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Full text of "Sacred Books East Various Oriental Scholars with Index. 50 vols Max Muller Oxford 1879.1910."

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m 



i w 



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THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



[43] 

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HENRY FROWDE, M.A. 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 




LONDON, EDINBURGH, AND NEW YORK 



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n^^i 



THE 



SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST 



TRANSLATED 



BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 



AND EDITED BY 



F. MAX MULLER 



VOL. XLIII 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1897 

[All rights reserved} 



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■Sf 



Ojtfotb 



PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

BY HORACE HAST, U.K. 
PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



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THE 



SATAPATHA-BRAHMANA 



ACCORDING TO THE TEXT OF THE 



MADHYANDINA school 



TRANSLATED BY 



JULIUS EGGELING 



PART IV 



BOOKS VIII, IX, AND X 




AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1897 



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CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Introduction x '» 



EIGHTH KANDA. 
The Building of the Sacred Fire-altar (continued). 

First Layer (continued) : — ' 

Prawabhm (5 sets of 10 each) 1 

Lokampriwa 2 * 

Second Layer: — 22 

Ajvint (5) 2 3 

-ff»'tavya(a) 2 9 

Vai^vadevt (5) 3° 

Pra»abhnit (5) 33 

Apasy£(5) 34 

JTAandasya (19) 3 6 

Lokampn'wa 4* 

Third Layer:— 4* 

Svayam£tn»»&(i) 4 2 

Duya( 5 ) 43 

Vuva^yotis (1) 47 

J?ilavy4(4) 48 

Pra»abhnt (10) 5» 

JE&uidasya (36) 5i 

Valakhilya (14) 54 

Lokamprjwa 5° 

Fourth Layer :— 5^ 

Stoma (18) 59.77 

SprA (10) 66 



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Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



of 10 each) 



Jt&ayySi (2) 

Sn'sh/i(i7) 

Lokamprma" 
Fifth Layer:— 

Asapatni (5) 

JCkandasyi, or Vir&g' (4 sets 

StomabhlgS, (29) 

NSkasad (5) 

T?aZteMd& (5) . 

iT.fandasya' (10 sets of 3 each) 

Gdrhapatya hearth (8) 

PunaaHti (8) 

Xituvyi (2) 

Vwva^yotis (1) . 

LokamprM (1) 

Vikaret (1) 

SvayamaVi'»«a (1) 

Samans sung thereon 

Scattering of 100 chips of gold on 

Symbolical meaning of layers 



altar 



70 

7i 
82 
82 
83 
83,87 
92 

97 
103 
109 
117 
119 

125 
129 

131 
141 
142 

M5 
146 

147 



NINTH KANDA. 



.Satarudriya 

Oblations on three enclosing-stones 

AvatSna (unstringing) libations . 

Pratyavaroha (redescending) libations 

Sprinkling of altar 

Throwing of stone towards Nirn'ti's quarter 

Taking possession of the bricks, as milch cows 

Drawing of frog, lotus-flower, and bamboo-shoot 
the altar 

Simans sung round the altar 
Day of Preparation for Soma-sacrifice 

Libations on Svayamltr*««a 

Sprinkling of altar with sour curds, honey and ghe 

Pravargya 

Leading forward of Agni to the Altar . 

Oblations of ghee on udumbara logs . 

Lifting of log, setting forth, Apratiratha hymn 



across 



150, i5 6 
158 
163 
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169 
171 
172 



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CONTENTS. 



IX 



on, Ahavanlya 



of air 



Setting up of variegated stone on Agnidhra site 
Mounting of Fire-altar 

Milk-offering on firebrand . 

Laving down of, and putting logs 

Oblations thereon 
Installation and Consecration of Agni , 

Cakes to Vauv&nara and Maruts . 

Vasor dh&ri, or shower of wealth 

Ardhendra and Graha oblations 

Ya^nakratus 

Oblations to Stomas and age-grades 

Kalpa (prospering) libations 

Va^-aprasavfya libations 

Partha libations . 

Consecration of Sacrificer . 

Rash/rabhri't oblations 

Oblations on head of chariot 

Yoking of chariot with oblations ■ 

Runmati (lightsome) oblations 

Arkajvamedha-sawtati oblations 
Preparatory Rites of Soma-sacrifice 

Building of Dhishxya hearths 

Agnfshomiya (animal) sacrifice 

Oblations to Regions . 

Oblations to Divine Quickeners (devasu) 

Pajupura&ra-offering 
Sutya, or Day of Soma-sacrifice . 

Agniyoga, or yoking of Fire-altar 

Pressing and offering of Soma 

Unyoking of Fire-altar 

Milk for fast-food 

Samish/ayajiis oblations 

UdayanlyS, and offering of barren cow 

Cake to Orderer (Pra^apati and the sun) 

Oblations to goddesses Anumati, Rika, S 
Kuhft 

Pajupuro</a\ra and concluding ceremonies 
of barren cow .... 

Vauvakarmawa oblations . 

Payasyt-offering to Mitra and Varu/ia . 



fire 



ntvalf and 



of offering 



195 

198 

200 

202 

204 

207 

207 

213 

216 

217 

217 

220 

223 

225 

226 

229 

233 

235 

237 

239 

241 

241 

245 

245 

246 

248 

249 

249 

251 

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255 
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263 
264 

264 

265 
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CONTENTS. 



PACE 

Rules for a repeated Agntfayana . .271 

Propitiatory hymn to Indra and Agni . .274 



TENTH KANDA. 

The Mystery of the Fire-altar 281 

The triad — Fire-altar, Mahad uktham, and Mahavrata . 281 

Parimad samans 288 

Pra^apati made immortal 290 

Layers of altar partly mortal and partly immortal . 292 

AgnLtayana includes all sacrifices .... 296 

Contraction and expansion of wings of altar (bird) . 300 

Dimensions of Fire-altar 305 

Sevenfold and hundred and onefold altars . . -313 

Time for building the altar 316 

Number of Upasad-days 317 

Pra^apati, the Altar and the Year (Time) . . .321 
The metres in relation to Pra^apati . . . .327 
Dhlra .Satapameya and Mahlrala Cabala on the 

knowledge of Agni 331 

Arum on the mystery of the Arka .... 333 

Mystic import of the Ya^Tis 336 

The sacred fire, the Arka, the one Akshara, the 

great Brahman 343 

Pra^apati, the year, is Agni, and King Soma, the 

moon 349 

Trayt vidya (the Vedas) 352 

Pra^apati, the year, as Death 356 

The Sacrificer is Pra^apati, and immortal . -357 

Numbers of bricks in layers 358 

Session of a thousand years 361 

Mystic import of Agni, the Fire-altar .... 363 
The gold plate and gold man as sun and the man in 

the sun 366 

Death, the man in the right eye, and the man in the sun 371 

Mind, the ultimate cause of the universe . . . 375 

The Fire-altar, the universe 381 

Kuxri Va^ajravasa on the construction of the altar . 390 

Arvapati Kaikeya on the nature of Vairvanara . . 393 



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CONTENTS. X! 



PACE 

The Agni-like, Arka-like, Uktha-like Purusha . . 398 
The true Brahman, the Self, the golden Purusha . . 400 
The sacrificial horse (Pra^Spati), the universe . .401 

Death, the ultimate cause 402 

Death, the Arka and Axvamedha, conquered by 

knowledge 404 

Corrections 405 



Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East . 407 



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INTRODUCTION. 

The present volume completes the exposition of the 
Agni^ayana, or construction of the sacred Fire-altar. 
Whilst to the general reader the section of the Brahmawa 
treating of this ceremony, and extending over no less than 
five of its fourteen k&ndas — or rather more than one-third 
of the whole — will probably appear the least inviting part 
of the work, a special interest attaches to this ceremony, 
and the dogmatic explanation of its details, for the student 
of Indian antiquity. The complicated ritual of the Fire- 
altar, as has been pointed out before 1 , does not seem to 
have formed part of the original sacrificial system, but was 
probably developed independently of it, and incorporated 
with it at a comparatively recent period. There seems, 
indeed, some reason to believe that it was elaborated with 
a definite object in view, viz. that of making the external 
rites and ceremonies of the sacrificial cult the practical 
devotional expression of certain dominant speculative 
theories of the time. As a matter of fact, the dogmatic 
exposition of no other part of the sacrificial ceremonial 
reflects so fully and so faithfully as that of the Agni£ayana 
those cosmogonic and theosophic theories which form 
a characteristic feature of the Brahma/za period. In the 
present work, that section commences with a cosmogonic 
account so elaborate as is hardly to be met with anywhere 
else in the Brahmawa literature ; and throughout the 
course of performance the symbolic import of its details is 

1 See part i, introduction, p. xxxi. 



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XIV SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

explained here, as in other Brahmawas, on the lines of those 
cosmogonic speculations. 

When, towards the close of the period represented by the 
Vedic hymns, inquiring minds began to look beyond the 
elemental gods of the traditional belief for some ulterior 
source of mundane life and existence, the conception of 
a supreme, primordial being, the creator of the universe, 
became the favourite topic of speculation. We accordingly 
find different poets of that age singing of this uncreate 
being under different names, — they call him Vijvakarman, 
the 'All-worker'; or Hira«yagarbha, the ' golden Embryo' ; 
or Purusha, the ' Person ' ; or Ka, the ' Who ? ' ; or the 
heavenly Gandharva Vijvavasu, 'All-wealth ' ; or Pra^apati, 
the ' Lord of Creatures.' Or they have recourse to a some- 
what older figure of the Pantheon, likewise of abstract 
conception, and call him Brahmanaspati 1 , the Lord of 
prayer or devotion ; a figure which would naturally 
commend itself to the priestly mind, and which, indeed, in 
a later phase of Hindu religion, came to supply not only 
the name of the abstract, impersonal form of the deity, the 
world-spirit, but also that of the first of its three personal 
forms, the creator of the Hindu triad. Amongst these and 
other names by which the supreme deity is thus designated 
in the philosophic hymns of the Rik and Atharva-veda,the 
name of Pra^apati, the Lord of Creatures or generation, 
plays a very important part in the immediately succeeding 
period of literature, viz. that of the Brahmanas. 

In the so-called Purusha-hymn (.# zg-veda X, 90), in which 
the supreme spirit is conceived of as the Person or Man 
(Purusha), born in the beginning, and consisting of ' what- 
soever hath been and whatsoever shall be,' the creation of 
the visible and invisible universe is represented as originating 
from an 'all-offered ' sacrifice 2 (ya^wa) in which the Purusha 
himself forms the offering-material (havis), or, as one might 



1 Cf. ^ig-veda X, 21, 2. 

' That is to say, a sacrifice at which not only portions of the sacrificial dish, 
or the victim, are offered op to the deities, but where every single part of it is 
offered. 



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INTRODUCTION. XV 



say, the victim. In this primeval — or rather timeless, 
because ever-proceeding — sacrifice, Time itself, in the shape 
of its unit, the Year, is made to take its part, inasmuch as 
the three seasons, spring, summer, and autumn, of which it 
consists, constitute the ghee, the offering-fuel, and the 
oblation respectively. These speculations may be said to 
have formed the foundation on which the theory of the 
sacrifice, as propounded in the Brahmauas, has been reared. 
Pra^apati, who here takes the place of the Purusha, the 
world-man, or all-embracing Personality, is offered up anew 
in every sacrifice ; and inasmuch as the very dismember- 
ment of the Lord of Creatures, which took place at that 
archetypal sacrifice, was in itself the creation of the universe, 
so every sacrifice is also a repetition of that first creative 
act. Thus the periodical sacrifice is nothing else than a 
microcosmic representation of the ever-proceeding destruc- 
tion and renewal of all cosmic life and matter. The theo- 
logians of the Brahmawas go, however, an important step 
further by identifying the performer, or patron, of the 
sacrifice — the Sacrificer — with Pra^apati ; and it is this 
identification which may perhaps furnish us with a clue to 
the reason why the authors of the Brahmawas came to fix 
upon ' Pra^apati ' as the name of the supreme spirit. The 
name ' Lord of Creatures ' is, no doubt, in itself a perfectly 
appropriate one for the author of all creation and generation ; 
but seeing that the peculiar doctrine of the Purusha-sukta 
imparted such a decisive direction to subsequent dogmatic 
speculation, it might seem rather strange that the name 
there chosen to designate the supreme being should have 
been discarded, only to be employed occasionally, and then 
mostly with a somewhat different application 1 . On the 
other hand, the term ' Pra^apati ' was manifestly a 



1 In its original sense it occurs at the beginning 6f the AgniAayana section, 
VI, i, t, 2-s, in connection with what might almost be regarded as an exposi- 
tion of the Purusha-sukta. The seven original purushas ont of which the 
Purusha comes to be compacted, are apparently intended to account for the 
existence of the seven A'tshis (explained in the Brahmanas as representing the 
vital airs) prior to the creation of the one Purusha. It would seem that they 
themselves previously composed the as yet uncorporeal Purusha. 



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XVI 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

singularly convenient one for the identification of the 
Sacrificer with the supreme ' Lord of Creatures ' ; for, 
doubtless, men who could afford to have great and costly 
sacrifices, such as those of the .Srauta ceremonial, performed 
for them — if they were not themselves Brahmans, in which 
case the term might not be inappropriate either — would 
almost invariably be ' Lords of Creatures,' i.e. rulers of men 
and possessors of cattle, whether they were mighty kings, 
or petty rulers, or landed proprietors, or chiefs of clans. It 
may be remarked, in this respect, that there is in the 
language of the Brahma#as a constant play on the word 
' pra^a ' (progenies), which in one place means ' creature ' in 
general, whilst in another it has the sense of 'people, 
subjects,' and in yet another the even more restricted one 
of ' offspring or family.' 

How far this identification of the human Sacrificer with 
the divine Pra^apati goes back, and whether, when first 
adopted, it was applied at once to the whole of the sacrificial 
system, or whether it rather originated with a certain 
restricted group of ritualists in connection with some 
limited portion of the ceremonial such as the Agni£ayana, 
and became subsequently part and parcel of the sacrificial 
theory, it would probably not be easy to determine. As 
regards the symbolic connection of the Sacrificer himself 
with the sacrifice, there can at any rate be no doubt that it 
was an essential and an intimate one from the very beginning 
of the sacrificial practice. When a man offers to the gods 
their favourite food, it is in order to please them and to 
gain some special object of his own, — either to make them 
strong and inclined for fighting his battles, and to secure 
their help for some undertaking' of his or against some 
danger by which he is threatened ; or to deprecate their 
wrath at some offence he knows or fancies he has committed 
against them ; or to thank them for past favours, with an 
eye, it may be, to new and still greater favours to come. 
Gradually, however, the connection becomes a subtler and 
more mystic one ; the notion of substitution enters into the 
sacrifice : it is in lieu of his own self that man makes the 



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INTRODUCTION. XVII 



offering. This notion is a familiar one to the theologians 
of the Brahmawas, either in the sense that the oblation is 
sent up to the gods in order to prepare the way for the 
Sacrificer, and secure a place for him in heaven ; or in the 
sense that along with the burnt-offering the human body 
of the Sacrificer is mystically consumed, and a new, divine 
body prepared to serve him in the celestial abodes. Inti- 
mately connected with this latter notion we find another, 
introduced rather vaguely, which makes the sacrifice a 
mystic union in which the Sacrificer generates from out of 
the Vedi (f.), or altar-ground, his future, divine self. In 
this respect Agni, the offering-fire, also appears as the 
mate of Vedi 1 ; but it will be seen that Agni himself is 
but another form of the divine and the human Pra^apati. 

With the introduction of the Pra^apati theory into the 
sacrificial metaphysics, theological speculation takes a higher 
flight, developing features not unlike, in some respects, to 
those of Gnostic philosophy. From a mere act of piety, 
and of practical, if mystic, significance to the person, or 
persons, immediately concerned, the sacrifice — in the esoteric 
view of the metaphysician, at least — becomes an event of 
cosmic significance. By offering up his own self in sacrifice, 
Pra^apati becomes dismembered ; and all those separated 
limbs and faculties of his come to form the universe, — all 
that exists, from the gods and Asuras (the children of 
Father Pragapati) down to the worm, the blade of grass, 
and the smallest particle of inert matter. It requires 
a new, and ever new, sacrifice to build the dismembered 
Lord of Creatures up again, and restore him so as to enable 
him to offer himself up again and again, and renew the 
universe, and thus keep up the uninterrupted revolution of 
time and matter. The idea of the dismembered Pra^apati, 
and of this or that sacrificial act being required to complete 
and replenish him, occurs throughout the lucubrations of 
the Brahmawas ; but in the exposition of the ordinary 
forms of sacrifice, this element can hardly be considered as 

* See I, 2, 3, 15-16. From the woman Vedi (otherwise representing the 
earth) creatures generally are produced ; cf. Ill, 5, I, II. 

[43] b 



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XV11I tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

one of vital importance ; whilst in the Agni^ayana, on the 
contrary, it is of the very essence of the whole performance. 
Indeed, it seems to me by no means unlikely that the 
Purusha-Pra^-apati dogma was first practically developed 
in connection with the ceremony of the Fire-altar 1 , and 
that, along with the admission of the latter into the regular 
sacrificial ceremonial, it was worked into the sacrificial 
theory generally. In the Agni^ayana section (KaWas 
VI-X), as has already been stated 2 , S&nd\\y& is referred 
to as the chief authority in doctrinal matters, whilst in the 
remaining portions of the Brahmawa, that place of honour 
is assigned to Ya^-»avalkya. Now, it may be worthy of 
notice, in connection with this question of the Pra^apati 
dogma, that in the list of successive teachers 3 appended to 
the Agni^ayana section, the transmission of the sacrificial 
science — or rather of the science of the Fire-altar, for the 
list can only refer to that section — is traced from .Sarafilya 
upwards to Tura Kavasheya, who is stated to have received 
it from Pra^apati ; the Lord of Creatures, on his part, 
having received it from the (impersonal) Brahman. Does 
not this look almost like a distinct avowal of ,Sa«*/ilya and 
his spiritual predecessors being answerable for having 
introduced the doctrine of the identity of Pra^apati and the 
sacrifice into the sacrificial philosophy ? If such be the 
case, the adaptation of this theory to the dogmatic ex- 
planation of the other parts of the ceremonial, as far as the 
•Satapatha-Brahmawa is concerned, might be supposed to 
have been carried out about the time of Saw^ivt-putra, 
when the union of the two lines of teachers seems to have 
taken place *. But seeing that the tenth Ka«da, called the 
Mystery, or secret doctrine, of the Fire-altar, was apparently 
not at first included in the sacrificial canon of the Va^a- 

1 VI, i, 2, 3i, 'This performance (of the AgnUayana) assuredly belongs to 
Pra^apatl, for it is Prag&pati he undertakes (to construct) by this performance.' 

* Part i, introduction, p. xxxi. 

' For this V&msa., as well as that appended to the last book of the Brahmawa, 
see ibid. p. xxxiii, note i. 

4 Ibid. p. xxxiv ; Max Miillcr, History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 
P- 437- 



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INTRODUCTION. XIX 



saneyins', the mystic speculations in which that section so 
freely indulges would seem to have been left apart from 
the regular canon, along with other floating material which 
was not considered suitable for practical purposes, or 
indispensable for an intelligent appreciation of the hidden 
import of the sacrificial rites. 

Once granted that the real purport of all sacrificial per- 
formances is the restoration of the dismembered Lord of 
Creatures, and the reconstruction of the All, it cannot be 
denied that, of all ceremonial observances, the building of 
the great Fire-altar was the one most admirably adapted 
for this grand symbolic purpose. The very magnitude of 
the structure ; — nay, its practically illimitable extent *, 
coupled with the immense number of single objects — 
mostly bricks of various kinds— of which it is composed, 
cannot but offer sufficiently favourable conditions for con- 
triving what might fairly pass for a miniature representation 
of at least the visible universe. The very name ' Agni,' by 
which the Fire-altar is invariably designated, indicates from 
the very outset an identification of cardinal importance — 
that of Pra^apati with Agni, the god of fire, and the sacri- 
fice. It is a natural enough identification ; for, as Pra^apati 
is the arch-sacrificer, so Agni is the divine sacrificer, the 
priest of the sacrifice. Hence the constantly occurring 
triad — Pra^apati, Agni, and (the human) Sacrificer. The 
identity of the altar and the sacred fire which is ultimately 
to be placed thereon is throughout insisted upon. Side by 
side with the forming and baking of the bricks for the altar 
takes place the process of shaping and baking the fire-pan 
(ukha). During the year over which the building of the 
altar is spread, the sacred fire is carried about in the pan by 
the Sacrificer for a certain time each day. In the same way 
as the layers of the altar are arranged so as to represent 
earth, air, and heaven, so the fire-pan is fashioned in such 
a way as to be a miniature copy of the three worlds 3 . But, 
while this identity is never lost sight of, it is not an absolute 

1 Ibid. p. xxxii. ' See X, 1, 3, 17-18 ; a, 4, 1 seqq.; 4, 3, 5-8. 

' VI, {, 1, 1 seq.; VII, I, 3,7-9. 

b2 



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XX SATAPATHA-BRAHMA2VA. 

one, but rather one which seems to hold good only for this 
special sacrificial performance. Though it may be that we 
have to look upon this identification as a serious attempt to 
raise Agni, the divine priest, to the position of a supreme 
deity, the creator of the universe, such a design seems 
nowhere to be expressed in clear and unmistakeable terms. 
Nor are the relations between the two deities always 
defined consistently. Pra^pati is the god above all other 
gods ; he is the thirty-fourth god, and includes all the gods 
(which Agni does likewise) ; he is the three worlds as well 
as the fourth world beyond them *. Whilst, thus, he is the 
universe, Agni is the child of the universe, the (cosmic) 
waters being the womb from which he springs 2 . Whence 
a lotus-leaf is placed at the bottom of the fire-altar to 
represent the waters and the womb from which Agni- 
Pra^apati and the human Sacrificer are to be born. Agni 
is both the father and the son of Pra^apati : ' inasmuch as 
Pra^apati created Agni, he is Agni's father ; and inasmuch 
as Agni restored him, Agni is his father V Yet the two 
are separate ; for Pra^apati covets Agni's forms, — forms 
(such as Lana, the lord ; Mahan DevaA, the great god ; 
Parupati, the lord of beasts) which are indeed desirable 
enough for a supreme Lord of Creatures to possess, and 
which might well induce Pragapati to take up Agni within 
his own self. Though, in accordance with an older con- 
ception, Agni is still the light or regent of the earth, as 
Vayu, the wind, is that of the air, and the sun that of the 
heavens ; it is now explained that really these are but three 
forms of the one Agni, — that Agni's splendour in heaven is 
Aditya, that in the air Vayu, and that on earth the (sacri- 
ficial) fire *. When Pra^apati is dismembered, Agni takes 
unto himself the escaping fiery spirit of the god ; and when 
he is set up again, Agni becomes the right arm, as Indra 
becomes the left one, of the Lord of Creatures. Upon the 
whole, however, the peculiar relations between the two 
gods may perhaps be defined best in accordance with the 

1 iv, 6. i, 4. • VI, 8, a, 4-6. 

• VI, 1, 2, 26. « VI, 7, 4 , 4; VII, 1, 1, M-33. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXI 



passage already referred to : — Agni is created by Pragapati, 
and he subsequently restores Pra^ipati by giving up his 
own body (the fire-altar) to build up anew the dismembered 
Lord of Creatures, and by entering into him with his own 
fiery spirit, — ' whence, while being Pragapati, they yet call 
him Agni.' 

The shape adopted for the altar is that of some large 
bird — probably an eagle or a falcon — flying towards the 
east, the gate of heaven. Not that this is the form in which 
Pra^apati is invariably conceived. On the contrary, he is 
frequently imagined in the form of a man, and symbolic 
features are often applied to him which could only fit, or 
would best fit, a human body. But, being the embodiment of 
all things, Pragapati naturally possesses all forms ; whence 
the shape of a four-footed animal is likewise occasionally 
applied to the altar 1 . It was, doubtless, both traditional 
imagery and practical considerations which told in favour of 
the shape actually chosen. Pragapati is the sacrifice and 
the food of the gods 2 ; and Soma, the drink of immortality 
and at the same time the Moon, is the divine food or 
offering Km i£oxjjv, the uttamaw havis 9 , or paramahuti 4 , 
or supreme oblation: hence Pra^apati is Soma 8 . But 
Soma was brought down from heaven by the bird-shaped 
Gayatri ; and the sacrifice itself is fashioned like a bird e . 
In one passage 7 , certain authorities are referred to as making 
the altar (Agni) take the form of a bird in order to carry 
the Sacrificer to heaven ; but the author himself there 
insists dogmatically on the traditional connection of the 
altar with Pragapati : that it was by assuming that form 
that the vital airs became Pra^apati 8 ; and that in that 

1 See, for instance, VIII, I, 4, 3. * V, 1, 1, 2. 

» tffg-veda IX, 107, 1. • Sat. Br. VI, 6, 3, J. 

* See, for instance, VI, a, 2, 16 ; X, 4, 2, 1. 

* IV, 1, a, 25. * VI, i, 2, 36 ; cf. XI, 4, 1, 16. 

* This can only refer to the cosmological statement at the beginning of the 
tame Kamfo, where the seven Xiaina, or vital airs, are said to have combined to 
form the bird-shaped Purosha or Pra^apati. Though nothing is said there 
of their having themselves been shaped like birds, this might perhaps be inferred 
from the use of the term ' pnrusha ' with reference to them. In the Purusha- 
sukta nothing whatever is said of a birdlike form, either in regard to the /'ishis, 

*>3 



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XXU SATAPATHA-BRAHMANA. 

form he created the gods who, on their part, became 
immortal by assuming the birdlike form — and apparently 
flying up to heaven, which would seem to imply that the 
Sacrificer himself is to fly up to heaven in form of the 
bird-shaped altar, there to become immortal. It is not, 
however, only with the Moon, amongst heavenly luminaries, 
that Pra^apatt is identified, but also with the Sun ; for the 
latter, as we have seen, is but one of the three forms of Agni, 
and the fire on the great altar is itself the Sun l ; whilst the 
notion of the sun being fashioned like a bird flying through 
space is not an unfamiliar one to the poets of the Vedic 
age. More familiar, however, to the authors of the Brah- 
mawas, as it is more in keeping with the mystic origin of 
Pra^apati, is the identification of the latter, not with the 
solar orb itself, but with the man (purusha) in the sun, the 
real shedder of light and life. This gold man plays an 
important part in the speculations of the Agnirahasya 2 , 
where he is represented as identical with the man (purusha) 
in the (right) eye — the individualised Purusha, as it were ; 
whilst his counterpart in the Fire-altar is the solid gold man 
(purusha) laid down, below the centre of the first layer, on 
a gold plate, representing the sun, lying itself on the lotus- 
leaf already referred to as the womb whence Agni springs. 
And this gold man in the altar, then, is no other than 
Agni-Pra^apati and the Sacrificer : above him — in the first, 
third, and fifth layers — lie the three naturally-perforated , 
bricks, representing the three worlds through which he 
will have to pass on his way to the fourth, invisible, world, 
the realm of immortal life. We thus meet here again with the 
hallowed, old name of the Lord of Being, only to be made 
use of for new mystic combinations. 

As the personified totality of all being, Pra^apati, how- 
ever, not only represents the phenomena and aspects of 
space, but also those of time, — he is Father Time. But 
just as, in the material process of building up the Fire-altar, 
the infinite dimensions of space require to be reduced to 

or the Purusha ; the latter being, on the contrary, imagined in the form of 
a gigantic man. 
' VI, i, a, ao; 3, 1, 15. » X, 5. a, 1 seqq. 



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INTRODUCTION. XX111 



finite proportions, so, in regard to time, the year, as the 
lowest complete revolution of time, is taken to represent 
the Lord of Creation : — he is Father Year ; and accordingly 
Agni, the Fire-altar, takes a full year to complete. And, 
in the same way, Agni, the sacrificial fire, from the time of 
his being generated in the fire-pan, as the womb, requires 
to be carried about by the Sacrificer for a whole year, to 
be matured by him before the child Agni can be born and 
placed on the Fire-altar. The reason why the Sacrificer 
must do so is, of course, that Agni, being the child of the 
universe — that is of Pra^apati and the Sacrificer, — the latter, 
at the time when the fire is kindled in the fire-pan, has, as it 
were, to take Agni within his own self 1 , and has afterwards 
to produce him from out of his own self when mature. 

But whilst, in regard to Agni-Pra^apati, the year during 
which the altar is erected represents the infinitude of time, 
to the mortal Sacrificer it will not be so until he shall have 
departed this life ; and, as a rule, he would probably not be 
anxious there and then to end his earthly career. Nor is 
such [an effort of renunciation demanded of him, but, on 
the contrary, the sacrificial theory holds out to the pious 
performer of this holy ceremony the prospect of his living 
up to the full extent of the perfect man's life, a hundred 
years ; this term of years being thus recognised as another 
unit of time, so to speak, viz. that of a complete lifetime. 
Yet, be it sooner or be it later, the life of every creature 
comes to an end ; and since time works its havoc on all 
material existence, and carries off generation after genera- 
tion, the Supreme Lord of generation, Father Time, as he 
is the giver of all life, so he is likewise that ender of all 
things — Death. And so the Sacrificer, as the human 
counterpart of the Lord of Creatures, with the end of his 
present life, becomes himself Death, — Death ceases to have 
power over him, and he is for ever removed from the life of 
material existence, trouble, and illusion, to the realms of 
light and everlasting bliss. 



' VII, 4, i, i. 



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XXIV SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 



And here we get the Supreme Lord in his last aspect ; 
nay, his one true and real aspect, in which the Sacrificer 
will himself come to share, — that of pure intellectuality, 
pure spirituality, — he is Mind : such is the ultimate source 
of being, the one Self, the Purusha, the Brahman. The 
author of the Mystery of Agni attempts to reveal the 
process of evolution by which this one true Self, through 
sacrifice carried on by means of the Arka-fires of his own 
innate fervour and devotion, comes to manifest himself in 
the material universe; and — as the sum total of the 
wisdom of S&ndilya. — he urges upon the searcher after truth 
to meditate on that Self, made up of intelligence, and 
endowed with a body of spirit, a form of light, and an 
etherial nature, . . . holding sway over all the regions and 
pervading this All, being itself speechless and devoid of 
mental affects ; — and bids him believe that ' even as a grain 
of rice, or the smallest granule of millet, so is the golden 
Purusha in the heart; even as a smokeless light, it is 
greater than the sky, greater than the ether, greater than 
the earth, greater than all existing things ; that Self of the 
spirit is my Self: on passing away from hence I shall 
obtain that Self. And, verily, whosoever has this trust, for 
him there is no uncertainty.' 

As the practical application of the Agni-Pra^apati mys- 
tery to the sacrificial ritual consists mainly in the erection 
of the Fire-altar and the ceremonies connected with the fire- 
pan, which fell almost entirely within the province of the 
Adhvaryu priest, it is naturally in his text-books, in the 
Ya.gw-veda, that the mystic theory has become fully 
elaborated. Yet, though the two other classes of priests, 
the Hotrt's and Udgatr/s ', take, upon the whole, a com- 
paratively subsidiary part in the year's performance sym- 
bolising the reconstruction of the Lord of Creatures, they 
have found another solemn opportunity, subsequently to 
the completion of the Fire-altar, for making up for any 

' They take part, however, in such ceremonies as the doing homage to the 
completed Fire-altar by means of the Parimads ; cf. p. 288, note a of this 
volume. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXV 



shortcomings in this respect, viz. the Mahavrata, or 
Great Rite. 

The brick altar, when complete, might apparently be 
used at once for any kind of Soma-sacrifice 1 ; but whether, 
if this were to be merely a one-day performance, it might 
be made a Mahavrata day (in which case it must be an 
Agnishfoma), seems somewhat doubtful *. As a rule, 
however, at any rate, the Mahavrata was performed in 
connection, not with an ekaha or ahtna, but with a sacrificial 
session (sattra) ; and since sacrificial sessions, it would seem, 
could only be undertaken by Brahmans who would at the 
same time be the Sacrificers — or rather Grthapatis (masters 
of the house or householders) as the Sattrins are called — 
and their own officiating priests, the Mahavrata would thus 
generally, if not invariably, be reserved for Brahmans 3 . 
Indeed, in our Br&hma«a (IX, 5, 2, 12-13) the rule is laid 
down that no one may officiate for another person at the 
Agni^ayana, the Mahavrata (saman), and the Mahad 
Uktham ; and dire consequences are predicted in the case 
of any one who does so ; — ' for, indeed, these (rites) are his 
divine, immortal body; and he who performs them for 
another person, makes over to another his divine body, and 
a withered trunk is all that remains.' And, though other 
authorities are then referred to who merely prescribe, as 
a penance for those who have officiated at these ceremonies 
for others, that they should either perform them for them- 
selves or cause others to perform them again, the author 

1 Our Brahmana, X, 2, 5, 16, says that, if a man cannot press Soma for 
a year, he should perform the Vifvajit Atiratra with all the Pn'shMas, and at 
that performance he should give away all his property. These, however, were 
doubtless by no means the only alternatives. 

* See, however, Sayana on Ait. Ar. V, 1, 1, I, where it is distinctly stated 
that the Mahavrata may either be performed as an Ekaha, or as part of either 
an Ahlna, or a Sattra.— Katyayana, XVI, 1, a, lays down the rule that (though 
the building of an altar is not a necessary condition for the performance of 
a Soma-sacrifice) it is indispensable in the case of a Soma-sacrifice performed 
with the Mahavrata. 

9 That is to say, as Sacrificers. Persons of other castes of course took part in 
the proceedings of this day. In the various accounts of these proceedings, 
no alternative ceremonies seem anywhere referred to in case the Sacrificers 
themselves belong to different castes. 



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XXVI SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

adheres to his opinion that there is no atonement for such 
an offence. There can be no doubt, however, that the 
Agni^ayana, at any rate, was not restricted to the Brah- 
ma«ical order * ; and this passage, if it does not merely 
record a former sacrificial practice, has probably to be 
understood in the sense that one must not officiate for 
another at an Agni£ayana which is to be followed by a 
Soma-sacrifice with the Mahavrata. If the Sattra performed 
was one of the shortest kind, viz. a Dvadaraha, or twelve 
days' performance — consisting of a Dararatra, preceded 
and followed by an Atiratra — the Mahavrata was inserted, 
it would seem, between the Dararatra and the final Atiratra. 
Usually, however, the Sattra, like the Agni£ayana, lasted 
a full year ; the favourite form being the ' Gavam ayanam,' 
arranged, in accordance with the progress of the sun, in two 
halves, an ascending and a descending one, divided by 
a central day, the Vishuvat. The Mahavrata was per- 
formed on the last day but one of the year, the day before 
the final Atiratra, being itself preceded (as it was in the 
case of the Dvad&sraha) by a Dararatra, or ten days' per- 
formance. Now, the chief feature of the Mahavrata day 
is the chanting, — in connection with a special cup of Soma- 
juice, the Mahavratiya-graha — of the Mahavrata-saman *, 
as the HotWs Pr*'sh/Aa-stotra at the midday service ; this 
chant being followed by the recitation of the Mahad Uk- 
tham 8 ,or Great Litany, by the Hotr*. The special feature, 
however, of these two ceremonies, which recalls the mystic 
Agni-Pra^apati doctrine, is the supposed birdlike form of 
both the chant and the litany. The Lord of Creatures, as 
the embodiment of all things, also represents the 'trayl 
vidya,' or sacred threefold science, the Veda. Accordingly, 
the Stomas (hymn-forms) of the single Samans (chanted 

1 See, for instance, SaX. Br. VI, 6, 3, 12-15, where directions are given as to 
certain alternatives of performance at the initiation ceremony in case the Sacri- 
ficer is either a Kshatriya, or a Purohita, or any other person. The ceremonies 
connected with the- consecration of the Sacrificer (IX, 3, 4, 1 seqq.) point 
chiefly to a king. 

* See p. 283, note 5 of the present volume. 

* See notes to pp. 110-113 of this volume. 



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INTRODUCTION. XXVU 



verses) composing the Stotra or hymn of praise (the 
Mahavrata-saman), on the one hand, and the verses and 
metres of the recited litany, on the other, are so arranged 
and explained as to make up the different parts of a bird's 
body. It need scarcely be remarked that, whilst in the 
case of the altar the task of bringing out at least a rough 
resemblance to a flying bird offered no great difficulties, it 
is altogether beyond the capabilities of vocal performances 
such as the chant and the recitation of hymns and detached 
verses. But the very fact that this symbolism is only 
a matter of definition and make-believe, makes it all the 
more characteristic of the great hold which the Pra^apati 
theory had gained upon the sacerdotal mind. 

The question as to whether these compositions them- 
selves might seem to show any signs of comparatively 
recent introduction of this symbolism requires further investi- 
gation before it can be answered. Of the Mahavrata-saman 
we have virtually a single version, with only indications of 
certain substitutions which may be made in the choice of 
texts and tunes ; the parts of the bird's body represented 
by the single Samans being in the order — head, right wing, 
left wing, tail, and trunk. Of the Mahad Uktham, on the 
other hand, we possess two different versions, those of the 
Aitareya and the Sankhayana schools of ^zg-veda theo- 
logians. Both of them start with the hymns representing 
the trunk of the bird ; but otherwise there is so marked 
a difference between them, both as to arrangement and the 
choice of verses and hymns, that it seems pretty clear that, 
whilst there must have existed already a certain traditional 
form of the litany when these two schools separated, it was 
not yet of a sufficiently settled character to prevent such 
serious discrepancies to arise as those exhibited by the two 
rituals. This point being, however, of too technical a nature 
to be entered upon in this place, its further investigation 
must be reserved for some other opportunity. 



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DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiVA. 

EIGHTH KkNDK. 



THE BUILDING OF THE SACRED FIRE-ALTAR 

(continued). 




THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE FIRST LAY 
(continued). 

First Adhyaya. First BrAhmawa 

i. He lays down the ¥rkna.hhrix.a.h (breath- 
holders) ' : now, the Prawabhrzta^ being the vital 

1 The construction of the first of the five layers of the altar 
which, as far as the special bricks are concerned, is now nearing 
its completion, may be briefly recapitulated here. The altar (agni) 
is constructed in the form of a bird, the body (atman) of which 
consists of a square, usually measuring four man's lengths, or forty 
feet (Indian=c. i© ft. Engl.) on each side. The ground of the 
' body ' having been ploughed, watered, and sown with seeds of all 
kinds of herbs, a square mound, the so-called uttaravedi, measuring 
a yuga (yoke— 7 ft Ind.) on each side, is thrown up in the middle 
of the ' body,' and the whole of the latter then made level with it. 
In the centre of the ' body ' thus raised, where the two ' spines ' — 
connecting the middle of each of the four sides of the square with 
that of the opposite side — meet, the priest puts down a lotus-leaf, 
and thereon the gold plate (a symbol of the sun) which the Sacrificer 
wore round his neck during the time of initiation. On this plate 
he then lays a small gold figure of a man (representing Agni-Pra- 
^apati, as well as the Sacrificer himself), so as to lie on his back 
with the head towards the east; and beside him he places two 
offering-spoons, one on each side, filled with ghee and sour curds 

*] [43] B 



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SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 



airs, it is the vital airs he thereby bestows upon 
(Agni). He lays them down in the first layer ; — 
that which is the first layer is the forepart (ground- 
part) of Agni : it is thus in front that he puts (into 
Agni) the vital airs, whence there are (in creatures) 
these (orifices of the) vital airs in front. 

respectively. Upon the man he then places a brick with naturally- 
formed holes in it (or a porous stone), a so-called Svayam-atr*»»£ 
(self-perforated one), of which there are three in the altar, viz. in 
the centre of the first, third, and fifth layers, supposed to represent 
the earth, air, and sky respectively, and by their holes to allow the 
Sacrificer (in effigy) to breathe, and ultimately to pass through on 
his way to the eternal abodes. On this stone he lays down a plant 
of durvi grass — with the root lying on the brick, and the twigs 
hanging down — meant to represent vegetation on earth, and food 
for the Sacrificer. Thereupon he puts down in front (east) of the 
central stone, on the ' spine,' a Dviyaf us brick ; in front of that, on 
both sides of the spine, two Reta^si*; then in front of them, one 
Vuva^yotis; then again two Ittta.vy&A; and finally the Asha- 
dhi, representing the Sacrificer's consecrated consort. These 
bricks, each of which is a pada (foot, Ind.) square, occupy nearly 
one-third of the line from the centre to the middle of the front side 
of the 'body' of the altar. South and north of the Ashadid, 
leaving the space of two bricks, he places a live tortoise, facing the 
gold man, and a wooden mortar and pestle respectively. On the 
mortar he places the ukha, or fire-pan, filled with sand and milk; 
and thereon the heads of the five victims, after chips of gold have 
been thrust into their mouths, nostrils, eyes, and ears. At each of 
the four ends of the two ' spines' he then puts down five ApasyaA 
bricks, the middle one lying on the spine itself, with two on each 
side of it. The last set of five bricks, those laid down at the north 
(or left) end of the 'cross-spine,' are also called .OandasySA by the 
Brahmawa. He now proceeds to lay down the Pra«abhr/'ta>4, 
meant to represent the orifices of the vital airs, in five sets of ten 
bricks each. The first four sets are placed on the four diagonals 
connecting the centre with the four corners of the body of the altar, 
beginning from the corner (? or, according to some, optionally from 
the centre), in the order S.E, N.W., S.W., N.E. ; the fifth set being 
then laid down round the central stone at the distance (or, on the 
range) of the reta^sii bricks. See the diagram at p. 17. 



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vni kAjvda, i adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 4. 3 

2. He lays them down by ten and ten, for there 
are ten vital airs ; and even though ' ten-ten ' may 
mean many times, here they mean only ten. Five 
times he puts on ten (bricks) each time; for it is 
those five (kinds of sacrificial) animals he bestows, 
and there are ten vital airs in each animal : upon 
all of them he thus bestows the vital airs. He lays 
down (the bricks) so as not to be separated from 
the animals : he thus bestows vital airs not sepa- 
rated from the animals. He lays them down on 
every side : on every side he thus bestows on them 
(orifices of) the vital airs. 

3. And again why he lays down the Pra#abhrzta^. 
From Pra^apati, when relaxed (by producing crea- 
tures), the vital airs departed. To them, having 
become deities, he spake, ' Come ye to me, return 
ye unto me that wherewith ye have gone out of 
me ! ' — ' Well then, create thou that food which we 
will await here looking on ! ' — ' Well then, let us both 
create!' — 'So be it!' — So both the final airs and Pra- 
^apati created that food, these Prarcabhrz't (bricks). 

4. In front (of the altar) he lays down (ten bricks 1 , — 
the first) with (Va,f. S. XIII, 54), 'This one in 
front, the Existent,' — in front, doubtless, is Agni ; 
and as to why he speaks of him (as being) ' in front,' 
it is because they take out the fire (from the Gar- 
hapatya) towards the front, and attend on Agni 
towards the front 2 . And as to why he says ' the 

1 Whilst standing in front (east) of the altar, he puts down the 
first set of ten bricks on the line from the south-west corner (or 
right shoulder) of the altar towards the centre. The formulas with 
which each set of ten bricks are deposited are spread over three 
paragraphs, the first of which gives that of the first brick, the second 
those for two to eight, the third for the last two. 

* Viz. in taking out the fire from the Garhapatya and transferring 

B 2 

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SATAPATHA-BR A H M AA'A. 



existent (bhuva),' Agni is indeed the existent, for it 
is through Agni that everything exists (bhu) here. 
Agni, indeed, having become the breath, remained 
in front 1 : it is that very form 2 he now bestows 
(on Agni). 

5. [The others with], 'His, the Existent's son, 
the Breath,' — from out of that form, fire, he (Pra- 
^apati) fashioned the breath; — 'Spring, the son of 
the breath,' — from out of the breath he fashioned 
the spring-season 3 ; — 'The Gayatri, the daughter 
of the Spring,' — from out of the spring-season he 
fashioned the Gayatri metre; — 'From the Gayatri 
the Gayatra,' — from out of the Gayatri metre he 
fashioned the Gayatra 4 hymn-tune; — 'From the 
Gayatra the Up&tnsu,' — from out of the Gayatra 
hymn -tune he fashioned the Upa»wu-graha 6 ; — 



it to the Ahavanfya, as well as in approaching the sacrificial fire for 
offerings. It should also be borne in mind that the altar (agni) is 
built in form of an eagle flying towards the east, or front. 

1 See VII, 5, 1, 7, ' The breath is taken in from the front back- 
wards.' — In the text ' prano hagnir bhutva purastat tasthau,' I take 
' prana^ ' to be the predicate. 

* At VII, 4, 1, 16, the vital air is called Pra^apati's (Agni's) 
pleasing form (or part). 

s For a similar connection of the East with the Gayatri, the 
Rathantara, the Trivr/t, the Spring, and the Brahman (priesthood) 
see V, 4, 1, 3, (part iii, p. 91). 

4 The Gayatra-saman is the simplest, and by far the most 
common of all hymn-tunes. It is especially used in connection 
with the trivr;'t-stoma, or nine-versed hymn, and is invariably em- 
ployed for the Bahishpavamdna-stotra. It is also the tune of the 
first triplet both of the Madhyandina and Arbhava-pavamSna ; as 
well as for all the four A^ya-stotras. 

6 See part ii, pp. 238 seqq., where this soma-cup is repeatedly 
connected with the Gayatri. Though its pressing is performed by 
three turns of eight, eleven, and twelve beatings respectively, 
representing the three chief metres, it is expressly stated (IV, 1, 1, 14) 



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VIII KANEA, I ADHYAyA, I BRAHMA.VA, 6. 5 

'From the Up4w.ni the Trivrh' — from out of 
the Upa»mi-graha he fashioned the nine-versed 
hymn-form; — 'From the Trivrh the Rathan- 
tara,' — from out of the Triv/Yt-stoma he fashioned 
the Rathantara-prz'shMa \ 

6. 'The fitshi Vasish/^a V— the ^'shi Vasi- 
sh/^a, doubtless, is the breath : inasmuch as it is 
the chief (thing) therefore it is Vasish/4a (the most 
excellent) ; or inasmuch as it abides (with living 
beings) as the best abider (vastW), therefore also it 
is Vasish///a. — 'By thee, taken by Pra^apati,' — 
that is, ' by thee, created by Prafapati,' — ' I take 
breath for my descendants (and people)!' — 
therewith he introduced the breath from the front. 
Separately he lays down (these ten bricks) : what 
separate desires there are in the breath, those he 
thereby lays into it. Only once he settles them 3 : 
he thereby makes it one breath ; but were he to 
settle them each separately, he assuredly would cut 
the breath asunder. This brick is trivm (three- 
fold) : the formula, the settling, and the sudadohas 4 , 
that is threefold, and threefold is Agni, — as great as 

that he who is desirous of obtaining holiness, should press eight 
times at each turn. 

1 For this and the other Pr*sh/fta-samans see part iii, introd. 
pp. xvi, xx seqq. 

* In Taitt. S. IV, 3, 2, 1, this formula is connected with the 
preceding one, — ' from the Rathantara (was produced) the Jtt'shi 
Vasish/fa.' Similarly in the corresponding passages of the subsequent 
sets of bricks. 

9 The sad ana, or settling, consists in the formula, 'By that 
deity, Angiras-like, lie thou steady!' being pronounced over the 
bricks. See VI, 1, 2, 28. 

4 For the sudadohas verse, the pronunciation of which, together 
with the ' settling,' constitutes the two necessary (nitya) ceremonies, 
see part iii, p. 307. 



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satapatha-brAhma/va. 



Agni is, as great as is his measure, so much he lays 
down (on the altar) by so doing. 

7. And on the right (south) side 1 , with (V4f. S. 
XIII, 55), 'This one on the right, the all- 
worker,' — the all-worker (vwvakarman), doubtless, is 
this Vayu (the wind) who blows here, for it is he 
that makes everything here ; and because he speaks 
of him as (being) ' on the right,' therefore it is in the 
south that he blows most. Vayu, indeed, having 
become the mind, remained in the right side (of the 
body) : it is that form (part) he now bestows (on 
Agni). 

8. 'His, the all-worker's child, the Mind,' — 
from out of that (all-working) form, the wind, he 
fashioned the mind; — 'the summer, the son of 
the mind,' — from out of the mind he fashioned the 
summer season 2 ; — 'the Trish/ubh, the daughter 
of Summer,' — from out of the summer season he 
fashioned the Trish/ubh metre ; — 'from the Trish- 
/ubh the Svara tune,' — from out of the Trish/ubh 
metre he created the Svara hymn-tune 3 ; — 'from 

1 Whilst standing on the right (south) side of the altar he lays 
down the third set of ten Pra»abhrrtaA, viz. those on the diagonal 
from the south-west corner (or right thigh) towards the centre. 
Whilst, in the actual performance, these bricks are only laid down 
after those referred to in paragraphs 1-3 of the next Brahmawa, 
the author, in his explanation of the formulas, follows the course of 
the sun from left to right. 

* For a similar combination of the south with the Trish/ubh 
metre, the Brthat-saman, the Padlad&ra-stoma, the summer season, 
and the Kshatra, see V, 4, 1, 4 (part iii, p. 91). 

' Svara-sainan is called a chanted verse which has no special 
concluding nidhana, or finale, but in which the svarita (circumflex), 
or first rising then falling pitch (e.g., f-g-f) of the final vowel, takes 
the place of the finale ; whence ' svara ' is often explained by 
' svaranidhana,' i.e. having the svara (svarita) for its nidhana. See 



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VIII KAjVDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAJVA, 9. 7 

the Svara the Antaryima,' — from out of the 
Svira-saman he fashioned the Antaryama-graha ; — 
'from the Antaryama the Pa»£ada.ya,' — from 
out of the Antaryama-cup he fashioned the fifteen- 
versed hymn-form; — 'from the Paw^adasa the 
BWhat,' — from out of the Pa»iada^a-stoma he 
fashioned the Brthat-pre'sh/^a. 

9. 'The/?*shi Bharadva^a,' — the^'shi Bharad- 
vi^a, doubtless, is the mind ; — ' \kga. ' means ' food,' 
and he who possesses a mind, possesses (bharati) 
food, ' va/a ;' therefore the J&shi Bharadva^a is the 
mind. — ' By thee, taken by Pra.fapati,' — that is, 
'by thee, created by Pra^apati ;' — ' I take the mind 
for my descendants!' — therewith he introduced 
the mind from the right side. Separately he lays 
down (these ten bricks) : what separate desires there 
are in the mind, those he thereby lays into it. Only 
once he settles them : he thereby makes it one 
mind ; but were he to settle them each separately, 

Paatf. Br. IX, 3, 1 1, where a svara-saman is prescribed in case the 
Udgatr/s have previously committed an excess in their chanting. 
The last tristich of the Madhyandina-pavamanastotra of the Agni- 
sh/oma, the Aiuana-siman (to Sama-v., vol. ii, pp. 27-29), is chanted 
in this way, probably in order to make good the excess committed 
in the preceding triplet, the Yaudha^aya (ii, pp. 25, 26), in which each 
verse is chanted with three nidhanas, one at the end, and two inserted 
inside the saman. La/y. .Srautas. VI, 9, 6, the sv&ra-samans thus 
treated are called 'padanusvirawi;' whilst those with which the 
musical syllables 'hi-i' are used with a similar effect, are called 
' haikarasvdram.' As an instance of the former, the Auxana (Sama-v., 
vol. iii, p. 81) is adduced, and of the latter the V&madevya (iii, p. 89). 
It is not only the final syllable of a saman, however, that may be 
modulated in this way, but also that of a musical section of the 
saman ; cf. Pafli. Br. X, 12, 2, where the Udgitha is to be so treated 
to make up for the preceding Prastava, chanted without a Stobha. 
Sacrificial calls such as the ' Svaha ' and ' Vasha/ ' are also modulated 
in this way,' ib. VII, 3, 26; XI, 5, 26. 



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8 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

he assuredly would, cut asunder the mind. This 
brick is threefold : the meaning of this has been 
explained. 

Second BrAhma.ya. 

i. And at the back (western part of the altar), 
with (Vif. S. XIII, 56), 'This one behind, the 
all-embracer;' — the all-embracer, doubtless, is 
yonder sun, for as soon as 1 he rises, all this em- 
bracing space comes into existence. And because 
he speaks of him as (being) ' behind,' therefore one 
sees him only when he goes towards the back 
(west). The Sun, indeed, having become the eye, 
remained behind : it is that form he now bestows 
(on Agni). 

2. 'His, the all-embracer's child, the Eye,' — 
from out of that (all-embracing) form, the Sun, he 
fashioned the eye; — 'the rains, the offspring 
of the eye,' — from out of the eye he fashioned the 
rainy season ; — ' the Gagati, the daughter of the 
rains,' — from out of the rainy season he fashioned 
the Gagatl metre; — 'from the Gagatt the RiV.- 
sama,' — from out of the Gagati metre he fashioned 
the /frksama hymn-tune 2 ; — 'from the ^z'ksama 

1 Or, perhaps, ' only when ' (yada-eva). 

1 No explanation of this saman has been found anywhere. 
Sajawa, on the corresponding formula, Taitt. S. IV, 3, 4, 2 (where 
the term is spelt nkshama), merely remarks that it is 'a kind of 
saman.' The meaning of the term ' similar to a rik ' would seem 
to indicate a hymn-tune involving little, or no, modification of the 
text chanted to it. At V, 4, 1,5 it is the Vairupa-saman which 
(together with the Gagatf, the Saptadaxa-stoma, the rainy season, 
and the VLr) is in this way connected with the West. Now the 
textual parts of the Pad£anidhanam Vairupam (Sama-v., vol. v, 
PP* 3"7i 575-6), ordinarily used as a pr»'shMa-saman, ihow 



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VIII KAJVDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAJVA, 4. O. 

the fulcra,' — from out of the ^'ksama-saman he 
fashioned the 3ukra-graha ; — ' from the fulcra the 
Saptadasa,' — from out of the fulcra cup he 
fashioned the seventeen-versed hymn-form; — 'from 
the Saptadasa the Vairupa,' — from out of the 
Saptadara-stoma he fashioned the Vairupa-pr/shMa. 

3. 'The ^/shi (Jamadagni,' — the jRt'shi Gama- 
dagni, doubtless, is the eye : inasmuch as thereby 
the world of the living (^agat) sees and thinks, 
therefore the /&shi Gamadagni is the eye. — 'By 
thee, taken by Pra^apati,' — that is, ' by thee, 
created by Pra^apati,' — ' I take the eye for my 
descendants,' therewith he introduced the eye 
from behind. Separately he lays down (these ten 
bricks): what separate desires there are in the eye 
those he thereby lays into it. Only once he settles 
them : he thereby makes this eye one ; but were he 
to settle them each separately, he assuredly would 
cut the eye asunder. This is a threefold brick : the 
meaning of this has been explained. 

4. And on the left (upper, north) side, with (V4f. 
S. XIII, 57), 'This, on the upper side, heaven,' 
— in the upper sphere, doubtless, are the regions 
(quarters) ; and as to why he speaks of them as 
being ' on the upper (left) side,' the regions, indeed, 

hardly any modifications on the original verses (Sama-v., vol. ii, 
p. 278), even less so indeed than the simple Vairupa-saman (Sama-v., 
vol. i, p. 572), and possibly 'r/ksama' (if it does not apply to 
a whole class of samans) may be another name for the Vairupa (of 
which there are two other forms, Sama-v., vol. i, pp. 425, 438) in its 
simplest form. The Vairflpa, in its prish/Az form, would in that 
case, indeed, have originated from the i?/'ksama-saman. It is true, 
however, that there is no special connection between the other 
Prish/fa-samans and the respective hymn-tune with which they 
are symbolically connected in the foregoing formulas. 



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IO .SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

are above everything here. And as to why he 
says, ' heaven (or, the light),' the regions, indeed, are 
the heavenly world (or world of light). The regions, 
having become the ear, remained above : it is that 
form he now bestows (on Agni). 

5. ' Its, heaven's, child, the Ear,' — from out of 
that form, the regions, he fashioned the ear; — 'the 
autumn, the daughter of the ear,' — from out of 
the ear he fashioned the autumn season; — 'Anush- 
/ubh, the daughter of the autumn/ — from out of 
the autumn season he fashioned the Anush/ubh 
metre; — 'from the Anush/ubh the hida.' — from 
out of the Anush/ubh metre he fashioned the Ai^a- 
saman 1 ; — 'from the Ai^a the Manthin,' — from 
out of the Aida-saman he fashioned the Manthin 
cup; — 'from the Manthin the Ekaviawsa,' — from 
out of the Manthi-graha he fashioned the twenty- 
one-versed hymn-form; — 'from the Ekavi*».ya 
the Vaira^a,' — from out of the Ekavi#«a-stoma 
he fashioned the Vair4fa-p*7sh/>fca. 

6. 'The RisWi Vbvamitra,'— the Rishi Vi^va- 
mitra ('all-friend'), doubtless, is the ear: because 
therewith one hears in every direction, and because 
there is a friend (mitra) to it on every side, therefore 
the ear is the Rishi Viwamitra. — ' By thee, taken 
by Pra^apati,' — that is, 'by thee, erected by Pra- 
^apati ;' — 'I take the ear for my descendants,' 



1 Ai(/a-samans are those sarnans which have the word ' ida. ' for 
their nidhana,or chorus. Such samans are.e.g. the Vairupa (Sama-v., 
vol. v, p. 387) and the Raurava (iii, 83), the latter of which forms 
the central saman of the Madhyandina-pavamana-stotra. What 
connection there can be between the Aida and the Vaira^a-pr«h/4a 
(Sama-v., vol. v, p. 391 ; cf. vol. i, pp. 814-5) ' l ' s not eas y t0 see - 
In .Sat. Br. V, 4, 1, 6 the North is connected with the AnushAibh, 
the Vaira^a-siman, the Ekaviwwa and the autumn. 



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VIII KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 8. II 

— therewith he introduced the ear from the left (or 
upper) side. Separately he lays down (these bricks) : 
what separate desires there are in the ear, those he 
thereby lays into it. Only once he settles them : 
he thereby makes the ear one ; but were he to 
settle them each separately, he assuredly would cut 
the ear asunder. This is a threefold brick : the 
meaning of this has been explained. 

7. Then in the centre, with (Va^. S. XIII, 58), 
'This one, above, the mind,' — above, doubtless, 
is the moon ; and as to why he speaks of him as 
(being) ' above,' the moon is indeed above ; and as 
to why he says, ' the mind,' the mind (mati), doubt- 
less, is speech, for by means of speech everything 
thinks (man) here 1 . The moon, having become 
speech, remained above : it is that form he now 
bestows (on Agni). 

8. 'Its, the mind's, daughter, Speech,' — from 
out of that form, the moon, he fashioned speech ; — 
'Winter, the son of Speech,' — from out of 
speech he fashioned the winter season; — 'Pankti, 
the daughter of Winter,' — from out of the winter 
season he fashioned the Pankti metre; — 'from the 
Pankti the Nidhanavat,' — from out of the Pankti 
metre he fashioned the Nidhanavat-saman ' l ; — 
'from the Nidhanavat the Agrayawa,' — from 
out of the Nidhanavat-saman he fashioned the 
Agraya«a cup; — 'from the Agraya»a the 
Tri»ava and Trayastriw^a,' — from out of the 
Agraya«a-graha he fashioned the thrice-nine-versed 
and the three-and-thirty- versed hymn - forms ; — 

1 Or, perhaps, one thinks everything here. 

2 That is a saman which has a special nidhana, or chorus, added 
at the end (or inserted in the middle) of it. 



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12 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA. 

'from the Tri#ava and Trayastriw^a the 5"ak- 
vara and Raivata,' — from out of the Tri#ava and 
Trayastri»«a-stomas he fashioned the .Sakvara and 
Raivata-przsh/^as '. 

9. 'The Rtshi Visvakarman,' — the ^?/shi VLy- 
vakarman ('the all-worker'), doubtless, is Speech, 
for by speech everything here is done : hence the 
J^t'shi VLrvakarman is speech: — 'By thee, taken 
by Pra/apati,' — that is, 'by thee, created by 
Pra^apati;' — 'I take speech for my descen- 
dants,' — therewith he introduced speech from 
above. Separately he lays .down (these bricks) : 
what separate desires there are in speech, those he 
now lays into it. Only once he settles them : he 
thereby makes speech one ; but were he to settle 
them each separately, he assuredly would cut speech 
asunder. This is a threefold brick : the meaning of 
this has been explained. 

10. This, then, is that same food which both the 
vital airs and Pra^ipati created: just so great indeed 
is the whole sacrifice, and the sacrifice is the food of 
the gods. 

1 1. He lays them down by ten and ten, — of ten 
syllables consists the Virag' (metre), and the Vira^ - 
is all food : he thus bestows on him (Agni) the 
whole food. He puts them down on every side : 
on every side he thus bestows the whole food on 
him. And verily these same Vira^" (verses) sustain 
those vital airs, and inasmuch as thty sustain (bhn) 
the vital airs (pra«a) they are called Prknabhrtta/t. 

1 For these Pn'shMa-simans see part iii, introd. pp. xx-xxi. In 
V, 4, i, 7 the upper region is symbolically connected with the 
Pahkti metre, the .Sakvara and Raivata-samans, the Tri«ava and 
Trayastrimja-stomas, and the winter and dewy seasons. 



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viii kanda, i adhyaya, 3 brahmajva, 3. 1 3 

Third Brahmajva. 

1. As to this they say, 'What are the vital airs 
(pra«a), and what the Pra#abhrzta^ ? ' — The vital 
airs are just the vital airs, and the Pra«abhrzta4 
(holders of the vital airs) are the limbs, for the limbs 
do hold the vital airs. But, indeed, the vital airs 
are the vital airs, and the Pra#abhr*t is food, for 
food does uphold the vital airs. 

2. As to this they say, ' How do all these (Prawa- 
bhm-bricks) of him (Agni and the Sacrificer) come 
to be of Prafapati's nature?' — Doubtless in that 
with all of them he says, ' By thee, taken by Praf a- 
pati : ' it is in this way, indeed, that they all come 
to be for him of Pra^apati's nature *. 

3. As to this they say, ' As they chant and recite 
for the cup when drawn, wherefore, then, does he 
put in verses and hymn-tunes 2 before (the drawing 
of) the cups ? ' — Doubtless, the completion of the 
sacrificial work has to be kept in view ; — now with 
the opening hymn-verse the cup is drawn ; and on 
the verse (rik) the tune (saman) is sung : this means 
that he thereby puts in for him (Agni) both the 
verses and hymn-tunes before (the drawing of) the 
cups. And when after (the drawing of) the cups 
there are the chanting (of the Stotra) and the recita- 
tion (of the *Sastra) : this means that thereby he puts 
in for him both the stomas (hymn-forms) and the 
przsh/^a (samans) after (the drawing of) the cups 8 . 

1 Or, come to be (Agni-) Pra^apati's (pra^apatya bhavanti). 

* In laying down the different sets of Pranabhn't-bricks the 
priest is said (in VIII, 1,1,5; 8 i 2 > 2 *> 5 ; 8 ) symbolically to put 
into the sacrificial work (or into the altar, Agni) both verses or 
metres (as Gayatrt, Trish/ubh, &c.) and hymn-tunes (as Gayatra, 
Svara, &c). 

* It is not quite clear whether this is the correct construction of 



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14 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

4. As to this they say, ' If these three are done 
together — the soma-cup, the chant, and the recita- 
tion, — and he puts in only the soma-cup and the 
chant, how comes the recitation also in this case to 
be put (into the sacrificial work) for him 1 ? ' But, 
surely, what the chant is that is the recitation 2 ; 
for on whatsoever (verses) they chant a tune, those 
same (verses) he (the Hotri) recites thereafter 3 ; 
and in this way, indeed, the 6astra also comes in 
this case to be put in for him. 

5. As to this they say, ' When he speaks first 
of three in the same way as of a father's son 4 , how, 
then, does this correspond as regards the rik and 
saman?' The saman, doubtless, is the husband of the 

the text, especially as, in the paragraph referred to in the last note, 
it is not only the metres and tunes that are supposed to be put in 
along with the PiinabhriizA, but also the stomas and pr/sh/tfa- 
samans. 

1 Only soma-cups (graha) and hymn-tunes (sdman) and hymn- 
forms (stoma) are specially named in connection with these bricks, 
but no jasiras. 

* Every stotra, chanted by the Udgatm, is followed by a jastra 
recited by the Hotrt or one of his assistants. 

8 Most chants (stotra) consisting of a single triplet (e.g. the 
Pr/sh/Aa-stotras at the midday service) have their text (stotriya- 
irikd) included in the corresponding jastra recited by the Hotr;', or 
one of the Hotrakas ; it being followed, on its part, by the recita- 
tion of an analogous triplet (anurupa, ' similar or corresponding,' 
i.e. antistrophe) usually commencing with the very same word, or 
words, as the stotriya. 

4 As in the case of the first (south-west) set of bricks, VIII, 1, 1, 
4-6, he puts down the first four with 'This one, in front, the 
existent,' ' His, the existent's son, the breath,' ' Spring, the son of 
the breath,' and ' The Gayatri, the daughter of spring,' — implying 
three generations from father to son (or daughter). In the formulas 
of the remaining bricks of each set referring to the metres (or verses, 
rik) and hymn-tunes (saman) the statement of descent is expressed 
more vaguely by, ' From the Gayatri (is derived; the Giyatra,' &c. 



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VIII KAtfDA, I ADHYAYA, 3 BrAhMAWA, 8. 1 5 

Rik ; and hence were he also in their case to speak 
as of a father's son, it would be as if he spoke of 
him who is the husband, as of the son : therefore 
it corresponds as regards the rik and saman. 'And 
why does he thrice carry on (the generation from 
father to son) ? ' — father, son, and grandson : it is 
these he thereby carries on ; and therefore one and 
the same (man) offers (food) to them '. 

6. Those (bricks) which he lays down in front are 
the holders of the upward air (the breath, pra«a) ; 
those behind are the eye-holders, the holders of the 
downward air (apana) 2 ; those on the right side are 
the mind-holders, the holders of the circulating air 
(vyana) ; those on the left side are the ear-holders, 
the holders of the outward air (udana) ; and 
those in the middle are the speech-holders, the 
holders of the pervading air (samina). 

7. Now the Aarakadhvaryus, indeed, lay down 
different (bricks) as holders of the downward air, 
of the circulating air, of the outward air, of the 
pervading air, as eye-holders, mind-holders, ear- 
holders, and speech-holders ; but let him not do this, 
for they do what is excessive, and in this (our) way, 
indeed, all those forms are laid (into Agni). 

8. Now, when he has laid down (the bricks) in 



1 At the offerings to the Fathers, or deceased ancestors, oblations 
are made to the father, grandfather, and great-grandfather; see II, 

4 Saya«a, on Taitt. S. IV, 3, 3, explains ' piiwa' by 'bahi^saw- 
Mrarupa,' and ' apana ' by ' punarantaAsaw&irarupa ; ' see also part i, 
p. 120, note a; but cp. Maitry-up. II, 6; H.Walter, HaMayoga- 
pradtpika, p. xviii. Beside the fifty bricks called ' Prawabhr/'taA,' 
the Taittirlyas also place fifty ApanabhrrtaA in the first layer of 
the altar. 



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1 6 DATAPATH A BRAHMAATA. 

front, he lays down those at the back (of the altar) ; 
for the upward air, becoming the downward air, 
passes along thus from the tips of the fingers; 
and the downward air, becoming the upward air, 
•passes along thus from the tips of the toes: 
hence when, after laying down (the bricks) in front, 
he lays down those at the back, he thereby makes 
these two breathings continuous and connects them ; 
whence these two breathings are continuous and 
connected. 

9. And when he has laid down those on the right 
side, he lays down those on the left side ; for the 
outward air, becoming the circulating air, passes 
along thus from the tips of the fingers 1 ; and 
the circulating air, becoming the outward air, 
passes along thus from the tips of the fingers 1 : 
hence when, after laying down (the bricks) on 
the right side, he lays down those on the left 
side, he thereby makes these two breathings con- 
tinuous and connects them; whence these two breath- 
ings are continuous and connected. 

10. And those (bricks) which he lays down in the 
centre are the vital air ; he lays them down on the 
range of the two Reta^sii (bricks), for the reta/*si>£ 
are the ribs, and the ribs are the middle : he thus 
lays the vital air into him (Agni and the Sacrificer) in 
the very middle (of the body). On every side he lays 
down (the central bricks) 2 : in every part he thus 

1 ? Or, perhaps, the fingers and toes. The same word (ahguli), 
having both meanings, makes it difficult exactly to understand these 
processes. The available MSS. of HarisvSmin's commentary un- 
fortunately afford no help. 

1 That is to say, he lays down the fifth set round the (central) 
Svayamdtr/'»«a, on the range of the two Reta^sil bricks. It is, 



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VIII KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMA.YA, IO. 1 7 

lays vital air into him ; and in the same way indeed 
that intestinal breath (channel) is turned all round 

however, not quite clear in what particular manner this fifth set of 
ten bricks is to be arranged round the centre so as to touch one 
another. The two Reta^sii bricks, occupying each a space of 
a square foot north and south of the spine, are separated from the 
central (SvayamStnnwa) brick by ths Dviya^us brick a foot square. 
The inner side of the reta^si£-space would thus be a foot and 
a half, and their outer side two feet and a half, distant from the 
central point of the altar. The reta^sii range, properly speaking, 
would thus consist of a circular rim, obtained by drawing two 



THE CENTRAL PART OF THE FIRST LAYER. 
N 




concentric circles round the centre, wiih diameters of one and a half 
and two and a half feet respectively. On this rim (allowing for the 
comers of the bricks jutting out) room would have to be found for 
twelve bricks of a foot square, viz. the two retaAsi£, already lying 
on the eastern side, south and north of the spine, and ten pr&»a- 
bhr/ts. The way in which these latter were arranged would 
probably be this : on each of the three other sides two bricks were 
laid down so as to join each other in a line with the respective 
' spine,' similarly to the two xt\zhi\k bricks on the east side ; and 
the four remaining bricks would then be placed in the four 
corners— the twelve bricks thus forming, as nearly as could be, 
a circular rim. In the construction of the altar, this retaAsii range 
is determined by a cord being stretched from the centre to the 
east end of the altar, after the special bricks of the first layer have 

[43] c 



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1 8 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

the navel. • He lays them down both lengthwise 
and crosswise \ whence there are here in the body 
(channels of) the vital airs both lengthwise and cross- 
wise. He lays them down touching each other : he 
thereby makes these vital airs continuous and con- 
nects them ; whence these (channels of the) vital 
airs are continuous and connected. 

Fourth Brahmajva. 

i. Now some lay down (these bricks) so as to be 
in contact with the (gold) man, for he is the vital 
air, and him these (bricks) sustain; and because 
they sustain (bhri) the vital air (pra«a), therefore 
they are called ' Pra#abh«ta^.' Let him not do so : 
the vital air is indeed the same as that gold man, 
but this body of his extends to as far here as this 
fire (altar) has been marked out. Hence to what- 

been laid down, knots being then made in the cord over the middle 
of each of the special bricks. The reta^sW range is consequently 
ascertained, in subsequent layers, by a circle drawn round the 
centre, with that part of the cord marked by the central and the 
retaAsii knot for the diameter. The foregoing diagram shows that 
portion of the first layer which contains the continuous row of 
special bricks laid down first, viz. SvayamaVmnS, Dviyajus, two 
Reta£si£, Vifvagyotis, two i?rtavyd, and AsbadAk ; and further the 
central (or fifth) set of ten prawabhr/taA, placed round the central 
brick on the range of the reta^si^. 

1 Each special brick is marked on its upper surface with (usually 
three) parallel lines. Now the bricks are always laid down in such 
a way that their lines run parallel to the adjoining spine, whence 
those on the east and west sides have their lines running lengthwise 
(west to east), and those on the north and south sides crosswise 
(north to south). As to the four corner bricks there is some 
uncertainty on this point, but if we may judge from the analogy 
of the second layer in this respect, the bricks of the south-east and 
north-west corners would be eastward-lined, and those of the north- 
east and south-west corners northward-lined. 



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VIII KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 4 BrAhMAJVA, 3. 1 9 

ever limb of his these (breath-holders) were not to 
reach, that limb of his the vital air would not reach ; 
and, to be sure, to whatever limb the vital air does 
not reach, that either dries up or withers away : let 
him therefore lay down these (bricks) so as to be in 
contact with the enclosing stones; and by those 
which he lays down in the middle this body of his 
is filled up, and they at least are not separated 
from him. 

2. Here now they say, 'Whereas in (the formulas) 
" This one, in front, the existent — this one, on the 
right, the all-worker — this one, behind, the all-em- 
bracer — this, on the left, heaven — this one, above, 
the mind" — they (these bricks) are defined as exactly 
opposite the quarters, why, then, does he lay down 
these (bricks) in sidelong places 1 ? ' Well, the 
Pra»abhr*ta^ are the vital airs ; and if he were to 
place them exactly opposite the quarters, then this 
breath would only pass forward and backward ; but 
inasmuch as he now lays down these (bricks) thus 
defined in sidelong places, therefore this breath, 
whilst being a backward and forward one, passes 
sideways along all the limbs and the whole body. 

3. Now that Agni (the altar) is an animal, and (as 
such) he is even now made up whole and entire, — 
those (bricks) which he lays down in front are his 
fore-feet, and those behind are his thighs; and those 



1 That is to say, why does he not place them at the ends of the 
spines, but at the corners of the (square) body, i.e. in places inter- 
mediate between the lines running in the direction of the points of 
the compass ? When speaking of the regions, or quarters, it should 
be borne in mind that they also include a fifth direction, viz. the 
perpendicular or vertical line (both upward and downward) at. any 
given point of the plane. 

C 2 



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20 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

which he places in the middle are that body of his. 
He places these in the region of the two reta^si^ 
(bricks), for the reta^si^ are the ribs, and the ribs 
are the middle, and that body is in the middle (of 
the limbs). He places them all round, for that 
body extends all round. 

4. Here now they say, ' Whereas in the first (four) 
sets he lays down a single stoma and a single 
prt'sht/ia. each time, why, then, does he lay down 
here (in the centre) two stomas and two prtshtfas ?' 
Well, this (central set) is his (Agni's) body : he thus 
makes the body (trunk) the best, the largest, the 
most vigorous of limbs ' ; whence that body is the 
best, the largest, and most vigorous of limbs. 

5. Here now they say, ' How does that Agni of 
his become made up whole and entire in brick after 
brick ? ' — Well, the formula is the marrow, the brick 
the bone, the settling the flesh, the sudadohas the 
skins, the formula of the purlsha (fillings of earth) 
the hair, and the purisha the food: and thus indeed 
that Agni of his becomes made up whole and entire 
in brick after brick. 

6. That Agni is possessed of all vital power : 
verily, whosoever knows that Agni to be possessed 
of all vital power (ayus), attains his full measure of 
life (ayus). 

7. Now, then, as to the contraction and expansion 
(of the body). Now some cause the built (altar) in 
this way 2 to be possessed of (the power of) contrac- 
tion and expansion : that Agni indeed is an animal ; 



1 Or, — better, larger, and more vigorous ihan the limbs. 
' Viz. by touching, or stroking along, the layer of the altar, and 
muttering the subsequent formulas. 



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VIII KAADA, I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAtfA, IO. ±1 

and when an animal contracts and expands its limbs, 
it develops strength by them. 

8. [Va^. S. XXVII, 45] 'Thou art Sawvat- 
sara, — thou art Parivatsara, — thou art Idavat- 
sara, — thou art Idvatsara, — thou art Vatsara, 
— May thy dawns prosper ' ! — may thy days and 
nights prosper! — may thy half-months pros- 
per! — may thy months prosper! — may thy 
seasons prosper! — may thy year prosper! — 
For going and coming contract and expand 
thyself! — Of Eagle-build thou art: by that 
deity, Aiigiras-like, lie thou steady 2 !' 

9. .Sa/yayani also once said, 'Some one heard 
(the sound) 3 of the cracking wings of the (altar) 
when touched with this (formula) : let him therefore 
by all means touch it therewith ! ' 

10. And Svar^-it Nagna^ita or Nagna^it, the 
Gandhara, once said, ' Contraction and expansion 
surely are the breath, for in whatever part of the 
body there is breath that it both contracts and ex- 
pands ; let him breathe upon it from outside when 
completely built : he thereby lays breath, the (power 
of) contraction and expansion, into it, and so it con- 
tracts and expands.' But indeed what he there said 
as to that contraction and expansion, it was only 
one of the princely order who said it ; and assuredly 
were they to breathe upon it from outside a hundred 



1 Or, perhaps, ' may the dawns chime in (fit in) with thee ! ' 

* For this last part of the formula (' by that deity,' Ac), the so- 
called settling-formula, see part iii, p. 307, note 1. 

* Harisvamin (Ind. Off. MS. 657) seems to supply 'fabdam ; ' 
the sound of the cracking being taken as a sign of the powerful 
effect of the formula. Unfortunately, however, the MS. of the 
commentary is hopelessly incorrect. 



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22 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

times, or a thousand times, they could not lay breath 
into it. Whatever breath there is in the (main) body 
that alone is the breath : hence when he lays down 
the Pra#abhrzta£ (breath-holders), he thereby lays 
breath, the (power of) contraction and expansion, 
into it ; and so it contracts and expands. He then 
lays down two Lokampr/«a (bricks) in that corner 1 : 
the meaning of them (will be explained) further on 2 . 
He throws loose earth (on the layer) : the meaning 
of this (will be explained) further on 3 . 

THE SECOND LAYER. 
Second Adhyaya. First BrAhmajva. 

i. He lays down the second layer. For now the 
gods, having laid down the first layer, mounted it. 

1 Viz. in the south-east comer, or on the right shoulder, of the 
altar. From these two lokampr/«as (or space-fillers) he starts 
filling up, in two turns, the still available spaces of the ' body ' of 
the altar, as also the whole of the two wings and the tail. For 
other particulars as to the way in which these are laid down, see 
VIII, 7, 2, i seqq. The ' body ' of an ordinary altar requires in this 
layer 1028 lokampnwas of three different kinds, viz. afoot (Ind.), half 
a foot, and a quarter of a foot square, occupying together a space 
of 321 square feet, whilst the 98 special (ya^ushmati) bricks fill up 
a space of 79 square feet. Each wing requires 309 lokampr/«as 
of together 120 square feet; whilst the tail takes 283 such bricks, 
of together no square feet. The total number of lokampr/'»as in 
the layer thus amounts to 1929 of all sizes, equal to 671 square 
feet. If (as is done in Katy. Srautas. XVII, 7, 21) the 21 bricks 
of the GSrhapatya (part iii, p. 304) are added to this number, the 
total number of lokampr/'«as is 1,950. Similarly, in the second, 
third, and fourth layers; whilst the last layer requires about a 
thousand lokampr/'nas more than any of the others, viz. 2,922, or, 
including the special hearths, 3,000. The total number of such 
bricks required — including the 2 1 of the Garhapatya — amounts to 
10,800. Cp. Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, p. 255. 

* See VIII, 7, 2, 1 seq. * See VIII, 7, 3, 1 seq. 



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vin kXnda, 2 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 4. 23 

But, indeed, the first layer is this (terrestrial) world : 
it is this same world which, when completed, they 
mounted. 

2. They spake, ' Meditate ye ! ' — whereby, doubt- 
less, they meant to say, 'Seek ye a layer! Seek 
ye (to build) from hence upwards ! ' Whilst medi- 
tating, they saw this second layer: what there is 
above the earth, and on this side of the atmosphere, 

"that world was to their mind, as it were, unfirm 
and unsettled. 

3. They said to the Asvins, ' Ye two are Brahmans 
and physicians : lay ye down for us this second 
layer ! ' — ' What will therefrom accrue unto us ? ' — 
* Ye two shall be the Adhvaryus at this our Agni- 
iitya.' — ' So be it ! ' — The Asvins laid down for them 
that second layer : whence they say, ' The A^vins 
are the Adhvaryus of the gods.' 

4. He lays down (the first Asvini 1 brick, with 

1 The main portion of the special bricks of the second layer 
consists of five, or (if, for the nonce, we take the two southern sets 
of half-bricks as one) of four sets of four bricks each, or of together 
sixteen bricks, each measuring a foot square, placed on the range 
of the retaAsii bricks so as to form the outer rim of a square 
measuring five feet on each side, and having in the middle a blank 
square of nine square feet. Each of the four sides of the reta^si£ 
rim contains a complete set of four bricks ; but as there are five 
bricks on each side, the one in the left-hand corner (looking at 
them from the centre of the square) is counted along with the 
adjoining set. Each set, proceeding from left to right (that is, in 
sunwise fashion), consists of the following bricks,— ajvinr, vaijva- 
devi, prSwabhr/'t, and apasyS, the last of these occupying the 
corner spaces. The southern bricks consist, however, of two sets 
of half-bricks (running with their long sides from west to east), 
counted as the second and fifth set respectively. The eastern and 
western bricks are laid down so that their line-marks (which, in the 
case of the bricks of the second and fourth layers, are of an in- 
definite number) run from west to east; whilst those of the southern 



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24 



SATAPATHA-BRAHMA.VA. 



V4f. S. XIV, i), 'Thou art firmly-founded, 
firmly-seated, firm!' for what is steady and set- 
tled, that is firm. Now that world was to their 
minds, as it were, unfirm and unsettled : having 
thereby made it firm, steady, they (the Asvins) went 
on laying down (bricks). — 'Seat thee fitly in thy 
firm seat!' — that is, 'Seat thee fitly in thy steady 
seat;' — 'enjoying the first appearance of the 
Ukhya,' — the Ukhya, doubtless, is this Agni ; and 
that first layer is indeed his first appearance : thus, 
'enjoying that.' — 'May the Asvins, the Adh- 
varyus, settle you here!' for the Asvins, as 
Adhvaryus, did lay down (this brick). 

and northern ones run from south to north. All the five bricks of 
each class, beginning with the suvinis, are laid down at the same 
time, proceeding again in sunwise fashion (east, south, &c); the 

THE CENTRAL PART OF THE SECOND LAYER. 



w 



"A 


^v 


¥ 


aM 


X 




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fl/T. 


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tflT. 


\ 


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/« 




<»» 


S£ 


.!« 


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S 









order of the procedure being only interrupted by the two i?«'tavyi 
bricks being laid down, immediately after the placing of the five 
axvint, exactly over the two r/tavyis of the first layer, that is to say 
in the fifth (easterly) space from the centre, north and south of the 
spine. The only other special bricks of the second layer are 
nineteen vayasyis placed at the four ends of the two spines, viz. 
four in the ea'st, and five in each of the other quarters. 



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Google 



vin kXkda, 2 adhyAya, i brAhmaata, 6. 25 

5. [The second Ajvinl he lays down, with Vif . S. 
XIV, 2], ' Nest-like, fat, wise,' — a nest, as it were, 
is indeed the second layer 1 ; — ' seat thee in the soft 
seat of the earth!' — the second layer, no doubt, 
is the earth: thus, ' Sit on her pleasant seat ! ' — ' May 
the Rudras, the Vasus sing thy praises ! ' — that 
is, 'May those deities sing thy praises!' — 'Re- 
plenish them, O Brahman, for happiness !' — 
that is, ' Favour them, O Brahman, with a view to 
happiness.' — 'May the Asvins, the Adhvaryus, 
settle thee here!' for the A^vins, as Adhvaryus, 
did lay down (this brick). 

6. [The third Asvini brick he lays down, with 
V&g.S. XIV, 3], 'By thine own powers seat thee 
here, a holder of powers,' — that is, ' By thy own 
energy seat thee here ; ' — ' in the gods' favour for 
high joy !' that is, 'for the favour of the gods, for 
great joy 2 ;' — 'be thou kind, as a father to his 
son!' — that is, 'As a father is gentle, kind, to his 
son, so be thou kind!' — 'rest thou readily acces- 
sible with thy form!' — the form, doubtless, is the 
body : thus, ' rest thou with readily accessible body!' 
— ' May the Asvins, the Adhvaryus, settle thee 
here ! ' for the Asvins, as Adhvaryus, did lay down 
(this brick). 



1 This comparison doubtless refers to the way in which the 
central portion of the special bricks of this layer are arranged so as 
completely to enclose an empty space in the middle. In the first 
layer there was, no doubt, a similar enclosure of bricks as the 
retaAsLi range, but the central space was not left quite empty. In 
the end, however, the empty spaces are in both cases filled up by 
' space-fillers.' 

* The author seems to take ' ra«a' as an adjective (=rama»iya), 
as does Mahidhara, who interprets the formula as meaning ' for 
the gods' great, cheerful happiness.' 



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26 satapatha-brahmawa. 

7. [The fourth Asvini he lays down, with Va\f. S. 
XIV, 4], 'Thou art the earth's soil-cover,' — 
the first layer, doubtless, is the earth, and this, the 
second (layer) is, as it were, its soil-cover (purlsha) — 
'her sap 1 , in truth,' — that is, 'her essence, in truth,' 
— 'May the All-gods sing thy praises !' — that is, 
' May all the gods sing thy praises!' — ' Seat thee 
here, laden with stomas, and rich in fat ! ' — what- 
ever hymn-forms he will be spreading (constructing) 
thereon by them this (brick) is laden with stomas 2 ; 
— 'Gain for us by sacrifice wealth (dravmi, pi.) 
with offspring (adj. sing.) !' — that is, 'Gain for us, 
by sacrifice, wealth (dravi«am, sing.) with offspring ! ' 
— ' May the Asvins, the Adhvaryus, settle thee 
here! ' for the Asvins, as Adhvaryus, did lay down 
(this brick). 

8. These (bricks) are those regions (quarters) ; he 
places them on the range of the two reta^si^ (bricks), 
for the reta^sLfc are these two (worlds) : he thereby 
places the regions within these two (worlds), whence 
there are regions within these two (worlds). He 
lays down (these bricks) in every direction : he thus 
places the regions in all (the four) directions, whence 
the regions are in all directions. [He places them] 
on all sides so as to face each other s : he thereby 

1 The word ' apsas,' which western philologists usually take to 
mean ' cheek,' is here apparently connected with ' ap,' water. 

* Literally, ' having stomas on her back.' Mahidhara interprets 
' stoma-pr/'sh/fti ' by ' possessed of stomas and Pr/'sh/Aas.' Sayaua, 
on Taitt, S. Ill, 7, 2, 7, by ' (Pr»'shMa-)stotras performed with 
stomas.' 

3 ' SamyaAi ' may either mean ' tending to one and the same 
point,' or ' running in the same direction, parallel to each other.' 
It is probably in the former sense that we have to take it here, 
though not quite literally, but in so far as the line-marks of these 



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VIII KA.NDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, IO. 27 



makes the regions on all sides face each other, and 
hence the regions on all sides face each other. He 
lays (the bricks) down separately, settles them 
separately, and pronounces the sudadohas over them 
separately, for separate are the regions. 

9. He then lays down the fifth regional (or ksvint 
brick). Now that region is the one above a ; and 
that same region above, doubtless, is yonder sun : it 
is yonder sun he thus places thereon. He places 
this (brick) within the southern regional one 2 : he 
thus places yonder sun within the southern region, 
and therefore he moves within the southern region. 

10. [He lays it down, with Vif. S. XIV, 5], ' I 
settle thee upon the back of Aditi,' — Aditi 
doubtless is this (earth) : it is upon her, as a founda- 
tion, that he thus founds him (Agni) ; — 'the holder 



bricks, if continued towards the centre of the altar, intersect one 
another. As applied to the quarters this meaning would then 
modify itself to that of ' facing each other.' On the other hand, it 
is quite possible that the meaning of ' tending in the same direction ' 
is the one intended ; and it would in that case probably apply to 
the fact that the sets opposite to each other have their line-marks 
running in the same direction, or are parallel to each other ; and 
this meaning would seem to be implied to the quarters where the 
author supports his argument by the fact that the wind blows, and 
the rain falls, in the same direction in all the four quarters (VIII, 
2 > 3> 2 j 5)- It ' s curious that the expression is used by the author 
in connection with the Itvinf, prawabhrrt, and apasya, but not 
with the vaijvadevf, the line-marks of which all meet in one central 
point, which is not the case with the others. At VIII, 3, i, u, on 
the other hand, it is used again in connection with the D'uyi bricks, 
which, in the third layer, occupy exactly the same spaces as the 
Vauvadevis do here. 

1 Or, that direction is the one upward (from here). 

* That is to say, he places it immediately north of the southern 
Irvinl, so as to fill up the unoccupied, inner half of the space (of 
a foot square). 



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28 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

of the air, the supporter of the regions, the 
ruler of beings,' — for he (the sun) is indeed the 
holder of the air, the supporter of the regions, and 
the ruler of beings; — 'thou art the wave, the- 
# drop, of water,' — the wave, doubtless, means the 
essence; — ' Visvakarman is thy^z'shi!' — VLrva- 
karman (the all-shaper), doubtless, is Pra^apati : thus, 
'Thou art fashioned by Pra^apati.' — 'May the 
Asvins, the Adhvaryus, settle thee here!' for 
the A.rvins, as Adhvaryus, did lay down (this brick). 
ii. Now as to why he lays down these Asvini 
(bricks). When Pra^apati had become relaxed (dis- 
jointed), the deities took him and went away in 
different directions. Now what part of him there 
was above the feet and below the waist, that part 
of him the two A-svins took and kept going away 
from him. 

12. He said to them, 'Come to me and restore 
unto me that wherewith ye have gone away from 
me ! ' — ' What will accrue to us therefrom ? ' — ' That 
part of my body shall be sacred unto you ! ' — ' So be 
it ! ' so the Asvins restored that (part) unto him. 

13. Now these five Aivinl (bricks) are that same 
(part) of his (Agni's) body ; and when he now puts 
them into this (layer of the altar), he thereby restores 
to him what (part) of his body these (bricks) are : 
that is why he puts them into diis (layer). 

14. ' Thou art firmly founded, firmly seated, firm,' 
he says, for whatsoever is steady and established 
that is firm. Now that part of his (Pra^apati- 
Agni's) body was, as it were, unsteady, unfirm ; and 
having made it steady and firm they (the Arvins) 
restored it to him. 

J 5. ' Nestlike, fat, wise,' he says, for this indeed 



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VIII KAJVDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 1 7. 2Q 

is as a nest for his body. — ' By thine own powers 
seat thee here, a holder of powers,' he says, for they 
did make that (part) of him powerful. — ' Thou art 
the Earth's soil-cover,' he says, for that (lower part) 
of his body is, as it were, in connection with the 
soil-cover. At the range of the Reta^sii (he places 
the bricks), — the Reta^sLfc are the ribs, for level 
with the ribs, as it were, is that (part) of his body. 
He places them on every side, for on every side the 
A-yvins restored that (part) of his (Pra^ipati's) body. 

16. He then lays down two .tfztavya 1 (seasonal 
bricks) ; — these two, the .ffztavyi, are the seasons 
(«'tu) : it is the seasons he thus bestows thereon. 
[He lays them down, with Va^. S. XIV, 6], ' Sukra 
and Su&\, the two summer-seasons;' — these are 
the names of these two : it is with their names that 
he thus lays them down. There are two bricks, for 
a season consists of two months. He settles them 
once only : he thereby makes (the two months) one 
season. 

1 7. And as to why he lays down these two in this 
(layer) : — this Agni (fire-altar) is the year, and the 
year is these worlds. Now that part of him which 
is above the earth and below the atmosphere, is this 
second layer ; and that same part of him (Agni, the 
year,) is the summer season. And when he lays 
down those two in this (layer), he thereby restores 
to him (Agni) that part of his body which these two 
are : this is why he lays down these two (bricks) in 
this (layer). 



1 These two bricks are placed exattly upon the two Jiiiavy&s of 
the first layer, that is, in the fifth space from the centre; see p. 1, 
note 1. 



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30 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

i 8. And, again, as to why he lays down these two 
in this (layer). This fire-altar is Pra^apati, and 
Pra/ apati is the year. Now that (part) of him which 
is above the feet and below the waist is this second 
layer; and that same part of him is the summer 
season. Thus when he lays down those two in this 
(layer), he thereby restores to him that (part) of his 
body which these two are : this is why he lays down 
these two (bricks) in this (layer). 

Second BrAhmajva. 

i. He then lays down the Vaisvadevl (All-gods' 
bricks). For this second layer is that one which the 
A.rvins at that time laid down for them (the gods) ; 
and by laying it down they became everything here 
whatsoever there is here. 

2. The gods spake, 'The A^vins have become 
everything here : think ye upon this as to how we 
also may share in it ! ' They said, ' Meditate ye 
(£it) ! ' whereby, no doubt, they meant to say, ' Seek 
ye a layer (£iti) ! seek ye in what way we also may 
share in it ! ' whilst meditating, they saw these Vais- 
vadevl (All-gods') bricks. 

3. They said, ' The A-rvins have become every- 
thing here : with the help of the Axvins let us lay 
down (bricks) along with the Aivins' layer ! ' With 
the help of the Aivins they accordingly laid down 
(bricks) along with the A^vins' layer, whence they 
call this the Aivins' layer. Hence the end of these 
(bricks) is the same as that of the former ones ; for 
they laid them down with the help of the Asvins 
along with the Asvins' layer. 

4. And, again, as to why he lays down the All- 



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VIII K&NDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAJVA, 6. 3 1 

gods' (bricks). These indeed are those same All-gods 
who saw this second layer, and who came nigh with 
that life-sap : it is them he thereby bestows, that is, 
all these creatures. He lays them down in the range of 
the Reta^si^ ; for the Reta£si/£ are these two (heaven 
and earth) : within these two (worlds) he thus places 
creatures ; whence there are creatures within these 
two (worlds). He places (bricks) on every side : he 
thus places creatures everywhere, whence there are 
creatures everywhere. He places them alongside of 
the regional ones l : he thus places creatures in the 
regions (quarters) ; whence there are creatures in all 
the (four) quarters. 

5. And, again, as to why he lays down the All- 
gods' (bricks). When Pra^apati had become relaxed, 
all creatures went forth from the midst of him, from 
that birth-place of theirs. When that (central part) 
of his body had been restored, they entered him. 

6. Now the Pra^apati who become relaxed is this 
very Agni (fire-altar) that is now being built up; and 
the creatures who went forth from the midst of him 
are these same All-gods' bricks ; and when he lays 
these down, he causes those creatures, which went 
forth from the midst of him, to enter him. In the 
range of the Reta^sii (he places the Vai^vadevi 
bricks), for the Reta^si/6 are the ribs, and the ribs 

1 The Ajvini (or Difya) bricks were placed in a circle round 
the centre, at the distance of a foot from where the central brick 
(Svayamatr/'»«4) was placed in the first layer,— that is to say, in the 
third place from the centre. They were, moreover, placed in the 
second space (or at the distance of half a foot) from the two spines, 
see p. 23, note 1. The five Vaijvadevfs are then placed along- 
side of the Ajvints, so as to fill up the ' first spaces,' that is to say, 
to lie on the spines themselves; each of the two half-foot bricks 
laid down in the south being, as it were, halved by the spine. 



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32 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

are the middle : he thus causes the creatures to 
enter him in the very middle. He places them on 
all sides : on all sides he thus causes the creatures 
to enter him. 

7. And, again, as to why he lays down the Vai-J- 
vadevi (bricks). At that time, when that (part) of 
his body had been restored, Praf apati desired, ' May 
I create creatures, may I be reproduced ! ' Having 
entered into union with the seasons, the waters, the 
vital airs, the year, and the A^vins, he produced 
these creatures ; and in like manner does this Sacri- 
ficer, by entering into union with those deities, now 
produce these creatures. Hence with all (of these 
bricks, the word) sa^ush ('in union with') recurs. 

8. [He lays down the Vairvadevt bricks, with V4f. 
S. XIV, 7], 'In union with the seasons,' — he 
thereby produced the seasons, and having entered 
into union with the seasons he produced (crea- 
tures) ; — 'in union with the ranges,' — the ranges, 
doubtless, are the waters, for by water everything 
is ranged (distributed or produced) here : having 
entered into union with the waters he produced 
(creatures); — 'in union with the gods,' — he 
thereby produced the gods, — those who are called 
'gods 1 ;' — 'in union with the life-sustaining 
gods,' — the life-sustaining gods, doubtless, are the 
vital airs, for by the vital airs everything living 
here is sustained ; or, the life-sustaining gods are 
the metres, for by the metres (sacred writ) every- 
thing living is sustained here ; having entered into 
union with the vital airs he produced creatures ; — 



1 Lit. what they (viz. the Vedic hymns, according to the com- 
mentator) call gods : — Yat kimAid ity eva vedavada. a&tkshate. 



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VIII KAVCA, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAWA, 2. 33 

'for Agni Vaisvanara,' — Agni Vawvinara ('be- 
longing to all men '), doubtless, is the year : having 
entered into union with the year he produced 
creatures; — 'May the A^vins, the Adhvaryus, 
settle thee here!' — having entered into union with 
the A^vins he produced creatures. 

9. 'In union with the Vasus,' he says on the 
right side : he thereby produced the Vasus ; — ' in 
union with the Rudras,' he says at the back : he 
thereby produced the Rudras; — 'in union with 
the Adityas,' he says on the left side: he thereby 
produced the Adityas; — 'in union with the All- 
gods,' he says upwards: he thereby produced the 
All-gods. These (bricks) have the same beginning 
and end, but are different in the middle : as to their 
having the same beginning and end, it is because 
having become united with the deities in front and 
behind, he produced creatures ; and as to their 
being different in the middle, it is that each time 
he produced different creatures from within him. 

Third Brahmajva. 

1. He then lays down the Praaabhrz't (bricks). 
For at that time the gods said, 'Meditate ye!' 
whereby, doubtless, they meant. to say, 'Seek ye a 
layer!' Whilst meditating, they saw even that layer, 
the wind: they put it into that (fire-altar), and in like 
manner does he (the priest) now put it therein. 

2. He lays down the PrawabhWts, — wind, doubt- 
less, is breath : it is wind (air) he thus bestows upon 
him (Agni). On the range of the Reta^si^ (they are 
placed) ; for the Reta^si£ are these two (worlds) : it 
is within these two (worlds) that he thus places the 
wind ; whence there is wind within these two (worlds). 

[43] d 

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34 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

He places them on every side : he thus places wind 
on all sides, whence the wind is everywhere. [He 
places them so as] on every side to run in the same 
direction 1 : he thus makes the wind everywhere (to 
blow) in the same direction, whence, having become 
united, it blows from all quarters in the same direc- 
tion. He lays them down alongside of the regional 
(bricks) 2 : he thereby places the wind in the regions, 
whence there is wind in all the regions. 

3. And, again, as to why he lays down the Prawa- 
bhWts; — it is that he thereby bestows vital airs 
on these creatures. He places them so as not to 
be separated from the Vai^vadevts : he thereby 
bestows vital airs not separated from the creatures. 
[He lays them down with, V$g. S. XIV, 8], ' Pre- 
serve mine up-breathing! Preserve my 
down - breathing! Preserve my through- 
breathing! Make mine eyeshine far and wide ! 
Make mine ear resound!' He thereby bestows 
on them properly constituted vital airs. 

4. He then lays down the Apasya (bricks). For 
the gods, at that time, spake, 'Meditate ye !' whereby, 
doubtless, they meant to say, 'Seek ye a layer!' 
Whilst meditating, they saw even that layer, rain : 



1 That is, the bricks placed in opposite quarters, run in the same 
direction ; see p. 26, note 3. 

* The Pri»abhr»'ts are placed beside the VairvadevJs so as to 
be separated from them by the respective section of the anukas or 
'spines' (dividing the square 'body' of the altar into four quarters). 
Each Vairvadevt would thus be enclosed between an Ajvinf and 
a Pranabhrrt; but whilst the Arvini and Vauvadevi are placed in the 
same section (or quarter) of the altar, the PrS»abhr/'t comes to lie 
in the adjoining section, moving in the sunwise direction from left 
to right. 



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VIII KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMA^A, 6. 35 

they put it into that (fire-altar) and in like manner 
does he now put it therein. 

5. He put on the Apasyas; for rain is water (ap) ; 
it is rain he thereby puts into it (the altar ; or into 
him, Agni). On the range of the Reta^si^ (he 
places them), for, the Reta^si^ being these two 
(worlds), it is on these two (worlds) that he thereby 
bestows rain, whence it rains therein. He places 
them on every side : he thus puts rain everywhere, 
whence it rains everywhere. [He places them] so 
as everywhere to run in the same direction 1 : he 
thereby bestows rain (falling) everywhere in the 
same direction, whence the rain falls everywhere, 
and from all quarters, in the same direction. He 
places them alongside of those referring to the 
wind 2 : he thereby puts rain into the wind, whence 
rain follows to whatever quarter the wind goes. 

6. And, again, as to why he lays down Apa- 
syas, — he thereby puts water into the vital airs. He 
places them so as not to be separated from the 
Pra«abhr/ts : he thus places the water so as not to 
be separate from the vital airs. Moreover, water is 
food : he thus introduces food not separated from 
(the channels of) the vital airs. [He lays them 
down with, V&f. S. XIV, 8], 'Make the waters 
swell! Quicken the plants! Bless thou the 
two-footed! Protect the four-footed! Draw 
thou rain from the sky!' He thereby puts water 
that is made fit, into those (vital airs). 

' See p. 26, note 3. 

* The five Apasyi bricks are placed immediately to the right 
of the PriuiabhMs (looking towards the latter from the centre of 
the altar), so as to fill up the four remaining spaces between the 
four sets of bricks on the range of the Reta^sil. 

D 2 

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36 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

7. He then lays down the A'^andasya' (bricks); — 
for the gods, at that time, spake, ' Meditate ye ! ' 
whereby, doubtless, they meant to say, ' Seek ye 
a layer ! ' Whilst meditating, they saw even that 
layer, cattle (or beasts) : they put it therein, and, in 
like manner, does he now put it therein. 

8. He lays down the A'&indasyas; for the metres 
(Pandas) are cattle : it is cattle he thus puts into 
it (or, bestows on him, Agni). On every side (he 
places them) : he thereby places cattle (or beasts) 
everywhere, whence there are cattle everywhere. 
He places them alongside of the Apasyas : he thus 
establishes the cattle on (or, near) water, whence 
cattle thrive when it rains. 

9. And, again, as to why he lays down A^an- 
dasyas. When Pra^apati was relaxed, the cattle, 
having become metres, went from him. Gayatri, 
having become a metre, overtook them by dint of 
her vigour ; and as to how Gayatri overtook them, 
it is that this is the quickest (shortest) metre. And 
so Pra^fapati, in the form of that (Gayatri), by dint 
of his vigour, overtook those cattle. 

10. [He lays down four in front, with, Vi^ - . S. XIV, 
9], ' The head is vigour,' — Pra^apati, doubtless, is 
the head : it is he that became vigour ; — ' Pra^ apati 
the metre,' — Pra^apati indeed became a metre. 

11. 'The Kshatra is vigour,' — the Kshatra, 
doubtless, is Pra^apati, it is he that became vigour ; 
— 'the pleasure-giving metre,' — what is unde- 

1 These are otherwise called Vayasya (conferring vigour, or 
vitality), each formula containing the word vayas, ' vitality, force.' 
There are nineteen such bricks which are placed on the four ends 
of the two 'spines,' viz. four on the front, or east end of the spine 
proper, and five on the hind end of it as well as on each end of the 
'cross-spine.' 



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VIII KAJVDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, I. 37 

fined that is pleasure-giving; and Prajapati is 
undefined, and Pra^apati indeed became a metre. 

12. 'Support is vigour,' — the support, doubtless, 
is Prafapati : it is he that became vigour; — 'the 
over-lord the metre,' — the over-lord, doubtless, is 
Pra/apati, and Pra^apati indeed became a metre. 

13. 'The All-worker is vigour,' — the All- 
worker, doubtless, is Pra/apati : it is he that became 
vigour; — 'the highest lord the metre,' — Pra^apati, 
the highest lord, doubtless, is the waters, for they 
(the waters of heaven) are in the highest place : 
Pra^apati, the highest lord, indeed became a metre. 

14. These then are four kinds of vigour, and four 
metres ; this (makes) eight, — the Gayatrt consists 
of eight syllables: this, assuredly, is that same 
Gayatrl in the form of which Pra^apati then, by his 
vigour, overtook those cattle ; whence they say of 
worn-out cattle that they are overtaken by vigour 
(or, age), and hence (the word) ' vigour ' recurs with 
all (these bricks). And those cattle which went 
away from him (Pra^apati) are these fifteen other 
(formulas) : the cattle are a thunderbolt, and the 
thunderbolt is fifteenfold : whence he who pos- 
sesses cattle, drives off the evildoer, for the thun- 
derbolt drives off the evildoer for him. And in 
whatever direction, therefore, the possessor of cattle 
goes, that he finds torn up by the thunderbolt. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 
1. 'The he-goat is vigour 1 ,' — the he-goat he 
overtook by his vigour; — 'gapless the metre,' — r 

1 Mahidhara, in accordance with the explanation added by the 
Brahmawa to this and the corresponding formulas in the succeeding 
paragraphs, takes ' vayas ' as a defective instrumental (vayasa). It 
is, however, very doubtful whether such an interpretation of the 
formula was intended by the author of the Brahma»a. 

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38 sataPatha-brAhmajva. 

the gapless metre, doubtless, is the Ekapadi: in the 
form of Ekapadi (metre) the goats indeed went 
forth (from Prafipati). 

2. 'The ram is vigour,' — the ram he overtook 
by his vigour; — 'ample the metre,' — the ample 
metre, doubtless, is the Dvipada: in the form of 
the Dvipada the sheep indeed went forth. 

3. ' Man is vigour,' — the man he overtook by 
his vigour; — 'slow the metre,' — the slow metre, 
doubtless, is the Pankti : in the form of the Pankti 
the men indeed went forth. 

4. ' The tiger is vigour,' — the tiger he over- 
took by his vigour; — 'unassailable the metre,' — 
the unassailable metre, doubtless, is the Virif, for 
the Virif is food, and food is unassailable ; in the 
form of the Virif the tigers indeed went forth. 

5. 'The lion is vigour,' — the lion he overtook 
by his vigour; — 'the covering the metre,' — the 
covering metre, doubtless, is the Atii^andas, for 
that covers (includes) all metres : in the form of the 
Atiii^andas the lions indeed went forth. And so 
he places undefined metres along with defined 
beasts. 

6. 'The ox is vigour,' — the ox he overtook by 
his vigour; — 'the Brzhatl the metre,' — in the 
form of the Brz'hatl the oxen indeed went forth. 

7. 'The bull is vigour,' — the bull he overtook 
by his vigour; — 'the Kakubh the metre,' — in 
the form of the Kakubh the bulls indeed went 
forth. 

8. 'The steer is vigour,' — the steer he over- 
took by his vigour; — 'the SatobrzhatI the metre,' 
— in the form of the Satobr/hatt the steers indeed 
went forth. 



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viii kAjvda, 2 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, i 6. 39 

9. 'The bullock is vigour,' — the bullock he 
overtook by his vigour; — 'the Pankti the metre,' 
— in the form of the Pankti the bullocks indeed 
went forth. 

10. 'The milch cow is vigour,' — the milch cow 
he overtook by his vigour; — 'the (9agatl the 
metre,' — in the form of the Gagati the milch cows 
indeed went forth. 

11. 'The calf of eighteen months is vigour,' 
— the calf of eighteen months he overtook by his 
vigour; — 'the Trish/ubh the metre,' — in the 
form of the Trish/ubh the calves of eighteen 
months indeed went forth. 

12. 'The two-year-old bull is vigour,' — the 
two-year-old bull he overtook by his vigour; — ' the 
Virlf the metre,' — in the form of the Virag the 
two-year-old kine indeed went forth. 

13. 'The bull of two years and a half is 
vigour,' — the bull of two years and a half he over- 
took by his vigour; — 'the G&yatrl the metre,' — 
in the form of the Gayatrl the kine of two years 
and a half indeed went forth. 

14. 'The three-year-old bull is vigour,' — 
the three-year-old bull he overtook by his vigour ; 
— 'the Ush»ih the metre,' — in the form of the 
Ush»ih the three-year-old kine indeed went forth. 

15. 'The four-year-old bull is vigour,' — the 
four-year-old bull he overtook by his vigour; — 'the 
Anush/ubh the metre,' — in the form of the 
Anush/ubh the four-year-old kine indeed went 
forth. 

16. These then are those very beasts which 
Pra,fapati overtook by his vigour. The animal 
he (the priest) mentions first, then vigour, then the 



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40 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

metre, for having hemmed them in with vigour and 
the metre, he put them into himself, and made them 
his own ; and in like manner does he (the sacrificer) 
now hem them in with vigour and the metre, and 
put them into himself, and make them his own. 

1 7. Now that animal is the same as Agni : (as 
such) he is even now made up whole and entire. 
Those (bricks) which he places in front are his head ; 
those on the right and left sides are his body, and 
those behind his tail. 

j 8. He first lays down those in front, for of an 
animal that is born the head is born first. Having 
then laid down those on the right (south) side, he 
lays down those on the left (north) side, thinking, 
' Together with its sides this body shall be born.' 
Then those behind, for of (the animal) that is born 
the tail is born last. 

19. The metres which are longest, and the animals 
which are biggest, he puts in the middle : he thus 
makes the animal biggest towards the middle; 
whence the animal is biggest towards the middle. 
And the animals which are the strongest he puts on 
the right side : he thus makes the right side of an 
animal the stronger ; whence the right side of an 
animal is the stronger. 

20. The fore and hind parts he makes smallest ; 
for inasmuch as those (bricks in front) are only four 
in number \ thereby they are the smallest ; and 
inasmuch as here (at the back) he puts the smallest 
animals, thereby these are the smallest : he thus 
makes the fore and hind parts of an animal the 
smallest, whence the fore and hind parts of an animal 

1 See p. 35, note 3. 



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VIII KAJVflA, 3 ADHYAya, I BRAHMAVA, 4. 4 1 

are the smallest ; and hence the animal rises and 
sits down by its fore and hind parts. He then lays 
down two Lokamprma (bricks) in that corner 1 : 
the significance of them (will be explained) further 
on \ He throws loose earth on the layer : the sig- 
nificance of this (will be explained) further on 8 . 

THE THIRD LAYER. 
Third Adhyaya. First Brahmajva. 

1. He lays down the third layer. For the gods, 
having laid down the second layer, now ascended it ; 
but, indeed, they thereby completed and ascended 
to what is above the earth and below the atmo- 
sphere. 

2. They spake, ' Meditate ye ! ' whereby, indeed, 
they meant to say, ' Seek ye a layer ! Seek ye (to 
build) upwards from hence ! ' Whilst meditating, 
they saw the great third layer, even the air : that 
world pleased them. 

3. They said to Indra and Agni, ' Lay ye down 
for us this third layer!' — 'What will accrue unto 
us therefrom ? ' — ' Ye two shall be the best of us ! ' 
— 'So be it!' Accordingly Indra and Agni laid 
down for them that third layer ; and hence people 
say, ' Indra and Agni are the best of gods.' 

4. He accordingly lays it down by means of Indra 
and Agni, and settles it by means of Vlsvakarman 4 , 

1 Whilst, in laying down the Lokamprmas of the first layer, he 
started from the right shoulder (or south-east corner) of the altar 
(see p. 22, note 1), in this layer he begins from the right hip (or 
south west-corner), filling up the available spaces, in two turns, in 
sunwise fashion. 

* See VII, 7, 2, 4 seq. » See VIII, 7, 3, 1 seq. 

4 For the connection of these deities with the third layer, and the 



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42 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

for indeed Indra and Agni, as well as VLrvakarman, 
saw this third layer : this is why he lays it down by 
means of Indra and Agni, and settles it by means of 
Vuvakarman. 

5. And, again, as to why he lays it down by means 
of Indra and Agni, and settles it by means of Viyva- 
karman. When Pra^apati had become relaxed (dis- 
jointed), the deities took him and went off in different 
directions. Indra and Agni, and Vuvakarman took 
his middle part, and kept going away from him. 

6. He said to them, ' Come ye to me and restore 
ye to me wherewith ye are going from me ! ' — ' What 
will accrue unto us therefrom ? ' — ' That (part) of my 
body shall be sacred unto you ! ' — ' So be it ! ' So 
Indra and Agni, and Visvakarman restored that 
(part) unto him. 

7. Now that central Svayam-atr?#»a (naturally- 
perforated brick) 1 is that very (part) of his body ; — 
when he now lays down that (brick), he thereby 
restores to him that (part) of his (Pra^apati's) body 
which this (brick represents) : this is why he now 
lays down that (brick). 

8. [Va£\ S. XIV, 1 1], ' O Indra and Agni, make 
ye fast the brick so as not to shake!' as the 
text so the sense; — 'with thy back thou forcest 
asunder the earth, and the sky, and the air;' 
for with its back this (brick) indeed forces asunder 
the earth, and the sky, and the air. 

9. [Va^. S. XIV, 12], ' May Vixvakarman settle 



air, see also VI, a, 3, 3. Vuvakarman is likewise the deity by 
which the Virva^yotis-brick, representing Vayu (the wind), the 
regent of the air-world, is settled ; see VIII, 3, 2, 3. 
1 See part iii, p. 155, note 8. 



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viii kAjvda, 3 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, ii. 43 

thee,' for Virvakarman saw this third layer; — 'on 
the back of the air, thee the wide, the broad 
one ! ' for this (brick) indeed is the wide and broad 
back of the air; — 'support thou the air, make 
fast the air, injure not the air!' that is, 'support 
thou thine own self (body), make fast thine own self, 
injure not thine own self ! ' 

10. ' For all up-breathing, and down-breath- 
ing, and through-breathing, and out-breathing!' 
for the naturally-perforated (brick) is the vital air, and 
the vital air serves for everything here ; — ' for a 
resting-place and moving-place!' for the natu- 
rally-perforated (brick) is these worlds, and these 
worlds are indeed a resting-place and a moving- 
place; — 'May Viyu shelter thee!' that is, 'May 
Vayu protect thee!' — 'with grand prosperity!' 
that is, 'with great prosperity;' — 'with most 
auspicious protection ! ' — that is, ' with what pro- 
tection is most auspicious.' Having settled it 1 , he 
pronounces the Sudadohas 2 over it ; the meaning of 
this has been explained. He then sings a saman : 
the meaning of this (will be explained) further on 8 . 

ii. He then lays down (five) Disya (regional 
bricks) 4 . Now the regional ones, doubtless, are 

1 Viz. by the concluding formula, ' With the help of that deity, 
Angiras-like, lie thou steady 1' see part iii, p. 301, note 3. 

1 Viz. YSig. S. XII, 55 (Rig-veda S. VIII, 69, 3), ' At his birth 
the well-like milking, speckled ones mix the Soma, the clans of 
the gods in the three spheres of the heavens.' See part iii, p. 307, 
note 2. 

' VIII, 7, 4, 1 seq. 

4 The five DijySs are placed on the spines in the four directions 
at the reterfisii range, just over where the five Vawvadevt bricks 
were placed in the second layer (see the sketch, p. 24). Between 
them and the central (naturally-perforated) brick there is thus an 



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44 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

the regions : it is the regions he thus bestows (on 
the air-world). And these are those same regions 
not separated (from the air) wherewith Vayu on that 
occasion l stepped nigh : it is them he thereby be- 
stows. But prior to these same (bricks) he lays 
down 2 both the bunch of Darbha grass and the 
clod-bricks ; and these (dijyas) being yonder sun 3 , 
he thus places yonder sun over the regions, and 
builds him up upon (or, in) the regions. But were 
these (laid down) at the same time (as the bunch of 
grass and the clod-bricks), they would be outside 
(of the altar) ; and outside of the womb (foundation), 
indeed, is that sacrificial work regarding the fire-altar 
which is done prior to the lotus-leaf 4 . When he 

empty space a foot square, and the two southern Dwyas are half- 
bricks lying north and south of each other. 

' See VI, 2, 3, 4. The second naturally-perforated brick 
represents the air-world with which Vayu, the wind, is most closely 
associated. 

* That is to say, he laid them down on the site of the altar, 
before the first layer was commenced, viz. the darbha-bunch in the 
centre of the ' body ' of the altar, where the two spines (anuka) in- 
tersect each other (VII, a, 3, 1 seqq.); and the clod-bricks 
(logesh/aka) on the four ends of the two spines (VII, 3, 1, 13 seqq.), 
that is, in the middle of each of the four sides of the square of 
which the ' body ' consists. 

* The symbolic interpretation here seems somewhat confused, 
inasmuch as the Duy&s, which are now apparently identified with 
the sun, have just been stated to represent the regions. At VI, 
7, 1, 17 the sun was represented as the central point of the 
universe to which these three worlds are linked by means of the 
quarters (as by the strings of a scale). The clod-bricks, on the 
other hand, were indeed, in VII, 3, 1, 13, identified with the regions 
(quarters) ; and the bunch of grass, being laid down in the centre, 
might be regarded as marking the fifth region, that upwards from 
here. Cf. IX, 5, 1, 36. 

* The lotus-leaf is placed in the centre of the altar when the 
first layer is about to be laid down. See VII, 4, 1, 7 seqq., where 



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VIII KkNDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 12. 45 

now brings and lays down these (bricks), he thereby 
establishes them in the womb, on the lotus-leaf, and 
thus these (bricks) are not outside (the fire-altar). 
He lays them down so as not to be separated l from 
the naturally-perforated one ; for the middle 2 natu- 
rally-perforated one is the air: he thus places the 
regions so as not to be separate from the air. 
Subsequently 3 (to the central brick he lays them 
down) : subsequently to the air he thus sets up the 
regions. In all (four) directions he places them : he 
thus places the regions (quarters) in all directions, 
whence the regions are in all (four) directions. [He 
places them] on all sides so as to face each other : he 
thereby makes the regions on all sides face each other, 
and hence the regions on all sides face each other *. 
12. And, again, as to why he lays down the re- 
gionals. The regions, doubtless, are the metres — the 
eastern region being the Gayatri, the southern the 
TrishAibh, the western the Gagatl, the northern 
the Anush^ubh, and the upper region the Pankti ; — 
and the metres are animals 6 , and the middlemost 
layer is the air: he thus places animals in the air, 

it is explained as representing the foundation of the fire-altar, or 
rather, the womb whence Agni is born. 

1 That is, not separated therefrom by other special bricks; 
though the full space of one brick is left between the DuySs and 
the central brick. Perhaps, however, ' anantarhita ' here means 
' immediately after.' 

* That is, the second of the three svayam-atr/Wwas, the one in 
the third layer. 

' Uttara seems here and elsewhere to have a double meaning, 
viz. that of subsequent, and upper, or left, inasmuch as looking 
towards these bricks from the centre of the altar, they are placed 
to the left of the particular section of the anukas. 

* See p. 26, note 3. 

* The metres are commonly represented as cattle. 



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46 satapatha-brahmana. 

and hence there are animals that have their abode 
in the air >. 

1 3. And, again, as to why he lays down the re- 
gionals. The regions, doubtless, are the metres, and 
the metres are animals, and animals are food, and 
the middlemost layer is the middle : he thus puts 
food in the middle (of the body). He places them 
so as not to be separated (by special bricks) from 
the naturally-perforated one ; for the naturally-perfo- 
rated one is the vital air : he thus places the food 
so as not to be separated from the vital air. Subse- 
quently (to the central brick he lays them down) : 
subsequently to (or upon) the vital air he thus places 
food. On the range of the Reta^sii (he places them): 
the RetafeLfc being the ribs, and the ribs being the 
middle (of the body), he thus places the food in the 
middle of this (Agni's body). On every side he 
places them : from everywhere he thus supplies him, 
with food. 

14. [He lays them down, with, Vdf. S. XIV, 13], 
' Thou art the queen, the Eastern region ! 
Thou art the far-ruler, the Southern region ! 
Thou art the all-ruler, the Western region! 
Thou art the self-ruler, the Northern region! 
Thou art the supreme ruler, the Great region ! ' 
these are their names : he thus lays them down 
whilst naming them. Separately he lays them down, 
separately he settles them, and separately he pro- 
nounces the Sudadohas over them, for separate are 
the regions. 

1 That is all (four-footed) animals that dwell on, not in, the 
earth. The Gayatri metre, at any rate, is also represented as a bird 
which fetches the Soma from heaven, but it is not the air as such 
that is intended here, but the face of the earth. 



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VIII KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 4. 47 



Second BrAhmamv. 

1. He then lays down a Vijva^yotis (all-light 
brick). Now the middle Vtrvafyotis is Vayu *, 
for Vayu (the wind) is all the light in the air-world : 
it is Vayu he thus places therein. He places it so 
as not to be separated from the regional (bricks) : 
he thus places Vayu in the regions, and hence there 
is wind in all the regions. 

2. And, again, as to why he lays down the Vis- 
va^yotis, — the Visva^yotis, doubtless, is offspring (or 
creatures), for offspring indeed is all the light : he thus 
lays generative power (into that world). He places 
it so as not to be separated from the regional ones 2 : 
he thus places creatures in the regions, and hence 
there are creatures in all the regions. 

3. [He lays it down, with, V&g. S. XIV, 14], 
'May Visvakarman settle thee!' for Vwvakar- 
man saw this third layer 8 ; — 'on the back of the 
air, thee the brilliant one!' for on the back of 
the air that brilliant Viyu indeed is. 

4. 'For all up-breathing, down-breathing, 
through-breathing,' — for the Vwva^yotis is breath, 



1 The three Vifva^yotis bricks, placed in (the fourth easterly 
place from the centre of) the first, third and fifth layer respectively, 
are supposed to represent the regents of the three worlds — earth, 
air and sky — which these three layers represent, viz. Agni, Viyu 
and Aditya (Sftrya). See VI, 3, 3, 16. 

* Though, properly speaking, the Vuva^yotis lies close to only 
one of the Diryas, viz. the eastern one, it may at any rate be said 
to lie close to the range of the Di-ryas. Here, too, the sense 
• immediately after, not separated from them in respect of time,' 
would suit even better. 

* See VIII, 3, r, 4 with note. 



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4 8 



SATAPATHA-BRAHMA.VA. 



and breath indeed is (necessary) for this entire 
universe ; — ' give all the light ! ' — that is, ' give the 
whole light;' — 'Vayu is thine over-lord/ — it is 
Vayu he thus makes the over-lord of that (layer and 
the air- world). Having settled it, he pronounces 
the Sudadohas over it : the significance of this has 
been explained. 

5. He then lays down two Rita.vy& (seasonal 1 
bricks) ; — the two seasonal ones being the same as 
the seasons, it is the seasons he thus places therein. — 
[Vif. S. XIV, 15], ' Nabha and Nabhasya, the 
two rainy seasons,' these are the names of those 
two (bricks) : it is by their names he thus lays them 
down. There are two (such) bricks, for a season 
consists of two months. He settles them once only : 
he thereby makes (the two months) one season. 
He places them on avaka-plants and covers them 



THE CENTRAL PART 
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OF 


THE THIRD 


LAYER. 




D 








X \ 










/ 


\ 




2 

Hit. 




w 


D 


1 


-4- 


1 

J 





V 


E 




2 

Rrr. 






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/ 








y / 








D 






D 





1 These two Hita.vy£s are placed beside (east of) the Vis- 
va^yotis, one north of the other, just over those of the first and 
second layers, that is to say, in the fifth space from the centre. In 
the present case, however, these bricks are only of half the usual 
thickness; two others, of similar size, being placed upon them. 



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VIII KAATDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 8. 49 

with avaka-plants 1 ; for avaka-plants mean water: 
he thus bestows water on that season, whence it 
rains most abundantly in that season. 

6. Then the two upper ones, with (Va^f. S. XIV, 
i6),'Isha and Ur^a, the two autumnal seasons,' 
— these are the names of those two (bricks): it is 
by their names he thus lays them down. There 
are two (such) bricks, for a season consists of two 
months. He settles them only once : he thereby 
makes (the two months) one season. He places 
them on avaki-plants, for the avaka-plants mean 
water : he thus bestows water before that season, 
whence it rains before that season. He does not 
cover them afterwards, whence it does not likewise 
rain after (that season). 

7. And as to why he places these (four bricks) in 
this (layer), — this fire-altar is the year, and the year 
is the same as these worlds, and the middlemost 
layer is the air (-world) thereof; and the rainy season 
and autumn are the air (-world) thereof: hence when 
he places them in this (layer), he thereby restores to 
him (Agni) what (part) of his body these (formed), — 
this is why he places them in this (layer). 

8. And, again, as to why he places them in this 
(layer), — this Agni (the fire-altar) is Pra^apati, and 
Pra^ipati is the year. Now the middlemost layer 
is the middle of this (altar), and the rainy season 
and the autumn are the middle of that (year) : hence 
when he places them in this (layer), he thereby 
restores to him (Agni-Pra^apati) what part of his 



' As in the case of the live tortoise, in the first layer ; see VII, 
5, 1, 11 with note — 'Blyxa octandra, a grassy plant growing in 
marshy land (" lotus-flower," Weber, Ind. Siud. XIII, p. 250).' 

[43] E 



9 1€ 



50 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

body these (formed), — this is why he places them in 
this (layer). 

9. There are here four seasonal (bricks) he lays 
down in the middlemost layer; and two in each of 
the other layers, — animals (cattle) are four-footed, 
and the middlemost layer is the air : he thus places 
animals in the air, and hence there are animals that 
have their abode in the air. 

10. And, again, why there are four,— animals are 
four-footed, and animals are food ; and the middle- 
most layer is the middle (of Agni's body) : he thus 
puts food in the middle. 

1 1. And, again, why there are four, — ' antariksha ' 
(air) consists of four syllables, and the other layers 
(<6iti) consist of two syllables ; hence as much as 
the air consists of, so much he makes it in laying 
it down. 

12. And, again, why there are four, — this Agni 
(altar), doubtless, is an animal : he thus makes the 
animal biggest towards the middle; whence an 
animal is biggest towards the middle. 

1 3. There are here four ^'tavyas, the Vwva^yotis 
being the fifth, and five Di^yas, — this makes ten : 
the Vira^ - consists of ten syllables, and the Vir&f is 
food, and the middlemost layer is the middle ; — he 
thus puts food in the middle (of the body). He lays 
them down so as not to be separated from the 
naturally-perforated one 1 , for the naturally-perforated 
one is the vital air : he thus places the food so as 
not to be separated from the vital air. Subsequently 
(to the central brick) he lays them down : sub- 



1 That is to say, the three sets of bricks are not separated by 
any others from the Svayamatr>»«sL 



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VIII KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA. I. 5 1 

sequently to (or upon) the vital air he thus places 
food. 

14. He then lays down the Priwabhm 1 (bricks); 
— the Pra»abh/-zts (breath-holders), doubtless, are the 
vital airs : it is the vital airs he thus lays into ( Agni's 
body). There are ten of them, for there are ten 
vital airs. He places them in the forepart (of the 
altar), — for there are these vital airs in front, — with 
(Va^-. S. XIV, 17), 'Protect my vital strength! 
protect mine up-breathing! protect my down- 
breathing! protect my through-breathing! 
protect mine eye! protect mine ear! increase 
my speech! animate my mind! protect my 
soul (or body)! give me light!' — He lays them 
down so as not to be separated from the seasonal 
ones, for the vital air is wind : he thus establishes 
the wind in the seasons. 

Third BrAhmajva. 

1. He then lays down the .Af^andasya 2 (metres' 
bricks). Now the metres are cattle, and the middle- 
most layer is the air: he thus places cattle in the 
air, whence cattle have their abode in the air. 

1 The ten Pra«abhr/"ts are placed — five on each side of the 
spine — either along the edge of the altar, or so as to leave the 
space of one foot between them and the edge, to afford room for 
another set of bricks, the VilakhilySs. 

* The thirty-six .fffondasya bricks are laid down, in three sets 
of twelve each, along the edge of the body of the altar where the 
two wings and the tail join it; six bricks being placed on each 
side of the respective spine. At the back the bricks are not, 
however, placed close to the edge separating the body from the 
tail, but sufficient space is left (a foot wide) for another set of bricks 
to be laid down behind the A'Aandasyas. 

E 2 



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52 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

2. And, again, as to why he lays down Khan- 
dasyas, — the metres are cattle, and cattle are food, 
and the middlemost layer is the middle (of Agni, the 
altar) : he thus places food in the middle (of Agni's 
body). 

3. He lays them down by twelves, — for the 6agatl 
consists of twelve syllables,- and the (Jagatl is cattle, 
and the middlemost layer is the air : he thus places 
cattle in the air, whence cattle have their abode in 
the air. 

4. And, again, why (he lays them down) by 
twelves, — the Gagatt consists of twelve syllables, 
and the Gagatt is cattle, and cattle is food, and the 
middlemost layer is the middle : he thus places food 
in the middle. He places them so as not to be 
separated from the Pra«abhr*ts : he thus places the 
food so as not to be separated from the vital airs ; 
subsequently (to them he places them) : he thus 
bestows food after (bestowing) the vital airs. 

5. [He lays down the right set, with, V&f. S. XI V, 
18], 'The metre Measure;' — the measure (ma), 
doubtless, is this (terrestrial) world, for this world 
is, as it were, measured (mita); — 'the metre Fore- 
measure!' — the fore-measure (prama), doubtless, is 
the air-world, for the air-world is, as it were, measured 
forward from this world ; — 'The metre Counter- 
measure,' — the counter-measure (pratima), doubtless, 
is yonder (heavenly) world, for yonder world is, as it 
were, counter-measured 1 in the air; — 'The metre 
Asrivayas,' — 'asrivayas,' doubtless, is food: what- 
ever food there is in these worlds that is ' asrivayas.' 
Or, whatever food (anna) flows (sravati) from these 

1 That is, made a counterfeit, or copy, of the earth. 



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VIII KAiVDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 8. 53 

worlds that is ' asrtvayas.' Hereafter, now, he puts 
down only defined metres. 

6. 'The Pankti metre! the Ush«ih metre! 
the Brzhatl metre! the Anush/ubh metre! the 
Vira,f metre! the Gayatrl metre! the Trish- 
/ubh metre! the (Pagatl metre!' these eight 
defined metres, including the Vira^ - , he puts down. 
— [The back set, with, Va^. S. XIV, 19], 'The 
metre Earth! the metre Air! the metre 
Heaven! the metre Years ! the metre Stars! 
the metre Speech! the metre Mind! the metre 
Husbandry! the metre Gold! the metre Cow! 
the metre Goat! the metre Horse!' he thus 
puts down those metres which are sacred to those 
particular deities. — [The left set, with, Vaf. S. XIV, 
20], 'The deity Fire! the deity Wind! the 
deity Sun! the deity Moon! the deity Vasa- 
va.A\ the deity Rudra/4! the deity Aditya^! 
the deity Maruta^! the deity Vijve Deva/4! 
the deity BWhaspati ! the deity Indra! the 
deity Varu»a!' — these deities, doubtless, are 
metres : it is these he thus lays down. 

7. He lays down both defined and undefined 
(metres). Were he to lay down such as are all 
defined, then the food would have an end, it would 
fail; and (were he to lay down) such as are all 
undefined, then the food would be invisible, and 
one would not see it at all. He lays down both 
defined and undefined ones : hence the defined 
(certain) food which is eaten does not fail. 

8. These then are those (sets of) twelve he lays 
down, — that makes thirty-six, and the Brzhati 
consists of thirty -six syllables: this is that same 
Br/hatl, the air, which the gods then saw as a third 



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54 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA.WA. 

layer. In that (br/hati set of bricks) the gods come 
last (or, are highest). 

9. And, again, as to why he lays down these 
bricks. When Pra^pati became relaxed, all living 
beings went from him in all directions. 

10. Now that same Pra^apati who became re- 
laxed is this very Agni (fire-altar) that is now being 
built up; and those living beings which went from 
him are these bricks : hence when he lays down 
these (bricks), he thereby puts back into him 
(Pra^apati-Agni) those same living beings which 
went from him. 

1 1. Now when he first lays down ten (Pra»abhr«ts), 
they are the moon. There are ten of these, — the 
Virctf consists of ten syllables, and the Viri^ is food, 
and the moon is food. And when subsequently he 
lays down thirty-six (A^andasyas), they are the half- 
months and months — twenty-four half-months and 
twelve months: the moon, doubtless, is the year, 
and all living beings. 

12. And when the gods restored him (Pra^apati- 
Agni), they put all those living beings inside him, 
and in like manner does this one now put them 
therein. He lays them down so as not to be 
separated from the seasonal (bricks): he thus 
establishes all living beings in the seasons. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

1. He then lays down the Valakhilyas; — the 
Valakhilyas, doubtless, are the vital airs: it is the 
vital airs he thus lays (into Agni). And as to why 
they are called Vilakhilyas, — what (unploughed piece 
of ground lies) between two cultivated fields is called 



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vih KA2VDA, 3 adhyAva, 4 brAhmajva, 6. 55 

'khila;' and these (channels of the) vital airs 1 are 
separated from each other by the width of a horse- 
hair (vala), and because they are separated from 
each other by the width of a horse-hair, they (the 
bricks) are called Valakhilyas. 

2. He places seven in front, and seven at the back. 
When he places seven in front, he thereby restores 
to him those seven (organs of the) vital airs here in 
front. 

3. And those seven which (he places) behind he 
thereby makes the counter-breathings to those (first 
breathings); and hence by means of (the channels of) 
these breathings he passes over the food which he 
eats with those (other) breathings. 

4. And, again, as to why he places seven in front, — 
there are seven (channels of the) vital airs here in 
the front part (of the animal) 2 — the four upper and 
lower parts of the fore-feet, the head, the neck, and 
what is above the navel that is the sixth, for in each 
limb there is a vital air : this makes seven vital airs 
here in front; it is them he thus lays into him 
(Agni-Pra^apati). 

5. And as to what seven (bricks) he places be- 
hind, — there are seven vital airs here in the back 
part — the four thighs and knee-bones, the two feet, 
and what is below the navel that is the seventh, for 
in each limb there is a vital air : this makes seven 
vital airs here at the back; it is them he thus lays 
into him. 

6. [He lays them down, with.Va.f.S. XIV, 21, 22], 
'The head thou art, the ruler! steady thou 

1 Or, these bricks representing the vital airs. 
* Or, in the upper part of man. 



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56 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

art, steadfast! a holder thou art, a hold!' — 
' A guider, a ruler! a guider thou art, a guide ! 
steady thou art, a steadier!' he truly bestows 
steady vital airs unto him. 

7. And, again, as to why he lays down the 
Valakhilyas, — it was by means of the Valakhilyas 
that the gods then ranged over these worlds, both 
from hence upwards and from yonder downwards ; 
and in like manner does the sacrifice now, by means 
of the Valakhilyas, range over these worlds, both 
from hence upwards and from yonder downwards. 

8. By 'The head thou art, the ruler!' they 
stepped on this (terrestrial) world; by 'Steady 
thou art, steadfast!' on the air-world; by 'A holder 
thou art, a hold!' on that (heavenly) world. — 
'For life-strength (I bestow) thee! for vigour 
thee! for husbandry thee! for prosperity thee!' 
There are four (kinds of) four-footed (domestic) 
animals, and (domestic) animals are food : by means 
of this food, these four four-footed animals, they 
(the gods) established themselves in yonder world ; 
and in like manner does the Sacrificer now by means 
of this food, these four four-footed animals, establish 
himself in yonder world. 

9. That was, as it were, an ascent away from 
hence ; but this (earth) is a foothold : the gods came 
back to this foothold ; and in like manner does the 
Sacrificer now come back to this foothold. 

10. By 'A guider, a ruler ! ' they stepped on that 
(heavenly) world ; by 'A guider thou art, a guide!' 
on the air-world ; by 'Steady thou art, a steadier!' 
on this (terrestial) world. — ' For sap (I bestow) thee! 
for strength thee! for wealth thee! for thrift 
thee! ' — There are four four-footed (domestic) animals, 



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VIII KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 1 4. 57 

and (domestic) animals are food : by means of this 
food, these four four-footed animals, they (the gods) 
established themselves in this world; and in like 
manner does the Sacrificer, by means of this food, 
these four four-footed animals, establish himself in 
this world. 

11. Now as to the restoration (of Pra^lpati-Agni). 
Those eleven bricks he lays down ', which (con- 
stitute) that first anuvaka 2 , are the air and this body 
(of Agni, the altar). And as to why there are eleven 
of these, it is because the Trish/ubh consists of 
eleven syllables, and the air is of the trish/ubh 
nature. And the sixty subsequent (bricks) are Viyu, 
Pra^apati, Agni, the Sacrificer. 

12. Those which he places in front are his head : 
there are ten 8 of them, because there are ten vital 
airs, and the head is (the focus of) the vital airs. 
He places them in front, because the head (of an 
animal) is here in front. 

1 3. And those which he places on the right (south) 
side are that (part) of him which is above the waist 
and below the head. And those at the back are 
that (part) of him which is above the feet and below 
the waist. Those on the left (north) side are the 
feet themselves. 

14. And the seven (Valakhilyas) which he places 
in front are these seven vital airs here in the fore- 
part (of an animal) : it is these he thus puts into 

1 That is to say, the first eleven bricks of the third layer, viz. 
one svayamatrmwa, four dwySs, one vwva^yotis, and four rrtavyas. 

* The formulas used with these bricks, Vi^. S. XIV, 1 1-16, con- 
stitute the first anuvaka of the texts relating to the third layer 
(XIV, 11-22). 

s Viz. ten Pra»abhrz"ts, see VIII, 3, 2, 14. 



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58 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

him (Agni). He places them so as not to be 
separated from those ten (Prawabhr/'ts) : he thereby 
puts in vital airs that are not separate from the 
head. 

1 5. And the seven he places at the back (of the 
altar) are those seven vital airs behind : it is these 
he thereby puts into him. He places them so as 
not to be separated from those twelve (.Oandasyas): 
he thereby puts into him vital airs that are not 
separate from the body. That same Vayu-Pra.fa- 
pati is turned round in all directions in this trish/ubh- 
like air; and when he lays down the third layer, 
having made up both Vayu (the wind) and the air, 
he thereby adds them to himself. He then puts 
down two Lokamprz'wa (space-filling bricks) in that 
corner * : the significance of them (will be explained) 
further on 2 . He throws loose earth (on the 
layer): the significance of this (will be explained) 
further on s . 

THE FOURTH LAYER. 
Fourth AdhyAya. First BrAhma^a. 

1. He lays down the fourth layer. For the gods 
having laid down the third layer, now ascended ; 
but, the third layer being the air; it was the air 
which, having completed it, they ascended. 

2. They spake, ' Meditate ye ! ' whereby, indeed, 

1 Whilst, in laying down the Lokamprwas of the first and second 
layers, he started from the south-east and south-west corners respec- 
tively, in the third layer he starts from the left hip (or north-west 
corner) of the altar ; filling up the available spaces in two turns, in 
sunwise fashion. Cf. p. 22, note 1 ; and p. 41, note 1. 

* See VIII, 7, 2, 4 seq. 

3 See VIII, 7, 3, 1 seq. 



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VITI KAJVflA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 4. 59 

they meant to say, ' Seek ye a layer ! Seek ye (to 
build) from hence upwards! ' Whilst meditating, they 
saw that fourth layer, (to wit) what is above the air 
and below the heavens ; that world was to their 
minds, as it were, unstable and unsettled. 

3. They said to the Brahman, ' We will lay thee 
down (or, set thee up) here ! ' — ' What will there- 
from accrue to me?' — 'Thou shalt be the highest 
of us ! ' — ' So be it ! ' They accordingly laid the 
Brahman down here, whence people say that the 
Brahman is the highest of gods. Now, by this 
fourth layer these two, heaven and earth, are up- 
held, and the fourth layer is the Brahman, whence 
people say that heaven and earth are upheld by the 
Brahman. He lays down the Stomas (hymn-forms) 1 : 
the stomas being the vital airs, and the Brahman 
also being the vital airs, it is the Brahman he thereby 
lays down. 

4. And, again, as to why he lays down the Stomas. 
The gods, at that time, said to Pra^apati, ' We will 
lay thee down here ! ' — ' So be it ! ' He did not say, 
' What will therefrom accrue unto me ? ' but when- 
ever Pra^apati wished to obtain anything from the 
gods, they said, 'What will therefrom accrue to us ?' 
And hence even now if a father wishes to obtain 
anything from his sons, they say, ' What will there- 



1 This refers to the first eighteen bricks of the fourth layer ; but 
as the names of the bricks (ish/aki, f.) are invariably of the feminine 
gender, it is doubtful whether stoma (m.), in this case, is meant as 
the designation of these bricks, or merely as their symbolical 
analogon. In the former case, one would rather, from the analogy 
of other bricks, expect some such term as 'stomya.' To the 
first four of them Mahidhara, on Vig. S. XIV, 23, applies the 
epithet mntyumohinf, or 'confounders of death.' 



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60 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA. 

from accrue unto us ? ' and when the sons (wish to 
obtain anything) from the father, he says, 'So be it ! ' 
for in this way Pra/apati and the gods used of old 
to converse together. He lays down the Stomas : 
the stomas being the vital airs, and Pra^apati 
also being the vital airs, it is Pra^apati he thus 
lays down. 

5. And, again, as to why he lays down the 
Stomas. Those vital airs, the ./fashis 1 , that saw this 
fourth layer 2 , and who stepped nigh with that 
essential element (of the altar), are these (vital airs): 
it is them he now lays down. He lays down the 
Stomas : — the stomas being the vital airs, and the 
./fo'shis also being the vital airs, it is the ^'shis he 
thus lays down. 

6. And, again, as to why he lays down the Stomas. 
When Pra^ipati had become relaxed (disjointed), 
the gods took him and went away. Vayu, taking 
that (part) of him which was above the waist and 
below the head, kept going away from him, having 
become the deities and the forms of the year. 

7. He spake to him, ' Come to me and restore to 
me that wherewith thou hast gone from me!' — 
' What will therefrom accrue unto me ? ' — ' That 
part of my self shall be sacred unto thee ! ' — ' So be 
it ! ' thus Vayu restored that unto him. 

8. Those eighteen (bricks 8 ) which there are at 

1 See VI, 1, 1, 1 ; VII, 2, 3, 5. 

» See VI, 2, 3, 7. 8. 

* These eighteen bricks, representing the Stomas, or hymn- 
forms, are laid down in the following order. At each end of the spine 
(running from west to east) one brick, of the size of the shank (from 
knee to ankle), is placed, with its line-marks running from west to 
east ; the eastern one being placed north, and the western one south, 
of the spine. Thereupon an ordinary brick, a foot square, is placed 



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VIII KAA'DA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAATA, IO. 6 1 

first, are that very (part) of his (Pra^apati's) body ; 
and when he places them in this (layer), he thereby 
restores to him that (part) of his body which these 
(form) : therefore he places them in this (layer). 
He lays down the Stomas : the stomas being the 
vital airs, and Vayu (the wind) also being the vital 
airs, it is Vayu he thus lays down. 

9. In front he lays down one, with (V4f. S. XIV, 
23), 'The swift one, the Trivrzt!' he therewith 
lays down that hymn-form which is trivWt (threefold, 
or thrice-three-versed). And as to why he calls it 
' the swift one,' it is because this, indeed, is the 
swiftest of stomas. But the swift threefold one, 
doubtless, is Vayu : he exists in these three worlds. 
And as to why he calls. him 'the swift one,' it is 
because he is the swiftest of all beings: being 
(or, in the form of) Vayu it remained in front, — 
it is that form he now lays down. 

10. [The back one 1 , with], 'The bright one 2 , 
the Tania.da.sa.1' he therewith lays down that 



at the southern end of the ' cross-spine,' so as to lie on the spine 
(though not apparently exactly in the middle, but so that only one- 
fourth of the brick lies on one side of the spine) with its line-marks 
running from south to north ; and a second brick of the same size is 
placed on the north, but so as to leave the full space of another 
such brick between it and the northern edge of the altar. Behind 
(west of) the front brick, fourteen half-foot bricks are then laid 
down, in a row from north to south, seven on each side of the 
spine. 

1 The formulas of the first four of these (stoma) bricks are not 
given here (in paragraphs 9-1 2) in the order in which the bricks are 
actually laid down, viz. E. W. S. N., but in the order E. S. N. W. ; 
cp. Katyay. .Srautas. XVII, 10, 6-9. For a symbolic explanation 
of this change of order see VIII, 4, 4, 1 seq. 

* Or, perhaps, ' the angry one.' The author of the Brahmana, 
however, evidently connects ' bMnta ' with the root ' bha,' to shine. 



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62 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

hymn-form which is fifteenfold (fifteen-versed). 
And when he calls it ' the bright one/ it is that 
the bright one is the thunderbolt, and the thunder- 
bolt is fifteenfold. But the bright, fifteenfold one, 
doubtless, also is the Moon : he waxes during fifteen 
days, and wanes during fifteen days. And as to his 
calling him ' the bright one,' the Moon indeed shines: 
being the Moon it remained on the right side, — it is 
that form he now lays down. 

ii. [The left (north) one, with], 'The (aerial) 
space, the Saptada^a!' he therewith lays down 
that hymn-form which is seventeenfold. And as 
to his calling it 'the space,' — the (aerial) space is 
Pra^apati, and the seventeenfold one is Pra^apati. 
But indeed the seventeenfold space also is the year : 
in it there are twelve months and five seasons. 
And as to his calling it space, the year indeed is 
space : being space, it remained on the left side, — 
it is that form he now lays down. 

12. [The right (south) one, with], 'The upholder, 
the Ekaviw^a ! ' he therewith lays down that hymn- 
form which is twenty-one-fold. And as to his calling 
it ' the upholder,' — the upholder means a foothold, 
and the Ekavimsa. is a foothold. But indeed the 
twenty-one-fold upholder also is yonder sun: to 
him belong the twelve months, the five seasons, 
these three worlds, and yonder sun himself is the 
upholder, the twenty-one-fold. And as to his calling 
him ' the upholder,' — when he sets everything here 
holds its peace: being the sun, it remained at the 
back, — it is that form he now lays down ; and the 
forms of the year he lays down. 

13. 'Speed, the Ash/ada^a!' he therewith lays 
down that hymn-form which is eighteenfold. Now, 



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VIII KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAM, I 7- 63 

speed, the eighteenfold one, doubtless, is the year : 
in it there are twelve months, five seasons, and the 
year itself is speed, the eighteenfold. And as to 
his calling it 'speed,' the year indeed speeds all 
beings : it is that form he now lays down. 

14. 'Heat, the Navadasa!' he therewith lays 
down that hymn-form which is nineteenfold. But 
heat, the nineteenfold one, doubtless, is the year : in 
it there are twelve months, six seasons, and the year 
itself is heat, the nineteenfold. And as to his calling 
it ' heat,' the year indeed burns all beings : it is that 
form he now lays down. 

15. 'Victorious assault, the Saviw^a!' he 
therewith lays down that hymn-form which is twenty- 
fold. But victorious assault, the twentyfold one, 
doubtless, is the year : in it there are twelve months, 
seven seasons, and the year itself is victorious as- 
sault, the twentyfold. And as to why he calls it 
'victorious assault,' the year indeed assails all 
beings : it is that form he now lays down. 

16. 'Vigour, the Dvd.vimsa.1' he therewith lays 
down that hymn-form which is twenty-two-fold. But 
vigour, the twenty-two-fold one, doubtless is the 
year : in it there are twelve months, seven seasons, 
the two, day and night, and the year itself is vigour, 
the twenty-two-fold. And as to why he calls it 
' vigour,' the year is indeed the most vigorous of all 
existing things : it is that form he now lays down. 

17. 'The array, the Trayoviwja!' he there- 
with lays down that hymn-form which is twenty- 
three-fold. But array, the twenty-three-fold one, 
doubtless, means the year : in it there are thirteen 
months, seven seasons, the two, day and night, and 
the year itself is the array, the twenty-three-fold. 



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64 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

And as to his calling it ' array,' the year is indeed 
arrayed over all beings : it is that form he now lays 
down. 

18. *The womb, the A'aturviw.ra!' he there- 
with lays down that hymn-form which is twenty-four- 
fold. But the womb, the twenty-four-fold one, 
doubtless, is the year : in it there are twenty-four 
half-months. And as to his calling it ' the womb,' 
the year is indeed the womb of all beings : it is that 
form he now lays down. 

19. 'The embryos, the Ya.nka.vimsa.1' he there- 
with lays down that hymn-form which is twenty- 
five-fold. But the embryos, the twenty-five-fold one, 
doubtless, is the year : in it there are twenty-four 
half-months, and the year itself is the embryos, the 
twenty-five-fold. And as to his calling it ' the em- 
bryos,' — the year, as an embryo, in the shape of the 
thirteenth month, enters the seasons : it is that form 
he now lays down. 

20. ' Strength, the Tri«ava ! ' he therewith lays 
down that hymn-form which is thrice ninefold. And 
as to his calling it ' strength,' — strength (o^as) means 
the thunderbolt (va^ra), and the Tri«ava is a thunder- 
bolt. But strength also means the year : in it there 
are twenty-four half-months, the two, day and night, 
and the year itself is strength, the thrice-ninefold. 
And as to his calling it ' strength,' the year indeed 
is the strength of all beings : it is that form he now 
lays down. 

21. ' Design, the Ekatriwsa!' he therewith lays 
down that hymn-form which is thirty-one-fold. But 
design, the thirty-one-fold, doubtless, means the year : 
in it there are twenty-four half-months, six seasons, 
and the year itself is design, the thirty-one-fold. And 



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VIII KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 1 BRAHMAiVA, 24. 65 

as to his calling it ' design,' the year indeed designs 
(makes, forms) all beings : it is that form he now 
lays down. 

22. 'The foundation, the Trayastriw^a! ' he 
therewith lays down that hymn-form which is thirty- 
three-fold. And as to why he calls it ' the founda- 
tion,' the thirty-three-fold is indeed a foundation. 
But indeed the foundation, the thirty-three-fold, 
also is the year: in it there are twenty-four half- 
months, six seasons, the two, day and night, and the 
year itself is the foundation, the thirty-three-fold. 
And as to his calling it ' the foundation,' the year is 
indeed the foundation of all beings : it is that form 
he now lays down. 

23. 'The range of the ruddy one, the ./sTatu- 
stri/»^a!' he therewith lays down that hymn-form 
which is thirty-four-fold. But the range of the ruddy 
one (the sun), the thirty-four-fold one, doubtless, is 
the year : in it there are twenty-four half-months, 
seven seasons, the two, day and night, and the year 
itself is the range of the ruddy one, the thirty-four- 
fold. And as to his calling it 'the range of the ruddy 
one,' the range of the ruddy one, doubtless, means 
supreme sway, and the thirty-four-fold one means 
supreme sway : it is that form he now lays down. 

24. 'The firmament, .the Sha/triw^a!' he 
therewith lays down that hymn-form which is thirty- 
six-fold. But the firmament, the thirty-six-fold one, 
doubtless, is the year : in it there are twenty-four 
half-moons, and twelve months. And as to why he 
calls it ' the firmament ' (nikam), it is because there is 
no pain (na akam) for whosoever goes there. And 
the firmament indeed is the year, the heavenly world 
is the year: it is that form he now lays down. 

[43] f 



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66 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

25. 'The revolving sphere, the Ash/a£atva- 
rimsa.\' he therewith lays down that hymn-form 
which is forty-eight-fold. But the revolving sphere, 
the forty-eight-fold, doubtless, is the year: in it 
there are twenty-six half-months, thirteen months, 
seven seasons, and the two, day and night. And as 
to his calling it ' the revolving sphere,' from the 
year all creatures indeed are evolved: it is that 
form he now lays down. 

26. ' The stay, the Aatush/oma ! ' he therewith 
lays down the chant of praise consisting of four 
stomas '. And as to his calling it ' the stay,' — stay 
means support, and the A!atush/oma is a support 
But the stay, the Aatush/oma, doubtless, is Vayu (the 
wind), for he sings from all those four quarters. 
And as to his calling him 'the stay,' — stay means 
support ; and the wind indeed is the support of all 
beings : it is that form he now lays down. The 
wind he places first and last : by the wind he thus 
encloses all these beings on both sides. 

27. These, then, are eighteen bricks he lays down ; 
this makes two Trivrzts, — the TrivWt being breath, 
and breath being wind, this layer is Vayu. 

28. And as to why there are eighteen, — the year 
is eighteenfold : twelve months and six seasons. 
And Pra^apati indeed is the year, Pra^apati is 
eighteenfold : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, so great he makes it when he lays it down. 

Second BrAhmaya. 
1. He then lays down the Sp^'ta^ 2 (freeing 

1 For particulars on the .Afatush/oma, see note on XIII, 1, 3, 4. 
1 The ten Sprt'taA are placed in close connection with the 
preceding set; — viz. at the front and back ends of the spine, two 



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viii kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 3. 67 

bricks). For when that (part) of his body had 
been restored, Pra^ipati became pregnant with all 
beings : whilst they were in his womb, evil, death, 
seized them. 

2. He spake to the gods, ' With you I will free all 
these beings from evil, from death ' ! ' — ' What will 
accrue unto us therefrom ? ' — ' Choose ye ! ' said he. 
— ' Let there be a share for us ! ' said some to him. 
* Let lordship be unto us ! ' said others. Having 
bestowed a share on some, and lordship on others, 
he freed all beings from evil, from death ; and inas- 
much as he freed (spri) them, therefore (those bricks 
are called) ' Spritati.' And in like manner does this 
Sacrificer, by bestowing a share on some, and lordship 
on others, now free all beings from evil, from death ; 
and hence (the word) ' spmam (freed) ' recurs with 
all of them. 

3. [He lays them down 2 , with, V&g. S. XIV, 24- 
26], ' Agni's share thou art, Dikshi's lordship!' 
— Diksha, doubtless, is Speech : having bestowed 
a share on Agni, he bestows lordship on Speech ; — 
' the Brahman is freed ; the TrivWt-stoma ! ' — 
by means of the thrice-threefold hymn-form he freed 

bricks, exactly corresponding in size to those already lying there, 
are placed south and north of these respectively. Similarly two 
bricks, a foot square, are placed on the ' cross-spine ' immediately 
north of the two stoma-bricks lying there. The remaining sue bricks 
are then placed behind the row of fourteen ' stomas ' in the front 
part of the altar, three on each side of the spine. 

1 Or, from that evil, death. 

* In the case of the first four SprAaA, as in that of the corre- 
sponding Stomas (see p. 61, note 1), while the bricks themselves are 
laid down in the order E.W.N.S., the order in which the formulas 
are given in paragraphs 3-6, is that of E.N.S.W. — Cp. Katy. 
Srautas. XVII, 10, n-14. For a symbolical explanation of this 
change of order, see VIII, 4, 4, 1 seq. 

F 2 



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68 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

the Brahman (priesthood) for living beings from evil, 
from death. 

4. 'Indra's share thou art, Vishwu's lord- 
ship!' — Having bestowed a share on Indra, he 
bestowed lordship on Vish«u; — 'the Kshatra is 
freed ; the Pa»iada.ra-stoma ! ' — by means of the 
fifteenfold hymn-form he freed the Kshatra (nobility) 
for living beings from evil, from death. 

5. ' The man-viewers' share thou art, the 
creator's lordship!' — the man-viewers, doubtless, 
are the gods : having bestowed a share on the gods, 
he bestowed lordship on the creator; — 'the birth- 
place is freed, the Saptadasa-stoma! ' — the birth- 
place, doubtless, is the peasantry : by means of the 
seventeenfold hymn-form he frees the peasantry for 
living beings from evil, from death. 

6. 'Mitra's share thou art, Varu*a's lord- 
ship!' — Mitra, doubtless, is the out-breathing, and 
Varu#a the down-breathing : having bestowed a 
share on the out-breathing, he bestowed lordship on 
the down-breathing; — 'heaven's rain, the wind is 
freed; the Ekaviwasa-stoma!' — by means of the 
twenty-one-fold hymn-form he frees both -rain and 
wind for living beings from evil, from death. 

7. 'TheVasus' share thou art, the Rudras' 
lordship!' — having bestowed a share on the Vasus, 
he bestowed lordship on the Rudras; — 'the four- 
footed is freed, the A'aturviw.ra-stoma!' — by 
means of the twenty-five-fold hymn-form he freed 
the four-footed for living beings from evil, from 
death. 

8. ' The Adityas' share thou art, the Maruts' 
lordship! ' — having bestowed a share on the Adi- 
tyas, he bestowed lordship on the Maruts ; — ' the 



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vm kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 12. 69 

embryos are freed, the Pa»iavi«**a-stoma!' — 
by means of the twenty-five-fold hymn-form he freed 
the embryos for living beings from evil, from death. 

9. 'Aditi's share thou art, Pushan's lord- 
ship ! ' — Aditi, doubtless, is this (earth) : having 
bestowed a share on her, he bestowed lordship on 
Pushan, — ' vigour is freed ; the Triaava-stoma! ' 
by means of the thrice-ninefold hymn-form he freed 
vigour for living beings from evil, from death. 

10. 'God SavitWs share thou art, Brz'has- 
pati's lordship!' — having bestowed a share on the 
god Savitr*', he bestows lordship on B^'haspati ; — 
'the facing quarters are freed, the A"atush- 
/oma ! ' — by means of the chant of praise consisting 
of four stomas he freed all the (four) quarters for 
living beings from evil, from death. 

11. 'The Yavas' share thou art, the Ayavas' 
lordship !' — the Yavas, doubtless, are the first (light) 
fortnights, and the Ayavas the latter (dark) fort- 
nights, for these gain (yu) and obtain (4-yu) every- 
thing here ' : having bestowed a share on the first 
fortnights, he bestowed lordship on the latter fort- 
nights; — 'the creatures are freed, the A"atu.s- 
iatvariwja-stoma!' — by means of the forty-four- 
fold hymn-form he freed all creatures from evil, from 
death. 

12. 'The ^tbhus' share thou art, the All- 
gods' lordship!' — having bestowed a share on the 
.fizbhus, he bestowed lordship on the Vuve-DevaA ; — 

1 This is clearly a fanciful etymology. If ' yava ' and ' ayava,' in 
the sense of the bright and dark fortnights, are really genuine terms, 
it is more likely that they are derived from y u, * to keep off,' — the 
bright half of the moon being looked upon as capable of averting 
evil spirits, and the dark half as the reverse of this. 



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70 DATAPATH A-BRA HMAtf A. 

'the living being is freed, the Trayastri*ȣa- 
stoma!' — by means of the thirty-three-fold hymn- 
form he freed all living beings from evil, from death ; 
and in like manner does the Sacrificer, by means of 
the thirty-three-fold hymn-form, now free all living 
beings from evil, from death. 

13. These, then, are ten bricks he lays down, — the 
Vira^" consists of ten syllables, and Agni is Vira/ 
(wide-shining) ; there are ten regions, and Agni is 
the regions ; there are ten vital airs, and Agni is the 
vital airs: as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, by so much he thus frees all these creatures 
from evil, from death. 

14. He then lays down two .tf/tavyas 1 (seasonal 
bricks) ; — the seasonal ones being the same as the 
seasons, it is the seasons he thus lays down ; — with 
(Va£\ S. XIV, 27), ' Saha and Sahasya, the two 
winter-seasons!' These are the names of those 
two, it is with their names he thus lays them down. 
There are two such bricks, for a season consists of 
two months. Only once he settles them : he thus 
makes (the two months) one season. 

1 5. And as to why he places these two (bricks) in 
this (layer), — this Agni (fire-altar) is the year, and 
the year is these worlds : what part thereof is above 
the air, and below the sky, that is this fourth layer, 
and that is the winter-season thereof; and when he 
places these two in this (layer), he thereby restores 
to him (Pra/apati-Agni, the year and fire-altar) 
what part of his body these two (constitute). This 
is why he places these two in this (layer). 

1 These are placed over the Jtitayy&s of the preceding layers, 
viz. in the fifth place to the east of the centre, south and north of 
the spine. 



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VIII KAWDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, I. 7 1 

1 6. And, again, as to why he places these two in 
this (layer), — this Agni is Prafapati, and Pra/apati 
is the year : what (part) of him there is above the 
waist, and below the head, that is this fourth layer, 
and that is the winter-season of him (or, of it, the 
year). And when he places these two in this (layer), 
he thereby restores to him what part of his body 
these two (constitute). This is why he places these 
two in this (layer). 

Third BrAhmajva. 

i. He then lays down the Sr/sh/is 1 (creations). 
For Prafapati, having freed all beings from evil, 

1 The seventeen Sr/sh/is are to be placed round the centre, 
along the retaAsU range, in such a way that nine bricks lie south 

THE CENTRAL PART OF THE FOURTH LAYER. 
(Seventeen sn'sh/i and two rrtavya.) 
N 



W 



















I 












>-..j — • 






Btr. 




i 






/?it. 




i 

1 

























and eight bricks north, of the spine ; and that five bricks form the 
southern side, and four bricks each of the three other sides. Whilst 
the bricks of the south side are further specified as consisting of 
a brick, a foot square, lying on the cross-spine, being flanked on 
both sides by half-foot bricks, and these again by square bricks ; 
no particulars are given regarding the other sides. Most likely, 
however, as indicated in the accompanying sketch, four square 
bricks, two on each side of the cross-spine, are to form the left 
(north) side, whilst the front and hind sides are to consist of two 



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72 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

from death, he now desired, 'May I produce creatures, 
may I procreate ! * 

2. He spake unto the vital airs 1 , 'Together with 
you, I will here bring forth creatures !' — ' Wherewith 
shall we sing praises 2 ?' — ' With me and with your- 



square bricks lying north and south of the spine, and flanked by 
half-foot bricks. 

1 That is, to the deities representing the vital airs, viz. the regions, 
&c.' Mahidh. 

1 Professor Delbruck, in his Altindische Syntax, pp. 136, 257, 
265, takes ' stoshyamahe ' in this passage in a passive sense — * by 
whom shall we be praised ? ' I think, however, that this is a mis- 
take, and Harisvamin's commentary certainly takes it in the same 
sense as I have done ; and, indeed, the paragraphs which follow 
seem to me to make it quite clear that no other interpretation is 
possible. Pra^apati is about to perform the 'srifhAs,' i. e. the 
creation of living beings by means of sacrifice (his own self). He 
requires the assistance of the Pranas (vital airs) in order to produce 
creatures endowed with breath, and he also appeals to (the three 
most prominent of) them in their capacity as jKVshis (VI, 1,1,1 seq.) 
to officiate as his (Udgatre) priests. They ask, ' Wherewith shall 
we sing praises ? ' and he answers, ' With me and with your own 
selves.' The ' wherewith,' according to Harisvamin, refers both to 
the ' stotriya ' verses to be used, and to the deities of the sr*sh/i- 
stotras. That the former, at all events, is indeed the case, a glance 
at the subsequent paragraphs shows, where the stotriyas are iden- 
tified with the vital airs, and, when their number (ten) becomes 
exhausted, with parts of the year (Pra^apati), and of his (the Sacri- 
ficer's, or Pra^apati's) body. As regards the deities whom Hari- 
svimin considers to be likewise implied, this also is by no means 
improbable, though I must confess that it did not occur to me, 
before I looked at the commentary. In the Udgatr/'s text-books, 
the chanting of stotras is usually interpreted as symbolising the 
production of ' food ' (cf., for instance, TiWya-Br. I, 3, 6, ' annam 
karishyamy annaw pravishyamy annam janayishyami '), whilst 
here it seems identified with the production of life, or breath itself 
(cf. ib. 5, ' bribaspatis tva yunaktu devebhyaA prawaya &c.') ; and, 
accordingly, in .Sat. Br. X, 3, 1, 1, 7, the principal vital air, the 
breath proper, is called ' pra^anana-prawa.' 



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viii kanda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 7. 75 

selves ! ' — ' So be it ! ' So they sang praises both 
with the vital airs and with Pra^apati ; and whatso- 
ever the gods do, that they do with praise, that — 
praise being sacrifice — they do with sacrifice. Hence 
(the words) ' they sang praises ' recur with all (these 
bricks). 

3. [They lay them down, with, V$g. S. XIV, 28- 
31], 'With one they sang praises,' — the one, 
doubtless, is speech : it is with speech they then 
sang praises; — 'creatures were conceived,' — 
creatures indeed were now conceived ; — ' Pra,fa- 
pati was the lord!' — Pra^apati indeed was now 
the lord. 

4. 'With three they sang praises,' — there are 
three vital airs : the out-breathing, the up-breathing, 
and the through-breathing : it is with them they 
then sang praises; — ' the Brahman was created,' — 
the priesthood indeed was now created; — ' Brahma- 
»aspati was the lord!' Brahma#aspati indeed 
was now the lord. 

5. ' With five they sang praises,' — what (four) 
vital airs there are here, with mind as a fifth : it is 
with them they then sang praises; — 'the living 
beings were created,' — the living beings indeed 
were now created; — 'the lord of beings was the 
lord !' — the lord of beings indeed was now the lord. 

6. 'With seven they sang praises,' — what seven 
vital airs there are here in the head : it is with them 
they then sang praises; — 'the seven ^"shis were 
created,' — the seven /fo'shis indeed were now 
created; — ' the creatorwas the lord !' — the creator 
indeed was now the lord. 

7. 'With nine they sang praises,' — there are 
nine vital airs, seven in the head, and two downward 



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74 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA.YA. 

ones : it is with them they then sang praises ; — ' the 
Fathers were created,' — the Fathers indeed were 
now created; — 'Aditi was the ruler!' — Aditi in- 
deed was now the ruler. 

8. ' With eleven they sang praises,' — there are 
ten vital airs, and the trunk is the eleventh : it is there- 
with they then sang praises; — 'the seasons were 
created,' — the seasons indeed were now created; — 
'the seasonal periods were the lords!' — the 
seasonal periods indeed were now the lords. 

9. 'With thirteen they sang praises,' — there 
are ten vital airs, and two feet, and the trunk is the 
thirteenth : it is therewith they then sang praises ; — 
'the months were created,' — the months indeed 
were now created; — 'the year was the lord!' — 
the year indeed was now the lord. 

10. 'With fifteen they sang praises,' — there 
are ten fingers, four fore-arms and upper arms, and 
what is above the navel is the fifteenth : it is there- 
with they then sang praises; — 'the Kshatra was 
created,' — the nobility indeed was now created; — 
'Indra was the lord!' — Indra indeed was now 
the lord. 

11. 'With seventeen they sang praises,' — 
there are ten toes, four thighs and shanks, two feet, 
and what is below the navel is the seventeenth : it 
is therewith they then sang praises; — 'the tame 
animals were created,' — the tame animals indeed 
were now created ; — ' Brzhaspati was the lord ! ' — 
Brzhaspati indeed was now the lord. 

12. 'With nineteen they sang praises,' — 
there are ten fingers, and nine vital airs : it is with 
these they then sang praises; — 'the .Sudra and 
Arya were created,' — the *Sudra and Arya indeed 



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viii kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 17. 75 

were now created ; — ' the day and night were the 
rulers!' — the day and night indeed were now the 
rulers. 

13. 'With twenty-one they sang praises,' — 
there are ten fingers, ten toes, and the trunk is 
the twenty-first: it is therewith that they then 
sang praises; — 'the one-hoofed animals were 
created,' — the one-hoofed animals indeed were now 
created ; — ' Varu«a was the lord !' — Varu«a indeed 
was now the lord. 

14. 'With twenty-three they sang praises,'— 
there are ten fingers, ten toes, two feet, and the trunk 
is the twenty-third: it is therewith they then sang 
praises; — 'the small animals were created,' — 
the small animals indeed were now created ; — 
' Pushan was the lord!' — Pushan indeed was now 
the lord. 

15. 'With twenty-five they sang praises,' — 
there are ten fingers, ten toes, four limbs, and the 
trunk is the twenty-fifth : it is therewith they then 
sang praises; — ' the wild animals were created,' 
— the wild animals indeed were now created; — 
'Vayu was the lord!' — Vayu indeed was now 
the lord. 

16. 'With twenty-seven they sang praises,' — 
there are ten fingers, ten toes, four limbs, two feet, 
and the trunk is the twenty-seventh : it is therewith 
they then sang praises; — 'Heaven and Earth 
went asunder,' — heaven and earth indeed now 
went asunder; — 'the Vasus, Rudras and 
Adityas separated along with them : they 
indeed were the lords!' and they indeed were 
now the lords. 

17. 'With twenty-nine they sang praises ;' — 



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76 satapatha-brAhmaaja. 

there are ten fingers, ten toes, and nine vital airs : 
it is with these they then sang praises ; — 'the trees 
were created,' — the trees indeed were now created ; 
— 'Soma was the lord,' — Soma indeed was now 
the lord. 

18. 'With thirty-one they sang praises,' — 
there are ten fingers, ten toes, ten vital airs, and 
the trunk is the thirty-first : it is therewith they then 
sang praises; — 'the creatures were created,' — 
the creatures indeed were now created; — 'the 
Yavas and Ayavas were the lords,' — the bright 
and dark fortnights indeed were now the lords. t 

19. 'With thirty-three they sang praises,' — 
there are ten fingers, ten toes, ten vital airs, two 
feet, and the trunk is the thirty-third : it is therewith 
they then sang praises; — 'the living beings lay 
quiet,' — all living beings now indeed lay quiet; — 
' Pra/ apati, the supreme, was the lord!' — 
Pra^apati, the supreme, indeed was now the lord. 

20. These, then, are seventeen bricks he lays 
down, — the year, Pra/apati, is seventeenfold, he is 
the progenitor : it is thus by this seventeenfold year, 
by Pra^apati, the progenitor, that he caused these 
creatures to be generated. And what he generated, 
he created; and inasmuch as he created (srtjr), 
therefore they are called creations (srishti). Having 
created them, he made them enter his own self : and 
in like manner does the Sacrificer now cause these 
creatures to be generated by that seventeenfold year, 
by Pragapati, the progenitor; and having created 
them, he makes them enter his own self. On the 

1 That is, he makes them pass into his own power, makes them 
his own. 



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VIII KAA'JJA, 4 ADHYAYA, 4 BrAhMAMV, 2. 77 

range of the Reta^sii (he lays down these bricks) : 
the Reta^sii being the ribs, and the ribs the middle 
(of the body), it is in the very middle that he causes 
these creatures to enter him. He lays them on all 
sides : from all sides he thus makes these creatures 
to enter him. 

Fourth BrAhmaya. 

1. Now, then, as to the order of proceeding. 
That (brick) which contains the Trivrz't (thrice- 
threefold stoma) he places in front, that containing the 
twenty-one-fold (stoma) at the back, that containing 
the fifteenfold (stoma) on the right (south) side, that 
containing the seventeenfold (stoma) on the left 
(north) side. 

2. Now when the one containing the Trivrit had 
been laid down, Death lay in wait for Pra^apati in 
the one (on the south side) containing the fifteenfold 
(stoma), thinking, ' After that he will lay down this 
one: I will here seize upon him!' He (Pra^apati) 
was aware of him, and having seen him, he walked 
round and laid down (at the back) the (brick) con- 
taining the twenty-one-fold (stoma). Death came 
thither, and he (Pra^apati) laid down the one (on the 
south side) containing the fifteenfold (stoma). Death 
came to the fifteenfold one, and he (Pra^apati) laid 
down the one (on the north side) containing the 
seventeenfold (stoma). It was here 1 that he put 
down and confounded Death ; and in like manner 
does the Sacrificer now put down and confound all 
evils. 

1 That is, in the laying down of these bricks. For the order 
followed in laying down the bricks, see also p. 67, note 2. 



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78 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

3. Then as to the subsequent (bricks). Alongside 
of the one (in front) containing the Trivm he lays 
down one containing the Trivrrt ; alongside of that 
(at the back) containing the Ekavi»wa (he lays down) 
one containing the Ekaviwja ; alongside of that (on 
the south, or right, side) containing the Pa&&adasa (he 
lays down) one containing the Saptadara ; alongside 
of that (on the north, or left, side) containing the 
Saptadara. (he lays down) one containing the 
Pa»/£ada.s;a. And because he thus changes in laying 
them down 1 , therefore they (the bricks) are of 
diverse stomas ; and because these stomas are then 
otherwise with regard to the former ones 2 , therefore 
also they (the bricks) are of diverse stomas. And 
in this way the gods laid them down, and otherwise 
the Asuras ; whereupon the gods succeeded, and the 
Asuras came to naught : he who knows this, succeeds 
of himself, and his hateful enemy comes to naught. 

4. Now, this Agni (fire-altar) is an animal, and he 
is made up (restored) here whole and entire. His 
head is the two (bricks) containing the Trivr»t ; and 
as to why these two are such as contain the Triwz't, 
— the head is threefold (trivrzt). There are two of 
them, because the head consists of two bones 
(kapala). He lays them down in front, for this head 
is in the front (of the animal). 

5. The two (behind) containing the Ekavi»wa are 
the foundation (the feet). And as to why these are 
such as contain the Ekavi»wa, — the Ekavi»«a is 

1 The Sanskrit text, as usual, makes our gerundial clause the 
principal clause : ' because he lays them down in changing them.' 

* On the south side a Sprrt representing the Saptadara is 
placed immediately north of a stoma (brick) representing the 
Paatfad&ra; and vice versS on the north (left) side. 



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vin kAjvjja, 4 adhyAya, 4 brAhma^a, 8. 79 

a foundation. There are two of them, because the 
foundation is a pair (of feet). He places them 
behind, because this foundation (the hind-feet) is 
behind. 

6. The two containing the Pa^iadara. 1 are the 
arms (or fore-feet). And as to why these are such 
as contain the Pawiadasa, — the arms are fifteenfold. 
There are two of them, because these arms are two. 
He places them on the sides, because these two 
arms are at the sides. 

7. The two containing the Saptadara are food. 
And as to why they are such as contain the Sapta- 
dasa, — food is seventeenfold. There are two of them, 
because 'anna' (food) has two syllables. He lays 
them down close to those containing the Paȣadara : 
he thus puts the food olose to the arms. Those 
containing the Paaiadasa are on the outside, and 
those containing the Saptadara on the inside: he 
thus encloses the food on both sides by the arms. 

8. And those he places in the middle are the 
body (trunk). He places them on the range of the 
Reta^si^ (bricks), for — the Reta^si^ being the ribs, 
and the ribs being the middle (of the body) — this 
body is in the middle (of the limbs) 2 . He places them 
in every direction, for this body (extends) in every 
direction. And as to what other (space) there is 
besides this, that is left over ; — and what is left over 
for the gods, that is these metres ; — and as to these 

1 Viz. the southern one of the two on the south (right) side, and 
the northern one of the two on the north (left) side. 

1 Atha ya madhya upadadhati sa atma, ta reta/isi^or velayo- 
padadhati — prj'sh/ayo vai retaAsi^au, madhyam u pr/'sh/ayo — 
madhyato hy ayam atma. — Here the two clauses with 'vai' are 
inserted to substantiate the reason introduced by ' hi.' 



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80 satapatha-brAhmawa. 

metres, they are cattle ; — and as to cattle, they are 
(objects of) good fortune ; — and as to these (objects 
of) good fortune, they are yonder sun : he is that one 
to the south of them. 

9. Now some lay down these (rows of bricks ') 
immediately after the two containing the Trivrtt, 
saying, ' They are the tongue and the jaws : those 
fourteen are the jaws, and those six are the tongue.' 
Let him not do so : they cause a redundancy, — it 
would be just as if one were to put two other jaws 
to the already existing jaws, as if one were to put 
another tongue to the already existing tongue. That 
(brick) wherein the head is indeed (includes) the jaws 
and the tongue. 

10. Now some lay down (these bricks) in the 
intermediate (south-eastern) space of it (the altar) 2 , 
saying, ' This is the sun : we thus place yonder sun 
in that direction.' Let him not do so : surely there 
are those other rites 3 by which he places him in 
that (direction). 

11. Some, again, lay them down on the right 



1 Viz. the row of fourteen bricks lying behind the two front 
bricks, and the row of six bricks again placed behind these. It will 
be remembered that only the northern one of the two front bricks 
was laid down at first, and that then three others were placed in 
the different directions, after which the row of fourteen was laid 
down behind the front one ; and similarly the laying down of the 
second front brick was separated from that of the second row by 
the laying down of three other bricks in the different quarters. 

* In that case, the two shank-sized bricks are laid down in the 
south-east corner, and the rows of smaller bricks are placed to the 
north of them. See Katy. dramas. XIV, 10, 4. 

* See, for instance, VI, 7, 3, 9 where the Ukhya Agni, re- 
presenting the sun, is held up by the Agni&t (sacrificer) in the 
south-easterly direction. The south-east corner is sacred to Agni. 



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viii kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 12. 81 

(south 1 ) side, saying, 'We thus place these signs of 
good fortune (pu#y£ lakshmi) on the right side : ' 
whence he who has a mark 2 (lakshman) on his right 
side is said to have good luck (pu»ya-lakshmlka), 
and on the left side in the case of a woman 8 ; for the 
woman has her position on the left side (of the man) : 
therefore it is done thus. But let him place them 
in front; for where the head is there are also the 
jaws and the tongue : and thus he places the signs 
of good fortune at the head (or, in the mouth, 
mukhata^), whence they say that he who has a 
(peculiar) mark in his mouth 4 has good luck. 

12. This, indeed, is Brahman's layer: inasmuch 
as they (the gods) laid down the Brahman 6 , therefore 
it is Brahman's layer. It is Pra/apart's layer : inas- 
much as they laid down Pra^apati 8 , it is Praf apati's 
layer. It is the ./fo'shis' layer : inasmuch as they 
laid down the ifoshis T , it is the jfa'shis' layer. It is 
Vayu's layer : inasmuch as they laid down Vayu *, 
it is Vayu's layer. It is the Stomas' layer: inasmuch 
as they laid down the hymn-forms 9 , it is the Stomas' 



1 In that case, they are laid down north of the two bricks lying 
on the southern end of the cross-spine, first the row of fourteen, 
and then, north of these, the row of six. 

* Yasya dakshi/iaparfve lakshawaw kiyasya vi var»e v& kiwta- 
ratmakam (?) bhavati ; coram. 

* This clause is rather abrupt, and is, moreover, hardly logical. 
It is not clear whether it is the two southern bricks that are com- 
pared with the woman, or the bricks to be placed alongside of 
them on the north (left) side. 

4 Viz. such as an excess of sharp teeth (incisors) — yasya mukha- 
lakshanam dakshwadawsh/ratirekfidi bhavati; comm. 

• See VIII, 4, 1, 3- * See VIII, 4, 1, 4. 
' See VIII, 4, 1, 5. 'See VIII, 4, 1, 8. 

• See VIII, 4, 1, 4 seq. 

[43] G 



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82 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

layer. It is the layer of the vital airs : inasmuch as 
they laid down the vital airs \ it is the layer of the 
vital airs. Hence, whatsoever one may know, that 
comes to be included in the ancestry, in the kinship* 
of this layer. — He then lays down two LokampW#as 
(space-filling bricks) in that corner 3 : the significance 
of these (will be explained) farther on *. He throws 
loose soil thereon : the significance of this (will be 
explained) farther on 6 . 

THE FIFTH LAYER. 

Fifth AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

i. He lays down the fifth layer. For now, having 
laid down the fourth layer, the gods mounted it, — 
having completed what is above the air, and below 
the sky, they mounted it. 

2. They spake, ' Meditate ye (ietay) ! ' whereby, 
doubtless, they meant to say, 'Seek ye a layer (£iti)! 
Seek ye from hence upwards ! ' Whilst meditating, 
they saw that fifth layer, the far-shining heaven : 
that world pleased them. 

3. They desired, 'Would that we could make 
that world foeless, undisturbed!' They spake, 
' Think ye upon this, how we shall make this world 

» See VIII, 4. 1, 5. 

* Or, in the (symbolic) meaning. The literal reading of the 
clause is, — ' Thereby this layer of his becomes possessed of an 
ancestry and kinship (or mystic sense).' 

* Viz. in the north-east corner, or on the left shoulder, whence, 
in two turns, the available spaces of the altar are filled up. In 
laying down the Lokampr/nas of the first three layers he started 
from the south-east, the south-west, and the north-west corners 
respectively. Cf. p. 22, note 1; p. 41, note 1; p. 58, note 1. 

* See VIII, 7, 2, 4 seq. * See VIII, 7, 3, 1 seq. 



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viii kXnda, 5 adhyaya, i brahmajva, 6. 83 

foeless, undisturbed ! ' They spake, ' Meditate ye ! ' 
whereby, indeed, they meant to say, 'Seek ye a 
layer! Seek ye how we shall make this world 
foeless, undisturbed ! ' 

4. Whilst meditating, they saw these Asapatna 
(' foeless ') bricks ; they laid them down, and by 
means of them they made that world foeless, un- 
disturbed; and because by means of them they 
made that world foeless, undisturbed, these (are 
called) Asapatnas. And in like manner does the 
Sacrificer, by laying them down, now make that 
world foeless, undisturbed. On all (four) sides he 
lays them down : on all sides he thus makes that 
world foeless, undisturbed. He places them on the 
other side : he thereby makes that whole world foe- 
less, undisturbed. 

5. He then lays down the VirSfs 1 (far-shining 
bricks): this Vira^f, indeed, is that far-shining (vira^-) 
fifth layer which the gods saw. He lays them down 
by tens : the Vir&f (metre) consists of ten syllables, 
and this layer is ' vira^ - .' He places them on every 
side ; for he who shines (rules) in one direction only, 
does not shine far and wide, but whosoever shines in 
all directions, he alone shines far and wide. 

6. And as to why he lays down those Asapatnas. 
Now at that time, when that (part) of his body had 
been restored, evil beset Pra^apati on every side. 
He saw those foeless bricks, and laid them down, 
and by means of them he drove off evil, for foe means 
evil ; and because, by means of them he drove off the 
foe, evil, therefore they are (called) ' foeless ' (bricks). 

1 For particulars respecting these, also called .OandasyaA, see 
VIII, 5, a, 1, seq. 

G 2 



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84 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

7. And what the gods did, the same is done now. 
Evil, indeed, does not now beset this (Sacrificer), 
but when he now does this, it is that he wants 
to do what the gods did ; and he thereby drives off 
whatever evil, whatever foe besets him ; and be- 
cause, by means of them, he drives off the foe, evil, 
therefore they are (called) the 'foeless' (bricks). 
He places them on every side : he thereby drives 
off the foe, evil, on every side. He places them on 
the other side : from his whole self he thereby drives 
off the foe, evil. 

8. He lays down (one) in front 1 , with (V4f. S. 
XV, 1), ' O Agni, drive away the foes of ours 
that are born, drive back those unborn, O 
knower of beings! cheer us, kindly and un- 
frowning ! may we be in thy threefold-shelter- 
ing, steadfast protection!' as the text so the 
sense. Then behind, with (V&f. S. XV, 2), 'With 
might drive away the foes of ours that are born, 



' The first four of the five Asapatnas are laid down near the 
four ends of the spines (in the order east, west, south, north) ; their 
exact place being the second space on the left side of the spine (in 
looking towards them from the centre), that is to say, the space of 
one (? or half a) foot being left between them and the respective 
spine. Their position thus is the same as those of the Afvints in 
the second layer (see p. 31, note 1) except that these were placed 
on the RetaAsii range instead of at the ends of the spines. The 
line-marks of these four bricks run parallel to the respective spines. 
The fifth Asapatna is thus laid down north of the southern one, so 
as to leave the space of a cubit (about a foot and a half) between 
them. These latter two Asapatnas are full-sized bricks (one foot 
square), and not half-sized, as were the two southern Afvinis. 
Moreover, whilst the southern Asapatna has its line-marks running 
parallel to the adjoining cross-spine (south to north), the fifth 
Asapatna has them running from west to east (? as well as from 
south to north). 



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viii kXnda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmam, 12. 85 

drive back, O knower of beings, those unborn ! 
cheer us with kindly feeling! may we prevail! 
drive off our foes ! ' as the text so the sense. 

9. That which is (placed) in front is Agni, and 
that behind is Agni : with Agni he (Pra^apati) then 
drove away evil both in front and in the rear ; and 
in like manner now does the Sacrificer with Agni 
drive away evil both in front and in the rear. 

10. Then on the right (south) side, with (Va^ - . S. 
XV,3), 'Thesixteenfold Stoma, vigour, wealth!' 
The Trish/ubh consists of eleven syllables, and — the 
air being of Trish/ubh nature — there are (in the air) 
four quarters. The thunderbolt is fifteenfold, and 
yonder sun is the sixteenfold wielder of that thunder- 
bolt : with that thunderbolt, with that Trish/ubh, 
he (Pra^pati) drove away evil in the south ; and in 
like manner does the Sacrificer, with that thunder- 
bolt, with that Trish/ubh, now drive away evil in 
the south. 

11. Then on the left (north) side, with, 'The 
forty-four-fold Stoma, lustre, wealth!' The 
Trish/ubh consists of forty-four syllables, and the 
thunderbolt is of Trish/ubh nature : with that forty- 
four-fold thunderbolt, with that Trish/ubh, he (Pra^a- 
pati) drove away evil in the north ; and in like 
manner does the Sacrificer, with that thunderbolt, 
with that Trish/ubh, now drive away evil in the north. 

12. Then in the middle (the fifth), with, 'Agni's 
soil-cover thou art!' — the fourth layer indeed 
is the Brahman, and the Brahman is Agni, and this, 
the fifth layer is, as it were, the (soil-)cover of that 
(fourth layer); — 'his sap, in truth: may the All- 
gods sing thy praises! Seat thee here, laden 
with Stomas, and rich in fat! Gain for us, by 



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86 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

sacrifice, wealth with offspring!' as the text so 
the sense. 

13. This one he lays down with its line-marks 
running eastward and crosswise 1 ; for by that one 
Pra/apati then cut out the root of evil, and in like 
manner does this (Sacrificer) now thereby cut out the 
root of evil. On the right (south) side (from the 
centre he places it), for the thunderbolt has a string * 
on the right side ; — inside the one in the southern 
quarter, for it is for die sake of extension that he 
leaves that space. 

14. The one which (lies) in front is the out- 
breathing, the one at the back the off-breathing: 
by the out-breathing he (Pra^apati) then drove away 
evil in front, and by the off-breathing in the rear ; 
and in like manner does the Sacrificer now by the 
out-breathing drive away evil in front, and by the 
off-breathing in the rear. 

1 5. And the two on both sides (of the spine) are 
the two arms : whatever evil there was sideways of 
him, that he drove away with his arms ; and in like 
manner does this Sacrificer now drive away with his 
arms whatever evil there is sideways of him. 

1 That is to say, crosswise, or marked in the opposite direction 
to the Asapatna brick near it, viz. to the one placed east of the 
southern end of the cross-spine which (like all bricks placed be- 
tween shoulder and thigh) has its line-marks running from south to 
north. The fifth Asapatna, lying immediately north of that southern 
one, thus has its line-marks parallel, not (as one would expect) to 
the cross-spine, but to the further removed spine. 

* This is a doubtful rendering of ' udyama,' which is accepted by 
the St. Petersb. Diet, for ' sharf-udyama,' at VI, 7, 1, 16, 18 ; whilst 
in the present case ' dakshi«ata-udyama ' seems to be taken by it to 
mean 'southward erected, southward drawn (aufgespannt).' Ud- 
yama, in the sense 'extension,' might mean a protruding part, 
serving as a handle. 



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viii kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhma^a, 2. 87 

16. The soil-bedded one 1 means food: whatever 
evil there was above him, that he (Pra^apati) drove 
away by means of food; and in like manner does 
the Sacrificer now, by means of food, drive away 
whatever evil there is above him. 

17. And, verily, whenever he, knowing this, 
breathes out, he thereby drives away the evil which 
is in front of him ; and when he breathes backward, 
he thereby (drives away) that which is in the rear ; 
and when he does work with his arms, he thereby 
(drives away) that which is sideways of him ; and 
when he eats food, he thereby (drives away) that 
(evil) which is above him : at all times, indeed, even 
while sleeping, does he who knows this drive away 
evil. Hence, one must not speak ill of him who 
knows this, lest one should be his evil (enemy). 

Second Brahmajva. 

1. He then lays down those AT/fcandasyas 2 (relating 
to the metres). For Pra/apati, having freed himself 
from evil, death, asked for food ; hence, to this day, 
a sick man, when he gets better, asks for food ; 
and people have hope for him, thinking, ' He asks 
for food, he will live.' The gods gave him that food, 
these (bricks) relating to the metres ; for the metres 
are cattle, and cattle are food. They (the metres) 
pleased him, and inasmuch as they pleased (^4and) 
him they are (called) metres (Pandas). 

2. He lays them down by tens, — the Vira^ - 
consists of ten syllables, and all food is ' vira^' 

1 That is, the fifth Asapatna, which has a bed or layer of loose 
soil (purlsha) spread under it. 

1 The A^andasyi or Viri^ bricks are laid down at the end of 
the spines, ten in each quarter. 



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88 satapatha-brahmana. 

(shining, or ruling) : he thus bestows all food on him. 
On all (four) sides he places them : from all sides he 
thus bestows food on him. 

3. [He lays them down, with, V&f. S. XV, 4. 5], 
'The Course metre,'— the 'course* metre, doubt- 
less, is this (terrestrial) world; — 'the Expanse 
metre,' — the 'expanse' metre, doubtless, is the air; 
'the Blissful metre,' — the ' blissful ' metre, doubt- 
less, is the sky; — 'the Encircler metre,' — the 
'encircler' metre, doubtless, is the regions; — 'the 
Vestment metre,' — the 'vestment' metre, doubt- 
less, is food; — 'the Mind metre,' — the 'mind' 
metre, doubtless, is Pra^apati ; ' the Extent metre,' 
— the ' extent ' metre, doubtless, is yonder sun. 

4. 'The Stream metre,' — the 'stream' metre, 
doubtless, is the breath ; — ' the Sea metre,' — the 
'sea' metre, doubtless, is the mind; — 'the Flood 
metre,' — the 'flood' metre, doubtless, is speech; — 
'the Kakubh (peak) metre,' — the 'Kakubh' metre, 
doubtless, is the out(and in)-breathing; — 'the Three- 
peaked metre,' — the 'three-peaked' metre, doubt- 
less, is the up-breathing; — ' the Wisdom metre,' — 
the 'wisdom' metre, doubtless, is the threefold 
science ; — ' the Arikupa metre,' — the ' Arikupa * ' 
metre, doubtless, is the water; — 'the Akshara- 
pankti metre,' — the Aksharapankti (row of sylla- 
bles) metre, doubtless, is yonder (heavenly)* world ; — 
'the Padapankti metre,' — the Padapankti (row of 
words or steps) metre, doubtless, is this (terrestrial) 
world; — ' the Vish/arapankti metre,' — the Vish- 
/arapankti (row of expansion) metre, doubtless, is the 
regions; — 'the Bright Razor metre,' — the 'bright 

1 A word of doubtful meaning (? drinking its own windings). 



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VIII KAJfDA, 5 ADHYAVA, 2 BRAHMAWA, 6. 89 

razor ' metre, doubtless, is yonder sun ; — ' the Vest- 
ment metre, the Investment metre,' — the 'vest- 
ment ' metre, doubtless, is food, and the ' investment ' 
metre is food. 

5. 'The Uniting metre,' — the 'uniting' metre, 
doubtless, is the night; — 'the Separating metre,' 
— the ' separating ' metre, doubtless, is the day ; — 
'the Brihat metre,' — the ' hri hat ' (great) metre, 
doubtless, is yonder world ; — 'the Rathantara 
metre,' — the 'rathantara' metre, doubtless, is this 
world; — 'the Troop metre,' — the ' troop ' metre, 
doubtless, is the wind ; — ' the Yoke metre,' — the 
' yoke ' metre, doubtless, is the air ; — ' the Devourer 
metre,' — the 'devourer ' metre, doubtless, is food ; — 
' the Bright metre,' — the ' bright ' metre, doubtless, 
is the fire; — 'the Sawstubh metre, the Anush- 
/ubh metre,' — the 'sawstubh' metre, doubtless, is 
speech, and the ' anush/ubh ' metre is speech ; — 
'the Course metre, the Expanse metre,' — the 
meaning of this has been explained. 

6. 'The Strength metre,' — the 'strength ' metre, 
doubtless, is food ; — 'the Strength-maker metre,' 
the ' strength-maker ' metre, doubtless, is Agni (the 
fire); — 'the Striver metre,' — the'striver' metre, 
doubtless, is yonder world ; — * the Ample metre,' — 
the 'ample' metre, doubtless, is this world; — 'the 
Cover metre,' — the ' cover ' metre, doubtless, is the 
air; — 'the Unclimbable metre,' — the'unclimbable' 
metre, doubtless, is yonder sun ; — ' the Slow metre,' 
— the ' slow' metre, doubtless, is the Pankti ; — ' the 
Ahkanka metre,' — the 'ankahka 1 ' metre, doubt- 
less, is water. 

1 Another word of doubtful meaning (? winding-winding). 



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90 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

7. Now of those which he lays down in front, 
the first is the out (and in)-breathing, the second the 
through-breathing, the third the up-breathing, the 
fourth the up-breathing, the fifth the through-breath- 
ing, the sixth the out-breathing, the seventh the out- 
breathing, the eighth the through-breathing, the ninth 
the up-breathing, and the tenth, in this case, is the 
Sacrificer himself : this same Sacrificer, being raised 
and firmly established on this Vir&f (brick), made 
up of breath, lays down (bricks) extending both 
backward and forward, for the breathings move 
both backward and forward. 

8. And of those on the right (south) side, the 
first is Agni (fire), the second Viyu (die wind), the 
third Aditya (the sun), the fourth Aditya, the fifth 
Viyu, the sixth Agni, the seventh Agni, the eighth 
Vayu, the ninth Aditya, and the tenth, in this case, 
is the Sacrificer himself: this same Sacrificer, being 
raised and firmly established on this Vir&f, made up 
of deities, puts on (bricks) extending both hitherwards 
and thitherwards, for those gods move both hither- 
wards and thitherwards. 

9. And of those behind, the first is this (terrestrial) 
world, the second the air, the third the sky, the 
fourth the sky, the fifth the air, the sixth this world, 
the seventh this world, the eighth the air, the ninth 
the sky, and the tenth, in this case, is the Sacrificer 
himself: this same Sacrificer, being raised and firmly 
established on that Vira^ - , made up of the worlds, 
lays down (bricks) extending both hitherwards and 
thitherwards ; — whence these worlds extend both 
hitherwards and thitherwards. 

10. And of those on the left (north) side, the first 
is the summer, the second the rainy season, the 



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vin kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 16. 91 

third the winter, the fourth the winter, the fifth the 
rainy season, the sixth the summer, the seventh 
the summer, the eighth the rainy season, the 
ninth the winter, and the tenth, in this case, is the 
Sacrificer himself : this same Sacrificer, being raised 
and firmly established on that Vir&f, made up of the 
seasons, lays down (bricks) extending both hither- 
wards and thitherwards; — whence those seasons 
move both hitherwards and thitherwards 1 . 

1 1. And, again, those which he lays down in front 
are the vital airs. There are ten of them, for there 
are ten vital airs. He places them in the front part, 
for these vital airs are in the front part. 

12. ,And those on the right (south) side are the 
deities, — Agni, the Earth, Vayu, the Air, Aditya, 
the Sky, Sandra (the moon), the Stars, Food, and 
Water. 

1 3. And those behind are the regions (quarters), — 
four regions, four intermediate regions, the upper 
region, and this (earth). 

14. And those on the left (north) side are the 
months, — two spring-months, two summer-months, 
two months of the rainy season, two autumn-months, 
and two winter-months. 

15. And, again, the first ten are this (terrestrial) 
world, the second the air, the third the sky. By the 
first set of ten they (the gods) ascended this (earth), 
by the second the air, by the third the sky ; and in 
like manner does the Sacrificer now, by the first set 
of ten, ascend this (earth), by the second the air, and 
by the third the sky. 

16. This, then, is, as it were, an ascent away from 

1 That is to say, they come and go. 

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Q2 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

here ; but this (earth) is the foundation : the gods 
came back to this (earth), the foundation ; and in like 
manner does the Sacrificer now come back to this 
(earth), the foundation. And that last set of ten is 
this world : hence, even as (takes place) that start 
from the first set of ten, so from the last ; for this is 
the same, — those two sets of ten (the first and last) 
are this (terrestrial) world. 

17. Now these are forty bricks and forty formu- 
las, — that makes eighty, and eighty (ariti) means 
food 1 : thus whatever he now says that he makes 
to be food, a^ti, and gives it him, and thereby 
gratifies him (Agni). 

Third BrAhmajva. 

1. He then lays down the Stomabhaga (praise- 
sharing bricks). For at that time Indra set his 
mind upon that food of Pra^-apati, and tried to go 
from him. He spake, 'Why dost thou go from me ? 
why dost thou leave me ? ' — ' Give me the essence 
of that food : enter me therewith ! ' — ' So be it ! ' so 
he gave him the essence of that food, and entered 
him therewith. 

2. Now he who was that Pra^pati is this very 
Agni (the fire-altar) that is now being built up ; and 
that food is these .Oandasya (bricks) ; and that 
essence of food is these Stomabhagas ; and he who 
was Indra is yonder Aditya (the sun) : he indeed is 
the Stoma (hymn of praise), for whatsoever praises 
they sing, it is him they praise thereby, — it is to 
that same Stoma he gave a share ; and inasmuch as 

1 The author apparently connects ' arfti ' with the root ' aj,' to eat. 



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VIII KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 5. 93 

he gave a share (bhiga) to that Stoma, these are 
(called) Stomabhagis. 

3. [He lays them down, with, V&f. S. XV, 6. 7], 
' By the ray quicken thou the truth for truth ! ' 
— the ray, doubtless, is that (sun), and ray is food ; 
having put together that (sun) and the essence 
thereof, he makes it enter his own self; — 'by the 
starting, by the law, quicken the law!' — the 
starting, doubtless, is that (sun), and the starting also 
means food : having put together that (sun) and 
the essence thereof, he makes it enter his own self; 
— 'by the going after, by the sky, quicken the 
sky ! ' — the going after, doubtless, is that (sun), and 
the going after also means food ; having put together 
that (sun) and the essence thereof, he makes it enter 
his own self. Thus whatever he mentions here, 
that and the essence thereof he puts together and 
makes it enter his own self: ' By such and such 
quicken thou such and such ! ' — ' Such and such 
thou art : for such and such (I deposit) thee ! ' — 
'By the lord, by strength, quicken strength!' 
thus they (the bricks) are divided into three kinds, 
for food is of three kinds. 

4. And as to why he lays down the Stomabhagas. 
Now the gods, having laid down the far-shining 
layer, mounted it. They spake, ' Meditate ye ! ' 
whereby, doubtless, they meant to say, ' Seek ye 
a layer ! ' Whilst meditating, they saw even the 
firmament, the heavenly world, and laid it down. 
Now that same firmament, the heavenly world, in- 
deed is the same as these Stomabhagas, and thus 
in laying down these, he lays down the firmament, 
the heavenly world. 

5. The first three (bricks) are this (terrestrial) 



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94 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

world, the second (three) the air, and the third 
(three) the sky, the fourth the eastern, the fifth the 
southern, the sixth the western, and the seventh the 
northern regions. 

6. These twenty-one bricks, then, are these 
worlds and the regions, and these worlds and the 
regions are a foundation, and these worlds and 
the regions are twenty-one : whence they say, ' the 
Ekavi»«a (twenty-one-fold) is a foundation.' 

7. And the eight bricks which remain over are 
the Gayatrl consisting of eight syllables; but the 
Gayatrl is the Brahman, and as to that Brahman, 
it is yonder burning disk: it burns, while firmly- 
established on that twenty-one-fold one, as on 
a foundation, whence it does not fall down. 

8. Now some lay down a thirtieth (Stomabhaga), 
with, 'Beautifully arrayed, quicken thou the 
kshatra for the kshatra!' saying, 'Of thirty 
syllables is the Virif (metre) and this layer is 
vir&f (far-shining).' But let him not do so : they 
(who do so) exceed (this layer so as not to 
be) amounting to the twenty-one-fold, and to the 
Gayatrl ; and that undiminished Vira^f, doubtless, is 
the world of Indra: in the world of Indra they raise 
a spiteful enemy of equal power (to Indra), and 
thrust Indra out of the world of Indra. And at his 
own sacrifice the Sacrificer assuredly is Indra: in 
the Sacrificer's realm they raise for the Sacrificer 
a spiteful enemy of equal power, and thrust the 
Sacrificer out of the Sacrificer's own realm. But, 
surely, that fire which they bring hither is no other 
than this Sacrificer : by means of his foundation it 
is he who is the thirtieth (brick) in this (layer). 



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viii kknda, 5 adhyaya, 4 brahmava, 5. 95 

Fourth Brahmajva. 

1. He lays them down on the range of the 
Ashaatta ; for the Ashad^i is speech, and this (set 
of bricks J ) is the essence (of food) : he thus lays into 
speech the essence of food ; whence it is through 
(the channel of) speech that one distinguishes the 
essence of food for all the limbs. 

2. And, again, as to why (on the range) of the 
Asha^a; — the Ash&tfAa, doubtless, is this (earth), 
and the Stomabhagas are yonder sun : he thus 
establishes yonder sun upon this earth as a firm 
foundation. 

3. And, again, why (on that) of the AshaaJ^a ; — 
the Asharf^a, doubtless, is this (earth), and the 
Stomabhagas are the heart : he thus lays into this 
(earth) the heart, the mind : whence on this (earth) 
one thinks with the heart, with the mind. He lays 
them down on every side : he thus places the heart, 
the mind everywhere ; whence everywhere on this 
(earth) one thinks with the heart, with the mind. 
And, moreover, these (bricks) are lucky signs: he 
places them on all sides ; whence they say of 
him who has a (lucky) sign (lakshman) on every 
(or any) side that he has good luck (puwyalak- 
shmika). 

4. He then covers them with loose soil ; for 
loose soil (purlsha) means food, and this (set of 
bricks) is the essence (of food) : he thus makes it 
invisible, for invisible, as it were, is the essence 
of food. 

5. And, again, as to why (he covers it) with loose 

* Or, this fire-altar. 



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96 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

soil ; — loose soil, doubtless, means food, and this (set 
of bricks) is the essence : he thus joins and unites 
the food and its essence. 

6. And, again, as to why with loose soil ; — the 
Stomabhagas are the heart, and the loose soil is the 
pericardium : he thus encloses the heart in the peri- 
cardium. 

7. And, again, as to why with loose soil; — this 
fire-altar is the year, and by means of the soil- 
coverings of the layers he divides it : those first 
four layers are four seasons. And having laid down 
the Stomabhagas, he throws loose soil thereon : 
that is the fifth layer, that is the fifth season. 

8. Here now they say, ' Since the other layers 
conclude with Lokamprz«as (space-filling bricks), 
and no space-filler is laid down in this (layer) : what, 
then, is the space-filler therein ? ' The space-filler, 
surely, is yonder sun, and this layer is he; and this 
is of itself 1 a space-filling layer. And what there is 
above this (layer) up to the covering of soil that 
is the sixth layer, that is the sixth season. 

9. He then throws down the loose soil. Thereon 
he lays down the Vikarwl and the naturally-perforated 
(brick) ; he bestrews them with chips of gold, and 
places the fire thereon : that is the seventh layer, 
that is the seventh season. 

10. But, indeed, there are only six of them ; for 
as to the Vikarai and the Svayam-atr*««a, they 
belong to the sixth layer. 

11. And, indeed, there are only five of them, — on 
the other (layers) he throws down the loose soil with 
a prayer, and here (he does so) silently: in that 

1 Or, and he (the sun) himself. 



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VIII kAjv7)A, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 2. 97 

respect this is not a layer. And the other layers 
end with space-fillers, but here he lays down no 
space-filler : in that respect also this is not a layer. 

1 2. And, indeed, there are only three of them, — 
the first layer is this very (terrestrial) world ; and 
the uppermost (layer) is the sky; and those three 
(intermediate layers) are the air, for there is, as it 
were, only one air here : thus (there are) three, or 
five, or six, or seven of them. 

Sixth Adhyaya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. He lays down the Nakasads (firmament-seated 
bricks) : the firmament-seated ones, assuredly, are the 
gods. In this (layer) that whole fire-altar becomes 
completed, and therein these (bricks are) the firma- 
ment (naka), the world of heaven : it is therein that 
the gods seated themselves ; and inasmuch as the 
gods seated themselves on that firmament, in the 
world of heaven, the gods are the firmament-seated. 
And in like manner does the Sacrificer,when he lays 
down these (bricks), now seat himself on that firma- 
ment, in the world of heaven. 

2. And, again, why he lays down the Nakasads. 
Now at that time the gods saw that firmament, the 
world of heaven, these Stomabhagas \ They spake, 

1 The central portion of the fifth layer is here characterised as 
symbolically representing the firmament, the blue canopy of heaven, 
and the region of bliss beyond it. The outer rim of this central 
structure is formed by a continuous ring of twenty-nine Stoma- 
bhdga (st) bricks representing, it would seem, the horizon on 
which the vault of heaven rests. There is some doubt as to the exact 
manner in which this ring of bricks is to be arranged. According 
to Katy. .Srautas. XVII, 1 1, 10, fifteen bricks are to be placed south 
(and fourteen north) of the anuka, or spine (running through the 

[43] H 



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9 8 



SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 



' Think ye upon this, how we may seat ourselves on 
that firmament, in the world of heaven !' They spake, 

centre from west to east). As regards the southern semicircle, 
the fifteen bricks are to be distributed in such a way that eight 
fall within the south-easterly, and seven into the south-westerly, 
quadrant. Some such arrangement as that adopted in the diagram 
below would seem to be what is intended. It will be seen that 
this arrangement includes two half-size bricks in the south-easterly 

THE CENTRAL PART OF THE FIFTH LAYER. 

N 




quadrant, the one lying immediately south of the ' spine,' and the 
other immediately east of the ' cross-spine.' It is an awkward fact, 
however, that one of the commentators on the Sutra referred to, 
states that there are to be two half-foot bricks, (one) on each side 
of the spine — that is, as would seem, the 'cross-spine.' I cannot 
but think, however, that this must be a mistake, as otherwise it 
would seem to make the construction of a continuous ring impos- 
sible. Inside this ring, on the adjoining range (viz. the i?/'tavya 



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vin KkxDA, 6 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 3. 99 

' Meditate ye ! seek ye a layer ! ' whereby, indeed, 
they said, ' Seek ye this, how we may seat ourselves 
on this firmament, in the world of heaven ! ' 

3. Whilst meditating, they saw these bricks, the 
Nakasads, and placed them on (the altar) : by means 
of them they seated themselves on that firmament, 
in the world of heaven ; and inasmuch as through 
them they seated themselves (sad) on that firmament 
(n&ka), in the world of heaven, these are the Naka- 
sad (bricks) ; and in like manner does the Sacrificer, 
when he lays down these (bricks), now seat himself 
on that firmament, in the world of heaven. 



range, being the fifth range from the centre, see the diagram of the 
first layer, p. 17), five NSkasads (n) are placed on the spines, 
with the exception of the eastern one, which is to be placed in the 
second space north of the spine, that is to say, a foot from it (so 
as to leave space between it and the spine for the left Hitwyi; 
cf. VIII, 7, 1, 11, with note). In the south two half-sized bricks are 
laid down instead of one full-sized one. All these five bricks are of 
half the usual thickness so as to allow five others, the Pa3£a/i urfas 
(p), being placed upon them. Of the Mandasyis, or bricks 
representing the metres, only three sets (of three bricks each, viz. 
a full-sized one flanked on either side by a half-sized one) fall within 
the circle formed by the stomabhSgi-ring, viz. the trish/ubhs (t), 
^agatis (g), and anush/ubhs (a). The remaining space in the 
centre is now filled up by the Girhapatya hearth, consisting of 
eight bricks. Thereon is placed a second layer of eight bricks 
exactly corresponding to the first, and called Puna-fiiti. This 
pile (marked by hatching in the sketch) thus rises above the fifth 
layer by the full depth of a brick. He then lays down the two 
^z'tavyis (r/'t) just within the ring on the east side; and the 
Vijva^yotis (v), representing the sun, immediately west of them. 
Having now filled up the available spaces of the layer with 
Lokampr/nas, and scattered loose soil on it, he finally lays down 
two perforated bricks (marked in the sketch by cross-hatching), the 
Vikar«t and the Svayamitr*'»«4, so that the latter lies exactly 
in the centre, and the former immediately north of it, over the 
' cross-spine.' 

H 2 



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IOO SATAPATHA-BRAHVAATA. 

4. He places them in the (four) quarters ; for that 
firmament, the world of heaven, is the quarters : he 
thus establishes them in the world of heaven. On 
the range of the 7?/tavyas (he places them) ; for the 
^ztavyas (seasonal bricks) are the year, and the world 
of heaven is the year : it is in the world of heaven 
he thus establishes them. Within the Stomabhagis 
(he places them);. for this is the firmament, the world 
of heaven : it is therein he thus establishes them. 

5. In front he lays down one, with (Va^-. S. XV, 
10), 'Queen thou art, the Eastern region,' for 
a queen indeed the eastern region is; — 'The divine 
Vasus are thine overlords ',' for the divine Vasus 
are indeed ihe overlords of that region; — 'Agni is 
the repeller of shafts,' for Agni, indeed, is here 
the repeller of shafts ; — ' The Trivrz't-Stoma may 
uphold thee on earth!' for by the threefold 
hymn(-form) this one is indeed upheld on earth ; — 
'The A.fya-^astra may support thee for steadi- 
ness* sake 2 !' for by the Ajfya-jastra it is indeed 
supported on earth for steadiness' sake; — 'the 
Rathantara-saman for stability in the air!' for 
by the Rathantara-saman it is indeed established in 
the air; — 'May the .tfzshis, the first-born, mag- 
nify 8 thee among the gods!' — the ^/shis, the 
first-born, doubtless, are the vital airs 4 , for they are 
the first-born Brahman 6 ; — 'with the measure, the 
width of the sky!' — that is, 'as great as the sky 
is, so much in width may they broaden thee ! ' — 

1 Or, perhaps, 'the Vasus are thy divine overlords;' but see 
paragraph 9. 

! Lit. for unwaveringness (so as not to totter). 

* Lit. broaden, widen. 

4 See VI, 1, 1, 1 ; VII, 2, 3, 5. • See VI, 1, 1, 8. 



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VIII KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, "J. 101 



'And he, the upholder, and the overlord,' — 
these two are speech and mind, for these two uphold 
everything here; — 'may they all, of one mind, 
settle thee, and the Sacrificer, on the back of 
the firmament, in the world of heaven!' as the 
text, so its import. 

6. Then on the right (south) side (he lays down 
one 1 ), with (Va^. S. XV, u), 'Wide-ruling thou 
art, the southern region,' for wide-ruling indeed 
is that southern region; — 'The divine Rudras are 
thine overlords,' for the divine Rudras are indeed 
the overlords of that region; — ' Indraistherepeller 
of shafts,' for Indra, indeed, is here the repeller of 
shafts; — 'The Pa»iada^a-stoma may uphold 
thee on earth!' for by the fifteenfold hymn it is 
indeed upheld on earth; — 'The Praiiga-Jastra 
may support thee for steadiness' sake!' for by 
the Praiiga-sastra it is indeed supported on earth for 
steadiness' sake; — 'the Br«hat-saman for stability 
in the air!' for by the Brzhat-saman it is indeed 
established in the air; — 'May the /?tshis, the 
first-born, magnify thee among gods . . .!' the 
import of this (and the rest) has been explained. 

7. Then behind (he lays down one), with (Va^. S. 
XV, 12), 'All-ruling thou art, the western 
region,' for all-ruling indeed is that western region ; 
— ' The divine Adityas are thine overlords,' for 
the divine Adityas are indeed the overlords of that 
region; — ' Varu»a is the repeller of shafts,' for 
Varuwa, indeed, is here the repeller of shafts; — 
'The Saptadaxa-stoma may uphold thee on 

1 That is, the southern of the two half-sized ones to be placed in 
this quarter. 



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102 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

earth ! ' for by the seventeenfold hymn it is indeed 
upheld on earth; — 'The Marutvattya-sastra may 
support thee for steadiness' sake!' for by the 
Marutvatfya-^astra it is indeed supported on earth 
for steadiness* sake ; — ' the Vairupa-saman for 
stability in the air!' for by the Vairupa-saman it 
is indeed established in the air ; — ' May the ^z'shis, 
the first-born, magnify thee among the gods 
. . . ! ' the import of this has been explained. 

8. Then on the left (north) side (he lays down 
one), with (V&f. S. XV, 13), ' Self-ruling thou art, 
the northern region,' for self-ruling that northern 
region indeed is; — 'The divine Maruts are thine 
overlords,' for the divine Maruts are indeed the 
overlords of that region; — 'Soma is the repeller 
of shafts,' for Soma, indeed, is here the repeller of 
shafts; — 'The Ekavim^a-stoma may uphold 
thee on earth!' for by the twenty-one-fold hymn 
this one is indeed upheld on earth; — 'The Nish- 
kevalya-^astra may support thee for steadi- 
ness' sake!' for by the Nishkevalya-.ra.stra it is 
indeed supported on earth for steadiness' sake ; — 
'the Vaira^a-saman for stability in the air!' 
for by the Vaira^a-saman it is indeed established in 
the air; — 'May the .tfzshis, the first-born, 
magnify thee among the gods . . .!' the import 
of this has been explained. 

9. Then in the middle (he lays down one '), with 
iy&g. S. XV, 14), 'The sovereign mistress thou 
art, the Great region!' for the sovereign mistress 
that great region indeed is; — 'the All-gods are 

1 That is, he lays down a half-sized brick immediately north of 
the southern one, and thus in the direction of the centre from that 
brick. 



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VIII KAiVDA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAJVA, II. IO3 

thine overlords,' for the All-gods are indeed the 
overlords of that region; — 'Brzhaspati is the re- 
peller of shafts,' for IWhaspati, indeed, is here the 
repeller of shafts; — 'The Triwava- and Trayas- 
triw^a-stomas may uphold thee on earth;' — 
for by the twenty-nine-fold and thirty- three -fold 
hymns this one is indeed upheld on earth; — 'The 
Vauvadeva- and AgnimAruta-^astras may sup- 
port thee for steadiness' sake!' for by the Vais- 
vadeva- and Agnimaruta-sastras it is indeed supported 
on earth for steadiness' sake; — 'May the JZishis, 
the first-born, magnify thee among the gods 
. . . ! ' the import of this has been explained. 

10. Thus much, indeed, is the whole sacrifice, and 
the sacrifice is the self of the gods : it was after 
making the sacrifice their own self that the gods 
seated themselves on that firmament, in the world 
of heaven ; and in like manner does the Sacrificer 
now, after making the sacrifice his own self, seat 
himself on that firmament, in the world of heaven. 

11. He then lays down the Pa»£a£u</a ('five- 
knobbed ') bricks ; for the Nikasads are (parts of) 
the sacrifice, and so indeed are the Pa»£a£udas the 
sacrifice : the Nakasads are these four sacrificial 
priests together with the Sacrificer as the fifth ; and 
the Pawiaiua&s are the Hotras '. Now the Hotras 
are additional (to the officiating staff, or to the 
Hotri) and whatever is additional is an excrescence 
(Mela) ; and hence, as they are five additional (bricks), 
they are (called) Pawiaiua&s 2 . 

1 That is, the offices of Hotrakas, or assistants to the Hotr». 

* These bricks would seem to have had some kind of protuber- 
ances or bulgings (t&da), or perhaps tufts, resembling a man's 
crest-lock or top-knot (/MWS). Possibly, however, these five bricks, 



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104 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

12. And, again, as to why he lays down the 
Nakasad-Pa»£a/&ua&s ; — it is for the sake of com- 
pleteness; for the Nakasads are the self, and the 
Pa»^a£Ctfl&s the mate, and this, the mate, doubtless, 
is one half of the self; for when one is with his 
mate 1 , then he is whole and complete. 

13. And, again, as to why he lays down the 
Nakasad-Pa«/6a>£u</as ; — the Nakasads are the self, 
and the Pa«^a£(Was are offspring (or subjects) 2 . 
Now progeny is something additional to the self, 
and whatever is additional is an excrescence ; and 
hence, as they are five additional ones, they are 
(called) Pa&fctiua&s. 

14. And, again, as to why he lays down the 
Nakasad-Pa«>£a/6uflfas ; — the Nakasads are the regions, 
and the Pa»£a£<Was, too, are the regions : what five 
regions there are on this side of yonder sun, they are 
the Nakasads, and those which are on the other side 
are the Pa«£aiu</as. Now those regions which are 
on the other side of yonder sun are additional, and 
what is additional is an excrescence (kbda) : and 
hence, as they are five additional ones, they are 
called Pa»£a£<Was. 

15. And, again, as to why he lays down the 
Pa»iaiud&s. Now, at that time the gods were 
afraid lest the fiends, the Rakshas, should destroy 

being placed on the top of the Nakasads, are themselves here 
represented as something additional. Such, at any rate, seems to 
be the definition of the term given in the text above and in parag. 13. 
The MS. of the commentary reads, ' kayasya vai tat p&var^itam (!) 
sa Atoda/i kejapu^aA.' 

1 This, doubtless, is here the meaning of mithunam ; and 
similarly in I, 7, 2, 11, we ought to translate, 'The vasha/kara is 
the mate of those two (anuvakya and y&gySi).' 

* See paragraph 21. 



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VIII KANDA 



(vJ. -A 

, 6 ADHYAYA, I BR*HMAWA,'l6. I05 



these worlds of theirs from above. They put those 
protectors over these worlds, to wit, those shafts 
and missiles ; and in like manner does the Sacrificer 
now put those protectors over these worlds, to wit, 
those shafts and missiles. 

16. He places one in front, with (Va.f. S. XV, 15), 
'This one in front, the yellow-haired one,' — 
Agni, no doubt, is in front ; and as to his saying of 
him as (being) ' in front,' it is because they take him 
out (of the Garhapatya hearth) towards the front, 
and attend upon him towards the front 1 ; and as to 
why he calls him yellow-haired, it is because Agni 
is, as it were, yellow; — 'the sun-rayed one,' for 
Agni's rays are like those of the sun ; — 'and Ratha- 
grz'tsa and Rathau^-as 2 , his commander and his 
chieftain,' the two spring-months are these two ; — 
'and the nymphs Pu^fikasthala and Kratu- 
sthalfi 3 ,' — 'quarter and intermediate quarter,' said 
Mahitthi ; but army and battle these two are ; — 
'mordacious beasts the shaft, manslaughter 
the missile,' — inasmuch as they fight in army and 
battle, those mordacious beasts are the shaft ; ' man- 
slaughter the missile,' — inasmuch as they slay one 
another, manslaughter is the missile ; — ' to them be 
homage !' it is to them he pays homage ; — 'be they 
gracious unto us!' they are indeed gracious to 
him ; — ' he whom we hate, and he who hates us, 

1 See p. 3, note 2. 

1 That is, 'skilled in chariot (-fight),' and 'mighty in chariot 
(-fight).' 

* The meaning of these names is rather obscure : the symbolical 
explanations ' army and battle ' might seem to point to some such 
meanings as ' grounded on heaps ' and ' grounded on intelligence 
^or plan).' 



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106 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

him we put into their jaws!' whomsoever he 
hates, and whoever hates him, him he puts into their 
jaws. ' N. N. I put into their jaws,' thus he may 
name him whom he hates, and thereafter he will 
not be there any more. Let him disregard this also, 
for indeed marked out of himself is he whom he 
who knows this hates. 

1 7. Then on the right (south) side (he places one), 
with (Va^\ S. XV, 16), 'This one on the right, 
the all-worker,' the all-worker is this Vayu (the 
wind) who blows here, for he makes everything here ; 
and because he speaks of him as (being) ' on the 
right,' therefore it is in the south that he blows 
most; — 'and Rathasvana (chariot-noise) and 
Ratheiitra (glorious on the chariot), his com- 
mander and chieftain;' these are the two summer- 
months ; — 'and the two nymphs, Menaka and 
Saha^anya,' — ' quarter and intermediate quarter,' 
said Mahitthi ; but these two are heaven and 
earth; — 'Goblins the shaft, demons the missile;' 
for goblins indeed are here the shaft (weapon), and 
demons the missile; — 'to them be homage . . .!' 
the import of this has been explained. 

18. Then behind (in the west, he lays down a 
brick), with (Va£\ S. XV, 17), 'This one behind, 
the all-embracer,' — the all-embracer, doubtless, is 
yonder sun ; for as soon as he rises all this embracing 
space comes into existence ; and because he speaks 
of him as (being) 'behind,' therefore one sees him 
only when he goes towards the back (west); — 'and 
Rathaprota (fixed on the chariot) and Asama- 
ratha (of matchless chariot), his commander and 
chieftain ;' these are the two rainy months ; — ' and 
the nymphs Pramlo^antl (the setting one) and 



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viii kXnda, 6 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 20. 107 

Anumlo^antl (the rising one),' — 'quarter and 
intermediate quarter/ said Mahitthi, but they are 
day and night, for these two set and rise ; 'tigers 
the shaft, snakes the missile,' for indeed tigers 
are here the shaft, and snakes the missile; — 'to 
them be homage . . • !' the import of this has been 
explained. 

1 9. Then on the left (north) side (he places one), 
with (Vfif. S. XV, 17), 'This one on the left, 
of everflowing blessings;' on the left is the 
sacrifice ; and as to why he speaks of it as ' on the 
left,' it is because the sacrifice is performed from 
the left (north) side ; and as to why he speaks of it 
as ' of ever-flowing blessings (sawyadvasu),' they do 
indeed flow together (sawyanti) to the sacrifice, 
thinking, ' this is a blessing ; ' — ' and T arkshya and 
Arish/anemi, his commander and chieftain,' 
these are the two autumn-months; 'and the 
nymphs Vijvail (the all-inclined) and Ghrnail 
(the ghee-inclined),' — 'quarter and intermediate 
quarter,' said Mahitthi, but they are the vedi (altar) 
and the offering-spoon, for the altar is all-inclined \ 
and the offering-spoon is ghee-inclined ; — ' water the 
shaft, wind the missile,' — water indeed is here 
the shaft, and wind the missile, for from this side it 
blows hot, and from that side cold; — 'to them be 
homage . . . !' the import of this has been explained. 

20. Then in the middle (he lays down one), with 
(Vif. S. XV, 19), 'This one above, the boon- 
bestower V the one above, doubtless, is Par^anya 
(the rain-god) ; and when he speaks of him as (being) 



1 That is, extending in every direction, or open (common) to all. 
* Lit. ' he whose boons are (bestowed) hitherwards.' 



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108 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

• above,' it is because Par^anya is indeed above ; and 
when he calls him the boon-bestower, it is because 
from there the boon, rain, food for creatures, is 
bestowed hitherwards; — 'and Sena^-it (the con- 
queror of armies) and Sushena (leader of a fine 
army), his commander and chieftain,' these are 
the two winter-months; — 'and the nymphs, 
Urvasl and Purva.yyfcitti,' — 'quarter and inter- 
mediate quarter,' said Mahitthi, but they are oblation 
and dakshi«a (priest's sacrificial fee); — 'thunder 
the shaft, lightning the missile,' for indeed 
thunder is here the shaft, and lightning the 
missile; — 'to them be homage . . .!' the import 
of this has been explained. 

21. These, then, are the shafts and missiles which 
the gods then put as protectors over these worlds, 
and as to offspring (or subjects '), they are the com- 
mander and chieftain ; and as to the mates, they are 
those nymphs, — having thus become complete with 
offspring and with mates, the gods seated themselves 
on that firmament, in the world of heaven ; and in 
like manner does the Sacrificer, having become com- 
plete with offspring and a mate, now seat himself on 
that firmament, in the world of heaven. 

22. Now, these are ten (Nakasad-Pa»£a£<Wa) 
bricks he lays down ; — of ten syllables the Virif 
consists, and this layer is vira^ - (far-shining). There 
are, however, only five of them, for he lays them 
down by two and two. And, verily, they are 
prayers for prosperity to Agni (the fire-altar). He 
places them in the last layer, for this, the last, layer 
is the end of Agni : it is thus at the end that he 



1 See paragraph 13. 



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VIII KAjVDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, I. 109 

pronounces the prayers for prosperity to Agni. 
There are five of them, for at the sacrifice there are 
five prayers for prosperity K Between (each) two he 
throws loose soil, for these two bricks being fires, he 
does so fearing lest these two fires should blaze up 
together. And, moreover, loose soil means food : it 
is thus by means of food that he brings about 
concord between them. 

23. Now, then, as to the order of proceeding. 
Having laid down (a brick) in front, he lays down 
those on the right, behind, on the left, and in the 
middle. Then the upper ones : having first laid 
down one in front, he lays down those on the right, 
on the left, in the middle, and behind. And, indeed, 
the world of heaven is entered from below, for the 
gods, having at that time, closed up these worlds 
on all sides, entered the world of heaven from below ; 
and in like manner does the Sacrificer now, having 
closed up these worlds on all sides, enter the world 
of heaven from below. 

Second BrAhmaata. 

1. He lays down A^andasyas * (bricks pertaining 
to the metres). Completed now was the entire 

1 Viz. for long life, offspring, cattle, social distinction, and a seat 
in heaven ; — see the Suktavaka I, 9, 1, 12 seqq. 

* The AT^andasyas represent the principal metres, the formulas 
used in laying down the bricks being composed in the respective 
metres. They consist of ten sets of three bricks each, representing 
the ten metres, and an additional (thirty-first) brick representing 
the AtLMandas, or redundant meire. Each of the ten sets consists 
of a central brick of full size (a foot square) placed on one of the 
two spines, and flanked on the two sides not in contact with the 
spines by two half-size bricks, viz.: — 1. gayatri at the east end of 
the 'spine'; 2. trish/ubh on the Reta^siA range (joining the 



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1 1 SATAPATH A-BRA H M AJVA. 

Agni (fire-altar). He now wished for distinction 1 ; 
for, indeed, heretofore he was not equal thereto, that 
he should sustain distinction ; whence people here 
say even to this day, ' This one is not equal to 
sustain distinction, either in regard to kingship or 
to headmanship.' The gods bestowed on him this 
distinction, these A^andasyas; for the metres 
(AT^andas) are cattle, and cattle are food, and (a 
position of) distinction is food. 

2. He lays down triplets, for the beast is three- 
fold — father, mother, son ; and, embryo, amnion, 
chorion; and food also is threefold — ploughing, rain, 
seed. One of them is an Ati^andas 2 (excessive 
metre) ; for even whilst being one, that one is beyond 
all the metres. And as to that distinction, it is this 
great hymn of praise s ; and as to this great hymn of 
praise, it is these A^andasyas. 

Garhapatya on the front, or east, side); 3-^agatf, on the RetaAsii 
range (joining the Garhapatya on the west side); 4. anush/ubh, 
immediately behind (west) of the preceding set; 5. bri'hatt, imme- 
diately in front (east) of the AshSdia range (on which the ring of 
Stomabhagas lies); 6. ushnih, immediately behind (west of) the 
Gayatris; 7. kakubh, immediately in front of the brthatt bricks; 
8. pankti, at the right (south) end of the 'cross-spine'; 9. pada- 
pankti, at the left (north) end of the 'cross-spine'; 10. the single 
atiMandas, immediately in front (east) of the fifth Asapatna (see 
p. 84, note 1); 11. (three) dvipada at the back, or west, end of 
the ' spine.' 

1 That is, a position of honour, or dignity (jrt). 

1 By the metres, here and in the sequel, we have to understand 
bricks laid down with verses of the respective metres (VS^. S. XV, 
20 seq.). 

* That is, the so-called Great Litany (mahad uktham) recited, 
by the Hotri', in response to the Mahavrata-saman, or Chant of the 
Great Rite, at the midday service of the last but one day — the 
so-called Mahavrata day — of the sacrificial session called ' Gavam 
ayanam/ or ' cows' walk.' The Great Litany consists of numerous 



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viii kXnda, 6 adhyAya, 2 brahmajva, 3. Ill 

3. Gayatrl verses are the head thereof, Trish/ubh 
verses the body, ^agati verses the spine, and Pankti 
verses the wings ; and of each of those Kakubh 
verses he takes four syllables ', and adds them to 

hymns, and some detached verses and prose formulas ; the whole 
matter recited being stated to amount to as many syllables as would 
make up a thousand Brihat! verses (of thirty-six syllables each) — 
or 36,000 syllables in all. From an analysis I have made of the 
Mahad uktham (or Brthad uktham, as it is also called) as contained 
in MS. Ind. Off. 1729 D, I find it very difficult to check the accuracy 
of this statement ; my own calculation yielding somewhere about 
37,200 syllables. By leaving out of account the prose formulas, as 
well as certain repetitions, this gross amount might, however, be 
reduced to something approximating the stated number of syllables ; 
and, indeed, the calculation was probably not meant to be a strictly 
accurate one. Cf. II, 3, 3, 19, 20 (where read Litany, instead of 
Chanl), part ii, p. 430. See also IX, 1, 1, 44 ; 3, 3, 19 ; 5, 2, 12. 

1 The three Kakubh verses (Va#. S. XV, 38-40) consist each of. 
three pSdas, of eight, twelve, and eight syllables respectively, making 
together twenty-eight syllables. In muttering these verses, whilst 
laying down the Kakubh bricks, he is to omit four syllables from 
the middle pdda of each verse (so as to make it equal to the other 
two padas), and mutter the words thus omitted at the beginning of 
the verse (XV, 47) used in laying down the AtiiAandas brick. The 
syllables omitted make up complete words in each case, viz. • bhadri 
ratiA ' at the beginning of the middle pSda of the first verse, ' vrftra- 
turye' at the end of the middle pada of the second verse, and 
'ava sthirft' at the beginning of the second pSda of the third verse. 
The remaining portions of the Kakubh verses consist each of 
twenty-four syllables, or a GSyatrt verse. The references here 
made to the different parts of the Mahad uktham are not quite 
clear, and seem to point to a somewhat different arrangement of 
that xastra from that known from the AitareySranyaka and the 
.Sankhayana-sutra. The head, indeed, consists of Gayatri verses, 
viz. Jiig-veda. I, 7, either the whole, or, according to some, only 
certain verses of it ; the first three, or nine, verses also forming the 
opening triplet, or triplets, of the Mahavrata-saman, the chanting 
of which precedes the recitation of the Great Litany. — For the 
trunk (atman) consisting of trish/ubh verses, see p. 113, note 1. 
The Pankti verses, on the other hand, said to form the wings, 
would seem to be 7?/'g-veda VIII, 40 (consisting of mahSpanktis), 



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1 1 2 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

the At^andas: that is just (what makes) that 
AtiMandas (excessive metre). The others result in 
Giyatris : this is just that fourscore of Gayatrls 1 , 
the BWhatis (make up) the Barhata one, and the 
Ush«ihs the Aushwiha one. And as to the Vasa 
hymn 2 , the two half-verses, the Aindr&gna (hymn), 
and the insertion, they are Ati^andas; and as to 

which in the Aitareya arrangement forms the thighs, whilst .Sankha- 
yana makes it part of the tail ; and the Gagatis here referred to as 
constituting the spine would seem to be X; 50, which immediately ' 
follows the hymn just referred to, and is not otherwise identified 
with any special part of the body. The MSS. of Harisvamin's 
commentary are unfortunately hopelessly corrupt in this place. 

1 The Great Litany begins with seven sets of hymns and verses, 
meant symbolically to represent certain parts of Agni-Pra^apati's 
bird-shaped body which the ceremony is intended to reconstruct, 
viz. the trunk, neck, head, the roots (sinews) of the wings, the right 
and left wings, and the tail, between each two of which the so-called 
Sudadohas verse (fl/g-veda VIII, 69, 3), meant to represent the vital 
air pervading the body, is inserted, as it also is between (and before) 
the succeeding parts. In the first place there follow three eighties 
of triplets (or, 3 sets of 240 verses each) in the Gayatrf, Br/hati 
and Ush«ih metres respectively. Then comes the Vasa hymn 
representing the belly, and finally a course of recitations (beginning 
with hymn VIII, 40) forming the thighs. For the part which the 
number eighty plays in the Agnltayana ceremony, see Weber, Ind. 
Stud. XIII, p. 167. The term for ' eighty,' viz. ' arfti,' gives rise to 
a constant etymological play. Sayawa, on Aitareyaranyaka 1, 4, 3, 1, 
takes it in the sense of ' food ' (cf. above, VIII, 5, 2,17); whilst the 
Ara«yaka itself takes it in that of 'obtainment': — yad evdsmin 
loke yaro, yan maho, yan mithunam, yad annddyam, yd 'pafttis tad 
amavai, tad apnavani, tad avarunadhai, tan me 'sad iti. 

* This is the hymn .tf/g-veda VIII, 46, ascribed to Vara Ajvya, 
and remarkable for the variety of metres in which the different 
verses are composed. In the Aitareya recension of the Mahad 
uktham (which is followed in the MS. of this jastra referred to in 
the preceding notes) only the first twenty verses are recited, but 
verse 15 being divided into two verses, a dvipada and an ekapadi, 
they are thus made to consist of twenty-one verses. 



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VIII KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 5. 1 1 3 

the Nada-verse 1 , the Sudadohas, the pada-appen- 
dages, and whatever Anush/ubh matter there is, 
they make up the Anush/ubhs. 

4. Dvipada verses are the feet Thus much is 
the great hymn of praise, and the great hymn of 
praise means distinction : the gods bestowed upon 
him (Agni) all that distinction, and so does this 
(Sacrificer) bestow upon him all that distinction. 

5. And, again, as to why he lays down the KA&n- 
dasyas. The gods at that time saw that firmament, 
the world of heaven, to wit, those Stomabhagas, and 
entered it. Of those entering, Pra^apati entered 

1 The Nada-verse, JZig-veda. VIII, 69, 2 (in the ushnih metre) 
deriving its name from its first word 'nadam,' plays a peculiar 
part in the recitation of the Great Litany. The opening set of 
recitations, representing the trunk, consists of twenty-two trish/ubh 
verses ; these are recited in such a way that after each pada (or 
quarter of a verse) one of the four p&das of the Nada-verse is 
inserted. The chief object of this insertion seems to be a metrical 
one, viz. that of making each two padas (trish/ubh = eleven, and 
ushnih = seven syllables) to form half a br»hatt verse (eighteen 
syllables), the whole Litany being computed by br/hatf verses. 
Moreover, of v. 3 of the first Trish/ubh hymn of this set (i?»g-veda 
X, 120) only the first two padas are recited at this stage (whilst the 
remaining two are recited in different places later on), and this 
half-verse is followed by a bn'hatf and a satobr/hati pida (VII, 32, 
23 c, and VI, 46, 2 c), after which the recitation proceeds with 
verse 4 of the first hymn. This seems to account for one of the two 
half-verses here referred to, whilst the other would seem to be 
VII, 20, 1 a, b, recited later on in the jastra. Cf. Prof. F. Max 
Mailer's translation of Aitarey&r., Sacred Books of the East, vol. i, 
p. 181 seqq. — The Aindrigna hymn is VIII, 40, 1-9 ; 1 1 ; 12, being 
the first hymn of the portion representing the thighs. It consists of 
ten mahapahkti verses (6x8 syllables) — each of which is split up 
into two G&yatri verses (3x8 syllables) — and one trish/ubh verse. — 
The chief anush/ubh verses are those of i?»g-veda I, 11, 1-8, which 
are recited in a peculiar way (towards the end of the jastra), the last 
pada of each verse interchanging with the first pada of the next verse. 

[43] I 



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114 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

last; and thus Pra^ipati is the same as these 
A^andasyas. 

6. Gayatrls are his head; and as to its being 
Gayatrls, it is because the head is of Gayatri nature 1 . 
There are three, for the head is threefold. He 
places them on the forepart (of the altar), for the 
head (of the animal or bird) is in front. 

7. Trish/ubhs are the chest : he places them on 
the range of the two Reta^sii ; for the Reta^si<6 are 
the ribs, and the ribs lie against the chest. 

8. Gagatis are the hips ; at whatever distance from 
the naturally- perforated (central) brick he places the 
Trish/iibhs in front, at the same distance from it he 
places the Gagatls behind; for that naturally-per- 
forated brick is this vital air in the middle (of the 
body), and as far from that vital air as the chest is in 
front, so far are the hips behind. 

9. Anush/ubhs are the thighs: he places them 
close to the Gagatls, and thereby places the thighs 
close to the hips. 

1 o. Brzhatis are the ribs, Kakubhs the breast-bone. 
The Brzhatls he places between the Trish/'ubhs and 
Kakubhs, whence these ribs are fastened on both 
sides, on the breast-bone and the costal cartilages 2 . 

11. Ush«ihs are the neck: he places them close 
to the Gayatrls, and thereby places the neck close to 
the head. 

12. Panktis are the wings: and as to their being 

1 Either because the Gayatri is the foremost and noblest of metres 
(whence its symbolical connection with the priestly office and caste), 
and the one used for the first stoma at the Soma-sacrifice ; or on 
account of its being best adapted for singing. For the threefold 
nature of the head, as consisting of skin, bone, and brain, see XII, 
a, 4. 9- 

* That is, on both sides of the chest; see XII, 2, 4, 1 1, with note. 



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VIII KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 1 6. I 1 5 

Panktis, it is because the wings are of Pankti (five- 
fold) nature. He places them sideways, for these 
wings are sideways. Whatever metre is larger that 
he places on the right side: he thus makes the 
right half of the animal the stronger, and hence 
the right side of an animal is the stronger. 

13. An Ati^andas is the belly; for the metres 
are cattle, and cattle are food, and food is (what fills) 
the belly, because it is the belly that eats the food : 
hence when the belly gets the food, it becomes eaten 
and used up. And inasmuch as this (brick) eats 
(atti) the metres (Mandas), the cattle, it is called 
Atti/f^andas, for AttiMandas is really what is 
mystically called Ati^andas ; for the gods love the 
mystic. 

14. A (brick) covered with loose soil is the womb. 
These two he lays close to each other, for the belly 
and the womb are close to each other. They are 
connected with loose soil, for loose soil means flesh, 
and both the belly and the womb are connected with 
flesh. The former is an AtiX'^andas, the latter a 
soil-bedded one (purlshavati), for the belly is higher, 
and the womb lower. 

15. He places them so as to extend eastwards, 
for in an easterly direction x this Agni (fire-altar) is 
built ; and, moreover, in one moving forward, both 
the belly and the womb are moving forward. Out- 
side the Stomabhagas (he places them), for the 
Stomabhagas are the heart, and the heart is highest, 
then (comes) the belly, then the womb. 

16. He places them south of the naturally-per- 
forated (brick). Now, in the first layer, he places 

1 Or, as one tending (flying) eastwards. 
I 2 



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1 1 6 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

both the belly and the womb north of the naturally- 
perforated one 1 ; for that naturally-perforated one, 
indeed, is what this vital air in the middle (of the 
body) is : he thus places the belly and the womb on 
both sides of that (central) vital air, and hence the 
belly and the womb are on both sides of that central 
vital air. 

1 7. The Dvipadas are the feet (the stand) ; — and 
as to its being Dvipadas (verses of two feet), it is 
because the feet are a pair. There are three (such 
verses), for a stand 2 (tripod) is threefold. He lays 
them down at the back, for the feet are at the back 
(of the body). 

18. That body of his (Agni) is well-made; — and, 
indeed, for whomsoever they thus make that body 
of his so as to be well-made, he becomes possessed 
of that body of his as a well-made one; but for 
whomsoever they make it otherwise than that, 
for him they make that body of his so as to be 
ill-made, and he becomes possessed of an ill-made 
body. 

19. It is with reference to this that these two 
sama-nidhanas (finales of saman-hymns) are uttered, 
— ' The light (is) in the highest heaven of the gods,' 
and, ' The gods (are) in the highest heaven of the 

1 According to VII, 5, 1, 38, the fire-pan is supposed to repre- 
sent the belly, and the mortar the yoni ; and these two were, in the 
first layer, placed north oTthe svayam-Strww/S, or naturally-perforated 
brick, so as to leave the space of a full brick between them and that 
central brick of the layer; cf. VII, 5, i, 13. In the sketch of the 
central part of the first layer (p. 17), the two northernmost bricks, 
marked /, represent the fire-pan and mortar. 

1 That is, the feet and back part of the body, or the tail, the 
latter, in a sitting bird, forming, as it were, a third foot or support 
to the body. 



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VIII KANDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAtfA, 3- I I 7 

light;' — for when on that occasion the gods were 
entering (heaven), Pra^apati was the last to enter : 
that is why he says, ' The light (is) in the highest 
heaven of the gods.' And as to why he says, 'The 
gods (are) in the highest heaven of light,'— the light, 
doubtless, is this Agni (the fire-altar), and it is on 
his highest layer that all the gods have thus entered : 
this is why he says, ' The gods are in the highest 
heaven of light.' 



Third BrAhma^a. 

i. He lays down the Garhapatya. For the 
gods, having obtained this much, thought they had 
succeeded. They spake, 'Whereby have we suc- 
ceeded in this ? ' — ' By means of the Garhapatya,' 
they said ; ' for, after building the Garhapatya 1 and 
mounting thereon, we saw the first layer, from the 
first (we saw) the second, from the second the third, 
from the third the fourth, from the fourth the fifth, 
and from the fifth this one.' 

2. They spake, ' Think ye upon this, how there 
may be success here for us ! ' They spake, ' Medi- 
tate ye (£it) ! ' whereby, indeed, they meant to say, 
4 Seek ye a layer (iiti) ! seek ye whereby there may 
be success here for us !* 

3. Whilst meditating, they said this: 'Let us 
bring this one here and put it on (the fire-altar) ! ' 
Having brought this (Garhapatya) here, they put it 



1 For the building of the separate Garhapatya hearth, on which 
the sacred fire was transferred from the Ukha (fire-pan), see part iii, 
p. 298 seq. ; its sketch, p. 302. A similar hearth is now built on 
the fifth layer of the Ahavaniya fire-altar. 



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I 1 8 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

on. They disputed about it : — in the front part (of 
the fifth layer) the Vasus, on the right side the 
Rudras, on the hind part the Adityas, on the left 
side the Maruts, and above it the VLsve Devas 
said, ' Here let us lay it down ! here let us lay it 
down ! ' 

4. They spake, ' Let us lay it down in the middle : 
when laid down in our midst, it will belong to all of 
us.' They laid it down in the middle (of the fifth 
layer), and thus they laid that success into the self 
(or the body of the altar) ; — in the middle (they laid 
it) : they thus laid that success into the very middle 
of (Agni's and their own) self. And in like manner 
does the Sacrificer, when he lays down the Garha- 
patya, lay that success into (his own) self; and (by 
laying it down) in the middle, he lays that success 
into the very middle of the self. 

5. And, again, as to why he lays down the Garha- 
patya. The Garhapatya, doubtless, is food, and this 
built Agni is an eater: it is to the eater he thus 
offers that food ; — in the centre (he lays down the 
Garhapatya) : in the very middle (of the body) he 
thus lays food into him. 

6. And, again, as to why he lays down the Garha- 
patya. The world of the gods, doubtless, is the 
Vedi (altar-ground) ; but that (original Garhapatya) 
is built up outside the Vedi : thus, when he brings it 
here and lays it down (on the fire-altar), he then 
establishes it (or him, Agni) on the Vedi, in the 
world of the gods. 

7. And, again, as to why he lays down the Garha- 
patya The lotus-leaf, doubtless, is a womb, but 

1 For the lotus-leaf, which is the first thing laid down in the centre 



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VIII KklfDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, IO. II9 

that (Garhapatya) is built up outside the womb, and 
outside of the womb indeed takes place that per- 
formance regarding the fire-altar which takes place 
prior to the (laying down of the) lotus-leaf: thus, 
when they bring it (the Garhapatya) here and lay it 
down, he then establishes it in the womb, on the 
lotus-leaf ; and thus indeed it is not outside. Eight 
bricks he lays down : the significance of this has 
been explained 1 . He builds it up with the same 
formulas and in the same order, for this one is the 
same as that (former Garhapatya Agni) : he thus 
brings it (or him) here and lays it down. 

8. He then lays down the Punasiiti 2 . Now at 
that time the gods, having built the Garhapatya, did 
not find success therein ; for the Garhapatya pile is 
a womb, and success in a womb consists in seed, in 
generative power; and in this womb they saw no 
seed, no generative power. 

9. They spake, ' Think ye upon this, how we may 
lay seed and generative power into this womb!' 
They spake, ' Meditate ye ! ' whereby, indeed, they 
meant to say, ' Seek ye a layer ! seek ye that we 
may lay seed and generative power into this 
womb ! ' 

10. Whilst meditating, they saw this Puna&£iti, 
and put it on (the Garhapatya), and thereby laid 
seed and generative power into this womb ; — in the 
centre (they placed it): they thus laid seed and 

of the altar-site on which the (Ahavaniya) altar is to be raised, see 
VII, 4, 1, 7 seqq. The Garhapatya had been built previous to 
that (VII, 1, 1, 1 seqq.). 

1 See VII, 1, i, 19 seqq. 

* The Punaj/Jiti (re-piling) is a second pile or layer of eight 
bricks corresponding exactly to the first, and placed thereon. 



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120 .SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

generative power into the very middle of this womb. 
And in like manner does the Sacrificer now, when 
he lays down the Puna&£iti, lay seed and generative 
power into this womb; — in the centre (he lays it 
down) : he thus lays seed and generative power into 
the very middle of this womb. 

1 1. Now some lay it down on the hind part (of 
the bird-like altar), because it is from the hind part 
that seed is introduced, — (to wit) on the juncture of 
the tail (and the body), for it is from (the part near) 
the tail that seed is introduced. Let him not do 
this, for they who do this lay seed and generative 
power outside the womb; but let him rather place 
it in the centre : he thus lays seed and generative 
power right into the womb. 

12. He lays down eight bricks, — the Gayatrl 
(metre) consists of eight syllables, and Agni (the 
fire-altar) is of Gayatri nature : as great as Agni is, 
as great as is his measure, so great he thus intro- 
duces him in the form of seed. Five times he ' settles ' 
it, — of five layers consists the fire-altar, five seasons 
make a year, and Agni is the year : as great as Agni 
is, as great as is his measure, by so much he thus 
introduces him in the form of seed. Eight bricks he 
' settles ' five times, that makes thirteen, — thirteen 
months make a year, and there are thirteen ' layer- 
fillings ' of the altar : as great as Agni is, as great 
as is his measure, so great he thus becomes. 

13. And as to why he lays down the PunastitL 
Now, in laying down the Garhapatya (hearth) upon 
the Ahavantya, he surely does what is improper ; 
but when he lays down the Punay>6iti he thereby 
brings this Agni (or altar) that has been built, and 
builds it up again thereon; and because he again 



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vin kXnda, 6 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 17. 121 

(punas) builds up (ki) that (Agni) already built, 
therefore (this is called) Puna^iti. 

14. Now some lay down the Garhapatya on the 
hind part, and the Puna^ti on the front part (of 
the built altar), for these two are the Ahavantya and 
the Girhapatya, and these two fires are (placed) in 
this way *. Let him not do this, for the Garhapatya 
is this (terrestrial) world, and the Ahavaniya is the 
sky ; and above this (earth) surely is yonder (sky) ; 
let him therefore place it (the Puna&fciti) on the top 
of that (Girhapatya). 

1 5. And as to why he lays down both the Garha- 
patya and the Puna.&£iti. These two, doubtless, are 
the Vedi and the Uttaravedi (high-altar) of Agni. 
Now those two former (altars of this kind) which he 
throws up a belong to the Soma-sacrifice, but these 
belong to the fire-altar ; and when, after laying 
down these two, he deposits Agni (the fire) thereon, 
then he establishes him both on the Vedi and the 
Uttaravedi. 

16. And, again, as to why he lays down the 
Pun&&£iti. This, doubtless, is a repeated sacrifice 
(punaryagwa), and higher (than the ordinary sacri- 
fice) is this worship of the gods : he thus sets 
up a repeated sacrifice, and the higher worship 
of the gods ; and the repeated sacrifice inclines 
(accrues) to him. 

17. And, again, as to why he lays down the 

1 In the ordinary sacrifices the Garhapatya hearth is placed 
behind (west of), and the Ahavaniya on the front (or east) end 
of, the Vedi. 

* That is, at the performance of an ordinary Soma-sacrifice. For 
the vedi and uttaravedi on that occasion, see III, 5, 1, 1 seq. ; 
1 2 seqq. (part ii, p. 1 1 1 seqq.) 



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122 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

Punax£iti. This (altar), doubtless, is that same 
Agni whom in the beginning the vital airs, the 
i?/shis, made up 1 . He now builds him up again; 
and inasmuch as he again (punas) builds up (/6i) 
that (Agni) already built, therefore also it is (called) 
Puna^iti. 

1 8. [He lays down the first brick, with, Va^ - . S. 
XV, 49], 'With what fervour the i?*'shis entered 
upon the sacrificial session,' — he thereby means 
those y&shis (the vital airs); — 'kindling the fire 
and gaining the light,' — that is, 'kindling the fire, 
and gaining the heavenly world;' — 'upon that 
firmament I place the Fire,' — the firmament, 
doubtless, is the heavenly world ; — 'who mthinkers 
call the straw-spreader,' — the thinkers (or men) 
are they who are wise ; and ' straw-spreader ' he says, 
because he (Agni) has ever the (sacrificial) straw 
spread for him. 

19. [The second brick, with, V&f. S. XV, 50], 
'With our wives let us follow him, O gods! 
with our sons and brothers, or our golden 
treasures;' — that is, 'let us follow him with our 
all;' — 'gaining the firmament in the world of 
righteousness;' — the firmament, doubtless, is the 
heavenly world : thus, ' gaining the heavenly world 
in the world of righteousness ; ' — 'above the third 
luminous back of the sky,' — for this, indeed, is 
the third luminous back of the sky where this (Agni) 
now burns 2 . 



1 See part iii, p. 143. 

* That is, on this altar where the fire will soon be burning. 
It seems also to refer to the sun burning over the third heaven — 
as the counterpart of the Agni of the fire-altar. 



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VIII KXNDA, 6 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 22. 1 23 

20. [The third brick, with, Wig. S. XV, 51], ' Unto 
the centre of speech did he mount, the nimble,' 
— for this, indeed, is the centre of speech where he 
now is built up ; and ' the nimble (bhura#yu),' that 
is r 'the sustainer 1 (bhartar);' — 'this Agni, the 
good lord, the heedful,' — that is, 'this Agni, the 
lord of the good, the heeding one ; ' — ' established 
upon the back of the earth, he the brilliant,' — 
— that is, ' established on the back of the earth, the 
shining one;' — 'let him tread under foot any 
hostile ! ' — that is, ' let him tread under foot all 
evildoers.' 

21. [The fourth brick, with, Wig. S. XV, 52], 
'This Agni, the most mettlesome bestower 
of strength,' — that is, 'the most vigorous bestower 
of strength;' — 'may he glow a thousandfold, 
unremitting,' — that is, 'may he shine a thousand- 
fold, not unheedful;' — 'blazing in the middle 
of the sea,' — the sea, doubtless, means these 
worlds : thus, * shining in these worlds ; ' — ' go 
forth to the divine abodes!' — that is, 'go forth 
to the heavenly world t' 

22. [The fifth brick, with.Vif. S. XV, 53], 'Gather 
ye together! draw ye nigh together!' — he 
thereby says to those /frshis, 'Gather ye him 
together ! draw ye nigh to him together ! ' — ' Make 
ye Agni's 2 paths to lead to the gods!' — as 
the text so the meaning; — 'making the parents 

1 That is, the sustainer of the world (^gad-bhartar), according 
to Mahtdhara ; an etymological play on the word ' bhurawyu.' 

2 The texts have ' agne/ O Agni ! the verbal form * krwra- 
dhvam' being explained by Mahtdhara as an irregular singular 
form for 'krimi,' (make thou). The verse seems, however, 
corrupt. 



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124 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

young again,' — the young parents, doubtless, are 
speech and mind, and these two fires also are 
speech and mind; — 'in thee hath he spun 
out this thread,' — he thereby means that thread 
(of the sacrifice) which has been spun out by the 
Jiishis. 

23. [The sixth brick, with, Va/\ S. XV, 54], 
'Awake, O Agni, and be watchful !' — he thereby 
says to this Agni, ' Wake thou over this one ', and 
watch thou over him!' — 'Wish and fulfilment, 
meet ye and he together 2 !' — as the text, so 
the meaning; — 'Upon this, the higher seat,' — 
the higher seat, doubtless, is the sky; — 'sit ye 
down, O All-gods, and the Sacrificer!' — he 
thereby makes the Sacrificer sit down together with 
the Vi*ve Devas. 

24. [The seventh brick, with, \$g. S. XV, 55], 
'Whereby thou carriest a thousand, whereby, 
O Agni, all wealth,' — for that, indeed, is his most 
acceptable power whereby he carries a thousand, 
and all wealth; — 'thereby lead thou this sacri- 
fice of ours unto the light to go to the gods!' 
— that is, 'thereby lead thou this our sacrifice to 
the heavenly world to go to the gods.' — [The eighth 
brick, with, V4f. S. XV, 56], ' This is thy natural 
womb . . . ;' — the meaning of this has been ex- 

1 The author (not Mahidhara) seems rather to take 'udbu- 
dhyasva' in a transitive sense ('wake thou him'), as Mahidhara 
certainly does the second imperative ' pra%agr/ni,' 'make him 
(the Sacrificer) careful 1 ' 

* The text has the 2nd person dual, which Mahidhara explains 
by the 3rd dual (ya^amanena saha samsnsh/e bhavatam — 'May 
the two become united with the Sacrificer '), because of the nomi- 
native ' ish/apurve,' instead of the vocative. 



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viii kAnda, 7 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 4. 125 

plained 1 . Eight bricks he lays down : the meaning 
of this also has been explained 2 . 



Seventh AdhyAya. First BrAhmawa. 

1. He lays down two .tfz'tavya (seasonal bricks). 
The seasonal (bricks) are the same as these seasons : 
it is the seasons he thereby lays down. And, in- 
deed, the seasonal ones are everything here, for the 
seasonal ones are the year, and the year is every- 
thing 4iere : he thus lays down everything here. 
And generative power they also are, — for the 
seasonal ones are the year, and the year means 
generative power : it is generative power he thus 
lays down (or bestows on Agni and the Sacrificer). 

2. And, again, as to why he lays down seasonal 
(bricks), — the seasonal (ones) are the nobility and 
these other bricks are the peasantry : he thus 
places the nobility as the eater among the peasantry. 
He lays down (some of) them in all the layers : he 
thus places the nobility as the eater among the 
whole people 3 . 

3. And, again, as to why he lays down seasonal 
(bricks), — this fire-altar is the year, and it is joined 
together by means of the seasonal (bricks) : he thus 
makes the year continuous, and joins it together, by 
means of the seasons. These (formulas of the 
seasonal bricks) begin in a different way, but end 
in the same way ; for the seasons were created, and, 
when created, they were different. 

4. They spake, ' While being thus, we shall not be 



1 Viz. VII, i, 1, 28. s Viz. VII, 1, 1, 32. 

* Or, he places the chieftaincy in every clan. 



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126 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA2VA. 

able to procreate : let us unite with our forms ! ' 
They united in each single season with their forms, 
whence there is in each single season the form of all 
the seasons. As to their (formulas) beginning in 
a different way, it is because they were created 
different (or separately) ; and as to their ending in 
the same way, it is because they united with their 
forms. 

5. He lays them down, with (V4f. S. XV, 57), 
'Tapa and Tapasya, the two dewy seasons,' — 
these are the names of these two : it is thus by their 
names that he lays them down. Tapa (the burner), 
doubtless, is yonder sun : from him these two 
seasons are not separated ; and inasmuch as these 
two seasons are not separated from him, they are 
called Tapa and Tapasya. 

6. 'Agni's coupling-link thou art,' — this fire- 
altar is the year, and it is joined together by means 
of the seasonal (bricks) : he thus makes the year 
continuous, and joins it together by means of the 
seasons; — ' May Heaven and earth fit into one 
another! may the waters and plants fit into 
each other! ' — he thereby makes everything here ! 
to fit in by means of the seasons : — ' May the fires 
fit into one another, each singly, working 
harmoniously together for my supremacy!' — 
for these single bricks are the same as those fires : 
he thus says this so that they may fit in with each 
other for the supremacy of those two seasons ; — 
'whatever fires there are, at one with each 
other, within these two, Heaven and Earth;' — 
as the text is, so is its meaning; — 'let them draw 

1 Or, all this universe. 



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VIII KANDA, 7 ADHYAYA, I BHAHMAJVA, 9.* I27 

together, fitting in with the two dewy seasons, 
even as the gods draw together unto Indra;' — 
that is, 'even as the gods are drawing together 
round Indra, so may they draw together for 
supremacy round these two seasons.' Two bricks 
there are, because the season consists of two 
months. Only once he ' settles ' them : he thereby 
makes the season to be one. 

7. And as to why he now lays down these two ;— - 
this fire-altar is the year, and the year is these 
worlds : the fifth layer of this (altar) is the sky, 
and the dewy season of this (year) is the sky ; and 
when he now lays down these two (bricks), he 
thereby restores to his (Agni's) body what these two 
are thereto : this is why he now lays down these 
two (bricks). 

8. And, again, as to why he now lays down these 
two; — this Agni (the fire-altar) is Pra^apati (the 
lord of generation), and Pra^apati is the year : the 
fifth layer is his (Agni's) head, and the dewy season 
is its (the year's) head ; and when he now lays down 
these two (bricks), he thereby restores to his (or its) 
body what these two are thereto : this is why he 
now lays down these two (bricks). 

9. He lays down the two seasonal ones prior 
to the naturally-perforated one and to the Visva- 
^yotis; for the last naturally-perforated one is the 
sky', and the last VLrvaf yotis 2 (all-light brick) is 

1 For the symbolic meaning of the three svayam-4trj«Has, as 
the central bricks of the first and third layers, and the one lying on 
the centre of the fifth layer, see part iii, p. 1 55, note 8. 

* On the three Vijva^yotis bricks, placed in the same layers, as 
representing the gods Agni, Vayu and Aditya respectively, see 
VI, 3, 3, 16; 5, 3, 3. 



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128 ' jatapatha-brAhmaata. 

the sun : he thus places the seasons on this side 
of the sky and the sun ; whence the seasons are 
on this side thereof. But generative power there 
also is (in these seasonal bricks) 1 : he thus places 
generative power on this side of the sky and the 
sun ; whence procreation takes place only on this 
side of them, but stationary, indeed, is procreation 
beyond them, for just as many gods as there were 
of old, so many there are now. 

10. Now, the (first) two seasonal (bricks) he lays 
down subsequently to the first naturally-perforated 
one, and to the first VLrva^f yotis ; for the first 
naturally-perforated one is this (earth), and the first 
Visvafyotis is Agni : thereupon he places the 
seasons, whence the seasons are upwards from this 
(earth). But generative power there also is therein: 
he thus places generative power above this (earth) ; 
whence procreation only takes place above (upon, 
not under) this (earth). 

ii. Let him not derange these (seasonal bricks) 4 
lest he should derange the seasons, for deranged are 

1 Or, But these (bricks) also are (or mean) generative power, 
cf. paragraph i. 

* That is, he is not to shift them from their proper place, but 
place each subsequent pair exactly on those laid down before. 
As a matter of fact, however, these two bricks (if we determine their 
site by mere calculation) would seem, in the fifth layer, to lie 
by half a foot further away from the central point, than the HAxvy&s 
of the other layers do. This is owing to the fact that whilst, in 
the layers in which a Svayamatr/»»a lies in the middle, only one 
half of these central bricks lie on the east side of the central point, 
in the present layer the eastern portion of the Garhapatya (occu- 
pying the central part of the layer) consists of full-sized bricks. 
This discrepancy of half a foot was probably made good by some 
space being left, which was afterwards filled up with earth ; unless, 
indeed, the Svayamatr»'«»as, as apparently natural stones, were 
allowed to somewhat exceed the ordinary size of bricks. 



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VIII KkNDA, 7 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAWA, 1 6. J 29 

the seasons for him who dies : hence, in whatever 
place he lays down the first two, there let him lay 
down all. 

12. But the seasonal (bricks), indeed, are also 
these (three) worlds : by the (different) layers he 
thus builds up these worlds one above the other. 
And the seasonal (bricks), indeed, are also the 
nobility : by the (different) layers he thus builds 
up the nobility above (the peasantry). And the 
seasonal ones, indeed, are also the year : by the 
(different) layers he thus builds up the year. Let 
him not thereafter place over them any other brick 
with a sacrificial formula, lest he should place the 
peasantry above the nobility. 

13. Now these same (bricks) are indeed stepping- 
stones, for by means of the seasonal (bricks) the 
gods then stepped over these worlds, both from 
hence upwards and from above downwards : and in 
like manner does the Sacrificer now, by means of the 
seasonal (bricks), step over these worlds, both from 
hence upwards and from above downwards. 

14. Now, the Aarakadhvaryus lay down here yet 
other 'stepping-stones'; but let him not do so, for 
they do what is redundant, and these are indeed 
(all) the stepping-stones. 

15. He then lays down a Vijva^yotis (all-light 
brick) ; — the last Vbva^yotis, doubtless, is the sun, 
for in yonder (celestial) world the sun, indeed, is ' all 
the light' : it is the sun he thereby sets up. 

16. And, again, as to why he lays down a VLrva- 
^yotis : — the Visva^yotis, doubtless, means progeny, 
for progeny indeed is all the light : — he thus lays 
generative power into it (or into him, Agni and the 
Sacrificer). 

[43] K 

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130 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

17. He lays down the Vi^va^yotis prior to the 
naturally-perforated one ; — for the last naturally- 
perforated one is the sky, and the last Visva^yotis 
is the sun : he thus places the sun on this side 
(below) the sky, whence he burns only on this side 
thereof. But there also is generative power therein : 
he thus places generative power on this side of the 
sky, whence procreation takes place only on this 
side thereof. 

18. Now the (first) Vlrva^yotis he lays down sub- 
sequent to the first naturally-perforated one ; for the 
first naturally-perforated one is this (earth), and the 
first Visvafyotis is Agni : he thus sets up Agni 
upwards from this (earth), whence the fire blazes 
upwards from here. But there also is generative 
power therein : he thus places generative power 
above this (earth), whence procreation only takes 
place above this (earth). 

19. And the (second) Visva^yotis he lays down 
subsequent to the second naturally-perforated one 
(in the third, or central) layer; for the second 
naturally-perforated one is the air, and the second 
Vi-rvafyotis is Vayu (the wind) : he thus places the 
wind in the air, whence that wind (has his abode) 
in the air. 

20. These (three) then are the lights ; — and when 
he lays down these (three Visva^yotis bricks) in this 
way, he thereby sets up those same lights so as to 
face each other ; and hence the fire blazes upwards 
from this (earth), and yonder sun shines downwards, 
and that wind blows sideways in the air. 

21. [He 'settles' the VLrva^otis, with, V&f. S. 
XV, 58], 'May ParameshMin settle thee' — for 
Paramesh/^in saw this fifth layer; — 'on the back 



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VIII KAiVDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, I. 1 31 

of the sky, thee, the luminous one!' — for on 
the back of the sky is yonder luminous sun. 

22. 'For all out-breathing, and off-breath- 
ing, and through-breathing,' — for the VLrva^fyo- 
tis is the breath, and breath, indeed, is (necessary) for 
everything here; — 'bestow thou all the light!' — 
that is, ' bestow thou the whole (or every) light ;' 
— 'Surya is thine overlord,' — he thereby makes 
Surya (the sun) its overlord. Having 'settled' it, 
he pronounces the Sudadohas on it : its (symbolical) 
meaning has been told '. 

23. Now, these (bricks) are indeed stepping-stones, 
for by means of the Vmra^yotis (bricks) the gods 
then stepped over these worlds, both from hence 
upwards, and from above downwards : and in like 
manner does the Sacrificer now, by means of the 
Visva^yotis, step over these worlds, both from hence 
upwards, and from above downwards. 

24. Now, the Aarakadhvaryus lay down here yet 
other ' stepping-stones '; but let him not do so, for 
they do what is redundant, and these are indeed 
the stepping-stones. 

Second Brahmajva. 

1. He then lays down a Lokamp^'wa 2 (space- 
filling brick) ; the Lokamprz'#a, doubtless, is yonder 

1 For this verse see part iii, p. 307, note 2 ; for its symbolic 
meaning (as the breath, or vital air) VII, i, 1, 15; 26. See also 
VIII, 7, 3, 21, where the verse itself is explained. 

* In laying down the Lokamprwas of the fifth layer, he begins, 
as in the first layer, from the right shoulder, or the south-east 
corner, of the altar, but so that in this case the first ' space-filler ' 
is laid down, not at the corner, but a cubit to the west of it. 
Starting from that spot, he fills up the available spaces, in two 
turns, moving in the sunwise fashion. 

K 2 



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132 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

sun, for he fills these worlds : it is thus yonder sun 
he thereby sets up. He lays down this (Lokam- 
pW«a) in all the (five) layers, for those layers are 
these (three) worlds 1 : he thus places the sun in (all) 
these worlds, whence he shines for all these worlds. 

2. And, again, as to why he lays down a Lokam- 
pr*'«a, — the Lokamprz7/a, doubtless, is the nobility 
(or chieftaincy) 2 , and these other bricks are the 
peasants (or clansmen) : he thus places the nobility 
(or chieftain), as the eater, among the peasantry. 
He lays it down in all the layers : he thus places 
the nobility, as the eater, among the whole peasantry 
(or in every clan). 

3. Now this is only a single (brick) : he thus 
makes the nobility (or the chieftaincy) and (social) 
distinction to attach to a single (person). And 
what second (such brick there is) that is its mate, 
— a mate, doubtless, is one half of one's own self, 
for when one is with a mate then he is whole and 
complete : (thus it is laid down) for the sake of 
completeness. With a single formula he lays down 
many bricks 3 : he thereby endows the nobility pre- 

1 Rather, the first, second, and third layers are the three worlds. 

* At VI, 1, 2, 25 Ta»</ya was made to maintain that the Ya^ush- 
matls, or bricks laid down with special formulas, were the nobility, 
and that the Lokamprvwas, laid down with one and the same formula, 
were the peasants, and as the noble (or chieftain) required a 
numerous clan for his subsistence, there should be fewer of the 
former kind of bricks, than the established practice was. This 
view was however rejected by the author of the Brahmana, and here, 
in opposition to that view, the Lokampn'na is identified with the 
nobility, and the Ya^ushmatis with the clan. 

* The common formula used with these bricks, and from which 
they derive their name — beginning as it does ' Lokam pr»'»a,' ' Fill 
the space ! ' see parag. 6 — is pronounced once only after every ten 
such bricks, and after any odd ones at the end. 



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VIII K&.NDA, 7 ADHYAvA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 5. 1 33 

eminently with power \ and makes the nobility more 
powerful than the peasantry. And the other (bricks) 
he lays down singly, with separate formulas : he 
thereby makes the peasantry less powerful than the 
nobility, differing in speech, and of different thoughts 
(from one another). 

4. The first two (Lokampr?«as) he lays down in 
that (south-east) corner : he thereby places yonder 
sun in that quarter : from this (earth) he follows 
him (the sun) from that (place) there 2 ; from this 
(earth) he follows him from that (place) there ; from 
this (earth) he follows him from that (place) there ; 
from this (earth) he follows him from that (place) 
there. 

5. And in whatever place he lays down the first 
two (bricks), let him there lay down alongside of 

1 In the translation of VII, 5, 2, 14 (part iii, p. 404), the 
passage ' having taken possession of the man by strength,' which 
was based on a wrong reading (see Weber, Berl. Cat. II, p. 69), 
should read thus : ' having pre-eminently endowed man with power ' 
(or, perhaps, 'having placed him above (others) in respect of 
power,' St. Petersb. Diet.) 

2 I do not know whether ' atas ' might be taken here in the 
sense of ' thither,' or whether it goes along \vith ' tasm&t,' merely 
strengthening it. The meaning in either case would seem to 
be this. In the first turn of filling up the empty spaces he first 
moves along from the south-east corner (the point where the 
sun rises) to the back or west end of the spine (the place where 
the sun sets) and the central brick ; and having thus, as it were, 
touched the earth again, he proceeds from there in the same 
sunwise fashion, filling up the north part of the altar until he 
reaches the east end of the spine, and there, as it were, touches the 
earth once more. In the second turn he again begins (with the 
second brick) in the south-east, and repeats the same process, in 
filling up the south part of the altar, and completing at the south- 
east corner. The laying down of the Lokamprui&s would thus 
be supposed to occupy the full space of two days and two nights. 



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1 34 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

them the last two (bricks) : for (otherwise) having 
once revolved round these worlds, that sun would 
not pass by them. Let him lay down the two last 
alongside the two first by reaching over them : he 
thus causes that sun to pass by these worlds ; and 
hence that sun revolves incessantly round these 
worlds again and again (from left) to right. 

6. [He lays them down, with, V&g'. S. XV, 59], 
'Fill the space! fill the gap!' — that is, 'fill up 
the space! fill up the gap;' — 'and lie thou steady!' 
— that is, ' and lie thou firm, settled ! ' — ' I ndra and 
Agni, and Br/haspati, have settled thee in this 
womb;' that is, ' I ndra and Agni, and BWhaspati, 
have established thee in this womb.' Thus (he 
establishes them) by an anush/ubh verse ; for the 
Anush/ubh is speech, and Indra is speech, and the 
'space-filler' is Indra. He does not settle them, for 
that (sun) is unsettled. He pronounces the Suda- 
dohas on them, for the Sudadohas is vital air : he 
thus makes him (Agni) continuous and joins him 
together by means of the vital air. 

7. Here now they say, ' How does that Lokam- 
prt'nSi become of unimpaired strength ? ' Well, the 
LokampWwa is yonder sun, and he assuredly is of 
unimpaired strength. And the Lokampr*'»a also 
is speech, and of unimpaired strength assuredly is 
speech. 

8. Having laid down those (bricks) possessed of 
(special) sacrificial formulas, he covers (the altar) 
with the Lokamp?7«a ; for the bricks possessed of 
formulas mean food, and the Lokampr*#a means 
the body : he thus encloses the food in the body, 
whence food enclosed in the body is the body 
itself. 



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vin kXnda, 7 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, ii. 135 

9. Those (bricks) possessed of formulas he places 
on the body (of the altar) itself, not on the wings 
and tail : he thus puts food into the body ; and 
whatever food is put into the body that benefits 
both the body and the wings and tail; but that 
which he puts on the wings and tail benefits neither 
the body, nor the wings and tail. 

10. On the body (of the altar) he places both 
(bricks) possessed of formulas and Lokamp?7»as ; 
whence that body (of a bird) is, as it were, twice as 
thick. On the wings and tail (he places) only 
Lokamp«»as, whence the wings and tail are, as it 
were, thinner. On the body (of the altar) he 
places them both lengthwise and crosswise, for the 
bricks are bones : hence these bones in the body 
run both lengthwise and crosswise. On the wings 
and tail (he places them so as to be) turned away 
(from the body), for in the wings and tail there is 
not a single transverse bone. And this, indeed, is 
the difference between a built and an unbuilt (altar) : 
suchlike is the built one, different therefrom the 
unbuilt one 1 . 

11. The Svayamatrwmi (naturally - perforated 
brick) he encloses with Lokamprzwa (bricks) ; for 
the naturally-perforated one is the breath, and the 
' space-filler ' is the sun : he thus kindles the breath 
by means of the sun, whence this breath (of ours) is 
warm. With that (kind of brick) he fills up the 
whole body : he thereby kindles the whole body by 
means of the sun, whence this whole body (of ours) 
is warm. And this, indeed, is the difference 
between one that will live and one that will die : 

1 That is, one not properly built. 



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1 36 DATAPATH A-BRAhmAJVA. 

he that will live is warm, and he that will die is 
cold. 

12. From the corner in which he lays down the 
first two (Lokamprz'#as) he goes on filling up (the 
altar) by tens up to the SvayamatW##a. In the 
same way he goes on filling it up from left to right 
behind the naturally-perforated one up to (the 
brick on) the cross-spine \ He then fills it up 
whilst returning to that limit 2 . 

it. The body (of the altar) he fills up first, for 
of (a bird) that is produced, the body is produced 
first, then the right wing, then the tail, then the 
left (wing) : that is in the rightward (sunwise) way, 
for this is (the way) with the gods, and thus, 
indeed, yonder sun moves along these worlds from 
left to right. 

14. The Lokampr/»d, doubtless, is the same as 
the vital air ; he therewith fills up the whole body 
(of the altar) : he thus puts vital air into the whole 
body. If he were not to reach any member thereof, 
then the vital air would not reach that member of 
him (Agni) ; and whatever member the vital air does 
not reach, that, assuredly, either dries up or withers 
away : let him therefore fill up therewith the whole 
of it. 

1 5. The wings and tail he builds on to the body, 
for the wings and tail grow on to the body ; but 
were he first to lay down those (bricks) turned away 
(from the body), it would be as if he were to take 
a limb from elsewhere and put it on again. 

1 This would seem to be the Vikarnt (see VIII, 7, 3, 9 seqq.) 
which, however, like the central Svayamatrwwi, is only to be laid 
down after the layer has been levelled up. 

* Viz. to the east end of the ' spine.' 



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VIII KAiVDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMA7VA, 1 7. 1 37 

16. Let him not lay down either a broken (brick) 
or a black one ; for one that is broken causes failure, 
and sickly is that form which is black : ' Lest 
I should make up a sickly body,' he thinks \ Let 
him not throw aside an unbroken (brick), lest he 
should put what is not sickly outside the body. 
Whatever (bricks), in counting from the dhish«ya 
hearths, should exceed a Vir&f 2 , and not make up 
another, such (bricks) indeed cause failure : let him 
break them and throw them 3 (ut-kir) on the heap of 
rubbish (utkara), for the heap of rubbish is the seat 
of what is redundant : thus he thereby settles 
them where there is the seat of that which is 
redundant. 

17. Now, then, of the measures of the bricks. 
In the first and last layers let him lay down (bricks) 
of a foot (square), for the foot is a support ; and the 
hand is the same as the foot. The largest (bricks) 
should be of the measure of the thigh-bone, for 
there is no bone larger than the thigh-bone. Three 
layers should have (their bricks) marked with three 
lines, for threefold are these worlds ; and two (layers 



1 Here, as so often before, the effect to be avoided is expressed 
by a clause in oralio directa with 'ned'; the inserted clause with 
' vai ' indicating the reason why that effect is to be dreaded. To 
adapt the passage to our own mode of diction, we should have to 
translate : — Let him not lay down either a broken brick or a black 
one, lest he should form a sickly body ; for a brick which is broken 
comes to grief, and what is black is of sickly appearance. — In the 
next sentence of the translation, the direct form of speech has 
been discarded. 

1 The pada of the Vir&g consists of ten, and a whole Vira^ 
stanza of thirty (or forty), syllables. Hence the number of the 
bricks is to be divisible by ten. 

s Or, perhaps, dig them in. 



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1 38 satapatha-brAhmawa. 

may consist) of (bricks) marked with an indefinite 
number of lines, for these two layers are the flavour, 
and the flavour is indefinite ; but all (the layers) 
should rather have (bricks) marked with three lines, 
for threefold are all these worlds. 

1 8. Now, then, of the location * of (special) bricks. 
Any (special) brick he knows, provided with a 
formula, let him place in the middle (third) layer ; 
for the middle layer is the air, and the air, doubtless, 
is the location of all beings. Moreover, bricks 
with (special) formulas are food, and the middle 
layer is the belly : he thus puts food into the belly. 

19. Here, now, they say, ' Let him not lay down 
(such special bricks) lest he should do what is 
excessive.' But he may, nevertheless, lay them 
down ; for such bricks are laid down for (the 
fulfilment of special) wishes, and in wishes there is 
nothing excessive. But let him rather not lay them 
down, for just that much the gods then did. 

Third BrAhmamv. 

1. He now throws loose soil (on the layer) ; for 
the loose soil means flesh : he thus covers him 
(Agni) with flesh. [He does so] after having laid 
down the bricks ; — the bricks are the bone : he thus 
covers the bone with flesh. 

2. He also strews it on (the place where lies) the 
naturally-perforated (brick), for the naturally-per- 
forated one means vital air, and the loose soil 



1 Avapana has also the meaning of 'throwing in, insertion,' 
which is likewise understood here, whilst further on in this para- 
graph ('the air is the avapanam of all beings') it can scarcely 
have this meaning (? something injected). Cf. IX, 4, 2, 27. 



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VIII K&tfDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 6. 1 39 

means food : he thus puts food into (the channels of) 
the vital air. In that manner 1 he covers the whole 
body (of the altar) ; whence the food which is put 
into (the channels of) the vital air benefits the whole 
body, extends over the whole body. 

3. ' Let him not strew it on (the place of) the 
naturally-perforated one,' say some, ' lest he 
should stop up (the channels of) the vital airs, for 
the naturally-perforated one is the vital air.' Let 
him, nevertheless, strew it, for the vital airs are 
sustained by food, and whoever eats no food his 
(channels of the) vital airs grow up (and close) : 
hence he for whom they act thus, comes to exist in 
yonder world even like a dry, hollow tube. Let him, 
therefore, by all means strew (loose soil) on (the 
place of) the naturally-perforated one. 

4. Having strewed it on the svayamatr/««4 
(place) he goes on covering (the altar) from the 
(brick) on the cross-spine up to the enclosing-stones. 
In the same way he goes on covering it from left to 
right behind the naturally-perforated one up to the 
one on the cross-spine again. 

5. The body (of the altar) he covers first, for of 
(a bird) that is produced, the body is the first to be 
produced ; then the right wing, then the tail, then 
the left wing : that is in the rightward (sunwise) 
way, for this is (the way) with the gods. 

6. Now this loose soil, indeed, is the vital air; 
he therewith covers the whole body : he thus puts 
vital air into the whole body. And, assuredly, 
whatsoever member thereof he should not reach, 
that member of him (Agni) the vital air would not 

1 Or, therewith (with loose soil). 



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I4O SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

reach ; and whatever member the vital air does not 
reach that either dries up or withers away : let him, 
therefore, cover it entirely therewith. 

7. [He scatters the loose soil 1 , with, Va^". S. XV, 
56; JZig-veda. I, u, 1], 'They all have magnified 
Indra,' — for all beings, indeed, magnify Indra; — 
'the voices, him, of ocean-wide extent,' — he 
thereby alludes to his greatness ; — 'the foremost 
of charioteers,' — for of charioteers he is the 
greatest charioteer; — ' the lordly lord of viands,' 
— viands mean food : thus, ' the lordly lord of food.' 
With this anush/ubh verse addressed to Indra he 
scatters it ; for the loose soil belongs to Indra : that 
(layer of) loose soil is one half of Agni (the fire- 
altar), the (other) half is the collection of bricks. 

8. Here, now, they say, ' Whilst he lays down the 
bricks with all kinds of metres, and with (verses 
addressed to) all deities, he now scatters (the soil) 
with a single (verse) addressed to a single deity, — 
how is this one half of Agni ?' Indra, surely, is 
equal to all the gods ; hence in that he scatters it 
with a (verse) addressed to Indra, this (soil) is 
one half of Agni. And as to its being (done) with 
an anush/ubh verse,— the Anush/ubh is speech, 
and all metres are speech : thereby also it is one 
half. 

9. He then lays down the Vikarwi and Svayam- 
atr*'«»4 (bricks), — the Vikarwi is Vayu (the wind), 
and the last naturally-perforated one is the sky : he 
thus sets up both the wind and the sky. He lays 
them down as the last (highest), for wind and sky 
are the highest ; and close together, for wind and 

1 Taking it from ihe edge of the A£tvala or pit, cf. VII, i, 1, 36. 



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VIII K.ANDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAtfA, 12. I41 

sky are close together. The Vikar»i he lays down 
first : he thereby places the wind on this side of the 
sky ; whence that wind blows only on this side 
(thereof). 

10. And, again, as to why he lays down the 
Vikarwi. When, on that (former) occasion, they 
make the horse smell (the pile of bricks of) the 
(first) layer 1 , then yonder sun strings these worlds 
to himself on a thread. Now that thread is the 
same as the wind ; and that wind is the same as 
this Vikar»l : thus when he lays down the latter, 
then yonder sun strings to himself these worlds on 
a thread. 

11. And, again, as to why he lays down the 
Vikaral and the Svayamatr?««i ; the Vikarwt, 
doubtless, is vital power, and the naturally-perforated 
one is vital air: he thus bestows both vital power 
and vital air. He lays them down as the two last 
(highest bricks), because vital power and vital air 
are the two highest (endowments) ; and close to- 
gether, because vital power and vital air are closely 
(bound) together. The upper (northern) Vikar»l 
he lays down first 2 : he thereby encloses the vital 
air on both sides in vital power. 

12. [He lays it down, with, V&g. S. XV, 62 ; JZt'g- 
veda VII, 3, 2], 'When, like a snorting steed, 
that longeth for the pasture, he started forth 
from" the great enclosure, then the wind 
fanned his flame, and black then was thy 
path ; ' — for when the wind fans his (Agni's) flame, 

1 See VII, 3, 2, 13. 

* As ' uttaram ' means both ' northern ' and ' higher,' so ' purvim ' 
means both ' first ' and ' eastern/ hence, by a whimsical play on 
these double meanings, ' on both (or two) sides.' 



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142 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

then his path does become black. With a trish/ubh 
verse he lays it down, because Vayu (the wind) is of 
trish/ubh nature ; with one relating to Agni, because 
it is Agni's performance ; with an undefined one, 
because Vayu is undefined. And as to his saying 
' the wind,' Vayu indeed is the wind. 

13. He then lays down the Svayamat^'««4, with 
(Va£\ S. XV, 63), ' I s.eat thee in the seat of the 
vital power,' — the vital power, doubtless, is yonder 
(sun), and his seat this is; — 'the animating,' — for 
he (the sun) animates all this universe; — 'in the 
shadow,' — for in his shadow all this universe is; — 
'in the heart of the sea,'— for this, indeed, is the 
heart of the (aerial) sea 1 ; — 'the radiant, the lu- 
minous,' — for radiant and luminous is the sky; — 
'thou that illumines the sky, the earth and 
the wide air;' — for thus, indeed, does he (the sun) 
illumine these worlds. 

14. 'May ParameshMin settle thee,' — for 
Paramesh/^in saw this fifth layer 2 . 

15. And, again, as to why he lays it down by 
means of ParameshMin. When Pra^apati had 
become disjointed, the deities took him and went 
off in different directions. ParameshMin took his 
head, and kept going away from him. 

16. He spake to him, ' Come to me and restore 
unto me that wherewith thou hast gone from me ! ' 
— ' What will therefrom accrue to me ? ' — 'That part 
of my body shall be sacred to thee!' — 'So be it!' 
So Paramesh/^in restored that to him. 

17. Now that last self-perforated (brick) is just 

1 The topmost naturally-perforated brick represents the heavens. 
* See VI, a, 3, 5 ; 10. 



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VIII KAiVDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMA.WA, 20. 1 43 

that part of him (Pra^apati-Agni) ; and when he 
now lays it down in this place, he thereby restores 
to him what part of his body this is : that is why 
he lays it down in this place. 

18. 'On the back of the sky, thee, the wide 
and broad one!' — for this (top of the altar) is 
indeed the back of the sky, and it is both wide and 
broad 1 ; — 'Sustain thou the sky! make firm the 
sky! injure not the sky!' — that is, 'Sustain thy 
self, make firm thy self, injure not thy self (body) ! ' 

19. 'For all out-breathing, off-breathing, 
through-breathing, up-breathing!' — the natu- 
rally-perforated (brick) is the vital air, and the 
vital air truly serves for everything here; — 'for 
a resting-place, for a moving-place!' — the 
naturally-perforated (bricks) are these worlds, and 
these worlds are the resting-place and the moving- 
place; — 'May Surya guard thee,' — that is, 'May 
Surya protect thee,' — ' with mighty well-being,' — 
that is, 'with great well-being;' — 'with the safest 
roof!' — that is, 'with whatever roof (abode) is the 
safest' 

20. Separately he lays them down, for separate 
are wind and sky ; and once only he 'settles' them : 
he thereby makes them the same, for vital power 
and vital air are the same. They are both of them 
stones and both of them naturally-perforated ; for 
vital power and vital air are the same. He then 
pronounces the Sudadohas over them, — the Suda- 
dohas means vital air; he thus makes them 



1 Though, in the text of the formula, the adjectives are feminine, 
and evidently refer to the brick, the author here makes them 
neuter, referring them to ' pmh/ftam,' the back (of the sky). 



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144 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

continuous, joins them together by means of the 
vital air. 

21. 'Those his well-like milking ones 1 ,' — 
a well (suda) means water, and milking means 
food; — 'the speckled ones mix the Soma,' — the 
speckled (cow) means food; — 'at the birth of the 
gods,' — the birth of the gods is the year; — 'the 
tribes,' — the tribes (vis), doubtless, are the sacrifice, 
for all beings are ranged (vish/a) 2 under the sacri- 
fice ; — 'in the three spheres of the heavens,' — 
the three spheres of the heavens, doubtless, are the 
(three) pressings (of Soma) : he thus means the 
pressings. With an anush/ubh verse (he performs 
this rite), for the AnushAibh is speech, and speech 
(includes) all vital airs ; and by means of speech, 
that is vital air, he thus makes these two (bricks) 
continuous, and joins them together. This same 
Sudadohas, whilst being a single (verse), extends 
over all the bricks, whence — the Sudadohas being 
the vital air — this vital air, whilst being one only, 
extends over all the limbs, over the whole body. 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

i. On the (three) naturally-perforated (bricks) 
he (the Sacrificer) sings samans ; for the naturally- 
perforated ones "are these (three) worlds; and they 

1 Part iii, p. 307, note 2, the following translation of this 
difficult and obscure verse was proposed : — ' At his birth the well- 
like milking, speckled ones mix the Soma (draught), the clans of 
the gods in the three spheres of the heavens.' 

* Literally, have entered, or settled. At XIV, 8, 13, 3, the same 
etymological word-play occurs, only ' food (anne) ' being substituted 
for ' sacrifice (yag-Se) ' ; where the St Petersb. Diet, takes ' vish/a ' 
in the sense of 'entered, i.e. contained.' 



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viii kAjvda, 7 adhyAya, 4 brahmajva, 6. 145 

are just these (ordinary) stones. The gods, having 
laid them down, saw them as such : that they were 
dry stones. 

2. They spake, ' Think ye upon this, how we 
may lay sap, the means of subsistence, into these 
worlds ! ' They spake, ' Meditate ye ! '. whereby, 
doubtless, they meant to say, 'Seek ye a layer! 
seek ye how we may lay sap, the means of sub- 
sistence, into these worlds ! ' 

3. Whilst meditating, they saw these samans 
(hymn-tunes), and sang them ; and by means of 
them they laid sap, the means of subsistence, into 
these worlds ; and in like manner does the Sacrificer 
now, when he sings these samans, lay sap, the 
means of subsistence, into these worlds. 

4. Over the naturally-perforated ones he sings 
them : the naturally-perforated ones being these 
worlds, it is into these worlds that he thereby lays 
sap, the means of subsistence. 

5. He sings (the tunes) on the (mystic) words 
'Bhus, Bhuvas, Svar'; — bhus (earth), doubtless, 
is this world, bhuvas is the air-world, and svar 
(light) is yonder world : into these worlds he 
thereby lays sap, the means of subsistence. 

6. They have different preludes, and the same 
finale l ; and as to their having different preludes, it 

1 These hymn-tunes are given, Sim. Ved. V, p. 487, in the way 
in which they are here to be chanted. They consist entirely of the 
respective words, separated four times by musical interjections 
(stobhas) inserted between them, ending with the common finale : 
thus, ( 1 ) bhu^-bhu^-hoyi-bhM-hoyi-bhuA-h4-uva~e-suvar^yo- 
ti~A; (2) bhuvaA-bhuva^-hoyi-bhuvaA-hd~uvS~e-suvarg r yott~A; 
( 3 ) suvaA-suva^-hoyi-suvaA-hoyi-suvaA-h&~uva~e-suvar£ , yot{~A. 
Along with these, as to be chanted on the same model, are given, 
(4) the ' satyaw saman,' beginning ' satyam-satyam-hoyi ' &c, and 

[43] L 



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146 satapatha-brAhmatva. 

is because they (the gods) saw them separately ; 
and as to their having the same finale (nidhana), it 
is because there is only one foundation, only one 
finale to the sacrifice — even heaven : therefore they 
have ' svar-^yotis (heaven-light) ' for their finale. 

7. He then bestrews him (Agni, the fire-altar and 
Agni's body) with chips of gold. Now that whole 
Agni had been completed, and the gods bestowed 
on him immortality, that highest form ; and in like 
manner does this one now bestow upon him that 
highest, immortal form 1 . 

8. And, again, as to why he bestrews him with 
chips of gold. Now on that former occasion he 
first lays into him that pleasing form, the gold 
plate and the (gold) man 2 ; and he now decks him 
all over with a pleasing form. 

9. With two hundred (chips he bestrews him) 
each time, — two-footed is the Sacrificer, and Agni 



(5) the ' purusha-saman,' beginning ' purushaA-purusha-hoyi ' &c; 
which are similarly chanted by the Sacrificer at the beginning of 
the first layer, when laying down the lotus leaf (part iii, p. 363, 
where note 1 should be corrected in accordance with the present 
note), and the gold man (ib. p. 369, where the note requires 
likewise to be corrected), as the 'fttre gayati,' 'he sings on the 
bright one,' of the text cannot refer to the ' A'itra-saman ' there 
referred to. Cf. L&fy. S. I, 5, 8. — In regard to these samans (hymn- 
verses), the text might lead one to suppose that they only consist 
of two, instead of the usual four parts (omitting the intermediate 
Udgttha and Pratihara, cf. part ii, p. 310 note). The sdman 
being, however, sung by the Sacrificer himself, the usual distinction 
into parts to be performed by different chanters was probably 
dispensed with. 

1 That is, the Sacrificer bestows it on Agni; with probably, 
however, the double entente, ' this Adhvaryu priest bestows it on the 
Sacrificer.' 

* See VII, 4, 1, 10 seq. ; 15 seq. 



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VIII KAATDA, 7 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAiIMAJVA, 12. 1 47 

is the sacrificer : as great as Agni is, as great as is 
his measure, with so much he thus bestows upon 
him immortality, that highest form. Five times 
(he strews), — five-layered is the altar, five seasons 
make a year, and Agni is the year: as great as 
Agni is, as great as is his measure, with so much 
he thus bestows upon him immortality, that highest 
form. With a thousand (chips he bestrews him), — a 
thousand means everything : with everything he thus 
confers upon him immortality, that highest form. 

10. First (he scatters them) at the back whilst 
standing with his face towards the east; then on 
the left (north) side towards the south ; then in 
front whilst facing the west; then, having gone 
round the back, from the south whilst facing the 
north : this is from left to right (sunwise), for that 
is (the way) with the gods. Then, having gone 
round, (he scatters chips) at the back whilst 
standing with his face to the east, for in this way 
that former performance of him 1 took place. 

11. [He scatters, with, Vfif. S. XV, 65], 'The 
fore-measure of a thousand thou art, — The 
counter-measure of a thousand thou art, — 
The up-measure of a thousand thou art, — 
The thousandfold thou art, — For a thousand 
thee!' — a thousand, doubtless, means everything: 
thus, ' Everything thou art, — thee for everything ! ' 

12. Now, then, the consideration of the layer- 
fillings. The first layer is this (terrestrial) world; 
and the filling of soil means cattle : thus, in 



1 Viz. of Agni (and ihe Sacrificer). The ceremony alluded to 
was the fivefold libation of ghee offered on the gold man 
(representing Agni and the Sacrificer), see VII, 4, 1, 34-35. 

L 2 



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148 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

covering the first layer with a filling of soil he 
covers this (terrestrial) world with cattle. 

1 3. The second layer is the air, and the filling of 
soil means birds : thus, in covering the second layer 
with a filling of soil, he covers (fills) the air with 
birds. 

14. The third layer is the sky, and the filling of 
soil means stars ; thus, in covering the third layer 
with a filling of soil, he covers the sky with stars. 

15. The fourth layer is the sacrifice, and the 
filling of soil means sacrificial gifts : thus, in covering 
the fourth layer with a filling of soil, he covers the 
sacrifice with sacrificial gifts (to the priests). 

16. The fifth layer is the Sacrifices and the 
filling of soil means progeny (or subjects) : thus, 
in covering the fifth layer with a filling of soil, he 
covers (abundantly supplies) the Sacrificer with pro- 
geny (or subjects). 

17. The sixth layer is the heavenly world, and 
the filling of soil means the gods : thus in covering 
the sixth layer with a filling of soil, he fills the 
heavenly world with gods. 

18. The seventh layer is immortality, — that is 
the last (layer) he lays down, and thus bestows im- 
mortality as the highest thing of all this (universe) : 
therefore immortality is the highest thing of all this 
(universe) ; therefore the gods are not separated 
therefrom ; and therefore they are immortal. Thus 
much as to the deity 1 . 

19. Now, as to the Self (body). The first layer 
is the legs, and the downward flowing vital air ; and 



1 That is, so much as to the objects to which the different parts 
of the altar are sacred or dedicated. 



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vni kajvda, 7 adhyAya, 4 brAhmamv, 2t. 149 

the filling of soil is the flesh : thus, in covering the 
first layer with a filling of soil, he covers that (part) 
of his (Agni's) body with flesh. [He does so] after 
laying down bricks, and bricks mean bone : he thus 
covers the bone with flesh. He does not cover (the 
altar-site) below (the first layer), whence these vital 
airs are not closed up below ; but he covers it 
above, and thereby covers that (part) of his body 
above with flesh ; and hence that (part) of his body 
above, being covered with flesh, is not visible. 

20. The second layer is that (part of the body) 
which is above the legs and below the waist ; and 
the filling of soil is flesh : thus, in covering the 
second layer with a filling of soil, he covers that 
(part) of his body with flesh. [He does so] after 
laying down bricks, and bricks mean bone : he thus 
covers the bone with flesh. He places them on 
a filling of soil, and covers them with a filling of 
soil : he thus covers that (part) of his body on both 
sides with flesh ; whence that part of his body, being 
on both sides covered with flesh, is not visible. 

21. The third layer is the waist itself; the fourth 
layer is that (part of the body) which is above the 
waist and below the neck ; the fifth layer is the • 
neck, the sixth layer is the head, and the seventh 
layer is the vital airs. This he lays down as the 
last (or highest) : he thus makes the vital airs the 
highest of all this (universe), and hence the vital 
airs are the highest thing of all this (universe). He 
places it on a filling of soil ; and the filling of soil 
means flesh ; he thus covers (the channels of) the 
vital airs with flesh. He does not cover it above, 
whence these (channels of the) vital airs are not 
closed up above. 



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150 DATAPATH A-BRAHMA2VA. 



NINTH KkNDA. 



THE BUILDING OF THE SACRED FIRE-ALTAR 

(continued). 



SATARUDRIYA LUSTRATION, INSTALMENT AND 
CONSECRATION OF FIRE, AND SOMA-SACRIFICE. 

First Adhyaya. First BrAhmaya. 

THE JATARUDRtYA. 

This solemn and awful ceremony consists of 425 oblations to 
Rudra, the representative of the fearful aspects of life and nature, 
accompanied by appropriate formulas addressed to the various 
forms of the terrible god, and his associates, with a view to appeas- 
ing their wrath. These formulas make up a complete kawrfa (XVI) 
of the Va^asaneyi-sawhitii, and constitute a special Upanishad. 
Though only a few of the formulas are actually referred to in the 
text of the Br£hma»a, the different portions of which this dismal 
litany consists are otherwise alluded to, and for this reason, as well 
as on account of its intrinsic interest, as doubtless reflecting, to 
a considerable extent, the popular belief in demoniac agencies 
to which man is constantly exposed, a complete translation of 
the .Satarudriya formulas is here given. For a German translation 
of the Taittiriya recension of the text, with the various readings 
of the Ka/Aaka and Va^asaneyin versions, see A. Weber, Ind. Stud. 
II, p. 14 seqq. 

I. 1. Reverence, O Rudra, be to thy wrath; and to thine arrow 
be reverence ; and to both thine arms be reverence I 2. What 
auspicious form there is of thine, free from terror and boding of 
evil, with that most propitious form look down upon us, O moun- 
tain-dweller I 3. The shaft thou bearest in thy hand to hurl, 
O mountain-dweller, make it harmless, O protector of mountains, 
injure not man nor beast I 4. With auspicious speech we call upon 
thee, O mountain-dweller, that all these living beings of ours may 



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ix kXnda, i adhyAya, i brAhmajva. 151 

be healthy and of good cheer! 5. May he plead for us as our 
intercessor, the first divine physician : crushing all serpents, turn 
thou aside all practices of witchcraft I 6. That tawny one, and the 
ruddy and the brown one, the auspicious — the Rudras that hover 
around him by thousands in the quarters: their wrath do we 
deprecate. 7. That one who glideth downwards (the sun) blood- 
red and blue-necked — the cowherds have seen him and the water- 
bearers (f. the clouds) have seen him — be he gracious unto us, when 
seen ! 8. Reverence be to the blue-necked, thousand-eyed showerer ; 
and what henchmen there are of his, to them do I render homage. 
9. Loose thou the string from the ends of thy bow ; and cast away 
the arrows in thy hand, O holy one 1 10. Stringless be the bow 
of the coil-braided one, and arrowless his quiver ! may his arrows 
be futile, and empty his scabbard 1 11. With that plague-repelling 
weapon in thy hand, with thy bow, protect us, O best of showerers, 
on all sides I 1 2. May the shaft of thy bow spare us on all sides, 
and far from us lay down that quiver of thine! 13. Unstringing 
the bow, and breaking off the points of thy shafts, be thou gracious 
and well-disposed unto us, O thousand-eyed lord of a hundred 
quivers ! 14. Reverence be to thine unstrung weapon, the powerful 
one ; and reverence be to thine arms and to thy bow ! 1 5. Neither 
our full-grown, nor our little one, neither the virile, nor the unborn, 
neither our father strike thou, nor our mother : harm not our dear 
bodies, O Rudral 16. Neither to our children, and our children's 
children, nor to our life, neither to our kine nor to our horses do 
thou injury ! smite not our shining warriors : with offering we ever 
invoke thee, O Rudra ! 

II. 17. Reverence be to the golden-armed leader of hosts, and 
to the lord of regions be reverence ! reverence be to the green-haired 
trees, and to the lord of beasts be reverence ! reverence be to the 
grass-hued shining one, and to the lord of roads be reverence! 
reverence be to the gold-locked wearer of the sacred cord, and to 
the lord of the strong-bodied be reverence 1 18. Reverence be to 
the dusky smiter, and to the lord of food be reverence ! reverence 
be to Bhava's weapon, and to the lord of moving creatures be 
reverence! reverence be to the strung-bowed Rudra, and to the 
lord of fields be reverence I reverence be to the inviolable charioteer, 
and to the lord of forests be reverence! 19. Reverence be to the 
ruddy architect, and to the lord of trees be reverence ! reverence 
be to the ubiquitous producer of wealth, and to the lord of plants 
be reverence I reverence be to the wise merchant, and to the lord of 
forest retreats be reverence ! reverence be to the loud-noised crier, 



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152 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

and to the lord of wanderers be reverence 1 20. Reverence be to 
the onward-rushing one with his (weapon) levelled everywhere, and 
to the lord of beings be reverence I reverence be to the victorious 
smiter, and to the lord of victorious (hosts) be reverence I reverence 
be to the matchless swordsman, and to the lord of thieves be rever- 
ence I reverence be to the prowling rover, and to the lord of the 
forest be reverence 1 21. Reverence be to the tricking arch-trickster, 
and to the lord of pilferers be reverence ! reverence be to the well- 
quivered swordsman, and to the lord of robbers be reverence! 
reverence be to the slaying spearmen, and to the lord of pillagers 
be reverence I reverence be to the night-walking sword-wielders, 
and to the lord of cut-throats be reverence ! 

III. 22. Reverence be to the turbaned mountaineer, and to the 
lord of spoilers be reverence I reverence be to shooters of arrows, and 
to ye bowmen be reverence 1 reverence be to the bow-stretching, and 
to ye that fix the arrow be reverence I reverence be to ye that pull 
(the bow), and to ye that hurl be reverence 1 23. Reverence be to 
ye that shoot, and to ye that pierce be reverence 1 reverence be 
to ye that sleep, and to ye that wake be reverence ! reverence be to 
ye, the lying, and to ye, the sitting, be reverence ! reverence be 
to ye, the standing, and to ye, the running, be reverence! 24. 
Reverence* be to gatherings, and to ye, lords of the gathering, 
be reverence! reverence be to horses, and to ye, masters of 
horses, be reverence ! reverence be to the victorious (armies), and 
to ye that smite be reverence I reverence be to the serried (hosts), 
and to ye that crush be reverence! 25. Reverence be to the 
troops, and to ye, chiefs of troops, be reverence I reverence be to 
the bands, and to ye, chiefs of bands, be reverence ! reverence be 
to sharpers, and to ye, chiefs of sharpers, be reverence ! reverence 
be to the unshapen, and to ye, the all-shaped, be reverence! 
26. Reverence be to armies, and to ye, leaders of armies, be 
reverence ! reverence be to chariot-fighters, and to ye, the chariot- 
less, be reverence ! reverence be to car-fighters, and to ye, charioteers, 
be reverence! reverence be to the adult, and to ye, children, be 
reverence ! 

IV. 27. Reverence be to carpenters, and to ye, wheelwrights, be 
reverence ! reverence be to potters, and to ye, blacksmiths, be 
reverence ! reverence be to the jungle tribes, and to ye, fishermen, 
be reverence ! reverence be to dog-keepers, and to ye huntsmen be 
reverence! 28. Reverence be to dogs, and to ye masters of dogs 
be reverence ! reverence be to Bhava and to Rudra 1 reverence be 
to .Sarva and to Pajupati (lord of beasts) ! reverence be to Nilagriva 



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IX KAtfDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA. I53 

(ihe blue-necked) and to Silikan/fa (the white-throated) ! 29. 
Reverence be to him of the coiled hair and to the shaven-haired 
one! reverence be to the thousand-eyed and to the hundred- 
bowed one! reverence be to the mountain-dweller and to the 
bald one ! reverence be to the chief of showerers and to the 
arrow-shooter! 30. Reverence be to the short and the dwarfish 
one ! reverence be to the tall and the old one ! reverence be to the 
full-grown and the growing one 1 reverence be to the topmost and 
first one! 31. Reverence be to the swift and agile one! reverence 
be to the fast and nimble one 1 reverence be to the surging and 
roaring one ! reverence be to the river-dweller and the isle-dweller ! 

V. 32. Reverence be to the eldest and to the youngest ! rever- 
ence be to the firstborn and to the afterborn ! reverence be to the 
middlemost and to the abortive (?) one! reverence be to 1 he hind- 
most and to the bottommost one ! 33. Reverence be to him dwelling 
in the air-castles, and to him in the magic cord-ring ! reverence 
be to him who is in Yama's (death's) power, and to him who 
liveth in safety ! reverence be to him in (the height of his) fame, 
and to him who is at his end 1 reverence be to him on the tilled 
land, and to him on the threshing-floor ! 34. Reverence be to him 
dwelling in the wood, and to him in the jungle ! reverence be to 
the sound and to the echo I reverence be to him of the swift army, 
and to him of the swift chariot ! reverence be to the hero and the 
shatterer! 35. Reverence be to the helmeted and the armoured 
one ! reverence be to the mailed and the cuirassed one ! reverence 
be to the famous one, and to the leader of the famous army ! 
reverence be to him dwelling in the drum, and to him in the drum- 
stick! 36. Reverence be to the bold, and the deliberate one! 
reverence be to the swordsman, and to the quiver-bearer ! rever- 
ence be to the sharp-shafted and the armed one ! reverence be to 
the well-armed one, and to the wielder of a goodly bow ! 

VI. 37. Reverence be to him dwelling in the stream, and to him 
on the road ! reverence be to him in the mere (?), and to him in the 
pool ! reverence be to him in the ditch, and to him in the lake ! 
reverence be to him in the river, and to him in the pond ! 38. 
Reverence be to him dwelling in the well, and to him in the bank ! 
reverence be to him in the clouded sky (?), and to him in the heat 
of the sun ! reverence be to him in the cloud, and to him in the 
lightning! reverence be to him in the rain, and to him in the 
drought ! 39. Reverence be to him dwelling in the wind, and to 
him in the storm-cloud (?) ! reverence be to him dwelling in the 
house, and to the guardian of the house ! reverence be to Soma 



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154 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

and Rudra ! reverence be to the dusky and the ruddy one ! 40. 
Reverence be to the propitious one, and to the lord of beasts! 
reverence be to the terrible and fearful one ! reverence be to the 
near-hitter and the far-hitter ! reverence be to the slayer and the 
slaughterer 1 reverence be to the gold-haired trees 1 reverence be 
to the deliverer 1 

VII. 41. Reverence be to the gentle and the friendly onel 
reverence be to the peaceful and pleasing one I reverence be to the 
kindly and the kindliest! 

VIII. 42. Reverence be to him who is on the further shore, and 
to him on the near shore I reverence be to him who ferrieth over, and 
to him who bringeth ashore I reverence be to him dwelling in the 
ford, and to him on the bank ! reverence be to him dwelling in 
the sward, and to him in the foam 1 43. Reverence be to him 
dwelling in the sand, and to him in the current ! reverence be to 
him dwelling in the stony and to him in habitable places 1 reverence 
be to the coil-haired and to the straight-haired (?) one ! reverence be 
to him dwelling in barren land, and to him on the beaten track ! 
44. Reverence be to him dwelling in the cow-pen, and to him in 
the cattle-shed ! reverence be to him dwelling in the couch, and to 
him in the house ! reverence be to him dwelling in the heart, and 
to him in the whirlpool I reverence be to him dwelling in the well, 
and to him in the abyss ! 45. Reverence be to him dwelling in 
what is dried up, and to him in what is green ! reverence be to him 
dwelling in the dust, and to him in the mist 1 reverence be to him 
dwelling in the copse, and to him in the shrub ! reverence be to 
him in the ground, and to him in the gully 1 46. Reverence be 
to him dwelling in the leaf, and to him in the leaf-fall (sere leaf) ! 
reverence be to the growler, and to the smiter 1 reverence be to the 
snatcher, and to the repeller (?) ! reverence be to the arrow-makers, 
and to ye bow-makers! — Reverence be to ye, the sparkling hearts 
of the gods ! reverence be to the discriminating, reverence to the 
destructive, reverence to the irremovable I 

IX. 47. Chaser, lord of the (Soma) plant ! blue- red cleaver 1 fright 
and hurt not these people and these cattle : let none of us sicken ! 
48. These prayers we bring before the mighty Rudra, the coil- 
braided smiter of heroes, that there may be safety for the two-footed 
and the four-footed, and that everything in this village may be 
healthy and thriving. 49. That friendly form of thine, O Rudra, 
friendly and ever healing, friendly and healing to the stricken: 
therewith be gracious unto us that we may live! 50. May the 
shaft of Rudra spare us, and the ill-will of the violent and malevo- 



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tx kUnda, i adhyAya, i brAhmajva. 155 

lent one: unstring the strong (bow) from (hurting) our patrons, 
O showerer (of gifts), and be gracious unto our children and our 
children's children 1 51. Be thou kindly and well-disposed towards 
us, O kindliest chief of showerers, lay down thy weapon on the 
highest tree, and putting on the hide come and join us, bearing 
the spear 1 52. O blood-red scatterer, reverence be unto thee, holy 
one, let those thousand shafts of thine lay low another than usl 
53. The thousandfold thousand shafts of thine arms — turn thou 
away their heads from us, O holy lord I 54. What countless thou- 
sands of Rudras there are upon earth, their bows do we unstring 
(and cast away) at a thousand leagues. 55. The Bhavas in this 
great sea, the air : their bows do we unstring at a thousand leagues. 
56. The blue-necked, white-throated Rudras seated in the sky: 
their bows do we unstring at a thousand leagues. 57. The blue- 
necked, white-throated .Sarvas dwelling below the earth : their bows 
do we unstring at a thousand leagues. 58. The grass-green in the 
trees, the blue-necked, blood-red ones : their bows do we unstring 
at a thousand leagues. 59. They who are the chiefs of spirits, 
hairless and coil-braided : their bows do we unstring at a thousand 
leagues. 60. They who are the guardians of roads, food-bearers, 
life-fighters (?) : their bows do we unstring at a thousand leagues. 
61. They who haunt the bathing-places, wielders of spear and 
sword: their bows do we unstring at a thousand leagues. 62. 
They who strike men at their meals, and in their cups those that 
drink : their bows do we unstring at a thousand leagues. 63. What 
Rudras are scattered over the regions, so many and more: their 
bows do we unstring at a thousand leagues. — 64. Reverence be to 
the Rudras dwelling in the sky, whose arrows the rain is 1 to them 
(I stretch) ten (fingers) eastward, ten southward, ten westward, ten 
northward, ten upward: to them be reverence 1 may they be 
gracious unto us and help us : whomsoever we hate, and whoso- 
ever hateth us, him we cast into their jaws ! 65. Reverence be to 
the Rudras dwelling in the air, whose arrows the wind is ! to them 
(I stretch) ten (fingers) eastward, ten southward, ten westward, ten 
northward, ten upward : to them be reverence 1 may they be gracious 
unto us and help us : whomsoever we hate, and whosoever hateth 
us, him we cast into their jaws 1 66. Reverence be to the Rudras 
dwelling upon earth, whose arrows food is 1 to them (I stretch) ten 
(fingers) eastward, ten southward, ten westward, ten northward, 
ten upward : to them be reverence 1 may they be gracious unto us 
and help us : whomsoever we hate, and whosoever hateth us, him 
we cast into their jaws 1 



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I56 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

1. He then performs the Satarudriy a offering! 
This whole Agni has now l been completed : he 
now is the deity Rudra. Upon him the gods 
bestowed that highest form, immortality. Flaming 
he there stood longing for food. The gods were 
afraid of him lest he should hurt them. 

2. They spake, ' Let us gather together food for 
him : therewith we will appease him ! ' They 
gathered for him that food, the .Santadevatya 2 , and 
thereby appeased him ; and inasmuch as they 
thereby appeased (yam) the god (deva), it is called 
.Santadevatya ; — Santadevatya, doubtless, is here 
called mystically ' .Satarudriya V for the gods love 
the mystic. And in like manner does this Sacri- 
ficer now bestow upon him that highest form, 
immortality. Flaming he there stands, longing for 
food. He gathers for him that food, the Santa- 
devatya, and thereby appeases him. 

3. He offers wild sesamum seeds. He (Agni) 
grows when he is being built up : he grows for 
(the consumption) of every kind of food. And wild 
sesamum seeds represent both kinds of food, the 
cultivated as well as the wild-growing : inasmuch as 
they are sesamum seeds they are a cultivated (kind 
of food), and inasmuch as they ripen on unploughed 
land they are wild-growing; he thus satisfies him 
with both kinds of food, the cultivated as well as 
the wild-growing. 

1 Or, here, in this (atra), in the shape of this (altar) on which the 
fire is to be deposited. 

s That is, that whereby the deity is propitiated or appeased. 

8 A fanciful etymology of .Sala-rudriya, as if it were finta (pro- 
pitiated) + rudriya, instead of ' that which relates to a hundred 
Rudras'; cf. paragraph 7. 



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IX KANDA, 1 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAYA, 7. 1 57 

4. He offers by means of an arka-leaf ', — the Arka- 
tree (Calotropis gigantea) is food : he thus gratifies 
him with food. 

5. He offers on (three) enclosing-stones: — these 
enclosing-stones are the (three) Agnis ; and thus it 
is over Agni himself that these oblations of his 
become offered. 

6. And as to why he performs the .Satarudriya 
offering. When Pra^apati had become disjointed, 
the deities departed from him. Only one god did 
not leave him, to wit, Manyu (wrath) : extended he 
remained within. He (Pra^apati) cried, and the 
tears of him that fell down settled on Manyu. He 
became the hundred-headed, thousand-eyed, hundred- 
quivered Rudra. And the other drops that fell 
down, spread over these worlds in countless num- 
bers, by thousands ; and inasmuch as they originated 
from crying (rud), they were called Rudras (roarers). 
That hundred-headed, thousand-eyed, hundred-quiv- 
ered Rudra, with his bow strung, and his arrow 
fitted to the string, was inspiring fear, being in quest 
of food. The gods were afraid of him. 

7. They spake unto Pra^apati, ' We are afraid of 
this one, lest he should hurt us ! ' He spake, ' Gather 
food for him, and appease him therewith ! ' They 
gathered for him that food, the .Satarudriya (offering), 
and thereby appeased him ; and inasmuch as they 
thereby appeased (ram) the hundred-headed (sata- 
Jirsha) Rudra, it is called ^ata^trsharudrajamanlya, 
— and xataflrsharudra^amaniya, doubtless, is what 

1 That is to say, the leaf is used in lieu of the ordinary offering- 
spoon. Whilst making continual oblations on one of the three 
stones from this leaf, held in his right hand, the priest holds a piece 
of arka wood in his left hand. Mahidh. on Vag. S. XVI, 1. 



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I58 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

they mystically call iSatarudriya, for the gods love 
the mystic. And in like manner does this (Sacrificer) 
now gather for him that food, the .Satarudriya, and 
appease him thereby. 

8. He offers gavedhuka flour; for from the place 
where that deity lay disjointed, gavedhuka plants 
(coix barbata) sprang forth : he thus gratifies him 
by his own portion, by his own life-sap. 

9. He offers by means of an arka-leaf ; for that 
tree sprang from the resting-place of that god : he 
thus gratifies him by his own portion, by his own 
life-sap. 

10. He offers on (three) enclosing-stones 1 , for the 
enclosing-stones are the hair, and neither poison nor 
anything else injures one at the hair. He offers 
whilst standing on the left (north) side of Agni 
(the altar), with his face to the north ; for in that 
region lies the house of that god 2 : it is thus in his 
own region that he gratifies him, in his own region 
he contents him with offering. 

11. The first Sviha ('hail') he utters on the 
knee-high one, — what is knee-high is, as it were, 
below, and below, as it were, is this (terrestrial) 
world : he thus gratifies those Rudras who entered 
this world. 

1 2. Then on the navel-high one, — what is navel- 

1 The site of the altar is enclosed within a continuous line of 
261 pamrits, about half a foot in width, running along its edge. 
Their height is indeterminate, with the exception of three of them, 
dug in at the back (west) corner of the left wing, of which one is 
to reach up to the knee, the second up to the navel, and the third 
up to the mouth ; each of the latter two standing to the left (north) 
of the preceding one. 

* See I, 7, 3, 20, with note. Agni, in the form of the formidable 
Rudra (who is to be kept at a distance), is referred to. 



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ix KkNDA, i adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 16. 159 

high is, as it were, the middle ; and the middle, as 
it were, is the aiMvorld : he thus gratifies those 
Rudras who entered the air-world. 

1 3. Then on the one reaching up to the mouth, — 
what reaches up to the mouth is, as it were, above, 
and above, as it were, is yonder world : he thus 
gratifies those Rudras who entered yonder world. 
[He does so] with Svaha, — the Svaha is food : with 
food he thus gratifies them. 

14. [He offers, with, Va^. S. XVI, 1], 'Rever- 
ence, O Rudra, be to thy wrath!' he thereby 
does reverence to that wrath which remained ex- 
tended within him; — 'And to thine arrow be 
reverence, and to both thine arms be rever- 
ence!' for it was by his arrow and his arms that 
he was inspiring fear. 

15. That god who became the hundred-headed 
(Rudra) is the chief (kshatra '), and those others who 
originated from the drops are the peasants (clans- 
men) : those peasants in the first place assigned 
to that chief this as his special share, to wit, this 
first chapter of formulas 2 , and gratified him thereby. 
And in like manner does this (Sacrificer) now assign 
this to him as his special fore-share, and gratify him 
thereby. Hence this (section) is addressed to a 
single deity, to Rudra; for it is him he thereby 
gratifies. 

16. There are here fourteen formulas, — thirteen 
months are a year, and Pra^apati is the fourteenth ; 



1 Literally, the ruling power. 

* The first anuvaka of kinda. XVI of the Va^. S. consists of 
sixteen verses ; which of these the fourteen referred to in the next 
paragraph are is not clear to me. 



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l6o SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

and Pra^apati is Agni : as great as Agni is as great 
as is his measure, with so much food he thus gratifies 
him. 'Reverence! reverence!' he says ; — reverence 
being sacrifice, it is by sacrifice, by reverence, that 
he thus reveres him. Therefore he must not men- 
tion any one unworthy of sacrifice, for it would be just 
as if he were to say to him, ' Sacrifice be to thee ! ' 

17. He then makes offering to those forming 
pairs l : ' Reverence to so and so ! reverence to so and 
so ! ' It is as if he were to say, ' Thou, N. N., and 
this one, do not ye two injure us ! ' for in no wise 
does a man who is known and appealed to 2 injure us. 

18. [Va,f. S. XVI, 17], 'Reverence be to the 
golden-armed leader of hosts, and to the lord 

of regions be reverence!' for he (Rudra-Agni)is * 
indeed the golden-armed s leader of hosts, and the 
lord of regions. And in that everything in this 
second chapter of formulas applies to one and the 
same deity, thereby he gratifies that (god Rudra), and 
makes the chief to have a share in the people (or 
the clan) : hence whatever belongs to the people 4 , in 
that the chieftain has a share. And those (Rudras) 
that spread over these worlds, countless, by thou- 
sands 6 , they are the deities to whom he now offers. 

19. He thus makes offering to the tribes (of 
Rudras), for it was those tribes, those Rudras, that 
spread, and wheresoever they are there he thereby 
gratifies them. And thus, indeed, (he gratifies) 
those tribes of Rudras; and, men being after the 

1 That is from Va^. S. XVI, 17 seqq. 

* Or, who is appealed to as being known to us, i.e. in terms 
showing that he is known to us. 

* That is, aureis brachiis instructus. 

4 Fragiyb yad dhanam asti, Say. * See paragraph 28. 



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IX KAJVDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMANA, 2$. l6l 

manner of the gods, therefore also these tribes of 
men : tribe after tribe he thus gratifies them. 

20. Now some of these (formulas) have 'reverence' 
on both sides, and others on one side only ; — more 
terrible and more unappeased, indeed, are those 
(Rudras) that have ' reverence ' on both sides : on 
both sides he thereby appeases them by sacrifice, 
by reverence. 

21. With (each set of) eighty (formulas) he utters 
the Svaha \ — on the first anuvaka, and on eighty, 
and on eighty ; and the formulas which follow as 
far as the ' unstringing '-formulas (Va^ - . S. XVI, 
54-63), — eighties 2 mean food : by means of food he 
thus gratifies them. 

22. He thus mutters these formulas (the last four 
of V$g. S. XVI, 46), ' Reverence be to you, the 
sparkling (hearts of the gods)!' for this is his 
favourite resort, either as a dear son or the heart : 
hence whenever he should be in fear of that god 
(Rudra), let him offer with those mystic utterances, 
for he draws nigh unto the favourite resort of that 
god, and so that god does not injure him. 

23. 'Reverence be to you, the sparkling 3 ,' 

1 The calculation here, as so often in regard to metres, is rather 
a loose one. Anuvaka I, consisting of sixteen verses, is taken as 
amounting to the first fourscore formulas ; anuvakas II and III, 
consisting of ten kanakas (each of which is calculated to consist 
of eight mantras), constitute the second fourscore ; anuvakas IV 
and V again form the third fourscore; anuvakas VI-VIII (save 
the last four formulas, see parag. 22), the founh fourscore; and 
from there to the ' unstringing '-formulas, that is, from within XVI, 
46 to 53, the fifth fourscore. At the end of each eighty formulas 
he is to utter one Svaha (sakn't svahakara^, Say.). 

* An etymological play on the word ' ajlti,' as if derived from ar, 
to eat. 

' ? Or; scatterers, sprinklers (kirika), root krf. The author of the 

[43] M 



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1 62 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAYA. 

for those (Rudras) produce (kar) everything here, — 
'hearts of the gods!' — Agni, Vayu and Aditya 
(fire, wind and sun), these truly are the hearts of the 
gods; — 'Reverence to the discriminating!' — 
for those (gods) discriminate everything here; — 
'Reverence to the destructive!' — for those 
(gods) destroy whom they wish to destroy ; — ' Re- 
verence to the irremovable!' — for those (gods) 
are not (to be) removed from these worlds. 

24. He then mutters those that follow (Va^ - . S. 
XVI, 47 seq.), 'Chaser! lord of the (Soma) 
plant!' — that (god) is indeed a repeller, for he 
chases away whom he wishes to chase away; — 
'lord of the plant' — that is, 'lord of the Soma- 
plant ;' — ' O blue-red cleaver l ; — these are names 
and forms of him : he thus gratifies him by calling 
him by his names ; — 'frighten and hurt not these 
people and these cattle ! let none of us sicken ! ' 
as the text, so the sense. 

25. That god (Rudra) is the kshatra (ruling power; 
chieftainship or chief) ; and for that chief these 
peasants set apart this special fore-share, to wit, that 
first section (of formulas) ; and now he (the Sacrificer) 
sets apart for him that after-share, and thereby 
gratifies him ; and hence this (section) also belongs 
to a single deity, to wit, to Rudra ; for it is him he 
thereby gratifies. 



Brahmana, on the other hand, evidently takes it in the sense of 
• maker, producer.' 

1 Thus (' Zerspalter ') daridra is probably correcdy interpreted 
(from root ' dar,' to split) by Prof. Weber ; whilst the commentators 
take it in its ordinary sense of 'poor' (i.e. without an assistant, 
Mahidh.); blue-red Rudra is called inasmuch as he is the 'nila- 
ka»/Aa' blue-necked, and red all over the rest of his body. 



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ix kAjvda, i adhyAya, i brAhmamv, 30. 163 

26. These are seven formulas, — of seven layers 
the fire-altar consists, and the year consists of seven 
months, and Agni is the year : as great as Agni is, 
as great as is his measure, by so much food he thus 
gratifies him. These two kinds (of formulas) amount 
to twenty-one, — the twelve months, the five seasons, 
these three worlds, and yonder sun as the twenty- 
first (make up) this amount. 

27. He then offers (the libations of the) 'unstring- 
ing '-formulas 1 . For at that time the gods, having 
gratified those (Rudras) by that food, unstrung their 
bows by means of these 'unstringing '-formulas; 
and in like manner this (Sacrificer), having gratified 
them by that food, now unstrings their bows by means 
of these 'unstringing '-formulas; for with an unstrung 
bow one injures no one. 

28. Here now he says 'at a thousand leagues,' 
for a thousand leagues is the farthest distance ; and 
he thus unstrings their bows at what is the farthest 
distance. 

29. And, again, as to why he says 'at a thousand 
leagues,' — a thousand leagues means this Agni (fire- 
altar), for neither this way nor that way is there any 
other thing greater than he; and it is when he makes 
offering in the fire that he unstrings their bows at 
a thousand leagues. 

30. 'Countless thousands, — in this great 
sea,' — thus, wheresover they are, there he unstrings 
their bows. 

1 Viz. V&g. S. XVI, 54-63: 'What countless thousands of 
Rudras there are upon earth, their bows do we unstring at a 
thousand leagues. — The Bhavas that are in this great sea, in the 
air, their bow do we unstring at a thousand leagues.' Thus each 
formula ends with the ' unstringing ' refrain. 

M 2 



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164 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

31. There are ten of these 'unstringing '-offerings 
he makes, — the Vira^ - consists of ten syllables, and 
Agni is Virdf (widely-shining or ruling); there are 
ten regions, and Agni is the regions; there are ten 
vital airs, and Agni is the vital airs : as great as 
Agni is, as great as is his measure, by so much he 
thus unstrings their bows. 

32. He then offers the descending' (series of ob- 
lations). For then (in the preceding oblations) he 
ascends these worlds upwards from hence : this 
is, as it were, an ascent away from here. But 
this (earth) is a firm resting-place : the gods 
returned to this resting-place; and in like manner 
does the Sacrificer now return to this resting- 
place. 

33. And, again, as to why he descends. Then 
(in the preceding oblations) he goes after those 
(gods), gratifying (propitiating) them. From thence 
he now recovers his own self unto life; and so does 
he by that self of his attain all vital power. 

34. And, again, as to why he descends. He then 
(in the preceding oblations) gratifies those Rudras 
from hence upwards; he now does so again from 
thence hitherwards. 

35. [Va^-. S. XVI 64], ' Reverence be to the 
Rudras dwelling in the sky,' — he thereby does 
reverence to those Rudras who are in yonder world ; 
— 'whose arrows the rain is,' for the rain is 



1 Va^. S. XVI, 64-66. In making these three oblations to the 
Rudras in the sky, the air, and on earth respectively, the procedure 
is the reverse from that described in paragraphs 11-13, viz. first on 
the enclosing-stone which reaches up to his mouth, then on that 
reaching up to his navel, and lastly on that reaching up to his 
knee. 



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IX K&NDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 39. 1 65 

indeed their arrows, and by the rain they injure 
whom they wish to injure. 

36. [V4f. S. XVI, 65], ' Reverence be to the 
Rudras dwelling in the air,' — he thereby does 
reverence to those Rudras who are in the air; — 
'whose arrows the wind is,' for the wind is indeed 
their arrows, and by the wind they injure whom they 
wish to injure. 

37. [V&f. S. XVI, 66], 'Reverence be to the 
Rudras dwelling upon earth,' — he thereby does 
reverence to those Rudras who are in this (terres- 
trial) world; — 'whose arrows food is,' for food is 
indeed their arrows, and by means of food they 
injure whom they wish to injure. 

38. ' To them (I stretch) ten (fingers) forwards, 
ten to the right, ten backwards, ten to the left, 
ten upwards 1 ,' — of ten syllables consists the Vir&f, 
and Agni is Vira^ - ; there are ten seasons, and Agni 
is the seasons ; there are ten vital airs, and Agni is 
the vital airs : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, with so much food he thus gratifies them. 

39. And as to why he says ' ten-ten,' — there are 
ten fingers in the joined hands 2 : he thus makes 
reverence to them in each direction; and hence he 
who is frightened places his hands together ; — 'To 
them be reverence!' — he thus does reverence to 
them; — 'May they be gracious unto us!' — they 
thus are gracious unto him; — 'whomsoever we 
hate, and whosoever hateth us, him we cast 
into their jaws!' — thus he casts into their jaws 

1 These words, as well as the spaced words in the next paragraph, 
are added to each of the three formulas in paragraphs 35-37. 

* The joining of the hollow of the hands, by placing the tips of 
the fingers together, is a sign of reverence. 



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1 66 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

whomsoever he hates, and whosoever hates him. 
He may say, 'So-and-so I cast into their jaws!' 
naming him whom he hates, and then he has no 
longer any hold upon him. But let him take no 
notice of this (injunction), for indicated of himself 
is he whom he who knows this hates. 

40. In three turns he descends, — Agni is three- 
fold : as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, 
by so much food he thus gratifies them. With 
' Svaha' (he makes offering), for the Svaha is food : 
with food he thus gratifies them. Thrice (in three 
turns) he ascends from hence upwards, — that makes 
six: the significance of this has been explained 1 . 

41. And as to why he descends in three turns, — 
it is because he ascends in three turns : thus in as 
many turns as he ascends, in so many turns does he 
descend. 

42. He then throws that arka-leaf 2 into the pit; 
for it is therewith that he performs that sacrificial 
work sacred to Rudra, and that same (leaf) is inaus- 
picious ; he now puts it away, lest any one should 
tread on this inauspicious (leaf), and suffer injury 
thereby: hence (he throws it) into the pit And, 
again, as to why (he throws it) into the pit, — the pit, 
doubtless, means the fire, and thus that fire consumes 
it. Now as to the (symbolic) correspondence. 

43. As to this they say, ' How does this .Sataru- 
driya of his attain to (conformity with) the year, and 
Agni ? how does it correspond to the year, to 

1 Of objects numbering six, the seasons commonly occur, e. g. 
VI, 7, 1, 16. 

* See paragraph 4. According to Katy. .SVautas. 18, 1, 6 both 
offering-utensils (the arka-leaf and the arka-stick) are thrown into 
the pit. 



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ix kXnda, i adhyAya, i brAhmam, 44. 167 

Agni ?' Well, this .Satarudriya includes three hun- 
dred and sixty (formulas); and (other) thirty, and 
thirty-five. Now, as to the three hundred and sixty 
which there are, so many are there days in the year : 
thereby it obtains the days of the year. And as to the 
thirty (formulas) which there are, they are the thirty 
nights of the month : thereby it obtains the nights of 
the month : thus it obtains both the days and nights 
of the year. And as to the thirty-five (formulas) there 
are, they are the thirteenth month 1 , (Agni's) self, — 
the body (consists of) thirty (limbs*), the feet of two, 
the breath of two (in-breathing and off-breathing), 
and the head is the thirty-fifth: so much is the year. 
And in this way this .Satarudriya of his attains to 
(conformity with) the year, Agni, and corresponds 
to the year, Agni. And, indeed, in the Sa«afila fire- 
altar as many bricks with formulas attached to them 
are placed in the middle, for these bricks are indeed 
the same as these different Agnis (invoked in the 
Satarudriya); and thus these Agnis of his come to 
have oblations offered to them separately by means 
of the Satarudriya. 

44. As to this they say, ' How does this Sataru- 
driya of his attain to (conformity with) the Great 

1 As Prof. Weber, ' Die vedischen Nachrichten von den Naksha- 
tra,' p. 298, points out, this passage points to a six years' period 
of intercalation, since, in counting 360 days in the year, the 
remainder accumulates in six years to an intercalary month of 
thirty-five days (or thirty-six according to .Sat. Br. X, 5, 4, 5) ; and 
accordingly in Nig. S. XXX, 15, and Taitt Ar. IV, 19, 1, the 
names of the six years of such a period of intercalation are men- 
tioned ; while a five years' period and the names of the respective 
years are more frequently referred to. 

* Viz. twenty fingers and toes, the upper and lower arms, the 
thighs and shanks, and the hands. 



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1 68 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

Litany 1 ? — how does it correspond to the Great 
Litany?' Well, those twenty-five formulas which 
there are on both sides of the eighties 2 , they are the 
twenty-five-fold body 3 ; and where the body (of the 
altar-bird) is, that (includes) the head, and the wings 
and tail. And what eighties (of formulas) there are (in 
the .Satarudriya), thereby indeed the (corresponding) 
eighties (of the Mahad uktham) are obtained, for by 
eighties the Great Litany is recited. And what 
there is (in the .Satarudriya) after the eighties that is 
for him the same as what there, in the Great Litany, 
is after the eighties*; and in this way this .Satarudriya 



1 For the mahad uktham, or Great Litany, recited on the 
Mahavrata day, see p. no, note 3. According to Sslyaua, however, 
this does not refer to the Mahad uktham, or Great Litany, itself, 
but to its Stotra, the Mahavrata-stman (cf. note on X, 1, 1, 5), by 
the chanting of which it is preceded, and which, like the Great 
Litany itself, is represented as being composed of the different 
parts of Agni-Pra^apati's bird-shaped body. How, that part of 
the chant which corresponds to the god's trunk (aiman) is the 
only part of this Stotra which is chanted in the Pafl£avi»wa- 
stoma, or twenty-five-versed hymn-form, which, indeed, is the 
characteristic Stoma of the Mahavrata day, all other Stotras of 
that rite being chanted in that form. It is, however, doubtful to 
me whether it is not rather the opening part of the Great Litany 
itself representing the trunk that is here referred to, and which, 
indeed, consists of twenty-five verses; cf. F. Max Muller, Upanishads, 
I, p. 1 83. Besides, it has always to be borne in mind that the particular 
arrangement of the Great Litany which the authors of the Brah- 
mana had before them, may have differed in some respects from 
those known to us. 

* See p. 112, note 1. 

* That is, the body with its twenty-four limbs, viz. the two arms, 
two legs, and the twenty fingers and toes. 

* According to Saya«a, the Pa#£avi»wa-stotra, chanted after the 
Mahad uktham, is here referred to. See p. in, note 1. S£ya»a 
takes it to refer to the prose formulas at the end of the .Sastra, 
which, he says, represent the mind (buddhi) of Pra^apati. 



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IX KAJfDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, 4. 1 69 

of his attains to (conformity with) the Great Litany; 
in this way it corresponds to the Great Litany. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

1. He then sprinkles him (Agni-Rudra, the fire- 
altar). For the gods, having now appeased him 
by the .Satarudriya, thereby appeased him still fur- 
ther ; and in like manner does this (Sacrificer), now 
that he has appeased him by the .Satarudriya, still 
further appease him thereby. 

2. With water he sprinkles him 1 , — water is a 
means of appeasing (soothing) : he thus appeases 
him thereby. He sprinkles him all over ; he thus 
appeases him all over. Thrice he sprinkles, — three- 
fold is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, with so much he thus appeases him. 

3. And, again, as to why he sprinkles him, — that 
Agni (the fire-altar), doubtless, is these worlds : by 
water he thus encompasses these worlds, by the 
ocean, indeed, he encompasses them. On every side 
(he sprinkles the altar) : hence the ocean flows round 
these worlds on every side. From left to right (he 
sprinkles): hence the ocean flows round these worlds 
from left to right. 

4. For safety from injury it is the Agnldh who 
sprinkles, for the Agnldh is the same as Agni, and 
no one injures his own self. From a stone (he 
sprinkles), for from the rock water springs forth; — 
from the arm-pit, for from the arm-pit water springs 
forth; — from the right arm-pit 2 , for from the right 
arm-pit water springs forth. 



1 Or rather, he pours water on it (the altar). 

1 That is, from the lower (or hindmost) point where the right 



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1 70 satapatha-brAhmaa'a. 

5. [He sprinkles the stone, with, V4f. S. XVII, 1], 
'The food that is lying in the rock, in the 
mountain,' — for that food, water, is indeed con- 
tained in the rock, in the mountains; — 'the drink 
that is gathered from waters, plants and trees,' 
— for from all that that drink is indeed gathered; — 
' that sap and food bring ye unto us, O Maruts, 
as bountiful givers!' — for the Maruts are the rulers 
of the rain. With ' In the rock is thy hunger,' he 
(after watering the altar) sets down (the pitcher on the 
stone) : he thus lays hunger into the stone, whence the 
stone is not fit for eating. But hard also is the stone, 
and hard is hunger: he thus puts the hard along with 
the hard. With, ' In me thy food !' he takes up (the 
pitcher) : he thereby takes up the food into his own 
self. Thus (he does) a second and a third time. 

6. Having (finally) set down the pitcher, he 
perambulates thrice (the altar) ; for when (in sprink- 
ling) he walks all round it, he, as it were, makes light 
of him (Agni-Rudra). He now makes amends to 
him, for (his own) safety. 

7. And, again, as to why he perambulates it, — he 
then (in sprinkling the altar) goes after him ' (Agni- 
Rudra): thereupon he now recovers his own self 
unto life, and so does he by that self of his obtain 
all vital power. 

8. Thrice he perambulates it, for thrice he walks 
round it (whilst sprinkling): thus as many times as 
he walks round it, so many times does he peram- 
bulate it. 



wing joins the body of the altar. He there places a stone, from 
which he begins the sprinkling of the altar. 
1 See IX, i, 1, 33. 



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IX KAJfDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAUMA1VA, 1 3. 171 

9. Having thereupon put that stone into the 
water-pitcher, they throw it in that (south-western) 
direction, for that is Nirrrti's region : he thus 
consigns pain 1 to Nirmi's region. 

10. For at that time, the gods, having appeased 
him by the .Satarudriya and the water, thereby drove 
out his pain, his evil ; and in like manner does this 
(Sacrificer) now, after appeasing him by the .Sataru- 
driya and the water, cast away his pain, his evil. 

11. Outside the fire-altar he throws it; for this 
fire-altar indeed is the same as these (three) worlds: 
he thus puts pain outside these worlds; — outside the 
sacrificial ground (vedi); for the Vedi is this (earth): 
he thus puts pain outside this earth. 

12. Whilst standing at the right thigh of the 
Vedi, with his face to the east, he throws it south- 
wards, with, 'Let thy pain enter him whom we 
hate!' and thus its pain enters whomsoever he 
hates. He may say, ' Let thy pain enter so-and- 
so!' naming him whom he hates, and then he has 
no longer any hold upon him ; but let him take no 
notice of this, for indicated of himself is he whom 
he who knows this hates. If it 2 should remain un- 
broken, let him bid (the Pratiprasthatrz) to break it ; 
for only when it is # broken, the pain enters him 
whom he hates. They return (to the altar) without 
looking back : they thus leave pain and evil behind 
without looking back to them. 

13. Having returned, he makes the bricks his own 

1 The burning heat of the fire, and all physical and mental 
suffering. 

* Viz. the stone, or the pot, according to others ; cf. KSty. .SVautas. 
XVIII, 2, 5-8. According to Prof. Weber the stone is meant to 
represent the hungry greed of the fire. 



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I 72 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAYA. 

milch cows ; for the gods, having now appeased him 
(Agni-Rudra) by the ^atarudriya and the water, and 
having driven out his pain and evil, returned (to the 
altar) and made the bricks their own milch cows ; 
and in like manner does this (Sacrificer) now, after 
appeasing him by the 5atarudriya and the water, and 
casting off his pain and evil, return and make the 
bricks his own milch cows. 

14. And some say, ' Let him make them his own 
whilst sitting, for sitting one milks the cow.' But 
let him rather make them his own standing; for 
that fire-altar is these worlds, and these worlds are, 
as it were, standing. And, moreover, one is stronger 
whilst standing. 

15. [He does so], whilst standing (near the right 
thigh of the altar) with his face towards the north-east; 
in front stands that cow by the Sacrificer with her 
face towards the west (back), for from the right 
side they approach the cow which stands with its 
face towards the back (west). 

16. And wherever he reaches (whilst stretching 
his arms over the altar), there he touches it and 
mutters this formula (V&f. S. XVII, 2), ' Let these 
bricks be mine own milch cows, O Agni!' for 
Agni rules over this making of cows, whence he 
addresses Agni out of so many deities ; — 'One, and 
ten 1 . . . . and a hundred thousand millions, 
and a billion;' — for the one, to wit, one and ten, 
is the lowest quantity, and the other, to wit, a hundred 
thousand millions, and a billion, is the highest 
quantity ; thus, having comprehended them by the 



1 The intervening numbers here omitted increase by multiples 
of ten. 



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IX KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAtfA, l8. 173 

lowest and the highest quantity, the gods made 
them their own milch cows ; and in like manner 
does this (Sacrificer), having thus comprehended 
them by the lowest and the highest quantity, make 
them his own milch cows. Hence also he need not 
care to make many (cows) his own ', for in yonder 
world that (Sacrificer), by means of the Brahman 
(holy writ), the Yafus, will make many (cows) his 
own. And in that he carries on (the numbers) 
uninterruptedly, thereby he carries on, without in- 
terruption, his objects of desire. 

1 7. And as to why he makes the bricks his own 
milch cows, — this fire-altar is speech, for with speech 
it is built up ; and when he says, ' One, and ten, . . . 
and a hundred thousand millions, and a billion,' — 
' one ' is speech, and a hundred thousand millions is 
speech, and a billion is speech : it is Speech herself 
that the gods thereby made their own milch cow ; 
and in like manner does the Sacrificer thereby 
make Speech herself his own milch cow. And in 
that he carries on (the numbers) uninterruptedly, 
thereby it is Speech herself that he carries on : — 
'Let these bricks be mine own milch cows, 
O Agni, hereafter in yonder world!' He 
thereby makes them his own milch cows in this 
world, and he also makes them his own milch cows 
in yonder world ; and thus they are profitable to him 
in both worlds, in this one and in the other. 

18. [Va^\ S. XVII, 3], ' The seasons ye are,' — 
for these (bricks) are indeed the seasons ; — ' law- 
sustaining,' that is, 'truth-sustaining;' — 'be ye 
season-abiding, law-sustaining!' — for the bricks 

1 ? That is to say, he need not touch the altar more than once. 



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1 74 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

are the days and nights, and the days and nights 
indeed abide in the seasons; — 'fat-showering, 
honey-showering,' — he thereby makes them fat- 
showering and honey-showering for himself. 

19. ' The widely-shining by name,' — for the 
gods then called those bricks to them by their 
names, and in the same way in which they called 
them, they turned unto them ; but the ' space-fillers ' 
alone stood with averted faces discharging water, 
having no names applied to them. They called 
them by the name ' the widely-shining,' and they 
turned unto them. Hence, each time he has laid 
down ten bricks, he addresses them with the ' space- 
filling x (verse) ' : he thereby makes them widely- 
shining (vira^ - ), for the Viri^ - (metre) consists of ten 
syllables : — 'wish-milking, never-failing,' — he 
thereby makes them wish- milking and never-failing. 

20. He then draws a frog, a lotus-flower, and a 
bamboo-shoot across (the central part of the altar). 
For the gods having now appeased him by the 
.Satarudriya and the water, and having driven out 
his pain and evil, thereby still further appeased him; 
and in like manner does this (Sacrificer), now that 
he has appeased him by the .Satarudriya and the 
water, and driven out his pain and evil, still further 
appease him thereby. In every direction he draws 
them : he thus appeases him everywhere. 

21. And, again, as to why he draws them across. 
Now, in the beginning, when the j?tshis t the vital 
airs, made up that Agni 2 , they sprinkled him with 
water : that water dripped off and became the frogs. 

1 That is with the verse Va^. S. XII, 54, beginning ' Lokam 
prraa,' 'Fill thou the space ;' see part iii, p. 153 note. 
* See VI, 1, 1, 1-5. 



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IX KkNDA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJV A, 25. 1 75 

22. They (the waters) said to Pra.fapati, ' What- 
ever moisture 1 we had, has gone down.' He said, 
' This tree shall know it ! ' — he shall know (vettu), 
he shall taste it (sa»* vettu) — that one, indeed, they 
mystically call ' vetasa ' (bamboo), for the gods love 
the mystic. And because they said, ' Down (avak) 
has gone our moisture (ka),' they became avakkas ; — 
' avakkas,' they mystically call ' avakas (lotuses),' 
for the gods love the mystic. These, then, are 
those three kinds of water, to wit, the frog, the 
lotus-flower, and the bamboo-shoot : by means of 
these three kinds of water he appeases him. 

23. And, again, why he draws them across it ; — 
when he (Agni, the fire-altar) is built up, he is 
being born, and he is born for every kind of food ; 
and these are every kind of food, to wit, the frog, 
the lotus-flower, and the bamboo-shoot, for these, 
indeed, are animals, water, and trees : with all this 
food he gratifies him. 

24. With the frog, on the part of animals, whence, 
of animals, the frog is the one affording least sub- 
sistence, for he is used up ; — with the lotus-flower, on 
the part of water, whence of the kinds of water 
(plants), lotus-flowers are those affording least sub- 
sistence, for they are used up; — and with the 
bamboo-shoot, on the part of trees; whence, of 
trees, the bamboo is the one affording least subsis- 
tence, for it is used up. 

25. Having tied them to a cane, he, in the first 
place, draws them eastwards along the right (south) 
part of the (body of the) altar inside the enclosing- 



1 Thus, or essence (rara), according to Sayana; cf. X, 6, 5, 1. 
The word ' ka ' has, however, also the meaning 'joy.' 



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176 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

stones, with (Va£\ S. XVII, 4), 'With the lotus- 
flower of the ocean we encompass thee, O 
Agni : be thou bright and propitious unto us! ' 
that is, 'With the waters of the ocean we appease 
thee.' 

26. Then northwards along the hind part (of the 
altar), with (Vif. S. XVII, 5), 'With an outer 
vesture of cold we encompass thee, O Agni: 
be thou bright and propitious unto us!' — that 
part of the cold which is frozen hard is an outer 
vesture of cold : thus, ' By the frozen part of cold 
we appease thee ! ' 

27. Then eastwards along the left (north) part, 
with (V£f. S. XVII, 6), 'Upon the earth, into 
the reed, into the rivers descend thou, O Agni, 
thou art the bile 1 of waters: with them, come 
thou, O she-frog, and make the sacrifice bright- 
coloured and propitious for us!' as the text, so 
the meaning. 

28. Then southwards along the forepart, with 
(V4f. S. XVII, 7), ' Thou art the receptacle of 
waters, the abode of the ocean: let thy darts 
burn others than us ! unto us be thou bright 
and propitious ! ' as the text, so the meaning. He 
first draws them thus 2 , then thus, then thus, then 
thus : that is from left to right, for so it is with the 
gods. 

29. Over the body (of the altar) he draws them 

1 That is, ' the heat ' which is considered the chief properly of 
the bilious humour. 

* The procedure in this case is an exact counterpart of the 
ploughing of the altar-site, for which see VII, 2, 2, 8-12, with 
notes. Hence also the verbs expressive of the two actions are 
closely analogous:, viz. vikr/shati and vikarshati. 



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IX KANDA, I ADHVAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 32. I 77 

first, for of (the bird, or Agni) that is born the body 
is born first, then the right wing, then the tail, then 
the left wing : that is from left to right, for so it is 
with the gods. 

30. Over the wings and tail he draws them in the 
direction of the body (self) : he thus lays calmness 
into his own self ; — from the further end (he draws) 
hitherwards : he thus lays calmness into his own 
self from the further end hitherwards. The right 
wing, with (Va/. S. XVII, 8), 'O bright Agni, 
with thy light, (with thy dainty tongue, O god, 
bring hither the gods, and worship them)!' 
The tail, with (Vi^. S. XVII, 9), 'O bright and 
shining Agni, (bring hither the gods to our 
sacrifice and our offering)!' The left wing, 
with (Va,f. S. XVII, 10), 'He who with bright 
and glittering light (shineth upon the earth, 
as the dawns with their glow, who, the ever 
young, speeding, as in the race, in the battle, of 
the steed, thirsteth not in the heat).' ' Bright,' 
he says each time, for whatever is kindly and pro- 
pitious is bright : he thus propitiates him thereby. 

31. With seven (formulas) he draws them across, — 
the altar consists of seven layers, and seven seasons 
are a year, and Agni is the year: as great as 
Agni is, as great as is his measure, with so much 
he thus crosses him. Having thrown the cane on 
the heap of rubbish ;— 

32. [The Adhvaryu] then sings hymns round it 
(the altar) ; — for therein that whole Agni is completed; 
and the gods laid into him that highest form, im- 
mortality ; and in like manner does this (Sacrificer) 
thereby lay into him that highest form, immortality. 
Saman-hymns are (used), for samans are vital airs, 

[43] N 

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1 78 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAtf A. 

and the vital airs are immortality : immortality, that 
highest form, he thus lays into him. On every side 
he sings around it : everywhere he thus lays im- 
mortality, that highest form, into him. 

33. And, again, as to why he sings saman-hymns 
round about it; — the gods then desired, 'Let us make 
this body of ours boneless and immortal.' They 
spake, ' Think ye upon this, how we may make this 
body of ours boneless and immortal ! ' They spake, 
' Meditate (&t) ye ! ' whereby indeed they meant 
to say, ' Seek ye a layer (£iti) ! seek ye how we 
may make this body of ours boneless and im- 
mortal ! ' 

34. Whilst meditating, they saw those saman- 
hymns, and sang them round about it, and by 
means of them they made that body of theirs bone- 
less and immortal ; and in like manner does the Sac- 
rificer, when he sings the saman-hymns round about 
it, make that body of his boneless and immortal. 
On every side he sings : everywhere he thus makes 
that body of his boneless and immortal. Standing 
he sings, for these worlds stand, as it were; and 
whilst standing one doubtless is stronger. He 
sings, after uttering (the syllable) ' him,' for therein 
the saman-hymn becomes whole and complete. 

35. He first sings the Gayatra hymn 1 , for the 
Gayatrl metre is Agni : he thus makes Agni his 



1 The GSyatra-s&man is the hymn-tune composed on the verse 
called ' the Gayatri,' par excellence, or ' Sivitri ' (tat savitur vare/syam, 
Rig-veda III, 62, 10), which plays an important part in the religious 
life of the Hindu. The verse, as figured for chanting, is given, 
Sama-v. Calc. ed. vol. v, p. 601. On the present occasion, according 
to L47y. St. I, 5, 11, a different text, viz. Sama-v. II, 8, 14 (Rig-veda 
IX, 66, 19, agna ayumshi pavase), is to be sung to this tune. 



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ix kAjvda, i adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 39. 179 

head, and that head of his (or of him, Agni) he thus 
makes boneless and immortal. 

36. The Rathantara 1 (hymn he sings) at the right 
wing; for the Rathantara is this (earth), and this 
(earth), doubtless, is the most essential (rasatama) 
of these worlds, for it is in her that all these 
essences (rasa) are contained, and 'rasantama,' 
indeed, they call mystically, ' rathantara,' for the gods 
love the mystic : he thus makes this (earth) his 
right wing, and that right wing of his he thus makes 
boneless and immortal. 

37. The Brihat l (hymn he sings) at the left wing ; 
the BWhat (great), doubtless, is the sky, for the sky 
is the greatest (of worlds) : he thus makes the sky 
his (Agni's) left wing, and that left wing of his he 
thus makes boneless and immortal. 

38. The Vamadevya 1 (hymn he sings) on the 
body (of the altar); for the Vamadevya is the 
breath, and the breath is air (vayu, the wind), and 
he, Vayu, doubtless, is the self (body) of all the gods : 
he thus makes the air (wind) his body, and that 
body of his he thus makes boneless and immortal. 

39. The Yaf ntyagmya. x (hymn he sings) near 
the tail ; — the Yaf »aya£-»iya, doubtless, is the moon ; 
for whenever a sacrifice becomes completed 2 , the 
essence of its oblations goes up to him (the moon) ; 

1 The Rathantara, Brihat, Vamadevya, and Ya£#aya£3iya tunes 
are apparently to be sung here on their original texts (Sama-v. II, 
30, 31, abhi tva sura nonumaA ; II, 159, 160, tvam id dhi havamahe ; 
II, 32, 33, kayi naj 4itra a bhuvat; and II, 53, 54, yagflsL-yagna. vo 
agnaye), though hardly in their elaborate setting, as performed in 
chanting. 

* It should be remembered that the chanting of the Yagi&yagifiya 
(or Agnish/oma)-saman marks the completion (samstha) of the 
ordinary (Agnish/oma) Soma-sacrifice. 

N 2 



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180 satapatha-brAhmajta. 

and inasmuch as sacrifice after sacrifice (yaf«a) goes 
up to him, the moon is the Ya£'«aya/'»iya : he thus 
makes the moon his (Agni's) tail, and that tail of 
his he thus makes boneless and immortal. 

40. He then sings the heart of Praflpati 1 ; — the 
heart assuredly is yonder sun, for he (the sun) is 
smooth, and the heart is smooth ; he is round, and 
the heart is round. On the body (of the altar) 
he sings, for the heart is in the body ; — at the arm- 
pit*, for the heart is in (the vicinity of) the armpit ; — 

1 The Pra^apati-hr/daya, or Pra^apater hrtdayam, as figured for 
chanting, is given, Sama-v. Calc. ed. vol. ii, p. 499. It consists of 
the words, imaA prag&A pra^apate(r) hn'dayam pra^irupam agtgane, 
with inserted stobhas and modulations. It is followed by a simpler 
form, which is perhaps the one used on the present occasion. 

* Viz. on the place where the right wing joins the body of the 
altar. According to other authorities, the Syaita hymn-tune is like- 
wise to be sung near the left arm-pit (or, according to Sa»<filya, at 
the place where the Adhvaryu mounts the altar). For other varia- 
tions, see Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, p. 276. I do not think that the 
ritual of the White Yzgus, in omitting the left arm-pit, shows any 
gap or inconsistency, since the right arm-pit is marked out, not for 
any bodily parallelism, but for the simple reason that it is supposed 
to indicate the position of the heart. Whilst all the other places 
on which hymns are sung are essential parts of the bird Agni, the 
arm-pit is not an essential part, but is merely indicative of the central 
organ of the body. LaVy. I, 5, n seqq. supplies the following 
directions, apparently implying a somewhat different order of pro- 
cedure from that followed in our text : He passes along the south, 
and whilst standing (east of the altar) with his face towards the west, 
he sings the G&yatra at the head. Returning, he sings the Rathan- 
tara at the right wing. Going round behind, he sings the Brrfiat 
at the left wing. Going back, and standing behind the tail, with 
his face towards the east, he sings the Ya^d&ya^rgiya. The V&ma- 
devya he sings at the right, and the Pra^apati-hr/'daya at the left, 
arm-pit. Then follow different views held by different teachers. — 
With this ceremony, by which homage is paid to the different parts 
of Agni-Pra^apati's body, compare the similar, but more elaborate, 
ceremony of the ParimadaA at the Mahavrata, X, 1, 2, 9 with note. 



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ix kUnda, 2 adhyAya, i brAhmatva, I. 181 

* 

at the right armpit, for the heart is nearer thereto x : 
he thus makes the sun his (Agni's) heart, and that 
heart of his he thus makes boneless and immortal. 

41. He sings about offspring (pra^a) and Prafa- 
pati (the lord of creatures and procreation) ; — when 
he sings about offspring, he lays the heart into off- 
spring ; and when he sings about Pra^apati, he lays 
the heart into Agni. 

42. And, again, as to why he sings about offspring 
and Pra/apati ; — this Agni, doubtless, is both off- 
spring and the lord of offspring, and hence, when 
he sings about Agni, he lays the heart both into 
the offspring and into the lord of offspring. 

43. These (hymns) are the immortal bricks; he 
lays them down last (highest) of all : — he thereby 
makes immortality the highest thing of all this 
(universe), and hence immortality is the highest 
thing of all this (universe). Let none other but the 
Adhvaryu 2 sing ; for these (hymns) are bricks, and he 
(Agni, the fire-altar) would be built up in the wrong 
way 3 , were any other than the Adhvaryu to sing. 

Second AdhyAya. First BrAhmawa. 

Day of Preparation for Soma-sacrifice. 

i. On the day of preparation, early in the morning, 
when the sun has risen, he releases his speech. 

1 That is, by taking the auricles as parts of the heart. 

* According to La/y. I, 5, 1 seq., it is the Prastotr/ who sings 
these samans. A similar conflict of competence in this respect is 
referred to not only in regard to detached samans (cf. Katy. IV, 
9, 6-9), but even in regard to such solemn performances as the 
chanting of the Mahavrata-saman (cf. note on X, 1, 1, 5). 

* Vi-iita, in this sense, appears to be a &na( \ty6fumv. Saya»a 
seems to have read vi^ita (parabhuta, defeated) instead. 



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1 8 2 DATAPATH A-BRAHM AJV A. 

Having released his speech, he takes clarified butter, 
in five ladlings, and throws five chips of gold thereon. 
Then these three (materials), sour curds, honey and 
ghee, are poured together, either into a dish, or 
a pot with a wide mouth ; and he puts a handful of 
sacrificial grass thereon. 

2. He then mounts the fire-altar, with (Va^. S. 
XVII, u), 'Homage be to thy heat, thy fire 1 ! 
homage be to thy flame!' — for that Agni has 
now been completely restored, and he now is equal 
to injuring whomever he might wish to injure; 
and whomever he injures, he injures either by 
his heat, or by his fire, or by his flame ; in this 
way he does not injure him thereby (etai^) ; — 
'Let thy darts burn others than us! unto us 
be thou bright and propitious!' as the text, 
so the sense. 

3. Having mounted the altar, he makes the 
libation of fivefold-taken ghee on the naturally- 
perforated (brick) : the significance of this has been 
explained 2 . 

4. On the naturally-perforated (brick) he makes the 
libation — the naturally-perforated one is the breath : 
into (the channel of) the breath he thus puts food. 

5. And, again, as to why he offers on the 
naturally-perforated one ; — this (brick) is an uttara- 
vedi (high-altar) of Agni (the fire-altar); and that 
former libation which he makes 8 belongs to the 



1 Or, ' Homage be to thy burning (consuming) fire I ' as Maht- 
dhara takes ' harase jo&she/ and perhaps also the Brahma/ia, though 
' etaiV used in reference to Agni's weapons, would rather seem to 
indicate a plurality of them. 

* See VII, 3,3,4; VIII, 6, 3, 15. 

' See III, 5, 2, 9-1 1 ; the libation of ghee there offered on the 



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ix kAnda, 2 adhyAya, i brAhmawa, 8. 183 

Soma-sacrifice, but this one belongs to the fire-altar ; 
this he now offers. 

6. On that (former) occasion he makes the libation 
whilst looking at the gold ; for distinct is what one 
sees, and distinct was that high-altar; and thrown 
down 1 , indeed, are (the gold chips) on this occasion, 
and indistinct is what is thrown down, and indistinct 
is this high-altar. 

7. With the Svaha-call he makes the libation 
on that (high-altar), for distinct (manifest) is the 
Svahi, and distinct is that high-altar ; but with the 
Ve/-call (he offers) on this (brick), for indistinct is 
the Ve/-call, and indistinct is this high-altar. With 
ghee (they offer), for with ghee they offer on the 
high-altar ; — with fivefold-taken (ghee), for with five- 
fold-taken (ghee) they offer on the high-altar; — 
by turns (he makes the libations), for by turns 2 
they make the libations on the high-altar. 

8. [He offers, with, Vif. S. XVII, 12, a-c resp.], 
'To the man-seated, ve/!' — the man-seated one, 
doubtless, is the breath, and men mean human 
beings: he thereby gratifies that fire (or Agni), the 
breath, which is in human beings; — ' To the water- 
seated, ve/!' — he thereby gratifies the fire which is 
in the waters; — 'To the barhis-seated, ve/!' — he 

uttara-vedi being preparatory to the leading forward of the fire to 
the high-altar. 

1 Each time he has poured out some of the ghee on one of the 
comers, or in the centre, of the stone ; he throws one of the chips 
of gold thereon, without looking at it. 

1 That libation was made crosswise — first on the right shoulder, 
then on the left thigh, then on the right thigh, then on the left 
shoulder, and finally in the centre, of the (navel of the) high- 
altar. In the same way he offers crosswise on the svayamatr/»»a 
brick. 



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184 *atapatha-brAhmajva. 

thereby gratifies the fire which is in plants 1 ; — 'To 
the wood-seated, ve/!' — he thereby gratifies the 
fire which is in trees; — 'To the heaven-winning, 
ve/!' — the heaven-winning one is this Agni (iitya): 
it is this Agni he thereby gratifies. 

9. And as to why he says, ' To the man-seated, 
ve/! To the water-seated, ve/!' &c, these are names 
of this Agni : these names he thereby pleases. By 
means of the oblation he makes them a deity: for 
whatever deity the oblation is prepared, that deity 
(they are), not that deity for whom it is not prepared. 
And, in calling them by their names, he also thereby 
places those fires along with this fire. 

10. These are five oblations he offers, — the fire- 
altar consists of five layers, the year of five seasons, 
and Agni is the year: as great as Agni is, as great 
as is his measure, with so much food he thus grati- 
fies him. 

11. He then sprinkles him (Agni, the fire-altar) 
with the sour curds, honey and ghee; when he is 
built up, he is born, and he is born for every (kind 
of) food ; and these, to wit, sour curds, honey and 
ghee, are every (kind of) food : with every (kind of) 
food he thus gratifies him. Everywhere (he sprinkles 
the altar): everywhere he thus gratifies him with 
every (kind of) food. 

12. And, again, as to why he sprinkles him; — 
here that Agni has been built up complete: on him 
the gods now bestowed the highest (or last) form; 
and in like manner does this (Sacrificer) now bestow 
on him the highest (or last) form ; but form means 



1 Inasmuch as 'barhis' is the sacrificial grass spread over the 
vedi, or altar-ground. 



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IX KA2VBA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 1 4. 1 85 

food, and these, to wit, sour curds, honey and ghee, 
are the most excellent kind of food : this, the 
most excellent form he thus bestows upon him as 
his highest (property). Everywhere he sprinkles, 
even outside the enclosing-stones; everywhere he 
thus bestows on him the highest form ; — by means 
of sacrificial grass-stalks (he sprinkles), for they are 
pure and meet for sacrifice ; by means of their 
tops (he sprinkles), for the top (is sacred) to the 
gods. 

1 3. And, again, as to why he sprinkles them ; — of 
old, when the ^zshis, the vital airs, joined him 
together, they made that ' sa^urabdlya' (oblation) 1 his 
special fore-share, and, when he had been built up, 
they made this (sprinkling) his after-share: thus, in 
sprinkling him, he gratifies those ifo'shis, the vital 
airs, who, when he (Agni) had been built up, made 
this his after-share. With sour curds, honey and 
ghee (he sprinkles) : the significance of this has been 
explained. 

14. [He sprinkles, with, Vi^. S. XVII, 13, 14], 
'The gods of the gods, the worshipful of the 
worshipful,' — for they (the vital airs) are indeed 
the gods of (among) the gods, and the worshipful of 
the worshipful ; — 'who draw nigh unto the year- 
long share,' for they do indeed draw near to this 
their year-long share ; — 'not eaters of oblations, 
— at this offering of sacrificial food,' — for the 
vital airs, indeed, are not eaters of oblations; — 'may 
themselves drink of the honey and the ghee!' 

1 That is, the oblation (made on the bunch of sacrificial grass 
placed in the centre of the freshly ploughed altar-site, where the 
furrows meet) with the formula (V%. S. XII, 74) beginning 'sa^-ur 
abdo.* See VII, 2, 3, 8. 



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1 86 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

that is, ' should themselves drink of this honey and 
ghee.' 

15. 'The gods who attained godhead over 
the gods,' — for these gods have indeed attained 
a divine state over the gods; — 'who are the fore- 
runners of this holy work,' — the holy work is 
this fire-altar (and sacrifice), and they are the fore- 
runners thereof; — 'without whom no dwelling- 
place becometh pure;' for without the vital airs 
no dwelling-place becomes pure 1 ; — 'they are not 
on the backs of the sky and the earth,' — that 
is, 'they are neither in the sky nor on earth: what- 
ever breathes therein they are.' 

16. With two (verses) he sprinkles, — two-footed is 
the Sacrificer, and the Sacrificer is Agni : as great as 
Agni is, as great as is his measure, with so much he 
thus sprinkles him. 

17. He then descends again (from the altar), 
with (V&f. S. XVII, 15), 'Givers of in-breathing, 
givers of off-breathing,' — for this Agni who has 
been built up is all these breathings; were he not to 
utter at this time this (declaration of) self-surrender, 
then that (Agni) would possess himself of those 
breathings of his (the Sacrificer's) ; but now that he 
gives utterance to this self-surrender, that (Agni) 
does not possess himself of those breathings of his; — 
'Givers of in-breathing, givers of off-breath- 
ing, givers of through-breathing, givers of 
lustre, givers of room,' — he thereby says, 'A giver 
of this thou art to me,' — 'let thy darts burn 

1 It is doubtful in what sense the author understands this part of 
the verse. Mahidhara takes it to mean, ' without whom no body 
moves.' 



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ix kAnda, 2 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 21. 187 

others than us! unto us be thou bright and 
propitious!' — as the text, so the meaning. 

18. Having returned (to the hall-fire) he proceeds 
with the (forenoon performance of the) Pravargya 1 
and Upasad 1 ; and having performed the Pravargya 
and Upasad, he hands to him (the Sacrificer) the 
fast-food or semi-fast-food. He then (proceeds) with 
the (afternoon performance of the) Pravargya and 
Upasad, and having obtained the object for which 
he puts the (Pravargya-) cauldron on the fire, he 
sets out (the apparatus of) the Pravargya. 

19. Let him set it out on an island; for, when 
heated, that (cauldron) is suffering pain; and were 
he to set it out on this (earth) its pain would enter 
this (earth); and were he to set it out on water, its 
pain would enter the water; but when he sets it out 
on an island, then it does not injure either the water 
or this (earth): in that he does not throw it into the 
water, it does not injure the water; and in that the 
water goes all round it — water being a means of 
soothing — it does not injure this earth; — let him 
therefore set it out on an island. 

20. But let him rather set it out on the fire-altar; — 
for that fire-altar is these worlds, and the enclosing- 
stones are the waters; — so that when he sets it out 
on the fire-altar, he indeed sets it out on an island. 

21. And, again, as to why he sets it out on the 
fire-altar; — that fire-altar is these worlds, and those 
Pravargya (vessels) are Agni (fire), Vayu (wind), and 
Aditya (sun) : hence, were he to set them out in any 
other place than the fire-altar, he would place those 
gods outside these worlds; but in that he sets them 

1 For the Pravargya, see part i, p. 44 note ; and the Upasads, 
part ii, p. 104 seq. 



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1 88 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAA/A. 

out on the fire-altar, he places those gods in these 
worlds. 

22. And, again, as to why he sets it out on the 
fire-altar, — the Pravargya is the head of the sacrifice, 
and this built-up fire-altar is the body: hence were 
he to set it out in any other place than the fire-altar, 
he would place that head away from that (body), but 
in that he sets it out on the fire-altar, he, having put 
together that body of him (Agni), restores the head 
to it 

23. The first Pravargya (vessel) he sets out close 
to the naturally-perforated (brick); — the naturally- 
perforated one is the breath, and the Pravargya is 
the head, and this built-up Agni is the body: he 
thus connects and puts together the head and the 
body by means of (the channel of) the breath. 
Having set out the Pravargya as is the way 
of its setting out, — 

Second BrAhmaata. 
Leading forward of Agni to the Fire-altar. 

i. Having returned to the (Garhapatya') in order 
to take forward the fire, he offers oblations, and 
puts on pieces of firewood. For now that Agni 
was about to go forward (to the fire-altar), the gods 
regaled him with food, both with oblations and 
pieces of firewood; and in like manner does this 
(Sacrificer), now that he (Agni) is about to go for- 
ward, regale him with food, both with oblations and 
pieces of firewood. He takes (ghee) in five ladlings: 
the meaning of this has been explained. 

1 That is, the newly-built Garhapatya-hearth (part iii, p. 302) on 
which the Ukhya fire has been deposited. 



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IX KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAJVA, 4. 1 89 

2. He then takes (ghee) in sixteen ladlings 1 , — 
Pra^apati consists of sixteen parts, and Prafapati is 
Agni: he thus regales him with food proportionate 
to his body; and the food which is proportionate to 
the body satisfies and does no injury; but that which 
is excessive does injury, and that which is too little 
does not satisfy. He takes (the oblations) in the 
same offering-ladle, for one and the same (Agni) is 
he whom he regales therewith. With two (verses) 
addressed to Visvakarman he offers ; for this Agni 
is VLrvakarman (the all-worker): it is him he thereby 
gratifies. Three oblations he offers, — threefold is 

' Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, 
with so much food he thus regales him. 

3. He then puts on the pieces of firewood: this is 
as if, after regaling some one, one were to attend 
upon him. They are of udumbara (ficus glomerata) 
wood; for the Udumbara is food and sap: with food 
and sap he thus regales him. They are fresh 
(green), for that part of trees which is fresh is unin- 
jured and living : he thus regales him with what is 
uninjured and living in trees. They are soaked in 
ghee; for ghee is sacred to Agni: with his own 
portion, with his own sap he thus regales him. 
They remain the whole night in it, for there they 
become imbued with sap. Three pieces of wood he 
puts on, — threefold is Agni : as great as Agni is, as 
great as is his measure, with so much food he thus 
regales him. 

4. And, again, as to why he offers those obla- 
tions; — now that he (Agni) was about to go forward, 

1 That is, he ladles sixteen sruva-spoonfuls of ghee into the sru£ 
or offering-ladle. 



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I90 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

the gods restored (recruited) him beforehand with 
food, with these oblations; and in like manner does 
this (Sacrificer), now that he (Agni) is about to go 
forward, restore him beforehand with food, with 
these oblations. 

5. He takes (ghee) in five ladlings, for fivefold 
divided is that vital air in the head, — the mind, 
speech, the breath, the eye, and the ear, — he thus 
lays that fivefold divided vital air into this head. 
[He offers it, with, Vi^. S. XVII, 16], 'Agni, with 
sharp flame, (may destroy every demon! Agni 
gaineth wealth for us)' thus with a (verse) con- 
taining (the word) ' sharp ' : he therewith sharpens 
his head so as to become sharp. 

6. He then takes (ghee) in sixteen ladlings : eight 
vital airs, and eight limbs 1 , — this (the symbolical) 
amount He takes it in the same spoon, for, indeed, 
the vital airs and the limbs are in the same body. 
Separately* he offers : he thereby makes a distinc- 
tion between the vital airs and the limbs. With two 
(verses) addressed to Virvakarman he offers : Vixva- 
karman is this Agni, it is him he thus puts together. 
Three oblations he offers, — threefold is Agni : as 
great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with so 
much food he thus restores him. With seventeen 
verses (he offers) 8 , — Pra^apati is seventeenfold, and 
Pra^fapati is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as 
is his measure, with so much he thus restores him. 

1 Viz. the upper and fore-arms, the thighs and legs. 

* That is, he offers this ladleful (obtained by sixteen ladlings 
with the dipping-spoon) in two separate libations (ahuti) or, accord- 
ing to Katy., in two halves. 

' Viz. Va^. S. XVII, 1 7-32 (sixteen verses, eight for each oblation) 
and verse 16 (given above) used with the oblation of five ladlings. 



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ix kAjvda, 2 adhyAya, 3 brAhmana, i. 191 

With (ghee) taken in twenty-one ladlings (he offers 
the two oblations), — there are twelve months, five 
seasons, these three worlds, and yonder sun as the 
twenty-first : this is the (symbolical) amount (or, 
correspondence). 

7. And, again,, as to why he puts the pieces of fire- 
wood on ; the gods having set him up wholly and com- 
pletely, now regaled him with this food, these pieces 
of firewood ; and in like manner does this (Sacrificer), 
now that he has set him up wholly and completely, 
regale him with this food, these pieces of firewood. 
They are of udumbara wood, and fresh, and remain 
for a whole night (being) soaked in ghee : the signi- 
ficance of this has been explained. [He puts them 
on, with, V&f. S. XVII, 50-52], 'Upwards lead 
thou him, O Agni ! . . . Forward lead thou him, O 
Indra! ... In whose house we make offering...,' 
as the text, so the meaning. Three pieces of firewood 
he puts on, — threefold is Agni : as great as Agni is, as 
great as is his measure, with so much food he thus 
regales him. Three oblations he offers, — that makes 
six : the significance of this has been explained. 

Third BrAhmazva. 

1. He (the Adhvaryu) then gives orders (to his 
assistant, the Pratiprasthatrz), ' Lift the log ' ! hold 
up the underlayer ! ' — [To the Hotrt], ' Recite for 

1 Viz. a burning piece of wood taken from the Garhapatya hearth 
to serve as the new Ahavantya on the great fire-altar. The Gar- 
hapatya fire, it will be remembered, was the Ukhya Agni, or the 
sacred fire carried in a pan (ukha) by the Sacrificer during his time 
of initiation (diksha) lasting for a year (or some other definite 
period), till, at the end of that period, at the beginning of the 
Prayawiya, or opening-offering, it was transferred from the pan to 
the newly-built Garhapatya hearth. 



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192 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

Agni as he is taken forward ! ' — ' Agntdh, follow up 
with the single sword (-line)!' — ' Brahman, mutter 
the Apratiratha (hymn) ! ' 

2. For at that time, as the gods were about to 
come up in order to perform this sacrifice, the 
Asuras, the mischievous fiends, tried to smite them 
from the south, saying, * Ye shall not sacrifice ! ye 
shall not perform the sacrifice ! ' 

3. The gods said to Indra, 'Thou art the highest 
and mightiest, and strongest of us : do thou hold 
those fiends in check ! ' — ' Let the Brahman (n.) be 
my ally ! ' he said. — ' So be it ! ' They made Brthas- 
pati his ally, for Brzhaspati is the Brahman (the 
priesthood) ; and having had the Asuras, the mis- 
chievous fiends, chased away in the south by Brshas- 
pati and Indra, they spread this sacrifice in a place 
free from danger and devilry. 

4. Now what the gods did then, that is done on 
this occasion. Those fiends, it is true, have now 
been chased away by the gods themselves, but when 
he does this, he does so thinking, ' I will do what 
the gods did ; ' and having had the Asuras, the 
mischievous fiends, chased away in the south by 
Indra and Br/haspati, he performs this sacrifice in 
a place free from danger and devilry. 

5. As to that Indra, he is that Apratiratha (irre- 
sistible hymn) ; and as to that B*-*haspati, he is the 
Brahman (priest) : thus, when the Brahman mutters 
the Apratiratha (hymn) he (the Sacrificer), having 
the Asuras, the mischievous fiends, chased away in 
the south, by Indra and Brc'haspati, performs this 
sacrifice in a place free from danger and devilry. 
This is why the Brahman mutters the Apratiratha 
(hymn, VSjf. S. XVII, 33-44; Rig\. S. X, 103, 1-12). 



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ix kAjvda, 2 adhyAya, 3 brAhmava, 8. 193 

6. ' The swift (Indra), sharpening (his weapon), 
like a terrible bull,' — these are twelve suitable 
(verses) relating to Indra, — a year consists of 
twelve months, and Agni (the fire-altar) is the year : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, by 
so much he drives off the Asuras, the mischievous 
fiends, in the south. With trish/ubh 1 (verses he 
does so), — the Trish/ubh is the thunderbolt: by 
the thunderbolt he thus drives off the Asuras, the 
mischievous fiends, in the south. They amount to 
twenty- two Gayatris 1 , and thus they relate to Agni, 
for this is Agni's performance. 

7. He then takes him up (in the form of a burning 
piece of firewood), with [Va^f. S. XVII, 53], ' Up- 
wards may the All-gods bear thee, O Agni, 
by their thoughts!...' the meaning of this has 
been explained 2 . 

8. They then go forward, with (v%. S. XVII, 
54-58), 'May the divine regions, the goddesses, 
protect the sacrifice!' — The gods and the 
Asuras, both of them sprung from Pra^apati, were 
contending for the regions, and the gods wrested 
the regions from the Asuras; and in like manner 
does the Sacrificer now wrest the regions from his 
hateful rival. ' Divine ' he says, and thereby makes 
them divine for himself; — ' may the goddesses pro- 
tect the sacrifice,' that is, ' may the goddesses protect 
this sacrifice!' — 'keeping off want and ill-will,' — 
want is hunger: thus, 'keeping off hunger;' — 'grant- 

1 The trish/ubh verse consists of 4 x 1 1 syllables, hence the twelve 
verses of together 528 syllables. The gayatrt verse, on the other 
hand, consists of 3 x 8 syllables ; and twenty-two such verses would 
thus consist of altogether 528 syllables. 

J Viz. VI, 8, 1, 7. 

[43] o 



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1 94 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAVA. 

ing to the lord of the sacrifice a share in wealth- 
affluence,' that is, 'granting to the lord of the 
sacrifice a share in wealth and in affluence;' 'may 
the sacrifice be founded on wealth-affluence!' 
— that is, 'may the sacrifice be founded on wealth 
and affluence ! ' 

9. ' Glorifying on the kindled fire,' — the glori- 
fying one is the Sacrificer; — 'the hymn-winged,' — 
for hymns are his wings ; — ' taken,' — that is, 'held;' 
— ' praiseworthy,' — that is, 'worthy of worship ;' — 
'(when) they sacrificed, encircling the heated 
cauldron,' — for they did sacrifice, whilst encircling 
the heated (Pravargya) cauldron; 'when the gods 
offered the sacrifice with food,' — for the gods 
did offer this sacrifice with food. 

10. 'To the divine, fostering upholder,' — 
for he, Agni, is the divine upholder, the most 
fostering; — 'he, the approacher of gods, the 
well-disposed, of a hundred draughts,' — for he 
is indeed an approacher of the gods, and well-disposed, 
and possessed of a hundred draughts; — 'encircling, 
the gods drew nigh unto the sacrifice/ — for 
encircling him (Agni), the gods drew nigh to the 
sacrifice; — 'the gods stood ready to perform 
the cult unto the gods,' — the cult, doubtless, is the 
sacrifice, thus, 'the gods stood ready to perform 
the sacrifice to the gods.' 

11. 'The welcome oblation slaughtered by 
the slaughterer 1 to sacrifice;' — that is, 'wished- 
for, much wished-for;' — 'where the fourth sacri- 
fice goeth to the offering,' — the Adhvaryu first 
mutters the formulas, the Hotri afterwards recites 

1 Mahidhara takes ' jamita' to stand for 'jamitra.' 



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IX KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMA2VA, 1 4. 1 95 

the verses, the Brahman mutters the Apratiratha 
(hymn) on the south side ; this (set of verses), then, 
is the fourth sacrifice ; : — 'may the prayers, the 
blessings favour us 1 !' — that is, 'may both prayers 
and blessings favour us ! ' 

12. 'The sun-rayed, golden-haired Savitr* 
ever lifted up 2 the light in front,' — this Agni, 
doubtless, is yonder sun, and that sun-rayed, golden- 
haired Savitr* in front ever lifts up that light; 
— 'at his behest Pushan goeth, the wise,' — 
Pushan, doubtless, means cattle, and they indeed 
start forth at his (Agni-Surya's) behest ; — ' viewing 
all beings as their guardian,' — for he indeed 
views everything here, and he is the protector of 
all this world. 

13. Now, die gods thereby (viz. by these five 
verses) wrested from the Asuras the five regions 
which are on this side of yonder sun, and then 
ascended them; and so does the Sacrificer now 
wrest them from his hateful rival, and then ascend 
them. And by means of them the gods reached 
this place, and in like manner does this (Sacrificer) 
by means of them reach this place 8 . 

14. He then sets up a variegated stone; — the 

1 ? Or, 'May they favour our prayers and blessings 1' These 
verses are rather enigmatical. 

s The author of the Brahma/ta connects 'uday&n' with 'yam,' 
Mahfdhara with 'yd' (udayan for uday&t). 

' ? Or, reach that place ; Saya«a, in the first instance, takes it to 
mean ' as far as this plaee ' (from beyond the sun down to the end 
of the air) ; but in the second instance, he takes it as referring to 
the particular spot on the sacrificial ground near which this part 
of the ceremonial is performed, viz. the Agnidhra's fire-shed (as 
representing the air), south of which the Adhvaryu lays down a 
variegated stone close to the ' spine.' 

O 2 



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1 96 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

variegated stone, doubtless, is yonder sun : it is thus 
yonder sun that is set up. It is variegated, for by 
means of its rays that disk is variegated. He sets 
it up between the Ahavaniya and the Garhapatya ; 
for the Garhapatya is this (terrestrial) world, and 
the Ahavaniya is the sky : he thus places him (the 
sun) between these two worlds, whence he shines 
between these two worlds. 

15. On the Agnidhra range 1 (he places it), for 
the Agnldhra's fire-shed is the air ; he thus places 
it in the air, whence that (sun) has the air for his 
seat. Halfway (between the two fires he places it) ; 
for that (sun) is halfway from this (earth). 

16. This (stone) is the breath, — he thus puts the 
breath into the body ; and it is the vital power, — he 
thus puts vital power into the body ; it is food, for it 
is vital power, and vital power is indeed food. It is 
a stone, for a stone is firm : he thus makes the vital 
power firm. It is variegated, for food is variegated 
(varied). 

17. He sets it up (with, \$g. S. XVII, 59, 60), 
'Measuringhe keeps in the middle of the sky,' 
— for that (sun) indeed keeps measuring in the middle 
of the sky; — 'filling the two worlds and the air,' 
for even in rising he fills these (three) worlds ; — ' he 
scans the all-reaching, the butter-reaching,' — 
he thereby means the offering-ladles and the offering- 
grounds; — 'between the front and back lights,' 
— that is, between this world and that one ; or that 
(fire-altar) which is here at this moment being built, 
and that which was there built at first. 

1 That is, where the Agnidhra shed and hearth will afterwards 
have to be erected (see IX, 4, 3, 5-6) on the northern edge of the 
Vedi, midway between the Garhapatya and Ahavaniya fire-places. 



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ix kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 20. 197 

18. ' The showering ocean, the ruddy bird,' — 
for he (the sun) is indeed a showering ocean, and 
a ruddy bird, — 'hath entered the seat of his 
easterly father,' — for he indeed enters that seat of 
his easterly 1 father; — 'the many-hued rock set up 
in the middle of the sky,' — for that variegated 
stone is indeed set up in the middle of the sky; — 
'hath traversed and guardeth the two ends 
of the atmosphere;' — for in traversing he guards 
the ends of these worlds. 

19. With two (verses) he sets it up; — two-footed 
is the Sacrificer, and the Sacrificer is Agni : as great 
as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with so much 
he thus sets him (the sun, Agni) up. With trish/ubh 
(verses he sets him up), — for that (sun) is related 
to the TrishAibh. He does not 'settle' (the stone), 
for unsettled is that (sun); nor does he pronounce 
the Sudadohas over it ; — the Sudadohas means the 
breath, and that (sun) is the breath, and why should 
he put breath into (or on) the breath ? Having 
deposited it in such a way that it is not lost; — 

20. They now approach (the fire-altar, with, VAf. 
S. XVII, 61-64), 'They all have magnified 
Indra,' — the meaning of this has been explained 2 . 
'Let the god-invoking sacrifice lead hither, 
let the favour-invoking sacrifice lead hither 
(the gods)!' — both god-invoking and favour-invoking 
indeed is the sacrifice; — 'let Agni, the god, make 
offering and lead hither the gods !' that is, 'may 

1 Thus Mahfdhara here takes ' purva,' and apparently also the 
author of the Brihmana ; the easterly father being the Ahavaniya, 
and hence the sky. In the formula it would rattier seem to mean 
' former, old.' 

• See VIII, 7, 3, 7. 



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198 satapatha-brAhmava. 

Agni, the god, both make offering and bring hither 
the gods !' 

21. 'The creation of strength hath upheaved 
me with upheaval, and Indra hath laid low 
mine enemies by subdual,' — as the text, so the 
meaning. 

22. 'May the gods advance the Brahman 
both by upheaval and subdual ; and may Indra 
and Agni scatter asunder mine enemies!' — as 
the text, so the meaning. 

23. Now, the gods thereby (viz. by these four 
verses) wrested from the Asuras the four regions 
which are above yonder sun, and then ascended 
them ; and in like manner does the Sacrificer thereby 
wrest them from his hateful enemy, and then ascend 
them. And by means of them the gods then attained 
to that place ; and in like manner does this (Sacri- 
ficer) by means of them attain thither. 

24. They then mount the fire-altar, with (Va^*. S. 
XVII, 65-69), ' By Agni ascend ye to the firma- 
ment!' — the firmament, doubtless, is the heavenly 
world: thus, 'by means of this Agni (fire-altar) 
ascend ye to that heavenly world!' — 'holding the 
Ukhya in your hands,' — for the Ukhya (the fire in 
the pan) they do hold in their hands 1 ; — 'having 
gone to the back of the sky, to heaven, keep ye 
mingling with the gods!' — that is, 'having gone 
to the back of the sky, to the heavenly world, keep 
ye mingling with the gods ! ' 

1 Viz. inasmuch as the firebrand now being carried forward to 
the great fire-altar, where it is henceforth to serve as Ahavantya, 
was taken from the Garhapatya fire, which itself is identical with 
the Ukhya Agni, or fire carried about by the Sacrificer in the Ukha, 
or pan, during his period of initiation. See p. 191, note 1. 



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IX KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 28. 1 99 

25. *Go thou forth to the eastern quarter, 
knowing!' — the eastern quarter, doubtless, is Agni's: 
thus, ' To thine own quarter go thou forth, knowing!' 
— 'be thou Agni's fore-fire here, O Agni!' : — 
that is, 'Of this Agni (<£itya) be thou, O Agni, 
the fore-fire 1 !' — 'Shine thou, illumining all 
regions!' — that is, 'shine thou, illuminating every 
region!' — 'Grant thou food to our two-footed 
and four-footed one!' he thereby invokes a 
blessing. 

26. 'From the earth have I ascended the 
air; from the air have I ascended the sky;' — 
for from the Garhapatya they go to the Agnldhrlya, 
and from the Agnidhriya to the Ahavanlya ; — ' from 
the sky, the back of the firmament, have 
I gone to heaven, to the light;' — that is, 'from 
the sky, the back of the firmament, have I gone to 
the heavenly world.' 

27. 'The heaven-going look not round, they 
ascend the heaven, the two worlds,'— those who 
go to the heavenly world do not indeed look round 2 ; 
'the wise who performed the all-sustaining 
sacrifice,' — for that sacrifice is indeed all-sustaining 3 , 
and they who perform it are indeed wise. 

28. 'Go forward, Agni, first of the godward- 
going,' — he thereby says to this Agni (that is 
carried forward), 'Go thou forward, as the first of 
these godward-going ones; ' — ' the eye of the gods 

1 Mahidhara takes 'puro'gni' in the sense of fore-goer (puras 
agre ahgati gaiMati). 

2 That is, according to Mahidhara, they think not of their sons, 
cattle, &c. 

* Thus Mahfdhara takes ' vuvatodhara ; ' ' flowing in every direc- 
tion' (vuvato+dbM), St. Petersb. Diet. 



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200 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

and of mortals/ — for this (Agni) is indeed the eye 
of both gods and men; — 'they who love to sacri- 
fice together with the Bhrigus,' — that is, 'sacri- 
ficing together with the Blmgus,' — ' let the offerers 
go unto heaven, hail!' — that is, 'may the offerers 
go to the heavenly world, hail I ' 

29. Now, the gods thereby (viz. by these five 
verses) wrested from the Asuras the five regions 
which are in yonder world, and then ascended them; 
and so does the Sacrificer thereby wrest them from 
his hateful enemy, and then ascend them. And by 
means of them the gods attained thither, and so 
also does this (Sacrificer) by means of them attain 
thither. 

30. He then makes offering on that (firebrand); — 
for now that he (Agni) had arrived the gods there- 
upon gratified him with food, this oblation ; and in 
like manner does this (Sacrificer), now that he (Agni) 
has arrived, thereupon gratify him with food, this 
oblation. With milk from a black (cow) which has 
a white calf (he makes offering); the black (cow) 
with a white calf is the night, and her calf is yonder 
sun : he thus regales him with his own share, with 
his own relish. On it (the firebrand, he offers) 
while it is held above (the naturally-perforated brick) ; 
for above (everything) is he whom he thereby grati- 
fies. By means of the milk-pail (he offers), for with 
the milk-pail milk is given away. 

31. And, again, as to why he makes offering upon 
it. That (Ahavanfya) fire is the head of the sacri- 
fice, and milk means breath : he thus puts breath 
into the head. He should make the offering so that 
it (the milk) flows on the naturally-perforated (brick) ; 
— the naturally-perforated one is breath, and this 



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ix K&.NDA, 2 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 34. 201 

(milk) is vital sap: he thus connects and puts to- 
gether the head and the breath by means of vital 
sap. [He pours it out, with, V4f. S. XVII, 70, 71], 
' Night and Dawn, of one mind, unlike in form,' 
— the meaning of this has been explained 1 . 

32. 'O Agni, thousand-eyed! — through the 
chips of gold 2 Agni is indeed thousand-eyed; — 
hundred-headed,' — inasmuch as, at that time 8 , he 
was created as the hundred-headed Rudra ; — ' thine 
are a hundred out-breathings, and a thousand 
through-breathings,' — his indeed are a hundred 
out-breathings and a thousand through-breathings 
who is hundred-headed and thousand-eyed; — 'thou 
art the master of wealth,' — that is, 'thou art the 
master of all wealth;' — 'to thee, our strength, 
do we give honour!' — he (Agni) is indeed the 
strength 4 : it is him he thereby gratifies. 

33. With two (verses) he makes offering thereon, — 
two-footed is the Sacrifices and the Sacrificer is Agni : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with 
so much he thus makes offering to him. 

34. He then lays it (the firebrand) down, with 
(Va^. S. XVII, 72, 73), 'A well-winged bird 
thou art,' — for on that former occasion he, by 
means of the fashioning-formula, fashions him into 
a well-winged bird 6 ; that well-winged bird he builds 
up, and having fashioned that well-winged bird, he 
finally sets him down ; — ' seat thee on the back 

1 Viz. VI, 7, 2, 2. ■ See IX, 2, 1, 1. 

* See IX, 1, 1, 6. 

* ? Or, that (firebrand) is indeed food (v&ga). Mahfdhara inter- 
prets this part of the formula thus : To thee do we give food (vS^iya 
for v%am). 

J See VI, 7, 2, 5 seq. 



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202 5ATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

of the earth, fill the air with thy shine, prop 
the sky with thy light, and uphold the quar- 
ters by thy lustre!' — for that one (Agni) indeed 
does all this. 

35. ' Receiving offering, kind-faced, in front,' 
— that is, 'receiving offering, kind-faced for us, in 
front;' — 'seat thee, O Agni, aright in thine 
own seat!' — for this (fire-altar) is his (Agni's) own 
seat: thus, 'do thou rightly seat thee in it!' — 'in 
this higher abode,' — the higher abode, doubtless, 
is the sky; — 'sit ye down, the All-gods and 
the Sacrificer!' — he thus establishes the Sacrificer 
together with the All-gods. With two (verses) he 
deposits it : the significance of this has been ex- 
plained, — with the Vasha/-call : the significance of 
this (will be explained) farther on. 

36. He then puts pieces of firewood thereon ; for 
now that he (Agni) had arrived, the gods thereupon 
gratified him with food, both pieces of firewood 
and oblations ; and in like manner does this (Sacri- 
ficer), now that he has arrived, thereupon gratify him 
with food, both pieces of wood and oblations. 

37. He first puts on one of .ramf-wood (acacia 
suma). For at that time, when this oblation had 
been offered, he (Agni) was enkindled and blazed 
up. The gods were afraid of him, lest he might 
injure them. They saw this saml tree, and therewith 
appeased him ; and inasmuch as they appeased (5am) 
him by that saml, it is (called) Saml ; and in like 
manner this (Sacrificer) now appeases him by means 
of that Jam! (wood), — just with a view to appease- 
ment, not for food. 

38. [He puts it on, with, Vtg. S. XVII, 74], * I 
desire the manifest favour of the admirable 



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IX KAJVDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 40. 203 

Savitr*, enjoyed by all men ; that great cow of 
his, the thousand-streamed, teeming with milk, 
which Kattva was wont to milk;' — for Ka»va 
indeed saw her, and she, the thousand-streamed, 
milked him all his wishes (objects of desire); and in 
like manner does the thousand-streamed one now 
milk to the Sacrificer all his objects of desire. 

39. He then puts on one of vikankata (flacourtia 
sapida) wood — the significance whereof has been ex- 
plained—with QJ&g. S. XVII, 75), 'To thee give 
we honour, O Agni, in the highest home;' — 
his highest home, doubtless, is the sky; — 'to thee 
give we honour, in hymns of praise, in the 
lower abode;' — the lower abode, doubtless, is the 
air; — 'the birth-place whence thou hast arisen 
do I worship,' — that is, 'this is his (Agni's) own 
birth-place: that I worship;' — 'on thee, when 
kindled, offerings are poured forth ;' — for when 
he (the fire) is kindled, they make offerings on him. 

40. He then puts on one of udumbara (ficus 
glomerata) wood; — the Udumbara means strength 
and sap: with strength and sap he thus gratifies 
him. It has forking branches 1 , — forking branches 
mean cattle: with cattle, as food, he thus gratifies 
him. If he cannot get one with bifurcate branches, 
let him take up a globule of sour curds and put it 
on (the wood): that globule of sour curds which 
supervenes is a form of cattle. With the vir&f 
(verse, Vif. S. XVII, 76; i?%-veda VII, 1, 3), 

1 Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, 281, takes ' karaakavat ' to mean 'one 
that has a knot-hole ; ' but Deva's explanation, ' karwako dvitiya- 
jikhodbheda^,' probably means nothing else than 'showing the 
appearance of a second branch,' or ' one in which a second branch 
(side branch) has struck out/ 



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204 jatapatha-brAhmaata. 

'Kindled, blaze forth, O Agni, before us, (with 
inexhaustible flame, O youngest! perpetual 
viands accrue unto thee!)' — he puts it on; — the 
Vira^ - means food: with food he thus gratifies him. 
Three pieces of wood he puts on, — threefold is 
Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, 
with so much food he thus gratifies him. 

41. He then offers oblations, — this is just as if, 
after serving food to some one, one gives him some- 
thing to drink. With the dipping-spoon (sruva) he 
offers the first two, with the offering-ladle (sru£) the 
last (oblation); (the first) with (V4g\ S. XVII, 77), 
'O Agni, may we, with hymns and thoughts, 
speed this day this (sacrifice) of thine, even as 
a steed, as a noble, heart-stirring deed!' — that 
is, 'whatever heart - stirring hymn is thine, may 
I speed (perform) that for thee.' With a pankti 
(verse) he offers, — of five feet consists the Pankti, of 
five layers the fire-altar, five seasons are a year, 
and Agni is the year: as great as Agni is, as great 
as is his measure, with so much food he thus 
gratifies him. 

42. He then offers (the second oblation), the one 
for VLrvakarman, — Visvakarman (the all-worker) is 
this Agni: it is him he thereby gratifies, — with 
(Va^. S. XVII, 78), 'Thought I offer, with mind 
and ghee,' — that is, 'The thought of these (priests 
and Sacrificer) I offer with mind and ghee; ' — 'that 
the gods come hither,' — that is, 'that the gods 
may come hither;' — 'enjoying their offering- 
meal, the holy-minded,' — that is, the true-minded; 
— 'to Vuvakarman, the lord of all existence, 
I offer,' — that is, ' to that VLrvakarman who is the 
lord of all that here exists I offer ; ' — ' every day the 



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ix kXnda, 2 adhyaya, 3 brAhmaata, 46. 205 

unimpaired oblation,' — that is, 'always the unin- 
jured oblation.' 

43. He then offers a full (-spoon) oblation, — the 
full means everything: with everything he thus 
gratifies him. 

44. [He offers, with, Va^. S. XVII, 79], 'Thine, 
O Agni, are seven logs,' — logs mean vital airs, for 
the vital airs do kindle him ; — 'seven tongues,' — 
this he says with regard to those seven persons which 
they made into one person 1 ; — 'seven JZtsb.is,' — for 
seven /frshis they indeed were; — 'seven beloved 
seats,' — this he says with regard to the metres, 
for his seven beloved seats are the metres ; — 'seven- 
fold the seven priests worship thee,' — for in 
a sevenfold way the seven priests indeed worship 
him; — 'the seven homes,' — he thereby means 
the seven layers (of the altar); — 'fill thou!' — that 
is, 'generate thou;' — 'with ghee,' — ghee means 
seed : he thus lays seed into these worlds;-— 's va- 
ha!' — the svaha (hail!) is the sacrifice; he thus 
at once makes everything here fit for sacrifice. 

45. ' Seven ' he says each time, — of seven layers 
the fire-altar consists, and of seven seasons the year, 
and Agni is the year: as great as Agni is, as great 
as is his measure, with so much he thus gratifies 
him. Three oblations he offers, — threefold is Agni : 
as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with 
so much food he thus gratifies him. Three logs he 
puts on, — that makes six : the significance of this 
has been explained. 

46. Standing he puts on the logs, — the logs are 
bones, and bones stand, so to speak. Sitting he 

1 See VI, 1, 1, 1 seq. 



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2o6 satapatha-brAhmajva. 



offers the oblations, — oblations are the flesh, and 
the flesh sits (lies), so to speak. The logs are 
inside (the fire), and the oblations outside, for the 
bones are inside, and the flesh is outside. 

47. Now, then, as to the (mystic) correspondence 
(or, amount). Six he offers before (the leading 
forward of the fire), and six afterwards; with six 
(formulas) they proceed up to the variegated stone ; 
with two he lays down the variegated stone ; with 
four they proceed as far as the fire-altar; with 
five they mount the fire-altar : that makes twenty- 
nine, and the oblation itself is the thirtieth. With 
two (verses) he deposits the fire, — that makes 
thirty-two, and of thirty-two syllables consists the 
Anush/ubh : such, then, is this Anush/ubh. 

48. And this one (Anush/ubh) they bring hither 
from those three Anush/ubhs which they make up 
on the Garhapatya 1 ; and inasmuch as they bring 
this (therefrom) hither, thereby this whole Agni 
(fire-altar) becomes completed. But now he was not 
yet fit to eat food 2 . 

49. He said to Agni 8 , ' By thee I will eat food ! ' — 
'So be it!' Hence it is only when they bring him 
hither, that this (^ityagni) becomes fit to eat food, 
to eat oblations. 

50. Moreover, they say, ' It is Pra^apati himself 
who takes this (Agni) as his dear son to his bosom ; ' 
and verily, whosoever so knows this, takes thus 
a dear son to his bosom. 



1 See VII, 1, 2, 16-19. 

* Literally, he was not equal thereto that he should eat food. 
3 That is, the JTuyagni (fire-altar) said to the Agni (fire) about to 
be led forward. 



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IX kAjV7)A, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 2. 207 

51. And, again, as to why they bring it here, — 
the Agni (fire-altar) which is built up here is the 
same as those seven persons which they made into 
one person ; and that excellence and life-sap of them 
which they concentrated above, that is the fire which 
they now bring here, — hence, when they now bring 
it here, they concentrate above (in the head) that 
excellence and life-sap which belonged to those 
seven persons, — that is his (Agni's) head, and this 
built-up fire-altar is the body : having thus com- 
pleted his body, he restores the head to it 

Third AdhyAya. First BrAhma^a. 
Installation and Consecration of Agni. 

1. He then offers the Vaisvanara (cake). 
That Agni has now been completely restored ; 
he now is that deity, (Agni) Vaiivanara (belonging 
to all men) : to him he offers this oblation, and by 
the oblation he makes him a deity, for for whatever 
deity an oblation is prepared that is a deity, but not 
one for whom no (oblation) is prepared. It is one 
of twelve potsherds: twelve months are a year, 
and Vaiyvanara is the year. 

2. And, again, as to why he offers the VaLrvanara 
(cake), — it is as the VaLrvanara that he is about to 
produce that Agni : on that former occasion, at 
the initiation-offering \ he pours him out in the form 
of seed ; and what the seed is like that is poured 

1 Cp. VI, 6, 1, 6. Whilst the initiation-offering of the ordinary 
Soma-sacrifice consists only of a cake on eleven potsherds to Agni 
and Vishnu, that of the Agni^ayana requires two further oblations, 
viz. a cake on twelve potsherds to Vawvanara, and a rice-pap with 
ghee to the Adityas; cf. part iii, p. 247 note. 



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208 tfATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

into the womb, such like (is the child that) is born ; 
and inasmuch as there he pours out VaLrvanara in the 
form of seed, therefore he now is born as Vai^vanara. 
Silently 1 it is (performed) there, for there seed (is 
implied) in the sacrifice, and silently seed is infused ; 
but distinctly on the present occasion, for distinct 
(manifest) is the seed when born. 

3. Now, that Vai^vinara is all these worlds : this 
earth is the All (vi^va), and Agni is its man (nara) ; 
the air is the All, and Vayu (the wind) is its man 
(ruler) ; the sky is the All, and Aditya (the sun) is 
its man. 

4. And these worlds are the same as this head, — 
this (lower part of the head) is the earth, the plants 
(being) the hair of its beard : this is the All, and Agni 
is Speech, he is the man. That (speech) is at the top 
thereof, for Agni is on the top of this (earth). 

5. This (central part of the face) is the air, whence 
it is hairless, for hairless, as it were, is the air ; it is 
this All, and Vayu (the wind) is the breath, he is 
the man ; he is in the middle thereof, for the wind 
is in the middle of the air. 

6. The sky is the (upper part of the) head, and 
the stars are the hair; it is the All, and Aditya 
(the sun) is the eye, he is the man: it is in the 
lower part of the (upper) head, for the sun is below 
the sky. Vaiyvanara is the head thereof, and this 
built-up Agni (the altar) is the body : thus, having 
completed his body, he restores the head thereto. 

7. He then offers the (cakes) to the Ma ruts; — 

1 Or, rather, in a low voice, the name of the deity being pro- 
nounced in an undertone while the oblation is poured into the fire ; 
see VI, 6, 1, 11. No special formula is, however, used on either 
occasion. 



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ix kXnda., 3 adhyAya, i brAhmam, ii. 209 

the Maruts' (cakes) are the vital airs : he thus puts 
the vital airs into him (Agni). [He does so] after 
offering the Vauvanara ; for the Vaisvanara is the 
head : he thus puts vital airs into the head. 

8. That (VaLsvanara oblation) is a single one, for 
single, as it were, is the head ; the others (viz. the 
Marutas) are seven in number, of seven potsherds 
each ; and though ' seven-seven ' means ' many 
times,' here it is only seven l : he thus places seven 
vital airs in the head. 

9. That (Vauvanara oblation) is (performed in a) 
distinct (voice), for the head is distinct ; but indis- 
tinct the other (oblations), for indistinct, as it were, 
are the vital airs. Standing he offers the former, 
for the head stands, so to speak ; sitting the others, 
for the vital airs are, so to speak, seated. 

10. Now, the first two Maruta (oblations) he offers 
are these two vital airs (in the ears) : he offers them 
in the middle 8 of the Vaisvanara (oblations), for 
these two vital airs are in the middle of the head. 

1 1. And the second pair are these two (vital airs 

1 See VIII, 1, 1, 2. Also VI, 5, 3, 11, where the translation 
should be altered accordingly. 

* In baking the cakes, the Vawv&nara is placed on the centre of 
the fire, and the first two Maruta cakes are placed north and south 
of it, then the following pair of cakes behind the first, but more 
closely together, and behind these the third pair, still more closely 
together, and finally the last cake forming, as it were, the apex 
of a phalanx of Maruta cakes (or wind-deities) protecting (that of) 
Agni Vairvftnara. In offering the cakes a similar method is to be 
followed ; except that the first pair of Maruta cakes may be offered, 
not in the fire itself, but on the previously flattened out VaLrvanara 
cake lying on the fire. Whilst the Kailya-sutra (XVIII, 4, 23) 
admits this as an alternative mode (though not very clearly ex- 
pressed), our passage seems to require it as the only possible mode. 
Both the Vawv&nara and the Maruta cakes are offered whole. 

[43] P 

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21 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

in the eyes) ; he offers them closer together, for 
closer together, as it were, are these two vital airs. 

12. And the third pair are these two (vital airs 
in the nostrils). He offers them closer together, 
for closer together, as it were, are these two vital 
airs. The one to be recited in the forest * is speech : 
it is to be recited in the forest, for by speech one 
gets into much terrible (trouble). 

1 3. And, again, as to why he offers the Vairvanara 
and Marutas, — the Vaisvanara is the ruling power 
(chieftaincy), and the Marutas are the clan : he thus 
sets up both the chief and the clan. The Vairvanara 
he offers first : thus, having set up the chief, he sets 
up the clan. 

14. The former is a single (oblation): he thus 
makes the ruling power (chieftaincy) to attach to 
a single (person), and (social) distinction to attach 
to a single (person). The others are numerous : he 
thus bestows multiplicity on the clan. 

15. The former is (offered in a) distinct (voice), 
for the ruling power is something distinct, so to 
speak; and the others are indistinct, for indistinct, 
so to speak, is the clan. Standing he offers the 
former, for the ruling power (the chief) stands, so 
to speak ; and sitting (he offers) the others, for the 
clan sits, so to speak. 

16. The former he offers with the offering-ladle, 



1 'Ara«ye«nu£ya' is the technical term applied to the odd, or 
seventh, Maruta oblation. According to SSyawa it is so called 
after an anuvaka of the Sa/»hit£, to be recited only in the forest. 
Possibly, however, it is to the particular formula (Va^. S. XXXIX, 
7), also called ' vimukha ' (? to be pronounced ' with averted face '), 
and containing the names of the seven most terrible Maruts, that 
the name applies. 



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IX KAJVDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 21. 211 

when the Vasha/ is uttered, with both an invitatory 
formula (anuvakya) and an offering-formula (y&fya) ; 
with the hand the others sitting, with the Svaha-call : 
he thus makes the clan subservient and obedient to 
the chieftain. 

1 7. As to this they say, ' How do these (Maruta 
oblations) also come to be offered for him by the 
offering-ladle, at the Vasha^-call, and with invitatory 
and offering formulas ? ' Well, the first three feet 
of those seven-footed Maruta (verses), being a 
three-footed Gayatri, are the invitatory formula, 
and the last four, being a four-footed Trish/ubh, are 
the offering-formula. The one is the bowl, and 
the other the handle (of the offering-ladle), and the 
Svaha-call is the Vasha^-call : in this way, then, 
these (Maruta oblations) also become offered for 
him by the offering-ladle, at the Vasha/-call, and 
with invitatory and offering-formulas. 

18. And the first Maruta (cake) which he offers 
on the right (south) side, is the seven (rivers) which 
flow eastwards. It is one of seven potsherds, for 
there are seven of those (rivers) which flow east- 
wards. 

19. And the first (cake) which he offers on the 
left (north) side, is the seasons ; it is one of seven 
potsherds, for there are seven seasons. 

20. And the second (cake) which he offers on the 
right side, is animals ; it is one of seven potsherds, 
for there are seven domestic animals. He offers it 
close to the preceding one (representing the rivers) : 
he thus settles animals near water. 

21. And the second (cake) which he offers on the 
left side, is the seven iftshis; it is one of seven 
potsherds, for the seven ^'shis are seven in number. 

p 2 



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2 I 2 JATAPATHA-BRAHMAtf A. 

He offers it close to the preceding one : he thus 
establishes the seven ./foshis in the seasons. 

22. And the third (cake) which he offers on the 
right side, is the vital airs ; it is one of seven pot- 
sherds, for there are seven vital airs in the head. 
He offers it close to the preceding one: he thus 
puts the vital airs so as to be close to (not separated 
from) the head. 

23. And the third (cake) which he offers on the 
left side, is the metres ; it is one of seven potsherds, 
for there are seven metres increasing by four 
(syllables respectively). He offers it close to the 
preceding one : he thus places the metres close to 
the •tftshis. 

24. And the Ara»ye»nu£ya is the seven (rivers) 
which flow westwards ; it is one of seven potsherds, 
for there are seven of those (rivers) which flow 
westwards. It is that downward vital air of his. 
That Ara«ye«n0^ya belongs to this Pra^apati ; for 
the forest (ara/zya) is, as it were, concealed, and 
concealed, as it were, is that downward vital air; 
whence those who drink of these (downward flowing) 
rivers become most vile, most blasphemous, most 
lascivious in their speech. Whenever he here speaks 
of them as belonging to the Maruts, he makes them 
food for him (Agni) 1 and offers it to him, and 
gratifies him thereby. 

25. That Vai^vanara (cake), doubtless, is yonder 
sun, and the Maruta (cakes) are those rays. They 
are of seven potsherds each, for the troops of the 
Maruts consist of seven each. 

1 Probably, inasmuch as the Maruts (and the Mdruta oblations) 
represent the clansmen who are considered the legitimate 'food' 
or the chief, Agni Vauvanara. 



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IX KAATOA, 3 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAATA, 2. 21 3 

26. He offers (the first Miruta cake), with (V$g. 
S. XVII, 80), 'The clear-lighted, and the bright- 
lighted, and the true-lighted, and the light, 
and the clear, and the law-observing, and the 
sinless one ! ' — these are their names : having com- 
pleted that disk (of the sun, in the shape of the 
VaLrvanara), he bestows those rays on it by calling 
them by their names. 

Second BrAhmajva. 
The Shower of Wealth and other Oblations. 

i . Thereupon 1 he (the Sacrificer 2 ) offers the 
Vasor dhara. That whole Agni has now been 
completed, and he is here the Vasu (good one) : to 
that Vasu the gods offered this shower (dhara), 
whence it is called 'Vasor dhara 8 ;' and in like 
manner this (Sacrificer) offers to him this shower, 
and gratifies him thereby. 

2. And, again, as to why he offers the ' Vasor 
dhara;' — this is his (Agni's) Abhisheka 4 ; for the 

1 That is, after offering all the seven Miruta cakes, the formulas 
of the last six of which (V&g. S.XVII, 81-85 ; XXXIX, 7) are not 
given in the Brihmana. At the end the Adhvaryu mutters the 
verse XVII, 86, and thereupon he either makes the Sacrificer mutter 
(or mutters himself) verses 87-99 m praise of Agni. Katy. St. 
XVIII, 4,25; 26. 

* Thus, according to Kity. XVIII, 5, 1 (the Adhvaryu, according 
to Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, p. 283). 

* It would rather seem to mean ' stream, or shower, of wealth ; ' 
cf. paragraph 4. 

4 That is, the consecration ceremony, in which the king is 
'sprinkled' with sacred water, or, so to speak, anointed. The 
'Vasor dhara,' or 'shower of wealth,' consisting of an uninter- 
rupted series of 401 libations to Agni (through which all the powers 
of the god are to be secured to the Sacrificer), is intended as the 



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2 1 4 SATAPATHA-BRAHM AtfA. 

gods, having now completed him wholly and entirely, 
showered upon him those wishes (or, objects of 
desire), this 'Vasor dhara;' and in like manner 
does this (Sacrificer), now that he has completed 
him wholly and entirely, shower upon him those 
wishes, this 'Vasor dhara.' With ghee taken in 
five ladlings, and an offering-ladle of udumbara 
wood (he offers) : the significance of this has been 
explained. 

3. [He offers it] after offering the Vaisvanara 
(cake) — for the Vaisvanara is the head, and food is 
taken in from the head (downwards) ; and, besides, 
it is from the head (downwards) that he who is 
anointed is anointed ; — and after offering the Ma- 
ruta (cakes), for the Marutas are the vital airs, and 
through (the channels of) the vital airs food is 
eaten ; and, besides, it is at (the openings of) the 
vital airs that he who is. anointed is anointed *. 

4. And, furthermore, (it is offered) upon the Ara- 
»ye*nu£ya 2 ; for the Ara»ye*nfJ^ya is speech, and 
it is through (the channel of) speech that food is 
eaten ; and, besides, it is with speech that he who 

equivalent of that ceremony for the consecration of Agni as king ; 
and, indeed, as a kind of superior consecration ceremony for the 
(royal) Sacrificer himself, more potent than the Ra^asuya and 
Va^-apeya. There is thus to be noticed here the same tendency 
as elsewhere of exalting the efficacy of the AgnWayana, and of 
making it take the place of the whole of the ordinary sacrificial 
ceremonial. 

1 When anointed, or consecrated, the king is first sprinkled from 
the front and then from behind, and finally rubbed all over, with the 
consecrated water; see V, 4, 2, 1 seq. 

8 That is, as soon as the Adhvaryu has put the Aranye » nu£ya 
cake in the fire the Sacrificer begins to pour the ghee on it with 
a large offering-ladle of udumbara wood, and the Adhvaryu begins 
to mutter the formulas. 



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IX KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 2 BRA 




is anointed is anointed. And everything here is 
wealth (vasu), for all these (cake-offerings) are (con- 
nected with special) wishes * ; and in order that this 
shower, be it of milk or of ghee, (may be) fraught 
with wealth, this oblation of ghee is thus offered for 
the beginning ; and inasmuch as this shower is 
fraught with wealth, it is called ' shower of wealth.' 

5. He (as it were) says, ' This is mine, and that is 
mine ; ' — that is, ' Herewith I gratify thee, and there- 
with ; — herewith I anoint thee, and therewith ; ' or, 
'Give me this, and that!' And as soon as that 
shower reaches the fire, that prayer is fulfilled. 

6. Now the gods, having gratified him (Agni) by 
this food, or by these objects of desire 2 , and having 
anointed him by this shower of wealth, solicited from 
him these objects of desire 3 ; and having received 
offering, and being gratified and anointed, he granted 
them these objects of desire; and in like manner 
this (Sacrificer), having gratified him by this food, 
and by these offerings of desire, and anointed him 
with this shower of wealth, now solicits from him 
these objects of desire ; and having received offering, 
and being gratified and anointed, he (Agni) grants 
him these objects of desire. In order to avoid 
discontinuance, he each time embraces two wishes, — 
even as one would connect those living away from 
one another, — thinking, ' In this way shall they 
prosper by sacrifice ! ' 

7. The gods now spake, ' Through whom shall 
we receive these objects of desire ? ' — ' By our own 

1 Or, all these (objects) for which offerings are made are objects 
of desire. 

s Or, perhaps, ' for (prompted by) these objects of desire.' 
' Or, asked him these wishes (boons). 



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2 1 6 satapatha-brAhmawa. 

self,' they said ; for the sacrifice is the self of the 
gods, and so is the sacrifice that of the Sacrificer ; 
and when he says, ' By the sacrifice they shall 
prosper ! ' he means to say, ' By my own self they 
shall prosper ! ' 

8. In twelve (things) he causes them to prosper 1 , 
the year consists of twelve months, and Agni is the 
year : as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, 
by so much food he thus gratifies him, and by so 
much food he thus consecrates him. In fourteen lie 
causes them to prosper ; in eight he causes them to 
prosper; in ten he causes them to prosper; in 
thirteen he causes them to prosper. 

9. He then offers the Ardhendra (libations) 2 ; — 
the ardhendras are everything here 8 : he thus grati- 
fies him (Agni) with everything, and with everything 
he thus consecrates him. 

10. He then offers (the libations relating to) the 
Grahas 4 ;' — the grahas (cups of soma, offered to 

1 That is, he makes the objects of desire mentioned in the formulas 
used during the Vasor dhSri, accrue to himself, or turn out well for 
himself. The formulas usually contain the names of twelve such 
objects (in six pairs), those in XVIII, 1 being — '(may) strength 
and gain, endeavour and attempt, thought and wisdom, sound and 
praise, fame and hearing, light and heaven, prosper for (or accrue 
to) me by sacrifice ! ' In XVIII, 4, however, fourteen objects are 
enumerated, in XVIII, 15 (and 27) eight, in XVIII, 23 (and 26) 
ten, in XVI II, 28 thirteen. 

1 Literally, 'the half-Indra ones,' the technical term for the 
formulas of three sets of libations (XVIII, 16-18), in which three 
sets of twelve deities are named, each pair of whom consists of 
Indra coupled with some other deity, thus ' May Agni and Indra, 
Soma and Indra, &c, prosper for (or accrue to) me by sacrifice ! ' 

s Viz. inasmuch as Indra represents the ruling power, and every- 
thing submits to him (III, 9, 4, 15); or inasmuch as Indra and 
Agni are the whole universe (IV, 2, 2, 14). 

4 These are three sets of libations (still forming part of the con- 



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IX KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 3. 21 7 

the deities), doubtless, are sacrifice : by sacrifice, by 
food, he thus gratifies him ; and by sacrifice he thus 
consecrates him. 

Third BrAhmajva. 

1. He then offers these Ya^wakratus 1 (sacri- 
ficial rites), with, 'May the Agni and the Gharma 
(prosper) for me ! ' — by these sacrificial rites he thus 
gratifies him, and by these sacrificial rites he thus 
consecrates him. 

2. He then offers (the libations relating to) the 
Uneven Stomas 2 ; — for the gods, having now ob- 
tained their desires, by means of the uneven Stomas 
went up to heaven ; and in like manner does the 
Sacrificer, now that he has obtained all his desires, 
by means of the uneven Stomas go up to heaven. 

3. Now this (set runs) up to the thirty-three- 
versed (hymn-form), for the Trayastriw^a is the last 
of the uneven Stomas : at the last the gods thus 



tinuous ' Vasor dha>5,' or ' wealth-stream '), the formulas of which 
(XVIII, 19-21) enumerate each six pairs of cups of Soma (graha) 
and of sacrificial implements. 

1 These are two sets of libations in the formulas of which 
(XVIII, 22; 23) objects connected with 'special sacrifices' are 
enumerated. Thus, of the first pair, ' Agni and Gharma/ ' Agni,' 
according to Mahidhara, represents either the Agnifoyana or the 
Agnish/oma (ordinary Soma-sacrifice) ; whilst the ' Gharma (caul- 
dron) ' stands for the Pravargya offering (part i, p. 44 note). 

* The formula of this set of libations (XVIII, 24) enumerates 
the seventeen uneven numbers (in the feminine gender) from 1 to 
33, repeating the second number of each pair, so as to be the first 
number of the next pair (thus, 1 and 3, 3 and 5, &c). These 
numbers are meant to represent the corresponding Stomas, con- 
sisting of an uneven number of verses, up to the Trayastrimra, or 
thirty-three-versed hymn-form. 



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2 1 8 satapatha-brAhmawa . 

went up to heaven ; and in like manner does the 
Sacrificer thereby at the last go up to heaven. 

4. He then offers (those relating to) the Even 
(Stomas) 1 ; — for the metres then said, ' The uneven 
stomas are worn out, by means of the even ones 
we will go up to heaven ! ' By means of the even 
stomas they went up to heaven ; and in like manner 
does the Sacrificer thus, by means of the even 
stomas, go up to heaven. 

5. This (set runs) up to the forty-eight-versed 
(hymn-form), for the Ash^aiatviriw^a is the last of 
the even stomas : at the last the metres thus went 
up to heaven ; and in like manner does the Sacri- 
ficer thereby at the last go up to heaven. 

6. He says, 'May the One and the Three 
(prosper) for me!' — 'May the Four and the 
Eight (prosper) for me!' — even as one climbing 
a tree would climb up by taking hold of an ever 
higher branch, so is this. And as to why he offers 
the Stomas, — the stomas are food : it is with food 
he thus consecrates him. 

7. He then offers (the libations relating to) the 
Age-grades 8 (of cattle), — age-grades mean cattle: 
it is by cattle, for his food, that he thus gratifies 



1 The formula of this set of libations (XVIII, 25) enumerates 
the twelve quadruples of 4 (in the feminine gender), from 4 to 48 
(again repeating each number, except the first and last), as repre- 
senting the Stomas consisting of an even number of verses, up to 
the Ash/a£atvari»wa, or forty-eight-versed hymn-form. 

* The two formulas relating to these two sets of libations (XVIII, 
26 ; 27) contain respectively five and four pairs of teams of cattle 
of different ages, beginning with ' tryavi and tryavf,' ' an eighteen- 
months bull and an eighteen-months cow;' and ending with 'a 
bullock and a milch cow.' 



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IX KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAtfA, II. 219 

him ; and by cattle, for his food, he thus consecrates 
him. 

8. He then offers whilst mentioning names ] ; — 
for the gods, having obtained all their wishes, now 
gratified him directly ; and in like manner does the 
Sacrificer, having obtained all his wishes, now gratify 
him directly. 'To Strength, hail! to Gain, 
hail!' — these are his (Agni's) names: it is by 
mentioning his names that he thus gratifies him. 

9. There are thirteen of these names, — a year 
consists of thirteen months, and the layers and 
fillings of the fire-altar amount to thirteen : as great 
as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with so much 
he thus gratifies him. And as to why he offers 
while mentioning names, — it is thus in mentioning 
his (Agni's) names that he consecrates him. 

10. He then says, 'This is thy realm; a sup- 
porter and sustainer art thou for the friend: 
for sustenance, for rain, for the lordship of 
creatures (do I consecrate) thee;' — sustenance, 
doubtless, means food, and rain means food : by 
food he thus gratifies him. 

11. And when he says, 'This is thy realm; a 
supporter and sustainer art thou for the friend : for 
sustenance, for rain, for the lordship of creatures — 
thee ! ' this is to say, ' This is thy kingdom ; thou 
art consecrated (anointed)! thou art thy friend's 
supporter and sustainer : for our sustenance art 
thou, for rain unto us art thou, for our lordship of 

1 This set of thirteen libations (XVIII, 28) is offered to the 
months Va^a, Prasava, &c, here apparently considered as mani- 
festations of Agni (the year). Each name is followed by ' svahS 
(hail !) ; ' and the last of these dedicatory formulas is followed by 
the special benedictory formula, referred to in paragraph 10. 



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2 20 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

creatures art thou ! ' They thereby entreat him, 
' For all this art thou unto us : for all this have we 
consecrated thee!' And therefore people thus 
entreat a human king who has been consecrated. 

12. He then offers the Prospering 1 (libations); — 
the prospering (libations) are the vital airs : it is the 
vital airs he thus puts into him. — 'May the vital 
strength prosper by sacrifice! may the vital 
air prosper by sacrifice! . . .' He thus puts 
proper vital airs into him. 

13. Twelve prospering (libations) he offers, — a 
year consists of twelve months, and Agni is the 
year : as great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, 
by so much he thus puts proper vital airs into him. 
And as to why he offers the prospering (libations), — 
the prospering (libations) are vital airs, and the vital 
airs are the immortal element: with the immortal 
element he thus consecrates him. 

14. He then says, 'The Stoma, and the Ya,fus, 
and the Jtt'k, and the Saman, and the Brz'hat, 
and the Rathantara,' — this, doubtless, is the triple 
science, and the triple science is food : it is with 
food he thus gratifies him, and with food he thus 
consecrates him; — 'to the heavenly light we 
gods have gone, we have become immortal,' — 
for he indeed goes to the heavenly light, and be- 
comes immortal; — ' Pra.fapati's children have 
we become!' — for he indeed becomes Pra^apati's 
child, — 've^! svaha!' — the Ve^-call, doubtless, is 

1 This final set of twelve (? sixteen) libations is called thus (kalpa), 
because, in the formulas used with them (Va^. S. XVI II, 29), the 
verb ' k/«'p (to prosper, to be right and proper) ' is repeated each 
time. At the conclusion of these twelve formulas the priest mutters 
the final benediction given in full in paragraph 14. 



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ix kXnda, 3 adhyaya, 3 brahmam, 18. 221 

esoterically the same as the Vasha/-call, and either 
with the Vasha/-call, or the Svaha-call is food offered 
to the gods : he thus gratifies him by both the 
Vasha/ and the Svaha, and also consecrates him by 
both of them. He now throws the offering-ladle 
after (the ghee into the fire) lest what there is 
anointed with ghee should remain outside of the 
fire. 

1 5. Now as to this same shower of wealth, the 
body (from which it flows) is the sky, the udder 
the cloud, the teat the lightning, and the shower (of 
ghee) is the (rain-) shower : from the sky it comes 
to the cow. 

16. Its body is the cow, its udder the (cow's) 
udder, its teat the (cow's) teat, its shower the shower 
(of milk) : from the cow (it comes) to the Sacrificer. 

17. Its body is the Sacrificer, its udder his arm, 
its teat the offering-ladle, its shower (of milk) the 
shower of (ghee) : from the Sacrificer (it goes) to 
the gods ; from the gods to the cow, from the cow 
to the Sacrificer : thus circulates this perpetual, 
never-ending food of the gods. And, verily, for 
whosoever knows this, there will thus be per- 
petual, never-ending food. Now as to the (mystic) 
correspondence. 

18. As to this they say, ' How does this wealth- 
shower of his obtain (conformity with) the year, and 
Agni ? how does it correspond to the year, to 
Agni ? ' Well, this shower of wealth consists of 
three hundred and sixty (libations), and of (other) 
six, and of thirty-five. Now, the three hundred 
and sixty which there are, — so many being the days 
in the year, — thereby it obtains the days of the 
year. And what six there are, — the seasons being 



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222 DATAPATH A-BRA H MAJVA. 

six in number, — thereby it obtains the nights of the 
seasons : thus it obtains both the days and nights 
of the year. And what thirty-five there are, they 
are the (intercalary) thirteenth month *, and that is 
the body, — the body (consists) of thirty (limbs), the 
feet of two, the breath of two (in-breathing and 
up-breathing), and the head is the thirty-fifth : so 
much is the year ; and thus that shower of wealth 
of his obtains (conformity with) the year, and Agni ; 
and thus it corresponds to the year, to Agni. And 
so many are the bricks with special formulas which 
are placed in the centre of a .5a#dfila fire-altar ; for 
these bricks indeed are the same as these different 
Agnis 2 ; and thus these Agnis of his come to have 
oblations offered to them separately by means of the 
shower of wealth. 

19. As to this they say, ' How does this shower 
of wealth of his attain to (conformity with) the 
Great Litany, how does it correspond to the Great 
Litany ? ' Well, the first nine formulas of this 
shower of wealth are the threefold 8 head ; and the 
forty-eight which follow are the twenty-four-fold 
wings 4 ; and the twenty-five which follow are the 
twenty-five-fold body 6 ; and the twenty-one which 
follow are the tail, as the twenty-first 6 ; and the 



1 See p. 167, note 1. 

* Viz. the different forms, or powers, of Agni, to which the 401 
libations are offered. See IX, 1, 1, 43, where the very same calcula- 
tions are applied to the .Satarudriya. 

* See p. 114, note 1. 

4 Paksha, wing, also means half-month, fortnight, of which there 
are twenty-four in the year. 
8 See p. 168, note 3. 
' Apparently in addition to the fingers and toes (? of monkeys). 



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IX KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAATA, 2. 223 

thirty-five which follow are the Vara (hymn) ; and 
by the eighties (of verses) which follow those eighties 
(of the mahad uktham) are obtained, for by eighties 
the Great Litany is counted ; and what there is 
after the eighties, that to him (corresponds to) 
what, in the Great Litany, there is after the 
eighties l ; and thus this shower of wealth of his 
attains to (conformity with) the Great Litany, and 
corresponds to the Great Litany. 

Fourth BrAhmawa. 

1. He then offers the Vi^aprasaviya 2 (set of 
fourteen libations), — 'va^a' (strength, sustenance) 
means food (anna): it thus is an 'anna-prasavlya'for 
him, and it is food he thereby raises (pra-su) for 
him (Agni). 

2. For the gods, now that they had gratified him 
by that food, and consecrated him by those objects 
of desire, (to wit) by that stream of wealth 3 , hereby 
gratified him once more; and in like manner does 
this (Sacrificer), now that he has gratified him by 
that food, and consecrated him by those objects of 
desire, that shower of wealth, hereby gratify him 
once more. 



1 See pp. no, note 3 ; 112, n. 1 ; 113, n. 1. 

* That is, oblations capable of promoting or quickening strength 
(or food, — vi^a) ; see part iii, p. 37 (where read VS^aprasavfya). 
While the formulas of the first seven of these oblations are the same 
as those used for those of the Va^apeya (see V, 2, 2, 5-1 1), the 
formulas of the last seven of these oblations are Vi^. S. XVIII, 
30-36 (for the first of which, being the same as IX, 5, see VI, 
1, 4, 4)- 

* This seems to be in apposition to both ' that food,' and ' those 
objects of desire.' 



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224 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

.3. And, again, as to why he offers the Va^a- 
prasavlya. This, to be sure, is his (Agni's) Abhi- 
sheka. For, the gods, having gratified him by 
that food, and consecrated him by those objects of 
desire, (to wit) by that shower of wealth, then by 
this (offering) consecrated him once more; and in 
like manner does this (Sacrificer), having gratified 
him by that food, and consecrated him by those 
objects of desire, that shower of wealth, hereby 
consecrate him once more. 

4. It consists of (seeds of) all (kinds of) plants, — 
that which consists of all plants is all food : he thus 
gratifies him with all food, and with all food he 
thus consecrates him. Let him set aside one of 
these kinds of food, and not eat thereof as long 
as he lives. With an udumbara (ficus glomerata) 
cup 1 and an udumbara dipping-spoon (he offers) : 
the significance of these two has been explained. 
They are both four-cornered, — there are four quar- 
ters : he thus gratifies him with food from every 
quarter, and by means of food from every quarter 
he thus consecrates him. 

5. And, again, as to why he performs the Va^a- 
prasaviya; — he thereby gratifies those same deities 
who have been consecrated by this very rite of 
consecration by which he is now about to be con- 
secrated, and, thus gratified by offering, they grant 
him permission (to perform) this rite of consecration, 
and, permitted by them, he becomes consecrated ; 
for only he becomes king whom the (other) kings 
allow to assume the royal dignity, but not he whom 



1 Or, pan. It has a handle, and serves on this occasion in place 
of the offering-ladle as well as for anointing the Sacrificer. 



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IX KkNDA, 3 ADHYAYA, \ BRAHMAWA, 8. 225 

they do not (allow to do so). Thus when he offers 
in the fire he consecrates Agni, and when he offers 
to these deities, he gratifies those gods who rule 
over this consecration ceremony. 

6. And, indeed, he offers here also the Partha 1 
(oblations) ; — for the gods now desired, ' May we be 
consecrated even on this occasion by all the rites of 
consecration ! ' They were indeed consecrated on 
this occasion by all the rites of consecration ; and in 
like manner is the Sacrificer on this occasion conse- 
crated by all the rites of consecration. 

7. Now these Partha (oblations) are the Vi^a- 
prasavlya of the Rifasuya; and by offering these 
(oblations) he is consecrated by the Ra^asuya ; and 
the first seven of the succeeding fourteen (Va^a- 
prasaviya oblations) are the Vifaprasavtya ceremony 
of the Va/apeya a : thus, by offering these he is 
consecrated by the Va^apeya. And what other 
seven there are, they belong to Agni (or, the Agni- 
£ayana) : by offering these, he is consecrated by the 
Agni-consecration. 

8. He first offers those of the Ri^asuya, then 
those of the Va^apeya; for by performing the 
Ra^asuya one becomes king (ra/a) and by the 
Va^apeya emperor (samrif), and the position of 
king is (obtained) first, and thereafter that of 



* In the same way as, at the Ra^asuya, six Partha oblations were 
offered before, and as many immediately after, the Consecration 
ceremony, or 'anointment' (see part iii, p. 81 seq.), so also on the 
present occasion, except that, between the first six Parthas and 
the consecration ceremony, the Va^aprasavtya set, referred to 
in the preceding paragraphs, is inserted. 

* For these seven oblations, see V, 2, 2, 6-1 1. Only the second 
set of seven thus is peculiar to the Agni&iyana. 

[43] Q 



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226 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

emperor ' : hence after performing the Va^apeya, 
one could not perform the Ra^asuya, — it would be 
a descent, just as if one who is emperor were to 
become king. 

9. Those (seven Va^aprasavlya oblations) of the 
fire-altar he offers last, for the Agni-consecration 
indeed is (equal to) all those rites of consecration, 
and he who is consecrated by the Agni-consecration 
rite becomes everything, king and emperor : there- 
fore he offers those of the fire-altar last of all. 

10. He then anoints him on a black antelope 
skin, — for the black antelope skin is (a symbol of) 
the sacrifice : it is thus at the sacrifice that he 
anoints him. On the hairy side (of the skin), — for 
the hairs are the metres : on the metres he thus 
anoints him. On the left (north) side (of the fire- 
altar he anoints him) : the significance of this (will 
be explained) further on. On (the skin laid down) 
with the neck-part towards the front, for that (tends) 
godwards. 

11. Some, however, anoint him on the right 
(south) side of the fire-altar, on the ground that it 
is from the right side that food is served, and that 
they thus anoint him from the food-side. But let 
him not do so, for that (southern) region belongs to 
the Fathers, and quickly he goes to that region 
whom they anoint in that way. 

12. And some, indeed, anoint him on the Aha- 
vaniya, on the ground that the Ahavaniya is the 
world of heaven, and that they thus anoint him in 
the world of heaven. But let him not do so, for 
that (Ahavantya, the fire-altar,) is his (the Sacrificer's) 

1 See V, 1, 1, 12. 



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ix kanda, 3 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, i 6. 227 

divine body, and this (Sacrificer, or Sacrificer's real 
body) is his human one: they thus attach that 
divine body of his to this his mortal body, if they 
anoint him in this way. 

13. Let him anoint him on the left (north) side 
and nowhere else, for that north-eastern region 
belongs to both gods and men : they thus anoint 
him whilst seated and established in his own region, 
for he who is established in his own seat suffers no 
injury. 

14. One who has gained a position in the world 
should be anointed sitting, for one who has gained 
a position is seated, so to speak ; — and one who is 
striving to gain one standing, for one who wishes 
to gain a position, stands, so to speak. On a he- 
goat's skin should be anointed one desirous of 
prosperity, on a black-antelope skin one desirous 
of spiritual lustre, on both (kinds of skins) one 
desirous of both : that (skin) he spreads north of 
the tail (of the fire-altar) with its hair uppermost 
and its neck-part towards the east. 

15. Close to the enclosing- stones ' : inasmuch as 
the black-antelope skin is close to the enclosing- 
stones, so that divine body of his is consecrated 
on the black-antelope skin ; and inasmuch as he is 
consecrated whilst keeping hold of the fire-altar 
he is not cut off from that divine consecration (of 
the Fire). 

16. He anoints him after making offering on the 
fire-altar, for that (altar) is his divine body, and 

1 Sayawa takes ' asp/vsh/am paiir ritaA ' to mean ' lightly touched 
(just touched) by an enclosing-stone.' The participle would rather 
seem here to have an active meaning, like ' anvarabdha ' in the same 
paragraph. 

Q 2 

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228 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

this (Sacrificer himself) is his human one ; and the 
gods indeed were first, and thereafter the men : 
therefore, after making offering, he anoints him 
with what remains over of that same (offering- 
material) \ He then throws the dipping-spoon after 
(the oblations into the fire). 

17. Placing himself near the (Sacrificer's) right 
arm, he then anoints him 2 , with (Va^ - . S. XVIII, 
37), 'At the impulse of the divine Savitrz, 
I anoint thee, by the arms of the A^vins, by 
the hands of Pushan, by the support of Saras- 
vatt Va£, the supporter, by the universal 
sovereignty of Agni!' — for Sarasvat! is Va£ 
(speech), and hers is all this support. Impelled 
by Savitrt, he thus anoints him by all this support 
of Sarasvat! Va£, the supporter, and by the uni- 
versal sovereignty of Agni. Here he throws the 
cup (into the fire), lest what is anointed (with offering 
material) should remain outside the fire. 

18. He anoints him in the middle of the Partha 
oblations, for the Partha oblations are the year : he 
thus places him in the middle of the year. Six 
he offers before, and six after (the consecration 
ceremony), for there are six seasons : by the 
seasons he thus encloses (guards) him who is 
consecrated on both sides. Brzhaspati is the last 
of the first (six 3 ), and Indra the first of the 

1 That is, with the remainder of the mess of different kinds of 
seed mixed with milk and water. 

* That is, by sprinkling him with the liquid, or pouring it on 
him. 

9 The formulas of the twelve Partha oblations are the same as 
those used on the occasion of the Ra^suya (V, 3, 5, 8. 9), the 
sixth of which is ' To Br/haspati hail ! ' and the seventh ' To Indra 
hail!' 



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IX K.ANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 3. 229 

last (six), — Br/haspati is the priesthood (or priestly 
office), and Indra is the nobility (or political power): 
by the priesthood and the nobility he thus encloses 
him who is consecrated on both sides. 



Fourth Adhyaya. First Brahmana. 

1. He then offers the Rash/rabhr/t (realm- 
sustaining) oblations; — the realm-sustainers, doubt- 
less, are the kings, for it is they that sustain realms. 
These deities, indeed, have been consecrated by 
this same consecration ceremony by which he (the 
Sacrificer) is now to be consecrated: it is them he 
thereby gratifies, and thus gratified by offering, they 
grant him permission (to perform) this consecration 
ceremony, and, permitted by them, he is conse- 
crated ; for only he becomes king whom the (other) 
kings allow (to assume) the royal dignity, but not 
he whom they do not (allow to assume it). And 
inasmuch as the kings sustain realms, and these 
gods are kings, therefore Realm-sustaining (obla- 
tions are performed). 

2. And, again, as to why he offers the Realm- 
sustaining (oblations). From Prafapati, when dis- 
membered, couples went forth, in the form of 
Gandharvas and Apsaras ; and he, having turned 
into a chariot, enclosed them, and having enclosed 
them, he took them to himself and made them his 
own ; and in like manner does this (Sacrificer), 
thereby enclosing them, take them to himself and 
make them his own. 

3. Now that Pra^apati who was dismembered, is 
this very Agni who is here being built up; and 



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23O DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiVA. 

those couples which went forth from him, are these 
same deities to whom he now makes offering. 

4. He makes offering t6 the Gandharvas and 
Apsaras, for in the form of Gandharvas and Apsaras 
they went forth (from Pra^apati). But the Gan- 
dharvas and Apsaras also busy themselves with 
sweet scent (gandha) and beauteous form (rupa 1 ), 
whence if any one goes to his mate he cultivates 
sweet scent and a beautiful appearance. 

5. He offers pairs (of oblations), for birth origi- 
nates from a pair; and he alone is (ruler of) 
a kingdom who propagates offspring, but not he 
who does not propagate offspring. And inasmuch 
as couples sustain the realm, and these deities 
consist of couples, these (oblations are called) 
Realm-sustainers. With ghee taken in twelve 
ladlings (he offers), and there are twelve of these 
oblations : the significance of this has been ex- 
plained. 

6. To the male (deity) he makes offering first, 
then to the females : he thereby endows the male 
pre-eminently with power 2 . To a single male he 
makes offering, and to many females, whence even 
a single, man has many wives. To the male (deity) 
he makes offering both with the VashaZ-call and the. 
Svaha-call, to the female (deities) only with the 
Svaha : he thereby endows the male pre-eminently 
with power. 

7. [He offers, with, Vaf. S. XVIII, 38-43} ' The 

1 This is apparently intended as an etymological explanation of 
the two names ; Apsaras being taken as derived from ' apsas,' in 
the sense of 'beauty.' Cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. XIII, p. 135, note 3. 

* Or, perhaps, ' he places the male above (the female) in respect 
of power;' see p. 133, note 1. 



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ix kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, i brAhmaata, 9. 231 

law-upholding, law-abiding,' — that is, the truth- 
upholding, truth-abiding, — 'Agni is the Gan- 
dharva: his Apsaras are the plants,' — for as 
a Gandharva, Agni, indeed, went forth with the 
plants as the Asparas, his mates, — 'Delights 
(mud) by name,' — the plants are indeed delights, 
for everything here delights in plants; — 'may he 
protect this our priesthood and nobility: to 
him Hail! Va/! To them (fern.) Hail!' The 
meaning of this has been explained \ 

8. 'The Close-knit,' — yonder sun is indeed 
close-knit, for he knits together the days and 
nights; — 'all-wealthy,' — for that (sun) indeed is 
every kind of wealth ; — 'Surya is the Gandharva: 
his Apsaras are the sun-motes;' — for as a Gan- 
dharva, the sun, indeed, went forth with the sun- 
motes as the Apsaras, his mates, — ' Mobile (ayu) 
by name,' — for moving together 2 , as it were, the 
sun-motes float; — 'may he protect this our 
priesthood and nobility,' — the meaning of this 
has been explained. 

9. 'The most blessed,' — that is, the most 
worthy of worship, — 'sun-rayed,' — for like the 
sun's are the moon's rays; — 'A'andramas (the 

1 In accordance with the preceding paragraph, that part of the 
formula which relates to the male deity, viz. ' The law-upholding, 
law-abiding Agni is the Gandharva — may he protect this our priest- 
hood and nobility: to him Svah&! Va/!' is to be uttered first, and 
the first oblation to be offered at the call ' Va/,' i.e. Vasha/, ' may 
he (Agni) carry it (to the gods) I ' Then that part relating to the 
female deities is uttered, after which the second oblation is offered. 
In the same way the other five formulas are to be treated. See 
Mahidhara's remarks on the present formula. 

J A-yuvanaA, literally ' holding to each other,' a wrong etymology 
of 'ayu,' 'lively.' 



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232 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

moon) is the Gandharva: his Apsaras are the 
stars ; ' — for as a Gandharva the moon, indeed, went 
forth with the stars as the Apsaras, his mates ; — 
'Luminous (bhekuri) by name;' — light-giving 
(bhakur/ 1 ) these, indeed, are called, for the stars 
give light; — 'may he protect this our priest- 
hood and nobility!' the meaning of this has been 
explained. 

10. 'The Agile,' — that is, the swift, — 'all -ex- 
pansive,' — for the wind (air), indeed, makes up all 
this expanse; — 'Vita (the wind) is the Gandharva: 
his Apsaras are the waters,' — for as a Gan- 
dharva the wind, indeed, went forth with the waters 
as the Apsaras, his mates; — 'Viands (ur^) by 
name,' — the waters, indeed, are called ' brgaA' for 
food is produced from the waters; — 'may he 
protect this our priesthood and nobility !' the 
meaning of this has been explained. 

ii. 'The beneficent, well-winged,' — beneficent 
(bhu^yu 2 ) indeed is the sacrifice, for the sacrifice 
benefits all beings, — ' Ya^na. (the sacrifice) is the 
Gandharva: his Apsaras are the offering- 
gifts,' — for as a Gandharva the sacrifice, indeed, 
went forth, with the offering-gifts as the Apsaras, 

' This etymological explanation of ' bhekuri ' is doubtful. 

* The real meaning of bhu^yu in this passage is very doubtful ; 
while it usually means ' flexible,' the St. Petersburg Dictionary here 
tentatively assigns to it the meaning ' adder.' Whether the author 
of the Brahmana really connects it with 'bhu^ (bhunakti),' 'to 
enjoy, benefit' (instead of with 'bhu^,' 'to bend '), or whether the 
explanation is merely meant as an etymological play of words, is 
not clear. Mahldhara indeed derives it from the former root, in 
the sense of 'to protect.' The order of the words 'yagflo vai 
bhug-yuA ' would properly require to be rendered by — The ' bhu^yu ' 
doubtless is the sacrifice. 



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IX KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 14. 233 

his mates; — 'Praises (stava) by name,'— the 
offering-gifts are indeed praises, for the sacrifice is 
praised for offering-gifts ; and whosoever gives an 
offering-gift (to priests) is praised; — 'may he pro- 
tect this our priesthood and nobility!' the 
meaning of this has been explained. 

12. 'The lord of creatures, the all-worker,' — 
Pra^apati (lord of creatures) is indeed the all-worker, 
for he has wrought all this (universe); — 'Manas 
(the mind) is the Gandharva : his Apsaras are 
the hymn-verses and hymn-tunes/ — as a Gan- 
dharva, the Mind indeed went forth, with the hymn- 
verses and hymn-tunes as the Apsaras, his mates ; — 
'Wishes (esh/i) by name,' — the hymn-verses and 
hymn-tunes are indeed wishes, for by verses and 
tunes people pray, ' May this accrue unto us ! may 
it fare thus with us ! ' — 'may he protect this our 
priest and nobility!' the meaning of this has 
been explained. 

13. He then makes an offering on the Head of 
the Chariot; — this, indeed, is that very rite of 
consecration, — and by that he is now consecrated, — 
which this (Sacrificer) is permitted to perform by 
those deities with whose permission he is con- 
secrated ' ; for he alone becomes king whom the 
(other) kings allow (to assume) the royal dignity, 
and not he whom (they do) not (allow to assume it). 
With ghee taken in five ladlings (he offers), and 
this is offered as five oblations : the significance of 
this has been explained. 

14. On the head (or front part of the chariot the 

1 The construction of the text (occurring again at IX, 4, 4, 8) is 
rather irregular. 



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234 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

offering is made), for it is from the head (downwards) 
that he who is anointed is anointed, — whilst it is 
held above (the Ahavaniya), for above (others) is he 
who is thus anointed ; — with the same formula 
(repeated each time), for one and the same (person) 
is he who is thus anointed ; — whilst taking round 
(the chariot-head) in every direction ' : on every 
side he thus is anointed. 

15. And, again, as to why he makes offering on 
the head of the chariot ; — it is because this chariot 
is yonder sun ; for it was by assuming that form 
that Pra^apati enclosed those couples, and took 
them to himself, and made them his own ; and in 
like manner does this (Sacrificer) thereby enclose 
them, and take them to himself, and make them his 
own. Whilst it (the chariot-head) is held above 
(the fire, he offers), for above (others) was he who, 
enclosing those couples, took them to himself, and 
made them his own ; — and with the same formula, 
for one and the same is he who, by enclosing those 
couples, took them to himself, and made them his own. 

16. [He offers each time, with, Va£\ S. XVIII, 
44], ' O Lord of the world, Lord of creatures ! ' 
— for this (Agni), indeed, is the lord of the world, 
and the lord of creatures; — 'thou whose dwellings 
are on high, or here below,' — both on high and 

1 The body (or ' nest,' seat-part) of the chariot is shifted sunwise 
round the fire on the great altar, so that the fore-part keeps over 
the fire where the Adhvaryu's assistant holds it, and in each of the 
four directions, as well as in the centre of the fire, the Adhvaryu 
offers a libation of ghee, whilst facing the chariot-head. According 
to a comment on the respective rules (KSty. XVIII, 5, 17-20) 
alluded to by Prof. Weber (Ind. Stud. XIII, p. 286), the fore-part 
of the chariot would, however, seem to be taken off the seat-part ; 
the latter being carried round the fire as the oblations are made. 



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ix kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmaa-a, 5. 235 

here below, indeed, are his dwellings; — 'to this 
priesthood and this nobility of ours,' — for this 
Agni is both the priesthood and the nobility, — 
'grant thou mighty protection, hail ! ' — that is, 
' grant thou powerful protection ! ' 

Second BrAhmajva. 

1. He then offers (three) oblations of air ; — this 
fire-altar is these (three) worlds, and the oblations of 
air are wind : he thus places the wind into these 
worlds, and hence there is wind here in these worlds. 

2. He takes (the air) from outside the Vedi ; for 
that wind which is in these worlds is already con- 
tained in this (fire-altar), and he now puts into it 
that wind which is beyond these worlds. 

3. From outside the Vedi (he takes it), — for the 
Vedi is this (earth), and the wind which is on this 
(earth) is already contained in this (fire-altar): he now 
puts into it the wind which is beyond this (earth). 

4. By his two hollow hands (he takes it), for only 
in this way is the catching of that (wind brought 
about). With the Svaha-call (he offers), for he 
offers just under the shafts (of the chariot), — this 
chariot is yonder sun : he thus places the wind on 
this side of the sun, and hence that one blows on 
this side thereof. 

5. [He offers, with, Wig. S. XVIII, 45], 'Thou 
art the cloudy ocean,' — the cloudy ocean, doubt- 
less, is yonder world (of the sky), — 'the giver of 
moisture,' — for that (wind) indeed gives moisture : 
he thus bestows on this (fire-altar) the wind which is 
in yonder world; — 'blow thou kindly and pro- 
pitiously upon me, hail!' — that is, 'blow favour- 
ably and gently upon me ! ' 



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236 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

6. 'Thou art the stormy (region), the troop 
of the Ma ruts,' — the stormy (region), the troop of 
the Maruts, doubtless, is the air-world: he thus 
bestows on this (fire-altar) the wind which is in the 
air-world; — 'blow thou kindly and propitiously 
upon me, hail!' — that is, 'blow favourably and 
gently upon me ! ' 

7. 'Thou art the one affording protection 
and worship,' — the one that affords protection and 
worship, doubtless, is this (terrestrial) world : he 
thus bestows upon this (fire-altar) the wind which is 
in this world; — 'blow thou kindly and propi- 
tiously upon me, hail!' — that is, 'blow favourably 
and gently upon me ! ' 

8. With three (formulas) he offers, — three are 
these worlds, and threefold is Agni: as great as Agni 
is, as great as is his measure, with so much he thus 
puts air into these worlds. 

9. And as to why he offers the oblations of air : 
he thereby yokes that chariot of his ; for it was 
thereby that the gods yoked that chariot for (the 
obtainment of) all their wishes, thinking, ' By it, 
when yoked, we shall obtain them ; ' and by that 
yoked (chariot) they indeed obtained their wishes ; 
and in like manner does the Sacrificer thereby yoke 
that chariot of his for (the obtainment of) all his 
wishes, thinking, ' By it, when yoked, I shall obtain 
them;' and by that yoked (chariot) he indeed 
obtains all his wishes. 

10. He yokes it with the oblations of air 1 , — the 
oblations of air are the vital airs : it is thus with the 



1 That is, these oblations are, as it were, to represent the team 
of the chariot. 



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IX KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 12. 237 

vital airs he yokes it K With three (oblations) he 
yokes it, — there are three vital airs, the out- 
breathing, up-breathing, and through-breathing : it 
is with these he thus yokes it. Just below the 
shaft (he offers), for just below the shaft the horse is 
yoked ; — with his hands, for by the hands the horse 
is yoked ; — in moving round 2 , for in moving round 
the horse is yoked. 

1 1. The right yoke-horse he puts to first, then the 
left yoke-horse, then the right side-horse : for thus 
it is (done) among the gods, otherwise in human 
(practice). Let him not yoke that (chariot 3 ) again, 
lest he should yoke again the yoked one ; but let 
him give away the vehicle, thinking, ' I shall reap 
the benefit of the yoking of it V They carry it as 
far as the Adhvaryu's dwelling, holding it right 
upwards, for above is that (Agni). He presents it 
to the Adhvaryu, for it is he that performs therewith. 
Let him, however, (not) assign it to him (till) the 
time of the offering-gifts. 

12. He then offers the 'Lightsome 8 ' oblations. 

1 Or, he supplies him ( Agni). 

* According to Kity. .St. XVIII, 6, 1, 2, the Adhvaryu first takes 
a double handful of air from beyond the east side of the Vedi, and 
offers it below the right (south) shaft ; then from beyond the north 
side to be offered up below the left shaft, and lastly from beyond 
the south side to be offered below the shaft where the right side- 
horse would be yoked. In each case the girth (or yoke-tie) is to be 
carried round in the same way as if a real horse were yoked. 

* SSyawa takes it to mean ' that horse ' ; and according to Katy. 
.Sr. XVIII, 6, 3-5, the carriage is to be carried to the Adhvaryu's 
house, and, at the lime when the dakshiwas are presented to the 
priests, it is to be given to that priest along with three horses. The 
Brahma»a, however, does not seem to mention the horses. 

* Literally, of the yoked one. 

* These oblations are here called ' runmati,' because the three 



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238 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA. 

For now the whole Agni was completed ; he now 
wished for brilliance (ru^), and the gods, by means 
of these lightsome (oblations), endowed him with 
brilliance ; and in like manner does this (Sacrificer) 
now endow him therewith. 

1 3. And, again, as to why he offers the lightsome 
oblations. When Pra^apati was dismembered, his 
brilliance departed from him. When the gods re- 
stored him, they, by means of these lightsome obla- 
tions, endowed him with brilliance ; and in like 
manner does this (Sacrificer) endow him therewith. 

14. [He offers, with, Vaf. S. XVIII, 46-48], ' O 
Agni, what lights of thine in the sun 1 . . . ,' 
'O ye gods, what lights of yours are in the 
sun. . .*' — 'Bestow thou light upon our priests, 
(work thou light in our kings, light in our 
people and ^udras, bestow light upon me by 
thy light) ! ' He thus says ' light ' each time, — light 
is immortality : it is immortality he thus bestows 
upon him. 

15. He then offers one relating to Varu«a. 
That whole Agni has now been completed, and he 
now is the deity Varu«a : it is to him that he offers 
this oblation, and by the oblation he makes him 
(Agni) a deity, for that one alone is a deity to whom 
offering is made, but not that one to whom (offering 
is) not (made). With a verse addressed to Varu«a 
(he offers) : he thus gratifies him by his own self, by 
his own deity. 

16. And, again, as to why he offers one relating 

verses used with them contain the word ' rui,' being prayers for the 
bestowal of light. 

1 These two verses had already been used in laying down the 
Dviya^us bricks; see VII, 4, 2, 21. 



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IX KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 20. 239 

to Varu»a. When Pra^apati was dismembered, his 
strength departed from him. When the gods re- 
stored him they, by this (oblation), bestowed strength 
upon him ; and in like manner does this (Sacrificer) 
bestow it upon him. With a verse addressed to 
Varu«a (he offers), — Varuwa is the ruling power, and 
ruling power means strength : it is thus by strength 
that he bestows strength upon him. 

17. [He offers, with, \*g. S. XVIII, 49]. 'For 
this I appeal to thee, worshipping thee with 
prayer,' — that is, ' For that I beseech thee, wor- 
shipping thee with prayer;' — 'for this the Sacri- 
ficer imploreth theewith offerings,' — that is/for 
this, this Sacrificer implores thee with offerings ; ' — 
'without wrath listen thou here, O Varu«a!' 
— that is, ' without anger listen thou here to us, O 
Varu»a!' — 'take not our life from us, O far- 
ruler!' — he thereby gives utterance to a surrender 
of his own self. 

18. He then offers the Arkasvamedha-santati 1 
oblations. The light (arka), doubtless, is this fire 
(Agni), and the A^vamedha (horse-sacrifice) is yon- 
der sun, — when created, these two were separate: 
by means of these oblations the gods drew them 
together and connected them ; and in like manner 
does this (Sacrificer), by means of these oblations, 
now draw them together and connect them. 

19. [He offers, with, Vfy. S. XVIII, 50], 
'Heaven-like heat, hail!' — the heat, doubtless, 
is yonder sun ; he thus establishes yonder sun in 
Agni. 

20. 'Heaven-like flame, hail!' — the flame is 

1 That is, the joining together of the fire and the horse-sacrifice. 



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24O SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

this Agni : he thus establishes this Agni in yonder 
sun. 

21. 'The Heaven-like shining one, hail ! ' — 
the shining one, doubtless, is yonder sun : he places 
him again up there. 

22. 'Heaven-like light, hail!' — the light is 
this Agni : he places him again here (on the fire- 
altar). 

23. 'The heaven-like Surya, hail!' — Surya, 
doubtless, is yonder sun : he thus places yonder sun 
highest of all this (universe), whence he is the 
highest of all this (universe). 

24. These are five oblations he offers, — the fire- 
altar consists of five layers, a year of five seasons, and 
Agni is the year : as great as Agni is, as great as is 
his measure, with so much he thus draws together 
and connects those two. 

25. And as to why he says, ' Heaven-like heat, 
hail ! heaven-like flame, hail ! ' — these indeed are names 
of this fire : he thereby gratifies these, and by the 
offering he makes them a deity ; for only that one is 
a deity to whom an oblation is offered, but not that 
to whom it is not offered. Moreover, by naming 
them, he thus places them on this fire-altar. 

26. These are five oblations he offers, — the fire- 
altar consists of five layers, and the year of five 
seasons, and Agni is the year : as great as Agni is, 
as great as is his measure, by so much food he thus 
gratifies him. 

27. Now as to the insertion ' of (any other) obla- 
tions. If he should know any oblation supplied with 
a brahmawa (dogmatic explanation) let him offer it at 

1 Or, location, proper place; cf. p. 138, note 1. 



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IX KAJVBA, 4 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 2. 24 1 

this time ; for it is for (the obtainment of his) wishes 
that he yokes this chariot, and whatsoever oblation 
he offers on this occasion he offers as one that is 
(to be) fulfilled. 

28. As to this they say, ' Let him not offer (any 
additional oblations), lest he should do what is 
excessive.' Let him, nevertheless, offer them ; for 
it is for (special) wishes that these oblations are 
offered, and in wishes there is nothing excessive. 

Third Brahmajva. 

Preparatory Rites of the Soma-sacrifice. 

i. Having now returned (to the hall), he, at the 
proper time, throws up the Dhishwyas 1 (fire- 
hearths) — these hearths are fires : he thus builds 
up fire-altars. They are the clansmen, and the 
built-up fire-altar is the chieftaincy: he thus sets 
up both the chieftaincy and the clan. The former 
(altar) he builds up first, then these (hearths) : thus 
he sets up the clan after setting up the chieftaincy. 

2. That (fire-altar) is a single one : he thus makes 
the chieftaincy to attach to a single (person), and 
(social) distinction to attach to a single (person). 
The others are numerous : he thus bestows multi- 
plicity on the clan. 

1 A Soma-sacrifice being about to be performed on the newly 
erected fire-altar, now properly consecrated, all the necessary 
preparatory business and ceremonial enjoined for such a sacri- 
fice have now to be gone through in the way detailed in part ii 
of this translation. The author here only alludes to those points 
in the Soma-ritual in regard to which the present performance 
offers any special feature either additional to, or modificatory of, 
the ordinary ceremonial. The construction of the Dhishwyas, or 
fire-hearths of the different priests (for which see part ii, p. 148, 
note 4), is one of these points. 

[43] R 



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242 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

3. That (fire-altar) consists of five layers, the 
others of a single layer : he thus endows the chieftain 
(or, ruler) pre-eminently with power, and makes the 
chieftain more powerful than the clan (or people). 
Upwards he builds that one : he thus builds the 
ruling power upward by (social) layers ; sideways 
the others : he thus makes the clan obedient to the 
chieftain from below. 

4. That one he builds up both with the Ya^ush- 
mati (bricks laid down with a special formula), and 
with the Lokamprzwa (or space-filling ones, laid 
down with a common formula) ; the others with the 
space-filling one alone : he thus endows the chieftain 
pre-eminently with power, and makes the chieftain 
more powerful than the clan, and the clan less 
powerful than the chieftain. 

5. And when he builds up these (hearths) only 
with the space-filling one, the Lokampr?»«L being the 
nobility' — he thereby places the chieftain, as the 
eater, among the clan. He builds up (dhish»ya- 
hearths) both of the Soma-sacrifice *, and of the fire- 
altar; first those of the Soma-sacrifice, and then 
those of the fire-altar : the significance of this has 
been explained. Whatever Soma-hearth he (merely) 
throws up (at the Soma-sacrifice), that he (now) 
builds up. The Agnldhriya he builds first, for that 



1 See p. 132, note 2. 

* There are eight dhishwya-hearths at the Soma-sacrifice, two 
of which, the Agntdhrtya and Mlr^alfya, were raised north and south 
of the cart-shed (havirdhdna), whilst the others (viz. those of the 
Hotr/", &c.) were raised inside the Sadas along its eastern side. 
They were merely mounds of earth covered with sand, whilst the 
additional hearths (of the fire-altar) now to be erected are partly 
built of bricks. 



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ix kXnda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, 8. 243 

one he throws up first (at the Soma-sacrifice) ; (he 
does so) whilst sitting to the right (south) of it : 
the significance of this has been explained \ 

6. On this (Agnldhrlya) he puts eight bricks, — 
the Gayatrl consists of eight syllables, and Agni is 
of Gayatra nature : as great as Agni is, as great as 
is his measure, so great he thus builds him up. 
The variegated stone 2 is the ninth of them : there 
are nine vital airs — seven in the head and two 
downward ones — it is these he thus puts into it. The 
fire which is placed on the erected (hearth) is the 
tenth ; — there are ten vital airs 3 , and the Agnldhra 
is the middle (between the Garhapatya and Ahava- 
nlya fires) : he thus puts the vital airs in the middle 
of it ; for the vital airs, being in the middle of the 
body, move along it in this direction, and in that 
direction. 

7. Twenty-one he places on the Hotrlya (hearth), 
and there are twenty-one enclosing-stones * : the 
significance of this has been explained. 

8. Six (he places) on the Matyallya, — these are 
the six seasons, the Fathers; for the seasons, the 



1 See VII, x, 1, 21 seq., where the way in which the bricks of 
the Garhapatya hearth are kid down is described in detail. 

* When Agni was led forwards from the Garhapatya to be installed 
on his newly built altar, as the Ahavaniya or offering fire, a varie- 
gated stone, meant to represent the sun, was deposited near the 
place (on the northern edge of the Vedi) where the Agnldhra shed 
and hearth would afterwards have to be erected; see IX, 2, 3, 
14-19. 

' That is, including the central one, the outlet of which is the 
navel ; cf. VIII, r, 3, ro. 

* The numbers of bricks and enclosing-stones are the same as 
for the Garhapatya hearth, for which (with their symbolic meaning) 
see VII, 1, 1, 32-35. 

R 2 



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244 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJvA. 

Fathers \ indeed, heaped up (a rampart) round that 
(fire) from the south. This one lies to the south of 
those (other hearths) 2 , — this (Agnidhrlya) he lays 
down in this way (direction), and these (other hearths) 
in th is way, and that one (the Fire-altar) in this way: 
he thereby makes the peasantry look towards the 
chieftain. 

9. He then encloses these (hearths) by enclosing- 
stones ; — the enclosing-stones are the waters : it is 
thus by water that he surrounds them 3 . He merely 
lays them down all round, for those of the waters 
which flow in a hollow (channel) are the chieftain, 
and these stray waters are the clansmen ; thus, when 
he encloses that (great fire-altar) by a dug-in (row of 
stones), he thereby adds power to power, and sur- 
rounds (protects) power by power ; and when he 
merely lays down those (enclosing-stones of the 
hearths) all round, he thereby adds clansman (or clan) 
to clansman, and surrounds (protects) clansman by 
clansman 4 . As many bricks with special formulas as 

1 Sayawa refers to a passage in the Taittirtyaka, according to 
which a dying man is changed to whatever season he dies in, 
whence the six seasons are the representatives of all the deceased 
ancestors. Since the Fathers reside in the southern region it is 
from that quarter that, by laying down the bricks, they are supposed 
to raise a rampart for the Maiyaliya fire. 

* Viz. on the southern edge of the Vedi, exactly south of the 
Agnidhriva, whilst the other dhishnyas run in a line from north to 
south to the left of the space between the Agnfdhrtya and Mar^aliya. 
The other hearths, together with the great fire-altar occupying the 
eastern part of the Vedi, would thus, as it were, face the Mar^aliya 
in a semicircle. See the plan of the Sacrificial ground, part ii, 

P- 475- 

' That is, as the earth is surrounded by the ocean (VII, 1, 1, 13), 
or a stronghold by a moat. 

* Viz. inasmuch as the fire-altar and the Ahavaniya fire on it, as 



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ix kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmaata, ii. 245 

there are (in each hearth) so many enclosing-stones 
there are (in each) ; for with that (fire-altar) there 
are as many enclosing-stones as there are such 
bricks in it 1 : he thus makes the clan obedient 
and subservient to the chief. 

10. He then scatters a layer of earth on (each of) 
these (hearths) : the significance of this has been 
explained 2 . Silently 3 (he scatters it), for indistinct 
is the clan (or people). Then, after the cake-offer- 
ing of the Agnlshomtya (animal sacrifice) 4 , he 
prepares the propitiatory oblations to the 
Regions; — that fire-altar is the regions: it is to 
them he offers these oblations, and thus by offering 
makes them a deity, for only that one is a deity to 
whom an oblation is offered, but not that to whom 
it is not offered. There are five (such oblations), 
for there are five regions. 

11. As to this they say, — Let him prepare this 

well as the dug-in circle of enclosing-stones, are identified with the 
ruling power ; whilst the dhishwyas as well as the circles of stones 
lying loosely around them represent the clan. 

1 This is not clear to me : whilst there are 395 such bricks with 
special formulas in the five layers of the great altar, it is enclosed 
by only 261 parisrits; see p. 158, note 1. Besides there are no 
' ya^ushmatt ' bricks in these hearths, but only ' lokampn«5s ' ; 
one would therefore expect ' ish/ak&s ' (bricks) for ' ya^ushmatyas ' 
the first time (cf. comm. on KSty. St. XVIII, 7, 13). The Hotr/'s 
hearth contains twenty-one bricks, the Brahma»a£Ma»»sin's eleven, 
the Maigiliya six, and the others eight bricks ; and in each case 
the common formula, ' Lokam pr/«a, &c.' (see VIII, 7, 2, 6), is 
pronounced once after every ten bricks, and after any odd bricks 
remaining over at the end. Cf. Katy. St. XVIII, 6, 8 seq. 

' See VIII, 7, 3, 1 seq. 

* He does not use any such formula as that used in covering 
each layer of the great altar with earth ; see VIII, 7, 3, 7. 

4 See part ii, p. 199, note 2 (where the reference at the end should 
be to IV, 2, 5, 22). 



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246 *atapatha-brahmaa*a. 

offering (ishri) so as to consist of material for ten 
oblations ; — this (offering) is (performed) with all the 
stomas and all the prtshtAa. (samans) l ; and there are 
(used in it) all the metres, all the regions, all the 
seasons — and this Agni (the fire-altar) is all this: 
he thus, by the (amount of) offering material (taken 
out for the ish/i), makes (Agni) the deity 2 ; for only 
that one is the deity for whom the oblation is 
prepared, not one for whom it is not prepared. 
There are (in that case) ten (oblations), — the Virif 
(metre) consists of ten syllables, and Agni is vira^" 
(far-shining, or far-ruling) ; there are ten regions, 
and Agni (the fire-altar) is the regions ; ten vital 
airs, and Agni is the vital airs : as great as Agni is, 
as great as is his measure, with so much food he 
thus gratifies him. 

12. But, indeed, he may also take out these 
oblations for the Divine Quickeners a ; for these are 
the deities which become consecrated by this conse- 
cration ceremony by which he is now to be conse- 
crated : it is them he thus gratifies, and gratified by 
offering they permit him (to perform) this consecra- 
tion ceremony, and with their permission he is 



1 See part iii, introduction, p. xx seq. 

* As Sayana points out, the Taittirtyas make Agni the deity of 
this ish/i, the invitatory formulas (puro«nuvakya) of the different 
havis (oblations) naming him each time with different epithets 
relating to different metres, stomas, prr'shMas, and seasons. Cf. 
Taitt. S. I, 8, 4 : Taitt. Br. I, 8, 19. 

' For these eight deities (Savitr*' Satyaprasava, Agni G/-<hapati, 
&c), to whom offering is made at the Abhishe&iniya or Consecra- 
tion ceremony of the Ri^asuya, between the chief oblation of the 
animal cake-offering (Parupureu/lra) and its Svish/akrit, whilst the 
whole of the P&rupunWira is again performed in the middle of 
the animal sacrifice, see part iii, p. 69 seq. 



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IX KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 1 5. 247 

consecrated ; for only he becomes king whom the 
(other) kings allow (to assume) the royal dignity, but 
not he whom they do not (allow to assume it). And 
inasmuch as these deities are consecrated (quick- 
ened) by this consecration ceremony and quicken 
him for this consecration, they are (called) the 
Divine Quickeners. 

13. These (deities) come to have two names, as 
he who is consecrated by the -rite of consecration 
comes to have two names; for the very rite of 
consecration for which he is quickened, and by which 
he is consecrated (quickened), is his second name \ 

14. There are eight (such deities), — the Gayatri 
consists of eight syllables, and Agni is of Gayatra 
nature : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, by so much food he thus gratifies him. 

15. As to this they say, — He ought not to offer 
(any of) these oblations, lest he should do what is ex- 
cessive. Let him nevertheless offer them ; for these 
oblations are offered for (the obtainment of special) 
wishes, and in wishes there is nothing excessive. 
And whatsoever oblation he offers after the Pasu- 
purodara (the cake-offering connected with the animal 
sacrifice), that is placed inside the animal victim 
itself as its sacrificial sap 2 . He offers both kinds 
(of oblations), those of the Soma-sacrifice and those 
of the fire-altar (or Agni^ayana), first those of the 

1 That is to say, for example, he who has performed the V^ga- 
peya is called Va^apeya-ya^in, Say. 

4 These oblations, as well as those of the Parapunx/axa, inserted 
as they are in the middle of the animal offering, — just after the 
offering of the omentum of the victim, — are supposed to supply to 
the victim its sacrificial sap or essence which was taken out of it in 
the shape of the omentum. See III, 8, 3, 2. 



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248 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

Soma-sacrifice, and afterwards those of the fire-altar : 
the purport of this has been explained. In a loud 
voice 1 the Pampurod&fa offering (is performed), in 
a low voice these (additional oblations), for they are 
an ish/i 2 . With the Pasupuroa&ya he (the Adhvaryu) 
says, ' Recite ! — Urge ! ' and with these (oblations), 
' Recite ! — Worship 8 ' for they are an ish/i. There 
is the same Svish/akr*t and the same id&* (for these 
oblations). The (Devasu) deities have received 
offering, and the Svish/akrzt (of the PasupunWlra) 
has not yet been attended to *, — 

1 That is, in the formulas the name of the deity to whom the 
oblation is offered is pronounced in a loud voice. 

* That is, a * kimyesh/i,' or offering for the obtainment of some 
special object, which has to be performed in a low voice ; see I, 3, 

5. lo - 

* Or, 'Pronounce the offering-prayer!' For these two latter 
calls (anubruhi! — ya^a!), by which the Adhvaryu calls on the 
Hotr/ to pronounce the invitatory prayer (anuvakyfi or puro»nu- 
vakyS) and the offering-prayer (y&^ya) respectively, at ish/is, see 
I, 5, 2, 8-10 and I, 5, 3, 8; and for the first two (anubruhi! — 
preshya !), by the former of which the Adhvaryu calls on the Hotr; 
to recite the invitatory prayer ; whilst by the latter he calls on the 
Maitr&varuim to ' urge ' (or ' prompt ') the Hotr;' to pronounce the 
offering-prayer at the animal sacrifice, see III, 8, 1, 4 with note 
(where attention might have been called to the difference that exists 
between the ish/i and the animal sacrifice in regard to the formula 
by which the Adhvaryu calls for the recitation of the offering-prayer). 
In regard to this point there is, however, a difference of opinion 
between the M&dhyandina and the Ka»va schools, the latter using 
for the Parapuro<&ra on this occasion, as well as on that of the 
Ra^asuya, the same calls as those of the inserted ish/is ; cf. Katv. 
Si. XV, 4, 18-20. 

* For the Svish/akr;t, or oblation to Agni, * the maker of good 
offering,' offered after the chief oblations, see I, 7, 3, 1 seq. ; for the 
Ma-oblation (and invocation of I(/a), I, 8, 1, 1 seq. 

8 The tentative meaning assigned to ' asamavahitam,' 'not in 
immediate connection with (the Svish/akr;'t),' can scarcely be right. 
The clause seems simply to mean that the (purvabhisheka 1 ! touching 



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ix kajvda, 4 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, i. 249 

16. He then touches it (the fire-altar) with (the 
formula of) the preliminary consecration (V4f. S. IX, 
39. 40), 'May Savitr* quicken thee for (powers 
of) quickening 1 ! . . . This (man), O ye (people), 
is your king; Soma is the king of us Brah- 
ma«as ! ' — he thereby excludes the Brahma«as (from 
the power of the king) and makes them such as are 
not to be fed upon (by the king). 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

Acniyocana, or Yoking of the Fire-altar ; and 
soha-sacrifice. 

1. Then, early next morning 2 , when about to 
bespeak the morning prayer 8 , he yokes the Fire- 
altar, thinking, 'With it, when yoked, I shall obtain ;' 
and by it, when yoked, he obtains all wishes. He 

of the altar is to take place, as in the case of the (preliminary) con- 
secration at the Ra^asuya, immediately after the oblations to the 
Divine Quickeners, and before the Svish/akr/'t oblation of the PaJ-u- 
purorfaja has been performed. See V, 3, 3, 10, where a somewhat 
similar expression is used. One might have some doubt as to 
whether, both here and at the Ra^asuya, there is any Svish/akr/t 
at all to these Devasu-haviwbhi, or whether the statement, 'There 
is the same svish/akr/t and the same Ma/ applies not to them 
merely, but to them and the ParupurcMafa. If this latter alternative 
were the correct one, we should, however, expect that something 
had been said on this point in connection with the Devasu oblations 
of the Ra^usuya; and moreover the nature of the two oblations 
seems too different for such a partial identification, requiring as 
they do different ' praishas/ or calls, in the Svish/akr/'t (viz. ' ya^a ' 
the one, and ' preshya ' the other) ; see also IX, 5, 1, 40, and note 
3, p. 248; also Katy. St. V, n, 23-24. 

1 For the complete formulas, see V, 3, 3, 11, 12. 

J That is, on the first Sutya, or pressing-day. 

8 That is, by calling on the Hotr/' to ' Recite to the gods, the 
early coming ! ' see III, 9, 3, 10, with note thereto giving particulars 
regarding the Prataranuvaka. 



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25O SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

yokes it prior to the whole performance, so that 
all that is done thereafter is laden on that yoked 
(altar-cart). 

2. He yokes it on the enclosing-sticks, for those 
enclosing-sticks are fires * : it is with fires he thus 
yokes the fire-altar. 

3. Having touched the middle enclosing-stick 2 , 
he mutters this formula (Va^-. S. XVIII, 51), 'The 
Fire I yoke with might, with ghee!' — might 
means strength : thus, 'The fire I yoke (furnish) with 
strength, with ghee;' — ' the heavenly bird, great 
in vigour,' — for that (fire-altar) is indeed a heavenly 
bird, and great in vigour, in smoke 3 ; — 'Thereby 
we will go to the region of the bay, rising unto 
the light, beyond the highest firmament!' — 
The firmament, doubtless, is the heavenly world : 
thus, ' Thereby we will go to the region, of the bay 
(horse, the sun) mounting up to the heavenly world, 
beyond the highest firmament.' 

4. Then on the southern (right) one, with (Va£\ S. 
XVIII, 52), 'By these never-decaying, feathered 
wings of thine wherewith thou repellest the 
demons, O Agni, may we fly to the world of 
the righteous whither the erst-born seers went 
of old ! ' he thereby alludes to those J&shis 4 . 

1 See the ritual legend, I, 3, 3, 13 seq. 

* That is, the one along the hind (or west) side of the Ahavanfya 
fire on the great altar, being the base of the triangle formed by the 
three enclosing-sticks. The order in which they are touched is 
the same as that in which they were laid down. 

s Mahidhara actually takes ' smoke (dhuma) ' here to be intended 
as the literal meaning of ' vayas.' 

* Viz. the seven i?/"shis, identified with the seven vital airs which 
came to constitute the first Purusha (Agni-Pra^apati), and hence 
the bird-shaped fire-altar. See VI, 1,1,1 seq. 



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tx kajvda, 4 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 8. 251 

5. Then on the northern (left) one, with (Va^ - . 
S. XVIII, 53), 'The potent drop, the faithful 
eagle, the golden-winged bird, the active 
(bhura»yu),' — golden means immortal : thus, ' the 
immortal -winged bird, the bearer (bhart/-*) ;' — 
' the mighty is seated in the firm seat: homage 
be to thee, injure me not!' — he thereby gives 
utterance to a surrender of his own self. 

6. Now that middle formula is the body, and the 
two on both sides thereof are the wings (of the bird- 
shaped altar) : hence these two allude to ' wings V 
for these two are the wings. 

7. With three (formulas) he yokes it, — threefold 
is Agni : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, with so much he thus yokes him. 

8. And when he has pressed the king (Soma) he 
offers in the fire 2 . This, indeed, is that very rite of 
consecration (or pressing) — and by that he is now 
consecrated (or pressed) — which this (Sacrificer) is 
permitted to perform by those deities with whose 
permission he is consecrated 3 ; for he alone becomes 
king whom the (other) kings allow (to assume) the 
royal dignity, and not he whom (they do) not (allow 
to assume it). Now when he offers in the fire 
he thereby consecrates (anoints) Agni, and that 
divine body of his, being consecrated by Soma, 
becomes consecrated by the nectar of immortality. 
And he himself drinks (thereof) : he thereby conse- 

1 In the first formula the word for 'bird (eagle)' is 'suparwa,' 
literally ' the well-winged (well-feathered) one.' 

1 This refers to the libations made from the several cups (grahas), 
the contents of which are afterwards consumed by the priests (and 
Sacrificer) ; cf. part ii, p. 316, note 1. 

* For the same irregular construction, see IX, 4, 1, 13. 



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252 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

crates himself, and this self (body) of his, being 
consecrated by Soma, becomes consecrated by the 
nectar of immortality. 

9. Having offered in the fire (or, on the fire-altar), 
he drinks (Soma), for that (fire-altar) is his (the 
Sacrificer's) divine body ', and this (Sacrificer's real 
body) is his human one ; and the gods indeed were 
first, and afterwards men : therefore, having offered 
(Soma) in the fire, he drinks (thereof). 

10. Having now obtained the wish for (the 
accomplishment of) which he yokes it (the altar), he 
unyokes it when about to bespeak the Yagna- 
yagnxya stotra 2 , — for the Yagnayagmya is the 
heavenly world, and it is for the attainment of that 
(world) that he yokes it : thus (he unyokes it) after 
obtaining the wish for which he yoked it. 

11. It is prior to the Stotra that he unyokes it : — 
were he to unyoke after the Stotra, he would pass 
beyond that world 3 and lose it; but when he un- 
yokes prior to the Stotra, he unyokes forthwith 
after reaching the world of heaven. 

12. He unyokes it on the enclosing-sticks, for it 



1 See IX, 3, 4, 12. 

* The Ya^tfaya^fliya (or YagH&yagffiyz) stotra is the last and 
characteristic chant of the Agnish/oma mode of Soma-sacrifice, 
whence it is more properly called Agnish/oma-saman ; the Ya£#a- 
ya^-Siya, properly speaking, being the verses, Sama-v. II, 53, 54, 
chanted to a particular tune, and generally (though not always) 
used for the closing chant of the Agnish/oma. 

' That is, because the Ya^flaya^nfiya marks, as it were, the end 
of the (Agnish/oma) Soma-sacrifice, and anything performed there- 
after is, so to speak, outside the sacrifice, or beyond it. Katy. St. 
XVIII, 6, 17 calls it Agnimaruta stotra, i.e. the chant belonging 
to the Agnimaruta-jrastra (which has to be recited by the Hotr; 
after that chant) ; cf. part ii, p. 369 note. 



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IX KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAJVA, 14. 253 

is on the enclosing-sticks that he yokes it, and at 
whatever place (of the body) people yoke a horse 
there they also unyoke it. 

1 3. Having touched it (the fire) at the two joints 1 , 
he mutters these two formulas, — thus two formulas 
equal in power three enclosing-sticks, — with (Va^. S. 
XVIII, 54), 'The sky's head thou art, the 
earth's navel, [the essence of the waters and 
plants, the life of all, the ample, refuge (?) : 
homage be to the path !]' on the right, and with 
(55), 'On the head of the All dost thou keep 
standing, [in the (aerial) ocean is thy heart, in 
the waters thy life : bestow water, send the 
water-store (cloud), — from the sky, from the 
cloud, from the air, from the earth, favour 
us with rain!]' on the left (joint), — thus with two 
(verses) containing (the word) 'head,' for this is 
indeed its head ; and containing (the words) ' in 
the waters 2 ' : that Ya^«4ya,f»iya doubtless is Agni 
Vawvanara's chant of praise, and water is (a means 
of) appeasing, — therefore (he touches them) with 
two (verses) containing (the words) — ' the waters.' 

14. With two (verses) he unyokes it, — two-footed 
is the Sacrificer, and Agni is the Sacrificer : as great 
as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with so much 
he thus unyokes him. With three (verses) he 
yokes, — that (makes) five, — the fire-altar consists of 
five layers, the year (of) five seasons, and Agni is 

1 That is, at the two points where the right (southern) and left 
(northern) enclosing-sticks (forming the two sides of the triangle, 
the apex of which lies east of the centre of the fire) meet the 
western enclosing-stick (as the base of the triangle). 

1 The first verse, in point of fact, contains the genitive case ' of 
the waters.' 



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254 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

the year : as great as Agni is, as great as is his 
measure, so great is this. 

15. Now, some yoke it (the fire-altar) at a Pra- 
ya«lya 1 Atiratra, and unyoke it at an Udayanlya, 
saying, ' The unyoking, surely, is a certain form 
of completion, and why should we perform a form 
of completion prior to the completion (of the sacri- 
fice) ? ' But let him not do this, for day by day this 
sacrifice is performed, and day by day it comes to 
completion ; day by day he yokes that (altar) for the 
attainment of the heavenly world, and day by day 
he thereby attains the heavenly world : let him there- 
fore yoke it day by day, and unyoke it day by day. 

16. And, indeed, it would be just as if, at the 
Priya»lya Atiratra, after reciting the kindling- 
verses, he were to say, ' Hereafter *, at the Udaya- 
niya, I shall recite (them again) ! ' Let him there- 
fore yoke (the altar) day by day, and unyoke it day 
by day. 

17. And on this point, S&ndi\ya, indeed, having 
enjoined on the Kankattyas the day-by-day per- 

1 For the Praya»fya ish/i (to five deities) of the ordinary Agni- 
sb/oma, see part ii, pp. 47, 48, note. In the present case a special 
Soma-sacrifice of the Atiratra type would seem to take its place, 
just as the Pavitra, an Agnish/oma Soma-sacrifice, at the RS^asuya, 
took the place of the ordinary Anvarambhawtya ish/i (or opening 
offering) ; see part iii,' p. 42. In the same way there would 
apparently be a special Udayantya Soma-sacrifice; whilst our 
author would have the ceremonies of yoking and unyoking of 
the fire-altar performed on the very day (or days) of the Soma- 
sacrifice, that is to say, he would have the ordinary Prayaniyesh/i 
and Udayanfyesh/i performed as parts of the principal Soma-day 
(or days, if there are to be more than one). 

* Or, therefore, as Sayawa takes it. If the Udayantya were 
a special Soma-sacrifice, the Simidhenfs (part i, p. 102 seq.; ii, 
p. 13, note 3) would have to be recited anew. 



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IX KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, J. 255 



formance, went on his way, saying, ' Day by day 
they shall yoke for you, and day by day they shall 
unyoke ! ' Let him therefore yoke day by day, and 
unyoke day by day. 

Fifth AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. Now, then, as to the taking of milk as fast- 
food : the initiated should take milk for his fast- 
food. Once upon a time the nectar of immortality 
departed from the gods. 

2. They said, ' Let us seek for it here by toil and 
penance ! ' They sought for it by toil and penance. 
Having become initiated, they were living on fast- 
milk, for penance it is when, after becoming initiated, 
one lives on fast-milk. They heard the sound of it. 

3. They said, ' It is indeed coming nearer: let 
us practise penance still further ! ' They resorted 
to three teats : they saw it. 

4. They said, ' It is indeed coming nearer : let us 
practise penance still further ! ' They resorted to 
two teats : they saw it still nearer. 

5. They said, ' It is indeed coming nearer: let us 
practise penance still further ! ' They resorted to 
one teat : it came nigh unto them, but they could 
not lay hold of it. 

6. They said, ' It has indeed come nigh unto us, 
but we cannot lay hold of it : let us undergo the 
whole (practice of) penance ! ' On the day of pre- 
paration they underwent entire abstention from 
food ; for the whole (practice of) penance it is when 
one abstains from food : let him therefore eat nothing 
on the day of preparation. 

7. On the morrow, having laid hold of it and 
pressed it (the Soma), they offered (of it) in the fire, 



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256 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

and thereby bestowed immortality upon Agni. And 
he, Agni (the fire-altar), indeed, is the body of all 
the gods; and hence, when they bestowed immortality 
on Agni (the fire-altar), they bestowed immortality 
on their own selves, and thereby the gods became 
immortal. 

8. Now that same nectar of immortality is Soma. 
And even to this day the Sacrificer seeks for it by 
toil and penance ; having become initiated he lives 
on fast-milk ; for penance it is when, after being 
initiated, one lives on fast-milk ; he hears the sound 
of it, saying, ' On such and such a day the buying 
(will take place ') ! ' 

9. He resorts to three teats (of the cow) : he sees 
it. He resorts to two teats : he sees it nearer by. 
He resorts to one teat : it comes nigh to him, but 
he cannot lay hold of it. He undergoes entire 
abstinence from food ; for the whole (practice of) 
penance it is when one abstains from food : let him 
therefore eat nothing on the day of preparation. 

10. And, on the morrow, having laid hold of it, 
and pressed it, he offers (of it) in the fire, and 
thereby bestows immortality on Agni. He then 
drinks (of it), and thereby bestows immortality on 
his own self, and becomes immortal ; for this, 
assuredly, is immortality to man when he attains the 
whole (perfect) life : and so, in truth, he attains the 
whole life by this self of his. 

11. When he has offered in the fire, he drinks 
(Soma) ; for that (fire-altar) is his divine body, and 
this (Sacrificer's own body) is his human one ; and 



1 That is, the buying of the Soma plants, for which see part ii, 
p. 69 seq. 



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ix kAjvda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmaata. 17. 257 

the gods were first, and then men : therefore he 
drinks (Soma), after offering in the fire. 

1 2. Now, then, the discussion of the Samish/aya^us 
(oblations). The gods and the Asuras, both of them 
sprung from Pra/apati, entered upon their father 
Pra^apati's inheritance, to wit, speech — truth and 
untruth, both truth and untruth : they, both of 
them, spake the truth, and they both spake untruth ; 
and, indeed, speaking alike, they were alike. 

13. The gods relinquished untruth, and held fast 
to truth, and the Asuras relinquished truth, and held 
fast to untruth. 

14. The truth which was in the Asuras beheld 
this, and said, ' Verily, the gods have relinquished 
untruth, and held fast to truth : well, then, I will 
go thither ! ' Thus it went over to the gods. 

15. And the untruth which was in the gods beheld 
this, and said, ' Verily, the Asuras have relinquished 
truth, and held fast to untruth : well, then, I will go 
thither ! ' Thus it went over to the Asuras. 

16. The gods spake nothing but truth, and the 
Asuras nothing but untruth. And the gods, speak- 
ing the truth diligently, were very contemptible, 
and very poor : whence he who speaks the truth 
diligently, becomes indeed very contemptible, and 
very poor ; but in the end he assuredly prospers, for 
the gods indeed prospered. 

1 7. And the Asuras, speaking untruth diligently, 
throve even as salt soil ', and were very prosperous : 
whence he who speaks untruth diligently, thrives 
indeed, even as salt soil, and becomes very pros- 

1 Both salt (V, 3, 1, 16; VII, 1, 1, 6) and saline soil (VII, 3, 1, 
8) mean cattle. 

[43] s 



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258 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

perous; but in the end he assuredly conies to 
naught, for the Asuras indeed came to naught. 

18. Now that same truth, indeed, is this threefold 
lore x . The gods said, ' Now that we have made up 
the sacrifice, let us spread out 2 this truth ! ' 

19. They prepared the Initiation-offering. But 
the Asuras became aware of it, and said, ' Having 
made up the sacrifice, the gods are now spreading 
out that truth : come, let us fetch hither what was 
ours ! ' The Samish/aya^us of that (offering) was 
not yet performed, when they arrived : whence 
people offer no Samish/aya^us s for that sacrifice. 
The gods, espying the Asuras, snatched up the 
sacrifice, and began doing something else 4 . They 
(the Asuras) went away again, thinking, ' It is some- 
thing else they are doing.' 

20. When they had gone away, they (the gods) 
prepared the Opening-offering. But the Asuras 

1 That is, the Veda, and hence the sacrificial ritual as the sole 
end for which the three collections of hymn-verses (n't), hymn- 
tunes (s&man), and sacrificial formulas (ya^us) were made. 

* The verb ' tan,' ' to spread,' is the regular expression for the 
' performing ' of the sacrifice, — a figure of speech taken from the 
spreading out of a web, in which literal sense it has to be taken here. 

5 See III, 1, 3, 6, where the injunction is given that no Samish/a- 
va^iis should be performed for the Dikshaniyesh/i, 'lest he who 
has put on the garment of initiation should reach the end of the 
sacrifice before its completion; for the Samish/aya^us is the end 
of the sacrifice.' It should be remembered that the initiation- 
offering, however essential, is merely a preliminary ceremony of 
the Soma-sacrifice, at the end of which latter sacrifice nine 
Samish/aya^us oblations are offered (IV, 4, 4, 1 seq.) instead of 
the single one offered at the ordinary havirya^fta. The term 
signifies ' the formula (yajois) of the completed offering (samish/a).' 

* Prof. Delbruck, Altind. Syntax, p. 429, makes this last clause 
part of the Asuras' speech or thoughts, — ' one thing they have under- 
taken to do, and another they are doing.' This can hardly be right 



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ix kXnda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 22. 259 

became aware of this also. The .Samyos (formula) 
of that (offering) had been pronounced, when they 
arrived ; whence that sacrifice ends with the Samyos 1 . 
The gods, espying the Asuras, snatched up the 
sacrifice, and began doing something else. They 
went away again, thinking, ' It is something else 
they are doing.' 

21. When they had gone away, they (the gods), 
having bought and driven about the king (Soma), 
prepared the guest-offering for him. But the Asuras 
became aware of this also. The \dk of that (offering) 
had been invoked, when they arrived ; whence that 
sacrifice ends with the Ida*. The gods, espying 
the Asuras, snatched up the sacrifice, and began 
doing something else. They went away again, 
thinking, ' It is something else they are doing.' 

22. When they had gone away, they (the gods) 
spread out (performed) the Upasads 8 . When they 
had recited three kindling-verses, and no more, 
they made offering to the deities, but laid out 4 no 
fore-offerings and no after-offerings on either side 
of the sacrifice, for they were in too great haste 
at that time ; whence at the Upasads, when he has 
recited three kindling-verses, and no more, he 

1 See III, 2, 3, 23, where it is stated that the Praya»fya of the 
Soma-sacrifice is to end with the .Samyos (or .Samyuvaka, for 
which see part i, p. 254 seq.) ; the Patnisamya^as (and Samish/a- 
ya^us) of the ordinary ish/i being thus omitted. 

' For the Atithya, see part ii, p. 85 seq. It is shorn of the 
after-offerings (in addition to the Patnisawtya^as and Samish/a- 
ya^us). 

' For the Upasads, see part ii, p. 104 seq. 

4 That is, performed ; but the verb (ut-sidaya, ' to set out, or in 
order ') is used purposely, as if laying out for display, — so as to be 
in keeping with the ' spreading out ' of the sacrifice. 

S 2 



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260 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

makes offering to the deities, but lays out no fore- 
offerings and no after-offerings on either side of the 
sacrifice. 

23. On the day of preparation they slaughtered 
the Agnishomlya victim. But the Asuras became 
aware of this also. The Samish/aya^s oblations of 
this (offering) had not yet been offered, when they 
arrived ; whence people offer no Samish/aya^us for 
this animal(-offering). The gods, espying the 
Asuras, snatched up the sacrifice, and began doing 
something else. They went away again, thinking, 
' It is something else they are doing.' 

24. On the next morning after they had gone 
away, they (the gods) spread out (performed) the 
morning-service (of the Soma-sacrifice). But the 
Asuras became aware of this also. As much as 
the morning-service had been performed of it, when 
they arrived. The gods, espying the Asuras, 
snatched up the sacrifice, and began doing some- 
thing else. They went away, thinking, ' It is some- 
thing else they are doing.' 

25. When they had gone, they (the gods) spread 
out the midday-service. But the Asuras became 
aware of this also. As much as the midday-service 
had been performed of it, when they arrived. The 
gods, espying the Asuras, snatched up the sacrifice, 
and began doing something else. They went away, 
thinking,' ' It is something else they are doing.' 

26. When they had gone, (the gods) went on 
with the animal-offering of the Soma-sacrifice 1 . 

1 The portions from the Savaniya pa.ru, which is slain during 
the morning-service, continue being cooked until the evening- 
service, when they are offered. See IV, 2, 5, 13; and part ii, 
P- 357. note. 



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IX KAJVDA, 5 ADHYAYA, I BrAhMA^A, 30. 26 I 

But the Asuras became aware of this also. As 
much of this animal-offering as is done (at the 
evening-service) had been done, when they arrived. 
The gods, espying them, snatched up the sacrifice, 
and began doing something else. They went away, 
thinking, ' It is something else they are doing.' 

27. When they had gone away, they (the gods) 
spread the evening-service and completed it ; and 
by completing it they obtained that whole truth. 
Then the Asuras went down 1 . Then the gods 
prevailed, and the Asuras came to naught. And, 
indeed, he who knows this, himself prevails, and his 
spiteful enemy comes to naught. 

28. The gods said, ' Those sacrifices of ours which 
are half-completed, and leaving behind which we 
went off*, — think ye upon this, how we may com- 
plete them ! ' They said, ' Meditate ye ! ' whereby, 
indeed, they meant to say, ' Seek ye how we may 
complete these sacrifices ! ' 

29. Whilst meditating, they saw these Samish/a- 
yagxts (oblations), and offered them, and thereby 
completed those sacrifices ; and inasmuch as thereby 
they completed (sawsthapaya) them, they are ' saw- 
sthitaya^us ' ; and inasmuch as thereby they sacri- 
ficed completely (saw-ya^ 3 ), they are ' samish/a- 
yafus.' 

30. Now there are nine such (incomplete) sacri- 



1 Literally, leapt down (from their high station). 

* That is, which we left behind us when we went off. 

3 Cf. IV, 4, 4, 6. For whatever deities this sacrifice is performed, 
they all are thereby ' sacrificed-to together ' (sanvish/a) ; and because, 
after all those (deities) have been 'sacrificed-to together,' he now 
offers those (libations), therefore they are called Samish/ayag-us. 
See also I, 9, 2, 26, with note thereto. 



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262 satapatha-brAhma#a. 

fices, and there are nine samish/ayafus-oblations 1 ; 
and by offering these, he completes those sacrifices. 
He offers both kinds, those of the Soma-sacrifice, 
and those of the Agni(-iayana), — first those of the 
Soma-sacrifice, and afterwards those of the fire-altar: 
the significance of this has been explained. 

31. Two he offers of the fire-altar, — two-footed is 
the Sacrificer, and Agni is the Sacrificer : as great 
as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with so much 
he thus completes the sacrifice. [He offers them, 
with, V£f. S. XVIII, 56, 57], 'Sacrifice hath 
been offered up by the Bhrz'gus . . . ; ' — 'May 
Agni who hath received sacrifice and oblation 
speed our offered meat!' 

32. These two amount to eleven, — the Trish/ubh 
consists of eleven syllables, and the Trish/ubh 
means strength : it is strength he thus imparts to the 
Sacrificer. 

33. And, again, as to why there are eleven, — the 
Trish/ubh consists of eleven syllables, and Indra is 
of trish/ubh nature, Indra is the self (soul) of the 
sacrifice, Indra is the deity 2 : he thus finally estab- 
lishes the sacrifice in him who is the self, the deity 
of the sacrifice. 

34. Having performed the Samish/ayafus-obla- 
tions, they betake themselves to the expiatory bath 
(avabhrz'tha 3 ). Having come out from the bath, 

1 That is to say, the same nine Samish/aya^ois-oblations which 
are performed at the end of the Soma-sacrifice (IV, 4, 4, 1 seq.). 
At the end of these, however, two additional such oblations are 
offered on the present occasion. 

* See I, 4, 5, 4, ' Indra is the deity of (this ?) sacrifice ; ' IV, 4, 
2, 16, 'Indra is the leader of the sacrifice.' The first of the nine 
Samish/aya^ns-oblations of the Soma-sacrifice is offered to Indra. 

* See IV, 4, 5, 1 seq. 



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IX KA.YDA, 5 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, 36. 263 

and performed the Udayanlya (concluding obla- 
tion) 1 , he, after the animal cake of the offering 
of the barren cow 2 , prepares oblations for the 
goddesses. 

35. For now Prafapati, having gained his end, 
thought himself quite perfect. Establishing himself 
in the quarters he went on ordering (or creating) 
and disposing everything here ; and inasmuch as he 
went on ordering and disposing, he is the Orderer. 
And in like manner does the Sacrificer, establishing 
himself in the quarters, order and dispose everything 
here. 

36. And, again, as to why he prepares these 
oblations. This Agni (the fire-altar) is the quarters 
(regions), and these he lays down beforehand (in 
the shape of) the bunch of Darbha grass 8 and the 
clod-bricks*; the Pra«abhWts s in the first layer, 
the whole of the second, the whole of the third, and 
the whole of the fourth (layers *) ; and of the fifth 



1 See IV, 5, 1, 1 seq. 

1 For this offering to Mitra and Varuwa, see IV, 5, 1, 5. 
5 The bunch of Darbha grass is placed in the centre of the newly 
ploughed altar-site ; see VII, a, 3, 1 seq. 

* The four logesh/akas (clods of earth), being placed at the ends 
of the two ' spines,' represent the four quarters, marking as they do 
the centre of the east, south, west, and north sides of the altar-site, 
sown with seeds of all kinds; see VII, 3, i, 13 seq. The bunch 
of Darbha grass, placed in the centre, would thus represent the 
fifth region, viz. the one above. 

* Though the PrS«abhr/'ts are said to represent, not the regions, 
but the (channels of the) vital airs, they are placed in rows along 
the diagonals of the square body of the altar, thus marking, as it 
were, the intermediate regions; whilst the fifth set is placed in 
a circle round the centre. See VIII, 1, 1, r seq. 

* The bricks of these layers are all of them supposed to be 
marked by their position to relate to the regions or quarters. 



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264 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

layer the Asapatnas, Nakasads and Pa»ia>£urtas ', — 
these kept going out upwards 2 (from Pra^apati, 
the altar). Pra^apati was afraid of them, thinking, 
' Whilst moving away, these will go beyond this 
universe.' Having become the Orderer, he went 
round them and established himself in them. 

37. Now the same as that Orderer is yonder sun ; 
and that which was the farthest gone of the regions 
is that in which that (sun) shines firmly established. 

38. And the same as that Orderer is this cake 
to the Orderer on twelve potsherds. On twelve 
potsherds (it is), — the year is (of) twelve months, 
Pra^apati is the year, and Prafapati is the Orderer. 
And that one which was the farthest gone of the 
regions is the same as these previous oblations, — 
a pap to Anumafi, a pap to Raka, a pap to 
Sinlvall, and a pap to Kuhu 3 : when he prepares 
these oblations, he thereby establishes him (Pra^a- 
pati) in that which was the farthest gone of the 
regions. That (cake) he offers whole, for the com- 
pleteness of that (Pra^apati). 

39. These are goddesses, for they are the regions, 



1 For the Asapatnas, laid down near the ends of the spines, to 
drive off evil in all four quarters, see VIII, 5, 1, 1 ; for the other 
two kinds of bricks, expressly identified with the regions, see VIII, 
6, i, 1 seq. 

1 That is, the altar was so full of regions that they escaped at 
the top. 

' These deities are supposed to be personifications of the four 
phases of the moon; whilst Prof: Weber (Ind. Siud. XIII, p. 29c) 
would also take the Orderer (dhatrz) — by the Brahinawa identified 
with the sun — to represent the moon. On Sinivall (identified with 
Va£, VI, 5, 1, 9), see also A. Kuhn, Zeitschr. f. v. Sprachf. II, 
p. 120 ; Weber, Ind. Stud. V, 230. Anumati is identified with the 
earth, V, 2, 3, 4. 



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IX IcAiVDA, 5 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 41. 265 



the regions are the metres, and the metres are 
deities ; and that Ka is Pra^apati ; and inasmuch 
as they are goddesses (devl) and Ka, they are 
' devika^ V There are five of them, for there 
are five regions. 

40. As to this they say, ' He should not offer 
these oblations, lest he should do what is excessive.' 
Let him nevertheless offer them ; for these oblations 
are offered for (the fulfilment) of (special) wishes, 
and in wishes there is nothing excessive. And 
whatever oblation is offered after the cake of the 
animal-offering that is placed inside the victim 
itself as its sacrificial sap. He offers both kinds 
(of oblations), those of the Soma-sacrifice and those 
of the Agni(-^ayana), to wit, first those of the Soma- 
sacrifice, and then those of the fire-altar : the signi- 
ficance of this has been explained. The cake- 
offering of the animal sacrifice is (performed) in a 
loud voice, and these (five oblations) in a low voice, 
for they are an ish/i 2 . With the Pa^upuroda^a he 
(the Adhvaryu) says, 'Recite! — Urge!' and with 
these (oblations), ' Recite ! — Worship ! ' for they are 
an ish/i 3 . There is the same Svish/akm, and the 
same ld&*. 

41. Of that same animal-offering (of the barren 
cow) they perform the Samish/ayafus-oblations ; 
they enter the expiatory bath with the heart-spit 6 ; 

1 This is an etymological quibble resorted to in order to account 
for the oblation to Pra^apat J as one of the oblations of the goddesses 
(deviki). 

1 See p. 248, note 1. 3 See ibid., note 2. 

* That is, for these five oblations which are inserted between the 
chief oblations and the Svish/aknt of the Paxupurorfaja ; as above, 
IX, 4, 3, 12 seq. 

* For this expiatory ceremony, called the -Sulavabhrz'tha (spit- 



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266 satapatha-brAhmatva. 

for this animal-offering is the end. Having proceeded 
with the heart-spit ; — 

42. And having returned (to the fire-altar), he 
performs the oblations to Vi^vakarman; — This 
Agni(-iayana) indeed (includes) all sacrificial rites 
(vijvani karmlwi) ; and all these its rites have been 
performed in this (agniiayana) : he now gratifies 
them, and makes them a deity by means of an 
offering of sacrificial food ; for only that one is 
a deity, for whom an oblation is prepared, but not 
one for whom it is not (prepared). Moreover, this 
Agni is Vi^vakarman (the all-worker) : it is him he 
thereby gratifies. 

43. And, again, as to why he offers the Vaisvakar- 
mawa (oblations) *. For the fire-altar there is both 
a beginning and an end : the Savitra 2 (formulas) are 
the beginning, and the Vai.rvakarma#a (oblations) 
the end. Were he to offer only those to Savhrt, 
and not those to Visvakarman, it would be as if 
he made only a beginning and no end ; and were 
he to offer only those to Visvakarman, and not 
those to Sa.vhri, it would be as if he made only 
an end and no beginning. He offers both of them, 
and thus makes both a beginning and an end. 

44. There are eight of those (Savitra), and so 
(there are eight of) these : thus he makes the end 

bath), and marking the conclusion of an ordinary (niriW&i) animal 
sacrifice — not one belonging to the Soma-sacrifke — as well as of 
the offering of a sterile cow, see part ii, p. 215. 

1 Or, perhaps, formulas ; the verses used along with the oblations 
being ascribed to Vuvakarman. In any case, however, these obla- 
tions are offered to Agni, as the Virvakarman, or all-worker 
(vijvakartr;), or (in the case of Agni=AgnUayana) as including 
all works (or sacrificial performances). 

2 See VI, 3, 1, 1 seq.; part iii, p. 190 seq. 



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ix kXnda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 47. 267 

(the same) as the beginning. The Svaha-call is the 
ninth of those x , and so it is of these : thus he makes 
the end as the beginning. The oblation (ahuti) 
is the tenth of those 2 , and so it is of these : thus he 
makes the end as the beginning. On that occasion 
he offers the oblation continuously so as not to 
stop the seed, the sacrifice there being seed; — on 
this occasion (he offers) with the dipping-spoon at 
the Svaha-call, for manifest is the seed when it is 
born. 

45. [He offers, with, Vdf. S. XVII, 58-65], 'What 
hath flowed from out of the will, or the heart, 
or was gathered from the mind, or the eye, 
after that go ye forward, — to the world of the 
righteous whither the first-born seers went of 
old ! ' he thereby means those ^/shis 3 . 

46. 'Unto thee, O (heavenly) seat, I commit 
thistreasurewhich the knower of beings shall 
bring thither 4 ! Here the lord of the sacrifice 
will go after you : acknowledge ye 6 him in the 
highest heaven!' — as the text, so the meaning. 

47. 'Acknowledge him, O ye gods, seated 

1 See VI, 3, 1, a 1. 

* The S&vitra formulas accompany eight libations, which form, 
however, only one single continuous offering (ahuti) with one 
svaha-call. 

* For the seven J?tshis, identified with the vital airs, the first 
existing beings, see VI, 1, 1, 1 seq. 

4 Mahtdhara (and apparently S&ya»a) seems to supply 'yagz- 
manam' to 'etam,' and construe thus: 'Unto thee, O heavenly 
sent, I commit this (Sacrificer), which treasure Gitavedas shall 
bring thither.' 

* 'O gods, honour ye him (the Sacrificer)!' Mahtdhara; but 
perhaps the jfft'shis are addressed in this second line. Mahtdhara 
takes ' atra ' (' here ') along with ' parame vyoman ' — ' in this highest 
heaven.' 



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268 satapatha-brAhmana. 

in the highest heaven, know ye his form ! 
When he cometh by the godward paths, 
reveal ye unto him the fulfilment of his 
wishes!' — as the text, so the meaning. — 'Awake, 
O Agni, and be watchful! . . .' — 'Whereby 
thou carriest a thousand, . . .' — the meaning of 
these two has been explained l . 

48. 'With grass-bunch and enclosing-stick, 
with spoon, altar-ground and grass-cover, 
with verse of praise, lead thou this our sacri- 
fice unto heaven, to go unto the gods!' that is, 
'with these outward forms of our sacrifice make 
it go to the heavenly world ! ' 

49. 'What gift, what bounty, what fulfil- 
ment, what offering-presents there are of ours, 
— Agni Vai-yvakarmawa shall deposit them in 
heaven with the gods!' — that is, 'whatever we 
give, seasonably or unseasonably, that this fire- 
altar of VLrvakarman shall place in the heavenly 
world ! ' 

50. 'Where the streams of honey and ghee 
are never-failing, — there, in heaven, Agni Vai- 
.svakarmawa shall place us with the gods!' — 
as the text, so the meaning l . 

51. Eight Vawvakarmawa (oblations) he offers, — 
the Giyatrt consists of eight syllables, and Agni 
is of Gayatra nature : as great as Agni is, as great 

1 See VIII, 6, 3, 23. 24. 

1 The meaning of the verse is, however, far from certain. The 
above is Mahidhara's interpretation, except that he takes ' ySA ' to 
mean ' and what (other) streams there are.' It might, however, also 
mean — ' What streams of honey and ghee of ours are never-failing 
anywhere — Agni Valrvakarmana shall deposit ihem in heaven with 
the gods I' — in which case due reward for sacrifice would be 
prayed for. 



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ix kXsda, 5 adhyAva, i brAhmawa, 5;. 269 

as is his measure, by so much food he thus gratifies 
him. 

52. When he has performed the Vairvakarmawa 
(oblations), he gives a name 1 (to the fire of the 
altar) ; for when any one has been born sound and 
safe, they give a name to him, and now this (Agni) 
has indeed been born sound and safe. 

53. Having given a name to him, he reverently 
approaches him ; for this (Sacrificer) builds him 
with his (own) whole self, and were he not to give 
utterance now to this surrender of his own self, 
he (Agni) would now take away his (the Sacrificer's) 
self; but when he now gives utterance to this 
surrender of his own self, he (Agni) does not take 
away his self. [He approaches the fire] with the 
Anush/ubh verse {Mag. S. XVIII, 67), 'What fires 
of the five races of men there are upon this 
earth, — thou art the chiefest of them : quicken 
us unto life!' — the Anush/ubh k doubtless, is speech, 
and all the metres are speech 2 : he thus makes 
amends to him (Agni) by all the metres. Having 
stood by the fire, and lifted 8 it, and churned it out, 
he offers the completing oblation 4 . 

1 According to VI, 1, 3, 20, the newly built Agni is to be called 
' A'itra,' the Bright one. 

* Or, are V&i, the Veda, cf. IV, 6, 7, 1 seq. 

* Or, ' having mounted it ; ' — that is to say, he heats the churning- 
sticks (arani) at the altar-fire, betakes himself with them to the old 
(Garhapatya) fire-place; 'churns out' the fire, and offers on the 
fire thus produced. 

* The Udavaslniya-ish/i, consisting of a cake on five potsherds 
for Agni (or a libation of ghee taken in five ladlings for Vish»u), is 
the same as for the Soma-sacrifice, IV, 5, 1, 13. But whilst there 
it is followed at once by the (evening) Agnihotra, or oblation of 
milk regularly performed twice a day ; on the present occasion an 
additional oblation is performed. 



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2 "JO SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

54. He then offers a dish of clotted curds to 
Mitra and Varuwa 1 . Now he who performs this 
(Agni-iayana) rite comes to be with the gods ; and 
these two, Mitra and Varu»a, are a divine pair. 
Now, were he to have intercourse with a human 
woman without having offered this (oblation), it 
would be a descent, as if one who is divine would be- 
come human ; but when he offers this dish of clotted 
curds to Mitra and Varu«a, he thereby approaches 
a divine mate * : having offered it, he may freely 
have intercourse in a befitting way. 

55. And, again, as to why he offers this dish of 
clotted curds to Mitra and Varu«a. When Pra^a- 
pati was released, the seed fell from him. When the 
gods restored him, they, by means of this dish of 
clotted curds, put seed into him ; and in like 
manner does this (Sacrificer) thereby put seed into 
him. 

56. Now that Pra^apati who became released is 
this very fire-altar which is here being built; and 
the seed which fell from him is this dish of clotted 
curds of Mitra and Varu»a ; for Mitra and Varuwa 
are the in-breathing and up-breathing, and the in- 
breathing and up-breathing fashion the infused seed. 
A dish of clotted curds it is, because seed is milk ; 
and sacrifice it is, because sacrifice is the seed of 
sacrifice. In a low voice it is (offered), for silently 
seed is shed. At the end (of the sacrifice) it is 
(offered), for from the end seed is introduced. 

1 The same payasya-oblation is performed at the Dakshayana 
modification of the new and full-moon sacrifice (II, 4, 4, 10 seq.) ; 
see also the Sinnayya of the new-moon sacrifice (part i, p. 178, 
note 4) which is the same dish. 

1 Or, he enters into a divine union. 



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ix kUnda, 5 adhyAya, i brAhmawa, 6i. 271 

57. They proceed with the whey 1 of that (dish 
of clotted curds). At this (oblation of whey) he 
gives a dakshma (sacrificial gift) : ' Let him give 
a pair of hornless he-goats,' so (they say) ; — ' Only 
by assignment, I think*:' said Mahitthi. And, 
verily, this libation of the fire-builder flows away 
as a libation of Soma which one offers on a (fire) 
without bricks. 

58. He need only lay down the naturally-per- 
forated (bricks) a ; for the naturally-perforated ones 
are these worlds; and this built fire-altar is the 
same as these worlds. 

59. He need only lay down the seasonal (bricks) ; 
for the seasonal ones are the year, and this built 
fire-altar is the year. 

60. He need only lay down the all-light (bricks); 
for the all-light (bricks) are those deities *, and this 
built fire-altar is those deities. 

61. He need only lay down the Puna^iti; for 
this is a repeated sacrifice (punar-ya^wa), it is a later 
(higher) worship of the gods : it is thus a repeated 
sacrifice and the higher worship of the gods he 
thereby arranges, and the repeated sacrifice inclines 
to him 6 ! — so (they say), but let him not do this, 

1 The whey (vagina) is offered to the (divine) Coursers, i.e. the 
regions or quarters ; see II, 4, 4, 22-25. 

1 The meaning of this passage is not quite clear to me. 

* The three Svayamitr/'wias in the centre of the first, third, and 
fifth layers represent the three worlds. These, and the subsequent 
injunctions, refer to one who, subsequent to the Agniiayana, wishes 
to perform a Soma-sacrifice, without being able to repeat the Agni- 
>tayana itself. K£ty. St. XVIII, 6, 33. 

4 See VI, 3, 3, 16; 5, 3, where the three VLrva^yotis bricks are 
said to represent Agni, Vayu (wind), and Aditya (sun) respectively. 

' Though there is nothing in the text to show where this quota- 



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272 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

for, indeed, whenever Agni is placed on the built 
(altar), this whole Agni passes into that very brick 1 : 
thus whenever he offers in the fire, then these 
oblations of his will be offered even as would be his 
oblations, when offered on a complete S&ndiXa. fire- 
altar built up with wings and tail. 

62. And, indeed, he who carries about Agni* 
becomes pregnant with all beings, and with all the 
gods ; and he who builds him when he has not been 
carried about for a year kills all beings in the form 
of an embryo. But, surely, he who kills a human 
embryo, is despised, how much more then he who kills 
him (Agni), for he is a god : ' Let no one become 
an officiating priest for an (Agni) who has not been 
carried about for a year,' said Vatsya, 'lest he 
should be a participator in the killing of this, 
a god's seed 8 ! ' 

lion begins, it would seem, from Katyayana's rules, that it runs 
from the beginning of paragraph 58, — XVIII, 6, 33. In case of 
inability (to perform a second) ihyi, at a repeated Soma-sacrifice, 
(he may lay down) one or other kind of the SvayamStr;'»»4s, 
Vijva^yotishas, or .ff/tavyas ; 34. The Pun&r£iti ; 35. Or no build- 
ing (at all a second time); 36. Because the (Agni) A^ltya has 
become the Ahavaniya. 

1 That is (as would seem from Sayawa's interpretation), into the 
Ahavaniya fire, considered as the last brick of the altar ; and hence 
the Sacrificer's offering-fire will for ever thereafter remain for him 
the ATitya Agni. 

1 During the time of initiation (dfksha), which, if at all possible, 
is to last for a year, the Ukhya Agni has to be carried about by the 
intending Sacrificer, for at least part of each day, in the fire-pan 
(uklia), suspended in a sling from his neck; the pan-fire being 
afterwards transferred to the newly built Garhapalya and thence 
to the great fire-altar, to serve as the Auya Agni, or the Ahavaniya 
fire. See VI, 7, 1, 12 seq. 

3 In the original this last clause is in the first person, or in the 
oratio dirccta, from the point of view of him who is asked to officiate 



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ix kAnda, s adhyAya, i bkAhmaata, 66. 273 

63. 'A six-month (Agni) is the last 1 he may 
build/ they say, ' for six-month embryos are the 
last * that live when born.' If he were to recite the 
Great Litany on one not carried for a year, he should 
recite (only) the eighties of verses; for something 
incomplete is (the Agni) not carried for a year, and 
something incomplete are the eighties of verses 8 . 
But, indeed, he would only still further pull asunder 
that (Agni, already) pulled asunder 3 ; and, indeed, 
whether he (Agni) be carried for a year, or not 
carried for a year, he (the Hotrt) should recite the 
whole of the Great Litany. 

64. Now 6"a«^ilyayana was once upon a time 
sojourning in the eastern region. Daiyampati 
said to him, ' 5a»afilyayana, how is Agni to be built ? 
For, indeed, we are loth to carry him for a year, 
and yet we wish to build him.' 

65. He said, 'Let him by all means build him 
by whom he has previously been carried for a year ; 
for that, that (Agni) alone he builds as one that has 
been carried 4 (as a child in the womb).' 

66. And, indeed, let him by all means build who 

as a priest, hence — Let no one become an officiating priest . . . , 
thinking, ' Lest I should be a participator . . . .' 

1 That is to say, he must have been carried about for at least six 
months ; and embryos less than six months old cannot live. 

9 This is so for the reason that the Mahad uktham consists of 
more than the eighties of verses ; see IX, 3, 3, 19. One might 
feel inclined to include this whole sentence in the preceding 
quotation. 

* That is, already too much attenuated, by being made as large 
as one a year old (?). 

* Sayana remarks, that this reply does not restrict the building 
of the fire-altar to one who has carried the fire for a full year, but 
only discountenances the building in the case of one who has only 
carried it for a few days (?). 

[43] T 



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274 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAVA. 

intends to press Soma for a year, for he, manifestly, 
supports him by food (in the shape of) those 
libations. 

67. And, indeed, let him by all means build who 
offers the Agnihotra for a year, for he who offers 
the Agnihotra indeed supports him (Agni, the fire). 

68. And, indeed, let him by all means build who 
was born a year (after conception) ; for Agni is the 
breath : it is thus him (Agni) he holds. And, 
indeed, as the breath, he enters into the infused 
seed, and takes possession of it ; and inasmuch as 
he takes possession (vid) of every one that is born 
(^ata), he is ^atavedas. Wherefore by all means 
let even one who knows this build him as one ever 
carried (within him). And, indeed, if one who 
knows this either drinks (Soma), or offers drink to 
any one else, these libations of his will be offered 
even as would be his libations, when offered on 
a complete S&ndila. fire-altar built up with wings 
and tail. 

Second Brahmajva. 

1. Indra saw this seven-versed (hymn, suitable) 
for making good what is deficient 1 , for reducing what 
is redundant, and for perfecting what is imperfect. 
And, indeed, after building the fire-altar, one is (still) 
apt to get into trouble, or to stumble, or what not. 
Now, when .Syapar/za Sayakayana heard this, 
he ventured upon this performance. 

2. Now, there is here a perfecting of three things, 
— the perfecting of the fire-altar, the perfecting of 

1 Viz. in the building of the fire-altar ; literally, for the obtain- 
ment of the deficient. 



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IX KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 4. 275 

him who has it built for him, and the perfecting 
of him who builds it 

3. Thus, when he reverently stands by (the altar) 
with this (hymn), everything is thereby made good 1 
for him that, knowing or unknowing, he either does 
in excess, or does not carry to the end, in this 
building of the altar — in short, whatever was not 
secured for him. And whatever wish there is in 
that anush/ubh verse 2 , that he secures even now; 
and, moreover, he thereby keeps off the fiends, the 
Rakshas, from this sacred work, and they do not 
wreck him, whilst uttering imprecations. Wherefore 
one who knows this may readily build a fire-altar 
even for an enemy, for he is able to gain the better 
of him. 

4. [He approaches reverently the fire-altar 3 , with, 
V4f. S. XVIII, 68-74], 'For mighty strength 
that smiteth VWtra, and for victory in battle, 
we call thee hither, O Indra!' 'O much-in- 
voked Indra, crush thou the handless Ku«4ru, 
lurking here, together with the Danus; and 
with might smite thou the footless VWtra, 
the ever-growing mocker!' thus he reverently 
stands by (the fire) with the first two (verses) relating 
to the slaying of Vn'tra. For now the gods, having 
warded off Vrz'tra, evil, performed this rite freed 
from evil ; and in like manner does the Sacrificer, 
having warded off Vntra, evil, now perform this rite 
freed from evil. 



1 Literally, obtained. 

2 Viz. the first of the seven verses (/?/'g-veda III, 37, 1). 

' According to Katy. St. XVII, 7, 1, this ceremony should take 
place on the completion of each layer, after it has been covered 
with loose earth ; cf. paragraph 11. 

T 2 



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276 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAiVA. 

5. 'Scatter thou our scorners, O Indra 1 !' — 
'Like a terrible, creeping beast, dwelling in 
the mountains, hast thou come from the 
farthest distance : having sharpened thy 
pointed, piercing thunderbolt 2 , O Indra, beat 
thou off the foes, and scatter the spurners!' 
thus with the second two (verses) relating to (Indra) 
Vimr/dh 3 . For now the gods, having warded off 
the spurners, evil, performed this rite freed from evil ; 
and in like manner does the Sacrificer now, having 
warded off the spurners, evil, now perform this rite 
freed from evil. 

6. 'May Agni Vabvanara come forward 
from afar to our help, to hear our hymns of 
praise!' — 'Sought after in the sky, sought 
after on earth, Agni, sought after, hath en- 
tered all the plants: Agni Vauvanara, sought 
after, may guard us from injury by day and by 
night!' thus with the third two (verses) relating to 
(Agni) Vaisvanara. For now the gods, having, by 
VaLfvanara, burnt out evil, performed this rite, freed 
from evil ; and in like manner does the Sacrificer 
now, by VaLrvanara, burn out evil, and perform this 
rite freed from evil. 

7. 'May we obtain this wish, O Agni, with 
thy help! may we obtain, O wealthy one, 

• wealth with abundant heroes! striving for 
strength, may we obtain strength; may we 
obtain undecaying glory, O thou ever-young!' 
thus with one (verse) containing wishes. For now 



1 For the complete verse, see IV, 6, 4, 4. 

1 Thus Mahtdhara. 

* That is, the repeller of spurners, or enemies. 



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ix kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brahmawa, 9. 277 

the gods, having, by the six-versed (hymn), warded 
off evil, made once for all, by the one wish-holding 
(verse), all (objects of) wishes their own ; and in like 
manner does the Sacrificer now, having, by the six- 
versed (hymn), warded off evil, make once for all, 
by the one wish-holding (verse), all wishes his own. 

8. It is (a hymn) of seven verses, — the fire-altar 
consists of seven layers, (and there are) seven 
seasons, seven regions, seven worlds of the gods, 
seven stomas, seven przsh/^a (samans), seven metres, 
seven domestic animals, seven wild ones, seven vital 
airs in the head, and whatever else there is of seven 
kinds, relating to deities and relating to the self, — 
all that he thereby secures. They become equal to 
the Anush/ubh 1 , for the Anush/ubh is speech, and it 
is by speech that he secures for him (Agni) all that 
which is not yet secured for him. 

9. ' Let him approach (the fire-altar) with an eight- 
versed (hymn)!' say some; — 'with (V&£\ S. XVI II, 
75). "We thereby offer unto thee thy wish, 
reverently approaching thee with open hands: 
with holiest mind and peaceful thought offer 
thou sacrifice unto the gods as priest, O 
Agni!" thus with a second wish-holding one, — and 
the seven foregoing ones, that makes eight, — the 
Gayatrl consists of eight syllables, and Agni is of 
Gayatra nature: as great as Agni is, as great as is 
his measure, by so much he thus secures for him 

1 The seven verses consist of two Gayatris (twenty-four syllables 
each), four Trish/ubhs (forty-four each), and one Anush/ubh (thirty- 
two syllables). Whilst the two Gayatris are sixteen syllables short 
of two Anush/ubhs, the four Trish/ubhs have forty-eight syllables 
in excess of four Anush/ubhs. Hence the seven verses consist of 
8 x 32 syllables, or eight Anush/ubhs. 



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278 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

whatsoever is not yet secured for him ; and thus, 
moreover, the two deities 1 receive the same (amount) 
for their share.' Let him, however, not do so, for 
surely those seven (verses) are (equal to) eight 
anush/ubh (verses), and thus he even therein obtains 
whatever wished-for object there is in the eight- 
versed (hymn). 

10. With (verses) addressed to Indra and Agni 
he approaches (the fire); — the fire-altar belongs to 
Indra and Agni: as great as Agni is, as great as is 
his measure, by so much he thus gains for him what- 
ever has not been gained for him. And Indra and 
Agni are all the gods, and the fire-altar belongs to 
(or Agni is) all the deities: as great as Agni is, as 
great as is his measure, by so much he thus gains 
for him whatever has not been gained for him. 

11. Now some make this (hymn) the opening rite 
of every performance, saying, ' Freed from evil, we 
must perform this sacred work !' And others, indeed, 
say, ' Let him approach reverently (each) layer when 
it is covered with soil, for therein that (layer) 
becomes whole and complete.' Let him, then, do as 
he chooses. So much as to the building ; now as to 
the non-building. 

1 2. Verily, there are three oceans, — the Fire-altar 
(being the ocean) of Ya^us-formulas, the Mahavrata 
(-saman) 2 that of Samans (hymn-tunes), and the 
Mahad uktham (Great Litany a ) that of Rik (verses). 
Whoever performs these (three rites) for another 



1 Viz. Indra and Agni, having each four verses addressed 
to them. 
* See p. 282, note 5. 
5 See p. no, note 3 ; p. in, note 1. 



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ix kAnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 16. 279 

person causes these oceans to dry up for himself, 
and after them, thus drying up, the metres 1 dry up 
for him ; and after the metres the world ; and after 
the world his own self; and after his own self his 
children and cattle: indeed, he who performs these 
for another person becomes poorer day after day. 

13. And he who, not having performed these 
(rites) for another person, were to officiate in the 
performance even of all other sacrifices, for him the 
metres again replenish themselves from out of those 
oceans, and after the metres the world, and after the 
world his own self, and after his own self his chil- 
dren and catde : indeed, he who does not perform 
those rites for another person, becomes more pros- 
perous day after day. For, indeed, these (rites) are 
his divine, immortal body; and he who performs 
them for another person, makes over to another 
his divine body, and a withered trunk is all that 
remains. 

14. Now, some (say), ' Having performed them 
for another person, they either perform them for 
themselves or cause them to be performed again : 
this is the atonement.' But let him not do this, 
for it would be as if one were to water a withered 
trunk; it would rot and die: let him know that 
there is no atonement for such an one. 

15. And S&ndilya. once upon a time said — Tura 
Kavasheya once built a fire-altar for the gods at 
Karoti. The gods asked him, 'Sage, seeing that 
they declare the building of the fire-altar not to be 
conducive to heaven, why then hast thou built one ? ' 

16. He said, 'What is conducive to heaven, 

1 That is, the Vedic texts. 



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280 satapatha-brahmaya. 

and what is not conducive thereto ? The Sacrificer 
is the body of the sacrifice, and the officiating 
priests are the limbs ; and, surely, where the body 
is there are the limbs ; and where the limbs are 
there is the body. And, verily, if the priests 
have no place in heaven, then the Sacrificer has 
none, for both are of the same world. But let 
there be no bargaining as to sacrificial fees, for by 
bargaining the priests are deprived of their place in 
heaven.' 



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x kXnda, i adhyAya, i brAhmaya, 3. 281 



TENTH KANDA. 



THE MYSTERY OF AGNI, THE FIRE-ALTAR. 



First AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. In the first place that Agni (the Fire-altar), 
the year, is built ' ; thereafter the Great Litany 
(mahad uktham) is recited 2 . When Pra^apati 
became relaxed, the vital fluid flowed upwards 3 . 

2. Now, that Prafapati who became relaxed is 
the year ; and those joints of his which became 
relaxed are the days and nights. 

3. And that Pra^apati who became relaxed is 
this very Fire-altar which here is built ; and those 
joints of his, the days and nights, which became 
relaxed are no other than the bricks ; — thus, when 
he lays down these (in the layers of the altar), he 
thereby restores to him those joints of his, the days 
and nights, which had become relaxed : and thus 

1 Or, possibly, 'that Agni is built in a year,' as paragraph 4 
might seem to suggest. Sayawa, however, takes it in the above 
sense, — esho»gniA SawvatsardtmakaA purastat purvaw ^iyate. The 
Agni^ayana, when properly performed, requires a full year, whence 
Agni-Pra^apati is constantly identified with the year and the 
seasons. 

* According to S&ya«a, the intermediate Mahavrata-siiman (see 
note 1, p. 283), chanted prior to the recitation of the Mahad uktham, 
is likewise implied here. 

* Thus— urdhvalokam aga&Mat — Sdyawa takes ' agram.' 



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282 SATAPATHA-BRAhMAYA. 

it is even in this (building of the altar) that this 
Ya^ois is built up ' and secured (for Pra^&pati). 

4. And that vital fluid (essence) of his which 
flowed upwards (became) the Great Litany : it is 
in quest, of that vital fluid that (the priests) go by 
means of the Rik and Saman. And when the 
Ya^us marches in front in this (quest) 2 , it is in 
order to fetch something that that (Veda) goes — 
even as (one might say), ' That one thing there 
is mine, I will fetch it,' so does that Ya^us go in 
front (or forward). That (vital fluid) they obtain 
in the course of a year 3 . 

5. The Adhvaryu takes (draws) it by means of 
the Graha (Soma-cup) ; and inasmuch as he thereby 
takes (grah) it, it is (called) Graha*. The Udgatr* 
puts the vital fluid into it by means of the (saman 
of the) Great Rite (mah&vrata *) ; but, indeed, the 

1 Viz. inasmuch as ya^us-formulas have to be used with the 
laying down of many of the bricks (the so-called ' ya^rishmatfs '). 
Whilst, in the case of the Rik and Saman, other rites are neces- 
sary to secure them for the restored Pra^apati, the Ya^us is 
secured for him in the very act of building up his body, the 
fire-altar. 

* The Adhvaryu priest has to do all the practical work connected 
with the sacrificial performance, the building of the altar, &c. ; and 
inasmuch as it is with ya^us-formulas he does so throughout, the 
Ya^us is said here to take the lead ; cf. X, 3, 5, 3. 

8 Viz. by means of the sacrificial session of sacrificing, chanting, 
and reciting, called 'Gavam ayanam' (procession of the cows), » 
lasting for one year, on the last day but one of which the Maha- 
vrata, or Great Rite, is performed. 

4 The particular cup of Soma here referred to is the MahSvrattya- 
graha, the special cup of the Great Rite; cf. X, 4, 1, 12 seq. 

* The central feature of the Mahavrata consists in the chanting, 
at the mid-day service — as the Hotn's Pr»sh/Aa-stotra — of the 
so-called Mahivrata-saman. It consists of five different parts 
which, — like those of which the Mahad uktham, recited after it, is 



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X KkNDA, I ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, 5. 283 

(siman of the) Great Rite is (equivalent to) all these 
(other) simans (hymn-tunes) : it is thus by means 
of all the hymn-tunes that he puts the vital fluid 
therein. The Hot*-*' puts the vital fluid therein 
by means of the Great Litany ; but, indeed, the 
Great Litany is the same as all these rik (hymn- 
verses) x : it is thus by means of all the hymn- verses 
that he puts the vital fluid into it (the Soma-cup). 

composed, — are considered as representing different parts of Agni- 
Pra^ipati's body, viz. : 1. G£yatra-saman, representing the head ; 
it is chanted in the trivrrt-stoma (nine-versed hymn-form) and con- 
sists of the triplets, Sama-v. II, 146-8 ( = J?/'g-veda I, 7, 1-3: 
indram id gathino brihat), II, 263-5 (indro dadhMo asthabhir), 
and II, 800-2 (ud ghed abhi jrutamagham) ; though, according 
to others, the Sama-triplets corresponding to i?*g-veda I, 7, 1-9 
may be chanted instead. 2. Rathantara-saman (Sama-v. II, 
30-1), representing the right wing, chanted in the Paȣadaja- 
stoma, or fifteen-versed form. 3. Br/'hat-sdman (II, 159-60), 
the left wing, in the Sapladafa-stotna, or seventeen-versed form. 
4. Bhadra-saman (on II, 460-2 ; cf. Calc. ed., vol. v, p. 402), the 
tail, in the Ekavi/wja, or twenty-one-versed form. 5. Ra^ana- 
saman (on II, 833-5; cf. Calc. ed., vol. v, p. 449), the body (at- 
man), in the Pa&iavi»wa-stoma, or twenty-five-versed form ; instead 
of this the Vamadevya-siman (on II, 32-4) may be chanted in 
the padianidhana form (Calc. ed., vol. v, p. 451). — The chanting of 
this Stotra is preceded by the singing of thirteen samans, called p ar i- 
mada/j (see X, 1, 2, 8), followed by certain ceremonies — buckling 
armour on a nobleman, driving in a sunwise direction round the 
sacrificial ground, shooting arrows at two ox-hides, beating of drums, 
&c. — apparently symbolising the driving off of evil spirits from the 
sacrifice, or a combat for the possession of (the light of) the sun. 
The chanting itself is, according to some authorities, performed by 
the Udgitns, whilst, according to others, all the priests (except the 
Holri, for whom the Maitr£varu»a acts), as well as the Gn'hapati, 
or Sacrificer, take part in turn in the singing of the samans ; the 
Prastotr* and Pratihartr/', assistants of the Udgatn, joining in with 
the successive performers in the Nidhanas, or finales. 

1 See p. no, note 3; p. 112, note 1. During his recitation 
of the Great Litany, the Hotn' is seated on a swing, the Adhvaryu 



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284 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

6. When those (Udgatrzs) chant (the stotra), 
and when he (the Hotri) recites (the sastra) after- 
wards, then he (the Adhvaryu) offers that (vital 
fluid, in the form of Soma) unto him (Agni- 
Pra/ipati) at the Vasha/-call ; and thus this vital 
fluid enters him. For, indeed, they do not see it 
to be the Great Rite that lies there being praised, 
nor the Great Litany, but it is Agni alone they see ; 
for Agni is the self (body), and thus those two, the 
Rik and the Saman, enter him in the form of the vital 
fluid ; and thus they both enter (join) the Ya^ms. 

7. Now, that Agni (fire-altar) consists of pairs — 
the first layer and the second, and the third and 
fourth ; and of the fifth layer the fire which is placed 
on the built (altar) is the mate. And, indeed, this 
body consists of pairs. 

8. The thumbs (and great toes, ' angushMa,' m.) 
are males, and the fingers and toes (' anguli,' f.) 
females ; the ears (' karwa,' m.) are males, and the 
eyebrows (' bhru,' f.) females ; the lips (' osh//*a,' m.) 
are males, and the nostrils (' nasika,' f.) females ; the 
teeth (' danta,' m.) are males, and the tongue ('^ihva,' 
f.) is a female : indeed the whole (body) consists of 
pairs, and with this body, consisting of pairs, that 
(vital fluid) enters this Agni (the fire-altar), con- 
sisting of pairs '. 

9. This, then, is the entering therein ; — even 
thus, indeed, he (Agni) consists of pairs 2 ; but in this 

making his responses whilst standing on a plank, and the Hotr/"s 
assistants being seated on bundles of grass. 

1 Or, with this body as a mate it thus enters this Agni, its mate ; 
literally, with this body forming one of a (productive) pair, it thus 
enters this Agni, forming one (i. e. the other) of a pair. 

* That is, he has in him the generative energy. Apparently 



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X kAjvdA, I ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAiVA, I. 285 

way also he consists of pairs : — the fire-altar here 
built up is no other than this speech, for with 
speech it is built up ; and the fire which is placed 
on the built (altar) is the breath ; and the breath 
(' pra«a,' m.) is the male, the mate, of speech (' va£,' f.). 
And, indeed, this body is speech ; and the breath 
which is in the body is its mate : with this mated 
body that (vital fluid) thus enters into the mated 
Agni. 

10. This also is the entering therein ; — there 
is indeed no fear of him (Agni) being without 
offspring to whosoever thus knows these two, the 
body and Agni, to be a pair ; but, indeed, this body 
is food, as is said by the Rishi (Rtg-veda X, 107, 7), 
' The Dakshiwa winneth food which is our own self 
(breath).' 

11. Now, this food, when eaten, becomes of two 
kinds, — that part of it which is immortal (remains) 
above the navel : by the upward vital airs it moves 
upwards and enters the air ; but that part of it 
which is mortal tends to move away : it passes 
beyond the navel, and, having become twofold, 
enters this (earth), as urine and faeces. Now that 
which enters this (earth) enters the fire-altar * built 
here ; and that which enters the air enters that fire 
which is placed on the built (altar). This also is 
the entering therein. 

Second Brahmajva. 
1. Pra^apati was desirous of gaining these worlds. 
He saw this bird-like body, the Fire-altar: he 

'mithuna,' m. has also the sense of ' paired,' ' mated,' i.e. 'one who 
has his complement or mate,' and so perhaps here. 

1 Viz. inasmuch as the altar is built on the earth, and the latter 
forms its foundation. Comm. 



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286 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

fashioned it, and thereby gained this (terrestrial) 
world. He saw a second bird-like body, the (chant 
of the) Great Rite * : he fashioned it, and thereby 
gained the air. He saw a third bird-like body, the 
Great Litany ' : he fashioned it, and thereby gained 
the sky. 

2. This built Fire-altar, doubtless, is this (terrestrial) 
world, the Great Rite the air, and the Great Litany 
the sky : all these, the Fire-altar, the Great Rite, 
and the Great Litany, one ought therefore to 
undertake together, for these worlds were created 
together ; and as to why the Fire-altar is built first, 
it is because of these worlds this (terrestrial) one 
was created first. Thus with regard to the deity. 

3. Now with regard to the body. The Fire-altar 
is the mind, the (chant of the) Great Rite the 
breath, and the Great Litany speech : all these 
one ought therefore to undertake together, for 
mind, breath, and speech belong together; as to 
why the Fire-altar is built first, it is because the 
mind is prior to the breathings. 

4. The Fire-altar, indeed, is the body (trunk), 
the Great Rite the breath, and the Great Litany 
speech : all these one ought therefore to undertake 
together, for body, breath, and speech belong 
together ; and as to why the Fire-altar is built 
first, it is because of him who is produced the trunk 
is produced first. 

5. The Fire-altar, indeed, is the head, the Great 
Rite the breath, and the Great Litany the body : 



1 The Mahivrata-saman and the Mahad uktham, as we have 
seen (p. 282, note 5; p. m, note 1), are constructed so as to 
correspond to the different parts of the bird-like Agni-Pra^apati. 



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x kAjvba, i adhyAya, 2 brAhmaam., 7. 287 

one ought therefore to undertake all these together, 
for head, breath, and body belong together ; and as 
to why the Fire-altar is built first, it is because 
of him who is born the head is born first ; and 
hence, whenever all these are undertaken together 
the Great Litany, indeed, is accounted the highest 
(atamam) 1 , for the Great Litany is the body 
(or self, atman). 

6. As to this they say, ' If all these are difficult 
to obtain together, what (means of) obtaining them 
is there?' — In the <7yotish/oma (form of the) 
Agnish/oma 2 : let him perform offering with the 
6yotish/oma Agnish/oma. 

7. In this Cyotish/oma Agnish/oma the Bahish- 
pavamana (stotra) is (in) the TrivWt (stoma) — 
that is the head of the rite ; the two other Pava- 
manas are (in) the Pa»iadara. and Saptad&ra. 
(stomas) — they are the two wings ; the Hotrz's 

1 The combination ' atamaw khyiyate ' is, as it were, the super- 
lative of ' a-khyayate ; ' cf. anutamaw gopayati, X, 5, 2, 10; and 
Delbrflck, Altind. Syntax, p. 194. 

* The Agnish/oma may be performed in three different modes, 
according to the variation of stomas (or hymn-forms) employed 
for the stotras (or chants). In the Gyotish/oma the order of 
stomas is that set forth in paragraph 7, viz.: a. Bahishpavam&na- 
stotra in the Trivn't (nine-versed); b. A^ya-stotras, and c. M&- 
dhyandina-pavamdna-stotra, in the Pa#£adaja (fifteen-versed) ; d. 
Pmh/^a-stotras, and e. Arbhava-pavam&na-stotra, in the Saptadaxa 
(seventeen-versed) ; and f. Agnish/oma-s&man (Ya^aya^niya) 
in the Ekavi»wa (twenty-one-versed) stoma, or hymn-form. In the 
Gosh/oma, on the other hand, the succession of stomas is 
a. Pa&iadaja, b. Trivrrt, c. d. Saptada^a, e. f. Ekaviwxa ; 
and in the Ayush/oma: a. Trivr/t, b. Pafl&idaja, (c. d.) Sap- 
tadara, (e. f.) Ekavi/nja. Cf. part ii, p. 402, note 4 ; for the scheme 
of Stotras (and Sastras), ib. p. 325, note 2. The Agnish/oma is 
singled out here for the reason that the Mahavrata-day takes 
the form of an Agnish/oma sacrifice. 



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288 DATAPATH A-BRAhmAJVA. 

A^ya (stotra) is (in) the Pawiadara, the Przsh/£a 
(stotra in) the Saptadara, and the Ya^»a.ya^»iya 
(stotra in) the Ekavi/»sa (stoma) — they are the tail. 
8. Now these two, the Pa»&tdara and Saptadaya, 
have thirty-two hymn-verses : twenty-five of these 
are the twenty-five-fold body l ; and the seven which 
remain over are the Parimad (samans), for these are 
the cattle (or animals), (for) cattle are sporting all 
around us (pari-mad 2 ) — thus much, then, is the 

1 See p. 1 68, note 3. 

* Sayawa takes 'parim&d' here in the sense of 'a source of 
pleasure all around' — parito harshahetavaA. — The ParimadaA 
are thirteen Samans sung (not chanted, in the proper sense of the 
word) by the Udgatrz", his two assistants joining merely in the 
Nidhanas or chorus-like passages. They are given, figured for 
chanting, in the Arawyagana of the Sama-veda (Calc. ed., ii, p. 387 
seq.). This performance takes place immediately after the Adh- 
varyu has given the sign for, and the Udgatn ' yoked,' the Mahi- 
vrata-stotra or saman (i.e. the Hotr*"s Pr/sh/iastotra of the Great 
Rite), — or, according to some authorities, before either the ' yoking,' 
or the Adhvaryu's summons, — and thus serves as an introduction 
to the central and chief element of the Great Rite, the Mahavrata- 
saman. According to the ritual symbolism, these preliminary 
samans are intended to supply the newly completed Pra^ipati with 
hair (feathers) and nails; but the performance would rather seem to be 
a solemn mode of doing homage (upasthanam) to the different parts 
of the bird-like altar and the sacrificial ground ; thus corresponding 
to a similar, though simpler, ceremony performed on the com- 
pletion of the fire-altar in its simplest form, as described at IX, 1, 2, 
35 - 43- O n the present occasion the ceremony is performed in the 
following order: 1. near the head of the altar (the Ahavaniya fire) 
he sings the Pra«a (' breath ; ' Sama-v., vol. ii, p. 436) ; 2. near the 
tail the Apina (downward-breathing, ii, p. 437); 3. 4. near the 
right and left wing the two Vratapakshau (ii, p. 438) ; 5. near 
the left armpit the Pra^apati-hr/daya (' heart of Pra^.,' it, p. 499) ; 
6. near the A'atvala or pit, the VasishMasya Nihava (Sama-v., 
vol. v, p. 602); 7. near the Agnidhra hearth the Satrasyarddhi 
('success of the sacrificial session,' ii, p. 465); 8. 9. in front 
and behind the Havirdhana carts, the 51oka and Aniuloka (i, pp. 



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x kAaba, i adhyAya, 3 brahmaata, i. 289 

Great Rite : thereby he obtains the Great Rite 
even in this (Agnish/oma). 

9. And the Hotri recites seven metres — each 
subsequent one-versed (metre) increasing by four 
(syllables) — with the Vira^ - as an eighth : these 
(eight) consist of three eighties and forty-five 
syllables. Now by the eighties thereof the eighties 
(of the mahad uktham) 1 are obtained, for the Great 
Litany is counted (or recited) by eighties (of 
triplets) ; and of the forty-five (syllables which 
remain) twenty-five are this twenty-five-fold body 2 ; 
and where the body is there, indeed, are (included) 
the head, and the wings and tail ; and the twenty 
(syllables which remain) are the insertion 3 ; — thus 
much, then, is the Great Litany : thereby he obtains 
the Great Litany even in this (Agnish/oma). All 
these (three) are indeed obtained in the Gyotish/oma 
Agnish/oma: let him, therefore, perform offering 
with the (Jyotish/oma Agnish/oma. 

Third Brahmaya. 

1. Pra^apati created living beings. From the 
out- (and in-) breathings he created the gods, and from 
the downward breathings the mortal beings; and 

887-9); I0 - towards the Miiyaliya the Yama (ii, p. 461); 
11. 12. in front and behind the Sadas, the Ayus, and Nava- 
stobha (ii, pp. 450-51); 13. in front of the Gdrhapatya the Jii's- 
yasya saman (ii, p. 324). 
1 See p. 112, note 1. 

* Viz. the body, as consisting of the ten fingers, the ten toes, 
the arms and legs, and the trunk. 

* Towards the end of the Mahad Uktham, in the portion 
representing the thighs, nine trish/ubh verses (^»g-veda III, 43, 1-8, 
and X, 55, 5) are inserted as an ' avapanam.' 

[43] U 

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2QO SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

above the (mortal) beings he created Death as their 
consumer. 

2. Now, one half of that Pra^apati was mortal, 
and the other half immortal : with that part of him 
which was mortal he was afraid of death ; and, 
being afraid, he became twofold, clay and water, and 
entered this (earth). 

3. Death spake unto the gods saying, ' What has 
become of him who has created us ? ' — ' Being afraid 
of thee, he has entered this (earth),' they said. He 
spake, ' Let us search for him, let us gather him up 
for I shall not injure him.' The gods gathered him 
from out of this (earth) : that part of him which was 
in the water, they gathered as water, and that which 
was in this (earth, they gathered) as clay. Having 
gathered together both clay and water, they made 
a brick, whence a brick consists of both clay and 
water. 

4. And, indeed, these five forms (bodily parts) of 
him are mortal— the hair on the mouth, the skin, the 
flesh, the bone, and the marrow ; and these are im- 
mortal — the mind, the voice, the vital air, the eye, 
and the ear. 

5. Now, that Pra^apati is no other than the Fire- 
altar which is here built up, and what five mortal 
parts there were of him, they are these layers of 
earth ; and those which were immortal they are 
these layers of bricks. 

6. The gods spake, ' Let us make him immortal ! ' 
Having encompassed that mortal form by those im- 
mortal forms of his, they made it immortal — the 
layer of earth by means of two layers of bricks : in 
like manner the second, the third, and the fourth 
(layers of earth). 



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X KAJVDA, I ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, IO. 291 

7. And having laid down the fifth layer (of bricks), 
he (the Adhvaryu) scatters earth on it ; thereon he 
lays the Vikarwl and the Svayamdt«'»«i, scatters 
chips of gold, and places the fire : that is the seventh 
layer, and that (part) is immortal ; and in this way, 
having encompassed that mortal form of his by 
those two immortal forms, they made it immortal, — 
the layer of earth by means of two layers of bricks. 
Thereby, then, Praf apati became immortal ; and in 
like manner does the Sacrificer become immortal by 
making that body (of the altar) immortal. 

8. But the gods knew not whether they had made 
him complete, or not ; whether they had made him 
too large, or left him defective. They saw this 
verse {V&g. S. XVIII, 76), 'The seat-hiding 
Agni, Indra, god Brahman, Brzhaspati, and 
the wise All-gods may speed our sacrifice 
unto bliss!' 

9. Of this (verse) one part is Agni's, one part 
Indra's, and one part the All-gods' ; — with that part 
thereof which is Agni's they made up that part of 
him (Pra^apati) which is Agni's, and with Indra's 
(part) that which is Indra's, and with the All-gods' 
(part) that which is the All-gods' : in this very (fire- 
altar) they thus made him up wholly and com- 
pletely. 

10. And when he stands by (the altar, worshipping 
it) with this (verse), he thereby secures (makes 
good) all that part of him (Pra^apati) which, 
whether he knows it or not, he either does in excess 
or insufficiently in this (fire-altar), — whatever has 
not been secured for him. The ' seat-hiding ' (verse) 
is an Anush/ubh, for the Anush/ubh is speech, and 
the seat-hider is speech : it is by speech that he 

u 2 

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292 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAA-A. 

secures for him what was not secured for him. 
' Let him approach (the altar with this verse) when 
he has covered a layer with earth,' say some, ' for 
then that (layer) becomes whole and complete.' 

Fourth BrAhmajva. 

i. Now, at the beginning, Pra^apati was (com- 
posed of) both these, the mortal and the immortal — 
his vital airs alone were immortal, his body mortal : 
by this sacrificial performance, and by this order 
of proceeding, he made his body uniformly unde- 
caying and immortal. And in like manner is the 
Sacrificer (composed of) both the mortal and the 
immortal — his vital airs alone are immortal, his 
body mortal : by this sacrificial performance, and 
by this order of proceeding, he makes his body 
uniformly undecaying and immortal. 

2. He lays down the first layer, — this, doubtless, 
is his out- (and in-) breathing', and it is an im- 
mortal (element), for the out-breathing is something 
immortal : this, then, is an immortal layer. He 
then scatters loose soil thereon, — this, doubtless, is 
his marrow, and it is a mortal (element), for the 
marrow is mortal : he establishes it on that im- 
mortal (element), and thereby this part of him 
becomes immortal. 

3. He lays down the second layer, — this, doubt- 
less, is his downward breathing, and it is an immortal 
(element), for the downward breathing is something 
immortal : this, then, is an immortal layer. He 
thus encompasses that mortal (element) on both 

1 That is, the breath-proper, of the mouth and nose, passing 
upward into the air from the middle of the body. 



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x kanda, i adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 6. 293 



sides by an immortal one, and thereby that part 
of him becomes immortal. He then scatters loose 
soil thereon, — this, doubtless, is his bones, and it is 
a mortal (element), for the bone is mortal : he 
establishes it on that immortal (element), and thereby 
this part of him becomes immortal. 

4. He lays down the third layer, — this, doubtless, 
is his through-breathing 1 , and it is an immortal 
(element), for the through-breathing is something 
immortal : this, then, is an immortal layer. He 
thus encompasses that mortal (element) on both 
sides by an immortal one, and thereby that part 
of him becomes immortal. He then scatters loose 
soil thereon, — this, doubtless, is his sinews, and it 
is a mortal (element), for the sinew is mortal: he 
establishes it on that immortal (element), and thereby 
this part of him becomes immortal. 

5. He lays down the fourth layer, — this, doubtless, 
is his upward breathing 2 , and it is an immortal 
(element), for the upward breathing is something 
immortal : this, then, is an immortal layer. He thus 
encompasses that mortal (element) on both sides 
by an immortal one, and thereby that part of him 
becomes immortal. He then scatters loose soil 
thereon, — this, doubtless, is his flesh, and it is a 
mortal (element), for flesh is mortal : he establishes 
it on that immortal (element), and thereby this part 
of him becomes immortal. 

6. He lays down the fifth layer, — this, doubtless, 

1 The Vyana, through-breathing, or circulating air, is the vital 
air which serves the upward air (or out- and in-breathing, prawa) and 
downward air (apana). Maitryup. II, 6 (Cowell). 

* Or, outward breathing, — 'That which belches forth or keeps 
downwards the food eaten or drunken, this is the udlna ; ' Cowell, ib. 



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294 satapatha-brAhmaa'a. 



is his central (or pervading) breathing 1 , and it is 
an immortal (element), for the central breathing is 
something immortal : this, then, is an immortal 
layer. He thus encompasses that mortal (element) 
on both sides by an immortal one, and thereby that 
part of him becomes immortal. He then scatters 
loose soil thereon,— this, doubtless, is his fat, and 
it is a mortal (element), for the fat is mortal : he 
establishes it on that immortal (element), and thereby 
this part of him becomes immortal. 

7. He lays down the sixth layer, — this, doubtless, 
is his voice, and it is an immortal (element), for the 
voice is something immortal : this, then, is an im- 
mortal layer. He thus encompasses that mortal 
(element) on both sides by an immortal one, and 
thereby that part of him becomes immortal. He 
then scatters loose soil thereon, — this, doubtless, is 
his blood and his skin, and it is a mortal (element), 
for blood is mortal, and skin is mortal : he establishes 
it on that immortal (element), and thereby this part 
of him becomes immortal. 

8. These, then, are six layers of bricks, and six 
layers of earth, that makes twelve, — the year (con- 
sists of) twelve months, and Agni is the year : as 
great as Agni is, as great as is his measure, with 
so much did Pra^apati then make his body uni- 
formly undecaying and immortal ; and in like manner 
does the Sacrificer now make his body uniformly 
undecaying and immortal. 

9. Having then laid down the Vikarwi and Sva- 
yamatrz'#«a, he scatters chips of gold, and places 



1 ' The Sam&na (equalizing air) distributes the digested pieces 
through the limbs.' Maitryup. II, 6 (Cowell). 



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X KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 4 BRAtMAtfA, 12. 295 

the fire thereon : Pra^apati then finally made a 
golden form for his body ; and inasmuch as (he did 
so) finally, this was the final form of his body ; 
whence people speak of ' the golden Pra^apati V 
And in like manner does the Sacrificer now finally 
make a golden form for his body ; and inasmuch as 
(he does so) finally, this is the final form of his 
body; and hence, whether they know this or not, 
people say that the Agni^it (he who has built an 
altar) is born in yonder world as one made of gold 2 . 

10. Now, on this point, S&ndilya and Saptara- 
thavahani, teacher and pupil, were once disputing 
with one another : ' This is his form,' said 5a»^lya ; 
' his hair,' said Saptarathavahani. 

11. *Sa#dTilya said, 'Surely, there is a hairy form 
(as well as) a hairless form : his form it certainly 
is ;' and this, indeed, is as S&ndilya. has said : when 
it (the altar) is completely built, Agni is led forward ; 
and after he has been led forward, logs of wood s 
are offered as ' oblations.' 

12. By means of (the channel of) the out- (and in-) 
breathing the gods eat food, and Agni (the sacri- 
ficial fire) is the out-breathing of the gods ; whence 
it is in front (of the sacrificial ground) that offering 
is made to the gods, for by means of the (channel of 
the) out-breathing the gods eat food. By means 
of the down-breathing men eat food, whence food 

1 Apparently an allusion to Hira»yagarbha, the golden germ, or 
the golden egg (XI, 1, 6, 1), from which the Purusha, creator of 
the universe, arose. Cf. also Aitarey&r. II, 1, 3, with Saya»a's 
commentary. 

' S£ya»a assigns to 'hirawmaya' the meaning 'of a colour 
resembling gold ' (hiranyasam&navaraaA). 

' See IX, 2, 3, 36 seq. 



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296 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

is introduced into men (from the front) towards the 
back, for by their down-breathing men eat food. 

13. Here, now, they say, ' He who has built an 
altar must not eat of any bird, for he who builds 
a fire-altar becomes of a bird's form ; he would 
be apt to incur sickness: the Agni&t therefore 
must not eat of any bird.' Nevertheless, one who 
knows this may safely eat thereof; for he who 
builds an altar becomes of Agni's form, and, indeed, 
all food here belongs to Agni : whosoever knows 
this will know that all food belongs to him. 

14. Here, now, they say, 'What is done here 
in (the building of) the altar, whereby the Sacrificer 
conquers recurring death ? ' Well, he who builds an 
altar becomes the deity Agni ; and Agni (the fire), 
indeed, is the immortal (element) ; — the gods are 
splendour: he enters splendour; the gods are 
glory : he becomes glorious whosoever knows this. 

Fifth Brahma^a. 

1. This built fire-altar, in truth, (includes) all these 
sacrifices: — when he slaughters an animal victim, 
that is the Agny&dheya (establishment of the sacred 
fires) ' ; when he collects (the materials for) the 
fire-pan, that constitutes the oblations of the 
Agnyadheya ; when he performs the initiation, 

1 Though no animal sacrifice takes place at the Agnyadhana, 
the latter, as the fundamental ceremony pre-supposed by all subse- 
quent sacrificial performances, is here compared 'with the immo- 
lation of five victims (VI, 2, 1, 15 seq.) which, taking place as it 
does on the Upasavatha, or day of preparation, i.e. the day before 
the Soma-sacrifice on the newly built fire-altar, is, as it were, 
a preliminary ceremony. 



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X KANDA, I ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAJVA, 2. 297 

that is the Agnihotra ; and when the initiated puts 
two logs on (the fire) ', these are the two oblations 
of the Agnihotra. 

2. He puts them on in the evening and in the 
morning, for in the evening and in the morning 
the Agnihotra oblations are offered ; — with one 
and the same formula, for with one and the same 
formula the two Agnihotra oblations are offered 2 . 
Then the driving about (of the fire in the pan 3 ), 
and the taking down (to the water) of the ashes, 
these two (constitute) the New and Full-moon 
offerings; and when he builds the Garhapatya 
hearth 4 , that is the A!aturmasya (seasonal offerings); 
and what takes place from (the building of) the 
Garhapatya up to the (sowing of) all-herb (seed 5 , 
that constitutes) the ish/is 6 , and what takes place 
after the all-herb (sowing) and prior to (the building 

1 This refers to the two samidhs (kindling-sticks) put on the 
Ukhya Agni, — one in the evening, and one in the morning, — after 
the ashes had been cleared out of the fire-pan (ukha) ; see VI, 
6, 4, r seq. 

1 Both in the evening and in the morning two libations of milk 
are offered (the purvahuti and the uttarahuti), but only the first is 
offered with a formula, the evening formula being, 'Agni is the 
light, the light is Agni, hail ! ' whilst the morning formula is, 'Surya 
is the light, the light is Surya, hail!' See II, 3, 1, 30. For 
alternative formulas — 'With the divine Savitr/', with the Night 
(or Dawn, respectively) wedded to Indra, may Agni (or Indra, 
respectively) graciously accept, hail I ' see II, 3, 1, 37. 38. 

s See VI, 8, 1, 1 seq. Sayawa takes it to refer to the Agni- 
prawayana, or leading forward of the fire to the fire-altar ; but that 
would not fit in well with the ceremony next referred to, viz. the 
removal of the ashes of the Ukhyigni, or fire in the pan ; for which 
see VI, 8, a, 1 seq. 

4 VII, 1, 1, 1 seq. 

8 Viz. on the newly ploughed altar-site, see VII, 2, 4, 13 seq. 

' That is, offerings for the fulfilment of some special wishes. 



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298 •SATAPATHA-B>A V HMAJVA. 

of) the layers, that is the animal sacrifices 1 ; and 
the Vish#u-strides 2 which are (performed) at these 
sacrifices are just these Vish#u-strides ; and what 
muttering of formulas there is that is the Vatsapra 8 . 
3. The first layer is the Soma-sacrifice ; the 
second the Ra^asuya as prior to the consecrations * ; 
the third the Vi^apeya ; the fourth the Arvamedha 
(horse-sacrifice); and the fifth the Agnisava 6 . Then 
the samans he sings around the built (altar) are 
the Mahivrata(-saman) ; the Udgatrfs preliminary 
muttering (of the text of his chants) on that occasion 
is the .Satariidriya ; the ' shower of wealth ' the 
Great Litany ; and what takes place subsequent 
to (the singing of) the samans, and prior to the 
shower of wealth, that is the Hotrt's preliminary 
muttering on that occasion ; and what takes place 
after the shower of wealth is the Grzhamedhas 6 
(house-sacrifices). Such are all the sacrifices : these 
he secures by (building) the fire-altar. 



1 That is, animal sacrifices performed independently of other 
ceremonies. 

s See VI, 7, 2, 12 seq. 

* See VI, 7, 4, 1 seq. 

4 That is, the ceremonies connected with the Va^aprasaviya 
oblations, V, 2, 2, 4 seq. ; and the devasu-haviwshi, or oblations to 
the Divine Quickeners (by whom the king is supposed to be first 
consecrated), V, 3, 3, 1 seq. 

* See IX, 3, 4, 7. 9. It is strange that the Agnisava should be 
mentioned here, as it is said to be confined to the Agni&iyana. It 
would seem that some independent ceremony, such as the Brtlias- 
patisava (consecration of Br/baspati, cf. V, 2, 1, 19; and part iii, 
introd. p. xxiv seq.), may be referred to. 

* Sayana identifies these with the offerings of sacrificial sessions 
(sattra), during which the Sacrificer is indeed called the Gr/hapati, 
or master of the house; see IV, 6, 3, 5 seq.; and part ii, p. 97, 
note 1. 



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X KkNDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAJVA, I. 299 



4. Now, then, as to the powers (conferred by the 
performance) of sacrifices. Verily, he who (regularly) 
performs the Agnihotra eats food in the evening and 
in the morning (when he comes to be) in yonder 
world, for so much sustenance is there in that 
sacrifice. And he who performs the New and 
Full-moon sacrifice (eats food) every half-month ; 
and he who performs the Seasonal sacrifice (does 
so) every four months ; and he who performs the 
animal sacrifice (twice a year, eats food) every six 
months ; and the Soma-sacrificer once a year ; and 
the builder of the fire-altar at his pleasure eats food 
every hundred years, or abstains therefrom x ; for 
a hundred years is as much as immortality 2 , unend- 
ing and everlasting : and, verily, for him who knows 
this, there shall thus be immortality, unending and 
everlasting; and whatever he as much as touches, 
as it were, with a reed, shall be for him immortal, 
unending and everlasting. 

Second AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. Pra^apati was desirous of going up to the 
world of heaven ; but Pra^apati, indeed, is all the 
(sacrificial) animals 8 — man, horse, bull, ram, and 

1 That is to say, the food eaten the first time will sustain him for 
a hundred years, after which time he may, or may not, take food, 
being sure of everlasting life and a godlike nature. 

* Or, perhaps, for so long lasts the Amr/ta (the food of the 
immortals); — agniw fltavan purushas tu jatasawkhyakeshu saw- 
vatsareshu teshu kimam aparimitam arnati yato yivantaA jataw 
samvatsaras tavad amr/tam devatvaprapakam anantam aparimitam 
nnnam bhavati. Say. 

* See VI, 2, 1, 15 seq. 



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300 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

he-goat : — by means of these forms he could not 
do so. He saw this bird-like body, the fire-altar, 
and constructed it. He attempted to fly up, with- 
out contracting and expanding (the wings), but could 
not do so. By contracting and expanding (the 
wings) he did fly up : whence even to this day birds 
can only fly up when they contract their wings and 
spread their feathers. 

2. He measures it (the fire-altar) by finger- 
breadths ; for the sacrifice being a man ', it is by 
means of him that everything is measured here. 
Now these, to wit, the fingers, are his lowest 
measure : he thus secures for him (the sacrificial 
man 2 ) that lowest measure of his, and therewith 
he thus measures him. 

3 . He measures by twenty- four finger-breadths s , — 
the Gayatrz (verse) consists of twenty-four syllables, 
and Agni is of G&yatra nature * : as great as Agni 
is, as great as is his measure, by so much he thus 
measures him. • 

4. He contracts 6 (the right wing) inside on both 



1 The sacrifice, being the substitute of (the sacrificing) 
man, is represented as identical with the Sacrificer, its measure- 
ments being taken from his body and stature ; see part i, p. 78, 
note 1. 

* Or, — for it, viz. the fire-altar, representing both Agni-Pra^a- 
pati and the Sacrificer: hence this assumed identity has to be 
borne in mind to understand the symbolic speculations of the 
Brahmawa. 

* This measure (24 ahguli) is equal to one 'aratni' or cubit; 
1 2 ahguli being equal to a ' vitasti ' or span (of thumb and little 
finger, or from wrist to tip of middle finger). 

4 See VI, 1, 1, 15; 1, 3, 19. 

5 Or, he draws in, draws together (upasamuhati). 



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X KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAWA, 5. 30I 

sides J by just four finger-breadths, and expands 2 it 
outside on both sides * by four finger-breadths : he 
thus expands it by just as much as he contracts it ; 
and thus, indeed, he neither exceeds (its proper 
size) nor does he make it too small. In the same 
way in regard to the tail, and in the same way in 
regard to the left wing. 

5. He then makes two bending-limbs 3 in the 
wings, for there are two bending-limbs in a bird's 



1 That is, on both sides of that part of the wing which joins the 
body of the altar he draws in by four finger-breadths the two long 
sides of the wing, thus changing the parallelogram into a trapezium, 
without altering the superficial area of the wing. On the plan of 
the altar given in part ii, p. 419, the effect of this manipulation on 
the wings and tail is indicated by pointed lines. — Sayawa remarks, 
— ubhayataA pakshasya par.widvaye,antarataA MySgner madhyad&re 
£aturangulam upasamuhati sawkarshaii prave-rayatlty arthaA; 
bahyataA agnimadhyad b&hyadcre £aturahgula//? vyuduhati, ante 
vivardhayati. 

* Or, he draws out, or draws asunder (vyuduhati). 

* Literally ' outbendings ' (nirwdma) — 'Schwunggelenke ' (spring- 
limbs), St. Petersb. Diet. — This ' bending-limb ' would seem to 
include the two inner segments of the (solid part of the) wing — 
those corresponding to the upper and fore-arm of man — as well as 
the adjoining and connecting joints or articulations, which portions 
may be taken roughly as forming the inner third of the wing when 
covered with feathers. The ' bending-limb ' would thus derive its 
name from its ' bending,' or drawing, the wing ' out ' from the body. 
Saya«a, however, explains it by 'nitara/» namati,' 'that which 
bends down,' as if it were formed from the prep, 'ni' instead 
of ' nis.' The manipulation to which this part of the wing is to be 
subjected is, however, not quite easy to understand from the 
description, and the commentary affords very little assistance — 
vitmtya iti pakshabh&gam tredha vibha^ya antare trrtiyabhage 
nirnamakara«am . . ; etam xrutim apekshyaivapastambenoktam, 
' vakrapaksho vyastapui/Mo bhavati, pasi&l pran (!) uduhati, pura- 
stat pratyuduhati, evam eva hi vayasam madhye pakshanirnamo 
bhavatiti vi^Aayate ' iti. 



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2,02 satapatha-brAhmam. 



wings. In one-third (of each wing he makes them), 
for the bending-limbs are in one-third of the bird's 
wings; — in the inner third 1 , for the bending-limbs 
are in the inner third of a bird's wings. He 
expands (each of these limbs) in front 2 by just 
four finger-breadths, and contracts it behind by 
four finger-breadths; he thus expands it by just 
as much as he contracts it; and thus, indeed, he 
neither exceeds (its size), nor does he make it 
too small. 

6. On that bending-limb he places one brick : he 
thereby gives to it that single tube (tubular organ) 
which joins on to 3 (the body) from the bending- 
limb of the flying bird. Then here (on the left wing). 

7. He then makes the wings crooked, for a bird's 
wings are crooked ; he expands them behind by just 
four finger-breadths, and contracts them in front by 
four finger-breadths * : he thus draws them out by 

1 That is, the third part of the wing adjoining the body. 

* That is, at the front edge of the wing of the flying bird, that 
which cuts through the air. The joint between the second and 
third segments of the wing, when expanded, would protrude, whilst 
on the opposite side of the wing the tops of the feathers would 
somewhat recede; but I am not sure whether this is what is 
referred to in these indications. 

* Literally, which lies beside, or close to (up&rete, viz. the body, 
as it would seem) from the bending-limb. The brick is apparently 
meant to represent symbolically the bone of the upper segment, or 
some tubular organ by which the vital air is supposed to enter the 
wing from the body. Sayawa remarks, — pakshipakshamadhyaga- 
tana</itvena praramsati, . . £ityagneA pakshamadhye ekaw na</im 
eva nihitavan bhavati. 

* Comm. — £aturangulam£tra«K pa.r£Sdbhage uduhati vikarshati, 
purast&dbhage £aturangulamatra*R samuhati sawkarshati ; evam 
kr/'te vakratvaw bhavati. Cf. Apastatnba's directions in note 3 of 
last page. I fail to see, however, in what respect this manipulation 
differs from that referred to in paragraph 5; and whether the 



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X KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAiVA, II. 303 

just as much as he draws them in ; and thus, indeed, 
he neither exceeds (its size) nor does he make it too 
small. 

8. He now gives to it (the altar) the highest form '. 
This Agni had now been completely restored, and 
the gods conferred upon him this highest form ; 
and in like manner does this (Sacrificer) confer 
upon him this highest form : he makes a thousand 
bricks marked with straight lines, a thousand marked 
this way (from left to right), and a thousand marked 
that way (from right to left). 

9. And when he has laid down the fifth layer, he 
measures out the altar in three parts, and on the 
central part he places the one thousand bricks 
marked with straight lines: he thereby gives to it 
those straight plumes of the bird pointing back- 
wards (with their tops, and covering it) from head 
to tail. 

1 o. On the right side he then lays down the one 
thousand (bricks) marked thus (from left to right) : 
he thereby gives to it those curved plumes on the 
right side of the bird 2 . 

11. On the left side he then lays down the one 
thousand (bricks) marked thus (from right to left) : 
he thereby gives to it those curved plumes on the 
left side of the bird. With a thousand (bricks he 
does it each time) — a thousand means everything : 



' vakratvam ' refers to the irregular shape, or to the curved nature, 
of the wings. 

1 That is, he gives to it the last finish. 

* Or, perhaps, those soft feathers of the bird curved towards the 
right. Saya«a as above— dakshiwataA dakshinapakshe itySlikhita' 
dakshiwavri'ta ish/aka^; uttarataA uttarasmin pakshe ityilikhitaA 
savyav/v'ta iuh/aka upadadhyat. 



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^04 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

with everything (required) he thus confers that 
highest form upon him (Agni) ; — with three thousand 
— Agni is threefold : as great as Agni is, as great as 
is his measure, with so much he thus confers the 
highest form upon him. 

Second Brahmawa. 

i. Now the one person which they made out 
of those seven persons 1 became this Pra^apati. 
He produced living beings (or offspring), and having 
produced living beings he went upwards, — he went 
to that world where that (sun) now shines. And, 
indeed, there was then no other (victim) meet for 
sacrifice but that one (Pra.fapati), and the gods set 
about offering him up in sacrifice. 

2. Wherefore it is with reference to this that the 
J^ishi has said (Va^. S. XXXI, 16, ^glveda X, 
90, 16), 'The gods offered up sacrifice by 
sacrifice,' — for by sacrifice they did offer up him 
(Pra^apati), the sacrifice; — 'these were the first 
ordinances :' — for these laws were instituted first ; — 
' these powers clung unto the firmament,' — the 
firmament is the world of heaven, and the powers 
are the gods : thus, ' Those gods who offered up 
that sacrifice shall cling to the world of heaven ; ' — 

3. 'Where first the perfect gods were,' — the 
perfect 2 gods, doubtless, are the vital airs, for it is 
they that perfected him in the beginning 3 when they 

1 Literally, those seven persons which they made into one person. 
See VI, 1, 1, 1 seq. 

* It is difficult to see what meaning the author assigns to 
' sadhya ' applied to minor classes of deities. 

* See VI, 1, 1, 1. 



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X KAjVDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAJVA, 6. 305 

were desirous of becoming that (body of Pra/a- 
pati *) ; and even now, indeed, they do perfect 
(him). — [Rtg-veda. X, 149, 3] — 'Thereafter this 
other became meet for sacrifice by the abun- 
dance of the immortal world,' — for thereafter, 
indeed, other things here — whatsoever is immortal — 
became fit for sacrifice. 

4. 'SavitWs well-winged eagle verily was 
first born, and he was according to his 
ordinance,' — the well-winged eagle, doubtless, is 
Pra^apati, and Savitr? is that (sun) : thus, ' In 
accordance with his (the sun's) law he indeed 
(comported himself).' 

5. He indeed consists of seven persons, for that 
Person * consisted of seven persons ; — to wit, the 
body of four, and the wings and tail of three, for of 
four the body of that Person consisted, and of three 
his wings and tail. 

6. He measures it (the altar) by the man with 
upstretched arms 8 ; for the sacrifice is a man, and 
by him everything here is measured ; and that is 
his highest measure when he stands with up- 
stretched arms : he thus secures for him what is 
his highest measure, and therewith he then measures 
it. And what (space) there is over and above that 
when he is raised on the forepart of his foot, that 
he secures by the enclosing-stones ; and hence he 

1 Tad eva bubhushanta iti, prawaA svayam api pra^apatyat- 
mana (? pra^apatyatmano) bhavitum iikhant&h. Say. 

1 See VI, 1, 1, 3-6. 

s That is to say, wherever he speaks of man's lengths, the height 
to which a man reaches with his upstretched arms is understood ; 
the particular man who supplies this (relative) standard of measure 
being the Sacrificer. 

[43] x 

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306 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

should dig a line for the enclosing-stones outside 
(the altar-ground). 

7. Two cubits he gives to the two wings : he 
thereby lays strength into the wings. And the 
wings are (the bird's) arms, and by means of the 
arms food is eaten ; it is thus for the sake of food 
that he gives them that space ; and when he gives 
two cubits to the two wings, it is because food is 
taken from the distance of a cubit. 

8. To the tail he gives a span : he thus lays 
strength into the support, for the tail is the support 
The span means the hand x , and by means of the 
hand food is eaten : it is thus for the sake of food 
that he gives it that space ; and when he gives 
a span to the tail, he thereby settles him (Agni) 
in (the midst of) food ; and when he gives less 
(space) to this (part of the body), it is because he 
thereby settles him in (the midst of) food *. But, 
indeed, so much does this (the bird's wing) measure, 
and so much this (the bird's tail), and hence when 
he thus measures them, it is for the sake of securing 
for him that (natural measure). 

Third Brahmajva. 

1. Now this Vedi (altar-ground, viz. the Maha- 
vedi of the Soma-sacrifice) is just that (right) 
measure for the Vedi of the sevenfold 3 (fire-altar). 

1 The span of thumb and little finger is taken to be equal to 
the distance from the wrist to the tip of the middle ringer. 

2 That is to say, he makes him so as to occupy but small space, 
and to be surrounded by abundant food. 

* That is, measuring seven times the length of a man standing 
with upstretched arms. 



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X KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 2. 307 

Having fixed upon (the place for) the sacrificial 
ground, he enters the Patnl-sala * by the front (east) 
door, and having thrown up (the ground) for the 
Garhapatya, he sprinkles it with water. From 
the raised (site) of the Garhapatya he strides 
seven steps eastward. From there he measures 
off a fathom 2 towards the east, and having, in the 
middle thereof, thrown up (the ground) for the 
Ahavanlya, he sprinkles it with water. From 
the front part of the fathom he strides three steps 
eastward : that is the end of the Vedi 3 . 

2. Now, there are here, including the fathom (as 
one), eleven steps 4 between the end of the Vedi and 
the (original) Garhapatya ; — the Trish/ubh consists 



1 That is, ' ihe wife's ball,' — the sacrificial hall or shed, usually 
called PraAinavaw-ra or Pragvawsa, measuring 20 cubits by 10 
(part ii, p. 3, note 2), in which the original fires and vedi of ish/is are 
enclosed at the Soma-sacrifice ; see the plan, part ii, p. 475. 

* A fathom (vyama) is the space between the tips of the two 
middle fingers of a man standing with outstretched arms, this being 
considered the man's height. In this paragraph, the author roughly 
recapitulates the main dimensions of the sacrificial ground used for 
ish/is, which will also be required for the present purpose. The 
dimensions here supplied will give about the distance of eight steps 
between (the centres of) the Garhapatya and Ahavaniya fires required 
by I, 7i 3i 23- In the middle of the space of a fathom here alluded 
to as the easternmost space of the hall, the (original square) 
Ahavanfya is laid down, but this ultimately makes way for the new 
circular Garhapatya hearth built of bricks and having the whole of 
this ' fathom ' for its diameter. 

s That is, the hindmost (western) point of the (easterly line of 
the) Mahavedi of the Soma-sacrifice, where the peg, called ' antaA- 
patya,' is driven in, being three steps east from the post of the 
front door of the Pra£inava»wa (and hence three steps from the 
future circular Garhapatya hearth built of bricks). 

4 Literally, these are (ten) steps, having the fathom as an eleventh 
(space or step). 

X 2 



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308 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

of eleven syllables, and the Trish/ubh is a thunder- 
bolt, and the TrishAibh means strength : it is thus 
by the thunderbolt, and by strength, that the 
Sacrificer from the very first drives off the fiends, 
the Rakshas, from the mouth of the sacrifice. 

3. This is the womb of the Vedi, for it was from 
that womb that the gods begat the Vedi. And 
that (space of a) fathom which was (marked off), 
is the womb of the Garhapatya 1 , for it was from 
that womb that the gods begat the Garhapatya; and 
from the Garhapatya the Ahavanlya. 

4. From the (western) end of the Vedi he measures 
off the Vedi 2 thirty-six steps long eastward, thirty 
(steps) broad behind, and twenty-four (steps broad) 
in front, — that makes ninety. This, then, is the 
Vedi measuring ninety steps : thereon he lays out 
the sevenfold Fire-altar. 

5. As to this they say, ' How does this sevenfold 
(Person, the fire-altar,) correspond to this Vedi 
(measuring ninety steps) ? ' Well, there are these 

1 That is, the brick-built Garhapatya of the AgnLfayana on 
which the Ukhya Agni, having been carried about by the Sacrificer 
for a year, is transferred from the fire-pan (ukhd), and from which 
afterwards the fire of the great altar is derived. This new Garha- 
patya has been raised on the site of the old (square) Ahavaniya 
(the so-called ' jaladvarya ' or hall-door fire), on which the fire in 
the pan, the Ukhya Agni, was kindled (esha ahavanfyo vakshya- 
mawayif £ayanamahaveder garhapatyo bhavati ; Say.). The pan 
containing this fire was then placed half a fathom south of (the 
centre of) the old Ahavaniya, and hence so as to stand quite close 
to the brick-built Garhapatya raised in its place, and forming 
a circle with a diameter of one fathom. Thus this ' space of a 
fathom ' is here quite correctly referred to as the original source 
of the fires of the Agni^ayana. 

* For the dimensions of the Mahavedi here referred to, see 
part ii, p. 1 1 1 seq. 



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X KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAiVA, 7. 309 

ten vital airs in a man \ four limbs, and the trunk 
as the fifteenth ; in the same way in the second, 
and in the same way in the third (man), — in six 
men this makes ninety ; and one man remains over. 
Now, (that seventh) man is fivefold — hair, skin, flesh, 
bone, and marrow (fat), and this Vedi also is five- 
fold — the four regions (quarters), and the body (of 
the altar) as the fifth z : thus this sevenfold (altar) 
does indeed correspond to this Vedi. 

6. Now, some, intending to construct higher forms 
(of altars), increase (the number of) these steps and 
this fathom accordingly, saying, 'We enlarge the 
womb in accordance therewith ; ' — but let him not do 
so ; for the womb does not enlarge along with the 
child that has been born 3 , but, indeed, only as long 
as the child is within the womb, does the womb 
enlarge, and so long, indeed, the growth of the 
(unborn) child here (lasts) 4 . 

7. Indeed, those who do it in that way, deprive 
this Father Pra^apati of his due proportions ; and 
they will become the worse for sacrificing, for they 
deprive Father Pra^lpati of his due proportions. 



' That is, in the first of these seven persons or men, making up 
the sacrificial man (ya^tfa-purusha), Pra^apati; that first man 
being the Sacrificer himself, as supplying the standard for these 
measures. 

* That is, the fifth region, situated in a vertical direction, this 
being represented by the fire-altar which rises upwards. 

8 Somewhat differently Professor Delbrtick, Altind. Syntax, 
p. 444, ' The womb does not grow in proportion with the embryo 
produced therein.' 

4 The argument of the author apparently is, that the planned 
enlargement of the fire-altar is an enlargement of the child Agni, 
after he has been born, and does not involve an increased size of 
the original sacrificial ground of the Pra^inavaw-ra. 



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3IO SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

As large as this Vedi l of the sevenfold (fire-altar) 
is, fourteen times as large he measures out the 
Vedi of the one hundred and one-fold (altar). 

8. He now measures off a cord thirty-six steps - 
(yards) long, and folds it up into seven (equal) parts : 
of this he covers (the space of) the three front 
(eastern) parts (with bricks), and leaves four (parts) s 
free. 

9. He then measures (a cord) thirty steps long, 
and lays it sevenfold : of this he covers three parts 
(with bricks) behind, and leaves four (parts) free *. 

1 That is, of course, the Mahivedi on which the (ordinary) fire- 
altar is raised, and which is enlarged in proportion to the size of 
the altar. The intermediate sizes of the fire-altar between the two 
extremes here alluded to increase each by four square 'man's 
lengths ' (the man being measured with upstretched arms), or by 
one man's length on each side of the body of the altar ; the largest 
possible altar thus measuring^ToTman's lengths on each side. 

! A step, or pace (prakrama) is equal to 3 feet (pada), a foot 
measuring 12 finger-breadths (ahgula), — these measures being, 
however (at least theoretically), relative to the Sacrificer's height. 

3 That is to say, he stretches the cord along the ground from 
the (western) ' end of the Vedi ' eastwards, and marks off on the 
ground three-sevenths of the cord on the eastern side, that part of 
the Vedi being afterwards covered by the brick-built altar, whilst 
the remaining space behind is required for the Sadas and Havir- 
dh&na sheds, &c. If we take the Mahavedi to be 108 feet long 
(=36 prakramas) this would allow is§ feet for each part, or some 
46 feet for the length of the part to be covered with bricks, and this 
measure, being equal to seven man's lengths, would allow 6$ feet for 
a man's length (including the upstretched arms). Between the 
altar and the front (eastern) edge of the Vedi a space of one foot 
is, however, to be left. 

4 That is, he stretches the cord across (north to south) and 
marks off the three central divisions of it as forming the hind side 
of the altar (leaving two-sevenths of the string free on either side). 
This gives 12$ (out of 90) feet for each part, or 38^ feet for the 
back, or western, side of the altar. 



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X KAJfDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAATA, 1 5. 3II 

10. He then measures (a cord) twenty-four steps 
long, and lays it sevenfold : of this he covers three 
parts in front (with bricks), and leaves four (parts) 
free 1 . This, then, is the measuring out of the Vedi. 

1 1. Now as to the (other) forms of the fire-altar. 
Twenty-eight man's lengths long (from west to east) 
and twenty-eight man's lengths across is the body 
(of the altar), fourteen man's lengths the right, and 
fourteen the left wing, and fourteen the tail. Four- 
teen cubits (aratni) he covers (with bricks) on the 
right, and fourteen on the left wing, and fourteen 
spans (vitasti) on the tail. Such is the measure 
of (an altar of) ninety-eight man's lengths with the 
additional space (for wings and tail). 

12. He now measures a cord of three man's 
lengths, and lays it sevenfold : of this he covers (the 
space of) four parts (with bricks) on the body (of 
the altar); and three parts on the wings and tail. 

13. He then measures one three cubits long, and 
lays it sevenfold : of this he covers (the space of) 
three parts on the right, and three on the left wing, 
and leaves four (parts) free. 

14. He then measures one a span long, and lays 
it sevenfold : of this he covers (the space of) three 
parts on the tail, and leaves four (parts) free. In 
this way does this one hundred and one-fold (Agni) 
correspond to this Vedi. 

15. As to this they say, 'When thirteen man's 
lengths are over, how is it that these do not deviate 



1 This gives 10$ (out of 7 a) feet for each part, or 30^ feet for 
the front, or eastern, side of the altar. The measurements here 
given are intended as a refinement on the usual square shape of 
the fire-altar. 



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312 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

from the right proportions (of the altar) 1 ? ' Well, 
what right proportions there were in the case of 
that seventh man's length 2 , these same propor- 
tions (also apply) to all these (redundant man's 
lengths). 

1 6. And they also say, 'When Pra^apati had 
formed the body he filled it up with these (redundant 
lengths) wherever there was anything defective in 
it ; and therefore also it is rightly proportioned. 

1 7. As to this some say, ' The first time they 
construct a simple (altar s ), then the one higher by 
one (man's length), up to the one of unlimited size.' 
Let him not do so. 

18. Sevenfold, indeed, Pra^apati was created in 
the beginning. He went on constructing (develop- 
ing) his body, and stopped at the one hundred and 
one-fold one He who constructs one lower than 
a sevenfold one cuts this Father Prafapati in twain : 
he will be the worse for sacrificing as one would be 
by doing injury to his better. And he who con- 
structs one exceeding the one hundred and one-fold 
one steps beyond this universe, for Pra^apati is 
this universe. Hence he should first construct the 
sevenfold (altar), then the next higher up to the 
one hundred and one-fold one, but he should not 
construct one exceeding the one hundred and one- 



1 Or, from the right total (sarapad) which the altar ought to 
obtain. By paragraph 7, the altar is to be made fourteen times as 
large as the sevenfold one ; and the latter being said to be in exact 
proportion with Pra^-ipati (in paragraph 3), the larger altar would 
thus show an excess of thirteen man's lengths over the rightly 
proportioned altar. 

1 Viz. in paragraph 5. 

3 That is, one of a single man's length on each side. 



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X KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHStorS7~3". 313 



fold one, and thus, indeed, he neither cuts this 
Father Pra^apati in twain, nor does he step beyond 
this universe. 

Fourth Brahmajva. 

1. Prafapati, indeed, is the year, and Agni is 
all objects of desire. This Pra/apati, the year, 
desired, * May I build up for myself a body so as 
to contain ' Agni, all objects of desire.' He con- 
structed a body one hundred and one-fold ; and in 
constructing a body one hundred and one-fold, he 
built up for himself a body so as to contain Agni, 
all objects of desire, and himself became all objects 
of desire ; there was not one object of desire outside 
of him : whence they say, ' The year (includes) all 
objects of desire;' for, indeed, outside the year 
there is no object of desire whatever. 

2. And in like manner does the Sacrificer now, 
by constructing a body (of the altar) one hundred 
and one-fold, build for himself a body so as to 
contain Agni, all objects of desire : he becomes all 
objects of desire, and not one object of (his) desire 
is outside of him. 

3. Now this year is the same as yonder sun ; and 
he is this one hundred and one-fold (Agni); — his 
rays are a hundredfold, and he himself who shines 



1 Literally, May I build for myself a body (self) with a view to 
(abhi) Agni ; or, perhaps, ' He builds (a body) so as to become 
(Agni);' in which case ' abhi ' of ' abhisamiinute ' would have the 
same force as in ' abhisampadyate.' See, however, X, 2, 5, 9-12, 
where Sayawa explains it by 'yo y&A kamaA taw sarvam atmanam 
abhilakshya sampaditavan bhavati ' — ' He brings about (accomplishes) 
all that desire for his body.' 



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314 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA.tfA. 

yonder, being the one hundred and first, is firmly 
established in this universe ; and in like manner 
does the Sacrificer now establish himself in this 
universe by constructing for himself a body a hun- 
dred and one-fold. 

4. And, indeed, the one hundred and one-fold 
passes into (becomes equal to) the sevenfold one ; 
for yonder sun, whilst composed a hundred and 
one-fold, is established in the seven worlds of the 
gods, for, indeed, there are seven worlds of the 
gods, — the four quarters and these three worlds : 
these are the seven worlds of the gods, and in 
them that (sun) is established. And in like manner 
does the Sacrificer now establish himself in the 
seven worlds of the gods by constructing for himself 
a body a hundred and one-fold. 

5. And, again, as to how the one hundred and 
one-fold (altar) passes into the sevenfold one : — 
yonder sun, composed of a hundred and one parts, 
is established in the seven seasons, in the seven 
stomas (hymn-forms), in theseven prish/tia. (-samans), 
in the seven metres, in the seven vital airs, and in 
the seven regions ; and in like manner does the 
Sacrificer now establish himself in this universe (or, 
on everything here) by constructing for himself 
a body one hundred and one-fold. 

6. And, again, as to how the one hundred and 
one-fold passes into the sevenfold one : — yonder 
sun, composed of a hundred and one parts, is estab- 
lished in the seven-syllabled Brahman, for the 
Brahman (holy writ or prayer) indeed consists of 
seven syllables, — ' rtk ' is one syllable, ' yagu/i ' two, 
and ' sama ' two ; and what other Brahman there 
is that is just the ' brahman ' of two syllables — this 



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X KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 8. 315 

seven-syllabled Brahman is the universe l : therein 
that (sun) is established ; and in like manner does 
the Sacrificer now establish himself in the seven- 
syllabled Brahman by constructing for himself a 
body one hundred and one-fold. 

7. Therefore, also, they lay down around (the 
altar) sets of seven (bricks) each time, and hence the 
one hundred and one-fold passes into the sevenfold 
one ; and, indeed, the sevenfold one passes into the 
one hundred and one-fold. 

8. Sevenfold, indeed, Prafapati was created in 
the beginning. He saw this body composed of 
a hundred and one parts — fifty bricks in the Prawa- 
bhrz'ts 2 , and fifty sacrificial formulas, that makes 
a hundred, and the ' settling ' and sudadohas-formula 
are the two one hundred and first — these two are 
one and the same, for when he has ' settled ' (a brick), 
he pronounces the sfidadohas-formula over it : by 
means of this one hundred and one-fold body he 
gained that conquest and obtained that success ; and 
in like manner does the Sacrificer, by means of this 
one hundred and one-fold body, gain that conquest 
and obtain that success. And thus, indeed, the 
sevenfold (altar) passes into the one hundred and 
one-fold : that which is a hundred and one-fold is 
sevenfold, and that which is sevenfold is a hundred 
and one-fold. So much as to the forms (of altars). 



1 Or, perhaps, 'all this (taken together) is the sevenfold 
Brahman.' 

* In the first layer ten Pra»abhr/t bricks were placed along the 
diagonals in each of the four corners of the body of the altar (or in 
the intermediate quarters), and as many round the centre. 



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3 1 6 satapatha-brAhmajva. 



Fifth BrAhmaaa. 

i. Now as to the building itself. He builds 
between the two (performances of the) Upasads 1 . 
For at that time the gods were afraid lest the fiends, 
the Rakshas, should destroy that (Agni's body) of 
theirs (built) there 2 . They saw these strongholds, 
the Upasads, to wit, these worlds, for these worlds 
are indeed strongholds. They entered them, and 
having entered them, they completed that body 
in a place free from danger and devilry ; and in 
like manner does the Sacrincer now, after entering 
these strongholds, complete this body in a place 
free from danger and devilry. 

2. And, again, as to why he builds between the 
Upasads. At this time the gods were afraid lest 
the fiends, the Rakshas, should destroy that (Agni's 
body) of theirs (built) there. They saw these 
thunderbolts, the Upasads, for the Upasads indeed 
are thunderbolts : they entered them 3 , and, having 
entered them, they completed that body in a place 
free from danger and devilry; and in like manner 
does the Sacrificer now, after entering those thunder- 

1 The Upasads (or sieges) are performed twice a day on at least 
three days (the regular number for ordinary one day's Soma-sacri- 
fices) intervening between the end of the Dikshl (initiation) and the 
day of the Soma-sacrifice ; see part ii, p. 105, note 1. On the first 
day the first layer is built between the two performances (whilst the 
final preparation of the altar-site, as well as the building of the 
Garhapatya altar and the installation of the Ukhya Agni thereon, 
takes place before the morning performance of the Upasads), and 
on the second day the remaining layers are built. 

8 For the construction in the oratio direcla, see part Hi, p. 34, 
note 2. 

* Or, they went into their shelter (pra-pad). 



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x kXnda, 2 adhyAya, 5 brAhmam, 5. 317 

bolts, complete this body (of Agni) in a place free 
from danger and devilry. 

3. And the Upasads also are the fervour 1 in the 
sacrifice, for they are indeed fervour ; and inasmuch 
as it is built (£i) in fervour (tapas) it is called 
' TSpa.riita *.' As long as they perform the Upasads 
so long (do they perform) the Pravargya 3 : (if) it 
is for a year that they perform the Upasads, it is 
for a year (they perform) the Pravargya. 

4. The Upasads, indeed, are the days and nights, 
and the Pravargya is the sun : he thus establishes 
yonder sun on the days and nights, whence he is 
established on the days and nights. 

5. And if there are twenty-four (Upasad-days *), 
there being twenty-four half moons — the Upasads 

1 Or, austere devotion, see III, 4, 4, 27, where fasting during the 
Upasad days is recommended as calculated to promote religious 
fervour. There is also, however, the primary meaning ' heat ' im- 
plied, whence the ' heating ' of the cauldron (gharma=&pM<fc) at the 
Pravargya (representing the sun) is connected with the Upasads. 

* That is, the fire-altar used at the sacrificial period (ayana) 
called Tap&f^ita, which generally requires a full year (360 days) 
for the performance of the Upasads (as do also the Diksha 
before them, and the performance of the Soma-sacrifice after 
them); cf. XII, 3, 3, 10 seq.; Katy. XIV, 5, 1. — Axval. XII, 
5, 9 ; KSty. XXIV, 5, 7, however, mention a Tapaj^ita which 
only requires four months for each of the three periods, or 
a year altogether, whilst the maximum duration is by Asv. fixed 
at thirty-six years (twelve for each period) ; and by Kity. at three 
years for the Upasads and a year for each of the two other 
ceremonies. 

* See part ii, p. 104. 

* Saya«a does not specify what sacrificial performance is in- 
tended as requiring twenty-four Upasad-days, but merely says that 
they are required ' kratuvireshe,' at some special kind of sacrifice. 
At all events, the Sacrificer would be at liberty to adopt that 
number of Upasad-days instead of the minimum of days prescribed, 
if he hoped to derive special benefit therefrom. 



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318 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

are the balf-moons, and the Pravargya is the sun : 
he thus establishes yonder sun on the half-moons, 
whence he is established on the half-moons. 

6. And if there are twelve (Upasad-days) 1 — 
there being twelve months — the Upasads are the 
months, and the Pravargya is the sun : he thus 
establishes yonder sun on the months, whence he is 
established on the months. 

7. And if there are six (Upasad-days) — there 
being six seasons — the Upasads are the seasons, 
and the Pravargya is the sun : he thus establishes 
yonder sun in the seasons, whence he is established 
in the seasons. 

8. And if there are three (Upasad-days) — there 
being these three worlds — the Upasads are these 
three worlds, and the Pravargya is the sun : he thus 
establishes yonder sun in these worlds, whence he is 
established in these worlds. 

9. Now, then, the inquiry as to the earth-layers 
of the altar-pile. One month (the building of) the 
first layer (of bricks takes), and one month the layer 
of earth 2 , — so long desire (lasts) in the spring season 
(of two months) : he thus s builds for himself a body 
so as to obtain all of whatever desire there is in the 
spring season *. 

1 For an ordinary Ekiha, or one day's Soma-sacrifice, the 
Upasads may be performed for twelve days instead of the usual 
three days (K&ty.VIII, 2, 40). It is also the regular number of days 
for Ahtnas (ib. XIII, 1, 1 ; Ajv. IV, 8, 15) and for most sattras. 

* That is, when the Upasads last for a whole year, as at the 
Tapajiita. 

3 That is, by building for his Soma-sacrifice an altar the body 
of which requires a whole year in being laid down, as it does in the 
Tipaj/Kta. 

* Translated literally, the sentence would run thus : ' Thus as 



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X KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAhMAJVA, 1 4. 319 

10. One month the second (layer of bricks takes), 
and one month the layer of earth, — so long desire 
(lasts) in the summer season : he thus builds for 
himself a body so as to obtain all of whatever desire 
there is in the summer season. 

11. One month the third (layer of bricks takes), 
and one month the layer of earth, — so long desire 
(lasts) in the rainy season : he thus builds for himself 
a body so as to obtain all of whatever desire there 
is in the rainy reason. 

1 2. One month the fourth (layer of bricks takes), 
and one month the layer of earth, — so long desire 
(lasts) in the autumn season : he thus builds for 
himself a body so as to obtain all of whatever desire 
there is in the autumn season. 

13. And of the fifth layer (of bricks) he lays down 
the Asapatna and Vira^* (bricks) on the first day, 
and of the Stomabhagas one each day : these he 
' settles ' together once, and pronounces once the 
sudadohas-formula over them *. For a month they 
silently apply the earth-layer for the Stomabhagas, 
for so long desire (lasts) in the winter season : thus 
he builds for himself a body so as to obtain all of 
whatever desire there is in the winter season. 

14. One month the sixth (layer of bricks takes), 

much desire as there is in the spring season — he builds for himself 
a body so as to obtain all that (desire).' Only the building of an 
altar (body) for a whole year ensures the full fruition of sensual 
pleasures supplied during the year. 

1 That is, these three kinds of bricks — the five Asapatnis, and 
forty Vira^s being laid down on the first day, and of the twenty-nine 
Stomabhagas one each day, — the three kinds of bricks thus lake 
one month in being laid down, after which the 'sadanam' and 
'Sudadohas' (cf. part iii, p. 301, note 3) are performed upon 
them. 



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320 .JATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

and one month the layer of earth, — so long desire 
(lasts) in the dewy season : he thus builds for himself 
a body so as to obtain all of whatever desire there 
is in the dewy season. So long, indeed, desire (lasts) 
in the twelve months and the six seasons : he thus 
builds for himself a body so as to obtain all of 
whatever desire there is in the twelve months and 
the six seasons. 

1 5. And in addition to these there are three days \ 
to wit, the day on which he performs the ^atarudriya 
offering, the day of preparation, and the day on 
which the Soma is pressed. When they perform 
the Upasad on these days, these (days) are the days 
and nights of that (thirteenth, or intercalary) month : 
and when (they perform) the Pravargya, he thereby 
establishes yonder sun also in that (seventh) season, 
— so long, indeed, desire (lasts) in the thirteen 
months and the seven seasons : he thus builds for 
himself a body so as to obtain all of whatever desire 
there is in thirteen months and seven seasons. 

16. For a year Soma should be pressed, — the 
year is everything, and the one hundred and 
one-fold (altar) is everything : by means of every- 
thing he thus gains everything. Should he be 
unable (to press Soma) for a year, he should 
perform the Visvagit Atiratra 2 with all the Pn- 



1 Viz. after the twenty-eight days of the twelfth month two days 
remain to make up the year, so that the (first) Sutya day (pressing 
day) takes place after the expiry of a full year. 

* The Vwvn^it, as usually performed, is an Agnish/oma sacrifice, 
the twelve Stotras of which are chanted in three different stomas or 
hymn-forms, viz. the first four in the trivm (nine-versed), the next 
four in the patf&idara (fifteen-versed), and the last four in the 
saptadara (seventeen-versed) stoma. For the stotriya-texts see 



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X KA.NDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 6 BRAHMAWA, I. 321 

sh/^as \ and at that (sacrifice) he should give away 
all his property 2 ; for the Vi^va^it (all-conquering) 
Atir&tra with all the Prishtfias means everything, 
and all one's property means everything, and the 
one hundred and one-fold (altar) means every- 
thing : by means of everything he thus gains 
everything. 

Sixth Brahma;va. 

i. The one hundred and one-fold Pra^apati, 
doubtless, is the year, and thereto belong days and 



Ta«</ya-Br. XVI, 5, 1 seq. It is closely united with the Abh\jit 
Soma-day — the stotras of which are performed in four stomas, viz. 
three in each of those used for the VLrva^it, and the last three in the 
ekavizwa, or twenty-one-versed, stoma — with which it may, indeed, 
be combined in one and the same performance ; and both form part 
of the sacrificial session called Gav&m ayanam (part ii, p. 427). The 
Vifva^it (as well as the Abhi^it) may, however, also be performed as 
an AtiiStra instead of Agnish/oma, and in that case the sequence of 
Stomas is entirely different, their order being as follows : the first 
four stotras are performed in the first four stomas (trim*, pa#£a- 
dira, saptadaja, ekavi»/ja) ; the next four stotras in the four stomas 
beginning with the second stoma (up to tri«ava), and the next four 
stotras in the four stomas beginning with the third stoma (up to 
trayastr/wtxa). Of the three Ukthastotras, the first is performed in 
the trinava, and the two others in the ekavimra ; the Shorfajin in 
its own (ekavimja) form ; the night-chants in the pafl^adaja ; and 
the twilight-chant in the trivnt-stoma. See Ta»<fya-Br. XX, 9. 

1 On ' sarvapr/sh/Aa ' Soma-days, see part iii, introduction, pp. 
xx seq. 

* As an equivalent for one's ' whole property (sarvavedasa, sarva- 
sva),' KStyiyana (XXII, 2, 26.27) enumerates ' cows, oxen, ploughs, 
sacks of corn (or corn-sacks), pairs of slaves, waggons, animals for 
riding, houses (or sheds), and couches.' For other similar enu- 
merations, see A. Weber, Omina and Portenta (Abh. of Berl. Acad. 
1858), p. 398. 

[43] Y 



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322 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

nights, half-months, months, and seasons. The 
days and nights of a month are sixty, and in the 
month, doubtless, the days and nights of the year 
are obtained ; and there are twenty-four half-months, 
thirteen months, and three seasons (of four months) 
— that makes a hundred parts, and the year itself 
is the one hundred and first part. 

2. By the seasons it is sevenfold, — six seasons 
(of two months), and the year itself as the seventh 
part. And he who shines yonder is the light of that 
year : his rays are a hundredfold, and the (sun's) 
disk itself is the one hundred and first part. 

3. By the regions it is sevenfold, — the rays which 
are in the eastern region are one part, and those in the 
southern are one, and those in the western are one, 
and those in the northern are one, and those in the 
upper (region) are one, and those in the lower (region) 
are one, and the disk itself is the seventh part. 

4. Beyond this (year) lies the wish-granting world ; 
but the wish-granting one is the immortal (element) : 
it is thus the immortal that lies beyond this (year, 
temporal existence) ; and that same immortal (ele- 
ment) is that very light which shines yonder. 

5. Now that same boon (the immortal light), bright 
with wealth, he, Savitr* (the sun), distributes among 
the distributed creatures, and among plants and 
trees, too ; and to some, indeed, he gives more of it, 
and to some less ; and they to whom he gives more 
of it live longest, and they to whom he gives less 
live less long. 

6. It is regarding this that it is said in the Rik 
(I, 22, 7 ; Va£\ S. XXX, 4), ' The distributer of 
wealth, the bright boon, we invoke, Savitr/, 
the beholder of men.' And that is the full 



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X KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 6 BrAhMAA'A, 8. 323 

(measure of) life, for it is long, it is unending * ; and 
when people here say, * May thy life be long ! 
mayest thou reach the full (extent of) life ! ' it is as 
much as to say, 'May that world, may that (im- 
mortal light) be thine ! ' 

7. It is Vai (Speech) that, seeing it, speaks 
(thus). That same (immortal light), indeed, is to be 
obtained either by the one hundred and one-fold 
(altar), or by a life of a hundred years : whosoever 
builds a one hundred and one-fold (altar), or whoso- 
ever lives a hundred years, he, indeed, obtains that 
immortality. Therefore, whether they know it, or 
whether they do not, people say, ' The life of a 
hundred years makes for heaven.' Hence one ought 
not to yield to his own desire and pass away before 
(he has attained) the full extent of life, for (such 
shortening of one's life), does not make for the 
heavenly world 2 ; and these are indeed the worlds, 
to wit, the days and nights, the half-moons, moons, 
and seasons, and the year. 

8. Those who pass away in the years below 
twenty are consigned to the days and nights as their 
worlds ; and those who (pass away) in the years 
above twenty and below forty, to the half-moons ; 
and those who (pass away) in the (years) above forty 
and below sixty, to the months ; and those who 
(pass away) in the (years) above sixty and below 



1 Thus Sayswa — tad etat sarvam ayur iti sarvapadasyartham aha, 
dirgham anantam hi. 

2 Literally, ' conducive to the world,' or, perhaps, ' conducive to 
a place (in yonder world).' Sayawa interprets it by — his death is 
' alokyam,' that is, not procuring the world consisting of immortality. 
Some such meaning as ' (such conduct) is not world-winning ' seems 
to be implied by the words which follow. 

Y 2 



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324 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA. 

eighty, to the seasons ; and those who (pass away) 
in the (years) above eighty and below a hundred (are 
consigned) to the year; and he alone who lives 
a hundred years or more attains to that immortal 
(life). 

9. Only by many sacrifices, indeed, is a single 
day, or a single night (of life) gained ; and only he 
who builds the one hundred and one-fold (altar), or 
he who lives a hundred years, is certain of his 
attaining to that immortal (life). But he, indeed, 
builds a one hundred and one-fold (altar) who 
carries him (Ukhya Agni) for a year: hence one 
should only build (an altar for) such an (Agni) who 
has been carried for a year. Thus much as to the 
deity. 

10. Now as to the sacrifice. When he measures 
out those one hundred and one men (man's lengths) 
with upstretched arms, that is a one hundred and 
one-fold (altar) in. form, and a sevenfold one in 
respect of its layers : the layers contain six seasonal 1 
(bricks) and the fire (or altar) itself is the seventh 
form. 

11. And, indeed, it is a hundred and one-fold in 
respect of bricks, — the first fifty bricks and the last 
fifty 2 which are (laid down) make a hundred forms 
(parts) ; and the bricks which are laid down between 
(those two sets) are the one hundred and first form. 

1 The five layers contain five sets of two such bricks, each 
representing the two months of the respective season ; except the 
third layer, which contains four such bricks, only, however, of half 
the thickness of the others. 

* According to Saya»a, this refers to the fifty Pra»abhrris in the 
first, and to the forty Vira^s, five Nakasads, and five Paftfcufcudas in 
the fifth layer. 



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X KANDA, 2 ADHYAYA, 6 BRAHMAiVA, T4. 325 

12. And, having the Yafus for its light, it is 
a hundred and one-fold in respect of the Yafus 
(formulas), — the first fifty and the last fifty which 
are (used) make a hundred forms ; and the Ya,fus 
which are used between them are the one hundred 
and first form. In this way also the sevenfold 
one becomes a hundred and one-fold, and whosoever 
knows this obtains even by the sevenfold one what- 
ever wish there is both in a life of a hundred years 
and in the one hundred and one-fold (altar). 

13. In this way, indeed, all sacrifices 1 up to the 
Agnihotra are a hundred and one-fold by way of 
verses, formulas, words, syllables, rites, and hymn- 
tunes ; and whosoever knows this obtains by every 
sacrifice whatever wish there is either in a life of 
a hundred years, or in the one hundred and one-fold 
(altar), or in the sevenfold one. Thus much as to 
the sacrifice. 

14. Now as to the body. There are these four 
sets of five fingers and toes, the two — wrist and 
elbow 2 , — the arm, the shoulder-blade, and the 
collarbone, — that makes twenty-five ; and in the 
same way (each of) these other limbs, — that makes 
a hundred parts, and the trunk itself is the one 
hundred and first part As regards the sevenfold 
state this has been explained 3 . 



1 That is, according to Saya«a, all Soma-sacrifices, — ekahas, 
ahinas, sattras, &c. In this case we should perhaps translate, 
' down to the Agnihotra,' that being the simplest kind of Soma- 
sacrifice. 

* This meaning is assigned by SSyawa to 'kalkushi' (=ma»i- 
bandharatni) ; it cannot mean here ' the two wrists ' (? ' kalyusha,' 
Mon. Will. Diet.), as both must be parts of the same limb. 

' Viz. X, 2, 2, 1. 5 (VI, 1, 1, 1 seq.). 



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326 satapatha-brAhmawa. 

15. And, having the vital air for its light, it is 
a hundred and one-fold by the vital airs limb by 
limb, for there is vital air in each limb : whosoever 
knows this obtains, even by his knowledge, what- 
ever wish there is in a life of a hundred years, 
or in the one hundred and one-fold (altar), or in the 
sevenfold one, or in all sacrifices ; for he has obtained 
a body perfected by all the sacrifices. 

16. Now, there are these three fivefold (objects), 
the year, the fire, and man : their five forms are 
food, drink, well-being 1 , light, and immortality. 
Whatever food there is in the year, that is its 
food ; whatever water, that is its drink ; its well-being 
is the night, for in the night, as in well-being 
(contentment or goodness), all beings dwell to- 
gether 2 ; its light is the day, and its immortal 
element the sun. Thus much as to the deity. 

17. Now as to the sacrifice. Whatever food is 
placed on the fire, that is its food, and whatever 
water, that is its water; its well-being is the 
enclosing-stones, for they are of the nature of 
nights 8 ; its light the (bricks) with special formulas, 
for they are of the nature of days ; and its immortal 



1 Or, perhaps, goodness, excellence (sii). 

2 According to SSya»a, this is an etymological play on the word 
' sti ' (well-being, contentment, peace), as connected with the verb 
' s ri ' — wiyanti nivasanty asmin kala iti rStrtf jruabdav4£ya\ Cf. II, 
3, 1, 3, where, with the Kawva, we have to read, 'iliti hi .rere 
(rerate, K.) samg&n&A' — 'for (when the sun has set) those who are 
at variance with one another lie quiet (together).' 

* Viz. inasmuch as they enclose the altar, and protect it on all 
sides. Cf. VII, 1, 1, 12 seq., where the enclosing-stones are said 
to represent the womb in which the embryo Agni is contained; 
and are also compared with the ocean which flows round the earth 
like a protecting moat. 



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X KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAtfA, I. 327 

element the fire, for that is of the nature of the sun. 
Thus much as to the sacrifice. 

18. Now as to the body. Whatever food there 
is in man, that is his food ; whatever water, that is 
his water; his well-being (safety, strength) is the 
bones, for they are of the nature of enclosing-stones; 
his light the marrow, for that is of the nature of the 
yafushmatl (bricks) ; his immortal element the 
breath, for that is of the nature of fire ; — and, 
indeed, people say, ' The breath is fire, the breath 
is the immortal.' 

19. Now, hunger ceases through food, thirst 
through drink, evil through well-being (goodness), 
darkness through light, and death through im- 
mortality ; and, in truth, whosoever knows this 
from him all these pass away, and he conquers 
recurring death, and attains the whole (perfect) life. 
And let him hold this to be immortality in yonder 
world and life here below. Some, indeed, hold it 
to be breath, saying, ' The breath is fire, the breath 
is the immortal;' but let him not believe this, for 
something uncertain is breath. And regarding this 
it has also been said in the Yafus (Va^ - . S. XII, 65), 
' That (bond) of thine I unloose, as from the middle 
of Ayus (life) : ' let him therefore hold it to be 
immortality in yonder world, and life here below, 
and thus, indeed, he attains the whole life. 

Third AdhyAya. First BrAhmajva. 

1. The Gayatrl is the breath (of Pra^apati, the 
altar), the Ushwih the eye, the Anush/ubh the voice, 
the B/-*hati the mind, the Pankti the ear; the 
Trish/ubh is that generative breath ; and the Gagati 



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328 satapatha-brAhmaya. 

that downward breathing; — these are the seven 
metres increasing by four (syllables) each ', which 
are produced in Agni (the fire-altar). 

2. ' The Gayatri is the breath,' — thus, whatever 
power, whatever vigour there is in the breath that 
is this one thousand ; and to the breath, indeed, 
this vigour belongs ; for were the breath of him 
who builds it to pass away, this fire-altar, assuredly, 
would not be built : by this its form that (altar) 
becomes built (so as to contain) a thousand 
Gayatris. 

3. ' The Ush#ih is the eye,' — thus, whatever 
power, whatever vigour there is in the eye that 
is this one thousand ; and to the eye, indeed, this 
vigour belongs, for were the eye-sight of him who 
builds it to pass away, this fire-altar, assuredly, 
would not be built: by this its form that (altar) 
becomes built (so as to contain) a thousand Ushwihs. 

4. ' The Anush/ubh is the voice,' — thus, whatever 
power, whatever vigour there is in the voice that 
is this one thousand ; and to the voice, indeed, this 
vigour belongs, for were the voice of him who builds 
it to pass away, this fire-altar, assuredly, would not 
be built : by this its form that (altar) becomes built 
(so as to contain) a thousand Anush/ubhs. 

5. ' The EWhatl is the mind,' — thus, whatever 
power, whatever vigour there is in the mind that 
is this one thousand ; and to the mind, indeed, this 
vigour belongs, for were the mind of him who 
builds it to pass away, this fire-altar, assuredly, 



1 The Gayatri verse consists of twenty-four syllables ; and each 
of the following increases by four syllables, the Gagati consisting 
of 4 x 12, or forty-eight syllables. 



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X KArfDA, 3 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMAJVA, 9. 329 

would not be built: by this its form that (altar) 
becomes built (so as to contain) a thousand 
B^zhatis. 

6. ' The Pahkti is the ear,' — thus, whatever 
power, whatever vigour there is in the ear that 
is this one thousand; and to the ear, indeed, this 
vigour belongs, for were the power of hearing 
of him who builds it to pass away, this fire-altar, 
assuredly, would not be built : by this its form that 
(altar) becomes built (so as to contain) a thousand 
Pahktis. 

7. ' The Trish/ubh is that generative (life-giving) 
breath,' — thus, whatever power, whatever vigour 
there is in that breath, that is this one thousand ; 
and to that breath, indeed, this vigour belongs, 
for were that breath of him who builds it to become 
disordered, this fire-altar, assuredly, would not be 
built : by this its form that (altar) becomes built 
(so as to contain) a thousand Trish/ubhs. 

8. ' And the Gagati is that downward breathing,'— 
thus, whatever power, whatever vigour there is in 
that breathing, that is this one thousand ; and to 
that breathing, indeed, this vigour belongs, for 
were that breathing of him who builds it to 
become disordered, this fire-altar, assuredly, would 
not be built : by this its form that (altar) becomes 
built (so as to include) a thousand Gagatis. 

9. Now, these seven metres which increase by 
four (syllables) successively, and are firmly estab- 
lished in one another, are those seven vital airs ' in 
man, firmly established in one another : thus, by 

1 Viz. those enumerated in the preceding paragraphs, including 
those passing through the eye, ear, &c. 



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33° SATAPATHA-BRAHMAATA. 

as much as the number of metres he utters has 
that (altar) of him who knows this, prayers uttered 
upon it in metre after metre, or hymns chanted, or 
.yastras recited, or (bricks) laid down upon it. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

i. As to this they say, 'What metre and what 
deity are the head of the fire-altar ? ' The metre 
Gayatrl and the deity Agni are its head. 

2. ' What metre and what deity are its neck ? ' 
The metre Ush«ih and the deity Savitr* are its 
neck. 

3. 'What metre and what deity are its spine?' 
The metre Brz'hatl and the deity Brzhaspati are 
its spine. 

4. ' What metre and what deity are its wings ? ' 
The metres Brthat and Rathantara and the deities 
Heaven and Earth are its wings. 

5. ' What metre and what deity are its waist ? ' 
The metre Trish/ubh and the deity Indra are its 
waist. 

6. ' What metre and "what deity are its hips ? ' 
The metre Cagatl and the deity Aditya (the sun) 
are its hips. 

7. ' What metre and what deity are the vital air 
whence the seed flows ? ' The metre Ati^andas 
and the deity Pra^apati. 

8. ' What metre and what deity are that downward 
vital air ? ' The metre Yaf^aya^iya and the deity 
Vai^vanara. 

9. ' What metre and what deity are the thighs ? ' 
The metre Anush/ubh and that deity, the Viive- 
deva^, are the thighs. 



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X KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, I. 33 1 

10. ' What metre and what deity are the knees ? ' 
The metre Pankti and that deity, the Maruts, are 
the knees. 

11. 'What metre and what deity are the feet?' 
The metre Dvipada and the deity Vish«u are 
the feet. 

12. 'What metre and what deity are the vital 
airs ? ' The metre Vi^andas and the deity Vayu 
(the wind) are the vital airs. 

1 3. ' What metre and what deity are the defective 
and redundant parts ? ' The metre (of the verse) 
wanting a syllable (or syllables) and that deity, the 
waters, are the defective and redundant parts. 
This, then, is the knowledge of the body (of the 
altar), and suchlike is the deity that enters into 
this body; and, indeed, there is in this (sacrificial 
performance) no other prayer for the obtainment 
of heavenly bliss '. 

Third BrAhmawa. 

1. Dhira .Sataparweya once on a time repaired 
to Manilla 2 Cabala. He said to him, ' Knowing 
what 3 , hast thou come to me?' — 'Agni (the fire) 
I know.' — 'What Agni knowest thou?' — 'Speech.' — 
' What becomes of him who knows that Agni ? ' — 
'He becomes eloquent 4 ,' he said, 'speech does not 
fail him.' 



1 Atrignau lokyatiyai puwyalokavSptaye anya uktavyatirikta &M 
prarthana 1 nasti. Sdyawa. 

* Literally, one who keeps a large house, a lord. Siyawa, 
however, treats it as a proper name. 

3 That is, ' with what knowledge.' 

4 Or, perhaps, possessed of a good voice. To be ' vagmin ' is 



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332 satapatha-brAhmana. 

2. ' Thou knowest Agni,' he said ; ' knowing what 
(else) hast thou come to me?' — 'Agni I know.' — 
•What Agni knowest thou?'— 'The Eye.'— 'What 
becomes of him who knows that Agni ?' — ' He 
becomes seeing,' he said ; ' his eye does not fail 
him.' 

3. ' Thou knowest Agni,' he said ; ' knowing what 
hast thou come to me?' — 'Agni I know.'--' What 
Agni knowest thou?' — 'The Mind.' — 'What be- 
comes of him who knows that Agni ?' — ' He 
becomes thoughtful,' he said ; ' his mind does not 
fail him.' 

4. ' Thou knowest Agni,' he said ; ' knowing what 
hast thou come to me ?' — 'Agni I know.' — 'What 
Agni knowest thou ?' — ' The Ear.' — ' What becomes 
of him who knows that Agni ?' — ' He becomes 
hearing,' he said ; ' his ear does not fail him.' 

5. ' Thou knowest Agni,' he said ; ' knowing what 
hast thou come to me?' — 'Agni I know.' — 'What 
Agni knowest thou ?' — ' The Agni who is every- 
thing here, him I know.' — On (hearing) this said, he 
stepped down to him and said, ' Teach me that 
Agni, sir!' 

6. He said, — Verily, that Agni is the breath ; 
for when man sleeps, speech passes into the breath, 
and so do the eye, the mind, and the ear; and 
when he awakes, they again issue from the breath. 
Thus much as to the body. 

7. Now as to the deity. That speech verily is 
Agni himself; and that eye is yonder sun ; and that 

enumerated among the necessary qualifications of the officiating 
priest by LS/y. I, 1, 6, where the commentator, however, explains 
the term either as 'ready of speech (vaktum samarthaA),' or as 
' using correct, or elegant, speech (sawskntaviM).' 



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X KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAitfA, 2. 333 

mind is that moon; and that ear is the quarters; 
and that breath is the wind that blows here. 

8. Now, when that fire goes out, it is wafted up 
in the wind (air), whence people say of it, ' It has 
expired 1 ,' for it is wafted up in the wind. And 
when the sun sets it enters the wind, and so does 
the moon ; and the quarters are established in the 
wind, and from out of the wind they issue again. 
And when he who knows this passes away from 
this world, he passes into the fire by his speech, 
into the sun by his eye, into the moon by his mind, 
into the quarters by his ear, and into the wind by 
his breath ; and being composed thereof, he becomes 
whichever of these deities he chooses, and is at 
rest. 

Fourth Brahmaata. 

1. .Svetaketu Aru»eya 2 , once upon a time, was 
about to offer sacrifice. His father said to him, 
'What priests hast thou chosen to officiate?' He 
said, ' This Vai^vavasavya here is my Hotri.' 
He asked him, ' Knowest thou, Brahma#a VaLrva- 
vasavya, — 

2. The four great (things) ?' — ' I know them, sir,' 
he said. — ' Knowest thou the four great ones of the 
great ?' — ' I know them, sir,' he said. — ' Knowest 
thou the four rites (vrata) ? ' — ' I know them, sir,' 
he said. — ' Knowest thou the four rites of rites ? ' — 
' I know them, sir,' he said. — ' Knowest thou the 



1 Literally, ' it has blown out, or up.' 

* That is, grandson of Aruwa (Aupavexi), and son of (Uddalaka) 
Ariuri (II, 3, 1, 31. 34; IV, 5, 7, 9). 



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334 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAiVA. 

four relating to Ka 1 ?' — ' I know them, sir,' he said. 
— ' Knowest thou the four deepest of those relating 
to Ka 2 ?' — 'I know them, sir,' he said. — 'Knowest 
thou the four flames 8 ?' — 'I know them, sir,' he 
said. — ' Knowest thou the four flames of flames?' — 
' I know them, sir,' he said. 

3. 'Knowest thou the Arka 4 ?' — ' Nay, but thou 
wilt teach us 6 , sir !' — ' Knowest thou the two Arka- 
leaves ?' — 'Nay, but thou wilt teach us, sir!' — 
' Knowest thou the two Arka-flowers ?' — ' Nay, but 
thou wilt teach us, sir!' — 'Knowest thou the two 
pod-leaves * of the Arka ?' — ' Nay, but thou wilt 
teach us, sir!' — 'Knowest thou the two coops 7 of 
the Arka ?' — ' Nay, but thou wilt teach us, sir !' — 
' Knowest thou the Arka-grains ?' — ' Nay, but thou 
wilt teach us, sir!' — 'Knowest thou the bulge 8 of 



1 Siyawa takes ' kya ' to mean ' those useful to, or pleasing to 
(hita), Ka, i.e. Pra^dpati.' 

1 Literally, 'the four Kya of the Kya.' For more symbolical 
speculation on these terms, see X, 4, 1, 4. 

' Or, fires (arka), used of the sun, the fire and the lightning, as 
well as of the Arka plant. Saya«a, however, here explains ' arka^ ' 
by ' ar&iniyaA,' ' worthy of being praised, or honoured.' 

4 That is, the Arka plant (Calotropis gigantea), apparently so 
called (='arka,' lightning) from the wedge-like shape of its leaves. 
Cf. IX, 1, 1, 4, where the leaf is used in offering the .Satarudriya 
oblations. The other meanings of ' arka,' especially that of ' flame, 
fire,' however, are likewise implied in these mystic speculations. 

6 Or, simply, ' Thou wilt tell us, then (atha vai), sir.' 

* ? Or, the pods, sheaths ; arkakojyau koryikare phale (or pu/ake). 
S&yawa. 

7 ? Or, 'seas' (samudra). Sayawa explains it as two opened 
' lip-parts ' at the top of the Arka-pod (arkakojSgre vidalitaush/Aa- 
bhagau). 

" That is, according to the St. Petersb. Diet., ' the globular, cake- 
shaped, hardened cicatrix of the Calotropis gigantea.' S&yana 



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X KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAiVA, 5. 335 

the Arka ?' — ' Nay, but thou wilt teach us, sir !' — 
' Knowest thou the root of the Arka ?' — ' Nay, but 
thou wilt teach us, sir !' 

4. Now, when he said, ' Knowest thou the four 
great (things) ? Knowest thou the four great of 
the great ?' — the great one is Agni (the fire), and 
the great (thing) of that great one are the plants 
and trees, for they are his food ; and the great one 
is Vayu (the wind), and the great (thing) of that 
great one are the waters, for they are his (the wind's) 
food ; and the great one is Aditya (the sun), and 
the great (thing) of that great one is the moon, for 
that is his food ; and the great one is Man, and the 
great (thing) of that great one is cattle, for they are 
his food : — these are the four great things, these the 
four great of the great; — these are the four rites, 
these the four rites of rites.; — these are the four 
relating to Ka, these the four deepest relating to 
Ka ; — these are the four flames, these the four 
flames of flames. 

5. And when he said, ' Knowest thou the Arka ?' 
he thereby meant man ; — ' Knowest thou the two 
Arka-leaves ? ' he thereby meant his ears ; — 
' Knowest thou the two Arka-flowers ?' he thereby 
meant his eyes ; — ' Knowest thou the pod-leaves 
of the Arka?' he thereby meant his nostrils; — 
' Knowest thou the two coops of the Arka ?' he 
thereby meant his lips ; — ' Knowest thou the Arka- 
grains ?' he thereby meant his teeth ; — ' Knowest 
thou the bulge of the Arka ?' he thereby meant his 
tongue ; — ' Knowest thou the root of the Arka ?' 



explains it by, ' arkakofamadhye vistarena (F v. 1. £ihvastara»a-) 
vartamana tftli.' 



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336 -SATAPATHA-BRAHMAWA. 

he thereby meant his food. Now that Arka, to wit, 
man, is Agni; and verily, whoso regards Agni as 
the Arka and the man, in his (altar-) body that Agni, 
the Arka, will be built up even through the know- 
ledge that ' I here am Agni, the Arka.' 

Fifth Brahmaata. 

i. Now, the Ya^us, indeed, is he who blows here, 
for even whilst passing along he (Vayu, the wind) 
generates (vivifies) everything here, and after him 
passing along everything is generated : this is why 
the Ya/us is no other than Vayu. 

2. And the course 1 (fu^) is this space, to wit, 
this air s , for along this space it (the wind) courses ; 
and the Ya^fus is both the wind and the air — the 
'yat' and the 'g&h' — whence (the name) Ya,fus. 
And the ' yat' (that which goes) is this (Adhvaryu) 3 , 
for when he 'goes' on (performing), the Rik and 
Saman carry that Ya^us established on the Rik and 
Saman. Hence the Adhvaryu performs his work 
with the very same Grahas (cups of Soma), (while) 
there are each time * different stotras (chants) and 
.rastras (recitations) : it is just as if, after driving 
with a first pair (of horses), one drives with a second 
pair. 



1 ' GM ' would rather seem to mean ' the urger, or speeder.' 

2 'Yad idam antariksham,' perhaps, with the double sense — 
'this air is the "yat (the going, moving thing)"' — made use of 
in the sequel. The construction, however, is not quite clear. 
Sivawa explains: ayam evak&ro gUr iti; gn id sautro dhatur 
gatyarthaA ; yad idam prattyamanam antariksham asti tad eva #ur 
iti ; yad evofyate— etam SkSjam anulakshya ^avate, vayur gaiMati, 
vSyu£TtvamSdakara»a — l\5g gUr akifaA. 

* Or, whence (the name) Ya^iis, to wit, this (Adhvaryu). 
4 That is, in different Soma-sacrifices. 



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X KAJVDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMAJVA, 7. 337 

3. Now Agni is in front l (puras), for placing 
Agni in front (of them) these creatures attend upon 
him ; and the sun is motion (£ara#a), for as soon as 
he rises everything here moves about. Such is the 
Ya^us with the preparatory performance (puray- 
iara«a *) as regards the deities. 

4. Now as regards the body. The Ya^us is the 
breath, for whilst moving (yat) it generates (vivifies) 
everything here, and along with the moving breath 
birth takes place here : hence the Ya^tis is the 
breath. 

5. And this course {g&h) is space — this space 
which is inside the body — for along this space it 
(the breath) courses ; and the Ya^us is both the 
breath and space, — the ' yat ' and the ' ghh ' : hence 
' yafus.' And the ' yat ' (moving) is the breath, 
for the breath moves. 

6. The Ya^iis, indeed, is food, for by food one is 
produced, and by food one moves. And food carries 
along that Ya^us established on food, whence even 
different food is introduced into the same (channel 
of the) breath. 

7. And the Mind is in front (puras), for the mind 
is the first of vital airs ; and the eye is motion 
(iara«a), for it is in accordance with the eye that this 

1 Literally, apparently, ' The in-front is Agni.' 

* This term, literally, ' moving in front,' seems virtually to imply 
the entire manual work connected with the sacrifice, and which, 
along with the muttering of the YagTis-formulas, forms the official 
duty of the Adhvaryu. It would thus include all the sacrificial 
performances prior to the muttering of a Ya^ns, as the finishing 
or consecratory rite. For a somewhat similar discussion, see IV, 
6, 7, 20. 21. The commentary introduces the present discussion 
thus : atha brahmawaparanamadheyasya pura^ara/mabdasya pur- 
vavan nirva&inapuraAsaram adhidaivam artham aha. 

[43] z 

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338 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA2VA. 

body moves. Such is the Yafus with the prepara- 
tory performance, firmly established both as regards 
the deity and the body ; and, indeed, whosoever thus 
knows this Ya^us with the preparatory performance 
to be firmly established both as regards the deity 
and the body, — 

8. He, indeed, reaches successfully the end of the 
sacrifice, unscathed and uninjured : he who knows 
this becomes the first, the leader (pura-etrz), of his 
own people, an eater of food (i.e. prosperous), and 
a ruler. 

9. And if any one strives to become a rival 1 
among his own people to one who knows this, he 
does not satisfy his dependants ; but, indeed, only 
he satisfies his dependants, who is faithful 2 to that 
one and who, along with him, strives to support his 
dependants. 

10. And this is the greatest Brahman (n., mystic 
science), for than this there is no thing greater ; 
and, he who knows this, being himself the greatest, 
becomes the highest among his own people. 

11. This Brahman has nothing before it and 
nothing after it s ; and whosoever thus knows this 
Brahman to have nothing before it and nothing 



1 Or, tries to make opposition, as S2ya»a takes it — yaA purushaA 
sveshu madhye evamvidam uktavidyam g&n&n&m purusham prati- 
bubhushati (!) prdtikulyam a£aritum iAMati. 

* Thus ' anu-bhu ' is taken by the St. Petersb. Diet (' to serve, 
be helpful to'), and by Siya»a — 'yas tv evawvidam anukulayet sa 
poshyan poshayitum .raknoti.' 

* Sayawa seems to take 'aparavat' in the sense of 'it has (only) 
something after it ' — srash/avya^agadrupaparavat — and the use of 
the word ' aparapurushaA (descendants) ' immediately after might 
indeed seem to favour that interpretation. 



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X KANDA, 3 ADHYAYA, 5 BRAHMA2VA, 13. 339 

after it, than he there is no one higher among his 
equals in station ; and ever higher will be the 
descendants that spring from him. Wherefore, if 
any one would be greater than he, let him rever- 
entially approach the regions in front (to the east- 
ward) of that one in this way, and he will do him 
no injury \ 

1 2. But, indeed, the mystic import (upanishad) is 
the essence of this Yafus ; and thus, if, with ever so 
small a ya^us-formula, the Adhvaryu draws a cup 
of Soma, that (essence) is equal to both the Stotra 
and the .Sastra, and comes up to both the Stotra 
and the .Sastra : hence, however small the essence 
(flavour) of food, it benefits (renders palatable) 
the whole food, and pervades the whole food. 

13. Satiation (contentment), doubtless, is the 
successful issue thereof (to wit, of food, and the 
Yafus): hence when one is satiated by food he 
feels like one who has succeeded. And joy, the 
knowledge thereof (viz. of the essence, the mystic 
import), is its soul (self); and, assuredly, all the 
gods are of joyful soul ; and this, the true know- 
ledge, belongs to the gods alone, — and, indeed, 
whosoever knows this is not a man, but one of 
the gods. 

1 The MSS. of the commentary (I. 0. 613. 149) are unfortunately 
not in a very satisfactory condition : — sa yo haitad iti, evam upSsftety 
artha/5 ; yadi vedituA saka.rat ^yayasaA purushasya sadbhave tada 
svayam badhyo bhavattty arahkya tasmSd adhikapurushad adhikam 
(aiMdik&t B) [vastu dwyopasftavyam (!) ity aha, yo.sma^yayan 
iti ; yadi asmad upisakat yo*dhikaA syat tarhi tasmad adhikat, om. 
B] dwaA purva ity upasita ; tataA £yayaso*pi ^yaya-upasane svasya- 
dhikyat badhako nastlty arthaA. The commentary would thus seem 
to take it to mean that by showing reverence to something before, 
or higher than, his rival, he would turn aside his schemes. 

Z 2 



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34-0 DATAPATH A-BR A H M A NA . 

14. And Priyavrata Rauhi«ayana, knowing 
this (truth), once spake unto the blowing wind, 
' Thy soul ' is joy : blow thou either hither or 
thither ! ' and so, indeed, it now blows. Wherefore, 
if one desire to invoke any blessing from the gods, 
let him approach them with this, ' Your soul is 
joy, — my wish is such and such : let it be fulfilled 
unto me ! ' and whatever the wish he entertains, it 
will be fulfilled to him ; for, assuredly, he who knows 
this attains this contentment, this successful issue, 
this joy, this soul. 

15. This Ya.fus is silent 2 , indistinct; for the 
Yafus is the breath, and the breath is of silent 
(secret) abode ; and if any one were to say of that 
(Adhvaryu) who pronounces (the Ya^us) distinctly, 
' He has uttered distinctly the indistinct deity : 
his breath shall fail him ! ' then that would, indeed, 
come to pass. 

16. And, assuredly, he who knows the indistinct 
(secret) manifestation of this (Ya^ois) becomes 
manifest in fame and glory. Silently the Adhvaryu 
draws the cup of Soma with the (muttered) Ya^us, 
and, when drawn and deposited, it becomes mani- 
fest; — silently he builds the fire-altar with the 
Ya^us, and, when built and completed, it becomes 
manifest; — silently he takes out (material for) the 
oblation with the Ya^us, and, when cooked and 
ready (for offering), it becomes manifest : thus, 
whatever he performs silently, when performed and 
completed, it becomes manifest. And, assuredly, 
he who thus knows this secret manifestation of this 



1 Or, thine own self, thy nature — tavatma svarupam. Saya/za. 
* That is, pronounced in an undertone, muttered. 



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X KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BRAhMAWA, 3. 34! 



(Yafus) becomes manifest in fame, and glory, and 
sanctity ; and quickly, indeed, he becomes known : 
he becomes the Yafus itself, and by the Y%fus 
people call him '. 

Fourth Adhyaya. First Brahmajva. 

1. When the gods restored the relaxed Pra^a- 
pati, they poured him, as seed, into the fire-pan 
(ukha) as the womb, for the fire-pan is a womb. 
In the course of a year they prepared for him this 
food, to wit, the fire-altar built here, and enclosed 
it in a body; and, being enclosed in a body, it 
became the body itself; whence food, when enclosed 
in a body, becomes the body itself. 

2. In like manner does the Sacrificer now pour 
his own self (or body), as seed, into the fire-pan 
as the womb, for the fire-pan is a womb. In the 
course of a year he prepares for it (his self) this 
food, to wit, the fire-altar here built, and encloses 
it in a body, and, being enclosed in a body, it 
becomes the body itself ; whence food, when enclosed 
in a body, becomes the body itself. 

3. He places him (the Ukhya Agni, on the fire- 
altar) with 'Vausha/ 2 !' for 'vauk' is he (Agni), 

1 Ya^ushaivainam aAaksliata iti gtia.lrigileya.yor abhedopa££re»a 
tasya vidusha eva yaguh tasya vyavaharyatvam bhavatity arthaA. 
Sayawa. 

* See IX, 2, 3, 35, where it was stated that the fire should be 
laid down with the Vasha/-call (' vausha/ 1 ') uttered after the two 
verses, V&g. S. XVII, 72. 73. Here, as at I, 7, 2, 21, the sacri- 
ficial call, 'vausha/'— for ' vasha/,' apparently an irregular subjunc- 
tive aorist of ' vah ' : ' may he bear (the oblation to the gods) ! ' — 
is fancifully explained as composed of 'vauk' (i.e. vak, speech), 
and ' sha/,' six. 



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342 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

and ' sha/ (six) ' is this six-layered food : having 
prepared it, he offers it to him as proportionate 
to this body, for food which is proportionate to the 
body satisfies, and does not injure it ; but when 
there is too much, it does injure it, and when there 
is too little, it does not satisfy it 

4. Now that Arka l (flame) is this very fire which 
they bring here ; and the Kya 1 is this his food, 
to wit, the fire-altar built here : that (combined) 
makes the Arkya 2 in respect of the Ya^us. And 
the Great one (mahan) is this (Agni), and this vrata s 
(rite) is his food : that makes the Mahavrata 
(saman) in respect of the Saman. And ' uk ' is 
this (Agni), and ' tha ' his food, — that (combined) 
makes the Uktha (jastra, recitation) 4 in respect 
of the j?zk. Thus, whilst being only one, this is 
accounted threefold. 

5. Now Indra and Agni were created as the 
Brahman (priesthood) and the Kshatra (nobility) : 
the Brahman was Agni and the Kshatra Indra. 
When created, the two were separate. They spake, 
' Whilst being thus, we shall be unable to produce 
creatures (people) : let us both become one form ! ' 
The two became one form. 

6. Now those two, Indra and Agni, are the same 
as these two, to wit, the gold plate and the (gold) 
man 6 : Indra is the gold plate, and Agni the man. 

1 See X, 3, 4, 2 seq. 

8 That is, what relates to the Arka (the Fire, or Agnifoyana). 

* That is, here, the Mahad uktham, or Great Recitation of the 
Mahavrata day. 

* Perhaps with the implied sense of ' fast-food,' ' fast-milk,' the 
milk taken by the Sacrificer during the initiation as his only food. 

5 For the gold plate worn by the Sacrificer whilst carrying about 



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x kAwda, 4 adhyAya, i brAhmaata, 9. 343 

They are made of gold : gold means light, and 
Indra and Agni are the light ; gold means immortal 
life, and Indra and Agni mean immortal life. 

7. It is these two, Indra and Agni, that they 
build up. Whatever is of brick that is Agni : 
whence they bake that (part) by fire, and all that 
is baked by fire is Agni. And what filling of earth 
there is (in the altar) that is Indra : whence they 
do not bake that (part) by fire, lest it should be 
Agni, and not Indra. Thus it is these two, Indra 
and Agni, that are built up. 

8. And the two become that one form, to wit, the 
fire which is placed on the built (altar), and hence 
those two, by means of that form, produce creatures. 
Now Agni, indeed, is this single brick ', and into 
this the whole Agni passes: this, indeed, is the 
perfection of bricks, — it is that one syllable (akshara) 
' vauk,' it is this into which the whole Agni passes, 
and which is the perfection of syllables. 

9. It is this that the jRt'shi saw when he said, 
' I praise what hath been and what will be, the 
Great Brahman, the one Akshara, — the manifold 
Brahman, the one Akshara; for, indeed, all the 
gods, all beings pass into that Akshara (imperish- 



the Ukhya Agni, and ultimately deposited on the lotus-leaf in the 
centre of the altar-site before the first layer is laid down, see VI, 
7, 1, 1 seq. ; VII, 4, 1, 10 seq. For the gold man placed on the 
gold plate, VII, 4, 1, 15 seq. Whilst the gold man was indeed 
identified with Agni-Pra^apati, as well as with the Sacrificer, the 
gold plate was taken throughout as representing the sun. 

1 According to Sayawa, this one brick is the syllable (' akshara,' 
which also means 'the imperishable, indestructible') 'vauk' con- 
tained in the ' Vausha/,' uttered when the sacred fire is placed on 
the newly-built altar. 



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344 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAJVA. 

able element 1 ): it is both the Brahman and the 
Kshatra; and the Brahman is Agni, and the 
Kshatra Indra ; and the Visve Deva^ (all the gods) 
are Indra and Agni. But the VLrve Deva^ (the 
All-gods) are also the peasantry : hence it is Priest- 
hood, Nobility, and Peasantry. 

10. And, indeed, .Syaparwa Sayakayana, know- 
ing this, once said, ' If this my sacrificial performance 
were complete, my own race would become the 
kings (nobles), Brahma«as, and peasants of the 
Salvas ; but even by that much of my work which 
has been completed 2 my race will surpass the 
Salvas in both ways;' — for this (Agni, the fire- 
altar), indeed, is (social) eminence and fame, and an 
eater of food 3 . 



1 Aksharam avinxrvaraw sarvagataw va brahma saWidanandai- 
karasam. Sayana. 

* Or, perhaps — but since so much of my work has been com- 
pleted, my race will thereby surpass the Salvas. Cf. Delbriick, 
Altind. Syntax, p. 266. 

* Sayana takes this as intended to explain the ' in both ways ' of 
the quotation, viz. in regard to ' sri ' (social distinction) on the one 
hand, and to ' ya-ras ' (fame) and food (material prosperity) on the 
other. There is, however, nothing in the text to favour any such 
grouping of the distinctive objects of aspiration associated with the 
three classes (varwatrayitmakatvam upa^ivya karma«aA, .rriya- 
fO*nnSdalaksha»az» phalam. Saya»a), or with men generally (cf. 
Aitareyar. I, 4, 2, 10). Perhaps it means both in an intellectual 
and material point of view. The 6'ySparnas seem to have been 
a rather self-assertive family of priests. The Aitareya Brihmaxa 
tells the following story about them (VII, 27) : — Vijvantara Sau- 
shadmana, setting aside the Syaparwas, got up a sacrifice without 
them. The .Syaparaas, becoming aware of this, came to the sacri- 
fice and sal them down inside the sacrificial ground. On seeing 
them, Vwvantara said, ' There sit those doers of evil deeds, those 
speakers of foul language, the <Sy&par»as : turn them out ; let them 
not sit inside my sacrificial ground I ' — ' So be it ! ' they said, and 



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X KANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, I BrAhMAVA, 12. 345 

11. And regarding this, Sa#^ilya, having in- 
structed Vamakakshayawa 1 , said, 'Thou wilt 
become eminent, famous, and an eater of food 
(rich) ; ' and, indeed, he who knows this becomes 
eminent, famous, and an eater of food. 

12. And this Agni is no other than Pra^apati. 

turned them out. In being turned out, they cried aloud, 'At 
a sacrifice of (raname^aya, son of Parikshit, performed without 
the Karyapas, the Asitamn'gas from amongst the Ka^yapas won 
the Soma-drink from the Bhutavlras (who were officiating). In 
them they had heroic men on their side : what hero is there amongst 
us who will win that Soma-drink ? ' — ' Here is that hero of yours/ 
said Rama Margaveya. Rama Margaveya was a 5"yapar»iya, 
learned in sacred lore. When they rose to leave, he said, ' O king, 
will they turn out of the sacrificial ground even one so learned as 
me ? ' — ' Whoever thou art, what knowest thou, vile Brahman ? ' — 
'When the gods turned Indra away because he had outraged 
Tvash/r*'s son Vuvarupa, and laid low Vrrira, and thrown devo- 
tees before the jackals, and slain the Arurmaghas, and retorted on 
Br/haspati (the teacher of the gods) — then Indra was deprived of 
the Soma-cup; and along with him the Kshatriyas were deprived 
of the Soma-cup. By stealing the Soma from Tvash/r*', Indra 
obtained a share in the Soma-cup, but to this day the Kshatriyas 
are deprived of the Soma-cup : how can they turn out from the 
sacrificial ground one who knows how the Kshatriya race can be 
put in possession of the Soma-cup from which they are deprived ? ' 
— 'Knowest thou (how to procure) that drink, O Brahman?' — 
'I know it indeed.' — 'Tell us then, O Brahman ?'— ' To thee, 
O king, I will tell it,' he said. Ultimately the 5yapar«as are 
reinstated in their sacrificial duties. Cf. R. Roth, Zur Litteratur 
und Geschichte des Weda, p. 118. At VI, 2, 1, 39, .Syaparaa 
S&yakayana was stated to have been the last who was in the habit 
of immolating five victims instead of two, as became afterwards the 
custom. 

1 In the succession of teachers of the doctrine of the fire-altar, 
given at the end of the present KaWa, Vamakakshayana is said 
to have received his instruction from Vatsya, and the latter from 
S&ndilyai, who, in his turn, received it from Karri. Cf. Weber, 
Ind. Stud. I, p. 259. 



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346 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

The gods, having restored this Agni-Pra^apati, 
in the course of a year prepared this food for him, 
to wit, this Mahavratlya cup of Soma. 

13. The Adhvaryu draws it by means of a cup, 
and inasmuch as he draws (grah) it it is (called) 
a draught (graha, cup of Soma). The Udgatr* 
(chanter), by the Mahavrata (saman), puts flavour 
(vital sap) into it; and the Mahavrata (saman) 
being (composed of) all those (five) samans, he thus 
puts flavour into it by means of all samans (hymn- 
tunes). The Hotri puts flavour into it by means 
of the Great Recitation ; and the Great Recitation 
being (composed of) all those /??'k-verses : he thus 
puts flavour into it by all the i?*k-verses. 

14. And when they chant the hymn, and he (the 
Hotrz) afterwards recites (the jastra) \ he (the 
Adhvaryu) offers that (cup of Soma) to him (Agni- 
Pra^apati) as the Vasha/-call is uttered. Now 
' vauk ' is this (Agni), and ' sha/ ' this sixfold food 2 : 
having prepared it, he offers it to him as pro- 
portionate to his body ; for food which is pro- 
portionate to the body satisfies, and does not 
injure it ; but when there is too much, it does 
injure it, and when there is too little, it does not 
satisfy it. 

15. Now that Arka (flame) is this very fire-altar 



1 Viz. the Mahad uktham (see p. no, note 3), preceded by the 
chanting of the Mahavrata-sSman (see p. 382, note 5). 

* That is, according as it is flavoured by the six different 
'rasas' (flavours or tastes) — sweet (madhura), sour (amla), salt 
(lavana), pungent (ka/uka), bitter (tikta), and astringent (kashSya). 
Thus according to Saya«a ; but see also paragraph 3, where the 
sixfold nature of the food is identified with the six-layered altar. 
Perhaps both explanations are intended to apply. 



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x K&NDA., 4 adhyAya, i brAhmajta, i 8. 347 

built here ; and the Kya is this his food, to wit, the 
Mahavratlya-graha : that (combined) makes the 
Arkya in respect of the Ya,fus. And the Great 
one (mahin) is this (Agni), and this rite (vrata) 
is his food : that makes the Mahavrata in respect 
of the Saman. And ' uk ' is this (Agni), and ' tha ' 
his food : that makes the (Mahad) Uktha in respect 
of the RiV. Thus, whilst being only one, this is 
accounted threefold. 

1 6. And this Agni is Prafipati, the year 1 : the 
Savitra (oblations) are one half thereof, and the 
Vai^va-karma«a (oblations) 2 the (other) half ; the 
Savitra are eight digits (kala 8 ) thereof, and the 
Vaijvakarma#a (the other) eight; and that which 
is performed between them is the seventeenfold 
Pra/apati. Now what a digit is to men that 
a syllable (akshara) is to the gods. 

1 7. And ' loma (hair) ' is two syllables, ' tvak * 
(skin) ' two, ' asrz'k (blood) ' two, ' medas (fat) ' two, 
' mawsam (flesh) ' two, ' snava (sinew) ' two, ' asthi 
(bone) ' two, ' magg& (marrow) * ' two, — that makes 
sixteen digits ; and the vital air which circulates 
therein, is the seventeenfold Pra^apati. 

18. These sixteen digits convey the food to that 
vital air ; and when they take to conveying no food 
to it, then it consumes them and departs (from the 
body) : hence he who is hungry here, feels very 

1 Or, perhaps, this Pra^apati-Agni is the year. 

1 For these two sets of formulas and oblations, see IX, 5, 1, 43 
and note. 

' A ' kal& ' is the sixteenth part of the moon's diameter, and then 
a sixteenth part generally. 

4 Pronounce ' tu-ak.' 

5 For five of these parts of the body, see X, 1, 3, 4. 



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348 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

restless, consumed as he is by his vital airs ; and 
hence he who suffers from fever becomes very thin, 
for he is consumed by his vital airs. 

19. Now for that seventeenfold Pra^tpati they 
prepared this seventeenfold food, the Soma-sacrifice : 
those sixteen digits of his are these sixteen officiating 
priests, — one should not, therefore, take a seventeenth 
priest l lest one should do what is excessive ; — and 
what vital sap there is here — the oblations that 
are offered — that is the seventeenfold food. 

20. And when they chant the hymn, and when he 
(the Hotri) afterwards recites (the jastra), he (the 
Adhvaryu) offers to him that food as the Vasha/- 
call is uttered. Now ' vauk ' is this (Agni), and 
' sha/' this sixfold food: having prepared it, he 
offers it to him as proportionate to his body ; for 
food which is proportionate to the body satisfies, 
and does not injure it ; but when there is too much 
it does injure it, and when there is too little, it does 
not satisfy it. 

21. Now that Arka (flame) is this very fire-altar 
built here ; and the Kya is this his food, to wit, the 
Soma-sacrifice : that (combined) makes the Arkya 
in respect of the Ya^ns. And the Great one (ma- 
han) is this (Agni), and this rite (vrata) is his food : 
that makes the Mahavrata in respect of the Saman. 
And ' uk ' is this (Agni), and ' tha ' his food : that 
makes the (Mahad) Uktha in respect of the Rtk. 
Thus, whilst being only one, this is accounted three- 
fold. With this food he went upwards ; and he who 

1 This prohibition is probably directed against the Kaushftakins, 
who recognise a seventeenth officiating priest, the Sadasya, who 
seems to have taken no other part in the sacrificial performance 
except sitting in the Sadas as the permanent custodian thereof. 



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X K.ANDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAYA, 2. 349 

went upwards is yonder sun, and that food wherewith 
he went up is that moon. 

22. He who shines yonder is indeed that Arka 
(flame), and that moon is his food, the Kya : that 
(combined) makes the Arkya in respect of the 
Ya^us. And the Great one (mah&n) is this (Agni), 
and this rite (vrata) is his food : that makes the 
Mahavrata in respect of the Saman. And ' uk ' 
is this (Agni), and ' tha ' his food : that makes the 
(Mahad) Uktha in respect of theRik. Thus, whilst 
being only one, this is accounted threefold. Thus 
much as to the deity. 

23. Now as to the body. The Arka (flame), 
doubtless, is the breath (vital air), and the Kya is 
its food : that makes the Arkya in respect of the 
Ya,fus. And the Great one (mahin) is this (Agni), 
and this rite (vrata) is his food : that makes the 
Mahavrata in respect of the Saman. And ' uk ' is 
this (Agni), and ' tha ' his food : that makes the 
(Mahad) Uktha in respect of the Rik. Thus, whilst 
being only one, this is accounted threefold. And, 
indeed, that (Agni) is that (sun) as to the deity, and 
this (breath) as to the body. 

Second BrAhmaata. 

1. Verily, Pra^ipati, the year, is Agni, and King 
Soma, the moon. He himself, indeed, proclaimed 
(taught) his own self to Ya/wavaias Ra^-astam- 
bayana, saying, 'As many lights as there are of 
mine, so many are my bricks.' 

2. Now in this Pra^apati, the year, there are 
seven hundred and twenty days and nights, his 
lights, (being) those bricks ; three hundred and sixty 



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35° SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

enclosing-stones 1 , and three hundred and sixty bricks 
with (special) formulas. This Pra^apati, the year, 
has created all existing things, both what breathes 
and the breathless, both gods and men. Having 
created all existing things, he felt like one emptied 
out, and was afraid of death. 

3. He bethought himself, ' How can I get these 
beings back into my body ? how can I put them 
back into my body ? how can I be again the body 
of all these beings ? ' 

4. He divided his body into two ; there were 
three hundred and sixty bricks in the one, and 
as many in the other : he did not succeed 2 . 

5. He made himself three bodies, — in each of 
them there were three eighties of bricks : he did not 
succeed. 

6. He made himself four bodies of a hundred and 
eighty bricks each : he did not succeed. 

7. He made himself five bodies, — in each of 
them there were a hundred and forty-four bricks : 
he did not succeed. 

8. He made himself six bodies of a hundred and 
twenty bricks each : he did not succeed. He did 
not develop himself sevenfold 3 . 

9. He made himself eight bodies of ninety bricks 
each : he did not succeed. 

10. He made himself nine bodies of eighty bricks 
each : he did not succeed. 



1 See X, 4, 2, 27 with note. 

4 Na vyapnot, intrans., ' he did not attain (his object),' cf. vyapti, 
in the sense of 'success'; — (svayaw tesham Stma bhavitum) 
asamartho'bhavat. Say ana. 

8 Or, did not divide sevenfold, na saptadhi vyabhavat, — saptadha- 
vibhlgam na krz'tav&n. Sayana. 



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X KAiVDA, 4 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAHMAWA, 1 8. 35 1 

ii. He made himself ten bodies of seventy-two 
bricks each : he did not succeed. He did not 
develop elevenfold. 

1 2. He made himself twelve bodies of sixty bricks 
each : he did not succeed. He did not develop 
either thirteenfold or fourteenfold. 

13. He made himself fifteen bodies of forty-eight 
bricks each : he did not succeed. 

14. He made himself sixteen bodies of forty- five 
bricks each : he did not succeed. He did not 
develop seventeenfold. 

15. He made himself eighteen bodies of forty bricks 
each : he did not succeed. He did not develop 
nineteenfold. 

16. He made himself twenty bodies of thirty-six . 
bricks each : he did not succeed. He did not 
develop either twenty-one-fold, or twenty-two-fold, 
or twenty-three-fold. 

17. He made himself twenty-four bodies of thirty 
bricks each. There he stopped, at the fifteenth ; 
and because he stopped at the fifteenth arrangement 1 
there are fifteen forms of the waxing, and fifteen of 
the waning (moon). 

18. And because he made himself twenty-four 
bodies, therefore the year consists of twenty-four -» 
half-months. With these twenty-four bodies of 
thirty bricks each he had not developed (sufficiently). 
He saw the fifteen parts of the day, the muhurtas 2 , 



1 Literally, shifting (about of the bricks of the ahar), de- 
velopment. 

8 The day and night consists of thirty muhurtas, a muhurta 
being thus equal to about forty-eight minutes or four-fifths of an 
hour. 



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352 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

as forms for his body.as space-fillers (Lokamprz'was 1 ), 
as well as fifteen of the night ; and inasmuch as 
they straightway (muhu) save (trai), they are (called) 
' muhurta^ ' ; and inasmuch as, whilst being small, 
they fill (pur) these worlds (or spaces, ' loka ') they 
are (called) ' lokampW«a^.' 

19. That one (the sun) bakes everything here, by 
means of the days and nights, the half-moons, the 
months, the seasons, and the year ; and this (Agni, 
the fire) bakes what is baked by that one : ' A baker 
of the baked (he is),' said Bharadva^a of Agni; 
' for he bakes what has been baked by that (sun).' 

20. In the year these (muhurtas) amounted to ten 
thousand and eight hundred : he stopped at the 
ten thousand and eight hundred. 

21. He then looked round over all existing things, 
and beheld all existing things in the threefold 
lore (the Veda), for therein is the body of all metres, 
of all stomas, of all vital airs, and of all the gods : 
this, indeed, exists, for it is immortal, and what is 
immortal exists ; and this (contains also) that which 
is mortal. 

22. Pra/apati bethought himself, ' Truly, all 
existing things are in the threefold lore : well, then, 
I will construct for myself a body so as to contain 
the whole threefold lore.' 

23. He arranged the Rik-v&rszs into twelve 
thousand of Br/hatfs 2 , for of that extent are the 

1 The Lokamprwid bricks contained in the whole fire-altar 
amount to as many as there are muhurtas in the year, viz. 1 0,800 j 
see X, 4, 3, 20. 

i The Br/hati verse, consisting of 36 syllables, this calculation 
makes the hymns of the i?*'g-veda to consist of 36x12,000 = 
432,000 syllables. 



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x K&jfDA, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhma2\ta, 26. 353 

verses created by Pra^apati. At the thirtieth arrange- 
ment they came to an end in the Panktis; and 
because it was at the thirtieth arrangement that they 
came to an end, there are thirty nights in the month ; 
and because it was in the Panktis, therefore Pra^apati 
is ' pankta ' (fivefold) \ There are one hundred-and- 
eight hundred a Panktis. 

24. He then arranged the two other Vedas into 
twelve thousand Brthatis, — eight (thousand) of 
the Ya,fus (formulas), and four of the Saman (hymns) 
— for of that extent is what was created by Pra^apati 
in these two Vedas. At the thirtieth arrangement 
these two came to an end in the Panktis ; and 
because it was at the thirtieth arrangement that 
they came to an end, there are thirty nights in the 
month ; and because it was in the Panktis, therefore 
Pra^apati is 'pankta.' There were one hundred- 
and-eight hundred 2 Panktis. 

25. All the three Vedas amounted to ten thousand 
eight hundred eighties (of syllables) 8 ; muhurta by 
muhurta he gained a fourscore (of syllables), and 
muhurta by muhurta a fourscore was completed *. 

26. Into these three worlds, (in the form of) the 



1 The Pankti consists of five padas (feet) of eight syllables each. 

1 That is to say, 10,800 Panktis, which, as the Pankti verse has 
40 syllables, again amount to 432,000 syllables. 

5 The three Vedas, according to the calculations in paragraphs 
33 and 24, contain 2x432,000 = 864,000 syllables, which is 
equal to 80x10,800. On the predilection to calculate by four- 
scores, see p. 112, note 1. 

4 That is, within the year, for the year has 360 X 30 = 10,800 
muhurtas, which is just the amount of eighties of which the three 
Vedas were said to consist. I do not see how any division of the 
' muhurta ' itself into eighty parts (as supposed by Professor Weber, 
Ind. Streifen, I, p. 92, note 1) can be implied here. 

[43] a a 



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354 satapatha-brAhma^a. 

fire-pan ', he (Pra^apati) poured, as seed into the 
womb, his own self made up of the metres, stomas, 
vital airs, and deities. In the course of a half-moon 
the first body was made up, in a further (half-moon) 
the next (body), in a further one the next, — in a year 
he is made up whole and complete. 

27. Whenever he laid down an enclosing-stone *, 
he laid down a night, and along with that fifteen 
muhurtas, and along with the muhurtas fifteen 
eighties (of syllables of the sacred texts) 3 . And 
whenever he laid down a brick with a formula (ya- 
^ushmatl), he laid down a day *, and along with that 
fifteen muhurtas, and along with the muhurtas fifteen 
eighties (of syllables). In this manner he put this 
threefold lore into his own self, and made it his 
own ; and in this very (performance) he became the 
body of all existing things, (a body) composed of 
the metres, stomas, vital airs, and deities ; and 
having become composed of all that, he ascended 
upwards ; and he who thus ascended is that moon 
yonder. 

28. He who shines yonder (the sun) is his founda- 

1 On the construction of the UkhS, as representing the universe, 
see VI, 5, 2 seq. 

* The number of ' pariwits ' by which the great altar is enclosed 
is only 261 ; but to these are usually added those of the other 
brick-built hearths, viz. the Garhapatya (21) and the eight Dhish- 
»yas (78), — the whole amounting to 360 enclosing-stones, or one for 
each day (or night) in the year. 

' According to paragraph 25, a fourscore of syllables was com- 
pleted in each muhurta; and day and night consist of fifteen 
muhurtas each. 

4 See IX, 4, 3, 6, where the number of Ya^ushmatf bricks is 
said to be equal to that of the parirrits, or enclosing-stones — with, 
however, 35 (36) added for the intercalary month, hence altogether 
395(396); cf. X, 4, 3, 14-19. 



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x kAwda, 4 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 31. 355 

tion, (for) over him he was built up \ on him he was 
built up : from out of his own self he thus fashioned 
him, from out of his own self he generated him. 
. 29. Now when he (the Sacrificer), being about to 
build an altar, undergoes the initiation-rite, — even 
as Pra^apati poured his own self, as seed, into the 
fire-pan as the womb, — so does he pour into the fire- 
pan, as seed into the womb, his own self composed 
of the metres, stomas, vital airs, and deities. In the 
course of a half-moon, his first body is made up, in 
a further (half-moon) the next (body), in a further 
one the next, — in a year he is made up whole and 
complete. 

30. And whenever he lays down an enclosing- 
stone, he lays down a night, and along with that 
fifteen muhurtas, and along with the muhurtas 
fifteen eighties (of syllables). And whenever he lays 
down a Ya^ushmatl (brick), he lays down a day, and 
along with that fifteen muhurtas, and along with the. 
muhurtas fifteen eighties (of syllables of the sacred 
texts). In this manner he puts this threefold lore 
into his own self, and makes it his own ; and in this 
very (performance) he becomes the body of all exist- 
ing things, (a body) composed of the metres, stomas, 
vital airs, and deities ; and having become composed 
of all that, he ascends upwards. 

31. And he who shines yonder is his foundation, 
for over him he is built up, on him he is built up : 
from out of his own self he thus fashions him, from 
out of his own self he generates him. And when 



1 Viz. inasmuch as the round gold plate, representing the sun, 
was laid down in the centre of the altar-site, before the first layer 
was built. Sayawa. 

a a 2 



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356 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAYA. 

he who knows this departs from this world, then he 
passes into that body composed of the metres, 
stomas, vital airs, and deities ; and verily having 
become composed of all that, he who, knowing this, 
performs this sacrificial work, or he who even knows 
it, ascends upwards. 

Third BrAhmava. 

i. The Year, doubtless, is the same as Death, 
for he l it is who, by means of day and night, destroys 
the life of mortal beings, and then they die : there- 
fore the Year is the same as Death ; and whosoever 
knows this Year (to be) Death, his life that (year) 
does not destroy, by day and night, before old age, 
and he attains his full (extent of) life. 

2. And he, indeed, is the Ender, for it is he who, 
by day and night, reaches the end of the life of 
mortals, and then they die : therefore he is the 
Ender, and whosoever knows this Year, Death, the 
Ender, the end of his life that (Year) does not reach, 
by day and night, before old age, and he attains his 
full (extent of) life. 

3. The gods were afrajd of this Pra^apati, the 
Year, Death, the Ender, lest he, by day and night, 
should reach the end of their life. 

4. They performed these sacrificial rites — the 
Agnihotra, the New and Full-moon sacrifices, the 
Seasonal offerings, the animal sacrifice, and the 
Soma-sacrifice : by offering these sacrifices they did 
not attain immortality. 

5. They also built a fire-altar, — they laid down 

1 Father Time, Pra^apati. 



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x K&.NDA, 4 adhyAya, 3 brAhmajva, io. 357 

unlimited enclosing-stones, unlimited Ya^ushmati 
(bricks), unlimited Lokamprma (bricks), even as 
some lay them down to this day, saying, ' The gods 
did so.' They did not attain immortality. 

6. They went on praising and toiling, striving to 
win immortality. Prafapati then spake unto them, 
'Ye do not lay down (put on me) all my forms; 
but ye either make (me) too large or leave (me) de- 
fective : therefore ye do not become immortal.' 

7. They spake, 'Tell thou us thyself, then, in 
what manner we may lay down all thy forms ! ' 

8. He spake, 'Lay ye down three hundred and 
sixty enclosing-stones, three hundred and sixty 
Yafushmatl (bricks), and thirty-six thereunto ; and 
of Lokampn«a (bricks) lay ye down ten thousand 
and eight hundred; and ye will be laying down 
all my forms, and will become immortal.' And the 
gods laid down accordingly, and thereafter became 
immortal. 

9. Death spake unto the gods, ' Surely, on this 
wise all men will become immortal, and what share 
will then be mine ? ' They spake, ' Henceforward 
no one shall be immortal with the body : only when 
thou shalt have taken that (body) as thy share, he 
who is to become immortal either through know- 
ledge, or through holy work, shall become immortal 
after separating from the body.' Now when they 
said, ' either through knowledge or through holy 
work/ it is this fire-altar that is the knowledge, and 
this fire-altar that is the holy work. 

10. And they who so know this, or they who do 
this holy work, come to life again when they have 
died, and, coming to life, they come to immortal life. 
But they who do not know this, or do not do this 



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358 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAYA. 

holy work, come to life again when they die, and 
they become the food of him (Death) time after time. 

11. But when he builds the fire-altar, he thereby 
gains Agni, Praftpati, the Year, Death, the Ender, 
whom the gods gained ; it is him he lays down, 
even as the gods thus laid him down. 

1 2. By the enclosing-stones he gains his nights ; 
by the Ya^ushmatl (bricks) his days, half-moons, 
months, and seasons; and by the Lokamprzwas 
the muhurtas (hours). 

1 3. Thus the enclosing-stones, supplying the place 
of nights, are made the (means of) gaining the 
nights, they are the counterpart of the nights: there 
are three hundred and sixty of them, for there are 
three hundred and sixty nights in the year. Of these, 
he lays twenty-one round the Garhapatya, seventy- 
eight round the Dhishwya hearths, and two hundred 
and sixty-one round the Ahavanfya. 

14. Then the Ya^ushmatl (bricks with special 
formulas): — the grass-bunch, the (four) clod-bricks, 
the lotus-leaf, the gold plate and man, the two spoons, 
the naturally-perforated (brick), the durva-brick, the 
(one) dviyafus, two reta^si^, a vlrva^yotis, two 
seasonal ones, an asha^a, the tortoise, the mortar 
and pestle, the fire-pan, the five victims' heads, 
fifteen apasyas, five i^andasyas, fifty pra#abhms — 
these ninety-eight are (in) the first layer. 

15. Then the second (layer): — five asvinis, two 
seasonal ones, five valrvadevis, five pra«abhrzts, five 
apasyas, nineteen vayasyas — these forty-one are 
(in) the second layer. 

16. Then the third (layer) : — the naturally-per- 
forated one, five regional ones, a viyvafyotis, four 
seasonal ones, ten pra»abhr?'ts, thirty-six ^andasyas, 



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x kAjvda, 4 adhyAya, 3 brahmawa, 19. 359 

fourteen valakhilyas — these seventy-one are (in) the 
third layer. 

17. Then the fourth (layer) : — first eighteen, then 
twelve, then seventeen — these forty-seven are (in) 
the fourth layer. 

18. Then the fifth (layer): — five asapatnas, forty 
vira^fs, twenty-nine stomabhagas, five nakasads, five 
pa»£a£(Was, thirty-one ^andasyis, eight (of) the 
Garhapatya hearth, eight (of) the Punaj^iti, two 
seasonal ones, a vi^va^yotis, a vikarwl, a naturally- 
perforated one, the variegated stone, the fire which 
is placed on the altar — these one hundred and 
thirty-eight are (in) the fifth layer. 

19. All these make three hundred and ninety-five. 
Of these, three hundred and sixty, supplying the 
place of days, are made the (means of) gaining the 
days, they are the counterpart of the days : There 
are three hundred and sixty of them, for there are 
three hundred and sixty days in the year. And for 
the thirty-six (additional days) which there are. 1 -the 
filling of earth (counts as) the thirty-sixth ; and 
twenty-four thereof, supplying the place of half- 
moons, are made the (means of) gaining the half- 
moons, they are the counterpart of the half-moons. 
And the (remaining) twelve, supplying the place of 
months, are made the (means of) gaining the months, 
they are the counterpart of the months. And, lest 
the seasons should be wanting, these (twelve bricks), 
by two and two (taken) together, supply the place 
of seasons. 



1 Namely, in an intercalary month. The layers of loose soil 
have to be counted in for the reason that only 35 ya^ushmatts 
remain after taking away the 360. 



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360 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

20. And as to the Lokampr««a (space-filling 
bricks), supplying the place of muhurtas (hours), they 
are made the (means) of gaining the muhurtas, they 
are the counterpart of the muhurtas: there are ten 
thousand and eight hundred of them, for so many 
muhurtas there are in the year. Of these, he lays 
down twenty-one in the Garhapatya (altar), seventy- 
eight in the Dhish»ya-hearths, and the others in 
the Ahavanlya. So many, indeed, are the (different) 
forms of the year : it is these that are here secured 
for him (Pra^apati, the Year), and are put on him. 

21. Now, some wish to get this total amount' in 
the Ahavanlya itself, arguing, ' Those are different 
brick-built fire-altars : why should we here (in the 
Ahavanlya altar) take into account those laid down 
there (in the Garhapatya and Dhish»yas) ? ' But let 
him not do so. There are, indeed, ten of these 
fire-altars he builds — eight Dhish»yasj % the Aha- 
vanlya and the Garhapatya — whence they say, ' Agni 
is Vir^f (wide shining or ruling),' for the Vira/ - (metre) 
consists of ten syllables : but, surely, all these (altars 
and hearths) are looked upon as only one, as Agni ; 
for it is merely forms of him that they all are, — even 
as the days and nights, the half-moons, the months, 
and the seasons (are forms) of the year, so are they 
all forms of him (Agni). 

22. And, assuredly, they who do this put those 
forms of his 2 outside of him, and produce confusion 
between the better and the worse ; they make the 
peasantry equal and refractory to the nobility. 
Surely, on the Agnldhrlya he places the variegated 



1 Viz. of 10,800 Lokampr/'nas. 

* Viz. the Gdrhapatya and Dhishnya hearths. 



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x kanda, 4 adhyAya, 4 brahmaya, 3. 361 

stone \ and that he takes into account : why, then, 
taking that into account, should he not take others 
into account ? That (altar) by which they ward off 
Nirriti 3 , evil, is the eleventh. 

23. As to this they say, ' Why, then, do they not 
take into account here those (of Nirrzti's altar) ? ' 
Because he makes no offering on them, for it is by 
offering that a brick becomes whole and complete. 

24. As to this they say, ' How are these (bricks) 
of his laid down so as not to be excessive ? ' Well, 
these (bricks) are his (Agni's) vital power, and man's 
vital power is not excessive. Thus whosoever, 
knowing this, performs this holy work, or he who 
but knows this, makes up this Pra/apati whole and 
complete. 

Fourth BrAhma^a. 

1. When Pra^apati was creating living beings, 
Death, that evil, overpowered him. He practised 
austerities for a thousand years, striving to leave 
evil behind him. 

2. Whilst he was practising austerities, lights went 
upwards from those hair-pits 8 of his ; and those 
lights are those stars : as many stars as there are, 
so many hair-pits there are ; and as many hair-pits 
as there are, so many muhurtas there are in a (sacri- 
ficial performance) of a thousand years. 

3. In the one-thousandth year, he cleansed him- 
self all through ; and he that cleansed all through 
is this wind which here cleanses by blowing; and 
that evil which he cleansed all through is this body. 

1 See IX, 2, 3, 14-17; 4> 3» 6 - * See VII > 3 » '» 1 se <l- 

* That is, the pores from which the hairs spring. 



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362 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

But what is man that he could secure for himself 
a (life) of a thousand years 1 ? By knowledge, 
assuredly, he who knows secures for himself (the 
benefits of a performance) of a thousand years. 

4. Let him look upon all these bricks as a thou- 
sandfold : let him look upon each enclosing-stone 
as charged with a thousand nights, each day-holder * 
with a thousand days, each half-moon-holder with 
a thousand half-moons, each month-holder with a 
thousand months, each season-holder with a thou- 
sand seasons, each muhurta-holder 3 with a thousand 
muhurtas, and the year with a thousand years. 
They who thus know this Agni as being endowed 
with a thousand, know his one-thousandth digit ; but 
they who do not thus know him, do not even know 
a one-thousandth digit of him. And he alone who 
so knows this, or who performs this sacred work, 
obtains this whole and complete Pra^iSpatean Agni 
whom Pra^apati obtained. Wherefore let him who 
knows this by all means practise austerities*; for, 
indeed, when he who knows this practises austerities, 
even to (abstention from) sexual intercourse, every 
(part) of him will share in the world of heaven 6 . 

1 Tasmai sahasrasa«vatsara£i vanaya ko va manushya/fc raknuyit ; 
manushyavadhiA ratam ato £-ivato manushye«a sahasrasawvatsariLi 
praptum arakyat. Say. 

* That is, the majority of Ya^ushmatt bricks, viz. 360 of them, 
whilst the remaining ones are supposed to stand in lieu of half- 
moons, months, and seasons ; see X, 4, 3, 19. 

5 Viz. the Lokamprwa bricks ; see X, 4, 3, 20. 

* Or, religious fervour (meditation). 

* Or, as S£ya»a seems to interpret it, ' that austerity will gain 
for him all his (Agni's thousandfold perfection) and the heavenly 
world (?),' — etat tapaA agnes tadavayavanam £a sahasratmakatva- 
rupam karoti tasm&i ka. svargalokapraptir bhavatity arthaA. 



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x kAjvjja, 4 adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, 2. 363 

5. It is regarding this that it is said in the Rtk 
(I, 179, 3), 'Not in vain is the labour which the 
gods favour;' for, in truth, for him who knows 
there is no labouring in vain, and so, indeed, the 
gods favour this every (action) of his '. 

Fifth BrAhmajva. 

1. Now the doctrines of mystic imports 2 . The 
^akayanins hold that ' Agni is Vayu (the wind);' 
but some say that ' Agni is Aditya (the sun).' And 
either .SYaumatya, or Halirigava, said, 'Agni is 
no other than Vayu : wherefore the Adhvaryu, when 
he performs the last work 3 , passes into that (wind).' 

2. And *S"a/yayani said, 'Agni is no other than 
the Year ; his head is the spring, his right wing the 
summer, his left wing the rainy season, his middle 
body (trunk) the autumn season, and his tail and 
feet the winter and dewy seasons — Agni is speech, 
Vayu breath, the sun the eye, the moon the mind, 
the quarters the ear, the generative power water*, 
the feet (and tail) fervour, the joints the months, the 
veins the half-moons, the silver and gold feathers 

1 Eva/rc vidvin yat kurute tat sarvara yad yasmad deva" avanti. Siy. 

* Athanantaram upanishadaw rahasySrthdnam aded upadcrfL 
vakshyante. Say. — Prof. Oldenberg (Zeitsch. of G. Or. S., 50, 
p. 457 seq.) takes 'upanishad' in the sense of 'worship.' 

s That is, the concluding rites of the sacrifice, — tasm&d adhvar- 
yuA yadi uttamaai ya^asamiptilakshanam karma karoti, tadaitam 
eva vayum apyeti, tatha hi, samish/aya^urhome dev4 gatuvido gfitum 
vittva gatum ita manasaspata iti mantre»vi*i, svdlia vate dhiA 
svahA, iti vdyau dharamim uktam. SSy. See IV, 4, 4, 13, where the 
sacrifice (though not the Adhvaryu priest) is consigned to the 
wind by means of the Samish/aya^-us formulas. 

* Note the change in the relative position of subject and predicate 
from here. 



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364 jatapatha-brAhmajva. 

the days and nights : thus he passes over to the 
gods.' Let him know, then, that Agni is the Year ; 
and let him know that it is thereof 1 he consists. 

3. And A'elaka .Sa#dftlyayana said, ' Let him 
know that the three layers containing the naturally- 
perforated (bricks) 2 are these worlds, that the fourth 
(layer) is the Sacrificer, and the fifth all objects of 
desire ; and that it is these worlds, and his own self 
and all his objects of desire he compasses.' 

Fifth AdhyAva. First BrAhmajva. 

1. The mystic import of this Fire-altar, doubtless, 
is Speech ; for it is with speech that it is built : with 
the Rik, the Ya^us and the Saman as the divine 
(speech) ; and when he (the Adhvaryu) speaks with 
human speech, 'Do ye this! do ye that!' then also 
it (the altar) is built therewith. 

2. Now, this speech is threefold — the Rik-verses, 
the Ya^us-formulas, and the Saman-tunes; — thereby 
the Fire-altar is threefold, inasmuch as it is built 
with that triad. Even thus, then, it is threefold; 
but in this respect also it is threefold, inasmuch 
as three kinds of bricks are put into it — those 
with masculine names, those with feminine names, 
and those with neuter names ; and these limbs of 
men also are of three kinds — those with masculine 
names, those with feminine names, and those with 
neuter names. 

1 That is, of the objects enumerated before. 

* That is, the first, third, and fifth layers. By the fourth and fifth 
layers mentioned immediately after, we have not of course to under- 
stand the real fourth and fifth layers, but the two making up the 
five layers (viz. the second and fourth). 



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x kXnda, 5 adhyAva, i brAhmajva, 5. 365 

3. This body (of the altar), indeed, is threefold ; 
and with this threefold body he obtains the three- 
fold divine Amrsta (nectar, immortality). Now all 
these (bricks) are called ' ish/aka (f.),' not ' ish/a- 
ka^ (m.),' nor ' ish/akam (n.) :' thus (they are 
called) after the form of speech (va£, f), for every- 
thing here is speech — whether feminine (female), 
masculine (male), or neuter — for by speech every- 
thing here is obtained. Therefore he 'settles' all 
(the bricks) * with, ' Ahgiras-like lie thou steady 
(dhruva, f.) !' not with, ' Angiras-like lie thou 
steady (dhruva^, m.)!' or with, 'Angiras-like lie 
thou steady (dhruvam, n.) !' for it is that Speech he 
is constructing. 

4. Now, this speech is yonder sun, and this 
(Agni, the Fire-altar) is Death : hence whatsoever 
is on this side of the sun all that is held by Death ; 
and he who builds it (the Fire-altar) on this side 
thereof, builds it as one held by Death, and he 
surrenders his own self unto Death ; but he who 
builds it thereabove, conquers recurring Death, 
for by his knowledge that (altar) of his is built 
thereabove. 

5. This speech, indeed, is threefold — the JZik- 
verses, the Ya^us-formulas, and the Saman-tunes : 
the J?ik-verses are the orb, the Saman-tunes the 
light, and the Yafus-formulas the man (in the sun) ; 
and that immortal element, the shining light, is this 
lotus-leaf 2 : thus, when he builds up the Fire-altar 

1 See VI, 1, 2, 28; VII, 1, 1, 30. 

* Viz. the lotus-leaf deposited in the centre of the altar-site, 
before the first layer is laid down, see VII, 4, 1, 7 seqq., where, 
however, it is represented as symbolising the womb whence Agni 
(the fire-altar) is to be born. 



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366 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

after laying down the lotus-leaf, it is on that im- 
mortal element that he builds for himself a body 
consisting of the Rik, the Yajfus, and the Saman ; 
and he becomes immortal. 



Second BrAhmana. 

i. Now, that shining orb is the Great Litany, the 
Rik- verses: this is the world of the Rik. And 
that glowing light is (the hymn of) the Great Rite, 
the Saman-tunes : this is the world of the Saman. 
And the man in yonder orb is the Fire-altar, 
the Ya.fus-formulas : this is the world of the 
Ya^Tis. 

2. It is this threefold lore that shines, and even 
they who do not know this say, ' This threefold lore 
does indeed shine ;' for it is Speech that, seeing it, 
speaks thus. 

3. And that man in yonder (sun's) orb is no other 
than Death ; and that glowing light is that im- 
mortal element : therefore Death does not die, for 
he is within the immortal ; and therefore he is not 
seen, for he is within the immortal *. 

4. There is this verse: — 'Within Death is 
immortality,' — for below death is immortality; — 
'founded on Death is immortality,' — for estab- 
lished on that man (in the sun) the immortal 
shines 2 ; — 'Death putteth on the radiant,' — the 



1 MrityurtipaA purusho*mr/tarflpe»r£ishy an tar vartate, . . . 
mrityoA purushasya amn'tam amntarfipar&r adhikaranaw manda- 
lam ahitam pratishMitam. SSyawa. 

* 'Antaraw mrityor amniam ity avaraw hy etan mrriyor am- 
niam' ity adina, avaram adhastadbhavam amr/'taw purushaA 



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x kAwda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmawa, 6. 367 

radiant one (vivasvant), doubtless, is yonder sun, for 
he irradiates (vi-vas) day and night; and it is him that 
(Death) puts on, for on every side he is surrounded 
by him; — 'Death's self is in the radiant,' — for 
the self (body) of that man indeed is in that orb : 
such, then, is that verse. 

5. Now, that orb is the foundation (foothold) of 
both that light and that man ; whence one must not 
recite the Great Litany for another 1 , lest he should 
cut away that foothold from beneath his own self ; 
for he who recites the Mahad Uktham for another, 
indeed cuts away that foothold from beneath his own 
self: wherefore the (professional) singer of praises 
(yastra) is greatly despised, for he is cut off from his 
foothold. Thus in regard to the deity. 

6. Now as to the sacrifice. That shining orb 
is the same as this gold plate (under the altar) 2 , 
and that glowing light is the same as this lotus- 
leaf (under the altar) ; for there are those (divine) 



parastdd ity arthasiddhaA ; anena amn'tamadhyavartitvam uktam 
ity arthxi ; dvitiyapddagatamr/'iapadenar/'ir adhikaranam maWalam 
uiyate, tat purushe pratishMitam tapati, tena hi tasya ma«</alasya 
^agatprakajakatvam asti. Say. But for this interpretation, one 
might have rendered the first pada by, ' Close unto death is immor- 
tality,' for after death comes immortality. 

1 Cf. Aitareyar. V, 3, 3, 1, ' No one but a dikshita (initiated) 
should recite the Mahavrata (jastra) ; and he should not recite it at 
a (Mahavrata) unless it be combined with (the building of) a fire- 
altar; neither should he do so for another person, nor at a 
(sacrificial session lasting) less than a year,' so say some ; but he 
may recite it for his father or for his teacher, for in that case it is 
recited on his own behalf. 

* In these symbolical identifications, one might also take the 
relative clause to be the predicate, not the subject, of the sentence ; 
the former usually preceding the latter. 



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368 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAA'A. 

waters 1 , and the lotus-leaf is water 2 ; and that man 
in yonder orb is no other than this gold man (in 
the altar) : thus, by laying down these (in the fire- 
altar), it is that (divine) triad he constructs. And 
after the consummation of the sacrifice it rises 
upwards and enters that shining (sun) : one need 
not therefore mind destroying Agni, for he is then 
in yonder (world) 8 . Thus, then, in regard to the 
sacrifice. 

7. Now as to the self (body). That shining orb 
and that gold plate are the same as the white here 
in the eye ; and that glowing light and that lotus- 
leaf are the same as the black here in the eye ; and 
that man in yonder orb and that gold man are the 
same as this man in the right eye. 

1 Though the sun itself does not consist of water, he at any rate 
floats along a sea of water ; cf. VII, 5, 1, 8, ' For that indeed is the 
deepest of waters where yonder sun shines ; ' and there are waters 
above and below the sun, VII, 1, 1, 24; and the sun is encircled 
by 360 navigable streams, and as many flow towards it, X, 5, 4, 14. — 
S4ya«a, on the other hand, takes it to mean, 'for that (light) is 
water,' inasmuch as the sun's rays produce the rain, — ar^isho hy 
SpaA suryakira«£n£m eva vn'sli/ikartrjkatvSt kaTyakSranayor abhe- 
dena ar£ir vd Spa ity uktam. Possibly this may be the right 
interpretation. 

* See VII, 4, 1, 8, where the lotus-plant is said to represent the 
(cosmic) waters, whilst the earth is a lotus-leaf floating on the waters. 

* According to Sayawa, he is so in the shape of both the sun and 
the Sacrificer's body or self, — yato*sminn agniw iitavan para- 
tradityo bhavati, atO'gnua parihantum nadriyeta, £i/am agnim 
ish/akavlreshewa najayitam adaram na Buryat, kutaA, eshO'gnir 
amutra bhavati, paraloke ya^am&narariratmanotpadyate ; yad va 
parihantwn praptw* sprash/um ity arthaA, £ity&gnispar.rane dosha- 
jravawat. Sayana, thus, is doubtful as to how ' Agnim parihantum ' is 
to be taken, whether it means ' to injure the altar (? or extinguish the 
fire) by some brick,' or to ' knock against (touch) the altar.' The 
St. Petertb. Diet, takes it in the sense of ' to extinguish the fire/ 



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x kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmawa, 9. 369 

8. The Lokamp?7»a (space-filling brick) is the 
same as that (gold man in the sun) 1 : it is that 
(brick) which this entire Agni finally results in*. 
Moreover, this man (or person) in the left eye is 
the mate of that one (in the right eye and in the 
sun) ; and a mate is one half of one's own self 8 , 
for when one is with a mate he is whole and com- 
plete : thus it (the second man) is for the sake of 
completeness. And as to there being two of these 
(persons in the eyes), a pair means a productive 
couple : hence two Lokamprzwas are laid down each 
time* and hence they set up the layer by two 
(kinds of bricks). 

9. Now, that person in the right eye is the same 
as Indra, and (that other person is) the same as 
Indrawl : it is for the sake of these two that the 
gods made that partition (between the eyes), the 
nose ; whence he (the husband) should not eat food 
in the presence of his wife 6 ; for from hirn (who 

but it might also, perhaps, mean 'to destroy the fire-altar' by 
taking it to pieces. 

1 On the identification of the sun with the Lokampr/'wa on the 
ground that the former fills these worlds (lokan purayati), see VIII, 

7, 2, 1. 

* Or, finally comes to ; viz. inasmuch as it is by the placing of 
the Lokampr/'wa bricks that the altar is completed (Say.); and 
inasmuch as Agni passes into the sun. 

* Purusho mithurcun yoshid ity etasmin mithunam hy itmano 
«rdham ardhabhagaA, ardho va esha dtmano yat patntti taittirtya- 
jruteA. Say. 

* When the layers are filled up with ' space-fillers,' two Lokam- 
pr;'«as are first laid down in one of the four corners, and from them 
the available spaces are then filled up, in two turns, in the sunwise 
direction ; cf. p. 22, note 1. 

* Cf. I, 9, 2, 12, 'whenever women here eat, they do so apart 
from men;' where the use of the ' ^ighatsanti ' (swallow their 

[43] b b 



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3 7° satapatha-brAhmajva. 

does not do so) a vigorous son is born, and she in 
whose presence (the husband) does not eat food 
bears a vigorous (son) : — 

io. Such, indeed, is the divine ordinance; — amongst 
men princes keep most aloof 1 , and for that reason 
a vigorous (son) is born to them ; and of birds the 
AmWtavaka (does so, and she) produces the Kshi- 
prasyena 2 . 

1 1. Those two (persons in the eyes) descend to the 
cavity of the heart 8 , and enter into union with each 
other ; and when they reach the end of their union, 
then the man sleeps, — even as here on reaching the 
end of a human union he becomes, as it were, 
insensible *, so does he then become, as it were, 

food) — as against arniyat in our passage — is not meant disrespect- 
fully, but as the regular desiderative of 'ad' (Pl». II, 4, 37), for 
which no doubt 'arwishanti' (Sit. Br. HI, 1, 2, 1) might have 
been used. 

1 Or, ' act most in secrecy.' Sayawa explains it : manushyinam 
madhye ra^anyabandhavo < nutamim gopayanti atyartham rahasyat- 
vena kurvanti tasmat teshu vlryavSn putro^iyate. The St. Petersb. 
Diet, on the other hand, takes it in the sense of 'they protect 
most of all;' though it is difficult to see how the 'protection' 
afforded by princes or rulers could have any bearing on men taking 
their food apart from their wives. If the above interpretation is 
right we may compare ' anu-gup ' in the sense of ' to conceal.' 
See, however, the next note, where Sayawa takes 'gopayati' in 
the sense of 'observes (that law),' which might also have suited 
here. Princes, having their seraglio, would naturally have less 
occasion for coming into contact with their wives at mealtime than 
men of lower stations of life. On the superlative of the preposition, 
see p. 287, note 1. 

* ? The swift eagle, — vayasam pakshiwam madhye amr;tavaka 
nama pakshi^atir etad vrataas gopayati, ataA sa kshipram rfghra- 
g&mina/ff .ryenam nama pakshi»am ^anayati. Say. 

' Hrsdayasyak&ram daharam prapya. Say. 

4 That is, ' unconscious,' with something of ' indifferent, apa- 
thetic,' implied : — Loke manushasya maithunasyantam galva < sam- 



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x kAjvjja, 5 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 14. 371 

insensible; for this is a divine union 1 , and that is 
the highest bliss. 

1 2. Therefore let him, who knows -this, sleep, for 
it makes for heaven 2 : he thereby, indeed, makes 
those two deities enjoy their dear wish, union. And 
one should not therefore forcibly 3 awaken him who 
sleeps, lest he should hurt those two deities whilst 
enjoying their union ; and hence the mouth of him 
who has been asleep is, as it were, clammy, for those 
two deities are then shedding seed, and from that 
seed everything here originates, whatsoever exists. 

13. Now, that man in yonder orb (of the sun), 
and that man in the right eye truly are no other than 
Death ; — his feet have stuck fast in the heart, 
and having pulled them out he comes forth ; and 
when he comes forth then that man dies : whence 
they say of him who has passed away, ' he has been 
cutoff 4 .' 

14. And, indeed, he is the breath (pra»a), for it 
is he (the man in the eye) that leads forward (pra- 
«ayati) all these creatures. These vital airs (pra«a) 
are his own (sva) ; and when he sleeps (svapiti) then 

vida a^anSneva nrii strt bhavati (marg. corr. a^ininav eva slripu- 
rushau bhavata^) eva/w tada tayor mithunabhave (? mithunabhave) 
purusho x sa/wvida iva bhavati. Say. 

1 Viz. because it is the union of Indra and Indrawi. 

J Or, perhaps, it is the usual practice (lokyam), as the St. Petersb. 
Diet, takes it. 

* Dhureva pMayaiva na bodhayet, na prabuddham kurySt, dhur- 
vater hi/nsarthat kvipi /ablope rupam. Say. 

4 ? His (life) has been cut off; or, his (life-string) has been 
severed. Sayawa (unless there is an omission in the MS.) does 
not explain 'HMedy asya,' but seems to take'pretam' (passed 
away) as the word on which the stress lies : — tasmad imam pretam 
ity ahuA, prapurvad eteA ktapratyaye rupam; katham, akshipurusha- 
nirgame purushasya maranam. 

B b 2 



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372 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAW A. 

these vital airs take possession of him ' as his own 
(sva api-yanti) : hence (the term) ' svapyaya (being 
taken possession of by one's own people),' ' sva- 
pyaya' doubtless being what they mystically call 
' svapna (sleep),' for the gods love the mystic. 

15. And when he is asleep, he does not, by 
means of them, know of anything whatever, nor does 
he form any resolution with his mind, or distinguish 
the taste of food with (the channel of) his speech, 
or distinguish any smell with (the channel of) his 
breath ; neither does he see with his eye, nor hear 
with his ear, for those (vital airs) have taken pos- 
session of him. Whilst being one only, he (the 
man in the eye) is numerously distributed among 
living beings : whence the Lokampr*#a (representing 
the man in the sun), whilst being one only (in kind), 
extends over the whole altar ; and because he (the 
man in the eye) is one only, therefore (the Lokam- 
pr/»a) is one. 

16. As to this they say, 'One death, or many?' 
Let him say, 'Both one and many;' for inasmuch 
as he is that (man in the sun) in yonder world he is 
one, and inasmuch as he is numerously distributed 
here on earth among living beings, there are also 
many of them. 

17. As to this they say, ' Is Death near or far 
away ?' Let him say, ' Both near and far away ;' 
for inasmuch as he is here on earth in the body 
he is near, and inasmuch as he is that one in yonder 
world he also is far away. 

1 8. Regarding this there is the verse, — ' Con- 



' Or, they keep within him, they nestle in him, — apiyanti prap- 
nuvanti, aliyanta ity arthaA. Say. 



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X KAJVCA, 5 ADHYAYA, 2 BRAhMAJVA, 20. 373 

cealed in food he, the immortal, shineth at the 
flowing together of vital saps;' — yonder shining 
orb is food, and the man in that orb is the eater : 
being concealed in that food, he shines. Thus 
much as to the deity. 

19. Now as to the body. This body indeed 
is food, and that man in the right eye is the eater : 
being concealed in that food he shines. 

20. That same (divine person), the Adhvaryus 
(Ya^iir-veda priests) serve under the name of 'Agni' 
(fire-altar) and ' Yaf us,' because he holds together 

Jyuf) all this (universe) 1 ; the^fandogas (Sama-veda 
priests, chanters) under that of 'Saman,' because 
in him all this (universe) is one and the same 
(samana) 2 ; the Bahvr/^as (Rig-veda. priests, Hotars) 
under that of ' Uktham,' because he originates 
(utthap) everything here; those skilled in sorcery, 
under that of ' sorcery (yatu),' because everything 
here is held in check (yata) by him ; the serpents 
under that of 'poison;' the snake-charmers under 
that of 'snake;' the gods under that of 'urf (strength- 
ening food);' men under that of 'wealth;' demons 
under that of ' maya (magic power) ;' the deceased 
Fathers under that of ' svadha (invigorating 
draught) ;' those knowing the divine host under 
that of ' divine host ;' the Gandharvas under that of 
' form (rupa 3 ) ;' the Apsaras under that of 'fragrance 
(gandha),' — thus, in whatsoever form they serve him 
that indeed he becomes, and, having become that, 

1 Esha purusha ida/w sarvam ^agad yunakti sarvatra svayaw 
samgata id. Say. 

' Etasmin paramatmani karane sarvam karya^ataw samanam 
iti. Sdy. 

* The characteristic attributes of the Gandharvas and Apsaras 
are evidently exchanged in the text as it stands; cf. IX, 4, 1, 4. 



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374 DATAPATH A-BRAhMAYA. 

he is helpful to them ; whence he who knows should 
serve him in all these (forms), for he becomes all that, 
and, having become all that, he is helpful to him. 

21. Now this Agni (fire-altar) consists of three 
bricks, — the Rik being one, the Ya,fus another, 
and the Saman another: whatever (brick) he lays 
down here with a rik (verse) that has the gold plate 
for its foundation 1 ; whatever (brick he lays down) 
with a ya^us (formula) that has the (gold) man for 
its foundation; and whatever (brick he lays down) 
with a saman (hymn-tune) that has the lotus-leaf for 
its foundation. Thus he consists of three bricks. 

22. And, indeed, these two, to wit, that gold plate 
and that lotus-leaf join that (gold) man, for both 
the Rik and the Saman join the Ya^s ; and so he 
also consists of a single brick. 

23. Now, that man in yonder orb (of the sun), 
and this man in the right eye, are no other than 
Death 2 ; and he becomes the body (self) of him 
who knows this : whenever he who knows departs 
this world he passes into that body, and becomes 
immortal, for Death is his own self. 

Third BrAhmawa. 

1. Verily, in the beginning this (universe) was, 
as it were 3 , neither non-existent nor existent; in 

1 Viz. inasmuch as the (round) gold plate (representing the sun) 
is deposited in the centre of the altar-site, before the first layer is 
constructed. In the same way the other two objects. 

J Saya»a seems to construe this somewhat differently : sa esho 
ignir ya^uratmako * dhidaivaw maWalamadhyavartt adhyatmaw 
dakshinakshivarti purusho mrrtyurftpaA. 

s Saya«a seems to take ' iva ' here in the sense of ' eva,' as indeed 
it often has to be taken, especially in negative sentences. 



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X KAYDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAhMAATA, 3. 375 

the beginning this (universe), indeed, as it were, 
existed and did not exist : there was then only that 
Mind. 

2. Wherefore it has been said by the J&shi 
(fo'g-veda. X, 129, 1), 'There was then neither the 
non-existent nor the existent ; ' for Mind was, as it 
were, neither existent nor non-existent. 

3. This Mind, when created, wished to become 
manifest, — more defined *, more substantial : it 
sought after a self (body) 2 . It practised austerity 8 : 
it acquired consistency*. It then beheld thirty-six 
thousand Arka-fires 8 of its own self, composed of 
mind, built up of mind : mentally • alone they were 
established (on sacrificial hearths) and mentally 

1 Niruktataram niruktaw jabdanirvaiyam. Say. 

1 Sayawa also allows the interpretation, 'after (its source, or 
cause,) the (supreme) self/— atmanawt svakirawaw paramatmanam 
svasvarupaw vS « nvaUMat What seems, indeed, implied in these 
esoteric lucubrations, is that meditation on the infinite is equivalent 
to all ceremonial rites which are supposed to be incessantly per- 
formed for one so engaged, even during his sleep (paragraph 12). 

* I. e. intense meditation (paryalokanam), Say. ? ' it became heated.' 
4 Saya»a apparently takes ' pramurMat ' in the sense of ' became 

great, or important,'— samuAMritam babhuva. 

' Saya»a here takes ' arka ' in the sense of ' ar^anfya (worthy of 
veneration), as, indeed, he did several times before ; though once 
he seems to call them ' agnyarka^,' as being the highest, merely 
speculative or immaterial form of sacrificial fires or fire-altars 
(dhyeya" agnayaA); cf. X, 3, 4, 3 seq. — The 36,000 fires are calcu- 
lated so as to be equal to the number of days in the life of the perfect 
man living a hundred years (X, 2, 6, 9) ; there being thus for each 
day of his life a (spiritual) sacrificial fire, a mental exercise or 
discipline, as Sayawa expresses it, — tatraikasmin dine (agneya?) 
manovr/ttiA. 

• The text has everywhere the instrumental 'manasd,' which 
would imply either the agent, the instrument, or the material, as the 
case might be. 



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376 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

built up * ; mentally the cups (of Soma) were drawn 
thereat ; mentally they chanted, and mentally they 
recited on (near) them, — whatever rite is performed 
at the sacrifice, whatever sacrificial rite there is, 
that was performed mentally only, as a mental per- 
formance, on those (fires or fire-altars) composed of 
mind, and built up of mind. And whatever it is that 
(living) beings here conceive in their mind that was 
done regarding those (mental Agnis 2 ): — they establish 
them (on the hearths) and build them up (as fire- 
altars) ; they draw the cups for them ; they chant on 
(near) them and recite hymns on them, — of that 
extent was the development of Mind, of that extent 
its creation, — so great is Mind : thirty-six thousand 
Arka-fires ; and each of these as great as that 
former (fire-altar) was. 

4. That Mind created Speech. This Speech, 
when created, wished to become manifest, — more 
defined, more substantial : it sought after a self. 
It practised austerity: it acquired consistency. It 
beheld thirty-six thousand Arka-fires of its own self, 
composed of speech, built up of speech : with speech 
they were established, and with speech built up; 
with speech the cups were drawn thereat; with 
speech they chanted, and with speech they recited 
on them — whatever rite is performed at the sacri- 
fice, whatever sacrificial rite there is, that was 

1 That is, the ceremonies of Agny&dhana (establishment of the 
sacrificial fire) and Agni&iyana (building of the fire-altar) were 
performed by means of these fires. Saya«a remarks that these rites 
were performed by the same ' beings (bhutani),' which are men- 
tioned immediately after, as would, indeed, appear to be the case 
from paragraph 1 2. 

* Yat ki« ka. bhutani manasS dhyayanti v£M vadanti tali sam- 
kalpavadanadibhir eva tesham agnfnam karawam. Say. 



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x kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 3 brAhmana, 6. 377 

performed by speech alone, as a vocal performance, 
on those (fires) composed of speech, and built up of 
speech. And whatever beings here speak by speech 
that was done regarding those (fires) : they establish 
them and build them up ; they draw the cups for 
them ; they chant on them and recite hymns on 
them, — of that extent was the development of 
Speech, of that extent its creation, — so great is 
Speech : thirty-six thousand Arka-fires ; and each 
of these as great as that former (fire-altar) was. 

5. That Speech created the Breath. This Breath, 
when created, wished to become manifest, — more 
defined, more substantial : it sought after a self- 
It practised austerity : it acquired consistency. It 
beheld thirty-six thousand Arka-fires of its own self, 
composed of breath, built up of breath : with breath 
they were established, and with breath built up; 
with breath the cups were drawn thereat; with 
breath they chanted and with breath they recited 
on them, — whatever rite is performed at the sacri- 
fice, whatever sacrificial rite there is, that was 
performed by breath alone, as a breathing-per- 
formance, on those (fires) composed of breath, and 
built up of breath. And whatever beings - here 
breathe with breath that was done regarding those 
(fires) : — they establish them, and build them up ; 
they draw the cups for them ; they chant on them 
and recite hymns on them, — of that extent was the 
development of Breath, of that extent was its 
creation, — so great is Breath : thirty-six thousand 
Arka-fires; and each of these as great as that 
former (fire-altar) was. 

6. That Breath created the Eye. This Eye, 
when created, wished to become manifest, — more 



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378 DATAPATH A-BRAHMA^V A. 

defined, more substantial: it sought after a self. 
It practised austerity: it acquired consistency. It 
beheld thirty-six thousand Arka-fires of its own self, 
composed of the eye, built up of the eye : by means 
of the eye they were established, and by means of 
the eye built up ; by the eye the cups were drawn 
thereat; by means of the eye they chanted and 
recited hymns on them, — whatever rite is performed 
as the sacrifice, whatever sacrificial rite there is, 
that was performed by the eye alone, as an eye- 
performance, on those (fires) composed of eye, and 
built up of the eye. And whatever beings here see 
with the eye that was done regarding those (fires) : — 
they establish them and build them up ; they draw 
the cups for them ; they chant on them and recite 
hymns on them, — of that extent was the develop- 
ment of the Eye, of that extent its creation, — so 
great is the Eye : thirty-six thousand Arka-fires ; 
and each of these as great as that former (fire- 
altar) was. 

7. That Eye created the Ear. This Ear, when 
created, wished to become manifest, — more defined, 
more substantial : it sought after a self. It practised 
austerity : it acquired consistency. It beheld thirty- 
six thousand Arka-fires of its own self, composed of 
the ear, built up of the ear : by means of the ear 
they were established, and by means of the ear 
built up ; by the ear the cups were drawn thereat ; 
by means of the ear they chanted and recited hymns 
on them, — whatever rite is performed at the sacri- 
fice, whatever sacrificial rite there is, that was 
performed by the ear alone, as an ear-performance, 
on those (fires) composed of ear, and built up of the 
ear. And whatever beings here hear with the ear 



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X KANDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 3 BRAHMAJVA, 9. 379 

that was done regarding those (fires) : — they establish 
them and build them up ; they draw the cups for 
them ; they chant on them and recite hymns on 
them, — of that extent was the development of the 
Ear, of that extent its creation, — so great is the 
Ear: thirty-six thousand Arka-fires; and each of 
these as great as that former (fire-altar) was. 

8. That Ear created Work, and this condensed 
itself into the vital airs, into this compound, this 
composition of food 1 ; for incomplete is work without 
the vital airs, and incomplete are the vital airs 
without work. 

9. This Work, when created, wished to become 
manifest, — more defined, more substantial : it sought 
after a self. It practised austerity : it acquired 
consistency. It beheld thirty-six thousand Arka- 
fires of its own self, composed of work, built up of 
(or by) work : by work they were established, and 
by work built up ; by work the cups were drawn 
thereat ; by work they chanted and recited hymns 
on them, — whatever rite is performed at the sacrifice, 
whatever sacrificial rite there is, that was performed 
by work alone, as a work-performance, on those 
(fires) composed of work, and built up of work. 
And whatever beings here work by work that was 
done regarding those (fires) ; — they establish them 
and build them up ; they draw the cups for them ; 
they chant on them and recite hymns on them, — of 
that extent was the development of Work, of that 

1 Sayarca explains ' samdegham annasawdeham ' by ' annapra«a- 
jrayaw jariram,' — svayam asamdeham arariram sat karma prawan- 
nayor anyonyasaha£aryad abhivriddhim vyatirekam makhyenaha, 
akmsnam &c. Sayawa would thus take ' samdegha ' as equivalent 
to the later ' deha ' (body), and in no depreciatory sense. 



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380 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

extent its creation, — so great is Work : thirty-six 
thousand Arka-fires ; and each of these as great as 
that former (fire-altar) was. 

10. That Work created the Fire, — Fire, doubtless, 
is more manifest than Work, for by work (sacrificial 
performance) they produce it, and by work they 
kindle it. 

11. This Fire, when created, wished to become 
manifest, — more defined, more substantial : it sought 
after a self. It practised austerity x : it acquired 
consistency. It beheld thirty-six thousand Arka- 
fires of its own self, composed of fire, built up of 
fire : with fire they were established, and with fire 
built up ; with fire the cups were drawn thereat ; 
with fire they chanted and recited hymns on them ; — 
whatever rite is performed at the sacrifice, whatever 
sacrificial rite there is, that was performed with fire 
alone, as a fire-performance, on those (fires) com- 
posed of fire, and built up of fire. And whatever 
fire beings here kindle that was done regarding 
those (fires) : — they establish them and build them 
up ; they draw the cups for them ; they chant on 
them and recite hymns on them, — of that extent 
was the development of Fire, of that extent its 
creation, — so great is Fire : thirty-six thousand 
Arka-fires ; and each of these as great as that 
former (fire-altar) was. 

12. These fires (altars), in truth, are knowledge- 
built ; and all beings at all times build them for him 
who knows this, even whilst he is asleep : by know- 
ledge alone these fires (altars) are indeed built for 
him who knows this. 

1 Or, fervid devotion ; though perhaps the physical sense of ' it 
became heated ' would suit better here. 



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x kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 4 brAhmaya, 2. 381 



Fourth BrAhmajva. 

1. Verily, this (brick-)built Fire-altar (Agni) is this 
(terrestrial) world: — the waters (of the encircling 
ocean) are its (circle of) enclosing-stones ; the men 
its Ya^ushmatis (bricks with special formulas) ; 
the cattle its Sudadohas 1 ; the plants and trees 
its earth-fillings (between the layers of bricks), its 
oblations and fire-logs 2 ; Agni (the terrestrial fire) 
its Lokampr/wa (space-filling brick) ; — thus this 
comes to make up the whole Agni, and the whole 
Agni comes to be the space-filler 3 ; and, verily, 
whosoever knows this, thus comes to be that whole 
(Agni) who is the space-filler 4 . 

2. But, indeed, that Fire-altar also is the air : — 
the junction of heaven and earth (the horizon) is 
its (circle of) enclosing-stones, for it is beyond the 
air that heaven and earth meet, and that (junction) 
is the (circle of) enclosing-stones ; the birds are its 
Yafushmatl bricks, the rain its Sudadohas, the rays 

1 That is, either the food obtained by the milking of the drink 
of immortality (amr/tadohannam). or the verse J?*g-veda VIII, 69, 
3 (ti asya sudadohasa^, &c.) pronounced over the ' settled' brick, 
and supposed to supply vital air to the different parts of Agni- 
Pra^apati's body (whence it is also repeated in the Brihad Uktham 
between the different parts of the bird-like body; cf. p. 112, 
note 1). Say. 

8 Sayawa seems to interpret this in two different ways, — oshadhi- 
vanaspataya eva purishahutisamittrayarupa" etasya purishahutisamit- 
trayarupatvam uttaratra spash/ikarishyate ; atha (va) yad dikshu ka. 
r&miishu 4£nnam tat purfshaw ta ahutayas \M samidhaA. 

* See X, 5, 2, 8. Viz. ' inasmuch as all become fit for their 
work by being provided with fire.' Say. 

4 Or, the word-filler, the ruler of the world (lokddhish/Aatrz). 

say. 



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382 SATAPATHA-BRAHMAtfA. 

of light its earth-fillings, oblations and fire-logs ; 
Vayu (the wind) is its space-filler ; thus this comes 
to make up the whole Agni, and the whole Agni 
comes to be the space-filler ; and, verily, whosoever 
knows this, thus comes to be that whole (Agni) who 
is the space-filler. 

3. But, indeed, that Fire-altar also is the sky : — 
the (heavenly) waters are its enclosing-stones, for 
even as a case x here is closed up so are these 
worlds (enclosed) within the waters ; and the waters 
beyond these worlds are the enclosing-stones ; — the 
gods are the Ya^ushmati bricks ; what food there is 
in that world is its Sudadohas ; the Nakshatras 
(lunar mansions) are the earth-fillings, the oblations 
and the fire-logs ; and Aditya (the sun) is the space- 
filler ; — thus this comes to make up the whole Agni; 
and the whole Agni comes to be the space-filler ; 
and, verily, whosoever knows this, thus comes to be 
that whole (Agni) who is the space-filler. 

4. But, indeed, that Fire-altar also is the sun : — 
the regions are its enclosing-stones, and there are 
three hundred and sixty of these 2 , because three 
hundred and sixty regions encircle the sun on all 
sides ; — the rays are its Yafushmatt bricks, for there 
are three hundred and sixty of these 3 , and three 
hundred and sixty rays of the sun ; and in that 
he establishes the Yafushmatls within the enclosing- 
stones thereby he establishes the rays in the regions. 
And what is between the regions and the rays, is its 
Sudadohas ; and what food there is in the regions 
and rays that is the earth-fillings, the oblations and 

1 Or, as (the valves, or shells, of) a pod are closed up. 
* See p. 354, note 2. 8 See IX, 4, 3, 6. 



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x kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 5. 383 

the fire-logs ; and that which is called both 'regions' 
and ' rays ' is the space-filling (brick) : — thus this 
comes to make up the whole Agni ; and the whole 
Agni comes to be the space-filler ; and, verily, 
whosoever knows this, thus comes to be that whole 
(Agni) who is the space-filler. 

5. But, indeed, that Fire-altar also is the Nak- 
shatras : — for there are twenty-seven of these 
Nakshatras, and twenty-seven secondary stars 
accompany each Nakshatra, — this makes seven 
hundred and twenty 1 , and thirty-six in addition 
thereto. Now what seven hundred and twenty 
bricks * there are of these, they are the three 
hundred and sixty enclosing-stones and the three 
hundred and sixty Ya^ttshmatl bricks ; and what 
thirty-six there are in addition, they are the 
thirteenth (intercalary) month, the body (of the 
altar) ; the trunk 8 (consisting of) thirty, the feet 
of two, the (channels of the) vital airs of two *, 
and the head itself being the (thirty-fifth and) 
thirty-sixth, — and as to there being two of these, 
it is because ' siras' (head) consists of two syllables; 
— and what (space) there is between (each) two 

1 On this inaccurate calculation (the real product being 729), 
resorted to in order to get a total amount equal to the number of 
Ya^ushmatl bricks (756), see A. Weber, Nakshatra, II, p. 298. 

1 That is, Nakshatras considered as the bricks of which the fire- 
altar is constructed. The latter being identical with the year, the 
720 bricks represent the days and nights of the year. 

* Thus S&yawa (madhyadeha), — the atman (in that case, how- 
ever, the whole body) is usually represented as consisting of twenty- 
five parts. Here the thirty parts would probably be the trunk, the 
head, the upper and fore-arms, the thighs and shanks, and the 
fingers and toes. 

* Viz. inasusch as eyes, ears, and nostrils are in pairs. Say. 



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384 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

Nakshatras that is the Sudadohas ; and what food 
there is in the Nakshatras that is the earth-fillings 
(between the layers of bricks), the oblations and 
the fire-logs ; and what is called ' nakshatras ' that 
is the space-filling (brick) : — thus this comes to 
make up the whole Agni, and the whole Agni 
comes to be the space-filler; and, verily, whosoever 
knows this, thus comes to be that whole (Agni) who 
is the space-filler. 

6. Now, these (amount to) twenty-one Brthatts 1 ; 
and — the heavenly world being the twenty-one-fold 
one 2 and the Brzhatf (the great one) — this (altar) 
thus comes to be equal to the heavenly world, and 
to the twenty-one-fold Stoma (hymn-form)' and the 
Bnhati metre. 

7. But, indeed, that Fire-altar also is the Metres; 
for there are seven of these metres, increasing by 
four syllables 3 ; and the triplets of these make seven 
hundred and twenty syllables, and thirty-six in 
addition thereto. Now what seven hundred and 
twenty bricks there are of these, they are the 
three hundred and sixty enclosing-stones and the 
three hundred and sixty Ya^ushmatts ; and what 
thirty-six there are in addition, they are the 
thirteenth month, and the body (of this altar), — 
the trunk (consisting of) thirty, the feet of two, 

1 The Br/'hati verse consisting of 36 syllables, this makes a total 
of 756 syllables, or the same amount as that of the days and nights 
of the year, plus the days (36) of the intercalary month. 

* Viz. inasmuch as the sun is ' the twenty-first,' cf. I, 3, 5, 11 ; 
VI, 2, 2, 3 : svargas tv aditya iti surake(tu)rupo va lokaA svarg&i 
ekavimratisamkhyapuraka^. Say. 

* The seven metres, increasing by four syllables from 24 up to 
48, consist together of 252 syllables, and hence the triplets of them 
amount to 756 = 720 + 36 syllables. 



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X KkNDA, 5 ADHYAYA, 4 BRAHMAATA, 8. 385 

the vital airs of two, and the head itself being the 
(thirty-fifth and) thirty-sixth ; and as to there being 
two of these, it is because ' jiras ' consists of two v 
syllables. 

8. Now the first ten syllables of this Br*hati, 
consisting of thirty-six syllables, make an Ekapada 1 
of ten syllables ; and the (first) twenty make 
a Dvipada of twenty syllables ; and the (first) 
thirty a ViriLf 2 of thirty syllables ; and the {first) 
thirty-three a (Vira^) of thirty-three syllables ; and 
the (first) thirty-Four a Svarif 3 of thirty-four 
syllables ; and in that this fire-altar is built with 
all metres thereby it is an AtL&Sandas *, and (so) 
indeed are all these bricks 6 . And the three 
syllables ' ish/aka (brick) ' are a Gayatrl tripadi, 
whence this Agni is Gayatra ; and the three 
syllables ' mn'd ' (clay) and ' 4pa£ ' (water) 8 also 
are a Gayatrl tripada: thereby also he is Gayatra. 
And what is between (each two) metres is the 

1 The Ekapada is a verse consisting of a single pada, and the 
Dvipada one of two padas, whilst verses in the ordinary metres 
consist of three or four padas. 

* The Vira^ is a metre consisting of 1 to 4 (usually 3) decasyllabic 
padas; the one consisting of four such p&das being, however, 
commonly called Pankti. Besides this, the principal, Vira^, there 
is, however, another consisting of 3 padas of n syllables each. 

* This name, which is here applied to a verse of 34 syllables, 
was in VII, 4, 1, 9 used of a verse of 10+10+11 + 11 = 42 
syllables (Va£. S. XI, 29) ; cf. Weber, Ind. Stud. VIII, p. 63. 

4 That is, an over-metre, excessive metre, consisting of more 
than 48 syllables. The fire-altar, being built up with all the metres 
(viz. with the .Oandasyl bricks, representing the metres, cf. VIII, 
3, 3, 1 seqq.), would thus far exceed the latter number. 

* ? Thus Sdyana : iityagnir atiManda iti yat tena sarva ish/aka 
atiMandomayya ity uktam. 

* That is, the materials used for making bricks. 

[43] C C 



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386 satapatha-brAhmamv. 

Sudadohas ; and the food which is in the metres 
is the earth-fillings, the oblations, and the fire-logs ; 
and what is called ' metres,' that is the space- 
filling (brick) : — thus this comes to make up the 
whole Agni; and the whole Agni comes to be 
the space-filler ; and, verily, whosoever knows this, 
comes to be that whole (Agni) who is the space-filler. 

9. Now, these (amount to) twenty-one Br*hatls ; 
and — the heavenly world being the twenty-one-fold 
and the Brthatl — this (altar) thus comes to be equal 
to the heavenly world, and to the twenty-one-fold 
Stoma and the Br/hatl metre. 

10. But, indeed, that Fire-altar also is the Year, — 
the nights are its enclosing-stones, and there are 
three hundred and sixty of these, because there 
are three hundred and sixty nights in the year ; and 
the days are its Ya^tishmati bricks, for there are 
three hundred and sixty of these, and three hundred 
and sixty days in the year ; and those thirty-six 
bricks which are over 1 are the thirteenth month, 
the body (of the year and the altar), the half-months 
and months, — (there being) twenty-four half-months, 
and twelve months. And what there is between 
day and night that is the Sudadohas; and what 
food there is in the days and nights is the earth- 
fillings, the oblations, and the fire-logs; and what 
is called ' days and nights ' that constitutes the 
space-filling (brick) : — thus this comes to make up 
the whole Agni, and the whole Agni comes to be 
the space-filler ; and, verily, whosoever knows this, 
thus comes to be that whole (Agni) who is the 
space-filler. 

1 Viz. those required to make up the 756 Ya^ushmatis. 



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x kXnda, 5 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 13. 387 

11. Now, these (amount to) twenty-one Brihatls; 
and — the heavenly world being the twenty-one-fold 
and the Brihati — this (altar) thus comes to be equal 
to the heavenly world, and to the twenty-one-fold 
Stoma and the BWhatl metre. 

12. But, indeed, that Fire-altar also is the body, — 
the bones are its enclosing-stones, and there are 
three hundred and sixty of these, because there are 
three hundred and sixty bones in man ; the marrow v 
parts are the Yafushmatl bricks, for there are three 
hundred and sixty of these, and three hundred and 
sixty parts of marrow in man ; and those thirty-six 
bricks which are over, are the thirteenth month, 
the trunk, the vital air (of the altar), — in his body 
there are thirty parts 1 , in his feet two, in his vital 
airs two, and in his head two, — as to there being 
two of these, it is because the head consists of two 
skull-bones. And that whereby these joints are 
held together is the Sudadohas; and those three 
whereby this body is covered — to wit, hair, skin, 
and flesh — are the earth-fillings ; what he drinks is 
the oblations, and what he eats the fire-logs; and 
what is called the 'body,' that is the. space-filling 
(brick) : — thus this comes to make up the whole 
Agni, and the whole Agni comes to be the space- 
filler ; and, verily, whosoever knows this, thus comes 

to be that whole (Agni) who is the space-filler. 

13. Now, these (amount to) twenty-one Brzhatis; 
and — the heavenly world being the twenty-one-fold 
and the B^/hatt — this (altar) thus comes to be equal 
to the heavenly world, and to the twenty-one-fold 
Stoma and the Brzhatt metre. 

1 See p. 383, note 3. 

C C 2 ! 

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388 satapatha-brAhmajva. * 

14. But, indeed, that built Agni (the fire-altar) 
is all beings, all the gods ; for all the gods, all beings 
are the waters *, and that built fire-altar is the same 
as those waters 8 ; — the navigable streams (round 
the sun) are its enclosing-stones, and there are 
three hundred and sixty of these, because three 
hundred and sixty navigable streams encircle the 
sun on all sides ; and the navigable streams, indeed, 
are also the Ya^ushmatt bricks, and there are 
three hundred and sixty of these, because three 
hundred and sixty navigable streams flow towards * 
the sun. And what is between (each) two navigable 
rivers is the Sudadohas ; and those thirty-six bricks 
which remain over are the same as that thirteenth 
month, and the body (of this altar, the waters *,) is 
the same as this gold man. 

15. His feet are that gold plate and lotus-leaf — 
(that is) the waters and the sun's orb 6 — are his feet ; 
his arms are the two spoons, and they are Indra 
and Agni ; the two naturally-perforated (bricks) 
are this earth and the air ; and the three VLrva^yotis 
(all-light) bricks are these deities — Agni, Vayu, and 



1 Viz. inasmuch as they are the foundation and ultimate source 
of the universe; cf. VI, 8, 2, 2. 3; and everything is contained 
therein, X, 5, 4, 3. 

* Viz. inasmuch as the built Agni is the same as the sun, and the 
sun is surrounded by water ; cf. p. 368, note 1. 

' It is not clear whether these rivers are meant to be different 
ones from those flowing round the sun, or whether they are the 
same as ' washing against' the sun. 

4 Athokteshu paryayeshv agnyavayava - trayodaxamasatmika 
atma agnyatmana dhyeyanam apam atmety arthaA. Say. 

6 That is, in regard to the sacrifice, the gold plate and lotus-leaf 
are his feet, and in regard to the deity, the waters and the sun's 
disk. Say. They are, nevertheless, counted as four. 



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x kXnd\, 5 adhyAya, 4 brAhmajva, 16. 3S9 

Aditya, for these deities, indeed, are all the light ; 
and the twelve seasonal (bricks) are the year, the 
body (of the altar, and the gold man) ; and the 
five Nikasads and five Pa«ia£udas are the sacrifice, 
the gods; and the Vikar*! the (third) Svayama- 
Xrinnk and the variegated stone * ; and the fire which 
is deposited (on the altar J ) is the thirty-fifth ; and 
the formula of the Lokamprma (brick) 2 is the thirty- 
sixth; — that (gold man), indeed, the body (of the 
altar) is the end of everything here 8 : he is in the 
midst of all the waters, endowed with all objects 
of desire — for all objects of desire are the waters 4 ; 
whilst possessed of all (objects of) desires he is 
without desire, for no desire of anything (troubles) 
him* 

16, Regarding this there is this verse — ' By know- 
ledge* they ascend that (state) where desires have 
vanished 7 : sacrificial gifts go not thither *, nor the 
fervid practisers of rites without knowledge ; ' — for, 
indeed, he who does not know this does not attain 
to that world either by sacrificial gifts or by devout 

1 For this stone, which was deposited near the Agnfdhrfya shed, 
and afterwards placed in the Agnfdhra hearth, see p. 243, note 2. 

• See VIII, 7, a, 6. * See X, 5, 2, 6-8. 

4 Sa eva . . . sha/tri«jadish/akamayo hiranmaya^ purusha atmi 
sarvabhutadevatmanam apam agnyatmana" dhyey&nSm madhye var- 
tate. Say. 

5 Sayana does not explain this last sentence. 

• ' Only by knowledge is such a body (self) to be obtained by 
all, not by hundreds of reKgious performances.' Say. 

T Yatra svarupe kimiA sarve paragati vivr/'ttaA (? nhn'ttaA) 
svayam akamam ity arthaA, tad Stmasvarupa* vidyaya svarupesa 
arohanti apnuvanti. Say. 

• Sayana takes. ' daksbini ' as instrumental, in accordance with 
the comment offered by the Brahmana, which, however, is probably 
not meant as a close grammatical explanation. 



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390 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

practices, but only to those who know does that 
world belong. 

1 7. The welkin is the earth-fillings (between the 
layers of brick) ; the moon the oblations ; the Nak- 
shatras (lunar mansions) the fire-logs, — because the 
moon resides in (or with) the Nakshatra, therefore 
the oblation resides in the fire-wood : that \ indeed, 
is the food of the oblation, and its support ; whence 
the oblation does not fail (na kshiyate), for that is its 
food and its support And what are called 'the 
gods ' they are the space-filling (brick) ; for by 
(naming) the gods everything here is named. 

18. It is regarding this that it is said by the Rik 
(X, 12, 3), ' The All-gods have gone after this thy 
Ya^us,' — for all beings, all the gods, indeed, become 
the Ya^us here. Thus this whole Agni comes to 
be the space-filler ; and, verily, whosoever knows 
this, thus comes to be that whole (Agni) who is the 
space-filler. 

19. Now, these (amount to) twenty-one Brzhatis ; 
and — the heavenly world being the twenty-one-fold 
and the Brthatl — this (altar) thus comes to be equal 
to the heavenly world, and to the twenty-one-fold 
Stoma and the Brzhati metre. 

Fifth Brahmajva. 
1. Ku^ri Va£"a.?ravasa 2 once built a fire-altar. 
Susravas Kaushya then said to him, 'Gautama, 
when thou wert just now building up Agni, didst 
thou build him with his face forward, or backward, 
or downward, or upward ? 

1 Viz. the staying (of the moon) in, or with, the Nakshatras, 
whose name is then made use of for a fanciful etymology. 
* That is, Km ri Gautama, (son and) disciple of Va^amvas. 



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x kAatda, 5 adhyAya, 5 brAhmajva, 7. 391 

2. ' If perchance thou hast built him looking for- 
ward, it would be just as if one were to offer food 
from behind to one sitting with averted face * : he 
thereby will not receive thy offering. 

3. 'And if thou hast built him looking back- 
ward, wherefore, then, hast thou made him a tail 
behind ? 

4. ' And if thou hast built him with his face down- 
ward, it would be just as if one were to put food on 
the back of one lying with his face downward : he 
surely will not receive thy offering. 

5. ' And if thou hast built him with his face up- 
ward — surely, a bird does not fly towards heaven 
with its face turned upward 2 : he will not carry 
thee to heaven, he will not become conducive to 
heaven for thee.' 

6. He said, ' I have built him with his face for- 
ward ; I have built him with his face backward ; 
I have built him with his face downward ; I have 
built him with his face upward : I have built him in 
all directions.' 

7. When he lays down the (gold) man with his 
head forward (eastward), and the two spoons (with 
their bowls) forward 3 , thereby he (Agni) is built 
looking forward ; and when he lays down the tor- 

1 The oblations are offered by the Adhvaryu whilst standing 
south, or south-west, of the fire, with his face turned towards north- 
east, — hence Agni, looking eastwards, would not see the food 
offered him. 

1 Yady agnir uttanar £itas tarhi yatha uttinam vzyzh pakshi 
svayam akiram utpatitum na jaknoti kim utanyam purushara 
dvabhyam pakshabhyam grshitvotpatitum na jakta iti . . . tvam 
4itavantam svargam lokara prapayitum na jaknoty uttina £ayanad ity 
arthaA ; abhivakshyaft ti vahaA prapane ln'/i syapratyaye rupam. Say. 

* See VII, 4, 1, 15. ifi. 



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392 ■satapatha-brahma.wa. 

toise 1 with its head backward (westward), and the 
victims' heads turned backward, thereby he is built 
looking backward; and when he lays down the 
tortoise with its face downward, and the victims' 
heads with their faces downward, and the bricks 
with their faces downward*, thereby he is built 
looking downward ; and when he lays down the 
(gold) man with his face upward, and the two 
spoons (with their open bowls) turned upward, and 
the mortar turned upward, and the fire-pan turned 
upward, thereby he is built looking upward ; and 
when he lays down the bricks whilst moving round 
(the altar) in every direction, thereby he is built 
(looking) in all directions. 

8. Now, the K os has, whilst driving about, once 
drove up 8 to an Agni with his head pulled out*. 
One of them said, 'The head (siras) means ex- 
cellence (jrl) : he has pulled out his excellence, he 
will be deprived of his alt ! ' and so indeed it hap- 
pened to him. 

9. And another said, ' The head means the vital 
airs : he has pulled out his vital airs, he will quickly 
go to yonder world!' and so, indeed, it happened 
to him. 

1 See VII, 5 , 1, 1. 

' Ish/ak£nam nfiitvenopadhanaflx nama njfukkhadakshmapasa- 
vyatryalikbitadilekhanain nparibhage darjanam. Say. The broad 
side of the bricks not marked with lines is thus looked upon as 
their face. 

* That is to say, according to Sayawa, whilst going about officiat- 
ing at sacrifices, they built the altar in that way at some one's 
home. 

4 That is, with a head hoik on to the altar on the front side of the 
body ; see the diagram of the jyena&ti in BurneU't Cat of Vedic 
MSS. (1870), p. 29. 



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x kAyba, 6 adhyAya, i brAhmajva, 2. 393 

10. Upwards, indeed, he (Agni) is built up, to 
wit, (in the shape of) the grass-bunch, the clod-bricks, 
the lotus-leaf, the gold plate and man, the two 
spoons, the naturally-perforated one, the grass-brick, 
the Dviya^us, the two RetaAsi^, the Visva^yotis, the 
two seasonal bricks, the Ashaa!£4, and the tortoise ; 
and that fire which is placed on the altar-pile, 
assuredly, is then most manifestly his (Agni's) head : 
let him therefore not pull out (the head). 

Sixth AdhyAya. First BrAhmawa. 

1. Now at the house of Aru«a Aupavcri 1 these 
came once together, — SatyayajpSa Paulushi, Ma- 
hasala Cabala, Budila. Axvatarasvi, Indra- 
dyumna Bhallaveya, and Gana^arkarakshya. 
They took counsel together regarding (Agni) Vai$- 
vanara, but did not agree as to Vauvanara *. 

2. They said, 'There is that Arvapati Kaikeya 
who knows Vaiyvinara thoroughly 8 : let us go to him!' 
They went to Axvapati Kaikeya. He ordered for 
them separate dwellings, separate honours, separate 
Soma-sacrifices each with a thousand gifts. In the 
morning,, still at variance with one another, they 

1 JS!Mndogyop. V, 11, where another version of this story occurs, 
has here the name of Ararat's son, Udd&laka Arum ; and, instead 
of MahlraMa Gibila, it has Fr&tfnas&la Aupamanya. 

* Sayaaa takes this to mean, ' he (Aru*a) was unable to instruct 
them in regard to Vairv&nara,' — so*ru»as teshawz satyaya^a&droaw 
pa»&n£m vauvajiaravidySwi bodhayitum na samiyiya sawigataA 
rakto n&bhavat, — probably, however, 'samiyaya' is better taken 
impersonally (' there was no agreement between them '), as is done 
by the St Petersb. Diet ; though Ktend. XI, 3 favours Saya»a's 
view. 

*■ S&ya»a takes ' samprail' in its ordinary sense of ' now.' The 
knowledge of VaLrvSnara implied here, according to S&yawa, means 
the knowledge of the supreme deity (paramervara). 



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394 satapatha-brAhmaata. 

came again to him, with fuel in their hands \ saying, 
' We want to become thy pupils.' 

3. He said, 'How is this, venerable sirs, when ye 
are learned in the scriptures, and sons of men 
learned in the scriptures ? ' They replied, 'Venerable 
sir, thou knowest Vairvinara thoroughly : teach us 
him ! ' He said, ' I do indeed know Vawvanara 
thoroughly : put your fuel on (the fire), ye are 
become my pupils V 

4. He then said to Aru»a Aupaveri, ' O Gautama, 
as whom knowest thou Vaisvanara 3 ? ' — ' As Earth 
only, O king;' he replied. — 'Yea,' he said, 'that 
indeed is VaLrvanara, the foundation ; and because 
thou knowest the Vai^vinara Foundation (pratishMa) 
therefore thou art firmly established (pratishMita) 
with offspring and cattle ; and, verily, he who 
knows that Vai^vinara Foundation, repels Death 
and attains all life. But, in truth, these are only 
the feet* of VaLrvanara, and thy feet would have 
withered away, hadst thou not come hither ; or the 
feet would be unknown to thee, hadst thou not 
come hither V 

5. He then said to Satyayaf»a Paulushi, ' O 
Pra^inayogya, as whom knowest thou Vai^vanara ? ' 

1 That is, in the way in which pupils approach their teacher. 
1 Literally, ' Ye have entered (my tuition) ; ' upeta stha upasina 
bhavatha. S&y. 

3 Or, perhaps, ' what VaUvlnara knowest thou ? ' 

4 'Pratish/Aa' (rest, foundation) also commonly means 'the 
feet.' 

' It is not quite clear whether the words ' or the feet, &c.' really 
(as Sayana takes them) form part of the king's speech, or whether 
they are merely meant as explanatory of the latter part of the king's 
remarks. If Sayana be right, the words ' the feet would be unknown 
by thee,' seem to admit of a double meaning, viz. ' thou wouldst 



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X KAiVBA, 6 ADHYAYA, I BRAHMA2VA, 7. 395 

— ' As Water only, O king ; ' he replied. — ' Yea,' he 
said, ' that indeed is the VaLrvanara Wealth ; and 
because thou knowest that VaLrvanara Wealth, 
therefore thou art wealthy and prosperous; and, 
verily, he who knows that Vairvanara Wealth, 
repels death and attains all life. But, in truth, this 
is only the bladder of Vai^vanara, and thy bladder 
would have failed thee, hadst thou not come hither ; 
or the bladder would be unknown to thee, hadst 
thou not come hither.' 

6. He then said to Maharala 6&bala, ' O Aupa- 
manyava, as whom knowest thou VaLrvanara?' — 
1 As Ether only, O king,' he replied. — ' Yea,' he 
said, ' that, indeed, is the Vawvinara Plenteous ; 
and because thou knowest Vai-rvanara Plenteous, 
therefore thou art plentiful in offspring and cattle ; 
and, verily, he who knows that VaLrvanara Plenteous, 
repels death and attains all life. But, in truth, this 
is only the trunk of VaLrvanara, and thy trunk would 
have failed thee, hadst thou not come hither ; or 
the body would be unknown to thee, hadst thou not 
come hither.' 

7. He then said to Budila A-rvatar&rvi, ' O Vaiya- 
ghrapadya, as whom knowest thou Vai-rvinara ? ' — 
' As Air (wind) only, O king ;' he replied. — ' Yea,' he 

have become footless,' or ' not even Vawv&nara's feet would have 
been known by thee;' though in the latter sense some particle 
such as ' eva ' might have been expected. Saya«a, however, seems 
to take these words in yet another sense (if, indeed, he had not 
another reading before him), — vauvanarasya^anat padau te tava 
viparftagrahwo amlisyatam amlanau gamanasamarthav abhavishy- 
ataw yadi mam nagamishya^; ittha/n doshaparyavas&nayuktam 
ekade.ra£$anam eva navaresha ity aha, padau te viditav iti vauvi- 
narasya padamatraw tvaya viditam na tu kr/'tsno vaif vanaraA ; ataA 
sadhv akarshlr yat tvam agato >sity abhiprayaA. 



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396 DATAPATH A-BRAHMAJVA. 

said, 'that indeed is the Vairvanara of divers 
courses ; and because thou knowest that Vairvanara 
of divers courses, therefore divers rows of cars 
follow thee; and, verily, he who knows that Vair- 
vanara of divers courses, repels death, and attains 
all life. But, in truth, this is only the breath of 
Vairvanara, and thy breath would have failed thee, 
hadst thou not come hither; or the breath would 
be unknown to thee, hadst thou not come hither.' 

8. He then said to Indradyumna Bhallaveya, 
l O Vaiylghrapadya, as whom knowest thou Vair- 
vanara ? " — ' As Sun only, O king,' he replied. — 
'Yea,' he said, 'that indeed is the Vairvanara of 
Soma s splendour * ; and because thou knowest the 
Vairvanara of Soma's splendour, therefore that Soma- 
juice never fails to be consumed and cooked * in thy 
house ; and, verily, he who knows that Vairvanara 
of Soma's splendour, repels death, and attains all 
life. But, indeed, this is only the eye of Vairvanara, 
and thine eye would have failed thee, hadst thou 
not come hither ; or the eye would be unknown to 
thee, hadst thou not come hither.' 

9. He then said to 6ana .Sarkarakshya, ' O 
Sayavasa, as whom knowest thou Vairvanara?' — 
' As Heaven only, O king,' he replied. — ' Yea, 1 he 
said, ' that indeed is Vairvanara Pre-eminence ; and 
because thou knowest the Vairvanara Pre-eminence, 
therefore thou art pre-eminent among thine equals ; 
and, verily, he who knows that Vairvanara Pre 

1 Or, perhaps better, ' of Soma's fire.' The A^ndogya-upanishad 
has ' Sutejras (of beautiful splendour, or tight),' instead of ' suta- 
te^as.' 

* According to SSyawa, this refers to the cooking, or baking, of 
the cakes (punx&ra) connected with the Soma-sacrifice. 



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x kXnda, 6 adhyaya, i brahmaya, ii. 397 

eminence repels death, and attains all life. But, 
indeed, this is only the head of VaLrvanara, and 
thy head would have failed thee, hadst thou not 
come hither ; or the head would have been unknown 
to thee, hadst thou not come hither.' 

10. He said to them, 'Ye then, knowing different 
Vairvanaras, have been feeding on different kinds 
of food ; but verily, the well-beknown gods have 
attained, as it were, the measure of a span ' ; but 
I will so tell them unto you that I shall make 
them attain no more nor less than the measure of 
a span.' 

1 1. Pointing at the head he said, * This, indeed, is 
the Vairvanara Pre-eminence ;' — pointing at the eyes 
he said, 'This, indeed, is the VaLrvanara of Soma's 
splendour ; ' — pointing at the nostrils he said, 'This, 
indeed, is the Vairvanara of divers courses ; ' — 
pointing at the space in the mouth he said, ' This, 
indeed, is the Vairvanara Plenteous;' — pointing at 
the water in the mouth he said, ' This, indeed, is 
the Vairvanara Wealth ; ' — pointing at the chin he 
said, * This, indeed, is the VaLrvanara Foundation.' 

1 Saya*a apparently takes this thus : but the gods, knowing well 
that (essential element) which is merely of the space of a span, have 
become successful ; — yat tv eva« yathoktavayavaiA prithivipadadibhir 
dyumurdhantair avayavair vLrish/am eka« vastu tat pradaramatraw 
prade.raprama»am iva deva/4 suviditaA samyag £#atavanto * bhisam- 
pannaA praptaphali babhuvur ity arthaA. Though this interpre- 
tation looks very plausible, the accent of ' suvidita ' would scarcely 
admit of the word being taken as a bahuvrthi compound. In the 
words which follow, Sdyawa takes 'them (enin)' to refer to the 
bodily parts of Vauvanara, identified with the imperfect doctrines of 
the king's disciples. It is, indeed, quite possible that ' the gods ' 
are here identified with the special Vauvanaras, the unity of whom, 
in the one Putusha, or A.tman (self), the Brahmawa endeavours to 
inculcate. 



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398 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

This Agni Vai^vinara is no other than the Purusha ; 
and, verily, whosoever thus knows that Agni Vau- 
v&nara as Purusha-like, as established within the 
Purusha, repels death, and attains all life; and, 
verily, VaLrvanara does no harm to him that speaks 
of him. 

Second BrAhmajva. 

i. Now, indeed, there is this twofold thing, to wit, 
the eater and that which is eaten * ; and when this 
pair meets it is called the eater, and not the eaten. 

2. Now that eater is the same as this Agni (the 
fire and fire-altar) ; and whatever they assign to him 
is his assignments ; and these assignments (ahiti) are 
mystically called oblations (ahuti), for the gods love 
the mystic. 

3. And the eater, doubtless, is the sun, and his 
assignments (offerings) are the moon, for the moon 
is assigned to the sun 2 . Thus much as to the deity. 

4. Now as to the body. The eater, doubtless, is 
the breath, and its assignments are food, for the food 
is consigned to (the channel of) the breath. Thus 
much as to Agni. 

5. Now as to the Arka (flame). The Arka, doubt- 
less, is Agni ; and his joy are the oblations, for the 
oblations are a joy 8 to Agni. 

1 Or, as Sayawa takes it, — this (world) is twofold, the eater and 
the eaten. 

* The moon here would seem to be considered as serving for 
food to the sun, as it does to the gods. The commentary is not 
very explicit on this point, — tas^yihutaya.? (!) £andram&£ £andra- 
masara hy aditya adadhatity anena £andramasa aditye adhanad 
adhititvaw pratipaditam. 

* 'Kam' is used adverbially 'well,' — they do him good, they 
please him. 



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x kAjvda, 6 adhyAya, 2 brAhmajva, 1 1. 399 

6. And the Arka, doubtless, is the sun ; and his 
joy is the moon, for the moon is a joy to the sun. 
Thus much as to the deity. 

7. Now as to the body. The Arka, doubtless, 
is the breath, and his joy is food, for food is a joy 
to (the channel of) the breath. Thus much as to 
the Arka. 

8. Now as to the Uktha (song of praise). The 
' uk,' doubtless, is Agni, and his ' tham ' is oblations, 
for by oblations Agni rises (ut-tha, i. e. blazes up). 

9. And the 'uk,' doubtless, is the sun, and his 
' tham ' is the moon, for by the moon the sun rises. 
Thus much as to the deity. 

10. Now as to the body. The ' uk,' doubtless, is 
the breath, and the ' tham ' is food, for by food the 
breath rises (increases). Thus much as to the Uktha. 
That Agni-like, Arka-like, Uktha-like one is the 
same as the Purusha ; and, verily, the enemy withers 
away of whosoever, knowing this, thus serves that 
Agni-like, Arka-like, Uktha-like Purusha. 

u. The fire, indeed, is kindled by the breath, 
the wind by the fire, the sun by the wind, the moon 
by the sun, the stars by the moon, and the lightning 
by the stars J : — so great, indeed, is the kindling both 
in this and in yonder world ; and, verily, whosoever 
knows this is enkindled to that full extent both in 
this and in yonder world. 



1 Agnir prawena dfpyate, pra«avayor abhave alpatve agner 
dfpanam nasti ; agnina vayur dipyate vayunadityo » vash/ambhama- 
trena tad dipanam; adityena iandramaA prabha»wo ^yoliAtastra- 
siddhaA ; ratrau nakshatrani fandramasa' prakarante diva hi mahatta- 
re«a sflryapraklrena tirobhdtatvan na tada praklraA ; nakshatrair 
vidyut prakaxyate. Say. 



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400 satapatha-brahmaiva. 

Third BrAhmawa. 

i. Let him meditate upon the 'true Brahman.' 
Now, man here, indeed, is possessed of under- 
standing 1 , and according to how great his under- 
standing is when he departs this world, so does he, 
on passing away, enter yonder world. 

2. Let him meditate on the Self, which is made 
up of intelligence, and endowed with a body of 
spirit, with a form of light, and with an etherial 
nature, which changes its shape at will, is swift 
as thought, of true resolve, and true purpose, which 
consists of all sweet odours and tastes, which holds 
sway over all the regions and pervades this whole 
universe, which is speechless and indifferent * ; — 
even as a grain of rice, or a grain of barley, or a 
grain of millet, or the smallest granule of millet, so 
is this golden 8 Purusha in the heart ; even as a 
smokeless light, it is greater than the sky, greater 
than the ether, greater than the earth, greater than 
all existing things ; — that self of the spirit (breath) 
is my self: on passing away from hence I shall 
obtain that self. Verily, whosoever has this trust \ 
for him there is no uncertainty. Thus spake 
S&ndilya., and so it is 6 . 

1 Or, will, purpose, — kratumayaA, kratur nu&tyo • dhyavasaya 
evam eva nanyathety avivakshitapratyaya/5, tadatmako * yam purusho 
gfaaA. For this chapter (the .Sa»</ilyavidya) see ATAandogyop. Ill, 
14 (' man is a creature of will,' Prof. Max Mailer). 

2 Anadaram asambhramam (without mental affects). Say. 

* That is, of the brilliance of gold (suvarwasamanateg-iA). Say. 

4 Or, thought, knowledge (buddhiA), as Sayana supplies. 

" Saya«a takes this along with ' so spake SGwfilyz,' — ity evam 
etad aha sma uktavan s&ndi\yo namarshir iti. The final ' iti ' seems 
to be intended to indicate that .SaWilya's opinion is adopted by the 
Brahmana. 



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x kAjvda, 6 adhyAya, 4 brAhma^a, i. 401 

Fourth BrAhmaya. 

1. Verily, the dawn is the head of the sacrificial 
horse \ the sun its eye, the wind its breath, Agni 
Vai^vanara (the fire belonging to all men) its open 
mouth. The year is the body of the sacrificial 
horse, the sky its back, the air its belly, the earth 
the under part of its belly, the quarters its flanks, 
the intermediate quarters its ribs, the seasons its 
limbs, the months and half-months its joints, the 
days and nights its feet, the stars its bones, the 
welkin its flesh, the sand its intestinal food, the 
rivers its bowels, the mountains its liver and lungs, 
the herbs and trees its hair, the rising sun the 
forepart, and the setting sun the hindpart of its 
body, the lightning its yawning, the thundering its 
whinnying, the raining its voiding urine, and speech 
its voice. The day, indeed, was produced as the 
Mahiman 8 (cup) before the horse, and its birth- 
place is in the eastern sea. The night was produced 
as the Mahiman (cup) behind (or after) it, and its 
birth-place was in the western sea : these two Ma- 
himan (cups), indeed, came to be on both sides of 
the horse. As Haya (steed) it carried the gods, as 
Vdfin (racer) the Gandharvas, as Arvan (courser) 
the Asuras, as Asva (horse) men. The sea, indeed, 
is its kindred, the sea its birth-place. 

1 That is, of Pra^apati, in the form of a horse. For this and 
the next chapters see the beginning of the Kawva recension of the 
Bnhad-drawyakopanishad. 

* This is the name of two gold cups used at the Ajvamedha ; cf. 
XIII, 2, 11, 1 seq.; 5, 2, 23. 

[43] D d 

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4-02 satapatha-brahmaya. 

Fifth BrAhmaata. 
i. Verily, there was nothing here in the beginning: 
by Death this (universe) was covered, by hunger, 
for Death is hunger. He created for himself this 
mind, thinking, ' May I have a soul.' He went on 
worshipping. Whilst he was worshipping the waters 
were produced. 'Verily, to me worshipping (ar£) 
water (kam) has been produced,' thus (he thought) : 
this, indeed, is the Arka-nature of the Arkya 1 ; and, 
verily, there is joy (kam) for him who thus knows 
the Arka-nature of the Arkya. 

2. The Arka, doubtless, is the waters ; and the 
cream (froth) which was on the waters was com- 
pacted, and became this earth. Thereon he wearied 
himself, and the glow and essence (sweat) of him 
thus wearied and heated developed into Fire. 

3. He made himself threefold — (Agni being one- 
third), Aditya one-third, and Vayu one-third : that 
is this threefold breath. The eastern quarter was 
his head, this and that (intermediate quarters) are 
his fore-feet, the western quarter his tail, this and 
that (intermediate quarters) his thighs, the southern 
and northern quarters his flanks ; the sky his back, 
the air his belly, and this (earth) his chest : — on the 
waters he was established any and everywhere, and 
so indeed is he established who knows this. 

4. He desired, ' May a second self be produced 
for me.' By his mind he entered into union 
with speech, — (to wit) Death with hunger : the seed 
which was produced became the year, for theretofore 
there was no year. For as long as the year he 
(Death) carried him (within him), and at the end of 

1 See X, 3, 4, 3 seq.; 4, 1, 4. 15. 21 seq. 



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x kXnda, 6 adhyAya, 5 brahmaya, 7. 403 

that time he produced him 1 . He opened his mouth 
(to devour) the new-born one, and he (the child) 
cried ' bha# ' ; thus speech was produced. 

5. He bethought him, * Surely, if I kill him, 
I shall gain but little food V By that speech and 
that soul of his he created all this (universe) whatso- 
ever there is, — Rik (hymn-verses), Ya^us (formulas), 
Siman (hymn-tunes), metres, sacrifices, men, and 
beasts. And whatsoever he created he set about 
devouring; and because he eats (ad) everything, 
hence the name 'Aditi'; and, verily, he who thus 
knows the nature of Aditi becomes an eater of 
everything, and all food becomes his. 

6. He desired, 'May I again sacrifice by yet 
another sacrifice.' He wearied himself and practised 
austerity. From him, thus wearied and heated, 
glory and vigour departed ; and glory and vigour, 
indeed, are the vital airs. The vital airs having 
departed, that body of his began to swell. The 
mind was yet in the body ; — 

7. He desired, ' May this (body) of mine be 
sacrificially pure : may I thereby be possessed of 
a self!' Thereupon the horse (axva) was produced; 
and because that which was swelling s (a^vat) became 
pure (medhya) therefore the name A^vamedha (be- 
longs to that sacrifice). He, indeed, knows the 
Asvamedha who thus knows him *. 



1 Viz. Pra^apati, the year ; Agni, the Purusha, the Self. 

* Or, I shall lessen my food (which would have become more 
abundant if the child had been allowed to live and grow). 

* The commentaries on the Brtliad-arawyakop. take this together 
with the preceding clause, — and because that (body) was swelling 
(arvat), therefore the horse (ajva) was produced. 

4 Viz. Agni-Prag-apati, or Death, in the form of the horse. 

D d 2 



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4O4 SATAPATHA-BRAHMA2VA. 

8. He bethought him of leaving it unrestrained \ 
At the end of a year he slaughtered it for his 
own self, and made over the (sacrificial) animals to 
the deities : therefore they slaughter the consecrated 
(victim) as one that, in its nature as Pra^apati, 
represents all the deities. But the A^vamedha, in 
truth, is he that shines yonder (the sun), and the 
year is his body. The Arka is this Fire, and these 
worlds are his bodies. These two are the Arka 
and Asvamedha; but these, indeed, become again 
one deity, to wit, Death. And, verily, whosoever 
knows this, conquers recurrent Death, and Death has 
no hold on him : Death is his own self ; he attains 
all life, and becomes one of those deities. 

9. Now the line of succession (of teachers). The 
same as far as Sawzfivlputra. Sa/«£lvtputra (received 
it) from Mawdfakayani, Mawafakayani from Ma^davya, 
Mawafavya from Kautsa, Kautsa from Mahitthi, 
Mahitthi from Vamakakshayana, Vamakakshayawa 
from Vatsya, Vatsya from Stndilya., ^awaTilya from 
Kum, Kmri from Ya^wavaias Ra^astambiyana, 
Yaf»ava£as Rifastambayana from Tura Kavasheya, 
Tura Kavasheya from Pra^apati, Pra^apati from 
Brahman (n.). Brahman is the self-existent : rever- 
ence be to Brahman ! 

1 For the construction, see IX, 5, 1, 35 ; on the negative form of 
the gerund (tarn anavarudhyaivSmanyata) with a direct object, see 
Delbrtick, Altindische Syntax, § 264. 



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CORRECTIONS. 

Page 66, 1. u, and note i. The Aatush/oma is snch an arrangement of the 
Stotras of a Soma-sacrifice in which the Stomas (or hymn-forms) em- 
ployed increase successively by four syllables. See notes on XI, 5, a, 9 ; 
XIII, 3, 1, 4 (sic!). 

P. 379, line 7. Perhaps this passage had better be translated thos, — And he 
who, without having performed these (rites), should officiate even for 
another person in the performance of any other sacrifices . . . 

P. 396, L 3 from bottom. Read,— Upavasatha. 

P- 394-9 8 . paragraphs 4-9 ; 11. Read, — repels recurrent death. 
„ 1. 5 from bottom. Read, — tasy&hutayaf (! ). 



PART III. 

Introduction, page xii, line 37. Read, — parubandha. 

P. xvi, I. 11 of notes. After— 5yaita-saman, add (II, 161-3). 

P. xviii, 1. 33. In Sat Br. V, 5, 3, 4, the Sho/arin is distinctly mentioned as 

forming part of the Keravapantya Atiratra. 
P. xviii, 1. 4 of notes. Read, — ' form ' instead of ' from.' 
P. xxv, note. Add,— So also Sit Br. V, 3, 4, 13 ; 4, 3, 3. 
P. 38, 1. 1. Read, — Va^aprasavtya. 
P. 63, 1. as. Read,— (as it undoubtedly does in V, 4, 3, 18 ; as well as 

savyasbMS, in Atharva-v. VIII, 8, 33). 
„ end of note. Add, — In Sat Br. V, 4, 3, 33, sa»*grahttr» certainly means 

* charioteer.' 
P. 1 1 3, 1. 8. The chant here alluded to is the first (or HotWs) PWshAia-stotra, 

for which see part ii, p. 339. The Abhishe£antya being, however, 

performed on the Ukthya, not on the Agnish/oma, model, this stotra, 

on the present occasion, consists of the Brfliat-s&man (see Introduction, 

pp. xvi, note 3 ; xxvi). 
P. 136, 1. 4. Read,— BarhishadaA. 
P. 140, last line of text. For ' Aram ' read ' Aru^i.' 
P. 169, 1. 18. Read,—' Those kindling-sticks .... 
P. 171, 1. 3. Read,— Ash&tfi. 
P. 303, 1. 10. Read, — ' v(Uc ' (voice). 
P. 365, note 3. In the passage of the Ait. Br. referred to, the Vishuvat day is 

the central day of an Ekaviffwaratr^, or twenty-one days' performance. 
P. 353, 1. 10. Read, — ' sand ' for ' seed.' 
P. 360, note 1. Add, — See also VIII, 7, 3, 19, where that thread is identified 

with the wind. 
P. 363, note 1. The reference is wrong ; for the real Satya-fiman. see part iv, 

p. 145, note 1. 
. 67,1.34. In the opposite direction, i.e. in the direction away from us. 

D d 3 



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406 satapatha-brAhmajva. 

P. 369, note t. The reference is wrong ; for the real Altra-s&man, see part iv, 

p. 145, note 1. 
P. 379, 1. 10. Read, — the breath serves everything here. 

„ L ao. For this Saman, based on the word ' bhus,' see part iv, p. 145, 

note 1. 
P. 404, 1. 15. Read, — having pre-eminently endowed the man with power, 

he sets him up. Cf. VIII, 7, a, 3. 
P. 415, L 4. Read,— XIII, 53. 



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OXFORD 

PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

BY HORACE HART, M. A. 

PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



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Sacred Books of the East 

TRANSLATED BY VARIOUS ORIENTAL SCHOLARS 
AND EDITED BY 

THE RIGHT HON. F. MAX MOLLER. 

%* This Series is published with the sanction and co-operation of the Secretary of 
State for India in Council. 

BBPOBT presented to tht AOADEMIB DBS XESOBXFTXOE8, May 11, 
1883, by M. BBBE8T BEBAB. 

. 'M. Renan presente trois nouveaux une seconde, dont 1'inteVSt historique et 
volnmes de la grande collection des religienx ne sera pas moindre. M. Max 
"Livres sncres de 1'Orient" (Sacred Miiller a sn se procurer la collaboration 
Hooks of the East), que dirige a Oxford, des savans les plus eminens d'Europe et 
avec une si vaste Erudition et une critique d'Asie. L'Universite' d'Oxford, que celte 
si sure, le savant assocuS de l'Academie grande publication honore an plus haut 
des Inscriptions, M. Max Miiller. ... La <legr(5, doit tenir a continuer dans les plus 
premiere serie de ce beau recueil, com- larges proportions une oeuvre aussi philo- 
posee de 24 volumes, est presque achevee. sophiquement concne que savamment 
M. .Max Miiller se propose d'en publier executee.' 

BXTBAOT from the QUABTEBX.Y BBVZBW. 

' We rejoice to notice that a second great edition of the Rig- Veda, can corn- 
series of these translations has been an- pare in importance or in usefulness with 
nounced and has actually begun to appear, this English translation of the Sacred 
The stones, at least, out of which a stately Books of the East, which has been devised 
edifice may hereafter arise, are here being by his foresight, successfully brought so 
brought together. Prof. Max Miiller has far by his persuasive and organising 
deserved well of scientific history. Not power, and will, we trust, by the assist- 
a few minds owe to his enticing words ance of the distinguished scholars he has 
their first attraction to this branch of gathered round him, be carried in due 
study. But no work of his, not even the time to a happy completion.' 

Professor B. KABST, Inaugural lecture In the University of Freiburg, 1887 . 

' Die allgemeine vergleichende Reli- internationalen Orientalistencongress in 
gionswissenschaft datirt von jenem gross- London der Grundstein gelegt worden 
artigen, in seiner Art ehuig dastehenden war, die Ubersetzung derheiligen Biicher 
Unternehmen, zu welchem auf Anregung des Ostens' (the Sacred Books of the 
Max Miillers im Jahxe 1874 auf dem East). 

The Hon. AI.BEBT 8. O. OABBXBO, 'Words on Existing- Beliglons.' 
' The recent publication of the " Sacred a great event in the annals of theological 
Books of the East" in English is surely literature.' 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
LONDON: HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AMEN CORNER, EX. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



FIRST SERIES. 

Voii. I. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max M«llbr. Part I. The JTMndogya- 

upanishad, The Talavak&ra-upanishad, The Aitareya-£ra»yaka, 
The Kaushitaki-brahmawa-upanishad, and The Va^asaneyi- 
sa*»hitS-upanishad. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Upanishads contain the philosophy of the Veda. They have 
become the foundation of the later Veddnta doctrines, and indirectly 
of Buddhism. Schopenhauer, speaking of the Upanishads, says : 
' In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating 
as that of the Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life, it will 
be the solace of my death.' 

[See also Vol. XV.] 

Vol. II. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, V5sish/4a, 
and Baudhiyana. Translated by Georg BOhlxr. Part I. 
Apastamba and Gautama. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Sacred Laws of the Aryas contain the original treatises on 
which the Laws of Manu and other lawgivers were founded. 

[See also Vol. XIV.] 

Vol. III. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Legge. 
Part I. The Shu King, The Religious Portions of the Shih 
King, and The Hsiao King. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, i as. 6d. 

Confucius was a collector of ancient traditions, not the founder of 
a new religion. As he lived in the sixth and fifth centuries B. C. 
his works are of unique interest for the study of Ethology. 
[See also Vols. XVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXXIX, and XL.] 

Vol. IV. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part I. The VendfdSd. 
Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 14s. 

The Zend-Avesta contains the relics of what was the religion of 
Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes, and, but for the battle of Marathon, 



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EDITED BY F. MAX HOLLER. 



might have become the religion of Europe. It forms to the present 
day the sacred book of the Par sis, the so-called fire-worshippers. 
[See also Vols. XXIII and XXXI.] 

Vol. V. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part I. The Bundalm, Bahman 
Yaxt, and Shayast l&-shlyast. 8vo, cloth, 1 2 jr. 6d. 

The Pahlavi Texts comprise the theological literature of the revival 
of Zoroaster's religion, beginning with the Sassanian dynasty. They 
are importantfor a study of Gnosticism. 

[See also Vols. XVIII, XXIV, XXXVII, and XLV1L] 

Vols. VI ajto IX. The Quran. 

Parts I and II. Translated by E. H. Palmer. Second Edition. 
8vo, cloth, 21 s. 

This translation, carried out according to his own peculiar views 
of the origin of the Qur'dn, was the last great work ofE. H. Palmer, 
before he was murdered in Egypt. 

Voii. VII. The Institutes of Vish«u. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. 8vo, cloth, \os. 6d. 

A collection of legal aphorisms, closely connected with one of the 
oldest Vedic schools, the Ka//4as, but considerably added to in later 
time. Of importance for a critical study of the Laws of Manu. 

Vol. VIII. The Bhagavadgita.with The Sanatsu^atiya, 
and The Anuglta. 

Translated by Kashinath Trimbak Tei.anc. Second Edition. 
8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The earliest philosophical and religious poem of India. It has been 
paraphrased in Arnold's 'Song Celestial.' 

Vol. X. The Dhammapada, 

Translated from P&li by F. Max Muller ; and 

The Sutta-Nipata, 
Translated from Pali by V. Fausb5ll ; being Canonical Books 
of the Buddhists. Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The Dhammapada contains the quintessence of Buddhist morality. 
The Sutta-Nipdta gives the authentic leaching of Buddha on some 
of the fundamental principles of religion. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST: 



Vol. XI. Buddhist Suttas. 

Translated from Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids, i. The Maha- 
parinibbana Suttanta; 2. The Dhamma-£akka-ppavattana 
Sutta. 3. The Tevi^a Suttanta; 4. The Akankheyya Sutta ; 
5. The Aetokhila Sutta; 6. The MaM-sudassana Suttanta; 
7. The SabbSsava Sutta. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

A collection of the most important religious, moral, and philosophical 
discourses taken from the sacred canon of the Buddhists. 

Vol. XII. The -Satapatha-Brahmawa, according to the 
Text of the Madhyandina School. 

Translated by Juuus Eggeling. Part I. Books I and II. 
8vo, cloth, 1 2s . 6d. 

A minute account of the sacrificial ceremonies of the Vedic age. 
It contains the earliest account of the Deluge in India. 
[See also Vols. XXVI. XLI, XL1II, and XLIV.] 

Vol. XIII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 

Oldenberg. Part I. The Patimokkha. The Mah&vagga, I-IV. 

8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 

The Vinaya Texts give for the first lime a translation of the moral 

code of the Buddhist religion as settled in the third century B. C. 

[See also Vols. XVII and XX.] 

Vol. xiv. The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, 

As taught in the Schools of Apastamba, Gautama, VasishMa, 
and BaudhSyana. Translated by Georg Buhler. Part II. 
VasishMa and Baudhayana. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

Vol. XV. The Upanishads. 

Translated by F. Max Muller. Part II. The KaMa-upanishad, 
The Mu>/</aka-upanishad, The Taittiriyaka-upanishad, The 
Bnhadarawyaka-upanishad, The ^vet&jvatara-upanishad, The 
Prajfla-upanishad, and The Maitrdya»a-brahma»a-upanishad. 
Second Edition. 8vo, cloth, ioj. 6d. 

Vol. xvi. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by Tames Legge. 
Part II. The Yf King. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 
[See also Vols. XXVII, XXVIII.] 

Vol. XVII. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part II. The Mahavagga, V-X. The JEullavagga, 
I— III. 8vo, cloth, 10*. 6d. 



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EDITED BY F. MAX MULLER. 



Vol. XVIII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part II. The Darfistan-i Dinik 
and The Epistles of Manual har. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

Vol. XIX. The Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king. 

A Life of Buddha by Axvaghosha Bodhisattva, translated from 
Sanskrit into Chinese by Dharmaraksha, a.d. 420, and from 
Chinese into English by Samuel Beal. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

This life of Buddha was translated from Sanskrit into Chinese, 
A.D. 420. // contains many legends, some of which show a certain 
similarity to the Evangelium infantiae, $c. 

Vol. XX. Vinaya Texts. 

Translated from the P&li by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann 
Oldenberg. Part III. The A'ullavagga, IV-XII. 8vo, cloth, 
1 ox. 6d. 

Vol. XXI. The Saddharma-pu/aferlka ; or, The Lotus 
of the True Law. 

Translated by H. Kern. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

' The Lotus of the True Law,' a canonical book of the Northern 
Buddhists, translated from Sanskrit. There is a Chinese transla- 
tion of this book which was finished as early as the year 286 A.D. 

Vol. XXII. Gaina-Sutras. 

Translated from Prakrit by Hermann Jacobi. Part I. The 
AXdrahga-Sutra and The Kalpa-Sutra. 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

The religion of the Gainas was founded by a contemporary of Buddha. 
It still counts numerous adherents in India, while there are no 
Buddhists left in India proper. 

[See Vol. XLV.] 

Vol. XXIII. The Zend-Avesta. 

Translated by James Darmesteter. Part II. The Sirdzahs, 
Yaxts, and Nyayix. 8vo, cloth, io*. 6d. 

Vol. XXIV. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part HI. DinS-i Mafndg- 
Khirarf, iikand-gumantk Vig&r, and Sad Dar. 8vo, cloth, 
10s. 6d. 



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SACRED BOOKS OF THE EAST. 



SECOND SERIES. 

vol. XXV. Manu. 

Translated by Georg Buhi.kr. 8vo, cloth, 21s. 
This translation is founded on that 0/ Sir William Jones, which 
has been carefully revised and corrected with the help of seven native 
Commentaries. An Appendix contains all the quota lions from Manu 
which are found in the Hindu Law-books, translated for the use of 
the Law Courts in India. Another Appendix gives a synopsis of 
parallel passages from the six Dharma-sHtras, the other Snmtis, 
the Upanishads, the Mahdbhdrata, S(c. 

Vol. xxvi. The .Satapatha-Brahmawa. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part II. Books III and IV. 
8vo, cloth, i2j. 6d. 

Vols. XXVII akd XXVIII. The Sacred Books of China. 

The Texts of Confucianism. Translated by James Leggk. Parts 
III and IV. The Li K\, or Collection of Treatises on the Rules 
of Propriety, or Ceremonial Usages. 8vo, cloth, 25^. 

vol. xxix. The Grzhya-Siltras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part I. .Sankhayana, Awalayana, Paraskara, Khadira. Trans- 
lated by Hermann Oldenberg. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

Vol. XXX. The G*Vhya-S6tras, Rules of Vedic 
Domestic Ceremonies. 

Part II. Gobhila, Hirawyakewn, Apastamba. Translated by 
Hermann Oldenberg. Apastamba, Ya^fla-paribhisha-sutras. 
Translated by F. Max MUller. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 
These rules of Domestic Ceremonies describe the home life of the 
ancient Aryas with a completeness and accuracy unmatched in any 
other literature. Some of these rules have been incorporated in the 
ancient Law-books. 

Vol. XXXI. The Zend-Avesta. 

Part III. The Yasna, Visparad, Afrinag&n, Gins, and 
Miscellaneous Fragments. Translated by L. H. Mills. 8vo, 
cloth, 1 2 j. 6d. 

Vol. XXXII. Vedic Hymns. 

Translated by F. Max MUller. Part I. 8vo, cloth, lis. 6d. 
[See also Vol. XLVI.] 

Vol. XXXIII. The Minor Law-books. 

Translated by Julius Jolly. Part I. Narada, Brriiaspati. 
8vo, cloth, tos. 6d. 



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EDITED BY F. MAX Mt)LLER. 



Vol. XXXIV. The Vedanta-Sutras, with the Com- 
mentary by 5ankara£arya. Part I. 

Translated by G. Thibaut. 8vo, cloth, 12*. 6d. 
[See also Vol. XXXVIII.] 

vols, xxxv and xxxvi. The Questions of King 
Milinda. 

Translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids. 
Part I. 8vo, cloth, iox. 6d. Part II. 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XXXVII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part IV. The Contents of the 
Nasks, as stated in the Eighth and Ninth Books of the 
Dlnkard. 15*. 

Vol. xxxvm. The Vedanta-Sutras. Part II. 8vo, 
cloth, with full Index to both Parts, 1 2s. 6d. 

Vols. XXXIX and XL. The Sacred Books of China. 
The Texts of Taoism. Translated by James Legge. 8vo, 
cloth, 2 if. 

Vol. XLI. The >Satapatha - Brahmawa. Part III. 
Translated by Julius Eggeling. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 

Vol. xlii. Hymns of the Atharva-veda. 
Translated by M. Bloomfield. 8vo, cloth, 21*. 

VOL. XLIII. The .Satapatha-Brahma»a. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part IV. Books VIII. 
IX, and X. 12s. 6d. 

Vol. XLIV. The 3atapatha-Brahma«a. 

Translated by Julius Eggeling. Part V. Books XI, XII, 
XIII, and XIV. j8j. 6d. 

Vol. XLV. The (Saina-Sutras. 

Translated from Prak/vt, by Hermann Jacobi. Part II. The 
Uttaradhyayana Sutra, The SutrakrMnga Sutra. 8vo, cloth, 
12s. 6d. 

Vol. XL VI. Vedic Hymns. Part II. 8vo, cloth, 14*. 

Vol. XLVII. Pahlavi Texts. 

Translated by E. W. West. Part V. Marvels of Zoroas- 
trianism. 8s. 6d. 

Vol. XLVIII. The Vedanta-Sutras, with Ramanufa's 
^rlbhashya. 

Translated by G. Thibaut. [In the Press.] 

Vol. XLIX. Buddhist Mahayana Texts. Buddha- 
Aarita, translated by E. B. Cowell. Sukhavati-vyuha,VajraAMe- 
dika, &c, translated by F. MaxMuller. AmitSyur-DhySna- 
Sfltra, translated by J. Takakusu. 8vo, cloth, 1 2s. 6d. 



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Slnectoota (©.tomensta. 

ARYAN SERIES. 
Buddhist Texts from Japan. I. Vafra£££edika ; The 
Diamond-Cutter. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A. Small 4to, 3s. 6d. 
One of the most famous metaphysical treatises of the Mnhayarta Buddhists. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. II. Sukhavatl-VyAha : 
Description of Sukhavati, the Land of Bliss. 

Edited by F. Max Muller, M.A., and Bunyiu Nanjio. With 

two Appendices: (1) Text and Translation of Sanghavarman's 

Chinese Version of the Poetical Portions of the Sukh&vatf- 

Vyuha ; (2) Sanskrit Text of the Smaller SukMvati-Vyuha. 

Small 4 to, ys. 6d. 

The editio princeps of the Sacred Book of one of the largest and most 

influential sects of Buddhism, numbering more than ten millions of followers 

in Japan alone. 

Buddhist Texts from Japan. III. The Ancient Palm- 
Leaves containing the Pra^wa-Paramita-Hr/daya- 
Sutra and the Ush«isha-Vi^aya-Dhara«i. 

Edited by F. Max MUller, M.A., and Bunyiu Nanjio, M.A. 
With an Appendix by G. Buhler, CLE. With many Plates. 
Small 4to, iar. 
Contains facsimiles of the oldest Sanskrit MS. at present known. 

Dharma-Sawgraha, an Ancient Collection of Buddhist 
Technical Terms. 

Prepared for publication by Kenjiu Kasawara, a Buddhist 
Priest from Japan, and, after his death, edited by F. Max 
Muller and H. Wenzel. Small 4to, 7*. 6d. 

Katyayana's Sarvanukrama»l of the Bigveda. 

With Extracts from Shaogurimshya's Commentary entitled 
VedSrthadipikS. Edited by A. A. Macdonell, M.A., Ph.D. 16s. 

The Buddha-Aarita of Asvaghosha. 

Edited, from three MSS., by E. B. Cowell, M.A. 12s. 6d. 

The Mantrapatha, or the Prayer Book of the Apa- 
stambins. 

Edited, together with the Commentary of Haradatta, and 
translated by M. Winternitz, Ph.D. First Part. Introduc- 
tion, Sanskrit Text, Varietas Lectionis, and Appendices. 
Small quarto, iof. 6d. 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
LONDON : HENRY FROWDE 

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, AMEN CORNER, E.C. 



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