he shall come back to friendly 
relations with his people, when the priests (deva^) chant 
their songs and apply the sautramani to his restoration. 
Indra is the typical king, AV. IV, 6, 11 ; VI, 98, 1 ; Tait. S. 
II, 2, 11,6; the Br&hmawas are the human devas, times 
without end, Sat. Br. II, 2, a, 6 ; Tait. S. I, 7, 3, 1 ; Maitr. 
S. I, 4, 6 ; Kaur. 6, 26 ; cf. Indische Studien, IX, 15a ; X, 
16, 35, 3 6 - 

Stanza 3. 

Varu«a's relation to water appears here as in IV, 16, 3 
(see the note there); Soma grows upon the mountains 
(Veda and Avesta). The sense is : Even if the exiled king 
is separated by mountain and sea from his people, let him 
quickly, untrammelled by such restraints, as an eagle, come 
to them. 

Stanza 4. 

a. The accent of havyam is suspicious : we should 
expect havyam. It is either to be emended, or indicates 
that the Pada has been adapted from a different sphere. 
The eagle brings the soma from a distance to be offered to 
Indra. For such adaptations, cf. e. g. the hymn I, a. 

1 For the sautrama»i in general, see Weber, Indische Studien, X. 
349, and especially the same author's recent treatise, 'tJber die 
Kbnigsweihe (ra^asftya),' in the Transactions of the Royal Academy 
at Berlin, 1893, p. 91 if. 

Digitized by 



Stanza 6. 

d. We have rendered ava gamaya, 'render accepted,' 
because the word does not mean elsewhere ' bring down ' 
(Weber). Our authority is Darila on Kaur. 16, 27, avaga- 
mana = anuraga, ' affection ; ' see the introduction to I, 9. 
Saya»a, imam ra^anam asmin rashfre bodhaya (similarly 

Ill, 4. Commentary to page 113. 

The Sutra treats this hymn along with the preceding as 
a charm for the restoration of a king ; see the introduction 
to III, 3. Support for such a construction may be derived 
from st. 5. This, however, is not borne out by the text 
of the stanzas themselves. These are more general in 
character, and seem to indicate as their theme the election 
of a chief. See Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 250; Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, p. 162 ff. Note especially st. 2, and 
the play upon the word varuwa (as if from root var, ' choose ') 
in sts. 5, 6. The hymn has been translated by Ludwig, 
III, 252; Zimmer, p 164; Weber, Indische Studien, XVII, 
190 ff. ; cf. also Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel Veclique, 
p. 141 ff. The Anukramawi, aindram. 

Stanza 1. 

The first hemistich is hypermetric, and Weber, Zimmer, 
and Bergaigne-Henry each differ in their attempts at 
restoration. We are not at all certain that this need is 
urgent : Pada a is a good ^agatt-line, ending at ud ihi ; for 
Pada b see Oldenberg, Die Hymnen des Rigveda, pp. 66, 
67. If the pruning-knife must be used patir in b is most 
easily spared, and a most natural interpolation. 

a. gan is vox media, either injunctive, or perfect-aorist. 
The latter in its sense of prophetic aorist is in the Atharvan 
stylistically very close to the injunctive : often things 
desired are stated as having been already accomplished. 
See e. g. I, 23, 4. 

Digitized by 


Ill, 5. COMMENTARY. 33 1 

Stanza 2. 

Recurs with marked variants at Tait. S. Ill, 3, 9, 2; 
Maitr. S. II, 5, 10. 

Stanzas 5, 6. 

The expression ayaw* r&gk varuwaA in st. 5 a is too pointed 
to signify merely ' that king Varuwa : ' variwa is used here 
with false etymological intent as ' chooser;' the word plays 
upon the sense of ahvat, and vr*«atam in st. 2. Similarly 
vimnaiA in the next stanza means (Indra), with the remain- 
ing gods (Varuwa, Mitra, &c), all choosing the king, and 
again, with double entente : ' Come on, O king, thou hast 
come to an agreement with the leaders of thy people who 
are the electors' (cf. Ill, 5, 7). AH this is thoroughly 

Stanza 7. 

Cf. Vait. Su. 13, 2, where this stanza is employed in con- 
nection with a personified Pathya Svasti, the wife of Pushan 
(ib. 15, 3), 'the prosperous path,' as an embodiment of 
success and well-being. Cf. also ib. 24, 8 ; 37, 20, and the 
Pet. Lex. under pathya 3. In Pada d most MSS., both of 
the Sawhita and PadapaMa, read vara, ' rule ; ' some MSS., 
Sayawa, and the Western authorities, vasa, 'dwell.' Cf. AV. 
XII, 4, 27. For the interchange of s and s, see the present 
writer in the Proc. Amer. Or. Soc, May, 1886 (Journ., vol. 
xiii, p. cxvii fi".). Cf. also the note on V, 19, 5. 

Ill, 5. Commentary to page 114. 

The par»a-tree figures in many sacerdotal performances, 
being identical with the pallra (butea frondosa). Its 
branches and especially its wood are employed directly, 
and in the form of utensils, at most sacrifices (cf. Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, p. 59) ; its sanctity is accentuated by 
myths which derive the plant directly from heaven, and 
that, too, in connection with the descent of the soma (cf. 
st. 4). A divine archer, who guards the soma, shoots at 

Digitized by 



the eagle that robs the soma ; the eagle looses a feather 
(parwa), which alights upon the earth and becomes the 
par«a-tree. See RV. IV, %6 and 27, and the extensive legen- 
dary material attaching thereunto, and cf. Adalbert Kuhn, 
Die Herabkunft des Feuers und des Gottertranks, pp. 148, 
192 ; Contributions, Fifth Series, Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. 

XVI, 20, 24. 

No very specific instructions are recorded in the ritual 
regarding the manipulation of the hymn. At Kaus. 19, 22, 
in the course of the so-called push/ikarmam, 'practices 
designed to engender prosperity' (Kauj. 18, 19-24, 46), we 
have the mere statement that this and other hymns, dealing 
with amulets, are recited, while the amulet in question 
(mantrokta), after it has been steeped in sour milk and 
honey for three days (Kaur. 7, 19), is fastened on the 
person desiring its protecting influence 1 . Accordingly, 
the Atharvawiya-paddhati (Kauj. 19, 1 note) mentions it 
in a long list of pushrika mantra^. Cf. also Santikalpa 
17, and 19 2 . The Anukramawi describes it as saumyam 
(cf. st. 4) . . . (etena) par»ama»im uktarshir (i.e. Athar- 
van) astaut. Translated by Weber, Indische Studien, 

XVII, 194 ff. 

Stanza 1. 

d. For aprayavan of the vulgata, read aprayavam (gerund) 
with the Index Verborum; cf. XIX, 55, 1, and Va£\ S. 

XI, 75- 

Stanza 4. 

For the relation of the par»a to soma, see the introduc- 
tion above. 

In Pada c Weber emends priyasam to bhriyasam, and 
Sayawa hovered on the edge of the same correction, priya- 
sam bhriyasam dharayeyam. It is, however, not certain, 
for in La/y. Sr. Ill, 2, 10 (also Drahyayawa) we have manas 
tanushu piprataA, parallel to manas tanushu bibhrataA, RV. 

1 Sayawa, te^obalayurdhanSdipush/aye. 

* Cited erroneously by Sayana as Nakshatrakalpa. 

Digitized by 


Ill, 5. COMMENTARY. 333 

X, 57, 6 ; V&g. Ill, 56 ; Kaor. 89, 1 ; Tait. Br. II, 4, 2, 7. Nay, 
we have the passage with piprataA in another place in the 
Tait. Br. (Ill, 7, 14, 3) itself, and it would seem, therefore, 
that piprataA (Pet. Lex. ' erhalten ') has a meaning closely 
analogous to that of bibhrataA 

Stanza 5. 
Both Weber and Saya«a cite in illustration of the meaning 
'friend' for aryaman the passage Tait. S. 11,3,4, J, 'he, 
verily, who gives, is a friend (aryaman).' Weber renders 
Pada d, ' tiber die gunst des freundes selbst,' a rendering 
which rather forces the meaning and position of uta. 

Stanzas 6, 7. 

The two stanzas prove conclusively that the hymn belongs 
to the sphere of practices connected with the consecration 
of a king, and the firm establishment of his royalty. The 
four classes of persons whose aid is regarded as desirable 
for the king belong to the so-called ratna, ' jewels,' of the 
court, i. e. they are honoured and indispensable members 
of his household. Their number altogether is about a 
dozen, and according to Tait. Br. I, 7, 3, 1 ff., they are the 
' givers and takers of royalty (rash/rasya pradataraA, rash- 
/frasya* padatara^).' As a preliminary to the consecration 
of a king they must be conciliated, and an oblation is 
offered in the house of each. See for the entire subject 
Professor Weber's notes on the two stanzas, and his still 
more elaborate exposition of this interesting theme in his 
monograph, t)ber die Konigsweihe, p. 19 ff. ; cf. also Zim- 
mer, Altindisches Leben, p. 252 ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 
III, 246, 349, a 5i- 

7 a. Weber in the note on this passage, and Ober die 
Konigsweihe, p. 22 ff., presents serious evidence in favour 
of reading yeVa^ano (ara^ano) for y6 ra^ano, ' they who 
make kings, though themselves not kings :' see .Sat. Br. 
Ill, 4, 1, 7. 8; XIII, 3, 4, 18. Certainly this suits the 
character of the suta and gramawf better than the title ra^a. 
Nevertheless minor potentates, influential in the choice of 
a greater king, may be alluded to here ; cf. the expressions 

Digitized by 



rSg& varu«aA and varu/zaiA in III, 4, 5. 6, and our note to 
the passage. Weber himself has not embalmed his sugges- 
tion in the translation, ' die kon' ge konigsmacher auch.' 

Ill, 6. Commentary to page 91. 

The arvattha-tree (ficus religiosa) is a strong tree of hard 
wood whose branches grow into other trees, resulting in 
their destruction l . On the other hand the union of the 
two trees is regarded as sexual (VI, 11), and emblematic of 
strength. In this hymn, as well as in the associated prac- 
tices, the arvattha is employed to destroy enemies. At 
Kauj. 48, 3-6, the hymn is worked up in the following 
sorcery-practice (abhi£arika) : 3. 'While reciting III, 6 (the 
performer) ties on as a talisman the substance mentioned 
in the hymn (i. e. wood from an arvattha-tree which has 
fastened itself upon a khadira-tree), after an oblation has 
been poured upon it, and it has been anointed (with ghee). 
4. As many enemies (as this practice is aimed at) so many 
fetters, anointed with ingi<7a-oil 2 , besmeared with the dregs 
(of that same oil?), (the performer), having recited the 
hymn over them, (places) along with the threads 3 into 
a soma-vessel, and digs them into the vital spot * (of the 
enemies). 5. While reciting st. 8 of this hymn along with 
IX, 2, 4 (q. v.), he pushes off what is mentioned in the 
stanza (namely, a boat) by means of a branch (of the 
ajvattha-tree). 6. While reciting st. 7 he causes (the fetters) 
to float down (the water).' The practices are not quite 
clear, nor do the commentators seem to understand them 
at all points. Cf. also .Santikalpa 1 9 5 . 

1 Cf. Ka/A. S. XIX, 10, esha (sc. arvattho) vai vanaspatiniuw 

* The oil of ingu/a takes the place of ghee (a^ya) in witchcraft; 
see the paribhSsha, Kaiw. 47, 3, and cf. 14, 28 ; 25, 30. 

9 Which threads ? Dirila, sutreaa sambandhawj kr/tva. 

4 This presupposes an effigy of the enemy who is thus reached 
by proxy. Cf. 47, 51. 

6 Erroneously quoted by S4ya»a as Nakshatrakalpa. 

Digitized by 


Ill, 6. COMMENTARY. 335 

The hymn has been translated by Kuhn, Die Herab- 
kunft des Feuers \ p. 334 ; Weber, Ind. Stud. XVII, 204 ff.; 
Grill 2 , pp. 21, 104 ff. ; cf. also Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 
pp. 58, 257. The Anukramawi, vanaspatyajvatthade- 


Stanza 1. 

Both arvattha and khadira are masculines, i. e. males ; 
hence the virility of the ajvattha is, as it were, in the second 
power. The arvattha, moreover, is intimately related with 
the production of fire (cf. Tait. Br. I, 1, 3, 9), being in fact 
an embodiment of the lightning. Hence its special fitness 
for aggressively hostile practices ; see Weber's note, L c. 

Stanza 2. 

b. Sayawa reads vaibadha dodhata/* without support from 
the MSS. (Sawhita or PadapaA&a). We have adopted this 
emendation which is indeed self-evident in the light of 
st. 7. It is of interest to note that the Pet. Lexs., Weber, 
and Grill felt constrained to resort to the same remedy. 
The name ' displacer ' for the arvattha becomes clear in the 
light of the natural history of the tree ; see the introduction 
above, and Lassen, Indische Altertumskunde I s , 304 ff. 
Sayana takes vaibadha as ' sprung from the vibadha, i e. 
the khadira,' the latter being so-called because it strikes 
with its thorns (kan/akair badhate). 

Stanza 3. 

a. Sayawa with the Paippalada reads nir abhina£ (nir- 
bhidya utpanncsi) ; some of Shankar Pandit's MSS. (both 
Padapa/^a and Samhita) support this by reading ntrabhinno 
(rah abhinnaA) ; cf. Pada c. 

b. Saya»a, correctly, arwave antarikshe; cf. RV. VIII, 
26,17; TS. IV, 5, 11, 1. 

o. Saya«a, the Paippalada, and some of Shankar Pandit's 
MSS., nfr bhinddhi ; cf. Pada a. 

Stanza 4. 

a. Saya«a, the Paippalada, and some of Shankar Pandit's 
MSS., £arati. 

Digitized by 



Stanza 7. 

The stanza is repeated at IX, 2, ia with the variant 
sayakaprawuttanam for vaibadhaprawuttanam. The similes 
in this and the next stanza are put into practice in the rites 
of the Sutra ; see the introduction above. 

Ill, 7. Commentary to page 15. 

This hymn and the practices connected with it harbour 
the peculiar conception that the horn and the skin of the 
antelope have the power to drive out inherited disease. 
Kauj. 27, 20-3 1 we have the following performances : 29. 
'While reciting AV. Ill, 7 (the practitioner) fastens (an 
amulet made from the horn of an antelope upon the patient), 
gives him (water) to drink, lets him rinse himself (with 
water), and at the time when the stars fade away (at dawn) 
he sprinkles him with water which has been warmed by 
quenching in it the kindled piece of antelope's skin pierced 
by the peg with which it is fastened (when it is spread out) '. 
30. From a heap of undetermined measure he offers as 
much barley (cf. AV. II, 8, 3) as can be taken up by a 
single grasp (of the hand). 31. He gives food (to the 
patient).' The relation of the antelope and the practices to 
the kshetriya are extremely obscure. Again as in II, 8 it 
seems to rest upon a rapprochement with kshetra, ' field,' at 
least if we trust the vague suggestion of the obscure stanzas, 
Va^. S. XXIII, 30. 31 ; Maitr. S. Ill, 13, 1 ; Tait. S. VII, 
4, 19, 2 ; cf. also Tait. Br. Ill, 9, 7, 2 ; Sat. Br. XIII, 2, 9, 
8. Here the antelope is said to eat grain (yad dharind 
yavam atti; cf. yava in Kauj. 27, 30). But we are 

1 The words ' he sprinkles him, Sec' to the end of the sentence 
are all of them a paraphrase with the help of the scholiasts of the 
words fahkudhana^valena . . . avasi#£ati. For jankudhana, see 
Kauj. 26, 16, as explained in the introduction to I, 22 (p. 263) ; for 
ava^vala, cf. also Kaiu. 28, 2, in the introduction to IV, 6 (p. 374), 
and Kaur. 27, 33; 29, 8; 30, 8; 32, 10. 

Digitized by 


Ill, 7. COMMENTARY. 337 

attempting to explain obscurum per obscurius. Perhaps the 
swiftness of the animal (st. 1) symbolises the rapid removal 
of the disease. The skin of the antelope is used for an 
amulet at Kaus. 16, 3, the horn at Sat. Br. Ill, a, 2, 
20; Apast. Sr. X, 9, 17; Santikalpa 17, and 19. We 
must not forget, of course, that visha»a, 'horn,' suggests 
vf shyati, ' loosen,' and that the entire employment of the 
horn may therefore be in its capacity as a ' loosener ' of 
disease (cf. the introduction to VI, 44). The hymn puns 
freely upon these words ; cf. sts. 1, a. In general there are 
many points of contact between Kaujika's practices and the 
stanzas. The first two stanzas occur (with variants) at 
Apast. Sr. XIII, 7, 16; the second ib. X, 10, 3. The 
hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. XVII, 
208 ff. ; Grill 8 , pp. 8, 105 ff. The Anukramaw! has, sap- 
tarkam yakshmanlranadevatam uta bahudevatyam, anush- 
Aibham, bhngvangira adyabhis tisr/bhir hariwam astaut, 
paraya (st. 4) tarake, paraya (st. 5)«paA, parabhyam (sts. 6, 
7) yakshmanaranam. 

Stanza 1. 

a. At Apast. St. XIII, 7, 16 most MSS. read raghush- 
yato, genitive of the participle raghushyant, but two MSS. 
report the reading of our text. 

o, d. vishawaya vishuHnara are in punning alliteration 
with one another and with vf shyati, ' loosen ' (understood ; 
cf. vlsh&ne vf shya in st. a). 

Stanza 2. 

b. For padbhfr the Apast. Sr., ib., reads pa*/bhi.y; see 
our Contributions, Second Series, A men Journ. Phil. 
XI, 350 ff. (cf. also Sat Br. XIII, a, 7, 6), and especially 
pp. 353-3, where we have endeavoured to prove that the 
expression ' with (four) feet ' has come to have the general 
value of * quickly, nimbly, briskly.' The fact that human 
beings have but two feet, the swifter animals four, is of far 
greater salience to the Hindu mind than to ours; cf. 
Maitr. S. I, 5, 10 (p. 78, 1. 1a), Ait. Br. Ill, 31, 13, and 
especially Tait S. V, 4, ia, 1. 

[42] Z 

Digitized by 



c. Two of Shankar Pandit's MSS. have gulphitam for 
gushphitam ; they are supported by Sayawa (gulphitaw 
gulphavad grathitam), and the unanimous reading of the 
MSS. at Apast Sr. X, io, 3; XIII, 7, 16. Another 
variant of the word is gushritam, Sat. Br. Ill, 2, 2, ao. 

Stanza 8. 

b. • The roof with four wings (sides) ' alludes vaguely to 
the antlers of the antelope, compared with the roof upon 
a house ; the exact meaning of paksha, as part of a house, 
is not clearly defined ; see our notes on AV. IX, 3, 4. 21. 
Sayawa, £atushko»am iva. Possibly Grill is right in 
translating ' a roof which rests upon four posts ; ' he thinks 
that the four feet of the animal (st. 2) are compared with 

Stanza 4. 

The stanza is closely parallel with II, 8, 1 ; see'the dis- 
cussion there. 

Stanza 6. 

Parallel passages, at RV. X, 137, 6 ; AV. VI, 91, 3, 
mark the stanza as formulaic ; its connection with the rest 
of the stanza is probably purely liturgical. The hymns of 
the third book are theoretically entitled to six stanzas only 
(or to six stanzas at least) ; see AV. XIX, 23, 3, and cf. 
the literature cited in Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 470 (bottom). 

Stanza 6. 

a. Weber translates asuteA, ' through the act of propaga- 
tion.' This would comport well with hereditary disease, 
but does not accord with the use of the word and the root 
a su in general. Sayawa, strikriyamawaya asuteA, asuyate 
asi£yate ity asutir dravibhutam annam. 

b, d. Note the alliteration between vyanaj^ and nafayami. 

Stanza 7. 

d. I have, very hesitatingly, construed apa . . . ukkatu 
transitively, in accordance with the usual force of the ex- 

Digitized by 


til, 9. COMMENTARY. 339 

pression, and the close parallelism with II, 8, a c, d (cf. also 
VI, 83, 1), where kshetriyam is an accusative dependent upon 
apa . . . ukAatvx. For the subject of the verb cf. si in st 1. 
Perhaps apavase" in Padas a, b is also to be taken transitively, 
' when the constellations shine away (as they fade out in 
the morning the evil powers of night), &c.' Saya«a, as the 
Pet Lex. s. v. apa vas, construes all the derivatives from 
root vas in this stanza intransitively ; cf. our note on II, 8, 2. 

Ill, 9. Commentary to page 67. 

The hymn, one of the most perplexing in the AV., is 
directed against a variety of bodily disorders, or demon- 
iacal forces, among which v/shkandha and kabava stand 
out most clearly. For vfshkandha see our discussion in the 
introduction, and in the note on the first stanza of II, 4. 
The Kaujika rubricates the hymn at 43, 1, 2, where Darila 
describes the performance as a pLra£ana.ranam, Kejava (and 
Sayawa in his introduction) as a vighnaramanam, to wit : 
43, 1 . ' While reciting III, 9, an amulet of aralu (calosan- 
thes indica, a tree) is fastened (to the sufferer) by a red- 
dish brown thread (cf. st. 3) ; he is given a staff to carry 
(cf. st. 2), and he also carries a weapon *. 2. He is fumi- 
gated with (the smoke of burning) grain-chaff.' 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. 
XVII, 215 ff. The Anukramawl designates it as dyavaprc- 
thiviyam uta vaLrvadevam. 

Stanza 1. 

s. The Pet. Lexs. and Weber see in kanapha and vis- 
apha (both Hit. Aey.) the designations of certain demons or 
diseases (Weber, ' des Abmagernden, Durchdringenden '). 
Sayawa operates on the same line by means of character- 
istic etymologies, kar.raphasya (kararaphasya) krwa^aphasya 

1 The commentators prescribe that the staff shall be anointed 
-with the dregs of ghee and then be polished off, as in Kaur. 23, n. 
The same treatment is also prescribed for the weapon. 

Z 2 

Digitized by 



va .rvapadasya vyaghradeA, viraphasya vigat&raphasya 
spardhamanapurushakalasarpadeA vispash&xaphasya va 
kruragornahishadeA. But the statement that beneficent 
heaven and earth are father and mother of demons is 
startling l ; the usual Atharvanic way is to say that heaven 
and earth are the parents of some curative plant : III, 23, 6; 
VIII, 7, a, &c. There is nothing in the way of such an 
interpretation, and it is to be noted that the amulet of 
aralu-wood, Kauj. 43, 1 (see above), is not otherwise indi- 
cated in the hymn. I do not venture to decide. 

Stanza 2. 

a. Sayawa with some MSS-, both Sa/whita and Padapa/Aa, 
and the Paippalada read ajleshmawa// for ajreshmawa//. 
Our translation is purely conjectural. Sayana depends 
upon the practices of the Sutra : ' They (the people) carried 
the aralu-talisman, the staff, &c, being asleshmknaA, i. e. 
unaffected (aslishtOJi) by troubles, &c. ;' or, ' the gods, being 
free from phlegmatic diseases (deshmopalakshitatridosha- 
dushit&rarirarahita//), carried them.' The first of these 
suggestions, barring the precision of its application, appears 
to contain something of the truth. 

Stanza 3. 

a. Sayawa, quoting in support RV. II, 39, 4, and relying 
upon Bharatasvamin's interpretation, renders khr/galam by 
tanutrawam, ' protection of the body/ and Kaurika's opera- 
tions seem to render this quite likely: he prescribes the 
fastening of an amulet by a reddish-brown thread. But in 
the RV., khr/gale»va visrasaA, the word seems to mean 
' crutch, support.' 

o. Saya«a with some MSS., Sawzhita and Pada, and the 
Paippalada read jravasyam ; kabava is explained charac- 
teristically as follows : kabuA karburavarwaA kruraA pra«i, 
tatsambandhi vighnaA kabava^. 

1 It seems, however, to derive support from RV.I, 191, 6, which 
Sayawa quotes very aptly. 

Digitized by 


Ill, II. COMMENTARY. 34 1 

d. bandhiiraA, apparently plural of bandhur, is hopelessly 
obscure ; our translation ' fastenings ' is no better than 
Sayawa's asmabhir baddhaA, or his alternate bandhura/z 
asmabhir dharyama#aA ma»ida»</adaya£. The word ought 
to be identical with the stems vandhur, RV. I, 34, 9 (trayo 
vandhuraA ; cf. trivandhura), bandhura, and vandhura, ' the 
seat of a wagon.' The matter is complicated still further 
by bandhura with discordant accent in st. 4. 

Stanza 4. 

The basis of this translation is again very unstable owing 
to the word bandhura which is lexically and grammatically 
obscure. Saya«a presents an entirely different result : 
' O ye people who desire glory (by conquering the enemy), 
but go (into battle) bewildered as the gods by the wile of 
the Asuras, may your weapons (bandhura sawbaddha 
dhrzta kha</gadirupa hetiA !) destroy the kabava as the ape 
the dog!' 

Stanza 5. 

Sayawa upon the basis of many MSS. (both Sawhita and 
Padapa//za) reads bhatsyami (badhnami). Shankar Pandit 
adopts this reading. In Pada d, Sayawa with some MSS. 
reads £arishyatha for sarishyatha ; cf. st. 4. 

Ill, 11. Commentary to page 49. 

This hymn, whose first four stanzas are essentially the 
same as RV. X. 161 = AV. XX, 96, 6-9, must have 
originally had the general value indicated by our title. 
But the Sutra (Kauj. 27, 32-33) specialises, and directs its 
employment against gramya (sc. vyadhi), 'venereal disease,' 
(Darila, mithunasa;«yogat). Kerava prescribes it against 
children's diseases and venereal diseases (balarogagrihite £a 
maithunadoshabhaisha^yany u£yante . . . maithunara^a- 
yakshmani bhaisha^yam) ; S4ya«a, against diseases of 
children, or disease contracted from women (balagraharoge 
nirantarastrisawfgati^anitayakshmawi £a). The practices 

Digitized by 



are as follows : 27, 32. 'While reciting the hymn the patient 
is given to eat a porridge containing rotten fish 1 . 32. He 
is taken to the forest 2 , and (in the morning), when the 
constellations begin to fade, he is sprinkled with water 
which has been warmed by quenching in it burning sesame, 
hemp, cow-dung, and sacred firewood 8 (all gathered in the 

The hymn figures in the takmana\ranaga«a (Ath. Parlr. 
32, 7), and the &yushyaga«a (ib. 32, 4) of the Gawamali ; 
see Kauj. 26, 1 note; 54, 11 note. See also 58, 11, and 
Vait. Su. 38, 1. Stanza 4 is quoted in Ath. ParLy. 18 2 , 1. 
The Anukramawi, aindragnam dyushyam. The hymn has 
been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. XVII, 231. There is 
no basis, as far as can be seen, for his caption, * Bei schwerer 

Stanza 1. 

For the disease a^«atayakshma (cf. AV. VI, 127, 3), and 
r4§ayakshmi, see Wise, Hindu System of Medicine, p. 32 1 ff. ; 
Grohmann, Ind. Stud. IX, 400 ; Zimmer, p. 375 ff. 

Stanza 2. 

d. Most of Shankar Pandit's and, apparently, all of Roth 
and Whitney's MSS. read aspar.ram. Sayawa, as the 
vulgata, asparsham (prabalaw karomi). 

Stanza 3. 

a. The divine attribute 'thousand-eyed,' predicated to 
Indra, Agni,Vish«u, &c. (see Pet. Lex. s. v. sahasr&ksha), is 
here transferred to the powerful oblation. Cf. the note on 
IV, 20, 4 ». 

1 For putLrapharl, see Kaujika, Introduction, p. lii. 

* In order to wipe away the effects of the dissolute habits of the 
village (grSmya). 

' For^fvila, cf. Kaux. 27, 30 in our introduction to III, 7 (also 
Kaiu. 28, 2 ; 29, 8). For s&nii, see Kaor. 8, 15. 16. 

Digitized by 


Ill, 12. COMMENTARY. 343 

Stanza 8. 

The correlation of the hymn with diseases of children 
(K&rava and Saya«a) is based upon this stanza. Kaurika, 
however, has other matters in mind. 

Ill, 12. Commentary to page 140. 

The hymn forms in the ritual a part of a gawa or series 
entitled vastoshpatiyani (sc. suktani), ' hymns pertaining to 
Vastoshpati, the lord of the homestead,' Kaiu. 8, 23 ff. 
(see index B, p. 384 b , of the edition). More specifically it 
is employed in Kaur. 43, 8-1 1 as part of an extensive 
ceremony at the erection of a house entitled by the Atharva- 
Paddhati (see p. 1x8, note 11) as br»ha££Aalakarma, 'the 
great ceremony of house-building,' in distinction from a 
less elaborate ceremony at Kaur. 23, 1 ff., entitled laghu- 
jalakarma (see p. 61, note 12). 

The performances at Kaus. 43, 3 ff. begin with an intro- 
ductory rite in connection with AV. VII, 41, designed to 
remove obstacles in the way of the builder; apparently 
this is known by the special name of jyenayaga, or 
syenegya. See the discussion of this somewhat obscure 
point in the fifth series of our Contributions, Journ. 
Amer. Or. Soc. XVI, p. 12. Then the materials for 
building are brought on, and the excavation for the 
house is made, and next the actual work of erection is 
accompanied by the recitation of the stanzas of our hymn, 
to wit : 43, 8. ' The hymn AV. Ill, 12 is recited while the 
(central post *) is being fixed and erected. 9. Having 
anointed it, the sixth stanza of the hymn is recited while 
the act stated in it is being performed (i. e. while the cross- 
beam is being placed upon the post). 10. Having taken 
a pitcher of water, and the fire, they enter the house while 
reciting the eighth stanza. 11. (The house) is rendered 

1 So according to Darila, madhyamasthunam ; Kcrava and Ath. 
Paddh., more generally, jilam. Cf. Hir. Gnh. I, 27, 2, dvarasthu- 
»am uA/fcirayati ; also Apast. Gr»h. VII, 1 7, 3. 

Digitized by 



firm by reciting the two ' firm ' stanzas (dhruvabhyam, sts. 
i and 2). The ceremonies are concluded in Kaiu. 43, 
12-15 with sprinkling the house, the recitation of more 
mantras, an especial oblation to Vastoshpati, feeding the 
Brahmans, and final blessings. 
The hymn has been treated by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 

III, 463; Zimmer, p. 150 ff.; Weber, Ind. Stud. XVII, 
234 ff. ; Grill a , pp. 59, 108 ff.; cf. also Hillebrandt, Veda- 
chrestomathie, p. 45. The Anukramawt designates the 
hymn as .ralasuktam, and vastoshpatlraladaivatam. Similar 
themes are treated in Asv. Grih. II, 8 ; Par. Gr*h. Ill, 4 ; 
Sankh. Grih. Ill, 2, 3 ; Hir. Grih. I, 27 ; Apast. GWh. VII, 
17 ; Apast. Mantrabr. II, 15 ; Bharadva^a's Grih. II, 3 ; 
cf. Oldenberg, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxix, pp. 92, 
212, 345 ff. 

Stanza 1. 

a, b. The words dhruva7» and ksh^me convey each the 
idea of good settlement, and sound foundation ; cf. V$g. 
S. XVIII, 7 ; Tait. S. IV, 7, 3, 1, ksdmar ka. dhr/tir £a, and 
RV. I, 73, 4 ; VII, 88, 7, dhruvasu kshitfshu. Hence the 
renderings of Ludwig, Weber, and Hillebrandt ' im gliicke, 
in frieden,' &c, do not quite catch the point. Cf. also AV. 

IV, 1, 4- 

d. upa saw £arema seems to convey the idea of close 
union. In the only other passage quoted by the Pet. Lex. 
it refers to sexual intercourse, bhartaram upasam£aret 
(Brzhat-Sawhita 77, 26). Sayana, vyavaharema. 

Stanza 2. 

The wording of the stanza is formulaic. In Par. Grih. 
II, 17, 9 Pada b is applied to the furrow of the field ; see 
also the other Gnhya-texts, cited in the introduction. 

For sunrftavati, 'full of abundance,' see Oertel in the 
Proceedings of the Amer. Or. Soc, May, 1891 (Journ., vol. 
xv, pp. xcv ff), and our Contributions, Fifth Series, ib. XVI, 
p. 19. Ludwig, ' reich an trefflichkeit ; ' Zimmer, ' reich an 
wonne ; ' Weber, * reich an frohen liedern ; ' Hillebrandt, 
' reich an lieblicher rede ;' Grill, ' reich an herrlichkeiten.' 

Digitized by 


Ill, 12. COMMENTARY. 345 

Stanza 3. 

Hillebrandt and Grill regard the first two Pldas as 
defective, but they are anush/ubh, no poorer than many 
others in the AV. The Anukr., brihati. 

a. dharwrf is in intentional relation with dhruva", hence 
• a supporter ; ' cf. Tait. S. IV, 3, 7, 2. Grill, ' vielfassend, 
vielbergend ; ' Zimmer and Hillebrandt, ' geraumig.' The 
Pada is catalectic. 

b. brih&ikAaxidkA, ' with broad roof.' The translation is 
problematic, the word being Sir. Aey. /Wandas does not by 
itself ever occur in the meaning ' roof (£^adis, Madman). 
Some support may be derived from st. 5 c, tritium vasana, 
since in Hir. Grzh. the roof is smoothed with a stanza 
containing the same Pada. The words there used are 
Mannam (sc. jalam) abhimmati. Sayawa, prabhutaMa- 
dana, mahadbhii ^andobhir devair upeta va. For pflti- 
dhanya 1 of the text of the 5aunakiya-jakha, the Paippalada 
reads putadhanya ; this underlies our translation. Cf. 
pariputeshu dhanyeshu, Manu VIII, 331, and perhaps also 
the expression kr*'ta" dhana^, RV. Ill, 35, 7. 

d. Cf. 5ankh. Grih. Ill, 3, 9, a syandantawz dhenavo 
nityavatsaA. The majority of Shankar Pandit's MSS. 
(both Padapa/^a and Sawhita) read aspandamana^. 

Stanza 4. 

o. Most MSS., and the editio princeps, read ukk/tantxx ; 
Sayawa, Shankar Pandit, with some MSS., and the Paippa- 
lada, ukshantu, the basis of our translation. Again, our 
translation presupposes the reading udna* for unna - of the 
edition: the MSS. read utn£ (cf. VII, 45, 2 ; VII, 18, 1, 
and the Index Verborum, p. 67). The Paippalada, 
Shankar Pandit with some of his MSS., and Sayawa have 
udna"; cf. RV. I, 85, 5, (marut&6) udabhir vy undanti 

1 Sayawa, with desperate literalness, putigandhopeta^trwadhanya- 
yukta, ' endowed with evil smelling, old, grain 1 ' Ludwig suggests 
pratidhanya or pr&tidhanya, ' gut zu verschliessen.' 

Digitized by 



d. For n{ tanotu, cf. AV. VII, 90, 3 ; VII, 31, 3, and the 
plant nitatni, used to prevent the falling out of hair at AV. 
VI, 136, 1. Sayawa, nitarawz karotu. 

Stanza 5. 

a. The words manasya patni are addressed directly to 
the house (yala), as may be gathered from IX, 3, 21 ; the 
house, after it is erected, is deified, since the weal or woe of 
its inhabitants are now dependent upon its behaviour. 
Saya«a, mananiyasya vastupate^ patni, 'O wife of Vastupati 
who is to be honoured 1 ! ' Grill's etymological combinations 
are superfluous ; his comparison of Zend nmano-pathni and 
nmand-paiti (Gathic, demana) contrary to phonetic law. 
Ludwig and Weber, ' herrin des maasses ; ' Ludwig at IX, 
3, 5 ff. (Der Rigveda, III, pp. 464-5), ' herrin des verweilens ; * 
Zimmer and Hillebrandt, ' genie des baues ; ' Grill, ' hort der 

b. Sayawa reads nirmita for nimita. 

Stanza 8. 

a, b. The expression S. roha, ' ascend,' harbours two double 
ententes, borrowed from other well-known events in life. 
First, sexual connection, in a manner similar to the union 
of the two sticks with which fire is churned (see e. g. VI, 
11, 1, and cf. Ill, 6, 1) ; secondly, the various acts of ascend- 
ing which form parts of the consecration of a king, the 
ra^asuya (cf. Kaur. 17, 3. 9 ; AV. IV, 8). The rule of the 
king is indicated clearly in the next Pada (cf. AV. I, 10, 1), 
and in the anointing of the post, prescribed at Kaur. 43, 
10. The word vira^an in Pada b, which we have rendered 
' ruling,' again suggests the alternate meaning, ' shining ; ' 
cf. 'the shining roof in AV. Ill, 7, 3. The vamsa. is a 
very important part of the house ; sometimes it splits, and 
elaborate performances are prescribed in Kauf. 135 to meet 
that misfortune. 

1 Still worse is the alternate interpretation, mfyamanam dhin- 
yadikaw manaw tasya patni palayitr*. 

Digitized by 


Ill, 12.. COMMENTARY. 347 

o, d. Both Padas are hypermetric; the first may be 
mended by excluding gr*ha«am (so in our version), which 
seems to have crept in from st. 9 c ; the second by chang- 
ing sarvaviraA to siivtraA or savlraA. The translators render 
upasattaYo, erroneously, by 'inmates;' this is certainly 
incorrect, as may be gathered from V^g-. S. XXVII, 2. 4, 
ma* ka. rishad upasatta" te agne ; AV. II, 6, 2, mi te rishann 
upasattaYo agne. Sayawa, upavadanakartaraAT^Ludwig, 
fancifully, 'nicht sollen dich verletzen die belagerer der 
hauser 1 ' 

Stanza 7. 

Occurs with many variants in the Gr/hya-stitras of Asv., 
Par., 5ahkh., Hir., Apast., Bharadva^a, Manava ; see the 
introduction, and Professor Kirste's edition of the Hiranya- 
k&rin, p. 54, notes. 

b. The reading ^agata saha, also in Hir. and Bhar. ; 
Man. has ^agada saha ; Par. ^agadaiA saha ; the other 
texts show still greater differences. For^agat, see Zimmer, 
p. 150, and AV. IX, 3, 17. Oldenberg in the Sacred Books, 
vol. xxix, pp. 345, 395, and xxx, p. 205, renders both ^agat 
and £-agada by ' companion ; ' Ludwig, ' mit dem lebenden ; ' 
Weber, ' nebst allem was sich ruhrt.' The others, as above. 
Sayawa, gamanarflena gavadina saha. 

o, d. Sayana has kumbhaA which approaches the reading 
of .Sankh., kumbhya/* ; and kalartr, like Apast. and Bhar. 
The last seems preferable to kalirair of our texts ; cf. the 
note on VI, 59, 2 b. 

Stanza 8. 

In the Paippalada this stanza is wanting here, appear- 
ing (with variants) in another hymn j Grill in his transla- 
tion places it before stanza 7, without a statement of his 
motive. Cf. Kauj. 43, 10; Vait. SO. 16, 1 (with the vikara, 
adhvaryo for nari), and in general AV. IX, 3, 22, and Kaur. 
66, 25. 

o. Saya«a reads patrim and samindhi (sawdtptan kuru). 
Shankar Pandit, with most of his MSS., reads im£m patr/h, 
referring im^m to the house. 

Digitized by 



d. Weber emends, abhf ksharaty enan, but neither change 
is necessary. See II, 12, 4, ish/apurtam avatu naJt. 

Stanza 9. 

Identical with AV. IX, 3, 23, and quoted frequently in 
the Atharva-Paruish/as (16 ; 19 8 , 3, &c). 

Ill, 13. Commentary to page 146. 

The first six stanzas of this hymn recur in Tait. S. V,6, 1, 
2-4 ; Maitr. S. II, 13, 1, in connection with certain oblations 
of water (kumbhesh/aka/z, or apaw* grahaA), and they are evi- 
dently originally at home in the Ya^us-ritual. The etymolo- 
gical puns, heaped up in the first four stanzas, explain the 
various names of water quite in Nirukta and Brahmawa-style. 
The seventh stanza does not occur in the Ya^us-sawhitas ; it 
is the one that is characteristically Atharvanic : it narrows 
down the general subject of the praise of the waters to 
the special subject in hand, the deflection of a river from 
its course \ The Kaurika, 40, 1-6, supplies the very inter- 
esting practices engaged in for the same purpose, to wit : 
' 1. He who desires that a river shall go a certain way, walks 
along that way, pouring out water, while reciting the pre- 
sent hymn. 2. He sticks up the (kinds of grass or reeds 
called) k&sz, dividhuvaka, and vetasa s . 3. While reciting 
st. 7 a, he places gold upon the mouth of the river (that is, 
the point from which the river shall branch into the desired 
channel). 4. With st. 7 b he ties a frog, striped like the 
reed-plant ishika, through the arm-pits (pits of the fore- 
feet) with two threads, one red and the other blue 3 (and 
places him into the outlet). 5. With st. 7 c he envelopes 

1 For its employment in the Vaitdna-sfltra, see the note on the 

* For the explanation of these varieties of water-plants, see 
DSrila and Karava. Saya«a, kajajaivalapa/erakavetasasAkhaA. 

* Cf. the introduction to VII, 116, and the notes on IV, 17, 4 ; 
VIII, 8, 24. 

Digitized by 


Ill, 13. COMMENTARY. 349 

the frog in an avaka-plant (blyxa octandra) 1 . 6. With st. 
7 d he pours water (over the frog) 2 .' 

The symbolism of these performances is unmistakable : 
they anticipate the presence of the water with all its life. 
The gold (40, 3) reflects ' the golden-coloured, clear, pure 
waters ' (AV. 1, 33, 1 : see also st 6 of our hymn) ; the river 
grasses and reeds symbolise the river-vegetation. Above 
all the frog, securely tied so that he cannot leap away, 
and the water-bringing avaka affiliate this practice with 
one of the most interesting practices of Vedic common life ; 
see our article, ' On a Vedic group of charms for extin- 
guishing fire by means of water-plants and a frog,' in the 
second series of Contributions, Amer. Journ. Phil. XI, 343 ft". 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Indische 
Studien, XVII, 240 ff. ; cf. also Bergaigne et Henry, 
Manuel Wdique, p. 143. The Anukrama«i, varuwam (cf. 
Kaor. 40, 7), uta sindhvabdaivatam. 

Stanza 1. 
The etymologies in this and the next three stanzas are 
dominated by that punning spirit which has made etymo- 
logy by far the feeblest product of the linguistic endeavours 
of the Hindus. In the present instance, however, the deri- 
vation of nadf, ' river,' from nad, ' roar,' is likely enough. 
The mythological event alluded to is the well-known rush 
of the waters over the dead body of the (cloud-) dragon 
Vr*'tra, slain by Indra ; cf. e.g. RV. I, 3a. 

Stanza 2. 
Varuwa (and Mitra) are also instrumental in procuring 
water, but it is rather the quiet streaming down of refresh- 

1 Cf. Amer. Journ. Phil. XI, p. 349, and add Sat. Br. XIII, 8, 
3, 13; U/y.Si. Ill, 5, 13 ff. 

* Kaur. 40, 7-10 continues with an expiatory performance, con- 
sisting chiefly of oblations to Varuwa, the god of the waters, in case 
this new watercourse should threaten the surrounding country with 
an inundation. The hymn is employed further with many others 
at Kauj. 41, 12 for sprinkling certain oblations, offered by one 
about to start upon a business tour. Cf. also Ath. ParLr. 10. 

Digitized by 



ing rain, than the storm-flood at the time of the monsoon. 
The notion of conquest by thunderbolts, as weapons used 
against demon serpents, is not present. See Bergaigne, La 
Religion V^dique, III, 122 ff. (especially pp. 125-6). The 
root valg, which here represents the motion of the waters, 
seems to contain an almost playful touch : it is used of the 
gamboling of animals. The allusion to Indra's ' meeting of 
the waters as they went ' is obscure. The Maitr. S. reads 
saw*pra£yuta for yat preshita. 

Stanza 3. 
b. The lexicons and the translators derive avivarata from 
var, ' enclose.' Sayawa, correctly, it seems to us, from var, 
'choose,' avivarata vr/tavan yushman svatmasat kartum 
aiJkkAat What sense is there in saying of Indra that he 
hindered the waters, and when did the waters flow against 
his will (' contre le gre d'lndra,' Bergaigne)? An obvious 
paradox. Soma is said, RV. IX, 94, 1, to purify himself by 
acting wisely in choosing the waters : ap6 vrtnknih pavate 
kaviyan; cf. also V, 48, 1. Indra here is said to appro- 
priate the waters for his purpose, the benefaction of men. 

Stanza 4. 
The exact mythic attitude of this stanza is not clear. Is 
Indra the subject of apy atish/Aat or some god hindering, 
or trying to hinder? Cf. RV. VIII, 6, 16: « He, O Indra, 
who lay confining thy great waters, him didst thou smite.' 
Cf. also RV. I, 32, 12, where one god, or a certain god 
(deva ekaA), resists Indra. The verb apy attsh/Aat means 
either to stand upon (so Saya«a, adhyatish//*at), or ' stand 
in the way ' (Pet. Lex.). We incline to the former view. 
The way in which the word mahfr in Pada c is utilised is 
somewhat obscure : it seems to be brought in partly for the 
sake of furnishing an etymological basis (sit venia verbo) 
for the m of udakam, and partly (note the iti), to infuse 
a dash of archaism into the reminiscence. 

Stanza 7. 
This seems to be distinctly ritualistic (sautra) in charac- 
ter. The calf may be the frog of the Sutra above. Cf. 

Digitized by 


Ill, 14. COMMENTARY. 35 1 

also its use in Vait. Sti. 29, 13, for which see the introduc- 
tion to VI, 106. The waters are cows, because the frog, 
the water-animal, is their child. Or the new river-bed may 
be the calf; cf. RV. Ill, 33, 1. 

Ill, 14. Commentary to page 143. 

For the employment of the hymn in the ritual, see our 
introduction to II, 26. Cf. also Ath. Parij. 16. The Anu- 
kramawi, nanadevatyam uta gosh/^adevatakam. Previous 
translations: Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 469; Weber, Ind. 
Stud. XVII, 244 ff. ; Grill 2 , pp. 64, 112 ff. 

Stanza 1. 

o, d. Sayana defines ahaigata by ahany-ahani ^ayate. 
The expression occurs once more, V, 28, 12, and 'aus- 
picious' comes very near to its sense. Its opposite is 
anahaiyata, Sahkh. St. XIV, 51, 2-5, 'born on an unlucky 
day'=papanakshatre g&XaJt, Kaur. 46, 25, and elsewhere. 
Cf. Weber, Nakshatra, II, 314-15 note. Either it is, 
* born on a good (pu«ya) day,' or ' born by day in distinction 
from night' (cf. nakta»»gata, I, 23, 1). The word adr/shfa, 
II, 31, 2; RV. I, 191, 1 ff., &c, would then approach the 
opposite meaning. Cf. aharbha^ and ahardrfr. 'With 
the name ' may mean ' with the kind, or species ; ' cf. V, 

Stanza 3. 

Both milk and honey are frequently added to the Soma. 
Hence the milk is here spoken of as honey, Soma being the 
middle term as it were. Cf. Hillebrandt, Soma und ver- 
wandte Gotter, pp. 219, 238 ff. 

Stanza 4. 

b. jake»va (Padap. .raka iva) has occasioned unnecessary 
discussion. The word is not treated at all independently 
in the lexicons. The Western authorities generally regard 
it as ace. plur. neut. of s&krit, .raknas, &c. Sayawa's .raka 

Digitized by 



makshika has good support in the literature. At Tait S. 
V, 5, 12, i ; Maitr. S. Ill, 14, 13 ; V&£. S. XXIV, 32 the 
word occurs in connection with other animals (Mahidhara, 
jakunti ; Madhava, .raka makshike«ty eke, dirgha-karoo 
mrjgavLresha ity apare), and as the word is preceded or 
followed there by suka, 'parrot,' and s&ri (see the note 
on st 5), there is no doubt but what Sayawa has hit the 
point. I should not be surprised to find the .raka identical 
with the kma, mentioned at Kaur. 10, 2, along with juka 
and sarika. Cf. also Tait. S. V, 5, 18, 1, and commentary. 
Grill suggests an improbable remedy, jakeva=^aka(m) iva 
or jaka iva, ' like vegetables ' (cf. German, ' wie 's unkraut *). 

Stanza 5. 

b. jarLsalceva (Padap. skris&kk iva) is doubtful. Sayawa, 
helplessly, kshawena sahasraro <bhivardhamanaA prawtvi- 
sesh&A ; the suggestion seems incredible even from Sayana. 
jari (=sari, sarika, and sarika) is a certain bird which, like 
the parrot (mka), imitates the human voice ; see Tait. S. V, 
5, 12, 1 ; Maitr. S. Ill, 14, 14; Ytg. S. XXIV, 33. It 
appears there in connection with juka, ' parrot,' and .raka (cf. 
st. 4). It seems hardly possible that our passage does not 
harbour these very two words, and accordingly I have 
emended to jarmikeva (= s&risukA/i iva, with double sandhi). 
Cf. also Kauj. 10, 2. The translators have again endea- 
voured to find sikrit, jaknas in the second part of the 
word. For further suggestions, all of which seem to me 
to be silenced by the considerations advanced in this and 
the preceding notes, see Grill, 1. c. 

Ill, 15. Commentary to page 148. 

The Sutra rubricates the hymn in various non-significant 
practices. At Kauj. 50, 12 the merchant, while reciting 
the hymn, sets up (or, loads up) his ware (or, his shop), 
after it has been anointed with the dregs of ghee. At 59, 6 
the person who desires merchandise recites the hymn. Cf. 
Gohh. IV, 8, 19 ff. ; Khad. IV, 3, 7. The hymn is also 

Digitized by 


Ill, 15. COMMENTARY. 353 

worked up in the comparatively late indramaha or indra- 
mahotsava festival, Kaur. 140, 16; Ath. Park 19 1 ; and sts. 
7, 8, which are scarcely connected with the body of the 
hymn, are rubricated in Kaur. 70, 13. 14. The Anukramani, 
vairvadevam utai*ndragnam ; the author is paayakamo 

Previous translations: Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 215; 
Zimmer, p. 258 ; Weber, Ind. Stud. XVII, 247 ff. ; Grill 2 , 
pp. 69, 113 ff. Cf. also Hillebrandt's Vedachrestomathie, 
p. 38. 

Stanza L 

Indra who gathers in the stakes at all contests (dhana- 
^ft, dhanaw^aya) is their possessor (frana), and hence in the 
position to bestow wealth (dhanada"). The same attributes 
are given to Agni in various passages of the R.V., justifying 
the appeal to him in the sequel (st 3 ff.). 

Stanza 2. 
The first two Padas are repeated in a different connec- 
tion at VI, 55, 1 5 cf- Tait. S. V, 7, 2, 3- 

Stanza 3. 

Cf. RV. Ill, 18, 3, where the stanza occurs in its proper 
connection. The word i&Mta&no doubtless suggested its 
adaptability for the present mixtum compositum. 

Stanza 4. 

The brackets about the two first Padas are designed to 
show the looseness of the connection with the rest ; but 
there is no reason for doubting that they were put here by 
the Atharvan poet. They were put here because they 
speak of the ' far road which we have travelled.' Sayawa 
treats them as an independent (fourth) stanza, and then 
continues with the following divisions, thoroughly subver- 
sive of good sense : our 4 b-f and 5 a, b (six Padas) =5 ; our 
5 c, d and 6 a, b=6 ; our 6 c, d=7 ; our 7 = 8 ; our 8=9. 

a. Weber emends jara«im to saramm, translating, ' Diesen 
Weg du glattestest uns, o Agni ! ' 
[42] a a 

Digitized by 



e. The Paippalada reads, sawrarawa liavir ida>« ^usha- 
ntam. But the plural is vague. 

f. £aritam and utthitam are rendered in accordance with 
Grill and Sayawa, £aritam a£aritam vikrayadikam utthi- 
tam tasmad vyavaharad utpannaw labhayuktaw dhanam. 
The other translators, flatly, 'our going and our departure.' 

Stanza 5. 

d. devan is metrically superfluous : the sense, too, ' devas 
who shut off gain,' has an Avestan rather than a Vedic ring. 
The word is a gloss, suggested by devaA in Pada b. 

Stanzas 7, 8. 

The two stanzas seem to have no connection with the 
rest of the hymn. They are Ya^fus-formulas (st 8, with 
variants in Tait. S. IV, i, io, i ; Maitr. S. II, J, J ; Ka///. S. 
XVI, 7 ; Va^\ S. XI, 75), and are employed fittingly as 
puronuvakya and ya^ya in connection with a pur«ahuti at 
K&us. 70, 13. 14, on the occasion of the ceremony of build- 
ing the householder's fire (agnyadhanam). The Atharvan 
tradition regards six stanzas as the normal number for the 
hymns of the third book (see AV. XIX, aa and 23, and 
Ath. Park 46, 9. 10). 

Ill, 18. Commentary to page 107. 

This hymn is a repetition with variants of RV. X, 145. 
The Anukramawi there gives it the name indra«y-upanishad 
(Sharfguturishya, indra«yr*'shika ; Saya«a, indra«ya ar- 
sham) 1 . It constitutes also a part of the Apast. Mantra- 
brahmawa I, 15, 1-6, and the stanzas are employed at 
Apast. Gr»h. Ill, 9, 5. 6 (cf. Kaur. 33, 7 ; Gobh. Gr*h. II, 
6, 6 ff.) in a charm practised with the pa/a-plant (clypea 

1 Cf. for the relation of Indrani to marital life, our Contribu- 
tions, Sixth Series, Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morg. Gesellsch. XL VIII, 
55' ff- J 579- 

Digitized by 


Ill, 1 8. COMMENTARY. 355 

hcrnandifolia ; cf. our introduction to II, 27). The prac- 
tices of Kaurika (36, 19-21) differ entirely from those of 
Apastamba. The plant which is used there is the ba«a- 
par«i (so also Kauj. $6, 38). Darila glosses, jarapunkha ; 
Kejava, masika (cf. Kaurika, Introduction, p. liii) 1 . It 
seems to have been suggested to the ritualist by the epithet 
uttanaparna in stanza 2, but Sayawa there has in mind 
again the pa/a, since he quotes AV. II, 27, 4, and in his 
comment on st. 1 says outright, pa/Aakhyam oshadhim. 
Kaiuika's performance is as follows : 36, 19. ' While 
reciting III, 18, a ba«apar/ri~plant is mashed, mixed with 
a spray (of milk) from a red she-goat, and scattered round 
about the bed (of the rival woman). 20. While reciting 
stanza 6 a, a leaf (of the plant) is fastened beneath the bed. 
21. While reciting stanza 6 b (a leaf) is thrown upon the 
(bed).' We would draw especial attention to the totally 
different employment of the stanzas in Apast. Grih. Ill, 9, 
5. 6, in illustration of the loose, subjective symbolism which 
governs their manipulation. The general purpose of the 
practice is. however, there the same as with Kaujika. 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. V, 
222; XVII, 264 ff. ; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 307. 
The Rigveda version by Ludwig (932) and Grassmann in 
their well-known works 2 ; the version of the Apast. Man- 
trabr. by Winternitz, Das altindische Hochzeitsrituell, p. 98. 
The Ath. Anukramam, atharva*nena suktena sapatni- 
prawuttyai vanaparoam oshadhim astaut. 

Stanssa 2. 

a. Sayaaa here and at RV., uttanaparwe uttanani urdhva- 
mukhani parcani patra«i yasyaA. 

1 According to the Pet. Lex. the common name for this plant is 
umhali, similar to the indigo-plant ; it is also known as suryavamrf. 
Both banaparni and jarapuftkha seem to mean ' having arrow-form 

2 The RV. version seems on the whole secondary to that of the 
AV. : dhama for «uda in st. 2 c ; kuru for kr»*dhi in 2 d. 

a a 2 

Digitized by 



Stanza 4. 

c. I read adha, ' now,' upon the basis of adha in some 
MSS., Sayawa's adha, and with reference to atha in the 
RV. Most MSS. read adhaA (' low shall be my rival,' &c.) ; 
this is the text adopted by the vulgata, and Shankar 

Stanza 5. 

A very similar stanza occurs XII, i, 54; Sayawa is 
seduced by its pratika, aham asmi sahamana(A), to confuse 
it with the present, and to suppose that Kaur. 38, 30 quotes 
it, instead of XII, 1, 54. 

Stanza 6. 

The Sutra does not place the plant about and upon the 
husband, but about and upon the rival. Saya«a follows 
through thick and thin. Apast. Grih. Ill, 9, 6 correlates 
the stanza with the husband : ' she embraces the hus- 
band with her arms,' with the stanza alluding to the word 
upadhana (Mantrabr. I, 15, 6). 

Ill, 23. Commentary to page 97. 

This hymn furnishes the mantras for the well-known 
house-practice, called pumsavanam in the GWhya-sutras 1 . 
The Atharvanic form of it is described in Kaur. $5, 1-4, as 
follows: 1. Now the rites for producing a son. a. (They 
are made) in behalf of the woman after she has laid aside 
the linen soiled by her menses, under a male constellation. 
3. While reciting III, 23 an arrow is broken to pieces over 
her head, and (a piece of the arrow) is fastened (upon her 
as an amulet). 4. Into a cup made from a plough (the 
practitioner) puts milk of a cow which has a calf of a colour 
identical with her own, and rice and barley, mashes it up, 
adds to the mixture two adhyawrfa plants, or leaves from 
a great pallra (butea frondosa) and a vidarf (batatas pani- 

1 Cf. Sankh. I, 19. 20; Ajv. I, 13; Par. I, 14; Gobh. II, 6; 
Khad. II, 2, 17 flF. ; Hir. II, 2 ; Apast. VI, 14, 9. 

Digitized by 


Ill, 23. COMMENTARY. 357 

culata), and does with the mixture as in the case of the 
paidva-ceremony (i.e. he puts it up the right nostril of 
the woman with his right thumb ; cf. Kauj. 32, 21, in the 
introduction to X, 4) *. 

Stanzas 2-4 are repeated with variants in 5ankh. Grih. 
I, 19, 6 ; stanzas 2, 4, 5 (entire or in part) in Hir. Grih. I, 
25, 1. The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. 
V, 223 ; XVII, 285 ff. ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 477 ff. ; 
Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 319. The Anukramawi, 
£andramasam uta yonidevatyam, brahma»nena putraw 
prarthayad yonim abhish/uya pra^aya iti. 

Stanza 2. 

d. Ten lunar months reconcile this statement with the 
biological facts; see Weber, Nakshatra, 11,313; Zimmer, 

Stanza 4. 

Hir. Grih. I, 25, 1, yani prabhti«i vlryawy rz'shabha ^ana- 
yantu naA, tais tvaw garbhiwl bhava . . . prasur dhenuga 
bhava. Sankh. Grih. I, 19, 6, purushaA for rishabhti/t. 

Stanza 5. 

a. Ludwig, 'das pra^apatyam vollziehe ich dir;' Zim- 
mer, 'ich verschaffe dir Zeugungsfahigkeit;' Weber, 'ich 
thu dir an das Zeugungswerk ' (Ind. Stud. XVII, 286); 
' ich schafF dir Zeugungsfahigkeit ' (ib. V, 224) ; Sayawa, 
pra^apatina . . . nirmitaw pra^otpattikaraw karma. 

Stanza 6. 

Cf. VIII, 7, 2, and perhaps III, 9, 1. The plants are 
undefined ; see the Sutra, and Sankh. Grih. I, 19, 1 ; 20, 

1 The complicated practice is not clear in every detail. For 
phdla^amasa and adhyawafe, see Kaurika, Introduction, pp. Hi and 
xlv, and .Sankh. Grih. I, 19, 1 ff. The Gr/hya-texts, cited in the 
preceding note, contain quite a number of parallels. There seems 
to be a cheap symbolism in the choice of the names of the two 
plants, adhyam& : a»da, ' egg/ and vidari : vi dar, ' burst, cleave.' 

Digitized by 



Ill, 25. Commentary to tage 102. 

The practices of the Sutra, Kauy. 35, 22-28, embody 
symbolically a large portion of the statements and similes 
of the hymn, to wit : 22. ' While reciting the hymn he 
(who wishes to subject a woman) pushes her with his 
thumb (cf. st. 1). 23. He puts on (the fire) twenty-one 
(pieces of kudl-wood) ', with their thorns to the east (or 
forward ; cf. st. 3), adorned (i. e. anointed with ghee), over 
which the hymn has been pronounced. 24. (Then he puts 
on the fire) the twenty-one tips of the kudi, together with 
threads (which have been wound about them). 25. For 
a period of three days (literally, nights) he burns thrice 
each day kush/^a (costus speciosus) dipped in butter. 26. 
Having put the mattress (?) of his couch face downward he 
sleeps upon it (three nights) 2 . 27. He places warm water 
into a tripod, fastens s it to the foot (of his bed), and lies 
agitating it with his great toes. 28. By means of a bow 
which is darbhytisha (? cf. Kauj. 32, 8, in the introduction 
to VII, 74, and Kaurika, Introduction, p. li), and has 
a bowstring of hemp, with an arrow whose barb is a thorn, 
whose plume is derived from an owl, whose shaft is made 
of black ala-wood (see Kaurika. Introduction, p. xlvi), he 

1 The word kudi is to be supplied from the next Sutra. For 
kudi =badarf, 'Christ's thorn,' see Kaurika, Introduction, p. xliv. 
Darila observantly sees in this practice the symbolic realisation of 
st. 3, ya plihanam iti lingat. 

2 This translation of the Sutra is a doubtful paraphrase of 
Kerava's and Sayawa's statements. The Sutra is: dirghotpale 
•vagrihya sawvwati. D&rila, maw^akeje (! ? madfakam) adhaA 
kmi (?kr»lvi) tatra sawvirati; Kejava, kha/v£m adhomukhapa/- 
/ikaw grihhvi . . . svapiti ; S£ya»a, kha/vay£ adhomukhapa/Zikam 
gr»hitv£ triratraw svapiti. The practice refers symbolically to 
st. 1 b, ' do not hold out upon thy bed.' All this does not explain 
dirghotpale ; cf. the equally difficult utpale, Kaar. 36, 7 (see the 
introduction to IV, 5). 

5 Read, apparently, with Sayawa and one MS. prabadhya- for 

Digitized by 


Ill, 28. COMMENTARY. 359 

pierces the heart of an effigy * made of potter's clay ' (ibid, 
p. xlvii). The last Sutra embodies st. 2. 

For Kama in general as a cosmic force, see the introduc- 
tion to IX, 2. For Kama as the god of love, Weber, Ind. 
Stud. V, 435 ; Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, V, 407 ; 
Zimmer, p. 300. In both forms he is brought into close 
relation with Agni (fire) ; cf. Hir. Grih. I, 3, 7. 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Ind. Stud. V, 
224; XVII, 290 ff. ; Muir, 1. c, p. 407 ; Ludwig, Der Rig- 
veda, III, 516 ; Zimmer, p. 307 ; Grill 2 , pp. 53, 115 ff.; cf. 
also Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel V^dique, p. 144. The 
Anukrama/rf, maitravaruwaw kameshudevatakam £a. 

Stanza 1. 

b. S4ya«a reads drithk/t, glossing, Jayanavishayam ada- 
r&m ma karshiA, ' have no regard for matters connected 
with the bed (sleep).' 

Stanza 2. 

b. sawkalpa, literally 'determination.' Sayawa, with 
naive picturesqueness, idam me syad ida.m me syad iti 
bhogavishayasawkalpanam. Cf. Tait. S. Ill, 4, 7, 3. 

Stanza 4. 

c. Grill regards nfmanyuA as the equivalent of nfrman- 
yu/t, 'versohnt' The word seems, however, to have a 
slightly different meaning, lit. 'having laid down your 
pride or anger.' Sayawa, nyakkritaprawayakalaha. 

Stanza 5. 

o, d. The passage is formulary, being repeated at I, 34, 
2 ; VI, 9, 2 ; Pada d is repeated at VI, 42, 3 ; 43, 3. 

Ill, 28. Commentary to page 145. 

Contrary to modern superstitions which regard the birth 
of twins as auspicious, and prize animals born in pairs, 
the prevailing Hindu view is that the birth of twins is an 

1 Cf. Kauj. 36, 14 in the introduction to VI, 130. 

Digitized by 



ominous occurrence to be expiated by diverse performances, 
and that the cattle itself is, as a rule, to be given to the 
Brahmans. But there are not wanting indications that 
a favourable view of such events also existed, and one may 
suspect shrewdly that the thrifty Brahmans, who stood 
ever ready to gather in all sorts of odds and ends (cf. the 
elaborate oratio pro domo, XII, 4, in connection with the 
vara), gave vigorous support to any tendency towards 
superstitious fear which might show its head in connection 
with such occurrences. Weber, Indische Studien, XVII, 
398 ff., has assembled quite a number of passages which 
represent the Hindu attitude towards twins. Cf. also Tait. 
S. II, 1, 8, 4. 

The hymn is rubricated thrice in the Kaurika, in the 
thirteenth book, which is devoted to expiatory perform- 
ances (prayaj^itti), in connection with all sorts of omens 
and portents. It is employed in chapters 109, 5; no, 4; 
in, 5, on the occasion of the birth of twins from cows, 
mares, asses, and women. The practices consist in cook- 
ing a porridge in the milk of the mother, offering ghee, 
pouring the dregs of the ghee into a water-vessel and upon 
the porridge. Then the animal and its young are made to 
eat of the porridge, to drink of the water, and they are 
also sprinkled with the same water. The mother is then 
given to the Brahmans, and in the case of the human 
mother a ransom ' according to her value, or, in accordance 
with the wealth (of the father),' is paid. Cf. Weber, Omina 
und Portenta, p. 377 ff. 

The hymn has beea translated by Weber, Indische 
Studien, XVII, 297 ff. The Anukrama«i, yaminyam . . . 
brahma«nena yaminim astaut paruposhanaya. 

Stanza 1. 

. Since the mother of the twins was born under an arrange- 
ment which made a separate act of creation necessary for 
each individual, the birth of two at a time is apartu, * un- 
seasonable, portentous.' Pada b is hypermetric and may 
be relieved in a measure by throwing out bhutakrfto, but 

Digitized by 


Ill, 30. COMMENTARY. 36 1 

even this does not yield good metre. In Pada d, riphatf, 
' growling,' is not altogether certain. Saya«a, upon the basis 
of the Dhatupa/^a (riph rinph, hi»/sayam), renders it by 
bhakshayantf, 'eating.' In Apast. .Sr. XII, 22, 7 the root 
occurs in the sense of rikh, likh, ' scratch,' which suits the 
context quite as well. For the interchange of gutturals 
and labials, see Contributions, Sixth Series, Zeitschr. d. 
Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch. XLVIII, 557 note, and the 
note on XI, 2, 25. 

Stanza 2. 

Cf. XII, 4, 5. 10-12. In Pada b, vyddvart, 'devouring,' 
looks very well by the side of kravyaVl, 'flesh-eating.' In 
the form vyadvard the word occurs also at Sat. Br. VI I, 4, 
t, 27, and the scholiast derives it from ad, 'eat' But at 
II, 31, 4; VI, 50, 3 (twice) we have vyadhvara 1 , and 
Sayawa reads vyadhvarl in our stanza (' causing misfortune, 
afflicted with an evil way'), duAkhahetur dush/amargaA 
tadvat!. The two words are blended and diversified by 
popular etymology, and it may be that one of them only 
is original. Cf. the note on II, 31, 4. 

Stanzas 5, 6. 

The mother of twins is invited to enter the world of the 
blissful which is described in all its attractiveness, and yet, 
implicitly, is not desired, for the time being, by the owner 
of the cow. In yamfnl, ' mother of twins,' there is a pun 
'fit for Yama, the god of heaven, and death :' this makes 
it still more appropriate that she shall go there. The first 
hemistich is formulaic: see VI, 120, 3. Cf. also XVIII, 2, 
24 5 3. 9- 

III, 30. Commentary to page 134. 

In Kauj. 12, 5 this hymn heads a ga«a or series of seven 
Atharvan charms (HI, 30; V, 1, 5; VI, 64; 73; 74; 94; 
VII, 52), which are designated as sawmanasyani (sc. suk- 

1 Thus the vulgata. Shankar Pandit's edition with Sayawa and 
most MSS., vyadvara. 

Digitized by 



tani), ' designed to produce harmony.' The practices which 
are undertaken with them are stated in the sequel, Kaur. 
1 a, 6-9, as follows : 6. ' A jar full of water, anointed with 
the dregs of ghee, is carried about the (quarrelling) throng 
and poured out in their midst. 7. The same proceedings 
are undertaken with a jar full of brandy (surd). 8. (They 
who desire peace) are given to eat the pickled flesh of a 
young cow three years old. 9. Food, brandy, and water 
from the (public ?) drinking-place are anointed with the 
dregs of ghee (and consumed).' In justification of this 
translation, see the commentaries here, .and at Kaur. 35, 
19: the relation of the proceedings to the charm are not 
clear in every detail ; see especially st. 6, and VI, 70, 1. 

The hymn has been treated previously by Muir, Original 
Sanskrit Texts, V, 439 ; Metrical Translations, p. 139 ; 
Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 256, 516; Zimmer, p. 316; 
Weber, Ind. Stud. XVII, 306 ff.; Grill 2 , pp. 30, 116 ff. ; 
Hillebrandt, Vedachrestomathie, p. 45. The Anukramawi 
designates the hymn as £andramasa/» sammanasyam, its 
author being Atharvan. The Atharvan abounds in such 
songs of harmony ; they occur also outside of the Athar- 
van literature, e.g. RV. X, 191 ; Maitr. S. II, a, 6; Kkth. 
S. X, 1 a ; Tait. Br. II, 4, 4, 4 ff. See also the charm 
against family quarrels (kule kalahini) in Kaur. 97, and cf. 
in general Zimmer, p. 316. 

Stanza 1. 

Sayaz/a reads sawmanushyam in Pada a, and aghnyas in 
Pada d. 

Stanza 2. 

The opposite of this picture of peace is portrayed vividly 
at Sat. Br. IV, 1, 5, 3 ff., where a certain tribe is described 
as not living in peace : ' father fought with son, and brother 
with brother.' See also the story of ATyavana as told in 
the 6aiminiya-Brahma«a, Proc. Amer. Or. Soc, 1883 
(Journal, vol. xi, p. cxlv) : ' then neither did mother know 
son, nor son mother.' 

b. Sayawa reads mata for matr£. 

Digitized by 


Ill, 30. COMMENTARY. $63 

c. Our edition has jantivan ; Shankar Pandit and the 
Paippalada. jantivam, which is obviously the correct read- 
ing, and is at the base of Sayawa's comment, sukhayuktam. 

Stanza 3. 
a. Sayawa reads dvishyat for dvikshat 

Stanza 4. 

a. Sayawa, indradayas . . . vimati/w na prapnuvanti. 
Prof. Weber suggests that the gods here referred to are 
the Brahmans ; this is not necessary since the gods are 
frequently endowed with human foibles : see the note on 
VI, in, 3. The point is, that a charm, strong enough to 
prevent even the bickerings of the gods, will surely produce 
harmony among men. 

Stanza 5. 

a. Saya«a glosses ^yayasvantas by ^yeshMakanishAfca- 
bhavena parasparam anusarantas, i. e. following one another 
in the order of age, the younger after the older. Ludwig, 
p. 256, renders it ' vorziiglich ; ' p. 516, ' Uberlegen.' For 
kittina/t I am tempted to suggest 'of the (same) mind,' 
cf. sahd £ittam esham in AV. VI, 64, 2 ; RV. X, 191, 3 ; 
Maitr. S. II, 2, 6 (p. 20, 1. 12): Tait. Br. II, 4, 4, 5. 

b. Our translation of sawradhdyantaA agrees with Sa- 
yawa's, samanasamsiddhika^, samanakaryaA. — ' Going along 
the same wagon-pole,' i. e. pulling at the same wagon like 
a team. 

d. Cf. Y&g. S. VII, 25 c. The Pada is hypercatalectic ; 
the Anukramawi designates the stanza on this account as 
viraa^agati. Weber suggests sadhri£in, by way of cure; 
Grill, the omission of vaA, or a change to sadhri^o; cf. 
st. 7. 

Stanza 6. 

The stanza is irregular (Anukr., prastarapankti), the 
second half being an anush/ubh. Since stanzas 5 and 7 
are connected by concatenation (Pada 5 d = 7 a), stanza 6 
might be regarded as a very early intrusion. But Kaujika 
employs it particularly for his practices (see above), and 

Digitized by 



thus the criticism must be made for a very early period, to 
say the least. The stanza may, however, have stood in 
a different position in the hymn. 

Stansa 7. 

The stanza concatenates with 5 ; cf. e. g. the relation of 
RV. II, 38, 7 and 9, where st. 8 interrupts a similar relation. 

b. Sayawa reads ekajnush/in. On p. 256 Ludwig emends 
saw/vdnanena to savanena, but on p. 516 he adheres to the 
text and translates it by ' versohnungsspruch.' S&y., vari- 
karawena anena sa/«manasyakarma«a. 

c. In RV. I, 71, 9, Mitra and Varuwa are said to be 
guarding the amrt'ta. 

d. Ludwig on p. 516 emends saumanasd to saumanasim, 
but this is unnecessary if we remember that the leader or 
chief is referred to in ^yayas-, in st. 5 a, and eka-, in 7 b. 
Moreover at Tait. S. IV, 7, 3, 1, saumanasdA, masc, is an 
abstract = saumanasdm. 

111,31. Commentary to page 51. 

This extraordinary composition makes draughts upon 
a variety of mythological and philosophical (psycho- 
physical) conceptions for the purpose of accentuating the 
desired separation from misfortune, and union with life. 
Accordingly each of its eleven stanzas ends in a refrain 
which states this desire distinctly. Further the hymn is 
divisible into two halves, the first of which (sts. 1-4) has 
for its key-note the subject of separation illustrated by 
cosmic examples; the second (6-11) illustrates union with 
the principles of life. The intermediate stanza is more 
problematic ; it has been discussed by the translator in 
connection with his treatment of the marriage of Sarawyu 
in the third series of his Contributions, Journ. Amer. Or. 
Soc. XV, pp. 181 ff. 

The principal employment of the hymn in the ritual is in 
connection with the initiation (upanayana) of the young 
Aryan into the Brahmanical community. At Kaor. 58, 3 

Digitized by 


Ill, 31. COMMENTARY. 365 

the hymn is recited in the presence of the young man, in 
connection with a list of kindred hymns. The last two 
stanzas are employed at Kauj. 24, 31, along with others, on 
the occasion of the solemn rising from a couch, at the cere- 
mony of the full-moon of the month agrahaya»a. Cf. also 
Vait. Su. 13, 10. The Gaaamala, Ath. Parir. 3a, 6, counts 
this hymn as one of three which make up the papmagawa 
and are papmahan ; see Kaur. 30, 17 note. Similarly the 
Anukramawi (papmahadevatyam). It has been translated 
by Weber, Ind. Stud. XVII, 306 ff. 

Stanza 1. 

a. The MSS. read aws'tan, which Roth and Whitney 
have emended to akritan. Saya«a reads vyaw*"tam (viyo- 
^ayatam), and takes deva correspondingly as vocative dual 
(devau asvinau). This reading with tn I find also in the 
papmagawa of the Ganamala, cited above, and one wonders 
whence it comes from. I would suggest the emendation 
avrztran (awztram), literally 'the gods have separated 
themselves from old age.' The gods are a^ara, ' free from 
old age,' and Agni is mentioned particularly RV. VI, 68, 9 
(cf. Pada b). The middle passive of vi + vart in this sense 
governs the instrumental ; see Pet. Lex., vol. vi, col. 775. 
The metre, however, does not favour the suggestion. 

Stanza 4. 

b. The paths are the heavenly paths, travelled by the 
gods (devayanaA) ; cf. Ill, 15, 2 ; VI, 55, 1 ; Tait. S. V, 

1, *» 3- 

Stanza 5. 

Cf. RV. X, 17, 1; AV. XVIII, i, 53. The passage as 
it appears here is doubtless the product of adaptation. 
Prof. Weber has interpreted it as an additional instance of 
thorough separation, the motif of the first four stanzas. 
According to his view Tvash/ar is making preparations to 
marry his own daughter, and everybody (tout le monde) 
is scattering in consternation at the unholy proceeding. 
I have subjected Prof. Weber's construction to a detailed 

Digitized by 



criticism in my essay quoted above. The chief difficulty 
is in vf yati, which means ' pass through,' not ' go apart, 
scatter.' The passage seems to mean that the whole world 
on the occasion of the marriage of Tvash/ar's daughter to 
Vivasvant — not to himself — pass through (a given point of 
observation) to witness the marriage. Thus they might 
illustrate separation from their ordinary places of abode. 
Or, a still more literal and philological translation of the 
passage would be : ' " Tvash/ar is preparing a marriage for 
his daughter," thus saying (or noting) he (who ? Tvash/ar or 
Vivasvant?) passes through the entire world.' But the 
other versions read sam eti, and all the following stanzas 
(6-1 1 ) have for their theme union with the principle of life. 
Since, now, vf occurs no less than thirty times in the entire 
hymn, it is possible that sam has given place to it, and the 
passage would thus revert to its original meaning in RV. 
X, 17, i ; AV. XVIII, 1, 53.' Sayawa takes vf yAtt in the 
sense of going asunder, vahatum . . . prasthipayati iti bud- 
dhy& tasya avakajawz datum ida»* visva.m bhuvanam prj'thi- 
vyantarikshadirupaw* vi yati parasparamt vigatam bhavati. 

Stanza 6. 

a, b. Or, ' Agni bestows life's breaths.' Agni is frequently 

identified in the Upanishads with the breaths of life : see 

Maitri-Upanishad VI, 5. 9. 33 ; Prarna-Upanishad I, 7. 

S&ya«a, ' the Agni of the belly, the cause of the digestion 

of food and drink.' Similarly the sun (cf. the next stanza) 

in Maitri-Up. VI, 1. 5 ; Pra^na-Up. I, 5 ; II, 8 ; Tait. Ar. 

I, 14, 1. 

Stanza 11. 

For vmh/y6d (PadapaVAa, vrishtyi. lid) read vrishty&(h) 
lid with Roth, Zeitschrift d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch. 
XLVIII, 684. 

IV, 3. Commentary to page 147. 

At Kauj. 51, 1-6 the following practices are prescribed : 
1. 'While reciting AV. IV, 3 (the shepherd) follows the 
cattle, (alternately) raising and digging into (the ground) 

Digitized by 



a pole of khadira-wood (acacia catechu, a hard wood), which 
has been anointed with the dregs of ghee '. 2. He pours 
out water, sweeps together the (moistened dust) 2 ; then he 
offers, while walking, thrice to Indra milk of a cow with 
a calf of the same colour as herself. 3. He offers the bali 
(tribute offering) to the (four) regions. 4. He reveres each 
of the regions 3 . 5. In the middle (between the four 
regions) he offers a fifth bali-offering. 6. The remainder 
he pours down (upon the ground).' The hymn is one of 
the raudragawa in the Gawamala, Ath. Parij. 32, 17; see 
Kauj. 50, 13 note. The Anukramaw! accordingly desig- 
nates it as raudram uta vyaghradevatyam. It has been 
translated by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 499 ; Grill *, 
pp.33, 118 ff. 

Stanza 1. 

Sayawa suggests, very properly, that the man (purusha) 
in question is the robber mentioned below. Pada d is 
difficult ; Ludwig compares RV. I, 24, 7, which according 
to Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, 113 ff., refers to the ban- 
yan-tree (nyagrodha, va/a). The branches of that tree take 
root anew, are ni£ina, or nihita, and therefore grow until they 
are out of sight (hfruk, an antarhitan&madheyam, a word 
for 'out of sight' according to Yaska's Naighaw/uka, III, 
25). Prof. Roth, as quoted by Grill, p. 118, suggests an 
arrow, or spear, but the expression dev6 vanaspatir (cf. VI, 
85, 1) is favourable to the other construction. Sayawa, 
helplessly, vananam adhish/^ati devas tatra*ntarhito var- 
tate tadvad vyaghradayo»pi antarhita bhavantu. 

1 The symbolism is transparent : he pierces the imaginary track 
of the dreaded hostile creatures, and thus pierces the creatures 

* According to Kerava and Siyana he then places his left hand 
upon the dust and with his right scatters half of it. The words 
ninayanawj samuhya refer back to the practice at Kaur. 19, 17. 18 ; 
see the introduction to II, 26, p. 303. 

' According to Kwava he recites in this connection AV. Ill, 26 ; 
cf. Kaujr. 14, 25. 

Digitized by 



Stanza 2. 

c. ' The rope full of teeth,' by familiar figure of speech, 
the serpent ; cf. VII, 108, i ; XIX, 47, 7. 8 (partially verbal 
parallelism with our stanza) ; .Sat Br. IV, 4, 5, 3. 

Stanza 5. 

o. Literally, ' let him go on the falling down of the paths,' 
i. e. ' where the paths are precipitate.' Sayawa arrives at 
a similar result, even though he handles his text very 
freely, sa ka. pathaw madhye dhvawsena dhvawsakena 
kash/ena margewa apa gaMatu. Ludwig, 'wo die pfade 
abbrechen ; ' Grill, ' auf nachstem wege pack' er sich.' 

Stanza 6. 

b. Sayana reads api skshnAA, glossing, .rirasi bhava hi»i- 
sakaA jrmgadaya/j avayava api mhdte. bhavantu, ' the de- 
structive members of the body on the head, horns, &c, 
shall be dulled.' 

c. All translations, including our own, are mere guesses, 
nimruk, ' sunset,' is not found except in connection with the 
setting of the sun. Sayawa's dr/sh/ivishayo na bhavati has 
suggested our ' out of sight shall go.' Grill has in mind 
the root mar^, 'injure,' something like nimrjkto, ' injured, 
destroyed ; ' but there is no such word, godha* (Pet. Lex. 
' sinew ') is equally difficult. Sayana, ' a kind of wild beast.' 
As it has also the meaning ' large lizard,' we have said 
' dragon,' a pure conjecture. Ludwig's ' in der tiefe soil das 
krokodil gehn ' does not differ materially. Grill, ' mit lah- 
mer sehne geh's zu grund.' 

d. jarayur (flw. A«y.) mrig&A is also not clear. Sayawa, 
•the evil beast inclined to lie down.' Ludwig, 'tief hinab- 
springend geht das wild.' We have adopted with profound 
misgivings the translation of the Pet. Lex., Grill, and 
Zimmer (p. 79). The latter regards .rayayur as an epithet 
of the tiger (cf. sts. 1, 3, 4, 7) ; cf., however, xaraghatin, and 
jajada, names of birds of prey. Prof. Roth, however, as 
quoted by Grill, holds now a different opinion, ' a bird of 
prey which swoops down from on high.' 

Digitized by 



Stanza 7. 

a, b. Cf. VI, 56, 1 ; X, 4, 8, a similar formula calculated 
to regulate the snapping of the serpent's mouth. The Pa- 
dapaMa treats sawyamaA both times as a noun-compound, 
but it is easier to construe it as sa.m yamaA, an injunctive 
aorist. The sense is the same. Sayana treats vf yama/fc 
also both times as a noun, samyama/2 sawyamanaw samyag 
vyaghradinaw mantrasamarthyena niyamanam yad asti na 
«sau viyamaA viruddhayamanam bhavati, &c. The passage 
seems to refer to the jaws of the wild beasts. 

c, d. This may either refer to brahma, ' charm,' or to 
some plant or amulet, of which the Sutra, to be sure, makes 
no mention. The hemistich is hypermetric, fairly curable 
by throwing out atharvawarn. The Anukramawi, kakum- 
mati garbhoparish/adbrthati. 


A characteristic mixture of pharmaceutical applications 
and drastic symbolism constitutes the practices of the 
ritual, Kaur. 40, 14 flf., as follows: 14. 'The hymn IV, 4, 
and, in addition, the following mantra is recited : " Bulls 
have dug thee up, thou art a bull, O herb! Thou art 
a bull, full of lusty force ; in behalf of a bull do we dig 
thee up!" During these recitals the plants ukk/mshmk 
and parivyadha J are dug up with an iron instrument (Darila, 
a ploughshare). 15. Two decoctions are made from these 
plants, poured into milk, a drawn bow is placed into the 
lap, and then the decoctions are drunk z . 16. (The same 

1 Darila and Kerava, u/WMmshma kapika££Au (mucuna pruritus) 
parivyadha^ suravdlakaA (or, sflkaravilakaA) ; Sayawa .mentions 
only one plant, kapitthakamulam, the root of feronia elephantum. 
For uMiushma, cf. st. 4. 

1 We now correct Sutra 15 as follows, dugdhe pha«/av adhjgyam 
(sc. dhanur) upastha adhiya pibati. Cf. Kauiika, Introduction, 
p. lviii if. The symbolism is quite apparent; see stanzas 6 and 7 
of the hymn. 

[ 4a ] Bb 

Digitized by 



performance takes place) while he sits upon a stake or 
a pestle 1 ' (generous suggestions! cf. VII, 90, 3). For 
hymns (and their collateral practices) dealing with the 
same subject, see VI, 7a ; 101 ; VII, 90 ; Kavur. 40, 16-18 ; 

3 6 > 35-7- 

Stanza 1. 

The Gandharvas, the divine libertines (IV, 37, 11), who 
enjoy themselves in the company of the heavenly nymphs, 
the Apsaras, are peculiarly likely to stand in need, and have 
a knowledge of regenerating plants. Hence the Gandharva 
digs them up. But why should Varuwa need an aphro- 
disiac ? At VII, 90, a, a charm for inhibiting the redundant 
sexual power of an enemy, the divine law ofVaruwa 
'withers excessive fire.' The paradox may be only a 
seeming one. Varu«a, as is well known, not infrequently 
appears in opposition to Indra, and his name even is occa- 
sionally, by etymological play (root var), assimilated to 
Vrt'tra, the demon, whom Indra at RV. I, 3a, 7 turns in 
a castrate (vadhri); cf. RV. IV, 4a, 7; X, 184, 4. 5, and 
Bergaigne, La Religion V^dique, III, 144 ff. Sayawa does 
not comment upon this extraordinary imputation against 
Varuwa, the most highly respected of all the gods. 

Stanza 2. 

c. I have followed Saya«a in regarding lid e^atu as 
transitive, udvrittam karotu, and, utkr*sh/aviryayukta/« 
karotu. Cf. the similar double use of the root ud ar (ud 
iyarti), and the simple root ir. The Pet. Lex., • sich riihren, 
sich erheben.' This translation fits poorly for Pada c. 

Stanza 3. 

a, b. Sayawa with some MSS. (Sawhita and Padapa/Aa) 
reads virohito for vir6hato, and construes it as an epithet of 
the penis, putrapautradirfipewa viroha«asya nimittam pumc- 

1 The first part of Sfltra 16 in the edition is to be regarded with 
Kejava as an independent Sfltra. Kexava was not at hand until 
the body of the text was in print. 

Digitized by 


IV, 5- COMMENTARY. 37 1 

vyaajganam. The sense is changed very little. Our trans- 
lation of abh/taptam ivl*nati by 'exhales heat like a thing 
on fire ' is somewhat uncertain, since anati means ' breathe.' 
The Pet. Lexs., 'nach luft schnappen, lechzen;' accord- 
ingly ' longs for cooling like a thing on fire.' 

Stanza 4. 

a, b. Saya/ta supplies irayatu with ud. This is at least 
approximately correct, as may be learned from RV. X, 97, 
8, uk Mushma oshadhinam gavo gosh/Md ive*»rate. The 
only question is whether the simple verb, rather than the 
causative, is to be supplied : ' The fire of the plants &c. 
shall arise.' The ritual embodies with stereotyped sym- 
bolism the words u£ Miishma in the plant ui&Amhmk ; see 
the introduction. 

c, d. Saya«a, supported by a few MSS., reads sawpusham 
and tanuvaram, glossing, samyak poshayitrtoam oshadhtnam 
sawzbandhi yad vrishnyam viryam asti tad asmin purushe 
tanuvavaw jariradhlnam kr/tva dhehi. 

Stanza 7. 

Repeated at VI, 101, 3; cf. the practice, Kauj. 40, 15, 

d. Sayana, with one of Shankar Pandit's MSS., reads 
anu valguyata (nrj'tyata manasi). The Pet. Lexs. and 
Whitney, Index Verborum, regard sada as the instrumental 
of a Hit. Key. sid, ' mounting.' But such a root-abstract is 
naturally feminine, and the participle anavaglayata is 
neuter, agreeing with pasasa supplied from Pada a. Saya«a 
correctly takes sada as ' ever.' 

IV, 5. Commentary to page 105. 

The purpose of this hymn, regarded from within, is clear, 
and its position in the ritual in connection with one of the 
strikarma«i (Kaiu. 32, 28-36, 40) makes it certain that the 
Atharvavedins dealt with it in the light indicated by our 

B b 2 

Digitized by 



title. Four of its stanzas (i, 3, 5, 6) appear in a different 
arrangement, and in connection with other material, in RV. 
VII, 55, and, as usual, the Atharvan recension smacks of 
adaptation to a particular purpose 1 . The Rigveda form 
itself, however, is open to the same suspicion ; both ver- 
sions may have draughted into service materials whose 
original connection in olden times (pura«a) has passed out of 
sight. Professor Aufrecht, Ind. Stud. IV, 337 ff., presented 
as early as 1 858 a peculiarly lucid interpretation of both 
hymns ,(cf. Zimmer, pp. 149, 308), and more recently Pro- 
fessor Pischel, Vedische Studien, II, 55 ff., has made a 
determined attempt — in our opinion unsuccessful — to vin- 
dicate the interpretation of the Rigveda version as under- 
taken, by Shadgunuishya and the Brzhaddevata. Accord- 
ing to Pischel, Vasish/Aa entered the house of Varuwa after 
he had fasted three days in order to steal food, and 
employed this charm to put all waking persons and dogs 
to sleep 2 . 

There is at any rate no question as to the purpose of the 
stanzas as arranged by the Atharvan diaskeuasts. Darila 
describes it as maithuna£ara«avighnana\rakartar, ' removing 
obstacles in the way of an assignation.' The practices are 
stated at 'Kauj. 36, 1-4, as follows: 1. 'While reciting 
IV, 5 a sleeping-charm is performed. 2. The house is 
sprinkled with water from a vessel which has been anointed 
with the dregs of ghee, and the rest is poured upon the 
inside of the door. 3. The same act is repeated naked. 
4. Then a mortar s is addressed (with the hymn) ; next, the 
northern corner (of the house), the southernmost foot of the 

1 Note especially asyai in st. 6 of the AV. for sarve in st. 5 of 
RV. ; also svaptu for sastu (archaic) in the same stanzas. 

* Pischel argues that Brahmans are known to have committed 
thefts in later times (Mr/"£Maka/ika 46, 10, &c. ; see also Htg- 
vidhana I, 26, 2 ; Manu XI, 251). On the same principle it 
might be argued that Vedic Rishis acted as clowns (vidushaka) and 
even cooks, as in modern times. Cf. also Patii. Br. XXI, 11, 2. . 

* Does the mortar symbolise the vulva, just as the pestle the 
membrum virile, Kaur. 40, 16 (see IV, 4, introduction)? 

Digitized by 



woman's bed, and the ropes (of the bed).' The hymn is 
rubricated also in Ath. Paris. 8, 1, and it has been trans- 
lated by Aufrecht, 1. c. ; Grill 2 , pp. 53, 119 ff. The Anu- 
kramani, varshabham. 

Stanza 1. 

a. ' Having a thousand horns,' of Agni, RV. V, 1, 8 ; 
Tait. Br. Ill, 7. 2, 7; AV. XIII, 1, 12 (cf. RV. V, 2, 9). 
Siyawa, both here and at RV. VII, 55, 7, suggests Sfirya, 
the sun ; Aufrecht, 1. c, p. 344, the moon, the father of 
sorcery; Grassmann, in his translation of the Rigveda, 
I, 343, the starry heaven. In RV. I, 154, 6 the stars are 
said to be bhflri-jrmga, ' having many horns;' this seems 
to fortify Grassmann's view. Agni is also fitted for this 
epithet, since his flames and sparks may be viewed as 
horns. But fire (light) little befits the occasion. 

Stanza 3. 

o. Saya»a, puwyagandhayaA jobhanagandhayuktaA. 
Pischel, 1. c, p. 57 ff., adduces proof that the Hindus of 
later times imagined that their women gave forth fragrance 
during intercourse ; hence, that the women here mentioned 
are awaiting their lovers. This narrow construction of the 
word is hardly necessary in the light of Manu V, 130 ; 
Marka«<afeya Pura«a XXXV, 12, quoted by Pischel himself. 

Stanza 5. 

d. Saya«a, idaw dr/jyamanam harmyam yatha darja- 
naraktLrunya*« tatha, ' as these premises, though seen, are 
(themselves) devoid of the power of seeing.' 

IV, 6. Commentary to page 25. 

According to the commentators, Darila, Kejava, and 
Sayawa, the performances for removing poison at Kaiu. 28, 
1-4 include the recitation of this as well as the next hymn 
(IV, 7). Kaurika, however, rubricates only IV, 6, as fol- 
lows : 1. 'While reciting IV, 6, in a low voice, and making 

Digitized by 



obeisance to Takshaka *, the patient is made to sip water 
and is sprinkled with water. 2. The same performance 
takes place with water into which has been put a branch 
of the kWmuka-tree, which has been ground to pieces, and 
then the patient is sprinkled with water warmed by quench- 
ing in it a heated old garment *, or a heated old skin of 
an antelope, or a heated wisp of a broom 8 . 3. In a water- 
vessel which has been smeared with the dregs of ghee 
a mixed drink is stirred by means of two arrows (whose 
points) have been daubed (with poison ; cf. st. 7), and whose 
points are upward 4 ; then lumps of earth 8 are broken into 
it (while the hymns are being recited) stanza by stanza, 
and the mixture is drunk until vomiting takes place. 4. 
Then the patient is given to drink yellow curcuma in ghee 
(cf. IV, 7, 2, and especially 3).' 

The hymn has been translated by Ludwig, Der Rig- 
veda, 111,512. 

Stanza 1. 

For the cosmogonic conception in the first hemistich, cf. 
Muir, Orig. Sanskrit Texts, I 2 , p. 21. In the Ramayawa 
(cf. IV, 10, 22), the demon Ravawa is represented as a 

1 Takshaka Vaualeya, a serpent-god ; cf. Kaiu. 29, 1; 32, 20; 
56, 13, and Ind. Stud. I, 35. 

* Darila, ^irnavasaA ; Kerava, dunnakaA, or dullaka^. The 
passages are not given in the edition. 

* The Sutra abounds in subtle symbolic allusions. The kr/muka- 
tree embodies the bow (kirmuka) ; cf. sts. 4, 6. The garment, and 
the old antelope-skin refer to IV, 7, 6. For gvih cf. Kaur. 27, 29, 
in the introduction to III, 7. Darila glosses avakara by ukura- 
/ikatrw»ani ; Kcrava by ukarirfika maiyanikatn'wam ; S&yawa has 
patitamaiyanikajakalaiA ; cf. Kaujika, Introduction, p. xlv, bottom. 

4 For urdhvaphal4bhyam see Kaurika, Introduction, p. lii, s.v. 
phala. The poisoned arrows with their points upward symbolise 
the flight of the poison away from the patient ; cf. sts. 4, 5. 

6 Darila glosses rayidharanapiw^Sn by bhumis tanmayan pi»<£n. 
But Kerava (and Siyawa with him, as usual) has madanaphalani, 
' fruit from the madana-plant.' And Kerava remarks anent this 
plant, yatha Mardayati. 

Digitized by 



Brahmana with ten heads. Saya»a identifies the Brahmawa 
with Takshaka, in accordance with the Sutra, above. 

Stanza 2. 

Cf. Va^-. S. XXXVIII, 26, and for the seven rivers, 
Max Miiller, Chips from a German Workshop, I, 6$; 
Muir, 1. c, p. 490, note ; Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, 
p. a 1. 

Stanza 3. 

The poison is evidently a plant (Sayaz/a, kandavisha), 
since the eagle is constantly associated with the origin and 
functions of medicinal and magic plants ; see I, 24, 1 ; II, 
27, 2 ; IV, 20, 3 ; V, 14, 1, and especially our note on IV, 
20, 3. For amimadaA in Pada c, cf. madavati in IV, 7, 4 a. 

Stanza 4. 

o. The rendering of apaskambha is mere conjecture. 
Neither the root skambh nor stambh occurs with the pre- 
position apa. The Pet Lexs., and Zimmer, 1. c, p. 300, 
' the fastening of the point upon the shaft of the arrow ; ' 
Ludwig, ' widerhaken.' Sayawa has two explanations neither 
of which is satisfactory, apaskabhyate vidharyate antarikshe 
iti apaskambhaA kramukawtksha^ (cf. Kaujr. 28, 2, above) 
tasya jalyad jakalat . . . yadva avaskabhyate dhanushi 
dharyate iti apaskambho b&naA. Our own ' tearing (arrow) ' 
is based upon the supposition that apa + skambh may 
mean ' uproot,' or the like, as opposite of skambh. 

Stanza S. 

For the parts of the arrow as described here, see 
Zimmer, 1. c, p. 300. Sayawa, prawg-anat pralepat . . . 
apash/^at apakr/sh/avasthad etatsaw^wad vishopadanat. 
We have translated ap&shtMk khrihg'kt, ' from its barbed 
horn,' deriving apash/M from the root ay in asri, ' corner ; ' 
cf. ash/^tvantau, ' the knees.' 

Sayawa ascends the dizziest height of absurdity in his 
rendering of kulmalat, to wit : kutsitapra«imala£ ka. yad 

Digitized by 



udbhutam visham, 'the poison sprung from the filth of 
loathsome animals.' 

Stanza 7. 

Sayana agrees with all Western authorities in deriving 
apishan from the root pish, to wit : aushadham apiwshan. 
He glosses vishagirf by kandamuladivishofpattihetu^ par- 

IV, 7. Commentary to page 26. 

The practices, Kauj. 28, 1-4, obviously refer to this 
hymn as well as IV, 6. See the introduction to the pre- 
ceding hymn. Translations are offered by Ludwig, Der 
Rigveda, III, 201 ; Grill 2 , pp. 28, 121 ff. The Anukrama«i, 

Stanza 1. 

All Western interpreters regard varawavati as a river ; 
cf., in addition to the authorities given above, Zimmer, 
Altindisches Leben, p. 20. Saya«a, varawa nama vnksha- 
vijeshAA te asyaw* santi'ti varawavati ; cf. varawa (crataeva 
roxburghii), AV. VI, 85, 1 ; X, 3, 2 ff., where the same 
puns upon derivatives of the root var are displayed. The 
formation of the word varawavati might be compared 
with jitikavati and hladik£vatf in RV. X, 16, i4=AV. 
XVIII, 3, 60 ; see our Contributions, Second Series, 
Amer. Journ. Phil. XI, p. 341 ff. Cf. also madavati in 
st. 4 (cf. IV, 6, 3 c), as a designation of the poisonous plant. 
varawavatl would then be the name of the curative plant, 
the antidote, ' affording protection.' But the ceremonies in 
the Sutra (28, 1) begin with the use of water, and the 
appearance of v£r in Pada a also points to the name of 
a river. 

Stanza 2. 

d. Cf. RV. I, 187, 10; Apast. Sr. XII, 4, 13. Cf. for 
this and the next stanza the ritual, above, Kauj. 28, 4. 

Stanza 3. 

a. In deciding upon the meaning of tiryam we have had 
in mind the evident concatenation of st. 2 with 3 a, b. The 

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thought is continued, and, as is customary in catenary con- 
structions, a new motif is added, tiryaw* (sc. visham) in 
addition to the pra^yam, &c. of stanza 2. Since pra£yam, 
&c. indicate directions, we have regarded tiryam in the 
same light, Le. as a variant of tiryink ; cf. X, 2, 11. 24. 25. 
38 ; 8, 1 9 ; XI, 4, 25 ; XV, 3, 6. Sayana also attributes 
tiryam to visham, but in the sense of ' secret, hidden,' tiro- 
bhavam praMannatvena prayuktam. This rendering is 
certainly possible. The Western translators all err because 
they attribute the word to karambham: Pet. Lexs. and 
Zimmer=tilya, 'made from sesame;' Ludwig, ' einen 
breiten kuchen;' Grill emends to atiriya (=ati + riya), 
' overflowing.' 

b. The vulgate reads ptbasphakam (Padapa/£a in Whit- 
ney's Index, plbaA + phakam). Shankar Pandit's MSS. 
read pibaspakam (Padap. pibaA + pakam) ; Sayawa, piva- 
spakam, 'a rich mess.' For udarathfm, see RV. I, 187, 10. 
The Pet. Lexs., and Grill, ' dampfend ; ' Ludwig, ' hoch- 
aufgegangen ; ' Sayana, ' prosperous ' (udriktarti^anakam). 
Our own translation, ' cheering,' is equally conjectural. 

Stanza 5. 

Far from clear (cf. VI, 44, 1). Ludwig, ' wie einen wall 
(eine aufschuttung) um das dorf richten wir auf;' Grill, 
upon the basis of the Pet. Lex., ' als wie mit einer heeres- 
schaar umstellen wir dich mit dem wort.' Saya«a, ' the 
poison which is heaped up like a throng of people ' (^ana- 
samuham iva upa£ita#* visham). He adds that the com- 
parison with the throng suggests the power of the poison 
(£~ramadr*sh/antena vishasya prabalyam uktam), and thus 
nearly meets our own rendering, which, to be sure, suggests 
the frequency of the poison, rather than its strength. 

Stanza 6. 

a, b. The Sutra (28, 2) ought to be helpful here. Three 
articles are mentioned there, durca, a^ina, and avakara, two 
of which are given here in the same terms. It would seem 
to follow that the third, avakara, is identical with pavasta, 

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and accordingly Saya#a says outright, pavastaiA pavanaya 
astaiA sawmar^anitr/wai/*. All this may be correct : the 
implication appears to be that the poisonous plant, itself 
worthless, is bartered for worthless things, stray wisps of 
broom-straw, old garments, and worn-out skin. But the 
word £arat, ' old,' is not mentioned in the hymn, and the 
symbolism of the Sutra is obscure; we cannot therefore 
regard all this as in any way secure. Moreover the diffi- 
cult task of making this interpretation fit the only other 
occurrence of pavasta (dual, pavaste), RV. X, 27, 7, remains. 
Sayana quotes the passage and glosses the dual by dyava- 
pr*'thivi, here as well as in the RV. 

Stanza 7. 

Repeated at V, 6, 2 in an equally obscure connection. 
Saya»a, ' those enemies, O people, who were hostile to you 
in the witchcraft-practices which they performed, may they 
not by these practices injure our men here.' 

IV, 8. Commentary to page hi. 

This hymn is founded upon certain practices, well known 
in connection with the consecration of a king throughout 
the Vedic literature. Professor Weber has recently devoted 
to this subject a characteristically excellent treatise, ' Ober 
die Konigsweihe, den Ra^asfiya,' Transactions of the Royal 
Prussian Academy of Sciences, 1893. Two noteworthy 
performances are indicated in the hymn : the king is 
sprinkled with water, derived from holy rivers, and mixed 
with the essence of holy plants (jantyudakam : see Kaur. 
17, 1, and 9, 1 ff.) ; and he steps upon a tiger-skin. Both 
practices figure prominently in the descriptions of the 
ra^asuya in the Ya^ns-sawhitas, Brahmawas, and Sfitras : 
see the index to Weber's treatise under 'salbung,' and 
'tiger-fell.' The hymn reflects throughout the spirit of 
antique popular institutions, and a genuine appreciation 
of the dignity of royalty. 

The Atharvan ritual presents it in connection with a 

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double treatment of the ra^asuya, either as a more solemn 
and elaborate priestly jrauta-practice, or a more popular 
and direct grjhya-practice. The former is given at Vait. 
Su. 36, 1-13 : it presents in a compendious form the 
practices current in other jrauta-works, with particular 
attention to the chronology of the months. The sprinkling 
(abhishe£aniya) and the tiger-skin figure as the prominent 
points. The more popular phase of the practice is stated 
in a double form at Kaus. 17, 1-29. The first (Kaur. 17, 
1-10) is the simplest. Only the king and his chaplain 
(purohita) are here actively engaged: 1. 'While reciting 
the hymn he who is about to sprinkle a king prepares at 
the banks of a great river 1 " holy water " from the ingre- 
dients prescribed (in st. 5 ; cf. Kauj. 9). 2. He causes 
a porridge to be cooked, and sprinkles the king who stands 
upon darbha-grass on the south-side of the vedi (called) 
parigr/hya 2 . 3. He seats the king upon a couch (placed) 
on a bull's skin s . 4. They (the king and the purohita) fill 
for one another a water-vessel (with water). 5. They 
exchange them. 6. The Brahman says : " In common to 
us be the good we do, in common the bad." 7. (The king 
says) : " He (of us two) who shall do evil, his may the evil 
be; the good deed alone shall belong to both of us." 

8. (The purohita) gives the porridge (to the king) to eat. 

9. Then he causes him to mount a horse, and turn to the 
north-eastern direction (apara^ita, "the unconquered "). 

1 According to Darila near the rivers Ganga, Yamuna, or 

* Darila, parigrthya parigr/hyavediA parigrahanam, sa yogo(!). 
Cf. Tait. S. II, 2, 10, 5; Maitr. S. I, 6, 3 (p. 89, 1. 14); Apast. 
St. IV, 5, 4, and AV. XII, 1, 13. 

' I fail to see why Professor Weber (1. c, p. 140, note 5) ignores 
my obvious emendation of talparshabham to talpa (i. e. talpe) 
arshabham. The bull's skin takes here the place of the tiger-skin. 
The more elaborate ceremony (mahabhisheka), described in the 
sequel (Kaur. 17, 11 ff.), brings in the tiger-skin. The present 
form of the ra^asfiya is the ' simple one ' (laghu, Iaghvabhisheka), 
according to Kcrava and Saya/ia. 

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10. A thousand (cows), or a choice village, is the fee for 
the priest' 

The Kamika continues further with another mode of 
consecration for an ekara^a, 'sole ruler 1 .' In this the 
tiger-skin takes the place of the bull's skin. Four princes 
and a number of servants and subjects participate in this. 
See Weber, 1. c, p. 141 ff. 

The hymn has been translated by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 
III, 458; Weber, I.e., 139. By itself it figures as the 
abhishekagana in the Ga*amala, Ath. Paru. 33, 30. 

Stanza 1. 

e, d. The king is all-powerful. But there is yet another 
king, more powerful than he, death. Death is present in 
person now, as at all times, but he shall assent to the rule 
of the king. 

Stanza 8. 

This stanza recurs in a hymn to Indra, RV. Ill, 38, 4. 
The manly Asura is primarily Indra. Since Indra is the 
typical king (kshatriya), stanzas in praise of Indra lend 
themselves readily to adaptation to praises and beatifica- 
tion of royalty; cf. Ill, 1, 4; a, 5, and elsewhere. 

Stanza 4. 

The tiger, as well as the lion (st. 7), is the king of animals : 
.Sat. Br. V, 5, 4, 10 ; XII, 7, 1, 8 ; hence his skin is a mark 
of royalty. Control of the regions is a sine qua non of 
royalty; cf. e.g. Maitr. S. II, 1, ia, and the dig-vyastha- 
pana-mantraA at Tait. S. I, 8, 13, 1. a ; Tait. Br. I, 7, 7, 1. 2. 

1 I am inclined to think that ' sole ruler,' and not ' simple king,' 
as Weber (p. 141) renders it, is the meaning of ekara^a; cf. 
ekara£ in Ait. Br. VIII, 15, 1 (scholiast, eka eva r&g&); AV. Ill, 
4, 1 ; RV. VIII, 37, 3, and ekavnsha, AV. IV, 2 a, 1. 5, a hymn 
which is rubricated in the sequel of this description (Kaur. 17, 28). 
K&fava, moreover, introduces Sutra 11 with the words, mah£- 
bhishekavidhim vakshyamaA. The entire passage Kaur. 17, n-29 
deals with this more pompous ceremony. 

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IV, 9- COMMENTARY. 38 1 

See in general, Contributions, Fourth Series, Amer. Journ. 
Phil. XII, 432. 

d. The heavenly waters are the very ones with which 
the king is consecrated. By a bold figure of speech they, 
as they are about to moisten him, are said to long for 

Stanza 6. 

a. Some MSS. and Saya«a read ibhi . . . asr&an for 
abhi . . . asinkan. Sayawa glosses, abhimukhyena a&msrig- 

Stanza 7. 

o, d. The passage is not quite clear : subhuvaA may refer 
to the waters, or to the attendant priests (so Sayana, seva- 
ka^ana^). The word dvipmam harbours a double entente : 
dvtpa is ' island.' Vaguely, the position of the king, as he 
is surrounded by the consecrating water, suggests an island 
in the ocean. 

IV, 9. Commentary to page 61. 

The hymn is rubricated at Kaur. 58, 8 in a practice 
calculated to bestow long life upon the young Aryan, after 
he has been invested with the holy cord (cf. Hir. Grih. I, 
1 1, 5), to wit : ' While reciting IV, 9, an amulet of salve is 
fastened (upon the youth).' See also 6'antikalpa 17 and 
19 *; Ath. Parlr. 4, 1. A persistent tradition has it that 
the mountain Trikakud (' Three-peaks '), in more modern 
times Triku/a or Tri^ota, between the Penjab and the 
Himalayas, is the source from which the salve is derived. 
See the Pet. Lex. under fi%ana, trikakud, and traikakuda, 
and Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, pp. 29, 69. The Anu- 
kramawt describes the hymn as traikakudang-anadaivatam ; 
it has been translated by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 507 ; 
Grill*, pp. 35, 1 23 ff., and exhibits noteworthy points of 
contact with RV. X, 97. 

1 Erroneously quoted by S&yawa as Nakshatrakalpa. 

Digitized by CjOOQ lC 


Stanza L 

b. The majority of Shankar Pandit's MSS. read akshyam ; 
this he has taken into the text. Other MSS. read akshyam. 
But there is also MS. authority for aksham, the reading of 
the vulgate, and Saya«a, who glosses it by kakshu/t, ' eye.' 
But aksham does not mean ' eye,' and akshyam is other- 
wise unquotable. Nevertheless, we have translated akshyam , 
for the passage seems to be a tantalising reverberation of 
•Sat. Br. Ill, 1, 3, 12. ' When Indra slew Vrrtra, he trans- 
formed that eye of his ( VWtra's) into the mount Trikakud. 
The reason, then, why (ointment) from mount Trikakud (is 
used) is that he thereby puts eye into eye' This seems 
to show that the ointment was applied about the eye x , and 
apparently silences Professor Roth's objection, as reported 
by Grill, that this is too narrow a view of the usefulness of 
the ointment. Cf. also Maitr. S. Ill, 6, 3; Tait. S. VI, 1, 
1, 5, which are equally pertinent. 

Stanza 3. 

c, d. The Paippalada reads, uta*mr*'tatvasye«.risha uta 
*saA pitubho^anam. Pada e looks like an appendage ; 
cf. XIX, 44, 2. 

Stanza 4. 

Cf. RV. X, 97, i2=Va^. S. XII, 86. The difficult word 
of the stanza is madhyamarir, all the renderings of which, 
both native and western, are mere conjectures. Sayawa, 
here, either 'wind ' (i.e. who dwells in the middle region), 
or, arir mitram arer mitram iti nitlrastroktamaWalama- 
dhyavarti ra^a. The gloss at RV. is similar to the latter 
interpretation. Still more fanciful is Mahidhara at Va^". S. 

Stanza 5. 

Cf. II, 4, 2, and for the meaning of vfshkandha, see the 
note on II, 4, 1. 

1 Saya»a on st. 3, anakti fokshushi anene*ti S%unam. 

Digitized by CjOOQ lC 


Stanza 7. 

d. We have taken purusha in the sense which it fre- 
quently has in the Veda, namely, 'menial, servitor." Cf. 
RV. X, 97, 4; AV. X. 1, 17; Sat. Br. VI, 3, 1, 22 ; and 
probably also RV. VI, 39, 5 (discussed erroneously by 
Pischel, Vedische Studien, 1, 43). Ludwig, ' und dein leben, 
o mensch ; ' Grill, ' auch deinen lebensgeist, du mann ! ' 
Sayawa reads purushas with some MSS. (both Sawhita and 
Padapa/^a), all of which, however, present the word as an 
enclitic without udatta. With the nominative the sense is, 
' may I as thy servitor (O salve) obtain horses, &c.' 

Stanza 8. 

For balasa, see the discussion in the note on V, 22, it. 
The poison of the serpent is considered as a disease ; hence 
it is mentioned along with takman and balasa. 

Stanza 9. 
Cf. Tait. Ar. VI, 10, 2 ; Hir. Grih. I, 11, 5. 

IV, 10. Commentary to page 62. 

The hymn is employed at Kauj. 58, 9 in connection with 
a practice for bestowing long life and prosperity upon the 
young Brahmanical disciple after the investiture: 'While 
reciting IV, 10 an amulet of pearl is fastened (upon the 
youth).' Cf. also Santikalpa in the introduction to XIX, 34. 

The hymn has been translated by Ludwig, Der Rig- 
veda, III, 462; Grill 2 , pp. 36, 124 ff. Cf. also Pischel in 
Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morg. Gesellsch. XXXVI, 135 ff. The 
Anukramawi, jankhamawisuktam. 

Stanza 1. 

In this and the subsequent stanzas the fanciful sources 
of the pearl, some of which become commonplace in the 
later literature, are paralleled with great fidelity in the 
imaginations of Arabic and classical writers ; see Pischel, 
1. c. The glint on the surface of both pearl and shell 

Digitized by 



suggests gold ; and the changes are rung upon this com- 
parison. See also Yaska's NighawAi I, 2, where kmana is 
put among the names for gold ; cf. especially st. 6. 

Stanza 2. 

a. Siyawa, ro£anana»t ro/fcamlnanaw bhasvar&wiwt nak- 
shatradinam. He has in mind, doubtless, the beautiful 
stanza RV. X, 68, 11, * as a black steed with pearls, thus 
did the Fathers stud the sky with stars.' 

Stanza 3. 

b. For sadanv&A, see our note on II, 14, 1 d. 

Stanza 5. 

b. Saya«a, ' from the body of VWtra, or from the cloud.' 
The latter alternative hits the point. According to the 
familiar Hindu notion, the pearl is a drop of rain, and thus 
it here breaks through the cloud, like the sun, itself a small 

Stanza 6. 

Pada a accounts for the presence of the word krwana 
among the names for gold, Yaska's Nigh. I, %. With Pada c 
cf. RV. I, 35, 4. The extra fifth Pada is formulaic, and 
betrays its character as an appendage by the change of 
person (tarishat) ; see the note on II, 4, 6. 

Stanza 7. 

e. The MSS. available for the vulgate read karcanas; 
so also the majority of Shankar Pandit's MSS. The 
emendation of the Pet. Lex. to kaYranas is now substan- 
tiated by Sdyawa (kkrsanaA kr&ranasambandhi mamA), and 
a minority of Shankar Pandit's MSS. 

IV, 12. Commentary to page 19. 

The purport of this hymn is manifest both from its 
wording, and its function in the ritual. It is to cure 
external lesions, and fractures of bones. The Kausika 

Digitized by 


IV, 12. COMMENTARY. 385 

deals with it twice, 28, 5. 6, and 28, 14. The practice 
described in the former place is assigned by Keyava to the 
healing of broken bones, wounds, and flow of blood caused 
by weapons (asthibhange rudhirapravahe .vastrabhighatadau 
bhaishajfyam). It consists in sprinkling the patient at dawn 
when the stars fade (with a decoction of the laksha-plant, 
Kasava adds), then giving him to drink a so-called pn'sha- 
taka \ a mixture of ghee and milk (so Darila ; cf. Kaus. 
49, 15), and finally anointing him with it : 28, 5. roha»i*ty 
avanakshatre*vasi££ati. 6. pn'shatakaw payayaty abhy- 
anakti. At Kauj. 28, 14 the performance is very similar, 
lakshalingabhir (sc. rzgbhir) dugdhe pha«/an payayati, 'while 
reciting the stanzas characterised by the mention of the 
laksha-plant (according to the commentators, AV. V, 5 in 
addition to our hymn) he gives the patient to drink a decoc- 
tion (of the plant) in milk.' Darila distinctly describes this 
as a cure for wounds (arusho bhaisha^yam), while with 
Kerava the scope of the charm is broader, namely, ' against 
wounds from knives, clubs, stones, burns, in fact all wounds 
of the body.' 

The name laksha, under which the plant addressed in this 
hymn goes consistently in the ritual books, does not occur 
in our hymn, but instead arundhatf. In AV. V, 5, 7 the 
laksha is mentioned — apparently a &ir. Xey. in the Mantras 
— and it there appears distinctly as an alternate designation 
of the creeper called arundhatf, or silaK 2 , a parasitic plant 
which grows up on the stems of many trees (V, 5, 5), and 
which is otherwise described in the same hymn; cf. also 
Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 67. Since the plant is 
employed to cure wounds (arus), the student of the Atharvan 
need hardly be warned that there is a punning symbolic 
connection between the disease and the simple ; cf. Darila's 

1 For prrehitaka, see Gobh. Grih. Ill, 8, 1 ff. ; Gn'hyasa/wgraha 
II, 59, and my note on the same, Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. 
Gesellsch. XXXV, p. 580. 

* Possibly also r6ha»i ; see the note on stanza 1. Say ana at VI, 
59, 1 explains arundhatf as sahadevi (cf. the text, of VI, 59, 2). 
[42] C C 

Digitized by 



statement, arusho bhaisha^yam, at Kaur. 28, 14, and the 
doubtless conscious mention of anis and arundhat? in V, 
5, 4. 5 ; cf. also VIII, 7, 6. The word is, however, likely 
to be a-rundhatf, a feminine present participle with a priva- 
tive ; so Sayawa at VI, 59, 2. 

Adalbert Kuhn, Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprach- 
forschung, XIII, 58 ff. ; 151 ff., has compared the hymn 
with the Merseburg charm, and a considerable variety of 
related materials from German, Scandinavian, and English 
sources. And, having in view more particularly AV. V, 
5, 8. 9, he believes that the creeper was used primarily to 
heal the fractured limbs of horses — a construction which 
seems to me too narrow. Any kind of genetic connection 
between the Hindu and the German charm is none too 
certain, since the situation may have suggested the same 
expressions independently. Yet as a strongly-marked line 
in the folk-psychological character of the peoples in question, 
the parallels are extremely valuable and instructive. The 
hymn has also been translated by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 
III, 508, and Grill 2 , pp. 18 and 125 ff. ; cf. also Hillebrandt, 
Vedachrestomathie, p. 48. The Anukramawi designates 
the hymn as vanaspatyam, ' devoted to Vanaspati,' its author 
being Ribhu (cf. st. 7). 

Stanza 1. 

a, b. I take it that the three occurrences of the word 
r6ha«i in the stanza are intended to convey the same word 
in at least a double meaning. The plant is a creeper 
growing upon trees, as is stated distinctly in AV. V, 5, 3, 
vriksh&m-vriksham 8. rohasi, ' every tree thou doest ascend.' 
The poet is very likely to have in mind this meaning of 
the root ruh in addition to the more direct one, ' cause to 
grow,' at least in connection with the first occurrence of the 
word. It seems necessary to construe one of the two 
r6ha«i in the first Pada as a proper name ; Ludwig in his 
translation goes farther than that, and seems to take one of 
them as vocative, ' Roha«i[, die wachsen macht,] bist du, 
o Rohawi, &c.' The passage with its three identical nomi- 
natives has a parallel in the traditional text of XIX, 35, 1, 

Digitized by 


IV, 12. COMMENTARY. 387 

gvingid6*si ga.hg\d6 rakshitiUsi gaiigid&k (so the MSS. ; the 
edition corrects to dngirll asi ^arigirfa, &c). The tempta- 
tion in both cases is to change at least one of the nomi- 
natives to a vocative ; see the note on XIX, 35, 1. Grill 
translates the two r6ha«l in Pada a by two synonymic 
expressions, 'Verheilung wirkst du, ja du heilst.' This 
simply veils the difficulty. It may be worth noting that 
the MSS. of the Kaurika in quoting the hymn at 38, 5 read 
unanimously rohiwt ; this is the reading of Sayawa, and of 
the Paippalada for all three occurrences of the word, and 
it suggests ' red,' a quality which is borne out by certain 
epithets of the plant, hira«yavar«a, ' golden-coloured,' in 

V, 5, 6. 7 ; suryavarwa, ' sun-coloured,' in V, 5, 6; .rushma, 
' fiery/ in V, 5, 7. The name of the plant, l&ksha, ' lac-dye' — 
cf. the Pet. Lex. s. v. a — also suggests ' red,' and this may 
be a third thought which runs through the mind of the 
versifex while composing the stanza. I attach no text- 
critical significance to the metre of the stanza (gayatrt), 
which differs from that of sts. 2-5 on the one hand, and 
6 and 7 on the other; cf. e.g. RV. VII, 103 ; AV. II, 4 ; 

VI, 111, &c. 

Stanza 2. 

b. I have reluctantly refrained from emending isti to 
dsthi \ ' bone.' The rather superfluous copula at the begin- 
ning of the Pada is suspicious, and the translation of pesh- 
fram by ' bone ' is not at all certain. Both the related pLrita 
and pesf mean ' flesh,' and that, not ' bone,' may be the 
meaning of pesh*ram. This fits here as well as at AV. 
VI, 37, 3, the only other place where the word occurs, and 
Hillebrandt in the vocabulary of his Vedachrestomathie 
states a similar view, ' losgeschlagenes stuck fleisch, fleisch- 
fetzen/ although his derivation from the root pish, 'crush,' 
separates needlessly our word from piVita and pesf. With 
this change, Padas a, b should be translated ' what bone and 
flesh in thy person has been injured and burst, (may Dh&tar, 

1 By way of illustrating the easy confusion of these two words 
we may mention that S&ya»a at IV, 10, 7 a, reads asti for asthi. 

C C 2 

Digitized by 



&c.).' Note, too, the parallelism which is thus established 
with Padas c, d in st. 3 (asthi in both stanzas, and peshfram 
= mawsasya). Sayawa comments upon presh/Aam instead 
of p&h/ram. 
c, d. dhata* in alliteration with dadhat. 

Stanza 3. 

Almost every feature of the detailed account of the parts 
of the body, here and in the following two stanzas, may be 
paralleled from the Teutonic charms, e.g. Kuhn, 1. c, p. 51 : 

' ben zi bena bluot zi bluoda 

lid zi geliden sose gelimida sin.' 

The Norwegian charm mentioned on the same page 
recites marrow, bones, and flesh : 

'marv i marv, been i been, kjdd i kj6d.' 
A charm from the Orkneys recites (1. c, p. 54) : 

' Sinew to sinew, joint to joint, 
Blood to blood, and bone to bone, 
Attend thou in God's name ! ' 

a. As the Pada stands it is hypercatalectic. The Paippa- 
lada omits te, which may have crept in from Pada c. But 
even this leaves a bad final cadence : perhaps bhavatu is to 
be read dissyllabically (bhotu, in the manner of the Prakrit 
hodu). For the metrical equivalence of ava and o, see the 
author's article, ' On certain irregular Vedic Subjunctives,' 
Amer. Journ. Phil. V, 25 ff. (p. 10 ft*, of the reprint). Saya«a 
reads jam for sam in each of the four Padas. 

Stanza 6. 

The metre is very irregular ; the Anukrama«i describes 
the stanza as tripada yavamadhya bhuriggayatrt, not a bad 
characterisation, as the middle Pada is larger than the other 
two. By reading sottishA&a we obtain a good octosyllabic 
Pada a; b is a trish/ubh, and c is a catalectic anushAibh (read 
OrdhuaA). Hillebrandt and Grill assume that this and the 
following stanza are later accretions, and both metre and 
sense seem to bear them out. But these matters are so 

Digitized by 


IV, 1 6. COMMENTARY. 389 

very subjective I Ludwig does not construe Pada b as 
a comparison, but translates ' gutes rad, gute felge, gute 
nabe hat der wagen.' Evidently, he also has in mind an 
exoteric origin of the stanza. 

Stanza 7. 

Cf. RV. VI, 54, 7. The stanza consists of two eleven- 
syllable and two octosyllabic Padas. The first Pada may 
be righted by reading patitua", or possibly yadi va kartam, 
&c. (cf. yadi va in Pada b). The Anukramam baldly counts 
thirty-six syllables as they stand, without resolution, and 
designates the stanza as brihaXi. 

o, d. The subject of sktn dadhat seems to me (as to 
Grill) to be Dhatar, the fashioner in st. 2 ; rjbhfl belongs 
to the comparison, as in X, 1, 8. The 7?;bhus are known 
to have constructed the chariot of the Ajvins, but they are 
not counted among the divine physicians (Rudra, the Ajvins, 
the waters, and Sarasvati). Kuhn and Ludwig make r*bhu 
the subject of saw dadhat, but the former regards it as an 
epithet of Dhatar. 

IV, 16. Commentary to page 88. 

Professor von Roth, who first treated this hymn in his 
well-known essay, entitled ' Abhandlung iiber den Atharva- 
veda ' (Tubingen, 1 856), remarks on p. 30 : ' There is no 
other hymn in the entire Vedic literature which presents 
divine omniscience in terms so emphatic, and yet this 
beautiful fabric has been degraded to serve as an introduc- 
tion to an imprecation. One may surmise, however, in 
this case as well as in the case of many other parts of this 
Veda, that fragments of older hymns have been utilised to 
deck out charms for sorcery.' 

We may remark, however, that the stanzas of this hymn 
do not occur in any other connection, and there is no 
tangible evidence that they were constructed for any other 
purpose than that before us. Certainly the Atharvavedins 
had nothing better in view, and accordingly the hymn is 
rubricated in the sixth book of the Kaurika which is 

Digitized by 



devoted to sorcery (abhi£arika). At Kauj. 48, 7 the con- 
juring enemy, as he conies on, is met by the recital of this 
hymn ; at 127, 3 the third stanza, in praise of Varu«a, 
figures in an expiatory rite when the constellation, 'the 
seven Rishis ' (the dipper), is ominously obscured by some 
nebulous mass, or comet (yatra dhumaketu/* saptarshin 
upadhupayati). The Anukramawt describes the hymn as 
satyanrttanvtkshanasuktam, 'a hymn which searches out 
truth and untruth.' 

There are many translations of the piece : Roth, 1. c, 
pp. 29 ff. ; Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morg. Gesellsch. VII, 607 ; 
Max Miiller, Chips from a German Workshop, I, 40 ff. ; 
Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, V, 63 ff. (cf. also II, 451) ; 
Metrical Translations, p. 163 ; Kaegi, Der Rig-veda 2 , 
p. 89 ff. (p. 65 ff. of Arrowsmith's translation) ; Ludwig, Der 
Rigveda, III, 388; Grill 8 , pp. 32, 126 ff; cf. also Hille- 
brandt's Vedachrestomathie, p. 38 ff. ; Bergaigne et Henry, 
Manuel V^dique, p. 146 ff. 

Stanza 1. 

Cf. Psalms xxxiii. 13; cxiii. 5 ; cxxxviii. 6 ; cxxxix. 2; Jer. 
xxiii. 23, and see for scriptural parallels to the next stanzas 
the notes to Kaegi's translation. Sayawa refers esham to 
the enemies ; most translators, to the human race in general. 
We supply devd'nam from dev&A in Pada d. Some MSS. 
of the Padapa/^a read tayat and £arat ; the latter is adopted 
by Sayawa, £aranarila*» ka nasv&ram ka vastu manyate. 

Stanza 2. 

a. Sayawa explains va«£ati by kau/ilyena pratarayati, 
1 leads astray by means of guile.' Cf. the formula, namo 
va«£ate, parivaw^ate, stayuna** pataye namaA, Mait. S. II, 
9, 3 ; Tait. S. IV, 5, 3, 1 ; Va^-. S. XVI, 21, addressed as 
part of the jatarudriya-litany to god Rudra in his capacity 
of master-thief (Mahidhara also, va«£ati pratarayati). The 
Paippalada reads, yas tish/Aati manasa yar ka. va«£ati, sup- 
porting in a measure Saya«a's and Mahidhara's glosses. 

b. The PadapaMa reads ni*layan, a participle, not a 

Digitized by 


IV, 1 6. COMMENTARY. 39 1 

gerund ; pratankam is left as an accusative dependent upon 
kar, a verb of motion. The meaning 'hiding-place' for 
pratanka suits its only other occurrence, A V. V, 1 3, 8 : ' the 
poison of all (serpents) who have run into their hiding- 
place is 'without force.' Cf. also pratakvan, Maitr. S. I, 2, 
13 ; Tait. S. I, 3, 3, 1 ; Vag. S. V, 32, and Pet. Lex. (epithet 
of a pit). Sayawa reads nilayam, and glosses pratankam 
with prakarshewa prapya. The Paippa- 
lada has pralayam, absolutive, in the place of pratankam. 

Stanza 3. 

0, d. The last two Padas foreshadow Varuwa's later func- 
tion as Neptune (apa/» patiA) ; cf. RV. II, 38, 8 ; AV. Ill, 
3, 4 ; Maitr. S. II, 6, 8 ; Tait. S. I, 8, 12, 1 ; V, 6, 1, 1 ; 
Vag. S. X, 7, and Weber, Ra^asuya, p. 44, note 1. The 
two oceans are the heavenly and earthly oceans ; cf. RV. 
X, 136, 5 ; AV. XI, 2, 25 ; 5, 6. 

Stanza 4. 

Varuwa's spies are the stars, ' the eyes of night ' (RV. X, 
1 27, i), ' the beholders of men,' AV. XIX, 47, 3 ff. Cf. our 
Contributions, Third Series, Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XV, 
p. 170. 

Stanza 5. 

b, c. Sayawa reads purastat for parastat, and construes 
sawkhyata as the nom. of the stem sawzkhyatar (pramawa- 

d. The Pada is exceedingly difficult, nf minoti has the 
sanction of all MSS., and is apparently the reading of the 
Paippalada also. The gamester throws down (ni vapati, 
Kauj. 41, 13) his dice, and it is implied here, of course, that 
it is done successfully, that the player obtains the stakes 
(kri'tam, see Pet. Lex., s. v. kriti 3 c), because Varu«a 
cannot be otherwise than successful. As the player plants 
down these (successful dice) thus does Varu«a establish 
these laws (tani, sc. vratani?). Saya«a, who did not 
primarily influence our conclusion, in part approaches the 
same interpretation, tani papinawz .rikshakarma/a tattatpa- 

Digitized by 



panusare»a ni minoti ni kshipati . . . yatha kitavaA akshan 
atmano ^ayarthaw nikshipati. The Pet. Lex. (V, 764 ; 
VII, 409) emends to n( Minoti and vf Minoti without real 
gain, tempting as the emendation is in the light of RV. X, 
42, 9 = AV. VII, 50, 6, and AV. IV, 38, a. Grill suggests 
nf minoti (or minati) in the sense of ' reducing, causing to 
vanish the strength of men' (cf. Sayawa), but neither 
expression will bear such an Interpretation (ni minati does 
not occur). The translators offer the greatest variety of 
versions, without, as a rule, adhering closely to the text. 

Stanza 6. 

Sayawa reads visitaA and rushantaA (so also the Paippa- 
lada). For sinantu of the vulgate the MSS. have /Winantu, 
Minattu, and sinantu (Sayawa, Minattu /Mindantu). 

Stanza 7. 

a. varuwa is metrically superfluous, an obvious gloss. 

0. The MSS. read .rra/w.yayitva' and jra;«sayitva. Sayana, 
correctly, srawsayitva (falodararoge«a srastam krrtva). 

d. Siyawa, followed by Shankar Pandit, reads abandhaA 
for abandhra//. The Pet. Lex. s. v. 2 kart, ' like a leaking 
tub wound about with rags ' (to stop the leakage). Sayawa, 
aseA kosa. iva parikn'tyamanaA (kn'tt kAed&ne), 'like the 
broken sheath of a sword.' 

Stanza 8. 

Literally, ' with Varu«a who is fastened lengthwise, &c.' 
The word varuwaA could be well spared from all three 
Padas, if it were not for the metrical symmetry with the 
next stanza. Or it might be changed to the vocative 
varuwa. For samamyd and vyamy6, cf. AV. XVIII, 4, 70 : 
the words are clear. Ludwig and Saya«a erroneously 
connect them with amaya, ' disease.' videjya is naturally 
derived from videra, ' foreign country ; ' in that case sa«- 
dejya is an artificially formed opposite ' native, indigenous.' 
So Sayawa. Both words are in. A«y. An alternate possibility 

Digitized by 


IV, 17- COMMENTARY. 393 

is to render sa/«derya, ' subject to command ; ' then viderya 
is 'exempt from command.' Or, again, each may be 
translated independently : sawdejya, 'subject to command ;' 
videjya, ' foreign : ' their juxtaposition in a magic formula 
may be of the punning order. For sawderya, cf. our note 
on II, 8, 5 b. The divine and the human (noose of) Varu«a 
refers either to divine and human disease (so, apparently, 
Saya«a), or to diseases instigated by gods and men. The 
formula grovels in the lowest bathos of hocus-pocus. 

IV, 17. Commentary to page 69. 

This and the two following hymns are addressed to the 
apamarga-plant (achyranthes aspera) 1 . It is employed to 
ward off all kinds of evil and witchcraft, and its qualifica- 
tions in that direction are guaranteed to the Atharvanic 
Hindu by its real or supposed etymology. The name is 
hardly ever mentioned without bringing in its trail the verb 
apa maig", ' to wipe out.' The pun assumes the most lively 
reality : diseases, enemies, demons, and sins are wiped out 
by its influence. See Zimmer, p. 66 ff. ; our Contribu- 
tions, Third Series, Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XV, 161 ; 
Weber, Ra^astiya, p. 18. Cf. also Sat. Br. XIII, 8, 4, 4. 

The three hymns figure at Kaur. 39, 7 in a list which is 
almost identical with the kri'tyapratiharawani (sc. sCiktani), 
or the krftyaga«a, a series of hymns designed to counteract 
sorcery, in the Gawamala, Ath. Parij. 32, 2. 

The Kaurika, 39, 7-12, prescribes in connection with 
these hymns a lengthy procedure, which begins with ' the 
pouring of the great consecration' (mah&jantim avapate). 
Cf. Kaur. 39, 27 ; 43. 5 ; 44, 6 ; 46, 7 ", Sankh. Gr/h. V, 
11, 2. The mahajanti consists in pouring together ' holy 
water' (jantyudakam) during the recitation of the four 
gawas of hymns, described in Kaur. 8, 23-9, 6. The 'holy 
water' itself is prepared at Kaur. 9, 8 ff. with elaborate 
ceremonies, the chief of which is the placing of 'holy plants ' 

1 Saya»a regularly glosses the word by sahadevi. 

Digitized by CjOOQ lC 


(Kauj. 8, 1 6) into the water. Obviously the meaning of all 
these performances is purification, and the warding off of 
impure influences. Then follow in Sutras 39, 8-1 2 a variety 
of rather complicated practices, too lengthy and obscure 
for exposition in this connection. They concern more 
narrowly some such hymn, belonging to the krityaprati- 
harawani, as X, 1 ; see the introduction to that hymn. The 
fifth stanza of IV, 17 naturally figures in the duAsvapna- 
najanagawa, ' series of hymns calculated to drive away evil 
dreams,' of the Ga«amala ; see Kauj. 46, 9, note. 

The hymn has been translated by Zimmer, p. 66; Grill 2 , 
pp. 37, 130 ff. The Anukrama«t, apamargavanaspatideva- 
tyam. Cf. also Ath. Parir. 18 2 , 4. 

Stanza 2. 

a. Sayawa with one MS. reads for .rapathayavanim the 
synonymous japathay6panim ; cf. II, 7, 1. 

b. The epithet punaAsara* does not somehow seem to me 
to be so clear as to the editors of the Pet. Lexs., Zimmer, 
and Grill. They render it by ' zuriickgeschlagene bliithen 
habend.' This is based upon the statement at IV, 19, 7, 
' thou didst grow backward, thou hast fruit which is turned 
backward ' (cf. VII, 65, 1 ; Sat. Br. V, 2, 4, 20), and the 
epithets parakpushpt, pratyakpushpl, and pratyakparni in 
native lexical works. In RV. VII, 55, 3 punaAsara is an 
epithet of the barking dog, 'running back and returning 
again (to the attack).' The two other occurrences of the 
word, AV. VI, 129, 3 ; X, 1, 9, are not disposed of satis- 
factorily by the renderings of the Pet. Lexs. It seems to 
me that ' attacking ' or ' defending ' is better, and that the 
word pratisara, ' defensive amulet V is closely related to it. 
Cf. Sat. Br. V, 2, 4, 20, and Seven Hymns, Amer. Journ. 
Phil. VII, 478 ff. Sayawa, similarly, punaApunaA Abhi- 
ksh«yena bahutaravyadhinivrj'ttaye sarati. 

1 The pratisara turns the spell as a boomerang upon him who 
performs it. See AV. VIII, 5, 5, pratutiA krhySA pratisarafr 
a^antu, and cf. the note on VIII, 5, 1. 

Digitized by 


IV, 17. COMMENTARY. 395 

Stanza 3. 

Identical with I, 28, 3. The Pet. Lexs., Zimmer, and 
Grill regard mflram = mulam, ' root (of an injurious plant).' 
Sdyawa, mur&Wpradam. Padas c, d perhaps rather, 'she 
who has taken in hand the (magic substances) created to 
rob strength . . .' 

Stanza 4. 

Cf. V, 31, 1, and the note on Kauj. 39, 31. The unburned 
vessel seems to symbolise the fragility, destructibility (Sat. 
Br. XII, 1, 3, 23) of the person upon whom enchantments 
are practised. At Sat. Br. XIV, 9, 4, it = Brih. Ar. VI, 
4, 1 2 it figures in a sorcery practice against a wife's para- 
mour. The compound nilalohita is also connected with 
sorcery from the first. It occurs in RV. X, 85, 28 = AV. 
XIV, 1, 26 = Apast. Mantrabr. I, 6, 8 (Apast. Grm. II, 5, 
23)=Baudh. Grih. I, 8 ; AV. VIII, 8, 24. The Atharvan 
ritual, Kaur. 16, 20 (rubricating AV. VIII, 8, 24 d) ; 32, 17; 
40, 4 ; 48, 40 ; 83, 4, leaves little room for doubt that in its 
view a dark blue and a red thread are here intended. This 
is also the tradition of Apast. Grih. II, 5, 23, and similarly 
Sankh. Grih. I, 12, 8 prescribes, in connection with RV. 
X, 85, 28, a red and black cord upon which amulets are 
fastened. Only Baudh. I, 8 treats the compound as a 
symbolic representation of night and day ; see Winternitz, 
Das Altindische Hochzeitsrituell, pp. 6, 12, 67. It is, of 
course, possible to conclude that this is the true source of 
the symbolism : day and night rendered concrete by these 
two colours. Sayawa seems to have lost his grip upon 
Atharvan tradition when he says to our passage, 'the fire 
which is black from the rise of smoke and red from its 
flame.' Zimmer and Grill both co-ordinate nilalohite with 
Ami pitre, ' an das ungebrannte ' and ' am rotgebrannten,' 
obviously against the spirit of the Atharvan tradition. Cf. 
also the introduction to VII, 116, and Tait. S. IV, 5, 10, 1. 

o. Raw meat is eaten by demons, and therefore realises 
symbolically their presence ; see V, 29, 6 ; VIII, 6, 23. 

Digitized by 



Stanza 5. 
Identical with VII, 23. I have translated abhvam by 
' gruesomeness,' because it has occurred to me at various 
times that it, as well as abhii (cf. RV. X, 1 29, 3), is related 
to nabhas, ' fog, cloud,' being in the current terms of 
comparative grammar = nbhu6-, and ftbhii from root nebh. 
For this and the following two stanzas, cf. RV. V, 36, 3 ; 
VII, 1, 19 ff. 

Stanza 6. 

b. The clever emendation of the Pet. Lex. anapatyatam, 
for anapadyatam, as is the reading of the MSS. of the vulgate, 
is now authenticated by quite a number of Shankar Pandit's 
MSS., and Saya«a (apatyarahityam) ; cf. the words apra- 
£asta and apra^-astva. 

IV, 18. Commentary to page 70. 

For the treatment of this hymn in the ritualistic texts, 
see the introduction to IV, 17. The hymn has been trans- 
lated by Grill 2 , pp. 25, 131 ff. 

Stanza 1. 

The Atharvanist loves to point to cosmic correspond- 
ences and harmonies as the foundation of his own righteous 
undertakings. This harmony furnishes the satyam, the 
unfailing basis (cf. rz'tam) for his own operations against 
the powers of evil. Professor Roth, as quoted by Grill, 
refers gy6t\h to the light 1 of the moon (cf. ^yotsna), thus 
establishing a closer parallelism between Padas a and b. 
I doubt whether the text will bear this strain. Sayawa 
literally, ' the light of thee (the apamarga-plant) ;' cf. IV, 
19, 3. The night is frequently viewed as illumined, starry 
(RV. X, 127 ; AV. XIX, 47, 1 ; 49. &"• 8). 

b. kr/tvariA either ' enchantments ' or ' witches.' 

Stanza 3. 
In our view the solution of the difficulty here lies in the 
assumption of a change of gender from yas in Pada b (the 

1 Correct ' Night ' at the beginning of the stanza to ' Light.' 

Digitized by CjOOQIG 

IV, 19- COMMENTARY. 397 

male sorcerer) to tasyam (the witch) in Pada c. The entire 
second hemistich describes the punishment of sorcerers, for 
which cf. V, 23, 13. If we were to change tisyara dag- 
dhayam to tasmin dagdhe the sense would be obvious. 
Cf. V, 14, 6, yadi strf yadi va puman krity&m kak&ra. pap- 
mane. Grill emends ama" to amayam (sc. sthaly^m) with 
a result somewhat as follows : ' He who practises sorcery 
in an unburned vessel and then puts it upon the fire to 
bake, his magic vessel cracks as though hit by great stones.' 
Sayawa deprives himself of possible helpfulness by reading 
dugdhayam for dagdhayam (pratikarewa riktikrMyaw . . . 
krz'tyayam, 'upon his sorcery rendered impotent by the 
counter-charm '). 

Stanza 4. 

b. The vulgate's vfgrivaw* Mapaya (Padapa/Aa, vfgrivan 
japaya) is at the base of our rendering. Shankar Pandit's 
MSS. seem to read unanimously khkyzyk (jayaya), 'lay.' 
Sayawa, kshayaya (kshayaw prapaya). Cf. RV. VII, 
104, 24. 

Stanza 6. 

The first three Padas are identical with the first three of 
V,3i, 11. 

IV, 19. Commentary to page 71. 

For the employment of this hymn in the ritualistic texts, 
see the introduction to IV, 17. It has been translated by 
Grill 2 , pp. 34, 132 ff. Cf. Zimmer, pp. 66-67. 

Stanza 1. 
The sense of the first hemistich seems to be that the 
plant in its dual r61e of destroyer of enemies and protector 
of friends depletes and increases families or clans. Saya«a 
erroneously derives -kn't from root kart, ' cut,' to wit, jatru- 
tt&m kartaka^ . . . ^amayaA sahaga^ xatravaA tesham api 
kartayita asi. For Pada d, cf. VI, 14, 3 c. 

Stanza 2. 
The words kawvena narshadena (RV. X, 31, 11) seem to 
be a gloss upon brahma«ena ; cf. IV, 37, 1 ; VI, 52, 3, &c. 

Digitized by 



Saya«a regards the Sir. key. paryukta as = pdriyukta (vini- 
yukta»si); cf. our remarks on haplology, Proc. Amer. Or. 
Soc, April, 1 893 (Journ., vol. xvi, p. xxxiv ff.). But pari 
yug is not quotable elsewhere. The stanza figures in one 
of the abhayagawa of the Gawamala ; see Kaiu. 16, 8, note. 

Stanza 4. 

The order of the statement here is really to be reversed : 
when thou, O plant, wast begotten as apamarga (' wiping 
out '), then the gods drove out the Asuras with thee. 

Stanza 6. 

For 'thy father's name,' cf. the note on V, 5, 1. For 
pratyak, see pratyan and pratiKhaphalas in st. 7, and the 
note on IV, 1 7, 2. 

Stanza 6. 

A cosmogonic brahmodya, pressed into the service 
of incantation ! Cf. Contributions, Third Series, Journ. 
Amer. Or. Soc. XV, 172 ff. We have presented a purely 
philological translation of the stanza without attempting to 
bend it to the situation any further than is warranted by 
the wording." Grill takes asat in the sense of 'wrong,' and 
similarly Saya«a, asatkalpaw krj'tyarupam. But a glance 
at the word in Jacob's Concordance to the principal Upani- 
shads reveals the subjective character of the proceeding. 
The asat is simply 'chaos,' manipulated as one of the 
primary cosmic forces: the sat, tad, satyam, or r*'tam 
would apparently have done just as well. For kartaYam 
in the sense of ' evil-doer,' cf. V, 14, 11. 

IV, ao. Commentary to page 68. 

The hymn is addressed to a magic plant which is sup- 
posed to impart the power to expose hidden demons, 
wizards, and their hostile practices. The attributes of the 
plant are not stated in the hymn with sufficient clearness 
to enable us to point out its place in the redundant Indian 

Digitized by 


IV, 20. COMMENTARY. 399 

flora. The Kau-rika, 28, 7, mentions the name of the plant 
as sadawpushpa ; this is glossed by Darila with trisaw- 
dhya and by Kerava with samdhya (probably a corruption 
of trisa/«dhya). The Sutra reads: a paryatt«ti sadaw*- 
pushpama«i/« badhnati, ' with AV. IV, 20 he ties on as an 
amulet the plant sadawpushpa.' The plant is mentioned 
again along with others in a charm directed against witch- 
craft in 39, 6, and Sayawa defines it in agreement with 
Kaiuika, he devi sadawzpushpakhye oshadhe ; cf. also 
sadapushpi in the lexicons. The plant seems to be the 
calotropis gigantea; cf. Aaraka-sawzhita I, 4, 3. For 
amulets derived from the vegetable kingdom see Seven 
Hymns of the Atharva-veda, Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 478, 
and for amulets in general Kauj. 7, 19. The hymn is 
rubricated further in the list of stanzas designated as £ata- 
nani (sc. sfiktani), 'hymns to chase away with,' in Kaur. 
8, 25, and the Gawamala, Ath. Parw. 32, 4, adds it also to 
the three hymns which Kau.r. 8, 24 describes as the m&tri- 
namani (sc suktani). The reason for this classification is 
the expression devy (oshadhe) in stanzas 1 and 2. See the 
note at Kauj-. 8, 24, and cf. for the matrzgawa our remarks 
in the introduction to VI, in. The Anukramawi follows 
these secondary considerations, designating the hymn as 
matrznamadaivatam, its author being Matrzhamarshi. 

The hymn has been translated by Ludwig, Der Rig- 
veda, III, 525, and Grill 2 , pp. 2, 133 ; cf. also Hillebrandt's 
Vedachrestomathie, p. 48. 

Stanza 1. 

For the description of the plant in this stanza, cf. mawz- 
pajya in VII, 38, 1, and see the introduction to VI, 139. 
I have upheld in my translation the text of the edition, 
guaranteed as it is by the unanimous tradition of the MSS. 
of the 5aunakiya-jakha. All corrections, including the 
important variant paryasi for paryati throughout the stanza 
in the Paippalada, seem to me in this instance to amount 
to the substitution of a better literary performance for a 
poorer one ; they do not bring with them the proof that 

Digitized by 



the priests of our school ever had any other text, or, what 
is more to the point, that the original versifex had com- 
posed differently. The merit of the Paippalada's paryasi 
is so obvious that it may be due to a conscious improve- 
ment on the part of its author. The metre of the stanza 
is irregular (Anukrama«i, svara^-) ; the first Pada is hyper- 
catalectic, the third Pada may be sustained by reading, 
with elision and crasis, dfvantariksham for dfvam anta- 
riksham. HHlebrandt's suggestion, accepted by Grill, that 
£d be thrown out seems to me unnecessarily violent. 

a. Hillebrandt would restore the Pada : piyyati priti 
paryati ; Grill (with the help of the Paippalada), S. paryasi 
pra paryasi, continuing with paryasi throughout Sayawa 
retains the third person, referring the stanza to the person 
who wears the amulet : he devi sadawpushpakhye oshadhe 
tvadvikarama«idharako»ya/« ^anas tvatprasadad aparyati 
again ibhayakara«aw pratihartu/w ^anati, ' O goddess plant, 
sadampushpa by name, this person here, who wears an 
amulet fabricated out of thee, by thy favour perceives the 
cause of approaching danger, and knows how to repel it.' 
The emendation of prati to pra (Grill) is especially unde- 
sirable, as the same expression occurs in a closely parallel 
situation, AV. VII, 13, 2. 

b. Grill suspects the second paryati, and imagines oshadhe 
in its place. 

d. The temptation to emend the vocative devi to the 
nominative devi - is great. The sense then would be that 
the amulet itself sees all dangers. Grill, as we have seen 
above, adopts the Paippalada reading paryasi, is thus 
enabled to retain devi, and also obtains essentially the 
same sense. 

Stanza 2. 

a. Read prithvUA. The three heavens are well known ; 
see, e. g. AV. V, 4, 3 ! VI, 95. 1 ! XVIII, 2, 48 ; XIX, 39, 
6 (cf. the note on V, 4, 3). For the three earths see RV. 
I, 108, 9 ; II, 27, 8 ; III, 56, 2 ; AV. VI, 21, 1, and Muir, 
Original Sanskrit Texts, V, p. 305, note ; Zimmer, Altin- 
disches Leben, p. 357 ; Bergaigne, La Religion V^dique, I, 

Digitized by 



239. Cf. also Yasna XI, 7 : madhemS thrishve ainhao 
zemd, ' in the middle third of this earth.' 

Stanza 3. 

a, b. divyasya suparaasya . . . kanihika is rendered by 
Ludwig, ' dises himlischen adlers kleine tochter ;' by Grill, 
' der Augenstern des Adlers, der am Himmel ist' Sayawa 
glosses suparwa by garutmant, which suggests RV. I, 164, 
46. Grill follows the Pet. Lex. [s.v. 2 a), o)] in regarding 
the divine eagle as the sun. But perhaps the lightning-fire 
is in the mind of the poet. At Va^. S. XVII, 72 ; XVIII, 
51 ; Sat. Br. IX, 2, 3, 34 ; 4, 4, 3, the divinity addressed, 
supamo'si garutman, is treated distinctly as Agni, and 
Mahtdhara states this plainly. In Maitr. S. I, 2, 5 ; V£g\ 
S. IV, 32; Tait. S. VI, i, 7, 3, 'the eye-ball (kaninika, 
kanihaka) of Agni's eye* is spoken of. The expression 
divya suparca may be the exact equivalent of divaA jyena, 
and that, I believe I have proved, is Agni, the lightning, 
personified as a divine eagle; see Contributions, Fifth 
Series, Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XVI, 1 ff. The descent of 
this eagle, or the Gayatrl, as the Brahma«as have it, is 
frequently disturbed by a heavenly archer Krwanu who 
wounds the eagle, so that he loses a feather which falls to 
the earth, and grows up as a plant or tree. See Adalbert 
Kuhn, Die Herabkunft des Feuers und des Gottertranks, 
p. 148 (first edition). The use of the word suparwa in our 
edition is, in my opinion, intended to convey a double 
entente, 'bird' and 'having beautiful leaves.' Cf. Tait. S. 
VI, 1, i, 5, where Vritra's eye-ball (kanfnika) flies away 
after he had been slain by Indra, and turns into salve 
(aaganam). Ludwig does not comment upon his transla- 
tion of kanfnika by 'kleine tochter,' rather than 'eye-ball ;' 
it may possibly turn out correct when RV. X, 40, 9 yields 
up its meaning. We have there as follows: ^anish/a 
y6sha patayat kanlnak6 v/ ££<ruhan vtrudhaA, a passage 
which suggests the situation in our stanza completely and 
yet vaguely. But it is interpreting obscurum per obscurius 

[4*] D d 

Digitized by 



to bring the RV. stanza into play. Cf. also our note at 

V, 5, «. 

o. S.lya«a, /agadrakshartham oshadhirupewa bhftmav 

Stanza 4. 

a. 'The thousand-eyed god.' In X, 3, 3 an amulet 
derived from the vara«a-tree is designated as sahasraksha ; 
in XI, 2, 3. 7. 17 ; .Sat. Br. IX, 1, 1, 6 Rudra is so called ; 
in IV, 28, 3 Bhava-Sarva ; in IV, 16, 4 Varuwa's spies ; in 
RV. I, 23, 3 Indra and Vayu; in Tait. S. II, 3, 14, 4. 
Indra. Further, we have the 'thousand-eyed papman, 
evil,' in AV. VI, 26, 3; japatha, 'curse,' in VI, 37, x. 
Grill fancies that the god of the plant here in question is 
meant, but this seems faint after the plant herself has been 
personified as a goddess, devy oshadhe, in st. 2. Perhaps 
rather Agni, said to be 'thousand-eyed' with especial 
frequency, is meant; see RV. I, 79, 12; Va£\ S. XVII, 
71 (XIII, 47) ; Sat. Br. VII, 5, 2, 32 ; IX, 2, 3, 32 ; Apast. 
Sr. VI, 25, 10. Agni particularly chases away evil spirits, 
agnf riksha«si sedhati, RV. VII, 15, 10 ; AV. VIII, 3, 26 ; 
Tait. Br. II, 4, 1, 6 ; agnir hi rakshasam apahanta, .Sat. 
Br. XIV, 3, 1, 11. 

b. & dadhat. Zimmer, I.e., 204, construes this as an 
augmentless imperfect. In the Sawmita the augmented 
form would not differ, a'dadhat. The sense is satisfactory 
either way. 

o. Sayawa comments upon tvdya instead of taya, as in st 2. 

d. ' The .Sudra and the Arya,' i. e. every kind of person, 
as we should say in America 'black and white.' The 
phrase is formulaic, as may be seen from the compound 
jtidraryau (Mahidhara, jfidravauyau), Va^-. S. XIV, 30 ; 
Sat. Br. VIII, 4, 3, 12. See in general Muir, Original 
Sanskrit Texts, II, 368; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 21 a ; 
Zimmer, I.e., 117 ff., 204, 216, 435. 

Stanza 6. 

a, b. rtipawi and Atminam are antithetical : rfipani, ' the 
outer forms of things ;' atmanam, ' thy own nature.' It is 

Digitized by 


IV, 20. COMMENTARY. 403 

a controlling characteristic of Vedic conceptions that the 
inner, true nature of any divinity, or instrument of power, 
must be understood in order to control its influence or 
power : ya evaw veda, and ya eva*« vidvin in the Brah- 
mawas are crystallisations of this idea ; cf. AV. I, 13, 3 ; 
VI, 46, 2; VII, 1 2, 2, &c. 

o. sahasra£aksho, here, and XIX, 35, 3, as epithet of the 
plant ^angirfa, is a vocative from a stem sahasra-£akshu. 
The beginnings of a stem £akshu, a pendant of £akshus in 
the ablative £akshos, RV. X, 90, 13. Transition forms 
between the us- and u-declensions (as also between the 
is- and i-declensions) are not uncommon in the Veda ; see 
Lanman, in the Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. X, 568 ff. 

d. For the class of demons called kimidfn, see AV. I, 7 ; 
I, 28 ; II, 24; VIII, 3, 25 ; 4, 2; 6, 21 ; XII, 1, 50. 

Stanza 8. 
For yatudhana, -nr, and pis&ka., see the hymns I, 7 and 8. 

Stanza 7. 

a. Kajyapa is a name to conjure with in the Atharvan 
writings ; amulets and charms handled by him are peculiarly 
powerful (e.g. I, 14, 4 ; IV, 37, 1 ; VIII, 5, 14). He rises 
to the dignity of the supreme self-existing (svayaw-bhu) 
being in AV. XIX, 53, 10; cf. also Tait. S. V, 6, 1, 1, 
and see the Pet. Lex. s. v. 2 b. He is also intimately 
related with forms of the sun, Surya and Savitar, as is 
stated expressly in Tait. Ar. I, 7, 1 ; see also Tait. Ar. I, 8, 
6, and compare Tait. S. V, 6, i, 1 with AV. I, ^5i l b. This 
fact may by itself account for the expression kajyapasya 
£akshur asi. In fact kasyapa is the sun as a tortoise, that 
creeps its slow course across the sky ; cf. the conceptions 
of the sun as a hermit, and a Brahman disciple, XI, 5, 
introduction. Only we must not forget that these writings 
neglect no opportunity of being guided in their construc- 
tions by puns, even of the most atrocious sort, and karyapa 
surely suggests paryaka, ' seer,' to the Atharvan mind, as is 
written distinctly in Tait. Ar. I, 8, 8, karyapa/; payyako 

D d 2 

Digitized by 



bhavati yat sarvaw paripajyati. The name k&ryapa is in 
some special relation to the Atharvan writings, not as yet 
fully cleared up ; cf. the author in the Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. 
XI, p. 377- 

b. The MSS. read £aturaksh££, but Saya«a fitly com- 
ments upon £aturakshya7r, the form as emended in Roth 
and Whitney's edition ; cf. aksh6s for akshy6s in AV. V, 
4, 10 (see the note). The ' four-eyed bitch ' is Sarama the 
mother of the two four-eyed dogs of Yama \ Syama and 
6'abala, which I have explained as the sun and the moon ; 
see Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XV, 163 ff. The epithet ' four- 
eyed ' seems possibly to be derived from the same view, 
namely the capacity of the two dogs to see both by day 
(the sun), and by night (the moon). The Paippalada as 
quoted by Grill 2 , p. 135, makes the notable statement 
that 'the four-eyed dog (obviously the moon) overlooks 
by night the sphere of the night,' yatha svk £aturaksho 
ratriw* nakta<ttpa^yati. In practice the fiction of a four- 
eyed dog is materialised both by the Hindus and Iranians 
in the form of a dog with marks over the eyes ; see 
my article, I.e., p. 165, note 1, and Kaegi in the Philolo- 
gische Abhandlungen fiir Heinrich Schweizer-Sidler, p. 64, 
note 57. 

o. vidhre^ lit. ' in the clear sky ; ' Ludwig, * im hellen ; ' 
Grill, 'heiteren tags.' sd'ryam iva is to be read as three 
syllables, as frequently elsewhere, either sflryeva or sflryam 

Stanza 8. 

o. t^na may be either masculine, referring to the divinity 
in st. 4, or neuter, agreeing with brahma, • charm.' 

IV, 22. Commentary to page 115. 

The hymn is employed twice in the so-called ra^akarmani, 
' the royal practices,' Kaor. 14-17. The first is characterised 
by the scholiasts, Kejava and Sayawa, as a battle-charm 

* In RV. I, 29, 3 the two messengers (dogs) of Yama are per- 
sonified as females. 

Digitized by 


IV, 22. COMMENTARY. 405 

(^ayakarma, sawigrama^ayartham), and its rather colourless 
proceedings are as follows: 14, 24. 'While reciting IV, 22 
and 23 he performs the ceremonies which culminate in 
the presentation (of the bow to the king).' These are 
described in Sutras 8-1 1 of the same chapter, to wit : 8. 
' An oblation of ghee and grits is poured out. 9. Upon 
a fire made of bows a bow is laid on as a fagot. 10. Like- 
wise an arrow (is laid on) upon a fire made of arrows. 
1 1. The bow (of the king), smeared with the dregs of the 
ghee, is presented to him.' 

The other performance, Kaor. 17, 28-9, is part of the 
consecration of a chief ruler (ekara^a, Kaor. 14, 11; cf. 
ekavrtsha in our hymn, sts. 1,5,6, 7). The special solem- 
nities of the consecration have been absolved, but every 
morning the royalty of the king has to be renewed, to wit : 

28. ' Every morning the hymn IV, 22 (or its first stanza?) 
is recited to the king (by the purohita, the house-priest). 

29. They (the king and the purohita) then perform the 
above-mentioned pouring of water (each into a vessel), and 
the exchange (of the vessels).' This refers to Sutras 4 and 5 
of the same chapter ; cf. the introduction to IV, 8, and 
Professor Weber's discussion of the passage in his treatise, 
Uber die Konigsweihe, p. 140 (Transactions of the Royal 
Prussian Academy, 1893). The hymn, further, is one of 
a cycle (ga«a) devoted to the gain of royal power (rash/ra- 
samvarga). grouped together in the indramahotsava, Ath. 
Pari*. 19, 1 (cf. Kauj. 140, 6, note). See also Ath. Pari.v. 
4, 1 and 1 6. The fanciful analysis of the hymn by the 
Anukramawi may be seen in Grill's introduction. 

The hymn appears again in Tait. Br. II, 4, 7, 7 ff. ; it 
has been translated by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 457 ; 
Zimmer, 165; Grill 8 , 67, 135 ff. ; cf. Hillebrandt's Veda- 
chrestomathie, p. 43. 

Stanza 1. 

The speaker is the purohita, the house-priest, or chaplain 
of the king ; he figures prominently in all the ra^akarmawi, 
Kaor. 14-17. 

b. Saya«a with one of Shankar Pandit's MSS. reads 

Digitized by 



wz'sham ekavrzsham, and glosses, se^anasamarthan&w virya- 
vataw purushawam madhye imam ra^anam . . . mukhya- 
scktaram asahayajuram . . . kuru; cf. our note on III, 5, 7. 

o. nfr akshwuhi, lit. ' castrate,' continuing the picture of 
the preceding Pada : the king is to be a bull, his enemies 
castrated. Cf. RV. I, 33, 6 ; Sat Br. IV, 4, 2, 13 ; XIII, 
4, 2, 5, and the word mah«uiirash/a. Ludwig, ' drive out ; ' 
Zimmer, ' zerstreue ; ' Sayawa, sawku&taprabhavan kuru. 

d. Sayawa divides aham uttareshu, with the result, ' I 
(the purohita) put him among the highest rulers.' Cf. 

xii, 4, 50. 

Stanza 2. 

o. The Tait. Br. II, 4, 7, 7, the Paippalada, and Sayawa 
read vdrshman, loc. sing. I see no cogent reason for giving 
up (with Zimmer, Hillebrandt, and Grill) the reading of our 
MSS., varshma. 

IV, 28. Commentary to page 158. 

Bhava and Sarva, two of the well-known forms (murti) 
of Rudra (cf. especially their epithet ugra in sts. 3, 6, 7) *, 
are implored by virtue of their cosmogonic powers to afford 
protection against calamity, and, with the familiar Athar- 
vanic specialisation, to destroy sorceries and demons. The 
ritual, Kaiu. 28, 8, regard the hymn as medicinal (sarva- 
vyadhibhaisha^yam, ' a remedy for all diseases '). Seven 
cornucopias are made from (leaves of) the kampila (crinum 
amaryllacee), filled with water, and anointed with the 
dregs of ghee. With the right hand the water is poured 
upon the patient, and the cornucopias are thrown behind 
the patient. The connection between the prayer and the 
practice is not manifest. The hymn is rubricated also in 
takmanlranagana of the Ga«amala, Ath. Parir. 32, 7 ; see 
Kauj. 26, 1, note. It has been translated by Muir, 1. c, 
P- 33*- 

1 See the introduction to XI, 2 for the Vedic texts, and the 
Western literature, dealing with this subject. 

Digitized by 


IV, 36. COMMENTARY. 407 

Stanza 3. 

b. The periphrastic expression stuvann emi is so strange 
to the padakara as to induce him to divide it into stuvan 
nemi. Sayawa blunders still further, reading stuvan nemi 
(stuvan prarawsan . . . nema/i ardhawz balam asya*sti*ti 

Stanza 8. 

a. mulakrft, ' manipulator of roots,' is so characteristic 
a feature in sorcery-practice, as to give rise to specific 
prohibition of the act ; see Vish»u-smr*'ti XXV, 7 ; Manu 
IX, 290, and cf. Naraya«a on the latter passage in Buhler's 
translation of Manu, Sacred Books of the East, XXV, 394. 

IV, 36. Commentary to page 35. 

The hymn is one of the £atanani (sc. suktani), • hymns 
which drive away demons and diseases,' Kauj. 8, 25. The 
entire list (ga«a) is employed at Kaor. 25, 22, among the 
bhaisha^yani, ' remedial charms,' against bhuta and pua£a ; 
the performance connected with the recital of the gawa is 
identical with the so-called apanodanani, ' practices to drive 
away,' described at Kaus. 14, 14 ff. They consist chiefly 
in burning chaff, spelt, offal of grain, and wood shavings, 
symbolizing, doubtless, rapid consumption or destruction. 

The hymn has been translated by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 
III, 526; Grill*, pp. 3, 136 ff. The Anukramawl, satyau- 
^asarn agneyam (cf. st. 1). 

Stanza 3. 
The first hemistich is not at all clear, agare" being Slit. key. 
and uncertain. We have taken it with the Pet. Lexs. and 
Ludwig as=agara, and it is to be noted that two MSS. of 
Sayawa's commentary (S Kd) read agaro for agaro. Cf. 
also aglra at Asv. Grth. I, 7, 21. Saya«a etymologises, 
agiryate samantad bha,gyate mawsajowitadikam atrcti 
agaro yuddharangaA. Grill, supported by a more recent 
utterance of Roth, renders ' unter rufen.' In that case agara 
would be ' shouting to ' (cf. akrora, Koava, p. 327, and 

Digitized by 



often elsewhere), pratikrora, 'shouting back,' i.e. 'under 
shouting and counter-shouting.' We have taken amavasya 
as an adjective = amavasya, ' in the night of the new moon ' 
(Pawini IV, 3, 30. 31). Cf. our note on I, 16, 1. Sayawa 
aptly quotes from the A past. Sr. the following passage : 
' In the night of the new moon one shall offer to Agni, the 
slayer of Rakshas, a rice-cake in twelve cups.' Note the 
concatenation between this and the following stanza. 

Stanza 6. 

The sense is that the superior gods who vie with the sun 
(RV. 1, 98, 1 ; 1 23, 12 ; V, 4, 4 ; IX, 27, 5) shall afford pro- 
tection against the Pis&kzs to man and beast. 

Stanza 7. 

Note the pun between pisakai/t and jaknomi, and the 
concatenation with the following stanza. For grama, sec 
the note on VIII, 7, 11. 

Stanza 9. 

a. Sayana with some MSS. reads lipita^ (upadigdha// 
sawtkrintaA), and Whitney in the Index, guided perhaps by 
the pada-MSS., which read lapita" without visarga, suggests 
lapitva". But the text seems well enough as it stands. 

d. alp&rayun is uncertain : Sayawa, alpakayaA . . . kl/4//, 
and we accordingly. Ludwig (c, d), ' mein ich, sind sie 
unglucklich, nur kurze zeit mer im volke verweilend ' (cf. 
RV. 1,31, 2; 111,55,6; IV, 18, 12). 

IV, 37. Commentary to page 33. 

The plant agasringV, or, as it is called synonymously by 
Darila, mesh&rrmgi, ' goat's horn ' (Sayawa, again synonym- 
ously, vishawi), is the odina pinnata ; see Zimmer, p. 68. 
The hymn is directed against Tiskkas, Apsaras, and Gan- 

1 In stanza 6 it has the additional obscure epithet arS/akr. 
Sayana, ar£ . . . a/ayati u££&tayati. 

Digitized by 


IV, 37- COMMENTARY. 409 

dharvas, and, according to Darila at Kaor. 28, 9-1 1, it is em- 
ployed in a remedial charm against one possessed by Viskkas 
(pLya^agrjhtta). Kerava and Sayawa, more broadly and 
correctly, sarvabhutagrahabhaisha^yam. The practices are 
stated as follows : 9. • While pronouncing IV, 37 the prac- 
titioner takes pulverised jam! (i.e. the pulverised leaves, or 
fruit, of the prosopis spicigera) from a basket (and puts it) 
into the food (of the patient) 1 . 10. (He puts it also) into the 
cosmetics (of the patient). 11. He scatters (the pulverised 
jam!) around the house (of the patient) V The hymn is 
also rubricated among the £atanani (sc. suktani) ' hymns to 
drive away with,' Kauj. 8, 25. Cf. Santikalpa 17 and 21 3 . 
Adalbert Kuhn, in Zeitschr. f. vergl. Sprachf. XIII, 1 18 fT., 
has translated this hymn and compared it with parallel 
conceptions in the Teutonic folk-lore. Especially good 
are the parallels drawn between the Apsaras, who, from the 
time of RV. X, 95 onwards, are engaged in enticing heroes 
and divine seers 4 , with the Germanic elfs who fascinate the 
wanderer at night with their dance. The hymn has also 
been rendered by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 352. 

Stanza 3. 

The description of the natural abode of the Apsaras in 
this and the following stanzas is in accord with the Brah- 
manical view from earliest times. Cf. the apya y6sha. 
* water-woman,' RV. X, 10, 4 ; Bergaigne, La Religion 
V^dique, II, 3,5, 40, 96; III, 65 tT. ; A. Holtzmann, Zeitschr. 
d. Deutsch. Morg. Gesellsch. XXXI 1 1, 631 ff. The fanciful 
list of names embodies largely a superficial personification 
of fragrant cosmetics and ointments: bdellium, spikenard, 
fragrant salve, &c. 

1 According to Kerava and Sayawa he puts pulverised leaves of 
s ami into a rami-fruit, and feeds the patient upon that. Cf. Kaxxs. 

47. 2 3- 

* As there is no mention of the sami in the hymn, one is almost 
tempted to identify the a^arn'ngi with it. 

* Shankar Pandit, erroneously, Nakshatrakalpa 17 and 21. 

* Cf. our note on VI, 1 1 1, 4. 

Digitized by 



For aukshagandhi, cf. auksham in our note on II, 36, 7, 
and in the introduction to I, 34 ; pramandanf reminds us 
of pramanda, Kaurika, Introduction, p. lii. See also Kuhn, 
1. c, 127. 

b. Bohtlingk, in his lexicon, proposes avajvase, dative 
infinitive, ' to blow away.' Saya«a and the Paippalada 
read iva svasam for avajvasam. The former glosses, 
sush//m nauprerawakujalam yatha titirshavo ^ana upaga- 

f. S4ya«a reads pratibaddha/; for pratibuddha^ (nirud- 
dhagataya//) in this and the subsequent stanzas. 

Stanza 4. 

We have adopted Shankar Pandit's arrangement of 
sts. 4-6, to wit : his st. 4 is made up of vulgata 4 a, b + 3 e, f, 
which is repeated by ail his MSS. ; his st. 5 is the rest of 
vulg. 4 ; and his st. 6 is vulg. 5 + 6. Sayawa does not 
insert the additional hemistich, but he also differs from the 
vulgate in his arrangement. 

b. The Pet. Lex. suggests stkhandini/t, vocative, ' crested,' 
as an epithet of the Apsaras ; cf. the same epithet of the 
Gandharva in st. 7. Sayawa simply ' peacocks.' We prefer 
the poetic figure : the crowns of the great trees are likened 
unto crests. 

Stanza 7. 

a. For the epithet AnrftyataA, cf. the parinrftyati apsara" 
in IV, 38, 3. 

Stanza 8. 

o, d. The epithet avakada, ' devouring avaka-reeds ' (blyxa 
octandra), is clear. The Gandharvas live on the shores of 
waters, and the avaka is the typical water-plant. See 
our Contributions, Second Series, Amer. Journ. Phil. XI, 
342 ff. (especially 349 ff.) ; Roth, in Festgruss an Otto von 
Bohtlingk, p. 97 ff. Less certain is havirada, ' devouring 
oblations.' The sense of the hemistich might be taken 
pregnantly: The Gandharvas who devour our oblation, 
though their natural food is the avaka-reed, &c But 

Digitized by 


IV, 37- COMMENTARY. 411 

I have in mind RV. X, 95, 16, where the Apsaras Urv&jl 
exclaims that upon eating a drop of ghee her appetite was 
cloyed for ever (cf. Hariva»wa 1377 ; Vish«u-pura«a IV, 
6, 28, and Geldner, Vedische Studien, I, pp. 263, 282). 
The Atharvan is reminiscent, and fond of generalising 
salient features of legends. It seems possible that the 
Gandharvas are substituted for the Apsaras who represent 
the Apsaras par excellence, Urv&rl. Saya«a on the AV. 
evinces his customary and astonishing talent of dodging 
difficulties by means of bad variant readings, to wit : abhi- 
hradan abhigatahladan prapta^allrayan va. 

Stanza 10. 

Professor von Roth in Festgruss an Otto von Boht- 
lingk, pp. 97 ffi, proposes to read ^yotayamamaka'n (Pada- 
pa///a, ^yotaya mamakan) as one word, and interprets the 
word in his inimitably ingenious manner as=pLra£adipika, 
' will o' the wisp, Jack o' lanthorn.' Yet we have adopted 
the simpler solution of the difficulty, proposed by Whitney 
in Festgruss an Rudolf von Roth, p. 91. He proposes 
^yotayamanak^ comparing pravartamanaka, RV. I, 191, 
16. In both cases the suffix ka is truly diminutive, indi- 
cating that the action of the verb is undertaken by a dimi- 
nutive agent ; cf. also ava£arantik£, AV. V, 13, 19 (see the 
note there), and the Mantrabrahmawa of the Sama-veda 
II, 7, 3, athai*sha;« (sc. krimiwam) bhinnaka^ kumbha/i. 
' Little shiner ' would be the literal translation of ^yotaya- 
manakaVi, and Roth's comparison with the will o' the wisp 
may yet hold good. 

Stanza 11. 

b. The epithet sarvakeraka reminds one of hairiness as 
a sign of sexual power, RV. I, 126, 7 ; X, 86, 16, a very 
suitable attribute of the Gandharva ; cf. also kapi in 
vrz'shaTcapi in X, 86. But the word for 'hair* in both 
these passages is r6ma, while sarvak&raka naturally refers 
to the hair of the head; RV. X, 136, 6. Yet the two 
conceptions may be connected. 

Digitized by 



IV, 38. Commentary to i'age 149. 

Both the internal evidence of the stanzas themselves 
(including the metre), and their employment in the ritual 
prove the composite character of this hymn. The Anu- 
kramawi, too. significantly describes the hymn as dvideva- 
tyam. A gambling song of four stanzas is combined with 
cattle-charm of three stanzas, apparently for the purely 
formal reason that every hymn of the fourth book must 
consist of at least seven stanzas ; cf. AV. XIX, 23,4 ; Gop. 
Br. I, i, 8; Ath. Pari*. 46, 9. 10 ; Ind. Stud. IV, 433; 
XVII, 178 ; Kaurika, Introduction, p. xli. Sayawa is the 
only authority that makes a blend of the two parts. He 
comments upon yasam rishabh6, &c, in st. 5, as follows: 
yasam apsarasam . . . se£anasamartha/; pati//. 


The practices connected with the gambling-song are 
reported at Kauj. 41, 10-13, as follows : 10. ' Under the 
constellation purva ash&dkkh 1 the gambler digs a pit (in 
the gambling-house). 11. Under the constellation uttara 
ashadMra/z he (again) fills up the pit. 12. He smoothes 
the place where the play takes place. 1 3. While reciting 
IV, 38, 1-4 ; VII, 50 ; and VII, 109 he throws dice which 
have been steeped (in curds and honey during the three 
nights [and days] beginning with the thirteenth day of the 
month ; see Kauj. 7, 1 9).' 

This part of the hymn has been rendered by Muir. 
Original Sanskrit Texts, V, 430; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 
111,4.54; Grill 2 , pp. 71, 140 ff. ; cf. also A. Holtzmann. 
Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morg. Gesellsch. XXXIII, 631 ff. 

1 The name means ' invincible.' Here, as frequently 
elsewhere, its symbolic suggestiveness is utilised to secure success 
or victory for the person who performs under the two constellations 
of that name; cf. Weber, Nakshatra, II, 374, 389. 

Digitized by 


IV, 38. COMMENTARY. 413 

Stanza 1. 

Cf. Zimmer, pp. 383-5. The krAam, or the kr/tani in 
Pada c (cf. sts. 2 c and 3 b), are either the winnings, or the 
winning numbers, or combinations, of the dice. Cf. Apast. 
St. V, 1, 20. 

Stanza 2. 

a S4ya»a, vi&nvatim ekatra nirbadhe kosh/Ae tri£aturan 
akshan vi-reshewa SAmuiiinvattm sawzghikurvatim. Muir, 
' who collects and scatters ; ' Ludwig, ' die aufhaufende, 
zuschiittende.' These technical terms are very obscure : 
the scholiasts are untrustworthy because they have in mind 
different games and different times. 

Stanza 3. 

Saya;/a combines Padas e and f with 4 a, b, making his 
fourth stanza, and then continues as follows : 4 c, d + 5 a, b= 
5; 5 c— f=6; 6=7; 7=8. His comment on this stanza 
is rendered very problematic through bad readings : ada- 
dhanas for a"dadana ; jrcshanti (av&reshayantt) for sishati ; 
prahan for praham. For parinr/tyatl, cf. anr/tyata^ . . . 
gandharvasya, IV, 37, 7. We have assumed with great 
reluctance that sishati is a desiderative participle from 
sa = san, 'gain.' 

Stanza 4. 

We read pramodate for pram6dante with Sayawa and two 
of Shankar Pandit's MSS., and bfbhrati for bfbhrati. The 
anacoluthon in the second hemistich is thus easily removed. 


The three stanzas are designated at Kauj. 21, 11 as 
karkipravadaA (sc. rik&h), ' the stanzas that mention the 
word karki (cf. sts. 6, 7).' They are employed in a rite, 
designed, according to the scholiasts, to secure the pros- 
perity of cattle (S4ya«a, gopushrikarma ; Kerava, goranti), 
as follows: 'The karkipravada stanzas are recited over 
a young cow, upon which are placed twelve halters, and 
which is anointed with the dregs of ghee. Then, while 

Digitized by 



pronouncing Padas 7 c and 7d,the things indicated in (these) 
mantras are done (i. e. fodder is given to the young cow, 
and she is fastened with the halters).' In consideration of 
these practices, and the statements of the stanzas them- 
selves, we have thought that the purport of the hymn is 
a more special one, to wit, to secure the return of the 
young cows from pasture, and have formulated the caption 
accordingly. The stanzas are also employed at Kauj. 66, 
13 at a so-called sava, or formal bestowal of the dakshwi : 
a karki (young white cow), together with an anubandhya, 
a cow designed for the cattle-sacrifice, are given to the 
priests as a particular kind of reward. 

This part of the hymn has been rendered by Ludwig, 
Der Rigveda, III, 455- 

Stanza 6. 

Because the Tait. S. Ill, 4, 7, 1 mentions an Apsaras by 
the name of mari£i, Sayawa connects this stanza with the 
preceding gambling charm. The true sense seems to be 
that the cows which wander ' in den tag hinein ' are in 
charge of the daily sun ; as he comes daily without fail, so 
do the young cows return. But the text is vague and 
fanciful, marred moreover by an anacoluthon. 

Stanza 6. 

Sayawa explains karki by karkavarwa jubhra iyaw gauA. 
Accordingly we, ' white calf.' 

V, 4. Commentary to page 4. 

Next to the soma-plant the kush/^a is one of the most 
valued members of the Vedic flora. According to the 
medical books it is costus speciosus, or arabicus. The 
word is not mentioned in the Rig-veda, but is common in 
the Atharvan where three hymns, V, 4 ; VI, 95 ; XIX, 39, 
are devoted to accounts of its origin and its healing 
properties. It is the prince of remedies, like unto the steer 
among domestic animals, and the tiger among the beasts 
of prey. Like the soma, his good friend and companion, 

Digitized by 


V, 4- COMMENTARY. 415 

he grows upon the mountains, especially upon the high 
peaks of the Himalaya. In fact both soma and kushMa 
came from the third heaven ; the kush/Aa grew originally 
under that wonderful arvattha-tree (ficus religiosa), under 
whose shelter the gods themselves are accustomed to 
assemble. A pretty myth tells how a golden ship (soma, the 
moon ?), with golden tackle and oars, descends from heaven, 
and alights upon the Himavant mountains, bringing kushA&a, 
the visible embodiment of the heavenly ambrosia. The 
use of the plant is varied, its effect most reliable. Hence 
it is designated as vlrvabhesha^a, ' all-cure,' and vuvadha- 
virya, ' potent at all times.' Headache, consumption, and 
afflictions of the eye are cured by it. But especially it 
seems to have been regarded as the specific against fever 
(takman) in all its forms. It seems to have been a fragrant 
plant since in AV. VI, 102, 3 it is employed in a love-charm 
in connection with salve, licorice, and spikenard. The 
kushA&a itself must have been prepared as a salve, since 
in Kauj. 28, 13 the patient is anointed with a mixture of 
ground kush/^a with butter ; cf. especially Kerava's gloss 
to the passage. Curiously enough in the later literature 
kush/^a is the ordinary designation of leprosy, doubtless 
a species of euphemism ; cf. Wise, Hindu System of 
Medicine, p. 258 ff. Excellent accounts of the kush/Aa- 
plant are given by Grohmann, Indische Studien, IX, 
p. 419 ff., and Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 63 ff. 

The employment of this hymn in the Kaurika-sutra is of 
a general character : all the stanzas of the Atharvan which 
contain the word kush//;a are classed together at 28, 13 as 
kush/7/alinga^ (sc. rikaJt) ; while they are being recited the 
patient is anointed with kush//za, ground up with butter, 
which is rubbed in without pressure (apratiharam : see Pet. 
Lex. s.v. har with prati, and Bohtlingk's Lexicon, vol. ii. 
p. 290 c). Darila describes this, quite precisely, as a cure 
for fever, while Ke^ava sets it up for a variety of diseases, 
ra^ayakshma (a kind of consumption; see Zimmer, I.e., 
p. 375), headache, leprosy (kushX&a), and pain in all limbs. 
The Ganamala, Ath. Parij. 32, 7, counts the hymn as 

Digitized by 



takmanlrana, 'destructive of takman ' (see Kaur. 26, 1, 
note), but the Anukrama«i describes it as yakshmanlfana- 
kush/^adaivatyam, the author being Bhn'gu-Angiras. The 
hymn has been translated by Grohmann, 1. c, 419 flf. ; 
Zimmer, I.e., 6$ ff., and Grill 2 , pp 9, 141. 

Stanza 2. 

b. Himavant is identical with Himalaya. 

0. Professor Roth, cited by Grill in his note, suspects 
jrutva' and suggests srutva\ The latter seems more difficult, 
and I am at a loss to appreciate why the reputation of the 
kush/Aa among men might not be so stated. 

Stanza 3. 

The entire verse is repeated in AV. VI, 95, 1 ; and with 
a single variant in XIX, 39, 6. 

a. A tree as the seat of the gods occurs in RV. X, 135, 1, 
yasmin vrzkshe supallre devafA sampibate yama/*, ' the tree 
of beautiful foliage within which Yama drinks with the 
gods;' cf. also RV. I, 164, 20. 22, and Kuhn, Die Herab- 
kunft des Feuers und des Gottertrankes \ pp. 1 26 ff. 

b. trrtfyasyam it6 divi indicates the parallelism which 
this myth establishes between the kush/^a and the soma. 
The a^vattha-tree is elsewhere said to drip with soma 
(Kuhn, I.e., 128). The same expression is employed for 
soma at Tait. S. VI, 1, 6, 1 ; Tait. Br. I, 1, 3, 10 ; III, 
2, 1 , 1 ; cf. our Contributions, Fifth Series, Journ. Amer. 
Or. Soc. XVI, 11 ; also the Pet. Lex. s.v. div. 1, c, and 

c. d. For amr/tasya £aksha«am, cf. RV. I, 13, 5. The 
Pada is replaced in AV. XIX, 39, 6. 7 by t&ta/i kush/Ao 
a^ayata ; the word avanvata is rendered variously : Roth, 
in Grill's note, ' (dorthin) wollten haben ; ' Grohmann, p. 41 1 , 
' spendeten ; ' Zimmer, p. 64, ' dort besassen ; ' Grill, ' dort 
ward den Gottern zu teil.' 

Stanza 4. 

c. The vulgata here and at VI, 95, 2, which is a repeti- 
tion of this stanza, reads pushyam. We have rendered 

Digitized by 


V, 4- COMMENTARY. 417 

pushpam, with some of the MSS-, and Whitney, Index 
Verborum, s.v. If we retain pushyam the sense would not 
be changed materially ; the two words are hopelessly 
blended, since the writing of Devanagari MSS. in such 
a case is totally unreliable. 

Stanza 5. 

a. The Anukramawl designates the stanza as bhuri^, on 
account of the apparently hypermetrical first Pada. This 
may be corrected so as to yield an anushAibh, either by 
crasis of panthana asan, or by substituting the older form 
pantha(s). The former is the more conservative alternative, 
since the nominative plural panthas does not occur in the 

d. niravahan with its two prepositions indicates vividly 
the two chief features of the myth : nir, ' forth (from heaven) ; ' 
a, ' to (the mountain upon which it grows).' 

Stanza 6. 

The stanza, both by its metre (gayatri), and subject 
matter, betrays its character as an interruption of the 
mythological history of the kushAia. It seems, too, in 
a measure, modelled after VI, 95, 3, with which it shares 
its last Pada. Nevertheless I would not go as far as Grill 
does, and print the stanza at the end of the hymn, because 
it may have been composed as a liturgical interruption of 
the mythological account. To say that it was inserted 
because of the assonance of a" vaha in Pada b with niravahan 
in 5 d is begging the question, since this assonance may be 
part of the original endeavour. To be sure, the redactors 
of the Atharvan are quite capable of such betises, but they 
should not be charged with them except for good cause ! 

b. & vaha, 'restore,' literally, 'bring hither.' The word 
is not otherwise quotable in this sense. Similar expres- 
sions, however, are employed to indicate the restoration of 
a disturbed mind ; here, perhaps, with reference to the 
delirious ravings of the fever-patient ; cf. punar da, AV. 
VI, in, 4, and perhaps a" ga and ud ga, II, 9, 2. The sense 

[4*] E e 

Digitized by 



is fairly secure owing to its juxtaposition with nfsh kar (cf. 
st. 10, and II, 9, 5, &c). 

Stanza 7. 

b. Cf. AV. XIX, 39, 5. 8 for s6masya sakha. 

d. £akshushe, ' to my eye,' not in the sense of the oculist, 
there being no implication of disease of the eye, as is the 
case in the expression upahatyam aksh6s in st. 10. The 
poet has in mind that eye with which ' to see the sun ' 
(sflryaw dris6, dmaye stfryaya, or svar drisi) is the poetic 
prayer for life. This is quite clear. The eye here is that 
which finally does go to the sun, stfryaw £akshur gakk/iatu, 
RV. X, 1 6, 3 ; cf. with this and the preceding Pada the 
formula at the animal sacrifice, e.g. Ait. Br. II, 6, 13, 
'may thy eye go to the sun; may thy breath unite with 
the wind/ 

Stanza 8. 

c, d. nahiany uttamani : literally, ' highest names ; ' cf. 
AV. XIX, 39, 2, where the names are stated with much 

Stanza 6. 

For the diction of this stanza, cf. AV. VI, 95, 3; XIX, 
39, 3, 4 ; and V, 22, 2; XIX, 34, 10. 

Stanza 10. 


The stanza is rubricated separately as a member of the 
takmanlranagana in the Gawamala ; see Kaur. 26, 1, note. 
The Anukramawi designates it as ushttiggarbha niirtt 
(nivrit), because Pada b seems defective. By reading 
akshi6s tanuvo the defect is remedied : akshos here, as 
well as in part of the MSS. at XIX, 60, 1, stands for 
akshy6s with defective presentation of the sound-group 
kshy as ksh. See also IV, 20, 7, where all MSS. read 
£aturakshas for £aturakshyas. The case is the same as 
appears in meksha'mi for mekshyami, AV. VII, 102, 1 ; 
sakshe for sakshye, II, 27, 5 ; vibhunkshamawa- for -kshya- 
ma«a~, Kaiw. 23, 9 ; 38, 26, and more remotely like jama" 
for sykmk, AV. I, 24, 4, and .dmaka for jyamaka, Kaux 

Digitized by 


V, 5- COMMENTARY. 419 

74, 16. Morphological deductions, such as Professor 
Hopkins, Amer. Joum. Phil. XIII, 21 ff., bases upon 
these defective writings, are therefore subject to the gravest 
suspicion. In general, Devanagari MSS. must be watched 
very closely for the loss of y, especially if preceded by two 
consonants; cf. especially the hopeless confusion between 
the words arghya and argha. 

V, 5. Commentary to page 20. 

The only mention of this hymn in the practices of the 
Kaorika is the one implied in 28, 14, lakshalingabhir (sc. 
r*gbhir) dugdhe pha«/an payayati, where the commentators 
agree in presenting our hymn along with AV. IV, 12, as 
'the stanzas characterised by the mention of the laksha- 
plant.' For the practices connected with the plant that 
goes by the names Arundhati, Sila£i, Laksha (possibly 
also Rohawi), see the introduction to IV, 12, and the note 
on its first stanza. 

The hymn has been translated by Zimmer, Altindisches 
Leben, p. 67 ; Grill*, pp. 10, 143 ; the last two stanzas by 
Kuhn, Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung, XIII, 
p. 61. The Anukramawi designates it as lakshikam, ' per- 
taining to the laksha-plant.' 

Stanza 1. 

a. The Atharvan poets signalise with great predilection 
their knowledge of the power of any substance which they 
employ by stating that this knowledge extends to the 
father, mother, and other relatives of the substance. Or, 
again, they indicate their control over any disease, or hostile 
force, by assuming the same knowledge of their kindred. 
Of the latter class are the boasts made in V, 13, 7; VI, 61, 
1, and VII, 74, 1. The former class concerns plants exclu- 
sively. Dyaus, the heaven, and Pr?thivl, the earth, are 
father and mother of plants, III, 23, 6; VIII, 7, 2, and 
perhaps also III, 9, 1. Fanciful names are given to the 
parents of plants : I, 24, 3, sarupa nama te mata" sarfipo 
nSma te pita (cf. Kaus. 26, 22, note) ; VI, 16, 1, vihalho na'ma 

e e 2 

Digitized by 



te piti madavatl nama te mat4 (of the plant abayu, mus- 
tard) ; XIX, 39, a, giv&lS. nama te mita* £*vant6 nama te 
pita" (of the plant kiish/Aa) ; V, 4, 9, uttam6 nama te pita" 
(of the same plant). The names of the ancestors in our 
stanza are peculiarly fanciful and heterogeneous. 

o. sila£f, only in this hymn ; cf. sila^fala (sila«jga + ala), 
VI, 1 6, 4; Kaur. 51, 16 1 , 'a creeper or weed growing in 
grain-fields.' See Kaurika, Introduction, p. xlv, and cf. also 
our note on st. 9 c. 

Stanza 2. 

d. For nyaA&ani, cf. nya«£anam, AV. IV, 36, 6, and RV. 
VIII, 27, 18, where Sayawa explains the word by nitarawi 

Stanza 3. 

a. Cf. with this the designation of the plant in IV, 12, i, 
roham (r6hi»i), and the note there. 

b. kanyala here and XIV, 2, 52 ; the suffix -la with dis- 
paraging function as in vrishalL 

o. ^ayanti occurs also as the proper designation of a plant, 
equal to the common ^ivanti : see the lexicons. 

d. sparawi calls to mind Lat. pro-sper and sp£s, but 
sphira and the root sphai (I. E. sphej) have a better claim 
upon these words. 

Stanza 4. 

b. harasa is translated by Zimmer, ' durch einen schlag 
(griff) ; ' by Grill, ' mit gewalt.' This is a possible alterna- 
tive. There are two haras in the Veda, one from the root 
har, 'take,' and the other from ghar. The latter is Otpos ; 
cf. Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung, XXV, 80, 
133 note, 168. Examples of the latter are AV. VIII, 3, 
4ff. ; XVIII, 2, $6. 58 ; 3, 71 ; XIX, 65 and 66 ; and espe- 
cially II, 19, a ; 20, a ; 21, a ; 22, 3 ; 33, a, where the word 
occurs in the series tapas, haras, ar£fs, sokis, and te^as. 

1 The MSS. of the Kaurika read sMOgite. with palatal s. By 
changing silaif to siliif we obtain the possible etymology ' she that 
creeps upon stones.' 

Digitized by 


V, 5- COMMENTARY. 421 

Stanza 7. 

For the epithets of the plant in this and the preceding 
stanza, see the note on IV, is, i. 

b. For jushme, see Contributions, Sixth Series, Zeit- 
schrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, 
XLVIII, 565 ff. ; for loma^avakshawe, Pischel, Vedische 
Studien, I, 178. 

d. Cf. V, 9, 7; RV. X, 16, 3; Ait Br. II, 6, 13 ; Sat Br. 
XIV, 6, 2, 13, &c. 

Stanza 8. 

a, b. I have translated the passage with strict adherence 
to the text which is certainly not above suspicion. The 
Paippalada offers no help. Inasmuch as the father is 
mentioned, it seems likely that both parents are somehow 
contained in the passage, and the change from kanin6 to 
kanina" has suggested itself to all translators (Pet. Lex., 
Zimmer, Grill). The first Pada would then be, ' Sila£i 
by name art thou, daughter of a maiden.' I would draw 
attention here, as at IV, 20, 3, to RV. X, 40, 9, ^anish/a 
y6sha patayat kaninak6 vf £a"*ruhan vinidhaA (cf. also RV. 
X, 3, 2 and AV. XII, 3, 47 ?), where the origin of plants 
occurs somehow in connection with a woman and a kani- 
naka. But the passage is buried in obscurity for the 
present. If the emended kantna* is taken to refer to the 
mother of the plant, it would certainly seem natural to see 
in a.g'ababhru the father. The word as it stands can be 
nothing but a vocative from a formally and lexically un- 
quotable feminine a^ababhru ; Grill suggests the change 
to the nominative masculine a^ababhrus, an emendation 
which Zimmer's translation also implies. Grill, too, thinks 
that the mother and father thus reconstructed for these 
passages must be identical with those in st. 1, namely, night 
and cloud — a conclusion which, in our opinion, is not at all 
coercive. He points out that night is designated in XIX, 
48, 2 as ' mother,' and in XIX, 49, 1 as a blooming young 
woman (ishira" y6sha yuvatUt) ; as regards a^ababhru he has 
in mind the goat of Pushan in his relation to sunset and 

Digitized by 



dawn (cf. RV. VI, 55, 1, and Ludwig's note, vol. iv, 147). 
All this is possible, but excessively problematic. 

c, d. The cloudy allusions of the preceding Padas are 
obfuscated further by the statement here that the plant 
has been sprinkled with the blood of the brown horse of 
Yama, an expression which may also harbour an allusion 
to night (cf. jyavl, RV. I, 71, 1 ; III, 55, 11 ; Naigha«/uka 
I, 7). Elsewhere the horses of Savitar (RV. I, 35, 5), Agni 
(RV. II, 10, 2), Rudra (AV. XI, 2, 18) are designated as 
.syava. The Padapa/Aa reads asna", ' by the mouth,' and 
Zimmer adopts this reading, against the Pet. Lex., Kuhn 
(p. 61), Whitney in the Index Verborum, and Grill. The 
Padapa//;a itself has asnaA in the next stanza — an obvious 
inconsistency. I cannot rid myself of the impression that 
there is some connection between this and a statement in 
the Maitr. S. IV, 9, 19 ; Tait. Ar. IV, 29, asrmmukho 
rudhire«a*bhyakto yamasya duta^, ' the messenger of Yama 
bloody-mouthed, bedaubed with blood ; ' if so the brown 
horse of Yama may be a variant of the two dogs of Yama 
called .syama and jrabala, ' sun and moon,' or ' day and night ' 
(cf. Contributions, Third Series, Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XV, 
j 63 ff.), and this would again lead back to the word ratri 
in st. 1 . Non liquet. Grill : ' It is conceived that the plant 
has absorbed the blood of a divine animal with which it has 
been sprinkled, and has acquired thereby corresponding 
strength and virtue.' 

Stanza 9. 

a, b. Zimmer : ' aus des rosses maul (cf. the preceding 
note) herausgefallen lief sie an die baume ; ' Kuhn : ' vom 
blut des rosses hergeeilt, glitt sie sogleich den baumen zu ; ' 
Grill : ' entsprungen aus des pferdes blut lief diese zu den 
baumen hin.' sawpatita is not altogether satisfactory ; the 
Pet. Lex. translates it ' zusammengeflossen, zusammenge- 
ronnen.' The entire picture is vague, and is not rendered 
less so by the next Pada. 

o. The meaning of this Pada is by no means established. 
It is formulary in character and always employed in con- 
nection with plants. In the oshadhistuti, RV. X, 97, 9 ; 

Digitized by 


V, 7- COMMENTARY. 423 

Vkg. S. XII, 83 the version is sir£4 patatrfwi sthana ; Tait. 
S. IV, 2, 6, 2 ; Maitr. S. II, 7, 13, sara^ patatrfnU sthana ; 
Kkth. S. XVI, 13, sar&4 patatrfwi/* stha ; Kap. S. XXV, 4, 
sura^ patatri'»!A sthana (so also a variant of Maitr. S.). 
Sayawa at RV. explains the word by sara«a.dlaA, while 
Mahidhara at V&g. S. suggests no less than three other 
interpretations in addition to that of Sayawa, none of them 
usable. Note also sirs' (pattrasira), RV. I, 121, 11, which 
may fairly claim relationship with this group ; cf. also the 
expression apa'm asi svasa in st. 7. Kuhn, 1. c, p. 61, had 
in mind jara in his translation ' befliigelt wurde sie ein 
pfeil.' Certainly a 'winged brook* strains the limits of 
common sense. But I have no better suggestion to make. 
The word sara" seems to contain a punning allusion to the 
name of the plant sila£f. 

V, 7. Commentary to page 172. 

The Veda, especially the Atharvan, is much given to 
personify evil qualities as female divinities, e.g. n(rr/ti, 
araddhi, aYti, arayf, and particularly arati. The present 
hymn aims to appease the powers of avarice and grudge 
personified as Arati ; more particularly the poet has in 
mind the dakshiwa of the priest ; that shall not be with- 
held, but shall accrue abundantly. Cf. st. 1 ; Ka///. Up. 
I, j . The Sastras expressly forbid the withholding of the 
dakshma, e.g. Vishwu-smrzti LIV, 15. See also in general 
RV. X, 107; AV. V, 18 ; 19 ; XII, 5 ; Gop. Br. I, 5, 25. 
In the Atharvan rites our hymn figures in a variety of 
connections. At Kauj. 18, 14, in the course of the so-called 
nirr*'tikarma«i (18, 1—18), grain is offered to the goddess of 
misfortune while the hymn is being recited. At Kaur. 41,8 
a person about to engage in a business venture makes an 
offering (upadadhita l ) while pronouncing our hymn, as well 
as III, 20 and VII, 1. The intention is to remove obstacles. 

1 For the meaning of this technical term, see Kerava to Kaur. 6 
(p. 309 of the edition). The upadhSna according to this consists 
in offering one of thirteen different kinds of havis. 

Digitized by 



Once more in Kauur. 46, 6 he who has a request to make, 
recites sts. 5-10 along with VII, 57, in order that his request 
shall not be refused. The hymn has been translated by 
Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 305 ; Grill 2 , pp. 39, 145 ff. 

Stanza 2. 

a, b. purodhatsd, lit. 'dost make thy agent or purohita;' 
purusha, ' servant, minister ; ' parirapfn, ' suggesting, prompt- 
ing, advising ;' cf. XII, 4, 51. 

Stanza 5. 

The jraddha' is 'faith, religious zeal,' that makes the 
sacrificer liberal to the priests. Cf. Darila to Kaur. 46, 6. 
It is the same jraddha' which entered Na^iketas, K&/A. Up. 
I, % ff., to such an extent that he desired to be given himself 
as sacrificial reward to his priests. This zeal is naturally 
bestowed by the brown soma, i.e. in the course of solemn 
sacrifice, and through the inspiration that comes from the 
hymns (V£k Sarasvati), sung while drinking the soma. The 
previous translations seem to me to miss the point wholly : 
Ludwig, ' den (anteil, den) ich verlange . . . den soil heute 
.Sraddha finden.' But yam refers to the person supplicated, 
not to favours asked. Grill, ' wen ich angehe mit dem spruch 
. . . der werd heut inne mein vertraun, und nehm den 
braunen soma hin.' Cf. also Zimmer, p. 272. 

Stanza 6. 

d. The Pet. Lex. suggests for this single occurrence of 
prdti hary the meaning ' verschmahen, zuriickweisen,' 
though the word ordinarily means 'delight in, long for.' 
The passage seems to contain the euphemistic insinuation 
that Arati when sufficiently cajoled is favourable to 
generosity. Or, those who desire to be generous must 
curry favour with Ar&ti ; otherwise she frustrates their 
intentions. Cf. I, 8, 2. 

Stanza 8. 

Ardti is here connected with nightmare. Her appear- 
ance as a naked woman recalls the German 'alp,' or 'mahre' 

Digitized by 


V, 13- COMMENTARY. 425 

which also manifests itself as a woman; see A. Kuhn, 
Zeitschr. f. vergl. Sprachf. XIII, 125 ff. For the spirit of 
this and the subsequent stanzas, cf. the description of the 
Apsaras, IV, 37. 

V, 13. Commentary to page 27. 

This charm against snake poison claims interest chiefly 
from its designations of serpents, mostly of obscure mean- 
ing, and reaching down to the bed-rock of folk-lore. Kau- 
rika's performances 29, 1-14 are very explicit : they follow 
the hymn stanza by stanza. But they are not as instruc- 
tive as they might be owing to their symbolism, and their 
own obscurity. They begin with the performances in 
honour of Takshaka, described at 28, 1-4 in connection 
with IV, 6 and 7 (see the introduction to IV, 6), and con- 
tinue with additional doings, based upon each stanza of our 
hymn. These will be referred to most profitably under the 
head of each separately. The hymn exhibits noteworthy 
points of contact with RV. I, 191. 

Stanza 1. 

Cf. RV. I, 191, 7. 11. We have translated saktam by 
•what has been fastened;' cf. RV. I, 191, 10. The Pet. 
Lex. s. v. sa^f 4), ' inherent.' 

Stanza 2. 

Kau.9. 29, 2-4 : ' With the second (stanza) the act of con- 
fining (the poison) takes place 1 . 3. The (priest) walks 
about (the patient) towards the left (Keirava, savyam = 

1 dvitiyaya grahawi. Darila', ka/akabandha ity arthaA, ' with the 
second stanza a rope is fastened (about the patient) ' ? Cf. agra- 
bham, and grihn&mi in the mantra. The feminine gender of 
grahawi is peculiar. We should expect 1 either graha«am, or dvitiyS 
grahani. Kcrava, visham na visarpati d&rasthita*n bhavati jarire 
na sarpati vishastambhanam bhavati. 

Digitized by 



apradakshiwam). 4. He fastens a bunch of grass 1 to the 
border of the (patient's) tuft of hair.' 

b. eta"su, feminine, with reference to the numerous female 
reptiles in sts. 7 ff. 

Stanza 3. 

Kaur. 29, 5 : * With the third (stanza) he drives the 
poison forth.' Kejava, dawwad visham anyatra ga££Aati. 
In Pada a, vr/sha me ravaA suggests perhaps the fire which 
is built to frighten away serpents; see RV. I, 94, 10 ; VII, 
79, 4 ; X, in, 2. At RV. X, 146, 2=Tait. Br. II, 5, 5, 6 
wtsharava is the designation of a croaking bird. Pada d 
echoes RV. I, 191, 8 : the rising sun symbolises the qui- 
escence or destruction of all harmful powers. 

Stanza 4. 

Kaus. 29, 6. 7 : ' While reciting the fourth stanza, along 
with VII, 88 2 , the (serpent's) bite is rubbed* with grass, 
and the grass thrown upon the serpent. 7. (Or in the 
absence of the serpent he throws it) where the biting took 
place.' Cf. Kauj. 32, 25. The ceremony is an attempt 
at the complete realisation of the mantra. 

Stanza 6. 

Kauj. 29, 8 : * With the fifth stanza he sprinkles the 
poisoned person with wa,ter heated by quenching in it 

1 The virtue of this manipulation rests apparently in the pun 
between stamba and the root stambh, ' fasten, confine ' ! 

* ' Go away, thou art an enemy, an enemy surely art thou ! 
Thou hast mixed (thy) poison into poison, thou hast certainly 
mixed poison. To the serpent himself do thou go away. Him 
slay !' Cf. Ludwig, Rigveqa, III, 5Ji; Henry, Le livre VII de 
l'Atharva-ve'da, pp. 36, 106. 

3 Kerava, pra^valya, ' heating the bite with burning grass.' This 
is due to confusion of this performance with Kauj. 32, 24, dawwma 

Digitized by 


V, 13. COMMENTARY. 427 

burning reeds from a thatch 1 mixed with grains of sesame.' 
For ava^vila, cf. Kauj. 27, 29 (introduction to III, 7); 
Kau.9. 27, 35 (introduction to III, 11); 28, 2 (introduction 
to IV, 6). The punning symbolism which connects this 
practice with upatnwya, and perhaps also alika^ (as though 
it were valika) in the mantra, represents the low-water 
mark of banale attempts to construct a practice upon the 
indications of the mantra. The names of the serpents in 
this and the following stanzas are for the most part very 
obscure (cf. Zimmer, pp. 94, 95) : for kafrata, see X, 4, 14, 
for babhru, VI, 56, 2. asita is a more common designation, 
VI, 56, 2 ; VII, 56, 1, &c, and cf. the note on VI, 56, 2. 

o. stamanam, &ir. key., we have rendered as though it 
were sthama'nam (masculine !). Cf. our remarks on the 
interchange between surd aspirates and non-aspirates, 
Amer. Journ. Phil. XII, pp. 436 fT., and Roth in the 
Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morg. Gesellsch. XLVIII, 105 ff. 
The Pet. Lex. under stha + api suggests sramawam, without 
interpreting the passage in this form. 

Stanza 6. 

Kauj. 29, 9 : ' With the sixth (stanza) a bowstring taken 
from the notched end of the bow is fastened upon the 
patient.' Again, the vaguest kind of symbolism in refer- 
ence to Pada d. For taimata, see V, 18, 4. The rendering 
of apodaka is very uncertain. Though in accord with the 
apparent meaning of the same word in st. 2, it jars here : 
we should rather expect another designation of serpents, 
' one that does not live in the water (?).' 

Stanza 7. 

Kau.9. 29, 10 : « With the two next stanzas (7 and 8) the 
patient is given to drink water with the earth of a bee-hive.' 
(K&rava, however, madh.udvapa=madhuvr«kshamr*ttika). 
The relation of the practice to the stanzas is profoundly 
obscure. Cf. the note on V, 5, 1. 

1 Cf. the introduction to VI, 24. 


Digitized by ' 


Stanza 8. 

b. We are tempted to change the instrumental asiknyi 
to the ablative asiknyaA, 'born of the black serpent,' or 
' born of the black night/ 

c. For pratankam, see our note on IV, 16, 2 ; cf. also 
XII, 1, 46 ; Sat. Br. VII, 4, 1, 28 (ye va 'va/eshu jerate), 
and Ait. Br. VI, 1, 3. 

Stanza d. 

Kauj. 29, 1 1 : ' With the ninth (stanza) the patient is 
given to drink water containing the excrement of a porcu- 
pine. With a prick (of the porcupine) that has three white 
stripes he feeds meat to the patient V Cf. the closely cor- 
related RV. I, 191, 16. 

a. The Pet. Lexs. and Zimmer, p. 82 ; translate kar«£ by 
' long-eared.' But has the porcupine long ears ? I have 
preferred to think of his pricks (jalal?) as giving rise to the 
somewhat fanciful adjective. The prickly porcupine may 
naturally not live on good terms with serpents, being hard 
to tackle. 

b. ava^arantiki', left untranslated by the Pet. Lexs , in the 
light of pravartamanakai, RV. I, 193, 11, is obviously 
a diminutive participle ; see our note on IV, 37, 10. 

Stanza 1». 

Kaur. 29, 13: 'With the tenth (stanza) the patient is 
given water to sip* from a gourd.' This looks as though 
there was some connection in the mind of the Sutrakara 
between tabuva and alabu. At any rate tabuva, and tas- 
tiiva 1 in the next stanza, seem to be a cure for poison. 
This and the next stanza are wholly problematic. 

Stanza 11. 

Kauj. 29^ 14 : ' With the eleventh stanza he ties (a gourd) 
to the navel of the patient.' For tastuvam some MSS., 
according to Bohtlingk's lexicon, read tasruvam. 

1 Cf. Kauj. io, 16, and the Gnhya-sutras, where the prick with 
three stripes figures frequently ; see Stenzler's index, s. v. tryem. 

Digitized by 


V, 14- COMMENTARY. 429 

V, 14. Commentary to page 77. 

The hymn is one of the krz'tyapratiharawani, a series of 
hymns which counteract spells, given in the list at Kauj. 
39, 7. See the introductions to IV, 175 V, 31 ; VIII, 5; 
X, 1, &c. The plant which figures prominently (sts. 1, 2, 
4, 9) is not specified. It may be the apamarga, as in IV, 
17-19; cf. the Anukramawi, vanaspatyam. The hymn 
has been translated by Zimmer, p. 396 ff. ; Grill 2 , pp. 
26, 147 ff. 

Stanza 1. 

The first hemistich is repeated at II, 27, 2 ; see the note 

Stanza 0. 

In the course of the performances undertaken with the 
kr*tyaga»a at Kauj. 39, 7-12 (cf. the introduction to IV, 
17) this stanza is rubricated (Sutra 11), preceded by the 
words kr}'tyaya*mitra£akshusha samlkshan, which seems 
to be mantra, either entirely, or in part ; cf. Darila and 
Kerava, p. 341. The sense of the Sutra, as much else in 
the same passage, is very obscure. 

Stanza 10. 

a. As a son goes to his father, thus do thou, O spell, 
return to thy father, i. e. to him that has prepared thee. 

c, d. Grill, following Roth's lead, reads bandhum iva and 
translates, 'wie sich der fluchtling heimwarts kehrt, &c.' 
We do not feel constrained to accept the emendation, ava + 
kram ordinarily means 'overcome,' hence we have trans- 
lated avakram? by ' one who overcomes.' The comparison 
is as good, if not better. Zimmer, ' wie den Banden 
entfliehend eile zuriick &c.' — a forced construction of the 
accusative, bandham. 

Stanza 11. 

A doubtful stanza in changed metre (gayatri). It may 
have slipped in because of mrrgam iva in the next stanza. 

Digitized by 



The sense seems to be : as surely as the antelope, shy 
though she be, mates with the buck, so surely shall the 
spell strike him who prepares it. Cf. IV, 4, 7= VI, ioi, 3, 
and VII, 115, a. But abhiskandam is &it. Xey. : we have 
followed Grill in referring it to the mounting buck. The 
Pet. Lex. regards it as a gerund, and Whitney, Index Ver- 
borum, emends to abhiskandan, a masculine participle, 
yielding a very problematic construction. Zimmer, ' wie 
die scheue Antilope, die Gazelle dem Angreifer (entflieht, 
so du, o Kranker, dem Zauber).' 

V, 18. Commentary to page 169. 

The object of the two hymns V, 18 and 19 is clearly to 
present in the most drastic language the danger which 
arises from the oppression of Brahmans, and usurpation of 
their property 1 . Especially the cow of the Brahman, 
given to him as his sacrificial stipend (dakshina ; cf. XII, 
4), is sacred and inviolable. The point is accentuated by 
the practices connected with them. The two hymns are 
rubricated at Kauj. 48, 13 ff. under the name brahma- 
gavyau (i.e. the two brahmagavi-hymns). The practices 
are intended to compass the death of him that robs or 
slays the cow of a Brahman ; they are as follows : 13. ' (The 
Brahman) recites the two brahmagavl-hymns against (the 
robbers) 2 . 14. He recites them while the activity (of killing 
and cutting up the cow is being performed). 15. vi£r*'tati 
(Dar. uvadhye ha.viAkrtte*ty arthaA). 16. (He recites the 
hymns) over the excrement within the entrails 8 . 17. And 

1 This is the a^yeyati, ' freedom from oppression,' of the 
Brahman ; cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 60 ff. 

1 Darila and K&rava add to this the related hymn XII, 5 (mixed 
prose and verse). 

* Excessively doubtful; Darila has the following as text and 
scholion: kaA kriya anvaha, fibadhye, dveshyam manasi (Cod. 
anasi) kr;'tv& saptaminirderat. Cf. XII, 5, 39, where the excrement 
of the cow is described as fit for sorcery-practices. 

Digitized by 


V, 1 8. COMMENTARY. 43 1 

also at a burial-ground 1 . 1 8. Thrice he exclaims : " Slay 
those yonder." 19. While reciting the second (brahma- 
gavt-hymn) he hides a stone in the excrement. 20. Twelve 
nights does he rest observing every vow (of the brahma- 
£arin). 21. When the sun has risen twice (after the twelve 
days, the enemy) is laid low.' Cf. especially AV. XII, 4 
and 5, and Sat Br. XIV, 6, 7, 4=Bnh. Ar. Up. Ill, 7, 1. 
The Anukramawi designates the two hymns as brahma- 

Both hymns have been translated by Muir, Original 
Sanskrit Texts, I 2 , 285 ff. ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 
447 ff., 451 ff. (cf. also 154); Zimmer, 199 ff. ; Grill 2 , 41, 
148 ff. ; cf. also Hillebrandt's Vedachrestomathie, p. 42. 

Stanza 3. 

Ludwig very ingeniously suggests the change of ma" to 
ya" at the beginning of Pada c ; this yields a more concin- 
nate construction : ' Enveloped in her skin, as an adder 
with evil poison, sapless, unfit to be eaten is the cow of the 
Brahmawa.' Shankar Pandit with all MSS., sa\ 

Stanza 4. 

This and the following stanza, as also 8, 9, and 13 are in 
trishAibh metre, and bear no reference to the cow of the 
Brahman : they deal with the Brahman himself. Muir, 
Ludwig, and Zimmer refer the verbs to the cow. 

Stanza 5. 

b. na £itta"t, lit. 'not as the result of thought ; ' cf. a£ittya, 
V, 17, 12, and malva^, V, 18, 7. 

Stanza 6. 

b. The Paippalada reads agneA priyatami tanuA, and the 
Pet. Lex. suggests agne^ priya" tanur iva ; cf. st. 14, and 
XII, 5, 41. 73- 

c. Soma is the heir of the Brahman, i. e. Soma is bene- 
fited by the service of the priest; or, perhaps, Soma is 

1 Dar. xmixane pakasthane ubadhyavat. 

Digitized by CjOOQ lC 


interested in the Brahman's cow (implied throughout the 
hymn), because her milk is mixed with Soma ; cf. st 14. 
See also 5at. Br. V, 4, a, 3. 

Stanza 7. 

Cf. RV. X, 85, 34. niAkhfdam, lit. ' to throw out.* Pro- 
fessor Roth suggests ni-khfdam, « to get down.' niAkhid is 
certainly Hit. \ty. and might be for nishkhid=ni-shkhid, re- 
minding us of the MSS. of the Tait. S. which write khkhid 
in the interior of words (after augment and prepositions) ; 
see Ind. Stud. XIII, 106-7. But the statement, that the 
oppressor of Brahmans swallows the cow, and that heathen 
cannot get her out again, because she sticks in his throat, 
is equally suitable. 

Stanza 8. 

b. The expression n&fika* dantas tapasa*bhfdigdha£ 
seems to me to contain a double entente, ' his windpipe 
(shaft of the arrow), his teeth (points of the arrow), are 
bedaubed (like the arrow with poison) with holy fire.' A 
striking figure of speech, hardly to be misunderstood ! 
Muir, ' his windpipe is arrow-points smeared with fire ; ' 
Ludwig, ' die naaftka (speiserore oder luftrore ?) die zahne 
vom tapa/j bestrichen ; ' Zimmer, * seine luftrohre mit 
Gluth bestrichne Pfeilspitzen ; ' Grill, ' die Luftrohr Pfeil- 
spitze, in des Eifers Gluth getauchet' 

Stanza 10. 

d. vaitahavya, patronymic from vltahavya, a proper 
name; cf. st. 11, and V, 19, 1. Zimmer, pp. 132, aoo-i, 
translates the word by ' die aus habsucht opfernden,' and 
' die opfergierigen,' but the word per se has no disparaging 
meaning; cf. vitfhotra. 

Stanza 11. 

0, d. Ludwig, ' die der Kesaraprabandha letztgeborene 
gebraten.' This involves the emendation of £arama£&m to 
^arama^m (sc. vatsam, ' calf), and makes Kesarapra- 
bandha 'the name of a cow ; cf. prathama^a. That cows 

Digitized by 


V, 19- COMMENTARY. 433 

had names may be seen from our introduction to II, 32, 
but this name, ' having her hair braided,' is clearly that of 
a woman. Apparently the iniquity of the Vaitahavyas 
reaches its height, when they do not spare the only goat of 
the poor woman. If the text were only as sound as the 
moral 1 

Stanza 12. 

a. Cf. V, 19, 11, where the number 99 takes the place of 
101. Both are formulaic. 

Stanza 14. 

Cf. st. 6 and XII, 5, 4. 58. 

0. hantabhfaast£ndras ought, in the light of stanza 6, to 
mean ' Indra slays the curser,' or ' Indra destroys curses.' 
Accordingly the Pet. Lex. proposes hanta*bhfaastim (cf. 
Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar 2 , §§ 271 d, 946); hanta 
*bhkaster is equally possible (cf. 1. c, § 1182 d). The text 
might possibly be sustained by reading hanta *bh(*asta 
(ace. plur. neut.). Ludwig takes both words as nomina- 
tives of tar-stems, ' Indra toter flucher.' Zimmer, still 
differently, reads hanta 'bhfaastam. 

d. For vedhis, cf. our note on I, 1 1, 1 b. 

V, 19. Commentary to page 171. 

For the employment of this hymn in the ritual, and other 
general considerations, see the introduction to V, 18. 

Stanza 1. 

o. Bhr/gu is a typical name for an Atharvan priest ; cf. 
angirasa in st. 2; bhr/gvangiras, like atharvangiras, is a 
name of the Atharva-veda itself ; see 63, 3 ; 94, 3. 4. 
Like Atharvan and Angiras, the Bhrigu are connected 
with the production of fire ; cf. Ludwig, III, 140. 

For the Sringayas, see Weber, Ind. Stud. I, 208 ff., 232 ; 

Ludwig, III, 154; Zimmer, 132; Weber, 'Episches im 

vedischen Ritual,' Sitzungsberichte der Koniglich Preu- 

ssischen Akademie, July 23, 1891, vol. xxxviii, p. 797 

[42] F f 

Digitized by 



(p. 31 of the reprint). The legend which is alluded to here 
(and in V, 18, 10. 11) is not to be found elsewhere. One 
may fairly question whether it is not, in a measure at least, 
trumped up in deference to a supposed etymology : -#aya 
in sringaya suggests ' conquer, oppress ' (cf. ^iyate in st. 6, 
and brahma^yasya in st. 7); the syllable sr*'n (PadapaMa 
sr/n 'gaya) is not above the suspicion of having suggested 
jrmgin, 'horned animal,' RV. I, 32, 5, &c. ; cf. the later 
writing sringaya, Vish«u-pura«a, &c. Note however Tait. 
S. VI, 6, 6, 2, and Sat. Br. XII, 9, 3, 1 ff., in both of which 
places the Srihgayas come to grief. 

Stanza 2. 

o. The text has ubhaya'dam, which we have emended 
(with Grill) to ubhaya'dann, 'having two rows of teeth.* 
The ram is ordinarily a harmless animal ; but, just as he 
portentously devours a lioness at RV. VII, 18, 17, so he 
here appears armed with extra teeth, and capable of doing 
mischief. Possibly, however, ubhaya'dam is an accusative 
from ubhaya'da = ubhaya'dant, ' horse,' and ' the goat de- 
voured the horse ' is another way of marking the ominous 
destruction of the property of oppressors. Cf. RV. X, 90, 1 o, 
and the Pet. Lexs., s.v. ubhayatodant, ubhayatodanta, ubha- 

Stanza 3. 

b. I have accepted Professor Weber's not altogether 
certain emendation of juklam to julkarn (Ind. Stud. XVII, 
304). This is based upon Muir's perfectly secure parallel 
correction at III, 29, 3 (Original Sanskrit Texts, V, 310)1 
These two passages are the only ones upon which the Pet. 
Lex., s.v. 2d, bases the meanings 'auswurf, schleim, rotz' 
for jukla ; otherwise the word means ' white.' It must be 
conceded, however, that the reading julkam disturbs the 
parallelism between Padas a and b, and that the construc- 
tion of ish with the locative of the person from whom 
something is desired is strange. The text as it stands 
would yield, 'who threw slime upon him.' 

o, d. This punishment broaches upon the later infernal 

Digitized by 


V, 19- COMMENTARY. 435 

fancies of the Marka»dfeya-pura#a ; see Scherman, Roman- 
ische Forschungen, V, ,539 ff. ; Materialien zur Geschichte 
der Indischen Visionsliteratur (Leipzig, 189a), and Feer, 
Journal Asiatique, Eighth Series, vol. xx, p. 185 ff. ; Ninth 
Series, vol. i, p. 1 1 a ff. ; cf. also Zimmer, 430 ff. 

Stanza 4. 

b. ' As far as she reaches or penetrates,' i.e. wherever she 
is distributed and eaten (?). Ludwig, ' wohin sie iiberhaupt 
gewandelt,' i. e. wherever she has been during her life-time. 
Zimmer (and similarly Grill), ' wahrend sie noch unter dem 
beile zuckt.' 

Stanza 6. 

b. I read ajyate for asyate with Zimmer and Grill ; cf. 
V, 18, 3 d. See also the note on III, 4, 7, and Proc. Amer. 
Or. Soc., May, 1 886 (Journ., vol. xiii, p. cxvii ff). 

Stanza 7. 

The last word, brahma^yasya, is a gloss (Anukr. upari- 
sh/ldbrthati). The cow is described as portentous, hence 
she forebodes destruction ; cf. VIII, 6, a a. 

Stanza 0. 

o. The Pet. Lex., s. v. man with abhf, reads tad dhanam 
for sad dhanam. The emendation is not urgent. 

d. Narada is the typical interlocutor in the Purawas ; in 
AV. XII, 4, 16. 34. 41 ff, he is especially engaged in pro- 
curing the brahmagavf. 

Stanza 11. 

Cf. V, 1 8, 1 a. For nava navatayaA, see Whitney, Sk. Gr.* 

§ 477 d- 

Stanza 12. 

A favourite method of imprecation in the Atharvan 
consists in threatening with the ceremonies of funeral, or 
even employing stanzas and formulas originally constructed 
for burial ; cf. the introduction to I, 14, and the note on 
II, xa, 7. The present stanza, as well as sts. 13, and 

F f 2 

Digitized by 



XII, 5, 47 ff., contain such threats against the oppressor 
of Brahmans ; cf. our Contributions, Second Series, 
Amer. Journ. Phil. XI, p. 336 ff. (especially pp. 339 ff.). 
In this stanza reference is made to the custom of tying 
a kudf-plant (according to Darila at Kauj. 21, 2. 13, &c.= 
badart, ' Christ's thorn ; ' cf. Kauj. Introduction, p. xliv) to 
the dead, so that it trails after him and effaces the track of 
death : death shall not And the path again and turn upon 
his trail for further victims. Cf. Antoninus Liberalis 23, 
i£i}itT( bk in rijs oipas itpds iKCurrov $kr\v, ws iv ra lx.vri t&v 
fio&v 6.<pavi<rri. To this rough embrace, symbolic of death, 
the oppressor is here assigned. See Roth in Festgruss an 
Bohtlingk, pp. 98-9 ; and the present translator, Amer. 
Journ. Phil. XI, 338 ; XII, 416. 

Stanza 14. 

Cf. Ajv. 5raut. VI, 10, 2 ; Asv. Grih. IV, 1, 16 ; Max 
Muller.'DieTodtenbestattungbeiden Brahmanen,' Zeitsch. 
d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch. IX, p. ii. 

Stanza 16. 

a. For the relation of Mitra and Varuwa to rain, see 
Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 314. 

c. Cf. VI, 88, 3; Khad. Grih. Ill, 1, 6; and Ludwig, 
1. c, p. 256. 

V, 20. Commentary to page 130. 

The purpose of the hymn is obvious. At Kaur. 16, 1, it 
is rubricated along with VI, 126, 1, and accompanied by 
the following solemnities. All musical instruments are 
washed, dipped into a mixture which contains the fragrant 
substances tagara (powder of the tabernaemontana coro- 
naria) and ujira (the root of andropogon muricatus) ; they 
are next anointed with the dregs of ghee (cf. V, 21, 3), and 
finally the chaplain (purohita) of the king sounds them 
thrice and hands them over to the warriors as they go forth 
to battle. Cf. also Vait. Su. 34, 1 1 ; Ath. Pari*. 5, 4. 

Digitized by 


V, 20. COMMENTARY. 437 

The hymn has been translated by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 
III, 460 ff. ; Grill 2 , pp. 68, 153 ff. Cf. Zimmer, p. 289. 
The Anukramawi, vanaspatyadundubhidevatyam . . . 
sapatnasenapara^ayaya devasenavi^ayaya. 

Stanza 1. 

Cf. V, 2i, 3. The Padapa//*a satvana*yan, 'going with, 
or to, the warriors.' Grill, ' wann sie in den kampf ruft.' 
As regards the resonance of the wood, Tait. S. VI, 1, 4, 1 
has the following pretty conceit : ' Va£, speech, once upon 
a time escaped from the gods, and settled in the trees. 
Her voice still resounds in wooden instruments.' 

Stanza 2. 

a. druvaya (cf. XI, 1, ia), with an obscure suffix vaya, 
perhaps = maya ; cf. our remarks on the interchange of 
v and m in the Proc. Amer. Or. Soc, May, 1886 (Journ., 
vol. xiii, pp. xcvii ff.) l . Ludwig, ' an beiden holzera nach 
beiden seiten befestigt.' 

b. The MSS. read vasitam, emended in the vulgate to 
varita'm. This we have translated. Ludwig also adopts 
v&ritam, but renders ' losbriillend wie ein stier auf die kiihe.' 
Cf.VIII,6, 12;. XI, 9, 22. 

Stanza 3. 

c. Possibly vf vidhya is to be read for vidhya (haplology ; 
cf. Proc. Amer. Or. Soc, April, 1 893 ; Journal, vol. xvi, 
p. xxxiv ff.) ; see I, 8, 2 ; VI, 66, 1 ; XI, 9, 23. 

d. hitva" graman, ' with broken ranks,' or, ' having aban- 
doned the villages ' (so Pet. Lex. and Ludwig). 

Stanza 7. 

c. For utpipanaA, see our discussion, Contributions, 
Fourth Series, Amer. Journ. Phil. XII, p. 441 ff. 

d. In the light of .ratrutu'rya and vntratfirya one is 

1 Perhaps, however, druv-aya, formed upon a denominal verb- 
stem ; cf. gav-aya, ' bos gavaeus : ' go, ' cow.' 

Digitized by 



tempted to read amitraturyaya, notwithstanding the metre. 
The sense would be the same in the end. svardhf (stem 
sv-ardhm), flir. Aey., we have translated philologically 
'having the good side;' cf. RV. II, 37, 15. The Pet 
Lexs. and Grill, ' ein guter parteigenosse (kampfgenosse),' 
but the word is certainly a bahuvrihi. Ludwig's ' sinnend 
auf liecht (gewinn) ' presupposes svar-dhfi, but there is no 
reason for the loss of the visarga. 

Stanza 8. 

a. The metre suggests for dhibhfA the synonymous dhitf- 
bhiA ; cf. RV. 1, 161, 7 with III, 60, 2. Likewise, vadasi for 
vadati would harmonise better with Pada b. 

o. Ludwig takes satvano as nominative of satvana, ' Indra- 
freund und held lass dich nennen.' 

Stanza 9. 

Treated by Roth, Festgruss an Otto von Bohtlingk, p. 99. 
His translation implies that the drum heralds the return of 
the warriors after the battle, and announces the respective 
merits of the participants 1 . This breaks the connection, 
and imports over-pregnant sense into Padas c, d, 'das 
verdienst sachverstandig abschatzend (but vayunani vidvdn 
is a mere formula!), teile vielen lob aus im kriege,' i.e. 'fur 
ihre haltung im kriege (for their conduct in battle).' For 
dvira^-a, cf. duellum, bellum. 

Stanza 10. 

o, d. A blurred comparison. The press-stones are placed 
over the skin into which the juice trickles, adhishavawam 
(sc. £arma) 2 ; cf. Hillebrandt, Soma und verwandte Gotter, 
p. 181 ff. They dance upon (beat down upon) the stems 

1 Note XII, 1, 41, akrand6 yasyiw vadati dundubhW, 'upon 
whom (sc. the Earth) resounds the roaring drum.' 

* adhishavawam by itself means the pressing-board, and so it 
may be understood here without altering the sense materially. Only 
the simile in that case is still further diluted. 

Digitized by 


V, 21. COMMENTARY. 439 

of the plant over the skin. Thus the drum-sticks beating 
upon the skin for victory, as it were, dance upon (beat 
upon) the booty. The Pet. Lex. and Grill change adri to 
adhri, apparently as though it were the MS. reading (' man 
konnte an eine verwechselung mit adri denken,' Pet. Lex. 
s. v. adhri). But there is no word adhri, and according to 
the Index Verborum the MSS. read adri 1 . The expression 
grava AdriA seems to be a composite phrase, ' press-stone ; ' 
cf. Hillebrandt, 1. c, 153 ff. 

Stanza 12. 

e. For vidatha ni&kyat cf. RV. IV, 38, 4. It seems to 
mean ' like a leader (puroet^) attending to the troops.' 
Ludwig, ' der opferversammlungen gedenkend ; ' cf. Der 
Rigveda, III, 259 ff. I believe that vidatha primarily 
means ' family;' cf. su-vidatra, a. v^dana (pativ^dana), pari 
vid, &c. 

V, ai. Commentary to page 131. 

The practice connected with this hymn at Kauj. 16, a. 3 
is as follows : ' (The purohita) while reciting the hymn 
makes an offering aloud, and swings the sacrificial spoon 
about high in the air 2 . Then he sews a soma-branch upon 
(a piece) of the skin of an antelope, and fastens it (as an 
amulet) upon the king.' The performance on high sym- 
bolises the shrill sound of the drum (cf. V, ao, 1 ) ; the 
amulet seems to be a blended, vague embodiment of the 
soma-shoot in V, 20, 10, and the antelope's skin in V, a 1, 7. 
Stanza la of our hymn is rubricated in the apara^itaga»a 
of the Ga»amala, Ath. Parir. 3a, 13. The hymn has been 
translated by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 373-4. 

Stanza 7. 

b. The skin of the antelope seems thus to have been 
used for the covering of the drum just as the skin of the 

1 Some of Shankar Pandit's MSS. do, however, read adhri. 
* DSrila, urdhvam parivartayan . . . homaj ka. ukk&\h. 

Digitized by 



cow (V, ao, i ; ai, 3). But the matter is not altogether 
clear, since in the Sutra above the antelope's skin is com- 
bined with a soma-shoot. This points, rather, to some use 
of it either at the soma-pressing, or, perhaps, at some 
preparatory stage (diksha). The black antelope's skin is 
regularly employed at the diksha; cf. Ait. Br. I, 3, 17 ; 
Lindner, Die Diksha, p. 27 ff. ; Oldenberg, Die Religion 
des Veda, pp. 87, 399 ff. 

Stanza 8. 

The first hemistich is altogether obscure. One may 
imagine that the poet desires to accentuate Indra's (and 
implicitly the king's) power by stating that the enemies 
are frightened at the beat of his feet, even when he is 
amusing himself; cf. Mahabh. Ill, 14882, yadi prakrWate 
sarvair devaiA saha jatakratuA, ' if (Indra), of hundredfold 
power, disports himself in the company of the gods.' The 
words £Myaya saha would naturally mean ' in the company 
oikhkyi! and one is almost tempted to suspect s&kyk (ja£ia), 
' in the company of S&k\.' But it is possible to extract the 
meaning, 'the enemies are frightened at the beat of Indra's 
feet and at his shadow.' Ludwig, ' mit denen Indra spilet 
mit dem fussgerausch und seinem schatten '(!). 

Stanza 9. 

Ludwig, 'nur wie der laut einer bogensene sollen die 
dundubhi herschreien, von den heeren der feinde, welche 
besigt sind, und mit ihrer front nach alien weltgegenden 
gehn.' But ^yaghoshaV* is not a possessive compound, 
witness the accent, and the sense of abhf krorantu must 
be the same as that of abhf krand in V, 20, 2. 7 ; 21, 4-6. 

Stanza 10. 

The picture is that of interference of the sun and its rays 
with the operations of the enemy, patsangmir, ' clogging 
their feet,' is not quite clear. Ludwig may be right in 
regarding it as an independent noun, ' schlingen,' ' traps ; ' 
cf. Kaur. 16, 16. 

Digitized by 


V, 22. COMMENTARY. 44 1 

V, 22. Commentary to page i. 

The word takman is not mentioned at all in the Rig- 
veda, but occurs very frequently in the Atharvan. Four 
hymns, I, 25; V, 22; VI, 20; VII, 116, are devoted 
exclusively to its cure * ; the word is mentioned frequently 
elsewhere in the Atharvan ; and there are descriptions of 
diseases, such as are stated in AV. I, 1 2, which are very 
closely allied in character to the takman, but the word is 
not mentioned in the text. The Gawamala, the 32nd 
of the Atharva-Parmsh/as, presents in its seventh paragraph 
a series (ga«a) of no less than nineteen hymns, supposed 
to be devoted to the cure of this disease (takmanlrana) ; 
see Kauj. 26, 1, note. Saya»a to AV. XIX, 34, 10 explains 
takman as follows: krt'y&Mra^ivanakartaram yasmin sati 
krikkArena. gXvaxam bhavati. Professor Roth in his famous 
tract, ' Zur Litteratur und Geschichte des Veda ' (p. 39), 
published in 1846, thought that the takman referred to 
leprosy because the name of the plant kush/^a (costus 
speciosus), the specific against takman, is in the later 
medical writings also a designation of leprosy. Adolphe 
Pictet in an article entitled 'Die alten Krankheitsnamen 
der Indo-Germanen,' published in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, V, 
337, thought he found etymological support for this view 
in Persian takhtah and Erse tachas, tochas, both of which 
refer to leprosy, or the like. Professor Weber, judging 
from the symptoms described in AV. I, 25, recognised 
fever as the chief feature of the takman (see Indische 
Studien, IV, 119); after him Dr. Virgil Grohmann published 
in the same Journal, IX, 381 ff., a careful and exhaustive 
essay which corroborated Weber's view. This was still 
further supported by Professor Zimmer in his Altindisches 
Leben, p. 379 ff., and now Darila and Kerava, the com- 
mentators of the Kaujika-sutra, everywhere gloss the word 

1 Cf. also the hymns to the kush/4a-plant, V, 4 and XIX, 39. 

Digitized by CjOOQ lC 


by ^vara \ The descriptions of ^vara as offered by the 
Hindu medical 5astras are such as to leave no doubt that 
the two diseases are essentially the same. Just as the word 
takman is lost in the later literature, the word gv&n. is 
totally wanting in the Atharvan : the two words comple- 
ment one another. Only one must not expect to find 
lucidly expressed diagnosis and consistent therapeutics in 
Atharvan writings ; the descriptions are frequently vague, 
being blended with that of other diseases, and the treat- 
ment frequently symbolic. In many passages, moreover, 
the takman is a person, and belongs to the same class of 
demoniacal manifestations as graha, amtva, rakshas, and 
the like. 

Briefly, the disease is described as having for its chief 
symptom the change between heat and chills ; inter- 
mittency, arriving either every day at the same time, 
every third day, or omitting every third day 2 ; jaundice, 
which suggests true malarial fever, especially during the 
rainy season ; and the association with a variety of other 
diseases, some of which are none too clear in character. 
Headaches, coughs are alluded to unmistakably ; in addition 
the diseases called balasa (AV. IV, 9, 8 ; XIX, 34, 10), and 
his 'brother's son,' the paman (V, 22, 12). Almost all 
diseases in India show a tendency to be accompanied by 
febrile symptoms, and the frequency of malarial fevers is 
notorious. Sujruta designates fever as ' the king of diseases ; ' 
fever is present when man comes into the world, and it is 
also present when he leaves the world. Gods and men alone 
survive its ravages (Sujruta, Uttaratantra, chapter 39). No 
wonder, then, that the burning weapons of Takman are 
dreaded so much in the Atharvan. The effort is made to 
drive him out, either with polite words (I, 25 ; VI, 20) ; 
with potent charms (IX, 8, 6); or with plants used as 
specifics, especially the kush//ia (costus speciosus), which is 

1 We may mention also that Dr. Muir translated the word by 
' consumption : ' Original Sanskrit Texts, IV, p. 280. 
1 Cf. AV. I, 25, 4 ; VII, 116,2. 

Digitized by 


V, 22. COMMENTARY. 443 

therefore designated as takmanlrana (V, 4, 1. 2), and the 
gahgidA, an unexplained member of the Indian flora 1 . In 
V, 22 the gods, Agni, Soma, Varu«a, the Adityas, and the 
deified press-stones (pressing the soma) are appealed to for 
help. Cf. in addition to the authorities mentioned above, 
Edmund Hardy, Die Vedisch-Brahmanische Periode, p. 198, 
and, for detailed descriptions of fever and its treatment in 
the medical 5astras, Wise, Hindu System of Medicine, 
p. 319 ff. 

The treatment of AV. V, 22 in the ritual, Kaur. 29, 18. 
19, is as follows : '(The priest) gives (the patient) gruel made 
of roasted grain to drink. The dregs (of the gruel) he 
pours from a copper vessel over the head (of the patient) 
into fire derived from a forest-fire*.' The treatment is 
intensely symbolical, being based upon the attractio si- 
milium, with a touch of homoeopathy. The roasted grain 
represents heat and therefore fever; the copper vessel 
(lohitapatra), with the other meaning of lohita, 'red.' in 
mind, again suggests heat and fever, and the forest fire, 
davagni, figures in preference to ordinary fire because it is 
occasioned by lightning, and lightning is conceived as the 
cause of fever and its related diseases. See our treatment 
of AV. I, 12, and cf. Seven Hymns of the Atharva-veda, 
Amer. Journ. Phil. VII, 469 ff. (p. 4 ff. of the reprint). 
Note also the very parallel treatment which the fever 
patient undergoes at the hands of Kaurika in 25, 26, in 
connection with AV. I, 25. 

The hymn has been translated many times, either entirely 
or in part. See Roth, 1. c, p. 38; Grohmann, Indische 

1 Darila at Kauj. 8, 15, gahgidO'TgunaA alala iti dakshiwalyaA. 
Kerava, ib., gahgido varanasyam prasiddhaA. It is the name of 
a tree in any case ; see XIX, 34 and 35. 

* Kaorika's language is of the most concise Sutra sort : 18 . . . 
la^an payayati. 19. d&ve lohitapatrewa murdhni samp&Uin anayati. 
The translation above is with the help of Darila. The employment 
of the dregs after the act of iplavana is technical ; see the Pari- 
bhishS-sutra Kaux. 7, 15. For the samp&ta, see also Grshyasam- 
grahal, 113. 

Digitized by 



Studien, IX, p. 381 ff. (especially pp. 411-12); Ludwig, 
Der Rigveda, III, 510 ; Zimtner, 1. c, pp. 380 ff. ; Grill*, 
pp. 12, 153 ff. ; cf. also Hillebrandt,Vedachrestomathie,p.49. 
The Anukramanl designates it as a takmanlsanadevatyam 
(sc suktam) ; Bhngu-Angiras are the authors. 

Stanza 1. 

a. Because the first Pada is a ^agati followed by three 
trish/ubh Padas the Anukramawi designates the stanza as 
a bhurjf. It is possible, however, to obtain a trishAibh by 
reading apabadhateta^ with elision and crasis ; cf. Roth in 
Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVI, 50 ff. I prefer to retain the 
^agati, because it frequently appears in trish/ubh stanzas, 
without the possibility of a change. 

b. putadakshiA (stem putadakshas) is not easily rendered. 
Roth, 1. c, 'von unversehrter kraft ; ' the Petersburg lexicons, 
Grohmann, and Grassmann, ' von reiner gesinnung ; ' Hille- 
brandt, ' von gelauterter gesinnung ; ' Grill, 'lautern sinnes ;' 
Ludwig, 'von geheiligter kraft;' Max Miiller, Vedic 
Hymns, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxxii, p. 493, 
•endowed with pure strength.' But 'lautere gesinnung' 
idealises over much, and ' pure strength ' is vague. Perhaps 
after all our translation ' of tried skill or strength ' comes 
nearest to the true sense of the original. Cf. RV. Ill, 1, 5, 
kratu/tt punana/z kavi'bhi/z pavftrai^, ' purifying his intellect 
by wise means of purification.' The epithets puta-daksha 
and puta-dakshas are employed very frequently in connec- 
tion with the Adityas, singly or collectively, and it is 
perhaps significant that Daksha is one of the Adityas. 

d. Ludwig takes the words amuya* bhavantu in their 
plainest sense, 'sollen nach jener seite hinweggehn.' But 
amuyoi frequently has a sinister, contemptuous meaning, 
' in that well-understood, suitable, evil manner ; ' it is a kind 
of euphemism like English ' gone,' German (slang) ' caput.' 
Cf. amuya" jayanam, RV. I, 32, 8 ; papaya«muy£, RV. I, 
39. 5. &c ; and Grill's note, p. 155. 

Digitized by 


V, 22. COMMENTARY. 445 

Stanza 2. 

a. In India malarial fever is frequently accompanied by 
jaundice ; cf. AV. VI, ao, 3, ' thou that makest all forms 
yellow,' and I, 25, 2. 3, where the takman is designated as 
haritasya deva, 'the god of the yellow (colour).' Cf. 
Grohmann, ib. 393. 

b. Between the expression agnfr iva*bhidunvan and 
the davagni of the ritual practice (Kauj. 29, 19) there is 
a thread of symbolic connection. Cf. AV. I, 25, 2. 3 ; VI, 
20, 1. 

d. nyan and adharan are synonymous to such an extent 
as to render it difficult to preserve the flavour of the original : 
literally, ' do thou go away down, or lower ! ' 

Stanza 3. 

a. For parusha and parusheya, Ludwig reads arusha and 
arusheya, and translates 'der rot ist von rotem' — an un- 
necessarily severe handling of the text. 

b. avadhvawsa is fiw. Acy., but the meaning is fairly clear ; 
cf. the expression £ur»air avadhva/ws in the Pet. Lex., s. v. 
dhva**s. The eruption (Grohmann, 394) produces roughness 
of the skin's surface, and the Hindus look upon such super- 
ficial changes as coming from without ; cf. Contributions, 
Second Series, Amer. Journ. Phil. XI, 323 (5 of the reprint). 

o. vLrvadhavirya would seem to refer to the kush/7*a- 
plant, if we consult AV. XIX, 39, 10. But the ritual does 
not indicate its employment. 

Stanza 4. 

a, b. Note the concatenation between this and the pre- 
ceding stanza, effected by Padas 3 d and 4 a. The expres- 
sion nimaA krj'tva" indicates a polite modification of the 
power of the charm, calculated to engage the co-operation 
of the demon Takman himself. Pada a is trochaic ; in b 
read krj'tua - . 

0. Literally, 'the fist-fighter of .Sakawbhara,' i.e. the 
champion carrier of excrement, or the chief of diarrhoea 

Digitized by 



producing diseases: jakawbhara seems to be the personifica- 
tion of abnormal evacuation. 

Stanza 5. 

I do not consider the versifier incapable of a certain kind 
of punning intention in the choice of ethnic communities to 
which he would relegate the takman : mahawtsha, here, 
and elsewhere in the hymns, may suggest to him ' a very 
strong ' tribe, better fitted to cope with the ravages of the 
disease; balhika surely suggests to his mind bahika and 
bahis, 'without,' Le. not his own people 1 ; and even mo- 
vant may suggest muagn-grass, the plant which figures 
among Kaimka's remedies for the disease ; see the intro- 
duction to I, 12, and cf. mu«£avant in Yaska's comment at 
Nirukta IX, 8, as the equivalent of mu^avant *. Rigorous 
geographical deductions derived from the juxtaposition of 
these names are therefore to be avoided. They are, how- 
ever, as also the Gandhari, Ariga, and Magadha in the 
sequel, true ethnical designations ; see Roth, Zur Literatur 
und Geschichte des Weda, p. 39 ; Zimmer, pp. 29, 129, 431, 
433, and Weber's article, ' Ober Bahll, Bahlika,' Proceed- 
ings of the Berlin Academy of November, 1892, voL xlvii, 

p. 9 8 5ff- 

a,b. Note the concatenation with 4 d. 

o, d. The Anukramawi designates the stanza as vira/ pathya 
brihatl, but takmaws is in all probability interpolated. Its 
removal ensures a fairly good anush/ubh. — nyo^ari is iv. 
\ey., its form being perhaps twisted in some measure in 
deference to the obvious pun with 6kas in a, b (' gelegen- 
heitsbildung ') ; it also suggests doubtless in its suffix the 

1 Cf. especially, Zimmer, p. 433, top. 

* The name mu^avant, however, is typical for a region far dis- 
tant; see Tait. S. I, 8, 6, 2 ; \&g. S. Ill, 6r, and Sat. Br. II, 6, a, 
17, in all of which Rudra with his destructive bow is entreated to 
depart beyond the MO^avants : esha te rudra bhagaA . . . tend 
»vasena paro m%-avato*ti»hy avatatadhanva, &c. 'Here is thy 
share, O Rudra; provisioned with it go beyond the M%avants 
with thy bow strung, &c.' 

Digitized by 


V, 22. COMMENTARY. 447 

word £ara, 'going.' Ludwig's translation is very literal, 
' wie gross du auch geboren bist, so gross bist du heimisch 
bei den Bahlikas.' 

Stanza 6. 

a, b. I really see no present possibility of translating the 
words vy51a vf gada vyanga ; everything suggested is mere 
guess-work. A brief history of the interpretation of the 
words may be given in lieu of any personal conviction as 
regards their meaning, vya'la, according to the lexicons, 
means either ' malicious, wily,' or ' serpent,' or some other 
ferocious animal, any of which meanings might be given to 
the demon of a severe disease. Ludwig translates it 
' schlange,' a rendering which is supported in a measure 
by vyanga, ' limbless ; ' Grill and Hillebrandt prefer ' tiick- 
isch.' The text of the Sawthita and the PadapaAia both 
have vf gada, which is doubtless felt to be an imperative. 
Accordingly Ludwig translates it ' sprich heraus ; ' Grill in 
the first edition of his ' Hundert Lieder,' pp. 1 1, 63, emended 
vf gadha, and rendered ' lass los.' Whitney in his Index 
Verborum, s.v. gad and vfgada, as also in his * Roots, Verb- 
Forms,' &c, under root gad suggests the reading vfgada, 
vocative, and this is now accepted by Grill in the second 
edition, who renders it 'stumm,' and Hillebrandt, s.v. 
vfgada, who entertains the same view : etwa ' wort-, sprach- 
los.' With this emendation in mind the word might also 
be translated ' O chatterer,' referring to the delirium of 
the patient. One may be permitted, too, to consider the 
possibility that gada, 'sickness,' is at the bottom of the 
word : vfgada, ' free from sickness ' (euphemistic address to 
the demon of the disease) ; cf. Bohtlingk's Lexicon, s. v. 
In that case vfgada would be synonymous with agada, ' free 
from disease,' and this would remind us strongly of RV. 
X, 16, 6; AV. XVIII, 3, 55; Tait. Ar. VI, 4, 2, yat te 
krisbtt&A jrakuna atut<5da pipilaA sarpa uta va jvapadaA, 
agnfsh /ad vLrva"d agadaw krj'wotu, ' If the black bird 
(vulture) has bitten thee, the ant, the serpent, or even 
the wild animal, may all-devouring Agni restore (agadaw 
kr*«otu) that.' And further, we may remember that the 

Digitized by 



kush//4a-plant, the specific against takman, renders agada 
a person suffering from takman in AV. V, 4, 6 ; VI, 95, 3. 
vyanga again calls up a variety of possibilities. If we 
translate vya'la by ' serpent,' we will not fail to remember 
that vyanga, 'limbless,' occurs in AV. VII, 56, 4 as an 
epithet of the serpent, and render accordingly. So Ludwig 
and Grill in the second edition. Hillebrandt more vaguely, 
' korperlos.' The Petersburg Lexicons, and Grill in the first 
edition, translate it by ' fleckig ' (vi + sMg), which might be 
justified by some symptom of the disease. Non liquet. — 
With bhflri yavaya we have supplied va^ram from Pada d. 
o. nish/akvarim with the following pun in mind : nfsh 
takmanam (suva, or the like), ' drive out the takman.' The 
word is &ir. Xey., but fairly clear as a synonym of prakirwa ', 
pumskali, vipravrilgini, bahu£ari«i, &c. Such a person is 
correlated with the cross-roads; see the citations in our 
edition of the Gr*hyasa*«graha II, 23, note 3 (Zeitschr. d. 
Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch. XXXV, 573), and add Kaur. 


Stanza 7. 

b. The etymology of balhika in the mind of the poet 
(bahika ' externus ; ' cf. note on st. 5) accounts for para- 
staram ' farther away.' The statement may not be utilised 
for geographical purposes. 

d. vf»va dhunuhi, 'shake her through as it were' with 
humorous intent. The symptom referred to is ague, and it 
is paralleled by the use of the root vip in st. 10 (cf. also IX, 
8, 6). 

Stanza 8. 

b. I have translated in accordance with the vulgata, 
bandhv addhi par&ya, but not without a strong temptation 
to emend to bandhv adhi par^tya, and translate, ' having 
passed over to thy kinfolk, the Mahavr/shas and the Mo- 
vants.' ' Eat your kinfolk ' seems exceedingly crude even 
for the present production. The MSS. exhibit indigestible 

1 Schol. at Gr/hyasamgraha II, 22, grVhe-gr/he gamanarila. 

Digitized by CjOOQ lC 

V, 22. COMMENTARY. 449 

d. anyakshetrawi va ima* seems to refer to other countries, 
nearer to the speaker than those mentioned in the stanza ; 
perhaps, as Grill remarks, the Ariga and Magadha men- 
tioned in st. 14. 

Stanza 9. 

The exact connection between the various statements 
made in this stanza is not easy to And. Perhaps as fol- 
lows : Takman does not take pleasure in the other regions 
(near by), that is, he remains in the country of the person 
praying ; therefore he seems to be implored not to damage 
him personally, but to seek out other victims. But (after 
all?) Takman has got himself ready and will go to the 
remotest region, that of the Balhikas, that being the Anal 
outcome announced by the priest in charge of the exorcism. 
Ludwig translates anyakshetre* ' in andrer leib ;' neither his, 
nor Grill's translation makes clear the sequence of thought. 

b. The Pada is formulaic = VI, 26, 1 b. 

o. The translations of prarthas, our own included, are 
practically guess-work. The Pet. Lexicons, ' ausriistung zur 
reise ; ' Ludwig, ' begirig nach der feme ; ' Grill, in the same 
spirit, 'schon riistet Takman sich zur reis;' Hillebrandt, 
• bereitwillig.' I have translated simply upon the basis of 
the denominative prarthayati, ' desire, demand.' The metre 
demands pra-arthas. 

Stanza 10. 

a. We have translated rura by ' deliriously hot.' In the 
Atharvan it occurs only as a form of the takman (see st. 13, 
and I, 25, 4 ; VII, 116, 1, and cf. Tait. S. II, 5, a, 3), but in 
the Ta»rfya-Brahma«a VII, 5, 10 it occurs as an epithet of 
Agni, and the scholiast is pretty nearly right in commenting, 
ruru iti .rabdayamano dahati'ti rflraA. The word is indeed 
to be derived from the root ru, ' howl,' and it expresses both 
the heat and delirium of the fever. For agnir ruraA, cf. also 
the mantra in Kauj. 71, 6, addressed to Agni, ma no ruroA, 
&c. Saya«a at AV. I, 25, 4, jit&nantarabhavine ^varaya. 

b. For avepayaA, cf. the note on stanza 7 d. Read kasa" 

O] G g 

Digitized by 



Stanza 11. 

b. We have not rendered balasa by ' consumption,' with 
most of the authorities, on account of our distrust of the 
commentators: Mahidhara at Va^-. S. XII, 97, kshaya- 
vyidhi . . . balam asyati kshipati, and Sayawa at AV. XIX, 
34, 10, balasya asanakartiraw balakshayakarakam. The 
explanations are of the etymologising sort, and the utter- 
ances of the texts as gathered by Zimmer, p. 385 fT., are not 
conclusive. The strongest evidence in favour of the identity 
or similarity of balasa and consumption is the parallel- 
ism of VI, 14, 1 with V, 30, 9, but even that is not conclu- 
sive. Further, the formal parallelism with kilasa, which 
means ' some kind of eruption, or leprosy,' points to a 
similar conclusion, ' sore, or swelling,' for balasa Such, 
indeed, was Grohmann's view, Ind. Stud. IX, 396 ff. (cf. 
also Wise, Hindu System of Medicine, pp. 296 and 311), 
and we do not see that it is supported by a lesser array of 
intrinsic evidence. The question is still sub judice, and is 
not likely to be settled until the medical 5istras reveal 
their treatment of the disease more fully. We have there- 
fore not undertaken to translate the word for the present. 
Ludwig renders it by 'dropsy,' upon what authority, we 
fail to see. — Note the masculine thematic form kasam fol- 
lowing closely upon the fern. kasS in st. 10 b ; we may, of 
course, resort to a correction of the accent (kasam). but see 
our note on I, 12,3 b. udyuga is on-. Aey., and might per- 
haps better have been left untranslated. We are permitting 
the word udyoga, 'exertion,' and Ludwig's rendering of 
udyuga by ' angestrengter husten ' to entice us. Grill 
retains the original, 'mit Schwindsucht, Husten, Udyuga ;' 
Zimmer, p. 384, ' den Balasa und den sich anschliessenden 

Stanza 12. 

o. For paman, see Grohmann, 1. c, p. 401 ff.; Zimmer, 
1. c, p. 388, and Wise, I.e., p. 261. The latter describes 
the disease in accordance with A'araka's teachings as fol- 
lows : ' Small tubercles in great numbers of a dark or 

Digitized by 


V, 22. COMMENTARY. 45 1 

purplish hue with a copious bloody discharge accompanied 
with burning and itching.' In the AV. the word is #w. key. 
The schol. at Sat. Br. Ill, a, 1,31 renders pama" by vi£ar- 
£ika, 'scurf, eruption.' 

Stanza 13. 

a. Zimmer, 1. c, 382, suggests upon rather slender evi- 
dence another explanation of tr/ttyaka, ' he who produces 
death after the third paroxysm.' Sayawa at AV. XIX, 39, 
1 o comments upon the traditional text jirshalokaw tr/tlya- 
kaw* (which Roth and Whitney have emended in their 
edition to sirshasok&m tr/tiyakam), with the result, ' Thy 
head (O kush/Aa-plant) is in the third heaven,' thus omit- 
ting an opportunity to tell us what tr/ttyaka is. At I, 25, 4, 
however, he has, tr/tiyadivase aga£££ate. Without doubt 
the takman trrtiyaka is identical with ^vara tWttyaka, Su- 
jruta II, 404, 7 ; 405, 14, tr«ttyakas t/-*'tiye*hni (pravartate), 
i.e. the rhythmus tertianus. Wise, 1. c, p. 233, says, 
rather obscurely, ' When the fever returns at an interval of 
one day it is called Tritfyaka.' — vitr/tiya is &n. A«y. and not 
altogether clear. Grohmann, 1. c, p. 388, regards this as 
equivalent to the tertiana duplicata, consisting of daily 
attacks which, however, correspond in every other day as 
regards the time of day in which they take place, or as 
regards their intensity. But vitn'tlya translated philolo- 
gically means ' leaving aside the third day,' and there is no 
evidence to connect it with the tertiana duplicata. Ac- 
cording to our construction the vitritiyA would appear to 
be identical with the takman of whom it is said, yd . . . 
ubhayadyur abhye"ti, I, 25, 4 (see the note there), and VII, 
116, a. 

b. sadamdi is probably the equivalent of the sawrtata- 
^■vara, or satata-^gvara (Wise, 1. c, 231), a kind of fever which 
continues without interruption for a longer period, seven, 
ten, or twelve days, is then followed by an interval, and 
again occurs and remains for several days. Sayana at AV. 
XIX, 39, 10 blunderingly refers sadawdf to the kush/Aa- 
plant, and renders it by sada roga«a«* kham/ayita, 'the 
constant crusher of diseases.' He has in mind no doubt 


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the root 3. da, 'divide,' and in this sense it may be an 
epithet of the takman, 'always cutting.' The Pet. Lex. 
suggests derivation from 2. da, 'fur immer fesselnd,' 
which is no less apt an etymology than the preceding. 
Zimmer's suggestion, 1. c. 383, note, is ingenious and 
enticing. He would see in the word an abbreviation of 
*sada*»-dina, made like madhyaw-dina, and meaning there- 
fore ' belonging to every day"; ' this etymology may per- 
haps now be supported by sadadf (adverb), 'commonly,' 
which occurs quite frequently in the Maitrayawi-samhita, I, 
5, 12 (80, 18); I, 10, 9 (149, 15), &c. — jarada here, along 
with grafshma and varshika in the next Padas show that 
the takman raged at various seasons ; it seems, however, 
to be associated most persistently with tbe autumn, at least 
if we may trust the adjective vlrvajarada l in AV. IX, 8, 6 ; 
XIX, 34, 10. Wise, 1. c, p. 233, remarks: 'The type of 
fever varies according to the season of the year.' 

Stanza 14. 

o. Read ^anam iva as three syllables, either ^aneva (cf. 
Roth, Kuhn's Zeitschrift, XXVI, 45 ff.), or^anawi va, with 
reference to the Prakritic form. — jevadhfm, i. e. they shall 
hold on to the takman like a treasure, that he may not 

V, 33. Commentary to page 33. 

The practice connected with this hymn at Kaw. 39, 20- 
36 is an amplification of that described in Kauj. 27, 14-20 
in conjunction with AV. II, 31, being supplemented by 
a distinct therapeutical treatment of the patient, as follows : 
20. * While reciting AV. V, 23 the practitioner uses the root 
of a (reed-grass called) karira 2 , performing the rite described 
in connection with the arrow (at Kaur. 27, 15) upon a cer- 

1 Saya»a at AV. XIX, 34, 10 glosses the word with, sarvasya 
sarvada" va vuarawakart&ram ! 

* According to Kexava he lies it on as an amulet, but according 
to Kaur. 27, 14 he offers it as an oblation (guhoti). 

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V, 23. COMMENTARY. 453 

tain part of it \ 21. The dust (which forms part of the 
performance in 27, 18) he takes from the village (using it 
the same way as in Kauj. 27, 18. 19). 22. He places (the 
sick child) upon the lap of its mother to the west of the fire, 
and with the bottom of a pestle (heated in the fire, and) 
greased with butter, he warms the palate (of the child) by 
thrice pressing upon it. 23. He anoints it with (a mix- 
ture of the leaves 2 of a) horse-radish tree and butter. 24. 
He takes twenty-one (dried) urtra-roots (andropogon muri- 
catus 3 ), pronounces over them the hemistich V, 23, 13 c, d, 
and performs upon them the acts mentioned therein (i.e. 
he mashes the roots and burns their surfaces with fire, 
K&rava). 25. He presents the u^lra-roots (to the patient). 
26. He pours water (upon the patient) along with the 
twenty-one (urira-roots).' The practice is by no means 
clear in every detail, Sutra 20 being especially obscure. 

The hymn has been translated by Kuhn, Zeitsch. f. vgl. 
Sprachforsch. XIII, 140 ff., and Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 
III, 501. Cf. also Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel V^dique, 
p. 148. 

Stanza 1. 

Cf. VI, 94, 3. The meaning of the stem 6ta- (a - uta-) is 
not altogether certain; see Whitney, Roots, p. 11, under u, 
' proclaim.' But I do not see how the meaning of the stem 
can be derived from the root va, ' weave,' and the preposi- 
tion a (cf. the Pet. Lex. under 5. va), as Whitney suggests. 
Cf. Sayawa in the note on VI, 94, 3. Heaven and earth 
are called upon in a general way to protect against enmity 
and trouble, cf. II, J2, x, and especially VI, 3, 2. The 

1 That is, according to Darila and Kwava he winds the young 
of worms around a certain spot of the karira-stalk (Dar. kariraika- 
dejram), mashes the stalk, roasts the worms in the fire, and places 
the stalk upon the fire (correct Darila' s vratapatyadadhati simply to 
pratapaty adadhati). 

* Cf. Darila at 38, 5, jigrupatra«i. 

* The roots are dried (g'frwa, ^arant) : see Darila to the passage, 
and the Paribhasha-sutra, Kaur. 8, 1 7. Darila to the latter passage 
describes them as an odorous substance (gandhadravyam). 

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goddess Sarasvati is invoked perhaps as the heavenly phy- 
sician ; Indra and Agni as driving away evil spirits. Cf. 
also the Mantrabrahmawa of the Sama-veda, II, 7, 4, 
krimim indrasya bahubhyam avaȣaw patayami, and Indra's 
mill-stone, AV. II, 31, 1. 

Stanza 2. 
b. Indra as king of the gods, like the earthly king, is the 
guardian of treasures ; cf. IV, 2Z, 3, where the king is called 
dhanapatir dhananam. 

Stanza 8. 

a. A parallel to worms in the eye, in Teutonic folk- 
lore, is cited by Prof. Kuhn, 1. c, p. 150. In the medical 
.Sastras a disease of the eye is known under the name kri- 
migranthi, ' sty ; ' this may be related to the disease which 
is here imagined rather fancifully. 

o. ' The worm which gets to the middle of the teeth ' 
is similarly described in the later medicinal works as Vri- 
midantaka, ' caries ' (Pet. Lex.), and dantada (kri'mi), Wise, 
p. 349 ; cf. also the krtmidushita*» dantavar«a*», by which 
the .fok-Pratuakhya XVII, 10 describes .ryava ; see Reg- 
nier's edition, III, 189. 

Stanza 4. 

For the fanciful descriptions of forms, colours, and names 
in this and the following stanzas, see Kuhn, 1. c, p. 147, and 
cf. the note on II, 32, 2. 

o. The formula babhror ia. babhriikarwaj ka. is repeated 
in VI, 16, 3 c: the hymn is described by the commentators 
at Kauj. 30, 1 ff., as a charm against ophthalmia. It is 
there also implicated in a fanciful list of personified 

d. For k6ka, cf. VIII, 6, a, where Saya«a glosses the 
word by £akravaka. 

Stanza 5. 

a, b. For the epithets jitikaksha and jitibShu, cf. Va^-. S. 
XXIV, 2. 4. 7 ; Tait. S. V, 5, 20, 1 ; 6, 13, 1 ; Maitr. S. Ill, 
3. 3- 5- 8. 

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V, 3°- COMMENTARY. 455 

Stanza 6. 

See the notes on II, 32, 1 and 2, and cf. especially AV. 
VI, 52, 1 =RV. 1,191,9. 

Stanza 7. 

a, b. All designations are obscure. The Kkth. S. has 
a pendant yavasha, perhaps a popular modification of 
yevasha, in deference to yava, ' barley * ;' kashkasha, e^atka, 
and .ripavitnuka are &it. \ty. A natural explanation for 
e^atka suggests itself, ' active, mobile.' 

Stanza 8. 

b. nadaniman, ' roaring, or buzzing.' This, again, is &n. 

(o. mashmasha' kri Jrecurs in the KAtA. S. XVI, 7; the 
Maitr. S. II, 7, 7 (p. 84, 1. 3) has mrssmn'sa (var. mrismrisk) 
in its place ; the Tait. S. IV, 1, 10, 3, and some of the 
MSS. of the Va^ - . S. XI, 80 (supported by the Pratijakhya, 
V, 37) read masmasa, an interesting onomatopoetic aggre- 

d. The Pada is repeated at II, 31, 1. 

Stanza 9. 

With the exception of the first P&da this stanza is iden- 
tical with II, 32, 2 ; so also the next three stanzas repeat, 
without change, II, 32, $-5. See the notes there. 

V, 30. Commentary to page 59. 

The present hymn is of essentially the same character as 
VIII, 1 and 2, and its manipulation in the ritual texts, 
Kaujr. 58, 3. 11, and the ayushyaga«a (Kauj. 54, 11, note), 
coincides with both of these. See the introduction to 
VIII, 1. Previous renderings by Muir, Original Sanskrit 
Texts, V, 441 ff. ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 494 ff. 

1 Cf. Contributions, Fourth Series, Amer. Journ. Phil. XII, 429. 
note 2. 

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Stanza 1. 

The first hemistich is verbose and obscure. Muir, ' from 
thy vicinity, from thy vicinity, from a distance, from thy 
vicinity (I call) to thee;' Ludwig, without construing, 
' deine nahe nahe, deine feme nahe.' We have taken the 
two Padas as quasi-intensive expressions, equivalent respec- 
tively to avatas te, and paravatas te. 

Stanza 2. 
Cf. for Pada b the Italian proverb : — 

Da chi mi fido, guarda mi, Dio, 
Da chi mi non, mi guarderd io. — 

Stanza 5. 
Cf. Ath. Pari j. 4, 1. We have regarded the stanza, not 
without hesitancy, as a plea of the professional medicine- 
man in behalf of his art, and against domestic remedial 
expedients (' hausmittelchen '). The expression pratyak 
sevasva looks as though it meant ' refuse with thanks,' and 
our rendering of saigataA aims to reproduce the supposed 
satirical flavour of the passage. 

Stanza 10. 
Cf. VIII, 1, 13, and the note on the passage. 

Stanza 12. 
b. The construction of the Pada is not quite clear. 
Ludwig, ' anbetung denen die zu den vatern fiihren ; ' Muir. 
'reverence to the Fathers, and to those who guide us.' 
Both renderings are non-committal ; we have in mind the 
dogs of Yama as the subject of uta y€ nayanti. 

Stanza 13. 
Cf. Ath. Park. 13, 3. 

V, 31. Commentary to page 76. 

The hymn belongs to the krz'tyapratiharawani, a series of 
hymns designed to repel spells. It is closely similar in 
character to X, 1, together with which it is employed in the 

Digitized by 


V, 31- COMMENTARY. 457 

practices described at Kauj. 39, 7 ff. ; see the introduction 
to X, 1. The particular point of interest in this hymn is 
the full catalogue of animate and inanimate objects within 
which spells were instituted. It seems that these objects, 
through which the prosperity of an enemy was attacked, 
went in the ritual by the name of marma«i, ' vital spots ; ' 
see K&us. 39, a8. 31. The notion appears to be that a man 
is vulnerable through his belongings as well as his own 
person. Cf. in general, Maitr. S. Ill, 3, 8 (106, 11) ; Tait. 
S. VI, a, 11,1; Sat. Br. Ill, 5, 4, a. 

Stanza 1. 

For the entire stanza, cf. IV, 17, 4, and our notes there. 

a. An unbumed vessel figures also in a witchcraft 
practice, .Sat. Br. XIV, 9, 4, 11 = Brih. Ar. Up. VI, 4, la. 
The symbolic aspect of an unburned vessel, namely its 
fragility, is in evidence at .Sat. Br. XII, 1, 3, 33 ; Manu III, 
179. We would remark in passing that the Padapa/Vfca's 
yad ykmam £akrtir at VI, 116, 1 is to be emended to yady 
amam £aknir. Correct accordingly the Index Verborum. 

Stanza 2. 

b. It is difficult to decide whether kurlrf/ii refers to some 
individual animal, ' a crested animal,' perhaps ' peacock/ or 
whether it is to be regarded as an epithet of ' goat ' in Pad a 
a. Geldner, Vedische Studien, 1, 1 30, renders it ' horned,' but 
this is based upon a misinterpretation of VI, 138, 2; see 
the note there. Cf. Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 91. 

Stanza 3. 

The solipeds, horse, ass, &c, have one hoof, and incisors 
above and below, in distinction from the animals called 
anyatodant, 'those that have incisors only in the lower 
jaw.' They are contrasted with the pasture-animals in the 
preceding stanza. See Zimmer, 1. c, pp. 74, 75. 

Stanza 4. 

a, b. The meaning of amulayatn and nara£ya'm (vanara- 
ky&m ?) is problematic. Our translation is of the etymological 

Digitized by 



sort, and the feminine gender of the words is difficult to 
account for. But the suggestion of the Pet. Lexs. that 
both are designations of plants does not commend itself. 
See the passages cited under amula. 

Stanza 9. 

o. mroka and nirdaha are designations of two kinds of 
destructive fire ; cf. XVI, 1, 3. Our rendering of both 
words is purely tentative. 

Stanza 10. 

o. maryadhirebhyaA is very obscure. The Padapa//*a, 
marya-dhfrebhyaA, as a compound. At Maitr. S. I, 4, 8 
(56, 18) we have maryadhafryewa, and the absence of the 
vriddhi of the first syllable suggests that marya may be an 
independent word, the enclitic marya, for which see Pischel, 
Vedische Studien, I, 61 ft". We might then translate, ' The 
fool verily has prepared (the spell) against the wise.' But 
Pischel's treatment of the word is not altogether con- 

Stanza 11. 

The first three Padas are identical with the corresponding 
PadasoflV, 18, 6. 

Stanza 12. 

b. mulfn, ' he that practises witchcraft with the roots of 
plants : ' mulakriya, Vishwu XXV, 7 ; mulakarman, Manu 
IX, 290; XI, 64; Mahabh. Ill, 233, 13 = 14660 ff. Cf. 
Winternitz, Das Altindische Hochzeitsrituell, p. 98. 

VI, 2. Commentary to page 66. 

The hymn is employed at Vait. Su. 16, 13 in the course 
of the agnish/oma. The second stanza is made the pivot 
of a small charm against Rakshas (rakshobhaisha^yam) at 
Kauj. 29, 27. ' While reciting AV. VI, 2, 2 the performer 
eats milk-porridge that has been cooked upon a fire built 
up of birds' nests.' The symbolic connection with the 
stanza is apparent. 

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The hymn has been translated by Florenz, Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage, XII, 351. 

Stanza 1. 

b. a" dhavata (cf. RV. VII, 32, 6) is not altogether clear. 
Sayaaa, adhavanaw* nama adabhyagraharthaw grihttasya 
vasativari^alasya (cf. Vait. Su. 16, 1) . . . yad va . . . 
darapavitrewa sarvata^ jodhayata. 

Stanza 8. 
The first hemistich is identical with RV. VII, 32, 8 a, b. 

VI, 8. Commentary to page joo. 

The rites connected with this charm are stated in the 
introduction to II, 30, above. The hymn has been trans- 
lated by Weber, Ind. Stud. V, 261 ff. ; Florenz, Bezzen- 
berger's Beitrage, XII, 257; Grill 2 , pp. 54, 158 ff. The 
Anukramanl designates it as kamatmadaivatam. 

Stanza 1. 

Cf. RV. X, 10, j 3. The formulaic refrain occurs also at 

1.34,5; 11,30, 1. 

Stanza 2. 

' Large birds, as they start to fly, beat the ground with 
their wings, unable, as it were, to get off. Thus the mind 
of the woman shall not be able to free itself from her lover.' 
See Professor Roth, as quoted by Grill, and cf. VI, 1 8, 3 ; 
70, 1. 

VI, 9. Commentary to page 101. 

For the practices connected with this charm, see the 
introduction to 1 1, 30, above. Previous translations : Weber, 
Ind. Stud. V, 264 ff. ; Florenz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XIT, 
10. The Anukramawi, kamatmadaivatam. 

Stanza 1. 
Cf. Ill, 25, 3. 4, and the spirit of that hymn in general. 

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Stanza 2. 

The second hemistich is formulaic; see I, 34, a ; III, 25, 
5 ; the last Pada at VI, 42, 3 ; 43, 3. 

Stanza 3. 

a. Literally, ' whose relations are a licking,' i. e. ' whose 
young furnish constant occasion for licking.' Licking the 
young is typical for fond maternity, e. g. AV. V, 1, 4. 

VI, 11. Commentary to page 97. 

The hymn is employed in a ceremony calculated to 
ensure the birth of a male child (Kerava and Darila, 
puwsavanam) at Kauj. 35, 8-10, to wit : 8. ' While reciting 
the hymn a fire is churned from the (two kinds of wood 
.rami and a^vattha) mentioned in the hymn, the fire is 
thrown into ghee (prepared from the milk) of a cow with 
a male calf, and then the ghee is treated like the paidva 
(i. e., it is put with the right thumb up the nose into the 
right nostril of the pregnant woman) l . 9. (Casting the fire) 
into a stirred drink with honey it (the stirred drink) is given 
to the woman to drink. 10. (The fire) is surrounded with 
the wool of a male animal 2 , and the wool is tied (as an 
amulet) upon the woman.' The symbolism of these acts is 
in general very clear. In the act of churning the fire jam! 
is the female, and arvattha the male; cf. Ad. Kuhn, Die 
Herabkunft des Feuers 1 , p. 71 ff. ; Zimmer, Altindisches 
Leben, pp. 58, 59. 

The hymn has been rendered by Weber, Indische Studien, 
V, 264 ff". ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 477 ; Zimmer, 1. c, 

1 Cf. Kaus. 32, 21 in the introduction to X, 4. 

' We emend kr*sh«or«abhiA to vn'shwa ur«abhiA with double 
samdhi ; cf. Kauxika, Introduction, p. lviii ff. Some MSS. read 
vr*'sh«o-, and vishwo-, and there is apparently no sense in black 
wool ; on the other hand the wool of a male animal is exceedingly 

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VI, 12. COMMENTARY. 46 1 

319; Florenz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 260 ff. The 
Anukramani, retodevatyam uta mantroktadevatyam. 

Stanza 1. 

b. ' The male child ' is the fire, which plays, therefore, an 
important part in the practices stated above. 

Stanza 2. 

d. Pragapati, the god of procreation, is, of course, the 
prime authority in these matters ; they are, therefore, said 
to be of his dictation. 

Stanza 3. 

Sinivall and Anumati are two of the personifications of 
the four phases of the moon. They all preside over the act 
of procreation, and special rites in their behalf are practised 
by those desirous of offspring. See Weber, 1. c, p. 228 ff. ; 
Zimmer, 1. c, p. 352. 

VI, 12. Commentary to page 28. 

According to the text of Kaur. 29, 28. 29 in our edition 
the performances connected with this hymn consist in 
quickly (.ribham) giving the patient honey to drink, and 
then continuing with the practices described in connection 
with IV, 6 at Kaur. 28, 2 ff. ; see the introduction to IV, 6. 
But Kerava and Sayawa (who regularly bases his presenta- 
tion of the ritual upon Kerava) have madhukrWam for 
Kaujika's madhu .ribham ' ; Darila's full text is, maWa- 
kaw* (' broth ') suktasya karmabhimantrya payayati. It 
seems likely, therefore, that madhurfbham is to be regarded 
as a compound meaning some kind of honey mixture. 
Shankar Pandit prints accordingly madhuribham as a 
compound *. 

1 Kerava reads also once, madhiuawtam. 

1 For^apantf £a, Kaur. 29, 29, Sayana reads g&pM\ms hi. This 
does not commend itself: since the passage refers to the rites 
described in Kaur. 28, 2 we should expect ^apadini (sc. karmawi) 4a. 

Digitized by 



The hymn has been translated by Ludwig, Der Rig- 
veda, III, 501 ff. ; Florenz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 
26a ff. Cf. also Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel V^dique, 
p. 149. The Anukramami, takshakadaivatam (cf. Kaor. 28, 
1 ; 29, 1, and the introduction to IV, 6). 

Stanza 1. 

Imperfect metaphors. In the second half the notion is 
that night puts a stop to all activity, and thus the physician 
stops the action of the poison. In Pada c the notion seems 
to be that the hawsa is awake at night ; cf. Zimmer, Altin- 
disches Leben, p. 90. Sayawa takes haw/sa in the sense of 
atman. soul (cf. brahman = paramahawsa), ' as the entire 
body, but not the soul, is at rest.' Perhaps hawsa is here, as 
frequently elsewhere, the sun. Can we trust the present 
poet to know that the sun is at work by night in another 
hemisphere ? The sense would then be that every creature 
but the hawsa (i. e. the sun) is at rest. Cf. RV. X, 136, 5. 
Ludwig, ' wie die nacht das iibrige lebende totet (? dhvan- 
sat),' or, 'as night separates the remaining living things 
from the sun (hamsa).' 

Stanza 2. 

o. asanvat (Padap. asan-vat) is Sir. A«y., literally 'that 
which has a mouth.' Saya»a, asyayuktam. In effect the 
word seems to mean ' the present ' (' that which can speak, 
or breathe ? ' highly and grotesquely poetic, if true). The 
Pet. Lex. suggests that it is either an obscure derivative of 
root as, ' be,' or a corruption of asannam. Does it stand for 
asthanvat, ' corporeal ; ' cf. Avestan astvat ? The change 
of asthan to asan may have crept in from asne - in 3 d. Or 
possibly, atmanvat. The Paippalada has asunvat. 

Stanza 8. 

0. Parush«i is the name of a river : Zimmer, 1. c, p. 11. 
.Slpala seems to be a fanciful, typical river, or lake, named 
after the water-plant jipala, avaka (blyxa octandra), ib., 
p. 71. The avaka quenches fire, see Contributions, Second 
Series, Amer. Journ. Phil. XI, p. 342 ff. The entire stanza 

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contains the statement that the poet with his song is 
sweetening all waters and (the plants of) the mountains. 
In the practice honey is added to water and other 
ingredients, as a potion for the invalid^ 

VI, 14. Commentary to page 8. 

For the nature of the disease balasa, see our discussion in 
the note at V, 22, u, and cf. VI, 127. This particular 
charm is denned by Kerava (and Sayawa) as a jleshma- 
bhaishajfyam, 'cure for phlegm,' in agreement with the 
medical 6'astras ; cf. Wise, Hindu System of Medicine, 
p. 311. We may suppose that it refers to some virulent 
swelling of the throat. The indications of the Kaurika, 29, 
30, are not helpful : the practice is purely symbolic. A reed 
is placed into the water (of a river) and then the patient is 
washed with water by means of a branch from a ' holy ' 
tree (Darila, xantavrcksharakalena ; cf. Kauj. 8, 15), so that 
the water flows down upon the reed. The perishable reed 
upon which the disease has been washed out of the patient 
is supposed to float away ; cf. sts. 3 c, d. 

The hymn has been translated by Florenz, Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage, XII, 265 ff. The Anukramani, balasadevatyam. 

Stanza 1. 

Cf. the parallel stanza, V, 30, 9, where very similar 
qualities are ascribed to consumption, yakshma. But we 
must not, on that account, go so far as to identify balasa 
outright with yakshma. 

a, b. Note the alliteration between asthi- and asthitam. 

Stanza 2. 

a, b. The Paippalada has krt«omi for kshi«omi. The 
Pet. Lex. suggests, most ingeniously, the reading nfr . . . 
aksh«omi for nfr . . . kshiwomi (cf. IV, 22, 1, and for the 
sense in general III, 9, 2). But perhaps the iv. Xey., nlA 
kshi»omi, 'remove, destroy,' simply suggests the other 
verb by way of zeugma. Sayawa with the Paippalada 

Digitized by 



escapes the difficulty by reading pushkaram, • as a lotus 
that has grown up in a great lake thus it is torn up by the 
root.' Possibly this is the true solution. Cf. also VI, 


o, d. Cf. RV. VII, 59, 12. The Paippalada, mulam ulvalvo 

Stanza 3. 

b. Sayawa reads susukaA, ' as a wild animal of that name 
(juruka) runs to a distance.' The word is not quotable. 
The Pet. Lexs., on the other hand, suggest that ksumga. is 
the name of some bird. Neither suggestion commends 

0. For the reed that passes away in a year's time, cf. IV, 
1 9, 1. On the other hand reeds grow profusely and quickly, 
VI, 137, 2. 3. Sayawa reads ita for ifo. 

VI, i(>. Commentary to page 30. 

This hymn, full of hocus-pocus and singular diction, 
represents the extreme Atharvanesque manner, and for this 
reason alone is worth reproducing. All details are ex- 
ceedingly obscure, and the rather full elaboration of it in 
the ritual is not very helpful. The commentators agree in 
regarding it as a charm against ophthalmia (akshirogabhai- 
shagyam) ; the performances, Kaur. 30, 1-6, are as follows : 
1. ' While reciting the hymn (an amulet derived from the 
mustard-plant), anointed with the dregs of mustard-oil 1 , is 
fastened (to the patient). 2. (And) the stem (of the mus- 
tard-plant) smeared with (mustard-oil is also fastened upon 
him as an amulet). 3. The leaf (of the mustard-plant) 
mixed (with the oil) is given (to the patient) *. 4. (Then) 
four fruits of the jaka-tree (tectona grandis) are given (to 

1 We would now read s&rshapatailasampatam in accordance with 
the comments of Darila, Kcrava, and Siya»a. The latter sarsha- 
patailena samp&titam. 

1 Saya»a, sarshapatailena bhrish/am sar9hapapatrarakam £akshu- 
rogagrastaya praya^Met. 

Digitized by 


VI, 1 6. COMMENTARY. 465 

the patient). 5. A paste made from the sap of the plant 
is smeared (upon the eyes of the patient) 1 . 6. (The 
patient) eats (of the sap).' We are permitted to judge 
from these practices that the mustard-plant, and perhaps 
other plants (the jaka-tree) are referred to in the hymn, 
but the identification is uncertain. 

The fourth stanza is rubricated at Kauy. 51, 15. 16 in 
a practice that seems to be calculated to remove weeds 
from a field (alabhesha^am)*. The practice consists in 
burying three tips of the silaag'ala- plant (cf. Kaurika, In- 
troduction, p. xlv) into the middle of a furrow. 

The hymn has been translated by Florenz, Bezzenber- 
ger's Beitrage, XII, 368 ff. The Anukramawi, mantrokta- 
devatyam uta £andramasam. 

Stanza 1. 

Saya«a reads avayo and anavayo, which he derives from 
avayati, ' eat,' and accordingly, with complete dependence 
upon the Sutra, 'O mustard that art being eaten, and, 
O mustard-stalk that art not eaten.' It must be admitted 
that there is a punning correlation between these two words 
and £vaya£ in st. 2 d, which Saya/ta renders, bhakshitam 
akaro/; ; it is quite likely, too, that abayu is more or less 
identical with the mustard-plant. But here our guesses 
end. Sayawa glosses karambham again after the Sutra, 
s&rshapatailamtfrabhrtsh/a/tt tatpatrajakam (Kaor. 30, 3). 

Stanza 2. 

a, b. The mention by name of the father and mother of 
a plant is typical and formulaic ; cf. the note on V, 5, 1. 
Shankar Pandit reads vihahlo ; Saya«a, viha»zlakhyaA 
k&r/Ht pita. For madavati, cf. IV, 7, 4, and the note on 
varawavat!, IV, 7, 1. 

c, d. For hi na of the vulgata Shankar Pandit with the 

1 Sayana, mulakshfram abhimantrya vyadhitasya akshini aJlgy&t. 

* For ala, see Kaiuika, Introduction, p. xlvii. But Sayana reads 
annabhesba^am, ' curing of food : ' annasvastyayanakam&i tisra^ 
sasyavallir abhimantrya kshetramadhye nikhanet. Cf. also Kerava. 

[ 43 ] h h 

Digitized by 



majority of his MSS., both Sawhita and Padapa/Aa, reads 
hi na (both enclitic). The sense of the extremely obscure 
passage seems to be, that the plant does not consume itself 
in vain, but confers the benefits expected from it. So also 
S4ya«a, atmano hani/w pr4py4*pi paropakaraparo bhavasi, 
' even when thou hast arrived at thy own destruction thou 
hast for thy highest aim the benefaction of others.' 

Stanza 8. 

Sayawa regards tauvilika as the name of a female demon 
that causes disease. And thus also babhru and babhrii- 
karoa are two personified rogahetu 1 . We have rendered 
ailabaA by ' howling one ' (Sayawa, rogavueshaA) ; better, 
'howl' (abstract): cf. XII, 5, 47. In Pada d the Pada- 
p&t/ia. reads nUi 41a as two separate words, and we have 
taken ala as a vocative. The word, according to Darila 
to Kauj. 25, 18 (cf. the introduction to I, 3, p. 236), seems 
to mean ' a kind of weed.' Whitney in the Index Ver- 
borum suggests a verb nfr ala from a root 41, comparing 
vy 41a, V, %%, 6 (obscurum per obscurius). S4ya«a, he 
nirala etatsawg-«a roga, again regards the entire word as 
the name of a disease. 

Stanza 4. 

All that we know of the names in this stanza is that they 
are plants, and, probably, compounds of 41a (st. 3), though 
the Padap4///a does not divide them as compounds 1 . At 
Kaiu. 51, 16 silawg-ala occurs as the name of a plant 
(Kejava, sasyavalli ; cf. Kaujika, Introduction, p. xlv), and 
S4ya«a says, doubtless correctly, of all three, tisra/i saw^«4s 
tisrinktn sasyavallinam. But the true value of the formula 
seems beyond reach. 

1 Pada c is formulaic : it recurs at V, 23, 4 c ; see the note 

* alasa means ' dull, sluggish ;' for sili%4M, cf. siliif, V, 5, 1. 8. 
The MSS. of Kauj. 51, 16 read silarlgili, suggesting the presence 
of the word jila, ' stone,' in the first member. S4ya»a, jall%al4 

Digitized by 


VI, 1 8. COMMENTARY. 467 

VI, 17. Commentary to page 98. 

The Kaujika, 35, 12-15, has a performance entitled 
garbhadr/wmawani, ' performances for steadying the womb, 
or foetus,' which rubricates, in addition to our hymn, AV. 
V, i,i, and a mantra whose pratika is aiyuta (probably 
the hymn given in full at Kaus. 98, a J ). It is as follows : 
3o». I 3> 'A bowstring, thrice knotted, is tied about (the 
foetus) that has been seized by convulsions. 14. (The 
woman) is fed upon lumps of earth. 15. Black pebbles 
are scattered about her couch.' For the character of 
^ambha, 'convulsions,' see the note on II, 4, 2, and cf. 
especially the references there given to Wise, pp. 421-3. 

The hymn has been translated by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 
III, 477 ; Florenz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 269 ff. 
The Anukramam, garbhadrmhanadevatyam. 

VI, 18. Commentary to page 106. 

The performances at Kauj. 36, 25 ff. involve the use of 
this hymn in company with VII, 45, and the third stanza 
of VII, 74. They picture a woman engaged in symbolic 
acts calculated to appease a jealous man, and to remove the 
jealousy from his body, to wit : 25. ' The practising woman 
mutters the above-mentioned mantras against (the jealous) 
man, presents to him (a stirred drink with grits, Kaur. 7, 7), 
and touches (his person). 26. With the first (of these 
hymns) she performs upon his body the act described in 
the hymn (i.e. she blows out fire held over his body 8 ). 
27. While reciting VII, 45, 2 (see the stanza) [she gives 
him to drink] water, warmed by pouring it over a heated 
axe.' Soothing the jealous man, and the symbolic removal 
of the fire of his jealousy, are therefore the points of the 

1 Kerava, afyuta dyaur iti. Darila, jakhantarfyasuktam. 
* Darila, hndaye»gninirvapa»aw mantroktatvat. Kwava, ka/ipra- 
de*e . . . dhamati. 

H h 2 

Digitized by 



The present hymn has been rendered by Weber, Indische 
Studien, V, 235 ff. ; Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 514 ; Florenz, 
in Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 270 ff. ; Grill 2 , pp. 28, 
159 ff. The Anukramawi, irshyavinlranadevatyam. 

Stanza 3. 

b. For manaskaw* patayishwukam, cf. RV. I, 163, 11 ; 
VI, 9, 5. Ludwig renders patayishwukam by ' zu falle 
bringend,' but that would require patayish«ukam, since the 
Vedas discriminate between the stems pataya and pataya, 
the former being simple, the latter alone causative. Weber 
also causatively, ' was dir den sinn entfallen macht.' 

d. nr/ter is untranslatable, though Ludwig renders the 
Pada, • wie die erhitzung eines tanzers.' The Paippalada 
reads tritet ; this supports in a measure Weber's and the 
Pet. Lexs.' emendation to dr/ter, ' as heat from a pot,' or, 
' as the exhalation from a (water-carrier's) skin.' Similarly 
also Sayawa, with the approval of Shankar Pandit, yatha 
Arittk /fcarmamayya bhastrikayaA saklrat tanmadhyavarti- 
nam ushm&waw .yvasavad anta^puritam vayum. 

VI, 20. Commentary to page 3. 

The Kaurika offers by way of practice to be performed 
in connection with this charm a part of that reported for 
AV. V, 22. The exceedingly terse Sutra, 31, 7, agner 
ive*ty uktaw dive, is to be translated, ' With AV. VI, 20 he 
does what has been said in connection with the forest-fire,' 
i.e. according to Darila, what is prescribed in Sutra 29, 19 
{and by implication also what is prescribed in 29, 18). 
Namely, he pours the dregs of gruel, which the patient has 
imbibed previously, from a copper vessel over his head into 
fire derived from a forest-fire. See the introduction to V, 22. 
The practice is again symbolic, aiming by attractio similium 
to obviate the symptoms of heat and fire incidental to the 
disease. The hymn has been translated by Ludwig, Der 
Rigveda, III, 51 1 ; Zimmer, p. 380 ; and Florenz, in Bezzen- 
berger's Beitrage, XII, 273 ff. ; and it is quoted also in the 

Digitized by 


VI, 20. COMMENTARY. 469 

takmanaxanagawa of the Gawamala, Ath. ParLr. 32, 7 (Kauj. 
26, i, note). The Anukramawi designates it as yakshma- 
najanadaivatam, and describes its authorship and purpose as 
follows : bhr/gvangiraA . . . anena mantroktan sarvan devan 

Stanza 1. 

a. A^agatlPadamaybe construed if one syllable is sup- 
pressed. Probably agne> iva is to be read as three syllables 
with elision of r and crasis (cf. Pet. Lex., s. v. iva 4 c), or 
by reading va in the manner of the Prakrit. Florenz, 1. c, 
makes different propositions. The Anukrama«l designates 
the stanza as ati^agati. 

jushmfn is a derivative from jushma, whose fundamental 
meaning seems to be ' lightning,' from which ' strength ' is 
derived secondarily ; see Contributions, Sixth Series, 
Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch. XLVIII, 565 ff. 

b. matt6 vilapan ; cf. the words unmadit6 and lalapiti 
in AV. VI, 111, 1. 

o. Ludwig and Florenz propose to emend avratas to 
avratam, because the epithet ' impious ' does not seem to 
suit the takman ; cf. RV. I, 132, 4. A glance at AV. VII, 
1 j 6, 2 exhibits the takman with the same epithet under 
circumstances which admit of no doubt, showing the danger 
of subjective reasoning on matters connected with foreign 
folk-psychology. Ludwig renders ' irgend einen werklosen.' 

Stanza 2. 

a. Note the concatenation with Pada 1 d : tapurvadha in 
1 d suggests Rudra in 2 a, and takmane is repeated. 

e, d. The diction lapses into formulary prose, which does 
not however deter the Anukramaw! from assigning the 
entire stanza to the metre kakummati prastarapankti. 

Stanza 3. 

The metre is very rough, according to the Anukramawi, 
sata^pankti. Pada a is a trochaic anush/ubh if we read 
* bhLro£ayish»ur ; b is a trish/ubh ; c is a hypercatalectic 
anush/ubh; d a^agatt. 

Digitized by 



a, b. In close parallelism with V, 2 a, 2 a,b : see the note 
on the passage. 

o. The epithet babhrti calls to mind Latin febris from 
febrv-is, which would then be the ' brown, sallow disease.' 

d. The meaning of vdnya, ' silvestris,' seems fairly certain. 
The Pet. Lex. suggests 'greenish,' in order to establish 
a parallelism with aruwa and babhrti in the preceding P&da. 
Grohmann, 1. c, p. 385, translates ' dem wilden (wasserge- 
borenen ?) Takman.' If the word means ' forest-born ' 
then it must refer to the malarial fever of the rainy season 
which is caused by the decay of the tropically proline flora. 
Cf. the takman vaVshika in AV. V, 22, 13. Living in 
wooded, ill-ventilated valleys is, according to Wise, 1. c, 
p. 220, one of the causes of fever. S&ya«a, sa»*sevy&ya, ' to 
him that is to be adored.' 

VI, 21. Commentary to page 30. 

This interesting hymn is accompanied by equally in- 
teresting symbolic practices, at Kaur. 30, 8-10, part of 
which passage is unfortunately very obscure: 8. 'While 
reciting the hymn the person that desires the growth of 
hair (Sayawa, kejawwidhikamaw) is rinsed off with water 
heated by burning plants 1 that grow upon the earth under 
trees. 9. His head is rinsed off with an effusion prepared 
by heating dice in water. 10. (And also with an effusion 
prepared) from two nika/a-plants 2 (?)/ The symbolism of 
the first practice is quite clear : as the head of the earth is 
clothed with plants (cf. st. 1), as the crown of the tree 
is full of leaves, so shall the person practising the charm 
be luxuriantly hirsute. But the dice (the fruit of the 
vibhitaka-tree) and the nika/a are left unexplained. 

1 Cf. the note on Kaiu. 27, 29, in the introduction to III, 7 
(p. 336, note). 

a Very doubtful. Kcrava, ddruharidraharidre (!) fa dvibhya/w 
kvathayitva' avasifl&ui. S£ya»a, haridrakvathodakena avasiftfret. 
According to these authorities nika/a would then be the yellow 

Digitized by 


VI, 24. COMMENTARY. 47 1 

The hymn has been translated by Florenz, Bezzenber- 
ger's Beitrage, p. 275 ff.; Grill 8 , pp. 50, 160 ff. Cf. also 
Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel V^dique, p. 150. The Anu- 
kramawi, £andramasam (cf. st. 2). 

Stanza 1. 

For the conception of the three earths, see the note on 
IV, 20, 2. Sayawa refers tva£6 in Pada c to the real earth, 
which is the skin of the other earths, tasam pr*thivinaw* 
tvaJkaA tvag iva upari vartamana ya bhflmiA tasyaA. 

VI, 24. Commentary to page 12. 

Rubricated at Kaiu. 30, 13. Darila prescribes it against 
dropsy ; Kcrava, more explicitly, as a cure for pain in the 
heart, dropsy and jaundice (cf. the introduction to I, 22). 
Kaiu ilea's performance is as follows : ' While reciting VI, 
24 water is drawn from a stream along its current 1 ; (the 
water is warmed with burning) grass from a thatch (and 
sprinkled upon the patient) 2 .' It seems quite possible that 
the ritualist has in mind the particular disease dropsy : the 
water (Varuwa's infliction) shall flow from the body like 
a running stream. The word hr/ddyota (st. 1) would 
accord with dropsy, since diseases of the heart are fre- 
quently associated with it. But st. 2 seems to point to 
a more general and vague conception on the part of the 
hymn, and accordingly we have expanded the caption. 
See also Kaur. 9, 2 ; 18, 3, note ; 41, 14; Ath. Parij. 41, 1. 

The hymn has been translated by Florenz, Bezzenber- 
ger's Beitrage, XII, p. 279 ff. ; Grill 2 , pp. 13, 161 ff. 

1 anvipam: Pet. Lex. 'am wasser gelegen'(?). The word 
means ' along the course,' i. e. the water must not be drawn against 
the current. Cf. Maitr. S. IV, 4, 1, and Kejava, anulomam. The 
opposite of anvipam is pratipam, ' against the current.' 

* The supplied passages are indicated, it seems, by Kauj-. 29, 8 ; 
see the note on V, 1 3, 5. Kaiwika is at times so terse as to render 
necessary the memorising of the entire Sutra. 

Digitized by 



Stanza 1. 
d. For lWddyota, see the note on I, 22, i. 

VI, 25. Commentary to page 19. 

Adalbert Kuhn, in Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprach- 
forschung, XIII, 128 ff., treated the hymn under the head 
of ' Seven and seventy-fold disease,' comparing with it Ger- 
manic formulas directed against fever and other diseases ; 
these are often described as being of seventy-seven varieties. 
Florenz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 281 ff., suggests 
that some febrile disease, accompanied by eruptions, is in 
question. In Contributions, Second Series, Amer. Journ. 
Phil. XI, 327 ff., we assumed that the hymn with its ritual 
represent a charm against a disease, similar to the scrofu- 
lous swellings called apaJHt (VI, 83 ; VII, 74, i-a ; 76, 
i-a), and this is now fully corroborated by Kejava and 
Sayawa who define the present charm as a cure for ganda.- 
mala, 'scrofula.' Cf. also the interesting 'Manskunder' 
(manya// and skindhyaA in sts. 1, 3 of the hymn), defined 
as ' tumours of the neck ' in the previously quoted passage 
of Wise, Hindu System of Medicine, p. 316. The Anu- 
kramawi, mantroktamanyavinlranadevatyam. 

The practices are stated at Katu. 30, 14-16, as follows : 
14. 'While reciting the hymn, fifty-five leaves of the 
par&ru x (plant or tree ?) are kindled by means of pieces 
of wood. 15. (The sap of the leaves) which has boiled 
forth into a cup is smeared with a stick of wood (upon 
the sores). 16. (The sores are then smeared) with a (pul- 
verized) shell, and with the saliva of a dog, and subjected 
to the bites of leeches, gnats, and so forth (cf. Kerava's 

1 The word pararuparx&n is not altogether clear, Darila's and 
Kcrava's (goplrulikam ?) glosses being corrupt. Kaiu. 47, 25 
presents the obviously parallel parajupallja which Kesava glosses 
by parjuvr/lcshapatram, and this we have adopted as the sense 
here. But Dirila at 47, 25 has ku//4aramukham, ' the blade of an 
axe I ' Cf. the note on Kaur. 47, 25 in the introduction to II, 1 2. 

Digitized by 


VI, 26. COMMENTARY. 473 

comment upon this Sutra at Kauj. 31, 16, and our remarks 
in the above-cited Contributions, pp. 3*5-6). 

Stanzas 1-3. 

d. The word v&k£A in the refrain is translated by Kuhn 
as ' swarms,' by the Pet. Lexs. and Florenz as ' buzzing.' 
But the apa£ft are not insects (see VI, 83). and Sayawa's 
va£aniya dosh&A designates the low water-mark of his 
hermeneutical capacity. As it seems impossible to retain 
the word, we may perhaps resort to the emendation paka'A, 
remembering the well-known confusion in the MSS. of v 
and p 1 . The sense would then be ' may they (the tumours) 
pass away like the pustules of the apa£ft.' The implication 
would then be that the tumours in question are ' hard and 
large' (Wise, I.e., 316), and that the apa£ft are more easily 
brought to the point of breaking open. 

VI, 26. Commentary to page 163. 

The ritual treats this as a remedial charm, fit to remove 
all diseases (sarvarogabhaisha^yam). The performances, 
Kauj. 30, 17. 18, are as follows: By night the hymn is 
recited, parched grains of corn are poured into a sieve, and 
then cast away. On the next day three bali-offerings are 
thrown into the water for Sahasraksha (' the thousand-eyed 
divinity,' cf. st. 3), and (three) puddings of rice are thrown 
and scattered upon the cross-roads 2 . The ceremony is 
symbolic for the most part : the sieve is always the tangi- 
ble expression of passing through and out (cf. Kaur. 26, 2 
in the introduction to I, 1 2), and general dispersion is the 
salient motif. The hymn is also rubricated in the Santi- 
kalpa, chapter 1 5, in a rite directed against the goddess of 

1 Cf. upolava and upolapa, Kaotika, Introduction, p. xlviii. 

* Cf. the sentiment in st. 2 of the hymn : the cross-roads are the 
most convenient spot at which to part company. For the character 
of the cross-roads in general, see the note on p. 519 in the introduc- 
tion to VI, in. 

Digitized by 



misfortune (nim'ti£arma), and in the papmagawa and the 
takmanajanagawa of the Ga«amala, Ath. Paro. 32, 7. is 
(cf. Kaus. 26, 1 ; 30, 17, notes). It has been translated by 
Florenz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 282. The Anu- 
krama«i, papmadevatakam. 

Stanza 1. 
b. The Pada is formulaic, being repeated at V, 22, 9 b. 

Stanza S. 

b. For the epithet sahasraksha, see the note on IV, 20, 4. 
' Thousand-eyed ' here refers to the power of infallibly spy- 
ing out victims ; cf. especially the ' thousand-eyed curse ' 
at VI, 37, 1. 

VI, 27. Commentary to page 166. 

The pigeon as a bird of omen is well known in Teutonic 
mythology ; cf. Gothic hrafvadub6, literally ' carcass -dove,' 
as the name of the turtle, and see Grimm, Deutsche Mytho- 
logie, p. 659 ff. The present hymn is the Atharvanic 
equivalent of RV. X, 165, 1-3, and the archaic locative 
ash/rf in 3 b (cf. Ath. Pratijakhya I, 74) seems to indicate 
a certain superiority of the Atharvan text, which is, how- 
ever, not borne out by 2 b and 3 c, whose Rig-vedic form 
is metrically preferable. Cf. Adbhuta-Brahmawa 6 and 8 
(Weber, Omina und Portenta, pp. 325, 330); Hultzsch, 
Prolegomena zu des Vasantara^a vSakuna, p. 7. At Kaiu. 
46, 7 this and the two following hymns are recited while 
the 'great consecration' (mahajanti) is being poured (cf. 
Kauj. 9, 6, note). The Anukramawi defines the three 
hymns as yamyany uta nairrztani. The present hymn has 
been treated by Florenz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 
p. 282 ff. 

Stanza 2. 

b. The RV., griheshu for grihim adJi. The Atharvan 
reading almost looks as though anaga^/*) were understood 
in the sense of 'not arriving' (an-a-gSA). The accent of 

Digitized by 


VI, 37- COMMENTARY. 475 

the stem is both anagas and anagas, and the Padapi/Aa 
does not divide it, thus apparently indicating its own doubt 
as to the character of the word. Sayawa, anaparadhaka/z. 

VI, 29. Commentary to page 166. 

For the general character of this hymn and its treat- 
ment in the ritual, see the introduction to VI, 27. It has 
been treated by Florenz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 
p. 287 ff. 

VI, 32. Commentary to page 36. 

The practice connected with this hymn at Kauj. 31, 3 
consists in digging a ditch near the fire, filling it with hot 
water, and in sacrificing into it a rice-cake after circum- 
ambulating it thrice and muttering the hymn. The hot 
water near the fire is doubtless emblematic of the well- 
known properties of Agni as the most obvious enemy of 
spooks and uncanny hostile forces. Darila, pija£ana.ranam. 
The hymn figures also in the £atanaga»a, ' list of hymns with 
which (demons, &c.) are chased away' in the Ga«amala, 
Ath. Pari s. 32, 3 (cf. Kaur. 8, 25, note). It has been trans- 
lated by Florenz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 291 ff 

Stanza 3. 

The second hemistich is repeated at VIII, 8, 21. Sayawa 
renders ^«ata"ram by abhignam svaminam, 'experienced 
master.' Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 528, bottom, 'der sie 

VI, 37. Commentary to page 93. 

The hymn is rubricated at Kaiu. 48, 23-26, in prac- 
tices designed to repel the sorcery-practices of enemies. 
A white lump (of earth) 1 is given to a dog (cf. st. 3), an 

1 So Kejava and Sayawa, jvetamr/'ttika. 

Digitized by 



amulet of tar/Wa 1 is put on, an oblation (of ingirfa-oil, 
Kaur. 47, 3) is poured, and fagots (of vadhaka-wood, 
Kaur. 47, 13 ; cf. AV. VIII, 8, 3) are laid on the fire. The 
practice is based upon symbolic realisations of suggestions 
contained in the hymn 2 . 

Previous translations: Grill*, pp. 25, 161 ft".; Florenz, 
Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 297. The Anukramawi, 

Stanza 1. 

a. For the epithet ' thousand-eyed,' see the note on IV, 
20, 4, and especially VI, 26, 3. Sayawa identifies it out- 
right with Indra, indra/s japathaA .rapakriyayaA karta. 

Stanza 2. 

d. The sentiment of this Pada and of the first hemistich 
of the next stanza are worked up anew in VII, 59. That 
mantra is accompanied, Kaur. 47, 37, by an interesting 
practice: wood from a tree struck by lightning is put on 
the fire, to symbolise the destruction of the enemy by 

Stanza 3. 

o. pe'sh/ram may mean 'flesh' rather than 'bone,' in 
accordance with our note on IV, 12, 2. Sayawa reads 
pesh/am (pish/amayaw khadyam). For avakshamam (Pada- 
pa^a, ava-kshamam) we have ventured a new interpreta- 
tion, 'down upon the ground,' from ava and kshiman 
'ground.' Sayawa, avadagdham; Pet. Lex., 'abfindung' 
('sop'); Grill, 'brocken;' Florenz, 'knochenrest ;' Boht- 

1 According to Dirila ' an amulet consisting of a bone ' (? asthi- 
kamam ; cf. pe'sh/ram in st. 3) ; according to Kerava and Siyana 
' an amulet of palaja-wood.' Cf. the mantra in Kaur. 13, 12. 

2 SSyawa thinks that st. 3 is referred to in Kaur. 47, 37 under 
the pratika, y6 nzh jipat. But the lightning is not mentioned in 
st. 3, but rather in st. 2. Hence the little hymn VII, 59 is doubt- 
less the one intended at Kaur. 47, 37 : it consists of sentiments 
contained in VI, 37, 3 and 2, and begins also with the words, y6 
na/4 xapat. 

Digitized by 


VI, 3&- COMMENTARY. 477 

lingk's Lexicon, ' lean ; ' Whitney in the Index Verborum 
shelters the word under the root ksham with ava. Cf. XI, 
10, 23. 

VI, 38. Commentary to page 116. 

This and the next hymn are worked up in the course of 
the royal rites (r&gakarmawi, Kaur. 14-17). The object 
of both the hymn and the practices connected with it is to 
endow a king with var£as, ' lustre,' and more particularly 
to transfer to him the var£as inherent in men, animals, and 
brilliant substances. The practice, Kaur. 13, $-6, is as 
follows: While reciting VI, 38 and 39, hairs from the 
navel of a snataka 1 , a lion, a tiger, a goat, a ram, a bull, 
or a king, are pasted together with lac, covered with gold, 
and fastened on as an amulet. Also an amulet prepared 
from the splinter of ten kinds of (' holy ') wood is put on 
(see the introduction to II, 9). While reciting the same 
two hymns, and in addition III, 16 ; VI, 69, and IX, 1, the 
seven vital organs 2 (of a lion or any of the other animals 
mentioned above), mixed with a mess of rice, are eaten. 
The relation of these performances to VI, 38 are obvious. 

Both hymns are rubricated further in the course of the 
practices at the initiation of pupils to the study of the 
Vedas, Kaus. 139, 15, and they hold membership in the two 
var^asyagawas of the Gawamala, Ath. Parij. 32, 10 and 27 
(see Kaor. 12, 10 and 13, 1, notes). Cf. also Ath. Parlr. 4, 
1; 18 2 , 13. 

The. two hymns have been translated by Ludwig, Der 
Rigveda, III, 240; Florenz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 
297 ff. The Anukramawi : ime bnhaspatidevatye var^as- 
kama^ . . . rishir aparyat. 

1 A Brahma«a who has performed the ceremony of ablution, 
required on finishing the period of his disciplehood (brahma&uya), 
before entering the second period of his life, that of a house- 
holder (gr/hastha). This embodies in practice the word brah- 
ma»e* in st. 38, 1 b. 

* Darila defines these as padamadhyani nabhihr/dayam murdha Aa. 

Digitized by 



Stanza 1. 

The relation of the two hemistichs of each stanza of the 
hymn is anacoluthic. It seems best in translation to supply 
some such expression as na astu from na &u in Pada d. 

b. The rendering of brahma«6 by ' in the Brahmawa ' is 
rendered certain by the word snataka in the Sutra above. 
Florenz, erroneously, ' im Brahman Agni.' 

d. The mention of Indra in all sorts of royal charms is 
due to the most prominent characteristic of the god, namely 
strength. Indra is the heavenly ra^an, par excellence. His 
ever-shadowy mother also is personified strength. Indra 
is putraA javasaA and javasaA sunuA (RV. VIII, 92, 14 ; 
IV, 24, 1). See Perry, Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. XI, 130 ff. ; 
Contributions, Sixth Series, Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XLV1II, 548. 

Stanza 2. 

Cf. the related passage from the var^asya-hymn, IX, i, 

Stanza 4. 

a, b. Ludwig renders dundubhav ayatayam ' in der pauke, 
der langezogen tonenden.' This receives a certain support 
from Sayawa, atadyamanayam, but we prefer to compare 
ayata as used of the tightened bowstring, e.g. XI, 2, J. 
For purushasya mayau, cf. XIX, 49, 4. 

VI, 39. Commentary to page 117. 

For the employment of this hymn in the ritual, and pre- 
vious translations, see the introduction to VI, 38. The 
keynote of the present hymn is yajas (cf. VI, 58), that of 
the preceding, var£as. The word yajas seems to be 
technically the name of the oblation which must have 
accompanied the recital of the hymn ; see sts. 1 a and 2 a. 

Stanza 1. 

a Ludwig, ' als herrlichkeit gedeihe das havis (das yajo- 
havis) ;' Florenz, ' zur ehr' gedeih das havis mir ;' Sayawa, 

Digitized by 


VI, 42. COMMENTARY. 479 

yataso hetutvat. It seems difficult to construe yajas as 
a nominative, in co-ordination with havis, but cf. the bhu- 
ta»* havfs, VI, 78 1 . We may, of course, either emend to 
yarohavir, or take yiso as an instrumental ; cf. Lanman, 
Journ. Amer. Or. Soc. X, 562. But, I believe, the con- 
struction as it stands is technical. 

b. Sayawa has for subhritam the rather more acceptable 
reading suvrztam (sush/Au vartamanam). 

Stanza 2. 

a. yirobhir seems to refer directly to the havis in st. 1 ; 
see the introduction. Sayawa, evasively, kirtibhiA. 

VI, 42. Commentary to page 136. 

According to the text of the mantra this is a charm to 
appease wrath in general. But the Kaujika, 36, 28-31, 
deals with it in the course of the so-called * women's rites ' 
(strikarmawi, 32, 27-36 end), and the commentators are 
agreed in regarding it as an instance of conflict between 
two persons of opposite sex. According to Kerava and 
Siyawa the charm is practised by a woman against an 
angry man (her husband, or lover); Darila, on the other 
hand, more naturally ascribes the acts to a man trying to 
appease an angry woman. These nicer specifications are 
therefore in all probability secondary. The practice is as 
follows : The person who desires to appease wrath takes up 
a stone while reciting st. 1. He places the stone upon the 
ground while reciting st. 2. He spits around the stone 
while reciting st. 3. Finally he lays an arrow on a bow 
while standing in the shadow (of the wrathful person). The 
last executes the sentiment of st. 1, with rather vague 
symbolism. The hymn is also recited, at Vait. Su. 1 2, 13, by 

1 So also abhfvartena havfshi, RV. X, 174, 1. Ordinarily these 
bavfs are accompanied by an adjective, e. g. samsravykwz hav/s, II, 
26, 3; nairbadhyam havfs, VI, 75, 1. Cf. also VI, 64, 2 ; VI, 87, 
3, and Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 371 ff. 

Digitized by 



one who is consecrated for the performance of the soma- 
sacrifice (dikshita), if he has been guilty of an outburst of 

Previous translations by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 515 ; 
Florenz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 30a fF.; Grill*, 29, 
163. The Anukramawt, mantroktamanyudevatyam. 

Stanza 3. 

The elaboration of this stanza in the Sutra above shows 
how vaguely punning the connection of the two channels of 
literature, mantra and sutra, may be at times: the words 
abhf tish/Aami of the stanza seem to have suggested abhi- 
nishj^ivami in the Sutra. Cf., e.g. 5ankh. Grih. where the 
mantra word akshan, ' they have eaten,' is employed as 
though it meant aksham, ' axle.' This is symbolism gone 
to seed, but we should err in supposing that the performers 
of the practices really misunderstood the mantras to that 
extent. It is the extreme outgrowth of the habit of con- 
sciously turning to immediate use, in any way at all, 
materials whose real value is something quite different, and 
whose true sense may have been well understood. 

d. The Pada is formulaic; see I, 34, 2; III, 25, 5; VI, 
9> 2 ; 43, 3. The entire second hemistich is repeated in 
VI, 43. 3- 

VI, 43. Commentary to page 137. 

The magic power of darbha-grass (cf. XIX, 32) is here 
employed to appease wrath. According to Kaur. 36, 32, 
the grass is dug up (in the manner prescribed at Kaur. 
33i 9 "> cf. Karava), and fastened on as a talisman. The 
Kaurika, in working up this hymn among the ' women's 
rites ' (cf. the introduction to the preceding hymn), is com- 
mitted to the view that the hymn deals with a conflict 
between a man and a woman. The text of the hymn, how- 
ever, reveals no such specific purpose. The hymn has been 
translated by Florenz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 303 ; 
Grill 2 , pp. 30, 1 6a. The Anukramawi, mantroktamanyura- 

Digitized by 


VI, 44- COMMENTARY. 48 1 

Stanza 1. 

For Pada b, cf. RV. VI, 75, 19. The text of Pada c seems 
untenable. For vfmanyukasya«yam, Grill suggests vfman- 
yukar /fea*yam, Florenz, vimanyuko ayam, either of which 
yields the sense of our translation. Possibly manor vfman- 
yukasya«yam may be the true reading: 'the appeaser of 
wrath of the man that is free from wrath it is called ; ' cf. 
Sayawa, maayok manyumata^ purushasya. 

Stanza 3. 

For the second hemistich, and for Pada d, cf. the note on 
VI, 4 a, 3- 

VI, 44. Commentary to page io. 

Darila does not state what disease this hymn and the 
practice at Kauj. 31, 6 are directed against. (and 
Sayawa depending upon him) describes it as an apavada- 
bhaisha^yam, and his comment leaves no doubt that he 
regards it as a practice against calumniators l . It looks as 
though this obvious misconstruction stood in some connection 
with the word apavatayaA in the Sutra, which Keyava either 
fails to understand, or deflects by a pun into the channel of 
a usage with which neither hymn nor Sutra had anything 
to do in the first instance. Unless indeed Kerava interprets 
the first stanza in the sense that the heavens, the earth, and 
all living beings have stood (stand), and that, therefore, the 
character of the person impugned will stand in spite of all 
aspersions. Or, again, the horn fallen by itself from the 
head of a cow, and that, too, a cow that has weaned her calf, 
symbolises, perhaps, the withdrawal of the good will of men. 
This might be employed homoeopathically to cure their 
hostility. Note also vishawa, ' horn,' which suggests vi sa, 
' loosen ; ' cf. VI, 121,1. The practice is as follows : A horn 

1 apavade bhaisha^yam ufyate, bahubhashawam adharme &t pra- 
vartane tasya apavadaA (!). 

[ 42 ] I i 

Digitized by 



that has been shed by a cow whose calf has been weaned 1 
is anointed with the dregs of ghee (is filled with water ; the 
patient is given the water to drink, and is also sprinkled 
with it) while the hymn is being pronounced in a low voice 
(cf. Kaur. 28, 1). Obviously Kaurika interprets vishawaka - 
in st. 3 as ' horn,' and a horn that has curative power we 
have in III, 7, 2. 3 (cf. the Sutra in the introduction). But 
the statements in st. 3 seem to contain a fitting characterisa- 
tion of a plant, and in this sense we have interpreted the 
passage in our Contributions, Fourth Series, Amer. Journ. 
Phil. XII, 426 ft". On the other hand, vishawaka' is a 4w. Xey., 
and may after all be only the diminutive of vishaVzi, ' horn,' 
III, 7, 2. 3 ; VI, 121, 1. This seems on the whole the more 
conservative view, although Kau^ika's gojrmgena may be 
due either to misunderstanding, or to conscious symbolic 
manipulation. At any rate the hymn itself is of no 
uncertain character : being a remedial charm, it takes its 
place among the bhaisha^yakarmawi in the first part of the 
fourth book of the Kaurika, and the terms for the diseases 
mentioned in it are fairly clear. 

Previous translations by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 509 
(cf. also 321, 343) ; Florenz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 
304 ff. Cf. also Bergaigne et Henry, Manuel Vedique, 
p. 151. The Anukramawi, vLrvamitramantroktadevatyarn * 
uta vanaspatyam. 

1 The MSS. of the text read apavMy&A. Dirila apagat£ya\*, 
which he explains by, apagatS vatsavigalitasneha' ; cf. Kaurika, 
Introduction, p. xlv. The opposite of apavdtS is abhivStS, La/y. 
St. VIII, 5, 3, 'a cow that nourishes her calf.' Cf. abhivinyavatsa, 
' a cow that gives suck to a strange calf,' Ait. Br. VII, 2, 4 (cf. the 
commentary, p. 377 of Aufrecht's edition) ; apivanyavatsi, Kaur. 80, 
25 ; 82, 22 (our edition, erroneously, api vinyavatsaya^), in the 
same sense ; and nivinyavatsa (also niv&nya) frequently in the Sat. 
Br. in the same sense (see Pet. Lex.). See also Ludwig's note on 
RV. VI, 67 (no), Der Rigveda, IV, p. 113. 

8 The word vixvam, not vimmitra, occurs in st. 1. In st. 2 we 
have vasishMam. Some blundering manipulation of the two seems 
to have inspired the compiler of this futile tract. 

Digitized by 


VI, 45- COMMENTARY. 483 

Stanza 1. 

The first hemistich is formulaic ; see VI, 77, 1. Sayawa, 
his general interpretation of the hymn notwithstanding, is 
not prevented from interpreting r6ga and asrava (st. 2) by 
rudhirasrava or raktasrava, ' flow of blood.' In the intro- 
duction to I, 2, he interprets asrava more broadly as 
excessive discharge in general, diarrhoea, flow of urine, or 
of blood. The word vatikrztanajani (see the note on st. 3) 
tends to narrow down this more general construction in 
accordance with our caption, but we must beware of ascrib- 
ing any too pointed diagnoses to these early physicians ; 
it is quite possible that excessive discharges of all sorts 
were exorcised with this charm. For the use of the 
aorists, cf. Delbriick, Syntaktische Forschungen, II, 87. 

Stanza 2. 
Cf. II, 3, 2. 

Stanza 3. 

a. For vishawaka", see the introduction. Possibly the 
word is identical with vishawika, reported by the medical 
5astras (cf. Wise, Hindu System of Medicine, p. 146), and 
the lexicographers, as the name of a plant. 

e. Cf. Wise, I.e., 2,50, bata byadhi (vatavyadhi), ' diseases 
produced by wind (in the body),' not 'wound,' as Zimmer 
has argued, Altindisches Leben, pp. 389 ft*. Sayawa divides 
vatikr»tan£ranl in two, vatl asravasya rogasya joshayitri ; 
krz'tanlrani, kritam rogasya nidanabhutaw dushkarma, 
tasya nlrayitri. Cf. the note on VI, 109, 3, and the intro- 
duction to 1, 12. 

VI, 45. Commentary to page 163. 

This hymn (along with the next) is directed against bad 
dreams, an application due, perhaps, in the first instance, to 
the chance expression, ' awake or asleep,' in st 2. It may 
be the case, however, that evil thoughts were conceived as 
returning in the form of annoying dreams. The practice 

I i 2 

Digitized by 



at Kauj. 46, 9-10 is as follows: ' With VI, 45 and 46 the 
person that has an (evil) dream rinses his mouth. If he has 
had an excessively frightful dream he offers a cake of 
mixed grain, and deposits a second in the territory of an 
enemy.' Kcrava tells what constitutes an evil dream, 
mentioning the svapnadhyaya, probably Matsya-pura«a 242, 
as his authority. Cf. also Marka«dfcya~pura«a 43 ; Vayu- 
purawa 19 ; Ait. Ar. Ill, 5, 16 ff. (Sacred Books, I, 262 ff.); 
Aufrecht, Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch., XXXII, 
574 ; and Hultzsch, Prolegomena zu des Vasantara^a 
Sakuna, pp. 15 ff. Both hymns figure in the duAsvapnani- 
jranagawa of the Gawamala, Ath. Parir. 32, 8 (Kauj. 46, 9, 
note) ; cf. also Ath. Pari*. 33, 1. 

The present hymn has been translated by Ludwig, Der 
Rigveda, III, 443, and Florenz, Bezzenberger's • Beitrage, 
XII, 305 ff. The Anukramawt, duAsvapnanajanadevatyam. 

Stanza 1. 

a. Sayawa, contrary to the Padapa//«t, reads manas papa, 
' O mind devoted to evil that hast become the cause of 
dreams ; ' cf. the introduction. The text of the Pada 
seems to be an Atharvanic contortion of RV. X, 164, 1 a, 
ape 'hi manasas pate. 

Stanza 2. 

Cf. RV. X, 164, 3 with the variant &asi niArasa<bhLrasa ; 
Tait. Br. Ill, 7, 12, 4, axasa nwasa yit pariU4s&. The exact 
meaning of the words in our text is not easily definable ; 
Saya»a transcribes them all by compounds of jasana= 
hi*«sana ; * injury.' Ludwig leaves them untranslated, and 
regards them as various kinds of imprecations ; but compare 
his version of the RV. words (927, vol. ii, p. 552). Florenz, 
' durch unrecht verlangen, abweis, verwunschung.' 

Stanza 3. 

Cf. RV. X, 164, 4. Saya«a identifies the lightly personified 
Pra£etas with Varu«a. The word is indeed a frequent 
epithet of Varuwa. But the patronymic Angirasa suits 

Digitized by 


VI, 5°- COMMENTARY. 485 

Brahmawaspati rather than Varuwa (so Grassmann, II, 501) ; 
Ludwig refers it to Agni. 

VI, 46. Commentary to page 167. 

The hymn is employed along with VI, 45 in the practice 
described at Kaiw. 46, 9. 10 ; see the introduction to the 
preceding hymn. The last two stanzas of the present 
hymn are employed further, in the case of peculiarly 
oppressive dreams, in a cumulative performance embracing 
the acts of Kaiu. 46, 9. 10, as well as those of 46, 11. 12. 
The latter are undertaken in connection with AV. VII, 100 
and 101 : the dreamer turns over on his other side, and 
looks at real food if he has dreamt of eating food. Cf. also 
Ath. ParLr. 8, 1 ; 33, 1. 

The hymn has been translated by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, 
III, 498 j Florenz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 306. 

Stanza 1. 

Vanwant is a variable term, either a personification of 
the waters (cf. Tait. S. V, 5, 4, 1), or of the night (see the 
passages in the Pet. Lex. under varuwa 1 b, column 724, 
bottom). Here the latter function is in evidence ; cf. Ait. 
Ar. Ill, 4, 18. Aram is a personification of hostility and 
demoniac force; cf. Tait. Br. Ill, 2, 9, 4. 

Stanza 3. 

Cf. RV. VIII, 47, 17; AV. XIX, 57. 1. Sayawa, 
mechanically, ' as one removes claws and other parts that 
have been injured by disease, or as wicked men transmit 
their debts by tradition (inheritance)/ &c. 

VI, 50. Commentary to page 142. 

Kejrava and Saya#a, in their introductions to the cere- 
monies prescribed in connection with this hymn at Kaur. 
51, 17-22, mention a long line of pestiferous insects, but 
the rare and unknown words in the hymn are not elucidated. 

Digitized by 



The performances are as follows: 17. 'While the hymn is 
being recited, the performer walks about the grain-field, 
hacking a piece of lead with an iron instrument 1 . 18. He 
scatters stones upon the field. 19. He ties a hair through 
the mouth of a tarda (insect) and buries him head down- 
ward into the middle of the field. 20. He performs the act 
which is to be done while walking *. 21. He offers a bali- 
offering to Aja (" region "), to Arapati (" lord of the regions "), 
to the two Ajvins, and to Kshetrapati (" lord of the field "). 
22. On the day when he performs the ceremonies for these 
(divinities ?) he shall remain silent up to the time of sunset.' 
The hymn is catalogued also in the first abhayagawa (cf. 
st. 1) of the Gawamala, Ath. Parij. 32, 12 (cf. Kaiw. 16, 8, 
note). It has been rendered by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 
499 ff. ; Florenz, Bezzenberger's Beitrage, XII, 312 ff. The 
Anukramanl, Irvinam abhayakama//. 

Stanza 1. 

The renderings of tardam and samankdm are conjectured 
etymologically. For the latter, see the note on I, 1 2, 2 c. 

Stanza 2. 

The name upakvasa is not even etymologically sugges- 
tive. Sayawa reads apakvasa^ (a-pakvas), glossing, adag- 
dha^ santaA. 

1 For Kaujika's ayasa sis&m karshan Sayawa reads aya^sisaw 
gharshan, paraphrasing it by lohamayaw sfsam gharshan. Possibly 
sisam is to be changed to sitSm : the performance would then con- 
sist in ploughing a furrow with an iron (plough) about the field. 
Cf. Kauf. 50, 17. 

2 Cf. Kauf. 51, 2 (in the introduction to IV, 3): 'While walk- 
ing he offers thrice to the A jvins (so Sayawa ; cf. st. 1 of our hymn) 
milk of a cow with a calf of the same colour as herself.' Sayawa 
reads for JSre, the word which we have rendered ' while walking,' 
£arau. By transcribing Hre in Devanagari, and adding a vertical 
line after the r, the partial ambiguity will appear. Siyawa's statement 
is, jJarum afvibhyaw^iihuyat. We are not convinced. Why should 
the MSS. of the Kaunka write the diphthong au in this fashion in 
this instance, and never elsewhere ? 

Digitized by 


VI, 56. COMMENTARY^ — , 487 

Stanza 3. 

The two compounds with pati are ambiguous. The final 
long a of the stems preceding may be due to Vedic (metrical) 
lengthening : in that case, ' lord of the tarda,' &c, is the 
proper rendering. So Sayawa. For vyadhvar£4 Shankar 
Pandit's edition, with most MSS. and Sayawa, read vyad- 
varfiw ; cf. our notes on II, 31, 4 c ; III, 28, 2. 

VI, 56. Commentary to page 151. 

The terms of the hymn indicate a charm against serpents, 
of the general sort 1 , but Kaor. 50, 17-22 gives it a prag- 
matic turn ; the practice is designed to keep serpents 
away from the premises: 17. 'While reciting this hymn 
along with sundry other mantras, lines are scratched around 
the bed, the house, and the grain-field. 18. Grass that has 
been anointed with the dregs of ghee is fastened upon the 
door through a yoke-hole 2 . 19. Dung from the entrails 
(of a cow) is crumbled (at the door). 20. It is dug into 
(the ground). 21. And laid on (the fire). 22. (The same 
performances as with the dung are undertaken with) the 
blossoms of the apamarga-plant (achyranthes aspera; cf. 
the introduction to IV, 17), the hoofs(!) of the kudri^i-tree 3 , 
the roots of them being turned away 4 (from the ground, 
fire, &c.)V 

The hymn is also rubricated (with others) at Kaur. 139, 
8, in the course of practices preparatory to the study of 

1 Cf. Kwava, sarpadisvastyayanam. 

* Cf. AV. XIV, 1, 40; Kauj. 76, 12, and Indische Studien, V, 

199. 387- 

* Very doubtful: the word is kudri^uaphdn. K&rava, gudMi- 
padan, 'the feet of the gud&kt (cocculus cordifolius '). Sayawa 
simply, gudQAim. 

' The text, para^namulan. Neither Kejava, nor Sayawa com- 
ments upon the word. 

* The aim of these performances is clear : the serpents are to be 
excluded by magic lines, and purifying substances and plants. 

Digitized by 



the Vedas. Cf. also Vait. Su. 29, 10; Ath. ParLr. 19, 5. 
It has been translated by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 50a ; 
Grill 1 , pp. 5, 162 ff. 

Stanza 1. 

The second hemistich recurs at X, 4, 8 (cf. also IV, 3, 7) 
without the formula namo devaganibhyaA. This may 
therefore have been borrowed from the end of st. 2. The 
divine folks are the serpents themselves, cf. XI, 9, 2. 5. 26 ; 
10, 5, and the sarpadeva^anaA, Yk\g. S. XXX, 8. See also 
.Sat. Br. VII, 4, l, 28. 

Stanza 2. 

For different designations of serpents, see Zimmer, Altin- 
disches Leben, pp. 94 ff. For asita (Saya«a, kr zshwavarwa) 
and tlr&skir&gi (Sayawa, tiryag avasthita . . . valayo yasya), 
see III, 27, 12 ; VII, 56, 1 ; X, 4, 5 ff. ; XII, 3, 55 ff., and 
the note to the last- mentioned passage. See also the note 
on V, 13, 5, and TS. V, 5, 10, 1. 2. The Hindu commen- 
tators explain sva^a als * self-born.' Saya«a, svayam eva 
j-ayate karanantaranairapekshye/ta utpadyate; cf. the gloss, 
Tait. S. V, 5, 14, 1. The Pet. Lex., 'vivipara,' or 'the em- 
bracer.' Weber at Tait. S., 1. c, also derives it from sva^-, 

Stanza 3. 

Cf. A. Kuhn, Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachfor- 
schung, XIII, 60. 

The third Pada may refer to the forked tongue of the 
serpent (Saya«a, sarpasya hi dve ^ihve). But perhaps, 
more likely, it is a strong way of saying, ' I shut up thy 
tongue,' continuing under the impetus of the first hemistich. 
Cf. Pada d. 

VI, 57. Commentary to page 19. 

The practices of the Kaurika, 31, 11-15, contribute not 
a little towards the elucidation of this medicinal charm. 
In the hymn the disease is merely designated as the arrow 
of Rudra, but in the Sutra it is called akshata ; the remedy 
is akshatavrawabhaisha^yam (Kerava), and Saya«a explains 

Digitized by 


VI, 57- COMMENTARY. 489 

it as a ' wound without opening ' (mukharahitavraaa ') ; 
cf. also Darila at Kaur. 32, it. 13. In Contributions, 
Second Series, Amer. Journ. Phil. XI, 321 ff., we have 
shown that the disease in question is a tumour or a boil, 
and in Contributions, Fourth Series, ib. XII, 425 ff., we 
have assumed on the basis of the ritual that the remedy 
designated in the hymn (st. 2) as ^alasha, the particular 
remedy of Rudra, is identical with mutra, ' urine,' of the 
Sutra 2 . The practice consists in moistening the tumour 
with the foam of (cow's) urine, throwing the urine itself 
upon it ;„ next, washing it off, then, smearing it with scour- 
ings from the teeth, and with the pollen from bunches of 
grass. The disease is probably much the same as the 
gawfemala, « scrofula ; ' cf. AV. VI, 83 ; VII, 74 ; VII, 76, 4, 
and the introductions to these hymns. 

The third stanza is rubricated in the list of purificatory 
mantras, Kaur. 9, 2 (cf. the br*ha&Wantiga«a of the 
Gawamala, Ath. Parij. 32, 26), and in a similar list, Kaur. 

4i, 14- 

Stanza 1. 

e, d. The arrow here described is Rudra's arrow that in- 
flicts disease. Fittingly, Rudra's own remedy the .g-alasha 
is employed as a cure. The very rare word ^alashabhe- 
sha^a occurs also in the Nilarudra-Upanishad 3, esha ety 
avlraha rudro ^alashabhesh^aA (see Jacob's Concordance). 

Stanza 2. 
For ^alasha Sayawa reads four times ^alasha ; cf. our 
discussion of the forms of the word in Contributions, 
Fourth Series, 1. c, 425. 

Stansa 8. 
e, d. Cf. RV. VIII, 20, 26 ; X, 59, 8-10. The last Pada 

1 Kerava, yasya ga»</adush/asya rudhiraw na vahati. 

* Professor Windisch, in a review of the above-mentioned essay 
(Literarisches Centralblatt, 1892, No. 51, col. 1836), refers to a 
treatise of E. Wilhelm, ' On the use of beef's urine ' (Bombay, 
1889). This is not at hand, but see Wise, Hindu System of 
Medicine, p. 117. 

Digitized by 



is formulaic ; see AV. XVIII, 5, 23, and note the variant, 
RV. X, 59l 8-10. 

VI, 59. Commentary to page 144. 

This hymn, obviously a cattle-charm, is employed, along 
with a great variety of other mantras, rather indifferently, 
at Kauj. 50, 13. The practice is that of a merchant who 
starts out upon his business: in Kaur. 50, 13 he offers 1 
a variety of substances with the list of hymns in question. 
Cf. the introductions to III, 15 ; VI, 128, and XI, 2. It is 
rubricated further in the list of purificatory mantras, Kaur. 
9, 2 (cf. the br*ha££Aantiga«a of the Ga«amala, Ath. Pari*. 
32, 26), and in a similar list, Kaor. 41, 14 ; it has been ren- 
dered by Grill 2 , pp. 6$, 163. For the character of the plant 
arundhatf, see the introduction to IV, 12. 

Stanza 1. 

Saya«a defines arundhat! as sahadevi, a common name 
for plants, but the interpretation is not to be trusted 
because he reads sahadevi for saha devfr in st. 2 b. Cf. 
the introduction to IV, 12. In Pida c, Grill emends vayase 
unnecessarily to avayase, ' was nicht erstarkt ist.' Sayawa, 
quite correctly, ' at the age beyond five years when weaned 
from the mother.' Cf. the quotations in the Pet. Lex. 
under 3. vayas 2) ; the passage, ekahayanaprabhrz'ty a- 
pa«£ahayanebhyo vayawsi, quoted from Apastamba at Tait. 
Br. Ill, 1 2, 5, 9, is referred to by Saya«a also. 

Stanza 2. 

b. For saha devir we read saha devafr ; cf. the reading 
kalarir for kalarair in the note on III, 12, 7, and, more 
generally, the note on XII, 3, 32 c. Grill, similarly, the 

1 The word upadadhha there and elsewhere is a technical term, 
' lay upon.' Kefava, at the end of Kaiu . 6 (see p. 309, middle, of the 
edition), defines it as the act of offering one of thirteen offerings 
(havfrnshi), very varied in character ; cf. the word upadhana in the 
Paribhasha-sutra 8, 17. 

Digitized by 


VI, 60. COMMENTARY. 49 1 

compound sahadevl (cf. XII, 4, 23) ; Sayawa, sahadevyakhya 
arundhatl abhilashitaphalasya avarayitrl oshadhiA (avara- 
yitri = arundhat i). 

Stanza 3. 

b. gtvsML as epithet of arundhat" occurs also, VIII, 7, 6. 
See the note there, and at XIX, 39, 3. 

VI, 60. Commentary to page 95. 

The prescription for the use of this hymn at Kauj. 34, 
32-24 is to pour an oblation (of ghee) for Aryaman (in the 
morning) before the crows rise, and to place bali-offerings 
within the corners of the house. (The wooer is, then, sure 
to come) from the direction from which (the crows) come 
flying. The charm is, therefore, an oracle (pativedanam l ) ; 
it is not employed in the marriage-ritual, Kauj. 75, where 
the actual arrival of the bridegroom is described, unless, 
indeed, it is implied in the word pativedanam (75, 6). But 
the Paddhatis refer to Kauy. 34, 13, a rite performed in con- 
nection with AV. II, 36, rather than to our performance. 

The hymn has been translated by Weber, Indische Stu- 
dien, V, 236 ff. ; Grill 2 , pp. 56, 164; Zimmer, Altindisches 
Leben, p. 306. 

Stanza 1. 

a, b. Aryaman is the typical wooer or bridegroom ; cf. 
AV. XIV, 1, 34 (=RV. X, 8 5) 23). 39 ; a, 5 (=RV. X, 40, 
12). Weber and Grill join purastad to vfshitastupaA, ' with 
crest loosened in front ; ' Sayawa, ' from the east.' We are 
having in mind a bridal procession consisting of many 
wooers (cf. AV. XI, 8, 1. 2, and Kauj. 75, 13). See also 
Indische Studien, V, 380, bottom. 

Stanza 2. 

d. The plural &ny£A and the singular a"*yati do not 
agree. Weber would read ayantu or ayanti ; Grill, anya*. 

1 Cf. Kaur. 34, 12 ; 75, 6. 

Digitized by CjOOQ lC 


The latter change results in the best metre. Sayawa, coolly, 
ayati prapnuvanti. 

VI, 64. Commentary to page 136. 

This hymn is rubricated in the ga»a, or series, entitled 
sawmanasyani in Kauj. 12, 5, and the practices are the 
same as those employed in connection with III, 30, above. 
The entire hymn is repeated with many variants in RV. X, 
191, 2-4, in Maitr. S. II, 2, 6, and in Tait. Br. II, 4, 4, 4 ff. 
It has been translated by Ludwig, Der Rigveda, III, 37a ; 
Grill 2 , pp. 31, j